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AN ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION 

OF THE 

LOWER WELLAND RIVER 



JULY 1993 



@ Ontario 



Ministry of 
Environment 
and Energy 



ISBN 0-7778- 1644-X 



AN ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION 
OF THE LOWER WELLAND RIVER 



JULY 1993 







Cette publication technique 
n'est disponible qu'en anglais. 

Copyright: Queen's Printer for Ontario, 1993 

This publication may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes 

with appropriate attribution. 



PIBS 2659 



AN ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION 
OF THE LOWER WELLAND RTVER 



Report prepared by: 

R.J Pope, K.A Keenleyside, S.D Speller 
Tarandus Associates Limited 

for 

The Niagara River Improvement Project 
Ontario Ministry of the Environment 



JULY 1993 



DISCLAIMER 



The content and conclusions of this report do not 
necessarily reflect the views and policies of the 
Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy. The 
data as presented are regarded as valid and can be 
used in additional assessments. 

Mention of trade names or commercial products 
does not constitute endorsement or recommendation 
for use. 



Executive Summary 



An environmental evaluation of the lower Welland River was conducted by Tarandus Associates 
Limited during the summer and fall of 1990. The study involved an assessment of water and sediment 
quality, as well as an examination of aquatic flora and fauna. 

The objectives of the study were: 

1) to obtain a database subset for the lower Welland River for use in assessing 
possible remediation options where appropriate and for determining the need 
for further environmental investigations and; 

2) to provide information for use in evaluating the significance of the Welland 
River regarding environmental quality issues in the Niagara River Area of 
Concern. 



After an initial reconnaissance of the study area, field trips to the lower Welland River were completed 
during August and November, 1990. A total of 25 stations were evaluated. Analyses of sediments 
and water from these stations were conducted by Beak Analytical Laboratories. 

Water quality varied considerably among stations. At several sites, iron, copper, mercury, and total 
phosphorus exceeded the Provincial Water Quality Objectives (PWQO). Most water-quality 
parameters, however, including most metals, phenols, total cyanide, PCBs, polyaromatic hydrocarbons 
(PAHs), and organochlorine (OC) pesticides were below detection limits. 

Data from regular MOE water-quality monitoring stations indicate that levels of zinc, copper, 
mercury, chromium, and lead have decreased in the Welland River from 1979 to 1987. A slight 
increase in aluminum concentrations in water, however, has been noted from 1981 to 1987. 

Sediment quality was also variable throughout the study area. Concentrations of lead, chromium, 
mercury, cadmium, zinc, iron, nickel, copper, arsenic, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, 
total phosphorus, and PCBs exceeded the MOE Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines (PSQG) lower 
effect limit (LEL) at some stations." The PSQG - Severe Effect Limits (SEL) for chromium, mercury, 
nickel, iron, and copper were also exceeded at several stations in sections B and C of the study area. 
Concentrations of total cyanide and oil and grease exceeded the Open Water Disposal Guidelines 
(OWDG) at some stations. PAHs were also detected at several stations, most notably stations 9 and 
10. All organochlorine pesticides were below detection limits. 

Degraded sediment quality, as indicated by concentrations of several metals, oil and grease, total 
cyanide, and PAHs were found at stations 9, 10, 24, 11, and 12, in the lower Welland River between 
the syphons, as well as at stations 17, 18, 19 and 20 in the section east of Port Robinson. Sediments 
at station 7, located in the western portion of the City of Welland also had elevated concentrations of 



several contaminants. A number of contaminant inputs are located in the vicinity of these stations, 
including storm sewers, a landfill site, a water pollution control plant (WPCP), and several industries. 

Ninety benthic-invertebrate taxa were identified at the 25 sampling stations. The total is significantly 
higher than the 28 taxa reported previously (Johnson, 1964). The number of taxa varied among 
stations, rajiging from a low of 12 species at stations 6 and 25 to a high of 29 species at station 10. 

Two invertebrate species were common to all the sampling stations; Procladius sp. and immature 
tubificids, although Chryptochironomus sp. , Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri , and Sphaerium sp. were found 
at 24 of the 25 sites. Johnson (1964) also noted Procladius and Limnodrilus throughout the Welland 
River. Sampling stations located upstream of the City of Welland were characterized by relatively 
high numbers of Hexagenia sp. and Coelotanyus sp. These species were generally absent from 
stations downstream of Welland, indicating degraded environmental conditions. Stations located below 
the urbanized areas were characterized by relatively high numbers of the more pollution-tolerant taxa, 
Spirosperma ferox and immature tubificids, as well as Valvata sp., and Hydrobiidae. 

The total abundance of benthic invertebrates varied among stations in the study area, and ranged from 
a low of 634 individuals per square meter at station 12 to a high of 5900 individuals per square meter 
at station 22. Generally, stations located in and below the City of Welland had higher total 
abundances than those located in the rural area above Welland. 

Benthic-invertebrate diversity (Shannon-Weaver and Brillouin) fluctuated considerably, especially in 
the river below the City of Welland. Diversities at all the stations upstream of Welland were 
relatively constant, ranging from 3.02 to 3.53. Shannon diversities ranged from a high of 3.96 at 
station 1 1 to a low of 2.52 at station 25. Similar trends were noted with the Brillouin diversity index. 
Diversities greater than 3.0 are generally indicative of unpolluted conditions. 

Discriminant analysis of the stations, based on the results of cluster analyses, indicated that benthic- 
invertebrate communities below the City of Welland and above the Queenston-Chippawa Canal were 
associated with sediments characterized by elevated concentrations of several metals including 
chromium, copper, and arsenic. In contrast, benthic communities at stations above the City of 
Welland, occurred in an area characterized by sediments having relatively low levels of metals, and 
a high loss on ignition. Aluminum was also found at higher concentrations in this part of the Welland 
River than at stations further downstream. 

The fish community of the lower Welland River was dominated by warmwater species, including 
catfish, white crappie, carp, suckers, and freshwater drum. Salmonid species were not found in the 
lower Welland River, although they are common in the Niagara River. 

The Welland River shoreline was dominated by several emergent aquatic macrophytes, including 
Typha latifoUa and Sagiitaria laiifolia. A number of submerged aquatic macrophytes were also noted 
including Myriophyllum spicamm, Vallisneria americana, and Ceratophyllum demersum. These 
species have been previously reported in the study area by Johnson (1964) and Dickman et al. (1983). 
Previous authors have also noted areas devoid of higher aquatic plants below several industrial 
discharges (Dickman and Haynes, date unknown; Dickman eral, 1983). During this study, sparse 
macrophyte growth was only noted below the Thompson's Creek confluence. 



Table of Contents 

Page 

Executive Summary i 

List of Tables • v 

List of Figures viii 

List of Appendices x 

Introduction 1 

Study Methods 3 



The Study Area 

Water Quality 5 

Sediment Quality 

Benthic Invertebrates 

Aquatic Macrophytes 

Fisheries 9 

Flow Measurements 10 

Statistical Analyses H 

1) Indices H 

i) Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index 11 

ii) Brillouin Diversity Index 12 

2) Cluster Analysis 12 

3) Principal Components Analysis 13 

4) Discriminant Analysis 13 



Results and Discussion 15 

Water Quality 15 

Sediment Quality . 27 

Benthic Invertebrates 44 



Table of Contents (continued) 



i) Species Composition, Abundance, and Diversity 44 

ii) Benthic Community Classification 51 

iii) Environmental Quality Evaluation 54 



Fisheries 60 

Aquatic Macrophytes 62 

Flow Measurements 64 



Conclusions .65 

Water Quality 65 

Sediment Quality 65 

Benthic Invertebrates and Environmental Quality 66 

Fisheries 67 

Aquatic Macrophytes 67 



References 69 



List of Tables 

Table Page 

1 The four sections of the study area 5 

2 Analytical parameters - water 6 

3 Analytical parameters - sediment 7 

4 Sediment-quality parameters evaluated during the fall surv 8 

5 Sediment-quality parameters used in discriminant analysis 14 



6 Water-quality parameters below detection limits in all the 

Welland River water Samples 



7 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their associated detection limits 23 



8 Organochlorine pesticides and their associated detection limits 24 

8b MOE results for concentrations of chlorinated organics in water 

at stations 6 and 21. 25 

9 A comparison of the water-quality of the Welland River with 

selected river systems in the area 27 



10 Provincial Sediment Quality Guideline levels and their significance 28 



11 Concentrations of PAHs in Welland River sediments collected 

during the summer survey 33 



List of Tables (Continued) 



Table Page 



12 Concentrations of PAHs in Welland River sediments collected 
during the fall survey 



34 



12 b MOE results for concentrations of chlorinated organics at ^ 

sites 6, 9, 15 and 21. 35 

13 Organochlorine pesticides and associated detection limits in sediment 38 

14 Summary of sediment quality at all stations based on the PSQGs 40 

15 Comparison of selected sediment-quality parameters at station 9 41 



16 Comparison of selected parameters in sediments collected offshore 

of the Atlas outfall . 41 



17 A comparison of Welland River sediments with sediments from 

Thompson's Creek, Lyon's Creek, and the Niagara River. 43 



18 Number of taxa, total abundance, and diversity (Shannon and Brillouin) 

for all stations 50 



19 Correlations between the sediment parameters and the first two 

discriminant functions for the benthic-invertebrate communities 56 



20 Mean concentrations of the sediment parameters associated with the 

benthic-invertebrate communities 56 



21 Correlations between the sediment parameters and the first two 
discriminant functions for the three benthic communities in the 
Welland River 59 



List of Tables (Continued) 

Table , Page 

22 Fish species caught in the Welland River during the summer and fall survey 61 

23 Numbers of fish caught in hoop-net sets in sections A, B, and C 62 



24 Species of submergent and emergent aquatic macrophytes found in the 

study area during the summer survey 63 



List of Figures 

Figure Page 

1 Welland River study area 2 

2 Welland River sampling locations 4 



3 Concentration of zinc, copper, chromium, mercury, and lead 

in water samples collected at the Montrose Bridge from 1979 to 1987 18 



4 Aluminum concentrations in water samples collected at the Montrose 

Bridge and Port Robinson from 1981 to 1987 19 



5 Total phosphorus levels in water samples collected at the Montrose - 

Bridge, Port Robinson, and the Welland Airport from 1979 to 1987 20 



6 Mean-yearly TKN levels in water samples collected at the Montrose 

Bridge, Port Robinson, and the Welland Airport from 1979 to 1987 22 



7 Tubificid abundances 45 

8 Chironomid abundances 46 

9 Hexagenia abundances 47 

10 Total Oligochaete abundances 49 

11 Cluster analysis results using Euclidean distance and Ward's method 52 



List of Figures (Continued) 
Figure Page 

12 PCA results of benthic-invertebrate abundance 53 



13 Plot of benthic-invertebrate communities in discriminant space as defined by 

the first two discriminant functions 55 



14 Plot of the Welland River benthic-invertebrate communities in discriminant 

space as defined by the first two discriminant functions 58 



List of Appendices 

Appendix Page 

I Water Quality Graphics 73 

II Sediment Quality Graphics 81 



III Field observations of conductivity, dissolved oxygen, 

and water temperature during the fall survey 97 



IV Benthic-invertebrate species list 101 

V Benthic-invertebrate species counts 107 

VI Benthic-invertebrate species abundances 129 

VII Taxonomic composition of benthic communities 139 

VIII Component loadings for the PCA 145 

IX Fish species found in the study area 149 

X Flow calculations for sections A, B, and C 153 

XI Water Quality Data 157 

XII Sediment Quality Data 165 



Introduction 



In July, 1990, Tarandus Associates Limited was contracted by the Ontario Ministry of the 
Environment (MOE) to complete an environmental evaluation of the lower Welland River 
(Figure 1). The study included an assessment of water and sediment quality, as well as an 
evaluation of aquatic flora and fauna. 

The objectives of the study were: 

1) to obtain a database subset for the lower Welland River to allow assessment of 
remediation similar to that presently underway for the Niagara River as well as to 
determine the need for further environmental investigations and; 

2) to provide information for use in evaluating the significance of the Welland River 
regarding environmental quality issues in the Niagara River Area of Concern. 



A number of environmental studies have been completed on the Welland River, including 
sediment and water quality assessments (Kaiser and Comba, 1983; Brindle etal. , 1988; Johnson, 
1964; Hart, 1986; Acres, 1990), fisheries studies (Johnson, 1964; Steele, 1981), benthic 
invertebrate surveys (Johnson, 1964), and aquatic-macrophyte surveys (Dickman et al., 1980; 
Dickman e[ al, 1983; Dickman and Hayes, date unknown). Much of the information in the 
earlier studies is appropriate only for historical purposes, given that the discharges to the river 
have changed significantly in recent years. 

Twenty six years ago, Johnson (1964) concluded that domestic sewage and industrial wastes led 
to serious water quality impairment in the lower Welland River. More recently, a number of 
sources of contaminants to the Welland River have been identified and investigated. Industrial 
sources include Atlas Specialty Steels, Cyanamid Canada Inc., B. F. Goodrich and Ford Motor 
Company. Various municipal sources such as the Welland Water Pollution Control Plant 
(WPCP), and a number of combined sewer outfalls and overflows also exist (NRTC, 1984). 



Study Methods 



The Study Area 

The Welland River is approximately 70 kilometres long, and extends from just south of 
Hamilton to the Queenston-Chippawa Power Canal. The section of the Welland River from 
Chippawa westwards to the Queenston-Chippawa Power Canal is 6.4 km long and is locally 
known as Chippawa Creek. This portion of the Welland River now flows westerly carrying 
Niagara River water to the power-canal delta where it mixes with Welland River water and 
proceeds down the Queenston-Chippawa Power Canal. The Welland River drains an area of 
approximately 906 km' and has an average gradient of three feet per mile to the Chippawa- 
Queenston Power Canal. The Welland River is not navigable where it flows beneath the old and 
new Welland Ship Canals by way of inverted syphon systems. 

The study area extends from O'Reilly's Bridge, which is located south of the Welland Airport, 
to the lighthouse in King's Bridge Park at Chippawa, excluding the Queenston-Chippawa Power 
Canal. The study area was separated into four sections: A, B, C, and D (Table 1) based on 
access, the various land uses, and the nature of developments in each section (Figure 1). 

A total of 25 stations were selected for water and sediment analyses, and benthic-invertebrate 
collections (Figure 2). Fish were sampled at three net-set locations. Station locations were 
selected in consultation with MOE personnel. Sampling intensity was increased in sections B 
and C where industrial and municipal discharges are more common. Sampling was reduced in 
section A, where agricultural land uses are predominant, and in section D, where the flow 
consists of Niagara River water exclusively. The field work for this project was completed 
during the periods of August 20th to the 24th, 1990, and November 6th to the 9th, 1990. 



Table 1 : The four sections of the study area. 



Section (See Fig. 2) 



General Description 



A - O'Reilly's Bridge to the old Welland Canal 



limited residential 
predominately rural 
agricultural activities common 



B - old Welland Canal to the new Welland Canal 



mostly residential 

several municipal discharges 

several industrial discharges 

water diverted from the old Welland 

Ship Canal 



C - the new Welland Canal to the power canal 



D - the power canal to the Niagara River 



predominately rural 
several industrial discharges 

Niagara River water diverted to 
the power canal through this section 
predominately rural 



Water Quality 

Water samples were collected at all stations with the use of a Van Dorn water-sampler. Each 
station sample was a composite of water taken at a depth of 1 meter below the surface at three 
locations: from the middle and from both sides of the river. All samples were placed in the 
appropriate labelled containers and were preserved as necessary. Samples were stored in a 
cooler on ice, until delivery to the laboratory for chemical analysis. 



Water samples were collected from all 25 stations between August 20th and August 24th, 1990. 
These water samples were analyzed for either an "extensive list" or an "indicator list" of 
parameters (Table 2). Samples from stations 1, 9, 15, 21, and 23 were analyzed for the 
"extensive list" of parameters, and the remaining 20 stations were analyzed for the "indicator 
list". Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH were determined in the field at all stations. 



Table 2: 



Analytical parameters 
in Appendix XI. 



water. A glossary of parameter abbreviations is presented 



Extensive List 



Indicator List 



Metals 



Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Fe, 
Se, As, Sb, Ba, Be, 
Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, V, 
Ag, Hg, CN, Mn, Mg 
Al 



Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu 
As, Hg, CN, Al 



Organics 



PCB/OC pesticide scan 
PAHs, Phenolics 



PCB/OC pesticide scan 
Phenolics 



Nutrients 



NH4, TP, TKN, NO., NO3 



TP, TKN 



Miscellaneous 



pH, conductivity, 
dissolved oxygen 
turbidity, colour, 
suspended solids 
temperature 



pH, conductivity, 
dissolved oxygen 
turbidity 
temperature 



A second set of water samples was collected from all stations during the period of November 
6th to the 9th, 1990. All of these water samples were analyzed for phenolics. Water samples 
from stations 1-10, 15, 21, and 23 were analyzed for aluminum and copper, and samples from 
stations 1-5, 10, 15, 21 and 23 were analyzed for mercury. Water temperature, conductivity, 
and dissolved oxygen measurements were determined in the field, at most stations. Dissolved 
oxygen depth-profiles were also taken at some stations. 

All water analyses were conducted by Beak Consultants Limited according to standard analytical 
methods approved by MOE. In addition, water samples were collected from stations 6 and 21 
for subsequent analysis at the MOE laboratory in Rexdale. Chemical parameters included 
volatile organics, extractable organics, and organochlorine pesticides. 



Spatial and temporal trends in water quality were examined throughout the study area. Data 
from previous studies, when available, were also incorporated in these analyses. Water-quality 
results were compared to the MOE Provincial Water Quality Objectives (PWQO) where 
.possible, and to the water quality of other river systems in the area. 



Sediment Quality 

Surficial sediments were collected with a stainless-steel ponar grab sampler, and consisted of 
composites of three sub-samples taken at the middle and both sides of the river. All sediment 
samples were homogenized and placed in appropriate labelled jars. Miscellaneous observations 
regarding sediment texture and colour, as well as the presence of any odour or oily sheen were 
also recorded where evident. 

Sediment samples were collected at a total of 25 stations during the period of August 20th to the 
24th, 1990. Samples from stations 1,9, 15, 21, and 23 were analyzed for an "extensive list" 
of parameters, and the remaining 20 samples were analyzed for an "indicator list" (Table 3). 

A second set of sediment samples was also collected during the November survey. A modified 
set of chemical analyses based on the results of the August survey was conducted on each of 
these samples (Table 4). 



Table 3: Analytical parameters - sediments 



Extensive 



Indicator 



Metals 



Pb, Zn, Cd,.Cr, Fe, 
Se, As, Sb, Ba, Be, 
Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, V, 

Ag, Hg, CN, Mn, Mg 
Al 



Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu 
As, Hg, CN, Al 



Organics 



PCB/OC pesticide scan 
PAHs, Phenol 



PCB/OC pesticide scan 
Phenol 



Nutrients ' TP, TKN, TOC, LOI LOI 

Miscellaneous pH, SAR, Oil and Grease pH, Oil and Grease 



Table 4: Sediment-quality parameters evaluated during the fall survey. 



Parameter(s) 










Stations 


Zn, Cd, Mn, Co, Cu, 

Total Cyanide (CN) 

Mercury (Hg) 

Arsenic (As) 

PAH Scan 

PCB 

Oil and Grease 


Fe, 


Pb, 


Cr, 


Ni 


5-19,20 

17-22 

7-13 

7-10,11-20 

1,3,5,7-10, 15 

1, 3, 5, 7-10, 15, 19a, 21, 23 

1-23 



All sediment analyses were completed by Beak Consultants Limited according to standard 
methods approved by MOE. 

In addition, sediments were collected from stations 9, 15 and 21 at the request of MOE for 
subsequent analysis at the MOE laboratory in Rexdale. Parameters determined included volatile 
organics, extractable organics, organo-chlorine pesticides, and dioxins. 

Trends in sediment quality were examined throughout the study area. Data from previous 
studies, when available, were also used for these analyses. Sediment-quality results were 
compared to Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines (PSQG), and to the sediment quality of 
other local river systems such as Thompsons Creek, Lyons Creek and the Niagara River. 



Benthic Invertebrates 

Benthic-invertebrate samples were collected from the middle and both sides of the river at each 
of the 25 stations in August, for a total of 75 samples. All samples were collected with the use 
of a ponar grab sampler, and the sediments were sieved through a 200-u mesh sieve-bucket. 
Residual materials were placed in appropriately labelled jars, and preserved in 10% buffered 
formalin. 

All samples were manually washed, picked, and sorted to separate all organisms from associated 
debris. All samples were picked in their entirety with the use of a stereomicroscope. The 
organisms found in each sample were sorted into similar taxonomic groups and placed in 
separate labelled vials for subsequent identification. 



All benthic invertebrates were identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level by Dr Richard 
Vineyard and Mr Brad Hubley of the firm Original Insect Ideas. Prior to identification, 
tubificids and chironomids were cleared and mounted on labelled microscope slides with the use 
of polyvinyl lactophenol. In cases where the immature forms of some invertebrates prevented 
identification to species, classification was usually completed to the genus level. 

All sorted invertebrate samples were provided to MOE at the completion of the project. In 
addition, a reference collection was prepared for use in confirming identifications and to ensure 
the repeatability of the benthic invertebrate classification in future studies. Slides were labelled 
with species identification, date, location, taxonomist and station. 

All species counts were tabulated by sample and station, and were converted to abundance counts 
(number/m^) for use in subsequent statistical analysis. 



Aquatic Macrophytes 

A visual qualitative assessment of the aquatic-macrophyte community was completed at all 
stations in the study area. Assessments of both submergent and emergent macrophytes were 
completed, including observations regarding species present, dominant species, and the presence 
of any unusual or rare plants. Photographs of existing aquatic-macrophyte communities in the 
study area were also taken where possible to supplement the community descriptions. 

A species list of aquatic macrophytes was prepared for the study area. Trends in species 
composition and species association were noted, and any atypical occurrences were recorded. 
Unusual community patterns, particularly those that may result from anthropogenic disturbances 
were also described. 



Fisheries 

Fish were collected during both field trips to evaluate community composition in the study area. 
A Scientific Collector's Fish Permit was obtained from the Ministry of Natural Resources in 
Fonthill before the field work for the fish survey was initiated. 

Sampling methods included the use of hoop nets, a seine net, and minnow traps. The identity 
of all species sampled during the survey was recorded, and any observations of abnormalities, 
disease, or parasites were noted. All fish were released alive if possible. 

The hoop nets used during the study had a rectangular opening of approximately 47 by 38 inches 
(190.5 by 96.5 cm) and hoops measuring about 36 inches (91.4 cm) in diameter. The hoop-net 
enclosure measured approximately 20 feet (6.1 m) in length, and had an attached lead of 100 
feet (30.5 m). At all sets, the lead was attached to trees or rocks at the shore, and the trap was 
positioned in deeper water at an angle that varied from about 45° to 90° to the shoreline. Water 



depths in which the hoop net was set ranged from 1.0 to 2.5 meters. This fish survey was 
intended to provide general overview information only and was not designed to be a detailed 
assessment of the fish populations in the Lower Welland River. 

