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L/  llVt  I  't  E,  D 






Have  You 
a  Little  'Fairy' 
in  Your  Home? 


'■"^M^^^ , 



^  largely  upon 

.cleanliness;  the 

^daily  bath  is  worth 

more  than  all  kinds  of 

medicine.  Clf  you  have 

never  bathed  with  Fairy 

Soap  you  do  not  know 

the  real  luxuryof  bathing. 

Fairy  Soap 

is  made  in  the  handy  oval  cake; 
it  is  twice  as  handy  as  the  old- 
fashioned  oblong  bar.  Fairy  Soap 
is  white  and  pure — made  from  high- 
est grade  materials;  it  lathers  freely, 
cleanses  thoroughly,  soothes  and 
softens  the  skin.  Fairy  Soap 
floats ;  it^s  always  within  easy  reach . 
<LFairy  Soap  is  the  best  soap  made 
for  the  toilet  and 
bath.  Once  tried, 
you  would  never 
be  without  it 


THE  N.  K. 




You  Can  Equip  Your  Horse  Stable  Like 
This  at  a  Very  Low  Cost 

The  BT  Iron  Horse  Stable  Fittings  will  add  greatly  to  the  appearance  and  durability. 
If  you  use  BT  Iron  Stall  Partitions  and  Iron  Stall  Posts,  you  will  have  a  stable  that 
you  may  well  be  proud  of,  and  the  beauty  of  it  is,  your  stable  will  look  well,  not  alone 
when  finished,  but  for  years  to  come. 



are  made  of  V2-i"<-'li  irou  I'ods  secured  in  a 
heavy  frame.  They  allow  the  sunlight  to  flood 
every  corner  of  the  stable,  thus  adding  greatly 
to  the  brightness  and  appearance.  They  can- 
not be  brolien  or  in  any  way  disfigured  by  the 
horses.  Once  in  place  they  never  need  repair- 


add  greatly  to  the  durability  of  the  stable, 
amount    of   battering    will    disfigure    them. 


THE  BT  IRON  STALL  POSTS  are  grooved  to 
receive  the  stall  partitions,  and  so  save  much 
time  in   constructing   the  stable. 


allow  the  dust  to  escape  from  the  hay.  We 
make  open  and  closed  mangers  in  a  variety  of 
different  designs.  They  can  be  adjusted  for 
different  widths  of  mangers. 


It  will  pay  you  well  to  get  our  catalogue  and 
prices,  and  find  how  cheaply  you  can  equip 
your  stable  with  up-to-date  Iron  FITTINGS. 

We  also  make  Steel  Stalls  and  Stanchions.     |Feed|and  Litter  Carriers,  Waterbowls. 


BEATTY  BROS.,  Ltd.,  Fergus.,  Ont. 

It  is  to  your  advantage  to  mention    Farmer's   Magazine. 




During  the  Quiet  Winter  Months  is  the  Time  to  Fix  Up  the  Home 

It  is  wonderful  what  changes  can  be  brought  about  by  the  use 
of  a  little  paint  and  varnish  during  the  winter  days  when  not  busy 
with  outside  work.  Great  improvements  can  be  made  about  the 
house — all  you  need  is  a  few  cans  of  paint  and  a  little  time  to  apply  it. 

Are  the  floors  of  your  rooms  in  good  condition,  or  would  not  a 
coat  of  Floor  Paint  or  a  coating  of  Floorlac  make  them  look  bright 
and  new  ? 

Make  the  woodwork  fresh  and  clean  by  painting  it  with  Family 
Faint ;  or,  if  you  prefer  a  grained  effect,  use  Floorlac  or  Varnish  Stain. 

The  modern  finish  for  walls  is  a  durable,  flat-drying  oil-paint 
like  Flat-tone,  easy  to  apply  and  absolutely  sanitary ;  will  last  for 
years  and  can  be  cleaned  with  soap  and  water.  Much  better  than 
germ-collecting  wall  paper. 

Don't  throw  away  your  old  furniture ;  give  it  a  coat  of  Varnish 
Stain  and  it  will  look  like  new. 

These  are  the  days  when  $100.00  worth  of  improvement  can  be 
made  with  $5.00  worth  of  material  and  labor. 



The  Sherwin-Williams  Co.  of  Canada,  Limited,  Montreal, Toronto.Wmmpeg.Vancouver 

Farmer's  Magazine 

Vol.  5                        Contents  for  January,  1913  no.  3 

Review  of  Rural  Life The  Editor 

The  Debt  Idea — Ditching  Machine  Duty — Indian  Eeserves — Bank  Act  and 
Cheaper  Money — Are  Farmers  Foolish? — A  Ranching  Solution — New  Bruns- 
wick's Wealth — An  Acre's  Annual  $100 — The  Farmer's  Investments — The 
Wilderness  Grows  Alfalfa — Assessment  Reform — Agriculture  and  Finance. 


Milking  for  Quality  and  Quantity Geo.  H,  Dacy  33 

Agriculture  and  Horticulture — An  Exam.  Paper,  O.A.C 45 

Apples  Make  $100  Land T.  H.  Binnie,  B.SA.  60 

Canada's  Winter  Live  Stock  Shows F.  M.  Chapman  67 

Oxford's  Ocean  of  Milk W.  J.  Brown,  B.S.A.  73 

January  on  the  Farm Grasmere  116 


Canada  and  the  Empire E.  C.  Drury,  B.S.A.  21 

National  Political  Situation E.  W.  Thomson  27 

Pioneering  of  Colonel  Talbot W.  Robinson  39 

The  Shifting  of  Population  .  .  . '. Augustus  Bridle  46 

Home  Joy  Killers Dr.  Orison  Swett  Harden  63 

Snow  Time  in  Canada Mary  Spafford  108 


Smoke  Bellew — Wonder  of  Woman   Jack  London  53 


The  Glory  of  the  Farm  Family A  Iberta  Kepper  79 

The  Housekeeper's  Journal Dorothy  Dot  83 

The  Twentieth  Century  Farmer's  Wife J.  Muldrew  86 

House  Helps  for  the  Farm  Kitchen Winnifred  Marchand  88 

Pattern  Dept ' 102 

Dress  Dept 105 


Faith  in  One's  Farm Maritime  Farmer  90 

Glories  of  the  Kitsilano  Saturday  Sunset  92 

Trials  of  a  Country  Church  Munsey  's  93 

Thanksgiving,  a  Farm  Festival Breeder 's  Gazette  94 

Seven  Wonders  of  the  Modern  World Cosmopolitan  96 

The  Biggest  Baby  Chick  Farm Country  Gentleman  97 

Efficiency  of  the  Hydraulic  Ram Orchard  and  Farm  98 

The  Lighting  of  Farm  Homes   Kimball 's  Dairy  Farmer  100 

Issued  monthly   by  The  MacLean  Publishing  Company.  Linaited :  John  Bayn*  MacLean,  President. 
Publication  Office:  143-149  University  Ave..  Toronto.  Montreal  Office:  Eastern  Townships  Bank  Building. 



You  Are  on  the  Bench 

YOU — the  Public — are  the  judge.  On  your  good  opinion 
and  your  good  word  depends  the  success  of  the  advertised 
article.  For  no  amount  of  advertising  will  induce  you  to  buy 
a  second  time  what  you  do  not  like.  No  advertising  will  offset 
the  bad  effect  of  a  dissatisfied  buver. 

That  is  why  advertisers  must  and  do  maintain  the  quality  of 
their  goods. 

Advertisers  realize  that  to  turn  their 
outlay  for  advertising  into  profit  they 
must  give  good  value. 

They  are  not  looking  for  one-time 
sales.  First  sales,  in  most  cases,  would 
not  pay  for  the  advertising. 

Continued  on  page  six. 

To  be  successful,  they  must  make 
steady  customers.  So,  quality  is  being 
put  in  to  hold  the  trade  that  advertising 

Thus,  to  be  sure  of  quality,  one  natur- 
ally turns  to  goods  that  are  advertised. 
And  isn't  it  only  reasonable? 


A  Classified  Index  of  Farmer's  Magazine  Advertisers,  giving  the  page  on 
which  the  Advertising  appears 


Hupp  Motor  Car  Co 157 


Montreal  Abattoirs,  Ltd 130 


Beery,  Prof.  J 135 

Box   222    9 

British  American  Bus.  College  7 

Canada    Business    College    . .  7 

Central    Business    College    . .  5 

Central  Bus.  College,  Hamilton  8 

Dominion    Business    College..  t) 

Home  Corr.  School  5  &  8 

Kennedy    School,    Toronto    . .  7 

L.'Academie    De    Brisay    7 

National     Salesmen's     Train- 
ing   Association     0 

International       Institute       of 

Music    5 

Slingerland's  School  of  Music  5 

Shaw   Schools    5   &  8 


Kellogg  Switchboard  Co.    ...  128 

FARMING        IMPLEMENTS        & 

Allen,    S.   L.    Co.    .. 
Appleton     Mfg.     Co. 


Aylmer    Pump    &    Scale    Co..  129 

Bissell,    T.    E.    Co 141 

Canadian     Fairbanks     Morse 

Co 149 

Cockshutt   Plow    Co 159 

Fleury's,     J.     Son's     149 

Grimm     Mfg.     Co 122 

Gilson     Mfg.     Co 137 

Hart-Parr    Co 100 

Lisle     Mfg.     Co 141 

Massey-Harris   Co 120 

Ontario      Wind      Engine      & 

Pump    Co 122 

Renfrew   Machy.   Co 142 

Vessot   S.   &   Co 147 

Waterloo   Mfg.   Co 129 

Wisconsin    Incubator   Co.    . . .  144 


Canadian  Gate  Co 145 

Owen   Sound  Wire  Fence  Co.  145 
Selkirk    Fence    Co 145 


Provincial     Chemical     Fertil- 
izer   Co 147 

Continued    on   page   six. 


Canadian  Bank  of  Commerce  148 

Doucette,   Edward   L lol) 

Financial    Post    130 

Royal  Bank   of  Canada    1.50 

Slattery   &    Co    j55 

Sun  Life  Ins.  Co 348 


Bartlett  Co.,  The  

Mathews- Laing.  Limited  . 
Peterborough  Cereal  Co. 
St.  Lawrence  Sugar  Co.  . 
Wilson,    L.    A 

J  36 


Crosby    Fusian   Fur   Co 339 

Funsten    Bros.    &    Co 341 

Hallam,  John,  Fur  Co 9 

Hallman   Fur  Co 127 

Weil    Bros.    &    Co 139 


('anadian    Heating   &    Ventil- 
ating    Co 139 

Smart,   The  Jas.   Mfg.   Co.    ..  142 

When  writing  advertisers  kindly  mention   Farmer's   Magazine. 




We  will  give  you  this  superb  violin  abso- 
lutely FREE.  Wonderful  new  system.  We 
will  teach  you  by  note  in  your  home.  Violin- 
ists make  big  money.  We  guarantee  to  make 
you  a  player  or  no  charge.  Complete  outfit 
FREE.  Write  to  SLINGERL-AND'S  School  of 
Music,  Dept.  34,  Auditorium  Bldg.,  Chicago,  111. 

What  Our  Pupils  say: — 

Pueblo,  Colo.,  Nov.  4th,   1912. 
Slingerlands    School    of    Music, 

Dear  Sir:— I  received  your  outfit  all  O.K.  and  I  think 
the  violin  has  as  fine  a  tone  as  any  violin  that  I  ever 
played  on,  and  I  also  think  your  instructions  ver>' 
easy  so  far,  and  I  only  vdsh  I  had  known  of  your 
system   before. 

Yours    respectfully, 
I.A.   FENTON,   1401  Evans  Ave.,   Pueblo,   Colo. 

Glace  Bay  Dominion  No.  4,  Cape  Breton,   Can. 
March    1st,    1912. 
Dear    Teacher :— Received    the    outfit    Feb.     1st,    1912, 
am   much    pleased   with    it. 

