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University of Alberta Library 



1620 1612 9528 




PE 

1113 
A3 3 3 
2002 

ar. 10-11 
CURRGDHT 



Guide to Implementation 

Grades 10 and 11 
English Language Arts 



DRAFT 



September 2002 



/dlbcrra 

LEARNING 

Learning and Teaching Resources Branch 



ALBERTA LEARNING CATALOGUING IN PUBLICATION DATA 




Ex LIBRIS 

UNIVERSITATIS 

ALBERTENSIS 



Questions or concerns regarding this guide can be addressed to the Director, Learning and Teaching Resources Branch, 
Alberta Learning. Telephone 780-427-2984. To be connected toll free inside Alberta dial 310-0000. 

Several Web sites are listed in this document. These sites are listed as a service only to identify potentially useful ideas for 
teaching and learning. The responsibility to evaluate these sites rests with the user. 



The primary intended audience for this document is: 



Administrators 




Counsellors 




General Audience 




Parents 




Students 




Teachers 


S 



Copyright ©2002, the Crown in Right of Alberta, as represented by the Minister of Learning. Alberta Learning, Learning and 
Teaching Resources Branch, 1 11 60 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T5K. 0L2. 



Permission is given by the copyright owner to reproduce this document for educational purposes and on a nonprofit basis, with 
the exception of materials cited for which Alberta Learning does not own copyright. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



The Guide to Implementation: Grades 10 and 11 English Language Arts was developed by the Learning 
and Teaching Resources Branch of Alberta Learning under the direction of: 



Gina Vivone-Vernon 
Greg Bishop 
Barbara Esdale 
Janet Hancock 



Director 

Leader, Resource Review and Development Team 
Leader, Resource Review and Development Team 
Program Manager, K-12 English Language Arts 



A considerable debt of gratitude is owed to the Ministry of Education and Training, Government of 
Manitoba, for permission to draw from its curriculum support document Senior 2 English Language Arts: 
A Foundation for Implementation, 1998. 



Principal Writers 

Cam Fahlman 
Bill Talbot 

Contributing Writers 

LuEllen Anderson 
David Auten 
Susan Bowsfield 
Tom Dunn 
Sharon Frederick 
Charlotte Garrett 
Heather Harrigan 
Keri Helgren 
Maggie Hogan 
Gerry Lawson 
Ann Manson 
Patricia Perry 
Shelley Robinson 
Elana Scraba 
Jacqueline Veinot 
Ellen Wells 
Janeen Werner-KJng 
Carol Windlinger 
Jerry Wowk 
Carol Young 



Curriculum Consultant, Learning and Teaching Resources Branch 
Program Consultant, Learning and Teaching Resources Branch 



St. Albert Protestant Separate School District No. 6 

Edmonton School District No. 7 (Retired) 

Pembina Hills Regional Division No. 7 

Assistant Director, Learner Assessment Branch, Alberta Learning 

Northern Gateway Regional Division No. 10 

NorQuest College 

Calgary School District No. 19 

Black Gold Regional Division No. 18 

Edmonton Catholic Regional Division No. 40 

Film Classification Services, Alberta Community Development 

Edmonton School District No. 7 (Retired) 

Northern Lights School Division No. 69 

Rocky View School Division No. 41 

Assistant Director, Learner Assessment Branch (Retired) 

Elk Island Public Schools Regional School Division No. 14 

Edmonton School District No. 7 

Calgary Roman Catholic Separate School District No. 1 

Calgary School District No. 19 

Edmonton Catholic Regional Division No. 40 

Curriculum Consultant, Learning and Teaching Resources Branch 



Document Production Team 



Lin Hallett 
Dianne Moyer 
Esther Yong 
Sandra Mukai 



Desktop Publisher 
Desktop Publisher 
Desktop Publisher 
Copyright Officer 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Acknowledgements I'm 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Special thanks are extended to members of the Language Arts Interbranch Committee, Alberta Learning, 
including: 



Brigitta Braden 
Doug Bums 
Jennifer Bushrod 
Alan Chouinard 
Janet Clark 
Mike Ettrich 
Guylaine Girard 

Maureen Gough 

Jo-Anne Hug 
Nicole Lamarre 
Gerard Lavigne 
Carol Mayne 
Alain Nogue 
Ann Marie Ruddell 
Ray Shapka 
Laurel Sproule 
Harvey Stables 
Philip Taranger 
Renate Taylor Majeau 
David Woodland 



Assessment Specialist, Learner Assessment Branch 

Assistant Director, Learner Assessment Branch (Retired) 

Program Manager, Primary Programs and ESL 

Assessment Specialist, Learner Assessment Branch 

Examiner, Learner Assessment Branch 

Project Management Coordinator, Learning Technologies Branch 

Program Developer, Francais and FLA, French Language Services 

Branch 

Professional Development Manager, Professional Development and 

Certification Branch 

Assistant Director, Learner Assessment Branch 

Program Manager, French Language Services Branch 

Consultant, Learner Assessment Branch 

Examination Manager, English 33, Learner Assessment Branch 

Assistant Director, French Language Services Branch 

Examiner, English 30, 33, Learner Assessment Branch 

Assessment Specialist, Learner Assessment Branch 

Examination Manager, English 30, Learner Assessment Branch 

Examiner, Learner Assessment Branch 

Consultant, Learner Assessment Branch 

Assessment Specialist, Learner Assessment Branch 

Assessment Specialist, Learner Assessment Branch 



Alberta Learning expresses its appreciation to the many teachers and other educators whose teaching 
experiences and feedback informed the development of this document. 



Darlenc Abraham 
Elaine Amyot 
Christy Audet 
Jim Barritt 
Tani Baskett 
Carole Beaton 
Shelley Benson 
Cyndy Berry 
Beverly Bosetti 
Wouter Broersma 
Ken Brown 
Marie Bruggeman 
Valerie Burghardt 
Corrine Burke 
Sher Burke 
Lisa Cameron 
Daryl Cardiff 
James Chiba 
Laurie Chomany 
Brad Clark 
Janet Clark 



Faculty of Education, University of Calgary 

Fort McMurray Roman Catholic Separate School District No. 32 

Horizon School Division No. 67 

Chinook's Edge School Division No. 73 

St. Albert Protestant Separate School District No. 6 

Canadian Rockies Regional Division No. 12 

Edmonton School District No. 7 

Chinook's Edge School Division No. 73 

Office of VP (Academic) University of Calgary 

Black Gold Regional Division No. 18 

Chinook's Edge School Division No. 73 

Calgary Roman Catholic Separate School District No. 1 

East Central Alberta Catholic Separate Division No. 16 

Wolf Creek School Division No. 72 

Calgary School District No. 19 

Edmonton School District No. 7 

Grande Yellowhead Regional Division No. 35 

Grande Prairie Public School District No. 2357 

Horizon School Division No. 67 

Black Gold Regional Division No. 18 

Edmonton School District No. 7 



iv/ 

(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 



Margaret Clark 
Dan Clarke 
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Edmonton Catholic Regional Division No. 40 

Edmonton School District No. 7 

Fort Smith, Northwest Territories 

Lakeland Catholic School Division No. 1 50 

Golden Hills Regional Division No. 15 

Livingstone Range School Division No. 68 

Grande Prairie Public School District No. 2357 

Faculty of Education, University of Calgary 

Lethbridge School District No. 51 

Edmonton School District No. 7 

Edmonton Catholic Regional Division No. 40 

Palliser Regional Division No. 26 

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University of Calgary 

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Department of English, University of Calgary 

Black Gold Regional Division No. 1 8 

Edmonton School District No. 7 

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Westwind School Division No. 74 

Calgary Roman Catholic Separate School District No. 1 

Edmonton School District No. 7 

Faculty of Education, University of Calgary 

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Department of Secondary Education, University of Alberta 

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Alberta Distance Learning Centre 

Medicine Hat Catholic Separate Regional Division No. 20 

Department of Secondary Education, University of Alberta 

St. Thomas Aquinas Roman Catholic Separate Regional Division No. 38 

Calgary School District No. 19 

University of Calgary 

Parkland School Division No. 70 

Medicine Hat College 

Holy Spirit Roman Catholic Separate Regional Division No. 4 

Calgary School District No. 19 

Red Deer School District No. 104 

Grande Yellowhead Regional Division No. 35 

Rocky View School Division No. 41 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Acknowledgements /v 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Linda Leskiw 
Debra Leslie 
Ann Levey 
Marilyn Lindgren 
Dianne Loveland 
Marvyn Machura 
Stasha Malazdrewich 
Elizabeth Marchand 
Michelle Marlen 
Melanie Matheson 
Bob McDougall 
Murray McGillivray 
Larry McKill 
Mark McNally 
Pat McPherson 
Dave McWhinnie 
Anne McWhir 
Judy Mentz 
Sylvia Mentz 
Anne Michaelis 
Debbie Mineault 
Laurie Mitchell 
Darlene Montgomery 
Jill Mouly 
Peter Mueller 
Brenda Mulder 
Laura Mulvey 
Michelle Murphy 
Kevin Mussieux 
David O'Handley 
Val Olekshy 
Norma Omichinski 
Judy Pachal 
Jim Paul 

Maureen Pawliuk 
Marie Pawluk 
Doug Payne 
Patricia Perry 
Gene Plihal 
Annette Ramrattan 
Nicola Ramsey 
Peg Richel 
Maria Roach 
Debbie Robert 
Monica Robertson 
Dom Saliani 
Ken Saunderson 
Lynn Scott 
Anita Sedor 
Jim Sheasgreen 



Sturgeon School Division No. 24 

Chinook's Edge School Division No. 73 

Dean's Office, Humanities, University of Calgary 

Chinook's Edge School Division No. 73 

Calgary School District No. 19 

NorQuest College 

Lakeland Roman Catholic Separate School District No. 150 

Battle River Regional Division No. 31 

Edmonton Catholic Regional Division No. 40 

Grande Prairie School District No. 2357 

Medicine Hat School District No. 76 

Department of English, University of Calgary 

Department of English, University of Alberta 

Edmonton Catholic Regional Division No. 40 

Red Deer School District No. 104 

Rundle College 

Department of English, University of Calgary 

Red Deer School District No. 104 

Northern Alberta Institute of Technology 

Horizon School Division No. 67 

Curriculum Branch, Alberta Learning 

Livingstone Range School Division No. 68 

Calgary School District No. 19 

Prairie Land Regional Division No. 25 

Holy Spirit Roman Catholic Separate Regional Division No. 4 

Edmonton School District No. 7 

Edmonton Catholic Regional Division No. 40 

Edmonton School District No. 7 

Sturgeon School Division No. 24 

Fort Vermilion School Division No. 52 

Edmonton School District No. 7 

Sturgeon School Division No. 24 

Edmonton School District No. 7 

Faculty of Education, University of Calgary 

Greater St. Albert Catholic Regional Division No. 29 

Edmonton School District No. 7 

Buffalo Trail Regional Division No. 28 

Northern Lights School Division No. 69 

High Prairie School Division No. 48 

Northland School Division No. 61 

Slave Lake, Alberta 

Calgary School District No. 19 

Elk Island Public Schools Regional Division No. 14 

Keyano College 

Grande Prairie Roman Catholic Separate School Division No. 28 

Calgary School District No. 19 

Fort McMurray School District No. 2833 

Rundle College Society 

Calgary Roman Catholic Separate School Division No. 1 

Elk Island Catholic Regional Division No. 41 



vi/ 

(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Valerie Sherwood 
Cathy Silewych 
Tara Sly 
Steven Smith 
Brenda Smither 
Lynn Sparks 
Tom Sperling 
Terry Susut 
Lorraine Tchir 
Monique Tellier-Phillips 
ICendra Terry 
Joanne Thibault 
Elaine Thompson 
Dwain Tymchyshyn 
Corvin Uhrback 
Linda Vandenberg 
Harry Wagner 
Keith Wagner 
Dorothy Walch 
Verna Weasel Child 
Robin Webster 
Peter Weeks 
Tracy Wilson 
Rhonda Wolske 
Brian Wyley 
Lyla Yanishewski 
Tamara Young 



Lundbreck, Alberta 

Edmonton Catholic Regional Division No. 40 

Rockyview School Division No. 41 

Battle River Regional Division No. 31 

Edmonton School District No. 7 

Calgary School District No. 19 

Wild Rose School Division No. 66 

Wolf Creek School Division No. 72 

St. Paul Education Regional Division No. 1 

St. Thomas Aquinas Roman Catholic Separate Regional Division No. 38 

Aspen View Regional Division No. 19 

Peace River School Division No. 10 

Edmonton Catholic Regional Division No. 40 

Edmonton Catholic Regional Division No. 40 

Wolf Creek School Divisioin No. 72 

Holy Family Catholic Regional Division No. 37 

Parkland School Division No. 70 

School Improvement Branch, Alberta Learning 

Fort McMurray School District No. 2833 

Siksika Nation High School 

Peace River School Division No. 10 

Clearview School Division No. 71 

Medicine Hat School District No. 76 

Calgary Roman Catholic Separate School Division No. 1 

Wetaskiwin Regional Division No. 1 1 

Peace Wapiti Regional Division No. 33 

Northern Lights School Division No. 69 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Acknowledgements Mi 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



viii/ Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Introduction 1 

Purpose 1 

Background 1 

How to Use the Guide 1 

1 . Planning and Assessment 

Unit Planning 5 

How Should 1 Begin? 6 

What Outcomes Should be Addressed? 6 

How Will 1 Know if Students Have Achieved the Outcomes? 7 

What Texts Should be Studied? 1 1 

How Can 1 Help Students Achieve the Outcomes? 12 

What are the Next Steps? 14 

What Else Is Important to Consider When Planning? 15 

Assessment 21 

Types and Purposes of Classroom Assessment 21 

What Does Good Assessment Look Like? 25 

Standards — How Good is Good Enough? 27 

Responding to Text and Context 31 

Skills and Attitudes 3 1 

Responding to Text 32 

Responding to Context 34 

One Approach to Response-based Study 35 

Sharing Responses 38 

Response-based Learning Activities 39 

Suggestions for Assessment 47 

Using Film in the Classroom 49 

Choosing Films 49 

Copyright 50 

A Word about Ratings 50 

Teaching Film 50 

Film Study Units 55 

Choosing Resources 63 

What is Sensitive? 63 

Explaining Program and Choice of Texts 65 

Strategies for Dealing with Sensitive Texts and Issues 65 

Dealing with Challenges 68 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts Table of Contents /ix 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



Meeting Student Needs 69 

The High School Learner 69 

Fostering a Will to Learn 70 

Students with Learning Disabilities 74 

English as a Second Language (ESL) Students 75 

Learning Styles 75 

Scaffolding to Support Student Learning 76 

Texts with Aboriginal Content 80 

2. Achieving the English Language Arts Outcomes for Grades 10 and 1 1 

Suggestions for Instruction, Assessment and Learning Resources 85 

An Organizational Framework 85 

Instructional and Assessment Suggestions 85 

Resource Suggestions 86 

General Outcome 1 87 

General Outcome 2 133 

General Outcome 3 197 

General Outcome 4 253 

General Outcome 5 315 

3. Appendices 

Appendix A: Unit Planning Tools, Ideas and Examples 357 

Appendix B: Assessment Tools, Scoring Guides and Student Planning Forms 389 

Appendix C: Cross-referencing of Specific Outcomes in the Information and 

Communication Technology and Senior High English Language Arts Programs of Study .... 429 

Appendix D: Charts for Comparison of Course Specific Outcomes 445 

References 467 



x/ Table of Contents Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



INTRODUCTION 



Purpose 



This guide to implementing the grades 1 and 1 1 English language arts program is 
intended to assist teachers in planning for assessment and instruction that supports 
student achievement of the prescribed learning outcomes. It also provides suggestions 
for monitoring student progress in achieving the outcomes. 



Background 



The Guide to Implementation: Grades 10 and 11 English Language Arts, September 
2002 Draft, builds upon the work completed by the Ministry of Education and 
Training, Government of Manitoba, as lead province for the development of The 
Common Curriculum Framework for English Language Arts (K-12) , in accordance 
with the Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education. Produced 
by Alberta Learning, with contributions and review from many teachers and other 
educators, this guide is a resource for teachers to use in implementing the new 
Grade 10 and Grade 1 1 courses — English Language Arts 10-1, 10-2 and English 
Language Arts 20-1, 20-2 — as articulated in the Program of Studies for Senior High 
School English Language Arts, Interim 2002. The program of studies includes general 
and specific outcomes and is mandated for use in all schools, public and private, 
offering Grade 10 and Grade 1 1 English language arts in Alberta. This draft guide to 
implementation describes and explains the intentions of the new program. 



How to Use 
the Guide 



Planning and Assessment 

The Planning and Assessment section begins with a unit that demonstrates a way of 
planning, and it provides unit activities that can be adapted to meet the needs of 
students in a variety of classrooms. The unit directs teachers to other sections of the 
guide, such as Choosing Resources, Using Film in the Classroom, Meeting Student 
Needs or Assessment where more information and direction are provided. References 
are also made to the Achieving the English Language Arts Outcomes for Grades 10 
and 1 1 section and the Appendices where teachers can find more specific strategies and 
templates. 



Achieving the English Language Arts Outcomes for Grades 10 and 11 

This section provides teaching/learning strategies that can be used to help students 
achieve the specific outcomes. Teaching/learning strategies are accompanied by an 
assessment strategy where appropriate. The strategies are organized around each 
general outcome and are subdivided by the outcome subheadings. Each outcome 
subheading is prefaced by a short section explaining what is meant by the subheading 
and how it might be assessed. A list of professional resources that can be referenced 
for more information is included in each section. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Introduction /l 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Appendices 

Appendix A provides additional teaching units and planning templates, samples of 
student writing, and teaching tools. Appendix B provides a variety of scoring guides, 
assessment tools and student planning sheets. Cross-referencing of the Information 
and Communication Technology (1CT) outcomes to the English language arts (ELA) 
outcomes is provided in Appendix C so that the ICT outcomes can be more easily 
integrated into the ELA courses. Charts of specific outcomes for ELA 10-1, 10-2 and 
ELA 20-1, 20-2 are included in Appendix D to aid in planning for classes that include 
students from different courses. 



Icons 



directs you to other parts of the guide or to other resources that provide more 
information, strategies or teaching tools 



W designates strategies that involve metacognition 
^£>V designates strategies that involve collaboration 



designates professional resources that are authorized by Alberta Learning and 
available from the Learning Resources Centre (Telephone: 780-427-5775; 
Web site: http://www.lrc.learning.gov.ab.ca/) 



2/ Introduction Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



PLANNING 
AND ASSESSMENT 



UNIT PLANNING 



Planning starts with determining what students already know and what they need to 
understand and be able to do. Classroom assessment is conducted to fulfill this 
formative function — to inform teaching and improve learning and to monitior student 
progress in achieving the learning outcomes. Student self-assessment and reflection 
on their learning strategies provides important information not only for the student but 
also for the teacher. This information is then used in planning what learning outcomes 
students need to achieve and in choosing the resources and teaching and assessment 
strategies that are most appropriate. Summative evaluation fulfills a grading purpose 
and is used to inform students, parents and other interested parties, such as post- 
secondary institutes, of the extent to which the students have achieved the outcomes. 

Alberta's Program of Studies for Senior High School English Language Arts, Interim 
2002 states the outcomes students are to achieve by the end of each course, along with 
the texts to be studied. Teachers and/or schools must then design units that best help 
students achieve the specific outcomes for their current courses while building on and 
maintaining their ability to demonstrate the outcomes of the previous grades and 
courses. 

A number of factors influence unit design, including: 

student interests, needs and goals 
provincial requirements and suggestions 
relevant jurisdictional policies 
assessment and reporting practices 
teacher interests, strengths and skills 
resources available, and budget for new resources 
parental and community values and interests 
diploma examination preparation. 

Many teachers organize units of study around themes in order to focus instruction, 
make connections between a variety of specific outcomes and plan around groups of 
outcomes that require deeper understanding on the part of students. Planning around 
such universal experiences as "innocence lost to experience" or "the response of 
individuals to power and control within their society" helps students to explore 
complex ideas, enhances student engagement and takes students beyond English 
language arts to connect to other areas, such as philosophy, the social sciences or fine 
arts. 

The following unit planning® process demonstrates one way of planning around these 
big ideas using universal questions raised in literature, film and other texts. In this 
process, students explore the questions and come to essential understandings through 
reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing and representing; they demonstrate their 
understandings through performance and self-assessments. Ways of providing a unit 
focus and deciding which outcomes to address are discussed, and sample performance 
assessments to determine how well students have achieved the outcomes are included. 
Suggestions for the types of texts students could study and create in this kind of unit 
are also included. The unit activities are intended for ELA 20-1 and 20-2 students, but 
they can be adapted for other levels. 



9 Several of the ideas in this unit are based on the work of Wiggins and McTighe, Understanding by Design (1998). 

Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts Unit Planning /5 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



How Should 
I Begin? 



irgsp Units for Grade 10 based on other planning models, along with unit planning 
templates, can be found in Appendix A, pp. 358-372. 

One way to begin unit planning is to choose a topic based on student interests and 
available resources. The easiest way to come up with focus questions for a unit is to 
select one that could be used as is, or adapted from the newly authorized resources or 
from old diploma examinations; e.g., "How does conflict and struggle affect the human 
spirit?" {Echoes 11) or "What is the effect of isolation on the individual?" (January 
1994 English 30 diploma examination). 

Turning a topic or combination of topics from authorized resources into questions is 
another easy way to begin. For example, the topics, "identity" and "choices" could be 
combined to create a question such as: "To what extent is an individual's identity 
shaped by the choices he or she makes?" 

An alternative way to come up with focus questions is to work with a colleague or with 
students to choose a topic, and brainstorm questions or concepts related to the topic 
that would be important for students to understand. For example, in exploring a topic 
such as "heroes," one might come up with the following important concepts: 

• what heroes are 

• how heroes are made 

• how heroes are undone 

• what purposes heroes can serve in a community or culture 

• why audiences/readers sympathize with heroes and antiheroes 

• how one's quest or ambition assists or interferes with the making of a hero 

• how conflict or ambition enhances or reduces heroic tendencies 

• how one's current context — historical, cultural, social, philosophical — can 
determine whether or not an individual's actions are perceived as heroic. 

Choose several of the concepts and combine them to create questions on which to 
focus the unit. Two such focus questions could be: 

• How do ethics, ambition and context contribute to the making or undoing of 
heroes? 

• How do text creators use selected words, images or literary techniques to construct 
or deconstruct heroes? 



What 
Outcomes 
Should be 
Addressed? 



In the process of exploring the focus questions, students come to important 
understandings that are connected to all of the general outcomes in the program of 
studies, but each question focuses on particular outcome subheadings and specific 
outcomes. For example, the following outcome subheadings are related to the first 
question, 'How do ethics, ambition and context contribute to the making or undoing of 
heroes? " 



1 .2. 1 Consider new perspectives 

2.1.1 Discern and analyze context 

2.3. 1 Connect self, text, culture and milieu 

3.2.3 Form generalizations and conclusions 

4. 1 . 1 Assess text creation context 

5.1.2 Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective 



6/ Unit Planning 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



The following outcome subheadings are related to the second focus question for the 
unit, 'How do text creators use selected words, images or literary techniques to 
construct or deconstruct heroes? " 

2.1.2 Understand and interpret content 

2.2.2 Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects 
2.3.2 Evaluate the verisimilitude, appropriateness and significance of print and 
nonprint texts 



How Will 
I Know if 
Students Have 
Achieved the 
Outcomes? 



Once the outcomes for student learning are identified, it is important to decide what 
evidence will be used to determine if students have achieved the outcomes. 
Performance assessments are an important way for students to demonstrate their 
understandings arising from the unit focus questions; they help students and teachers 
determine the extent to which students have achieved the outcomes. 



Pages 21-25 describe types and purposes of assessment, including performance 
assessments. 



Student choice can be incorporated in performance assessments, as it is an important 
way to encourage students to reflect on and take ownership of their learning. One way 
to do this is to have students complete a proposal identifying a performance 
assessment, timeline and resources they could use, as well as identifying group 
responsibilities and roles, if the performance assessments are collaborative. Having 
students reflect on their strengths, limitations and interests and how these influence 
their choices, helps to make the activity metacognitive. 

[£g= Strategies for encouraging metacognition are identified with this icon 0} throughout 
the guide. 

While developing, maintaining/monitoring and evaluating their plan of action, students 
can be encouraged to ask questions such as the following: 



Developing 

What in my prior knowledge will help me with this particular task? 

In what direction do I want my thinking to take me? 

What should I do first? 

Why am I reading this selection? 

What resources do 1 already know about which will be useful in this project? 

How much time do 1 have to complete the task? 

What are my interests, and how can they be used to help me be successful? 



Maintaining/Monitoring 

• How am I doing? 

• Am 1 on the right track? 

• How should I proceed? 

• What information is important to remember? 

• Should 1 move in a different direction? 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Unit Planning II 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



• Should I adjust the pace depending on the difficulty? 

• What do 1 need to do if 1 do not understand? 

• How can 1 improve this component of what 1 have drafted? 

Evaluating 

• How well did I do? 

• Did my particular course of thinking produce more or less than 1 had expected? 

• What could I have done differently? 

• How might I apply this line of thinking to other problems? 

• Do 1 need to go back through the task to fill in any "blanks" in my understanding? 

Students should be given or should develop scoring guides when they are selecting 
their performance assessments, and they should use them periodically throughout the 
drafting process. By being part of the process of creating assessment tools, students 
identify and understand better what is expected of them and how their work will be 
assessed. As well, students' sense of ownership of the assessment process increases. 
Such involvement helps students achieve their goals for language learning, set new 
goals and strengthen their ability to self-assess as independent learners. 

P3P Appendix B, p. 390, provides a model for creating assessment devices in collaboration 
with students. 

Sample Performance Assessments for This Unit 

Performance assessments can be developed for all categories in the Minimum 
Requirements: Text Creation on page 1 1 of the Program of Studies for Senior High 
School English Language Arts, Interim 2002. The following performance assessments 
provide ideas for oral/visual/multimedia presentations and for personal and 
critical/analytical response for this unit. 

A. Brochures 

• Goal: Your task is to create two brochures based on a major character that 
you encountered in this unit. Imagine that the character or individual is 
running for a political office. 

• Role: Your role is an advertising company. 

• Audience: The audience for each brochure is voters. 

• Situation: Your challenge is to vary your purpose for each brochure. 

• Product/Performance: In the first brochure, assume your advertising 
company has been hired by the character or person. Use pertinent details 
from the text or context to present the character as a hero to voters. You may 
add details, but they should not contradict the evidence in the story about the 
character. In the second brochure, assume your advertising company has been 
hired by an opposing party to create a negative brochure against the same 
character. You may add details, but they should not contradict the evidence 
in the story about the character. 

• Standard for Success: Your brochures will be evaluated for content (close 
reading of the text to find details about the character that can be highlighted 
in each brochure; plausible extensions of the character's experience that are 
suggested by the text). Also, your brochures will judged on their 

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organization and consistent formatting, including matters of choice (such as 
the use of colour and angles in visuals to reveal the tone toward the character, 
use of diction to convey tone toward the character); matters of convention in 
layout (correct formatting of headings, appropriate use of visuals, use of 
white space, font); and matters of correctness in writing appropriate for the 
form (grammar, usage, mechanics). 

• In addition, you may submit a Web page version of your brochures that 
demonstrates your skill at modifying your work for another medium. 

B. Visual Presentation: Photo Essays 

• Goal: You will reveal the influence that context plays in the making of a 
hero. The challenge is to present an unbiased representation of character or 
individual from two points of view. The obstacle to overcome is the 
acquiring of a substantial photo base from which final images can be selected 
for inclusion. 

• Role: Your role is a news magazine journalist. You have been asked to 
provide fair representation of each side of this character, so that the public 
can come to their own conclusions. 

• Audience: Public 

• Situation: (can be made specific to the text/context) The awarding of a 
medal of honour has become controversial in the community. The context of 
various factions involved in the decision-making process has created 
uncertainty regarding the recipient of this award. 

• Product: You will create two photo essays of five images each, one which 
will present the character as a hero and deserving of the award, and the other 
which will present the character as undeserving. You will need to develop 
and include a set of criteria to guide your selection of images for inclusion. 

• Standards: The photo essays will be evaluated for thought and detail 
(insightful, close reading of the text to find details about the character that 
can be highlighted in the photo essay, careful selection of images); 
organization (introduction, body, conclusion); visual appeal (use of image, 
colour and relationship among elements, effective communication of point of 
view); and matters of choice (camera techniques used purposefully, diction 
for the target audience). 

C. Oral/Visual Presentation - Spoken Word CD/Cassette Tape 

• Goal: Your challenge is to create a spoken word CD/cassette tape, complete 
with explanatory, illustrated cover, that is 1 minutes in length and will 
demonstrate your understanding of what a hero from your perspective is in 
relation to our study of . 

• Role: Your job is to find poems, excerpts from short stories, songs and/or 
appropriate background music that will support YOUR opinion about 

(or any other character from ) in relation to his/her 

status as a hero in your mind. 

• Audience: You need to convince your peers to see your side, based on their 
listening to your CD/cassette tape. This task will be based on the personal 
context you brought to the text in our reading of . 

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• Product: You will create a 1 0-minute spoken word CD/cassette tape on 

which you identify your opinion of (or the character of your 

choice) in relation to his/her status as a hero. You will include poems, 
excerpts from short stories, songs and/or appropriate background music that 
support your opinion. You will also design a cover for the CD/cassette tape 
and justify your choice of each piece included on the cover. 

• Standards: You, your peers and the instructor, each using rubrics, will judge 
your work. Your CD/cassette tape must meet certain standards. The 
recording must be smooth and reflect practice, and the cover must be edited, 
polished and visually appealing. 

D. Personal Response Essay (Designed for ELA 20-1 and 20-2) 

Each essay topic focuses on one of the essential questions for the unit. Students 
can select topics and texts based on their interests and abilities. 

Choose ONE of the topics below. Write a personal response essay using your 
own experiences and/or observations to support your opinions about the topic. 
Use at least one of the texts studied during the unit to reinforce your opinions. 
You may also refer to other literature or films that you have studied. 

• In your opinion, what is a hero? Use examples from one or more of the texts 
to support your ideas. You may also wish to use examples from your own 
experience or from other experiences that you know about. (ELA 20-2) 

• What is your opinion of the idea that heroes are created because they serve 
particular purposes in a culture or community? Use examples from one or 
more of the texts studied for support, along with your own experiences or 
world events that you know about. (ELA 20-1 or 20-2) 

• Think back over the texts that you studied in this unit, and choose the 
character that is most like you in the way that he or she responded to the 
central dilemma or problem in the text. Use details from your own 
experience and from the text to support your explanation. (ELA 20-2) 

• Why do readers/audiences identify with heroes or anuheroes? Use examples 
from one or more of the texts studied during the unit, along with your own 
reactions to the characters to support your opinion. (ELA 20-1 or 20-2) 

Your essay will be evaluated on the following criteria: 

• Thought: The insights into heroes or heroic action. 

• Detail: How well the details you use support your main ideas — quantity and 
quality of supporting ideas. 

• Organization: Coherence and shaped discussion, including an introduction 
that attracts the reader and focuses the discussion, and a developed and 
convincing conclusion. 

• Matters of Choice: Varied vocabulary that is used with precision; syntax is 
varied for effect. 

• Matters of Correctness: Correctness of sentence construction, usage, 
grammar and mechanics. 

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£. Critical/Analytical Response Essay (Designed for ELA 20-1) 

Each essay topic focuses on one of the essential questions for the unit. Students 
can choose topics and texts based on interests and abilities. Several of the essay 
topics encourage students to compare and contrast the techniques and themes 
used in print and visual texts. Students could collaborate to gather details from 
the texts for their essays and to select a graphic organizer for their data collection. 

Write a critical essay on ONE of the topics below. 

• Choose a character from a text you have studied. Discuss how the 
character's quest or ambition enhances or interferes with the making of the 
hero. 

• Choose a character from a text you have studied. Discuss the historical, 
cultural, social or philosophical context in which the character's actions are 
perceived as heroic or unheroic; and discuss whether the character would be 
considered heroic in our current context and why. 



• 



Discuss how juxtaposition of contrasting characters and juxtaposition of 
character weakness and strength are used in one of the texts you have studied 
to lead readers to sympathize with heroes or antiheroes. 

• Compare and contrast how symbol, metaphor, mood, selection of detail to 
present a point of view or camera angle is used in two of the texts you have 
studied to support the making or undoing of a hero. 

Your essay will be evaluated on the following criteria: 

• Thought: The insights into the nature of heroism and author's/artist's use of 
characterization, point of view, figurative language, symbol and visual 
elements to reveal his/her ideas about heroes. 

• Detail: How well the details you select from the texts support your main 
ideas — quantity and quality of supporting ideas. 

• Organization: Coherence and shaped discussion, including an introduction 
that attracts the reader and focuses the discussion, and a developed and 
convincing conclusion. 

• Matters of Choice: Varied vocabulary that is used with precision; syntax is 
varied for effect. 

• Matters of Correctness: Correctness of sentence construction, usage, 
grammar and mechanics. 

What Texts Texts related to the unit question can be chosen by the teacher, students or both. The 

Should hp amount of choice given to the students will be determined by the teacher's level of 

e* ^ jo comfort and by student strengths and needs. If students need more help with strategies, 

OtUQiea • it is sometimes easier to have everyone studying the same text. When more student 

choice is desirable, it can be incorporated into the unit by giving a choice of selections 
within different categories. For example, students could be given lists of poems, 
stories, myths or essays related to the unit focus. They could then choose several to 
study as a class or in groups. An alternative way of giving choice is to have students 

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©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



look through the resources in order to choose the ones that they are interested in and 
which would best help them explore the unit questions. 

P^ 3 Literature, film and other texts often raise controversial or sensitive issues. Pages 

63-68 provide guidance on selecting texts and dealing with sensitive issues raised by 
the texts. 



A common way organizing the study of texts is to use several shorter pieces, such as 
poems, short stories and essays, for initial exploration of the theme and then moving 
into an extended text, such as a novel, a modem or Shakespearean play, or a film. 
Extended texts such as the following could be used in this unit: 

Of Mice and Men (novel) ELA 20-2 

Lord of the Flies (novel) ELA 20-1 

Obasan (novel) ELA 20-1 

The Truman Show (feature film) ELA 10-1, 10-2, 20-1 or 20-2 

All My Sons (modern play) 

The Crucible (modern play) ELA 20-1 

Macbeth (Shakespearean drama) ELA 20- 1 or 20-2 

Ryan While: My Own Story (book-length nonfiction) ELA 20-2 

Pages 10 and 1 1 o( the Program of Studies for Senior High School English Language 
Arts, Interim 2002, available on the Alberta Learning Web site at 
<http://www.leaming.gov.ab.ca/k_l 2/curriculum/bySubject/english/>, provide the 
minimum requirements for text study and text creation. 

An annotated listing of novels and nonfiction, Senior High English Language Arts 
Novels and Nonfiction Annotated Listing, 1994, is available from the Learning 
Resources Centre and on the Alberta Learning Web site. 



How Can I 
Help Students 
Achieve the 
Outcomes? 



Specific lessons based on student needs and interests need to be developed around the 
texts studied, using strategies such as those in the Achieving the English Language 
Arts Outcomes for Grades 10 and 1 1 section of this guide or in the teacher guides for 
the newly authorized basic resources. For example, you may find that your students 
are having difficulty in deciding what is significant in a text. Modelling a strategy of 
underlining or highlighting sections of a text that you found significant, explaining 
why you chose these details, and discussing how they contributed to your 
understanding, is one way of helping students with close reading of literature. Another 
strategy is to read a text aloud, identify specific parts for students to highlight and then 
have students work in groups to decide why you might have chosen these details and 
what they might mean. Similarly, students can be guided in their viewing by 
identifying motifs for them to take note of as they watch a film, then having them 
discuss the context in which they saw the motifs, any patterns they could identify and 
what these patterns might mean. 

Achieving the English Language Arts Outcomes for Grades 10 and 11, General 
Outcome 2, pp. 133-196, provides numerous strategies for helping students 
comprehend and respond to written, oral and visual texts. Outcomes 1 and 3 also have 
a number of these kinds of strategies. 



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Pages 49-6 1 provide more ideas and strategies for using film in the classroom. 

The process of creating texts also helps students come to further understandings of the 
texts they are studying and the concepts around which the unit is focused. Creating 
poems, oral interpretations, collages or mind maps in response to texts studied are 
ways of helping students to extend their understanding of what they have read, seen or 
heard. Similarly, students may create stories or scripts to help them better understand 
the concept of heroism. 

These strategies and other ideas for responding to texts are described on pages 39 to 
48, along with more information on responding to text and context on pages 3 1 to 39. 

(£g= Achieving the English Language Arts Outcomes for Grades 1 and 1 1 , General 

Outcome 4 (pp. 253-3 13), provides numerous strategies for helping students with text 
creation. General Outcome 3 also has a number of these kinds of strategies. 

As the performance assessment and plans for other texts to be created are developed, 
and texts to be studied are chosen and strategies planned, it will be evident that many 
outcomes in addition to the focus outcomes will be addressed. The student proposals, 
for example, address 1.2.3 Set personal goals for language growth: appraise own 
strengths and weaknesses as a language user; select appropriate strategies to increase 
strengths and address weaknesses; monitor the effectiveness of selected strategies; and 
modify selected strategies as needed to optimize growth as a language user. 

fl^g 3 Students can use assessment guides, such as the ones in Appendix B, pp. 401—402, to 
assess their progress in achieving this specific outcome. 

Similarly, as students create the projects and essays, they will achieve a number of 
specific outcomes listed under 4.1.4 Use production, publication and presentation 
strategies and technologies consistent with context, 4.2.1 Enhance thought and 
detail, 4.2.2 Enhance organization, 4.2.3 Consider and address matters of choice, 
and 4.2.4 Edit text for matters of correctness. 

l£g= Scoring guides, such as the following in Appendix B, can be used to assess student 
progress in these outcomes: 

Personal response essays, pp. 395-396 
Critical response essays, pp. 397-398 
Oral presentations, pp. 391-392 
Visual and multimedia presentations, p. 393 

A wide variety of scoring guides is available in the Classroom Assessment Materials 
Project (CAMP) materials, available from the Learning Resources Centre, and in the 
teacher guides for the newly authorized basic resources for grades 10 and 1 1. 

As they work together to create scoring guides for performance assessments or to plan 
the projects, presentations and essays, students can also be helped to achieve a number 
of the specific outcomes listed under 5.2.1 Cooperate with others, and contribute to 
group processes and 5.2.2 Understand and evaluate group processes. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts Unit Planning /13 

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These outcomes can be self-assessed by students by using a scoring guide such as the 
one in Appendix B, p. 428, or they can be assessed summatively by using a scoring 
guide such as the one in Appendix B, p. 394. 

Students may also achieve a number of other outcomes in their work that are not 
assessed at this time. 



What are the 
Next Steps? 



c^ 



As one unit is completed, new units are planned to reinforce and build on the learning 
that has taken place and to address the outcomes that have not yet been dealt with or 
that require further emphasis. 

Appendix A, p. 363, provides an organizer that lays out all of the general outcomes, 
headings and subheadings on one page to help keep track of how often outcomes have 
been addressed and which need to be planned for. Some teachers like to put a check 
beside the outcome subheading each time it is addressed or list the specific outcome 
each time it is dealt with. 



D^ 



Information gathered through formative and summative assessment is used to plan for 
further learning. Yearly planning, therefore, becomes a process of reflecting and 
reformulating, based on new understandings of students and their learning and how 
well instruction is meeting student needs. Questions such as the following are often 
addressed in coming to these understandings: 

What do my students need to learn in this course? 

What do they already know, and what can they do? How well? 

What do they need to improve in? 

What are my interests, and how can 1 use them in my planning? 

What unit topics would be most engaging and appropriate? 

What do I know about these topics? 

What strategies do 1 know about that would help my students and me explore the 

topic and come to a deeper understanding? 

Which of these strategies were most effective? Why? 

Did the strategies work equally well with all students? 

Where can 1 learn about other strategies? 

What activities would be interesting and engaging and would demonstrate student 

understanding? 

Did these activities work? Why or why not? 

How will 1 find out how well students are doing? 

How will 1 know what acceptable and excellent work looks like? 

While these questions are addressed mainly through observation, assessment, 
experience, collaboration with colleagues and through professional reading, the last 
two questions are also addressed directly in this document on pages 21 to 30. 

As teachers reflect on their teaching and set their goals for instruction, students reflect 
on and set their own goals for language learning. Using self-, peer and teacher 
evaluations, students become increasingly adept at discerning both how they are 
learning and how well they are learning. This information not only becomes an 
invaluable resource for teachers in their planning, but can also provide opportunities 
for students to become involved in planning and assessing their own learning. 



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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

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Working from new understandings, both teachers and students can identify areas for 
growth and formulate goals for instruction and language learning. 

Pages 69 to 8 1 provide ideas on meeting the needs of different students. 

An important part of the planning process is the recognition of how well students are 
doing with their learning. Teachers celebrate achievement publicly when they 
acknowledge how well students have been researching in groups, how well a 
discussion has been going and how well students have met particular process deadlines 
in the course of creating a work. As well, teachers celebrate at the end of an activity, 
such as when they hand back work that has been evaluated and point out areas where 
the class has shown improvement. Teachers also celebrate with individual students 
during teacher-student conferences, by indicating where growth in skill and 
understanding has occurred. At other times, students and teachers celebrate together 
publicly through positive spoken or written word and/or applause; e.g., during whole- 
class discussion, at the end of a readers' theatre performance or tableau, or through the 
compilation of a class anthology. Further, the individual student recognizes growth 
and celebrates his or her achievement through such means as entries in journals or 
learning logs, checklists, and exit memorandums. 



What Else Is 
Important to 
Consider When 
Planning? 



Language Learning 

Planning and assessment are also based on an understanding of language learning and 
English language arts content and processes. As students actively use the language 
arts, they engage in three kinds of language learning: 

• Language learning is a social process that begins in infancy and continues 
throughout life. Language-rich environments enhance and accelerate the process. 

• As students listen, read or view, they focus primarily on making meaning from the 
text at hand. Students use language to increase their knowledge of the world. 

• Knowledge of language and how it works is a subject and discipline in itself and is 
fundamental to effective communication. Consequently, students also focus on 
the language arts themselves and how they work.® 

Students develop knowledge and skill in their use of the language arts as they listen, 
speak, read, write, view and represent in a wide variety of contexts; i.e., for a variety of 
purposes, audiences and situations. Although the six language arts are sometimes 
considered and discussed as separate and distinct, they are, in reality, interrelated and 
interdependent. For example, writing tasks may also involve students in discussing 
ideas and information with peers and others, reading to acquire information and ideas, 
viewing other media, and representing ideas and information graphically. Many oral, 
print, visual and multimedia texts integrate the six language arts in various 
combinations. 



Halliday (1982, cited in Strickland and Strickland 1997, p. 203). 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Unit Planning /15 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Students study the language arts in order to function in their communities and cultures: 
to appreciate, enjoy, communicate, interact, identify and solve problems, think 
critically, and make informed choices. Just as they need skills to comprehend and 
communicate through print and oral texts, students need to learn techniques and 
conventions of visual language. Such learning will help students be more conscious 
and discerning in reading visual media and more effective in creating visual forms. 
Students learn the language and conventions of viewing and representing, in the 
context of classroom interactions about media texts or print illustrations, in the same 
way that they develop their vocabulary of literary terms through discussing print texts. 
Many language elements; e.g., patterns, mood, symbolism, symmetry, focus, tone and 
emphasis, are similar in oral, print, visual and multimedia texts. 

Listening and Speaking 

Oral language is the foundation of literacy. Students' fluency and confidence in 
spoken language are integral to their identity and place in their communities. Through 
listening and speaking, students express their thoughts and feelings. The ability to 
form and maintain relationships and to collaborate and extend learning through 
interaction with others is closely tied to listening and speaking skills. In language arts 
courses, students learn the skills and attitudes of effective speakers and listeners in 
communication situations ranging from telephone conversations to theatrical 
performances. 

Students develop speaking skills through a variety of informal and formal experiences: 
discussing issues in small groups, performing monologues, debating, audiotaping news 
items, hosting ceremonies and so on. Informal speaking opportunities strengthen the 
precision of students' thought and vocabulary. Formal speaking opportunities allow 
students to examine the ways in which information and emotion are communicated 
through nonverbal cues, such as tone, volume and pace. 

Listening is an active process of constructing meaning from sound. It involves many 
of the elements of reading written text: recognizing and comprehending words, 
observing transitions and organizational patterns, and comprehending literal and 
implied meanings. Listening requires students to respond to, analyze and evaluate oral 
texts as they would written texts. For example, students may use writing or 
representing to record and make meaning of oral texts. Listening has its own particular 
elements and vocabulary of oral and visual cues, such as oral punctuation, inflection, 
volume, pace, stance and gestures in expressing content, tone and emotion. Students 
also learn to comprehend dialect and regional patterns of language. 

Learning to listen also involves learning to recognize and comprehend sounds other 
than speech. It means examining the role of background music and sound effects in 
film and the commercial uses of sound; e.g., background music in shopping malls or 
nostalgic songs in television commercials. Musical terms are part of the language 
system of sound: rhythm, motifs and patterns, crescendo and decrescendo, major and 
minor keys. By using sound in their own creations, students learn its role in evoking 
emotion, mood and images. In their performances, students link spoken language to 
sound by developing sound-effects tapes or music sound tracks. 



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Reading and Writing 

Comprehending and communicating through written texts is central to language arts 
programming. Students' skill in reading and writing is fundamental to their success 
in school and their ability to function effectively in the larger community. The 
development of electronic media notwithstanding, written texts continue to be 
important sources of information. Furthermore, reading written texts stimulates 
intellectual development in different ways than viewing visual media does; 
constructing the world of written texts requires the imaginative collaboration of the 
reader. 

Language arts classes offer students opportunities to read a wide variety of texts 
ranging from expressive to transactional to poetic.® While written texts are important 
sources of information and ideas, they are also vehicles for instruction in reading. 
Students learn to read for literal and implied meanings. They engage with texts in 
various ways; e.g., they respond personally, analytically and critically. Students learn 
many of the techniques and devices that contribute to the full meaning of language, 
such as connotation, tone, figurative language and sound. 

Written texts, however, play a role in classrooms beyond the opportunities they afford 
in teaching reading skills. Books enrich students' lives, offering vicarious experiences 
of larger worlds. As well, written texts provide opportunities for thinking and talking 
about a wide range of topics and ideas, including those relating to society, ethics and 
the meaning and significance of experiences. Written texts still largely represent the 
foundation of cultural knowledge that a society holds in common, and reading is 
essential to cultural literacy. 

Facility in reading and facility in writing are closely linked. Reading builds 
vocabulary, teaches sensitivity to written language and fosters an intuitive sense of 
style. Written texts serve as models for student writing. 

Students use writing not only as a means of exploring ideas, experiences and emotions 
but also as a means of communicating with others. They learn processes for formal 
writing: generating, developing and organizing ideas, methods for research and 
inquiry, and strategies for editing and revising. Students learn to write, using a wide 
range of forms: expressive forms, such as song lyrics, reflective journals and poetry, 
and forms used in business, university and college, and journalism. They also learn 
new writing conventions required to write for electronic media, just as they learn 
strategies to read from electronic media. 



o 



The term reading is defined elsewhere in this guide as making meaning of any text, including visual text. Here, however, it is used in 
the specific sense of making meaning of print text. 

In expressive writing, the writer reflects, examines and explores, and speculates; e.g., journal writing. The content is personal and of 
paramount importance. Stylistic considerations and correctness of language use are secondary. In transactional writing, the writer is 
concerned with developing clear communication in order to fulfill some practical purpose; e.g., reports and proposals. Transactional 
language may inform, advise, persuade, instruct, record and explain. Poetic writing is text that serves to share its creator's 
understandings in an artistic manner; e.g., short fiction and poetry. (Alberta Education, Senior High School Language Arts Curriculum 
Guide 1982, pp. 36-39.) 



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Viewing and Representing 

Many students are avid and sophisticated consumers of visual media, and their 
familiarity with visual forms facilitates literacy with other texts. Many students have 
an implicit understanding of visual media conventions — the unspoken agreements 
between producers and audiences about the way meaning is represented; e.g., how the 
passage of time is conveyed in a television drama. Film or television may be useful in 
helping students grasp the meaning of the term conventions. By using films to 
introduce students to devices and techniques that visual and written texts share; e.g., 
subplot and flashback, teachers may help students understand narrative techniques in 
other media. Similarly, documentary films may assist students in understanding 
elements, such as point of view and transitional devices, in expository print text. 

Viewing and representing are also language arts in their own right. Students need to 
learn the techniques and conventions of visual language to become more conscious, 
discerning, critical and appreciative readers of visual media and more effective creators 
of visual products. Students need to recognize that what a camera captures is a 
construction of reality, not reality itself. They need to learn that images convey ideas, 
values and beliefs just as words do; and they need to learn to read the language of 
images. 

Films enlarge students' experiences, much as written narratives do, and offer similar 
occasions for discussion. Films also provide rich opportunities to explore the parallels 
and differences between visual and written language. Through close reading of short 
clips, students may examine the effects of visual language cues: composition, colour 
and light, shadow and contrast, camera angles and distance, pace and rhythm, and the 
association of images and sounds. They learn to identify the narrative point of view by 
following the eye of the camera. Visual texts embody many of the elements of written 
texts. Whether interpreting a painting or a poem, the "reader" looks at elements such 
as pattern, repetition, mood, symbolism and historical context. 

Students may use representation both for informal and formal expression. Just as 
students use talking and writing as means of exploring what they think and of 
generating new ideas and insights, so they may use representing to accomplish the 
same goals. They may, for example, use tools such as webs, maps and graphic 
organizers. Sketching may be the first and most natural way for some students to 
clarify thinking and generate ideas. Visual tools are especially useful because they 
represent the nonlinear nature of thought. Students also may use visuals to express 
their mental constructs of the ideas or scenes in written texts. Events from novels may 
be depicted in murals, storyboards, comic books or collages. Information and ideas 
from expository texts may be depicted in graphic organizers to assist students in 
comprehending the parts and their relationships. Visual images may be bridges for 
students to learn to grasp abstract concepts, such as verbal symbolism. 

Study of design elements assists students to become conscious of the effect of visual 
elements in written texts. Students may enhance their own formal products and 
presentations by using visuals with written text and/or sound. Students make informed 
use of design elements in developing charts, slides, posters and handouts that 
communicate effectively. 



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Note: While this section discusses visual representation, students also explore and 
express ideas through oral/aural representation, such as tone of voice, music and sound 
effects, and through print representation, such as tables. 

English Language Arts Content 

In language arts learning, the primary focus of students is to develop literacy skills that 
are vital in all learning. Because the language arts discipline is not defined by its 
content to the extent that other disciplines may be, distinctions between the dimensions 
of learning suggested by Marzano (1992) are particularly helpful for language arts 
teachers in planning, instruction and assessment. Marzano suggests that students 
engage in three kinds of learning: 



• 



Declarative knowledge: Students need to know facts, concepts, principles and 
generalizations. The declarative knowledge of a language arts curriculum includes 
the conventions of various forms and genres, as well as literary devices, such as 
irony, foreshadowing and figures of speech. 

Procedural knowledge: Students need to know and apply skills, processes and 
strategies. The procedural knowledge of language arts includes knowledge and 
skilled use of the six language arts, as well as related processes, including 
processes of inquiry, interaction, revision and editing, reflection and 
metacognition. 

Attitudes and habits of mind: This aspect of language learning relates personal 
dispositions that foster learning with awareness of these dispositions. Attitudes 
and habits of mind fostered by language arts learning include appreciating the 
artistry of language, considering others' ideas, thinking strategically in 
approaching a task, reflecting on one's own performance and setting goals. 



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ASSESSMENT - 



Types and 
Purposes 
of Classroom 
Assessment 



Assessment is the systematic effort to determine to what degree of complexity students 
know and understand important aspects of the curriculum, and how well they can 
demonstrate that understanding, skill and knowledge. 

Assessment results inform students, their parents and you, the teacher, about students' 
progress toward short- and long-term goals. Assessment information provides students 
with directions for additional work, review and areas for growth. It indicates what you 
are teaching effectively and what you might wish to change, emphasize or extend. 

Assessment activities fall along a continuum from formative to summative depending 
on the purpose for the activity in relation to students' learning. Formative and 
summative assessment are not mutually exclusive, nor is one "better" than the other. 
They serve related but different purposes. It is important to know the purpose of each 
assessment activity/assignment — formative, formative/summative, summative — 
because that purpose should define the boundaries for the activity, the scoring method, 
and the acceptable use and reliability of the results. 

Formative Assessment 



Formative assessment activities serve as practice or rehearsal for more formal work 
and presentation. For some formative activities, students — singly or in groups — are 
the primary audience. For others, the teacher is the audience. Regardless, these 
activities are designed to help students progress in their learning, understand and 
express their learning processes, see the results of their learning to date, and plan for 
their improvement and growth. 

Assessing Process 

Formative assessments often focus on the processes that students are using as they 
work toward more formal work and understanding. The following are examples of 
formative assessment activities that emphasize processes as well as content. 

Describing thinking and planning sequences while preparing for an oral 
presentation 

Recording group dynamics — strengths and challenges in a group project 

Critiquing the draft of a writing assignment 

Submitting the plan for a major research project 

Developing a work plan for a group project 

Outlining personal learning goals for a particular unit of study 

Reflecting on work completed and work yet to do 

Responding to literature or film in a response journal 

Articulating in a reading record how to understand aspects of complex text 

Keeping viewing logs, reading logs, writing journals 

Maintaining portfolios of work completed. 



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These are examples of important activities that help students control their own learning 
and record their accomplishments and understandings. Such activities are integral to 
instruction and essential to learning. They are, however, means to other ends rather 
than ends in themselves. They are amongst the many ways that students become 
independent, thoughtful and articulate listeners, readers, viewers, speakers and writers. 

Results from Formative Assessment 

As pieces of the assessment puzzle, such formative activities are legitimate and merit 
grading. However, the grading of work in progress or of activities that support final 
goals should be more global than precise, more verbal than numerical, more part of a 
learning plan than of a learning record. 

The results from formative assessments should not have significant weight in final 
grades, report card marks, or grades used for placement or promotion. 

Summative Assessment 

Summative assessment activities serve many of the same functions as formative 
assessments. They show students and teachers how well goals have been achieved and 
provide direction for further work and study even into the next grade or course. 
However, the main purpose of summative assessments is to "sum up" progress to date 
in relation to particular learning outcomes, expectations or goals. 

Performance Assessments 

The other label often applied to assessment activities is performance assessment 
Performance assessments are exactly what the name says — measurements of 
performances. What are some performances in language arts? 

• Writing assignments of all kinds, including essays 

• Oral presentations — reading, readers' theatre, drama productions, speeches, oral 
commentaries 

• Multimedia presentations — videos, films, infomercials, representations, posters, 
collages, models, drawings 

• Concrete representations of complex ideas, concepts or text. 

Assessments, regardless of their place in the continuum, are only "good" if they are 
appropriately and effectively designed to fulfill a specific purpose in furthering 
students' learning. The purpose of the assessment determines its place along the 
continuum. The quality of the assessment — the instructions, the wording of the 
task(s), the clarity, the fairness and appropriateness of scoring — determines its value. 

Most performance assessments in language arts fall into the summative assessment 
band in the continuum. 

If you review the examples above, you will note that these "performances" are 
examples of what language arts teachers expect students to do/present at the end of a 
segment of instruction. Even diploma examinations and achievement tests have a 
major (50%) performance component. 



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Tests, Quizzes and Examinations 

What about tests? Are tests summative or formative? Are tests different from 

performance assessments? 

Tests, depending on their structure and purpose, fit into both formative and 
summative categories. 

For example, a quiz on a homework reading assignment is a formative assessment; its 
purpose is more motivational than instructional, its assessment of curriculum outcomes 
is relatively low, and its assessment of work completed as required is relatively high. 

On the other hand, a midterm examination common to all students in a course is a 
summative assessment. Such a test should be explicitly designed to assess how well 
students are doing with respect to the learning outcomes in the program of studies. 
Such an examination might have a performance component — a writing assignment, a 
response to text question and/or an oral or project component completed prior to the set 
examination period — as well as an "answering specific questions" component; i.e., a 
demonstration of specific skills and knowledge. 

Every question or assignment on a major test or examination must be directly tied to 
learning outcomes and expectations in the program of studies. Source material 
(reading texts, film clips, photographs) must be of a difficulty appropriate to the 
standards and expectations for the course. 

if results have consequences and are reported to students and their parents, it is 
important that all tests/examinations are designed to be valid ways to measure how 
well students are progressing in terms of the program of studies goals for the course. 

Excellent sources of examples and models for designing and scoring such end of 
term/unit/section/course examinations are the Classroom Assessment Materials Project 
(CAMP) materials. There is a set of CAMP materials in every school. Additional 
copies are available for purchase from the Learning Resources Centre. 

The materials that accompany diploma examinations and achievement tests are other 
helpful sources that illustrate how specific questions, assignments and scoring 
categories relate to the outcomes in the program of studies. Look for diploma 
examination or achievement test blueprints, information bulletins and detailed results 
reports on the Alberta Learning Web site at <http://www.learning.gov.ab.ca/ 
k_12/testing>. 

Summative Assessments Other Than Tests or Examinations 

All cumulative work falls into the summative assessment category. An essay about a 
character in a short story or Shakespearean play, a group presentation of a scene from 
Macbeth, a poetry project that includes several components — some oral, some written, 
some visual — a personal essay about travel experiences, a short story, a film or video, 
or a poem might all be summative assessments. 



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Requirements for all Summative Assessments 

Regardless of the kind of task, if the grades count and will have consequences for 
students, the assignment and its scoring are subject to the following constraints of 
summative assessments: 

• Nothing is assessed unless it has been taught.® 

• The task(s) must be connected to learning outcomes in the program of studies. 

• Students must be aware of what is being assessed and what is expected from them. 

• Scoring must be explained in advance. 

• Scoring must be curricularly valid and fair; e.g., If work were to be scored a 
second time by another teacher — or by a group of students if peer evaluation is 
part of the scoring — ask yourself, "Would the assignment receive the same grade? 
Are the scoring categories and criteria in keeping with the expectations in the 
program of studies?" 

Results from Summative Assessments 

The results from summative assessment activities inform students, their parents and 
teachers of areas for more effort as well as areas of accomplishment and success. 
Grades from summative assessments — performances, tests, examinations — should 
constitute the bulk of the grades that go on report cards as information to parents, the 
school and the school district about students' progress. The results of summative 
rather than formative assessments should be the principal basis for report card 
marks or grades used for promotion or placement. 

Consequences 

This reporting function for summative assessments places a great importance on such 
activities and their scoring. When assessment results have consequences for students' 
futures, whether they are the results for the first term report card or the marks on a 
diploma examination, teachers must be able to stand behind those grades. Teachers 
need to be able to show students and their parents that: 

• the assignments and tests included in the grade are instructionally and curricularly 
valid 

• the scoring process is legitimate, transparent and fair 

• there has been sufficient instruction, practice and development to merit assessing 
the skill, knowledge or understanding 

• there is a clearly stated appeal process for marks that is in keeping with the school 
and district policies. 



® "Taught" is meant in the broadest sense. While crucial learning comes from direct instruction, student learning also comes from 
extensive, purposeful and directed interaction and exploration, exposure, discussion and practice. 

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What Does General Principles of Good Assessment 
Good ... 

A . All worthwhile assessment tasks and activities: 

Assessment 



Look Like? 



Are worth your students' and your time and effort 

What additional learning will the assessment activity foster? 
What skills will it reinforce and offer opportunity for practice? 

Relate to instruction and promote further learning 

Have 1 taught students the skills and awareness that the assignment is assessing? 
Do I expect them to already have these skills and this awareness in place? 
How much practice have the students had with these skills and concepts? 
What will they learn from the assessment itself and the assessment process? 

Are tied to learning outcomes in the program of studies 

What do I think the activity is measuring? Does it really measure that? 

What other skills/attitudes/knowledge does it measure? 

What prior knowledge is required? 

Are these appropriate expectations at this point in the course? 

One way to think about this very complex issue is to ask yourself, What skills 
and knowledge do students have to bring to this task in order to do it? " 

Clearly state the requirements 

Do all students know what is expected of them? And why? 

Have 1 worded the assignment (examination question, project instructions) so that 

there is no opportunity for confusion? 

Precise wording for instructions and tasks is crucial. If you state the question or 
task imprecisely, you will find yourself making adjustments after the work is done 
and you have started to evaluate. 

Some excellent ways to get experience in the demanding skill of wording tasks are 
to volunteer to contribute to common assessments in your school and district, to 
participate in workshops arranged by the Alberta Assessment Consortia, or to 
work on diploma examination item development or review committees. 

Have valid, reliable, transparent scoring 

How will the activity be scored? 
For what will it be scored? Why? 
How fair and how reliable is the scoring? 
What are the standards — how good is good enough? 
Are the students familiar with the scoring procedures and criteria? 
Will the students contribute to the scoring; e.g., self-evaluation? 
peer evaluation? If so, what is its weight and purpose? 



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Grades and Learning 

Grading should also contribute to students' further learning. For example, a total score 
for a project becomes more meaningful to a student if it is broken into its components, 
which should be identifiable areas for study and skill development. Such a breakdown, 
accompanied by a commentary or a student-teacher conference that highlights 
successes and specific areas for additional work along with suggestions for how to do 
that work, turns an assessment activity into an integrated learning activity. 

Grading Creative Assignments and Group Work 

If you intend to count the work toward the students' report card marks or include the 
work in a final grade, it must be evaluated. This includes creative work and students' 
contributions to group projects. 

It is as feasible and desirable to demand clarity, thoughtfulness, effective 
communication, and precise, correct language from creative work as it is from the 
more commonplace projects and assignments. The poet has as many obligations as the 
essayist. The multimedia presenter has as much obligation for thoughtful content as 
the research paper writer. You can and should use established criteria combined with 
conferencing and/or commentary to grade creative work just as you would more 
conventional work. The same holds for group work. 

Scoring Categories and Criteria 

Scoring category and scoring criteria are more accurate words for the general word, 

rubric. 

The scoring category is the broad learning construct for which work is to be scored. 
For example, Thought and Detail is a scoring category that would tie directly to 
learning outcome subheading 4. 1 .3 and learning outcome heading 4.2. The quality 
descriptions for the work that is assigned particular scores in Thought and Detail are 
the scoring criteria. A whole set of scoring criteria is a scoring guide. 

A checklist is a checklist, and should not be part of grading. 

It is unnecessary and often counter-productive to attempt to develop scoring 
criteria unique to each task. Task-specific criteria imply to students that there are no 
generalized skills or understandings. They keep students from seeing the conceptual 
and skill links between apparently different tasks, genres and forms. 

Use agreed-upon criteria that accurately describe qualities of work at several levels of 
achievement, and adapt the number of categories for which you score a given 
assignment to the importance of the task and your instructional goals. Scoring 
categories must be linked to the learning outcomes in the program of studies. 

The CAMP materials include sets of scoring criteria developed by Alberta teachers, 
field tested in Alberta classrooms, and revised by teacher markers. There are criteria 
for collaborative projects, oral presentations, readers' theatre, film projects and writing 
assignments — personal response to text as well as analytical response to text. Each set 
of criteria is accompanied with examples of students' work to illustrate the standards — 
including a video that shows the oral projects. All are adaptable to the revised program 
of studies and to other assignments and projects. 



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Types of Questions 

Assessment literature is full of debate about acceptability of "multiple choice 
questions" in various disciplines. It is likely more useful to consider test or assignment 
question type from the perspective of the learning you hope to reinforce through the 
assessment, and the purpose of the assessment. 

It is also more fruitful to describe questioning in terms of what the question asks of the 
student. In that context, questions are selected response, collaborative response or 
constructed response: 

• Selected response questions are those that require students to select either a best or 
correct answer from a list in response to a stem that might be a phrase completion 
or a question. 

Selected response questions are exceptionally difficult and time-consuming to 
develop. Should you need selected response questions for convenience or to give 
students practice with the form, use CAMP questions or questions from 
previously-administered achievement tests or diploma examinations. 

• Collaborative response questions are those that require groups to complete a task. 
See the CAMP materials for examples you can adapt. Don't forget that these tasks 
need exceptionally precise wording if they are going to work and not create 
confusion and frustration for you and/or your students. 

• Constructed response questions are questions or assignments that require students 
to produce their own responses — either short or extended. 

These questions include the full range from short answer quiz questions to 
research paper assignments. Like selected response questions, they will be 
effective only if they are precise and clear. 

If you are looking for precisely worded questions that you can modify to make 
effective constructed response tasks, try adapting selected response stems from 
achievement tests or diploma examinations to suit your purposes. 

The CAMP materials have examples of constructed response questions that you 
can adapt to other materials and situations. 



Standards — 
How Good 
is Good 
Enough? 



The word standards when applied to learning and achievement has three related but 
different applications: achievement standards, explicit standards (sometimes called 
assessment or scoring standards), and implicit standards (sometimes called content 
standards). 

Achievement Standards 

• Achievement Standards — This usage comes from the technical language of testing 
and measurement. It is a pre-set (usually through consultation) expectation for 
performance on a particular test or set of tests. 



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Alberta teachers recognize that the achievement standards set for provincial 
achievement tests and diploma examinations are that at least 85% of the students tested 
will achieve the acceptable standard or better, and 1 5% will achieve the standard of 
excellence. 

The achievement standards provide a bar against which schools and districts can 
interpret their students' overall achievement from one year to the next. Such informed 
discussion is helpful in planning for instruction, resources and professional 
development. 

Explicit Standards (Assessment or Scoring Standards) 

• Explicit Standards (Assessment or Scoring Standards) — These are descriptions of 
what students' work looks like at various levels of achievement. Typically, the 
levels of achievement have consistent labels across domains (scoring categories) 
assessed. 

Scoring Guides 

The explicit standards for writing on the provincial achievement tests and diploma 

examinations are set out in the scoring guides for the various written response 

assignments. (See the provincial achievement test or diploma examination information 

bulletins on the Alberta Learning Web site at <http://www.learning.gov.ab.ca/ 

k_12/testing>.) 

In Alberta, the achievement standards for the provincial testing/diploma examination 
programs are acceptable standard (50% or better in diploma examinations) and 
standard of excellence (80% or better). 

In language arts performance assessments, those two standards are further defined; i.e., 
made explicit, so that the full range of students' performance is captured in the scoring. 
The acceptable standard includes work scored as Satisfactory, Proficient and 
Excellent. Work below the acceptable standard will be scored as Limited or Poor. 
Work at the standard of excellence includes that scored as Proficient and Excellent. 

Examples of Students' Writing 

The Learner Assessment Branch of Alberta Learning provides examples of the explicit 
standards for students' writing. If you are not familiar with the Examples of Students' 
Writing, refer to the Alberta Learning Web site at <http://www.learning.gov.ab.ca/ 
k_12/testing> for the most recent compilations of example papers for English 
Language Arts 9 and for the English Language Arts 30-1 and English Language 
Arts 30-2 Diploma Examinations. 

Several of the authorized basic resources also have annotated samples of student 
writing. 

Examples of Standards for Collaboration and Reading 
The CAMP materials, available from the Learning Resources Centre, are other 
excellent sources of explicit standards. There are Scoring Guides and Examples of 
Students' Responses at each level of achievement for writing, reading and 
collaborative assessment activities. 



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The CAMP materials show explicit standards for ELA 10-1,10-2, 20-1 and 20-2. 
What you should be able to discern is a continuum of expectation that links the 
expectations explicitly expressed in the ELA 9 provincial achievement test Scoring 
Guides and Example papers, through the CAMP materials for the ELA 10 and 20 
courses, to the diploma examination Scoring Guides and Examples of Students' 
Writing. 

Explicit Standards for Reading 

Another source of descriptive explicit standards is the School Achievement Indicators 
Program (SA1P). SA1P is one of the few sources for explicit description of reading. 
The reports of the SA1P reading and writing assessments from 1994 and 1998 are 
available from Alberta Learning and from the Council of Ministers of Education, 
Canada (http://www.cmec.ca). These reports contain the descriptions of levels of 
performance for reading and writing as well as examples of what the levels mean. 

Implicit Standards (Content Standards) 

• Implicit Standards (Content Standards) — These are the expectations inherent in all 
of what students are asked to do. Standards are implicit in the literature students 
are expected to read and discuss, in the questions they are expected to answer, in 
the films they study, in the concepts they are expected to internalize. 

Text and Task Complexity 

What is the appropriate complexity of texts for students to study in each language arts 
course? What is the appropriate complexity of assignment tasks for each course? This 
discussion about implicit standards in course materials and assignments in relation to 
the learning outcomes in the program of studies underlies all of the activities and goals 
you will set for your students. It is the most critical professional discussion for you 
and your colleagues at the school, district and provincial levels. 

Growth in Complexity 

Your discussion of implicit standards will be better informed if you have a clear idea of 
the text complexity teachers have agreed on for the end of students' senior high school 
experience; i.e., the complexity of texts and questions on the ELA 30-1 and ELA 30-2 
Diploma Examinations. This understanding should make it more feasible for you and 
your colleagues to map out the steps and growth students will need to move from 
where they are at the end of Grade 9 to where they need to be by the end of Grade 12. 

Your articulation of implicit standards will assist you in selecting appropriate resources 
for your students, and it will make it possible for you to contribute to the work of the 
Learning and Teaching Resources Branch of Alberta Learning, as resources are 
finalized for the revised program of studies. 

Grade Level Appropriate Standards 

It is critical to have commitment to implicit standards that are grade and course 
level appropriate. Scoring criteria designed for the end of Grade 12, for example, is 
not appropriate for use with Grade 1 students. 

Implicit Standards in CAMP 

The CAMP materials provide examples of implicit standards that are grade and course 

level appropriate and that were established by Alberta teachers. 

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If you look at the reading selections in the CAMP: English 10 resource in comparison 
to those in the CAMP: English 13 resource, and at the kinds of questions and tasks 
asked of students in each, you will see a difference in complexity and expectation. 

The same is true for the collaborative assessments. The film in the English 10 
(EL A 10-1) collaborative assessment is more metaphoric, ironic and intricate than the 
film selected for English 13 (ELA 10-2). Similarly, the collaborative task asked of the 
English 10 students demands more independence and complexity than that asked of the 
English 13 students. 

The CAMP materials will help you make appropriate grade/course level decisions in 
your own context. 

[gg 3 Note: CAMP materials are available in print or CD-ROM format from the Learning 
Resources Centre (Telephone: 780-427-5775; Web site: http://www.lrc. learning. 
gov.ab.ca/). 



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RESPONDING TO TEXT AND CONTEXT 



As students move to senior high school, the texts they interact with and study — print, 
oral, visual and multimedia texts — become increasingly complex. Students are 
expected to be able to make meaning of text not only at a literal level but at 
increasingly inferential and metaphoric levels as well. 

The meaning-making strategies used by proficient readers need to be made "visible" to 
students. Initially, students must understand that constructing meaning from text is a 
participatory rather than passive activity. Meaning is something that must be recreated 
into the understanding of the reader. Meaning emerges as a result of the interaction 
between what the reader brings to the text and what the text creator has provided. 

Secondly, students must recognize that text is embedded in a communication situation, 
a context. A reader attempts to reach an understanding of that context in order for the 
fullest meaning of the text to emerge. If knowledge about the author's "world" — the 
contextual elements that have shaped the text — is not externally provided to assist the 
reader in making meaning, then the reader must engage his or her own prior 
knowledge — experiences, feelings, values, beliefs — in exploring and creating a context 
for understanding the text. This active engagement of prior knowledge is a 
metacognitive function that calls upon an awareness of one's strategic reading 
processes in helping to make meaning. 

Metacognitive awareness is equally important when students make meaning not only 
of literature but of non-literary text as well. In communication situations where text is 
often more utilitarian than aesthetic, students' critical consideration of external context 
elements becomes essential. They must understand that such communication is often 
directly geared to a particular — usually immediate — audience, in a particular time or 
place, and for a particular purpose. Accommodating the immediacy of such contexts 
adds a degree of additional challenge to the meaning making process. Students' 
abilities to call forth the resources to assist them with forming accurate personal 
interpretations will often determine whether and how well they have understood the 
particular communication. 



Skills and 
Attitudes 



Development of the following skills and attitudes helps students to make meaning and 
successfully participate in response-based activities: 

• A capacity for sustained, focused attention on the text. This might mean that, 
depending on the students, a teacher may need to begin the term with shorter, 
somewhat simpler pieces of text in order to engage and hold their attention. As the 
year progresses, and as students demonstrate the ability to sustain their focus, texts 
of increasing length and complexity may be introduced. 



A willingness to postpone closure, perhaps indefinitely. While all readers like to 
believe that they have found the right interpretation or answer, it is important for 
them to understand that such a "right" answer is not always clearly defined. One 
of the frustrations of reading is the feeling of uncertainty over the accuracy of 
one's interpretation. Yet a reader's willingness to entertain problems is also a joy 



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of reading — an expectation that as one continues to read and rethink, a deeper 
understanding will gradually emerge. 

• A tolerance for failure and prolonged ambiguity. Students must be prepared to 
read and perhaps reread a difficult text again and again and to reform and revise 
and occasionally discard their earlier opinions. They must demonstrate a tolerance 
for and come to appreciate the challenge in uncertainty, ambiguity and paradox. 

• A willingness to take risks. Increasingly, students are required to move away from 
simpler, more familiar reading contexts to those that are more complex and less 
familiar — texts are more complicated, thinking is more analytical. At the same 
time, students are expected to move toward greater independence in their 
interactions with text. Within this context, the classroom must be a place where 
students are encouraged to respond with honest comments, to offer variant 
readings of a text, to predict and perhaps be wrong in their predictions — in short, to 
take risks when engaging publicly with a text. 

• Intellectual generosity. Readers bring their own alternative visions to text. It is 
important that students learn to appreciate what others have to share; they must be 
willing to listen closely to others' interpretations, find value in others' opinions, be 
prepared to respond to others' opinions and allow others to influence their opinion. 

Classrooms that maintain an environment in which the above skills and attitudes are 
fostered provide an ideal setting for a culture of response to flourish. Students reflect 
upon their reading, are provided with an opportunity to generate a response, share their 
response and receive feedback, hear others' responses, respond themselves to others' 
responses, and perhaps see the need to revise their own response. 

Responding Response at its most basic engages students in discussion with themselves in answer to 



to Text 



a progression of questions about text — a progression in the style of Bloom's taxonomy 
(1956): 

• What does the text say? 

• What does the text mean? What does the text mean to me, the reader? 

• How does the text say what it means? 

• How well does the text say what it says? 

• How universally significant is the text? 

Teaching can help students come to make sense of text by designing specific reading 
and responding activities for students to engage in at various stages of the reading 
process. The types of activities would be determined by the kinds and genres of texts 
being studied and by the contexts in which the study may occur (Benton and Fox 
1985). 

Pre-reading 

Pre-reading typically includes those activities, often teacher-generated, that prepare 
students for their reading of the text. Such activities help create a receptive context for 
the student in which to construct meaning. 



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When students are reading literature, they should be encouraged to pay attention to the 
ideas, feelings, attitudes and associations that the words, images and allusions evoke. 
Activities that encourage this kind of engagement, where the students live in the world 
they have created by their reading, are appropriate for pre-reading, while requests for 
summaries and deeper analysis of the experienced text should be kept for after reading. 
Activities such as the following increase the likelihood of students engaging more 
actively in the text: 

• exploratory questions or personal or creative writing activities that lead students to 
think about issues raised by the text 

• dictionary or Internet searches of information connected variously to the themes to 
be met in the text 

• provision of historical/biographical information about the author or reference to 
other works by the author. 

Many English language arts teachers structure their programs around themed units of 
study. This approach serves many purposes, one of which is to provide an ongoing 
and developing context for extended literature study. A new understanding about one 
piece of literature lays a foundation for studying the next piece. As students then 
engage with additional texts within the theme, they continue to construct for 
themselves an ever-expanding context for their understanding of each subsequent text. 
Every new text, once internalized, becomes part of their prior knowledge. In this way, 
students' need for external, teacher-generated pre-reading activities becomes lessened. 
Independence is fostered. 

Reading 

The context for students' reading of text depends upon the students' and/or teacher's 
purpose for studying that particular text. Consideration is given to the nature of the 
students in the class, the numbers and kinds of texts being read, the complexity of the 
texts, the availability of individual access to the texts, the level of interest demonstrated 
by the students, the desire for variety in approaches to text study, and other factors of 
pedagogy. Students may read orally or silently, individually or in groups, at home or 
in school, in one sitting or over several sittings, once only or repeatedly. The particular 
approach to experiencing the text will be determined in relation to the purpose for text 
study. 

Responding Personally, Critically and Creatively 

Throughout senior high school, students are developing their ability to independently 
construct meaning from increasingly complex texts. To reach the required level of 
competence, students need to sharpen their skills in a constructive and reassuring 
environment: they must be encouraged to engage in their own exploratory response 
activity, and they must be provided with ongoing opportunities to see and hear many 
and varied models of good response. 

• Personal response is the using of one's own lived experience and prior knowledge 
to provide a bridge into the new experience of the text — forging connections 
between one's own world and the text's imagined or created world. Personal 
response activities help students "live" the text and make it their own; therefore, 
students need to be able to respond in a variety of ways individually and in groups, 

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in writing and orally and visually, including such "creative" activities as drama and 
art. Once students have experienced the text through reading and personal 
response, it is what Rosenblatt (1995) refers to as the "experienced" work that is 
analyzed and criticized. 

• Analytical/critical response is an examination of the validity of the content of the 
text and of the ways in which the language, imagery, form and organizational 
structure of that text serve the content and context. This larger examination is 
linked to student personal response to extend understanding. 

• Creative response is used here to mean a transference of the meanings and 
concepts that lie at the heart of the text into extended or different contexts — 
different characters, different settings, different genres, different forms of text, and 
so on. It is often desirable to permit students to bring their aesthetic selves to their 
exploration of their understanding of text, to have the students move beyond the 
bounds of the text as is to the text as it might be. Based upon their demonstrated 
comprehension and analysis of the text, students would be invited to create an 
extension of the text, engaging their understanding at a synthetic level. This might 
include activities such as presenting a readers' theatre, creating a poster or collage, 
interviewing or writing to (or as) a character or an author, adding a chapter to the 
end of a novel, dramatizing a story or poem, preparing a music sound track, or 
filming. Most student textbooks and teacher guides suggest many such creative 
response activities appropriate to particular texts and contexts of study. 



Responding 
to Context 



Responding to context includes analyzing the context in which the text is created, the 
context in which the characters exist and the context in which the reader exists. 
Students can ask questions such as the following® while reading and responding: 

• Who created this? In what context? With what values? In whose interests? To 
what effect? 

• How do the setting and relationships with other characters affect a character's way 
of acting and responding? 

• What do 1 bring to the text that causes me to respond as I do? 

• How am I influenced by language and society to respond as I do? 

• How am I being positioned by the author and my culture, to respond as 1 do? 

Responding to context can also include activities where the student responds to the 
situation in which the text was created or for which the text was created, such as 
writing in role to consider the different contexts in which various people respond to 
issues raised by texts. For example, students could write or create a scene about 
poverty from the point of view of the homeless, labour leaders and business leaders. 

P^ 3 See Appendix A, p. 380, for a sample of a student response to text and context. 



From Thompson 1 993, p. 153, cited in Bruce Pirie, Reshaping High School English. 



34/ Responding to Text and Context 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



One Approach 
to Response- 
based Study 



This approach provides response activities designed to help students interpret and 
extend their understanding, after they have initially experienced the text. The diagram 
below provides an overview of this approach. 



The core of the text 

What is the key idea that the 
author wants to convey? 

Support with reference to 
specific details from the text. 




Reading 'beyond"the text 

Evaluate the author's ideas. 
Do you agree with the author? 
Why or why not? 

Arrive at a general insight about life. 



Personal connection 

between 

The key idea in the text 

and 

An incident from one's 
own experience, either 
lived or vicarious. 



Through this approach, students are encouraged to practise increasing independence in 
generating personal and critical/analytical responses rather than expecting a teacher to 
initiate, through questioning, all student response activity. 

The approach encourages students to explore their understanding of text while they 
read. Students reflect on what they have read, then record their thoughts and begin to 
shape those thoughts; they learn as they write their response. Putting pen to paper 
allows them to "hold" thoughts, to give them some form of permanence so that they 
can be revisited, reflected upon further, and perhaps revised. 

Because exploratory thinking is recursive rather than linear, the sense of what students 
write may not be initially coherent. This is due in part to the fact that responses 
change, even as they are being written. New thinking emerges, and occasionally it 
contradicts earlier thinking. 

This spontaneity in writing as students explore their thinking needs to be accepted by 
the teacher for what it is: exploratory writing. For this reason, it should not have the 
same expectations placed upon it as does revised and polished writing, especially in 
terms of matters of correctness. Response should be understood as a receptive rather 
than expressive activity, as reading rather than writing. The context of any response 
process is rather limited — the purpose of response is to make meaning, and its primary 
audience is the meaning-maker, the student. 

This process might best be applied initially as a written response process. A written 
response allows student responders the opportunity to hold their thoughts on paper 
initially, and then to revisit them and to either firm them up or to modify or even reject 
them. At the same time, a written response provides teachers with the opportunity to 
actually see their students' thinking as it has evolved and to comment on the direction 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Responding to Text and Context /35 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



and strength of the thinking. Finally, written responses offer classmates a variety of 
models of others' thinking and meaning-making strategies from which they can take 
direction for themselves. 

The Core of the Text 

Students identify what they believe to be the key idea(s) that the author develops. 

They do not simply retell what is already written. Instead, they ask themselves 
questions about why the text unfolds as it does: what has been the author's intent in 
creating the text? Students then attempt to suggest likely answers. They do so by 
identifying any number of textual details — specific passages that deal with elements of 
character or setting or plot, key images or symbols, ironies, the speaker's perspective, 
or any other elements thought to be of significance. Students examine the details to 
discover how they contribute to the expression of the author's main idea. 

There are several ways that students can begin to explore the text. They might ask 
themselves and attempt to answer questions regarding what "strikes" them about the 
text — what attracts their attention. Is it: 

• the author's point of view or tone? 

• a description of a particular incident or event? 

• a conflict? an irony? 

• a character? 

• the character's motivation or reaction? 

• an epiphany the character experiences, or a resolution the character realizes? 

• a mood that the text creates? a powerful image? 

• a feeling or emotion that the text evokes in the reader? And might that emotion, or 
the cause of that emotion, point to the idea that the author develops? 

Students should refer to actual passages in the text — to lines, phrases and even words 
that have attracted their attention. In what ways do these passages affect or direct their 
understanding of the whole text? 

Personal Connection 

Here, the students make a connection between their lived experience and the 
author's idea as identified in the first part of the response. What does the text say to 
them personally? 

Students identify a specific incident in their own life that helps them interpret the 
experience of the text. How does the one experience help them to interpret, or to 
better understand, or to more fully appreciate the significance of the other? 

The students are not expected to have experienced an event similar to the event 
described in the story. For example, the story may be set during the second world war; 
within that context, the ideas the author develops may be related to the courage shown 
by a character in a difficult situation. Relatively few Canadian students will have 
experienced war directly, but all will have been witness to acts of courage; the situation 
or degree may differ, but the concept of courage is the same. 



36/ Responding to Text and Context Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Students, in this case, would then be asked to describe a situation in which they 
witnessed or experienced a demonstration of courage. They would be expected to 
discuss how their experience helps them to better understand the author's idea in the 
text. 

There may be occasions when the idea the author writes about has not been a part of 
the student's personal lived or remembered experience. In such instances, students 
would be encouraged to go beyond just their own experience to that of people close to 
them — their siblings, parents or grandparents, or more distant relatives, or even beyond 
their family to their neighbours or friends. Perhaps they might relate to vicarious 
rather than lived experience — to a book they have read or a film they have seen, or to 
art, music or other human expression. 

Taking a different perspective, it may be that the experiences they select to write about 
demonstrate the antithesis of the author's idea. They may choose to relate a time when 
someone did not act courageously, and they may connect to the author's idea through 
inverse example. Either way, the purpose of their personal connection is to have them 
offer another perspective, another way to interpret and to attempt to understand the 
ideas at the heart of the text and the impact the ideas can have on their lives. 

Reading "Beyond" the Text 

Finally, students are asked to generalize beyond the text. 

After attempting to personalize the ideas of the author, they are now asked to move 
outside themselves — to address the ideas at a universal level. In what way do the 
author's ideas reflect on the world today? Are the issues identified as being at the core 
of the text important, not only to the author and to the student who has responded but 
to all people? And if so, in what way are they important? What makes the issues 
universal? How do the author's ideas shed light on the human condition? Do students 
accept that view? Can direction be taken from the author's ideas? 

Never is it suggested that students must accept the author's perspective. In this section 
of the response, students identify their own points of view regarding the issues; and if 
they disagree with the ideas of the author, they are free to challenge what he or she has 
said. 

Revisiting the Text 

On occasion, students are requested, or they may themselves choose, to complete a 
second look response. The purpose of the second look is for them to take themselves 
deeper into the text than they did in their first response. 

Following classroom discussion, students may feel that their responses are either 
incomplete or inadequate. Perhaps they have missed a key idea that, following 
discussion, they have come to appreciate as significant. Or it may be that while their 
"reading" of the text has been basically sound, they have omitted identifying a key 
detail from the text that would more strongly support their contention. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts Responding to Text and Context /37 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



Always, students are encouraged to return to the text, to reread and to add to what they 
have already written in their response. They are not to restate what they have already 
said but to go beyond their initial response. 

it is understood that students' second look responses are a product of the interaction of 
their own thinking and that of others in the response community. 



Sharing 
Responses 



Once students have taken time to reflect upon the implications of the text they have 
read, to pull their thoughts together and to shape them into a relatively coherent whole, 
they will be ready to share the product of their reflection, ready to "come to the 
classroom table." 



The sharing of responses can be conducted in whatever manner the teacher deems best. 

• The teacher might ask students to volunteer to read their written responses aloud to 
the class. 

• Students might share with a partner by reading their responses orally to one 
another or by exchanging journals. 

• The teacher might ask to have students share in small groups. From each small 
group, one entry might be selected to be shared with the class as a whole. 

• A small group might be asked to identify two responses that offer different or even 
conflicting viewpoints, and these two views could be shared with the class. 

• Following the collecting and marking of responses, the teacher may select a small 
number of stronger models to share orally with the rest of the class. 

Early in the school year, or with classes of particularly reticent students, the teacher 
may prefer to select a smaller number of responses and to read them aloud on behalf of 
the students. Over time, as these students become more used to hearing one another's 
shared work, and as their own responses become validated, they can be expected to 
volunteer to share responses openly with the rest of the class. As students respond 
with increasing candour, there may be occasions when they request that the second part 
of their response — the personal connection — not be shared in the open classroom. 

Purpose of Sharing 

Having students share written responses orally serves many purposes. As already 
mentioned, it provides an effective starting point for discussion, and it does so without 
the teacher unnecessarily determining the direction of that discussion. This is 
significant. When students come to expect the teacher to always ask the questions — 
even open-ended questions — as a starting point for response, there is a danger that 
those students who may initially struggle in their understanding of the text will 
perceive the teacher's questions as an indication of where the right answer must be 
found. By not being given such direction, students will need to adapt their reading 
patterns to help them search out their own direction. While they may flounder early 
on, they will increasingly come to the text looking to make meaning for themselves 
rather than relying upon the teacher's help. Confidence in themselves as effective 
readers will emerge. 



38/ Responding to Text and Context 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Role of the Teacher 

When students initiate discussion by responding to what they see to be the author's 
main idea, the teacher is quickly able to ascertain the levels of students' reading 
comprehension. If the text has been poorly read, the teacher should then identify the 
cause of the problem and, as necessary, teach to the issues that were missed. The 
teacher may at this point need to use diagnostic tools, such as the Basic Reading 
Inventory: Pre-Primer through Grade Twelve and Early Literacy Assessments 
(available through the Learning Resources Centre), to provide further 
information. Where the text has been better understood, the teacher may need only to 
supplement understandings with bits of information or explanation. In ideal 
circumstances, the teacher's role will be to simply monitor the discussion, perhaps 
participating only as one of the group. For students, the obvious benefit of self- 
directed response is that they can speak in an original voice about their own 
observations and understandings. When they arrive at the discussion table, they have 
already done their own thinking and are prepared with insights to share. 

