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THE UNIVERSITY 
OF ILLINOIS 
LIBRARY 

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Erecting and Aligning 
Avro Biplanes, 

Type 504. 














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Avro Biplane, Type 504 K. 














Erecting and Aligning 
Avro Biplanes, 

Type 504. 



{Registered Trade Mark.) 


A. V. ROE & CO., LTD., 

Vvl 7 7 

eronautical Engineers. 


NEWTON HEATH. 

MANCHESTER. 

Telephones: 

City 8530 & 8531. 

Telegrams : 

“ Triplane ” 


AIR MINISTRY 


(Established 1909.) 

166, PICCADILLY. 

LONDON, W.l. 

Telephone : 

Gerrard 3186. 

Telegrams : 

“ Senalpirt, Phone.” 

Contractors to 


HAMBLE, 

SOUTHAMPTON. 

Telephone : 

Hamhle 18. 

Telegrams : 

“ Roe, Hamble.” 


& FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS 


The First British-made Aeroplane to Fly. 
Mr. A. V. Roe on AVRO Biplane, June, 1908. 


The First British-made Seaplane to rise 

- from the Sea and Fly. - 

Commander Schwann, R.N., on AVRO Sea¬ 
plane, Barrow-in-Furness, 8th November, 1911. 


Price : TWO SHILLINGS. 

si^PEKce 

3rd. Edition, 1918. (/Post Free). 














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CONTENTS. 


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Page 

Preliminary 

2 

r~ 

STAGE I. 



Aligning Body 

4 


STAGE II. 

Adjusting Carriage 

7 

. 

STAGE III. 



Centre Section Plane 

8 


STAGE IV. 

Assembling Main Planes 

12 


STAGE V. 



Aligning Main Planes 

14 

Q 

STAGE VI. 

Adjusting Tail 

18 

T> 


STAGE VII. 


/ J 

Controlling Organs 

21 

r? 

1 y 

Final Review 

23 . 

[S 

USEFUL TABLES. 

25 

^ » 

Table 1. Comparison of Standard Screw Threads 

26 

vT' 

Table 2. Combination Strengths—Cables, Turnbuckles &c. 

28 


Table 3. Conversion, Millimetres to Inches 

29 


Table 4. Conversion, Feet to Metres, Inches to Millimetres 

31 


Table 5. Lengths of Bracing Cables on Type 504 A. & J. 

33 


Table 6. Lengths of Bracing Cables on Type 504 K. 

35 


Table 7. Lengths of Controlling Cables on Type 504 A. J. 

37 


Table 8. Lengths of Controlling Cables on Type 504 K. 

38 


Table 9. Lengths of Streamline Wires on Type 504 A. J. 

39 


Table 10. Lengths of Streamline Wires on Type 504 K. ... 

40 


2 4 630 

































VII. 


ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Type 504 K Avro Biplane.—T hree-quarter Front View. 

Frontispiece 

Views of Old Type Avro Aeroplanes— to follow page xi. 

Page 

Type 504 Avro Biplane.—P lan, Side and Front Views .. 1 

Diagrams illustrating Aligning of Body . . .. .. 3 

Diagrams illustrating Adjustment of Carriage . . .. 6 

Diagrams illustrating Aligning of Centre Section Plane. . 9 

Diagrams illustrating Assembling of Main Planes. . .. 11 

Diagrams illustrating Stagger, Wash-in and Squaring of 

Wings with Body . . . . . . . . . . 13 

Diagrams illustrating Aligning of Main Planes . . .. 15 

Diagrams illustrating Adjustment of Tail. . .. .. 17 

Diagrams illustrating Erecting of Controls and Controlling 

Cables .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 & 22 

Avro Biplane Types 504 A. & J.—Three-quarter Rear 

View, showing Bracing and Controlling Cables . . 34 

Avro Biplane Type 504 K.—Three-quarter Rear View, 

showing Bracing and Controlling Cables . . . . 36 

Section of Streamline Wire, Lug, and Trunnion .. 39 & 40 











































■ 




























IX. 


PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 

This booklet has been produced with a view to instructing our 
clients in the erecting and aligning of Avro Biplanes, Type 504. 
The method described is that which is in use in our workshops and 
which we have found to be the most satisfactory. 

As far as possible, all redundant matter has been eliminated ; 
the description of the methods employed have, however, been given 
in detail. 

Ease of reference has been kept in view throughout; accordingly 
the book has been divided into seven stages, each stage being taken 
in its order. These stages are each divided into sections describing 
the adjustment of the machine in Front View, Side View, and Plan 
View; and each section again subdivided under Enunciation, 
Method, Check, and Appliances. 

Under Enunciation, the required adjustment is stated. 

Under Method, the method of obtaining this adjustment is given. 

Under Check, a suitable measurement is given, when possible, 
to be used as a check on the true adjustment. 

Under Appliances, is a description of any appliances required 
when aligning the machine. 

Although this handbook has been specially prepared for Avro 
Biplanes, and the dimensions given apply only to these machines, 
the method described is suitable for erecting and aligning any 
Tractor Biplane of a similar type. 

We hope, therefore, that in this little book our clients will have 
a manual which they will find useful to retain for reference. 

A. V. ROE & CO., LTD. 


Manchester, 

December, 1915. 


X. 


PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. 

A new edition of this little book has become necessary because of 
the exhaustion of the second edition much sooner than we had 
expected. That is very gratifying, and the gratification is the 
greater because of the world-wide sources from which applications 
for copies come to us. 

Unfortunately the production of printed matter is difficult at 
the present time, and its preparation in the rush of war-time supply 
is also a matter of some difficulty and delay. 

The revision for this edition has necessarily been considerable, 
as since the previous one was printed a modification in the machine 
has led to the production of a new type which has entailed much new 
matter and some new drawings. 

Reference to the development of the design leads us to mention a 
point from which we admit the enjoyment of some little satisfaction. 

While for five years we have been steadily and steadfastly 
improving both design and manufacture wherever possible, we are 
able to claim that the machine which we are producing to-day as the 
standard training machine for the British Flying Forces is substan¬ 
tially that which we developed in 1913 . We believe further that it 
is held in greater esteem to-day than it has ever been, because it is 
better known and has proved its value. The immediate success in 
1913 and the continued and increased success since are alike due to 
the fact that the design embraces correct principles correctly 
applied. 

The exigencies of the greatest war the world has known have 
required the restrictions of our whole product to the standard 
machine, which is the subject of this book. In view, however, of the 
approaching end of the devastation, it may be opportune to refer to 
the research and designing that has been carried out in our experi¬ 
mental department in preparation for the developments in the 
beneficial uses of aeroplanes that will take the place of the 
destructive abasement to which they have been condemned since 


XI. 


August, 1914 . The war found the country unprepared ; that was 
not the fault of the few pioneers in aircraft, of whom we were 
among the first. It is a lasting source of gratification to us that we 
were able to deliver machines in the early days of the fighting, and 
that those machines were able to carry destruction to the enemy’s 
airship sheds at Friedrichshaven and to their airships in flight. 

We hope that we shall be found equally ready for the successful 
solving of the problems of civil enterprise, and that the thousands 
of young men who have learned to fly on “ Avro ” machines may 
find useful employment for their knowledge and skill in the conduct 
of the peaceful traffic of the air in machines from the same source. 

We are not able yet to disclose the particulars of recent designs, 
but we think the illustrations that follow may not be without 
interest to flight experts as reminiscent of the early days of thwarted 
endeavour. 

The glossary of technical aeronautical terms included in our 
Second Edition has now been omitted as being unnecessary. 


Erecting and Aligning Avro Biplanes, Type 504. 

First Edition—December, 19x5. 

Second Edition—May, 1917. 

Third Edition—October, 1918. 


COPYRIGHT. 

Entered at Stationers’ Hall. 





AVRO MONOPLANE. 1912 TYPE. 

The First Totally Enclosed Aeroplane to fly in the World. 



















hrs. 31J min. (Equal to 450 miles in those days.) 






The above photo, of a 100 h.f. Avro Waterplane was taken on the shore at Brighton after the acceptance 

tests—-"June 1913. 
























The above photograph is of the original machine on which Wing-Commander E. F. Briggs, D.S.O., raided the 

Zeppelin Sheds at Friedrichafen, on November 21st, 1914. 















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2 


ERECTING AND ALIGNING. 

AVRO BIPLANES. 

PRELIMINARY. 

/. By “ left ” and “ right ” is meant the pilot's left or right 
when facing the direction of flight. 

2. Before commencing to align the machine, the body should 
be packed up at the after end until the front 6 ft. length (i.e., 
portion AB, Fig. 4) of the top body rail is horizontal. This align¬ 
ment may be tested by means of a spirit level on the top rail of the 
front box of the body. 

N.B .—The front tank cover will have to be removed 
to permit of the use of the spirit level in this manner. 

3. A thin straightedge should be placed transversely across 
the body, at the fore end, immediately in front of the tanks and 
the body adjusted until the straightedge is perfectly horizontal in 
front view. 

A suitable straightedge is shown in Fig. 2. 

