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\  ' .  y  o  '•:'  V)  r  -o — I  ."^i 




Hip  Braces 
Lock  Each 

a\.^  Al^  Mi^M  JLsM  JL^Ji^iir  ]LxAlrX.^Al^Al^Mi^m^i^M^Ak^ 

At  Last — A  Barn  of 
Definite  Strength 

AT  LAST—  a  barn  that  brings  you  unyielding 
^  strength  just  at  the  points  you  need  it  most. 
Naturally,  you  look  for  strength  in  steel  barn  con- 
struction. There  are  other  essentials  of  course. 
But  just  as  you  need  four  wheels  to  a  cart,  so  you 
want  de^nite  strength  at  every  point  where  strain  is 


gJEEL  Bl^^li 


are  making  history  in  the  Canadian 
farming  world.  They  have  set  aside, 
for  all  time,  the  day  of  heavy  wood- 
en beams  and  posts.  They  have 
made  unnecessary  the  loss  of  space 
from  steel  posts  jutting  far  out  from 
the  walls,  or  projecting  to  the  hips. 
They  bring  to  the  farmer  of  to-day 
the  barn  of  tomonow.  They  bring 
him  ALL  the  room — ALL  the 
strength — ALL  the  protection  and 
convenience  the  science  of  steel  con- 
struction has  evolved. 

PEDLAR'S  Steel  Brace   "Wardle 

See  for  yourself  the  clear,  open  space  and 
greater  roominess  in  all  parts  of  the  Pedlar 
Bam,  made  possible  by  Pedlar's  Steel  Brace 
"Wardle  Patent" — not  a  new  idea,  but  a 
brace  that  has  proved  its  value  throueh  the 
lest  of  ten  years'  usage.  Notice  how  it  sets 
up  close  to  every  post,  entirely  out  of  the 

Double     Hip     and    Ridge     Braces 
Lock    Each    Separate    Rafter 

Safety  in  steel  construction  rests  on  a  posi- 
tive  hold  at  the  ridge  and  hip.  So  at 
these  points  in  the  Pedlar  Barn  you  will 
find  a  double  set  of  steel  braces  on  each 
separate  rafter.  Think  of  it! — Each  Sep- 
arate Rafter.  These  powerlul  braces, 
placed  right  at  the  points  of  strain,  mean  as 
much  to  you  as  a  solid  steel  beam  from  wall 
to  ridge^and  without  the  excessive  cost. 
No  wonder  the  Pedlar  Barn  is  stronger  ! 
No  wonder  you  can  expect  to  find  it  as  firm 
and  rigid  fifty  years  from  now  as  it  is  to  day! 

Eeon  Offered  Before 

An  advantage  found  only  in  Pedlar's  Steel 
Brace  "Wardle  Patent"  Barn  is  the  fact 
that  you  can  operate  your  hayfork  in  the 
ridge  or  in  either  of  the  hips      An  exclusive 

Tear    Off    and    Mail 

convenience  that  points  still  further  to  the 
scientific  thoughtfulness  called  forth  in  Ped- 
lar construction. 

Ir  hcrited  Security 
The  same  famous  "Pedlar"  coverings  that 
have  provided  such  protection  to  the  wood- 
en frame  barns  in  the  past  are  now  found  in 
Pedlar's  Steel  Brace  "Wardle  Patent" 
Barn.  "George"  Shingles,  in  big,  gener- 
ous size,  24  in.  x  24  in. ;  or  if  preferred,  26 
gauge  "Perfect"  corrugated,  galvanized 
iron  roofing  is  supplied.  Once  the  28 
gauge  corrugated  iron  is  placed  on  the  wall 
frame,  not  one  inch  of  wood  appears  from 
the  outside.  Pedlar's  Steel  Brace  "Wardle 
Patent'  Barn  is  absolutely  LIGHTNING- 
PROOF,  FIRE-PROOF,  R  A  1  N  - 

Surprise:.  Await  You 
Once  you  see  Pedlar's  Steel  Brace  "War- 
dle Patent"  Barn,  surprises  await  you  at 
every  turn.  Roof  and  gable  windows, 
metal  framed  and  glazed  with  wired  glass, 
reflect  abundance  of  light  to  all  parts  of  the 
barn.  Pedlar's  'Superior  '  Barn  Ventila- 
tors supply  ample  ventilation  and  are  proof 
against  the  nuisance  of  birds.  Extra  venti- 
lation when  threshing  is  available  through 
the  windows,  which  are  made  to  open  and 
close.  Eaveirough,  conductor  pipe  and 
complete  accessories  properly  drain  all  water 
from  the  roof.  Eave  and  Gable  cornices 
make  an  airtight  covering  at  these  vulner- 
able points. 

Eventhtn^'    CompIetiL' 

Everything  comes  to  you  complete  to  the 
smallest  detail  ready  for  our  expert  work- 
men to  set  in  and  erect  in  a  few  short  days. 
Wouldn't  you  like  to  know  more  about 
Pedlar's  Steel  Brace  "Wardle  Patent" 
Barn  ?  Wouldn't  you  like  to  see  plans  and 
blue  prints  of  just  the  size  of  Pedlar  Barn 
best  suited  to  your  own  farm?  We  will 
gladly  send  you,  without  obligation  what- 
ever, complete  plans  and  working  drawings 
without  delay. 

the    C  oupon    NOW 

The  Pedlar  People,  Limited 
Oshawa,  Ont. 

Send  me.  without  delay.    Plans, 
Complete,  of  a  Pedlar  Steel    Brace 
understood  this  will  put  me  under  no 


Working  Drawings  and  Cosl 
"Wardle  Patent"  Bam.  It  is 
obligation  to  you  whatever. 

Size  of  Barn 

Height  of  post 



THE     PEDLAR     PEOPLE,     Limited 

(Established  1861) 
Executive  Office  and  Factqries,  Oshawa.  Ont. 

Montreal,    Ottawa,     Toronto,      London.     Winnipeg 

*  >  ■  ^n^  m^mjiu 





JOSEPH  McGOEV.  B.A.,  Manager 

JANUARY,   1916 

E.   M.   CHAPMAN,  B.A.,   Man.  Editor 
ETHEL  M.   CHAPMAN,   A.ssoc.  Editor 


A  Short  Talk  from  the  Editors 

In  Fcbrttary,  the  readeis  of  The 
Farmer's  Magazine  will  receive  a 
Special  Number:  The  new  year  is 
beginning  under  a  war-cloud  that 
has  hung  over  the  land  for  over  a 
year  and  upon  agriculture  rests  the 
big  burden  of  feeding  and  maintain- 
ing a  nation  under  arrns. 

Every  effort  will  have  to  be  put 
forward  by  all  of  its  to  do  our  part 
well.  It  is  true,  prices  do  not  always 
favor  the  faithful,  but  that  too,  is 
our  business  and  the  articles  ap- 
pearing in  this  January  number 
point  the  way  to  settle  this. 

In  the  February  number  this 
viewpoint  has  been  kept  prominent- 
ly before  the  editors  who  have 
deemed  it  wise  to  include  in  this 
number  data  about  agriculture,  that 
will  be  ready  reference  on  any  sub- 
ject for  any  farmer  during  the  year. 
It  will  be  mailed  with  a  string 
through  the  corner,  so  that  it  can  be 
hung  up  by  the  side  of  the  far^n 
desk  for  ready  reference. 

The  matter  will  be  arranged  un- 
der an  ample  index  so  that  the 
reader  will  have  no  trouble  in  get- 
ting to  the  matter  he  requires  at 
once.  Moreover,  there  will  be  sev- 
eral expert  articles  on  leading  sub- 
jects of  interest  to  farming.  The 
illustrations  and  art  ivork  will  be 
in  keeping  with  the  issue.  Some  of 
the  page  illustrations  will  make 
good  framing.  In  fact  the  whole 
number  will  bristle  with  live  infor- 
mation ahd  entertaining  anecdote. 

This  issue  goes  to  all  regular  sub- 
scribers and  to  anyone,  so  the  cir- 
culation manager  informs  us,  who 
sends  in  his  subscription  before  the 
first  of  the  month,  as  he  will  not 
guarantee  that  the  num.ber  will  last 
m.uch  beyond  that  date,  although  a 
generous  provision  is   being  made. 

The  cover  design  is  from,  a  paint- 
ing that  received  much  favorable 
comment  when  on  view  in  the  art 
galleries  of  Toronto  and  Montreal. 
The  scene  is  a  winter  one  in  the 
woods  in  the  logging  regions  and  is 
a  masterpiece. 



Austrian  Peoples  in  the  West C.  B.  Sissons       8 

Stories  of  the  difficulties  and  successes  of  fnrcigii   farmers  in 

The  Greenhouse  in  Mid-winter Elmer  Weaver     11 

Plans  to  make  now  for  the  spring  and  sumniei. 

Putting  a  Farm  on  its  Feet Alonza  Brown     12 

Methods   that   won    a   gold    medal   farm.  ' 

Making  the  Frills  Pay K.  J.  Messenger     15 

Restoring  a  Nova  Scotia  rundown  farm  and  serving  the  community 
as  well. 

Does  Dairying  Pay Prof.  H.  H.  Dean     19 

How   three   farms   In   Oxford   County   bring  $2',000   or   over  in 
profits  a  year. 

Chicken  or  Avian  Cholera J.  K.  Gerow,  V.S.  21 

The  Efficient  Farm  House Genevieve  23 

Winter  in  the  Orchard ,». E.I.  Farrington  24 

A  Fireplace  That  Draws Alex.  MdcPherson  29 

Cherry  Trees  as  Fillers A.  J.  Campbell  30 

Findings  From  Our  Farm.; 32 

An  Onion  Bonanza Iran  B.  Thompson  34 

A  Mixed  F'armer  of  Grey T.  H.  Binnie  44 

Rural  Mail   70 

January  on  the  Fa7m  .  .  .» Grasmere  73 

News  Notes    79 


The  Iron  is  Hot:  Three  Articles  by,  The  Editor,  P.. P.  Wood- 
bridge,  and  Sir  Horace  Plunkett 5 

Do  farmers  make  6   per  cent,  on   their  investments?     Do   they   get 

good    wages    for   their    management?      Co-operation — the 

need,  the  way,  and   the  trail 

A  Prayer  For  The  New  Year Ethel  M.  Chapman  8 

Pruning  the  Knotty  Terms  of  Science F.  F.  Monro,  M. A.  15 

An  Okanagan  Consolidation    Colin   W.  Lees  22 

Seeing  More  of  Canada /.  W,  Stark  36 

The  Consolidated  School  and  Social  Life R.  M.  Lees  40 

War  and  Thrift W.  C.  Good  43 


The  Frost  Girl  (Serial) Robert  E.  Pinkerton     26 

Answer  to  Our  December  Puzzle 69 


The  Outcome  of  an  Alpha  Lodge Mrs.  Walter  Simpson  35 

Women  Who  Start  Things Lydia  M.  Parsons  41 

The  Homely  Art  of  Making  Pies Winnifred  Marchand  46 

A  Smart  and  Practical  Skating  Outfit 47 

Patterns  for  the  Home  Dressmaker 56 

GREAT     BRITAIN — Loudon,     The     MacLeau     Company     of     Great     Britain, 

Limited,  88  Fleet  Street,  E.G.     E.  J.  Dodd,  Director.     Telephone  Central 

12900.     Cable  Address:  Atabek,  London,  Eng. 




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*«to....         V     • 

'"^mr^^T'  WHEN 





M  AG  AZ:  I  N  E 

Volume  IX 


Number  3 


Series  of  three  articles  on  the 
Need,  the  Way  and  the  Trail,  that 
lead  to  a  ri^ht  solution  of  all 
farmers'  business  troubles. 

THE  NEED:  f.  m.  chapman 
THE  WAY:  p.  p.  woodbridge 
THE  TRAIL:  sir  Horace  plunkett^ 

The  Need 

//  the  small  farmer  'inust  suffer  because 
he  cannot  get  a  paying  market  for  his 
pigs  or  wheat — all  must  suffer.  Farmers 
must  forsake  the  devil-take-the-hindmost 

THE  farmers  of  Canada,  as  of  any 
country,  are  shock  absorbers.  They 
are  the  butt  of  barter.  They  pro- 
duce and  take  what  the  consumer  gives. 
The  price  for  his  commodity  is  determined 
by  the  way  that  commodity  is  produced  in 
the  cheapest  place.   His  sugar,  his 

clothes  and  often  his  own  wheat        

are  paid  for  in  prices  that  are  set 
by  a  high  standard  of  living  in  a 
protected  industry. 

The  farmer  is,  as  it  were,  then, 
a  good-natured  buffer.  It  is  in- 
cumbent upon  him  to  produce  at 
a  low  price.  He  must  never  get 
rich.  The  world  will  not  stand  for 
it.  The  organized  abstractive  in- 
dustries will  not  stand  for  it.  Con- 
sumers yell  if  they  starve.  The 
hue  and  cry  is  taken  up  and  the 
farmer  bends  his  back  again.  Per- 
haps he  believes  some  of  this  noise 
as  being  vox  dei. 

Must  this  order  prevail?  Is  the 
man  who  is  tickling  the  soil  into 
response,  to  remain  dumb,  his 
head,  ostrich-like,  buried  in  his 
own  clay  loam.  Must  he  have  no 
say  in  prices?  . 

Or  is  he  too  immoral  to  be  fair 
in  this  arrangement  with  consum- 
ers? Should  he  be  allowed  to  close 
down  his  mine  when  goods  become 
too  cheap,  or  shut  up  the  factory, 
to  create  demand?  Of  course,  the 
idea  is  preposterous!  The  people 
would  starve. 

Perhaps,  you  say,  the  farmer  is  con- 
tented! He  is  making  money!  He,  alone, 
has  the  whip  end  now !  Why  does  he  need 
anything  more? 

Let  us  see ! 

One  of  the  best  farmers  of  Ontario 
with  200  acres  of  good  land,  well  equipped 
in  every  way,  has  a  yearly  cash  return  of 
some  .$3,300. 

This  farm  is  worth,  in  the  market  to- 
day, about  .$16,000.  The  running  equip- 
ment, stock,  machinery  and  feed  runs  up 
to  $4,000.  That  is,  he  has  $20,000  invested 
upon  which,  as  working  capital  he  must 

*From      an      address 
Chicago    recently. 

John    A.    Maharg,    of    Saskatchewan,    President    of 
delivered      at  Canadian   Council  of  Agriculture.     An   old   Dufferin   Co 

boy,   Ontario. 

make  dividends.  Examining  this  we  find: 
'Interest  at  8  per  cent  to  cover  de- 
preciation, etc.,  on  $20,000  is  $1,600. 
Salary  for  management  and  actual 
work  of  owner  and  family  for  one 
year  should,  in  all  fairness  be  put  at 
$2  per  day  or  $730. 

Wages  of   his  help   for   the   year 
runs  to  $700. 

Purchase  of  feeds,  binder  twine,  oil, 
gasoline,  etc.,  farm  bills  make  $250. 
The  taxes,  church  and  charity  take 
about  $2.'i0. 

This  totals  something  like  $3,530.  Now 
he  is  able  to  save  from  his  $3,300, 
only  about  $1,000  to  $1,200  per 
year.  It  is  clear  that  this  $1,000  is 
all  taken  from  the  interest  on  his 
investment  and  his  salary  as  man- 

It  must  be  remembered  that  the 
$730  is  all  eaten  up  in  the  living 
he  gets  and  in  the  grocer  and  dry 
goods  bills. 

And  it  is  for  that  $1,000  that  all 
the  world  is  tumbling  over,  itself. 
Everybody  is  grabbing  for  it. 
Quite  naturally  so!  For  every- 
body's living  eventually  comes 
from  its  turnover. 


■  How  is  the  farmer  to  retain  the 
big  share  of  it  and  to  increase  his 
resources?  Here  are  two  questions 
about  which  present  agricultural 
officials  and  pseudo  economists, 
are  vexing  their  bulletin  services. 
First  how  is  the  farmer  to  hold 
the  $1,000?  That's  what  is  the 
matter  with  agriculture  now. 

No,  it  is  not  the  rural  problem ! 
Doesn't  that  word  smack  peculiar- 
ly? The  words  rural  problem 
have  been  coined  by  the  city  man 
when  he  finds  his  dining-room  get- 
ting empty.    He  looks  around,  re- 


F  A  R  :M  ]•:  11 '  S     M  A  G  A  Z  I  N  E 

members  his  boyhood  days  on  the  farm, 
sees  things  not  as  rosy  as  he  thinks  he 
remembers  them,  and  comes  to  the  con- 
clusion that  something  must  be  done  for 
the  dear  old  farm,  or  something  will  hap- 
pen as  the  late  Premier  of  Ontario  would 
say.  His  first  advice  is — we  must  break 
up  the  fallow  and  grow  more. '  Strange 
isn't  it,  how  the  urban  mind  thinks  back- 
wards from  the  stomach !  No  wonder  that 
the  full  dinner  pail  and  the  pork  barrel 
are  common  political  terms! 

The  real  problem  is  one  of  arithmetic — 
practical  addition.  In  fact  it  might  extend 
to  higher  mathematics  and  deal  in  com- 
binations. For  the  modern  word  for  this 
old  rule  of  thumb  is — co-operation. 


Let  us  look  into  the  farm  districts. 
Take  any  township  you  like,  they  all  show 
the  same  symptoms.  The  following  points 

stand  plainly  on  the  surface 

The  isolated  fanner  has  hard  work 
to  make  a  living,  even  from  his  good 
crops.  The  market  is  too  far  removed. 
One  farmer  is  afraid  to  join  with 
his  neighbor  in  the  market  of  his 
crops  for  fear  the  other  fellolo  will 
make  a  cent  more  than  he  is  m,aking. 
The  big  farmer  buys  in  large 
quantities,  employs  experts  to  sell 
and  has  wide'  credit. 

The  small  farmer  buys  and  sells 
in  small  quantities,  has  narrow  credit, 
and  gives  his  time  mostly  to  the  grow- 
ing of  crops.  (His  adviser  says,  go 
on,  produce  more,  don't  stop  to  look 

The  farrners  who  grow  staple  crops 
for  -ivhich  there  is  an  organized  mar- 
ket, still  get  fair  returns.  As  for  ex- 
ample, for  wheat,  beef  and  wool. 

The  big  farmer  is  the  only  one  who 
can  enter  into  the  production  of  spe- 
cialties where  the  problem'  of  mar- 
keting is  bigger  than  the  problem  of 

The  average  Canadian  farmer  is  a  pro- 
ducer of  wheat,  cattle,  horses,  sheep,  pigs, 
hay,  fruit,  and  vegetables — all  staple 

The  prices  he  gets  are  set  by  organized 
selling  bodies  who  must  make  interest  on 
investment  and  good  wages  for  manage- 
ment besides. 

There  is  the  whole  question  of  the  first 
part.  The  farmer  suffers  if  he  does  not 
know  how  to  market.  And  it  is  certain  all 
farmers  cannot  carry  on  this  exchange  or 
bartering  individually.  Who  then  will  do 
it  for  him  ?  It  will  be  either  the  middleman 
with  his  policy  of  take  all  you  can,  or  it 
will  be  by  a  combination  among  the  farm- 
ers themselves,  whereby  the  selling  end  is 
handled  by  those  among  them  who  know 
how  to  sell.  This  is  wltni  is  done  by  agri- 
cultural co-operation.  It  must  seem  to  all 
that  the  forming  of  agricultural  co- 
aperative  corporations  throughout  Can- 
ada is  the  only  way  to  settle  the  question 

Farmers  who  see  things  correctly  must 
get  together. 

Nonsense,  says  the  can't-tell-me-nothin' 
farmer,  farmers  can't  stick  together! 

These  are"  the  deceptive  methods  used 
by  a  devil  that  has  been  stalking  through 
the  country  districts  for  a  long  while. 

Farmers  can,  and  must  organize.  The 
future,  not  only  of  the  agriculture  of  Can- 
ada, but  the  saving  of  society  in  general, 
both  urban  and  rural,  depends  upon  it. 
The  time  is  now  critical.  The  war  has 
introduced  new  economic  factors  and  the 
settlement  will  reveal  some  hideous  in- 
equalities. The  new  order  of  things  will 
make  agricultural  competition  keener. 
The  stress  and  strain  of  the  recuperation 
will  centre  around  the  farm,  and  through 
the  hills  and  hollows,  over  the  rise  and  fall 
of  prices,  will  ride  an  agriculture  to  its 
position.  It  depends  on  how  we  go  at  the 
question  now. 


As  Sir  Horace  Plunkett  said  in  his 
Chicago  address,  "The  great  international 
competition  will  strike  the  North  Ameri- 
can farmer  the  keenest  since  he  is  farthest 
behind  in  the  matter  of  organization  for 
his  own  interests." 

The  French-speaking  farmers  of  the 
province  of  Quebec  are  moving  along  this 
line.  Already  the  farmers  of  the  counties 
of  Mogantic  and  Yamaska  are  proving 
that  they  understand  the  spirit  of  co-op- 
eration. They  organize  under  the  pro- 
vincial law  for  this  purpose.  These  locals 
have  taken  stock  in  the  central  society  of 
cheese  dealers  in  Quebec  city  and  in  the 
Co-operative  Settlement  in  Montreal.  A 
farmer  writing  in  a  recent  issue  of  Le 
Bulletin  dc  la  Ferme,  says :  "The  farmer 
will  no  longer  be  compelled  to  buy  at  the 
ridiculous  figures  of  the  local  dealer  who 
has  a\so  been  obliged  to  purchase  from  a 
wholesaler  who  in  his  turn  has  passed  it 
on  to  this  little  dealer  in  the  centres  of  the 
consuming  public,  and  where  the  con- 
sumer is  forced  to  buy  at  a  price  which 
the  farmer  would  have  been  very  happy  to 
even  approach  for  his  products." 

Now  is  the  time  for  business  co-opera- 
tion, just  as  the  city  people  have  united  to 
make  their  business  go,  so  the  farmers 
must  form  co-operative  corporations 
among  the  rural  communities  of  Canada. 

And  other  beginnings  have  been  made! 
Thanks  to  the  magnificent  example  of  the 
Grain  Growers  the  spirit  of  self-reliance, 
the  dignity  of  business  management  has 
gripped  many  a  mind  on  the  fertile  but 
often  inhospitable  prairie.  The  Co-opera- 
tive Elevators  of  Alberta  have  eighty  ele- 
vators and  are  making  things  go.  The 
Saskatchewan  Co-operative  Elevator  Com- 
pany, with  its  200  elevators,  has  had  a 
most  successful  year.  Greatest  of  all,  the 
Grain  Growers'  Grain  Co.  went  into  the 
grain  exchange  to  correct  the  evils  of  the 

Ucaveis    are    great    co-operators.      They    buiit 
Itiis  (lam  in   Now   Ontario  in  a  few   hours. 

farmers'  lack  of  selling  ability,  and  they 
have  come  out  this  last  year  with  a  profit 
of  some  1226,000  after  handling  some 
twenty-six  million  bushels  of  wheat  and 
having  saved  to  the  farmers  of  Western 
Canada,  a  large  gain  over  what  they 
would  have  had,  if  this  company  had  not 
been  in  the  field  with  their  fair-play  busi- 
ness methods. 


But  the  Western  farmers,  alive  with  the 
true  co-operative  spirit,  are  not  alone  in 
the  possession  of  the  stern  stuff  that  makes 
men.  Old  Ontario  that  has  pioneered  the 
Dominion  and  been  the  mother  of  prov- 
inces has  some  examples  of  unselfish  co- 
operation to  her  credit.  The  co-operative 
apple-growers  are  good  examples.  The 
$200,000  business  of  the  two-year-old  or- 
ganization that  grew  on  the  roots  of  the 
Grange — the  United  Farmers  of  Ontario 
speaks  volumes  of  the  possibilities  in  th^ 

The  future  is  big  with  opportunity.  T>.e 
need  for  unselfish  men  is  insistent.  The 
questions  are  looming  up  fast  and  the  call 
to  action  at  once  is  loud.  It  is  a  call  to 

The  annual  meetings  of  the  majority  of 
the  farmei's'  organizations  take  place  this 
month.  All  farmers  should  be  taking  their 
part  in  them.  For  co-operation  must 
settle  the  following  points: 

(n)    Marketing  problems. 

(h)    Credit  associations. 

(c)  Guaranteed  goods. 

(d)  Better  farming  and  better  homes. 
Co-operation    has   the   broad    principle 

of  the  rights  of  all  people  for  its  justifica- 
tion.   It  works  out  by  the  principles  of: 

(a)    One  man,  one  vote. 

(6)    Limited  dividends  on  stock. 

(c)    Bonus   returns   on    a    patronage 

The  results  will  be  of  immense  import- 
ance to  all  farmers  and  to  the  community 
as  a  whole.   These  results  will  be  seen  by: 

(a)  The  increased  money  returns  to 
the  farm. 

(b)  The   elevation    of   the   farmer's 

(c)  His  voice  in  political  parties. 

(d)  A  higher  type  of  citizenship. 

(e)  And   sounder  national  business. 

The  Way 

THE  editor  had  suggested  that  this 
article  should  be  entitled,  "How 
Farmers  Can  Organize,"  but  the 
thought  has  occurred  to  me,  "Why  Do  Not 
All  the  Farmers  Organize?" 

I  might  have  written  under  the  first 
title  the  old  adage  that  "Where  there  is  a 
will,  there  is  a  way,"  and  then  perhaps 
gone  on  to  show  that  scores  of  organiza- 
tions had  already  shown  the  way,  but  I 
want  to  try  and  suggest  a  few  thoughts, 
the  possibilities  of  which  possess  for  me 
a  fascination  that  has  held  me  to  the  work 
of  organization  among  farmers  in  spite  of 
temptations  more  remunerative  from  a 
financial  point  of  view. 

Most  of  us  who  are  farmers,  and  many 
who  are  not,  have  ready  the  story  of  the 
Danish  farmer  and  what  organization  has 
done  for  him.  Some  of  us  have  read  the 
history   of   agricultural    development   in 


New  Zealand  and  the 
great  States  of  Australia. 
A  few  of  us  have  read 
of  the  marvelous  work 
achieved  by  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  agricultural 
classes  in  Russia,  Siberia 
and  many  other  coun- 
tries, the  people  of  whom 
"we  are  rather  too  apt  to 
look  upon  as  our  inferiors 
in  intelligence.  I  was  told 
quite  recently  by  a  promi- 
nent New  2ealander,  that 
in  his  country  riches,  as 
■we  know  them,  running 
into  millions  of  dollars, 
are  unknown,  but  that 
nevertheless  the  farmers, 
generally  speaking,  are 
prosperous  and  happy. 
Their  average  wealth  per 
head  is  away  above  ours, 
because  though  they  have 
none  excessively  rich, 
they  also  have  none  ex- 
cessively poor.  The  same 
can  be  said  of  Denmark 
to-day,  yet  it  is  not  so 
many  decades  ago  in 
either  Denmark  or  New 
Zealand  that  these  con- 
ditions did  not  exist. 
They  had  their  million- 
aires and  they  also  had  their  paupers. 
The  change  has  been  brought  about  by 
agricultural  organization. 


Not  so  very  many  years  ago  the  Danish 
farmer,  like  ourselves,  was  receiving  on 
an  average  only  from  40c  to  50c  on 
every  dollar's  worth  of  goods  which  he 
produced.  On  the  other  hand  he  was  pay- 
ing for  everything  he  needed  in  his  busi- 
ness of  farming,  from  $1.50  to  $2  in  ex- 
change for  one  dollar's  worth  of  value. 
To-day,  we  have  it,  on  excellent  authority, 
that  the  Danish  farmer  receives  at  least 
96c  for  every  dollar's  worth  of  produce 
which  he  has  to  sell,  and  he  has  organized 
his  purchasing  power  to  such  a  fine  de- 
gree that  if  there  is  any  margin  of  profit 
between  himself  and  the  manufacturer  it 
goes  into  the  treasury  of  his  own  or- 
ganization. Result — there  may  be  a  few 
still  looking  for  the  other  four  cents,  but 
otherwise  everyone  is  happy;  the  farmer 
is  a  man  to  be  envied.  There  is  no  de- 
population of  the  -rural  district.  Agricul- 
ture and  the  agriculturists  dominate 
the  policy  of  the  whole  country.  The 
change  from  a  poor,  impoverished  rural 
population  to  one  with  the  greatest  wealth 
per  capita  in  the  world  has  been  wrought 
by  organization.  The  change  from  a  coun- 
try ruled  by  politicians  in  the  interests  of 
a  few  millionaires  and  large  landowners 
to  a  country  ruled  by  statesmen  in  the  in- 
terests of  the  majority  of  the  people  is 
due  to  the  same  cause.  In  detail,  the  main 
cause  for  these  changes  was  a  complete 
revolution  in  agricultural  methods 
through  education  and  the  substitution 
of  the  co-operative  system  in  the  manu- 
facture and  selling  of  farm  produce  and 
in  the  purchasing  of  farm  necessities.  The 
movement  towards  these  things  originated 
in  the  ranks  of  the  farmers  themselves 
through  organization.    With   such  possi- 

Bonnie  Bucklyvie,  sold  at  aiKticin  in  Scotland  recently  at  the  late  Mr. 
Brydon's  dispersion  for  5,000  Guineas.  He  is  a  son  of  that  noted  Clydesdale 
sire,  Baron  of  Bucklyvie,  sold  for  ■"f4S.500.  Livestock  forms  the  subject  for 
co-operative  work  all  over  Canada.  The  Doiniuion  Government  is  getting 

bilities  before  us  why  is  it  that  a  larger 
percentage  of  the  farmers  in  this  country 
are  not  to  be  found  in  the  ranks  of  one  or 
the  other  of  the  farmers'  organizations 
already  in  the  field? 

How  are  these  things  to  be  brought 
about?  One  of  the  first  things  to  be  done 
is  to  secure  a  portion  of  that  margin 
which  exists  between  what  the  producer 
receives  and  the  consumer  pays,  and 
which  at  the  present  time  goes  to  non- 
producers,  or  middlemen  as  we  call  them, 
who,  in  the  interests  of  the  country  gen- 
erally, might  better  be  engaged  in  work 
of  a  productive  nature.  Another  move- 
ment equally  important  is  to  throiv  the 
combined  weight  of  the  best  brains  in  the 
community  totuard  increasing  the  quan- 
tity and  iinproving  the  quality  of  the  pro- 
duce raised  in  that  comyminity .  The  latter 
is  particularly  important,  the  quality  must 
be  not  only  improved  but  standardized  as 
far  as  possible. . 

Having  got  thus  far,  we  can  perhaps, 
with  the  permission  of  the  editor,  use  a 
little  space  for  an  outline  as  to  how  farm- 
ers can  organize.  I  express  the  opinion 
for  what  it  may  be  worth,  but  think  that, 
failing  something  proved  to  be  better,  it 
might  well  serve  in  the  same  way  as  the 
1  ough  sketch  serves  the  architect  who  is 
to  complete  the  finished  model. 

It  is  rather  unfortunate  for  my  purpose 
in  this  article  that  I  am  associated  with 
the  work  of  our  Western  organizations. 
I  must,  however,  ask  our  readers  to  be- 
lieve me  when  I  state  that  outside  of  this 
connection  and  from  a  purely  theoretical 
point  of  view,  I  consider  the  basic  prin- 
ciple of  our  Western  organizations,  of 
which  the  United  Farmers  of  Alberta  is 
an  example,  as  ideal  for  the  carrying  out 
of  the  ideas  outlined  above.  In  our  asso- 
ciation we  have  some  hundreds  of  volun- 
tary local  units.  Any  community  where 
ten  or  more  farmers  care  to  get  together. 

pay  in  a  nominal  mem- 
ber fee  and  subscribe  to 
our  constitution,  auto- 
matically becomes  a  local 

These  local  units  are 
all  affiliated  vnth  the  Cen- 
tral Office,  consisting  of  a 
board  of  directors  elected 
by  delegates  from  the  dif- 
ferent units  all  over  the 
province,  who  employ  a 
permanent  secretary,  de- 
voting the  whole  of  his 
time  to  Central  office 
work.  The  reason  for  the 
Central  Office  is  that 
while  there  are  many, 
things  which  the  local 
standing  by  itself  can 
carry  out  with  a  certain 
degree  of  sucess,  there 
are  many  other  things 
which  can  only  be  accom- 
plished by  organization 
on  a  much  larger  scale. 
The  Central  Office  or- 
ganized as  an  agency,  is 
a  very  useful  factor  in 
the  purchasing  qi  sup- 
plies and  is  absolutely 
esential  in  the  selling  of 
farm  produce  where  the 
,  ultimate   market   is    any 

considerable  distance  away  from  the  place 
of  production. 

In  addition,  the  Central  Office,  composed 
as  it  should  be  of  the  best  brains  and  most 
progressive  men  in  the  province,  and  with 
a  staff  devoting  the  whole  of  their  time  to 
the  work,  is  in  a  position  to  render  very 
valuable  assistance  to  the  local  units  by 
making  suggestions  from  time  to  time  for 
the  improvement  and  enlargement  of  the 
work  in  Which  the  local  units  are  engaged. 
The  question  of  competent  organizers  and 
lecturers  whose  duty  it  would  be  to  visit 
the  local  unions  and  render  them  practical 
assistance  from  time  to  time  is  also  one 
which  necessitates  the  establishment  of 
some  central  control 


A  farmers'  organization  should  be  for 
defensive  purposes.  Its  motto  should  be 
that  of  the  old  British  volunteer,  "Defence 
not  defiance."  An  organization  bound 
together  centrally  is  best  suited  for  this 
work.  It  is  more  powerful  whether  as 
friend  or  enemy,  whether  it  has  to  meet 
private  corporation  or  legislative  as- 
sembly. Here  then  is  the  basic  principle 
to  my  mind  for  the  establishment  of  a 
great  farmers'  organization. 

Carrying  the  illustration  a  little  fur- 
ther, we  find  all  over  Canada  numerous 
local  farmers'  societies  already  securing 
in  many  cases  a  considerable  proportion 
of  that  difference  between  producer  and 
consumer  which  has  been  so  marked  in  the 
past.  We  find  them  adding  to  their  mar- 
gin of  profit  in  one  or  more  of  the  fol- 
lowing ways.  As  a  purchasing  agency  for 
their  livestock,  as  an  egg  and  poultry  cir- 
cle, as  a  beef  ring,  and  as  mutual  insur- 
ance societies.  Many  are  feeling  their  way 
cautiously  in  a  small  way  as  agricultural 
credit  societies.  Societies  are  also  strik- 
ing out  in  the  direction  of  better  farming 
Continued  on  Page  65. 



^  draper  for  tfte  J^elu  |9ear 


WE  have 
pas  sed 
milestone.  The 
clocks  have 
struck,  the 
sand  glass  has 
fallen,  and  the 
diary  with  all 
its  mistake* 
has  closed. 
May  we  have  a 
clearer  view- 
point to  carry 
into  the  New 

We  cling  so 
pitifttlli/  to  our  own  wishes.  We  think  so  much  of 
what  the  year  will  bring  us,  and  the  whole  world) 
groaning  with  its  agony  of  tired  bodies  and  discour- 
aged souls.  Grant  us  the  blessing  of  self -for  getful- 
ness,  the  broadness  of  vision  to  ask,  not  "What  can 
ice  get  out  of  the  year?"  but  "How  much  can  we  put 
into  it?" 

Give  us  a  faith  in  humanity  that  trusts,  rather 
than  a  shrewdness^  to  discover  flaws.  In  spite  of  the 
experiences,  the  failures,  the  hard  lessons  of  the  past 
years  we  are  still  very  young, — young  in  the  harsh- 
ness of  our  judgments,  the  cruelty  of  our  criticisms. 
We  have  condemned  our  neighbors  and  have  had 
secret  feelings  of  superiority ,  just  because  our  weak- 
nesses don't  happen  to  run  in  the  same  direction.  We 
have  ridiculed  failures  icithout  considering  the  vali- 
ance  of  the  fight  before  the  fall.  We  have  criticised 
the  church  and  established  institutions,  forgetting 
that  even  with  shortcomings  they  are  still  the  best  the 
old,  world  has.  Let  us  have  still  greater  independence 
of  thought  with  the  courage  of  conviction,  but  help 
us  to  think  long,  sei'ious  thoughts  before  we  tell  them. 
As  we  stand  at  the  dividing  of  the  ways,  may  the 
truth  come  to  us  individually  that  ive  are  a  function, 
not  an  end  of  creation,  that  our  lives  can  only  be  of 
use  as  they  make  the  world  a  better  place  to  live,  and 
that  xve  can  serve  the  world  best  through  our  own 
community.  May  we  realize  the  shame  of  having  any 
hungry  or  cold  or  sick  in  our  neighborhood  while 
there  is  food  in  our  cellars  or  fuel  in  our  woods  or 
means  to  have  them  cared  for.  May  we  see  that  the 
cause  of  poverty  usually  dates  back  either  to  the 
man's  or  woman's  lack  of  training  to  make  a  living  or 
f"  a  physical  handicap,  so  that  we  may  take  some 
thought  for  physical  protection  of  the  children,  and 
for  the  additional  education  that  will  make  the  boys 
good  farmers  or  tradesmen  and  the  girls  intelligent 
homemakers.  May  we  know  the  dangers  of  loneliness 
for  the  homeless  or  socially  ostracised,  and  blush  at 
our  Pharisaism  that  we  should  presume  to  make  dis- 
tinctions. Then  we  will  open  our  homes  to  them  and 
cultivate  the  rare  grace  of  Christian  hospitality. 

And  while  we  think  of  others,  Oh,  save  us  from  the 
danger  of  falling  short  in  our  own  homes.  We  know 
that  the  first  requisite  for  the  nurture  of  happiness 
and  goodness  is  the  magnetism  of  love,  but 

we  have  come 
to  find  its  ex- 
pression in  0  ur 
own  families 
rather  em,bar- 
rassing.  We 
know  that  no 
outside  influ- 
ence can  take 
the  place  of 
the  family  al- 
tar, but  we 
have  seen  the 
family  altar 
fail  so  often  on 
account  of  its 
creeds  and 
its  Puritanical  stiltedness  that  we  don't 
Help  us  by  our  lives  as  well  aS. 


know  just  what  to  do 

oar  prayers  to  fill  our  homes  tviih  an  atmosphere  of 

warm  cheerful  confidence  that  will  teach  our  children 

to  distinguish  between  fredom  and  looseness,  that  will 

make  the  thing  we  call  religion  a  practical  part  of 


We  are  facing  another  year  of  what  we  have  some- 
times called  commonplace  and  monotonous  tasks. 
Teach  us  their  meaning.  Help  us  to  see  that  the  man 
who  com,bines  with  Nature  to  make  a  pippin  from  a 
thorn-apple,  or  to  raise  bread  from  a  seed  and  the 
rarth,  is  working  very  close  to  the  Creator.  Teach  us 
to  search  for  the  things  that  make  life  worth  most  in 
the  country,  to  get  the  spell  of  the  silence  of  snowy 
fields,  the  calmness  of  the  open  quiet  spaces,  the  mir- 
acle of  growth,  the  mystery  of  the  call  of  the  vireo  to 
his  mate.  Then  we  will  find  our  joys  in  the  real 
things  of  tJie  country,  and  our  young  men  and  women 
will  not  want  the  imitations  of  the  toivn. 

And  with  all  this  save  us  from  the  bovine  content- 
ment that  looks  no  farther  than  our  own  green  pas- 
tures and  filled  barns.  Teach  us  our  responsibilities 
in  the  broader  questions  involving  not  only  our 
neighbors  but  the  whole  world. 

Keep  before  us  the  picture  of  the  Belgian  mother 
holding  her  baby  to  her  breast  and  staring  in  haggard 
terror  through  the  battle-smoke,  fearing  starvation. — 
for  it.  She  is  asking  for  only  the  necessaries,  and  as 
the  world  goes,  Canada  is  comparatively  abounding 
in  luxury  this  year.  Do  not  spare  us  the  understand- 
ing of  the  suffering  of  the  battle-field,  that  no  wound- 
ed soldier  be  left  uncared  for  through  our  indiffer- 
ence. Give  tis  the  generosity  to  save  the  soldier's 
ujidow  from  the  stigma  of  charity  in  return  for  the 
biggest  sacrifice  the  country  could  have  asked  of  her, 
and  the  grace  to  appreciate  our  lifelong  debt  to  the 
man  who  combes  back  "permanently  disabled."  Let 
it  not  be  an  how's  gratitude  of  a  purse  and  a  bonfire, 
but  a  solid  public  feeling  working  in  a  practical  way 
to  give  him  the  independence  he  has  earned  so  dearly. 
And  until  the  whole  tuorld  can  rest  to  heal  its  wounds 
uje  ask  no  other  blessing  than  a  quick  conscience  and 
the  courage  to  listen. 

Austrian  Peoples  in  the  West:  By  c.  b.  sissons 

The  Difficulties  Foreign  Farmers  Find  in  Getting  on  to  the  Land — Some  Have 

Done  Well 

This    house    illustrates    a    primitive    type    of 

FEW  Easterners  realize  the  far-reach- 
ing effects  of  our  immigration  policy 
inaugurated  in  the  nineties.  East 
of  the  Great  Lakes  one  expects  to  see  now 
and  then  employed  in  various  branches 
of  unskilled  labor,  men  of  stocky  build  and 
alien  speech.  It  is  difficult  to  realize  that 
in  the  three  Prairie  provinces  possibly  one 
man  in  four  has  a  native  tongue  other  than 
English.   The  most  prolific  source  for  non- 


A   feuoe  which   indicates   industry   and   ability 
to   use  materials   ready  to   hand. 

English  speaking  immigrants  proved  to 
be  the  Austrian  'provinces  of  Galicia  and 
Bukovina.  Thence,  year  after  year,  a 
people  always  oppressed  and  often 
poverty-stricken  sought  in  eager  crowds 
the  grant  of  one  hundred  and  sixty  acres 
of  land  offered  freely  to  all  and  sundry. 
Steamship  companies  naturally  welcomed 
such  profitable  ballast;  contracting  firms 

^mii^ikSi^ . 

were  not  averse  to  plentiful  labor ;  broad 
acres  were  craving  tillage;  "room  for  all 
and  to  spare,"  was  our  motto.  A  few 
there  were  who  sounded  a  warning  note 
fearing  that  our  democratizing  institu- 
tions might  prove  unequal  to  such  an 
enormous  feat  of  digestion,  but  the  tide 
had  started  and  there  was  no  power  to 
check  it. 

Last  winter  some  ten  thousand  unem- 
ployed men,  the  great  majority  of  foreign 
birth,  and  a  very  large  proportion  from 
these  provinces  of  Austria,  stormed  the 
city  hall  in  Winnipeg,  demanding  work  or 
bread.  Mr.  J.  H.  T.  Falk,  secretary  of  the 
Associated  Charities  of  that  city,  took  the 
trouble  to  investigate  the  cases  of  255 
ol  these  "foreigners,"  who  applied  to  his 
office  in  a  week.     He  found  that  in  179 

An    Austrian    bake    oven. 

In  Times  Like  These 

Tjie  foreign  people  who  come  to 
Canada,  come  with  burning  enthu- 
siasrn  for  the  new  land,  this  land  of 
liberty — land  of  freedom.  Some 
have  been  seen  kissing  the  ground 
in  an  ecstasy  of  gladness  when  they 
arrive.  It  is  the  land  of  their  dreams 
where  they  hope  to  find  home  and 
happiness.  They  come  to  us  with 
ideals  of  citizenship  that  shame  our 
narrow,  ^mercenary  standards.  These 
men  are  of  a  race  which  has  gladly 
shed  its  blood  for  freedom,  and  is 
doing  it  to-day.  But  what  happens? 
They  go  out  to  work  on  construction 
gangs  for  the  summer,  and  when 
the  work  closes  down  they  drift 
back  into  the  cities.  They  have  done 
the  work  we  wanted  them  to  do, 
and  no  ftirther  thought  is  given  to 
them.  They  may  get  off  the  earth 
so  far  as  we  are  concerned.  One 
door  stands  invitingly  open  to  them. 
There  is  one  place  where  they  are 
welcome  so  long  as  their  money 
lasts,  and  around  the  bar  they  get 
their  ideals  of  citizenship. 

When  an  election  is  held,  all  at 
once  this  new  land  of  their  adoption 
begins  to  take  interest  in  them,  and 
political  heelers,  well  paid  for  the 
job,  ivell  armed  ivith  whisky,  cigars 
and  m.oney,  go  among  them,  and  in 
their  oivn  lang^iage  tell  them  which 
tvay  they  nfiust  vote — and  they  do,. 
Many  an  election  has  been  swung  by 
this  means.  One  new  arrival  just 
learning  our  language,  expressed 
his  cont'empt  for  us  by  exclaiming: 
"Bah!  Canada  is  not  a  country — it's 
just  a  place  to  make  money."  That 
was  all  he  had  seen.  He  spoke  cor- 
rectly from  his  point  of  view. 

— Nellie  McClung. 

A  group  of  Ruthenians.  One  misses  young 
men  and  young  women  in  all  such  groups. 
They   are   away   from   home  earning   money. 

cases  the  applicants  before  e'.nigrating 
had  been  owners  and  cultivators  of  land, 
in  43  cases  they  had  been  agricultural 
laborers,  in  18  cases  they  had  been  tenant 
farmers,  and  in  only  15  cases,  or  less  than 
six  per  cent,  of  the  whole  had  the  appli- 
cants been  engaged  in  some  occupation 
other  than  agriculture.  A  more  minute 
examination  was  conducted  into  fifty  cases 
and  in  addition  to  other  information  it 

House  building.  The  metal  roof  and  mu;! 
walls  indicate  the  blending  of  the  new  and 
the  old  in  the  lives  of  these  people. 

was  ascertained  that  every  one  of  the 
fifty  had  come  to  Canada  with  the  purpose 
of  taking  up  land. 

Only  seven  of  these  had  actually  ac- 
quired land,  but  none  had  been  able  to  im- 
prove his  property.  Most  of  them  had 
saved  a  little  money,  but  this  had  been 

Mr.   Ortynsky   among  his   wheat. 

F  A  R  U  E  K  '  8     M  A  (I  A  Z  I  N  E 

invested  in  city  property.  Thirty-one  of 
the  fifty  had  an  equity  of  over  $1,000  in 
city  lots  or  house.  When  asked  why  they 
had  not  taken  homesteads  rather  than  in- 
vest their  money  in  the  city,  some  admit- 
ted that  the  city  had  come  to  appeal  to 
them  more  than  the  country,  but  most  of 
them  declared  that  they  were  told  that 
if  they  bought  a  house  it  would  increase 
in  value  and  then  they  could  sell  it  later 
and  have  more  money  with  which  to  start 
on  their  farms. 

However,  throughout  the  West,  a  large 
number  of  these  newcomers  did  manage 
to  secure  land  and  retain  it,  and  it  is  the 
purpose  of  this  article  to  give  some  ac- 
count of  their  success,  and  the  problems 
which  they  have  brought  us. 

North  of  Winnipeg,  between  the  lakes, 
lies  the  largest  Slav  settlement  in  Mani- 
toba. Very  little  needs  to  be  said  about 
agriculture  in  this  district.  For  the  most 
part  the  people  have  hardly  begun  to 
farm,  although  many  of  them  have  been 
in  the  country  between  ten  and  fifteen 
years.  Here  and  there  they  have  cleared 
a  few  acres  of  land  of  the  dense  poplar 
and  birch  woods.  Great  piles  of  unsold 
and  hitherto  hardly  saleable  cord-wood 
speak  eloquently  of  toil  unrewarded.  I 
know,  for  example,  of  a  case  where  a 
Ruthenian  teamed  wood  one  winter  for  a 
distance  of  18  miles,  selling  it  for  $1.90 
a  cord.  He  used  to  drive  to  the  village  one 
day,  his  oxen  drawing  about  two  cords, 
put  up  for  the  night  and  return  the  next 
day.  This  Vvood  brought  $5.00  a  cord  forty 
miles  away  at  Winnipeg.  Where  the  clear- 
ing has  been  made  about  the  shack  you 
will  find  a  small  patch  of  grain,  and  in 
the  natural  meadows  you  will  find  little 
stacks  of  wild  hay.  A  cow  or  two,  and  a 
few  pigs  constitute  the  live  stock  on  the 


Social  and  educational  conditions  are 
equally  backward.  Roads  are  few,  and 
for  the  most  part  passable  only  in  winter 
and  where  the  summer  has  been  unusual- 
ly dry.  Owing  to  insufficient  drainage 
whole  sections  are  at  times  submerged. 
Until  two  years  ago  not  a  single  school 
was  in  operation  betwen  iTeulon  and  Ar- 
borg  on  the  C.P.R.,  although  there  were 
five  stations  each  with  its  little  settlement. 
It  could  hardly  be  expected  that  such  an 
existence  would  be  preferred  to  the  easy 
money  and  gregarious  life  of  the  city.  In- 
deed those  who  did  take  homesteads  were 
usually  compelled  to  spend  much  of  their 
time  working  on  the  railways  or  in  the 
city  in  order  to  secure  a  modicum  of  ready 
money.  It  is  not  that  these  people  are 
unsuited  to  pioneer  life  in  a  wooded  coun- 
try. One-fourth  of  the  surface  of  Galicia 
is  covered  with  forest  and  almost  half  of 
that  of  Bukovina.  They  are  handy  with 
the  axe,  accustomed  to  making  things  for 
themselves  and  inured  to  hardship  and 
narrow  means.  As  a  result  they  are  the 
best  of  pioneers.  But  pioneers  cannot  be 
expected  to  contend  forever  against  un- 
drained  swamps  and  abysmal  roads  and 
the  general  neglect  of  society,  especially 
when  a  great  city  near  at  hand  beckons 
them.     No  settler  should  be  expected  to 

A  Ruthenian  bride  and  grouni.  The  bride 
is  probably  not  more  than  fourteen  years  old. 
Her    metal   udornments   weigh   several    pounds. 


An    early    stage    iu    the    Canadianizlng    of 
Ruthenian  architeoture. 

A  Ruthenian  ohuri'h,  situated  so  as  to  coni- 
niand  a  long  stretch  of  road.  The  sniallei- 
liuildiMg  merely  serves  to  shelter  and  elevate 
the  bell. 

Fully    Canadianlzed,   with   a   loss   in    style. 

begin  agricultural  operations  unless  he 
has  at  least  $500  of  capital,  and  is  assured 
roads,  schools,  and  some  opportunity  for 
social  enjoyment. 


At  Gonor  on  the  Red  River,  fifteen  miles 
below  Winnipeg,  one  meets  with  happier 
conditions.  Here  the  eye  and  the  camera 
are  kept  delightfully  busy.  The  neatness 
of  the  houses  and  the  narrowness  of  the 
lots  first  impress  one.  As  a  matter  of  fact 
the  most  usual  dimensions  of  a  farm  in 
the  Gonor  settlement  are  ninety-nine  feet 
by  four  miles,  while  sometimes  the  width 
has  been  reduced  to  thirty-three  feet. 
These  "ribbons"  of  land  you  encounter 
wherever  the  French  settled  in  the  early, 
days,  for  then  the  river  was  the  highway 
and  each  man  needed  to  have  access  to  the 
highway.  The  long  hundreds  to  be  found 
on  some  of  our  main  roads  surveyed  a 
century  ago  have  their  unhappy  origin  in 
the  same  necessities  of  transportation,  but 
a  farm  a  mile  and  a  quarter  long  by  forty 
rods  wide,  such  as  we  have  on  the  Pene- 
tang  Road,  Ontario,  is  a  marvel  of  con^ 
vencience  as  compared  with  the  eighteen- 
acre  farms  of  the  Gonor  settlement,  four 
miles  long  and  thirty-three  feet  wide.  It 
should  be  noted,  however,  that  in  most 
cases  only  a  few  acres  at  the  front  of  these 
"ribbons"  are  under  cultivation. 

«We  fall  into  conversation  with  one  of 
these  petty  farmers,  at  least  my  com- 
panion does.  He  has  spent  two  years  in 
Galicia  in  order  to  familiarize  himself 
with  the  language  and  customs  of  these 
people  whose  needs  have  been  in  the  past 
far  too  mute.  The  farmer  has  been  in 
Canada  fourteen  years.  He  bought  his 
land  for  four  dollars  an  acre.  Eight  years 
later  he  sold  it  for  twenty-five  an  acre, 
but  the  same  year  was  obliged  to  pay  for 
land  a  hundred  yards  up  the  road  and  no 
better  than  the  other^  forty-five  dollars  an 
acre.  No  more  land  speculation  for  him. 
He  had  to  work  out  to  earn  the  $400 
extra  needed  to  pay  for  the  second  farm. 

He  has  no  bank  account,  and  rarely  has 
any  cash  on  hand.  When  he  has  a  load  of 
produce  to  take  to  town  he  spends  the 
proceeds  in  sugar  and  oatmeal  and  clothes 
before  he  leturns.  As  for  the  war,  the 
Poles  and  Ruthenians  have  little  to  expect 
from  either  side:  "Let  the  devil  take  them 
all,  but  give  us  our  freedom,." 

He  thinks  there  is  more  hope  from 
Russia  than  from  Austria,  and  that 
Russia  will  redeem  her  promise  to  the 
Poles.  At  this  point  a  neighbor  bursts 
into  the  conversation.  He  is  a  burly  and 
suiiy-looking  chap.  He  has  no  use  for 
the  Rus^sians;  he  prefers  the  Austrians: 
things  are  better  in  some  ways  over  there 
than  here.  The  wordy  battle  continues 
with  some  heat,  typical  no  doubt  of  many 
a  discussion  in  a  strange  tongue  on  our 
wide  prairies  where  old  nations  are  being 
fused  into  a  new  nation.  One  further 
statement  of  the  first  speaker  is  worth  re- 
peating: "Austria  exists  for  the  Germans; 
she  has  no  thought  for  us."  It  may  not  be 
generally  known  that  one  reason  for  the 
flooding  of  Western  Canada  by  Galicians 
was  the  fact  that  Galicia  was  being  col- 
onized by  Germans,  and  the  emigration  of 



Poles  and  Ruthenians  was  encouraged  in 
order  to  leave  more  room  for  the  incom- 
ing Germans. 


The  art  of  building  among  the  Aus- 
trians  deserves  attention.  The  houses  are 
constructed  of  logs.  Willow  or  poplar 
twigs  are  then  fastened  to  the  logs  in 
place  of  lath.  A  plaster  is  then  made  of 
mud  and  manure,  the  straw  in  the  latter 
serving  like  hair  to  bind  the  material  to- 
gether. This  plaster  is  put  on  with  the 
hands,  and  when  it  has  hardened  a  coat 
of  whitewash  is  applied  with  a  home-made 
brush.  One  of  the  illustrations  shows  a 
woman  applying  the  whitewash.  A  very 
cheery  body  she  was,  not  afraid  of  the 
camera,  but  concerned  at  the  splashes  of 
whitewash  on  her  face.  It  is  curious  to 
notice  the  development  of  architecture 
among  these  people.  The  two-roomed 
plaster  house  vinth  its  thatched  roof  and 
small  square  "  windows  marks  the  first 
stage.  The  roof  is  the  first  part  of  the 
building  to  feel  the  impact  of  Canadian 
ideas,  just  as  the  shawl  covering  for  the 
head  is  the  first  item  of  female  dress  to 
be  discarded  when  the  lady  wishes  to  be 
thought  a  Canadian.  A  shingle  or  metal 
roof  replaces  the  picturesque  thatched 
roof,  and  an  extra  room  may  result  in 
the  alteration  of  the  plain  rectangular 
design.  Lastly,  clap-boards  take  the  place 
of  the  white  clay  walls  and  the  unlovely 
process  of  Canadianizing  is  complete. 

But  here  is  a  clay  oven  behind  a  house 
and  close  to  a  fine  crop  of  oats.  The  own- 
er of  the  oven  is  a  dignified  dame,  much 
more  aristocratic  in  appearance  than  the 
bare-footed  plasterer.  She  does  not  vnsh 
to  have  a  picture  of  her  oven;  she  has  the 
oven  itself;  what  need  has  she  of  a  pic- 
ture? However,  she  finally  yields  to 
pecuniary  persuasion,  and  even  removes 
the  door  so  that  the  bread  shows  inside. 
The  oven  has  been  heated  by  building  a 
fire  inside.  The  coals  and  ashes  are  then 
removed  and  the  heat,  absorbed  by  the 
walls  bakes  the  bread  with  excellent  re- 

There  are  three  different  kinds  of 
churches  in  this  settlement  —  a  Roman 
Catholic  church,  a  Greek  Orthodox  church 
and  a  Uniat  church.  The  Uniat  church  is 
much  the  finest  of  the  three,  and  occupies 
a  commanding  position  at  a  bend  in  the 
road.  In  architecture  and  service  these 
Uniat  churches  are  a  curious  combination 
of  the  Greek  and  the  Roman,  hence  the 
name.  The  supremacy  of  the  Pope  is 
recognized,  and  a  Latin  cross  surmounts 
the  edifice.  On  the  other  hand  the  cres- 
cent immediately  beneath  the  Latin  cross, 
the  shape  of  the  dome  and  the  fact  that 
the  plan  of  the  building  is  in  the  form  of 
the  Greek  cross,  whose  two  arms  are  equal 
indicate  the  decidedly  Eastern  character 
of  the  church.  Similarly,  the  icon,  or  sac- 
red picture,  is  used  in  place  of  the  crucifix- 
and  suppliants  kneel  before  these  icons, 
alternately  kissing  the  picture  and  the 

Further  v.'est  one  finds  everywhere  Aus- 
trian settlements  in  various  stages  of  ad- 
vancement. Iti  some  places  the  conditions 
are  hardly  better  than  those  decribed  in 
Northern  Manitoba,  though  Saskatchewan 

The  next  advance   in   housebuildiiis. 

and  Alberta  have  never  been  so  recreant 
to  their  trust  in  the  matter  of  education  as 
was  Manitoba  under  the  late  regime.  In 
a  good  many  places,  however,  one  en- 
counters communities  or  individuals  whose 
success  points  the  way  to  what  it  is  hoped 
will  be  the  ultimate  state  of  all.  An  ac- 
count of  the  career  of  one  such  farmer 
may  serve  to  illustrate  what  can  be  ac- 

Mike  Ortynsky  came  to  Canada  as  a 
lad  of  fifteen.  He  worked  for  seven  years 
in  a  lumber  yard  in  Winnipeg,  in  which 
time  he  saved  a  thousand  dollars.  Also 
he  acquired  a  knowledge  of  the  English 
language  and  of  Canadian  business 
methods.  About  that  time  part  of  the 
excellent  tract  previously  held  by  the 
Doukhobors,  was  thrown  open  for  home- 
steading  owing  to  the  refusal  of  the  Douk- 
hobor  community  to  take  oift  individual 
patents.  Our  young  Ruthenian  thus  ob- 
tained a  good  quarter  some  five  miles 
from  Veregin.  He  cut  down  what  bush 
there  was,  broke  the  land,  and  was  re- 
warded as  good  farmers  in  Saskatchewan 
always  are  rewarded.  Realizing  that  320 
acres  can  be  farmed  more  profitably  than 
160  acres,  he  purchased  another  quarter, 
paying  ?26  an  acre  for  it.  This  season's 
crop  should  clear  him  of  indebtedness  and 
make  him  the  undisputed  possessor  of 
320  acres  with  stock,  implements  and 
fairly  good  buildings.  His  cattle  number 
sixteen,  his  horses  six  and  his  hogs 
seventeen.  He  is  a  grain-grower,  not  a 
mixed    farmer,    and    in    1915,    like    most 


It  was  announced  that  this 
article  on  incubators  would  ap- 
pear in  the  January  number. 
Owing  to  the  fact  that  the  Feb- 
ruary Special  is  covering  the 
whole  subject  in  a  very  thor- 
ough manner,  this  article  ha^ 
been  held  over  for  that  issue. 
We  wish  to  state  that  it  is  the 
best  thing  on  the  subject  that 
has  appeared  in  Canada  to  date. 
It  is  so  practical  and  reasoriable. 
The  writer  is  one  of  the  big 
men  in  the  poultry  business. 

farmers  in  the  West,  had  an  unusually 
large  acreage  under  crop — 21.5  acres  of 
oats,  60  acres  of  wheat,  and  14  acres  of 
barley.  Ten  thousand  dollars  would  be  a 
conservative  estimate  of  the  assets  of 
this  young  Ruthenian  of  twenty-nine,  who 
started  seven  years  ago  with  $1,000.  For 
the  present  the  question  of  educational 
facilities  does  not  affect  him  personally, 
as  his  children  are  too  young  to  go  to 
school.  It  may  be  surmised,  however,  that 
he  will  hardly  be  satisfied  with  the  brand 
of  "bilingual"  teaching  which  is  being- 
furnished  to  Ruthenians  in  most  of  the 
schools  of  this  part  of  the  province. 

In  Saskatchewan,  though  not  to  the 
same  extent  as  in  Manitoba,  the  Provincial 
Government  has  been  worsted  by  the  prob- 
lem thrust  upon  it  by  the  Federal  policy 
of  immigration.  Principal  Oliver  of  the 
Presbyterian  College  at  Saskatchewan, 
speaking  in  Regina  recently,  declared  that 
it  was  the  60,000  Ruthenians  in  the  pro- 
vince who  constituted  the  great  educa- 
tional problem.  He  said  that  there  were 
two  hundred  school  districts  in  which  they 
formed  a  majority,  that  seventy-five  or 
eighty  of  the  schools  in  these  districts 
were  conducted  by  Ruthenians,  of  whom 
less  than  half  a  dozen  possessed  profes- 
sional certificates,  and  that  the  system  of 
local  boards  was  a  failure,  owing  to  the 
impossibility  of  securing  properly  equip- 
ped trustees.  Premier  Scott,  however,  has 
promised  that  the  coming  session  shall  be 
known  as  the  session  of  educational  re- 
form as  last  session  was  known  as  that 
of  temperance  reform. 

Alberta  has  never  failed  to  come  to 
grips  with  the  proble-m.  Schools  have 
always  been  opened  for  the  summer 
months  at  least,  and  the  best  possible 
teachers  secured.  An  attempt  made 
three  years  ago  to  thrust  Manitoba- 
trained  "bilingual"  teachers  upon  these 
schools  was  manfully  met  by  the  Depart- 
ment of  Education.  The  difficulties  of 
persuading,  or  failing  that,  coercing  sel- 
fish or  ignorant  parents  to  send  their 
children  to  school  have  never  been  shirk- 
ed. It  is  encouraging  to  see  the  reward  of 
these  efforts  in  the  last  provincial  elec- 
tions. In  a  constituency,  eighty-five  per 
cent.  Ruthenian,  a  candidate  who  favored 
English  in  the  schools,  was  elected  by  a 
large  majority  over  the  editor  of  a  paper 
devoted  i,o  the  support  of  the  Ukranian 
movement.  There  is  still  a  battle  to  fight, 
for  the  powers  of  darkness  have  not  yet 
been  routed,  but  victory  appears  to  in- 
cline to  the  right  side,  thanks  largely  to 
the  presence  of  two  or  three  able  and  reso- 
lute men  in  the  Department  of  Education 
at  Edmonton.  And  in  Manitoba  the  situa- 
tion appears  to  be  clearing.  It  is  now  pro- 
posed to  enlarge  the  consolidated  school 
at  Teulon  into  an  institution  where  Ruth- 
enian and  English-speaking  teachers  may 
be  trained  side  by  side  in  the  class  rooms 
It  is  also  suggested  that  a  demonstration 
farm  be  operated  in  connection  with  the. 
training-school.  This  arrangement  un- . 
doubtedly  gets  down  to  first  principles.  It 
recognizes  that  no  people  should  live  a 
life  apart  in  Canada,  and  least  of  all  ■ 
should  education  be  separate.  It  recog- 
nizes also  the  desirability  of  taking  ex- . 
Continued  on  Page  69. 

The  Greenhouse  in  Mid-winter 

Try  New  Suggestions  on  a  Small  Scale  and  Compare  Results  With  Your  Present 
Methods — Begin  Now  to  Plan  for  the  Spring  and  Summer 

IN  preparing  the  following  notes  on 
the  treatment  of  various  greenhouse 
crops,  I  have  drawn  entirely  upon 
experience  and  observation  in  the  grow- 
ing of  each  crop  mentioned.  If  you  are 
successful  at  present  with  different 
methods;  do  not  make  the  mistake  of 
abandoning  those  methods,  and  adopting 
any  of  mine  simply  because  they  are  dif- 
ferent, or  look  as  though  they  may  work 
out  Vi^ell  for  you.  The  proper  method  by 
which  to  advance  is  to  try  all  new  sug- 
gestions on  a  small  scale,  and  compare 
results  with  your  present  manner  of  car- 
ing for  each  crop,  and  adopt  only  that 
which  proves  best  adapted  to  your  en- 

The  above  is  advice:  what  follows  is 
not,  being  merely  information,  given 
fairly,  from  experience,  in  the  hope  that 
beginners  and  others  of  limited  experi- 
ence may  find  suggestions  that  may  be  of 
assistance  towards  their  advancement 
in  winter  gardening. 

The  suggestions  that  follow  are  in- 
tended more  for  the  man  with  a  small 
greenhouse  and  limited  experience  than 
the  man  with  a  large  commercial  range 
I  do  not  wish,  however,  to  have  you 
infer  that  the  older  and  more  experi- 
enced grower  cannot  find  many  valuable 
hints  by  visiting  and  closely  observing 
methods  employed  by  his  apparently  in- 
experienced neighbor. 

Whether  one  grows  flowers  or  veget- 
ables, the  mid-winter  season  is  usually  a 
busy  one,  and  now  plans  should  be  made 
for  the  spring  and  summer  seasons,  and 
if  flowers  are  grown,  such  as  carnation-, 
chrysanthemums,  or  roses,  it  is  time  to 
prepare  for  next  winter.  Now  is  the 
time  to  closely  observe  the 
diff'erent  traits  of  each 
variety  of  carnations, 
which  you  may  be  grow- 
ing, and  to  try  to  decide 
which  varieties  you  may 
wish  to  continue  another 
season,  and  which  it  may 
pay  you  to  discard. 

If  you  are  shipping  to  a 
commission  merchant,  or 
a  retailer,  try  to  get  their 
opinion  as  to  the  desira- 
bility of  the  diflferent 
varieties  from  as  many 
angles  as  possible,  such 
as  color,  keeping  quali- 
ties, etc.  The  latter  men- 
tioned point  is  most  im- 
portant and  some  of  the 
newer  introductions  occa- 
sionally fail  in  this  re- 

Pink  Delight  is  one  of 
the  most  difficult  varieties 
from  which  to  root  cut- 
tings. The  color  is  good, 
size  small,  though  in 
spite  of  the  small  flower, 
it    is     always    in     great 

By    Elmer   Weaver 

This  is  the  first  of  a  series  of  articles  on 
(jrcenhouse  worl;  that  is  l)ein(j  ivritten  by 
Elmer  Weaver,  an  expert,  practical  greenhouse 
man;  trhere  the  dollars  and  cents  returns  are 
a  most  essential  part  of  the  continuance  in  his 
business.  These  articles  will  be  of  immense 
service  to  both  the  professional  and  the  ama- 
teur, and  in  February  there  icill  appear  a  story 
of  the  bwildinr/  of  a  greerihouse  that  will  carry 
many  practical  ideas  and   hints. 

—The  Editor. 

demand  on  account  of  its  excellent  keep- 
ing qualities. 

Cuttings  of  all  varieties  should  be 
taken  from  healthy  stock,  Mrs.  C.  W. 
Ward,  Matchless,  Alma  Ward,  Mrs.  Ake- 
hurst.  Enchantress,  Supreme,  and  Alice, 
at  certain  seasons  of  the  year  make  sev- 
eral fine  shoots  on  each  flower  stem. 
These  side  branches  make  excellent  cut- 
tings, and  when  flowers  are  cut  they 
should  be  carefully  removed  so  as  not  lo 
bend  or  break  the  stem  a  short  distance 
above  heel.  We  usually  remove  a  few 
leaves  f lom  each  .cutting  at  the  base, 
and  if  very  long,  cut  the  ends  off  the 
leaves.  Do  not  allow  cuttings  to  become 
wilted,  but  place  in  water  for  a  short 
time,  not  over  one  or  tivo  hours,  then  if 
you  cannot  place  in  sand  at  once,  keep 
them  in  a  cool  place,  covered  so  as  to  re- 
tain moisture. 


Any  good  sharp  sand  will  do  for  pro- 
pagating, though  we  have  found  that  it 
is  best  not  to  have  sand  too  fine.     It  is 

rceiiliouse  near   Toronto   where   thousniids    of    doll^iis 
market  in    a   big   city. 

iinportant  that  the  sand  be  clean,  some 
growers  root  two  or  more  lots  of  cut- 
tings in  the  same  sand,  though  we  have 
found  it  pays  us  to  put  clean,  new  sand 
into  the  house  for  each  lot  of  cuttings 
rooted.  Sand  does  not  cost  as  much  as 
we  would  loose  by  having  fungus  carry 
off  a  lot  of  cuttings.  Some  growers  con- 
tend that  stem  rot  fungus  is  caused  by, 
unclean  and  improper  methods  in  the 
cutting  bench. 

In  the  larger  establishments  a  separ- 
ate house  is  generally  employed  for  pro- 
pagating, where  temperature,  moisture, 
and  shade  can  be  easily  controlled.  We 
have  proven  to  our  entire  satisfaction 
that  this  is  not  essential  to'  success,  as 
we  have  tried  special  propagating 
houses,  and  also  a  bench  on  the  north 
side  of  a  regular  house  40  ft.  in  width 
in  which  carnations  are  grown  for  cut 

A  bench  on  the  north  side  of  an  east 
and  west  house  can  be  used  very  well 
for  this  purpose  by  tacking  a  strij)  of 
T^uslin,  or  other  light  cloth  to  the  roof, 
and  allowing  it  to  hang  down  in  front 
of  the  bench.  Any  degree  of  shade  de- 
sired can  be  obtained  in  this  way.  We 
construct  our  bench  of  boards  about  "^ 
in.  wide  and  allow  %  in.  space  between 
each  board. 


After  whitewashing  thoroughly,  about 
two  to  three  inches  of  medium  size  cind- 
ers are  placed  in  bottom  and  levelled  ofl" 
on  top.  Upon  this  cinder  foundation, 
which  allows  drainage,  sand  is  placed 
and  made  firm  with  a  heavy  tamper  to 
the  depth  of  .3  inches. 

We  use  a  trowel  to  cut 
,  a  groove'  in  sand  in  which 
to  insert  cutting.  They 
should  'be  placed  about 
an  inch  apart  in  rows, 
and  rows  can  be  1% 
inches  apart.  When  one 
row  is  filled,  press  sand 
firmly  against  cuttings 
before  scoring  another 
row.  The  depth  of  inser- 
tion in  sand  depends  upon 
length  of  cutting,  and 
should  vary  from  %  to 
IVi  inches.  Water  thor- 
oughly as  soon  as  cut- 
tings are  in  sand,  and  be 
sure  you  have  sand  satur- 
ated until  water  shows 
underneath  bench. 

This  method  of  bench 
construction  allows  thor- 
ough drainage,  and  for 
the  first  ten  days  the  sand 
can  be  soaked  every  other 
day.  At  each  watering 
reduce  the  amount  some- 
what. After  this  period 
allow  three  to  four  days 
to      intervene      between 

iiiunii^     find 


F  A  R  M  E  R  '  S     iM  A  G  A  Z I  N  E 

waterings.  A  safe  method  to  follow  is  to 
pull  out  a  few  cuttings  each  day  and 
examine  the  heel,  if  it  is  moist  or  wet 
withhold  water  another  day,  but  if  it 
appears  dry,  and  shows  signs  of  wilting, 
the  necessity  of  water  is  indicated. 


Soon  as  short  roots  begin  to  form  al- 
low the  sand  to  dry  out  gradually  and 
when  roots  are  about  half  an  inch  or 
more  in  length  the  cutting  should  be  re- 
moved and  potted  up,  or  placed  in  flats  if 
you  do  not  use  pots.  We  find  it  pays  to 
pot  all  our  carnation  plants,  or  place 
them  in  paper  bands  would  be  more  ap- 
propriate, as  our  pots  have  been  gath- 
ering moss  for  a  few  seasons,  and  in- 
stead we  use  a  paper  band  giving  us  a 
square  receptacle  about  2  in.  each  way. 
Many  growers  are  using  these  bands 
now,  and  appear  to  give  them  strong  en- 
dorsement. For  the  most  part  they  .ire 
simply  made  of  manilla  paper  2  in.  wide 
and  about  9  in.  long,  these  being  folded 
around  a  block  2  in.  square  and  placed 
in  bed,  upon  either  a  sifting  of  fine 
ashes,  or  sand,  or  upon  soil.  Where  we 
place  them  on  soil,  we  usually  cover  soil 
with  sheathing  paper  to  confine  tjie  roots 
more  closely  in  the  band.  A  very  cheap 
grade  of  paper  will  do.  We  have  used 
many  thousands  of  these  bands  for  to- 
matoes, 3  in.  deep  and  4  in.  square.  This 
larger  size  is  folded  around  a  4  in.  block 
then  pinned  together  at  the  corners  with 
an  ordinary  pin. 

Personally,  I  do  not  admire  the  band 
that  has  no  provision  for  fastening  to- 
gether, so  we  designed  a  form,  and  have 
a  box  factory  cut  and  crease  them  for  us, 
the  cost  being  about  .50c  per  1,000  in 
lots  of  100,000,  for  a  band  a  little  less 
than  2  in.  each  way. 

After  these  bands  are  placed  upon 
bench  they  are  filled  with  soiled  and  cut- 

tings planted  in  them  the  same  as  you 
would  plant  them  in  a  flat. 

Always  be  careful  not  to  plant  a  car- 
nation any  deeper  in  soil  than  it  has 
been  previously  planted.  Bear  this  in 
mind  when  planting  from  sand.  Again 
when  planting  into  the  field,  and  especi- 
ally in  the  fall  of  the  year  when  you 
transplant  from  the  field  into  the  house. 
If  you  are  careful  in  this  matter,  I  feel 
sure  you  have  eliminated  a  serious 
source  of  stem  rot. 

After  potting  young  plants,  do  not 
over-water,  but  give  sufficient  water  to 
keep  from  drying  out.  I  do  not  think  it 
pays  to  neglect  watering  at  any  time  to 
the  extent  of  having  plants  become  very 
dry,  though  as  much,  if  not  more,  dam- 
age can  easily  be  done  by  too  much 
water.  The  soil  in  which  you  pot  cut- 
tings should  be  rather  loose  and  fibrous, 
like  an  old  well-iotted  sod,  with  little  or 
no  fertilizer.  We  do  not  add  manure  to 
our  potting  soil  for  carnations. 

PAYS    BETTER    TO    SELL    THAN    TO    BUY 

In  planning  ahead,  figure  out  careful- 
ly how  much  space  you  can  devote  to  any 
one  crop,  then  plan  to  have  enough  good 
healthy  plants  to  fill  that  space.  A  good 
rule  to  follow  with  carnations  is  to  set 
out  enough  plants  to  plant  your  houses 
8  X  8  in.  apart,  and  then  should  the  sea- 
son be  favorable  and  the  plants  grow  too 
large  for  this  spacing,  you  can  usually 
find  a  market  for  the  surplus  in  the  fall. 
It  always  pays  better  to  sell  than  to 

In  addition  to  the  varieties  of  carna- 
tions already  mentioned,  there  are  sev- 
eral other  very  desirable  ones  which  do 
not  produce  cuttings,  on  the  stem  at  the 
time  flower  is  ready  to  cut.  Several  are, 
Gloriasa,  W.  Wonder,  Beacon,  etc. 

In  order  to  get  a  stock  of  cuttings  of 
such    varieties,   we   top    a    small    lot   of 

plants  about  November  1st,  and  by  mid- 
winter have  a  fine  lot  of  cuttings  to  sel- 
ect from  these  plants.  Try  to  keep  the 
temperature  of  the  cutting  bench  50 
degs.  to  55  degs.  at  night,  and  55  degs  to 
60  degs.  during  the  day.  The  blooming 
carnation  plants  at  this  season  require 
constant  attention,  as  at  all  other  sea- 
sons of  the  year.  Keep  a  close  watch  for 
insects,  spray  for  red  spider,  and  fumi- 
gate or  spray  for  aphis.  Water  when 
soil  appears  to  dry  out  slightly. 

We  have  very  little  trouble  with  red 
spider,  so  we  find  by  keeping  the  plant 
in  a  healthy  growing  condition  the  spid- 
er rarely  can  gain  a  hold  on  it.  Last 
season  for  over  two  months  we  did  not 
have  the  foliage  of  our  carnation  plants 
wet,  either  by  spraying,  or  watering,, 
and  did  not  have  any  spider  to  contend 
with.  We  water  underneath  the  plants 
between  the  rows. 

If  you  grow  a  few  crysanthemums,^ 
take  care  of  the  stock  plants  at  this  sea- 
son so  you  will  have  a  lot  of  fine  healthy 
cuttings  by  March  and  early  April.  Keep 
them  cool,  and  on  the  dry  side  so  the 
cuttings  are  not  too  soft. 

Aphis  can  be  kept  in  check  by  fumi- 
gating with  tobacco  stems,  or  nicotine 
paper,  or  spraying  with  nicotine  solu- 
tions. The  first  method  is  cheapest 
where  one  has  a  supply  of  stems  avail- 
able, though  it  is  not  as  dependable,  or 
so  desirable  a  method  as  the  latter  two 
mentioned.  Where  spider  must  be  eradi- 
cated, water  is  necessary  under  a  pres- 
sure of  15  to  20  lb.  per  sq.  inch.  Spray 
thoroughly  on  clear  days. 

Spraying  with  a  fine  spray,  commer- 
cial lime  sulphur  solution,  diluted  1  part 
to  50  will  kill  spider,  but  at  same  time 
will  discolor  foliage.  Salt  also  is  recom- 
mended, a  pint  to  several  gallons  of 
water  being  beneficial. 

Placing  a  Farm  on  Its  Feet:  ByAionza  l.  Brown 

An  Old  Ontario  Farmer  Hired  a  W ell-known.  Retired  Farmer,  Who  Once 
Owned  a  Gold  Medal  Farm,  to  T ell  Him  What  to  Do — First  Aid 

FARMER  GRAY,  five  falls  ago,  had 
occasion  to  visit  the  big  annual  exhi- 
bition in  Toronto  and  resolved  to  ac- 
cept the  invitation  of  one  of  the  big  imple- 
ment manufacturers  to  visit  their  place  of 
business.  He  had  known  one  of  the  pro- 
prietors in  his  younger  days.  Together 
the  two  friends  wandered  through  the  big 
factory.  The  manufacturer  had  plenty 
of  time  to  explain  the  various  features  of 
the  establishment.  The  farmer  looked  at 
each  part  of  the  concern  with  growing 
interest.  Finally  they  stood  before  the 
finished  machine  in  its  shining  coat  of 
varnish  and  the  completeness  that  warms 
the  heart  alike  of  manufacturer  and 

"Well,  I  suppose  that  this  is  the  end 
of  it  all,"  remarked  Mr.  Gray. 

"Not  at  all,"  replied  the  manufacturer, 
"this  is  only  the  end  of  one  part  of  the 
business.  The  serious  part  of  the  con- 
cern, as  far  as  the  business  interest  has 

to  do  with  it  all,  is  just  beginning.  We 
must  sell  all  these  machines  at  a  profit  or 
the  whole  shop  will  soon  go  to  discard. 
There  is  no  use  in  our  buying  lumber  and 
iron  and  paint  and  labor  and  machinery 
unless  it  will  pay  us  to  do  so." 

The  -ditch  meandered  through  the  lower  ten 
acres  in  such  a  way  as  to  spoil  the  whole  field 
for  anything  but  pasture. 

Gray  commenced  to  see  things  in  a  new^ 
light.  He  had  inherited  a  100-acre  farm 
from  his  father.  It  was  more  than  twenty 
years  since  he  had  commenced  working  on 
his  own  responsibility.  Beyond  keeping 
his  head  above  water  and  furnishing  his 
farm  with  the  ordinary  equipment  he  had 
done  very  little.  Lately  he  had  com- 
menced to  think  of  what  he  was  to  do  for 
his  boys,  the  elder,  aged  nineteen,  and  the- 
younger  seventeen.  He  was  but  forty- 
five  himself  and  he  felt  that  he  and  his 
wife  were  good  for  at  least  twenty  years 
of  good  hard  work.  The  thought  of  his 
sons  leaving  him  was  quite  distasteful  to- 
him.  Equally  abhorrent  was  the  thought 
that  his  boys  should  have  a  poorer  start 
in  life  than  he  had  enjoyed.  The  trip 
through  the  big  factory  had  set  him  think- 
ing. He  realized  why  this  big  concern 
had  its  men  out  on  the  search  for  material 
and  sales.  He  understood  something  of 
the    responsibilities   of   both    the    buying 



and  selling  agents.  Better  still,  he  came 
to  understand  why  so  much  care  was  be- 
stowed upon  the  careful  figuring  done  in 
the  central  office.  Balance,  he  saw,  must 
be  maintained  everywhere.  There  must 
be  no  guess  work  about  it.  Unless  sup- 
plies both  of  material  and  labor  were  se- 
cured for  the  making  up  in  his  machines, 
and  unless  the  machines  when  manufac- 
tured were  disposed  of  at  a  profit  the 
manufacturer  might  as  well  close  his 
doors  in  order  that  the  sheriff  might  be 
saved  that  unpleasant  task  later  on.  The 
big  problem  of  the  manufacturer  was  not 
so  much  the  making  of  machines  as  the 
making  of  machines  and  selling  them  at 
a  profit.  True,  there  was  a  certain  fas- 
cination to  an  onlooker  in  the  having 
control  of  hundreds  of  men  and  in  the 
being  able  to  start  or  to  stop  acres  of 
machinery.  But  all  the  power  over  men 
and  machinery  would  vanish  with  the  los- 
ing of  profits.  As  far  as  the  firm  was 
concerned,  every  man  and  every  machine 
must  be  reckoned  with  in  terms  of  profits. 
Every  laborer,  in  the  office  and  in  the  fac- 
tory or  on  the  road  must  pay  his  way  and 
add  to  the  profits  of  the  concern  or  be  got 
rid  of.  It  might  look  hard,  but  unless 
profits  kept  coming  in,  what  was  to  be- 
come of  the  business?  Outside  of  the 
office,  Mr.  Gray's  friend  was  the  assist- 
ant in  many  a  philanthropic  enterprise, 
but  in  the  management  of  the  concern 
everything  must  be  computed  in  terms  of 
good  hard  cash. 

A  clearer  light  had  dawned  upon  the 
farmer.  He  saw  that  the  manufacturer 
was  simply  a  man  who  had  chosen  to 
work  in  wood  and  iron  and  paint  and  in 
human  labor  with  the  object  of  putting 
together  machinery  that  others,  might 
buy  and  who  in  this  machinery  building 
made  a  profit,  who  must  make  a  profit  or 
go  out  of  business.  Mr.  Gray  saw  his  own 
work  in  a  new  light.  He  also  was  the 
maker  of  things  to  sell.  He,  too,  made 
use  of  raw  material.  His  raw  material 
was  air  and  sunlight  and  soil  and  seeds. 
Like  the  manufacturer  his  business  was 
to  make  combinations  of  these  that  other 
men  might  want  and  for  which  they  were 
willing  to  pay  him  a  price 
that  would  yield  him  a 
profit  over  the  cost  of 
combining  and  marketing 
his  materials. 

These  were  facts  with 
which  Mr.  Gray  had  been 
familiar  all  his  days.  The 
difference  was  that  he 
now  saw  the  old  facts 
with  greater  clearness. 
Campaign  orators  had 
told  him  and  his  brother 
farmers  that  the  democ- 
racy rested  upon  agricul- 
ture as  a  basic  industry. 
His  city  cousins  had  re- 
minded him  of  the  good 
food  that  he  ate  and  of 
the  fine  scenery  that  glad- 
dened his  eye  as  he  drove 
his  team  afield.  Of  all  this 
he  was  fully  conscious. 
He  was  conscious,  too,  of  Mr.   Gray 

the  fact  that  he  must  straighteniDg 
V  ...  httlc  bpvond 

nave  money  if  taxes  were         of  the  djtdi. 

'J'liin  in  a  sturi/.  Hut  it  hna  o  foundalion  in 
fact.  The  icriter  Hces  in  u  irell-seltled  section 
in  Eastern  Canada  where  an  old  farm  carrying 
a  fine  family  was  saved  by  the  bringing  out  of 
a  well-known  farm  expert  from  his  place  of 
retirement  to  adrise  on  the  situation.  It  points 
out  how  this  farmer,  of  course  under  nn  as- 
sumed tiame  here  fur  good  reasons,  iras  big 
enough  to  ask  for  adcice,  and  also  brave  enough 
to  tdl.c  the  adcice  and  make  'it  go.  He  did  sn 
in  such  a  way  that  the  farm  was  regencrati  il 
and  the  family  became  so  interested  in  agricul- 
ture that  they  remniaed  thdre,  and  are  to-day 
big  men  in  their  district.  A  further  article 
irill  appear  in  a  later  number. 

— The  Editors. 

to  be  paid,  the  home  well  furnished,  the 
children  educated  and  the  church  main- 
tained. Now  he  saw  that  all  this  depended 
upon  his  making  profits  in  his  business. 
If  there  were  a  part  of  his  equipment,  let 
it  be  a  machine  or  an  animal  that  was  not 
returning  him  a  little  more  than  he  was 
expending  upon  it,  that  part  of  his  equip- 
ment was  but  an  encumbrance  to  him,  no 
matter  what  the  sentiment  associating 
itself  therewith.  Little  wonder  that 
Farmer  Gray  did  not  sleep  much  for  a 
night  or  two  after  returning  from  his 
trip  to  the  big  city  with  its  mighty  manu- 

In  the  midst  of  his  perplexity  he  re- 
called a  query  and  a  remark  of  his  friend 
the  manufacturer  as  they  had  made  their 
rounds  of  the  factory. 

"Do  you  see  that  man?"  his  friend  had 
asked.  "Well,"  his  friend  continued. 
"Every  once  in  a  while  we  ask  him  to  come 
here  to  look  over  our  way  of  doing  things 
in  order  that  he  may  discover  any  leaks 
in  the  business.  We  pay  him  five  dollars 
an  hour  for  doing  this.  We  never  got  into 
the  way  of  doing  business  till  we  got 
these  men  to  help  us." 


"But,"  asked  the  farmer,  "why  didn't 
you  fellows  act  as  your  own  expert?" 

"Well,  we  did  try  that  for  a  while,"  was 
the  answer,  "but  have  you  ever  noticed 
that  when  your  body  gets  out  of  kilter 
and  your  boneset  fails,  you  go  to  the  doc- 
tor? The  fact  is  our  business  was  sick 
and  although  we  had  to  swallow  hard  be- 

took   the    expert    old    neighbor's    advice    and    did    a 
of  the  creek  the  next  season.     It   made  a   nice  job 
their  own   efforts.     The  ground   was   worked   right   u 

fore  doing  it,  we  finally  called  in  the  scien- 
tific man.    We  are  glad  we  did." 

It  occurred  to  Gray  that  he  might  do 
worse,  to  say  the  least,  than  to  follow 
aome  such  course.  After  turning  the  mat- 
ter over  in  his  mind  for  some  time  he  de- 
cided to  write  to  a  farmer  who  had  lately 
retired  from  farm  work  to  the  city.  He 
had  every  confidence  in  his  neighbor's  in- 
tegrity and  in  his  skill  as  a  practical 
agriculturist  and  money-maker.  Here 
is  the  letter  he  sent  to  him. 

Dear    Mr.    Watkins: 

I    have    i-iiuoluded    th:it    I    am    not    making 
all    out   uf    uiy    farm    that    I    should.      I    am 
sure  that  you  are  the  very  man  to  show  me 
where   I   am   coming   short.     Will   you   come 
for  a  couple  of  weeks  and  help  me  get  into 
a   rignt   way   of  doing   things?     I   want  you 
to   look   over   my   place   and   to   ask    me  any 
questions    you    like    about    my    management, 
or    circumstances.     After    you    have    had    all ' 
the   time   you  want   to   form   your   opinion    I 
want   you    to   let   me   know   what   you    think 
and   I'll  try  to  live  up  to  your  advi(e.     For 
doing  this  I  am  ■willing  to  pay  you  five  dol 
lars    per   day   and   all   expenses." 

Watkins  was  a  grim  old  veteran  farmer^ 
who  had  made  his  way  by  hard  thinking 
and  harcf  knocks.  For  a  week  he  walked 
over  Gray's  farm  without  making  a  single 
comment.  Towards  the  end  of  the  second, 
week  for  the  first  time  he  invited  the 
proprietor  to  walk  over  the  premises  with 
him.  "Land,"  said  he,  "sells  for  about  a 
hundred  dollars  an  acre.  Now  what 
about  that  ten-acre  field  there  with  the 
creek  in  it?  How  much  has  it  returned 
you  for  the  last  ten  years?"  Gray  could 
not  tell  him.  "I'm  sure  that  it  is  of  but 
little  use  to  you  for  anything  but  pasture 
and  that  for  early  in  the  summer.  The 
creek  in  itself  in  an  asset  to  your  place 
but  as  it  now  wanders  through  that  fine 
field  it  is  simply  a  hindrance.  The  thing 
for  you  to  do  is  to  straighten  the  creek  and 
to  drain  the  field." 

From  field  to  field  Watkins  took  his 
younger  brother  farmer  till  the  whole 
place  was  gone  over  and  Watkins  had 
given  his  opinions. as  to  the  variety  of 
crops  that  the  farm  soil  was  best  fitted 
to  produce  and  the  variety  of  labor  to 
which  the  farmer  was  best  adapted,  for 
Watkins  had  studied  the  qualities  of  the 
farmer  and  his  aptitudes  equally  with  the 
resources  of  the  farm. 

"Well;  where  had  I 
better  begin?"  queried 
Gray.  "Here  it  is  the 
early  fall.  This  is  about 
the  busiest  time  of  the 
whole  year." 

Watkins  looked  at  Gray 
for  a  full  two  minutes. 
"That's  about  the  best 
question  any  farmer  ever 
asks.  Stick  to  asking  that 
question.  But  there's  an- 
other that's  just  as  im- 
portant. It's  this :  'Where 
do  you  intend  to  come 
out?'  You've  brought  me 
out  here  to  show  you  how 
***'  you  can  make  most  dol- 
lars off  your  farm.  Now 
just  make  up  your  mind 
that  you're  not  going  to 
do  anything  that  won't 
''  .  ''  give  you  some  good 
piece  of  the        profits.    Make  friends  of 

and  cost  very        jo^es     and     Smith,     the 
p   to  the  edge 

drovers.  Better  still  have 



them  pasture  a  few  dozen  sheep  with  you 
for  a  couple  of  months.    They'll  allow  you 
about  forty  cents  each  a  month  for  feed- 
ing them.     If  they  wont  take  you  up  on 
the  pasturing-  offer,  buy  outright.     You 
may  expect  to  make  about  a  dollar  and  a 
quarter  on  each  of  them  but  you'll  have 
to  take  the  risk.     Place  the  flock  in  each 
field  before  you  plow  it.     In  a  couple  of 
weeks  they'll  have  cleaned  up  the  weeds 
and  rubbish  in  each  field  where  the  grain 
grew,  so  thoroughly  that  you'll  not  know 
it.     All  that  you  make  on  the  sheep  will 
be  clear  gain.    Weeds  will  vanish  but  will 
leave  some  profit  behind  them.     Later  on, 
look  up  a  few  steers  for  fattening  pur- 
poses.   Bullock  and  Brindle,  if  they  know 
their  business   as  well   as   they  used   to 
know  it,  will  think  about  your  pocket  book 
as  well  as  their  own.     If  they  don't  you 
know  the  remedy.    Buy  nothing  but  what 
you  are  quite  sure  you  can  make  a  dollar 
on.    Each  thousand-pound  bullock  should 
yield    about   ten    dollars    cash    profit.      I 
noticed  last  summer  that  you  had  as  fine 
a  crop  of  oats  as  I  saw  growing  in  this 
township.      Suppose    you    give    them    a 
special  cleaning  in  the  fanning  mill,  send 
for  the  government  seed  grain  inspector, 
have  him  give  you  a  test,  advertise  in  the 
local  papers  and  in  a  few  of  the  farm 
magazines.    Sell  all  that  you  can  spare  for 
seed.    This  fall;  get  rid  of  all  your  fences 
except  your  road  and  line  and  lane  fences. 
Leave  a  lane  wide  enough  for  teams  to 
pass  comfortably.     Then   divide   the  re- 
mainder of  your  farm  into  two  sections 
so  that  you  may  have  the  two  following 
five-year    rotations:    Corn,    oats,    clover, 
timothy,  pasture  or  hay.    The  other  rota- 
tion will  be  roots,  barley,  clover,  timothy,  . 
pasture.     This  can  be  varied  by  sowing 
fall  wheat  on  the  pasture  land.     Much 
will  depend  on  circumstances,  but  this  is 
a  good  rotation  to  work  for.    It  will  keep 
your  land  in  fine  shape,    It  will  give  you 
lots   of  work   all  the   year  through   and 
provide  ways  and  means  for  keeping  a 
little  money  coming  in  every  month.     It 
provides. plenty  of  fodder  and  you  may 
feed  this  to  the  dairy  herd  or  fattening 
cattle  as  you  think  best.    Think  this  over 
and    I'll    provide    you    with    a    plan    for 
straightening  that   creek.      Suppose   you 
try  that  pasture  field  over  there  in  pota- 
toes for  next  year  and  see  what  it  will 
do  for  you. 


"I  would'  keep  your  eye  on  that  5-acre 
orchard,  and  see  that  the  pruning,  spray- 
ing and  marketing  is  done  right.  Join 
your  local  fruit  growers'  association  and 
get  into  line  with  a  good  pack  and  the 
co-operative  way  of  handling  your  fruit. 
You  should  have  96  per  cent,  and  not  46 
percent,  of  what  the  consumer  pays. 

"In  the  matter  of  poultry,  select  all  the 
stuff  you  want  to  market  and  feed  in  close 
crates  for  two  weeks  along  the  lines  ad- 
vocated by  the  O.A.C.  and  the  Manitoba 
College  especially  which  fattens  chickens 
for  farmers  in  a  way  that  shows  up  well. 

"In  the  matter  of  markets,  I  would  take 
a  day  off  and  visit  the  city  to  get  into 
touch  with  the  select  grocer  trade  or  a 
Jine  of  private  customers.     Then  put  up 

none  but  first-class  goods.    You  can  do  it, 
and  make  the  highest  prices  at  it. 

"In  the  dairy  business  you  are  going 
along  the  right  lines.  Keep  up  your  cow- 
testing  and  send  your  boarder  cows  to  the 
shambles  as  soon  as  you  find  them  out. 
Above  all  insist  on  cleanliness  in  the 
stable  and  in  the  marketing  of  milk. 


"Men  in  your  township  are  noted  for 
being  good  ploughmen,  and  I  know  you 
appreciate  rny  advice  when  I  tell  you  to 
keep  the  team  moving  all  fall. 

"Now  about  the  teams  during  the  win- 
ter. It  costs  you  about  $60  to  winter  each 
horse,  if  you  count  interest,  feed  and 
labor.  How  about  getting  something  out 
of  him  this  winter?  Probably  you  can  do 
some  hauling  this  winter  that  vdll  assist 
you  in  the  summer's  clean  up  and  new 
work.  A  new  summer  silo  is  needed  and 
you  can  prepare  for  it  for  one  thing. 

"Then  again,  about  six  miles  from  here 
there's  Brown's  saw  mill  where  they  burn 
the  slabs.  Get  Brown  to  cover  up  all  the 
ashes  from  the  rain  and  you  haul  the 
ashes  for  that  potato  field.  You  can  af- 
ford to  pay  him  ten  cents  per  bushel  for 
the  ashes  and  do  the  hauling.  If  you  sim- 
ply put  your  mind  to  it  you  can  keep  the 
horses  as  busy  as  is  good  for  them.  Then 
there  are  the  stables.  It  is  necessary 
for  you  to  put  them  in  repair.  You  can 
do  most  of  this  yourself.  Only  be  sure 
to  get  yourself  a  few  tools  and  learn  to 
keep  the  tools  in  good  shape.  You  can't 
make  a  good  job  with  tools  out  of  re- 

Gray  was  almost  gasping  as  grim  old 
veteran  Watkins  finished  his  talk. 

"A  pretty  stiff  job,  isn't  it?"  queried 
the  old  advisor.  "Well,  I  never  found 
farming  anything  but  a  hard  proposition. 
But  I  won  out  and  so  can  you.  Don't 
drive  the  thick  end  of  the  wedge  first.  Get 
right  at  the  things  that  must  be  done  on 
the  spot.  Lay  out  your  work  and  then 
develop  a  stiff  chin.  If  you  and  your 
two  sons  can't  do  this  work  this  fall  with 
hiring  a  man  occasionally  for  odd  jobs 
and  threshings  you  had  better  send  for 
the  sheriff.  A  whole  lot  of  us  fall  down 
from  one  of  two  causes.  Either  we  are 
slack  in  making  our  bargains  or  we  do  not 
lay  our  work  out  properly  and  then  stick 
everlastingly  at,  it  till  it  will  pass  a  first- 
class  inspection." 

Gray  had  paid  well  for  his  service  and 
his  first  business  was  to  get  the  worth  of 
it.  He  gave  his  sons  the  job  of  ploughing 
and  getting  in  the  root  crop.  For  himself 
he  set  the  task  of  pulling  down  the  fences, 
picking  and  sorting  the  apples,  attending 
to  the  poultry  and  cattle  and  fitting  up 
the  stables. 

The  crop  of  apples  was  a  large  onef,  but 
to  Gray's  dismay  he  had  scarcely  fifty 
barrels  of  first-class  apples.  Worms  were 
everywhere.  Scab  seemed  to  be  omni- 
present. From  these  two  causes  alone  he 
found  that  he  had  come  short  in  cash  re- 
turns by  over  three  hundred  dollars.  Fur- 
ther, through  lack  of  pruning,  the  apples 
were  smaller  than  they  should  have  been 
and  from  this  cause  Gray  had  an  uneasy 

consciousness  that  he  was  a  loser  of  an- 
other fifty  dollars.  Here  in  the  orchard 
was  a  leak  and  no  mistake.  The  lesson 
was  learned,  however,  and  Gray's  duty 
was  clear.  An  interview  with  a  huckster 
in  the  neighboring  market  put  him  in  the 
way  of  disposing  of  his  second-class 
apples  and  the  cider  mill  helped  him  to 
take  care  of  the  culls.  The  apple  crop 
gathered,  the  orchard  was  lightly  plough- 
ed and  the  hogs  turned  loose  therein. 
Hogs  and  hens  together  disposed  of  a  deal 
of  vermin,  to  the  advantage  of  both  hogs 
and  poultry  and  orchard.  Gray  saw  that 
for  a  month  at  least  of  the  following  win- 
ter he  had  a  job  laid  out  in  the  pruning 
and  scraping  of  his  fruit  trees.  He  also 
got  into  touch  with  the  fruit  growers' 

Gray's  experience  with  the  old  "snake" 
rail  fences  that  had  heretofore  divided 
his  farm  into  fields  was  illuminating.  To 
his  surprise  each  of  these  fences  had 
prevented  his  cultivating  satisfactorily 
a  space  of  ground  at  least  seven  feet 
wide.  The  fences  removed  that  fall  would 
aggregate  in  length  about  480  rods.  In 
other  words,  those  unnecessary  fences  de- 
prived him  of  about  two  acres  of  arable 
land.  Here  was  another  hole  in  his  pocket 
where  his  profits  leaked  away.  Gray 
hauled  the  rails  home  to  a  convenient 
place  for  piling  and  found  that  he  had 
enough  fuel  for  firing  purposes  for  years 
to  come.  He  had  the  alternative  of  using 
the  rails  himself  or  of  disposing  of  them 
at  an  average  of  three  and  a  half  cents 
each.  In  addition  to  saving  ground  Gray 
had  rid  himself  of  trees  and  bushes  that 
not  only  shaded  his  land  and  robbed  his 
crops  of  nutriment,  but  he  had  cleaned 
out  many  a  nest  for  woodchucks  and 
caterpillars  and  similar  foes  of  good  crop 

Meanwhile  the  stables  had  been  looked 
after.  He  had  not  neglected  the  advice 
to  secure  tools  that  would  do  his  job.  Gray 
thought  that  hitherto  he  had  been  at  least 
fairly  careful  in  keeping  his  cattle  man- 
gers clean.  However  a  careful  looking  at 
the  mangers  and  stalls  revealed  remnants 
of  feed  that  spoke  of  conditions  that  were 
anything  but  sanitary  or  economical.  The 
first  work  was  to  correct  these  conditions, 
and  to  take  precautions  against  their  re- 
currence. Leaks  in  the  gutters  were 
stopped.  Floors  were  levelled  in  order 
that  the  cattle  and  horses  might  lie  com- 
fortably. When  the  repairs  were  made 
the  stables  were  given  a  complete  white- 
washing. Draughts  were  stopped  in  the 
hog  pen.  The  poultry  quarters  were 
emptied  of  everything  movable  and  walls 
and  perches  soaked  with  the  hottest  and 
strongest  mixture  of  fresh  hime  and  zeno- 
leum.  The  floor  was  then  covered  to  a 
depth  of  a  foot  with  fresh  sods  and  earth. 
This  meant  a  busy  fall,  but  Gray 
noticed  that  while  he  had  discussed  poli- 
tics a  good  deal  less  than  he  had  during 
previous  seasons  his  farm  was  in  a  dif- 
ferent condition — though  the  government 
seemed  to  be  getting  on  quite  as  well  as 
when  he  had  said  more  about  it.  The 
middle  of  December  found  him  with  his 
land  all  ploughed,  his  fences  removed  ex- 
Continued  on  Page  77. 

Pruning  the  Knotty  Terms  of  Science 

A  Plea  For  Simpler  English  in  Dealing  With  Some  Subjects 

By  P.  F.  MUNRO,  ma.,  B.Paed. 

"And  Coleridge,  too,  has  lately  taken  wing, 
But  like  a  hawk  encumbered  with  his  hood. 
Explaining  Tnetaphysics  to  the  nation, 
I  wish  he  would  explain  his  explanation." 
— Byron,  Don  Juan   (Dedication) . 

YEARS  ago  (not  very  many  though) 
to  the  ordinary  man  psychology  stood 
for  something  mystical,  and  the  rea- 
son for  this  was  not  far  to  seek.  When  he 
asked  for  a  definition,  he  was  given  this: 
"Psychology  is  the  science  of  mind,"  or 
"the  orderly  study  of  mental  states,"  or 
etc.,  ad  infmitum  (Latin  for  the  colloquial 
phrase,  if  you  will,  "to  the  bitter  end.") 
The  more  he  read  on  the  subject,  the  more 
disgusted  he  became,  for  the  reason  that 
any  book  on  psychology  made  use  of  such 
technically  over-labored  terms  and  expres- 
sions that  he  was  utterly  at  sea.  For  that 
matter  he  was  not  alone,  for  many  uni- 
versity graduates  were  equally  non- 

He  read,  for  instance,  in  a  book  of  a 
well-known  psychologist  and  scientist, 
"For  every  neurosis  there  is  a  psychosis." 
He  at  once  reached  for  his  Concise  Im- 
perial, and  this  is  what  he  read:  "Neu- 
rosis— a  name  common  to  diseases  having, 
or  supposed  to  have,  their  seat  in  the 
nervous  system."  "Psychosis — mental 
constitution  or  condition."  Putting  these 
together  he  got  as  the  meaning  of  the 
above:  "For  every  name  common  to  di- 
seases having,  or  supposed  to  have,  their 
seat  in  the  nervous  system,  there  is  a 
mental  constitution  or  condition." 

What  a  fine  insight  into  psychological 
science  he  surely  got  from  this  definition 
of  a  barbaric  phrase,  coined,  or  at  least 
used  by  a  scientist  who  plumed  himself  on 
knowing,  like  the  immortal  William 
(Shakespeare,  not  the  Kaiser) — little 
Latin  and  less  Greek ! 


Psychologists  of  the  above  mentioned 
type  are  legion,  and  in  some  of  their  writ- 
ings they  remind  us  of  Byron's  description 
of  Donna  Inez  in  his  Don  Juan,  when  he 

"Her   thoughts    were   theorems,   her 

words  a  problem. 
As  if  she  deemed  that  mystery  would 

ennoble  'em." 

Our  young  reader  then  said,  "Away 
with  S7ich  stuff,  give  me  som,e  simple,  if 
not  heart-felt  way  of  learning  psycho- 
logy." So  said  the  late  Professor  James, 
so  says  Dr.  P.  Sandiford,  and  so  say  we — 
humble  though  we  be.  How  much  simpler 
does  the  matter  become  if  we  define  psy- 
chology as  James  and  Sandiford  do,  as 
"the  science  of  human  behavior  in  its 
widest  sense."  That  includes  everything 
from  the  instinctive  movements,  the 
habitual     movements     of     walking     of 

handling  a  pen,  to  the  activities  involved 
in  swaying  an  audience  by  speech,  or  in 
carrying  to  completion  some  engineering 
work  like  constructing  a  viaduct  or  build- 
ing a  bridge.  This  all  belongs  to  psy- 
chology, human  psychology,  that  is  to  say, 
for  we  have  animal  and  nation  (ethnic) 
psychology  as  well. 

Reducing  the  barbaric  phrase  re  neu- 
rosis and  psychosis  to  common  phrase- 
ology, we  get,  "for  every  nerve  stimula- 
tion there  is  a  mind  equivalent.  This  is 
simpler  and  more  intelligible. 


But  someone  may  rise  and  say,  "Use  an 
up-to-date  dictionary  and  get  the  special 
meaning  and  application  of  these  terms." 
Very  well,  that's  just  the  remark  we  ex- 
pected to  hear.  Our  reply  is,  make  the 
English  so  simple  and  clear  that  he  who 
runs  may  read,  that  the  ordinary  man 
may  not  need  a  Funk  &  Wagnall's  dic- 
tionary at  his  elbow.  Our  plea  is  for 
simpler  English  clearly  expressed  vnth 
metaphors,  if  you  will,  for  they  aid  in 
giving  a  lively  and  distinct  understanding 
of  things.  These  scientific  subjects  from 
their  very  nature  are,  goodness  knows, 
difl[icult  enough.  Why,  then,  try  to  ex- 
plain the  obscure  by  the  more  obscure? 

To  put  our  case  in  a  nutshell — School 
books  should  be  simpler.  "Johnnie,"  said 
the  teacher,  "your  composition  is  philo- 
sophically deduced  and  elaborately  or- 
ganized, but  for  the  sake  of  simplicity  I 
caution  you  to  chasten  your  prolixity  and 
to  prune  your  efflorescence. 

Johnnie  simply  says,  "Yes  sir,"  but  in 
his  seat,  to  his  older  chum,  he  whispers, 
"What  was  the  teacher  driving  at?"  He 
replies,  "Oh,  he  means,  in  English,  that 
your  essay  is  good,  but  you  used  too  many 

"Is  that  so?  What  language  did  teacher 
use?    Chinese?"    "No,  Bostonese." 

Our  point,  we  hope,  is  made  clear,  and 
we  shall  try  to  avoid  these  very  pitfalls 
in  the  discussions  on  psychological  sub- 
jects that  may  appear  from  time  to  time. 


The  assumption  in  these  articles  is  that 
the  physiological  basis,  as  outlined  in  our 
first  article,  offers  a  reasonable  explana- 
tion of  many  mental  phenomena,  such  as 
habit,  association  and  memory.  The  men 
who  dispute  the  claims  of  the  physiological 
psychologists  have  some  strong  evidence 
in  support  of  their  view,  but  modern 
thinkers  are  inclined  to  believe  that 
the  truth  lies  near  the  mean,  but  not  ne- 
cessarily actually  the  mean,  as  Aristotle 
claimed  of  virtue.  This  is  the  age-old 
question  of  materialism  versus  idealism,  a 
matter-mechanical  theory  as  opposed  to  a 
mind  (soul) — spiritual  interpretation,  as 
the  philosophers  tell  us.  But  here  we  feel 
the  need  of  an  explanation  of  an  explan- 
ation.    But  enough!     Let  us  dismiss  the 

matter  from  our  minds  with  the  soothing 
remark  of  Sir  Roger  De  Coverley,  "Much 
may  be  said  on  both  sides." 

James  defines  memory  as  the  knowledge 
of  a  former  state  of  mind  after  it  has  al- 
ready once  dropped  from  consciousness, 
that  is,  it  is  the  knowledge  of  an  event  or 
fact,  of  which  meantime  we  have  not  been 
thinking,  with  the  additional  conscious- 
ness that  we  have  thought  or  experienced 
it  before.  Sandiford  says  in  his  "Mental 
and  Physical  Life  of  School  Children," 
(a  book  well  worth  a  careful  reading,  and 
one  cannot  do  better  than  quote  him), 
"Processes  occurring  in  the  central  ner- 
vous system  leave  an  impression  or  trace 
by  means  of  which,  under  appropriate  cir- 
cumstances, this  may  be  reproduced. 
When  discharges  (activity  of  nerves) 
regularly  take  place  along  certain  paths, 
we  get  the  phenomena  of  habit;  when  one 
system  of  nerve  cells  is  aroused  to  activity 
by  means  of  activity  of  another,  the  pro- 
cess is  known  as  association.  These  as- 
pects of  the  nervous  system  were  referred 
to  in  a  general  way  in  our  last  article.  To 
quote:  "Our  entire  intellectual  life  rests 
on  a  foundation  of  sensation  and  move- 
ment." "Reflex  action  (we  should  be  more 
correct  to  say  here  habitual  action)  is  the 
deputy  of  the  brain,  directing  myriad 
movements — walking,  dressing,  eating — 
all  the  routine  movements  of  one's  body, 
thus  leaving  the  higher  powers  free  to 
attend  to  weightier  things.  An  adult  may 
be  defined  as  the  sum  of  his  youthful  nerve 
reactions  which  tend  to  perpetuate  them- 

We  also  said  "habit  is  only  a  bundle  of 
memories  of  tendencies  to  act  again  in  a 
way  in  which  we  have  acted  before,"  or 
"habit  is  unconscious  memory,"  and  this 
links  the  last  article  with  the  present. 

To  revert  to  Sandiford,  we  may  then 
continue.  "The. stimulation  of  a  neurone 
system  which  leads  to  the  revival  of  a 
previous  experience  in  imagination,  with 
the  additional  knowledge  that  we  have 
experienced  before,  produces  the  phen- 
omena we  call  memory."  And  this  agrees 
with  the  view  of  James  given  above. 

The  two  aspects  therefore,  which  from 
our  definition,  we  must  emphasize  are, 
(1)  retentiveness,  or  retention  of  the  re- 
membered fact,  and  (2)  its  reproduction 
or  recall'  or  recollection  or  reminiscence. 
Physiologically,  when  the  nerve  cells  or 
neurones  are  in  a  state  of  rest,  we  get  (1) , 
when  they  are  active  we  get  (2). 


Manifestly,  according  to  our  theory  of 
memory,  there  are  as  many  kinds  of 
memory  as  there  are  ways  of  recalling 
past  experience.  Our  first  article  showed 
this  in  treating  the  various  kinds  of 
images  as  memory  ideas.  But,  as  Stout 
says,  "Ordinary  language  is  undoubtedly 
right  in  recognizing  distinct  memories  for 
general     departments     of     experience." 



Hence,  we  may  name  a  few  of  the  types  of 
memories  which  are,  as  it  were,  officially 
recognized  by  psychologists. 

(a)  Good  and  bad  memories:  good,  if 
memory  serves  us  well;  bad,  \f  it  doesn't. 
Note  that  a  memory  thut  retains  too  many 
details  is  not  serviceable,  as  the  tendency 
in  such  a  case,  is  to  overload  our  stories  of 
events  with  irrelevant  matter.  In  fact, 
memory  itself,  as  we  are  all  aware  lets  the 
unimportant  impressions  fade  away,  and 
tends  to  retain  only  the  essential  elements 
or  relevant  facts  and  meanings.  Indeed, 
memory  as  a  function  seems  to  be  like 
attention  in  having  a  selection  pro- 
pensity. To  have  a  good  memory  is  to  have 
the  power  of  appropriate  and  easy  recall. 

(b)  Logical  and  rote:  logical,  when  one 
has  a  memory  for  ideas;  7-ote,  power  to 
repeat  by  heart.  James  asserts  that  all 
improvement  of  memory  consists  in  the 
improvement  of  one's  habitual  methods  of 
recording  facts.  Association,  according  to 
him  and  most  psychologists,  explains  re- 
call. This  agrees  with  common  experi- 
ence, and  hence  the  secret  of  a  good 
memory  (whether  logical  or  rote  in  the 
writer's  humble  opinion)  is  the  secret  of 
forming  as  many  associations  as  possible 
with  any  fact  we  wish  to  retain.  The 
greater  the  number  of  avenues  of  ap- 
proach, the  easier  it  is  for  one  to  reach  a 
given  goal. 

So  in  recall.  If,  for  example,  we  wish 
to  recall  a  certain  event,  and  with  it  was 
associated  originally  one  other  idea,  then 
in  trying  to  recall  the  event  we  have  only 
one  association  to  connect  with  it.  Re- 
sult— we  fail  to  recall,  or  do  so  only  after 
great  effort.  But  if,  on  the  other  hand, 
there  were,  at  the  time  of  the  impression, 
numerous  associations,  our  chances  of  easy 
recall  are  twice,  three  times,  or  four  times, 
or  even  greater.  These  associations  may 
be  compared  to  four  hooks,  any  one  of 
which,  or  all  four,  may  catch  the  elusive 
fact  when  sunk  beneath  the  surface  of 
consciousness,  just  as  a  night-line  with  its 
many  hooks  in  the  lake,  accords  the 
farmer-fisherman  a  greater  chance  of  a 
good  catch  than  a  single  line  with  one 

(c)  Immediate  and  persistent  memo- 
ties:  Immediate,  one  that  is  serviceable 
for  a  present  purpose,  that  of  the  barris- 
ter, for  instance,  as  he  prepares  for  a  case, 
or  of  the  student  cramming  for  an  exami- 
nation. This  is  the  type  called,  "Easy 
come,  easy  go."  The  persistent  is  a  memo- 
ry in  which  facts  of  previous  experience 
"stick."  As  a  matter  of  fact,  experimental 
tests  go  to  show  that  of  memory  "quickly 
learnt,  quickly  forgotten"  does  not  hold 
true.  Rather  is  it  "quick  and  sure,"  not 
"slow  and  sure,"  that  wins  the  race. 

(d)  Special  memories.  Some  there  are 
who  have  a  special  power  for  remember- 
ing certain  classes  of  facts.  Some  readily 
recall  facts;  others,  names  or  tunes  or 
dates;  some  concrete  objects,  others  ab- 
stract; some  records  of  sports,  others 
prices  of  stocks.  Some,  all  about  the 
"movies",  others  all  about  the  churches. 
One  boy  will  know  all  about  the  football  or 
lacrosse  heroes  and  their  descendants,  an- 
other boy  all  about  horses  and  their  pedi- 
grees. And  so  on  without  stop.  In  short, 
one's  memory  is  best  where  one's  interest 
lies.  "Where  your  heart  is  there  will  your 
memory  be."   The  greater  the  number  of 

interests,  the  greater  the  varieties  of 
memory.  The  writer  in  youth  read  a  news- 
paper in  this  order:  sporting  page,  local 
news,  humor,  world  news,  and  then  edi- 
torial page.  At  present  this  is  something 
like  the  order  (the  old  order  having 
changed  gradually,  gave  place  to  the 
new)  :  world  news,  sporting  page  (mainly 
in  ruby  and  lacrosse  seasons)  local  news, 
editorials,  humor  (if  at  all,  for  it  very 
often,  like  the  proverbial  oyster  in  the 
soup,  proves  an  alibi.) 

In  all  these  types  of  memory  two  points 
may  be  stressed  for  the  benefit  of  the 
teacher.  First,  the  necessity  of  encourag- 
ing concentration  of  attention,  teaching 
students  to  carefully  and  accurately  ob- 
serve the  thing  presented;  second,  the 
necessity  of  repetition  of  instances  coupled 
with  clear  thinking-out  the  image  every 
time  repeated. 

Further,  let  it  be  noted,  in  passing,  that 
In  this  or  any  other  classification  of  types 
of  memory,  there  is  bound  to  be  overlap- 
ping. P'or  example,  a  memory  may  be 
good,  logical  and  persistent  all  at  once, 
just  as  on  the  farm  a  Percheron  horse 
may  at  once  be  a  strong  draft  horse,  a 
good  "roadster,"  and  a  quiet  driver  for 
the  women. 


We  may  here  say  that  one's  dominant 
images  largely  determine  the  type  and 
quality  of  one's  memory.  The  person  blind 
from  birth  not  only  does  not  see 
color,  form,  and  motion,  but  he  can- 
not remember,  imagine,  or  think  of 
colors,  visual  forms,  and  movements. 
His  world  is  not  a  visible  world. 
To  the  deaf  person  (i.e.,  from  birth) 
the  world  is  without  sound.  Helen 
Keller,  normal  till  she  was  nineteen 
months  old,  had  an  opportunity  of  secur- 
ing some  images  of  light,  but  she  prac- 
tically lives  in  a  world  in  which  there  is 
no  light,  no  color,  no  sound.  She  herself 
has  said,  "A  person  who  has  seen  at  all 
will  retain  images  of  light  throughout  life, 
sight  and  sound  are  however,  of  little,  if 
any,  use  to  me."  Yet  she,  through  special 
training,  lives  a  more  intelligent  and 
cultured  life  than  most  people — yes,  than 
even  the  average  college  graduate.  Her 
physical  disadvantage  has  become  an  ad- 
vantage, as  so  often  in  life. 

Again,  we  all  have  our  own  mental  way 
of  remembering  (or  picturing  in  mind  to 
keep  us  right)  the  names,  say,  of  the 
months  of  the  year,  of  the  day,  or  of  facts 
of  everyday  experience.  The  writer,  for 
instance  (if  the  reader  will  pardon  a 
personal  reference  here  and  there  from 
now  on)  is  markedly  visual  in  his  images, 
and  therefore,  in  his  recall  of  past  events. 
Yet  besides  these  visual  (eye)  images, 
auditory  (ear),  olfactory  (nose),  and 
tactile  (touch,  feel)  images,  play  an  im- 
portant part  in  his  power  to  recall.  He 
remembers  most  things  by  recalling  the 
page  of  the  book  where  they  were  firet 
seen  and  learned  in  school,  or  college,  or 
the  occasion,  the  room,  the  teacher,  the 
professor— ^everything  in  fact,  that  was 
associated  with  the  particular  experience. 
"He  enriches  every  fact  or  event  with 
associations  in  concrete  imagery,"  as  the 
psychologists  might  say.  This  applies  to 
all  kinds  of  experience  in  school  or  out  of 
school — whether  it  be  real  estate,  civics 

and  politics,  social  affairs,  the  church,  or 
what  not,  even  to  the  football  field  in  a 
league  game. 