A total of 5 hoop-net sets were completed during the summer and fall surveys. The hoop net 
was set once in sections A, B, and C during the August survey and once in sections A and C 
during the November survey. Each hoop-net set was placed overnight for a period of 
approximately 24 hours. All net-set locations are illustrated in Figure 2. 

Fish were also collected with the use of a 5-meter beach seine at a number of locations in 
sections A, C, and D during the August survey. The steep banks of section B prevented the 
completion of any seining in that part of the river. 

A total of 8 minnow traps were also set in sections A, B, and C. The traps were baited with 
bread and set overnight. 



Flow measurements 

Water velocity was measured with the use of a Montedoro-Whitney portable velocity meter at 
5-meter intervals across several sections of the river. Velocity measurements were taken at 0.2 
and 0.8 times the water depth at each measuring point as recommended by Arseneault (1976). 
Individual velocity measurements consisted of the average instantaneous velocity measured 
during a 20 second time interval. A number of surface spot velocities were also recorded at 
several stations. 

Flow calculations were completed using the Velocity-Area Method. This technique involves 
dividing a cross-section of the river into a number of segments, each bounded by imaginary 
vertical lines from the water surface to the stream bed. The area of each segment is determined 
and the mean velocity of water flowing through it is determined from velocity measurements. 
The discharge for each segment is computed by multiplying the area of the segment by the 
corresponding mean velocity, and these individual discharges are added to obtain the total 
discharge. 



10 



Statistical Analyses 



Several methods of data analysis were used to evaluate water and sediment quality, and selected 
biotic communities in the study area. Statistical methods were generally selected because of their 
recognized utility in delineating spatial and temporal variation, or ability to quantitatively 
summarize associations and trends. A brief summary of the rationale and application, and the 
mathematical formula for each analysis is presented below. 



1) Indices 

Indices provide a simple method of summarizing complex data. They are derived variables such 
as a ratio of one variable divided by a standard variable. When applied to invertebrate data, 
such indices generally involve ratios of numbers of taxa and numbers of individuals in the 
collected samples. These indices have interpretive value as data summaries. 



i) .Shannon-Weaver (or Shannon-Weiner) Diversity Index (H') 

Diversity is a measure of the distribution of observations among categories (e.g. species). When 
applied to communities of invertebrates, diversity calculations incorporate counts of organisms 
within each taxonomic group. A low diversity is the result of a concentration of invertebrates 
in few categories; and conversely, a more uniform distribution of organisms among all categories 
results in a high diversity. Diversities greater than 3.0 are indicative of an unpolluted 
environment, whereas diversities less than 1.0 indicate severely polluted conditions ( Weed and 
Rutschlcy, 1972). The formula for the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, H' is: 



N. N. 

n -^ n 



where n = the total number of individuals in the sample 
N , = the number of individuals in the "i"th sample 
S = the number of categories (taxa) with known proportional abundance 



ii) Brillouin Diversity Index 

Brillouin's Diversity H, is "the species diversity per individual of a collection in which all n 
specimens have been assigned to one of s species, and counted to give the N,'s" (Kaesler et al. , 
1978). Unlike Shannon's index, it can give the actual diversity of a fully censused collection 
of invertebrates. In addition, it is an actual measurement of the diversity of the sample, and is 
not just a statistical estimate. The formula used to determine Brillouin's index of diversity is 
given below: 



H=— (logi2! -^ logN^ 



where n = the total number of individuals in the sample 
N i = the number of individuals in the "i"th sample 
S = the number of categories (taxa) with known proportional abundace 



2) Cluster Analysis 

Benthic invertebrate communities were defined with the use of cluster analysis, which reduces 
the species abundance data to a graphical summary. The resultant groups or clusters 
characterize relatively homogeneous species assemblages (Green, 1979). The significance of 
group separation relative to environmental variables can be evaluated by multiple discriminant 
analysis, which is discussed on the following page. 

In order to confirm the robust nature of the results, several cluster analysis techniques were 
used, including: 

i) Minimum Variance Clustering (Ward's Method) 
ii) Group Average Clustering 
iii) Centroid Clustering 

Cluster analysis was completed on abundance data and presence/ absence data with use of' 
SYSTAT software (Wilkinson, 1988). 

Some problems may be encountered in the use of cluster analysis, including: (i) the subjective 
choice of clustering method and similarity measure will affect the outcome; and (ii), clusters 
may be produced when they do not exist (Jackson er ai, 1989). The patterns revealed by the 
cluster analyses were confirmed with the use of Principal Components Analysis (PCA). 



3) Principal Components Analysis 

Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the benthic invertebrate data and to 
verify station groupings defined by cluster analysis. PCA is a technique for deriving linear 
combinations of the original variables, called principal components, that are orthogonal to one 
another, and that successively account for the largest portion of the residual sample variance 
(Rogers, 1971). This method, as with most multivariate statistics that reduce the dimensionality 
of multivariate observations, is used to generate a smaller number of variables that summarize 
most of the information contained in the original variables. 

The "factor loadings" produced during principal components analysis are correlation coefficients 
between each original variable and each principal component. Since species abundance data 
rarely conform with the linearity assumptions associated with the use of correlations and 
covariances in PCA (Ludwig and Reynolds, 1988), we chose to use rank correlations in the 
PCA's (Rising and Somers, 1989). The data were ranked prior to completing the PCA, and the 
first two or three factors were graphed for presentation in this report. 

The PCA's were calculated with use of the SYSTAT computer program and were presented 
graphically with use of SYGRAPH software (Wilkinson, 1988). 



4) Discriminant Analysis 

Discriminant analysis was used to evaluate differences among the defined benthic communities 
with respect to environmental conditions (sediment parameters). Discriminant analysis is a 
multivariate technique used to distinguish groupings (e.g. communities) on the basis of a series 
of quantitative descriptors (e.g. sediment chemistry). The resultant discriminant axes (functions) 
are linear combinations of the sediment chemical variables that maximize differences between 
the groups of communities. Each axis is mterpreted with the use of correlation coefficients (r) 
between the discriminant functions and the original sediment parameters. 

Eleven sediment variables were used to discriminate between benthic communities (Table 5). 
Grain (particle) size data was not available and could not be used in the analysis. 



Table 5 : Sediment-quality parameters used in discriminant analysis. 



METALS 


NUTRIENTS 


OTHERS 


Zinc 


Loss on Ignition 


Oil and Grease 


Cadmium 




pH 


Copper 






Lead 






Chromium 






Aluminum 






Mercury 






Arsenic 







All variables were logarithmically transformed prior to use in discriminant analysis. 
Concentrations below detection limits were set equal to the detection limit. 



Discriminant analysis was completed on the benthic communities defined by cluster analysis, as 
well as on individual sampling stations. Discriminant analysis was conducted using SYSTAT 
computer software. Double precision was used during the analysis, as discriminant analysis is 
particulariy sensitive to rounding errors (Green, 1979). 



Results and Discussion 



Water Quality 

Water quality was evaluated at a total of 25 sites on the Welland River (Appendix I and 
Appendix XI). Water quality varied among stations, with concentrations of several parameters 
(including iron, copper and mercury) exceeding Provincial Water Quality Objectives (PWQO's) 
at some stations. Several water-quality parameters were below detection limits. A list of metals 
and other parameters which were below detection limits is presented in Table 6. 



Table 6: Water-quality parameters below detection limits in all the Welland River water 
samples. 





Chemical 




Parameter 


Symbol 


Detection Limit 


Cadmium 


Cd 


0.002 mg/L 


Cobalt 


Co 


0.005 mg/L 


Lead 


Pb 


0.01 mg/L 


Chromium 


Cr 


0.005 mg/L 


Nickel 


Ni 


0.005 mg/L 


Beryllium 


Be 


0.005 mg/L 


Molybdenum 


Mo 


0.005 mg/L 


Vanadium 


V 


0.005 mg/L 


Arsenic 


As 


0.005 mg/L 


Antimony 


Sb 


0.002 mg/L 


Selenium 


Se 


0.001 mg/L 


Silver 


Ag 


0.005 mg/L 


Phenolics 




0.001 mg/L 


Total Cyanide 


CN 


0.002 mg/L 



Following is a summary of the water-quality results. Concentrations of water-quality parameters 
are illustrated in Appendix I. ^ 



Iron 

Iron concentrations exceeded the PWQO at stations 1, 15, and 21 (Appendix I); and levels of 
iron ranged from a low of 0.06 mg/L at station 23 to a high of 2.1 mg/L at station 1. Iron 
levels reported by Hart (1986) near the Queenston-Chippawa Power Canal ranged from 0.420 
mg/L to 0.840 mg/L respectively. A study by Johnson (1964) throughout the river noted levels 
between 0.62 mg/L and 6.16 mg/L. 



Copper 

During the summer survey, copper levels exceeded the PWQO at all stations with the exception 
of stations 3, 10a, 15, 19a, and 23. Levels of copper were reduced during the fall survey; 
however stations 2, 4, 10, 15, and 23 exceeded the PWQO. Copper concentrations ranged from 
below detection limits to 0.05 mg/L. Concentrations reported by Hart (1986) were within this 
range. 



Mercury 

Mercury concentrations ranged from a low of <0.05 fxg/l at most stations to a high of 0.30 /xg/1 
at station 1 (Appendix 1). Mercury levels exceeded the PWQO at stations 1,2, and 3 during 
the summer survey; however all the stations had concentrations below detection during the fall 
survey. 

The high concentrations of mercury in water samples from stations 1 - 3 may be due to the 
bacterial methylation of mercury in an upstream reservoir (Lake Niapenco). Mercury levels may 
have been lower during the fall survey because of lower water temperatures which reduce the 
metabolic activity of bacteria. Mercury concentrations reported by Hart (1986) near the 
Queenston-Chippewa Power Canal ranged from below detection to 0.02 mg/L. 



Aluminum. Magnesium, and Zinc 

Aluminum levels ranged from a low of 0.09 mg/L at station 9 to a high of 3.4 mg/L at station 
3, and concentrations were found to be higher in those water samples taken during the fall 
survey. The MOE guideline for total aluminum in clay-free samples is 0.075 mg/L. All 
stations exceeded this guideline. Elevated aluminum concentrations may be due to the high 
suspended clay content in the water column rather than the influence of any specific contaminant 
sources. 

Magnesium concentrations at the "extensive" stations were between 8.4 mg/L and 14.1 mg/L 
(Appendix I). There is currently no PWQO for this parameter in water. 



16 



Zinc levels were below detection limits in all water samples except those from stations 1 and 24 
(Appendix I). Concentrations noted at stations 1 and 24 were below the PWQO. Zinc 
concentrations reported by Hart (1986) ranged between 0.005 mg/L and 0.01 mg/L, and were 
all below the PWQO. 



Long Term Monitoring 

Water quality has also been monitored on an ongoing basis by MOE at a number of sites on the 
Welland River, including the Montrose Bridge (station 21). Temporal trends of zinc, copper, 
chromium, mercury, and lead concentrations at the Montrose Bridge between 1979 and 1987 are 
illustrated in Figure 3. There is generally a reduction over time in levels of these metals in the 
Welland River water at this site. 

The Ministry has also monitored aluminum levels at the Montrose Bridge and at a site near Port 
Robinson (Figure 4). There appears to be a slight increase in mean aluminum concentrations 
between 1981 and 1987, with the highest levels noted during 1985 at both stations. As discussed 
on the previous page, the high aluminum concentrations may be due to high levels of suspended 
clay in the water, rather than a specific contaminant source. 



Phosphorus 

Total Phosphorus (TP) at the 25 stations ranged from 0.013 mg/L to 0.25 mg/L (Appendix I). 
The PWQO for TP was exceeded at all stations except for stations 9, 10, 22, 23, and I9a. Low 
levels of TP were found at stations 22 and 23, which receive water from the Niagara River that 
is diverted to the Queenston-Chippewa Power Canal. Water samples from stations 1 through 
6, had high levels of TP, probably due to the influence of agricultural activities in and above 
section A. 

Total phosphorus data during the period 1979 to 1987 at the MOE water quality stations are 
illustrated in Figure 5. The concentration of total phosphorus in the water varied among years; 
however, the Welland Airport station had consistently higher levels of total phosphorus than 
those found-at the downstream stations. This pattern was most likely due to dilution of water 
in the lower reaches of the river from the Welland Ship Canal, and to assimilation of phosphorus 
by biota. 



17 





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Total Kieldahl Nitrogen 

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) levels during the August 1990 survey ranged from 0.28 mg/L 
to 2.6 mg/L (Appendix I). As with TP, higher levels of TKN were found at sampling stations 
located in section A, most probably due to the influence of agricultural activities. The highest 
level of TKN was noted at station 21 located below the Montrose Bridge. 

Mean yearly TKN levels for the period 1979 to 1987 at MOE water quality stations are 
presented in Figure 6. TKN levels at MOE stations located at the Welland River Airport and 
at Port Robinson have remained fairly constant over the years, whereas TKN levels at the 
Montrose Bridge station have decreased dramatically. The decrease in TKN at the Montrose 
Bridge is most likely due to improvements in effluent quality from Cyanamid. The main 
nitrogen treatment system became operational in 1985. 

Ammonia concentrations ranged from 0.008 to 0.333 mg/L, and levels of nitrite and nitrate 
ranged from 0.003 to 0.04 mg/L and 0.16 to 0.56 mg/L, respectively. Station 21, at the 
Montrose bridge, had the highest levels of these parameters due to the discharge of nitrogen 
species from Cyanamid to Thompson's Creek. 



PAHs. PCBs. and PC Pesticides 

All PAHs, OC pesticides and PCBs were below detection limits (Tables 7 and 8 respectively). 
The Ministry of the Environment has also monitored OC pesticide levels from 1981 to 1989 
(MOE-unpublished data (1981-1989)). Most pesticides were below detection limits; however 
alpha-BHC and gamma-BHC were detected in trace quantities for all years. Endosulfan sulfate, 
beta-BHC, 4,4'-DDE, and 4,4'-DDT were also detected in trace amounts for some years. 

Organic compounds ifrom sites 6 and 21, which were analyzed at the MOE laboratory, were also 
below detection limits (Table 8b). 



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Table 7: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated detection limits 



PAH Detection Limit (/xg/L) 



Naphthalene 


0.1 


Acenaphthylene 


0.1 


Acenaphthene 


0.1 


Fluorene 


0.1 


Phenanthrene 


0.2 


Anthracene 


0.2 


Fluoranthene 


0.2 


Pyrene 


0.2 


Benzo(a)anthracene 


0.2 


Chrysene 


0.2 


Benzo(b)fluoranthene 


0.5 


Benzo(k)fluoranthene 


0.5 


Benzo(a)pyrene 


0.5 


Perylene 


0.5 


Indeno(l,2,3-c,d)pyrene 


2 


Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene 


5 


Benzo(g,h,i)peryIene 


1 



23 



Table 8: Organochlorine pesticides and associated detection limits 



OC Pesticide Detection Limit (/xg/L) 



Hexachlorobenzene 


0.003 


alpha-BHC 


0.003 


gamma-BHC 


0.003 


Heptachlor 


0.003 


Aldnn 


0.003 


beta-BHC 


0.003 


Oxychlordane 


0.003 


Heptachlor epoxide 


0.003 


Endosulfan I 


0.003 


gamma-Chlordane 


0.003 


alpha-Chlordane 


0.003 


4,4'- DDE 


0.003 


Dieldrin 


0.003 


Endrin 


0.003 


2,4'- DDT 


0.003 


4,4'- DDD 


0.003 


Endosulfan II 


0.003 


4,4'-DDT 


0.003 


Mirex 


0.003 


Endosulfan Sulfate 


0.005 


Methoxychlor 


0.005 


PCB's (Total) 


0.050 



24 



Parameter 


D. L. 

(ng/L) 


6 21 


Extractable Org. 


N.A. 


no numeric result 


Volatile Org. 


N.A. 


no numeric result 


Octachlorostyrene 


N.A. 


no suitable sample 


PCB, Total 


20 


below detection limit 


Hexachlorobenzene 


1 


below detection limit 


Heptachlor 


1 


below detection limit 


Aldrin 


1 


below detection limit 


PP-DDE 


1 


below detection limit 


Mirex 


5 


below detection limit 


A-BHC Hexachlorocyclohex 


1 


below detection limit 


B-BHC Hexachlorocyclohex 


1 


below detection limit 


G-BHC Hexachlorocyclohex 


1 


below detection limit 


A-Chlordane 


2 


below detection limit 


G-Chlordane 


2 


below detection limit 


Oxychlordane 


2 


below detection limit 


OP-DDT 


5 


below detection limit 


PP-DDD 


5 


below detection limit 


PP-DDT 


5 


below detection limit 


DMDT Methoxychlor 


5 


below detection limit 


Heptachlorepoxide 


2 


below detection limit ■ 


Endosulfan I 


2 


below detection limit 


Dieldrin. 


• 4 


below detection limit 


Endrin 


4 


below detection limit 


Endosulfan II 


4 


below detection limit 


Endosulfan Sulphate 


4 


below detection limit 



D.L. is detection limit. N.A. means no numeric value was reported. 



25 



Water temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen as determined in the field are presented 
in Appendix III. All values are within ranges considered normal. 

A comparison of the water quality in the study area of the Welland River with several of its 
tributaries and the Niagara River is presented in Table 9. Water quality of the Welland River 
is generally similar to that of Thompson's Creek, Lyons Creek, and the Niagara River, with the 
exceptions of TKN and total phosphorus. Concentrations of these parameters are higher in 
Thompson's Creek than in the lower Welland River, probably because of the influence of 
Cyanamid. Levels of iron and aluminum are also slightly elevated in the lower Welland River 
compared with concentrations in the other river systems. This phenomenon is probably due to 
the influence of metal industries located on the Welland River, and the high suspended cay load 
in the water column. 



26 



Table 9: Comparison of water quality of the Welland River with selected river systems in the 
area. All parameters are in mg/L unless otherwise specified. 



Parameter 


Welland 
River 


Thompson's 
Creek' 


Lyon's 
Creek' 


Niagara 
River ^ 


Fe 


0.06-2.1 


0.510-0.720 


0.120-1.20 


ND-0.3.2 


Al 


0.09-3.4 


0.370-0.440 


0.110-0.950 


ND-2.6 


Ni 


ND 


0.007-0.016 


0.002-0.004 


ND-0.04 


Zn 


ND-0.02 


0.020-0.030 


0.004-0.036 


ND-0.03 


Cu 


ND-0.04 


0.020-0.032 


0.003-0.019 


ND-0.029 


Cr 


ND 


0.005-0.054 


ND-0.002 


ND-0.260 


Pb 


ND 


ND-0.006 


ND-0.011 


ND-0.005 


Cn 


ND 


NA 


NA 


ND 


Cd 


ND 


0.0002-0.0003 


ND-0.0005 


ND-0.0004 


Hg 


ND-0.0003 


0.040-0.050 


ND-0.010 


ND-0.0006 


As 


ND 


0.001 


ND 


ND-0.003 


TP 


0.013-0.149 


0.60-1.26 


0.015-0.039 


NA 


TKN 


0.28-2.6 


97.5-485 


0.020-0.310 


NA 



ND - not detected 
NA - not analyzed 

1 - Hart (1986) 

2 - Kauss (1983); from stations in the Lower River, the Tonawanda Channel, and the Chippawa 
Channel. 



Sediment Quality 

Sediment quality was extremely variable throughout the study area (Appendices II and XII). 
When compared with the Draft Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines (PSQG) and in some 
cases the existing Open Water Disposal Guidelines (OWDG), concentrations of a number of 
metals, nutrients, and oil and grease exceeded the criteria at several stations. 

The OWDG's (Persaud and Wilkins, 1976) were originally intended for use in assessing the 
suitability of soils and dredged material proposed for open-water disposal. Until recently, these 
guidelines have also been used to evaluate contaminant levels in existing aquatic sediments. The 
Draft PSQGs (Persaud ei ai, 1990) are recently developed guidelines which are specifically 



27 



intended to protect aquatic biological resources. These guidelines are based on three levels of 
ecotoxic effects: a no-effect level (NOEL), a lowest effect level (LEL), and a severe effect level 
(SEL) (Table 10). 



Table 10: Provincial Sediment Quality Guideline levels and their significance (Persaud et al, 
1990 - Draft) 



Guideline Level 



Sediment Quality 



Potential Impact 



> SEL 



Grossly Polluted 



Will significantly impair use of 
sediment by benthic organisms 



< SEL 
> LEL 



Significantly Polluted 



Will impair sediment use by some 
benthic organisms 



< LEL 
> NOEL 



Clean - Marginally Polluted Potential to impair some sensitive water 
uses 



< NOEL 



Clean 



No Impact on water quality, water uses, 
or benthic organisms anticipated 



Lead 

Lead levels in sediments exceeded the PSQG-LEL of 3 1 ^g/g at all stations during the summer 
survey, except for stations 2, 4, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19a, 21, 22, and 23 (Appendix II). 
Stations 13 and 14 were the only stations having sediment lead levels below the LEL during the 
fall survey. The highest lead concentrations were found at stations 9 and 12 (138 /ig/g and 91 
^g/g, respectively) during the fall survey, whereas stations 22 and 23 had the lowest levels 
during the summer survey. 

All sediment samples had lead levels less than the SEL of 250 /xg/g. 



28 



Chromium 

Chromium concentrations exceeded the PSQG-LEL of 26 ^g/g at most stations (95%) with the 
exception of stations 22 and 23 located in Chippawa Creek (Appendix II). Extremely high 
chromium levels were noted in sediments collected from stations 10, 12, and 17 during both the 
summer and fall surveys. Chromium concentrations in sediments at stations 10 and 12 were 
approximately 26 and 18 times the LEL, respectively. 

The SEL of 1 10 /^g/g was only exceeded at stations located in sections B and C of the study 
area. Sediments from stations 12, 13, 15, 17, and 18 during the summer survey, and stations 
10, 10a, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 during the fall survey were characterized by 
chromium concentrations in excess of the SEL. 



Sediment mercury levels exceeded PSQG-LEL of 0.2 yug/g at stations 8, 9, 10a, 12, 16, 18, and 
19 during the summer survey, and at stations 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 during the fall survey 
(Appendix II). Sediments collected from station 9 had the highest mercury concentrations during 
both surveys (approximately 16 and 21 times the LEL). 

The SEL of 2 ;ag/g was only exceeded at station 9 during both the summer and fall surveys. 



Cadmium 

Cadmium levels were extremely variable throughout the study area, and exceeded the PSQG- 
LEL of 0.6 /ig/g at stations 9, 10, 12, 19, and 22 during the summer survey, and at stations 7, 
9, 10, 10a, 11, 12, 17, and 19 during the fall survey (Appendix 11).- Station 12 was 
characterized by the highest cadmium levels during both the summer and fall surveys (1.4 /xg/g 
and 1.5 /xg/g, respectively). 

All sediment samples had cadmium levels well below the SEL of 10 pLg/g. 



Arsenic 

Arsenic levels exceeded the PSQG-LEL of 6 fxg/g at stations 3, 9, 10, 10a, 12, 18, 19, and 20 
during the summer survey and at stations 10, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19, 19a, and 20 during the fall 
survey (Appendix II). The highest concentrations were found in sediments at stations 10 and 
12, and the lowest levels were found at stations 22 and 23. 

All sediment samples had arsenic levels below the SEL of 33 /xg/g. 