Yours   very   truly, 

TOM    LEE. 

League  City,   Texas,   Oct.   16,   1912. 
Slingerlands   Correspondence   School,   Chicago,    111., 

Dears  Sirs:— I  received  the  violin  and  outfit  Oct.  14th, 
and    I    sure    do    think      them    fine.      The      violin    is    a 
"daisy."     Can't  hardly  wait  until   I   can  learn  to  play. 
Miss  Mamie   Moore,   Box  288  League  City,   Texas. 


Many  Sons  and  Daughters  of  our  Farmers  have  natural 
talent  for  art.  Scores  have  taken  our  Art  Course  by 
Mail  and  are  now  making:  good  money  as  Book  and 
Magazine  Illustrators.  Our  fine  Catalogue  is 
mailed  free  on  request.  Write  Art  Dept. 
395  Yonge  Street  -  -         Toronto 


Hundreds  of  good  positions  now  open  paying  from  $1,000.00  to 
$5,000.00  a  year.  No  former  experience  required  to  get  one  of  them. 
We  will  teach  you  to  be  a  high  grade  Traveling  Salesman  or  Sales- 
woman by  mail  in  eight  weeks  and  assist  you  to  secure  a  good  xjosition 

where  you  can  earn  good  wages  while  you  are  learning  Practical  Sales- 
manship. Write  today  for  full  particulars  and  testimonials  from  hun- 
dreds of  men  and  women  we  have  recently  placed  in  good  positions; 
also  list  of  good  positions  open.    Address  Dept.    S 

800  Kent  Building  Toronto,  Ontario 


expect  to  advance  if  you  don't  put  forth  an  effort. 
You  can  become  a  first  class  Ad.  Writer  in  three 
months  by  studying  our  lessons  at  home  during 
your  spare  time 

Tht  entire  coat  Is  onh  $30,  payable  monthly. 
Shall  we  send  ))ou  full  particulars? 





Special  Offer  to  Our  Readers 

In  order  to  advertise  and  introduce 
their  home  study  music  lessons  in  every 
locality,  the  International  Institute  of 
Music  of  New  York  will  give  free  to  our 
readers  a  complete  course  of  instruction 
for  eitlier  Piano,  Organ,  Violin,  Mando- 
lin, Guitar,  Banjo,  'Cello,  Brass  Instru- 
ments or  Sight  Singing.  In  return  they 
simply  ask  that  you  recommend  their 
Institute  to  your  friends  after  you  learn 
to  play. 

You  may  not  know  one  note  from 
another :  yet,  by  their  wonderfully 
simple  and  thorough  method,  you  can 
soon  learn  to  play.  If  you  are  an  ad- 
vanced player  you  will  receive  special 

The  lessons  are  sent  weekly.  They 
are  so  simple  and  eaiiy  that  they  are 
recommended  to  any  person  or  little 
child  who  can  read  English.  Photo- 
graphs and  drawings  make  everything 
plain.  Under  the  Institute's  free  tuition 
offer  you  will  be  asked  to  pay  only  a 
verj^  small  amount  (averaging  14  cents 
a  week)  to  cover  postage  and  the  neces- 
sary sheet  music. 

No  one  should  overlook  this  wonderful 
offer.  Tell  your  friends  about  it— show 
this    article   to   them. 

The  International  Institute  has  suc- 
cessfully tauglit  others  and  can  success- 
fully teach  you,  even  if  you  know  ab- 
solutely nothing  whatever  about  music. 
The  lessons  make  everything  clear. 

Write  to-day  for  the  free  booklet, 
which  explains  everything.  It  will  con- 
vince you  and  cost  you  nothing.  Address 
your  letter  or  postal  card  to  Interna- 
tional Institute  of  Music,  98  Fifth  Ave., 
Dept.   498  B,  New  York,   N.Y. 

Reading:  advertisements  is  profitable  to  you. 



Continued  from  paffe  four 

No  manufacturer  can  afford  to  adver- 
tise for  long  an  inferior  article.  From 
the  moment  the  advertising  begins,  the 
quality  must  either  be  kept  uniform  or 
improve — to  go  back  means  ruin. 

The  day  is  passing  when  you  ask  for 
a  pint  of  pickles.    You  name  the  brand. 

You  don't  ask  for  Rolled  Oats, 
name  the  brand  you  prefer. 


The  unknown  article  may  be  good, 
but  you  are  not  so  sure  of  it  as  you  are 
of  the  advertised  article,  which  bears  the 
seal  of  quality, — a  well  known  maker's 
trade  name. 

TO  manufacturers: 

You  who  make  good  goods  and  do  not  advertise — show  your  confidence 
in  your  product. 
Advertise  it. 

Let  the  public  know  that  you  stand  back  of  your  goods  to  maintain 
their  high  quality. 

Make  your  trade  name  the  recognized  standard  in  your  line. 

Advice  regarding  your  advertising  problems  is  available  through 
any  good  advertising  agency,  or  the  Secretary  of  the  Canadian 
Press  Association,  Room  503  Lumsden  Building.  Enquiry 
involves  no  obligation  on  your  part — so  write,  if  interested. 

Buyer's  Directory — continued 


Prince  George  Hotel   355 


Cudahy  Packing  Co J21 

Cummer-Dowswell,      Limited  143 

Dominion    Utilities    Co 125 

General    Sales    Co 127 

Mantle    Lamp    Co 147 

Onward    Mfg.    Co l.'W 

Pugsley    Dingman    &    Co     . .   134 

Sapho    Mfg.    Co : . .  132 

Western    Clock    < '        123 


Rutherford,   J.    H 141 

James,    F.    G 141 


Dorn,  J,  C 142  &  158 

Extermino   Chemical   Co 144 

Parmer's  Cement  Tile  Co.    . .  127 
German     Potash     Syndicate.   327 

Indian  Curio  Co 148 

Mlnard's   Liniment    142 

Northrop   Lyman   &  Co 136 

Tyrell,   Dr    Chas.  A J'^s 


Neweombe    Piano    Co 143 

Nordheimer  Piano  Co 133 


Auburn    Nurseries    Limited..  145 

Ottawa    Nurseries     158 

Patterson.  Wylde  &   Co 151 


Jamieson,  R.  C.  &  Co 132 

Sherwin-Williams    Co 2 


Director  of  Colonization    153 

LaBaume,    F.    H 155 

Leet,    Leo.    L 153 

Gayman,    Melviu    155 

Texas    Gulf   Realty    Co 154 


Asbestos  Mfg.  Co..  Limited.  139 
Bird,   F.  W.  &  Son    131 


Caldwell  Feed  Co.,  Limited  143 
International  Stock  Food  Co.  139 
Pratt  Food  Co.,  Ltd 145 


Crumb,    Wallace    B 136 

Beatty    Bros 1 


Canadian     Kodak    Co 137 

Greeflf-Bredt    &    Co 131 

Ross     Rifle    Co 151 


Arlington  Co.,  of  Can.,  Ltd.  137 
Monarch  Knitting  Co.,  Ltd.  138 
Parsons  &   Parsons  Canadian 

Co. 133 

Robinson    Sales    Co 158 

When  writing  advertisers  kindly  mention  Farmer's  Magazine. 




For  Future 


In  the  business  world  of  to-day 
there  are  many  opportunities  for 
young  men  and  women  who  are 
qualified.  If  you  are  not  improving 
"your  position,  it  is  not  because  of 
lack  of  opportunity,  but  you  perhaps 
have  not  be^n  prepared  when  the 
chance  of  advancement  presented 

Let  us  prepare  you  for  better  posi- 
tions and  larger  salaries.    Our  teach- 
ing  staff   is   composed    of   the   most 
efficient  teachers  for  this  work. 
Make  a  start  for  better  things 
before  the  old  year  goes,  then 
the  New  Year  will  bring  you 


Y.M.C.A.  Bldar.,  Yonfife  St..  Toronto  Ontario 


exists  to-day  for  successful  sales- 
men than  for  men  for  any  othei 
commercial  business. 

Have  you  realized  that  the  stepping 
stone  to  successful  salesmanship  is 
to  represent  a  progressive  magazine? 

leading  farm  monthly,  wants  men 
in  every  locality  in  Canada  to  take 

You  do  not  require  any  experience 
to  join  our  Sales  Force.  W^e  train 
you  and  at  the  same  time  pay  you 
liberally      ^Vrite  for  particulars  to 

The  Maclean  Publishing  Co.,  Limited 

143-149   University  Avanue. 

Will  Your  Pay  Envelope 

Show  an  Increase 
=—  This  Year?  =^= 

It  should  do  so,  if  you  are  improving. 
The  future  holds  many  opportunities  for 
advancement  for  the  qualified  young  man 
or  woman.  Are  you  qualifying  for  a  bet- 
ter position  and  a  bigger  salary?  Make  a 
start  now,  let  us  prepare  you  for  advance- 
ment, then  you  can  ask  for  the  salary  that 
your  service  is  worth.  We  are  specialists 
in  business  training. 


The  Canada  Business  College 

Hamilton,  Ont. 
OSCAR  MAIN.  Principal 

Start  Now  With 

Determine  to  improve  your  capacity  so  that 
the  work  you  will  be  doing  next  year  will  be 
more  congenial  to  you,  and  also  bring  you  bet- 
ter returns.  The  world  owes  you  a  comfort- 
able living — but  you  must  have  the  under- 
standing necessary  to  do  well  your  part. 
Your  desire  for  understanding  should  be  suffi- 
cient to  induce  you  to  reach  out  for  a  proper 
course  of  training  because  the  understanding 
will  not  come  to  you.  We  can  give  you  special 
equipment  for   bookkeeping   and   stenography. 



570  Bloor  Street  West         -  Toronto 

Don't  fail  to  mention  Farmers*     Magazine   when    writing   advertisers. 




Good  Paying  Positions 

are  offered  us  than  we  have  graduates  to  fill. 
We  give  individual  instruction  which  enables 
our  students  to  graduate  quickly  and  assures 
progress  to  backward  students.  Qualify  for 
one  of  these  good  positions.  Winter  Term 
begins   January  2nd. 




J.  V.  MITCHELL.  B.A..  Principal. 

A  New  Year's  Wish 

All  ambitious  young  people  desire  to  improve 
their  positions  and  increase  their  salaries  this 
year.  This  is  assured  by  taking  a  business 
training.  We  have  helped  many  young  men 
and  women  this  way.  Let 
us  do  the  same  for  you. 


Central   Business    College 

50  James  Si.  N.,  HAMILTON,  Ont. 

A.  P.  GIBBON,  Principal 

Prof.  Brooks 



A  COURSE  of  forty  les- 
'^^  sons  in  soils,  tillage, 
fertilizers,  farm  crops  and 
animal  husbandry,  under 
Dr.  William  P.  Brooks  of 
the  Massachusetts  Agricul- 
tural College. 

Courses  in  Horticulture,  Floriculture,  Land- 
scape Gardening,  Forestry,  Poultry  Culture, 
Farm  Accounting,  etc.,  under  able  professors 
in  leading  colleges. 

2^0  Page  Catalogue  Fee.      Write  to-day. 


Dept.  480       Springfield,  Mass. 

FOUND— "I  have  long  real- 
ized the  need  of  just  this  me- 
thod of  teaching  Latin  and  I 
am  more  than  pleased  that  at  last  I  have  found 
what  I  want."— H.  D.  Clum,  M.A.,  Saugerties,  N.Y. 
No  system  of  teaching  languages  has  been  so  uni- 
versally praised  as  the  De  Brisay  Method.  Latin, 
French,    German,    Spanish,    by    mail. 