As  to  the  auditory  (ear)  images,  the 
chirp  of  a  blackbird,  or  the  caw  of  a  crow, 
takes  him  back  in  m^emory  to  that  spring 
down  on  the  farm  in  1891  (he  had  passed 
his  entrance  examination,  and  was  assist- 
ant-farmer) while  his  elder  brother  got 
his  chance  at  school.  That  spring  he  arose 
at  6  a.m.  (or  earlier)  to  shoot  blackbirds 
and  crows,  the  enemies  of  the  Indian  corn. 

As  to  olfactory  (nose,  smell),  give  him 
one  whiff  of  lilac  in  May,  and  at  once  he 
is  back  in  mem.ory  at  85  South  street  in 
Hamilton,  with  six  other  budding  peda- 
gogues, all  attending  the  Ontario  Normal 
College  of  those  days;  and  all  this  for- 
sooth, because  his  landlady  was  good 
enough  to  provide  bouquets  of  lilac.  What 
country  lad  does  not  have  a  vivid  recollec- 
tion of  his  best  girl  in  by-gone  days  when 
he  gets  a  whiff  of  the  perfume  she  at  that 
time  used?  "Smell  memories  are  very 
subtle  and  insidious"  they  tell  us.  (Get 
your    dictionary    for    these    words) . 

As  to  tactile  (feel,  touch)  images,  he  yet 
has  very  vivid  images  in  memory  of-  a 
thrashing  he  got  on  April  1st  (note  the 
irony  of  fate),  1886  or  '87  (for  a  minor 
offence,  of  course,  as  all  boys  see  it),  at 
the  hands  of  a  teacher,  with  an  edging, 
who  afterwards  proved  himself  his  best 
friend  by  giving  him  a  stick,  i.e.,  lacrosse 
stick.  That  teacher  afterwards  became  a 
lawyer,  and  now  stands  high  in  his  pro- 
fession, but  that  is  another  story. 

Experiments  have  been  carried  on  by 
the  writer  in  the  school  room  of  a  col- 
legiate institute  to  ascertain  the  memory 
bents  of  the  pupils'  minds.  What  these 
prove,  or  at  least  indicate,  will  perhaps 
provide  material  for  a  future  article. 


Meanwhile,  let  him  call  the  attention  of 
teachers  to  getting  students  started  right. 
How  a  boy  learns  his  first  lessons  is  the 
important  thing  for  him.  Right  and  sane 
methods  of  teaching  adapted  to  the  needs 
of  the  growing  mind  are  what  even  the 
teacher  in  the  little  red  schoolhouse  must 
strive  to  apply.  How  yiecessary  it  is  then 
for  trustees  to  secure  the  viost  competent 
teachers  available,  and  not  adopt  the 
penny-wise,  pound-foolish  policy  of  engag- 
ing the  lou'cst  salary  bidder. 

Again,  in  teaching  geography,  too  much 
stress  is  laid  on  map  directions  and  not 
half  enough  on  actual  geographical  con- 
ditions. Let  us  illustrate.  Some  of  us  were 
taught  the  directions  of  east,  west,  north 
and  south,  so  carefully  from  the  map — 
that  east  was  right,  west  was  left,  north 
was  up,  south  was  down — that  to  save  our 
lives  we  cannot  at  times  even  yet  locate 
ourselves  till  we  have  recalled  the  map  in 
memory.  What  is  the  result  when  we  tra- 
vel say,  to  the  west?  This:  we  are  always 
at  sea,  trying  to  make  our  old  m,ap  memo- 
ries fit  in  with  actual  directions.  These  di- 
rections should  obviously  be  taught  in  con- 
nection with  the  movement  of  the  sun. 
Then  -.-nistakes  are  less  likely  to  occur. 

There  is  also  a  wide  field  for  revision 
upward  in  the  making  of  some  of  our  text 
Continued  on  Page  66. 

Making  the  Frills  Pay:  By  r  j  Messenger 

r.olvoir  barn,  lioiisp  and  grminds  aftpr  their  transformation.  ■  Sketcn  of    former    appearance    seen    on    next    page.      An    Idea    is    a    compel- 
ling  thing. 

Making  a  Nova  Scotia  Run-Down  Fann  and  Serving  Humanity  in  a  C otnmon- 

Sense  Way. 

"You  have  gained  a  few  dollars  by 

toil  unremitting  and  stern. 
Yon   have   fought    down  ■  the    grand 

things  of  life;  its  truest  joys  never 

to  learn. 
Your  friends  have  grown  few,  and 

grown  cold;   children   choosing   to 

roam. ; 
You've  found  gold,  but  you've  lost — 

for  you've  missed  the   best   thing 

on  God's  Earth — a  good  home." 


No  farmer  can  pooh,  pooh!  the  facts  as  thxij 
are.  It  is  all  rlqht  to  settle  the  question  for 
a  moment  iy  a  know-all  toss  of  the  head  and 
an  ejaculatory  declaration  that  passes  off  for 
wisdom  among  a  certain  class  of  people,  but 
the  « i^-e  man  is  he  icho  knows  that  what  is 
commcndahle  can  he  done  'if  the  idea  is  there. 
The  main  reason  for  so  much  untidiness  and 
luck  of  modern  conveniences  in  the  older  farms 
is  hecavse  of  the  atsctice  of  ideas.  For  ideas 
hare  (jeneralli/  considerable  powder  in  their 
shells.  The  man  irho  makes  a  farm  home  at- 
tractive  lives  a   rjood  religion. — Editor. 

ANG  the  looks,  I  haven't  time 
for  frills."  This  is  an  answer  I 
got  once  from  a  so-called  farmer. 
He  is  a  type  as  well  as  a  reality  and  I  am 
ready  to  bet  buttons  to  broomsticks  that 
the  reason  for  the  rural  exodus  is  because 
there  are  so  many  of  him.  Now  let  me 
describe  a  sample  of  this  rural  depopula- 
tor.  When  my  hair  gets  so  long  that  my 
better  three-fourths  threatens  to  braid  it, 
I  go  to  the  barber's  and  meet  this  man. 
He  is  talking  trotting  horses  and  cursing 
the  Government.  I  run  into  the  grocery 
and  I  find  him  there  when  I  go  in,  and 
leave  him  there  when  I  come  out.  He  can 
give  you  an  opinion  on  everything  you 
want  and  I  always  feel  densely  ignorant 
in  his  presence  and  I  think  sometimes  he 
pities  me.  He  shows  a  fine  contempt  for 
one  of  his  neighbors  who  is  really  trying 
to  farm.  He  has  his  opinion  of  book  farm- 
ing and  scientific  farming. 

Occasionally,  I  drive  by  his  farm.  To 
get  to  his  house  from  the  highway  he 
drives  on  either  side  of  a  gully  worn  out 

by  water  running  down  the  original  drive- 
way. The  road  from  the  house  to  the 
barn  is  a  continuation  of  this  gully  but 
the  team  has  to  be  piloted  around  and 
over  large  rocks  and  this  had  been  done 
for  at  least  fifty  years. 

The  place  for  the  lawn  is  decorated  with 
the  wood  pile,  and  farm  implements  are 
often  seen  there.  The  wife  carries  water 
from  a  well  some  distance  from  the  back 
door  of  the  kitchen.  The  hens  and  geese 
frisk  about  the  front  door  of  the  house. 
His  barn  doors  have  to  be  braced  and  his 
gates  are  not  by  any  means  a  standing  in- 
vitation to  stray  livestock,  but  an  invita- 
tion notwithstanding.  To  repair  these 
things,  do  some  grading  on  his  road,  bring 
the  water  into  the  house,  etc.,  would  take 
time  and  he  has  no  time  for  frills.  In- 
cidentally I  might  mention  that  his  six 
grown-up  children,  five  boys  and  a  girl, 
are  scattered  over  the  continent. 

The  directors  of  the  Farmers'  Associa- 

tion asked  a  certain  official  to  give  an 
address  at  the  annual  meeting.  He  sug- 
gested improvement  in  rural  home  sur- 
roundings. This  was  received  in  silence 
until  one  of  the  directors  said,  "No,  I  don't 
believe  that  would  do.  We  want  some- 
thing practical."  This  was  another  man 
who  had  his  back  yard  in  the  front  of  his 
house.  I  want  to  accomplish  two  ends  in 
this  article.  To  prove,'  if  possible,  that  the 
time  and  money  used  in  making  the  home 
surroundings  attractive  are  profitably 
and  practically  spent — and  to  show  from 
my  personal  experience  what  can  be  done 
even  with  a  little  effort.  When  I  first  struck 
this  place  it  needed  a  magician  to  see  its 
possibilities  under  cover  of  its  actualities. 
I  can  never  cease  to  wonder  how  human 
beings  could  live  here  and  let  things 
go  as  we  found  them.  The  house  was 
thoroughly  built  on  a  knoll  commanding 
a  view  of  practically  the  whole  farm,  but 
the  upstair  rooms,  on  account  of  the  low 
posts,  had  ceilings  only  about  six  and  a 
half  feet  from  the  floor.  The  cellar,  which 
had  been  thoroughly  built,  had  a  wall  two 
feet  thick  thoroughly  mortared,  but  what 
a  state  that  cellar  was  in.  Ghosts  of  ty- 
phoid had  been  lurking  there  for  years, 
and  the  window  holes  were  filled  with  old 
bags  and  buckwheat  straw.  The  turnips 
were  not  only  kept  there  but  the  milk  was 
there  also  and  vegetables  in  all  stages  of 
decay  were  scattered  over  the  wet,  poorly 
drained  floors. 

In  clearing  out  this  disease-breeding  in- 
ferno we  found  several  layers.    First  we 


FARMER'S    M  ;V  G  A  Z I  N  E 

removed  a  layer  of  vegetable  re- 
mains, then  a  layer  of  boards,  old 
bags,  rotted,  etc.,  then  another 
layer  of  rotted  vegetables  followed 
by  the  remains  of  another  wooden 
flooring  until  finally  we  got  down 
to  solid,  comparatively  clean  earth. 
This  was  our  second  step  toward 
.getting  ready  to  live  here:  the  first 
being  to  plant  a  flagpole  and  run 
up  the  red  ensign  just  to  keep  up 
our  courage  and  remind  us  of  the 
old  home.  By  a  judicious  use  of 
shovels,  rakes,  and  fire  we  went 
as  far  as  time  would  permit  to- 
Avards  making  the  place  sanitary. 
The  spring  farm  work  came  on 
and  compelled  attention. 

But  from  that  time  until  the 
present  we  have  used  every  spare 
moment  in  brightening  up,  and  the 
end  is  not  yet,  for  as  long  as  life 
lasts  some  improvement  making  life  worth 
while  living  will  call  your  attention. 

The  shrubs  have  been  planted  in  front, 
the  lawn  leveled  and  reseeded  and  shaped. 
The  roadway  has  been  cut  out  and  graded 
from  a  mere  path  overgrown  with  grass. 
The  shrubs  are  a  Spirea  Van  tlouttee 
and  Syringa.  The  old  well,  directly  in 
front  of  the  house,  with  its  broken-down 
curb,  has  been  filled  up  and  the  water 
brought  into  the  kitchen  from  a  spring 
by  means  of  pipes  and  a  pump. 

An  old  locust  stump  and  a  broken- 
limbed  and  partially-dead  locust  tree,  di- 
rectly in  front  of  the  door,  have  been  re- 
moved, as  well  as  a  broken-down  apple 
tree  at  the  left  corner  of  the  house. 

Ofl?  to  the  left  of  the  house  was  a  most 
interesting  area  of  some  forty-square  rods 
including  a  shed  in  which  pigs  were  kept 
and  which  was  surrounded  with  mud  arid 
manure  almost  knee  deep. 

The  cattle  were  turned  out  here  to  drink 
and  were  enclosed  by  a  fence  made  up  of 
three  or  four  diff"erent  styles — wire,  poles, 
boards  and  plank.  Between  this  combina- 
tion barnyard  and  pig-pen  reaching  to  the 
road,  and  the  dwelling,  was  the  woodpile 
with  juPt  enough  room  between  to  drive  to 
the  back  door.  The  barnyard  has  been 
moved  behind  the  barn  away  from  the 
road  and  its  site  is  now  occupied  by  a  ten- 
nis court.  The  pig  shed  has  been  moved 
into  the  orchard,  renovated,  and  is  now 
occupied  by  White  Wyandottes,  while  be- 
tween the  tennis  court  and  the  barn  are 
the  children's  gardens.  Each  child  having 
a  garden  of  his  or  her  own. 

The  roof  of  the  house  has  been  raised 
and  larger  windows  put  in  with  the  roof 
window  in  front  making  lighter  and  high- 
er chambers.  The  barn  and  stable  which 
had  been  well  built,  was  braced  by  long 
poles  on  one  side  to  keep  it  fiom  sliding 
ofl'  its  foundation,  the  stone  under  the 
sills,  having  loosened  and  fallen  away  in 
many  places.  Fifty  dollars  spent  in  re- 
pairing the  foundation  and  in  painting  the 
outside  walls  made  it  really  as  good  as 
new.  A  marked  improvement  has  been 
made  in  the  farm  by  draining,  clearing  up 
unsightly  bushes,  leveling  and  planting 
fruit  trees;  all  done  at  leisure  times  by 
the  regular  help  of  the  farm;  the  whole 
expense  labor  would  be  covered  by  $200. 

An  estimate  of  expenditure  for  the 
whole  work  of  improvement  would  be,  in- 
cluding labor,  about  as  follows: 

I  cau  never  cease  to  wonder  how  human  beings  could 
here  and  let  things  go  as  we  found  them. 

Repairs  on  house $190  00 

Repairs   on    barn    and    out- 
buildings            75  00 

Leveling  lawns,  clearing  up, 

planting  shrubs,  vines,  etc.       20  00 
Improvements  on  farm....     200  00 


$485  00 

Before  we  lepaired  the  house  last  sum- 
mer I  was  offered  $1,000  more  than  I  gave 
for  the  farm  and  now  I  would  have  to  feel 
pretty  well  discouraged  or  hard  up  to 
consider  an  offer  of  only  less  than  $1,500 
advance  on  the  purchase  price,  even  if  I 
wanted  to  sell. 

Now  are  these  "Frills"  practical  and 

A  lecturer  once  asked  his  audience  very 
impressibly.  "If  there  are  any  here  who 
do  not  like  a  plate  of  fresh  cream  and 
strawberries,  will  they  rise?"  Of  course, 
he  expected  no  response  but,  nevertheless, 
a  lanky  individual  in  the  audience  stood 
up  and  everybody  had  a  laugh  at  the  lec- 
turer. After  this  subsided  the  latter 
leaned  forward  and  said  just  as  im- 
pressively, "Now  will  all  the  praying  peo- 
ple in  the  audience  pray  for  this  man?" 

I  must  confess  to  the  same  feeling  of 
pity  toward  the  man  who  loafs,  even  an 
hour  a  day  and  says  he  has  no  time  for 
such  frills. 

I  know  a  man  that  has  become  inde- 
pendent from  a  financial  standpoint  not 
by  farming  but  by  buying  neglected 
farms,  fixing  them  up  a  bit  and  selling 
again  at  greatly  enhanced  prices. 

Even  if  the  only  gain  resulting  from 
improvement  of  the  country  home  were 
adding  to  the  value  of  the  farm  or  making 
the  almighty  dollar  in  case  of  a  sale  or 
exchange,  I  am  sure  of  my  ground  when 
I  assert  that  it  always  pays,  but  no  matter 
if  the  dollar  is  the  only  reason  for  doing 
the  work,  there  is  unconsciously,  but  sure- 
ly, even  in  the  meanest  and  most  mer- 
cenary nature,  an  influence  that  lifts  up 
and  makes  this  man  a  better  man.  I  be- 
lieve in  nature  as  being  the  result  of  ac- 
tion and  thought,  of  intelligent  first  cause. 
I  believe  that  the  nearer  man  gets  to  na- 
ture the  nearer  he  is  to  God.  The  man  who 
works  with  nature  wovks  closely  with  God, 
and  the  man  who  takes  his  natural  sur- 
roundings and  beautifies  them  recogniz- 
ing in  them  the  handiwork  of  his  Creator, 
more  truly  worships  than  the  lazy  man 
who  complacently  sits  before  the  church 

altar  on  Sunday  and  caresses  his 
soul  with  the  comfortable  thought 
that  he  is  one  of  the  elect. 

If  I  see  a  man  planting  a  tree  or 
shrub  or  flower,  clearing  up  a 
brush  or  stone  heap,  smoothing  off 
a  rough  spot  or  improving  the  ap- 
pearance of  his  surroundings  in 
any  way  and  know  that  he  is  not 
doing  it  for  the  immediate  dollar, 
but  has  the  action  dictated  by  the 
thing  we  are  wont  to  call  the 
Divine  Spark  in  his  make-up,  for 
me  such  an  action  is  a  letter  of  in- 
troduction for  business. 

Other  things  being  equal  my 
spiritual  hat  always  comes  off  to 
such  a  man. 


"One's  environment"  are  his 
neighbors,  the  passers-by,  his 
family.  Next  to  the  pleasure  of  the  man 
who  plants  and  develops  the  flower  is  that 
of  the  one  who  views  it.  Not  only  that,  but 
if  you  have  done  a  good  thing  worthy  of 
being  followed  by  those  who  see  the  result, 
you  have  awakened  a  desire  on  the  part  of 
that  person  to  emulate  your  action.  When 
you  help  create  beautiful  surroundings, 
you  sow  seed  in  him  who  notices  your  ac- 
complishment. Even  if  the  seeds  do  not 
germinate  at  once  they  may  at  any  time 
and  even  admiration  of  the  beautiful  is 
uplifting  in  its  tendency. 

Suppose  one  country  home  is  like  the 
one  I  have  described  as  owned  by  the  man 
who  has  "no  time  for  frills"  and  another 
shows  natty  and  tastefully  laid-out 
grounds,  a  croquet  lawn,  a  tennis  court, 
fruit  trees,  perhaps  a  lake  or  river  with 
a  boat  on  it,  a  telephone,  bath-rooms,  and 
kitchen  and  barn  conveniences  that  every 
country  home  can  have.  Whose  children 
will  be  more. liable  to  leave  home  and  go 
to  the  city  to  live?  Add  to  this  good  roads 
to  the  nearest  town  and  a  square  deal 
from  the  powers  at  the  seat  of  Govern- 
ment, who  should  and  could  be  our  ser- 
vants and  the  rural  problem  is  solved. 
The  writer  has  had  college  experiences, 
has  spent  some  time  in  educational 

which,  in  its  narrowness  of  aim  in- 
stilled into  every  student  a  distaste 
for  country  life.  The  president  at  the 
annual  convocation  lauded  the  suc- 
cess of  his  medical  and  legal  gradu- 
ates but  a  successful  farm,er  did  not 
count  with  him. 

The  farmer  student  soon  learns  to  hate 
the  fact  that  they  come  from  the  country 
and  the  college  papers  often  indulge  in 
labored  jokes  on  the  "hayseed."  In  spite 
of  this  training,  country  life  seemed  good 
enough  to  follow  and  the  choice  has  never 
been  regretted. 

The  rural  vote  of  Canada  represents 
two-thirds  of  the  whole  franchise.  When 
we  get  the  farmer  educated  to  vote  for  his 
own  interests  first  and  his  political  party's 
interest  last  then  will  we  have  an  exodus 
from  the  city  and  beautiful  country  homes. 

Notwithstanding  the  light  crop  last 
year  the  operation  of  the  Saskatchewan 
Elevator  Co.  resulted  in  a  net  gain  of 
$267,315,  this  being  at  the  rate  of  55  per 
cent,  on  the  average  capital  employed  of 

Does  Dairying  Pay?  By  Prof  h.  h  Dean 

Three  Farms  in  Oxford  County  that  Bring  $2,000  or  Over  in  Profits  a  Year — 

The  Tonic  Value  of  Work. 

WHETHER  or  not  a  farm  pays  de- 
pends largely  on  three  ihings  — 
rate  of  interest  paid  or  received 
on  capital  invested;  labor  cost  and  other 
expenses;  and  the  total  receipts  of  the 

The  rate  of  interest  paid  for  hired  capi- 
tal must  not  be  too  great — not  over  six  per 
cent,  in  Ontaiio;  and  in  reckoning  "pro- 
fits," as  a  rule,  it  is  not  wise  to  expect 
over  six  per  cent,  on  capital  invested  ex- 
cept for  those  things  in  which  the  risk  is 
great  or  the  depreciation  very  marked  and 

The  labor  must  be  obtained  at  a  reason- 
able cost  on  a  dairy  farm  and  preferably 
in  the  owner's  family.  One  great  advant- 
age the  dairy  farmer  has  with  reference 
to  labor  is  that  he  can  profitably  employ  it 
all  the  year,  hence  has  his  labor  at  all 
times  when  wanted.  By  providing  cot- 
tages for  married  help  on  the  dairy  farm, 
a  useful,  contented  class  of  labor  may  be 
assured,  which  cannot  De  so  readily  and 
profitably  got  on  any  other  class  of  farms. 

The  profits  of  dairying  have  been  vari- 
ously estimated,  but  for  the  purpose  of 
this  article  we  were  fortunate  in  securing 
the  exact  figures  on  three  good  dairy 
farms  in  Oxford  Co.,  Ontario,  from  the 
manager  of  one  of  the  large  dairy  con- 
cerns located  in  that  district.  The  figures 
for  weights  of  milk  and  money  paid  these 
patrons  are  taken  from  the  books  of  the 
Dairy  Co.,  therefore  there  is  no  doubt  as 
to  their  accuracy.    The  remainder  of  the 

figures  were  furnished  by  the  farmers  and 
may  be  considered  as  reasonably  accurate, 
though  most  farmers  do  not  keep  books. 
In  these  statements,  apparently,  no  allow- 
ance is  made  for  interest  on  capital  invest- 
ed— owned  or  hired. 


Summary  of  three  dairy  patrons'  re- 
turns and  expenses  for  the  year  ending 
Sept.  30th,  1915: 

is  least  of  the  three  and  his  total  year 
profit,  or  "labor  income"  is  only  about 
$300  greater  than  that  of  No.  3,  and  ap- 
proximately $600  more  than  that  of  No. 
2.  These  amounts  would,  no  doubt,  be 
more  than  offset  by  greater  interest  and 
insurance  charges  on  more  capital  invest- 
ed in  land,  larger  number  of  cows,  and 
for  buildings.  In  this  connection,  how- 
ever, it  might  be  well  to  point  out  that 

Xo.  1 

Numljer   of  acres  in   farm    ...  175 

Value  of  stock  sold  aud  reared  for  lier<l $    600.00 

Value   of   grain,    hay,   etc.,   sold    

Number  of  cows  milked    30 

Lbs.   milk   delivered   to  dairy  company    291, 7S3 

-Vmouut   money   received   for   milk    .$4,138.97 

Cost  of  hired  help    400.00 

farm     expenses     oOO.OO 

Value  of  feed  bought   ]..JO().(ll) 

Xo.  2 

No.  ;j    . 



?  soo.oo 

$    300.00 








$2,400.  :i'.i 





400. UU 


Analyzing  this  summary  of  receipts  and 
expenses  we  have  the  following: 

$100  each  for     "farm     expenses"    'in  the 
cases  of  Nos.  2  and  3  seems  rather  low,  as 

.No.  1 

Lbs.  milk  produced  per  cow   9,726 

Lbs.   milk  produced   per  acre   A 1,667 

I'rofit  per  acre   $      14.50 

Total   receipts  per   farm    4,738.97 

Total   expenses   per  farm    ..: 2,200.00 

Profit  nr  "labor  income"  per  farmer 2,5.38.97 

No.  2 

No.  3 





$      18.95 

$      17.11 







Commenting  on  these  statements,  we 
would  observe: 

1.  Although  Patron  No.  1,  has  the 
largest  total  production  in  milk,  has  the 
highest  average  per  cow,  and  produced 
the  most  milk  per  acre,  his  profit  per  acre 

this  would  naturally  include  taxes,  in- 
surance, blacksmith  and  harness  bills, 
.seed  purchased,  etc.  The  big  item  in  No. 
I's  expense  account  is  for  feed  purchased. 
This  means  added  fertility  to  the  soil  of 
this  farm,  an  item  difficult  to  credit  in  any 

It   lodk.^  like  flastern  Canada,   hut  it  is  in  Manitoba,  on  the  farm  of  D.    Smith,    near    (jladstoue.      .^onie    of    his    pure    Ijred    Jerseys    may    be 

seen   In    the  group. 



The   Ayrshire  Is  a   favorite   in   many   parts   of   Canada.     A   scene  in 
Western   Ontario. 

The    Holstcin   as   a 

milk   producer   has   no   equal, 
she  is  a  dual  purpose  cow. 

Some   claim   that 

known  practicable  system  of  bookkeeping. 
How  much,  if  any,  the  soil  was  depleted  in 
the  other  two  farms  is  also  difficult  to  cal- 
culate. A  rough  estimate  is,  that  each 
1,000  lbs.  of  milk  carries  away  a  dollar's 
worth  of  soil  fertility,  hence  on  this  basis, 
farm  No.  2  lost  about  $126,  and  No.  3, 
$168  worth  plant  food.  If  we  assujne  that 
one-half  the  value  of  feeds  purchased  is 
in  the  plant  food  contained,  and  that  this 
was  all  carefully  returned  to  the  farm  as 
liquid  and  solid  manure,  both  these  farm- 
ers are  on  the  safe  side,  so  far  as  main- 
taining the  fertility  of  their  farms  is  con- 
cerned. No.  1,  has  undoubtedly  added 
considerably  to  the  stores  of  plant  food 
in  the  soil  on  his  farm. 

2.  It  will  be  noticed  that  all  three  of 
these  dairy  farmers  sold  or  retained  for 
use  on  the  farm,  a  considerable  value  in 
live  stock.  This  is  as  it  should  be  on  any 
well-regulated  dairy  farm,  although  it  is 
difficult  to  do  this  where  all  the  milk  is 
sold  from_  the  farm.  The  dairy  farmer 
must  either  buy  or  rear  cows  to  replenish 
his  herd.  On  the  average,  a  dairy  lierd 
will  have  to  be  renewed  every  five  to  six 
years.  To  buy  good  cows  is  difficult,  hence 
the  farmer  must  rear  them  to  a  large  ex- 
tent, and,  sell  old,  bad-quartered  or  in- 
ferior milkers. 

3.  Farmer  No.  1  sold  no  grain,  hay,  etc., 
while  the  other  two,  particularly  No.  3 
sold  considerable  home-grown  feed — about 
enough  to  pay  his  feed  bills.  This  is  a 
very  good  principle  to  observe  where  it 
can  be  carried  out.  If  a  farmer  can  sell 
at  a  profit,  home-grown  goods  in  sufficient 
amount  to  pay  for  purchased  feed,  it  is 
usually  souhd  economy,  though  many  men, 
as  illustrated  by  No.  1,  do  not  believe  in 
selling  any  grain  or  roughage  from  the 

4.  Neither  the  size  of  the  farm  nor  the 
number  of  cows  in  the  herd  detei-mines 
"profits."  Nor  yet  is  this  governed  by  the 
number  of  pounds  of  milk  sold,  or  the 
value  of  the  milk  cheque.  There  is  some- 
thing at  this  point  rather  difficult  to 
analyze.-  While  it  is  generally  true  that 
large  milk  yields  and  good-sized  milk 
cheques  are  fair  criteria  by  which  to 
judge,  whether  or  not,  a  dairyman  is  mak- . 
ing  profits,  these  are  not  always  sure 
guides  on  this  point.  On  the'  three  farms 
noted,  the  smaller  farms  of  100  and  130 
acres  each  are  apparently  producing  more 
profit  per  acre  than  is  the  larger  farm  of 
175  acres,  and  this  is  brought  about  large- 

The    4,000-lb.    Cow 


The  second  problem  of  the  successful 
milk  producer  is  that  of  earning  a 
profit.  This  is  no  ensy  task  when  the 
producer  is  surrounded  with  present- 
day  regulations,  where  he  endeavors  lo 
meet  them,  and  at  prices  now  being 
paid  by  city  retailers.  The  cost  of 
feeds,  cows  and  labor  has  so  increased 
that  there  is  a  very  small  margin  be- 
tween profit  and  loss,  if  any,  in  many 
cases,  even  at  the  prices  paid  by  Ottawa 
dealers,  which  are  the  largest  paid  by 
dealers   in   any  city  in   Eastern   Canada. 

Briefly,  the  essentials  to  profit  in  the 
production  of  market  milk  are  ns  fol- 
lows, not  too  expensive  laud,  not  too 
much  capital  tied  up  in  buildings. 
Stables  may  be  comfortable,  convenient 
and  sanitary,  without  being  too  costly. 
There  should  be  some  well-defined  plan 
of  work  whereby  labor  may  be  econo- 
mized. Labor-saving  implements  can  be 
used  to  advantage,  but  the  farmer  must 
avoid  locking  up  too  much  capital  in 
implements  and  machinery.  Fre- 
quently it  is  cheaper  to  hire  implements 
and    horses   than   purchase  them. 

In  order  to  produce  milk  economically, 
it  is  essential  to  have  a  system  of  rota- 
tion of  crops  that  will  give  the  highest 
maximum  yield  per  acre  of  rough,  as 
well  as  produce  grain  fodders  at  the 
least  cost.  No  farmer  can  produce  millj 
cheaply  without  some  succulent  ration 
for  winter  feeding,  such  as  roots  and 
corn  silage.  Protein  is  the  costly  ele- 
ment in  food  required  for  the  production 
of  milk.  It  ds  cheaper  to  raise  this  in 
the  form  of  clovers  and  alfalf.i  than  pur- 
chase it  in  concentrated  form.  I  know 
something  about  milk  and  cream  pro- 
duction as  I  followed  the  business  ac- 
tively for  20  years,  and  I  endeavored  to 
raise  as  much  nitrogenous  fodder  as 
possible.  When  this  part  of  the  ration 
lias  to  be  purchased,  buy  the  foods  con- 
taining the  largest  per  cent,  of  protein 
that  you  can  get  for  the  least  money 
and  consistent  with  the  other  elements 
in  the  ration.  These  are  problems 
peculiar  to  every  dairyman  and  he  must 
study  and  work  them  out  for  himself. 
He  may  observe  business  principles  and 
conduct  his  business  according  to  the 
conditions  under  which  he  labors.  The 
producer  may  have  all  the  foregoing 
worked  out  to  a  successful  completion, 
and  yet  miserably  fail  as  regards 
profits,  if  he  has  not  a  good  business 
herd  of  cows.  Clran  milk  and  Mg 
prices  are  all  very  well,  and  sound  like 
profit-making,  but  if  each  individual  , 
cow  in  the  herd  does  not  give  a  large 
and  steady  flow  of  milk,  at  a  minimum 
cost  of  feed,  the  profits  are  not  what 
they  should  be  The  day  of  the  4  or  5 
thousand-pound  cow  is  gone,  for  the 
successful  milk  producer.  His  herd 
must  be  composed  of  cows  having  a 
capacity  of  not  less  than  7  to  10  thous- 
and pounds  of  milk  per  year,  not  more 
cows,  but  better  cows,  would  enable  the 
milk  producer  to  better  meet  present- 
day  regulations  and  conditions. 

— W.   P.  STEPHEN,  Quebec. 

ly  by  a  much  lower  expense  account  per 
farm  and  per  acre. 


Other  conclusions  might  be  drawn,  and 
other  valuable  lessons  learned  from  the 
statements  submitted  with  reference  to 
these  three  dairy  farms,  but  we  thing  suf- 
ficient has  been  given  to  show  that  dairy- 
ing does  pay  if  intelligently  carried  out 
on  a  good  dairy  farm,  with  good  cows,  and 
where  there  is  a  good  market.  It  means  a 
lot  of  hard  work,  but  plenty  of  work  is 
good  for  any  normal  healthy  individual. 
A  modern  writer  commenting  on  "The 
Physical  Michelangelo,"  who  was  a  fiend 
to  work,  said  of  him,  "He  ate  to  live  and 
to  labor,"  and  added,  "there  is  nothing  so 
conducive  to  mental  and  physical  whole- 
ness as  saturation  of  body  and  mind  with 
work."  If  this  be  true,  and  who  can  doubt 
the  soundness  of  the  philosophy,  then 
dairymen  ought  to  be  the  soundest,  ment- 
ally and  physically,  of  all  classes,  because, 
they  are  "saturated"  with  work  for  near- 
ly 365  days  in  the  year.  Many  do  not  ob- 
ject to  this,  so  long  as  the  work  is  interest- 
ing and  profitable.  This  we  claim  to  be 
the  case  for  the  dairy  farmer.  What  more 
interesting  than  to  watch  a  calf  grow  into 
a  heifer,  then  into  a  cow,  noting  the 
pounds  of  milk  and  test,  and  kinds  of 
calves  she  can  produce,  etc.?  When  the 
cheque  comes  in  weekly,  bi-monthly  or 
monthly,  we  feel  repaid  for  all  our  labor, 
if  the  price  is  adequate  and  commensurate 
with  capital  invested  and  labor  expended. 

Some    City    Standards    for 
Ordinary  Milk 

Various  Standards— The  city  of  Chicago  re- 
quires that  milk  and  skimmed  milk  shall  not 
contain  more  than  100,(100  bacteria  per  c.c. 
from  May  1st  to  September  30th,  and  not  over 
50,000  per  c.c.  between  October  1st  and  April 

The  citv  of  Rocbester,  N.Y..  has  a  maximum 
standard  of  100.000  bacteria  per  cubic  centi- 

The  city  of  Boston,  Masis.,  has  a  strict  stand- 
ard of  .500,000  bacteria   per  cubic  centimetre. 

The  city  of  New  York  has  the  best  system 
of  inspection  and  grading  of  any  large  city 
on  the  American  continent  The  regulations  of 
that  citv  require  that  milk  be  classed  into 
Orade  A,  B,  and  0.  Grade  A  for  infants  and 
children,  is  classed  under  guaranteed  milk: — 
produced  at  farms,  holding  permits,  from 
cows  fr(?e  from  tuberculoiiis.  the  milk  con- 
taining not  more  than  30,000  bacteria  per 
c.c.  Certified  milk: — produced  under  the  most 
hygienic   conditions.      Dairies   producing   guar- 

fContinned    on    page   .50') 

Chicken  or  Avian  Cholera:  By  j.  k. Gemw,  v.s. 

Domestic  Fowls,  Canaries,  Rabbits,  Pheasants,  Partridges  May  Contract  This 
Germ  Disease — Symptoms  and  Treatment — Cleanliness  Essential. 

At  the  co'Bpetition  In  New  South  Wales,  the 
top  hen  laid  10  eggs,  the  lower  one  23  eggs  in 
one  year.  Hens  of  this  type  should  not  be 
kept  In  a  pen  intended  for  egg  production.  They 
are  fat  and  are  fine  looking  birds.  Fine  feath- 
ers do  not  always  count. 

CHICKEN  cholera  has  been  known 
since  the  year  1600  A.D.  in  which 
year  an  Italian  wrote  on  diseases  of 
poultry,  including  one  which  was  no  doubt 
our  cholera  of  to-day.  Then  in  183.5-6  a 
Frenchman,  M.  Mailet,  carried  out  very 
complete  investigations  concerning  it  and 
named  it  Fowl  cholera  by  which  name  it 
has  since  been  known.  Some  years  later 
other  three  French  veterinary  surgeons 
studied  the  disease  and  concluded  that  it 
was  contagious,  but  it  was  not  until  1851, 
that  M.  Benjamin  proved  this  experi- 
mentally. He  found  though  that  a  specific 
contagion  was  the  causative  agent.  He 
found  also  that  man  and  dogs  could  eat 
the  flesh  of  diseased  fowl  without  injury. 
It  was  a  Russian  and  an  Italian  veterin- 
ary surgeon  in  the  years  1877-1878,  who 
first  isolated  and  cultivated  the  specific 
organism,  and  produced  the  disease  by 
introducing  the  culture  of  the  bacillus  into 
healthy  fowls.  It  is  a  very  minute  organ- 
ism, and  exists  in  the  blood,  and  probably 
all  other  tissues  of  the  body  of  diseased 
birds,  yet  there  was  still  a  doubt  that  this 
organism  was  the  sole  cause  of  the  disease, 
and  another  Frenchman  in  1879  proved 
this  to  be  the  case.  In  1880  M.  Pasteur 
grew  the  organism  on  culture  media  and 
produced  a  vaccine,  an  attenuated  virus, 
which  when  inoculated  into  the  systems  of 
birds  produced  an  absolute  immunity. 
This  vaccine  was  to  a  certain  extent  prob- 
ably also  curative. 

7716  pictures  in  this  article  have  no  relation 
to  the  suliject  matter.  The  article  treats  of  a 
disease  among  chickens  and  pet  stock  by  the 
Veterinary  Adviser  of  the  Farmer's  Magazine. 
The  illustrations  are  along  other  lines  alto- 
gether. They  are  taken  from  the  pages  of  the 
American  Journal  of  Genetics,  and  present 
some  mighty  interesting  cases  for  farmers  and 
poultry  formers.  Regarding  the  lower  picture, 
Mr.  Lewis  K.  Clark,  whose  article  appears  on 
another  page,  says  that  he  has  an  interesting 
case  of  sex  heterodoxy  which  is  being  experi- 
mented with,  on  his  farm  at  Port  Hope. — 

The  real  and  only  causative  agent  then 
is  this  very  minute  bacillus  which  is  called 
bacillus  avisepticus,  or  as  it  is  sometimes 
termed  in  honor  of  M.  Pasteur, ,  who 
studied  it  most  closely,  avian  Pasteurel- 

The  organisms  are  found  in  all  or  prob- 
ably all  the  organs  of  the  body  of  birds 
which  have  died  of  the  disease,  even  the 
egg  has  been  found  to  contain  them. 

A  chicken  will  develop  the  disease  in 
from  four  to  twenty  days  after  being  ex- 
posed to  the  infection.  The  method  of  in- 
fection or  the  channel  through  which 
birds  become  infected  is  by  swallowing  the 
organism,  with  the  food  or  water.  These 
being  polluted  with  foeces  or  other  dis- 
charges from  the  body  of  diseased  birds. 
Or  a  bird  may  dirty  his  feathers  and  feet 
and  get  the  disease  in  cleaning  them  with 
his  beak.  The  small  wild  birds,  e.g.,  spar- 
rows, also  crows  and  pigeons,  as  well  as 

•  A  Biiir  Oiiiiiitii'ii  in-ij  liatclictl  at  the  Bureau 
of  Arrival  Industry  Experimental  Farm.  Mary- 
land, U.S.  Began  to  lay  Nov.  16,  1913,  and 
was  trap-nested  Nov.,  1014.  In  this  time  she 
laid  110  eggs  and  began  to  moult  in  .\ugust. 
Following  the  moult  she  began  to  develop  the 
secondary  sexual  characters  :  the  tail  feathers 
changed  in  appearance,  the  comb  increased  in 
size,  and  the  head  came  to  look  like  that  of  a 
cock,  and  the  legs  took  on  the  redness  eliar- 
acteristic  of  the  male  Buff  Orpington.  She 
crowed  several  times.  This  photo  was  taken 
previous  to  her  being  killed  In  August,  1915. 
Dissection  disclosed  a  large  tumor  on  the 
ovary.  Reasoning  from  this,  has  every  fowl 
the  potential  ability  to  develop  the  charac- 
teristics of  either  sex? 

In  a  test  of  White  Leghorns  at  Richmond. 
New  South  Wales,  1914,  the  top  hen  laid  21'.i 
eggs  in  12  months,  the  lower  one  288  eggs  in  the 
same  time.  Hens  of  the  type  here  shown  should 
be  chosen  by  the  poultrymen  who  wants  a 
flock   that  will  earn  its  keep. 

dogs,  cats,  rats  and  flies  may  carry  the 
infection  from  one  place  to  another.  It 
may  be  carried  also  on  the  shoes  of  peo- 
ple. Exhibitions  spread  it  seriously  at 
times.  Should  several  diseased  birds  get 
into  the  show,  they  may  infect  many 
birds  from  many  and  distant  places,  pur- 
chasing poultry  from  diseased  flocks,  also 
shipping  poultry  in  contaminated  crates, 
hampers,  etc.,  does  spread  the  disease. 

The  organism  can  live  for  a  consider- 
able time  around  hen  houses  and  runs,  and 
from  this  source  the  disease  has  broken 
out  amongst  a  fresh  flock  long  after  the 
infected  one  had  been  killed  off".  In- 
cubators and  brooders  have  been  the 
source  of  outbreaks.  Perhaps  these  were 
sold  by  a  person  who  lost  his  flock. 

Show  birds  that  are  kept  too  much  con- 
fined, especially  if  inbred,  are  more  sus- 
ceptible than  the  common,  every-day, 
barnyard  fowl. 

Rabbits  take  the  disease  readily  and 
suffer  severely. 

The  disease  varies  greatly  in  the 
severity  and  fatality  of  the  different  out- 
breaks, also  in  the  severity  of  the  indi- 
vidual cases.  In  some  outbreaks  many 
birds  die  after  a  short  illness,  but  in  all 
outbreaks  some  birds  resist  the  disease 
much  better  than  others. 


In   the  most  severe  cases  the  bird   is 
seized  suddenly.   It  will,  if  walking  about, 
suddenly  stagger  and  fall  over,  get  up. 
Continued  on  Page  58. 

An  Okanagan  Consolidation:  coUn  w.  Lees 

How  a  B.C.  School  Community  is  Making  the  Consolidation  Idea  Work  Out. 

IT  is  difficult  for  rural  schools  to  retain 
good  teachfers.  If  a  man,  and  a  suc- 
cessful teacher,  it  is  a  safe  wager  that 
he  can  make  a  better  living  and  be  much 
less  amenable  to  the  whims  of  an  arbi- 
trary school  board  or  the  mothers  of  the 
countryside,  in  any  one  of  many  occupa- 
tions or  professions  into  which  he  usually 
finds  his  way.  If  a  lady,  she  graduates 
to  the  city  schools,  provided  she  escapes 
matrimony.  Consequently  only  the  young- 
er, inexperienced  and  inefficient  teachers 
are  available  for  the  rural  schools.  But 
introduce  the  consolidated  school  and  at 
once  you  bring  to  the  education  of  the 
rural  children  all  the  advantages  of  effici- 
ent, properly-paid  teachers,  adequate 
equipment,  and  library  facilities. 

Of  the  four  teachers  'in  the  Central 
School,  one  is  a  university  graduate  and 
holder  of  an  academic  certificate,  the 
highest  granted  in  the  province;  two  hold 
first-class  and  one"  a  thirds-class  certificate. 
The  total  amount  paid  yearly  in  salaries 
to  the  four  teachers  is  $4,380,  and  the 
average  teaching  experience  is  between 
twelve  and  fourteen  years.  Not  only  so, 
but  each  one  brings  to  the  work  of  his  or 
her  particular  grade,  special  ability  and 
training,  which  is  impossible  in  an  un- 
graded school  where  the  teacher  must  of 
necessity  be  a  jack-of-all-trades.  In  a 
word,  each  is  as  capable  and  as  well 
trained  as  the  profession  provides,  and  as 
a  result,- the  teaching  is  just  as  efficient 
as  any  in  the  province,  not  even  city 
schools  excepted. 

Furthermore,  among  the  pupils  there 
has  developed  a  splendid  school  spirit  and 
community  interest,  resulting  from  the 
playing  of  games  calling  for  team  work 
and  individual  sacrifice  for  the  sake  of 
the  whole.  At  this  writing  (March  1) 
the  boys  have  already  organized  a  three- 
team  baseball  league  and  have  drawn  up 
a  schedule  to  run  until  June  15.  There  is  a 
school  team  that  plays  periodically 
against  the  High  School  and  Okanagan 
College  teams,  and  before  the  season 
closes  will  probably  play  a  couple  of  games 
with  the  school  team  from  the  neighbor- 
ing municipality  of  Penticton. 


The  system  of  conveying  the  children 
works  admirably.  Four  vans  convey  the 
pupils,  save  for  those  living  nearby  who 
walk.  The  average  cost  per  van  per 
month  is  $49.  The  average  length  of 
route  is  below  three  miles  and  the  time  re- 
quired to  cover  them  fifty  minutes.  Forty- 
two  per  cent,  of  the  children  are  con- 
veyed two  miles  or  less ;  the  same  propor- 
tion, go  between  two  and  three  miles, 
while  15  per  cent,  of  them  live  over  three 
miles  from  the  school.  Less  than  a  third 
of  them  are  on. the  road  for  half  an  hour; 
about  40  per  cent,  complete  their  journey 
in  forty-five  minutes  and  the  rest,  or  28 
per  cent,  are  on  the  road  about  an  hour. 

The  jacts  of  School  Consolidation  are  com- 
pelling to  many  uho  live  in  districts  where 
such  will  work  out.  This  article  describes  an 
actual  working  out  in  B.C.  Another  article  hy 
the  icritcr's  father  appears  elsewhere  in  the 
magazine. — Editor. 

With  the  exception  of  an  accident  short- 
ly after  the  inception  of  the  system,  no 
injury  of  any  kind  has  befallen  a  single 
child.  Going  to  and  returning  from  school 
the  children  are  under  the  care  of  the 
drivers,  who  report  a  total  absence  of 
trouble.  The  writer  has  made  several 
trips  in  the  vans,  both  picking  up  and 
setting  down  the  children,  and  can  safely 
say  that  the  system  seems  to  him  much  the 
best  yet  tried  in  the  solving  of  the  rural 
school  problem. 

Aside  from  the  delinquency  of  the 
"walkers,"  tardiness  has  been  practi- 
cally eliminated.  The  drivers  know  their 
routes  and  time  themselves  to  arrive  with- 
in five  or  ten  minutes  of  the  opening  hour. 
No  matter  what  the  weather  conditions 
may  be  the  children  are  dry,  warm,  and 
comfortable  when  they  enter  the  school. 
There  are  no  wet  feet  or  wet  clothes;  no 
ruined  books  or  stories  of  trouble  among 
pupils  on  the  road  to  school.  Every  one 
is  ready  to  begin  at  once,  and  to  begin  at 
maximum  efficiency,  which  is  impossible 
when  the  children  walk,  especially  if  the 
weather  is  inclement  or  snow  upon  the 
ground;  and  the  school  is  free  from  inter- 
ruptions once  it  is  called. 


The  Government  school  report  for 
1913-14  places  the  percentage  of  regular 
attendance  at  the  "Rural  Municipality 
Schools"  of  the  province  at  79.15  per  cent., 
and  that  of  Summerland,  which  belongs 
to  this  class,  at  75.79  per  cent.  At  the  out- 
set this  looks  a  bit  disappointing  but  two 
things  must  be  considered.  First,  the 
rural  municipality  schools  of  British 
Columbia  are  really  urban  schools,  serv- 
ing a  town  and  small  surrounding  di.strict. 
The  average  number  of  teachers  in  each 
is  over  17.  Several  have  half  a  dozen 
schools.  South  Vancouver,  alone,  has  14 
schools  with  129  teachers,  yet  it  is  classed 
as  a  rural  municipality.  And  second,  the 
percentage  for  Summerland  is  for  the  six 
rooms,  including  the  Town  and  Garnett 
Valley  schools,  which  so  far  as  attendance 
goes,  are  one-roomed  rural  schools. 

In  view  of  these  facts  the  writer  has 
made  a  careful  investigation  into  the  at- 
tendance records  of  the  Central  school  for 
the  present  school  year,  and  finds  the  pe.'- 
centage  of  regular  attendance  from 
August  up  to  the  present  to  be  89.69  per 
cent.  With  very  few  exceptions  in  the 
cities,  this  is  the  highest  percentage  of 
regular  attendance  in  the  province. 

A  further  examination  of  the  registers 
for  a  comparison  of  the  regularity  of  the 

"walkers"  and  "riders,"  shows  that  the 
percentage  of  the  "walkers"  is  88.7  per 
cent.,  while  that  of  the  riders  is  90.89  per 
cent.  The  high  records  are  due  to  the  ex- 
ceptionally fine  weather,  even  for  Sum- 
merland; and  the  more  regular  attend- 
ance of  the  "riders"  is  due  to  less  sickness 
among  them  owing  to  their  being  convey- 
ed to  and  from  school ;  to  their  indiffer- 
ence to  weather  conditions  and  finally  to 
a  psychological  reason.  They  know  the 
van  will  stop  for  them  at  their  gate,  which 
produces  a  feeling  not  unlike  that  which 
we  older  people  experience  when  we  know 
someone  is  calling  in  the  evening  to  lug  us 
off  to  a  dissertation  on  the  "Fourth  De- 
gree" or  "Eve's  Responsibility  for  the 
Fall  of  Man."  We  might  prefer  to  remain 
by  our  fireside,  yet  we  always  go. 

The  percentage  of  average  attendance 
for  the  rural  schools  of  the  province  is 
67.05  per  cent.  I  have  also  the  figures  for 
a  district  of  a  dozen  townships  in  Ontario. 
There  the  percentage  is  56.17  per  cent. 
For  Manitoba  last  year  it  was  55  per  cent. 
At  any  rate  the  point  is  beyond  peradven- 
ture  that  the  attendance  at  Summerland 
is  not  only  much  in  advance  of  that  of 
the  rural  schools  of  the  province,  but  is 
above  the  average  of  the  rural  municipa- 
lity schools,  and  surpassed  only  by  a  few 
of  the  city  schools. 


To  many  the  acid  test  is  the  matter  of 
expense.  The  education  of  the  children 
can  look  after  itself  but  the  rate  must  be 
kept  down,  even  though  Johnnie  or  Willie 
does  not  get  a  fair  start  in  the  world, 
where  the  struggle  for  existence  is  de- 
pending more  and  more  upon  the  brain 
capacity  and  training  of  the  individual. 

Above  I  have  suggested  that  one  reason 
for  establishing  the  consolidated  school, 
was  the  belief  in  some  quarters  that  it 
would  decrease  the  cost  of  educating  the 
children.  At  first  the  results  fully  justi- 
fied the  belief.  But  when  the  number  of 
school  children  increased,  necessitating 
the  opening  of  the  two  word  schools,  the 
increase  in  the  amount  paid  in  salaries, 
brought  the  cost  up,  until  now  it  is  prob- 
ably a  little  above  what  it  would  be  were 
the  children  educated  in  the  old  way. 

But  let  us  see.  Let  us  suppose  for  the 
moment  that  Summerland  were  to  decide 
to  return  to  the  old  system.  The  200 
pupils  that  were  on  the  roll  in  February, 
would  require  two  teachers  at  the  Town 
school,  two  at  West  Summerland,  and  one 
at  each  of  Garnett  Valley,  Prairie  Valley 
and  Trout  Creek,  making  seven  teachers 
in  five  schools.  From  the  report  of  the 
department  it  is  found  that  the  average 
cost  of  running  each  rural  school  is 
$1,092.49.  With  two  teachers  in  each  of 
two  of  our  schools  the  average  cost 
would  be  well  above  this.  The  salaries 
would  mean  an  added  expenditure  of  at 
Continued  on  Page  62. 

The  Efficient  Farm  House:  By  genevieve 

The  Builder  Plans  for  the  Comfort  and  Health  of  the  Family  —  The  Conveni- 
ence of  the  Housekeeper  and  an  Individual  Attnosphere  of  Beauty 


HE  farm 
house  of 

means  a  house 
where  the  com- 
fort and  health 
of  the  family  are 
considered  i  n 
planning  every 
detail — the  light- 
ing and  heating 
and  ventilation, 
the  sanitary  ar- 
rangements and 
the  layout  of 
rooms ;  vir  h  e  r  e 
provision  has 
oeen  made  for 
things  that  used 
to  be  considered 
luxuries,  such  as 
bath-rooms  and 
fireplaces.  W  e 
know^  now  that 
the  efficient 
house  is  a  place 
to  live  and  that 
these  things 
make  for  better 
living.     The 

efficient  farm  house  is  a  house  where  the 
work  can  be  done  in  the  quickest,  easiest, 
and  best  way,  with  whatever  labor- 
saving  devices  the  family  can  afford. 
And  just  as  important  as  these,  the 
efficient  house  has  the  staying,  stimulating 
atmosphere  of  beauty.  Display  for  its 
own  sake  is  vulgar.  But  a  home  should 
have  such  an  individual  charm  that  every 
glimpse  of  it  from  the  turn  in  the  lane, 
from  the  fields  where  a  view  can  be  caught 
through  the  trees,  or  from  the  highway 
where  the  home-corner  catches  all  at  once 
the  glow  of  lamplight  from  its  windows; 
every  picture  should  bring  a  thrill  of 
pride,  as  well  as  a  sense  of  comfort  in  the 
natural  home-loving  instinct. 

In  a  house  of  the  type  shown  here,  the 
simplicity  and  dignity  of  the  architectural 
lines  gives  a  permanent  style  of  beauty. 
It  will  stand  living  with  better  than  a 
building  with  elaborate  cornices,  freak 
dormers  and  porch  trimmings.  What 
might  be  an  over-plainness  is  relieved  by 
a  cheerful  window  arrangement  and  by 
the  graceful  outline  of  the  whole  exterior. 

A  house  of  this  type  will  stand   living  with   better    tlian    a    building    with    elaborate    oornites 
freak   dormers,   and   porch   trimmings. 

airy,  steamless 
place  best  adapt- 
ed for  this.  The 
kitchen  is  made 
a  still  more  liv- 
able place  by 
having  a  wash- 
room built  on. 
The  water  sup- 
ply here  has  no 
direct  connection 
with  that  in  the 
kitchen.  A  soft- 
water  cistern 
and  pitcher 
pump  make  a 
very  good  equip- 
ment, and  if  the 
washing  machine 
is  set  over  a 
drain  in  the  ce- 
ment floer,  and 
if  a  second-hand 
cook  stove  for 
heating  the 
water  can  be  lo- 
cated at  an  auc- 
tion     sale,     the 

Grouud  floor   plan. 

The  interior  layout  is  simple  and  prac- 
tical. The  fiont  door  opens  into  a  central 
hall  with  an  office  on  one  side,  the  living- 
room  on  the  other.  The  living-room  is  a 
particularly  pleasant  part  of  the  house 
with  groups  of  windows  on  two  sides  and 
a  corner  fireplace.  The  wide  sliding-doors 
between  this  room  and  the  dining-rom 
make  it  possible  to  throw  the  two  rooms 
into  one  for  company  occasions,  a  matter 
worth  considering  particularly-  in  a  home 
where  there  are  young  people.  The  din- 
ing-room has  the  same  cheerful  lighting 
arrangement  with  groups  of  windows  on 
two  sides  and  it  would  be  a  simple  matter 
to  have  another  fireplace  here  using  the 
one  chim.ney. 

The  kitchen  is  larger  than  might  be 
considered  best  from  the  standpoint  of 
saving  steps  for  the  housekeeper,  but  this 
can  be  overcome  by  a  careful  grouping  of 
the  furniture.  If  the  stove  is  set  about 
directly  in  front  of  and  a  few  feet  away 
from  the  small  cupboard,  then  the  sink, 
drain-board,  supply-cupboard  and  dumb 
waiter  will  be  found  to  be  in  logical  order. 
An  arrangement  could  even  be  made  to 
have  the  dumb-waiter  box  open  into  the 
dining-room,  as  well  as  the  kitchen.  While 
the  small  kitchen  has  many  points  on  the 
side  of  efficiency,  it  is  likely  to  fall  short  in 
others.  If  coal  or  wood,  fuels  that  heat 
the  house,  are  to  be  used  in  the  range  the 
small  kitchen  becomes  unbearably  hot  in 
warm  weather.  It  is  also  hard  to  venti- 
late without  draughts  at  any  time,  and 
then,  efficiency  rules  cannot  always  be  ap- 
plied in  home  keeping  like  they  can  in  any 
other  craft.  Most  farm  kitchens  sometime 
or  other  have  to  do  duty  as  day  nurseries 
and  the  very  snr.all  kitchen  is  not  the  dry. 

laundry  work 
will  be  lightened 
materially  at  a  comparatively  low  cost. 
The  room  also  helps  the  housekeeper  by 
providing  a  place  for  the  men  to  wash 
apart  from  the  kitchen  sink,  and  a  place 
to  hang  coats  and  skates  and  the  usual 
collection  of  outdoor  things  that  naturally 
gravitate  to  corners  of  the  kitchen.  The 
closet  is  intended  for  mops,  brushes  and 
other  cleaning  apparatus. 

The  position  of  the  office  is  good  for 
several  reasons.  It  is  convenient  to  the 
kitchen  and  to  visitors  entering  at  the 
front  door.  Another  dpor  which  might  be 
c'.osed  constantly  duriiig  the  winter  opens 
into  a  screened  porch,  giving  the  room  a 
particular  attractiveness  in  the  summer 
time.  This  means  that  besides  serving  its 
purpose  as  an  office,  the  place  can  be  made 
an  Inviting  little  den,  and  every  house 
where  a  number  of  people  live  together 
should  have  some  "retreat"  of  this  kind. 
The  screened  porch  may  be  put  to  a  num- 
ber of  uses,  a  sleeping  porch  at  night,  a 
place  for  a  baby  to  sleep  in  the  daytime, 
Continued  on  Page  61. 

Layout  of  rooms  upstairs.  An  error  is  made 
in  the  drawing  :n  not  showing  a  door  from 
the   hall   into   the   right-hand   corner   bedroom. 

Winter  in  the  Orchard:  By  e.  i.  Famngton 

The  Orchard  Lover  Will  Get  Fruit  Where  the  Ordinary  Farmer  Fails- 

a  Sympathy  That  Returns  in  Dollars 


ere  is 

WINTER  work  really  begins  in  the 
fall,  for  it  is  then  that  the  trees 
must  be  protected  from  the  depre- 
dations of  rabbits  and  field  mice.  These 
pests  often  do  a  lot  of  damage,  especially 
to  young  trees,  which  are  not  able  to  sup- 
ply sap  in  sufficient  quantities  to  heal  the 
wounds  over  and  consequently  die.  Many 
washes  have  been  advocated,  but  few  of 
them  are  of  permanent  value.  It  is  a  com- 
mon practice  to  smear  the  trees  with  blood 
or  liver  to  keep  rabbits  away.  Asafcetida, 
which  has  a  most  disgusting  odor,  is 
sometimes  mixed  with  mud  and  applied 
with  a  brush.  -A  mixture  of  tallow  and 
tobacco  is  fairly  effective.  A  pound  of 
aloes  to  four  gallons  of  water  makes  a 
wash  which  is  used  in  California  to  repel 
rabbits.  These  simple  remedies  are  well 
enough  where  only  a  few  trees  are  to  be 
protected,  but  other  measures  are* neces- 
sary, in  large  orchards  and  it  has  been 
found  that  the  common  lime  and  sulphur 
spray  used  for  the  San  Jose  scale  gives 
excellent  results.-  It  may  be  applied  with 
a  spray  pump  any  time  that  the  trees 
are  not  in  leaf. 

Probably  the  most  satisfactory  method 
of  circumventing  rabbits  is  found  in  vari- 
ous devices  which  encircle  the  trunk.  In 
sections  of  the  country  where  the  paper 
birch  grows  strips  of  the  bark  may  be 
used.  They  curl  naturally  around  the 
small  trunks  and  are  easy  to  handle.  Tar- 
red paper  is  often  made  use  of  and  is  . 
cheap,  but  new  window  screening  is  pre- 
ferable,, and  stouter  wire  cloth  made  of 
galvanized  netting  is  still  better.  If  the 
netting  is  first  rolled  around  a  broom 
stick  it  will  take  the  right  shape  and  may 
be  slipped  around  a  tree  in  a  moment,  but 
the  two  ends  should  overlap  about  an  inch. 
A  strip  six  inches  wide  cut  from  twenty- 
four  inch  cloth  will  be  large  enough  for 

These   trees   in   a   York   Co.,   N.B.,   orchard, 
The  lime  will  help  to 

The  apple  tree  imll  never  lose  its  interest  fot 
many  people.  Despite  the  trouhle  of  bugs, 
futiyi,  and  limbs,  the  joy  of  causing  a  perfect 
apple  to  develop,  more  than  compensates  for 
the  trouble.  Where  farm  work  appears  to 
the  farmer  as  drudgery,  it  is  high  time  that 
that  farmer  forsake  his  calling  for  that  of  the 
coalheaver  or  navi'y.  There  is  a  new  wave  of 
religious  fervor  going  to  sweep  over  rural  Can- 
ado\  yet,  and  that  wave  will  shoiv  that  the 
man  who  does  not  carry  his  religion  into  his 
everyday  work,  in  reality  has  no  religion. 
There  is  such  a  tMng  as  holy  ground  in  an 
orchard. — Editor. 

young  trees.  The  protector  should  be 
pressed  into  the  ground  slightly,  in  order 
to  keep  mice  from  working  under  and  in 
sections  where  very  deep  snows  fall  some- 
what wider  cloth  may  be  necessary,  for  of 
course  the  rabbits  will  travel  on  the  top 
of  the  snow. 

Rabbits  are  more  difficult  to  deal  with 
than  mice.   Usually  the  latter  can  be  kept 


A  Sunbury  c 

A\\v    r.ninswick 

ji-cliard,   Willi     Ifi'i-s 
liriided    quite    low. 

foi-ijj.;i-ijuii(J     jinjiiL'd.      These     arc 

were   sprayed   with   a   wash  of  lime  and  lye. 

ward  off  sunscald. 

pretty  well  in  check  by  keeping  all  grass 
and  mulch  at  least  six  inches  from  the 
trunk,  and  then  tramping  the  snow  hard 
around  the  trees  as  soon  as  it  falls.  Mice 
always  work  under  the  snow  and  heaping 
earth  several  inches  high  at  the  base  of 
the  trunks  helps  to  save  the  trees.  This 
earth  should  be  removed  in  the  spring, 
however,  and  it  is  also  wise  to  take  off^ 
whatever  protectors  may  be  used,  for  they 
are  likely  to  attract  borers  and  other  in- 


When  trees  are  found  that  have  been 
gnawed  by  mice  or  rabbits  the  wound 
should  be  immediately  smoothed  and 
cleaned,  after  which  fresh  cow  dung 
should  be  bound  over  it  with  a  cloth.  If 
trees  have  been  badly  girdled,  bridge- 
grafting  will  be  needed  to  save  them. 
Bridge-grafting  is  simple  enough.  First, 
whips  of  last  year's  growth  are  cut  and 
pared  thin  on  both  ends.  Then,  one  end 
is  placed  under  the  bark  at  the  upper  edge 
of  the  wound  and  the  other  end  under  the 
bark  at  the  bottom.  Grafting  wax  must 
then  be  applied  freely  at  the  points  of 
union  and  it  is  well  to  wax  the  whole 
wound.  A  cloth  band  tied  tightly  around 
the  ends  will  help  to  hold  the  scions  in 
place  until  they  become  established.  The 
bark  will  soon  grow  over  the  wounds  and 
as  soon  as  a  channel  for  the  flow  of  sap 
is  restored  the  tree  will  resume  its  growth. 

In  the  course  of  the  winter  it  is  import- 
ant to  make  one  spraying  with  a  lime- 
sulphur  solution.  This  work  may  be  done 
on  warm  days  from  early  winter  until 
just  before  growth  starts  and  a  very 
strong  mixture — one  to  eight  or  one  to 
nine — should  be  used,  and  is  perfectly 
safe  for  a  dormant  spray.  It  is  necessary 
to  apply  the  spray  with  much  force  and 
to  cover  every  part  of  every  tree.  All 
spraying  is  unpleasant  and  winter  spray- 
ing is  often  avoided  as  long  as  possible, 
but  it  is  very  necessary  wherever  the  San 


Jose  scale  has  made  its  appearance.  Vari- 
ous other  pests  are  doubtless  killed,  too, 
and  spraying  of  the  trunks  to  repel  mice 
and  rabbits  may  be  done  at  the  same  time 
if  the  work  is  taken  up  early  in  the 

Although  March  and  early  April  is  un- 
doubtedly the  best  season  for  the  pruning 
of  dormant  trees,  this  work  usually  has  to 
be  spread  over  a  wider  period  in  large  or- 
chards. As  a  matter  of  fact,  pruning  can 
be  safely  done  at  any  time  in  the  winter 
that  the  weather  is  favorable  for  outdoor 
work.  Pruning  .methods  vary  greatly  in 
different  parts  of  the  country  and  with 
different  growers.  In  Nova  Scotia,  where 
orcharding  has  made  greater  progress, 
perhaps,  than  anjnvhere  else  in  the  Domin- 
ion, it  is  the  common  practice  to  head 
out  apple  trees  about  three  feet  from  the 
ground,  and  they  are  cut  back  a  little 
each  year  so  as  to  make  them  form  a  low- 
headed  tree.  Heavy  pruning  is  not  favor- 
ed so  highly  as  formerly.  Most  practical 
growers  have  found  that  it  tends  to  pro- 
duce a  sappy  growth  which  interferes 
"with  early  bearing. 

Methods  of  pruning  bearing  trees  are 
as  diverse  as  those  followed  in  the  case 
of  those  recently  set  out.  Some  try  to  keep 
the  shape  of  the  tree  by  cutting  out  the 
smaller  limbs;  others  believe  they  accom- 
plish the  same  end  more  easily  by  remov- 
ing limbs  of  considerable  size.  At  all 
events,  it  is  important  in  all  parts  of  the 
Dominion  to  keep  the  heads  of  bearing 
trees  open,  in  order  to  admit  the  sunlight 
freely.  In  m.any  of  the  States,  on  the  con- 
trary, it  is  necessary  to  have  thick  heads 
in  order  to  give  protection  from  the  hot 
sun.  Low  heads  and  open  heads  should  be 
the  rule  of  all  Canadian  orchardists.  Also, 
the  crossing  and  rubbing  of  limbs  must 
not  be  permitted  and  it  is  very  important 
to  cut  out  all  blighted  limbs  in  winter,  as 
in  this  way  a  prolific  source  of  infestation 
is  removed.  Parallel  limbs  and  those 
which  shoot  straight  into  the  air  are  rot 
desirable.  No  apple  tree  should  be  al- 
lowed to  grow  more  than  twenty  feet 


It  ought  not  to  be  necessary  to  explain 
that  all  limbs  should  be  cut  off  close  to 
and  parallel  with  the  trunk  or  main  stem 
and  yet  it  is  still  a  common  thing  to  find 
stubs  several  inches  long.  No  wound 
should  be  left  which  will  develop  into  a 
pocket  to  hold  water.  Large  limbs  should 
always  be  first  cut  from  under  a  little 
distance  before  the  top  is  sawed  through, 
else  in  falling  they  will  tear  down  a  long 
strip  of  bark.  When  small  branches  are 
being  removed,  it  is  important  to  cut  to 
a  bud  or  another  branch  and  to  one  should 
grows  away  from  the  centre  of  the  tree. 
By  this  means  it  is  possible  to  do  much  in 
shaping  the  tree.  Water  sprouts  should 
be  removed  except  where  a  new  limb  is 
needed,  and  it  is  well  to  remember  that 
heavy  pruning  is  almost  certain  to  result 
in  a  forest  of  water  sprouts  the  next  sea- 
son.   And  water  sprouts  are  robbers. 

In  the  past  orchard  experts  have  always 
declared  with  emphasis  that  every  large 
wound  should  be  immediately  painted,  pre- 
ferably with  white  lead  paint,  although 
tar  has  often  been  recommended  for  ma- 
ture trees.     Now,  however,  the  question 

A  pruned  Ben  Davis  tree  in  H.  W.  McBrien's 
orchard  in  Ontario  Co.,  Ontario,  bore  apples 
twice    as    large    as    from    ordinary    uapruned 


has  arisen  whether  or  not  this  is  good 
practice  after  all.  Mr.  Clark  Allis,  one  of 
the  leading  apple  growers  of  New  York 
State,  never  paints  the  wounds  which  are 
left  when  his  trees  are  trimmed,  and  his 
orchards  are  in  as  good  condition  as  those 
of  most  other  growers.  Moreover,,  the 
New  York  State  experiment  station  re- 
cently issued  a  bulletin,  discussing  the 
effects  of  various  dressings  in  common 
use.  The  conclusions  reached  are  highly 
interesting  and  most  illuminating.  Sum- 
med up,  they  are  as  follows: 

"Though  many  materials  were  used, 
none  was  found  to  be  of  benefit,  for  in 
every  case  untreated  wounds  made  as 
good  recovery  as  those  covered.  In  nearly 
all  instances  the  supposedly  helpful  cover- 
ing injured  the  exposed  tissues  and  re- 
tarded healing;  the  mechanical  exclusion 
of  the  germs  of  plant  diseases  by  imperv- 
ious coverings  and  the  destruction  of  these 
germs  by  preservatives  and  disinfectants 
proved  without  value.  Wounds  kept  from 
drying  out  by  some  protective  material 
healed  no  more  rapidly  than  those  left 
open  to  the  air. 


"Paints  made  from  white  lead,  white 
zinc  and  yellow  ochre  were  used  in  the 
test,  as  well  as  coal  tar,  shellac  and  car- 
bolineum.  In  different  tests  extending 
over  four  years  these  materials  were  ap- 
plied, both  immediately  follownng  prun- 
ing and  after  a  delay  of  six  weeks  to  al- 
low some  drying  of  the  surface.  In  no 
case  was  there  any  benefit  from  the  use 
of  any  of  these  coverings.  On  the  peach 
all  were  so  harmful  that  it  may  safely  be 
said  that  no  covering  should  ever  be  used 
on  trees  of  this,  or,  presumably,  of  any 
stone  fruit.  The  injury  from  shellac  was 
very  slight.  On  the  apple  tree  the  car- 
bolineum  was  very  harmful,  the  yellow 
ochre  paint  retarded  healing  notic.eably, 
the  white  lead  and  white  zinc  were  less 
injurious  and  the  shellac  did  little  or  no 
harm,  but  no  good.  It  was  shown  that 
there  can  be  no  gain  from  treating  small 
wounds,  at  least,  and  considerable  liability 
to  harm.     On  very  large  wounds,  which 

heal  only  after  several  years  or  not  at  all, 
it  is  possible  that  some  protection  of  the 
wound  may  be  useful  in  keeping  out  dis- 
ease germs,  but  of  this  the  experiments 
give  no  proof." 

It  is  really  a  question,  therefore,  wheth- 
er it  is  not  a  waste  of  time,  labor  and 
material  to  paint  or  tar  wounds  made  by 
pruning.  Apparently  it  is  much  more  im- 
portant to  have  the  wound  perfectly 
smooth  and  the  cuts  made  so  close  to  the 
parent  stock  that  the  bark  can  roll  over 
the  exposed  wood  quickly,  thus  sealing  the 
possible  source  of  infection  in  Nature's 
way.  The  experiments  mentioned  showed 
that  the  applications  made  tended  to  kill 
back  the  tissues  and  delay  this  very  opera- 
tion. Yet  it  will  be  hard  to  convince  many 
farmers  that  the  painting  of  wounds  is 
not  desirable.  The  writer  can  only  give 
the  results  of  the  four  years*  experiments 
mentioned,  and  cite  the  case  of  Mr.  Allis, 
who  gave  up  the  practice  long  ago.  If 
painting  is  to  be  done,  let  it  be  with  white 
lead  for  young  trees.  Either  lead  or  coal 
tar  may  be  used  for  mature'  trees,  and  of 
course  it  is  permissible  and  even  desirT 
able  to  use  some  coloring  matter  in  the 
paint  to  make  it  inconspicuous. 


When  one  has  an  old  and  neglected  or- 
chard to  deal  with,  his  winter's  work  will 
keep  him  busy,  for  such  an  orchard  must 
have  very  drastic  treatment  if#it  is  to  be 
made  profitable  again.  Of  course  many 
trees  are  too  far  gone  to  be  worth  expend- 
ing any  time  on,  but  if  a  tree  has  a  sound 
trunk  it  is  worth  renovating.  As  a  rule, 
an  old  and  neglected  orchard  has  become 
filled  with  useless  wood,  which  must  be 
removed.  Many  times  the  trees  tower  into 
the  air  like  bean  poles,  making  the  pick- 
ing of  the  fruit  a  hazardous  task.  Such 
trees  m.ust  be  dehorned,  to  use  a  common 
expression  among  orchard  men.  That 
means  that  the  whole  bearing  structure 
must  be  cut  away  and  a  new  head  grown. 
A  very  weak  tree  can  at  once  be  cut  back 
so  hard  that  no  bearing  wood  is  left,  but 
this  is  an  extreme  case.  With  fairly  vig- 
orous trees  it  is  bettei*  to  spread  the  work 
over  two  or  three  years. 

As  a  result  of  this  ha'rd  cutting  a  heavy 
growth  of  water  sprouts  will  be  developed 
and  the  best  placed  of  them  must  be  care- 
fully selected  to  form  the  new  head,  the 
others  being  removed.  Too  many  should 
not  be  left  and  those  selected  must  be  cut 
back  to  the  fourth  or  fifth  bud.  Water- 
sprouts  will  continue  to  appear  for  several 
years  in  abundance  if  the  tree  reacts  vig- 
orously, and  some  of  them  may  as  well  be 
trimmed  away  early  i'n  summer  as  in 
winter,  for  this  summer  pruning  has  a 
tendency  at  least  to  force  the  formation 
of  fruit  buds. 

Trees  which  are  not  in  very  bad  shape  ■ 
but  which  are  too  high  or  lack  in  well 
placed  branches  may  be  treated  less 
severely,  large  limbs  being  cut  away  only 
as  a  waterspout  appears  in  the  proper  lo- 
cation to  take  their  places.  Of  course  prun- 
ing, however  severe,  will  not  be  sufficient 
to  put  an  old  orchard  in  first-class  condi- 
tion. Cultivation  and  feeding  will  be 
necessary  when  spring  comes,  but  work 
with  the  saw  belongs  to  the  winter.  And 
when  dormant  spraying  is  to  be  done,  it 
Continued  on  Page  60. 




Allan  Baird,  who  has  been  run- 
ning a  preliminary  survey  line  for 
a  new  railroad  to  Hudson's  Bay, 
finds  a  book  on  a  lonely  trail  in  the 
far  north.  The  name,  "Hertha 
MacLure,"  is  written  inside  and  he 
traces  the  owner.  She  prove  to  be 
a  strikingly  attractive  but  very 
mysterious  girl.  He  learns  from  his 
chief  assistant,  Hughey  Munro,  that 
the  girl  runs  a  trading  post  which 
was  formerly  managed  by  her 
father  and  that  she  is  known  all 
through  the  north  country  as  "The 
Frost  Girl"  on  account  of  her  cold- 
ness to  all  the  men  who  visit  the 
post.  Baird  completes  his  survey 
and  returns  to  headquarters  at  To- 
ronto where  he  receives  peremptory 
orders  to  start  at  once  on  a  com- 
plete survey  line,,  from  his  chief, 
McGregor,  a  big  railway  magnate. 
McGregor  is  a  financier  who  has  big 
visions,  but  he' warns  Baird  that  an 
opposition  syndicate  will  attempt  to 
prevent  him  from,  completing  his 
survey  as  they  have,  by  wire-pulling 
at  Ottawa,  had  a  limit  fixed  on  the 
time  for  filing  the  plans.  Baird 
must  complete  his  work  and  file  his 
plans  at  Ottawa  by  April  1;  which 
■means  a  winter's  strenuous  work  in 
the  frozen  north.  In  the  meantime 
a  missionary  named  Alfred  Har- 
disty  visits  the  trading  post  of  the 
Frost  Girl  and  expresses  his  inten- 
tion of  working  among  the  Indians. 

CHAPTER  lY.— Continued 


NYTHING!"  exclaimed  Hertha 
fiercely.  "My  father  learned  the 
lesson  once.  It  was  a  bitter  one, 
and  I  don't  want  the  same  experience." 

"What  was  that?"  questioned  the  mis- 

"When  he  first  came  to  this  country, 
long  before  I  was  born,  he  built  a  trading 
post  and  began  his  sort  of  missionary 
work  among  the  Indians.  He  was  success- 
ful and  his  influence  became  very  great. 
I  know  it  was  a  great  benefit  to  the  In- 
dians. He  treated  them  fairly,  honestly, 
as  if  they  were  white  men,  and  they  came 
to  believe  in  him  and  to  respect  him  as  he 
respected  them.  Then  the  railroad  come 
through  that  district,  close  to  his  trading 
post.  With  it  came  all  the  evil  eifects  of 
civilization  upon  his  Indians.  He  re- 
mained to  see  them  become  lazy,  drunk- 
ards and  thieves.  He  saw  them  die  rapid- 
ly of  white  men's  diseases,  saw  half-breed 
babies  in  their  wigwams.  The  work  of  all 
the  years  he  had  been  there  was  wiped 
out.  Do  you  wonder  that  he  became 

Hardisty,  who  had  been  watching  her 
intently,  shook  his  head. 

"What  then?"  he  asked,  almost  in  a 

"Father  came  here.  He  said  a  railroad 
never  would  come  near  this  place,  that  the 
influences  of  civilization  would  never 
touch  the  Indians  he  found  here.  He  be- 
gan his  work  all  over  again ;  and,  when  he 
died,  he  asked  me  to  continue  it.  That's 
what  I  have  done,  what  I  always  will  do." 

"C*  OR  a  long  time  Hardisty  stared  at 
-*•  the  table  between  them.  When  he 
spoke  it  was  in  a  subdued  tone  that  in- 
stantly aroused  Hertha's  interest. 

"Ix  pleases  me  a  great  deal,  Miss  Mac- 
Lure,"  he  began,  "to  know  that  my 
humble  views,  gained  from  a  compara- 
tively meagre  experience,  coincide  so  per- 
fectly with  yours.  The  injury,  irrepar- 
able, gigantic,  which  the  white  man  has 
inflicted  upon  the  red,  is,  to  me,  one  of  the 
greatest  tragedies  in  history.  I  have  seen 
so  many  instances  of  it,  have  felt  ashamed 
of  my  race  so  often,  that  it  has  long  been 
my  desire  to  do  my  little  share  to  repay 
what  others  have  taken.  It  is  a  cause  to 
which  I  would  like  to  dedicate  my  life. 

"It  pleases  me  a  great  deal  to  know  that 
I  have,  in  you,  a  strong  supporter,  one 
who  is  in  sympathy  with  me  and  my  aims. 
More  properly,  I  should  say  that  I  am 
glad  to  be  a  supporter  of  yours.  Miss  Mac- 
Lure,  of  you  and  your  father's  memory. 
Nothing  would  give  me  greater  pleasure 
than  to  remain  here  the  rest  of  my  life 
and  aid  you  in  what  you  are  doing.  I 
hope  to  do  so.  But,  I  am  afraid,  I  am  a 
bearer  of  bad  news.  It  may  not  be  true, 
but  I  have  every  reason  to  believe  that  it 
is.  I  am  sorry  that  I  am  to  be  the  one  who 
brings  it  to  you." 

"What  do  you  mean?"  demanded 
Hertha,  leaning  toward  him. 

"There  is  a  plan  on  foot  in  Toronto  to 
run  a  railroad  past  your  very  door." 

"A  railroad  here!    Impossible!" 

"So  it  would  seem.  But  I  was  tcrld  that 
the  work  was  already  begun.  Perhaps 
you  have  seen  evidences  of  it." 

"I  have  seen  nothing,"  said  Hertha. 

"I  was  told  that  a  party  running  a  trial 
line  passed  through  this  district.  Perhaps 
they  avoided  you." 

"When  was  this?" 

"Very  recently." 

"How  many  were  there?" 

"Only  a  small  crew,  I  heard." 

"And  when  will  they  come  again?" 

"This  winter,  I  imagine." 

Hertha  sprang  to  her  feet  and  strode 
to  the  window  and  back.  Her  square  chin 
was  thrust  forward,  her  eyes  were  hard, 
her  hair  rippled  from  the  quivering  of 
her  entire  body. 

"They  will  not!"  she  cried,  stopping  be- 
fore Hardisty.  "They  cannot!  Why,  that 
would  mean  the  end  for  me."  ' 


Allan  Chooses  a  Crew 

THE  competent  Hughey  Munro,  a 
man  who  could  cross  the  northern 
end  of  the  continent  without  a  com- 
pass or  a  map,  who  never  in  his  long,  ad- 
venturous life  had  seen  anjrthing  that  dis- 

mayed or  frightened  him,  was  a  most 
miserable  person.  One  day  in  Port  Arthur 
had  given  him  more  trouble,  more  dis- 
comfort and  more  anxiety  than  he  had 
known  in  fifty  years. 

When  he  saw  Allan  Baird  push  through 
the  crowd  at  the  station  and  start  up  the 
street  toward  the  big  hotel,  his  long,  sober, 
wistful  face  lighted  up,  and  he  ran  after 
him  with  light,  leaping  bounds. 

"Lad!"  he  cried,  grasping  the  young 
engineer's  hand  and  hanging  on  to  it, 
"I'm  mighty  glad  to  see  you." 

Allan  shook  the  woodsman's  hand 
heartily,  looking  at  him  questioningly  as 
he  did  so. 

"Oh,  I  see,"  he  laughed.  "More  than 
four  houses  here,  Hughey?" 

"It's  the  first  time  I  ever  saw  a  city," 
Munro  replied  seriously.  "It  makes  me 
sort  of  nervous." 

"Never  mind,"  soothed  the  younger  man. 
as  he  led  the  way  to  the  hotel.  "You  won't 
see  anything  but  the  bush  until  spring, 
and  then,  Hughey,  I'm  going  to  take  you 
out  and  show  you  a  real  town.  We'll  go  to 
Toronto  and  Montreal  and  then  drop  down 
to  New  York.  We'll  have  a  good  time  com- 
ing to  us  then." 

"Is  it  the  bush  again,  lad?"  asked 
Hughey  eagerly. 

"You'll  think  you've  never  been  in 
the  bush  when  you  tackle  this  job,  old 

The  woodsman  was  not  at  ease  until 
they  were  in  Allan's  room  and  the  door 
was  locked.  The  clerk,  the  elevator,  the 
uniformed  bellboys,  each  was  a  foe,  a  new 

"Lord,  I'm  still  breathing  through  my 
toes,"  he  said  as  he  looked  out  of  the  win- 
dow at  the  blue  stretch  of  Lake  Superior 
below  them. 

"Wait  until  you  go  down,"  laughed 

"Ain't  they  got  any  stairs?"  came  the 
terrified  question;  and  Alan's  heart  was 
softened  by  the  misery  in  his  friend's 

"Now  listen,  Hughey,"  he  began. 
"Here's  the  idea.  We've  got  to  run  that 
survey  through,  make  a  real  preliminary 
survey  from  the  head  of  the  old  survey  at 
the  south  end  of  Kabetogama  to  the  bay. 
The  Government,  aided  by  the  National 
people,  has  decided  that  we  must  file  maps, 
notes  and  so  on  in  Ottawa  on  or  before 
April  first  or  lose  the  charter.  The  Na- 
tional people  think  it  can't  be  done  but,  as 
soon  as  they  know  we  are  going  to  at- 
tempt it,  they'll  try  to  block  us.  They 
want  that  line  but  they  don't  want  it  for 
several  years;  and  in  the  meantime  they 
don't  want  anyone  else  to  have  it. 

"Maybe  you've  known  some  crooked 
breeds,  free  traders  and  the  like  in  your 
time,  Hughey.  Well,  we're  up  against  the 
same  sort  of  an  outfit.  They'll  do  any- 
thing, not  even  stopping  short  of  killing  a 
man  or  two,  to  get  what  they  want.  And 
we've  got  to  keep  on  the  job  every  minute. 

"Now,  running  the  survey  alone  is  a 
big  job.  It  will  take  all  my  time.  Getting 
in  supplies  from  the  railroad,  moving 
camp,  looking  after  the  dog  teams  and  all 
that   sort  of  stuflT  will   depend   on   you. 



You'll  have  to  take  entire  charge.  I  don't 
care  how  you  do  it,  only  the  grub's  got  to 
go  through,  and  camp's  got  to  be  moved  on 

"How  big  a  crew  will  there  be?"  asked 

"Three  transit  men,  three  rodmen, 
six  axemen,  a  cook,  a  bull-cook  and  the 
dog-team  drivers.  How  many  teams  will 
it  take?" 

"Six  anyhow.  That  means  thirty-six 

"'Can  you  get  them?" 

"I  could  in  ten  minutes  if  I  was  up  at 
the  bay." 

"We'll  take  a  run  over  to  Nipigon  to- 
morrow and  see  what  we  can  do.  There's 
dogs  to  be  had  around  here,  but  they're 
mostly  domestic.  Now,  Hughey,  make  out 
a  list  of  what's  needed  for  such  a  trip. 
.  For  all  winter,  mind  you.  And  a  list  of 
what  the  dogs  need." 

Tp  OR  an  hour  they  worked  steadily, 
-»-  Allan  writting  at  the  table,  Hughey 
sitting  across  from  him.  They  figured  out 
the  amount  of  food  required  for  men  and 
dogs,  eiderdown  quilts,  blankets,  dishes, 
tents,  stoves,  clothing,  snowshoes,  axes, 
rifles,  and  ammunition  for  getting  fresh 
meat,  dog  harnesses,  toboggans  and  the 
host  of  minor  things  necessary  for  such  an 

It  was  a  formidable  list  when  completed. 
Its  weight  ran  into  many  tons,  its  num- 
bers into  the  hundreds,  and  Allan  showed 
his  dismay  when  the  totals  were  reached. 

It's  four  hundred  and  fifty  miles, 
Hughey!"  he  exclaimed.  "How  much  can 
a  dog  team  haul?" 

"Six  dogs  can  make  good  time  with  a 
quarter  of  a  ton.  They  can  take  twice 
that  on  a  good  trail.  Better  figure  on  the 

"Well,  anyhow,  it's  got  to  be  done,  so 
there's  no  need  worrying.  Now  I'm  going 
to  wire  orders  for  all  this  stuff  I  can't  get 
here  and  have  it  shipped  to  Sabawe. 
We'll  drift  down  to  the  employment  agen- 
cies and  see  what  we  can  get  in  the  way 
of  men.  We'll  need  some  now  to  take  care 
of  the  dogs  when  we  get  them." 

IT  was  a  busy  two  days.  Allan  hired 
men  by  the  dozen,  ordered  supplies  by 
the  ton,  and  the  second  night  he  and 
Hughey  were  back  in  Port  Arthur  with 
forty  dogs,  most  of  them  huskies  from 
the  Nipigon  country,  and  half  as  many 
men  to  take  care  of  them.  That  day  the 
three  transit  men  arrived  from  Toronto 
and  early  the  next  morning  dogs,  men  and 
supplies  were  on  their  way  westward. 

"Say,  lad,  what  you  want  of  all  these 
men?"  asked  Hughey  in  a  whisper  when 
he  and  Allan  were  establishnd  in  the 
she  smoking  compartment  of  the  Pullman. 
"There's  three  times  as  many  as  you 

"I'll  show  you  when  we  get  to  Sabawe, 
Hughey."  And  Allan  turned  the  discus- 
sion to  details  they  had  not  covered  in 
the  rush  of  the  last  few  days. 

Sabawe  never  had  seen  so  much  com- 
motion, so  much  excitement,  as  upon  the 
arrival  of  Allan's  party,  snapping,  snarl- 
ing dogs,  excited  shouting  men,  bundles 
and  boxes  without  end,  the  small  station 
platform  could  not  hold  them.  By  supper 
time  the  supplies  were  stowed  away  in  the 

station,  the  dogs  had  been  chained  in  long 
rows  in  the  shelter  of  a  spruce  thicket 
back  of  the  tracks  with  three  men  to 
watch  them,  and  the  big  crew,  now  num- 
bering more  than  forty  men,  was  waiting 
turns  for  places  in  the  small  hotel  dining- 

Hughey  was  busy  looking  after  details, 
but  Allan  did  not  seem  to  have  a  care  in 
the  world.  The  bar  was  crowded  both  be- 
fore and  after  supper  and  Allan,  buying 
an  occasional  drink  for  all,  mingled  with 
the  men,  laughing  and  joking  and  listen- 
ing to  them.  Once  Hughey,  seeking  advice 
on  a  small  matter,  had  difficulty  in  getting 
him  away  from  the  crowd  at  the  bar. 

"This  is  no  time  for  that  sort  of  thing, 
lad,"  he  advised  gently. 

"You  watch  me,"  replied  Allan  with  a 
laugh.  "I'm  loading  up  a  nice  little  bomb, 
Hughey.  I'll  let  you  see  it  go  off  in  the 

UNTIL  closing  time  the  revelry  in  the 
the  bar  continued.  Twice  more 
Hughey  looked  in  disapprovingly,  only  to 
be  captured  by  Allan  and  dragged  through 
the  crowd  for  a  drink. 

"I'm  sorry,  boys,"  said  the  proprietor 
when  ten  o'clock  came;  but  he  meant  he 
was  sorry  for  himself,  for  never  before 
had  his  place  been  so  well  filled. 

"Give  me  a  bottle!"  shouted  a  man  at 
the  rear  of  the  crowd. 

"Me,  too!"  cried  another,  and  a  dozen 
joined  in  the  chorus. 

"No  bottles,  boys,"  said  Allan.  "This 
ends  it.  You've  had  a  good  time.  To-mor- 
row the  job  starts.     Clear  out,  now." 

"I'll  buy  a  bottle  if  I  want  it,"  came  a 
belligerent  voice  from  the  middle  of  the 

"You'll  not!"  snapped  Allan,  leaning 
forward  and  looking  straight  at  the  man 
who  had  spoken.  The  stare  was  returned 
for  an  instant,  and  then  the  man  laughed. 

"All  right,  I'll  not,"  he  said;  and  the 
crowd,  laughing  left  the  room. 

'  I  ^HE  next  morning  immediately  after 
-*-  breakfast  Allan  took  a  chair  behind 
the  table  in  the  small  waiting  room.  He 
had  a  sheet  of  paper,  a  neat  stack  of  rail- 
road tickets  and  a  small  heap  of  bills  and 
silver  arranged  in  front  of  him. 

"Step  up,  boys,  one  at  a  time,"  he  com- 
manded: And  there  was  none  of  the  good 
fellowship  of  the  night  before  in  his  tone. 

Hesitatingly,  the  first  man  approached. 

"Your  name?"  demanded  Allan. 

"William   Norman." 

"You  worked  as  a  rodman  once,  didn't 
you.  Bill?" 

"Two  years." 

"That's  all.    Next." 

A  big,  confident,  grinning  young  fel- 
low stepped  up  to  the  table.  Allan  glanced 
at  him  and  then  picked  up  a  railroad 

"Here's  three  days'  pay  and  a  ticket  to 
Port  Arthur.    Next." 

"But — "  stammered  the  young  fellow  in 

"I  don't  want  you,"  interrupted  Allan. 

And  so  he  went  through  the  crowd. 
After  the  first  dozen  a  strange  silence  per- 
vaded the  room.  The  men  waited  their 
turns  anxiously.   Some  were  quick  to  step 

up.  Others  hesitated.  There  was  some 
grumbling  but  Allan  ignored  it.  When.the 
last  name  was  down  on  the  list  and  the 
last  ticket  gone,  he  jumped  to  his  feet. 

"All  you  fellows  whose  names  I  took 
get  busy  now,"  he  called.  Hughey  Munro 
is  boss  of  the  dog  teams.  All  you  dog 
drivers  report  to  him.  The  axemen  are 
expected  to  break  trail  ahead  of  the  teams. 
We  start  at  noon." 

"What  was  your  idea?"  asked  Hughey 
in  a  whisper  when  he  and  Allan  were 
alone.  "You  let  some  good  men  go  and 
kept  some  bad  ones." 

"It's  this  way,  Hughey.  This  is  going 
to  be  a  hard  winter  in  more  ways  than 
one.  So  far  from  the  railroad,  we  can't 
have  men  quitting.  We  want  men  who 
will  stick,  and  men  who  are  not  going  to 
be  trouble  makers,  kickers,  grouches.  I 
suppose  we  got  some,  but  that's  to  be 

"I  mixed  up  with  that  crowd  last  night 
because  I've  found  that  you  can  tell  a  lot 
about  a  man  by  the  way  he  talks.  I  talked 
with  everyone,  in  the  bar  and  coming  up 
on  the  train,  and  everyone  who  tried  to 
make  a  hit  with  me  got  his  ticket  back  to 
town.  I  didn't  care  how  much  they  drank 
or  cussed.  I'm  not  a  Sunday  School 
teacher  and  some  of  the  hardest^  drinkers 
I've  run  into  were  the  hardest  workers, 
and  the  hardest  fighters. 

"But  what  did  you  bring  so  many  for? 
That  cost  money." 

"It  was  cheap,  Hughey.  I  had  all  the 
more  to  pick  from.  And  I'm  satisfied  with 
the  crew  I've  got.  It  was  the  most  import- 
ant part  of  our  work,  getting  the  right 
crew.  And  there  wasn't  time  to  try  them 
out.    Then,  in  vino  Veritas,  you  know." 

"No,  I  don't  know.  I  never  learned 

"Freely,  Hughey,  it  means  that,  when 
a  man's  soused,  he  blatts.  Throw  a  few 
drinks  into  a  man  and,  if  he  don't  like  his 
mother-in-law,  he'll  tell  you  so.  If  he  does 
like  her  he's  a  good  sort  and  you  take 
him.   See?" 

"They're  not  like  the  men  around  the 
bay,"  said  Hughey,  still  unconvinced. 

"That's  the  reason,  These  fellows  work 
where  they  please,  when  they  please  and 
as  long  as  they  please..  Canada's  needed  a 
lot  of  men  in  the  last  ten  years,  in  con- 
struction camps,  surveys.  Government 
work  and  in  the  lumber  camps.  There's 
been  lots  of  work  for  good  bushmen  for 
as  long  as  they  can  remember,  and  they've 
got  into  bad  habits.  They  quit  for  no  rea- 
son at  all,  grumble  and  growl,  and  make 
trouble  if  they  get  a  grouch  on  the  outfit. 
Times  have  been  too  easy  for  them.  They 
all  knew  that  there  was  always  a  job 
waiting.  But  there's  always  been  good 
men  among  them,  and  I  think  I  got  the 
pick  of  the  bunch." 

^IT/'INTER  had  come  to  the  northland" 
'  '  since  Allan  and  Hughey  had  arrived 
in  Sabawe  by  canoe.  There  was  a  foot 
of  snow  on  the  ground  and  the  lakes  and 
streams  were  frozen.  Some  of  the  larger 
bodies  of  water  might  be  unsafe,  or  even 
still  open  in  the  centre.  But  travel  by 
dog  team  was  possible;  and  at  noon  the 
start  was  made. 

It  was  a  strange,  halting,  noisy,  broken 
procession,  that  long  line  of  dogs  and  men 
that  followed  Hughey  and  Allan  out  onto 



the  lake.  The  sun  glittered  on  the  level, 
white  expanse,  the  freshly  broken  trail 
showing  pure  white  against  the  more 
brilliant  surrounding  surface.  The  scene 
was  beautiful  but  it  was  not  enticing. 
The  quiet  was  ominous  rather  than  peace- 
ful. The  whiteness  and  purity  seemed  to 
be  only  a  mask. 

Sounds  came  from  the  long  line,  oaths, 
shouts,  yelps,  barks,  but  they  made  little 
impression.  The  silence  was  so  great  it 
swallowed  them  instantly  as  water  closes 
over  a  falling  stone.  Only  there  were  no 

Men  stopped  to  adjust  snowshoe  thongs. 
Dog  teams  halted  when  traces  were 
tangled,  or  fights  started.  Gaps  came  in 
the  line,  gaps  that  closed  to  reappear  in 
other  places.  Once  an  entire  team,  strung 
out  in  heavy  toil,  suddenly  became  a  com- 
pact mass  of  snarling,  snapping,  slashing 
fury.  Whips  snapped,  men  swore  and 
shouted.  Strange  huskies  never  fit  well 
together  for  a  week  or  so,  and  even  then 
the  rivalry  between  teams  never  ceases. 

But  at  last  men  became  accustomed  to 
their  webbed  footwear  and  plodded  on 
more  regularly.  The  dogs,  soft  but 
spirited,  began  to  feel  the  steady  strain 
and  settled  soberly  to  work.  The  pafte  in- 
creased, and  the  journey  to  Hudson  Bay 
was  on. 

Darkness  came  but  for  another  hour 
they  pressed  on.  Then,  In  the  gloom  of  a 
spruce  swamp,  the  column  halted.  Axes 
began  to  crack  instantly.  Trees  swished 
down  into  the  snow.  Fires  were  lighted. 
Dog  food  was  mixed  and  hung  in  the 
blaze.  Tents  showed  suddenly  against  the 
dark  foliage.  Great  piles  of  firewood  were 
brought  in.   Camp  was  made. 

FOR  four  days  this  continued.  At  the 
end  of  the  third  day  four  of  the  long 
toboggans  were  unloaded,  a  cache  built, 
and  the  next  morning  four  teams,  draw- 
ing only  their  drivers  and  a  little  food, 
raced  back  to  Sabawe.  The  crew  and  the 
two  remaining  dog  teams  kept  on,  and 
late  that  night  camped  at  the  south  end 
of  Kabetogama. 

The  fact"  that  there  was  food  for  only 
four  days  did  not  bother  him.  One  of  the 
two  dog  teams  that  had  come  through 
with  the  crew  would  return  to  the  cache 
in  the  morning  and  be  back  in  forty-eight 
hours  with  a  quarter  of  a  ton.  A  day 
later  the  four  teams  that  had  returned  to 
Sabawe  would  be  starting  out  with  a 
ton  of  provisions.  There  was  nothing  to 
worry  about,, and  Allan  did  not  worry  as 
he  went  to  bed  that  night. 

"April  first,"  he  thought,  just  as  he  was 
dropping  off  to  sleep.  "It  will  be  easy." 

The  next  morning  the  dog  drivers  re- 
ported to  Allan  that  nine  of  the  twelve 
dogs  had  been  poisoned  in  the  night. 


The  Second   Blow  Falls 

THE  blow  was  so  sudden,  so  totally 
unexpected,  the  results  so  threaten- 
ing, that  Allan,  his  mind  tuned  to 
the  joyous  hum  of  success,  was  dazed. 
Hughey,  who  had  spent  a  lifetime  meet- 
ing emergencies,  was  the  first  to  act. 

"See  here,  lad,"  he  whispered  to  Allan. 
"Whoever  did  this  left  a  track.    It'll  be 

hard  to  pick  up  because  the  men  have 
been  tramping  through  the  brush  getting 
wood  and  looking  up  those  old  stakes. 
But  there's  tracks  somewhere,  and  I'm  go- 
ing to  find  them.  It  looks  like  it  might 
snow  to-day,  and  I've  got  to  hurry. 

"Now  you  take  these  three  dogs  and 
move  camp  just  as  you  planned.  You  can 
get  twelve  miles  up  the  lake  and  make 
two  trips.  Then  to-m.orrow  morning  go  on 
over  to  the  Frost  Girl's  post  with  the  dogs 
and  get  enough  grub  to  do  until  the  teams 
get  in  from  Sabawe." 

"What  will  you  do?"  asked  Allan,  still 
not  fully  comprehending. 

"I'm  going  to  see  who  did  this.  I'm 
thinking  whoever  it  was  took  our  back 
track,  where  they  could  go  without  leav- 
ing much  sign,  because  it's  packed  and 
froze  so  hard.  It  may  take  me  a  long  way 
south  for  they'll  be  foxy  about  it.  Any- 
how, I  got  to  keep  on  going  and  hurry 
those  teams  straight  through,  for  they'll 
come  only  as  far  as  the  cache  and  then 
turn  back." 

"All  right,  Hughey,"  replied  Allan,  his 
spirits  reviving.  "Catch  them  if  you  can. 
The  sooner  we  stop  this  sort  of  thing  the 

The  entire  crew  knew,  of  course,  of  the 
poisoning  of  the  dogs.  But  the  work  be- 
gan as  planned,  and  the  men  were  not  told 
what  Hughey  and  Allan  expected  to  do. 
The  axemen,  rodmen  and  transit  men  be- 
gan their  work  at  once,  while  Alan  di- 
rected the  packing  of  the  toboggan  and 
the  beginning  of  the  journey  on  up  the 
lake  to  the  camping  spot  agreed  upon. 
The  surveying  outfit  carried  a  lunch  and 
was  to  find  the  camp  that  night. 

It  was  difficult  work  for  the  few  men 
who  remained  to  transport  what  food 
there  was,  the  bedding,  tents  and  other 
equipment,  up  the  lake.  Allan  saw  it 
started  and  then  joined  the  surveyors, 
where  he  ordered  two  axemen  to  return  to 
camp  and  assist  in  the  moving.  Then, 
with  an  axe  in  his  hands,  he  toiled 
through  the  day  with  the  crew.  Night 
found  the  survey  well  begun. 

EARLY  the  next  morning  Allan,  a  dog 
driver  and  the  three  remaining  dogs 
started  down  the  lake  to  the  Mac  Lure 
post.  Far  out  from  shore  the  wind  had 
cleared  the  ice  so  that  it  was  not  neces- 
sary to  break  trail.  Allan  rode  alternate- 
ly with  the  driver,  so  the  twelve  miles 
were  soon  covered. 

The  cold,  clear  morning,  after  the  snow 
of  the  day  before,  the  exhilaration  of  run- 
ning and  riding  with  the  dog  team,  the 
optimism  of  Allan's  nature,  had  restored 
his  spirits,  and  he  was  eager,  almost  boy- 
ish, as  he  threw  open  the  door  of  Hertha's 
store.  In  the  rush  of  events  of  the  previ- 
ous two  weeks  he  had  not  forgotten  her 
but  the  fact  that  he  was  to  see  her  again 
so  soon  had  not  entered  his  thoughts  until 
that  morning.  • 

"How  do  you  do,  Miss  MacLure?"  he 
greeted  her  as  he  entered.  "I  didn't  ex- 
pect to  be  back  so  soon." 

"I  did  not  know  you  were  coming  back," 
replied  Hertha,  her  amazement  at  seeing 
the  young  man  of  the  portage  clearly 

Allan  was  about  to  make  a  facetiously 
gallant  reply  to  the  effect  that  he  was 
compelled  to  see  her  again  when   some- 

thing about  the  girl  stopped  him.  Some- 
thing told  him  that  she  would  not  under- 
stand, that  even  sincere  flattery  would  be 
distasteful  to  her. 

"I  didn't  know  either  that  I  was  com- 
ing," he  said.  "But  now  I  am  going  to  be 
a  neighbor  for  some  time,  and  also  a  cus- 

"Neighbor?    What  do  you  mean?" 

Something  in  the  girl's  question,  in  the 
tense  manner  in  which  she  leaned  across 
the  counter  and  looked  at  him,  sobered 
Allan  instantly. 

"Why,"  he  answered,  "a  railroad  is  go- 
ing to  run  through  here  to  Hudson  Bay 
and  I  am  in  charge  of  the  surveying  out- 
fit. We  are  camped  down  the  lake  and 
will  move  up  near  here  to-morrow." 

"Then  it  was  you!"  Hertha  exclaimed, 
and  her  eyes  became  hard  and  cold,  her 
chin  square,  her  mouth  compressed. 

"What  on  earth  is  the  matter?"  de- 
manded the  amazed  young  man. 

"Nothing,"  was  the  curt  reply. 

"But  you  seem — er,  angry." 

"What  is  it  you  want?"  asked  Hertha, 
as  if  he  had  not  spoken. 

"I  came,"  he  replied,  wondering  at  this 
strange  change  in  the  attitude  of  the  girl 
toward  him,  "to  buy  some  flour,  sugar, 
pork,  and  tea.  Also  some  dried  fruit  if 
you  have  it.  We  have  a  cache  thirty-five 
miles  south  of  the  upper  end  of  Kabeto- 
gama, but  we  brought  only  enough  food 
for  a  few  days  because  the  equipment  was 
so  heavy.  It  was  the  plan  to  run  a  team 
back  to  the  cache  yesterday,  but  someone 
poisoned  nine  of  our  twelve  dogs,  and  we 
needed  what  was  left  to  move  camp.  I 
knew  you  had  a  well-filled  store,  and  that 
we  could  get  enough  from  you  to  tide  us 
over  until  our  teams  come  up  from 
Sabawe.  Here  is  the  list  the  cook  made 

He  laid  it  on  the  counter,  but  Hertha 
did  not  even  glance  at  it. 

"I  have-  nothing  to  sell,"  she  said 

"Nothing  to  sell;"  exclaimed  Allan 
looking  at  the  shelves  and  back  at  the 
storeroom  in  the  rear.  "Why,  you  have 
tons  of  food!" 

"That  is  for  my  Indians,"  replied 
Hertha,  looking  at  him  steadily. 

"But  you  wouldn't  let  a  white  man 
starve  so  that  an  Indian  could  stuff  him- 

"My  Indians  are  my  usual  customers, 
my  regular  customers.  They  depend  upon 
me  to  have  what  they  want  when  they 
want  it.    I  cannot  fail  them." 

"I'll  pay  double  price." 

"I  have  just  explained  why  I  will  not 

"But  you  don't  understand.  My  men 
will  starve  before  the  teams  get  in  from 

"You  told  me  you  have  a  cache  thirty- 
five  miles  south  of  the  lake.  They  could 
reach  it  before  they  would  starve." 

"But  the  work  can't  stop  for  that!"  ex- 
claimed Allan,  a  note  of  anger  creeping 
into  his  voice. 

"The  work  is  not  my  afiair.  That  is 

"I'll  pay  back  everything  you  let  me 
have,"  said  the  engineer.  "Then  your 
stock  will  not  be  depleted.  The  teams  will 
be  here  inside  of  a  week." 

Continued  on  Page  49. 

A  Fireplace  That  Draws:  By  Aiex.  MacPherson 

Details  of  Construction  With  a  Remedy  for  Defects  in  Those  Already  Built. 

Upi/er  Sackrillc,  X.B.,  Nov.  Utli,  1915. 
Dear  Genevieve : 

You  will  remember  that  some  time  ago 
I  wrote  you,  I  was  starting  our  new 
house.  We  moved  in  the  other  day  and 
I  am  now  writing  this  letter  in  my  new 
office.  We  eertainly  hare  a  great  house, 
but  is  well  deserving  of  all  the  long 
time  in  waiting  and  the  many  hours  of 
thought  expended  on   it. 

We  have  a  blunder  in  workmanship, 
however,  that  I  am  very  sorry  for,  and 
it  is  the  cause  of  this  letter,  and  that 
is  the  fireplace  is  very  poorly  done,  for 
a  job  of  that  kind,  and  then  it  smokes 
so  we  hare  made  only  one  fire  in  it  since 
we  moved.  We  hare  a  damper.  I  am 
of  course  going  to  have  it  fixed  if  pos- 
sible, and  would  like  any  suggestions 
you  may  have  to  offer.  The  flue  is  sep- 
arate. The  other  fires  draw  perfectly  in 
the  same  chimney. 

Bowesinlle,  Ont.,  Nov.  VJth,  1015. 

Dear  Genevieve : 

Some  time  in  the  near  future  I  should 
like  to  build  a  cobblestone  cottage,  of 
tchich  a  cobblestone  fireplace  will  be  a 
very  important  feature,  so  I  was  very 
much  interested  in  your  article  in  the 
November  Farmer's  Magazine,  and  I  am 
now  making  a  request  according  to  your 
suggestion  for  further  information  about 
the  details  of  constructing  a  fireplace 
which  will  "draio"  properly.  I  will  be 
very  much  obliged  to  you  for  this  infor- 
mation, as  well  as  ani/  other  advice  you 
care  to  offer  about  the  cottage. 

Cambray,  Ont.,  Nov.  28th,  1!)15. 
Gentlemen : 

In  the  Farmer's  Magazine  for  Novem- 
ber there  is  an  article  on  fireplaces 
which  is  very  interesting  to  me.  Can 
you  give  complete  information  how  to 
construct  a  fireplace  on  scientifically 
correct  lines?  I  would  be  very  pleased 
to  learn  just  how  to  do  it.  Thanking 
you  for  the  information. 

Elmira,  Out.,  Nor.  20th,  1915. 
"Genevieve"  : 

"Your  article  in  November  issue  of 
"The  Farmer's  Magazine"  prompts  me 
to  ask  you  to  send  mc  information  re 
the  building  of  a  ■  fireplace.  Thanking 
you  in  advance. 

THERE  are  two  great  essentials  in 
a  good  fireplace.  One  is  the  relation 
between  the  opening  into  the  room 
and  the  flue  area — the  latter  should  be 
one-tenth  of  the  former  area;  the  other 
is  what  is  called  the  "smoke  chamber," 
a  part  that  corresponds  to  the  dome  on 
a  fire-engine,  which  is  designed  to  take 
up  and  equalize  the  force  of  the  stream 
that  is  pumped  intermittently  through  it. 
In  much  the  same  way  the  smoke  chamber 
takes  up  the  inequalities  of  draught  and 
down-draught,  and  keeps  the  smoke  going 
steadily  up  the  chimney.  A  glance  at  the 
diagram  will  make  this  clear.  The  brick 
work  at  the  top  of  a  fireplace,  just  above 
the  opening,  is  drawn  forward  to  form  the 
"throat"-^an  opening  into  the  smoke 
chamber  three  or  four  inches  deep  and 


Manuel    '^ 

.^csJc   irt   faci" 

The  whole  principle  of  the  scientifically  cor- 
rect fireplace  is  shown  by  this  vertical  section 
through  the  centre. 

the  full  width  of  the  fireplace  opening. 
This  throat  contains  a  cast  iron  damper, 
with  a  hinged  lid  as  shown.  The  narrow- 
ing of  the  natural  exit  passage  for  the 
smoke  and  gases  causes  these  latter  to 
pass  through  under  some  pressure  and 
therefore  with  a  distinct  force.  When  the 
fire  is  first  lighted  the  column  of  warm 
air  rises  at  the  front  of  the  flue,  causing 
naturally  the  down-draught  of  the  'cold 
air  at  the  back.  If  the  way  were  open  to 
it,  this  descending  column  would  reach 
the  fire  on  the  hearth  and  force  the  smoke 
and  gases  into  the  room.  The  "smoke 
sbelf"  prevents  this,  and  by  its  form 
swirls  the  cold  air  around  until  it  is  car- 
ried into  the  path  of  the  rapidly  ascend- 
ing warm  column,  and  on  up  the  chimney. 
It  is  the  simplest  and  most  logical  thing 
in  the  world,  yet  if  you  blindly  entrust  the 
building  of  your  fireplace  to  the  village 
mason  he  may  build  it  in  any  other  way 
than  the  right  one. 

Although  the  proportion  between  open- 
ing and  flue  and  the  construction  of  the 
smoke  chamber  are  the  prime  essentials, 
there  are  other  minor  details  of  the  fire- 
place that  must  be  provided  for  if  we  are 
to  have  the  maximum  efficiency.  The 
depth  of  the  fire  chamber  should  be  one- 
half  the  width,  and  the  sides  and  the 
back  should  slope  so  as  to  reflect  the  heat 
out  into  the  room.  To  secure  the  proper 
slope  for  the  sides,  make  the  width  of  the 
back  two-thirds  of  the  front,  letting  the 
sides  first  run  straight  back  for  the  width 
of  a  brick  to  save  beveling  them  at  the 
front  edge.  Allow  the  back  to  rise  per- 
pendicularly for  about  a  foot  before  it 
begins  to  slope  forward  towards  the 

A  fireplace  can  be  built  without  the  iron 
damper,  but  its  presence  is  a  guarantee 
that  the  form  and  size  of  the  throat  will 
be  right.  Then,  too,  its  front  ledge  sup- 
ports the  flat  arch  brick  of  the  front  which 
without  it  would  require  an  iron  angle- 

See  that  the  opening  into  the  flue 
proper,  which  latter  is  best  lined  with 
terra  cotta  forms  made  for  the  purpose, 
is  over  the  centre  of  the  fireplace,  in  order 
to  insure  equal  draught  throughout  the 

fire  chamber.  From  this  central  point  the 
flue  may  swerve  to  either  side  to  take  its 
place  beside  another  flue  in  the  same  chim- 
ney. It  is  by  no  means  essential  that  it 
rise  vertically  throughout  its  extent,  but 
the  inside  surface  of  the  flue  must  be 
smooth  and  unobstructed. 

Let  the  brick  hearth  extend  16  or  18 
inches  beyond  the  opening — the  brick- 
work pattern  is  a  matter  of  taste.  It  is 
supported  on  a  "trimmer  arch"  or  "row- 
lock arch,"  as  showTi  in  the  diagram, 
sprung  between  a  pair  of- floor  joists  and 
the  chimney  foundation.  See  to  it  that  no 
wooden  timbers  run  through  the  brick 
masonry  under  the  hearth  or  close  to  the 
sides  of  the  fire  chamber.  The  heat  will 
eventually  set  these  on  fire. 

The  chimney  itself  should  run  a  foot 
or  so  above  any  nearby  ridge,  and  it  should 
work  without  any  cowl,  whirligig  or  other 
tin  toy  on  the  top. 

The  iron  throat  damper  is  here  indicated  at- 
the  top  of  an  a  relied  opening.  For  the  fire- 
place built  entirely  of  stone^  heavier  walls  are- 
necessary,   as  shown. 



A    quaint   type   ot   brick   fireplace   without  the   regular   mantel. 

But  what  of  the  fireplace  that  is  already 
built  and  is  riever  used  because  of  its  mis- 
behavior? There  is  at  least  a  good  chance 
that  it  can  be  remedied.  The  fireplace 
expert  represents  a  new  profession  that 
thrives  on  the  follies  and  ignorance  of 
past  and  present  builders.  Here,  however, 
is  something  to  try  first.  Here,  however, 
smoke  for  the  reason  that  the  flue  is  too 
small  for  the  opening.  You  cannot  in- 
crease the  size  of  the  former  but  you  can 
easily  decrease  the  latter.  Take  a  pair  of 
thin  boards,  six  inches  wide  and  cut  to  fit 
snugly  into  the  opening  along  its  top. 
Wedge  one  in  at  the  top,  light  a  fire,  and 
draw  the  other  board  down  over  the  out- 
side of  the  first  until  the  opening  is  re- 
duced sufficiently  in  area  so  that  its  flue 
can  take  care  of  the  smoke.  Perhaps  you 
will  not  need  even  the  six  inches  reduc- 
tion. When  the  working  combination  is 
found,  have  a  copper  or  sheet  iron  curtain 
made  to  replace  the  boards. 

Still  another  common  fault  is  a  throat 
that  is  too  wide.  Remedy  it  by  laying 
across  the  top  of  the  throat  opening  an 
iron  plate  that  can  be  pulled  back  and 
forth  until  the  throat  is  the  proper  size, 
ordinarily  it  should  be  three  or  four 

Cherry  Trees  as  Fillers:  By  a.  j.  cambpell 

How  a  Nova  Scotia  Orchardist  Makes    Two  Fruit   Trees  Grow   Where  One 

Grew  Before. 

HAVE  you  ever  attended  a  formal 
assemblage  of  farmers  at  which 
none  of  the  speakers  lauded  the 
man  who  has  made  two  blades  of  grass 
grow  where  only  one  grew  before?  If  you 
reply  hastily  that  you  have,  you  had"  bet- 
ter think  again.  The  man  who  is  success- 
ful in  the  multiplication  of  timothy  will 
probably  continue  to  inspire  the  agri- 
cultural-orator for  all  time.  But  what 
about  the  man  who  makes  two  fruit 
trees  grow  and  bear  where  only  one 
grew  before?  Surely  he  also  is  de- 
serving of  approbation.  Indeed,  when 
you  are  told  that  the  super-added 
tree  is  a  cherry,  you — if  you  have  a 
weakness  for  cherries,  and  I  know 
you  have — will  agree  with  me  in 
thinking  that  such  a  one  should  be 
publicly  extolled  as  a  genuine  bene- 

Large  cherry  orchards  are  not 
numerous  in  the  commercial  fruit  belt 
of  Nova  Scotia  but  some  of  the  grow- 
•irs  there  are  using  cherry  trees  suc- 
cessfully as  fillers  among  apples. 
Among  these  is  Mr.  R.  S.  Eaton,  the 
manager  of  Hillcrest  Orchards  at 
Kentville,  King's  county.  The  Hill- 
crest  apple  orchards  covers  eighty 
acres  and  fifteen  acres  have  been 
interplanted  with  cherry  trees.  Prac- 
tically all  these  trees  are  now  bearing. 
The  varieties  of  apples  among  which 
the  cherries  are  placed  include 
Gravensteins,  Kings,  and  Ben  Davis. 
These  varieties  of  apples  were  not 
specially   selected    for   this    purpose, 

The  whole  irorld  lores  cherries.  An  i/et  there 
has  never  been  enotigJi  to  go  around,  although 
they  have  hein  cheap  at  times.  This  is  due 
to  a  fault!/  ('.istrihiiiton.  The  man  who  plants 
frees  and  pUins  his  miirl;ets  in  terms  of  qunlitii 
and  neatness  will  nlirat/s  trin.  In  Nova  Seotia 
f/.s-  in  Ontario,  the  Montmnrencti  rhcrrij  seenn 
to  he  the  leader  in  varieties. — Ed)itor. 

The  Reine  Hortense  cherry.  It  grows  singly 
and  is  a  delicious  one,  either  for  dessert  or 

however.  They  happened  to  be  planted  in 
soil  suitable  for  cherries  when  utilization 
of  cherries  as  fillers  was  decided  on  by  the 
company.  The  varieties  of  sweet  selected 
were  Governor  Wood,  Black  Tartarian, 
Windsor,  Oxheart  and  Lambert.  The  sour 
varieties  embrace  Montmorency,  Early 
Richmond  and  English  Morello.  "As  a 
filler,  I  favor  the  Montmorency,"  said 
Mr.  Eaton.  "It  seems  to  thrive  well 
in  such  a  situation  and  it  is  in  my 
opinion  the  best  money  maker.  It  is 
seldom,  if  ever,  aff'ected  with  rot,  is  a 
regular  bearer  and  the  cherries  are 
snapped  up  by  the  canners.  They  are 
also  very  fair  for  eating.  Another 
good  point  about  the  Montmorency  is 
that  the  fruit  clings  well  to  the  tree 
even  when  fully  ripe.  The  Early 
Richmond  is  not  short  lived  here  as 
it  seems  to  be  elsewhere,  but  it  is  not 
so  heavy  a  bearer  as  Montmorency 
and  contains  rather  more  acid.  The 
English  Morello  is  a  small,  slow 
grower  and  too  acid  to  be  popular 
here.  Nova  Scotia  growers  find  that 
the  best  croppers  and  money  getters 
among  the  sweet  varieties  are  Gov- 
ernor Wood,  Black  Tartarian,  Wind- 
sor, and  Knight's  Early. 