29 



Zinc 

Zinc concentrations exceeded the PSQG-LEL of 120 ^J.glg at stations 7, 9, 10, 10a, 12, 17, 18, 
19, and 19a during the summer survey, and at stations 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10a, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 
17, 18, 19, 19a, and 20 during the fall survey (Appendix II). Sediments collected from stations 
10 and 12 had the highest zinc levels; 555 /^g/g and 620 /xg/g respectively. 

The SEL of 820 /^g/g was not exceeded at any of the stations. 



Iron 

All sediment samples collected in the study area exceeded the PSQG-LEL of 20 mg/g (2%) for 
Iron, with the exception of station 23 during the summer survey (Appendix II). Of the five 
"extensive" stations evaluated during the summer survey, only station 15 had iron levels 
exceeding the SEL of 40 mg/g (4%). 

Iron levels in excess of the SEL were found at stations 10, 10a, II, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 
19, and 20 during the fall survey, with the highest concentration from station 10 (118 mg/g). 



Nickel 

The PSQG-LEL of 16 /xg/g for nickel was exceeded at the five "extensive" stations sampled in 
the summer, and at all the stations evaluated m the fall. Nickel concentrations ranged from 
highs of 390 ixgig and 270 p.glg at stations 10 and 12 respectively to a low of 19.5 /xg/g at 
station 23 (Appendix II). 

The SEL of 75 ^g/g was exceeded at station 15 during the summer survey, and at all stations 
in sections B and C (with the exception of station 9) during the fall survey. 



Copper 

Most sediment samples had copper levels in excess of the PSQG-LEL of 16 /xg/g, with the 
exception of stations 22 and 23 during the summer survey (Appendix II). 

The SEL of 1 10 /xg/g was exceeded at station 19 during the summer survey, and at stations 10, 
19, 19a, and 20 during the fall survey. The highest copper concentrations were noted at station 
10 and station 20. 



30 



Other Metals 

Concentrations of several other metals were also evaluated during the summer survey, including 
aluminum and magnesium (Appendix II). Aluminum concentrations varied a great deal 
throughout the study area with the highest levels occurring stations 3, 12, and 19. Stations 22 
and 23 had the lowest aluminum concentrations. 

Magnesium levels were evaluated at the five "extensive" stations, and ranged from alow of 9.9 
mg/g at station 1 to a high of 17.2 mg/g at station 23. 



Nutrients 

Loss on ignition (LOI) was measured at all the stations in the study area, whereas total kjeldahl 
nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP), and total organic carbon (TOC) were evaluated at all 
the "extensive" stations during the summer survey. 

LOI is a measure of the particulate organic matter (leaves, bark, sewage, fibres) in the sediment. 
LOI for sediments ranged from a low of 2 percent at stations 11, 13, 14, and 15, to a high of 
14 percent at station 1 (Appendix II). Sediment samples collected from section A of the river 
were also characterized by higher LOI levels. 

Total kjeldahl nitrogen levels exceeded the PSQG-LEL of 550 /xg/g at stations 1, 9, 21, and 23 
(Appendix II). Concentrations ranged from a low of 290 /xg/g at station 15 to a high of 2800 
/Lig/g at station 1. All sediment samples had TKN levels below the SEL of 4,800 jxglg. 
Similarly, TOC values exceeded the PSQG-LEL of 1 percent at stations 1, 9, 21, and 23 
(Appendix II). TOC levels ranged from a low of 0.92 percent at station 15 to a high of 7.4 at 
station 1. The SEL of 10 percent was not exceeded at any station. 

Total phosphorus concentrations exceeded the PSQG of 600 /xg/g at all stations, and ranged from 
620 ixgig at station 23 to 1300 /xg/g at station 21 (Appendix II). All sediment samples had TP 
levels below the SEL of 2000 /xg/g. 



Total Cyanide 

Total cyanide was determined at all stations during the summer stirvey and at a subset in the fall. 
Concentrations were below detection limits in most instances (Appendix II). The OWDG of O.I 
/xg/g (no existing PSQG) was exceeded at station 1 and station 20 during the summer survey, 
and at stations 2, 17, 18, 19a, 20, and 21 during the fall survey. Sediments collected from 
station 20 had the highest cyanide level of 1.67 /xg/g, 



Oil and Grease 

Concentrations of oil and grease ranged from a low of 195 /xg/g at station 13 to a high of 1 1 ,800 
/xg/g at station 12 (Appendix II). Oil and grease levels exceeded the OWDG of 1,500 jxg/g (no 
existing PSQG) at a number of stations during both the summer and fall surveys, predominantly 
in the urban area of the City of Welland and the industrial section east of Port Robinson. 



Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analytical results for all sediment samples collected 
in the summer and fail are presented in Table 1 1 and 12 respectively. Station 9, in downtown 
Welland, had extremely high levels of all the PAHs relative to those found at other stations 
during the summer and fall surveys. Station 10, located near the McMaster Avenue outfall, 
also had high levels of some PAHs during the fall survey. 

Total PAH levels at stations 1 and 9 exceeded the PSQG-LEL of 2,000 ng/g during the summer 
survey. SEL levels were not exceeded at any of the stations tested during the summer survey. 
Total PAHs exceeded the PSQG-LEL at stations 7, 8, 9, 10, and 15 during the fall survey. 
SELs for organic compounds are dependent on the amount of organic carbon in the sediment 
(MOE 1991). SELs could not be calculated for the fall survey because TOC concentrations 
were not measured. 

PAH concentrations were extremely variable, both between surveys, and between duplicate 
samples collected from the same station. This phenomenon probably reflects the uneven 
distribution of the contaminants within the sediments. 



Polychlorinated Biphenyls 

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were not detected in any sediment samples collected during 
the summer survey; however they were detected in several fall samples. Total PCB levels 
ranged from <0.05 ^g/g to 0.13 /xg/g, and exceeded the PSQG-LEL of 0.07 /xg/g at stations 
7, 8, 9, and 15 (Appendix IÏ). The SEL could not be calculated as TOC levels were unavailable 
for the fall survey. 

Results from detailed chemical analyses conducted by MOE on sediments from stations 6, 9, 15 
and 21 indicated total PCB concentrations at station 21 also exceeded the LEL (Table 12b). The 
laboratory report noted that PCB congeners detected at site 21 resembled a mixture of Aroclor 
1254 and 1260. PCBs were not detected at the other stations 6, 9 or 15. 



32 



Table 1 1 : Concentrations of PAHs in Welland River sediments collected during the summer 
survey. All concentrations are in ng/g. 



1 PAH 


Stn 1 


Stn 9 * 


Stn 15 


Stn 21 


Stn 23 


Naphthalene 


22 


129 (290) 


19 


<10 


16 


Acenaphthylene 


<10 


<10(15) 


<10 


<10 


<10 


Acenaphthene 


13 


200 (880) 


<10 


<10 


<10 


Fluorene 


33 


270 (710) 


<10 


<10 


12 


Phenanthrene 


200 


1630 (4100) 


24 


52 


63 


Anthracene 


95 


490 (1590) 


14 


25 


55 


Fluoranthene 


400 


2100(7200) 


82 


210 


210 


Pyrene 


370 


2200 (7200) 


104 


240 


210 


Benzo(a)anthracene 


125 


1050 (4000) 


30 


79 


126 


Chrysene 


148 


1020 (3700) 


35 


101 


175 


Benzo(b)flouranthene 


260 


1600 (5700) 


90 


220 


300 


Benzo(k)flouranthene 


260 


1600(1900) 


90 


220 


116 


Benzo(a)pyrene 


69 


1470 (5400) 


61 


140 


170 


Perylene 


680 


570 (1490) 


31 


97 


101 


Indeno(123,cd)pyrene 


<100 


1150(5200) 


<100 


83 


<100 


Dibenzo(ah)anthracene 


<100 


1390 (4800) 


<100 


<100 


<100 


Benzo(ghi)perylene 


<50 


470(1500) 


<50 


35 


<50 


Total PAH's' 


2 '125 


16774 
(54185) 


689 


1475 


1487 



1 - Total PAHs is the sum of all the PAHs listed except for perylene. Concentrations of PAHs 
below detection limits were taken as equal to half the detection limit. 

* - Value in brackets is the PAH concentration in a duplicate sample taken from the three ponar 
samples taken at each station 



33 





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Table 12 b: MOE results for concentrations of chlorinated organics at sites 6, 9, 15 and 21. 



Parameter 



Units 



D.L. 



Station 



21 



T4CDD 

P5CDD 

H6CDD 

H7CDD 

08CDD 

T4CDF 

P5CDF 

H6CDF 

H7CDF 

08CDF 

Ex tractable Org. 

Volatile Org. 

PCB, Total 

Hexachlorobenzene 

Heptachlor 

Aldrin 

Mirex 

a-BHC 

/3-BHC 

7-BHC 

A-Chlordane 

G-Chlordane 

Oxychlordane 

PP-DDE 

OP-DDT 



ppt 


* 


ppt 


* 


ppt 


N.A 


ppt 


N.A, 


ppt 


N.A, 


ppt 


* 


ppt 


* 


ppt 


N.A, 


ppt 


N.A. 


ppt 


N.A, 


N.A. 


N.A. 


N.A. 


N.A. 


ng/g 


20 


ng/g 


1 


ng/g 


1 


ng/g 


1 


ng/g 


5 


ng/g 


1 


ng/g 


• 1 


ng/g 


1 


ng/g 


2 


ng/g 


2 


ng/g 


2 


ng/g 


1 


ng/g 


5 



ND 



ND(4) 


ND(7) 


ND(6) 


ND(7) 


ND(12) 


ND(9) 


793 


31^ 


60^ 


230^ 


,230^ 


420^ 


1900' 


2300' 


3100' 


ND(5) 


ND(8) 


ND(7) 


14> 


ND(12) 


ND(7) 


30^ 


12' 


28^ 


160- 


922 


140' 


63' 


36' 


81' 



2(T) 



no numeric result 
no numeric result 
ND ND 

below detection limit 
below detection limit 
below detection limit 
below detection limit 
below detection limit 
below detection limit 
below detection limit 
below detection limit 
below detection limit 
below detection limit 

2(T) ND 

below detection limit 



85 (T) 



4(T) 



35 



Table 12 b: Continued 



Parameter 


Units 


D.L. 


Station 






6 9 15 21 


PP-DDD 


ng/g 


5 


below detection limit 


PP-DDT 


ng/g 


5 


below detection limit 


DMDT Methoxychlor 


ng/g 


5 


below detection limit 


Heptachlorepoxide 


ng/g 


1 


below detection limit 


Dieldrin 


ng/g 


2 


below detection limit 


Endrin 


ng/g 


4 


below detection limit 


Endosulfan I 


ng/g 


2 


below detection limit 


Endosulfan II 


ng/g 


4 


below detection limit 


Endosulfan Sulphate 


ng/g 


4 


below detection limit 


Octachlorostyrene 


ng/g 


1 


below detection limit 



D.L. is the parameter detection limit. 

Asterisks (*) indicate parameter detection limits may be found in brackets ( ) for each station. 

N.A. indicates a numeric value or result was not reported. 

A superscript denotes the number of isomers of that parameter detected at that station. 

ND indicates that parameter exists at a concentration below D.L. at that station. 

(T) means the parameter was measured in trace amounts at that station. Interpret with caution. 



36 



Pesticides 

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were not detected at any of the sampling stations. A list of all 
OC pesticides and their detection limits is presented in Table 13. The Ministry of the 
Environment has also routinely determined OC pesticides in Welland River sediments from 1981 
to 1988 (MOE-unpublished' data (1981-1988)). Alpha-BHC, alpha-chlordane, dieldrin, 
hexachlorobenzene, 4,4'DDE and gamma-chlordane were detected in some years. 
Concentrations were consistently low. With the exception of PP-DDE, which was detected in 
trace amounts at stations 6, 9 and 21, pesticides analyzed by MOE for the preSent study were 
below detection limits (Table 12b). 



Dioxins and Furans 

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins were found at stations 9, 15, and 21 (Table 12b). 
Concentrations ranged between 31 and 79 ppt for hexachlorinated forms, 230 to 420 for the 
heptachlorinated forms, and 1,900 and 3, 100 for the octachlorinated congener. Polychlorinated 
dibenzofurans were also detected at the same stations. A pentachlorinated congener was found 
only at station 9 and at a concentration of 14 ppt. The hexa, hepta, and octachlorinated forms 
were found at stations 9, 15, and 21 at levels ranging from 12 to 30, 92 to 160, and 36 to 81 
ppt respectively. 

The more highly chlorinated dioxin and furan congeners such as the octachlorinated forms are 
generally believed to be less of an environmental concern than are the tetrachlorinated isomers 
because of the relatively large size of the molecules. The larger molecules tend to bind tightly 
to sediment particles and have a high octanol-water partition coefficient; and because of the large 
size, they cannot cross cell membranes easily. The toxicity of these contaminants to aquatic 
biota is poorly understood at present; however, it is acknowledged that they can affect growth, 
reproduction, and hormonal processes in some organisms. 



37 



Table 13 : Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and associated detection limits in 

sediments. 



OC Pesticide Detection Limit (/xg/g) 



Hexachlorobenzene 


0.003 


alpha-BHC 


0.003 


gamma-BHC 


0.003 


Heptachlor 


0.003 


Aldrin 


0.003 


beta-BHC 


0.003 


Oxychlordane 


0.003 


Heptachlor epoxide 


0.003 


Endosulfan I 


0.003 . 


gamma-Chlordane 


0.003 


alpha-Chlordane 


0.003 


4,4'- DDE 


0.003 


Dieldrin 


0.003 


Endrin 


0.003 


2,4'- DDT 


0.003 


4,4'- DDD 


0.003 


Endosulfan II 


0.003 


4,4'-DT 


0.003 


Mi rex 


0.003 


Endosulfan Sulfate 


0.003 


Methoxychlor 


0.003 - 0.005 


PCBs 


0.050-0.100 



38 



Sediment Contamination by Station 

Sediment quality in the study area with respect to the PSQGs for metals, and OWDGs for oil 
and grease and total cyanide, is summarized in Table 14. 

Sediments at stations 9, 10, 10a, 11, and 12, located in the upstream portion of section B, along 
with those at stations 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 in section C are the most contaminated, as 
indicated by the levels of several metals and oil and grease. Concentrations of chromium, 
mercury, iron, nickel, and copper also exceed the SEL's at several stations in sections B and C. 

Station 7, which also has relatively contaminated sediments, is located in the eastern downstream 
portion of section A below a large storm sewer. Storm water is a known source of heavy metals 
and oil- and grease. Inputs to this storm drain may be the cause of contaminants accumulating 
in sediments at this site. 

Sediments at station 9 are characterized by high concentrations of metals, oil and grease and a 
number of PAHs. A large storm drain located upstream of this station is the suspected source 
of contaminants. Elevated levels of several metals have also been found in sediments at this 
location during previous studies (Acres 1990). A comparison of results from the Tarandus and 
Acres studies is presented in Table 15. Concentrations are also compared with PSQG lowest 
effect and severe effect levels. 

Sediments at stations 10 and 10a, situated a short distance downstream from the Atlas Steel 
outfall and downstream from the old McMaster Avenue combined sewer outfall also have 
elevated levels of several metals, and oil and grease. A reef-type deposit of industrial waste was 
first noted off the Atlas outfall by Brindle and Dickman in 1980 (Acres, 1990). Acres (1990) 
examined this deposit in detail and also discovered two areas of further contamination, one at 
the outfall from the McMaster Avenue combined sewer, and one approximately 400 meters 
downstream from the Atlas outfall. The reef sediments contained elevated levels of copper, 
chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, zinc, and oil and grease. A comparison of sediment 
quality results from the 1990 Tarandus survey and the Acres study is presented in Table 16. 

The discharge outfall from Atlas Steel has been well documented as a source of contaminants 
to the Welland River (COA, 1981; NRTC, 1984). The industrial effluent was also documented 
as exceeding effluent guidelines for several parameters including chromium, copper, lead, 
nickel, zinc, iron, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulphate (NRTC, 1984; Dalrymple in Dickman and 
Hayes, 1985). 



39 



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Table 15: A comparison of selected sediment-quality parameters at station 9. All results are 
in Mg/g- 



Parameter 


Tarandus (1990) 


Acres (1990) 


PSQG 
LEL 


PSQG 
SEL 


Chromium 


50.0-320.0 


14.0-79.0 


26 


110 


Copper 


79.0-126.0 


33.0-146.0 


16 


110 


Lead 


49.0-138.0 


24.0-339.0 


31 


250 


Manganese 


400.0-750.0 


269.0-794.0 


460 


1100 


Nickel 


37.0-195.0 


25.0-140.0 


16 


75 


1 Zinc 


158.0-460.0 


242.0-2236.0 


120 


820 



Table 16: Comparison of selected parameters in sediments collected offshore of the Atlas 
outfall. All results are in>g/g. 



Parameter 


Tarandus (1990)' 


Acres (1990)' 


Chromium 


91.0-670.0 


21.0-5,000 


Copper 


50.0-168.0 


17.0-860.0 


Iron 


11,800 


20,000-420,000 1 


Lead 


38.0-87.0 


15.0-870.0 


Manganese 


1,210 


470.0-6,600 


Nickel 


390 


37.0-11,000 


Zinc 


270.0-550.0 


36.0-690.0 


PCBs 


< 0.05-0.045 


< 0.2-0.3^ 



1 - sediment quality results for stations 10 and 10a 

2 - sediment quality results for 18 samples taken from an area 20 meters upstream and 20 

meters downstream of the Atlas outfall 

3 - PCBs analyzed at 3 stations directly off the outfall 



Sediments at station 11, located downstream from the Welland Water Pollution Control Plant 
(WPCP) also exceed PSQG-LELs for several metals, and oil and grease. These sediments also 
exceeded SEL's for chromium, iron, and nickel. The WPCP effluent has also been documented 
as exceeding effluent guidelines for copper, lead and zinc (NRTC, 1984). 

Solid waste (primarily slag) and liquid waste from Atlas Steel (primarily slag) has been deposited 
since 1930 at the company's landfill located on the east bank of the river and has in the past 
been documented as a source of contaminants to the Welland River through surface runoff 
(NRTC, 1984). Contaminants include aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, 
mercury, nickel, lead, selenium, zinc, and cyanide. 

All stations located in section C were also characterized by elevated levels of several metals, 
total cyanide, and oil and grease. The Cyanamid Canada plant located along this section of the 
Lower Welland River is considered a source of several contaminants found in the river 
sediments. Cyanamid formerly discharged at a point just upstream of station 18, but now 
discharges to Thompson's Creek. Thompson's Creek enters the Welland River slightly upstream 
of station 20. Cyanamid' s discharge has been reported as a source of several contaminants 
including chromium, nickel, zinc, copper, and cyanide (NRTC, 1984). Hart (1986) also 
reported elevated sediment concentrations of silver, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead, zinc, and 
iron at the mouth of Thompson's creek. 

A comparison of selected sediment contaminant concentrations found in several nearby river 
systems in the area is presented in Table 17. Means and ranges for the Welland River were 
calculated using data for all sites except sites 22 and 23, which are in Chippawa Creek. Mean 
sediment concentrations of lead, chromium, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, zinc, nickel and copper 
in the Welland River were higher than levels in sediments collected from the Upper Niagara 
River or, with the exception of cadmium, from Lyon's Creek. Niagara River sediments had 
higher PCB concentrations than Welland River sediments. Elevated levels of several 
contaminants in the sediments from Thompson's Creek may be the result of discharges from 
industrial processes. The Cyanamid effluent has been reported to be approximately 90 percent 
of the average annual flow in Thompson's Creek. 



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Benthic Invertebrates 



i) Species Composition. Abundance, and Diversity 

In total, 90 benthic invertebrate taxa were identified at the 25 sampling stations in the study area 
(Appendix IV). The total number of taxa was higher than the number of genera (28) Johnson 
in 1964. As might be expected because of the range of habitat types and environmental quality, 
the number of taxa at each station varied. It ranged from a low of 12 taxa at stations 6 and 25 
to a high of 29 taxa at station 10 (Table 18). The abundance of taxa at stations 9 and 10 may 
reflect the diversion of relatively cleaner water from the Welland Canal at the inverted syphon. 
The distribution of the various invertebrate species, by number/sample and number/m^ for each 
station are presented in Appendix V and VI respectively. 

Only two invertebrate species were common to all the sampling stations; Procladius sp. and 
immature tubificids, although Chrypiochironomus sp., Limnodrilus hoffineisreri, and Sphaerium 
sp. were found at 24 of the 25 sites. Similarly, Johnson (1964) found that Procladius and 
Limnodrilus were common throughout the Welland River system. 

Tubificids have been used extensively as indicator organisms (Lauritsen ei ai, 1985; Cook and 
Johnson, 1974). Limnodrilus hoffineisreri, for example, is a species known to be characteristic 
of organically enriched sediments and is generally tolerant of high concentrations of some heavy 
metals (Winner et al. 1980). It should be noted, however, that Limnodrilus spp. are not 
necessarily confined to polluted waters (Hynes, 1971; Brinkhurst and Cook, 1974). The 
abundance of several tubificids, including L. hoffineisreri at all the sampling sites is illustrated 
in Figure 7. Relatively high numbers of this species were found at station 9 and station 16. 

The chironomids, Procladius sp. and Chironomus sp. are usually common in polluted conditions 
(Cook and Johnson, 1974). The relative abundances of Chironomus chironomus and Procladius 
sp, at all sampling sites in the study area are illustrated in Figure 8. High numbers of 
Chironomus sp. were found at station 9. High abundances of Procladius sp. were found at 
stations 10, 11, 15, and 22. 

Mayflies, such as Hexagenia sp. are considered intolerant of polluted conditions (Schloesser, 
1988; Fremling, 1964; Winner er al., 1980), and as a result, their presence is usually indicative 
of uncontaminated conditions. Mayflies were relatively abundant in Section A (stations 1-8), 
but were generally absent from the rest of the study area (Figure 9). Johnson (1964) also noted 
an absence of mayflies from the same sections of the Welland River. 



44 












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Zebra mussels {Dreissena polymorpha) are a recent addition to the benthic community in the 
study area. Adult Zebra mussels were noted at several stations in sections B, C, and D, most 
likely the result of veligers introduced to the Welland River from the Welland Canal at the upper 
syphon by the diversion structures. The mussel was not found in section A, probably because 
of its inability to move upstream into this section of the river. Zebra mussels found in sections 
B, C, and D were attached to rocks and other solid debris as well as to aquatic macrophytes. 
Station 9 had the highest density of zebra mussels (1013/m^). 

The total abundance of benthic invertebrates ranged from a low of 634 individuals per square 
meter at station 12 to a high of 5900 individuals per square meter at station 22 (Table 18). 
Station 9 also had a relatively high mean total abundance of 4013 invertebrates per square metre. 
Generally, stations located in sections B, C, and D had higher total abundances than those found 
in section A, primarily due to higher densities of oligochaetes. Johnson (1964) observed total 
invertebrate densities between 97/m^ and 3,757/m^ and also noted higher densities in the eastern 
sections of the Welland River. 

Figure 10 illustrates the total Oligochaete abundances throughout the study area. The reduction 
in the density of oligochaetes at stations below the Atlas Steel discharge and Cyanamid Canada 
may be due to the toxicity of the high metal concentrations in these sediments. 