Benefits of Sharing 

A benefit of the oral sharing process is that students engage in meaningful 
collaboration. 

As well, students develop an awareness that not everyone need come away from the 
same text with an identical reading. Different readers bring different prior knowledge 
to the text and may leave with somewhat differing interpretations. While core meaning 
remains the same, one reader may see one aspect of the author's idea as important 
while another reader may perceive an alternative emphasis. 

A final benefit to students is similarly metacognitive, in that they are provided with 
varied models of comprehension strategies. They see and hear how other readers 
arrive at understanding, and they come to realize that ways to make meaning of text do 
vary. Often, students will experiment with others' reading strategies and in doing so 
will expand their own repertoires. As personal responses are shared, the response 
process becomes more collaborative. 



ReSDOnSG- While students often use print text, such as journals, to respond to other print text, they 

ha«5pH I e*arn\nn ma ^ a " so use v ^ sua ^ or ora ^ me a n s, or they may use print to respond to oral or visual 

" text. Often, the text the students are reading dictates the form and the composition of 

Activities the students' response. 

Writing Poetry as Response (2.3.1 10-la, b, c, d; l0-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d; 
20-2a, b, d) 

When students respond to literature that strongly engages their emotions, it might be 
appropriate to give them the opportunity to make a personal connection, through 
writing poetic text rather than prose. Responding in verse can remove from students 
some of the usual constraints they expressively expect in other forms, and it enables 
them to focus their memory of an incident on their feelings and their emotions at the 
time. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Responding to Text and Context /39 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



f 



Mind Maps as Visual Response (2.3.1 10-la, b, c; l0-2a, b, c, d; 20-Ja, b, c, d; 
20-2a, b, d) 

A mind map is a visual text constructed as a response to another, usually print, text. 
Like the written response, a mind map conveys a student's understanding of the 
author's controlling idea through a thoughtful selection and careful placement of visual 
representations onto a page. Each visual element in the mind map should show a 
supporting detail from the text that points to the author's idea. 

Students might begin by imagining a collage, a scattered collection of images about a 
single theme in the text. What images come to mind? The title? Characters? 
incidents? Settings? Dominant symbols? Significant literary or rhetorical devices? 
Students then arrange these images on the page in a way that most strongly conveys 
their understanding of the author's idea. 

Students might provide a brief written accompaniment explaining content and 
organization — why they selected the images they did and why they were placed on the 
page as they were. As well, students might be asked to explain their mind maps orally 
to their classmates. Their explanations would ensure that the teacher has not missed 
what the students were attempting to say in their response. 

Note: The first two assessment outcome criteria of the response assessment rubric on 
page 399 are appropriate for evaluating students' work. 

The following sample mind map is based on the short story "Saturday Climbing," by 
W. D. Valgardson, which can be found in Imprints 11: Short Stories, Poetry, Essays, 
Media. See pages 158-159 for more information on mind maps. 



40/ Responding to Text and Context Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



SATURDAY CLIMBING 







Acceptance 

Moira leading 
Barry following 



1 

"her father . . . determined to give her all the slack she needed while at the 
same time ... ready to lock shut, ready to absorb the shock of any fall" 



independence 

want to lead this pitch.' 



competence 

"He had the distinct feeling he'd 
been checkmated." 



V 



«fc 



understanding 



equality 

"they sat side by side" oi ^ "Let us go back the way we came and find 
^*yS * somewhere that'll always be safe ... he 
knew that it was impossible" 



\ 



r 



learning 

"She paused to pull loose the chock nuts , 

and pitons her father had left behind ... 

since they would be needed later ..." 



realization 

"The chock nut, the wire loop, the carabineer, the rope, 
fragile as they looked would hold ten times his weight" 



letting go 

"Barry could not help and had to leave 



r 



separation 



"She deviated from the route her 
father had taken." 



\ 




"The caged bird 

proves nothing but 

the power of the 

captor" 




T 



overreaction 

"Good girls," he said, ... "don't stay out all night" 



r 



rebellion 

"She had come home late a number of times . . . 
the sweet-sour smell of marijuana clung to her." 



overprotection 

"he had been trying to keep her from rushing head 
long into taking on too much responsibility" 



\ 



/ 



testing 

"She had wanted to go to an all-night 
party with a boy ..." 



fear 

'!p j "he was acutely aware of how 
tenuous her life was" 




Dependence 

Barry leading 
Moira following 




"Ever since his wife had left him he had tried to compensate 
by providing unhesitating leadership for his daughter" 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Responding to Text and Context /4 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



4^fc Oral Interpretation as Response to Poetry (2.3.1 10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 
20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

For this activity, students are placed into collaborative groups of four. Each group is 
given a poem that they will "teach" to the class. The teaching of the poem will take a 
specific four-part presentational approach. The members of the group must collaborate 
closely, as all four parts of the presentation are closely interconnected. Two group 
members are readers, one is the responder and one is the explainer. 

The response takes the following approach: 

1 . First reading: The First group member performs an opening reading of the poem 
for the class. The performance of this reading has been determined by the group. 
The group must consider the following performance aspects: volume, intonation, 
pacing; points of emphasis; body language and eye contact with the audience; 
mood setting in the classroom environment; additional performance aids, such as 
music or smoke; and any other effects that help listeners in reaching a more 
complete understanding of the content of the poem. 

2. Critical/ Analytical response: This group member follows the initial reading of the 
poem with a prepared response to the content of the poem. The response would 
contain only Part 1 of a usual response. All group members have discussed the 
poem and have agreed on the interpretation that is to be shared with the class. The 
preceding reading has been constructed based upon the group members' agreed- 
upon understanding of the poem. While an accepted tenet of response is that not 
all people arrive at the same understanding of a given text, in this instance some 
consensus must be reached. 

3. Explanation: This member provides a detailed description of and rationale for the 
interpretive reading of the poem. In essence, this person breaks down the oral 
interpretation, explaining not only the what of the reading — line by line if 
necessary — but also the why. The reading is regarded as an artifact; the explainer 
describes the way that the reading has been constructed to aid the listener in 
reaching the understanding described in the earlier response. 

4. Second reading: This member closes the performance by replicating the earlier 
reading. The two readings should sound virtually identical. The audience's 
understanding of the poem should be deepened by the response that was shared. 
The audience should also hear in this performance the explanation provided by the 
previous group member. 

Oral interpretations can be presented periodically throughout the term. The assessment 
rubric can provide formative direction, leading students toward increasingly proficient 
demonstrations. Because a group's complete performance is the response, the oral 
interpretation activity as a whole can be assessed using just the second assessment 
outcome of the response rubric. When a summative breakdown of the four parts is 
preferred, a performance scoring guide can be designed to accommodate the readings, 
the explanation of the readings and the response element. 



42/ Responding to Text and Context Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Found Poem/Collage: Intertextuality as Response (2.3.1 10-la, b, c, d; l0-2a, b, 
c, d; 20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

This response activity is particularly appropriate following the reading of a narrative 
text that is highly emotive and/or where descriptive passages are sensuous and vivid. 
It is best suited to print text. Aural text would serve only if students were able to 
revisit it; e.g., audiocassette. Visual response to visual text would not be 
recommended. 

The activity is designed to be completed in two steps. While it can end at the 
conclusion of only the first step, the full effect is achieved when students move to the 
second. Students are not informed of Step 2 until they have completed Step 1 . 

Step 1: Students capture the thematic and emotional experience of the original 
narrative in the reconstructed form of a found poem. The intent is to extract the 
essence of the original text using details of language and imagery that most strongly 
convey that essence. It is not a concern if the narrative details of the original become 
secondary, or even lost, to its ideas. It is the basic theme and the emotive quality of the 
literature that must survive. 

In writing their found poem, students must use the author's own language. They begin 
by extracting specific passages — words, phrases, lines — of the original and 
restructuring them into the form of a free verse poem. The language of the extracted 
passages must remain verbatim — students may use only the author's words and are not 
permitted to add any of their own. However, the extractions may be reconfigured into 
an order that deviates from the original text. Students may even repeat certain 
passages if doing so helps them to retain the core meaning. Essentially, the poem must 
develop the author's controlling idea through its effective sequencing and emphatic 
highlighting of original words and images. 

The found poem which follows is based on "Harrison Bergeron," by Kurt Vennegut 
Jr., which can be found in Inside Stories II, 2nd Edition. 

The Dark Ages 

Everybody competing 

Taking unfair advantage of their brains 

Finally equal 

Nobody stronger 

Nobody quicker 

Nobody smarter 

Perfectly average intelligence 

Couldn't think about anything 

The Dark Ages 

Step 2: Upon completion of their found poem, students construct a collage of visual 
images that will visually recreate the text of the found poem. Students must translate 
print into visual form. The visual representation must complement, perhaps even 
parallel, the text of the poem in as many ways as possible. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts Responding to Text and Context /43 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



There are many factors to be considered if the collage is to effectively capture the 
content of the poem: 

• How does the placement of images on the page complement the sequence of 
images in the poem? 

• Where will the viewer's eyes travel first? What will be the dominant image on the 
page? How will that dominance be expressed? 

• What is the intended progression that the viewer's eyes should follow? How will 
such a movement be suggested? 

• Are certain images purposely juxtaposed? Is the juxtapositioning intended to 
convey similarity or congruence, or is it for purposes of contrast? How will that 
similarity or contrast be indicated? 

• Are images coloured or black and white? Which convey the emotional setting — 
the mood — of the poem more strongly? Might a combination of both black and 
white and colour be effective? 

• If colour is to be used, which colours? Would certain colours carry symbolic 
importance? Might changes in colours convey a shift in meaning or in mood? 

In the same way that the found poem captures the essence of the original narrative 
without simply retelling the story, the collage should capture the essence of the poem. 
The three pieces — original narrative, poem and collage — use different forms of text to 
convey similar meanings, impressions or understandings. 

Character Mapping as Response (2.3.1 10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d; 
20-2a, b, c, d) 

This activity is particularly useful in response to students' initial reading of texts which 
involve a number of characters, such as Shakespearean plays. It serves as an effective 
starting point for discussion about character — motivation, development, conflict, 
contrast. 

The purpose of a character map is to have students provide a knowledgeable 
interpretation of the play through their sense of the relationships between and among 
characters. Characters are juxtaposed, paralleled, opposed, grouped or separated 
depending upon the influence their words and actions have upon one another, either 
directiy or indirectly. While it is recognized that relationships may change over the 
course of the story, it is at the play's completion that readers finally see the big picture. 
It is with this complete information that a character map is created. 

Students do the following: 

1 . Incorporate all the major characters. Include any minor characters who influence 
the thoughts or actions of one or more of the major characters. 

2. Place each character's name on the page only once. 

3. Relative proximity should suggest closeness or distance of relationship. Colour 
may also be used for this purpose. 

4. As required, lines, either solid or dotted or both, and arrows may be used to stress 
relationships or conflicts. Lines may also be meaningfully coloured. 

44/ Responding to Text and Context Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

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5. Included with each character's name is a line from the text that best exemplifies 
that character's personality or motivation or impact. Students should be prepared 
to justify their selection of text. 

While the map should speak for itself, students might also be asked to include with 
their map a statement of their reasons for placing the characters as they have. This 
statement would be shared as they are presenting their maps to the class. 

Criticism as Response: Critique the Critic (2.3.1 10-la, b, c, d; l0-2a, b, c, d; 
20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

This activity is better suited to students who have become familiar and comfortable 
with the requirements of response. For this reason, it might be better undertaken later 
in the school term. 

Following the reading of a relatively major piece of literature — novel, film, play, 
Shakespearean play — students are either given a prepared criticism of one thematic or 
stylistic element of that literature or they are asked to conduct a search for published 
criticism about the literature. If students are searching out their own, the critical text 
they select should be shorter rather than longer — a maximum of perhaps two pages — 
and relatively self-contained. It may be excerpted from a longer piece of criticism or it 
may be complete. The text may be photocopied from a book or it may be downloaded 
from an Internet source. Either way, it should be appropriately referenced. 

Students are required to complete two tasks: 

• First, they are asked to precis the text. They objectively retell in summary form 
the ideas that the critical text communicates. They demonstrate a literal 
comprehension of the critic's text. 

• Following tne retelling, they respond to the criticism — they critique the critic. As 
they have already communicated their understanding of the critic's ideas, their 
response moves now to an evaluative level. Do they agree with the critic's 
interpretation of the literature? Do they agree with his or her views regarding the 
author's intent. Do they agree with the critic that the author has or has not been 
successful in achieving that intent? In responding to the critic, students are asked 
to demonstrate their understanding of not only the criticism but also the original 
literature. In essence, they are being asked to respond to two texts simultaneously. 
Their own understanding of the literature will precipitate either agreement or 
disagreement with the critic. Their reaction to the ideas of the critic will have 
been formed, and will need to be justified, by their understanding of the literature. 

/^V Small-group Discussion as Response (2.3.1 10-la, b, c, d; l0-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, 
d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

The following activity, adapted from Patrick Dias (1995, pp. 18-23), offers an 
approach that is particularly useful when dealing with the study of poems that students 
find ambiguous or perplexing. The highly structured activity is completed in three 
stages, moving from individual reading to multiple small groups and finally to the full 
class setting. The teacher begins as facilitator of the process but then during the 
second stage becomes a participant of one of the small groups in the classroom. By 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Responding to Text and Context /45 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



becoming a real participant, the teacher demonstrates the genuineness of the meaning- 
making process: 

Having to admit that poems cannot always be pinned down or 'solved,' 
even by us, may be disconcerting for us and for our students. It can also 
be a releasing discovery, a means of showing that teachers have as much 
right to be puzzled by a poem as any other human being and that poems 
have rights of ambiguity and inexhaustibility like any other artistic 
venture (Hayhoe 1984, p. 43). 

Responding-aloud Protocol: The time allotment for the complete activity is 
approximately 45-60 minutes. For purposes of the "jotting around" activity, it is 
necessary that individual copies of the poem to be read are reproduced and distributed. 
Students should gather in small groups of 4 to 6. 

Stage 1: 

1 . Each group selects a reporter who will act as chairperson for the group's 
discussion during that block. 

2. The teacher reads the poem aloud to the entire class. One student in each small 
group then reads the poem to his or her group. 

3. Following the second reading, students are provided 10 minutes to independently 
"jot around the poem." They underline, circle, connect, write in, and briefly note 
observations, questions and gut reactions, anything and everything about the poem 
that attracts their attention. 

4. During this time, the teacher invites inquiries about meanings of unfamiliar words 
or obscure allusions — references that the writer of the poem would expect the 
knowledgeable reader to understand. The teacher will answer questions but 
without suggesting an interpretation of the poem. Where possible, the teacher will 
invite other students to answer. 

Stage 2: 

1 . Once again, one student in each group — different from the first — reads the poem 
aloud to his or her group. 

2. After the poem is read, each student in rum responds with an initial reaction — an 
observation, insight, question, confusion, speculation, emotional reaction or any 
other such comment. These are expressed without others in the group remarking 
until all have shared. It is important that the group initially accept all possibilities 
of interpretation. 

3. Free discussion follows. Students may respond to one another's comments as well 
as share additional insights in their endeavour to arrive at meaning. While 
discussion continues, students add to their "jottings" around their poem. 

This stage should continue for approximately 20 minutes. If it appears that 
discussion has bogged down, students should be directed to return to the text and 
to read a line at a time, commenting as they go along. This requires them to 
examine more closely what is and is not there in the text. 



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4. This stage ends with yet another student in each group reading the poem aloud, in 
light of new understandings as they have emerged from discussion. 

Stage 3: 

1 . The reporters from all the groups gather as a new group in the middle of the 
classroom, with the rest of the class around them. 

2. Each reporter in turn shares a brief summary of his or her group's discussion. 
Rather than each repeating what others have already said, they are asked to build 
upon previous comments, adding insights not previously stated. They may even 
disagree with previous comments or interpretations. 

3. Once again, as before, free discussion follows. Reporters may turn to their groups 
for assistance. The teacher, while not a member of the recorders' group, may 
interject with questions that he or she feels still need to be raised. 

At the conclusion of the activity, students should be left with the feeling that they have 
within themselves the resources to arrive at the sense of the poem. 

Suggestions The purpose of assessment is to heighten students' awareness of their own learning. 



for 
Assessment 



Often, the teacher provides students with feedback regarding their demonstrations of 
learning, relative to their own growth in their abilities as readers, listeners and viewers 
as well as to the outcome standards that are expected of senior high school students. In 
order to satisfy both requirements, teacher assessment of student response should be 
formative as well as summative. 

At other times, classmates will provide assessment feedback. Increasingly, the 
students themselves will come to assess the nature and quality of their responses. It is 
then that students can be prompted to turn to the second look response as a vehicle for 
revision. 

Teachers reply to students' personal and critical/analytical responses either orally 
during class discussion or in writing when students' journals are collected for 
evaluation. Teachers engage students in an authentic dialogue about the text, whereby 
teachers share their own ideas and responses as well as react to those of the students. 

Teachers might consider the following: 

• Respond to students' questions or to their revelations of confusion by providing 
information or direction as necessary. Assist the students to make sense of the text 
by modelling the process of extracting information from text; e.g., inferring, 
backward referencing. 

• Develop students' awareness of reading strategies by explaining those strategies; 
e.g., prediction, where appropriate. Encourage students to apply such strategies in 
the future. 

• Develop students' awareness of literary techniques and how knowledge of those 
techniques could serve in helping students make meaning of text. What is it that 
makes a text effective? What should students be expecting of text in their reading? 
Which techniques might students transfer to their own writing? 

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• 



• 



Model a process of elaborating on initial thinking by building upon students' own 
thoughts. Extend students' thinking through questioning; e.g., What seemed to be 
motivating the character to say that? Why might the author have chosen that 
particular image? 

Challenge students to think in new ways. While honouring their stated responses, 
broaden and deepen their understandings of text by providing them with new or 
additional perspectives on issues they themselves have raised but not developed. 

P^ 3 The assessment guide in appendix B, p. 399, should prove useful in providing students 
with feedback about the quality of their responses. The guide incorporates four 
assessment criteria. The four may be used independently of one another or they may 
be combined, depending upon the teacher's instructional objectives at the time. 

While the scoring guide serves the teacher in a summative capacity, it can also serve 
both students and teachers more formatively, in a direction-giving capacity. For this to 
take effect, the scoring guide should be shared with students at the time of the first 
response assignment; and it could remain in place for the entire term, used either in 
whole or in part for most response assignments. It is anticipated that over time the 
assessment criteria and standards will become internalized by the students. Ideally, the 
external criteria of the scoring guide will help students establish personal standards that 
will direct their commitment to and ability in response. They will cultivate the tools to 
assess their own work as they engage in it. 

The assessment criteria can serve students through all levels of senior high school. 
Differences in standards applied to students' responses among English language arts 
courses over the three grades would be determined largely by the differences in the 
complexity of the texts studied and in students' developing abilities to demonstrate 
their understanding of increasingly complex text. 



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USING FILM IN THE CLASSROOM - 



The Program of Studies for Senior High School English Language Arts, Interim 2002, 
includes feature film in the minimum requirements for text study. Study of feature 
film is required in ELA 10-1 and ELA 10-2 and is listed as a choice in ELA 20-1 and 
ELA 20-2 along with book-length nonfiction. Feature films can include both 
documentaries and movies and can be dealt with in different ways, from viewing the 
entire film in class or a theatre to viewing clips of films. 

ChOOSi nQ Alberta Learning does not presently have a list of films authorized for Alberta 



Films 



classrooms. Teachers and schools may choose films based on local approval. 
Annotated lists of films are available from sources such as the following: 



• 



• 



Reel Conversations: Reading Films with Young Adults, by Alan Teasley and Ann 
Wilder. Available from the Learning Resources Centre. In addition to an 
annotated list of films, this resource provides ideas on teaching film, including a 
viewers response approach. 

The Internet Movie Database. Available at <http://us.imdb.com/top_250_films>. 
This Web site contains a list of 250 films with a plot outline, genre, cast and 
credits, user comments and recommendations for similar films. A trailer is also 
available for viewing. 

• Canadian Review of Materials. Available at <http://www.umanitoba.ca/cm/ 
videos. html>. This Web site provides a list of video reviews of Canadian 
materials. 

Other Web sites, such as the Media Awareness Network at <http://www.media- 
awareness.ca/eng> and the Jesuit Communication Project at <http://interact.uoregon. 
edu/MediaLit/JCP/>, provide a wealth of ideas for using film and other media. 

In choosing films for classroom study, teachers, schools and/or school jurisdictions 
need to consider how well the film will help students meet the outcomes, but they must 
also consider the quality of the film, appeal and appropriateness for students, 
community standards, copyright concerns, cost and availability. 

CSf^ Appendix A, pp. 373-376, contains a film assessment tool that outlines key 
considerations in selecting films for classroom use. 

Because students must become critical viewers of nonprint media, the films chosen for 
classroom study often deal with sensitive issues. Therefore, care must be taken both in 
the choice of films and in the kinds of learning activities that are planned around the 
films. 

Pages 63 to 68 provide further guidance in choosing resources and dealing with 
sensitive issues. 



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Copyright 



D^ 



Home video and DVD are not cleared for public screenings. Teachers and schools 
must observe copyright laws which state that public performances require a fee to be 
paid to the copyright holder, even if no admission is charged to the audience. Schools 
can pay a nominal fee to cover all videos used during a school year. Please contact 
the Visual Education Centre at 1-800-668-0749 and/or Audio-Cine Films Inc. at 
1-800-289-8887 for information and rates. 



A Word 
about Ratings 



D^ 



Ratings can be confusing because there are different ratings given to films depending 
on the context in which they are shown. Alberta's Film Classification Board views 
and classifies films that are shown publicly in Alberta and attaches age-appropriate 
ratings and advisories to each publicly-screened film, video and DVD. Since showing 
a movie in a classroom is deemed a public performance, Alberta classification ratings 
must be observed. Teachers are strongly advised to preview any movie before 
showing it to students. A chart that gives public screening ratings for Alberta and 
compares them to the American ratings, which are often printed on packages and 
posters, can be found in Appendix A, p. 377. 



Teaching 
Film 



'It is only through an understanding of the structure of a medium 
that one can gain real access to its message." 

- Frank Zingrone, The Media Simplex 



Movies produce an emotional response in audiences. We can be amused, frightened, 
excited; we can experience sorrow, pity, tension, patriotism, revulsion. In fact, any 
human emotion can be induced by a well-made film. Many movies are designed to 
pull the audience into the story — to identify strongly with, or at least to care about, the 
central character — to provide audiences with a vicarious experience in an "other 
world," and above all, to make audiences forget they are watching a movie. Audiences 
are influenced to react to situations and conditions; to believe in the veracity of events; 
to accept the ideas and ideals promoted in the film; and to adopt values, interpretations 
and perspectives. An audience can even be persuaded to buy products that are placed 
in scenes, especially when these products are seen as contributing to the enjoyment, 
relief and/or success of characters who use them. Cinema presents a powerful 
influence that contributes to cultural change, coaching us to accept or reject aspects of 
our society, inspiring the way we dress, popularizing our expressions, shaping 
language and meaning, and persuading our self-image. 

Understanding not just the film's text, but how the narrative is presented, and why and 
how decisions have been made in the creation of the film's scenes, will help 
individuals to appreciate this unique, collaborative art form. At the same time, 
individuals will come to terms with a very powerful and persuasive medium and 
recognize why and how motion pictures exert such immense influence on us. 

There are a number of considerations in film analysis including: 

• Does the film's theme make a significant social statement? (Alternatively, is the 
film propagandist in its presentation of events?) 

• How has the film made a direct communication with the audience to produce an 
emotional response? 



50/ Using Film in the Classroom 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



• Do we find similar techniques and themes in literature? 

• Do we find similar techniques and themes in the director's other films that suggest 
a particular style, approach or philosophy? In other words, could we consider this 
director an auteurl 



General Introductory Activities {2.2.1 10-lb, 20-lb, 20-2b; 2.1.3 10-lb, 10-2b, 
20-lb, 20-2b) 

The following questions are considerations that can form the basis of a film study. 
These questions can be used either as part of a generic class discussion or for personal 
response writing prior to investigating a specific film. 

• In general, what attracts us to a film? (Students might consider such things as the 
film's stars, subject, genre, effects and word of mouth recommendations.) How 
are films geared to particular audiences? 

• Identify a film you saw recently and enjoyed. What reason(s) had you for wanting 
to see the film? Did the film meet your expectations? (Provide reasons for your 
answer.) 

Considerations for Film Analysis 

Movies have much in common with stories and novels in literature. Edgar Allan Poe 
defined the short story as narrative writing whose elements combine to produce a 
single effect. In the Hollywood, or "Classic," style of filmmaking, all elements of the 
film must combine to create a total effect. No one aspect of the film should stand out 
to distract the audience. 

2.1.1 10-la, 10-2a, • Consider the content initially: What is the film's purpose? What ideas are being 

20-2a developed? Who is the intended audience for the film? What is the film's genre? 

2.1.2 10-ld, 10-2d • Summarize the story in one or two sentences. Next, reduce the film's plot to no 

more than six words. For example, the plot for E. T, The Extra-Terrestrial can be 
expressed as "get home." The plot for Jaws can be expressed as "destroy the 
monster." The plot for Saving Private Ryan could be expressed as, "find Private 
Ryan." (Summarizing a film's plot in two to six words is known as "high 
concept," and is a favoured means for "pitching" a film proposal to a producer. 
Alien was pitched as "Jaws in space.") 

2.1.1 10-la, 10-2a, • What was the story's purpose? Was it strictly an emotional experience for the 

20-la, 20-2a audience? Was there a sociological theme advanced or a point being made? Is the 

audience intended to subscribe to a value or cause? 

2.3.2 10-ld, 10-2d, • What factor(s) contributed to the reality of the story or of a particular event within 

20-1 d, 20-2d the story? Can you cite any event that seemed real during the unfolding of the 

narrative, but in retrospect would be impossible, implausible or impractical? 

2.3.1 10-le, 20-le • Are there any elements of the film that are striking or memorable, such as a false 

plot device, an effective or symbolic shot, a music theme or cue, or a character's 
signature expression or action, that reflect popular cliches or that in turn could 
become popular cliches copied by people? 

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2 3 1 10-lh 10-2b * ^ 0W ""Sht one conclude that the film offers the audience wish fulfillment and/or 

20-1 b 20-2b a success story? What does the movie allow members of the audience to 

experience vicariously that could not, or probably would not, be experienced in 

their own lives? 

2.3.2 10-ld, e,f, 10-2d, • When reflecting on the film, what implausible event, character or detail can you 
e,f, 20-1 d, e, f, 20-2d, note? Why do you think this detail escaped your attention as you watched the film 

e,f the first time? 

Narrative: Since most films are structured as three-act "plays," dividing into 
exposition, development of conflict, and resolution of conflict, consider the following. 

2.2.1 10-lc, 10-2c, • Is this a linear narrative or a fragmented one? Does it contain a definite 

20-lc, 20-2c beginning, middle and end, or does it unfold through a series of flashbacks, 

contrasting or varied points of view, and/or seemingly unrelated events? Identify 
the point of the initial incident — the event that disturbs the status quo or the initial 
state of affairs and triggers the conflict. Consider the point at which events take a 
rum toward resolving the conflict. 

2.1.1 10-le, 10-2d • Consider the protagonist's purpose or goal; consider efforts undertaken to restore 

balance and order. Note significant plot points that advance the action, contribute 
to suspense, and affect the protagonist's behaviour and motivation. 

2.1.2 10-lc, 10-2b, • What details in the film support the controlling idea? What information is 

20-lc, 20-2b implied, leaving the audience to interpret it? What information is concealed? 

What information is omitted, leaving the audience to "fill in the blanks"? 

2.3.1 10-ld, 10-2d, • How are we encouraged to identify with the protagonist and to see the protagonist 

20-1 d, 20-2d as an idealized version of ourselves? How does the protagonist represent audience 

interests, values and sensibilities? What point-of-view shots are used to 
strengthen audience identification with the protagonist? How is the protagonist's 
emotional point of view impressed upon the audience? 

2.2.2 10-lg, 20-lg • Are there key symbols, images or motifs that define character and theme? 

2.3.2 10-lf, 10-2f, • Are effects used to support character and narrative, or do they exist for their 

20-lf, 20-2f emotional impact? 

2.1.2 20-1 i, 20-2g • What contrasting messages are presented in the film? In other words, how is the 

antagonist or villain made to appear attractive or fascinating? What compensating 
message is revealed by the end of the film? 

2.3.2 10-lf, 10-2f, • Are there any controversial elements in the film such as language, sex or violence? 

20-lf, 20-2f Are these elements gratuitous, or have they a purpose in advancing story and/or 

character? 

Character: It is usually through the central character that the audience will experience 
the story's events. Since Hollywood encourages strong audience identification with 
the protagonist, consider the following. 

2.1.2 10-li, 10-2g, • How is the central character introduced to the audience? Is there an element of 

20-1 i, 20-2g mystery to the character's personality that the audience discovers as the plot 

unfolds? What details are provided in the images that help define the 
protagonist's personality? (Consider props, dialogue, character motivations and 
actions, and significant music cues.) 

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2.3.1 10-lc, 10-2c, • In what ways are the choices made by the film's protagonist or central character 

20-1 c, 20-2c similar or different from yours? In what way does the character provide a 

vicarious experience for you? 

2.3.2 10-ld, 10-2d, • Are there familiar character "types" and archetypes in the film, such as a lone 

20-ld, 20-2d hero, maverick hero, antihero, foreign villain, rich villain, cruel villain or 

2 1 2 10 If 10 2f conventional female types of mother, fallen woman as helpmate or temptress. Is a 

20 'if 20 2f ' female character co-opting a traditional male role? Are characters stereotyped? 

What contributes to the reality of the character? Are there any aspects of 
characterization that would seem strange, implausible or exaggerated in the "real" 
world? 

2 ? / 10 1h 10 2h Themes: What themes does this film present? How can you relate to any or all of 
' 20 1h 20 2h ' tnese themes on a personal level? How effectively does the film present the themes? 

Are the themes and techniques used to present the themes ones that you recognize from 
2.3.2 10-lb, 10-2b, your study of other texts? How are they the same or different? 

20-1 b, 20-2b 

2.2.2 10-la, 10-2a, Editing: Audience reaction to characters and events are shaped by the length of shots, 

20-1 a, 20-2a the rapidity of cuts, and the use of crosscutting (juxtaposition). How is tension created 

through editing? How does the director use editing to convey a chaotic state of affairs? 
How do longer takes contribute to a lyrical unfolding of events? How does editing 
contribute to an objective point of view of events versus a character's subjective point 
of view? Does the editing contribute to varied points of view simultaneously? What 
transitional devices are used to move from one scene to the next? 

2.1.2 10-lj, 10-2h, Lighting: Are scenes brightly lit? Is there much shadow and darkness? What is the 

20-lj, 20-2 ft purpose of such lighting? Does lighting focus on a character or object? Why? Is the 

source of the light realistic, symbolic, designed to draw audience attention to detail, or 
used to augment a character or the personality of the star? Are shadows used to 
conceal, to dramatize or to symbolize aspects of character, action or theme? 

2.1.2 10-lj, 10-2h, Colour: Consider how colour is applied to the overall "look" of the film, to character 

20-lj, 20-2h costuming and to props. Colour usually will have symbolic and atmospheric purpose. 

Consider the purpose of colour choices. Note colour contrasts from one scene to 
another. If the film is shot in black and white, consider the director's purpose for this 
choice: is it to evoke a period, recreate a style, produce a specific atmosphere and 
mood? Was it a convention to use black and white at the time the film was made? 
How does the use of colour contribute to the meaning of the film? 

2.1.2 10-lj, 10-2h, Camera Placement: What do we see? How do we see it? Why do we see action, 

20-lj, 20-2h events, characters and objects this way? Consider distance and angle in relation to 

action; perspective (i.e., size of objects on screen); dimension; focus; manipulation of 

time; manipulation of space. Determine the following: 

• How does a shot serve the narrative? Why is this shot used within the context of 
the action? Does the shot comment on action, character or theme? Is the shot 
functional or symbolic? For example, does a long shot establish a setting, distance 
the audience from a character emotionally or comment on a character's feelings of 
alienation? Does a close shot invite the audience to become intimate with a 
character, provide the audience with detail and information, or deliberately restrict 
the audience's perspective to create feelings of tension? Do low and high angle 



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shots represent characters' points of view, are they symbolic of character power or 
weakness, or are they objective comments about events at hand or about a 
character's personality? What sounds accompany the shot (dialogue, sound and 
effects, music) and complement the effectiveness of the shot. 

2.1.2 10-lj, 10-2h, • Are subjects centre-framed on the screen? Note the background: is it unobtrusive, 

20-lj, 20-2h out of focus or uncomplicated, thereby reinforcing our attention on the character? 

Is the background cluttered or chaotic; if so, what effect does this background 
have on character and theme? How do details in the frame contribute to character 
delineation, plot advancement or commentary on theme? 

2.2.2 10-lb, 10-2b, c, Music: How does music define the atmosphere, mood and tone of a scene? Does 
20- 1 b, 20-2b, c music comment on a character? Does music define or identify characters or contribute 

to irony, caricature or humour? How does music unify disparate shots? Does music 
assist the transition of time? Is the music a marketing tool? 

2.2.1 10-1 c, 10-2c, Space: How does use of space within the frame comment on character or situation? 

20-1 c, 20-2c Does use of space relate to a character's state of mind? How does the framing of 

character within space help the audience to identify with the character? 

2.2.1 10-1 c, 10-2c, Time: How is time shown to elapse? How does spatial change relate to time passing? 

20-lc, 20-2c How and why is time compressed? How is time actualized, and what purpose does this 

serve? 

2.1.3 10-lc, 10-2c, Genre Considerations: What are familiar elements, settings, environments, images, 
20-lc, 20-2c props, situations, events, character types, themes, moods and atmospheres of a 

particular genre? What social or political commentary does the genre film contain? 
(This is especially applicable to Westerns and to combat, espionage and gangster films. 
Comedy could include sociopolitical satire or parody.) 

2.2.1 10-lc, 10-2c, Codes and Conventions: These are filmmaking shortcuts that the audience 

20-lc, 20-2c understands to save time and move the narrative forward without undue explanation. 

For example, time passing can be delineated using such codes and conventions as a 
screen title (as in "One year later"), calendar pages changing rapidly, the hands of a 
clock revolving, shots of a clock to show changes in the hour, a dissolve from one 
image to the next, changes in environment, changes in costume and changes in 
conveyances. Determine what codes and conventions have been used to relate the 
narrative. 

2.1.1 10-lk, 10-2i, Stars: Is the star's role typical of other roles the star has played? Does the star's 

20-1 k, 20-2k character conform to audience expectations based on previous characters the star has 

portrayed, or is the star playing against type? Is a character made sympathetic because 
the star portrays this character? Does the attractiveness of the star have a bearing on 
audience reaction to the character? 

2.3.3 10-lb, 10-2b, Director: Are this film's themes representative of themes in other films made by this 

20-1 b, 20-2b director? What features of style make this director's films recognizable and 

identifiable as belonging to the director's body of work? That is, can you determine 
any stylistic similarities, such as character types, character roles, setting and 
environment, lighting, story structure, and recurring motifs seen in the director's other 
films? Can you identify any significant contribution this director has made to 
advancing film technique and art? 

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Film Study The following sample units demonstrate two different approaches to teaching film. 

Umts "The Truman Show" can be adapted for ELA 10-1, ELA 10-2, ELA 20-1 or ELA 20-2 

students. The approach taken in this unit is to show the entire film in class and follow 
it up with activities that take students back into the film to examine various aspects. 

"Lighting, Music, Colour: A Study of Film Elements" is intended for use with 
ELA 20-1 and ELA 20-2 students. This approach examines film elements through the 
use of clips from various films. The film clips are shown in class, then students choose 
films to view on their own and compare them to the clips. 

Note: The films mentioned are not authorized by Alberta Learning. They were 
chosen by a committee of teachers who suggested their use for the courses 
indicated. Local approval must be obtained for using these or any other 
unauthorized resources. Copyright permission must also be obtained for public 
screening of these or any other films. 

P^ 3 See page 50 for information on obtaining copyright permission. 



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The Truman Show 

DSP This film is rated PG. See Appendix A, p. 377, for a description of film ratings. 

I. Possible Entry Points 

The Truman Show can be dealt with as a commentary on modern society. Issues such as the media's influence on 
individuals, the individual's acceptance of the world with which he or she is presented, or what is real can be 
considered. 

II. Previewing Activities 

1 . Advertising Present in the Classroom. By examining clothing labels or branding, looking at what is present 
on the walls of the classroom, and identifying the major companies and the quantity they encounter, students 
can assess the power of advertising based on product placement. 

2. Homework Assignment: Twenty-Four Hour Advertising Survey. Students count how many advertisements 
they are exposed to in this period of time. 

3. Discuss Favourite Television Shows. Do a classroom survey and focus on one or two favourites. Questions 
for group discussion include: 

a. What makes the show popular? 

b. What do you like about this show? 

c. Who is the intended audience? 

d. What values are promoted in this show? 

e. What kinds of clothing do the male and female characters wear? 

f. Is there pressure in this for conformity? 

g. How true to life are the situations? 

h. Have you ever felt manipulated by this television show? 

4. Homework Assignment: Analyze "Reality Television." Students watch a reality television episode, 
considering questions such as the following: 

a. Where is the camera? 

b. What does the viewer see? 

c. How does the perspective change when there are close, long and angled shots through the camera? For 
example, is the camera cutting between two groups or two individuals to suggest conflict? 

d. How might the viewer respond to the use of crosscutting and juxtaposition? 

5. Group Discussions. Students share group findings about the reality television and the advertising survey and 
look for consensus. The purpose of both the advertising activities and watching reality television for camera 
angles is to prepare students to watch for these things in The Truman Show. 

III. The First Viewing 

This show can be viewed in two 70-minute blocks. Stopping to analyze too frequently should be discouraged in 
order for the students to get a fluent sense of the film. Analysis can be done by viewing and discussing significant 
clips, following the initial viewing. 

1 . Discuss symbols of freedom, such as birds, the sky and open doors, and symbols of confinement, such as 
fences and closed doors. Have students make note of anything they notice as they view the film. (Truman 's 
confinement is suggested by a number of symbols of conformity and repression, such as the 1950's images of 
picket fences and martial images of boots and snarling dogs which suggest entrapment. He is also trapped by 
guilt through his wife and mother, and by the cubicles at work. Techniques such as geometric patterns 
suggest a constructed, fixed and rigid world; and a shot of Truman in a convex mirror suggests a fish 
confined in a bowl.) 

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2. Stop the film occasionally for students to write down what they have noted in connection to freedom and 
confinement, as well as anything they noticed related to the following features of the film: 

a. Setting, character, plot and theme/recurring images, such as the eye, mirror and cross/x motifs 

b. Camera shots 

c. Music 

d. Lighting 

e. Sound effects 

f. Speech qualities 

IV. Reviewing the Film 

1. Determine the initial reactions of the students and their interpretations of the film through exploratory talk. 

2. The film can be reviewed in four stages: 1) Opening credits 2) Truman unaware 3) Truman becoming aware 
4) Truman breaking free. The following are suggestions for discussion of each segment of the film. Some of 
the possible responses are in italics. 

Opening Credits 

a. Write down what Christoff says in the opening credits. 

b. The camera eye is always trained on Truman at the beginning. Interpret this first viewing we have of 
Truman. 

c. Identify the visual tools used by the director to portray Truman and his situation. For example, there are 
four succeeding levels of frames around Truman 'sface that depict the degree of his captivity. Christoff's 
character resembles a priest in his clothing and in his name, and this sets a powerful religious context. 

Truman Unaware 

The viewer begins to be aware that Truman does not know he is being spied on and is the main character of a 
voyeuristic television program that is viewed around the world. 

a. What are the clues given to Truman and the audience that his reality is contrived? 

Frames within frames are used to suggest entrapment. The many reflected images and use of mirrors 
might suggest illusion. The obvious manipulation of Truman for product placement in advertising hints 
that this is not reality but a television show. The images shown by the hidden cameras suggest 
surveillance. The eyes of the characters give away when they are acting and when they are experiencing 
real emotions. 

b. How is conflict introduced? 

Truman Becoming Aware 

Once Truman takes the magnifying glass when the characters are viewing old photographs, it is possible to 

recognize a shift in Truman's perspective of his world. He begins to look for himself and use his own eyes. 

a. What does Truman do to manipulate his pseudo world in order to discover his real situation? 

b. What does the name Truman Burbank represent? {True Man in Burbank Studios: First person to be 
legally adopted by a corporation.) 

c. What do the images of bridges with no ends suggest? He is trapped in his world or his own reality. He 
has many dead end roads, and he is often searching beyond the end of the bridge. 

d. In what ways is Truman trapped? He is trapped in a conventional life and is manipulated in his world. 
He is unable to see past his own reality. 

e. Are we trapped or confined in any way? 

f. When is the moment that Truman decides to break free from his contrived reality? How does he begin to 
break out of his world? 

g. What are we learning about Truman's viewing audience? Who is watching him and why are they 
watching him so faithfully? The audience may be trapped or enslaved by the show. 

h. To what extent is our world manipulated as Truman's is? 

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©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



i. Why does Truman initially not try to escape? He is not aware that there is any other kind of life. Hie 

world he lives in is in some ways idyllic-safe, perfect . 
j. What do Christoffs words, "If he was determined to find the truth, there is no way we could prevent it," 

suggest about our situation? 

Truman Breaking Free 

a. There have been many contrived and real obstacles that have prevented Truman from escaping. What are 
these obstacles? 

b. The rising action brings us to Truman confronting his "Creator." Describe this power struggle and the 
connections/allusions you can make. 

c. What images and symbols of freedom, confinement and new beginnings can you find? Truman is 
trapped by the weather. Truman, ironically, is also confined by the sky and by roads and bridges that go 
nowhere. He is confined by his fears, and he needs to confront his greatest fear-of water-in order to 
find freedom. The Santa Maria, represents exploration and finding a new world of freedom. Truman 's 
coming out of the water suggests a rebirth into freedom. The artificial sky is like the shell of an egg that 
Truman must break out of in order to be reborn, and the door that he leaves by suggests a new 
opportunity and freedom as well as stepping out into the unknown. 

d. Truman hits the wall of his known world. Why is this a powerful ending to the story? Describe the 
symbolic elements of this ending and Truman's decision to bow like an actor at the end of his 
performance and exit to the dark back stage of the real world. 

e. Why does Truman's audience cheer? 

V. Extension Activities 

1 . Have students write a script or story about the differences that Truman will encounter between his old world 
and his new world and what might be the same. 

2. Divide the classroom into various groups, giving each group a motif, such as eyes, mirrors or crosses/x's, to 
track and to discuss their possible meanings. Part of the discussion should include how the film comments on 
modern society. Students should then bring their ideas to a full class discussion. The use ofx 's, such as when 
Truman has his fingers crossed in his wedding picture, may suggest that it is not true or real. The eye motif 
may represent Truman trying to see the truth, reality or alternate reality; and the mirrors could represent the 
illusion of the world he accepts as true. 

3. Have students represent Truman's world in another shape or form and explain their representation. 

4. Have students create out scenes from the film. For example, Sylvia might choose to interview Christoff 
Would Truman appear on a talk show, or would he shun that world altogether? 

5. Present a soliloquy by Truman upon entering and discovering the new world. 

6. Have students write about, or demonstrate in a project representation, how we are all Truman in some way or 
another. 

This unit addresses the following outcome subheadings: 

1.1.1 Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions 

1 .2. 1 Consider new perspectives 

1 .2.2 Express preferences, and expand interests 
2.1 .2 Understand and interpret content 

2.2.2 Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects 
2.3. 1 Connect self, text, culture and milieu 

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2.3.2 Evaluate the verisimilitude, appropriateness and significance of print and nonprint texts 

3.2.1 Select, record and organize information 

3.2.3 Form generalizations and conclusions 

4.1.2 Consider and address form, structure and medium 

4.1.3 D evelop c ontent 

4.1.4 Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent with context 

4.2.2 Enhance organization 

4.2.3 Consider and address matters of choice 

4.2.4 Edit text for matters of correctness 

5.2. 1 Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes 



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©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



Lighting, Music, Colour: A Study of Film Elements 

In this unit, students study chosen film elements and their effects on the medium. They describe the effect and 
purpose of lighting, music and colour in selected film clips; research a director; and then compare the use of the 
selected elements in two films by the same director. 

Examples of Film Clips for This Unit 

Light 

• Schindler's List — glamour (from above) lighting on Oscar Schindler (as he creates the list) 

Colour 

• Schindler's List — girl in the red dress used as the turning point of Schindler and his "loss of innocence" 
(when Schindler and his mistress see the emptying of the ghetto) 

• Batman — colour used to express genre (comic book) and set mood (throughout) 

Music 

• Close Encounters of the Third Kind — music as plot (when the aliens respond to human message with music) 

• 2001 A Space Odyssey — mood (the space ballet) 

For ELA 20-1 students, choose clips from several films that showcase the elements of lighting, music and colour. 
Films by directors such as Steven Spielberg, Tim Burton, Stanley Kubrick and Alfred Hitchcock make good use 
of these elements. 

For ELA 20-2 students, study clips from one director. Films directed by Tim Burton, such as Batman, Sleepy 
Hollow, Edward Scissorhands, The Nightmare Before Christmas, James and the Giant Peach and Beetlejuice, are 
good possibilities. 

After discussing the various effects and possible purposes of these elements, students fill in a film analysis 
sheet such as the one in Appendix B, p. 400. Students can be encouraged to use the following questions to 
guide their analysis: 

Lighting: Are the scenes brightly lit? Is there much shadow and darkness? What is the purpose of such lighting? 
Does lighting focus on a character or object? Why? Is the source of the lighting realistic, symbolic, designed to 
draw the audience's attention to detail, or used to augment a character or the personality of the star? Are shadows 
used to conceal, to dramatize or to symbolize aspects of character, action and theme? 

Colour: How is colour applied to the overall "look" of the film, to character, to costuming and to props? Is there 
a symbolic and/or atmospheric purpose? What colour contrasts are present from one scene to another, and what is 
the purpose? If the film is shot in black and white, what is the purpose — to evoke a period, to recreate a style or 
to produce a specific atmosphere or mood? Was it a convention to use black and white when the film was made? 

Music: How does the music define the atmosphere, mood and tone of a scene? Does music comment on a 
character? Does music define or identify characters? How does music unify disparate shots? Does music assist 
the transition of time? Is the music a marketing tool? 

Students choose a director of one of the film clips shown in class and research areas such as family background, 
education, influences and filmography that could influence the way he or she uses these elements of film. 



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Students use a variety of media, such as print, video and the Internet, to gather the information and present what 
they have found in the form of an oral or written report, electronic graphics presentation, or collage. Students 
should be encouraged to assess the usefulness and credibility of the sources they used and reflect on the strategies 
they used to gather the information. 

Using the information gathered in their director reports, students choose a film by this director for further study. 
Students should be encouraged to involve their parents or guardians in their choice. In their study of the film, 
students in ELA 20-1 could examine all three elements of lighting, music and colour, while ELA 20-2 students 
could study one or two of these elements. Students then compare the use of the film element(s) in their chosen 
film with the use of the film element(s) in the clip by this director that was shown in class. The comparison is 
presented in the form of an essay that answers the following questions: 

• What is the intended effect and purpose of the elements? 

• Are they used in the same way and for the same purpose in both films? 

• If they are used differently in the films, what are some of the reasons why? 

peg 3 See Appendix A, pp. 378-379, for a sample of student work. 

This unit addresses the following outcome subheadings: 

2.1.1 Discern and analyze context 

2. 1 .2 Understand and interpret content 

2.2. 1 Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content 

2.2.2 Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects 

3.1.1 Focus on purpose and presentation form 

3.1.2 Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources 

3.2. 1 Select, record and organize information 

3.2.2 Evaluate sources, and assess information 

3.2.3 Form generalizations and conclusions 

3.2.4 Review inquiry or research process and findings 

4.1.2 Consider and address form, structure and medium 

4.1.3 Develop content 

4.1.4 Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent with context 

4.2. 1 Enhance thought and detail 

4.2.2 Enhance organization 

4.2.3 Consider and address matters of choice 

4.2.4 Edit text for matters of correctness 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts Using Film in the Classroom /61 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



62/ Guide to Implementation: Grades 1 0-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



CHOOSING RESOURCESo 



Choosing texts for classroom study can be somewhat difficult since almost all texts 
have the potential to be controversial. Even literature's best books may contain 
material that students, their parents or the community find troubling. Does this mean 
that teachers should avoid any texts that might be controversial? To do so would 
undermine one of the central purposes of education. If teachers opt out of discussing 
sensitive issues arising from literature and other texts, they are doing their students a 
disservice. 

Students are exposed to sensitive and controversial messages daily. Such messages 
can be disturbing and confusing if students are not taught how to look at them 
critically, in light of their own values. Literature and other texts provide students with 
opportunities to "rehearse" for life through careful exposure to controversial issues, 
giving students the chance for personal growth in a safe environment. Sensitive topics 
can be handled in the safety of the classroom where the opportunity for discussion 
exists and an infrastructure of support staff is also available within the school and 
community to address personal problems should they surface as a result of classroom 
reading and discussion. 

Literature in particular, has the power to connect students with sensitive, complicated 
human issues that are not clear-cut and simply resolved. Texts that explore issues and 
dilemmas of the human experience, such as gender, class and race, provide a rich 
medium for helping students develop empathy and understanding that goes beyond 
their reading of the text. 

Teachers must be free to select and use literature and other texts that genuinely address 
the hopes, fears, frustrations and experiences adolescents encounter. At the same time, 
teachers must use care in selecting texts that respect their students both morally and 
intellectually. While all texts that are authorized by Alberta Learning have undergone 
extensive review to ensure that they are appropriate for Alberta classrooms, teachers 
must also use their knowledge of their own students and communities to select 
resources from authorized resource lists or to select other resources that are appropriate 
for their particular situation. 



What is 
Sensitive? 



Everything from William Shakespeare's plays to National Geographic magazine have 
been targets of controversy. Classics as well as contemporary works can be open to 
criticism. 



There are no easy rules to determine what might be targeted as controversial. 
However, potentially sensitive areas include: mythology, legends, the supernatural, 
magic, fantasy, witches and witchcraft, death and suicide, sex and gender, violence, 
abuse, profanity and swearing, evolution, politics, religion, race, bioethics, drugs, and 
ideologies. 



O Information on Choosing Resources has been adapted from Mary Crane, Barbara Fullerton and Amanda Joseph, SightLines JO 
Anthology, Teacher Guide, Western ed. (Toronto, ON: Prentice Hall Canada, 2000), pp. xix-xxvi. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Choosing Resources /63 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



In determining what might be considered controversial, teachers should consider the 
following questions. 

• What is the issue? 

• What are some causes of the issue? 

• What are some consequences of the issue? 

• What alternatives to the issue might be considered? 

• How can society respond to the issue to prevent or alleviate negative 
consequences? 

What is controversial changes over time. Societal changes bring different issues into 
the forefront each year. Being attuned to what might be considered sensitive means 
that teachers must be cognizant of the "tenor of the times." 

Teacher Review of Resources 

Know your students, know your materials, and use your own judgement! Resources 
such as teacher guides and annotations cannot provide all the background information 
to deal adequately with issues that may be considered sensitive by one person or 
community and not another. 

When selecting texts to be read, heard or viewed, by an entire class, take into 
consideration literary value, readability, validity, appeal to the intended audience and 
contribution to achieving curriculum outcomes. What you select this year may change 
for a subsequent year based on some or all of the following elements. 

Who is enrolled in class? 

Consider your students' backgrounds and experiences. Respect them, their sense of 
self, and their ability to deal with sensitive or controversial issues in what you assign 
them to read. Remember that some of your students may have personal connections to 
the issues in the texts through their own experiences or those of people they know. 
Some students will be more emotionally affected by a topic and will require more than 
the usual treatment. 

Community values 

Recognize that personal and religious beliefs may cause individuals or groups to object 

to texts or discussions of some topics. Talking with community residents and the 

school administration, as well as other teachers, can help to determine what areas are 

likely to be sensitive. This does not mean you should not use the text in question, but 

you need to be aware of how carefully to handle issues with students and the 

community. 

Current events in lives of students and community 

Local interests and issues are important considerations when selecting texts for student 
use. For example, in a school where there has been a recent death, it may not be 
judicious to engage students in texts focused on the topic of death. 



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Passage of time 

Deciding on specific texts to retain should be part of an ongoing school review 
process. What may be acceptable today and in one school or community might be 
judged controversial in another time or setting. 

Connection to program outcomes 

Texts chosen, regardless of their controversial nature, must have a clear connection to 

curriculum outcomes. The literature must have a clear, pedagogical purpose. 

Relevance to students 

Texts should be accessible to students in terms of readability, their background 
knowledge and personal experiences, and their maturity. In determining what is 
appropriate, also consider whether students are likely to have been exposed to such 
subject matter previously. 

Literary quality 

Teachers should always endeavour to choose "good-quality" texts that use language 
artistically and that engage the reader. Characterizations should be believable and 
sensitive, and plots carefully crafted. 



Explaining 
Program 
and Choice 
of Texts 



English language arts teachers are the most qualified professionals to make informed 
choices in selecting texts for students to study. As such, they can be active in 
establishing an atmosphere in the school and in the community that promotes reading. 
A school English department should have a policy explaining the value of teaching 
literature and how texts are chosen for classroom use. 



Inform the community about your school policy regarding the selection of materials. 
Explain the value of literature and the right to read. Endeavour to provide a textbook 
for each student to use as his or her own for the entire course, so parents can be 
familiar with the resource and its selections. Provide information in newsletters about 
the English language arts program and policy and the texts students are using. Host 
informational meetings with interested individuals. 

Encourage students, both through direct assignments and informal conversation, to talk 
with their families about the literature they read. Engage parents in sharing with 
students their responses to texts through discussion or dialogue journals. Invite parents 
into the classroom to join in literary discussions and see what is actually happening in 
the classroom. 



Strategies for 
Dealing with 
Sensitive Texts 
and Issues 



Before addressing a text that encompasses a sensitive issue, teachers need to feel 
comfortable themselves in discussing the topic. The tone teachers use in talking about 
a controversial topic conveys their respect and attitude about it and any people who 
may be connected with it. It is advisable to acknowledge the controversial issues, in 
order to make it easier for students to ask questions and discuss them in a mature way. 
However, it is not necessary to draw undue attention; for example, reading aloud a 
passage including profane language, which will possibly make students feel 
uncomfortable. It is useful to talk about profanities and other sensitive aspects of texts, 
why they are included, and how the author uses them effectively, but unnecessary to 
verbalize the exact words. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



English Language Arts 



Choosing Resources /65 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Establishing an Appropriate Classroom Climate 

A fundamental responsibility of English language arts teachers is to establish an 
atmosphere of rapport, tolerance and respect in the classroom. As our world becomes 
more diverse, so do our classrooms. Dilemmas and contradictions arising out of 
sensitive issues are an inevitable part of daily life in our schools. Before students can 
engage in discussions about sensitive or controversial issues, it is necessary to develop 
an atmosphere in which they feel comfortable doing so. 

As teachers we must create harmony in classrooms, where students and teachers care 
about each other. Though we may not be able to anticipate every sensitive reaction in 
advance, we can always offer a sincerely compassionate response to students upset by 
something in the text. Use your own classroom climate-building activities or try some 
of the following. 

Respect 

Respect is essential in discussions about controversial issues, and using language and 
image to show respect is part of the English language arts program. Have each student 
pair up with a peer, whom they do not necessarily know well, to discuss the concept of 
"respect." What is respect? How do you show respect? How do other people show 
respect? Share students' responses in a class discussion, emphasizing that respect 
doesn't mean we all need to think and act in the same ways. In fact, respect allows us 
to learn from our differences. 

Historical or Additional Information 

When any text is used, it should be within a context that explains its historical 
background or other relevant information. The text itself may not provide sufficient 
background to deal adequately with a sensitive issue. For example, racial dialects and 
racial and religious slurs in Brian Doyle's Angel Square should be presented to 
students as examples of the times depicted in the story. The greater message of the 
novel's indictment of racism should be stressed. A careful examination of the author's 
intended purpose and message will be necessary at times, particularly when the social 
commentary or criticism is subtle or satirical. It may be important to emphasize that a 
character's voice can be quite distinct from that of the author. 

It is vital that the teacher establish the context of the literature or other texts directly or 
through student activities revealing the particular attitudes as situated in an accurate 
historical setting, or in additional factual information about the controversial issue. 
Reading a text that includes controversial issues gives students the opportunity to 
compare historical treatments of individuals and situations with what we like to think 
of as today's more inclusive, multicultural and fair treatment of others. Reexamining 
texts helps readers challenge their own beliefs and perspectives in a continuing 
dialogue that relates the past to the present. 

Providing all relevant background information prior to students' reading of a text may 
hinder the students' personal responses to what they are reading. However, providing 
accurate background information at the relevant time will help students better 
understand the issues and their responses to them. 



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Personal Response 

There is no one interpretation or meaning to a text. Activities that guide students in 
connecting what is in the text with what they already understand will help them ask 
questions and comment on issues in a secure forum. If a topic is difficult to talk about 
or if the classroom environment is not amenable to class discussion, have students 
record their personal responses in journal entries that no one else will read (except the 
teacher if that is the normal process). Invite volunteers to share what they have written 
or parts they feel comfortable divulging. 

Personal response can help students see the similarities and differences between their 
own feelings and thoughts and those presented in the text. Some texts may even 
encourage students to see themselves or their own situations as presented through the 
lens of the author. Teachers must give students time to process the feelings that 
literature can elicit. Through assisted discussions and activities, students are 
challenged to see the many perspectives of complex controversial issues — perspectives 
that go beyond their immediate responses. 

[j^ 3 See pages 39 to 48 for ideas on personal response. 

Focus on the Literary Value of the Text 

A good piece of literature, or a good film, is more than the controversial issue it 
includes, and will stand up to a careful examination of its artistry. Though the 
experience of reading literature or viewing a film is often personal and emotionally 
charged, teachers can help students become more analytical by focusing upon artistry 
of the text over and above issues. Such study of technique allows students to approach 
texts more critically, applying a professional distance in order to assess not just the 
impact of the message but the manner in which that message was constructed. By 
learning "the how" as well as "the what," students become more skilled at 
deconstructing all types of images and texts, and perhaps less vulnerable to advertising 
or manipulative messages. Discussion of controversial issues is best considered within 
the context of the author's style and the broader meaning of the piece of literature. 

Debriefing 

When a text confronts students with sensitive issues, it can be confusing and 
uncomfortable. Students will need to respond to the motives, feelings and events 
communicated through the text. It is important that the teacher carefully debrief the 
sensitive and complicated issues that often cause students to examine their own value 
systems and personal biases. 

Teachers will not be able to answer all students' questions about sensitive issues. An 
honest response might be, "I don't know, but perhaps we can find the answer" or 
"That's a difficult question and I don't know how 1 feel about that." 

Teachers must be ready to provide students with further resources should they need 
them to help deal with the emotional responses that might arise from discussing a 
sensitive topic. It is difficult to know which students might experience difficulties with 
which issues. Knowing where students can go for further information, help or answers 
to personal questions is an important component of the debriefing process. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts Choosing Resources /67 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



Dealing with 
Challenges 



There are basically two kinds of challenges to the use of materials in schools: 

• A parent doesn't want his or her child to read or view a particular text. 

• A parent, teacher, administrator or school board member doesn't want anyone in 
the class or school to read a text. 

How to deal with concerns surrounding controversial literature or other texts varies for 
each circumstance. Generally the classroom teacher can deal with the first type of 
challenge. Explaining the curricular merits of a book or the context of the questionable 
part and how it has been carefully used and debriefed with students will alleviate some 
parents' concerns. The offer of an alternative reading assignment for the student is in 
some cases the most appropriate solution to the first type of challenge. 

The second kind of challenge, depending on its intensity, must often be dealt with at an 
administrative or school board level. Sometimes complaints come from people who 
have heard or read something in the media. Their positions are often based on 
arguments that the text is not "age appropriate" or it "goes against community 
standards." Clear communication and a forum for dialogue allowing all to be heard is 
perhaps the best approach for dealing with issues that verge on censorship. Consider 
the following: 

• Being proactive is always better than being reactive. Schools and districts should 
have developed policies outlining their belief in providing students with a wide 
range of materials and explaining the basis for their selection. The policies should 
also include the process to be followed should challenges arise. 

• Challenges to literature are fraught with tension and volatility. Listen to the 
challenge and treat the person with respect. Through careful handling, many 
challenges can be alleviated at the classroom or school level. Becoming 
argumentative or defensive can produce conflict. 

• Take each criticism seriously. Involve the school administration if the issue is not 
settled after discussing it with the person. You may wish to contact the National 
Council of Teachers of English (www.ncte.org) for further information. 

• Ensure that you are able to explain the educational value of the text and how it 
helps meet the outcomes of the curriculum. The National Council of Teachers of 
English (NCTE) has a CD including more than 200 rationales for commonly 
challenged works that may be useful. 

• Collect student responses reflecting how they have reacted to the text and how you 
have used it in the context of the curriculum. 

• Part of a school policy for dealing with challenges may be to have a committee of 
teachers, parents, librarians, students and other educators to review challenged 
materials. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



68/ Choosing Resources 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



MEETING STUDENT NEEDS 



The High 

School 

Learner 



English language arts classrooms contain a wide variety of learners with different 
experiences and skills. Awareness of the needs of various learners and knowledge of 
some strategies can help teachers accommodate this wide range of students. 

If a symbolic line could be drawn between childhood and adulthood, it would be drawn 
for many students during their Grade 1 year. These students begin to assume many of 
the responsibilities associated with maturity. Many take their first part-time job. 
Many embark on their first serious romantic relationship. For many, acquiring a 
driver's licence is a significant rite of passage. 

For many students, Grade 1 1 is a stable and productive year. Many Grade 1 1 students 
have developed a degree of security within their peer group and a sense of belonging in 
school. They show increasing maturity in dealing with the freedoms and 
responsibilities of late adolescence: romantic relationships, part-time jobs, driver's 
licences, in Grade 1 1, most students have a great deal of energy and a growing 
capacity for abstract and critical thinking. Many are prepared to express themselves 
with confidence and to take creative and intellectual risks. The stresses and 
preoccupations of preparing for graduation, post -secondary education or full-time jobs 
are still a year away. For many students, Grade 1 1 may be their most profitable 
academic year of the senior high school years. 

Although many Grade 10 and 1 1 students handle their new responsibilities and the 
demands on their time with ease, others experience difficulty. External interests may 
seem more important than school. Because of their increased autonomy, students who 
previously had problems managing their behaviour at school may now express their 
difficulties through poor attendance or other behaviours that place them at risk. 

Students struggling to control their lives and circumstances may make choices that 
seem to teachers to be contrary to their best interests. Communication with the home 
and awareness of what their students are experiencing outside school continue to be 
important for Grade 10 and 1 1 teachers. Although the developmental variance evident 
from Grade 6 through Grade 9 has narrowed, students can still change a great deal in 
the course of one year or even one semester. Teachers of Grade 10 and 1 1 students 
need to be sensitive to the dynamic classroom atmosphere and recognize when shifts in 
interests, capabilities and needs are occurring, so that they can adjust learning 
experiences for their students. 

See Appendix A, pp. 381-383, for a chart that identifies some common characteristics 
of senior high school students observed in educational studies (Glatthorn 1993, 
Maxwell and Meiser 1997) and by teachers and that discusses the implications of these 
characteristics for teachers. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Meeting Student Needs /69 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Fostering 
a Will to 
Learn 



Motivation is a concern of teachers, not only because it is essential to classroom 
learning, but also because self-direction is central to lifelong learning. Language arts 
courses seek both to teach students how to read, write and use language and to foster 
the desire to do so. Motivation is not a single factor that students either bring or do not 
bring to the classroom; rather, it is multidimensional, individual and often comprises 
both intrinsic and extrinsic elements. With such understandings in mind, there are 
things that teachers can do to promote the attitudes and skills that translate into 
engagement in learning. 



In considering how they can foster motivation, teachers may explore students' 
appreciation of the value (intrinsic and extrinsic) of learning experiences and their 
beliefs about their likelihood of success. Good and Brophy (1987) suggest that these 
two elements can be expressed as an equation; the effort students are willing to expend 
on a task is a product of their expectation of success and of the value they ascribe to 
success. 

Teachers may also focus on helping students recognize the value of classroom learning 
experiences. The following chart provides teachers with suggestions for fostering 
motivation. 



70/ Meeting Student Needs 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Fostering Motivation® 



Ways to Foster Expectations 
of Success 

• Help students to develop a 
sense of self-efficacy. 



• Help students to learn about 
and monitor their own learning 
processes. 



• Assign tasks of appropriate 
difficulty, communicating 
assessment criteria clearly and 
ensuring that students have 
clear instruction, modelling and 
practice so that they can 
complete the tasks successfully. 



Best Practice and Research 

Schunk and Zimmerman (1997) found that students who have a sense of 
self-efficacy are more willing to participate, work harder and persist 
longer when they encounter difficulties, and achieve at a higher level 
than students who doubt their learning capabilities. 

Teachers foster a sense of self-efficacy first by teaching students that 
they can learn how to learn. Students who experience difficulty often 
view the learning process as mysterious and outside their control. They 
believe that others who succeed in school do so entirely because of 
natural, superior abilities. It is highly motivating for these students to 
discover that they, too, can learn and apply the strategies that successful 
students use when learning. 

Second, teachers foster student self-efficacy by recognizing that each 
student can succeed and by communicating that belief to the student. 
Silver and Marshall (1990) found that a student's perception that he or 
she is a poor learner is a strong predictor of poor performance, overriding 
natural ability and previous learning. All students benefit from knowing 
that the teacher believes they can succeed and will provide the necessary 
supports to ensure that learning takes place. 

Research shows that students with high metacognition — students who 
understand how they learn — learn more efficiently, are more adept at 
transferring what they know to other situations and are more autonomous 
than students who have little awareness of how they learn. Teachers can 
enhance metacognition by embedding, into all aspects of the curriculum, 
instruction in the importance of planning, monitoring and self-assessing. 
Turner ( 1 997) found that teachers foster a will to learn when they support 
"the cognitive curriculum with a metacognitive and motivational one." 

A methodology for instruction of learning strategies for various students 
is found on pages 73 to 8 1 . 



(continued) 



w Adapted from Manitoba Education and Training, Senior 2 English Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation 
(Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Education and Training, 1998). 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Meeting Student Needs /71 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



(continued) 



Fostering Motivation 



Ways to Foster Appreciation 
of the Value of Learning 

• Help students to set specific 
and realistic personal goals and 
to learn from situations where 
they attain and do not attain 
their goals. 

• Recognize and celebrate 
student achievements. 



• Offer choices. 



• Set authentic and worthwhile 
tasks. 



• Help students to learn about 
and monitor their own learning 
processes. 



• Ensure that literacy 

experiences are interactive. 



Best Practice and Research 

Research shows that learning is enhanced when students set goals that 
incorporate specific criteria and performance standards (Foster 1 996, 
Locke and Latham 1990). Teachers promote this by working in 
collaboration with students in developing assessment rubrics. See 
Appendix B, p. 390. 

Teachers help students recognize growth in language learning, and they 
demonstrate to students they notice such improvement. See learning 
outcome subheading 5.1.3 in the Achieving the English Language Arts 
Outcomes for Grades 1 and 1 1 section of this guide for ways to 
celebrate achievements. 

Intrinsic motivation is closely tied to students' self-selection of texts, 
topics, activities and creative forms. Teachers should support students in 
the search for texts that are developmentally appropriate and of high 
interest and encourage students to bring language forms they value into 
the classroom. Self-selection allows students to build their learning on 
the foundation of their personal interests and enthusiasm. 

Teachers should integrate instruction in meaningful events and activities 
that simulate language uses in real-world settings. Teachers should also 
ensure that students share performances and products with audiences. 

In teaching specific learning strategies, teachers need to focus on the 
usefulness of each strategy for making meaning of information or for 
expressing ideas of importance to students. Teachers should emphasize 
the importance of literacy to the richness and effectiveness of students' 
lives, and de-emphasize external rewards and consequences, such as 
marks. 

A community that encourages students to share their learning with each 
other values literacy. Teachers who model curiosity, enthusiasm and 
pleasure in books, films and other texts, and who share their own reading, 
writing and viewing experiences, foster motivation for literacy learning. 



72/ Meeting Student Needs 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Creating a Stimulating Learning Environment 

While the resources and physical realities of classrooms vary, a well-equipped English 
language arts classroom offers a variety of resources that help stimulate learning. 

Ways to create a stimulating learning environment include the following: 

• Design seating arrangements that reflect a student-centred philosophy and that lend 
themselves to flexible grouping. Moveable tables or desks allow students to 
interact in various configurations. Desks arranged in a circle for whole-class 
discussions convey the importance of each speaker. 

• Maintain a print-rich environment, it is important to have a classroom library of 
books for self-selected reading. The classroom library may include fiction and 
nonfiction of various genres, at all reading levels: poetry and drama, newspapers 
and magazines, cartoons, children's literature and students' published work. It 
may also include a binder of student reviews and recommendations and may be 
decorated by student-designed posters or book jackets. Classroom reference books 
include dictionaries, thesauri, style and usage guides, and books of quotations, 
facts and lists. The reference area of the classroom may be designated as an 
editing station. 

• Equip the classroom with one or more audiocassette players for the class to use in 
listening to music, speeches, dramas, documentaries and books on tape, and for 
students to use in generating ideas, rehearsing and self-assessing performances, 
and taping oral histories, interviews and radio plays. Teachers can use the 
audiocassette players to record commentaries on student work. 



• 



• 



Have access to a computer, television, videocassette recorder and 
slide/transparency/PowerPoint projector, if possible. 

Exhibit opinion pieces, posters, Hall of Fame displays, murals, banners and 
collages that celebrate student accomplishments. Change these frequently to 
reflect student interests and active involvement in the English language arts 
classroom. 

• Display items and artifacts, such as plants, photographs, art reproductions, curios, 
maps, newspaper and magazine clippings, masks, musical instruments, and 
antiques to stimulate inquiry and to express the link between the language arts 
classroom and the larger world. 

• Post checklists, processes and strategies to facilitate and encourage students' 
independent learning. 

• Provide a bulletin board for administrative announcements and schedules. 

• Involve students in classroom design. 

Promoting Learning Strategies 

Many of the language tasks students perform are problem-solving tasks, such as 
finding sources of information for an inquiry project, making meaning of a difficult 
text or organizing a body of information. To solve problems, a student requires a 
strategic mindset; when confronted with a problem, the student surveys a number of 

Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts Meeting Student Needs /73 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



Students 
with Learning 
Disabilities® 



possible strategies, selects the one that seems likely to work best for the situation and 
tries an alternative method if the first one does not produce results. 

Students need to have not only a strategic mindset but also a repertoire of strategies for 
making meaning, for processing information, and for expressing ideas and information 
effectively. Whereas skills are largely unconscious mental processes that learners use 
in accomplishing learning tasks, strategies are systematic and conscious plans, actions 
and thoughts that learners select or invent and adapt to each task. Strategies are often 
described as "knowing what to do, how to do it, when to do it and why it is useful." 

Immersing students in language-rich environments and encouraging them to produce 
texts are essential in language learning. Students also need methodical instruction in 
the strategies that adept learners use in approaching language tasks. 



Students with learning disabilities often lack strategies, fail to apply or generalize 
strategies, choose ineffective or inappropriate strategies, and/or experience difficulty 
engaging in effective self-monitoring behaviour. Students' acquisition and use of 
strategies can be facilitated by the following tips for strategy teaching. 

• Involve students throughout the strategy teaching process. 

• Actively involve the students in setting personal and academic goals and in self- 
monitoring their use of strategies. 

• Prepare students. Provide explicit instruction. Students are more likely to learn a 
strategy if they are well informed about what is expected, what is being learned, 
why it is being learned and how it can be used. 

• Model the steps of a strategy. Demonstrate both process and procedures by 
"thinking aloud" as the strategy is applied. 

• Plan for a gradual release of responsibility. Provide many opportunities for 
students to apply the strategy with guidance and specific feedback. The dialogue 
and interaction assists students in understanding the task and in knowing when and 
how to use strategies effectively. Provide scaffolded instruction; that is, provide 
cues, prompts and assistance responsive to the students' understanding, and 
gradually withdraw support as the student gains independence in using the 
strategy. 

• Collaborate to teach for transfer. Provide Dodeling, prompts and cues to 
encourage strategy use in different classes with different content; and learn the 
strategies students are using in different classes in order to demonstrate how to 
adapt them successfully to English language arts. 

• Monitor strategy use. A strategy is only effective if students actually use it. 
Encourage students to use cue systems to remind them of strategies and their steps; 
e.g., pictures of the steps, a checklist, a mnemonic reminder. Include 
demonstration of the use of a strategy as part of the requirement for a project. If 
this expectation is explicit from the beginning of an assignment, it encourages 
strategy use. 



® Information on students with learning disabilities is adapted from Alberta Education, Teaching Students with Learning 
Disabilities. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education, 1996. 



74/ Meeting Student Needs 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



English as 
a Second 
Language 
(ESL) Students 



Students with English as their second language differ in their abilities with the 
language and in the types of difficulties they encounter. Some may have difficulty in 
understanding classroom reading materials or instructions and in participating in 
discussions, while others may have little difficulty in communicating but have 
difficulty with English structures, such as articles, plurals, verb tenses, syntax, and 
pronoun-antecedent and subject-verb agreement. Some students may be quite fluent 
speakers but have difficulty with reading and writing, and some may also have other 
learning difficulties that are not related to language. Teachers can support ESL 
students in a number of ways, including: 

• connecting the student's background to the learning task, by allowing a choice of 
reading materials from the student's culture and allowing students to read and 
work out complex tasks or issues in their first language 

• using group work where ESL students can receive assistance from peers and 
develop their English skills in informal talk 

• providing background information and vocabulary in preparation for text study 
and text creation activities 

• using visual aids with instruction 

• providing students with, or helping students to develop, graphic organizers to 
assist them in structuring ideas 

• helping students with matters of correctness, by focusing on one particular type of 
error at a time 

• separating content from language issues when assessing student work. 



Learning 
Styles 



Teachers, in both instruction and assessment, take into consideration that all incoming 
information is received through the senses — sight, sound, touch. Students may have 
preferences for a particular sense: 

• visual — learns best by seeing, watching demonstrations or videos 

• auditory — learns best by listening, through verbal instructions from others and/or 
self 

• kinesthetic — learns best by doing, by being directly involved 

• combination — no particular preference, combines two or three styles or switches 
between them depending on the situation and material to be learned. 

Understanding that students have different learning styles can lead to responsive 
instruction and fair assessment where teachers provide a wide variety of lessons and 
use a broad range of strategies, activities and types of assessment materials and 
methods. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Meeting Student Needs 115 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Different created texts may be developed through the employment of a dominant 
learning style: 



<®> Visual 


Xj Kinesthetic 


$/ Auditory 


videos 


dramatization 


panel discussions 


mind mapping 


experiments 


class discussions 


painting 


puppetry 


oral directions 


timelines 


demonstrating 


storytelling 


diagrams 


labs 


direct instruction 


slides 


creative movement 


choral reading 


filmstrips 


diorama 


debates 


overhead 


constructing 


tape recordings 


transparencies 


collecting 


interviews 


charts, graphs, maps, 


games, puzzles 


music 


pictures 


manipulatives 


readers' theatre 


displays 


field trips 


lectures 


computer graphics 


drawing 


songs 


visual clues for verbal 


mime 


reading aloud 


directions 




oral commentary 


exhibits 






note-taking 






models 






microscopes 







For more information on learning styles, see Teaching Students with Learning 
Disabilities, Alberta Education. 



Scaffolding 
to Support 
Student 
Learning 



Many literacy tasks involve a complex interaction of skills. Students often require 
support in the development of these skills. Providing this kind of support in teaching is 
sometimes called scaffolding (Wood, Bruner and Ross 1976). Teachers scaffold by: 

structuring tasks so that learners begin with something they can do 

reducing the complexity of tasks 

calling students' attention to critical features of the tasks 

modelling steps 

providing sufficient guided and independent practice 

providing choice in texts to be studied and created and in learning strategies. 

In a sense, each learning strategy is an external support or scaffold. The extent to 
which each individual student is able to draw on appropriate learning strategies 
influences the type or amount of support or scaffolding that the student needs. In the 
earliest stages of acquiring new skills or learning new concepts, students may need a 
great deal of support; e.g., direct instruction and step-by-step guidance through a 
process. Eventually, students use the strategies they have been taught automatically 
and rely on them as learning tools by adjusting and personalizing the process. 
Struggling learners may work with simplified versions of a strategy and may continue 
to use the supports of strategies such as prepared graphic organizers, for essay 
organization or planning proposals, after other students have internalized the process. 



76/ Meeting Student Needs 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Because students have a wide variety of aptitudes, needs and prior experiences, 
teachers need to provide differing levels of support, guidance and direction. Teachers 
use a variety of techniques, such as observation, seminars, pre-tests, Know - Want to 
Know - Learn (KWL) charts (see p. 148) and learning profiles, in order to determine 
the level of support that needs to be provided. 

Scaffolding Suggestions for Text Study 

The following strategies are intended to provide a range in the amount of support 
provided for students of varying skill levels and experiences in order that they may 
achieve the same learning outcomes. 

Provide students with a choice of texts of varying levels of difficulty. The newly 
authorized basic resources provide information on readability levels. 

Provide context such as necessary background information. 

Provide vocabulary lists or a glossary of terms. 

Offer the opportunity to work in collaborative learning groups where students who 
have strengths in different areas can help each other. 

Provide assistance in accessing further information, such as through the library or 
Internet. 

Provide opportunities to work with teachers in related subject areas. 

Provide more advanced students with opportunities to extend their learning. 

Provide an opportunity for students to choose the format of their response. 

Have students view a film version of the text before reading. 

Read the text out loud, pointing out significant details. 

Have students work in groups, reading the text out loud and discussing questions 
or concerns as they arise. 

Have students listen to audiotapes of the text as they read along and respond to 
questions provided by the teacher. 

Have students read the text independently but work with others to generate their 
own questions and responses. 

Have students read the text and highlight important sections in their own copy. 
Sample Scaffolding Activities 



Teachers may wish to allow students to choose the ways in which they access a text or 
demonstrate their understanding, and group students for instruction accordingly. 
Students can then work together to set learning goals, select strategies they will use to 
reach those goals and monitor how well the particular strategies are contributing to 
understanding. Providing this kind of choice and peer support allows students to 
demonstrate their learning in ways that acknowledge their areas of strength and 
encourage appropriate growth. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Meeting Student Needs 111 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



The following approach demonstrates one way of providing such choice and support. 
This approach may be particularly useful in a classroom that contains a blend of 
students from different grades or course sequences. In this sequence of activities, 
students are responding to the questions, "In what ways do people use their creativity 
to express their thoughts and emotions?" and "Is this an important need?" They do this 
by studying a song, "Vincent" and a visual image, The Starry Night. Both of these 
texts are in Nelson English, Literature & Media 10. 

Task 1: Group Response 

All students participate in the following activities in order to respond to the texts and 
explore the questions. Working in groups allows students to support each other in this 
initial exploration. 

• View the print of Vincent van Gogh's painting The Starry Night (Literature & 
Media 10, p. 354). Take a few minutes to jot down a description of the painting 
and your impressions of it. What is your sense of the artist behind the work? 
Why do you think the art world would consider this painting to be a masterpiece? 

• Read the lyrics to Don McLean's song "Vincent" (Literature & Media 10, 

pp. 243-244). Make notes about the tone and the mood of the lyrics. What sort of 
music would you choose to complement a voiced reading of these lyrics? Add 
these notes to your description of the painting. 

• Now, listen to a recording of Don McLean singing his song "Vincent." Did the 
artist's melody match what you anticipated? Did it add to or reinforce your 
impression of the lyrics? 

• Prepare a summary of your group's discussion and reactions, and present it 
succinctly to the class. 

Task 2: Individual Project 

Students choose an individual project that allows them to demonstrate their learning in 
a way that is most suited to their learning strengths. Students choosing the same 
project can work together to provide each other with support, but each student 
completes his or her own project. 

• Find a print or a painting that provokes a response in you, as Don McLean did in 
"Vincent." Write a poem or song lyrics in response to the visual. Include a brief 
description of what you hoped to accomplish. 

• Find a painting that provokes a response from you, and invent "the story behind 
the painting." 

• Find compelling song lyrics, and create a visual response. 
An effective response will: 



include or refer to specific details of the painting or lyrics 
show careful thought and consideration of design 



• reflect the time given for the project. 



78/ Meeting Student Needs Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Teachers can provide scaffolding support by suggesting different ways that students 
can approach their project. Students choose the types of support that will best meet the 
requirements of the project and their own learning needs; e.g.: 

• Work in the library to create a personal glossary of terms needed in order to 
discuss a painting or song. 

• Discuss with an art teacher the concepts of Impressionism. 

• View a film about van Gogh's life or the Impressionist movement. 

• Take part in a seminar with the English teacher in order to have guidance in 
designing a specific plan for proceeding. 

• Work independently or in collaborative groups to design a plan for proceeding or 
to design a KWL chart (see p. 148). 

• Consult with the music teacher to discuss how music is used to create tone, mood 
and theme. 

The key to successful scaffolding in a blended or diverse classroom is to choose 
appropriate strategies that address the learning challenge. The following chart may 
help teachers to track and make scaffolding choices for their students. 



Student Behaviour 
or Skill Weakness 


Scaffolding Strategy 


Student has difficulty engaging in 
the learning process. 


• Encourage the student to work, in a collaborative 
group where he or she has a specific role to play. 

• Work one on one with the student, setting specific 
learning goals for the activity. 

• Encourage the student to participate in seminars. 


Student has difficulty with or is 
reluctant to begin accessing text. 


• The student can initially access text by listening to 
an audiotape or viewing a film. 

• The teacher or a classmate could read text aloud to 
the student. 

• The teacher could allow the student to choose from 
a variety of text options. 


Student initially explores at a literal 
level. 


• The student keeps a learning log that helps him or 
her to record new knowledge or understanding. 
This is followed by a conference with the teacher 
where deeper understandings are highlighted. 

• The student keeps an ongoing mind map or 
sociogram to take to seminars. This will 
encourage thinking at a more critical level since 
the mind map will facilitate exploration. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Meeting Student Needs 119 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Texts with 
Aboriginal 
Content 



Using text with Aboriginal content sometimes requires using different strategies and 
having different understandings in order to help students more fully appreciate the 
richness and depth of the texts. Aboriginal texts often reflect universal values and 
beliefs inherent in Aboriginal cultures; however, it is important to remember that 
Aboriginal cultures vary in their beliefs or ways of understanding the world and that 
these cultures have changed and evolved over time. One must, therefore, be careful in 
generalizing about values and beliefs. It is also important to remember that the 
particular author or artist's viewpoint is personal, and while it will be influenced by his 
or her particular culture, it is not necessarily representative of that culture or of the 
Aboriginal point of view. 

Because western European and Aboriginal traditions may be based on very different 
philosophical and spiritual beliefs, the whole notion of story, art and the ways of 
understanding and using symbol can be very different in these two traditions. 
Applying Aboriginal legends and folk tales to non-Aboriginal concepts, therefore, can 
distort and change their meaning. Aboriginal peoples have ancient legends, songs and 
dances, which reflect the identity of each nation, clan or group. Family, group and 
nation histories are related through the arts, and knowledge is passed on through the 
oral tradition. The ways stories are told and even when they can be told, therefore, 
become more important than in the western tradition of stories. In addition, because 
each text was created by a writer or artist with his or her own perspective and cultural 
background, the types of symbols used may vary in different texts. For example, the 
connection to the Great Spirit is symbolized by an eagle in one culture, but by a raven 
in another. 

Creating a context to enable students to better understand and appreciate the 
texts 

Finding out more about values and underlying belief systems, such as the strong sense 
of family relationship, sense of honour and respect for Elders, and responsibility for 
the welfare of the total group, can enable teachers to more respectfully and accurately 
portray Aboriginal cultures. 

While Aboriginal cultures have different beliefs and traditions, there are a number of 
shared beliefs that readers, listeners and viewers of Aboriginal texts should be aware 
of. The beliefs summarized below are often reflected in the motifs and themes of 
Aboriginal literature and are part of the traditional wisdom that has been passed down 
orally from generation to generation. They are seen as being as useful today as they 
were in the past in helping people live with integrity. 

Aboriginal cultures share a belief that people must live in respectful, harmonious 
relationships with nature, with one another and with themselves. Each person is given 
the gift of body, with the choice to care for it and use it with respect; the capacity and 
the choice to learn to live in respectful relationships; and strengths or talents to be 
discovered, nurtured and shared for the benefit of all. A people's sense of place and 
identity is tied to the land/sea which has given the people life. The natural world 
provides people with the necessities of life, and people must live in harmony with the 
laws of nature in order to be sustained by it. Identity comes from belonging in 
respectful relationships with others. Agreement on rules enables cooperation and 
group strength.® 



"Adapted from Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education, The Common Curriculum Framework for Aboriginal 
Language and Culture Programs: Kindergarten to Grade 12 (Edmonton, AB: Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic 
Education, 2000). 



80/ Meeting Student Needs 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Activities® 

Activities such as the following can be used with Aboriginal texts to help students 
further explore and develop a deeper understanding and appreciation of the texts. 

• Students research a custom such as teepee making or totem pole carving and 
compare it to a custom in their own cultural background. 

• Students research the meaning of the symbols used in the text being studied. 

• Students investigate the purpose and tradition of storytelling and the appropriate 
ways of listening to stories in an Aboriginal culture, before listening to a storyteller 
and then telling a story from their own heritage. 

• Students compare stories of the trickster character from different cultural groups; 
e.g., Nanabush, Wisahkecahk, Old Man and Raven. 

Sources for finding out more about Aboriginal cultures 

• Elders as keepers of knowledge in the oral tradition in each community or culture 
are very important sources of finding out more about various Aboriginal cultures 
and beliefs. 

• A number of universities have departments of native studies where more 
information is available. 



O Adapted from Dorothea M. Susag, "Secondary Level Units, Lessons, and Activities," Roots and Branches: A Resource of Native 
American Literature (Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 1998), pp. 52-101. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts Meeting Student Needs /81 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAET) 



82/ Guide to Implementation: Grades 1 0-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



ACHIEVING THE 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS 

OUTCOMES 

FOR GRADES 10 AND 11 



SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION, ASSESSMENT AND 
LEARNING RESOURCES 



An 

Organizational 

Framework 



The study of English language arts enables each student to understand and appreciate 
the significance and artistry of literature. As well, it enables each student to 
understand and appreciate language and to use it confidently and competently for a 
variety of purposes, with a variety of audiences and in a variety of situations for 
communication, personal satisfaction and learning. 

The learning outcomes are interrelated and interdependent; each is to be achieved 
through a variety of listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and representing 
experiences. 




Instructional 
and 

Assessment 
Suggestions 



The suggestions for instruction, assessment and resources provide teachers with a 
foundation for implementing the program of studies. The strategies are designed to 
help students in ELA 10-1, ELA 10-2, ELA 20-1 and ELA 20-2 to achieve the specific 
outcomes for their courses but are not intended to be all inclusive. Teachers can select 
strategies for the various outcomes as they plan units and cycles of work; use them to 
generate new strategies; and continue using current, effective instructional and 
assessment approaches and methods. 



° Instructional and Assessment Strategies are linked to the specific outcomes found in the Program of Studies for Senior 
High School English Language Arts, Interim 2002. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Achieving the Outcomes /85 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Choosing particular ideas and strategies precludes using others. It is unlikely that a 
teacher would use all the suggestions for instruction and assessment for a learning 
outcome subheading with a particular class. For example, various types of journals 
and logs are discussed: personal journals, reader response/dialogue journals, learning 
logs and writers' notebooks. Students likely would not maintain all of these 
simultaneously. 