4. When erecting, it is advisable to take the weight of the 
machine on a trestle placed under the body immediately behind 
the front carriage “V” struts and not on the wheels, as the spring¬ 
ing device renders it difficult, when working on the machine, to 
maintain the lateral horizontally. 


3 


1 





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4 


STAGE I. 

ALIGNING BODY. 

Body Unassembled. 

5. If the body is not assembled, the best method of aligning 
is to lay the sides, after assembling, on a bench and true them up 
as described in Paragraph 7. The two sides are then connected by 
the horizontal struts and stay wires and the tuning effected as 
described in Paragraphs 11 to 14. The body is finally squared up 
in front view, as described in Paragraph 6. 


Body Already Assembled. 

If, however, the truing up is being effected after the body is 
assembled, the best method is to true it up in the order given 
below: — 

Front View (Fig. 3). 

6. Enunciation .—The body, as shown in this view, should be 
rectangular at any section in its length. Adjustments can be made 
by the cross bracing wires F and F v which should be of equal 
length in each box. The lengths taken for purposes of this com¬ 
parison should be the distances between the centres of the holes in 
the bracing plates. 

Side View (Fig. 4). 

7. Enunciation .—From the front body struts A to the strut B 
the top body rail is parallel to the centre-line of the engine, i.e. 
horizontal; after this the top and bottom body rails are sym¬ 
metrical on either side of a line E, parallel to the centre-line of the 
engine and Sin. below it (i.e., after strut B the cross bracing wire, 
are of equal length). 

8. The tubular stern-post should be perfectly vertical when 
the front 6ft. length of the top body rail is horizontal. 


5 


STAGE I.— Continued. 

9. Method .—The latter adjustment may be obtained by means 
of a plumb-line, which might be tested against the inside of the 
tubular stern-post. 

10. Check .—A thin cord when stretched from the centre of 
strut B to the centre of the stern-post should cut all the vertical 
body struts at their centres and the vertical bracing wires where 
they cross. 

Plan View {Fig- 0). 

11. Enunciation .—In plan, the body is perfectly symmetrical 
for the whole of its length. 

12. Method .—Set a straightedge across the front body struts 
A and mark off points X on the straightedge, equi-distant from the 
centre-line of the body. From these points take measurements to 
the centre of the tubular stern-post (the hole in the stern-post 
should be plugged and the centre marked on the plug) and adjust 
the horizontal bracing wires until the dimensions D and D Y on 
either side are equal. 

13. A straight round bar is placed through the tubular tail 
socket at the rear of the body and points Y marked off equi-distant 
from the centre-line of the body. The distances G and G l on each 
side of the body should then be equal. Any adjustments may be 
made by means of the horizontal cross bracing wires. 

14. One end of a thin cord is attached to the centre of strut C, 
at the bottom of the body ; the other end is passed over the centre 
of the tubular stern-post. The horizontal cross bracing, both top 
and bottom of the body, is then adjusted until the centres of the 
horizontal struts come vertically above this cord. In the case of 
the top strut, to ensure this adjustment being correct, a plumb-line 
(see Fig. 3) should be dropped from the centre of the struts to the 
cord. 


6 



Fig 6. 



Fig 7 



































































































7 


STAGE II. 

ADJUSTING CARRIAGE. 

Side View {Fig. 6). 

15. Enunciation .—When in the correct position the front 
face of the rear “ V ” strut should be vertical in side view on all 
except the 504 K. type, which has the rear “ V ” stmt swung 
backwards about 2°. 

16. Method. This adjustment is gauged by a plumb-line, 
which is dropped from the side of the body, the strut being adjusted 
until its front face is parallel to the line, except for the 504 K. type 
which has an angle of 2° as described above. 

17. The Main Skid has a forward and downward tilt of about 
2° on all Type 504 Biplanes, except the 504 K. on which the tilt 
is about 34°. It is governed by the lengths of the carriage “ V ” 
struts and the loading and drift cables. 

18. The sprung struts, in side view, are inclined forward at 
an angle of 3°. The actual slope is determined by the length of the 
front towing cables H. 

Plan View (Fig. 7). 

19. Enunciation .—The main skid is central with the body, 
and parallel to the line of flight. The axle is square with the centre 
line of the body and the wheels are equi-distant from the main skid. 

20. Method .—The axle is adjusted by means of turnbuckles 
on the rear towing cables. These should be adjusted until the 
distances G and G x are equal. The cables should be moderately 
tight. 

If the front towing cables H and H 1 are of equal length, the 
axle should now be square with the centre-line of the body. 

21. Check .—Stretch a thin cord from the centre of the base¬ 
plate of the back “ V ” strut to the centre of the baseplate of the 
front “ V ” strut. Test the axle with a large try-square against 
this cord. 

N.B. —If it is found necessary to fit new front towing cables 11, 
care should be taken that they are of exactly the same length as 
those originally fitted. (Length—including shackle if fitted— 
4ft. OJin. thimble to thimble or to eye of shackle on all except the 
Type 504 K. machines on which the length is 3ft. 9-Jin., this allows 
for Jin. stretch when cables are tightened up.) 


8 


STAGE III. 

CENTRE SECTION PLANE. 

Front View (Fig. 8). 

22. Enunciation .—When placed in position both main spars 
should be perfectly horizontal, i.e., parallel to the top of the body, 
and the centre-line of each strut should be perfectly vertical. 

23. Method.— The struts should be hammered well home in 
their sockets—both top and bottom—by means of a wooden mallet. 
Measurements are then made (at the centre of both front and back 
spars) of the distance between the underside of the plane and the 
top body rail. The corresponding measurements at each side of the 
machine should be equal. If any disagreement is observed, this 
will be due either to the struts being too long or to their not being 
right home in the sockets. 

24. The diagonal distances / and J 1 between the gauge points 
on the front of the strut sockets are then measured and the cross¬ 
bracing cables adjusted until these distances are equal. This 
measurement should be tried on the rear struts after the outside 
sections of the planes have been fixed in position. It can then, if 
necessary, be adjusted by the weight wires in the inside boxes of 
the planes. Before finally tightening these wires the plane should 
be tested to ascertain that the angle of incidence is approximately 
correct (vide Paragraph 29). 

25. Check.—The straightedge, as shown in Fig. 8, is placed on 
the top of the front and back spars, in turn, and by means of a 
spirit level, it is ascertained that the spars are horizontal, i.e., 
parallel to the top of the body. 

26. Appliances. —A suitable gauge for checking the height 
of the centre section and for squaring-up the centre section box, 
as described in Paragraph 24, is shown in Fig. 9 and consists of 
two bars of wood, K and F, which are held together by clips N. 
Through the outside end of each of these bars a pointed rod M is 
fixed. The clips are rigidly attached, one to bar K and one to 
bar L, and are so arranged that the bars are free to slide, thus 
making the distance A" between the two pointed rods M, variable. 


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10 


STAGE 111.— Continued . 


Side View {Fig. 10). 

27. Enunciation. —The front struts should be vertical. The 
angle of incidence of the plane is 4°. The stagger of the plane is 2ft. 

28. Method. — Stagger : A plumb-line is suspended from 
the gauge point in the top front strut socket and the cross bracing 
wires P and 0 are adjusted until this gauge point is vertically above 
the gauge point in the bottom front strut socket. When these 
points are in line, the distance Z between the plumb-line and the 
centre-line of the bottom plane front joint-plate should be 2ft. 
Should this measurement be incorrect, the correct stagger must 
be obtained at the expense of verticality of the centre section struts. 

29. Angle of Incidence.— -This should be tested as follows:— 
Taking measurements on the underside of the plane, the bottom 
face of the front spar (at its centre) should be *l£in. higher than 
the bottom face of the back spar (at its centre) for machines of 
Classes 504 b, c, e, f, and g; and *l|in. higher for machines of 
Classes 504 a, d, j, and k. If the angle of incidence is not correct, 
adjustments will have to be made either by shortening the centre 
section struts or placing thin pieces of packing in the sockets. As 
a rule, however, when the struts are supplied by the makers, they 

j 

will be correct in length and the trouble will be due to their not 
being right home in the sockets. 

30. Appliances.— The incidence gauge- as shown in Fig. 12 
consists of a rectangular piece of wood S, upon which two points, 2 ft. 
apart, have been marked off—this being the distance between the 
front and back spars (centre to centre). At each of these points a 
rod T is fixed in the wooden bar, the front one being adjustable. 
The front rod is then adjusted to suit the particular class of 
machine for which it is required, so that the difference between the 
heights of the front and back rods corresponds with the dimensions 
given in Paragraphs 29 or 37, according to requirements. 

* These measurements should be taken between the ribs and the fabric 
must be tightly pressed against the spar. 



11 


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Rear. Spar 



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X = y j fcp Classes 504 , 504 b S SC 4 c . 


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H/TH wash- in or £ 
rot Classes 504 , 504 6 1504 c 


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12 


STAGE III.— Continued. 

> 

Assuming the machine to have been packed up until the front 
6ft. length of the body is horizontal, the gauge is then used as 
shown in Fig. 11. 

Plan View {Fig. 1). 

31. Enunciation .—When the centre section has been trued-up 
in the manner described above, the leading edge should be square 
with the centre-line of the body. 