The Shannon-Weaver and Brillouin diversity indices for all stations are presented in Table 18. 
Benthic-invertebrate diversity fluctuated a great deal, especially in sections B, C, and D. 
Diversities at all the stations in section A, were relatively constant. Shannon-Weaver diversities 
ranged from a high of 3.96 at station 1 1 to a low of 2.52 at station 19a. Similar trends were 
noted with the Brillouin diversity index. Benthic invertebrate diversities (Shannon-Weaver 
index) calculated from Johnson's (1964) data ranged from 0.34 to 3.48. Weed and Rutschky 
(1972) considered Shannon-Weaver diversities greater than 3.0 to represent unpolluted 
conditions, a diversity of 1.0-2.0 moderately polluted, and a diversity of less than 1.0 severely 
polluted. 



48 



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Table 1! 



Number of taxa, total abundance (#/m^), and diversity indices (Shannon and 
Brillouin) for all stations. 





# of Taxa 


Total 
Abundance 


Diversity 


Station 


Shannon 


Brillouin 


1 


18 


1,387 


3.45 


2.36 


2 


20 


1,447 


3.50 


2.39 


3 


18 


1,387 


3.53 


2.42 


4 


19 


1,140 


3.49 


2.38 


5 


21 


1,473 


3.30 


2.25 


6 


12 


666 


3.02 


2.05 


7 


21 


1,240 


3.20 


2.18 


8 


18 


1,113 


3.30 


2.25 


9 


26 


4,013 


3.34 


2.30 


10 


29 


2,407 


3.84 


2.64 


10a 


28 


2,093 


3.91 


2.68 


11 


27 


1,394 


3.96 


2.70 


12 


16 


634 


3.08 


2.10 


13 


22 


1,300 


3.49 


2.38 


14 


23 


1,447 


3.07 


2.09 


15 


24 


2,360 


3.29 


2.26 


16 


19 


2,380 


3.10 


2.13 


17 


22 


1,793 


3.17 


2.17 


18 


24 


2,793 


2.57 


1.76 


19 


22 


2,700 


3.16 


2.17 


19a 


12 


1,367 


2.52 


1.73 


20 


14 


1,147 


3.18 


2.17 


21 


20 


1,607 


3.03 


2.07 


22 


,27 


5,900 


2.83 


1.95 


23. 


26 


2,407 


3.14 


2.16 



50 



ii) Benthic-Commiinity ClassiFication 

The benthic invertebrate communities were defined by means of cluster analysis. Based on the 
total species composition at each station, the cluster analysis split the twenty-five sampling 
locations into four groups or communities (1, 2, 3, and 4). The taxonomic composition of the 
four communities is presented in Appendix VII. The cluster analysis using euclidean distance 
and Ward's Method produced the best defined clusters (Figure 11). 

Principal components analysis (PC A) was used to verify station groupings revealed by cluster 
analysis (Figure 12). The PC A was completed on all the benthic invertebrate genera. The 
component loadings and percent total variance for the principal components are presented in 
Appendix VIII. Approximately 24 percent of the variation is explained by the first two factors. 
Although the percent variation explained is relatively low, the PCA results generally confirm 
those of the cluster analysis. All the stations from section A of the study area form a fairly 
distinct group (community 1) in the PCA diagram. This group is characterized by relatively 
high numbers of the Hexagenia, and the Coeloranypus sp. Communities 2, 3, and 4 revealed 
by the cluster analysis is also fairly distinct in the PCA diagram. The stations found these 
communities are influenced by the relative abundances of Hirudinea, Spirosperma ferox, and 
immature tubificids, as indicated by their positive correlation with the first axis of the PCA axis. 
Community 4 is separated from the other communities along the second PCA axis and is 
influenced by the relative abundances of Polypedelium (Polypedelium) sp. and planaria. 



51 



Figure 11: Cluster analysis results using Euclidean distance and Ward's method. Large 
numbers indicate groups of sites (small numbers) with similar benthic invertebrate 

communities. 



20- 
19a- 
12- 
13- 
,14- 
16- 
19- 
18- 
21- 
17- 
15- 
11- 
10a- 
10- 
9- 
23- 
22- 



DIS.TANCES 



5.00C 



52 



Figure 12; Scatterplot of sample locations on tiie first two principal components. Sites grouped 
together have similar benthic invertebrate communities 



X 



o 
i 



-1 




53 



iii) Environmental Quality Evaluation 

Figure 13 illustrates the separation in discriminant space of the four groups of stations defined 
by cluster analysis and PC A. Correlations between sediment parameters and the first two 
discriminant functions are given in Table 19. 

The first discriminant axis (DA I) separates the communities characterizing the Welland River 
sites (communities I, 2, and 3) from community 4, located in Chippawa Creek (Figure 13). The 
axis indicates that communities 1, 2, and 3 are found in sediments with high concentrations of 
metals such as chromium, copper, aluminum, lead, mercury, and arsenic relative to those 
associated with community 4. The sediments of community 1, however are characterized by 
lower levels of these metals relative to communities 2 and 3. 

The second discriminant axis (DA II) separates community 1 from the remaining communities 
in discriminant space (Figure 13). This axis indicates that community 1 is found in sediments 
with slightly higher levels of aluminum and LOI relative to the sediments in communities 2, 3, 
and 4. 

This analysis suggests that the separation of communities is due to differences in concentrations 
of sediment parameters. It indicates that communities 1, 2, and 3, located in the Welland River, 
reflect degraded environmental conditions, relative to community 4 located in Chippawa Creek. 
Of the Welland River communities, 2 and 3 are more degraded than 1. This observation is not 
surprising, given the fact that communities 2 and 3 are located in urbanized sections of the river 
which receive inputs from various industrial and municipal sources. Community 1, which 
consists of all the stations in Section A of the river, may be in more organically enriched 
sediments, as is illustrated by the relatively high loss on ignition (LOI). The only exception to 
the general pattern of correspondence between contamination and community type is aluminum, 
which is found in higher amounts in community 1 than in communities 2 and 3. The mean 
concentrations of all sediment parameters associated with each community are presented in Table 
20. 



54 



Figure 13: Plot of the benthic invertebrate communities in discriminant space as defined by the 
first two discriminant functions. 



O 



i 2 



V 

< -4 





1 

4 


1 1 

2 

2 

2 

2 


1 






4 


2 2 

2 2 

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1 1 




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5 
-> Metals 



10 



55 



Table 19: Correlations between sediment parameters and the first two discriminant functions 
for benthic invertebrate communities. 



Parameter 



Discriminant Function 
I II 



Zinc 

Cadmium 

Copper 

Lead 

Chromium 

Aluminum 

Mercury 

Arsenic 

Loss on Ignition 

Oil and Grease 

m 



0.163 


-0.031 


0.004 


-0.064 


0.218 


0.121 


0.142 


-0.134 


0.220 


-0.258 


0.244 


-0.256 


0.120 


0.040 


0.184 


0.092 


0.093 


-0.453 


0.014 


-0.048 


0.091 


0.264 



Table 20: Mean concentrations of sediment parameters associated with benthic invertebrate 
communities. All units are expressed as //g/g, dry weight unless otherwise stated. 







Benthic 


Community 






1 


2 


3 


4 


Parameter 










Zinc 


112.5 


176.9 


313.3 


65.3 


Cadmium 


0.48 


0.40 


0.58 


0.49 


Copper 


33.5 


58.3 


62.1 


17.0 


Lead 


42.0 


34.9 


55.9 


18.3 


Chromium 


43.1 


156.8 


73.6 


20.8 


Aluminum 


32375 


29182 


30438 


14075 


Mercury 


0.116 


0.175 


0.955 


0.065 


Arsenic 


5.38 


7.36 


7.50 


3.50 


Loss on Ign. 


10.09 


4.00 


5.25 


5.50 


Oil/ Grease 


1500.6 


1399.6 


2198 


1455 


pH 


6.98 


7.23 


7.08 


7.00 



56 



To evaluate the Welland River environment by itself, community 4 was removed from the data 
set and discriminant analysis was again performed. Figure 14 illustrates the separation in 
discriminant space of the three Welland River communities. Correlations between sediment 
parameters and the first two discriminant functions are given in Table 21. Results confirm 
patterns observed in the discriminant analysis on the whole data set. However, they reveal 
differences between conditions in which communities 2 and 3 are found. 

The first discriminant axis (DA I) separates community 1 from communities 2 and 3 (Figure 14). 
The axis indicates that communities 2 and 3 are found in sediments with higher concentrations 
of metals such as chromium, copper, mercury, zinc, and arsenic relative to the sediments in 
which community 1 exists. The sediments of community 1, however, are characterized by lower 
levels of these metals, and higher LOI than those associated with communities 2 and 3. The 
absence of high numbers of pollution-sensitive species such as the mayfly, Hexagenia sp. and 
the presence of large numbers of Spirosperma ferox and immature tubificids in communities 2 
and 3 could be due to high concentrations of various metals in the sediments. 

The second discriminant axis (DA II) separates communities 2 and 3 in discriminant space 
(Figure 14). This axis indicates that community i is found in sediments with slightly higher 
levels of chromium, as well as a higher sediment pH, relative to community 3. Similarly 
community 3 is found in sediments with higher mercury, lead, zinc, and LOI levels relative to 
community 2. 

The analysis suggests that communities 2 and 3 reflect degraded environmental conditions with 
respect to various metals, relative to community 1. Community 2 and community 3 are located 
in urbanized sections of the river which receive inputs from various industrial and municipal 
sources. Community 1 , which consists of all the stations in Section A of the river, may be more 
organically enriched, as illustrated by the high loss on ignition. Mean concentrations of all 
sediment parameters associated with each community are presented in Table 20. 



57 



Figure 14: Plot of the Welland River benthic-invertebrate communities in discriminant space as 
defined by the first two discriminant fiinctions. 



2 




4 -2 
Cr,Cu,Hg,As,Zn,pH < 



58 



Table 21: Correlations between the sediment parameters and the first two discriminant 
functions for the three benthic invertebrate communities in the Welland River. 





Discriminant Function. 




I 


II 


Parameter 






Zinc 


-0.144 


0.186 


Cadmium 


0.033 


0.128 


Copper 


-0.210 


-0.013 


Lead 


0.009 


0.192 


Chromium 


-0.282 


-0.256 


Aluminum 


0.099 


0.041 


Mercury 


-0.148 


0.275 


Arsenic 


-0.169 


-0.013 


Loss on Ignition 


0.402 


0.200 


Oil and Grease 


0.031 


0.088 


m 


-0.226 


-0.240 



59 



Fisheries 

The fish community of the Welland River is characterized by warmwater fish species including 
catfish, carp, suckers, and freshwater drum (Appendix IX, Table 22). Salmonids are not 
endemic. to the Welland River but are common in the Niagara River. Appendix IX also 
compares the Welland River fish community with those of 12-Mile Creek and the Niagara River 
area. All fish species caught in the Welland River during this survey are also found in the 
Niagara River. 

The most common fish species caught during the field surveys were channelcatfish (fall survey) 
and white crappie (summer survey), both warmwater species. Substantially more fish were 
caught in the hoop nets in section A than in Sections B and C (Table 23). A fisheries study by 
Johnson (1964) found that the more! common fish included brown bullhead and sunfish (including 
crappies). The author also noted a decrease in the number of fish in the area covered by 
sections B, C, and D of the river. 

During a twelve month survey by Steele (1981) on the Welland River, 25 species and two- 
hybrids were caught (Appendix IX). Dominant fish species included white crappie, brown 
bullhead, and channel catfish. Most of the species observed by Steele were tolerant of low 
dissolved oxygen concentrations, and high turbidity. 



60 



Table 22: Fish species caught in the Welland River during the summer and fall surveys. 



HOOP NET 


Summer' 


FalP 


White Crappie^ 


25 


2 


White Bass 


2 





White Perch 





10 


Channel Catfish 





59 


Gizzard Shad 





7 


Freshwater Drum 





8 


White Sucker^ 





1 


Yellow Bullhead 





2 


Shorthead Redhorse 







Caip 





1 


Pumpkinseed"* 





1 


Rock Bass' 





3 


Seine net/Minnow traps 


Summer 


Fall' 


Smallmouth Bass 


- 




1 Spottail Shiner 


- 




Emerald Shiner 


* 




Johnny Darter 


- 




Brook Silverside 


- 




Sculpin 


¥ 




Banded Killifish 


- 


J 



* - Fish species present (no numbers available) 

1 - Three hoop-net sets - summer survey 

2 - Two hoop-net sets - fall sur\'ey 

3 - Fish species also caught in the seine net. 

4 - No seining was conducted during the Fall Survey. 



61 



Table 23: Numbers of fish caught in hoop-net sets in sections A, B, and C. 



HOOP NET 


A 


■ " 

B 


C 


Total 


White Crappie 


23 


2 





27 


White Bass 


7 








2 


White Perch 


10 








10 


Channel Catfish 


59 








59 


Gizzard Shad 


6 





1 


7 


Freshwater Drunn 


8 








8 


White Sucker 


1 








1 


Yellow Bullhead 


2 








2 


Shorthead Redhorse 


1 





1 


2 


Carp 


1 








1 


Pumpkinseed 


1 








1 


Rock Bass 








3 


3 


Total 


114 


2 


5 


121 



Aquatic Macrophytes 

The Welland River shoreline throughout the study area was characterized by the presence of 
several emergent aquatic macrophytes, particularly Typha latifolia and Sagiiiaria latifoUa (Table 
24). Johnson (1964) and Dickman ei al. (1983) also noted an abundance of these species during 
previous surveys. 

Several studies have been completed regarding effects of industrial discharges on the macrophyte 
community (Dickman and Haynes, date unknown; Dickman et al. , 1983). Dickman and Haynes 
(date unknown) noted areas devoid of higher aquatic plants downstream of the previous 36" 
Cyanamid outfall to the Welland River, as well as below the Thompson's Creek confluence. 
The summer Tarandus survey also revealed an area below the Thompson's Creek confluence that 
had sparse macrophyte growth; however the area below the previous outfall to the Welland River 
now has a relatively luxuriant growth of macrophytes; this outfall was sealed in 1985. Dickman 
and Haynes (Date unknown), also noted a similarly impacted zone downstream of the Atlas Steel 
outfall. This impacted area was not observed during the summer survey by Tarandus personnel. 
Several submerged aquatic macrophytes were also noted including Myriophyllum spicatum, 
ValUsneria ame ricana, Ceratophyllum denwrsum, and Hcreramhera dubia (Table 24). 



62 



Submerged macrophytes noted by Johnson (1964) included Ceratophyllum demersum and 
Potamogeton spp.. Dickinan et al. (1983) found that the submerged aquatic macrophytes were 
dominated by Elodea canadensis, MyriophylUim sp. , Potamogeton pectinatus, and Ceratophyllum 
sp. . 



Table 24: Species of submergent and emergent aquatic macrophytes found in the study area 
during the summer survey. 



Common Name 


Scientific Name 


Abundance 


Water Lily 


Nymaphaea vaiiegatum 


Common 


Cattail 


Typha latifolia 


Common 


Eurasian Milfoil 


Mynophyllum s pi cat u m 


Common 


Smartweed 


Polygonum sp. 


Occasional 


Wild Celery 


Vallisneria amehcana 


Common 


Duckweed 


Lemna sp. 


Occasional 


Bulrush 


Scirpus sp. 


Occasional 


Arrowhead 


Sagittaria latifolia 


Common 


Spiked Loosestrife 


Lythrum salicaria 


Occasional 


Mud Plantain 


Heteranthera dubia 


Common 


Pondweed 


Potamogeton crispus 


Rare 


Pondweed 


Potamogeton ricbardsonii 


Rare 


Coontail 


Ceratophyllum demersum 


Rare 


Sedge 


Carex sp. 


Rare 


Joe-Pie Weed 


Eupatorium maculatum 


Rare 


Wild Rice 


Zizania aquatica 


Rare 


Bushy Pondweed 


Najas fle.xiUs 


Rare 


Waterweed 


Elodea canadensis 


Rare 



63 



Flow Measurements 

Water velocities and depth were determined at cross-sections of the river in sections A, B, and 
C. The flow calculations ranged from 19.24 mVs in section A to 37.12 mVs in section B, and 
are presented in Appendix X. The flow estimate for section C was 25.09 mVs. Welland River 
flow estimates cited in Acres (1990) ranged from to 48 mVs. 

The increased flows observed in section B are mainly the result of diversion of water from the 
old Welland Ship Canal to the Welland River. The amount of water diverted from the old ship 
canal has been estimated at 14.2 mVs (Acres 1990). 

Flow in section C would normally be expected to be higher than that in section B because of 
added diversion of canal water at Port Robinson and inputs from natural sources. During the 
survey on November 9, 1990, however, the flow was found to be 25.09 mVs in this section, a 
significant drop from that noted the previous day in section B. This apparent reduction in flow 
may be the result of fluctuations of water flows in the Queenston-Chippawa Power Canal. 
Reductions in flow in this facility have been known to temporarily "back up" and/or reduce the 
flows in the lower sections of the Welland River (P. Odom, MOE, pers. com.). 



64 



Conclusions 

Water Quality 

1) Water quality parameters, including iron, copper and total phosphorus frequently exceeded 
the PWQOs. Mercury concentrations at stations 1 and 2 exceeded the PWQO for this 
metal. Between stations 1 to 5 there was a distinct and progressive decrease in mercury 
levels in water. The elevated concentrations of mercury in the most upstream stations may 
originate in the reservoir located upstream of the study area. 

2) Most other water-quality parameters, including most metals, phenolics, total cyanide, PCBs, 
PAHs, and organo-chlorine pesticides were generally below detection limits. 

3) MOE monitoring data from several stations indicate that levels of zinc, copper, mercury, 
chromium, and lead in Welland River water appear to have decreased from 1979 to 1987. 
However, there has been a slight increase in the concentration of aluminum in the water 
from 1981 to 1987. 



Sediment Quality 

1) Concentrations of several parameters including lead, chromium, mercury, cadmium, zinc, 
iron, nickel, copper, arsenic, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, total phosphorus, 
and PCBs exceeded the PSQG Lowest Effect Level at some stations. Consistently, stations 
9, 10, 12, 18 and 19 had the most elevated concentrations of most of these parameters. 
Station 9 is situated at a major storm water discharge, stations 10 and 12 are located in the 
vicinity of the Atlas Steel plant and the Welland WPCP respectively, and stations 18 and 
19 are located downstream of the Cyanamid Canada plant. Severe Effect Levels (SELs) 
were also exceeded for chromium, iron, nickel and copper in the river from station 10 
through at least station 19a. Mercury was only above the SEL at station 9; however, 
mercury concentrations in the fall sediment sample at station 11 were equal to the SEL. 
Levels of total cyanide and oil and grease also exceeded the QWDGs at some stations. 

2) PAHs were also detected at several stations in the study area, with particularly high 
concentrations noted at station 9. With the exception of trace amount's of PP-DDE, which 
were detected at stations 6, 9 and 21, all organo-chlorine pesticides were below detection 
limits. The more highly chlorinated furans were detected at stations 9, 15 and 21. 
Concentrations of hexa- and hepta-chlorinated furans were highest at station 9. Sediments 
at station 21 had the highest concentration of octachloro-dibenzofuran. Although the more 
highly chlorinated dioxin and furan congeners such as octachlorinated forms are generally 
believed to be less of an environmental concern than are the tetrachlorinated isomers, the 
toxicity of these contaminants to aquatic biota is poorly understood at present. 



65 



3) Sediments in section D are relatively uncontaminated. The only water in this section is 
diverted from the Niagara River to the Queenston-Chippawa Power Canal. 

4) Sediments located in the western portion of section A are characterized by high levels of 
total phosphorus, total kjeldahl nitrogen, and loss on ignition, probably due to the influence 
of agricultural activities. 



Benthic Invertebrate Community and Environmental Quality 

1) Stations in section A, located upstream of the City of Welland, were characterized by 
relatively high numbers of the pollution sensitive species Hexagenia sp. and Coelotanyus 
sp. . These taxa were generally absent from stations in downstream sections. Stations in 
sections B, C, and D were characterized by relatively high numbers of the more pollution 
tolerant taxa Spirosperma ferox, Valvutu sp. , and Hydrobiidae, further substantiating the 
relatively poorer quality of the sediments. 

2) The total abundance of benthic invertebrates varied throughout the study area, ranging from 
a low of 634 individuals per square meter at station 12 to a high of 5900 individuals per 
square meter at station 22. Generally, stations located in sections B, C, and D had higher 
total abundances than those found in section A, and in most cases were also characterized 
by large number of oligochaetes. 

3) Benthic invertebrate diversity (Shannon-Weaver and Brillouin Indices) varied more in 
sections B, C, and D than in section A, where the indices were relatively constant. Almost 
all diversity indices were greater than 3, which suggests that the study area represents 
conditions that are relatively unpolluted. 

4) Statistical analyses identified four separate benthic invertebrate communities, corresponding 
to the four sections of the study area. The structure of each community was governed by 
concentrations of certain sediment parameters. The benthic communities located in sections 
A, B, and C (Welland River) were distinguished by their association with sediments which 
had elevated concentrations of several metals (i.e. aluminum, chromium, copper, arsenic, 
zinc, lead, mercury) relative to those in section D (Chippawa Creek). . The benthic 
community of section A occurred in sediments with lower metal levels and higher loss on 
ignition (organic content) relative to the other two Welland River communities (sections B 
and C). 



66 



Fisheries 

1) The fish community of the Welland River is dominated by warmwater fish species including 
catfish, white crappie, carp, suckers, and freshwater drum. No salmonid species were 
found, although they are common in the Niagara River. The fish community in section D 
was not sampled. 

2) Higher numbers of fish were caught in hoop-net sets in section A than in sections B and C. 



Aquatic Macrophytes 

1) The Welland River shoreline is dominated by several emergent aquatic macrophytes, 
particularly Typha larifolia and Saginaria lafifolia. A number of submerged aquatic 
macrophytes were also noted including Myriophyllum spicarum, VaUisneria americana, and 
Cerarophyllum demersum. Sparse macrophyte growth was noted only below the 
Thompson's Creek confluence. 



67 



References 



Acres International Limited. 1990. Welland River Reef Study (Draft). Report prepared for 
Atlas Steel, Welland -Office. 



Arseneault, J. S. 1976. A Field Guide to Streamflow Measurement by Gauging and Metering. 
Department of Fisheries and the Environment, Vancouver, British Columbia, Technical 
Bulletin Series PAC/T-76-2. 



Brinkhurst, R. O. and D. G. Cook. 1974. Aquatic Earthworms (Annelida:01igochaeta). In 
Hart, C. W. and S. L. H. Fuller (Eds.). Pollurion Ecology of Freshwater Invertebrates. 
Academic Press, New York, pp 143- 156. 



Brindle, I., A. Wei-chu, X. Li and C. L. MacLaurin. 1988. Study of in Place Pollutants in 
the Twelve Mile Creek and Welland River. Proceedings Technology Transfer Conference, 
November 28 and 29, 1988, Royal York Hotel, Toronto, Ontario. ppl75-188. 



COA-Canada-Ontario Agreement on Great Lakes Water Quality. 1981. Environmental Baseline 
Report of the Niagara River. Environment Canada and the Ontario Ministry of the 
Environment. 