ResOUTCG The suggested learning resources consist of print resources intended primarily for 

teachers, as well as Web site and multimedia resources that students could access. 
Each resource is annotated. Complete bibliographic information is provided in the 
References section at the end of this document. 

Note: Some of the resources listed are not authorized by Alberta Learning. Their 
listing is not to be taken as explicit or implicit departmental approval for use. 
The titles have been provided as a service only, to help school authorities identify 
resources that contain potentially useful ideas. The responsibility to evaluate 
these resources prior to selection rests with the user, in accordance with any 
existing local policy. The user is also responsible for evaluating any materials 
listed within the resource itself. 



Suggestions 



86/ Achieving the Outcomes Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



GENERAL OUTCOME 1 



STUDENTS WILL LISTEN, SPEAK, READ, WRITE, VIEW AND REPRESENT TO: 



1.1.1 Form tentative understandings, 
interpretations and positions 



1.1.2 Experiment with language, 
image and structure 



1.1 Discover possibilities 




General Outcome 1 



Explore thoughts, ideas, 
feelings and experiences 




1.2 Extend awareness 



1.2.1 Consider new 
perspectives 



1.2.2 Express preferences, 
and expand interests 



1 .2.3 Set personal goals for 
language growth 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 1 0-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1 /87 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



GENERAL OUTCOME 1 ■ INDEX OF STRATEGIES 



Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and 
experiences. 



1.1 Discover possibilities 

1.1.1 Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions 



IS* f 
42* 



GO 

i 



t> 



Learning Logs 

Journals 

Worth a Thousand Words 

Field Walks 

1 Wonder 

Two-minute Talk-back 

Testing Hypotheses 

Anticipation Guide 

Whole-class Discussions 

Monitoring Metacognitive Growth. 



1 . 1 .2 Experiment with language, image and structure 

How-to Manuals 

Breaking the Rules 

Models of Nonverbal Language 

Experiment with Style 

Monologues 

Mime Sketch 

Monitoring Metacognitive Growth 



4&t 



43*$ 



1.2 



Extend awareness 

1 .2. 1 Consider new perspectives 

• Beyond the Classroom 

• Exploring an Issue 

iS4 o.) • Talking Circle 

/»S»\ • Surveys and Questionnaires 

• Inquiry Dialogue 

4£s\ • Dialogue Journals 

l^s\ <p • Fish-bowl Discussions 

<j> • Sociographic 

4£,\ <$ • Ghostwriting 

l£S% • Opinion Line-up 

• Monitoring Metacognitive Growth. 



? 



1 .2.2 Express preferences, and expand interests 

• Sharing Text 

f • Setting Goals 

Reading Profile, Journal or Scrapbook. 

WebSites 

Student Profiles 

Oral Update 



£5% 

9 



94 
95 
97 
97 
97 
98 
98 
98 
99 
100 



105 
105 
105 
106 
106 
106 
107 



111 
111 
111 
112 
112 
113 
114 
114 
115 
116 
116 



120 
120 
120 
121 
121 
122 



88/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



GENERAL OUTCOME 1 - INDEX OF STRATEGIES (continued) 



iS% • Reading Circles 

• Summer Reading 

• Anthologies (student compilation) 

• Personal Favourites (student compilation) . 

• Comparing Versions (of the same text) 

• People's Choice (rating texts and artists) ... 



122 
122 
123 
123 
123 
124 



1.2.3 
• 

9 

9 
9 

9 

9 

9 



Set personal goals for language growth 
Goal Setting in the Six Language Arts . 

Admit and Exit Slips 

Goal Sheet 

Letter to Myself 

Linking Personal and Class Goals 

Portfolio Reflections 

Second Read 



129 
130 
130 
130 
131 
131 
131 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1 /89 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



GENERAL OUTCOME 1 • 




Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore 
thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences. 

General Outcome 1 describes the exploratory uses of language in the English language 
arts classroom. Listening, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and representing are all 
means of learning about ourselves and others. In General Outcome 1, language is used 
for a variety of purposes: 

• To explore thoughts and feelings: Students learn what they think through putting 
tentative and partially formed understanding into language. 

• To experiment with language and forms: Through experimentation, students 
expand their language fluency and deepen their appreciation of the aesthetic 
qualities and power of language. 

• To share thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences: Students examine their own 
knowledge and opinions in light of the ideas of others. "Others" refers to peers, to 
members of the community, and to writers and producers who present their 
thoughts and ideas in texts. 

• To expand ideas, interests and preferences: By collaborating with others and by 
engaging with texts, students build knowledge that is more comprehensive than 
each individual's understanding. They expand their interest in types of texts, as 
well as text creators, and develop new or stronger preferences. 



Fostering Student Exploration 

Exploration implies risk taking. Teachers demonstrate that experimenting with ideas 
and different ways to express them is valued as a means of growth. Teachers foster 
student exploration by providing the following conditions and supports: 

• A stimulating environment: A classroom filled with texts — books, magazines, 

films, recordings, pictures and artifacts — fosters engagement, thought, discussion 
and creation. 

• A supportive atmosphere: Students increasingly recognize that not every 
exploratory venture with language will succeed and that even unsuccessful 
ventures can prove instructive. Assessment tools should support rather than 
discourage risk taking. 

• Frequent opportunities for authentic language use: Teachers plan frequent 
opportunities for students to explore and express their feelings, thoughts and ideas 
on subjects they care about. 

• Positive affirmation: Teachers value the unique experiences, personal qualities, 
learning approaches and contributions of each student in the classroom. 

• Varied instruction: Students are invited to explore a wide variety of language 
forms so that they are confident in engaging with the texts around them and have a 
wide repertoire of means of self-expression. 



90/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



• An enthusiastic model: Teachers model the enjoyment derived from encountering, 
exploring and expressing. 

Assessing Exploratory Thought and Expression 

Much exploratory work is done in the early stages of the creative process. Assessing 
this exploratory work for content, as one would assess a final product may encourage 
students to consolidate their ideas prematurely rather than exploring tentative 
positions. Typically, exploratory thought and expression is assessed formatively. 

The following assessment tools examine exploratory work for the qualities that 
characterize exploration and tools that develop independence and metacognition by 
equiring students to reflect on the success of the work. 

learning logs 

reflective pieces in portfolios 

exit slips 

peer and teacher conferences 

informal feedback 

checklists. 

Exploratory Work Checklists 

Because many of the specific outcomes in General Outcome 1 demonstrate similar or 
connected skills and habits of mind, teachers may find it useful to create a general 
checklist or assessment form that addresses a cluster of learning outcomes. Students 
can be asked to complete checklists or forms at intervals in connection with different 
activities. Teachers can confer with students on these checklists or forms in order to 
help students set goals and assess their progress over time. 

An example of a self-assessment form is included in Appendix B, pp. 401-402. A 
form such as this one should be developed through discussion with students prior to an 
exploratory activity, to assist them in understanding the learning outcomes being 
addressed in the activity and in focusing their efforts on attaining them. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 1 /91 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2 002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to explore 
thoughts, ideas, feelings and 
experiences. 




1 . 1 Discover possibilities 



i^m 



Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions 



Overview 

When students are faced with a new task or assignment or when they are engaged in a new work of literature or 
other text, they embark on discovery. When they explore, students begin to formulate their thoughts and ideas, to 
organize and make sense of their experiences, and to express and acknowledge their feelings. While engaging in 
such activities as group or whole class discussions, formulating questions, organizing ideas, sketching or 
collecting images, developing drafts of works in progress and revising and rehearsing, students form tentative 
understandings, interpretations and positions. 

To maximize the benefits of the process of exploration, students take calculated risks by acting on partial 
knowledge to form initial, tentative understandings. They consider the potential of tentative understandings, 
interpretations and positions and the potential of emerging themes, ideas and opinions. Students also come to 
understand that: 

• exploration in the English language arts involves taking risks, venturing into new learning situations and 
attempting new tasks, and that 

• understanding takes time. 

Metacognitive Learning 

In high school English language arts, students continue to explore new texts and develop new understandings. As 
they employ various strategies to construct meaning from new texts, students develop initial interpretations and 
positions. 



Metacognitive Process Outcome (Grades 10-12) 


Description 


Selection 


Modification 


- reflect on and describe 

previous strategies used to 
form tentative 
understandings, 
interpretations and positions 

- identify and describe 
additional strategies that 
may be used 


- select appropriate strategies 
for forming tentative 
understandings, 
interpretations and positions 


- monitor the effectiveness 
of selected strategies, and 
modify them as needed 



Assessment of 1.1.1 

The purpose of assessment in learning outcome subheading 1.1.1 is to determine how well students are: 

• developing and employing effective strategies for discovery, such as generating ideas and exploring the 
implications and potential of these ideas 



92/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions (continued) 



• considering new ways of thinking 

• asking questions about their learning to expand their understanding. 

Teachers should formatively assess the ideas that emerge in exploratory processes — in connection with other 
learning outcomes — while students are developing and refining them. Summatively assessing ideas at this stage 
forces students to solidify their thinking prematurely and limits risk taking. Teachers should strive to 
summatively assess ideas only after students have developed and refined them. 

Reporting 

Much of the communication about student learning associated with learning outcome subheading 1.1.1 will consist 
of students expressing their observations and assessments of how well they have been formulating interpretations 
and positions and developing understandings. 

At other times, the teacher will be reporting to students and to parents various observations and assessments of 
how well the students have been forming tentative understandings, interpretations and positions. 

Reporting Strategies 

Students need feedback on how well they are: 

selecting and employing strategies for exploration 

forming understandings, interpretations and positions that are tentative, and recognizing their tentativeness 

considering the thinking of others 

framing their in-process understandings as questions 

relating previous thinking with new thought 

noting comparisons and contrasts. 

Much of the reporting a teacher offers takes the form of formative feedback. Teachers can report formatively 
on student progress in a variety of ways, including: 

• verbal feedback during whole-class discussion 

• written feedback to a student's dialogue journal entry 

• verbal and/or written feedback to a student's in-process creation of text 

• sharing observations and impressions during one-on-one interviews. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 1 /93 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



Learning Logs (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 20-2a, b) 

Learning logs are a form of journal, but they focus more specifically on student 
learning and metacognition. Learning logs are a tool for learning through writing and 
for students to assess their learning. 

In their learning logs, students may record prior knowledge, reflect on new concepts, identify 
areas of conflict between previous and new information, identify difficulties in 
understanding, list questions they intend to pursue, and reflect on the strategies they have 
used. 



Guiding questions such as the following can be used to help students reflect on learning. 

What did I understand about the work I did today? 

What did I not understand? 

What confused me? What is still confusing me? 

With what points did 1 disagree? 

Why do my ideas differ from others' ideas? 

What questions do I still have? 

How could 1 find the answers? 

What are my initial thoughts and perceptions about what I am exploring? 

How are my interpretations and positions changing as 1 explore further and consider the 
thinking of others? 



Assessment Formative Assessment of Learning Logs 

Learning log entries provide teachers and students with an ongoing 
record of student learning. Allow students time periodically to review 
their learning logs and note patterns in their learning. Individual 
conferences are an effective way to evaluate learning logs. Learning log 
entries can also serve as admit and exit slips — see learning outcome 
subheading 1.2.3 (p. 130) — if students use them to record their 
expectations at the beginning of a class and their learning at the end. 



94/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions (continued) 



¥ 



JOUmalS (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Establishing daily (or frequent) journal writing as part of the classroom routine is an 
effective way to foster student reflection and expression. 

Journals may consist of separate notebooks or sections in students' binders. They are 
ongoing records of students' personal responses to experiences, school activities, current 
events, small- and large-group discussions, and texts. Students can use their journals to 
express their enjoyment of certain activities and their dissatisfaction with others. They can 
reflect on personal concerns and preoccupations that may have an impact on their ability to 
participate fully in class. Besides being a verbal record of student experiences, journals may 
include sketches, magazine pictures, poetry and song lyrics. On some occasions, the teacher 
specifies the subject for journal writing; on other occasions, students choose a subject as a 
group or as individuals. Reader response journals, which are more focused responses to 
specific texts, are discussed in learning outcome subheading 2.3.1 (pp. 183-186); learning 
logs, which focus on students' reflections on their own learning, are discussed in this 
learning outcome subheading (p. 94). 



Introducing Journals 

• Discuss the purposes of journal writing. Students write in journals to establish a record 
of experiences, feelings and thoughts, explore experiences, and express positions and 
points of view. 

#SJr% • Allow students time to read and discuss samples of other students' journals and 
published journals. 

• Designate a regular quiet time for journal writing. Initially, use this time to write on the 
chalkboard or overhead transparency, modelling the kinds of entries that students could 
write. 

• Suggest that entries will vary in length according to students' interest in the subject being 
discussed. Establish the class requirements for the number of in-depth or extended 
entries. 



Assessment 



Formative Assessment of Journals 



4g^l% Although journals are a place for personal reflection, teachers should 

assess them regularly. It may be most convenient to take in the journals 
on the same day every week, or to colour-code the journals in sets of four 
or five and read one colour each day. Students should also be 
encouraged, but not required, to share their journals with friends and 
family and to invite written responses. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1 /95 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions (continued) 



Journals can be a powerful tool for providing insight into students' 
interests and thinking and for fostering a personal connection with 
students. Teachers can respond with: 

• brief comments about their own experiences and ideas on the subject 
being discussed 

• questions that extend thinking 

• feedback regarding evidence of personal reflection and effective 
language use 

• suggestions for development of thinking or language. 

Establish the criteria for journal assessment at the outset of journal 
writing. Criteria may include: 

• the completeness of the record of the event that prompted the 
response 

• the number of in-depth or extended responses 

• evidence of personal engagement and reflection 

• evidence that the student has reviewed past entries and reflected on 
the experiences, emotions and opinions expressed. 

Self-assessment of Journals: Students need frequent opportunities to 
review their journals and engage in self-assessment. Set aside a class 
period for students to review the entries they have written between two 
dates and to reflect on whether they are meeting the criteria for journal 
writing and what they could do to improve their entries. 

Questions to guide student reflection may include: 

• How regular are your entries? 

• How many extended entries have you made during this period? 
Is this enough to meet the criteria for the class? 

• How varied are your responses? Are there other kinds of entries you 
could try? 

• How thoughtful and reflective are your entries? Do they reflect your 
personal thinking? 

• If you were a teacher reading this journal, how would you rate it? 
What might your comments be? 

|gg= Journal Conferences: Prior to a conference, both the student and 
teacher can fill out an evaluation form for the student's journal. See 
Appendix B, p. 403, for a sample evaluation form. 



96/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions (continued) 



Worth a Thousand Words (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 20-2a, b) 

Provide students with a range of tools to represent their ideas visually; e.g., coloured 
markers, charcoal, paper of different colours and shapes. To help students move from visual 
to verbal language, ask them to reflect on their sketches or drawings and to write a few 
sentences interpreting them, considering the meaning of the various elements. Post the 
sketches around the room and conduct a Field Walk — see the next suggestion. 

Field Walks® (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

A Field Walk is an effective way to offer students multisensory experiences that invite 
exploration. It can be organized by the teacher or students to introduce a subject for inquiry, 
to integrate ideas in the course of a unit or as an extension activity. The walk may be 
conducted through parts of the school or through some other locale. 

Preview the route(s) students are to travel. 

Invite students to walk the area in groups of two or three, examining their surroundings. 

Have students respond by: 

• answering questions provided by the teacher/class 

• developing a list of their own questions 

• recording images and information; e.g., through photographs or in writing 

• comparing and contrasting observed texts/objects/ sights/sounds or relating them to 
something else they have studied 

• writing about each object/sight/sound on a large "parking lot" sheet posted nearby, or in 
their journals if the walk is conducted in a controlled environment 

• representing observations visually. Students could be asked to make one change in their 
representation to make it more closely reflect their own ideas. 



Assessment Formative, Self or Peer Assessment of Field Walks 

Students' written responses to Field Walks can be assessed through a 
checklist. 

Does the student: 

• express emerging ideas? 

• consider the potential of these ideas? 

• develop new and tentative positions? 

/<»2>V When students have completed the Field Walk, the groups reconvene 
and present their tentative understandings, interpretations and 
positions. 



f 



I Wonder (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Schedule time periodically for students to raise questions they are wondering about — with 
respect to a text or to a class or community issue. 



® Adapted from the idea of a "Gallery Walk" in Faye Brownlie and Susan Close, Beyond Chalk & Talk: Collaborative Strategies for the 
Middle and High School Years (Markham, ON: Pembroke, 1992). 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1 191 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions (continued) 



TwO-minute Talk-back (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 
Have students move into pairs. One student expresses his or her ideas or opinions on a 
subject for two minutes; the other summarizes orally. The second student then speaks, and 
his or her partner summarizes. 

4£S% Testing Hypotheses (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-1 a, b; 20-2a, b) 

Have students read two articles or view two videos that represent opposing points of view on 
a subject. Then have them move into groups. Rather than having students take positions 
immediately, ask them to come up with a series of possible positions. Then have them write 
down what they consider to be the strongest argument both for and against each of the 
identified positions. 

Anticipation Guide (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Anticipation guides are useful in helping readers clarify their own thinking on a subject 
before approaching a text. Such tools are generally used prior to the introduction of new 
material to help students: 

• identify their assumptions about a subject and inform the teacher/presenter of their 
knowledge and opinion base 

• stimulate interest in the subject 

• activate their prior knowledge and integrate new learning into their previous schemata. 



f 



Anticipation guides (Readence, Bean and Baldwin 1981) may be developed by the teacher or 
by students doing oral presentations. They consist of a series of statements to which students 
respond in writing. Brozo and Simpson (1995, p. 39) suggest teachers use the following 
steps for creating and using anticipation guides: 

Identify the major concepts to be emphasized in the assigned reading or presentation. 

Identify and describe what you believe to be the students' experiences, beliefs and prior 
knowledge with respect to these concepts. 

Write approximately five statements that will challenge or confirm these beliefs. 

Prepare an anticipation guide handout or overhead transparency with the statements, and 
ask students to respond briefly in writing. Anticipation guides usually require an Agree 
or Disagree response, along with a sentence or two to state a reason. 

Poll the class on their responses, discussing their reasons. 

After the class has read or viewed the assigned text or listened to the presentation, have 
them return to the anticipation guide and decide whether they want to revise any of their 
responses. 

Discuss revised responses, asking students to reflect on why their thinking changed. 



U^p See Appendix B, p. 404, for a sample anticipation guide. 



98/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions (continued) 



Assessment Ask students to reflect in their learning logs on their responses in the 
anticipation guides and to reflect on the way they developed their 
thinking through the text or presentation. 

Anticipation guides also provide important information about the degree 
of students' prior knowledge on a subject and misconceptions they may 
hold that will have an impact on their learning. Following the use of an 
anticipation guide, provide the class or particular students with extra 
support or information required to address gaps in their understanding of 
a subject. (See 2.1.3) 

Whole-class Discussions (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 2o-2a, b) 

Use a variety of strategies, such as the following, to make whole-class discussions more 
effective: 

• Ensure that students are facing each other rather than facing only the teacher. 

• Rearrange seating frequently to change class dynamics. 

• Facilitate discussion by writing down the names of all students who would like to speak 
and asking them to speak in turn. Ask students to focus their thoughts by having them 
write down their ideas before discussion begins. 

• Stop discussion periodically and ask students to summarize in writing what they have 
heard. 

• Emphasize active listening as an essential contribution to class discussion. Ask speakers 
to paraphrase the previous speaker's comments, to ask a question or to provide an 
example. 

• The day before discussion, provide the discussion topic or question to students so that 
they can prepare a response. This will particularly help those students who have 
difficulty speaking without preparation. 



Assessment 



Formative Assessment of Whole-class Discussions 

Teachers could focus on four or five students each week to observe 
their facility in expressing their thoughts in whole -class discussions. 

Prepare an observation sheet with a section for each student. 

Make brief notes after each discussion, using assessment criteria pre- 
established with the class. Criteria may include the following: 

The student: 

• is willing to contribute orally 

• expresses thoughtful responses 

• considers others' ideas 

• takes risks 

• asks questions. 

Provide students with oral feedback about their participation. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1 /99 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions (continued) 



$ 



Expressing ideas in whole-class discussions may be formatively 
assessed in conjunction with other learning outcomes found in other 
learning outcome subheadings; e.g., subheadings 1.2.1, 2.1.1 and 
2.1.2. 

Self Assessment: When students are selecting topics or themes for 
assignments, they could submit a list of three ideas, along with a 
discussion of the possibilities and problems/challenges they envision 
for each. Teachers would use these submissions in conferences, 
inviting student assessment of the merits of the ideas listed. 



Monitoring Metacognitive Growth (io-ia,b;io-2a,b;2o-ia,b;2o-2a,b) 



Students write an account in dialogue journals or learning logs of how they arrived at an 
understanding, constructed an interpretation or made up their minds on a particular issue. 



Technology Considerations 



Students need to discern and understand contexts, knowing when to use available 
technologies that can help them explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences. As well, 
they need to be allowed to use these technologies appropriately to assist their study of, 
response to and creation of texts. 

Technologies that can help students explore include audiocassette recorders, with which 
spoken exploratory thought and discussion may be recorded; graphic organizers, such as 
webs, lists and charts, onto which brainstorming and comparisons are developed and 
recorded; journals and logs, in which ideas and feelings may be captured; word processors, 
which facilitate the expression of the written word; and camcorders, which record 
experiences from certain vantage points. 

Learning outcome subheading 1.1.1 supports the Information and Communication 
Technology (1CT) Program of Studies, Kindergarten to Grade 12, particularly Division 4 
outcome C2-4.2: evaluate the validity of gathered viewpoints against other sources. 

D^ 3 See Appendix C, p. 429, for cross-references of specific outcomes in the 1CT and ELA senior 
high school programs. 



100/ General Outcome 1 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions (continued) 



Teacher Resources 



Barrell, Barrie R. C. and Roberta Hammett (eds.). Advocating Change: Contemporary 
Issues in Subject English. 

The various issues are addressed in twenty chapters, which are grouped into six parts. 
Part 5 — Re-assessing Assessment Practices — includes discussion of traditional 
assessment practices, portfolio assessment, writing assessment, and diversity and 
assessment. 

Bridges, L. Assessment: Continuous Learning. 

This book demonstrates a variety of ways to connect learning and assessment, including 
kid watching and use of developmental checklists, portfolios, student interviews and 
self-evaluation. This resource includes reviews of current assessment literature. 

Bromley, Karen, Linda Irwin-De Vitis and Marcia Modlo. 50 Graphic Organizers for 
Reading, Writing & More: Reproducible Templates, Student Samples and Easy 
Strategies to Support Every Learner and Graphic Organizers: Visual Strategies for 
Active Learning. 

These books offer a variety of ready-to-go templates, student samples and step-by-step 
directions to help students use graphic organizers as learning tools. 

Cohen, David (ed.). The Circle of Life: Rituals from the Human Family Album. 

Cultures throughout the world celebrate birth, puberty, marriage and death in specific 
traditional ways. This collection of photographs, with explanatory text portraying 
western customs in the context of family rituals from around the world, may be used to 
stimulate discussion. 

Daniels, Harvey and Marilyn Bizar. Methods That Matter: Six Structures for Best Practice 
Classrooms. 

This resource identifies basic teaching structures designed to make classrooms more 
active, experiential, collaborative, democratic and cognitive, it includes concrete 
descriptions of practical and proven ways of organizing time, space and materials. 

Graves, Michael and Bonnie Graves. Scaffolding Reading Experiences: Designs for Student 
Success. 

An examination of the various parts of scaffolding reading is included: prereading, 
reading, and postreading. The importance of student engagement and cognitive learning 
concepts as they apply to metacognition are also included. Numerous practical activities 
are also provided. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 1 /l 01 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions (continued) 



Heiferman, Marvin and Carole Kismaric. Talking Pictures: People Speak about the 
Photographs That Speak to Them. 

Seventy prominent Americans from various walks of life; e.g., Rosa Parks, John Updike 
and Fred Rogers, were asked to select a photograph and reflect on its meaning in their 
lives. The photographs they chose range from art photography, to newspaper 
photographs, to family snapshots. The reflective texts accompanying each photograph 
could serve as models of reading and responding to visual texts. Note: Some examples 
are inappropriate for classroom use. 

Hill, S. and J. O'Loughlin. Book Talk: Collaborative Responses to Literature. 

This resource presents collaborative activities and strategies to promote better talk about 
books in all curriculum areas. Activities encourage exploration of many different genres. 

Jeroski, Sharon et al. Speak for Yourself. 

This resource includes student self-assessment suggestions, teacher observation forms, 
record-keeping forms and scoring guides for oral activities. 

Jones, Brie. Improve with lmprov: A Guide to Improvisation and Character Development. 
This book discusses improvisation techniques and suggests various exercises. 

Morrisseau, Norval. Travels to the House of Invention. 

This collection of reproductions of Morrisseau's paintings is accompanied by a personal 
essay by Morrisseau, discussing his vision and how he tried to convey it through his art. 

^vp^ Ross, Elinor Parry. Pathways to Thinking: Strategies for Developing Independent Learners 
^^ K-8 . Expanded Professional Version. 

Although the examples contained in this volume have been taken from elementary and 
junior high school sources, its theory and practice can easily be applied to senior high 
school students. Its chapters include discussion of various forms of talk, metacognition, 
graphic organizers and the use of technology to stimulate thinking. 

Strickland, Kathleen and James Strickland. Reflections on Assessment: Its Purposes, 
Methods & Effects on Learning. 

Various types of formative evaluations are examined. These include observation, 
anecdotal records, conferencing and interviews, progress reports, and checklists. A 
number of rubrics are provided as is a chapter on portfolios. 

^C^ Tchudi, Susan J. and Stephen N. Tchudi. The English Language Arts Handbook: Classroom 
Strategies for Teachers. 2nd Edition. 

This collection contains both current theory and practical applications for it. This 
includes sections on "Idea Gathering," learning logs, response groups, portfolios and 
writer's notebooks. 

Tierney, Robert J., Mark A. Carter and Laura E. Desai. Portfolio Assessment in the 
Reading-Writing Classroom . 

This text provides a number of suggestions and examples employed by teachers while 
using portfolios for assessment. Chapter 7, Portfolios and Self-assessment by Students, 
and Chapter 8, Portfolio Analysis and Record Keeping, are particularly applicable to 
learning outcome subheading 1.1.1. 



102/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to explore 
thoughts, ideas, feelings and 
experiences. 




1 . 1 Discover possibilities 



QQD 



Experiment with language, image and structure 



Overview 

In learning outcome subheading 1.1.2, students are given opportunities to experiment with and assess the effect 
of language, image and structure on context (purpose, audience and situation). Students experiment with 
language, image and form of expression to discover new ways of thinking and new ways of communicating and 
to improve personal craft as a text creator. By experimenting with language, image and form of expression, 
students note their effect and strengthen voice. By considering and describing the interplay between form, 
content, purpose and audience, and the ways in which different situations influence choices of language and 
image, students develop competence and confidence as language users. 

When responding to or creating texts, students in the senior high school English language arts classroom 
experiment with language, image and structure in a variety of ways, such as: 

choosing words and assessing them for appropriateness of denotation and/or suitability of connotation 

choosing words and phrases and assessing them for rhythm, sound and/or evocation of the senses 

choosing images and assessing them for clarity of communication, universality of interpretation and 

contribution to understanding 

choosing inflection, tone and physical gesture 

choosing structures and assessing them for relationship to content, contribution to coherence and cohesiveness, 

and assistance to transition and/or "reading path" 

engaging in stream-of-consciousness writing, in which language, image and structure are generated creatively 

and — later on — are assessed critically 

engaging in open discussion, in which language, image and structure are formulated; meanings are negotiated; 

and understandings are developed and strengthened 

presenting to a different or wider audience, or presenting ideas through a different persona 

using graphic organizers; e.g., plus-minus-interesting charts and mind maps/concept maps. 

All texts, such as musical scores, mime and how-to manuals, may include fresh, evocative and inventive language 
in their own particular forms. 

Metacognitive Learning 

As students study the effects of language, image and structure on context — purpose, audience and situation — they 
recall texts that they have studied earlier as well as texts that they have created. Recollection is assisted through 
describing such study and creation. By experimenting further with language, image and structure and monitoring 
the effects on context, students expand their repertoire of strategies for crafting text. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1/103 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Experiment with language, image and structure (continued) 



Metacognitive Process Outcome (Grades 10-12) 


Description 


Selection 


Modification 


- reflect on and describe 


- try new experiments 


- monitor the effects of 


previous experiments with 




such experimentation on 


language, image and 




context, to improve 


structure and their effects 




personal craft as a text 


on context 




creator, and modify 
experimentation as 
needed 



Assessment of 1.1.2 

The purpose of assessment in learning outcome subheading 1.1.2 is to determine how well students are: 

• developing and employing effective strategies for discerning context 

• open to new ways of thinking about the craft of text creation and about how such choices can affect context 

• using adequate strategies for experimenting with language, image and structure in a text and discerning their 
effect on context 

• asking questions about their learning to expand their understanding. 

As suggested in learning outcome subheading 1.1.1, teachers should formatively assess the ideas that emerge in 
exploratory processes while students are developing and refining them. Summatively evaluating ideas at this 
stage would force students to solidify their thinking prematurely and would limit risk taking. 

As with all formative assessment, the purpose is not to evaluate; rather it is to help learners self-assess how well 
they are doing in terms of developing knowledge, skills, attitudes and understandings. 

Reporting 

Much of the communication about the learning associated with learning outcome subheading 1 . 1 .2 will consist of 
students expressing their observations and assessments of their experimentation with language, image and 
structure. 

At other times, the teacher will be reporting to students and to parents various observations and assessments of 
how well the students have been experimenting with language, image and structure. 

Reporting Strategies 

Students will self-assess their willingness to take risks and experiment with language, image and structure and 
assess the effectiveness of such experimentation; e.g., effect on context and voice. 



104/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Experiment with language, image and structure (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



HoW-tO Manuals (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 
Ask students to bring to class how-to manuals for household appliances or electronic 
equipment. In groups, discuss how visuals and formatting techniques are used in the 
manuals to enhance instruction. Have students create for a younger student a how-to manual, 
including visuals, on a common household chore; e.g., setting a formal dinner table, 
grooming a pet, sorting and folding laundry. This manual could take the form of a print 
handbook or brochure or could be presented in multimedia format. Assess the effectiveness 
of the visuals and formatting. 



Breaking the Rules (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 20-2a, b) 

Have students select a published poem that uses highly unconventional language and form. 
Ask them to imagine that the poet has just submitted the poem to a literary magazine and to 
write a fictional exchange of letters between the magazine editor, who is rejecting the poem 
on the basis of the poet's defiance of the rules of syntax and punctuation, and the poet, who 
is explaining and defending his or her use of language. 



Assessment Formative or Summative Assessment of Breaking the Rules 

These fictional letters provide students with the opportunity to 
impersonate a rigid magazine editor and an inventive poet. The letters 
may be assessed not only for the student's ability to identify experimental 
language and defend its uses but also for the student's own skill with 
language. 



Models of Nonverbal Language (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 

20-2a, b) 

Help students become more aware of the elements of nonverbal language, by examining 
models similar to the forms students are producing. 



• 



Play a clip from a film twice, first with the sound turned off and then with the television 
screen turned to the wall so that students listen to the audio track but do not view the 
visuals. 

Have students brainstorm a list of nonverbal language that television programs, films and 
drama use to communicate and entertain and to enhance character development, mood, 
theme and action. They may list such things as musical scores, costumes, props, laugh 
tracks, gestures, sound effects and lighting. 

Ask students to identify the ways that the drama, storyboard, cartoon or video on which 
they are working could be enhanced through the use of nonverbal elements. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 1 /105 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Experiment with language, image and structure (continued) 



Experiment With Style (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

In an early revision stage in writing fiction or poetry, discuss a variety of stylistic options. 
Write each option on a separate piece of paper. Have students draw from the collection of 
options and try out the option they drew. 

Stylistic options may include: 

changing text to the present tense 

writing with no capitals, periods or commas 

using dashes instead of quotation marks for all dialogue 

changing narrative voice — from first person to third or from third person to first 

writing in the second person 

changing one fourth of the statements to questions 

changing one fourth of the statements to sentence fragments. 



Monologues (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Monologues are an interesting and effective way of exploring aspects of a character that 
students are studying or creating. Challenge students to use monologues to explore the 
thoughts of a character from their listening, reading or viewing of an author or of a historic 
person. Depending on the mix of voices represented, monologues can sometimes be linked 
for a longer dramatic presentation. They can also be enhanced with music and slides. 

*^^^ Compelling two-character or larger-cast dramas and engaging fiction can be created through 
fusing monologues. In this activity, students generate texts individually and then move into a 
group and collaborate in shaping these texts according to group decisions. 

• Students select a situation from their own experience or from fiction. Each partner or 
group member reflects individually on the situation from the point of view of one of the 
characters involved and then writes a monologue. See the entry above for more 
information on monologues. 

• Groups assemble, share monologues and discuss ways in which their texts can be 
transformed into one work. 

• Groups work together through the stages of revision and rehearsal and perform their 
dramas or publish their fiction. 

This activity may involve parents or other classroom guests. Parents, either as classroom 
guests or at home, and students write monologues about the same situation. Students assume 
responsibility for integrating both monologues into one text. 



Mime Sketch (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

After reading a story, play, scene or poem, ask students to create a mime sketch for a 
particular audience, purpose and context, based on one of the ideas of the text just read. 
Include elements gleaned from a brainstormed list of nonverbal language. 

Ask students to tape-record a dramatic reading of a narrative poem, short story or radio play, 
enhancing the reading with sound effects and/or music. 



106/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Experiment with language, image and structure (continued) 



f . Students might ask a variety of questions when considering language, image and structure, 
W including: 

• What is my "reading" of a particular context? How might my assessment of context 
affect my choices of language, image and structure as a text creator? How might context 
affect content? 

• How might choice of language, image and structure affect the context for which it is 
intended? How might these choices affect the content of the text in process? 

Monitoring Metacognitive Growth (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia, b; 20-2a) 

M^^^, Students could engage in think-pair-share, and recount learning experiences in which they 
experimented with language, image and structure and the effects of these experiments. They 
could describe in their dialogue journals how others have experimented and how they 
themselves might experiment in the future. 



Technology Considerations 



Certain technologies, such as pencil and paper and the word processor, assist 
experimentation with language, image and form. The ease with which such tools facilitate 
revision encourages students to take risks and experiment with expression, organization 
and formatting. Products like self-stick removable notes can foster meta-conversations 
with oneself or with others about the language and order of in-process writing or about the 
nature and arrangement of images in a collage. Feedback sheets gathered from peers 
during rehearsal can also encourage experimentation with tone, pace, gesture and facial 
expression in readers' theatre or dramatization. 

Learning outcome subheading 1 .1 .2 supports the Information and Communication 
Technology (1CT) Program of Studies, Kindergarten to Grade 12, particularly Division 4 
outcome P3-4.2: support communication with appropriate images, sounds and music. 

See Appendix C, p. 429, for cross-references of specific outcomes in the ICT and ELA senior 
high school programs. 

Teacher Resources 

Belanger, Joe et al. Instant English: Ideas for the Unexpected Lesson, Years 7-12 . 

This package contains 24 practical suggestions for a variety of classes. Lesson No. 8 
"Shipwreck" and Lesson No. 14 "Travel Brochure" contain two activities that focus on 
writing in a different "register" and following a model. 

Burke, Jim. The English Teacher's Companion: A Complete Guide to Classroom, 
Curriculum, and the Profession. 

Five sections, including 28 chapters and 15 appendices, make up this collection. 
Chapters that may assist with learning outcome subheading 1 . 1 .2 include: Chapter 9, 
Teaching Thinking in the English Class, and Chapter 14, Integrating English Projects 
and Exhibitions into the Curriculum. 

Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 1 /107 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Experiment with language, image and structure (continued) 



Cadigan, Pat. The Making of Lost in Space. 

This pictorial account of the making of a science fiction movie includes set designs, 
sketches of robots and details of how special effects were created. 

Childers, Pamela B., Eric H. Hobson and Joan A. Mullin. ARTiculating: Teaching Writing 
in a Visual World. 

This book offers "special strategies and ways of thinking about the relationship(s) 
between the visual and verbal realms of communication," and offers ways of using these 
in the classroom. 

Fee, Margery and Janice McAlpine. Guide to Canadian English Usage. 

This lexicon explores the elements of spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary and usage that 
make Canadian English distinct. 

Golub, Jeffrey N. Making Learning Happen: Strategies for an Interactive Classroom. 

A collection of practical exercises which support various learning situations. See, for 
example, Chapter 1, Making Learning Happen, which addresses self reflection and 
constructing and negotiating meanings. 

Hill, Wayne F. and Cynthia J. Ottchen. Shakespeare's Insults: Educating Your Wit. 

This comprehensive index to Shakespearean insults is organized by play and by purpose. 

Kearns, Jane. Where to Begin: A Guide to Teaching Secondary English. 

Chapter 5 — Writing Ideas, Strategies, and Guides — provides suggestions for teaching 
style and for using shared experiences, photography and contact sheets to name just a 
few. 

Mitchell, Diana and Leila Christenbury. Both Art and Craft: Teaching Ideas that Spark 
Learning. 

This is a collection of theoretical and practical ideas that can easily be taken into the 
classroom. A particularly useful chapter for learning outcome subheading 1.1.2 is 
Chapter 4, which provides "a catalog of ideas and ways into literature," intended to 
motivate and involve students with literary text. 

Muschla, Gary R. Writing Workshop Survival Kit. 

This resource suggests writing workshop activities, mini-lessons and reproducible 
masters to encourage students to experiment with language. 

Pirie, Bruce. Reshaping High School English. 

This resource includes eight chapters devoted to current issues in English language arts. 
Chapters 3-5: The Web of Textuality, Unlocking Reading Processes, and The Unfolding 
Drama link to learning outcome subheading 1 . 1 .2. 



1 08/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to explore 
thoughts, ideas, feelings and 
experiences. 




Consider new perspectives 



Overview 

As students become engaged in exploration, they consider new perspectives. Early in their exploration, students 
hold tentative understandings. Through personal expression and consideration of the thoughts and perceptions of 
others, students revise and refine their thinking. 

When students seek and consider others' ideas, perspectives and interpretations, they extend their own awareness. 
To facilitate contact with diverse and differing ideas, opinions, positions and responses, students employ a variety 
of strategies, such as: 

• listening attentively 

• reserving judgement 

• asking clarifying questions 

• role-playing. 

Metacognitive Learning 

Students recognize that their understandings may be affected by the perspectives of others. When considering new 
perspectives, students employ a variety of metacognitive strategies to expand their understanding. For example, 
they may: 

• articulate their own perspectives and interpretations and offer their understanding of the perspectives and 
interpretations of others 

• appraise their receptiveness to the perspectives and interpretations of others and determine factors influencing 
such responses 

• appraise how personal responses affect awareness and understanding 

• experiment with strategies whereby new perspectives and interpretations are considered fairly and critically 

• assess how their own and others' understandings, attitudes and aspirations are affected by the ideas of others. 

Assessment of 1.2.1 

The purpose of assessment in learning outcome subheading 1.2.1 is to determine how well students are: 

• considering the ideas of others fairly 

- recognizing thought as constructed knowledge 

- recognizing various factors that may shape a person's perspectives and interpretations 

- recognizing how one responds to the ideas of others, and appraising the effect of such response on personal 
awareness and understanding 

• setting goals for improvement that are reasonable and appropriate 

• developing and employing adequate strategies for considering the ideas of others 

• monitoring and accurately assessing such experimentation. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1/109 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Consider new perspectives (continued) 



Some essential questions that students should ask when considering the ideas of others: 

• When I read/listen to/view the ideas, perspectives and interpretations of others, how receptive am I? What 
factors influence my personal and critical responses? 

• What are some strategies that may help me consider the ideas, perspectives and interpretations of others? 

Assessment Strategies 

Teachers can formatively assess a student's willingness or ability to consider the ideas of others by noting the 
following: 

• Does the student's behaviour suggest he or she is considering others' perspectives; e.g., looking at others who 
are speaking, jotting down ideas, asking questions of others? 

• Do goals build on strengths and address weaknesses? 

Assessing Collaborative Processes 

Seeking and considering others' ideas often occurs in the context of groups that are formed in the classroom to 
carry out a specific task. In assessing groups, it is essential to formatively assess the learning associated with the 
specific outcomes under learning outcome subheading 1 .2. 1 and not only evaluate the final product or performance 
of the groups. Suggestions for assessing collaborative processes are found in the section dealing with General 
Outcome 5. 

Reporting Student Progress 

Much of the communication about learning associated with learning outcome subheading 1 .2. 1 will consist of 
students expressing their observations and assessments of how well they have been considering the ideas of others. 
Increasingly, students should be discerning their strengths and revising their goals for language learning. 

At other times, the teacher will be reporting to students and to parents various observations and formative 
assessments of how well the students have been doing and how well the students have been considering new 
perspectives. 

Reporting Strategies 

Students can report on their learning — particularly their understanding and their willingness to consider new 
perspectives — through various means, such as exchanging reflections written in their dialogue journals, discussing 
their self-assessments within a small group and conferencing with the teacher. 



1 10/ General Outcome 1 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Consider new perspectives (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



C^ 



Beyond the Classroom (io-ib; io-2b; 20-ib; 20-2b) 

Learning is enhanced when inquiry into the thinking of others is extended beyond the 
classroom. To accomplish this, students may consider: 

participating in e-mail exchanges with other classes and Internet discussion groups 

consulting with elders 

inviting speakers from the community with a particular perspective or life experience 

conducting surveys and interviews 

reading essays and articles 

listening to speeches and viewing documentaries. 

Exploring an Issue a o-ib; io-2b; 20-ib; 20-2b) 

Students choose an issue from the news, from school events, or one suggested by literature 
and examine what different texts, such as stories, newspaper articles, poems or songs, 
advertisements, cartoons, and/or clips from television shows or films, say about the issue. 
They then create a chart, mind map or scrapbook that compares the ideas presented in each 
text and present their own ideas on the issue, including an explanation of how their ideas 
might have changed as a result of their exploration. 

See Appendix B, p. 405, for a planning sheet for this activity. 



*£>\ Talking Circle (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

The Talking Circle, based on First Nations teachings, allows students to express their 
viewpoints in a safe and supportive setting. Talking circles allow everyone to be heard, teach 
respect for everyone's point of view and help build consensus as each student hears the views 
of others. 

The ideal size for a talking circle is 10 to 15 students. A large class should be split into two 
groups: an inner circle of active participants and an outer circle of observers. 

Procedures and Guidelines 

• A facilitator chairs the discussion, inviting students to speak in turn by mentioning their 
names, clarifying comments when necessary and acknowledging contributions in a 
nonjudgmental way. 



• 



Only one person speaks at a time. An object such as a rock or feather is passed to the 
person who has the right to speak. 

• Participants are expected to listen actively and without criticism or comment. They do 
not interrupt the speaker, leave while someone is talking or otherwise show disrespect to 
the group. Depending on the subject of the talking circle, participants may be asked not 
to share outside the class what they have heard. 

• Students may say, "I pass." Silence is an acceptable response. 

Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 1/111 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Consider new perspectives (continued) 



• All comments should address the issue under consideration. Comments about another 
speaker or about what another speaker has said are to be avoided. The facilitator ensures 
that participants are expressing their own feelings and are not focusing on what someone 
else said or did. 

• Participants should not disparage either themselves or others. Unacceptable comments 
include: "You won't think this is important." and "That was a stupid thing to say." 



rimmsmmsmmmmeeeeeeeeseomoss^ 
Assessment Self Assessment of Talking Circle 



Ask students to reflect in their learning logs or journals on their own 
experience in the talking circle and on the ways their views may have 
changed through hearing others express their thoughts. 



4^>\ 



Surveys and Questionnaires (io-ib;io-2b;20-ib;20-2b) 

Students may want to explore others' opinions through a formal means of primary research, 
such as a survey or questionnaire. A discussion of the basic principles of conducting primary 
research appears in learning outcome subheading 3.1.2. 

Seeking and considering others' ideas often occurs in the context of groups that are formed in 
the classroom to carry out a specific task. In assessing how well groups have used surveys 
and questionnaires, it is essential to assess the learning outcomes under subheadings 1.2.1 
and 5. 1 .2 and not only the final product or performance of the groups. Suggestions for 
assessing collaborative processes are found in the section dealing with General Outcome 5. 



Assessment Formative Assessment of Surveys and Questionnaires 

Opportunities for assessment of surveys and questionnaires include: 

• group presentations on aspects of primary research 

• process checklists — did the student complete all the required steps for 
choosing a random sample and developing a questionnaire? 

• data analysis and presentation — suggestions for the use of primary 
research data are provided in learning outcome subheading 3.2. 1 . 



Inquiry Dialogue (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia; 20-2a) 

What appears to be dialogue is often two parallel discourses. Discuss with students the 
mental barriers to active listening, such as being preoccupied with planning one's own next 
comment or argument while one's partner is speaking. 

It is helpful for teachers and students alike to become more conscious of the model of 
dialogue they follow. The diagram below describes two models of dialogue. On the left, 
partners genuinely seek to understand each other's point of view. On the right, partners 
attempt to rebut. Discuss with students the situations where each of these models is 
appropriate. 



1 12/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Consider new perspectives (continued) 



Two Kinds of Dialogue 



Conversation begins. 



Partners encounter disagreement, 
lack of understanding. 



Internal deliberation: 
How will you respond? 



Attempt to learn: 

• Suspend judgements. 

• Accept that there are differences. 

• Choose to listen. 



Inquire: 

• Ask questions. 

• Paraphrase what you hear. 

• Say, "You're suggesting . . 



Build common ground: 

• Identify your own and your 
partner's assumptions. 

• Look for points of agreement. 

• Continue to reflect. 



Attempt to convince: 

• Assume you know the other's 
position. 

• Become an advocate for your 
position. 

• Say, "Yes, but ..." 



Debate: 

• Use logic. 

• Listen for opportunities to rebut. 

• Press personal advantages; e.g., 
forceful voice. 



Resolve: 

• One partner concedes or both 
retreat. 



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Assessment 



Peer Assessment of Inquiry Dialogue 



/*i>V Have students select a topic for discussion and move into groups of three. 
Two students conduct a dialogue on the chosen topic, while the third 
student listens and takes notes of each student's use of phrases that reflect 
a genuine attempt to understand and learn from the other. 



4^t Dialogue Journals (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Students in their English language arts classes are continually responding to texts and 
contexts. Many of their responses are personal, while others are analytical interpretations 
and comprehensions. All such responses begin as tentative explorations. 

An effective means by which such exploration can take place is the dialogue journal. Like 
other forms of journal, the dialogue journal invites students to respond personally, critically 
and, at times, creatively to texts and contexts. In so doing, they construct meaning and arrive 
at deeper understandings. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1/113 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Consider new perspectives (continued) 



The "dialogue" aspect of this journal occurs in various instances: 

• Students exchange journals and respond — "dialogue" — with their peers by writing 
personal and analytical comments in a space beneath, or alongside, the initial responses. 

• The teacher responds to students' journal entries. 

• The originator of the responses revisits an earlier entry and, with a second look, offers 
new thoughts. 

As with all exploratory writing, the intent is to uncover thought and develop ideas. Students 
are encouraged to take risks and, therefore, any assessment should be formative. As much as 
possible, the originator of the responses should determine who reads which pages. In 
instances where others will be reading and responding to an entry, students should be 
informed prior to writing. 

Occasionally, a summative mark may be desired, in which case students could highlight with 
self-stick removable notes the pages they would like assessed. 



/*S% Fish-bOWl DiSCUSSionS (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Fish-bowl discussions require an inner circle of students who interact and an outer circle of 
students who listen. Prior to fish-bowl discussions, students need to establish the basic rules 
for small-group discussions; e.g., no interrupting, no personal comments, stick to the subject, 
allow everyone a chance to talk. 

• Have students write in their learning logs about the subject the class is exploring. 
Learning logs are discussed in learning outcome subheading 1.1.1 (p. 94). 

• Ask for four volunteers. The volunteers sit in the centre of the room and discuss the 
subject within a specified time period — 5 to 10 minutes. 

• The rest of the class members sit in an outer circle and listen to the discussion, but they 
are not allowed to participate. The teacher intervenes if problems arise but otherwise 
does not facilitate the discussion. 

• Students write in their learning logs about the ways they expanded their ideas through 
listening to the fish-bowl discussion. 



f 



Sonographic (10-lb; 10-2b; 20-lb; 20-2b) 

Prior to an unstructured whole-class discussion, sketch a seating plan of the class with each 
student's name on it. For a few minutes during the discussion, draw arrows between the 
students who are talking, with a new arrow for each comment. Share the resulting map with 
the class. Ask students to reflect in their learning logs on what the map says about the role 
they play in discussions. This strategy is also useful in 5.2.2 



1 14/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Consider new perspectives (continued) 



gj GhOSt Writing (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Ghostwriting is a valuable experience because it requires students to attend closely to the 
feelings of others, not only to the factual information they share. Ask students to browse 
through examples of celebrity memoirs written by ghostwriters and to read aloud short 
passages that interest them. Ask students to speculate on the processes and challenges of 
ghostwriting. 

4*^2% Have students move into pairs to try ghostwriting and then switch roles and move through 
the process a second time. 

• Student A recounts an important experience or period of his or her life to Student B, who 
is acting as a ghostwriter. Student B makes notes. 

• Student B writes a draft of the memoir in the first person, fleshing out description and 
transforming the account from oral discourse to effective written text, while attempting 
to maintain "the voice" and accurately represent the feelings of Student A. 

• Student B shares the draft with Student A. Student A suggests modifications, to clarify 
both details and intent. 

• Student B writes a second draft. The process continues until Student A is satisfied with 
the memoir. 

• Students then switch roles. 



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I Assessment Formative, Peer or Self Evaluation of Ghost Writing 

As students read examples of professionally ghostwritten memoirs, have 
them list the qualities of a successful product. Revisit and refine this list 
when pairs of students are midway through the process of ghostwriting. 
These items become the criteria for assessment and can be set up as a 
checklist. 

When both partners have had an opportunity to act as ghostwriter and the 
memoirs have been revised and edited, devote a class period to reading, 
enjoying and assessing. 

> Make a copy of each memoir so that both students involved have a 
copy. 

> Ensure that both students' names appear on each memoir. Student 
A's name is placed as author, with the ghostwriter's name following, 
usually preceded by the word "with." 

> Have students staple a copy of the assessment checklist to the last 
sheet of each memoir. 

> Place the memoirs on a table in the centre of the room. Invite 
students to spend the period reading each other's memoirs, assessing 
what they have read using the checklist at the back and adding 
constructive comments. 

Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 1 /115 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Consider new perspectives (continued) 



Opinion Line-up (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

An opinion line-up is a useful tool for helping students express their points of view and 
consider the relationship of their views to the positions held by others. In organizing an 
opinion line-up, identify a subject that lends itself to a range of opinion. Use discretion in 
selecting subjects for this activity, avoiding highly charged and divisive issues. Designate 
one corner at the back of the room Agree and the other corner Disagree. Students then move 
to the back of the room and stand so as to represent their position along the continuum of 
opinion between Agree and Disagree. 

The following are suggestions for using opinion line-ups effectively: 

• Arrange student chairs in a line along the back of the room. Ask students to express their 
opinions in a brief oral statement, one at a time, and then position themselves in the line- 
up. This may entail asking others in the line-up to move. Students need to pay close 
attention to the points of view expressed by others, in order to ascertain exactly where in 
the line-up they belong. 

/%2j^ • After the line-up is complete, form a group from each section of the line-up and have 
groups collaborate in preparing a written statement of their views. 

• If opinion is clearly polarized, "fold" the line and have students opposite each other 
discuss their views. Students exploring widely different opinions will benefit from using 
an inquiry dialogue strategy — see Inquiry Dialogue in this Appendix (p. 440). 

• New Connections: New ideas and understanding often come through making new 
connections between existing ideas. 

• When individuals or groups are selecting topics for an assignment, ask students to 
volunteer topics they are considering, with no commitment that they will pursue the 
topic. List these topics on the chalkboard or on an overhead transparency. Ask the class 
to identify other possible topics that emerge through combining or linking various 
elements in the listed topics. 

• From a bank of magazine images collected by the teacher and/or students, ask each 
student to select and juxtapose two images that do not appear to go together and to talk 
about the meanings that emerge from this juxtaposition. 



r ) Monitoring Metacognitive Growth (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia, b; 20-20) 

To assess their own learning, students must have a clear and evolving understanding of their 
present strengths and weaknesses as language users. Have students reflect on: 

• the most important areas in which they need to grow/progress and what growth/success 
would look like 

• the steps they will take to achieve success. 



116/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Consider new perspectives (continued) 



Technology Considerations 



Learning outcome subheading 1.2.1 supports the Information and Communication 
Technology (1CT) Program of Studies, Kindergarten to Grade 12, particularly Division 4 
outcome C2-4. 1 : consult a wide variety of sources that reflect varied viewpoints on 
particular topics. 

[T^ 5 See Appendix C, p. 429, for cross-references of specific outcomes in the 1CT and ELA senior 
high school programs. 



Teacher Resources 

Brownell, Judi. Listening: Attitudes, Principles, and Skills. 

This resource contains an overview of both theory and practice about listening as an 
important component of communication. It introduces the HURIER model, a 
behavioural approach to listening improvement. 

Christian, Scott. Exchanging Lives, Middle School Writers Online. 

This resource examines the collaborative exchanges and dialogues of students from 
Alaska to Mississippi, whose online discussions focused on Anne Frank. 

Graves, Richard L. (ed.). Writing, Teaching, Learning: A Sourcebook. 

Several essays within this collection lend themselves to learning outcome subheading 
1.2.1. Consider Romano's "Family Stories and the Fictional Dream" (p. 1 62), or Tobin's 
"Car Wrecks, Baseball Caps, and Man-to-Man Defense: The Personal Narratives of 
Adolescent Males" (p. 179). 

Harris, Judi. Way of the Ferret: Finding Educational Resources on the Internet. 
2nd Edition. 

This resource is a guide to finding, designing and implementing communication and 
research activities using the Internet. 

Morgan, N. and J. Saxton. Asking Better Questions: Models, Techniques and Classroom 
Activities for Engaging Students in Learning. 

This book focuses on effective questioning techniques. Concrete classroom examples 
illustrate how students can become more adept questioners and responsible learners. The 
book addresses the following questions: Why the question? What kind of question? 
How do we question? 

Roe, Betty D., Suellen Alfred and Sandy Smith. Teaching Through Stories: Yours, Mine, 
and Theirs. 

Twelve chapters and two appendices offer a variety of suggestions for using personal and 
other stories in the classroom. When working on learning outcome subheading 1.2.1 
consider Chapter 12, Using Storytelling to Help Understand Self and Others. 

Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 1/117 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Consider new perspectives (continued) 



Stock, P. Lambert. The Dialogic Curriculum: 
Society. 



Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural 



This resource provides a model of exchanged journal writing between a teacher and 
students. The self-reflective process is used to extend students' literature experience and 
to help them gain confidence and insights that culminate in essay writing. This resource 
contains classroom ideas, such as using e-mail exchanges and pairing students with 
writers in the community. 



1 1 8/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to explore 
thoughts, ideas, feelings and 
experiences. 




Overview 

Students study, respond to and create a variety of texts; however, not all texts are immediately appealing to all 
students. Students come to the classroom with interests in certain text types and genres and preferences for 
certain text creators. 

With encouragement and assistance, students broaden their personal interests in a variety of texts by finding 
connections between existing interests and new possibilities and by identifying and expanding factors that affect 
their personal text preferences. 

Whether students will be active "readers" of print and nonprint texts as adults is closely tied to whether they are 
engaged as readers in adolescence (Guthrie and Wigfield 1997). For this reason, language arts courses need to 
attend closely to students' affective response to texts and build on personal response and personal interests. 
Classrooms need to provide a wide range of texts, so that students will encounter books, films and music that 
stimulate their thinking, delight their aesthetic sensibilities, and represent and illuminate their own life 
experiences. 

As students become engaged in exploration, they consider new perspectives, express preferences and expand 
interests, and set personal goals for language gTowth. 

Students are encouraged to identify and explain their preferences, without being limited by them. They are 
expected to move beyond the interests they had at the outset of the course and to begin to appreciate other styles 
and genres of prose, poetry, songs and films. Students are sometimes reluctant to explore books, films and music 
with which they are unfamiliar. It is important that students examine the role that influences such as marketing 
play in shaping popular culture and listening/reading/viewing choices. The language arts classroom also plays an 
important role in introducing students to alternatives; e.g., Canadian books, magazines and films, and texts in 
translation from other countries. 

Metacognitive Learning 

To expand interests and strengthen personal preferences as language users, students employ a variety of 
metacognitive strategies. For example, they may strive to: 

• articulate their own interests and preferences in texts and text creators, and note the interests and preferences 
of others 

• experiment with strategies whereby new areas of interest may be fostered 

• appraise willingness to expand interests in texts and text creators, and determine factors influencing 
preferences. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1/119 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Express preferences, and expand interests (continued) 



Assessment of 1.2.2 

The intent of much of the assessment associated with learning outcome subheading 1 .2.2 is to determine how well 
students are: 

• exploring types and genres of text with which they are less familiar 

• exploring the works of text creators with whom they are less familiar 

• considering new forms and styles of text creation, as well as new content areas and contexts 

• articulating their responses to such exploration and appraising its effect on their range of interests and 
preferences. 

Teaching and Learning Strategies 

Sharing Text (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Having students bring into the classroom the texts that they enjoy enriches the linguistic 
environment and helps build a community whose members share their enthusiasm. 

The teacher can have an important impact by sharing the books and films he or she is excited 
about and by providing a model of an adult who derives pleasure and satisfaction from 
reading and viewing. 



^ Setting Goals (10-la; 10-2a; 20-la; 20-2a) 

£' Ask students to set goals for exploring new forms a 



Ask students to set goals for exploring new forms and expanding their interests and to 
specify how they will demonstrate this growth; e.g., by making an oral presentation on a 
new artist or genre. 



I Assessment Self-assessment of Setting Goals 

At specific intervals during the semester or year, revisit these goals and 
ask students to reflect on their progress. Their tastes and interests may 
have developed substantially but in a different direction than they 
anticipated. 

Other suggestions for goal setting are provided in learning outcome 
subheading 1.2.3. 

Reading Profile, Journal or Scrapbook (io-ia, b; io-2a, b;20-ia, b; 

20-2a, b) 

Students could keep a reading journal or scrapbook where they would insert items such as 
the following: 

• A passage they enjoy reading, along with an explanation of why they like it 

• A passage they find difficult to read, with an explanation of why, and what they could do 
to make it easier for them to understand 

120/ General Outcome 1 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Express preferences, and expand interests {continued) 



• A passage they would enjoy reading aloud to someone, with an explanation of who they 
would like to read it to and why reading it aloud would be the best way to read this text 

• A passage they wish they had written and why 

Students could also include other kinds of texts, such as diagrams, comics, cartoons, 
photographs and paintings, as well as passages from texts in other subject areas, along with 
written explanations of why they had chosen them. Students could expand their interests 
by sharing the entries with other students. 

[J^* To extend this activity to 1 . 1 . 1 , see Appendix B, p. 406, for a student reflection sheet. 



Web Sites (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Setting up or maintaining a school or class Web site can provide students with many 
opportunities to clarify, share and expand their preferences. Note: Several of the newer 
authorized learning resources assist student evaluation of Web sites. 

• Students view a number of school Web sites, and identify the qualities of those that are 
most effective in design and content. 

^£^^ • Working in groups, students present proposals for Web site design and content and 
develop a protocol for selecting the most effective elements. 

• Students post their opinion pieces on the Web site; e.g., book and movie reviews, top 1 
lists, and consumer ratings of computer games and teen magazines. 

• Students invite responses from people who visit the Web site. 

— — — W XU U iV U f SU t U MIMUtStm 

Assessment Formative, Summative, Peer or Self Assessment of Web Sites 



Assess, or ask students to assess, the school or class Web site, using the 
content and design criteria students have developed when they initially 
examined models of Web sites. 



P 



s 



Student Profiles (10-la; 10-2a; 20-la; 20-2a) 

Ask students to write a profile of themselves at the beginning of the course, describing the 
movies, books and music they prefer. Students may want to represent themselves and their 
interests graphically. 

Expressing a preference for books or films that are not mainstream can be risky for 
students. Students need to learn to express their own preferences without disparaging those 
of others. 

At the end of the course, ask students to profile themselves again and to reflect on their 
growth. Students may want to use these profiles as the first and last pieces in their portfolios. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1/121 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Express preferences, and expand interests (continued) 



Oral Update (on recent reading and viewing) (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 
Periodically ask each student to talk briefly about a book or magazine article he or she has 
read recently, or a film or drama he or she has viewed. 

#£Sfc, Reading Circles (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Reading circles can be used in exploring all kinds of texts, including film and music. A 
different form or genre can be designated each month for discussion. Reading circles 
promote motivation for literacy learning and contribute to the classroom as a learning 
community. They also provide opportunities to teach and practise collaborative learning 
skills. 

The purpose of reading circles is to provide students with opportunities to interact and share 
their responses and analyses of texts. Reading circles can vary in length, frequency of 
meetings and purpose. They may be organized to allow students to discuss: 

• individually selected texts — all examples of the same genre, if desired 

• a text chosen by the small group 

• a text read by the whole class. 

When initiating reading circles, use a procedure such as the following: 

• Form stable, heterogeneous groups of four or five students. 

• Have students decide on a chairperson for each meeting of the circle. 

• Have students meet on an assigned day to discuss a topic selected in consultation with 
the teacher. 

- When students are reading individually selected texts, the topic will have relevance 
to all the texts; e.g., What is the most important passage in the text you selected? 
What does it reveal about the themes of the book or the character who narrates it? 
From whose point of view is the story told? Why is this important to the story? 

- If students are reading texts of the same genre, the topic may help them explore 
qualities of form and genre; e.g., What techniques do authors of horror novels use to 
create a response in the reader? How did you respond? Is the author's point of view 
in these speculative novels optimistic or pessimistic? 

• Rotate from group to group, modelling participation as a circle member or as a 
chairperson. Encourage students to support their ideas and interpretations with textual 
references. 

Summer Reading (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Toward the end of the semester or school year, ask all students to write a one-paragraph 
description of the book they would most highly recommend to others. Have them enter their 
annotations on the classroom computer or in the computer laboratory on a common disc. 
Photocopy these annotations so that each student can leave the course with a list of books for 
summer reading. 

122/ General Outcome 1 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Express preferences, and expand interests (continued) 



Alternatively, students may: 

• compile an annotated list of favourite books early in the course to help them set goals for 
course reading 

• compile an annotated list of favourite videos for summer viewing. 

Anthologies (student compilation) (io-ia, b; io-2a, b;2o-ia, b; 

20-2a, b) 

Student-compiled anthologies are selections of published and student-written texts such as 

poetry, memoirs and stories, usually related to a theme chosen by students. 

Anthologies may include: 

• a preface in which students respond to a specified number of reading selections, 
including one in-depth response 

• a biographical or introductory note for each author 

• visuals, colour, layout, headings and other design elements. Suggestions for instruction 
in design elements are found in learning outcome subheading 4.2.3. 

Personal Favourites (student compilation) (io-ia,b;io-2a,b; 

20- la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Students may be interested in collecting their favourites in a variety of genres and forms; 
e.g., their favourite poem, short story, song lyric, visual image, novel and movie, and 
compiling them into an anthology. Movies can be represented through magazine clippings, 
images downloaded from the Internet and student handwritten reviews; novels can be 
represented through a collage and/or review. In an introductory personal essay, students can 
reflect on any common themes or styles they observe in the pieces and on what these 
selections reflect about their developing tastes and interests. Each selection can be 
accompanied by a short note discussing the reasons for which it was selected. 



Comparing Versions (of the same text) (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 

20-2a, b) 

Examining various versions of the same text helps students become more aware of the 
choices writers and filmmakers make and helps them clarify their own preferences. 
Activities of this sort include: 

• viewing old movies and recent remakes 

• viewing European movies and American versions 

• viewing one scene of a film, such as Romeo and Juliet, in several versions 

• reading both the original and abridged versions of a classic novel 

• listening to the original and cover versions of a song. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1 /123 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Express preferences, and expand interests (continued) 



People's Choice (rating texts and artists) (io-ia,b;io-2a,b; 

20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Asking students to rate texts or artists provides them with an opportunity to exercise 
judgement and explore the reasons for their choices. 

• Prior to the annual Alberta Literary Awards, usually the beginning of May, provide 
students with excerpts from the works of the writers nominated for the best young adult 
novel. Ask students to work in groups as a literary jury in selecting the writer they 
believe should win. 

• At the end of the calendar year, ask students to create Top 1 lists for films or songs, or 
to nominate the Artist of the Year, writing a rationale for their choice. 

• After the class has read a play, ask students to select the most significant scene in the 
play, to dramatize this scene and to present reasons for their choice. 

Literary and media festivals can be valuable and enjoyable means of enlarging students' 
repertoires. See learning outcome subheading 5.1.3. 



Technology Considerations 



Students can identify personal preferences and interests by creating lists of titles, genres, 
themes, media and text creators. These lists can be shared orally, through exchanging printed 
lists or through electronic means of communication. Whole class discussions, lists posted in 
public display or tabulated in the school newspaper, and participation in monitored Intranet 
chat rooms are further means by which students can share and learn about preferences. 
Students can also offer presentations in which oral, print, visual and multimedia texts convey 
their preferences and interests. Students can enhance interests in texts and text creators 
through personal inquiry, using resources found in libraries and on the Internet. 



Teacher Resources 



Graves, D. H. Discover Your Own Literacy. 

This book explores how teachers can enhance their own literacy through writing with 
students, reading with students, experimenting with learning and looking ahead. 



Heiferman, Marvin and Carole Kismaric. 
Photographs That Speak to Them. 



Talking Pictures: People Speak about the 



Seventy prominent Americans from various walks of life; e.g., Rosa Parks, John Updike 
and Fred Rogers, were asked to select a photograph and reflect on its meaning in their 
lives. The reflective texts accompanying each photograph could serve as models for 
reading and responding to visual texts. Note: Some examples are inappropriate for 
classroom use. 



1 24/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Express preferences, and expand interests {continued) 



Hill, S. and J. O'Loughlin. Book Talk: Collaborative Responses to Literature. 

This resource presents collaborative activities and strategies to promote better talk about 
books in all curriculum areas. Activities encourage exploration of many different genres. 

Mellor, Bronwyn and Annette Patterson. Investigating Texts: Analyzing Fiction and 
Nonfiction in High School. 

This text is scaffolded and recommends the chapters be used sequentially. However, the 
introductory unit, Investigating Texts, provides a number of insightful and useful 
comments. 

Mellor, Bronwyn, Annette Patterson and Marnie O'Neill. Reading Fictions: Applying 
Literary Theory to Short Stories. 

Reading Fictions focuses on the genre of the short story and provides discussion on how 
it is read. 

Michaels, Judith Rowe. Risking Intensity: Reading and Writing Poetry with High School 
Students. 

The writer of this text encourages meaningful engagement of her students with poetry by 
writing along with, and responding to, their writing. The narrative/expository style is 
accessible and interesting. 

Monseau, V. R. and G. M. Salvner (eds.). Reading Their World: The Young Adult Novel in 
the Classroom. 2nd Edition. 

This collection of essays advocates developing a community of readers who are engaged 
in exploratory talk, reader response and critical thinking. The essays focus on choice of 
reading materials, authors of young adult novels and teaching the young adult novel. 

Reid, Louann and Jamie Neufeld (eds.). Rationales for Teaching Young Adult Literature. 

Rationales for teaching 22 different young adult novels are provided. 

Richardson, Judy S. Read It Aloud! Using Literature in the Secondary Content Classroom. 

This resource provides teachers with a variety of examples and genres of read-aloud 
excerpts to be used in different content areas. 

Shrubb, Gordon and Ken Watson. Star-Cross 'd Lovers: A Workshop Approach to Romeo 
and Juliet. 2nd Edition. 

This resource includes 2 1 reproducible activities intended to engage the student and 
stimulate interest in Shakespeare. The workshop series also includes the plays Macbeth, 
Much Ado about Nothing, Hamlet, The Tempest, The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, 
King Lear, Taming of the Shrew, A Midsummer Night 's Dream , Julius Caesar, Twelfth 
Night, and Othello to name a few. 

Sobchack, Thomas and Vivian C. Sobchack. An Introduction to Film. 2nd Edition. 

Chapter 5 provides an overview of the film genre, with specific reference to conventions 
and iconography. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1/125 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Express preferences, and expand interests (continued) 



Somers, Albert B. Teaching Poetry in High School. 

This is a practical collection of ideas, guidelines and poetry for the contemporary 
classroom. See Chapter 5, Approaching Poetry, as well as Chapter 6, Responding to 
Poetry by Talking, for suggestions as to how to engage students in this genre. 

Web Site 

The National Library of Canada, http://www.nlc-bnc.ca 

This Web site offers a wealth of resources, including a Canadian author directory; bio- 
bibliographies and a Canadian poetry archive; and a variety of links, including links to 
Web sites featuring Canadian authors, literature, science and speculative fiction and links 
to directories of authors categorized by name, century, country and culture. 



1 26/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to explore 
thoughts, ideas, feelings and 
experiences. 




Set personal goals for language growth 



Overview 

Throughout their formal schooling, students increasingly see and understand themselves as learners and recognize 
that they can improve their ability with language. They learn that successful learners set goals and monitor and 
assess their own learning and that goal setting, experimentation and perseverance can contribute to one's success 
as a language user. By so doing, successful learners demonstrate responsibility for their own learning. 

As they assess how successful their past efforts have been using the six language arts, students discern their 
strengths and weaknesses as language users. With increasing awareness, they recognize the various strategies they 
and others have been using and discern how well such strategies have assisted learning. They also increasingly 
recognize that they have been developing an expanding repertoire of learning strategies. 

In the supportive climate of the senior high school English language arts classroom, students can set goals to 
improve their language learning. They can select and experiment with strategies that look promising — that might 
turn weaknesses into strengths — making note of which strategies seem to assist learning and abandoning those that 
seem less fruitful, or modifying strategies and trying them anew. They monitor and assess how successfully they 
have been employing these strategies in light of their goals, and they set new goals for learning. 

Students need to set goals that are few in number, concrete, attainable and demonstrable. Specific goals related to 
effective communication such as "to learn to use more sensory detail" or "to learn to categorize ideas and 
information" are more useful than to learn to be a better writer. 

Metacognitive Learning 

The learning associated with learning outcome subheading 1 .2.3 can be viewed as being metacognitive throughout. 
Students are seen as individuals who are developing a repertoire of strategies that will contribute to their success as 
lifelong learners. Self-awareness and the ability to set personal goals for language learning are important parts of 
becoming a competent and confident user of language. 

To increase their strengths as language users, students employ a variety of metacognitive strategies. For example, 
they may strive to: 

• improve their oracy, by assessing their oral communication skills and by experimenting with cognitive 
strategies and rhetorical techniques 

• strengthen their reading skills, by describing and assessing their reading strategies in a dialogue journal and by 
imagining new approaches to reading 

• expand their repertoire of writing skills, by assessing the effectiveness of previous writing strategies and 
experimenting with revised strategies 

• improve their understanding and use of visual texts, by describing and assessing visual texts through talk with 
others and by experimenting to modify visual texts. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1/127 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Set personal goafs for language growth (continued) 



Metacognitive Process Outcome (Grades 10-12) 


Description 


Selection 


Modification 


- appraise own strengths 
and weaknesses as a user 
and discerner of language 


- select appropriate 
strategies to increase 
strengths and improve on 
weaknesses as a user and 
discerner of language 


monitor the effect of 
selected strategies, and 
modify them as needed 



Assessment of 1.2.3 

The purpose of assessment in learning outcome subheading 1.2.3 is to determine if students are: 

• accurately and adequately: 

- envisioning themselves as learners 

- describing/portraying their language processes 

- assessing the effectiveness of their language processes and their abilities as language users 

• open to new ways of comprehending, responding to and creating text 

• setting goals for improvement that are reasonable and relevant 

• developing adequate strategies for experimenting with the six language arts 

• adequately monitoring and accurately assessing such experimentation. 

To assess their own learning, students must have a clear understanding of: 

• the most important areas in which they need to grow/progress 

• what growth/success would look like 

• the steps they will take to achieve success — see the strategies under Metacognitive Learning in this 
subheading. 

Teachers can formatively assess students' goal setting by noting how their personal goals evolve: 

• Do the student's goals become increasingly concrete and specific? 

• Do goals build on strengths and address weaknesses? 

Some essential questions that students should ask as goal setters include: 

• What do 1 recognize about myself as a learner? 

• When 1 read/listen/view or write/speak/represent, what am 1 doing? Why? How well? 

• In what areas as a language user do 1 want to improve? What are some strategies used by others that I might 
try using? 

• In light of my goals for learning, how am I doing? 



1 28/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Set personal goals for language growth (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



f 



Goal Setting in the Six Language Arts (io-ib; io-2b; 20-ib; 20-2b) 

Reflecting on the knowledge, skills, strategies and attitudes required for learning in each of 
the language arts may help students to develop goals. As a class, brainstorm a list of 
questions related to learning in the six language arts. Two questions are provided as samples 
for each language art. 

• Speaking 

- How comfortable do you feel making formal speeches or presentations? 

- Can you use your voice to convey various emotions in a dramatic role? 

• Listening 

- Can you easily understand instructions that are given orally? 

- Do you make notes during class presentations? 

• Writing 

- Do you regularly express your thoughts in a journal? 

- Do you try different strategies for revising written work? 

• Reading 

- Do you have strategies to use when you lose the train of thought while reading? 

- Do you read every day for pleasure? 

• Viewing 

- When you watch television commercials, do you think about the techniques 
advertisers use? 

- Do you watch movies and television shows produced in various countries? 

• Representing 

- Do you mentally picture, and even sketch, situations as you read? listen? 

- Do you provide charts, graphs and other visual aids when you make an oral 
presentation? 



Assessment Formative or Self Assessment of Goal Setting 

Much of the communication associated with setting personal goals for 
language growth will consist of students expressing their observations and 
assessments of their own learning. At other times, the teacher will be 
reporting to students and to parents how well the students have been 
determining, setting and achieving their goals for personal language 
learning. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 1 /129 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




p 



f 



Set personal goals for language growth (continued) 



Admit and Exit Slips (io-ib; io-2b; 20-ib; 20-2b) 

Admit and exit slips (Gere 1985) provide teachers with immediate information about student 
learning and foster short-term goal setting. 

• At the beginning of each class, students fill in an admit slip, writing several statements 
about their expectations for the class and the text they will be reading or viewing, as well 
as questions to which they need answers. 

• At the end of the class, students fill in an exit slip, summarizing what they learned and 
recording further questions. 

Goal Sheet (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Early in the semester or year, work with students to compile a list of goals for their work in 
their ELA course. 

• Ask students to bring to class previous work and information such as: 

- their text creation portfolios from Grade 9 ELA. 

- their scoring guides and other forms of assessment/evaluation feedback from Grade 9 
ELA, if available 

- work they have completed to date in Grade 1 ELA. 

Have the class brainstorm a list of possible goals. It may be helpful to provide students 
with selected, clearly worded learning outcomes. 

Ask students to examine their previous work carefully and to select a list of goals for the 
year. 

Confer with each student, suggesting interim goals where those identified by the student 
seem too big or long-range. 

Ask students to identify strategies they can use to reach each goal. Suggest other 
strategies. 

Have students list their goals and strategies on a form. Make copies of the form, one 
copy for each month, and file them in a folder that students bring to each conference. 

C^f 3 See Appendix B, p. 407, for a sample goal sheet. 



Letter tO Myself (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

to At the outset of the Grade 10 ELA course, ask students to write a letter to themselves. 

Save the letters and mail them to students on their senior year graduation. Students may 
want to write about: 

their friends 

their extracurricular activities 

their goals and plans for the future 

the music, books and films they enjoy 

their concerns and problems 

how they imagine they will feel upon senior year graduation 

self-assessment tools. 



1 30/ General Outcome 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Set personal goals for language growth (continued) 



gj Linking Personal and Class Goals (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 20-20, b) 

V Students find it helpful to see how they can reach or facilitate their personal goals through 
language arts courses. 

Prior to a conference to discuss student goals, ask students to reflect on and write a 
response to these three questions: 



f 



Portfolio Reflections (10-la; 10-2a; 20-la; 20-2a) 

In preparing portfolios, ask students to write a short reflection on each item they select, 
using the following questions: 

• What do you like best about this piece? 

• What do you most want your readers to experience from this piece? 

• If you could keep working on this piece, what would you do? 

• What have you learned about writing or producing from your work on this piece? 

See 4.1.2, pp. 264-266, for more information on portfolios. 

r - Second Read (10-la;10-2a;20-la;20-2a) 

w Ask students to bring to class a text to which they responded strongly in the past. This 
could be a children's book or a novel read as recently as Grade 9. Ask students to: 

• record their earlier response to the work, mentioning elements that prompted that 
response 

• reread the text, or a portion thereof, and describe the ways they now respond 

• write a personal essay exploring the ways they have changed as persons and as readers, 
as evidenced in their more mature reading of this work. 



Technology Considerations 



Learning outcome subheading 1.2.3 supports the Information and Communication 
Technology (ICT) Program of Studies, Kindergarten to Grade 12, particularly Division 4 
outcome C7-4.1: use appropriate strategies to locate information to meet personal needs. 

U^ 3 See Appendix C, p. 429, for cross-references of specific outcomes in the ICT and ELA 
senior high school programs. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 1 /l 3 1 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Set personal goals" for language growth (continued) 



Teacher Resources 



Atwell, Nancie. In the Middle: New Understandings About Writing, Reading, and 
Learning. 2nd Edition. 

Made up of 14 chapters and 17 appendices, this resource offers practical suggestions 
on a number of English language arts areas, including self-evaluation and goal setting. 

Foster, Graham. Student Self-Assessment: A Powerful Process for Helping Students 
Revise Their Writing. 

This resource focuses specifically on students' goal setting and self-assessment of their 
own writing. It includes numerous checklists, summarizing criteria for assessment of 
different writing forms, as well as reproducible blackline masters. 

Ross, Elinor Parry. Pathways to Thinking: Strategies for Developing Independent 
Learners K-8 . Expanded Professional Version. 

Although written with a pre-secondary audience in mind, this resource provides a 
number of suggestions for assisting students in identifying and setting their own goals. 
Chapter 1 1, Developing Responsibility, for example, examines the connection between 
responsibility, reflection and self-assessment. 

Strickland, Kathleen and James Strickland. Reflections on Assessment: Its Purposes, 
Methods & Effects on Learning. 

A complete chapter of this resource is devoted to student portfolios; as well, there are 
sections interspersed throughout the text that apply to student goal setting. 

Tierney, Robert J., Mark A. Carter and Laura E. Desai. Portfolio Assessment in the 
Reading-Writing Classroom . 

This resource's focus is the portfolio. Chapter 7, Portfolios and Self-assessment by 
Students, relates to learning outcome subheading 1.2.3. 



132/ General Outcome 1 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



GENERAL OUTCOME 2 



STUDENTS WILL LISTEN, SPEAK, READ, WRITE, VIEW AND REPRESENT TO: 



2.1.2 Understand and 
interpret content 



2.1.1 Discern and 
analyze 
context 




2.1.3 Engage prior 
knowledge 



2.1.4 Use reference 
strategies and 
reference 
technologies 



2.2.1 Relate form, 
structure and 
medium to 
purpose, audience 
and content 



2.2.2 Relate elements, 
devices and 
techniques to 
created effects 




2.1 Construct meaning from 
text and context 



2.2 Understand and appreciate 
textual forms, elements and 
techniques 



General Outcome 2 



Comprehend literature and other texts 

in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, 

and respond personally, critically 

and creatively 



2.3 Respond to a variety of print and nonprint texts 



2.3.1 Connect self, 
text, culture 
and milieu 



2.3.2 Evaluate the verisimilitude, 
appropriateness and 
significance of print and 
nonprint texts 



2.3.3 Appreciate the 
effectiveness and 
artistry of print 
and nonprint texts 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /l 33 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



GENERAL OUTCOME 2 - INDEX OF STRATEGIES 

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend literature and other 
texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, and respond personally, critically and creatively. 



2.1 Construct meaning from text and context 

2.1.1 Discern and analyze context 



4St 

2.1.2 



9 






$ 



2.1.3 



13* 



2.1.4 



Discerning Contexts 

Managing Ideas and Information 



Understand and interpret content 

Text Annotations 

Think-alouds 

Supply the Headings 

Comprehending Oral Texts 

Reading Illustrations 

Comprehending Visual Texts 

KWL Charts 

Self-Monitoring Approach to Reading and Thinking (SMART) 

Asking Strategic Questions 

Approaching Expository Texts 

Summarizing 

Modernizing Text 

Glossary of Terms 

Visual Language 

A Grasp of Register 

Learning from Differences 

Presenter or Content? 

Easy Advertisements 

Monitoring Metacognitive Growth 



Engage prior knowledge 

Anticipation Guide 

Prereading Plan (PreP) 

KWL Charts 

Mind Maps/Concept Maps 

Production Meeting 

Dramatizing Preconceptions 

Use reference strategies and reference technologies 

Personal Glossary/Dictionary 

Internet Address Books/Bookmarks 

Analyzing Sources 

Monitoring Metacognitive Growth 



143 
143 



146 
146 
147 
147 
148 
148 
148 
149 
149 
150 
150 
151 
151 
151 
151 
152 
152 
153 
153 



157 
157 
158 
158 
159 
160 



163 
163 
163 
163 



1 34/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



GENERAL OUTCOME 2 - INDEX OF STRATEGIES (continued) 

2.2 Understand and appreciate textual forms, elements and techniques 

2.2. 1 Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content 

• Revising Own Text 166 

4&\ f • Genres and Themes 167 

<y • Purpose and Audience in Advertising 167 

i£j% • Reviews 168 

• Looking at Models 170 

• "Oops" 170 

• Schema Stories 170 

• Troubleshooting 170 

2.2.2 Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects 

• Famous Speeches 175 

• Jolts Per Minute 176 

• Shooting Scripts 176 

• Elements in Fiction 177 

• Responding to Diction 177 

• Print Texts and Illustrations 177 

• Genre Analysis 178 

• The Power of Design 179 

2.3 Respond to a variety of print and nonprint texts 

2.3. 1 Connect self, text, culture and milieu 

t 1 • Reader Response Journals 183 

• Venn Diagram 186 

• Media Analysis 187 

• Plus Ca Change 187 

• Media Logs 187 

• In Cyberspace 188 

2.3.2 Evaluate the verisimilitude, appropriateness and significance of print and nonprint texts 

• Relive the Moment 192 

• Stream-of-consciousness Writing 192 

2.3.3 Appreciate the effectiveness and artistry of print and nonprint texts 

• Pass It On 193 

• Pop-up Videos 194 

iw$% • Textbook Assessment 194 

• Manipulating Mood 195 

• Writer's Notebook 195 

• Responding to Style 195 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 2 /135 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



GENERAL OUTCOME 2 




Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend 
literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, and 
respond personally, critically and creatively. 

General Outcome 2 concerns itself with the breadth of students' exposure to a variety 
of texts — ranging from traditional and literary texts, to transactional materials, to 
popular culture. The purposes of this outcome are to: 

widen the range of texts with which students are comfortable 

foster ways of listening, reading and viewing that demonstrate sensitivity to other 

cultures and social contexts 

foster an awareness of context — purpose, audience and situation — and its 

relationship to content 

introduce students to a variety of ways to interpret or make meaning of texts 

teach students to distinguish among various types of texts, including expository, 

persuasive, expressive and literary 

encourage students to value prior knowledge, and relate prior knowledge to new 

texts and contexts 

encourage students to explore others' responses to texts and contexts. 

Success in school is closely linked to students' skill in reading print text. Reading 
instruction is not completed in the primary grades when students initially learn to read. 
It is a vital, ongoing process, for effective reading includes such higher order skills as 
inferring, predicting meaning from partial cues and critical reasoning. Throughout 
senior high school, students encounter texts of increasing variety and complexity. 
They learn to deal with literal meanings of increasing complexity and implied 
meanings of greater subtlety. They also learn to think critically, comparing various 
points of view. They learn to relate a text's form, structure and medium to its purpose, 
audience and content. Further, they increasingly recognize the contribution of a text's 
elements, devices and techniques to its effects. 

Because of these reading demands, it is essential that students become strategic 
readers, developing a repertoire of strategies from which they can select according to 
the requirements of various reading situations. 

Within high school English language arts courses, students read not only literature but 
also expository texts, such as essays, magazine features, speeches, reports, proposals 
and nonfiction books. They can also be taught strategies for reading content-area texts. 
It is important that students realize that the reading strategies they learn in English 
language arts have application in all subject areas. 

Students also "read" nonprint texts. These texts may be oral, such as a live speech or 
an audio recording, or visual, such as photographs, paintings, collages and tableaux. 
As well, texts may be multimedia; e.g., movies, short films, documentaries, television 
programs and commercials. 



1 36/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Students use comprehension strategies and skills, textual cues and cueing systems to 
construct meaning from text. As they progress through their senior high school 
courses, students assess the strategies that they use and the skills that they possess and 
demonstrate an increasing understanding of the strategies and skills that they find to be 
personally useful. 



Comprehension strategies include, but are not limited to . . . 



visualizing 

predicting 

previewing 

summarizing 

rereading/backward referencing 

and forward referencing 
recalling 
replaying 
reviewing 

using a graphic organizer to 
assist with: 

• following inductive and 
deductive arguments 

• following organizational 
patterns [such as comparison 
and contrast, progressive 
significance, and chronological 
order with flashback] 

• detecting biases or logical 
fallacies 



creating a web [such as a "who's 
who" of characters portrayed in a 
drama] 

using a reading strategy 
[such as SQ3RJ to explore a 
textbook chapter or other 
complex expository text 

skimming or scanning an 
informational text [such as a 
print manual or a video] 

varying and adjusting reading 
and viewing rates to suit 
complexity and structure of 
text 

paraphrasing and summarizing 

inferring 



using annotation to assist with: 

• analyzing artistic choices 

• recognizing motifs and 
patterns 

• interpreting figurative 
language [such as simile, 
metaphor, hyperbole, 
metonymy, synecdoche and 
personification] 

supporting interpretations with 
relevant reasons and textual 
references 

overcoming interferences with 
hearing/reading/viewing 



Textual cues include, but are not limited to . . . 


In printed text 


In aural text 


In visual text 


titles 


introductions, transitional 


opening scenes in drama 


transitional words and phrases 


expressions and closing 


scripts 


ellipses 


summaries in speeches 


opening scenes/establishing 


italics 


sound tracks and musical scores 


shots in film 


bold font 


sound effects 


camera angles 


font types 


voice inflection, pauses 


camera movement 


chapter headings 




visual images 


captions 




visual compositions 


stage directions in drama 




structured overviews, headings 


scripts 




and subheadings 


prologues/epilogues 




summaries 






colour 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /137 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



English Language Arts Text Variety 

Throughout their senior high school English language arts courses, students will 
experience a variety of texts, including student-created texts in oral, print, visual and 
multimedia forms. Such texts will communicate for a variety of purposes and to 
various audiences. Students are expected to respond to text with increasing sensitivity, 
thoughtfulness, articulateness and self-reliance. 

They are expected to respond personally, analytically and creatively to persons and 
characters, events, ideas, and feelings presented in a variety of Canadian and 
international texts. In so doing, students are expected to respond emotively and 
cognitively. 

Text types appropriate for study in senior high school English language arts classes 
include, but are not limited to: 



• advertising and promotional text j « 

i 

• almanacs 

i 

• analyses, including scene and 

chapter analyses (and total work j 
analyses, Grade 1 1 and * 
Grade 12) 

• analytical/critical responses to 
literature, including 
commentary, explication, * 
reader's response and review 

• autobiographies, personal 
anecdotes and memoirs 

• biographies and profiles 

j 

• book jackets 

• brochures and pamphlets 

« 

• cartoons 

i 
i 

• CD-ROMs 

• charts, tables and graphs • 

! 