STAGE IV. 

ASSEMBLING MAIN PLANES. 

Fig. 13. 

32. Enunciation .—The planes are first assembled on a level 
ground, with their leading edges on the ground. The gap between 
the planes is 5ft. 6in. (centre to centre of leading or trailing edges). 
The cables are connected up, but not tightened more than sufficient 
to hold the planes together. The planes are then lifted bodily and 
fixed in position on the body. 

33. Appliances. —A spike, as shown in Fig. 14, will be found 
very useful when mounting the planes, for purposes of locating the 
bolt holes, before the bolts are inserted in the joint plates, at the 
joint of the planes to the centre section of the body. This will tend 
to prevent the necessity of having to hammer the bolts through 
the plates and thus burring the threads. The top planes are bolted 
first, commencing with the front joint. 



13 




OUTLQ 


Strut Socket % 

Fig. 17 . 










































14 


STAGE V. 

ALIGNING MAIN PLANES. 

PRELIMINARY. 

34. The planes, after being fitted to the body, are roughly 
trued-up for dihedral and incidence. A long level should be placed 

4 

on the ground under the front spar of the bottom plane and measure¬ 
ments taken from the face of the level to the underside of the front 
spar at equal distances on either side of the machine (near the outer 
strut for preference). These measurements should be made equal 
before proceeding with the aligning of the wings. 

Angle of Incidence (Fig. 11). 

35. Enunciation .—The angle of incidence is 1° (centre of 
leading edge to centre of trailing edge) but it is set by the plane 
joint plates on the body and centre section. 

36. To counteract airscrew torque the left-hand wings are 
adjusted with a wash-in of Jin. (Fig. 15) at the trailing edge, 
opposite the outer strut. 

37. Method. —See Paragraph 29. 

38. On the left-hand wings, at the outer struts, the measure¬ 
ments given in the above paragraph are increased to 2gjin. and 
l||in. respectively to allow for the wash-in. 

39. Special Note. —This adjustment of the wash-in should 
not be made until the planes have been completely trued-up as 
described hereafter, owing to it slightly affecting the position of the 
leading edges, which are taken as the base of the aligning measure¬ 
ments. 

40. Appliances .—See Paragraph 30. 

N.B. —When adjusting the main planes, the incidence, 
stagger, and dihedral will have to be constantly checked, one 
against the other, for an alteration to one may affect the adjustment 
of the others. 

Stagger (Fig. 15). 

41. Enunciation.— The leading edge of the upper plane should 

\ 

project 2ft. in front of the leading edge of the lower plane throughout 
the whole length and is set by the centre section. 


15 



Fig. 13. 








































































16 


STAGE V.— Continued. 

42. Method. —This measurement is made by suspending a 
plumb-line from the leading edge on the upper plane and measur¬ 
ing the distance from the line to the leading edge of the lower 
plane. Any variation is taken by the cross bracing cables P and 0, 
front strut to rear strut. 

Squaring with Body {Fig. 76). 

43. Enunciation. —In plan view, the leading edges must be 

e 

square with the centre-line of the body. 

44. Method. —Adjustment measurements are taken on both 
top and bottom planes from the centre of the front bolt of the outer 
strut socket (shown in Fig. 17) to the nose of the engine and to the 
top of the rudder post.* 

If the planes are square, these dimensions will be equal on either 
side of the machine. If the planes are not square, they may be 
corrected by the bracing cables from the carriage. 

Dihedral (Fig. 18). 

45. Enunciation. —The dihedral angle on the planes is 2|°. 

46. Method. —On the leading edges of each plane are two small 
oval aluminium plates (A, B, C, and D) each with a hole in its 
centre : these are used as gauge points. To obtain the correct 
dihedral angle the planes should be adjusted so that the diagonal 
distance between the plates A and C and plates B and D is 8ft. 3§in. 
in each case. 

47. These adjustments should be made by means of the weight 
cables, commencing at the inner cellule ; the front spar cables being 
braced first and the rear cables second. 

48. Check.- —Stretch a string, V, across the top of the front 
spars of the upper plane from tip to tip (the back spar is affected by 
the wash-in, vide Paragraph 38) and the measurement from the 
string to the top of the centre-section spar should be Sin. 

* Or any other suitable point, such as the centre of any horizontal strut 
in the body. 




17 



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18 


STAGE V.— Continued. 

49. N.B.-—The fabric should be pressed tightly against the 
spar, and the measurement taken from the spar itself. 

50. Appliances.- —A suitable gauge for use when obtaining 
this adjustment is shown in Fig. 19, and consists of a bar of wood W 
into which two pointed rods Z have been fixed, at a distance of 
8ft. 3|in. apart. 

51. General. —After the incidence, stagger and dihedral have 
been fixed, the various measurements should be run over again to 
ensure that none have been altered. It should also be noted that 
in truing-up the planes no tension should be put on the lift wires, 
the aligning being effected by the weight wires. 


STAGE VI. 

ADJUSTING TAIL. 

Plan View {Fig. 20). 

52. Enunciation. —The leading edges of the wing are set square 
with the centre-line of the machine. 

53. Check.- —Measurements are taken from the outside of the 
rear spar to the front bolt on the outer strut socket of the main 
planes on either side of the machine ; the measurements on both 
sides should be equal. 

Front View {Figs. 1 and 20). 

54. Enunciation. —The wings are horizontal; the tail, as a 
whole, should not be twisted in relation to the main planes. 

55. Method. —A level placed horizontally on the back spar or 
leading edge should show a zero reading if the tail is in its proper 
position. For the purpose of adjusting the tail, the tail stay rods 
are made with telescopic ends drilled with holes on the “ Vernier ” 
principle {Fig. 21). This enables small adjustments of the tail to 
be made. When a stay rod has been adjusted to the correct length, 



19 


STAGE VI.— Continued. 

one^bolt is inserted through a suitable hole, to lock the telescopic 
ends in the required position. This only applies to Unless machines. 

Where fins are fitted the adjustment is made with the bracing 
cables from the tail to the fin and to the underside of the body. 

Side View (Fig. 22). 

56. Enunciation .—The tail planes are set parallel to the 
top body rail at the rear end on all except the 504 K. type of 
machine. On the latter special provision is made for setting the 
tail according to the weight of engine fitted. 

57. N.B.—Although normally the tail is parallel to the top 
body rail, peculiarities of the machine, or special requirements in the 
way of weight carrying, may necessitate an alteration in the angle 
of the tail. 

58. Method .—The tail angle may be adjusted by raising or 
lowering the rear tail-spar, which, at its inside end, is bolted to the 
wooden stern-post /. 

The upper portion of the stern-post has been specially left 
thick, in order that new bolt holes may be drilled for this purpose. 
The method, therefore, of altering the angle of the tail is to remove 
the bolts holding the fixing bracket of the rear tail spar, and drill new 
holes for the bracket, at the same time adjusting the rear tail stay 
rods. 

Tail and Tail Fin (Navy Machines only, Fig. 23). 

59. Enunciation .—On machines fitted with the tail fin, steel 
stay wires are used for the double purpose of securing the fin and 
supporting the weight of the tail. In addition, the tail stay rods 
are replaced by wires. However, excepting the adjustment of the 
tail stay rods, the method of adjusting the tail is exactly the same 
as described in Paragraph 55. The tail fin should be perpendicular 
and, in plan view, parallel to the line of flight. 


20 




Fig 32. 










































































































































21 


STAGE VII. 

CONTROLLING ORGANS. 

Rudder (Fig. 20). 

60. Enunciation.- —The rudder is parallel to the line of flight 
when the rudder bar is square with the centre-line of the machine. 

61. Method.- —The rudder bar should be clamped to some 
fixed member of the body, in the required position. The rudder 
may then be sighted from the pilot’s seat and held by an assistant 
in position (parallel to the line of flight) while the control cables are 
connected. A good method for holding the rudder-bar in a central 
position is to insert two small pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 24 
between the front rudder bar and seat bearing cross strut, one on 
either side. 

Elevators {Figs. 22 and 23). 

62. Enunciation. —-When the elevating flaps are in the neutral 
position (i.e., in line with the tail wings) the centres at the top of the 
control levers should be set lin. forward of the vertical. The 
Control Levers are given the maximum amount of fore and aft 
movement, but a Check Wire is so fitted as to stop the front Control 
Lever just clear of the Petrol Tank. 

63. Method. —In order to effect this adjustment the control 
lever is fixed in the required position by means of a bar of wood K 
placed transversely across the body and resting against the struts B 
{Fig. 25). The elevators are then set with a slight upward tilt, and 
in this position the wires are coupled up. With this adjustment it 
will be found that the elevators drop naturally to their neutral 
position as soon as the weight is taken by the control cables. This 
is due to slight unavoidable stretch in the cables and slack in their 
connections. 

Balancers (Figs. 26 and 27). 

64. Enunciation. —The balancing flaps, both right and left 
hand, should be in line with the trailing edges of the wings (i.e., in 
the neutral position) when the control lever is vertical, in front - view, 


22 




Woooen Clamps 



Fig. 27 































































































































‘23 


STAGE VII.— Continued. 