Shaw's  Business  and  Shorthand  Schools 


Have  opened  the  door  to  success  to  thousands  of  the  Sons  and 
Daughters  of  the  Farmers  of  our  Dominion.  The  Central  Business 
College  of  Toronto  is  the  Main  School.  It  has  now  Four  City 
Branch  Schools.  Free  Catalogue  explains  Courses.  Write  for  it  to 
W.  H.   SHAW,  President,  391  Yonge  Street,  Toronto. 

A  Square  Deal 

As  publishers  we  are  determined 
that  our  readers  shall  always  be  given 
a  square  deal  by  our  advertisers. 

We  therefore  have  refused  to 
accept,  and  always  shall,  every  adver- 
tisement which  upon  investigation 
we  find  cannot  justify  our  thorough 

It  is  only  fair,   in  return,   that  our 
readers  should  remember  that 

/.   Our  advertisers  pay  us  for  giving  you  ^  for  $2 
a  year  or  less^  a  magazine  costing  $6  to  produce. 

2.  Our  advertiser*  pay  this  money  so  that  they 
may  TALK  BUSINESS  with  you  personally. 

3.  Our  readers  should  therefore  seek  to  PROFIT 

some  time  during  the  month  . 

When   writing  advertisers   kindly    mention    L'armer's   Magazine. 



Raw  FursH 


BOOK.  96  paties*,  fully  illustrated, 
tells  how,  when,  where  to  trap,  bdii  and 
traps  to  use.  game  laws  of  Canada.  Iiow 
to  handle  and  sell  your  catch,  ginsene 
growing,  about  fox,  mink,  skunk,  musk- 
rat  farming,  and  other  valuable  inform- 
ation pertaining  to  the  Raw  Fur  industry 
sent  free  for  the  asking. 

We  will  also  send  you  free  for  the  asking:,  Hallams  up- 
t«9-the-minute  Raw  Fur  quotations  and  market  report. 

They  go  regularly  to  60,000  successful  trappers  and  fur  collectors  all 
over  Canada,  who  ate  making  big  money  shipping  their  fur  to  us.  We 
pay  mail  and  express  charges  on  all  shipments,  remit  day  goods  received 

Our  method  of  handling  Raw  Fur  shippers  has  stood  the  test  for 
twenty  seven  years,  and  we  positively  guarantee  satisfaction. 



JOHN  HALLAM  Limited 

Dept  j 

111  Front  St.  East 

Take  a  Handful  of  "St. 
Lawrence"  Sugar  Out  To 
The  Store  Door 

— out  where  the  light  can  fall  on  it — and 
see  the  brilliant,  diamond-like  sparkle,  the 
pure  white  color  of  every  grain. 

That's   the   way   to   test   any   sugar — 
that's   the   way  w^e  hope   you   will  test 

Comnd.!*^  it  ^^^^  ^^y  other  sugar — compare  its  pure  white  sparkle — 
V/Uiiipgi  c  it  -^g  even  grain — its  matchless  sweetness. 

Better  still,  get  a  20  pound  or  100  pound  bag  at  your  grocer's  and  test 
"St.  Lawrence  Sugar"  in  your  home. 




Say   you  saw  the  ad.     iu  Parmer's  Magazine. 

10  FARMER'S    MAGAZINE  ,   section 

February  Farmer's  Magazine 


^'If  the  farmer  uses  his  power  only  one  hour  a  day,  it  will  cost  from 
4  2-3c  to  7c  to  grind  100  pounds,  which  is  from  2  1-3  times  as  much  as 
by  gasoline." 

This  article  by  an  expert  is  given  in  answer  to  Farmer's  Magazine's 
inquiry  as  to  the  cost  of  electricity  to  the  farmer  in  Ontario.  Be  sure  to 
get  this  if  you  are  struggling  with  power  questions. 

HOW  APPLES  WON  $4,000 

^'  ^Talk  $2,000  an  acre  to  the  owners  and  they  would  laugh  at  you. 
Why  a  Mr.  Renfrew,  of  Toronto,  purchased  40  acres  of  raw  land  down 
yonder,'  and  our  guide  pointed  off  towards  Vernon,  ''for  $30,000,  and  he 
has  since  planted  orchards  and  built  that  attractive  red-tiled  bungalow 
you  see  there  to  the  right  among  the  pines.'  " 

This  is  an  extract  from  the  above  article  describing  the  place  where 
the  apples  grew,  and  how  they  won  renown  for  British  Columbia  from 


''Thirty-four  years  ago  the  sanitary  conditions  of  dairies  in  Copen- 
hagen were  very  bad.  Cows  were  fed  on  the  refuse  of  distilleries,  the 

stables  were  dirty  and  without  light  and  ventilation Milk  was  treated 

with  borax  or  bi-carbonate  of  soda  to  conceal  its  age  as  it  was  hawked 
about  the  streets." 

Mr.  Kilgour,  a  special  correspondent  of  Farmer's  Magazine,  writes 
from  Copenhagen,  Denmark,  for  the  February  issue.    It  is  well  illustrated. 


This  article  will  tell  all  about  the  success  that  has  attended  apple 
culture  in  Canada,  and  the  way  robber  parasites  are  being  dealt  with  oy 
the  successful  farmer.  Illustrated  and  full  of  references  from  various 


A  story  of  an  average  man's  shift  from  an  Ontario  farm  to  a  farm 
of  640  acres  in  the  West,  where  he  has  three  good  years  out  of  five  and 
is  yet  worth  considerable  money. 


A  second  article  by  M.  Moffat  will  appear  in  the  February  Number 
dealing  with  the  "little  red  schoolhouse"  question.  This  whole  business 
of  rural  education  needs  shaking  up,  and  Farmer's  Magazine  has  been 
receiving  much  credit  for  its  uplifting  work.  Every  trustee  and  parent 
should  receive  this  copy. 


Mr.  E.  C.  Drury  will  continue  his  political  article.  Mrs.  Kepper 
has  something  for  the  women.  Dorothy  Dot  gives  some  recipes  in  her 
own  good  style.  Besides  many  other  features  and  photos  that  will  attract 
and  pleasurably  surprise  you.  The  Farmer's  Magazine  is  a  magazine  that 
gives  complete  information  in  readable  shape. 

It  is  to  your  advantage  to  mention   Farmer's  Magazine. 


Lends  Dignity  to  the  Farm  Reading 

January,  Crowned  With  Snow 

January,  crowned  with  snow, 

Crystalled,  diamonded,  agieam, 
Deep  within  thy  heart,  we  know, 

Dwelleth  June,  a  far,  fair  dream. 

Sunset  hints  Ler  distant  hues. 

Sunrise  flushes  rose  and  gold; 
Lovely  memory  reviews 

Spring's  warm  beauty,  thro'  the  cold. 

Proud  or  beggared,  glad  or  meek. 

Nature  grants  this  gracious  boon:  '<l 

We  must  share  with  all  who  seek,  | 

January's  dream  of  June. 

By  Ethel  Hallett  Porter  in  Munseys. 

Montreal  Toronto  Winnipeg 

On  "The  Oaks, 

—Copyright   by   Galbraith    Photo    Co. 
the  farm  of  Mr.  John    Galbraith,   Burnside,   Manitoba. 


Vol.  5  TORONTO     JANUARY,     1913  No.  3 

A     REVIEW     OF     RURAL     LIFE 

The  Debt  Idea 

"The  whole  question  of  Canadian  Defence  is  one  not  of  being  taxed;  it  is  one  of 
paying  a  debt.  .  .  .  It  is  not  an  agreeable  prospect  that  Canada  should  remain  forever  in 
leading  strings  and  pinafores — sucking;  pap." 

One  could  hardly  credit  this  language  to  a  thoughtful  writer  in  our  maga- 
zine press.  It  is  to  be  expected  on  the  hustings  or  in  the  fireworks  of  a  debate. 
Yet  a  recent  issue  of  a  journal  on  the  Pacific  province  carries  this  cant  to  its 
readers  on  its  editorial  pages. 

This  writer  must  have  partaken  of  some  of  the  scare- jingo-pessimism  that 
is  altogether  too  current  in  British  Columbia.  Strange  as  it  may  seem  to  an 
Easterner  or  even  to  a  dweller  on  the  peaceful  prairies,  there  are  serious  minded 
men  in  that  province  who  assert  that  the  Japanese  will  in  three  years  capture 
California  and  extend  up  the  whole  Western  slope  of  the  Rockies.  They  alarm 
each  other  by  picturing  this  dreadful  yellow  possibility,  and  by  constant  repe- 
tition come  to  believe  what  at  first  must  have  been  chimerical  even  to  themselves. 

If  there  is  one  thing  that  will  defeat  the  ends  they  try  to  reach,  it  will 
be  to  try  to  make  the  Canadian  public  believe  that  Canada  is  an  ingrate,  a 
child  in  arms,  spurning  to  aid  the  feeble  mother. 

The  paying-a-debt  idea  creates  a  nausea.  Sane  men  do  not  give  out  such 
sentiments  for  serious  regard  to  their  serious  readers.  Canadians  are  the  most 
loyal  people  in  the  world.  They  respect,  honor,  and  are  willing  to  stand  in 
the  forefront  of  the  nations'  battles,  but  nothing  good  can  come  from  some 
writers,  speakers  and  politicans  who  picture  Canadians  as  ingrates  and  Great 
Britain  as  a  feeble  suppliant  for  a  wayward  son.  This  style  of  language  is 
resented  by  all. 

If  we  are  going  to  talk  navy,  let  us  do  so  on  a  reasonable  basis,  and 
approach  the  subject  from  a  business  standpoint.  When  Canada  built  the 
C.P.R.  or  the  G.T.P.  such  arguments  were  not  advanced.  When  great  under- 
takings are  advocated,  such  puerile  talk  does  not  precede  them.  Neither  is  it 
necessary  now  for  such  language  to  l)e  given  oui'  readers.  us  be  men.  The 
greatest  good  that  can  come  to  the  Empire,  is  a  stalwart  race  of  heartful  men, 
whose  ideals  have  been  noble,  lofty  and  healthy.  If  we  want  a  weakling,  puny 
and  servile  race  of  men  in  this  broad  Canada  of  ours,  there  is  no  better  road 
to  that  end  than  by  the  way  of  these  appeals.  If  Canada  builds  her  navy,  it 
must  be  purely  a  business  proposition  for  a  business  reason,  along  business  lines. 



The  Ditching  Machine  Duty 

To  one  wholly  unacquainted  with  the  moving  of  executive  bodies,  the 
delay  in  removing  the  duty  on  ditching  machines  by  the  Government  at 
Ottawa  cannot  be  understood. 

Representations  were  made  to  the  Laurier  Government  by  prominent 
agriculturists  and  others  some  time  before  their  defeat  in  1911.  That  they 
were  impressed  with  the  reasonableness  of  the  thing  is  well  known.  Upon  the 
assumption  of  office  by  the  Borden  Government,  a  new  effort  was  made  to 
secure  the  entrance  of  traction  ditching  machines  into  Canada  free  of  duty. 

At  present,  they  pay  27  per  cent,  duty,  and  as  there  are  none  manufac- 
tured in  Canada,  it  can  be  readily  seen  that  it  is  purely  an  arbitrary  tax,  and 
one  that  has  a  most  discouraging  effect  on  local  drainage  improvement.  All 
told,  there  are  now  about  45  of  these  machines  in  Canada. 

That  there  is  a  great  need  for  them  on  the  farms  of  Canada  was  evidenced 
this  past  season  when  the  value  of  tile  drains  was  demonstrated  in  every  neigh- 
borhood. Owing  to  the  scarcity  of  labor^  farmers  were  unable  to  get  their  tiles 
put  in  the  ground,  although  in  many  cases  the  tiles  were  already  in  the  fields 
for  the  purpose.  Tile  makers  find  their  sales  of  tiles  limited  for  this  reason. 
The  evil  of  the  duty  acts  in  two  ways ;  it  retards  the  manufacture  of  tiles  here, 
and  decreases  production  by  the  amount  of  unproductive  undrained  land  in 
the  country. 