1 

• children's television • 

• comics 


• correspondence, including 
letters — personal and 
business — and e-mail messages 

► creative responses to literature 

• debate 

► demonstration 

» dialogue/interactive dialogue 

» diaries, logs and journals 

» discussions and interviews 

» docudramas and documentaries 

» dramatizations, including 
readers' theatre, character 
portrayals, dramatic monologues 
and dialogues 

» essays, including narrative 
essays, arguments and opinion 
papers 

» feature films 

» folk songs and folk tales — see 
short stories and other narratives 



(continued) 



138/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



(continued) 



full-length print nonfiction 

hypertext and hypermedia 
documents 

instructions 

journalistic writing, including 
newspaper and magazine articles, 
editorials, newscasts/sportscasts 
and feature stories 

lyrics and ballads 

maps 

memorandums — see reports 

modern and contemporary drama 



reports/memorandums as reports 
(and proposals, Grade 1 1 and 
Grade 12) 

reviews, including book, theatre, 
movie and Web site reviews 

scripts — play, radio and 
television 

Shakespearean plays in print, live 
and recorded forms 

short stories and other narratives, 
including fables, myths, parables, 
autobiographical sketches and 
anecdotes 



in print, live and rec 


orded forms 


i • 


songs 


monologues 




j • 


speeches 


music/song videos 




i • 


storyboards 


novels and novellas, 


including 


i • 


student dialogue journals 


print and graphic novels 


i • 


summaries, synopses and/or 



obituaries 

panel discussions 

personal responses to literature 

photo and video essays 

poetry 

presentations — oral and video 

radio programming 

recipes 

reference materials, including 
textbooks, handbooks, 
dictionaries and thesauri 

reflective essays 



precis 

television programming, 
including dramas, situation 
comedies, soap operas and talk 
shows 

text to reveal character, setting, 
plot and/or theme, including 
character sketches, dramatic 
monologues, dioramas, collages 
and general analyses of theme 

text to reveal comparison, 
including comparison of 
characters, settings, imagery, 
symbols and theme 

texts-in-progress 

travel articles and travelogues 

visual texts, including collages, 
photographs, cartoons, tableaux, 
dioramas, displays and 
illustrations 

Web sites 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /139 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to 
comprehend literature and other texts, 
in oral, print, visual and multimedia 
forms, and respond personally, 
critically and creatively. 




2. 1 Construct meaning from text and 
context 



ULMB 



Discern and analyze context 



Overview 

The term "context" can be used in two essentially different ways. When "determining the meaning of a word (or 
idiomatic expression, or phrase, or sentence) from context," students use the rest of the text to help them infer 
meanings. 

"Context" also refers to placing a text in its external context — its historical, social, cultural, political and 
ideological milieu — as a significant part of the study of the text. It is the discernment and analysis of this external 
context that is addressed by the specific outcomes under learning outcome subheading 2.1.1. 

External context includes those elements present in a communication situation that influence the development of 
text and the ways in which it is understood. A communication situation may involve a number of factors 
including, but not limited to: 

• the role of the text creator or presenter; e.g., whether or not the text creator or presenter is acting as the 
representative of a group with special interests 

• the text creator's or presenter's relationship to the audience 

• the social backdrop; that is, current events and prevailing ideologies 

• the dominant culture, age, education, gender, dialect and occupation of the audience and its social, economic 
and political status and special interests 

• the time, the physical space and place, and the media and technologies available to assist in creation or 
comprehension of a text. 

The purpose that a text creator or presenter wishes to fulfill is also an important part of the external context, and 
intended purpose has a profound effect on the shape and substance of a text. For example, purpose often 
determines text content and text form. Traditional rhetoric recognizes four essential purposes that may be fulfilled 
by text: 

• to inform 

• to persuade 

• to entertain 

• to inspire. 

The intended audience is another extremely important aspect of the external context. Audiences can be general or 
specific, immediate or removed. For example, in some communication situations, the audience is imagined or 
envisioned by the text creator. This audience can also be distanced from the situation that has engendered the 
creation of the text and can be relatively unencumbered by constraints of time and space, such as when the student 
reads a novel. In other circumstances, the audience is specific and actual — a "target" audience that may be present 
at the time of communication and an integral part of the communication situation. The situation itself may be 
defined, at least to some extent, by audience expectations, which are, in turn, influenced by such characteristics as 
age, gender and culture. 



140/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Discern and analyze context (continued) 



Technical text refers to written and visual text used to communicate information of a technical nature to a 
particular audience; e.g., a description, a set of rules or a procedure. Technical text describes a specific technique, 
a concept or a process. For example, technical text may give instructions on how to erect a tent, load software on 
a computer or program a compact disc player. 

Scientists, members of the medical profession, architects, computer programmers, carpenters, plumbers, laboratory 
technicians and engineers, for example, use technical text. However, with recent advances in home electronics 
and other technologies, people outside technical careers must also be able to read and understand technical text. 
People need to be able to decode and understand technical manuals found in their homes; e.g., VCR and 
microwave manuals. 

Literary text has both narrow and broad definitions. Literary text may serve an intellectual and an entertainment 
purpose. It may convey a meaning from which the reader gains insight about life. Examples of literary text 
include fiction, nonfiction, poetry, drama and essays in print and nonprint forms. 

Metacognitive Learning 

Flavell (1979) contends that metacognitive knowledge consists primarily of knowledge or beliefs about what 
factors or variables act and interact — and in what ways — to affect the course and outcome of cognitive enterprises. 

The following graphic illustrates the understanding that there are three major categories of these factors or 
variables — person, task and strategy. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 2 /141 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Discern and analyze context (continued) 



Categories of Metacognitive Knowledge 



Person: 

conscious awareness of: 

• expectations and 
interests/biases 

• prior knowledge and 
past experience 

• motivations and 
aspirations 

• strengths and 
weaknesses 

• potential — present and 
future 



Task: 

conscious awareness of: 

• purpose and 
consequences 

• audience 

• situation — 
expectations, role, 
time, resources 

• topic, and content 
elements 

• text form — structure, 
genre, medium 




O Adapted from John H. Flavell, "Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring: A New Area of Cognitive-Developmental 
Inquiry," American Psychologist 34, 10 (October 1979), pp. 906-91 1. 



1 42/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Discern and analyze context (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 

4£S% Discerning Contexts (io-ia, b, c; io-2a, b, c; 20-ia, b, c, 20-2a, b, c) 

In pairs, small groups or in whole class discussions, students could read a set of text samples 
and then assess the texts in terms of purpose, audience and situation. See Appendix B, 
C3I 3 p. 408, for a sample graphic organizer that students could use for comparing and contrasting 
different types of text. 



Managing Ideas and Information (io-ia, b, c; io-2a, b, c; 20-ia, b, c; 

20-2a, b, c) 

Many of the specific outcomes under General Outcome 3 will be connected to this 
subheading as students research historical and current contexts. Also, students will need to 
develop strategies that help them to make inferences about the external context from cues 
within the internal context of the text itself. 

When students interpret the content of a text, they consider its context. "Context" includes 
any element present in the communication situation that influences the development and 
understanding of text, including audience and purpose. 



A number of aspects of a text may suggest the nature of the communication situation within 


which it was created, including but not limited to: 




• viewpoint; e.g., elements 


• aural elements; e.g., 


• idiom; e.g., media and 


that suggest whether a 


sound effects and 


advertising jargon, 


text creator is 


musical score 


specialized terminology, 


communicating as an 
individual or as a 
representative of a 


• visual elements; e.g., 
lighting and costuming 


and acronyms 


particular group 







The communication situation may consist of a number of factors, including but not limited 
to: 



presenter's relationship 
to audience 

social backdrop; i.e., 
current events and 
prevailing ideologies 



the dominant culture, 
age, education, gender, 
dialect, occupation and 
social/economic/ 
political status of the 
audience 



the time, physical 
space/place, media and 
technologies available to 
create or experience a 
text 



As well, students often determine meanings of words and idiomatic expressions in a text by 
analyzing them in the context of the rest of the text. 

Exploring contexts may be a good opportunity to explore the differences between literary 
text and technical text. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /143 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Discern and analyze context (continued) 



Teacher Resources 



Atwell, Nancie. In the Middle: New Understandings About Writing, Reading, and Learning. 
2nd Edition. 

Made up of 14 chapters and 17 appendices, this resource offers practical suggestions on a 
number of English language arts areas, including a brief discussion of syntactic and 
semantic context. 

Alberta Learning. Room for Five and Room for Five: Teacher Guide 

Five roommates use the language arts to address a number of challenges they face. 
Throughout the nine-video series, emphasis is given to the importance of understanding 
context. The teacher guide contains learning and teaching activities to accompany the 
nine-video series Room for Five. 

Barrell, Barrie R. C. and Roberta Hammett (eds.). Advocating Change: Contemporary 
Issues in Subject English. 

Within this collection, Part 3: De-centring Text Traditions contains a number of essays 
that provide discussion on such topics as television literacy, critical responses to text in 
various media, technology and oracy. Although rather theoretical and philosophical, this 
section provides some very thoughtful reading. 

Mellor, Bronwyn and Annette Patterson. Investigating Texts: Analyzing Fiction and 
Nonfiction in High School. 

Chapters of particular interest may include Chapter Two, Making Texts, as well as 
Chapter Three, Changing Texts. Several of the topics these two chapters deal with 
include how texts are "made," as well as how and why ways of reading change. 

Ross, Elinor Parry. Pathways to Thinking: Strategies for Developing Independent Learners 
K-8 . Expanded Professional Version. 

Although written with a pre-secondary audience in mind, this resource provides a chapter 
dedicated to metacognition that also includes a variety of strategies to be used in the 
classroom. 

Sawyer, Wayne, Ken Watson and Eva Gold (eds.). Re- Viewing English. 

A particular section within this resource, which may prove helpful, would be Section 
Three: Reading Texts. Within this section, "Towards Critical Literacy: The 'Cultural 
Studies' Model of English" provides insight into certain aspects of the discussion of 
context. 



144/ General Outcome 2 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to 
comprehend literature and other texts 
in oral, print, visual and multimedia 
forms, and respond personally, 
critically and creatively. 




2. 1 Construct meaning from text and 
context 



Q23HP 



Understand and interpret content 



Overview 

Text and Context 

By the time they reach high school, students should have a repertoire of reading strategies and a high degree of 
metacognition regarding their reading, so that they can select appropriate strategies, depending on: 

• the kind of text they are reading — its form, structure and medium 

• the degree of prior knowledge they have: 

- on the subject of the text 

- of similar contexts and text forms 

- of textual elements, rhetorical devices and stylistic techniques 

• their purpose in reading. 

The focus of 2. 1 .2 is to teach students to use strategies consistently, to expand their repertoire and to increase their 
level of metacognition. 

Teachers can review reading strategies by modelling them, providing students with opportunities to practise, then 
phasing in student independence and responsibility. Teaching reading strategies in the context of authentic 
reading tasks — that is, with texts that students have selected in the course of their inquiry or other projects can 
enhance other elements that are central to reading relevance, meaningfulness and motivation. (Tierney, Readence 
andDishner 1995, p. 462). 

Dc^ See Appendix B, p. 409, for a sample self-assessment of reading strategies. 

Assessment of 2.1.2 

Assessing student reading skills and strategies presents particular challenges. When students speak, write or 
represent, teachers can "read" or listen to the message students construct and observe how they go about the task. 
Reading is also an act of composing, but the processes students use in reading are interior. Students reading aloud 
provides little information about the meaning they are making of the text and assessing reading through students' 
written responses to comprehension questions presents other concerns: the students' level of reading 
comprehension may be obscured by difficulties in writing clearly. Strategies, such as think-alouds (page 146) and 
observation of students' use of reading strategies, are most useful in assessing reading skills and strategies. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /145 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Understand and interpret content (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



Text Annotations (10-la, b; 10-2a; 20-la, b; 20-2 a) 

The teacher models a sample annotation of a text, such as a poem or first page or two of a 
short story or narrative essay, by writing predictions, interpretations, significance and 
questions. This activity can be used for a "Think-aloud" (see the next strategy). 

I Assessment Self-assessment of Text Annotations 

See Appendix B, p. 410, for a sample scoring guide for annotations. 



Think-alOlldS (10-la, b; 10-2a; 20-la, b; 20-2a) 

Effective readers conduct an internal monologue about the text and the meaning they are 
making of it. Expressing their internal monologue aloud helps students to identify and 
improve their processes. The text chosen for teacher modelling may be one that students are 
reading in another course. It should contain some difficult or ambiguous elements, or some 
words with which the teacher is not familiar. It could be placed on an overhead transparency 
so that students can follow. 

Also have students practise active reading strategies by doing a think-aloud with a partner. 

Teachers use think-alouds with students whose written responses indicate that they are not 
employing effective reading strategies. 

In a think-aloud, the reader tries to make deliberate and overt all the cognitive processes that 
constitute reading. The steps of think-alouds are as follows: ® 

• Prepare to read the text by determining the subject and then talking about your 
experiences, associations, visual images and knowledge related to the subject. 

Or) • Look over the text and talk about what you learn from the headlines, sidebars, 

illustrations and captions. If the text is visual, talk about the initial impact of the colours, 
captions, images and design elements. 

• Predict what the focus of the text is likely to be. 

• Jot down the questions you would like to have answered. 

• Begin to read. As you read, interject your understanding in a stream-of-consciousness 
fashion, hypothesizing about the direction of the argument and using fix-up strategies 
when the hypothesis is wrong. Fix-up strategies include slowing down, rewinding or 
replaying a tape, rereading a passage, stopping to reflect and looking up the definition of 
a word that obscures meaning. 



** Adapted from Beth Davey, "Think- Aloud — Modeling the Cognitive Processes of Reading Comprehension," Journal of Reading 27, 1 
(October 1983), pp. 44-47. 

146/ General Outcome 2 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Understand and interpret content (continued) 



After reading, verbally summarize the content. 

Reflect aloud about the extent to which your questions were answered and the ways your 
understanding of the subject has changed. 



mmmmmmm 



Assessment 



Formative Assessment of Think-alouds 



Before formatively assessing student use of think-alouds, model the 
strategy several times and give students opportunities for practice. Use 
think-alouds with students whose written responses indicate that they are 
not employing effective reading strategies. Readers who are fairly adept 
with at-level texts may regress to word-for-word techniques when 
confronted with difficult texts. 



m* 



Teachers may prepare a checklist of the reading processes they are 
assessing in a particular think-aloud. These will be processes in which 
students have had instruction. For an example of a possible checklist 
see Appendix B, p. 4 1 1 . 



Supply the Headings (10-la, c; 10-2a, b; 20-la, c; 20-2a, b) 

Conceal the headings in a print text to be photocopied for student reading. Ask students to 
create headings to demonstrate their understanding of the main idea of the text. Texts for 
this activity should not be too technical. 



Comprehending Oral Texts (io-ia, b; io-2a; 20-ia, b; 20-2a) 

Radio documentaries, commentaries and reviews are useful oral texts for practising 
comprehension. Oral texts, however, present a particular challenge: unless the texts are 
taped, readers cannot return to passages they had difficulty understanding. 

Suggestions for instructing "reading" of oral texts: 

• Place a special emphasis on activating prior knowledge. In challenging situations, 
readers depend heavily on their prior knowledge, listening for things that confirm what 
they know. 

• Start with texts that have an overt structure; e.g., comparison and contrast, cause and 
effect. Initially, identify this structure for students. 

• Ask simple questions that help students become more aware of organizational structures 
in oral texts: 

- Where does the lead end? (Jot down the sentence that signals this point.) 

- What is the main idea of this text? 

- How did stories or examples within the text develop this idea? 

• Encourage students to make notes. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /147 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Understand and interpret content (continued) 



Reading Illustrations (io-ia,b,g;io-2a;20-ia,b,g;20-2a) 

Many students are adept at reading visuals but benefit from making their strategies 
conscious. 



more 



• Select a compelling photograph with some detail, and hold it up so that all students can 
see it for five seconds. Give students a minute to jot down the information they were 
able to gather from the picture. 

• Ask students to share their notes, first with a partner and then with the class. 

• Based on their immediate comprehension of the picture, ask students to: 

- determine what element; e.g., image, detail or portion, of the picture they noticed 
first 

- identify the mood of the picture and the part that colour plays in creating this mood 

- identify details that invite further examination of the picture. 

Comprehending Visual Texts (io-ia,b,g;io-2a;20-ia,b,g;20-2a) 

Photographs, paintings/prints, films/videos and artifacts are useful visual texts for practising 
comprehension and evoking response. For helpful suggestions on working with visual texts, 
fl^g 3 see Asking Strategic Questions (p. 149). 



f 



KWL Charts© (10-la, b; 10-2a; 20-la, b; 20-2a) 

KWL (Know, Want to Know, Learned) charts provide a systematic strategy for activating 
and recording prior knowledge, developing questions and reviewing learning — see the next 
page. They are useful as a reading tool for monitoring comprehension. 

Students can begin a KWL chart during reading. At a specified point in the text, students list 
in the first (K) column of the chart what they have learned about the subject up to this point. 
In the second (W) column, they pose questions that will provide a focus for reading the 
remaining text. Identifying the text structure early in the reading may help students develop 
a focus for reading; e.g., What is the main idea? How is it being developed? Are two things 
being compared in this article? 

Provide students with blank KWL charts for small tasks or concise summaries. See 
Pg=" Appendix B, p. 4 1 2, for a sample strategy sheet. If the KWL structure is used as an 

organizing tool for an extended text, students may need to use three sheets with Know, Want 
to Know, and Learned written at the top. 

See learning outcome subheading 2.1.3 (p. 158) for using KWL charts as a prereading tool. 
Assessment Formative Assessment of KWL Charts 



Teachers can use KWL Strategy Sheets as the basis for student 
conferences. 



® Adapted from Donna Ogle, "The K.-W-L: A Teaching Model That Develops Active Reading of Expository Text," The Reading Teacher 
39, 6 (February 1986), pp. 564-570. 



1 48/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Understand and interpret content (continued) 



Self-Monitoring Approach to Reading and Thinking (SMART)o 

(10-la, b; 10-2a; 20-la, b; 20-2a) 

SMART helps students to monitor their understanding and suggests strategies they can use 
when they run into difficulties. It is set up in such a way that students will clarify meaning 
by reading an entire passage and then returning to sections with which they had trouble. 

Model the following self-monitoring protocol with students: 

• Read: Read a section of the text. Place a check mark in pencil in the margin of each 
paragraph that you understand. Place a question mark in the margin of each paragraph 
that contains something that you do not understand. 

• Self-translate: At the end of each section, stop and explain to yourself what you read, in 
your own words. You may look back at the text. 

• Reread: Reread the paragraphs marked with a question mark. If you now understand, 
change your question mark to a check mark. 

• Troubleshoot: Use the following strategies in the suggested order to see if you can now 
make sense of the material still labelled with a question mark: 

- Pinpoint the problem by figuring out why you are having trouble: 

• Is it because of a difficult word or unfamiliar vocabulary? 

• Is it because of a difficult or confusing sentence? 

• Is it because you know very little about the subject? 

- Try a fix-up strategy: 

• Use the glossary or dictionary. 

• Look over the pictures or other graphics. 

• Examine other parts of the chapter: summaries, review section and diagrams. 

- Explain to yourself exactly what you do not understand or are confused about. 

- Obtain help from a teacher or classmate. 

• Reflect: Close the book and explain to yourself what you have learned from this text. 



J£S* 



Asking Strategic Questions (io-ia, b; io-2a; 20-ia, b; 20-20) 

Students benefit from increasing the amount of time they spend viewing photographs and 
illustrations and from asking questions about what they see. 

• Select a series of three pictures from an illustrated children's storybook, and mount them 
or make transparencies for projection on an overhead projector. 

• After students have viewed the first picture, ask them to brainstorm questions about the 
picture in groups and to select the question that is likely to elicit the most information 
about the text. 



•* Adapted from Joseph L. Vaughan and Thomas H. Estes, Reading and Reasoning Beyond the Primary Grades (Boston, MA: Allyn and 
Bacon, 1986). 

Ideas for adaptation of SMART from Doug Buehl, Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning (Schofield, WI: Wisconsin State 
Reading Association, 1995). 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2/149 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Understand and interpret content (continued) 



Have each group pose its question and talk briefly about why the group members thought 
this question was insightful. List all questions on the chalkboard. 

After reviewing the questions, have groups list their predictions about the text. 

Display the second and third pictures. Ask groups to revise their predictions after 
viewing each picture. 

Read the text connected to these three pictures, and ask students to revise their 
predictions again. 

Read the entire text to see how predictions play out in the story. 



Approaching Expository Texts (io-ia, b; io-2a; 20-ia, b; 20-2a) 

When the whole class is reading the same expository text, have students complete the 
following procedure: 

/^s»V • Preview the article first, gathering information from text features. Scan the article, and 
turn it over. Then, in groups, list in one column all the information gained from 
headings, illustrations and diagrams. In the second column, list predictions and 
questions about the content of the article. 

• Read the first and last paragraphs, and turn the article over again. Revise the list of 
information and the predictions and questions. 

• Read the article. Assess if predictions in the second column were accurate and if 
questions were answered. 



D^ 



Assessment Formative Assessment of Approaching Expository Texts 

To assess students' comprehension of an expository piece, ask students to 
fill out an Article Analysis Form — see Appendix B (pp. 4 1 3-4 1 4). Fact- 
based and Issue-based Article Analysis Forms are photocopied back-to- 
back. Using the forms requires students to determine at the outset if the 
article is based on facts or issues. 



Summarizing (io-ic, d; io-2b, c; 20-2b) 

Students in Grade 10 ELA still need practice in summarizing. Initially, it may be necessary 
to have the whole class work on summarizing the same material, although practice in 
summarizing is most meaningful if students can work with material they intend to read for 
their inquiry projects. 

Model summarizing by using text on an overhead transparency. Think aloud the entire 
process of summarizing, underlining the topic sentence and key ideas and stroking out 
unimportant details. 

Have students write a summary of a paragraph and then meet in groups to compare their 
summaries. To encourage students to be succinct, ask them to write summaries on index 
cards. 



1. 



1 50/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Understand and interpret content (continued) 



4£S\ 3. Have students collaborate on and post a protocol for summarizing, such as the following 
(Brozo and Simpson 1995, p. 53): 

• Delete irrelevant and unimportant information. 

• Generalize categories for lists of items or actions. 

• Select a main idea when the author provides one, or construct a main idea if none is 
provided. 



Modernizing Text (io-ic, d, ej, h, i; io-2c, d,f, g; 20-ic, d, e,f, h, /,- 

20-2c,d,f,g) 

When students read a story or novel set and/or written in another period, even one set as 
recently as a decade ago, have them rewrite a portion to update such things as slang, cultural 
references, fashions/apparel/appearances. 



v 



Assessment Self-assessment of Modernizing Text 

Ask students to annotate and share products that illustrate growth in 
their vocabulary in areas of interest. 



Glossary Of Terms (10-la, b; 10-2a; 20-la, b; 20-2a) 

Glossaries can be used as products to assess vocabulary use. 

• Give students an article containing jargon, and ask them to list the jargon it contains and 
to find definitions for the terms. 

• Have students create a list of defined specialized terms related to a particular field of 
interest; e.g., computer technology, snowboarding or skateboarding, fantasy games, 
teenage social customs, internet symbols. Have them include a visual or a Web site that 
is appropriate for their glossary. 

• Have students create a dictionary of slang for students who are learning English as a 
second or additional language. 



Visual Language (io-i g; io-2 g; 20-ig; 20-2g) 

Have students create a poster or collage that highlights differences in the visual language 
used in two versions of the same film. 



A Grasp of Register (20-ie) 

Develop cloze tests with passages in different registers; e.g., formal and colloquial. 
Ideas for developing cloze passages are included on page 1 69. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2/151 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Understand and interpret content (continued) 



Learning from Differences (io-igj; io-2e, h; 20-igj; 20-2e, h) 

Comparing the various vocabularies and language registers used in different times and for 
different purposes helps students appreciate both how language evolves and how it is adapted 
by the user. 

Suggestions for comparisons: 

• Compare a scene from two versions of the same film, made at least a decade apart, 
examining the visual and auditory cues. Ask students how they would change these cues 
again to make them contemporary. 

• Compare a televised newscast with a sportscast, exploring differences in visuals, 
delivery, language, physical appearance, demeanour and sets. Students may make 
similar comparisons between a print news report and a sports article, or between two 
articles on the same subject intended for different audiences; e.g., tabloid and broadsheet 
newspapers. 

• Ask students to tape-record a short informal conversation on any subject; e.g., two 
students describing their scariest nightmare to each other, and to transcribe the 
conversation, word for word. Have them make a list of the conventions of informal 
spoken English, as compared to standard written English. 

• Ask students to recount a real or fictional experience several times as they would relate it 
to different audiences; e.g., A student who has taken his or her parents' car without 
permission is involved in a minor accident. He or she describes the incident to police, 
parents, best friend, boyfriend/girlfriend. The class listens to the oral accounts, noting 
changes the speaker makes in selection of detail and language register. 

• Students reading Shakespeare have opportunities to observe how social class in 
Elizabethan England determined language. For example, ask students to compare the 
language Shakespeare uses in speeches by the Capulets and Montagues with language 
spoken by the servants. Students can analyze the language by counting the length of 
sentences and noting the number of allusions to mythology, the variety of words, the use 
of poetic or bawdy language, and so on. 

• Set up a panel of people from different regions of Canada, or correspond with people 
from different regions by e-mail. Have students develop questions to explore differences 
in vocabulary, slang, idiom and pronunciation. 



Presenter or Content? (io-ij, k; io-2h, /,• 20-ij, k ; 20-2h, 

An audience can be influenced by a dynamic presenter and may be led to believe that the 
presentation has qualities it may not because the content is not as good as the presentation. 

To illustrate this idea, have students view a similar scene from two film versions of the same 
story. In journals or small groups, have the students discuss which scene is more visually 
appealing, which scene has more effective content and/or which scene is both visually 
appealing and has effective content. 



1 52/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Understand and interpret content (continued) 



Easy Advertisements (io-ij, *,- io-2h, /,• 20-ij, k; 20-2h, 

Provide small groups of students with a list of 10 details about a common household item; 
e.g., toothbrush, book, vacuum, picture frame. Each group then draws out of a hat or jar, a 
piece of paper that identifies one piece of technology or other materials they can use to make 
a short television advertisement for the item. The materials the students choose from should 
be wide in range and scope, providing some groups with an obvious advantage and ability to 
make a more impressive and flashier advertisement. 

With all the groups restricted to using the 1 details provided, and the one material or piece 
of technology they drew from the hat, they must come up with a 30-second television 
advertisement. These can be presented live or videotaped and played back to the class. 

The class can then engage in discussion addressing the following question: 

Even though the content was the same, in what ways was the presentation affected by the 
presenters and the technology or materials used? 



(jj) Monitoring Metacognitive Growth (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia; 20-2a) 

Have students reflect on previous learning experiences in which they used various 
comprehension strategies, such as: 

reading passages out loud 

forming questions 

making predictions 

using context to determine connotative meanings of words 

using graphic organizers 

making annotations. 



Students can discuss or write about the usefulness of each and where the strategy worked 
best. 



Technology Considerations 



This learning outcome subheading supports the Information and Communication Technology 
(1CT) Program of Studies, Kindergarten to Grade 12, particularly these Division 4 outcomes: 

• F4-4. 1 : discriminate between style and content in a presentation 

• P3-4.2: support communication with appropriate images, sounds and music. 

See Appendix C, p. 429, for cross-references of specific outcomes in the ICT and ELA 
senior high school programs. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /1 53 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Understand and interpret content (continued) 



Teacher Resources 



Benedict, S. and L. Carlisle. Beyond Words: Picture Books for Older Readers and Writers. 

Beyond Words uses picture books to investigate print and visual media. It promotes 
appreciation of the artistry of texts and enjoyment of literature. This in-depth resource 
focuses on the use of picture books with older students. Topics explored include: 
choosing good picture books for older readers, rationale for using picture books, 
exploring a variety of genres, responding to literature through writing, illustrating texts, 
reading books aloud, using picture books to promote the learning of science, poetry and 
picture books, and research. 

Goodman, K. On Reading. 

This theoretical resource focuses on how reading works. Chapters address various 
aspects of the reading process: the construction of meaning, the syntactic cycle, the 
semantic cycle, and psycholinguistic strategies. This is not a book of reading instruction 
but, rather, a book on reading as a meaning-making process. 

Hendrickson, Robert. The Facts on File Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins. 

The 1 5 000 alphabetically arranged words and phrases included in this publication 
provide origins, meanings and interesting usages. 

Hill, Wayne F. and Cynthia J. Ottchen. Shakespeare's Insults: Educating Your Wit. 

This comprehensive index to Shakespearean insults is organized by play and by purpose. 

Johns, J. L. Basic Reading Inventory. 6th Edition. 

This comprehensive resource is an informal reading inventory. It provides a wide 
variety of graded informal reading passages and clear record-keeping tools to assist 
teachers in diagnosing students' reading levels from Kindergarten to Grade 10. The 
inventory includes graded word lists, warm-up passages, narrative and expository 
passages, comprehensive questions, and story retelling procedures to determine students' 
strengths, weaknesses and strategies in word identification and comprehension. 

Kooy, Mary and Jan Wells. Reading Response Logs: Inviting Students to Explore Novels, 
Short Stories, Plays, Poetry and More. 

The authors of this book provide helpful insights into planning, assessment and record 
keeping, and instructional strategies. Detailed examples of webs and charts are included. 
The book concludes with a sample thematic unit that illustrates the integration of reader 
response to a theme that involves activities in several genres. 

McCutcheon, Marc. Descriptionary: A Thematic Dictionary. 
Twenty subject categories are included. 



154/ General Outcome 2 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Understand and interpret content (continued) 



Mellor, Bronwyn and Annette Patterson. Investigating Texts: Analyzing Fiction and 
Nonfiction in High School. 

Chapters of particular interest may include Chapter Two, Making Text, as well as 
Chapter Three, Changing Texts. Several of the topics these two chapters deal with 
include how texts are "made," as well as how and why ways of reading change. 



Onions, C. T. and Robert D. Eagleson. A Shakespeare Glossary. 

This resource is a 326-page glossary of Shakespeare's words and phrases. Each entry is 
referenced to a specific work. 

Pirie, Bruce. Reshaping High School English. 

Chapter Three, The Web of Textuality, discusses the role of audience and 
"non-transparent constructions" in interpreting content. 

Pratt, T. K. (ed.). Gage Canadian Thesaurus. 

This thesaurus is distinctly Canadian. Entries are generally sensitive to cultural issues 
and peoples and are clearly cross-referenced. The resource represents Aboriginal people 
both as a main entry and in an appendix that features a word list of Aboriginal groups in 
Canada. The word lists in the appendices are extensive and well-organized. 

Richardson, Joy. Looking at Pictures: An Introduction to Art for Young People. 

Using paintings from the National Gallery of London, the author discusses how artists 
use light, perspective, point of view, colour, texture, detail, symbolism and narrative to 
communicate. 

Teasley, Alan and Ann Wilder. Reel Conversations: Reading Films with Young Adults. 

This is a reference handbook for both experienced and inexperienced teachers to guide 
the processes of viewing and representing. Chapter 2 describes comprehension strategies 
and textual cues used in reading films. 

Web Site 

The Media Awareness Network, http://www.media-awareness.ca/eng/ 

This resource offers teachers the opportunity to integrate media studies into their English 
language arts classrooms and to explore some of the issues affecting the lives of their 
students. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /l 55 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to 
comprehend literature and other texts 
in oral, print, visual and multimedia 
forms, and respond personally, 
critically and creatively. 




2.1 Construct meaning from text and 
context 



BB0 



Engage prior knowledge 



Overview 

What students bring to a text determines to a large extent what they will gain from it. 

Activating prior knowledge is an essential stage before listening, reading or viewing, because what students learn 
is stored in memory as a network of associations, not as unconnected bits of information. Learning is the process 
of strengthening connections in these frameworks, adding new pieces and building connections among existing 
pieces. New information will be retained in long-term memory as it is linked with information that is already 
there. Readers, viewers and listeners interacting with a text bring to mind the framework that makes best sense of 
the material. 

Prior knowledge activities raise to a conscious level the framework on "schema" through which students will 
organize their learning of new material. Prior knowledge activities: 

• help identify and address misconceptions that may make students resistant to new learning — when new 
information is at odds with prior knowledge, the new information tends to be rejected 

• provide a framework for learning that allows students to make predictions and inferences as they read, 
elaborate upon information and select information that is relevant to their purposes 

• help students integrate information with what they already know and help them retain information 

• stimulate curiosity, helping students to engage in a dialogue with the author and to assess new information in 
light of what they already know 

• create motivation and build confidence. 

Metacognitive Learning (10-la; 10-2a; 20-la; 20-2a) 



When students experience an unfamiliar text or a new communication 


situation, they connect this new experience with prior knowledge of 


subject matter and text form. They: 




• recall what they know about a 


• recall certain feelings, respond 


subject and remind themselves 


empathetically, and reflect on 


about the nature of symbol and 


personal moral and ethical 


figurative language 


perspectives 


• compare individuals, characters 


• recall previous experiences with 


and situations presented in a text 


similar types of text and 


with individuals, characters and 


communication situations, such 


situations found in other texts 


as having heard argument, 


and with persons and situations 


having read haiku, having 


found in real life 


viewed situation comedy and 




having participated in readers' 




theatre 



Students select appropriate strategies to engage prior knowledge and monitor the effectiveness of selected 
strategies; then they modify selected strategies as needed. 



1 56/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Engage prior knowledge (continued) 



Assessment of 2.1.3 

Assessing students' prior knowledge of context, form, structure and medium, as well as their prior knowledge of 
content before introducing new material, provides essential information about the kinds of support or preteaching 
students will need to make meaning of the material. The metaphor of bridge building aptly describes this 
prereading stage. The teacher's role is "to span the gap between the students' prior knowledge and experience, 
attitudes, interests and reading abilities on one river bank, and ideas, concepts and relationships of the subject 
matter that lie on the other" (Vacca and Vacca 1993, p. 21). 

Encouraging students to ask questions such as the following can help them to reflect on prior knowledge. 

• What have I read that had a similar form? content? purpose? 

• What have 1 created that had a similar form? content? purpose? 

• What do I know about similar audiences? similar situations? 

• How might thinking about my prior learning experiences help me approach new experiences? 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 

Anticipation Guide (10-la, b, c; 10-2a, b, c; 20-1 a, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c) 

Anticipation guides can be used prior to the introduction of new materials to help students: 

• identify their assumptions about a subject and inform the teacher/presenter of their 
knowledge and opinion base 

• stimulate interest in the subject 

• activate their prior knowledge and integrate new learning into their previous schemata. 



U^ 3 (See General Outcome 1, p. 98, for an explanation of this strategy.) 



Prereading Plan (PreP)o (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 20-20, b) 

1 . Associations: Place the key word for a topic on the chalkboard (or play a piece of music, 
or show a picture or short video clip) and say, "Tell me everything that comes to mind 
when you hear/see this." Jot each response on the board. 

2. Reflection: Ask members to respond to the ideas suggested by other students; e.g., 
"What do you think of ...?" This helps students develop an awareness of their own 
network of associations. They may weigh, reject, accept, revise and integrate some of 
the ideas on the board. 

3. Reformulation: Ask, "Based on our discussion, do you have any new ideas about ...?" 
Students verbalize associations that have been elaborated on or revised through the 
discussion. 



o 



Adapted from Judith A. Langer, "Facilitating Text Processing: The Elaboration of Prior Knowledge," in Judith A. Langer and M. Trika 
Smith-Burke (eds.), Reader Meets Author/Bridging the Gap: A Psycholinguistic and Socio linguistic Perspective (Newark, DE: 
International Reading Association, 1982), pp. 149-163. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 2 /157 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Engage prior knowledge (continued) 



Assessment Formative Assessment of Prereading Plan 

PreP provides teachers with information about the prior knowledge 
students bring to the exploration of a specific subject. Assessing this 
prior knowledge by level may help determine the amount and kinds of 
support students will require in order to benefit from a reading or 
presentation. 

Langer (1981) suggests that a student's level of prior knowledge — 
extensive prior knowledge, some prior knowledge or little prior 
knowledge — leads to a corresponding level of response. See 
D^ 3 Appendix B, p. 4 1 5, for a chart on assessing prior knowledge. 



KWL Charts© (10-la, b, c; 10-2a, b, c; 20-1 a, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c) 
KWL (Know, Want to Know, Learned) charts are introduced as a reading tool in learning 
outcome subheading 2.1 .2 (p. 148). They are also useful as a prereading tool. KWL charts 
provide a systematic strategy for activating and recording prior knowledge, developing 
questions and reviewing learning. The K column of KWL charts may be filled in and 
assessed with respect to learning outcome subheading 2. 1 .3; the W and L columns are 
relevant to other learning outcome subheadings. 

When KWL charts are used as a prereading tool, students fill in the first column before 
reading to summarize their prior knowledge of the subject or the context of the text. They 
generate questions for the second column after glancing over the text, noting headlines or 
headings, illustrations, sidebars, and so on. These questions provide a focus for reading. 
After students have summarized what they have learned from the text, they need to discuss 
which of their questions were not answered. 

Mind Maps/Concept Maps (10-la, b, c; 10-2a, b, c; 20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c) 

Webs and maps lend themselves well to representing mental schemata, because they are 
nonlinear, fluid and individual and because they can represent links that may be intuitive and 
experiential rather than logical. They can, in fact, be "crude approximations of the mental 
structure" of ideas (Lapp, Flood and Farnan 1996, p. 296). 

• Before a reading or viewing activity, or an oral presentation, ask students to create a web 
or concept map that represents what they already know about the subject and/or genre. 

• During or after the reading, viewing or oral presentation, ask students to create a web or 
concept map of the ideas presented. 

• Ask students to compare the two webs or maps, to identify points of difference and to 
create a revised map of their understanding of the subject. 



® Adapted from Donna Ogle, "The K-W-L: A Teaching Model That Develops Active Reading of Expository Text," The Reading 
Teacher 39, 6 (February 1986), pp. 564-570. 



158/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Engage prior knowledge (continued) 



• The mind map should be detailed but not cluttered. Fill the page with three or four larger 
visuals rather than a dozen small ones. 

• Arrange the images to show connections among ideas. Images that are juxtaposed 
suggest to the viewer some kind of relationship. Images that are separated from one 
another suggest relative distance. 

• Perhaps not all the selected images are of equal importance or significance. Importance 
may be conveyed in one of three ways: 

- Placement: The nearer the image is placed to the centre of the page, the more 
immediately it attracts the viewer's eye and the greater is the suggestion of its 
importance. 

- Size: Greater size suggests relatively greater importance. 

- Colour: One bit of colour in the midst of an otherwise black and white page 
accentuates the significance of one item. A purposeful variety of colours might 
emphasize the dominant mood. 

• Visual signposts may be used to direct the viewer's eye. Arrows can indicate sequence 
or pattern. Two-way arrows suggest interconnection. Lines or bars can be used to 
separate. Boxes or circles might suggest isolation. 

• Titles can be included, either written separately or as part of one of the visuals. As well, 
they can be written in a manner that helps convey the student's intent; e.g., flaming 
letters. 

• Finally, mind maps may also include short but significant passages of text selected from 
the literature. These may accompany the images or they may stand alone. Regardless, 
they should be considered similar in function to the visuals and should be placed 
purposefully on the page. They should be clearly visible to the viewer. 

Suggestions for Creating Mind Maps/Concept Maps 

• Use a geometric form to represent main ideas, another to represent subordinate ideas and 
a third to represent supporting details. 

• Cluster terms that are associated in the mind. 

• Use lines and arrows to represent connections, whether causal, logical or associative. 

• Use symbols or sketches to enhance the representation. 



Production Meeting (10-la, b, c; 10-2a, b, c; 20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c) 

In instances where the class has read a text as a whole and is preparing to view a film version 
of the same text, students may be able to view the film more thoughtfully and critically by 
planning their own film prior to viewing. 

In production meetings, students make the creative decisions that filmmakers make in 
adapting a print/text to film. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /159 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Engage prior knowledge (continued) 



1 . Ask students to form groups and imagine that their group is a film crew planning to adapt 
a print text for film. Each group chooses a recorder and a member who will present the 
group's ideas to the class in the role of producer. 

j*SJk 2. Have groups make decisions based on questions such as the following: 

• For what audience will you target the film? 

• What themes in the text will be the focus of the film? What symbolism will you use 
to communicate these themes? 

• What sets will you use? 

• What style of film will you produce? To illustrate the film's style, describe the: 

- titles and opening sequence 

- treatment of one key scene, including camera shots and special effects 

- closing scene and end titles. 

• Whom will you cast in the lead roles? 

• What music will you use for the sound track? 



Dramatizing Preconceptions (io-ia, b; io-2a, b ; 20-ia, b; 20-20, b) 

Provide students with the basic elements of a situation they are about to explore in a text, and 
ask them to dramatize a short scene. Discuss their prior knowledge and preconceptions 
about this situation as revealed through the role-play. 



Technology Considerations 



The aforementioned teaching and learning strategies suggest the use of various tools that rely 
on technologies ranging from simple to complex. Students should be encouraged to use 
whatever tools help them with their prereading. 



Teacher Resources 



Brownlie, Faye and Susan Close. Beyond Chalk & Talk: Collaborative Strategies for the 
Middle and High School Years. 

This presentation of 10 learning strategies in a variety of content areas offers samples, 
vignettes and forms. Brownlie and Close's case study approach looks at the 
practicalities of each strategy. 

Brozo, William G. and Michele L. Simpson. Readers, Teachers, Learners: Expanding 
Literacy in Secondary Schools. 2nd Edition. 

This publication uses language-based strategies to foster active learning and expand 
literacy in secondary schools. Many strategies promote student responsibility for literacy 
development outside of and beyond school. 



160/ General Outcome 2 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Engage prior knowledge (continued) 



Buehl, Doug. Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning. 

This resource provides clear instructions in 30 learning strategies for increasing student 
independence. The author draws examples from various subject areas. 

Leggo, Carl. Teaching to Wonder: Responding to Poetry in the Secondary Classroom. 

This book discusses four theoretical perspectives on student reading of poetry: reader 
response, semiotics, deconstruction and cultural criticism. Each perspective is explored 
with specific text examples and classroom strategies. 

Straw, S. B. and D. Bogdan. Constructive Reading: Teaching Beyond Communication. 

This collection of articles on transactional reading, which includes a strong 
representation of authors from western Canada, provides the theory underlying 
transactional reading and the importance of readers using prior knowledge and 
experiences to interpret texts. This book provides a theoretical bridge between the 
traditional ways of teaching reading and a language-based, learner-centred approach. 

Tiemey, Robert J., John E. Readence and Ernest K. Dishner. Reading Strategies and 
Practices: A Compendium. 4th Edition. 

This book is a comprehensive compendium of reading strategies. Chapter topics include 
reader response, cooperative learning, vocabulary development and individualized 
reading programs. The authors assess the effectiveness of each strategy. 

Vacca, Richard T. and Jo Anne L. Vacca. Content Area Reading. 

This resource is a readable and practical guide to learning from texts. Section One 
focuses on learners, Section Two focuses on instructional strategies and activities, and 
Section Three focuses on assessment of reading. Each chapter provides detailed 
examples, dialogues and classroom activities. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 2 /1 61 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to 
comprehend literature and other texts 
in oral, print, visual and multimedia 
forms, and respond personally, 
critically and creatively. 




2. 1 Construct meaning from text and 
context 



QQ^ 



Use reference strategies and reference technologies 



Overview 

The construction of meaning from a variety of texts and contexts requires the successful use of various reference 
strategies and reference technologies. 

In the English language arts classroom, students are encouraged to draw from an expanding repertoire of effective 
reference strategies and employ the use of appropriate technologies that will assist with the study and creation of a 
variety of texts. Students use references to verify, strengthen or reconsider understandings and interpretations; to 
answer uncertainties; and to solve problems. 

References include, but are not limited to: 

• glossaries of technical terms 

• consultation with others 

• historical references 

• expert opinion 

• anthologies of literary criticism. 

Referencing sources of information: 

• helps readers discern the accuracy and currentness of information and the reliability of sources 

• assists the gathering of additional information. 



Assessment of 2.1.4 

The intent of much of the assessment associated with learning outcome subheading 2.1.4 is to determine how well 
students are selecting and using appropriate reference strategies and reference technologies. 

Much of this assessment will be the product of monitoring student work in process. 



1 62/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Use reference strategies and reference technologies (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



Personal Glossary/Dictionary (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 20-2a, b) 

Students can keep a personal glossary of terms related to the specific genres of texts they are 
studying. The glossary can be added to throughout the course and can be referred to as the 
students encounter new texts and new genres. This glossary can be referred to in preparation 
for unit examinations and course examinations. 

As well, students can be encouraged to keep a personal dictionary of unfamiliar words. They 
would include the word, a definition and potential synonyms. This personal dictionary can 
be referred to as students create their own writing texts throughout the course. 



Internet Address Books/Bookmarks (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 

20-2a, b) 

Students can be encouraged to add valuable contacts to their Internet account's address book. 
They can also be encouraged to bookmark valuable Web sites that provide information 
relating to the texts they are encountering and creating in the classroom. 



Analyzing Sources (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 20-20, b) 

Students select three different references, such as the Internet, library catalogue and 
encyclopedia, and compare the material they find. They should look carefully for accuracy 
and reliability of information, and they should evaluate whether or not the source is an 
effective one they would wish to use to help them complete a future assignment. 

Students can also be given opportunities to find and read cited references found in a primary 
text. This gives them a chance to see how information from other sources is integrated into 
written text. 



Monitoring Metacognitive Growth (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia; 20-2a) 

Have students reflect on how to use, when to use and why to use/not use certain 
technologies, including reference technologies; e.g., library catalogues and Internet search 
engines. 



Technology Considerations 



Students are encouraged to use appropriate technologies that will assist with their study and 
creation of a variety of texts. They may use technologies to create their own reference 
materials, such as a personalized dictionary/glossary and a personal URL address list. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 2 /163 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Use reference strategies and reference technologies (continued) 



Teacher Resources 



Heide, Ann and Linda Stilborne. The Teacher's Complete and Easy Guide to the Internet. 

This guide also provides project ideas for the classroom teacher. Chapter 5, Bringing 
the World Wide Web into the Classroom, provides sample exercises for introducing 
students to the Web, as well as examples of Web-based student research projects. 

Leu, Donald J. and Deborah D. Leu. Teaching with the Internet: Lessons from the 
Classroom. 3rd Edition. 

This comprehensive guide provides practical examples and hundreds of resource 
references. Pertinent sections include: Chapter 2, Teaching Navigation Strategies; 
Chapter 4, Effective Instructional Strategies; and Chapter 5, English and Language Arts: 
Opening New Doors to Literature and Literacy. 

Moon, Brian. Literary Terms: A Practical Glossary. 

Each term is "defined" by providing four sections: To get you thinking, Theory, 
Practice, and a Summary. This glossary contains sections on such terms as context, 
discourse, intertextuality, reading practices, representation, as well as open and closed 
text. 

Owston, Ron. Making the Link: Teacher Professional Development on the Internet. 
This practical guide for teachers describes how to use the Internet for research. 



164/ General Outcome 2 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to 
comprehend literature and other texts 
in oral, print, visual and multimedia 
forms, and respond personally, 
critically and creatively. 



2.2 Understand and appreciate textual 
forms, elements and techniques 



Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content 



Overview 

As they progress through their senior high school ELA courses, students will demonstrate recognition and 
understanding of increasingly complex forms and structures chosen by text creators for audience effect. As well, 
students will recognize and understand the reasons for text creators' choices of media and understand their effect 
on audience and content. 



Students need to become adept at reading the ubiquitous visual images of our culture. Many images appeal 
primarily to emotion; they draw on deeply held but rarely examined or articulated cultural beliefs. Readers should 
be taught to be sensitive to nuance and to observe the meaning conveyed through association and juxtaposition. 

Analysis of visual images can be conducted in three stages: 

• a literal understanding of the images 

• identification of their elements and techniques 

• examination of cultural attitudes implicit in the images. 

Awareness of the ways in which texts are organized is a critical variable in learning and remembering information 
from the texts. Skillful readers recognize a hierarchy of information and the cues by which this hierarchy is 
reflected in text structures; less skillful readers need to be taught such organizational patterns. 

Organizational Patterns of Texts 

Students need to be able to recognize and interpret both external and internal organizational patterns: 

• External Organization: Patterns related to external organization include tables of contents, chapter headings 
and subheadings, graphics, glossaries, jacket covers, margin notes, end notes, footnotes, forewords, prologues, 
epilogues, indices, page layouts, font styles, boldface type, colour, voice-over, and camera angle. 

• Internal Organization: In print texts, internal organization is represented by verbal cues that convey how 
ideas are related. Students can be provided with common cues or "signal words" for various text structures, 
but they also need to know that connecting words are sometimes missing and need to be inferred. 

Most media texts, including television commercials and films, are narrative in structure. Television can be used to 
teach the conventions of narrative texts; e.g., transitions, subplots and flashbacks. 

Common organizational patterns for both print and media texts include the following: 

• Chronology. Cues or signal words related to time: after, before, during, next, until, soon, while, first, then, 
finally. 

• Compare and Contrast. Cues or signal words: in comparison, in contrast, on the other hand, although, 
however, but. 

• Cause and Effect: Cues or signal words: because, as a result, since, therefore, so. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2/165 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content (continued) 



• Concept and Examples: Cues or signal words: for example, for instance, like. 

• Problem and Solution: Cues or signal words: because, instead of, rather than, therefore. 

Learning organizational patterns of texts is most effective in the context of authentic listening, reading and 
viewing tasks. Where students discuss text structures as keys to discovering the speaker's, writer's or producer's 
main and supporting ideas. Activities that require students to identify specific text structures should use simple 
texts; such activities are best suited to group work. 

Assessment of 2.2.1 

Learning outcome subheading 2.2.1 asks students to demonstrate their recognition of the relationship between 
form, structure and medium and purpose, audience and content in the texts they explore. This growing awareness 
may be assessed through the ways students accommodate audience needs in their own productions. See learning 
outcome subheading 4. 1 .3 for related ideas. 

The degree to which students will focus on the structures of a text depends on their prior knowledge of the subject. 
As Brozo and Simpson point out, "Readers who know that they have little or no information about a topic will 
choose to use the author's schema by remembering the chapter's organizational structure. If, however, readers 
have considerable relevant prior knowledge and a clear purpose for reading, they will choose to organize recall 
around their own knowledge structures ...; readers use their schema flexibly" (1995, p. 22). 

Recognition of organizational patterns in print and nonprint text contributes to comprehension of those texts. 
Assessment of students' ability to discern such patterns is typically formative and ongoing. At other times, 
teachers formally evaluate students' apprehension of a text's organization by assessing student texts that are 
created about, or in response to, a studied text. 

Assessing Reading through Writing 

In the course of instruction, many concepts related to reading will be integrated with and assessed through writing. 
For example, students may strengthen their awareness of organizational cues by highlighting the organizational 
cues in a piece of their own writing. Refer to learning outcome subheading 4.2.2 for other strategies related to 
organizational structures. 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 

Revising Own Text (10-lb, c; 10-2b, c; 20-lb, c, d; 20-2b, c) 

Ask students to revise a piece of their own work so that it can be shared with a different 
audience from that for which it was originally intended; e.g., ask students to redesign an oral 
presentation developed for peers so that it would be appropriate for early- or middle-year 
students. 



166/ General Outcome 2 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

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Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content (continued) 



Genres and Themes (io-ia, b, c, io-2a, b, c; 20-ia, b, c, 20-2a, b, c) 

/■*2s>\ Have students work in groups to explore the ways in which various forms and genres treat a 
particular theme or subject. 

• Ask groups to find a specified number of texts dealing with the theme. For instance, if 
the class has identified the subject of romantic love, examples may include: 

- love poems from their grandparents' generation, their parents' generation and their 
own generation 

- synopses of television shows or films on the theme of love 

- portrayals of love in print advertisements and television commercials 

- portrayals of love in different types of music. 

• Ask groups to analyze each text, identifying: 

- the intended audience 

- the appeals of this text for that audience 

- the statements made about the theme 

- how the form reflects the purpose 

- the effectiveness of the chosen form. 



Assessment Peer Assessment of Genres and Themes 



For assessment purposes, have students: 



submit their analysis of each text examined by their group 
present selected pieces along with their analyses to the class to 
stimulate class discussion 

reflect in their dialogue journals/learning logs about which 
expressions of the theme they found most engaging, and have them 
explore reasons for their preferences. 



Purpose and Audience in Advertising (io-ib, c; io-2b, c; 20-ib, c; 

20-2b, c) 

To help students appreciate the ways in which audience shapes creative choices, have them 

compare similar products designed for different audiences. 

• Give groups of students copies of advertisements for two brand name products in the 
same product line but intended for very different audiences; e.g., family car and sports 
car, denture cream and toothpaste. 

• Ask students to identify the specific audience targeted by each advertisement: age, sex, 
income level, interests/values. 

• Ask students to choose a form for noting their observations; e.g., comparison and 
contrast chart or Venn diagram, and to compare the advertisements. 

• As a class, compile the findings and note the techniques each advertisement uses to 
appeal to a particular audience; e.g., consider colour, word choice, images, juxtaposition, 
word size and content. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /167 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content (continued) 



Have students create advertisements for two products in the same product line, targeting two 
different audiences. These advertisements could be sketched, storyboarded or videotaped. 



I Assessment Self-assessment of Purpose and Audience in Advertising 

Ask students to: 

r • submit an audience profile for each product 

W • specify the ideal placement for each advertisement; e.g., television 

station, time and show, name of magazine 
• present the advertisements to the class, briefly explaining the 

particular techniques they used in each to appeal to the audience; e.g., 

word choice, images, colour, content. 



Reviews (10-lb, c; 10-2b, c; 20-lb, c; 20-2b, c) 

In the context of writing reviews, explore the ways in which reviews in various publications 
are shaped to appeal to their target audience. 

• Distribute two or three reviews of the same play, movie, music CD or book without 
telling students their source. 

• Have students work in groups, noting differences in choice of detail and opinion, level of 
language, and tone used in the reviews. Ask students to describe the audience for which 
each review was written. Teachers may choose to provide students with a description of 
each of the publications from which the reviews were drawn and ask students to match 
the articles to the publications. 

• Discuss the subjectivity inherent in reviews. Identify the ways subjectivity is expressed: 
through direct statements of opinion, through connotative words and phrases (identify 
them), and through selection of detail. 

• Ask students to evaluate the reviews and their suitability for the intended audience. 
Discuss the extent to which the students' responses to the reviews are influenced by their 
own tastes and opinions. 



Assessment 



Self-assessment of Reviews 

Have students prepare an oral report of their findings for their classmates. 
Use a checklist such as the following. 



Checklist for Assessing Students' Evaluation of Reviews 

Has the group: 

LJ identified the intended audience? 

□ explained how word choice, tone, focus and opinion were determined 
by the intended audience? 

Q evaluated the quality of the review and its appeal to its audience? 



168/ General Outcome 2 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content (continued) 



Q identified connotative language that reveals the writer's subjectivity? 

□ explained how their own tastes and opinions may influence their 
response to the reviews? 

Viewing Guide 

After viewing a series of animated children's television programs, have 
students design a system to rate children's programming. The system 
should include colour-coded warning labels to appear either on-screen or 
in the television guide beside each program for children, as well as a 
legend for parents explaining the various labels. 



V& 



Think-alouds 

Ask students to use think-alouds with partners who are reading a 
common text. Select struggling students to do a think-aloud with the 
teacher. Think-alouds are discussed in learning outcome subheading 
2.1.2 (p. 146). 



Connectives Cloze 

Cloze exercises can be used either for instruction or assessment. To help 
students appreciate the importance of connectives in communicating 
organizational patterns and conveying the relationship between ideas, set 
up a modified cloze exercise with only connective words effaced. Cloze 
passages are discussed in learning outcome subheading 2.1.2, under the 
strategy "A Grasp of Register" (p. 151). 

Work through the following exercise before using a connectives cloze for 
^CS>V assessment: 

• Generate a list of connective words and phrases, and discuss their 
importance as textual cues. Post the connective words as a wall chart. 

• Ask students to bring to class passages from content area texts that 
they are all required to read. 

• Have students divide into groups, have each group choose one 
passage of about 200 words, and make a photocopy of the passage 
for the group. 

• Ask the groups to erase each connective word from their passages, 
using correction fluid. 

• Have groups exchange these passages and attempt to fill in the blanks 
with an appropriate connective. 

• Ask each group to report on how successfully the cloze exercise they 
created was filled in and to explain problems in comprehension that 
may result from any wrong answer. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /169 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content (continued) 



Looking at Models (io-ib, c, </,- io-2b, c, </,- 20-ib, c, </,- 20-2b, c, d) 

Examine the work of various writers who have written for both children and adult readers; 
e.g., O. R. Melling, Sandra Birdsell, David Suzuki, Mordecai Richler, Mark Twain, Jake 
MacDonald, Linda Holeman, Margaret Laurence, Sheldon Oberman, Beatrice Culleton. Ask 
students to analyze differences; e.g., length of words and sentences, choice of details and 
types of imagery, point of view, and narrative stance. 



'OopS" (10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Ask students to bring to class examples of texts that they think illustrate a poor match 
between form, audience and purpose. Discuss the consequences for the audience and for the 
writers/producers when texts have not been shaped to accommodate audiences. 



Schema Stories (io-ic;io-2c;20-ic;20-2c) 

Requiring students to reassemble a text, using a procedure such as the following, increases 
their sensitivity to organizational cues (Short, Harste and Burke 1996, pp. 434-435): 

• Provide each student with just one segment of a text that has been cut into parts at natural 
dividing points, and ask students to read these segments silently. 

• Text assembly begins by asking who thinks he or she has the beginning of the text. That 
student then reads the segment aloud. The other students decide whether they agree that 
this is the first segment. 

• The group process continues, with each student reading a segment aloud when he or she 
thinks it comes next in the text, and the others listening and agreeing or suggesting an 
alternative. 

• Once students have assembled the text to their satisfaction, the entire text is read aloud as 
a unit, with each student reading his or her segment. 

• The original text can be distributed to students for comparison. 



V& 



Troubleshooting (10-lc, d; 10-2c, d; 20-1 c, d; 20-2c, d) 

One way of embedding instruction in authentic tasks is to have students examine the 
organizational structure of texts they are required to read in content area courses or texts they 
have selected for inquiry projects. 

• Ask students to bring to class difficult passages from texts they are reading for an inquiry 
project or in another course. 

• Provide information on various common expository text structures — see Organizational 
Patterns of Texts (pp. 165-166). 

• Work with students to identify the text structures of the passages they have brought to 
class. 

• Use graphic organizers to chart the information in these passages — see Mind 
Maps/Concept Maps (p. 158). 



1 70/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content (continued) 



Technology Considerations 



Learning outcome subheading 2.2.1 supports the Information and Communication 
Technology (ICT) Program of Studies, Kindergarten to Grade 12, particularly Division 4 
outcomes: 

• C 1-4.4: communicate in a persuasive and engaging manner, through appropriate forms, 
such as speeches, letters, reports and multimedia presentations, applying information 
technologies for context, audience and purpose that extend and communicate 
understanding of complex issues 

• P3-4.3: apply general principles of graphic layout and design to a document in process. 

[jtg 3 See Appendix C, p. 429, for cross-references of specific outcomes in the ICT and ELA senior 
high school programs. 



Teacher Resources 



Atwell, Nancie. In the Middle: New Understandings About Writing, Reading, and Learning. 
2nd Edition. 

This resource offers lessons about the conventions of writing and mini-lessons on what 
readers need from writers. 

Barker-Sandbrook, Judith and Neil Graham. Thinking through the Essay. 2nd Edition. 

This resource offers chapter examinations and samples of classical and literary essays, 
reports, reviews, profiles, and excerpts from autobiography and biography. A Teacher's 
Resource, by Marilyn Eisenstat and Neil Graham, to accompany Thinking through the 
Essay, is available. 

Belanger, Joe et al. Instant English: Ideas for the Unexpected Lesson, Years 7-12. 

Lesson 18, Signs and Statements, examines nonverbal language and dress codes. Lesson 
1 9, Signals and Signs, investigates 1 signs, which all make the same request but imply 
different relationships between the writers and readers. 

Brozo, William G. and Michele L. Simpson. Readers, Teachers, Learners: Expanding 
Literacy in Secondary Schools. 2nd Edition. 

This publication uses language-based strategies to foster active learning and expand 
literacy in secondary schools. Many strategies promote student responsibility for literacy 
development outside of and beyond school. Chapter 3, "Comprehension Strategies: The 
Tools of Literacy," may be particularly pertinent to this general outcome. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 2/171 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content (continued) 



Childers, Pamela B., Eric H. Hobson and Joan A. Mullin. ARTiculating: Teaching Writing 
in a Visual World. 

Chapter 1, Seeing Writing in a Visual World, examines the link between visual and 
verbal learning. Chapter 5, Teaching Writing in a Visual Culture Across Disciplines, 
looks at possible writing assignments in art, and visual assignments in science, history, 
mathematics, English and other areas. 

Hagan, Rose-Marie and Rainer Hagan. What Great Paintings Say: Old Masters in Detail. 

This art book analyzes paintings by many of the old masters. It identifies techniques and 
images they used to achieve particular effects and purposes. 

Jackson, Tom and Bill Buckingham. Tom Jackson 's Resume Express; Interview Express; 
Power Letter Express. 

This compendium of three guides presents the techniques for preparing an attention- 
getting resume, dealing successfully with interviews, and creating job-winning cover 
letters and other employment related forms. 

Kearns, Jane. Where to Begin: A Guide to Teaching Secondary English. 

Chapter 5, Writing Ideas, Strategies and Guides, provides suggestions for writing in a 
variety of genres. 

Moscovitch, Arlene. Constructing Reality: Exploring Media Issues in Documentary. 

Track stars illustrate the role of sound in shaping viewers' emotional responses in film 
and video. 

Richardson, Joy. Looking at Pictures: An Introduction to Art for Young People. 

Using paintings from the National Gallery of London, the author discusses how artists 
use light, perspective, point of view, colour, texture, detail, symbolism and narrative to 
communicate. 

Tchudi, Susan J. and Stephen N. Tchudi. The English Language Arts Handbook: Classroom 
Strategies for Teachers. 2nd Edition. 

The focus of Chapter Twelve, A Curriculum for George Orwell, is to increase language 
consciousness and awareness. 

Teasley, Alan and Ann Wilder. Reel Conversations: Reading Films with Young Adults. 
Chapter 4 provides an overview of the film genre. 



1 72/ General Outcome 2 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content (continued) 






Tierney, Robert J., John E. Readence and Ernest K. Dishner. Reading Strategies and 
Practices: A Compendium. 4th Edition. 

This book is a comprehensive compendium of reading strategies. Chapter topics include 
reader response, cooperative learning, vocabulary development and individualized 
reading programs. The authors assess the effectiveness of various strategies. Unit 7, 
"Content Area and Text-Based Comprehension," may be particularly pertinent to this 
general outcome. 

Vacca, Richard T. and Jo Anne L. Vacca. Content Area Reading. 

This resource is a readable and practical guide to learning from texts. Section One 
focuses on learners, Section Two on instructional strategies and activities, and Section 
Three on assessment of reading. Each chapter provides detailed examples, dialogues and 
classroom activities. 

Web Site 

The Media Awareness Network, http://www.media-awareness.ca/eng/ 

This resource describes the Canadian rating system for home videos. As well, it 
describes the work of Alberta Film Classification Services and how it classifies films that 
are shown publicly in Alberta. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /173 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to 
comprehend literature and other texts 
in oral, print, visual and multimedia 
forms, and respond personally, 
tically and creatively. 




2.2 Understand and appreciate textual 
forms, elements and techniques 



Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects 



Overview 

As readers of print and nonprint text, students will identify textual elements, rhetorical devices and stylistic 
techniques and assess their effects on text and context. 



Narrative textual elements include, 


Textual elements of exposition 


Poetic and dramatic textual 


but are not limited to . . . 


and persuasion include, but are 


elements include, but are not 




not limited to ... 


limited to . . . 


setting 


thesis or controlling idea 


verse and stanza 


character and characterization 


summary 


musical devices/sound 


plot 


jolt vs. coherence 


symbolism 


deus ex machina 


illustration and example 


rhyme 


in medias res 


transition 


rhythm, meter and cadence 


narrative point of view 


comparison and contrast 


figurative language 


theme 


charts and graphs 


symbol 


dialogue 


highlighting 


imagery 


motif 


formatting 


allusion 


allusion 


the rules of evidence 


stage directions 


symbol 


argument, deductive and inductive 


stage props 


imagery 


reasoning 


blocking 


archetype 


appeals to emotion 


colour and lighting 


music 


syllogism and logical fallacies 


timing 


lighting 




apostrophe 

soliloquy and aside 

body language, gesture and facial 

expression, movement and use 

of space 



Rhetorical devices and stylistic techniques used to create a specific effect on an audience include, 


but are not limited to ... 






description and caricature 


balance and parallel structure 


irony — dramatic, situational and 


classification 


antithetical structure 


verbal 


definition 


euphemism 


voice-over 


analogy 


juxtaposition 


sound track 


anecdote 


person, or point of view 


sound effects 


bulleted lists 


paradox 


fade/dissolve 


concise headings 


allegory 


camera angle and movement 


exaggeration 


satire 


morph 


understatement 


repetition 


cropping and framing 


sentence variety 


interrupted movement 


texture 


sentence order 


qualification 


colour 


precise denotative language and 


rhetorical questions 


focal point/punctum 


other choices of words and 


alliteration — to create emphasis 


split screen 


expressions 


metaphor — to evoke images 


lighting 


straightforward sentence structure 







1 74/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects (continued) 



Other devices include universal symbols and motifs. 



Visual elements, devices and techniques that 
affect meaning include, but are not limited 
to ... 


camera angle 
visual focal 
point 
framing 


shape 
colour 


movement 
arrangement into 
sequences 



Elements and devices in an aural text that 
affect meaning include, but are not limited 

to ... 



musical score 



sound 
effects 



background 
conversation or 
crowd 
murmuring 
(indiscernible) 



Understanding the techniques writers and producers use to portray individuals and groups in society is important 
in helping students to think critically. Discussions need to be based on the fact that texts are always constructs of 
reality; the ways in which television commercials portray people, for example, are shaped by the purposes of the 
commercials not by the real qualities of individuals and groups. 

Texts need to be examined as products and reflections of the economic, social and political times in which they are 
created and set. Students need to learn to recognize the ways in which time and circumstance affect language, 
attitudes, beliefs, content and presentation. They also need to understand how authors and directors make choices 
about techniques and elements in their work to create particular effects. For example, an author may choose 
flashback or point of view to create sympathy or a sense of intimacy with a character. A director may choose a 
particular camera angle or type of shot to reveal an idea or point of view. 



Assessment of 2.2.2 

As they progress through their senior high school courses, students will demonstrate an increasing understanding 
of the elements, devices and techniques that text creators use to create effects, such as humour, pathos, coherence, 
clarity and unity. For example, students will recognize that a text creator may use irony, exaggeration and 
caricature to create satire; dramatic irony to create suspense; and verbal irony to create humour. 

Students will also assess the effects of various persuasive techniques on an audience; e.g., commercial 
endorsements and negative advertisement campaigns may convince or offend. 

Students will not only assess the effectiveness of certain choices made by a text creator, they will also consider 
potential alternatives to such choices. 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



FamOUS Speeches (10-la, b, h, i; 10-2a, b,f, g; 20-la, b, h, i; 
20-2a,b,f,g) 

After playing tapes of famous speeches, either from tape libraries or film, have students 
discuss the elements — such things as word choice and a thoughtful, logical structure 
appropriate to purpose — and techniques — such things as repetition, rhetorical questions, 
pacing, intonation, inflection — that make the speeches effective. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /l 75 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects (continued) 



i Assessment Formative, Summative or Self Assessment of Famous Speeches 

Work with students to develop a rubric describing the elements of 
effective speech. This rubric may be used to assess student speeches. 



JoltS Per Minute (10-la, b, h, i; 10-2a, b,f, g; 20-la, b, h, i; 20-2a, b,f, g) 

Introduce the concept of television "jolts" — the use of violence, aggression, humour, fear, 
sexuality, loud noise, slow motion and sudden movement to retain viewers' interest. Ask 
students to: 

• watch several shows of different kinds 

• record the "jolts" on a chart as they respond to them 

• ascertain the number of jolts per minute of each show. 

Commercials can also be monitored for jolts per minute. 

I Assessment Formative or Summative Assessment of Jolts Per Minute 

Students may demonstrate their understanding of the concept of 
television jolts through: 

• doing a comparative analysis of the jolts per minute on several 
networks 

• preparing a viewing guide for parents — see Viewing Guide (p. 1 69). 



ShOOting Scripts (10-la, b, h; 10-2a, b,f; 20-la, b, h; 20-2a, b) 

Students learn a great deal about film techniques by working with film scripts and scenes 
from feature film productions. Have students compare their own creative decisions to the 
film director's decisions by designing a shooting script prior to viewing a scene of the film. 
Shooting scripts may be developed in connection with production meetings — see pages 
159-160. 

The following strategy assumes that students are familiar with the dramatic script selected, 
although not with the version of the film. 

• Select a short key scene — three to five pages of a script — and photocopy these pages, 
using one side of the paper only. 

• Ask students to place the pages in a binder so that the script is on the right side and a 
blank page for their notes is on the left. Have them divide the left page into two 
columns. 

• Ask students to read the scene in class, and discuss its meaning, deciding on the effects 
they would like to achieve in filming the scene. 



1 76/ General Outcome 2 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects (continued) 



• Have students work through the script as if they were the director, sketching and 
recording their notes for production in the first column of the left page parallel to the 
dialogue in the text. They will indicate such elements as: 

- the point of view of the camera 

- the type of shots; e.g., close-ups, medium, long and tracking shots, and the pace of 
shots; e.g., quick zoom in, slow pan across 

- lighting 

- details used to establish atmosphere and setting 

- directions to actors 

- sound effects and music. 

• Show the scene from the film, and discuss the effect the director has achieved. 

• Replay the scene several times, pausing frequently, so that students can identify the 
techniques the director has used. In the second column on the left page of their shooting 
script, have students note the director's creative decisions related to the elements listed 
above. 

• Ask students to report orally or in writing on the ways in which their shooting script 
varied from the creative decisions made by the film director. 



Elements in Fiction (io-ia, b ; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 20-20, b) 

To help students become more aware of the creative choices writers make, have them retell a 
story or a novel episode from a different point of view or using an alternative setting. 



Responding tO Diction (10-la, b, h, i; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b, h, i; 20-2a, b) 

Have students highlight emotional words and factual words in different colours in the text of 
a magazine advertisement. Have them replace emotion words with factual words. Discuss 
how this changes the impact of the advertisement. 



Print Texts and Illustrations (io-ia, b,f, h; io-2a, b,f; 20-ia, b,f, h; 

20-2a, b,f) 

Children's books are useful in exploring the ways in which illustrators can expand the 
meaning of print texts through their illustrations. 

• Read a children's book twice to students without showing the illustrations. Tell them the 
number of full-page illustrations in the book. 

• Ask students to sketch and make notes during the readings. They may record: 

- their responses to the story 

- the moments they would choose to illustrate 

- the content, focus and effect of each illustration. 

• Share the book illustrations with the class. Ask students to discuss differences between 
the illustrator's vision of the story and their own. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /177 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Relate elements,'devices and techniques to created effects (continued) 



Ask students to write a reflection on the ways the illustrations expanded their 
understanding of the story and/or on the elements they considered important that the 
illustrator did not represent. 



Genre Analysis (io-ia, b, c, d, e,f, g; io-2a, b, c, d, e, g; 20-ia, b, c, d, ej, g; 

20-2a, b, c, d, e, g) 

Have each student read two novels or view two films from a genre of their choice; e.g., 
horror, mystery, science fiction, fantasy, romance. In analyzing the elements of their chosen 
genre, students will work in groups with others who have chosen the same genre. 

Ask students to prepare a grid to record information for analysis, such as the following: 

• Setting 

- When do the stories take place? (time, season) 

- Where do the stories take place? (country, geography, type of home) 

- What mood is created by the setting? 

• Character 

- Name the main characters. 

- Note three personal characteristics of each. 

- Is there is a correspondence between personality and name? 

- Does the character conform to an obvious stereotype? 

- Does the character change in the course of the story? If so, in what way? 

• Plot 

- List the stages of the novel or film plot. 

• Values 

- What is the primary goal of each of the main characters? 

- How does each character go about reaching this goal? 

- What do relationships mean to each character? 

- How important are material possessions? 

- Do the characters' values change by the end of the story? 

• Audience 

- Who reads this type of novel/views this type of film? 

- How do these novels/films reflect the values of the audience? 



The following elements can also be analyzed: 

personification 

simile 

metaphor 

musical devices (onomatopoeia, alliteration) 

satire 

irony 

symbol/motif 

hyperbole 



1 78/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects (continued) 



After students have completed an analysis of a paperback genre, ask them to report 
individually on the "formula" of the genre they have chosen and the stereotypes it implies. 
Students may want to write this report in the form of a recipe, using a model such as the 
following student sample. 

Genre Recipe: Sweet Romance® 



Ingredients 

1 intelligent, independent woman (young, beautiful) 

1 arrogant wise guy (manly, attractive) 

1 rich family rebelled against 

1 warm, cosy get-away 

1 sports car (red or black) 

3 love scenes (hot and spicy) 

1 first meeting (immediate dislike, strong physical attraction) 

1 large misunderstanding 

2 chance meetings 
1 reason relationship can't work 
1 depressing dinner 
1 marriage 



Instructions 

Take 1 intelligent young woman and stir in first meeting with 1 arrogant wise guy (manly 
and rich) who has rebelled against his family. Let simmer until feelings of dislike and strong 
physical attraction appear. Add 2 chance meetings and stir until hate and lust boil over. 
Dissolve a misunderstanding with love. Move characters to a warm, cozy get-away via 1 
sports car. Season to taste with 1 romantic love scene. Let stand until characters declare 
their love. Transfer characters to a dinner where woman explains why the love can't work. 
Strain woman from the mix. Let man and woman cool separately until they can't stand to be 
apart any longer. Spread mixture of love over one happy marriage, and you'll get one Sweet 
Romance. (Serves 2) 



The Power of Design 

Introduce students to the importance of design as an element of communication by having 
them look at a range of print texts. Students need to discover that the design of every text, no 
matter how neutral, communicates a message. 

• Present students with 20 different samples of print text. Draw these samples from such 
things as teacher-made handouts, old and new magazines, newspapers, textbook pages, 
full-page advertisements and newsletters. Number each sample, and spread them out on 
a table in random order. 



By Steve Britton, Ste. Anne Collegiate, Seine River School Division No. 14. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /179 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Relate elements,'devices and techniques to created effects (continued) 



Have students number a sheet of paper from 1 to 20, corresponding to the text samples. 
As they walk by the table, have them record evaluative comments. 

Ask the class to discuss what the various text samples communicate through their design. 

For a follow-up discussion, ask students to assess the design of two texts that they read 
daily; e.g., cereal boxes and newspapers, listing what they like and do not like about the 
appearance of each item. Ask students to bring the items and the lists to class. 



Teacher Resources 



Caruso, Sandra and Paul Clemens. The Actor's Book of Improvisation. 

This is a resource for developing the actor's craft, with specific structured situations 
drawn from well-known plays, films and historic events. 

Childers, Pamela B., Eric H. Hobson and Joan A. Mullin. ARTiculating: Teaching Writing 
in a Visual World. 

Chapter 1, Seeing Writing in a Visual World, examines the link between visual and 
verbal learning. Chapter 5, Teaching Writing in a Visual Culture Across Disciplines, 
looks at possible writing assignments in art, and visual assignments in science, history, 
mathematics, English and other areas. 

Gollin, Richard M. A Viewer's Guide to Film: Arts, Artifices and Issues. 

This book contains a comprehensive glossary of film terms, as well as a chapter 
explaining different film genres. 

Hagan, Rose-Marie and Rainer Hagan. What Great Paintings Say: Old Masters in Detail. 

This art book analyzes paintings by many of the old masters. It identifies techniques and 
images they used to achieve particular effects and purposes. 

Hoff, Ron. 1 Can See You Naked. New Revised Edition. 

This humorous resource looks at methods and techniques for formal oral presentations 
and speeches. It examines awareness of audience, ways to overcome anxiety and what 
body language communicates. 

Imhoff, Dan and Roberto Carra. Making People Respond: Design for Marketing and 
Communication. 

This book provides samples and an analysis of Primo Angeli's work as a graphic 
designer of packaging and posters. 

Jones, Brie. Improve with Improv: A Guide to Improvisation and Character Development. 
This book discusses improvisation techniques and suggests various exercises. 



180/ General Outcome 2 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects (continued) 



Linklater, Kristin. Freeing Shakespeare 's Voice: The Actor's Guide to Talking the Text. 

This book analyzes Shakespeare's techniques for creating character, story and meaning 
through figures of speech, metre (iambic pentameter), rhyme, and alternating verse and 
prose. A discussion of Shakespeare's relevance to modern audiences is included. 

McCain, Ted D. E. Designing for Communication: The Key to Successful Desktop 
Publishing and Teaching Graphic Design in All Subjects. 

These books, intended to complement each other, provide information about how people 
read and about the basic design considerations for effective page layouts. Many 
activities focusing on print media and transactional documents are provided. 

Moscovitch, Arlene. Constructing Reality: Exploring Media Issues in Documentary. 

Section 111, "Shaping Reality," examines how elements selected in video and film texts 
construct the reality that the viewer experiences. Chapter 1 5, "Ideology," examines the 
construction of meaning in film and television. 

Schrank, Jeffrey. Understanding Mass Media. 4th Edition. 

Chapter 3, "Advertising," examines the way advertisers use claims, emotional appeal, 
production techniques and language. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 2/181 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to 
comprehend literature and other texts' 
in oral, print, visual and multimedia 
forms, and respond personally, 
critically and creatively. 




2.3 Respond to a variety of print and 
nonprint texts 



wsam 



Connect self, text, culture and milieu 



Overview 

While studying literature, students may identify with characters and situations portrayed. This identification can 
foster understanding of self and others while at the same time providing a basis for understanding those characters 
and situations. The choices and motives of characters and persons portrayed in texts may provide insight into 
choices and motivations; e.g., moral and psychological, of self and others. Students recognize and compare their 
own understandings, opinions, beliefs, values and ethical perspectives with those found in literature and in other 
texts, and consider how these perspectives affect interpretations. They respond personally and analytically to ideas 
presented in texts and form positions on issues. 

When students relate literary and personal experiences, they expand experience vicariously. As well, discovering 
stories, films, poetry and other texts that reflect and illuminate their experiences helps to confirm and deepen 
students' interest in literacy. Texts can also play an important role in helping students develop a sense of what it 
means to be a Canadian at this time in history. Further, such engagement with literature can broaden student 
knowledge of their own and others' cultural heritage. 

The focus of learning outcome subheading 2.3.1 is to help students develop: 

• an understanding of the ways that texts are shaped by place 

• a sense of Canadian writing, film and other media production 

• an appreciation of the similarities and differences between Canadian texts and texts of various other countries. 

Note: In schools where students of English language arts are studying an additional curriculum, such as 

International Baccalaureate (IB) Language A, the focus can also extend to an understanding of how texts 
from other parts of the world are shaped by, and are representations and reflections of, those regions. 



1 82/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Connect self, text, culture and milieu (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



Reader Response Journals (io-ia, b, c, a, e; io-2a, b, c, d ; 20-ia, b, c, 

d, e; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Reader response journals are ongoing records of what readers are thinking and feeling as 
they experience texts. They are a useful means of deepening students' responses to 
biography, memoirs and expository texts, as well as to fiction. The same strategies can be 
adapted for viewer response journals. 

Response journals should not be overused, as students may find it difficult to interrupt their 
reading or viewing to record their thoughts. For journals to be effective, provide students 
with instruction on a variety of responses that lead them into a meaningful reading of texts. 
At various points, present mini -lessons on various types of responses, model these responses, 
and ask students to focus on a particular type of response in their next journal entry. 



Types of Responses 

Types of responses include the following: 

• Connecting: Reader response journals should focus first on connecting students' own 
experiences, opinions or prior reading with a text. In making connections of this sort, 
students define ideas or attitudes that help them reflect on the text. The following 
questions may be useful. 



> 
> 

> 

> 



Questions to Guide Reflection on Text® 

What characters remind you of someone you know? in what ways are they the 
same or different? 

What experiences in the text remind you of things that have happened to you? 
What places remind you of places where you have been? 
Perhaps movies, television shows or other books you have read come to mind 
when you read. Describe the connections. 

If you were one of the characters, in what ways would you have reacted 
differently? 

Describe how you feel at the end of the story or chapter. In what ways does the 

story seem plausible? If you were the author, what might you write differently? 

How is the same event or similar situation portrayed in texts written or produced 

in different places? 

What are the concerns of Canadian text creators? 

How do our history, landscape and geography shape our stories? 

What values are apparent in our texts? 

In what ways are works of Canadian origin similar to works from other parts of 
the world? 



® Adapted from Rhoda J. Maxwell and Mary Jordan Meiser, Teaching English in Middle and Secondary Schools, 2nd ed. (Upper Saddle 
River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997). 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /l 83 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Connect self, text, culture and milieu (continued) 



£ 



• Engaging: Students articulate their emotional reaction to and level of involvement with 
a text and observe how their engagement changes as they read. 

• Describing: Restating information from the text requires students to decide what is 
important and what is not. 

• Predicting: Students use cues in narrative text to suggest how characters will behave or 
how the story will be developed. With expository text, students develop hypotheses 
about the direction of the argument of the text. 

• Explaining: With narrative text, students move beyond descriptions of characters or 
settings to statements about their meaning. They infer reasons for a character's 
behaviour and make observations about the social, political or psychological world of a 
story. With expository text, students explore ideas raised by the text. 

• Interpreting: Students suggest and revise hypotheses about the larger ideas the text 
addresses. 

• Judging: Students make evaluative statements about the characters and their behaviour 
and about the realism or artistry of the story. They compare expository text to other texts 
they have read, evaluate the author's bias, and evaluate the depth and validity of the 
concepts or arguments of the text. 

Students who are unfamiliar with attending to and verbalizing their mental processes as they 
read may also find a series of prompts on the chalkboard helpful during response writing. 
Reader response journals may incorporate collages, visual character sketches, storyboard 
sequences, symbols and icons, and book jackets. 

Types of Journals 

Types of journals include the following: 

• Dialogue Journals: Partners maintain a written dialogue on each chapter or section of 
the text. Reader response may be written as an exchange of letters between/among two 
or three students or between a student and the teacher. 

• Double-entry Journals: Students divide each journal page into two columns, using the 
left column to record important quotations and to retell events or describe characters and 
the right column to reflect upon or ask questions about the entries on the left (Beach and 
Marshall 1991, p. 106). 

• Impersonation Journals: Students assume the voice of one character in a novel 
throughout the journal. 

• Author Journals: Students assume the voice of the author, talking about the sources of 
ideas for the text and the decisions he or she is making while writing the text. 

• Interdisciplinary Journals: Journals can facilitate interdisciplinary studies even when 
two courses do not share a block of time. For example, ask students to reflect on what 
they are learning in social studies about a historic period and to reflect on literary texts 
set in the same period. 



1 84/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAf T) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



r 



Assessment Formative and Summative Assessment of Reader Response Journals 



Ongoing assignments, such as reader response journal entries, need both 
formative and summative assessment. 

> Formative Assessment: The dialogue that develops between the 
teacher and student is the most important element in journal 
assessment. Teachers play an important role in responding to reader 
response journals, modelling engagement with texts, and extending 
student thinking through the comments and questions they write. 
Peer response is also invaluable. 

To manage journals, it may be helpful to colour-code them, taking in 
one set of four or five journals to assess each day. Provide students 
with "sticky dots" to highlight entries they particularly want the 
teacher to read. 

In assessing journals, look for evidence of: 

• thoughtful responses that make connections between personal 
experiences and texts 

• specific references to texts 

• revisiting and revisions of earlier responses 

• exploration of more than one interpretation and consideration of 
diverse perspectives 

• interpretation and analysis of characteristics of genre, purpose 
and technique 

• growth in the clarity of written responses to texts. 

> Summative Assessment: Summative assessment of reader response 
journals involves both self-assessment and teacher assessment. 

• Self-assessment: Students may be asked to propose a grade for 
their own journals by placing a mark on a continuum. Under this 
scale, students write a justification for this mark. Use a sample 
continuum such as the following: 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /l 85 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Connect self, text, culture and milieu (continued) 



READER RESPONSE 



Incomplete 



Competent 



Exemplary 



extremely limited 

unclear response 

seldom demonstrates evidence 

of meeting the criteria 

no response attempted 



innovative, personal and 

thoughtful 

makes connections with 

previous knowledge as well as 

other texts 

interprets and analyzes 

shows evidence of reflection 

and revision 



• Teacher Assessment: Although reader response journals will 
most often be assessed formatively by both the teacher and other 
students, and be subject to ongoing self-assessment, these 
journals may on occasion be assessed summatively by the 
teacher. 

fl^g 3 See pages 39-48 for more reader response strategies and pages 3 1-39 for more information 
on responding to text and context. 



Venn Diagram (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Students are asked to create a Venn diagram of three interlocking circles — the first to 
represent the student's experience, the second to represent the short story and the third to 
represent the writer's life. The connecting area represents where experience, the writer and 
P^= the story connect. See 3.2.1, p. 236, for a sample Venn diagram. 

Have students extend their Venn diagrams in the following activities: Write a composition 
that describes how the writer and the story are connected to your life. How has the writer 
used something of his or her own experience in the story created? How has the story 
validated or acted as a mirror or a metaphor to your life? What is the large idea in this story? 
How are you connected to this idea? Select appropriate details from all of your notes to 
p2p describe the mirroring and metaphorical process. See Appendix A, p. 380, for a sample of 
student writing arising from Venn diagrams, with annotations to connect to specific 
outcomes. 



1 86/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Connect self, text, culture and milieu (continued) 



Media Analysis (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Ask students to bring to class a collection of teen magazines. Have them examine the values 
implicit in the advertising and articles in these magazines and the underlying assumptions 
about the audience. 






Similarly, Canadian and American television shows targeted at teens can be analyzed for 
purposes of comparison. Students may find it interesting to compare such elements as: 

income levels of characters 

presence of visible minorities 

choice of themes 

how explicitly controversial issues are explored 

language 

camera techniques 

music 

interests and values of central characters 

use of conventional plot devices, such as happy endings. 



Assessment Formative or Summative Assessment of Media Analysis 

Media analyses can produce a variety of products for assessment, such as 
the following: 

• a profile of the intended audience of a show or readership of a 
magazine 

• a proposal to a television studio, describing the concept and intended 
audience of a television show 

• a consumer study comparing various magazines. 



PIUS Qa Change (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Identify a theme, such as coming of age, explored in a text set in a previous time in Canada 
or elsewhere. Launch an inquiry into the same theme in our community and our time. 

Media Logs (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Assign students to keep a media log in which they collect artifacts that represent 
contemporary culture and mass media; e.g., newspaper articles, packaging, television guides, 
public relations releases for movies. The purpose of these logs is to explore students' 
relationship to mass media. 

• Ask students to identify a theme related to media that they would like to examine; e.g., 
the media's treatment or exploitation of environmental issues; images of minority 
groups, women or the elderly; use of images of counterculture in advertising. If the 
media log is maintained throughout the term, students' themes may evolve or change as 
they become more sensitive to new issues. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /187 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Connect self, text, culture and milieu (continued) 



• Students then select artifacts around their chosen themes. 

• Students accompany each artifact with commentary, exploring their interpretation of the 
artifact and its connection to the theme of the collection as well as their personal 
response and opinion. 

• Students present their logs in the form of their choice; e.g., video, scrapbook, Web page. 

If media logs become a yearly project for students, samples from previous years can 
stimulate student thinking about possibilities for their own logs. 