65. Method .—To effect this, the control lever is fixed in 
exactly the same manner as described in Paragraph 63 and shown 
in Fig. 25. 

The top control cables are first connected with the top balancing 
flap, slightly raised, and the interflap cables are next connected with 
the lower flaps having a similar upward set. The remaining con¬ 
trol cables are then coupled up to the quadrant, as shown in Fig. 32, 
and when the slack in the cables is taken up the balancing flaps 
should be in the normal position. 


FINAL REVIEW. 

66. When the aligning of the machine has been completed, it 
should be carefully checked at all points and note should be taken 
that all turnbuckles are locked and that they have a secure hold on 
the barrels. (The turnbuckles are considered to have a secure hold 
when all threads are buried in the barrels.) The cables should be 
braced just moderately tight. 

It should be especially noted that all turnbuckles on the control 
cables are locked. 

67. All bolts on the machine, with the exception of the plane 
joint bolts and tail plane adjusting bolts, should be riveted over. 

68. Care should be taken that the split pins in the plane 
joints (i.e., the bolts where the bottom wings are joined to the body 
and the top wings to the centre section) are opened. 


Note. —AH instructions and dimensions in the preceding pages are 
given on the assumption that the machine is set in the 
position described in Paragraphs 1, 2, 3, and 4. 




















- 

























































USEFUL TABLES. 


26 


Table I. 

COMPARISON TABLE 
OF 

STANDARD SCREW THREADS FOR BOLTS AND EYEBOLTS. 

(As used in Aircrajt Construction.) 


STANDARDS 

British Association (B.A.). 

British Standard Fine (B.S.F.). 


International Standard (I.S.).. (Metric System). 
Whitworth Standard (W.S.). 



STANDARD 




DIMENSIONS 













f Breaking load 














Full Diameter 

No. of 
Threads 

Core 

Diameter 

Cross 

Sectional 

in lbs. with steel 
to specification 

BA. 

BSF. 

IS. 

WS. 

Fract’n 

Decim. 


Area at 
bottom of 




per inch 

(ins.) 







of inch 

of inch 

mm. 

thread 
(sq. ins.) 

RAF. 3a 

RAF.Id 






i " 

16 

1 

16 

•0625 

1-5875 

60-00 

•0412 

•001333 

104 

164 

10 



*/ 

•0670 

1-7017 

72-60 

•0504 

•001995 

156 

246 

9 




*6 

•0750 

1•9050 

65-10 

•0565 

•002507 

196 

309 




5 " 
B¥ 

5 

B¥ 

•0781 

1-9843 

56-00 

•0553 

• 002401 

189 

296 

8 




3 h 

•0870 

2-2098 

59-10 

•0657 

•003390 

266 

418 




3 " 
32 

3 

32 

•0937 

2-3799 

48-00 

•0671 

•003536 

277 

436 

7 



. &/ 

•0980 

2-4892 

52-90 

•0753 

• 004453 

349 

548 




7" 

B¥ 

B¥ 

•1094 

2-7781 

48-00 

•0827 

• 005372 

421 

662 

6 



B¥ 

•1100 

2-7940 

47-90 

•0849 

•005661 

444 

698 



3 mm. 



•1181 

3-0000 

46-19 

•0899 

• 006348 

498 

782 




1" 

8 

1 

8 

•1250 

3-1749 

40-00 

•0930 

•006793 

532 

836 

5 



*/ 

•1260 

3-2003 

43-00 

•0981 

•007558 

592 

• 

931 



3-5 mm. 



•1378 

3-5000 

46-19 

•1097 

• 009452 

741 

1163 




9 " 
B¥ 

B°¥ 

•1406 

3-5718 

40-00 

• 1086 

• 009263 

726 

1141 

4 



*/ 

•1420 

3-6067 

38-50 

•1108 

•009642 

756 

1188 




5 " 
32 

5 

32 

•1562 

3-9674 

32-00 

•1162 

•010605 

821 

1306 



4 mm. 

A/ 

•1575 

4-0000 

36-28 

•1217 

•011633 

i 900 

1433 

3 




4/ 

•1610 

4-0893 

34-80 

•1266 

•012588 

975 

1551 




w 

II 

•1719 

4-3655 

32-00 

•1319 

•013664 

1071 

1683 



4 • 5 mm. 

ii f 
B¥ J 

•1772 

4-5000 

36-28 

•1414 

•015739 

1234 

1939 

2 




3 L 

16 u 

•1850 

4-6989 

31-40 

•1467 

•016903 

1325 

2082 




3 " 

16 

3 

16 

•1875 

4-7624 

24-00 

• 1342 

•014145 

1109 

1743 



5 mm. 


B1 

•1968 

5-0000 

29-88 

•1534 

•018482 

1449 

2277 




13" 

ST 

•2031 

5-1593 

24-00 

• 1498 

•017624 

1381 

2171 

1 



11/ 

•2090 

5-3085 

28-20 

• 1665 

•021773 

1706 

2682 


/— full. b — bare. 































































27 


Table I,— Continued . 


COMPARISON TABLE 
OF 

STANDARD SCREW THREADS FOR BOLTS AND EYEBOLTS, 

(.- 1-9 used in Aircraft Construction,) 


STANDARDS. 

British Association (B.A.). 

British Standard Fine (B.S.F.). 


International Standard (I.S.).. (Metric System). 
Whitworth Standard (W.S.). 


STANDARD 

DIMENSIONS 

Breaking load 
in lbs. with steel 
to specification 





Full Diameter 

No. of 
Threads 

Core 

Diameter 

Cross 

Sectional 

BA. 

BSF. 

IS. 

WS. 

Fract’n 
of inch 

Decim. 
of inch 


Area at 
bottom of 
thread 
(sq. ins.) 







mm. 

per inch 

(ins.) 

RAF. 3 a 

RAF.Id 




7 " 
32 

7 

32 

•2187 

5-5549 

24-00 

•1654 

•021486 

1685 

2647 




15" 

BT 

u 

•2344 

5-9530 

24-00 

•1811 

•025761 

2020 

3174 

0 



if / 

•2360 

5-9943 

25-40 

•1887 

•027966 

2192 

3545 



G mm. 


15 f 
Bi/ 

•2362 

6-0000 

24-40 

•1859 

•027142 

2128 

3344 




i" 

4 

1 

4 

•2500 

6-3499 

20-00 

• 1860 

•027172 

2130 

3348 


l" 

4 



1 

4. 

•2500 

6-3499 

26-00 

•2007 

•031636 

2480 

3898 




w 

u 

•2656 

6-7468 

20-00 

•2016 

•031921 

2503 

3933 



7 mm. 


32 u 

•2756 

7-0000 

25-40 

•2244 

•039549 

3101 

4872 




9 " 
32 

9 

32 

•28125 

7-1436 

20-00 

•2172 

•037052 

2905 

4565 


9 " 
32 


9 

32 

•28125 

7-1436 

26-00 

•2320 

•042273 

3314 

5208 




5 " 

16 

5 

16 

•3125 

7-9374 

18-00 

•2414 

• 045980 

3605 

5665 


5 " 
16 


5 

16 

•3125 

7•9374 

22-00 

•2543 

•050791 

3982 

6257 


8 mm. 


*/ 

•3150 

8-0000 

20-32 

•2510 

•049480 

3880 

6096 



9 mm. 


II b 

•3543 

9-0000 

20-32 

•2904 

•066235 

5193 

8160 




3" 

8 

3 

8 

•3750 

9-5248 

16-00 

•2950 

•068350 

5359 

8421 


3" 

8 



3 

8 

•3750 

9-5248 

20-00 

•3110 

•075965 

5956 

9359 



10 mm. 


25 f 

bt/ 

•3937 

10-0000 

16-94 

•3170 

•078924 

6188 

9723 



11 mm. 



•4331 

11-0000 

16-94 

•3563 

•099706 

7817 

12284 




7 » 
16 

TB 

•4375 

11-1123 

14-00 

•3460 

•094025 

7372 

11584 


7 " 
16 


7 

16 

•4375 

11-1123 

18-00 

•3664 

• 105439 

8266 

12990 



12 mm. 


15 f 
32 J 

•4724 

12-0000 

14-51 

•3829 

•115150 

9028 

14186 




1" 

2 

1 

o 

•5000 

12-6990 

12-00 

•3933 

• 121493 

9525 

14968 


1" 

2 



1 

2 

•5000 

12•6990 

16-00 

•4200 

• 138544 

1C861 

17069 


f — full. b—b are. 














































































COMBINATION STRENGTHS OF CABLES AND TURNBUCKLES 
AND LIST OF SUITABLE STREAMLINE WIRES. 

CABLES. TURNBUCKLES. 

These cables must be to Air Board Specn. “AVRO” Type 

2.W.2. Nov. 1917. “ A.G.S.” Type 


This table has been compiled with the object of showing what sizes of Turnbuckles are suitable for different 
strengths of Cables. 4 he maximum strength of the combination has been given in every case. 

The suitable stream-line wire, which may be substituted for any Cable, is also given opposite that particular 
c a. dig. 