Prof.  Day,  of  the  O.A.C.,  estimates  that  wet  lands  when  underdrained  pro- 
duce annually  crops  to  the  value  of  $20  to  $40  per  acre,  and  that  ordinarily  this 
increase  on  other  lands  runs  about  $15  per  acre.  This  means  an  average  of 
over  $20  per  acre,  something  that  ought  to  impress  upon  the  Government  the 
need  of  immediate  action.  In  Ontario,  alone,  there  are  no  less  than  5,000,000 
acres  of  w^et  land  now  comparatively  useless,  most  of  which  could  be  reclaimed 
by  underdrainage. 

That  the  farmers  will  take  advantage  of  all  aids  in  the  work  is  evidenced 
from  the  popularity  that  has  attended  the  work  of  the  Department  of  Physics 
in  the  Ontario  Agricultural  College.  This  demand  is  better  shown  by  pointing 
out  that  in  1905  there  were  15,000,000  tiles  made  in  Ontario,  which  increased 
in  five  years  to  35,000,000  tiles.  The  farmers  want  underdrainage  done.  They 
know  it  pays.  This  increase  was  due  wholly  to  the  assistance  given  farmers 
by  that  department. 

Why  then  does  the  Government  wait?  There  are  no  manufacturers  in 
Canada  holding  them  back.  Perhaps  it  is  the  principle  of  the  thing  that  sticks. 
If  so,  the  farmers  point  to  the  cement  duty  rebate  made  last  summer.  Was 
that  principle  or  expediency? 

Every  farming  community  should  ask  if  their  members  ever  think  of 
them  and  their  business.  There  should  be  as  many  traction  ditching  machines 
as  clover  threshers  in  the  country.  Anyone  operating  one  during  the  summer 
will  find  a  profitable  demand  for  his  services. 

The  Indian  Reserves 

As  settlement  grows  denser  in  the  Western  provinces,  the  question  of 
Indian  Reserves  becomes  more  frequently  discussed.  The  Indian  has  long  been 
confronted  with  the  white  man's  civilization,  and  in  many  cases  shows  little 
advance  upon  the  days  of  war  paint  and  feathers. 

It  has  been  said  that  the  Indian  copies  the  white  man's  weaknesses  and 
stands  as  it  were  paralyzed  by  the  superior  race's  progress.    A  recent  visit  to  the 


Blackfeet  reserve  near  Gleichen,  Alberta,  revealed  how  true  this  is.  Here  the 
Indian  has  nearly  half  a  million  acres  of  choice  good  land  upon  which  he  does 
very  little  cultivation.  Instead  he  prefers  to  live  in  small  groups  by  the  river 
banks,  and  wander  at  will  on  his  fleet  ponies  over  the  reserve  to  spend  the 
nights  in  playing  pool  in  the  town. 

Recently  the  Government  sold  a  strip  of  this  reserve  beyond  the  river,  for 
upwards  of  a  million  dollars.  With  this,  many  houses  were  built  all  over 
the  reserve,  for  the  purpose  of  encouraging  the  Indian  to  settle  down  to  a  more 
productive  life.  I^ollowing  their  tribal  instincts  of  community  life,  four 
houses  were  located  together  on  the  adjacent  corners  of  four  quarter  sections. 
These  were  pretty  and  neat,  with  fireplaces  and  other  conveniences.  But  so 
far,  the  Indians  have  shown  no  serious  intention  of  occupying  them.  They 
assert  that  they  might  do  for  the  summertime  for  a  little  period,  but  that  it 
is  quite  too  far  for  the  squaws  to  bring  the  wood  from  the  river  in  winter ! 

On  the  bluffs  of  the  high  river  banks  on  this  reserve  are  yet  found  the 
coffins  and  bleaching  bones  of  the  braves  awaiting  instant  departure  for 
the  happy  hunting  grounds.  No  further  back  than  last  summer  one  of  the 
more  thoughtful  of  the  squaws  purchased  an  iron  bed  with  springs  from  the 
Mayor  of  Gleichen.  Upon  this  her  departed  brave  now  sleeps  his  last  lone 
watch,  out  upon  the  high  hills  on  the  reserve,  while  near  him  his  hunting 
belt,  camp  poles  and  eating  utensils  lie  ready. 

A  recent  correspondent  from  Spring  Coulee  to  the  Lethbridge  Herald,  has 
a  novel  suggestion  for  the  development  of  the  reserve  of  the  Blood  Indians 
there.  He  would  make  the  reserve  a  group  of  small  ranches,  where  the  stock 
of  the  surrounding  farmers  could  be  pastured  all  summer  and  herded  by  the 
Indians.  Pure  bred  breeding  stock  could  be  kept  on  the  reserve  under  the 
direction  of  the  Indian  agent,  and  the  raising  of  a  better  class  of  butcher  cattle 
made  more  certain.  The  suggestion  has  a  good  deal  to  recommend  it.  The 
present  waste  and  loose  methods  in  connection  with  Indian  reserves  must  come 
to  an  end  sooner  or  later. 

Another  difliculty  troubles  British  Columbia.  When  a  reserve  in  that 
province  ceases  to  be  a  reserve,  the  province  claims  that  it  reverts  to  them  as 
crown  lands,  while  the  Dominion  Government  hold  that  the  lands  belong 
to  them. 

Bank  Act  and  Cheaper  Money 

It  looks  as  if  the  Government  in  revising  the  Bank  Act  had  been  moved 
by  political  expediency  rather  than  by  statesmanship.  It  is  true,  as  the 
farmers  contended,  with  considerable  justice,  too,  that  they  were  unable  to 
get  loans  upon  their  grain  and  cattle,  whereas  the  buyer  could  secure  all  he 
wanted.  Now  the  banks  are  to  be  permitted  to  issue  loans  upon  these  commo- 

The  main  question  of  farm  financing  is  untouched  and  must  forge  its 
way  into  prominence  before  very  long.  An  extension  of  credit  will  not  work 
out  very  much  to  the  good  of  agriculture. 

What  the  farmer  wants  is  cheap  money  loaned  for  a  long  period  of 
time.  He  wants  to  be  able  to  use  the  money  of  the  local  depositors  at  a  low 
rate  of  interest,  and  it  was  contended  in  a  former  issue  of  Farmer's  Magazine 
that  this  could  be  done  by  means  of  a  bond  purchase  upon  which  the  lender 
was  made  secure  and  the  farmer  enabled  to  retire  his  indebtedness  by  a  yearly 
payment  which  covered  interest  and  principal. 

If  the  farmer  could  do  this,  he  would  make  a  bigger  success  of  the  com- 
mercial end  of  his  undertakings.     He  could  finance  a  live  stock  deal  or  raise  a 


larger  crop.  He  could  hold  his  grain  for  good  prices  or  erect  the  necessary 
accommodation  for  his  work.  His  productive  improvements  would  be  large. 
He  would  make  his  home  life  attractive,  thereby  making  for  increased  farm 

As  it  has  been,  and  will  be,  he  must  pay  as  high  as  12  per  cent,  for  current 
three  months'  money..  He  must  often  '^take"  all  the  patronizing  of  the  local 
bank  manager.  Such  he  will  not  do,  and  so  the  deposits  of  his  fellow  farmers 
must  go  into  the  branch  bank  to  drain  away  to  the  big  centre,  and  so  dwarf 
local  enterprise.  If  there  is  one  thing  that  is  going  to  weaken  the  present 
Canadian  banking  system,  it  is  the  system  of  branch  banks  which  act  only  as 
tentacles  for  the  central  organization.  There  must  be  more  general-manager- 
wisdom  if  the  farmers  are  going  to  stand  it  forever. 

A  big  wholesaler  in  Toronto  is  reported  as  saying  in  a  recent  interview 
regarding  the  demand  for  cheaper  farm  money: — 

''As  a  matter  of  fact  farmers  have  always  been  able  to  secure  all  the  accommodation 
to  which  they  are  entitled,  and  they  should  not  be  encouraged  to  borrow  except  when 
absolutely  necessary.  If,  under  the  new  Act,  loans  are  too  greatly  facilitated,  the  country 
will  suffer.  The  farmers  need  the  protection  and  advice  of  bankers  more  than  any  other 
class  in  the  country.  They  are  too  gullible  by  nature,  and  too  easily  influenced  to  be 
allov/ed  to  borrow  money  without  proper  restrictions." 

Against  this  read  this  letter  from  a  practical  farmer: — 

"I  own  over  300  acres  of  good  land  that  I  have  half  paid  for.  I  would  like  to  borrow 
some  money  so  that  I  can  buy  a  carload  of  fertilizer  for  use  this  year.  As  a  result  of  six 
years'  experience  on  this  farm  I  have  found  this  to  be  a  good  investment  on  my  soil.  If  I 
buy  for  cash  I  can  get  the  fertilizer  much  cheaper.  Because  I  made  a  large  payment  on 
my  farm  this  year  I  have  not  enough  money  to  buy  this  fertilizer  for  cash.  I  would  like 
to  borrow  from  a  bank,  but  no  bank  in  my  town  will  loan  money  to  a  farmer  without  a 
signer.  I  think  that  I  can  get  money  as  easily  as  any  farmer  in  the  community,  so  that 
there  is  nothing  personal  about  it.  But  I  do  not  ask  anyone  to  bolster  up  my  credit, 
hence  I  cannot  borrow  money.  Besides  my  interest  in  my  farm  above  the  mortgage 
value,  'I  have  nine  horses  worth  $1,500  any  day;  900  purebred  hens  worth  $900  (I  would 
not  sell  for  twice  this) ;  17  cows  and  young  stock  worth  $1,500,  eight  of  them  are  pure- 
bred; farm  machinery  worth  $1,500;  500  bushels  of  wheat,  800  bushels  of  oats,  700  bushels 
of  buckwheat,  25  tons  of  alfalfa,  35  tons  mixed  hay.  Most  of  these  I  will  feed.  All 
these  products  are  free  from  debt.  All  I  owe  is  on  the  mortgage.  Yet  I  cannot  borrow  a 
cent  from  a  bank." 

Farmers  must  have  better  financial  credit  associations.  The  Bank  Act 
revision  has  remedied  the  situation  very  little. 

Are  Farmers  Foolish  ? 

Farmers  generally  are  dissatisfied  with  the  returns  made  to  them  for  their 
products  when  marketed  by  the  middleman.  Not  that  farmers  are  perpetual 
grumblers  and  would  be  dissatisfied  if  they  owned  the  universe,  but  because 
returns  have  so  often  been  a  very  small  fraction  of  the  part  the  consumer  has 
had  to  pay  therefor.  The  celebrated  $5.75  apple  case  that  is  going  the  rounds 
of  the  rress,  whereby  the  farmer  got  75c  and  the  Western  consumer  paid 
$5.75,  is  not  the  only  example  extant. 

While  West  this  past  season,  the  writer  took  occasion  to  visit  the  distri- 
buting centres  of  the  prairies.  What  he  saw  there  was  evidence  enough  that 
the  producer  of  fruits  was  not  getting  a  square  deal.  Apples  from  Ontario 
were  selling  to  farmers  at  the  station  in  Fillmore,  50  miles  from  Regina,  at 
$6.00  per  barrel.     They  were  Greenings,  Pewaukees  and  Snows. 


A  fruit  company  in  Saskatoon  sold  carload  after  carload  of  Ontario  apples, 
75  per  cent.  No.  I's,  Spies  and  Baldwins,  at  $2.95,  f.o.b.  Ontario,  to  dealers  in 
the  towns  nearby.  The  freight  on  a  car  of  apples  to  Saskatoon  would  run 
about  $1  a  barrel  at  that  time.  This  put  the  apples  at  the  station  in  Saskatche- 
wan for  $3.95.  Allow  50c  more  for  cartage  charges,  and  it  looks  like  about 
$4.50  before  the  country  storekeeper  could  sell.  Farmers  from  these  points 
were  paying  as  high  as  $6.50. 