Cook, D. G. and M. G. Johnson, 1974. Benthic Macroinvertebrates of the St. Lawrence Great 
Lakes. J. Fish Res. Bd. Can. 3:763-782. 



Department of Commerce and Development. 1960. Twelve Mile Creek Conservation Report. 
Conservation Branch. 



Dickman, M., C. Prescott, and K. L. E. Kaiser. 1983. Variations in the Aquatic Vegetation 
of the Welland River (Ontario, Canada) Above and Below an Industrial Waste Discharge. 
J. Great Lakes Res. 9:317-325. 



69 



Dickman, M. and P. Hayes, date unknown. Evaluation of the Impact of Shock Loading on 
the Microbiota of the Welland River. Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, 
St. Catharines, Ontario. 



Dickman, M., J. Smol and P. Steele. 1980. The Impact of Industrial Shock Loading on 
Selected Biocoenoses in the Lower Welland River, Ontario. \Maier Poll. Res., 15:17-31, 



Fitchko, J. 1986. Literature Review of the Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances on Great 
Lakes Biota. Report prepared for the Great Lakes Science Advisory Board. 255pp 



Fremling, C. R. 1964. Mayfly Distribution Indicates Water Quality on the Upper Mississippi 
River. Science, 146:1164-1166. 



Green, R. H., 1979. Sampling Design und Siaiisiical Methods for Environmental Biologists. 
John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York. 257pp. 



Hart, C. J. 1986. 1983 Niagara River Tributary Survey. Report prepared for the Great Lakes 
Section, Water Resources Branch, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. 



Hynes, H. R. N., 1971. The Biology of Polluted Waters. University of Toronto Press, 
Toronto. 202pp. 



Jackson, D. A., K. M. Somers and H. H. Harvey, 1989. Similarity Coefficients: Measures of 
Co-Occurrence and Association or Simply Measures of Occurrence. Am. Nat. 133:437-453. 



Johnson, M. G. 1964. Ontario Water Resources Commission Report on the Biological Survey 
of the Welland River - 1964. Ontario Water Resources Commission. 



70 



Lauritsen, D. D, S. C. Mozley and D. S. White, 1985. Distribution of Oligochaetes in Lake 
Michigan and Comments on Their Use as Indices of Pollution. 
J. Great Lakes Res., 11:67-76. 



Ludwig, J. A. and J. F. Reynolds, 1988. Siaiisiical Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 
337pp. 



Kaesler, R. L., E. E. Herricks and J. S. Grossman. 1978. Use of Indices of Diversity and 
Hierarchical Diversity in Stream Surveys. In Dickson, K. L., J. Cairns, Jr., and R. J. 
Livingston (Eds.), Biological Data in Water Pollution Assessment; Quantitative and 
Statistical Analyses, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp92-112. 



Kaiser, K. L. E. and M. E. Comba. 1983. Volatile Contaminants in the Welland River 
Watershed. J. Great Lakes Res., 9:21 A-2Z{). 



Kauss, P. B. 1983. Studies of Trace Contaminants, Nutrients, and Bacteria Levels in the 
Niagara River. J. Great Lakes Res., 9:249-273. 



Mudroch, A., L. Sarazin and T. Lomas. 1988. Summary of Surface and Background 

Concentrations of Selected Elements in the Great Lakes Sediments. J. Great Lakes Res. 

14:241-251. 



Nalepa, T. F. and N. A. Thomas. 1976. Distribution of Macrobenthic Species in Lake Ontario 
in Relation to Sources of Pollution- and Sediment Parameters. J. Great Lakes Res., 
2:150-163. ' 



Niagara River Toxics Committee. 1984. Report of the Niagara River Toxics Committee, 
October 1984. 



Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 1983. Handbook of Analytical Methods for 

Environmental Samples. Laboratory Services and Applied Research Branch, Toronto, 
Ontario. 

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 199 1 . The Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines (Draft). 
Water Resources Branch, Toronto, Ontario. 



71 



Persaud, D., R. Jaagumagi and A. Hayton. 1990. The Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines 
- Draft. Water Resources Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment. 



Persaud, D. and W. D. Wilkins. 1976. Evaluating Construction Activities Impacting On Water 
Resources. Ontario Ministry of the Environment. 



Rising, J. D. and K. M. Somers, 1989. The Measurement of Overall Body Size in Birds. The 
Auk, 106:666-674. 



Rogers, A., 1971. Matrix Methods in Urban and Regional Analysis. Holden-Day: San 
Francisco. 508pp. 



Schloesser, D. W. 1988. Zonation of Mayfly Nymphs and Caddisfly Larvae in the St. Mary's 
River. J. Great Lakes Res. , 14:227-233. 



Steele, P. O. 1980. Water Quality and Fish Populations of the Welland River, Ontario. 

Master of Science Thesis, Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. 
Catharines, Ontario. 



Weed, C. E. and C. W. Rutschky. 1972. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Structure in 
a Stream Receiving Acid Mine Drainage. Proc. Pa. Acad. Sci., 1972: 4641-47. 



Wilkinson, L., 1990. SYSTAT: The System Jar Statistics. Systat Inc., Evanston, IL. 
Wilkinson, L., 1990. SYGRAPH. Systat Inc., Evanston, IL. 



Winner, R. W., M. W. Boesel and M. P. Farrell. 1980. Insect Community Structure as an 
Index of Heavy-Metal Pollution in Lotie Systems. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 37:647-655. 



72 



Appendix I 

Water-Quality Graphics 



Parameter 




Page 


Copper 




74 


Mercury 




75 


Aluminum 




76 


Iron, Zinc 




77 


Magnesium 




78, 


Total Phosphorus and 




Total Kjeldahl 


Nitrogen 


79 


Ammonia, Nitrite and Nitate 


80 



Parameter concentrations at each station sampled are indicated with shaded bars for 
summer and fall sampling periods. Existing Provincial Water Quality Objectives 
(PWQOs) are indicated with horizontal lines. 



73 



Copper (Summer) 



PWQO 




Station 



Copper (Fall) 




Station 



Detection Limit = 5.0 ug/L 
PWQO = 5.0 ug/L 



Mercury {Summer) 



0.35 
0.30 
0.25 

_l 0.20 

■>^ 
O) 
^ 0.15 

0.10 

0.05 

0.00 



FI ' 


i:n 


In 
il 


1 

:V ■ ! - 



PWQO 



Station 



Mercury (Fall) 



PWQO 




Station 



Detection Limit = . 05 ug/L 
PWQO = 0.2 ug/L 



Aluminum (Summer) 



PWQO 




Station 



Aluminum (Fal 



PWQO 




■^c\JCo^^locû^^oocDO 



Station 



PWQO = . 075 mg/L 



Iron (Summer) 



PWQO 




Detection Limit = 0.01 mg/L 
PWQO = 0.3 mg/L . 



Station 



Zinc (Summer) 



PWQO 




Station 



Detection Limit = 10 ug/L 
PWQO = 30 ug/L 



Magnesium (Summer) 





16.0 




14.0 




12.0 


-I 


10.0 


E 


8.0 




6.0 




4.0 




2.0 




0.0 



-| 








1 
1 

é 




m 




\ 

m 



C\( 00 Tf «o 



station 



no PWQO available 



Total Phosphorus (Summer) 




Station 



Detection limit = . 001.4 
PWQO = 0.03mg/L 



Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (Summer) 




Station 



no PWQO available 



o 

E 
E 

CO 

c 
o 

O) 

o 



CD 
03 



■a 

c: 
CO 



CD 



CO 
"c 
o 
E 
E 
< 




JO 

> 
CO 

<0 

o 
a 



Appendix II 
Sediment Quality Graphics 



Parameter 




Page 


Lead 




82 


Chromium 




83 


Mercury 




84 


Cadmium 




85 


Arsenic 




86 


Zinc 




87 


Iron 




88 


Nickel 




89 


Copper 




90 


Aluminum ana 


Magnesium 


91 


Loss On Ignition and 




Total Organic 


Carbon 


92 


Total Kjeldahl : 


Nitrogen and 




Total Phosphorus 


93 


Total Cyanide 




94 


Oil and Grease 




95 


Total PCBs 




96 



Parameter concentrations at each station sampled are indicated with shaded bars for 
summer and fall sampling periods. Provincial Sediment Quality Guideline lowest 
effect levels (LELs) are indicated with horizonal lines. Where concentrations 
approach or exceed severe effect levels (SELs), these levels are also graphed. Open 
Water Disposal Guidelines are indicated where Provincial Sediment Quality 
Guidelines are not available. 



Lead (Summer) 



140 
120 
100 - 



CD 80 

^ 60 



1 In 

i H 

L . . 


pn 


V-1-n 


T 


lfl..B.-,-._- 


■p^jn4- 


-i 1 - ! 


nnP^ ;.i 


< ;-; j :J 





LEL 



y- c\t CO -rt m 



Station 



Lead (Fall) 



140 
120 
100 
80 
60 
40 
20 




LEL = 31 ug/g 
SEL = 250 ug/g 



- 


- 


l-] 


I 


1 (~j 




m 


- 


n 




- 1 


\ 




rannn 


\ 


^hS 





r 1 1 


1 


--i- 


"1 


-' 


- -i ;l-^- 


-,\- 


1 i""l 




__j 






J 
--I 

: 1 


-1 


J 


1 


ni i 
■Mi 1 


-A 1 " 


1 

i 


A. 


1 , 



LEL 



Station 



Chromium (Summer) 



700 

600 

500 

CD 400 

=5 300 

200 

100 





F^ni^FlF^f^FH^Hme 



n 



a 



Hi 



\m 



ir'r-H-.JT-Ti 



LEL 

SEL 



Station 



Chromium (Fall) 



f\JU 


fïm 


600 
500 
400 




1 




1 




Fl 


P^ 


300 


- 


f 




^ 


r~| 


■ 1 
-. 1 


1 
1 




i 1 

|. j 


-_\ 


1 


200 


- . ■ „ 














j 


! 


1 


j 


1 
i 




100 








■H 


i 


-- 


- 


LL 


•- 


- 


i 

-r 


-'i 


J-- 
1 


4 - - - 


n 


r — — r-RriRfH 


■- ■ 


-- 


\4 


-f 


— 


-- 






-■ 


.-[ 


-i- 


- 1 


.J-..-.--' 



LEL 

SEL 



Station 



LEL = 26 ug/g 
SEL= 110 ug/g 



Mercury (Summer) 



3.5 

3 

2.5 

D5 2 

O) 

=3 1.5 

1 

0.5 



- 




'--- -il 


: .:|-..|---..^|^-^f^^^^-^-^^ 



LEL 
SEL 



QU_X=^ 



03 CM CM CVJ CM 



Station 



Mercury (Fall) 



3.5 
3 

2.5 
2 

1.5 

1 

0.5 



LEL = 0.2ug/g 
SEL = 2 ug/g 



- in % 

■ .....-[oij-l-L-i-iU 

! it.il- i r— ! I -J ; : -1 



LEL 
SEL 



Station 



Cadmium (Summer) 



1.60 
1.40 
1.20 
1.00 
O) 0-80 
0.60 
0.40 tt 
0.20 
0.00 



- 


■ i 

L 


i 


a 




s* ■-■1 - ! 


n" 
.1 


UZ 
HmR 


i -In 


' ^nnn 




zn^ 


Fl 



LEL 



c\j CO rr lo CD 



Station 



Cadmium (Fall) 



1.60 
1.40 
1.20 
O) 1.00 
ZJ 0.80 
0.60 
0.40 
0.20 
0.00 



- 




■ 






1 






fZ- ■ 


; 


i j 


i 
-.1 


- j 
1 


r î 


1 


z ■ 




i 


1 1 ' 
1 r-'^ 

i ' 

1 1 : 

1 , M, , , 



LEL 



Station 



LEL = 0.6ug/g 
SEL= lOug/g 



Arsenic (Summer) 




LEL 



Station 



Arsenic (Fall) 



18 
16 
14 

O) 

D) 10 
8 
6 
4 
2 



- 


f 




m _m, _ ^ H' 


- nn 

lu 1 
! 1 J 


1 


: 1 

i ; 


~] 


il.' : 1 i 

Il 1 1 . 

. li il- ., .,, ,, w ,1 i , fi , , 1 



LEL 



Station 



LEL = 6 ug/g 
SEL = 33 ug/g 



Zinc (Summer) 



800 



§^400 



200 





m 


T 


nnnr 1 1 


J 



LEL 
SEL 



Station 



Zinc (Fall) 



800 



600 



400 - 



200 




Station 



LEL= 120ug/g 
SEL = 820 ug/g 



Iron (Summer) 



120 
100 
80 

O) 60 

E 

40 
20 



X 


F: 


r- 




h 

i 


:- 


i 

* 





LEL 
SEL 



Station 



Iron (Fall) 



120 
100 
D) 80 
E 60 
40 
20 



- 


i — : 


In 




1 


Inn 

[Mn 

M-Jr-- 


n- 

inn 

nnn ^ 


n 


1 j 

tt 


Q 

! 


n 


n 




; j 


V. \ 

-lii 


1 




i i -: 


ijij j 


. 1 " 
=1 


i 1 i 




i 
-j 



LEL 
SEL 



Station 



LEL = 2% (20 mg/g) 
SEL = 4% (40 mg/g) 



Nickel (Summer) 



300 

O) 200 

100 



F 


1 


FI ^ 




É---m 



LEL 
SEL 



Station 



Nickel (Fall) 



400 



300 



=J 200 



100 



- 


: 


! 

in 


^-, ■ 


1 

1 

n 


n 


1 
1 


Ir-j 
1 i 

1 ; 

! 1. ' 


r- 


—j r^] 


r-v-.-r-nnffl 




Il i 
-H-1 




h 


1 i 


i 


Il i 




1 ! : 



LEL 
SEL 



Station 



LEL= 16ug/g 
SEL = 75 ug/g 



Copper (Summer) 



160 


nn 


D) 100 
50 




r-^ 


pp 


z 


n " 
- J .^ 


'n 

1 --1 


1 

-.. i 

n :-■! 

zzbijjz 




' : 1. i 

Z-.Z^ 


i 

-mm 

.] .-Jl-.-il 



LEL 
SEL 



Station 



Copper (Fall) 



150 



100 



50 h 



f 


1 

1 f 


I 


npLi: .:: 


"i Zi ^ nZZZ 
i 1 11 \r-iA i Z n ^ 




--3 


, , , , H -HZ 1:1 "Ji-P .., ., ii i: :Zil.i! .1 ,1.. ; , i;Z , , 1 



LEL. 
SEL 



Station 



LEL= 16ug/g 
SEL =110 ug/g 



Aluminum (Summer) 



40 



30 



D) 20 



10 



i -i n M [.! ir-i i nP 



No LEL . SEL or OWDG available 



Station 



Magnesium (Summer) 




Station 



No LEL . SEL or OWDG available 



Loss On Ignition (Summer) 



c 10 

o 

°- 6 



t] 



;MJiad to toj 



Rm 



y w 






Mm 



n 



ni 



I 



I : i t -I t-^^j t^"-1 1-^ 



-cv*», v<0<b^ 'ï>^.Ç>^^^^.5^^^^^^^cÇ>cvcO'o? 



Station 



no LEL . SEL or OWDG available 



Total Organic Carbon (Summer) 



12.0 



10.0 - 



c 8.0 

o 

qS 6.0 



4.0 



2.0 



0.0 







1:-" 

1: 








r'":"7'-""7'7 


^-rr"":"'"m"":'""":":u"' 


::-J 



LEL 



SEL 



Station 



LEL = 1 percent 
SEL= 10 percent 



Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (Summer) 



3.000 





2.500 


CD 


2,000 




1.500 




1.000 




500 



F 


1 






■_ . r 


' u :: 







LEL 



Station 



LEL = 550 ug/g 
SEL = 4.800 ug/g 



Total Phosphorus (Summer) 



2.500 



2.000 



1.500 



500 



LEL 
SEL 



Station 



LEL = 600 ug/g 
SEL = 2000 ug/g 



Total Cyanide (Summer) 



OWDG 



1.5 



i.O 



0.5 




Station 



Total Cyanide (Fall) 



OWDG 



1.5 



1.0 



0.5 - 




Station 



OWDG = 0. 1 ug/g 
Detection limit = 0. 05 ug/g 



Oil and Grease (Summer) 




Station 



Oil and Grease (Fall) 



12.000 
10.000 
8.000 



O) 6.000 

3 



4.000 

2.000 





nnFlnnn 



n 



I 

i[:in 



OWDG 



m 



n 



ra 



Station 



OWDG = 1 . 500 ug/g 



Total PCB's (Fall) 



0.16 
0.14 
0.12 
0.10 
0.08 
0.06 
0.04 
0.02 
0.00 



" 


•■'-i 
i 




f^ 








r 




R-! 


-^ 


- 1 

1 


1 

"1 




1 ^ 

i ^ 

1 i 


1 , , , , 


^ 






1^ 



LEL 



y- C\J CO -^ V) (O 



Station 



LEL = 0.07 ug/g 

SEL cannot be calculated 

Detection limit = . 05 ug/g 



Appendix III 

Field observations of conductivity, dissolved 
oxygen, and water temperature during the fall 
survey. 



97 





November Survey 
Conductivity /zmhos/cm 


Station 


North 


Center 


South 


1 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


2 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


3 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


4 


540 


540 


550 


5 


510 


■530 


530 


6 


500 


500 


500 


7 


500 


500 


505 


8 


540 


500 


500 


9 


450 


400 


400 


10 


425 


430 


425 


10a 


410 


415 


425 


11 


425 


415 


450 


12 


425 


400 


420 


13 


440 


425 


470 


14 


450 


450 


435 


15 


425 


425 


450 


16 


425 


425 


430 


17 


425 


430 


425 


18 


425 


420 


425 


19 


430 


440 


430 


19a 


450 


450 


450 


20 


475 


450 


450 


21 


450 


450 


450 


22 


310 


315 


360 


23 


340 


325 


325 



98 





November Survey - Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen | 




North 


Center 


South 1 


Station 


Temp X 


D.O. 

mg/L 


Temp °C 


D.O. ■ 

mg/L 


Temp °C 


D.O. 

mg/L 


1 


7.2 


10.8 


7.2 


10.5. 


7.9 


10.3 


2 


7.5 


10.2 


7.8 


10.0 


7.5 


10.2 


3 


7.5 


10.2 


7.9 


10.1 


7.7 


10.1 


4 


6.9 


8.6 


7.0 


8.4 


7.0 


8.4 


5' 


7.0 


9.4 


7.2 


9.1 


7.1 


9.1 


6 


6.8 


9.6 


6.5 


9.6 


6.7 


9.5 


7 


6.2 


9.4 


6.4 


9.4 


7.1 


9.7 


8 


6.5 


9.8 


6.5 


9.5 


6.5 


9.6 


9 


7.5 


8.8 


8.0 


8.7 


8.0 


9.1 


10 


8.0 


9.6 


8.7 


9.4 


8.5 


9.3 


10a 


8.2 


9.2 


8.5 


9.4 


8.7 


• 9.3 • 


11 


8.0 


9.7 


8.0 


9.7 


8.5 


9.6 


12 


8.5 


9.6 


8.3 


9.5 


8.8 


9.4 


13 


8.2 


9.2 


8.3 


9.5 


8.5 


9.5 


14 


8.5 


9.8 


8.5 


9.6 


8.5 


9.6 


15 


8.5 


9.3 


8.1 


8.3 


8.1 


8.3 


16 


7.5 


8.8 


7.5 


8^7 


8.1 


8.6 


17 


8.4 


8.9 


8.1 


8.9 


8.4 


8.7 


18 


8.0 


8.8 


8.0 


8.8 


8.2 


8.8 


19 


8.0 


8.8 


7.9 


8.9 


8.0 


8.9 


19a 


7.9 


8.9 


7.9 


8.9 


7.9 


8.9 


20 


8.9 


8.7 


8.2 


8.7 


8.1 


8.7 


21 


8.1 


8.9 


8.1 


8.8 


8.2 


8.8 


22 


8.0 


9.8 


6.0 


8.8 


4.5 


7.9 


23 


9.0 


10.0 


9.1 


10.0 


9.0 


9.9 



99 



100 



Appendix IV 
Benthic Invertebrate Species List 



101 



INSECTA: 
DIPTERA 

Chironomidae: 
Chironominae: 

Chironomini 

Chironomus (Chaetolabis) sp. 

Chironomus (Chironomus) sp. 

Chironomus (C.) anthracinus group 

Chironomus (C.) halophilus group 

Chironomus (C.) plumosus group 

Chironomus (C.) salinarius group 

Chironomus (C.) staegeri group 

Chironomus (C.) thummi group 

Cladopehna sp. 

Cryptochironomus sp. 

Cryptotendipes sp. 

Dicrotendipes sp. 

Endochironomus sp. 

Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) sp 

Microchironomus sp. 

Parachironomous sp. 

Paralauterborniella sp. 

Polypedilum (Polydelium) sp. 

Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. 

Pseudochironomus sp. 

Rheotanytarsus sp. 

Tanytarsus sp. 

Tanypodinae: 

Apsectrotanypus sp. 
Coelotanypus sp. 
Procladius sp. 
Tanypus (Tanypus) sp. 
Djalmabatista sp. 
Macropelopia sp. 

Orthocladinae: 

Diplocladius sp. 
Paracricotopus sp. 



102 



Ceratopogonidae: 
Bezzia sp. 
Culicoides sp. 
Mallochohelis sp. 

Chaoboridae: 

Chaoborus sp. 

EPHEMEROPTERA: 
Ephemericlae: 

Hexagenia sp. 
Caenidae: 

Caenis sp. 

COLEOPTERA: 

Elmidae: 

Dubiraphia sp. 
Dytiseidae: 

Coptotomus sp. 

MEGALOPTERA 
Sialidae: 

Sialis sp. 

LEPTIDOPTERA 

Pyralidae: 

TRICOPTERA 

Polycentropodidae: 

Polycentropus sp. 

Cyrnellus sp. 
Hydropsychidae: 

Cheumatopsyche sp. 
Hydroptilidae: 

Hydroptila sp. 
Leptoceridae: 

Oecetis sp. 

ODONATA 

Coenagrionidae: 

Enallagma sp. 



103 



OLIGOCHAETA: 

Tubificidae: 

Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri 
L. profundicola 
L. angustipennis 
L. claparedianus 
L. sp. 

Spirosperma ferox 
Quistadrilus multisetosus 
Aulodrilus sp. 
Tubificidae immature 

Naididae 

Pristinella sp. 
P. sima 
P. osborni 
P. jenkinae 
Pristina ? sp. 
Nadidae 

Lumbriculidae 

NEMATODA: ■ 
PLANARIA: 
HIRUDINEA: 
HYDRACHNIDIA: 

CRUSTACEA: 
Amphipoda 

Gammarus sp. 

Hyalella sp. 
Isopoda 

Caecidotea sp. 

MOLLUSCA: 

GASTROPODA 

Valvatidae 

Valvata sp. 

V. tricarinata 

V. sincera 
Hydrobiidae 

Hydrobiidae 



104 



Bithyniidae 

Bithynia tentaculata 
Lymnaeidae 

Physa sp. 

Stagnicola sp. 

Fossaria sp. 
Planorbidae 

Gyralus sp. 