Example It is required to find what Turnbuckle is suitable for Cable No. 3 —Consulting column No. 7 th 
strength given is 1,904 lbs. The Turnbuckle required of the “ Avro ” type nearest in strength is IB A 
m this case the strength of the combination is 1,904 lbs. If an A.G.S. Turnbuckle is desired, N 0/492 
is the most suitable ; this gives a combination strength of 1,900 lbs. 

Conversely, when the desired strength of the combination is known, and it is required to ascertaii 
what Cable and Turnbuckle should be used, the combination strength will be found and the 
corresponding sizes of Cable and Turnbuckle are given opposite this strength in their respective columns. 


CABLE 

TURNBUCKLE 

(fj 

Q 

STREAMLINE 

WIRES 

Item 

1 

Max. 

Dia. 

Ins. 

Con¬ 

struction 

Weight of 100ft- 
lbs. 

Min. breaking 
strength cwts. 

85% of 
Breaking 
Strength lbs. 

AVRO 

A.G.S. 

AVRO & 
A.G.S. 

Strength of 

Combination 11 

No. of 
Strands 

No. of 
Wires 

Ref. 

Strength 

lbs. 

CD 

Strength 

lbs. 

Dia. of 

Pin. 

Width of 

Slot in Fork 

Size 

A.G.S. 

No. 

Breaking 

Strength 

I*-? 

Ext 

0 

ra FI 

•075 

exibh 

4 

t__ 

1 7 

1 

5 

476 

4BA 

864 

490 

600 

5 " 
32 

•08" 

476 

4BA 

; 536 

1050 

1 

2 

•115 

4 

19 

2 

10 

952 

3BA 

1114 

491 

1050 

5 " 
32 

•1" 

952 

1 

4BA 

536 

1050 

•137 

4 

19 

3-2 

15 

1428 

2BA 

1514 

492 

1900 

3 " 
16 

•15" 

1428 

2BA 

537 

icoo 

3 

•150 

7 

19 

3-8 

20 

1904 

1BA 

1950 

492 

1900 

3 " 
16 

•15" 

1904 

1900 

2 BA 

537 

1900 

51 

•168 

7 

19 

5 

25 

2380 

i"BSF 2834 

493 

3450 

1 " 

4 

•2" 

2380 

A "BSF 

538 

2600 

52 

•195 

99 

99 

6-4 

35 

3332 

4"bsf 

3787 

493 

3450 

1 " 
4 

•2" 

3332 

i"BSF 

539 

3450 

53 

•228 

99 

99 

9 

45 

4284 



494 

4650 

9 " 
32 

•2" 

4284 

A "bsf 

540 

4650 

54 

•262 

99 

99 

11-7 

60 

5712 



495 

5700 

11 " 
32 

•25" 

5700 

^"BSF 

541 

5700 

55 

•270 

99 

99 

12-4 

70 

6664 



496 

7150 

11 " 
32 

•25" 

6664 

M"bsf 

542 

7150 

56 

•305 

99 

. » 

15-1 

80 

7616 



497 

8500 

13 " 
32 

•3" 

7616 

f "BSF 

543 

8500 

57 

•349 

99 

99 

19-6 

100 

9520 



498 

10250 

7 " 
16 

•34" 

9520 

w bsf 

544 

10250 

58 

•378 

99 

27 

22-5 

120 

11424 











59 

•388 

99 

99 

25-5 

140 

13328 











60 

Stax 

41 

-.418 

99 

37 

28-9 

160 

15232 











idard Strai 

•085 1 

-ling 

19 

Cord 

1-6 

10 

952 

3BA 

1114 

491 

1050 

5 " 
32 

•1 

952 

4BA 

536 

1050 

42 

•105 

99 

99 

2-3 

15 

1428 

2BA 

1514 

492 

1900 

3 " 
16 

•15 

1428 

2BA 

537 

1900 

43 

•125 

99 

99- 

3-4 

20 

1904 

1BA 

1950 

492 

1900 

3 " 
16 

•15 

1904 

2BA 

537 

1900 

44 

•143 

99 

99 

4-3 

25 

2380 

i"BSF 

2834 

493 

3450 

1 " 

4 

•2 

2380 

A "BSF 

538 

2600 

45 

•161 

99 

37 

5-5 

35 

3332 

& "bsf 

3787 

493 

3450 

1 " 

4 

•2 

3332 

5 "BSF 

539 

3450 

46 

•189 

99 

99 

7-5 

45 

4284 



494 

4650 

9 " 
32 

•2 

4284 

A "BSF 

540 

4650 

47 

•210 

99 

99 

9-3 

60 

5712 



495 

5700 

11 " 
32 

•25 

5700 

*"BSF 

541 

5700 

48 

•238 

99 

99 

11-9 

75 

7140 



497 

8500 

13 " 
32, 

•3 

7140 

"BSF 

542 

7150 

49 

•259 

•99 

99 

14-1 

90 

8568 



498 

10250 

7 " 
TS 

•34 

8568 

3 " 

8 

l/'BSF 

543 
or 

544 

8500 

10250 







































































































































































































































29 


Table III. 


CONVERSION TABLES. 


Millimetres to Inches. 


Inches and Fractions to Decimals . 
(To the nearest kk inch.) 


Millimetres 

Inches 

c f) 

0 

U 

-4— > 

0 

<—< 

Inches 

C/3 

0 

U 

0 

d 

Inches 

Fractions 

Decimals 

a 

Fractions 

Decimals 

n 

§ 

Fractions 

Decimals 

0*5 

0 sk 

•019685 

37 

1 ik + sk 

1-456719 

74 

07 11 

^8 ^ 32 

2-913438 

1 

0 kk 

•039371 

38 

H 

1•496090 

75 

t+sk 

2-952809 

2 

+iV+sk 

•078742 

39 

1* +ik 

1-535461 

76 

2 it+kb 

2-992180 

3 

0* 

•118112 

40 

1 w + sk 

1-574832 

77 

3 + -k 

3-031551 

4 

m 

•157483 

41 

1 w+sk 

1-614202 

78 

3jk+sk 

3-070922 

5 

O^k+sk 

• 196854 

42 

If + A 

1•653573 

79 

3 ik+kk 

3-110292 

6 

0 ik + kk 

•236225 

43 


1•692944 

80 

%h +32 

3-149663 

7 

0i + & 

•275596 

44 

l*+kk 

1-732315 

81 


3-189034 

8 


•314966 

45 

If +sk 

1-771686 

82 

3++sk 

3-228405 

9 

0ik+sk 

•354337 

46 

1 13 

1 16 

1-811056 

83 

3i +sk 

3-267776 

10 

0| + A 

•393708 

47 


1•850427 

84 

q 5 

0 16 

3-307146 

11 

o* 

•433079 

48 

1| +ek 

1-889798 

85 

3k + jz 

3-346517 

12 


•472449 

49 

If +kk 

1-929169 

86 

3f +^k 

3-385888 

13 

+sk 

•511820 

50 

1 it + sk 

1-968540 

87 

3f +kk 

3.425259 

14 

+kk 

•551191 

51 

2 +sk 

2-007910 

88 

3w + k 

3-464630 

15 


• 590562 

52 

2 +sk 

2-047281 

89 

H 

3-504000 

16 

Of 

• 629933 

53 

9-1-4--L 
^ 16 4^ 32 

2-086652 

90 

3i +sk 

3-543371 

17 

91 +kk 

669303 

54 

OL 

^8 

2-126023 

91 

3tk + sk 

3-582742 

18 

Oit+sk 

• 708674 

55 

2i +kk 

2-165393 

92 

Qi 

3-622113 

19 

Of 

• 748045 

56 

2ik+kk 

2-204764 

93 

Q5 IJL 
**8 \ 32 

3-661483 

20 

Of + & 

•787416 

57 

21 

4 

2-244135 

94 

3 if+sk 

3-700854 

21 

Oit+?rk 

•826787 

58 

2i + * 

2-283506 

95 

3it+kk 

3-740225 

22 

Oil+kk 

•866157 

59 

^ik + sk 

2-322877 

96 

Q3 1 1 

t5 4 32 

3-779596 

23 


• 905528 

60 

2 ik+kk 

2-362247 

97 

q 13 

0 16 

3-818967 

24 

0 15- 
u 16 

• 944899 

61 

93 1 _1_ 

8 4^ 32 

2-401618 

98 

3 it +sk 

3-858337 

25 

Oit+kk 

•984270 

62 

2w 

2-440989 

99 

31 +^1 

3-897708 

26 

1 + * 

1-023641 

63 

2^+kk 

2-480360 

100 

q is 

16" 

3-937079 

27 

1 + 

1-063011 

64 

2| +sk 

2-519731 

101 

3it + ^k 

3-976450 

28 

i*+& 

1•102382 

65 

9 3 
" 16 

2-559101 

102 

4 +sk 

4-015821 

29 

H +sk 

1-141753 

66 

O 9 _LJL 
" 16 > 32 

2-598472 

103 

4 ..L 

4-055191 

30 

1 - 2 - 

1 16 

1-181124 

67 

2f + ck 

2-637843 

104 

4+ + tk 

4-094562 

31 


1-220494 

68 

95. _L3 

2-677214 

105 

^1 +kk 

4-133933 

32 

H + ek 

1-259865 

69 

9H4- 1 

- 1 16 4^ 32 

2-716585 

106 

4g +kk 

4-173304 

33 

H +ek 

1-299236 

70 

2-1 

2-755955 

107 

4..31 

^ 16 32 

4-212675 

34 

1 ik + sk 

1-338607 

71 

2 f + kk 

2-795326 

108 

H 

4-252045 

35 

14 

1 8 

1-377978 

72 

2 ft + sk 

2-834697 

109 

+ek 

4-291416 

36 

13 I 3 

A 8 + 

1-417348 

73 

91 

"8 

2-874068 

110 

4^r+^k 

4-330787 



































30 


Table III.— Continued. 