This  means  that  the  dealer  had  to  have  a  $2  profit  per  barrel  or  he  would 
not  handle  the  fruit.  Yet  the  Ontario  farmer  received  $1.25  for  this  barrel. 
Again,  let  us  look  at  the  case  in  Toronto.  A  farmer  from  the  neighboring 
county  brings  in  Spies.  One  of  the  many  local  grocers  buys  barrel  at  $2.00, 
quite  a  good  price  there  this  past  season.  The  grocer  sells  these  apples  out  by 
the  peck  at  40  cents.  'He  succeeds  in  getting  about  11  pecks  out  of  a  barrel, 
which  return  him  about  $4.40.  In  justice  to  the  grocer  it  must  be  said  that 
he  loses  all  that  are  decayed,  and  where  the  measurement  does  not  hold  out 
according  as  the  barrel  is  standard  or  not.  He  has  to  deliver  in  small  lots  and 
stand  all  the  little  vexatious  complaints  that  can  come  from  a  city  customer. 
So  that  his  return  of  over  $2.00  for  his  services  has  far  more  to  its  justification 
than  has  the  commission  man  for  his  work. 

Here  then  lies  the  whole  question.  The  unorganized  farmer  is  the  prey 
of  circumstances. 

The  distribution  of  the  wealth  from  the  soil  takes  place  somewhat  as 
follows : 

A Ontario  Farmer  Gets $1.00 

He  pays  out  of  this  hired  help — spray  materials — cultivation 
— pruning — and  cartage  over  bad  roads.  Net  return  say  50c. 

B Ontario  Dealer  Gets    (Gross) . $2.45 

He  pays  out  of  this  cost  of  packing  the  apples  and  the  barrel 
(45  cents.)     Net  return  per  barrel,  50c. 

C Western  Commission  Man  Gets $2.95 

He  pays  nothing  but  overhead  office  charges.     Net  gain 
per  barrel,  50c. 

D Western  Storekeeper  Gets $6.50 

He  pays  freight,  say  $1.20.     Insurance  and  cartage — and 
the  $2.95— total,  say  $4.50.    Net  gain  per  barrel,  $2.00. 
Out  of  this  there  is  $3.50  of  fine  gain,  of  which  the  farmer  gets  a  doubtful 
50c.     The  middleman  and  transportation  companies  divide  the  other  $3.00, 
chiefly,  however,  to  the  middleman. 

What's  the  solution?  There  is  only  one.  This  was  told  in  the  leading 
editorial  in  the  January  issue.  It  is  co-operation  and  organization  of  the 
producing  ends. 

Why  are  the  grain  farmers  getting  fair  returns  to-day? 
It  is  assuredly  due  to  the  organization  of  the  Grain  Growers'  Grain  Com- 
pany that  was  fought  tooth  and  nail  by  those  whose  business  would  be  hurt. 
Why  do  the  citrus  growers  of  California  thrive  and  rejoice?     Because 
they  have  a  perfect  organization  in  their  selling  of  the  fruit. 

Why  did  the  Okanagan  peach  growers  throw  a  carload  of  peaches  in  the 
lake  last  summer?  Why  were  Ontario  apples  left  to  the  tender  mercies  of 
the  hogs  in  the  orchard?  Because  farmers  pooh-pooh  all  organization  and 
look  upon  the  business  as  able  to  cope  against  big  corporations  individually. 
How  long  will  it  take  the  average  farmer  to  see  that  he  must  work  with 
his  neighbor  towards  a  single  end?  The  middleman's  excessive  profits  must 
he  cut  out  by  an  organized  distributing  end,  among  the  farmers  themselves. 


As  Granges,  and  Western  farm  organ izationSj  let  us  bend  our  energies 
towards  securing  justice  in  this  matter.  It  lies  in  our  hands.  Co-operation 
is  the  one  big  Avord  that  should  be  written  across  the  proceedings  of  the  Grain 
Growers  and  the  Grange  as  they  meet  in  January. 

A  Ranching  Solution 

' '  Eesolved,  that  the  grazing  land  lying  within  the  forest  reserves  in  the  foothills 
and  mountains  be  divided  into  cattle,  horse  and  sheep  areas,  according  to  the  adaptability 
of  the  country  for  each  kind  of  stock,  and  that  permits  be  issued  for  this  land  to  the 
various  classes  of  ranchers  as  applied  for,  no  leases  to  be  granted." 

The  Ranching  Commission  passed  the  above  resolution  at  their  Pincher 
Creek  session  last  month,  and  by  so  doing  have  pleased  the  three  branches  of 
the  ranching  family.  The  sheepmen,  the  cattlemen  and  the  horsemen  will 
each  benefit  if  something  like  this  can  be  worked  out. 

There  is  much  land  in  the  West  that  is  being  opened  up  which  ought 
never  to  be  given  for  settlement.  It  is  of  such  poor  quality  for  grain  farming 
that  the  settlers  soon  move  on  and  leave  the  place.  This  ties  up  this  whole 
section  and  makes  it  unsuitable  for  any  kind  of  farming  enterprise. 

This  is  not  alone  confined  to  the  foothills  and  forest  reserves.  It  might 
be  a  good  thing  also  if  the  holders  of  these  leases  for  ranching  could  be  induced 
to  plant  shelter  bluffs  of  some  of  the  native  trees,  which  in  time  would  be  valu- 
able to  the  country. 

New  Brunswick  Wealth 

*'It  is  not  the  towns  that  produce  the  men  of  business  or  the  professional  men,  but 
the  country  lads  who  are  healthy,  brainy  and  strong,  and  who  come  into  the  towns  and 
make  the  leading  men  of  business.  The  authorities  should  concentrate  on  developing  the 
land,  and  by  education  and  training  of  various  kinds,  raise  up  a  class  of  farmers  who 
would  add  to  the  agricultural  wealth  of  New  Brunswick. ' ' 

In  these  words,  Mr.  M.  J.  Butler,  late  manager  of  the  Dominion  Steel 
Company,  pointed  to  the  magnificent  chances  which  lay  in  the  future  for 
New  Brunswick  agriculture. 

This  province  has  too  long  been  regarded  as  a  pleasant  hunting  and  fishing 
preserve.  Of  late,  much  attention  is  being  directed  to  the  immense  possibilities 
which  lie  in  the  St.  John  Valley  for  young  farmers  with  a  vision.  This  valley, 
as  has  been  shown  by  an  article  in  Farmer's  Magazine,  is  especially  adapted 
to  fruit.  Other  parls  of  the  province  raise  potatoes  that  are  superior  to  any 
others,  while  live  stock  raising  can  be  carried  on  most  successfully. 

The  province  offers  peculiar  inducements  to  her  young  men.  The  recent 
Winter  Fair  at  Amherst  proved  again  what  could  be  done  by  intelligence  and 
thrift  in  the  rearing  of  first  class  live  stock. 

]f  the  country  is  giving  the  cities  the  best  men,  it  is  high  time  that  the 
country  retained  many  of  these  for  the  uplift  of  the  land. 

An  Acre's  Annual  $100 

The  returns  from  one  county  in  Ontario  where  dairying  is  made  the 
leading  agricultural  specialty  as  featured  in  this  issue,  are  almost  incredible. 
That  farmers  can  make  Ontario  land  return  them  $100  an  acre  annually 
seems  too  good  to  be  possible,  yet  it  has  been  done  in  Oxford.  Three  milk 
condenseries,  one  milk  powder  factory,  twenty-four  cheese  factories,  and  several 


creameries  are  in  operation  in  that  county.  These  demand  a  yearly  output 
from  the  farms  of  millions  of  gallons  of  milk.  The  cow  has  done  wonderful 
things  for  agriculture  in  that  county.  Fine  residences,  many  with  modern 
water  and  lighting  conveniences,  large  well-equipped  barns,  fertile  well-fenced 
farms,  good  roads,  and  a  vigorous  people  are  some  of  the  products  of  dairying 
in  that  inland  county. 

And  yet  Oxford  is  little  known  over  the  face  of  the  country.  Its  wealth 
and  worth  are  not  told  as  are  the  half-sections  of  Saskatchewan  or  the  orchards 
of  the  Okanagan.  The  time  is  coming  when  Ontario's  valuable  soil  and 
climatic  assets  will  be  properly  appraised  by  her  people.  Just  now  there  is 
a  partial  eclipse,  but  the  penumbra  is  waning. 

The  Farmer's  Investments 

The  statement  that  farmers  are  easily  fooled  in  matters  of  finance,  gets 
most  of  its  justification  from  the  fact  that  they  will  subscribe  to  undertakings 
about  which  they  know  nothing.  So  many  farmers  applaud  a  good  movement 
and  allow  their  good  will  to  carry  them  into  countenancing  some  proposal 
coming  through  this  approved  channel,  that  they  are  easily  taken  in  by  the 
shrewd  rascal  after  their  money. 

Just  now  co-operation  is  the  one  word  that  is  being  looked  upon  by  the 
farmers  as  being  able  to  remedy  many  of  their  ills.  Along  comes  a  commercial 
proposition  from  some  part  of  the  country  with  a  fine  prospectus  of  the  way 
the  farmer  is  being  lieeced  by  retailers  and  asserting  the  value  of  co-operation 
as  a  remedy.  The  circular  ends  up  with  a  request  for  this  farmer's  member- 
ship and  if  he  will  remit  $2  he  may  become  a  member  and  enjoy  the  benefits 
of  30c  tea  for  24c,  etc. 

Some  farmers  will,  on  their  own  initiative  be  taken  in.  Those  farmers 
who  consult  their  local  organizations  will  know  better.  They  know  that  co- 
operation begins  at  home,  and  that  for  co-operation  to  work  out  to  their  good 
it  must  begin  among  themselves  and  grow  like  the  waves  of  the  sea  in  a  wide 
circle  outwards. 

The  greatest  inducement  that  is  ever  offered  to  the  farmer  is  that  of  his 
getting  something  for  nothing.  This  failing  in  humanity,  not  confined  by  any 
means  to  the  farm,  is  the  real  root  of  the  "gullibility." 

The  Wilderness  Grows  Alfalfa 

Matthew  Richardson,  of  llaldimand  County,  Ontario,  went  down  to  one 
of  its  heavy  clay  farms  about"  half  a  century  ago.  His  neighbors  pitied  his 
experience  on  such  a  poor  farm. 

Ten  years  went  by  and  with  the  aid  of  red  clover,  alfalfa,  beef  cattle  and 
hogs,  he  had  turned  those  poor  acres  into  fairly  respectable  producers.  It  was 
then  that  his  desk  taught  him  that  he  had  to  produce  even  more.  He  must 
get  bigger  returns.  Dairy  cattle  were  called  in  to  help  out.  They  did  so,  and 
the  Blacks  and  Whites  of  Riverside  farm  have  built  up  a  reputation  for  Haldi- 
mand,  Richardsons,  and  clay  soils. 

The  poor  farm  designation,  somehow  or  other,  had  been  lost  and  the  big 
Riverside  farm  was  beginning  to  do  some  advertising  of  the  county.  A  son 
had  also  grown  enthusiastic  in  the  business,  and  to-day  the  farm  is  known  all 
over  Ontario  as  one  of  the  best  farms  in  the  whole  province  from  every  stand- 
point. .        ' 


So  much  for  ability  and  perseverance  in  overcoming  natural  obstacles. 
Joe  Wing,  of  the  AVoodlands  farm  in  Ohio,  and  well-known  as  an  agricultural 
writer,  has  had  an  even  more  encouraging  epperience  with  what  the  neighbors 
called  a  useless  rundown  farm  in  Ohio. 