The  cherries  in  the  Hillcrest 
orchards  have  been  planted  in  a  fair- 
ly strong  clay  loam  and  on  a  slightly 
northern  slope,  well  drained.  There 
has  been  practically  no  loss  from 
spring  frosts.  The  apple  trees  are 
set  thirty-three  feet  apart  and  the 
cherries  are  planted  in  the  centre.  The 



setting  out  is  done  in  the  autumn.  Mr. 
Eaton  recommends  fall  planting,  provided, 
of  course,  that  the  nursery  stock  is  ripened 
enough  to  withstand  winter  conditions. 
Otherwise  the  youngsters  will  be  frost 
killed.  If  planting  is  done  in  the  spring 
it  should  be  undertaken  just  as  soon  as  the 
ground  is  fit  to  work  and  while  the  buds  of 
the  plant  are  still  dormant.  As  cherries 
require  the  same  treatment  of  the  soiil  as 
apples  before  planting  there  is  really  no 
extra  pre-planting  work  where  cherries 
are  used  as  fillers.  The  ground  at  Hill- 
crest  was  tilled  for  two  years  previous  to 
setting  out  the  orchard  and  a  leguminous 
crop  was  plowed  under  to  increase  the 
humus  in  the  soil  and  leave  it  in  the  best 
possible  condition. 


■'Cherry  trees  should  be  planted  firmly 
in  the  ground,"  said  Mr.  Eaton.  "Many 
cherry  trees  fail  to  thrive  and  even  die  on 
account  of  insufficient  'firming.'  The 
firmer  the  soil  is  packed  around  the  roots, 
especially  in  the  lighter  soils,  the  better 
the  opportunities  for  the  tree  to  imbibe 
the  nourishment  and  drink  it  desires. 
Moreover,  when  careful  packing  is  ob- 
served the  moisture  so  necessary  is  con- 
served for  the  tree.  I  make  the  hole  large 
enough  to  admit  all  roots  without  forcing; 
place  a  shovelful  of  surface  soil  in  the 
bottom,  set  in  the  tree  and  fill  up  gradu- 
ally, taking  care  to  see  that  the  soil  is  in 
close  contact  with  every  root.  It  should 
be  remembered  that  a  loose  soil  dries  very 
rapidly.  I  firm  the  soil  well  but  leave  a 
little  loose  earth  on  top  for  a  mulch. 

"It  has  been  said  that  cultivation  is 
one  of  the  most  important  factors  of  suc- 
cess in  commercial  cherry  growing.  I 
have  proved  the  truth  of  this  by  experi- 
ence. For  years  it  was  almost  the  rule  in 
Nova  Scotia  as  elsewhere  to  neglect  the 
cherry  trees.  It  was  even  supposed  that 
they  would  thrive  better  under  absent 
treatment.  Cherries  were  looked  upon  as 
representing  easy  money.  We  have  found 
however,  that  to  stir  up  the  soil  regularly, 
in  order  to  let  in  the  air  and  the  sunshine, 
and  unlock  plant  food  is  just  as  beneficial 
to  cherries  as  to  apples.  Indeed  fruit 
growers  everywhere  are  rapidly  learning 
that  cultivation  in  any  orchard  is  as  good 
as  an  extra  application  of  fertilizer.  There 
is  little  doubt  that  the  cherry  will  do 
better  even  when  neglected  than  any  other 
of  our  fruits,  but  at  the  same  time  when 
cared  for  properly  it  shows  a  grateful 
appreciation  in  its  yield. 


"It  is  not  my  intention  to  leave  these 
cherries  permanently  in  their  present 
position.  I  have  demonstrated  that  it  is 
thoroughly  practicable  to  transplant  them 
when  thej^  interfere  with  the  apple  trees. 
At  the  same  time  overcrowding  may  be 
prevented  for  years.  The  ability  to  keep 
a  fruit  tree  at  any  desired  size  by  cutting 
or  nipping  back  the  requisite  amount  of 
terminal  growth  has  not  been  generally 
appreciated  by  growers.  Nevertheless  it 
is  a  positive  fact  that  trees  can  be  kept  at 
practically  any  size  depending  on  the 
fancy  of  the  grower  and  the  ultimate  ob- 
ject in  view  for  the  trees.    There  are  very 

erroneous  ideas  prevalent  regarding  the 
crowding  or  density  of  orchards. 

Every  grower  who  knows  his  business 
realizes  that  trees  in  order  to  be  healthy, 
require  light  and  air,  but  it  should  be  re- 
membered that  the  deciding  factor  in  this 
regard  is  the  density  of  limbs  and  foliage 
on  individual  trees.  Five  hundred  trees  of 
a  certain  size  and  shape  might  be  growing 
on  an  acre,  and  have  more  light  and  air 
than  forty  trees  of  excessive  size  and 
density  on  the  same  area.  The  truth  of 
this  can  be  realized  only  by  careful  ob- 
servation nnd  experiment.  It  is  on  such 
points,  however,  in  the  fruit  industry  that 
too  often  ideas,  both  dogmatic  and 
obsolete  hold  sway. 

"I  prune  my  trees  in  March  or  April," 
continued  Mr.  Eaton,  "but  if  paint  is  used 
on  wound.s  (as  it  always  should  be)  No- 
vember or  any  of  the  winter  months  are 
all  right.  It  really  depends  on  when  the 
necessary  time  can  be  spared.  The  cherry 
thrives  well  under  severe  pruning.  The 
main  limb  may  be  cut  back  if  necessary 
to  two-foot  stubs  without  injury  to  the 
tree.  The  sour  cherry  grows  symmetric- 
ally and  does  not  require  much  pruning  in 
ordinary  conditions.  Of  course  intercros- 
sing branches  must  always  be  removed.  If 
the  sour  cherry  tree  is  kept  fairly  well 
thinned  out  from  the  start  it  is  more  like- 
ly to  bear  fruit  all  along  its  branches. 
Once  a  tree  is  in  bearing,  pruning  may  be 
practically  restricted  to  the  cutting  out 
of  all  useless  limbs  and  the  opening  up 
of  the  top  to  the  sunlight.  Judicious  prun- 
ing leads  to  even  ripening.  That  point 
should  not  be  overlooked." 


Mr.  Eaton  uses  lime-sulphur  spray  for 
his  sweet  cherries.  He  has  found  that  the 
mixture  will  not  burn  the  tender  foliage 
if  used  at  the  ordinary  strength  of  one 
to  forty.  For  brown  rot  in  sweets  he 
sprays  about  June  10th,  and  a  second 
spray  about  June  20th.  These  sprayings 
he  finds  effective.  He  mixes  the  Black 
Leaf  40  with  the  lime-sulphur  for  aphids 

and  declares  that  the  combination  gives 
excellent  satisfaction. 

The  total  cherry  crop  of  the  Hillcrest 
Orchards  generally  averages  about  12,000 
one-quart  boxes.  Although  the  cherry 
market  in  Nova  Scotia  as  elsewhere  was 
last  year  extremely  dull — prices  ranging 
around  six  cents  the  quart — the  cherries 
taken  from  these  fillers  were  marketed  for 
nine  cents  the  quart,  an  increase  of  fifty 
per  cent,  over  the  prevailing  price. 

This  would  go  to  show  that  the  utiliza- 
tion of  cherry  trees  as  fillers  does  not 
cause  any  inferiority  in  the  fruit  so  pro^ 
duced,  although,  of  course,  such  trees  will 
not  bear  so  heavily  as  when  planted  regu- 
larly by  themselves.  It  is  naturally  dif- 
ficult to  calculate  exactly  the  extra  cost 
imposed  on  the  orchardist  who  uses  cherry 
tillers  among  his  apple  trees.  There  is,  of 
course,  some  extra  ejfpenditure  in  the  way 
of  spraying  and  fertilizing,  but  the  regu- 
lar operations  as  regards  cultivation  and 
cover  crops  have  to  be  carried  on  whether 
fillers  are  used  or  not.  The  extra  expendi- 
ture on  spraying,  pruning  and  fertilizers 
are  not  over  thirty  cents  per  tree.  Last 
year  the  boxes  cost  Mr.  Eaton  .?3..50  per' 
thousand.  Sorting  cost  him  one-half  cent 
the  box.  The  pickers  were  paid  five  cents 
per  six  quarts  picked.  Other  expenses 
totalled  about  fifty  dollars.  Thus  the  extra 
expenditure  necessitated  by  the  use  of 
these  fillers  was  about  $402,  giving  a  net 
profit  to  the  grower  of  $678. 

"The  consumption  of  cherries  has  im- 
proved much  during  the  past  few  years," 
declared  Mr.  Eaton,  "and  I  believe  the 
market  will  continue  to  expand.  I  see  no 
reason  why  our  fruit  growers  could  not. 
profitably  produce  both  sweet  and  sour 
cherries,  but  especially  the  latter,  in 
larger  quantities  in  their  commercial  or-, 
chards.  The  cherry  grower  who  stays 
with  the  business,  gives  his  orchard  intel- 
ligent care  and  management,  and  pays 
strict  attention  to  the  marketing  end,  will 
find  the  industry  a  paying  one  now  and 
increasingly  profitable  in  the  years  to 

A  special  wagon  for  carrying  fruit  packages   to    the    caris    from    the    Hillcrest    orchards. 

Findings   From  Our 

"In  counsel,  wise 
men  ■  grow  wiser. 
Fools  despise  ex- 

Sweet   Clover 



SWEET  CLOVER  is  feared  by  many 
farmers  because  they  believe  they  will 
not  be  able  to  get  rid  of  it.  They  see  it 
growing  in  waste  places  year  after  year. 
Stock  will  not  eat  it  there  because  they 
can  get  June  grass  and  no  kind  of  live- 
stock will  eat  clover  of  any  kind  so  long 
as  they  can  get  abundance  of  fresh,  sweet 
June  grass.  No  farmer  need  be  afraid  of 
not  being  able  to  rid  the  farm  of  sweet 
clover  for  this  clover  lives  only  two  years 
in  the  soil.  If  you  want  it  for  a  longer 
period  it  must  be  reseeded,  I  have  never 
yet  seen  a  farm  animal  that  refused  to 
eat  sweet  clover  hay.  I  have  even  seen 
pigs  eat  the  stalks  of  the  second  cutting  of 
sweet  clover  after  it  had  been  threshed 
for  seed.  I  have  seen  cattle  get  into  a  field 
of  sweet  clover  and  eat  till  they  appeared 
to  be  hurting  themselves,  and  it  was  the 
first  time  these  same  cattle  had  ever  seen 
the  plant. 

Many  people  save  the  first  crop  of  the 
plant  for  seed.  This  crop  gives  the  most 
and  the  best  seed  but  it  is  hard — very 
hard — to  handle  on  account  of  the  size 
and  stiffness  of  the  plant.  The  second 
crop  has  finer  stalks,  is  easily  handled, 
produces  a  first-class  quality  of  seed,  and 
on  an  average  season  very  nearly  as  much 
seed  as  does  the  first  crop.  The  seed 
should  be  threshed  with  a  clover  thresher 
but  if  one  is  not  available  use  an  ordinary 
threshing  outfit.  This  will  not  hull  the 
seed  but  the  unhulled  seed  will  grow  just 
as  well  as  the  hulled  seed  and  one  need 
not  worry  if  a  clover  huller  is  not  in  the 

Sweet  clover  is  the  hay  and  fodder  crop 
par  excellence  for  the  light,  hilly  districts 
and  I  believe  is  just  about  as  good  in  the 
flat,  wet  regions  where  the  other  clovers 
will  not  grow. — T.  H.  Binnie,  Grey  Co., 

\  ^Ditching   With    a 

npHE  October  issue  of  Farmer's  Maga- 
-'■  ziNE  contained  an  article  on  the 
digging  of  ditches  with  the  large  model 
traction  ditcher,  which  suggests  another 
method  of  doing  this  beneficial  work 
on  the  farm.  A  drainage  system  is  ex- 
pensive, and  yet  not  an  expense.  It  costs 
money  to  put  in,  and  at  the  same  time  pays 
big  profits.  Not  many  years  ago  the  farm- 
er who  put  expensive  fertilizer  on  his  land 

was  laugheil  at  by  the  majority  of  his 
neighbors,  but  now  enough  time  has 
passed  to  show  that  the  laugh  is  the  other 
way.  It  is  the  same  with  tile  drainage — 
and  in  this  case  the  improvement  is  prac- 
tically a  permanent  one,  for  the  tiles  will 
give  good  service  for  a  long  term  of  years. 
Open  ditches  are  frequent  throughout 
Canada,  but  there  is  a  tendency  to  waste 
a  big  strip  of  land  and  they  are  as  serious 
an  obstacle  to  cultivation  as  fences.  A 
straight  ditch  is  bad  enough,  but  when,  to 
provide  proper  drainage,  the  ditch  has  to 
be  made  crooked,  the  inconvenience  is  still 

It  is  estimated  that  the  open  ditch  costs 
about  ten  cents  per  rod  each  year  to  keep 
clean  and  in  good  repair.  That  is  the  in- 
terest, at  6  per  cent.,  on  $1.50.  Add  to 
this  the  cost  of  digging  and  the  value  of 
the  land  it  occupies,  and  it  will  be  readily 
seen  that  it  is  a  more  expensive  drainage 
system  than  the  tile. 


Drained  land  means  bigger  and  better 
crops.  In  wet  soil,  the  plants  are  shallow- 
rooted.  The  roots  will  not  go  down  below 
the  water  table,  with  the  result  that  they 
have  a  limited  area  from  which  to  draw 
plant  food,  and  when  the  water  settles 
lower  in  the  summer,  the  plants  suffer 
from  drought.  The  water  table  is  kept 
down  by  the  tile  drainage,  and  thus  makes 
the  plants  better  able  to  withstand  the 
drought  as  well. 

Digging  by  hand  has  cost  about  ten 
cents  per  rod  per  foot  in  depth,  or  thirty 
cents  for  a  ditch  30  to  36  inches  deep, 
which  does  not  include  laying  the  tile  nor 
filling  the  ditch.  The  tractor  thus  affords 
a  means  of  ditching  cheaper  and  quicker 
than  any  other  method. 

The  light-weight  traction  engine  which 
is  being  demonstrated  to  the  farmers  of 
Ontario  for  use  on  their  farms  for  general 
purposes  offers  an  ideal  means  of  ditching. 
It,  of  course,  must  be  able  to  straddle  the 
ditch,  and  some  sort  of  ditching  or  digging 

A   potato  digger  just  in   from  work.     , 

implement  is  required  in  connection  with 
it.  Such  a  tool  may  be  home-made, 
or  purchased  from  implement  dealers 
handling  such  lines. 

With  a  tractor  ditching  outfit,  from  two 
to  three  hundred  rods  of  ditch  can  be  fin- 
ished in  a  day,  cutting  to  a  depth  of  three 
feet.  It  would  take  one  man  thirty  days 
to  do  the  same  amount  of  work,  and  it 
would  not  be  done  so  well. 

A  ditching  implement  to  use  with  the 
tractor  will  pay  for  itself  in  ten  or  fifteen 
day's  operation,  saving  $25  to  $50  per  day 
over  the  ordinary  hand  methods.  The 
tractor  which  Ontario  farmers  are  com- 
ing to  use  is,  of  course,  good  for  a  score 
of  other  jobs  around  the  farm;  and  it  is 
for  this  reason  that  an  outfit  of  this  sort 
is  especially  suitable  for  the  farmer  or 
orchardist,  though  it  has  ample  capacity 
to  handle  ditching  as  a  custom  proposi- 
tion.— 7?.  M.  Gordon. 

Lambton  County 

T  AMBTON  COUNTY,  Ontario,  lying 
-'— '  close  by  the  foot  of  Lake  Huron,  is 
coming  along  well  from  the  farmers' 
standpoint.  I  am  glad  to  note  that  the 
movement  towards  co-operative  work  is 
growing  rapidly.  Already  there  are 
about  twenty-five  farmers'  clubs  with  a 
central  organization  with  a  president, 
vice-presidents,  secretary  and  treasurer 
and  two  directors  from  each  township. 

The  aims  and  objects  of  this  association 
are  not  only  for  the  purpose  of  buying 
co-operatively  but  for  the  purpose  of  dis- 
cussing ways  and  means  by  which  they 
can  bring  their  influence  to  bear  on  legis- 

Several  of  these  clubs  have  co-operated 
in  buying  sugar,  flour  and  feed,  lamp  oil, 
gasoline,  etc. 

It  is  the  purpose  of  the  county  or- 
ganization at  a  meeting  to  be  held  at  a 
recent  date  to  appoint  an  organizing  com- 
mittee to  have  all  local  clubs  affiliate  with 
the  county  board  in  placing  their  orders 
co-operatively  to  handle  binder  twine, 
fencing,  etc. 

There  is  a  fine  spirited  body  of  men  m 
the  county  behind  this  movement  and  if 
they  can  get  the  farmers  to  grasp  what 
co-operation  means,  they  will  do  much 

It  is  also  the  intention  of  this  asso- 
ciation to  affiliate  with  the  Board  of  Agri- 
culture to  carry  on  a  series  of  meetings  all 
over  Lambton  county  this  coming  wintei. 
— Robert  Fleck. 



The  White 


A  FTER  the  wonderful  showing  in 
-^^  the  egg-laying  contests,  who  can 
dare  to  say  that  the  White  Wyandotte 
is  not  as  good  a  breed  as  anyone  could 
possibly  desire?  We  hear  so  much  of 
this  und  that  breed  being  positively  the 
best  that  where  the  evidence  is  not  con- 
clusive one  is  apt  to  be  much  confused  in 
deciding  on  a  br.eed  that  will  give  the  best 
all-round  results. 

We  suppose  more  people  will  say  they 
keep  hens  for  the  eggs  they  lay  than  for 
any  other  reason.  This  leads  a  good  many 
into  the  illusion  that  they  must  select 
something  with  very  little  meat  because  to 
get  eggs  they  think  it  necessary  to  have 
the  so-called  egg  breeds.  Just  look  at  the 
evidence,  however,  and  what  do  we  find? 
In  the  fourth  laying  contest  at  Storrs,  a 
White  Wyandotte  pen  was  first  with  2,072 
eggs,  Rhode  Island  Reds  second  with  2,039 
eggs,  and  Leghorns  third  with  2,001.  The 
averages  per  hen  for  the  breeds  was  White 
Wyandottes  165,  White  Leghorns  158.1, 
Rhode  Island  Reds  155.8,  Plymouth  Rocks 
146.3.  By  this  it  is  plain  to  be  seen  where 
White  Wyandottes  stood  at  Storrs.  The 
average  at  all  three  egg-laying  contests  in 
1914  was  highest  with  the  White  Wyan- 
dottes as  the  following  tables  will  show. 

Third  International  Contest,  Connecticut 

White   Wyandottes    169 

White    Leghorns    152 

Barred    Rocks    148 

S.  C.  R.  I.  Reds  138 

Wliite    Rooks    136 

R.  C.   R.   I.   Reds    125 

Third    North   American    Contest,    Fennss'lvania 

White   Wynudottes    195 

White    Leghorns    178 

Anconas   '  178 

S.  C.  R.  I.  Reds  '.■.;;■.  167 

Barred    Rocks    160 

White    Rocks    '  160 

R.    C.    R.    I.    Reds    '.'.'.'.'.'.'.  153 

White  Orpingtons    136 

Third    National     Contest,    Jlissouri 

White   Wyandottes    190 

Barred    Rocks    ...'.'.  176 

White   Leghorns    170 

s.  c.  R.  L  Reds : : .' ; 171 

White    Rocks    171 

R.   C    R.    I.    Reds .:; 164 

Buff  Orpington.s    163 

Anconas    jq2 

White    Orpingtons    .....[....'  143 

Campines    J35 

So  much  for  the  question  of  eggs.  Of 
course  the  experienced  poultry  man  knows 
that  in  all  breeds  some  strains  excel  others 
and  in  any  breed  poor  performers  will 
.■^how  themselves  as  well  as  good  but  the 
Wyandotte  has  proven  her  position  at  the 
top  in  the  matter  of  general  high  average. 

The  same  people,  who  tell  you  they  keep 
certain  breeds  for  eggs  alone,  acknow- 
ledge that  when  they  have  to  kill  some  of 
them  or  want  a  nice  plump  chicken  they 
are  obliged  to  feel  disappointment.  Did 
you  ever  hear  anyone  complain  about  the 
carcase  of  the  White  Wyandotte  for  a 
broiler  or  roaster?  They  certainly  provide 
just  about  as  dainty  a  piece  of  chicken 
flesh  as  anyone  can  wish  and  when  bred 
right  have  great  quantities  of  breast  meat, 
great  thighs,  and  that  juicy  back  meat 
that  helps  so  much  in  completing  a  fine 
tasty  chicken.  Being  of  a  nice,  medium 
size  they  always  have  an  evenly  balanced 
carcase  that  dresses  to  perfection. 

All  true  breeders  give  a  very  large 
amount  of  consideration  to  the  utility  side. 

The  White  Wyandotte  has  real  breaders 
promoting  its  welfare.  This  accounts  for 
its  high  position  from  every  valuable  mar- 
ket viewpoint.  This  wide  range  of  use- 
fulness makes  them  possible  good  pro- 
ducers over  a  very  wide  area  and  under 
decidedly  varying  conditions. 

So  many  people  who  keep  fowls  at  the 
same  time  like  to  have  something  that  looks 
well  besides  being  able  to  turn  food  or 
household  waste  into  meat  and  eggs.  What 
sight  can  be  more  pleasing  than  spotless 
white  birds  of  curving  lines  with  bright 
red  combs  and  faces  and  shining  yellow 
legs?  Here  is  a  picture  that  commands 
admiration  from  all  because  in  it  can  be 
recognized  a  combination  of  beauty  and 
service  that  is  written  all  over  the  active 
hustling  White  Wyandotte.  At  the  same 
time  this  is  combined  with  a  docility  that 
makes  it  possible  to  keep  them  just  as 
readily  in  confined  yards  almost  as  where 
unlimited  range  is  available.  Most  cer- 
tainly will  they  thrive  under  any  condi- 
tions as  well  as  any  breed. 
•  A  study  of  the  present  standard  of  per- 
fection as  compared  with  the  last  one  will 
show  that  wise  breeders  are  guarding  the 
best  interests  of  the  White  Wyandotte. 
Instead  of  allowing  faddy  breeders  to 
shorten  the  body  to  exclude  the  egg-mak- 
ing powers  the  standard  has  been  changed 
to  increase  the  length  of  body  and  still 
retain  the  graceful  lines  so  characteristic 
of  the  breef*  , 

It  is  only  to  be  expected  that  such  a 
breed  would  be  so  largely  represented  in 
the  show-room.  At  a  great  many  shows 
they  will  be  found  in  the  greatest  num- 
bers. The  National  White  Wyandotte 
Club  is  probably  the  largest  specialty 
club  in  the  world  and  is  therefore  able  to 
wield  a  mighty  influence  in  favor  of  the 
breed  whose  interest  it  works  to  promote. 

In  consequence  of  this  perhaps  there 
are  greater  quantities  of  high-quality 
birds  to  be  had  and  the  demand  is  heavier 
for  good  stock.  This  means  very  much 
heavier  turnover  than  among  the  less 
popular  breeds  and  has  made  it  possible 
for  individuals  to  develop  very  large  busi- 
nesses on  this  single  breed.  While  per- 
haps competition  is  keener  than  with  some 
varieties  immense  satisfaction  results 
fiom  handling  good  quality  and  having 
succeeded,  the  possibilities  are  much 
greater  than  where  the  way  is  perhaps 
in  the  beginning  a  little  easier. 

To  the  beginner  the  White  Wyandotte 
offers  an   all-round  proposition   that  will 

give  him  good,  useful  return  while  he  is 
learaiing  the  way  to  climb  to  the  top  and 
secure  the  cream  of  the  business.  Breed- 
ers of  White  Wyandottes  express  the 
fondest  expectations  for  1916  and  past 
experience  shows  their  hopes  are  well 
founded. — A.  P.  Marshall,  Ontario. 

Installing  Home 

Power  Outfit 

T  HAVE  just  completed  a  home-made 
-'-  power  outfit  for  my  house  that  an- 
swers well.  The  brackets  I  bought  at 
a  sale  at  the  small  cost  of  35  cents ; 
the  line  shaft,  %-inch  30  feet  long,  cost 
$1.50.  I  got  it  off  a  windmill  that  had 
been  wrecked  by  the  wind.  The  boxings 
are  some  of  them. hard  maple  and  some 
are  what  belonged  to  the  lineshaft.  The 
engine  runs  600  r.p.m.  with  6-in.  pulley, 
the  drive  pulley  on  lineshaft  is  24  in. 
which  I  built  on  a  casting  of  an  old  binder 
reel  and  also  made  all  the  other  pulleys 
connected  to  the  lineshaft.  The  first  ma- 
chine I  ran  with  the  engine  was  the 
turning  lathe  and  turned  out  all  the 
pulleys  the  necessary  size.  ^Also  the 
grindstone  was  attached  for  keeping  tools 
sharp  while  making  pulleys  and  doing 
other  wood-v/ork.  The  pulleys  aie  all  split 
and  when  necessary  to  change  them  from 
woodshed  into  the  kitchen  for  winter,  it 
can  be  done  very  easily.  For  belting  I 
bought  10-oz.  canvas,  or  heavier  can  be 
used,  and  made  belting  5-ply  and  some 
heavier,  all  depending  on  work  required  of 
it.  This  I  sewed  on  the  sewing  machine, 
then  soaked  it  well  in  good  thick  paint  and 
ran  it  between  two  rollers,  pressing  it  well 
together  and  then  hung  it  up  and  left 
until  dry.  When  real  dry  it  makes  a  belt 
strong  enough  for  any  1  or  IV^-h.p.  en- 
gine. The  jack  was  taken  from  a  wind- 
mill at  a  cost  of  $2.-  This  is  fastened  up  in 
the  woodshed  level  with  lineshaft.  The 
separator  is  set  just  far  enough  from 
underneath  the  jack  to  prevent  oil  from 
dropping  on  it.  My  intentions  are  to 
pump  water  to  the-  barn  for  my  stock,  a 
distance  of  about  60  feet.  I  also  intend  to 
run  our  meat  grinder' this  fall.  The  ques- 
tion has  often  been  asked  me  if  the  en- 
gine will  run  all  the  machines  at  once.  It 
has  done  so  for  me.  The  belting  cost  me 
about  $3  for  material.  I'did  all  the  work 
myself  last  winter.  I  cannot  sayjust  how 
long  it  took  me  as  I  did  it  at  odd  times. 
— Melvin  Zhnmerman,  Ontario. 

Scene    at    the     rcreiit    tractor 

demonstratiuu    at  Guelpli. 
coming  favorite. 

Tlie    small     tractor    seems    to    be    a 

An  Onion  Bonanza. 

Ontario  Farmers  Wrest  Little  Fortunes  from  a  Swamp 

by  a  New  System  of  Drainage  and  Sub-Irrigation 

— Co-operative  Onion  Growers'  Association 




E  have  often  heard  the  saying, 
"God  made  the  dry  land  but  the 
Dutch  made  Holland,"  which  is, 
after  all,  only  the  Hollander's  unique  way 
of  letting  us  know  that  it  was  through 
his  own  efforts  that  Holland  is  tillable  dry 
land  to-day  instead  of  being  submerged  as 
it  once  was. 

Nor  is  the  Hollander  alone  in  his  suc- 
fessful  efforts  to  wrest  land  back  from  the 
encioaching  waves.  We  have  here  ii*  On- 
tario a  splendid  example  to  prove  this 
statement.  The  most  southernly  point  of 
the  mainland  of  all  Canada  is  Point  Pelee, 
a  cape  that  project-s  its  sandy  nose  far  out 
into  the  blue  waters  of  Lake  Erie. 

Through  the  broad  base  of  this  cape 
there  was  once  an  open  channel  of  shal- 
low water,  and  on  tlje  bottom  of  this 
channel,  year  after  year,  the  retarded 
waves  dropped  their  precious  freight  of 
rotted  vegetable  matter,  building  up 
layer  upon  layer  of  the  richest'  soil  that 
nature  can  supply  for  the  use  of  man. 

So  you  see  we  have  here  a  veritable 
Garden  of  Eden  soil  lying  waiting  for 
the  use  of  man. 

But  the  gateway  to  its  successful  de- 
velopment was  guarded  by  a  seemingly 
impassable  fiery  sword  of  obstacles;  the 
whole  tract  was  eighteen  inches  below  the 
level  of  Lake  Erie,  and  was,  of  course,  al- 
ways subm&rged.  It  was  covered  with  a 
jungle-like  growth  of  tangled  aquatic  ve- 
getation, and  large  grey  mosquitoes  hatch- 
ed there  by  millions  and  fed  ravenously 
and  in  clouds  on  anyone  unfortunate 
enough  to  tres- 
pass within  their 

Considering  all 
these  facts,  sure- 
ly no  one  would 
ever  dream  of 
seeing  bounteous 
crops  raised  on 
the  very  floor  of 
the  lake.  Abso- 
lutely i  m  p  o  s- 
sible,  in  the  face 
of  these  ob- 
stacles, you  will 
say.  Yet  that  is 
just  what  is  be- 
ing done  to-day, 
and  the  only 
magic  employed 
was  the  magic  of 
man's  foresight 
to  see  the  goal 
underneath      its 

By  Ivan  B.  Thompson 

disguise,  and  energy,  patience  and  perse- 
verance to  bring  it  within  reach. 

The  result  of  these  was  that  a  large 
section  of  hundreds  of  acres  was  dyked  in 
by  great  high  dykes,  pumping  stations 
were  ouilt,  the  water  was  pumped  out,  the 
ground  was  cleared  off,  and  broken  up, 
and  finally  it  was  underdrained  and  put 
into  crop.  Thus  there  sprang  up  a  gar- 
den of  almost  unbelievable  fertility  where 
before  there  was  only  a  waste  of  desolate 
swamp,  and  thousands  of  dollars  annual- 
ly are  pouring  into  the  pockets  of  these 
energetic  growers,  and  from  land  whose 
sole  previous  crop  was  one  of  mosquitoes. 

The  main  product  of  this  rich  garden 
marsh  is  onions,  and  the  oldest  onion 
growers  are  the  Campbells,  Mr.  J.  A. 
Campbell  being  the  present  owner  and 
manager  of  the  Campbell  farm  there. 


"Onions  slumping?  Most  decidedly 
not,"  said  Mr.  Campbell,  his  face  lighting 
up  with  enthusiasm  as  he  talked — "why 
onions  are  just  coming  into  their  own 
here,  and  coming  fast,  too;  increased 
acreage,  more  advanced  methods  of  cul- 
ture, better  marketing  facilities,  all  these 
are  putting  us  fast  to  the  front  with  our 
onions."     And  it  is  so. 

The  following  is  a  brief  description  of 
the  methods  that  led  to  Mr.  Campbell's 

Laborers  at   work  on  one  of  the  ouion   fields.     A  secret  that  lead 
on  is  to  have  the  rows  perfectly  straight  so  that  the  weeders  can  be 
and  cut  out  hand  -weeding  as  far  as  possible. 

The  work  of  preparing  the  ground  be- 
gins in  the  fall,  said  he.  We  then  plow, 
and  plow  deep,  and  we  have  no  fear  oi 
turning  up  the  subsoil,  either. 

In  the  spring  in  early  April,  or  as  soor 
as  the  weather  will  permit,  we  get  on  tha 
land  and  work  it  up  carefully,  and  we 
keep  in  mind  the  fact  that  the  cheapest 
working  a  crop  ever  gets  is  done  before 
that  crop  is  planted.  This  thought  helps 
us  to  do  a  thorough  job,  even  if  it  does 
take  a  little  longer. 

The  fertilizer  used  consists  of  potash 
and  phosphate  applied  in  the  ratio  of  two 
hundred  pounds  of  potash  to  one  thou- 
sand pounds  of  the  natural  ground  rock 
per  acre. 


Here  is  where  we  apply  one  secret  that 
leads  to  clean  fields  later  on,  and  it  i& 
to  have  the  rows  perfectly  straight,  so 
that  the  weeders  can  be  run  very  close  to 
the  plants,  and  thus  cut  down  the  work 
of  hand  weeding  as  much  as  posible.  The 
hand  weeding  is,  of  course,  pretty  ex- 
pensive as  well  as  hard. 

"Cultivation  starts  just  as  soon  as  the- 
seed  has  been  planted  and  a  steady  and 
and  strenuous  war  is  waged  on  the  weeds 
all  season  long."  It  is  not  uncommon  to- 
see  a  field  of  many  acres  stretching  away 
to  the  distant  dyke  and  not  a  weed  to  be 
seen.  This  will  give  one  some  idea  of 
the  careful  and  thorough  nature  of  the 

"Our  fields,"  continued  Mr.  Campbell, 
"are  all  weeded 
five  times  by 
hand  and  culti- 
vated every 
week.  We  must 
never  allow  the 
weeds  to  get  any 
start  because  the 
larger  the  weed 
the  more  the- 
onion  roots  are 
disturbed  b  y 
pulling  it,  and 
the  more  setback 
the  plant  gets. 
Also  we  are  very 
careful  not  to 
allow  any  weeds 
to  go  to  seed, 
and  we  thereby 
cut  do-wn  the 
ranks  of  next 
year's  weeds. 
This  also  is  an- 

s  to  clean  fields  later 
un  clos.e  tu  the  plants 



other  secret  of  successful  onion  farm- 
ing. This  point  is  clearly  brought  out  in 
the  case  of  a  farm, in  the  State  of  Louisi- 
ana where  the  ground  has  been  in  onions 
for  about  fifty  years  and  one  man  can 
take  care  of  ten  acres  up  till  harvesting 
time.  And  why?  Simply  because  no 
weeds  have  been  allowed  to  go  to  seed  on 
the  farm,  and  great  care  is  exercised  to 
see  that  practically  no  weed  seeds  get  on 
the  farm  in  other  ways.  The  result  is 
clean  fields  and  practically  no  hand  weed- 
ing. This  is,  of  course,  the  result  of  long 
years  of  effort  and  perseverance. 

"Our  summer's  work  may  be  fairly 
summed  up  in  these  few  words:  'Mulch, 
and  war  to  the  death  on  the  weeds.'" 

The  harvesting  commences  just  as  soon 
as  from  one-third  to  one-half  of  the  tops 
have  dried  down,  and  at  this  stage  the 
onions  "let  go"  easily.  The  pulling 
is  all  done  by  hand,  one  man  tak- 
ing two  rows  at  once. 

"One  of  the  things  that  will  cut 
your  selling  price  very  badly  is 
undercured  and  sunburned  on- 
ions," said  Mr.  Campbell.  "And 
right  now  is  the  time  to  avoid  sun- 
burn. My  system  is  to  have  the 
onions  laid  down  so  that  one  row 
of  tops  covers  the  next  row  of 
bulbs,  and  in  this  shingle  arrange- 
ment I  find  the  onions  dry  perfect- 
ly without  the  least  touch  of  sun- 

"After  the  field  drying,  the 
onions  are  hauled  to  my  onion  shed 
where  they  are  topped  with  the 
topping  machine  and  then  they 
are  placed  in  slatted  crates  and 
the  crates  are  piled  so  that  they 
have  a  free  circulation  of  air  on  all 
sides.  This  is,  of  course,  very 
necessary  to  the  proper  curing  of 
the  onions.  Not  only  must  there  be 
free  circulation  of  air  immediately 
around  the  onions,  but  there  must 
also  be  excellent  ventilation 
throughout  the  whole  building. 

"To  facilitate  this  I  have  had 
constructed,  after  several  years  of 
careful  observation  and  experi- 
menting, a  large  onion  curing 
shed,  whose  sides  are,  practically 
all,  large  vertically-opening  doors, 
and  I  find  it  a  highly  satisfactory 
building  for  this  purpose. 


"But  wait  k  minute  and  let  us 
go  over.  I  want  you  to  see  the  new 
main  that  I  am  putting  in.  You 
see  my  fields  are  all  under -drained, 
and  as  soon  as  this  new  main  is 
completed  I  will  have  a  complete 
sub-irrigation  system.  Water? 
About  a  foot  and  a  half  of  the  top 
of  Lake  Erie  always  on  top.  I  have 
no  trouble  that  way." 

So  we  walked  over  to  where  Mr. 
Campbell's  own  gasoline  traction 
ditcher  stood  at  the  end  of  the  com- 
pleted trench  that  was  to  let  in  the 
required  amount  of  water  at  the 
exact  time  when  it  was  most 

Here  also  one  had  an  excellent 
chance  to  see  the  depth  and  rich- 

ness of  this  wonderful  soil.  And  truly 
after  examining  it  one  does  not  wonder 
so  much  at  the  immense  crops  it  produces 
year  after  year.  There  is  abundant  wealth 
buried  there  for  generations  to  come. 

"The  next  phase  of  our  work  is  where 
we  are  at  a  serious  disadvantage,"  he 
continued.  "That  is  the  transportation  of 
our  onions  from  our  farms  to  the  nearest 
railway  station  at  Leamington,  which  is  a 
distance  of  about  seven  miles.  The  roads 
are  often  in  bad  shape,  and  it  is  at  best 
a  slow,  inefl[icient  job.  Several  different 
methods  of  transportation  from  the  five- 
ton  motor  truck,  which  genial  little  Joe 
Henry  uses  to  bring  in  his  sixty-acre  crop, 
to  the  humble  one-horse  wagon  of  the 
small  grower. 

"A  spur  ^from  the  railroad  would  be 
of  immense  value  to  the  onion  industry 

.;*..''    'k^^]'. 


Ditch  with  reclaimed  land  at  the  left,  and  d\kc 



View    of   the   puuipiug   stntion. 

Onion  drying  iind   curing  house. 

View  of  a  typical  level  tract  of  land  in  the  onion-growiiig 

here,  not  only  for  the  purpose  of  hauling 
the  crop  away,  but  also  for  bringing. in 
fertilizers,  especially  barnyard  manure. 
Many  of  the  growers  would  use  large 
quantities  of  this  latter  if  the  cost  of  haul- 
ing did  not  put  it  on  the  prohibited  list. 
The  decay  of  the  vegetable  matter  in  it 
greatly  increases  bacterial  life  and  activ- 
ity, which  is,  of  course,  most  beneficial. 
The  growers  are  all  looking  forward  to 
the  day  when  the  necessary  steps  will  be 
taken  to  place  the  many  advantages  of 
the  railroad  well  within  their  reach." 


The  spirit  of  co-operation  was  strong 
among  this  band  of  agricultural  special- 
ists,  and   the   result  was   the  formation 
some  years  ago  of  the  Leamington  Onion 
Growers'  Association.    This  asso- 
ciation handles  to-day  practically 
ninety    per    cent,    of    the    onions 
grown  there,  and  to  judge  by  the 
enrolment,  it  is  a  very  successful 
and  necessary  part  of  the  industry. 
^  In  every  branch  of  specialized 

■i  agriculture  there  are  two  domi- 
nant factors  which  often  deter- 
mine the  success  or  failure  of  the 
venture  in  that  particular  region. 
The  one  is  the  disposal  of  the  pro- 
duct which,  of  course,  includes 
transportation  facilities,  the  other 
is  labor.  It  has  been  shown  how 
inefficient  transportation  has  hin- 
dered these  growers  in  several 
ways,  but  in  the  matter  of  labor 
they  have  been  far  more  fortunate. 
By  far  the  greatest  share  of  the 
work  is  done  by  Belgians  and  Rus- 
sians. The  Belgians  perhaps  pre- 
dominate. And  they  are  truly 
marvelously  deft  and  quick  with 
their  work.  Many  of  them  have 
had  practice  at  similar  lines  of 
work  in  the  Old  Land.  But  even 
the  youngsters,  born  in  this  coun- 
try, seem  to  take  to  the  work  like 
ducks  to  water.  I  watched  them  as 
they  worked  at  the  weeding.  They 
went  along  on  their  knees,  bent 
over  the  row'.  The  movements  of 
their  fingers  were  too  quick  to 
follow  accurately.  The  weeds,  even 
to  the  tiniest,  were  whisked  away 
from  the  plants  and  thrown  in  the 
middle  of  the  row,  the  ground 
loosened  and  drawn  up  to  the  roots 
of  the  plants,  and  then  on  they 
would  move  as  regularly  and  ac- 
curately as  machines.  Yet  when 
they  looked  up  and  smilingly  an- 
swered questions  as  best  they 
could,  one  could  not  help  but  see 
-the  real  enthusiasm  and  spirit  of 
what  one  might  call  the  joy  of 
labor  that  seemed  to  possess  them. .. 
Their  viewpoint  is  pretty  well 
summed  up  in  the  words  of  one  of 
them.  "We  make  big  money  and 
the  work  —  we  like  it,  it  is  not 
heavy."  So  the  monotonous  work 
that  we  might  despise  is  almost 
play  tc  them. 

Most  of  them  work  on  the  share 
basis,  while  some  are  hired  out- 
right.   In  either  case  houses  are 
Continued  on  Page  64. 


The  Outcome  of  an  Alpha  Lodge 

How  the  Women  s  Institutes  of  Prince  Edward  Island  are  JVorkin^r  for  Better 

Homes  and  Community  Life 

BEING  par- 
ticularly in- 
terested i  n 
the  Women's  Insti- 
tute movement,  the 
article  by  G.A.Put- 
nam —  accompany- 
ing the  photograph 
of  Institute  work- 
ers in  East  Welling- 
ton— in  the  October 
number  of  The 
Farmer's  Maga- 
zine, was  read  with 
much  pleasure. 

Now  you  know  a 
woman  can't  stand 
a  challenge,  and  as 
we  had  just  re- 
ceived from  the 
photographer's  a 
copy  of  a  photo- 
graph of  our  Insti- 
tute taken  at  our 
home  in  September, 
I  could  not  refrain 
from  .  sending  it 
along.  I  am  not  go- 
ing to  say  how  good 
looking  we  are,  but 
will  leave  that  for 
someone  else. 

A  short  account 
of  Institute  work 
on  Prince  Edward 
Island  might  inter- 
est some  of  your  readers.  Down  here  in  the 
"Garden  of  the  Gulf"  we  are  called  slow 
to  take  up  with  new  movements  but  when 
they  do  come,  they  come  to  stay,  and  grow. 
So  it  has  been  with  Institute  work.  Not 
quite  four  years  ago  the  first  Women's 
Institute  was  organized  in  this  province. 
A  few  years  before  one  district,  feeling 
the  need  of  more  sociability,  formed  a 
lodge  much  on  the  same  principle.  This 
organization  they  named  the  Alpha  Lodge, 
and  when  the  Institute  movement  came 
along  they  merged  into  that,  but  they  have 
the  honor — as  their  name  implies — of  be- 
ing the  first.  ,We  now  number  over  forty 
societies,  have  our  supervisor  and  three 
assistants,  who  have  materially  helped, 
both  in  organizing  and  carrying  on  the 
work  so  successfully.  Our  second  con- 
vention was  held  in  Charlottetown  in 
June  and  showed  marked  improvement 
over  the  year  before. 

A  short  course  in  domestic  science  has 
been  arranged  for,  and  is  conducted  in  the 
month  of  January  at  our  capitol.  All  our 
members — who  care — take  advantage  of 
it.  Here  they  are  taught  and  trained  in 
the  right  and  best  methods  of  doing  work, 
which  falls  to  the  lot  of  the  wife  and 
mother,  as  well  as  numberless  other  things 
that  make  better  housekeepers  and  home- 

They  come  back  to  their  different  Insti- 
tutes to  discuss  what  they  have  learned 

By     MRS.     WALTER     SIMPSON 

A  typical  Women's   Institute  gathering  in   Prince  Edward  Island. 

and  so  help  the  members  whose  home  ties 
prevent  them  from  taking  advantage  of 
these  helps. 

Then  we  have  the  much-appreciated 
visits  of  our  supervisor  and  her  assistants, 
who  give  demonstrations  in  cooking,  can- 
ning, preserving,  home  nursing,  home 
decorations  and  furnishing  and  an  endless 
list  of  interesting  sub'ects.  These,  with 
the  discussions  and  questions  arising  out 
of  them,  cannot  but  help  each  member. 

Outside  of  all  that  is  to  be  learned  at 
these  gatherings  are  the  social  benefits  de- 
rived. We  get  to  know  each  other  better 
as  we  meet  from  month  to  month  and  plan 
improvements  for  our  communities  and 
take  ap  the  all-engaging  work  of  the  Red 
Cross.  We  find  that  the  Institutes  that 
meet  in  the  homes  of  the  members  or  have 
rooms  fitted  up  for  the  purpose  are  the 
most  prosperous.  It  is  so  much  more 
homelike  than  a  hall  or  school-room.  We 
have  also  found  that  the  "lunch,"  which 
each  member  willingly  has  a  share  in  pre- 
paring, adds  materially  to  the  popularity 
of  our  meetings,  and  is  not  considered  a 
burden  by  any  of  us. 

Most  of  the  Institutes  have  their  picnic 
through  the  summer.  Some  go  to  Char- 
lottetown to  the  Experimental  Farm, 
where  they  are  always  welcomed  by  the 
superintendent,  J.  A.  Clark,  B.S.A.,  and 
his  amiable  companion.  In  the  picnic 
grove,   adjoining  their   residence,   every- 

thing is  in  readi- 
ness to  spread  the 
picnic  dinner,  and 
the  superintendent 
and  his  helpers  are 
in  readiness  to 
show  and  explain 
anything  on  the 
beautiful  grounds 
or  plots  in  connec- 
tion with  the  farm. 
This  is  a  rare 
treat  and  educa- 
tion, and  we  come 
back  from  such  a 
visit,  with  memo- 
ries of  the  beauti- 
ful, to  live  over  and 
enjoy  for  months. 
The  accompany- 
ing photograph  of 
our  local  Institute 
was  taken  at  our 
annual  lawn  party 
— which  meets  with 
us  when  our  flower 
garden  is  at  its 
best.  Not  much  is 
planned  for  but  a 
social  afternoon, 
spent  among  ■the 
flowers,  and  tea  un- 
der the  apple  trees. 
These  little  outings, 
where  young  and 
old  meet  and  enjoy 
each  other,  seem  to  broaden  our  lives  and 
give  us  more  interest  in  our  neighbors.  In 
these  Institute  gatherings  there  is  no 
denominationalism.  We  are  all  one,  with 
the  "Home"  problem  uppermost — How  to 
make  better  and  happier  homes  for  loved 
ones  and  the  betterment  of  community 
life  generally.  Along  these  lines  come  in 
our  schools,  and  much  has  been  done  for 
them.  Better  sanitary  conditions  have 
been  aimed  for.  More  homelikeness  in- 
stead of  the  dull,  dingy  school-rooms, 
clean  bright  walls,  educative  pictures, 
house  plants,  drinking  fountains  and  in 
many  schools  pumps  have  been  installed. 
Much  has  been  done  to  improve  the  school 
grounds.  Where  at  all  possible  school 
gardens  have  been  started.  These  are  pre- 
pared and  cared  for  by  the  children,  and 
have  been  very  popular.  In  some  cases  the 
children  have  the  "home  plots"  and  prizes 
have  been  awarded  the  best  kept  plot  by 
the  Institute  in  each  school  district. 

So  love  of  flowers  is  being  cultivated 
and  is  spreading  in  a  very  encouraging 
manner.  Soon  every  home  on  our  little 
island  will  feel  the  i-efining  influence  of  a 
flower  garden. 

In  these  terrible  war  times  our  Insti- 
tutes are  not  idle  and  in  each  of  our  forty 
organizations  busy  fingers  are  knitting, 
sewing  and  planning  comforts  for  the 
boys  at  the  front. 

Seeing  More  of  Canada:  By  j.  w.  stark 

Cattle   waiting  to   l;o  loaded   on   the  cars   for  export   beef.     Scene  near  Gladstone,   Manitoba. 

What  is  the  Cash  Value  of  a  Holiday  Trip  for  the  Farmer  and  his  Wife? 
tures  of  Special  Agricultural  Interest  in  the  West. 


I'VE  just  been  wondering  what  the 
actual  cash  value  of  a  holiday  is  to  a 
farmer.  This  is  a  difficult  question  to 
answer,  yet  I  believe  it  would  pay  in  dol- 
lars and  cents  if  every  farmer  would  pick 
up  and  clear  right  away  from  the  place  at 
least  once  in  every  twelve  months.  He 
may  be  gone  a  couple  of  days  or  two 
weeks  and  it  isn't  necessary  to  spend  a 
fortune  either.  At  the  same  time  he  should 
not  forget  the  patient,  hard-working  wife, 
who,  being  out  less  frequently  than  the 
men,  may  be  in  even  greater  need  of  the 
outing  than  they.  Ordinary  hard  work 
seldom  kills  anyone  but  it's  the  eternal 
repetition  of  the  monotonous  humdrum 
tasks  that  fairly  gnaws  out  the  human 

Even  in  my  own  work  here  I  felt  that 
if  my  labors  were  going  to  be  worth  any- 
thing in  this  country  I  simply  had  to  drop 
everything  for  a  time  and  forget  it  all  by 
taking  a  holiday.  I  decided  to  make  a 
hurried  tour  through  the  West  and  to  the 
Rockies  and  have  come  back  feeling  fit  for 
any  task.  The  trip  was  made  over  the 
C.P.R.  via  the  Lake  Superior  route,  going 
through  that  vast  tract  of  waste  land 
where  the  scene  is  an  almost  continuous 
succession  of  rocks,  lakes  and  scrubby 
trees.  A  traveler's  remark  that  this  sec- 
tion afforded  one  a  splendid  opportunity  to 
build  one's  house  upon  a  rock  seemed  to 
hit  it  exactly,  for  certainly  some  parts  will 
never  be  good  for  anything  else.  But,  of 
course,  the  railway  line  is  along  the 
rugged  shore  of  Lake  Superior  and  we  all 
know  of  the  hundreds  of  thousands  of 
acres  of  untilled  land  a  few  miles  back 
and  the  great  clay  belt  that  may  some  day 
be  the  centre  of  agricultural  production 
in  Ontario.  Yet,  who  can  tell  what  enor- 
mous wealth  lies  buried  beneath  those 
barren-looking  rocks,  or  even  what  use 

may  one  day  be  made  of  that  lonely  tract 
of  country  where  even  the  burnt  stumps 
of  pine  and  cedar  huddling  between  huge 
boulders,  or  clinging  to  a  rocky  river 
bank  seem  denied  their  meagre  existence? 
As  we  hurried  on  over  bridges  and  around 
curves,  one  couldn't  help  drawing  a  mental 
picture  of  the  scene  as  it  might  appear 
five  decades  hence. 

Others  must  have  been  musing  too  on 
the  future  of  Thunder  Bay  district  be- 
cause the  life  in  the  sleeper  was  unusually 
quiet.  We  were  all  strangers  and  aloof 
from  each  other  at  first.  Then  we  became 
more  sociable  for  as  one  of  the  girl  pas- 
sengers quoted,  "A  touch  of  nature  makes 
the  whole  world  kin."  Since  it  was  my  first 
trip  to  the  West  I  was  in  a  hurry  to  see 
the  famous  prairie  with  its  200-acre  fields 
of  golden  wheat.  However,  there  is  not 
much  of  that  kind  of  farming  east  of 
Winnipeg,  which,  like  all  other  cities  is 
hemmed  in  on  every  side  by  a  hedge  of 
vegetable  farms  that  supply  the  local  mar- 
ket. In  passing,  I  may  say  I  was  sur- 
prised that  they  could  grow  such  potatoes 
and  vegetables  of  diff'erent  kinds  to  the 
perfection  they  can  all  through  the  West. 

Arriving  at  Winnipeg  less  than  forty 
hours  after  leaving  Toronto,  I  was  met  at 
the  station  by  an  ex-O.A.C.  boy,  who  is 
now  a  lecturer  at  the  Manitoba  Agricul- 
tural College,  and  we  took  the  first  car 
out  to  the  farm.  The  old  college  farm  has 
been  sold  and  a  new  section  bought  about 
seven  miles  out  of  the  city,  where  large 
sums  were  spent  in  erecting  the  most  up- 
to-date  buildings  and  equipping  them 
with  all  kinds  of  modern  appliances. 
Everything  has  a  "new"  look  but  the 
grounds  are  well  laid  out  and  the  situ- 
ation on  the  bank  of  the  Red  River  is  ideal 
for  such  an  institution.  Five  years  are  re- 
quired to  get  the  B.S.A.  degree  but  the 

sessions  are  quite  short  in  order  that  the 
boys  may  be  at  home  during  seeding  and 
harvest.  In  general,  the  course  is  quite 
similar  to  the  one  at  the  O.A.C.,  though 
they  give  much  more  time  to  the  study 
of  machinery,  no  doubt  because  traction 
plows,  etc.,  are  in  such  common  use  in  the 
West.  On  the  college  farm  they  do  all 
their  own  killing  and  the  meat  for  the 
dining-rooms  is  supplied  from  their  own 
herds.  The  animals  to  be  slaughtered  are 
first  brought  into  the  judging  pavilion 
and  discussed  by  the  students,  then  the 
dressed  carcases  are  examined.  In  this 
way  the  boys  learn  to  judge  what  kind  of 
carcase  each  animal  will  make  and  the 
professor  says  they  can  guess  to  within 
ten  pounds  of  what  a  ^lertain  sheep  or  pig 
or  steer  will  dress  out. 

The  Dominion  Government  Experi- 
mental Farm  at  Brandon  was  my,  next 
interest.  It  is  a  good  farming  section  in 
the  vicinity  of  Brandon  and  I  learned  that 
they  could  grow  successfully  practically 
all  our  common  Eastern  crops.  The  super- 
intendent took  me  around  explaining  the 
different  experiments,  and  the  work  that 
is  being  carried  on.  Western  winters  are 
too  severe  for  fruit  trees  and  about  all 
■they  can  grow  is  a  hardy  crab  apple, 
though  the  bush  fruits  do  fairly  well.  In 
time  they  hope  to  get  a  variety  of  real 
apple  tree  that  will  stand  the  winter. 
Bees  are  kept  on  the  farm  quite  profitably, 
but  their  honey  is  not  as  good  flavored  as 
the  Ontario  product. 


At  the  Indian  Head  Experimental  Farm 
much  the  same  work  is  being  done  and 
the  crops  were  equally  good.  One  experi- 
ment there  was  especially  interesting. 
Ordinarily  they  have  very  little  rain  in 



^pl"l«»«  -.^ J«,^!l !«?, 




The  iKiiiiesteadei"  is   the  must  fortunate  of  men.     His   roil  was  exactiiij 

unbearable,  but  lie  is  safe  now. 

the  isolation   almost 

Saskatchewan  and  it  nearly  all  comes  in 
July.  Two  wheat  plots  side  by  side  were 
almost  ripe;  one 'had  been  plowed  July  1 
and  the  other  August  1.  The  former 
would  thresh  three  times  as  much  grain 
as  the  latter.  If  they  do  not  summer- 
fallow  once  every  two  or  three  years  in 
order  to  store  up  moisture  ahead  they 
simply  can't  be  sure  of  a  crop  in  mo^  sec- 
tions of  that  province.  The  old  idea  that 
all  you  needed  to  do  was  to  tickle  the 
prairie  and  scatter  the  seed,  then  gather 
the  harvest,  has  been  forgotten  because 
good  farming  methods  count  fully  as  much 
out  West  as  they  do  in  Ontario.  As  the 
superintendent  and  I  were  driving  around, 
we  came  to  a  field  literally  full  of  weeds. 
Weeds  are  a  hundred  times  worse  there 
than  we  have  them  and  this  field  on  the 
Government  farm  was  a  fright.  Mr.  Gib- 
son said,  "See  those  weeds?  We  are  using 
a  rotation  of  crops  here  to  demonstrate 
the  kind  a  farmer  should  not  practise,  be- 
cause it  doesn't  keep  down  the  weeds."  I 
thought-^what  foresight  the  Federal  De- 
partment of  Agriculture  must  have  had 
when  they  went  out  there  in  the  wild 
West  twenty-nine  years  ago  and  estab- 
lished these  two  farms ;  certainly  someone 
had  a  great  deal  of  faith  in  the  agricul- 
tural possibilities  of  the  North  West 
Territories.  During  all  these  years  the 
information  given  out  to  farmers  in  that 
territory  must  have  paid  for  the  cost  of 
operating  them  a  dozen  times  over. 

I  stopped  off  at  Regina  a  few  hours  to 
see  some  college  friends.  The  Deputy 
Minister  of  Agriculture,  five  District 
Representatives  and  six  or  eight  other 
members  of  the  Department  of  Agricul- 
ture have  given  up  their  positions  and 
enlisted  for  oversea  service.  The  people 
in  Regina  are  generally  in  a  hurry  and 
during  the  summer  months  they  put  their 
clocks  on  one  hour  ahead  so  they  will  have 
an  hour  longer  daylight  and  more  time  in 
the  evening  for  tennis  and  other  recrea- 


We  hear  about  the  vast,  unbroken,  level 
prairie  and  are  inclined  to  picture  the 
whole  West  as  an  endless  plain  of  grow- 
ing wheat.  That  was  the  idea  I  had  but 
was  surprised  to  find  most  of  the  land 
quite  rolling  and  there  are  bluffs  of  trees 
almost  everywhere.  In  fact  in  most  places 
as  you  go  through  on  the  train  you  would 
not  know  but  that  you  were  looking  out  of 

a  car  window  somewhere  in  Ontario.  In 
parts  of  Alberta,  on  the  other  hand,  no 
trees  of  any  kind  dot  the  landscape,  while 
in  southern  Saskatchewan  and  Manitoba 
there  are  miles  and  miles  of  perfectly  flat 
prairie.  For  the  most  part  the  roads  are 
fenced  in  and  look  much  like  ordinary 
highways  except  that  the  wagon  track  is 
usually  a  single  more  or  less  winding  trail. 

Schoolbouse  in  a  French  settl<>ment  in  Mani- 
toba.    Note  the  Uniou  Jack. 

which,  by  the  way,  does  not  run  off 
through  fields  and  across  farms  as  some 
might  think.  Their  fields  are  not  so  ex- 
ceptionally large  but  vary  in  size  from 
ten  to  forty  or  fifty  acres. 

Saskatoon's  Fair  was  on  while  I  was 

there,  and  it  was  a  good  one.  All  through 
the  West  the  fairs  this  year  have  been 
record  breakers,  not  only  in  the  matter  of 
attendance,  but  in  number  and  quality  of 
exhibits,  especially  of  livestock.  After 
one  spends  two  or  three  hours  merely 
walking  past  the  stalls  and  pens  of  live- 
stock at  these  exhibitions  he  is  inclined 
to  wonder  who  said — "the  grain-growing 
provinces  in  our  Dominion."  While  many 
of  the  largest  exhibitors  do  come  from  the 
East,  such  men  as  MacGregor,  Barron 
and  Taber  and  dozens  of  others  are  now 
holding  their  own  and  in  a  few  years  the 
whole  prairie  will  be  engaged  in  mixed 
farming.  In  spite  of  the  bountiful  harvest 
this  year  the  difficulty  of  marketing  wheat 
is  not  nearly  as  acute  as  it  used  to  be, 
partly  because  the  farmers  are  beginning 
to  realize  that  the  only  way  to  maintain 
soil  fertility  is  to  keep  stock  and  feed  at 
least  part  of  the  grain  on  the  farm. 


Naturally,  agriculture  is  the  chief 
faculty  in  the  University  of  Saskatche- 
wan, which  is  located  at  Saskatoon, 
though  there  are  courses  in  arts,  theology, 
etc.,  and  in  time  they  hope  to  have  a  seat 
of  learning  similar  to  our  Toronto  institu- 
tion. The  university  estate  consists  of 
293  acres  of  campus,  160  acres  of  experi- 
mental plots  and  880  acres  in  the  college 
farm  proper.  Before  any  buildings  was 
begun,  a  complete  plan  of  the  grounds  was 
drawn  up  showing  exactly  where  each 
hall,  dormitory,  etc.,  would  be  located  with 
the  idea  in  view  of  eventually  having  all 
of  them  form  one  harmonious  whole,  so, 
that  as  funds  become  available  and  the 
demands  warrants  it,  the  new  buildings 
will  fit  in.  So  far  they  have  scarcely  made 
a  start  but  the  course  in  agriculture  is 
an  exceedingly  good  one  and  the  staff  of 
instructors  is  young  and  energetic. 
"Utility"  seems  to  be  the  slogan  and  they 
have  no  time  for  frills — if  a  thing  doesn't 
work  they  drop  it  and  get  something  else. 
One  of  the  men  rigged  up  a  potato  planter 
for  $1.67  by  fastening  a  stovepipe  and 
wooden  frame  on  a  gang-plow.  This  ma- 
chine got  the  college  "in  right"  every- 
where.  Farmers  like  something  practical. 

Grain  growing  was  the  first  industry  in 
Saskatchewan,  hence  the  college  has  a 
strong  Field  Husbandry  Department.  In 
a  short  article  like  this  I  can't  begin  to 
describe  how  they  manage  that  whole  160 
acres  of  experiments,  and  after  spending 
a  half-day  on  the  plots  I  got  even  then 
only  an  outline  of  their  work.    Their  sys- 


Discing  summer  fallnw   on   a  western   farm. 



tern  is  planned  ahead  for  fifty  years  and 
Professors  Bracken  and  Cutler  have  with- 
out any  doubt  the  most  extensive  field  ex- 
periments on  the  North  American  conti- 
nent. One  would  not  expect  much  in  two 
years'  time  but  I'll  just  mention  two 
things  to  show  what  progress  has  been 
made  already.  In  their  investigations 
with  the  sequence  of  annual  crops  three 
ranges  are  used — one  is  part  summer- 
fallow  and  part  wheat,  one  has  seven 
crops  sown  lengthwise,  and  the  third  ten 
crops  sown  crosswise.  This  gives  them 
ninety  distinct  kinds  of  rotations  and,  five 
or  fifty  years  from  now  they  will  be  able 
to  say  which  is  the  best  for  their  con- 
ditions. In  alfalfa  l;200  different  strains 
are  being  tested  out  and  these  show  most 
interesting  variations  in  yield,  habit  of 
growth,  hardiness,  etc.  Already  distinct 
strains  have  been  developed  which  seem 
to  combine  all  the  desirable  qualities  in 
alfalfa  and  this  finding  alone  will  be 
worth  millions  to  Saskatchewan  farmers. 
Farming  conditions  in  Alberta  are  very 
diff^erent  from  those  in  Saskatchewan.  In 
Northern  Alberta  the  rainfall  is  heavy 
enough  that  summer-fallowing  is  unneces- 
sary; in  the  south  of  the  province  it  is  so 
dry  that  irrigation  is  resorted  to.  At 
Lacombe  I  saw  a  plot  of  O.A.C.  No.  72 
oats  that  was  a  foot  higher  than  my  head. 
The  C.P.R.  owned  practically  all  the  irri- 
gated section  through  which  they  have 
constructed  great  irrigation  ditches  and 
built  dams  so  they  can  water  several 
counties.  Settlers  buy  this  land  at  about 
$20  per  acre  and  pay  50  cents  per  acre  per 
year  for  irrigation  privileges.  Not  all  of 
them  buy  the  water,  and  in  ordinary  years 
there  is  a  difference  in  yield  of  five  to  ten 
bushels  per  acre  in  favor  of  irrigation 
but  it  rained  so  much  last  spring  that  it  is 
all  the  same.  Mr.  Norman  Rankin,  of 
Calgary,  explained  the  whole  system  to  me 
in  detail,  and  the  way  they  flood  the  dif- 
ferent crops  is  very  interesting. 

alberta's  agricultural  schools  for 
farm  boys  and  girls 

Alberta's  famous  system  of  agricultural 
schools  as  originated  by  the  Hon.  Duncan 
Marshall,  have  met  with  considerable  suc- 
cess and  it  was  my  pleasure  to  visit  the 
one  at  Olds  where  some  125  students 
(boys  and  girls)  are  enrolled.  Briefly,  the 
idea  is  to  put  a  first-class  agricultural 
education  within  reach  of  every  farmer's 
child.  There  is  a  farm  in  connection  and 
one  field  is  devoted  to  tests  of  varieties  of 
the  common  farm  crops.  A  two-year 
course  of  lectures  and  laboratory  work  is 
given  and  during  the  summer  the  staff  is 
supposed  to  do  extension  work  making 
drainage  suiveys,  organizing  farmers' 
clubs,  etc.  At  Olds,  as  at  other  schools, 
the  attendance  was  so  far  beyond  expecta- 
tion that  all  the  applicants  could  not  be 
accommodated.  After  taking  this  two- 
year  course  students  who  wish  to  continue 
their  studies  are  qualified  to  enter  the 
new  Provincial  Agricultural  College  at 
Edmonton.  While  this  scheme  works  ad- 
mirably out  there,  it  is  doubtful  whether 
it  would  suit  our  conditions  quite  as  well, 
or  bring  agricultural  education  as  closely 
to  the  boys  in  our  back  districts  as  by  the 
Ontario  system  where  the  District  Repre- 
sentative in  each  county  holds  a  class  in 

the  small  village  or  over  the  country  store 
where  four  roads  meet. 

"When  you  have  come  this  far  be  sure 
to  see  the  mountains" — that's  what  every- 
body told  me.  My  time  was  very  limited 
but  I  thought  I'd  run  over  to  Banff  one 
evening  when  I  was  at  Calgary.  At  five 
o'clock  the  next  morning  I  started  out  to 
climb  Sulphur  Mountain  where  the  Gov- 
ernment Observatory  is  located. 

How  shall  I  describe  that  climb?  Oh, 
there  is  so  much  to  learn  from  the  moun- 
tains and  I  was  up  in  time  to  watch  the 
sun  rise,  and  made  the  trip  afoot  and 
alone.  Before  starting  an  experienced 
Alpiner  advised  me  to  put  a  couple  of 
sandwiches  and  chocolate  bars  in  my 
pocket  and  I  also  remembered  that  Pro- 
fessor Harcourt  had  told  us  chocolate  was 
the  best  thing  to  take  en  a  fatiguing  trip. 
At  nine  I  reached  the  top.  The  peak  of 
Sulphur  Mountain  is  7,455  feet  above  sea 
level  and  the  air  is  very  thin  and  makes 
you  feel  light-headed  and  out  of  breath. 
Valleys,  rivers,  snow-capped  peaks  and 
all  the  things  you  see  from  the  mountain 
top  are  wonderful.  You  feel  as  though 
you  own  the  earth  and  think  you  can  see 
about  half  of  it. 

Going  down  the  mountain  is  an  exciting 
game  because  it  is  hard  to  apply  the 
brakes.  After  racing  down  as  fast  as  I 
could  for  three-quarters  of  an  hour  I  met 
a  party  coming  up  and  they  exclaimed, 
"Are  we  nearly  to  the  top?"  Puljing  out 
my  watch,  I  replied,  "I  left  the  top  just 
forty-five  minutes  ago  and  have  been  com- 
ing down  as  fast  as  I  could  ever  since." 
They  nearly  fainted  with  disappointment. 
That  mountain  reminded  me  of  the  span 
of  man's  life — at  times  a  very  uphill,  dis- 
couraging task  and  everyone  thinking  he 
should  reach  the  top  in  such  a  short  time. 
Besides  this  party  did  not  come  out  until 
the  heat  of  the  day,  making  it  much  harder 
than  if  they  had  started  in  the  cool  of  the 
morning.  There  is  a  sulphur  hot  spring 
nearly  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain  and  I 
had  a  bath  in  its  almost  boiling  water.  It 
took  all  the  soreness  out  of  me — at  least  I 
gave  the  mineral  water  the  credit  for  it. 
Crippled  up  old  millionaires  come  here 
from  all  over  North  America  to  take  these 
sulphur  baths  and  think  it  cures  them. 
There  may  be  some  curative  power  in  that 
spring  but  I  believe  if  these  old  codgers 
would  walk  eight  or  ten  miles  every  day 
in  the  country  and  jump  into  a  tub  of 
dish  water,  they  would  get  well  just  as 
quickly.  It  is  the  exercise  that  renews 
their  youth  but,  of  course,  they  don't  be- 
lieve it. 

After  spending  some  time  in  the  Gov- 
ernment Park  I  went  on  to  Lake  Louise. 
The  C.  P.  R.  have  a  big  hotel  called  the 
Chateau  Lake  Louise  overlooking  that 
beautiful  lake  which  is  the  Gem  of  the 
Rockies.  That  day  a  woman  who  had 
travelled  in  every  country  in  the  world 
and  had  seen  the  Alps  and  the  Switzer- 
land lakes,  told  me  that  Lake  Louise  was 
the  prettiest  spot  in  the  whole  world. 

It  must  be.  The  lake  is  surrounded  on 
two  sides  by  wooded,  snow  covered  moun- 
tains and  between  these  is  a  long  valley, 
crossed  at  the  far  end  by  peaks  buried 
with  hundreds  of  feet  of  snow,  and  a  great 
glacier  slowly  makes  its  way  down  the 
slope  until  the  front  line  is  melted  by  the 

sun  and  water  and  rushes  down  to  form 
the  lake.  This  is  the  view  you  get  as  you 
sit  in  your  easy  chair  in  the  cosy  rotunda 
of  that  magnificent  summer  hotel.  I 
climbed  on  up  and  up  until  I  came  to 
Lake  Mirror  and  then  farther  to  Lake 
Agnes.  Those  two  are  called  the  Lakes 
in  the  Clouds.  When  you  reach  the  top 
and  turn  around  and  look  down  you  can 
see  all  three  lakes  at  once  as  they  nestle 
in  against  the  rugged  mountain  side.  But 
they  don't  seem  to  hold  water — they  look 
like  pots  of  green  ink.  It's  a  sight  I'll 
never  forget. 

As  I  stood  gazing  into  Lake  Mirror  a 
man  came  along  who  was  going  to  see  the 
Great  Upper  Glacier.  He  was  an  Ameri- 
can and  said  he  was  within  a  half  hour's 
walk  of  it  yesterday  and  that  nothing 
would  stop  him  from  going  all  the  way 
this  time.  He  said,  "I  was  on  one  of  those 
'Around  the  Wortd'  tours,  and  it  was 
pretty  good.  You  know  that  is  a  great 
thing  for  a  man  to  have  to  his  credit,  but 
it  costs  a  lot  of  money."  I  was  going  up 
a  little  higher  to  another  peak  then  would 
come  back  and  walk  out'  to  the  glacier 
too  and  meet  him  there.  We  parted  and 
after  a  while  I  came  back  and  headed  for 
the  ice.  Talk  about  tramping,  it  was 
miles  and  miles  away  but  after  ^some  dan- 
gerous climbing  I  got  there  at  last.  And 
there  I  was  on  the  11th  of  August  stand- 
ing right  out  on  a  real  glacier  and  mak- 
ing snowballs.  The  sun  was  bright  and 
once  or  twice  a  great  mass  of  snow  came 
tumbling  down  headlong,  while  the  water 
was  jumping  over  itself  to  get  away.  In- 
deed it  was  a  novel  experience — then  be- 
gan the  eight  mile  descent  to  the  hotel. 
They  charge  a  dollar  and  a  half  for  their 
dinner  but  I  was  so  hungry  that  like  Esau 
I  would  have  sold  my  birthright  for  a 
mess  of  potage.  Reclining  there  in  a  com- 
fortable couch  in  the  hotel  parlor,  I  saw 
my  friend  who  was  sure  going  to  see  the 
glacier  and  I  asked  him  what  he  thought 
of  it.  "I  didn't  get  there,  it  was  too  far," 
he  said.  Isn't  that  human  nature  for  you? 
Anything  that  can  be  bought,  some  people 
including  the  very  rich  will  have,  but  if 
it  requires  physical,  mental  or  even  moral 
exertion  and  endeavor  they  never  get  it. 
It  is  like  the  salvation  of  men's  souls — 
if  it  could  be  bought  with  money  all  the 
wealthy  would  have  it,  and  even  like  auto- 
mobiles some  who  "can't  afford  it."  - 

That  evening  concluding  another 
twenty  odd  mile  walk  I  boarded  the  train 
going  east.  We  wound  around  and  in  and 
out  on  the  ledges  of  rock,  a  steep  moun- 
tain on  the  one  side  and  on  the  other  a 
perpendicular  drop  of  a  few  hundred  feet 
to  a  rushing  stream  -below.  The  sunset 
in  the  mountains  was  a  delightful  picture 
too.  '  I  know  now  what  the  Psalmist 
meant  when  he  said  "Unto  the  hills 
around  do  I  lift  up  my  longing  eyes.-" 
When  the  poet  spoke  of  "sermons  in 
stones"  he  must  have  meant  the  Rocky 
Mountains  because  every  peak  is  a  text 
all  by  itself.  Why  a  man  simply  couldn't 
be  an  athiest  and  live  in  the  Rockies. 

Part  of  the  beauty  of  the  West  is  the 
graceful  lines  in  nature — the  wipding, 
dashing  streams,  bold  mountain  ranges, 
forest  covered  hillsides,  green  undulating 
Alberta  pastures,  even  the  trails  across 
Continued  on  Page  63. 

Consolidated  Schools  and  Social  Life 

Have  You  Ever' Known  a  Country  School  House  to  be  Used  For  a  Farmers' 

Institute  Meeting,  a  Sunday  School  Convention,  a  Corn  Growers' 

Club  or  a  Mothers*  Conference? 

To  some  extent  the 
previous  articles  of 
this  series  have 
given  an  indication  of  the 
attitude  of  the  people 
generally  toward  the  con- 
solidated rural  school,  in 
places  where  it  has  be- 
come firmly  rooted.  An 
effort  shall  be  made  here 
to  set  forth  that  attitude 
somewhat  more  fully.  It 
is  probable  that  in  few 
places,  if  any,  has  'the  sys- 
tem of  concentration  of 
schools  and  transporta- 
tion of  children  at  public 
expense  been  introduced 
without  violent  opposition 
on  the  part  of  some  mem- 
bers of  the  community.  If 
readers  will  but  let  their 
minds  dwell  for  a  moment 
on  the  turmoil  that  can  be 
raised  in  almost  any  country  community 
by  a  simple  proposal  to  move  the  school 
even  so  short  a  distance  as  half  a  mile, 
some  notion  can  be  gained  of  what  hap- 
pens when  people  begin  to  talk  of  remov- 
ing it  altogether.  An  interesting  feature 
of  the  situation,  however,  lies  in  the  fact 
that  in  most  cases,  people  revise  their 
opinions  when  they  see  the  new  schools  in 
operation  and  realize  their  superiority. 

As  an  illustration,  a  story  is  told  of  a 
prominent  ratepayer  in  one  of  the  dis- 
tricts in  Randolph  county,  Ind.,  who  hav.- 
ing  fought  the  consolidated  school  to  a 
finish,  and  being  beaten,  was  present  at 
the  opening  of  the  new  school,  and 
bitterly  denounced  the  superintendent 
and  all  connected  with  the  move- 
ment, even  threatening  bodily  injury,  de- 
claring that  no  one  present  would  ever 
live  to  see  the  new  building  half  filled. 
In  less  than  three  years,  this  same  man 
called  at  the  office  of  the  superintendent 
to  ascertain  what  steps  were  necessary  to 
secure  an  enlargement  of  the  building.  In 
reply  to  the  smile  with  which  his  inquiry 
was  greeted,  he  said:  "Oh!  You  can  grin. 
I  know  what  you  are  grinning  at,  but  I 
have  come  across."  Such  cases  are  re- 
ported to  be,  auite  common  among  people 
who  have  children  at  school  and  so  are 
vitally  interested.  The  ones  that  never 
"come  across"  are  the  people  who  have  no 
interest  in  education,  who  look  upon  it  as 
an  unjust  burden  imposed  upon  them  for 
the  benefit  of  those  who  are  foolish  enough 
to  have  children,  and  who  want  it  to  be 
of  the  cheapest  possible  variety  if  it  must 
be  provided  at  all. 

In  order  to  arrive  at  as  definite  a  con- 
clusion '  s  possible  concerning  the  attitude 
of  the  people  toward  this  movement,  every 
opportunity  was  seized  for  question  and 
discussion.  In  the  limits  though,  of  a  very 
brief  visit,  especially  when  the  major  pur- 
pose was  to  see  as  much  as  possible  of  the 


Signs  of  a  live  Interest  at  a  picnic  where  the  school  is  made  a  community 
centre  in  Indiana. 

woiking-  of  the  schools  themselves,  only 
a  limited  number  of  people  could  be  seen. 
As  the  opinions  expressed  by  these  were 
so  universally  favorable,  it  was  thought 
wise,  after  leaving  Indiana,  to  secure  the 
names  of  some  people  who  had  been  for 
some  length  of  time,  more  or  less  promi- 
nently connected  with  educational  affairs, 
and  write  them  asking  for  an  expression 
of  opinion.  To  avoid  even  a  suspicion  that 
the  selection  of  names  for  this  list  might 
be  made  with  a  view  to  securing  a  favor- 
able opinion,  a  published  list  of  officials 
was  secured  and  letters  addressed  to  each 
of  them.  Replies  have  been  received  from 
a  number  though  not  all.  As  to  the  bene- 
fits of  the  consolidated  school  and  its 
superiority  over  the  district  schools,  there 
is  but  one  opinion.  Some  go  into  greater 
detail  than  others  as  to  the  advantages 
and  the  difficulties  to  be  overcome.  Things 
that  presented  difficulty  in  one  place  seem 
to  have  been  accomplished  easily  in  others. 
The  schools  naturally  differ  in  matters  of 
detail  so  that  a  person  writing  from  one 
township  is  impressed  with  one  advant- 
age such  as  the  teaching  of  agriculture  or 
domestic  science,  while  in  another  special 
stress  is  laid  on  the  community  influence 
of  the  schools.  It  is  impossible,  if  it  were 
desirable,  to  quote  at  any  great  length 
from  these  letters,  but  two  extracts,  as 
indicating  the  tone  of  the  whole,  are  here 

The  writer  of  the  letter  from  which  the 
first  extract  is  taken  has  been  both  a  trus-. 
tee  and  a  teacher.  He  was  trustee  in  one 
of  the  townships  during  the  agitation  that 
ledup  to  consolidation,  and  under  him  the 
plans  were  prepared,  the  building  erected 
and  the  school  opened.  He  has  had  ex- 
perience as  a  teacher  in  both  the  district 
and  the  consolidated  school.  In  a  personal 
interview,  the  writer  of  this  letter  ex- 
pressed himself  as  being  thoroughly  con- 
vinced of  the  educational  superiority  of 

the  consolidated  school. 
In  the  letter,  as  will  be 
observed,  he  confines  him- 
self to  a  statement  of  the 
opinions  prevailing  in 
the  community.   He  says: 

"Since  your  visit  to  this 
county  efforts  have  beeii 
put  forth  by  some  of  the 
chief  objectors  here  to 
have  the  school  closed. 
The  chief  objectors  have 
been  persons  living  near 
the  district  school,  but  n 
large  proportion  of  those 
who  were  objectors  two 
years  ago  are  now  most 
favorable.  I  do  not  be- 
lieve that  there  is  a  single 
patron  (one  sending  chil- 
dren to  school)  in  this 
township,  who  would  sign 
a  petition  to  return  to  the 
little  district  school.  In 
my  opinion  the  consolid- 
ated system  is  a  success : 
the  better  class  of  people 
are  behind  It.  The  pre- 
sent trustee  has  three  dis- 
trict schools  In  this  town- 
ship, as  compared  with 
ten  in   my  first  term,  six  years  ago." 

The  writer  of  the  following  letter  was 
trustee  for  Green  township  when  the 
school  there,  to  which  reference  has  al- 
ready been  made,  was  erected.  He  is  now 
engaged  in  business  in  an  adjoining  town- 
ship.  He  says  among  other  things: 

"When  I  built  the  Green  Township  school 
they  tried  to  do  everything  to  me,  but  be- 
fore I  retired  from  office  many  of  the  same 
people  thanked  and  congratulated  me  on 
what  I  had  done.  There  was  not,  at  the 
close  of  my  term,  one  per  cent,  of  the 
scholars  who  would  voluntarily  go  back  to 
district  school.  Renters  who  moved  a"way 
on  account  of  hauling  their  children,  would 
be  glad  to  get  hack  and  pay  more  rent  to 
get  to  send  their  children  to  the  consoli- 
dated school.  The  value  of  farms  and  homes 
has  increased  more  than  the  school  cost, 
two   to   one. 

"Children  will  be  two  years  in  the  high 
school  In  these  consolidated  schools  by  the 
time  they  would  have  compl'  ted  the  com- 
mon school  branches  in  the  district  school. 
I  do  not  think  you  could  find  five  per  cent, 
of  the  parents  who  would  go  back  to  district 
school.  Bad  roads  for  hauling  the  scholars 
is  all  the  objection  I  hear  at  all,  and  thc.v 
are  beginning  to  take  interest  in  roads  and 
want    motors   to   transport   the   children. 

There  are  so  many  advantages  as  thor- 
ough organization,  adaptability,  studying 
agriculture  and  domestic  science,  that  I  am 
not  capable  of  enumerating  them." 

In  this  movement,  as  in  everything  pro- 
gressive, there  are  those  who  refuse  to  be 
convinced  and  who  know  that  the  plan 
cannot  work.  The  fact  that  it  is  working, 
with  a  success  beyond  even  the  dreams  of 
its  early  advocates,  makes  no  difference  at 
all  in  their  opinions.  When  you  tell  these 
people  that  with  consolidation,  the  school 
becomes  a  centre  for  social  and  intellec- 
tual development  in  a  way  that  is  never 
possible  under  the  present  system,  they 
reply  that,  so  far  as  they  can  see  that  is 
exactly  what  cannot  happen.  And,  of 
course,  che  inference  is  plain;  what  they 
cannot  see  cannot  be,  and  they  proceed  at 
once  to  demonstrate  why,  ignoring  alto- 
gether the  fact  that  while  they  are  prov- 
Continued  on  Page  48. 

Women  who  Start  Things:   By  Lydla  M.  Parsons 

How  a  Band  of  Pioneer  Women  in  the  N orthlands  of  Ontario  Found  Expres- 
sion for  the  Spirit  of  Universal  Helpfulness 

Most  inspiring  is  this  story  of  the  splendid 
efforts  of  a  band  of  women  working  against  the 
hoodships  of  a  new  country.  When  women  are 
seized  with  a  spirit  of  universal  helpfulness  big 
enough  to  care  for  twenty-four  needy  families 
through  a  winter,  to  furnish  Red  Cross  (Supplies 
and  soldiers'  kits  for  tirenty  men,  and  through 
their  own  work  and  means  to  make  up  for  the 
lack  of  hospitals,  doctors  and  nurses  in  their 
district  the  possibilities  for  that  district  are 
beyond  conjecture.  It  will  come  as  a  rather  ap- 
palling fact  to  some  that  before  any  organized 
effort  uas  made  to  care  for  maternity  cases  out 
of  twelve  babies  born  in  one  section,  nine  died 
for  lack  of  medical  attention.  While  such  ex 
cellent  work  is  being  done  by  the  Oovemment 
in  sending  agricultural  experts  to  dcelop  the 
farming  resources  of  the  new  field,  it  can 
scarcely  be  called  the  wildest  kind  of  a  dream 
to  hope  that  in  the  very  near  future  the  human 
interest  will  be  developed,  and  a  grant  set 
apart  to  encourage  doctors  to  go  into  the  neiv 

This  was  solid  bush  in  June.  Two  and  a 
half  miles  of  ronrt  was  finished  and  graded 
by  the  end  of  August. 

A  FEW  years  ago,  Dame  Fortune's 
wheel  paused  to  drop  us  off  in  New 
Ontario  backwoods.  Those  who  felt 
quite  sure  of  our  insanity,  said,  "You're 
crazy."  Those,  whose  tactful  manners 
wished  to  soften  the  blow,  asked  with  an 
owl-like  sagacity,  "Do  you  think  you  are 
wise?"  And  from  no  quarter  came  the 
sympathetic  note  of  enthusiastic  encour- 
agement. Our  goal  was  the  country  that 
Sir  James  Whitney  styled  "the  land  of  the 
stunted  pine,"  which,  by  the  way,  is  only 
stunted  round  about;  it  shoots  upwards 
sixty  feet.  It  doesn't  seem  fair  to  expect 
growth  every  way;  giants  are  out  of  place 
in  Ontario. 

A  trip  on  the  Government  railroad,  the 
T.  &.  N.O.,  is  worth  while.  It  takes  you  in 
comfort,  through 
wildness,  barrenness, 
rocks,  stones  as  well 
as  scenes  of  attrac- 
tive beauty;  spots 
where  you  would  fain 
linger ;  spots  you 
want  to  own;  spots 
you  want  to  pass  by. 
Hill,  lake,  river 
and  miles  of  green 
meet  your  inquisitive 
gaze,  interspersed 
with  tracts  of  fire- 
devastated  land, 
clearings,  farms  in 
the  making,  settle- 
ments, villages  and 
an  occasional  town, 
pretty  gardens  at 
the  wayside  stations ; 
all  these  go  to  make 
up    the    district    of 

Temiskaming.  This  is  the  country  where 
the  land,  the  rocks,  the  forests,  the 
streams  all  give  their  increase  and  only 
the  fringe  of  its  possibilities  have  been 
touched.  Every  new  land  is  an  un- 
known proposition — a  hard  proposition 
too,  generally  speaking,  especially  for  the 
gentler  sex,  who  hazard  its  chances.  But 
when  the  throbs  of  activity  pulsate  so 
closely  in  the  older  section,  there  vibra- 
tions are  felt  in  the  northland.  We  are 
only  just  outside,  and  the  desire  to  par- 
ticipate in  organized  effort  is  keen.  While 
we  neither  deprecate  nor  belittle  the  deeds 
of  the  men  of  the  North,  the  purpose  of 
this  article  is  a  slight  appreciation  of  the 
constructive  work  of  women. 

For  seventeen  years  the  Ontario  Wo- 
men's Institute  has  grown  up  from  an 
acorn-like  beginning  to  a  sturdy  solidity. 
Launched  as  an  aid  to  further  instruction 
on  home  topics  to  the  rural  woman  first, 
it  has  fulfilled  its  anticipation  a  thousand 
fold.  Go  where  you  will  in  Old  Ontario, 
every  county  has  some  branches  splendid- 
ly alive  to  its  opportunities  for  progress. 
Magnificent  work  has  been  done  that  has 

A  good  fish  story. 

First   Liup   01    uats   on   the   new   land. 

won  approval  and  appreciation.  We  will 
assume  that  the  achievements  in  the  older 
parts  of  the  province,  are  too  well  known 
to  even  need  enumeration,  so  we  will  re- 
turn to  our  topic,  the  pioneer  woman  of 
the  North,  who  follows  in  the  wake. 

In  brief  postage  stamp  review,  we  will 
glance  at  a  few  isolated  efforts,  chosen 

At  one  point  of  settlement  five  ladies 
met  one  rainy  night,  a  year  ago,  to  or- 
ganize into  a  branch  of  the  Women's  Insti- 
tute, with  one  brave  Male  Mortal  in  their 
midst.  The  outsider,  who  had  come  to 
put  the  thing  on  the  right  business  basis, 
thought  deferred  action  the  wisest  plan, 
but  the  Male  Mortal,  who  was  a  man  of 
authority  in  these  parts,  thought  there 
was  no  time  like  the 
^  present      and      the 

branch  was  formed. 

"Five  women!"  It 
doesn't  sound  very 

Twenty  men  were 
leaving  their  locality 
to  fight  in  their  Em- 
pire's cause;  that 
furnished  the  raison 
d'etre.  They  added 
to  their  numbers  and 
set  to  work,  their 
hearts  aflame  with 
sympathy.  They 
made  all  the  equip- 
ment that  women 
can  make  for  these 
twenty  men,  and 
when  they  left  for 
the  scene  of  action 
they    made    hospital, 



necessities  and  comforts  for  twen- 
ty wounded  men. 

.  Then  this  little  band  with  the 
truest  patriotism,  looked  into  the 
cases  of  need,  suffering  and  want 
in  the  village  and  were  the  means 
of  providing  food,  clothing,  fuel, 
and  cheer  for  twenty-four  fami- 
lies, whose  livelihood  was  sadly 
curtailed  in  the  early  panicky 
months  of  the  war. 

Here  is  another  little  glimpse  of 
small  beginnings.  Imagine  a  beau- 
tiful, peaceful  afternoon  in  the 
autumn,  after  the  smoke  of  the 
sum.mer  bush  fires  has  taken  its 
sting  to  fairer  regions  far  away. 
The  village  school  door  is  open,  but 
it  is  not  the  merry  shout  of  chil- 
dren that  attracts  your  attention, 
but  a  little  group  of  women  with 
an  important  business  air  about 
them.  They,  too,  have  met  for  or- 
ganization purposes,  just  seven  of 
them,  and  the  outsider,  with  some 
remnant  of  Scotch  "canniness," 
fears  to  rush  into  a  game  so  ap- 
parently handicapped.  , 

P'ortunately,  caution  was  thrown 
to  the  winds  and  the  deed  was 
done.  That  day  plans  were  laid 
and  work  commenced.  These  ladies 
bought  a  maternity  aid  outfit  and 
a  first-aid  outfit;  they  acquired 
sheets,  pillow  cases,  and  towels  to 
be  loaned  in  cases  of  sickness 
(these  are  always  sterilized  on  re- 
turn, ready  in  packages  for  use 
again).  At  this  point  neither  doc- 
tor nor  nurse  was  available,  so  five 
maternity  cases,  two  cases  of  acci- 
dent to  men,  as  well  as  minor 
things  fell  to  their  care,  proving 
the  truth  of  the  tribute  the  poet 

"Woman,     when     pain     and 

anguish  wring  the  brow, 
A   ministering   angel,    thou." 

The  outsider  accepted,  in  fear 
and  trembling  an  invitation  to 
"say  something"  to  the  boys  and 
girls,  getting  "laming"  in  a  little 
log  schoolhouse,  surrounded  by  a 
playground  of  glorious  stumps. 
She  asked  the  boys  what  she  should 
talk  about,  an  unwise  procedure, 
perhaps,  for  some  times  some 
smart  lad  answers  back  "About 
two  minutes."  This  time,  there 
was  no  uncertainty  as  to  their  atti- 
tude: "The  War,"  they  cried,  and 
the  war  it  was. 

At  that  time  no  plans  had  been 
laid  for  children's  co-operation, 
but  the  suggestion  was  made  and 
enthusiastically  received  that  the 
older  girls  might  knit  wristlets  and 
the  younger  ones  make  cheesecloth 

The  outsider .  left;  school  was 
dismissed;  but  the  picture  isn't 
finished.  Something  of  the  battle 
clang  had  crept  into  two  boys' 
souls.  Their  "Halt"  rang  out.  "Say, 
Lady,  wait  a  minute."  She  obeyed, 
prepared  to  grant  a  possible  re- 
quest for  a  ride.   "Lady,  you  told 

Beginning  of  a  pereunitil  horcier  at  the  writer's  home,  near 

ArTosg  the  river  is  a  park  which  the  Cochrane  Women's 
Institute  had  stumped  and  made  ready  for  the  use  of 
the    public. 

The  new  home.  Although  this  building  had  to  be  put 
up  hurriedly  after  the  family  had  been  burned  out,  it  Is 
loomy   and   very   comfortable. 

Be  it  ever  so   humble,   there's  no   place  like  home. 

the  girls  what  they  could  do,  but 
you  never  said  a  thing  for  the 

"But,  boys,"  she  replied,  "can 
you  knit?" 


"Can  you  sew?" 

"No!"  very  emphatically. 

"Well,  boys,  I  didn't  tell  the  girls 
anything  else  did  I?" 

"Is  there  nothing  boys  can 
give?"  asked  one  lad  earnestly. 

"Yes,  surely,  but  have  you  got 
anything?  It  isn't  any  kind  of  a 
game  to  go  home  and  ask  your  dad 
is  it?" 

Their  pride  was  touched;  they 
were  no  longer  afraid  of  the 

"Lady,  we  can  earn  it." 

"Just  you  two?"  she  queried  to 
try  their  mettle  one  step  further — 
that  touched  a  boy's  precious  pos- 
session, his  esprit  de  corps. 

"I'd  like  to  tell  you,  we've  got  an 
awful  decent  bunch  of  fellows  just 
right  here." 

"I  know  you  have  if  they're  all 
like  you,"  she  replied  and  entered 
into  ways  and  means  with  them. 
These  lads  and  their  companions 
worked  on  Saturdays,  piling 
brush,  sawing  wood  and  every- 
body knows  how  boys  love  this 
work.  They  took  their  cash  to  the 
teacher,  who  purchased  material 
for  the  girls  to  use. 

Well  done  girls  and  boys  of  On- 
tario's new  land. 

The  Women's  Institutes  have 
been  instrumental  in  bringing 
about  school  fairs;  rest  rooms  are 
to  be  found  in  connection  with 
some  branches ;  more  than  one 
hall  has  been  built  and  maint-^ined 
by  local  women.  One  tiny  settle- 
ment has  petitioned  for  tents  to 
hold  summer  school  in — they  are 
unable  to  build  or  even  to  form  a 
school  section  on  regulation  lines 
but  they  do  want  education  for 
their  children.  One  branch  has 
procured  a  library;  another  has 
acquired  a  few  acres  of  land,  that 
with  the  voluntary  aid  of  the  men, 
they  are  putting  into  shape  for  a 
cemetery,  to  be  the  village  proper- 
ty. Yet  another  has  a  village  read- 
ing-room and  another  conducts  a 
sewing  class  for  girls;  and  the  last 
I  shall  mention  is  a  flourishing 
branch  that  made  sufficient  funds 
to  hand  over  to  the  council  for  the 
purpose  of  stumping,  seeding,  and 
laying  out  a  park  in  the  centre  of 
the  town. 

There  are  several  projects  un- 
der way  and  several  others  still  in 
the  initial  stages.  There  is  time  to 
plot  and  plan  in  a  new  country  and 
these  fine  members  of  the  Insti- 
tute think  the  thoughts  that  are 
"long,  long  thought." 

They  have  tried  to  get  bonused 
doctors  in  some  isolated  spots; 
their  hopes  are  high  for  the  better 
care  of  mothers  and  young  chil- 
dren; one  of  their  dreams,  which 
Continued  on  Page  45. 

WAR   AND   THRIFT:   By  w.  c.  good 

The  Need  of  Personal  Saving  and  Its  Relation  to  National  Economy. 

THE  great  war  has  turned  the  flash- 
light upon  many  things  whose  im- 
portance has  been  lost  sight  of  in 
the  disproportionately  rapid,  material 
progress  of  the  last  few  decades;  and 
amongst  these  not  the  least  conspicuous  is 
the  commonplace,  virtue  of  thrift.  The 
war  is  becoming  one  of  exhaustion,  and 
victory  will  go  to  those  who  can,  to  the 
greatest  extent,  find  within  themselves 
the  means  of  sustaining  the  struggle.  The 
armed  contest  on  the  field  of  battle  is 
spectacular,  but  is  essentially  less  import- 
ant than  the  invisible  struggle  at  home, 
where  self-discipline,  abstinence,  unity  of 
purpose  and  national  organization  are  be- 
coming vital  in  their  relationship  to  the 
great  conflict.  It  has  been  well  said  that 
no  nation  ever  perished  except  through  its 
own  weakness.  It  is  therefore  necessary 
for  us  to  discover  those  traitors  at  home 
whose  ignorance,  folly  or  greed  may  ren- 
der futile  the  great  sacrifice  of  life  at  the 
front;  and  in  order  to  do  this  we  should 
have  some  just  appreciation  of  the  fin- 
ancial situation,  and  oi  the  various  factors 
that  affect  it. 

Circumstances  have  produced  very  dif- 
ferent war  policies  on  the  part  of  the 
Central  Powers  on  the  one  hand  and  the 
Quadruple  Entente  on  the  other.  Ger- 
many and  Austria  were  forced,  at  a  very 
early  stage,  to  depend  almost  wholly  upon 
their  own  resources.  Therefore  their 
policy  has  been  to  devote  all  their  surplus 
energy,  beyond  what  was  necessary  to 
aff^ord  a  bare  living,  to  the  manufacture  of 
munitions  and  the  carrying  on  of  those 
industries  which  are  subsidiary  to  war. 
Men,  women  and  children  have  joined  in 
an  almost  superhuman  effort  whose  suc- 
cess has  been  to  most  of  us  a  genuine  sur- 
prise. England  and  her  allies,  on  the 
other  hand,  remained  free  to  depend  upon 
neutral  nations  both  for  food  and  muni- 
tions, and  England,  at  all  events,  appar- 
ently did  not  realize  the  seriousness  of  the 
task  which  confronted  her.  Official  fore- 
casts of  the  expense,  made  a  year  ago, 
have  been  proven  ridiculously  inadequate, 
and  now  the  gigantic  nature  of  our  task  is 
beginning  to  come  home  to  us.  The  fin- 
ancial strain  has  already  become  serious 
and  we  do  well  to  face  the  situation  boldly. 
Great  Britain's  expenditure  is  now  be- 
tween three  and  four  million  pounds  a 
day.  Assuming  an  expenditure  of  three 
and  a  half  million  pounds  a  day  and  de- 
ducting an  annual  revenue  of  300  million 
pounds,  Britain  must  raise  1,000  million 
pounds  a  year  by  loans.  Her  annual  in- 
come has  been  roughly  estimated  at  2,300 
million  pounds.  Of  this  sum  1,900  million 
pounds  is  ordinarily  spent  on  living  ex- 
penses and  national  upkeep,  leaving  a 
saving  of  400  million  pounds.  Assuming 
an  annual  war  expenditure  of  1,100  mil- 
lion pounds,  Great  Britain  faces  an  annual 
deficit  of  700  million  pounds,  which  must 
be  met  either  out  of  capital  or  current  sav- 
ings. The  available  liquid  capital  in  the 
shape  of  salable  securities  is,  under  pres- 

ent conditions,  very  small,  compared  with 
the  total  British  investments  abroad,  so 
that  this  deficit  must  be  largely  made  up 
out  of  current  savings.  How  can  these  be 
increased?  Ultimately  there  is  only  one 
way  of  increasing  one's  savings,  that  is, 
by  producing  more  and  consuming  less. 
This  applies  to  nations  just  as  to  indi- 
viduals. Every  day  the  British  Govern- 
ment pays  over  two  million  pounds  to  con- 
tractors, soldiers,  etc.  If  those  who  re- 
ceive this  huge  sum  of  money  save  all  they 
can  of  it,  to  reloan  to  the  Government, 
they  are  contributing  by  that  much  to  the 
resources  of  the  state.  But  if  they  spend 
it  unnecessarily  on  personal  gratification 
they  are  just  as  much  traitors  to  their 
country  as  the  man  who  runs  away  in 


Now  what  is  the  actual  situation?  Is 
production  increasing  and  is  consumption 
decreasing?  Apart  from  the  production 
of  munitions,  which  are  not  commodities 
desired  abroad,  the  production  of  wealth 
for  expo'-t  has  been  largely  decreased  by 
the  withdrawal  of  so  many  workers  from 
the  industries  of  peace..  It  must  neces- 
sarily be  so.  And,  so  far  as  consumption 
goes,  there  is  reason  to  fear  an  increase 
rather  than  a  decrease.  British  statistics 
show  an  increase  in  the  importation  of 
such  articles  as  oranges,  cocoa,  coffee,  tea, 
tobacco,  etc.,  which  are  a  striking  con- 
firmation of  the  fear  that  the  greater  afflu- 
ence and  wider  opportunities  for  spending, 
which  the  war  has  brought  to  many,  have 
been  utilized  for  self-indulgence,  rather 
than  for  national  ends.  It  is  not  likely 
that  many  of  those  thus  guilty  are  fully 
aware  of  the  disastrous  consequences  of 
their  own  conduct:  rather  are  they  ig- 
norant of  economic  facts  and  laws.  This 
ignorance,  however,  will  not  save  us  from 
Nature's  penalty.  A  campaign  in  favor 
of  thrift  and  economy  has  been  started: 
it  should  be  urged  with  all  possible  force 
and  persistence.  If  a  man  consumes  little 
and  works  hard  to  produce  goods  for  use 
or  export,  he  is  to  that  extent  helping  to 
preserve  our  credit  and  financial  power, 
whereas  he  who  either  indulges  in  self- 
gratification  or  is  idle  in  his  work  weakens 
by  that  much  our  national  strength,  and 
threatens  our  national  safety.  Take  the 
case  of  tobacco  alone.  Abstinence  from 
smoking  would  save  the  British  people 
eight  millions  pounds  a  year  which  they 
could  devote  to  the  prosecution  of  the  war. 
We  may  be  sure  that  the  consumption  of 
luxuries  has  been  drastically  reduced  in 
Germany.  Let  us  hope  that  our  people 
may  have  sufficient  imagination  to  realize 
the  situation  and  sufficient  moral  force  to 
impose  the  discipline  voluntarily  upon 
themselves.  King  George  has  set  a  good 
example  in  abandoning  the  use  of  alco- 
holic liquors:  his  example  should  be  fol- 
lowed in  this  and  other  matters.  What  a 
tremendous  saving  could  be  effected  if 
each    individual    saved    only    twenty-five 

cents  a  week!    Is  it  too  much  to  expect 
when  so  much  is  at  stake? 

Not  only  is  thrift  of  vital  consequence 
in  relation  to  a  nation's  internal  financial 
strength;  it  is  also  equally  important  in  . 
connection  with  the  problem  of  meeting 
foreign  obligations.  How  can  Great 
Britain  pay  her  huge  foreign  debts  and 
also  help  finance  her  allies?  Foreign  debts 
can  only  be  paid  by  giving  in  return  some- 
thing which  the  creditor  nation  considers 
intrinsically  valuable.  The  debtor  nation 
can  only  temporarily  pay  its  debts  by  bor- 
rowing: it  must  in  the  end  give  com- 
modities or  perform  services.  If  one  na- 
tion gets  sufl[iciently  in  debt  to  another  , 
nation  to  make  it  difficult  for  the  former 
to  meet  its  obligations,  that  difficulty  is 
reflected  in  the  foreign  exchanges,  which 
express  estimates  of  financial  strength 
and  credit.  Recently  the  exchange  has 
been  noticeably  against  Great  Britain. 
The  exchanges  are  unfavorable  to  all  the 
belligerents.  Russia  is  paying  50  per  cent, 
more  for  all  she  imports  than  she  did  be- 
fore the  war.  England  is  paying  con- 
siderably more.  These  facts  are  signs  of 
financial  strain,  quite  intelligible  when 
one  realizes  that  he  must  ask  a  higher 
price  when  he  runs  the  risk  of  bad  debts 
than  he  would  ask  if  his  customers  were 
"sure  pay."  Great  Britain's  war  policy  is 
largely  based  on  the  purchase  of  muni- 
tions and  food  from  abroad,  and  the  prob- 
lem of  meeting  her  foreign  obligations  is 
therefore  a  particularly  vital  one  with  her. 
Essentially  and  ultimately  the  only  way 
in  which  she  can  meet  these  obligations  is 
to  import  less  and  export  more,  and  thus 
reduce  the  debit  balance  against  her;  and 
in  this  connection  the  virtue  of  thrift  is 
of  vital  consequence. 


So  far  as  Canada  is  concerned  the  same 
general  considerations  apply  as  in  the 
case  of  Great  Britain.  Our  financial  safe- 
ty and  the  degree  of  assistance  that  we 
can  render  the  Empire  depend  upon  the 
industry  and  frugality  of  our  people. 
Already,  amidst  unequalled  natural  re- 
sources, we  have  been  brought  to  the  verge 
of  bankruptcy  by  the  insane  greed  of 
"Big  Business,"  and  the  childish  ignor- 
ance of  economic  laws  on  the  part  of  the 
masses  of  our  people.  The  disastrous  con- 
sequences of  our  national  follies  and  sins 
were  beginning  to  be  brought  to  our  at- 
tention when  the  war  broke  out,  by  gen- 
eral industrial  depression  and  threatened" 
collapse ;  and  it  was  hoped  that  the  terrific 
convulsion  in  Europe  would  assist  in 
bringing  us  to  a  condition  of  national 
sobriety.  But  it  is  to  be  feared  that  the 
sudden  stimulus  given  to  our  industry  by 
the  war  has  aggravated  rather  than  re- 
duced our  condition  of  industrial  intoxi- 
cation, and  has  postponed  the  day  of 
awakening  and  retribution.  The  revolting 
revelations  of  "graft"  in  connection  with 
the  furnishing  of  military  supplies,  the 
greed    of    those   manufacturing    for    thei 



British  Government,  and  the  action  of  the 
Canadian  Government  in  adding  to  the 
difficulties  which  face  the  British  ex- 
porter— these  and  other  facts  are  of 
sinister  moment. 

Note  the  follovdng  extract  from  the 
Wall  Street  Journal: 

"Canadian  Car  Foundry's  total  business 
consists  of  a  number  of  orders.  The  first 
was  for  2,500,000  shrapnel  and  a  similar 
number  of  high-explosive  shells,  and  ag- 
gregated in  the  neighborhood  of  $83,- 
000,000.  Most  of  this  order  was  sublet 
among  various  manufacturers  in  Canada 
and  the  United  States.  Another  order  was 
for  3,000,000  shells  amounting  to  approxi- 
mately $53,000,000.  Nearly  all  of  this 
order  was  also  sub-let.  Other  orders  for 
shells  j)a  ts  brought  the  total  to  about 

"On  the  shells  sub-let  Canadian  Car 
Foundry's  commission  is  about  $2.30  a 
shell.  On  this  basis  profits  from  orders  in 
hand  should  run  over  $20,000,000.  Profits 
of  this  size,  if  realized  in  the  fiscal  year 
just  begun  would  pay  interest  on  the 
$5,817,416  bonds,  and  leave  a  balance 
equal  to  more  than  150  per  cent,  on  the 
combined  issues  of  $7,250,000  preferred 
and  $4,225,000  common  stock." 

Contrast  with  this  record  the  following 
words  of  W.  Lorimer,  chairman  of  the 
Steel  Company  of  Scotland,  and  the  prac- 

tice of  the  British  Government  in  re- 
stricting private  profits: 

"To  my  mind  there  is  something  abso- 
lutely revolting  in  the  idea  of  anybody 
making  piofits  out  of  the  nation's  agony. 
....  When  we  think  of  those  splendid  men 
of  ours  in  Belgium,  France  and  the 
Dardanelles  and  elsewhere,  how — with 
that  cheerfulness  and  dignity  for  which 
we  pay  them  the  homage  of  proud  ad- 
miration— they  have  sacrificed  home, 
kindred,  health,  comfort  and  ease — aye 
and  many  scores  of  thousands  of  them 
have  given  the  last  and  greatest  of  all  sac- 
rifices— when  we  realize  these  things  then 
we  must  feel  how  paltry  and  insignificant 
is  any  monetary  sacrifice  which  we  who 
must  remain  at  home  can  lay  on  the  altar 
of  patriotism." 

Consider,  too,  the  action  of  our  Federal 
Government  in  increasing  the  duty 
against  British  goods  last  winter.  It  has 
bean  pointed  out  already  how  necessary  it 
is  for  Great  Britain  to  increase  her  ex- 
ports in  order  to  maintain  her  financial 
safety.  Before  the  war  the  Canadian 
barrier  against  British  goods  was  not  in- 
considerable. But  now,  thanks  to  our 
"patriotic"  Government,  the  British  mer- 
chant finds  increased  difficulty  in  selling 
his  goods  to  Canadians.  In  view  of  the 
facts  of  the  situation  can  our  Govern- 
ment's action  in  this  matter  be  described 

as  other  than  the  kiss  of  Judas,  traitorous 
or  incredibly  stupid. 

The  exorbitant  and  shameful  profits 
which  some  Canadians  are  making  out  of 
the  great  world  disaster  would  not  be  so 
foul  if  they  were  re-invested  in  war  loans. 
or — better — given  to  the  state  for  public 
purposes.  Some  percentage  may  find  its 
way  there;  but  it  is  more  than  likely  that 
the  same  character  which  has  bled  the 
British  Government  will  employ  its  ill- 
gotten  gains  for  self-indulgence  and  ex- 
travagant living.  There  are  many  families 
living  in  decency  on  less  than  $1,000  a 
year.  Why  should  not  those  who  have  been 
spending  several  times  that  amount  re- 
duce their  scale  of  living  and  thus  give 
tangible  evidence  of  their  patriotism? 
This  country  faces,  though  for  very  dif- 
ferent and  less  worthy  causes,  the  very 
same  situation  that  Britain  faces,  namely, 
bankruptcy.  Industry  and  thrift  are  the 
only  remedies,  and  all  attempts  to  make 
us  believe  otherwise  are  vain  and  mis- 

The  gist  of  the  whole  matter  is  that  our 
financial  strength  and  safety  depend  upon 
the  possession  of  very  simple  and  homely 
virtues,  and. that,  lacking  these,  our  na- 
tional existence  is  threatened.  Horrible 
as  it  is,  this  war  is  a  great  testing  time. 
God  grant  that  we  may  not  be  weighed  in 
the  balances  and  found  wanting! 

A  Mixed  Farmer  of  Grey:  By  t.  h.  binnie 

H.  H.  Miller,  an  Ex-member  of  Parliament  and  a  Farmer  Who  Made  a  Poor 
Farm-  Good — Grows  Apples  and  Raises  Red  Poll  Dual  Purpose  Cows 

HE  was  once  a  member  of  the  House 
of  Commons  at  Ottawa.  If  it  were 
not  for  that  you  might  say  that 
he  was  long,  lean,  and  lanky.  As  it  is  one 
must  say  that  he  is  tall,  and  slight,  and 
does  not  make  the  best  use  of  his  food  or 
he  would  carry  more  flesh.  He  is  also 
very  active.  If  it  were  not  for  this  latter 
fact,  Mr.  H.  H.  Miller  would  not  have 
built  up  the  business  and  reputation  he 
has  done  in  Hanover,  Ont. 

He  is  active.  If  you  had  seen  Hugh  C. 
Dufi',  B.S.A.,  the  District  Representative 
for  Grey  County,  trying  to  keep  up  to  him 
as  he  showed  us  over  his  farm  in  and  near 
Hanover,  you  would  have  known  he  was 
active.  Hugh  is  short  and  his  legs  had  to 
stretch  some  to  keep  up  with  H.  H.  Miller, 
who  is  able  to  take  a  longer  step  with 

For  many  years  the  name  of  H.  H.  Mill- 
er has  been  prominent  in  Hanover  and 
vicinity.  He  calls  himself  the  Hanover 
Ponveyancer,  but  this  does  not  mean  that 
he  conveys  men  and  women  to  and  from 
the  railway  station.  No:  He  draws  up 
deeds  and  conveys  property  from  one  to 
another.  This  is  his  general  occupation, 
but  he  has  a  great  many  side  issues  in 
which  he  takes  a  great  deal  of  interest. 

One  of  these  side  issues  is  farming.  His 
father  was  a  farmer.  From  him  Mr.  Mill- 
er learned  that  to  improve  the  soil  was  one 
of  the  greatest  benefits  a  man  could  con- 
fer on  his  fellow  beings.      "One  of  the 

proudest  days  of  my  life,"  said  Mr.  Mill- 
er, "was  when  I  was  a  young  fellow.  I 
went  to  work  and  cleared  several  stumps 
out  of  a  field  on  my  father's  farm.  I  never 
felt  so  proud  in  my  life  as  I  did  when  I 
got  that  field  cleared.  Ever  since  then  I 
have  been  trying  my  best  to  improve  the 
soil.  I  have  a  chance  now,  and  hope  I  will 
make  good." 

Some  four  years  ago  he  purchased  about 

The  World's  Record  Red 
Poll  Cow 

Jean  Duluth  Pear,  owned  by  the 
Jean  Duluth  Farm,  Duluth,  Minn., 
finished,  in  November,  her  year's 
test,  conducted  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Red  Polled  Cattle  Club  of 
America,  for  1915,  with  a  record  of 
more  than  700  pounds  of  butterfat. 
The  test  closed  on  Nov.  17.  It  is 
interesting  to  note  that  Jean  Duluth 
Pear  is  a  daughter  of  Pear,  which 
up  to  this  time  held  the  world's  but- 
terfat record  for  the  breed.  Pear's 
production  was  603.6  pounds  of 
fat.  The  new  champion  is  an  out- 
standing dual-purpose  type,  and  is 
strongly  bred  in  the  blood  which 
has  produced  distinguished  per- 

seventy-five  acres  in,  and  beside  the  town 
of  Hanover.  This  farm  was  anything  but 
a  good  one.  Much  of  it  was  wet  and  cold, 
and  what  was  not  of  this  description  was 
light  and  sandy.  In  fact,  it  was  so  much 
of  this  type  that  the  owner  of  one  portion 
of  the  farm  was  glad  to  sell  it.  He  said, 
"I  am  glad  you  have  it.  Miller,  for  I  could 
not  get  anything  to  grow  on  it." 

This  is  all  changed  now.  Four  short 
years  have  worked  wonders.  The  wet  por- 
tions have  all  been  underdrained,  and  are 
in  good  state  of  cultivation.  The  lighter 
portions  are  being  treated  to  a  liberal, 
or  rather  several  liberal  coats  of  barnyard 
manure,  and  clovers  are  being  ploughed 
down  to  return  some  of  the  lost  humus  to 
the  soil,  and  thereby  make  it  good  crop 
producing  land  again. 


A  ten-acre  orchard  has  been  planted  on 
one  of  the  lighter  fields,  and  is  doing  very 
well.  The  varieties  are.  Spies  and  Mac- 
intosh Reds.  At  present  the  field  is  being 
looked  after  with  the  view  to  keeping  the 
trees  healthy  and  in  good  condition.  Field 
crops  are  growTi  on  the  field,  but  rotation 
is  practised  in  such  a  way  that  a  crop  of 
clover  is  plowed  down  every  third  year. 
Then  once  in  this  period,  there  is  a  dress- 
ing of  barnyard  manure  given  the  field. 
It  is  in  good  condition  and  the  trees  show^ 
it  by  responding  with  abundance  of 



A  house  of  good  size  and  comfort  has 
been  built  for  the  use  of  the  manager.  In 
his  choice  of  a  manager,  Mr.  Miller  has 
been  very  successful,  as  he  has  a  man  who 
thoroughly  understands  handling  of  live 
stock  and  also  the  land  to  make  it  yield 
its  best.  A  bank  barn  of  ample  size  has 
been  erected,  and  two  cement  silos  hold 
the  corn  for  feeding.  This  enormous 
amount  of  work  in  four  years  shows  the 
energy  and  push  of  Mr.  Miller. 

In  planting  his  rotation  of  crops,  he  al- 
ways plans  to  have  a  cash  crop.  This,  in 
his  case,  is  potatoes.  He  has  bought  a 
potato  planter  and '  digger,  and  does  as 
much  of  the  work  by  machinery  as  pos- 
sible, leaving  only  the  picking  to  be  done 
by  hand.  Last  year  he  had  about  five 
acres  of  potatoes,  and  although  the  prices 
were  low  last  year,  he  made  a  nice  little 
sum  of  money.  The  potatoes  were  grown 
on  a  low  place  which  has  been  under- 
drained,  treated  to  a  good  application  of 
barnyard  manure,  and  commercial  fer- 
tilizer. The  commercial  fertilizer  used  was 
largely  phosphate  and  potash  with  a  little 
nitrogen.  The  root  and  corn  crops  are  fol- 
lowed by  grain  which  is  seeded  to  clover, 
and  the  clover  plowed  down  for  the  roots 
and  corn.  This  gives  a  three-year  rota- 
tion on  the  largest  part  of  the  farm. 


Perhaps  the  most  notable  thing  on  the 
farm  is  the  herd  of  Red  Poll  cattle  which 
has  been  established.  Before  picking  out 
any  one  breed  for  his  own  use,  Mr.  Miller 
made  a  study  of  the  breeds  and  then  pick- 
ed one  which  he  thought  would  fill  his 
wants  better  than  any  of  the  others.  He 
wanted  a  dual  purpose  cow.  Being  far 
away  from  the  best  milk  and  cream  mar- 
kets, he  wanted  a  cow  that  would  give  a 
goodly  amount  of  milk,  and  also  raise  a 
calf  that  would  turn  into  good  account  at 
the  block.  His  first  choice  was  the  French- 
Canadian,  but  he  found  that  he  could  not 
get  breeding  stock  to  suit  him.  He  almost 
bought  a  few  Swiss  cows.  He  turned 
these  down  because  he  thought  that  cattle 
buyers  might  be  somewhat  prejudiced 
against  them  on  account  of  their  looking 
so  much  like  dairy  animals.  His  impres- 
sion was  that  buyers  might  be  afraid 
that  the  Swiss  cattle  would  not  kill  as 
well  as  they  should. 

The  cattle  which  he  bought  were  Red 
Polls.  This  great  breed  have  been  long 
noted  for  being  exceptionally  good  milk- 
ers, and  raising  stock  that  can  be  turned 
into  good  account  at  the  block.  His  chief 
trouble  in  getting  the  stock  was  that  he 
had  to  go  out  of  Canada,  as  there  are  very 
few  herds  of  the  breed  in  this  country. 
His  first  purchase  amounted  to  five  ani- 
mals. One  of  them  a  Mayflower,  descend- 
ed from  Mayflower  2nd,  which  cow  took 
second  prize  at  the  Buffalo  International 
Dairy  Test  of  Dairy  Cows.  This  test  was 
conducted  at  the  World's  P'air  at  the  time 
it  was  held  at  Buffalo.  The  Mayflower 
which  Mr.  Miller  bought  is  a  fine,  large, 
well-built  cow,  is  low  set,  and  deep  body, 
and  conforms  largely  to  the  beef  type.  At 
the  same  time,  she  is  a  first-class  milker, 
and  gives  a  large  flow  of  milk.  One  of  the 
other  cows  brought  from  the  United 
States,  is  Luna  Lass  2nd.  This  cow  is 
also  a  fine  looking  animal,  and  is  descend- 

ed from  one  of  the  best  milking  strains  of 
Red  Polls. 

For  the  head  of  his  herd,  he  bought 
Prince  Midnight,  son  of  Princess  Mid- 
night. This  cow  is  also  from  one  of  heavy 
milking  strains,  and  shows  the  type  de- 
sirable in  a  dairy  dual  purpose.  Mr. 
Miller  was  so  very  unfortunate  as  to  have 
Prince  Midnight  break  his  thigh  bone, 
and  he  had  to  be  killed,  but  he  has  now  at 
the  head  of  his  herd,  a  young  animal 
which  promises  to  develop  into  one  of  the 
best  of  the  breed,  and  prove  a  valuable 
asset  to  his  herd. 


The  Red  Polls  are  so  called  because 
they  are  red  and  hornless.  They  are  red 
all  over,  and  the  red  is  a  dark,  deep,  rich 
color.  Mr.  Miller  believes  that  the  Red 
Polls  is  what  the  farm.ers  of  Canada  have 
been  looking  for  for  some  time,  as  they 
will  fill  a  good-sized  milk  pail,  and  raise 
stock  which  will  make  first-class  beef. 