CONVERSION TABLE 


Millimetres to Inches. 


Indies and Fractions to Decimals. 
(To the nearest ^ inch.) 


m 



J ) 



c n 



<D 

u 

CD 

fH 

Inches 

CD 

U 

"S 

Inches 

(D 

u 

■+-> 

CD 

Inches 

s 

Fractions 

Decimals 

i 

Fractions 

Decimals 

s 

Fractions 

Decimals 

111 

43. 

4-370158 

148 

fitt+Ar 

5-826877 

185 

n +a 

7-283596 

112 

4| + * 

4-409528 

149 


5-866248 

186 


7-322967 

113 

4f + BF 

4-448899 

150 

K1 4_JL 
°8 4^ 32 

5-905619 

187 

+A 

7-362338 

114 

4f + ^k 

4•488270 

151 

5.15 

0 16 

5-944989 

188 

7f -i-ffe 

7-401709 

115 

*2 32 

4-527641 

152 


5-984360 

189 

7* 

7-441079 

116 

4f 

4-567012 

153 

6 + f 

6-023731 

190 

7 A 

7-480450 

117 

4f+& 

4-606382 

154 


6-063102 

191 

7| 

7-519821 

118 

4|- + rh 

4-645753 

155 


6-102472 

192 

7 9 

1 16 

7-559192 

119 

4f 

4-685124 

156 

+*w 

6-141843 

193 


7-598562 

120 

4i6 

4-724495 

157 

64 

U 16 

6-181214 

194 

7 8 + A 

7-637933 

121 

4f + A 

4-763866 

158 

0 3 4 -JL 

0 16 1 32 

6-220585 

195 

75 IS 

7-677304 

122 

4f +* 

4-803236 

159 

6a: + rV 

6-259956 

196 

711 4 -A. 

' 16 T 32 

7-716675 

123 

4_ 13. _]_1_ 

^ 16 ^ 32 

4-842607 

160 

6J + £4 

6-299326 

197 

73 

7-756046 

124 

47. 

4-881978 

161 

M 

6-338697 

198 

7f +b 3 5 

7-795416 

125 

^8 ' 65 

4-921349 

162 

6 3 

u 8 

6-378068 

199 

7#+f 

7-834787 

126 

4 is _j_i 

4-960720 

163 

6| +R 8 4 

6-417439 

200 

77 

l TS 

7-874158 

127 

5 

5-000090 

164 


6-4568J0 

300 

Hf 

11-811237 

128 

5 +r 3 i 

5-039461 

165 

64 

6-496180 

400 

15| 

15-748316 

129 

5f+ bV 

5-078832 

166 

6 * + * 

6-535551 

500 

19f 

19-685395 

130 

5| 

5-118203 

167 

6 l£+B4 

6-574922 

600 

23J 

23-622474 

131 


5-157573 

168 


6-614293 

700 

2'3f 

27-559553 

132 

5* + A 

5-196944 

169 


6-653664 

800 

2 '7£ 

31-496632 

133 

5* + ft 

5-236315 

170 

6 # 

6-693034 

900 

2 'Hf 

35-433711 

134 

Si +A 

5-275686 

171 

6 f + B 3 i 

6-732405 

1000 

3'3| 

39-37079 

135 

1 5^ 

5-315057 

172 

64 + 6 ^ 

6-771776 

1500 

4'Ilf 

59-05619 

136 

IK 5 3 

I ° 16 T5I 

5-354427 

173 

A 13 
° 16 

6-811147 

2000 

6 ' 6 f +B 3 i 

78-74158 

137 

5| +& 

5-393798 

174 

6 -ft + A 

6-850517 

3000 

9'10f+B 3 5 

118-11237 

138 

5f 

5-433169 

175 

+ £¥ 

6-889888 

4000 

13'lf + 5 3 ¥ 

157-48316 

139 

p;j7_ 4__1_ 

5-472540 

176 

+ R4 

6-929259 

5000 

16'4f +* 

196-85395 

140 

5^ +A 

5-511911 

177 

6 f + f 

6-968630 

6000 

19'8f 

236-22474 

141 

BJ +* 

5-551281 

178 

7 + R4 

7-008001 

7000 

22 'llf + f 

275-59553 

142 

_9_I_ 1 _ 

0 16 1 32 

5-590652 

179 

7 +54 

7-047371 

8000 

26'2f +A 

314-96632 

143 

5f 

5-630023 

180 

7141 

7i 

7-086742 

9000 

29'6f 

354-33711 

144 

5f 

5-669394 

181 

7-126113 

10000 

32'9ft -ff 

393-7079 

145 


5-708765 

182 

74 + B3- 

7-165484 

20000 

66-71 +* 

787-4158 

146 

5| 

5-748135 

183 


7-204855 

30000 

98'5£ 

1181-1237 

147 

5f + * 

5-787506 

184 

74 

7-244225 

1 

50000 

164'0± +& 

1968-5395 








































Table IV.— CONVERSION TABLE 

Feet to Metres. 


31 


05 


lOcoHCit'iocoHCit^ 

HOpHiOto<-OOiO®pt< 

cocoTtpfuoioototot^ 

^t^tocotoooiiocoH 



I— L-QOcboOOOC 5 C 5 'C 5 to 

Ol Ol Ol Ol Ol Ol CM Ol Ol co 

O' 

GO 


toTtHOtplOMHOltp 

nxcot^oH^oitpHco 

00 CO to to to' to h H Ol CM 

cotoO 5 OitoO 5 OiiO 00 'H 


H-HHioioiotototot- 
Ol Ol Ol Ol Ol Ol Ol Ol Ol Ol 

i- 


to'^cMOooto-'foitooo 

IO to to to H 05 H 05 rfl 00 
c®HHioio>ototor—r— 
COOffiOliOOOH^tpO 



Hp-HHOlOlOlCOCOCOPf 

Ol Ol CM CM CM Ol Ol Ol Ol Ol 



r- i® co —(cotoTfoitoco 

L- Ol t- Ol to pH to pH o © 

CO 05 05 to to H pH Ol CM CO 

Ol >® oo oi to co >h Tti r- o 



XGOXCiOOOOO'H 
i —4 r-H r —4 1—4 r —4 p-H Cl Cl O'! Cl 

o 

1 C 


1 ^ O CC H C! IO CO H 05 

05 p+i 05 Tti 00 CO 00 CO to CM 
coHHioiOtotor-r-oo 
®1 1 ® 00 ^ H t— to CO to 05 

Cfi 

W 

lCiOOOOOt^t^r^t^ 

1—4 1—4 1 — 4 1 i—H r-H P-H p-H 1—4 r-H p-H 





H 

W 

s 

12*1918 

12*4966 

12*8014 

13*1062 

13*4110 

13*7158 

14*0205 

14*3253 

14*6301 

14*9349 



CCtop+IOltoCOto^Olto 
co oo co oo co r- oi r- oi r- 
Ttptoiotototptpxx 
Ht^I>CC 0©05 01 L 0 C 0 

CO 


C 5 O J O ^“H —H 

p-H i-H p-H r-H 1—4 i —4 p-H 

oi 


05 t— IO CO H 05 l> IO Ol to 

LO to IO to 1 IO 05 H 05 TP 05 

05 r-H r-H ^H Cl Ol CO CO 

O^t^OCOOOdOGO 



totototpi>i>tpxxx 

o 


05 I> IO CO H ffi h IO CO H 
| P Ol 1 ' O l t ——1 CO pH CO pH 
■p^lOlOtotoL-l"C 000 C 5 
to CO to 05 Ol IC 00 h P# Ip 



co co co co pf ^ o io io 

to 


ootoH®i©ootoH®i 

■pf 1 05 t+I 05 GO CO CO CO 

1 OtoHHffKMCOCO^ 

1 cototooiiooo—iHt- 



to' to to H H H Ol Ol CM 

+-> 

o 

<D 

fa 

©rHOicoHiotor-ooto 


1 

o 

to 

Ol 

GO 

CO 

05 

LO 


r- 

co 

05 

H 


to 

2 

05 

pH 

Ol 

H 

io 

I- 

GO 


Ol 

CO 

»o 

to 

00 

to' 

,H 

CO 

G 

oo 

CO 

CO 

GO 

CO 

CO 

05' 

05 

05 

'05 

05' 