A  banquet  by  his  neighbors  and  village  friends  was  tendered  the  Richard- 
sons  last  month  at  Caledonia.  It  was  a  fitting  appreciation  of  a  man  who  was 
sound  enough  to  grasp  the  real  business  of  agriculture  and  yet  human  enough 
not  to  forget  this  indebtedness  to  society  in  his  soil  regenerating  work.  It 
was  a  gladsome  handshake  that  his  old  neighbors  gave  Mat  Richardson.  He 
has  done  well.    He  has  made  his  country  richer. 

Assessment  Reform 

The  movement  for  Assessment  Reform  is  growing  stronger  in  Ontario. 
Already  the  leaven  of  the  progressive  Western  municipalities  is  working.  The 
unfairness  of  taxing  improvements  on  property  is  being  seen  by  every  property 
owner.  Farmers  for  years  have  suffered  for  their  thrift  in  erecting  new  build- 
ings and  in  improving  the  soil,  to  be  taxed  at  a  high  rate.  Their  shiftless 
neighbors  have  thus  been  bonused. 

The  assessment  law  was  made  to  put  a  premium  on  extensive  farming 
and  rural  depopulation.  Had  the  many  township  clerks  not  been  human 
enough  to  evade  the  law  by  being  '^measurably"  near  to  its  observance,  as  one 
man  put  it,  the  wrong  would  have  been  more  accentuated  than  it  is. 

Again,  the  man  who  holds  farm  and  city  lands  vacant  in  order  that  he 
may  reap  the  fruits  of  the  added  valuation  brought  there  by  the  settlers  around 
him,  has  escaped  his  fair  share  of  taxation.  He  should  pay  as  much  as  the 
man  on  the  next  lot.  Many  railway  companies  and  other  corporations  would 
have  contributed  more  had  this  kind  of  justice  obtained. 

The  reason  why  taxes  are  oppressive  are  that  they  are  hitting  the  wrong 
fellow.  If  the  principle  of  ability  to  pay  must  be  the  guide  in  taxation,  then 
a  great  deal  of  the  present  tribute  is  robbery,  pure  and  simple. 

It  is  little  to  be  wondered  at  that  many  of  our  tax  reformers  become  intem- 
perate in  their  remarks  when  they  see  the  evils  of  the  present  system.  The 
tax  reforms  are  all  right,  even  if  many  single  taxes  are  highly  objectionable. 
The  principle  is  greater  than  the  men. 

Agriculture  and  Finance 

Hon.  Price  Ellison,  of  British  Columbia,  is  not  impressed  with  the  way 
some  big  financial  men  talk  about  the  farmers  not  needing  money.  His  latest 
influence  is  being  brought  to  bear  upon  the  'Government  to  induce  them  to 
provide  a  method  whereby  farmers  can  get  money  for  3  per  cent. 

As  Mr.  Ellison  holds  the  peculiar  position  of  being  Minister  of  Agriculture 
as  well  as  Minister  of  Finance,  he  is,  perhaps,  in  a  better  position  to  know  the 
needs  of  the  farmer,  and  can  suggest  a  remedy  for  that  need  better  than  any 

British  Columbia  has  a  limited  amount  of  arable  land.  Yet  one  of  the 
things  which  impresses  th^e  visitor  there  is  the  haphazard  way  that  cultivation 
goes  on.  Under  proper  encouragement  there  is  abundant  land  to  supply  the 
immense  population.  When  the  farmer  finds  that  he  can  invest  money  in  his 
land  productively,  and  has  a  way  of  securing  that  money  he  will  act.  Hon. 
Price  Ellison  proposes  to  give  him  money  borrowed  by  the  province's  guarantee. 
If  railways  can  be  so  financed,  why  not  agriculture?  he  reasons! 


By  E.  C.  Drury 

Note. — That  there  is  considerable  difference  of  opinion  on  the  Navy 
question  as  to  the  position  taken  by  both  parties  at  Ottawa,  one  has  only 
to  take  ^  trip  through  the  country  among  the  farmers  to  find  out.  When 
Sir  Wilrid  Laurier  introduced  his  Navy  policy,  the  Nationalists  of  Quebec 
were  not  the  only  objectors  to  it.  When  Hon.  Mr.  Borden  was  reported 
as  promising  a  plebiscite  on  the  question,  he  Caught  the  viewpoint  of  a  large 
number  of  farmers.  Now  that  he  is  legislating,  apparently  without  that 
referendum,  the  people  who  rightly  or  wrongly  favored  a  reference  of  the 
question  to  the  people,  are  being  disappointed. 

Mr.  E.  C.  Drury,  who  is  on  the  executive  of  the  Canadian  Council  of 
Agriculture  and  an  ex-master  of  the  Grange,  writes  from  his  farm  near 
Barrie  on  the  situation.  Farmer 's  Magazine  is  pleased  to  present  this  argu- 
ment to  its  readers. — Editor. 

At  the  lYioment,  the  one  great  question  which  agitates  the  'people 
of  Canada  is  that  involving  the  relations  of  Canada  and  the  Empire. 
This  is  not  because  Canadians  in  their  Parliament  have  nothing  else  to 
think  about,  for  there  are  several  little  things  which  might  be  improved 
upon.  For  one  thing,  our  Federal  indebtedness  is-  unreasonably  great — 
fifty  dollars,  or  nearly  so,  per  head  of  our  population.  This  debt  has 
been  largely  incurred  during  a  time  of  prosperity,  and  it  would  seem, 
the  part  of  common  prudence  for  our  Parliament  to  busy  itself  in  devising 
ways  and  means  of  wise  economy  whereby  this  stupendous  debt — upwards 
of  three  hundred  and  fifty  'millions — might  be  somewhat  reduced  before 
the  inevitable  lean  years  come. 

Another  thing  requiring  revision  is  our  Bank  Act.  We  have  been 
told  for  ages  that  we  have  the  best  banking  system,  in  the  world,  and  so 
we  have — for  our  banks!  But  a  system  which  sweeps  the  outlying 
districts  bare  of  capital  in  order  that  it  may  be  used  for  speculation  in 
the  great  centres,  luhich  gives  no  adequate  security  to  depositors,  and  whic% 
allows  the  banks  to  usurp,  without  taxation,  the  strictly  Government 
function  of  issuing  paper  currency,  can  scarcely  be  called  ideal  for  the 
country  at  large.  Parliament  could,  with  profit,  give  a  little  serious  atten- 
tion to  it.  Our  rural  population  is  shrinking  in  an  alarming  m^anner, 
and  this  must  be  stopped  or  national  disaster  will  surely  follow.  Our 
natural  resources  of  farm,  forest  and  fisheries  are  being  shamefully 
depleted,  and  no  adequate  steps  are  being  taken  to  m^aintain  or  restore 
these  national  assets.  The  question  of  the  ''cost  of  living"  is  becoming 
a  serious  one,  and  there  are  whispers  of  unholy  combinations,  mergers  and 
what  not,  mamifacturers  and  nfiiddlemen,  which  are  aggravating 
the  situation.  These  and  a  dozen  other  problems  urgently  demand  the 
attention  of  Parliament,  and  it  would  seem  as  though  that  body  with  all 
its  wisdom,  would  need  to  work  overtime  if  the  country  is  to  be  kept  from 
going,  in  the  words  of^  the  immortal  Mr.  Mantalini,  to  the  ''demnition 
bow-wows.'^  But  Parliament  is  giving  scant  attention  to  these  matters. 
Its  time  is  quite  fully  occupied  by  something  entirely  different. 





That  something  is  nothing  less  than 
how  Canada  shall  participate  in  the 
naval  defense  of  the  Empire — not,  be 
it  noted,  whether  she  shall  do  so,  but 
how.  This  is  a  new  thing  so  far  as 
Canada  is  concerned.  Never  before  in 
her.  history  has  it  even  been  hinted 
that  she  was  mider  any  obligation, 
moral  or  otherwise,  to  assist  in  any 
way  in  maintaining  the  armed  forces 
of  the  Empire,  or  rather  of  Great  Bri- 
tain, since  there  is  no  such  thing  as  an 
Imperial  force.  It  is  quite  clear  that 
when  Canada's  constitution,  the  B.  N. 
A.  Act,  was  framed,  it  was  expressly 
intended  that  there  should  be  no  such 
participation,  otherwise  some  means 
would  have  been  provided  by  which 
Canada  would  be  given  some  voice  in 
questions  of  peace  and  war,  which  she 
has  not,  and  cannot  have  in  any  ef- 
fective way  except  by  a  revolutionary 
change  in  the  relations  existing  be- 
tween the  colony  and  the  motherland. 
That  Canada  could  be  expected  to  con- 
tribute in  any  way  without  such  a  voice 
is  impossible,  contrary  to  the  very  spir- 
it of  British  institutions.  Moreover, 
the  question  is  not  only  new  to  Cana- 
dians but  it  is  revolutionary  in  its  na- 
ture. It  involves  the  expenditure  of 
large  sums  of  money  and  possibly  the 
creation  of  a  naval  force  which  will  of 
necessity  be  a  continued  and  heavy 
financial  burden  to  the  country.  It 
means  that  Canada  shall  enter  the  field 
of  international  military  preparations. 
This  is  entirely  contrary  to  Canadian 
tradition.  Some  years  ago  I  remember 
reading  a  little  verse  which,  though 
crude,  expressed  very  clearly  the  Cana- 
dian national  ideals.  It  ran,  if  I  re- 
member rightly,  something  like  this: — 

"0,   the  Eagle  flaps   his  wings   and 

And  the  Lion  thirsts  for  blood. 
But  the  Beaver  musing  by  his  streams. 

Says  nothing,  but  saws  wood." 


If  the  present  Parliament  has  its 
way,  all  this  is  to  be  changed.     The 

Beaver  is  to  be  fitted  out  with  fangs  and 
claws,  and  is  to  swagger  around  with 
the  other  beasts  of  prey.  The  whole 
proposal  is  revolutionary  and  momen- 
tous, and  it  has  beside  this  peculiarity, 
that  once  accepted,  it  institutes  a  policy 
which  cannot  readily  be  abandoned. 
Once  Canadian  ships  become  a  part  of 
the  British  navy,  they  must  of  neces- 
sity be  available  for  all  Britain's  wars, 
whether  Canada  approves  of  them  or 
not.  For  Canada  to  refuse  to  partici- 
pate, to  withdraw  her  ships  in  the  face 
of  the  enemy,  would  be  an  act  of  dis- 
approval so  marked  that  it  is  quite  pos- 
sible it  would  lead  to  such  ill  feeling 
between  Canada  and  the  old  land,  as  to 
lead  to  their  final  separation.  History 
repeats  itself. 

Canada  has  not  always,  during  the 
past  fifty  years,  seen  eye  to  eye  with 
Great  Britain.  Canadian  public  opinion 
would  not  stand  for  one  moment  for  a 
second  Opium  war.  During  the  Civil 
War  in  the  United  States,  the  people 
of  Canada  sympathized  actively  with 
the  North,  while  England,  through  her 
Whig  classes,  favored  the  South. 

Recently  we  have  seen  England  as 
the  possible  ally  of  Japan  against  the 
United  States.  Canadians  would  scarce-. 
ly  submit  tamely  to  have  their  ships 
and  men  used  in  any  such  causes.  To 
withdrajw  them  would  be  practically 
equal  to  an  act  of  hostility  toward 
Great  Britain.  Once  we  participate  in 
the  naval  defence  of  the  Empire,  it  ap- 
pears that  we  stand  pledged  to  support 
Britain  in  all  her  wars — a  virtual  trib- 
ute, since  we  can  have  no  real  say  in 
the  making  of  peace  and  war — or  to 
withhold  our  support  at  the  peril  of  sev- 
ering our  connection.  The  whole 
question  is  so  serious  that  it  should  not 
1^6  entered  into  without  the  most  mature 
thought,  and  the  full  approval  of  our 


On  this  great,  new  and  momentous 
question  our  present  Parliament  as- 
sumes its  right  to  fix  our  policy  for  all 
time.  It  does  not  dp  so  on  any  man- 
date from  the  people,  who  have  never 



had  a  chance  to  express  themselves  on 
the  question  in  any  way.  If  our  two 
great  political  factions  have  their  way 
the  people  will  never  have  the  chance 
to  express  themselves  on  the  great  ques- 
tion of  whether  we  shall  reverse  our 
historic  policy  and  enter  the  field  of 
Imperial  naval  defence,  being  consult- 
ed only  on  the  very  minor,  and  relative- 
ly unimportant  question  of  how  we 
shall  do  so. 