To  show  the  great  strength  of  the  cows, 
Mr.  Miller  relates  a  story  which  happened 
in  his  herd.  A  young  cow  of  his  was  out 
on  his  pasture  farm,  and  dropped  her  calf 
unknown  to  the  herdsman.  The  cow  was 
taken  home,  and  the  calf  was  not  found 
for  two  days.  When  the  calf  was  found, 
and  the  cow  was  milked,  neither  showed 
any  bad  effects  of  their  neglect. 

If  all  the  monied  men  in  Ontario  were 
to  take  as  much  interest  in  agriculture  as 
Mr.  Miller,  a  good  many' of  our  farms 
which  are  now  all  run  down,  would  soon 
be  put  into  better  condition,  and  the  agri- 
cultural output  of  the  province  would  be 
largely  increased.  It  would  also  be  a 
stimulus  to  those  now  on  the  farms  to  do 
better  work,  when  they  see  the  men  with 
the  money  coming  from  the  cities  and 
towns  to  improve  farms  which  were 
thought  to  be  of  little  account.  It  is  to  be 
hoped  that  many  more  will  follow  Mr. 
Miller's  example. 

[Women  who  Start 

Continued  from  Page  42. 

may  come  true,  is  to  have  a  small  home 
for  mentally  defective  girls  in  their 
midst.  They  want  classes  for  women  on 
first-aid  principles;  they  are  asking  for 
short  courses  for  girls  on  home  topics  on 
the  basis  of  short  courses  on  agricultural 
subjects  furnished  to  young  men;  they 
believe  that  a  woman  representative,  who 
would  be  a  central  bureau  oi  information 
and  a  sort  of  clearing  house  in  their  midst 
for  their  ideas,  would  be  a  desirability. 

The  chronicles  of  their  deeds  for  patri- 
otic purposes  are  written  elsewhere,  suf- 
fice it  to  say,  they  have  not  missed  their 
opportunity  of  taking  their  share  in  eas- 
ing the  burdens  of  those  fighting  for  a 
larger  and  purer  freedom.  They  believe  in 
their  new  land,  they  love  it — its  cold  does 
not  chill  their  ardor;  its  difficulties  do  not 
daunt;  they  have  seen  the  vision  and  its 
glories  have  entered  their  souls. 






'Made  in  Canada" 



— A  high  speed 
ball  bearing  washer 
that  is  lig'ht,  noiseless 
and  easy  running  ;  en- 
closed gears  making  it 
safe  in  operation. 

The  construction  of  the 
dasher  makes  this  type 
the  best  for  the  thorough 
washing'  of  everything. 

It  can  be  operated  by  hand 
power  OF  water  motor. 

It  is  made  in  Canada  of 
best  quality  cypress,  and  is 
superior  in  de.-%ign,  con- 
struction and  finihh  to  any 
imported  washers. 

Insist  on  seeing 
this  Maxwell  "Home" 
Washer  at  your  Dealer's, 
or  write  to  us. 

If  You  Were  a  Chicken 

you  would  want 


The  Great  Egg  Producer 
and    Poultry     Regulator 

We  specialize  in  Feed  for  Poultry 

Dept.  A.  SARNIA,  ONT. 

Pulls  the 



The  Smith  machine  pulls  the  lari^est  stump?  at  a  cost  of 
6c  each .  Write  today  for  free  catalog  and  special  offer. 

The  Homely  Art  of  Making  Pies 

How  to  Make  Quality  Crust,  and  a  Variety  of  Seasonable 



THERE'S  considerable  art  in  mak- 
ing pies.  A  lot  of  it  comes  through 
practice;  some  of  it  comes  through 
knowing  the  how  and  why  of  certain 
pastry  phenomena.  Several  rules  hold 
good  always. 

Use  good  materials.  A  pastry  flour  is 
more  economical  than  a  bread  flour  be- 
cause it  doesn't  require  so  much  shorten- 
ing. It  hasn't  enough  gluten  to  make  light 
bread  or  biscuits  or  cake,  but  it  likewise 
has  no  toughness  and  this  is  one  of  the 
first  qualities  to  avoid  in  pie  crust.  In  the 
matter  of  shortening,  butter  makes  a  good 
flavored  pie  crust  and  one  that  will  brown 
nicely,  but  lard  gives  a  more  flaky  texture, 
so  a  combination  of  butter  and  lard  gives 
a  better  result.  Sweet  clarified  dripping 
from  beef  or  pork  may  be  used  but  unless 
a  softer  fat  is  used  with  beef  dripping  the 
pastry  will  be  hard.  Fat  from  chicken, 
duck  or  goose  makes  a  tender  crust,  and 
several  of  the  preparations  of  vegetable 
oils  make  excellent  shortening  for  pastry. 
Keep  everything  as  cold  as  possible. 
This  makes  it  possible  to  handle  the  dough 
with  little  stretching  and  with  the  addi- 
tion of  little  extra  flour.  For  the  same 
reason  no  more  water  should  be  used  than 
just  enough  to  make  the  dough  easy  to 
roll  out. 

Handle  the  dough  lightly,  using  the 
tips  of  the  fingers  to  rub  the  shortening 
into  the  flour,  and  cutting  in  the  liquid 
with  a  knife.  Then  roll  lightly  and  only 
in  one  direction,  without  turning  the 
dough  over.  This  together  with  chilling 
the  dough  will  give  the  desirable  light, 
flaky  texture. 

Recipe  for  Plain  Pastry — 

4  cups  flour 

1  cup  shortening 

1   teaspoon   salt 

About  1  cup  cold  water 

Add  the  salt  to  the  flour  and  put 
through  the  sifter,  then  cut  in  the  short- 
ening and  finish  rubbing  it  into  the  flour 
with  the  tips  of  the  fingers.  This  light 
handling  prevents  greasiness.  Have  the 
water  as  cold  as  possible  and  add  it  to  the 
flour  and  shortening  gradually,  mixing  it 
in  with  the  blade  of  a  knife.  Any  knead- 
ing or  superfluous  rolling  on  the  board 
toughens  pastry.  Rub  the  flour  well  into 
the  board,  take  out  enough  dough  for  one 
crust,  put  into  shape  and  roll  out. 

Plain  Puff  Pastry — 

4  cups   fiour  •* 

1  teasi)oon  salt 

Vi  cup  lard 

1   cup   butter 

About  1  cup  cold  water 

Mix  the  lard  with  the  flour  and  add  the 

water  as  in  making  plain  pastry.   Put  the 

butter  in  a  bowl,  wash  in  ice-cold  water 

and  work  with  a  spoon  until  it  is  waxy. 

Roll  out  the  dough  to  one-half  inch  thick 

and  in  a  rectangular  shape  so  it  will  be 

easy  to  fold.    Take  about  one-third  of  the 

butter  and  dot  in  little  pieces  over  one- 

half  of  the  dough,  fold  the  other  half  over, 
press  the  edges  together  and  roll  lightly. 
If  the  butter  begins  to  show  through, 
chill  the  dough  and  try  again.  Repeat 
until  all  the  butter  is  worked  into  the 
dough.  It  is  better  to  let  the  paste  chill 
for  twenty  or  thirty  minutes  between  each 
rolling,  and  it  may  be  given  six  or  eight 
turns  instead  of  three.  A  teaspoonful  of 
cream-o'-tartar,  or  the  juice  of  one-quar- 
ter of  a  lemon  added  to  the  paste  will 
soften  the  gluten  of. the  flour  and  make 
the  crust  more  tender.  This  is  more  im- 
portant where  a  general  purpose  flour  is 
used.  Puff  paste  should  never  be  used  for 
a  bottom  crust. 

Creavi  Pie  Crust — 

4  cups  sifted   flour 

2   teaspoons   baking   powder 

1   teaspoon   salt 

Enoiigii    sweet    cream    to    make    a    dough    still 

enough   to   bandle. 

Being  made  without  lard  or  butter  and 

lightened  with  baking  powder,  pie  crust 

of  this  kind  is  generally  considered  more 

wholesome  than  the  regular  pastry.     It 

is  porous  and  soaks  readily  so  it  can  be 

used  best  for  top  crusts  in  meat  pies  and 

deep  fruit  pies  where  there  is  no  bottom 



A  well  tested  recipe  for  mince  pie  was 
given  in  the  December  issue  of  Farmer's 

Apple  Pie — 

After  filling  the  pie  with  sliced  apples, 
sprinkle  with  sugar  and  a  grating  of  nutmeg 
.ind  dot  over  with  a  tablespoon  of  butter. 
Put  on  the  top  crust,  moisten  the  edges  and 
press  together,  then  have  a  strip  of  cotton 
an  inch  wide,  wet  it  and  draw  arouud  the 
edge.     Take  this  off  when  the  pie  is  baked. 

Cranberry  Pie — 

]%  cups  cranberries 
%  cups  sugar 
V2  cup  water 

Boil  ten  minutes.  Stir  in  one-half  tea- 
spoon butter,  cool  and  bake  in  one  crust 
with  a  rim  and  strips  across  the  top.  The 
purpose  of  the  butter  is  to  tone  down  the 
sharpness  of  the  acid  in  the  berries. 

Dried  Apple  Custard  Pie — 

1  cup  stewed  apples 
1   cup    milk 

1  cup   sugar 
%    nutmeg 

2  eggs 

Save  one  egg-white  to  make  a  meringue 
frosting  for  the  top.  Beat  the  other  egg 
and  the  extra  yolk,  combine  with  the  milk, 
stewed  apples  and  seasoning,  bake  in  one 
crust,  then  frost  with  the  stiffly-beaten 
egg-white  and  sugar  and  brown  in  the 

Prize  Pumpkin  Pie — 

2  cups  of  strained,   cooked    pnnipkin 
1  teaspoon  salt 
V2  teaspoon  uince 
-%  teaspoon  nutmeg 
%  teaspoonful  ginger 
1   teaspoon   cinnamon 



2  eggs 

%  cup  sugar 

2  cups  milk 

V4  cup  rieb   sweet  cream 

Caramel  Pie — 

Put  in  a  pan  one  cup  brown  sugar  and 
butter  the  size  of  an  egg.  Let  it  boil  to 
caramelize  slightly  but  not  to  turn  a  deep 
brown.  Then  thin  with  one  cup  hot  water. 
Mix  one  tablespoon  of  cornstarch  with  a 
little  cold  water  and  stir  in.  When  the 
mixture  thickens  stir  it  into  the  yolks  of 
two  eggs  slightly  beaten,  return  to  the  fire 
for  one  minute,  pour  into  a  baked  pie  shell, 
frost  with  the  beaten  egg-whites  and 
brown  slightly  in  the  oven. 

Lemon  Sponge  Pie — 

1  cup  sugar 

4  tablespoons  flour 

1  tablespoon   melted  butter 
V2  teaspoon  salt 

2  eggs 

2  lemons 

1    cup   sweet  milk 

Mix  the  sugar,  flour,  butter  and  the 
yolks  of  the  eggs  and  beat  to  a  cream. 
Then  stir  in  the  juice  of  the  two  lemons. 
Beat  the  whites  of  the  eggs  stiff,  stir  the 
milk  into  the  mixture  then  fold  in  the 
egg-whites.  Pour  into  an  unbaked  pie 
crust  and  bake  until  the  custard  is  cooked, 
or  until  a  knife  dipped  into  it  will  come 
out  clear. 

A  Smart  and  Practical  Skating  Outfit 

A  fetcldvg  style  of  coat  and  toque  for  the  girl  who  likes 
outdoor  sports. 

Big  Drop  in  Prices  of 


No  matter  "whpre  you  live  or 
what  you  or  your  family  want 
in  Furs  or  Fur  Garments,  you 
can  buy  chea-por  and  better  by 
dealing  direct  -with  us. 
When  you  realize  that  we  are 
NADA direct  from  the  trapper, 
you  -will  appreciate  our  unriv- 
alled opportunity  to  select  the 
finest  BkinB,  manufacture  them 
into  desirable  Fur  ISetsand  Fur 
Garments  then  by  selling  direct 
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men's profit  by  our  system  of 
From  Trapper  to  Wearer 

BLACK  WOLF  SET.  This  is 
one  of  the  many  bar^^ains  illus- 
trated in  our  FUU  STYLE 
BOOK  and  is  a  beautiful  set 
made  from  Innt;  haired — ^ood 
quality — whole  skins.  The 
Stole  is  cut  extra  deep  and 
wide  over  shoulder  and  ba^k — 
giving  good  protection  against 
cold — is  trimmed  with  head  and 
tail  over  shoulders  and  tail  at 
each  end— lined  with  good  qual- 
ity satin  and  warmly  interlined. 

No,   225 
$6  50 
No.    224 
$8  25- 

The  Muff  is  made  in  the  large  classy  pillow 
style,  trimmed  with  head,  tail  and  pawa  and  mounted 
on  good  down  bed  giving  great  warmth  and  comfort — 
lined  with  gonrt  satin — with  wrist  cord. 

No  2-24,  Stole     $6.25 

No.  225,  Muff        $6.50 

Every  article  is  sold  iinder  OUR  POSITIVE  GTJARAN 
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THE         -^ 


When  buying  your  next 
Workineor  Outine Shirt, 
ask  for  The 



Fit  and  Quality 

The  Deacon  Shirt  Co. 

Belleville.        Ontario 

Insist  on  "GOOD  LUCK  "  Brand 


41  to  48  per  cent.  Protein 


Write  for  feeding  directions  and  prices  to 

CRAMPSEY&  KELLY.  776  Dovcrcour  t  Rd.,  Toronto 



If  you  wish.  The  land  ivill  support  you  and  pay 
for  itself.  An  Immense  area  of  the  most  fertile  land, 
in  Western  Canada  for  sale  at  low  prices  and  easy 
terms,  ranging  from  $11  to  $30  for  farm  lands,  with 
ample  rainfall — irrigated  lands  from  $35.  Terms — 
One-twentieth  down,  balance  within  twenty  years. 
In  irrigation  districts,  loan  for  farm  buildings,  etc., 
up  to  $2,000,  aNo  repayable  in  twenty  years— Interest 
only  6  per  cent.  Here  is  your  opportunity  to  In-' 
crease  your  farm  holdings  by  getting  ad.ioining  land 
ur  secure  your  friends  as  neighbors.  For  literature 
and   particulars   apply   to 

F.  C.  CAMERON,  General  Superintend 't  of  Lands 
Dept.  of  Natural  Resources  C.P.R. 




Jinastigmatic   and  jiulographic 


The  3A  KODAK 

Has  tho  autographic  feature  whereby  you 
can  date  and  title  your  films  at  the  time  of 
exposure,  is  fitted  with  the  new  Kodak 
Anastigniat  j.1.1  lens  —  a  lens  that  leaves 
nothing  to  be  desired  in  definition  (sharpness) 
and  flatness  of  field  and  has  more  sp«ed  than 
even  the  best  of  the  Rapid  Rectilinear  lenses. 

The  shutter  is  the  Kodak  Ball  Bearing  with 
instantaneous  speeds  of  1-25,  1-50  and  1-100  of 
a  second  and,  of  course,  the  usual  time  and 
"bulb"    actions.      High    grade    in    every    detail. 

No.     3A     Autographic    Kodak,     pictures,     3V4-\5V4, 

Kodak    Anastiffmat    lens    f.7.7 $27.50 

Do.,    with    Rapifi    Rectilinear   lens    22.50 

Ask  your  dealer  or  urite  us  for  our  heautifuUy 
illustrated  booklet,  "Kodak  on  the  FcCrm." 

596  King  Street  West,  Toronto. 

Winter  Reading 
in  the  Home 

A  good  home  is  known  by  the 
character  of  the  reading  matter 
on  its  Hbrary  table. 
Why  not  have  this  pair  of  twins 
there?  They  are  both  the  lead- 
ers in  their  fields.  MacLean's 
Magazine  is  something  in  Cana- 
dian journalism  that  puts  Can- 
ada in  the  front  rank  of  maga- 
zine producers. 

MacLean's   Magazine 
The  Farmer's  Magazine 

In  these  two  you  have  a  pair 
that  are  hard  to  beat.  Quality 
in  illustration,  short  stories, 
serials  and  Canadian  specials. 
Write  for  a  sample  copy  of  either,  and 
for  terms. 

The  Maclean  Publishing  Company 

Consolidated  Schools  and  Social  Life 

Continued  from  Page  40. 


143-153  University  Ave.,       Toronto,    Ont. 

ing  that  things  cannot  be,  these  same 
things  are  just  quietly  happening  with 
utter  and  reckless  disregard  for  the  opin- 
ions and  predictions  of  the  wise  ones. 

As  has  already  been  pointed  out  this 
movement  has  gone  beyond  the  stage  of 
opinion  or  even  experiment,  and  has 
proved  itself.  In  the  schools  of  Randolph 
county,  an  assembly  hall  is  provided  and 
the  buildings  are  planned  so  as  to  permit 
the  addition  of  large  corridors  or  other 
rooms  so  that  accommodation  can  be  pro- 
vided for  a  large  audience.  At  one  of 
these  schools,  one  of  the  senior  girls, 
when  asked  why  she  preferred  the  con- 
solidated to  the  district  school,  replied, 
"Here  you  get  acquainted  with  the  whole 
township."  That  seemed  to  present  one 
phase  of  the  question  in  a  nutshell.  The 
social  horizon  is  enlarged,  interests  are 
broadened  and  a  wider  outlook  is  obtained. 
But  that  is  not  all.  Will  the  reader  recall 
to  mind  the  variety  of  pleasant  and  profit- 
able meetings  he  has  attended  in  the 
"Little  Red  School"  in  his  own  section? 
The  probability  is  that  unless  the  build- 
ing is  used  for  a  Sunday  School  or  other 
religious  meeting,  it  will  not  take  long  to 
sum  them  up.  There  may,  perhaps,  have 
been  some  kind  of  "Christmas  Entertain- 
ment" on  an  average  of  say  once  in  five 
years  when  there  was  a  teacher  who  had 
an  inclination  and  capacity  for  that  sort 
of  service.  There  probably  have  been  po- 
litical meetings,  when  on  the  following 
morning,  the  teacher  and  pupils  found  the 
floor  littered  with  mud,  torn  paper,  some- 
times, I  regret  to  say,  the  mutilated  exer- 
cise books  of  the  pupils,  and  other  debris. 
The  atmosphere  was  redolent  of  stale  to- 
bacco smoke  while  the  walls  and  floors 
bore  stains  left  by  those  who  use  tobacco 
in- a  more  disgusting  way.  All  these  things 
were  silent  but  eloquent  tokens  of  the  es- 
teem and  regard  in  which  the  school  is 
held.  There  may  be  others  but  these  are 
the  standards. 

How  many  have  ever  known  a  country 
school  house  to  be  used  for  a  Farmers'  In- 
stitute meeting,  a  Sunday  school  conven- 
tion, a  Women's  Institute  meeting,  a 
gardeners',  stock  breeders'  or  corn  grow- 
ers' club,  a  mothers'  conference,  or  indeed 
anything  pertaining  to  the  social  life  of 
the  com,munity?  As  a  matter  of  fact  the 
school  house  is  so  despised  and  avoided 
til  at  it  plays  no  part  at  all  in  the  social 
life  of  ninety-nine  out  of  every  hundred 

In  contrast  consider  a  few  facts  about 
the  consolidated  school.  At  five  Farmers' 
Institute  meetings,  held  in  five  different 
schools  in  the  county  mentioned  above, 
theie  was  an  aggregate  attendance  of 
more  than  2,700  people.  How  does  that 
compare  with  us?  It  is  possible  that  we 
may  have  a  record  of  500  when  the  meet- 
ing was  held  in  some  town  or  village  and 
more  than  half  the  audience  was  made  up 
of  the  villagers,  especially  at  the  evening 
meetings  which  are  the  only  ones  that  are 
ever  largely  attended.  The  probability, 
however,  is  greatly  in  favor  of  fifty  or 
even  twenty,  and  these  would  probably  be 
found  in  the  corner  of  some  smoky,  dingy. 

badly  lighted,  badly  heated  hall,  listening 
to  a  discussion  worthy  of  a  better  audi- 
ence and  a  better  atmosphere.  At  the 
meetings  in  the  schools,  it  is  the  custom 
for  the  girls  of  the  domestic  science  de- 
partment to  serve  a  lunch  for  which  a 
nominal  charge  is  made.  It  is  recorded 
that  as  much  as  $50  has  been  made  in 
this  way  at  one  of  these  meetings.  The 
money  so  obtained  is  devoted  to  the  im- 
provement of  the  equipment  of  the  de- 
partment, the  purchase  of  pictures  or 
some  other  service  for  the  school. 

It  has  been  the  custom,  for  the  past  few 
years,  to  carry  on  lecture  courses  at  these 
schools.  Arrangements  are  made  by  which 
lecturers  of  note  are  secured  for  a  circuit 
of  five  or  six  schools,  and  a  series  carried 
on  during  the  winter  months.  The  ex- 
pense is  met  by  the  sale  of  tickets  which 
admit  to  the  whole  course.  Attendance  at 
these  lectures  is  reported  to  have  varied 
at  different  schools  and  at  different  times 
from  50  to  300.  A  means  is  thus  provided 
for  social  enjoyment  as  well  as  for  in- 
tellectual improvement,  and  there  is 
brought  into  the  life  of  the  community  a 
feature,  the  lack  of  which  has  frequently 
been  blamed  for  making  life  in  the  rural 
communities  less  desirable  than  in  the 
cities.  It  may  be  said  in  opposition  that 
there  is  nothing  to  prevent  the  district 
schools  from  giving  a  service  of  this  sort. 
That  may  be  quite  true,  but  the  fact  re- 
mains that  we  have  had  the  district 
schools  for  a  long  time  now  and  they  have 
never,  so  far,  attempted  with  any  mea- 
sure of  success,  anything  of  the  kind. 

Another  interesting  and  important  fea- 
ture of  the  contribution  that  the  consoli- 
dated school  is  making  to  the  social  life  of 
Randolph  county  is  found  in  the  mothers' 
conferences  and  the  parent-teacher  meet- 
ings, that  are  held  at  the  schools.  These 
meetings  occur  at  stated  times  and  the 
schools  make  some  special  provision  for 
them.  In  some  cases  short  programs  are 
put  on  by  the  children  of  some  of  the 
forms.  The  domestic  science  girls  serve  a 
lunch,  and  an  effort  is  made  to  get  these 
meetings  to  count  for  as  much  on  the 
social  side  as  they  do  in  the  improvement 
of  the  schools  and  the  making  of  a  proper 
relationship  between  parents,  teachers 
and  pupils.  Can  anyone  predict  what  the 
effect  would  be  on  our  poor,  shabby,  ne- 
glected and  despised  schools  if  the  mothers 
could  be  induced  to  meet  there  once  a 
month,  to  get  acquainted,  to  consult  with, 
advise  and  assist  the  teachers,  not  to  criti- 
cize, quarrel  with  or  browbeat  them,  to 
inquire  into  and  plan  for  the  comfort  of 
the  pupils  and  teachers,  and  to  see  what 
could  be  done  to  improve  the  appearance 
of  the  school  premises  in  a  general  way, 
to — but  what  is  the  use,  the  imagination 
refuses  to  picture  such  a  consummation. 
Nevertheless  it  has  come  with  the  con- 
solidated school. 

At  every  school  visited  a  prominent  fea- 
ture was  the  presence  of  numerous  trays 
in  which  samples  of  seed  corn  were  being 
germinated.  It  should  be  remarked,  in 
passing,  that  corn  is  the  most  important 
Continued  on  Page  65. 

F  A  R  i\I  E  R  '  S    M  A  G  A  Z  T  N  K 


The  Frost  Girl 

Continued  from  Page  28. 

"I  can't  run  that  chance,"  replied  the 
girl  as  firmly  as  before.  "You  have  al- 
ready failed  to  get  in  enough  for  your- 
selves. I  can't  run  the  chance  of  dis- 
appointing my  Indians  when  they  come  in 
at  Christmas  time." 

"Hang  the  Indians!"  cried  Allan 
angrily.  "Don't  you  see  that  w^hite  men 
are  going  without?  You  wouldn't  do 

"They  needn't  starve  if  you  have  a 
cache  so  near. 


"There  is  no  need  of  discussing  the 
question  fuither.  I  will  not  sell  pro- 
visions to  you." 

'np  HERE  was  something  so  final  in  the 
-■■  girl's  tone  that  her  voice  rather  than 
her  words  convinced  the  engineer.  He 
looked  at  her  steadily  for  a  moment,  hop- 
ing for  some  sign  of  weakening.  He  could 
not  believe  that  she  could  refuse  food  to  a 
starving  white  man.  But  the  girl's  gaze 
was  as  steady  as  his  own,  and  he  turned 
toward  the  door.  Three  steps  and  he 
whirled  back. 

"I  see!"  he  exclaimed.  "The  National 
people  have  been  here.  Tell  me  what  they 
agreed  to  pay  you  and  I'll  double  it." 

"I  don't  know  what  you  mean,"  said 
Hertha;  and  her  eyes  showed  her  be- 

"If  they  have  been  here  you  under- 
stand— and  I  think  they  have.  What 
other  reason  could  you  have  for  refusing 
to  sell  to  me?" 

"You  would  not  talk  that  way  to  a 
man!"  cried  Hertha,  her  eyes  blazing 

"If  you  were  a  man  I  would  know  how 
to  talk  to  you.  Now,  I  can  play  the  game 
as  well  as  they  can.  Just  name  your  price 
and  we'll  settle  this." 

Hertha  did  not  reply.  Her  anger  was 
too  great.  She  could  only  raise  her  right 
arm  and  point  silently  toward  the  door. 
Allan  returned  her  look  for  an  instant. 
Then  he  wheeled  and  went  out.  There 
was  something  so  completely  final  in  the 
girl's  expression  he  knew  it  was  useless 
to  argue  further.  Only  he  could  not 

"Shall  I  carry  it  out?"  asked  the  driver 
as  he  closed  the  door  behind  him. 

"She  won't  sell  us  anything,"  replied 
Allan,  still  bewildered  by  the  girl's  atti- 
tude.   "We'll  go  back  to  camp." 

A  LLAN  offered  no  explanations  when 
■^^  The  crew  sat  down  to  supper  that 
night.  There  was  a  slim  meal  for  men 
who  had  worked  hard  in  the  cold  all 
day,  but,  before  the  muttered  inquiries 
could  begin,  the  head  of  the  survey  spoke. 

"We're  up  against  a  hard  game  this 
winter  boys,"  he  began.  "But's  a  game 
we're  going  to  beat.  The  National  people 
will  do  anything  they  can  to  block  this 
survey.  You  know  what  their  first  step 
was.  As  a  result,  we've  got  to  go  on  half 
rations  until  the  teams  get  in  from 
Sabawe.   Any  objections?" 

No  one  answered.  The  men  merely 
looked  at  the  speaker  and  then  glanced  at 

A  Sure  Winner 



A  song  that  is  sure  of  popularity  on  account  of  its  simplicity  in 

words  and  melody 

Worrii:  Mid  Music  by 



nt.  n\ 

Work  »in'tnuthin',  Play  ain't  nuthin|  Rest  ain't  cuthin'   with-out  you;  Talk  ain't  nuthin',  Love  ain't  nuthin',  Home  ain't  nulliin' with- out      y 

Copyright  MCMXV  ky  BooieyiCo, 

The  following  l!st  of  songs  will  be  found  delightful  for  quiet  evenings  at  the  fireside: 

Love   Bells.      C,    Db,    Bb,    F. 

All  Joy   Be  Thine.     G,   Ab,   Bb,   Db. 

(iarJen    of   Your  Heart.     F,    Ab,    Bb. 

Little  Road  Home,  The.     D,   Eb,  F,   G. 

Billy   Boy.     E,    G   minoi-. 

FaiiT  Pipers,   The.     F,   G,   A,    Bb,   C. 

Friend  o'  Min-      F,  G,  Ab,  Bb,  C. 

Dorel  In  An  Old-FasbioueJ  Town.     C 

Sanderson  Little  I'laymates.     F,   Gb,    Ab. 

Dorel  Until.     Db,    Eb,    P,   G. 

A.   H.   Brewer  When  My  Ships  Come   Sailing. 

David   Emmel  When   You    Pass.     Eb,    F,    G. 

Brewer  When  You  Come  Home.     D,  Eb,   F,  G 

W.  Sanderson  You  and  I  (Cradle  Song).     Bb,  C,  D. 

D,  Eb,  F,  G.  Squire 
Ellen  Tuckfleld 
W.  Sanderson 
\b,  Bb.  Dorel 
W.  Sanderson 
W.  H.  Squire 
Liza  Lelynan 

F,   G, 

Canada  Ever!     F.   Ab,   Bb. 
'Canadians   Follow    the   Drum. 
.John   Bull.     D,    Eb.    F. 
Deathless    Army,    The.      A.    Bb, 
Shipmates   o'    Mine.     F,   G. 
Trumpeter,   The.     F,   G,   A,    C. 
Up  from    Somei-set.      Bb,   C,    D. 

Love   Eternal.     Eb.    F,   G.  Stephen    Adams 

Father  of  Light.     Eb,    F,    G,    Ab.  Stephen    Adams 

God  That  Madest.     Db,  D,  Eb,  F.        Wilfred  Sanderson 
Lead  Kindly  Light.     Db,  Eb,   F.  Wilfred   Sanderson 

Nearer  My   God   to  Thee.     F.   G.    Ab.  Lewis  Carev 

The   Angel's    Ladder.      Eb,    F,    G.  Robert   Coverly 


For  Concerts,  Entertainments,  Red  Cross 

and  Recruiting  Meetings,  etc. 

L.   Lemon  Veterans'    Song,    The.     C,    D,    Eb,    F.        Stephen   Adams 

A.   Ham  When  You  Come  Home.     D,  Eb,  F,  G.       W.  H.   Squire 

Stcphe^  Adams  On    His   Majesty's   Sen-ice.     F,   G.  J.   Trevalsa 

D.  H.    Tiotere  Soldier,    What   of   the    Night?     C,    D,    F.  AUitsen 

W.   Sanderson  There's  a  Land.     Db,   Eb,   F,   G   (new  ed.)  Allitsen 

J.    Airlie   Di.x  Who's  That  Calling?     V,    D.  Alicia   Needham 

W.   Sanderson  England's   Call.     Bh.    (_'.  Wilfre<l   Sanderson 


Comfort  One  Another.     Eb,   F.  Laura  Lemon 

God    is   Our   Refuge.     D,    F.  Lewis   Carev 

star  of  Bethlehem.     Eh.   F,  G.    (Xmas)  Stephen  Adam's 

Light  of  tlie  World.     Eb,  F,   G.   (Xmas)  Stephen  Adams 

Gift,   Thr.     r,    lOb,    F.    (Xma.s)  A.    H.    Behrend 

Holiday   Sketches. 
Rustic  Sketches. 
Faii-y  Pipers.   • 
Fantastic  Waltzes 


C.    Lucas         Ecstatic  Walt/es. 
.7.    R.  Morris         Sly    Boots    (Fox    Trot) 
Lucas— .\.    H.   Brewer         Language  des   Fleurs. 




The  above  songs  and  piano  numbers  may  be  had  from  your  local  music    dealer. 
Write  for  Thematic  Catalog,  and  copies    will  be  mailed  you  FREE  each  month. 

Boosey  &  Company, 

Ryrie  Building,    Yonge   Street 
Also  New  York  and  London    Eng. 


Every  piece  of  furniture  shown  in  the 
picture  was  made  by  one  of  our  readers 
who  is  strictly  an  amateur  with  tools. 
He  experienced  no  elifficulty  in  the  work 
and  was  so  well  pleased  that  he  took 
this  photograph,  which  he  has  kindly 
allowed  us  to  use. 

There  are  four  Books,  Parts  1,  2.  3  and 
"Woodworking-  for  Amateur  Craftsmen." 
They  are  a  handy  size  and  have  512  pages, 
223  illustrations,  98  working  drawings, . 
printed  on  the  best  book  paper,  and 
durably  bound  in  handsome  cloth:  will  be 
sent  prepaid  to  any  address  for  .$2.00,  or 
any   one   volume   postpaid   for  50c. 

The  MacLean  Publishing  Co.,  Ltd. 
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FREE!!     FREE!!     FREE!! 



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Guelph  and  railway  fare  at  reduced  rates. 

This  is  a  splendid  opportunity  for  Stock  and  Grain  Farmers, 
Fruit  Growers,  Dairymen,  Poultrymen  and  Bee  Keepers,  to  study 
the  latest  ideas  in  their  branches  of  farming. 

Stock  and  Seed  Judging Jan.  lltli  to  Jan.  22nd 

Fruit  Growing Jan.  25th  to  Feb.     5th 

Poultry  Raising.. Jan.  11th  to  Feb.    5th 

Dairying Jan.    3rd  to  Mar.  24th 

Bee  Keeping .Jan.  11th  to  Jan.  22nd 

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one  another.  Each  waited  for  someone 
else  to  speak. 

"All  right,"  continued  Allan.  "Half 
rations  it  is,  and  there's  double  pay  for 
every  man  in  the  outfit  as  long  as  there's 
only  half  a  meal. 

"Now  this  is  only  the  beginning.  As  I 
said,  we're  up  against  a  hard  game,  and 
there's  liable  to  be  more  of  this  sort  of 
thing.  Now,  while  we're  nearest  the  rail- 
road, is  the  time  to  quit.  Anyone  who 
doesn't  like  the  prospect  can  get  his  time 
to-night  and  go  out  when  the  teams  go 
next  time.    How  about  it?" 

He  looked  around  the  circle  of  faces  in 
the  light  of  the  big  camp  fire.  No  one 
spoke,  though  each  face  was  serious. 

"Remember,  it's  not  going  to  be  any 
picnic,  and  we  may  expect  most  anything 
to  happen.  But  we're  going  to  win.  Now's 
the  time  to  quit  if  there's  to  be  any  quit- 

Again  he  looked  around  the  circle.  His 
eyes  caught  those  of  a  young  transit  man 
who  was  watching  him  closely. 

"It's  my  first  time  in  the  bush  in  the 
winter,"  said  the  young  fellow  hesitating- 
ly, "but  I  think  I'll  hang  on  until  spring." 

Allan  merely  nodded  and  glanced  at  the 

"It's  too  far  to  town  for  me  to  bunch  it," 
grinned  an  axeman. 

"I  like  the  short  days  they  have  up  in 
this  country,"  said  another ;  and  everyone 

"Me,  too,"  shouted  a  dog  driver,  and  he 
was  followed  by  a  chorus. 

"Thanks,  fellows,"  said  Allan  in  a 
slightly  humble  tone.  "I'm  glad  you're  go- 
ing to  stick.  There'll  be  an  extra  month's 
pay  for  everyone  who  sees  it  through." 

His  announcement  was  greeted  with 
cheers,  and  the  men  began  their  slim  meal. 
Allan,  who  had  been  studying  each  man 
on  the  way  in  from  Sabawe  and  after 
they  had  started  work,  was  more  than 
satisfied  with  his  crew.  They  were  a  hard, 
rough  lot,  the  axemen  and  rodmen  and 
dog-team  men,  but  Allan's  method  of 
weeding  out  had  shown  results.  The  tran- 
sit men,  of  course,  were  from  Toronto, 
civil  engineers  like  himself,  men  accus- 
tomed to  surveying  in  all  sorts  of  country 
and  all  sorts  of  weather.  If  men  could  put 
the  job  through,  he  thought,  these  were 
the  men. 

THE  work  progressed  rapidly,  despite 
the  lean  rations  and  the  fact  that  it 
snowed  all  the  third  day.  The  fourth  day 
camp  was  moved  to  the  foot  of  the  lake, 
less  than  two  miles  from  the  MacLure 
trading  post.  So  far  there  had  been  no 
word  from  Hughey.  The  woodsman  had 
slipped  out  of  camp  before  daylight  the 
morning  the  dogs  were  poisoned  and  had 
not  been  seen  or  heard  from  since.  Allan, 
knowing  the  desperate  measures  to  which 
the  National  people  would  resort,  feared 
for  the  safety  of  his  friend,  despite  the 
confidence  he  had  in  him. 

Further,  the  rations  were  about  gone, 
and  he  knew  Hughey  would  send  the  teams 
through  as  quickly  as  possible.  They 
should  have  arrived  that  night.  Already 
the  cook  was  making  Johnnie  cake  and 
porridge  of  the  cornmeal  brought  in  for 
dog  food;  and  there  was  practically  noth- 
ing else  for  the  next  day. 

At  noon  of  the  fifth  day,  when  there 

F  A  R  M  E  ir  S    MAGAZINE 


■was  no  sign  of  a  dog  team  on  the  lake, 
Allan  took  his  eiderdown  quilt,  a  small  axe 
and  a  little  food,  slipped  on  his  snowshoes 
and  started  on  the  back  trail.  It  had  been 
the  plan  to  have  the  four  dog  teams,  which 
had  returned  to  Sabawe,  bring  up  their 
loads  only  as  far  as  the  cache,  where  a 
man  was  on  guard.  If  Hughey  did  not 
reach  the  cache  before  they  started  back, 
there  would  be  no  dogs  to  haul  food  on  to 
the  crew,  and  another  week  would  elapse 
before  provisions  would  reach  Kabeto- 

The  wind  was  blowing  hard  from  the 
north-west  when  Allan  started,  and  he 
soon  saw  that  the  better  going  was  on  the 
west  side  of  the  lake.  After  an  hour  the 
ice  was  so  free  from  snow  that  he  could 
remove  the  webs  and,  in  his  moccasins, 
jog  along  at  six  miles  an  hour.  This 
course  took  him  west  of  the  trail  by  which 
camp  had  been  moved  up  the  lake,  and  it 
was  not  until  he  had  reached  the  south 
end,  just  at  dusk,  that  he  struck  the  port- 
age leading  into  the  lake  to  the  south. 

He  stopped,  dumbfounded.  The  trail, 
instead  of  being  covered  with  a  foot  of 
snow,  was  beaten  hard,  bore  the  fresh 
signs  of  dogs,  men  and  heavily  loaded 
toboggans.   . 

Why  had  he  not  seen  them?  Although 
he  had  kept  near  the  west  shore,  he  could 
see  anything  on  the  lake  as  he  went  down, 
and  he  had  not  passed  the  dog  teams.  He 
was  certain  of  it.  Yet  here  were  the 
fresh  signs. 

IMMEDIATELY  Allan  turned  into  the 
■*-  trail  and  started  northward  upon  it. 
Out  onto  the  lake  it  went  for  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  and  then,  to  his  further  amaze- 
ment, turned  sharply  off  to  the  east.  He 
hurried  on  to  find  the  trail  strike  the  shore 
and  follow  an  old  portage  that  ran  at  right 
angles  to  the  course  of  the  survey. 

The  young  engineer  did  not  stop  to 
question.  He  only  knew  that,  for  some 
reason,  the  men  had  turned  off  and  thai 
they  were  now  traveling  away  from  camp, 
away  from  the  crew  that  was  rapidly 
nearing  the  point  where  starvation  faced 

In  the  darkness  it  was  easy  to  follow 
the  well-beaten, frozen  path,  and  Allan,  his 
snowshoes  lashed  to  his  pack,  ran  on.  Af- 
ter a  mile  he  came  to  a  lake,  crossed  it, 
struck  another  portage  and  then  another 
lake.  Still  the  frozen,  smooth  path  led  on 
into  the  east  and  still  he  ran  on.  At  mid- 
night he  stopped  to  boil  some  tea  and  eat 
a  piece  of  Johnnie  cake.  In  half  an  hour 
he  was  on  his  way  again. 

From  darkness  until  three  in  the  morn- 
ing Allan  followed  the  trail  always  at  a 
jog  trot.  His  legs  ached,  the  cold  air  bit 
his  lungs,  his  clothing  was  wet  from  per- 
spiration that  froze  on  his  back  and  chest 
in  long,  feathery  strings.  His  stubby 
beard  was  covered  with  frost,  and  it  was 
necessary  to  rub  his  eyes  every  little  while 
to  keep  the  lashes  from  freezing  together. 

At  last,  staggering  a  little,  but  still 
jogging  on,  he  turned  a  sharp  bend  in  the 
trail  to  tumble  headlong  into  the  drivers' 
camp.  Dogs  growled  and  yelped.  The 
men,  rolled  in  their  robes  about  the  half- 
dead  fire,  sat  up  quickly  in  the  darkness. 
One  of  them  swore.  The  dogs  all  wakened 
and  the  spruce  echoed  with   the  racket. 

As  Allan  scrambled  to  his  feet  one  of 


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the  men  threw  some  dry  wood  onto  the 

"Who  are  you?"  he  demanded  gruffly  as 
the  flames  showed  the  newcomer  standing 
before  him. 

"What  are  you  crazy  fools  doing  here?" 
retorted  Allan  angrily.  "You're  twenty- 
five  miles  off  the  course,  and  the  crew's 

"It's  the  boss,"  whispered  one  of  the 
men  a.s  he  unrolled  his  robe  and  stood  up. 
"Old  Hughey  sent  us  this  way,"  he  con- 
tinued aloud  as  he  fumbled  in  a  pocket  of 
his  shirt. 

"Hughey!"  cried  Allan.  "Sent  you  this 
way!   Is  he  crazy,  are  you,  or  am  I?" 

"Here's  his  orders,"  replied  the  driver, 
handing  Allan  a  crumpled,  soiled  piece  of 
paper.  "We  found  them  sticking  in  the 
middle  of  the  trail  when  we  hit  Kabeto- 
gama.  He'd  been  to  the  cache  and  left 
word  for  us  to  come  right  through,  and 
then  he  came  back  this  way.  We  hit 
Kabetogama  early  yesterday  morning  and 
came  the  way  he  said." 

Allan,  spreading  out  the  paper,  knelt 
beside  the  fire.  And,  as  he  read,  the 
weariness  and  aching  of  his  body,  the 
crew  that  was  rapidly  approaching  its  last 
meal,  the  very  survey  itself,  were  forgot- 
ten before  the  fact  that  Old  Hughey,  the 
man  upon  whom  he  had  come  to  look  as 
an  elder  brother,  the  man  who  had  in- 
spired in  him  affection  and  confidence,  had 
deserted  to  the  National  people. 


The    Raid 

SICK,  weak,  bewildered,   Allan  stum- 
bled twice  through  the  scrawl. 
"Weren't  we  right?"  asked  one  of 
the  drivers. 

"No!"  shouted  Allan,  the  angry  flood 
surging  in.  "Munro  turned  crook.  Get 
breakfast  started.  You've  got  to  make  the 
lower  end  of  Kabetogama  by  night." 

One  of  the  men  whistled. 

"That's  a  good  forty-five  miles,"  said 

"Five  miles  an  hour  for  nine  hours," 
snapped  Allan.  "You  can  do  it." 

Breakfast  was  quickly  cooked  and 
eaten  and  a  little  after  four  o'clock,  four 
hours  before  daylight,  the  train  started. 
Allan,  who  had  rested  was  refreshed  by 
the  first  full  meal  he  had  had  for  several 
days,  took  the  trail  ahead  of  the  eager, 
yelping  dogs.  At  first  they  were  on  his 
heels,  but,  as  is  the  way  with  dogs  that 
work,  they  soon  settled  to  their  all-day 
gait,  and  on,  on,  on  through  the  darkness 
they  went. 

The  progress  was  silent  except  for  the 
tinkling  of  the  dog  bells,  the  creaking  of 
the  harness  and  the  squeaking  of  the 
heavily-loaded  toboggans.  The  men  had 
been  told  by  Hughey  that  the  crew  was  on 
half  rations,  and  Allan  had  even  .ex- 
aggerated the  facts  as  they  were  eating 
breakfast.  Accordingly,  there  was  no 
lagging  ajid,  whenever  a  dog  showed  signs 
of  inattention,  a  long  whip  slipped  for- 
ward and  a  sharp  crack  sent  the  entire 
train  into  a  new  burst  of  speed. 

At  daylight  Allan's  pace  oegan  to  lag. 
He  had  traveled  at  a  dog  trot  for  fifteen 
hours,  with  only  one  slight  rest,  when  he 
had  found  the  dog  train.    Then,  after  an 

hour's  respite,  he  had  again  taken  the 
trail  with  forty-five  miles  ahead  of  him. 
But  what  his  body  lacked  his  spirit  had. 
And  his  spirit,  always  most  productive 
of  energy  when  obstacles  lay  before  him, 
now  became  a  remorseless  spur.  It 
brought  fresh  speed  whenever  he  found 
his  steps  growing  shorter.  Aching  mus- 
cles were  forgotten  in  the  face  of 
Hughey's  treachery.  On,  on  he  went  until 
twenty  miles  had  been  covered. 

"Better  take  a  rest,"  called  the  nearest 
driver,  who  had  been  watching  the  falter- 
ing stride  of  the  young  engineer.  "We're 
going  to  make  it  easy  anyhow." 

Allan  rested  while  the  men  boiled  tea 
and  had  a  cold  lunch.  But  the  pipes  had 
hardly  been  lighted  before  he  was  on  his 
feet,  eager  to  be  off  again. 

When  they  reached  Kabetogama  a  new 
problem  confronted  them.  The  trail  was 
not  broken  to  the  foot  of  the  lake.  Allan 
relinquished  the  lead  to  one  of  the  drivers, 
and  the  slow,  wfary,  monotonous  work 
of  breaking  a  way  for  the  dogs  through 
the  deep  snow  began. 

"Swing  out,"  called  Allan  from  his 
place  at  the  rear.  "The  wind's  swept  it 
clear  nearer  the  west  shore." 

The  going  was  better,  after  a  few  miles, 
but  it  meant  a  circle  instead  of  a  straight 
line,  and  there  was  still  a  little  snow  on 
the  ice.  Farther  north,  however,  this  be- 
came less  and  by  mid-afternoon  there  was 
good  ice  beneath  them.  Allan,  who  had 
stolen  an  occasional  ride,  again  took  the 
lead  and,  as  darkness  fell  was  jogging 
along  iown  the  lake,  new  strength  for  the 
effort  coming  from  the  thought  of  the 
welcome  he  and  the   dog  drivers  would 

JUST  before  six  o'clock  Allan  turned 
a  point  to  see  the  camp  fire  less  than 
half  a  mile  away.  He  stopped  and  put 
all  the  breath  he  "had  into  a  whoop  which, 
he  confidently  believed,  would  bring  a 
cheering  crew  out  onto  the  ice. 

But  there  was  no  answer.  No  dark  fig- 
ures appeared  on  the  white  expanse  be- 
fore him.  No  one  moved  between  him 
and  the  flickering  fire. 

Allan  ran  on  faster,  the  dogs,  seeing 
the  blaze,  galloping  at  his  heels.  With 
a  rush  they  entered  the  circle  of  light, 
only  to  stop  in  amazement.  Beside  the 
fire  stood  the  cook,  stirring  something  in 
a  kettle.  Behind  him,  on  a  log,  sat  the 
three  transit  men.  There  was  no  one 
else  in  sight. 

"Where's  the  crew?"  panted  Allan, 
looking  at  the  empty  tents. 

"They  left  soon  after  they  got  in  to- 
night," answered  one  of  the  transit  men. 

"Left!     Where?    They  haven't   quit?" 

"No,  but  there  was  almost  nothing  for 
lunch  to-day  and  slim  prospects  for  sup- 
per, so  they  went  over  to  the  trading 

"Trading  post!  What  did  they  expect 
to  get  there?" 

"I  think  they'll  get  what  they're  after," 
replied  the  transit  man  slowly.  "They 
were  in  the  mood." 

"You  mean,"  demanded  Allan,  "that 
they  intend  to  raid  the  place?" 

"That's  what  they  said  they  would  do. 
They  know  the  girl  wouldn't  sell  any- 
thing to  you,  and  they  said  they'd  take 



Allan  turned  at  once  toward  the  lake 
and  the  post  less  than  two  miles  away, 
and  he  ran  faster  than  at  any  other  time 
that  day. 

T^  VEN  as  he  raced  on  the  young  en- 
-L-'  gineer  knew  that  something  more 
than  a  mere  desire  to  repress  lawlessness 
in  his  crew  was  driving  his  tired,  aching 
body.  In  the  excitement  and  anxiety  of 
the  moment  he  did  not  stop  to  analyze 
this  emotion.  He  only  knew  that,  when 
his  weariness  forced  him  to  a  walk,  he 
thought  of  the  Frost  Girl,  not  of  the  cold, 
unyielding  young  woman  who  had  re- 
fused him  food  for  his  starving  crew, 
but  of  Hertha  MacLure  he  had  met  on 
the  portage.  And  a  strange,  gripping, 
compelling  fear  for  her,  a  fear  he  had 
never  known  for  himself  or  for  anyone 
else,  forced  him  into  a  run. 

In  his  own  mind  the  fear  took  the 
form  of  anger  toward  the  men.  In  a 
more  calm  moment  he  would  have  known 
its  real  significance.  But,  heedless,  un- 
thinking, he  raced  through  the  night  on 
the  fresh  trail  of  the  raiders. 

Once  he  heard  a  shout  and  stopped  to 
listen.  He  knew  the  character  of  his 
men,  knew  they  were  hard,  reckless.  He 
had  chosen  them  for  that  very  quality 
and  now,  with  tightened  belts  that  failed 
to  still  the  gnawing  within,  he  knew 
they  would  stop  at  nothing. 

The  moon  was  up,  the  big,  high,  bright 
moon  of  the  northland  in  winter,  and  by 
its  light,  as  he  staggered  into  the  great 
clearing  in  which  Hertha's  post  stood, 
he  saw  the  black  blotch  of  a  crowd  on 
the  snow  before  the  store. 

The  mob  murmur  came  to  him,  the 
snarling  undertone  of  heedless,  uncon- 
trolled men;  the  low,  menacing  brute 
roar.  He  ran  on,  faster  than  ever  now, 
and,  before  anyone  realized  that  he  was 
there,  wheeled  at  the  door. 

Beside  himself  with  fury,  a  command 
on  his  lips,  Allan  faced  his  men.  But,  be- 
fore he  could  speak,  he  knew  that  some- 
one else  was  before  him.  The  voice  came 
from  the  doorway  and  Allan  turned  to 
see  Hertha  and  behind  her  a  man. 

"Remember,  gentlemen,  that  each  of 
you  has,  or  has  had,  a  mother,"  the 
stranger  was  saying,  "a  mother  who  was 
a  young  girl  once  like  this." 

"Your  memory's  empty  if  your  belly 
is,"  growled  a  man  from  the  crowd. 

The  others  laughed,  and  the  laughter 
sounded  more  menacing  than  the  snarl- 
ing undertone. 

"Even  as  your  mothers  were  once 
sweet,  defenceless  young  women,"  the 
man  went  on,  "so  is  she.  Once,  when  all 
men  were  brutes,  as  you  threaten  to  be- 
come, a  woman  was  a  slave,  a  chattel. 
The  Master,  whose  humble  servant  I  am, 
raised  womanhood  to  the  dignity  to  which 
it  is  entitled,  enveloping  her  with  the  re- 
spect due  her  from  men.  And  in  His 
name  I  beg  you  to  think  before  you  do 
that  which  you  threaten  to  do.  Remem- 
ber your  mothers.  Remember  that  you 
are  cast  in  his  image.  Remember  that 
you  are  men." 

"And  damned  hungry  men,"  came  a 
voice.  "If  you're  through,  parson,  we'll 


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THERE  was  a  swaying  movement  in 
the  crowd,  a  movement  toward  the 
door.  Allan  faced  the  crowd  resolutely 
and  was  about  to  speak  when  he  heard  a 
click  behind  him,  a  click  recognized  the 
world  over  as  more  ominous  than  the 
rattlesnake's  signal,  and,  like  the  ser- 
pent's warning,  recognized  the  first  time 
it  is  heard. 

Then  came  Hertha's  voice. 

"Go  back,  Mr.  Hardisty,"  she  com- 
manded. "You  can't  stop  them,  but  I 

Allan  wheeled  to  see  Hertha,  a  rifle 
in  her  left  hand,  her  right  pushing  the 
man  behind  her  into  the  darkness  of  the 

Hardisty  retreated,  but  he  seized  the 
hand  with  which  she  had  shoved  him  and 
attempted  to  draw  her  back  with  him. 
As  he  did  so  he  held  the  door  and  was 
ready  to  swing  it  shut  in  the  face  of  the 
surveying  crew. 

"Don't!"  cried  Hertha  as  she  frantic- 
ally endeavored  to  release  herself. 

Instantly  one  of  the  men  darted  for- 
ward and  grasped  the  rifle  from  her 
hands.  At  the  same  time  Hardisty 
pulled  Hertha  back  into  the  store  and 
slammed  the  door.  Allan  too,  had  sprung 
forward,  only  to  crash  against  the  hast- 
ily latched  door.  He  whirled  quickly  and 
the  men,  surging  forward  like  a  wave, 
stopped  within  three  feet  of  him. 

"Back!"  he  shouted  in  their  faces.  "Get 
back  off  the  steps!" 

The  surging  ceased,  receded.  Then 
the  crowd  seemed  to  be  gathering  itself 
for  a  new  attack. 

"Get  back,  I  tell  you!"  commanded 
Allan,  now  in  control  of  his  anger. 
"What  are  you  fellows  up  to?  Didn't 
you  all  say  you'd  stick  for  the  big  show  ? 
Is  this  what  you  meant?  I  thought  for 
a  while  I  had  a  bunch  of  real  men  work- 
ing for  me.  I  thought  I  could  trust  them 
and  that  they'd  trust  me.  Instead  of  that 
I  see  that  I've  got  a  pack  of  yellow  dogs 
who'd  go  out  and  rob  a  girl.  I  wish  that 
sky  pilot  had  let  her  alone  so  that  she 
could  have  drilled  a  couple.  One  shot 
and  the  whole  pack  of  you  would  have 
gone  velping  down  the  river.  Now  get 

"You  can't  woi-k  on  words,  boss," 
growled  one  of  the  men. 

"You  can  work  on  nerve,  and  you 
haven't  got  it,"  retorted  Allan.  "Now 
get  back  to  camp." 

There  was  a  slight  movement  away 
from  the  door.  Then  one  of  the  men  in 
the  rear  pushed  forward. 

"We  came  over  here  for  grub  and 
we're  going  to  get  it,"  he  said,  shaking 
his  fist  above  the  heads  of  the  others. 
"Get  out  of  my  way.  I'm  going  through 
that  door." 

The  crowd  opened  readily  for  him, 
more  readily  than  he  had  expfected 
and  before  he  could  stop,  he  was  directly 
in  front  of  Allan. 

A  LLAN  did  not  swing  for  the  jaw.  He 
-^*-didn't  draw  his  arm  bdck  for  a 
straight  body  punch.  He  balanced  on  his 
left  foot  for  an  instant,  took  a  lightning 
step  forward  until  his  face  was  close  to 
the  startled  face  of  the  new  leader  of  the 

No  one  in  the  crowd  knew  how  it  hap- 
pened. They  were  rough,  ready  fighters, 
hard  men,  tough  battlers,  ignorant  of  the 
science  which  a  fellow  colonist  on  the 
other  side  of  the  globe  had  developed  to 
the  ppint  of  world  supremacy.  They  only 
knew  that  the  man  crumpled  up  before 
Allan  as  though  suddenly  paralyzed. 
They  had  seen  no  blow.  The  victim  him- 
self had  not  seen  one  coming.  The  solar 
plexus  had  been  introduced  into  the  north 

"Pick  him  up  and  rub  snow  on  his 
face",  commanded  Allan,  stepping  back 
to  his  place  before  the  door.  "He'll  come 
to  in  a  minute." 

There  was  silence  as  two  of  the  fallen 
man's  comrades  bent  over  him.  Allan 
took  immediate  advantage  of  it. 

"Look  here,  fellows,"  he  said  gently. 
"I  realize  what  drove  you  to  this.  I 
realize  that,  in  a  way,  you  were  justified. 
I  also  know,  now  that  you're  looking  at 
it  soberly,  that  you  see  you  are  going  to 
be  ashamed  of  yourselves  when  you  get 
back  to  camp. 

"Now  I'm  going  to  ask  you  to  go  back 
and  fight  this  thing  out  with  me.  I  know 
you  can  fight,  and  I  know  that  some  one 
man  of  you  is  responsible  for  this.  I 
only  hope  I  got  him." 

"You  did,"  laughed  one  of  the  men, 
"and  I  wish  you'd  show  me  how  you  did 

"I  will,"  replied  Allan  quickly.  And 
then  he  added,  amid  more  laughter, 
"when  we  get  to  the  bay." 

The  man  on  the  snow  stirred. 

"Set  him  on  his  feet,"  ordered  Allan. 
"He  can  walk  now.  Beat  it  for  camp, 
you  fellows,  and  we'll  forget  about  to- 

There  -was  a  slight  pause  while  the 
subdued  crew  watched  with  interest  the 
efforts  of  the  victim  of  Allan's  short-arm 
jab  to  remain  on  his  feet.  Then,  silently, 
slowly,  they  turned  across  the  clearing 
toward  the  trail  of  the  lake. 

Allan,  still  standing  on  the  steps, 
watched  them  go.  He  did  not  move  as 
the  group  strung  out  in  single  file.  Just 
as  the  leader  reached  the  spruce  and  dis- 
appeared in  the  shadows,  he  jumped 
down    and   shouted.     The   line   halted. 

"I  forgot  to  tell  you  fellows,"  Allan 
called,  "that  four  teams  got  in  half  an 
hour  ago  with  a  ton  of  grub.  The  cook'll 
have  some  of  it  ready  when  you  get 

WT  ITH  a  yell  the  men  sprang  into  a 
^  ^     trot  and  disappeared  in  the  forest. 

"The  lad's  sure  got  guts,"  panted  a 
rodman  to  the  man  behind  him  as  they 
swung  ou';  onto  the  lake.  "He  could  have 
told  us  as  soon  as  he  came  that  there 
was  grub  in  camp." 

"He's  worked  that  game  before  with 
us,"  called  a  man  farther  back  in  the 
line.  "He  didn't  offer  us  double  pay  untiJ 
we'd  said  we'd  go  on  half  rations." 

The  exultation  of  his  victory  was  still 
with  Allan  as  he  turned  and  knocked  on 
the  door.  A  lamp  had  been  lighted  with- 
in, and  he  heard  someone  fumble  with 
the  bars.  Then  the  door  swung  open  and 
Hertha  stood  before  him. 

"I  want  to  express  my  regrets.  Miss 
MacLure,  for  what  the  men  have  done 



to-night,"  Allan  began.  "I  cannot  tell 
you  how  sorry  I  am  that  this  has  hap- 
pened, and  I  can  assui'e  you  that  there 
will  not  be  a  repetition  of  it.  If  there 
was  any  damage  I  want  to  make  it  right 
as  far  as  I  can." 

"They  did  nothing  more  than  you  saw," 
replied  Hertha. 

She  had  been  standing  with  her  back 
to  the  light,  her  face  in  the  darkness. 
But,  as  she  spoke,  she  half  turned,  and 
Allan  saw  that  the  hostility  he  had  en- 
countered on  his  previous  visit  was  gone. 
The  eyes  were  a  soft  blue  again,  and, 
while  they  did  not  appear  to  be  friendly, 
there  was  a  faint  suggestion  of  admira- 
tion in  the  way  she  looked  at  him. 

"I  am  glad  I  arrived  in  time,"  said 
Allan,  greatly  relieved. 

"Why  did  you  not  tell  them  at  once 
that  there  was  food  for  them  in  their 
camp?"  asked  Hardisty,  who  had  come 
forward.  "They  would  have  gone  away 
peaceably  then." 

"And  come  back  the  next  time,"  re- 
torted Allan,  somewhat  impatiently. 
"Now  they're  licked,  and  they  know  it." 

"But  you  might  not  have  conquered 
them,"  insisted  Hardisty.  "Then  anything 
might  have  happened." 

ALLAN  looked  at  the  missionary  as 
he  stood  beside  Hertha.  He  gained 
an  impression  of  intimacy  between  these 
two.  The  man  seemed  to  be  at  home,  to 
feel  free  to  speak  for  the  girl.  And  im- 
mediately Allan  knew  that  he  disliked 
him.  And,  as  he  had  failed  to  analyze 
his  emotions  as  he  raced  to  the  post,  he 
now  made  the  mistake  of  ascribing  his 
feelings  to  contempt  for  one  who  would 
try  to  quiet  a  mob  with  gentleness. 

"Nothing  happened,"  retorted  Allan, 
speaking  to  Hardisty.  "But  I  am  more 
sorry  than  I  can  tell  you,  Miss  MacLure," 
he  continued,  "that  this  has  occurred.  If 
there  is  anything  I  can  do  to  right  it,  I 
wish  you  would  tell  me." 

"There  is  nothing,"  replied  the  girl. 

There  was  just  a  trace  of  her  former 
hostility  in  her  tone,  and  Allan  turned  at 
once  to  the  door. 

"Then  I'll  say  good-night,"  he  said. 

"Good  night,"  Hertha  replied.  She  did 
not  close  the  door,  but  stood  watching 
him  as  he  went  down  the  trail. 

Allan,  his  body  weary,  the  reaction  of 
his  encounter  with  the  crew  setting  in, 
the  depressing  effects  of  this  mysterious 
hostility  on  the  part  of  the  Frost  Girl 
upon  him,  returned  slowly  to  camp. 
Wearily  he  dragged  himself  over  the  ice 
and  into  the  circle  of  light  about  the 
camp  fire.  The  men  were  still  eating  and 
did  not  look  up  as  he  dropped  to  a  log 
near  the  blaze. 

"You're  looking  kind  of  tuckered,  lad," 
came  a  voice  from  across  the  blaze,  and 
Allan  sat  up  as  though  someone  had 
jerked  him  from  his  drooping  position. 
The  voice  was  Hughey  Munro's. 

For  a  moment  he  looked  at  the  genial 
face  of  the  woodsman.  Then  anger  flood- 
ed in,  and  he  arose  and  started  toward 
his  tent. 

"Come  here,  Munro,"  he  said  sharply, 
as  he  entered. 

To  Be  Continued. 

The  Supreme  Range 

Cut  Down  Coal  Bills ! 

This  year  coal  is  higher  in  price  than  ever.  Tlie  problem  of 
meeting  this  additional  cost  in  hving  expenses  is  partially 
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Opportunity  awaits  the  man  who  will  strike  out  to  the  ricli,  fertile  land  of  \ew  Ontaiio. 
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HON.  JAS.  S.  DUFF. 

Minister  of  Agriculture 


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^<i~*2^gis»''  to  the  person  who  shovi's  us  an  oil 
lamp  equal  to  the  new  Maddin  (details  of  offer  given  iu  our  tir- 
cular).  Would  wu  dare  uj.ii^e  suc-h  a  challenge  if  there  were  the 
slightest  doubt  as  to  merits  of  the  Aladdin? 
We  want  one  user  in  each  locality  to  whom  we 
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engravings    at   low   rates 

\Kf  ^  I'^i^'^  ''■  stock  a  large  num- 
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photographs  cost  us.  Make  your 
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Our  Pattern  Pages 

Patterns  will  be  sent  Post  Free  on  Receipt  of 
Price.  Address  Pattern  Department,  Farmer's 
Magazine,   143-153  University  Avenue,  Toronto 

7521— LADY'S  SKIRT 

This  skirt  is  cut  with  three  gores.  At 
the  upper  part  it  is  trimmed  with  applied 
yokes,  having  long  tabs  at  the  sides  and 
at  the  lower  part  of  each  side-seam  is  a 
little  plaiting  made  of  an  extension  of  the 
skirt  material.  The  closing  is  in  front 
and  the  lower  edge  measures  2%  yards 
in  the  medium  size. 

-  The  pattern.  No.  7521,  is  cut  in  sizes 
22  to  32  inches  waist  measure.  Medium 
size  requires  2%  yards  of  54-inch  ma- 

Price  of  pattern  15  cents. 

7515— LADY'S  SKIRT 
This  model  is  made  with  three  gores.  It 
closes  in  front  and  has  pocket  laps  stand- 
ing out  from  the  skirt  at  each  side  seam. 
If  desired,  the  yoke  which  is  provided  in 
the  pattern  may  be  used  to  trim  sides  and 
back.  The  back  is  gathered  below  the  yoke. 
Serge,  gabardine,  charmeuse  and  vel- 
veteen are  liked  for  these  skirts  and  the 
pockets  may  be  omitted. 

The  pattern.  No.  7515,  is  cut  in  sizes 
22  to  30  inches  waist  measure.  Medium 
size  requires  2%  yards  of  44-inch  ma- 

Price  of  pattern  15  cents. 


7523— LADY'S  DRESS 
This  novel  design  shows  a  waist  which 
is  cut  with  body  and  sleeves  in  one  piece 
and  with  surplice  effect  in  both  front  and 
back.  The  space  is  filled  in  with  plain  ma- 
terial. The  sleeve  is  full  length  and  fitted 
to  the  arm.  The  skirt  has  three  gores 
with  front  closing  and  is  gathered  at  the 




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top.    Materials  such  as  charmeuse,  voile, 
etc.,  are  suitable. 

The  pattern,  No.  7523,  is  cut  in  sizes 
34  to  42  inches  bust  measure.  Medium  size 
requires  5  yards  of  40-inch  material  with 
%-yard  of  9-inch  lace  for  shield,  1% 
yards  of  5-inch  lace  edging,  and  3%  yards 
of  4-inch  ribbon. 

Price  of  pattern  15  cents. 

The  waist  of  this  dress  is  a  Russian 
blouse,  with  shoulder  yoke  and  very  full 
front  and  back.  The  neck  is  high  and 
there  is  a  centre  front  closing.  The  plain 
sleeves  are  long  with  cuff  finish.  The 
tunic  section  of  the  blouse  is  full  and 
is  gathered  all  around;  it  stops  just  above 
the  knees.    The  skirt  has  two  gores. 

The  pattern.  No.  7513,  is  cut  in  sizes 
34  to  42  inches  bust  measure.  Medium  size 
requires  4%  yards  of  45-inch  material, 
3  yards  of  fur  banding  and  %-yard  of 
18-inch  satin  for  the  girdle. 

Price  of  pattern  15  cents. 

7506— GIRL'S  DRESS 
Quite  a  dressy  frock  is  here  obtained  by 
the  use  of  two  materials.  The  waist  and 
the  underskirt  are  of  plain  serge,  while 
the  tunic  and  collar  and  cuffs  are  of  plaid. 
There  is  an  applied  box  plait  down  the 
centre  of  the  front;  the  neck  is  round  with 
flat  collar  and  the  sleeves  either  long  or 
three-quarter  length. 

The  pattern,  No.  7506,  is  cut  in  sizes  8, 
10,  12  and  14  years.  Medium  size  requires 

Who  Would  Have  Guessed 

that  behind  the  piano  was  a  full-sized  table, 
reposing  peacefully  against  the  wall,  ready  to 
be  set  up  at  a  moment '«  notice  ?  Juit  lee 
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— only  eleven  pounds !  Try  to  shake  it — 
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HAVE  YOU  Been  Using 


Comfi  Weather  Strip? 

It  will  help   to  decrease  your  fuel  account  and 
keep  your  house  warm. 

For  Sale  by  All  Dealers. 

Burlington,  Windsor  Blanket   Co.,  Limited 
Toronto,   Canada 

Do  you  want  to  earn 
$10  a  week  or  more 
in  your  own  home  ? 

Reliable  persons  will  be  furnished  with 
profitable,  all-year-round  employment 
^~~~^  on    Auto- Knitting 

Machines,  $10  per 
week  readily  earn- 
ed. We  teach  you 
at  home,  distance 
is  no  hindrance. 
Write  for  particu- 
lars, rates  of  pay, 
send  2c.  stamp. 

Dept.  223,    257  College  St.    -    Toronto 

(ajuo  at  Leicester.  England) 




For  Men,  Women 

and  Children 

For  warmth,   fineness   of   tex- 
ture, comfort  and  bodily  pro- 
tection, in  all   weathers,  there  is  no 
clothing  which  meets  these  require- 
ments so  thoroughly  as  Jaeger  Pure 
Wool  Underwear. 

Can    be    had  in    all    weights    for  all 

Only  the  finest  selected  undyed 
wools  are  used  in  the  manufacture, 
and  it  is  unquestionably  the  finest 
clothing  for  wear  next  the  skin. 
A  fuUy  illustrated  catalogue  and 
Dr.  Jaeger's  Health  Culture  will  ba 
sent  free  on  application  to 

Dr.  Jaeger  '*"^;rt«r""' 



Co.  Liimt«d 


Incorporated  la  Gneland  in  1883  with    British   Capital  for 
the  British  Empire 



tlicu  Iceep 
^  EGG  ^ 

er  ^^^^^^^^V 
In-  ^^^^^ 
yield.  JT^^ 

IS       ^0l^^ 


heir  food.    Sold 
ack  Guarantee 


-    -       -J^ 

t  : 

.    .          _■ 


-    -              1 



— y 
It  h 

ou   will  And  ' 
tts   Poultry 
'ulator  high- 
alued.  At  on 
t  a  month  p 
i,   it  greatly 
ises   the    egg 
l^es     the     her 
Ithier   becau! 
elps  digest  t 
our  Money  E 





Sold    bu    all    dealert. 

page  Poultryman's  Handbook 
th  $1.00.  Send  10c.  for  a  copy. 

tt  Food  Co.  of  Can.  Limited 

CluamoDt  Street,   Toronto 




Fit  easily  an'l  comfortably 
—  fasy  to  fasten,  easy  to 
undo.  Not  celiiUoi.l  —  but 
coated  lintn  collar  that  can 
be  instantly  cleaned.  Rein- 
*oiceii  buttonholes  and  flexible 
Up  ensures  Ions  service. 
Made   in   Canaiiu 

Ask  your  dealer  for  r^ANT  |\RAC|\  or  write  for 

style  booklet  on  collars  and  dress. 

The   Parsons    &    Parsons   Canadian     Company 


back.  Both  are  plain,  but  the  front  has 
also  a  vest  which  may  be  used  or  omitted. 
The  neck  may  have  the  high,  turnover  col- 
lar with  either  a  shaped  neckband  or  with 
very  small  revers  which  leave  the  neck 

The  pattern,  No.  7.504,  is  cut  in  sizes 
34  to  42  inches  bust  measure.  Medium  size 

2%  yards  of  44-inch  plain  goods  and 
yg-yard  of  36-inch  plaid  material  with 
•"i-yard  of  ribbon  for  a  belt. 

Price  of  pattern  10  cents. 

Ideal  for  thin  materials,  this  waist  has 
considerable   fulness    in   both    front   and 

requires  2^/4  yards  of  36-inch  material 
with  %-yard  of  27-inch  contrasting 

Price  of  pattern  15  cents. 

Chicken  or  Avian  Cholera 

Continued  from  Page  21. 

stagger  around  for  a  little  while  and' fall 
again.  Or  the  bird  may  fall  down  as  the 
first  sign  of  the  disease,  and  die  in  a  few 
hours,  or  the  birds  may  fall  off  the  roost 
and  be  found  dead  in  the  morning,  not 
having  been  noticed  sick  at  all  by  any  one. 

When  noticed,  the  bird  is  sleepy  looking 
and  seeks  a  quiet  corner,  or  an  isolated 
place  to  stand  until  it  falls  down  and  dies, 
the  wings  and  tail  droop,  the  feathers 
stand  open,  and  the  head  round  under- 
neath the  shoulder,  the  eyes  are  partially 
or  completely  closed,  the  comb  and  wattles 
change  color,  becoming  purple.  The  tem- 
perature, if  taken,  will  rise  to  112  degrees 
F.  The  bird  usually  dies  in  convulsions 
two  to  five  hours  after  showing  first  sign 
of  sickness. 

When  less  severe  the  chicken  becomes 
dull  and  languid;  will  stand  or  sit  apart 
from  the  rest  of  the  flock;  their  appetite 
for  food  is  lost,  but  not  for  water,  which 
is  usually  sought  after  more  than  usual. 
The  wings  and  tail  droop,  the  feathers 
are  open,  then  it  begins  to  stagger  show- 
ing great  weakness,  though  it  will  at  ti(nes 
rouse  up,  look  around,  shake  itself  or  try 
to  walk  around  for  a  short  distance. 

In  the  acute  or  virulent  outbreaks  90  to 
95  per  cent,  of  fowls  die.  In  milder  out- 
breaks 50  per  cent,  of  those  attacked,  and 
most  of  those  that  recover  "spontaneous- 
ly" thrive  so  badly  that  it  would  have  been 
more  profitable  had  they  died.  They  also 
become  carriers  of  the  disease,  and  may 

convey  it  to  distant  places  months  after- 

The  dead  fowls  show  many  black  or 
very  dark  colored  patches  on  the  skin. 
The  windpipe  and  bronchial  tubes  con- 
tains a  quqantity  of  frothy,  slimy  mucus. 
The  food  in  the  crop  has  a  foetid  odor. 
The  bowels  are  much  inflamed  practically 
throughout  their  whole  length,  and  show 
black  spots  as  on  the  skin.  The  blood  in 
the  vessels  is  very  dark  in  color  but  may 
be  coagulated  or  clotted  in  a  normal  way. 
The  liver  is  congested  and  enlarged,  often 
more  than  twice  the  normal  size,  is  dark 
colored,  but  may  contain  many  yellowish, 
cheesy  patches,  all  other  internal  organs 
are  congested,  enlarged,  dark  colored  and 


In  treating  fowl  cholera  the  great  point 
to  keep  in  view  is  prevention.  In  most 
outbreaks  little  can  be  done  in  the  way  of 
treating  the  sick  birds,  while  in  the  viru- 
lent outbreaks  many  chickens  are  dead  be- 
fore the  treatment  can  be  applied.  Some- 
times many  are  dead  before  the  owner 
realizes  the  serious  character  of  the 
disease.  If  noticed  early  enough  and  the 
nature  of  the  disease  is  understood,  iso- 
late all  healthy  birds.  Remove  them  to  a 
considerable  distance  from  the  infected 
house  and  rvms  and  treat  them  with  anti- 
septics, then  burn  all  dead  birds,  litter, 
manure,  etc.,  as  far  as  possible,  and  dis- 
infest  the  chicken  houses  and  runs;  white- 



Make  Your  Maple  Trees 
Produce  a  Profit 

Never  before  has  there  been  such  a  fine  oppor- 
tunity to  earn  big  profits  from  your  map'e  trees. 

The  supply  of  pure  maple  products  is  far  behind  the  de- 
mand. This  means  higher  prices  and  a  market  ready  to 
lake  all  that  you  can  produce. 

Get  ready  now  for  spring  tappine.  Select*  the  neces- 
sary equipment  as  soon  as  possible.  In  the  mean- 
time write  for  our  free  circular  xvhich  illustrates  and  de- 
scribes how  you  can  make  the  finest  erade  of  syrup  and 
suear^ — quicker — easier  and  at  a  lower  cost—  by  usinff 

The  Champion 

Send  for  particulars 
to  day. 

Grimm  Manufacturing  Co.,  Limited 

52  Wellington  Street,    Montreal 

3  —BIG  FEATURES—  3 

'.Combined  in  no  other  SHOCK  ABSORBER. 

There  is  a  bie  advantaee  in  the 
]  1— TELESCOPING  DUST  CAP— It"ducks" 
the  blow  of   the    fender.     The  TELESCOP- 
I ING  DUST  CAP  makes  room  for 
which  eive  the  TEMCO  a  bie,  exclusive  ad- 
Tantaee  over  others.     But  not  only  are  they 
they      are      DOUBLE     SPIRAL 
SPRINGS,  and    made  of    genuine 
Crucible  Vanadium  Steel.      They 
couldn't      be      longer.       They 
couldn't  be  stronger. 

3— RADIUS    LINKS    prevent    side-sway. 
Most   SHOCK    ABSORBERS   "lop"     one 
wayortheolher,  but  TEMCOS  are  uncom- 
promisinely     erect.       R  A  D  I  U  S 
^LINKS  hold  them  straight. 
TEMCOS     give    the    utmost     in 
smooth    riding.       They      satisfy 
fully.     There  is  really  nothing  to 
compare  with  them.     REMEMBER,  TEMCOS  are  friction- 
less.     Require  no  oiling  or  adjusting. 

LOOK  SHARP,  Mr.  Dealer,  and  see  that  you  sell 
TEMCO  SHOCK  ABSORBERS  and  not  trouble. 
Let  your  competitor  sell  trouble  but  you  sell 


J.  B.   MORIN'S 


Tliio    remedy    cures    horses    of 
broken    vind.    low   debility,    skin 
diseases,   vermin,   and   of  all   ill- 
nesses   of  -the    throat,    bronchial         ^^.^^ 
tubes   or  lungs,    etc.  ^-'•^i-so^ 

Mr.   J.    B.    -Morin;  Ancienne  Loretle. 

Two  of  my  horses  were  sick,  one  with  broken  wind, 
the  other  with  a  very  bad  cough,  .^fter  having  treated 
them  with  Vigora  1  found  them  completely  cured  and 
they  have  rccovcied  all  of  their  former  vigor.— Elzear 
Robitaillu.  Price    50    cents    per    bottle. 

Ask  your  dealer  for  particulars  of  its 
many   uses.     Write 

J.  B.  MORIN.    Wholesale   Druggist 
412  St.  John  Street  Quebec  City.   Que..  Can. 


are    promptly    relieved    with    inexpensive    home    treatment.      It 
absohitely    removes    the    pain,     swelling,     tiredness    and    disease. 
Full    partic\dars    on    receipt    of    stamp.  . 
\V,    F,    YOUNG,    P.D.F.,   482   Lymans    Building,    Montreal,   Can. 

wash  walls  and  roosts  with  hot  lime  and 
zenoleum,  also  saturate  the  floor  with  a 
strong  solution  of  the  disinfectant  or  caus- 
tic lime.  If  possible  inclose  the  sick  fowls 
somewhere  by  themselves  so  that  they 
will  not  carry  the  disease  on  their  feet  to 
the  bin  of  grain  kept  for  the  other  fowl. 
Destroy  mice  and  rats  for  same  reason. 
Cinder,  ashes  and  caustic  lime,  equal 
parts,  is  a  good  mixture  with  which  to 
sprinkle  the  runs  and  floor  of  chicken 
houses  if  it  is  an  earth  floor.  It  is  sug- 
gested to  cover  the  runs  with  a  layer  of 
straw  and  burn  it  to  disinfect  them.  Then 
put  sulphuric  or  hydrochloric  acid  in  the 
drinking  water,  2  per  cent,  strength,  and 
a  small  quantity  of  copperas  in  the  food. 

Spray  the  chickens  with  a  solution  of 
permanganate  of  potash,  and  if  one  cares 
to  take  the  trouble  a  few  drops  of  this 
solution  can  be  poured  down  each  chick- 
en's throat. 

A  good  method  is  to  give  a  dose  of 
sulpho-carbolate  of  soda,  zinc  and  calcium 
in  drinking  water,  once  daily,  instead  of 
the  acid  as  recommended  above. 

The  houses  can  not  be  too  carefully  dis- 
infected as  the  organism  lurks  in  the 
smallest  crevices.  It  is  therefore  a  good 
plan  to  souse  the  whole  of  the  inside  of 
houses,  woodwork  especially,  with  boiling 
water  in  which  a  little  zenoleum  has  been 

Does  Dairying  Pay? 

Continued  from  Page  20. 

unteed  ;iud  certified  milli  must  score  90  points. 
Inspected  mllli,  raw :— from  tubei'clin  tested 
cows,  :iud  must  nut  coutaiu  mure  thau  to, 000 
Ijacleria  per  c.c.  The  score  of  farms  pto- 
duciiiy  tills  grade  must  score  75  poiuts,  made 
up  of  25  points  for  equipment  and  50  p.iuls 
for   method. 

.Selected  milli.  pasteurized :  —  Iiaudled  Ijy 
dealers  liolding  penults.  The  farms  thai 
produie  this  mill';  must  score  (iO  poiuts,  20 
poiuts  for  enuipment  and  40  poiuts  for 
method.  Tliis  parrtcurized  mllli  must  n(,i 
coutaiu  over  50,000  bacteria  per  c.c.  when  de- 
livered to  the  customer.  Fur  uo  milk  wiil 
lie  i)asteurized  iu  this  grade  if  it  contains 
more   tliau   200,000  bacteria   per   c.c 

Grade  B  for  adults.— Selected  Millj,  raw  :— 
handled  by  dealers  holding  permits,  produced 
from  cows  physically  examined  by  a  qutilified 
veteriuariau  once  a  year  and  declared  by  him 
to  be  liealth.v  and  f n  e  from  tuberculosis  cii 
iiliysical  exauiln.-itioii.  The  inilli  must  not  con- 
tain an  excessive  number  of  bacteria.  The 
farms  which  irioduce  this  milk  shall  score  OS 
points,  a  minimum  of  25  for  equipment  and 
4.5  for   method. 

Pasteurized  Milk,  Grade  B.— Milk  not  con- 
taining an   excessive   number   of  bacteria. 

Grade  C. — For  cooking  and  manufacturing 
purptsps  only.  Haw  milk,  not  conforming  to 
the  requirements  of  any  of  the  subdivisions 
of  Grade  A  and  B. 

Nearly  ail  Canadian  cities  have  a  chemical 
standard  for  milk  ranging  frnm  3  to  3.25  p.c. 
butter  fat  and  from  S.30  to  9  p.c.  of  othei 
solids.     Few    if  ,iny   have  a   hygienic  standard 

.Milking    machine   at   worls   on   Jas.   Langdon's 
farm    at   Verschoyle,    Ont. 

Reduce  Your  Roofing 
Costs,  Protect  Your 
Buildings  From  Fire, 
Lightning  and  Weather 

You  accomplish  all  these  results  by 
using  our  heavily  zinc  coated 


Metallic  Shingles 

They  give  longer  service    than  any 

other   roofing.      Cost   less    to   lay. 

Are  rust-proot  and  do  not  require 

painting.     Those  laid  28  years  ago 

are  still  giving  good  service.     Send 

for     free    book    that     shows    how 

"Eastlake"     shingles     make    youi 

buildings    lightning      fire,    and 

weather-proof  and    why    they 

cost    less    per   year    than    any 

other  roofing. 

We  Manufacture  a  complete  line  of  Sheel 
Metal  Building  Material 


^  Maonlacturers 

ind  ^@L.     A     King  and  Duffeiin  Sis.,  TORONTO 
797  Noire  Dame  Ave.,  WINNIPEG 

Power  and  Hand 

Clipping  Machines 

For  clipping  Domestic  Animals — 1  orses,  Mules, 
Cows,  Dogs,  and  Sheep  Shearing.  Flexible 
Shafts  and  Clipping  Machine  Parts. 

"  Gillette  "   Cutters  are  Unexcelled. 

Enquire  of  and  order  through   your  dealer. 

Gillette  Clipping  Machine  Co. 

110-114  West  32nd  St.,    New  York,  U.S.A 



Warj-anted  to  Give  Satlafactlon. 


Caustic  Balsam 

Has  Imitators  But  No  Competitors. 

A  Safe,  Speedy  and  Positive  Cure  for 
Curb,  Splint.  Sweeny,  CappeA  Hock, 
Strained  Tendons,  Founder,  Wind 
Puffs,  and  all  lameness  from  Spavin, 
Eingbone  and  other  bony  tumors. 
Cures  all  skin  diseases  or  Parasites, 
Thrush,  Diphtheria.  Removes  all 
Bunches  from  Horses  or  Cattle. 

As  a  Human  Remedy  for  Rhetunatisia, 
'-rains.   Sore  Throat,  etc.,  it  is  involuab'- 
Svery   boitlo  Of  Caustio  Balsam   sold 

Sprains,   Sore  Throat,  etc.,  it  is  involuable'. 

TSvery   boitlo  Of  Caustio  Balsam   sold   Is 

Warranted  to_0vo  satis. action.    Price  $1,60 

per  bottle.  Sold  by  draggists,  or  sent  by  ex- 
press, charges  paid,  with  full  directions  for 
its  use.  B^rSond  for  descriptive  circulars, 
testimonials,  etc.    Address 

The  Lawrence-Williams  Co.,  Toronto,  Ont. 




H.  A.  Meyer.  Syracuse, 
N.  Y.,  says  "  they 


in  feed  in  one  winter." 
Send  address  for  speci- 
fications of   inexpensive 
yet  sauitarv  cow  stable  to 
WALLACE  B.  CRUMB.  F2.ForeBtTllle.Conii.,lI.8.A. 

Canadian  orders  flllfld  from  Canadian  factory. 
An  correspondence  ehoald  be  addressed  to  the  home  offlctt. 
State  In  inquiry  if  yon  prefer  booklet  in  French  or  English. 


INCUBATOR     (Patented) 

Made  of  asbestos  lumber. 
I'ireproof,  Rotproof  and  Ver- 

Perfect  moist  air  system. 
Compound  heated,  comprising 
a  Hot  Air  and  Hot  Watet 
incubator  heated  by  one  flame. 
Will  outlast  three  of  the  best 
incuibators  of  any  other  maKe. 
Catalogue  free.  Send  a  postal 

R.  TOOPE  &CO..  44  Stepney  Sq..  Stepney.  London  E. 


H.  Fraleigh,  Box  2,  Forest,  Ont. 


at  a  email  cost  by  using  our  Attach* 
able  outfit.  FITS  ANY  BICYCLE.  Eoa- 
lly  attached.  No  special  tools  required. 
Write  today  for  bar-  FnpP  DAAV 
gain  list  and  free  book  llfCC  DVUIt 
describing  the  SHAW  Bicycle  Motor  At- 
tachment. Motorcycles,  all  makes,  new 
and  second-band,  S36  and  up, 


Dept.  Via,  Galesburs,  Kansas,  U.S.A. 

as  have  uiiuiy  cities  in  the  United  States.  So 
tar  as  safeguarding  the  health  of  our  citizens, 
it  is  v.istly  mori'  important  that  a  high 
hygienic  standard  should  be  established  and 
enforced  thau  that  a  chemical  standard  be 
insisted   on. 

The  regulation,s  of  the  city  of  Toronto  re- 
quire the  compulsiory  pasteurization  for  all 
milk,  except  certified.  The  mills  is  expected 
to  contain  less  tlian  250,000  bacteria  per  c.c. 
in  winter  aud  less  than  500,000  per  c.c.  in 
summer,  when  sold  to  the  consumer.  Cer- 
tified miilv  must  contain  less  than  5,000  bac- 
teria per  c.c.  in  summer.  The  butter-fat  stand- 
ard is  .3.25  p.c.  for  the  general  supply  and 
3.50  for  certified   milk. 

Dr.  Hollingsworth,  of  Ottawa,  saiys : — 
"We  liave  under  inspection  at  present  252 
dairy  farm.s  with  an  average  of  24  milking 
cows  per  stable.  There  are  about  7,000  gal- 
lons of  milk  consumed  dally  in  our  city.  The 
average  butter  fat  for  1914  was  4  per  cent. 
and  12. .'i9  total  solids.  We  very  seldom  get  a 
sample  below  the  standard.  Our  standard 
iS  3  per  cent,  butter  fat  and  12.00  total  siolids. 
Ke,  the  bacteria  count,  we  have  no  standard. 
Our  counts  are  as  follows: — 50  per  cent,  under 
100,000  and  35  per  cent,  under  500,000.  The 
balance  is  slightly  over.  The  colon  is  gen- 
erally   present   In    small    numbers. 

"I  might  also  say  that  every  sample  we 
collect  is  tested  both  chemically  and  bacteri- 
ologically.  We  visilt  our  dairymen  regularly. 
We  find  this  Isacteria  count  hard  to  control, 
especially  in  summer.  Although  our  dairymen 
store  large  quantities  of  ice,  and  the  can  of 
milk  is  immersed  in  ice  cold  water  as'soon  as 
it  is  drawn  from  the  cow,  still  we  find  the 
count  does  jump  up  sometimes  without  any 
apparent  reason.  Our  dairies  are  all  white- 
washed regularly.  This  year  we  had  a  man 
with  a  spray  motor  (gasoline).  He  went 
from  farm  to  farm  and  did  all  the  white- 
washing. It  only  cost  each  individual  farmer 
from  ^'3.00  to  $6.00.  and  he  went  over  the 
stables  three  times.  They  were  all  pleased 
with  tlie  work.  Bpfore  we  allow  a  farmer  to 
ship  milk  into  this  city,  we  see  that  he  has 
a  separate  milk-house  with  vat,  plenty  of  ice, 
stables  well  whitewashed,  at  least  2  square 
feet  of  window  glass  per  cow,  and  a  system 
of  ventilation  installed  in  his  barn." 

Montreal  City  consumes  approximately  70,- 
000  gallons  of  milk  daily  and  an  immense 
quantity  of  cream.  This  is  supplied  by  about 
3.300  producers  living  in  25  counties  in  Que- 
bec and  about  400  producers  living  in  Eastern 
Ontario  and  nearly  all  within  a  radius  of 
100  miles  of  Montreal.  Thus  it  can  be  readily 
understood  that  the  inspection  of  the  milk 
supply    is    no   light   or   easy    task. 

in  the  Orchard 

Continued  from  Page  25. 

should  be  delayed  until  after  the  trees 
have  been  pruned.  Perhaps  it  is  not 
necessary  to  say  that  old  trees  which  are 
being  renovated  need  spraying  more  than 
any  others. 

It  is  well  to  remember,  too,  that  the 
more  severely  trees  are  cut  the  longer  it 
will  be  before  they  bear  fruit.  Cutting 
should  not  be  done  for  the  sake  of  cutting. 
It  is  easy  to  run  amuck  with  a  saw,  but 
it  is  not  profitable.  It  requires  judgment 
to  prune  enough  but  not  too  much.  There 
are  hundreds  of  orchards  which  were  con- 
sidered worthless,  but  which  have  been 
renovated  to  such  an  extent  that  they  are 
now  paying  handsome  dividends.  One 
man  has  made  a  lot  of  money  by  leasing 
the  neglected  orchards  and  fence-row  trees 
of  his  neighbors,  putting  them  into  good 
condition  and  putting  the  fruit  into  cold 
storage  for  the  late  market.  Some  men 
have  a  natural  faculty  for  this  sort  of 
thing.  Other  men  are  never  successful 
with  trees.  One  of  the  orchards  leased  to 
the  farmer  mentioned  hardly  bore  enough 
fruit  to  warrant  picking  it,  just  because 
of  neglect.  Yet  the  owner  was  one  of  the 
best  dairymen  in  the  neighborhood.  He 
liked  working  with   cows   and   abhorred 



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shorthorn  bulls:  Cumberl.ind  Prince  No.  100,- 
618,  calved  Feb.  4th,  1914,  bred  l)y  Hon.  N. 
Curry;  and  Salem  Marquis,  No.  SfifilS,  calved 
Feb.  14th,  1912,  bred  by  F.  W.  Ewing,  Salem, 
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of  Corn  per  Acre  on  Worn  Soil."  The  pre- 
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a  history  of  the  science  of  farming  from  the 
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The  book  aims  to  deal  with  every  phase  and 
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working  with  trees  and  he  succeeded  only 
with  the  kind  of  work  he  enjoyed. 

In  sections  which  have  been  invaded  by 
the  brown  tail  moth,  the  winter's  work  will 
include  the  removal  of  the  nests.  This  is 
exceedingly  important,  for  there  is  no 
other  way  in  which  this  dangerous  pest 
can  so  easily  be  held  in  check  or  so  quickly 
exterminated.  It  is  necessary,  though,  to 
do  the  work  carefully  and  not  to  allow  any 
of  the  caterpillars,  which  winter  over  in 
a  half-grown  state,  to  escape.  There  is  a 
suspicion  that  inspectors  in  the  States 
sometimes  leave  a  few  for  "seed"  in  order 
that  they  may  not  lose  their  jobs  for  lack 
of  work  to  be  done.  The  only  way  to  deal 
with  the  nests  after  they  have  been  cut  off 
is  to  burn  them. 

Scraping  fruit  trees  has  little  to  justify 
it  except  that  it  makes  the  trees  look  bet- 
ter, although  when  the  bark  is  very  rough 
or  when  miscellaneous  pests  are  much  in 
evidence  it  may  be  worth  while.  Sunscald 
often  does  more  damage  in  late  winter 
than  most  people  realize.  The  sun's  rays 
are  reflected  by  the  snow  and  beat  against 
the  south  side  of  the  tree,  where  the  bark 
gets  warm  and  thaws.  Then  at  night  it 
freezes  hard  again.  When  this  sort  of 
thing  goes  on  a  little  while  the  bark  is 
broken,  fungi  and  insect  pests  enter  and 
tree  is  eventually  killed.  Where  this 
trouble  exists  the  trees  must  be  protected 
in  some  manner  and  the  best  way  is  to 
wrap  the  trunks  with  burlap,  paper  or 
wood  veneer  which  is  designed  especially 
for  protecting  trees  from  rabbits  and 
mice,  although  not  so  often  used  as  the 
protectors  mentioned  earlier  in  this 
article.  These  wood  veneer  protectors  are 
especially  desirable  in  sections  where 
scald  prevails,  for  they  serve  a  double 
purpose.  And  they  are  not  at  all  expen- 
sive. Whitewash  is  helpful  in  a  degree 
because  it  checks  absorption  of  the  sun's 
rays  and  it  is  especially  necessary  to  head 
the  trees  low  where  there  is  danger  from 

Finally,  it  is  well  to  clean  up  and  burn 
all  rubbish  and  slash  before  the  end  of 
winter.  By  burning  the  dead  limbs  and 
other  wood  removed  from  the  trees  a  host 
of  insect  pests  will  be'destroyed.  In  some 
orchards  a  large  wire  cage  is  made  use  of 
to  hold  the  waste  wood  and  in  which  this 
wood  is  burned.  It  is  not  wise,  though,  to 
make  fires  under  or  close  to  the  trees, 
which  are  easily  damaged  by  intense  heat 
at  any  time  of  year. 


The  Efficient  Farm 

Continued  from  Page  23. 

winter  or  summer,  or  it  may  be  glassed  in 
and  used  for  a  winter  sunroom  or  con- 

The  layout  of  the  second  floor  is  very 
simple,  the  main  partition  walls  following 
pretty  closely  the  lines  of  those  below. 
We  have  four  bedrooms,  a  bath-room  and 
opening  into  one  of  the  bedrooms,  a 
smaller  room  which  might  be  used  for  a 
sewing-room,  a  dressing-room  or  for  a 
child's  bedroom.  A  room  of  this  kind  is 
not  an  essential,  but  it  deserves  a  place 
In  the  really  efficient  farm  house. 

ru  Rid  Your  Hogs  of 


M.  D^  D.  V.  S. 

Why  pay 

twice  my 


Your  hogs  are  almost  certain  to  be  troubled  with  worms  right  now;  in  fact,  at 

all  seasons  of  the  year.     Unless  you  treat  for  worms  and  get  rid  of  them  you 

can't  fatten  your  swine  at  a  profit. 

How  about  the  spring'  pigs?    The  chances  are  that  your  brood  sows  are  worm-infested.    This 

means  stunted  litters — pigs  from  a  wormy  sow  can't  get  the  right  start. 

I  guarantee  that  if  you  feed  my  Stock  Tonic  regularly  as  directed,  you  will  rid  your  hogs  of  worms, 

they  will  keep  toned  up  and  vigorous,  resist  disease  better  and  fatten  quickly  and  cheaply. 

Dr.  Hess  Stock 

25-lb.  pall,  $2.25.    100-lb.  sack.  $7.00  (dut2y  paid) 
A  Fine  Conditioner — A  Sure  Worm  Expeller 

Your  horses,  cattle  and  sheep  are  apt  to  be  out  of  fix  right  now, 

because  animals  f  ff  pasture  and  on  dry  feed  are  deprived  of  the 

laxatives  so  plentifully  furnished  in  grass. 

Feed  my  Stock  Tonic  to  your  animals  row.    It  contains  tonics  for 

enriching  the  blood,  tonics  to  help  their  digestion  and  help  them 

assimilate  their  feed  better,  as  well  as  laxatives  for  keeping  the 

bowels  regular  and  clean. 

Remember,  when  you  buy  my  Stock  Tonic  from  your  local  dealer 

you  save  peddler's  horse,  team  and  traveling  expenses,  and 

the  small  dose  quantity  will  prove  that  my  Stock  Tonic  is 

the  most  economical,  too.    Now  read  this  guarantee : 

So  sure  am  I  that  Dr.  Hess  Slock 
Tonic  will  positively  rid  your  hogs 
ol  worms  and  keep  your  stock 
healthy  and  vigorous,  that  I  have 
authorized  my  nearest  dealer  la 
supply  you  ivith  enough  (or  your 
stock,  and  ii  it  does  not  do  what 
I  claim,  return  the  empty  pack- 
ages and  get  your  money  back. 

25-lb.    pail,    $2.25  ;     100-lb.    sack.    $7.00    (duty 
smaller   packages   in    proportion.      Why    pay    the 
peddler  twice  my  price  ? 

Dr.  Hess  Poultry  Pan-a-ce-a 

I  (juarantee  that  this  fine  poultry  tonic  will  help  your  hens  lay. 
It  will  keep  them  toned  up,  arouse  the  dormant  egg  organs  and 
keep  your  poultry  healthy.  Easy  to  feed  and  very  economical— 
1  cent's  worth  a  day  is  enough  for  thirty  fowl.  Never  sold  by 
peddlers.  IH  lbs.  35c;  5  lbs.  85c;  12  lbs.  $1.75;  25-lb.  pail,  $3.50 
(duty  paid). 

Dr.  Hess  Instant  Louse  Killer 

Kills  lice  on  poultry  and  all  farm  stock.  Dust  the  hens 
and  chicks  with  it,  sprinkle  it  on  the  roosts,  in  the  cracks 
or.  if  kept  in  the  dust  bath,  the  hens  will  distribute  it. 
Also  destroys  bugs  on  cucumber,  squash  and  melon 
vines,  cabbage  worms,  slugs  on  rose  bushes,  etc.  Comes 
in  handy  sitting-top  cans.  1  lb.  35c;  3  lbs.  85c  (duty  paid). 
I  guarantee  it. 

Send  for  my  boob  that  tells  all  about 
Dr,  Hess  Stock  Tonic — it's  free. 

Talking  to 
the  Point — 

Classified  want  ads.  get  right  down  to  the  point  at 
issue.  If  you  want  something,  say  so  in  a  few  well- 
chosen  words.  Readers  like  that  sort  of  straight- 
from-the-shoulder  talk,  and  that  is  the  reason  why 
condensed  ads.  are  so  productive  of  the  best  kind 
of  results. 

Classified  want  ads.  are  always  noticed.     They  are  read  by  wide-awake,  intelligent 
dealers,  who  are  on  the  lookout  for  favorable  opportunities  to  fill  their  requirements. 








Pumping  water  out  of  the  trenches  in 

Driving  Lister  sheep-shearing  ma- 
chines in  Australia. 

Driving  Lister  milking  machines  in 
New  Zealand. 

OperatingLister  electric  lighting  plants 
in  the  United  States. 

Driving  threshers  on  farms  in  Russia. 

Operating  concrete  mixers  in  France. 

Taking  the  place  in  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland  of  the  farm  hand  who  has 
gone  to  the  front. 

Used  for  all  kinds  of  farm  work  in 


Lister  Threshers,  Grinders,  Feed  Cut- 
ters, Silos,  Milking  Machines,  Lighting 
and  Pumping  Plants,  Melotte  Cream 

R.  A.  Lister  &  Co.,  Ltd. 

58-60  Stewart  Street 

AUo  at 



An  Okanagan 


Continued  from  Page  22. 

least  $1,500,  so  we  may  add  $300  a  piece 
to  the  schools,  raising  the  average  cost 
up  to,  say  .'^1,400.  Hence  it  would  cost  the 
district  $7,000,  whereas,  during  1913-14, 
the  actual  cost,  all  told,  of  educating  the 
Summerland  children  was  $10,503.98 — a 
difference  of  $3,503.98.  In  other  words, 
the  advantages  of  a  graded  school,  effici- 
ent teachers,  healthy  pupils,  regular  at- 
tendance, cost  the  district  a  sum  equal  to 
$1.65  per  head  of  population  per  year,  or 
2  mills  on  the  total  assessment,  which  by 
the  way  is  of  land  values  only.  Improve- 
ments are  free  in  Summerland. 

Or  look  at  it  in  another  way.  Reference 
to  the  accompanying  table  will  show  that 
the  cost  of  each  pupil  on  enrolment  in  the 
rural  schools  of  the  province  is  $36.76; 
on  average  actual  daily  attendance  is 
$54.82.  The  cost  of  educating  each  pupil 
on  enrolment  in  the  rural  municipality 
schools  is  $59.72;  on  average  actual  daily 
attendance  it  is  $75.45.  At  Summerland 
the  cost  of  each  pupil  on  enrolment  is 
$49.31 ;  on  average  daily  attendance  it  is 

The  following  is  a  table  showing  the 
actual  cost  of  each  pupil  on  enrolment  and 
on  average  daily  attendance  in  the  Prov- 
ince of  British  Columbia  during  1913-14. 

Cost  of  each 
Cost  of  pupil  on 

each  pupil  on  average  daily 
enrolment.      attendance. 

In  rural  schools   S.'ie.Te  .'i;54.82 

In    rural    niun.    schools       59.72  75.45 

In   city   schools    77.41  92.58 

In  Summerland  schools       49. ,31  65.06 

A  comparative  statement  of  taxation 
rates  in  the  various  municipalities  is  not 
available,  but  the  6  mills  levied  at  Sum- 
merland for  school  purposes,  is  much  be- 
low that  of  many  municipalities  and  prob- 
ably well  below  the  average. 

The  cost  of  conveying  the  children  has 
steadily  decreased.  In  1912-13  it  was 
$13.60  per  day;  in  1913-14  it  was  $12.00 
per  day,  while  in  1914-15  it  is  $9.80  per 
day.  Some  other  items  have  also  shown 
a  decrease  and  even  though  new  schools 
will  have  to  be  opened  for  primary  work, 
or  the  Central  school  enlarged  before  long, 
it  is  probable  that  the  cost  per  pupil  will 
continue  to  decrease  slightly. 

In  the  face  of  these  facts  and  figures 
the  contention  that  consolidation  greatly 
increases  the  cost  per  pupil  seems  hardly 

In  this  world  where  a  man's  reach 
should  exceed  his  grasp  even  good  things 
do  not  attain  absolute  perfection,  so  it  is 
with  consolidated  schools.  No  one  must 
think  that  their  arrival  will  remove  all 
the  evils  of  the  present  system  or  prove 
a  complete  panacea  for  the  afflictions  thrft 
attack  the  education  of  the  rural  school 
pupil.  But  admitting  that  the  teacher 
must  be  a  better  disciplinarian  and  a  more 
capable  instructor  in  order  that  he  or 
she  may  make  up  for  the  distinct  disad- 
vantages of  not  coming  into  touch  with 
the  home  and  parents  of  the  child,  and 
also  of  being  unable  to  detain  delinquent 
or  backward  pupils  after  school,  the  fact 
is  beyond  question  that  the  Summerland 

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xVs  a  first  aid  for  Burns,  Sprains, 
Strains  or  Bruises 
you   cannot  get   a 
better  remedy. 
LINIMENT      . 

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Beware     of     Imitations. 
Sold    on    its    merits. 


school  is  a    tremendous    improvement  on 
the  one-roomed  rural  school  system. 

No  better  proof  of  this  can  be  offered 
than  Ae  fact  that  last  summer  the  school 
board  advised  the  people  at  Trout  Creek, 
the  section  farthest  from  the  school,  that 
the  board  was  v^^illing  to  open  a  primary 
school  in  their  immediate  district.  A  pub- 
lic meeting  was  called  when  the  parents 
declared,  that  despite  the  drive  of  three 
miles,  they  preferred  to  send  even  their 
young  children  to  the  Central  school, 
rather  than  to  a  small  one-room  school  at 
their  very  door. 

More  of  Canada 

Continued  from  Page  39. 

the  prairie  wind  more  or  less.  In  fact 
nothing  seems  to  be  exactly  on  the  straight 
beginning  at  the  Winnipeg  Parliament 
Buildings  and  going  west. 

It  was  while  in  Calgary  that  I  got  some 
idea  of  the  way  the  populace  used  to 
gamble  in  real  estate,  and  into  their  so- 
called  oil  wells.  Shares  that  cost  one 
dollar  sold  for  $1,000  in  three  days — 
everybody  had  shares  and  the  man  with- 
out 20  thousand  worth  of  stock  was  a  curi- 
osity— until  the  bubble  burst.  One  man 
owned  a  few  shares  which  his  agent  sold 
for  $60,000  and  to  show  his  appreciation 
of  services  rendered,  he  gave  the  broker 
fifteen  of  it — until  it  went  broke.  School 
teachers,  widows,  business  men,  stenog- 
raphers, all  either  made  a  fortune  or  lost 
it.  Though  a  hard  lesson,  it  was  a  good 
onie.  Some  blamed  the  war  for  the  great 
slump  in  the  West,  they  got  some  relief 
by  saying  the  war  did  it,  but  it  was  self- 
inflicted.  Where  could  the  rush  stop?  A 
lot  could  not  double  its  value  for  each  man 
when  it  changed  hands  every  two  weeks, 
sooner  or  later  there  must  be  a  halt.  The 
day  that  halt  did  come  was  a  blessing,  for 
real  estate  sharks  were  the  curse  of  the 
country.  Now  since  it  is  all  over,  every- 
body is  broke  and  happy,  they  have  turned 
to  business,  the  city  and  country  will  de- 
velop on  their  merit  not  on  air  or  paper. 


Yes,  the  homesteader  is  the  most  for- 
tunate of  all  men,  his  work  was  honest, 
his  toil  exacting,  the  isolation  almost  un- 
endurable but  he  is  safe  now.  Ralph 
Connor,  and  Service  too,  describe  well  the 
pioneer  life  but  you  can't  believe  it  or 
realize  what  it  means  until  you  see  the 
lonely  shack  on  the  thoughtless  prairie. 
Oh,  the  pitiful  picture  of  the  beautiful 
young  wife  as  she  stands  in  the  back 
door  of  their  hut  holding  her  hands  up  to 
shade  her  tear-stained  eyes  as  she  tries 
to  comfort  herself  by  merely  looking  to- 
wards the  East — and  home.  She  gave  up 
all  to  com-e  out  and  be  a  partner  with  him. 
The  husband  is  not  so  badly  off,  he  at  least 
has  the  company  of  horses  and  that's 
something,  but  the  woman  is  alone,  alone. 
God  only  knows  what  she  endured,  for  she 
never  once  complained.  Knighthoods, 
luxury  and  wealth  are  heaped  upon  our 
politicians,  but  make  no  mistake  the 
pioneer    farmer's    wife    will    eventually 

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It's  a  fact.  Do  you  know  that  proper,  inexpensive  tile  drainage 
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160  pages  of  valuable  building  information^^ 52 
useful  plans — complete  details  on  how  to  make 
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Editor'  Breeders'    Gazette 
The     leader    for     breeders     of     Shorthorn 
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The  Story  of  the  Heref or Js 

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Diseases  of  Animals 

By  R.  A.  Craig,  D.V.M. 

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'  Vegetables 

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Farm  Dairying 

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Sheep  Farming  in  America 

By  Joe  E.   Wing 
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In  addition  to  the  foregoing  list  we  can  supply  books  on  many  other  subjects 
pertaining  to  general  agriculture. 

The  Farmer's  Magazine 

143-153  University  Avenue  -  -  Toronto,  Ontario 

wear  a  more  glorious  crown  than  they 
all.  She  is  the  sinew,  backbone,  yes  and 
the  brains  of  the  next  generation  and 
her  sons  shall  rule  the  land. 

Now  all  this  is  the  actual  cash  value  of 
a  holiday — this  is  a  fraction  of  what  you 
can  get  for  an  investment  of  barely  more 
than  one  hundred  dollars.  Why  a  man 
(or  woman)  will  return  from  a  trip  like 
that  with  enough  enthusiasm  and  cheer 
stored  up  to  carry  this  earthly  craft  over 
many  a  choppy  sea.  Apart  from  the  in- 
valuable education  you  receive,  the  in- 
spiration from  real  nature  and  the  de- 
lightful buoyant  life  of  the  Westerners 
thrills  you  with  a  something  that  makes 
the  roughest  road  as  smooth  as  glass. 
Most  of  all  when  the  farmer  is  out  in  the 
stubble  field  following  the  plough  and  his 
wife  is  doing  up  the  dinner  dishes  the 
lingering  memories  of  the  vacation  make 
the  long  hours  slip  pleasantly  away  as 
they  live  that  trip  all  over  again  day  by 
.day.  What  higher  dividend  could  you 

An  Onion  Bonanza 

Continued  from  Page  35 

provided  by  the  owner  and  the  work- 
ers live  there  and  board  themselves. 
Some  share  half  and  half,  while  others 
receive  forty  per  cent,  and  give  the  owners 
sixty.  The  amount  of  work  done  by  the 
owner,  and  the  materials  supplied,  of 
course  determine  the  ratio  of  division  of 
the  profits. 

But  however  the  division  is  made,  there 
is  a  handsome  profit  on  either  side.  This 
year  the  onion  crop  was  poor,  the  yield 
not  running  higher  than  two  hundred  bags 
per  aci'e,  but  in  a  good  year  the  yield 
runs  as  high  as  four  hundred  bags  to  the 

At  the  present  time  onions  are  selling  at 
from  a  dollar  and  ten  to  a  dollar  and  a 
quarter  per  sack.  So  you  see  there  is 
real  money  in  onions. 

As  one  of  the  growers  backed  his  auto- 
mobile out  of  the  brick  garage  by  the  side 
of  his  spacious,  deep-verandahed,  up-town 
residence,  he  remarked:  "Yes,  we  do 
pretty  well  out  of  our  onions,  pretty  well, 

And  I  believe  he  told  the  truth. 

When  the  first  year  of  the  Boys'  and 
Girls'  Pig  Club  in  Caddo  Parish,  Louisi- 
ana, came  to  an  end,  it  was  found  that  it 
had  provided  a  means  for  education  of 
great  value.  Expert  teaching  had  been 
given,  but  preaching  without  practice  had 
failed  to  reach  the  older  farmers.  It  was 
as  a  result  of  this  first  club  that  a  farmer 
of  the  conservative  type  was  led  into  a 
competition  with  one  Orange  McGee,  of 
Goldonna,  Louisiana — old  ways  against 
new  ways. 

The  two  men  selected  litter  mates  eight 
weeks  old  when  the  trial  began.  When  it 
ended,  young  McGee's  pig  weighed  520 
pounds,  and  his  rival's  65;  the  expenses 
were,  respectively,  $15.54  and  $5,  and  one 
sold  for  $58  and  the  other  for  $8. 



Consolidated  Schools  and  Social  Life 

Continued  from  Page  48. 

crop  in  this  locality.  These  trays  were  so 
universally  met  with  and  so  numerous 
that  they  created  comment,  the  visitor  re- 
marking that  he  supposed  this  was  one  of 
the  experiments  conducted  in  connection 
with  the  course  in  agriculture.  The  an- 
swer was  that  this  was  a  service  that  the 
schools  were  performing  for  the  farmers 
of  the  county,  that  as  the  season  for  plant- 
ing approached  all  the  farmers  of  the 
community  sent  samples  of  their  seed  to 
the  school  to  be  tested.  The  work  was 
done  by  senior  pupils  under  the  super- 
vision of  the  teacher  of  agriculture  or 
science.  Accurate  records  were  kept  and 
the  owners  furnished  with  a  reliable  esti- 
mate of  what  per  cent,  of  his  seed  he 
might  expect  to  germinate.  It  is  not  to  be 
wondered  at  that  intelligent  people  should 
appreciate  an  institution  that  is  render- 
ing services  like  these.  And  what  about 
the  boys  who  do  this  work?  Think  of  what 
it  is  doing  for  them  and  of  the  interest 
and  zest  added  to  their  school  life  as  com- 
pared with  what  we  are  familiar  with. 
But  again  some  ob'ector  may  be  heard 
saying,  "What  need  of  consolidation,  why 
cannot  we  have  things  like  that  in  our 
present  schools."  In  reply  it  is  only  neces- 
sary to  say  that  for  some  years  now  a 
number  of  the  best  and  most  progressive 
educationists  of  the  county  have  been 
trying  to  get  just  such  things  as  these  into 
our  public  schools,  with  what  success,  it 
is  not  necessary  to  say.  The  fact  is  that 
they  are  not  there  yet  and,  as  has  been 
said,  these  papers  are  dealing  with  facts 
and  not  with  theories. 

One  might  go  on  to  enlarge  on  the  vari- 
ous other  uses  to  which  these  buildings 
are  put.  They  are  used,  for  instance,  for 
Sunday  school  conventions,  even  church 
socials  are  said  to  be  held  in  them  some- 
times, because  a  meeting  there  appeals  to 
the  whole  community  and  not  to  a  frac- 
tion of  it  only.  It  would  not  be  possible, 
however,  to  give  any  fully  adequate  idea 
of  the  pride  and  satisfaction  with  which 
the  people  look  upon  their  beautiful 
schools.  They  are  conscious  of  the  fact 
that  they  have  the  best  possible,  that  there 
is  nothing  lacking  in  their  schools  that 
can  be  had  in  even  the  best  city  schools. 
Their  children  can  go  fiom  the  primary 
grade  right  on  till  they  are  ready  to  enter 
the  university  in  the  same  school  and 
never  be  away  from  home.  The  people 
realize  that  this  is  something  unusual  in 
the  country  and  at  the  same  time  worth 
while,  and  they  are  proud,  even  boastful 
of  it. 


Some  reference  has  already  been  made 
to  the  attitude  of  the  children,  which  may 
be  said  to  be  universally  favorable.  In 
one  school  visited,  the  pupils  of  the  high 
school  grade,  who  had  all  attended  a  dis- 
trict school  at  an  earlier  stage,  were  asked 
to  indicate  by  a  raised  hand  how  many 
would  prefer  to  return  to  the  old  system. 
No  hands  were  raised  but  a  laugh  went  up 
that  answered  more  convincingly  than 
anything  else  could.  From  a  bundle  of 
letters  written  in  one  of  these  schools  by 

pupils  of  the  first  year  high  school  class, 
giving  reasons  for  preferring  the  con- 
solidated to  the  one-room  school,  it  can  be 
seen  that  there  are  certain  things  that  ap- 
peal to  all.  Some  of  these  are:  better 
teachers,  fewer  classes  to  a  teacher,  access 
to  a  large  and  well-furnished  library  of 
reading  and  reference  books,  the  advant- 
ages of  being  able  to  study  domestic 
science  and  manual  training,  and  the  bet- 
ter sanitary  conditions.  One  boy  lays 
stress  on  the  fact  that  games  such  as  base- 
ball and  basketball,  that  were  not  possible 
at  the  small  school  can  be  played.  Another 
vv'ith  a  touch  of  originality,  whose  forte  is 
quite  evidently  not  letter  writing,  says  that 
he  got  his  education  up  to  the  high  school 
standard  in  an  ungraded  school.  "There," 
he  says.  "They  do  not  give  manual  train- 
ing. The  only  manual  training  I  got  was 
on  the  hog  lot  and  pasture  fence,  which 
did  not  altogether  suit  my  nature.  Manual 
training  besides  being  useful  is  also 

The  sanitary  side  is  one  that  is  well 
woith  more  than  a  passing  notice.   Few  of 

our  rural  schools  have  any  scientific  pro- 
vision for  ventilation.  In  fact  that  is  one 
of  the  things  that  is  almost  impossible  to 
get  trustees  to  make  provision  for.  A  very 
small  percentage  have  a  supply  of  good 
drinking  water.  In  most  schools  the  water 
is  brought  from  a  neighboring  farm  where 
the  source  is  not  by  any  means  proof 
against  contamination.  It  stands,  some- 
times for  whole  days,  in  the  atmosphere  of 
the  school,  amid  dust  and  flies,  in  a  pail 
that  perhaps  was  clean  once.  Everybody 
drinks  from  the  same  cup,  dipping  it  into 
the  pail.  At  a  very  large  proportion  of 
the  rural  schools,  the  outbuildings  are 
simply  a  disgrace,  especially  in  the  win- 
ter. Contrast  with  this  the  beautiful, 
clean,  thoroughly  ventilated  building, 
with  its  running  water,  drinking  foun- 
tains and  sanitary  toilets,  comfortable  and 
secluded,  where  there  are  no  obscene 
markings  or  vulgar  writing,  then  judge 
as  to  which  is  likely  to  conduce  most  fully 
to  the  healthy  moral  and  physical  develop- 
ment of  the  children. 

Do  we  believe  that  the  boys  and  girls 
are  the  most  important  crop  produced  in 
our  rural  communities?  We  say  we  do. 
but  actions  sometimes  speak  louder  than 

The  Iron  is  Hot 

Continued  from  Page  5. 

by  including  in  their  work  that  of  a  seed 
growers'  association  and  general  livestock 
association,  the  latter  proving  useful  not 
only  for  improving  the  breed,  but  in 
standardizing  the  breed  and  encouraging 
mixed  farming  generally. 

So  far  as  the  educational  side  of  the 
work  is  concerned,  every  local  society  is  a 
centre  in  itself.  Under  one  or  the  other 
of  the  activities  mentioned  above,  we  find 
practically  all  the  recognized  ideas  for 
better  farming,  better  business  and  better 
living  on  the  part  of  the  farmers  them- 
selves are  discussed.  The  work  is  as  yet 
in  its  infancy.  Just  how  it  will  develop 
it  is  hard  to  say.  It  seems  to  me  that  its 
possibilities  for  the  future  can  hardly  be 
exaggerated.  It  is  certain,  however,  that 
sooner  or  later  local  units  must  unite  un- 
der a  common  central  office,  but  it  must 
be  remembered  that  for  permanency  de- 
velopment must  take  place  from  the  out- 
side toward  the  centre.  In  the  co-operative 
movement  it  must  be  the  people  them- 
selves who  solve  their  own  problems 
through  self  education  along  business 
lines.  To  solve  the  problem  of  central  or- 
ganization, farmers  must  first  learn  to 
solve  the  problem  of  local  organization. 

This  article  has  already  become  long 
enough,  but  if  we  still  need  a  little  more  of 
the  middleman's  portion  of  the  dollar, 
we  can,  after  our  central  has  been  reason- 
ably developed,  take  up  such  work  as  in- 
surance on  a  larger  scale  than  anything 
the  local  units  could  do,  the  placing  of 
farm  mortgages  and  the  actual  selling  of 
farms  to  incoming  settlers,  work  which  is 
done  at  present  by  the  real  estate  operator, 
and  which  is  paid  for  by  the  buyer  or  the 
seller  and  very  often  both.  There  is  also 
a  big  field  for  the  work  of  farmers'  or- 

ganizations in  the  matter  of  farm  auction 
sales.  A  few  farmers'  societies  have 
already  practised  this  in  a  small  v/ay  very 
successfully.  New  Zealand  and  Australia 
have  done  the  same  on  a  large  scale. 