Helisoma anceps 

BIVALVA 

Sphaeriidae 

Sphaerium sp. 

Musculium sp. 

Psidium sp. 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula sp 
Unionidae 

Quadrula quadrula 

Ligumia sp. 

Ligumia nasuta 
Dressenidae 

Dreissena polymorpha 



105 



106 



Appendix V 
Benthic Invertebrate Species Counts 



107 



IC 2A 2B 



Station 
2C 3A 3E 



3C 4A 4B 4C 



INSECTA: 
DIPTERA 
Chironomidae: 
Chironominae: 

Chironomini 

Chironomus (Chaetolabis ) sp. 

Chironomus (Chironomus) sp. 

Chironomus (C.) anthracinus group 

Chironomus (C.) halophilus group 

Chironomus (C.) plumosus. group 

Chironomus (C. ) salinarius group 

Chironomus (C.) staegeri group 

Chironomus (C.) thummi group 

Cladopelma sp. 

Cryptochironomus sp. 2 

Cryptotendipes sp. 

Dicrotendipes sp. 

Endochironomus sp. 

Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes ) sp 10 

Microchironomus sp. 

Parachironomous sp. 

Paralauterborniella sp. 

Polypedilum (Polydelium) sp. 

Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. 14 

Pseudochironomus sp. 

Rheotanytarsus sp. 

Tanytarsus sp. 4 



Tanypodinae: 
Apsectrotanypus sp. 
Coelotanypus sp. 
Procladius sp. 
Tanypus (Tanypus) sp. 
D jalmabatista sp. 
Macropelopia sp. 









12 




6 


4 




3 


5 


4 


44 


6 


4 


6 


8 


8 


8 


5 


4 


7 


2 


15 


10 


8 


3 


14 


4 


6 


10 


9 


6 


2 


20 






21 




6 


8 


5 




3 





Orthocladinae: 
Diplocladius sp, 
Paracricotopus sp. 

Ceratopogonidae: 
Bezzia sp. 
Culicoides sp. 
Mallochohelis sp. 

Chaoboridae: 
Chaoborus sp. 

EPHEMEROPTERA: 
Ephemeridae: 
Hexagenia sp. 



Caenidae: 
Caenis s 



station 
lA IB IC 2A 2B 2C 3A 38 3C 4A 48 4C 



COLEOPTERA: 
Elmidae: 

Dubiraphia sp. 
Dytiseidae: 

Coptotomus sp. 

MEGALOPTERA 
Sialidae: 
Sialis sp. 

LEPTIDOPTERA 
Pyralidae: 

TRICOPTERA 
Polycentropodidae : 

Polycentropus sp. 

Cyrnellus sp. 
Hydropsy chidae: 

Cheumatopsyche sp. 
Hydroptilidae: 
• Hydroptila sp. 
Leptoceridae: 

Oecetis sp. 

ODONATA 
Coenagrionidae 
Enallagma sp. 

Oligochaeta: 
TUBIFICIDAE 
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri 
L. profundicola 
L. angustipennis 
L. claparedianus 
L. sp. 

Spirosperma ferox 
Quistadrilus multisetosus 
Aulodrilus sp. 
Tubificidae immature 

NADIDAE 
Pristinella sp. 
P. sima 
P. osborni 
P. jenkinae 
Pristina ? sp. 
Nadidae 

LUMBRICULIDAE 

Nematoda: 
Planaria: 
Hirudinea: 
Hydrachnidia 



109 



station 
lA IB IC 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 4A 48 4C 



Crustacea: 
AMPHIPODA 

Gammarus sp. 

Hyalella sp. 
PODOCOPA 
ISOPODA 

Caecidotea sp. 
DECAPODA 

Cambaridae 

Mollusca: 
GASTROPODA 
Valvatidae 

Valvata sp. 

V. tricarinata 

V. sincera 
Hydrobiidae 

Hydrobiidae 
Bithyniidae 

Bithynia tentaculata 
Lymnaeidae 

Physa sp. 

Stagnicola sp. 

Fossaria sp. 
Planorbidae 

Gyralus sp. 

Helisoma anceps 



3IVALVA 
Sphaeriidae 

Sphaerium sp. 

Musculium sp. 

Psidium sp. 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula sp 
Unionidae 

Quadrula quadrula 

Ligumia sp. 

Ligumia nasuta 
Dressenidae 

Dreissena polymorpha 



3 12 2 2 

1 



110 



5C 6A 6B 



Station 
6C 7A 7E 



INSECTA: 
DIPTERA 
Chironomidae : 
Chironominae : 

Chironomini 

Chironomus (Chaetolabis ) sp. 

Chironomus (Chironomus) sp. 

Chironomus (C. ) anthracinus group 

Chironomus (C.) halophilus group 

Chironomus (C.) plumosus group 

Chironomus (C.) salinarius group 

Chironomus (C. ) staegeri group 

Chironomus (C. ) thummi group 

Cladopelma sp. 

Cryptochironomus sp. 

Cryptotendipes sp. 

Dicrotendipes sp. 

Endochironomus sp. 

Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes ) sp. 

Microchironomus sp. 

Parachironomous sp. 

Paralauterborniella sp. 

Polypedilum (Polydelium) sp. 

Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. 

Pseudochironomus sp. 

Rheotanytarsus sp. 

Tanytarsus sp. 

Tanypodinae: 
Apsectrotanypus sp. 
Coelotanypus sp. 
Procladius sp. 
Tanypus (Tanypus) sp. 
D jalmabatista sp. 
Macropelopia sp. 



11 10 
6 



Orthocladinae: 
Diplocladius sp. 
Paracricotopus sj 

Ceratopogonidae : 
Bezzia sp. 
Culicoides sp. 
Mallochohelis sp. 

Chaoboridae: 
Chaoborus sp. 



EPHEMEROPTERA: 
Ephemeridae: 

Hexagenia sp. 
Caenidae: 

Caenis sp. 



Ill 



station 
5A 5B 5C 6A 6B 6C 7A 7B 7C 8A 80 8C 



COLEOPTERA: 
Elmidae: 

Dubiraphia sp. 
Dytiseidae: 

Coptotomus sp. 

MEGALOPTERA 
Sialidae: 
Sialis sp. 

LEPTIDOPTERA 
Pyralidae: 

TRICOPTERA 
Polycentropodidae : 

Polycentropus sp. 

Cyrnellus sp. 
Hydropsychidae: 

Cheumatopsyche sp. 
Hydroptilidae: 

Hydroptila sp. 
Leptoceridae: 

Oecetis sp. 

ODONATA 
Coenagrionidae 
Enallagma sp. 



Oligochaeta: 
TUBIFICIDAE 
Limnodrilus hof fmeisteri 
L. profundicola 
L. angustipennis 
L. claparedianus 
L. sp. 

Spirosperma ferox 
Quistadrilus multisetosus 
Aulodrilus sp. 
Tubificidae immature 



63 19 13 7 



3 13 95 
2 



28 41 13 23 



NAD I DAE 
Pristinella sp. 
P. sima 
P. osborni 
P. jenkinae 
Pristina ? sp. 
Nadidae 

LUMBRICULIDAE 



Nematoda: 
Planaria: 
Hirudinea: 
Hydrachnidia 



station 

6C 7A 7B 7C 8A 



Crustacea: 
AMPHIPODA 

Gammarus sp. 

Hyalella sp. 
PODOCOPA 
ISOPODA 

Caecidotea sp. 
DECAPODA 

Cambaridae 



Mollusca: 
GASTROPODA 
Valvatidae 

Valvata sp. 

V. tricarinata 

V. sincera 
Hydrobiidae 

Hydrobiidae 
Bithyniidae 

Bithynia tentaculata 
Lymnaeidae 

Physa sp. 

Stagnicola sp. 

Fossaria sp. 
Planorbidae 

Gyralus sp. 

Helisoma anceps 

El VAL VA 
Sphaeriidae 

Sphaerium sp. 

Musculium sp. 

Psidium sp. 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula sp 
Unionidae 

Quadrula quadrula 

Ligumia sp. 

Ligumia nasuta 
Dressenidae 

Dreissena polymorpha 



113 



station 
9C lOA lOB lOC IIA IIB IIC 12A 12E 



INSECTA: 
DIPTERA 
Chironomidae: 
Chironominae: 

Chironomini 

Chironomus (Chaetolabis ) sp. 

Chironomus (Chironomus) sp. 

Chironomus (C. ) anthracinus group 

Chironomus (C. ) halophilus group 

Chironomus (C. ) plumosus group 

Chironomus (C. ) salinarius group 

Chironomus (C. ) staegeri group 

Chironomus (C.) thummi group 

Cladopelma sp. 

Cryptochironomus sp. 

Cryptotendipes sp. 

Dicrotendipes sp. 

Endochironomus sp. 

Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes ) sp. 

Microchironomus sp. 

Parachironomous sp. 

Paralauterborniella sp. 

Polypedilum (Polydelium) sp. 

Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. 

Pseudochironomus sp. 

Rheotanytarsus sp. 

Tanytarsus sp. 



Tanypodinae : 
Apsectrotanypus sp. 
Çoelotanypus sp. 
Procladius sp. 
Tanypus (Tanypus) s 
Djalmabatista sp. 
Macropelopia sp. 



2 15 
6 2 2 35 10 22 



Orthocladinae: 
Diplocladius sp. 
Paracricotopus sp. 



Ceratopogonidae : 
Bezzia sp. 
Culicoides sp. 
Mallochohelis sp. 

Chaoboridae: 
Chaoborus sp. 



EPHEMEROPTERA: 
Ephemeridae: 

Hexagenia sp. 
Caenidae: 

Caenis sp. 



station 
9C lOA lOB IOC llA IIB IIC 12A 12B 12C 



COLEOPTERA: 
Elmidae: 

Dubiraphia sp. 
Dytiseidae: 

Coptotomus sp. 

MEGALOPTERA 
Sialidae: 
Sialis sp. 

LEPTIDOPTERA 
Pyralidae: 

TRICOPTERA 
Polycentropodidae: 

Polycentropus sp. 

Cyrnellus sp. 
Hydropsychidae : 

Cheumatopsyche sp. 
Hydroptilidae: 

Hydroptila sp, 
Leptoceridae: 

Oecetis sp. 

ODONATA 
Coenagirionidae 
Enallagma sp. 



Oligochaeta: 
TUBIFICIDAE 
Limnodrilus hof f meisteri 
L. profundicola 
L. angustipennis 
L. claparedianus 
L. sp. 

Spirosperma ferox 
Quistadrilus mu'ltisetosus 
Aulodrilus sp. 
Tubificidae immature 



64 


40 


5 






64 




12 


2 






1 








4 


2 


7 


11 


2 






4 


1 


1 




6 


1 


80 


32 


3 


7 


10 


52 


5 



1 10 10 10 

1 



NADIDAE 
Pristinélla sp. 
P. sima 
P. osborni 
P. jenkinae 
Pristina ? sp. 
Nadidae 

LUMBRICULIDAE 



Nematode: 
Planaria: 
Hirudinea: 
Hydrachnidia 



115 



station 
9A 9B 9C lOA lOB lOC IIA IIB IIC 12A 128 12C 



Crustacea: 
AMPHIPODA 

Gammarus sp. 

Hyalella sp. 
PODOCOPA 
ISOPODA 

Caecidotea sp. 
DECAPODA 

Cambaridae 



1 6 
1 



Mollusca: 
GASTROPODA 
Valvatidae 

Valvata sp. 

V. tricarinata 

V. sincera 
Hydrobiidae 

Hydrobiidae 
Bithyniidae 

Bithynia tentaculata 
Lymnaeidae 

Physa sp. 

Stagnicola sp. 

Fossaria sp. 
Planorbidae 

Gyralus sp. 

Helisoma anceps 



1 16 2 7 3 
3 19 3 



BIVALVA 
Sphaeriidae 

Sphaerium sp. ■ 

Musculium sp. 

Psidium sp. 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula sp 
Unionidae 

Quadrula quadrula 

Ligumia sp. 

Ligumia nasuta 
Dressenidae 

Dreissena polymorpha 



13 22 6 
1 



16 18 2 2 7 
3 



station 
13A 13B 13C 14A 14B 14C 15A 15B 15C 16A 168 16C 



INSECTA: 
DIPTERA 
Chironomidae: 
Chironominae: 

Chironomini 

Chironomus (Chaetolabis ) sf 



(Chironomus) sp. 
(C. ) anthracinus group 
(C.) halophilus group 
(C. ) plumosus group 
(C. ) salinarius group 
(C. ) staegeri group 
(C. ) thummi group 



Chironomus 

Chironomus 

Chironomus 

Chironomus 

Chironomus 

Chironomus 

Chironomus 

Cladopelma sp. 

Cryptochironomus sp. 

Cryptotendipes sp. 

Dicrotendipes sp. 

Endochironomus sp. 

Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes ) sp. 

Microchironomus sp. 

Parachironomous sp. 

Paralauterborniella sp. 

Polypedilum (Polydelium) sp. 

Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. 

Pseudochironomus sp. 

Rheotanytarsus sp. 

Tanytarsus sp. 

Tanypodinae: 
Apsectrotanypus sp. 
Coelotanypus sp. 
Procladius sp. 
Tanypus (Tanypus) sp. 
Djairaabatista sp. 
Macropelopia sp. 

Orthocladinae: 
Diplocladius sp. 
Paracricotopus sp. 

Ceratopogonidae : 
Bezzia sp. 
Culicoides sp. 
Mallochohelis sp. 

Chaoboridae: 
Chaoborus sp. 

EPHEMEROPTERA: 
Ephemeridae: 

Hexagenia sp. 
Caenidae: 

Caenis sp. 



8 26 13 22 
2 



117 



station 
13A 13B 13C 14A 14B 14C ISA 15B 15C 16A 16B 16C 



COLEOPTERA: 
Elmidae: 

Dubiraphia sp. 
Dytiseidae: 

Coptotomus sp. 

MEGALOPTERA 
Sialidae: 
Sialis sp. 

LEPTIDOPTERA 
Pyralidae: 



TRICOPTERA 
Polycentropodidae: 

Polycentropus sp. 

Cyrnellus sp. 
Hydropsychidae : 

Cheumatopsyche sp. 
Hydroptilidae: 

Hydroptila sp. 
Leptoceridae: 

Oecetis sp. 



ODONATA 
Coenagrionidaë 
Enallagma sp. 



Oligochaeta: 
TUBIFICIDAE 
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri 
L. profundicola 
L. angustipennis 
L. claparedianus 
L. sp. 

Spirosperma ferox 
Quistadrilus multisetosus 
Aulodrilus sp. 
Tubificidae immature 



12 42 35 36 



NADIDAE 
Pristinella sp. 
P. sima 
P. osborni 
P. jenkinae 
Pristina ? sp. 
Nadidae 



2 

1 

1 1 



LUMBRICULIDAE 

Nematoda: 
Planaria: 
Hirudinea: 
Hydrachnidia 



118 



station 
13A 13B 13C 14A 14B 14C 15A 15B 15C 16A 16B 16C 



Crustacea: 
AMPHIPODA 

Gammarus sp. 

Hyalella sp. 
PODOCOPA 
ISOPODA 

Caecidotea sp. 
DECAPODA 

Cambaridae 



Mollusca: 
GASTROPODA 
Valvatidae 

Valvata sp. 

V. tricarinata 

V. sincera 
Hydrobiidae 

Hydrobiidae 
Bithyniidae 

Bithynia tentaculata 
Lymnaeidae 

Physa sp. 

Stagnicola sp. 

Fossaria sp. 
Planorbidae 

Gyralus sp. 

Helisoma anceps 



31 7 2 14 20 16 13 13 2 
5 



2 7 9 19 17 6 



5IVALVA 
Sphaeriidae 

Sphaerium sp. 

Musculium sp. 

Psidium sp. 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula sp 
Unionidae 

Quadrula quadrula 

Ligumia sp. 

Ligumia nasuta 
Dressenidae 

Dreissena polymorpha 



119 



station 
17A 17B 17C 18A 18B 18C 19A 19B 19C 20A 208 20C 



INSECTA: 
DIPTERA 
Chironomidae: 
Chironominae: 

Chironomini 

Chironomus (Chaetolabis) sp. 

Chironomus (Chironomus) sp. 

Chironomus (C. ) anthracinus group 

Chironomus (C.) halophilus group 

Chironomus (C. ) plumosus group 

Chironomus (C. ) salinarius group 

Chironomus (C.) staegeri group 

Chironomus (C. ) thummi group 

Cladopelma sp. 

Cryptochironomus sp. 

Cryptotendipes sp. 

Dicrotendipes sp. 

Endochironomus sp. 

Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes ) sp. 

Microchironomus sp. 

Parachironomous sp. 

Paralauterborniella sp. 

Polypedilum (Polydelium) sp. 

Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. 

Pseudochironomus sp. 

Rheotanytarsus sp. 

Tanytarsus sp. 



Tanypodinae: 
Apsectrotanypus sp. 
Coelotanypus sp. 
Procladius sp. 
Tanypus (Tanypus) sp. 
Djalmabatista sp. 
Macropelopia sp. 



1 




6 


2 










6 


6 


13 


12 


5 


1 


14 


1 


15 


20 




1 


2 


1 




2 






2 



Orthocladinae: 
Diplocladius sp. 
Paracricotopus sj 

Ceratopogonidae: 
Bezzia sp. 
Culicoides sp. 
Mallochohelis sp. 

Chaoboridae: 
Chaoborus sp. 

EPHEMEROPTERA: 
Ephemeridae : 

Hexagenia sp. 
Caenidae: 

Caenis sp. 



120 



17A 17B lie ISA li 



Station 

18C 19A 19B 19C 20A 20B 20C 



COLEOPTERA: 
Elmidae: 

Dubiraphia sp. 
Dytiseidae: 

Coptotomus sp. 

MEGALOPTERA 
Sialidae: 
Sialis sp. 

LEPTIDOPTERA 
Pyralidae: 

TRICOPTERA 
Polycentropodidae: 

Polycentropus sp. 

Cyrnellus sp. 
Hydropsychidae : 

Cheumatopsyche sp. 
Hydroptilidae: 

Hydroptila sp. 
Leptoceridae: 

Oecetis sp. 

ODONATA 
Coenagrionidae 
Enallagma sp. 



Oligochaeta: 
TUBIFICIDAE 
Limnodrilus hof f meisteri 
L. profundicola 
L. angustipennis 
L. claparedianus 
L. sp. 

Spirosperma ferox 
Quistadrilus multisetosus 
Aulodrilus sp. 
Tubificidae immature 



2 


1 
1 




4 


3 


26 137 


65 


6 


52 


63 



NADIDAE 
Pristinella sp. 
P. sima 
P. osborni 
P. jenkinae 
Pristina ? sp. 
Nadidae 



LUMBRICULIDAE 

Nematoda: 
Planaria: 
Hirudinea: 
Hydrachnidia 



121 



station 
17A 17B ne 18A 18B 18C 19A 19B 19C 20A 208 20C 



Crustacea: 
AMPHIPODA 

Gammarus sp. 

Hyalella sp. 
PODOCOPA 
ISOPODA 

Caecidotea sp. 
DECAPODA 

Cambaridae 



Mollusca: 
GASTROPODA 
Vaivatidae 

Valvata sp. 

V. tricarinata 

V. sincera 
Hydrobiidae 

Hydrobiidae 
Bithyniidae 

Bithynia tentaculata 
Lymnaeidae 

Physa sp. 

Stagnicola sp. 

Fossaria sp. 
Planorbidae 

Gyralus sp. 

Helisoma anceps 



13 17 6 6 27 
1 1 

10 
63 13 
22 21 34 9 



BIVALVA 
Sphaeriidae 

Sphaerium sp. 

Musculium sp. 

Psidium sp. 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula sp 
Unionidae 

Quadrula quadrula 

Ligumia sp. 

Ligumia nasuta 
Dressenidae 

Dreissena polymorphe 



6 6 9 5 4 
2 2 3 2 



5 20 4 
1 2 



122 



station 
21A 21B 21C 22A 22B 22C 23A 231 



23C 24A 24B 24C 



INSECTA: 
DIPTERA 
Chironomidae: 
Chironominae: 
Chironomini 

Chironomus ( Chaetolabis ) sp. 
Chironomus (Chironomus) sp. 

(C.) anthracinus group 
(C. ) halophilus group 



plumosus group 
salinarius group 
staegeri group 
thummi group 



Chironomus 

Chironomus 

Chironomus (C. ) 

Chironomus (C.) 

Chironomus (C. ) 

Chironomus (C. ) 

Cladopelma sp. 

Cryptochironomus sp. 

Cryptotendipes sp. 

Dicrotendipes sp. 

Endochironomus sp. 

Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) sp. 

Microchironomus sp. 

Parachironomous sp. 

Paralauterborniella sp. 

Polypedilum (Polydelium) sp. 

Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. 

Pseudochironomus sp. 

Rheotanytarsus sp. 

Tanytarsus sp. 



10 

10 
24 20 
228 90 110 35 



20 10 70 



Tanypodinae: 
Apsectrotanypus sp. 
Coelotanypus sp. 
Procladius sp. 
Tanypus (Tanypus) sp. 
D jalmabatista sp. 
Macropelopia sp. 



2 12 
1 

1 7 12 36 
1 2 



2 4 2 
2 



Orthocladinae: 
Diplocladius sp. 
Paracricotopus sp. 

Ceratopogonidae : 
Bezzia sp. 
Culicoides sp. 
Mallochohelis sp. 

Chaoboridae : 
Chaoborus sp. 

EPHEMEROPTERA: 
Ephemeridae: 

Hexagenia sp. 
Caenidae: 

Caenis sp. 



123 



station 
21A 21B 21C 22A 22B 22C 23A 23B 23C 24A 248 24C 



COLEOPTERA: 
Elmidae: 

Dubiraphia sp. 
Dytiseidae: 

Coptotomus sp. 

MEGALOPTEFLA 
Sialidae: 
Sialis sp. 

LEPTIDOPTERA 
Pyralidae: 

TRICOPTERA 
Polycentropodidae : 

Polycentropus sp. 

Cyrnellus sp. 
Hydropsychidae: 

Cheumatopsyche sp. 
Hydroptilidae : 

Hydroptila sp. 
Leptoceridae : 

OecGtis sp. 

ODONATA 
Coenagrionidae 
Enallagma sp. 

Oligochaeta: 
TUBIFICIDAE 
Limnodrilus hoffraeisteri 
L. profundicola 
L. angustipennis 
L. claparedianus 
L. sp. 

Spirosperma ferox 
Quistadrilus mult isetosus 
Aulodriius sp. 
Tubificidae immature 

NADIDAE 
Pristinella sp. 
P. sima 
P. osborni 
P. jenkinae 
Pristina ? sp. 
Nadidae 



1 5 2 22 



2 

2 6 



14 



35 3 1 9 



26 24 22 30 54 33 29 9 83 25 3 21 
2 



LUMBRICULIDAE 



Nematoda: 
Planaria: 
Hirudinea: 
Hydrachnidia 



3 2 12 1 1 7 



124 



station 
21A 21B 21C 22A 22B 22C 23A 23B 23C 24A 24B 24C 



sp. 