05 


to 

to' 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

co 

CO 

CO, 

to 

to 

Ol 

CO 

H 

C5 

IO 

^H 

r- 

CO 

05 

io 

p-H 

to 

Ol 

00 


IO 

I- 

oo 

to 

p-H 

CO 

1C 

to 

00 

C5 


co 

H 

to 

1’ 

LO 

LO 

io 

io 

to' 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

r- 

1- 

I- 

r- 

L- 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

CM 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

to 

Ol 

00 

hi 


io 

^H 

r— 

CO 

05 

io 

PH 

JT- 

Ol 

oo 


ob 

o 

( 

CO 

io 

to 

CO 

05 

p-H 

Ol 


to 

t— 

05 

to 

Ol 

Ol 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

H 

~v 

H 




IO 

LO 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

Ol 

OI 

Ol 


CO 

<D 

XI 

G 

e 


05 


co 


to 


10 




co 


Ol 


tn 

<D 

X 

o 


Ol 00 H © to 


t^COClOTHt'MQO^O 

CO^OCOClHO^lOl^OOIMM'Ot' 
OOOOOhhhhhh!M(M!M01IM 
Ol CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM <01 CM 


X^OCDC'lt'COQQHt^MO^OO 

l^ClHiM^LOf'OOOClCOiOCDOOOH 
t" l''. GO CO 00 00 00 GO 05 to, to to to Cl O O 

iH pH pH p—< iH rH pH pH pH hH pH pH tH r—I Ol Ol 


^oocMooncMOHt-cocMOOcoiq 

CMi*l01^COO^COlOOQOO — CO ^ CO 
LOiOiOiOLOtototototototot^t—lHl^ 


O to CM 00 H 05 i£5 


r~~ co to io 


to cm co 


[-OOOrHCO^OOOOrHOl'ftot'ClO 

CIOICOCOCOCOCOCOCO^^TH'^'^'^IO 


to oi qo h a io l- co os o 


t- cm co t*h 


co h to t— to 
O O O O O' 


oiHior^toOoicoio 

H H H H H (V| (M CM 0>1 


aooi>iOT((i>Hoa<xitoin^copH 

rHt^coojiOHt'Coao-^otooioo’^o 

tol>OJO(M^iOI>QOO(MCO>Ocbc!o6 

M'MKCO*OOXCCC5C1C1CJO©0 


toCOr^iOH'r^^-tto'toOOtoiOHCO^-ito 

l^COOiOr-a^COffi^OtoOlOOrJtOto 

ooicoLOc^ccoHcoiOtoxoi— icotH 
io i® lo lo lo io to to to to to to to 


©tor- to i® H oi i 
'^CMOHt'Cocjo 


to r- to lo h oi h 
to Ol co H O LO Ol 


LO to 00 O H co to 00 H oi to N G5 
(MOKieoeocococococo^^^TjiTjt^ 


t'lOOU't-^oiON^CMCnN^Ol 
00 t- to H CO Ol p-H o cc r— to hH CO Ol —i 
lOrnt^coaoHt'Ciao^Otooioo 


i—i co h to r— C5 


01^10 1>05 0 01CO 
pH p-H 1 — I pH rH Ol CM CM 


rH[C0 


Hs ^ 


,!«p 


JO. 


ai 


jcp 


■<co 


cclco IT. IcO 

Hh h|h 

ih|t^ cc|go ih|cm io\oq co|rji r-|oc 


.III 


1 Metre = 1,000 Millimetres. 

To convert Metres to Millimetres move the decimal point three figures to the right, e.g. 2*33.56 metres = 2335*6 millimetres. 
Io convert Millimetres to Metres move the decimal point three figures to the left, e.g. 19*21 millimetres = *04921 metres. 


























































































32 

Table IV. — Continued. 

FRACTIONS OF AN INCH TO MILLIMETRES 

Fractions of an Inch to Decimals. 


Fract’n 

Decimal 

mm. 

Fract’n 

Decimal 

mm. 

Fract’n 

Decimal 

mm. 

Inch 

Inch 

Inch 

Inch 

Inch 

Inch 

l 

T2S 

•0079 

•200 

§i 

•3594 

9-128 

45 ; 
AT 

•7031 

17-859 

i 

AT 

•0156 

•3968 

3 

8 

•3750 

9-524 

2 3 

A5 

•7187 

18-256 

i 

TL? 

•0312 

•794 

2 5 

AT 

•3906 

9-921 

if I 

•7344 

18-652 

fik 

•0469 

1191 


4000 

10-160 

3 

T 

•7500 

19-049 

i 

16 

•0625 

1-587 

M 

•4062 

10-319 

49 l 
AT ! 

•7656 

19-446 

AT 

•0781 

1-984 

n 

•4219 

10-716 

M 

•7812 

19-843 


•0937 

2-381 

7 

16 

•4375 

11*112 

1 It 

•7969 

20-240 

a 7 t 

•1094 

2-778 

If 

•4531 

11-509 


•8000 

20 320 

1 

8 

•1250 

3175 

A2 

•4687 

11-906 

13 

16 

•8125 

20-637 

if 

•1406 

3-572 

AT 

•4844 

12-303 

5 3 

AT 

•8281 

21-034 

32 

•1562 

3-969 

1 

2 

5000 

12 700 

M 

•8437 

21-431 

1 1 

64 

•1719 

4-365 

a! 

•5156 

13-096 


•8500 

21-590 

3 

16 

•1875 

4-762 

11 

| 3 2 

•5312 

13-493 

55 

a4 

•8594 

21-827 


2000 

5-080 

3 5 

AT 

•5469 

13-890 

7 

8 

•8750 

22•224 

1 3 

AT 

•2031 

5-159 

9 

16 

•5625 

14-287 

If 

•8906 

22-621 

7 

, 32 

•2187 

5-556 

If 

•5781 

14-684 


•9000 

22-859 

1 5 

AT 

•2344 

5-953 

1 9 

3 2 

•5937 

15-081 

.29 

32 

•9062 

23-018 

1 

4 

. 

•2500 

6-347 


6000 

15-240 

if 

•9219 

23-415 

1 7 

64 

•2656 

6-745 

if 

•6094 

15-478 

15 

16 

•9375 

23-812 


•2812 

7 144 

f 

•6250 

15-874 

fi 

•9531 

24-209 

if 

•2968 

7-540 

41 

AT 

•6406 

16-271 

31 

A 2 

•9687 

24-606 


•3000 

7-620 

21 

3 2 

•6562 

16-668 

6 3 

A 4 

•9842 

25-003 

5 

16 

•3125 

7-937 

43 

AT 

•6719 

17-065 

1 

1-0000 

25-400 

A4 

•3281 

8-334 

11 

16 

•6875 

17-462 




11 
, 32 

•3437 

8-731 


•7000 

17-780 





METHOD OF USING CONVERSION TABLES. 

It is required to find the metric equivalent of 2^-in. Referring to the Inches 
to Millimetres Table, the equivalent, 61*90 mm., will be found in the 2-inch 
column, opposite the fraction *in. 

In the case of feet to metres, the Feet to Metres Table is used but the 
procedure is the same, e.g., to convert 37 feet to metres: the equivalent, 11*2774' 
metres, is found in the 30-feet column, opposite the 7 in the left-hand column. 








































33 


Table V. 

PARTICULARS AND LENGTHS OF BRACING CABLE AND 
TURNBUCKLES REQUIRED ON AVRO BIPLANE, Type 504 A. & J. 


Cables and Turnbuckles. 


Item No. 
as shown 
on Fig. 28 

Cable 

reference 

T urn- 
buckle No. 

Length of cable 
(including turnbuckle) 
centre to centre of bracing 
plate 

Single or 
double cable 

Number 
required per 
machine 

1 

Q 

24 

8' 

lir 

Double 

4 

2 

N 

20 

8' 

A 3 // 

°4 

Single 

2 

3 

T 

28 

8' 

4" 

95 

2 

4 

P 

24 

7' 

nr 

99 

2 

5 

P 

24 

3' 

sr 

Double 

2 

6 

P 

24 

3' 

sr 

95 

2 

7 

P 

24 

7 ' 

nr 

Single 

2 

8 

T 

28 

8' 

4" 

Double 

4 

9 

N 

20 

8' 

A3" 

u 4 

Single 

2 

10 

Q 

24 

8' 

1 1 

1 1 16 

Double 

4 

11 

Q 

24 

9' 

7 l" 

• 2 

Single 

2 

12 

P 

24 

7' 

sr 

55 

2 

13 

T 

28 

8' 

4" 

99 

2 

14 

P 

24 

2' 

ior 

59 

2 

15 

P 

24 

2' 

nr 

99 

2 

16 

P 

24 

5' 

or 

95 

2 

17 

P 

24 

6' 

er 

99 

2 

18 

N 

20 

6' 

6r 

55 

2 

19 

N 

20 

5' 

or 

99 

2 

20 

S 

28 

6' 

i" 

59 

2 

21 

Q 

24 

7 ' 

sr 

99 

2 

22 

s 

Nil 

4' 

or 

95 

2 

23 

s 

31 

*3' 4±" 

* (including spring 
buffer.) 