One  could  continue  outlining  the  pos- 
sibilities of  work  along  these  lines  in- 
definitely, but  enough  has  been  said  per- 
haps to  justify  my  question,  "Why  do  not 
all  the  farmers  organize?"  and  in  attempt- 
ing to  justify  the  asking  of  that  question 
I  shall  have  perhaps  done  something  to 
answer  the  question,  "How  farmers  can 

The  Trail  ' 

Ireland   Has    Too   Many   Locals    With   a 

I\  I  ember  ship  of  Some  105,000  Irisji 

Fa)-m,ers  Who  Are  Coming 

Into   Their  Own 

of  Dublin  Ireland,  in  making  an  ad- 
dress for  the  Third  National  Con- 
ference on  Marketing  and  Farm  Credits 
at  Chicago  in  November  last,  described 
the  weak  spot  in  American  rural  economy 
as  being  a  lack  of  business  organization 
on  the  part  of  the  farmers.  He  dwelt  upon 
the  chaotic  conditions  that  accompany  the 
marketing  of  farmers'  products  and  the 
purchasing  of  farmers'  supplies.  He 
showed  how  the  cities  of  America  and 
other  nations  have  been  developed  at  the 
expense  of  the  countryside.  He  declared 
that  the  time  is  now  ripe  for  all  public 
spirited  persons  to  interest  themselves 
in  the  fundamental  development  of  the 
agriculture  of  this  country.  "They  must 
get  together"  he  said,  "they  must  eUmi- 



nate  waste,  or  America  will  fall  behind 
more  .competent  nations."  He  showed  how 
the  co-operative  movement  of  Europe  has 
stood  the  test  of  the  greatest  crises  in  the 
world's  history  and  dwelt  at  length  upon 
the  sharpening  of  the  business  ability  of 
the  co-operative  managers  as  a  result  of 
the  stringent  conditions  now  prevailing. 
Not  only  must  North  America  learn  to 
organize  her  food  supply,  he  said,  to  meet 
critical  periods  such  as  war,  but  America 
must  prepare  for  the  great  international 
competition  which  is  bound  to  strike  the 
North  American  farmer  keenest,  since  he 
is  farthest  behind  in  organization  for  his 
own  interest.  This  damage  to  the  farmer 
will  be  reflected  in  every  other  industry; 
for  this  continent  is  still  dominantly  a 
farming  country. 

He  urged  the  farmer  to  learn  the  first 
principles  of  selling  farm  products — the 
preparation  of  packages  for  marketing 
and  consignment  in  such  a  way  that  they 
will  be  delivered  regularly  and  under 

"The  towns  have  flourished  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  country,"  he  said.  "Now,  by 
the  use  of  the  townsmen's  methods,  the 
countrymen  can  only  come  into  their  own 
again,  but  the  form  of  combination  which 
farmers  must  develop  for  their  own  wel- 
fare difi'ers  somewhat  from  the  form  of 
combination  that  townsmen  have  so  suc- 
cessfully adopted.  The  farmers'  form  of 
combination  should  be  the  co-operative 
corporation.  This  kind  of  a  corporation 
has  for  its  object  the  development  of  busi- 
ness on  a  democratic  basis.  It  contains 
the  'one  man — one  vote'  principle ;  it  limits 
the  interest  on  the  share  capital  to  a 
moderate  amount;  it  provides  for  a  di- 
vision of  profits  above  this  on  the  basis  of 
patronage,  after  certain  parts  of  the. 
profits  have  been  set  aside  for  a  reserve 
fund  for  depreciation  and  for  other  neces- 
sary purposes  to  develop  the  organiza- 
tion to  a  successful  growth. 


"These  co-operative  corporations  should 
be  organized  under  uniform  laws.  They 
should  be  exempt,  as  in  England,  from  the 
income  tax,  just  so  long  as  they  remain 
non-exclusive  as  to  membership ;  but  they 
should  be  required  by  law  to  submit  to 
regular  audits  and  their  accounts  should 
be  filed  in  some  public  department  and  be 
subject  to  inspection  at  any  time." 

"I  do  not  think  you  will  ever  be  able  to 
get  either  the  brains  or  the  capital  of 
American  farmers  properly  applied  to 
production  until  they  find  some  means  of 
escape  from  a  business  situation  which 
gives  them,  to  say  the  least,  a  precarious 
hold  upon  the  profits  of  their  industry. 
The  way  of  escape  is  no  other  than  co- 
operative organization. 

"When  you  come  to  the  part  which  co- 
operative organization  may  play  in  the 
social  improvement  of  your  rural  com- 
munities you  are  confronted  with  one  com- 
paratively new  factor  which  will  be  some- 
what surprising  to  my  British  and  Irish 
friends.  There  is  a  marked  tendency 
throughout  the  United  States  from  occu- 
pying ownership  to  tenancy.  It  is  ex- 
tremely difficult  to  get  people  who  have  no 
abiding  interest  in  the  place  of  their  habi- 
tation to  cohcern  themselves  for  all  those 
things  which  must  be  attended  so  as  to 

insure  a  progressive  and  agreeable  social 
life  in  a  community.  Again,  your  rural 
communities  are  often  badly  handicapped 
in  their  social  life  by  the  fact  that  they 
contain  groups  of  diff'erent  nationalities, 
sometimes  speaking  languages  unin- 
telligible to  each  other. 

"Finally,  the  great  distances  which  of- 
ten divide  the  rural  inhabitants  in  your 
huge  country  are  a  formidable  obstacle  to 
common  action. 

"I  mention  these  adverse  factors  not  as 
a  reason  against,  but  as  a  reason  for,  co- 
operation. Co-operation  is  the  best — I 
might  almost  say  the  only  foundation  for 
a  rural  community.  It  will  go  far  to  put 
an  end  to  the  migratory  habit  and  to 
create  a  desire  to  have  a  permanent  home 
and  a  progressive  social  existence.  A  good 
co-operative  organizer  can  teach  farmers 
how  to  make  use  of  the  telephone  and  the 
motor  car  in  discussing  and  conducting 
their  common  affairs  and  thus  overcome 
the  difficulty  of  distance. 


"Allow  me  to  utter  the  warning  which 
will  have  to  be  faced  in  the  United  States 
and  Canada,  as  well  as  in  the  United 
Kingdom,  in  France,  in  Germany  and  in 
other  countries.  This  relates  to  the  very 
vital  problem  of  co-operative  finance,  both 

what  is  called  'long  term'  or  'real  credit' 
and  'short  term'  or  'personal  credit.'  Fin- 
ance is,  indeed,  a  vital  part  of  the  co- 
operative organism,  and  in  all  forms  of 
co-operation  the  goodness  of  the  financial 
system  depends  on  the  presence  of  the 
true  co-operative  spirit.  There  was  never 
a  purer  embodiment  of  that  spirit  than  in 
the  ideals  of  Raiffeisen.  No  onovement 
ever  realized  more  clearly  than  the 
Raiffeisen  movement  that  co-operation  to 
be  real  and  abiding  must  rest  on  the  spirit 
of  self-help  among  its  members.  No  move- 
ment was  ever  more  independent  in  spirit. 
And  that  lies  at  the  root  of  all  true  co- 
operation. That,  too,  is  one  reason  why 
co-operation,  if  properly  and  purely  ex- 
plained to  our  people  who  have  been  so 
nurtured  on  the  doctrine  of  liberty,  shall 
yet  seize  upon  and  hold  their  imagination. 
"There  is  nothing  more  vital  for  the 
co-operative  movement  as  it  is  to-day  and 
for  its  future  than  that  it  should  clearly 
sound  out  this  note  of  self-help.  Looking 
not  only  to  the  future  of  America,  but  at 
the  movement  in  the  old  world  to-day,  his 
idea  stirs  the  depth  of  my  feelings  that 
while  the  state  and  the  voluntary  move- 
ment must  advance  side  by  side,  that  while 
the  state  must  give  its  aid  to  the  co- 
operative movement,  it  must  seek  to  secure 
to  that  movement  the  greatest  freedom." 

Pruning  the  Knotty  Terms  of  Science 

Continued  from  Page  16. 

books,  notably  in  the  Latin  high  school 
grammar.  Here,  after  introducing  the 
cases  quite  pedagogically,  the  authors 
cause  confusion  by  rearranging  the  order 
of  the  cases  that  the  student  has  learned 
up  to  page  29,  and  by  giving  him  a  new 
order  that  has  nothing  in  its  favor  but  the 
approval  of  tradition.  More  can  be  said  on 
this  point,  but  this  is  neither  the  time  nor 
the  place  for  enlarging  on  the  matter. 
Suffice  it  to  say,  that  since  memory  de- 
pends largely  on  first  impressions,  too 
much  care  cannot  be  taken  to  avoid  con- 
fusing those  impressions.  A  trivial  mat- 
ter someone  will  say.  Not  so,  mental  life 
depends  upon  taking  care  of  such  triviali- 
ties, as  surely  as  social  life  in  general 
depends  upon  the  observance  of  certain 
little  conventions  and  proprieties. 

As  an  aid  to  memory,  we  as  teachers  do 
not  turn  to  account  the  sense  of  rhythm 
innate  in  nearly  every  pupil.  Rhythm,  in 
its  application,  is  as  wide  as  the  sea,  ex- 
tending, as  it  does,  from  the  swing  of  a 
hammock,  the  beat  of  the  foot  to  music,  to 
the  stately  march  of  a  dactylic  hexameter 
of  Homer,  Virgil,  or  Langfellow.  There  is 
ample  evidence  all  around  us  how 
rhythmical  lines  or  jingles  stick.  What 
school  boy  in  country  or  town  ever  forgets, 

"High  diddle  diddle,  the  cat  and  the 

"Sing  a  .song  of  sixpence, 

A  pocket  full  of  rye." 
or  even 

"It's  a  long  way  to  Tipperary,  it's  a 
long  way  to  go"? 

The  point  here  seems  to  be  that  the 
human  mind  of  all  ages  and  at  all  stages 
revels  in  rhythm    (hence  outpourings,  if 

not  outbursts  of  spring  poetry  but  never 
spring  prose,  though  as  someone  has  aptly 
said,  one  should  not  write  poetry  unless 
one  can't  help  it) .  If  the  mind  then  learns 
more  easily  by  having  the  materials 
whipped  into  rhj-thmic  form,  why  not  help 
the  pupil's  memory  by  adopting,  when- 
ever practicable,  such  a  method.  Old 
school-masters  did,  in  fact,  use  such  meth- 
ods, especially  in  teaching  Latin,  and  to- 
day men  who  have  forgotten  nearly  all 
their  Latin,  can  yet  glibly  recite  and  say: 

Ad,  ante,  de 
Cum,   in,   and   inter, 
Ob,  post  and  prae 
Sub  and  super 

(prepositions  which  compounded  with  cer- 
tain verbs  govern  the  dative  case).  Fur- 
ther instances  will  readily  suggest  them- 
selves to  any  of  our  readers  who  were 
fortunate  enough  to  be  taught  in  that 
way.  Now  the  "new"  pedagogy  that  flour- 
ished about  fifteen  years  ago  (and  still 
lives  and  moves  and  has  its  being)  decried 
some  of  the  old  methods,  and  rightly  too. 
But  the  tendency,  as  always,  was  to  swing 
the  pendulum  of  change  (revolution  near- 
ly) too  far  towards  the  other  extreme, 
with  the  result  that  the  "good"  of  the  old 
went  out  with  the  "bad,"  and  we  have 
swung  over  to  considerable  "more  bad." 
Once  more  the  truth  must  lie  near  the 
mean,  and  farther  from  either  extreme. 
Here  evolution,  not  revolution  should 

To  show  that  rhythmical  constructions 
still  have  a  place  among  devices  to  aid 
memory,  let  the  following  personal  experi- 
ence be  cited  as  evidence. 


"Well  Harry,  have  you  forgotten  your 

"Pretty  nearly.  The  only  things  I  re- 
member, and  believe  me,  shall  never  for- 
get are  those  rhymes  you  used  to  give  us 
on,  say,  the  'ut  and  subjunctive'  construc- 

"Try  it  now  Harry." 

"Well,  let  me  see.   Here  it  is — 

"  'With     ask,     advise,     command     and 

By  ut  translate  infinitive; 
But  never  be  this  rule  forgotten, 
Put  ne  for  ut  when  there's  a  not  in; 
Otherwise  your  Latin's  rotten.'  " 
(A  revised  version,  it  will  be  noted,  of 
that  of  by-gone  days) . 

Harry,  by  the  way,  is  now  a  doctor  at 
the  front,  with  perhaps  less  use  for  Latin 
— the  dry-as-dust  kind — than  ever  before. 
Or  perhaps  a  Latin  version  of  a  few 
lines  of  the  chorus  of  a  popular  song  of 
those  days,  say,  for  instance,  "In  the 
Shade  of  the  Old  Apple  Tree."  turned  into 
the  corresponding  metre;  thus, 

"In  veteris  umbra  mali 

Ub(i)  amorem  vid(i)  oculi." 

(In  the  shade  of  the  old  apple  tree. 

When  the  love  in  her  eye  I  could  see) . 

Note  that  either  the  English  or  the 
Roman  method  of  pronouncing  the  Latin 
will  serve  the  purpose,  and  elision  must 
be  considered  in  the  second  line. 

These  rhythmical  arrangements  of 
grammatical  facts  (or  for  that  matter, 
any  facts)  that  keep  the  memory,  are 
called,  in  weightier  phrase  "mnemonic 
devices"  —  (enough  said).  It  is  the 
writer's  belief  that  anything  which  tends 
to  stimulate  wholesome  interest  and 
hence  help  the  memory,  is  sound  from  the 
teacher's  .standpoint.  How  is  this  for  one 
in  algebra,  to  fix  the  rule  for  subtraction : 

"Change  the  signs  in  the  lower  line,  and 
proceed  as  in  addition."  (Let  the  mathe- 
matical men  pronounce  on  it  after  trial.) 

But  enough,  let  us  conclude  this  already 
too  long  article  by  a  reference  to  the  fol- 
lowing experiment  conducted  by  the  writer 
on  the  aspect  of  recall  or  recollections  as 
furnishing  some  evidence  in  support  of 
the  assumption  herein  contained,  that  the 
physiological  theory  is  at  least  a  work- 
able one  in  explaining  the  mind  activity 
called  memory. 


One  morning  early,  an  effort  was  made 
to  recall  the  words  and  tune  of  a  popular 
song  of  eighteen  years  ago — college  days, 
"On  the  Banks  of  the  Wabash  Far  Away," 
suggested  itself,  evidently  because  while 
he  was  casting  about  for  some  song,  asso- 
ciation led  to  the  recall  of  the  name  of  a 
fellow  student,  who  used  to  sing  well  all 
popular  songs  of  those  days;  and  with 
his  singing  was  associated  the  above  song. 
It  came  back,  only  in  name  though,  with 
all  the  setting  of  the  house,  room,  and  cir- 
cumstances, in  Kingston  away  back  in 
late  September,  1897. 

The  name  of  the  song  above  is  the  bur- 
den of  the  chorus- — the  last  line  being  "On 
the  Banks  of  the  Wabash  Far  Away." 
Repetition,  you  see,  made  that  part  return 
first.  For  a  while  every  effort  to  recall 
the  rest  of  the  chorus  failed.     The  tune,  | 




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Managing-  a  Dairy  Farm 

The  Good  Roads  Situation 

Building:  a  New  House 

Co-operation  Making  Strides 

'The  Auto  on  the  Farm 

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however,  came  easily  after  repeating  the 
refrain  once  or  twice  with  a  rhythmical 
swing.  At  9.30  that  morning,  the  only 
result  was  the  recollection  that  the  chorus 
contained  four  lines. 

Then  the  battle  for  recall  began  in  real 
earnest.  The  writer  kept  humming  the 
tune  with  the  only  line  he  had  at  his 
command.  Presto!  from  the  depths  of 
subconsciousness  came,  mark  you,  the 
third  line,  started  no  doubt,  by  a  motor 
nerve  cue  of  the  fourth  line  quoted  above. 
This  is  the  line  as  it  appeared  in  memory: 
"...  the  sycamores  the  candle  lights 
are  gleaming." 

What  preposition  should  be  there  to 
govern  sycamores  was  not  yet  clear.  Then 
he  hummed  at  intervals  the  whole  day 
long  till  6  p.m.  using  the  preposition  "in." 
"In  the  sycamores  the  candle  lights  are 

On  the  banks  of  the  Wabash  far  away." 

Nothing  more  could  be  recalled.  The 
services  of  reason  were  then  enlisted. 

"What  word  can  rhyme  with  'gleam- 
ing,' "  Memory  asked.  And  Reason,  to 
help  his  brother,  at  once  replied: 

"Many  words,  but  why  not  try  'sing- 
ing', for  it  will  give  you  both  rhyme  and 

At  once  Mind  saw  the  aptness  of  the 
word  suggested,  for  did  not  the  concrete 
images  of  the  whole  song  setting  so  far 
recalled,  suggest  "down  south,"  "darkies," 
"the  gloaming  on  the  Mississippi,"  and 
hence  "singing."  Reason  had  helped 
rhyme.  So  "Singing"  was  caught  up  and 
remained  suspended  in  mental  mid-air,  so 
to  speak.  Then  came  a  period  of  active 
thinking,  all  mind's  forces  being  brought 
up  to  reinforce  the  suggestion.  The  feel- 
ings one  experiences  in  seeking  to  remem- 
ber a  name  arose.  The  words  of  those 
other  lines  seemed  to  tingle,  to  tremble  on 
the  verge,  but  did  not  come.  This  shadow 
of  recognition,  however,  was  a  good  sign. 
Suddenly  there  came  in  faint  outline  an 
indefinite  image  of  something  about  the 
"breath  of  new  mown  hay."  There  mat- 
ters remained  at  supper  time,  and  no  fur- 
ther conscious  effort  was  made. 

At  ten  o'clock  that  night,  when  the 
writer  was  leturning  from  a  walk  in  the 
moonlight,  his  thoughts  on  everything  but 
the  recall  of  the  song,  in  the  twinkling  of 
an  eye  there  charged  across  his  mind,  and 
then  stood,  as  it  were,  at  attention,  the 
full-bodied  image  of  the  apparently  for- 
gotten quatrain,  with  even  the  absent 
preposition  in  line — all  standing  out  in 
memory  as  clear  as  the  noonday  sun: 

"In    the    moonlight    you    can    hear    the 
darkies   singing, 
From  the  meadow  comes  the  breath  of 
new  mown  hay. 
Through  the  sycamores  the  candle  lights 
are  gleaming. 
On  the  banks  of  the  Wabash  far  away." 

Such  in  brief,  though  long  enough,  is  a 
description  of  what  occurred  in  the 
writer's  own  experience  just  three  weeks 
ago.  What  youth,  either  in  town  or  coun- 
try, cannot  in  this  way  put  his  own  mem- 
ory to  the  test,  in  seeking  to  recall  songs 
once  learned  from  grandfather  or  neigh- 
bor, whose  refrains,  say,  now  alone  re- 
main, such  as. 



"All  bound  round  with  a  woollen  string," 


"My  faither,  the  elder  like  a'  godly  men, 

He  would  stak'  a'  the  doors  aboot  half- 
past  ten," 


"Tne  old  oaken  bucket  that  hung  in  the 

Austrian   Peoples    in 
the  West 

Continued  from  Page  10. 

perimental  work  in  agriculture  into  the 
midst  of  the  people  it  is  designed  to  bene- 
fit.    In  ten  years  we  may  expect  to  see  [ 
the    Ukranian    agricultural    expert    sup- 
plant the  Ukranian  agitator  in  popular 
favor.     Presently  the  folly  of  seeking  to 
maintain  a  little  bit  of  Europe  in  Canada  ] 
will  become  apparent  to  all.  The  following 
incident  which  occurred  in  Northern  Al- 
berta a  few  years  ago,  may  serve  to  il- 
lustrate how  this  may  be  expected  to  come  ^ 
about.  A  Ruthenian  who  knew  no  English, 
and  was     violently    opposed     to  English  ; 
teaching  in  the  schools,  went  to  town  to  ' 
sell   a  cow.      The  prospective  purchaser  | 
happened  to  be  away  from  home,  and  his 
wife  knew  not  a  word  of  Ruthenian.  For- 
tunately the  farmer  had  brought  his  little 
son  with  him,  and  the  lad  in  spite  of  en- 
couraged absence  from  school  had  picked 
up  some  English.   He  acted  as  interpreter. 
The  father  went  home  with  the  price  of 
the  cow  in  his  pocket,  and  a  new  idea  in 
his  head.      That  new  idea   made  him  a 
Canadian.  A  little  child  shall  lead  them. 

Kote. — TMs  is  the  third  article  hy  G.  B. 
Nissans  on  the  peoples  of  Western  Canada  who 
u<re  born  toith  another  tongue.  The  first,  on 
tlie  Mennonites,  appeared  in  the  Novemhir 
number.  The  second,  on  the  French,  appeared 
in  December.  One  on  the  Icelanders  appears 
in  March.  — The  Editor. 

Solution  to  Our  Farm 

A  farmer  has  a  square  farm  to  divide 
among  his  five  sons.  To  the  eldest  son  he 
gives  one-quarter  of  the  whole  farm  in 
the  form  of  a  square  as  shown  in  the 
diagram.     How    can    the    remainder    be  ' 

S  0 


Fa  r  wv 

fenced  off  so  as  to  give  each  of  the  other 
boys  a  piece  of  land  of  exactly  the  same 
size  and  shape? 

The  solution  is  given  in  the  diagram  at 
the  right. 

The  American  people  have  formed  the 
habit  of  expanding  their  chests,  sticking 
their  thumbs  in  the  armholes  of  their  vests 
and  complacently  announcing  that  they 
are  the  greatest  people  on  earth.  Then 
they  commence  to  strut  around  like  a 
turkey  gobbler.  They  step  into  a  mudhole 
and  feel  foolish. — The  Roadmaker. 

Make  the  Change  Now 

Mogul  8-16  ^ 






HESE  are  the  da3's  of  heavy  horse  power 
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It  burns  any  fuel  oil — kerosene,  naphtha,  benzine,  motor  spirits, 
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Why  not  plan  to  sell  some  of  your  horses  now  and  save  tho 
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"Safety  First"  in  Buying 

NOT  one  buyer  in  a  thousand  ever  has  a  chance  to  make  the  investigation 
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advertising  columns  of  THE  FARMER'S  MAGAZINE. 
Our  advertisements  are  carefully  censored,  and  we  have  repeatedly  turned  aside 
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liearing  instru- 
ment, tlie  perfected  new 

1915  Thin  Receiver  Model 

M.»-«  C  DL._„  MANY  times  nseffliiPntaiiilpowiTfiil 
ears  tar  rnonea, theoi,  s,id.inrrs,,/s,.„,„i 

in  8  a.Ijustiiiciits.iiist.iiitlychaiigedby  atomrb  of  the  liiii,'"  r. 
V  T   ■«!  Hiild  in  Canada  direct  Jrimi  om- itontrial 

rreC  iriai  di/iivon?!/.  ontrialatoiirexp.nse.  Ti-«tit 
for  l.Sdays.  C(!stsii..tliiii^'ify()ud(>notwaiittok..-i!it.  Ka«y 
nioiilhlypaynifiitsif  yoM  wishat  thelow^tm-tiiriiedircit 
to  you.  Si'ii'i  fortlii.i  olfur  and  the  Mears  Boi.klot— FltKE. 
GOODWINS     LIMITED.     Box   54  M     MONTREAL. 

The  Boy  Mechanic 

The  Great  Book  of  700  Things  for 
Boys  to  Do 

It  gives  complete  directions  for  making  all 
things  boys  love  to  Build  and  will  help 
greatly  to  educate  him  into  usefulness. 

700  Articles  —  480  Pages  — 
800  Illustrations 

(7  X  10) 

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nor  expense  hsivp  been  spared  ti)  make  this 
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D.  S.,  Ontario. — Let  me  know  where  I 
can  purchase  250  bushels  of  clean  seed  of 
O.A.C.  No.  3  oats  for  my  own  use. 

Answer. — We  do  not  know  of  many  who 
have  this  oat  for  sale  as  yet.  The  Can- 
adian Seed  Growers'  Association  have  one 
with  200  bushels  on  hand.  We  have  mailed 
you  his  address. 


G.  L.,  Melford,  Sask. — I  would  like  if 
you  could  give  or  obtain  for  me  the  best 
way  to  build  a  fairly  large  root  cellar, 
making  it  frost  proof,  in  Northern  Sas- 
katchewan, one  say,  that  would  hold  1,000 
bushels  of  potatoes  or  other  roots.  I  would 
like  the  constmiction  to  be  as  cheap  as 

Answer. — The  most  convenient  spot  for 
building  a  root  cellar  is  on  the  side  of  a 
hill.   The  top  four  feet  of  earth  being  kept 

up  on  the  hill  and  the  balance  of  the  ex- 
cavation being  taken  down  to  form  a  road- 
way or  entrance  to  the  root  cellar.  The 
excavation  should  be  altogether  about 
twelve  feet  deep.  If  the  soil  is  of  good  stiff 
clay  it  is  not  necessary  to  build  plank  re- 
taining walls,  but  the  beams  for  support- 
ing the  roof  can  be  laid  on  top  of  the  bank 
if  carried  well  in.  The  roof  should  be  sup- 
ported with  beams  and  posts,  and  can  be 
made  of  poles  or  any  other  convenient  ma- 
terial. On  top  of  the  poles  should  be  laid 
a  foot  of  straw  and  then  the  earth  put  on 
top  of  this.  Over  the  top  of  the  earth  a 
good  bank  of  straw  should  be  placed  high 
in  the  centre  so  the  water  will  drain  off 
the  top  of  the  root  cellar. 

The  root  cellar  should  have  double 
doors  with  a  vestibule  between  them  of 
about  six  feet. 

Filling  chutes  should  be  provided,  built 
of  two-inch  plank  with  a  door  both  at  the 
top  and  the  bottom  of  the  filling  chute,  the 


intervening  space  being  filled  with  straw 
in  the  cold  weather. 

The  root  cellar  should  be  well  ventilated, 
particularly  so  when  the  roots  are  first 
put  in.  If  the  roots  are  piled  high  in  the 
root  cellar,  ventilators  should  be  built 
about  twelve  inches  square  of  four  2x2 
posts  with  slats  1x1%  nailed  on  all  four 
sides  and  spaced  about  1%  inches  apart. 
These  should  be  placed  horizontally  in 
the  bottom  of  the  bins,  and  at  intervals 
of  eight  feet.  One  should  be  placed  run- 
ning vertically.  This  prevents  any  heat- 

A  high  low  thermometer  should  be 
placed  in  every  root  cellar  and  the  ventila- 
tion so  regulated  that  freezing  will  not 
take  place.  If  the  root  cellar  can  be  kept 
as  close  to  34  as  possible  the  roots  will 
keep  indefinitely.^ — A.  R.  G. 


W.  T.,  Formosa,  Out. — How  to  find  the 
best  layers  in  a  flock  of  hens  other  than 
the  one  given  in  November  issue?  Where 
can  one  get  books  on  the  above  subject?  I 
also  had  a  pen  of  four  hens  and  one  rooster 
sent  over  from  one  of  the  largest  poultry 
farms  in  the  United  States.  I  set  some 
eggs  from  this  pen  and  some  of  the 
roosters  have  a  few  cream-colored  or  light- 
hrotvn  feathers  on  their  backs.  What  is 
the  cause  of  this?  I  have  a  certificate  cer- 
tifying that  they  are  pure  bred  and  the 
young  ones  couldn't  get  mixed  as  there 
veren't  any  other  kind  around? 

Answer. — Constantly  we  hear  of  ways 
to  tell  the  layers  in  a  flock  without  trap- 
nesting.  None  of  them  are  reliable  in  our 
view.  One  man  says  that  if  the  hens  show 
wideness  between  the  bony  structures  of 
the  ischium  and  sternum.  Others  will  pick 
up  a  chicken  and  by  the  way  the  feathers 
develop  tell  whether  it  will  be  a  good  egg 
producer.  Perhaps  some  hen  lovers  can 
enlighten  us  on  this  point.  I  do  not  think 
there  are  any  books  or  bulletins  on  the 

Regarding  the  appearance  of  off-colored 
feathers,  little  worry  need  be  felt  as  this 
trouble  is  quite  common.  If  only  a  few 
feathers  offend  these  can  be  taken  out  if 
you  are  showing  the  fowls.  However,  it  is 
not  always  wise  to  send  a  long  way  off  for 
settings  unless  the  man  has  a  wide  reputa- 
tion. Even  in  the  large  poultry  firms  there 
are  utility  pens  where  the  matings  are  not 
as  carefully  made  and  the  dangers  from 
reversion  greater, 


W.  C.  L.,  Huron,  Ont.-^Would  you  ex- 
plain the  meanings  of  the  terms  quoted  in 
the  market  reports,  so  that  a  farmer  could 
tell  just  what  class  his  stock  would  come 

Answer. — The  classification  is  largely  a 
Inatter  of  opinion  except  in  the  well- 
defined  classes.  The  following  explanation 
hiay  help. 

Heavy  Choice  Steers. — Mean  steers 
weighing  1,500  lbs.  up  and  of  good 
beef  type  and  finish. 
Butchers'  Good. — Cattle  suitable  for 
local  butchers'  trade,  generally  1,000 
lbs.  to  1,200  lbs.  and  fat. 
Butchers'  Medium. — Cattle    from    900 

lbs.  up  and  in  fair  flesh  only. 
Butchers'    Common. — Anything    young 


Kitchen  Economy 

If  you  consider  its  body-building  powers,  Bovril  is  probably 
the  most  economical  food  you  can  buy.  No  other  food,  no 
matter  how  high  its  price,  has  been  proved  to  possess 
Bovril's  wonderful  body-building  powers.  Bovril  saves 
butchers'   bills  and  is  a  great    economiser  in   the  kitchen. 


An  Answer  to  the  Question— Will  It  Pay 
Farmers  to  Build  Greenhouses? 

r  f  weather  conditions  permitted  a  farmer  growing 
■*-  two  crops  ot  wheat,  c  >rn,  clover,  and  so  on,  in- 
stead of  only  one,  would  there  be  any  question  in 
your  mind  whether  that  second  crop  would  pay? 
Bv  ihe  same  line  of  reasoning,  if  by  having  a 
greenhouse,  you  can,  for  example,  raise  four 
crops  of  lettuce  or  two  crops  of  tomatoes  instead 
of  one,  and  in  addition  grow  a  lot  of  "  between- 
rowcropK,"  why  ask  the  question,  "  Can  it  be 
made  to  pay  'i  " 

One  of  our  customers  grew  sweet  peas  in  his 
greenhouse  halt  the  year,  and  the  other  half  to- 
matoes. He  picked  70  tons  of  tomatoes  from  one 
acre  under  f;lass,  and  averaged  15c.  a  pound  the 
season  through 

Why  let  money  like  this  get  by  you,  when  you 
can  land  some  of  it  by  building  one  of  our  green- 
houses ? 

Want  to  talk  it  over  ?  Say  when  and  where 
and  we'll  be  there. 

Royal  Bank  Building 

Limited,  of  Canada 
Greenhouse   Designers   and  Manufacturers -' 




Transportation  Building 



Western- $12.00  to  $15.00.     Nova  Scotia.  New  Brunswick.  Prince  Edward  Island.  $1  0.00   to  $12.00. 
Quebec  and  Ontario,    $8.00  to  $1  0.00.     Skunks  (cased),  up  to  $4.00     for    txtra   Large  No.  1  Black  Skins.       Al! 
other  lines  highest  prices.      I'.S.  —  Use  the  BROWN   TAG — Your  guarantee  of  a  big  price  and  a  square  deal. 
Write  for  Price  List  and  Shipping  Stationery. 


376    St.    Paul    Street    West, 


Wolves,  Foxes,  Lynx,  Fishers,  Mink  and  Rats 


Write  for  free  price  list  and  shipping  ta^s 


Dept.  C. 


307  St.  James  Street 






Traction  Farming 

and  Traction 




Author  of  "Farm  Engines," 
"The  Young  Engineer's  Guide,"  etc. 

This  new  handbook  corltains  all 
the  late.'^t  information  of  the 
How  and  Why  of  Power 


Part  ].— FARM  TRACTORS:  Full 
details  of  construction  and  oper- 
ation —  Fuels — Lubrication — Igni- 
tion —  Troubles  —  All  leading 
makes  of  tractors  described  aii.l 

Part  II. — Water  Supply  Systems  for 
Farm  Homes — Electric  Light  for 
Farm  Homes. 

THRESHING:  All  leading  makes 
fully  described  aud   illustrated. 

Just  the  book  you  need  to  help 
you  out  of  all  difficulties  in  con- 
nection with  modern  farm 

12mo.  330  pp.  151  Illustrations.  Cloth. 
Sent  postpaid  to  any  address  for  $1.65 



Book  Department 
143-153  University  Ave        Toronto 

that  will  do  for  the  block  not  in  high 

In  heifers  the  same  holds  true  as  in 
the  butchers',  only  this  class  refers  to  fe- 
males not  having  had  a  calf,  and  in  cows, 
the  choice  cows  are  of  beef  type  and  carry- 
ing fat  well  placed  over  the  body.  Of 
course  -choice  ones  are  generally  young. 

Feeders  and  stockers  are  about  the 
same  and  refer  to  the  large  numbers  of 
growing  steers  and  heifers  from  600  lbs. 
up  which  are  not  fat  and  can  be  used  for 
feeding  on  grass  or  stubble.  There  is  no 
arbitrary  classification  among  these. 
First-class  stockers  will  be  cattle  weigh- 
ing from  900  lbs.  up  and  of  the  beef  type, 
thrifty  and  generally  of  the  Shorthorn, 
Angus  or  Hereford  blood. 

Canners  cover  all  classes  of  old  cows 
and  bulls  that  are  not  fit  for  anything 
else.  Under  this  class  come  many  old 
cows,  poor  steers  and  lanky  heifers  of  the 
dairy  types.  It  would  pay  every  farmer 
to  take  a  day  off  to  visit  the  Union  Stock 
Yards  in  any  city  on  market  days  and  just 
idle  around  to  see  how  things  are  done. 


U.  McD.,  Bracebridge,  Ont. — Do  you 
knoiv  of  a  cure  for  a  disease  which 
troubles  young  turkeys  when  they  are 
about  half  grown?  They  get  so  weak  they 
call  hardly  ivalk.  Their  droppings  are  of 
a  very  yellow  color.  Last  year  I  fed 
Pratt's  poultry  food  with  very  good  re- 
sults, but  thin  year  I  have  only  one-third 
of  my  flock  left  and  some  of  them  are 
taking  it.  I  will  be  ivatching  the  magazine 
for  a  cure. 

Answer. — Although  no  symptoms  are 
given  to  guide  one,  except  that  "droppings 
are  of  a  very  yellow  color,"  I  should  say 
that  in  all  probability  the  disease  is  what 
is  commonly  called  "black-head." 

Lice  or  any  ailment  will  make  young 
turkeys  "v/eak." 

In  order  to  be  sure,  one  of  the  diseased 
birds  should  be  opened  and  the  liver  thor- 
oughly examined.  If  it  is  covered  with 
yellowish  white  spots  about  the  size  of  a 
five-cent  piece  you  may  be  sure  the  disease 
is  the  dreaded  blackhead.  If  so  the  only 
help  that  has  so  far  been  discovered  is 
one  teaspoonful  of  muriatic  acid  in  a 
quart  of  drinking  water.  This  water 
should  be  given  in  a  glass  vessel  and  the 
birds  confined  so  they  will  have  to  drink 
it.  They  will  require  green  food  when 
confined.  This  has  been  found" to  carry 
some  specimens  over  an  acute  attack.  Dr. 
Higgins,  of  C.  E.  Farm,  Ottawa,  has  .iust 
issued  a  valuable  treatise  on  this  subiect 
entitled,  "Bulletin  17,"  which  can  be  had 
free  by  addressing  Publications  Branch, 
Department  of  Agriculture,  Ottawa. — 
W.  J.  B. 


W.  F.  P.,  Lakefield,  Ont. — I  undersinnd 
you  receive  inquiries  from-  farmers  about 
special  subjects.  If  so  could  you  give  me 
information  of  the  cultivation  of  huckle- 
berries, especially  on  a  marsh,  as  I  am 
interested  in  a  marsh  of  about  forty  or 
fifty  acres  where  it  was  once  very  pro- 
ductive of  huckleberries  but  now  is  getting 
choked  with  wild  sabe  bushes,  etc.  The 
same  marsh  also  grows  wild  cranberries. 
Could  you  give  me  any  information  in  re- 

gard to  cultivating  cranberries  in  Canada, 
aside  from  what  appeared  in  a  recent 
number  of  FARMER'S.  //  so,  you  will  kind- 
ly oblige  vie. 

Answer. — We  know  of  no  cultivated 
beds  in  Ontario.  Evidently  you  want  in- 
formation about  blueberries  as  they  are 
sometimes  called  huckleberries.  The  true 
huckleberry  grows  on  high  sandy  soils 
best.  The  red-berried  species  of  this  class 
of  fruit  is  generally  called  cranberry. 

Bailey,  in  his  Cyclopaedia  of  Horticul- 
ture, says  that  one  of  the  chief  drawbacks 
to  a  dissemination  of  the  blueberries  has 
been  the  supposed  difficulty  of  propaga- 
tion. Grafting  is  easily  done  and  in  this 
way  specially  choice  individuals  may  be 
perpetuated.  Plantings  from  seed  require 
particular  attention.  See  the  above-named 
book  for  particulars,  p.  1890. 

Cranberries  are  propagated  from  cut- 
tings and  further  information  can  be  had 
from  this  work. 

It  seems  that  the  owners  of  cranberry 
bogs  in  Massachusetts  have  much  trouble 
with  weeds  and  diseases. 

A  great  deal  of  information  can  be  had 
from  Bulletin  No.  142  (1914)  issued  by 
the  Experiment  Station  of  Minnesota  at 
St.  Paul.  Write  them  for  a  copy  or  for 
ways  to  get  a  copy.  There  is  only  a  small 
charge,  if  any,  say  ten  cents. — F.  M.  C. 


G.  S.,  Manitoba. — Will  lamp  oil  loosen 
the  carbon  in  the  cylinder  of  my  gas  en- 
gine? I  have  a  6-h.p.  engine  that  has 
never  been  cleaned  inside.  I  use  lamp  oil 
when  I  stop  it,  and  ivhile  the  cylinders  are 
hot.  I  pour  a  half -cup  of  oil  in  the  car- 
buretor and  switch  off  the  spark. 

Answer. — Kerosene  will  loosen  gas  en- 
gine carbon  deposits.  The  best  way  to  use 
it  is  to  take  out  a  spark  plug  in  each 
cylinder  after  the  engine  has  stopped  and 
while  it  is  still  hot,  and  fill  the  combustion 
space  with  kerosene.  Leave  it  in  over 
night  or  from  twelve  to  eighteen  hours, 
depending  upon  the  amount  of  carbon  de- 
posits. Denatured  alcohol  is  also  good.  In 
the  case  of  an  auto  engine,  the  quickest 
way  of  removing  carbon  is  to  have  it 
burned  out  with  oxygen,  most  garages 
being  equipped  to  do  the  work. — R.  G. 


A.  McD.,  Ontario. — Can  you  give  me 
any  information  as  to  a  dust  strainer  that 
could  be  used  on  a  carburetor,  which  I  am 
using  on  my  farm  tractor?  I  would  like 
one  that  will  give  satisfaction  under  field 
conditions  where  there  is  considerable 

Answer.^The  use  of  such  a  device  for 
your  carburetor  is  not  recommended,  for 
the  reason  that  the  resistance  offered  by 
a  strainer,  that  would  be  efficient  in  elimi- 
nating dust,  would  be  such  as  to  cause  an 
insufficient  supply  of  air  to  be  drawn  into 
the  carburetor.  As  a  remedy  for  your 
trouble,  it  is  suggested  that  a  connection 
be  made  from  the  air  horn  of  the  car- 
buretor, but  means  of  a  flexible  steel  tube, 
and  extend  this  to  a  point  on  the  exhaust 
manifold  that  would  be  sufficiently  above 
the  dust  line  to  enable  satisfactory  results 
being  obtained  with  a  minimum  chance  of 
drawing  dirt  into  the  carburetor. — R.M.G. 

F  .V  R  M  E  R  '  S     M  A  G  .V  Z  I  N  E 


On  the  Faj-m 

!■:.   ('.   Dmiry's  farm  house. 


"Oh,  carry  me  out  where  the  starlights  burn, 
Where  the  world-stuff  billows  and  sweeps — 
/  will  grasp  the  orbs  as  they  pass  in  turn 
And  fling  them  adrift  on  the  deep: 

For  the  tuorlds  and  worlds  may  vanish  as  ai), 

And  schemes  of  the  universe  fall, 

Yet  will  I  fly  to  some  vast  otherwhere 

And  hold  my  domain  over  all." 

— Liberty  H.  Bailey. 

The  freedom  of  the  big  out-of-doo)'s  as  seen  in  farm  life,  carries  us  all 
more  closely  to  the  real  core  of  life  than  all  the  pomp  and  ceremonial  or 
wealth-flaunt  of  cities.  Certainly  the  circumscribed  life  of  the  industrial 
worker  has  nothing  so  grand,  so  free  and  so  inspiring  as  the  man  on  the  farm, 
working  among  his  animals  and  trees. 

But  across  all  our  visions  and  through  all  our  dreams,  runs  the  one 
blood-red  thread  of  this  cruel,  wasting,  sinful,  war.  Our  boys  are  in  it.  Their 
bodies  are  suffering  and  their  morals  being  swirled  in  an  eddy  of  contending 
cross-currents.  May  the  inemor'ies  of  the  quiet  /arms,  the  free  skies  and  the 
nature  joys,  carry  to  their  vexed  business,  the  life  that  is  higher  than  camps 
and  more  satisfying  than  martial  victories. 

To  the  women  ivho  suffer,  the  mothers  who  remember,  'neath  the  blue 
and  white  out  upon  the  uplands,  may  their  strength  be  as  the  strength  of  ten. 
The  real  victories  and  the  big  fights  are  on  unseen  battlegrounds. 

Yet  we  must  be  stout  of  heart!  The  farm  must  go  on.  The  seed-time  and 
the  harvest  will  not  fail.  WE  must  not  fail.  Our  very  best  must  be  put  into 
the  business  at  liand,  whether  that  business  be  feeding  a  cow,  cleaning  seed 
grain,  marketing  a  turkey  or  organizing  a  co-operative  association  in  our 
vicinity,  each  calls  for  our  best  endeavor.  There  is  no  division  between  sacred 
and  profane.  Nothing  is  common  nor  unclean. 

The  call  is  to  service.  We  can  not  sit  idly  by.  We  can't  afford  to  trifle 
with  business.  A  poor  farmer  can't  be  the  best  Christian  or  citizen.  But  the 
Christ  was  born  in  a  manger. 


January  is  the  planning  month,  the 
catalogue  month,  the  month  of  plotting 
the  garden,  sharpening  the  tools,  making 
repairs,  and  for  reading  some  good  books. 

There  is  no  time  to  idle.  The  new  year 
is  before  us.  We  must  do  our  work  well, 
and  it  is  our  duty  and  responsibility  to 
make  what  we  do  tell  for  more  this  year 
than  ever.  Believe  in  your  work.  Dignify 
by  an  alert  brain.  Honor  it  with  per- 
sistent attention  and  calculation. 

Out-of-door  work  in  many  parts  of  Can- 
ada is  limited  this  month.  But  there  are 
many  .lice  days  during  the  month  where 
work  as  suggested  in  these  hints  can  be 


It  is  well  to  order  your  seeds  and  plants 
early.  Specify  exactly  what  you  want  and 
insist  on  this  being  sent  you.  Get  the  cata- 
logues and  plan  at  once.  Late  orders  get 
hurried  attention.  Do  not  plant  trees  and 
seeds  that  you  are  not  sure  of. 


and  the  FLAGS  OF  THE  ALLIES, 

and    get   best   prices    paid    any    buyer 
from  any  country  can  give. 


Dept.  A.      25  Jarvis  Street,  TORONTO,  ONT. 

Lately  Occupied  by  M.  Sloman  &  Co.,  Limited 


At  all  times,  whether  Peace  or  War,  you 
will  do  better  by  shipping  Ilaw  Furs  to 
the  fastest  growing  Raw  Fur  House  in 
Toronto..  We  pay  highest  prices  for  raw 
furs.  We  also  pay  all  express  charges  and 
remittance  same  day  as  shipment  received. 

All  prices  and  qiiotation§  given  by  personal 
letter.  We  have  orders.  It  will  pay  you 
to    ship    to    as. 


284  West  Market  Street  Toronto 


Ship  your  Raw  Furs  to  a  re- 
liable house  where  you  are 
assured  of  an  honest  assort- 
ment at  highest  market  prices. 
Write  for  our  price-list. 

Satisfaction  guaranteed   or 
goods   returned 


280  St.  Paul  St.  West         MONTREAL 

Wealth  from  the  Soil 

A  book  that  gives  us  many  useful  hints 
on  .how  to  make  the  farm  pay. — "The 
eariiing  power  of  such  places  reaches  a^ 
high  as  .$.5,000  a  year" — It  gives  facts 
and   figures— Postpaid   fur  .$1.00. 

The  Business  of  Farming 

Do  you  believe  in  the  influence  of  the 
Moon?  This  author  treats  this  sub- 
.iect  from  experiments  on  his  own  farm. 
This  takes  only  a  few  pages,  and  the 
whole  bonk  is  a  useful  one.  Postpaid, 





Ship  Your  Furs  To  Us 

We  Can  Satisfy  You  Sure 

We  are  particularly  interested  in  Canadian 
Raw  Furs,  especially  Foxes,  Beaver,  Lynx, 
Fisher,  Rats  and  Ermine,  and  all  other  furs 
for  which  we  are  always  prepared  to  pay  top 
market  prices.     Write  for  price  list  now. 


118  West  27th  St.  108  West  Austin  Ave. 


Ship  to  Nearest  House 

A  Quarter  of  a  Century  in    the    Raw    Fur 

We  Want  Your  FURS 


Price  list  now  ready.     Get  on  our  mailing 
list.     Write  at  once. 

M.  SAYER  &  CO. 

Established  1900 

269  Seventh  Ave.,    -     New  York,  N.Y. 


Pays  Cashfor  FURS 

Prices  Higher  This  Year 

Big    Money  in  Trapping    skunk, 

coon,  mink,  miiskrat,  f'  x.  etc.     Ycu 

can   trap   furs— we   tonch   you  hoy. 

Funsten  Animal  Baits  g^nnranteod 

to  increase   .vour  catch.     $1,00  a  cnn 

postpaid.       The    Funsten    Perfect 

Smoker    "smokes  'em  out  "    Pri(  e 

$1.60; parcel  post  30  cents  extra.  Bo, h 

gusranteed    satisfactory   or    monty 

(jH  back.      Traps    at    factory    prices. 

|m|     free     ^  bookj  in  one   (trapper's    guide— 

PW      ■    ■*^^   game    iaW6— supply   catalog).       Tel's 

Wgf      how,  when,  wht-re  to  tr-ip,  how  to  remove,  pr.- 

jf       pare  and  ship  >kins.  Will  eend  you  fur  market 

reportH.    shipping   tajra   and   lig  hook    FREE— 

Write  today.    W»  tan  hides  and  furs  for   coats, 

robes  and  garments. 

FUNSTEN  BROS.  &  CO.,  781  Funslen  Bidg..  ST   LOUIS,  MO. 


I',  guide"  : 

in  the^ 
in  Our 


jylr.   Tra^^er  and  Hunter: — 

You  can  go  further,  and  do  no  better. 
We  pay  top  prices  for  RAW  FURS, 
give  honest  assortment,  charge  no  com- 
mission or  expressage.  We  hold  goods 
separate  if  you  wish.  Glad  to  keep  you 
posted  on  furs  for  the  season.  Just 
drop  us  a  hne. 


Est.   1903  144  W.  25th  St.,  New  York  City 

Reference:     Dun's,  Bradstreet's,  German    Eichanec.  and 
Garfield  National  Bank 



Therefore  can  pay  HIGHEST  PRICES 


WM.  J.   BOEHNER    &    CO. 

159-161-163  West  25th  Street,  New  York  City 


Order  j'our  hot-bed  sash  this  month. 
The  cheapest  plan  is  to  buy  unpainted  and 
unglazed  sash  and  order  the  glass  by  the 
box  from  your  local  dealer.  Double  glass 
sash  are  preferable.  Of  course  they  are 
heavy  but  if  women  need  to  handle  them, 
they  can  order  pony  sash.  These  are  just 
half  the  size.. 


If  the  farm  or  garden  has  a  workshop 
where  there  is  a  fire,  much  work  in  paint- 
ing can  be  done  this  month.  Paint  all  the 
tools.  A  white  band  painted  around  the 
handles  of  tools,  will  make  them  easier  to 
find  when  dropped  in  the  garden.  Also 
tools  so  marked  are  more  likely  to  be  re- 
turned when  borrowed.  Perhaps  it  might 
be  well  to  make  a  tin  stencil  of  your 
initials  and  burn  your  initials  into  the 
handles,  if  there  is  trouble  in  borrowing. 


Grapes  and  other  small  fruits  may  be 
pruned  this  month.  Grapes  bear  on  wood 
of  the  present  season  which  grows  from 
canes  of  last  year.  When  vines  are  trained 
over  an  arbor  or  pergola  it  is  proper  to 
let  the  main  stalk  or  trunk  grow  until  it 
reaches  the  top,  but  the  canes  that  shoot 
from  it  should  be  cut  back  to  the  three-eye 
limit  each  winter. 


Raspberries  and  blackberries  bear  on 
last  year's  wood  and  a  good  January  job 
is  cutting  away  the  old  canes.  This  opens 
up  the  plants  and  gets  rid  of  insect  and 
fungus  pests  that  may  be  lodged  in  them. 
Leave  three  to  six  canes  in  each  hill. 

Currants  may  be  trimmed  this  month. 
They  bear  mostly  on  wood  that  is  two 
years'  old.  After  bearing  a  few  years  the 
old  wood  should  be  cut  out,  while  two  or 
three  new  spools  should  be  allowed  to 
grow  each  season.  Gooseberries  are  to  be 
trimmed  the  same  way. 


This  is  a  good  month  to  lay  in  the  sup- 
ply of  ice  for  the  farm.  Where  there  is 
now  river,  creek  or  pond,  one  may  make 
plank  molds  24  inches  by  18  inches  by 
12  inches.  Fill  these  with  water  and  a 
cold  snap  will  freeze  them  solid.  Then 
turn  over  and  pour  boiling  water  on 
planks.   The  blocks  will  drop  out. 


Lettuce,  radish  and  spinach  sown  now 
will  be  ready  for  the  table  in  February. 
Bring  hyacinths,  tulips  and  other  bulbs  in 
to  the  heat  in  order  to  have  a  succession 
of  bloom.  Of  course  a  strong  root  growth 
should  have  been  made  on  all  bulbs  before 
bringing  into  the  heat. 

Read  our  greenhouse  article  in  this 
issue.  The  author  is  the  proprietor  of  a 
big  greenhouse  business, 


Cows  should  be  out  in  the.  open  every 

day  possible  for  a  short  period  at  any 

rate.   There  is  a  moral  value  in  cows  that 

must  be  considered. 

Deliver  uniform  dairy  products  to  your 

creamery  or  cheese  factory  and  so  give 

the  business  a  chance. 

Why  not  insist  on  the  Babcock  butterfat 
test  as  a  basis  for  the  payments  of  your 

About  1 V2  tons  of  ice  per  cow  are  needed 
to  be  put  in  for  the  use  in  the  summer. 

Don't  discard  a  cow  until  you  have 
given  her  a  chance  by  good  care,  feed 
and  health  to  show  what  she  can  do. 

Don't  give  up  the  dairy  business  be- 
cause of  shortage  of  help.  Milking  ma- 
chines are  doing  good  work  now. 

Why  not  get  a  pure-bred  heifer  now,  or 
let  that  boy  of  yours  have  one  to  try  out? 

Never  get  excited  or  talk  roughly  in  a 
dairy  stable. 


Put  the  beef  cattle  on  full  feed  if  you 
want  to  catch  the  good  market  at  the  end 
of  the  month. 

All  calves  should  be  raised  carefully. 
Calves  that  sell  at  auction  sales  for  $30 
to  $40  surely  pay  some. 

Feed  plenty  of  succulent  feed  if  in  the 
stables.    Good  grain  if  outside. 

Do  not  forget  the  salt. 

Use  zenoleum  freely  in  your  stalls  and 

No  two  animals  feed  the  same.  Study 
them.  There  is  no  excuse  for  animals  be- 
ing off  their  feed  very  often. 

Cut  straw  mixed  with  ensilage  is  a 
great  saving. 

If  it  is  your  business  to  feed  cattle, 
and  if  you  can't  do  it  well,  you  had  better 
stick  there  till  you  do.  There  is  no  other 
place  for  an  incompetent. 

God  never  calls  incompetent  feeders  to 
share  in  the  honors  of  the  finished  article. 


Keep  chaff  and  dirt  out  of  the  wool. 

Any  old  wool  may  sell  but  a  time  is  com- 
ing when  proper  grading  will  have  to  be 

Feed  roots  to  the  ewes.  About  one 
turnip  a  piece  per  day. 

Clover  hay,  pea  straw,  alfalfa,  sweet 
clover  make  good  feed  for  sheep. 

If  hot-house  lambs  are  arriving,  keep 
them  in  a  warm  sunny  room  at  the  south 
and  feed  the  ewes  generously  with  plenty 
of  roots. 

Lambs  do  better  separated  from  the 

The  flock  are  better  in  an  open-front 
shed  or  shelter. 

If  ensilage  is  fed,  quit  it  a  month  before 
lambing  time. 


A  good  ration  is  as  follows:  clover  or 
alfalfa  hay,  2  lbs.;  roots,  2  lbs.;  and  corn 
ensilage,  2  lbs.  If  these  are  not  available 
and  grain  is  to  be  fed,  equal  parts  of  oats 
and  bran  will  keep  them  growing. 


Don't  glut  the  market  with  light,  thin 
and  unfinished  lambs.  It  would  be  more 
profitable  to  hold  such  and  finish  them 
during  the  winter  months.  A  good  ration 
consists  of  a  mixture  of  equal  parts  en- 
silage and  roots,  two  to  three  pounds; 
clover  or  mixed  hay,  two  to  three  pounds; 
and  a  grain  mixture  starting  at  half  a 
pound  and  finishing  at  one  and  a  half 
pounds  per  day.  A  good  grain  mixture 
for  this  purpose  consists  of  oats  and  bran, 
two  parts  each;  linseed  oil  cake,  one  part. 



to  which  may  be  added  toward  the  end  of 
the  fattening  pei'iod  two  parts  of  corn. 


Hog  feeding  in  the  winter  has  to  be 
watched  carefully  in  order  to  produce 
profits.  You  can't  afford  to  have  a  stunted 
litter  nor  too  many  runts. 

Plenty  of  sunshine,  bedding  and  clover 
will  build  money  fast. 

Remembei'  a  hog  is  a  grazing  animal. 
Feed  hay. 

Sows  will  thrive  well  in  a  straw  stack 
pen,  with  a  few  ears  of  corn,  clover  hay 
and  a  mangold  or  two  or  pulped  turnips 
twice  a  day. 

Keep  charcoal  before  your  pigs.  Wood 
ashes  are  good. 

Market  as  near  200  lbs.  as  possible. 

Study  a  co-operative  buying  society  for 
a  better  purchase  of  your  feeds. 

Small  pigs  want  an  abundance  of  pure 
air.    Feed  all  the  milk  you  can  spare. 


Strange  so  much  graft  should  stick  to 
the  horse  deals! 

Overfeeding  idle  horses  makes  no  end  of 

Bran  is  a  good  tonic.  Molasses  meal  is 
good.   Roots  are  essential. 

It  has  been  proved  by  many  experiments 
that  the  idle  work  horse  in  winter  may 
maintain  his  weight,  or  even  increase  in 
weight,  on  a  ration  composed  of  one  pound 
of  hay,  one  pound  of  straw,  and  one  pound 
of  carrots  or  turnips  per  day  per  hundred 
pounds  liveweight. 

It  is  wise  to  take  special  care  with  the 
stallion  during  winter  months;  a  light 
grain  ration  and  plenty  of  exercise  pre- 
vents him  from  getting  over-fat — a  con- 
dition which  usually  results  in  diminished 
fertility  the  next  breeding  season. 

In-foal  mares,  especially,  should  be  ex- 
ercised daily;  over-fat,  unexercised  mares 
usually  show  60  psr  cent,  greater  mor- 
tality and  less  ruggedness  in  their  foals. 

Keep  the  colts  growing.  An  outside  shed 
with  a  good  run  is  the  best  place  for  the 
colts,  except  in  very  cold  weather.  Keep 
them  growing  with  good  grain,  hay  and 
roots;  the  size  and  quality  of  bone  in  the 
future  horse  may  be  largely  determined 
by  the  way  in  which  he  is  developed  dur- 
ing the  first  winter. 

When  the  driving  horse  comes  in  from 
muddy  roads,  the  legs  and  hoofs  should  be 
carefully  cleaned.  If  the  horse  is  sweaty, 
a  light  blanket  thrown  over  him  for  a 
while  will  absorb  the  moisture.  Then  put 
on  a  heavier  one  if  your  stable  is  cold. 


Fertilizer  is  of  great  importance  now 
in  our  farm  economy.  Save  all  you  can 
place  under  cover  where  possible.  Use 
some  ground  phosphate  in  your  stables. 
This  applies  particularly  to  the  E^st. 
Western  farmers  will  yet  take  better  care 
of  the  manures. 


What  about  next  year's  seed  grain? 
Why  not  look  ahead  now? 

The  best  advice  in  regard  to  change  of 
seed :  change  only  when  you  are  sure  you 
are  getting  something  superior  to  your 
old  stock.   The  new  grain  should  be  true 

We  paq  highesh  Prices  For 


And  Remib 

Prompt  I  q    ^ 

More  Trappers  and  Fiir  Collector* 
send  their  Raw  Furs  to  us  than  to 
any  other  five  houses  in  Canada. 

Because  they  know  we  pay  high- 
est prices,  pay  mail  and  express 
charges,  charge  nocommissions, 
and  treat  our  shippers  right. 
Result,  we  are  the  largest  in  our 
line  n  Canada.  Ship  to  iu  today  and 
deal  with  a  Reliable  House, 
l^o  Shioment  too  small  or  too  large  to 
receive  our  nrom.^t  attention, 

/\,,__  We  sell  Guns,  Kifles  Traps, 

llllnN^^lmal   Bait.    Shoapacka,   Flaah. 

MUllW  lights,  Headlights,  riahlns  KeU, 
Pishing  Taokls   and  Sportamen  s 

gnppllea  at  lowest  ^rioas.     OATAIXX}  rRKX. 


Ra.Uun  's  Three  Books 
'*Tr»pper*»  Guide" 

EnKlith  or  French 
M  pag&B.  illustrated 
t*Ua  how  and  -wLer* 
%t  tray  and  other 
Talnabla  Infonaation 
for      trappers ;        also 

"Trapper's  and 
SportsmeD's  Supply 
Catalog"*'Raw  Fur 
Price  List,"  and 
latest  "Fur  Style 
Book  *'  of  beauti- 
ful t  or  seta  and  fur 

All  theaa  books  fully 
Ulastrated  and  lent 
FB££    ON   BEQUEST. 


Get  "More  Money"  for  your  Foxes 

Skunk,   Miiskrat,  Lynx,   Raccoon,   Fisher,  Wolves,  Beaver, 
White  Weasel  and  other  Fur  bearers  collected  in  your  section 

SHIP  YOUR  FURS  DIRECT  to  "SHUBERT"  the  largest  house  in  the  World 
dealingexclusively  in  NORTH  AMERICAN  RAW  FURS,  a  reliable— responsible 
—safe  Fur  House  with  an  unblemished  reputation  existing  for  "'more  than  a  third  of  a 
century,"  a  long  successful  record  of  sending  Kur  Shippers  prompt,  SATISFACTORY 
AND  PROFITABLE  returns.  Write  for  "3[f)e  ^bufaert  S>f)iBPer,"  the  only  reliable,  accur- 
ate market  report  and  price  list  published.     Write  for  it  — NOW — it's   FREE. 

AR      QHITRFPT      !«/»        25-27  WEST  AUSTIN  avenue 
.     D.    OnUDCIS.!,     inc.,     Department  C389,  CHICAGO,  U.  S. 


Share  Our  Profits  On  Your  Furs 

Don't   let   somebody  get   all   the  profit,    after  your  furs  leave   your  hands.     We  not  only   pay 
you    the    highest    market    prices    for   your    furs.      We    also   give    you    a    share    of    our   profits. 
Every    man    who    sends    his    fuis    to    us    gets    valuable    premiums    in    addition    to    top    prices. 
We  must  have  good  furs,  and  plenty  of  them,  to  take  care    "f    our    ciwtnmers,    and    we    can    pay    more    than    others 
'*''       l)ir;iii^c    a    huge    production,    combined    with    special    facili  lies   for   handling,    cuts   down    our   cost. 

We  Distribute  Our  Saving!    FREE  Automatic  Revolvers,  Guns,  Traps,  Etc. 

Our  profit-sharinK  plan   not  only  gets  you   top  cash  prices,  hut  Fur  Clnh   Nows— a   livo  mafrazine  full    of  interesting   and   valu- 

also   gives   you,    fici'.    Titles,    shot-snns.    traps    and    ntlier    tilings  .'ilile  infumiation.     -Ml   sfiit    fiee.     Write  to-day. 
you  want.     So  don't  be   tempted   to  send  your  furs  elsewhere.  S.   SIL.BERMAN   &   Sons,   Established   1866, 

We  can  make  this  a  bis  year  for  you.     Write  for  Fur  Market  Largest    Fur    and    Wool    House    in    America, 

Reports   and   List  of   Premiums   and   Price    List.     Also   for  the  Dept.    158,    m7-l!25    W.    35th    Street,    CHICAGO,    ILL, 

Take  No  Chances  With  Your  Furs. 

Why  send  your  furs  here  and  there,  in  search  of 
higher  prices,  and  trust  yourself  to  the  mercy  of 
people  who  make  glittering  promises  to  you,  when  you  can  send  them  to  us?  We  have  added  to  the 
earnings  of  thousands  of  raw  fur  trappers  and  shippers  b.v  giving  them  top  prices  and  high  grading. 
Thousands  tome   to   us  every   year  with   their  furs. 

Big:  .'\Ione,v  This  Year!  Don't  tempt  fate  this  year,  when  the  chances  for  big  money  are  better  than  ever^  because  of 
the  war  in  Europe,  which  has  cut  off  the  foreign .  supply.  Your  furs  are  made  into  gaiments  which  bring  big  profits. 
You'll  get  the  benefit  of  this  if  you  ship  to  us.  Settle  your  problems  once  and  for  all  by  finding  out  the  best  market  in 
the  countiT  for  your  furs  every  year.  We  are  the  largest  handlers  of  silver  fox.  Let  us  advise  you  how  to  get  the  best 
price  for  your  skins.     Write   for  our   FRKE    .Market    Reports    and    Price    Lista. 


Dept.  U2,  425-427  Decatur  Street.  New  Orleans,  La. 




Wanted  from  all  sections  of  Canada. 

Every  raw-fur  shipper  who  is  looking  for  a  better  outlet  for 
his  raw  furs  should  write  at  once  for  our  price  list.  We  are 
in  a  position  to  pay  top  market  prices,  and  will  do  so  at  all 
times.     Let  us  hear  from  you. 


QTDITPIT    fir     RrtQQAlf       \nn         Exporters  of  and  Dealers  in  RAW  FURS 
OilVUl^lV    Ot    Dl/00/\l\.,    inc.,    150  West  28tb  Street,        '.       NEW  YORK 




I  will  pay  highest  prices  for  your  catch 

BEN  CORN,  267  7th  Ave.,  New  York 



We  will  pay  special  price  on  high-grade  furs. 


257  7TH  AVENUE  -  NEW  YORK 


WE  PAY  highest  prices,  liberal  asssortment. 



155  West  29th  Street 



Ship  your  skins  to  a  house  with  a  reputation. 
Shipments  held  separate  for  approval. 
We  pay  all  express  and  parcels  post    charges. 

WM.  PLATKY,  48  W.  26th  St.,  NEW  YORK 


both    Wild    and     Cultivated,   at     highest     prices. 

Send  for  free  quotations  con- 
taining full  particulars 

HA       ^PHOFNFN  138  W.  2Sth   Street. 

•   *^'    «JV,n\^ILii^Ui^,      NEW     YORK     CITY 

There  is  an  excellent  demand  In  Canadian 
Furs.  We  will  buy  your  furs  outright  or  on 
consignment.  We  pay  the  best  market  prices, 
especially  for  fancy  furs. 

Write  to-day  for  our  price  list  and  deal  with  ns. 
H.\RRY   LEVY,   265  7th  Ave.,   New   York   City. 


CAPITAL  for  a  ranching  proposition 
in  Alberta.      Cattle  and  Sheep. 

For  full  particulars  apply 
VANB.  C.KEITH        -      Box  1  688.  Edmontoi.  Alta. 



from  a  Bone  Spavin,  Ring  Bone, 
Splint,  Curb,  Side  Bone,  or  similar 
trouble  and  gets  horse  going  ound. 
Does  not  blister  or  remove  the 
hair  and  horse  can  be  worked.  Page 
17  in  pamphlet  with  each  bottle  tells 
how.  J;2.00  a  bottle  delivered. 
Horse  Book  9  K  free. 
ABSORBINE,  JR.,  antiseptic  liniment  for 
mankind.  Reduces  Painful  Swellings,  En- 
larged Glands,  Goitre,  Wens,  Bruises,  Vari- 
cose Veins,  Varicosities,  heals  Old  Sores.  Allays 
Pain.  Will  tell  you  more  if  you  write.  $1  and 
$2  a  bottle  at  dealers  or  delivered.  Book 
"Evidence"  free.  Manufrctured  only  by 
W.  F.  YOUNG.  P.D.F.482  Lymans  Bldg.,MontreaI.  Can. 
Absorblne  and  Ab«orblae,  Jr.,  are  made  In  Canada. 

to  variety  and  free  from  weed  seeds.  A 
very  great  danger  in  obtaining  seed  from 
a  long  distance  is  that  it  may  contain  new 
and  dangerous  weeds. 

If  new  seed  is  to  be  purchased,  enquiries 
should  be  made  early  in  the  winter  from 
those  who  have  grain  for  sale.  No  large 
purchase  of  seed  should  be  decided  upon 
without  first  seeing  a  sample  and  obtain- 
ing a  statement  as  to  its  germination,  and 
as  to  the  quantity  of  other  grains  present. 

To  intending  purchasers  of  seed  grain 
the  Dominion  Cerealist  will  be  glad  to 
furnish  information  as  to  possible  sources 
of  supply  of  the  varieties  they  desire. 
Farmers  who  have  seed  grain  for  sale  are 
requested  to  communicate  with  C.  E. 
Saunders,  Dominion  Cerealist  at  Ottawa, 


Smut  losses  this  year  have  been. heavy. 
Smut  grows  from  smut  spores.  Sow 
smut  spores  in  your  seed  grain  and  you 
will  reap  smut  and  less  grain. 

Be  sure  to  treat  all  your  seed  grain  with 
formalin.  Do  it  before  the  spring  demands 
come  and  you  overlook  it. 


If  any  implements  are  roosting  outside, 
make  them  come  under  cover  at  once. 
Rust  does  more  damage  than  wear. 

A  good  implement  shed  is  a  fine  invest- 

$400  will  build  a  shed  big  enough  for 
any  prairie  section. 


Ventilate  your  root  houses  and  cellars. 

Are  your  apples  keeping  well? 

Trim  off  all  diseased  apple  tree  limbs 
and  burn  them. 

Send  to  Ottawa  government  for  their 
bulletin  on  Rose  Culture  for  facts. 

Are  your  trees  protected  from  mice 
and  rabbits? 

Are  you  planning  to  try  out  an  acre  of 
sweet  clover  next  spring. 

Because  you  fail  to  do  the  business,  do 
not  condemn  generally. 

Give  bees  as  much  fresh  air  as  possible 
where  they  are  wintering. 

Is  the  wife's  work  as  carefully  con- 
sidered as  the  stable  work?  If  not — 
enough  said. 

Boys  and  girls  are  partners  on  the 
farm,  not  slaves  and  menials. 

Training  a  colt  or  a  boy,  reflects  the 

Have  you  invited  the  teacher  down  for 
tea?    He  is  shaping  your  child's  future. 

Attend  your  local  Farmers'  Union  or 
Grange.   Help  out. 

Farmers  are  noted  for  pulling  against 
one  another.  Why?  No  reason  at  all  ex- 
cept iealousy.  Rather  should  we  get 

Watch  for  our  Special  February  Refer- 
ence Number  of  The  Farmer's  Magazine. 
It  is  something  new  in  specials  and  you 
will  be  surprised.   Watch  for  it. 

Poultry  success  depends  on  constant 
care.  Look  in  another  column  for  the 
poultry  hints.   Eggs  are  eggs  now. 

Send  to  the  Central  Experimental 
Farm,  Ottawa,  for  their  bulletin  on  the 
planting  and  care  of  shade  trees.  You 
will  want  to  plant  some  next  spring.  Be 

Many  farmers  in  Western  Canada  are 
now  taking  The  Farmer's  Magazine  and 
are  finding  it  worthy  of  a  place  in  their 

Watch  your  stovepipes  and  connections. 
A  fire  is  not  wanted  at  any  time. 

Sunflower  stalks  are  used  in  Russia  for 
a  supply  of  potash. 

Send  to  the  Canadian  Forestry  Associa- 
tion, Ottawa,  for  a  copy  of  their  free 
booklet  on  twenty  Canadian  trees. 

Study  the  types  of  autos  before  you 
decide  to  buy.  Service  is  what  a  farmer 

Poultry    Jargon 

The  Month's  Gossip  and  what's  Best  to  do  in   this  Month  of 

Snow  and  Promise 


JANUARY  is  an  important  month  with 
poultrymen  generally.  The  fever  goes 
up  to  102  in  many  cases. 

The  pullets  should  be  laying  well  now. 
See  that  they  are  free  from  draughts, 
dampness  and  vermin. 

Keep  the  birds  exercising  most  of  the 
time  they  are  off  the  roosts,  these  short 
days.  Feeding  whole  grain  in  a  straw 
litter  is  good. 

In  cold  weather,  it  may  be  necessary  to 
fill  the  water  dishes  several  times  a  day. 

Have  burlap  curtains  in  front  of  the 
perches  for  lowering  on  very  cold  nights. 
They  may  be  made  to  slide  on  wire  or  may 
be  tacked  to  hinged  frames.  In  ordinary 
weather  the  hens  are  better  without  them. 

Many  poultrymen  are  now  getting  rid 
of  their  dropping  boards.  They  stand  a 
single  board  on  edge  on  the  floor  a  little, 
in  advance  of  the  perches  where  there  is  a 

thick  litter.  Cleaning  this  out  once  a 
month  is  sufficient. 

If  supply  of  vegetables  is  out,  dried  beet 
sugar  pulp  may  be  substituted.  Soak  it 
for  a  few  minutes  in  hot  water. 

This  is  the  month  for  making  up  breed- 
ing pens.  It  is  a  wise  plan  to  mate 
cockerels  with  hens  one  or  two  years  old. 

One  point  to  remember  in  mating  is 
that  the  male  should  have  come  from  an 
egg  laid  by  a  heavy-laying  hen.  The  male 
has  a  very  strong  influence  in  building  up 
a  strain  of  good  laying  birds. 

Ordinarily,  fifteen  pullets  to  one  cock  is 
considered  a  rather  large  number.  With 
the  larger  breeds  fewer  females  are  used. 

Experience  and  skill  are  required  when 
mating  for  fancy  stock. 

In  any  case  the  birds  in  a  breeding  pen 
should  be  selected  and  put  together  three 


or  four  weeks  before  the  eggs  are  to  be 

One  big  breeder  tells  me  that  he  put  a 
teaspoonful  of  eucalyptus  oil  in  the  drink- 
ing water  where  his  hens  had  a  tendency 
towards  roup.  This  oil  penetrated  their 
nostrils  and  cured  them. 

Incubator  work  is  all  right.  A  special 
article  on  their  management  appears  in 
the  February  special  that  will  be  out  by 
the  first  of  the  month. 

Have  you  any  poultry  pictures  and 
stories  that  would  help  readers.  Send 
them  along. 

Read  the  poultry  articles  on  the  other 
pages  of  this  issue. 

Are  incubator  chickens  killed  in  the 
egg  by  careless  turning?  Read  what  one 
man  says  about  this  in  the  February  issue. 

Do  you  have  a  hospital  coop  where  your 
sick  hens  are  sent  at  once? 

Some  pulped  roots  fed  inside  are  good 
for  the  geese  this  month. 

Tie  ap  a  cabbage  or  a  mangold  in  your 
hen  house  and  see  how  fond  the  hens  are 
of  them. 

Turkeys  like  to  roost  high.  What  ar- 
rangement have  you  on  your  farm? 

Can  you  beat  the  White  Leghorn,  that 
little  Italian  dame,  as  an  egg  producer? 

If  you  have  not  sprayed  your  houses 
thoroughly  last  month,  you  may  look  out 
for  trouble  very  soon. 

Do  not  take  chances  on  disease  germs. 
They  are  dead  but  sleeping,  if  you  have 
had  an  outbreak  and  have  not  disinfected 

Young  guinea  fowl  make  excellent  table 
delicacies.    Many  city  people  want  them. 

Have  you  the  muslin  front  on  your  hen- 
house.  If  not,  why  not? 

Note  the  pictures  on  another  page  of 
this  issue.  How  many  of  us  would  pick 
out  the  laying  hen  from  the  good-looking 
poor  layer? 

Placing  a  Farm  on  Its   Feet 

Continued  from  Page  14. 

cept  those  that  were  actually  required 
for  lanes  and  for  his  buildings  and  his 
orchard,  his  stables  in  good  shape  for  the 
winter,  four  of  his  scrub  cows  replaced 
by  three  bullocks  that  were  already  show- 
ing that  they  were  making  good  use  of 
their  feed,  his  flock  of  hens  set  apart  for 
laying  already  filling  the  egg  basket, 
while  their  superannuated  sisters  were 
fleshening  for  market.  The  feeding  of 
the  sheep  had  given  him  an  extra  of 
eighteen  dollars.  He  was  marketing  his 
apples  at  a  rate  of  a  dollar  a  barrel  more 
than  he  could  have  sold  them  for  in  the 
orchard,  he  had  a  job  for  himself  and  his 
boys  and  his  horses  while  not  an  animal 
on  the  farm  was  not  working  for  a  fair 

Early  in  the  new  year  he  made  up  his 
mind  to  consult  his  advisor  as  to  the 
merits  of  feeding  cattle  for  the  meat 
market,  dairying  for  buttermaking  or 
milk  selling. 

"Much  depends  upon  your  taste,"  was 
the  reply.  "But  I'll  tell  you  what  to  do 
this  winter.  Keep  tab  on  what  you  feed 
your  fattening  cattle.  Do  the  same  for 
your  cows.  Weigh  everything  you  feed. 
Count  as  closely  as  ever  you  can.  Have 
the  milk  tested  every  month  for  butter 
fat.  Keep  account  of  the  fat  your  cows 
yield  you.  Keep  account  of  the  time  it 
takes  you  to  make  the  butter  and  to  do 
the  milking  and  feeding.  Compare  these 
figures  with  what  you  will  sell  off  your 
farm  either  in  fat,  or  milk  or  butter.  In 
this  way  you  will  be  able  to  see  which  way 
the  profit  lies.  But  don't  guess  whatever 
you  do.  I  never  knew  a  man  yet  who 
guessed  himself  into  success.  Remember 
that  your  soil  is  your  source  of  wealth. 
In  the  long  run,  the  farmer  who  keeps  up 
the  fertility  of  his  soil  will  win  out.  In 
your  figuring  keep  this  in  mind.  It 
doesn't  do  to  accept  any  get-rich-quick 
methods  in  farming.  Likes  and  dislikes 
may  be  all  right  for  the  idle  rich,  but  the 
practical  farmer  finds  it  ruinous  to  en- 

tertain either.  Don't  jump  into  either 
line  but  try  things  out  for  yourself  for  a 
year  or  two.  In  the  meantime  here  are 
the  plans  for  fixing  up  that  creek  that 
steals  about  three  acres  of  your  best  land. 
Don't  run  at  this  job.  You  and  your 
boys  can  do  it  at  odd  times-  yourselves 
next  summer  without  any  hiring  what- 
soever. You  had  better  buy  or  hire  a 
roadscraper.  Look  around  you  and  you'll 
be  able  to  hire  one  most  likely.  Have  a 
good  strong  plough  handy  and  have  all 
your  shovels  and  a  good  axe  for  cutting 
roots  where  you  can  get  at  them  for  an 
hour's  work  an  opportunity  presents  it- 
self. Begin  where  the  creek  leaves  your 
farm.  From  this  point  do  your  straighten- 
ing bit  by  bit.  Dig  the  channel  as  deep  as 
you  can,  but  be  sure  to  scrape  the  top  soil 
where  you  can  have  it  to  cover  the  soil 
and  rubbish  you  place  in  the  old  creek  bed. 
Before  you  let  the  water  into  its  new  chan- 
nel be  sure  that  the  new  bed  is  at  least  as 
deep  as  the  old  bed.  When  the  water  is 
running  in  the  new  bed  fill  up  the  old 
channel,  taking  special  care  with  the  end 
where  the  water  formerly  entered  it.  Into 
the  old  channel  you  may  put  no  end  of 
rubbish,  also  lay  tiles  in  the  old  creek  bed. 
Upon  the  top  of  all  place  the  top  earth 
that  you  have  scraped  to  one  side.  Finish 
each  bit  of  the  channel  as  you  proceed. 
But  look  here.  Here  is  the  plan  of  drain- 
ing that  field.  You  had  better  provide  for 
the  entrances  of  these  drains  as  they  en- 
ter your  new  creek  channel.  You'll  be  sur- 
prised at  how  little  work  is  involved  in 
straightening  that  creek  when  you  work 
to  a  straight  line  and  go  at  it  sys- 
tematically. So  far  that  creek  has  been 
a  loss  to  you.  If  you  make  a  proper  use 
of  it  it  will  act  as  one  of  the  best  drains 
you  can  have  on  your  farm." 


The  work  during  the  year  went  on  well. 
Without  lengthening  the  story,  it  might  be 
well  to  tell  some  results  from  his  cash 
crop,  the  potato  field.  It  consisted  of  eight 


All  BrilLh 

Makes  Winter  Dairy- 
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The  ideal  sep- 
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It  does  the  wok 
with  a  thorough- 
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able by  arvy 
other   separator. 

Tens  of  thousands  of  Premiers  are  in 
daily  use,  making  handsome  profits  for 
dairy  farmers  in  all  parts  of  the  British 
Empire.     Why  not  try  one  out  yqurself? 

Send  a  card  for  1916  catalogue  mailed 
free  on  request 

Premier  Cream  Separator  Co. 

659-661  King  St.  W.,     -     Toronto 


\Vina  anfl  Rain  Proof— 200  Candle 
Power.  Operates  15  hours  on  one 
tilling  of  gasoline  or  kerosene. 
The  .highest  powered,  must  econo- 
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eis.  daiOTneu,  contractors,  sports- 
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treats,  railroad  yards  and  way 
stations.  Automatically  cleaned; 
cMiinot  clog.  No  wicks  to  trim, 
no  chimneys  to  wash,  no  smoke, 
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If  yon  want  one  for  your 
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Are  the  last  word  in  strength  and  efficiency.  Huilt  of  selected, 
well-seasoned  hardwood,  mortised  and  bolted  strongly .  They 
will  stand  the  heavy  tiniher  and  do  the  maximum  amount  of 
sawing  smart  men  can  handle.  They  may  be  a  littie  higher 
priced  than  the  cheap  kind,  which  sometimes  prove  dangerous. 
Our  saw  ries''  H.ASb  MU.STER  "  every  time.  Best  write 
for  leaflets  now.  One  shows  the  Circu)arSaw  Machines, 
the  other  our  lmpro^■cd  Drag  Saw  Machine. 
The  Matthew  Moody  &  Sons  Co.,  Terrebonne,  Que. 

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i  Guelph,  Canada. 


acres  and  it  worked  out  financially  about 
as  follows: 

Equivalent  of  rent  of  field  at  $10 

per  acre $80  00 

Plowing,  4  days 16  00 

Cultivating,  1  day 4  00 

Disking,  IV2  days 6  00 

Rolling,  ]  day 4  GO 

Planting  (with  planter) ,  2  days. . .     8  00 
Cultivating  after  planting,  5  times, 

1  day  each,  1  man  and  horse  at 

$3  per  day 15  00 

Seed,  10  bus.  at  50c  per  bus 5  00 

Fertilizers,    10    loads    of    manure 

at  $1 10  00 

500  lbs.  fertilizer  at  $34  per  ton .     4  00 

Cost  of  harvesting 60  00 

Cost  of  marketing 80  00 

Incidentals,  spraying,  etc 15  00 

These  along  with  other  items  of  ex- 
penditure and  loss  that  could  hardly  be 
accounted  for  brought  the  cost  of  the  field 
of  tubers  to  about  $400. 

The  returns  were  about  800  bags  of  po- 
tatoes worth  75c  per  bag  or  $600.  These 
results  from  potatoes  are  not  always  made 

but  experience  proves  that  this  was  a  fair 
average.  His  keeping  account  of  all  labor 
and  expenditure  kept  him  working  with  a 
fair  margin.  His  figuring  taught  him  that 
he  must  take  no  chances.  Old  Mother 
Nature  had  a  way  of  providing  him  with 
all  the  chances  that  he  needed  to  reckon 
upon.  She  always  kept  a  reserve  of  tricks 
that  kept  him  on  the  alert  to  leave  noth- 
ing undone  in  the  way  of  coaxing  her  into 
good  humor. 

Gray  had  been  started  thinking.  He 
had  learned  the  value  of  his  own  judg- 
ment. Better  still,  he  had  learned  the  limi- 
tations of  his  own  judgment  and  had  dis- 
covered how  to  best  supplement  his  own 
experience.  He  was  neither  a  blind  ex- 
perimenter nor  a  blind  follower  but  a 
farmer  who  had  learned  the  secret  of  get- 
ting hold  of  usable  knowledge  and  using 
it  without  loss  of  time  and  energy  and 
temper.  For  him,  the  real  farm  expert 
always  had  a  welcome  and  good  wages  as 
often  as  he  was  in  a  dilemma.  His  other 
crops  and  his  creek  straightening  plan 
gave  results  he  has  in  store  for  another 

Hand    Work 

A  Wheat  Design  For  An  Edging 

USE  "Peri-Lusta"  Crochet  No.  80  for 
motifs,  and  a  coarser,  mercerised 
thread  for  padding  cord. 
Draw  the  design  and  take  it  off"  on  trac- 
ing paper,  fold  the  paper  the  length  re- 
quired, and  repeat  the  pattern.  Sew  the 
tracing  paper  on  bright-colored  material 
to  make  a  strong  foundation. 


70  d  c  (100  d  c  for  middle  stalk)  over 
four-thread  cord,  turn,  miss  3  d  c;  d  c 
back  over  cord  and  into  1st  row,  fasten  off 
cord.  This  forms  the  centre  and  stalk; 
the  ears  of  wheat  are  worked  around  the 

SI  st  across  top  of  centre 
stem,  4  ch,  si  st  to  opposite 
side  of  centre,  over  chain 
work  1  d  c,  3  ch,  4  1  tr  together 
(i.e.,  leave  last  loop  of  each 
4  1  tr  on  needle,  then  cotton 
over  needle,  pull  loop  through 
all  last  loops  together),  3  ch, 
1  d  c  ;  2  ch,  si  st  into  third 
stitch  from  point  at  back  of 
centre,  6  ch,  pass  around  left 
side  of  centre,  *  si  st  into  third 
stitch  on  the  right  side  of 
front  of  centre,  turn,  over 
chain  work  1  d  c,  4  ch,  6  1  tr 
together,  4  ch,  1  d  c;  2  ch,  si 
st  into  next  third  stitch  at 
back,  6  ch,  pass  around  right 
side  of  centre,  *  repeat  from 
*  to  *  3  times,  putting  chain 
loops  around  right  and  left 
sides  alternatively,  and  count- 
ing the  third  sitch  from  last 
si  st.  The  chain  loops  for  the 
rest  of  the  ears  of  wheat  (six 
on  each  side)  are  worked  in 
the  same  way,  but  over  the 
loops  work  1  d  c,  4  ch,  *  2 

triple  tr  together  {i.e.,  cotton  3  times 
over  needle  instead  of  twice,  leave  last 
loop  on  needle  as  before) ,  *  repeat  from 
*  to  *  3  times,  pull  loop  through  fourth 
chain  at  beginning  of  tuft,  5  ch,  1  d  c, 
always  pull  loop  through  at  back  of  tuft 
next  the  centre,  so  that  the  tuft  is  raised 
in  front. 

Fit  the  ears  of  wheat  into  position ;  if 
necessarj^  leave  more  or  less  stitches  be- 
tween ch  loops. 


Next  the  wheat.  Over  four-thread  cord 
50  d  c,  12  h  tr,  12  tr,  15  d  c,  turn,  miss. 

3  d  c,  d  c  back  over  cord  and  into  1st 

Long  stalk  and  leaf.  Over  four-thread 
cord,  80  d  c,  for  stalk.  12  d  c,  12  h  tr, 
12  tr,  6  h  tr,  12  d  c,  turn,  miss,  3  d  c  d  c 
back  over  cord  and  into  1st  row. 

Sew  stalks  and  leaves  to  wheat  placing 
the  stalks  behind  each  successive  leaf. 

Leaf  at  back  of  centre  wheat.  12  d  c, 
12  h  tr,  12  tr,  24  d  c,  turn,  miss,  3  d  c,  d  c 
back  over  cord  and  into  1st  row.  Sew  leaf 
behind  centre  wheat. 

Turn  leaves  over  as  in  illustration. 


Over  six-thread  cord.  60  d  c,  form  into 
a  loop,  si  st  into  first  d  c;  d  c  over  cord 
for  length  required  between  loops,  fitting 
to  shape  on  design,  100  d  c,  form  into  loop, 
si  st  on  first  d  c,  d  c  over  cord  for  centre 
round,  work  corresponding  loops,  etc.,  on 
the  other  side,  work  a  second  row  of  d  c 
over  cord  and  into  1st  row.  Sew  the  bor- 
der on  to  the  foundation,  crossing  the  ends 
of  the  100  d  c  loops  across  the  centre  and 
putting  the  stalks  of  wheat  through  the 
fresh  loop  thus  formed. 


Twist  padding  thread  25  times  around 
large  mesh,  d  c  over  ring. 


Over  two-thread  cord  and  into  outside 
edge  of  border,  *  12  d  c,  9  ch,  si  st  back 
to  sixth  stitch  from  needle,  over  chain 
work  3  d  c,  1  picot  3  times,  3  d  c,  *  repeat 
from  *  to  *  3  times. 

In  corner.  Finish  with  10  d  c,  4  d  c  on 
centre  round,  9  ch,  si  st  back  to  fourth 
d  c  before  corner,  work  over  chain  as 

Repeat  fom  *  to  *  4  times,  then  7  d  c,  9 
ch,  si  st  back  into  6th  d  c,  work  over 
chain  as  before.     Repeat  on  other  side. 

The  number  of  stitches  is  given  for  the 
motifs;  but  it  is  a  good  plan  to  place  the 
work  on  design  to  see  if  it  fits,  so  that 
more  or  less  stitches  can  be  worked  if 
required,  as  crochet,  especially 
when  worked  over  a  padding 
thread,  varies  a  good  deal. 


Sew  the  motifs  and  border 
on  the  foundation. 

Work  a  chain,  and  sew 
across  the  top  of  lace. 

On  this  start  the  picot  fill- 
ing, i.e.,  8  ch,  1  d  c  in  fifth 
chain  twice,  3  ch,  1  d  c  in  top 
chain,  loop  and  motif. 

When  the  picot  filling  is  fin- 
ished work  d  c  over  first  chain 
and  two-thread  cord.. 

2nd  Rotv. — 2  ch,  miss  2  d  c, 
1  tr,  repeat. 

3rd  Row. — D  c  over  two- 
thread  cord  and  into  ch 
and   tr. 

The  edge  should  be  worked 

This  will  make  a  very  effec- 
tive design.  The  finished  sec- 
tion will  measure  about  five 
inches  across  and  the  distance 
from  top  to  bottom  is  about 
the  same. 



News  Notes 

The  Guelph  Winter  Fair  proved  to  be  one 
of  the  best  iu  its  liistory.  The  people  came 
uut  in  strong  numbers.  Especially  in  the 
poultry  department  were  there  notable  in- 
creases. This  poultry  show  exceeds  any  other 
poultry  show  on  the  continent  as  regards 
entries   and   general   quality   of  the   birds. 

J.  D.  McGregor's  champion  steer  at  Guelph 
went  from  there  to  the  Union  Stock  Yards 
Show  at  Toronto,  which  was  bigger  and  bet- 
ter than  ever.  He  was  sold  to  the  T.  Eaton 
Co.  for  46  cents  a  lb.  As  he  weighed  1,500 
lbs.,  the  return  of  $690  was  not  a  bad  lead 
for   beef  prices. 

The  United  Farmers  of  Alberta  meet  in 
their  annual  convention  at  Calgary  in  Janu- 
ary. President  Speakmen  informs  us  that  the 
subject  of  agricultural  credits  will  receive 
especial  attention,  but  just  what  action  Is  in- 
tended is  not  disclosed. 

The  Ontario  Beekeepers  have  passed  a  reso- 
lution asking  that  the  Ontario  Government 
pass  a  law  increasing  the  fine  for  spraying 
fruit  trees  in  bloom  from  $25  to  $100.  What 
will  fruit  men  say? 

MacLean's  Magazine  has  an  article  on 
Manitoba's  Farmer  Premier  in  its  January 
issue.  The  writer,  Norman  Lambert,  treats 
his  subject  in  a  most  entertaining  way,  and 
reflects  favorably  upon  Hon.  Mr.  Norris  as 
a   private  citizen   and   a   possible  legislator. 

The  Canadian  Forestry  Journal  points  out 
that  one  effect  of  the  war  is  the  virtual  disap- 
pearance of  the  European  professional  for- 
ester. A  German  forestry  journal,  in  its  two 
last  Issues,  printed  100  pages  of  obituaries  of 
foresters  killed  in  action.  The  sharpshootlng 
and  scouting  of  the  German  army  has  been 
largely  done  by  men  drawn  from  the  State's 
forest  forces,  and  the  mortality  among  them 
has  been  high.  There  is  now  in  Canada  a 
very  considerable  number  of  men  trained  to 
this  class  of  work. 

It  helps  one  to  realize  the  South  African 
slump  In  ostriches,  as  shown  by  the  sale  of 
a  full-grown  bird  for  5  cents  at  Grahamstown, 
says  the  S.  A.  Farmer's  Advocate.  In  the 
early  days  of  ostrich  farming  a  chick  newly 
out  of  the  egg  would  sometimes  fetch  $50. 
and  $2,500  has  been  paid  for  a  good  pair  of 
grown  birds.  But  those  were  the  days  when 
one  plucking  of  a  single  bird  would  bring  in 
.■^12.5.  and  of  late  years  prices  have  not  ruled 
so  high — you  could  get  a  good  pair  of 
istriches  for  $60. 

The  Hammond  Stooker  Co.  has  assigned  to 
the  official  assignees  at  Winnipeg.  This  com- 
pany sold  stock  among  the  farmers  of  West- 
ern Canada.  "Farmers  in  Western  Canada 
have  ben  swindled  out  of  thousands  of  dol- 
lars in  the  past  few  years,"  says  the  Grain 
rirowers'  Guide,  "in  their  general  desire  to 
get  better  machinery  to  improve  their  methods 
of  tillage  and  production."  Eastern  farmers 
have  not  been  altogether  free  in  this  regard. 
Farmers  should   learn   to   sign  fewer   notes. 

The  National  Grange  of  the  U.S.,  in  their 
annual  meeting  at  Oakland.  Cal..  recently, 
stated  their  positions  on  important  national 
questions.  'They  approved  equal  suffrage, 
national  prohibition,  a  pay-as-you-go  road 
Ilcy,  clear  cut  rural  credit  policy,  conser- 
vation of  natural  resources,  government  own- 
ership of  electric  utilities,  denounced  free 
seed  distribution,  and  favored  a  non-partisan 
tariff   commission. 

The  introduction  of  foreign  seeds  and 
plants  by  the  U.S.  Department  of  Agricul- 
ture has  assumed  immense  proportions,  says 
the  Scientific  American.  The  total  number  of 
varieties  introdluced  since  1907,  when  the 
section  of  seed  and  plant  introduction  was 
established,  amounted  last  July  to  over  40,600. 
During  the  past  year  more  than  2.O0O  varieties 
were  introduced,  while  171,831  experimental 
plants  and  11,465  packets  of  seed  were  placed 
with  experimenters,  and  a  record  was  kept  of 
rh.  During  the  same  year  over  500  ship- 
ments of  experimental  seeds  and  plants  were 
made  to  foreign  agricultural  institutions,  in 
exchange  for  material  sent  to  this  country  by 

Investigations  on  the  subject  of  protection 
from  lightning  have  been  in  progress  at  the 
U.S.  Bureau  of  Standards  during  the  past  two 
years,  and  the  results  are  incorporated  In  a 
report  by  O.  R.  Peters,  now  in  the  press. 
Statistics  of  lightning  damage  have  been 
aathered  from  reports  nf  the  Census  Bureau. 
Weather  Bureau,  insurance  companies,  fire 
marshals,  etc.  Mr.  Peters  finds  that  the  prop- 
erty loss  by  lightning  for  the  U.S.  averages 
about  .%«.000.000  a  year,  of  which  by  far  the 
rreate;'  part  occurs  in  rural  districts.  The 
numhpr  of  casualtips  among  human  beings, 
due  to  lightning,  averages  L.TOO.  nf  which 
about  one-third  are  fatal.  Nine-tenths  of 
these  accidents  occur  In  rural  districts.  Liight- 
ning  rods  are  found  to  reduce  the  fire  hazard 
from  lightning  by  SO  to  90  per  cont.  in  the 
fase  of  houses,  and  as  much  as  99  per  cent. 
ill   th'^  case  nf  barns. 


Look  for  the  "SV 

'  I  ""HE  highest  of  all  compliments  is  being  paid 
^  to  Vessot  grinding  plates  —  imitations  are 
now  being  offered  for  sale.  We  appreciate  the  com- 
pliment, however,  more  than  our  customers  will  appre- 
ciate the  imitation  plates.  Therefore,  to  protect  our  customers- 
as  well  as  ourselves,  we  have  arranged  to  mark  every  genuine 
Vessot  grinding  plate  with  the  raised  letters,  "SV"  showing 
plainly  in  the  face  of  the  plate  near  the  center.  It  will,  there- 
fore, be  easy  for  30U,  hereafter,  to  identify  any  plate  offered  to 
you  for  use  in  your  Vessot  feed  grinder. 

Look  for  the  "SV."  If  it's  there  you  are  buying  a  plate 
guaranteed  as  fully  as  your  grinder  was  guaranteed  when  you 
bought  it.  We  cannot  stand  behind  the  performance  of  Vessot 
grinders,  unless  genuine  Vessot  plates  are  used. 

Another  point  —  even  the  genuine  Vessot  plate  will  do  better 
work  and  give  better  service  when  driven  by  the  steady  power 
of  a  Titan  engine.  If  it  should  happen  that  you  are  not  fully 
informed  on  the  advantages  of  the  Vessot  feed  grinder,  with  its 
two  sieve  spout  and  grinding  plates  so  good  they  are  imitated, 
and  with  the  kerosene-burning  feature  of  the  Titan  engine,  see 
the  Deering  local  agent,  or  write  to  us  at  the  nearest  branch  house. 
It  will  pay  you  to  have  this  information. 

International  Harvester  Company  oi  Ginada,  Ltd. 

At  Brandon.  CalffaiT.  Edmonton,  Estevan,  Hamilton.  Lethbridge,  London,  Montreal, 
N,  Battleiord,  Ottawa,  Quebec,  Regioa,  Saskatoon,  St.  John.  Winnipes,  Yorkton 

f;re;eT„rGri„rr'"nL''?h'e     FAMOUS  -"  RAPID  -  EASY  ' 

Teus  of  thousauds  in  use:   giving  greatest  satisfaction.     Plates 
most  economical  of  power  and  unsurpassed  in  durability. 


3  to 

4  to 

5  to 

Ask  for  catalogue  or 

No.  A — G-inch   Plates    (Flat) 

No.  A — 7-inch    Plates    (Flat) 

No.  B — 8^-inch    Plates    (Flat) 

No.  B — 10-inch    Plates    (Flat) 

No.   1 — 8-lnoh   Plates 

No.   3 — 10-inch  Plates 

No.  2A — 12-inch   Plates 

CUSTOM    MILLS:    Flat    Sectional 

Plates    with   Centre   Brealiers. 

No.  I>— 9%-inch     -       «  to  12  H.P. 

No.  D — 11-inch  -  10  to  15  H.P. 
*  No.    6 — 11-inch       -      18  to  20  H.P. 

No.  7 — 13-inoh  -  15  to  25  H.P. 
circulars.     Tell  us  tlie  power  you   use'  and   we   will  advise   best   Machine. 

6  H.P. 
8  H.P. 
8  H.P. 
8  to  12   H.P. 
5  to     8  H.P. 
8  to   15  H.P. 
10  to  18  H.P. 
"ATTRITION"       MILLS:       Both 
Heads     revolving:     opposite     dir- 
ections.     Exceedingly    fine   grind- 

No.  13— 13-iDch  -  15  to  25  H.P. 
No.  10— 16-inch  -  18  to  30  H.P. 
No.    18 — 18-inch      -      25  to  35  H.P. 

J.  FLEURY'S  SONS,  AURORA,  ONT.    "^'''''^ -"APck''Jrard  K'"' ''''"• 


Western  Agents:    THE   JOHN   DEERE   PLOW  COMPANY.  LIMITED 
Regina  Saskatoon  Calgary  Edmonton 


GEO.  I.  FOX 


Honest  Assortment.    Prompt  Returns, 

Write  for  price  list 


FARMER'S     M  A  r;  A  Z  I  N  E 

Facts  to  Know  When 
Buying  Cross-Cut  Saws 

The  name  ■'Siiiioiids,  Creseeut  Ground,"  un  a  r-ross-eut  saw  means 
that  that  saw  will  cut  10  per  cent,  more  timber,  same  time  and 
labor  being  consuuied,  than  any  other  brand  of  saw  made  to-day. 
This  we  guarantee. 

This  is  a  broad  statement,  but  one  which  we  stand   behind. 

No  saw  has  yet  been  returned  owing  to  its  having  failed  to  fulfill 
the  above  guarantee. 

The  advantage  of  the  Crescent  Grindinir,  in  Simouds'  Cross-Cut 
Saws,  Is  that  it  prevents  binding  iu  the  kerf,  and  enables  the  operator 
to  push  as  well  as  pull  the  saw — point.s  experienced  sawyers 

Simouds  Steel  is  the  only  steel  which  we  are  sure  will  take  a 
temper   to    liidd   a   cutting   edge   lunger   than    the   ordinary   saw. 

The  illustration  shows  a  Simonds  Cross-Cut  Saw,  No.  325,  with  a 
liiilluw    back,    instead   of   a   straight    back 

When  you  buy  a  saw  it  will  pay  you  to  get  a  Manufacturer's 
Brand  Saw,  with  the  name  "Simonds"  on  the  blade,  at  about  the 
same  price  as  you   will   pay  for  a   low-grade  Special  Saw. 

Ask  your  dealer  (or  thi"  .Simonds  Cross-Cut  Saw,  and  write  direet 
to   tile   factory   for   further   particulars. 



Always    bu.v    a   haw    with    a    sharp    <'titting;    edge — not    a    soft    saw — because  (he    former    lasts    longer    and    keeps    its    edge    better. 

The  Boy  Mechanic 

The  Great  Book  of  700  Things  For  Boys  To  Do 

These  original,  practical  suggestions  have  been  furnished  by  hundreds  of  boys  who  have 
actually  built  and  experimented  with  the  devices  they  are  now  telling  other  boys  how  to 
build.  In  no  other  way  could  a  book  containing  such  a  wide  and  interesting  variety  of 
contents  have  been  prepared,  for  no  one  author  or  staff  of  writers,  for  that  matter,  could 
have  possibly  gleaned  such  a  wealth  of  ideas   from   their   own   observation   and   experience. 

The  Boy  Mechanic  t'^Zn^  "' '"' 

the  Mechanical  Genius 

A  Few  Practical 

H  A  large  number  of  the 
things  described  may  be  made 
from  old  cast-off  articles 
which  the  average  boy  has  at 
his   disposal. 

f  Many  articles  involving  the 
purchase  of  only  a  few  cents' 
worth  of  material  will  be 
found  fully  as  serviceable  as 

ones    costing    .several 

I  Scores  of  bandy  things  the 
family  can  use  in  the  home 
are   described. 

H  Finally,  this  book  will  de- 
velop and  Interest  the  boy 
along  mechanical  lines  and 
educate   him   at   his    play. 

for  the  material  used  in  the  book  is  a  careful  selection  of  only  those  articles  which  are  new, 

practical  and  of  more  than  ordinary  interest;   the  selection  having  been  made  by  mechanical 

experts  who  still  have  active  recollections  of  their  boyhood  interests. 

It  gives  complete  directions  for  making  all  the  things  boys  love  to  build  and  experiment 

with  in  the  fields  of  electricity,  mechanics,  sports,  arts  and  crafts  work,  magic,  etc.,  such  as 

Electrical  Appliances — Steam  and  Gas  Engines — Turbines — Motors — Wireless     and     Morse 

Telegraph — Self-Propelled    Vehicles — Toboggans — Ice  Boats — Canoes — Paddle  Boats^Punts 

—  Camping  Outfits  — ^  Tents  —  Fishing  Tackle  —  Magic  Lanterns  — 
Searchlights — Cameras — Telescopes — Gliders,  Kites  and  Balloons — 
Electric  Furnaces — Lathes — Pottery  Kilns,  etc. 

A  boy  would  be  an  old  man  before  he  could  make  half  the  things 
described  in  this  wonderful  book.  It  is  entirely  different  from  any 
other  published  and  has 

I  knew 

what  to 

700  Articles-480  Pages-800  Illustrations 

(7  X  10) 

Price  $1.50  Postpaid  to  any  address 

It  is  clearly  printed  on  high-grade  book  paper  and  durably  boiind 
in  cloth.  The  cover  is  of  an  attractive  design  in  four  colors  showing 
a  boy  building  a  small  boat.  There  are  ten  solid  pages  of  index  alone. 
Neither  care  nor  expense  have  been  spared  to  make  this  the  greatest 
boys'  book  published,  and  to  enable  as  many  boys  as  possible  to  have 
one,  the  price  has  been  made  absolutely  as  low  as  possible.  It  would 
be  difficult  to  think  of  a  way  of  investing  $1.50  that  would  benefit  a 
boy  as  much  as  through  the  purchase  of  one  of  these  books. 

Sent  postpaid  to  any  address  upon 
receipt  of  price. 

The  Book  Department 

The  MacLean  Publishing  Co  ,  Limited 

143-153  University  Ave.,   Toronto 


up  EC     on  request— Set  of  Beautiful  Art  Postcards  (PURITY  GIRLS) 
ri\£i£i    Dept  C,  WESTERN   CANADA   FLOUR   MILLS 


Mail  us  Postcard  to-day — 
Limited — Head   Office,    Toronto 





Gentlemen — The  Big  Stick" 

a  lather  that  feels  like  cream  and  car- 
ries moisture  like  a  sponge,  and  a  box 
that's  as  handy  as  a  valet. 

Try  this  super-soap  to-morrow  morn- 
ing^. It  is  no  farther  away  than  the 
nearest  dealer. 

Stick,     Powder,     Cream,     Liquid 

Send  10  cents  in  stamps  for  a  trial  size  of  all  four 
forms,  and  then  decide  which  you  prefer.  Or 
send  4  cents  in  stamps  for  any  one. 

HERE  is  the  mightiest  and  yet 
the  gentlest  weapon  that  ever 
beat  a  stubborn  beard  into 
submission  and  left  a  smile  of  con- 
tentment in  its  wake. 

It  is  built  for  men  of  action — ready  to 
the  hand,  gentle  to  the  skin  and  a 
steam  roller  to  beard  resistance. 

A  pull — and  the  top  becomes  a  holder 
for  the  fingers.      Dropping  it  back  in 
the  box  after  use  is  as  natural  as  drop- 
ping   it    anywhere,    and    there   it 
stays    till    to-morrow,     protected 
from  dust  and  germs. 

Such,  fellow-shavers,  is  the 
Williams'  Holder-Top  Shaving 
Stick — a  soap  that  comes  down  to 
you  through  three-quarters  of  a 
century  without  an  impure  strain; 

Jiddress,  THE  ].  B.WILLIAMS  COMPANY,   Dept.  A,  Glastonbury,    Conn. 

Add  the  finishing  touch  to  your  shaoe  n>ith  Williams'  luxurious  1  ale  Powder 

PARMER'S     M  A  G  A  Z  I  N  E 












To  every  man 
who  is  building  or 
remodelling  his  barn 

This  BT  Barn  Book  shows  you  how  to  build  your  barn 

from  start  to  finish;  tells  how  to  lay  the  cement  floors, 

foundations,  and  how  to  build  the  walls ;  shows  how 

to  install  an  effective,  inexpensive  ventilation  system, 

and    build   the    cupolas    for    the  roof  of  the  barn.       It 

shows  you  how  you  can   frame    your   barn   by   a   method 

that  saves  half  the  cost  of  the  old  way.      You  can  build  or 

remodel  your  barn   yourself  with   this    book,  because  every  pomt 

is  clearly  illustrated  by  full  page  photographs  and  blue  print  working 


This  new  556  page  book 

It  is  the  most  elaborate  and  complete  book  on  barn  building  ever  published  in  Canada.  It  contains  336  pages, 
and  over  73  views  of  modern  barns.  Photographs  of  up-to-date  dairy  bains  were  obtained  in  all  parts  of  this 
country  and  have  been  reproduced  with  full-page  and  double-page  cuts  which  show  clearly  every  detail  of  con- 
struction. There  are  useful  tables  showing  the  best  measurements  for  mangers,  gutters,  cattle-stands  and 
passages;  costs  of  cement  work;  best  sizes  for  doors  and  windows;  amounts  of  ventilation  for  different  kinds  of 
stock;  capacities  of  silos;  capacities  of  mows.  There  are  also  working  plans  for  14  different  barns  and  exterior 
views  of  the  completed  barns. 

BT  Galvanized  Steel  Stalls,  Steel  Horse  Stable  Fittings,  Steel  Cow  Pens,  Calf  Pens,  Steer  Pens,  Bull  Pens, 
manure,  feed  and  hay  carriers,  and  water  bowls  are  shown  in  actual  use  in  many  of  the  barns. 
This  book  is  printed  in  colors  and  is  bound  with  hard  covers.     It  is  not  a  mere  catalog.     It  is  a  work  of 
reference  which  you  will  prize  and  keep  for  years. 

A  copy  of  it  should  be  in  the  hands  of  every  man  who  is  thinking  of 
building  or  remodelling  a  stable,  or  who  is  going  to  put  in  sanitary  stalls 
or  labor  saving  fittings. 


Mail  Coupon 

Free  Coupon 

Thousands  of  dollars  were  spent  in  obtaining  information,  plans,  photographs  for  this 
book  and  in  printing  it. 

Yet  we  offer  it  without  charge  to  any  man  who  will  wiite  and  state  if  he  is  building 
or  remodelling,  when  he  expects  to  start  the  work  and  the  number  of  head  of  stock 
he  keeps.  Simply  fill  in  the  blanks  of  the  coupon  and  you  will  receive  the  book  by 
first  mail.     You  do  not  obligate  yourself  in  any  way. 

The  great  expense  has  forced  us  to  limit  the  first  edition  to  8,000  copies. 
(Sure  of  your  copy  by  sending  for  it  to-day. 

Beatty  Bros.  Limited 

m2I4  Hill  St.,   Fergus,  Ont 

Beatly  Bios.  Limited 

M2I4  Hill  Street.  Fergus.  Ont. 

Gentlemen:   Send  me  your  new  336  page  barn  book, 
obligation.      I  have  6lled  in  the  blanks  below. 

Are  you  thinking  of  building  a  barn  ? 

If  not,  are  you  going  to  remodel  your  barn  ? 


When  will  you  start  ? 

How  many  cows,  horses  or  young  stock  will  you  keep  ? 

Are  you  thinking  of  putting  in  Galvanized  Steel  Stalls  > 

Steel  Horse  Stable  Fittings?   Manure  Carrier? 

Hay  Carrier  ? 

Your  name 

P.O Prov 

®^^o#  ^^ia®  ^SIB®  s^^® 








When  You  Think  of 

Cx  Cy  CJ  -TV  1  J^  \^  Cookies    are    the    children's    never- 

TViinl^-  nf  FlVf»  Rn<;p<i  *^""S  delight.  Even  grownups  find 
inmK  Ol  ri>^e  IXOSeS  they  fill  a  vacant  place  most  pleasantly 
when  nothing  else  will  do.  Between  meals  and  after ;  before 
retiring  (to  humour  the  tail-end  of  a  drowsy  appetite);  the' crisp, 
crackling  cooky  is  welcome.  You  can  never  bake  too  many. 
For  lasting  crispness  and  aroma,  use 

Five  Roses* 


Packed  in 
Bags  of  7. 
14,  24.  49, 
a.id98  lbs. 
of  98  and 
196  lbs. 

for  Breads -Cakes 

Dipped  in  tea  or  milk,  coffee  or  other  favourite  beverage,  the 

flavour  of  FIVE  ROSES  cookies  and  wafers  blends  deliciously 

v/ith  the  aroma  of  the  liquid. 

Due  to  the  fineness  and  liveliness  of  this  famous  flour,  your  bake 

things  are  much  more  melting.     They  retain  much  longer  their 

witching  savour. 

Thus  you  can  make  a  lot  of  these  dainty  goodies  at  one  baking  in 

the  certainty  of  exceptional  keeping  qualities. 

FIVE  ROSES  brings  even  more ;  the  wonderful    nutrition   of 

Manitoba's  richest  wheat,  together  with  the  amazing  vitality  and 

strength  that  spell  economy  in  baking. 

Almost  a  million  successful  users  of  FIVE  ROSES  encourage  YOU 

to  try  it  in  all  your  baking.    Your  dealer  will  gladly  supply  you. 


,„,,-,'  Sendto-day  for  the  famous  FIVE  ROSES  Cook  Book. 

jE^"'  .•...,_  G:ves  over  240  tested  cake  recipes,  besides  chapters  on 

-  .  --'Yji,..  bread,  buns,  rolls. pies,  pastries,  sandwiches,, 

ix^igw^         ■     ?'h'^S*si.v  etc.     Infallible  directions  contributed  by  ove>-  2.000 

'^^^t         -'  ^'  Canadian  housewives.    So  indispensable  that  already 

^^.     :     ',  '*ii;/  over  200.000  women  have  asked  for  their  copy  of  this 

Sa,  ;:  '\  '''^'         144-pa^e  baking  manual.   Mailed  on  receipt  of  lU  two- 

cent  stamps.      Address  D.:pt.   0.    LAKE  OF    THE 






JOHN  BAYNE  JIACLEAX,  l^resident 
JOSEPH  McGOEY.  B.A.,  Manager 

FEBRUARY,   1916 

F.   M.   CHAPMAN,  B.A.,   Man.  Editor 
ETHEL  M.   CHAPMAN,  Assoc.  Editor 

-s  Contents;  ^- 



THE  GREAT  AYRSHIRE  COW W.  F.  Stephens  16 

MANAGING  A  DAIRY  HERD Prof.  H.  H.  Dean  18 

THE  BIRTHPLACE  OF  A  CHICKEN   Lewis  N.  Clark  20 


THE  PEACE  OF  THE  FIELDS  Liberty  H.  Bailey  23 



NETTING  $102  PER  ACRE  IN  APPLES  A.  J.  Campbell  36 

HEAT,  WATER  AND  SEWAGE Edwin  Newsome  38 

THE  DAIRY  SHORTHORN  IN  CANADA  Prof.  G.  E.  Day  47 

WHEN   YOU  BUILD   YOUR  BARN    A.  H.   Gihnore  51 

HANDLING  HIRED   HANDS Geo.  H.   Dacy  67 


GROWING  RED  CLOVER  IN  THE  CLAY  BELT   R.  H.  Clemens  82 

GASOLINE  ENGINES    R.  M.  Gordon  83 



THE  MILKING  MACHINE  COMING  IN   '. Frank   E.   Ellis  92 




FEBRUARY  ON  THE  FARM Grasmere  121 


A  YEAR  OF  DESTINY— 1916! Dr.  C.  C.  James,  C.  M.  G.     11 

WHY  ONE  MAN  LEFT  THE  FARM W.  A.  Craick     12 

THE  CALL  TO  FARM  LIFE  Prof.  J.  B.  Reynolds,  M.  A.  C.     15 

DRURY  OF   CROWN   HILL    : Peter  Bruce     25 

THE  FUNCTION  OF  THE  RURAL  CHURCH   Andrew  Phillip     28 

SOME   LIVE   STOCK   TIPS    Thos.    Williamson     30 

A  LIVE  STOCK  SURVEY James  E.  Poole     32 

THE  STRIDE  OF  THE  JUNIOR  FARMER Genevieve     39 


BREAKING  A  CLAY-FOOT  IDOL   J.  B.  Musselman     45 

MAKING  THJs  FARMER'S  SAVINGS  EARN  MORE Richard  Laborson     60 

INSURANCE  FOR  FARMERS John  C.  Kirkwood     62 

WHERE  FARM  SCHOOLS  EDUCATE J.  B.  Spencer,  B.  S.  A.  106 

CANADA'S  RECORD  HARVEST  OF  $845,874,000 108 

"SPECULATIONS"    C.    Doyle  116 

THE  U.  S.  COUNTY  AGENT   A.  M.  Kepper  125 





KEEP  THE  HOME  FIRES  BURNING Ethel  M.  Chapman     41 

POWER  MACHINERY  IN  THE  HOME   .J.  W.  Stark     49 

SHORT  CUTS  FOR  THE  HOUSEKEEPER   Winnifred  Marchand     65 

THE  MISSION  OF  MUSIC   • Genevieve     66 


THE  WALLS  OF  YOUR  HOME   Ethyl  Munro  110 

THE  HOUSEHOLD  CALENDAR  FOR  1916 Dr.  Annie  A.  Backus  113 



GREAT  BRITAIN — London,   The  MacLean   Company    of   Great    Britain,    Limited,   SS    Fleet    Street, 
E.C.     E.  J.   Dodd.  Director.     Teleplione  Central  129€0.     Cable  Address:  Atabek,  Lojidon,  Eng. 



The  Editors  Talk 


We  believe  you  will  enjoy  this  Reference  Number  of 
The  Farmer's  Magazine.  It  comes  to  your  farm  home  just 
as  the  buds  of  prom,ise  for  our  next  crop,  are  swelling.  It 
carries  from  many  big  minds  warm  words  of  inspiration 
and  helpful  ideas  in  practical  farm,  life. 

Those  farm,ers,  who  will  not  find  a  present  usefulness 
in  nearly  every  article  and  a  cumulative  interest  in  the 
whole  issue  diiring  the  year,  must  be  few  and  scattered  in- 
deed. The  high  order  maintained  in  the  magazine  during 
past  issues,  has  been  appreciated  from,  one  ocean  to  the 
other.  For  agricultural  life,  being  the  best  life,  demands 
such  recognition  on  the  part  of  our  farm  papers.  To  this 
end  the  editorial  staff  have  contributed  in  this  big  issue 
and  have  arranged  for  future  issues  matter  that  will 
buttress  active  farm  management  and  greater  farm  returns 
during  the  whole  year.  Farmers  must  m,ake  more  money 
out  of  their  business.  » 

During  this  year,  there  is  going  to  develop  a  more  fav- 
orable comparison  between  rural  and  urban  living.  Diligent 
thoughtful  m,en  are  scanning  the  fore-view.  The  great 
world  clash  m,ust  bring  certain  changes  in  its  wake,  and  it 
is  this  disturbance  that  brings  agricultural  problems  into 
the  lime-light.  These  developments  will  be  watched  and 
their  movements  translated  in  each  issue.  The  farmer  who 
wins  out  is  the  one  who  keeps  his  ear  to  the  ground.  The 
knowing  of  the  things  that  our  writers  tell,  is  the  best  way 
of  doing  it. 

Dr.  James,  whose  contribution  in  this  issue  catches  the 
ground  note,  believes  that  the  next  great  advance  in  agri- 
culture must  come  fro'm  the  country  school.  Individual  ex- 
pression must  be  merged  in  com,munity  effort.  Our  school 
articles  have  pointed  the  way. 

Organized  agriculture  must  settle  our  economic  and 
social  trouble.  Our  marketing  methods,  our  standardization 
of  packages,  our  output  of  the  dairy,  of  the  poultry  plant, 
of  wool,  of  fruits,  must  be  improved  mightily.  Co-operation 
is  the  right  way  to  achieve  these  results.  In  every  province 
the  farmers  are  inquiring  about  it.  Business  men  are  ad- 
vocating it,  bankers  are  urging  it.  Do  not  spurn  their  in- 
terest in  the  farm.  If  they  can  help  us,  by  all  means  accept 
their  services,  keeping  in  mind  our  right  viewpoint. 
Biting  off  our  noses  never  improves  our  faces.  Business  hci^s 
many  ideas  that  we  can  well  adopt.  Likewise,  they  need 
our  viewpoints  on  a  few  things.  Co-operation  means  get- 
ting together. 

Our  readers  will  be  pleased  to  note  the  thoroughness  of 
the  poultry  information  in  this  number.  It  is  from  the  pen 
of  a  successful  nioney-maker  in  this  line,  perhaps  the  most 
successful  man  in  Canada  combining  the  practical  produc- 
tion and  marketing  end  of  the  business. 

The  live  stock  features  of  this  issue  are  of  first  rate 
importance.  The  trend  of  the  markets  is  forecast  by 

Another  feature  that  will  be  continued  is  the  business 
articles  by  Richard  Laborson.  Every  farmer  who  has  a 
dollar  to  invest  will  find  these  articles  of  big  service  to  him. 