Crustacea: 
AMPHIPODA 

Gammarus 

Hyalella sp. 
PODOCOPA 
ISOPODA 

Caecidotea sp. 
DECAPODA 

Cambaridae 



10 5 

1 



Mollusca: 
GASTROPODA 
Valvatidae 

Valvata sp. 

V. tricarinata 

V. sincera 
Hydrobiidae 

Hydrobiidae 
Bithyniidae 

Bithynia tentaculata 
Lymnaeidae 

Physa sp. 

Stagnicola sp. 

Fossaria sp. 
Planorbidae 

Gyralus sp. 

Helisoma anceps 



BIVALVA 
Sphaeriidae 

Sphaerium sp. 

Musculium sp. 

Psidium sp. 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula sp 
Unionidae 

Quadrula quadrula 

Ligumig sp. 

Ligumia nasuta 
Dressenidae 

Dreissena polymorpha 



10 34 7 14 
9 4 



1 6 
38 



125 



station 
25A 25B 25C 



INSECTA: 
DIPTERA 
Chironomidae: 
Chironominae: 

Chironomini 

Chironomus (Chaetolabis) sp. 

Chironomus (Chironomus) sp. 

Chironomus (C. ) anthracinus group 

Chironomus (C.) halophilus group 

Chironomus (C. ) plumosus group 

Chironomus (C.) salinarius group 

Chironomus (C.) staegeri group 

Chironomus (C. ) thummi group 

Cladopelma sp. 

Cryptochironomus sp. 

Cryptotendipes sp. 

Dicrotendipes sp. 

Endochironomus sp. 

Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes ) sp. 

Microchironomus sp. 

Parachironomous sp. 

Paralauterborniella sp. 

Polypedilum (Polydelium) sp. 

Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. 

Pseudochironomus sp. 

Rheotanytarsus sp. 

Tanytarsus sp. 

Tanypodinae: 
Apsectrotanypus sp. 
Coelotanypus sp. 
Procladius sp. 
Tanypus (Tanypus) sp. 
Djalmabatista sp. 
Macropelopia sp. 

Orthocladinae: 
Diplocladius sp. 
Paracricotopus sp. 

Ceratopogonidae: 
Bezzia sp. 
Culicoides sp. 
Mallochohelis sp. 

Chaoboridae: 
Chaoborus sp. 

EPHEMEROPTERA: 
Ephemeridae: 

Hexagenia sp. 
Caenidae: 

Caenis sp. 



126 



station 
25A 25B 25C 



COLEOPTERA: 
Elmidae: 

Dubiraphia sp.' 
Dytiseidae: 
Coptotomus sp. 

MEGALOPTERA 
Sialidae: 
Sialis sp. 

LEPTIDOPTERA 
Pyralidae: 

TRICOPTERA 
Polycentropodidae : 

Polycentropus sp. 

Cyrnellus sp. 
Hy dropsy c h idae: 

Cheumatopsyche sp. 
Hydroptilidae: 

Hydroptila sp. 
Leptoceridae: 

Oecetis sp. 

ODONATA 
Coenagr ion idae 
Enallagma sp. 

Oligochaeta: 
TUBIFICIDAE 
Limnodrilus hof fmeisteri 22 2 

L. profundicola 
L. angustipennis 
L. claparedianus 
L. sp. 

Spirosperma ferox 1 

Quistadrilus multisetosus 

Aulodrilus sp. 12 

Tubificidae immature 34 23 12 

NAD IDAE 
Pristinella sp. 
P. sima 
P. osborni 
P. jenkinae 
Pristina ? sp. 
Nadidae 1. 

LUMBRICULIDAE 

Nematoda: 

Planaria: 

Hirudinea: 1 

Hydrachnidia 



127 



station 
25A 25B 25C 



Crustacea: 
AMPHIPODA 

Gammarus sp. 

Hyalella sp. 
PODOCOPA 
ISOPODA 

Caecidotea sp. 
DECAPODA 

Cambaridae 

Mollusca: 
GASTROPODA 
Valvatidae 

Valvata sp. 

V. tricarinata 

V. sincera 
Hydrobiidae 

Hydrobiidae 
Bithyniidae 

Bithynia tentaculata 
Lymnaeidae 

Physa sp. 

Stagnicola sp. . 

Fossaria sp. 
Planorbidae 

Gyralus sp. 

Helisoma anceps 

BIVALVA 
Sphaeriidae 

Sphaerium sp. 

Musculium sp. 

Psidium sp. 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula sp 
Unionidae 

Quadrula quadrula 

Ligumia sp. 

Ligumia nasuta 
Dressenidae 

Dreissena polymorpha 



128 



Appendix VI 

Benthic Invertebrate Species Abundances 



129 



station 
5 6 



INSECTA: 
DIPTERA 
Chironomidae: 
Chironominae: 

Chironomini 

Chironomus (Chaetolabis) sp. 

Chironomus (Chironomus) sp. 

Chironomus (C. ) anthracinus group 

Chironomus (C.) halophilus group 

Chironomus (C.) plumosus group 

Chironomus (C. ) salinarius group 

Chironomus (C. ) staegeri group 

Chironomus (C. ) thummi group 

Cladopelma sp. 

Cryptochironomus sp. 

Cryptotendipes sp. 

Dicrotendipes sp. 

Endochironomus sp. 

Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes ) sp. 

Microchironomus sp. 

Parachironomous sp. 

Paralauterborniella sp. 

Polypedilum (Polydelium) sp. 

Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. 

Pseudochironomus sp. 

Rheotanytarsus sp. 

Tanytarsus sp. 



27 20 

173 13 



60 



27 



40 13 
100 



133 



133 40 



113 173 
53 
53 60 33 13 67 93 53 80 
40 



13 



7 




53 

7 


13 


27 




7 


53 




13 






7 







Tanypodinae: 
Apsectrotanypus sp. 
Coelotanypus sp. 
Procladius sp. 
Tanypus (Tanypus) s] 
Djalmabatista sp. 
Macropelopia sp. 





80 


67 


80 


40 


13 


93 




333 


120 


140 


87 


27 


87 


53 


7 


213 


167 


133 


113 


127 


127 


140 


133 


133 


140 


127 


20 


33 









Orthocladinae: 
Diplocladius sp. 
Paracricotopus sp. 

Ceratopogonidae : 
Bezzia sp. 
Culicoides sp. 
Mallochohelis sp. 

Chaoboridae: 
Chaoborus sp. 



7 20 13 13 27 



EPHEMEROPTERA: 
Ephemeridae: 

Hexagenia sp. 
Caenidae: 

Caenis sp. 



80 80 233 180 127 27 107 



130 



Statron 
12 3 4 5 6 7 



COLEOPTEFIA: 
Elmidae: 

Dubiraphia sp. 
Dytiseidae: 
Coptotomus sp. 

MEGALOPTEFIA 
Sialidae: 
Sialis sp. 

LEPTIDOPTERA 
Pyralidae: 

TRICOPTERA 
Polycentropodidae : 

Polycentropus sp. 

Cyrnellus sp. 
Hydropsychidae : 

Cheumatopsyche sp. 
Hydr.optilidae: 

Hydroptila sp. 
Leptoceridae: 

Oecetis sp. 

ODONATA 
Coenagrionidae 
Enallagma sp. 

Oligochaeta: 
TUBIFICIDAE 
Limnodrilus hof fmeisteri 
L. profundicola 
L. angustipennis 
L. claparedianus 
L. sp. 

Spirosperma ferox 
Quistadrilus multisetosus 
Aulodrilus sp. 
Tubificidae immature 

NAD I DAE 
Pristinella sp. 
P. sima 
P. osborni 
P. jenkinae 
Pristina ? sp. 
Nadidae 



40 7 7 7 33 13 13 7 

7 



47 140 67 100 153 133 107 180 727 

13 80 



13 47 13 

40 
7 33 

180 340 247 260 547 133 460 293 767 



LUMBRICULIDAE 

Nematoda : 
Planaria: 
Hirudinea: 
Hydrachnidia 



131 



station 
123456789 



Crustacea: 
AMPHIPODA 

Gammarus sp. 

Hyalella sp. 
PODOCOPA 
ISOPODA 

Caecidotea sp. 
DECAPODA 

Catnbar idae 



7 20 20 13 47 

7 
27 7 13 

7 7 13 20 7 240 



Mollusca: 
GASTROPODA 
Valvatidae 

Valvata sp. 

V. tricarinata 

V. sincera 
Hydrobiidae 

Hydrobiidae 
Bithyniidae 

Bithynia tentaculata 
Lymnaeidae 

Physa sp. 

Stagnicola sp. 

Fossaria sp. 
Planorbidae 

Gyralus sp. 

Helisoma anceps_ 

B I VAL VA 
Sphaeriidae 

Sphaerium sp. 

Musculium sp. 

Psidium sp. 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula sp 
Unionidae 

Quadrula quadrula 

Ligumia sp. 

Ligumia nasuta 
Dressenidae 

Dreissena polymorpha 



40 20 60 107 113 13 33 
7 



132 



station 
12 13 14 



INSECTA: 
DIPTERA 
Chironomidae: 
Chironominae: 

Chironomini 

Chironomus ( Chaetolabis ) sp. 

Chironomus (Chironomus) sp. 

Chironomus (C. ) anthracinus group 

Chironomus (C. ) halophilus group 

Chironomus (C. ) plumosus group 

Chironomus (C.) salinarius group 

Chironomus (C. ) staegeri group 

Chironomus (C. ) thummi group 

Cladopelma sp. 

Cryptochironomus sp. 

Cryptotendipes sp. 

Dicrotendipes sp. 

Endochironomus sp. 

Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) sp. 

Microchironomus sp. 

Parachironomous sp. 

Paralauterborniella sp. 

Polypedilum (Poiydelium) sp. 

Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. 

Pseudochironomus sp. 

Rheotanytarsus sp. 

Tanytarsus sp. 













7 


40 




67 
13 




20 
13 


13 


.00 


120 


67 




13 




93 


27 


13 




20 




40 


20 


133 
27 


40 


113 


167 



13 
107 



Tanypodinae: 
Apsectrotanypus sp. 
Coelotanypus sp. 
Procladius sp, 
Tanypus (Tanypus) S] 
D jalmabatista sp. 
Macropelopia sp. 



53 


93 


40 




13 


60 


67 


267 


27 


73 




13 


13 




7 



87 407 180 207 
13 40 20 



Orthocladinae: 
Diplocladius sp. 
Paracricotopus sp. 





13 


67 


3 






3 


133 


40 



Ceratopogonidae: 
Bezzia sp. 
Culicoides sp. 
Mallochohelis s 

Chaoboridae: 
Chaoborus sp. 



EPHEMEROPTERA: 
Ephemeridae: 

Hexagenia sp. 
Caenidae: 

Caenis sp. 



13 7 
7 



33 



COLEOPTERA: 
Elmidae: 

Dubiraphia sp. 
Dytiseidae: 

Coptotomus sp. 

MEGfiLOPTERA 
Sialidae: 
Sialis sp. 

LEPTIDOPTERA 
Pyralidae: 



Station 
10 10a 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 



TRICOPTERA 
Polycentropodidae : 

Polycentropus sp. 

Cyrnellus sp. 
Hydropsy chidae: 

Cheumatopsyche sp. 
Hydroptilidae: 

Hydroptila sp. 
Leptoceridae: 

Oecetis sp. 



ODONATA 
Coenagrionidae 
Enallagma sp. 



Oligochaeta: 
TUBIFICIDAE 
Limnodrilus hof fmeisteri 
L. profundicola 
L. angustipennis 
L. claparedianus 
L. sp. 

Spirosperma ferox 
Quistadrilus multisetosus 
Aulodrilus sp. 
Tubificidae immature 



7 33 53 253 613 40 

7 



133 160 7 200 20 20 47 7 7 
47 33 7 7 40 33 13 107 7 



460 327 33 93 373 627 753 607 567 



NADIDAE 
Pristinella sp. 
P. sima 
P. osborni 
P. jenkinae 
Pristina ? sp. 
Nadidae 



7 


33 


13 


60 


53 




7 




53 
13 




27 


13 






20 


7 




7 



LUMBRICULIDAE 

Nematoda: 
Planaria: 
Hirudinea: 
Hydrachnidia 



134 



station 
10 10a 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 



Crustacea: 
AMPHIPODA 

Gammarus sp. 

Hyalella sp. 
PODOCOPA 
ISOPODA 

Caecidotea sp. 
DECAPODA 

Cambaridae 



20 47 

7 
20 60 7 



i7 7 87 7 20 



Mollusca: 
GASTROPODA 
Valvatidae 

Valvata sp. 

V. tricarinata 

V. sincera 
Hydrobiidae 

Hydrobiidae 
Bithyniidae 

Bithynia tentaculati 
Lymnaeidae 

Physa sp. 

Stagn.icola sp. 

Fossaria sp. 
Planorbidae 

Gyralus sp. 

Helisoma anceps 

BIVALVA 
Sphaeriidae 

Sphaerium sp. 

Musculium sp. 

Psidium sp. 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula sp 
Unionidae 

Quadrula quadrula 

Ligumia sp. 

Ligumia nasuta 
Dressenidae 

Dreissena polymorphe 



27 33 133 80 247 153 240 187 260 
20 87 40 



100 67 180 27 67 27 107 280 287 
7 



227 427 73 27 20 20 60 133 80 
13 
60 20 40 7 20 27 



93 187 13 



135 



station 
19a 20 21 



INSECTA: 
DIPTERA 
Chironomidae : 
Chironominae: 

Chironomini 

Chironomus (Chaetolabis ) sp. 



(Chironomus) sp. 

(C.) anthracinus group 

(C. ) halophilus group 

(C. ) plumosus group 

(C. ) salinarius group 

(C.) staegeri group 

(C. ) thummi group 



Chironomus 

Chironomus 

Chironomus 

Chironomus 

Chironomus 

Chironomus 

Chironomus 

Cladopelma sp. 

Cryptochironomus sp. 

Cryptotendipes sp. 

Dicrotendipes sp. 

Endochironomus sp. 

Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes ) sp. 

Microchironomus sp. 

Parachironomous sp. 

Paralauterborniella sp. 

Polypedilum (Polydelium) sp. 

Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. 

Pseudochironomus sp. 

Rheotanytarsus sp. 

Tanytarsus sp. 

Tanypodinae: 
Apsectrotanypus sp. 
Coelotanypus sp. 
Procladius sp. 
Tanypus (Tanypus) sp. 
D jalmabatista sp. 
Macropelopia sp. 



57 

67 

293 

2853 



80 
200 



13 
233 



13 


40 


7 




33 

7 


33 


247 


40 


193 


133 


20 


13 




27 


20 


13 






53 





Orthocladinae: 
Diplocladius sp. 
Paracricotopus sp. 

Ceratopogonidae : 
Bezzia sp. 
Cuiicoides sp. 
Mallochohelis sp. 



Chaoboridae: 
Chaoborus sp. 

EPHEMEROPTERA: 
Ephemeridae: 

Hexagenia sp. 
Caenidae: 

Caenis sp. 



136 



station 
18 19 19a 20 21 22 23 



COLEOPTERA: 
Elmidae: 

Dubiraphia sp. 
Dytiseidae: 
Coptotomus sp. 

MEGALOPTERA 
Sialidae: 
Sialis sp. 

LEPTIDOPTERA 
Pyralidae: 

TRICOPTERA 
Polycentropodidae: 

Polycentropus sp. 

Cyrnellus sp. 
Hydropsychidae: 

Cheumatopsyche sp. 
Hydroptilidae: 

Hydroptila sp. 
Leptoceridae: 

Oecetis sp. 

ODONATA 
Coenagrionidae 
Enallagma sp. 



Oligochaeta: 
TUBIFICIDAE 
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri 
L. profundicola 
L. angustipennis 
L. claparedianus 
L. sp. 

Spirosperma ferox 
Quistadrilus mult isetosus 
Aulodrilus sp. 
Tubificidae immature 



307 360 160 73 53 253 233 

27 27 7 
7 

20 

13 

7 13 53 93 

20 47 7 

7 80 60 

1520 807 460 140 480 780 807 



NAD I DAE 
Pristinella sj: 
P. sima 
P. psborni 
P. jenkinae 
Pristina ? sp. 
Nadidae 



33 20 

13 
7 

27 
20 13 



LUMBRICULIDAE 



Nematode : 
Planaria: 
Hirudinea: 
Hydrachnidia 



13 7 
40 27 47 



.37 



station 
18 19 19a 20 21 22 23 



Crustacea: 
AMPHIPODA 

Gammarus sp. 

Hyalella sp. 
PODOCOPA 
ISOPODA 

Caecidotea sp. 
DECAPODA 

Cambaridae 



20 100 27 
7 



Mollusca: 
GASTROPODA 
Valvatidae 

Valvata sp. 

V. tricarinata 

V. sincera 
Hydrobiidae 

Hydrobiidae 
Bithyniidae 

Bithynia tentaculata 
Lymnaeidae 

Physa sp. 

Stagnicola sp. 

Fossaria sp. 
Planorbidae 

Gyralus sp. 

Helisoma anceps 

BIVALVA 
Sphaeriidae 

Sphaerium sp. 

Musculium sp. 

Psidium sp. 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula sp 
Unionidae 

Quadrula quadrula 

Ligumia sp. 

Ligumia nasuta 
Dressenidae 

Dreissena polymorpha 



80 193 53 180 93 7 

13 13 

67 
507 
287 433 260 267 20 7 



127 193 60 93 340 100 47 
33 20 60 280 

7 

13 
7 



138 



Appendix VII 

Taxonomic Composition of Benthic Communities 
as defined by Cluster Analysis 

Numbers are mean abundances (#/m^) 



,39 







Community 




Invertebrate Taxa 


1 


2 


3 


4 


DIPTERA 










Chironomidae: 










Chironominae: 










Chironomini 


12 


I 


3 ■ 





Chironomus (Chaetolabis) sp. 


23 











Chironomus (Chironomus) sp. 


13 


4 


27 


47 


Chironomus (C.) anthracinus group 


2 


4 


37 





Chironomus (C.) halophilus group 


3 


■ 








Chironomus (C.) plumosus group 


3 


1 








Chironomus (C.) salinarius group 


12 


1 


105 





Chironomus (C.) staegeri group 


22 











Chironomus (C.) thummi group 


14 


2 


77 





Cladopelma sp. 


7 


2 








Cryptochironomus sp. 


53 


66 


68 


37 


Cryptotendipes sp. 


5 








33 


Dicrotendipes sp. 


1 


2 


20 


153 


Endochironomus sp. 


2 


1 





1543 


Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) sp. 


11 





5 





Microchironomus sp. 


2 


Ô 








Parachironomous sp. 


3 


1 








Paralauterboraiella sp. 











40 


Polypedilum (Polydelium) sp. 


11 


1 


8 


333 


Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. 


12 











Pseudochironomus sp. 


2 








3 


Rheotanytarsus sp. 


5 











Tanytarsus sp. 


9 








33 


Tanypodinae: 










Apsectrotanypus sp. 


47 


19 


47 





Coelotanypus sp. 


107 


1 








Procladius sp.' 


144 


157 


160 


330 


Tanypus (Tanypus) sp. 


57 


12 


7 





Djalmabatista sp. 





2 








Macropelopia sp. 





6 








Orthocladinae: 








20 





Diplocladius sp. 








8 






140 



Community 



Invertebrate Taxa 



Paracricotopus sp. 5 1 55 

Ceratopogonidae: 

Bezzia sp. 10 2 2 

Culicoides sp. 12 

Mallochohelis sp. 10 

Chaoboridae: 

Chaoborus sp. 5 10 

EPHEMEROPTERA: 
Ephemeridae: 

Hexagenia sp. 
Caenidae: 

Caenis sp. 
COLEOPTERA: 

Elmidae: 
Dubiraphia sp. 

Dytiseidae: 
Coptotomus sp. 
MEGALOPTERA 
Sialidae: 

Sialis sp. 

LEPTIDOPTERA 
Pyfalidae: 
TRICOPTERA 

Polycentropodidae: 
Polycentropus sp. 
Cyrnellus sp. 

Hydropsychidae: 

Cheumatopsyche sp. 

Hydroptilidae: 
Hydroptila sp. 

Leptoceridae: 

Oecetis sp. 
ODONATA 

Coenagrionidae 

Enallagma sp. 



04 


4 


10 


3 


1 


1 








15 . 


2 


10 


13 


I 

















3 





. 





12 


27 


1 


1 











2 


2 














3 








2 





3 


1 









Invertebrate Taxa 



Community 



TUBIFICIDAE 

Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri 

L. profundicola 

L. angustipennis 

L. claparedianus 

L. sp. 

Spirosperma ferox 

Quistadrilus multisetosus 

Aulodrilus sp. 

Tubificidae immature 
NADIDAE 

Pristinella sp. 

P. sima 

P. osborni 

P. jenkinae 

Nadidae 

LUMBRICULIDAE 
Nematoda: 
Planaria: 
Hirudinea: 
Hydrachnidia 
Crustacea: 
AMPHIPODA 

Gammarus sp. 

Hyalella sp. 
ISOPODA 

Caecidotea sp. 
GASTROPODA 

Valvatidae 

Valvata sp. 

V. tricarinata 

V. sincera 



116 


178 


310 


243 


2 


5 


22 


3 











3 











10 


8 





5 


7 





29 


85 


73 


1 


25 


30 








8 





30 


308 


584 


397 


793 





10 


7 


7 


1 


15 


2 


13 





2 











10 








2 


8 

















3 


2 


8 


25 














10 





11 


35 


37 


2 





2 





8 


12 


28 


63 








2 


3 


7 


19 


82 


7 





161 


48 


3 





13 


5 


7 





6 









142 



Community 



Invertebrate Taxa 



■ 1 


2 


• 3 


4 





46 








2 


186 


87 


14 



Hydrobiidae 

Hydrobiidae 
Bithyniidae 

Bithynia tentaculata 
Lymnaeidae 

Physa sp. 

Stagnicola sp. 

Fossaria sp. 
Planorbidae 

Gyralus sp. 

Helisoma anceps 
BIVALVA 
Sphaeriidae 

Sphaerium sp. 

Musculium sp. 

Psidium sp. 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula sp 
Unionidae 

Quadrula quadrula 

Ligumia sp. 

Ligumia nasuta 
Dressenidae 

Dreissena polymorpha 4 327 






2 














2 














7 


2 











. 


1 








48 


105 


250 


73 


1 


1 











19 


22 


140 


1 





12 








1 











2 











1 


2 








1 









143 



144 



Appendix VIII 

Component loadings and percent total variance explained for the PCA on benthic invertebrate 
abundances 



145 



Appendix VIII: Component loadings and percent total variance for the PCA of the benthic 
invertebrate abundances 



Component Loadings 



TAXA 



Factor I 



Factor II 



Chironomini 

Chironomus (Chaetolabis) sp. 

Chironomous (Chironomous) sp. 

Cladopelma sp. 

Cryptochironomus sp. 

Cryptotendipes sp. 

Dicrotendipes sp. 

Endochironomus sp. 

Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) sp. 

Microchironomus sp. 

Parachironomous sp. 

Paralauterbomiella sp. 

Polypedilum (Polydelium) sp. 

Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. 

Pseudochironomus sp. 

Rheotanytarsus sp. 

Tanytarsus sp. 

Apsectrotanypus sp. 

Coelotanypus sp. 

Procladius sp. 