In Cyberspace (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

The Internet and e-mail provide students with many opportunities to interact with students 
from other places. 

• E-mail (and Pen) Pals: As part of an inquiry into what it means to be a Canadian, 
students may want to ask teenagers from other countries to share their experiences and 
their impressions of life in Canada. 

• Web Site Study: Ask students to examine several school-based Web sites from schools 
in other parts of Canada and the world. Have them assess these Web sites for 
effectiveness of design and content and use them to explore the similarities and 
differences between Alberta schools and other schools. 



Technology Considerations 



This learning outcome subheading supports the Information and Communication Technology 
(1CT) Program of Studies, Kindergarten to Grade 12, particularly Division 4 outcome 
C2-4. 1 : consult a wide variety of sources that reflect varied viewpoints on particular topics. 

fl^ 3 See Appendix C, p. 429, for cross-references of specific outcomes in the ICT and ELA senior 
high school programs. 



Teacher Resources 



Anson, C. M. and R. Beach. Journals in the Classroom: Writing to Learn. 

This teacher reference provides a wide range of information about journals, including 
their history and purpose; discusses classroom use of journals; and suggests ideas for 
journal writing. It presents thinking strategies and metacognitive information, suggests 
interdisciplinary possibilities, and addresses both oracy and literacy processes. Samples 
of published journals are also included. 



1 88/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Connect self, text, culture and milieu (continued) 



Bromley, K. Joumaling: Engagements in Reading, Writing, and Thinking. 

This book provides clear and easy-to-follow strategies for incorporating joumaling in 
classrooms. It presents 13 types of journal writing that promote the integration of 
reading, writing and thinking. This resource assists teachers in a variety of areas, such as 
personal journals, literature response journals, character journals, home-school journals 
and electronic journals. 

Childers, Pamela B., Eric H. Hobson and Joan A. Mullin. ARTiculating: Teaching Writing 
in a Visual World. 

Chapter 3, What's Art Have to Do With It?, connects art and drawing with literature, as 
well as still life painting with poetry. 

Christian, Scott. Exchanging Lives, Middle School Writers Online. 

This resource documents a writing exchange program between various communities of 
student writers and their perspectives on the life of Anne Frank. 

Cummins, Julie. Children 's Book Illustration and Design. Volume 2. 

The author offers biographies of well-known illustrators from England and the United 
States, full-colour illustrations, and insights into how illustrations emerge from text in 
children's stories. This resource would be useful for students in illustrating their own 
stories or for teachers in instructing viewing strategies. 

Heller, Steven and Seymour Chwast. Jackets Required: An Illustrated History of American 
Book Jacket Design, 1 9204 950. 

Focused on a period in which art and design were becoming commercialized, this text 
demonstrates how a culture's views on style were reflected in the art form of the book 
jacket. This book can be used as a resource in designing book jackets or as a means of 
comparing the jackets of today to those of this time period. 

Kooy, Mary and Jan Wells. Reading Response Logs: Inviting Students to Explore Novels, 
Short Stories, Plays, Poetry and More. 

This overview of reading response logs shows how teachers can help students read, write 
and respond to literature. It suggests varied activities and presents helpful tables and 
references; e.g., pages 79 and 84. The book concludes with a sample thematic unit that 
illustrates the integration of reader response to a theme that involves activities in several 
genres. 

Leggo, Carl. Teaching to Wonder: Responding to Poetry in the Secondary Classroom. 

This book discusses four theoretical perspectives on student reading of poetry: reader 
response, semiotics, deconstruction and cultural criticism. Each perspective is explored 
with specific text examples and classroom strategies. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /189 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Connect self, text,' culture and milieu (continued) 



Monseau, V. R. and G. M. Salvner (eds.). Reading Their World: The Young Adult Novel in 
the Classroom. 2nd Edition. 

This collection of philosophical essays advocates developing a community of readers 
who are engaged in exploratory talk, reader response and critical thinking. The essays 
focus on choice of reading materials, authors of young adult novels and teaching the 
young adult novel. Thorough references appear throughout the text. 

O'Brien, Peggy (ed.). Shakespeare Set Free: Teaching Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth and A 
Midsummer Night 's Dream. 

Several teachers have contributed unit plans, complete with assignments and handouts, 
for this performance-based guide to teaching Shakespeare. 

Roman, Trish Fox (ed.). Voices Under One Sky: Contemporary Native Literature. 

This collection of contemporary short prose, poetry and songs is written and illustrated 
by Native authors and artists. Themes include family life, relationship with Nature, 
spirituality, questing and hope. The texts in this collection blend the traditional with new 
voices and fresh points of view. A teacher's guide is available. 

Somers, Albert B. Teaching Poetry in High School. 

Chapter 8, Poetry and Writing, offers a variety of practical suggestions for writing poetry 
that engages the student in personal meaning-making. These include clippings poems, 
list poems, diamantes, acrostic poems, found poems, and the "reed-thin sonnet -of-sorts." 
Chapter 12, Poetry and the Internet, offers Web sites on poetry and poets, collections of 
poetry, poetry magazines and journals, Web sites on writing poetry, Web sites for lesson 
plans and class projects, Web sites for discussion groups, as well as a number of 
miscellaneous Web sites. 



Stock, P. Lambert. 
Society. 



The Dialogic Curriculum: Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural 



This in-depth resource provides a model of exchanged journal writing between a teacher 
and students. The self-reflective process is used to extend students' literature experience 
and to help them gain confidence and insights that culminate in essay writing. This 
resource contains interesting classroom ideas, such as using e-mail exchanges and 
pairing students with writers in the community. 



Web Site 



The Media Awareness Network, http://www.media-awareness.ca/eng/ 



This resource offers teachers the opportunity to integrate media studies into their English 
language arts classrooms and to explore some of the issues affecting the lives of their 
students. 



1 90/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to 
comprehend literature and other texts 
in oral, print, visual and multimedia 
forms, and respond personally, 
critically and creatively. 




2.3 Respond to a variety of print and 
nonprint texts 



Evaluate the verisimilitude, appropriateness and significance of print and 
nonprint texts 



Overview 

Every text is a representation of reality. With literature, the text creator creates a world that is an invention — an 
invented reality that may or may not be familiar to the audience. With other texts, a text creator may present 
feelings, ideas and information that are intended to be received by an audience as being accurate portrayals of a 
familiar reality. Regardless of the type of text, its audience has to assess it in terms of accuracy, verisimilitude, 
appropriateness and significance. At the same time, the audience has to determine the probable intentions of the 
text creator and take them into consideration when responding. For example, a cartoonist may use exaggeration to 
satirize a human failing, a novelist may use sentimentality to evoke pathos and a dramatist may use improbability 
to provoke reflection. 

Students come to understand that the created reality of literary texts may be influenced by a variety of factors, 
including style of narration; e.g., magic realism, and chosen point of view; e.g., unreliable narrator. They come to 
see that the appropriateness of a print or nonprint text may be considered both in terms of the context in which it 
was created and the context in which it is being "read" and that a text's significance may be weighed collectively 
by a group; e.g., society, or determined subjectively by the individual reader. 

Metacognitive Learning 

Students respond to texts and contexts in a variety of ways. Students should be encouraged to describe how they 
are responding to various contexts as text creators and how they are responding to various texts as audiences. 

Assessment of 2.3.2 

Various aspects of this learning outcome subheading may suggest different assessment of student learning. For 
example, student evaluations of the verisimilitude of a literary text may be conveyed through personal responses to 
that text. Many of these personal responses will be assessed formatively. At other times, students may evaluate a 
print or nonprint text in terms of its appropriateness to a given context and/or its significance to the individual 
reader or to a given society. Many of these critical/analytical responses will be assessed summatively. Helping 
students to ask questions such as the following can help them to evaluate verisimilitude, appropriateness and 
significance. 

Literary Text 

• How is the reality represented in this text vivid, consistent and/or plausible? 

• What factors may alter/distort that represented reality? 

All Text 

• How are content, tone and/or register appropriate to context? 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /l 91 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Q£HF 



Evaluate the verisimilitude, appropriateness and significance of print and nonprint 
texts (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



D^ 



Relive the Moment (io-i, 10-2, 20-1, 20-2, ail) 

One way to help learners appreciate literary texts as representations of reality is to have them 
create their own literature. For example, students may better appreciate the kinds of 
considerations an artist faces when creating a text by creating their own poem. See learning 
outcome subheading 4.2.3, p. 298, for a description of this creative learning experience. 

Stream-of-consciousness Writing (io-i, 10-2, 20-1, 20-2, ail) 

In a manner similar to that described above but much more abridged, help students recall a 
person, situation or setting that is particularly vivid to them. 

• Share an example of stream-of-consciousness writing. Invite students to respond to it, 
asking for their impressions of what it captured, how it did so, and what was particularly 
vivid/confusing/impressive. 

• Explain that you will be asking them shortly to write uninterruptedly for five minutes — 
to jot down their own stream of images and ideas — after which they will be invited to 
share what they have written. They are to envision a person, or situation or setting, and 
write down whatever comes to mind about that person, or situation or setting. 

• The voice can be someone or something specific or it can be general/unidentified. 



• 



Students are not to worry about correctness of sentence structure or whether ideas are 
complete or orderly. The purpose of the task is to capture things vividly, and the process is 
to just keep on writing. 

• Ask students to start writing and keep on writing for five minutes. (Optional: The teacher 
might join in the task.) 

• At the conclusion of this time, the class is reminded that stream-of-consciousness writing is 
indeed first draft writing. Students will be sharing their efforts and listeners are to focus on 
how the piece helps them envision the person, situation or place. Writers are invited to share, 
and students are invited to respond. 



Technology Considerations 



This learning outcome subheading supports the information and Communication Technology 
(1CT) Program of Studies, Kindergarten to Grade 12, particularly Division 4 outcome 
C2-4.2: evaluate the validity of gathered viewpoints against other sources. 

P^ 3 See Appendix C, p. 429, for cross-references of specific outcomes in the 1CT and ELA senior 
high school programs. 



192/ General Outcome 2 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to 
comprehend literature and other texts 
in oral, print, visual and multimedia 
forms, and respond personally, 
critically and creatively. 




2.3 Respond to a variety of print and 
nonprint texts 



Appreciate the effectiveness and artistry of print and nonprint texts 



Overview 

In learning outcome subheading 2.3.3, students explore language and stylistic choices not only in published and 
other professionally produced texts but also in their own speaking, writing and representing. 

In the course of planning and creating a work, a text creator makes a number of deliberate choices. For example, 
to attract and sustain audience attention and communicate ideas and information to accomplish particular purposes, 
a text creator may use visuals, such as images, fonts, tables and graphs, and visual composition; use sounds and 
nonverbal cues; use variety, such as varied word choices and differing sentence constructions; and use concise 
language, such as precise nouns and active voice. A text creator may also make choices affecting tone and 
register, rhythm and cadence. Choices of perspective and proportion, allusion, symbolism, syntax, and figurative 
language also communicate meaning. 

Certain features of a text may help to shape and define it, including the scope and depth of its content, as well as 
its form and medium. 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 

PaSS It On (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

This whole-class activity demonstrates the various ways in which the same text can be 
interpreted and the difference between poetic and prosaic use of language. Select five or six 
poems with narrative content to be paraphrased and passed around simultaneously; i.e., as 
many poems as there are groups. 

• Write a prose summary of the narrative in the first poem. Give the summary to Group A, 
and ask this group to write a poem based on this narrative. 

• Pass the poem written by Group A to Group B. Ask Group B to write a prose summary 
of the narrative and ideas in this poem. 

• Pass the prose summary written by Group B to Group C. Ask Group C to write a poem 
based on this content. Continue to pass this poem/prose summary around until it has 
been transformed by every group. 

• Post the poems and prose summaries, including the original, and discuss each group's 
language choices and the way these choices have shaped meaning. 



Assessment 



Have students discuss the techniques they used in writing prose 
summaries of the poems. Was their effect the same as the poets' effect? 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 2 /l 93 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Appreciate the effectiveness and artistry of print and nonprint texts (continued) 



Pop-Up VideOS (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 
Students may want to analyze samples of contemporary pop-up videos. 

• Have students view a pop-up video and develop a list of the various purposes of the 
panels. These include: 

- explanation of lyrics 

- allusions to other texts 

- ironic commentary 

- background information about the band, the production or the setting of the video 

- bits of trivia 

- explanations of the techniques used in making the video. 

• Ask students to list the pop-up panels used in the video and to classify them according to 
purpose. 

Using pop-up videos as a model, have students record their own analyses of video forms. 



TextbOOk Assessment (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-1 a, b; 20-2a, b) 

Having students assess their own textbooks develops critical thinking, as well as an 
awareness of various text organization cues and forms. 

/*^V • Ask students to bring to class a selection of textbooks from other courses and to discuss 
in groups what makes a textbook user-friendly and effective. Ask them to list these 
characteristics. Ask for a close observation of details and cues, such as the following: 

- Are graphs, diagrams and tables clearly captioned? Do they appear on the same page 
as the text that supports them? 

- Are new vocabulary words highlighted? Are they defined in the text or in the 
margin? 

- Are questions presented at the end of chapters? Do such questions require students 
to synthesize, criticize and/or apply information from the text? 

- Do the authors illustrate ideas with real-life examples, photographs and illustrations 
to which all students can relate? 

• Ask a spokesperson from each group to report on the group's list, and compile a class list 
of the characteristics of effective textbooks. 

Assign one textbook to each group; and ask students to assess it formally, using the list of 
criteria developed by the class. 

Groups can be asked to submit their findings as a formal proposal either to purchase or to 
replace the textbook they have assessed. 



194/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Appreciate the effectiveness and artistry of print and nonprint texts (continued) 



Manipulating Mood (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Reflecting on the effect of changes to texts helps students become more aware of the 

deliberate artistic choices writers, performers and producers make. 

• Ask students to bring to class songs that they think create a particular mood. 



• 



Compile a list of the elements writers, musicians and singers manipulate to create this 
mood. 

Ask students to suggest three specific changes that would transform the mood of a song. 



Writer's Notebook (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Ask students to maintain a writer's notebook to demonstrate their awareness of language and 
stylistic choices. They can record images and insights they may want to use in their own 
writing and ideas for stories, poems or articles. Encourage students to copy lines from their 
reading, listening or viewing that delighted them, or words they wish to remember. Suggest 
that they learn from the techniques of other writers/producers, by reflecting on the elements 
that made these lines memorable. 



Responding tO Style (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 
Ask students to choose a passage from a text they are reading that they consider to be an 
example of effective use of language and style. Have them divide a page in half vertically, 
and copy the chosen passage in the left column. Ask students to reflect in the right column 
on the particular word choices and stylistic devices that enhance the effectiveness of the 
passage. This exercise could be a required part of a reader response journal — see learning 
outcome subheading 2.3.1 (pp. 183-186). 



Technology Considerations 



This learning outcome subheading supports the Information and Communication Technology 
(1CT) Program of Studies, Kindergarten to Grade 12, particularly Division 4 outcome 
C2-4. 1 : consult a wide variety of sources that reflect varied viewpoints on particular topics. 

P^ 3 See Appendix C, p. 429, for cross-references of specific outcomes in the 1CT and ELA senior 
high school programs. 



Teacher Resources 



Beard, Jocelyn A. (ed.). Monologues from Classic Plays, 468 B.C. to I960 A. D. 

This publication includes monologues ranging from classical Greek theatre to twentieth 
century theatre of the absurd. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 2 /195 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Appreciate the effectiveness and artistry of print and nonprint texts (continued) 



Cummins, Julie. Children 's Book Illustration and Design. Volume 2 

The author offers biographies of well-known illustrators, full-colour illustrations and 
insights into how illustrations emerge from text in children's stories. 

Dias, Patrick. Reading and Responding to Poetry: Patterns in the Process. 

The book begins with a concise and comprehensive account of the evolution of critical 
theory and the ways it has affected the teaching of poetry in schools. The book fully 
illustrates a seminal approach to student response-based poetry instruction. 

Imhoff, Dan and Roberto Carra. Making People Respond: Design for Marketing and 
Communication. 

This book provides samples and an analysis of Primo Angeli's work as a graphic 
designer of packaging and posters. 

Leggo, Carl. Teaching to Wonder: Responding to Poetry in the Secondary Classroom. 

This book discusses four theoretical perspectives on student reading of poetry: reader 
response, semiotics, deconstruction and cultural criticism. Each perspective is explored 
with specific text examples and classroom strategies. 

McCain, Ted D. E. Designing for Communication: The Key to Successful Desktop 
Publishing and Teaching Graphic Design in All Subjects. 

These books, intended to complement each other, provide information about how people 
read and about the basic design considerations for effective page layouts. They suggest a 
wealth of activities focusing on print media and transactional documents. 

Moscovitch, Arlene. Constructing Reality: Exploring Media Issues in Documentary. 

Section II, "Ways of Storytelling," examines the rules of storytelling in documentary and 
the impact on the viewer of choices made by the storyteller. 

Tsujimoto, Joseph I. Teaching Poetry Writing to Adolescents. 

This resource offers suggestions for designing, organizing and presenting assignments in 
poetry writing. It explores the writing of poetic self-portraits, found poetry and extended 
metaphors. 



196/ General Outcome 2 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



GENERAL OUTCOME 3 



STUDENTS WILL LISTEN, SPEAK, READ, WRITE, VIEW AND REPRESENT TO: 



3.1.1 Focus on purpose 
and presentation 
form 



3. 1 .2 Plan inquiry or research, 
and identify information 
needs and sources 



3.1 Determine inquiry 
requirements 




General Outcome 3 



Manage ideas and 
information 




3.2 Follow a plan of inquiry 



3.2.1 Select, record 
and organize 
information 




3.2.2 Evaluate sources, 
and assess 
information 



3.2.4 Review inquiry or 
research process and 
findings 



3.2.3 Form generalizations 
and conclusions 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 /197 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



GENERAL OUTCOME 3 - INDEX OF STRATEGIES 



Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information. 

3.1 Determine inquiry requirements 

3.1.1 Focus on purpose and presentation form 



f. 



Determining Contextual Requirements 



204 



? 

ISA f 

ISA 

SS\ 

teA 
i^A 

t^A 

f 



3. 1.2 Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources 

In a Nutshell 

Questions within Questions 

Surveys and Questionnaires 

Locating Community Expertise 

Webbing 

Taxonomy 

Inquiry Charts 

Knowledge Systems 

Formulating Questions for Whole-class Inquiry 

Agreeing on a Focus Statement 

Group Inquiry 

Whole-class Inquiry 

Job Advertisements 

Process Talk 

Creative Problem Solving 

Learning from Models 

Inquiry Planning Forms 

Preliminary Interviews 

Information Catalogue 

Oral Update 

Round Table 

Human Resources 



209 
209 
210 
211 
211 
212 
212 
214 
215 
215 
216 
217 
217 
217 
218 
218 
218 
219 
219 
220 
220 
220 



3.2 Follow a plan of inquiry 

3.2.1 Select, record and organize information 



JQ*$ 



iSA 
ISA 



Interviews 

Surveys and Questionnaires 

Multisource Note Making 

Telephone Conferences 

Information Scavenging 

Graphic Coding 

Reading Tables and Charts 

Reading Tables 

Reading Graphs (Bar, Circle, Line, Picture) 

Reading Diagrams 

Paraphrasing 

Note-making Strategies 

Mapping 



225 
226 
226 
226 
226 
227 
228 
228 
229 
229 
229 
230 
231 



198/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



GENERAL OUTCOME 3 - INDEX OF STRATEGIES (continued) 



i£y\ 



ft) 
C 



3.2.2 



3.2.3 

ISA 

3.2.4 






Using Sources 232 

Practising Citations 232 

Recording Forms for Avoiding Plagiarism 233 

List of References 233 

Carousel 234 



Priorities 

Reading Surveys Critically 
Card Sort 



Organizing Narrative Forms 

Storyboards 

Organizing Anthologies 

Graphic Organizers , 



234 
234 
234 
235 
235 
235 
235 



Evaluate sources, and assess information 

Conferences to Assess Progress 241 

Inquiry Charts 241 

Audience Profile 241 

Aiming for Accuracy 242 

Identifying Bias 242 

Bias in News 243 



Form generalizations and conclusions 

Pushing the Envelope 

Recommendation Report 

Creative Controversy 



Review inquiry or research process and findings 

Looking Back 

Self-assessment Forms 

Biography of an Inquiry Project 

Round Table 

Self-reflection Models 



245 
246 
246 



249 
249 
250 
250 
250 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3/199 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



GENERAL OUTCOME 3 




Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and 
information. 

Inquiry and the Language Arts 

Inquiry is fundamental to being human and an integral part of developing language 
proficiency. The specific outcomes in General Outcome 3 are an elaboration of the 
inquiry process. 

The focus on inquiry in English language arts classrooms has grown out of a 
recognition that students increasingly need the skills to manage information from a 
widening array of sources, including themselves. The motivation for initiating inquiry 
or research may be internal; e.g., informing an interest in a particular career or 
following an interest prompted by a literary selection, or external; e.g., addressing an 
assignment. 

Building lessons around inquiry is a way of integrating process and content. Students 
learn to locate, manage, process and share ideas while deepening their understanding 
of texts and contexts. 

Although self-contained "research projects" may be described as inquiry projects, the 
term "inquiry" has a larger meaning than research. It encompasses the habits of mind 
that promote learning and the processes that can be woven through all classroom 
activities to enable students to broaden and deepen their understanding of the world. 
Inquiry processes begin and are sustained by student curiosity. These processes are 
supported by teachers and students who ask, "What do we need to know?" and "How 
can we find out?" Inquiry-based instruction fosters and sustains an attitude of inquiry 
that connects with lifelong learning and metacognition. 



200/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 






The Inquiry Cycle: A Recursive Process 

Students need to review and assess their inquiry throughout the process. 
They may revisit and re-envision the inquiry process at any time. 






Stage 5: 
Creation/Genesis 

make decisions about audience, 
purpose and form 
create product(s) 
revise and edit 



Stage 4: 
Information Processing 

choose relevant information 
organize and record information 
evaluate sources and assess information 
make connections and inferences 



Stage 1: 
Task Definition 

pose the question: "What do 1 

want to know/know more 

about?" 

establish the purpose and need 

for inquiry 



Stage 3: 
Information Retrieval 

select information sources 
locate and collect information 
- primary; e.g., interview, survey 
secondary; e.g., periodical, book 



Stage 6: 
Presentation and Assessment 

present final form of product 
assess product 
review and evaluate inquiry 
process and skills 



Stage 2: Planning 
activate prior knowledge 
develop specific questions to focus 
and direct inquiry 

identify potential information sources,/ 
establish assessment criteria for 
content and process 



Fostering Student Independence in Inquiry 

As students move through their years in senior high school, they gradually take over 
more responsibility for inquiry, moving away from more teacher directed activities. 
Continuous assessment provides teachers with information about which students need 
further instruction and support. 

[gg 3 The chart in Appendix A, pp. 384-388, surveys the inquiry process illustrated above. 
It outlines the tasks appropriate at each stage for both advanced and less experienced 
students. 

This chart can be used for various purposes: 

• to differentiate inquiry for students with a range of abilities. Students who are 
able to handle some stages of the process independently may need teacher support 
with others. The teacher-directed activities describe the scaffolding that struggling 
students may require. 

• to help staff within language arts departments determine the skills and degree of 
independence expected of students in each grade. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 /201 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Working with General Outcome 3 

Inquiry quests may take many forms. They may be brief explorations that begin with a 
student question or long-term, whole-class projects. Such inquiry may be prompted by 
affective as well as cognitive questions; e.g., "What does it feel like to be a new 
Canadian?" It can lead to the exploration of literary texts as well as information 
sources. Inquiry may be launched to determine if prior information on a subject is 
accurate or if it is partial, overgeneralized or biased. A finding may simply be a new 
understanding or a piece of conversation that a student records in a journal for future 
use in a literary or transactional text. Findings may also include facts, examples or 
generalizations that are used immediately by students involved in text creation. New 
understandings prompt new questions for further inquiry or research. Inquiry quests 
may be reshaped midstream by the information students find. As they progress 
through their senior high school English language arts courses, students develop 
strategies for managing ideas and information with increasing independence and 
sophistication. As well, they evaluate their own and others' inquiry and research 
processes and findings with a view to making refinements and considering alternative 
ways of conducting inquiry or research in the future. Because inquiry calls upon a 
wide range of skills and strategies, most of the specific outcomes from General 
Outcome 1 to General Outcome 5 can be addressed through inquiry projects. 

It is important to view the learning in General Outcome 3 as being interrelated with the 
learning in the other general outcomes: 

• General Outcome 1 — As they frame questions and plan research processes, 
students engage in exploration. 

• General Outcome 2 — When students examine sources to extract ideas and 
information, they are engaged in comprehending and responding to text. 

• General Outcome 4 — As they record and organize the information and other 
material that they have uncovered, students are engaged in the creation of text. 

• General Outcome 5 — Students often collaborate to conduct research or to pursue 
inquiry. 

In an inquiry-based classroom, the challenge for teachers is to: 

• model the attitudes and habits of an inquiring mind 

• act as a catalyst for student thought 

• create a learning environment that supports inquiry into questions and topics that 
students care about 

• plan a course of study that is flexible enough to accommodate unanticipated 
inquiries 

• build students' repertoire of strategies, while encouraging more and more 
autonomy 

• broaden the information base in the classroom and links to the community 

• manage inquiry activities that may require students to work independently in 
settings other than the classroom. 



202/ General Outcome 3 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to manage 
ideas and information. 




3.1 Determine inquiry requirements 



U5MB 



Focus on purpose and presentation form 



Overview 



When students are faced with a problem to be solved or a task to be completed, they often begin by determining 
contextual requirements — particularly purpose and audience — and consider potential forms for the presentation of 
their findings later. They also temper their need to find answers with the realities imposed by the situation — the 
constraints of available time and resources — and determine a manageable scope for their inquiry. 

As students initiate inquiry or research, they will employ a variety of strategies, such as: 

describing research or inquiry purpose 

identifying the target audience 

defining scope/parameters and information categories/criteria 

identifying possibilities for presentation form 

identifying role 

creating a timeline to guide inquiry or research. 



Assessment of 3.1.1 

When considering matters of assessment, it may be helpful to view many of the specific outcomes in General 
Outcome 3 as being means to an end. In other words, students are developing inquiry and research skills and 
expanding their repertoire of strategies so that they are better able to study texts of others and create texts of their 
own. The graphic on the Inquiry Cycle (p. 201) illustrates this perspective. With this view in mind, student 
progress would be assessed formatively. 

Assessment: Ask students to meet in peer conferences to discuss the contextual requirements they have 
C3P determined in their brainstorm lists, webs, KWL charts (see p. 148) or Inquiry charts (see p. 212). Monitor peer 
conferences. If necessary, collect this preliminary work and scan it to determine if students: 

need further instruction in prior knowledge strategies 

require specific kinds of resources and activities to address gaps in prior knowledge 

have consulted others 

have found a focus for their inquiry 

have selected a meaningful and worthwhile topic. 

Arrange conferences with students as needed. 

Summative Assessment 

At other times, it may be more appropriate to view certain specific outcomes in General Outcome 3 as being 
worthy of summative assessment. In such instances, the outcomes would be viewed as exit outcomes and students 
would be assessed as to how well they have met those outcomes. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 /203 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Focus on purpose and presentation form (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 

(fi$ Determining Contextual Requirements (io-ia,b;io-2a,b;20-ia,b; 

V 20-2a, b) 

Describing Purpose: Students can be encouraged to arrive at a deeper understanding of the 
purpose of their inquiry or research by describing it to themselves through rewording or 
paraphrasing the topic or focus and posing a variety of questions, and by describing to others 
what they are looking for, how and where they are looking and why. 

Identifying Audience and Information Categories and Criteria: When identifying 
audience for whom the results of inquiry or research are intended, students can be 
encouraged to consider a number of characteristics; e.g., age, sex, prior knowledge and 

irgp experience, and expectations and other attitudes toward the subject. See Audience Profile 

■^ (3.2.2, p. 241). 

Defining Scope/Parameters: Encourage students to limit the scope of their focus, search 
and the length of their product. 

Determining Presentation Form: Encourage students to choose an appropriate form such 
as a written report, oral presentation script, poem, narrative, letter and visual interpretation by 
context — purpose, audience and situation and reflect on why this form is most appropriate 
for their purpose and audiences. 

Asking questions such as the following can help to determine form: 

• How am 1 wanting to affect my audience? 

• What are their needs? 

• How much time do I have to connect with that audience? 

• Where am I presenting? 

Identifying Role: Students can explore and select a role, such as expert, first-person 
participant or debater when sharing the products of their inquiry. They may adopt the 
characteristics of a recognizable character or assume a certain persona. Connected with their 
role is the register they use; e.g., they may want to appear more casual and familiar or more 
formal and objective. They should reflect on why this role will work best in this particular 
context. 

Creating a Timeline: Often, a graphic organizer such as a timeline helps students see ahead 
and anticipate what needs to be completed and when. Also see learning outcome 
subheadings 3.2.1 and 5.2.1. 



204/ General Outcome 3 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

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Focus on purpose and presentation form (continued) 



Teacher Resources 



Alberta Learning. Researching and Making Presentations: Grades 5 to 12. 

This CD-ROM provides guidance for focusing research; finding, selecting, organizing 
and presenting information; and evaluating sources. Student guides take the user 
through the research process. Samples and how-to hints for each section can be printed 
out. 

Buehl, Doug. Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning. 

This resource provides descriptions and examples of a wide range of prewriting and 
prereading strategies, such as KWL and PreP. 

Burke, Jim. The English Teacher's Companion: A Complete Guide to Classroom, 
Curriculum, and the Profession. 

Chapter 12, Digital Literacy, contains several brief sections on using the Internet or 
databases for brainstorming/topic-refining, and for research. Chapter 4, Integrating 
English Projects and Exhibitions into the Curriculum, provides examples of three 
different types of research projects: senior exit projects, exhibitions, and class projects. 

Claggett, F., L. Reid and R. Vinz. Learning the Landscape: Inquiry-Based Activities for 
Comprehending and Composing. 

This is a handbook for teachers using an inquiry-based approach in response to a 
variety of texts. It uses a variety of strategies to encourage the writing process; e.g., 
double-entry logs, clustering, mapping and graphics. It encourages cooperation 
through inquiry and self-assessment, supports various learning approaches, and fosters 
both individual and group activities. 

Hyerle, David. Visual Tools for Constructing Knowledge. 

This book discusses visual tools in the context of constructivist learning theory and 
surveys a range of tools; e.g., brainstorm webs, task-specific graphic organizers and 
thinking process maps, to help students construct ideas and represent their thinking 
graphically. 

Kearns, Jane. Where to Begin: A Guide to Teaching Secondary English. 

Chapter 5, Writing Ideas, Strategies and Guides, discusses the process writing approach 
and offers suggestions for response teaching and the use of photography/contact sheets 
for topic development. It also offers a concrete inventory list of solutions, options and 
strategies for use with topic, development and detail problems in writing. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 3 /205 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Focus on purpose and presentation form (continued) 



Stripling, Barbara K. and Judy M. Pitts. Brainstorms and Blueprints: Teaching Library 
Research As a Thinking Process. 

This in-depth research manual discusses inquiry as a thinking process and offers a step- 
by-step guide to inquiry stages, ranging from choosing a topic to creating the final 
product. Thirty student handouts are included. 

Tchudi, Susan J. and Stephen N. Tchudi. The English Language Arts Handbook: 
Classroom Strategies for Teachers. 2nd Edition. 

Chapter 8, The Process of Composing, takes a stance between the "process" approach 
and the "product" approach to teaching writing. The authors propose a philosophy or 
attitude that they describe as an "experiential" approach. They provide suggestions 
and questions to help with composing. 



206/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to manage 
ideas and information. 




BOM 



Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources 



Overview 

Students ask questions when they are presented with information that does not fit their view of things. When 
students have an incomplete or inaccurate understanding of a subject, new information creates a tension that needs 
to be resolved. The questions that arise from this kind of tension result in inquiry projects that engage students. 

Using strategies to develop questions systematically can help students find direction and focus for their inquiry. 
The purpose of organizing learning around student questions is to help students assume responsibility for their 
learning and to ensure that they are engaged in learning. Using an inquiry system that requires students to answer 
their own questions in their own words can reduce plagiarism. 

One of the best ways for students to assess their learning is to compare the questions they were asking at the 
outset with the questions they are asking when they finally choose to end the inquiry process. The structures 
students use to organize their inquiry need to allow for the refraining of questions — not only for answers — as 
inquiry proceeds. 

Topics with a personal element or a community focus are useful in leading students beyond previously 
synthesized resources, such as encyclopedias. Controversial topics that elicit strong emotion however, may 
cause students to focus on personal points of view rather than formal knowledge systems. Questions about 
how things happen are more useful. A question such as "How does a musical group go about producing, 
releasing and promoting a CD?" would require students to research the roles and expertise of musicians, 
agents and promoters, sound engineers, graphic designers, advertisers, wholesalers and distributors, disc 
jockeys and so on. 

As students internalize the steps of inquiry processes and learn strategies for planning, they should begin to 
assume responsibility for creating their own plans. The processes students use in inquiry vary according to their 
purposes, experiences and learning approaches. It may be helpful to require students to keep a log of the steps of 
their first inquiry project. On the basis of this log, students can be asked to write plans for subsequent projects. 

The Fostering Student Independence in Inquiry chart in Appendix A (pp. 384-388) may be helpful in identifying 
supports for students who need a great deal of direction in planning their inquiry and for students working 
independently. 

Requiring students to submit formal plans for inquiry projects and filing these plans in a binder for teacher and 
student reference is helpful in managing the various activities involved in inquiry activities. Groups and 
individuals will move through the stages of inquiry at different paces. Having a detailed plan allows those who 
move more quickly to go on to the next step. 

Students should be aware that plans generally evolve and need to be revised as an inquiry proceeds. Allow for the 
revision of plans by requiring students to submit a proposal at three different stages of the inquiry project. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 /207 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



Goal Setting: One of the purposes of learning outcome subheading 3.1 .2 is to broaden the range of information 
sources that students can use with ease, including traditional print sources, electronic and media sources, and 
human resources. Students can be challenged to learn to use one information source they have never used before 
in the course of an inquiry project. Students may be grouped for instruction according to the information source 
they have targeted. Have students report on their use of this source. 

Learning outcome subheading 3. 1 .2 is intended to help students acquire processes that will help them later in their 
inquiry or research to evaluate the relevance and usefulness of resources and materials. Students involved in 
inquiry need to: 

• know how to find information in a wide range of sources, including human resources 

• differentiate between primary and secondary information sources 

• know what kind of information is likely to be found in which source 

• listen, read and view for meaning 

• determine which sources are most relevant to their inquiry focus 

• determine which sources are most suitable for their purpose and audience. 

Assessment of 3.1.2 

P^ 3 Students' webs, K.WL charts (p. 158) or learning logs (p. 94) can be assessed to determine if students have an 
adequate base of questions for inquiry. Assessment provides opportunities to offer feedback and, in this way, to 
extend student questioning. 

The most important assessment at this stage, however, is self-assessment. Students need to reflect on the 
knowledge and information that they and/or their peers already possess about a subject (Of all that I have to begin 
with, what is pertinent to my inquiry? Which ideas and material are appropriate for my audience and purpose?). 
They also need to determine the types of information sources to explore (Should I seek popular or expert opinion? 
personal experience or objective facts?). Further, students need to examine their own questions to decide if the 
questions will lead them in the direction they want the inquiry to take. 

Prior to instruction in the stages of inquiry, ascertain how experienced students are in inquiry and what processes 
they have used. Inquiry projects provide opportunities for differentiation. Some students in the class may require 
support through the use of a sequenced planning form. Others may be able to develop their own plans 
independently. 

Through the early stages of inquiry, assist students in determining if their inquiry plans are realistic and worthy of 
research. As inquiry proceeds, help them decide when and how they need to revise their plans. 

Identifying, evaluating and selecting resources is a cyclical process that is repeated throughout an inquiry as new 
resources come to light. Assess if students are making judgements based on: 

• the appropriateness of possible sources and the purpose of their inquiry 

• the credibility of resources — see learning outcome subheading 3.2.2. 



208/ General Outcome 3 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

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Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



In a Nutshell (10-lb; 10-2b; 20-lb; 20-2b) 

Engage students in a process for working with an idea until they have determined the focus 
that interests them most. Provide them with the following instructions, allowing them a few 
minutes to write at each stage: 

• Brainstorm on your subject for two minutes. 

• Take the key ideas in your brainstorm list and summarize them in one sentence. This 
may mean seeing connections between some items and dropping items that do not 
connect. 

• Take the sentence you have written and brainstorm again. 

• Summarize in one sentence. 

Questions within Questions (io-ic; io-2c; 20-ic; 20-2c) 

Students may be able to develop a list of guiding questions by breaking down the first 
general questions they asked. 

• What is the first question you asked? 

• What are the parts of this question? List these parts, leaving a space beneath each one. 

• What are the parts of each of these sub-questions? 

• From all of the questions you have generated, which ones would you like to explore? 

I Assessment Formative Assessment of Questions within Questions 

Referring to a questioning taxonomy may be helpful in assessing student 
questions. Teachers may ask questions such as the following: 

• What level of questions is the student asking? In general, 
knowledge questions will lead to information and higher-level 
questions will lead to application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. 
Knowledge questions can, however, be the basis of fruitful inquiry, 
depending on the questions; e.g., What is the first novel written in 
English? 

• To what kinds of information will these questions lead? Would this 
inquiry be enriched by asking higher-level questions? If so, how can 
1 prompt higher-level questioning on this subject? 



• 



Will this inquiry have to be planned in two or more stages? 

- Students may begin by asking questions at the knowledge level; 
e.g., How large is the lexicon of English today compared to what 
it was in Shakespeare's day? 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 3 /209 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



After exploring the resources to which this initial inquiry leads, 
students may begin to ask higher-level questions; e.g., How 
would this poem read if we stripped it of all words with roots in 
languages other than Anglo-Saxon? 

Questions in the affective domain may have prompted the inquiry 
or may be asked only after students have a knowledge base; e.g., 
What are the daily experiences of a teenager who has auditory 
impairments? 



Surveys and Questionnaires (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia; 20-20) 

To collect valid data through surveys and questionnaires, it is essential that students follow 
certain basic principles of primary research. Groups in the class may be assigned to research 
information related to various aspects of primary research and to present data in the form of a 
poster, a brochure or an oral presentation. 

The following is a process for choosing a valid research sample: 

1 . Target Group: On the basis of the information they are collecting, students decide on a 
target group based on age, sex, income, occupation or other criteria. 

2. Sample: Students decide on the number of respondents they need to provide a valid 
sample of the opinions of this target group. While students may not be able to survey a 
sufficiently large sample to meet strict criteria for reliability, they should be aware of 
these criteria and how an overly small sample may affect the reliability of their data. 

3. Random Selection: Students develop a system to ensure that the people in their sample 
are randomly selected. If the target group is the entire school population, for example, 
what impact would handing out surveys in the lunch room likely have on the data? 



Assessment 



Formative Assessment of Surveys and Questionnaires 

Assess whether students: 

• recognize the necessity of selecting from available material and if 
they have incorporated this stage into their inquiry process 

• have made appropriate judgements in the selection process. Is all 
the information students are using relevant to their inquiry focus? 

Ask students to submit proposals for surveys and questionnaires, 
including the process they have used for locating a random sample. 
Assess these proposals, considering whether: 

• the sample suggested is valid and random 

• plans for accessing this sample are realistic. 

Limit the number of surveys and questionnaires being presented within 
the school. 



210/ General Outcome 3 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



Seeking and considering others' ideas often occurs in the context of groups. In assessing 
how well groups have used surveys and questionnaires it is necessary to assess learning 
outcomes under 1.2.1 and 5.1.2. 

Kir See Appendix B, p. 416, for suggestions on assessing collaborative processes. 

Locating Community Expertise (io-ia;io-2a;2o-ia;20-2a) 

To discover individuals and organizations that may be sources of information for the class, 
students may do the following: 

• Send out surveys asking parents and family friends to indicate their areas of expertise or 
interesting experiences they have had. The purpose of these initial surveys is not to 
collect detailed information but to locate possible resources. 

• Interview individuals or organizations that may have interesting information on a range 
of broad topics. 

• Post notices on the classroom or school bulletin board, in the school newsletter or in a 
community newspaper asking individuals with particular interests, experiences or 
expertise to contact students. 

Have students tabulate results and select a means to record them; e.g., filing system, 
computer database. The information collected in this way can form a class database for 
inquiry projects. 



Webbing (io-ic; io-2c; 20-ic; 20-2c) 

Review webbing with the class. Students can use webs both to activate their own prior 
knowledge and to survey the expertise of others. 

• With their proposed inquiry topic at the centre, have students create a web to survey their 
personal knowledge of the topic. 

• Have them post their webs on large papers on the wall. 

• Have the class examine all the posted webs. Ask students to sign their names on several 
webs they think they could expand or refine through their own knowledge of the subject. 

• Remove webs from the wall, and allow time for students to consult with those who 
signed their webs. Suggest that extensions and revisions to the webs be made in different 
coloured ink. 

• After revising their webs through consultation with other students interested in their 
topic, ask students to circle the section of their webs that will be their inquiry focus. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3/211 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



Assessment Formative Assessment of Webbing 



During teacher-student conferences, students have opportunities to talk 
through their plans and, in this way, to clarify them. Teachers may want 
K§p to use a checklist, such as the one in Appendix B, p. 4 1 7, at the end of 
conferences. 



KWL Charts: The questions students write in the second column of 
KWL charts may be the basis for assessment activities. See 2.1.2, p. 148. 



Taxonomy (10-la, b, c; 10-2a, b, c; 20-la, b, c; 20-2a, b, c) 

Rather than generating a list of questions that must be systematically answered in an inquiry, 
use a questioning taxonomy to help students reflect on the kinds of questions they are asking 
and to open up new questions they may be interested in pursuing. 

• Explore the kinds of questions possible and the kinds of inquiry that will result from 
various kinds of questions, by looking at a simple questioning taxonomy. 

• Have students work through the taxonomy, listing questions of each type they could ask. 

Inquiry Charts® (10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Students using I-Charts will select four key questions and place them along the top of the 
charts. 

The Inquiry Chart (I-Chart) was developed by James V. Hoffman in 1992 to foster critical 
thinking in the classroom. This chart grew out of KWL (Know, Want to know, Learned) 
charts developed by Donna Ogle in 1986 — see learning outcome subheadings 2.1.2 (p. 148) 
and 2.1.3 (p. 158). 

1-Charts require students to reflect on what they already know about a subject, record 
what they want to know, and summarize what they have learned. However, I-Charts have 
the added benefit of allowing students to record information from a number of different 
sources and to compare differing points of view. 

1-Charts lend themselves well to whole-class inquiry. In such an inquiry, the teacher may 
have a directive role. Once students are familiar with I-Charts, however, they gradually 
assume responsibility for the strategy and eventually use it as the basis for individual 
inquiry. 

When used with senior high school students, I-Charts, like KWL charts, pose a problem in 
that they allow limited space for recording inquiry findings. For class inquiry, the 1-Chart 
needs to be a wall chart drawn on large sheets of newsprint. For individual projects, students 
may also want to draw the chart on large sheets of paper rather than deal with the limitations 
of a photocopied form. Even if a project grows beyond the confines of the initial I-Chart, the 
I-Chart provides students with a valuable way of thinking about research. 



O Adapted from James V. Hoffman, "Critical Reading/Thinking across the Curriculum: Using I-Charts to Support Learning," Language Arts 
69, 2 (February 1992), pp. 121-127. 



212/ General Outcome 3 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



Inquiry Chart 







Teacher Questions -^ ► Student Questions 


Other 

Interesting 

Facts and 

Figures 


Other 

Questions 

(W) 


Topic 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


What We 
Know 














(K) 


CO 

u 

u 

c 

3 

o 


1. 














2. 














3. 














4. 














Summary 
(L) 















Assessment Self-assessment of Inquiry Charts 

Students participating in a whole-class inquiry using 1-Charts can be 
assessed individually through reflections in dialogue journals and 
learning logs. 



? 



1 . Have students reflect on and account for differences in information 
they observed in the various sources used. 

2. Have students reflect on how their knowledge changed through 
this inquiry process. 

Individual 1-Charts can be assessed formatively for completeness and 
for the effectiveness of the summaries in the bottom row of the chart. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 /213 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



Knowledge Systems (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d, e; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 
20-2a, b, c, d, e) 

Examining a subject from the viewpoints of different knowledge systems is a fruitful way of 
opening inquiry. Students enrich their understanding by discovering that each knowledge 
system leads not only to different specific information but also to an alternative perspective. 

After a subject has been identified for classroom inquiry, have students: 

• identify various knowledge systems that are relevant to this inquiry 

• brainstorm the questions that each knowledge system would ask 

• examine the tools and resources each knowledge system would use in researching this 
subject 

4*2»^ • move into groups to explore the subject from the viewpoint of the knowledge system that 
interests them most. 



I 



Assessment Formative, Peer and Self Assessment of Knowledge Systems 

Self-assessment: Reflecting on their questions helps students determine 
what is important to them and whether their questions will serve them 
well in exploring the subject. 

> Ask students to divide a sheet of paper into two columns. 

> Have them list their questions in the left column. 

> In the right column, have students reflect on each of their questions, 
using the following guiding questions: 

• Why did 1 ask this question? What do I really want to find out? 

• Are there other questions I have to ask before 1 can get to this 
one? 

• Will this question lead me in the direction I want to go in 
research? If not, how can 1 change it? 

• Is this question important to me and worth the time it will take 
me to answer it? If not, what would 1 rather ask? 

• Have students rewrite their lists of questions if necessary, based 
on this reflection. 

Students who find that their understanding of the subject shifts as they 
research may need to reflect on their questions again. 

Assessment may show that some students are adept at the skills involved 
in individual inquiry projects but that they need support in developing 
skills in collaboration. Strategies for assessing group processes are 
P^ 3 suggested on page 4 1 6. 



214/ General Outcome 3 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



Oral Updates: Talking through their ideas with the class or with another 
group and inviting feedback helps students clarify and assess their 
research or inquiry focus. Oral updates may be scheduled regularly 
during inquiry projects. 



/*S% Formulating Questions for Whole-class Inquiry (io-ib,c;io-2b,c; 

20-lb, c; 20-2b, c) 

When a subject for whole-class inquiry has been determined, have students move through the 
following think-p air-share (McTighe and Lyman 1 992) steps to develop questions that will 
guide the inquiry: 

Ask students to reflect on what they consider to be the most important issue and to write 
this issue in their learning logs. 

Have students move into pairs and try to reach consensus on the most important issue. 

Have pairs move into groups of four to compare their ideas. 

Students then share with the whole class and work toward consensus or synthesis. 

Having selected the most important issue, students then move through the same think- 
pair-share sequence, asking, "What is the most important question we can ask on this 
issue?" 



Agreeing on a Focus Statement (io-ib, c; io-2b, c, 20-ib, c; 20-2b, c) 

Rather than simply naming the subject to be explored, focus statements about the subject 
delineate the direction and limits of the text. For example: 

• Recycling in Winnipeg has led to the development of small businesses that make 
innovative use of previously used materials. 

• Students with part-time jobs gain in confidence and develop a sense of responsibility, but 
they pay a price in the time they can devote to their school work. 

/i^>V Writing focus statements can be particularly helpful for students involved in collaborative 

inquiry projects, both in ensuring that each group member has the same understanding of the 
project and in keeping the project on track. 

• After students have determined the direction of the group's inquiry, ask group members 
to separate and to write a focus statement individually. 



• 



Have students compare their statements to see whether all group members have a 
common understanding of the inquiry focus. 

Ask students to negotiate a shared focus statement for the group. Remind the group that 
if their thinking on the subject changes, they may have to meet in the course of the 
project to revise their focus statement. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 3/215 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



Assessment Formative and Self Assessment of Inquiry Focus 



Proposals: Require students to submit a proposal for all major group 
projects. As a means of helping students learn to plan, work with them to 
develop the categories of information required in each proposal. 
Depending on the type of project, the categories may include: 

purpose 

audience 

outline of contents 

form 

resources — text and human 

team members and their respective responsibilities 

steps in production 

potential problems and plans for dealing with them 

timelines 

criteria for success. 



Self-assessment of Inquiry Focus: After they have spent a class period 
or two establishing their inquiry focus, ask groups to web the subject as 
they now understand it and to examine the web as a group, asking the 
following questions: 

• How large is this subject to research? 

• What resources would we need, and do we have access to them? 

• Which parts of the subject do we most want to research? 

• Could we build a new web with one of these parts at its centre? 

Pg 3 This process can also be used to review the inquiry or research process 
and findings. See learning outcome subheading 3.2.4. 



I-Charts: 1-Charts require students to survey personal and peer 
knowledge as an initial step in inquiry. i-Charts are discussed on pages 
212-213. 



/€S% Group Inquiry (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d, e; 20-1 a, b, c, d, e; 20-2a, b, c, d, e) 

Group inquiry can take many forms: 

• The whole class may explore the same subject. 

• The class may determine an inquiry focus, which small groups will then explore 
separately. This process provides interesting discussion regarding the various options 
possible within the same inquiry focus. 

• The class may determine an inquiry subject, with small groups exploring different areas. 
Sharing information in this case could be done jointly through a symposium, with both 
student and community participants. 



216/ General Outcome 3 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



• Groups may be organized with each group determining an individual inquiry subject and 
focus. 

• Groups or partnerships may be created on the basis of individual interests. 

Groups working on inquiry projects should be instructed in group processes, if necessary. 
Learning outcome subheadings 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 deal with instruction in and assessment of 
group processes. 

Whole-ClaSS Inquiry (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d, e; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 20-2a, b, 
c, d, e) 

If the class identifies an inquiry subject that is of high interest to most students, a whole-class 
inquiry may be conducted. A whole-class inquiry may be the first inquiry project of the year 
because it provides many opportunities for direct instruction in inquiry skills. 

4«^^ If the class has a computer, one way to proceed is to develop a database that can be printed 
for all students. If not, students may cover an entire wall with paper, and record on it with 
felt pen all the information and sources they find. Through teacher-led discussion, students 
can examine and weigh this information and identify the various alternatives for developing 
and reporting on the material. 

P^p i-Charts (see pp. 2 1 2-2 1 3) provide a systematic procedure for large-group inquiry and a 
means of recording findings. 

Job Advertisements oo-ic, </,• io-2c, d ; 20-ic, </,- 20-2C, d) 

In a classroom with a number of inquiry projects in progress, students may want to prepare a 
poster or a notice for a message board, advertising their inquiry project. They can describe 
the project and the skills and interests required of students who may want to join them 
(Short, Harste and Burke 1996). 

Students may find ways to involve students from other classes in their projects. They may, 
for example, advertise for a technology consultant to help them create a Web site. 

4«^>V PrOCeSS Talk (10-lc; 10-2c; 20-lc; 20-2c) 

Have students work in groups to consider either the list of questions they have generated for 
inquiry or a brainstormed list of facts, ideas, opinions and questions about a subject under 
consideration for class research. To help students clarify their ideas, have them sort and 
prioritize these lists in a variety of ways. The purpose of this activity is not to make final 
decisions about the importance of various aspects of the subject, but to deepen the group's 
understanding both of the dimensions of the subject and of the interest and opinions of group 
members. Suggest that groups set a time limit for each of the following procedures and 
accept the decision of the majority if they cannot reach consensus. 

Suggestions for sorting and ranking inquiry ideas and questions: 

• Arrange questions or items in order of greatest to least interest. 

Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 3/217 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



• Arrange items in order according to their importance to the group or to society. 

• Arrange items according to the knowledge that group members have of each; e.g., 
"Things we know quite a bit about." "Things we know nothing about." 

• Arrange questions in the order in which they need to be answered. 

• Sort the list into big and small questions. 

• Determine what constitutes a big question and what constitutes a small one. 

• Sort the list according to categories determined by the group. One category may be 
"items/questions that belong in a different inquiry." 

After processing their ideas with some of these suggestions, students can create a concept 
map or web of the way their topic now looks. 



f 



Creative Problem Solving (io-ib; io-2b; 20-ib; 20-2b) 

Planning a successful inquiry project is a form of creative problem solving. It requires 
students to define a problem and to make decisions about how to solve it. 

Prior to putting their inquiry plans on paper, students may find it helpful to answer a 
questionnaire, such as the following, which can also be used for discussion in group inquiry 
projects. 

• What end product do 1 envision? What steps do I need to take to get there? 

• What difficulties or obstacles do I anticipate? How can 1 resolve them? 

• What sources of support are available to me? 

• Who will be interested in the results of my project? How do 1 need to shape this project 
to communicate with this audience? 

• Which steps do I need to take first? 



Learning from Models (io-ia, d; io-2a, </,- 20-ia, d; 20-2a, d) 

Teachers can assist students by sharing their own inquiry experiences and processes. 
Students may also want to invite guest speakers or arrange interviews with individuals who 
can talk about how they go about planning inquiry and research; e.g., university students, 
magazine and nonfiction writers, historians, researchers, business people. 



Inquiry Planning Forms (io-ia, b, c; io-2a, b, c; 20-ia, b, c; 20-2a, b, c) 

Planning forms are useful in recording the initial planning for inquiry and in conferring with 
peers and the teacher. Students need to remember, however, that initial plans may need to be 
revised as the inquiry proceeds. 



2 1 8/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



Teachers can differentiate instruction by providing a planning form for students 
inexperienced in inquiry and by asking those with more experience to create a planning form 
that meets their needs. Most planning forms provide space to identify: 

guiding questions 

resources and their location 

strategies to be used for recording information 

reference style to be used 

form for sharing findings 

assessment processes and tools. 



Preliminary Interviews (io-id ; io-2d; 20-id; 20-2d) 

Students should not embark on a formal interview without doing a preliminary interview to 
ascertain whether they are likely to find the information they are seeking through this source. 

In the preliminary interview, students: 

• introduce themselves 

• describe their topic and purpose 

• ask the person what sorts of information or experience he or she is able to relate on this 
topic 

• explain how the interview will be conducted 

- Will it be taped? 

- Will the person be provided with questions prior to the interview? 

• explain how the information will be used 

• discuss availability of time and place. 



Assessment Self-assessment of Preliminary Interviews 

Ask students to reflect in their learning logs or on exit slips on the 
sources they considered using for their inquiry and on the decisions they 
made regarding the relevance, credibility and value of these sources. 



Information Catalogue (io-ie; io-2e; 20-ie; 20-2e) 

Make a classroom catalogue of print and electronic information sources. Students could 
prepare a series of posters describing the information available through each source, with tips 
for its use. Students could use the information from this activity and preliminary interviews 
to create a Preliminary Bibliography. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3/219 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



Assessment Formative Assessment of Preliminary Bibliography 

Use conferences to assess students' preliminary bibliography of resources 
they intend to use for their inquiry project. Have students list all possible 
information sources and then select the most useful and relevant ones and 
write annotations for each. Within each annotation, students should 
discuss the use they expect to make of the resource. This preliminary 
bibliography should include the names of resource people with whom 
students have conducted a preliminary interview. 

P3g= Teachers may want to provide students with a form, such as that in 

Appendix B, p. 418, for recording and evaluating information sources. 



Oral Update (io-id,- io-2d ; 20-id; 20-2d) 

Ask students to present their resources to the class or to a group. Establish criteria for 
assessing these resources. 



Round Table (io-id; io-2d ; 20-id; 20-2d) 

Have each student bring to class one difficult question from his or her research. Discuss 
with the class the best sources to explore for the answer. 



D^ 



Human Resources (io-ie; io-2e; 20-ie; 20-2e) 

Some of the learning activities associated with certain learning outcome subheadings; e.g., 
3.1.2 and 3.2.1, could contribute to a student-created resource bank of specialized 
information sources, including people. Students could then use this resource bank to select 
sources pertinent to their inquiry. 

Students may want to explore others' opinions through a formal means of primary 
research, such as a survey or questionnaire (see pp. 210-21 1). 

Students could also invite a variety of people into the classroom as valuable sources of 
information, such as: 

• a graphic artist from the community, a newspaper editor or a teacher from a creative 
communications class to provide a lesson in layout and design 

• a filmmaker or a member of a video cooperative to give a presentation on camera angles, 
voice-overs, music, titles and other elements that affect meaning in film and video 

• a veteran of a military conflict to provide a first-hand impression of involvement in such 
a situation 

• an instructor of post-secondary English to speak on a particular author, literary period or 
major work. 



220/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



Teacher Resources 



Alberta Learning. Researching and Making Presentations: Grades 5 to 12. 

This CD-ROM provides guidance for focusing research; finding, selecting, organizing 
and presenting information; and evaluating sources. Student guides take the user 
through the research process. Samples and how-to hints for each section can be printed 
out. 

Claggett, F., L. Reid and R. Vinz. Learning the Landscape: Inquiry-Based Activities 
for Comprehending and Composing. 

This is a handbook for teachers using an inquiry-based approach in response to a 
variety of texts. It uses a variety of strategies to encourage the writing process; e.g., 
double-entry logs, clustering, mapping and graphics. It encourages cooperation 
through inquiry and self-assessment, supports various learning approaches, and fosters 
both individual and group activities. 

Clarke, Judy, Ron Wideman and Susan Eadie. Together We Learn. 

This comprehensive manual for cooperative small-group learning includes a rationale 
for interactive learning and describes group formation, group roles, the teacher's role 
and assessment procedures. 

Daniels, Harvey and Marilyn Bizar. Methods That Matter: Six Structures for Best 
Practice Classrooms. 

This resource identifies basic teaching structures designed to make classrooms more 
active, experiential, collaborative, democratic and cognitive. It includes concrete 
descriptions of practical and proven ways of organizing time, space and materials. 

Heide, Ann and Linda Stilborne. The Teacher's Complete and Easy Guide to the Internet. 

Besides including Internet basics, this teacher resource also provides project ideas for 
the classroom, teaching tips, curriculum links and a CD-ROM of educational sites. 

Johnson, David W., Roger T. Johnson and Edythe Holubec. Cooperation in the 
Classroom. 

This book is a comprehensive discussion of research and theory about cooperative 
learning. It provides techniques for teaching cooperative skills in the context of a 
range of classroom projects and learning activities. 

Leslie, Lauren and Mary Jett-Simpson. Authentic Literacy Assessment: An Ecological 
Approach. 

This guide explores ongoing assessment of literacy products, with an emphasis on 
record keeping and on tying instruction to assessment. The authors suggest forms 
for making teacher-conference notes and keeping running records. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 3 /22 1 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2 002 DRAFT) 




Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources (continued) 



Leu, Donald J. and Deborah D. Leu. Teaching with the Internet: Lessons from the 
Classroom. 3rd Edition. 

This teacher resource outlines steps for using the Internet as a teaching and learning 
resource. It discusses strategies for search and navigation, e-mail, newsgroups, key 
pals (pen pals) and publishing on the Internet. Projects emphasizing cooperative 
learning are developed around language arts and literature, social studies, science, 
mathematics and multiculturalism. This book also addresses the needs of students 
learning English as a second or additional language, struggling learners, and students 
who have visual and auditory impairments. 

Metzler, K. Creative Interviewing: The Writer 's Guide to Gathering Information by 
Asking Questions. 

This handbook discusses the basics of preparing and conducting interviews over the 
telephone and in person. 

Morgan, N. and J. Saxton. Asking Better Questions: Models, Techniques and Classroom 
Activities for Engaging Students in Learning. 

This book focuses on effective questioning techniques. Concrete classroom examples 
illustrate how students can become more adept questioners and responsible learners. 
The book addresses the following questions: Why the question? What kind of 
question? How do we question? 

Owston, Ron. Making the Link: Teacher Professional Development on the Internet. 

Part IV, Doing Research on the Internet, not only provides discussion of various search 
engines and databases, it also contains a chapter devoted to Internet Research 
Strategies. 

Stripling, Barbara K. and Judy M. Pitts. Brainstorms and Blueprints: Teaching Library 
Research As a Thinking Process. 

This in-depth research manual discusses inquiry as a thinking process and offers a step- 
by-step guide to inquiry stages, ranging from choosing a topic to creating the final 
product. Thirty student handouts are included. 

Wagner, Betty Jane. Dorothy Heathcote: Drama As a Learning Medium. 
Chapter 6 of this resource provides seven questioning sequences. 

Winn, Patricia G. Integration of the Secondary School Library Media Centre into the 
Curriculum: Techniques and Strategies. 

This library research manual contains a chapter on database searching, as well as 
more specific chapters on researching biographies and Greek mythology. 



222/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to manage 
ideas and information. 




3.2 Follow a plan of inquiry 




Overview 

Accessing and Selecting Information 

Locating, handling and organizing information are important aspects of managing ideas and developing a personal, 
informed perspective. 

Based on their purpose for inquiry and their information needs, students select and access various information 
sources. In learning outcome subheading 3.1.2, students develop lists of potential resources, and in 3.2.2 they 
evaluate these resources. In this learning outcome subheading, they access, select, collect/record and organize 
needed information. Students often need help in creating personal meanings from research materials and 
restructuring and reshaping the information to suit the purpose of inquiry and avoid plagiarizing. 

To encourage reflection and synthesis of research findings students should be encouraged to: 

• put their notes aside and revisit the material the next day 

• compare ideas from a variety of sources 

• integrate what they are learning with their own experiential knowledge and opinions of the subject 

• restructure and reshape the material according to their own understanding of it and the purpose of their created 
text. 

The reading/listening/viewing strategies that students use in inquiry are governed by their purpose for inquiry. 
Specific reading strategies are explored in learning outcome subheadings 2. 1 .2 and 2.2. 1 . 

Recording Information 

Note making is an important skill, not only for creating a written record but also as a means of processing 
information. 

Students may be accustomed to "taking notes" by writing down information in a linear fashion without making 
judgements about the relative importance of facts and ideas and their connection to each other. Students can 
experiment with a variety of strategies that help them make meaning as they listen, read or view, determining 
which are more effective in various situations and for various purposes. Referring to this process as "note 
making" rather than "note taking" may help students recognize their active involvement in processing information 
as they record it. Note-making strategies should be taught and practised in the context of authentic student work. 

In certain circumstances; e.g., on a field trip or when students have writing difficulties, students may want to 
experiment with using a small tape recorder as a note-making device. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3/223 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Select, record and organize information (continued) 



Learning to use and cite/document sources with ease involves: 

• making appropriate judgements about which material to quote, which to paraphrase and which to summarize 

• understanding intellectual property rights and appreciating the ethical and practical reasons for citing sources 

• ascertaining which documentation system is expected in the course, obtaining the relevant style sheet and 
practising the system 

• learning the differences between academic and journalistic conventions for citing sources 

• writing parenthetical source citations and a reference list or list of works cited, with the use of a style sheet. 

Further suggestions for teaching referencing of sources are found in learning outcome subheading 4.2.4. 

Organizing Information 

Effective organization normally grows out of a clear grasp of the material being developed and how one idea 
relates to the next. Encourage students to select organizational categories and to experiment with graphic 
representations of their ideas. In some instances, teachers and students may decide that students will report on 
their inquiry through a graphic representation of the material, rather than through a formal product. The 
conventions of various forms themselves promote organization. 

Students who are drawing material from a variety of research sources need to learn to make valid generalizations 
based on the information they gather. Valid generalizations are based on a careful analysis of information and 
avoid oversimplification, stereotypes and false assumptions. Students doing primary research, in particular, need 
instruction in drawing conclusions from the information they gather. 

Assessment of 3.2.1 

As students embark on primary research, they should confer with peers or the teacher on their plans and questions 
for interviews or surveys. 

Some of the student learning associated with subheading 3.2.1 concerns learning to discern the organizational 
structures inherent in texts and their contribution to meaning. Over the course of the semester or year, assess 
whether students are developing: 

• the habit of looking for patterns and relationships among ideas 

• knowledge of various organizational structures 

• analytic skill in choosing appropriate organizational structures. 

Occasional review of students' notes and records helps identify those who require extensive assessment. Further 
suggestions for assessing students' skill in making sense of information are found in learning outcome 
subheadings 2. 1 .2 and 2.2. 1 . 

Conferring with students on their note-making strategies and assessing their notes and learning logs validates the 
importance of note making. 



224/ General Outcome 3 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Select, record and organize information (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 

Interviews (10-la; 10-2a; 20-la; 20-2a) 

P^ 3 Learning outcome subheading 3.1.2, p. 219, provides suggestions for preliminary interviews. 
If, on the basis of preliminary interviews, students have identified individuals who are 
appropriate subjects for a formal interview, they should be instructed on the techniques of 
effective interviewing. This can be accomplished through analyzing models of interviews, 
practising with peers and conducting interviews in the community. 

Prior to conducting interviews, have the class view videotaped media interviews. Ask 
students to contribute to a list of suggestions for conducting a successful interview. After 
practice interviews with peers, revise this list based on students' experiences. 

Suggestions for conducting a successful interview include the following: 



Interview Suggestions 

> Have a clear purpose for the interview. 

> Prepare for the interview by writing a list of phrases/topics that you intend to explore. 

> Formulate your questions on the spot from your list of phrases. 

> Ask brief questions, one at a time. 

> Be a good listener. 

> Build questions based on previous answers. 

> Give the interviewee time to think. 

> Avoid questions that the interviewee can answer with a "yes" or "no." 

> Avoid leading questions. 

> Take notes or use a tape recorder. Do a technology check on the spot to make sure 
your equipment is working. 

> Review and expand your notes immediately after the interview. 



|MMM 



Assessment 



Peer and Self Assessment of Interviews 



Listening to every taped interview in order to assess interview skills can 
be time-consuming. As an alternative, divide students into groups of four 
and have each group listen to four tapes collected by the group. 

If students are working on individual inquiries, ask groups to make 
observations about effective interview techniques. 

4hS^ If students are working on a whole-class inquiry, have groups summarize 
findings for the class. As the groups report to the class: 

• build a web on the chalkboard to compile the information gained 
through the interviews 



Alberta Education, Focus on Research: A Guide to Developing Students' Research Skills (Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education, 1990). 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 /225 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Select, record and organize information (continued) 



• have the class identify areas of greatest knowledge and gaps 

• ask students to reflect in their learning logs or journals on the success 
of their interviews. 

A rubric such as the one in Appendix B, p. 419, can be used when time 
permits to listen to tapes and to do individual assessments, or when 
students conduct a live interview with a guest or classmate. 



Surveys and Questionnaires (io-ia, c; io-2a, c; 20-ia, c; 20-20, c) 

To collect valid data through surveys and questionnaires, it is essential that students follow 
certain basic principles of primary research. Groups in the class may be assigned to research 
information related to various aspects of primary research and to present data in the form of 
a poster, a brochure or an oral presentation. 

The process of choosing a valid research sample is described in Surveys and Questionnaires 
(p. 210). 



D^ 



Multisource Note Making (io-ia, b, c, d ; io-2a, b, c, d ; 20-ia, b, c, </,- 

20-2a, b, c, d) 

Multisource research helps students to develop skills in using a wide range of information 
sources and in interpreting both literal and inferential meaning. It also helps students to view 
their subject from different perspectives. An inquiry that begins with literary texts may lead 
to expository sources, such as history books, documentary films and magazine feature 
articles, or to human resources. An inquiry that begins with information sources may lead to 
texts such as drama, poetry, fiction and feature films. 

Have students select three different information sources they will target in their research. 
Have them create a frame or chart for note making, with a section for each of the three 
information sources. Strategies for note making are provided later in this learning 
outcome subheading on pages 230-23 1 . 



JtoSfe Telephone Conferences (io-ia, c, d ; io-2a, c, </,- 20-ia, c, d; 20-20, c, d) 

Groups of students interested in interviewing the same individual; e.g., an author, may want 
to conduct a telephone interview, either using a speakerphone or arranging a conference call 
through the telephone operator. Remind students of the necessity of identifying themselves 
each time they speak during a conference call and of planning questions and the order of 
speaking. 



4S3% Information Scavenging (io-ia, b, c, d; io-2a, b, c, d; 20-ia, b, c, d; 

20-2a, b, c, d) 

Information scavenger hunts are often used to acquaint students with various information 
systems and sources at libraries: 

• electronic catalogues 



226/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Select, record and organize information (continued) 



• magazine index and microfilm or microfiche 

• reference section 

• vertical files 

• archives 

• Internet search engines. 

This activity is most effective if students are assigned authentic questions from the inquiry 
project they are conducting. 

• Ask students to brainstorm a list of questions related to a class inquiry. 

• Have the class predict the information sources that will be most valuable in finding the 
answer to each question. 

• Assign a group to each library information system to find answers to the identified 
questions. 

• After the visit to the library, ask each group to share answers and compare the kinds of 
information available in each source. 

Ask each group to present a mini-lesson on the processes required to access information from 
the system to which they were assigned and to create a poster of tips for using the system. 



Graphic Coding (10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Rather than making notes by writing out summaries of information from their reading, 
students using photocopied** material may want to make notes: 

• by highlighting important passages on the photocopy 

• by recording questions and responses in the margins 

• by colour-coding sections to indicate topic divisions, transition words and sentences, and 
soon. 

4g^A In situations where several students are reading the same material, ask them to meet in 
groups to compare their responses and questions and the highlighted or colour-coded 
passages. 



Assessment Formative Assessment of Graphic Coding 

Gather information about students' skill in connecting ideas and 
distinguishing between main and supporting ideas from the notes they 
have created through their highlighting and written commentaries on 
photocopied text. 



Ensure that students comply with current copyright legislation and licensing agreements regarding reproduction rights. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 1221 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Select, record and organize information (continued) 



Reading Tables and Charts (io-ia, b ; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 20-20, b) 

Depending on how much instruction students need in reading tables and charts, provide them 
with a general strategy and guided practice, or teach a series of mini-lessons on tables and 
various types of charts, such as graphs, pie charts and diagrams — see next activities. 



1. 


General Strategy for Reading Tables and Charts 

Read the title. 


2. 
3. 

4. 
5. 


Identify all the components that convey information. 

Think: What is the purpose of each component? (to convey time, frequency, size, 

number?) 

What is the relationship between the components? 

What can I learn from the details? 



maimemtmmmmmimmmmmmu.w\ — 

} Assessment Formative Assessment of Reading Tables and Charts 



To assess students' skill in reading tables and charts, provide them with a 
table or chart from a print source and ask them to create the text that 
might have appeared before and after it. 

Alternatively, give students text that includes statistics, and ask them to 
create a table or chart to convey the information visually or graphically. 
Have students create their tables or charts on overhead transparencies and 
compare various types, deciding as a class which texts convey the 
information most clearly. 



Reading Tables® (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia; 20-20) 

To read a table, students need to learn to identify its purpose. They must learn to locate 
information by following lines until they intersect and draw conclusions from the 
information presented. 

Suggested questions for guided practice in reading tables include: 

• What is the tide? 

• What unit of measure is being used? 

• What are the column headings? 

• What are the side headings? 



*» Adapted from Alberta Education, Focus on Research: A Guide to Developing Students' Research Skills (Edmonton, AB: Alberta 
Education, 1990). 



228/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Select, record and organize information (continued) 



• Where do the lines intersect? What does this tell you? 

• How can you use this information? 

Reading Graphs (Bar, Circle, Line, Picture)© (io-ia ; io-2a; 20-ia; 

20-2a) 

Students need to be able to identify the purpose of a graph, determine the units of measure 
being used, and summarize and infer meanings. 

Suggested questions for guided practice in reading graphs include: 
What type of graph is being used? 

What information is being presented? What is the main idea? 
What is the unit of measure? 
What symbols are used? What does each one mean? 
What is the importance of the information presented? How can you use it? 
Does the graph distort or emphasize differences or similarities in data? How? Why? 

Reading Diagrams© (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia; 20-2a) 

Students must be able to identify the parts of a diagram and see the relationships among 
them. 

Suggested questions for guided practice in reading diagrams include: 

• What is pictured in the diagram? 

• What are the locations of the different parts? 

• What are the relationships of the parts? 

• Why has the diagram been included? 

Paraphrasing (10-la, c; 10-2a, c; 20-la, c; 20-2a, c) 

Teach students a three-step process for paraphrasing to help them avoid retaining phrases 

from the original research source: 

• Put the research source aside or close it. 

• Write the idea in your own words from memory. 

• Check to see that your paraphrase is accurate. 

Have students practise paraphrasing in pairs, with one partner reading a short paragraph 
aloud and the other paraphrasing it. 



O Adapted from Alberta Education, Focus on Research: A Guide to Developing Students' Research Skills (Edmonton, AB: Alberta 
Education, 1990). 

Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 3 /229 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Select, record and organize information (continued) 



Note-making Strategies (io-ia, c; io-2a, c; 20-ia, c; 20-2a, c) 

The most important aspect of successful note making is active listening, reading or viewing. 
Readers, listeners and viewers need to be making choices constantly about the relative 
importance of material and about how one idea relates to the next. Remind students not to 
copy information, except in the case of a few lines that they believe are important enough to 
be quoted in the final product. 

Students select note-making strategies according to their purpose: 

• Graphic Representations: These are most effective when students are memorizing 
content. Images, simple graphs and connecting lines that show the relationship of ideas 
are easier for many people to remember than text. Suggest that students develop a 
personal and efficient system of using symbols and icons to condense the ideas in their 
notes. 

• Two-column Notes: During oral presentations, have students note main ideas in the left 
column and supporting details or examples in the right. 

When making notes while reading for an inquiry project, students may want to use the left 
column to note new information and the right to note their own opinions and responses, as 
well as their thoughts about the importance of this material and the way it may be used in 
their project. 

• Index Cards: Making notes on index cards corresponding to sections of the topic 
facilitates pre -sorting of the material. Index cards also encourage summarizing. To have 
students practise note making, ask them to use one index card only to record the most 
important information from a particular text or presentation. 

• Note Making from Audiotapes: Students who have audiotaped interviews, or who are 
using taped documentaries as a resource, need to learn alternatives to transcribing the 
entire text. Suggest that students listen to the tape three times in order to develop a sense 
of which sections are the most important. On the third repetition, have them stop the 
tape at intervals and summarize the key ideas. After summarizing the content, students 
can go back and transcribe any lines that they have selected for quotations. 

• Abbreviations: Students benefit from learning the abbreviations that others in the class 
use in note making. Have the class compile and post a list of standard note-making 
abbreviations, such as i.e., e.g., and N.B. 



230/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 







Select, record and organize information (continued) 



Self and Formative Assessment of Note-making Strategies 

To review note making, ask students to work in groups, producing a 
brochure for the class that outlines effective note-making strategies. The 
brochure may include tips on: 

notebook organization and page layout 

distinguishing important ideas from supporting material 

shorthand and abbreviations 

graphic representation of ideas and connections 

active listening, when making notes from lectures or films 

recording sources, when making research notes. 

Students should reflect in writing on the strategies that best helped them 
to record the important information without plagiarizing. 

Comparing Notes: After a presentation, film or reading that involved 
the whole class, have students work in groups to prepare a master copy of 
the notes they made, comparing their ideas of which statements 
constituted main ideas, which provided supporting information and how 
one idea related to the next. 

Conferences: Ask students to share their inquiry notes with a partner. 
Use this time to conference with students who may need extra support. 
Formatively assess whether students' notes are complete, whether they 
use a form that distinguishes between their own words and quotations, 
and whether they use paraphrasing and summarizing. 



Mapping (10-lc; 10-2c; 20-lc; 20-2c) 

Besides being a useful tool for exploring ideas in a prewriting stage, mapping can be an 
efficient means of recording information; the relationship of ideas can be built into the map 
that students create. Maps may take the form of trees or flow charts. 

Each map is different, its form determined by its content. Maps, however, also have common 
characteristics, such as those listed below. 



> 
> 
> 



Common Characteristics of Maps 

The central idea or concept is emphasized by its location — a word or phrase 
representing this concept is often placed at the centre of the page. All other ideas on 
the map are related to this word or phrase. 

Subordinate ideas that help explain the central concept are boxed or circled. 

Lines — strand ties — are used to represent the connections between/among ideas. 

Information becomes more detailed and specific as the map lines move away from 
the centre of the page. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 /231 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Select, record and organize information (continued) 



Using Sources (io-ic; io-2c; 20-ic; 20-2c) 

Provide students with numerous models of formal writing that use secondary sources. In 
examining these sources, ask students to develop a protocol for making judgements about 
which material to quote, which to paraphrase and which to summarize. 

• Quotations: These are significant passages worded in a striking way that would be lost 
in paraphrasing. Quotations must be enclosed in quotation marks and referenced. The 
purposes of using quotations are: 

- to add credibility to the work, by citing authoritative sources 

- to add eloquence, by selecting stylistically powerful lines. 

• Paraphrases: These are ideas and information borrowed from a specific work, 
expressed in the student's own words. Paraphrases must be referenced and should cite 
the author's name in the text. 

• Summaries: These are ideas and information condensed from a specific work, 
expressed in the student's own words. Summaries must be referenced and should cite 
the author's name in the text. 



Practising Citations (io-ic; io-2c; 20-ic; 20-20) 

After providing direct instruction in using sources, have students practise in groups by 
writing a paragraph based on a secondary resource. 

• Choose an article that is at or below the reading level of the class. Give all students the 
same article to read. 

• Working in groups, students then write a paragraph based on this article, using 
summary, paraphrasing and quotations. Ask each group to write its paragraph on an 
overhead transparency. 

• Have the class examine the paragraphs and discuss the decisions each group made 
regarding which material to paraphrase, which to summarize and which to quote. 



232/ General Outcome 3 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Select, record and organize information (continued) 



Recording Forms for Avoiding Plagiarism (io-ic; io-2c; 20-ic; 20-2c) 

Provide students with forms such as the following to help them distinguish between material 
cited directly and their own paraphrases, summaries and comments. 



Form for Recording Information 

Author's name: (last) , (first) 

Title of source: 
Place of publication: 
Publisher: 



Year of publication: 



Summaries: 

Briefly note the main ideas of the 
whole text. 



Comments: 

Record your own responses and 
questions about what you read. 



Paraphrases: 

Write important and supporting 
information in your own words. 
Record the page number(s). 



Direct Quotations: 

Record only passages that you are 
very likely to quote in your final 
article. Record the page 
number(s). 



/S>\ 



List of References (io-ic; io-2c; 20-ic;20-2c) 

• Have students move into groups, ask each group to select one resource they would like 
the class to reference; e.g., a novel, anthology or video, and ask each group to put the 
resource on the table where the group is working. 

• Have students circulate from group to group, collecting the information they need to 
reference each of the selected resources. 

At their home tables, students work together to write a list of works cited or a list of 
references. 



Assessment 



Grouping by Need 

Group students for conferences and mini-lessons according to a need that 
has been identified in their work; e.g., errors in verb tense, subject-verb 
agreement, pronoun reference or parallel structure. Ask students to locate 
and contribute examples for discussion. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3/233 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Select, record and organize information (continued) 



Carousel (io-id ; io-2d ; 20-id; 20-2d) 

Carousels are an efficient means of organizing interaction so that students can exchange 
ideas with many of their classmates in a short time. Use a carousel to allow students to share 
opinions or information they have discovered through research. 

• The class forms two circles, one inside the other, with students in the inner and outer 
rings facing each other. If exchanges are to be brief, students can stand. For longer 
exchanges, and in situations where students are expected to make notes of new 
information, each student should have a chair. 

• Students who are facing each other share their ideas and information for a specified time 
period; e.g., two minutes. 

• At a signal, the outside circle rotates so that each student faces a new partner. Sharing 
resumes until the next signal. 

• When students in the outside circle have shared with each student in the inside circle, the 
carousel is finished. Students can then synthesize in writing the information they have 
gathered. 

This activity can also be used for 5. 1 . 1 . 



Priorities (io-u ; io-2d; 20-id; 20-2d) 

An early step in organizing material is to decide which elements are the most important or 
have the greatest impact. It may be helpful for students to review the concept map of their 
topic they created at the outset of the inquiry and decide whether the schema of information 
they sketched at that time is still valid and points to a logical organization. 

Suggest that students prioritize the information they have gathered, using colour codes, sticky 
dots or self-stick removable notes to identify degrees of importance. 

Reading Surveys Critically (io-ib, </,• io-2b, d ; 20-ib, d; 20-2b, d) 

In preparation for writing a report using primary data, have students read a selection of 
articles containing survey results. As a class, analyze and compare the way survey results are 
used in these articles and develop a list of guidelines for the accurate use of survey results. 

Card Sort (10-ld; 10-2d; 20-ld; 20-2d) 

For a whole-class inquiry project, have groups: 

• list, on separate index cards, the facts and concepts that constitute their inquiry findings 

• sort the cards into categories 

• arrange the cards on a large piece of paper 

• tape the cards in place when the order has been finalized. 

Through a Field Walk — see learning outcome subheading 1.1.1 (p. 97) — students can 
examine and provide feedback on the organization suggested by each group. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



234/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 







Select, record and organize information (continued) 



Organizing Narrative Forms (io-id; io-2d; 20-U; 20-2d) 

Students may use narrative to report on inquiry results. Accounts of journalists' 
investigations, for example, are sometimes written in narrative form in magazine features. 
Biography is also an inquiry-based narrative form. 

Students also need to consider various options for organizing narration. These include: 

• chronological order 

• climactic order 

• flashbacks and flash-forwards 

• parallel accounts from different points of view. 



m 3 



Storyboards (io-id; io-2d ; 20-id; 20-2d) 

Storyboards are the graphic organizers used by filmmakers — see learning outcome 
subheading 4.2.2, pp. 293-294. Models can be found in recently approved resources for 
senior high school ELA. 



Organizing Anthologies 

Students who are arranging selected prose, songs and poetry in a print anthology need to look 
for common elements and themes in their pieces. Writing an introduction to their anthology 
requires students to reflect on the organizing principle of their collection. 

Note: Anthologies may also be oral, visual and multimedia in form; e.g., an album of photo 
essays or photographed collages, collections of video recordings of readers' theatre, or audio 
recordings of original radio dramas. 



Graphic Organizers (io-id; io-2d ; 20-id; 20-2d) 

Recording information on graphic organizers provides students with a structure that facilitates 
analysis. Review standard organizational patterns with students, and provide them with blank 
graphic organizers. Encourage them to experiment with several different ways of organizing 
their material, and remind them to adapt the forms to the natural structure of their ideas, 
rather than shaping their ideas to fit a standard form. 

Suggestions for graphic organizers follow. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3/235 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Select, record and organize information (continued) 



Graphic Organizers 
One Idea Structure 



Inverted Pyramid for News Stories 




Pyramid Organizer 




Comparison and Contrast Structure 



Venn Diagram 



Jnique /CommorX Unique 
character-/ character- \ character- 
istics of I istics of istics of 
first \ both / second 

^example Vexamples/ example , 



236/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 










Select, record and organize information (continued) 



Sequence Structure 



Herringbone 




Assessment 






Self-assessment of Graphic Organizers 

Reflecting on Organizational Plans: Require students to submit two 
organizational plans — one developed using a graphic organizer and the 
other in the form of a linear outline — with a reflective paragraph 
explaining which plan they consider to be better. Provide students with 
questions such as the following to guide their reflection on the 
organizational plans. 

• Does this organization give prominence to the most important ideas? 

• Does it invite the audience into the topic? 

• Does it deal with ideas in the order in which they need to be 
understood? 

• Is it the best way of communicating these ideas to this audience? 



Teacher Resources 



Alberta Learning. Researching and Making Presentations: Grades 5 to 12. 

This CD-ROM provides guidance for focusing research; finding, selecting, organizing 
and presenting information; and evaluating sources. Student guides take the user 
through the research process. Samples and how-to hints for each section can be printed 
out. 

Buckley, Joanne. Fit to Print: The Canadian Student's Guide to Essay Writing. 

This book describes the process of writing a research paper. It discusses note making, 
outlining, drafting and revising. Guidelines for citing sources and preparing a 
reference list are provided, along with examples. 

Gilster, Paul. Digital Literacy. 

In this resource for teachers, Gilster examines the skills necessary to evaluate sources 
and information on the Internet. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 /237 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Select, record and organize information (continued) 



Hacker, Diana. A Canadian Writer 's Reference. 2nd Edition. 
This resource includes a guide to using secondary sources. 

Harris, Judi. Virtual Architecture: Designing and Directing Curriculum-Based 
Telecomputing. 

Harris provides ideas for designing and implementing curriculum-based telecomputing 
projects. 

Harris, Judi. Way of the Ferret: Finding Educational Resources on the Internet. 
2nd Edition. 

This is a guide to finding, designing and implementing communication and research 
activities using the Internet. 

Heide, Ann and Linda Stilborne. The Teacher 's Complete and Easy Guide to the Internet. 

This teacher resource addresses classroom use of the Internet. Topics explored 
include: the role of the Internet in the classroom; getting connected — hardware and 
software; using electronic mail, list servers and newsgroups; exploring the World Wide 
Web; and using Gopher, Veronica and additional Internet tools, such as File Transfer 
Protocol (FTP), Telnet and online chat. 

Leu, Donald J. and Deborah D. Leu. Teaching with the Internet: Lessons from the 
Classroom. 3rd Edition. 

This teacher resource outlines steps for using the Internet as a teaching and learning 
resource. It discusses strategies for search and navigation, e-mail, newsgroups, key 
pals (pen pals) and publishing on the Internet. Projects emphasizing cooperative 
learning are developed around language arts and literature, social studies, science, 
mathematics and multiculturalism. This resource also addresses the needs of students 
learning English as a second or additional language, struggling learners, and students 
who have visual and auditory impairments. 

MacGregor, A. J. Graphics Simplified: How to Plan and Prepare Effective Charts, 
Graphs, Illustrations, and Other Visual Aids. 

This resource is a concise guide to preparing graphics that communicate clearly. 
Suggestions are practical, and examples of both clear and unclear charts and graphs are 
provided. 

MaranGraphics Development Group. Amazing Web Sites: In Full Colour. 

This resource provides a detailed introduction to the Internet and Web browsers. 
Over 2 500 sites are listed alphabetically, with brief descriptions and Internet 
addresses. 

Markel, Michael H. Technical Communication. 

Chapter 3, "Graphics," discusses characteristics of effective graphics, graphics and 
computers, and types of graphics. 



238/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Select, record and organize information (continued) 



Markel, Michael H. and Helen Holmes. Technical Writing: Situations and Strategies. 

Chapter 4, "Finding and Using Information," includes a subsection that discusses 
skimming, making notes and summarizing. 

Metzler, K. Creative Interviewing: The Writer's Guide to Gathering Information by 
Asking Questions. 

This handbook discusses the basics of preparing and conducting interviews over the 
telephone and in person. 

Robertson, Hugh. The Project Book: An Introduction to Research and Writing. 

Chapters 2, 3 and 4 provide suggestions for recording and organizing information and 
documenting sources. 

Ross, Elinor Parry. Pathways to Thinking: Strategies for Developing Independent 
Learners K-8 . Expanded Professional Version. 

Although intended for a pre-secondary audience, this text's practical strategies are 
easily adapted to the secondary student. Chapter 9 is devoted to Graphic 
Organizers. These include sequence maps, semantic feature analysis, matrices, 
concept maps, and hierarchical arrays. 

Stripling, Barbara K. and Judy M. Pitts. Brainstorms and Blueprints: Teaching Library 
Research As a Thinking Process. 

This in-depth research manual discusses inquiry as a thinking process and offers a step- 
by-step guide to inquiry stages, ranging from choosing a topic to creating the final 
product. Thirty student handouts are included. 

Winn, Patricia G. Integration of the Secondary School Library Media Centre into the 
Curriculum: Techniques and Strategies. 

This library research manual contains a chapter on database searching, as well as more 
specific chapters on researching biography and Greek mythology. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 /239 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to manage 
ideas and information. 




3 .2 Follow a plan of inquiry 




Overview 

Learning outcome subheading 3.2.2 is part of the ongoing and recursive process of identifying and evaluating 
resources and information. Having collected and organized information, students now need to stand back and 
critically evaluate their sources. As well, students need to assess the information for accuracy, completeness and 
currentness and decide whether the information they found is relevant — if it answers the questions that prompted 
their inquiry — and appropriate given their audience. 