The  extension  of  a  news  column,  the  opportunities  in  the 
Rural  Mail  departmeyit,  the  work  of  the  month,  and  scien- 
tific discussions  will  enlist  every  type  of  farmer  in  their 
interest.  The  educated  scientific  youth,  and  the  working 
hired  man,  who  has  not  had  a  chance  to  study,  the  big 
farmer,  the  intensive  farmer,  the  specialist,  or  just  the 
easy-going  ordinary  mixed  farmer,  will  find  in  the  coming 
issue  his  exact  needs;  and  his  ideal  of  a  farm  journal  for 
Canada.  We  build  up,  not  knock.  We  want  the  farm  to  be 
made  more  paying,  and  at  the  same  time  more  intelligent. 
In  fact  we  aim  to  assist  in  that  country  life  development 
that  marks  the  best  in  rural  life. 

The  Farmer's  Magazine,  we  believe  is  facing  that  work, 
and  this  issue  is  a  result  of  the  faith  our  readers  have  had 
in  u^s.  F.  M.  C. 

An  inspiration  to  more  cheerful  and  healthy  and  bet- 
ter living,  coupled  with  practical  information — this  is  the 
idea  which  this  magazine  seeks  to  carry  to  every  farm 
home.  Our  ambition  is  to  make  the  paper  unofficially  the 
official  organ  of  the  homemaker  as  well  as  the  farmer,  and 
ive  realize  that  this  is  no  easy  undertaking.  It  leaves  a 
broad  field  to  cover  and  requires  the  services  of  specialists 
in  many  departments, 


First,  ive  are  giving  a  good  deal  of  attention  to  the  craft 
of  the  homekeeper,  the  best  proved  ideas  we  can  find  in 
every  department  of  farm  housekeeping,  and  especially 
how  to  economize  in  labor.  Read  the  article  on  "Power 
Machinery  in  the  Farm  Home"  in  this  number.  Other 
phases  of  the  subject  will  be  treated  in  every  issue. 

Read  the  Home  Calendar  by  Dr.  Annie  A.  Backus,  in 
this  number.  Apart  from  her  professional  practice. 
Dr.  Backus,  through  her  Institute  work  has  made 
friends  among  the  wornen  throughout  the  Province  of  On- 
tario, and  we  are  glad  to  have  the  privilege  of  sending 
through  our  columns  a  monthly  talk  on  health  subjects 
and  other  problems,  to  farm  homes  through  the  whole 


Everywhere  our  girls  are  asking  for  the  same  advant- 
ages that  their  brothers  are  getting  through  the  Junior 
Farmers'  organization  and  other  young  men's  clubs.  Older 
heads  are  interested  too,  but  it  seems  rather  difficult  to 
strike  jv^st  the  right  thing.  A  real  girl  specialist,  Miss 
Emily  Guest,  M.A.,  is  doing  some  serious  work  on  this  prob- 
lem, and  in  the  March  issue  of  Farmer's  Magazine  will 
begin  a  series  of  most  practical  and  entertaining  articles. 

The  interests  of  the  thinking  woman,  however,  domestic 
she  may  be,  are  not  confined  by  the  walls  of  her  home,  be- 
cause she  knows  that  whatever  contaminates  the  life  of  the 
community  is  a  menace  to  her  family  and  the  other  woman's 
family.  During  the  past  year  tve  have  devoted  considerable 
space  to  problems  of  rural  social  life.  In  the  earning  months 
we  are  planning  to  make  a  feature  of  some  of  the  best  and 
livest  forms  of  social  entertainment,  beginning  in  March 
with  a  novel  reproduction  of  "The  Olde  Tyme  Syngeing 
School."  The  article  in  this  issv^,  "The  Country  Church," 
by  Andrew  Phillip,  is  a  classic  in  this  department. 


The  letters  from  mothers  prompted  by  the  series  of 
articles  on  mothercraft  published  in  Farmer's  Magazine  last 
fall  have  encouraged  us  to  take  up  the  subject  again  in  our 
spring  numbers.  Any  inquiries  from  our  readers  regarding 
the  health-care  of  children  will  be  submitted  to  a  physician 
and  answered  free  of  charge. 


Since  the  beginning  of  the  war  the  Women's  Institutes 
and  Homemakers'  Clubs  have  been  among  the  most  active 
of  women's  organizations  in  furnishing  Red  Cross  supplies, 
and  in  raising  funds  for  Belgian  and  local  relief  work.  In 
this  issue  reports  from  many  Institutes  and  a  message  from, 
the  secretary  of  the  Canadian  Red  Cross  Society,  offer  new 
inspiration  and  valuable  ideas  for  carrying  on  the  work. 
Special  articles  on  Women's  Institute  work  appear  in  every 
issue  and  we  will  be  glad  to  have  news  from  any  branch. 
THE  get-together  SPIRIT 

This  is  the  secret  of  service.  If  you  want  more  informa- 
tion write  for  it.  If  you  have  any  suggestions  or  criticisms 
tell  us.  We  are  sparing  no  effort  to  make  our  Home  Depart- 
ment well  balanced,  up-to-date,  and  full  of  inspiration  and 
vital  interest  for  every  woman  reader.  We  will  appreciate 
your  co-operation.  E.  M.  C. 


A  Farmers'  Company 
Successful  in  Business 

Organized  in  1906  by  a  handful  of  grain  growers  who 
had  decided  that  their  economic  salvation  lay  in  the  for- 
mation of  a  Company  of  their  own  to  handle  the  pro- 
ducts of  their  labors  and  the  supplies  that  they  were 
obliged  to  purchase. 

The  following  figures  tell  part  of  the  story  of  development : 

Opened  Business 
Sept.  1,  '06     June  30,  '07     June  30,  '08     June  30,  '10    June  30,  '12     Aug.  31,  '14     Aug.  31,  '15 

Shares  Allotted 

1,000                  1,853 






Capital  Subscribed  .  .  .$ 

25,000     $          46,325 

$          73,300 

$      353,275 

$      683,000 

$     1,061,925 

$     1,199,400 

Capital  Paid-up 

5,000                11,795 






Grain  Eeceipta  (Bus.; . 








....     $               790 

$          30,190 

$        95,663 

$      121,614 

$  151,080.92 

$  226,963.08 

After  paying  the  customary  io%  dividend  for  the  past  year,  the  reserve  fund 
was  increased  to  $340,000.00.  On  August  31st,  1915,  shareholders  of  the 
Company  totalled  16,773.  Then,  also,  several  thousand  farmers  of  the 
prairie  provinces  use  this  Company  every  year  in  disposing  of  their  grain 
and  in  buying  their  implements  and  general  farm  needs. 

IF  YOU  LIVE  IN  I  HE  WEST  you  should  use  this 
Company  when  you  sell  your  grain  or  buy  your  needs. 

IF  YOU  LIVE  IN  I  HE  EAST  you  should  see  that 
no  time  is  lost  in  guaranteeing  a  similar  company  of 
similar  strength  to  work  in  behalf  of  farmers  both  in  sell- 
ing and  buying. 

Our  Second  Annual  Catalog 

lists  engines,  vehicles,  farm  machinery,  and  general  commodities,  including  lum- 
ber, builders'  supplies,  corrugated  iron,  wire  fencing,  fence  posts,  coal,  flour,  salt, 
binder  twine,  harness,  pumps,  scales,  washing  machines,  incubators,  brooders,  etc., 
etc.    If  you  haven't  a  copy,  write  us  at  once  for  our  1916  Catalog  M. 

Service  When 
You  Sell 

The  irktn  /rowers  /rain  G>., 

^    ^<^  V-J^    Ltd. 

Winnipeg  -Manitoba 

Branches  at 

Value  When 
You  Buy 

Agency    at 
British  Columbia 

F  A  R  M  E  R  '  S     M  A  G  A  Z  I  N  E 

;e  t'F3 






at  Ontario  Agricultural  College, Guelph.-- 
~'  Painted   with 



You'll  Find  Just  What  You  Want 
'•  For  Spring  Painting,  In 




Your  needs  have  been  foreseen.  Dealers  in  your 
neighborhood  have  been  suppHed  with  the  Martin-Senour  line. 
And  you  have  only  to  name  your  Painting  Wants,  to  have 
them  promptly  filled. 


HOUSE  PAINT— Why  should  you  waste 
money  on  impure  paint,  or  bother  with 
mixing  lead  and  oil,  when  you  can  get 
Martin-Senour  "100%  Pure"  Paint  for  all 
outside  and  inside  painting  ?  Always  the 
same  in  quality,  color,  fineness  and  purity. 

FLOOR  PAINT— There's  only  one  to  be 

considered— the  old  reliable   SENOUR'S 

Floor  Paint — the  kind 

that  wears,  and  wears, 

and  wears. 

BARN  PAINT  —  Martin  -  Senour 
"RED  SCHOOL  HOUSE"  is  the 
paint  for  the  barn.  It  spreads 
easily — covers  more  surface — and 
holds  its  fresh,  bright  color  against 
wear  and  weather. 

WAGON  PAINT  —  Keep  the 
machines,  wagons  and  tools  fresh 
and  bright  —  and  protect  them 
against  rust  and  weather — by  giving 
them  a  coat  or  two  of  Martin-Senour 
"Wagon    and    Implement"    Paint. 

•p°u'i,t  PAINT 


Write  us  today  for  "Farmer's  Color  Set"  and  name  of 
our  nearest  dealer-agent. 




Greensiiields  Ave.,  Montreal. 






for    sewing 

kinds  of   leather, 

Harness,  Auto  and  Buijtfy   Tops,   Grain   Bags 

Sews  quick  and  strong.     Anyone  can  operate  it. 

for  itself  every  time  it  is  used. 

Wilson  Specialties,  33  Melinda  St.,  Toronto 


Our  courses  in  T.vpewriting,  Stenography,  Bouk- 
keeping.  Civil  Service,  Show  Card  Writing,  Sign 
Writing,  Meclianioal  Drafting,'  Architectural 
Drawing,  Electric  Lighting  anrl  Wiring,  "will  fit 
.vou  for  a  better  position  with  increased  salary. 
Hundreds  of  opportunities  daily.  Enroll  now. 
Write  for  catalogue  <le§cribing  the  different 
courses.     Address  Dept.  E. 

Hamilton,  Ontario 


We  will  pay  the  above  price  for  crate-fattene( 
chickens,  bled,  and  picked  clean  to  the  wing 
tips.  Chickens  must  be  good  size,  straight 
breasted  and  white  in  colour,  not  torn.  Thes 
birds  are  for  select  trade,  so  must  be  A  No.  1 

WALLER'S,  700  Spadina  Ave.,  Ton 


%e  KEY  to  a  BETTER 



Your  pocket- 
knife  is  all  you 

need  to  discover  what 

real  sweetness  you  can  get  out  of  your  old  pipe. 




and  whittle  off  a  fresh  pipeful  just  before  you  smoke 
and  you  will  find  that  your  smoke  will  be  sweeter, 
slower-burning,  cooler  than  you  ever  got  from  a  bag 
or  tin  of  tobacco. 

That's  because  the  only  way  to  keep  all  the  moisture  in  tobacco  is 
to  press  the  choicest  leaves  into  a  plug  and  protect  it  with  a 
natural  leaf  wrapper. 

''  Made  in  Canada  by  Expert  Canadian  Workmen  " 
FOR    SALE    EVERYWHERE     lOc    a    block 


For  the  FIFTH  Time  Studebaker  Sets  NEW 
Standards  of  Value  in  a  NEW  Studebaker  that 

gives    STILL  MORE  conveniences 

STILL  MORE  beauty  of  design 
STILL  MORE  roominess  everywhere 
STILL  MORE  refinement  of  mechanical  design 
The  same  POWERFUL  motor 
And  the  SAME  sterling  quality  in  every  detail 

— roomier 

Much  more  room  for  the  driver 
has  been  gained  by  removing  the 
gas  tank  from  the  cowl  to  the  rear 
and  moving  the  cowl-board  up- 
ward and  slightly  ahead  of  its 
former  position. 

More  room  has  also  been  gained 
in  the  tonneau  by  moving  the 
front  seats  forward  a  few  inches 
and  making  them  adjustable  to 
the  passengers'  personal  comfort. 


Changes  have  also  been  made  in 
the  design  ofthe  car  which  greatly 
enhance  its  graceful  lines.  The 
fenders,  for  instance,  have  been 
made  heavier,  deeper  and  richer, 
following  the  curves  of  the  wheels 
more  closely.  And  v/ith  the  gas 
tank  hung  on  the  rear,  the  whole 
car  has  a  substantiality  of  appear- 
ance that  is  very  attractive. 


mark  the  carthroughout.  Especi- 
ally the  gas  tank  in  the  rear  and 
the  reliable  Stew/art  Vacuum  Sys- 
ten^  set  on  the  intake  manifold. 
This  insures  positive  feed  at  all 

Clutch  and  brake  pedals  are  long- 
er by  3  inches,  affording  greater 
leverage  and  ease  of  control.  The 
wrindshield  is  designed  to  overlap 
thus  assuring  complete  protection 
in  any  storm.  The  switches, 
gauges,  speedometer  are  all  con- 
veniently located  on  the  cowl, 
lighted  by  an  indirect  system  of 

Four  Cylinder  Models 

Touring  Car,  7-passenger  .  $1165 

Roadster,  3-passenger 1135 

Landau-Roadster,  3  pass. .    1465 

Six  Cylinder  Models 

Touring  Car,  7-passenger  .  $1395 

Roadster,  3-passenger 1365 

Landau-Roadster,  3-pass. .    1695 
F.  O.  B.  Walkerville 

Write  for  catalog  at    once 

Series  1 7  FOUR 

40I>P-        $1  1  A^ 

7-passenger     I  I  w^ 

Never  has  there  been  a  finer  example  of  what  that  name  of  Stude- 
baker guarantees  to  the  buyer  of  a  car  than  NOW.  Studebaker 
with  its  GREAT  resources,  its  unrivaled  buying  powers,  and  its 
enormously  increased  volume  of  manufacture,  has  been  able  to 
REDUCE  the  price  to  $1 165 — a  SAVING  of  $40  to  every  man  who 
buys  a  Studebaker. 

And  at  the  same  time,  — "because  it's  a  Studebaker" — backed  by 
this  gigantic  manufacturing  institution,  the  same  high  quality  of 
the  car  has  been  maintained.  It  has  never  been  Studebaker's  policy 
to  reduce  the  quality  of  any  product  in  order  to  reduce  the  price. 
That  name  of  Studebaker  has  been  a  guarantee  of  QUALITY  for 
too  many  years. 

It  is  the  MOST  POWERFUL  4-cylinder  car  that  has  ever  been 
offered  at  anywhere  near  the  price.  It  is  the  FIRST  4-cylinder  car 
to  rival  the  flexibility  of  a  SIX.  And  with  the  added  convenience 
in  the  new  model,  it  is  the  BIGGEST  dollar-for-dollar  value  that 
the  market  has  ever  seen.  See  it  at  your  local  dealer's  before  you 
decide  on  any  car.  See  how  much  a  dollar  will  buy  in  a  car — 
"because  it's  a  Studebaker."    Write  for  Series  17,  Catalog. 

Built    in    Canada 


Walkerville,  Ont.  Dept.  F.  44 

More  than  207,000  Studebaker  Cars  now  in  use 


Simonds  Crescent  Ground 
Cros8-Cut  Saws 

Tliis  saw  wiU  cut  10  per  cent,  more  timber,  same  time  and  labor  being 
used,  than  any  other  brand  of  Cross-Cut  Saw  made.  This  guarantee  has 
stood   for   thirty   years. 

There  are  two  reasons  for  the  superiority  of  the  Simonds  Saw — grinding 
and   steel. 

A  saw  that  does  not  bind  in  the  kerf  cuts  easy;  a  saw  that  binds  is  a 
bother.  Crescent  gi-inding  insures  saws  ground  so  tliat  the  teeth  are  all  ot 
even  thickness  throughout  the  length  ot  the  saw,  and  the  blade  tapered  for 
clearance  to  the  greatest  degree  consistent  with  a  strength  of  blade  which 
enables  the  operator  to  push  as  well  as  pull  the  saw.  Crescent  grinding  is  an 
exclusiTe   process,    used   only   on    Simonds  CrossOut   Saws. 

SIMONDS  CANADA  SAW  COMPANY,  Limited,  Montreal,  Que. 

Simouds  .Steel  will  take  a  temper  to  hold  a  cutting  edge  and  stay  sharp 
for  a  longer   time   than   any   saw   not  made   of   Simonds   Steel. 

There  are  two  reasons  why  you  should  buy  Simonds  Crescent  Groimd 
Cross<!ut   Saws— Quality    and    Price. 

Superior   quality   makes    your   cutting   as    easj^    as    cutting   can    be. 

The  price  is  moderate  for  the  saw  value  given.  It  is  about  the  same  as 
yon  would  pay  for  an  inferior  saw;  therefore,  why  not  get  the  best  for  your 
money— a  saw  with  the  manufacturer's  name,  "Simonds,"  on  it?  It  is  your 
guarantee  and  your  protection.  The  saw  illustrated.  Simonds  Crescent  Ground 
Saw,  No.  22,  is  the  most  satisfactory  saw  for  all  usual  sawing  purposes.  Insist 
on  your  hardware  dealers  supplying  you  with  Simonds  Saws.  Write  to  the 
factory    for   further  particulars. 

ST.  JOHN.  N.B. 

Always  bu.v  a  saw  with   a  sharp  cutting:  edge — not  a  soft  saw — because  the   former   lasts   Iong:er   and   keeps   its   edge   better. 

^^('^■\\^l/^jJ^(     J&i  ^" -'^ fc? '"'■^  .^C*:^P^^'^'^Stump  fields  cost  you  money.     You  can't  afford  such 

fSf0^  waste — such  loss.     Get  rid  of  the  stumps- 

make  every  acre      ^^...- 

j''ft5^»«*;'*^/'"      easy,  practical  way, 
-'d^V^W"'     State  Officials' 
tA  :i~.4r  :^^/ 

return  big  profits.   Clear  your  land  the  Kirstin  way — the  quick 
Use  the  method  endorsed  by  Government  atifl 

and  by  thousands  upon  thousands  of  farmers  and  land       '^ri?*\ 

>*:V"-*w5.  owners — the  way  that  is  easiest,  most  practical  and  costs  you  the  least, 

■^^'^'^y'"      both  in  first  cost  and  for  labor.  The  Kirstin  One-Man  way  is  the  proven  way. 
From  Maine  to  California  and  from  Canada  to  the  Gulf,  there  are  thousan(fs  of 
Kirstins   at   work   and   every   one    of  thenj  will  repay  their  cost  many  times  over. 
Kirstin  will  make  good  in  your  stump  fields. 


One-Man  Stump  Puller 

Easily  Handled  and  Operated  By  One  Man. 


t^^f^^    The  improved  Double  Leverape  Kirstin  has 

«vl^5^"^'     'y"^   quality   needed    in   a  stump   puller  — 

i^i^i^^'     gigantic    power — variable    sptidi — enormous 

i;4ri'!^''2''     '"■'"S'h.    Yet,  with   all  its   great   power  and 

Mfjii^^-S     strength,   the   Kirstin  is  the  lightest   stump 

;§^fiS'^    puller  made,  so  that  one  man  can  carry,  handle 

■^j^^it^     and  operate  it  with  ease. 

mm  - 

^iM    In. 
m&t^i    pull 

No  Horses  Required 


1  clearing  land  the  Kirstin  way.  one  man  alone 
pulls  stumps — your  team  dnvoii  lay  a  boy  can  be 
I.;.    ...i,-     kept  busy  draHgins  them  away.     Just  think  of  the 
i^.fcSj  jjj     enormous  difference  in  cost  between  the  Kirstin  One- 
'2,'«:'.>^2     Man  way  and  the  horse-power  method— where  it  takes 

'^A-'V,  ■»:->\ 


a  team  and  a  man  or  two  to  operate  the  puller  alone. 
The  improved  double  leverage  Kirstin,  the  new 
short  lever  mode',  stands  the  extreme  tests  of  the 
very  iiardest  stump  pulling.  T  he  Kirstin's  wonderful 
coraiiound  leverage  principle  develops  enormous 
power— one  man  alone  can  easily  pull  all  kinds  ot 
stniiips— big,  little,  tougli  or  green- also  trees  and 
hedi.'es.  In  addition  to  its  practically  unlimited 
power,  the  Kirstin 

Changes  Speed  While  Pulling  a  Stump 

No  other  stump  puller  at  any  price  contains  a  similar 
device.     With  other  machines  you  keep  pulling  at  the 
same  rate  of  speed  even  after  the  stump  has  broken 
loose  and  the  hard  pull  is  over.     This  is  a  big  waste 
of^ime   that  the   Kirstin  Multiple   Speed-Changing 
'"'     feature  entirely  overcomes. The  Quick- Detach- 
able connections   also   me.nn  a  big  saving  of 
time.  Furthermore,  with  the  Kirstin  you  can 

Aeer.ts'Ml^mt^  ^^^^  ^^^  Anchor 

W     '»' J  ^i'4  »nllv    ^^v      ^°  ''""^  '°^'   '"   ''^ving  to  re-set 
yvantea     'JiiMII/BkV        \\  machine  for  every  stump — no 

A.    J.    KIRSTIN 
5400  Dennis  St. 

once  lor  your  ^s^.,-rj-\^y--: 
copy  of  free  ,<^;2,!egS%j 
book.  ^/^f^'i::;^^^ 

Sanlt  Ste.  Marie,  Ont. 

unwinding  cables  from  a  heavy  drum— no  driving  a  team  round  and 
round  -no  wasted   time  or   effort  at  all.    Just  a  steady,  easy,  back- 
and-forth   mcwement  of  the  Kirstin   lever  brings  stumps  out  qhick 
and  easy.     Small  trees,  hedges,  brush,  etc.,  can  be  pulled  in  bunches. 
The  Kirstin  gives  you  unlimited    power.      It  also  has  surplus 
strength  in  every  part— and   the   rielii  speed  at   the   right   time. 
Can  be  used  anywhere— hills,  swamps— rough  ground  or  thick 
timber  where  no  other  puller  could  be  used. 

If  you  have  any  stumps  on  your   farm  you  need  a 
Kirstin.       Why  the  Kirstin  ?      Because  the  Kirstin  is  the 
simplest,  most  practical,  most  eflicient  land  clearing 
device  ever  invented.    Lowest  first  cost — lowest  in  cost 
of  operation.     It  weighs  niuch  less  than  any  other, 
is  a  great  deal  stronger,  and  is  covered  bv 

Iron-Clad  Guarantee 

You  cannot  afford  to  start  to  clear  your 
land  before  you  get  the  Kirstin  Catalogue. 
This  will  be  sent  yon  FREE.     It  contains 
invaluable  land-clearing  information  and  full 
details  abnut  Kirstin  One-Man  Stump  Pull- 
ers, our  Liberal  Ten-Day  Try-Out  Offer,      -' 
the  Kirstin  Service  Bureau,  Time  Pay 
raent  Plans,  ^ic    We'll  also  send  you 
ABSOLUTE  PROOF  that  the  Kir-    .^ 
stin  is  and  does    all    we   claim 
Try   a   Kirstin  on   your   land — 
prove  its  value  to  yourself.    , y..-?-/^?,;'*?^' 

Mail  The  Coupon    ^.f^^^l.. 

or  send  a  postal,  but  be  >i-"^^|>,§Sf f''"'^ 
sure   to   write   at'.5fe',>i^ 
once  for  your 




You  who  Feed  the  Nation 
— Fighting  Men  and  All — 

— you  whose  farms  last  year  produced  crops 
worth  Eight  Hundred  Million  Dollars— YOU 
certainly  can  afford  and  appreciate  the  very 
best  in  equipment,  for  personal  use  as  well  as 
for  your  work. 

'When  it  comes  to  shaving,  nothing  else  will 
give  you  anything  like  the  speed,  service  and 
comfort  you  can  get  from  a 


Safety  Razor 

The  more  you  know  of  things  mechanical,  the  more 
you'll  appreciate  the  principle  of  the  Gillette — a  wafer-thin 
blade  of  finest  steel,  tempered  to  perfection,  gripped  rigid 
and  guarded  by  a  handy  adjustable  holder. 

A  turn  of  the  screw  handle  adapts  the  Gillette  for  a  light 
or  close  shave,  or  a  tough  or  tender  skin.  The  wonderful 
keenness  of  the  electrically  hardened  Gillette  Blades  makes 
it  easy  to  shave  clean,  close  and  comfortably  in  five 
minutes  or  less. 

Make  your  shaving  as  up-to-date  as  your  farming 
methods.     Get  a  Gillette  and  enjoy  it! 

Your  Druggist,  Jev^eler,  or  Hardware  Dealer 
will  show  you  an  assortment  of  Gillette  Sets — 
"Bulldogs",  "Aristocrats",  Standard  Sets, 
Pocket  Editions  and  Combination  Sets,  at 
$5.00  and  up. 

Gillette  Safety  Razor  Co.  of  Canada 

Office  and  Factory:     Gillette  Building,  Montreal 






Volume  IX 


Number  4 


Ir  is  evening  at  Broadview 
Farm.  Snow  covers  the 
fields,  and  evergreens  bend 
low  with  their  white  burdens.  The  cattle 
have  quieted  down  for  the  night  and  the 
bright  moon  gloivs  upon  a  scene  of  peace 
and  quiet.  The  blinds  have  been  drawn. 
The  wood  crackles  in  the  fireplace  and 
the  shaded  lamp  stands  in  the  middle  of 
the  table.  The  boys  and  girls  are  busy 
with  their  morrow's  lessons.  Father  has 
put  off  his  heavy  boots  and  is  ready  for 
his  evening  paper.  Mother  is  tired,  but 
her  knitting  is  at  hand,  and  to  it  she 
turns,  knitting  and  thinking,  thinking  and 
knitting.  There  is  a  vacant  chair,  for 
Jack  to-night  is  in  the  trenches  in  Fland- 
ers. Mother  knits  and  thinks,  and  then 
she  gets  up  and  goes  to  the  drawer  in  the 

By     Dr.     C.     C.     JAMES,     C.M.G- 

secretary  and  takes  out  a  letter  which  she 
hands  to  Father,  and  he  reads  it  again 
for  the  fourth  time. 

'■  The  socks  you  sent   are  fine.      I  gate 

one  pair  to  a  chap  tcho  never  hears  from,  any- 
one, as  he  has  tieither  father  nor  mother.  The 
icooUen  cap  that  Mary  knit  is  just  the  thing 
for  this  weather.  Tell  the  kiddies  that  their 
letters  are  so  welcome  and  the  scrapbooks  that 
they  have  sent  are  in  use  all  the  time.  And 
now,  Father,  you  irould  hare  to  come  to  the 
Front  to  appreciate  what  you  are  doing  and 
can  do  at  home.  We  are  fighting,  hut  we  could 
not  carry  on  this  var  without  you.  Do  your 
licst  again  this  year.  Make  the  old  farm,  pro- 
duce all  it  can,  for  we  shall  need  it.  Remem- 
ber, you  are  in  this  war  as  much  as  we  are        " 

«     ( 

Then  Father  laid  the  letter 
on  the  table,  and  he  and  Mother 
talked  and  planned.  They  would 
do  greater  things  for  Jack's  sake.    The 
call  from  the  trenches  tvas  a  new  call  to 
duty  and  to  patriotisyn:    The  farmer,  the 
farmer's   wife, 
the  farmer's 
daughter,      the 
farmer's     boy, 
whether    at    the 
front,     in     th  e 
hoTue,  or  at  the 
plow,  can  be  re- 
lied   on    in    this 





Why  One  Man  Left  the  Farm 

An  Accident  That  Gave  Dr.  Mills  to  the   Work   of 
Agriculture  Along  Other  Lines 

By     W.     A.     C  R AI C  K 

Dr.   James  Mills. 

IT  is  now  many  years  ago  since  an  ac- 
cident happened  in  a  barn  in  the 
Township  of  North  Gwillimbury, 
which  was  to  have  a  very  radical  effect  on 
the  fortunes  of  a  young  Ontario  farmer. 
The  youth,  a  tall  well-set-up  hard-working 
lad,  was  superintending  a  threshing.  A 
younger  brother  was  driving  the  horses 
hitched  to  one  of  the  old-time  power- 
plants,  known  as  a  horse-power,  while  in- 
side the  barn,  a  farm  hand  was  pitching 
the  sheaves  into  the  machine.  In  a  mo- 
ment of  carelessness,  the  'latter  jammed 
his  fork  into  the  chain  and  threw  it  off  a 
pulley.  Almost  at  the  same  instant  a 
gust  of  wind  blew  the  barn-door  shut,  so 
that  the  boy  driving  the  horses  could  not 
see  what  had  happened. 

Hastily  seizing  a  sheaf,  the  young'farm- 
er  hurried  up  to  the  machine  and  pushed 
it  into  the  gearing  in  order  to  slacken  the 
speed  so  that  the  chain  could  be  readjust- 
ed. Unfortunately  he  miscalculated  the 
rate  at  which  the  apparatus  was  moving, 
his  arm  was  drawn  into  the  machinery 
and  in  a  trice  it  had  been  hacked  off.  Thus 
what  might  otherwise  have  proved  to  be 
a  day  of  quite  ordinary  import  in  the  farm 
routine  was  turned  into  a  day  of  tragedy. 

Those  to  whom  the  tall  and  dignified 
figure  of  Dr.  James  Mills,  once  president 
of  the  Ontario  Agricultural  College,  later 
member  of  the  Dominion  Board  of  Rail- 
way Commissioners  and  now  librarian  of 
that  body,  is  familiar  are  aware  that  his 
right  arm  is  lacking.  They  may  possibly 
have  heard  at  one  time  or  another  that  he 
lost  it  in  a  threshing  accident,  when  he 
was  a  young  man  working  on  his  father's 
farm  in  North  York.  What  they  may  not 
have  grasped,  however,  is  that  the  tra- 
gedy of  that  summer  day  back  in  the  early 
sixties  was  to  be  the  direct  cause  of  a 
change  in  the  youth's  outlook  that  was  to. 
lead  him  away  from  the  farm  and  carry 
him  into  those  position  of  great  public 
usefulness  he  has  subsequently  filled. 

James  Mills  was  the  eldest  of  six  sons, 
who  were  born  to  John  Mills  and  his  wife, 
Ann  Stinson,  on  a  200-acre  farm  which 
they  rented  from  Mrs.  Sarah  Rogers, 
mother  of  Elias  Rogers,  the  well-known 

Toronto  coal  merchant,  at  Corbett's  Cor- 
ners, a  small  cross-roads  settlement  be- 
tween Schomberg  and  Bond  Head.  Both 
John  Mills  and  his  wife  were  north  of 
Ireland  folk  and  they  possessed  all  the 
best  characteristics  of  their  race.  The 
Mills  farm  was  famous  throughout  the 
countryside  as  a  model  of  what  a  farm 
should  be.  In  its  cultivation,  methods 
were  in  vogue  which  were  in  advance  of 
the  times,  and  John  Mills  had  a  reputation 
as  a  highly  successful  agriculturist  that 
was  more  than  local. 

To  follow  in  his  father's  footsteps  and 
to  become  a  prosperous  farmer  was  the 
ambition  of  the  eldest  son,  born  on  Novem- 
ber 24,  1840.  He  forsook  the  little  country 
schoolhouse  at  the  Corners  at  an  early 
age  and  devoted  himself  assiduously  to 
the  farming.  We  may  well  suppose,  know- 
ing the  determination  of  the  man  as 
shown  in  later  life,  that  he  applied  him- 
self very  zealously  to  the  work  in  hand, 
thrusting  aside  all  distractions  and  giving 
himself  up  whole-heartedly  to  agricul- 
tural pursuits. 


Then  came  the  tragedy  of  the  mangled 
arm,  not  while  he  was  still  a  boy,  but 
after  he  had  crossed  the  threshold  of 
manhood.  To  many  a  young  man,  an  acci- 
dent such  as  that  would  have  had  negative 
results.  Not  so  to  James  Mills.  He  real- 
ized the  handicap  which  the  loss  of  his 
right  arm  would  impose  and  he  decided 
that  for  him  the  life  of  the  farm  was  no 
longer  possible.  Despite  his  age,  he  de- 
termined to  seek  an  education  that  would 
fit  him  for  some  calling  in  which  the  lack 
of  an  arm  would  be  no  serious  obstacle. 

Mingling  with  boys  and  girls,  who  were 

for  the  most  part  much  younger  than  him- 
self, he  went  to  Bradford  and  attended  the 
high  school.  He  had  practically  to  learn 
to  write  all  over  again.  He  had  to  catch 
up  in  many  subjects  but  he  was  in  dead 
earnest  and  he  made  rapid  progress. 
Those  who  were  students  at  the  Bradford 
Grammar  School  in  those  days  remember 
James  Mills  as  a  hard  worker,  intent  on 
his  books  and  never  indulging  in  any  non- 

From  Bradford,  in  his  pursuit  of  know- 
ledge, he  went  to  Cobourg  and  enrolled 
among  the  undergraduates  of  Victoria 
University.  Here  he  achieved  a  brilliant 
course,  graduating  in  1868,  with  the 
Prince  of  Wales  gold  medal.  He  had 
meanwhile  decided  that  the  teaching  pro- 
fession would  be  his  objective,  and  from 
the  day  he  was  granted  his  degree  at 
Cobourg  until  the  day  he  received  a  letter 
from  the  Premier  of  Canada  informing 
him  that  he  had  been  appointed  to  the 
Railway  Board,  James  Mills  was  engaged 
continuously  in  educational  work. 

It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  refer  to  the 
three  positions  Dr.  Mills  occupied  prior  to 
his  accepting  the  presidency  of  the  O.A.C. 
He  was  employed  successively  at  the 
Stanstead  Academy,  the  Cobourg  Colleg- 
iate Institute  and  the  Brantford  Colleg- 
iate Institute,  in  the  two  former  as 
English  master,  and  in  the  latter  as  head- 
master. How  he  came  to  be  selected  as 
head  of  the  Agricultural  College  forms  a 
rather  interesting  chapter  in  his  life. 

ROWDYISM  AT  THE  0.  A.   C. 

The  college  at  Guelph  had  been  estab- 
lished some  few  years  previously,  but  its 
early  career  had  been  of  a  hazardous  na- 
ture.     The   students    were    evidently     a 
boisterous    lot,      for 
tales    were    current 
of  their  wild  doings 
and  their  utter  dis- 
regard of  authority. 
The     place     lacked 
discipline — in      fact. 
Continued   on 
page   120 

^^H*     r.^l&^HH'*'' 

V   I 

A  celebrated  picture,  the  original  college  building  at  Guelpb.     This  building,  with  tbe  portico, 
may  be  seen  to-day  incorporated  into  the  new  building.    This  was  the  old  Stone  farm  residence. 



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Milking  Her  Way  to  Popularity 



Ormsby  Jane  Legis  Aaggle  No.  150,&43,  the  world's  new  champion  Hulstein.       Sold  as  a   two-year-old   for  .$250.       Now  valued  at  $20,000. 

The  Hohtein  Friesian  Cow  Has  Made  Remarkable  Progress  in  Canada 

HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN  cattle  came 
originally  from  the  provinces  of 
North  Holland  and  Friesland,  a 
section  of  the  Kingdom  of  the  Netherlands 
bordering  on  the  North  Sea,  commonly 
called  Holland.  The  dairymen  of  these 
provinces  are  descendants  of  the  ancient 
Friesians,  and  their  cattle  are  lineal  des- 
cendants of  the  cattle  bred  by  them  2000 
years  ago.  From  the  earliest  accounts  of 
dairy  husbandry  these  cattle  have  been 
used  and  developed  for  dairy  purposes. 
Properly  speaking,  they  are  not  Holstein 
cattle  at  all,  but  Friesian.  The  awkward, 
double-barrelled  name  was  adopted  in  the 
United  States  on  the  union  of  two  rival 
herd  books  in  1883,  and  for  the  sake  of 
brevity  the  name  Holstein  has  come  into 
general  use.  By  the  way,  this  is  pro- 
nounced Holstine,  not  Holsteen,  as  we 
frequently  hear  it. 

Holsteins  first  came  to  Canada,  I  be- 
lieve, during  the  winter  of  1882-3.  Several 
farmers  at  widely  separated  points  made 
small  importations  about  the  same  time 
from  the  .United  States,  from  which  coun- 
try all  our  foundation  stock  has  come. 
Hallam  &  Co.,  New  Dundee;  H.  Bollert, 
Cassel;  E.  Macklin  &  Sons,  Fenella;  M. 
Cook  &  Sons,  Aultsville;  all  of  Ontario, 

By    W.    A.    C  L  EMON  S 

and  James  Sangster,  Ormstown,  Que., 
were  among  the  pioneers. 

At  the  Toronto  Exhibition  of  1883, 
some  eight  or  ten  of  the  early  breeders 
met  and  formed  the  organization  now 
known  as  the  Holstein-Friesian  Associa- 
tion of  Canada,  and  numbering  nearly 
2,200  members.  All  of  the  other  well- 
known  breeds  had  been  established  in 
Canada  for  many  years,  and  the  Black- 
and-Whites  met  with  an  extraordinarily 
bitter  opposition  before  they  succeeded  in 
gaining  popularity.  Until  1891,  Cana- 
dian breeders  registered  their  cattle  in 
the  American  herd  book,  but  in  that  year 
a  Canadian  Herd  Book  was  established. 
About  400  animals  a  year  were  recorded 
for  the  first  few  years,  but  for  the  last 
twenty  years  progress  has  been  very 
rapid  and  now  we  have  over  10,000  regis- 
trations in  one  year  (1915).'  No  other 
breed  can  show  anything  like  this  in- 
crease; indeed,  our  registrations  far  out- 
number those  of  all  the  other  dairy  breeds 
in  Canada  combined. 

At  the  present  time  I  would  estimate 
the    pure-bred    Holsteins    in    Canada    at 

about  50,000.  Roughly  speaking,  60  per 
cent,  of  these  are  found  in  Ontario;  10 
per  cent,  in  Quebec,  8  per  cent,  in  British 
Columbia,  6  per  cent,  in  Alberta,  4  per 
cent,  in  Manitoba  and  3  per  cent,  in  each 
of  the  remaining  provinces.  This  takes 
no  account  of  the  thousands  of  grades, 
whose  characteristic  black  and  white 
markings  are  so  conspicuous  in  nearly  all 
dairy  districts. 

In  affiliation  with  the  general  associa- 
tion, we  have  provincial  branches  in 
Quebec,  Alberta  and  British  Columbia. 
Mr.  D.  Raymond,  Queen's  Hotel,  Mont- 
real, is  secretary  of  the  Quebec  branch; 
Mr.  E.  W.  Bjorkeland,  Red  Deer,  of  the 
Alberta  branch,  and  Mr.  Thos.  Laing, 
Eburne,  of  the  British  Columbia  branch. 
In  addition  we  have  about  a  dozen  county 
or  district  clubs  in  Ontario,  practising  co- 
operation in  such  matters  as  advertising, 
selling  and  buying  cattle. 

For  the  past  twenty-five  years  at  least 
75  per  cent,  of  all  public  dairy  tests  in 
Canada  have  been  won  by  Holsteins.  In 
the  dairy  tests  conducted  at  the  great 
Guelph,  Ottawa  and  Amherst  Winter 
Fairs,  the  championship  now  almost  in- 
variably goes  to  a  Holstein. 

Continued  on  page  31 

UTARM  science  at  WQftK  Jt 

THE  traditional  farmer,  in  fiction 
and  in  popular  conception,  is  a  man 
whose  only  natural  setting  is  in  the 
fields  that  he  tills  and  amongst  the  cattle 
that  he  raises.  There,  he  is  supposed  to 
be  lavishly  generous  of  all  that  his  labor 
produces,  dispensing  hospitality  with  a 
free  hand  to  all  who  may  honor  him  with 
visits.  When  his  produce  has  been  con- 
verted into  cash,  he  is  understood  to  be 
niggardly  of  that  cash,  ungenerous  and 
stingy  and  "near"  in  dispensing  it.  Out 
of  his  natural  setting,  he  is  credit- 
ed with  being  careless  of  his  per- 
sonal appearance,  uncouth  in  man- 
ner, illiterate,  and  unskilled  i  n 
speech.  He  is  also  simple-minded 
and  unsophisticated,  unacquainted 
with  the  ways  of  the  world,  and 
falls  an  easy  victim  to  promoters 
and  other  gentlemen  who  are  clever 
enough  to  live  by  their  wits. 

We  have  all  met  farmers  of  this 
traditional  type,  industrious,  thrif- 
ty, frugal;  uncouth,  unlearned, 
dumb;  blind  partisans,  and  unac- 
quainted with  political  and  economic 
questions;  tools  of  demagogues,  and 
victims  of  designing  and  insincere 
persons.  Dignity  is  founded  in  re- 
spect, and  how  much  respect  can 
be  honestly  entertained  for  men  of 
this  type?  Such  men  are  told  that 
they  are  respected  for  the  useful- 
ness of  their  labor,  for  the  fact  that 
the  very  life  of  the  nation  depends 
upon  the  produce  of  their  industry. 
Let  them  never  believe  it.  It  is  the 
hope  of  the  trickster  and  the  dema- 
gogue to  keep  the  farmer  satisfied 
with  his  achievements  as  a  produc- 
er, to  keep  him  convinced  that  his 
realm  is  otherwise  than  in  business 
and  in  politics.  The  farmer  must 
learn  that  real  dignity,  while  never 
separated  from  serviceable  labor 
of  whatever  sort,  is  founded  in  in- 
telligence,   in    moral     qualities,     in 

This  So-called  Dignity   of  Agriculture, — 

Hoiv  Far  is  it  Real?  And  so  Far  as  it  is  Real, 

Upon  What  Does  it  Depend? 

PROF.    J.    B.    REYNOLDS,    M.A.C. 

strength  of  understanding  and  of  char- 

A  short  time  ago  I  attended  a  meeting 
at  which  the  representatives  of  the  lead- 
ing business  interests  of  a  large  city  had 
come  together  to  confer  with  the  repre- 
sentatives of  a  farmers'  organization  up- 
on questions  of  common  interest.  How 
would  the  traditional  type  of  farmer  ap- 
pear in  such  a  gathering?  How  did  these 
actual  farmers  uphold  their  position?  In 
dignity,  in  debating  skill,  in  understand- 
ing of  economic  questions,  in  moderation 
and  sincerity  and  earnestness,  the  farm- 
ers were  at  least  the  equal  of  any  in  that 
assembly,  and  the  assembly  included  men 
high  in  finance,  among  transportation  in- 
terests, and  in  manufacturing.  I  appeal 
to  the  young  farmers  of  Canada,  which 
type  do  you  mean  to  represent? 

It  is  true  that  agriculture  is  the  foun- 
dation of  Canada's  prosperity.  It  is  ne- 
cessarily so,  because  the  soil  contains  our 
greatest  national  resource.  But  that  fact 
has  not  made  the  farmer  respected,  or 
farming  dignified.    The  labor  of  develop- 


Manitoba  Agricultural  College 

Tithe  JOY  OF  CREATION  iTj 

ing  those  natural  resources  cannot  digni- 
fy. Respect  and  dignity  depend  upon 
personal  qualities  that  compel  respect, 
upon  intelligence  and  the  power  to  hold 
one's  own  in  the  world  of  men.  And  until 
farmers  cultivate  that  intelligence  and 
develop  that  power,  farming  will  never 
be  a  dignified  calling,  no  matter  what  may 
be  said  about  it  from  the  platform  or  in 
the  press. 

And  yet  it  is  not  desirable  that  farmers 
become  politicians  in  the  usual  sense,  or 
dealers  in  other  people's  produce, 
or  speculators,  or  manipulators  of 
stock  markets.  Farmers  are  first 
of  all  producers.  What  is  essential 
and  fit,  after  that,  is  that  they 
know  enough  and  have  power 
enough  to  secure  _what  is  justly 
their  own  on  the  market,  and,  be- 
sides, that  they  be  public-spirited, 
and  see  to  the  right  and  healthy  de- 
velopment of  their  communities 
and  of  the  nation.  Here,  then,'  I 
submit,  is  the  farmers'  program: 
First,  production  of  food  for  the 
world ; 

Secondly,  protection  of  their  own 
interests  in  commerce  and  in  legis- 
lation ;    and 

Lastly,  citizenship.  ' 
The  second  of  these  aims  may  be 
styled  intelligent  self-interest.  The 
other  two,  if  properly  understood 
and  carried  out,  are  in  a  high  de- 
gree unselfish.  How  many  callings 
are  there  with  such  a  large  in- 
centive to  unselfishness?  It  is  this, 
coupled  with  intelligent  action,  that 
constitutes  the  real  dignity  of 
farmings  its  title  to  respect  among 
other  callings. 

The  hope  of  our  nation,  of  every 
nation,  lies  in  its  rightly-educated 
citizens.  Religion  will  never  save 
the  world,  so  long  as  religion  is 
associated  with  bigotry  of  opinion. 
Piety    will    never    save    it,    unless 



piety  is  associated  with  an  instructed 
moral  sense.  Education,  state  education, 
education  for  the  state,  must  include  abil- 
ity to  earn  an  honest  living,  and  conscience 
to  discern  what  is  an  honest  living.  The 
hope  of  agriculture  lies  in  educating  those 
who  are  to  find  their  homes  and  livelihood 
on  the  farms.  I  am  not  arguing  this 
point,  I  am  simply  stating  it  as  my  belief, 
as  a  principle  of  action.  Nor  is  it  essen- 
tial how  this  education  is  to  be  obtained, 
whether  by  experience,  by  reading,  or  in 
school  and  college.  The  essential  things 
are,  skill  in  the  work  of  farming,  acquaint- 
ance with  the  science  of  it,  and  a  condi- 

tion of  spirit  that  enables  each  member  of 
the  farming  community  to  act  in  harmony 
and  co-operation  with  other  members,  for 
business  and  social  ends. 

The  skill  and  the  science  are  essential 
in  order  that  farmers  may  be  efficient  pro- 
ducers, and  that  the  farm  homes  may  be 
made  centres  of  sweetness  and  light. 
Each  new  generation  must  be  trained  as 
capable  producers  and  home-makers.  But 
the  education  of  the  past,  at  least  college 
education,  has  stopped  there.  What  has 
to  be  done  in  the  future,  in  college  educa- 
tion for  farmers,  is  to  train  in  business 
methods,  in  buying  and  selling,  in  econ- 

omics, and  in  co-operation.  The  farmer, 
however  skilful  a  producer  he  may  be, 
cannot  hope,  working  singly,  to  market 
his  produce  to  the  best  advantage.  He 
must  co-operate  with  other  farmers  hav- 
ing similar  aims;  with  middlemen,  with 
transportation  companies,  and  with  the 
banks.  But  experience  shows  that  before 
he  can  secure  attention  from  these  latter 
agencies  he  must  combine  with  other 
farmers  to  compel  attention  and  respect. 
And  so  the  next  phase  in  the  education  of 
the  farmer  must  be  in  the  methods  and 
the  spirit  of  co-operation. 

The  Great  Ayrshire  Cow: 

By  W.    F.    STEPHEN 

A  Great  Business  Cow,  Hardy, 
Thrifty,  and  of  Typical  Dairy 
Form.  Her  Breeders  Hold  Her  in 
Higfi  Esteem. 

THE  importation  of  pure-bred  Ayr- 
shires  to  Canada  is  traceable  to  the 
arrival  of  Scotch  ships,  bringing 
them  to  supply  milk  for  the  passengers  on 
the  voyage.  They  were  sold  on  arrival  at 
Eastern  harbors  at  Quebec  and  Montreal. 
The  good  appearance  and  performance  of 
these  animals  attracted  such  attention 
that  it  became  a  general  practice  over 
seventy-five  years  ago  to  induce  ship- 
masters to  bring  out  a'  couple  or  more 
Ayrshires  until  the  importation  for  breed- 
ing purposes  became  very  frequent  during 
the  middle  part  of  the  last  century. 

liord    Dalhousie,    Governor-General    in 
1821,  was  a  breeder  and  importer  of  Ayr- 
shires, and  no  doubt  brought  over  a  num- 
ber of  head,  during  his  term  of  office.   .  . 
Our  Ayrshire  records  show  that  John 
Dods  and  James  Logan  of  Montreal  made 
importations   in    1850    and    1853.     These 
men  brought  over  a  num- 
ber of  head  in  the  fifties, 
formed    a  nucleus  o  f 
good     herds     and     their 
breeding  operations  con- 
tinued in  the  sixties.    J. 
Gilmour,    of  Quebec,    in 
1854,  and  James  Gibb  of 
the   same  place   in    1856 
made  importations.  Thos. 
Dawes  and  Son,  Lachine, 
Que.;    J.    M.    Browning, 
Thos.  Irving,  Alex.  Craw- 
ford,      N.     S.     Whitney, 
James  Drummond,  all  of 
Montreal,  A.  Brodie,  N. 
Georgetown,    and    J.    L. 
Gibb     of     Compton,      all 
made  more    or    less  ex- 
tensive   importations    in 
the  sixties. 

To  J.  B.  Ewart,  of 
Dundas,  must  be  given 
the  credit  of  making  the 
first  importations  into 
Ontario  "in  1849  or  1850, 

followed     b  y     Hon.     S.  „.„      . ,  „., 

T  J?   1-.        1     .,,  1  Milkmaid  7th 

Jones  of  Brockville,  and  pion  in  the 

the    Baron 

A.  Longueil, 

Wolfe     I  s  - 

land,     in 

1851.   J.  W. 


Fairfield  E., 

Leeds      Co., 

in  1852,  Col. 

Den  nison, 

in    1854,    P. 

R.    Wright, 

of    Cobourg 

in  1856,  Geo.  Morton  in  1858,  Alex.  Ger- 

rie,   Ancaster,   in   1859,   and   Brodie  and 

Converse,  Belleville,  in   1860. 

The  lack  of  cohesion,  in  the  seventies, 

.\   great   .Vyrshire   Breeder's   home —   of   Burnsido   Stock   Farm,    owned   hy 
R.  R.  Ness,  at  Howlck,  Quebec. 

the   publishing  of   a   herd   book   in   each 

Eastern  Province  is  recognized  to  be  the 

greatest  mistake  of  the  Ayrshire  breeders 

of  that  time.    In  the  nineties  a  move  was 

among  the  Ayrshire  breeders  of  the  var-      made  toward  amalgamation,    which    was 

ious  provinces  retarded  the  development      consummated  in  1898.      Since  that  time 

of  the  breed  to  a  very  marked  extent,      there  has  been  one  Association  and  one 

The  forming  of  provincial  associations  and      Herd  Book,  with  the  result  that  there  has 

been  a  most  pronounced 
advancement  in  the  Ayr- 
shire business,  and  the 
number  of  registrations 
having  increased  156  per 
cent,  since  amalgamation. 
To  October  31,  1915, 
our  records  show  that 
68,444  Ayrshires  have 
been  recorded.  It  is  esti- 
about  21,000  Ayrshires 
in  Canada  to-day,  and 
they  have  increased  late- 
ly at  the  rate  of  about 
4,000  per  year. 

Quebec  Province  has 
led  in  Ayrshire  develop- 
ment, with  Ontario  a 
close  second,  and  Nova 
Scotia,  Alberta,  British 
Columbia,  New  Bruns- 
wick, Prince  Edward  Is- 
land, Manitoba  and  Sas- 
katchewan in  the  order 

The    Ayrshire    cow    is 

recognized  to  be  of  typi- 
— owned  by  A.  McRae  &  Sons,  of  Prince  Edward  Island — cham-  /^      j.-        j  „  en 

Canadian  Record  of  Performance  test,  with  16,696  lbs.  of  milk.  Lontl'»uea   on   page   bO 



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i                                                            CANADA'S   AGRICULTURAL   SEER                                                            1 

1                                                    DR.    C.    C.   JAMES,    C.M.G.,   COMMISSIONER  OF  AGRICULTURE                                                    1 


Msikm^  Money  Oui  ofCaw^s 
11  sjii ess  Methods 

■^Liry Hushmidry  Guelph 

THE  chief  factors  in  managing  and 
working  a  dairy  farm  are:  location, 
nature  of  the  land,  buildings,  water 
supply,  kind  of  livestock  chiefly  cows,  the 
crops  grown  including  harvesting,  thresh- 
ing and  silo  filling,  feeds  purchased, 
manure  and  artificial  fertilizers^market- 
ing  the  products,  labor,  cash  returns,  and 
soil  improvement  or  depeciation. 

The  subject  can  best  be  treated  by  re- 
ferring briefly-to  each  of  the  factors  men- 


For  many,  the  location  is  already  de- 
cided by  inheritance  or  purchase  and  the 
owner  has  to  make  the  best  of  present  cir- 
cumstances. However,  to  the  man  who  has 
not  yet  bought  his  farm  a'  few  general 
observations  may  be  of  interest  and  value. 
It  is  best,  first,  to  decide  the  kind  of  dairy- 
ing which  is  to  be  followed.  For  example, 
if  it  is  considered  best  to  produce  milk  for 
sale  in  town  or  city,  then  the  farm  should 
be  near  a  centre  of  population  so  as  to 
have  the  market  convenient  and  save 
losses  on  spoiled  milk.  Milk  is  a  very 
perishable  article,  consequently  cannot  be 
safely  transported  long  distances  except 
the  transportation  company  shall  furnish 
a  refrigerator  car,  which  is  not  commonly 
done  in  Canada.  Where 
a  dairy  farmer  has  a 
direct  town  trade,  that 
is,  delivers  his  milk  to 
customers,  there  is  un- 
doubtedly the  greatest 
direct  cash  returns,  but 
it  takes  a  special  kind 
of  farmer  to  do  this.  He 
has  to  be  born  to,  or 
trained  in,  the  business. 
A  farmer,  who  is  a  suc- 
cessful milk  produce'.', 
often  is  not  a  good 
salesman  for  milk, 
hence  this  part  of  the 
business  i  s  usually 
taken  over  by  special- 

Cream  may  be  satis- 
factorily transported  to 
a  much  longer  distance 
than  can  milk,  because 
it  does  not  sour  or  spall 
so  readily,  for  the  rea- 
son that  it  contains  less  .^  of 
food    material    for    the               cai-ns  her  h 

bacteria  to  feed  on.  They 
are  fond  of  sweet  things 
like  sugar,  and  muscle  ma- 
terial containing  the  ele- 
ment nitrogen.  They  do  not  care  for 
fat,  as  a  rule,  and  cream  consists  largely 
of  milk-fat.  The  production  and  sale  of 
sweet  cream,  and  the  feeding  of  the  skim- 
milk  on  the  farm  to  young  livestock  and 
poultry  is  an  ideal  system  of  dairy  farm- 

The  cheese  factory,  creamery,  and  milk 
condenser  are  all  valuable  adjuncts  of 
dairy  fai-ming  and  the  man  who  pins  his 
faith  to  one  of  these  should  locate  in  a 
section  where  one  or  other  is  available  as 
a  market  for  his  milk  or  cream.  During 
the  season  of  1915  the  cheesery  has  paid 
its  patrons  good  prices  for  milk.  If  this 
continues,  we  may  expect  a  revival  of  the 
cheese  trade  which  has  been  in  a  languish- 
ing condition  for  some  time. 


Nearly  all  classes  or  kinds  of  soil  may 
be  successfully  used  for  dairy  farming, 
but  the  choice  is  a  clay  or  clay  loam,  be- 
cause such  soil  contains  and  retains  most 
soil  fertility  under  average  conditions. 
The  best  dairy  districts  are  those  where 
considerable  clay  is  found  in  the  make-up 
of  the  soil.  "Sand  breeds  heresy"  and  is 
more  difficult  to  maintain  in  a  fertile  con- 
dition. The  heavier  soils  breed  and  main- 
tain the  best  kinds  of  livestock,  including 

Edgeie.v,  a  .Iitsc.v  cow  that  coinos  from  aristocratic 
onors  by  yit'ldii.g  18,74+1  lbs.  of  milk,  4.94  per  cent. 

men  and  women.  The  soil  should  be  well- 
drained  naturally  or  artificially.  While 
wet  land  may  be  used  for  dairying  it  is 
not  the  best,  chiefly  because  such  land  is 
not  good  for  the  health  of  the  animals  and 
because  it  is  difficult  to  carry  out  a  rota- 
tion of  crops  on  undrained  land. 


It  is  a  great  mistake  to  tie  up  an  undue 
amount  of  capital  in  expensive  buildings. 
Modest,  neat  buildings  are  preferable,  and 
this  allows  more  capital  for  improve- 
melits  such  as  drainage,  silos,  pure-bred 
stock,  etc.  During  the  past  summer  we 
were  told  of  a  case  where  a  capitalist  was 
putting  about  $20,000  into  a  dairy  barn. 
The  person  who  related  the  circumstance 
remarked:  "He'll  never  see  his  money 
again  if  he  lives  to  be  as  old  as 

The  house  for  dairy  cows  is  preferably 
located  on  top  of  the  ground  and  in  a  sepa- 
rate building — not  under  a  ham.  The  so- 
called  "bank-barn-stable"  is  not  a  good 
place,  as  a  rule,  in  which  to  keep  cows. 
Lighter,  better-ventilated,  cheaper  stables 
may  be  built  separate  from,  but  adjacent 
to,  the  barn. 


Of  all  the  necessities  on  a  dairy  farm, 
none  is  of  greater  importance  than  the 
water  supply.  This  should  be  abundant, 
clean,  and  if  used  for  cooling  purposes 
without  ice,  it  should  be 
cold.  Each  ton  of  milk 
produced  on  the  farm 
contains  about  1,750 
pounds  of  water,  which 
the  cows  must  be  sup- 
plied with  in  drink  or 
food.  A  cow  producing 
90  to  100  pounds  of 
milk  daily  will  drink 
over  200  pounds  (20 
gallons)  of  water  in 
twenty-four  hours. 

While  it  may  not  be 
necessary  to  have  water 
in  the  stable,  and  in 
front  of  the  cows  at  all 
times,  there  should  be 
plenty  of  clean  water 
for  the  cattle  to  drink 
in  the  yard  and  pasture 

The  bored  or  driven 
well  with  gasoline  en- 
gine,  wind,   or    electric 

motor     to     pump     the 
ancestry  and  ,  ,  ,  ,  „i.„j 

fat  in  1  year.  water    to    an     elevated 



ReadiiiK  from  right  to  left,  these  dairy   Shorthorus  are — Kinsella  Cth,  11,065 

lbs.;  Belle  Clare,  15,215  lbs.;  Odette.- 10.140  lbs.,  and  Doris  Clay, 

10,617  lbs.  of  milk  in  1  year. 

tank  is  a  good  arrangement.  Many  farm- 
ers are  now  locating  the  water  tank  on 
top  of  the  silo  as  a  convenient  and  safe 
place,  thus  insuring  water  for  the  stock 
and  protection  in  case  of  fire. 


Should  a  dairy  farmer  keep  pure-breds 
or  grades?  This  depends  on  the  man  and 
the  capital  available.  For  most  men  it 
would  be  a  wise  plan  to 
start  with  grades,  or  not 
more  than  half  a  dozen 
pedigreed  animals,  one 
of  which  should  be  a 
pure-bred  bull  to  head 
the  herd,  of  whatever 
breed  is  considered  best 
for  the  special  kind  of 
farming  to  be  under- 
taken. As  he  gains  ex- 
perience, the  grades  may 
be  eliminated  and  pedi- 
greed stock  only  kept,  as 
a  man  will  naturally  take 
more  pride  in  animals  of 
pure  blood  than  in  those 
of  no  special  breeding. 

On  a  dairy  farm  where 
cream  only  is  sold,  from 
three  to  five  hogs  should 
be  kept  for  each  cow  milk- 
ing, in  order  to  utilize 
the  skim-milk.  At  the 
present  time  .  (mid-Oc- 
tober) hogs  are  selling 
at  $10.50  per  100  pounds 
live  weight  in  Toronto 
market.  At  this  price 
there  is  no  doubt  about 
pigs  being  a  valuable 
adjunct  of  the  dairy  cow. 
In  the  past,  the  hog  mar- 
ket has  been  so  manipu- 
lated by  the  packers,  that 
many  farmers  have  be- 
come disgusted  and  gone 
out  of  hogs.  As  soon  as 
this  becomes  general,  the 
buyers  dangle  the  $10 
bait  in  front  of  farmers 
for  a  short  time — usual- 
ly once  a  year  is  suffici- 
ent   and    farmers    "bite" 

hogs   and   try    to   be    in 
hogs  are  up  in  price. 


as  usual  on 
the  bait  pro- 
vided and 
go  into  hogs 
s  t  r  0  n  g  er 
than  ever 
for  a  time. 
When  the 
"slump"  in 
prices  oc- 
curs, which 
is  bound  to 
come  as 
soon  as  a 
largei  num- 
ber of  hogs 
are  sent  to 
these  men 
again  drop 
out  of  hogs. 
The  only 
safe  way  is 
to  stick  to 
game  when 


No  more  horses  should  be  kept  than  are 
actually  required  for  working  a  dairy 
farm  as  they  are  expensive  to  feed  and 
maintain  in  good  condition.  It  is  esti- 
mated that  it  costs  not  less  than  $90  to 
$100  yearly  for  the  up-keep  of  a  horse.'  At 

the  present  time  the  horse  market  is  as 
flat  as  the  proverbial  pancake,  though 
there  are  signs  of  revival. 


While  it  is  doubtful  if  the  average  farm 
poultry  flock  much  more  than  pays  ex- 
penses, the  luxury  of  fresh  eggs  and  pot- 
pie  for  dinner  occasionally  are  such  that 
a  farmer  cannot  afford  to  dispense  with 
chickens.  But  there  are  special  difficulties 
in  maintaining  satisfactorily  a  small 
flock  of  hens  on  the  average  farm,  al- 
though milk  is  almost  a  requisite  for  good 
results.  This  the  dairy  farmer  has.  and 
he  ought  to  be  in  the  best  position  to  make 
money  out  of  hens,  but  speaking  from 
practical  experience,  it  is  doubtful  if  the 
ordinary  run  of  hens  on  a  dairy  farm  pays 
for  their  feed.  But,  on  the  other  hand, 
where  a  little  attention  is  given  to  poultry 
on  the  average  farm,  this  is  the  one  place 
where  real  profits  come  in  continued 
poultry  work. 


The  crops  best  suited  for  a  dairy  farm 
are  grass,  corn,  mangels,  clover,  oats,  and 
barley.  The  best  rotation  is  a  three  or 
four-year,  consisting  of  corn  and  roots 
on  sod  land  plowed  and  preferably*  culti- 
vated to  som.e  extent  the  previous  year 
and  which  has  been  dressed  during  the 
vdnter  with  ten  to  twelve  tons  of  farm 
manure  per  acre;  the  second  year  should 
be  part  oats  but  chiefly  a  2-1  mixture  of 
oats  and  barley  and  this 
seeded  with  red,  alsike 
and  alfalfa  clovers,  hav- 
ing also  some  timothy 
seed  in  the  mixture;  the 
third  year  would  be  part 
pasture  and  part  hay  as 
required.  If  considered 
advisable  the  hay  and 
pasture  may  be  kept  for 
a  second  year,  this  par- 
ticularly when  the  new 
seed  fails  to  catch,  which 
is  likely  to  occur  in  a  dry 
season.  By  following  this 
rotation  a  dairy  farmer 
is  likely  to  get  best  re- 
sults froTn  his  soil  and 
in  feed  for  his  stock. 

The  best  machinery 
should  be  obtained  for 
this  work,  so  as  to  re- 
duce the  hand  labor  as 
much  as  possible.  It  is  a 
good  rule  on  a  Canadian 
farm  not  to  do  anything 
by  hand  which  can  be 
done  by  horse  labor  or 
machinery,  if  the  latter 
is  not  too  expensive  in 
first  cost  and  mainten- 
ance. If  it  were  prac- 
ticable to  own  farm  ma- 
chinery co-operatively,  it 
would  solve  many  prob- 
lems on  the  farm.  The 
difficulties  in  co-opera- 
tively-owned machinery 
of  more  than  one  farmer 
wishing  to  use  a  machine 
at  the  same  time,  and 
the  trouble  of  adjusting 

The  joy  of  livestock  work  on  a 

February  morning 
fresh  air. 

Guernsey  calves  out  for 

Continued  on  page  54 

The  Birthplace 

About    330,000,000    Eggs  Were    Set    in 
Canada  During  1915,  of  Which  Ten  Per 
Cent.  Were  Set  in  Incubators. 

By     LEWIS     N,     CLARK 

IT  is  not  necessary  to  call  attention  to 
the  number  of  failures  in  the  poultry 
business.'  Their  number  has  caused 
the  public  to  look  on  them  almost  as 
the  accepted  finish  to  a  venture  of  this 
kind.  The  cause  of  failure  is,  in  nine  cases 
out  of  ten,  lack  of  efficiency,  not  only  busi- 
ness efficiency,  but  lack  of  efficient  man- 
agement of  all  the  varied  detaifs  that  go 
to  make  up  success  in  poultry  work.  This 
takes  the  form  usually  of  waste  of  one 
kind  or  another,  and  in  some  cases  waste 
of  the  most  flagrant  kind.  The  purpose  of 
this  article  is  to  deal  with  the  subject  of 
waste  in  the  management  of  incubators 
which,  I  believe,  to  be  one  of  the  worst, 
and  one  of  the  most  unnecessary,  forms 
of  waste  found  on  the  average  poultry 

The  incubator  has  come  •to  stay!  Ten 
years  ago  one  met  with  the  statement 
quite  often — and  from  well  informed  men 
— that  hatching  with  incubators  impaired 
the  strength  of  the  fowl  to  such  an  extent 
that  if  incubator-hatched  hens  and  cock- 
erels were  used  for  breeding  purposes  for 
a  few  generations  the  strain  would  deteri- 
orate to  such  an  extent  that  disaster  would 
follow.  This  is  absolutely  wrong;  it  has 
been  proven  wrong  so  often  and  so  em- 
phatically that  I  think  I  need  only  say 
here  that  a  strain  of  fowl  hatched  in  in- 
cubators for  many  generations  have  been 
found  to  be  as  healthy,  as  constitutionally 
vigorous  and  as  valuable  in  every  particu- 
lar as  the  same  strain  would  have  been  if 
hatched  by  hens  during  a  like  number  of 
generations.  The  arguments  in  favor  of 
the  incubator  are  many :  in  the  matter  of 
labor,  take  a  400-egg  machine  and  com- 
pare the  time  necessary  to  look  after  it 
properly  as  compared  to  the  time  neces- 
sary to  tend  30  setting  hens.  In 
this  case  I  should  say  that  the 
comparison  is  in  favor  of  the  in- 
cubator by  about  three  to  one.  In 
the  matter  af  availability,  it  is 
unnecessary  to  point  out  that  an 
incubator  is  always  ready  for  busi- 
ness, while  we  all  know  the  scar- 
city of  broody  hens  in  March  and 
early  in  April,  when  they  will  do 
nothing  but  lay  eggs!  As  to 
final  results,  I  can  safely  say  that 
if  an  incubator  is  properly  hand- 
led, it  will  hatch  at  least  as  many 
chicks  from  a  given  number  of 
fertile  eggs  as  will  a  hen,  when 
we  take  into  consideration  the  un- 
pleasant   accidents    that    usually 

occur  when  a 
number  of  hens 
are  set,  caused  by 
the  quarrelsome 
o  f  Biddy,  and 
ending  in  a  mess  of  broken  eggs. 

The  most  important  argument,  how- 
ever, in  favor  of  the  incubator  is  its 
economy  in  operation.  It  is  a  fact  that 
the  feed  consumed  by  30  setting  hens  will 
cost  considerably  more  than  the  cost  of 
the  coal  i  oil,  or  coal,  required  to  heat  a 
400-egg  machine  for  the  same  period  and 
when  we  realize  that  30  hens  would  lay 
in  the  spring,  probably  30  dozen  eggs  dur- 
ing the  period  they  would  have  been  set- 
ting, provided  they  are  broken  of  their 
broodiness  at  once,  we  have  a  balance  to 
the  credit  of  a  400-egg  incubator  of  about 
$7.50  each  time  it  is  set,  on  this  count 

INCUBATE   50   OR   20,000   EGGS 

I  here  mention  a  400-egg  machine  mere- 
ly for  the  purpose  of  illustration.  Any 
size,  from  50  eggs  to  20,000  eggs  may  be 
purchased.  The  arguments  against  the 
incubator,  of  poor  hatches,  sickly  chicks, 
danger  of  fire,  etc.,  may  all  be  answered 
by  the  statement  that  if  you  have  a  good 
incubator  and  manage  it  properly  these 
disadvantages  disappear.  No  manufac- 
turer will  claim  that  the  old  style  of  mak- 
ing things  by  hand  is  better  than  his  pres- 
ent economical  methods  of  making  the 
same  thing  by  machinery  just  because  he 
has  a  green  hand  who  does  not  know  how 
to  manage  the  machine  and  who  messes 
up  a  lot  of  valuable  material  and  perhaps 
ruins  the  machine,  and  the  same  applies 
to  an  incubator. 

We  have  all  heard  of  hatches  in  incubat- 
ors where  200  eggs  have  been  set  and  five 
chicks  hatched,  or  where  300  eggs  had 
been  set  and  50  chicks  hatched,  of  which 
number  two  have  lived,  etc.,  and  that 
this  kind  of  a  hatch  is  continually  being 

A   bunch  of  white   Leghorns  hatched  from   an 

taken  off  is  what  leads  me  to  say  that  this 
tremendous  and  needless  waste  points  to 
the  fact  that  greater  efficiency  in  incubat- 
or management  is  sorely  needed.  It  is 
impossible  to  arrive  at  any  close  estimate 
of  the  number  of  eggs  set  in  incubators 
annually  in  Canada,  but  from  figures 
furnished  me  by  the  Poultry  Division  of 
the  Live  Stock  Branch  at  Ottawa,  it  seems 
probable  that  about  330,000,000  eggs  were 
set  in  Canada  this  year  of  which  perhaps 
33,000,000  were  set  in  incubators.  If  this 
number  of  eggs  actually  were  set  in  in- 
cubators, I  do  not  fear  contradiction  in 
saying  that  probably  not  more  than  thir- 
teen or  fourteen  million  chicks  were 
hatched,  instead  of  twenty-five  million 
chicks,  which  with  reasonable  success 
should  have  been  taken  off.  This  is  a 
waste  of  about  eleven  million  eggs  which 
if  we  consider  them  all  as  ordinary  eggs 
at  20  cents  a  dozen,  means  that  the  poul- 
trymen  and  farmers  of  Canada  have  been 
throiving  away  annually  more  than  $2,- 
000,000  worth  of  eggs,  not  to  mention  the 
waste  of  time  and  fuel,  and  ths  decrease 
in  profits  occasioned  by  an  insufficiemt 
number  of  birds  hatched  at  the  right 


Before  taking  up  the  detailed  work  of 
running  an  incubator  a  discussion  of  the 
various  makes  and  sizes  of  machines  may 
be  expected.  There  are  at  present  three 
distinct  types  of  incubator  on  the  mar- 
ket. Two  of  these  types  are  heated  with 
coal-oil  lamps  or  heaters, — in  one  kind 
the  lamps  heats  a  small  hot  water  tank, 
from  which  hot  water  circulates  through 
pipes  in  the  top  of  the  incubator,  thus 
heating  the  egg-chamber.  The  other  kind 
heats  the  air  in  a  chamber  around  the 
heat  pipe  (but  not  connected  with  it) ,  and 
this  heated  air  passes  direct  into  the  egg 
chamber.  The  third  type  is  of  the  hot 
water  kind  but  in  this  case  the  water  is 
heated  by  a  small  coal  furnace,  this  heat- 
ing system  being  found  only  in 
mammoth  incubators.  The  three 
most  necessary  requirements  for 
a  good  incubator  are: — An  abso- 
lutely reliable  thermostat  and 
system  of  heat  regulation  and  dis- 
tribution which  will  make  it  pos- 
sible to  regulate  the  temperature 
of  the  egg  chamber  closely;  tight 
heat  pipes  (in  the  first  two  types 
of  incubator  mentioned),  making 
a  leakage  of  lamp  fumes  into  the 
egg  chamber  impossible;  and,  a 
good  system  of  ventilation.  When 
one  realizes  that  after  the  first 
few  days  of  incubation  the  embryo 
inside  the  egg  breathes  through 
the  pores  of  the  shell,  and  has  as 

of  a   Chicken 

And    From    These    Eggs    Only    About 
14,000,000     Chickens     Were     Hatched. 
What  a  Pile  of  Useless  Eggs! 

great  need  of  plenty  of  pure  air  as  any 
other  living  creature,  the  importance  of 
the  last  two  points  will  be  seen. 

As  to  the  best  size  of  machine  to  use, 
this  must  be  decided  largely  by  the  re- 
quirements of  the  owner.  The  mammoth 
incubator  is  undoubtedly  the  best  where 
large  numbers  of  eggs  are  to  be  set,  as 
each  machine  is  divided  into  a  number  of 
small  units  (which  may  be  added  to  at 
will),  and  each  unit  may  be  run  quite  in- 
dependently of  the  others,  yet  all  are 
heated  by  the  one  furnace.  Of  the  non- 
mammoth  types,  I  rather  prefer  the  large 
390-egg  machines  to  hold  400  eggs  as  in 
setting  great  numbers  of  eggs  there  is 
considerable  economy  in  fuel  and  time  over 
smaller  machines.  In  this  size  there  are 
usually  two  egg  trays,  each  tray  holding 
about  200  eggs,  which  makes  rather  a 
heavy  thing  to  handle  if  a  woman  is  call- 
ed upon  to  do  so.  If  a  woman  is  to  man- 
age the  incubators  (and  in  this  depart- 
ment, I  believe  she  far  excels  a  man),  a 
smaller  size  will  probably  be  better. 

In  the  actual  work  connected  with  run- 
ning the  incubator  there  are  six  import- 
ant points.  I  give  them  in  what  I  con- 
sider their  relative  importance: — 

Turning  the  eggs. 

Cooling  the  eggs. 

Location  of  incubator. 


Careful  regulation  of  temperature. 

Non-interference  with  eggs  when 
In  an  article  of  this  kind  it  is  impossible 
to  take  up  the  different  methods  which  it 
is  sometimes  necessary  to  follow  with  dif- 
ferent kind  of  incubators,  but  it  is  safe 
to  lay  down,  and  to  follow,  some  general 
rules  no  matter  what  make  of  machine 
is  used. 

I  am  inclined  to  think  that  more  good 
eggs  are  ruined  by  neglecting  to  turn 
them  properly  than  by  any  other  one  fault 
in  running  an  incubator.  They 
mtist  be  turned,  turned  twice  a  day 
and  turned  carefully.  Failure  to 
turn  them  often  results  in  the  germ, 
or  embryo,  sticking  to  the  shell  of 
the  eggs,  and  careless  turning,  par- 
ticularly during  the  first  few  days, 
jars  the  tiny  threads  that  hold  the 
living  germ  in  place,  rupturing 
them,  and  causing  the  germ  to  die. 
The  trays  should  be  taken  out  of 
the  machine,  the  door  shut  tight, 
and  the  eggs  carefully  turned,  the 
periods  between  each  turning  being 
as  close  to  twelve  hours  as  is  pos- 
sible. I  have  tried  several  methods 
of  turning  eggs,  and  have  done  a 
good  deal  of  experimental  work  in 
this  regard,  and  have  come  to  the 
conclusion  that  it  pays  to  turn  each 
egg    separately.     It   takes    a    good 

deal  more  time 
than  to  turn  them 
by  rolling  them 
around  with  the 
palms  of  the 
hands,  but  if  one 
gets  fifteen  more 
chicks  from  each 
one  hundred  eggs 

set,  then  surely  the  extra  work  pays. 
If  the  eggs  are  placed  in  rows 
across  the  tray,  alternate  rows  having 
one  egg  more  than  the  others  (for 
example,  the  first  row  eleven  eggs, 
the  second  row  ten  eggs,  the  third 
row  eleven  eggs,  and  so  on),  these  rows 
will  keep  their  positions  all  through  the 
hatch  and  by  moistening  the  end  of  the 
index  finger  of  the  right  hand  and  draw- 
ing it  over  the  top  of  a  row  of  eggs,  each 
egg  turns  nearly  half  over,  and  the  labor 
is  not  so  great  as  might  be  expected.  I 
know  that  this  method  of  turning  eggs  is 
not  usually  recommended  in  the  instruc- 
tions furnished  with  the  incubator,  these 
usually  stating  that  the  eggs  should  be 
rolled,  and  one  of  the  leading  poultrymen 
and  teachers  in  Canada  recommends  the 
rolling  method,  and  has  spoken  of  it  as 
"exercising  the  eggs."  In  this  one  par- 
ticular, I  am  going  to  disagree  with  this 
eminent  authority,  as  I  think  it  a  mis- 
take to  have  used  the  expression,  "exer- 
cising the  eggs."  In  following  his  direc- 
tions, others  will  be  apt  to  exercise  them 
far  too  violently — or  such  is  my  opinion. 
To  back  up  this  statement  I  will  give  l^he 
figures  in  a  series  of  experiments  which 
I  carried  out  last  season.  These  experi- 
ments dealt  with  five  incubators  holding 
in  all  2,000  eggs.  In  each  incubator  200 
eggs  were  set  in  each  of  the  two  trays, 
and  the  eggs  in  both  trays  of  each  incu- 
bator were  as  much  alike  as  possible,  be- 
ing the  same  age,  and  the  eggs  from  each 
pen  of  breeders  being  divided  in  half  and 
placed  one-half  in  each  tray.  In  one  tray 
of  each  incubator  the  eggs  were  turned, 


w  #^*^^„  ^ 



..  .4- 





'  If^ifCMlCA^Jf^ 








1  jW      'f -^           ^'^^■aL 


LN  almost  perfect  hatch  has  been  and  can  be  taken 
off  from   this  incubator. 

in  rows,  by  the  method  described  above, 
and  in  the  second  tray  of  each  incubator, 
they  were  carefully  rolled  about  with  the 
palms  of  the  hands.  From  the  1,000  eggs, 
turned  in  rows,  919  chicks  were  hatched; 
from  the  1,000  eggs  turned  by  rolling,  757 
chicks  were  hatched  (and  these  eggs  were 
turned  as  carefully  as  it  is  possible  to 
turn  them  by  this  method) .  The  fertility 
of  the  eggs  in  the  lot  rolled  was  one-fourth 
of  one  per  cent,  higher  than  in  the  other 
lot.  It  took  four  hours  and  thirty  minutes 
longer  to  turn,  in  rows,  the  five  trays  twice 
a  day,  for  seventeen  days,  than  to  turn  the 
other  five  trays  by  rolling.  The  extra  162 
chicks  were  worth  to  me,  at  least  $50, 
which  I  consider  good  wages  for  four  and 
a  half  hours'  work.  Eggs  need  not  be 
turned  until  about  sixty  hours  after  be- 
ing set,  and  should  not  be  turned  or  mo- 
lested in  any  way  after  they  have  been 
set  eighteen  days. 

If  the  incubator  is  located  in  a  fairly 
cool  place,  the  eggs  are  sufficiently  cooled 
the  first  week,  while  out  being  turned. 
On  the  morning  of  the  eighth  day,  up 
to  and  including  the  evening  of  the  eigh- 
teenth day,  they  should  be  left  out  of  the 
incubator  once  a  day  until  they  feel  cool, 
not  stone  cold.  It  is  ridiculous  to  attempt 
to  give  any  definite  period,- in  minutes,  for 
each  day,  in  which  to  cOol  the  eggs,  as 
the  period  must  vary  with  the  tempera- 
ture of  the  incubator  room.  When  the 
eggs  feel  slightly  cool,  to  the  lips  or  face, 
they  should  be  put  back  into  the  machine. 
Too  inuch  cooling  is  more  dangerous  than 
too  little.  Be  careful  that  the  en- 
tire  tray  rests  on  the  top  of  the  in- 
cubator or  table,  while  cooling;  if 
a  part  of  the  tray  projects  these 
eggs  will  cool  more  rapidly  than  the 

The  very  best  possible  location 
for  an  incubator  is  in  a  well-venti- 
lated cellar.  The  incubators  should 
be  placed  where  neither  sunlight 
nor  draughts  can  directly  strike 
them,  but  the  ventilation  should  be, 
perfect  as  far  as  possible,  so  that 
the  air  that  circulates  into  the  egg- 
chamber  is  fresh  and  pure.  If  coal- 
oil  lamps  are  used  as  heaters,  the 
exhaust  pipes  should  all  be  connect- 
ed with  a  chimney  to  carry  the 
lamp  fumes  out  of  the  cellar.  This 
This  can  be  done  by  means  of  small 
Continued  on  page  52 

The  Greenhouse  as  an  Aid  to  Farming 

A  Big  Development  of  Intensive  Farming  Under  Glass,  is  Bound  to  Occur  in 

Canada  for  the  Man  With  a  Hot  Bed — The  Big  Rose  Growers 

Have  Been  Seeing  the  Money  in  it 

GENERAL  farming  is  a  pleasant 
pursuit,  while  all  the  vagaries  of 
nature  conspire  to  bountifully  as- 
sist the  husbandman  in  his  efforts;  and 
even  in  sections  remote  from  the  markets 
— w^here  it  may  sometimes  prove  difficult 
to  procure  just  what  he  wants  just  when 
he  wants  it,  it  should  not  prove  arduous 
with  a  little  planning  and  forethought  to 
keep  busy  throughout  the  year — working 
from  early  to  late  in  the  summer,  and 
sleeping  from  early  to  late  in  the  winter, 
to  store  up  a  good  working  supply  of 
energy  for  the  next  campaign. 

There  are  some  farmers  who  prefer  not 
to  be  limited  by  nature's  moods  and  sea- 
sons, and  instead  of  partly  hibernating 
throughout  the  long  winter,  turn  coal, 
water,  manure,  energy,  and  what  sun- 
shine may  filter  through  the  vdnter  mists 
into — if  not  dollars,  at  least  into  work 
and  possibly,  in  some  instances,  into  plea- 
sure— with  the  hope  that,  ultimately,  the 
dollar  may  be  the  reward. 

In  communities  where  people  have 
money  to  spend  for  something  just  a  little 
out  of  the  ordinary,  there  is  scarcely  any- 
thing that  appeals  to  them  like  fine  ripe 
tomatoes,  crisp  lettuce,  radishes,  cucum- 
bers, etc.,  or  well-grown  roses,  carnations, 
sweet  peas,  etc. 

It  does  not  require  a  very  pretentious 
or  expensive  structure  to  give  one  the  idea 
of  the  pleasure  to  be  derived  from  seeing 
one's  efforts  turning  seeds  and  cuttings, 
into  savory  vegetables  and  beautiful 
flowers,  while  the  wind  is  piling  the  snow 
into  the  wi^idward  side  of  any  obstruction 
it  may  meet. 

Nor  does  it  need  a  large  house  to  give 
you  a  fundamental  idea  of  the  business. 


or  to  show  the  constant  attention  neces- 
sary to  determine  whether  growing  crops 
will  mature  as  they  should,  or  the  bugs 
or  other  adverse  conditions  will  come  out 
triumphant  in  the  end. 


There  is  scarcely  any  method  by  which 
one  can  figure  the  profits  from  a  square 
foot  of  greenhouse  area.  It  depends  upon 
so  many  different  factors,  chief  of  which 
is  the  ability  of  the  grower. 

Carnations  will  yield  from  possibly  less 
than  operating  expenses  to  in  some  in- 
stances as  high  as  50c  per  square  foot. 

This  figure  is  attained  only  in  a  fevv 
plants,  where  the  best  care  possible  is 
given  the  stock.  15c  to  30c  is  the  more 
popular  income. 

Sweet  peas  will  do  as  well.  There  are 
many  other  crops  that  will  give  good  aver- 
age returns,  such  as  mignonette,  calen- 
dula, stocks,  snapdragon  and  lupines.  I 
do  not  know  anything  about  roses. 

Lettuce,  counting  about  four  crops  per 
season,  should  return  25c  to  40c  per  foot 
for  the  season.  , 

Radishes  are  another  paying  crop.  Cu- 
cumbers are  grown  in  large  quantities, 
and  tomatoes  by  the  acre  in  winter.  To- 
matoes, spring  crop,  should  average  5  lb. 
per  plant.  Two  crops  per  season  should 
double  that  amount.  The  plants  are  set 
16  by  18  inches  and  18  by  18  inches  each 

The  expense  of  operation  is  also  hard 
to  determine.    One  man  should  be  able  to 

work  one  house  30  by  100  ft.  and  tend  the 
fires  for  general  stock. 

It  will  require  25  to  35  tons  of  coal  to 
heat  such  a  house,  depending  upon  the 
efficiency  of  the  heater.  There  are  sea- 
son's when  extra  help  will  be  required, 
and  some  nights'  sleep  will  be  lost  to  keep 
the  temperature  right.  If  the  heater  is 
of  ample  size,  this  part  of  the  work  will 
not  be  formidable. 


Building  a  house  for  winter  gardening 
at  present  is  very  little  more  of  an  under- 
taking than  building  a  dog-house  or  silo, 
if  you  have  a  bank  account  of  the  neces- 
sary proportions.  There  are  a  number  of 
firms  engaged  in  greenhouse  construction 
business,  that  are  delighted  to  come  and 
talk  the  matter  over  with  you,  and  erect 
a  structure  entire,  and  ready  for  what- 
ever crop  you  may  wish  to  grow. 

In  this  manner  you  get  a  house  as  good 
as  it  is  possible  to  construct  (with  the 
present  knowledge  of  the  industry),  in- 
corporating all  modern  improvements. 

There  is,  however,  a  cheaper  method 
if  you  are  a  "jack  of  several  trades"  and 
master  of  them,  and  that  is  to  buy  the 
necessary  material;  then  either  erect  a 
house  yourself  or  hire  nearby  mechanics 
to  do  it. 

Our  experience  has  been  that  it  pays 
well  to  use  only  the  best  materials  it  is 
possible  to  buy  in  greenhouse  construction. 
We  eliminate  wood  wherever  it  is  possible 
to  do  so.  Concrete  for  side-walls,  and 
iron  posts  should  always  be  used. 

Iron  or  steel  should  also  be  used  for 
eaves  or  gutters. 

Continued  on  page  57 


Vtf^t  ^eace  of  tije  SitM 

By     LIBERTY     H.     BAILEY 


-     -  'TISV^  r.....',y/^^^:^.,^j^'i...i:^viM^.«^.jimMii^j:t^jtiM«at 


N  these  times  of  stress,  when  our 
cherished  ideals  seem  to  have 
failed  and  the  very  foundations  of 
society  are  shattered,  we  must'do  our  best  to 
find  a  cotmnon  interest,  and  a  basis  of 
action  that  lies  in  the  necessities  of 
our  existence  on  the  planet.  Nor  is  this 
basis  far  to  seek.  Beyond  all  institutions,  and 
all  social  national  developments  and  all  racial 
prides,  beyond  all  literature  and  all  forms  of 
reigious  worship,  is  the  surface  of  the  sphere 
from  which  every  one  of  us  draws  his  susten- 
ance and  his  supplies.  The  land  is  the  basis 
of  our  life;  and  to  keep  this  land,  for  ourselves 
and  our  successors,  is  the  first  responsibility  of 
the  race,  a  responsibility  common  to  every  peo- 
ple. Vast  schemes  of  peace  and  welfare  may 
help  us  over  the  difficulties  of  the  moment,  but 
to  save  the  earth  is  the  ever-present  obligation, 
and  if  we  are  able  to  put  this  necessity  into 
good  plans  of  action,  it  will  ultimately  bring 
the  peoples  together. 

Agriculture  is  never  partisan.  It  knows  no 
creed,  or  previous  condition  of 
servitude,  or  form  of  govern- 
mental action.  Commercial  bodies 
may  agree,  but  only  to  a  limited 
extent  can  they  act  together 
throughout  the  different  coun- 
tries. Political  bodies  cannot 
bring  the  nations  together. 
Diplomacy  has  failed.  Peace  con- 
ventions are  expedients.  Trade- 
unionism  is  largely  class  interest 
as  against  other  interests.    Per- 

r,onal   acqnatntanceship  is   a  great    bond 
of  sympathy  and  union  between  the  peo- 
ples, but  its  application  is  very  limited. 
The  coming  together  of  scholars — students,  in- 
vestigators,   teachers  —  is    the    most    hopeful 
means  now  in  sight  of  healing  the  wounds. 

I  tvish  that  with  the  coming  of  international 
tolerance — real  peace  is  too  much  to  hope  for, 
I  fear,  as  the  result  of  the  present  upheaval — 
we  might  have  international  conventions  of 
farmers  on  a  large  scale,  merely  to  discuss  the 
best  ways  of  keeping  the  land  clean  and  pro- 
ductive and  sweet  for  the  good  of  mankind. 
There  ought  to  be  some  way  to  develop  an 
inter-racial  understanding  in  respect  to  life 
on  the  land. 

In  the  meantime,  the  land  is  our  best  support. 
The  real  farmer  is  always  constructive  in  his 
work,  producing  supplies.  It  is  the  business  of 
ivar  to  be  destructive.  The  awful  destruction 
and  devastation  now  before  us  should  enforce 
its  opposite,  which  is  the  necessity  to  produce, 
to  make  the  earth  to  yield  its  abundance.  Never 
has  mankind  had  such  an  object  lesson  to  this 
end.  I  hope  that  every  farmer 
will  take  it  to  heart,  and  feel 
that  with  every  extra  bushel  he 
is  rebuking  those  who  would 
build  society  on  destruction. 

When  men  have  quarelled  and 
even  when  they  have  not  agreed 
with  themselves,  they  have  al- 
ways gone  to  the  fields  for  peace. 
Whatever  the  ddscouragem-ents 
of  any  time  or  circumstance,  we 
must  not  lose  faith  in  the  earth. 


Small  Tractors 

^raifestern  Farms 


Inquiries  Are  Coming  in  Fast  Now  For  Po-wer  Machines,  as  Help  is  Going  to 
be  Scarce — What  Men  Who  Have  Used  Them  Say 

THE  light-weight,  low-power,  me- 
dium-priced farm  tractor  has  met 
with  success  in  Ea'stern  Canada  in 
about  the  same  ratio  as  the  heavy-weight, 
high-power,  expensive  farm  tractor,  has 
been  unsuccessful  in  Western  Canada. 

These  large,  expensive  machines,  as 
they  stand  on  the  headlands  of  the  Cana- 
dian West,  rust-covered  and  abandoned 
in  many  instances,  have  caused  a  prej- 
udice against  the  heavy  tractor  which 
cannot  be  gainsaid.  The  large  amount  of 
money  necessary  to  purchase  these  ma- 
chines, the  inability  to  operate  them  on 
the  farm  of  less  than  huge  proportions 
and  the  expensive  investment  in  parts  and 
repairs  have  brought  about  a  situation, 
to  the  minds  of  the  Western  Canadian 
farmers,  that  is  not  at  all  favorable  to 
this  machine. 

The  light  farm  tractor  which  hds  been 
introduced  into  Eastern  Canada  during 
the  past  year  has  had  to  meet  many  a 
rebuff  and  prejudice;  but  after  a  season 
during  which  a  large  number  of  these 
machines  were  used  on  small  farms,  the 
prejudice  is  being  fast  overcome. 

The  light  farm  tractor  which  is  making 
its  appearance  in  Eastern  Canada,  is  the 
ideal  small  farm  power,  with  a  compact, 
simple  and  sturdy  engine,  burning  gasoline 
as  a  rule,  but  equipped  in  many  instances 
for  kerosene  or  engine  naptha.  These 
tractors  are  rated  at  an  average  of  from 
6  to  12  mechanical  horse-power  at  draw- 
bar and  from  16  to  24  horse-power,  at  the 
belt,  but  when  in  operation,  have  been 
known  to  increase  this  amount  of  horse- 
power considerably.  The  small  farm  trac- 
tors which  have  met  with  success  are  not 
of  the  freak  class,  but  are  built  upon  sound 
principles  by  the  best  engine  experts  in 

the  country.  They  are  real,  small  farm 
tractors,  not  a  big  tractor  made  light. 
Eastern  Ontario  farmers  have  been  noted 
in  the  past  as  class  investigators  of  any 
new  innovation  for  the  saving  of  money 
and  labor  on  the  farm.  This  has  been  ex- 
ceptionally true  in  the  case  of  the  farm 
tractor,  due  somewhat  no  doubt,  to  the 
prejudice  in  the  West,  but  largely  because 
of  the  fact  that  the  introduction  of  the 
light  tractors  is  a  revolutionary  one  in  the 
farm  industry  of  the  Dominion.  Canadian 
farmers  have  not  jumped  at  conclusions, 
but  have  studied  and  are  studying  the 
possibilities  of  this  machine.  A  certain 
number  have  come  to  the  conclusion  that 
it  is  so  practical,  that  by  placing  one  of 
these  machines  on  their  farm,  they  will 
be  able  to  do  better  farming  and  to  in- 
crease their  profits  by  a  larger  crop  yield. 


A  two-hundred-acre  farm  near  Sea- 
forth,  Huron  County,  Ontario,  owned  and 
worked  by  Mr.  Mcintosh,  a  progressive 
and  capable  farmer  of  no  mean  ability. 

Drawing  three  plows  on    Mr.   Mcintosh's   farm. 

is  the  scene  of  operation  of  one  of  these 
light  tractors  that  may  be  used  as  a  fit- 
ting illustration  of  what  can  be  accomp- 
lished by  thousands  of  others  in  the  same 
predicament.  Mr.  Mcintosh,  when  ques- 
tioned as  to  the  reason  for  his  purchase 
of  a  light  tractor,  had  the  following  to 
say:  "Up  to  this  fall  I  have  required  the 
services  of  three  teams  of  horses  for  fall 
plowing.  Owing  to  the  extreme  wetness 
of  the  last  fall,  I  all  but  played  out  my 
horses  in  harvesting  my  crops,  one-hun- 
dred acres  of  which  are  in  grain.  The 
soil  being  very  heavy  clay,  it  was  more 
than  I  could  ask  of  my  horses,  to  go  into 
the  plowing  of  the  hundred  acres. 

"This  set  me  to  studsring  the  question 
from  all  angles,  as  to  cost  and  production, 
and  about  the  middle  of  October,  I  decided 
to  order  a  tractor.  This  arrived  one  week 
later,  and  although  the  soil  was  wet  and 
in  very  poor  condition  to  plow,  it  having 
rained  for  many  days,  I  set  the  tractor 
to  work  and  finished  up  the  job  in  good 
shape  by  the  middle  of  November,  an  im- 
possibility with  horse  power. 

"Inability  to  secure  good  labor  influ- 
enced me  greatly  in  the  purchase,  and  I 
figured  that  a  machine,  costing  somewhat 
less  than  a  thousand  dollars,  would  save 
me  four  horses  and  a  man.  The  machine 
which  I  purchased  is  a  "10-20",  but  in 
most  of  the  work  to  which  I  have  put  it, 
I  know  that  it  is  delivering  over  20  horse- 
power on  the  belt.  The  number  of  cylin- 
ders, of  course,  is  optional,  but  having  had 
considerable  experience  about  the  farm 
with  gas  engines,  I  was  bent  on  a  four 
cylinder,  which  I  got,  thinking  it  steadier, 
with  a  stronger  pull  and  showing  less 
vibration  than  a  single  cylinder. 
Continued  on  page  55 

The  Drury  of  Crown  Hill 

Did  You  Ever  Take  Tea  in  June  by  the  Penetang  Road 
When  the  Alfalfa  Bloom  Was   Onf    You  See  Him  at 

His  Best 


'-^r.   the 
A     h  e  a"  ■^-'i' 
shaped    for 
b  usiness . 

FIVE  miles  north  of  Barrie  on  the 
old  Penetang  road  stands  a  spaci- 
ous square  cottage  with  great 
rooms  on  either  side  the  long  hall  and  a 
kitchen  of  the  old-time  generous  propor- 
tions. In  the  ceiling  of  this  kitchen  some 
thirty  years  ago  one  might  have  observ- 
ed a  hole  made  by  the  forcible  ascent  of 
part  of  a  toy  steam  engine  the  property 
of  a  little  lad  bearing  the  name  Ernest 
Charles  Drury.  The  ceiling  has  been  re- 
paired but  the  boy  of  those  days,  now  a 
man  in  his  prime,  is  still  experimenting 
and  still  puncturing  ceilings,  notably  in 
this  year  of  grace,  the  thick  skulls  of 
those  city  folk  (and  country  folk  too  for 
that  matter)  whose  name  is  legion,  who 
hold  the  farmer  to  be  a  stupid  indivi- 
dualist incapable  of  organizing  in  order 
to  save  himself  from  exploitation. 

Yet  Drury  of  Crown  Hill  is  more  than 
the  reckless  theorist  who  launches  his 
ideas  into  space  regardless  of  conse- 
quence. Few  men  have  studied  political 
and  economic  movements  in  Canada 
more  closely  than  he.  Idealist  he  may 
be,  but  his  ideas  are  the  result  of 
perusal  of  the  big  books  on  the  subjects 
he  discusses,  and  what  is  equally  import- 
ant his  ideas  have  been  tempered  by 
practical  experience — the  experience  of 
sowing  for  others  to  reap  and  laboring 
that  others  may  enter  into  his  labor.  A 
few  years  ago  Mr.  Drury  was  address- 
ing an  audience  of  Toronto  students 
whose  sympathies  he  readily  captured. 
Seated  in  the  front  seat,  however,  was 
an  enemy  who  had  strayed  into  camp, 
an  old  protectionist  whose  speech  betray- 
ed him  as  hailing  from  the  land  of  heck- 
lers. The  old  chap  had  been  dozing  but 
wakened  up  in  time  to  be  nettled  by  the 
sharp  end  of  an  argument.  "I  see  now," 
he  called  out,  "you're  no  farmer;  you're 
one  of  those  fellows  who  go  around  stir- 
ring up  the  people."  The  speaker's  face 
relaxed  into  a  Taftian  smile  as  he  re- 
plied. "If  my  friend  had  been  seventy 
miles  north  of  here  this  morning  he 
would  have  found  me  milking  eight  cows. 
To-morrow  evening  he  may  see  me  doing 
the  same." 

Few  men  in  or  out  of  public  life  can 
compare  with  Mr.  Drury  on  the  plat- 
form. His  father,  Ontario's  first  Min- 
ister of  Agriculture,  was  no  mean  debat- 
er, but  the  son  had  the  advantage  of 
"schooling"  denied  to  pioneers  and  even 
the  sons  of  pioneers  in  North  Simcoe. 
The  trustees  of  the  old  Corn  Hill  school 
usually  saw  to  it  that  good  men  were 
employed  as  teachers.  Besides  the  neigh- 
borhood boasted  of  two  churches,  a 
branch  of  the  Sons  of  Temperance,  and 
for  a  time  a  flourishing  musical  society. 
Entering  the  Barrie  Collegiate  Institute 

the  sturdy  country  boy,  as  might  be 
expected    of    one    naturally    given    to 
reading  and  explosions,  devoted  him- 
self with  unusual  as- 
s  i  d  u  i  t  y   to    Eng- 
lish   literature     and 
the   sciences.     The 
process      o  f      being 
stereotyped    t  o    ex- 
amination standards 
he  found  as  galling 
as  many  another  On- 
tario    youth     whose 
mind    i  s    made    o  f 
something  stiff  er 

than  India  rubber.  However,  he  so- 
laced himself  as  he  cleared  the  annual 
hurdles  by  taking  a  very  active 
part  in  an  excellent  literary  and  debat- 
ing society.  Here  were  fought  the  his- 
toric duel  between  platform  and  pres5, 
poetry  and  prose,  free  trade  and  pro- 
tection. Here  was  acquired  that  ability 
to  analyze  a  difficult  question,  that  capa- 
city for  rapid  thinking  and  lucid  expres- 
sion which  combine  to  make  this  spokes- 
man of  the  farmers  of  Ontario  a  voice 
to  be  heard  in  the  seats  of  the  mighty. 
It  is  an  old  saw  that  a  youth  can  best 
be  judged  by  the  way  in  which  he  spends 
his  leisure  moments.  Leaving  school 
young  Drury  spent  a  couple  of  years  on 
the  old  farm,  and  during  the  long  winter 
evenings,  or  as  occasion  offered,  in  the 
busier  seasons,  the  English  poets  and 
especially  Shakespeare  and  BrowTiing 
were  so  thoroughly  read  and  reread  that 
an  apt  quotation  is  ever  at  command  of 
his  ready  pen  or  speech.  Besides,  such 
works  as  Adam  Smith's  Wealth  of  Na- 
tions were  digested  in  that  ideal  condi- 
tion where  a  reader  follows  the  plough 
on  a  farm  free  from  stones.  Again  at 
this  time  our  young  farmer  in  order  to 
improve  his  knowledge  of  English  found 
time  to  turn  to  the  reading  of  Virgil,  al- 
though for  some  reason  Latin  was  not 
at  school  a  favorite  study.  It  should  be 
mentioned,  however,  that  in  a  burst  of 
confidence  he  once  defined  the  greatest 
pleasure  of  life  thus:  to  be  returning 
with  his  team  up  the  lane  in  the  dusk 
of  an  autumn  evening  after  a  day  well 
spent  in  enjoying  behind  the  plough 
"the  good  gigantic  smile  o'  the  brown 
old  earth,"  to  catch  a  whiff  of  the  pota- 
toes frying  and  to  know  that  a  should- 
er of  cold  mutton  with  appropriate  ac- 
companiments awaited  him  within. 

In  course  of  time  he  began  to  display 
certain  practical  defects — the  kind  of  de- 
fects that  farmers  are  always  seeing  in 
other  farmers  with  the  result  that  they 
usually  choose  to  confer  any  honors  they 
have  at  their  disposal  on  lawyers  or  doc- 

tors or  agents  whose  defects  are  less 
familiar  and  less  readily  detected.  Every 
morning  in  summer  our  busy  young 
farmer  used  to  run  a  full  mile  to  the  pas- 
ture because  he  hadn't  sufficient  gump- 
tion to  train  a  dog  to  do  the  work. 

Now  fully  persuaded  that  for  him  the 
best  life  was  that  on  the  old  farm  in  the 
old  neighborhood,  in  order  the  better  to 
equip  himself  for  his  life-work,  he  en- 
tered the  Ontario  Agricultural  College  in 
the  winter  of  1898-9,  whence  he  gradu- 
ated in  1900  with  specialist  ranking  in 
chemistry.  Since  then  with  the  excep- 
tion of  one  year,  when  he  was  lured  into 
the  by-paths  of  theoretical  agriculture 
which  seduce  most  of  our  college  gradu- 
ates and  accepted  a  professorship  in 
Macdonald  College,  his  life  has  been 
spent  in  the  place  of  his  birth.  How- 
ever, he  has  always  undertaken  more  or 
less  work  of  a  public  character.  For 
several  years  he  lectured  at  Farmers'  In- 
stitutes and  later  became 'prominent  in 
the  counsels  of  the  Grange.  It  was  as 
president  of  the  Grange  and  secretary  of 
the  Dominion  Council  of  Agriclilture 
that  he  visited  Ottawa  with  the  historic 
deputation  of  farmers,  and  his  logical 
and  persuasive  address  doubtless  had  not 
a  little  to  do  with  causing  Sir  Wilfrid 
to  take  the  "fatal  plunge"  which  may 
prove  after  all  to  have  been  nothing 
more  than  a  chastening  and"  invigorating 

No  wonder  Sir  Wilfrid  was  persuaded. 
Logically  the  contention  of  Mr.  Drury  as 
one  of  the  spokesmen  for  the  farmers 
was  unanswerable.  He  asked  for  no 
favors.  The  farmers  were  prepared  to 
stand  on  their  own  feet.  All  he  asked 
was  that  they  might  not  be  compelled  to 
bear  on  their  shoulders  an  undue  propor- 
tion of  the  burdens  of  the  State.  In 
existing  circumstances  the  farmer  was 
discriminated  against  by  our  legislators. 
He  was  set  upon  going  and  coming.  He 
was  compelled  to  buy  in  a  highly  re- 
stricted market  and  at  the  same  time  sell 
Continued  on  page  56 

Where  Practical  Plans  Are  Combined  With  an  Attractive  Style  oj  Architecture 

THE  farm  house 
built  to  last  has 
these  essential  fea- 
tures: wisdom  of  plan, 
strength  of  construction, 
durability,  economy  and 
appropriateness  of  ma- 
terials, and  growing  out 
of  all  these,  a  homelike- 
ness  that  no  other  place 
in  the  world  can  hold  for 
that  particular  family. 
The  homeliness  comes 
from  a  thousand  in- 
flences  beyond  the  plan- 
ning of  the  architect  or 
builder,  of  course,  but  it 
can  be  made  to  begin  with 
a  n  individual  pictur- 
esqueness  in  keeping  with 
the  family  ideals. 

The  type  o  f  house 
shown  here  is  good  on  ac- 
count of  its  simple 
quaintness.  The  o  1  d  - 
fashioned  front  dor- 
mers without  any  carved 
cornice  trimmings  to  detract  from  the 
dignity  of  the  general  arrangement, 
the  wide  groups  of  windows  without  any 
bays  jutting  out  from  the  main  walls,  the 
broad  stoop  at  the  front  door,  and  the 
covered  porch  at  the  side  where  it  can 
open  into  both  the  living-room  and  kitchen 
— all  go  to  give  a  general  livableness  not 

By     ETHYL     MUNROE 

Ijayout  of  the  ground   floor. 

A  quaint,  home-likp  typp  of  farm  home,  showing  dignity  of  architecture  at  Its 
best  without  frills. 

found  in  the  more  pretentious  house.  The 
material  used  may  be  brick  or  frame, 
concrete,  stone  or  stucco,  but  the  best  ef- 
fect is  obtained  by  using  a  combination  of 
two  materials,  the  heavier  material  below. 
Cobblestones  with  buff  brick,  weather- 
boards, or  shingles  above,  give  a  hand- 
some combination.  In  a  frame  house, 
shingles  may  be  used  above  the  first 
storey  with  weather-boards  below,  even 
using  two  colors  of  paint  or  stain  to 
strengthen  the  contrast.  This  break  in 
the  wall  treatment  has  a  tendency  to  cut 
down  the  height  of  the  house,  giving  it 
something  of  the  bungalow  effect. 

The  interior  layout  is  compact  and  con- 
venient. Space  is  taken  from  the  front 
hall  to  allow  for  two  stairways,  one  open- 
ing from  the  kitchen,  the  foot  of  the  other 
not  far  from   the  front  door.     Space  is 

economized  by  having  the 
cellar  stairs  directly  un- 
der this,  while  the  space 
below  the  "back  stairs" 
may  be  used  for  a  coat 
closet  off  the  front  hall. 
The  front  rooms  of  the 
house  are  given  to  the 
living-room  and  the  of- 
fice or  den,  with  a  good- 
sized  dining-room,  a 
kitchen  and  wash-room 
at  the  back.  The  ar- 
rangement here  is  con- 
venient for  several  rea- 
sons. The  kitchen  being 
only  ten  feet  wide  gives 
a  compact  grouping  of 
the  stove,  sink  and  cup- 
board, while  the  length 
of  the  dining-room  allows 
space  for  a  dumb-waiter, 
and  a  sort  of  passageway 
to  the  hall,  stairway,  cel- 
lar, washroom  and  din- 
ing-room without  cross- 
ing the  main  working- 
part  of  the  room.  The  kitchen  is  well 
lighted,  the  sink,  drain-board  and  cup- 
board conveniently  placed  for  the  house 
worker  as  well  as  to  give  a  direct  plumb- 
ing system  for  the  kitchen  sink,  wash- 
room and  bathroom  upstairs. 

It  is  a  matter  of  satisfaction  to  the 
builder  that  the  main  walls  on  the  second 
floor   follow   directly  above  those  below. 

Second  floor  plan. 

The  Remodelled   House 

Two  plans  are  shown  for  the  remod- 
elled house.  The  dimensions  of  the 
house  at  present  are  thirty-four  by  twen- 
ty feet,  so  in  each  case  the  building  has 
been  extended  six  feet  toward  the  front. 
The  advantage  of  putting  the  new  wall  at 
the  front  instead  of  at  the  back  is  that  it 
gives  an  oportunity  of  making  a  pleasing 
window  arrangement.  The  acompanying 
photograph  suggests  an  attractive  style 
along  Colonial  lines  which  could  be  car- 
ried out  in  making  over  almost  any 
straight,  two-storey  house  of  the  pattern 
most  popular  for  farm  houses  built  fifty 
years  ago.  The  pillars  and  portico  over 
the  front  door  and  the  groups  of  windows 

with  their  dark  painted  shutters  against 
the  white  weather-boards,  give  a  charm- 
ingly quaint  and  countrified  appearance. 
The  built-on  screened  porch  with  sleeping- 
porch  above,  is,  of  course,  optional,  and 
has  not  been  considered  in  these  plans, 
but  since  we  have  begun  to  appreciate  the 
value  of  fresh  air  these  additions  to  the 
country  -home  are  scarcely  considered 

In  the  first  plan  we  have  partitioned  off 
a  small  vestibule  inside  the  front  door, 
with  hangers  for  coats  and  a  seat  with  a 
box  below  for  rubbers,  etc.  The  space  back 
of  this  in  the  living-room  makes  a  good 
corner  for  book-cases,  and  being  close  to 

the  fireplace,  can  be  fitted  up  into  a  cosy 
reading  nook.  In  this  plan  we  have  the 
bathroom  downstairs  and  placed  so  that 
little  extra  plumbing  is  necessary  to  take 
care  of  the  water  from  the  kitchen  sink. 
Having  the  hall  where  it  is,  the  bathroom 
is  convenient  to  the  bedroom  downstairs, 
and  may  be  entered  from  the  rooms  on 
the  second  floor  without  passing  through 
any  other  room.  It  might  seem  a  better 
arrangement,  generally,  to  have  the  bath- 
room closer  to  most  of  the  bedrooms,  but 
if  the  object  of  having  a  bedroom  on  the 
first  floor  is  convenience  in  case  of  sick- 
ness in  the  house,  it  means  just  as  much 
to  have  the  bathroom  on  the  same  floor. 


Then  so  far  as 
the  water  system 
is  concerned,  it 
is  some  times 
possible  to  get 
sufficient  pres- 
sure for  a  bath- 
room downstairs 
without  the 
necessity  of 
forcing  water  to 
the  second  floor. 
In  the  second 
plan  the  bath- 
room is  upstairs 
above  the  wash- 
room,  so  the 
main  part  of  the 
plumbing  will 
be  almost  direct- 
ly in  line  with 
that  connecting 
the  kitchen  sink 
and  basin  in  the 
washroom.  I  n 
this  plan,  the 
although  it  runs 
up  from  the 
front  hall,  i  s 
made  fairly 
"central"  by  be- 
ing turned  so 
that  the  foot  of 
the  stairs  is  only 

An  atti'iutivu  st.vlt'  aluiiy  colonial  lines  which  could  be  carried  out  in   remodelling  almost   any 

straight  two-storey   house. 

PorcK     -roof 

I        "Porck      roof 

Layout    of    second    floor    to    correspond    with 
ground    floor    plan    shown    below. 

R.  R.  No.  1,  Smithville,  Ont.—We 
are  desirous  of  remodelling  our 
house,  of  which  I  am  sending  you 
a  rough  sketch,  into  a  modern,  up- 
to-date-  house  with  all  conveniences, 
but  only  for  a  small  family,  and  we 
would  be  very  grateful  for  any  sug- 
gestions which  you  would  give  us. 
We  ivould  like  the  house  about  twen- 
ty-six by  thirty-four  feet,  with  a 
small  vestibule  to  enter,  a  living- 
room,  kitchen,  diningroom,  and  bed- 
room on  the  first  floor;  preferably 
but  one  stairs  if  conveniently  sit- 

How  far  from  the  hou^e  should 
the  septic  tank  be  situated? 

Will  one  chitnney  work  satisfac- 
torily for  kitchen,  furnace  and  fire- 

What  kind  of  trees  are  best  for 
planting  on  a  lawn? 

tirely  for  the 
furnace.  You' 
-should  also  have 
a  damper  in  the 
fireplace  o  p  e  n- 
ing,  so  that 
when  there  is 
no  fire  the  cold 
air  draught  can 
be  shut  off  if  it 
interferes  with 
the  draught  of 
the  kitchen 
stove.  A  length 
of  stovepipe 
with  an  ordin- 
ary damper  in- 
serted i  n  the 
fireplace  open- 
ing works  beau- 

In  reply  to 
your  question  as 
to  what  kind  of 
trees  are  best 
for  planting  on 
a  lawn,  we  are 
sending  you  a 
copy  of  the  Oc- 
tober Farmer's 
Magazine  where 
the  subject  of 
p  1  a  n  ti  n  g  the 
farm  ground  is 
taken  up  pretty 

I^ayout    of    second    floor    to    correspond    with 
ground    floor   plan    shown    below. 

Ground   floor   plan. 

a  few  feet  from  the  kitchen  door  instead 
of  close  to  the  front  door. 

With  regard  to  the  distance  at  which 
the  septic  tank  should  be  placed  from  the 
house,  the  main  point  is  to  build  the  tank 
so  that  it  is  water-tight,  then  it  can  be 
placed  as  close  to  the  house  as  you  like. 
See  septic  tank  article  in  this  issue. 

To  make  one  chimney  work  satisfac- 
torily for  the  kitchen  range,  furnace  and 
fireplace,  it  would  be  necessary  to  build 
it  in  two  sections,  as  shown  in  the  plan, 
making  it  practically  two  chimneys,  or 
one  large  chimney  with  a  wall  dividing  it. 
Then  you  would  give  one  opening  to  the 
range  and  fireplace,  keeping  the  other  en- 

Ground  floor  plan. 



The  Functions  of  the  Rural  Church 


Does  our  anchor  hold?  Are  Justice,  Mercy  and  Righteousness  still  the  rocks  of  our  salvation?  Are 
men  still  concerned  about  the  Christ  and  His  Kingdom?  Are  the  churches  exalting  the  spirits  of  Love  and 
Service  to  all  mankind?    Are  we  still  worshipping  a  tribal  god? 

Yes  and  no!  Men  are  still  seeing  the  Invisible.  Men  are  still  concerned  about  His  Kingdom.  Great 
minds  and  great  souls  are  bearing  the  burdens  of  humanity,  and  out  of  the  chaos  and  the  gloom  will  arise  a 
future  weal  that  will  be  meat  and  drink  for  a  higher  civilization. 

In  this  new  order  of  things  the  country  church  must  take  a  better  part.  Sortie  rural  churches  are  hind- 
rances to  moral  progress.  Others  are  dead  of  dry  rot.  The  whole  body  of  the  rural  church,  no  matter  to 
what  denomination  each  claims  relationship,  must  awaken  to  the  situation. 

The  first  conference  of  the  Commission  on  Church  and  Country  Life  appointed  by  the  Federal  Council 
of  Churches  of  Christ  of  America,  met  recently  at  Columbus,  Ohio.  The  vibrating  life  and  the  magnetic 
influence  of  the  whole  meeting  is  touching  all  parts  of  the  country.  And  the  agricultural  colleges  are  going 
to  play  a  big  part  in  this  work.  Prof.  K.  L.  Butterfield,  President  of  the  Massachusetts  Agricultural  College, 
at  this  conference  presented  a  report  of  the  committee  on  country  church  function,  policy  and  progress.  It 
was  a  remarkable  document. 

The  definition  of  tjie  function  of  the  country  church,  as  given,  is  here  reproduced: 

"God's  great  purpose  for  men  is  the  highest  development  of  each  personality  and  of  the  hum,an  race  as  a 
whole.  It  is  essential  to  this  growth  that  men  shall  hold  adequate  ideals  and  character  and  life.  .  .  There- 
fore the  function  of  the  country  church  is  to  create,  to  maintain,  and  to  enlarge  both  individual  and  community 
ideals,  under  the  inspiration  and  guidance  of  the  Christian  motive  and  teaching,  and  to  help  rural  people  to 
incarnate  those  ideals  in  personal  and  family  life,  in  industrial  effort,  in  political  development  and  in  all  social 

It  is  an  inspiring  picture.     It  carries  a  big  faith  in  the  farm  family  and  in  the  coming  country  ministers. 

It  will  be  hard  to  learn  what  to  revere  and  preserve  and  what  to  abandon  and  cut  out.  But  the  renewed 
rural  church  is  on  the  way. 

FIFTY  men  about  ten-thirty  one  Sunday  morning  in 
one  of  our  Western  settlements  were  seen  trekking 
away  from  a  little  mission  church,  with  bundles  of 
blankets  on  their  backs.  Sixty  below  zero  was  what  the 
thermometer  had  registered  the  previous  night,  and  with 
the  exception  of  the  saloon,  the  church  was  the  only  avail- 
able structure  to  afford  these  pioneers  rest  or  shelter.  Of 
a  week-night  these  same  men  met  in  the  church,  some  to 
read,  others  to  play  games  and  still  others  to  write  or  to 
study  in  night  classes.  If  a  man  were  badly  frost-bitten  the 
missionary  aided  him.  If  he  were  sick  the  missionary  ap- 
plied such  remedies  as  he  had  for  his  relief.  If  a  settler 
were  perplexed  about  a  business  matter  the  missionary 
either  himself  gave  advice  or  recommended  him  where  to 
seek  the  counsel  he  so  sorely  needed.  All  the  time  the  mis- 
sionary had  a  care  for  those  higher  interests,  without  the 
guidance  and  direction  of  which  no  man  and  no  community 
can  attain  or  maintain  its  best. 

That  was  fifteen  years  ago.  Things  in  that  settlement 
are  altered  now.  A  fine  young  city  has  replaced  that  little 
cluster  of  shacks.  A  church  magnificent  with  brown  stone 
and  colored  glass  and  lofty  arches  occupies  the  site  of  the 
little  wooden  mission  structure  of  those  pioneer  days.  The 
surgeon  in  the  fine  city  hospital  relieves  the  necessities  of 
the  sick  or  bodily  injured.  Schools  with  specially  trained 
teachers  have  taken  the  place  of  the  night  classes  the  mis- 
sionary once  conducted.  The  Y.M.C.A.  with  its  parlors  and 
its  gymnasium  and  its  reading  rooms  throws  wide  its  doors 
to  all  who  seek  shelter  or  recreation. 

Yet  the  present  conditions  are  but  the  outgrowth  of  the 
conditions  of  the  earlier  days.  The  pioneer  church  antici- 
pated all  that  is  to  be  found  in  the  best  of  the  more  complex 
modern  conditions.  She  provided  and  trained  men  to  relieve 
the  immediate  necessities  of  those  pioneers  of  empire  and 
when  the  hour  struck  she  gave  over  various  functions  to  the 
school,  •to  the  hospital,  to  the  Y.M.C.A.,  or  to  the  club  or  to 

the  law  court  as  the  case  might  be,  meanwhile  retaining 
in  her  own  hand  the  high  vocation  of  appealing  to  and 
directing  the  innermost  life  of  all  who  heed  her  call. 