Tanypus (Tanypus) sp. 

Djalmabatista sp. 

Macropelopia sp. 

Orthocladinae: 

Diplocladius sp. 

Paracricotopus sp. 

Bezzia sp. 

Culicoides sp. 

Mallochohelis sp. 

Chaoborus sp. 

Hexagenia sp. 

Caenis sp. 

Dubiraphia sp. 

Coptotomus sp. 

Sialis sp. 

Pyralidae: 

Polycentropus sp. 

Cymellus sp. 

Cheumatopsyche sp. 

Hydroptila sp. 

Oecetis sp. 

Enallagma sp. 



0.337 





364 


0.459 


0. 


187 


0.098 





361 


0.009 


-0 


127 


0.083 


-0 


046 


0.125 





385 


0.390 





524 


0.432 





511 


0.132 





227 


0.194 





304 


0.104 


-0 


005 


0.350 





381 


0.263 





639 


0.339 





172 


0.134 





579 


0.447 





304 


0.141 





463 


0.335 


-0 


120 


0.821 





372 


0.196 





129 


0.522 


-0 


182 


0.069 


-0 


258 


0.166 


-0 


369 


0.009 


-0 


095 


0.194 





038 


0.060 





134 


0.492 





078 


0.024 


-0 


230 


0.069 


-0 


258 


0.172 


-0 


056 


0.631 





288 


0.024 





128 


0.197 





602 


0.417 





124 


0.094 


-0 


054 


0.649 





608 


0.061 





016 


0.250 


-0 


149 


0.403 





506 


0.257 





182 


0.548 





151 


0.194 





038 



I4(S 



Appendix VIII: (continued) 






TAXA 


Componen 


Lx)adin2S 


Factor I 


Factor II 


L. sp. 


0.484 


0.282 


Spirosperma ferox 


0.668 


0.032 


Quistadrilus multisetosus 


■ 0.380 


-0.546 


Aulodrilus sp. 


0.359 


0.094 


Tubificidae immature 


0.663 


0.084 


Pristinella sp. 


0.493 


-0.473 


Pristina ? sp. 


0.149 


-0.222 


Nadidae 


0.085 


-0.509 


LUMBRICULIDAE 


0.403 


0.506 


Nematoda: 


-0.309 


-0.044 


Planaria: 


0.542 


0.637 


Hirudinea: 


0.806 


0.099 


Hydrachnidia 


-0.293 


0,237 


Gammarus sp. 


0.560 


0.341 


Hyalella sp. 


0.438 


0.406 


Caecidotea sp. 


0.247 


0.085 


Valvata sp. 


0.444 


-0.730 


Hydrobiidae 


0.472 


-0.710 


Bithynia tentaculata 


0.115 


-0.078 


Physa sp. 


0.069 


-0.258 


Stagnicola sp. 


-0.094 


-0. 054 


Fossaria sp. 


0.403 


0.506 


Gyralus sp. 


-0.227 


-0.028 


Helisoma anceps 


-0.028 


-0. 158 


Sphaerium sp. 


0.418 


-0.208 


Musculium sp. 


-0. 194 


-0. 142 


Psidium sp. 


0.480 


-0.305 


Corbicula sp 


-0.012 


0.045 


Unionidae 


0.104 


-0 . 299 


Quadrula quadrula 


0.142 


-0.344 


Ligumia sp. 


0.305 


-0.275 


Dreissena polymorpha 


0.537 


-0.087 


Percent Variance 


12.791 


10.687 



147 



148 



Appendix IX 

Fish Species found in the study area 



149 



Appendix IX: Fish species found in the study area 



Lower Lower 
Welland Welland 
River' River^ 



Welland 
River^ 



Welland 12-Mile 
Rivei^ Creek^ 



Niagara 
River* 



White Crappie '^ 
White Bass 
White Perch 
Channel Catfish 
Gizzard Shad 
Freshwater Drum 
White Sucker * 

Yellow Bullhead 
Shprthead Redhorse 
Carp * 

Pumpkinseed * 

Rock Bass * 

Smallmouth Bass 
Spottail Shiner * 
Emerald Shiner * 
Johnny Darter * 
Brook Silverside 
Sculpin 

Banded Killifish 
Golden Shiner 
Creek Chub 
Blntnose minnow 
Brown Bullhead 
Tadpole Madtom 
Mudminnow 
Northern Pike 
Black Crappie 
Yellow Perch 
Smelt 

Bluegill Sunfish 
Sea Lamprey 
Brown Trout 
Brook Trout 
Hog Sucker 
Northern Pearl Dace 



150 



Appendix IX - continued 



Lower Lower 

Welland Welland Welland Welland 12-Mile Niagara 

River' River^ River^ River^ Creek^ River* 



Redside Dace 
Northern Redbelly Dace 
Finescale Dace 
River Chub 
Blacknose Dace 
Longnose Dace 
Rosyface Shiner 
Common Shiner 
Brassy Minnow 
Fathead Minnow 
American Eel 
Rainbow Darter 
Fantail Darter 
Brook Stickleback 
Longnose Sucker 
Silver Redhorse 
River Redhorse 
Black Redhorse 
Greater Redhorse 
Stonecat 

Brindled Madtom 
Black Bullhead 
Lake Sturgeon 
Longnose Gar 
Bow fin 
Alewife 
Rainbow Trout 
Lake Trout 
Coho Salmon 
Cisco 

Lake Whitefish 
Round Whitefish 
Mooneye 
Muskellunge 
Lake Chub 



151 



Appendix IX - continued 



Lower Lower 

Welland Welland Welland Welland 12-Mile Niagara 

River' River^ River^ River^ Creek^ River* 



Blackchin Shiner 

Blacknose Shiner 

Spotfin Shiner 

Sand Shiner 

Mimic Shiner 

Burbot 

Threespine Stickleback 

Ninespine Stickleback 

Trout-Perch 

Green Sunfish 

Largemouth Bass 

Sauger 

Walleye 

Iowa Darter 

Least Darter 

Log-Perch 

Blackside Darter 

Goldfish 

Chain Pickerel 



1 - Johnson, 1964 

2 - Tarandus Associates Limited, 1990 - Summer and Fall field surveys 

3 - Brindle ei al., 1988 - goldfish actually a carp/golfish hybrid 
4- Steele, 1981 

5 - Department of Commerce and Development, 1960 

6 - Fish species thought to occur in the Niagara River area - Scott and Grossman, 1973 



152 



Appendix X 

Flow calculations for sections A, B, and C. 



153 







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.56 



Appendix XI 

Water Quality Data 



157 



Water and Sediment Parameter Abbreviations: 



Abbreviation 


Parameter 


Pb 


Lead 


Zn 


Zinc 


Cd 


Cadmium 


Cr 


Chromium 


Fe 


Iron 


Se • 


Selenium 


As 


Arsenic 


Sb 


Antimony 


Ba 


Barium 


Be 


Beryllium 


Co 


Cobalt 


Cu 


Copper 


Mo 


Molybdenum 


Ni 


Nickel 


V 


Vanadium 


Ag 


Silver 


Hg 


Mercury 


CN 


Cyanide 


Mn 


Manganese 


Mg 


Magnesium 


AI 


Aluminum 


PCB 


Polychlorinated biphenyls 


OC 


Organochlorine 


PAH 


Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 


NH4 


Ammonia 


TP 


Total Phosphorus 


TKN 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


NO2 


Nitrite 


NO3 


Nitrate 


TOC 


Total Organic Carbon 


LOI' 


Loss on Ignition 


SAR' 


Sodium Adsorption Ratio 



158 



Water - Summer Survey 



SITE 


Zn 


Cd 


Mn 


Co 


Cu 


Fe 


Pb 


Cr 


mg/L 


mg/L 


mg/L 


mg/L 


mg/L 


mg/L 


mg/L 


mg/L 


1 


<0.01 


< 0.002 


0.18 


< 0.005 


0.03 


2.1 


<0.01 


< 0.005 


2 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.015 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


3 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.005 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


4 


<0.01 


<■ 0.002 






0.03 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


5 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.04 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


6 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.05 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


7 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.03 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


8 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.02 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


9 


<0.01 


< 0.002 


0.01 


< 0.005 


0.02 


0.095 


<0.01 


< 0.005 


10 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.01 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


10a 


0.02 


< 0.002 






0.005 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


11 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.015 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


12 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.015 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


13 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.02 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


14 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.01 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


15 


<0.01 


< 0.002 


0.02 


<0.005 


0.005 


0.43 


<0.01 


<0.005 


16 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.035 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


17 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.025 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


18 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.01 




<0.01 


0.0075 


19 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.03 




• <0.01 


< 0.005 


19a 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.005 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


20 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.01 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


21 


<0.01 


< 0.002 


0.01 


< 0.005 


0.015 


0.4 


<0.01 


< 0.005 


22 


<0.01 


< 0.002 






0.0125 




<0.01 


< 0.005 


23 


<0.01 


< 0.002 


0.01 


< 0.005 


0.005 


0.06 


<0.01 


< 0.005 



159 



Water - Summer Survey (Continued) 



SITE 


Ni 


Be 


Mo 


V 


A! 


Ba 


Hg 


As 


mg/L 


mg/L 


mg/L 


mg/L 


mg/L 


mg/L 


Mg/L 


Mg/L 


1 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 


1.74 


0.04 


0.3 


<5 


2 










1.42 




0.25 


<5 


3 










1.155 




0.125 


<5 


4 










0.97 




0.1 


<5 


5 










0.81 




<0.05 


<5 


6 










0.82 




<0.05 


<5 


7 










0.75 




<0.05 


<5 


8 










0.28 




<0.05 


<5 


9 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 


0.12 


0.02 


<0.05 


<5 


10 










0.12 




<0.05 


<5 


10a 










0.13 




<0.05 


<5 


11 










0.11 




<0.05 


<5 


12 










0.1 




<0.05 


<5 


13 










0.3 




<0.05 


<5 


14 










0.28 




<0.05 


<5 


15 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 


0.36 


0.02 


<0.05 


<5 


16 










0.24 




<0.05 


<5 


17 










0.3! 




<0.05 


<5 


18 










0.295 




<0.05 


<5 


19 










0.34 




<0.05 


<5 


19a 










0.32 




<0.05 


<5 


20 










0.3 




<0.05 


<5 


21 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 


0.32 


0.02 


<0.05 


<5 


99 










0.16 




<0.05 


<5 


23 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 ■ 


< 0.005 


< 0.005 


0.16 


0.02 


<0.05 


<5 



160 



Water - Summer Survey (Continued) 



SITE 


Se 


Ag 


CN 


Colour 


Cond 


Ammnia-N 


Sb 


Nitrite 


Mg/L 


mg/L 


mg/L 


TCU 


uS/cm 


mg/L 


/^g/L 


mg/1 


1 


<1 


< 0.005 


0.002 


48 


440 


0.008 


<2 


0.003 


2 






0.002 




440 








3 






0.002 




415 








4 






0.002 




420 








5 






0.002 




360 








6 






0.002 




350 








7 






0.002 




310 








8 






0.002 




290 








9 


<1 


< 0.005 


0.002 


3 


290 


0.008 


<2 


0.005 


10 






0.002 




290 








10a 






0.002 




290 








11 






0.002 




310 








12 






0.002 




310 








13 






0.002 




300 








14 






0.002 




300 








15 


<1 


< 0.005 


0.002 


4 


290 


0.008 


<2 


0.023 


16 






0.002 




290 








17 






0.002 




290 








18 






0.002 




300 








19 






0.002 




300 








19a 






0.002 




300 








20 






0.002 




310 








21 


<1 


< 0.005 


0.002 


4 


300 


0.33 


<2 


0.04 


22 






0.002 




280 








23 


<1 


< 0.005 


0.002 


9 


290 


0.23 


<2 


0.003 



Water - Summer Survey (Continued) 



SITE 


Mg 


Nitrate 


pH 


Phenolics 


TKN 


ss 


Turb 


TP 


mg/L 


mg/L 


-log[Hn 


mg/L 


mg/L 


mg/L 


NTU 


mg/L 


1 


14.1 


0.35 


8 


0.01 


1 


48 


6.5 


0.2 


9 






7.9 


0.012 


1.01 




5.5 


0.25 


3 






7.95 


0.0025 


0.955 




7.3 


0.1515 


4 






7.95 


0.029 


0.81 




6.8 


0.149 


5 






8.05 


<0.001 


0.62 




4.3 


0.098 


6 






8 


0.004 


0.56 




4.2 


0.083 


7 






8.15 


0.004 


0.43 




1.8 


0.053 


8 






8.1 


<0.001 


0.33 




0.5 


0.024 


9 


8.5 


0.16 


8.125 


0.012 


0.42 


7 


0.3 


0.016 


10 






8.1 


0.012 


0.28 




0.3 


0.016 


10a 






8.2 


0.001 


0.3 




0.3 


0.013 


11 






8.25 


0.002 


0.33 




0.8 


0.066 


12 






8.15 


0.001 


0.4 




1.1 


0.064 


13 






8.15 


0.022 


0.38 




0.7 


0.044 


14 






8.1 


0.03 


0.4 




0.8 


0.045 


15 


8.9 


0.31 


8.1 


0.024 


0.39 


14 


0.5 


0.041 


16 






8.05 


0.016 


0.37 




0.5 


0.042 


17 






8.1 


0.031 


0.34 




0.4 


0.042 


18 






8.45 


0.008 


0.33 




0.55 


0.048 


19 






8.15 


0.002 


0.39 




0.6 


0.053 


19a 






8.15 


0.004 


0.46 




0.6 


0.053 


20 






8.1 


0.022 


0.4 




0.6 


0.052 


21 


9.2 


0.55 


8.15 


0.016 


2.6 


14 


0.5 


0.06 


22 






8.4 


0.0015 


0.315 




0.3 


0.0135 


23 


8.4 


0.16 


8.25 


0.005 


0.39 


4 


0.3 


0.013 



162 



Water - Fall Survey 



SITE 


Cu 


Al 


Hg 


Phenols 


mg/L 


mg/L 


Mg/L 


mg/L 


1 


0.005 


1.85 


<0.05 


<0.001 


2 


0.01 


2.7 


<0.05 


<0.001 


3 


0.005 


3.4 


<0.05 


<0.001 


4 


0.01 


1.03 


<0.05 


<0.001 


5 


0.005 


0.86 


<0.05 


< 0.001 


6 


0.005 


1.9 




< 0.001 


7 


0.005 


1.91 




<0.001 


8 


0.005 


1.14 




<0.001 


9 


< 0.005 


1.49 




<0.001 


10 


0.01 


0.54 


<0.05 


<0.00I 


10a 








<0.001 


11 








<0.001 


12 








<0.001 


13 








<0.001 


14 








<0.001 


15 


0.01 


1.3 


<0.05 


<0.001 


16 








<0.001 


17 








<0.001 


18 








< 0.001 


19 








<0.001 


19a 








<0.001 


20 








<0.001 


21 


< 0.005 


1.07 


<0.05 


<o.oor 


22 








<0.001 


23 


0.035 


0.34 


<0.05 


<0.001 



163 



164 



Appendix XII 

Sediment Quality Data 



165 



Sediments - Summer Survey 



SITE 


CN 


LOI 


O&G 


phenolics 


PH 


Zn 


Cd 


TOC 


Mg/g 


% 


Mg/g 


Mg/g 


-log[H^] 


Mg/g 


Mg/g 


% 


1 


0.13 


14 


2900 


0.01 


6.8 


116 


0.6 


7.4 


2 


<0.05 


11 


1040 


0.01 


7 


97 


0.5 




3 


<0.05 


12 


980 


0.01 


6.9 


116 


0.45 




4 


0.075 


10.5 


845 


0.01 


6.95 


104 


0.425 




5 


<0.05 


12 


1070 


0.02 


7 


108 


0.55 




6 


<0.05 


7.2 


870 


0.01 


7.3 


112 


0.4 




7 


<0.05 


7 


1800 


0.01 


6.9 


135 


0.55 




8 


<0.05 


7 


2500 


0.01 


7 


112 


0.4 




9 


<0.05 


7 


4550 


0.01 


7 


335 


0.8 


3.55 


10 


<0.05 


7 


2000 


0.01 


7 


550 


0.975 




"lOa 


<0.05 


5 


1990 


0.01 


7 


270 


0.4 




11 


<0.05 


2 


250 


0.01 


7.3 


98 


0.15 




12 


<0.05 


6 


3200 


0.01 


7.1 


620 


1.4 




13 


<0.05 


2 


195 


0.01 


7.5 


75 


0.25 




14 


<0.05 


2 


320 


0.01 


7.5 


76 


0.1 




15 


<0.05 


2 


410 


0.01 


7.3 


83 


0.15 


0.92 


16 


<0.05 


4 


1110 


0.01 


7.1 


116 


0.2 




17 


<0.05 


5 


1670 


0.01 


7.2 


163 


0.35 




18 


0.09 


5 


3100 


0.01 


7.1 


191 


0.5 




19 


<0.05 


5 


2500 


0.01 


7.1 


330 


0.9 




19a 


<0.05 


5 


750 


0.01 


7.2 


127 


0.25 




20 


0.18 


5 


1280 


0.01 


7.2 


69.5 


0.1 




21 


0.1 


3 


860 


0.01 


7.2 


95 


0.2 


1.13 


22 


<0.05 


5 


1240 


0.025 


7 


75.5 


0.675 




23 


<0.05 


6 


1670 


0.01 


7 


55 


0.3 


2.5 



166 



Sediments - Summer Survey (Continued) 



SITE 


SAR 


TKN 


Mn 


Co 


Cu 


Fe 


Pb 


Cr 


Ni 


Be 




Mg/g 


/^g/g 


Mg/g 


Mg/g 


Mg/g 


Mg/ 
g 


Mg/g 


Mg/ 
g 


A^g/g 


. 


1.14 


2800 


580 


14.5 


35 


32000 


49 


40 


33 


1.5 


2 










24 




26 


40 






3 










33 




37 


49 






4 










29 




31 


43.5 






5 










31 




34 


43 






6 










30 




34 ■ 


40 






7 










35 




85 


45 






8 










51 




40 


44 






9 


0.76 


1910 


430 


10.75 


93.5 


30000 


74.5 


55.5 


54 


1 


10 










77 




86 


95 






10a 










50 




38 


91 






11 










28 




25 


53 






12 










85 




62 


260 






13 










34 




21 


162 






14 










26 




22 


79 






15 


0.83 


290 


960 


■ 19 


47 


58000 


26 


300 


178 


I 


16 










31 




23 


43 






17 










58 




50 


300 






18 










64 




45.5 


265 






19 










115 




41 


107 






19a 










33 




24 


59 






20 










54.5 




40.5 


53 






21 


0.8 


800 


650 


13 


94 


35000 


29 


97 


75 


1 


. 22 










19 




20.5 


22.5 






23 


0.9 


1340 


330 


6.5 


15 


16400 


16 


19 


19.5 


0.5 



167 



Sediments - Summer Survey (Continued) 





SITE 


Mo 


V 


Al 


Mg 


Ba 


Hg 


Ag 


Sb 


TP 


As 


Mg/g 


/^g/g 


Mg/g 


Mg/g 


Mg/g 


Mg/g 


/^g/g 


Mg/g 


/^g/g 


/ig/g 


1 


0.5 


58 


34000 


9400 


139 


0.08 


0.5 


1 


1020 


5 


2 






33000 






0.04 








5 


3 






38000 






0.12 








7 


4 






34000 






0.07 








5 


5 






32000 






0.06 








5 


6 






31000 






0.06 








5 


7 






31000 






0.1 








6 


8 






26000 






0.4 








5 


9 


1.75 


34.5 


17750 


15900 


102.5 


2.22 


0.5 


1 


1005 


5 


10 






34000 






0.18 








11 


10a 






35000 






1.4 








8 


11 






35000 






0.02 








6 


12 






38000 






0.68 








17 


13 






29000 






0.02 








6 


14 






29000 






0.02 








6 


15 


24 


42 


23000 


13900 


118 


0.06 


0.5 


1 


1060 


6 


16 






32000 






0.28 








6 


17 






31000 






0.1 








6 


18 






22000 






0.28 








6.5 


19 






38000 






0.26 








10 


19a 






28000 






0.08 








6 


20 






25000 






0.04 








5.5 


21 


3.5 


43 


26000 


14000 


127 


0.1 


0.5 


1 


1300 


6 


22 






15750 






0.07 








4 


23 


0.5 


27 


12400 


17200 


51 


0.06 


0.5 


1 


620 


3 



168 



Sediments - Fall Survey 



SITE 


PCBs 


Hg 


Zn 


Cd 


CN 


O&G 


/^g/g 


A^g/g 


Mg/g 


/^g/g 


Mg/g 


Mg/g 


1 


<0.05 








<0.05 


960 


n 










0.15 


670 


3 


<0.05 




■ 






1570 


4 












540 


5 


<0.05 




130 


0.4 




720 


6 






112 


0.6 




970 


7 


0.13 


0.36 


177 


0.9 




2700 


8 


0.074 


1.64 


125 


0.6 




1660 


9 


0.11 


3.11 


309 


0.7 




4850 


10 


0.045 


1.3 


310 


0.7 




3600 


10a 




0.14 


142 


0.3 




780 


11 




2 


280 


0.8 




3400 


12 




0.92 


570 


1.5 




11800 


13 




0.04 


99 


0.2 




450 


14 






137 


0.25 




515 


15 


0.051 




192 


0.5 




2000 


16 






187 


0.6 




1320 


17 






210 


0.7 


0.13 


2600 


18 






210 


0.6 


0.15 


2600 


19 






220 


0.7 


0.1 


2700 


19a 


<0.05 










6600 


20 






179 


0.6 


1.67 


1560 


21 


0.142 








0.12 


3550 


22 










<0.05 


1120 


23 


<0.05 










1080 



,69 



Sediments - Fall Survey (Continued) 



SITE 


Mn 


Co 


Cu 


Fe 


Pb 


Cr 


Ni 


As 1 


/^g/g 


Mg/g 


Mg/g 


/^g/g 


Mg/g 


Mg/g 


Mg/g 


Mg/g 1 


5 


850 


15 


31 


38000 


38 


50 


38 




6 


680 


12.5 


34 


32000 


36 


43 


34 




7 


570 


12 


72 


29000 


73 


46 


• 37 


5 


8 


630 


12 


94 


28000 


47 


49 


41 


5 


9 


615 


13.3 


109.5 


35000 


93.5 


188.5 


131 


5 


10 


1210 


38 


168 


118000 


87 


670 


390 


11 


lOa 


810 


16.5 


43 


52000 


38 


149 


98 




11 


740 


18.5 


73 


53000 


63 


250 


166 


4 


12 


730 


23 


105 


70000 


91 


460 


270 


10 


13 


980 


17 


52 


60000 


23 


300 


179 


6 


14 


995 


19 


53.5 


59000 


28.5 


385 


230 


6.5 


15 


940 


18 


66 


54000 


48 


340 


177 


8 


16 


990 


19.5 


71 


63000 


44 


420 


240 


5 


17 


960 


20 


71 


59000 


49 


440 


230 


7 


18 


840 


19 


74 


53000 


49 


380 


210 


5 


19 


840 


19 


116 


54000 


53 


350 


192 


7 


20 


820 


22 


138 


47000 


80 


260 


192 


8 



170