Reading a single text may encourage students to accept arguments without question; using a variety of sources in 
the inquiry process fosters critical thinking. The purpose of this learning outcome subheading is to provide 
students with the information and tools they require to be critical listeners, readers and viewers and to make 
judgements about what is information and what is not. This may mean: 

• identifying logical fallacies 

• differentiating between information and persuasive devices or appeals to emotion 

• recognizing infomercials and advertising supplements formatted to look like news articles 

• assessing the value of the undifferentiated material encountered on the Internet 

• determining the bias of news stories, documentaries and feature articles 

• evaluating the authenticity of details in a historical novel or the science in a work of science fiction 

• comparing differing points of view from various sources 

• differentiating between science and pseudoscience 

• assessing accuracy, currentness, relevance and appropriateness. 



Assessment of 3.2.2 

In assessing information, students and teachers consider whether students have enough information and whether 
their information represents the full range of points of view on the subject. 

[gg 3 Form for Evaluation of Sources: The form in Appendix B, p. 420, may be useful in evaluating sources for 
perspective and bias. 

{ J>& This learning outcome subheading suggests that students may find it beneficial to revisit their purpose for inquiry 
w and assess their progress at different points in an inquiry project to allow for the evolution and revision of concepts 

and plans. Teacher-student and student-student conferences may be required as students conduct a final 

evaluation of their findings. 



240/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Evaluate sources, and assess information (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



Conferences to Assess Progress (io-ib; io-2b; 20-ib; 20-2V) 

Have students bring to class their inquiry findings and share them with a partner. The 
partner's role is to help identify gaps and misleading, inaccurate or irrelevant information. 
To differentiate between information that is essential to the inquiry and information that is 
merely interesting, ask students to list their findings in two columns: 



Need to Know 


Nice to Know 


▼ TV 



f 



Inquiry Charts (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia; 20-2a) 

l-Charts, described on pages 212-213, provide a convenient overview of inquiry findings. 
Have students evaluate their information, asking questions such as the following: 

• Which pieces of information were confirmed by all sources? 

• Which pieces were found in only one source? 

• What can 1 do to confirm the accuracy of the information found in only one source? 



Audience Profile (10-la;10-2a;20-la;20-2a) 

To assess the relevance of their material, students need to have a clear sense of audience and 
purpose. Require students to write a profile of the audience for whom their product or 
performance is intended. Their audience profile should describe: 

• the needs and interests of the audience 

• how well informed on the subject audience members are likely to be 

• how familiar the audience will likely be with the conventions of the chosen form 

• whether the audience is likely to have positive, negative or neutral attitudes regarding the 
subject 

• whether there are special considerations, such as short attention span and possible 
misunderstandings, to be taken into account. 

Students could write this profile in the first column of a chart and use the second column to 
discuss the ways they are accommodating each identified audience characteristic as the 
project proceeds. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 /241 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Evaluate sources, and assess information (continued) 



Aiming for Accuracy (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 20-20, b) 

Providing students with the opportunity to record an event can be a vivid example of the 
difficulties in attaining factual accuracy in reporting. Students may find it helpful to use 
the following dramatic exercise as an introduction to an examination of the accuracy and 
credibility of sources. 

• A small group enacts an event; e.g., an accident, the committing of a crime. If possible, 
have students videotape the enactment. 

• Students observe the event and then record what they saw as completely and accurately 
as possible. As an alternative, "reporters" who were not present at the event write their 
reports based on the information "eyewitnesses" provide. 

• Students move into groups and compare their reports for accuracy and completeness, 
listing common elements and differences in two separate columns. 

• Students replay the videotape or question the actors to verify the accuracy of their 
reports. 

• Following this first-hand experience in reporting, students analyze three published 
articles on the same subject for differences in details and perspectives. 



Identifying Bias (io-ib, c, </,- io-2b, c, d ; 20-ib, c, d ; 20-2b, c, d) 

• Ask students to bring to class materials; e.g., political campaign flyers, advertising 
supplements, news releases, that are highly biased by definition. Supplement the 
collection if necessary. As students develop a clear grasp of bias, move to examining 
materials where bias is more subtle; e.g., news sources and documentaries. 

• Analyze bias in each of the collected sources, using criteria such as: 

- the purpose of the material — Is the purpose to inform or to persuade? Does the writer 
or spokesperson have a vested interest? 

- the limitations of time and space to which the writer or producer was subject — What 
are the limitations of a 30-second news item on radio compared to an in-depth 
documentary on television? 

- the credentials of the writer or spokesperson — Is an actor who plays a doctor on 
television a credible source of medical information? 

- the extent to which the material represents various sides of an issue 

- the language and images used — Are they neutral or emotionally charged? 

- the dominant impression that is made — How do headlines, visual images and the 
order of information influence listener, reader or viewer response? 

• Discuss with students the application of these criteria to the sources they are using in their 
individual or class inquiry projects. 



This strategy can also be used in 5. 1 . 1 , 



242/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Evaluate sources, and assess information {continued) 



Assessment 



Summative or Self Evaluation of Bias 

Test on Identifying Bias: Use a written test to assess skills in 
identifying factual information and evaluating sources for bias. Some 
suggestions follow: 

> Give students a sample of highly biased material and ask, "What 
information does this source provide?" 

> Have students make lists of Claims and Factual Information while 
viewing an infomercial. 

> Provide students with three sources of information on the same 
subject, and ask, "Which of these three is the best source of 
information on this subject? Why do you think so?" 

Reflections: Ask students to reflect in their journals on their discoveries 
regarding bias and the limited reliability of various sources. 



Bias in NeWS (10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Using examples, discuss the ways through which bias can be expressed in news reporting; 
e.g., through what is left out and what is included, who is interviewed, the connotation of 
words, the use of sound effects, the match of visual images to sound. 

Students can learn a great deal through writing biased material. Steps may include: 

• identifying an event in the school or community about which opinion in the class is 
polarized 

• challenging students to write news stories about this event that avoid editorializing but 
are nevertheless biased 

• comparing the information that stories from each perspective included and left out, and 
comparing the kinds of words writers from each perspective employed. 



Teacher Resources 



Alberta Learning. Researching and Making Presentations: Grades 5 to 12. 

This CD-ROM provides guidance for focusing research; finding, selecting, organizing 
and presenting information; and evaluating sources. Student guides take the user 
through the research process. Samples and how-to hints for each section can be printed 
out. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 /243 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Evaluate sources, and assess information (continued) 



Alexander, Janet E. and Marsha A. Tate. Web Wisdom: How to Evaluate and Create 
Information Quality on the Web. 

Chapters examine traditional evaluation criteria and their application to Web resources; 
advertising, sponsorship and information on the Web; and evaluating and creating Web 
pages. 

Copi, Irving M. and Carl Cohen. Introduction to Logic. 9th Edition. 

This book explores logic systems and provides examples of logic fallacies. 

Gilster, Paul. Digital Literacy. 

In this resource for teachers, Gilster examines the skills necessary to evaluate sources 
and information on the Internet. 

5s/ Heide, Ann and Linda Stilbome. The Teacher's Complete and Easy Guide to the Internet. 

This resource offers a brief discussion of some of the topics needed for evaluating Web 
sites, as well as teacher hints and teaching tips, including suggestions for Web sites and a 
Web site evaluation checklist. 

^j Owston, Ron. Making the Link: Teacher Professional Development on the Internet. 

Part V of this resource contains several brief sections that offer suggestions for the 
evaluation of materials found on the Internet. 

Stripling, Barbara K. and Judy M. Pitts. Brainstorms and Blueprints: Teaching Library 
Research As a Thinking Process. 

This text contains a chapter on analyzing and evaluating information sources. 



Web Sites 

Alexander, Jan and Marsha Ann Tate. "Evaluating Web Resources," Wolfgram Memorial 
Library. 

http://muse.widener.edu/Wolfgram-Memorial-Library/webevaluation/webeval.htm 

This article explores the need for evaluating Web sources, provides criteria for 
evaluation and describes how to apply criteria. This Web site also provides links to 
additional sites with web evaluation materials. 



Schrock, Kathleen. Kathy Schrock 's Guide for Educators . 

http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/eval.html 

This Web site provides criteria for teachers to use in evaluating other Web sites for 
content and design. 



244/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to manage 
ideas and information. 




3.2 Follow a plan of inquiry 



Overview 

Throughout their experiences in their English language arts courses, students arrive at new understandings and 
degrees of understanding. They increasingly recognize the connection between attentive reading/listening/viewing 
and development of thought, and between supporting details/evidence and big ideas/themes. 

Regardless of whether students work alone or with others, most inquiry projects include public sharing of student 
learning; e.g., through publication, viewing or oral presentation. Processes for preparing for public sharing are 
explored in General Outcome 4. Students sometimes find it difficult to distinguish between supporting details and 
conclusions. Asking students to identify a few key points they have learned can help them form conclusions from 
their supporting details. Asking themselves what new questions they have after writing what they have learned can 
lead to the understanding that conclusions "found" through inquiry fosters new inquiry. 



Assessment of 3.2.3 

The final product or culminating activity associated with an inquiry project should reflect an attempt to answer 
questions that are essential for developing understanding. As well, the product or activity should reveal awareness 
and insights that are in the process of becoming enduring understandings. 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



Pushing the Envelope (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Once students have arrived at certain conclusions based on inquiry and research, they should 
recognize that such understandings may not be the last word on the matter. Using a graphic 
organizer such as the one below, students should be encouraged to "push the envelope" 
concerning their findings and recognize the connection between new questions and further 
goals for language learning. 



What have I learned? 


What new questions do I have? 







[£g= Students could also complete their KWL charts, if applicable — see learning outcome 
subheading 2. 1.2 (p. 148). 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 /245 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Form generalizations and conclusions (continued) 



■ 

9 



Recommendation Report (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b; 20-2a, b) 

Ask students to write a short reflection on the implications of their inquiry findings. In 
their reflections, students may wish to: 

identify subsequent inquiry topics that grew out of this one 
suggest how the information gathered in the inquiry could be applied 
recommend action that should be taken to solve a problem 
explore how public awareness could be raised about an issue 
describe how they will think or act differently because of the inquiry. 



4^>\ Creative Controversy© (io-ia, b, c; io-2a, b, c; 20-ia, b, c; 20-2a, b, c) 

This debating strategy requires students to gather arguments so that they can switch sides in a 
debate and then move to consensus. 

• Divide the class into groups of four, and then pair students within these groups. 

• Each pair generates arguments and finds proof to defend one side of a controversy. The 
two pairs in each group take opposite sides. 

• Partners separate and consult with other students in the class who are assigned to the 
same side of the controversy. They return to their partners and assess and integrate new 
ideas they have gleaned. 

• Each pair presents its position to the other pair in the group. While one pair is 
presenting, the other takes notes. Students ask questions and request further evidence. 

• Pairs then switch sides of the argument. Before presenting their new position the next 
day, each pair searches for further information and bolsters the arguments already aired 
with at least two new pieces of evidence. 

• Each pair presents its new adopted position. 

• Pairs then drop the advocacy stance and seek to reach consensus. 

• Finally, groups present their position on the subject either in the form of an essay or an 
oral presentation to the class. 



® Adapted from Lynda Baloche et al., "Fishbowls, Creative Controversy, Talking Chips: Exploring Literature Cooperatively," English 
Journal 82, 6 (October 1993), pp. 43-48. 



246/ General Outcome 3 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Form generalizations and conclusions (continued) 






Teacher Resources 



Alberta Learning. Researching and Making Presentations: Grades 5 to 12. 

This CD-ROM provides guidance for focusing research; finding, selecting, organizing 
and presenting information; and evaluating sources. Student guides take the user 
through the research process. Samples and how-to hints for each section can be printed 
out. 

Burke, Jim. The English Teacher's Companion: A Complete Guide to Classroom, 
Curriculum, and the Profession. 

Chapter 9 offers suggestions, sample activities and strategies for teaching thinking in the 
English class. This chapter also contains a discussion of the use of various types of 
questions — dense, revealing and reflective. 

Ross, Elinor Parry. Pathways to Thinking: Strategies for Developing Independent Learners 
K-8 . Expanded Professional Version. 

Although intended for a pre-secondary audience, this text's practical strategies are easily 
adapted to the secondary student. It offers a section on student generated questions and 
structured plans for questioning, including Inquiry Charts (I-Charts), (ReQuest) and 
SCAMPER — a framework for creative questioning. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 3 /247 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to manage 
ideas and information. 




3.2 Follow a plan of inquiry 



Overview 

Reflecting at the end of an inquiry project helps students look at both the process and content of their learning. It 
is an essential step in consolidating and affirming learning and in enhancing metacognition. Although certain parts 
of a particular inquiry process may go well, other parts may falter. By analyzing and reflecting on which 
strategies, skills and processes have contributed to successful inquiry, students can consciously and deliberately set 
goals for improvement. In reflecting on their inquiry, students need to ask themselves: 

• What went well? What do 1 need to do differently next time? 

• What is the importance of all this? How does it change the way I see the world? 

• Who else needs to know this? 

New inquiry cycles often grow out of this kind of reflection. The class as a whole may want to pursue the new 
questions that have arisen, or individual students may wish to take up the subject when other students have decided 
to move on to a new inquiry focus. 



Assessment of 3.2.4 

By the end of an inquiry process, the teacher will have gathered assessment data at every stage along the way. 
Final assessment should involve students in reflecting on their data and setting goals for further inquiry projects. 
On the basis of this information, decide in which skill areas the class needs further instruction, which students are 
ready for greater independence in the next inquiry project and which students need additional instruction and 
support. 



248/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Review inquiry or research process and findings (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 

Looking Back (10-la; 10-2a; 20-la; 20-2a) 

w Returning to look at the planning stages of an inquiry project upon its completion helps 
students reflect on what they learned and accomplished. 

jr^p • Ask students who used a KWL chart to focus inquiry at the beginning of research — see 
learning outcome subheading 2. 1 .2 (p. 148) — to complete the "What I Learned" column. 

• Have students who used a brainstorming web to explore ideas prior to inquiry create a 
web of their subject as they understand it at the completion of the project. Comparing 
the two can be the basis of reflective writing. Similarly, ask students to compare the 
questions they are now asking about the subject to the questions that originally prompted 
their inquiry. 

• Teacher-student conferences can focus either on open-ended self-assessments that 
students have written or on self-assessment checklists filled out prior to the conferences. 

• Students can be asked to rate themselves on a scale of 1 to 5 on criteria selected from a 
list established by the class. The list may include items such as the following: 

- 1 looked for information in a variety of sources. 

- I learned to use an information source I had never used before. 

- 1 chose a subject that was appropriate for my time and resources. 

- I used my time well during this inquiry project. 

- 1 asked for feedback from the teacher and other students. 

- 1 explored a subject in which I was genuinely interested. 

- I now have an in-depth understanding of this subject. 

Self-assessment Forms (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia; 20-20) 

Assessment criteria must be developed at the beginning of an inquiry project, so that students 
gain a clear understanding of the project goals. Have the class collaborate to create a list of 
criteria for self-assessment forms and checklists. Students can choose from this list the 
criteria that represent their individual goals. 

This strategy is also useful in 3. 1 .2 and 5.1.1. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 3 /249 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




¥ 



3 



Review inquiry.or research process and findings (continued) 



Biography of an Inquiry Project 

Require students to submit, along with the final product of an inquiry project, a narrative that 
recounts the process of: 

• selecting a topic 

• identifying and assessing resources 

• recording and organizing information 

• writing or producing a product to share findings. 

This narrative can serve as the reflective piece that accompanies a final product in students' 
portfolios. 

Round Table (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Arrange chairs in a circle. Ask each student to share the following two things with the class: 

• The most important or interesting thing I discovered about the subject I explored ... 

• The most important thing 1 learned about how to conduct inquiry or research . . . 



q Self-reflection Models (io-ic; io-2c; 20-ic; 20-24 

\' Students may find it helpful to read about or hear writers or artists reflect on their work and 
their creative choices. Clips from videos; e.g., documentaries that trace the production of a 
feature film, or interviews with writers, can serve as models of self-reflection. 



Teacher Resources 



Alberta Learning. Researching and Making Presentations: Grades 5 to 12. 

This CD-ROM provides guidance for focusing research; finding, selecting, organizing 
and presenting information; and evaluating sources. Student guides take the user 
through the research process. Samples and how-to hints for each section can be printed 
out. 

Heard, Georgia. Writing Toward Home: Tales and Lessons to Find Your Way. 

This resource has been described as an "autobiographical travelogue". It is a collection 
of fifty -seven ideas for writing based on specific moments of self-reflection. 

Morgan, N. and J. Saxton. Asking Better Questions: Models, Techniques and Classroom 
Activities for Engaging Students in Learning. 

This book focuses on effective questioning techniques. Concrete classroom examples 
illustrate how students can become more adept questioners and responsible learners. The 
book addresses the following questions: Why the question? What kind of question? 
How do we question? 



250/ General Outcome 3 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Review inquiry or research process and findings (continued) 



Perl, Sondra and Nancy Wilson. Through Teachers' Eyes: Portraits of Writing Teachers at 
Work. 

This resource studies six different writing teachers and their reflections about themselves 
and their students. 

Ross, Elinor Parry. Pathways to Thinking: Strategies for Developing Independent Learners 
K-8 . Expanded Professional Version. 

Although this resource was originally designed for pre-secondary students, it is easily 
modified to accommodate a secondary audience. Chapter 6 focuses on Questioning 
Strategies, while Chapter 9 is devoted to Graphic Organizers. 

Stripling, Barbara K. and Judy M. Pitts. Brainstorms and Blueprints: Teaching Library 
Research As a Thinking Process. 

This in-depth research manual discusses inquiry as a thinking process and offers a step- 
by-step guide to inquiry stages, ranging from choosing a topic to creating the final 
product. Thirty student handouts are included. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 3 /251 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



252/ Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

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GENERAL OUTCOME 4 



STUDENTS WILL LISTEN, SPEAK, READ, WRITE, VIEW AND REPRESENT TO: 



4. 1 .2 Consider and address 
form, structure and 
medium 



4.1.1 Assess text creation 
context 




4.1.3 Develop content 



4. 1 .4 Use production, publication and 
presentation strategies and 
technologies consistent with 
context 



4.1 Develop and present a variety 
of print and nonprint texts 



General Outcome 4 

Create oral, print, visual and 
multimedia texts, and enhance 
the clarity and artistry of 
communication 



4.2 Improve thoughtfulness, 

effectiveness and correctness of 
communication 



4.2.1 Enhance thought 
and detail 




4.2.2 Enhance 

organization 



4.2.4 Edit text for 
matters of 
correctness 



4.2.3 Consider and 
address matters 
of choice 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 /253 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



GENERAL OUTCOME 4 - INDEX OF STRATEGIES 



Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to create oral, print, visual and 
multimedia texts, and enhance the clarity and artistry of communication. 



4.1 



Develop and present a variety of print and nonprint texts 

4.1.1 Assess text creation context 

Targeting Audiences 

Role-play 



4.1.2 



#3* 



4.1.3 



Consider and address form, structure and medium 

Portfolios 

Determining the Characteristics of Forms 

Query Letter 

Writing for Radio and Television 

Advice from the Pros 

Sensory Data 



4.1.4 



s 



43* 



Develop content 

Create a Character 

"Duologues" 

Clustering 

Scrutinizing Experience 
Writing from Prompts .. 



261 
261 



264 
266 
267 
267 
268 
268 



271 
272 
272 
272 
273 



Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent with context 

Direct Instruction in Design 

Helping Students Set Up Criteria for Assessing the Design of Projects 

Adding Power to an Article 

Building a Repertoire 

Props and Costumes 

Working with Sound 

Poetry and Music 

Demonstration Videos 

Selecting the Right Visual 



4.2 



Improve thoughtfulness, effectiveness and correctness of communication 

4.2. 1 Enhance thought and detail 

• Workshop Advice 

• Appraisal of Oral and Visual Forms 

iS4 • Speech Hothouse 

• Revision Experiments 

f • The Five R's 

• Revision Strategies 



276 
278 
279 
279 
279 
279 
279 
280 
280 



284 
285 
285 
286 
286 
287 



254/ General Outcome 4 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



GENERAL OUTCOME 4 - INDEX OF STRATEGIES (continued) 



4.2.2 Enhance organization 

• Writing Leads 

• Method of Development 

/£>•> ^ • Organizing a Data-provided Mini-essay 

• Storyboarding 

• Musical Patterns 

• List Paragraphs 

• Practising Structures 

• Presentation Software 



291 
292 
292 
293 
294 
294 
295 
295 



4.2.3 Consider and address matters of choice 

• Stylistic Analysis 

• Writing from Models 

f • Style Workshop 



Relive the Moment 



298 
298 
299 
299 



4.2.4 Edit text for matters of correctness 

Language Register 

Mini-lessons — Usage 

Instruction on Editing 

Editing Conferences 

4Sfc • Editing Stations 

Spelling 

Working with Struggling Spellers 
Student Presentations on Spelling 

<P • Give It a Shot 

Writing for Publication 

Mini-lessons — Spelling 

Analyzing Errors 

Editing for Spelling 

Personal Dictionary 

Student Examples 

Using Punctuation to Clarify 

Formal Essays 

Referencing 



304 
304 
305 
305 
306 
306 
307 
308 
308 
310 
310 
310 
310 
311 
311 
311 
311 
311 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 /255 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



GENERAL OUTCOME 4 




Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to create oral, 
print, visual and multimedia texts, and enhance the clarity and artistry of 
communication. 

In effective literacy programming, students have daily opportunities to practise and 
develop their own skills in generating texts. General Outcome 4 traces the processes in 
which students engage as they express their ideas both formally and informally. It 
looks at ways in which students generate and focus their ideas; enhance and improve 
their oral, written or visual products; and share what they have created. 

Alberta students have benefited from an emphasis on process writing for some time. 
The new Program of Studies for Senior High School English Language Arts adds 
several new emphases: 

• a focus on helping students become more autonomous in making decisions about 
their work 

• the use of representing, in addition to writing and speaking, as a way of expressing 
ideas and information 

• the use of a wider variety of media and transactional forms, in addition to literary 
forms. 



The Expression of Voice in Texts 

One of the aims of language arts programming is to foster writers and speakers whose 
personality and passion for their subject is evident in their work. This quality of texts 
has come to be called "voice"; when a text appears to be an authentic communication, 
when there is tone and vigour to the work, as if a unique person cared about what he or 
she is producing, we say that the text has voice (Tchudi and Mitchell 1989). 

Speaking, writing or representing "with voice" does not mean that everything a student 
produces will sound the same, for the expression of voice varies according to the form 
and purpose of a piece of work. When a literary text has voice, its language is fresh 
and evocative. The wit, imagination and feelings of the speaker or writer bring the text 
to life. Technical communication conveys less of the student's personality. In 
producing a business memorandum or how-to manual, for example, students express 
their engagement with the subject by taking care to use clear, direct and jargon-free 
language. 



256/ General Outcome 4 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Students are more likely to develop an authentic voice when they produce texts with 
real purposes and real audiences. 

> Real Purposes: Assignments based on subjects and forms chosen by the teacher 
are likely to result in mechanical products. Authentic expression occurs when 
students care about their subject and feel a sense of urgency in communicating 
their ideas. 

> Real Audiences: Students who generate texts only for the teacher have less 
reason to communicate clearly. They know that in most cases the teacher is 
already familiar with the ideas with which they are working. Their willingness to 
take risks may be inhibited by the knowledge that the teacher will be assessing 
their work. Real writers work with real audiences in mind, for the audiences 
shape their creative choices. 

Practices That Foster Independence and Engagement in Texts 

As students move through the process of creating texts, the teacher's initial role is to 
help students find their voice and to help them find subjects with which they connect. 
Teachers can then work with students to expand their repertoire of styles, forms and 
subjects. 

To help students become more independent and more engaged in writing, speaking and 
representing tasks, teachers can use a variety of instructional practices. 

> Encourage students to collaborate in building a stimulating linguistic environment, 
by bringing into the classroom the books, poetry, videos, music and art that they 
enjoy. 

> Teach students strategies to generate their own ideas for topics. 

> Introduce a variety of written, oral and visual forms; and teach students to select 
the form that fits their ideas. 

> Use a wide variety of forms that simulate the way ideas are expressed in real- 
world situations, in addition to traditional academic forms such as essays and 
pen-and-paper tests. 

> Have students study and use models from literary and other texts in creating their 
own texts. 

> Teach spelling, grammar and usage in the context of the redrafting of student 
work. 

> Discuss language conventions as a way of making communication clearer. 

> Assess student learning at each stage in the process. 

> Involve students in establishing assessment criteria. 

> Assess work only after students have been given opportunities for peer 
assessment, self-assessment and revision. 

> Find real audiences. 

> Celebrate student accomplishments. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 1251 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Clarifying the Purposes of Assignments 

It is essential for students to recognize that they use writing, speaking and representing 
for various purposes at different times in the classroom. They need to recognize that 
exploratory and informal work is an essential part of the creative process and is 
assessed in different ways than final products are. Student portfolios, if applicable, 
may contain examples of the whole continuum of student work, from brainstorming 
and personal musings, through drafts, peer feedback sheets and conferencing notes, to 
polished, published products. Nonprint created texts; e.g., readers' theatre 
performances, could be represented. 

Teachers may find it useful to differentiate among created texts to clarify the purpose 
of each student performance or product and the ways in which it will be assessed; i.e., 
formatively or summatively. 

Describing each created text in terms of its purpose and how it will be assessed can be 
valuable in communicating expectations to students and parents. Such information can 
help parents examine student performances or products with more understanding, 
realizing, for example, why not every piece of work is polished or why much of what 
students are doing and creating in the ELA class is not assessed for marks. 

Teachers may wish to explain the purposes and assessment of student work through a 
chart, such as the example on the following page. Such a chart may also assist 
planning for instruction and assessment. 



258/ General Outcome 4 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Grade 10 English Language Arts: Text Creation Categories® 



Exploratory Work and In-process Work 

Exploratory or in-process work: 

• is often the foundation for later performance 
assessment 

• occurs daily — exploratory work is not assessed for 
correctness of expression; work that is in process of 
development may be assessed for correctness later. 

Examples 

Examples of exploratory or in-process work include: 

• journals, notes, logs 

• brainstormed lists, mind maps, other graphic 
organizers 

• group and whole-class discussion 

• improvisational drama 

• role-play, readers' theatre, tableaux and other 
performances 

• early drafts of print text, diagrams/charts/tables 

• gathered material and proposals for design of collage 
or diorama 

• interview and other research data. 

Purpose of this Work 

With such work, students: 

• talk, write or sketch to discover their thinking 

• respond personally, critically and creatively 

• record ideas and information for their own purposes 

• demonstrate developing understandings and abilities 
as well as misunderstandings and areas for growth in 
the language arts. 

Audience 

Work may be: 

• intended for the students themselves 

• shared with peers or the teacher — through discussion, 
exchanged entries and drafts, or rehearsal. 

Purpose of Assessment 

Work is assessed: 

• to ensure that students are: 

- using and monitoring appropriate strategies 

- acquiring appropriate and productive knowledge, 
skills and attitudes 

• to provide an opportunity for students and the teacher 
to: 

- provide and receive feedback 

- recognize strengths with employing the six 
language arts and recognize areas for growth 

- revise goals for learning and teaching 

- frame new questions. 



Culminating Performances 

A culminating performance: 

• may be assessed as an exit outcome, if applicable 

• aims to be error free, depending on the situation 

• occurs at various points throughout the school year. 

Examples 

Many culminating performances will be polished print 
and nonprint texts, such as: 

• poetry, stories, plays 

• formal speeches, oral commentaries 

• narrative and analytical essays 

• videos, posters, multimedia presentations 

• rehearsed performances 

• transactional texts; e.g., letters, reports, proposals, 
reviews, feature articles, research papers. 

Some culminating performances will be first-draft print 
texts, such as: 

• long-answer questions on tests 

• essay examinations. 

Purpose of this Work 

With polished work, students: 

• submit texts that have gone through all the stages of 
exploration, drafting, revision/rehearsal and editing 

• share the final, polished product/performance with an 
audience. 

Audience 

Polished work: 

• is listened to, read or viewed by the students 
themselves, peers and the teacher 

• may be published or performed for a larger audience 

• is assessed by the students themselves, by peers and 
by the teacher. 

Purpose of Assessment 

Polished work is assessed: 

• to determine how the product/performance meets 
pre-established criteria and indicators, using a scoring 
guide or some other assessment device. 



"Adapted from Manitoba Education and Training, Senior 2 English Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation 
(Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Education and Training, 1998). 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 /259 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to create 
oral, print, visual and multimedia 
texts, and enhance the clarity and 
artistry of communication. 




4.1 Develop and present a variety of print 
and nonprint texts 



QQIB 



Assess text creation context 



Overview 

Key to the creation of effective print or nonprint text is a strong awareness of the context — being sensitive toward 
audience needs and other characteristics, being mindful of the situation in which the text is being created and 
presented, and being ever-cognizant of the purpose of the completed text. 

As part of the text creation process, students identify contextual elements that influence the effectiveness and 
appropriateness of the texts that they create. 

Students ask themselves questions about the nature of the communication situation, such as: 



• How immediate is the need for communication? What is the opportune time for communication? 

• What are the expectations and limitations of the communication situation? 

• Am I representing a group? If so, what are its expectations? 

Similarly, students ask themselves questions about their purpose(s) for communicating, such as: 

• Do I want to fulfill more than a single purpose? If so, do 1 have a primary purpose in mind? 

• Do I want to entertain, inform, persuade or inspire an audience? 

Students also ask themselves questions about their envisioned audience, such as: 

• What are the audience factors, such as prior knowledge, age and gender; interests, attitudes and vested 
interests; assumptions, predilections and values, that may affect my text's reception? Who is in a position of 
authority or who has the power of decision? 

• How can 1 engage my audience? 

By selecting effective strategies to address situation, purpose and audience, students provide themselves with solid 
foundations upon which to build their texts. 



Assessment of 4.1.1 

Sharing their understandings of purpose, audience and situation with their peers will help students assess how well 
they have discerned these aspects in the process of text creation; it will also encourage metacognitive thought 
about such elements as content, order, register and medium. 

As a prompt for thinking about context and a means with which they can assess that thinking, students 
might construct a simple graphic organizer such as the one illustrated in Appendix B, p. 421. 



260/ General Outcome 4 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 







Assess text creation context (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



Targeting Audiences (io-ia, b, c, d; io-2a, b, c, </,- 20-ia, b, c, d; 

20-2a, b, c, d) 

When classroom discussion identifies a social issue of concern to students, ask students to 
identify a variety of audiences whose thinking they would like to influence regarding this 
issue. Ask students to form groups and have each group do the following: 

• of this audience, identifying attributes that will determine the kinds of communication to 
which it will be most receptive. Decide, for example, if an emotional or fact-based 
campaign would be most effective. 

• Plan a campaign; e.g., public relations, advertising or lobbying, identifying the text forms 
to be used to influence the attitudes of this audience with respect to the chosen issue. 

Role-play (10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Have students role-play characters in historical fiction in order to solve a problem faced by 
the characters in the text or solve a new problem created for the characters. For example, 
students could create a scene where the characters in Children of the River are immigrating 
to North America. They would need to consider the type of audience and historical context 
in order to decide on the arguments that would best convince the immigration officials that 
they were truly refugees in need of entry into Canada or America. 



Teacher Resources 



Alberta Learning. Room for Five and Room for Five: Teacher Guide. 

Five roommates use the language arts to address a number of challenges they face. 
Throughout the nine-video series, emphasis is given to the importance of understanding 
context. The teacher guide contains learning and teaching activities to accompany the 
nine-video series Room for Five. 

Burke, Jim. The English Teacher's Companion: A Complete Guide to Classroom, 
Curriculum, and the Profession. 

Chapter 8, Teaching, Speaking and Listening: The Verbal Curriculum, contains several 
sections that deal with audiences and context. These include focus questions, as well as 
activities for speakers. 

Sawyer, Wayne, Ken Watson and Eva Gold (eds.). Re- Viewing English. 

Eva Gold's essay, "Deconstructive Approaches in the Teaching of Texts," is particularly 
applicable to assessing text creation context. Practical application is offered with the 
example of Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 4 /261 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to create 
oral, print, visual and multimedia 
texts, and enhance the clarity and 
artistry of communication. 




4.1 Develop and present a variety of print 
and nonprint texts 



mzm 



Consider and address form, structure and medium 



Overview 

Throughout their years in school, students experiment with a variety of textual forms — see learning outcome 
subheadings 1 . 1 .2 and 2.2. 1 . As they come to understand and master a variety of forms, students also begin to 
understand how textual forms and structures affect and are affected by content and context. 

In senior high school, students also become knowledgeable about the various media through which text can be 
presented. They develop an understanding of the interplay between text, medium and context — see learning 
outcome subheading 2.1.1. In doing so, students begin to select and use various media purposefully and 
appropriately. For example, with certain (i.e., smaller) audiences, students may want to share findings and 
understandings through unassisted voice and nonverbals; with other (i.e., larger) audiences, students may want to 
convey information through amplified voice, overhead transparencies and photocopied handouts. Students may 
want to use visuals, sound effects and lighting. 

When required to make oral presentations, students first need to identify their purpose and consider the form that 
will best fulfill that purpose. Students also need to determine: 

the length of time they have for the presentation 
the size and nature of the audience 
the nature of the interactive activities 
the type of visual aids to be used 
whether to present alone or in groups. 

Students' experience and ease in presenting to an audience will shape these decisions. 

Models of a variety of text forms, as well as activities that require students to adapt an existing text for a different 
audience and purpose, are effective in fostering an awareness of how form, structure and medium shape 
communication. 



Students can learn or review the conventions of these various forms through studying models and samples, through 
mini-lessons, and through group discussion. The conventions of form associated with a variety of different forms 
of print and nonprint text are described in Appendix B, pp. 424-427. Students should look at the ways in which 
content, audience and purpose shape decisions about form. 



262/ General Outcome 4 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Consider and address form, structure and medium (continued) 



The text that students create may include the following. 



Suggested text types include, but are not limited to .. 



advertising and promotional text 

announcement 

anthology 

artifact display 

analysis, including scene and chapter analysis (and 

total work analysis, Grade 1 1 and Grade 1 2) 
argument and opinion paper 
autobiography and memoir (print and nonprint text) 
biography and personal profile (print and nonprint 

text) 
book jacket, audiocassette/ compact disc cover 
brochure and pamphlet 
commentary — oral and written 
correspondence, including letter, e-mail message, 

and memorandum as report (and proposal, 

Grade 1 1 and Grade 12) 
debate 

demonstration 
dialogue and monologue 
dialogue journal 
discussion, including talking circle, panel, and group 

and whole-class discussion 
documentary — radio and video 
dramatization, including readers' theatre, character 

portrayal, dramatic monologue and dialogue 
essay, including narrative, personal and persuasive 

essay 
eulogy and obituary 
hypertext and hypermedia document 
interview 
journal and diary 



journalistic writing, including newspaper and 

magazine article, editorial and newscast (and 

feature story, Grade 1 1 and Grade 1 2) 
live and recorded presentation 
maps 

photo and video essay 
poem 
poster 

presentation — live and video 
recipe 

reflective essay 
response, including personal, creative and 

critical/analytical response 
review, including book, theatre, movie and Web site 

review 
script — stage, radio, television and presentation 

script 
short story and other narratives, including fable, 

parable, autobiographical sketch and anecdote 

(print and nonprint) 
song and song lyrics, including folk song and ballad 
speech and spoken word with music 
storyboard 

summary, synopsis and precis 
text to reveal character, setting, plot and/or theme, 

including character sketch, dramatic monologue, 

diorama, collage and general analysis of theme 
text to reveal comparison, including comparison of 

characters, settings, imagery, symbols and theme 
visual texts, including collage, photograph, cartoon, 

tableau, diorama, display, diagram, illustration, 

chart, graph and table 
Web site 



Assessment of 4.1.2 

Assessment of 4.1.2 includes gathering information about students' knowledge of forms, in order to plan 
instruction to address any gaps and assessing students' ability to adapt communication to various audiences and 
purposes. Asking students to submit proposals and query letters, and conferring with students about their chosen 
form, provide assessment opportunities. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 /263 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Consider and address form, structure and medium {continued) 



f 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 
Portfolios 

The use of Portfolios allows teachers and students to track and assess the variety of 
texts created. The assembly of portfolios throughout the year or semester is an 
important part of the language learning process. Portfolios allow teachers and 
students to reflect on and celebrate students' accomplishments. They are a valuable 
tool for formative assessment and for fostering metacognition and self-assessment 
skills; they also contribute to summative assessment of student growth in the six 
language arts. Portfolios provide evidence of: 

• quantity, range and depth of listening, reading and viewing 

• experience in a variety of forms of speaking, writing and representing 

• progress and accomplishment 

• metacognition. 

Assembling Portfolios 

In assembling portfolios, the teacher and students decide together on a list of required pieces. 
These may include: 

• a folder design or cover page to personalize the portfolio 

• a table of contents 

• a statement of the student's goals and a personal essay reflecting on the extent to which 
these goals have been reached 

• evidence of the range of reading, such as reading logs 

• pieces from reader response journals, such as reviews, essays and entries, that 
demonstrate the student's response to and analysis of texts 

• pieces that illustrate process — pieces of work in all their stages, from generating and 
shaping ideas through to the finished products 

• pieces that demonstrate progress, such as a piece that the student views as a 
breakthrough — the first attempt at a new form or process — and two pieces that show the 
student's progress over time 

• items that represent oral performances, such as videotapes or audiotapes, photographs, 
and the text of a speech 

• items that represent collaborative work 

• reflective pieces, usually short pieces, perhaps written on index cards and attached to 
each piece, in which the student discusses such things as: 

- the context in which the piece was written 

- the decisions involved in the creation of the piece 

- important elements in the piece and reasons for their selection 

- what the piece demonstrates about the student's learning, interests and skills 

264/ General Outcome 4 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Consider and address form, structure and medium (continued) 



• self-assessment forms and rubrics 



• 



one or more peer assessment sheets 
• a page for the audience to respond. 

I Assessment Formative, Self, Peer and Summarive Assessment of Portfolios 

Portfolio assessment does not entail individual assessment of each piece 
included in the portfolio. Generally, each piece has been assessed 
separately. If the assessment identified weaknesses that the student 
would like to address, he or she should have the option of reworking an 
assignment before placing it in the portfolio. 

The main purpose of literacy portfolios is to provide opportunities for 
student reflection and self-assessment and for the celebration of student 
learning. When teachers assess portfolios, they need to keep this function 
clearly in mind. 

Criteria/indicators for assessing portfolios are developed by the teacher 
and students in collaboration before the portfolios are assembled, by 
looking at sample portfolios from other years. Criteria should emerge 
from the portfolios, rather than being imposed on them. 
Portfolios are generally assessed by students themselves, peers, the 
teacher and the audience: 



• 



Self. Portfolios promote self-assessment as students review their 

work to select the most important pieces to include. See 1.2.3, 

p. 13 1 , for questions to assist students in reflecting on their portfolios. 

• Peers: One component of the portfolio is a peer-assessment sheet, 
filled in by two or three peers at the request of the student. This sheet 
may include sentence stems for peers to complete, such as: 

- 1 noticed that ... 

- What 1 enjoyed most about this portfolio was . . . 

- Something 1 would like to try myself is . . . 

- 1 would like to have seen more of . . . 

• Teacher: The student brings the portfolio, which includes peer- and 
self-assessment sheets, to a conference with the teacher. At the end 
of their discussion, the teacher assigns a grade and records it on a 
separate piece of paper. A parent or other significant person may be 
asked to participate in this conference. 



• 



Audience: A page is made available in the portfolio for parents, 
administrators and other readers to add their comments when the 
portfolio is displayed. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 4 /265 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Consider and address form, structure and medium (continued) 



U^ > The assessment guide in Appendix B, p. 422, is a sample of the kind of 
device that classes may develop for assessing portfolios. It leaves space 
for self-assessment on the left and teacher assessment on the right. 



Determining the Characteristics of Forms (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 

20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Kolb (1984, p. 42) describes the process through which students may learn the conventions 

of forms by examining models. 



Experiential Learning Cycle® 



/ 

Active 
Experimentation 



Concrete 
Expenence 



Reflective 
Observation 



s 



Abstract 
Conceptualization 



Students collect, or the teacher selects, several examples of a form. 

Individuals and/or groups listen to, read or view examples of a form- 
experience. 



;oncrete 



They make observations about the content, qualities and characteristics common to the 
form — reflective observation. 

Individuals and/or groups generate a list of characteristics, qualities and conventions that 
seem to be common to a particular form — abstract conceptualization. Groups then share 
these with the class to develop a class description of the form. 

The teacher and students select other examples of the form to test or confirm the validity 
of their generalizations about the form — active experimentation. 

This active experimentation or testing of the validity of generalizations may become a 
new concrete experience for reflective observation. 



™ Adapted from David A. Kolb, Experiential Learning: Experience As the Source of Learning and Development (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 
Prentice Hall, 1984). 



266/ General Outcome 4 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Consider and address form, structure and medium (continued) 



Query Letter (10-lb, c, d, e; 10-2b, c, d, e; 20-1 b, c, d, e; 20-2b, c, d, e) 

Professional freelance writers use query letters in an attempt to interest editors in their 
articles. Query letters are a form of proposal, and have the added advantage of providing 
students with practice in writing letters. Students can be required to write query letters to the 
teacher, describing their project, or to write simulated or real letters to the editor of their 
favourite magazine. Models of query letters, names and addresses of editors, specifications 
for freelance articles, and information about fees can be found in periodical writers' guides. 

Have students examine models of query letters, or provide them with a style sheet with 
suggestions such as the following: 



Query Letter: Style Sheet 

> Write a one-page, single-spaced letter in business form, addressed to the editor of a 
magazine. 

> In the first paragraph, focus on engaging the editor's interest in your proposed 
article. Many query letters begin in the same way that the article will begin. Create 
the sense that your article is important, compelling and essential for this magazine. 

> Give a brief outline of the article, including the names of people you intend to 
interview, some major facts and/or an interesting anecdote. 

> Describe the photographs or illustrations that will accompany the article. 



Explain why you are the right person to write this article. Talk about your 
accomplishments as a writer and your expertise in the subject. 

Finish with a direct request to write the article for the magazine. Specify when you 
can complete it. 



Writing for Radio and Television (io-ia, b, c, d, e; io-2a, b, c, d, e; 

20-la, b, c, d, e; 20-2a, b, c, d, e) 
Text 



Ask students to compare a radio or television commentary to a print editorial or column. 
Discuss the ways in which various media shape content and style. Assist students to 
recognize ways in which radio and television texts are shaped by the fact that they are 
designed to be spoken and heard. Collaborate on a list of rules for writing for radio or 
television, such as the following: 

• Break up each complex sentence into two or three simple sentences. 

• Use concrete visual images. 

• Avoid statistics and large numbers. Round off figures. 

• Avoid tongue twisters. 

• Write the way you would talk. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 1261 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Consider and address form, structure and medium (continued) 



Delivery 

Have students who have written print editorials or columns rewrite and videotape them. 
Have students who have written book reviews rewrite and tape them for a book review show. 

Prior to taping, study models of television commentaries and work with students to develop a 
list of tips for effective television delivery; e.g., in the absence of an electronic prompter, 
keep text very short and require students to memorize it, with a maximum of five words or 
phrases written on a prompt card held near the camera. 



/^>v Advice from the Pros ao-ia, b, c, d, e; io-2a, b, c, d, e; 20-ia, b, c, d, e; 

20-2a, b, c, d, e) 

Have students work in groups to develop a brochure or handbook of tips on a specific 

subject related to writing, journalism, filmmaking, advertising and so on; e.g., tips on getting 

started, getting published, forming a writing group. Require students to write or call local or 

favourite writers, journalists, filmmakers or advertisers to solicit advice for the brochure or 

handbook. 



Sensory Data (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d, e; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 

20-2a, b, c, d, e) 

Have students go to a setting rich in sights and sounds; e.g., a mall, and make "field notes." 

Ask them to organize these notes in a "spider organizer," listing data related to each sense in 

a different section — Smells like, Feels like, Looks like, Tastes like, Sounds like, Is. Then 

have them build these notes into a passage of descriptive writing (Bromley, Irwin-De Vitis 

andModlo 1995, p. 65). 



Smells like 


\ Feels like 


^^.ooks 


TastesMke*' 


/ Subject 1 

'sounds f| S 
Ilk* j 


/ like 



Teacher Resources 

Birch, A. Essay Writing Made Easy: Presenting Ideas in All Subject Areas. 

This Canadian reference handbook for teachers and students reflects a process approach 
to writing. It discusses various types of essays, suggests possibilities for 
interdisciplinary approaches and provides examples of writing by students and 
professional writers. 



268/ General Outcome 4 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Consider and address form, structure and medium (continued) 



Booth, David, Bob Cameron and Pat Lashmar. Talk, Look, and Listen. 

Chapter topics include conversation, group discussion, role-playing, public speaking, 
storytelling, photo essays, scripting, television, art, music and editorial cartoons. The 
chapters lend themselves well to lesson planning. 

Cook, Jeff S. The Elements of Speech-writing and Public Speaking. 

This resource is a concise and authoritative guide on speech preparation and delivery for 
the novice and veteran speaker. Topics include preparing an engaging speech, reducing 
panic before speeches, and knowing how and when to incorporate visual aids. 

Goldberg, Natalie. Living Color: A Writer Paints Her World. 

This is an illustrated memoir of the author's evolution as a painter and author. It 
provides a model for writing illustrated text. 

Michaels, Judith Rowe. Risking Intensity: Reading and Writing Poetry with High School 
Students. 

This resource includes 14 chapters that focus on various aspects of writing poetry. 
Chapter 8, Hand-Eye Coordination, discusses the connection between what is heard and 
what is seen during the course of a poem. 

Pearsall, Thomas E. and Donald Cunningham. How to Write for the World of Work. 5th 
Edition. 

This text provides readers with practical suggestions for and examples of transactional 
writing, including reports and correspondence. 

Peterson, S. Becoming Better Writers. 

This resource contains ideas for using literary texts in the classroom to assist students 
with the writing process. It includes suggestions for creating ideas, developing 
characters, creating effects and crafting stories. In addition, it contains writing 
conference suggestions, assessment checklists, blackline masters and sample lessons. A 
list of recommended literary texts is provided for readers at all grades. 

Pirie, Bruce. Reshaping High School English. 

Chapter 7, Mind Forged Manacles, offers a theoretical discussion of the expectations 
teachers often bring to the writing of the academic essay. 

Vaz, Mark Cotta and Shinji Hata. From Star Wars to Indiana Jones: The Best of LucasFilm 
Archives. 

This book traces the development of George Lucas's films from conception to reality. It 
provides examples of storyboards as well as photographs and sketches of models, props, 
costumes and sets. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 /269 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to create 
oral, print, visual and multimedia 
texts, and enhance the clarity and 
artistry of communication. 




4.1 Develop and present a variety of print 
and nonprint texts 



DOM 



Develop content 



Overview 

When students engage in planning as part of their text creation process, they understand that their development of 
content is controlled by such factors as focus or topic, situation, purpose and audience. They also understand that 
they are engaged in synthesis: they are developing something that is new and original. 

Students recognize that such aspects as relevance of supports, vividness of images and completeness of details 
contribute to the development of content and, ultimately, to the meaning, effectiveness and significance of the text 
being created. 

Integral to content development is flexibility. While students should have a sense of where they are going, they 
should also remain open to possibilities. As they develop content, students should be flexible enough to allow for 
discovery of meaning and to allow for such discovery to suggest reworkings of their controlling ideas, their forms 
and their structures. They should come to understand that writing is mostly a venturing into the unknown: ideas 
develop as they are explored, as questions are asked (and sometimes answered), and as others respond. 

Students who develop their own ideas for creative projects are more likely to be engaged in their work and to 
choose learning activities that reflect their interests and their preferred learning approaches. Instruction and 
support at this stage provide students with strategies to generate, select and develop ideas. Students benefit by 
learning that they need not wait passively for inspiration but can use the preproduction strategies that most writers 
and producers employ. 

Learning outcome subheading 4. 1 .3 looks at several aspects of preproduction: 

• Discovery: What do I know about a subject? What am I interested in saying? 

The purpose of discovery writing, webbing, sketching and talking is to make conscious the images, intuitions 
and associations that are the basis of creativity. The best strategies for discovery and exploration are formless 
and open-ended. They allow students to follow associations without imposing premature organization on the 
ideas being generated. The discovery stage should not be rushed. 

• Connection: How do my ideas link to what 1 am reading, hearing and viewing? 

Students' prior knowledge may be personal and experiential. It may also be drawn from observing the 
experiences of others, either in life or in texts, or from information sources. In creative work, students are 
expected to combine ideas from various sources to generate new products. 

• Exploration: Where might this idea lead me? Which direction would be most suitable for my purpose and 
audience? 

Mature writers and producers tinker with their ideas, trying out various directions and forms before producing 
a "draft." This kind of preproduction work eliminates much of the need for revision. In focusing their ideas, 
students take into account the purpose of the project and the audience for whom it is intended. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



270/ General Outcome 4 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Develop content (continued) 



Assessment of 4.1.3 

Students can reflect on and assess their own processes through learning logs and checklists. Their early ideas may 
be the subject of conferences with peers and with the teacher. Teachers may require students to attach exploratory 
work to first drafts. Given that students' ideas are partial and evolving at the preproduction stage, teachers do not 
assess exploratory work for content or expression. Portfolios usually require students to display a piece of work in 
all its stages. 

In their learning logs — see learning outcome subheading 1.1.1 (p. 94) — students can trace the development of their 
ideas, by responding to a series of questions: 

• Prior to classroom discussion and prior to reading or viewing texts on the subject: 

- What do you already know about this subject? 

- What are your opinions and feelings about it? 

- How might you approach this subject in writing, speaking or representing? 

• After discussion, reading or viewing: 

- What new information or ideas did you learn? 

- How did this affect your own opinions and feelings? 

- How does your new learning shape the way you will approach this subject? 

Teaching and Learning Strategies 

Create a Character (io-ia, b, c, d, e,f; io-2a, b, c, d, e,f; 20-ia, b, c, d, e,f; 

20-2a, b, c, d, e,J) 

Students use their knowledge of stories or films with memorable characters, and observations 
of people they have seen or met, in order to create a character and possible conflict. See 
D^ 5 Appendix B, p. 423, for a character planning sheet. Once this planning has taken place, 
students can work individually, in pairs or in small groups to plan the stages of the plot, 
leading to the climax and outcome, and develop the dialogue. The final product can be 
presented as a reading to a class or group, or recorded for presentation. 

I Assessment Formative and Self Assessment of Create a Character 

Formative assessment or self-assessment of the planning and text can be 
done by assessing such things as the appropriateness of the plan to the 
text to be created, how well the character is revealed through dialogue 
and the feasibility of the editing. 

Students can work with existing scoring guides, such as those in the 
D^ 5 CAMP materials available from the Learning Resources Centre, to select 
what they think is most important to assess in their created texts and 
presentations, adding or revising criteria as appropriate. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 4 /271 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Develop content (continued) 



'Duologues" (10-la, c; 10-2a, c; 20-la, c; 20-2a, c) 

Have students work in pairs, with the first student writing a provocative statement on a piece 
of paper and then passing it to his or her partner; e.g., "1 knew I'd find you here. You're in 
deep trouble, kid." The partner responds and dialogue continues, with the situation and 
characters gradually emerging. "Duologues" can form the basis of two-character dramas or 
can generate ideas for individual writing. 



Clustering (10-lc, d, e; 10-2a, c; 20-lc, d, e; 20-2a, c) 

Clustering helps students to survey subjects and to see the connections between various 
associations. Have students use the following procedure in developing clusters. 

• Write a "nucleus word" or sketch a central image in the centre of a sheet of paper, and 
put a circle around it. 

• In the space around the nucleus word or central image, record all the words or phrases 
that come to mind when you hear the nucleus word, or sketch images that come to mind 
when you see the central image. 

• Circle each word or image as you place it on the page, and draw a line connecting each 
one to the item to which it is most closely related. 

• Examine the cluster for a group of closely related words or images that could form the 
subject for a piece of writing, speaking or representing. 



Scrutinizing Experience (io-ia, b, d, g; io-2a, b, </, g; 20-ia, b, d, g; 

20-2a,b,d,g) 

Some of the best texts rise out of students' explorations of their everyday experiences. To 
help students discover the potential for writing about ordinary events in their lives, have 
them try the following exercise in pairs. 

• Each student draws a line down the centre of a piece of paper to form two columns. 

• In the left column, each student lists the things he or she has done since getting up that 
morning. After each student has listed about 1 things, pairs exchange papers. 

• In the right column, each student suggests ways in which his or her partner could explore 
these experiences in a text. 



272/ General Outcome 4 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Develop content (continued) 



Example: 



Here's mlj Saturday 



i wafee up at 7:15'. 

i to fee a shower, dress av^d watch cartoons 
until 2:2,0. 

I hop fl bus for downtown ni^d spend 2 
hours tafelng music Lessors. 

I usually meet friends while downtown 
avui we go for lunch somewhere. 

i spend a tethers hours at the Food Bflnfe 
before heading home. 

in the evening, i head out with friends. 



How hard Is It for \adu to wafee up? 
who else Is up? what art they doling? 

what things do uou notice while on the 
bus? what Is practicing llfee? 

^escribe ijour friends, what do you talfe 
about? 

what has ijour volunteer experience been 
llfee? what's most memorable? 

Describe some good times uou'vt had. 



Writing from Prompts (io-ia, b, c, g; io-2a, b, c, g; 20-ia, b, c, g; 

20-2a, b, c, g) 

In test situations, or occasionally in a classroom setting, teachers may decide to provide 
verbal prompts as a catalyst to writing or speaking. Good prompts welcome students to the 
task of generating texts, allow them to show what they can do and encourage the sort of 
communication that holds the audience's attention. 

In selecting writing prompts, consider the following: 



Keys to Creating Effective Writing Prompts 

> Think of what is likely to be within the usual, everyday experience of all students, so 
that students can draw on personal experience. 

> Allow choice and invite diversity. This may be accomplished through one open 
prompt: "Think of a place you have visited that is so vivid in your mind that you can 
almost feel yourself there; take your reader there." 

> Avoid overly clever prompts that leave the writer with nowhere to go: "Imagine that 
you woke up one day and had turned into jelly." 

> Avoid being overly positive or negative: "Write about the most 
wonderful/best/ favourite ..." may result in artificial, jovial prose. "Memorable" or 
"hard-to-forget" may result in more honest writing. 

> Do not intrude on a student's privacy. Avoid prompts such as: "What would you like 
to change about your parents?" 



** Adapted from Vicki Spandel, "Keys to Good Writing Prompts," in Robert E. Blum and Judith A. Arter (eds.), A Handbook for Student 
Performance Assessment in an Era of Restructuring (Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1996), 
V-4: 1-6. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4/273 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Develop content ^continued) 



Teacher Resources 



Calkins, L. M. The Art of Teaching Writing. 2nd Edition. 

The six sections of this resource provide numerous techniques for teaching writing and 
for conducting writing workshops. Individual chapters focus on such topics as writing 
essentials and workshop structures. Examples of student work and assessment ideas are 
included. 

Draayer, Ken. Discoveries in Writing. 

Chapter 2 describes listing, mental jogging, context maps and clustering activities for 
generating text. 

Fletcher, R. Breathing In, Breathing Out: Keeping a Writer 's Notebook. 

This resource compares the process of collecting ideas for creative composition to 
"breathing in" and the act of generating original text to "breathing out." The author 
develops the concept of using a writer's notebook to enable the writer to become fully 
aware of the external and internal environments and to transfer that awareness to 
enriched composition. 

Kearns, Jane. Where to Begin: A Guide to Teaching Secondary English. 

Chapter 5, Writing Ideas, Strategies and Guides, offers suggestions on revision and topic 
development. 

Michaels, Judith Rowe. Risking Intensity: Reading and Writing Poetry with High School 
Students. 

This resource includes 14 chapters that focus on various aspects of writing poetry. 
Chapter 3, Vessel of the Self, offers suggestions as to how to move the writer deeper into 
the experience being represented. 

Murray, Donald M. Write to Learn. 

This book explores process writing. Contents include creating conditions that invite 
writing, hearing the voice of the draft, writing on a computer and reading as a writer. 

Sawyer, Wayne, Ken Watson and Eva Gold (eds.). Re-Viewing English. 

Chapter 4 offers suggestions and activities that examine "Imaginative Re-creation of 
Literature" and that focus on both form and meaning. 

Tarlington, C. and W. Michaels. Building Plays: Simple Playbuilding Techniques at Work. 

This book includes techniques for encouraging dialogue, creating scripts, rehearsing and 
presenting a complete play, and assessing playbuilding. It also suggests ways to find 
inspiration for building plays on topics as varied as song, television and Shakespeare. 



274/ General Outcome 4 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to create 
oral, print, visual and multimedia 
texts, and enhance the clarity and 
artistry of communication. 




4.1 Develop and present a variety of print 
and nonprint texts 



Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies 
consistent with context 



Overview 

As students become involved in creating oral, visual and multimedia texts, they apply the basic principles and 
elements of visual design, and employ a variety of presentation methods to enhance the clarity and effectiveness 
of their texts. 

The Importance of Design 

Students need to learn to see neatness, legibility, and the logic and consistency of design elements as part of 
communication. 

Because of the multiplicity of visual texts to which they are exposed every day, many students have a highly 
developed response to design. They need frequent opportunities to examine the elements of design they consider 
effective so that they can begin to incorporate these elements in their own work. 

Enhancing Presentations 

Students are encouraged to share their ideas and information through interactive activities; i.e., presentations, 
planned to accommodate and engage their audience. Strategies and devices that enhance the clarity of 
communication in presentations include the use of tables, charts, graphs, diagrams, illustrations, photographs and 
maps. Multimedia tools allow students to incorporate music, sound effects, video and traditional animation, and 
graphics into their class projects and presentations. Students who are familiar with the concept of multiple 
intelligences may wish to consider which intelligences their presentation appeals to and broaden the base of its 
appeal. 

Adjusting Presentation to Context 

Students integrate spoken and visual text, using graphs and illustrations, colour, shading and framing, and gestures 
and other body language to emphasize and illuminate ideas. 

Students recognize shifting contexts, and adapt presentations accordingly. To suit varied situations, purposes and 
audiences, they adjust voice production factors, such as pitch, tone, pace and volume. They modify visuals, such 
as enlarging font size for overhead transparencies and increasing white space in early drafts of print text to 
facilitate editing by others. 



Assessment of 4.1.4 



Strategies and devices used to enhance presentations should be assessed and discussed by the teacher and students 
at the rehearsal and revision stages, not only in the summative assessment of a project. Assessment while a work 
is in progress informs teachers of what further instruction is needed. It also allows students to learn from the 
process of reworking elements. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4/275 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent 
with context (continued) 



Students need to assess which devices will enhance their communication and which will distract the audience or 
alter the focus. Encourage students to take risks in experimenting with various devices and to assess the effects of 
each alternative in enhancing the clarity of their presentations. 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



Direct Instruction in Design (io-ia, b, c, d; io-2a, b,c,d; 20-ia, b, c, 

d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Direct instruction in the purpose and effect of design assists students in analyzing their 
personal responses to texts and in using design elements in creating texts. 

The Purposes of Design® 

It is helpful for students to recognize that emphasis on design in contemporary texts is linked 
to the ways readers approach texts. McCain (1992, p. 13) uses the terms scan, skim and 
scour to describe a three-step reading process. Readers flipping through a magazine, for 
example, will: 

• scan for articles that interest them 

• skim the beginning of selected articles 

• scour articles or parts of articles that have held their interest through the scan and skim 
process. 

In view of this reading process, text design has four purposes, as outlined below: 



The Purposes of Design 

Get the reader's attention: The page must have an overall look that gets the reader's 
attention within the first 4 to 10 seconds during the scan step of reading. 

Draw in the reader: Once you have succeeded in getting the reader to look at the text, 
you must give clues as to the specific details of the message. The design must 
incorporate elements that hook the reader on the content of the text. 

Keep the reader's attention: You must maintain two kinds of reader interest in your 
text: along with interest in the content of your text, the reader must find the document 
visually appealing in order to scour parts or all of it. 

Make a lasting impression: Lasting impressions can be made in each of the three steps 
of reading. In fact, some texts are designed to deliver their entire message in the scan 
stage of reading, with a minimum of words. 



• Adapted from Ted D. E. McCain, Designing for Communication: The Key to Successful Desktop Publishing (Eugene, OR: International 
Society for Technology in Education, 1992). 



276/ General Outcome 4 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent 
with context {continued) 



The Elements of Design 

Discuss the five basic elements of design, looking at examples of two-page layouts from 
such texts as magazines, compact disc jackets and children's picture books. 



Design Elements 

Balance: In formal balance, all the text blocks and illustrations appear on the vertical 

centre of the page. In informal balance, items are not placed symmetrically but are 

placed so that there is a sense of equilibrium. 

Contrast: Contrast relieves monotony and calls attention to important elements. 

Variations in type style, type size and colour are used for contrast. 

Rhythm: Elements are arranged to provide a focal point for the reader. Graphic 

elements, such as lines and shading, direct the eye. 

Proportion: The relative importance of all graphic elements determines their size. 

Unity: All parts of a two-page spread work together. Each layout normally uses only 

one or two typefaces to avoid clutter and confusion. There is consistency in margins, 

paragraph indentations and graphic elements. 



I Assessment Formative, Summative and Self Assessment of Design 

Together with students, develop a checklist for assessing design, using 
the four purposes and/or the five elements of design presented as 
suggestions for instruction for this learning outcome subheading. 



Checklist for Assessing Design 

Does the design get the reader's attention? 

Does it draw in the reader? 

Does it keep the reader's attention? 

Does it make a lasting impression? 

Is the design balanced? 

Is contrast used to call attention to important elements? 

Are the elements arranged to direct the eye to a focal point? 

Does the relative size of the elements correspond to their importance? 

Is there consistency in graphic elements and typeface? 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 1211 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Use production, .publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent 
with context (continued) 



Ask students to photocopy an effective design of their own creation; e.g., a 
book jacket, compact disc cover, brochure, magazine layout. Using a fine 
marker pen, students then write marginal notes describing the successful 
elements of the design, drawing arrows to the elements in question. 
Students may be required to include a personal analysis of design like this 
in their literacy portfolios. 



Helping Students Set Up Criteria for Assessing the Design of 

Projects (10-la, b, c; 10-2a, b, c; 20-la, b, c; 20-2a, b, c) 

Each time students produce a text for an audience, design should be considered as an element 
of communication. Students should be involved in setting up the criteria for assessing the 
design of their projects. 

Designing a Poster 

Ask students working in groups to apply the principles of design in creating posters about an 
upcoming event or a topic of recent inquiry or classroom discussion. Supply old magazines, 
scissors, paste, markers, pencil crayons and sheets of poster paper. 

When posters are completed, arrange a Field Walk — see learning outcome subheading 1.1.1 
(p. 97) — providing a sheet beside each poster for student comments. 

Improving on Design 

Ask students to redesign or to submit proposals for ways to improve on the design of a 
school text, such as a newsletter, Web site or handbook. 

Dummy Sheets 

After direct instruction in design, ask students to demonstrate principles of effective design 
through creating dummy sheets. Use paper squares and rectangles of different colours to 
represent blocks of print and illustrations. 





278/ General Outcome 4 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent 
with context (continued) 



Adding Power to an Article (io-ia, b, c, io-2a, b, c, 20-ia, b, c; 20-20, b, c) 

Magazines such as Maclean 's and Time publish articles on the Internet or on CD-ROMs. 
These articles generally do not contain columns or graphics. Give students a printed copy of 
such an article, and ask them to decide how they would enhance the appeal of the article for 
magazine production, by changing the size and colour of headline fonts, creating columns 
and adding appropriate graphics. 



Assessment 



Self and Summative Assessment of Adding Power to an Article 

Present this exercise to students as a test on design. Alternatively, ask 
students to compare their suggestions for design to the design used in the 
published magazine article, and have them self-assess their work. 



(ty) Building a Repertoire (io-ib, c, d; io-2b, c, d; 20-ib, c, d; 20-2b, c, d) 

* Students may not be aware of the options they can use to make presentations effective. They 
can begin by listing all the strategies they have seen teachers and other presenters use to 
engage and involve an audience and to communicate information and why these might work 
for them. Play tapes of successful presentations to inform students of the various strategies 
and devices from which they can select. 



Assessment Peer Assessment of Building a Repertoire 

Have students rehearse dramas or oral presentations before a peer group. 
Ask students to prepare feedback sheets, focusing on devices used to 
enhance visual presentation. 



Props and Costumes (10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Have students videotape a drama rehearsal to analyze the effectiveness of visual elements. 
Ask them to consider their audience and to list the aspects of their drama they want to 
emphasize. Have them note beside each of these aspects the props, element of the set, or 
costume that will add emphasis. 



Working With Sound (10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 
Groups of students may enjoy selecting the same scene from a text and performing it as a 
radio play in order to compare each group's choice of sound effects and music. 



Poetry and MusiC (10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Have students prepare a reading of a poem of their choice and select and play music 
appropriate to the mood of the poem. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 1219 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Use production publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent 
with context (continued) 



Demonstration Videos (10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

Students are familiar with demonstrations from the many cooking, craft and home repair 
shows on television. Sharing a skill with the class in the form of a how-to video gives 
students valuable practice in: 

• simplifying procedures and breaking them into steps 

• communicating instructions precisely 

• speaking without a script 

• coordinating physical demonstration with oral instructions. 

Suggest that students select simple skills that involve minimal props and materials; e.g., a 
golf swing, gift wrapping. 



Assessment Self, Peer or Summative Assessment of Visual Arts 

ia»\ Provide students with a questionnaire, or have them collaborate in 

creating one, to help them decide which visual aids are necessary for their 
presentations. The questions may include the following: 



Questionnaire for Assessing Visual Aids 

Are there things in my presentation that I need to present both orally 
and visually for emphasis? 

Are there things in my presentation that cannot be communicated in 
words but can be communicated visually? 

Which part of my presentation is difficult to understand? How would 
a visual aid help? 

Which kind of visual aid would be most effective: handouts, graphics 
on overhead transparencies, slides, charts, costumes or props? 

What appeal will this visual aid have for my audience? 

Is this visual aid easy to see and interpret from all parts of the room? 

Does this aid clearly relate to the purpose of my presentation? 



This questionnaire can be adapted to assess visual texts; e.g., collage, 
diorama, photo essay and videotaped news feature, and it can be used for 
self-assessment and for peer and teacher assessment. 

Selecting the Right Visual (io-ib; io-2b; 20-ib; 20-2b) 

Provide students with a collection of line graphs, pie charts, bar graphs and stacked bar 
graphs. Ask them to determine the kind of data that can be represented by each one. 

• Line Graph: Shows how things change over time. 

• Pie Chart: Shows proportions; is used for comparing parts. 



280/ General Outcome 4 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent 
with context {continued) 



• Bar Graph: Shows how things compare at one point in time. 

• Stacked Bar Graph: Allows for a comparison of bars and the parts of each bar. 

Teacher Resources 

Armstrong, Thomas. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. 2nd Edition. 

Butkowski, Joel and Andra Van Kempen. Using Digital Cameras: A Comprehensive Guide 
to Digital Image Capture. 

This is a professional resource for students using digital photography. 

Conrad, Ronald. Process and Practice. 4th Edition. 

Chapters in this resource include "Process in the Short Essay," "Writing by Computer," 
"The Paragraph," "Editing: The Rest of the Process," and "The Research Essay." 

Cook, Jeff S. The Elements of Speech-writing and Public Speaking. 

This is a concise and authoritative guide on speech preparation and delivery for the 
novice and veteran speaker. Topics include preparing an engaging speech, reducing 
panic before speeches, and knowing how and when to incorporate visual aids. 

Green, Lee. Creative Slide/Tape Programs. 

This book suggests slide/tape programs as an ideal form for student presentations. The 
author discusses audience awareness, narration, musical sound tracks, graphic slides and 
photography and suggests 75 ideas for slide/tape programs. 

Koman, Richard. GIF Animation Studio: Animating Your Web Site. 2nd Edition. 
This is a specialized resource for the technologically proficient. 

Lane, B. After the End: Teaching and Learning Creative Revision. 

This resource suggests many practical techniques to help students develop a sense of 
discovery in their writing. It describes specific techniques to empower students with the 
"language of craft" and provides assistance in teaching revision. 

MacGregor, A. J. Graphics Simplified: How to Plan and Prepare Effective Charts, Graphs, 
Illustrations, and Other Visual Aids. 

This book is a concise guide to preparing graphics that communicate clearly. 
Suggestions are practical, and examples of both clear and unclear charts and graphs are 
provided. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 4 /281 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent 
with context (continued) 



Martin, Diana and Lynn Haller. Street Smart Design: 100+ Cutting-Edge Designs from 
Over 40 Hot Studios. 

This resource provides examples of posters, compact disc covers, movie promotions, 
invitations, advertisements, T-shirts and magazine spreads with accompanying text 
discussing the designer's techniques. 

McCain, Ted D. E. Designing for Communication: The Key to Successful Desktop 
Publishing and Teaching Graphic Design in All Subjects. 

These books, intended to complement each other, provide information about how people 
read and about the basic design considerations for effective page layouts. A wealth of 
activities focusing on print media and transactional documents is provided. 

Mellor, Bronwyn and Annette Patterson. Investigating Texts: Analyzing Fiction and 
Nonfiction in High School. 

Chapter Two, Making Texts, looks at the making of a short story and various nonfiction 
texts. 



Pearsall, Thomas E. and Donald Cunningham. How to Write for the World of Work. 
5th Edition. 

This text provides readers with practical suggestions for and examples of transactional 
writing, including reports and correspondence. 

Robertson, Hugh. The Project Book: An Introduction to Research and Writing. 

This book examines the process of composing a research paper or oral report from 
selecting a topic, locating information, making notes, outlining, drafting and revising to 
selecting appropriate aids to enhance the presentation. 

School of Visual Arts. Gold: Fifty Years of Creative Graphic Design. 

This art book features the work of prominent American graphic designers, along with 
interviews in which designers reflect on their inspiration for various posters and 
advertisements and on the techniques they employed. 

Williams, Robin. The N on- Designer's Design Book: Design and Typographic Principles 
for the Visual Novice. 

This book is intended for people who have no formal training in design. The author 
presents and analyzes the design of business cards, posters, newsletters, resumes and 
invitations and then redesigns each example to make it more effective. 



282/ General Outcome 4 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to create 
oral, print, visual and multimedia 
texts, and enhance the clarity and 
artistry of communication. 




4.2 Improve thoughtfulness, effectiveness 
and correctness of communication 



Overview 

The intent of the learning outcomes under subheadings 4.2. 1 - 4.2.4 of the program of studies is for students to 
demonstrate their abilities in improving their created texts — particularly in improving the thoughtfulness, 
effectiveness and correctness of their communication. 

The act of revision may occur at any point in the writing/speaking/representing process. For expedience, revision 
is discussed under learning outcome subheading 4.2. 1 ; however, it also relates to learning outcome subheadings 
4.2.2-4.2.4. 

Critical thought is enhanced through conscious attention to clarity and completeness of expression. In 4.2.1, 
students critically assess their own texts and those of others. Once students are committed to a piece of work, they 
need to explore the changes that will enhance it. Part of the review process is to assess the content of a text — its 
thought and detail — and to consider revisions that have the potential to strengthen the significance of the ideas, 
themes or events being developed or presented and the specificity and vividness of the supports, images or details 
being provided. Students consider such aspects of content as plausibility, appropriateness, precision, completeness 
and relevance. Additional exploration of content may also result in a text's focus being modified. 

Students can be taught a range of strategies for gaining a fresh perspective on their work while revising. For 
example, encourage students who use word processors to print their texts and revise them on hard copy. Students 
should also be encouraged to decide for themselves whether it is worthwhile persevering with a piece, when it 
needs revision and how much it needs. It is important to help each student find the process that works best for him 
or her. As Foster (1996, p. 9) points out, "Any writing strategy that is presented as a universal formula misleads 
students and misrepresents writing." 



The following chart serves as a model for the kinds of things writers and producers address, including thought and 
detail, as they move through various drafts. 



Revising Text 

Content: Am I saying what 1 want and/or 
need to say? 



Subsequent readings 



Final readings 



Organization: Is my material in 
the best order? 

Style: How effectively 
am 1 saying things? 

Mechanics: How/ 

correctly am ly 

saying 

things?. 



Revision 



Editing 



Proofreading 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 /283 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Enhance thought and detail (continued) 



Assessment of 4.2 

An important goal of language learning is for the student to be able to self-assess his or her own created text and 
improve its thoughtfulness, effectiveness and correctness. 

Students may find it difficult to assess the content of their own texts but can develop this ability by critically 
assessing the texts of others, including classmates — see General Outcome 2. Assessing a student-created text for 
content may be particularly challenging, as some students may view associated comments as personal criticism. 

Appraising one's own and others' work involves developing both attitudes and skills. One of the key elements in 
self-appraisal is learning to ask questions that will elicit useful information. Encourage students to develop both a 
spirit of openness about their work and confidence in their own vision of what they are doing, so that they can 
assess the usefulness of others' suggestions. 

Teachers play an important role as models in responding to and appraising others' work. They should model ways 
to respond to specific elements in content, language and form, and they should model such attitudes as openness 
and encouragement. A supportive classroom environment is essential. 

Teaching and Learning Strategies 

Note: The following strategies are listed under 4.2.1, but are applicable to all aspects of the 
revision process, including enhancing organization, considering and addressing matters of 
choice, and editing text for matters of correctness. While the separating of one aspect of text 
creation from another aspect; e.g., thought and detail from organization, is somewhat 
artificial, it is done to facilitate understanding. 

Workshop Advice (10-la, b, c; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b, c; 20-2a, b) 

Students who are experienced in reviewing their own and others' work may end a workshop 
with the following exercise. 

• The writer/producer asks, "If you could change one sentence/image of my text, how 
would you change it?" 

• Without discussion, each workshop participant selects a sentence/image and revises it. 

• The writer/producer collects these contributions and reflects on them. It is understood 
that writers/producers can use these contributions freely if they choose to do so. 



284/ General Outcome 4 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Enhance thought and detail (continued) 



Assessment 



Formative Assessment of Peer Response 

Invite a professional editor to the class to provide information on the 
processes and importance of editing. A guest editor may be willing to 
demonstrate the editing process, using a volunteer's text on an overhead 
transparency. 

Students may enjoy working in pairs as editors for each other's work. 
Ask each editor to write a feedback letter to be attached to a draft of the 
work submitted to the teacher. Invite both the editor and student writer to 
discuss the work in a conference. 



Appraisal of Oral and Visual Forms (io-ia, b, c; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b, c; 

20-2a, b) 

Appraisal and revision are as essential to oral and visual texts as they are to written texts. 
Have students form rehearsal groups for speeches and dramas to provide each other with 
feedback. Display visual texts and arrange a Field Walk — see learning outcome subheading 
1.1.1 (p. 97) — posting a sheet for student comments or arranging for group discussion of the 
visuals after viewing. 



Self-assessment of Editing and Peer-appraisal Process 

Ask students to reflect on the editing and peer-appraisal processes, 
looking at what the comments of others in the group meant to them and at 
their own functioning in peer-appraisal groups. 



*£S% Speech Hothouse (io-ia, b; io-2a, b; 20-ia, b ; 20-20, b) 

The following process helps students develop speeches through rehearsal and group 
feedback. 

• Students select a topic for a speech and then move into small groups. 

• Each student delivers a short impromptu speech on the chosen topic to the group. 

• Students then individually draft a three-minute speech, developing the ideas they 
expressed in their impromptu speeches. 

• Each student delivers the three-minute speech to the group and invites feedback and 
ideas for further development. 

• Students draft a five -minute speech. Rehearsal, group feedback and redrafting continue 
until the speech is the desired length. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4/285 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Enhance thought and detail {continued) 



Revision Experiments (io-ia, b, </,- io-2c; 20-ia, b, d, e; 20-2c) 

When asked to revise text, students often think of editing. Exercises that require students to 
make radical changes to the content or structure of a text sometimes open entirely new 
possibilities in what they have written. 

Students may find it helpful to try the following: 

• Rework a piece by setting aside the first half and starting in the middle. 

• Find a point where a digression occurs to you, and try inserting the digression. Assess 
whether this enhances the piece. If you wish to retain it, what changes do you have to 
make in the original text? (Sebranek, Meyer and Kemper 1995, p. 1 14) 

• Cut apart the paragraphs of your draft, and experiment with them in a different order. 
Share two different versions with a partner, and ask his or her opinion. 



The Five R'S« (10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 20-2a, b, c) 

This revising strategy takes students through several stages of revision and editing. 



The Five R's 

Read: Sometimes it's hard to keep an open mind when you read your first draft. You 
need to put some distance between yourself and your writing. 

> Whenever possible, put your writing aside for a day or two. 

> Read it out loud. 

> Ask others (family, friends, classmates) to read it out loud to you. 

> Listen to your writing. How does it sound? What does it say? 

React: Here are six questions that will help you react to your own writing on the 
second or third read-through: 

> What parts of my writing work for me? 

> Do all of these parts work together? Are they logical? 

> Do all the parts point to one idea? What is the main idea? 

> Do the parts say what I want them to say? 

> Have I arranged the parts in the best possible order? 

> Where do I need to go from here? 

(continued) 



® Reproduced from Patrick Sebranek, Verne Meyer and Dave Kemper, Writers Inc: A Student Handbook for Writing and Learning 
(Wilmington, MA: Great Source Education Group, 1996), p. 38. 



286/ General Outcome 4 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Enhance thought and detail (continued) 



(continued) 



Rework: Reworking your writing means making changes until all of the parts 
including sufficient and accurate data to support the main idea of the text work equally 
well. There is usually plenty of reworking to do in the early stages of writing. 

Reflect: One of the best ways of keeping track of your revising progress is to write 
comments on the margins of your paper. If you are using a word processor or other 
electronic medium use a different font colour or use the track changes feature, if 
available. Margins are the perfect place for you to explore your feelings concerning 
what you have written. Here are some guidelines: 

> Explore your thoughts freely and naturally. 

> Note what you plan to cut, move, explain further, and so on. 

> Reflect upon the changes you make. (How do they work?) 

> If you are unsure of what to do, write down a question to solve later. 



Refine: Refining is putting some style into your written copy- 
thoughts and words. Here's what you can do: 



-shining up your 



> Read your paper out loud to make sure you haven't missed anything. 

> Listen for both the clarity and quality of your words and sentences. 

> Make the final adjustments so your writing reads smoothly and clearly. 



Assessment 



Formative and Peer Assessment in Conferences 

Feedback is invaluable during revision, because students are more likely 
to be open to making changes in their work at this stage. Students can 
practise immediate application of ideas the teacher suggests. Such input 
could be offered through conferencing between students and their peers 
or between students and their teacher. 



Tchudi and Mitchell (1989, p. 227) suggest that the first thing teachers 
should determine with a work-in-progress is whether it has a voice — that 
is, whether it appears to be an authentic communication and whether 
there is a tone and vigour to the work, as if a unique person produced it 
and cared about what he or she was producing. If the answer is negative, 
the student may be better off "re-envisioning" the piece or starting again 
with something else. See the next activity. 



Revision Strategies (10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 20-2a, b, c) 

The best use of students' time may not be in tinkering with a piece that does not really 
represent their ideas, but in "re-envisioning" the piece, and starting again. Time spent in 
preproduction activities will reduce the need for this kind of revision. 

In each of the strategies below students would read/listen for the appropriateness, 
effectiveness and completeness of the thought and detail, coherence, organization, and style 
choices in the text. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4/287 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Enhance thought and detail {continued) 



Suggest that students experiment systematically with a variety of revision strategies: 

• Starting Fresh: The student puts aside the initial draft, or hands it to the teacher, and 
then begins an alternative draft with the same opening sentence. In revision, the student 
selects the best elements from these two drafts. 

• "Cool-down " Period: The student does not revise until two days after writing the initial 
draft. 

• Reading Aloud: The student reads the drafts aloud to a partner. 

• Listening: The student listens while someone else reads the drafts; or the student 
audiotapes his or her own reading of the drafts and listens to the taped reading. 



Teacher Resources 



Atwell, Nancie. In the Middle: New Understandings About Writing, Reading, and Learning. 
2nd Edition. 

Chapter Six, Minilessons, contains a subsection entitled Lessons about Literary Craft. 
Numerous suggestions regarding revisions of various types can be found. 

Baker, Sheridan. The Practical Stylist. 3rd Edition. 

This resource is designed to help students write clear, persuasive prose and to develop 
effective style. Subjects include thesis statements, logic, diction, syntax and mechanics. 

Birch, A. Essay Writing Made Easy: Presenting Ideas in All Subject Areas. 

This Canadian reference handbook for teachers and students reflects a process approach 
to writing. It includes various types of essays, suggests possibilities for interdisciplinary 
approaches, and provides many examples of writing by both students and professional 
writers. 

Burke, Jim. The English Teacher's Companion: A Complete Guide to Classroom, 
Curriculum, and the Profession. 

Chapter Seven offers sample activities that lead to precise writing. 

Calkins, L. M. The Art of Teaching Writing. 2nd Edition. 

This resource provides numerous techniques for teaching writing and for conducting 
writing workshops. Topics include writing essentials, workshop structures, changing 
curriculum and teaching writing workshops in a larger context. Examples of student 
work and assessment ideas are included. 

Ellsworth, B. and A. Keller. English Simplified. 3rd Canadian Edition. 

This resource is an effective reference tool for use during the revising and editing stages 
of the writing process to enhance the clarity and artistry of writing. 



288/ General Outcome 4 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Enhance thought and detail (continued) 



Foster, Graham. Student Self-Assessment: A Powerful Process for Helping Students Revise 
Their Writing. 

This resource focuses on students' goal setting and self-assessment of their own writing. 
It includes numerous checklists, summarizing criteria for assessment of different writing 
forms, as well as reproducible Madeline masters. 

Graves, D. H. A Fresh Look at Writing. 

This resource combines theory and practical applications for teachers of writing. It 
includes strategies for conferencing and mini-lessons; promotes skill instruction through 
authentic writing activities; presents comprehensive ideas for teaching individual skills; 
and examines topics such as portfolios, record keeping, and methods for teaching writing 
conventions, spelling and a range of genres. 

Kirkland, Glen and Richard Davies. Dimensions II: Precise Thought and Language in the 
Essay. 

This text contains numerous essays organized thematically. Unit 1 suggests using 
visuals as an introduction to essay writing. 

Peterson, S. Becoming Better Writers. 

This resource contains ideas for using literary texts in the classroom to assist students 
with the writing process. It includes suggestions for creating ideas, developing 
characters, creating effects and crafting stories. In addition, it contains writing 
conference suggestions, assessment checklists, blackline masters and sample lessons. A 
list of recommended literary texts is provided for readers at all grades. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 /289 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to create 
oral, print, visual and multimedia 
texts, and enhance the clarity and ' 
artistry of communication. 




4.2 Improve thoughtfulness, effectiveness 
and correctness of communication 



Overview 



Students edit their texts and those of others for organizational structure — beginnings or introductions, development 
of ideas or experiences, and closures or conclusions. Students assess a variety of organizational components of 
text development, such as: 

• paragraphs in print text 

• episodes in visual narrative 

• steps in multimedia demonstrations. 

Students also assess the unity of a text — the relationship of the parts to the whole — and the coherence of a text — 
the sequence in which the parts are presented and the connections made to link part to part. 

Skillful organization of texts requires: 

• a clear grasp of the material and an understanding of the relationship of one idea to the next 

• knowledge of the organizational conventions of various forms; e.g., the difference between the thesis of a 
literary essay and the lead of a magazine feature 

• recognition of organizational patterns in texts. 

Effective organization is closely related to awareness of audience. Souther and White (1977) use the following 
diagram to demonstrate a reader's/viewer's need for organizational cues. 



A Reader's/Viewer's Need for Organizational Cues 




Writer's or producer's view 



i 



Reader's or viewer's view 

Writers and producers have a sophisticated view of the material they organize. They 
see it both in terms of coordinate divisions and developmental directions. Readers and 
viewers see the information in a linear sequence — each idea comes after the other. 
Their view does not contain the sophistication of the writers/producers. How does the 
writer or producer provide the reader or viewer with the more sophisticated view? 



Adapted from James W. Souther and Myron L. White, Technical Report Writing, 2nd ed. (Toronto, ON: John Wiley and Sons, 1977). 



290/ General Outcome 4 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Enhance organization (continued) 



Assessment of 4.2.2 

Much of the assessment associated with learning outcome subheading 4.2.2 will be formative. Students will self- 
assess and receive feedback on how well they are organizing their thoughts. Included in this evaluation should be 
students' attention to context — particularly audience. To create an effective text, students need be empathetic 
toward that audience, to continually consider how an imagined reader/listener/viewer will experience that text — 
see the illustration on the previous page. 

Engaging the Audience 

When students make oral presentations, require them to submit plans for engaging their audience. Ways of 
engaging an audience include: 

• eliciting the audience's opinions through an anticipation guide — see learning outcome subheading 2. 1 .3 

• activating the audience's prior knowledge through a pre-test 

• connecting with the audience's personal experience through a humorous skit 

• focusing the audience's attention by providing a note-making frame. 

As well, students' attention to the conventions of form will influence how they organize the material in their 
created text. Appendix B, pp. 424-421, offers a concise description of the conventions of a variety of texts. 

Students who have a sense that they are communicating with a real audience think of organizational devices, such 
as introductions or leads, paragraph breaks, transition words and topic sentences in print texts and speeches, or 
setting cues and montage in visual texts, as ways of engaging the audience and signalling the direction of their 
argument or narrative. The audience's age and familiarity with the subject and form will determine how overt 
organizational cues need to be. 

It is important to remember that organizational and rhetorical patterns are culturally based. For this reason, 
students who are learning English as a second or additional language may need more direct instruction and special 
support in organizing material according to English conventions. For example, the concept of a "topic sentence" 
may be foreign to students who are familiar with a more indirect and nuanced style of exposition. 

Teaching and Learning Strategies 

Writing Leads (10-la; 10-2a; 20-la; 20-2a) 

When students are writing in journalistic forms, such as magazine features or personality 
profiles, the following activity will help them identify an article's "lead" and will provide 
them with models to expand their own repertoire of effective leads. 

• Have students examine articles of the type they are writing and collect, through clipping, 
15 to 20 different leads. 

• Have students move into groups of about four. Make copies of the leads for each group. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 4 /291 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Enhance organization (continued) 



Ask students to read the leads and establish categories of the types of leads they find. 
They may find articles that begin with an anecdote, quotation, description of setting, 
physical description of interview subject, provocative statement, rhetorical question, and 
so on. 

Ask groups to sort these leads into the categories they have established. 

Have groups report by compiling their categories in the print text. Ask them to list any 
other tips they have gained for writing effective leads. They may observe, for example, 
that personality profiles often withhold the name of their subject until the end of the lead. 



%w m wmmmi m m 



Assessment Peer Assessment of Writing Leads 

Have students return to their groups to examine journalistic leads. Have 
them read each other's leads and decide which is the most effective 
according to two criteria: 

• the lead engages the reader 

• the lead conveys as much information as possible about the subject of 
the article. 






Method of Development 

As well as choosing form, students need to clarify the method they will use to develop their 
ideas. Essays, speeches, presentations, feature articles and reports can be developed in 
various ways. 

Ask students who are writing proposals to identify the method of development they will use 
in their articles: 

explanation 

comparison and contrast 

argument 

analysis 

description 

narration. 



Ask all students to write two different leads for their respective magazine articles. 



Organizing a Data-provided Mini-essay (io-ib; io-2b; 20-ib; 

20-2b) 
£%^± Following a mini-lesson on organizational structures, provide groups of students with 

identical photocopied packages of information; e.g., three short articles on the same subject. 
Ask the groups to: 

• read and discuss the material 

• decide on the most important concepts it contains 

• choose an organizational structure for a one-page expository essay on the subject 

• record their organizational structure on an overhead transparency, in the form of a 
graphic organizer or traditional outline, and present it to the class. 



292/ General Outcome 4 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




I 



Enhance organization (continued) 



| Assessment Self-evaluation of Organizing a Data-provided Mini-essay 

Ask group members to present their organizational structure to the class, 
explaining their reasons for selecting it. 