This  must  continue  to  be  the  history  of  every  church  that 
abides.  It  is  her  high  function  to  meet  men  on  the  ground 
of  their  needs.  Nothing  that  is  of  human  interest  is  alien 
to  her.  Particularly  is  this  the  experience  of  the  living 
country  church.  In  the  country,  particularly  in  the  newer 
rural  sections,  men  and  women  often  feel  themselves  left  to 
struggle  alone  and  unbefriended.  To  these  the  church 
must  come  as  friend  and  counsellor  in  all  matters  that  have 
to  do  with  their  welfare. 

Is  it,  then,  the  duty  of  the  church  to  build  hospitals  or 
to  teach  agriculture  or  to  provide  amusements  or  recrea- 
tion for  the  community  to  which  it  ministers?  That  depends. 
Take  that  Western  mission  church  for  an  example.  The 
pioneers  around  her  required  shelter.  The  church  provided 
it.  Many  of  them  sorely  needed  bodily  healing.  The  church 
afforded  it,  but  blazed  the  trail  to  the  hospital.  Children 
and  youth  required  training  in  secular  knowledge.  The 
church  gave  it  and  when  the  time  was  ripe  saw  that  the 
school  was  ready  to  do  this  special  work. 

But  human  needs  are  ever  growing.  "Man  partly  is  and 
wholly  hopes  to  be."  In  a  very  real  sense,  men  are  always 
pioneers.  All  men  outside  the  graveyard  are  stretching  out 
for  greater  things.  It  is  because  of  this  fact  of  human 
experience  that  the  church  always  has  a  work  to  do  in 
directing  the  thought  and  effort  of  men  as  they  aspire  to 
better  things. 

Take  the  situation  of  the  country  church  in  regard  to 
amusements,  for  an  instance.  Complaint  is  sometimes 
made  that  the  winter  amusements  of  country  people  are 
not  of  the. character  that  means  the  upward  glance  and  the 
forward  step.  When  this  complaint  is  justified  the  local 
church  is  mainly  responsible  for  the  untoward  condition 
that  gives  rise  to  it.     There  is  no  reason  in  the  world  why 



the  church  should  not  lead  in  the  matter  of  amusements — 
a  matter  so  fraught  with  possibilities  either  for  good  or 
for  evil.  When  no  other  building  is  suitable  or  available, 
the  church  must  throw  open  her  doors  of  a  week-day  or 
evening  to  social  gatherings.  In  these  assemblies,  church 
people  who  are  seized  of  the  greatness  of  their  opportunities 
take  a  vital  part.  Along  with  this  effort  to  afford  recrea- 
tion in  public  gatherings,  the  church  that  is  wide  awake 
gives  herself  no  rest  till  every  home  in  her  vicinity  or  that 
comes  under  her  influence  becomes  a  centre  where  children 
linger  with  delight  and  leave  with  regret.  Books  and  games 
there  are  that  relieve  the  strain  of  the  day  and  drive  dull 
care  to  the  limbo  of  everlasting  forgetfulness,  and  which 
leave  the  heart  clean  and  the  mind  open  to  all  that  makes 
for  life's  best  concerns.  Such  books  the  church  must  place 
in  the  hands  of  all  her  people  and  of  all  others  who  will 
read  them. 

Stories  there  are  of  the  brave  and  daring  and  generous 
— of  women  like  Grace  Darling  and  Florence  Nightingale 
and  Edith  Cavell — of  men  like  Gordon  and  Livingstone, 
and  Lincoln  and  Macdonald,  and  Brown  and  MacKenzie,  of 
LaSalle  and  Champlain  and  Robertson — of  U.  E.  Loyalists, 
of  settlers  in  Ontario  from  England  and  Scotland  and 
Ireland,  to  whom  winter  frost  and  blinding  snow  and  track- 
less forest  with  fang  of  savage  wolf,  and  tomahawk  of  still 
more  savage  red  man,  held  no  terrors  to  be  weighed  for  a 
moment  against  the  priceless  gems  of  liberty  and  indepen- 
dence. No  life  can  be  solid  or  lonely  that  is  inspired  by 
tales  like  these,  and  no  church  has  begun  to  do  its  part  till 
every  man  and  woman  and  youth  is  familiar  with  the 
achievements  of  such  heroes  and  heroines  of  whom  the 
world  is  not  worthy. 

But  what  specific  thing  can  be  done  by  a  church  besides 
offering  good  reading  or  providing  entertainments  that  are 
largely  of  a  literary  character?  That  depends.  In  com- 
munities where  the  population  is  sparse  the  problem  may  be 
an  economic  one.  For  instance,  the  dairy  problem  may  be 
the  emergent  one.  Under  such  circumstances  what  is  to 
hinder  the  minister  with  his  church  officers  at  his  back,  or 
by  his  side,  seeking  the  solution  thereof,  either  through  the 
Government  or  through  some  form  of  co-operation? 

In  the  more  thickly  settled  portions  of  the  country  the 
need  may  be  for  recreation  or  facilities  for  public  enter- 
tainment. In  such  instances  the  action  of  the  church  must 
be  indirect,  but  her  influence  must  be  felt  nevertheless.  The 
church  member  or  the  minister  who  imagines  himself  too 
good  to  curl  or  to  play  hockey  or  to  skate  had  better  look  to 
his  credentials.  When  young  people  find  amusements  of  a 
degrading  character  of  more  interest  than  recreations  that 
build  up  and  push  forward,  the  blame  in  the  majority  of 
cases  rests  either  directly  or  indirectly  or  both  directly  and 
indirectly  with  church  members.  Lack  of  interest  and  a 
censorious  spirit  and  expecting  "in  June  the  ripe  fruit  of 
September"  on  the  part  of  the  church  have  done  not  a  little 
to  drive  young  people  to  seek  pleasure  at  the  hands  of  those 
whose  interest  in  them  is  selfish  and  harmful.  There  are 
those  who  argue  that  it  is  not  the  church's  business  to  pro- 
vide amusement  for  anyone,  but  to  keep  to  preaching  the 
gospel.  It  all  depends.  Christ  told  his  disciples  that  He 
would  make  them  fishers  of  men.  He  Himself  went  to  the 
weddings  and  feasts  of  His  day  and  never  once  denounced 
any  wholesome  recreations  of  His  countrymen.  Surely  the 
church  of  this  generation  will  do  well  to  go  as  far  as  Jesus 
went  in  this  regard.     Play  is  a  part  of  the  life  of  young 

people.  No  one,  young  or  old,  will  do  his  best  without  his 
fair  share  of  recreation.  Labor  and  prayer  and  sleep  many 
have  had,  but  they  have  not  taken  their  share  of  recreation 
and  for  this  neglect  the  church  is  largely  responsible.  She 
censured  the  amusements  that  the  people  had  provided  for 
themselves  and  failed  to  try  to  secure  a  form  of  recreation 
that  was  at  once  recreative  and  uplifting. 

A  further  function  of  the  church  in  the  country  is  ever 
to  read  the  signs  of  the  times.  It  is  folly  to  be  wise  after 
the  event.  For  instance,  the  church  should  have  been  alive 
to  the  causes  that  were  making  for  this  present  war.  In- 
stead, her  leaders  continually  were  saying,  "peace,  peace," 
when  there  was  no  peace.  It  is  well  to  note,  however,  that  it 
is  church  people  who  have  sent  their  sons  to  the  front  and 
who  are  holding  the  base  of  supplies.  It  will  be  church 
people  who  will  pay  the  bills  when  the  war  is  over.  In  the 
meantime  what  is  the  church  in  America  doing  in  regard  to 
the  foes  within  our  borders?  What  has  she  to  say  of  the 
settlers  who  scorn,  not  only  everything  religious,  but  every- 
thing British  or  American?  Is  she  making  known  the  fact 
that  all  over  our  brave  land  there  are  foreigners  who  have 
placed  their  savings  won  on  Canadian  soil,  not  at  the  dis- 
posal of  the  Canadian  Government  nor  at  the  disposal  of 
the  Canadian  financiers,  but  at  the  disposal  of  some  of  the 
very  men  who  stand  behind  the  soldiers  who  are  slaughter- 
ing the  sons  of  the  British-born  and  the  Canadian-born? 
Has  she  any  interpretation  of  these  facts?  Has  she  any 
solution?  Her  missionaries  are  on  the  ground,  and  by  the 
universal  language  of  kindness  and  by  intimate  personal 
contact  with  the  new-comers  she  should  be  in  a  position  to 
know  the  meaning  of  the  present  condition  of  affairs  and 
to  forecast  the  future.  Then  what  of  the  coming  of  the 
Oriental  on  the  w'estern  shores  of  America?  Does  this  mean 
another  war  as  some  of  the  wise  men  predict?  What  is  the 
church  doing  in  the  way  of  mobilizing  the  moral  forces  of 
the  community  for  the  promotion  of  social  and  civic  right- 
eousness? What  does  she  do  in  the  way  of  forestalling 
conditions  that  make  for  moral  decay? 

"That's  been  done  two  hours  ago,"  was  the  answer  that 
Wellington  returned  to  the  distressed  Londoners  when  their 
city  was  threatened  with  mob  violence  and  timid  men  ap- 
pealed to  the  veteran  for  protection  in  quarters  they  feared 
had  been  left  unguarded.  The  result  was  that  no  mob 
violence  lifted  its  destructive  head.  "If  I  have  attained  any 
success,  it  is  owing  to  the  fact  that  I  was  on  hand  fifteen 
minutes  before  the  enemy  expected  me,"  was  the  explana- 
tion Nelson  gave  to  the  world  for  his  unparalleled  victories. 
Will  the  rural  church  not  do  well  to  study  the  principles 
of  these  mighty  leaders? 

As  the  community  life  develops,  the  church  does  well 
to  pass  on  to  the  state  or  to  the  municipality,  ds  the  case 
may  be,  certain  functions  that  were  properly  her  functions 
at  earlier  stages  of  the  community's  growth.  But  as  she 
does  this  she  must  be  on  the  alert  to  discover  the  emergence 
of  new  problems  and  give  herself  to  the  solution  thereof. 
To  do  otherwise  is  for  her  to  commit  suicide.  The  rural  " 
church  in  particular  mu^t  be  aggressive  in  this  regard.  On 
the  one  hand  she  must  keep  in  the  big  currents  of  national 
life  and  thought.  On  the  other  hand,  she  must  study  her 
local  needs  with  the  same  care  that  the  physician  uses  in  his 
laboratory  when  studying  a  special  need  of  one  of  his 
patients.  Earnest  first-hand  grappling  with  real  problems 
is  the  secret  of  interest  in  church  life  and  growth  and  the 
guarantee  of  her  ever  widening  prestige  and  power. 

Some  Livestock  Tips: 


What  the  Old  Year  Has  Seen  in  the  Big  Toronto  Stock  Yards 

DURING  the  past  five  years  the  re- 
ceipts of  live  animals  coming  into 
Toronto  for  sale  has  increased 
199,214  head,  or  approximately  200,000. 
Figuring  a  reasonable  average  price  per 
head,  the  increase  in  business  in  dollars  is 
$4,374,483,  or  close  to  $4,500,000.  These 
figures  do  not  include  horses,  the  increase 
in  which  has  been  fabulous,  but  as  most 
of  these  -were  for  military  purposes,  the 
totals  are  not  available,  as  the  information 
is  a  war  secret.  The  tables  of  animals 
for  food  are  below  and  it  will  be  seen 
that  the  Union  Stock  Yards  by  its  greater 
facilities  has  absorbed  the  larger  portion 
of  the  business. 

STOCK  YARDS  FROM  1911-1915 

Slieep  and 

Cattle      Calves       Hogs        Lambs 

:»11   136,148        3,809       101,6S6       131,206 

1912    187,910      15,562      177,851       133,4o5 

1913   351.508      57,557       287,606      195,549 

1914   269.124       44,828      416.386      177,940 

1915    306,873       42,829       423,976       189,673 

YARDS    FROM   1911-1915. 

Slieep  and 
Cattle      Calves        Hogs        Lambs 

1911   152,307      31,263       260,075        43.5SJ 

1912 81,854  28,894  146,924  67,600 

1913  24,877  4,419  6,254  25,703 

1014 16,983  3,961  10.141  33,766 

1915  16,964  3.370  34.215  41,.390 

The  exporting  of  "finished"  beeves  has 
fallen  off  to  almost  nothing.  At  widely 
separated  times  a  few  loads  of  choice 
killeis  are  purchased  on  this  market  and 
shipped  direct  to  the  large  American 
packers.     However,  carload  after  carload 

ton,  and  many  similarly  distant  points. 
And  outside  of  a  few  purchased  for  Que- 
bec, the  buyers  generally  favor  the  early 
finished  animal  and  the  earlier  the  better. 
A  one-year-old  well  "fed-up"  will  sell  now 
away  higher  and  much  more  readily,  than 


Liutcbers'  i-^         fe 

Steers  &  Heifei-s,  per  cwt.  .$7.15  $6.90  J 

Cows,  per  cwt 5.70     5.50 

Bulls,   per  cwt 5.S1     5.72 

.Vlilcb   Oows,   eacli    .^70     $75 

Stockers,  per  cwt 5.25    5.25 

Feeders,  per  cwt 6.24    6.44 

Calves,  per  cwt 7.53    8.63 

Sheep,  per  cwt 5.50    6.12 

Lambs,  per  cwt S.07     8.70 

Hogs,   per   cwt 7.66     7.82 














$8.00  $7.92 



$7.04  $6.96  $7.08 



























































































of  Canadian  butchers'  cattle  are  sold  at 
Buffalo  and  Chicago  each  week.  Also, 
there  are  no  bullocks  shipped  through  To- 
ronto to  Europe  as  heretofore. 

But  the  local  demand  for  all  classes  of 
butchers'  cattle — steers  and  heifers,  cows 
and  bulls — was  never  so  large  and  buyers 
are  daily  operating  here  from  all  local 
wholesalers,  as  well  as  Montreal,  Hamil- 

the  heavy  three-year-old.  Young  steers, 
800-1,000  lbs.,  are  in  demand  locally.  In 
the  non-prize  winning  carloads  sold  at  the 
annual  show  held  here  in  December,  year- 
ling steers  and  heifers  sold  from  one  to 
three  dollars  per  cwt.  higher  than  heavy 
types.  And  the  demand  for  baby-beef 
from  all  over  Ontario  is  unprecedented. 
And   furthermore,  any  cattle  bought  by 

The  stockyards  at  Gladstone,  Man.,  on   the  C.P.R.,   showing   the  business  of  a   shipping  day  there. 

F  A  R  M  vAr  s    :m  a  g  a  z  I  n  ]': 


American  firms  around  the  "holiday" 
were  baby-beef.  Chicago  has  passed 
through  this  stage  and  the  light-weight 
animals  are  firmly  established  there. 

U.    S.    TAKES    MANY    STOCKERS 

In  the  stocker  and  feeder  classes,  on  the 
other  hand,  the  exporting  is  very  heavy 
and  a  large  percentage  of  our  best  animals 
are  being  bought  here  and  shipped  to 
the  U.  S.  So  much  business  has  been  done 
and  is  anticipated  in  the  coming  season 
that  some  commission  firms  here  have  put 
in  a  special  department  to  handle  it  and 
speculators  are  prominent.  The  main 
reason  for  the  demand  is  that  Canadian 
cattle  are  free  from  disease,  whereas 
many  yards  across  the  line  have  been 
closed  to  the  local  trading  for  from  one 
to  six  months,  due  to  infection.  This  is  a 
serious  mistake  for  Canada,  even  though 
some  fancy  prices  have  been  realized,  and 
the  prospects  are  that  prices  will  go 

For  these  cattle  are  needed  in  this 
growing  country  to  meet  the  demand  of 
renewed  immigration  after  the  war,  and 
to  sell  to  Europe  at  still  better  prices  to 
fill  up  the  depleted  herds  there.  For  it  is 
a  well-known  fact  that  Canada  breeds 
the  best  Shorthorn  cattle  in  the  world. 
Another  reason  they  are  going  out  of  the 
country  is  the  inability  of  farmers  and 
others  to  keep  them  when  they  need  the 
money.  If  the  Government  during  its  in- 
vestigation into  "marketing"  conditions 
of  live  stock  in  Canada  puts  it  up  to  the 
banks  to  issue  cattle  loans  as  is  done  in 
the  U.  S.,  a  great  advance  step  will  have 
been  taken.  For  years  back  experts  in 
American  banking  concerns  have  been 
making  loans  to  almo.=:t  anybody  who 
wants  to  take  cattle  to  feed  and  putting  a 
mortgage  thereon  for  security.  The  suc- 
cess of  this  plan  has  been  very  great  to 
both  borrower  and  lender.  The  campaign 
by  the  Department  of  Agriculture  for  in- 
creased production  may  cover  this  weak- 
ness in  our  stocker  and  feeder  trade,  for 
it  must  be  known  that,  comparatively 
speaking,  no  country  in  the  world  spends 
more  money  than  our  own  in  aiding  agri- 
culture and  allied  interests.  The  necessity 
also  of  dehorning  these  cattle  is  upon  the 
Canadian  breeder.  Experts  have  figured 
that  several  million  dollars  a  year  is  lost 
here  by  failing  to  do  this.  And  during  the 
past  season  $5  to  $10  a  head  more  was 
paid  for  dehorned  steers.  Since  the  Hu- 
mane Society  has  agitated  against  this 
practice  and  may  stop  it  by  having  a  law 
passed,  it  behooves  the  breeder  to  apply 
a  little  caustic  to  the  "buds"  on  the  calf's 
head,  and  so  painlessly  make  an  animal 
without  horns.  The  Union  Stock  Yards, 
recognizing  this  feature,  especially  where 
cattle  are  to  be  shipped  any  distance,  have 
erected  a  plant  to  dehorn,  free  of  charge, 
the  cattle  passing  through  their  yards. 
They  have  also  campaigned  against  beat- 
ing, or  ill  treating  bullocks,  for  here  again 
$1,000,000  is  lost  in  Canada  from  rough 
usage  of  cattle  on  the  farm  and  in  tran- 
sit. Buyers  always  discount  cattle  show- 
ing bruises.  Western  cattle  coming  to  To- 
ronto always  show  jags  and  bruises  due 
to  long  horns.  These  never  reach  the 
"top"  price. 

Sheep  are  coming  surely  uuu  greater  promin- 
ence  as    profit   makers. 

20,000   MILK   COWS   SELL 

Dairy  cows  are  at  high-water  mark,  and 
probably  20,000  Holsteins  and  Durhams 
were  bought  and  shipped  away  from  To- 
ronto during  the  year  to  widely  separated 
points,  the  most  easterly  being  St.  John, 
N.B.,  the  most  Westerly  being  British 
Columbia,  and  the  most  southerly  Kansas 
City,  and  all  points  between  these  places. 

The  falling  off  in  the  receipts  of  calvgs 
is  an  excellent  sign  for  increased  produc- 
tion. The  local .  demand  for  veal  is  ob- 
served to  be  limited,  and  many  calves  com- 
ing to  Toronto  are  unsaleable  here  and  are 
re-shipped  by  speculators  to  Buffalo.  A 
lot  of  these  are  Eastern  Ontario  and  Que- 
bec dairy  calves,  and  at  least  the  females 
should  be  kept  at  home  for  breeding  pur- 


The  marketing  of  sheep  and  lambs  here 
is  very  profitable  under  an  ever  increasing 
demand,  and  promises  to  be  one  of  the 
greatest  opportunities  in  the  live  stock 
trade.  Here,  also,  light-weights  have  the 
call,  and  have  been  high-priced  through- 
out the  year — higher  than  U.  S.  points — 
and  by  present  conditions  will  stay  high. 
An  American  manager  of  one  of  the 
largest  meat  concerns  here,  and  who  has 
travelled  east  and  west  in  Canada,  re- 
marks that  the  shortest  cut  to  fortune  in 
this  country  for  the  young  man  is  sheep- 
raising.  At  no  time  has  the  supply  of 
lamb  or  mutton  in  Toronto  this  season  ex- 
cc3ded  the  demand. 

The  King's  champion  Shorthorn  heifer, 
r.reedlng  of  pure  breds  promises  to  be  good 
;  Mslnesa. 


In  the  hog  trade  one  of  the  most  signi- 
ficant features  is  the  high  price  obtain- 
able compared  to  American  markets.  At 
many  times  during  the  year  hogs  have 
sold  at  $3  per  cwt.  more.  At  least  here 
reciprocity  would  be  a  decidedly  bad  fea- 
ture, and  this  price  has  kept  up  in  spite  of 
the  fact  that  probably  20,000  dressed  hogs 
a  week  are  brought  into  Canada  from  Chi- 
cago alone,  by  wholesalers  who  have  plants 
in  Toronto.  Hogs  would  average  about  $1 
per  cvft.  higher  in  1915  than  the  previous 
year,  and  breeders  evidently  are  looking 
forward,  'as  only  1%  per  cent,  of  the  re- 
ceipts in  1915  were  sows,  compared  with 
4  per  cent,  in  1914. 

The  animals  shipped  to  Toronto  mar- 
kets come  by  a  large  majority  from  On- 
tario. Some  hogs  and  beeves  are  received 
from  Manitoba  and  the  prairies  and  dairy 
bred  cattle  come  from  Quebec  Province.' 
In  fact,  the  most  of  the  dairy  kind  come 
from  Eastern  Ontario  and  Quebec. 

Milking  Her  Way  to 

Continued  from  page  14 

Some  twenty  years  ago  we  established 
a  Record  of  Merit  in  which  cows  can  be 
entered  only  after  producing  certain  spe- 
cified amounts  of  butter  fat  under  the 
strictest  possible  supervision  of  officers 
of  Agricultural  Colleges  or  experiment 
stations,  who  watch  every  milking  for  at 
least  a  week,  weigh  every  milking,  take 
samples  of  same  and  test  for  butter  fat. 
Nearly  3,000  cows  have  qualified  under 
this  test,  and  the  records  made  have  done* 
much  to  prove  to  the  general  public  the 
enormous  capacity  for  butter  production 
of  good  Holsteins,  well  fed  and  cared  for. 

In  the  semi-official  yearly  Record  of 
Performance  test  conducted  by  the  Do- 
minion Live  Stock  Branch,'  some  825  Hol- 
stein  cows  have  qualified  for  entry.  The 
champion  mature  cow  is '  Lillie  DeKoI 
Lucknow,  1,051.25  lbs.  butter  in  a  year; 
four  year  old,  Posch  Mercedes  Spring- 
bank  2nd,  876.25  lbs.;  three  year  old, 
Baroness  Madeline  962.5  lbs.;  two  year 
old,  Duchess  Wayne  Calamity  2nd,  846:25 
lbs.  Cows  in  this  test  are  not  under  con- 
stant supervision,  but  Government  inspec- 
tors make  frequent  visits  at  the  owner's 
farm,  testing  the  milk  and  checking  the 
weights  of  previous  milkings. 

Our  Canadian  Record  of  Performance 
has  certain  restrictions  regarding  regular 
feeding  that  handicap  us  in  competing 
with  breeders  in  the  United  States  where 
no  such  rules  are  in  force.  The  following 
are  the  ten  highest  Holstein  cows  in  that 
country  in  butter  production  for  a  year: 

.Milk  Butter 

Duchess  Skylark  Ormsby...  27701.7  1.50U.36 
L'iiKierne  Prirle  .Johanna  Rue  2S-10.3.7  1470.60 
FInderne   Holingen    Payne..  24()12.8        131)5. Ofi 

Banostine    Belle    DeKol 27104.4         1.322.92 

l^ontiac  Clothilde  DeKol  II.  2.531S.O  1271.60 
Hifjhlawn  Hartog  DeK«l....   2.-.'nn2..5         1247.92 

Colantha  4th's  .Tohanna   27132. .5        1247.82 

Lothian  Maggie  DeKol  ....  27(167.6  1238.50 
Maplecrest      Tontiac      Flora 

Hartog    2.^106.3         12,32.64 

frown    Pontlac  .Tospy    287.52.3         1227.79 

Average    26S3.1.1         1316.12 


Many  Thin^rs  About  Live  Stock  Movements  in  America  That  Will  Explain 

and  Guide 

LIVE  stock  condi- 
tions all  over  the 
North  American 
continent  at  the  incep- 
tion of  1916  are  radically 
different  from  those  of  a 
year  ago.  During  1915 
vast  increase  in  hog 
production  developed  in 
the  United  States 
and  a  long  stride 
was  made  in  the  direc- 
tion of  rehabilitating  the 
cattle  industry,  but  an 
acute  shortage  of  sheep 
developed  and  reinstate- 
ment of  that  interest  at 
an  early  date  is  impos- 
sible. Canadian  produc- 
tion of  cattle  show^ed  no 
appreciable  increase, 
while  hog  shortage  de- 
veloped to  such  an  extent 
that  Canadian  packers 
bought  thousands  at  Chi- 
cago. Canadian  sheep 
production  has  been  even 
more  deficient  than  in  the 
United  States.  In  Mex- 
ico the  Carranza-Villa 
feud  has  practically  an- 
nihilated the  cattle  in- 
dustry, and  the  few  sheep 
raised  south  of  the  Rio 
Grande  are  not  worth 
serious  consideration. 

Increase  in  hog  pro- 
duction in  1915  found- 
ered the  market,  causing  a  decline  to 
a  basis  of  $6  per  cwt.  at  the  low  spot  in 
December,  although  January  witnessed  a 
reaction  to  $7.  Expanding  cattle  produc- 
tion revised  values  of  stocker  grades 
downward  to  the  extent  of  $1  to  $1.50  per 
cwt.,  bringing  needed  relief  to  the  feeder 
and  grazier,  but  the  sheep  shortage  ele- 
vated cost  of  both  fat  and  feeding  sheep 
and  lambs  to  the  highest  level  on  record. 

There  exists  a  bond  of  sympathy  be- 
tween the  live  stock  markets  of  the  Unit- 
ed States,  Canada  and  Mexico.  Had  the 
cattle  business  south  of  the  Rio  Grande 
not  been  practically  destroyed  by  civil 
war,  that  region  would  have  contributed 
liberally  to  both  beef  and  stocker  supply, 
creating  more  competition  for  the  Cana- 
dian delegation  that  went  to  United  States 
markets.  At  Chicago,  Buffalo  and  St. 
Paul,  Canadian  cattle  have  secured  a 
permanent  position  in  the  quotation  list 
and  last  year  a  long  procession  of  Western 
Canadian  stockers  passed  through  the  St. 
Paul  gateway  en  route  to  Montana  and 
other  Western  States.  Eastern  Canadian 
stockers  have  earned  an  enviable  reputa- 
tion in  Pennsylvania  and  New  York  feed 
lots,  and  it  is  doubtful  if  supply  from  that 
source  could  be  augmented  to  the  excess 

By    JAMES    E.    POOLE 

Canada's  wealth  as  contributed  by  the  Western  prairie  provinces.  In 
the  three  provinces  of  Manitoba,  Saskatchewan  and  Alberta  the  production 
of  wheat  in  1915  is  estimated  by  the  Census  and  Statistics  Office  at  Ottawa 
at  342,948,000  bushels,  as  compared  with  140.958,000  bushels  in  1914;  oats 
at  334,840,600  bushels,  compared  with  150,843,000;  barlev  at  35,317,200  bushels, 
compared  with  19,535,000  bushels,  and  flax  at  10,559,000  bushels,  compared 
with  7,083,000  bushels. 

Canadian  producers,  in  common  with 
those  in  the  United  States,  view  with 
alarm,  as  the  political  platform  makers 
say,  concentration  of  the  buying  power  in 
the  hands  of  a  small  coterie  of  slaught- 
erers. An  unsatisfactory  cattle  market 
in  1915,  in  the  face  of  a  constantly  im- 
proving domestic  industrial  situation  and 
advances  in  cost  of  nearly  every  other 
commodity,  aroused  such  criticism  of  buy- 
ing tactics  that  a  conference  was  held  at 
Chicago  last  October  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Washington  authorities,  with  the 
object  of  ascertaining  the  cause  of  erratic 
markets,  but  no  such  discovery  was  made. 
Similar  dissatisfaction  exists  in  Canada, 
producers  chafing  under  the  yoke  of  con- 
trol. This,  it  must  be  admitted,  has  not 
repressed  enthusiasm  over  hogs  as  wealth 
producers,  or  discouraged  investing  in 
breeding  cattle,  but  the  leaven  of  unrest 
is  at  work,  and  the  annual  reports  of  the 
packing  concerns,  although  encouraging 
to  stock-holders,  have  aroused  resentment 
among  growers,  owing  to  the  generous 
earnings  therein  specified,  while  cattle 
feeders  have  been  forced  to  use  red  ink 
profusely  in  preparing  their  profit  and 
loss  statements.  To  what*  extent  produc- 
tion has  been  influenced  by  this  discrep- 

ancy must  be  left  to  con- 
jecture, but  that  it  has 
materially  curtailed 
breeding  of  cattle  and 
sheep  will  not  be  disput- 
ed. Until  the  packer  dis- 
plays a  more  co-operative 
disposition  this  antagon- 
ism will  not  be  effaced. 

Market  prospects  are 
not,  however,  as  lugub- 
rious as  many  in  the 
trade  affect  to  believe. 
Consumption  of  all  kinds 
of  meats  in  the  United 
States  and  Canada  is 
steadily  expanding.  Both 
are  meat-eating  nations, 
otherwise  such  agitation 
for  restriction  of  the  use 
of  that  food  would  have 
been  more  effetcive. 
Prices  have  been  almost 
prohibitive,  especially 
during  such  periods  of 
industrial  depression  as 
visited  North  America 
following  the  European 
war,  a  condition  that  has 
been  materially  relieved 

Opening  of  1916  trade 
finds  everybody  vdlling 
to  work  in  possession  of 
a  job  and  live  stock  mar- 
kets displaying  sympa- 
thetic activity.  Exports 
t  o  Great  Britain  and 
France  are  on  an  enormous  scale  and  are 
likely  to  continue  of  large  volume  even  if 
Europe  goes  on  a  peace  basis.  Whatever 
exportable  surplus  Canada  may  have  will 
find  a  broad  outlet  either  in  the  United 
States  or  across  the  Atlantic.  War  means 
depletion  of  herds  and  flocks,  even  in  pro- 
tected England,  while  on  the  Continent 
annihilation  has  been  witnessed  over  large 
areas  where  the  domestic  animals  former- 
ly held  sway. 

That  Canada  has  not  made  the  most  of 
its  opportunities  in  live  stock  production 
will  not  be  disputed.  Indiscriminate  ad- 
vice to  raise  more  cattle,  hogs  and  sheep 
is  open  to  criticism  and  savors  of  Pack- 
ingtown  origin.  Too  many  embark  in  that 
sphere  of  production  without  the  neces- 
sary experience,  adaptability  or  capital. 
It  is  axiomatic  that  the  country  gets  into 
cattle,  hogs  and  sheep  on  the  jumps  and 
out  on  the  bumps.  Trade  history  demon- 
strates that  those  who  have  made  money 
at  the  game  have  followed  it  consistently 
over  a  period  of  years.  Getting  in  on  the 
high  spots  is  invariably  attended  with  dis- 
couraging results,  while  getting  out  on 
depressions  is  ruinous.  It  is  unfortunate 
that  packers  have  adopted  the  policy  of 
"getting  while  the  getting  is  good,"  there- 
by  aggravating  market  eccentricity,  in- 



quantities  of  pork  at  moderate  prices. 
American  packers  started  out  to  make 
a  $5.50  to  $6  hog  market  this  winter,  but 
found  themselves  paying  $7  to  $7.25  by 
the  middle  of  January,  despite  their  well- 
laid  plans  for  a  bear  campaign.  When 
pork  can  be  had  at  prices  anywhere  with- 
in reason,  the  consumer  takes  to  it  greed- 
ily. Before  March  the  Chicago  hog  mar- 
ket will  be  on  an  $8  basis.  Corn  is  neces- 
sary to  mature  hogs  and  Nature,  which 
always  has  something  concealed  in  its 
capacious  sleeve,  prevented  record  pork 
production  tonnage  this  year  by  partly 
destroying  the  1915  corn  crop  with  frost. 


suring  even  more  violent  fluctuations  than  is  concerned.  On  the  high-priced  lands 
would  have  been  necessary  legitimately.  of  the  corn  belt,  maintaining  a  cow  for 
No  more  certain  Tuethod  could  have  been  the  calf  it  produces  is  economically  impos- 
deiHsed  for  discouraging  growers  than  sible,  but  that  region  grows  concentrated 
wide  price  swings.  The  present  pi-ospect  feed  in  abundance  and  has  innumerable 
is,  however,  the  most  promising  the  pr-o-  feed  lots  needing  annual  replenishment. 
duccr  has  faced  in  many  years.  South  The  trans-Missouri  breeding  ground  is 
American  production  has  been  curtailed,  not  equal  to  this  task  and  the  breeder  has 
a  drouth  in  Australia  has  reduced  the  ex-  been  and  is  getting  most  of  the  profit  ac- 
port  surplus  of  meats  to  small  piopor-  cruing  from  the  beef-making  operation, 
tions  and  other  advertised  sources  of  Canada  is  a  natural  bovine  nursery, 
beef  and  mutton  supply  have  failed  to  Texas  has  an  ideal  climate  for  that  pur- 
make  good,  warranting  reiteration  of  the  pose,  but  lacks  feed  producing  capacity, 
prophecy  that  if  the  population  of  North  owing  to  a  fickle  climate,  and  is  also  handi- 
America  is  to  have  an  adequate  supply  it  capped  by  distance  from  market.  Eastern 
must  depend  on  domestic  production.  Canada  is  ignoring  opportunity  in  this  re- 
Consumption  of  meats  both  in  the  Unit-  spect  and  could  develop  a  stocker  trade 
ed  States  and  Canada  will  show  a  decided  of  lucrative  character  and  large  volume.  Sheep  and  wool  will  both  sell  at  unpre- 
increase  during  the  next  half  decade.  Under  new  conditions  the  feeder  requires  ^edented  prices  during  1916.  Early  in 
Congress,  it  is  true,  may,  on  insistence  by  calves  at  weaning  time,  hence  the  neces-  January  the  lamb  market  went  on  a 
the  agrarian  interest,  re-establish  cus-  sity  of  carrying  the  annual  increase  over  a  $io  to  $10.75  basis  at  Chicago  sheep  sell- 
toms  imposts,  but  assuming  that  this  will  winter  is  obviated.  There  will  always  be  j^„  (p-^  ^^  $7  50.  As  the  ewe  raises  two 
not  be  done,  the  American  market  can  a  broad  demand  for  beef-bred  calves,  and  crops  wool  and  mutton,  annually  the  pro- 
■absorb  any  excess  production  in  Canada  even  should  the  market  drop  to  a  basis  of  fitabilitv  of  this  industry  is  evident  and 
and  more.  Should  a  protective  policy  be  $20  to  $25  per  head,  cows  capable  of  pro-  g^.  production  is  constantly  decreasing, 
adopted  by  the  United  States  the  Euro-  ducing  such  calves  will  more  than  pay  Contraction  of  lambino-  range  and  depre- 
pean  market  will  still  be  open  and  it  is  their  board  plus  interest  on  the  invest-  dations  of  wild  animal's  in  the  West  have 
probable  that  every  country  on  that  con-  ment,  converting  into  money  much  farm  driven  many  flock  masters  out  of  the 
tinent  will  be  in  the  trade  for  meats.  As  waste  that  otherwise  would  have  no  ap-  business,  and  farmers  show  no  dispositioH 
a  result  of  the  war  the  agrarian  interest  preciable  value.  ^^  gj^^  the  sheep  an  opportunity  to  demon- 
in  Germany  may  lose  control  and  simul-  Canada's  status  as  a  hog  producer  is  ^^^^^^  its  wealth-making  capacity.  In  the 
taneously  the  bars  will  be  thrown  down  to  dubious.  Making  a  fat  hog  is  an  expen-  West  sheep  must  be  herded  rendering  run- 
foreign  product.  The  exportable  surplus  sive  process,  requiring  concentrated  feed,  ^^^^  ^^^^  j„  bands  of  less  than  5,000  head 
in  the  United  States  will  be  reduced  by  in-  and  the  corn-belt  may  be  expected  to  ,  impossible,  and  in  the  East  the  vagrant 
creased  domestic  consumption,  insuring  monopolize  that  business.  On  the  grain-  ^^^  i^  ^^out  as  repressive  of  the  sheep  in- 
an  advance  m  prices.  During  the  latter  raising  lands  of  Canada  the  bacon  pig  is  a  ^^g^ry  as  coyotes  and  pumas  in  the  Rocky 
part  of  1915,  foreign  beef  was  marked  up  legitimate  proposition,  but  the  grower  Mountain  region.  A  shortage  of  lamb 
mutton  and  wool  exists,  and  it  will  not  be 

The  following  tables,   supplied   to  The  Farmer-.  Magazine   by   A.   N.   Lambert,  secretary  remedied  at  an  eariy  date.     The  sheep  re- 

and   Statistieian   of  the  Piiblir:  Markets   of  Winnipeg,   show   how   the   big   increase  in   cattle,  quires  care,  something  neither  the  Cana- 

liogs   and    sheep,    in    the    prairie    provinces    has    been    distributed.      During    1915,    .$17,430,261  dian  or  United  States  farmer  is  disposed 

worth  of  stock  lias  been  handled:  .         .                               ,,                          •    u.              i 

^yjj^jjjpj,g  to  give,  consequently  as  a  specialty  wool 

„           ^.      „.  ,         ,    ,x.      .    .   ^      .  .      .  .-  .       ex    ,   „     ,  and  mutton  growing  wears  a  luminous  ap- 

Compartive  Statement  of  Livestock  Receipts  at  Lnion  Stock  Yards,   19t4  an<l   1915  o               =. 


Cattle                         Hogs                               Sheep                          Horses  ti               j.-              i.    i.    ii.                           e    t 

Month                              1914          1915        1914        1915          1914           1915           1914        1915  Forecasting   what   the   co.urse    of    hve 

January  3,019         4,489       24,672       94,867            329            556             59             38  stock  markets  during  1916  Will  be  Without 

B'ebruary  2,307         2,208       24,325        58,767              5             57           170             85  knowledge  of  packers'   policy,  is  impos- 

March    3,997           3,044        38,943         56,312              085              116              162              482  «,-hlp  hut  if  thp  <5io-nq  are  wortTi  nnvthire- 

April  4,215        4,066       31,610       40,7.55              2           117           2.53           264  sible  Dut  It  tne  Signs  are  wortn  anytnmg, 

May  4,165         4,547       30,910       54.378            20             52           271         2.51^0  good   prices  are  certain.     All    over    the 

•Tune 3,998          5,407        46,502         48,719              187              228              192              C90  ^mintrv  wintpr  pnttle  feedine- is  of  small 

July    5,906         10,454         49,285         36,685              756           2,849              337              226  COUntl  y  Winter  cattle  teeamg  IS  OI   small 

August  13.828       22,.377       36,0S9        17,492         2,610         1,488           437           3.54  volume.     Feed   conditions    are    unfavor- 

September 21,513        27,717        22,087           6,.335          2.304          2,.348          1,812             1.54  ahlp  nnd  feeders  have  not  lost  1-ecollection 

October 24,323       25,74S       32.2.57          8,166         4,100         2.141         1468            6.3S!  aoie  ana  leeaers  nave  not  losi  recollection 

November 15.380       20..573       63,540        23,063         2.539         3.032           6.54           473  of  what  happened  at  the  market  during 

I^^'-embc'' S,70i         7,904       61,669        -39,508         1,180           817           133           230  the  first  half  of  1915,  when  they  made 

Total  110,4.52      1.38,534      461,889      484,997       15,017       13,801         5,928         6,214  a  big  crop  of  fat  cattle  and  did  not  realize 

^-      ^.  ^         ^    .  ^-        .x-        ..  „         ,,>. .  ,->.-  cost    of    preparation.     Winter-fed    cattle 

Comparative   !>tatcinent  of  Disposition  ot    Hogs,   1914-19I.>  ,       ,                      ,       i                  i                .^    . 

lost  money  last  year,  hence  it  is  a  reas- 

„^„^„                       ^"''^^                 ^^^t                  ^^«^'^*^                 U-S-^-                 T°'^'  onable  assumption  that  they  will  be  pro- 

MONTH                         1914         1915       1914         1915           242          107          994       1,552         3,197         4,342  L    u,      •       mic      r.      i                             i    <-„/     -. 

January  1,339     2,608        622         75     1914       1915      1914        1915       1914        1915  fitable  in  1916.    Packers  accumulated  no 

February   754     1,638        593        105         185        302        775        326       2,307       2,371  frozen  beef  during  the  grass  season  and 

March 1,762      1,949         601           53          312         .584       1,312         305        3,987        2,891  ^\]\    Kp    on    n    hand-to-mouth    basis    rifrht 

April i;4]6      1,715         479         63S          841          781       i;032       1,032        3;3U        3;702  wUl    De    On    a    hana-to-moutn    Dasis    rignt 

May 2,912     2.295        130         66         682        952        972      1,615       4,696       4,928  along.    There  IS  a  popular  Clamor  for  light 

June   2,042      2,862         224           66          467          721       1,322       1,044        4,055        4,693  steers  now    selline-  at  $7  to  $7  50  Der  cwt 

July    2,256       3,585          403       2.040           9,32          498       2,013       4,468         5,604       10:591  Steei  S  now,  selling  at  $ /to  $  KOU  per  cwt. 

August 3,948     4,469     4,804     4,390         261        281      4,020    12,893      13,033      22,033  and  quality  considered,  they  are  more  re- 
September  3,987     5.863    10.920     2,669         478        7.31      5,047    16,661      20,432      25.924  munerative     than     hifi'h-erade     bullocks. 

October   5,229      8,493      8,807      .3.466       1,166         810      8,934     15,069      24,1.36       27,748  munerative     inan      nign  graue 

November 6,.36s     8,4.53     4.450     3,044      1,633      2.379      3.880     7.3i8      16,331      21,264  The  longer  a  hog  IS  fed  the  more  money 

December 3,949      3,626      1,385      1,337          495       1,590      3.650      1,430        9,488        7,883  it  will  realize.     Had  a  bumper  corn  crop 

Total   35,962    47,466    ,33.418    17,425      7^     9^96"  33,709"  63,783"  110,577    1.38,470  been  harvested,  this  forecast  would  have 

-^^-^__^^_^___^_^___^^_^^_^.^^^____^_^__^^^_^^^^^^^^^  been  impossible,  but  ever  since  last  Oc- 
tober  the   country   has   been   liquidating 
sharply  and  a  similar  movement  is  under      who  disposes  of  his  breeding  herd  during  pigs,  and  the  best  hog  raising  year  in  the 
way  in  North  America.   All  by-product  is      periods  of  low  prices  will  never  make  the  United    States   has   been    practically   de- 
selling  high,  and  hides  command  unprece-      business  pay.   The  history  of  hog  produc-  nuded  of  porcine  life.     Sheep  and  lambs 
dented  prices.                                                         tion  is  a  series  of  booms  and  breaks  and  will   sell  abnormally  high  because  those 
,                                         there  is  no  reason  for  asserting  that  the  who  eat  the  product  are  indifferent  con- 
future  will  change.    Low-priced  hogs  can-  cerning  prices  and  1916  will  develop  even 
Canada's  great  opportunity  lies  in  the      not  continue  indefinitely,  for  the  reason  more    acute    scarcity   than    that   of   last 
sphere  of  breeding  so  far  as  cattle  trade      that  the  public  is  able  to  consume  vast  year. 

Women's  Institutes  and  the  Red  Cross 

Successful  and  Novel  Plans  for  Raising  Funds 

TAG  days  have  been  conducted  after 
some  rather  novel  fashions.  The  In- 
stitute at  Athens  has  sixteen  little 
girls  known  as  the  "Red  Cross  Midgets." 
Flower  Day  they  dressed  in  white  with  red 
crosses  on  their  arms  and  sold  bouquets 
from  house  to  house.  The  district  of  North 
Middlesex  has  raised  a  considerable  sum 
by  selling  flags,  pennons,  and  "AUied-for- 
Right"  buttons  at  every  place  where  the 
public  gather.  North  Oxford  raised  $150 
by  having  a  "Flag  Day,"  and  over  $200 
through  "Rose  Day."  Stouffville  branch 
cleared  $122  on  one  flag  day. 

In  a  few  towns  the  Institutes  have  swell- 
ed their  Red  Cros  fund  materially  by 
opening  a  lunch  room  on  Saturday  after- 
noons. Parkhill  and  Brampton  are  out- 
standing cases,  Brampton  having  taken 
in  $60  one  afternoon.  This  scheme,  of 
course,  is  most  practicable  where  a  lot  of 
people  drive  into  the  town  on  Saturday, 
or  where  a  number  of  young  people  would 
patronize  the  lunch-room  after  skating. 
Sales  of  home-made  cooking  are 
put  on  regularly  by  many  In- 
stitutes, the  Harrow  branch  in- 
cluding with  the  regular  baking 
a  supply  of  sauer-kraut,  hominy, 
apple  butter,  and  dressed  poul- 
try. Other  branches  have  put  up 
meals  at  fairs,  plowing  matches, 
etc.  The  Drayton  Institute 
cleared  $110  .'^erving  meals  at 
one  fair.  A  few  institutes  have 
raised  a  considerable  sum  by 
catering  for  lodge  banquets  in 
their  villages. 

Chain  teas  are  proving  a 
steady  source  of  income  in  many" 
places.  The  Churchill  branch 
raised  most  of  its  $100  share  for 
the  motor -ambulance  given  by 
the  four  districts  of  Simcoe  in 
this  way.  Harrow  has  up  to  the 
present  time  netted  $155  through 
chain  teas.  The  Mount  Pleasant 
Institute  in  Brant  County,  held 
a  ten-cent  tea  every  week  and 
spend  the  afternoon  in  cutting 
out  and  making  Red  Cross  sup- 
plies. One  district  reports  that 
box  socials  have  proved  the 
easiest  and  quickest  method  of 
raising  money.  At  one  small 
place  $80  was  cleared  at  one  so- 
cial. Bazaars,  garden  parties 
and  other  entertainments  have 
been  successful  in  many  districts. 
In  East  York,  Scarboro  Junction 
brought  in  $200  at  a  bazaar. 
West  Hill  and  Agincourt  $107 
and  $300  respectively  at  garden 
parties.  St.  George  cleared  $160 
at  a  bazaar  and  supper,  and  $100 
by  putting  on  a  play. 

Everything  is  fair  in  love  and 
war — if  no  one  suff^ers  from  it. 
Several  institutes  have  raised 
considerable  sums  by  lottery 
schemes.  The  Wallacetown  Insti- 


Secretary   Canadian   Red   Cmss   SDciety. 

To  the  Women  of  Canada 

As  Chairman  of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the 
Red  Cross  Society,  I  have  had  special  opportunities 
for  seeing  the  work  done  by  women  for  the  Red  Cross 
and  other  patriotic  societies,  and  I  am,  always  glad  to 
say  a  tvord  of  appreciation  of  the  splendid  efforts 
they  have  already  put  forth  and  to  cheer  them  on  in 
the  good  work,  for  much  remains  yet  to  be  done. 

We  all  know  that  most  of  our  fighting  still  lies 
ahead  of  us,  and  the  immensely  increased  force  which 
Canada  hopes  to  send  to  the  front  will  necessitate  an 
equal  increase  in  supplies  for  the  care  of  our  sick, 
wounded  and  prisoners — the  special  work  of  the  Red 
Cross  Society. 

No  one  can  tell  when  or  where  the  big  engagements 
will  take  place;  it  therefore  behooves  us  of  the  Red 
C7-0SS  to  "be  prepared"  for  all  emergencies,  so  that  no 
brave  need  suffer  an  additional  pang  because  we 
failed  to  supply  sufficient  ambulances  or  surgical 
dressings,  or  did  not  get  them,  in  time  to  the  place 
where  they  were  needed. 

Even  supposing  the  war  should  end  abruptly  noiv 
or  at  least  sooner  than  at  present  seems  possible,  the 
work  of  the  Red  Cross  would  not  be  ended  by  peace. 
For  months  and  years  after  peace  is  signed,  there  will 
be  sick  m.en  or  disabled  m,en  whom,  the  Red  Cross 
inust  help. 

And,  besides  Red  Cross  work,  there  is  the  work 
of  sending  extra  comforts  to  the  men  in  the  trenches 
which  is  undertaken  by  the  Canadian  War  Contingent 
Association  in  England,  of  which  Sir  George  Perley, 
Canadian  High  Commissioner,  is  President.  This 
Association  and  the  Red  Cross  work  in  co-operation 
with  one  another,  and  th^  Red  Cross  turns  over  to  the 
C.  W.  C.  A.  any  extra  supplies  suitable  for  the 
trenches,  and  helps  its  work  in  every  possible  way. 

In  conclusion,  I  wotdd  say  to  all  readers,  whether 
they  be  meynbers  of  the  Daughters  of  the  Empire,  or 
Women's  Institutes  or  Patriotic  Societies  or  church 
organizations,  luhich  have  all  done  such  splendid  work, 
or  just  individual  helpers,  "Be  not  weary  in  well- 

Faithfully  yours, 


tute  put  a  Christmas  cake  in  a  store  win- 
dow and  charged  ten  cents  a  ticket.  Ayl- 
mer  Institute  followed  the  same  plan  with 
a  hand  painted  cushion  at  the  Junior 
Farmers'  Winter  Fair.  Autograph  quilts 
have  also  brought  good  returns.  The  Shed- 
den  branch  realized  $96  from  one  quilt. 
Markham  made  $29  selling  tickets  for  a 
turkey,  and  expects  to  make  $100  from 
an  autograph  quilt. 

The  Institutes  have  been  among  the 
most  active  of  women's  organizations  in 
providing  soldiers'  comforts.  For  example 
the  Aylmer  Institute  furnishes  50  pairs 
of  socks  and  12  cholera  bands  every  two 
months.  In  December  they  sent  sixty-two 
fruit  cakes  to  the  boys  from  their  county. 
Besides  this  they  have  every  month  a 
shower  of  soldiers'  comforts.  Just  before 
Christmas  this  took  the  form  of  a  novelty 
shower  including  writing  paper,  soap, 
talcum  powder,  and  a  general  supply  of 
insect  powder.  At  some  of  the  regular 
meetings  of  the  Harrow  branch  the  mem- 
bers responded  to  the  roll  call 
with  some  article  in  the  way  of 
soldiers'  comforts. 

A  few  Institutes  have  been 
able  to  clear  a  good  deal  at 
bazaars  by  getting  the  help  of 
manufacturers.  Gillets'  lye,  bak- 
ing powder.  Corn  Flakes,  syrup, 
jam  and  jellies,  shredded  wheat, 
biscuits,  cookies,  coffee,  tea, 
matches,  polishes  and  0-Cedar 
mops  have  been  donated  by  the 
manufacturers  and  sold  at  the 
retail  price. 

In  East  Simcoe  some  of  the 
school  children  gave  the  Insti- 
tute the  potatoes  grown  on  their 
school  plots  (not  the  war  plots) . 
to  sell  for  the  Red  Cross.  The 
Institutes  had  to  look  after  the 
marketing  of  the  potatoes. 

Even  the  church  is  co-operat- 
ing with  the  Women's  Institute 
in  its  patriotic  work.  Sylvan  In- 
stitute in  North  Middlesex  re- 
cently held  a  song  service  in  the 
Central  Church,  and  announced 
a  special  collection  for  Red 
Cross  work. 

The  girls,  too,  are  finding  a 
way  of  turning  their  enthusiasm 
into  practical  work.  In  the  vil- 
lage of  Maberly,  Lanark  County, 
the  Women's  Institute  has  or- 
ganized a  girls'  club.  The  girls 
have  raised  their  own  money 
through  candy  sales  and  con- 
certs, to  buy  material  and  they 
meet  every  Saturday  to  work. 
The  club  was  formed  in  June 
and  at  the  beginning  of  the  year 
the  girls  had  sent  381  articles 
to  the  Red  Cross  Society  at  Ot- 
tawa, and  had  $16.90  on  hand 
to  go  on  with  the  work.  Some 
of  the  Institutes  prefer  to  raise 
Continued  on  page  64 

For  Home  and  Country 

Messages  From  the  Women  s  Institute  Organizations  in  the  Different  Provinces 


WE  rejoice  with  those  who 
have  to  do  with  Women's 
Institutes  and  similar  or- 
ganizations throughout  the  Do- 
minion that  the  call  to  patriotism 
received  such  a  prompt  and  gen- 

Red  Cross  work.  Several  of  our 
Institutes  work  through  local 
Red  Cross  or  Daughters  of  the 
Empire  societies,  and  their 
monies  and  their  work  must, 
therefore,  be  left  out  of  a  state- 
ment   of    things    accomplished, 


Supervisor  of  New  Brunswick 

WomeB's   Institutes. 

Supervisor   of  Women's 
Institutes,    Nova   Scotia. 

MR.  GEO.  A.   PUTNAM, 

Superintendent  of  Ontario 


erous  response  at  the  outbreak  of  war.  So 
far  as  Ontario  ia  concerned,  the  great  ma- 
jority of  branches  are  devoting  very 
littfe  time  or  thought  to  the  regular 
work  of  the  Institute,  but  are  bend- 
ing all  their  energies  to  patriotic 
lines,  and  what  else  could  we  expect  from 
women  who  have  for  a  number  of  years 
have  been  occupied,  so  far  as  the  Institutes 
were  concerned,  in  devising  ways  and 
means  whereby  the  individual,  the  family, 
and  the  community  could  be  helped  to- 
wards a  better  living?  The  women  have 
come  to  appreciate  the  fact  that  the  In- 
stitute is  an  organization  in  which  the 
main  incentive  is  the  privilege  of  serving 
rather  than  an  opportunity  of  receiving. 

It  is  difficult  to  estimate  the  expansion 
which  would  have  resulted  in  Demonstra- 
tion Lectures  in  "Sewing,"  "Home  Nurs- 
ing," "Food  Values  and  Cooking";  the 
holding  of  conventions  and  the  various 
lines  of  work  regularly  undertaken  by  the 
individual  branches,  had  the  war  not  in- 
tervened. When  the  war  is  over  the  wo- 
men of  Ontario  and  Canada  will  be  en- 
titled to  the  best  that  the  Government  can 
devise  to  make  it  possible  for  the  good 
women  of  our  rural  districts  to  enjoy 
those  educational,  social  and  economic  ad- 
vantages which  have  for  many  years  been 
a  possibility  chiefly  in  the  larger  centres 
of  population.  Nothing  is  too  good  for 
the  women  of  the  Institute  who  have  so 
nobly  responded  for  a  number  of  years  to 
all  local  calls  of  a  charitable  and  philan- 
thropic nature  and  who  have  come  into 
favorable  prominence  so  far  as  many  of 
our  leading  politicians,  financiers  '  and 
other  public  men  are  concerned,  since  they 
have  done  their  part  so  nobly  along  patrio- 
tic lines. 

The  prospects  for  expansion  and  devel- 
opment in  the  Women's  Institutes  of  On- 
tario were  never  so  bright  as  now. 


New  Brunswick 

THIS  is  the  golden  age  for  the  New 
Brunswick  Women's  Institutes.  En- 
tering its  fifth  year,  with  80  odd  branches, 
2,560  of  a  membership,  and  the  anticipa- 
tion of  many  more  societies  in  the  near  fu- 
ture, the  outlook  could  not  be  brighter. 

Members  are  putting  forth  united  ef- 
fort to  answer  the  call  for  help  from  the 
Mother  Country,  and  leisure  moments  are 
devoted  to  Red  Cross  and  Soldiers'  Com- 
forts work. 

The  Department  is  now  making  pre- 
parations for  the  annual  winter  short 
courses,  and  is  negotiating  having  six  in- 
stead of  three,  as  last  year.  One  feature 
of  the  work  will  be  teaching  the  younger 
pupils  to  make  articles  needed  by  the  sol- 
diers, and  another  feature  will  be  the  in- 
troduction of  handicrafts  in  the  home. 

The  Institute  has  created  a  strong  so- 
cial feeling;  it  has  brought  life  to  latent 
talent  and  assembled  together  women  of 
all  classes  on  a  common  level.  Through 
the  activities  of  its  members  home  and 
civic  conditions  have  been  modernized. 
Without  a  doubt,  in  New  Brunswick,  the 
Women's  Institute  will  continue  to  be  a 
live  wire. 


Nova  Scotia 

THE  Women's  Institutes  of  Nova 
Scotia  now  number  forty-five,  with  a 
membership  of  thirteen  hundred  and  fifty- 
five,  the  first  Institute  being  organized  in 
July,  1913. 

The  work  accomplished  has  been  most 
satisfactory  and  highly  commendable. 
Since  August,  1914,  brought  the  need, 
practically  all  the  Institutes  have  bent 
their  energies,  their  enthusiasm  and  their 
utmost  endeavors  towards  Patriotic  and 


Secretary    of    Agriculture, 

Prince   Edward    Island. 

solely  by  the  Institute.  However,  thirty- 
nine  Institutes  have  raised  during  this 
period  for  patriotic,  Red  Cross  and 
British  Red  Cross  funds  the  sum 
of  $7,970.32;-  for  Belgian  relief, 
$560.67,  and  have  packed  for  Red  Cross 
and  Belgian  relief,  160  boxes.  Twenty- 
three  Institutes  presented  the  Nova  Scotia 
Central  Red  Cross  Society  at  Halifax  with 
a  motor  ambulance  costing  $1,540. 

We  are  not  a  wealthy  people  in  Nova 
Scotia,  but  we  do  what  we  can — our  "little 
bit" — and  we  will  continue,  doing  so  as 
long  as  the  necessity  holds,  hoping  that 
while  1916  dawns  on  a  world  of  unrest 
and  unhappiness  it  may  close  on  a  world 
of  peace. 

We  send  our  best  wishes  from  this  IJt- 
tle  Province  by  the  Atlantic  to  all  our 
sister  societies,  right  out  to  the  Pacific. 

British  Columbia 

'T*HE  Women's  Institute  movement  of 
-*-  this  Province  has,  since  its  inception 
five  years  ago,  progressed  in  an  eminently 
satisfactory  manner,  as  is  evidenced  by 
the  following  comparative  table: 

No  of 
Institutes.  Members. 

...17     545 

. . .    23     974 

. . .    29     1,363 

...32     1,905 






1914 47     2,802 

1915   (to  Dec.)  ...    55     2,874 



The  aims  and  objects  of  our  Women's 
Institutes  are  to  improve  conditions  of 
rural  life,  so  that  settlement  may  be  per- 
manent and  prosperous  in  the  farming 
communities.  Our  aim  is  to  accomplish 

By  the  study  of  home  economics,  child 
welfare,  prevention  of  disease,  local 
neighborhood  needs  of  social  and  indus- 
trial conditions,  and  laws  aifecting  wo- 
men and  their  work ; 

By  making  the  Institute  a  social  and 
educational  centre,  and  a  means  of  wel- 
coming new  settlers; 

By  encouragement  of  agriculture  and 
other  local  and  home  industries  for 

The  motto  of  our  Women's  Institutes 
is,  "For  Home  and  Country,"  and  our 
colors  are  Green,  White  and  Gold — green 
for  our  fertile  valleys  and  timber-clad 
mountains;  gold  for  the  inexhaustible 
mineral  wealth  hidden  in  our  mountains, 
and  awaiting  man's  development,  and 
white  for  the  virgin  white  of  our  snow- 
clad  peaks,  and  symbolical  of  the  national 
life  of  our  Province. 

Incorporation. — Women's  Institutes  are 
all  incorporated  under  the  'Agricultural 
Associations  Act,  thereby  having  a  legal 

Short  Course  Work. — Short  courses  are 
held  in  matters  of  domestic  science,  such 
as  cooking,  sewing,  nursing,  care  of  child- 
ren, first  aid,  labor-saving  appliances, 
sanitation,  hygiene,  etc.,  the  Department 
of  Agriculture  supplying  competent  lady 
instructors,  who  visit  each  Institute  and 
hold  short  courses  on  different  subjects, 
varying  from  two  weeks  to  three  days. 

Advisory  Board.— We  have  an  Advisory 
Board,  consisting  of  four  ladies  chosen 
from  different  parts  of  the  province,  who 
advise  the  Department  as  to  how  our  In- 
stitute work  may  be  carried  out  in  the  best 
interests  of  the  Institutes,  and  irr  the  most 
effective  manner.  Great  credit  is  due  to 
the  Advisory  Board  fox  the  interest  all 
members  manifest  in  their  work,  and  the 
valuable  assistance  they  have  rendered  to 
this  Department. 

Patriotic  Wor/c.— Specially  worthy  of 
commendation  are  the  splendid  efforts  of 
our  Institute  members  through  contribu- 
tions of  work  and  money,  to  help  our  Em- 
pire in  its  present  time  of  stress  and 
trouble,  and  towards  alleviating  and  miti- 
gating the  horrors  of  war. 

WM.  E.  SCOTT. 

Prince  Edward  Island 

THE  object  of  Women's  Institutes  in 
Prince  Edward  Island,  as  set  forth  in 
their  constitution,  is  the  improvement  of 
the  home  and  social  life  of  the  community, 
and  in  order  that  considerable  of  their 
work  should  centre  round  the  school,  it 
was  provided  that  their  meetings  should 
be  held  in  the  schoolhouses. 

It  is  difficult  to  state  definitely  what  has 
been  accomplished  for  the  homes  of  the 
members,  but  the  demonstrations  that 
have  been  given  in  cooking,  in  laundry,  in 
canning,  in  millinery,  in  caring  for  the 
sick  and  in  every  department  of  household 
activity  by  specially  trained  women,  can- 
not but  be  productive  of  much  improve- 

In  almost  every  district  something  has 
been  done  for  the  school  and  its  surround- 
ings. Play-grounds  have  been  provided, 
outbuildings  repaired  and  made  sanitary, 
stoves  enamelled,  hardwood  floors  laid, 
walls  cleaned,  painted,  papered  or  tinted, 
window  shades  provided,  covered  drinking 
vessels  and  individual  drinking  cups  sup- 
plied, and  provision  made  for  a  thorough 
monthly  cleaning. 

Social  life  has  been  brightened  by  con- 
certs, socials,  festivals  and  lectures,  and 
in  several  instances  libraries  have  been 

Since  the  war  broke,  out,  the  Women's 
Institutes  have  done  much  to  encourage 
enlisting,  and  to  provide  for  the  soldiers 
at  the  front.  They  have  contributed  up- 
wards of  $2,200  in  cash  to  the  Belgian  Re- 
lief Fund,  and  to  the  Red  Cross  Society, 
besides  large  quantities  of  socks,  shirts, 
caps,  bandages,  blankets,  clothing  and 
food  supplies. 

The  Women's  Institutes  have  been  for- 
ward in  every  good  work,  and  are  already 
a  powerful  influence  in  the  rural  life  of 
Prince  Edward  Island. 



THE  Homemakers'  Clubs  of  Saskatch- 
ewan are  similar  in  aim  and  activities 
to  the  Women's  Institutes  of  Ontario  and 
corresponding  organizations  in  the  other 
provinces.  In  Quebec  and  Saskatchewan 
the  name  "Homemakers'  Clubs"  has  been 
chosen  instead  of  "Womens'  Institutes" 
as  in  the  other  provinces. 

In  Saskatchewan  the  clubs  are  organ- 
ized from  the  University  as  a  part  of 
their  Extension  Department. 

The  work  is  in  its  infancy  as  com- 
pared with  similar  work  in  Ontario  and 
some  of  the  other  provinces.  The  first 
few  clubs  were  organized  directly  from 
the  University  in  the  fall  of  1910,  simply 
to  start  the  movement.  From  that  time 
forth  organization  has  been  voluntary. 

Great  distances,  lack  of  railway  facili- 
ties and  isolation  of  communities  are  the 
greatest  drawbacks  to  rapid  organization. 
Some  idea  of  the  growth  of  organization 
may  be  gathered  from  the  following  facts 
— two  years  ago  the  clubs  numbered  45; 
a  year  ago,  90 ;  at  present,  160. 

The  University  undertakes  to  provide 
literature  in  the  form  of  bulletins  and 
books  bearing  on  different  phases  of  club 
work,  also  a  large  number  of  libraries 
have  been  sent  to  club  communities. 

Short  courses  in  Domestic  Science, 
varying  from  two  to  four  days  in  extent, 
are  given  during  some  of  the  winter 

There  has  been  no  district  organization 
as  yet.  A  central  convention  is  held  every 
May  in  the  University  buildings. 

Club  programmes  are  largely  made  up 
of  subjects  that  relate  to  home  and  com- 
munity -  interests,  occasionally  inter- 
spersed with  some  of  a  literary  character. 

Netting  $102.00  per  Acre  in  Apples 

How  Mr.  Leslie  Wiltshire,  of  Round  Hill,  Annapolis  County,  Nova  Scotia, 

Succeeded  in  Making  a  Neglected  and  Useless  Orchard  Pay  a 

Handsome  Yearly  Dividend 

FIVE  yeai's  ago  Mr.  Leslie  Wiltshire 
purchased  a  farm  of  200  acres  at 
Round  Hill,  Annapolis  County, 
Nova  Scotia,  containing  a  neglected  ap- 
ple orchard  of  about  fifteen  acres.  Mr. 
Wiltshire,  while  a  practical  farmer,  had 
no  experience  in  fruit  growing,  so  he 
immediately  set  to  work  to  acquire  at 
first  hand  the  expert  knowledge  neces- 
sary to  the  successful  horticulturist.  He 
inspected  the  best  orchards  in  the  neigh- 
borhood and  listened  attentively  to  and 
sifted  the  advice  of  the  practical  growers 
around  him.  He  invited  skilled  orchard- 
ists  to  visit  his  place  and  persuaded  the 


fruit  experts  from  the  Nova  Scotia  Agri- 
cultural College  to  go  over  the  property. 
He  was  not  afraid  to  become  an  interro- 
gation mark  incarnate.  The  results 
show  what  a  combination  of  energy  and 
sound  judgment  can  effect  in  the  fruit 

"When  I  took  over  this  property,"  said 
Mr.  Wiltshire,  "I  was  told  by  the  former 
owner  that  there  were  too  many  trees 
in  the  orchard.  I  could  see  myself  that 
the  upper  boughs  were  interlacing  and 

shrouding  the  lower  portions  of  the 
trees  in  gloom.  So  the  first  thing  I  did 
was  to  remove  practically  every  other 
tree  and  head  back  the  trees  that  were 
too  high,  thus  letting  in  the  sunlight 
and  air  to  trees  and  soil.  The  ground 
was  then  plowed  up  and  the  trees  pruned 

Mr.  Wiltshire's  orchard  has  been  plant- 
ed on  an  arm  of  land  caused  by  a  bend 
of  the  Annapolis  River.  The  orchard 
slopes  slightly  to  west  and  north.  Ow- 
ing to  the  presence  of  the  river  on  both 
sides  there  is  a  constant  current  of  air 
across    the    trees    and    the    orchard    has 



never  been  touched  by  unseasonable 
frosts.  The  soil  is  a  good  loam  with  a 
sand  subsoil.  The  hatural  drainage  is 

"I  have  now  twenty  acres  of  orchard," 
said  Mr.  Wiltshire.  "Some  of  the  trees 
are  fifty  years  old,  some  are  twenty, 
others  ten  and  I  have  set  out  about  200 
trees  within  the  past  five  years.  I  have 
now  600  trees  in  full  bearing  and  these 
produce  an  average  crop  of  1100  barrels 


"I  obtain  my  young  stock  from  a  local 
nursery  at  22  cents  each.  I  always  buy 
two  year  old  stock  as  I  find  that  the 
trees  thrive  excellently  if  planted  at  that 
age.  The  trees  are  set  out  in  May.  In 
digging  the  hole  the  top  soil  is  plowed 
in  one  pile  and  the  sub-soil  in  another. 
In  replacing  this  material  a  shovelful  of 
the  top  soil  is  put  into  the  hole  first. 
The  tree  is  then  placed  in  position  and 
the  remaining  top  soil  filled  in  around 
the  roots." 

"A  small  quantity  of  barnyard  manure 
is  used  around  the  young  trees.  Prac- 
tically all  the  manure  produced  on  the 
place,  however,  is  used  on  the  upland  in 
raising  grain  and  hay.  I  sow  clover  and 
vetches  as  a  cover  crop  and  get  all  the 
nitrogen  I  want  in  that  way.  As  every- 
body now  knows  leguminous  crops  such 
as  the  clovers,  vetches  or  peas  when 
plowed  under  add  not  only  humus  but 
nitrogen  to  the  soil.  It  may  be  generally 
known,  however,  that  actual  records 
kept  show  that  by  plowing  under  one  of 
these  leguminous  crops  an  increase  of 
nitrogen  has  been  effected  to  the  extent 
of  from  fifty  to  one  hundred  pounds  per 
acre,  which  at  commercial  rates  would  be 
worth  from  $7.50  to  $30  per  acre.  I  don't 
buy  any  potash  as,  so  far,  my  land  seems 
to  contain  a  sufficiency  of  that  element. 
For  phosphoric  acid  I  use  basic  slag  at 
the  rate  of  400  pounds  per  acre.  I  put 
this  on  in  the  middle  of  winter.  Basic 
slag  when  sold  at  the  right  price  is  a 
cheap  source  of  phosphoric  acid.  We 
are  told  that  the  phosphoric  acid  is  not 
as  soluble  and  hence  not  as  available 
for  plant  food  as  that  in  acid  phosphor- 
ate or  any  other  super-phosphate,  but 
It  is  considerably  more  available  than 
the  phosphoric  acids  of  bone  meal.  I 
have  found  basic  slag  one  of  the  most 
satisfactory  of  the  commercial  fertil- 
izers. Of  course,  the  successful  use  of 
this  or  any  other  of  these  fertilizers  re- 
ouires  a  knowledfi^e  on  the  part  of  the 
farmer  of  the  principles  of  fertilization. 
It  is  to  be  feared  that  a  good  deal  of 
money  is  thrown  away  on  low  grade 
commercial  fertilizer  bought  at  a  hieh 
price,  regardless  of  composition  and  soil 
and  crop  requirements.  The  best  dealers 
sell  their  goods  on  a  Quality  basis.  I 
sow  one  bushel  of  vetch  or  ten  pounds 
of  red  clover  and  two  pounds  of  alsike. 
The  alsike  seems  to  stand  our  winters 
better  than  the  red.  At  all  events  I  find 
that  it  is  seldom  winter  killed  around 

Clean  Cultivation  Early 

"I  believe  in  clean  cultivation  for  the 
first  three  years.  After  three  years  and 
for  mature  trees  I  cultivate  every  altern- 

Spray    More  For  Ink  Spot  Fungus 

At  the  recent  meeting  of  tlie  Outario  Fruitgrowers'  Association  a  table  was  pinned  up 
for  prominent  display,  and  carried  what  looks  like  some  reliable  Information.  But  the 
experiments,  by  no  means,  can  be  regarded  as  conclusive. 


Spraying  Greenings  at 

3  Sprays :  % 

Ink   Spot 58.3 

Scab    1.4 

Clean    40.3 

On    Spies   at   Paris. 

On  Spies  at  Wellingtoa. 

4  Sprays : 

Ink   Spot   16.2 

Scab    0.0 

Clean    83. S 

5  Sprays: 

Ink   Spot    7.3 

Scab    3 

Clean    92.4 

Sprays :  % 

Ink   Spot    6.0 

Scab    1.2 

Clean    92. S 

4  Sprays: 

Ink   Spot    5..T 

Scab    2.2 

Clean   92.3 

5  Sprays : 

Ink   Spot    0.0 

Scab    0 

Clean    100.0 

3  Sprays :  % 

Ink   Spot    2.8 

Scab   10.8 

Clean    88.4 

4  Sprays: 

Ink   Spot    4 

Scab    1.1 

Clean    98.5 

5  Sprays : 

Ink   Spot 4- 

Scab    .'. 7 

Clean    98. 9 

ate  strip  between  the  trees.  The  con- 
sensus of  opinion  down  here  seems  to  be 
that  over-cultivation  seems  to  cause  a 
certain  softness  in  the  apples.  The  sys- 
tem I  have  adopted  is  the  rotation  of 
cultivation  system  or  the  Johnson  meth- 
od. This  method  of  orchard  cultivation 
was  originated  by  Mr.  F.  H.  Johnson  of 
Greenwich,  Nova  Scotia.  It  consists  of 
cultivating  every  other  ridge  while  the 
remaining  ridges  are  sown  to  clover^  or 
some  other  similar  crop.  This  system 
alternates  each  year,  that- is  the  ridge 
which  I  cultivated  last  year  was  sown 
in  midsummer  to  clover  and  this  year  is 
allowed  to  remain  in  sod.  On  the  other 
hand  the  ridge  which  last  year  was  in 
sod  was  plowed  last  fall  and  will  be  kept 
cultivated  until  midsummer  when  it  will 
be  again  sown. 

I  always  manage  to  get  my  young 
orchard  plowed  in  the  fall,  using  for  this 
purpose  a  sulky  plow  and  I  plow  in  strips 
leaving  the  trees  standing  in  a  strip  of 
sod  about  five  feet  wide.  This  apparent- 
ly allows  the  trees  lots  of  feeding  room 
and  at  the  same  time  cuts  down  the  cost 
of  plowing  very  materially.  There  are 
prettier  methods  than  this  but  an  orch- 
ard is  raised  for  something  more  than 
mere  adornment.  One  reason  why  I  like 
fall  plowing  is  that  most  of  the  leaves 
are  buried  and  with  them  a  lot  of  black 
spot  I  imagine.  Fall  plow;n.g  also  allows 
the  cover  crop  to  rot  in  time  for  next 
year's  growth  of  trees. 


"My  pruning  has  been  done  rather 
severely  as  I  am  convinced  that  good 
apples  cannot  be  grown  without  lots  of 
sunlight  all  over  the  trees.  Moreover, 
it  is  of  course  a  much  easier  task  to 
spray  thoroughly  when  a  tree  is  fairly 
open  so  that  the  worker  can  see  what 
he  is  doing. 

"I  have  a  power  sprayer  with  a  200 
gallon  tank  which  works  at  a  pres- 
sure of  from  180  to  200  pounds. 
This  pressure  enables  me  to  drive 
the  spray  thoroughly  into  the  trees 
and  soak  them  real  well.  Last  year  I 
put  on  my  first  spray  fully  ten  days  be- 
fore my  neighbors  and  when  the  leaves 
were  about  half  an  inch  long.  I  had 
quite  a  long  rest  from  this  work  before 

the  blossoms  fell.  For  the  first  spray- 
ing I  used  one  gallon  of  lime-sulphur  to 
thirty  gallons  of  water. 

"The  second  spray  was  put  on  at  the 
usual  time,  that  is  to  say,  each  variety 
was  sprayed  when  practically  alj  the 
blossoms  of  that  variety  had  fallen.  For 
this  and  the  subsequent  sprays  I  used 
one  gallon  of  lime-sulphur  to  forty  of 
water.  A  third  spray  was  applied  about 
ten  days  later  and  in  view  of  the  wot 
weather  and  consequent  danger  of  spot  a 
fourth  spray  was  given  about  three 
weeks  after  the  third.  No  poison  was 
used  with  the  fourth  spray.  With  the 
other  three  sprayings  I  used  arsenate 
of  lead  at  the  rate  of  two  and  one-half 
pounds  to  forty  gallons  of  spray  solu- 
tion. I  consider  that  it  is  absolutely 
necessary  to  drench  the  trees  thoroughly 
when  spraying.  I  have  always  done  so 
and  never  yet  have  I  seen  a  tree  injured 
by  the  practice. 


"I  had  a  very  striking  proof  that  the 
size  of  my  crop  last  year  was  due  almost 
entirely  to  spraying.  -On  the  west  side 
of  my  orchard  are  three  rows  of  Ribston 
Pippin  trees  that  stand  in  somewhat 
damp  ground.  Owing  to  the  softness  of 
the  ground  at  the  time  of  putting  on 
the  first  two  sprays  I  was  not  able  to 
take  my  machine  around  the  two  far- 
ther rows  and  only  the  first  row  was 
sprayed.  The  consequence  was  that  the 
first  row  was  covered  with  fine  large 
clean  fruit  and  the  other  two  rows  had 
only  a  few  apples  misshapen  and  badly 
spotted.  Moreover  I  have  noticed  that 
sprayed  apples  keep  far  better  in  our 
warehouse  than  the  apples  not  sprayed 
or  insufficiently  sprayed.  I  spray  my 
trees  from  the  time  they  are  set  out. 

"I  find  that  a  careful  thinning  of  the 
fruit  gives  good  results.  In  thinning  the 
blemished  and  infested  fruits  are  re- 
moved leaving  only  what  is  sound.  The 
same  principle  rules  here  as  in  remov- 
ing superfluous  trees  and  I  know  from 
experience  the  value  of  that.  After  re- 
moving every  other  tree  in  my  over- 
crowded Gravenstein  orchard  the  crop  of 
Gravensteins  was  larger  by  fifty-six  bar- 
rels than  the  largest  crop  ever  picked 
off  those  trees.     It  should  be  remember- 



ed  that  nature  produces  fruit  for  the 
sake  of  the  seeds  and  seeds  cause  a 
much  larger  relative  draiji  on  the  tree 
than  does  the  rest  of  the  -fruit.  A  small 
apple  usually  has  as  many  seeds  as  a 
large  one  so  that  the  production  of  a 
bushel  of  large  apples  is  really  less  ex- 
hausting to  the  tree  than  the  same  quan- 
tity of  small  ones. 

"In  starting  an  orchard  the  returns 
are  more  remote  than  in  other  lines  of 
farming.  Under  the  ordinary  methods 
of  treatment  an  apple  orchard  gives  lit- 
tle if  any  return  during  the  first  ten 
years.  However,  as  Mr.  Gumming,  our 
Secretary  for  Agriculture,  states  well, 
there  is  an  annually  accruing  value  in 
the  growth  of  the  trees  which  more  than 

offsets  the  expenses  incurred  in  their 
care.  Almost  all  the  bearing  orchards 
in  the  Nova  Scotia  fruit  district  to-day 
were  grown  while  the  owners  were  en- 
gaged in  other  lines  of  farming.  Judg- 
ing by  observation  I  would  say  that  the 
raising  of  small  fruits,  market  garden- 
ing, dairying,  poultry  raising  or  other 
branches  of  agriculture  to  which  the 
farm  may  be  best  suited  provides  an  ex- 
cellent side-line  to  orcharding.  Beside 
my  apples  I  raise  forty  tons  of  hay  and 
have  ten  acres  under  grain  and  roots.  I 
have  in  mind  the  raising  of  beef  stock 
and  also  the  development  of  a  herd  of 
milking  shorthorns,  but,  as  Kipling  used 
to  say,  that  is  another  story. 

"I  keep   one   man  all   the   year  round 

and  hire  three  or  four  extra  hands  at 
picking  time.  I  pay  my  permanent  man 
$20  a  month  with  free  house  and  land 
for  a  garden.  Extra  help  get  $1.50  a 

"I  find  that  my  orchard  costs  me  $107.- 
90  per  acre  yearly.  This  expenditure  is 
made  up  of  rental  at  $30  per  acre,  ferti- 
lizer $3.50,  sowing  fertilizer  $1,  discing 
and  harrowing  $4,  seed  for  cover  crop 
$1,  barrels  at  22  cents  each,  $26.40,  pick- 
ing, packing  and  truckage  at  25  cents 
per  barrel  $30,  spraying  $12;  a  total  of 
$107.90.  My  average  crop  per  acre  is 
120  barrels  and  the  price  averages  $1.75 
per  barrel  or  $210  per  acre.  Net  profits 
are  $102.10  per  acre." 

Heat,  Water  and  Sewage:  b 


The  Average  Farm  is  Not  What  it  Might  be.     No  Reason  at  This  Date  Why  it 
Should  Not  be  Farin  Advance  of  the  City  Home.    How  This  Can 

be  Done  at  Moderate  Cost 

MANY  and  varied  have  been  the 
definitions  given  of  the  word 
"engfneering";  but  it  would 
probably  be  difficult  to  improve  upon  that 
which  describes  it  as  "the  science  of  ap- 
plying the  forces  of  nature  to  the  service 
of  man."  And,  using  the  word  in  this 
sense,  it  is  doubtful  whether  anyone,  no 
matter  what  his  trade  Or  profession,  owes 
more  to  engineering  and  ,to  the  rapid 
strides  which  have  been  made  in  the 
science  from  a  mechanical  viewpoint  in 
the  past  few  years  than  does  the  Cana- 
dian farmer.  It  has  provided  him  with 
machinery  for  sowing,  reaping,  threshing 
and  binding,  for  stock-watering  and  for 
milking,  for  lighting  the  barn  and  the 
farm  yard,  and,  in  fact,  in  every  depart- 
ment of  farm  work  some  mechanical  de- 
vice has  been  invented  with  a  view  to 
saving  time  and  manual  labor. 

In  all  that  pertains  to  increase  of  eflR- 
ciency  from  a  business  standpoint  the 
progressive  farmer,  though  at  first  in- 
clined to  be  somewhat  conservative  in  his 
ideas,  has  of  late  been  by  no  means  back- 
ward in  availing  himself  of  the  advan- 
tages offered  him  by  the  various  me- 
chanical inventions  referred  to,  but  there 
is  still  o"ne  department  of  farm  life  in 
which  up  to  the  present  the  average  farm- 
er cannot  be  credited  with  an  eagerness 
to  take  advantage  of  the  improvements 
which  have  been  at  his  disposal  whenever 
he  chose  to  make  use  of  them.  Readers  of . 
Farmer's  Magazine  who  know  the  strong 
point  writers  therein  have  always  made 
of  advocating  the  improvement  of  the 
farm  home  and  the  utilization  of  every 
means  tending  to  the  betterment  of  do- 
mestic life  on  the  farm  will  at  once  recog- 
nize that  reference  is  here  made  to  the 
benefits  which  may  be  derived  from  the 
free  use  of  those  services  of  modern  in- 
ventions and  appliances  relating  to  run- 
ning water  and  sewage  disposal. 

Having  regard  to  the  progress  which 
has  in  recent  years  been  made  under  this 
head,  it  is  an  anomaly  to  find  that  the 

average  farm  home  still  remains  the  same 
as  in  the  days  of  our  forefathers.  The 
cesspool,  the  old  box  privy,  the  oaken 
bucket,  etc.,  are  still  to  be  found  on  90 
farms  out  of  every  hundred.  The  farmer's 
wife  must  still  toil  under  the  same  condi- 
tions as  of  yore.  Wood  stoves  or  heaters 
are  the  rule  rather  than  the  exception, 
and  when  water  is  needed,  the  kitchen 
range  is  put  into  commission,  no  matter 
how  small  the  quantity  of  water  required. 

Of  course,  this  is  not  so  in  every  case, 
as  we  said  before,  but  such  conditions 
probably  obtain  in  at  least  90  per  cent, 
of  Canadian  farms  and  perhaps  in  the 
same  percentage  of  cases  there  is  not  the 
least  reason  for  such  a  condition  of  af- 

Owing  to  the  lack  in  rural  districts  of 
public  utility  services  such  as  sewage, 
gas,  electricity,  etc.,  the  belief  is  general- 
ly held  that  it  is  impossible  in  a  country 
home  to  have  the  same  comforts  as  are  to 
be  found  in  the  city  home,  but  if  we  consid- 
er the  matter  carefully  we  shall  see  that 
there  is  not  one  single  comfort  or  con- 
venience possessed  by  the  urban  dweller 
which  the  farmer  may  not  also  have  if  he 
is  so  minded. 

In  the  first  place,  the  farmer  has  ample 
space  around  his  home.  He  has  fresh  air, 
he  can  bore  or  dig  a  well  and  can  invar- 
iably procure  an  abundant  supply  of  pure 
water.  The  same  can  not  always  be  said 
of  the  city  home. 


Pure  air  and  water  are  natural  gifts 
from  the  Creator  to  mankind  and  it  de- 
volves upon  the  latter  to  properly  apply 
these  gifts  in  the  most  practical  way,  so 
that  th^  greatest  benefit  may  be  derived 
from  them  by  every  person  living  either 
in  the  city  or  on  the  farm.  In  the  first 
place  water  should  be  brought  indoors. 
This  can  be  done  in  several  ways.  Pipes 
may  be  laid  from  a  well  to  a  convenient 
point  in  the  house  and  some  kind  of  pump 
attached,  either  a  hand  force  and  lift  pump 

by  which  a  tank  in  the  attic  may  be  filled, 
or  water  may  be  pumped  into  a  steel 
pneumatic  tank  in  the  basement.  The  lat- 
ter is  by  far  the  most  preferable  method 
as  well  as  the  most  practical.  The  attic 
tank  is  always  liable  to  leak,  causing  all 
kinds  of  trouble  and  annoyance. 

The  bathroom  is  just  as  essential  to  the 
farmer's  family  as  it  is  to  the  city  resi- 
dent, and  having  a  good  water  supply 
greatly  simplifies  the  bathroom  question. 
If  a  pneumatic  tank  is  installed  in  the 
basement  the  bathroom  can  be  placed  on 
almost  any  floor. 

The  kitchen  is  every  bit  as  important  as 
the  bathroom  and  is  in  many  farm  homes 
used  as  a  living  room.  This  being  the 
case,  it  should  be  well  planned  and  fitted 
up  with  such  appliances  as  will  save  as 
many  steps  as  possible.  An  abundant 
supply  of  hot  and  cold  water  is  very  es- 
sential and  provisions  should  be  made 
which  will  furnish  hot  water  all  the  year 
round  without  making  the  kitchen  unbear- 
ably hot.  This  can  be  done  just  as  easily, 
and  in  fact  at  a  less  cost,  than  can  be  done 
in  a  city  home. 


Having  kitchen  and  bathroom,  there  is 
still  another  and  perhaps  still  more 
important  appliance  to  be  acquired, 
viz.,  a  septic  tank.  This  is  necessary  to 
properly  dispose  of  the  bathroom  and 
kitchen  waste  water,  and  practically  in- 
cludes a  sewage  disposal  system. 

Much  has  been  written  about  the  septic 
tank.  But  very  few  persons  who  have 
written  upon  the  subject  have  thoroughly 
gone  into  the  matter.  Some  have  advised 
one  thing  and  some  another.  Some  have 
said  that  cesspools  are  all  that  are  re- 
quired, and  in  many  cases  have,  in  fact, 
declared  that  cesspools  have  done  good 
service  for  years  and  never  caused  any 
trouble.  The  fact  is  that  no  cesspool  was 
ever  built  which  could  lay  claim  to  being 
a  sanitary  contrivance. 

Continued  on  page  52 

The   Stride  of  the  Junior  Farmer 

How  He  is  Working  Out  Some  Problems  of  Profits  and  Incidentally  Falling  in 

Love  With  His  Job 

OF  all  the  reasons  why  the 
boy  of  the  past  generation 
left  the  farm,  one  stands 
fast  and  undeniable:  he  was  not 
in  love  with  his  job.  Maybe  he 
couldn't  see  enough  money  re- 
turning from  the  work  done;  per- 
haps he  was  given  work  that  was 
too  hard  and  hours  that  were  too 
long  during  the  years  when  only 
a  boy  understands  the  aching 
tiredness;  it  may  have  been  that 
the  life  in  his  neighborhood  was 
dull,  with  few  amusements  and 
few  companions,- — but  the  average 
country-bred  Canadian  is  no  faint- 
heart. He  would  have  stayed  by 
his  guns  if  he  had  considered  it 
worth  while,  but  he  has  a  live 
spirit  of  ambition  and  no  person 
ever  tried  to  show  him  that  the 
farm  offered  any  field  for  ambi- 
tion. The  schools  did  their 
level  best  to  educate  him 
away  from  the  farm. 
They  held  up  for  his  hero 
worship  the  boy  who  left 
a  "poor  but  honest"  coun- 
try home  to  make  his 
mark  in  the  world,  but 
they  paid  little  attention 
to  the  elder  brothers  who 
stayed  at  home  to  fatten 
the  calves  that  went  to 
pay  for  the  books  and 
fees  and  dress  suit  of  the 
son  who  said,  "Father, 
give  me  my  portion  now 
that  I  may  make  some- 
thing of  myself  and  re- 
flect glory  on  the  old 
farmstead."  It  was,  pre- 
sumably, the  crowning 
achievement  of  the  farm 
with  its  discipline,  its 
training  for  hard  work, 
to  furnish  recruits  for 
the  city.  As  a  family  be- 
gan to  grow  up,  parents 
began  to  consider  moving 
to  town  "so  the  children 
should  have  a  better 
chance  for  an  education." 
That  was  a  few  years 
ago.  The  outlook  at  the 
present  time  is  that  we 
may  expect  a  train  of 
city  people  back  to  the 
country  for  exactly  the 
same  reason. 

For  when  the  real 
problem  of  farm  life  be- 
came a  feature  of  rural 
e  du  c  a  t  i  o  n,  something 
vital  entered  the  curric- 
ulum. The  leaven  begins 
to  work  among  the  child^ 
ren  when  the  District 
Representative  of  the  De- 
partment of   Agriculture 


Cups    and    medals    given    at    the    rural    school   fairs, 
Lanark   County. 

The  school  fair  is  creatiiif 

a   new   interest   in    livi 
in    Peel    County. 

.  k.    r 

A  prize   turnout  shown   at  a   school  fair   in    Waterloo  County. 

calls  at  the  school  some  glorious 
spring  day  and  distributes  garden 
seeds  and  seed  potatoes  and  eggs, 
and  tells  the  pupils  something 
about  how  to  make  them  yield 
their  best  increase  for  the  School 
Fair  in  the  fall.  The  youngsters' 
minds  leave  their  wanderings  over 
the  hills  peering  into  birds'  nests 
and  digging  up  "crinkle  root"  and 
come  back  with  a  start  to  a  strong- 
er attraction  right  in  the  school- 
room. They  forget  all  about  the 
gloom  of  the  black-board  and  the 
smell  of  chalk-dust  and  listen  to  a 
story  of  the  wonders  of  plant  and 
animal  life.  And  the  enthusiasm 
carried  home  with  a  setting  of  eggs 
to  put  under  a  hen  is  entirely  dif- 
ferent from  the  feeling  wrapped 
up  with  a  home-work  exercise  in 
fractions  to  reduce.  There's -a  lot 
of  real  adventure  involved  in  a 
setting  of  eggs  which  they 
realize  with  many  valu- 
able lessons  before  the 
summer  is  over. 

Last  year  in  the  Pro- 
vince of  Ontario  about 
fifty  thousand  children 
took  part  in  School  Fairs. 
Through  the  whole 
twelve  months  of  pre- 
paration it  is  safe  to  Lay 
that  it  was  never  oat  of 
their  minds  for  long  at 
a  time.  They  had  to  plan 
their  gardens,  they  had 
to  get  a  lot  of  informa- 
tion from  the  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture 
about  soil  for  their  po- 
tatoes iind  rations  for 
their  baby  beeves.  They 
had  to  give  a  lot  of  per- 
sonal attention  to  the 
training  of  their  calves 
and  colts  so  they  might 
conduct  themselves  cred- 
itably in  the  show-ring. 
A  county  representative 
driving  through  the 
county  one  day  last 
spring  noticed  a  boy 
about  seven  years  old 
with  a  white  calf  on  a 
rope  trotting  around  a 
ten-acre  field;  and,  na- 
turally having  a  kindred 
interest,  the  representa- 
tive went  over  to  see 
what  they  were  trying  to 
do.  "It's  for  the  Schocl 
Fair,"  he  explained.  "I've 
never  shown  a  calf  yet, 
but  Dad  never  tries  to 
tame  ours  and  when  we 
go  to  put  them  into  the 
stable  in  the  fall  they 
climb  right  in'  the  mang- 
ers.    I  want  to  get  mine 


F  A  R  M  J^:  R  ■  S     M  A  G  A  Z  I  N  E 

I'ulilii'   speaking;   ooiitest   and    stuik   judging   at   a   ^'■lliJul    l;iir    iii    l-:iiiark 

Developihg    the    Boy 
the  Girl 


There  is  but  one  way  that  the 
boys  and  girls  can  be  riveted  to  the 
soil,  and  that  is  by  strengthening 
their  attachment  for  it.  This  can 
only  be  accomplished  by  the  incul- 
cation of  knowledge  presented  not 
altogether  in  utility  fashion  but  in 
a  manner  that  will  emphasize  the 
brightness,  the  wonder  and  the  at- 
tractiveness of  the  works  of  nature. 
This  the  boys'  and  girls'  clubs  are 
doing;  this  the  school  fairs  are  do- 
ing. This  the  nature  study  classes  in 
public  schools  are  doing,  as  are  also 
school  gardens.  The  work  receives 
substantial  support  in  every  pro- 
vince from  the  grants  derived  under 
the  Agricultural  Instruction  Act. 
In  Prince  Edward  Island,  the  sum, 
devoted  to  these  purposes  in  1913-14, 
the  first  year  the  Act  ivas  in  op- 
eration, was  $5,529;  in  the  third 
year,  or  in  1915-16,  it  is  $10,050. 
In  Nova  Scotia  the  sum  thus  em- 
ployed under  the  Act  in  1913-14 
was  $6,700;  in  1915-16  it  is  $10,- 
000.  In  New  Brunswick  in  the 
first  year  it  was  $1 ,500.  In  the  third 
year  it  is  $10,000.  In  Quebec  the 
first  year  it  ivas  $3,000 ;  in  the  third 
it  is  $8,000.  In  Ontario  it  was  $10,- 
000;  it  is  now  $20,000.  In  Mani- 
toba it  was  $2,000,  it  is  this  year 
$5,200. '  In  Saskatchewan  it  is  $2,- 
100.  In  British  Columbia  $1,000 
was  so  used  in  1913-14,  but  this 
year  for  boys'  and  girls'  competi- 
tions, fairs,  etc.,  and  instruction  in 
public  schools,  $17,000  is  to  be 
spent  from  the  grants.  It  must  be 
understood  that  while  in  some  of 
the  provinces  the  money  is  directly 
employed  for  the  purposes  set  forth, 
in  others  it  is  used  in  other  ways 
and  the  sums  required  for  school 
fairs,  school  gardens,  and  so  forth, 
are  received  from  provincial  and 
municipal  sources.  The  figures,  how- 
ever, are  in  themselves  abundant 
indication  of  the  far-reaching  bene- 
fits conferred  by  the  Act. 

broke  in  early."  Whoever  heard  of  a 
boy  leading  a  calf  around  of  his  own  free 
will  when  he  might  be  off  swimming! 

Another  striking  illustration  of  the 
way  the  School  Fairs  are  creating  in  the 
children  a  new  interest  in  animals  was 
seen  at  a  fair  last  fall  where  two  boys 
waited  before  the  judges  with  their  baby 
beeves.  So  far  as  type  and  feeding  were 
concerned,  it  would  have  been  difficult  to 
place  them,  but  one  was  groomed  like  a 
prize  colt,  and  the  other  wasn't.  All  at 
once  the  boy  with  the  ungroomed  calf 
noticed  the  contrast,  and  there  before  the 
spectators,  with  an  unmistakable  remorse 
for  his  neglect,  he  took  out  his  little  red 
handkerchief  and  began  to  stroke  down 
the  neck  of  his  calf. 

Once  in  a  while  we  hear  a  murmur 
somewhere  that  this  new  agriculture  is 
being  carried  too  far;  that  it  is  taking  too 
much  of  the  children's  time  from  the  old 
reliable  three  R's.  Still  it  doesn't  take  an 
exceptional  memory  to  recall  a  lot  of  time 
wasted  in  school  under  the  older  system, 
the  hours  of  wool-gathering  when  the 
mind  refused  to  concentrate  on  the  mem- 
orization of  a  list  of  "meanings"  or  the 
spelling  of  words  that  we  never  hoped  to 
see  again  in  this  world  or  the  next.  It 
wasn't  unusual  to  sit  for  half  an  after- 
noon with  the  story  of  "Phil  the  Fiddler" 
pushed  half  way  under  the  geography, 
and  when  the  test  came  we  couldn't  name 
the  capes  of  Scotland  to  save  our  lives. 
The  introduction  of  something  of  vital 
interest  has  cut  out  a  lot  of  this.  The 
children  find  real  problems  in  calculating 

the  cost  of  their  crops.  They  have  real 
business  correspondence  with  the  Depart- 
ment. They  have  the  best  kind  of  prac- 
tice in  English  and  oral  composition  in 
preparing  essays  and  speeches  for  the 
Fairs.  And  all  the  time  they  are  getting 
a  vocational  training.  Those  who  are  not 
born  farmers  will  leave  the  farm  just  the 
same,  which  is  as  it  should  be, — but  for 
the  first  time  in  our  educational  propa- 
ganda all  will  have  a  chance  to  find  out 
whether  they  like  farming  or  not. 

And  the  movement  promises  an  amaz- 
ing development.  It  was  inaugurated  only 
in  1912,  and  this  last  year  234  fairs  have 
been  held,  representing  2,291  rural 
schools.  There  were  51,243  plots  cared 
for  by  the  children  on  their  home  farms 
and  6,868  settings  of  eggs  were  supplied 
to  the  children  by  the  Department  of 
Agriculture.  The  total  attendance  at 
these  fairs  amounted  to  about  155,000  in- 
cluding parents  and  other  adults. 

The  last  year,  too,  the  Department  of 
Agricultural  has  made  it  possible  for  the 
farmers'  children  to  do  some  personal 
patriotism  and  production  work,  by  dis- 
tributing seed  potatoes  for  war  plots.  It 
is  something  to  be  proud  of,  that  in  spite 
of  the  wet  weather  whicli  made  the  potato 
crop  almost  a  complete  failure  in  many 
places,  the  rural  school  children  of  On- 
tario are  going  to  be  able  to  send  to  the 
front  a  Field  Ambulance,  or  a  couple  of 
Field  Kitchens,  besides  the  Red  Cross 
funds  raised  by  booths  at  the  School 

On  the  way   to  a  school  fair  in  Waterloo.     The  movement  has  a  social  as  wen  as  an 

agricultural   purpose. 



It  is  pretty  generally  agreed  that  the 
boy  and  the  girl  are  the  farm's  greatest 
asset.  It  is  also  obvious  that  a  boy  of 
sixteen  started  right  is  worth  several  of 
a  certain  kind  of  impenetrable  men  at 
forty.  This  is  why  there  has  been  such 
a  general  response  to  the  new  education 
for  farmers'  sons  in  the  way  of  short 
courses  in  agriculture,  where  the  young 
men  can  get  together  for  a  month  of  six 
weeks  in  the  winter  and  right  in  their 
own  neighborhood  get  the  equipment  for 
a  short  course  at  the  Agricultural  College. 
Last  year  1,155  young  farmers  attended 
these  courses  in  Ontario,  and  when  the 
courses  closed  the  greater  feature  of  the 
work  was  just  begining.  The  young  men 
were  organized  into  Junior  Farmers'  Im- 
provement Associations  and  they  are 
working  with  the  District  Representatives 
in  unthoughout-of  ways  for  the  better- 
ment of  agriculture  in  their  districts. 

Last  year  the  Ontario  Department  of 
Agriculture  conducted  "Feeding  Hog  for 
Profit"  competitions  in  sixteen  counties, 
and  fifty-nine  "AcreProfit"  competitions 
in  growing  potatoes,  oats,  mangels,  tur- 
nips, silage  corn,  seed  corn,  spring  wheat, 
barley  and  beans.  The  contestants  kept 
accurate  account  of  costs  and  returns,  and 
the  results  are  much  above  the  average 
for  the  province.  The  prize  awarded  by 
the  Department  is  the  Short  Course  on 
Live  Stock  and  Seed  Judging  at  the  0. 
A.  C,  including  board  and  lodging  while 
in  Guelph.  Eighty-four  young  men  are  re- 
ceiving this  course  and  at  the  final  exam- 
ination, to  the  best  all-round  man  in  stock 
and   seed   judging   the    Deputy   Minister 

In  the  March  issue  of  the  Farm- 
er's Magazine  will  appear  the  first 
of  a  series  of  articles  by  Miss  Emily 
J.  Guest,  on  the  problems  of  the 
twentieth  century  farmer's  daugh- 
ter. The  sympathetic,  witty,  prac- 
tical tone  of  this  ivriter's  work  and 
the  way  she  reaches  the  vital  spot 
in  her  subject,  will  make  this  series 
intensely  interesting  and  valuable 
to  both  the  girl  and  her  friends  and 

and  Assistant  Deputy  Minister  are  giving 
a  prize  of  a  gold  watch. 

A  story  is  told  of  one  enthusiastic 
young  farmer  who  wanted  to  enter  the 
Field  Crop  Competition,  but  whose  father 
didn't  take  any  stock  in  the  new  idea. 
Finally  the  father  consented  to  let  him 
clear  up  a  stony  acre  that  usually  went  to 
waste  anyway,  but  the  boy  cleared  the 
land  so  quickly  and  thoroughly  that  the 
father  d'ecided  he  would  need  it  for  him- 
self, and  that  if  the  boy  was  really  in 
earnest  he  could  prepare  another.  The 
boy  shut  his  teeth  hard  and  did  it.  Then 
the  father  was  ready  to  compete  with  him, 
old  methods  against  the  new  ways  of  the 
boy  and  the  Government.  When  tha,crop 
was  harvested  the  boy's  measured  eighty 
bushels,  the  father's  eight.  Ever  since 
that,"  the  District  Representative  says, 
"the  old  man  has  been  coming  out  td  meet- 
ings and  telling  'what  me  and  John  went 

and   done.'      Incidentally   he   is   growing 
more  corn  and  a  boy  showed  him  how." 

The  Junior  Farmers  are  making  their 
organization  felt  in  the  community  be- 
yond the  raising  of  better  crops  and  live 
stock.  In  Elgin  county  last  month  they 
held  a  Winter  F'air  with  three  hundred 
entries  in  seeds  alone,  an  excellent  depart- 
ment of  ladies'  work,  and  a  poultry  exhibit 
worth  calling  a  show  itself.  In  Durham 
county  at  an  entertainment  recently  given 
by  the  Junior  Farmers',  the  addresses  by 
the  members  would  have  been  a  credit  to 
a  class  of  university  students,  and  why 
not?  In  Halton  a  society  of  Junior  Farm- 
ers is  raising  patriotic  funds  by  putting 
on  a  play  and  incidentally  working  a  new 
social  element  in  the  community. 

All  this  refers  to  the  boys.  The  De- 
partment of  Agriculture  hasn't  done  so 
much  for  the  girls,  but  it  has  begun,  and 
the  development  promises  to  come  as  fast 
as  the  girls  are  ready  for  it.  Short  courses 
in  Domestic  Science,  Sewing  and  Home 
Nursing  are  being  sent  out  to  thirty  cen- 
tres in  Ontario  this  winter,  and  plans  are 
under  discussion  for  the  organization  of ' 
Girls'  Institutes  in  connection  with  the 
Women's  Institutes,  where  the  girl  can 
get  the  same  benefit  that  her  brother  is 
getting  through  the  Junior  Farmers'  or- 
ganization. The  time  has  passed  when 
she  can  be  satisfied  with  the  three  R's 
for  her  education.  Just  the  same  as  her 
brother,  wants  the  four  H's — the  broader 
fuller  education  of  the  Head,  the  Hands, 
the  Heart  and  the  Health.  Some  of  the 
farm  girl's  problems  will  be  treated  in 
our  March  issue. 

Keep  the  Home  Fires  Burning 

One  of  the  First  Things  the  Country  Asks  of  its  Women  Noiv 

IN  a  little  house  on  the  edge  of  a  prairie 
town,  an  old  woman  crouches  by  the 
fire  and  listens  to  the  wind  catch  its 
Ijreath  and  whine  up  the  chimney.  Her 
toy  is  somewhere  in  France,  and  the  cry- 
ing of  the  wind  may  mean  any- 
thing to  her.  On  the  coldest  days  she 
keeps  the  frost  wiped  from  a  spot  on  the 
window  and  watches  up  the  road,  fearing 
that  every  traveller  may  have  something 
to  tell  her:  at  night  she  listens  for  wheels 
to  stop  at  the  gate.  In  the  morning  the 
neighbors  look  anxiously  across  the  fields 
to  see  if  the  smoke  is  coming  from  her 
chimney; — she  has  changed  so  much  since 
she  was  left  alone. 

There  isn't  much  comfort  in  telling  her 
that  she  "can  always  be  proud  of  him," 
that  "he  wouldn't  want  her  to  worry," 
and  other  bracers  that  have  been  handed 
out  to  her  for  months.  We  owe  something 
more  to  the  people  who  are  making  these 
sacrifices.  The  cause  is  our  cause,  and  the 
sorrow  around  the  corner  should  be  our 
sorrow.  Certainly,  we  haven't  any  very 
tangible  remedy  but  the  nearest  ap- 
proach is  to  make  things  as  much  as  pos- 
sible like  they  were  before  it  all  happened. 

The  flourish  and  blare  of  trumpets  has 
died  down ;  it  is  all  steady  drudgery  now, 
but  not  less  dangerous,  and  the  end  is  not 
in  sight.     But  war  isn't  a  thing  you  can 


get  used  to.  And  it  isn't  easy  to  go  on 
lighting  the  lamps  and  kindling  the  fires, 
and  putting  an  atmosphere  of  warmth  and 
cheerfulness  into  the  house  at  home.  It 
seems  almost  like  indifference,  but  it's 
one  of  the  first  things  the  country  asks 
of  the  home  folks  now, — for  the  sake  of 
the  people  who  are  sufl"ering  most  keen- 
ly through  anxiety  or  bereavement,  for 
the  children  growing  up  who  have  a  right 
to  the  natural  heritage  of  youth,  for  the 
character  of  our  national  life,  for  the 
next  few  years,  and  for  the  men  them- 
selves who  are  making  the  supreme  sac- 

Of  those  at  home  the  old  people  suffer 
most  keenly.  It's  pretty  hard  to  stand 
the  thought  of  the  strain  and  torture  of 
the  battle  lines  when  the  nerves  have  be- 
come unsteady,  when  the  body  responds  to 
the  will  slowly  and  a  little  painfully,  and 
in  the  growing  helplessness  physical  suf- 
fering has  a  new  terror.  A  life-time  of 
hard  lessons  has  left  a  balanced  estimate 
of  the  value  of  things,  and  the  old  people 
are  not  easily  reconciled  to  the  whole- 
sale destruction  of  life,  besides  they  are 
living  their  lives  now  in  the  lives  of  their 
children,  and  they  have  seen  some  of  them 

go.  They  aren't  complaining, — just  wait- 
ing quietly,  and  thinking  all  the  time.  It 
means  everything  to  them  to  have  a  spirit 
of  young  life  and  courage  in  the  house,  to 
have  the  piano  opened  up,  and  the  friends 
come  in,  and  the  brightest  side  of  things 
kept  on  the  surface. 

Even  while  the  tragedies  overseas  are 
never  out  of  our  minds,  the  play  element 
should  never  be  allowed  to  die  out  in  any 
part  of  the  country.  We  need  the  games 
and  sports  and  "literaries"  and  dances, 
and  amateur  plays,  moie  than  ever  this 
winter.  If  they  are  planned  to  raise  pat- 
riotic funds,  so  much  the  better,  but  we 
need  them  for  themselves.  If  young . 
people  especially,  are  deprived  of  all 
amusement  a  serious  reaction  is  sure  to 
set  in.  If  the  boys  and  girls  have  to  give 
up  all  their  natural  gods,  we  can  only  ex- 
pect them  to  become  callous  atheists,  with- 
out interests,  without  the  love  of  life  and 
the  indomitable  spirit  which  alone  can 
keep  a  nation  from  going  to  pieces  in 
times  like  these.  The  stern,  morose  man, 
or  the  dark-visioned  woman  is  not  by  any 
means  the  person  to  be  counted  on  in  a 
crisis,  and  we  need  people  built  to  stand 
a  crisis  now. 

And  while  we  watch  the  soldiers  on  par- 
ade, soberly  enough  admiring  the  respon- 



sibility  to  honor  but  maddened  at  the 
thought  that  the  most  precious  thing  in 
the  world  should  be  held  at  such  light 
value,  we  must  remember  that  we  are 
fighting  militarism,  and  think  of  another 
danger  right  around  us.  The  boy  who 
doesn't  realize  what  it  means  is  carried 
away  by  the  fife  and  the  accoutrements 
and  the  flashes  in  the  sun.  There  is  a 
little  danger  of  the  love  of  conflict  getting 
the  better  of  him.  In  a  school  in  England 
recently  the  boys  behaved  outrageously 
to  a  war-lecturer,  who  tried  to  impress 
the  fact  that  the  evils  of  war  far  out- 
weigh its  advantages.  Even  here  we  find 
the  undisciplined  boy,  seized  with  the 
fighting  spirit  coming  into  contact  with 
all  his  authorities  and  taking  part  in  un- 
precedented rowdyisms  suggested  by  a  low 
type  of  war  enthusiast. 

It  is  right  now  that  the  education  of 
the  young  people  should  follow  the  most 
humane  and  generous  and  liberal  ideas,  or 
the  young  man  ten  years  from  now  will 
not  be  the  type  of  gentleman  who  is  en- 
listing to-day,  sorely  against  his  personal 
interests.  The 
young  people 
should  have 
their  minds  di- 
rected now  t  o 
the  arts  and 
crafts  of  peace. 
The  motive  of 
patriotism  in  ag- 
ricultural pro- 
duction will  fur- 
nish an  inspira- 
tion, but  any- 
thing that  will 
create  a  deeper 
interest  in  agri- 
culture  and 
farm  life,  — 
short  courses, 
contests,  encour- 
agement at  home 
— will  prove  a 
saving  force  for 
the  boys  them- 
selves, and  for 
the  country 
later.  And  this 
is  just  why  the 
atmosphere  a  t 
home  should  be 
brighter  and 
warmer  and 
purer  now  than 
ever,  so  that  if 
the  boys  do  leave 
it  they  will  go 
with  a  deter- 
Tfiination  to  right 
something  that 
is  wrong,  not  to 
acquiesce  in  an 
evil,  and  to 
leave  the  world 
more  humane 
and  civilized. 

No  person  can  stand  for  long,  the 
strain  of  an  atmosphere  of  depression  at 
home.  Whenever  a  vital  issue  is  at  stake 
in  the  world,  that  is  where  men  go  to  find 
their  stimulus  for  the  battle;  it  rests  with 
the  homemaker  to  provide  that  stimulus 
now.  The  soldiers  themselves  are  setting 
us  the  best  example.     The    meadow    in 

the  rear  of  the  lines  is  always  made  a 
football  ground;  men  standing  in  the 
water-logged  trenches  are  heard  singing 
all  through  the  night,;  and  what  about 
the  amazing  spirit  in  the  letters  they  send 
home.  You  can  generally  find  the  under- 
current somewhere  between  the  lines  of 
course,  but  the  eflfort  to  keep  it  out  is 
painfully  evident.  We  owe  them  the  most 
cheerful  report  of  things  at  home, — not 
indifference  to  the  greater  issue,  nor  to 
what  they  are  going  through,  but  an  as- 
surance that  everything  is  alright  und 
waiting  for  their  homecoming.  In  the  face 
of  the  worst  calamity  there's  a  wondeiful 
comfort  in  the  thought  that  things  are 
all  right  at  home,  and  nothing  much  more 
disheartening  than  the  idea  that  they  are 

For  a  thousand  reasons  the  country 
now  needs  women  of  courage  and  optim- 
ism and  sympathy,  to  keep  the  home  fires 
burning.  Already,  mixed  with  its  evils, 
the  war  has  done  a  lot  to  supplant  selfish- 
ness and  snobbery  with  generosity  and 
compassion   and   indulgence  to  the  weak 

and  suffering,  but  never  were  the  mothers 
of  the  world  so  much  concerned  about 
their  boys.  The  boy  himself  isn't  likely  to 
take  the  situation  seriously  enough  to 
disturb  his  sleep,  but  he  is  susceptible  to 
a  lot  of  influences  of  the  times  which  only 
the  character  of  his  home  and  educational 
and  social  environment  can  counteract. 
Unless  we  keep  these  normal,  we  cannot 
expect  to  have  the  ideal  boy  of  Huxley's 
type,  "One  who,  no  stunted  ascetic,  is  full 
of  life  and  fire,  but  whose  passions  are 
trained  to  come  to  heel  by  a  vigorous  vdll, 
the  servant  of  a  tender  conscience;  who 
has  learned  to  love  all  btauty,  to  hate  all 
vileness,  and  to  respect  others  as  him- 

"Keep  the  home-fires  burning 
While  your  hearts  are  yearnihg, 
Though  your  lads  are  far  away 

They  dream  of  home. 
There's  a  silver  lining 
Through   the   dark   clouds   shining. 
Turn  the  dark  clouds  inside  out 

Till  the  boys  come  home." 

The  Seed  Situation  in  Canada 

There  has  probably  never  been  a  sea- 
son in  which  the  seed  situation  in  all  lines 
has  been  as  serious  in  the  Province  as  it 
is  this  year.  In  no  one  line  is  there  a  re- 
assuring outlook.  Of  alfalfa  there  is 
none.  A  pro- 
vince that  1  n 
normal  years 
exported  half  its 
output  o  f  red 
clover  seed  will 
this  year  not 
have  half 
enough  for  home 
demand.  Owing 
to  the  excessive 
supply  of  mois- 
ture at  harvest 
time,  the  supply 
o  f  seed  corn 
both  in  the 
Western  States 
and  in  the 
South  and  West- 
ern Ontario  will 
be  of  inferior 

Grain  intend- 
ed  for  seed 
should  be  clean- 
ed up  now  and 
stored  in  small 
quantities  in  dry 
quarters  so  as 
to  minimize  the 
danger  from 
heating.  The 
seed  corn  should 
be  purchased  at 
once  and  hung 
up  in  a  dry  room 
where  sudden 
changes  in  tem- 
perature will 
not  occur.  Then 
not  later  than 
March  1st  send 
small  lots  o  f 
these  lines  o  f 
seed  to  G.  H. 
Clark,  seed  commissioner,  to  be  tested 
for  germination.  Such  parcels  can  be 
sent  postage  free,  and  there  is  no 
charge  for  making  the  test.  In  the 
case  of  potatoes  there  is  but  one  thing  to 
do.  Spray  with  Bordeaux  mixture  at  in- 
tervals of  two  or  three  weeks,  when  the 
plants  are  four  or  five  inches  high  until 
danger  of  blight  is  passed. 

The  Trail  of  Farm  Organization : 

W.  L.  SMITH 

A  Succession  of  Comhinations  Have  Chased  One  Another  Across   Ontario 
Ag[ricultural  Life,  But  They  Still  Live  in  the  U.F.  O. 

TWICE  Ontario  has  been  swept,  by 
a  tidal  wave,  by  a  farmers' 
organization  movement.  One  of 
these  waves  wholly  disappeared  a  few 
years  after  its  coming.  The  other  has  left 
but  a  few  isolated  points  to  mark  its 

In  the  early  seventies  the  Grange  was 
extended  into  this  province  from  neigh- 
boring states  and  for  a  time  it  seemed  to 
carry  all  before  it.  Subordinate  lodges 
sprang  up  along  almost  every  concession 
line.  Division  granges,  covering  the  work 
of  a  number  of  subordinate' lodges,  were 
formed.  Provincial  bodies,  having  super- 
vision of  this  and  other  provinces  were 
created.  The  whole  body  was  federated  in 
the  Dominion  Grange  which  was  in  affili- 
ation with,  but  not  subordinate  to  the  par- 
ent body  in  the  United  States,  while  the 
organization  was  Dominion-wide  its  chief 
strength  lay  in  the  premier  province  of 

In  the  beginning  the  organization  was 
mainly  commercial  although  several  fea- 
tures were  not  overlooked  and  some  atten- 
tion was  given  to  public  questions  in  which 

farmers  as  a  class  were  particularly  inter- 
ested. Along  public  lines  the  activities  of 
the  Grange  were  principally  directed  to 
the  question  of  market  fees.  When  the 
Grange  first  came  into  existence  almost 
every  little  town  imposed  market  fees  on 
farmers  trading  therein.  To  the  Grange  is 
chiefly  due  the  credit  for  the  banishment 
of  this  costly  and  particularly  annoying 
system  of  collecting  revenue. 

But,  as  stated,  the  grange  was  before 
everything  else  a  commercial  body.  Its 
business  activities  partly  originated  by 
local  lodges  and  partly  by  more  general 
effect,  took  wide  ranges.  Almost  every 
subordinate  grange  became  a  depot  for 
the  supply  of  its  members  with  groceries, 
boots  and  shoes,  coal  oil,  etc.  A  central 
supply  depot  was  established  in  Toronto; 
in  one  or  two  cases,  barley  then  a  princi- 
pal money  crop,  was  disposed  of  co-opera- 
tively; a  salt  well  was  established  at 
Kincardine.  Of  all  these  varied  enter- 
prises the  salt  well  alone  remains,  even 
the  Grange  itself  has  well  nigh  disap- 
peared, only  a  few  lodges  remaining  at 

widely  scattered  intervals  and  these  are 
mainly  located  in  Western  Ontario. 


After  the  decadence  of  the  Grange,  a 
decadence  which  began  in  the  early 
eighties,  little  was  heard  of  farmers'  or- 
ganizations, until  Patronism  swept  the 
province  with  a  rush,  and  with  seemingly 
irresistible  force  in  the  early  nineties.  The 
Patron  organization,  unlike  the  Grange, 
gave  its  chief  attention  to  the  political  end, 
although  like  the  Grangp  it  did  a  very  con- 
siderable business  in  the  way  of  co-opera- 
tive buying  of  household  supplies.  Into 
politics,  however,  it  went  headlong.  Candi- 
dates were  nominated  by  the  score,  both 
for  the  Legislature  and  the  House  of  Com- 
mons and  to  the  former  body  it  actually 
elected  fourteen  or  fifteen  members  in 
1894  and  to  the  latter  one  or  two  in  1896. 
But  the  Patron  organization  declined 
more  quickly  than  the  Grange  had  done, 
and  unlike  the  latter  it  finally  dis- 
appeared, altogether.  The  overwhelming 
defeat  of  its  leaders  in  their  candidacy  for 
the  House  of  Commons  in  1896  smashed 

The   directors   of  the  Grain   Growers'   Grain   Co.   of  Winnipeg.     Men  who  are  farmers  and  who  carry  on  one  of  the  biggest  business 

concerns  In  Canada. 



the  body  in  fragments.  When  the  repre- 
sentatives it  had  elected  to  the  Legislature 
appealed  for  re-election  in  1898  they  were 
all  defeated,  save  one,  arrd  that  one  sub- 
sequently affiliated  v^^ith  the  Conservative 
party.    That  buried  the  remains. 