Technically,  of  course,  our  represen- 
tatives in  Parliament  have  a  right  to  do 
this.  Practically  it  is  as  much  an  act 
of  tyranny  as  was  the  levying  of  ship 
money  by  Charles  I.  It  makes  little 
difference  whether  the  tyrant  be  one  or 
many.  The  vital  thing  is  this,  that  on 
a  question  seriously  involving  our  fu- 
ture, incurring  vast  expenditure,  action 
is  contemplated  without  the  consent  of 
the  people  having  been  obtained  in  any 
way.  There  is  only  one  plea  that  can 
free  Parliament  from  the  charge  of  tyr- 
anny, and  the  violation  of  the  spirit, 
if  not  the  letter,  of  all  measures  of  Bri- 
tish freedom,  from  Magna  Charta  down, 
and  that  is,  the  plea  that  there  is  an 
'^emergency,"  so  urgent  that  there  is 
not  time  to  consult  the  people.  If  this 
can  be  established.  Parliament  will 
stand  absolved  of  the  charge  of  wilful 
tyranny,  and  the  people  may  well  for- 
o;ive  their  representatives  for  an  act  of 
haste  which  necessity  demands.  Let  us 
examine  this  ''emergency"  plea. 


Premier  Borden  claims  that  there  is 
an  "emergency"  in  the  affairs  of  Great 
Britain,  and  in  the  matter  of  her  naval 
defence,  which  demands  a  huge  cash 
gift  from  Canada,  thirty-five  million 
dollars,  to  be  used  for  the  construction 
of  three  Dreadnoughts.  These  three 
ships  are  to  be  built  in  England,  and 
manned  and  maintained  by  England, 
so  that  summed  up,  the  contribution  is 
merely  a  contribution  of  money  given 
by  Canada,  to  be  used  to  augment  the 
present  British  naval  program.  If 
really  such  an  "emergency"  exists,  and 
it  can  be  met  in  this  manner,  three 
things  must  be  tnie.    First,  Great  Bri- 

tain's foreign  relations  must  be  such 
that  war  may  be  looked  for  at  any  time. 
Second,  her  navy  must  be  inadequate  to 
her  defence.  Third,  her  weakness  does 
not  consist  of  a  lack  of  men,  or  of  facil- 
ities to  build  or  equip  war  vessels,  but  is 
solely  a  monetary  affair — in  other 
words,  her  credit  is  so  strained  that  she 
can  no  longer  build  the  ships  necessary 
to  her  defence. 

Let  us  examine  these  propositions. 
First,  as  to  Great  Britain's  foreign  re- 
lations, are  we  justified  in  assuming 
that  there  is  reason  to  fear  war  in  the 
immediate  future?  Her  relations  are 
at  present,  of  course,  friendly  with  all  . 
nations.  Her  hereditary  enemy,  France, 
has  become  her  friend  and  ally,  as  has 
also  Russia,  with  whom,  at  one  time, 
conflict  was  possible.  All  possible  caus- 
es of  friction  with  the  United  States 
have  been  dealt  with  by  a  permanent 
treaty  of  peace  and  arbitration  between 
the  two  nations,  which,  no  less  than  the 
great  and  growing  friendliness  between 
the  two  peoples,  makes  war  an  impossi- 
bility from  that  quarter.  There  remains 
but  one  source  of  possible  danger,  Ger- 

We  are  solemnly,  assured  that  Ger- 
many intends  to  invade  and  conquer 
England,  that  she  is  building  a  fleet 
solely  for  that  purpose,  that  German 
officers  solemnly  pledge  healths  to  their 
meeting  in  a  conquered  London.  It 
matters  little  that  Germany  would  have 
nothing  to  gain  by  such  invasion ;  that 
quite  probably,  even  were  the  British 
fleet  completely  destroyed,  and  the  Ger- 
man fleet  uninjured  in  the  process — an 
unthinkable  situation — Germany  would 
be  unable  to  land  and  provision  a  force 
large  enough  to  conquer  England ;  that 
France,  England's  ally,  would  undoubt- 
edly seize  the  opportunity  to  invade  Ger- 
many, and  reconquer  Alsace  and  Lor- 
raine, not  yet  perfectly  assimilated  by 
Germany.  In  spite  of  all  these  reasons 
for  believing  that  Germany  would  hesi- 
tate to  invade  England,  we  have  all 
been  frightened  into  hysterics  by  the 

EnQ;lishmen  have  lain  awake  nights 
listening  for  the  hum  of  German  air- 



ships,  and  even  innocent  German  wait- 
ers in  London  hotels  have  been  objects 
of  dread.  There  remains  but  one  con- 
solation in  the  midst  of  all  this  panicky 
fear.  Germans  are  probably  quite  as 
much  disturbed  by  fear  of  an  English 
blockade,  which  would  be  designed  to 
win  Germany's  growing  sea-borne  com- 
merce, and  leave  England  the  undisput- 
ed commercial  mistress  of  the  seas. 

But  some  people  in  both  countries  are 
finding  out,  more  and  more  clearly,  that 
the  whole  scare  is  nothing  more  serious 
than  a  pumpkin  with  a  candle  inside, 
a  sort  of  Hallowe'en  ghost,  designed  to 
frighten  both  peoples  into  hysterics 
while  the  builders  of  warships  and  guns 
pick  their  pockets  in  security.  Indeed, 
the  only  apparent  reason  why  Germany 
and  England  should  be  picked  upon  a.* 
foes  is  the  fact  that  they  have,  each  of 
them,  one  of  the  two  greatest  firms  of 
gun-makers  in  the  world — Krupps  in 
Germany  and  Vickers  and  Maxim  in 
England.  These  interests,  supported 
by  the  land-owning  classes  in  both  coun- 
tries, who  welcome  war-scares,  if  not 
actual  war,  as  a  means  of  diverting  the 
people's  attention  from  proposed  and 
much-needed  reforms,  have  undoubted- 
ly been  largely  instrumental  in  promot- 
ing the  war-scare. 

It  has  even  been  asserted,  and  not 
denied,  that  a  large  number  of  British 
members  of  Parliament  are  financially 
interested  in  the  armament  firms.  Aside 
from  this  artificial  agitation  there  is  no 
apparent  reason  why  the  two  nations 
should  ever  have  a  serious  difference, 
let  alone  a  w^ar.  The  two  peoples  are 
of  kindred  stock,  their  monarch?  closely 
related;  they  have  been  friends  and 
allies  for  centuries;  in  no  part  of  the 
world  do  their  interests  conflict.  Why. 
then,  in  the  name  of  common  sense, 
should  there  be  war?  Powerful  organ- 
izations in  both  countries  are  working 
to  maintain  peace,  and  there  i?  no  rea- 
son w^hy  all  misunderstanding  should 
not  be  removed  and  the  two  nations  be- 
come friends  as  France  and  England 
have.  Indeed  there  are  not  wanting 
signs  that  this  will,  in  time,  take  place. 
At  any  rate  there  is  nothing  in  the  re- 

lations of  the  two  countries  to  justify 
the  Parliament  of  Canada  in  setting 
aside  the  whole  spirit  of  British  institu- 
tions, and  committing  the  country  to 
un-British  ^'taxation  without  representa- 

borden's  policy  wrong. 

But  assuming  that  Britain's  foreign 
relations  are  critical,  is  her  fleet  inade- 
quate? It  has  never  been  claimed  seri- 
ously that  it  is.  The  British  Admiralty 
assures  us  that  it  is  equal  to  all  possible 
hostile  combinations.  In  the  face  of 
these  declarations  and  of  the  obvious 
superiority  of  the  British  fleet,  it  is  ab- 
surd to  assume  that  there  is  such  urgen- 
cy in  extending  Canadian  help  that  the 
Canadian  Parliament  is  justified  in  pur- 
suing the  cause  it  is  apparently  taking. 

But,  again,  assuming  for  the  sake  of 
argument  that  the  crisis  in  foreign  re- 
lations exists,  and  that  the  British  fleet 
is  inadequate,  is  Mr.  Borden's  plan  an 
effective  way  of  extending  aid?  Is  Eng- 
land insolvent?  On  the  contrary,  she  is 
the  great  lending  nation  of  the  world, 
as  Canada  is  one  of  the  great  borrowing 
nations.  She  has  money  to  build  her 
own  Dreadnoughts.  If  there  is  a  crisis, 
the  proposal  of  Premier  Borden's  will 
not  relieve  it  in  the  least.  If  England 
suffers  a  deficiency  in  anything  it  is  in 
men  and  this  Mr.  Borden  does  not  pro- 
pose to  relieve. 

Clearly  from  all  standpoints,  Mr. 
Borden's  proposals  have  neither  the 
urgency  nor  the  wisdom  which  would 
justify  their  acceptance  by  Parliament 
without  a  reference  to  the  people. 


But  what  shall  we  say  of  Sir  Wilfrid 
Laurier's  proposals?  He  declares  there 
is  no  emergency,  and  no  need  to  rush  to 
the  aid  of  Britain.  What  we  need,  ac- 
cording to  him,  is  coast  defence,  a  navy, 
''Built,  owned  and  manned  in  Canada," 
for  our  own  defence,  though,  of  course, 
available  to  Great  Britain  in  time  of 
war.  This  may  or  may  not  be  our  need. 
Several  objections  might  be  urged 
against  it.  In  the  first  place,  we  might 
ask  what  we  have  to  defend  "ourselves 



MgainsL  Certainly  not  pirates,  for  they 
are  a  thing  of  the  past.  An  invading 
foe  then — Japan  or  Germany,  we  are 
told.  But  is  it  likely  that  either  of  these 
nations  would  care  to  try  the  experi- 
ment, with  thousands  of  miles  of  ocean 
between — an  almost  fatal  handicap,  as 
was  shown  in  the  Boer  war,  and  with 
the  United  States  standing  ready,  by 
virtue  of  the  Monroe  Doctrine,  to  pre- 
vent them  from  retaining  an  inch  of 
conquered  territory  should  they  succeed 
in  beating  Canada?  Again,  if  either  of 
these  nations  attempted  to  invade  our 
country,  of  what  use  would  any  fleet 
which  we  can  afford  be  against  their 
powerful  fleets.  To  destroy  our  fleet 
would  be  easy.  Their  real  difficulties 
would  begin  when  they  attempted  to 
force  their  way  inland  against  a  popula- 
tion of  seven  million,  and  with  their 
base  of  supplies  thousands  of  miles  dis> 
tant.  Foreign  invasion  of  Canada  is,  to 
say  the  least,  highly  improbable,  and  it 
is  doubtful  if  Sir  Wilfrid  really  thinks 
it  of  such  great  importance  to  provide 
for  naval  defence  of  our  coasts,  that  we 
should  at  this  juncture  beat  our  plow- 
shares into  swords.  Certainly  he  cannot 
think  it  of  such  urgency  as  to  demand 
action  before  the  people  sliall  have  been 

What  then  is  the  explanation  of  the 
attitude  of  the  two  great  parties?  It  i,~ 
all  a  part  of  the  beautiful  game  of  ins- 
and-outs  which  has  taken  place  of  states- 
manship in  Canada.  Nothing  was  ever 
hinted  of  a  Canadian  navy,  or  of  Cana- 
dian »participation  in  Britain's  naval  de- 
fence till  1909.  Then  the  German  war 
scare  swept  England.  Certain  jingoes 
in  Canada  began  to  clamor  that  we 
should  do  something  to  help  the  mother- 
land. Ijoyalty  has  always  been  a  useful 
stock-in-trade  for  Canadian  politicians, 
and  has  in  the  past  been  supposed  to  be 
the  peculiar  propert}^  of  Conservatives. 
Fearful  that  their  opponents  should  get 
ahead  of  them  the  Liberal  party  hasten- 
ed to  propose  that  Canada  should  build 
and  man  ships  for  coast  defence  and  to 
help  Britain.  The  Consen^atives  at  first 
concurred  in  this.  It  soon  became  ap- 
parent,  however,   that   the  proposition 

was  very  unpopular  among  the  French 
in  Quebec.  A  party,  the  Nationalists, 
arose  there  to  oppose  it.  Their  chief  ob- 
jective was  not  the  money  involved,  but 
the  fear  that  Canadians  would  be  requir- 
ed to  man  the  vessels,  to  be  shot  down 
for  England.  Pictures  of  conscription 
of  Canadians  "disembowelled  on  the 
decks  of  battleships, "  were  vividly  paint- 
ed before  the  minds  of  the  habitants. 