Storyboarding (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d, e; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 20-2a, b, c, d, e) 
Storyboarding is a good organizational tool for visual forms because it allows students to 
make creative decisions before they invest time and resources in filming. 

Traditionally, storyboards are drawn in panels, like cartoon strips. Each frame contains a 
rough sketch of the shot. Under each frame, students write: 

• codes to indicate the type of shot 

- L.S. long shot 

- M.S. medium shot 
W.S. wide shot 

- C.U. close-up 

- h.a. high-angle — view from above 

- e.l. eye level 

- I.e. a. low camera angle 

• the sound track that will accompany the shot 

• the number of seconds the shot will last. 

Storyboarding on Index Cards© 

As an alternative to conventional storyboarding, Thomas (1988) suggests that students plan 
their shots on large index cards using the following format: 

• Video: Sketch the shot. 

• Audio: Write any narration or dialogue. Identify background music or sound effects. 

• Special Instructions: Note any directions for taking the picture; e.g., head only, 
dissolve, audio fade. 



Video 


Audio 


No. 






Special Instructions: 



** Adapted from James L. Thomas, Nonprint Production for Students, Teachers and Media Specialists: A Step-by-Step Guide, 2nd ed. 
(Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1988), p. 5. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 /293 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Enhance organization (continued) 



Storyboarding on index cards has several advantages over conventional storyboarding, 
because it: 

• enables several students to work simultaneously on the same sequence 

• allows visuals and oral or print texts to be coordinated at the planning stage 

• encourages students to experiment with various orderings of their material by laying out 
the cards on a table. When students have decided on the order, they can pin the cards to 
a display board and number them in the top right-hand corner. 



Assessment Formative, Peer or Self Evaluation using Storyboarding 

Students and teachers can use storyboards to assess the organization of 
videos and slide/tape presentations. 



Musical Patterns (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d, e; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 

20-2a, b, c, d, e) 

Introduce principles of organization by playing classical overtures to the class. Ask students 

to identify patterns by which the overture develops: the introduction of a musical motif, its 

development through variations and its recapitulation in the final movement. Students may 

attempt to sketch these patterns in the form of a "musical seismograph." 



List Paragraphs (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d, e; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 20-2a, b, c, d, e) 

When students are involved in the organization stage of a writing process, present brief mini- 
lessons to introduce some of the options they can use for paragraph or text organization. A 
list paragraph is one example. In the body of a list paragraph, each sentence expresses a 
single important idea. Each sentence is independent and could be removed from the 
paragraph. Generally, each sentence begins with the same phrase; this deliberate repetition is 
important to the emphasis of the paragraph. Because of their strong emphasis, list 
paragraphs are most often found as the lead or the conclusion of a longer text (Sebranek, 
Meyer and Kemper 1996, p. 220). 



Sample List Paragraph 

Electronic technology may have added to our lives, but it will 
never replace books. It s hard to curl up in bed with an article on 
the Internet. It 's hard to turn back the corners of passages you 
like or to write exclamation marks in the margin. It 's hard to 
read on the bus or in the back seat of the car on boring family 
trips. And it 's impossible to bury your face in the pages, 
breathing in the smell of paper. Technology may have given us 
instant communication with practically everyone on the planet, 
but it can 't meet a reader's need for a private, intense, convenient 
encounter with a book. 



294/ General Outcome 4 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Enhance organization (continued) 



Practising Structures (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d, e; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 
20-2a, b, c, d, e) 

In connection with reading strategies — see learning outcome subheading 2.1.3 — students 
identify common structural patterns of texts; e.g., cause and effect, definition and example, 
comparison and contrast. Have students practise using these patterns in short paragraphs 
before moving to extended discourse. 



Presentation Software (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d, e; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 
20-2a, b, c, d, e) 

Groups that are organizing oral presentations may find a software package helpful. At this 
stage of planning, groups select the most appropriate template for their presentations. 



Teacher Resources 



Baker, Sheridan. The Practical Stylist. 3rd Edition. 

This resource is designed to help students write clear, persuasive prose and to develop 
effective style. Subjects include thesis statements, logic, diction, syntax and mechanics. 

Birch, A. Essay Writing Made Easy: Presenting Ideas in All Subject Areas. 

This Canadian reference handbook for teachers and students reflects a process approach 
to writing. It discusses various types of essays, suggests possibilities for 
interdisciplinary approaches and provides many examples of writing by both students 
and professional writers. 

Hyerle, David. Visual Tools for Constructing Knowledge. 

This book surveys a range of tools to help students construct ideas and represent their 
thinking graphically: brainstorm webs, task-specific graphic organizers and thinking 
process maps. 

Murray, Donald. Writing for Your Readers: A Handbook of Practical Advice on How to 
Write with Vigor, Clarity, and Grace. 

One of the chapters of this practical manual for journalists poses 30 questions writers can 
ask themselves in producing a compelling lead; e.g., What surprised me when 1 was 
reporting the story? How will the news affect my readers? 

Murray, Donald M. Write to Learn. 

This book explores the process of writing. Contents include creating conditions that 
invite writing, hearing the voice of the draft, writing on a computer and reading as a 
writer. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 /295 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Enhance organization (continued) 



Sobchack, Thomas and Vivian C. Sobchack. An Introduction to Film. 2nd Edition. 

Chapter 3 offers an explanation of the organizational patterns used in visual texts, 
including montage and mise en scene. 

Thomas, James L. Nonprint Production for Students, Teachers and Media Specialists: A 
Step-by-Step Guide. 2nd Edition. 

This resource contains a detailed discussion of storyboarding. 

Tonjes, Marian J. Secondary Reading, Writing, and Learning. 

Chapter 3, "The Text: Organizational Patterns and Readability Factors," is an overview 
of text organizational patterns, with suggestions for instruction. 



296/ General Outcome 4 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to create 
oral, print, visual and multimedia 
texts, and enhance the clarity and 
artistry of communication. 




4.2 Improve thoughtfulness, effectiveness 
and correctness of communication 



Consider and address matters of choice 






Overview 

This learning outcome subheading is closely related to learning outcome subheading 2.3.3. Through listening, 
reading and viewing, students develop sensitivity to the aesthetic properties of language and develop their 
repertoire of stylistic devices. 

Students need to learn that style is a way of achieving emphasis. It is important that they recognize "artistry" as a 
quality not only of poetic language but also of effective narrative texts, descriptive prose, speeches and 
transactional texts. 

Development of personal style and voice is fostered through experimentation with language, structures, techniques 
and devices and through assessment of the effect of such choices. 

The focus of instruction is on having students use various stylistic and structural options, such as appositives, 
subordination and periodic structures, and on having students make deliberate stylistic choices based on rhythm, 
design, connotation and pattern. 

Assessment of 4.2.3 

As students develop text, they make choices that are reflected in their diction and syntax and in the stylistic 
techniques and rhetorical devices that they use to create desired effects. Students edit their own texts and those of 
others to determine whether or not the choices that have been made create the effects that have been intended. 

When assessing diction, for example, students consider such aspects as connotation, idiom and figurative 
language. When assessing syntax, students consider such aspects as phrasing, coordination, subordination and 
sentence variety. 

Similarly, students consider context — situation (for example, relative formality or informality of situation), 
purpose and audience — when assessing diction, syntax, stylistic techniques and rhetorical devices. In assessing 
their choices, students might ask questions such as the following: 

• What effects do I intend my created text to have on an audience? How might 1 achieve those effects? 

• Given the stylistic choices I have made in my in-process text, how appropriate are they? How well is my in- 
process text achieving its intended effects? 

Assessment of students' skill with language occurs over the course of the year or semester. Teachers may want to 
ask students to submit two pieces of work, one from early in the year and one from later, to illustrate their 
developing facility with language. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 1291 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Consider and address matters of choice (continued) 



Conferences and Goal Setting 

Students who have difficulty revising for style may need teacher support in identifying specific aspects of their 
style that need improvement. In a conference, examine several samples of a student's work and select two or three 
stylistic goals. Draw up a goal sheet, set a date for the next conference, and ask the student to revise all 
assignments with these goals in mind prior to the next conference. 

Teaching and Learning Strategies 

Stylistic Analysis (10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d; 20-2a, b, c, d) 

There are simple ways for students to analyze texts they have written for various stylistic 
elements. Some suggestions follow. 

• Count the number of words in each sentence, placing the numbers in the margin. If your 
sentences are all about the same length, combine some of them into complex sentences, 
and shorten others for emphasis. 

• Underline the words in each sentence that appear before the subject. If you find that you 
seldom place phrases before the subject, rearrange a few of the sentences. 

• List all the verbs you have used in this text. If you find that you repeat the same verb 
frequently or that your verbs do not convey vivid mental images, try replacing half of 
them. 

• Count the number of sentences that follow various patterns: short, long, active, passive, 
exclamatory, interrogative and declarative. If most sentences follow the same pattern, 
rewrite some to achieve variety. 

Students may find it interesting to analyze passages from their favourite writers and to 
compare these findings to an analysis of their own writing. Computer programs that 
determine the reading level of various texts are available. In the context of shaping a text for 
its intended audience, students may enjoy identifying the reading level of various published 
texts and of their own writing. 

Writing from Models (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d, e; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 
20-2a, b, c, d, e) 

• Students collect and post sentences to which they had a strong response in their reading. 
Choose three or four of these sentences, and work with students to identify the sentence 
patterns and devices that contribute to their effect; e.g., parallelism, cadence, metaphor, 
alliteration and inversion. Encourage students to experiment with these patterns and 
devices in revising their writing. 

• Read poetry to the class or play recordings of poets reading. Ask students to listen with 
their eyes closed and then sketch or list images evoked by the poetry. Have them share 
the images with a partner and then with the whole class. Identify words and phrases that 
evoked the strongest response, and discuss how these phrases worked to evoke images. 
Ask students to write, drawing on these images and poetic devices. 

298/ General Outcome 4 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

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Consider and address matters of choice (continued) 



Style Workshop (10-la, b, c, d, e; 10-2a, b, c, d, e; 20-la, b, c, d, e; 
20-2a, b, c, d, e) 

In connection with mini-lessons on style, ask all students to select a few sentences of their 
own writing that the class can improve together. 

• Place a basic subject-predicate sentence on the chalkboard. Have students work in 
groups to add interest and detail to this sentence by substituting synonyms, adding 
modifiers or inverting the sentence. 

• Ask students to underline words or phrases in their selected passage that they feel are not 
precise or forceful enough. Using a thesaurus, students then select three options for each 
of the underlined words. Ask them to discuss these options with a partner, looking at the 
possible impact of each option on the passage, before making a final selection. 

• Ask students to identify any cliches in their own and others' work. Compile the 
suggested cliches into a list, and have groups work together to create fresh substitutes. 

• Change instances of indirect dialogue to direct dialogue. 

• Write sentences containing several modifiers on the chalkboard. Demonstrate the way 
adjectives or adverbs can be clustered to achieve greater force. 

Example: She never stopped talking or moving. She was thin and had freckles. She 
chewed gum constantly. I wished that 1 were somewhere else. 

Rewrite: 1 watched her thin, freckled, gum-chewing, frenetic face and wished that I were 
somewhere else. 



f 



Assessment Self-assessment of Style Workshops 

Comparing Drafts 

After a revision class focusing on style, ask students to submit two drafts, 
with a written commentary attached describing the stylistic improvements 
they have made in the second draft. 



Relive the Moment (io-ie; io-2e; 20-ie; 20-2e) 

Take students through a recollection of a shared, school -related experience that is vivid and 
full of sensory detail. From this relived experience, students are to craft a paragraph or short 
poem that conveys what it felt like to be a part of that situation. The diction and syntax that 
students use should help convey the experience. 

Instructions (with frequent pauses) could be as follows: 

• Close your eyes. You are [describe to the students a common, familiar setting such as 
writing a final exam or attending a school assembly or special ceremony]. 

• Imagine where you are in the room. Where are you sitting/standing? Who is to your 
left/right? Behind you/in front? 

• What main event is going on? Who is speaking/moving/watching? 

• What are you doing? Where are your feet? your hands? 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 /299 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Consider and address matters of choice (continued) 



What is the temperature like? the lighting? 

What sort of sounds are you hearing? to your right/left? behind you/in front? 

What smells are you smelling? Do you taste anything? 

How are you breathing? What are you thinking? What are you noticing around you? 

Describe how are you feeling. 

On the count of three, I want you to pick up your pen and capture in words the experience 
you remember-ks sights, sounds, tastes, smells, feelings and experiences. 
One ..two ..three! 

Students present their poems to classmates, and their peers respond by describing what they 
found to be most vivid. Peers may also share what they felt was particularly 
appropriate/effective about the imagery, as well as what they found was most meaningful to 
them. 



Assessment 



Formative and Peer Assessment of Relive the Moment 



This learning experience, like so many other creative experiences is 
fostered through formative assessment of student processes and finished 
product. 

> Circulating around the classroom, assist those who may need help 
with their recollection. 

> Students may need further instruction about ways in which they 
might shape their poems. 



Teacher Resources 



Baker, Sheridan. The Practical Stylist. 3rd Edition. 

This resource is designed to help students write clear, persuasive prose and to develop 
effective style. Subjects include diction and syntax. 

Conrad, Ronald. The Act of Writing: Canadian Essays for Composition. 3rd Edition. 

This anthology contains samples of various styles and forms of writing. Ideas for 
discussion and writing follow each sample. 

Draayer, Ken. Discoveries in Writing. 

Chapter 10, "Discovering Voice and Style," contains a discussion of the purpose of style, 
a list of keys to effective style and examples of various styles of writing. 

Hendrickson, Robert. The Facts on File Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins. 

This resource contains 15 000 alphabetically arranged words and phrases, including 
origins, meanings and unique uses. 



300/ General Outcome 4 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Consider and address matters of choice (continued) 



Muschla, Gary R. Writing Workshop Survival Kit. 

This resource provides writing workshop activities, mini-lessons and reproducible 
masters to enhance the writing process. 

Pratt, T. K. (ed.). Gage Canadian Thesaurus. 

This thesaurus is distinctly Canadian. It represents Aboriginal people both as a main 
entry and in an appendix that features a word list of Aboriginal groups in Canada. 

Tsujimoto, Joseph I. Teaching Poetry Writing to Adolescents. 

This resource offers suggestions for designing, organizing and presenting assignments in 
poetry writing. It explores the writing of poetic self-portraits, found poetry and extended 
metaphors. 

Weaver, Constance. Teaching Grammar in Context. 

The appendix "Teaching Style Through Sentence Combining and Sentence Generating" 
is useful for this learning outcome subheading. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4/301 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to create 
oral, print, visual and multimedia 
texts, and enhance the clarity and 
artistry of communication. 




4.2 Improve thoughtfulness, effectiveness 
and correctness of communication 



Edit text for matters of correctness 



Overview 

Teachers plan language instruction based on their assessment of student needs. Before planning lessons on 
correctness of language use, teachers assess what areas of instruction are needed and for which students and 
determine how best to offer this instruction. 

Often, teachers provide instruction about correctness through mini-lessons. In certain contexts, teachers might 
instruct an individual student during a student-teacher conference; at other times, the teacher may instruct a small 
group or the whole class. 

By the time they enter high school, students should know and be able to: 

• spell and use familiar words correctly 

• apply capitalization and punctuation conventions to clarify intended meaning 

• use common sentence structures — simple, compound, complex and compound-complex — correctly. 

• review and revise to correct sentence faults — comma splices, run-on sentences and unintended sentence 
fragments 

• review and revise to ensure that phrases and clauses are used correctly. 

Although students coming into high school are expected to be able to write, speak and represent correctly, they 
will demonstrate differing degrees of success. Some students will need additional instruction in specific areas of 
spelling, punctuation, grammar and usage. 

As students progress through senior high school, they develop their understanding of language conventions and the 
conventions of oral, print, visual and multimedia text forms. They learn when to adhere to or depart from 
convention when creating their own texts. 

Students improve their use of standard English conventions by: 

• working on projects they care about and knowing that their work has an authentic audience 

• recognizing that conventional usage is a means of effectively communicating something they want to say 

• receiving timely, practical instruction as they need it in revising and editing 

• understanding the reasons for particular conventions; e.g., reflecting on how parallel structure improves 
communication 

• working in language-rich environments, where their intuitive sense of conventional usage improves 

• setting specific, realistic goals and editing their work with these goals in mind 

• receiving language instruction relevant to the kinds of errors they are making in their own created texts. 

Showing students how to discern and correct errors in their own work is paramount; however, students may be 
reluctant to have their texts used as learning tools by others. "Permission to use" such materials should be 
acquired from students beforehand. Matters pertaining to the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy 
Act (FOIP) should also be addressed. 



302/ General Outcome 4 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Edit text for matters of correctness (continued) 



Students who are learning English as a second language (ESL) may not have the same intuitions to rely on in 
editing. The disadvantage of peer editing for ESL students is that peer editors may not recognize error patterns — 
the "smart mistakes" ESL students make in generalizing from a known rule. When working with an ESL student, 
attempt to isolate one error pattern on each editing occasion, and ask the student to focus his or her attention on 
this error. 

Capitalization and Punctuation 

It is essential that students learn the roles of punctuation marks, rather than their definitions. Students will be 
more skillful with punctuation if they integrate the marks as part of their communication code than if they set out 
to apply a set of rules. Instruction should always begin with a discussion of the cues that an audience needs in 
order to understand. Students should be familiar with punctuation marks that add greater subtlety and precision to 
their writing, such as the semicolon, colon, dash and ellipsis. 

Activities that teach, review and reinforce the conventions of punctuation and capitalization for sentences, proper 
nouns, dialogue and bibliographic citations should occur within the context of projects in which students are 
engaged. Correct punctuation is closely aligned with sentence structure, and most punctuation errors are 
conceptual rather than mechanical problems (Maxwell and Meiser 1997, p. 284). 

ELA classes could also have a class protocol for formal writing assignments; e.g., peer editing of final draft one 
class before handing in. 

Punctuating Dialogue 

Punctuating dialogue is specified as a learning focus in Grade 5 ELA. Like so many other aspects of matters of 
correctness, however, it needs to be reviewed and reinforced in high school. 

Students will have many opportunities to write dialogue in the course of other activities. In writing biographies, 
for example, students can write an imaginary dialogue between themselves and the person whose life they are 
exploring. Students who are keeping a reader response journal can generate a conversation that did not take place 
but that would have changed the course of the story. Assignments such as these provide a context for reviewing 
the conventions of punctuating dialogue. 

Assessment of 4.2.4 

The goal inherent in learning outcome subheading 4.2.4 is to help students acquire the knowledge and skills 
needed to self-assess and correct the use of language in their created texts. 

Encouraging self assessment helps to establish clearly that students are responsible for correctness of expression 
and that all final drafts require editing before they are submitted for assessment. Giving students class time to edit 
is one way of doing this and validating the importance of correct usages. Expectations for editing need to be 
supported by short, focused lessons about conventional usage so students can identify their own errors during 
editing. 

Students who struggle with conventional usage may become reluctant to write when there is an overemphasis on 
errors. For this reason it is useful to limit a discussion of usage to the editing stage rather than pointing out 
language errors in early drafts. 

Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 4 /303 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Edit text for matters of correctness (continued) 



Assessing the correctness of language used by students should be in the context of their responses to and creation 
of texts. Much assessment will be formative, with the intent of helping students learn and understand language 
correctness. Students should have opportunities during the process of creating their texts to peer assess and make 
use of various support resources; e.g., dictionaries, thesauri, handbooks. 

Goal Setting to Encourage Self-assessment 

Set periods of about four weeks for short-term goal setting, to be followed by a teacher conference. At the 
beginning of each four-week period, have students review collections of their written work to identify 
characteristic strengths in usage, spelling, punctuation and capitalization and to identify common problems. In 
conferences, have students choose one area of concern; set a goal for improvement in this area, and determine a 
strategy to help them improve. Students will then make this their editing focus. Have students write these goals 
and strategies in their learning logs or on goal sheets. 

Teaching and Learning Strategies 

Language Register (io-ia; io-2a, u 20-ia; 20-20, 

Many "errors" in student writing occur as a result of using verbal language structures in 
formal written work. Students need to learn the difference between oral and written forms 
and between informal and formal language situations. The following suggestions may be 
useful. 

• Audiotape a student narrating an experience. Ask students to transcribe the tape 
verbatim. Using an overhead transparency, analyze this text for characteristic traits of 
informal speech: repetitions, colloquialisms and unconventional structures. Ask students 
to translate this passage to standard written text. 

• Make a list or poster of common oral structures and their standard written equivalents. 

• Ask students to identify comedians whose humour derives from using an inappropriate 
language register: informal speech on formal occasions, and formal speech on informal 
occasions. Have students improvise brief sketches to explore the potential humour in 
inappropriate language register. 

M i n MeSSOns-Usag e (10-lb, d, e; 10-2b, d, e,f, h; 20-lb, e; 20-2b, d, e,f, h) 

Suggestions for mini-lessons on usage: 

• Deal with one problem per mini-lesson and keep the lesson brief. 

• Use an inductive approach: "Here are examples. What is the pattern/convention/rule?" 

• Draw examples, including examples of correct usage, from student work. 

• Focus on usage and application. For example, in a mini-lesson on pronoun usage, teach 
students to test whether they have used the correct pronoun by adding or eliminating 
words (Maxwell and Meiser 1997, p. 268). 



304/ General Outcome 4 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

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Edit text for matters of correctness (continued) 



Examples: 

Students can test "Karen invited Jane and 1" by dropping the "Jane and" -> "Karen 
invited . . . me." 

They can test "Paul earns more than me" by adding the understood verb "do" to the end of 
the sentence. -> "Paul earns more than . . . / do." 

• Keep mini-lessons light and lively. Treat persistent language barbarisms in innovative 
ways: through student cartoon-drawing contests, dramatic sketches or kinesthetic 
activities. 

• Make the subject of the mini-lesson the editing focus of the week. 



Instruction on Editing (io-ib, c, d, e,f, g, h; io-2b, c, d, e,f, g, /», /,- 20-ib, c, d, 

e,f, g, h, i; 20-2 b, c, d, e,f, g, h, i) 

• Model editing on an overhead transparency, using, with permission, a draft of a student 
paper that represents the kinds of errors that students in the class tend to make. Focus on 
the four or five errors of greatest concern to the class. 

• Give students copies of a student paper, and ask them to work individually to identify 
and correct errors in usage. 

• Ask students to meet in groups to compare the corrections they have made. 

• Discuss the errors with the class. 

• Have students generate a checklist of the kinds of errors they intend to watch for in their 
own editing. They may want to place these errors under two headings: errors that 
obscure meaning and errors that simply irritate the reader. Students may use these 
checklists when they are self-editing. Periodically review the checklist with students, 
and revise it if necessary. 

• Allow class time for peer editing. Students should edit with the same group they met 
with for peer revision. Their partners will be familiar with the work and can continue the 
dialogue about changes that were made earlier. 



Editing Conferences (io-ia, b, c, d, e,f, g, h; io-2a, b, c, d, e,f,g, h ; 20-ia, b, c, 

d, e,f, g, h, i; 20-2a, b, c, d, e,f, g, ft) 

Use editing conferences to do the following: 

• Help students analyze errors that persist after editing. Few errors are random; help 
students identify the misconception that prompts the error, and discuss strategies for 
changing habits of unconventional usage. 

• Discuss students' strategies, and suggest strategies to make editing more effective; e.g., 
reading drafts aloud. 

• Give students a resource related to the problem. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 /305 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Edit text for matters of correctness (continued) 



• Review student goals. If these goals are too general, suggest concrete and attainable 
goals. 

• Ask students to provide work samples that demonstrate their improvement or to provide 
documentation of the work they have done toward attaining their goal; e.g., keeping a 
personal editing checklist, writing a personal style guide. 

J£Sfc. Editing Stations (10-la, b, c, d, e,f, g, h; 10-2a, b, c, d, e,f,g, h, i; 20-la, b, c, d, e, 
f, g, K i,j; 20-2a, b, c, d, e,f, g, h, i) 

Set up stations in different areas of the classroom where students can obtain help with 
specific types of errors during conferencing and editing periods; e.g., errors in spelling, 
sentence structure, pronoun reference and verb tense. Provide resources related to the focus 
of each station; e.g., dictionaries, simple handouts giving examples of errors and ways to 
correct them, and style guides with helpful sections marked. Direct students to particular 
stations where they can self-edit or edit with others. Assign groups to make posters or tip 
sheets for each station. 



r 



Assessment Grouping by Need 

Group students for conferences and mini-lessons according to a need that 
has been identified in their work; e.g., errors in verb tense, subject-verb 
agreement, pronoun reference or parallel structure. Ask students to locate 
and contribute examples for discussion. 



Spelling (10-la, c; 10-2a, c; 20-la, c; 20-2a, c) 

Skill in spelling may be unconnected to cognitive development or writing ability, yet reading 
audiences may view spelling errors as offensive. Teachers should strive for balance in 
spelling instruction, fostering risk taking in the early stages of writing by not penalizing 
students for spelling errors, yet not accepting spelling errors in polished drafts. 

Spelling instruction needs to take place in the context of student writing. Student drafts 
constitute a collection of the words students want and need to use and, therefore, need to be 
able to spell. 

Focus instruction on: 

• helping students develop a sense of responsibility for editing spelling 

• increasing students' understanding of their own particular spelling error patterns and 
editing needs 

• providing students with the tools to strategize when they are unsure of the spelling of a 
word they are using, including: 

- editing strategies to help students recognize errors 

- reference to common spelling rules to help students generalize 

- strategies to take advantage of students' ability to recognize correct spelling 

- dictionaries, spelling reference books and electronic spell checks. 



306/ General Outcome 4 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Edit text for matters of correctness (continued) 



All readers can recognize some words they are not able to spell. In working with students 
who are mature spellers, encourage the use of these words in writing, thus increasing 
students' spelling vocabulary. In working with students who have extreme spelling 
difficulties, focus on concrete and attainable goals and on a basic vocabulary of frequently 
used words. Students who are overwhelmed with expectations they cannot reach will be 
reluctant to write. Arrange for the use of a scribe occasionally to allow these students to 
express their ideas without the impediment of spelling. 

Classroom activities that foster a sensitivity to words; e.g., explorations of linguistic history, 
individual word derivations and the evolution of conventional spelling, help shape student 
attitudes to conventional spelling. Extensive reading reinforces correct spelling. 

The instructional needs of mature spellers may be met simply by encouraging these students 
to take risks in trying out new words and by making them responsible for editing their own 
work. To encourage students to take responsibility for editing, you may want to establish a 
classroom policy of not accepting unedited drafts as final products for marking. 



Assessment Formative Assessment of Spelling 

Errors that persist after students have made every effort to edit suggest 
the need for more instruction in spelling. The errors themselves provide 
information about the sort of spelling instruction and support these 
students require. Research suggests that few spelling errors are random, 
and analysis can help determine faulty generalizations the student is 
making. 



Working with Struggling Spellers (io-ic; io-2c; 20-ic; 20-2c) 

Arrange conferences with struggling spellers to examine the kinds of errors they are making 
and to establish short-term goals for spelling. 

• Instruct students in specific editing and spelling strategies. Encourage them to 
strategize when faced with a word they do not know how to spell. 

• Help each student select the strategies he or she will follow until the next conference. 

• Choose a date for an assessment conference. On this date, ask students to show their 
Give It a Shot chart, Error Analysis chart, personal spelling dictionary or 
documentation of other strategies they have used. 

Have students who are experiencing extreme spelling difficulties take responsibility for 
editing a limited number of words. After they have edited these words, arrange to have them 
work with a partner or with teacher assistance. Reduce the number of polished assignments 
required of these students, and encourage them to spend more time on each. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 /307 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Edit text for matters of correctness (continued) 



Student Presentations on Spelling (io-ic; io-2c; 20-ic; 20-2c) 

Have students work with partners or in groups to present short lessons on: 

• common spelling problems 

• strategies for using spelling dictionaries 

• the uses and limitations of electronic spell checks 

• Canadian versus American spelling conventions 

• frequent spelling variations used in the media. 



Assessment Formative Assessment of Presentations on Spelling 

Collaborate with students to generate assessment criteria for their 
presentations on spelling. 

Assessment criteria suggestions (British Columbia Ministry of Education, 
Skills and Training 1996, p. 43): 

• The presentation: 

- clearly identified and described a specific spelling problem or 
convention or a strategy for using a spelling aid 

- provided illustrative examples 

- offered relevant and practical suggestions or strategies 

- included appropriate practice or monitoring activities. 

• Students responded to questions with relevant, clear information. 



f 



Give It a Shot (io-ic; io-2c; 20-ic; 20-2c) 

This strategy develops students' visual memory and their ability to recognize correct spelling 
when they see it. 

• In the editing process, ask students to underline words they suspect are misspelled. 

• To assist students in correcting these errors, provide them with a four-column chart in 
which to try out different spelling possibilities. In the first column of the Give It a Shot 
chart, students copy the word as they originally used it. In the second and third columns, 
they try out two other possible spellings, drawing on their knowledge of phonics, 
spelling conventions and semantic patterns. 

• Have students select the most likely spelling from the three alternatives on their chart and 
print it in the fourth column. To enhance their visual memory of the correct spelling, 
suggest that students print the syllable that caused them difficulty in capital letters. 

• Have students check the dictionary for spellings they have not been able to confirm using 
the Give It a Shot chart. 



308/ General Outcome 4 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Edit text for matters of correctness (continued) 



GIVE IT A SHOT© 



Initial Spelling 



First Try 



Second Try 



Correct Spelling 



MMHnMMMHMnMMM 

I Assessment Peer and Self Assessment of Give It a Shot 



Error Analysis Chart 

Have students create a three-column chart such as the following: 



ERROR ANALYSIS** 



The Word 



How I Spelled It 



Type of Error 



Ask students to use this chart to keep a record of all words that have been 
identified in their work as recurring spelling errors. Remind them to 
check their chart when editing. Check charts periodically to ensure that 
they are maintained. Allow time for students to give each other dictations 
based on their charts. 



** Reproduced from Manitoba Education and Training, Senior 2 English Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation (Winnipeg, 
MB: Manitoba Education and Training, 1998). 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4 /309 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Edit text for matters of correctness (continued) 



Writing for Publication (io-ia, b, c, d, ej, g, h; io-2a, b, c, d, e,f, g, h, u 

20-1 a, b, c, d, e,f, g, h, i,j; 20-2a, b, c, d, e,f, g, h, i) 

To increase students' motivation in editing and proofreading, ensure that their final products 
have a public audience as often as possible and practise a classroom policy of zero tolerance 
for spelling errors in published works. 

To find a public audience, students may: 

• send their letters to the editor of the school or local newspaper 

• publish their fiction and poetry in the form of class anthologies, personal chapbooks or 
children's books; distribute these books to doctors' waiting rooms, senior citizens' 
homes, day care centres and elementary schools 

• publish feature articles, columns and reviews in class and school newspapers and 
magazines 

• submit their best work to young adult literary magazines or Web sites 

• post their posters and book jackets in the classroom, school halls or a library display case 

• write letters of invitation and appreciation to speakers 

• display their portfolios 

• duplicate survey forms, handouts for their oral presentations, brochures and handbills. 



Mini-lessons-Spelling (io-ic; io-2c; 20-ic; 20-2c) 

Keep the lessons short, and deal with one spelling pattern or convention per lesson. Work 
inductively to determine the patterns. Teach the patterns in mini-lessons and the exceptions 
in conferences with students. Avoid teaching confusing words together; e.g., "there" should 
be taught with "here" and "where," not with "their." The spelling pattern or convention that 
is the subject of a mini-lesson can be designated as the editing focus of the week. 



Analyzing Errors (io-ic; io-2c; 20-1 c; 20-24 

Ask students to contribute to a classroom list of common spelling errors. As a class, sort 
these according to the type of error; e.g., transfer from French or from other first language, 
transfer from oral language, reversal of letters, failure to double consonants. Students may 
also be interested in maintaining a list of the types of spelling errors that are not caught by a 
computer spell check. 



Editing for Spelling (io-ic; io-2c; 20-ic; 20-2$ 

To assist students in identifying suspected spelling errors, teach various editing strategies 
that help them ignore meaning as they read and attend only to spelling; e.g.: 

• Allow a draft to sit for 24 hours before proofreading it. 

• If the draft is handwritten, type it if possible. Errors are more evident in typed text. 

• If the draft has been written using a word processor, edit the text on a print copy after 
running a spell check. 



3 1 0/ General Outcome 4 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Edit text for matters of correctness (continued) 



Write your most persistent spelling error at the top of the page, and proofread the text 
just for this error the first time through. 

Run a blank sheet of paper slowly down the text so that you read only one line at a time. 

Read the text aloud. 

If you are still missing spelling errors, read one sentence at a time from the bottom of the 
page up or one word at a time from right to left. 



Personal Dictionary (io-ia, c; io-2a, c; 20-ia, c, 20-20, c) 

Ask each student to list, in a personal dictionary, any misspelled words that have slipped 
through the editing process. The use of small telephone number books allows students to 
alphabetize the words. Students can periodically take dictation from this list with a partner. 



Student Examples (io-ib; io-2b, /,- 20-ib; 20-2b,f, 

Ask a student who has produced a competently punctuated piece of writing to provide a 
typed copy of several paragraphs with all punctuation and capitalization removed. Have 
students punctuate and capitalize the sample in groups. Compare and discuss the decisions 
that the writer and the groups made. 



Using Punctuation to Clarify (io-ib; io-2b; 20-ib, g; 20-2b, g) 

Have students work in groups to generate sentences that could have two or more entirely 
different meanings, depending on the way they are punctuated. 

Example (Tonjes 1991, p. 1 18): 

• Joshua said his brother was a thief. 

• Joshua said, "His brother was a thief." 

• "Joshua," said his brother, "was a thief." 



Formal Essays (10-la, b, c; 10-2a, b, c, h, i; 20-la, b, c; 20-2a, b, c, h, i) 

Students should be familiar with a standard referencing system. Formal essays provide 
students with challenging opportunities to set up quotations in short and block form and to 
use italics or quotation marks for titles. Provide students with an error-free sample essay that 
illustrates various formal conventions of a reference system, and ask them to generate a list 
of these conventions. 



Referencing (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Students should be increasingly familiar with the styles of the standard bibliographic systems 
used in the school; e.g., MLA, APA and Chicago. Provide students with an opportunity to 
practise referencing, by having the class present or describe a variety of materials and asking 
how such materials would be rendered as citations on "Bibliography" or "Works Cited" 
pages. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4/311 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Edit text for matters of correctness (continued) 



Teacher Resources 

Aaron, J. E. and M. McArthur. The Little, Brown Compact Handbook. 

This reference handbook addresses the main components of written language 
conventions and usage. Topics include the writing process, language conventions, 
formats, research writing and writing in other subject areas. 

Baker, Sheridan. The Practical Stylist. 3rd Edition. 

This resource is designed to help students write clear, persuasive prose and to develop 
effective style. Subjects include thesis statements, logic, diction, syntax and mechanics. 

Barzowsky-Smith, June. Wordstrips: 180 Vocabulary Posters. 

The roots and meanings of 1 80 vocabulary terms are illustrated in this series of posters. 

Beard, Jocelyn A. (ed.). Monologues from Classic Plays, 468 B.C. to 1960 A.D. 

This publication, which includes monologues selected from classical Greek theatre to 
twentieth century theatre of the absurd, provides examples and models of effective style. 

Bolton, F. and D. Snowball. Teaching Spelling: A Practical Resource. 

This resource explores how spelling evolves through student writing. It addresses the 
stages through which students move from unconventional to conventional spelling. It 
provides assessment strategies in the context of student revision. 

Graves, D. H. A Fresh Look at Writing. 

This resource combines theory and practical applications for teachers of writing. It 
includes strategies for conferencing and mini-lessons; promotes skill instruction through 
authentic writing activities; presents comprehensive ideas for teaching individual skills; 
and examines topics such as portfolios, record keeping and methods for teaching writing 
conventions, spelling and a range of genres. 

Hodges, Richard E. Improving Spelling and Vocabulary in the Secondary School. 

The author examines how accuracy in writing develops in the senior high school years 
and examines the implications of this process for the way teachers instruct spelling and 
vocabulary building for older students. 

Moseley, David. Canadian Spelling Dictionary. 

The 25 000 words in this dictionary are arranged according to a system of vowels, which 
makes it easier for students to locate words they cannot spell. 

Muschla, Gary R. Writing Workshop Survival Kit. 

This resource provides suggestions for writing workshop activities and mini-lessons and 
provides reproducible masters for the mechanics of writing. 

312/ General Outcome 4 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

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Edit text for matters of correctness (continued) 



Pratt, T. K. (ed.). Gage Canadian Thesaurus. 

This thesaurus is distinctly Canadian. As well, it strives to be inclusive; it represents 
Aboriginal people both as a main entry and in an appendix that features a word list of 
Aboriginal groups in Canada. 






Weaver, Constance. Teaching Grammar in Context. 

This is a useful text for teachers who may be reconsidering their approach to teaching 
grammar. Of particular relevance are the following chapters: Chapter 4, Toward a 
Perspective on Error; Chapter 5, Reconceptualizing the Teaching of Grammar; and 
Chapter 6, Learning Theory and the Teaching of Grammar. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 4/313 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



3 14/ Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



GENERAL OUTCOME 5 



STUDENTS WILL LISTEN, SPEAK, READ, WRITE, VIEW AND REPRESENT TO: 

5.1.2 Appreciate diversity of 
expression, opinion and 
perspective 



5.1.1 Use language and 
image to show 
respect and 
consideration 




5.1.3 Recognize 

accomplishments 
and events 



5.1 Respect others and strengthen 
community 




5.2 Work within a group 



5.2.1 Cooperate with 

others, and contribute 
to group processes 



5.2.2 Understand and evaluate 
group processes 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5/315 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



GENERAL OUTCOME 5 ■ INDEX OF STRATEGIES 

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate 
with others. 

5.1 Respect others and strengthen community 

5.1.1 Use language and image to show respect and consideration 

id\ • Inquiry into Stereotyping in Textual Representations 324 

I2& f • Cultural Gestures 326 

• Advertising Second Take 326 

i«i\ • Classroom Read Arounds 327 

f • Monitoring Metacognitive Growth 327 

5.1.2 Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective 

J^t • Class Quilt 330 

IS% • Class Wall 330 

t£\ • Profile of the Century 330 

i£S4 T • Coming to Canada 331 

f • Monitoring Metacognitive Growth 332 

5.1.3 Recognize accomplishments and events 

• The Year in Review 336 

• Wanted Posters 337 

• Life Maps 337 

$ • Monitoring Metacognitive Growth 338 

5.2 Work within a group 

5.2. 1 Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes 

/£& f • Student-led Whole-class Discussions 343 

*<** <y • Collaborative Writing 344 

|£^ • Monologues to Dialogues 346 

i^>\ • Charting Responsibilities 346 

i£S4 ^ • Cooperative Language Cues 346 

i»Si * Tack-on Tools 347 

4^% $ • Jigsaw Groups 348 

i£S* • Simulations 348 

5.2.2 Understand and evaluate group processes 

i£& $ • Daily Reflection Sheet 352 

4£j% • Create Self, Peer, Group or Teacher Monitoring Tools from CAMP Materials 352 

i«S% • Create and UseT-charts 353 

£2& $ • Reflection Questionnaire 353 



316/ General Outcome 5 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



GENERAL OUTCOME 5 




Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, 
support and collaborate with others. 

The language arts play an important role in preparing students for participation in a 
democratic society. In General Outcome 5, students learn to view themselves not only 
as individuals with individual needs but also as responsible participants in a larger 
group of individuals with common goals. This community extends from the classroom 
into the school and into the larger community. Acceptance of diversity, cultural 
awareness and understanding, and collaborative skills are fundamental to participating 
responsibly in a community, and these things need to be focused upon within the 
classroom. 

Practices that Extend Community 

Classroom practices that help build and celebrate community include creating 
opportunities for students to: 

develop communication and active listening skills 

explore their own community through visits to theatres, museums and local 
cultural events and through inviting guests into the classroom 

participate in the wider community through publications, guest performances and 
letters to the editor 

widen their perspective through links with other communities; e.g., through 
volunteerism, Web pages, e-mail, pen pals 

reflect on their use of language and its effects in achieving common and individual 
purposes. 

Building Community through Texts 

Students broaden their understanding of themselves and the world around them 
through the texts they listen to, read and view. They become aware of their roles as 
global citizens and their responsibilities in bringing about positive social change. 
Students broaden their understanding of others through texts that take them vicariously 
into lives very different from their own. 

The selection of texts, however, presents particular challenges to English language arts 
teachers. These challenges come in the form of media texts that portray people from 
minority cultures or unfamiliar places as intrinsically different — exotic, dangerous, 
pitiable or objects of fun (Duncan et al. 1 996, pp. 34-38). Challenges also come in the 
form of texts from the past that represent individuals and groups in ways now 
recognized as racist or sexist. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 5/317 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



Teachers need to ensure that students examine texts as products and reflections of the 
economic, social and political times in which they are created and set. Students need 
to learn to recognize the ways in which time and circumstances affect the language, 
attitudes, beliefs, content and forms that writers, artists and producers use. Because 
students select many of the texts they experience, it is essential that they learn to 
question the premises of texts and develop independent judgements. Analyzing media 
images is a necessary part of students' education as literate citizens and critical 
thinkers. Opportunities for integration with social studies exist here. 

Building Community through Collaboration 

Because of the importance of collaborative work in building community, several 
specific outcomes that directly address collaborative skills are located in General 
Outcome 5. Collaboration is also integral to many of the specific outcomes in the 
other general outcomes. 

Collaboration is central to the language arts curriculum for reasons such as the 
following (Brubacher, Payne and Rickett 1990): 

• Working together provides students with opportunities to articulate and wrestle 
with ideas and to learn from each other. It acknowledges the fact that learning is 
constructed socially. 

• Collaborative work allows students to be active and takes advantage of their 
natural need for and enjoyment of connecting with peers. 



• 



• 



Group processes prepare students for the demands of future employment. 
Workplaces are increasingly interdependent, due to the complexity of information- 
based occupations. Collaborative skills are vital to students' future success, both 
in the workplace and in personal relationships. 

Collaborative work helps build community in a diverse classroom. Working in 
collaborative groups can promote cross-cultural understanding and friendship, as 
well as tolerance of diversity. 

What Collaboration Means 

Collaborative tasks must be designed so that: 

• instruction in group skills and processes is embedded in the learning task 

• both task process/completion skills and group maintenance skills are taught and 
assessed 

• students are collectively and individually responsible for processes and products. 



318/ General Outcome 5 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

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Contrasting Group Work and Collaborative Learning 



Group Work 


Collaborative Learning 


Students work on their own. 


Students are dependent on each other. 


Some students do all of the work. 


Each student is accountable for the group 
work and the learning. 


Group composition is not related to task. 


Groups are formed based on task to be 
completed 


Social skills are not taught. 


The teacher provides instruction in social 
skills. 


Teacher does not participate in the group 
work. 


The teacher closely supervises groups. 



Adapted from Salmon River - GLC Eisenhower Project, Cooperative Learning 
(http://www.potsdam.edu/educ/GLC/ike/cooperative. html) and Dawn M. Snodgrass and Mary 
M. Bevevino, Collaborative Learning in Middle and Secondary Schools: Applications and 
Assessments (Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, 2000). 

Because many authentic language activities require collaboration, they provide a 
natural vehicle for embedding instruction in group processes and skills. 

Collaborative work teaches two kinds of group skills: 

• task process/completion skills — behaviours that are effective in getting the job 
done; e.g., initiating activities, clarifying group direction and coordinating 
contributions 

• group maintenance skills — behaviours that keep the group functioning smoothly; 
e.g., encouraging others, accepting group decisions and expressing disagreement 
appropriately. 

The Teacher's Role in Collaborative Learning 

Although students enrolled in Grade 10 English language arts assume increasing 
responsibility for planning collaborative projects, the teacher is responsible for: 

• making initial decisions regarding: 

- the kind of learning that is best accomplished by students alone, in groups and 
in a whole-class setting 

- the most appropriate group size for each task 

- the task structure that will ensure both individual and collective accountability 

- the selection and configuration of groups 

• managing interactive activities by: 

- establishing and maintaining a protocol for movements into and between 
groups, to avoid lost time and disruption 

- clarifying the task and the interactive goals; i.e., the group skills that will be 
assessed 

- providing time for reflection, debriefing, closure and celebration 

• instructing students in interactive skills, including: 

- selecting with the class the particular skills that will be focused upon and 
monitored 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5/319 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



- providing instruction and modelling 

- structuring collaborative tasks to fit the skill level of the students 

- providing self-assessment tools for groups and individuals 

• being active during collaborative activities by: 

- asking questions that promote student thought 

- providing individuals and groups with immediate feedback 

- suggesting strategies for groups encountering difficulties 

- modelling group behaviours by participating in a group for a period 

- observing groups systematically to decide on priorities for further instruction 

• being committed to collaborative work by: 

- recognizing that conflict within groups is normal 

- viewing difficulties as information about the skill areas that need further 
instruction 

- collaborating with colleagues. 

How to Form Groups 

Many teachers use flexible groupings; that is, they have students move frequently 
between independent work, discussion with partners, small groups and the whole-class 
setting. At some point during the course, each student should work with every other 
student in the class. 

Students should also have opportunities to work in groups structured in a variety of 
ways and formed on the basis of a variety of factors, such as the following: 

• Teacher-selection: The groups teachers organize may be heterogeneous and 
homogeneous: 

- Heterogeneous groups mirror the composition of the class. Placing students at 
various levels of skill or expertise within each group allows for peer tutoring. 

- Homogeneous groups allow students to work at approximately the same level 
and allow for differentiation and targeted instruction. 



• 



Random choice: Groups are formed in a random fashion; e.g., by numbering off 
students in the class. 

A common purpose: Groups are formed according to purpose. Peer-editing 
groups, for example, may be organized around the stage of editing required by 
each student; e.g., first draft, second draft, proofreading or sharing of completed 
work. 

Student interest: Students select a task or topic and then form groups with others 
who have chosen the same task. 

Peer preference: Students choose friends with whom they would like to work and 
then select a subject. Peer-preference groups may be most suitable for projects that 
require a great deal of work outside of class. 



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• 



• 



How to Construct Interdependent Tasks 

Some of the learning outcomes assessed through collaborative tasks pertain to 
interactive skills. These include outcomes in learning outcome subheadings 1.2.1, 
1.2.2, 3.1.2, 5.2.1 and 5.2.2. These outcomes are normally assessed through checklists, 
peer and teacher observations, and self-assessment forms. 

Other outcomes are assessed individually in the context of collaborative work. The 
challenge for teachers is to create or assign tasks that require a high degree of 
interaction and interdependence, as well as providing opportunities for individual 
students to demonstrate their learning. 

Teacher-designed Tasks 

While assessing individual performance, teachers can build in interactive experiences 
through a variety of means. 

• Make each student responsible for a portion of the content; e.g., use a Jigsaw 
structure, as described in learning outcome subheading 5.2.1, p. 348. 

• Assess each student's contribution to one final product; e.g., require separate 
drafts from each student. 

• Assess each student's contribution to a composite product; e.g., assess separate 
articles in a magazine. 

• Test individuals on concepts the group has explored. 

Student-planned Projects 

Teachers promote individual accountability in student-planned collaborative projects 
by requiring components such as the following: 

• proposals that detail the responsibilities of each member 

• project logs in which each student tracks his or her progress each day and 
discusses any problems that have arisen within the group 

• identification of the separate contribution of each member to a collective product; 
e.g., students contributing articles to a magazine can be assessed individually on 
their contribution, as well as receiving a mark for the magazine as a whole 

• separate drafts from each individual before the collaborative product is put 
together 

• individual self-assessment forms and checklists 

• verification of having revised, edited and proofread pieces of work authored by 
other group members. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 5 /321 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



Assessing Collaborative Work 

Students are expected to develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes that contribute to 
collaboration with others. Appendix B provides a chart on page 4 1 6 with various 
options for assessing group maintenance and task process/completion. Appendix B 
also includes two assessment devices — one conducive to student self-assessment, 
p. 428, the other useful for summative evaluation, p. 394. These scoring guides can be 
effectively used in the context of teacher-student conferences. 



322/ General Outcome 5 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

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Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to respect, 
support and collaborate with others. 




5 . 1 Respect others and strengthen 
community 



Q2QHP 



Use language and image to show respect and consideration 



Overview 

The ability to respect others and to recognize and value diversity is central to understanding others and 
communicating effectively. 

Language and image that is respectful and considerate of self and others is essential to building, developing and 
maintaining community. Respectful language and use of image goes beyond the superficial expression of 
manners; it is based on an acknowledgement of the worth of each individual and consideration of individual 
sensitivities, and it involves a conscious decision to act, speak and respond accordingly. 

Students need opportunities to consider the appropriate language used in writing and speaking about, and images 
used in representing, cultures, races, genders, ages and abilities. Respectful language includes others and involves 
knowing how to dialogue about ideas without offending others. Considerate use of an image takes into 
consideration what the image may mean to different audiences and whether the treatment of that image is 
appropriate, given its origin and the associations that may be made from it. Students also need opportunities to 
consider when and how to respond when they encounter stereotypes and inappropriate language. 

The study of literature and other texts informs learners of the power of language and image. 

Fiction and film are valuable tools in taking students into lives that appear to differ from their own, so that they 
develop a sense of identification with others. This is particularly useful in homogeneous communities. 
Multicultural and co-educational classrooms provide a wealth of opportunity for instruction regarding inclusive 
and exclusive language. 

It is important that students recognize stereotypes, reflect on the reasons for the use of stereotypes and reflect on 
the effects of stereotypes on the groups that are portrayed and on the audience. Students should explore 
representations of: 

• individuals — considering how age, gender, and race or ethnicity are portrayed 

• cultural groups 

• institutions. 



They should consider representations that typically occur in: 

fiction of various genres and historic periods 

television programs, including music videos 

song lyrics 

movies 

advertising. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5 /323 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Use language and image to show respect and consideration (continued) 



Metacognitive Learning 



Metacognit 


ive Process Outcome (Grades 10-12) 


Description 


Selection 


Modification 


- reflect on and describe 


- select appropriate 


- monitor the effect of 


own strategies for 


strategies to assist with 


selected strategies, 


differentiating between 


such differentiation 


and modify them as 


positive and negative tones 




needed 


and for differentiating 






between sensitive and 






insensitive uses, including 






own use, of language and 






image 







Assessment of 5.1.1 

The purpose of assessment in learning outcome subheading 5.1.1 is to determine whether students: 

• have adequate strategies for recognizing and analyzing how language and image are used in a text and for 
discerning their effect on context 

• are open to new ways of thinking about language and image and about how such choices can affect context 

• demonstrate an awareness of the ways language and image are used to include or exclude others. 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 

Inquiry into Stereotyping in Textual Representations 

(10-1 a, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-1 a, b, c, d,f; 20-2a, b, c, d,J) 

Have students explore the portrayal of particular individuals, groups or institutions in a range 
of texts and present their findings in a form of their choice. 

/«^>V • Ask students working with a partner or in a small group to select an individual, group 
or institution whose portrayal in print or media texts they would like to examine. 
Possibilities include: 

- women in nineteenth century novels 

- a selected minority group in police or detective dramas 

- elderly people in television advertising 

- husbands in situation comedies 

- religion in contemporary movies. 



324/ General Outcome 5 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Use language and image to show respect and consideration (continued) 



Before students embark on their inquiry, ask the class to generate a list of the 
elements that constitute representation of individuals, groups or institutions. For 
example, a portrayal of individuals may include the following: 

- Visibility: How often do these individuals appear in texts relative to their 
numbers in society? Discuss with students how they can find this information. 

- Role: Do these individuals play key or supporting roles? Do they play heroes or 
villains? What occupational roles do they play? What actions are associated with 
them? 

- Status and authority: Do others listen to these individuals? Are their actions 
effective in resolving conflicts? Are they comic figures? 

- Descriptors: What words, images or symbols are used to describe these 
individuals? 

- Clothing, appearance and gestures: Is their appearance individualized or 
stereotyped? 

- Speech and accent: Are accents and speech patterns exaggerated and used for a 
typical effect; e.g., comic, pompous? 

- Characteristic themes: What issues or conflicts do these individuals confront? 

Ask students to plan their research, assigning various tasks to each group member, 
and to submit a proposal for a conference with the teacher. 



Assessment Summative Assessment of Inquiry into Stereotyping in Textual 
Representations 

Ask students to present their findings on textual representations through a 
form of their choice. Possibilities include: 

• a drama about a person of their target group seeking work as an 
actor 

• an oral presentation with graphs displaying findings 

• a series of posters for a Field Walk — see learning outcome 
subheading 1.1.1 (p. 97) — representing various portrayals of 
individuals. 



Work with students to develop criteria for their presentations. These 
criteria may include the following: 

Students examined a broad range of appropriate media forms. 

Students thoroughly analyzed the elements that constitute 
representation. 

Students showed insight into the social context in which images 
related to culture, race, gender, age and abilities were created. 

Students accurately generalized from the data they collected. 

Students presented their findings in a creative and engaging form. 

This project also presents many opportunities to assess interactive 
processes. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5 /325 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Use 



language and image to show respect and consideration (continued) 



Cultural Gestures (10-la, b, c, d; 10-2a, b, c, d; 20-la, b, c, d,f; 20-2a, b, c, d,J) 

Students need to learn that many of the nonverbal ways in which they communicate are 
culturally determined, that other societies have different norms for many gestures and that 
societies vary in their degree of ceremony and formality. 

/^>\ • As a class, generate a list of behaviours that are culturally determined; e.g., greetings, 
dancing, ways of showing affection and grief, norms for appropriate physical 
distance, table manners, expressions of respect, regret and appreciation. 

• Have groups research these behaviours with respect to different societies, cultures and 
time periods and share their findings with the class. Encourage students to explore 
credible sources of information, rather than relying on media representations that may 
be caricatured or overgeneralized. If possible, invite a panel of guest speakers with 
roots or experience in different societies. 

• Discuss the practical reasons for the evolution of various culturally determined 
behaviours. 

Have pairs of students adopt the roles of people from different societies and act out an initial 
greeting. Discuss the potential of culturally determined behaviour for creating 
misunderstanding or for stereotyping various cultural groups. 



Immmmsfmmmsmmmmmm 
Assessment 



Self-assessment of Cultural Gestures 

Have students reflect in their journals on their emotional reaction to the 
situations enacted. Journal responses should indicate growth in 
acceptance and awareness of culturally determined behaviours. 



Advertising Second Take ao-ia, b, c, d; io-2a, b, c, d ; 20-ia, b, c, d,f; 

20-2a,b,c,d,f) 

Print advertisements and television commercials often employ one-dimensional representations 
and stereotypes as a "shorthand" for immediate communication with the audience. 

• Have students collect a variety of print advertisements presenting different 
socioeconomic and cultural groups, sexes and ages. Analyze the language and 
images presented in these depictions, discussing examples of stereotypes, exclusion, 
token representation or overrepresentation of specific groups. 

• Have students sketch a commercial, revising it to employ realistic and more complex 
portrayals of individuals and groups. Discuss whether the initial marketing goals of the 
commercial are met in the redesigned version. 



326/ General Outcome 5 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Use language and image to show respect and consideration (continued) 









4£S*% Classroom Read ArOUndS (10-la, e; 10-2a, e; 20-la, e; 20-2a, e) 

In order to have students experience and work with constructive criticism, they can engage in 
full-class or smaller-group read arounds. The teacher can facilitate as the students pass their 
work around the classroom to one student at a time. A student reads the text created and 
responds to predetermined prompts or marking criteria. The work then gets passed to the 
next student who also responds to the text created, and so on. The goal is to have each 
student in the room look at as many different examples of student work as possible and make 
as many comments as possible to help his or her peers enhance their work. 

Once the individual student's work is returned, this student can then read the comments 
made by his/her peers and can be asked to respond to them in a journal or in a small-group 
discussion. Students can use the feedback from their peers to help improve the text they 
created and meet their goals for the assignment. 



Monitoring Metacognitive Growth (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia; 20-2a) 

V Students can be encouraged to reflect on their use of language and image by aski 



raged 
questions such as the following 



What are my responses to others' use of particular language and image? 

How respectful and considerate have 1 been in using language and image? 

How may language and image be used to convey respect and consideration? to foster 
collaboration? 

How has the use of language and image changed over time? 

How may language and image be used deliberately to stereotype or parody? 



Teacher Resources 



Burke, Jim. The English Teacher's Companion: A Complete Guide to Classroom, 
Curriculum, and the Profession. 

This text contains a brief chapter entitled "Thoughts About Culture, Race, and 
Language" as well as an endnote regarding the "Human Language." 

Daniels, Harvey and Marilyn Bizar. Methods That Matter: Six Structures for Best Practice 
Classrooms. 

This resource identifies basic teaching structures designed to make classrooms more 
active, experiential, collaborative, democratic and cognitive. It includes concrete 
descriptions of practical and proven ways of organizing time, space, materials and 
activities. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5/327 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Use language and image to show respect and consideration (continued) 



Johnson, David W., Roger T. Johnson and Edythe Holubec. Cooperation in the Classroom. 

This book presents a comprehensive discussion of research and theory about cooperative 
learning. It suggests techniques for teaching cooperative skills in the context of a range 
of classroom projects and learning activities. 

McCracken, N. M. and B. C. Appleby (eds.). Gender Issues in the Teaching of English. 

This thought-provoking and accessible resource creates an awareness of how gender 
issues influence classroom pedagogy in practice. It provides extension activities for self- 
reflection. 

Ross, Elinor Parry. Pathways to Thinking: Strategies for Developing Independent Learners 
K~8 . Expanded Professional Version. 

Although the practical exercises included in this text were intended for a pre-secondary 
audience, much of the theory can be adapted to the secondary classroom. This text offers 
a number of considerations regarding cultural differences as a curriculum topic, as well 
as how these differences may affect learning styles. 

Stahl, R. J. Cooperative Learning in Language Arts: A Handbook for Teachers. 

This book focuses on helping teachers implement cooperative learning strategies in 
language arts classrooms. It describes the cooperative learning philosophy and features 
sample lesson plans, resources and record-keeping devices. 



328/ General Outcome 5 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to respect, 
support and collaborate with others. 




5 . 1 Respect others and strengthen 
community 



QQ|D 



Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective 






Overview 

Students will come to appreciate the diversity of expression, opinion and perspective that exists in Alberta, Canada 
and throughout the world by: 

• studying oral, print, visual and multimedia texts presenting a variety of Albertan, Canadian and international 
perspectives 

• examining the treatment of particular themes and issues by different text creators, including themselves. 

Comparisons of texts from different times and places can help students appreciate the ways in which texts convey 
individual and community values and behaviours. For example, students may compare community newspapers 
from rural and urban areas, or poetry from northern and southern regions; they may look at the ways different 
generations describe their experiences. 

Much of the learning associated with subheading 5.1.2 is intended to challenge students — to provoke critical 
examination of the ideas and values of others and of their own ideas and values. For example, in the course of 
whole-class discussion, students may offer differing interpretations and understandings when responding to text. 
When creating text of their own, students may assume opposing positions, offer differing insights and convey 
diverse appreciations. 

It is therefore important for students to determine whether the texts they examine are created to express and 
reinforce or to challenge prevailing social values. Students should explore documentaries, poetry, fiction, songs 
and other texts that question current social values, examining both their content and their methods and form. 
Some of the texts students create will be texts of protest or dissent. 

Students should also be aware that some texts that appear to be challenging social values; e.g., music videos or 
television commercials, use the forms of social protest or the images of subculture to reinforce prevailing values of 
conformity and consumerism. 

Metacognitive Learning (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia; 20-2a) 



Metacognitive Process Outcome (Grades 10-12) 


Description 


Selection 


Modification 


- reflect on and describe 


- select appropriate 


- monitor the effect of 


strategies for responding 


strategies for 


selected strategies, 


to texts that present 


appreciating diversity 


and modify them as 


expressions, opinions and 


of thought 


needed 


perspectives that differ 






from own; and identify 






and describe additional 






strategies that may be used 






to appreciate diversity of 






thought and expression 







Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5 /329 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective (continued) 



Assessment of 5.1.2 

The purpose of assessment as suggested by learning outcome subheading 5. 1 .2 is to determine students' 
openness to diversity and their awareness of the variety of contributing factors that can result in difference of 
thought and expression. 

Most assessment will be formative, and much of it will be undertaken by the students. Its purpose is to determine 
whether students are demonstrating behaviours that suggest respect for the ideas, beliefs, appreciations and values 
of others — particularly when they differ from their own. One such indicator is sustained listening to the thought 
and expression of others. 

Teaching and Learning Strategies 

/£S>% ClaSS Quilt (10-la, b, c; 10-2a, b, c; 20-la, b, c; 20-2a, b, c) 

Ask students to list positive qualities that their community values. Have each student adopt 
one of the values and create a representation of it; e.g., a drawing, a quilt square. Combine 
all the pieces into a whole-class product. 

/^>V ClaSS Wall (10-la, b, c; 10-2a, b, c; 20-la, b, c; 20-2a, b, c) 

Have the class research the origin and meaning of the names of all students in the class and 
create a banner that represents each student's name symbolically. 

I Assessment Peer, Formative or Summati ve Assessment of Class Quilt/Class 
Wall 

Before embarking on either of these projects, have the class decide on 
the criteria that would characterize a successful product. Upon 
completion, have students use these criteria to assess their work. The 
criteria may include the following: 

• All class members contributed. 

• The quilt identifies community values; the wall represents class 
identity. 

• Separate elements in the quilt or wall work as a thematic whole. 

• Visual design is effective. 



/*S>\ Profile Of the Century (10-la, b, c; 10-2a, b, c; 20-la, b, c; 20-2a, b, c) 

To create a retrospective of the last century, ask students to form groups and have each group 
select a different decade to profile. Ask each group to collect examples of the music, poetry, 
, advertising and art reproductions of the decade and to create a class presentation that 
identifies the issues, values and aesthetic of the decade. Have groups present in 
chronological order, possibly to a wider audience. 



330/ General Outcome 5 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective (continued) 



4S3&, Coming tO Canada (10-la, b, c; 10-2a, b, c; 20-la, b, c; 20-2a, b, c) 

Following a discussion or inquiry of various periods of immigration to Canada, have students 
identify a nation of origin they are most interested in exploring, listing first, second and third 
choices. Set up groups of four to six students on the basis of their interests. 



• 






Ask students in each group to imagine that they are all members of a family that 
immigrated to Canada. 

- Have each student invent an identity: a name (authentic to the culture), age, role 
within the family and personal history — the only stipulation being that, as a group, 
students represent three generations of the family. 

- Have students research the country of origin at the time of the family's immigration 
and the circumstances that prompted immigration at that time. Research may 
include interviews with members of the community who can recount their family 
experiences in coming to Canada. 

- Through the information they collect, students can then imaginatively explore the 
experiences of the family's farewell to their country of origin, their passage to 
Canada, their first impressions and their adjustment to the new land — looking, for 
example, at the different ways that generations may respond to the new land and at 
ensuing family tensions. 

• Have groups develop a drama for the class of the family's experiences in coming to 
Canada. Components may include: 

- poetry 

- journal readings 

- monologues 

- background music 

- a song of farewell in the musical style of the country of origin 

- tableaux. 

• To enrich student thinking about the experience of dislocation during this project, devote 
5 to 10 minutes at the beginning of each class to oral readings of Canadian poetry, fiction 
or memoir extracts about coming to Canada. 

This project could be linked effectively with social studies. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 5 /33 1 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective (continued) 



f 



Assessment Self-assessment of Coming to Canada 

This project provides rich opportunities for assessment of individual and 
group learning and of process and product. Possibilities include: 

• student journals or logs reflecting on the group process, on the 
students' development of inquiry skills, and on growth in cultural 
awareness both through creating and participating in the drama and 
through being part of the audience for the dramas of other groups 

• group-process checklists and self-assessment forms 

• project proposals, including plans for collecting information; the 
responsibilities of each group member; and timelines for inquiry, 
writing and rehearsal 

• formal assessment of the drama, based on criteria such as: 

- technical skills: lighting, groupings, costumes, props, and use 
of sets and staging 

- practical skills: concentration, movement and characterization 

- voice: volume, tone, clarity, enunciation and modulation. 



(j) Monitoring Metacognitive Growth (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia; 20-2a) 

V Students can use questions such as the following to reflect on their own values in relation 
to those of others and to reflect on the formation of values: 

• What behaviours, ideas, beliefs, values and appreciations do others have? 

• How are they similar to my own? 

• How do they differ? 

• What might account for such similarity? 

• What might account for such difference? 



Technology Considerations 



Learning outcome subheading 5.1.2 supports the Information and Communication 
Technology (ICT) Program of Studies, Kindergarten to Grade 12, particularly Division 4 
outcome C2-4.1: consult a wide variety of sources that reflect varied viewpoints on 
particular topics. 

P^ 3 See Appendix C, p. 429, for cross-references of specific outcomes in the ICT and ELA senior 
high school programs. 



332/ General Outcome 5 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective (continued) 



Teacher Resources 






Barrell, Barrie R. C. and Roberta Hammett (eds.). Advocating Change: Contemporary 
Issues in Subject English. 

Part 2 of this resource, Issues in Reading the World, provides four essays that offer 
perspectives on various aspects of understanding and appreciating others. This includes 
"Negotiating Cultural Identities on the Internet." 

Cohen, David (ed.). The Circle of Life: Rituals from the Human Family Album. 

Cultures throughout the world celebrate birth, puberty, marriage and death in very 
specific traditional ways. This collection of photographs with explanatory text portrays 
western customs in the context of family rituals from around the world. 

Freeman, D. E. and Y. S. Freeman. Between Worlds: Access to Second Language 
Acquisition. 

This resource explains second language acquisition theory and examines social and 
cultural factors that affect the school performance of students learning English as a 
second or additional language. Examples in the resource represent a range of ages, 
languages and cultures. 

Kehret, Peg. Acting Natural: Monologs, Dialogs, and Playlets for Teens. 

Sixty dramatic sketches address issues of interest to teenagers, explore various points of 
view, and stimulate thinking and discussion. 

McCracken, N. M. and B. C. Appleby (eds.). Gender Issues in the Teaching of English. 

This thought-provoking and accessible resource creates an awareness of how gender 
issues influence classroom pedagogy in practice. It provides extension activities for 
self-reflection. 

Roman, Trish Fox (ed.). Voices Under One Sky: Contemporary Native Literature. 

This collection of contemporary short prose, poetry and songs is written and illustrated 
by Aboriginal authors and artists. A teacher's guide is available. 

Sawyer, Wayne, Ken Watson and Eva Gold (eds.). Re-Viewing English. 

Chapter 19, Literacy, Genre Studies and Pedagogy, discusses the Australian experience 
of a multicultural society trying to come to terms with the theory that not all cultural 
groups use and/or understand particular genres in the same way. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts General Outcome 5/333 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective (continued) 



Teasley, Alan and Ann Wilder. Reel Conversations: Reading Films with Young Adults. 

Chapter 7 presents an annotated list of films dealing with families. Chapter 8 presents an 
annotated list of films dealing with the theme of belonging. 

Wood, K. D. and A. Moss (eds.). Exploring Literature in the Classroom: Contents and 
Methods. 

The 1 5 contributors to this resource provide a philosophical framework as well as 
practical strategies to assist teachers in producing and implementing a literature-based 
curriculum. 



334/ General Outcome 5 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to respect, 
support and collaborate with others. 




5.1 Respect others and strengthen 
community 



QQ^ 



Recognize accomplishments and events 






Overview 

Communities, including communities of learners, have recognized, commemorated and celebrated special events 
through use of the six language arts. 

In the context of communities outside the classroom, language and image are often used to honour people and 
celebrate events: for example, eulogy and toast. 

In the English language arts classroom specifically, and in school in general, there will be occasions when students 
use language and image to acknowledge and honour one another's accomplishments and to commemorate or 
celebrate special events. There will also be occasions when students will acknowledge, appreciate and celebrate 
the human condition. Such participation contributes to and strengthens a shared sense of community. 

In the context of high school, accomplishments and events may be recognized through such means as: 

• celebrating the publication of student created anthologies 

• celebrating together when classmates have accomplished a particular task or produced, published or presented 
a particular text 

• preparing a display of student work 

• creating a video record of a school or community event or series of events 

• capturing the school year by means of video recording sporting events, formal occasions, interviews and 
walkabouts 

• commemorating events of historical and cultural importance (e.g., Remembrance Day) through speech, 
presentation, dramatization, song and images 

• responding personally by writing a school newspaper article. 

The primary purpose of learning outcome subheading 5.1.3 is the celebration of language and learning. Students 
can be involved in planning and organizing events such as poetry readings, book launches, theatrical presentations, 
video festivals and portfolio expositions to celebrate accomplishments within the classroom, with other classrooms 
in the school, with a similar class in a different school and with a public audience. 

Assessment of 5.1.3 

The purpose of assessment as suggested by learning outcome subheading 5.1.3 is to help students use the six 
language arts as important contributors to commemoration and celebration, and so it may be mostly/orma/zve. 

The most appropriate way to assess the learning associated with learning outcome subheading 5. 1 .3 may be 
through personal reflections in dialogue journals or learning logs. Student articulation may include reflections on 
the part that language plays in the commemoration and celebration of special events. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5/335 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Recognize accomplishments and events (continued) 



Teaching and Learning Strategies 



The Year in Review (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-1 a, b; 20-2a, b) 

During the course of the year or semester: 

• have students take slides, photographs, or videotapes of students in positive action within 
the class, school, or community 

• have individuals write about their own involvement in each activity, using a form of their 
choice. 

To provide closure at the end of the year or semester: 

• have students organize these materials for a special event celebrating student 
accomplishments 

• advise students that they will be responsible for organizing and hosting the event 

• invite other classes, families, and community members to the celebration 

• ask students to write about their participation in the event in their journals. 

Publications 

Have students find ways to share their work with a wider audience, as a means of 
celebrating their accomplishments. For example, the school newspaper, featuring profiles 
of individuals or groups of students, could be distributed throughout the community. See 
learning outcome subheadings 4.1.1 to 4.1.4 for additional possibilities. 

Literary and Media Festivals 

Organizing school festivals gives students valuable experience in responsibility and 
cooperation. Festivals help students to value and celebrate language and the ways that 
artistic expression enriches lives. Festivals that feature both student and professional artists 
are especially affirming to students. 

If the celebration is a school-wide project, responsibilities for each event could be divided 
among teachers and classes. 



Assessment Self-assessment of the Year in Review 

> Ask all those attending the celebration to hand in an exit slip 
describing their thoughts and feelings. 

> Request letters, submissions to local newspaper, and so on, from the 
audience. 

> Collect all responses and ask students to evaluate the success of the 
event and generate ideas for improvement. 

> Have students write journal entries. These may focus on personal 
contributions, overall emotional impact, strengthened cohesiveness, 
increased understanding, and so on. 



336/ General Outcome 5 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Recognize accomplishments and events (continued) 



Festivals can celebrate: 

• the work of individuals in the community; e.g., the work of local 
young adult novelists, animators, dramatists 

• the work of groups; e.g., Aboriginal art, Franco-Albertan writing 

• forms and genres; e.g., storytelling, young adult fiction, 
improvisational drama 

• themes; e.g., songs and poems about the north, films about growing 
up 

• organizations; e.g., national and local film groups and writers' 
organizations. 



Wanted Posters (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

As a community-building activity early in the year or semester, have each student create a 
Wanted poster for himself or herself. Posters could include: 

the student's name 
date of birth 
caricature of self 
physical description 
"last seen" details 
warning 
rewards. 



Under the "warning," students list short humorous phrases that point to their shortcomings; 
e.g., dangerous before 1 1:00 a.m., sarcasm may be fatal. Under "rewards," students list 
positive personal characteristics; e.g., ways in which others are rewarded by knowing them. 
The rewards section must be at least as long as the warning list (Maxwell and Meiser 1997, 
p. 178). 






Life MapS (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

As a way of sharing themselves and their experiences with the class, ask students to create 
life maps (Kirby and Liner, cited in Sebranek, Meyer and Kemper 1995, p. 34) on a large 
sheet of poster paper. The journey of their life, with its ups and downs, can be represented 
by the contours of a road winding across the page. Their most important experiences, 
relationships, accomplishments and personal transformations can be represented by 
drawings, photographs or symbols along the road. If students are willing, have them post 
their life maps or arrange them in one large mural. 

Designing life maps can be a preliminary activity leading to autobiographical writing. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5/337 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Recognize accomplishments and events (continued) 



Assessment Formative or Peer Assessment of Life Maps 

Certain student work may reveal content of a very personal nature. Such 
material should be assessed formatively. Peers may be encouraged to 
respond to such works through the use of prompts, such as: 

• What 1 find most interesting about your life map is . . . 

• I am wondering about . . . 

• I would like to learn more about . . . 



f 



Monitoring Metacognitive Growth (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia; 20-2a) 

Students may find it interesting to identify how a society recognizes accomplishments and 
commemorates events and to identify the roles that the six language arts play in such 
recognition. Further, students could reflect on how they have used language and image 
previously to honour others, and monitor attempts to honour others through using language 
and image in new ways. 



Technology Considerations 



Often, when there is recognition of accomplishments and significant events, the six language 
arts and the fine arts are brought into play. Students should be encouraged to use 
technologies appropriate to the particular context. 



Teacher Resources 



Bomer, R. Time for Meaning: Crafting Literate Lives in Middle and High School. 

This resource uses the writing process to help students develop a strong sense of self and 
community. It contains cross-cultural references, visuals and student work samples. 

Cohen, David (ed.). The Circle of Life: Rituals from the Human Family Album. 

Cultures throughout the world celebrate birth, puberty, marriage and death in very 
specific traditional ways. This collection of photographs with explanatory text portrays 
western customs in the context of family rituals from around the world. 

Johnson, David W. and Robert T. Johnson. Meaningful and Manageable Assessment 
through Cooperative Learning. 

Chapter 7 discusses student portfolios: what portfolios are, how to use them effectively 
and how to assess them. 



338/ General Outcome 5 
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Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Recognize accomplishments and events (continued) 



Nathan, R. (ed.). Writers in the Classroom. 

This collection of articles, written by published writers who are teachers, addresses ways 
in which teachers facilitate writing in many genres. Each article uses an excerpt of a 
teacher's published work and then outlines several writing techniques or strategies; e.g., 
finding narrative voice, writing meaningful dialogue and modelling revision processes. 

Rief, L. Seeking Diversity: Language Arts with Adolescents. 

This resource provides teachers with organizational methods to implement a process- 
oriented reading-writing workshop for adolescent students. Appendices include 
handouts for students and parents, extensive lists of favourite books for individualized 
reading, ideas for reading aloud and shared reading, and self-evaluation suggestions. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5/339 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to respect, 
support and collaborate with others. 




Q0 



Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes 



Overview 

The ability to cooperate with others and to work within a group is important for students in senior high school and 
is important in their future. 

D^f 5 The Conference Board of Canada has identified teamwork skills, along with academic skills and personal 

management skills, as "skills required of the Canadian work force." See The Conference Board of Canada Web 
site at <http://www.conferenceboard.ca/nbec/eproP/o2de.htm>. 

In senior high school, students develop strategies and attitudes that demonstrate their cooperation with others and 
that contribute to successful group work. 

Students help one another in a variety of ways, including sharing personal knowledge, expertise and perspectives. 
Such assistance often includes cooperating to conduct research, collaborating to create a text or to give a 
performance, peer editing, and working together to interpret a variety of texts. 

Group Interaction Skills and Strategies 

.The group interaction skills and strategies that students need to develop include: 

• listening carefully and contributing thoughtfully 

• encouraging others to contribute their skills and knowledge 

• discerning personal and group on-task behaviours and time management. 

Group interaction skills and strategies can be assessed through a variety of means. 

• Students set daily goals and reflect on their success in exit slips or learning logs. 

• Students assess themselves, using a checklist. 

• The teacher observes a group for particular behaviours. 

• Student observers assess a group, using a checklist. 

Learning Opportunities 

In working collaboratively, students need to learn: 

• group maintenance skills — things they can do to ensure that the group functions well 

• task completion skills — things they can do to get the job done. 

Students must have opportunities to learn these skills and to practise them as they develop independence and 
interdependence. 



340/ General Outcome 5 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes (continued) 



The kinds of experiences for students that will contribute to the development of such skills and understandings 
include: 

• sharing personal knowledge, expertise and perspectives with others; e.g., knowledge about certain audiences 
or reflections on previous experiences involving task completion 

• selecting and modifying strategies to facilitate task completion. 

The following lists illustrate how students can help one another in a variety of specific ways. 



Assistance to peers can take many forms, including but not limited to 



assisting individual and group inquiry or research by identifying and sharing relevant personal 
knowledge, as well as possible categories of questions 

assisting others in improving the thoughtfulness, effectiveness and correctness of their texts by 
proofreading their work and offering suggestions 

assisting others in producing and presenting texts by sharing a broad variety of prior experiences 
with and understandings of audiences and communication situations 

assisting and supporting others by sharing a broad variety of literary interpretations and 
understandings and by responding constructively to a broad variety of interpretations that they have 
developed 

assisting others in designing and preparing materials that will be used in individual and group 
presentations 

assisting others to envision body language and to consider variations in vocalization that will be 
included in presentations, by providing rehearsal feedback. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5 /34 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes (continued) 



Students employ a variety of strategies when working with others, including but not limited to ... 



dividing the labour involved in group work and volunteering to take responsibility for part of the 
labour to fulfill the obligations and expectations of a task, project or assignment 

assuming or assisting with various group roles, such as taking on the role of discussion leader, 
taking notes or making records of group discussion, or monitoring time use 

contributing to discussions by offering ideas, opinions, perspectives and interpretations that are on 
task, and responding to contributions of others 

ensuring the participation of all group members, by encouraging each member to voice his or her 
ideas, opinions, perspectives and interpretations 

encouraging contributions from others by using an encouraging tone, maintaining eye contact, 
demonstrating interest through body language, listening attentively, tactfully questioning others' 
perspectives and requesting further explanation 

providing feedback that encourages the contributor and other group members to consider additional 
ideas and information 

supporting risk taking to enhance individual and group creations by participating in and 
encouraging open, respectful interactions (Grades 1 1 and 12) 

contributing to group efforts to reach consensus or conclusions, by engaging in dialogue and 
listening attentively to understand the ideas and perspectives of others 

building on others' strengths to achieve group goals 

creating a timeline to guide inquiry or research 

recognizing potential problems in group dynamics and initiating steps to resolve such problems 
should they occur (Grades 1 1 and 12). 



Assessment of 5.2.1 

The purpose of assessment in learning outcome subheading 5.2.1 is to determine whether students: 

• have adequate strategies for cooperating with others and contributing to group processes 

• are open to new ways of working with others and completing a task 

• demonstrate an awareness of their strengths and areas for growth when working with others and have the 
ability to set personal goals for participation in a group. 

Any group activity; e.g., each stage of a group inquiry project, provides opportunities to assess learning outcome 
subheading 5.2.1. 



342/ General Outcome 5 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes (continued) 



Assess students for a range of skills: expressing their viewpoints in the group, encouraging the contributions of 
others and synthesizing the thinking of various group members. Learning outcome subheading 5.2.1 also involves 
attitudes and habits of mind — do the students feel a sense of responsibility in the social construction of knowledge 
within their groups and classroom? 

Students can ask questions such as the following when reflecting on their work with others: 

• In working with others, what do 1 recognize as my strengths? What areas might 1 work at improving? 

• What do I discern as the strengths of others? How might I support their efforts? 

• What suggestions and contributions might 1 offer for this group to achieve its purpose? 

Teaching and Learning Strategies 

Student-led Whole-class Discussions (io-ia,b;io-2a,b; 

20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Provide students with a discussion cue sheet such as the following to help stimulate their 

thinking during a student-led whole-class discussion. 



Discussion Cue Sheet** 

What did you like about the previous contribution? 

What new ideas did the contribution give you? 

What puzzled you in the last statement? 

How did the person making the statement arrive at that 
conclusion? 

Can you elaborate, explain or give another example? 



• A student launches the discussion by offering an opinion on the chosen subject and 
calling on the student who is expected to respond first. 

• Students who wish to speak raise their hands, with one, two or three fingers up to signal 
if this is their first, second or third entry into the discussion. Alternatively, students can 
be given three cards, and they hand in a card each time they speak. The discussion is 
over when all students have used their three cards. 

^j^j^ • After a student has spoken, he or she calls on the next student, selecting from those with 
raised hands and giving priority to those who have spoken least. If no hands are raised 
immediately, the class waits until students have had time to reflect. 



° Adapted from Margo Sorenson, "Teach Each Other: Connecting Talking and Writing," English Journal 82, 1 (January 1993), 
pp. 42^7. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 5 /343 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes (continued) 



Assessment 



f 



Formative, Peer and Self Assessment of Student-led Whole-class 
Discussion 

During student-led discussions, check off how many times each student 
enters the discussion but avoid making comments on the quality of their 
contributions. Students are encouraged not to look at the teacher during 
the discussion. 



After the discussion, ask students to reflect on their contribution in their 
learning logs. Sorenson (1993) suggests the following questions, which 
involve both self-assessment and peer assessment: 

• Did I contribute to the discussion? 

• Did I encourage others to contribute or clarify ideas? 

• What would 1 like to do in the next discussion? 

• How can 1 do this? 

• Who contributed the most valuable or interesting comments? 

• Who was the Most Valuable Player in keeping the discussion going? 

• Who encouraged me the most in discussion? 

Consider offering "silly rewards" to students who are often cited as 
having made a valuable contribution (cited in Maxwell and Meiser 1997, 
p. 114). 



4SS% Collaborative Writing (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

For many group-generated texts, students can divide tasks and work cooperatively to 
contribute to the whole. In oral or multimedia presentations, for example, various group 
members assume responsibilities for different elements of the presentation. 

Generating one text with a single voice is a more challenging process but one that 
provides a rich and practical experience for students. 

Students embarking on collaborative writing may find it interesting to read texts that have 
been generated through collaboration and to discuss the process with writers or with business 
or professional people who routinely produce texts through collaboration. 

Collaborative writing calls for a high degree of cooperation and is successful only when 
students have found a topic with which all group members are highly engaged. As a 
preliminary experience in collaborative writing, Maxwell and Meiser (1997, p. 174) suggest 
placing students in groups according to their order in the family (Are you an eldest, middle, 
youngest, or only child?) and asking each group to write about the advantages and 
disadvantages of this place in the family. 

Managing Collaborative Writing 

The suggestions that follow describe ways of generating expository and narrative texts with 
communal authorship; e.g., magazine feature article, letter to the editor, proposal, story, 
video script, radio play. 



344/ General Outcome 5 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes (continued) 



Expository Text 

• Begin with partners rather than large groups. 

• Begin with very short assignments. 

• Have students work from a database to which each group member has contributed. 

• Establish a protocol for collaborative writing, so that the actual drafting does not devolve 
upon one student. The protocol could include the following points: 

- Agree on a detailed web outline before any draft writing begins. 

- Ask for a suggestion from each group member before recording each sentence. 

- Alternate recorders. 

- Revise carefully to ensure that the final text has a unified voice. 

Narrative Text 

• Sometimes students develop stories simply through taking turns picking up the thread of 
narrative. 

• Students may wish to establish a certain protocol for collaboration in writing narrative; 
e.g., each partner contributes one page and is allowed to change one thing on the 
previous page. 

• The computer and electronic links lend themselves well to collaborative writing. If 
classes have a laboratory with a computer for each person, students working in groups of 
four may enjoy round-robin writing. This involves starting a narrative on four different 
computers, switching computers on a given signal to resume with someone else's text, 
and keeping the narratives going in consistent and appropriate ways. 



i> 



Assessment Self-assessment of Collaborative Writing 

Students need opportunities to reflect on the benefits and limitations of 
collaborative writing, as well as on the degree of success they have 
achieved in various projects. 
Ask students to: 

• develop, through group discussion, a protocol for collaborative 
writing or a list of tips for collaborators 

• reflect in their learning logs or journals on the difficulties and 
benefits they have experienced through creative collaborations 

• create and use self-assessment rating scales, which may include 
questions such as the following: 

- Does this product represent the ideas and efforts of each 
member? 

- Does it have a unified voice? 

- Did we find a fair and effective process for resolving differences 
of opinion? 

- is this a better product than it would have been if it had been 
created by one person? 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5 /345 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes (continued) 



4^1 Monologues tO Dialogues (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Compelling two-character or larger-cast dramas and engaging fiction can be created through 
fusing monologues. In this activity, students generate texts individually and then move into a 
group and collaborate in shaping these texts according to group decisions. 

• Students select a situation from their own experience or from fiction. Each partner or 
group member reflects individually on the situation from the point of view of one of the 
characters involved and then writes a monologue. See the entry above for more 
information on monologues. 

• Groups assemble, share monologues and discuss ways in which their texts can be 
transformed into one work. 

• Groups work together through the stages of revision and rehearsal and perform their 
dramas or publish their fiction. 

This activity may involve parents or other classroom guests. Parents, either as classroom 
guests or at home, and students write monologues about the same situation. Students assume 
responsibility for integrating both monologues into one text. 



*S% Charting Responsibilities (io-ia;io-2a;20-ia;20-2a) 

To plan responsibilities for group inquiry, suggest that students use a form such as the 
following. 



Individual Responsibilities Form 

Make a copy of this form for each member of your group. Use the following 
headings to plan and record the responsibilities of each group member. Those 
who have difficulty with any of the tasks should consult with the group. 


Who 


What 


When 









4^>\ Cooperative Language Cues (io-ia; io-2a; 20-ia; 20-20) 

Students may need to become more aware of the verbal and nonverbal cues they use in 
groups. Cues refer to both what people communicate and how they communicate it. 

• Have students brainstorm and list the kinds of phrases or gestures/postures they use when 
they: 

- want someone to repeat something 

- want someone to explain something 

- think someone is going off-topic 

- want to praise or encourage someone 

- are bored 

- are irritated or offended. 



346/ General Outcome 5 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




8 



-) 



Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes (continued) 



Ask students to sort this list into two columns: those cues that facilitate group progress, 
and those cues that impede it. 

Ask groups to role-play group situations, using assigned cues from this list. 

Debrief, asking students to comment on their feelings when using and observing these 
cues. 

Ask students to write in their dialogue journals (see p. 184) or learning logs (see p. 94) 
about a particular cue they wish to add to or drop from their repertoire of group 
behaviours. 



I Assessment Formative and Peer Assessment of Cooperative Language Cues 

Write observations, focusing on students' use of cooperative language, on 
self-stick removable notes for inclusion in the student's file or on a form 
such as the following, which lists student names across the top. 



Observation Form 
Group: Date: 

Task: Check off each time a student uses cooperative 
language in group interaction. 


The student: 














• encourages 














• asks for clarification 














• keeps group on task 














• expresses disagreement 















Peer Observations 

In the context of ongoing classroom activities, such as reading circles or 
inquiry projects, assign pairs of students to sit outside a group and make 
observations about targeted interactive skills, using a checklist. It may be 
effective for the peer observers to share their observations with the group 
they have observed, rather than handing these checklists to the teacher. 



/£>\ Tack-On TOOIS (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Spencer Kagan (1992) calls the tools groups use to foster and monitor particular behaviours 
in the context of an ongoing project "tack-on tools." 

Possibilities include using: 

• "talking chips" to promote equal participation: As each student speaks, he or she places a 
pen in the centre of the table. A student may not speak for the second time until all pens 
are in the centre of the table. 

• "paraphrase passport" to promote active listening: A student's ticket to having a turn to 
talk is paraphrasing correctly what the previous speaker has said. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5 /347 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes (continued) 



/C>V Jigsaw Groups (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Jigsaw groups (Aronson et al. 1978) require students to combine and synthesize information 
that has been brought to the groups by the members, each of whom is responsible for a 
subsection of the topic. 

• Each member of a group is given a unique subsection of text and material to read. 

• Each group member then meets with students from other groups who have been assigned 
the same material. These secondary groups work through their material, helping each 
other understand it. They also discuss means of teaching this material to their respective 
original group members. 

• The original groups reform, and each member shares his or her learning. The original 
w groups then synthesize and integrate the material and develop a product or presentation 

to communicate their learning. 