Before  a  decent  interval  of  mourning 
had  elapsed  the  Farmers'  Association 
came  into  being.  The  latter  body  vs^as 
wholly  political,  but  along  different  lines 
from  those  pursued  by  the  Patrons.  It 
disavowed  all  intention  of  electing  its 
members  to  the  Legislature  or  House  of 
Commons,  and  it  sought  to  influence  repre- 
sentatives of  both  the  old  parties  in  favor 
of  legislation  of  which  farmers  felt  the 
need.  The  Farmers'  Association,  although 
it  had  local  branches  all  the  way  from  the 
Ottawa  valley  to  the  Western  lakes,  never 
secured  a  large  membership.  But  it  ac- 
complished much.  It  took  the  initiative  in 
organizing  a  deputation  compose'd  of 
representatives  of  its  own  and  other  agri- 
cultural organizations,  of  the  manufac- 
turers and  of  the  Toronto  Board  of  Trade, 
which  asked  the  then  Dominion  Govern- 
ment to  create  a  Railway  Commission, 
and  at  the  next  session  of  the  House  of 
Commons  legislation  to  provide  'for  this 
was  framed.  After  the  commission  was 
appointed  representatives  of  the  associa- 
tion appeared  before  the  commissioners  at 
their  Toronto  sitting  and  as  a  result  of 
representations  then  made,  freight  rates 
on  cattle,  grain  and  fruits  were  reduced. 

It  was  the  first  organized  body  to  de- 
mand that  railway  property  be  taxed  on 
the  same  basis  as  farm  property  and  the 
Legislature  since  then,  has  made  at  least 
some  move  in  this  direction..  The  associa- 
tion, supported  by  the  Grange,  was  also 
chiefly  instrumental  in  securing  legisla- 
tion at  Ottawa  under  which  farmers  were 
enabled  to  carry  drains  across  railway 
lands  on  reasonable  terms  and  other  legis- 
lations which  provided  fair  compensation 
for  livestock  killed  on  railway  lines.  There 
can  be  no  doubt  either,  I  believe,  that  it 
was  owing  to  the  force  of  the  representa- 
tions made  by  this  body,  before  the  Field- 
ing Tariff  Commission  of  1906  that  the 
Laurier  Government  was  dissauded  from 
its  intention  to  materially  increase  the 
customs  tariff  at  that  time. 

When  the  Farmers'  Association  was 
coming  into  being,  the  question  was  earn- 
estly debated  as  to  whether  those  behind 
the  movement  should  affiliate  with  the 
Grange,  which  still  maintained  about  a 
hundred  subordinate  lodges  in  Ontario,  or 
form  a  new  body.  The  decision  in  favor 
of  the  latter  course  was  based  on  the  fact 
that  the  Grange,  was  then,  mainly  social 
in  its  activities  and  the  leaders  of  the  new 
movement  demanded  political  action  along 
the  lines  above  outlined.  After  the  or- 
ganization of  the  Farmers'  Association, 
however,  the  Grange  gradually  developed 
interest  along  similar  lines  until  at  last 
the  two  bodies  were  almost  identical,  save 
that  the  Grange  still  maintained  its  social 
features  and  its  ritual.  Then  leaders  in 
both  organizations  concluded  that  it  was 
a  waste  of  energy  to  maintain  two  bodies 
with  such  similar  aims  and  the  association 
became  merged  in  the  Grange. 

Meantime-  a  powerful  farm  organiza- 
tion had  been  developed  in  the  Western 
provinces  under  the  name  of  the  Grain 
Growers'   Association    of   Manitoba   and 

Saskatchewan  and  the  United  Farmers  of 
Alberta.  These  Western  organizations 
were  both  political  and,  in  a  very  large 
way,  commercial.  In  politics  they  dealt 
with  the  tariff  as  it  affected  farmers, 
with  the  transportation  question  in  the 
same  way  and  with  the  allied  elevator 
question.  In  a  business  way  they  handled 
millions  of  bushels  of  their  own  wheat. 
They  bought  timber,  lumber  and  met  their 
own  demands  in  lumber;  they  traded  in  a 
wholesale  way  in  coal,  cement,  apples  and 
other  bulky  lines.  With  these  bodies  the 
Grange  became  affiliated  through  the  Na- 
tional Council  of  Agriculture.  But  the 
Grange,  with  its  past  traditions,  with  its 
ritual,  passwords  and  secret  work,  was 
not  in  entire  harmony  with  the  new  spirit 
born  in  the  West.  It  was  felt,  both  in  On- 
tario and  in  the  Western  affiliated  bodies, 
that  something  new  and  broader,  both  in 
scope  and  name,  was  called  for.  This  feel- 
ing found  its  culmination  in  the  creation 
of  a  new  body,  the  United  Farmers  of  On- 
tario, with  which  the  Grange,  and  certain 
farmers'  clubs,  local  fruit  growers'  asso- 
ciations and  so  forth  affiliated.  This  new 
organization  copying  from  what  had  been 
done  in  the  West,  took  a  new  form  or 
rather  a  double  form.  Two  bodies  were 
created— the  United  Farmers'  Co-opera- 
tive Co.  and  the  United  Farmers  of  On- 
tario. The  former  is  an  incorporated  com- 
pany intended  to  carry  on  trading  opera- 
tions; the  latter  is  a  sort  of  farmers' 
parliament  for  the  discussion  of  public 
questions  in  which  farmers  are  interested. 
Before  discussing  more  fully  this  or- 
ganization and  its  aims  it  may  be  well  to 
go  back  a  little  and  offer  some  opinions  as 
to  why  the  various  other  Ontario  farmers' 
organizations  no  longer  occupy  the  posi- 
tion they  once  did. 


Take  the  Grange  first.  In  the  beginning 
the  Grange  was  mainly  commercial,  and 
in  a  small  way.  It  undertook  to  supply  its 
members  with  small  things — tea,  tobacco, 
sugar,  syrups,  and  coal  oil.  Each  sub- 
ordinate Grange  was  a  small  retail  store. 
There  was,  at  that  time,  good  reason  for 
the  course  taken.  Local  storekeepers 
then  gave  long  credits  and  charged  longer 
prices.  This  was  the  chief  grievance  from 
which  the  farmers  of  that  day  suffered. 
The  Grange  changed  all  that.  It  forced 
local  dealers  to  adapt  the  cash  system  and 
to  moderate  their  prices.  This  accom- 
plished, the  chief  reason  for  the  existence 
of  the  Grange,  as  then  constituted,  ceased 
to  exist.  When  people  could  go  to  a  near- 
by store  and  buy  groceries  and  other  ne- 
ce.ssaries  as  cheaply  as  from  the  local 
Grange  the  worry  and  bother  of  main- 
taining the  commercial  features  of  the 
Grange  were  not  likely  to  be  long  con- 
tinued. Herein  is  found  the  main  cause, 
the  social  feature  not  having  been  suf- 
ficiently developed,  of  the  decline  of  the 
organization.  There  were  other  causes, 
but  this  .was  the  main  one.  In  granges 
where  the  social  features  was  developed, 
as  in  Middlemarch,  founded  by.  the  late 
Jabel  Robinson,  vigorous  life  has  con- 
tinued for  over  a  generation.  But — if  the 
Grange  as  a  whole  had  done  nothing  else 
than  abolish  the  aboTninable  long  credit 
systems  of  the  old  days  it  would  have  to 
its  credit  a  service  the  value  of  which  can 

be  understood  only  by  those  whose  mem- 
ory recalls  what  an  evil  thing  the  old 
system  was. 


There  probably  never  was  an  organiza- 
tion that  got  such  a  grip  on  Ontario  farm- 
ers as  the  Patron  order  held  for  a  time. 
In  no  other  organization  was  there  such 
intense  earnestness  in  the  rank  and  file. 
Some  of  the  leaders  were,  too,  men  of  out- 
standing ability,  notably  J.  L.  Haycock 
the  leader  of  the  party  in  the  Legislature 
and  Ontario  has  produced  few  men  of 
higher  ideal  than  Caleb  Mallory,  for  years 
head  of  the  organization.  But  candor 
compels  the  assertion  that,  as  with  a 
quickly-filled  milk  pail,  an  awful  lot  of 
froth  came  to  the  top.  Many  of  the  lead- 
ers, or  near  leaders,  were  mighty  poor 
stuff,  there  was  lack  of  ability,  much  of 
self-seeking  and  som,ething  of  treason. 
The  party,  for  it  was  a  party,  suffered 
from  the  intrigues  of  the  old  parties,  both 
of  which  desired  its  extermination.  It 
suffered  also,  as  the  Conservative  party  of 
that  day  suffered,  from  the  introduction  of 
the  Manitoba  School  Question  into  the 
political  arena,  this  question,  with  its 
stirring  of  the  race  and  creed  animosities, 
largely  overshadowed  the  economic  issue 
on  which  Patron  candidates  for  the  House 
of  Commons  relied.  The  chief  handicap 
upon  them,  however,  was  the  poor  show- 
ing their  fellows  had  made  in  the  Legis- 

Had  the  Patron  members  in  the 
Provincial  Assembly  displayed  one- 
half  the  zeal  and  ability  shown  by  the 
Irish  Home  Rulers  in  the  British 
House  of  Commons,  a  farmers'  party 
might  to-day  be  holding  the  balance 
of  power,  both  in  the  Legislature  and 
House  of  Comm,ons. 

But  it  is  doubtful  if  any  bunch  of  equal 
numbers  could  have  been  got  together 
which  would  have  been  more  ineffective 
than  the  fourteen  Patrons'  members  in 
the  Legislature  of  1894-8,  and  after  the 
first  session  they  ceased  to  count.  Still 
Patronism  served  a  useful  purpose.  It 
smashed  old  party  lines  as  they  had  never 
been  smashed  up  to  that  time  and  there 
has  been  more  independent  thinking  ever 
since  as  a  result  of  the  Patron  propaganda 
of  the  nineties. 


There  is  one  point  more  to  be  mentioned 
in  regard  to  all  old-time  farmers'  organi- 
zations. A  number  of  those  who  became 
prominent  in  Grange,  Patron  and  Farm- 
ers' associations  work  were  soon  after 
attaining  prominence  in  such  work  en- 
rolled on  the  list  of  Farmers'  Institute 
workers,  and  in  work  of  a  like  nature, 
carried  on  by  the  Department  of  Agricul- 
ture. I  don't  want  to  be  uncharitable,  but 
it  has  seemed  to  me  more  than  once,  as 
if  this  means  was  deliberately  used  to 
wean  leaders  away  from  a  purely  farm- 
ers' organization.  It  looks  as  if  a  like 
policy  is  now  being  pursued  in  the  case  of 
the  U.F.O.  Against  this  the  new  or- 
ganization would  do  well  to  be  on  guard. 

In  some  respects  the  United  Farmers 
have  a  more  difficult  task  ahead  of  them 
than  that  which  faced  either  the  Grange 
or  the  Patrons  of  Industry.   In  the  seven- 



ties  the  burden  of  excessive  prices  for 
daily  necessities  and  the  irritating  market 
fee  question  had  put  farmers  into  a  mood 
to  jump  at  anything  that  promised  relief. 
Hence  the  phenomenal  growth  of  the 
Grange  which  did  promise  relief. 

In  early  nineties  the  whole  country  was 
suffering  from  a  depression  such  as  never 
occurred  before  or  since.  Agriculture 
was  especially  depressed.  Hence  once 
again  farmers  were  ready  to  accept  any- 
thing that  gave  hope  for  bettered  condi- 

The  United  Farmers  have  not  these 
special  circumstances  in  their  favor.  They 
have  come  on  the  scene  in  what  may  be 
called  normal  times.  Aside  from  rural 
depopulation,  there  is  no  great  cause  stir- 
ring farmers  to  unrest  or  anger.  On  the 
other  hand  there  is  much  in  the  past  his- 
tory of  farmers'  organizations  to  depress 
those  whose  minds  never  get  beyond 
generalities.  Still  I  honestly  believe,  the 
new  organization  has  a  vastly  brighter 
outlook  before  it,  than  any  that  have  gone 
before.  For  one  thing,  it  has  the  experi- 
ence of  mistakes  made  in  the  past  as  a 
warning  of  what  to  avoid.  Created  in 
normal  times  its  growth  will  be  slower, 
but  its  existence  should  be  much  more 
durable  than  that  of  organizations  which 
have  preceded  it.  Wisdom  has  been 
shown  too  by  its  founders  in  adapting  the 
best  features  of  previous  organizations 
and  modifying  these  to  suit  circumstances. 
It  has  learned  from  the  experience  of 
Western  organizations  which  have  dem- 
onstrated their  soundness.  It  has  its  com- 
mercial side  but  it  is  commercial  in  a 
large  way.  It  does  not  propose  to  retail 
small  odds  and  ends  but  it  is  prepared  to 
supply  its  members  with  bulky  articles 
in  car  lots.    It  is  prepared  to  act  as  a 

medium  of  exchange  between  farmers 
who  have  grass  seeds,  seed  corn,  etc.,  to 
sell  and  others  who  are  buyers  of  the 
same,  thus  eliminating  the  profits  of  two 
or  three  useless  middlemen.  It  is  pre- 
pared to  provide  a  market  for  potatoes 
and  apples  in  car  lots.  It .  can  act  as 
selling  agents  for  hogs,  cattle  and  sheep 
in  the  same  way  and  for  poultry  and  eggs 
in  a  necessarily  smaller  way.  It  is  in  a 
position  by  means  of  wholesale  buying, 
to  secure  bargain  prices  in  buggies,  cut- 
ters, harness,  separators — perhaps  auto- 
mobiles— and  many  classes  of  implements. 
In  this  and  other  like  lines,  it  can  be  made 
the  means  of  serving  farmers,  large  sums 
in  buying  and  of  securing  greater  profits 
in  selling.  There  is  no  reason  why  every 
fruit  tree  planted  in  Ontario,  every  ounce 
of  spraying  material  and  equipment  re- 
quired in  caring  for  same,  every  barrel 
or  box  for  the  packing  of  fruit,  every 
bushel  of  corn  or  mill  feed  used  by  farmer, 
every  bag  of  cement,  every  barrel  of  salt, 
every  implement  or  vehicle,  in  fact  every- 
thing used  in  large  bulk  by  farmers  should 
not  be  bought  through  this  organization. 
There  is  no  reason  either,  why  all  the  live- 
stock, poultry,  eggs,  grain,  hay,  potatoes, 
and  fruit  sold  by  farmers  should  not  be 
handled  through  their  own  organizations. 
In  all  their  lines  the  profits  of  at  least 
two  sets  of  middlemen  can  be  saved.  That 
is  a  considerable  item.  In  many  cases  it 
it  a  very  large  item.  In  not  a  few  articles 
the  cost  of  selling  under  the  present  sys- 
tem equals  the  cost  of  manufacturing. 
In  the  non-commercial  branches  of  the 
new  farmers  organization,  the  branch 
dealing  with  public  questions,  there  is 
equal  scope  for  useful  service.  How  great 
a  service  may  be  rendered  in  this  way  is 

shown  by  experience  both  in  this  country 
and  the  United  States.  In  the  Western 
provinces  farmers'  organizations  have  not 
created  a  political  party,  they  have  not 
sought  to  influence  the  course  of  legisla- 
tion in  parliament  and  in  this  latter  they 
have  suceceeded.  Legislation  in  the 
Prairie  Legislatures  is  controlled  by  farm 
influence.  In  New  York  where  farmers 
are  an  almost  insignificant  minority  as 
compared  with  a  majority  in  the  Western 
Provinces,  corresponding  conditions  pre- 
vail. Farmers  in  New  York  State  com- 
prise only  about  one-tenth  of  the  total 
population  they  have  in  their  state 
Grange,  an  organization  of  some  60,000 
members.  And  they  study  public  ques- 
tions. Copies  of  every  bill  introduced  in- 
to the  State  Assembly,  are  sent  to  local 
granges  and  studied  by  the  members  of 
these  at  their  regular  meetings.  As  a  re- 
sult, so  I  was  assured  by  Grange  leaders 
in  New  York  a  few  years  ago,  not  a  bill 
is  enacted  by  the  New  York  State  Legis- 
lature affecting  agriculture,  save  with 
the  approval  of  the  organized  farmers. 

The  United  Farmers  of  Ontario  have 
one  point  more  in  their  favor.  They  have 
been  singularly  fortunate  in  their  choice 
of  oflScers.  In  Secretary  Morrison  they 
have  an  enthusiast  of  the  enthusiasts  and 
one  who  is  wholly  devoted  to  his  work. 
In  President  Groh  of  the  Co-operative  Co. 
they  have  one  saturated  with  the  co-opera- 
tive spirit.  In  Drury  and  Good  and  others 
they  have  men  whose  ability  would  com- 
mand attention  in  any  assembly.  With 
a  firm  foundation,  able  officers  and  the  ex- 
perience of  the  past  as  a  guide  for  actions, 
the  new  organization  should  have  a  fu- 
ture full  of  usefulness  for  the  farmers  of 

Breaking  a  Clay- Footed  Idol 

The  Saskatchewan  Grain  Growers'  Association  is  Canada's  Largest  Farmers' 


THE  parent  body  of  all  the  organized 
farmers'  movements  of  the  Prairie 
Provinces  is  the  Grain  Growers' 
Association.  Outsiders  are  prone  to  con- 
found with  the  Association  the  great  com- 
panies which  it  has  brought  into  being  for 
the  handling  of  special  departments  of  its 
business,  principally  its  grain  business. 
These  companies  were  created  as  self-gov- 
erning business  bodies,  but  the  great 
movement  of  education,  organization  and 
general  co-operative  endeavor  is  carried 
on  by  the  parent  organization,  the  Grain 
Growers'  Association,  which  is  not  a  com- 
pany with  shareholders.  The  oldest  and 
strongest,  both  numerically  as  well  as  fin- 
ancially, of  these  Associations  is  in  the 
"wheat  granary"  province  of  Saskatch- 
ewan, and  this  is  not  to  be  wondered  at 
when  it  is  borne  in  mind  that  this  central 
prairie  province  produces  half  the  wheat 
crop  of  Canada. 

The  Saskatchewan  Grain  Growers'  As- 
sociation has  always  been  and  still  is  pre- 


eminently  an  educative  and  propagandist 
body  with  the  one  main  purpose  of  creat- 
ing better  living  conditions  upon  the  land 
and  with  the  one  ultimate  end  of  bringing 
into  being  in  Canada's  great  agricultural 
province,  a  type  of  citizen  which  for  in- 
telligence, efficiency  and  virility  shall  for 
all  time  to  come  be  the  pride  and  the  bul- 
wark of  the  nation. 

The  leaders  of  this  movement,  many  of 
whom  have  come  to  be  outstanding  figures 
in  the  affairs  of  Western  Canada,  coupled 
with  the  highest  ideals,  have  ever  had  a 
very  practical  conception  of  how  these 
ideals  might  be  attained.  They  recognized 
that  while  preaching  and  teaching  have 
their  place  in  the  development  of  every 
public  movement,  and  a  very  important 
place  at  that,  practical  grappling  with  the 
great  problems  of  the  business  of  living 
by  active  and  definite  participation  there- 

in is  essential  to  the  bringing  at)Out  of 
.these  reforms  that  are  to  lead  up  to  the 
better  conditions  aimed  at. 


The  first  and  most  difficult  work  of  the 
Association  lay  with  the  very  people  for 
whose  well-being  it  was  brought  into  ex- 
istence— the  farmers  themselves.  For  gen- 
erations those  who  till  the  soil  have  been 
so  exploited,  while  would-be  reformers 
amongst  them  so  frequently  have  appealed 
to  their  prejudices  rather  than  to  their 
reason  that  farmers  have  found  it  difficult 
to  trust  even  each  other.  Another  diffi- 
culty arose  from  the  farmers'  false  and 
foolish  notions  of  independence  which  his 
flatterers  have  always  doled  out  to  him 
while  those  who  pretended  to  envy  him. 
his  independence  were  growing  rich  out 
of  his  lack  of  co-operation  with  others  of 
his  class.  In  a  new  country  such  as  Sas- 
katchewan, settlers  have  perforce  had  to 
recognize,  at  least  in  measure,  their  in- 



terdependence,  but  the  greatest  work  as 
well  as  the  most  difficult  thus  far  accom- 
plished by  the  organized  farmers  of  the 
West  has  been  the  breaking  up  of  this 
clay-footed  idol  of  independence  and  the 
pointing  of  its  former  self-torturing  wor- 
shippers to  the  true  light  of  economic  sal- 
vation— co-operation. 


This  great  educational  campaign,  it  is 
safe  to  say,  has  appreciably  altered  the 
whole  mental  attitude  not  alone  of  the 
farmers  but  also  of  commercial  interests 
of  the  West  on  the  broad  questions  of  eco- 
nomics, and  in  order  that  it  might  not  be 
hampered  in  any  avoidable  manner,  the 
commercial  undertakings  which  sprang 
into  being  as  a  result  of  it  were  organized 
3S  independent,  self-governing  units  of  the 
farmers'  movement.  Thus  came  into  be- 
ing first  the  Grain  Growers'  Grain  Com- 
pany of  Winnipeg  and  its  subsidiary  com- 
panies, then  the  Saskatchewan  Co-opera- 
tive Elevator  Company  with  two  hundred 
and  thirty  grain  elevators  and  now  recog- 
nized as  the  greatest  elevator  company  in 
the  world;  the  Alberta  Co-operative  Ele- 
vator Company,  and  the  Saskatchewan 
Municipal  Hail  Insurance  Commission 
carrying  ($25,000,000)  twenty-five  mil- 
lion dollars  of  hail  insurance. 

In  April,  1914,  the  Association  entered 
upon  the  development  of  a  comprehensive 
.  organization  for  the  purchase  of  supplies 
for  its  local  bodies.  This  work  it  has  or- 
ganized as  a  department  of  itself  and  its 
activities  in  this  direction  have  been  of  the 
utmost  value  to  the  farmers  and  have 
greatly  enhanced  the  interest  of  the  farm- 
ers in  their  own  movement. 


-The  Saskatchewan  Grain  Growers'  As- 
sociation has  now  more  members  by  a 
wide  margin  than  any  other  farmers'  or- 
ganization in  Canada,  and  these  are  dis- 
tributed amongst  more  than  one  thousand 
local  organizations  in  all  parts  of  the  pro- 

In  no  other  province  have  the  Grain 
Growers'  been  instrumental  in  securing 
so  much  in  the  line  of  legislation  as  in 
Saskatchewan,  where  no  Government 
could  afford  to  be  or  would  wish  to  be 
other  than  friendly  to  the  farmers'  move- 
ment. More  than  any  other  body,  the 
Saskatchewan  Grain  Growers'  Associa- 
tion was  responsible  for  the  action  of  the 
Legislature  in  abolishing  the  hotel  bars 
and  all  public  drinking  in  the  province — 
an  act  which  at  one  blow  has  cut  80  per 
cent,  off  our  drink  bill  and  well  night  emp- 
tied our  courts  and  our  prisons.  Other  re- 
cent acts  of  legislation  secured  are  that 
regulating  the  sale  and  guarantee  of  im- 
plements; that  protecting  homesteaders' 
exemptions  from  hypothecation  or  seiz- 
ure ;  that  giving  the  wife  a  dower  interest 
in  the  homestead,  etc.,  etc.  Woman  Suf- 
frage and  direct  legislation  are  also  being 
asked  for  and  will  no  doubt  be  dealt  with 
in  the  near  future. 

A  very  extensive  seed  grain  exhibit  is 
being  planned  for  the  next  Provincial 
Agricultural  and  Industrial  Exhibition  at 
Regina.  The  contestants  will  be  the 
Locals  of  the  Association  throughout 
Saskatchewan.     A  large  number  of  cash 

S.  A.   Moore's  Irmlci-  in    liis   milking   Sborthorn 
hei-d    at    Caledonia. 

prizes  amounting  to  many  hundreds  of 
dollars  will  be  awarded  and  a  magnificent 
silver  trophy  will  be  donated  by  the  Sask- 
atchewan Co-operative  Elevator  Comp- 
any as  the  Grand  Prize.  ^ 


That  the  Association  is  fully  alive  to 
its  duty  to  the  Empire  in  this  the  nation's 
time  of  struggle  is  attested  by  its  Pat- 
riotic Acre  Scheme  a  scheme  which  had 
its  origin  in  a  Local  of  the  Association 
and  was  given  this  catchy  name  to  indi- 
cate its  purpose. 

Under  this  plan  some  thousands  of 
members  are  contributing  each  the  pro- 
ceeds of  an  acre  of  wheat  to  be  ground 
into  flour,  sacked  in  special  sacks  bear- 
ing the  emblem  of  the  Association  and 
made  a  gift  to  the  Imperial  Government. 
The  contributions  promised  to  date  in- 
volve fuly  150,000  bushels  of  wheat  and 
the  gift  will  comprise  several  train  loads 
of  flour.  Elevator  Companies,  Mills,  Rail- 
way Companies  and  the  Federal  Govern- 
ment are  all  co-operating  to  handle  this 
contribution  with  as  little  cost  to  the 
fund  as  posible.  One  interesting  feature 
of  this  undertaking  is  that  amongst  the 
contributors  are  the  names  of  many  for- 
eign born  Canadians  including  Swedes, 
French,  Germans,  Austrians,  Russians, 
Serbs,  Roumanians,  etc. 

Under  widely  extended  charter  powers 
and  by  special  legislation  of  the  Sask- 
atchewan Legislature  the  Association  has 
very  wide  powers  for  trading  and  many  of 
its  Locals  have  been  brought  under  incor- 
porations as  units  of  themselves.  The  Cen- 
tral is  the  wholesale  body  through  which 
all  the  Locals  can  act  collectively  jn  deal- 
ing with  miners,  millers,  manufacturers, 
etc.  The  Central  sells  to  organized  Locals 
only  .and  they  in  turn  sell  to  their  mem- 
bers. Full  provision  has  been  made  for 
the  investment  by  the  Locals  of  capital  in 
their  Central  and  the  surplus  earnings  of 
the  Central  are  distributed  to  the  Locals 
having  such  investment  in  proportion  to 
the  amount  of  business  done  with  the 
Central  by  them  respectively  in  the  trUe 
cooperative  way. 

During  the  past  eighteen  months  very 
large  quantities  of  supplies  have  been 
handled  including  such  lines  as  Flour  and 
Feed,  Feed  Oats,  Lumber,  Fencing,  Fence 
Posts,  Machinery,  Metal  Roofing,  Prepar- 
ed Roofing  and  all  kinds  of  building  mat- 
erial etc.,  etc. 

Of  coal  alone  the  Association  handled 
25,000  tons  during  its  first  season  and 
during  the  present  year  it  handled  suffi- 
cient binder  twine  to  bind  fifty  million 
bushels  of  grain  or  nearly  4,500,000 

Following  last  year's  failure  of  the 
western  potato  crop  the  Association  im- 
ported for  its  members  nearly  4,500,000 
bushels  of  potatoes  with  a  saving  below 
the  prices  obtaining  before  it  entered  the 
market  of  in  some  cases  as  much  as  $1.00 
per  bushel. 

This  season  the  Ontario  apple  crop  was 
very  short  but  the  Moose  Jaw  Office  has 
handled  some  140  carloads  and  could  have 
sold  more. 

Enormous  savings  have  been  effected 
to  the  farmers  not  only  on  the  goods  actu- 
ally purchased  through  the  Association  but 
yet  more  in  the  aggregate  on  the  reduction 
of  prices  by  dealers,  brought  about  by  the 
competition  set  up  by  the  Grain  Growers' 

The  Central  is  handling  a  full  line  of 
staple  groceries  and  is  about  to  greatly 
extend  this  field  of  its  operations  having 
now  completed  arrangements  for  supplies 
for  wholesale  stocks  of  its  own  at  one  or 
more  centres  suitable  for  advantageous 
distribution  to  its  Locals.  For  many  lines 
the  Association  plans  to  go  to  foreign 
markets  because  of  the  partial  boycot 
which  the  organized  retailers  and  whole- 
salers have  succeeded  in  creating. 

It  is  a  well  known  fact  that  the  west 
is  outrageously  overloaded  with  retailers 
so  that  coupled  with  poor  service  the  rural 
consumer  has  to  pay  in  many  cases  ex- 
orbitant prices  for  inferior  goods.  By 
doing  their  own  business,  handling  their 
own  goods,  and  purchasing  in  wholesale 
quantities  it  is  obvious  that  the  farmers 
can  effect  and  are  effecting  material  sav- 

For  organization  purposes  the  province 
is  divided  into  sixteen  districts  each  with 
a  director  of  its  own  selection.  In  each  dis- 
trict a  district  convention  is  held  annually 
at  a  convenient  centre  while  in  February 
of  each  year  the  great  Convention  of  the 
Association  takes  place.  This  Central  Con- 
vention composed  of  delegates  from  all  the 
Locals  in  proportion  of  not  more  than  one 
to  ten  members  is  the  governing  body  of 
the  Association.  It  elects  the  President 
and  the  Board  of  Directors  and  its  find- 
ings are  final.  No  proxy  voting  is  per- 
mitted and  no  delegate  has  more  than  one 

At  last  year's  convention  held  in  Regina 
there  were  present  1250  elected  delegates 
and  350  visiting  members.  Only  the  larg- 
est churches  in  a  few  of  our  leading  cities 
can  now  accomodate  the  convention  which^ 
lasts  from  three  to  four  days.  This  year's' 
convention  will  be  held  in  Saskatoon  Feb- 
ruary 15th,  16th  and  17th. 

The  Development  of  the  Dairy  Shorthorn  in   Canada 

Marks  the  Dairy  Cow  as  a  Money  Maker 

for  the  Average  Farm 

Prof.     G.     E.     DAY 


UT  of  all  the  cows  in  England,  I 
think  none  comes  up  to  the 
Holderness  breed  for  their  wide 
bags,  short  horns,  and  large  bodies,  which 
render  them  (whether  black  or  red)  the 
most  profitable  beasts  for  the  dairyman, 
grazier,  and  butcher.  Some  of  them  have 
yielded  two  or  three  gallons  at  a  meal." 
The  preceding  words  were  written  in  1744 
by  William  Ellis,  an  agricultural  writer  of 
that  time,  and  are  taken  from  that  de- 
lightful book,  "Shorthorn  Cattle,"  by 
Alvin  H.  Sanders. 

The  Holderness  breed,  referred  to 
above,  is  the  breed  from  which  the  Short- 
horn is  directly  descended,  so  that  it  be- 
comes evident  at  once  that  the  Shorthorn 
breed  was  built  upon  a  beef  and  milk 

At  the  New  York  Mills  sales  in  1873,  a 
cow  belonging  to  the  Bates  Duchess  family 
sold  for  $40,600,  the  highest  price  ever 
paid  for  a  cow.  Another  cow  of  the  same 
family  sold  for  $35,000,  another  one 
brought  $30,000,  another  $27,000,  another 
$25,000,  and  fourteen  head  belonging  to 
this  celebrated  family  sold  for  a  total  of 
$262,400,  or  an  average  of  $18,742  each. 
Why  did  they  bring  such  prices?  Simply 
because  they  were  the  only  cattle  of  the 
Duchess  family  then  living,  which  traced 
directly  to  the  herd  of  Thomas  Bates  with- 
out any  admixture  of  blood  from  other 

Probably  no  person  will  claim  that  the 
cattle  were  worth  the 
money  paid  for  them,  but 
the  New  York  Mills  sale, 
occurring  twenty-four 
years  after  the  death  of 
Thomas  Bates,  was  a  start- 
ling tribute  to  the  work  of 
that  great  breeder.  The 
sale  incident  is  related  here 
merely  to  show  that  Bates  K 
was  no  ordinary  cattle 
breeder,  and  to  give  point 
to  what  we  have  to  say  re- 
garding his  methods. 


Thomas  Bates,  of  Kirk- 
levington,  was  born  in  1775, 
and  died  in  1849.  When  he 
commenced  the  breeding  of 
Shorthorns,  the  breed  was 
very  young  indeed,  in  fact, 
it  had  barely  emerged  from 
the  formative  process,  and 
such  a  thing  as  a  herd 
book  for  the  breed  was  un-  paigface  2nd 
known.      When     h  e     laid  ' 

down  the  work  about  half  a  century  later, 
he  had  made  an  impression  upon  Short- 
horn cattle  which  remains,  in  many  cases, 
even  to  this  day. 

Thomas  Bates,  was  one  of  the  first,  and 
probably  one  of  the  greatest  of  the  advo- 
cates of  dual  purpose  Shorthorns,  and  was 
especially  successful  in  holding  the  bal- 
ance between  beef  and  milk.  He  did  not 
show  his  cattle  extensively,  because  he 
was  opposed  to  fattening  breeding  stock 
for  show  purposes,  but  he  won  a  number 
of  notable  victories  at  some  of  the  large 
shows  against  men  who  paid  no  attention 
whatever  to  milk  production.  But,  no 
matter  how  good  the  cow  from  a  show- 
yard  standpoint.  Bates  had  no  use  for  her 
if  she  was  not  a  good  milker,  and  in  dis- 
cussing the  merits  of  his  cattle,  he  never 
omitted  mentioning  their  milking  quali- 

In  the  management  of  his  herd,  the 
cows  all  milked  by  hand,  the  calves  being 
pail-fed,  the  marketing  of  butter  brought 
in  a  regular  weekly  income.  Poor  milkers 
were  culled  out,  but  the  ability  to  produce 
beef  at  low  cost  was  always  kept  in  view. 
For  his  first  "Duchess"  cow,  Mr.  Bates 
claimed  a  record  of  36  quarts  of  milk  and 
42  ounces  of  butter  in  a  day,  on  grass 
alone,  and  it  is  claimed  she  made  an  excel- 
lent carcase  of  beef  when  slaughtered  at 
seventeen  years  old.  He  makes  the  state- 
ment that  12  quarts  per  milking  is  con- 
sidered a  good  quantity  when  the  cows  get 

a  grand   type  of  Dairy   Shorthorn   cow   in   the 
herd,   Pennsylvania. 

Golden   Rose,  at  the  O.A.C.  farm,   creeping 
up   to   a-  12,000   lb.    record. 

only  ordinary  keep.  In  the  ligh't  of  this 
statement,  it  is  evident  that  he  did  not  set 
a  low  standard  for  milk  production. 


Thomas  Bates  died  many  years  ago,  but 
his  work  still  lives.  In  England  to-day. 
Dairy  Shorthorns  are  more  numerous 
than  any  other  dairy  breed,  and  they  are 
to  be  found  on  much  of  the  highest-priced 
land  in  that  country,  thus  demonstrating 
their  utility  as  profit  producers.  When 
we  examine  the  pedigrees  of  these  cattle, 
we  find  that  most  of  them  run  back,  more 
or  less  directly,  to  the  Kirklevington  herd, 
especially  in  the  case  of  the  bulls,  and  the 
more  Bates'  blood  to  be  found  in  a  pedi- 
gree, the  more  popular  it  is  in  the  estima- 
tion of  the  Dairy  Shorthorn  breeder. 
Well-bred  Dairy  Shorthorns  are  probably 
the  highest-priced  cattle  in  England  at 
the  present  time,  which  proves  the  truth 
of  the  statement  made  at  the  beginning  of 
this  paragraph,  that  the  work  of  Thomas 
Bates  still  lives. 

It  would  be  unfair  to  the  early  breeders 
of  Shorthorns  to  leave  the  impression  that 
Bates  was  alone  in  the  de- 
velopment of  dual  purpose 
cattle.  Such  men  as  Jonas 
Whitaker,  S  i'r  Charles 
Knightley,  and  a  number 
of  others,  developed  many 
excellent  milkers  in  the 
early  days,  and  were 
staunch  advocates  of  the 
dual  purpose  idea. 

From  what  has  been 
said,  it  will  be  seen  that 
the  Dairy  Shorthorn  has 
been  bred  in  England  ever 
since  the  breed  originated, 
and  some  one  will  probably 
be  curious  to  know  what  is 
accounted  a  reasonable 
milk  production  for  a  cow 
of  this  breed,  in  England. 
The  question  is  not  easy  to 
answer,  but,  generally 
speaking,  8,000  lbs.  milk 
per  annum  is  considered  a 
very  fair  performance.  10,- 
000  lbs.  is  regarded  as  ex- 
ceptionally   good,    but    in 

May  and   Otis 



H<')piiiatP   L'nil.    tlie    first    Dairy    Shorthorn    at    the    big    Minnesota   State  Fair  in  1015,  and  owner!   bv  a  Canadian-born   railway  leader- 

J.  J.  Hill,  of  St.  Paul. 

the  published  milk  records  we  find  a  few 
instances  each  year  of  cows  which 
exceed  13,000  pounds.  It  is  out  of 
the  question  to  deal  at  all  fully  with 
English  milk  records  for  Shorthorns  in  a 
paper  of  this  kind,  but  a  few  illustrations 
may  prove  instructive.  Darlington  Cran- 
ford  V.  averaged  slightly  over  10,000  lbs. 
of  milk  per  year  for  ten  consecutive  years. 
Darlington  Cranford  VI  averaged  12,493 
lbs.  for  five  consecutive  years  and  her 
dam  averaged  11,270  lbs.  for  five  con- 
secutive years.  The  late  George  Tay- 
lor, a  few  years  ago,  published  a  list  of 
some  thirty  cows  in  his 
herd  which  averaged  over 
10,000  lbs.  of  milk  each 
year.  In  the  Tring  Park 
herd,  seventy-four  cows 
and  heifers  averaged  6,058 
lbs.  milk  per  cow,  the  high- 
est one  giving  12,851  lbs. 
One  of  these  cows  averaged 
a,722  lbs.  of  milk  for  eight 
years,  another  one  8,675 
lbs.  for  seven  years,  and 
one  other  7,124  lbs.  for 
eleven  years.  Many  other 
records  could  be  given,  but 
enough  has  been  said  to 
give  an  idea  of  the  work  of 
the  Dairy  Shorthorn  in 


Dairy  Shorthorns  may  be  said  to  have 
existed  in  the  United  States  and  Canada 
since  the  first  importation  of  Shorthorns 
to  this  continent,  though  they  were  not 
called  by  that  name,  and  public  tests  of 
these  cattle  at  state  fairs  ha-ve  been  car- 
ried on  for  a  considerable  number  of  years. 
At  the  World's  Columbian  Exposition  in 
Chicago  in  1893,  Shorthorns  made  a  very 
creditable  showing  against  Jerseys  and 
Guernseys,  though  it  could  not  be  expect- 
ed that  they  would  excel  the  special  dairy 
breeds.  One  thing  is  certain,  however,  the 

Alberta's  Gov 
the  arr 

ernment   herds  are  doing  good   things.      Namijig 

ivals  are  Butterfly  King,  Lady  Mckay  3rd.  Lady 

2nd.  Sweet  Cherry  and  Glenwood  Alice. 

Columbian  test  demonstrated  beyond  all 
doubt  that  the  Shorthorn  is  a  dual-pur- 
pose breed.  In  the  two  weeks'  cheese  test, 
the  best  Jersey  cow  produced  70.93  lbs. 
cheese  at  a  net  profit  of  $6.97,  and  the 
best  Shorthorn  cow  produced  60.56  cheese 
at  a  net  profit  of  $6.27.  In  the  90-day 
butter  test,  the  Shorthorn  cow,  Nora,  pro- 
duced 3,679.8  lbs.  of  milk  from  which  was 
made  160.57  lbs.  butter,  and  the  best  Jer- 
sey, Brown  Bessie,  produced  3,634  lbs. 
milks  from  which  was  made  216.66  lbs. 
butter.  During  the  90  days  Nora  gained 
115  lbs.  in  weight,  and  Brown  Bessie  81 
lbs.  In  the  30-day  but- 
ter test,  the  Shorthorn 
cow,  Kitty  Clay  IV.,  pro- 
duced 1,592.8  lbs.  milk 
and  62.24  lbs.  butter, 
gaining  28  lbs.  in  weight  in 
the  30  days. 

If  space  permitted,  the 
work  of  the  Dairy  Short- 
horn at  various  American 
Experimental  Stations 
could  be  reviewed  with  ad- 
vantage to  the  breed,  but 
we  must  close  the  Amer- 
ican pljase  of  the  question 
with  a  reference  to  a  prom- 
i  n  e  n  t ,  privately-owned 
herd,  that  of  Messrs.  May 
&  Otis,  of  Pennsylvania. 
From  their  catalogue  we 
Contineud   on   page    104 

from   the  left 

Is  it  True  That  on  the  Average  Farm  $i,000  is  Spent  in  Farm  Machinery  for 

Every  $50  Spent  in  House  Equipment? 

THE  farmer  usually  comes  in  for 
some  harsh  criticism  when  the  sub- 
ject of  house  conveniences  and 
power  machinery  in  the  farm  home  are 
being  discussed.  It  is  true  that  on  the 
average  about  $1,000  is  spent  in  farm 
machinery  for  every  $50  or  $75  in  house 
equipment  and  also  that  the  improve- 
ments in  the  farm  home  have  not  kept 
pace  with  the  rapid  strides  in  developing 
field  machinery.  Now  the  farmer  is  not  to 
be  blamed  for  this.  Farmers  as  a  class 
are  not  mean,  it  isn't  that  they  do  not 
treat  their  wives  and  daughters  kindly  or 
think  of  their  conveniences,  it  isn't  even 
indifference.  Is  it  not  possible  that  our 
own  educational  efforts  have  in  the  past 
been  a  little  one-sided  in  this  respect? 
Agricultural  Colleges  have  been  pretty 
faithful  in  showing  the  farmer  men  how 
to  grow  more  and  better  crops  and  live- 
stock; county  representatives  all  over 
have  done  the  same  and  in  addition  spend 
at  least  two  months  in  every  year  with 
rural  school  fairs  teaching  the  farm 
children  agriculture  and  six  weeks  with 
farmers'  sons  at  short  courses.  This 
arrangement  has  been  very  successful  and 
satisfactory  as  far  as  it  went  but  un- 
fortunately the  farmer  women  seem  to 
have  been  overlooked  in  this  program  of 
things  and  their  problems  were  not  given 
the  consideration  and  study  they  so  well 
deserve.  The  Institutes'  Branch  of  the 
Ontario  Department  of  Agriculture  see- 

By    J.     W.     STARK 

Pressure   tank   for   water   system 

in    the  far 

ing  this  gap  in  the  very  foundation  of  our 
rural  development  structure  have  jumped 
into  the  breach  and  their  scheme  of  co- 
operating with  the  Macdonald  Institute, 
O.A.C.,  Guelph,  to  put  on  short  courses 
for  farmers'  wives  and  daughters  in 
every  county  seems  to  suit  the  need  ex-  ■ 
actly.  At  the  same  time  some  responsi- 
bility rests  with  the  women  themselves, 
they  must  study  their  own  problems  and 
make  their  wants  known. 


In  pioneer  days  men  and  women  all 
worked  together,  both  in  the  fields  and  in 
the  home,  sharing  alike  the  then  neces- 
sary privations  of  country  life.  It  used  to 
be  "nip  and  tuck"  to  supply  the  plain  food 

Gasoline  engine  doing  the  worli  of  four  people  at  once. 

and  homespun  clothing  for  the  family  and 
keep  even  with  the  mortgage.  There  was 
nothing  left  for  education  or  anything 
else.  Labor  was  the  cheapest  of 
all  commodities,  so  conveniences 
were  not  thought  of.  But  those 
"good  old  days"  are  past,  and  now 
money  is  more  plentiful  on  the 
farm.  Indeed,  it  is  doubtful 
whether  it  wi'll  ever  be  as  scarce 
again,  hence  that  should  no  longer 
stand  in  the  way  of  power  machin- 
ery in  the  farm  home.  One  Insti- 
tute worker  expressed  it  that  a 
better  understanding'  of  home  con- 
veniences is  needed  more  than  the 
money  to  pay  for  them.  Nobody 
has  ever  told  farmers  exactly  how  to  go 
about  these  things — that's  the  trouble. 


Before  going  into  the  details  of  the 
subject  a  word  on  the  importance  of  power 
machinery  in  the  farm  home  should  not  be 
out  of  place.  Any  woman's  time  has  a 
cash  value  at  so  much  per  hour  the  same 
as  a  man's.  Whatever  can  be  done  then  to 
increase  her  efficiency  by  doing  more  work 
in  less  time  should,  from  a  cold  business 
point  of  view  alone,  be  a  good  investment, 
to  say  nothing  of  her  added  time  for 
recreation,  and  the  education  of  her  chil- 
dren. Farm  women  are  generally  hard 
workers.  The  writer  has  a  personal 
knowledge  of  cases  where  boys  left 
the  farm  not  because  they  themselves 
had  to  slave  away  from  five  till  nine, 
but  because  their  mothers  had  so 
much  to  do,  and  when  there  seemed  to  be 
no  remedy  for  it  the  niental  picture  of  his 
future  wife  haggard  and  tired  from  farm 
work,  drove  the  young  -man  to  the  office 
or  factory.  The  initial  expenditure  for 
power  machinery  in  the  farm  home  is 
small  and  the  cost  of  running  it  is  almost 
nothing.  Then,  of  course,  it  is  used  every 
day  in  the  year  while  binders,  mowers, 
drills,  etc.,  are  not  used  for  more  than 
ten  days  in  three  hundred  and  sixty-five. 


Four  kinds  of  power  are  commonly  used 
to  drive  machinery — wind,  water,  elec- 
tricity and  engines,  gasoline  or  steam.- 
Windmills  are  chiefly  used  for 
pumping  and  chopping.  Water 
power  is  seldom  used  on  the  farm 
for  two  reasons:  first,  because 
streams  or  bodies  of  water  of  the 
proper  kind  are  not  close  at  hand; 
second,  because  in  most  cases  the 
owner  has  no  idea  that  the  water 
power  can  be  utilized  or  how  to  har- 
ness it.  Hundreds  of  farms  in  On- 
tario are  making  use  of  hydraulic 
rams  to  pump  water  and  many 
have  a  small  turbine  or  wheel  for 
power.  The  first  cost  of  construe-* 
tion  is  the  only  expense,  as  the  run- 



The  dairy   and  laundry  equipment   on   the  farm    of   W.    H.    Lobb,   near   Clinton,    Ont. 

ning  expenses  and  upkeep  are  practically 
nothing  and  every  farmer  who  has  a 
stream  or  body  of  water  with  good  fall 
should  look  into  the  matter  of  developing 
power.  Often  two  or  three  neighbors 
could  club  together  on  a  scheme  and  manu- 
facture electricity  for  both  power  and 
lighting  for  the  home  and  farm. 


Gasoline  engines  have  been  so  perfected 
to  do  good  work  and  are  so  familiar  to_ 
everyone  that  any  further  comment  here 
of  their  usefulness  is  superfluous.  Suffice 
it  to  say  that  dozens  of  firms  in  Ontario 
manufacture  them  in  all  sizes  to  meet  all 
the  demands  of  farmers  and  no  experience 
whatever  is  necessary  to  run  them.  The 
price  is  within  the  reach  of  everyone.  The 
smaller  engines  for  use  in  the  house  make 
little  noise  or  vibration  and  require  no 
special  care.  A  woman  or  child  can  easily 
start  these  small  engines  by  simply  turn- 
ing over  the  wheel  a  couple  of  times — a 
feature  that  makes  it  possible  to  use 
power  machinery  in  the  farm  home. 

THE  woman's  workshop 

On  the  farm,  the  kitchen  is  the  woman's 
general  workshop  comprising  laundry, 
dairy  and  kitchen — in  short  it  is  here 
where  75  per  cent,  of  her  work  is  done 
and  where  most  of  the  working  hours  are 
spent.  Having  in  mind  then  the  average 
farm  house  the  best  place  to  set  up  power 
machinery  is  in  this  room.  No  mention 
will  be  made  here  of  how  a  kitchen  should 
be  laid  out  or  arranged  because  each  case 
must  be  decided  independently. 


Machines  that  can  be  run  by  power  in 
the  kitchen  are:  washer  and  wringer, 
cream  separator,  churn,  pump  and  prob- 
ably smaller  ones  such  as  meat  chopper, 
coflFee  grinder,  etc.  If  one  had  a  water 
system  supplied  from  a  pressure  tank  in 
the  basement  the  pump  could  easily  be 
driven  by  a  belt  or  cog  gear  from  the  line 
shaft.  A  one  and  a  half  horse-power 
gasoline  engine  will  drive  all  these  at  once 
or  any  one  of  them  singly. 


About  twelve  different  companies  in 
Canada  manufacture  power  washers  suit- 
ed to  farm  use  and  most  of  them  give  good 

satisfaction  and  are  reasonable  in  price. 
A  good  combination  washer  and  wringer 
driven  along  with  a  cream  separator, 
churn  and  grindstone  from  one  shaft  is 
shoviTi  in  the  accompanying  cut.  It  is  a 
three-tub  machine  and  this  type  (possibly 
with  only  two  tubs)  is  especially  satis- 
factory for  farm  kitchens  where  there 
are  no  stationary  tubs  and  the  two-tub 
arrangement  gives  room  for  rinsing  and 
bluing.  The  wringer  is  made  to  slide 
back  and  forth  on  the  stand — this  saves 
lifting  the  clothes  out  of  one  tub  into  an- 
other to  pass  them  through  the  wringer. 
By  a  special  set  of  gears  it  is  made  to 
turn  forward  or  backward  or  can  be 
stopped  altogether  by  operating  a  small 
lever  at  the  side.  The  lid  of  the  washer 
can  be  lifted  from  time  to  time  to  examine 
the  clothes  without  stopping  the  engine. 
A  four-leg  stool  washing  device  rotates 
first  one  way  then  the  other  in  the  tub. 
This  is  easy  on  the  clothes,  does  not  tear 
the  finest  fabrics  and  washes  them  thor- 
oughly. Set  up  complete  with  wringer  and 
belts  ready  to  run,  this  machine  costs  $31 ; 
the  one-tub  washer  with  the  same  wringer 
is  five  dollars  less  but  is  not  as  convenient. 
Another  kind  of  washer  has  a  swinging 
wringer  which  is  very  handy,  especially 
where  one  has  stationary  tubs  side  by 
side,  though,  of  course,  it  can  be  used 
without  them.  Any  woman  can  see  at  a 
glance  how  it  will  make  the  rinsing  easier 
and  will  save  a  lot  of  heavy  lifting  and 
splashing.  All  these  washers  can  be 
driven  by  either  electric  motor  or  gasoline 
engine.  ^  ''  ^^ 

Ordinarily  power  washers  will  always 
be  in  the  same  place  in  the  room  and  it  is 
often  practicable  to  have  a  pipe  through 
the  floor  from  the  tub  to  take  away  the 
dirty  water  and  thus  save  drawing  it  out 
into  pails  and  lifting  them  up  to  the  sink. 
If  such  a  pipe  cannot  be  used  the  drain  tap 
should  be  tight  yet  easily  turned,  a  wooden 
peg  is  always  a  nuisance  and  continually 
.  drips  water  on  the  floor.  One  company 
makes  an  adjustable  height  platform 
where  the  legs  can  be  shortened  or 
lengthened  to  suit  the  user,  thus  doing 
away  with  bending  or  cramped  positions. 

A  special  power  churn  is  not  required^ — 
just  the  old  hand  barrel   churn  with   a 

pulley  on  it,  answers  the  purpose  equally 
well.  It  should  be  braced  with  a  board  or 
fastened  to  the  floor  in  some  way  to  keep 
the  belt  tight  and  that  is  all  that  is  neces- 
sary. Any  of  the  small  hand  cream  sepa- 
rators can  also  be  driven  by  a  belt  if  a 
pulley  is  attached  where  the  crank  goes 
on.  With  most  cream  separators  full 
speed  should  be  raised  gradually  and 
there  should  be  some  means  of  doing  this. 
With  the  one  used  in  the  writer's  home,  a 
small  jack  or  clutch  pulley  was  bought. 
It  works  splendidly  and  gives  the  proper 
speed  but  is  rather  expensive,  costing 
about  ten  dollars.  A  cheaper  and  almost 
as  convenient  way  is  to  have  a  double 
pulley  on  the  separator,  one  loose  and  one 
tight,  and  by  sliding  the  belt  slowly  from 
the  former  to  the  latter  the  desired  speed 
can  be  reached  gradually.  The  separator 
in  question  has  a  suspended  bowl  and  gave 
us  no  trouble,  but  on  general  principles 
one  that  is  held  at  both  ends  should  be 
more  satisfactory  and  there  would  be  no 
danger  of  wobbling. 


Water  supply  on  the  farm  is  a  too  large 
subject  to  be  treated  here  and  no  mention 
will  be  made  of  details  of  plumbing.  A 
well  near  the  house  with  the  pipe  inside 
and  a  cistern  pump  attached  is  commonly 
seen.  Ordinarily,  water  in  the  kitchen  is 
used  in  small  quantities  frequently,  rather 
than  in  large  amounts,  hence  there  would 
be  little  advantage  of  having  an  engine 
attached  to  pump,  though  it  could  be  done 
if  the  special  circumstances  required  it. 
Another  system  is  to  have  water  piped 
from  a  tank  in  the  barn.  The  disadvant- 
age of  this  method  is  that  the  water  is  not 
always  as  fresh  as  it  should  be,  then,  of 
course,  scarcely  half  the  farmers  have  a 
water  tank  of  this  kind  even  in  the  barn. 
The  best  water  supply  for  the  house  is  the 
pressure  tank,  which  could  be  located  in 
the  kitchen  but  is  usually  placed  in  the 
basement.  Without  going  too  much  into 
detail  these  tanks  are  made  of  boiler  plate 
in  different  sizes.  The  tank  is  partly  filled 
with  water,  the  remainder  being  com- 
pressed air.  By  means  of  a  pump  the  air 
pressure  is  made  strong  enough  to  force 
the  water  to  any  part  of  the  house.  Some 
use  a  hand  pump  but  it  could  easily  be 
made  to  drive  from  the  engine  and  a  pres- 

Continued  on  page  72 

When  You  Build  Your  Barns 

Some  Ideas  on  t'he  Whole  Business  of  Building,  Which  May  Help  Out  Some 

Farmer  This  Summer. 

I  AM  going  to  do  my  best  to  tell  the 
readers  how  to  select  a  site,  select  ma- 
terials, decide  which  type  of  barn  is 
best  suited  to  each  man's  particular  re- 
quirements and  give  sufficient  structural 
details  as  will  enable  the  farmers  to  in- 
spect the  work  as  it  progresses,  in  an  intel- 
ligent manner.  Long  ago  I  decided  that  it 
was  an  impossibility  to  give  help  that 
would  be  of  such  a  character  as  would  al- 
low of  application  to  each  particular  case. 
A  general  outline  of  what  -constitutes  a 
good  barn  is  of  more  use  than  a  long  de- 
tailed description  of  some  barn  that  has 
recently  been  erected  by  a  leading  farmer. 
This  man  may  have  a  building  that  just 
fits  in  right  with  his  methods  and  re- 
quirements, but  in  nine  cases  out  of  ten 
the  farmer  who  copies  this  barn  will  find 
that  it  does  not  suit  him  in  many  ways. 
The  one  and  only  way  to  assist  in  the  de- 
sign of  farm  buildings  is  to  give  standard 
dimensions  and  show  how  stables  can  be 
laid  out  so  as  to  save  steps. 

Farmers  often  say  that  they  intend  to 
build  a  barn  to  a  certain  size  and  ask  for 
a  stable  plan  for  this  barn.  This  is  en- 
tirely wrong.  Find  how  many  stalls  are 
required,  lay  out  the  passages  and  then 
inclose  this  plan  with  walls.  Do  not  for- 
get the  barn.  Make  it  large  enough  to 
hold  the  greatest  crop  you  are  likely  to 
raise,  and  do  not  forget  that  you  will 
raise  more  on  the  same  farm  after  the 
new  barn  is  up.  Chores  are  done  much 
easier,  consequently  more  animals  are 
kept,  and  as  the  manure  is  better  saved 
the  farm  becomes  much  more  productive. 
In  figuring  space  in  the  barn,  allow  512 
cubic  feet  per  ton  for  hay  in  a  mow  (not 
pressed) . 


By  keeping  careful  records.  Agricul- 
tural Engineers  have  found  that  if  the 
buildings  on  a  farm  of  160  acres  are 
placed  at  one  corner  there  are  942  horse- 
miles  and  771  man-miles  travelled  in  one 
year  going  to  and  from  the  fields.  If  the 
farm  be  nearly  square  and  the  buildings 
be  placed  midway  between  the  two  corners 
along  one  of  the  boundaries  and  the  fields 
worked  in  the  same  manner,  a  saving  of 
something  like  482  miles  is 
effected.  This  means  that 
about  24  days'  time  is  lost 
in  going  to  and  from  the 
year's  work.  Worth  saving, 
is  it  not? 

While  it  is  possible  to 
build  a  good  basement  barn 
at  a  location  where  no  hill 
or  bank  exists,  yet  on  ac- 
count of  drainage  and  the 
approaches  being  cheaply 
and  easily  arranged  for  in 
a  side  hill  site,  such  a  posi- 
tion   is    to    be    preferred. 

By    A.    A.     GILMORE 

A  type  of  stable  window  that  is  cheap, 
safe,  gives  plenty  of  light,  and  has  a  ven- 
tilating section   that  ne,ver  swells   shut. 

The  following  article  is  given  for  the  henefit 
of  the  man  iclio  intends  buildiing  commodious 
buildings  on  his  stock  farm.  In  the  November 
issue  we  had  an  article  on  cheaper  buildings  for 
prairie  farms  that  contained  much  useful  ad- 
vice. This  article  can  be  made  equally  as  ser- 
viceable. No  man  should  build  icithout  count- 
ing the  cost.  The  charges  of  interest  against 
big,  overloaded  structures  often  undo  the 
farmer,  but  to  the  intensive  farmer  the  need  of 
good  buildings  to  save  feed,  labor  and  wear, 
often  appeals  strongly,  and  to  him  this  inill 
carry  some  useful  ideas. 


Here  nature  looks  after  the  carrying  off 
of  the  water,  and  little  or  no  grading  is 
required  for  the  approaches. 

Have  the  long  axis  of  the  building  ex- 
tending north  and  south  and  if  possible 
build  on  the  south-eastern  slope  of  the 
hill.  This  arrangement  insures  the  early 
morning  sun  streaming  through  the  east- 
ern windows,  and  does  wonders  to  cheer 
up  the  whole  stable.  The  same  thing 
takes  place  in  the  late  afternoon  when  the 
light  is  most  desirable,  for  during  the  mid- 

Windows  In   P.  W.  Gibson's  stable  in   Pickering.     The  top   half  swings  In. 
His  stable  under  his  steel  barn  is  well  lighted. 

die  of  the  day  the  light  is  strong  and  suf- 
ficient comes  from  the  few  windows  that 
can  be  placed  in  the  south  end.  Sunlight 
banishes  disease.  It  is  cheap  and  is  easily 
obtained.  Placing  the  barn  in  this  posi- 
tion gives  a  nice  barnyard  on  the  east  side 
where  the  building  forms  the  shelter  from 
the  west  wind,  and  a  concrete  fence  can 
be  built  on  the  north  side  and  will  com- 
plete the  protection. 


On  gravel  or  any  other  well-drained 
ground  the  barn  walls  may  be  built  on  the 
top  of  the  ground  with  safety,  after  the 
grass  sod  and  roofs  are  removed.  Where 
clay  or  other  damp  soils  are  found,  it  will 
be  necessary  to  excavate  to  a  depth  to 
insure  being  below  frost.  This  trench  may 
be  18  in.  to  24  in.  vdde,  and  should  be 
filled  with  field  stones  and  concrete.  This 
concrete  may  be  mixed  one  part  cement 
with  nine  parts  of  gravel.  Put  in  all  the 
stones  possible,  but  be  sure  that  concrete 
surrounds  each.  In  damp  locations  where 
this  trench  is  required  it  will  be  necessary 
to  lay  a  drain  around  the  wall  just  on  the 
outside  of  the  foundation.  Above  the 
drain  fill  with  small  stone  or  gravel. 


Stone  walls  take  up  too  much  space, 
cost  a  lot  to  erect,  and  conduct  the  mois- 
ture through  the  walls.  I  cannot  advise 
the  use  of  this  material  for  walls  of  any 
building  that  is  not  to  be  furred  and 
lathed  and  plastered. 

Although  many  walls  are  being  built 
with  solid  concrete  work,  yet  this  also 
makes  no  provision  for  insulating  the  in- 
side from  the  outer  portion.  Where  a  hol- 
low centre  is  made,  then  concrete  will 
make  a  desirable  wall. '  It  takes  little 
space  off  the  stable  and  is  cheap  and  easy 
to  erect.  Hollow  concrete  blocks  make  a 
good  wall,  but  the  facing.  When  the  same 
on  all  the  blocks,  has  a  tiresome  appear- 

Of  all  the  wall  materials  that  we  have 
at  our  disposal,  I  am  satisfied  that  the 
tile  block  is  the  best.  This  gives  a  perfect- 
ly dry  wall  and  at  the  same  time  does  not 
take  up  any  more  and  in  many  cases  less 
space  than  the  concrete  wall.  The  blocks 
that  I  recommend  for  any 
of  my  work  are  those  that 
allow  of  three  thicknesses 
of  wall  being  built  from 
the  same  block.  This  is 
done  by  turning  it  different 
ways.  These  widths  are  8 
in.,  12  in.  and  16  in.,  and 
the  block  has  projecting 
portions  which  firmly  bind 
it  into  the  wall  with  the 
block  under  and  the  one 
above.  Special  blocks  are 
made  for  door  sides  and  to . 
Continued  on  page  97    . 



The   Birthplace  of  a  Chicken 

Continued  from  page  21 

galvanized  iron  pipes.  There  should  be  a 
sufficient  number  of  windows  to  light  the 
cellar  fairly  well,  so  that  the  work  may  be 
carrned  on  in  comfort,  but  the  cellar 
should  be  kept  reasonably  cool — about  55 
degrees  is  about  the  best  temperature, 
although  it  may  range  from  45  degrees 
to  65  degrees,  quite  safely. 

Moisture  is  another  matter  of  the  first 
importance.  One  of  the  best  makes  of  in- 
cubators is  fitted  with  a  "sand  tray"  to 
supply  moisture,  but  in  all  makes  of  ma- 
chines, I  think  some  moisture  should  be 
supplied,  whether  the  directions  call  for 
it  or  not.  A  flat  saucer,  or  pan,  in  the 
bottom  of  the  incubator,  kept  filled  with 
water  at  all  time^,  will  be  of  advantage  in 
keeping  the  air  moist,  and  if  your  cellar 
has  a  cement  floor  it  should  be  thoroughly 
wet  by  sprinkling  with  water  daily.  One 
soon  becomes  expert  at  telling  whether 
sufficient  moisture  is  being  supplied  by 
candling  the  eggs,  and  noting  the  size  of 
the  air-cell.  An  hygrometer  is  useful  in 
registering  the  moisture  in  the  egg-cham- 
ber if  you  can  buy  one  without  too  great 
an  outlay. 


In  some  incubator  directions  we  are  told 
to  keep  up  a  higher  temperature  in  the 
machines  in  cold  weather  than  in  warm. 
I  have  found  it  a  safe  rule,  however,  to 
run  the  incubator  at  102  degrees  the  first 
five  days,  and  at  103  degrees 'thereafter, 
except  on  the  last  two  days  when  the 
temperature  rises  from  the  body  heat  of 
the  chicks,  without  any  change  in  the 
regulator;  at  this  time  104  degrees,  or 
even  104^2  degrees  is  allowable,  but  never 
allow  the  thermometer  to  register  over 
105  degrees.  The  heat  should  be  careful- 
ly regulated  and  should  be  running  evenly 
at  102  degrees  before  the  eggs  are  put  in, 
in  the  first  place.  It  may  take  as  much 
as  12  hours  for  the  eggs  to  warm  up,  and 
the  regulator  may  lift  before  the  proper 
temperature  is  reached,  but  if  allowed  to 
remain  as  it  is,  it  will  finally  settle  down 
to  business.  Great  care  should  be  exercised 
in  testing  the  thermometers  before  the 
hatch  starts;  compare  them  with  a  ther- 
mometer you  know  to  be  correct  by  hold- 
ing them  side  by  side  in  warm  water,  at 
about  103  degrees.  Borrow  your  doctor's 
clinical  thermometer  if  you  have  none  that 
you  can  rely  upon. 

On  the  evening  of  the  eighteenth  day 
close  the  door  of  the  incubator,  and  do 
not  open  it  again  until  the  hatch  is  over, 
except  to  remove  the  moisture  pans  at  the 
same  time  that  you  put  in  the  nursery 
trays.  After  the  last  healthy  chick  is 
hatched,  and  the  eggs  and  egg  shells  re- 
moved, which  should  be  about  six  hours 
before  the  end  of  the  21  days,  allow 
the  chicks  to  remain  in  the  incubator, 
in  the  nursery  trays,  for  24  or  36  hours 
longer.  If  yours  is  a  so-called  "moisture 
machine,"  dry  the  chicks  off,  or  "harden 
them  off,"  by  'opening  the  ventilators  and 
opening  the  door  of  the  incubator  a  crack. 
If  the  chicks  move  to  the  back  of  the  in- 
cubator you  may  know  that  you  are  giv- 

ing them  too  much  air,  and  should  close 
up  the  crack  a  little.  Do  not  give  them 
feed  or  vjater  while  in  the  incubator  and 
keep  the  inside  of  the  machine  dark  so 
that  they  cannot  pick  at  each  other  or 
pick  up  small  pieces  of  dirt.  Also  do  not 
give  any  feed  for  a  day  after  they  are 
put  into  the  brooder — of  until  they  are  at 
least  48  hours  old. 


The  testing  of  the  eggs  is  an  important 
matter  and  should  be  carefully  attended 
to.  A  little  experience  gives  one  great 
skill,  but  when  beginning  it  is  better  to 
err  on  the  safe  side,  and  leave  doubtful 
eggs  in  the  incubators,  marking  them  for 
further  inspection.  If  the  eggs  are  white 
shelled  they  should  be  tested  on  the  fifth 
day;  if  brown  shelled  the  first  test  should 
be  delayed  until  the  eighth  day.  All  in- 
fertile eggs,  or  eggs  that  are  cloudy,  or 
show  a  dead  germ  should  be  removed  at 
this  testing— the  infertile  eggs  still  being 
fit  to  use  for  cooking,  or  to  feed  to  the 
chicks — hard-boiled.  The  second  testing 
should  be  done  on  the  15th  day,  and  all 
eggs  with  germs  that  have  died  since  th« 
first  test  should  be  removed.  This  is  im- 
portant as  the  heat  of  the  incubator  will 
soon  turn  these  into  the  worst  kind  of 
rotten  eggs,  and  they  will  pollute  the  air 
of  the  egg-chamber. 

Before  each  and  every  hatch  disinfect 
the  incubator  thoroughly — every  spot  in 
it,  by  first  scrubbing  all  the  parts  you 
can  get  at,  then  spraying  all  the  cracks 
and  corners,  in  both  cases  using  a  10  per 
cent,  solution  of  a  strong  coal-tar  disinfec- 
tant, such  as  "Carbonal,"  "Zenoleum," 
etc.  If  you  have  reason  to  fear  that  your 
flock  is  infected  with  the  deadly  "Bacil- 
lary  white  diarrhea,"  the  eggs  may  be 
dipped  in  a  very  weak  solution  of  bich- 
loride of  mercury,  a  poison,  before  setting; 
this,  I  am  told,  has  a  marked  effect  in 
checking  the  disease,  but  having  had  not 
the  slightest  trouble  with  this  infection 
on  my  farm,  I  cannot  speak  from  experi- 

Last,  but  not  least,  the  eggs  that  go 
into  the  incubator!  If  one  does  not  set 
eggs  from  healthy  two-year-old  hens,  of 
high  constitutional  vigor,  mated  to  a  suf- 
ficient number  of  cockerels  of  a  like  vigor 
and  health,  and  kept  under  proper  condi- 
tions, the  most  scientific  management  of 
the  incubator  can  not  be  expected  to  bring 
forth  good  results.  Do  not  keep  the  eggs 
too  long  before  setting.  Best  results  vnW 
be  had  from  eggs  not  over  one  week  old 
that  have  been  kept  in  a  cool  place,  away 
from  draughts,  and  not  below  50  degree 
in  temperature.  Use  clean  eggs  as  far  as 
possible,  and  the  best  way  to  do  this  is  to 
have  your  hen-house  floors  and  nest  holes 
scrupulously  clean  during  the  breeding 
season,  using  litter  and  nest-material 
that  is  clean  and  free  from  mould.  Soiled 
eggs  may  be  carefully  washed  by  spong- 
ing them  off  with  a  damp  cloth  and  then 
covering  them  over  with  a  piece  of  cotton 
so  that  rapid  evaporation  will  not  chill 
them.      Chilled  eggs   have  no  chance  to 

hatch.  The  germ  dies  about  the  third 
day  of  incubation,  on  candling  showing 
as  a  red  circle,  called  a  "blood-ring."  For 
this  reason,  in  cold  weather,  eggs  should 
be  gathered,  from  the  nests  often  enough 
to  preclude  all  chance  of  chilling. 

Heat,   Water   and 

Continued  from,  page  38 

A  cesspool  is  a  dangerous  thing  at  any 
time  in  any  locality  because  one  never 
knows  when  danger  is  at  hand.  The  dan- 
ger is  "out  of  sight  and  out  of  mind," 
until  death  or  long  suffering  has  asserted 
itself.  The  farmer  with  a  cesspool  on  his 
property  is  in  the  same  position  as  he 
whose  house  is  built  on  top  ©f  a  volcano; 
he  never  knows  when  an  eruption  may 


The  next  thing  to  be  considered  is  that 
of  efficient  heating  and  ventilating  of  the 
farm  home.  This  can  be  done  in  various 
ways:  by  hot  water,  steam  or  warm  air, 
all  of  which  are  far  superior,  as  well  as 
much  more  economical,  than  the  ordinary 
heater.  These  furnaces  can  be  filled  up 
at  a  very  reasonable  cost  so  as  to  maintain 
a  uniform  heat  at  all  times;  clock  attach- 
ments with  temperature  controlling  de- 
vices can  be  procured  which  will  keep  the 
temperature  at,  say,  70  degrees  from  4 
.  a.m.  to  10  p.m.  and  then  allow  the  heat 
to  drop  to  any  lower  temperature  for  6 
hours  from  10  p.m.  to  4  a.m.  The  cost  is 
very  moderate  and  will  save  time  as  well 
as  fuel. 


Having  dealt  with  those  appliances 
which  may  be  acquired  and  installed  on  a 
farm  home,  it  will  be  well  to  describe  them 
more  minutely  and  to  point  out  the  most 
essential  features  which  should  be  em- 
bodied in  them.  The  pneumatic  water 
system  takes  first  place.  When  these  water 
systems  were  first  placed  upon  the  mar- 
ket, they  did  not  give  the  service  and 
satisfaction  which  was  expected  of  them. 
This  was  due  to  several  causes.  First,  the 
steel  tanks  were  built  by  the  ordinary 
boiler  manufacturer,  and  while  made 
strong  enough,  tested  to  as  high  as  200 
lbs.  water  pressure,  yet  when  used  as 
pneumatic  tanks,  proved  to  be  an  abso- 
lute failure.  The  next  thing  was  the  pump. 
These  were,  in  most  cases,  splendid  force 
and  lift  pumps,  and  as  far  as  the  pumping 
of  water  went,  they  worked  well;  but 
here  another  question  came  to  the  fore. 
The  water  being  pumped  into  the  tank, 
with  every  outlet  shut  off  tight,  caused  the 
air  in  the  tank  to  be  compressed.  When 
the  tank  was  half  full  of  water  the  pres- 
sure gauge  would  register  about  30  lbs. 
When  two-thirds  full,  45  lbs.  pressure 
would  be  shown  on  the  gauge,  but  here 
the  trouble  began.  In  the  first  place,  the 
tanks  have  to  be  specially  tested,  not  only 
with  water  but  also  with  air,  and  the 
joints  and  seams  have  to  be  coated  with 
soap  lather. 

Continued  in  next  issue. 




Market    Centre    Province 


is  the 

Profitable  and 
Wise  Location 
For  Your  Farm 

WHEAT  PER  ACRE,  1915. 


Manitoba,  has  just  harvested  another  of  her  wonderful 
crops.  Elevators  everywhere  are  filled  to  the  shingles  with 
wheat  and  overflowing  into  field  bins.  A  great  quantity  still 
remains  to  be  threshed.  The  average  yield  of  wheat  for  the 
entire  province  is  26.4  bushels  per  acre;  but  whole  districts 
have  yielded  40  bushels  per  acre,  and  some  yields  run  to  60 
bushels  per  acre. 

Conditioii.5  generally  in  this  rich  province  are  most 
optimistic,  and  everything  points  to  another  big  crop  in  191G 
Here  are  the  figures  for  Manitoba's  1915  Grain  Crop: 

Crop,   1915 —  Area  Acres 

Spring  wheat    3,660,930 

Fall  wheat  , 3,351 

All  wheat 3,664,281 

Oats    • 2,121,845 

Barley   1,039,849 


Winnipeg,  tlie  capital  city,  is  the  gieatest  piimaiy 
gi-ain  market  in  ihe  world.  It  i.s  the  tremendous 
wheat  spout  for  the  whole  of  Western  Canada.  It 
is  the  pivotal  point  for  five  railioad  systems,  with 
22  branche.s— IG.OOJ  miles  of  double  track  and  wide 
transportation  facilities.  It  is  firmly  entrenched  for  all 
time  to  come  as  the  market  centre  of  Westera  Can- 
a-^'a.  because  of  its  geographical  position,  where  con- 
ditions have  Settled  and  organized  on  a  substantial 

The  farmer,  even  on  tlie  outer  boundaries,  gamers 
a  cash  saving  on  every  fai-m  product  •  in  shorter 
freight,  haul  to  market.  This  saving  has  been  esti- 
mated as  between  $1.20  and  $1.80  per  year  for  each 

Wheat  is  ripe  in  Manitoba  about  18  days  earlier 
tlian    ynywhere    else    in    Western    Panada.      Oats    are 


ripe  from  10  to  20  days  earlier.  Barley  is  ripe 
P".  20  to  22  da.vs  earlier.  This  means  that 
the  Manitoba  crops  are  away  to  market  before  grain 
congestion  can  clog  tiansportation  channels,  and 
while  the  market  price  is  at  the  top. 
There  is  in  operation  a  network  of  telephone  lines, 
which  reach  every  niral  district,  giving  broadcast 
connections.  This  comprehensive  telephone  system 
is  owned  by  the  Government,  and  brings  the  .Mani- 
toba fanner  into  constant  touch  with  the  daily 
market   reports. 

The  Government  is  constantly  on  the  alert  to  help 
the  Manitoba  farmer  in  practical  ways  that  mean 
dollars   to  him. 


Improved   farms  can  be  had  at  from  !S2.5  (o 








Total  Yield 











.185  per  acre,  according  to  ImprovemeDts 
and  distance  from  marliet.  In  all  parts  of 
the  Province  e-vcellent  rich  lands  and  fine 
liuildingrs  are  common. 

JIany  free  homesteads  of  160  acres  each  are 
available  in  rich  Mixed  Farming  sections 
of  Manitoba,  and  the  man  who  desires  to 
homestead  cannot  do  better  than  in  Mani- 

With  the  richest  land,  the  great,  saving  in 
freight,  the  earlier  matnrit.v  of  grain,  the 
settled  and  substantial  general  conditions, 
the  low  price  of  land,  etc.,  MANITOBA  de- 
serves .vonr  careful  consideration. 

Hon.  Valentine  Winkler 




.xr.mitobft's  elevators  are  overflowing  with  a  tremendous  crop 







Like-wise  at 
St.  Louis,    1904  Buffalo,     1901 

Pans,  1900  Chicago,    1893 

And  every  world's  exposition  since  1879 

De  Laval  DairySupplyCo.,  limited 


Better  Grain  Grinding 

The"M-RE/'  Grinder 

The  Patented  "M-Re"  Grinder  is  a  big  and  long-desired 
improvement  in  grinding  machines.  In  place  of  Steel 
Plates  or  Discs  the  "M-Re"  Grinder  uses  Emerywheels. 
This  new  departure  is  an  advance  over  other  methods, 
and  is  entirely  satisfactory.  It  is  by  no  means  an  experi- 
ment, but  has  been  tried  out  and  severely  tested  by  well- 
known  farmers  and  prominent  millers  with  excellent 

Every  machine  is  designed  and  built  of  the  best  material 
produced  by  expert  workmanship.  Remember,  too,  that 
an  "M-Re"  wheel  will  outlast  three  steel  wheels  or  discs. 

Let  us  send  you  further  particulars  of  this  new  wonderful 
machine.  Write  to  the  Plessisvllle  Foundry,  agents  for 
The  M-Re  Grinder,  Ltd. 

The  JVI-RE,  Grinder,  Limited 


Canada      S"  ami   lO"   Grinder  for   Farmers 

Managing  a  Dairy 

Continued  from  page  19 

expenses  for  repairs  and  breakages,  mak 
the  question  a  hard  one  to  solv( 
The  fact  is  that  most  of  the  harvest 
ing  machinery  is  owned  by  indi 
vidua!  farmers,  and  the  threshing  an 
silo-filling  machinery  by  specialists  wh 
make  this  their  business  and  hire  them 
selves  and  their  machines  to  farmers  a 
so  much  per  hour  or  day;  or,  in  the  cas 
of  threshing,  at  so  much  per  bushel,  i 
few  farmers  have  co-operated  in  this  ma1 
ter  but  the  custom  is  not  general. 


As  a  general  rule,  no.  The  dairy  f  arme 
who  can  grow  all  the  necessary  feed  o; 
his  own  farm  and  furnish  all  the  neede 
fertilizers  from  the  farmyard  is  in  th 
best  position  to  make  his  farm  pay.  A 
there  are  exceptions  to  nearly  all  rule 
so  there  are  to  this  one.  If  a  man  is  shor 
on  concentrates  or  meals,  he  may  purchas 
to  supplement  home  grown,  rather  tha 
allow  the  stock  to  become  run-down 
condition  or  drop  in  milk-flow.  He  ma 
also  sell  grain  at  times  and  buy  feedin 
stuffs  like  bran,  middlings,  cottonsee 
meal,  linseed-cake,  gluten  meal,  etc. 

As  an  example,  it  is  estimated  that  oaf 
are  worth  about  ten  per  cent,  more  tha 
wheat  bran  for  milk  production.  Whei 
ever  oats  are  worth  over  ten  per  cen' 
more  than  bran,  it  would  pay  to  sell  oat 
and  buy  bran.  As  a  concrete  example 
sujjpose  oats  are  worth  fifty  cents  pe 
bushel  as  Ihey  were  during  the  winter 
1914-15,  that  is  at  the  rate  of  practical! 
$30  per  ton.  If  bran  could  be  purchas 
at  $27  per  ton  or  less,  it  would  probabl 
pay  to  sell  some  oat^  and  buy  bran  f( 
part  of  the  ration,  especially  because 
the  laxative  effect  of  the  bran  in  the  cai 
of  cows  not  receiving  plenty  of  roots  an 

Owing  to  its  relative  cheapness,  cotto; 
seed  meal  was  one  of  the  cheapest  pu: 
chased  feeds  during  last  winter.  It 
rich  m  nitrogenous  or  muscle-forming  mi 
terial,  of  which  most  farm  feeds  are  moi 
or  less  lacking  for  milk  poduction. 

However,  we  need  to  remember  that  i 
buying  feeds  there  is  great  danger  o 
adulteration  by  means  of  weed  seeds,  etc 
which  may  be  a  menace  to  the  farm ;  an 
also  that  someone  has  to  pay  for  trans 
portation  and  commission  charges  on  a 
purchased  feeds.  Because  of  these  thing 
it  is  advised  to  grow  all  feeds  possible  o 
the  farm,  and  especially  all  bulky  feed 
or  what  are  commonly  called  "roughage, 
as  the  dangers  from  weeds  are  greatest  i 
these  and  the  transportation  charges  ar 
heavy  on  bulk  feeds. 

As  to  fertilizers,  a  man  should  exper; 
ment  on  his  own  farm  in  a  small  way  i 
order  to  ascertain  for  sure  the  value,  i 
any,  of  these  goods.  Results  in  many  d« 
partments  of  intensive  farming  clearl 
point  to  the  increased  profits  to  be  mad 
from  the  use  of  fertilizers  and  each  farme 
should  endeavor  to  find  out  just  what  hi 
soil   requires   and   not  waste  by  useles 



doses   and   become  thereby   sour   on   the 
whole  business  from  his  one  experience. 


The  final  test  of  the  value  of  continued 
farming  operations  is  seen  in  its  effects 
on  the  character  and  richness  of  the  soil. 
If  the  soil  growers  poorer,  the  methods 
may  be  regarded  as  a  failure,  no  matter 
what  the  cash  returns.  The  man  who 
"skins"  his  farm  and  then  moves  to  a 
new  location  is  a  robber.  This  is  more 
particularly  the  case  on  a  grain  farm, 
where  nearly  everjrthing  is  taken  from  the 
land  and  little  is  returned  to  the  soil.  A 
"Preacher-Farmer"  has  the  right  idea  as 
recently  reported  in  the  agricultural 
press.  He  says:  "While  devoting  much 
time  to  my  dairy,  I  never  let  other  de- 
partments of  the  farm  suffer.  I  keep  the 
general  farming  up  to  the  very  highest 

standard.  I  go  on  the  principle  that  un- 
less a  farmer  is  constantly  enriching  his 
soil  in  proportion  to  its  yield  there  will 
come  a  time  when  that  land  wouldn't  raise 
a  chinkapin.  I  make  the  land  pay  me  for 
my  labor,  but  at  the  same  time  I  give  the 
land  the  same  care  and  thought  that  I 
bestow  upon  my  herd.  To  get  good  milk 
I  feed  high.  To  get  good  crops  I  feed  the 
land,  and  I  give  it  the  best  the  market 

These  are  sound  principles  in  farming. 
To  many  farmers,  the  advice  to  "go  and 
do  likewise"  would  be  valuable  from  per- 
sonal and  national  viewpoints.  The  soil 
in  any  good  agricultural  community 
should  increase,  not  diminish  in  fertility. 
This  is  best  done  by  diversified  farming 
with  livestock,  especially  dairy  stock,  as  a 
main  feature.  "A  one-crop  people  is  al- 
ways a  primitive  people." 

Small  Tractors  on  Eastern  Farms 

Continued  from  page  24 

"I  plowed  in  all,  this  fall,  about  ninety 
acres  with  the  tractor,  hauling  a  three- 
bottom  automatic  lift  gang  plow  with  14 
inch  bottoms,  which  cuts  furrows  42  inches 
wide  each  round.  I  plowed  at  a  depth  of 
about  seven  inches. 

"Being  inquisitive  as  to  the  actual  cost 
of  the  machine  in  fuel  consumption  I  kept 
an  accurate  accounting.  It  cost  me  for 
gasoline  and  all  seventy  cents  per  acre 
and  plowed  from  seven  to  eight  acres  per 
day  of  ten  hours,  while  working  on  good 
soil  I  could  plow  an  acre  an  hour,  and 
thus  cut  the  operating  expenses  about  a 
quarter,  but  being  an  exceptionally  wet 
fall,  the  ground  was  much  tougher  to 
plow  than  ordinarily.  And  one  of  the 
beauties  I  find  with  the  tractor  is  that  it 
is  not  limited  to  the  strength  of  itself, 
but  to  that  of  the  operator.  If  I  wished, 
I  could  run  it  fifteen  hours  per  day,  and 
it  never  tired,  something  that  one  cannot 
say  of  the  horse. 

"I  do  not  think,"  continued  Mr.  Mcin- 
tosh, "that  I  could  have  plowed  with  the 
horses  for  less  than  $1.25  per  acre  and 
then  not  such  a  deep  furrow,  and  it  has 
been  my  experience  that  you  have  to 
plow  down  to  grow  good  crops.  This,  to 
my  mind,  is  one  of  the  greatest  advant- 
ages of  a  tractor — it  affords  one  to  get 
deep  where  the  good  soil  has  been  un- 
turned for  years,  and  thus  increases  crop 

"Since  finishing  my  plowing,  I  find  the 
tractor  very  satisfactory  on  the  belt,  as  it 
runs  my  ten-inch  grinder  to  its  full  capa- 
city and  does  it  easily,  without  a  hitch. 
On  the  whole,  I  can  say  that  I  am  en- 
tirely satisfied  with  the  light  tractor  as 
it  is  being  sold  in  Ontario.  It  is  heavy 
enough  to  do  the  work  on  the  average 
sized  farm,  and  still  not  too  heavy  that 
it  will  pack  the  ground,  and  I  earnestly 
think  that  it  is  the  coming  power  for  the 
average  farm  of  Eastern  Canada. 

The  ease  of  operation  of  the  present 
form  of  light  tractor  is  a  strong  point  in 
its  favor,  but  those  who  say  that  one  of 
these  machines  can  be  run  without  any 

previous  experience,  are  wrong,  and  un- 
fair to  the  buyer.  The  machine,  as  con- 
structed at  present,  is  by  no  means  a 
complicated  one,  nor  one  that  an  ordinary 
farmer  cannot  run  successfully,  having 
had  the  experience  which  a  gasoline  en- 
gine affords.  However,  it  would  be  wise 
for  a  prospective  purchaser  to  study  its 
parts  to  knew  the  functions  to  which  they 
are  put  and  to  become  familiar  with  the 
construction  of  the  machine  before  he 
attempts  to  run  it. 

The  labor  question  on  the  farm  is  a 
momentous  one.  The  drain  of  farm  hands 
caused  by  the  War,  has  made  this  problem 
more  serious  than  usual.  Help  is  scarce, 
and  yet  the  price  is  high.  The  light  trac- 
tor solves  this  problem  to  a  large  extent 
saving  money  as  well  as  aggravation.  The 
thousands  of  horses  requisitioned  for  war 
purposes  by  Allied  countries  has  made 
this,  too,  a  serious  problem  for  the  farmer 
and  the  light  tractor  is  stepping  into  the 
breach  in  a  way  unthought  of  a  year  ago. 

Mr.  Reginald  D.  Snobelin,  in  partner- 
ship with  Mr.  McKenzie,  on  their  farm  at 
Blenheim,  Ontario,  have,  during  the  past 
several  months,  put  their  light  tractor  to 
good  use  in  the  drawing  of  tile.  Mr. 
Snobelin  says  that  owing  to  it  freezing  up 
before  he  purchased  his  machine,  he  was 
unable  to  plow  with  it  in  the  fall.  "I  have 
had  the  tractor,  using  it  in  drawing  tile 
from  the  car,  back  on  the  marsh  and  I  tell 
you  she  was  chuck  full  of  pull  and  I  am 
most  delighted  with  its  working." 

Mr.  Snobelin  has  been  so  delighted  with 
his  light  tractor  that  he  is  contemplating 
holding  a  tractor  demonstration  for  the 
benefit  of  the  scores  of  interested  farmers 
in  his  neighborhood  who  are  in  line  for 
the  purchase  of  a  machine  similar  to  this 

In  summing  up;  the  light  tractor  situ- 
ation as  it  appears  in  Eastern  Canada 
and  the  reasons  why  it  will  continue  to 
grow  and  be  one  of  the  greatest  elements 
in  agricultural  production  in  a  short  time 
to  come  we  would  say  that  the  principal 
reasons  back  of  this  innovation  are  lack 

^'f^  Dutch 

Old  Dutch 


and  takes 

up  all  the 





International  Stock  Food  Tonic 

is  equally  good  for 

rows  HORSES  piGS 

THIS  famous  Tonic  is  for  all  livestock — to  make  cows  give  more  milk — to  keep 
working  horses  in  a  prime  condition — to  keep  pigs  healthy  and  promote  very  rapid 
growth  and  at  a  small  cost  of  "3  Feeds  for  One  Cent."  How  does  it  produce  Buch 
results?  International  Stock  Food  Tonic  is  prepared  from  powdered  medicinal  roots, 
herbs,  seeds  and  barks  for  the  special  purpose  of  giving  a  small  amount  with  the  usual 
grain  feed  for  each  animal.  The  pure  vegetable  ingredients  we  use  purify  the  blood, 
cure  indigestion  and  manv  other  forms  of  disease; — "tones  up"  and  "builds  up"  the 
entire  system  permanently. 

It  is  the  beat  thing  you  Ciiu  give  a  horse  for 
lOpizootif,  Indigestion,  Liver  Troii'ble,  Coughs, 
Influenza,  Hide  Bound  or  Blood  Trouble.  If 
you  have  horses  or  colts  for  .sale,  be  sure  and 
give  them  International  Sto<'k  Food  Tonic  for 
thirty  or- sixty  clays.  Its  every-day  use  will 
often  add  $50.00  to  $100.00  to  their  value  be- 
cause it  quickly  causes  them  to  greatly  im- 
prove in.  general  appearance.  International 
.stork    Food    Tonic    Is    a    wonderful    cow    tonic 

and    milk    produ<er.      It    increases     both    the 
(juality    and    quantity. 

This  famous  tonic  is  endorsed  as  the  surest 
hog  tonic  in  the  world.  Twenty-six  years'  use 
by  over  two  million  farmers  indisputably 
proves  its  extra  money  making  results. 
If  you  are  not  using  this  Reliable  Tonic  to- 
day, you  are  missing  a  whole  lot  of  actual 
profit.  Get  a  package  or  pail  at  your  dealer's. 
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It  is  put  up  in  all  sizes  :  50c.  and  $1.00  packaf/es,  .$1.50  lithographed  tins  and  25  7b.  pails  at  .$3.75 
each.    For  saile  by  Dealers  everywhere  on  a  spot  cash  puaraiitec. 

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DON'T     YOU    THINK?    it  is  time    you    got  more    money    for 

your    furs?      Put  one  of  Hoerner,  Williamson    &    Co.'s    Brown 
Tags  on  your  shipment  and  you  will  be  sure  to  get  it 

All  lines  wanted,  but  special  demand  for  MINKS,  MARTENS  and  MUSKRATS. 


Dept.  F.     376  St.  Paul  Street  West,  Montreal,  Que. 

-Farm  Account  Book 

Knoi/v  Hoiv  Much  You  Make  This  Year 

No  one  shall  pay  a  cent  for  Bickmore's  Farm  Account  Book.  Mr.  Farmer,  simply  send  us  your  name  and 
address.  Business  farming  puts  money  in  the  bank.  Ttiis  boolt  is  arranged  to  l<eep  all  accounts  in  simple 
form— more  simple,  and  cei-tainly  more  practical  than  tryingto  remember  them;  shows  what  to  charge  against 
crop  production;  has  a  laborer's  time  record;  and  section  for  personal  accounts.  64  pages;  lor  Ink  or  pencil. 
Not  a  cheap  affair.    Its  quality  is  in  keeping  with 


A  soothing,  healing  salve,  the  old-'.m  j  reliable  horse  remedy.  Horses  are  now  too  valuable  and  too  high  priced 
to  take  chances  of  losjng  their  services.  Get  full  value  out  of  yours.  Bickmore's  Gall  Cure  heals  and  cures 
Harness  and  Saddle  Galls.  Rope  Burn,  Cuts,  Scratches,  Grease  Heel,  etc.  Keeps  them  sound 
and  in  condition  for  work.  You  don't  have  to  lay  the  horse  off.  BickmoFe's  Gall  Cure 
cures  while  the  horse  works.  Great  thing  for  sore  teats  in  cows.  Look  out  tor  substitutes 
and  cheap  imitations.  Be  sure  to  ask  for  Bickmore's  Gall  Cure  at  the  store.  The  work- 
horse trade  mark  on  every  box.    Farm  Account  Book  is  ready.    Send  today. 

WINGATE  CHEMICAL  CO.,  Canadian  Distr's.  5S2  Motre  Dame  St.  W.,  Montreal,  Can 

of  good  horse-flesh,  scarcity  and  in( 
ency  of  labor,  brought  about  by  the 
a  universal  demand  for  more  power  i 
preparation  of  land  for  crops,  the 
prices  for  feed  and  the  handiness  o. 
tractor  as  manufactured  to-day.  IV 
farming,  as  practised  in  Eastern  Cai 
requires  small  acreage  and  many  fe 
an  element  with  which  the  large  tr 
of  the  West  did  not  have  to  contend. 

The  tractor  which  is  being  purcl 
in   Eastern   Canada   to-day  is  a   ge; 
purpose  one;  small,  compact  and  lighj 
is  capable  of  doing  practically  any 
on    the   farm   requiring   power,   bo 
traction  and  on  the  belt.    It  is  not  bi 
awkward,  it  will  turn  in  a  small 
it  is  not  expensive  and  can  be  ope 
successfully    without    carrying    a 
amount    of  overhead   expense   in   i 
ments  and  machinery. 

The  light-weight,  low  power,  met 
priced  farm  tractor,  as  evidenced  b 
instances  quoted  above  and  by  scor 
others  which  might  be  mentioned, 
proved  itself  a  durable  and  efficient 
chine.  Power  is  the  livest  subject  i 
agricultural  field  of  the  Dominion  to  | 
and  the  tractor  is  the  ultimate  answ 
the  question  "How  can  I  increase  my 
duction  at  the  least  expense?" 

The  Drury  of  Cro 

Continued  from  page  25 

in  the  Liverpool  open  market  or  theH 
tected  American  market.  The  resuH 
narrow  margin  of  profit  had  depopu 
the  rural  districts  and  congested 
cities.  The  basic  industry  of  Canadj 
being  starved  to  give  an  unhe 
growth  to  less  vital  industries, 
in  the  long  run  would  be  the  bette 
less  coddling.  Similarly  on  anothe 
casion  in  the  course  of  the  bitterly 
tested  campaign  in  Britain  when  it 
urged  by  the  so-called  Tariff-Refoi 
that  a  preference  to  "colonial"  pro 
of  the  farm  was  a  necessity  if  the 
ty  of  the  overseas  Dominions  was 
retained,  Mr.  Drury's  position 
equally  definite  and  manly.  In  an 
letter  to  Mr.  Lloyd  George  he  po 
out  that  any  discrimination  in  fav 
the  Canadian  farmer  presupposed  a 
on  food  stuffs  and  involved  an  incres 
the  cost  of  living  to  the  British  wor 
man.  The  loyalty  of  the  Canadian  ] 
er,  he  protested,  was  not  so  cheap 
it  could  only  be  sustained  by  a  little 
fit  made  at  the  expense  of  the  B 
working  man.  The  Canadian  fj 
was  prepared  to  compete  in  an 
market;  he  was  prepared  to  fact 
comers.  It  was  a  slander  to  allege 
he  required  any  such  favors  as  a 
for  his  remaining  true  to  the  fiag. 
It  would  be  tedious  to  review  the 
troversies  in  which  our  advocat 
farmers'  rights  has  been  involved, 
ever  at  the  present  time  when  th« 
heavy  structure  of  Canadian  indusi 
coming  down  about  our  ears  and  i 
rible  war  is  to  this  extent  welcom 



ording  relief  to  crowds  of  our  cities' 
employed  in  enlistment  or  the  manu- 
;ture  of  munitions — at  such'  a  time  one 
St  recall  how  all  this  was  shown  to  be 
e  inevitable  result  of  any  policy  which 
iled  to  recognize  the  necessity  of  en- 
araging  agriculture  by  every  possible 
;ans.  And  now  that  Ontario  agricul- 
re,  hitherto  befuddled  by  partisanship 
seeking  by  organization  to  make  itself 
ard,  as  western  agriculture  has  made 
elf  heard,  none  better  deserved  the 
nor  of  being  chosen  first  president  of 
United  Farmers  of  Ontario  than 
ury  of  Crown  Hill.  On  occasion  you 
,y  meet  him  in  Toronto  and  engage 
n  in  conversation  on  consolidated 
lools  or  church  union  or  national  de- 
ice  or  the  fiscal  policy  or  what-not  but 

doing  you  will  know  only  half  the 
n.  If  you  would  know  the  whole  man 
u  must  see  him  on  his  own  farm  with 
;  brawny  arms  bared  to  the  elbow, 
u  must  get  him  to  tell  you  what  he 
nks  of  alfalfa  or  sheep  raising  or  bee- 
'es  in  the  orchard,  or  why  he  prefers 
;  dual-purpose  cow,  or  how  he  regu- 
ed  his  water  supply  by  a  device  of  his 
invention,  or  how  he  doubled  the 
tput  on  his  farm  while  the  state  of 

labor  market  forbade  intensive  farm- 
Then  you  may  realize  what  a  busy 
n  he  is  and  why,  in  view  of  practical 
itations,  he  finds  it  difficult  to  satisfy 
once  the  claims  of  his  family  and  farm 
those  of  organized   agriculture   and 

country  at  large. 

'he  Greenhouse  as 
in  Aid  to  Farming 

'  Continued  frovi  page  22 

n  our  own  building  operations  we  pur- 
sed all  necessary  materials,  and  have 
il  steam-fitters,  carpenters,  painters, 
,  to  erect  the  structure,  these  men  being 
sted  by  everyone  in  the  place  capable 
being  of  assistance. 


^'^e  use  concrete  walls  5  inches  thick 
about  18  inches  high  where  crops  are 
3e  grown  in  the  ground,  such  as  sweet 
s,  carnations,  lettuce,  etc.  Where 
ches  are  used,  the  concrete  is  even  up 
fhtly  higher  than  the  bench. 
?he  eave  in  the  modern  house  is  about 
.  high.  Houses  constructed  especially 
sweet  peas  are  8  ft.  high  at  the  eayes. 
louses  up  to  42  ft.  in  width  constructed 
sash  bars  about  2%  in.  deep  by  1%  in. 
le,  supported  by  furlines,  or  posts  at 
ervals  of  7  to  8  ft.,  are  known  as  semi- 
construction.  Above  that  width  full 
frame  from  eave  to  ride  is  used, 
ere  appears  to  be  no  limit  to  the  size, 
ugh  I  observe  that  one  firm  near  us, 

0  have  a  house  175  ft.  wide  by  750  ft. 
g,  have  been  erecting  comparatively 
all  houses,  about  35  ft.  wide.  Recently 
have  built  a  comparatively  small  place 
en  above  size  plants  are  taken  into  con- 
eration,  and  have  no  houses  over  45  ft. 

^e  have  a  lot  of  old  houses  16  ft.  wide 

1  some  20  ft.,  and  from  experience  I 

Cork  Paving  Brick 

Solved  the 

Stall  Floor  Problem 

Away  go  the  unsanitary  wood  floors  that 
rot  so  quickly.  No  further  need  for  the 
hard,  cold,  slippery  cement  floors. 

Stock  Eaisei's  and  Dairj'men  have  long 
felt  the  need  for  a  sane,  safe,  practical 
floor  covering  without  the  disadvantages 
of  the  unsanitary,  quickly  rotting  wood 
flooring  that  often  diseases  the  hoofs  of 
the  animals,  or  the  cold,  slippery,  hard 
cement   flooring. 

No  accidents  like  this  on  Cork  Brick  Floors 

Cork  Paving  Brick  Solved 
the  Problem 

Tliey  are  thoroughly  sanitary,  wanii,  easy  under 
foot,  non-slippery,  and  REMARKABLE  FOR 
DURABILITY.  Easy  to  install  in  either  old 
'H-  new  bai-ns.  If  you  want  good  healthy,  pro- 
fitable stock,  install  CORK  PAVING  BRICK. 
SIXTl'  "cork"  bricks  will  make  .on  stall  floor. 
( )ne  thousand  bricks  will  cover  fifteen  stalls. 
The  superior  qualify  and  advantage  of  this 
flooring  is  healthier  cattle,  no  accidents  from_ 
slipping,  and  perfect  sanitation.  Cork  Bricks 
are  ideal  for  snocessfnl  dairying,  cattle  raising 
and  high-class  poultry  raising.  Easy  to  install. 
Worn  brick  easily  replacetl.  Used  by  ptpgres- 
sive  farmers,  leading  stock  owners,  Agricultural 
Colleges,  and  Government  Experimental  Fanns 
in  both  Canada  and  the  United  States. 
Write  to-day  for  sample  brick  and  full 
particulars  of  this  Ideal   Stall  Flooring. 


McGill   Bldg  .     MONTREAL,    QUE. 


.Tiist  as  the  British  Fleet  dominates  the  World's  wafers,  so  "BRUCE'S 
SEEDS"  tire  the  dominant  ones  with  the  planter  whose  living  depends  upon 
''Real    Seeds.''  .* 

It  will  be  even  more  apparent  at  this  time,  when  many  seeds  are  in  short 
supply,  that  there  will  be  moro  stocks  offered  by  unreliable  and  inex- 
perienced growers  than  in  the  past,  and  that  houses  with  long  established 
reliable  connections  5uch  as  we   possess   will   have   an   incalculable   advantage. 

Wliy  take  a  chance,  when  you  can  buy  "The  Best  Seeds  that  Grow" — 
BRUCE'S — for  very   little   more   than   so-called    "cheap"    seeds? 

It  costs  as  much  to  plant  and  care  for  poor  seeds  as  good  ones,  and  you 
have  very  meagre,   unsatisfactory  results  to  show  in   return  for  your  labor. 


Send  for  our  128  page  Catalogue  of  Seeds.  Plants,  Bulbs,  Poulti^y 
Supplies  and  Garden  Implements,  full  of  valuable  information,  which  is  now 
ready  and  will  be  mailed  FREE  to  all  applicants, 



Established  1850 


O.  A.  C.  No.  72  OATS  FOR  SALE 

Grown  from  the  best  of  ray  hand-picked  stock,  carefully  weeded  while  growing.  The  season  of 
1915.  not  only  at  Guelph,  where  the  yield  was  over  103  bushels  per  acre,  the  next  highest  being  10 
bushels  less,  but  all  over  Ontario,  O.  A.  C.  72  was  by  far  the  leading  variety,  for  both  quality  and 

My  experience  last  year  was  very  encouraging,   for   after  exercising   the  greatest   possible  care   to 
produce  seed  of  high  testing  quality,  I  found  both    dealers  and  growers  willing  to   pay  20c  to  30c  per 
bushel   more  than   for   ordinary   clean   seed,   and   did  not  have  enough  to  fill  the  orders. 
Samplefs,   prices  and   Government    test    on    application. 

A.  FORSTER,  -  -  -  -  MARKHAM,  ONT. 




Ideal  Green  Feed  Silos 

It  isn't  too  early  right  now  to  plan  for  the  erection  of  a  silo  next  summer. 

The  more  you  investigate  the  advantage  of  having  succulent  silage  to  feed 
your  cows  all  winter,  the  sooner  you  will  decide  to  erect  a  silo;  and  if  you 
thoroughly  investigate  the  silo  question  you  can  scarcely  escape  the  conclu- 
sion that  the  Ideal  Green  Feed  Silo  is  the  best  silo  for  you  to  buy. 

^'Alpha^'  Gas  Engines 

2to2S(H    P. 
Water  cooled   or 
Hopper  cooled . 
Portable  or  semi- 

Uses  all  fuels 
Easy  to  start 
Equipped  with  Magneto 
Develops  full  power 

The  most  convenient,  reliable,  and  economical  power  for  the  farm,  dairy, 

creamery  or  shop 

The  "ALPHA"  Gas  Engine  is  the  Wghest  grade  and  most  reliable  engine  that  you  can  buy  for 
any  purpose  whatever;  but  on  account  of  its  simplicity  of  construction  and  reliability  of  opera- 
tion it  is  unusually  well  adapted  for  farm  use. 

Catalogues  Mailed  Upon  Request  to  Nearest  Office 



Exclusive  Canadian  distributors  of  the  "World  Standard''  De  Laval  Cream  Separators. 






The  dairy  baru  and  silos  are  part  of  one  of  the  most  complete  model  dairy  layouts  in   the  Northwest. 

AIMtfktAr     FfQ     ^"  ''^^•■™  Building 
I'NCVV     Cira         construction 

The  Hollow  Interlocking  Tilo  is  a  form  of  construction  rapidly  gaining  popularity.  In 
addition  to  being  Neat,  Durable  and  Economical  it  claims  preference  over  wood,  concrete 
01'  brick  construction  for  meeting  the  demands  for  Protection  from  Fire  and  Vermin, 
Insulation  from  Heat  and  Cold,  Strength,  Lightness  and  Ease  of  Erection. 

Hollow  Interlocking  Tile  is  ideal  for  silos,  it  makes  a  wall  that  is  non-conductive,  preventing  the 
ensilage  from  freezing  in  winter  and  from  overheating  in  su.oimer;  will  resist  any  pressure;  is  fire 
and  rat-proof,  and  is  adapted  to  the  continuous  door  front.  Cow  barns  built  with  Hollow-Inter- 
locking Tile  protect  the  cows  against  the  cold  winds  of  winter  and  the  heat  of  summer  sun.  Sani- 
tation  is   better;   walls  are  easily   washed   with   a   hose. 

Hollow  Interlocking  Tile  :\s  a  building  MiMtcrial  is  idea!  fur  all  form.s  of  farm  structures.  It  is  lighter, 
elieaper  and  easier  to  handle  than    brick;   is  rema)-kable  for  its  durability  and  fire-resisting  properties. 

Let  us  tell  you  some  reasons  why  the  Hollow  Interlocking:  Tile  Brick  is 
being  used  for  Home  building.  Churches,  .Schools  and  all  forms  of  farm 
building  construction.     Write  for  a  copy  of  the  Interlocker   Magazine   No.  5. 

The  SUN  BRICK  COMPANY,  Limited,  ^^oronto. 



can  say  most  emphatically  that  it  does  no 
pay  to  build  a  narrow  house.  A  hous 
10  ft.  wide,  another  20  ft.  and  anothe 
30  ft.,  heated  with  steam,  will  requii 
2  pipes  in  the  10-ft.,  3  in  the  20-ft.  and 
in  the  30-ft.,  to  maintain  the  same  ten 
perature;  or  in  other  words,  the  30-f 
house  will  take  just  about  as  much  hea 
as  two  10-ft.  houses,  and  in  addition,  th 
larger  house  will  always  have  a  more  un 
form  temperature,  and  not  be  subject  t 
the  violent  fluctuations  the  small  one  i 
Each  day  we  must  carry  heat  on  the  sma 
houses  longer  in  the  morning  and  stai 
fires  earlier  in  the  evenings  than  in  th 
larger  ones.  Many  days  we  must  fit 
through  the  entire  day  to  heat  the  sma 
houses,  while  the  larger  ones  have  th 
steam  turned  off  for  four  to  six  hour 
From  this  you  can  see  that  in  planning  t 
build  you  should  endeavor  to  build  as  wid 
as  possible,  up  to  40  ft.,  unless  you  war 
the  more  expensive  iron  frame  with  whic 
you  can  go  up  to  75  ft.  wide  with  exceller 


If  I  were  starting  in  business  now,  wit 
what  experience  I  have  had,  and  was  fir 
ancially  able  to  build  a  house  coverin 
3,000  square  feet  of  space,  and  conten 
plated  in  addition  to  my  plant,  as  expei 
ience  and  income  would  warrant,  I  woul 
build  one  end  permanent  vrith  workroor 
and  boiler  cellar,  and  build  a  house  eithe 
30  ft.  wide  by  100  ft.  long,  or  preferabl 
40  ft.  wide  by  75  ft.  long,  and  bolt  the  fa 
end  in  place,  so  that  when  the  house  is  t 
be  extended  for  the  addition  of  extra  de 
sired  space,  this  end  can  be  easily  re 
moved.  Now  I  know  there  are  many  me; 
who,  under  similar  conditions,  woul 
argue  for  a  house  20  ft.  vdde  and  150  i\ 
long,  and  then  another  of  the  sarhe  siz 
as  an  increase,  instead  of  having  on 
house  30  ft.  by  200  ft.,  or  40  ft.  by  150  f1 

As  a  ■  result  of  experience  I  can  sa 
only  conditions  that  would  warrant  tw 
houses  would  be  growing  several  crop 
that  require  widely  varying  temperature 
Even  under  these  conditions,  it  would  b 
much  cheaper  to  erect  a  glass  partitio 
across  the  centre  of  the  one  house,  an 
run  an  extra  coil  of  pipe  in  that  end  fi 
higher  temperatures. 

In  building  an  additional  house,  yo 
would  have  to  construct  two  new  endi 
build  a  connecting  passageway  aero: 
end,  run  flow  and  return  pipes  to  it,  an 
buy  two  extra  ventilating  machines  f( 
the  sides  and  two  for  the  top. 

In  other  words,  the  difference  in  cos 
in  ventilating  machinery  above,  betwee 
one  house  40  ft.  wide  by  150  ft.  long  an 
two  houses  20  ft.  wide  by  150  ft.  Ion 
would  be  about  $150  to  $160— in  favor 
the  wide  house. 

The  extra  expense    for    the    Mate 
above  in  the  two   extra   sides  would 
about  $350 — the  extra  flow    and    retu 
pipe,  labor,  etc.,  will  add  another  $150- 
or  more  to  the  amount.    In  installing  th 
heating  system  in  the  short,  wide  hous 
the  unions  should  be  placed  at  the  en 
farthest  from  the  heater,  which  will  fs 
cilitate  extension  without    the    necesslt 
of  disturbing  the  main  floor  and  retur 



Try  to  locate  the  heating  plant  at  the 
west  end  of  the  house.  The  general  con- 

nsus  of  opinion  seems  to  favor  the  house 
inning  east  and  west,  though  the  north 

id  south  house  is  very  well  adapted  to 

owing  sweet  peas. 

Most  growers  in  the  east  prefer  sep- 

ate  houses,  and  at  present  are  building 

uses  40  to  75  ft.  in  width. 

We  use  steam  as  a  heating  medium,  but 

)m  experience  and  observation    I   feel 

e  asserting  positively  that  hot  water 
uld  be  used  for  greenhouse  heating  in 
small  and  medium  sized  plants,  as  well 
urge  commercial  ranges,  where  pumps 

■  used  to  force  the  water  through  the 


/>e  positive  that  you  have  one-third  to 
u-half  more  heater  capacity  than  you 
ill  need  in  the  most  severe  weather,  and 
I  not  buy  a  cast  iron  boiler. 

Our  cast  iron  boiler  experience  cost 
1,100  and  just  this  autumn  one  of  our 
jighbors  had  three  cast  iron  boilers 
ack  a  few  weeks  before  firing  should 
ive  commenced  regularly. 

They  cost  him  over  $1,000.     He  tele- 

aphed  a  Chicago    firm    for    a  special 

eenhouse  boiler  made  of  wrought  iron, 
ftimes  a  second-hand  tubular  boiler  can 
i  purchased  at  a  low  figure,  that  will  be 
th  cheap  and  efficient.  When  you  buy  a 
!Cond-hand  boiler,  better  take  a  reliable 

iler  maker  with  you  to  examine  same. 

If  you  buy  a  tubular,  set  it  as  high  as 
)ssible  above  the  grates;  3  to  4  ft.  will 
)t  be  too  high  for  a  20  to  70  horse-power 
)iler.    This  will  add  greatly  to  the  econ- 

y  of  the  boiler. 

Farmers'   Sons   at 


A  report  from  the  Registrar  of  Queen's 
niversity  shows  that  the  total  number  of 
;w  students  registered  for  this  year  is 
53.    Of  this  number,  120  are  from  the 

rm.  The  next  largest  number  seems  to 
ime  from  the  merchant  class,  as  the 
ithers  of  48  are  said  to  be  merchants, 
nly  14  come  from  clergymens'  homes, 
hile  10  come  from  teachers'  homes.  The 
ilance  are  taken  from  all  the  other  oc- 
ipations  and  show  no  great  number  from 
ly  one  occupation.  The  farmers  have  al- 
ays  been  the  recruiting  ground  for  the 
'ofessions  and  it  is  due  to  this,  no  doubt, 
lat  the  leadership  of  Canada  has  been 
rong.  If  some  of  these  educated  boys 
id  gone  back  to  less-paying  positions  in 
fferent  parts  of  the  country,  we  would 
)  doubt  have  a  stronger  rural  sentiment 
lan  we  have  to-day.  But  it  is  out  of  the 
lestion  to  ask  a  man  to  go  into  the  rural 
mmunities  at  a  low  salary.  The  only 
itlook  of  hopefulness  is  that  the  farm 
ill  be  put  onto  a  better  producing  basis 
I  that  more  of  our  educated  young  men 
ay  find  lucrative  as  well  as  scientific 
terest  in  tilling  the  soil.  Perhaps  the 
me  is  coming. 

Let  US  Solve  the  problem  and 
figure  the  cost  for  you 

For  the  farmer  contemplating  building  a  greenhouse,  it  will  repay  him  to  consult  us 
before  doing  anything.  Many  houses  have  been  erected  by  the  owners  and  have  not 
proved  satisfactory  because  they  have  not  the  mechanical  knowledge  to  carry  out  what 
they  know  to  be  the  requirements  of  a  good  house. 

Our  Houses  Guaranteed 

We  prefer  to  build  the  house  for  you,  for  we  stand  behind  our  work,  but  if  you  prefer 
to  do  the  work  yourself  let  us  supply  you  with  the  materials  properly  designed  and 
prepared.  By  doing  this  the  work  of  erecting  is  made  easy,  and  a  permanent  and  effi- 
cient house  is  the  result. 

The  construction  of  our  commercial  houses  has  received  the  approval  of  one  of  the 
largest  growers  in  the  Province. 

Our  houses  are  built  to  specifications  which  will  be 
furnished  free  of  cost  on  application  to  Dept.  "3." 


Transportation  Bldg.;  St.  James  St. 

201  Church  Street 





Greenhouse  Construction 

of  Louisiana  Red  Cypress 

8"   Butted    Glass  1         10"    Lapped    Glass. 

S'   3"  X  6'  0"  for  4  Rows  3'  0"  x  6'  0"  for  3  Kows 

8"    Glass,   Unglazed.  10"   Glass,   Unglazed. 

$1.20  each.  I  $1.15   each. 

When    ordering   state    whether    for  Lapped    or     Butted 

\'eneere(l  and  Pine  Doors,  Staved  Columns,  Rougli 
,ind  Dressed  Lumber,  Newels,  Greenhouse  materia!. 
Balusters  and  Panelling,  Interior  Fittings  and 
Trim.  Best  material  and  workmanship  throughout. 
Write  for  our  illustrated  catalogue  containing  prices. 
"Batts"   means   quality   and   entire   satisfaction. 

D»4-4-A     I   :.m:4-^J        365-395PacificAve. 
DattS     LimiteO,      west   Toronto,   Ont. 




From  One  Garden 

They  must    be    good   seeds 

to  give  such  uniformly  good 

Mr.  F.  S.  Watson,  ot  Lachine, 
P.Q.,  won  55  First  Prizes  for 
grown  with 

Dupuy  &  Ferguson's 
High-Grade  Seeds 

All  our  seeds  come  from  proven 
stock,  grown  and  tested  by 

You  get  results  when  you  sow 
our  seeds. 

Write  for  our  big   1916  Catalogue 
— Sent  free  on  request. 


38  Jacques  Cartier   Sq.,    Montreal 

Trade  Mark 

It  is  your  protection  and  guarantee  ji^^aiast  siibstitutions 
when   buying  Horse   Collars. 

We  Guarantee  to  Ctire 

Galls    and    Sore    Shoulders    witliout    tlie    use    of 
medicines,      and      without 
_  laying   up   the   horse.    Just 

451    yC        j^g        ^^  fit    him    properly    with    a 

MM/   £^\  Laiiliford     Humane    Horse 

UD       M^ml    /^^    vL  Collar — made  of  best  white 

"      Mff/Ml    i^^Ki    »  sail   duol<,    trimmed   in  ex- 

tra heavy  leather,  stuflFed 
with  clean.  dowTiy  curled 
medicated  cotton,  which 
will    not    pack    or   harden. 

fits     any    shaped     neck~is 

easily  put  on  or  removed— is  always  soft  and  pliable. 
It  will  not  Sweeney.  Hame  straps  are  attached.  Sold 
by   a  dealer  near  you. 


The  Lankford  Collar  distributes  tlie  loarl  properly  arid 
maintains  the  correct  line  of  draft,  making  the  horse 
more  efficient.  It  goes  on  or  off  easily.  Over  12,000,000 
have   been   sold. 


now    than    before   .so    many    were    exported.      Keep    those 

that    you    have    left    in    the    best    of    condition    and    use 

tile    collar    that   lets    them    do    their   best    work. 

Send    a    postal    for    full    infoi-matior. 

and  name   of  nearest  dealer. 

POWERS  MFG.  CO.,  Dept.  54,  Waterloo,  Iowa. 

The  Great  Ayrshire  Cow 

Continued  from  page  16 


Elsewhere  in  this  is.sue  an  advertiser  offers  to  send  free  a 
64-page  account  book.  Tlie  book  is  arranged  to  keep  all 
accoimts  in  simjile  foim :  shows  how  to  charge  against  crop 
production ;  has  a  laborer's  time  record  and  section  for  per- 
sonal accounts.  Look  up  the  advertisement  and  write  a  postal 
card  to  the  advertiser,  not  to  us,  and  get  this  book.  You  will 
find   it   useful.  Advt. 

cal  dairy  form.  She  is  also  a  great  busi- 
ness cow;  no  breed  is  more  capable 
of  large  and  economical  production  and  at 
the  same  time  reproducing  progeny 
capable  of  doing  equally  as  great  things. 
Hardy,  thrifty,  and  a  good  rustler,  she 
makes  profit  to  her  owner  on  the  rough 
hillsides  of  our  province,  and  on  the  rich 
bottom  lands  of  our  valleys  she  returns  a 
big  profit. 

The  milk  of  the  Ayrshire  has  a  good 
body,  is  rich  in  total  solids,  and  never  looks 
blue.  It  can  be  made  up  into  cheese  or 
butter  with  profit.  As  a  market  milk  it 
has  no  equal  and  is  being  much  sought 
after  to-day  in  our  cities.  Physicians 
strongly  recommend  it  for  the  feeding  of 
infants  and  invalids;  its  analysis  shows  it 
to  be  particularly  nutritious  for  human 
kind,  a  balanced  ration,  a  complete  food. 


The  ability  and  staying  powers  of  the 
Ayrshire  are  proven  most  satisfactorily  in 
the  cumulative  records  already  made,  of 
which  I  give  a  few:  Primrose  of  Tangle- 
wyld — 15943 — gave  in  two  years  29,731 
lbs.  milk  and  1,154  lbs.  of  butter  fat; 
Eileen — 18220 — has  a  three-year  record 
of  38,685  lbs.  milk  and  1,768  lbs.  butter 
fat;  Daisy  of  Ferndale— 26735— has  a 
three-year  test  of  44,096  lbs.  milk  and 
1,655  lbs.  butter  fat;  Carrie  B.— 23658— 
claims  a  21-month  record  of  26,294  lbs. 

milk  and  1,022  lbs.  fat.  Hazel  of  Bonnie 
Brae — 30676 — in  her  two-  and  three-year 
tests  made  22,129  lbs.  milk  and  861  lbs. 
fat.  A  Canadian-bred  cow,  Jean  Armour 
—15591— "25487"— made