95 

2 


SHACKLES AND PINS REQUIRED FOR BRACING 



CABLES 504 A., 

J., & 

K. TYPES, 






Number 

Item No. 

Description 


required on 





one machine 

24 

Shackles, Type B, A.G.S. 

158/1, 

for cable M, N, & P 

26 

25 

Do. do. C, do. 

158/1, 

do. Q & S 

18 

26 

Do. do. D, do. 

158/1, 

do. T 

8 

For item 





24 

Solid Pins, dia. 



26 

For item 





25 

Do. r dia. 



18 

For item 





26 

Do. A" dia. 



8 

— 

Split pins for above solid pins 


52 


Bracing calles are shown on Fig. 28 by full lines: control catles on the same figure 

being shown dotted. 

























34 



For TYPES 504 A. & J. 































Table VI. 

PARTICULARS AND LENGTHS OF BRACING CABLE AND TURNBUCKLES REQUIRED ON 

AVRO BIPLANE, Type 504 K. 

Cables and Turnbuckles. 


35 




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PQ PQ rq 

PQ 

PQ PQ pq 

PQ PQ 

pq pq pq pq pq pq pq pq pq 

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PQ 0 

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H H 

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H H H 

HH 

HHHHHHHHH 

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H 


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r—t r-H rH r—l rH rr rr rH (-H 

cyo^cyoyc^oyoycyoy 

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cececececeicececece 

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36 



For TYPE 504 K. 









































37 


Table VII. 


PARTICULARS AND LENGTHS OF CONTROLLING CABLE AND 
TURNBUCKLES REQUIRED ON AVRO BIPLANE, Type 504 A. & J. 


Cables and Turnbuckles. 


Refer¬ 

ence 

Cable 

Refer¬ 

ence 

Turn- 

buckle 

Position on machine and length 
of cable 

Single or 
Double 

Number 

required 

per 

machine 

A 

M 

17 

Balancer coupling cable, 5' 8^" long 

Single 

4 

B 

M 

17 

Balancer cable along top plane, 34' 6" long .. . 

y) 

1 Army 

B1 

M 

17 

Do 25' 3" long (inner lever) 

)) 

1 Naw 

B2 

M 

17 

Do 35' 8" long (outer lever) 

y > 

1 „ 

C 

M 

17 

Balancer cable along bottom plane. 






14' 11" long . 

Double 

4 Army 

Cl 

M 

17 

Do 10' 5£" long (innerlever) ... 

Single 

2 Navy 

C2 

M 

17 

Do 15' 8" long (outer lever) ... 

y y 

o 

~~ y y 

D 

M 

17 

Elevator control cable, 16'9" long (top) 

Doable 

4 

E 

M 

17 

Do 16' 114" long (bottom) 

y y 

4 

F 

M 

17 

Short end for C or Cl and C2 


4 

G 

M 

17 

Rudder control cable, 18' If" long 


4 

H 

M 

17 

Inter-rudder bar cable, 3' 24" long 

f 9 

4 


SHACKLES AND PINS REQUIRED FOR CONTROL CABLES. 




N umber 

Item No. 

Description 

required 

per 

machine 

24 

Shackles, Type B, A.G.S. 158/1, for cabie M, N, and P 

22 

For Item 



24 

Solid pins, diam. ... 

22 


Bracing cables are shown on Fig. 28 by full lines ; control cables on the same figure 

being shown dotted. 

























38 


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39 


Table IX. 

SIZES OF STREAMLINE WIRES FOR AVRO BIPLANE, TYPE 504 A. & J. 



J. 3 
Item 

Size of 
R.A.F.Wire 

Length 

“A” 

Length 

“B” 

Length 
centre to 
centre 

Number 

required 

per 

machine 

Hole in 
plate 

Breaking 
load of Wire 
in lbs. 

i 

i"BSF 

8' 

9r 

8' 

6i" 

8' 

lli" 

4 

l" 

4 

3450 

2 

2BA 

8' 

w 

8' 

Ol" 

“4 

8' 

6|" 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

3 

tTBSF 

8' 

2" 

r» / 

l 

11" 

8' 

3|" 

2 

9 " 

32 

4650 

4 

2BA 

h / 

7 

9r 

hr / 

i 

6i" 

7' 

11" 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

5 

2BA 

3' 

2" 

2' 

Lj 

11" 

3' 

3i" 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

6 

2BA 

3' 

9" 

2' 

11" 

3' 

H" 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

rn 

1 

2BA 

h / 

7 

H" 

h 7 / 

/ 

61" 

/ 

11" 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

8 

iT'bsf 

8' 

Ol" 

7' 

111" 

8' 

4" 

4 

9 " 

32 

4650 

9 

2BA 

8' 

51" 

8' 

91 " 

8' 

6|" 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

10 

i"BSF 

8' 

9i" 

8' 

61" 

8' 

10|" 

4 

1 " 

4 

3450 

11 

i"BSF 

9' 

K3" 

°4 

9' 

2f" 

9' 

71" 

* 2 

2 

1 " 

4 

3450 

12 

2BA 

hr / 

7 

hr 1 // 

7 i 

hr / 

7 

4-|" 

h f 

l 

8|" 

2 

3 " 

IF 

1900 

13 

tTBSF 

8' 

2\" 

7' 

111" 

8' 

41" 

2 

9 " 

32 

4650 

14 

2BA 

2' 

9i" 

2' 

6i" 

2' 

ior 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

15 

2BA 

2' 

101" 

2' 

7i" 

2' 

nr 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

16 

2BA 

4' 

10|" 

4' 

7 3" 

< 4 

5' 

oi" 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

17 

2BA 

6' 

41" 

6' 

ir 

6' 

6" 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

18 

2BA 

6' 

4i" 

6' 

ii" 

6' 

6" 

9 

3 " 

16 

1900 

19 

2BA 

4' 

lOf" 

4' 

7 3" 

• 4 

5' 

01" 

o 

3 " 

16 

1900 
















































































40 

Table X. 

SIZES OF STREAMLINE WIRES FOR AVRO BIPLANE Type 504K 



J 508 


Size of 





Length 

Number 

Hole in 

Breaking 


Length 

Length 

centre to 

required 

load of Wire 

Item 


Streamline Wire 

( » 

A” 


B ” 

centre 

per 

plate 

in lbs. 










machine 



1 


4"BSF 

8' 

94" 

8' 

54" 

8' 

11" 

4 

l" 

4 

3450 

2 


2BA 

8' 

5" 

8' 

ir 

8' 

64" 

2 

3 " 

Iff 

1900 

3 


bV'BSF 

8' 

1 b" 

1 8 

r 

9-4" 

8' 

34" 

2 

9 " 

32 

4650 

4 


2BA 

V 

lOf" 

V 

n't 

7 

8' 

04 " 

2 

3 " 

Iff 

1900 

5 


A'BSF 

8' 

1 b" 

1 8 

r- / 

( 

94" 

8' 

34 " 

2 

9 " 

32 

4650 

6 


2BA 

3' 

1 3" 

2' 

10" 

3' 

34 " 

4 

3 " 

16 

1900 

7 


2BA 

r 

ll" 

r 

71" 

< 4 

8' 

04 " 

2 

3 " 

Iff 

1900 

8 


A'BSF 

8' 

1 3" 

1 4 

V 

94" 

8' 

0 5" 

a 8 

4 

9 " 

32 

4650 

9 


2BA 

8' 


8' 

1 3" 

-*• 8 

8' 

Gj" 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

10 


4"BSF 

8' 

9f" 

8' 

KZ" 

8' 

nr 

4 

1" 

i 

3450 

11 


2BA 

4' 

1044 " 

4' 

71 " 

‘ 16 

5' 

0 -5_" 

u 16 

2 

3 " 
iff 

1900 

12 


2BA 

6' 

41" 

6' 

or 

O' 

64" 

u 8 

2 

3 " 
iff 

1900 

13 


2BA 

4' 

io W' 

4' 

71 " 

‘ 16 

5' 

0*" 

2 


1900 

14 


2BA 

6' 

4f" 

6' 

or 

6' 

64" 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

15 


2BA 

2' 

9" 

2' 

5i" 

O' 

^ j 

104 " 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

16 


2BA 

2' 

ior 

2' 

Of" 

2' 

1 1 ¥' 

11 8 

O 

W 

3 " 

Iff 

1900 

17 


2BA 

9' 

4f" 

9' 

or 

9' 


9 

mJ 

JL" 

Iff 

1900 

18 


2BA 

r 

6|" 

7' 

q i" 

0 8 

>7 / 

i 

84" 

O 

mJ 

3 " 

Iff 

1900 

19 

{ 

4"BSF 

Swaged Wire 

}«' 

ir 

5' 

94" 

6' 

3" 

2 

1 " 

4 

3450 

20 

f 

l 

2BA 

Swaged Wire 


J.1L" 

4 16 

/ 

4 

0-15 " 

" 16 

7' 

6i" 

U 16 

2 

3 " 

16 

1900 

23 


2BA 

5' 

6|" 

5' 

3" 

5' 

84"- 

4 

3 " 

16 

1900 




















































































41 


Notes. 










42 


Notes. 






43 


Notes. 







Notes