/C>\ Simulations (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Simulations are interactive and provide interesting opportunities for students to develop their 
range of interpersonal skills while assuming fictional roles. Similar goals may be achieved 
through character monologue/dialogue and other forms of role-play. 



Assessment Formative Assessment of Simulations 



Teacher Resources 



A range of learning outcome subheadings, including 5.2.1, may be 
assessed through simulations. For example, assess: 

• the new understandings students have developed through researching 
their roles — learning outcome subheadings 1 .2. 1 , 2. 1 .2, 2.3. 1 and 
3.2.3 

• students' skill in expressing their ideas — learning outcome 
subheadings 1.2.1, 1.2.2 and 2.1.3 

• students' willingness to take risks with language as they assume 
fictional roles — learning outcome subheading 1.1.2. 

It is essential that the teacher and students establish criteria or 
indicators for assessment before simulations begin. 



Booth, David W. and Charles J. Lundy. Improvisation: Learning through Drama. 

This text explores improvisation as a group learning process. Many games and activities 
are suggested to aid students in developing dramatic skills. 



348/ General Outcome 5 
(September 2002 DRAPT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 







Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes (continued) 






Bridges, L. Assessment: Continuous Learning. 

This book demonstrates a variety of ways to connect learning and assessment, including 
kidwatching, the use of developmental checklists, portfolios, student interviews and 
student self-evaluation. This resource includes book reviews of current assessment 
literature. 

Brubacher, Mark, Ryder Payne and Kemp Rickett. Perspectives on Small Group Learning: 
Theory & Practice. 

This collection of articles on cooperation and collaboration discusses the theory and 
implementation of small-group learning. 

Callahan, Joseph F., Leonard H. Clark and Richard D. Kellough (eds.). Teaching in the 
Middle and Secondary Schools. 

This resource links theory and practice. It addresses interactive learning and includes 
multicultural applications and practical assessment strategies. 

Clarke, Judy, Ron Wideman and Susan Eadie. Together We Learn. 

This resource is a comprehensive manual for cooperative small-group learning. It 
includes a rationale for interactive learning and describes group formation, group roles, 
the teacher's role and assessment procedures. 

Daniels, Harvey and Marilyn Bizar. Methods That Matter: Six Structures for Best Practice 
Classrooms. 

This resource identifies basic teaching structures designed to make classrooms more 
active, experiential, collaborative, democratic and cognitive. It includes concrete 
descriptions of practical and proven ways of organizing time, space, materials and 
activities. 

Foster, Elizabeth S. Energizers and Icebreakers for all Ages and Stages. 

This resource suggests activities to assist in developing positive classroom 
interrelationships that foster active learning. 

Johnson, David W., Roger T. Johnson and Edythe Holubec. Cooperation in the Classroom. 

This book presents a comprehensive discussion of research and theory about cooperative 
learning. It suggests techniques for teaching cooperative skills in the context of a range 
of classroom projects and learning activities. 

Lieb, Anthony. Speaking for Success: The Canadian Guide. 

This resource provides practical suggestions for public speaking, small-group 
discussions, debates and formal meetings. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts General Outcome 5 /349 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 




Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes (continued) 



Morgan, N. and J. Saxton. Asking Better Questions: Models, Techniques and Classroom 
Activities for Engaging Students in Learning. 

This book focuses on effective questioning techniques. Concrete classroom examples 
illustrate how students can become more adept questioners and responsible learners. The 
book addresses the following questions: Why the question? What kind of question? How 
do we question? 

Stahl, R. J. Cooperative Learning in Language Arts: A Handbook for Teachers. 

This book focuses on helping teachers implement cooperative learning strategies in their 
language arts classrooms. It describes the cooperative learning philosophy and features 
sample lesson plans, resources and record-keeping devices. 

Swartz, Larry. Dramathemes: A Practical Guide for Teaching Drama. 

This guide provides sequences of drama lessons and activities based on specific themes. 

Tarlington, C. and W. Michaels. Building Plays: Simple Playbuilding Techniques at Work. 

This resource includes techniques for encouraging dialogue, creating scripts, rehearsing, 
presenting a complete play and assessing playbuilding. It also suggests ways to find 
inspiration for building plays on topics as varied as song, television and Shakespeare. 

Web Site 

The Conference Board of Canada, http://www.conferenceboard.ca/nbec/eprof%2de.htm 

The Conference Board of Canada Web site features an Employability Skills Profile 
which seeks to answer the question, "What are employers looking for?" The site 
describes three essential skill sets — academic skills, teamwork skills and personal 
management skills — that contribute to strong employability. 



350/ General Outcome 5 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Students will listen, speak, read, 
write, view and represent to respect, 
support and collaborate with others. 




5.2 Work within a group 



uSHP 



Understand and evaluate group processes 



Overview 

Students develop understandings of group roles; teamwork tools, such as agendas and schedules; and group 
processes by adopting various roles and involving themselves in group processes and by reflecting on their 
experiences. 

A variety of behaviours can contribute to effective group processes and successful goal attainment, including: 

• encouraging others to contribute ideas, and listening to those ideas 

• recognizing and fostering the abilities of others 

• taking risks, such as assuming new roles within a group 

• recognizing problems, and envisioning, implementing and monitoring possible solutions. 

Much of the learning associated with subheading 5.2.2 is metacognitive in nature. Students will, with 
increasing competence and confidence, reflect on and evaluate their own contributions to group process. 

Throughout their school experiences, including those in English language arts, students develop strategies for 
evaluating group processes. They also learn to monitor their own performances as group members, as well as 
the performances of others. In this way, self-evaluation leads to greater understanding and to strengthened 
strategies and skills. 

Students can use questions such as the following in order to reflect on group processes: 

• What knowledge about group processes is transferable — can be used again and again when working with 
others? 

• What skills do 1 bring to working with others? What are some areas of growth for me to develop? 

• What attitudes contribute to effective group processes and successful goal attainment? 

Assessment of 5.2.2 

The purpose of assessment in subheading 5.2.2 is to determine whether students: 

• can discern and evaluate the efficacy of group processes 

• have adequate strategies and tools for evaluating group processes 

• can objectively assess their own and others' contributions to group processes. 

Assessment of group processes needs to be ongoing. Therefore, teachers may choose to work with students to: 

• choose a daily goal for the group, identifying a behaviour that is effective either in task process and 
completion or in group maintenance — see learning outcome subheading 5.2.1 for a description of behaviours 

• provide tools that the group can use to reflect on their process at the end of each period. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5 /351 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 




Understand and evaluate group processes {continued) 



Monitoring or diagnostic 

If assessment occurs only at the end of a project, students do not have opportunities to learn from the assessment 
and redirect their energies to addressing problems. 

The previous learning outcome subheading, 5.2.1, provides tools that teachers and students can use as 
collaborative work proceeds for collecting information about students' group interactive skills and strategies. 

Much of the learning associated with subheading 5.2.2 will involve formative assessments in which students might 
self-assess using various checklists, prompts and performance indicators — see Appendix B (p. 428) — some of 
which will be created by the students. 

Learning outcome subheading 5.2.2 also suggests that some assessment may be summative. For example, the 
teacher may base a portion of a mark on how well individual students have contributed to a group's efforts or on 
how well the group has functioned as a whole — see Appendix B, p. 394. 

As part of the assessment process for subheading 5.2.2, the teacher and student can meet in a conference to reflect 
on data collected throughout the assessment period. 

Teachers should involve students in developing scoring guides and should modify and review scoring criteria and 
categories to accommodate particular classes, assignments and instructional focuses. 

Teaching and Learning Strategies 

j^^ Q Daily Reflection Sheet (io-ia, b, c; io-2b; 20-ia, b, c; lo-ib, e) 

k Provide groups with reflection sheets focusing on various skills that have been selected as 
daily goals. A group that has decided on "encouraging full participation of all members" 
could be given, or could create, a reflection sheet that focuses on that goal — see the 
C^ 3 reflection sheet in Appendix B, p. 428. 

l£s% Create Self, Peer, Group or Teacher Monitoring Tools from 

CAMP Materials (10-la, b; 10-2a, b; 20-la, b; 20-2a, b) 

Use the CAMP descriptors for "Characteristics and Responsibilities of a Good Group 
Member" to create self, peer, group or teacher monitoring tools to assess or evaluate the 
group and its processes. 



352/ General Outcome 5 Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 




Understand and evaluate group processes (continued) 



/%S^ Create and Use T-charts (io-ib, c, d; io-2b, c, </,- 20-ib, c, d; 20-2b, c, d) 

Have students create T-charts to describe how their group will function. T-chart topics might 
include but are not limited to: Effective Groups, Staying on Task, Equal Participation, 
Criticizing Ideas Instead of People, Contributing Ideas, Solving Problems. Once the T-charts 
have been created, groups can use them to self, peer and group assess their processes. 

Staying on Task 



Looks Like 


Sounds Like 















/£s>* &) 



f 



Reflection Questionnaire (io-ia, b; 10-2 c, </,• 20-ia, b; 20-2 c, d) 

Create a questionnaire for students to fill out and bring with them to a conference with the 
teacher. Questions might include but are not limited to: What worked well in the group? 
What didn't? What were barriers within the group? How were those resolved? If they were 
not resolved, how could they have been resolved? What processes and/or teamwork tools 
would you keep for next time? Why? What would you change? Why? 



Teacher Resources 



Brubacher, Mark, Ryder Payne and Kemp Rickett. Perspectives on Small Group Learning: 
Theory & Practice. 

This collection of articles on cooperation and collaboration discusses the theory and 
implementation of small-group learning. 

Clarke, Judy, Ron Wideman and Susan Eadie. Together We Learn. 

This resource is a comprehensive manual for cooperative small-group learning. It 
includes a rationale for interactive learning and describes group formation, group roles, 
the teacher's role and assessment procedures. 

Johnson, David W., Roger T. Johnson and Edythe Holubec. Cooperation in the Classroom. 

This book presents a comprehensive discussion of research and theory about cooperative 
learning. It suggests techniques for teaching cooperative skills in the context of a range 
of classroom projects and learning activities. 

Stahl, R. J. Cooperative Learning in Language Arts: A Handbook for Teachers. 

This book focuses on helping teachers implement cooperative learning strategies in 
language arts classrooms. It describes the cooperative learning philosophy and features 
sample lesson plans, resources and record-keeping devices. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome 5/353 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



354/ Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



APPENDICES 






Appendix A 



Unit Planning Tools, Ideas and Examples 



DRAFT 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /357 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



TYPES OF UNITS© 



Theme 


A broad thematic area is chosen. 

Examples: freedom, insights, reaching beyond 


Social Issues 


A social issue is chosen. 

Examples: racism, poverty, child labour 


Genre 


A particular type of text is the starting point. 
Examples: poetry, short story, novel, film 


Text Creation 


A specific form is the focus. 

Examples: scripting, multimedia presentation, 

proposal 


Project 


A complete activity or task is central. 
Examples: producing a video, publishing a 
newspaper, performing a demonstration 


Workshop 


A working studio or workshop is established. 
Examples: readers' workshop, writers' workshop 


Concept 


A language arts topic is chosen. 

Examples: visuals, humour, symbols, archetypes 


Major Literary Work(s) 


A text or texts become the base. 

Examples: To Kill a Mockingbird and 12 Angry 

Men; Romeo and Juliet and West Side Story 


Literary Period 


A literary period is selected. 

Examples: the forties, Victorian literature 


National or Regional 
Literature 


Literature is chosen from one geographical area. 
Examples: the prairies, South Africa 


Author(s) Study 


Works by one author or a group of authors are the 

focus. 

Example: Shakespeare 


Chronological Approach 


Texts are studied in the order they were produced. 
Example: survey of several texts on similar 
subject, revealing different perspectives over time 


Combination 


Two or more units are combined. 

Examples: war poetry, fiction of the Canadian 



west, reading and publishing a newspaper, mystery 
novels 



® Adapted from Alberta Education, Senior High English Language Arts Teacher Resource Manual (Edmonton, AB: Alberta 
Education, 1991), p. 173. 



358/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



UNIT PLANNER 1 



Title: 

Overview: 
Timelines of Unit: 



Theme: 



Course: 



Focused Outcomes 


Language Arts 


Demonstrations of Learning 




D Reading 
□ Writing 
D Speaking 
D Listening 
LJ Viewing 
D Representing 





Prior Knowledge 
Skills 

Attitudes 



Resources 
Print 



Nonprint 



(continued) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /359 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Unit Planner 1 (continued) 






Activities 



Student 


Teacher 






Opening 


Developmental 


Culminating 









Assessment 



Formative: 

Self: 

Summative: 



Metacognition 



Teacher: 



Student: 



360/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



UNIT: 



UNIT PLANNER 2 

COURSE: 



GO 
1 



GO 

2 



GO 

3 



GO 

4 



GO 

5 



LANGUAGE 
ARTS 



TASKS 



R W S L V Rep 






(continued) 



Adapted from SAIT/CBE/CSSD Partnership Planning Form. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /361 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Unit Planner 2 (continued) 
TIMELINES: 



RESOURCES/ 
MATERIALS 



ASSESSMENT 



REFLECTIONS/ 
NOTES 



362/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



LEARNING OUTCOMES ORGANIZER AND PLANNER 






Students will lister 


i, speak, read, write, 


view and represent to: 




General Outcome 1 

Explore thoughts, ideas, 
feelings and experiences 


General Outcome 2 

Comprehend literature and 

other texts in oral, print, 

visual and multimedia forms, 

and respond personally, 

critically and creatively 


General Outcome 3 

Manage ideas and 
information 


General Outcome 4 

Create oral, print, visual and 

multimedia texts, and 

enhance the clarity and 

artistry of communication 


Genera\ Outcome 5 

Respect, support and 
collaborate with others 


1.1 Discover 
possibilities 


2.1 Construct meaning 
from text and 
context 


3.1 Determine inquiry 
requirements 


4.1 Develop and present 
a variety of print and 
nonprint texts 


5.1 Respect others and 
strengthen 
community 


1.1.1 Form tentative 
understandings, 
interpretations and 
positions 


2.1.1 Discern and analyze 
context 


3.1.1 Focus on purpose and 
presentation form 


4.1.1 Assess text creation 
context 


5.1.1 Use language and 

image to show respect 
and consideration 








2. 1 .2 Understand and 
interpret content 


3.1.2 Plan inquiry or 

research, and identify 
information needs and 
sources 


4. 1 .2 Consider and address 
form, structure and 
medium 






5.1.2 Appreciate diversity of 
expression, opinion 
and perspective 


1.1.2 Experiment with 
language, image 
and structure 




2.1.3 Engage prior 
knowledge 






4. 1 .3 Develop content 








5.1.3 Recognize 

accomplishments and 
events 








2.1.4 Use reference 
strategies and 
reference 
technologies 


4.1.4 Use production, 
publication and 
presentation strategies 
and technologies 
consistent with context 












1.2 Extend awareness 


2.2 Understand and 
appreciate textual 
forms, elements 
and techniques 


3.2 Follow a plan of 
inquiry 


4.2 Improve thought- 
fulness, effectiveness 
and correctness of 
communication 


5.2 Work within a 
group 


1.2.1 Consider new 
perspectives 


2.2.1 Relate form, structure 
and medium to 
purpose, audience 
and content 


3.2.1 Select, record and 

organize information 


4.2.1 Enhance thought and 
detail 


5.2.1 Cooperate with others, 
and contribute to group 
processes 








1.2.2 Express preferences, 
and expand interests 


3.2.2 Evaluate sources, and 
assess information 


4.2.2 Enhance organization 






5.2.2 Understand and 
evaluate group 
processes 


2.2.2 Relate elements, 
devices and 
techniques to created 
effects 








4.2.3 Consider and address 
matters of choice 


1.2.3 Set personal goals 
for language growth 


3.2.3 Form generalizations 
and conclusions 










2.3 Respond to a 

variety of print and 
nonprint texts 




4.2.4 Edit text for matters of 
correctness 




3.2.4 Review inquiry or 
research process and 
findings 










2.3.1 Connect self, text, 
culture and milieu 










2.3.2 Evaluate the 
verisimilitude, 
appropriateness and 
significance of print 
and nonprint texts 




2.3.3 Appreciate the 
effectiveness and 
artistry of print and 
nonprint texts 





Secondary hng/ish Language Arts Learning Support Senices 2(X)1 



In partnership with 



w 



LDMONTON 

CATHOliC 

SCHOOLS 



Learning and leaching Resources liranch, 
A/berta Learning, Alberta, Canada 

Cibola 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /363 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Not Them'*- "Us": Text and Context 

Adapted from a unit by Susan Bowsfield. 



Overview 



Timeline 
Processes 



Language Arts 



This unit provides opportunities for Grade 10 students to study and discuss racism in a 
context outside of their personal experiences and to tentatively explore their own 
biases and prejudices in a gentle fashion without destroying their understanding of 
personal and family beliefs and values. Besides the study of racism, students will 
study the effect of medium on text through different media treatments of To Kill a 
Mockingbird. The unit explores the effect of medium on content to recognize and 
articulate understandings. 

Examples of an activity sheet and Learning Outcomes checklist follow the unit plan. 

Approximately four weeks 

Students will: 

• have read the novel 

• have the ability to communicate opinions and ideas openly and without fear of 
repercussions 

• have the ability to work collaboratively 

• have the ability to write at an intermediate level. 

In this unit, students engage in all six language arts as they study text and create their 
own texts in relevant situations. The language arts are interrelated as indicated in the 
following chart. 



Reading 


Writing 


Speaking 


Listening 


Viewing 


Representing 


Novel 
Excerpt from 

full-length play 
Illustrated speech 


Script 

Poem or social letter 

News article or 

speech 
Questions or 

scrapbook 
Personal responses 


Whole-class discussion 
Small-group discussion 
Presentation sharing for 

picture book analysis 
Performance of original 

script 
Performance of monologue 

(optional) 


Film 

Performance of 
student scripts 
Illustrated speech 


Scripted dialogue 
Scripted monologue 



Texts and 
Materials 



To Kill a Mockingbird (class set of novels) 

To Kill a Mockingbird (film) 

To Kill a Mockingbird (full-length play) 

12 Angry Men (film) 

One or two copies of I Have a Dream. Dr. Martin Luther King. An illustrated edition. 

Scholastic Press. 
TV & VCR 
Canadian Writer's Handbook. Davies and Kirkland. Gage Educational Publishing 

Company. 
Canadian Student Writer's Guide. Chelsea Donaldson. Gage Educational Publishing 

Company. 

(continued) 



2>6AI Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 






(continued) 



Handouts 



Emphasis 



Suggested 
Organization 



Resourcelines 9/10. Prentice Hall Thomson Learning Publishing. 

Student self-evaluation Checklist 2 Group Work - from Literature and Media 10 

Western Canada Teacher's Guide. Nelson Thomson Learning Publishing. 

Page 240. 



1. 
2. 
3. 



Assignments - writing, collaborative script 
Questions for 12 Angry Men 
Scoring Criteria 

• group performance 

• individual performance 



1 . Representing 

2. Collaboration 

3. Broadened definition of "text" and "context" in both text creation and study 

Introductory Activities (one to five classes) 



Teacher 


Students 


• Assigns the reading of To Kill a 


• Begin to read To Kill a 


Mockingbird. 


Mockingbird at least two weeks 


• Reads / Have a Dream, the 


before beginning the unit. 


illustrated version, to the class 


• View a collection of still images 


and discusses initial 


(Resourcelines 9/10). 


understandings. 


• In small groups, select an image 


• Models an examination of one 


and write an individual response to 


illustration from / Have a 


the image. 


Dream. 






• Discuss initial response to the 




image and follow closely by 




examining the image for shape, 




line, color texture, emphasis, focal 




point, balance, movement, subject, 




complimentary text, historical 




figures, and symbolism. 


• Leads a discussion of the 


• Complete a second-look response. 


students' findings. 




• Leads a sharing of discovered 


• Complete a self-evaluation of 


insights about prejudice from 


group work. 


the text. 





(continued) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /365 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



(continued) 



Developmental Activities (eight to ten classes) 



Teacher 



Hands out assignments (with 
deadlines) including a personal 
response in a poetic format, 
writing to show bias, and a 
scrapbook connected to themes 
and events of the novels. 
Follow up to include a 
discussion of bias, form and 
context, review of assignment 
expectations, and modeling of 
the assignments. 

Instructs the basics of script 
writing in preparation for 
assignment. (Information on 
script writing and story 
boarding available in authorized 
student resources.) 

Assigns students to groups for 
script-writing assignment. 

Assigns Script-Writing: 
Students to produce a script of 
7-10 minutes (7-10 pages) for 
a performance. Tell them that 
class time will be allotted for 
writing, rehearsing the 
production and the group 
performance. Explain to the 
students the expectations for the 
assignment, the ongoing 
assessment, and the summative 
assessment. 

Administers the comprehension 
quiz on To Kill a Mockingbird. 

Explains the expectations for 
each assignment, the ongoing 
assessment and summative 
assessment for each assignment 
as the assignments are given. 

Assigns a monologue, 
(optional) This assignment 
may be an extension to the 
script writing or the literary 
essay. Material on monologues 
is available in the student 
resources. 



Students 



View To Kill a Mockingbird (film) 
and write journal responses 
examining medium expectations, 
alterations, and directing choices 
in film versus print. 

Examine an excerpt from full- 
length play To Kill a Mockingbird. 
Discuss the advantages and 
limitations of prose, live drama, 
read drama, and film. 

Select an incident of merit and 
significance from the novel for the 
group script-writing, produce a 
script of 7-10 minutes, rehearse 
the production, and prepare for the 
group presentation. 

Complete a comprehension quiz 
on To Kill a Mockingbird. 

Complete assignments and meet 
with the teacher as work 
progresses on each assignment. 

Begin the work on the monologue 
if assigned. 

Focus on possible topics of the 
literary essay as the unit 
progresses. Note ideas down after 
discussions, readings, writing, and 
viewing. 

Write the literary essay and deal 
with the theme of Not 'Them — 
"Us". 



(continued) 



366/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



(continued) 



Teacher 


Students 


• Assigns a literary essay as the 
final activity. Topics should 
refer back to the Not 'Them — 
"Us" theme and can be 
determined through class 
discussion, interests and student 
direction. The choices could 
revolve around theme, form and 
structure, or universal current 
relevance. Either the teacher or 
the students may design the 
topic. The essay assignment 
should be mentioned early in 
the unit so students can begin to 
plan their writing. Discusses 
the evaluation of the essay early 
in the unit. 


• View the film 12 Angry Men and 
identify parallels and contrasts of 
To Kill a Mockingbird and the 
film. Discuss the jury rooms and 
juries by looking specifically at the 
starting point, the theme, and the 
character development. Write a 
journal response connecting 
themes of the two resources. 



Culminating Activities (two to three classes) 



Teacher 


Students 


• Concludes summative 
assessment on all assignments. 

• Holds a final discussion about 
prejudice and racism. 
Discusses the effect of the unit 
upon the students now and in 
the future. 


• Perform script-writing 
performances. 

• Complete journal entries, self- 
assessments. 

• Perform monologues. 

• Complete literary essays. 



Assessment 



Formative — During the unit, students will have the opportunity for self-assessment 
and ongoing assessment as they progress through the activities. This assessment may 
include group work and the student's role, the initial responses, roles in discussion 
groups, early stages of script writing, and feedback on the rehearsal of the script. 



Summative — Summative assessment may include: 

• working with others 

• group presentation 

• individual presentations 

• final written responses 

• writing assignments including the bias assignment, the essay, script writing 

• comprehension tests. 



(continued) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /367 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



(continued) 



ACTIVITY PLANNING SHEET 



Not'Them'2- "Us": Text and Context 



Focused General and Specific 
Outcomes 



Possible Demonstration of 
Learnings 



Teaching and Learning 
Activities 



1 . 1 Discover possibilities 
1.1.1 

1.1.2 

1 .2 Extend awareness 
1.2.1 

2.1 Construct meaning from 
text and context 

2.1.1 
2.1.2 
2.1.3 

2.2 Understand and appreciate 
textual forms, elements and 
techniques 

2.2.1 

5.1 Respect others and 
strengthen community 
5.1.1 

5.1.2 

5.2 Work within a group 
5.2.1 

5.2.2 



Students: 

• ask thoughtful questions 

• suspend pre-judgment 

• examine their connection to 
text 

• share observations, 
experiences and opinions 
about the reading 

• identify the purpose and 
audience of text 

• complete a three-part personal 
response 

• discuss and share observations 
and insights recorded in the 
response 

• recognize and write about 
changes in perception and 
knowledge after the discussion 

• evaluate the group experience 
and refocus their learning 
strategies. 



Activity 1(1-5 classes) 
Picture Book 

1 . Teacher reads J Have a Dream 
by Martin Luther King Jr. 
(illustrated version) aloud to 
the students. 

2. As a class, students discuss 
personal meaning attained 
from listening and viewing the 
text. 

3. Students write a three-part 
personal response to the visual 
images and text. 

4. In small groups, students 
discuss their first responses to 
the images and text. 

5. Teacher discusses and models 
reading a still image with text. 

6. Students read and view a 
selected image and text, and 
write a personal response with 
more awareness of perception 
and knowledge. 

7. Students discuss the newly 
acquired knowledge and 
perceptions from the closer 
look and reading of the image 
and text. 

8. Students use the checklist on 
Group Work from Literature 
and Media 10 Teacher 
Resource Manual to evaluate 
the group experience. 



Metacognitive 
Learning 



Students complete the following: 

• 1 notice that my observation skills are 



This exercise has made me realize that viewing is 
Next time I view a still image, I will 



368/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Poetry/Video Unit 



Adapted from a unit by Patricia Perry. 



Overview 



Timeline 
Processes 



Text and 
Materials 



Language Arts 



This unit provides opportunities for Grade 1 students to analyze poems, represent 
poems in a variety of ways, work collaboratively, engage in dramatic readings of 
poems, and construct a video about a poem. 

An English Language Arts Learning Outcomes Checklist follows the unit plan. 

Approximately 1 2 eighty-minute classes 

Students will: 

• have the ability to work collaboratively 

• have some experience with operating video cameras 

• have access to video equipment 

• be in the habit of making entries in a Reading Log. 

Class sets of one of the basic learning resources: 

• Sight lines 10, Prentice Hall Literature 

• Crossroads 10, Gage Educational Publishing Company 

• Nelson English: Literature & Media 10 

Additional resources: 

• Nelson English: Literature & Media 10 Video 

• Films: Scripting in Film and The Construction of Meaning in Film (These two 
videos are not on the Alberta authorized resource list at this time.) 

• Reading Logs 

• Metacognition Journals 

In this unit, students engage in the six language arts as they study text and create their 
own texts in a media situation. The language arts are interrelated as indicated in the 
following chart. 



Reading 


Writing 


Speaking/Listening 


Viewing 


Representing 


Poems about love 


Entries in a 


Group discussion 


Viewing Media Video of 


Dramatic readings of 


Poems about 


reading log 


Jigsaw discussions 


Literature & Media 10 


poems 


conflict 


Analysis of 


Listening to presentations 


Viewing videos developed 


Videos of love or 


Songs about love 


poems 


Presenting an oral version of 


by classmates 


conflict poem 


or conflict 


Script for video 
Essay 


a poem 
Dramatic reading of a poem 







Handouts 



Questions used to help analyze a poem 
Storyboard forms 



(continued) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /369 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



(continued) 

Emphasis Representing 

Collaboration 
Oral/Media Presentation 

Suggested Introductory Activities (1 to 2 classes) 

Organization 

Teachers 

• Read and model the analysis of a poem for the class. Include in the analysis the 
kinds of questions the class is expected to answer, and a review of figures of 
speech. The modeling can include a slide show, a drawing, an illustration, a short 
clip, or a carefully sculptured reading of the poem. 

• Review "theme" with the class and what a work of literature (in this case, a poem) 
can show us about real life. 

Developmental Activities (9 to 10 classes) 

1 . Love Poems (Reading Log): Select five or six short love poems from the 
classroom resources and give the list to the students. Ask students to read the 
poems and write a reading log entry about one of the poems. 

2. Love Poems (Jigsaw): Assign students to groups of five or six students and ask 
them to meet in home groups to review questions. Students then go to "expert" 
groups where they analyze a selected poem about love to gather the following 
information: 

• What do you learn about the speaker? Quote evidence of each characteristic. 

• What do you learn of the audience? Quote evidence. 

• What do you learn about the situation (context)? Quote evidence. 

• Quote the figures of speech, and for each identify type and state the conveyed 
quality or created effects. Make special note of symbols and allusions and 
their relationship to the situation. 

• State the theme conveyed by the poem; that is, what it shows about love or 
conflict (according to the type of poem). Quote three points of evidence that 
support this theme, and explain how each supports the theme. 

Once the group has finished analyzing the poem and each individual member has a 
clear understanding of the poem, students return to home group to teach the poem. 

3. Conflict Poems: Students return to their previous expert groups. Each group 
selects a conflict poem to analyze and present. Each student selects an item to 
study and presents the information to the group. The group uses this information 
to conclude their analysis of the poem and rehearses a dramatic reading of the 
poem to achieve an effective reading of the appropriate meaning, emotional 
content and tone of the poem. 

The groups present the poem to the class with a first reading, the analysis of the 
poem, and a final reading. They answer questions relevant to language use and 
aspects of the analysis. The teacher evaluates the group for the collaborative 
efforts and each student for individual presentations. 

(continued) 

370/ Appendix A Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



(continued) 



Assessment 



4. Songs about love or conflict: Students return to their home groups and select a 
song to analyze using the questions used for the poems. The teacher must approve 
the lyric sheet of the song. (Some of the resources contain lyrics of songs.) The 
group analyzes the song and presents the work by playing the song, presenting the 
analysis and playing the song again. 

5. Assignment: Students are assigned the task of making a video of one of the 
poems (either love or conflict) that they have studied. In preparation for making 
the video, lessons on filming techniques and planning a video may be taught. 
Information about the making of a video is available in the listed resources. 

Students meet in groups to write video scripts. They spend some time examining 
clips of movies to notice effects created by types of shots and pace. At this time, 
students also decide upon the roles they will take in the video process. A one-shot 
video process is followed: the group huddles to look at the shot information on 
script, holds one rehearsal with cameraperson looking through the viewfinder with 
the camera running, huddles again to discuss necessary changes, shoots the shot 
and repeats the process until the video is finished. It is advisable for the teacher to 
be with each shooting group. The rest of the class may read or do a seat 
assignment while the videos are being shot. 

Concluding Activities (2 class periods) 

• Viewing of Videos: Students view videos and critique their contributions to the 
group and the video in their Metacognition Journals. Students may view videos 
again and make nominations for awards such as Best Actor, Best Camera Work, 
Best Screenplay. An awards class may follow. 

• Review Lesson: Students make up questions about poems other than the ones they 
worked with and use the questions to play Reach for the Top. 

• Mini-lessons can teach the structure of a theme statement and structure of theme 
essay to be assigned. 

• Completion of theme essay as assigned by the teacher. Suggested topic is "What 
do the poets/songwriters we have studied show us about love or conflict?" 

Formative 

• Collaborative efforts — at the end of each collaborative activity 

• Student's reporting back to groups 

• Progression on video work — may be a metacognitive activity, a self-assessment 
activity, a peer-assessment activity 

• Progression on theme essay 

• Self-assessment — students may either write or discuss what they have learned in 
each session and how this learning has prepared them for the next event 

Summative 

• Written groups' analyses of love poems 

• Groups' oral presentation of conflict poem 

• Video scripts 

• Students' efforts on video — camera, acting, directing 

• Reading Logs 

• Metacognition Journal 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /37 1 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



SENIOR HIGH ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS 
LEARNING EMPHASES-OUTCOME SUBHEADINGS 



Students will listen, i 


speak, read, write, view 


and represent to: 






General Outcome 1 


General Outcome 2 


General Outcome 3 


General Outcome 4 


General Outcome 5 


Explore thoughts, 


Comprehend literature 


Manage ideas and 


Create oral, print, visual 


Respect, support and 


ideas, feelings and 


and other texts in oral, 


information 


and multimedia texts, and 


collaborate with others 


experiences 


print, visual and 
multimedia forms, and 

respond personally, 
critically and creatively 




enhance the clarity and 
artistry of communication 




D 1.1 Discover 


□ 2.1 Construct 


3.1 Determine inquiry 


D4.1 Develop and 


□ 5.1 Respect others 


possibilities 


meaning from 


requirements 


present a variety 


and strengthen 




text and context 




of print and 
nonprint texts 


community 


1.1.1 Form tentative 


M 2.1.1 Discern and analyze 


M 3 . 1 . 1 Focus on purpose 


M 4.1.1 Assess text creation 


D 5.1.1 Use language and 


understandings, 


context 


and presentation 


context 


image to show 


interpretations 


8 2.1 .2 Understand and 


form 


M 4. 1 .2 Consider and address 


respect and 


and positions 


interpret content 


D3.1.2 Plan inquiry or 


form, structure and 


consideration 


□ 1.1.2 Experiment with 


M 2.1.3 Engage prior 


research, and identify 


medium 


O 5.1.2 Appreciate diversity 


language, image 


knowledge 


information needs 


SI 4. 1 .3 Develop content 


of expression, 


and structure 




and sources 


M 4.1.4 Use production, 


opinion and 




D 2. 1 .4 Use reference 




perspective 
M5.1.3 Recognize 




strategies and 
reference 




publication and 
presentation strategies 




technologies 




and technologies 
consistent with context 


accomplishments and 
events 


O 1.2 Extend 


D 2.2 Understand and 


O 3.2 Follow a plan of 


D 4.2 Improve 


□ 5.2 Work within a 


awareness 


appreciate 
textual forms, 
elements and 
techniques 


inquiry 


thoughtfulness, 
effectiveness and 
correctness of 
communication 


group 


D 1.2.1 Consider new 


tifl. 2.1 Relate form, 


D 3.2.1 Select, record and 


04.2.1 Enhance thought and 


□ 5.2.1 Cooperate with 


perspectives 


structure and 


organize information 


detail 


others, and contribute 


1.2.2 Express 


medium to purpose, 


□ 3.2.2 Evaluate sources, and 


M 4.2.2 Enhance organization 


to group processes 


preferences, and 


audience and 


assess information 


&4. 2.3 Consider and address 


O 5.2.2 Understand and 


expand interests 


content 

0^2.2.2 Relate elements, 
devices and 
techniques to 
created effects 


3.2.3 Form generalizations 


matters of choice 


evaluate group 


□ 1.2.3 Set personal 


and conclusions 


M 4.2.4 Edit text formatters 


processes 


goals for 
language growth 


□ 3.2.4 Review inquiry or 

research process and 


of correctness 








findings 








□ 2.3 Respond to a 










variety of print 










and nonprint texts 










□ 2.3.1 Connect self, text, 










culture and milieu 










2.3.2 Evaluate the 










verisimilitude, 










appropriateness and 










significance of print 










and nonprint texts 










D 2.3.3 Appreciate the 










effectiveness and 










artistry of print and 










nonprint texts 









Secondary hng/ish Language Arts Learning Support Services 2(X)1 

S? i Ha Edmonton 

wlLs? Catholic 
WlV^ Schools 



In partnership with 



Learning and 'teaching Resources liranch, 
Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Liberia 



372/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Considerations in Choosing Films for Classroom Use 

Developed by Shelley Robinson. 

Audience Overview: Classroom Context 

1 . What is your perception of the actual grade and maturity level of the classroom? 

2. How would you describe the diversity of group aptitude? 

3. What are the different cultural backgrounds of the group? (religious, racial, or other) 

4. What might be the sensitivities of the target audience? 

5. What are the existing understandings of key concepts in the film? 

6. What are the topics of interest of this group? 

7. What is the context of study prior to the film? 

• YES which refers to the understanding that aspects of the film fulfill the requirements 

• NO which refers to the understanding that some part or all of the film does not fulfill the requirements 

• ? which means that the point addressed could be debated, is neutral and not significantly a "yes" or "no," or 
requires further review 

• DS which refers to the degree of suitability. Choose one of the following numbers after each indicator. 
5 = extremely suitable for the indicated grade 

4 = quite suitable for the indicated grade 
3 = satisfactory suitability for the targeted audience 
2 = unsatisfactory suitability for the indicated grade 
1 = very inappropriate for the intended audience 



I. AUDlEiNCE CONSIDERATIONS: This section contains the appropriateness of this selection for the target 
audience considering the classroom context and community. 



Question 


Yes 


No 


9 


DS 


1 . Is this selection suitable for the age and general social development of 
the target group? 










2. Are the behaviours and motivations of the characters and the story 
themes appropriate for the maturity of the audience? 










3. Is this film suitable for the socioeconomic, geographic, religious and 
ethnic orientation of the group? 










4. Is this film considerate of the students' interests, abilities and learning 
style in terms of its scope and depth? 










5. Is the point of view of the film considerate of minorities, ideological 
differences, personal and social values, gender roles, etc? 










6. Recognizing that film can have a great impact on a group of students, 
are the sensitivities of the group respected in the context of this film 
experience? 










7. Are the controversial issues that are approached in the story something 
that a teacher can address appropriately in a classroom? 











(continued) 



(continued) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /373 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Question 


Yes 


No 


? 


DS 


8. Is the resource free of any inappropriate bias, discrimination or 
stereotyping? 










9. Do the positive attributes of the film outweigh the negative? 










10. Is the resource likely to have an appropriate effect on all of the 
students in the classroom? 










11. Is any portrayal of violence or offensive language represented 
appropriately and deemed necessary to the action of the story? 











II. CONTENT AND CURRICULUM: This section encourages teachers to observe the relevant links to our 
current program of studies to ensure the academic value of the film for the grade intended. 



Question 


Yes 


No 


? 


DS 


1 . Does the content of the film address the skills and concepts central to 
the program of studies? 










2. Do the motion picture symbols and imagery effectively achieve 
curricular significance? 










3. Does the film demonstrate all elements of a story or drama worthy of 
review (i.e., plot, setting, characters, theme, etc.)? 










4. Are the elements of film presented in a significant, interesting and 
meaningful way for classroom instruction? 










5. Comparing this film to another film in the same genre, is this film as, if 
not more, effective in accomplishing film study outcomes? 










6. Are the concepts introduced in the film of a conceptual level that is 
appropriate for the intended grade? 










7. Are the visual and audio images commensurate with the subject 
portrayed and the objectives of the program? 










8. Does the motion picture promote positive aesthetic and literary 
awareness? 










9. Are there appropriate degrees of symbolism and figurative experiences 
that will enhance the value of the film? 










10. Are the sensory details such that the viewing of this film might provide 
positive first hand opportunities not otherwise available? 










1 1 . Does the film help the viewer gain awareness of our pluralistic 
society? 










12. Is the film interpreted as a richly crafted artistic text? 










1 3. Does this film promote connections between English language arts and 
other subject areas? 










14. Is the film an authentic and accurate portrayal of the content? 










1 5. Does the film have Canadian content or support a Canadian context? 











(continued) 



374/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



(continued) 

111. TEACHING APPLICATION: This section attempts to look at the applicability of the film into meaningful 
teaching practice. 



Question 


Yes 


No 


? 


DS 


1 . Is this the best media to achieve the desired outcomes? 










2. Does the film appropriately engage the target audience? 










3. Does the film appropriately challenge their understanding of the 
concept raised in the viewing? 










4. Is there the potential for divergent instruction with this film, 

accommodating students who may understand the film differently or 
have different learning styles? 










5. Does the film encourage a different stance or perspective on the 
content and allow students to metacognitively examine their own 
attitudes and behaviour in the context of the film experience? 










6. Does the film study support a student centered or collaborative 
approach to interpretation? 










7. Does this film have the potential to inspire students to explore and 
extend into new ideas of their own in the context of their own 
experiences? 










8. Does this film provide opportunities for students to think critically 
(i.e., reflect, speculate, analyze, synthesize, problem solve, etc.)? 










9. Are there some universal truths presented in the film that can be 
adapted into the lessons of this film study? 










10. Is the film multi-layered, showing sufficient levels for interpretation 
appropriate for the target reading level? 










1 1. Does this film allow for a variety of assessment strategies to ensure 
that the outcomes of instruction have been achieved? 










12. Does the film present new ideas in creative ways and familiar ideas in 
unique ways? 










1 3. Does this film have accompanying resources and materials to assist in 
classroom implementation? 










14. Would teachers be able to easily mitigate any weaknesses in the film? 











IV. FILM QUALITY: This section attempts to evaluate the overall production value and cinematic merit of the 
film in the context of the film genre. 



Question 


Yes 


No 


? 


DS 


1 . Does this film have good entertainment value for the intended 
audience? 










2. Is the acting of the script with the character cast line-up believable and 
effective? 











(continued) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /375 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



(continued) 



Question 


Yes 


No 


? 


DS 


3. Is the visual cinematography, considering lighting, colour, camera 
shots, angle, purpose, camera movement, film speed, lens choices and 
other, effective? 










4. Are the audio choices for the film, considering recording, speech, 
music, sound effects and other, effective? 










5. Was the editing of the film successful in adding cinematic value to the 
film? 










6. When dealing with contemporary or historical topics, are 

representations consistent with language, idioms, dress styles, customs 
and other? 










7. Are high standards of quality evident in representing stories and topics 
authentically? 










8. Do the director's filming techniques offer greater meaning to the story? 










9. Is the mood or atmosphere that the director tries to achieve sincere and 
not inappropriately sentimentalized, manipulative or sensationalized? 










10. Is there a good mix of visuals and narration/speaking? 










11. If there is narration, does it enhance the meaning within the film? 










12. If animated, is the animation clear, crisp and artistically effective? 










13. Is the overall film value of high quality? 











376/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



CURRENT FILM CLASSIFICATIONS 



PG 



UNITED STATES (USA) 

General: 

All ages admitted. 

Parental Guidance: 

Some material may not be suitable for 
children. 



PG-13 Parents Strongly Cautioned: 

Some material may be inappropriate 
for children under 13. 



R Restricted: 

Under 1 7 requires accompanying 
parent or adult guardian. 



NC-17 No one 17 and under admitted. 



ALBERTA 

G General: 

Suitable for viewing by all ages. 

PG Parental Guidance: 

Parental guidance advised. Theme or 
content may not be suitable for all 
children. 

14A Suitable for viewing by persons 

14 years of age or older. Persons under 
14 must be accompanied by an adult. 
May contain course language, and/or 
sexually suggestive scenes. 

18A Suitable for viewing by persons 

1 8 years of age or older. Persons under 
1 8 must be accompanied by an adult. 
May contain explicit violence, frequent 
course language, sexual activity, and/or 
horror. 

R Restricted: 

Admittance restricted to persons 
1 8 years and older. Content not suitable 
for minors. Contains frequent sexual 
activity, brutal/graphic violence, intense 
horror, and/or other disturbing content. 

A Adult: 

Admittance restricted to persons 
1 8 years of age and older. Content not 
suitable for minors. Contains 
predominantly sexual explicit activity. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /377 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Student Sample: Film Analysis 



Steven Spielberg: 
vs. Hook 



Schindler's List 



Steven Spielberg, a well-known director, brilliantly 
uses light, colour, and music to portray the idea he 
wishes to communicate throughout his films. 
Spielberg uses these three elements in his 1993 
production of Schindler's List and 1991 production 
of Hook in different but extremely effective 
manners. 

Light is a significant factor that illustrates the 
emotions of a character and foreshadows its 
development as time progresses. In Schindler's List, 
glamour lighting (when a character is lit from top to 
bottom) is used on Schindler to predict the decency 
within his character. Spielberg shows his cleverness 
by snapping a picture to change the scene. As he 
does this, the lighting of the entire screen gets 
brighter, capturing the immediate attention of the 
audience. The children in the movie are often lit 
from either side. By doing this, Spielberg 
concentrates on their eyes to emphasize their fear. 
Silhouettes are used occasionally during the film. 
Darkness of characters' faces shows mystery and 
adds suspense. A variety of lighting techniques are 
used to enhance a character's personality and 
emotion. In Hook, many of the same ingenious 
lighting angles are used. In this film, a scene of 
innocence and fantasy is created by the lighting from 
behind to make you feel as if you are in a dream. 
Wendy's and Jack's faces are brighter to 
acknowledge their guiltlessness. A twinkle is used 
numerous times in the story line to draw attention to 
certain objects. For instance, there is always light 
reflecting off the hook. This sparkle makes the film 
more intense as it shows how sharp and deadly the 
hook really is. Tinkerbell, on the other hand, 
sparkles to inform the viewer of her make-believe 
nature and how harmless she is. With Peter being 
the protagonist, it is important to focus on the 
changes he undergoes as time progresses. Peter's 
face is dark at the beginning of the story because he 
is neglecting his family and spends no time with 
them. It shows the audience that he is a bad father 
and shouldn't be admired. Over time Spielberg 
begins to use glamour lighting to show that Peter has 



his childhood back. Viewers realize that his change 
was for the betterment of his character and it is time 
to start admiring his accomplishment. The different 
lighting angles used by Spielberg gives the audience 
different insights on the characters. 

Spielberg's colours differ a great deal in Schindler's 
List and Hook. Schindler's List, being a serious 
documentary, is black and white throughout most of 
the film to set a somber mood for the audience. An 
uncommon method of colour is used by having only 
one object in a scene in colour. As Schindler is 
scanning the crowded streets, he comes across a 
young girl in a dusty red coat. The coat is the only 
colour you see during the Holocaust in the movie. 
Its objective is to draw your attention to the girl, 
wondering around alone. This scene foreshadows 
the ending by being a crucial turning point for 
Schindler's character. He realizes how shallow and 
self-centered he really is. The reunion at Schindler's 
grave is in colour to show the passing of time. The 
film no longer shows the cold and dark hatred of the 
Holocaust but the feelings of gratitude and 
admiration that the survivors have for Schindler. By 
watching this heart warming scene in colour, 
viewers are relieved, and it shows how thankful 
everyone is. The use of colour shows the biggest 
contrast between Schindler's List and Hook. 
Colours are bright and vibrant in Hook to show the 
happiness Never Never Land brings to the 
characters. Sunset skies bring warmth and 
enchantment to the overall mood of the scene. 
Wendy is always dressed in light colours to 
represent her pure and good-hearted personality. 
Tinkerbell is illustrated the same, in heartwarming 
colours, to show her dreamy nature. Captain Hook 
has a dark wig and is dressed in dark colours to 
show his evil intentions. The other pirates are 
dressed in dull brown colours to contrast their level 
of importance to Hook. By using different colours 
one's character and intentions are predictable. 

Spielberg creates different moods in the two movies 
by his use of music. Music is often played in 
Schindler's List to create a scene of sorrow and 
sadness. The songs are usually calm and slow. The 
songs sung by young children give the audience a 

(continued) 



378/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



(continued) 

very depressed outlook on the situation. The effect 
is enhanced by the singing of young children 
because of their innocence and pure nature. It makes 
you realize how the children are being hurt by the 
selfishness of others. Spielberg artistically uses 
these music pieces to pass time, build suspense and 
add emotion. The music he chooses expresses a 
variety of emotions such as pain and heartache as 
well as gratitude. In contrast the music used in Hook 
creates a sense of fantasy, amazement, and dreamy 
thoughts to enhance positive emotions. Some music 
is also used to create fear when Hook and Peter are 
fighting. As the music gets faster and louder your 
heart races and it gets you sitting on the edge of your 
seat. The scene then becomes more intense and it 



draws your attention to the plot of the film. In both 
films, music is placed in perfect places to intensify 
and inflate the emotion and objective brought on by 
Spielberg. 

Without proper use of light, colour and music, the 
effectiveness of films would be at a minimum. 
These three factors create sympathy, inspiration, 
affection, shock and fear. Spielberg is an intelligent 
and talented director who is ingenious when working 
with light, colour and music in order to produce an 
award winning film. 



Outcomes Addressed 

2. 1.2g recognize visual and aural elements in texts, and explain the contributions that they make to the 

meaning of texts (ELA 20-2) 
2.1.2g analyze visual and aural elements, and explain how they contribute to the meaning of texts (ELA 20-1) 
2.2.2b explain how various textual elements and stylistic techniques contribute to the creation of atmosphere, 

tone and voice (ELA 20-1 and 20-2) 
2.3.3a use appropriate terminology for discussing and appreciating the effectiveness and artistry of a broad 

variety of text forms (ELA 20-1) 
2.3.3a recognize that texts can be effective and artistic, and use appropriate terminology for discussing and 

appreciating the effectiveness and artistry of a broad variety of texts (ELA 20-2) 
2.3.3b describe the effectiveness of various texts, including media texts, for presenting feelings, ideas and 

information, and for evoking response (ELA 20-1 and 20-2) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /379 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Student Response to Text and Context 



Identify and consider 
personal, moral and 
ethical perspectives, as 
well as cultural 
perspectives, when 
studying literature and 
other texts; and reflect 
on and monitor how 
perspectives change as 
a result of interpretation 
and discussion 
(2.3.1a— ELA 10-1, 20-1 
and 10-2,20-2) 

Consider new 
perspectives (1.2.1) 



Explain how the choices 
and motives of 
characters and persons 
portrayed in texts may 
provide insight into the 
choices and motives of 
self and others (2.3.1c — 
ELA 20-1 and 20-2) 



The Writer, the Story, and Me 

The short story, "Two Words" by Isabel Allende was a great reminder for me. It 
reminded me about my trip, the respect I have for my parents, and how it came to 
be that I am where I am. 

Like Belisa in the short story, 1 too was assessing my own situation. As a result 
of my own withdrawal from high school, I had ended up working at a retail 
clothing store. Though I was doing well at my profession (coming back to a 
promotion), I realized that other than my job, "there were few occupations" that I 
would qualify for. After seeing the things that I had seen and feeling the things 
that 1 had felt, 1 began to do a little bit of soul-searching. I had learned a few 
things about myself and so I came to the decision that 1 would go back to school 
and get myself educated. 

I am not ashamed to say that I was a very ignorant and selfish person before my 
trip. Up until the summer of 2000, 1 had never really understood just how much 
my parents had sacrificed. On my trip, I slowly began to comprehend the 
decision my parents had made to leave. Not only did they leave behind a very 
caring family but amazing friends as well. I had never seen my parents held in 
such high regard and respected so much for the strength they had in leaving their 
home during a time of so much chaos. I have the utmost respect and admiration 
for my parents. They had the courage and the heart to leave behind everything 
and to start a new life in another country. 

I am second generation to those who have survived the military overthrow in 
Chile. Similar to Allende, my parents had great strength to endure the coup one 
day at a time. By continuing to reside in Chile after the coup started, in a way, 
Allende stood up to the powers that had assassinated her uncle. Much the same 
way, my parents were part of a movement that was against Pinochet. This was a 
man that was "ineradicably linked to devastation and calamity." Under his rule, 
people would vanish into thin air and those who were caught rebelling against 
him would be shot on the spot. Like Allende, my parents left Chile fearing for 
their lives. 



Accordingly, my parents' departure from Chile would lead to my birth in 
Canada. After withdrawing from school, twice, I recognize the importance of 
attaining an education to get the things you want out of life. As a result of 
incidents that have taken place over the last few decades, I am also able to 
recognize the importance of sacrifices that people make. 



380/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAf T) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



High School Learners: Implications for Instruction® 



Characteristics of Learners 



Accommodating Learners 



Physical Characteristics 

• Some students have reached adult stature 
while others, particularly males, are still in a 
stage of extremely rapid growth and 
experience a changing body image and self- 
consciousness. 

• By high school, students are able to sit still 
and concentrate on one activity for longer 
periods than previously, but they still need 
interaction and variety. 

• Students still need more sleep than adults and 
may come to school tired, as a result of part- 
time jobs or activity overload. 



• Be sensitive to the risk students may feel in 
public performances, and increase 
expectations gradually. Provide students with 
positive information about themselves. 

• Channel physical energy toward active 
learning, instead of trying to contain it. 
Provide variety, change the pace frequently 
and use activities that involve representing 
and kinesthetic learning experiences. 

• Work with students and families to set goals 
for language learning, and plan activities 
realistically so that school work assumes a 
high priority. 



Cognitive Characteristics 

• High school learners are increasingly capable 
of abstract thought and are in the process of 
revising their former concrete thinking into 
fuller understanding of principles. 

• Students are less absolute in their reasoning 
and are more able to consider diverse points of 
view. They recognize that knowledge may be 
relative to context. 

• Many basic learning processes have become 
automatic by high school, freeing students to 
concentrate on complex learning. 



• Many students are developing a clearer self 
understanding and specialized interests and 
expertise they need to connect what they are 
learning to the world outside school. 



Students typically enter a period of transition 
to adult texts, moving from adventure, 
romance and teen fiction to texts that explore 
adult roles and social questions. 



• Teach to the big picture and development of 
enduring understandings. Help students forge 
links between what they already know and 
what they are learning. 

• Focus on developing problem-solving and 
critical-thinking skills. Help students 
construct and answer essential questions. 

• Identify the skills and knowledge students 
already possess, and build the course around 
new challenges. Through assessment, identify 
students who have not mastered learning 
processes at grade level, and provide 
additional assistance and support. 

• Use strategies that enhance student's 
metacognition. Encourage students to 
develop literacy skills through exploring areas 
of interest. Cultivate classroom experts, and 
invite students with individual interests to 
enrich the learning experience of the class. 

• Build bridges by suggesting engaging and 
thoughtful texts that help students in the search 
for personal values. 



(continued) 



9 Adapted from Manitoba Education and Training, Senior 2 English Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation 
(Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Education and Training, 1998). 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /381 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



(continued) 



High School Learners: Implications for Instruction 



Characteristics of Learners 



Accommodating Learners 



Moral and Ethical Characteristics 

• High school students are working at 

developing a personal ethic, set of values and 
code of behaviour. 



• Students are sensitive to personal or systemic 
injustice. They are moving from being 
idealistic and impatient with the realities that 
often make social change slow or difficult to a 
more realistic view of the factors that effect 
social change. 

• Students are shifting from an egocentric view 
of the world to one centred on relationships 
and community. They are increasingly able to 
recognize different points of view and to adapt 
to difficult situations. 

• Students have high standards for adult 
competence and consistency but are becoming 
more realistic about the complexities of adult 
responsibilities. They are often resistant to 
arbitrary authority. 



• Explore the ethical meaning of situations in 
life and in texts. Provide opportunities for 
students to recognize personal ethical stance, 
values and behaviour and to reflect on their 
thoughts in discussion, writing or 
representation. 

• Explore ways in which literature has 
influenced, and literacy activities can effect, 
social change. 



• Provide opportunities for students to 
recognize responsibilities, make and follow 
through on commitments, and refine their 
interactive skills. 

• Explain/explore the purpose of learning 
experiences. Enlist student collaboration in 
developing assessment tools or classroom 
policies. Strive to be consistent. 



Social Characteristics 

• While individuals will take risks in asserting 
an individual identity, many students continue 
to be intensely concerned with how peers 
view their appearance and behaviour. Much 
of their sense of self is still drawn from peers, 
with whom they may adopt a "group 
consciousness" rather than making 
autonomous decisions. 

• Peer acceptance is still often more important 
than adult approval. Adolescents frequently 
express peer identification through slang, 
musical choices, clothing, body decoration 
and behaviour. 

• Crises of friendship and romance, and a 
growing awareness of human sexuality, can 
distract students from course work. 

• Although some students may have an aloof 
demeanour, they still expect and welcome a 
personal connection with their teachers. 



• Ensure that the classroom has an accepting 
climate. Model respect for each student. Use 
language activities that foster student 
self-understanding and self-reflection. 
Challenge students to make personal 
judgements about situations in life and in 
texts. 

• Foster a classroom identity and culture. 
Ensure that every student is included and 
valued. Structure learning so that students 
can interact with peers, and teach strategies 
for effective interaction. 

• Open doors for students to learn about 
relationships through poetry, film and fiction 
and to explore their experiences and feelings 
in language. Respect confidentiality, except 
where a student's safety is at risk. 

• Nurture a relationship with each student. 
Recognize their presence in the classroom and 
their interests. Respond with openness, 
empathy and warmth. 



(continued) 



382/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



(continued) 



High School Learners: Implications for Instruction 


Characteristics of Learners 


Accommodating Learners 


Psychological and Emotional Characteristics 




• It is important for students to see that their 


• Provide choice. Allow students to select 


autonomy and emerging independence is 


many of the texts they will explore and the 


respected. They need a measure of control 


forms they will use to demonstrate their 


over what happens to them in school. 


learning. Teach students to be independent 




learners. Gradually release responsibility to 




students. 


• Students need to understand the purpose and 


• Use students' tendency to question authority 


relevance of activities, policies and processes. 


and social mores to help them develop critical 


Some express a growing sense of autonomy 


thinking. Negotiate policies, and demonstrate 


through questioning authority. Others may be 


a willingness to compromise. Use student 


passive and difficult to engage. 


curiosity to fuel classroom inquiry. 


• Students at this stage may be more reserved, 


• Concentrate on getting to know each student 


aloof and guarded than previously, both with 


early in the year. Provide optional and 


teachers and with peers. 


gradual opportunities for self-disclosure. 


• Students with a history of difficulties in 


• Learn to understand each student's unique 


school may be sophisticated in their 


combination of abilities and learning 


understanding of school procedures and 


approaches. Select topics, themes and 


resistant to offers of help. 


learning opportunities that offer students both 




a challenge and an opportunity to succeed. 




Make expectations very clear. 


• High school students have a clearer sense of 


• Allow students to explore themselves through 


identity than they had previously, and they are 


their work, and celebrate student differences. 


capable of being more reflective and self- 
aware. 




• As they mature, students take on more 


• Provide students with leadership opportunities 


leadership roles within the school and may be 


within the classroom, and provide a forum to 


more involved with leadership in their 


practise skills in public speaking and group 


communities. 


facilitation. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /383 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



FOSTERING STUDENT INDEPENDENCE IN INQUIRY© 

When read from left to right, the chart traces the gradual release of responsibility to students 
throughout their years in senior high school. The center column introduces inquiry through teacher- 
directed activities; the right column describes how advanced students will handle inquiry. Assessment at 
every stage provides teachers with information about which students need further instruction and support 
and when they could use it. 



Increasing student responsibility, metacognition and awareness. 




Stage 1: Task Definition 



Teacher Directed 



Student Directed 



Establish Purpose 



Teacher develops with students the 
need and purpose for inquiry. 

Teacher determines topic or provides 
limited options and set goals. 



Students establish need and purpose 
for inquiry. 

Students choose a specific topic, 
based on their own needs, purposes 
and goals. 



Stage 2: Planning 


Teacher Directed Student Directed 


Develop Plan 


Teacher establishes the research plan 
for the whole class. 


Students develop a research plan and 
review it with peers or with teacher. 


Activate Prior 
Knowledge 


Teacher leads students in activities to 
help them identify and share their 
knowledge and experiences. 


Students use a variety of strategies 
for exploring and sharing their prior 
knowledge. 


Develop Questions 


Teacher helps students develop and 
organize questions to guide inquiry. 


Students develop inquiry questions 
that focus on new areas of knowledge 
and application. 


Identify Potential 
Information Sources 


Teacher leads class in brainstorming 
sources of information. 


Students survey information sources 
in the school community. 


Establish Assessment 
Criteria 


Teacher shares assessment criteria 
for content and processes. 


Students help establish assessment 
criteria for content and processes. 



(continued) 



® Adapted from Alberta Education, Focus on Research: A Guide to Developing Students' Research Skills (Edmonton, AB: 
Alberta Education, 1990). 



384/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



(continued) 



Increasing student responsibility, metacognition and awareness. 




Stage 3: Information Retrieval 


Teacher Directed Student Directed 


Clarify Topic 


Teacher introduces resources to 
broaden students' grasp of the topic. 


Students collect and share resources 
to clarify topic. 


Locate and Collect 
Resources 


Teacher identifies and helps students 
find a variety of appropriate and 
accessible print, nonprint and 
community resources. 

Students are taught to use standard 
location tools, such as card or 
computer catalogues, magazine 
indices, vertical files, and Internet 
search engines. 

Teacher guides students in the use of 
tables of contents, indices and 
glossaries. 

Students receive help with the terms 
or key words to be used for searches. 

Students learn routines required to 
borrow resource materials from their 
school, library and outside sources. 

Teacher shows students how to use 
audiovisual equipment as necessary. 

Teacher and students review the 
materials collected and make a 
preliminary list of resources. 


Students find and choose appropriate 
resources and use standard tools for 
locating information. 

Students generate possible search 
terms, using standard thesauri or 
subject heading lists. 

Students access resources from 
different libraries and outside 
sources. 

Students use a variety of equipment 
as required. 

Students review the type and quantity 
of resources collected and prepare a 
working bibliography. 


Select Information 
Sources 


Teacher helps students select the best 
sources of information. 


Students select the most appropriate 
sources of information. 



(continued) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /385 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



(continued) 



Increasing student responsibility, metacognition and awareness. 




Stage 4: Information Processing 




Teacher Directed 


Student Directed 


Choose Relevant 


Students read, listen and view to 


Students read, listen and view to gain 


Information 


gather information to answer the 
inquiry questions. 


pertinent information about the topic. 




Teacher provides instruction in 


Students select and use strategies 




appropriate strategies, such as: 


appropriate to the resources being 
used. 




• skimming 






• scanning 






• interpreting maps, graphs and 






pictures 






• interpreting such features as 






headlines, captions and title 






sequences in film. 




Organize and Record 


Teacher provides instruction in note- 


Students summarize, paraphrase or 


Information 


making strategies and assists 
students in summarizing and 
paraphrasing. 


quote as appropriate. 




Teacher illustrates making notes, 


Students make notes using 




using words or graphic organizers to 


appropriate models, such as 




complete a simple outline, chart or 


diagrams, mind maps, note cards or 




web. 


computer files. 




Teacher provides a format to record 


Students record information needed 




bibliographic information — author, 


for a bibliography, footnotes and 




title, publication date, media type. 


direct quotations, according to 
standard form. 


Evaluate Information 


Teacher assists students to 


Students distinguish between: 




distinguish between: 


• fact and fiction 




• fact and fiction 


• fact and opinion 




• fact and opinion 


• fact and theory 




• fact and theory 


• fact and value 




• fact and value 


• hypothesis and evidence 




• hypothesis and evidence 


• hypothesis and generalization. 




• hypothesis and generalization. 






Teacher assists students to consider, 


Students determine accuracy, 




in relationship to fulfillment of 


authority and reliability of sources, 




purpose, accuracy and currentness of 


recognizing primary and secondary 




sources. 


sources. 




Teacher assists students to recognize, 


Students recognize author's point of 




in relationship to fulfillment of 


view, bias and underlying 




purpose, adequacy of information 


assumptions or values. 




and bias. 





(continued) 



386/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



(continued) 



Increasing student responsibility, metacognition and awareness. 




Stage 4: Information Processing 




Teacher Directed 


Student Directed 


Review Process 


Teacher discusses with students 


Students determine whether further 




whether there is sufficient 


information is required or whether 




information to answer the inquiry 


the inquiry plan needs to be revised. 




questions. 






Teacher and students reflect on 


Students reflect on information 




information retrieval activities, 


retrieval activities, noting specific 




noting specific ideas for 


ideas for transfer to other situations. 




improvement. 




Make Connections and 


Teacher helps students compare 


Students compare and synthesize 


Inferences 


information from two or more 
sources. 


information from several sources. 




Teacher helps students make 


Students develop or revise a main 




generalizations, state relationships 


idea, key message or thesis 




among concepts and develop a 


statement, if applicable. 




controlling idea. 






Teacher helps students combine 


Students formulate alternative 




information to answer inquiry 


answers, solutions, conclusions or 




questions. 


decisions related to inquiry 
questions. 



Stage 5: Creation/Genesis 


Teacher Directed Student Directed 


Identify Context and 
Presentation Form 


Teacher determines context and 
presentation form. Students are 
introduced to a variety of forms over 
time. 

Teacher provides and explains 
models of various presentation forms. 

Students choose audience and 
presentation form from presented 
options. 


Students discern situation, determine 
size and nature of audience, and 
choose presentation form from a 
repertoire of learned forms. 


Planning for Sharing 


Students prepare a presentation from 
notes and/or a student- and teacher- 
generated outline. 

Students prepare a final bibliography/ 
references with teacher assistance. 

Students, with teacher or peer 
assistance, review information to 
delete repetitiveness, 
inappropriateness and irrelevancies. 


Students prepare a presentation 
suitable for the purpose and audience 
they have chosen. 

Students prepare a final bibliography/ 
references using a style guide. 

Students re-examine information for 
relevance to intended focus and 
format. 


Revise and Edit 


Students revise, edit and/or rehearse 
presentation with teacher and peer 
assistance. 


Students revise, edit and/or rehearse, 
asking for peer or teacher assistance 
as necessary. 



(continued) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix A /387 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



(continued) 



Increasing student responsibility, metacognition and awareness. 




Stage 6: Presentation and Assessment 




Teacher Directed 


Student Directed 


Present Findings 


Students present information to a 
partner or small group within the 
school or to outside groups arranged 
by the teacher. 


Students present information to 
individuals, groups and classes 
within the school, and individuals 
and/or groups outside of the school. 


Demonstrate 
Appropriate Audience 


Teacher models empathetic and 
critical listening behaviours. 


Students demonstrate empathetic and 
critical listening behaviours. 


Behaviour 


Students demonstrate attentive 
listening. 


Students demonstrate an ability to 
develop follow-up inquiries. 




Teacher and students make positive, 
constructive comments. 


Students respond to presenter. 




Teacher helps students ask 
appropriate questions. 






Students respond to presenter. 




Review and Evaluate 
Inquiry Process and 


Teacher assesses the extent to which 
inquiry plan was followed. 


Students, individually or with peers, 
identify and evaluate inquiry steps. 


Skills 


Students take part in conferencing 
with peers, teacher and/or teacher- 
librarian. 

Teacher assesses individual and 
group participation skills. 


Students take part in conferencing 
with peers, teacher and/or teacher- 
librarian. 




Teacher and students reflect on the 
information processing activities, 
noting specific ideas for 
improvement. 


Students reflect on information 
processing activities, noting specific 
ideas for transfer to other situations. 




Teacher and students reflect on 
information sharing activities, noting 
specific ideas for improvement. 


Students reflect on information 
sharing activities, noting specific 
ideas for transfer to other situations. 




Teacher and students reflect on the 
complete inquiry process, noting 
areas of strength and ideas for 
improvement. 


Students reflect on the complete 
inquiry process, noting specific ideas 
for transfer to other situations. 



388/ Appendix A 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix B 

Assessment Tools, Scoring Guides 
and Student Planning Forms 



DRAFT 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts Appendix B /389 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



CREATING ASSESSMENT DEVICES 
IN COLLABORATION WITH STUDENTS 



1 . The task is presented and examined through whole-class discussion. A number of questions may be 
considered, including: 

• What is the ELA focus or emphases of the task? 

• What is the purpose of the task? Who is its audience? What is the situation in which it is being created? 
presented? 

• What sort of text form might best suit function? Through which medium/media? 

• What would be the characteristics of a good product/performance? 

- What sort of content might be expected? 

- How might the content be organized best? 

• What tone and register would be appropriate? What level of correctness is expected? 

2. The purpose of assessment (formative feedback or summative evaluation) and who will be providing 
feedback (teacher and/or students) is discussed. 

3. The form of the assessment device(s) is determined. Possibilities include: 

• personal checklist 

• peer feedback sheet 

• verbal or written comment 

• scoring guide/rubric. 

4. Assessment focus and content is explored. For example, the class may brainstorm: 

• questions that would promote meaningful self-assessment, such as "Are my research sources current?" 
and "Does the information take me further into my topic/focus?" 

• prompts that could frame peer feedback, such as "What 1 liked best about your presentation was . . ." and 
"Might I suggest that you try . . ." 

• possible criteria and achievement indicators to include in a scoring guide. 

5. The performance event is understood. For example, the created text may be an in-class essay or an oral 
presentation of a collage, a readers theatre performance or a panel discussion. 

Teachers may also want to include discussion of how information gathered from the assessment might be used. 
Such information could be shared with: 

• individual students during teacher-student conferences 

• groups of students, if the created text was a group effort 

• the whole class as general observations about how well the class is meeting the learning outcomes 

• the whole class, through examination of examples of individual student work. Note: Students must be asked 
if their work can be shared, told how it might be used for instruction and offered anonymity, if applicable. 



390/ Appendix B Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



ORAL ASSESSMENT© 



Content 4.1.3 4.2.1 4.2.2 



When marking Content, consider the quality of: 

• understanding the topic 

• ideas that unify the presentation 

• support provided by the selection of details. 



The student or group: 



reveals a comprehensive understanding of the topic 
provides specific, carefully chosen details 
develops ideas effectively 

reveals a thoughtful understanding of the topic 
provides well-defined, appropriate details 
develops ideas directly and supports them clearly 

reveals a conventional understanding of the topic 

provides adequate details 

develops relevant ideas and supports them functionally 

reveals a partial or limited understanding of the topic 
provides few details 
develops ideas inadequately 

reveals misunderstanding of the topic 

provides so few details that the main ideas seem unsupported 

develops unclear or irrelevant ideas 



® Adapted from Alberta Education, English 20: Teacher Manual: Classroom Assessment Materials (Edmonton, AB: 
Alberta Education, 1997), p. 21. 






Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix B /391 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



ORAL ASSESSMENT© 

Presentation 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.4 



When marking the Presentation, consider the: 

• effectiveness of language and speaking style 

• degree of interest created for the audience 

• quality of the student's preparation for the presentation 

• quality of the conclusion. 



The student: 



speaks precisely and skillfully, and uses language, tone, pacing, eye 

contact and gestures persuasively and emphatically 

successfully involves the audience through an imaginative method of 

presenting ideas, details and/or visuals 

is fully prepared, so the presentation is effective 

concludes effectively, creating the desired effect 

speaks clearly and fluently, and uses language, tone, pacing, eye contact 

and gestures purposefully 

generally involves the audience through frequently inventive methods of 

presenting ideas, detail and/or visuals 

is competently prepared, so the presentation is made with confidence 

concludes effectively 

speaks clearly, though perhaps with hesitations, and uses language, tone, 

eye contact and gestures to communicate meaningfully 

sometimes involves the audience through an occasionally original method 

of presenting ideas, details and/or visuals 

is adequately prepared, so the presentation establishes a basic view 

concludes adequately 

speaks hesitantly, and may use some language or pace that is ineffective 

for the purpose 

rarely involves the audience due to a frequently unimaginative method of 

presenting ideas, details and/or visuals 

falters due to flaws in preparation 

concludes unclearly 

speaks unclearly, so that listeners strain to understand, and uses 

ineffective language and pace 

demonstrates no attempt to involve the audience 

is generally unprepared 

draws no conclusion 



® Adapted from Alberta Education, English 20: Teacher Manual: Classroom Assessment Materials (Edmonton, AB: 
Alberta Education, 1997), p. 22. 

392/ Appendix B Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



SCORING GUIDE FOR VISUAL PRESENTATIONS 



Content 4.1.3 4.2.1 

5 A unique and purposeful presentation that demonstrates an insightful 

understanding of the topic, with significant and relevant details selected for 
support. 

4 A purposeful presentation that demonstrates a well-considered understanding 
of the topic, with pertinent details used effectively for support. 

3 A straightforward presentation that demonstrates a defensible understanding 
of the topic, with relevant but generalized details used for support. 

2 A presentation that may be sketchy or incomplete, demonstrating a limited or 
vague understanding of the topic. 

1 A presentation that is confusing or contains a minimal amount of information, 
demonstrating an incomprehensible or indefensible understanding of the topic. 



Communication 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 

5 Innovative and effective use of visual elements and conventions of layout 
and language enhance the presentation. Demonstrates precise understanding 
of audience and purpose. 

4 Effectively uses visual elements and conventions of layout and language to 
create a proficient presentation. Demonstrates a clear sense of audience and 
purpose. 

3 Uses visual elements and conventions of layout and language to clearly 
communicate ideas. Demonstrates a general sense of audience and purpose. 

2 Uses some visual elements and conventions of layout and language in a way 
that partially communicates ideas. Demonstrates a limited understanding of 
audience and purpose. 

1 Uses few visual elements and uses conventions of layout and language 
ineffectively. Demonstrates little understanding of audience and purpose. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts Appendix B /393 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



SCORING CRITERIA FOR COLLABORATION© 



5.2.1 5.2.2 



When marking collaboration, consider the: 

• student's attitude, as revealed by involvement, responsibility, and focus 

• student's skills, as demonstrated by listening and contributing to group discussion 

• roles that the student assumes to assist the group process 

The student: 

5 • is an effective, responsible group member who initiates action and 
becomes absorbed in the task 

• listens actively, contributes effectively, and builds on the ideas of others 

• assumes leading roles, providing direction, eliciting contributions, 
clarifying, and evaluating 

4 • is a hard-working group member who is an active, focused participant 

• listens closely, contributes constructively, and uses the ideas of others 

• assumes significant roles, organizing and encouraging others, and 
clarifying ideas 



is an attentive, cooperative, contributing group member 

listens, respects the ideas of others, and helps the group to make choices 

assumes supportive roles, following purposefully but rarely leading 



• is often an observer and may stray from the task 



• 



• 



listens initially, but loses focus or restricts focus to personal ideas 
assumes supportive roles sporadically 

is generally uninvolved, and may distract others or create conflict 

is so focused on personal views that listening, when attempted, is focused 

on differences 

rarely assumes constructive roles 



Insufficient 

• makes no attempt to work with other students 



" Reproduced from Alberta Education, English 10: Teacher Manual: Classroom Assessment Materials (Edmonton, AB: Alberta 
Education, 1997), p. 20. 



394/ Appendix B Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 






SCORING GUIDE FOR PERSONAL RESPONSE* 

Thought 2.1.2 2.3.1 2.3.2 

5 An insightful understanding of the text is effectively demonstrated. Ideas are perceptive. 

4 A well-considered understanding of the text is appropriately demonstrated. Ideas are 
thoughtful. 

3 A defensible understanding of the text is clearly demonstrated. Ideas are straightforward. 

2 An understanding of the text may be evident but is vaguely demonstrated or not always 
defensible or sustained. Ideas are overgeneralized and/or incomplete. 

1 An implausible conjecture regarding the text is suggested. Ideas are incomprehensible or 
indefensible. 

Support/Detail 3.2.1 3.2.3 4.1.3 4.2.1 

5 Significant, relevant and precise details enhance the ideas. 

4 Relevant and purposeful details clarify the ideas. 

3 Relevant but generalized details support the ideas. 

2 Few details that are vaguely related to the ideas. 

1 Irrelevant details or no details to support the ideas. 
Organization 4.2.2 

5 Purposeful organization provides coherence and direction. Effective 
beginnings and endings provide clear direction and proficiently conclude the 
ideas. 

4 A controlled organization provides coherence and direction. Appropriate 
beginnings and endings introduce and conclude the ideas. 

3 Organization is generally clear, but coherence may falter. Beginnings and 
endings are functional. 

2 Faltering organization leaves the relationship between ideas unclear. 
Beginnings and/or endings are ineffective. 

1 Nonfunctional organization leaves the purpose unclear. Beginnings and/or 

endings are vague and unfocused. (continued) 



® Adapted from Alberta Education, English 20: Teacher Manual: Classroom Assessment Materials (Edmonton, AB: 
Alberta Education, 1997), pp. 28-35. 

Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts Appendix B /395 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



(continued) 

Language Use 4.2.3 

5 Confident and purposeful use of diction and syntax with a confident voice that may be 
controlled for effect. 

4 Carefully chosen diction and syntax with an appropriate and generally effective voice. 

3 Clear but general diction with an appropriate voice, if present. 

2 Imprecise diction and awkward or unclear syntax with an uncontrolled or inappropriate voice, 
if present. 

1 Inaccurate diction and uncontrolled, confusing syntax with a lack of voice. 



Correctness 4.2.4 

5 Confident control of mechanics, punctuation, grammar and word usage with a relative 
absence of errors, considering the complexity and length of the student's writing. 

Competent control of mechanics, punctuation, grammar and word usage with a relative 
absence of errors, considering the complexity and length of the student's writing. 

3 General control of mechanics, punctuation, grammar and word usage with occasional lapses 
in correctness that do not interfere with the meaning. 

2 Limited control of mechanics, punctuation, grammar and word usage with a range of errors 
that blur the clarity of meaning. 

1 A lack of control of mechanics, punctuation, grammar and word usage with a range of 
frequent and jarring errors that impede communication. 



4 



396/ Appendix B Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



SCORING GUIDE FOR CRITICAL RESPONSE© 

Thought 2.1.2 2.3.1 2.3.2 

5 Literary interpretations are perceptive, and an insightful understanding and appreciation of 
the author/filmmaker's choices are effectively demonstrated. 

4 Literary interpretations are sensible, and a thoughtful and clear understanding of the 
author/filmmaker's choices is demonstrated. 

3 Literary interpretations are straightforward and defensible, and a clear understanding of the 
author/filmmaker's choices is demonstrated. 

2 Literary interpretations are incomplete, and a limited understanding of the author/filmmaker's 
choices is demonstrated. 

1 Literary interpretations may not be defensible, and little understanding of the author/ filmmaker's 
choices is evident. 

Support/Detail 3.2.3 4.1.3 4.2.1 

5 Well-defined, carefully chosen examples with perceptive explanations. 

4 Well-defined, appropriate examples with thoughtful explanations. 

3 Purposefully chosen but conventional examples with general explanations. 

2 Inappropriately chosen examples with underdeveloped explanations. 

1 Irrelevant examples with misleading explanations or no explanations. 

Organization 4.2.2 

Purposeful organization provides coherence and direction. Effective 
beginnings and endings provide clear direction and proficiently conclude the 
ideas. 

A controlled organization provides coherence and direction. Appropriate 
beginnings and endings introduce and conclude the ideas. 

3 Organization is generally clear, but coherence may falter. Beginnings and 
endings are functional. 

2 Faltering organization leaves the relationship between ideas unclear. 
Beginnings and/or endings are ineffective. 

1 Nonfunctional organization leaves the purpose unclear. Beginnings and/or 
endings are vague and unfocused. 

® Adapted from Alberta Education, English 20: Teacher Manual: Classroom Assessment Materials (Edmonton, AB 
Alberta Education, 1997), pp. 28-35. 

Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts Appendix B /397 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



5 

ideas 
4 A 



(continued) 



(continued) 

Matters of Choice 4.2.3 

5 Confident and purposeful use of diction and syntax with a confident voice that may be 
controlled for effect. 

4 Carefully chosen diction and syntax with an appropriate and generally effective voice. 

3 Clear but general diction with an appropriate voice, if present. 

2 Imprecise diction and awkward or unclear syntax with an uncontrolled or inappropriate voice, 
if present. 

1 Inaccurate diction and uncontrolled, confusing syntax with a lack of voice. 

Correctness 4.2.4 

5 Confident control of mechanics, punctuation, grammar and word usage with a relative 
absence of errors, considering the complexity and length of the student's writing. 

4 Competent control of mechanics, punctuation, grammar and word usage with a relative 
absence of errors, considering the complexity and length of the student's writing. 

3 General control of mechanics, punctuation, grammar and word usage with occasional lapses 
in correctness that do not interfere with the meaning. 

2 Limited control of mechanics, punctuation, grammar and word usage with a range of errors 
that blur the clarity of meaning. 

1 A lack of control of mechanics, punctuation, grammar and word usage with a range of 
frequent and jarring errors that impede communication. 



398/ Appendix B Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



RUBRIC: READING RESPONSE TO LITERATURE 



ASSESSMENT 
OUTCOMES 


Strong 


Proficient 


Basic/Emerging 


Weak/Incomplete 


PRESENCE OF 

REQUIRED 

ENTRIES 


All entries are present, are 
highly detailed and 
demonstrate a commitment 
to growth through 
consistently diligent, 
articulate responses. 


All entries, including 
initial and second look 
entries, are present and 
demonstrate detailed, 
complete responses. 


All entries are mainly 
complete but may tend to 
be brief. 


Entries are incomplete 
and/or missing, (see 
teacher) 


CLOSE READING 
OF TEXT 

PART J: SEEING THE 
WRITERS PURPOSE 


Insightful and carefully 
considered recognition of 
author's idea(s); support 
from the text is precise 
and thoughtfully selected; 
a perceptive response. 


Expression of thoughtful 
understanding about 
author's ideas; support is 
relevant and purposeful; 
a competent response. 


Clear evidence that the 
text has been read; ideas 
expressed are appropriate 
to the text; support is 
straightforward though 
general; a satisfactory 
response. 


Ideas are confused, 
underdeveloped and/or 
may lack relevance; 
support is vague and/or 
repetitive, (see teacher) 


ISSUES ARISING 
OUT OF 
READING 

PARTS 2, 3: 
CONNECTING AND 
THINKING BEYOND 
THE TEXT 


Comments and/or 
questions demonstrate 
insight and maturity and 
probe toward greater 
understanding of the 
human condition; a 
carefully considered 
connection to the text. 


Thought-provoking 
comments and/or 
questions are posed about 
significant issues arising 
from the text; 
interpretations are 
sensible. 


Comments are made or 
questions are raised about 
issues arising from or 
meaningfully related to 
the text. 


Comments or questions if 
posed do not 
meaningfully connect 
with the experience of the 
text, (see teacher) 


SECOND LOOK 
RESPONSES... 

(FOLLOWING 
CLASSROOM 

DISCUSSION) 


. . . demonstrate an 
observed and detailed 
development in the depth 
or breadth of thought or 
insight about the text. 


... demonstrate evidence 
of increased 
understanding of or 
connection to the text. 


... inconsistently 
demonstrate evidence of 
increased understanding 
of or connection to the 
text. 


... do not demonstrate 
increased understanding 
of the text, (see teacher) 



PRESENCE OF REQUIRED ENTRIES — This outcome is useful with students new to response process learning, while they are still 
gaining familiarity and fluency. The outcome serves to encourage students to express their thinking as fully as they can. At the same 
time, it honours students' efforts while they are developing their skill in response. In time, as students become used to the process, the 
teacher may choose to omit this outcome as a criterion of response. 

CLOSE READING OF TEXT — This outcome focuses on Part 1 of the response. Students are expected to demonstrate that they have 
been attentive to the text — that they have given careful consideration to the idea(s) the author develops and to the significant details of 
the text that support the author's idea(s). 

ISSUES ARISING OUT OF READING— This outcome focuses on Parts 2 and 3 of the response. Students are expected to explore the 
author's meaning by extrapolating beyond the text, first inwardly into themselves and their own lived experience and then outside of 
themselves with a more universal observation regarding the world at large. 

SECOND LOOK RESPONSES — This outcome asks that students demonstrate that they have considered others' opinions and have 
responded in relevant terms. Typically, this outcome would be applied following classroom discussion wherein the teacher has 
observed that students have not done justice to the text. At some point the teacher may decide to assume a more active role in leading 
the discussion. A second look would then be assigned to follow. 

The scoring guide can be applied using either a straightforward 1-4 marking scale or a scale of 1-10. The second would offer the 
teacher some flexibility: 

A Strong response is scored 9 or 10 out of 10 
Proficient scores 7 or 8 
Basic/Emerging scores 5 or 6 
Weak/Incomplete is scored 4 or less out of 10. 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix B /399 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



FILM ELEMENT ANALYSIS SHEET 



Clip 


Director 


Element 


Your 
Reaction 


Purpose 


Intended 
Effect 


1. 












2. 












3. 












4. 













400/ Appendix B 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



GO 1 Overview 



EXPLORING THOUGHTS AND LANGUAGE: 
SELF-ASSESSMENT FORM© 



Name: Date: 

Activity: 



The 12 statements that follow describe the behaviours and attitudes of learners as they explore thoughts, 
feelings, ideas and experiences. 

> Choose the five statements that best describe the ways in which you demonstrated your learning through 
this activity. 

> Write a sentence or two to explain or give an example of the way in which each chosen statement 
represents your learning. 

> If this activity was not a positive learning experience for you, use this form to reflect on what went 
wrong. Choose five statements and discuss the things that you could have done differently to make these 
statements true. 



1 . 1 tried to express ideas or feelings I had never expressed before. 



2. 1 felt deeply involved in this activity. 



3. I tried out several new ways of looking at this subject before I made up my mind. 



4. 1 asked others what they thought, felt or experienced. 



5. I explored a different form or genre in listening, reading and viewing. 



(continued) 



® Adapted from Manitoba Education and Training, Senior 2 English Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation 
(Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Education and Training, 1998). 

Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts Appendix B /401 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada (September 2002 DRAFT) 



GO 1 Overview 

(continued) 



6. 1 experimented with a new form or new vocabulary in expressing my ideas. 



7. I looked at ways in which new information fit with my old ideas. 



8. 1 revised my own ideas in light of what 1 learned. 



9. I developed reasons for my opinions. 



10. 1 thought about ways in which the texts I listened to, read or viewed represented my own experience. 



11. 1 took risks in this activity. 



12. 1 learned something valuable about the way in which 1 learn or respond to others. 



402/ Appendix B Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-1 1 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



1.1.1 Journals 

JOURNAL ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION FORM 



Name: 


Room: Evaluation period: from to 




Student 


Teacher 


Review the journal and decide to what extent the entries: 






• are complete records 


/10 


/10 


• contain extended responses 


/10 


/10 


• display thoughtful and reflective responses 


/20 


/20 


• indicate review of previous work and teacher feedback 


/10 


/10 


Totals 


/50 


/50 


Student comments: 


Teacher comments: 


Conference notes: 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix B /403 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



1.1.1 Anticipation Guide 



ANTICIPATION GUIDE 



Topic: News Makers 


Name: 


1 . Ordinary people are as likely to be news 
makers as rich and glamorous people. 


Agree/disagree 
Reason 


After 


Why? 




2. Journalists decide who our heroes will 
be. 


Agree/disagree 
Reason 


After 


Why? 






3. News makers often serve as role models 
for people. 


Agree/disagree 
Reason 


After 


Why? 




4. What we think we know about news 
makers is constructed by the media. 


Agree/disagree 
Reason 


After 


Why? 




5. The private lives of news makers are 
their own business. 


Agree/disagree 
Reason 


After 


Why? 




1 





Anticipation guides: Adapted from John E. Readence, Thomas W. Bean and R. Scott Baldwin, Content Area Reading: An Integrated 
Approach (Dubuque, 1A: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 1981). 

Ideas for creating and using anticipation guides: Adapted from William G. Brozo and Michele L. Simpson, Readers, Teachers, Learners: 
Expanding Literacy in Secondary Schools. 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995). 



404/ Appendix B 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



1.2.1 Exploring an Issue 

PLANNING SHEET 

The issue I am dealing with is 

I plan to deal with (number) of different examples in my presentation. 

My presentation will probably take the form of 



Name of text and type 
of text: 


what this example says about the issue of 


Ideas for my presentation: 




Name of text and type 
of text: 


what this example says about the issue of 


Ideas for my presentation: 




Name of text and type 
of text: 


what this example says about the issue of 


Ideas for my presentation: 




Name of text and type 
of text: 


what this example says about the issue of 


Ideas for my presentation: 




Name of text and type 
of text: 


what this example says about the issue of 


Ideas for my presentation: 





Other ideas for presentation from teacher and classmate: 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix B /405 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



1.2.2 Reading Profile, Journal or Scrapbook 

REFLECTION CHART 



Date of entry: 



Name and kind of reading; e.g., poem, fiction, nonfiction, visual, textbook material: 



Difficulty level from 1 (low) to 5 (high) and a comment about what made the reading easy or difficult 
for me: 



What I understood from my reading: 



Strategies I used to approach my reading of this text: 



Date I revisited this reading, comments on new understanding and new strategies for reading: 



406/ Appendix B Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 

(September 2002 DRAFT) ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



1.2.3 Goal Sheet 



GOAL SHEET© 



Name: 


Class: Date: 




Goals 


Strategies I will use 


How I will demonstrate my 
learning 








Goal assessment date: 









® Adapted from Manitoba Education and Training, Senior 2 English Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation (Winnipeg, MB: 
Manitoba Education and Training, 1998). 



Guide to Implementation: Grades 10-11 English Language Arts 
©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix B /407 
(September 2002 DRAFT) 



2.1.1 Discerning Context 

ASSESSING TEXT FOR PURPOSE, AUDIENCE AND SITUATION© 





Text A 


TextB 


TextC 


Title: 


Title: 


Title: 


Form o