Meanwhile  the  general  election  was 
approaching  and  the  Conservatives  con- 
ceded the  alliance  of  the  Nationalists. 
The  liberals  were  committed  to  the  pol- 
icy of  a  Canadian  navy — had  taken 
steps  for  its  creation.  The  Conserva- 
tives, in  opposition,  were  committed  to 
nothing.  They  became  vague  on  the 
navy  question.  In  British  Canada  they 
talked  general  loyalty  while  in  Quebec 
the  Nationalists  promised  a  referendum 
if  the  Conservative  Nationalist  alliance 
was  returned  to  power.  They  were  re- 
turned, not,  however,  on  the  navy  issue, 
but  on  the  question  of  Reciprocity  with 
the  United  States,  with  the  navy  as  a 
minor  issue,  except  in  Quebec,  where  it 
was  the  great  issue.  Where  the  new 
cabinet  was  formed,  a  Nationalist,  Mr. 
Monk,  was  one  of  its  members.  During 
the  first  year  of  Mr.  Borden's  adminis- 
tration nothing  whatever  was  done  with 
the  navy  question.  In  the  fall  of  1912, 
how^ever,  Mr.  Borden  made  his  an- 
nouncement of  policy — neither  the 
Canadian  navy  scheme  of  Sir  Wilfrid, 
nor  the  referendum  which  the  Nation- 
alists claimed  had  been  promised  to 
them,  hut  a  cash  subsidy  of  $35,000,- 
000  to  be  given  to  Britain.  There  is 
scarcely  any  doubt  that  in  this  he  hop- 
ed to  placate  the  ultra-loyal  section  of 
his  own  party  without  offending  the 
Nationalists,  who,  as  we  have  seen,  ob- 
jected to  the  contribution  of  men  more 
than  that  of  money.  Mr.  Monk,  how- 
ever, claimins;  that  he  had  been  prom- 
ised a  plebiscite  on  the  question,  resign- 
ed his  position  in  the  Cabinet. 

The  split  between  the  Conservatives 
and  the  Nationalists  was  now  complete, 
and   the   Liberals   were   having   rather 


the  best  of  the  game.  Their  policy  was 
quite  as  ''loyal"  as  that  of  the  Conser- 
vatives, and  they  had  beside  this  ad- 
vantage, that  they  had  made  a  power- 
ful appeal  to  national  vanity,  and,  more 
substantial,  to  those  financial  interests 
which  stood  to  profit  by  building  and 
outfitting  a  Canadian  navy.  Seeing 
this,  the  Conservatives  began  to  veer, 
and  there  is  every  indication  that  be- 
fore the  session  ends  their  program 
will  include  a  Canadian  navy,  in  addi- 
tion to  a  cash  contribution.  A  beauti- 
ful, well-played  game,  truly,  but  where 
do  the  People  come  in? 

In  the  situation  in  which  the  parties 
of  Canada  stand,  the  only  way  in  which 
the  people  can  have  a  voice  is  by  means 
of  a  plebiscite.     The   two   parties   are 
agreed  on  this,  that  Canada  shall  enter 
the  naval  field  in  some  form.     It  is  all 
very  well  to  say  that  when  they  go  to 
the   people   in   a   general   election    the 
people  can  express  themselves  by  their 
votes.     But  they  have  no  choice.    The- 
oretically, if  a  considerable  proportion 
of  the  people  favor  doing  nothing  at 
•    the  present  juncture,  they     can     elect 
'epresentatives  who  will  carry  out  their 
views.    Practically,  nothing  short  of  an 
earthquake  would  enable  them  to  do  so. 
Anyone  in  the  least     familiar    with 
party  conditions,  knows  how  difficult  it 
is  for  an  Independent  of  any  sort  to  se- 
cure election  in  a  three-cornered  fight. 
The  regular  parties  have  the  funds,  and 
the   organization   which   counts   for  so 
much  in  an  election,  and  even  if  a  large 
majority  of  the  people  of  Canada  were 
against  the  naval  policy  of  both  parties, 
it  would  be  almost  impossible  for  them 
to  elect  a  sufhcient  number  of  represen- 
tatives to  defeat  it.    It  would  be  the  case 
•of  the  National  Transcontinental  over 
again.     The  Liberal  Government,  you 
will  remember,  on  the  eve  of  an  elec- 
tion, suddenly  proposed  a  second  trans- 
continental railway     to     run     through 
I         Northern  Ontario  and  Quebec,  to  the 
West,  and  from  sea  to  sea.    This  was  to 
be  built  by  the  country  and  based  by 
the  Grand  Trunk,  or  its  new  ramifica- 

tion the  G.T.P.  The  Conservatives 
went  one  better  and  proposed  that  the 
line  should  be  built  and  owned  by  the 
Government.  There  were  undoubtedly 
a  great  many  Canadians  who  opposed 
spending  public  money  on  it  at  all,  but 
they  did  not  get  a  chance  to  voice  their 

There  is  no  urgency  in  the  matter  of 
the  navy,  but  plenty  of  time  to  give 
the  people  a  chance  to  express  them- 
selves by  a  popular  vote.  The  next  gen- 
eral election,  if  the  parties  stand  as  they 
now  do,  will  not  give  them  this  chance. 
Mr.  Monk's  position  is  the  only  British 
one,  under  the  circumstances,  and  in  it 
he  has  the  support  of  thousands  of  Eng- 
lish-speaking Canadians.  Unless  this 
present  Parliament  wishes  to  stand  con- 
victed of  a  most  serious  offense  against 
the  spirit  of  British  liberty,  and  to  lend 
credence  to  the  suspicion  that  sinister 
influences  are  behind  the  movement  for 
a  navy,  it  must  give  the  people  this 
chance.  It  is  difficult  to  see  how  a  party 
calling  itself  Liberal  can  oppose  this 
course,  which  is  certainly  in  accord  with 
all  Liberal  traditions.  But  at  the  pres- 
ent moment  in  both  parties  alike,  prin- 
ciples and  statesmanship  seem  to  be 
subordinated  to  party  advantage,  and 
this  great  question,  which  should  be 
handled  with  the  greatest  caution,  has 
been  made  the  occasion  of  reckless  poli- 
tical jockeying. 

No  valid  reason  can  be  urged  against 
giving  the  people  a  chance  to  decide,  by 
a  referendum  upon  the  navy  qifestion. 
If  this  is  done,  and  the  people  support 
either  a  cash  gift  to  Britain  or  the  cre- 
ation of  a  Canadian  navy,  the  moral 
force  of  their  action  will  be  increased 
many  times  by  its  having  been  endorsed 
by  a  popular  vote.  If,  on  the  other  hand, 
they  decide  against  both  these  courses, 
they  will  have  shown  that  the  proposed 
action  of  Parliament  is  not  only  con- 
trary to  the  popular  will,  but  unwise  for 
a  navy  created,  or  a  subsidy  voted,  con- 
trary to  the  will  of  the  people,  must  in- 
jure rather  than  help  the  Empire. 


By  Edward  William  Thomson 

Note. — Mr.  Thomson  has  been  writing  for  several  issues  of  Farmer's 
Magazine.  His  views  are  his  own.  He  is  a  vigorous,  independent  thinker 
and  writes  from  his  own  standpoint  as  to  the  way  politics  are  shaping  ends 
in  our  country.  This  article  will  he  read  with  interest  by  all  just  now,  as 
the  questicfn  is  on  the  table  at  Ottawa,  and  is  ably  discussed  from  another 
standpoint  in  this  issue  by  Mr.  Drury. — Editor. 

LET  us  consider  the  Navy  proposals. 
Mr.  Borden  designs  to  pay  thirty-five 
millions  of  Canadian  money,  or  of  what 
is  essentially  the  same  thing — money 
borrowed  at  fair  interest  on  Canada's 
perfect  credit — for  three  battleships  of 
the  most  formidable.  He  designs  to 
place  them  in  the  service  and  com- 
plete control  of  the  Admiralty,  until 
such  time  as  Canada  may  withdraw 
them.  Is  it  not  obvious  that  they  could 
not  be  in  complete  London  control,  dur- 
ing the  period  of  loan,  if  they  were 
manned  and  officered  by  persons  sup- 
plied and  paid  by  Ottawa?  Some  al- 
lege that  the  period  of  loan  will  not  ex- 
pire before  the  ships  are  worn  out,  su- 
perseded by  vessels  of  later  invention, 
or  otherwise  fit  to  be  scrapped.  If  so, 
what  harm?  The  period  of  loan  must 
in  any  case  extend  until  Canada  shall 
have  acquired  the  auxiliary  craft  neces- 
sary to  great  battleships.  These  ad- 
denda must  include  at  least  fast  and 
strong  cruisers  for  scouting,  destroyers 
for  employment  against  hostile  torpedo 
craft,  launches  of  lesser  range  for  tor- 
pedo and  mines  service.  Without  such 
auxiliarias,  which  combined  with  a  su- 
perior battleship  constitute  a  fighting 
unit,  the  battleship  itself  would  be  not 
only  much  limited  in  action  but  much 
endangered,  somewhat  as  a  prizefi2:hter 
would  be  if  he  were  almost  deaf,  almost 
blind  and  capable  only  as  to  fists,  arms, 
legs  and  trunk.     Does  Mr.  Borden  in- 

tend to  obtain  for  Canada  the  auxiliary 
equipment  without  which  Canada  can- 
not recall  the  battleships? 

His  further  or  permanent  Navy  pro- 
gramme has  not  been  disclosed  at  time 
of  this  writing.  But  his  careful  and 
lucid  speech  on  his  preliminary  policy 
indicated  that  he  designs  establishment 
of  shipyards,  etc.,  on  both  Canadian 
coasts,  which  will  be  capable  of  con- 
structing such  vessels  and  appliances  as 
may  suffice  for  not  only  coast  defence 
service,  but  as  auxiliaries  to  super-dread- 
noughts. How  rapidly  the  intended 
Canadian  shipyards,  etc.,  may  turn  out 
such  minor  craft  must  depend  on  the 
sum  voted  by  our  Parliament,  and  the 
speed  of  its  application  to  the  purpose. 
Let  the  period  be  conceived  as  five,  ten, 
twenty  years — no  matter  how  short  or 
long  it  be,  Canada  will,  at  its  termina- 
tion, be  enabled  to  manage  battleships, 
and  recall  of  her  first  trio  may  then 
reasonably  occur.  Meantime,  not  only 
will  Canada's  security  be  enhanced  by 
her  strengthening  of  Britain's  power  on 
the  high  seas,  but  the  plant  for  Can- 
ada's  future  coast  defence  may  be  rush- 
ed as  fast  as  it  could  have  been  by  ad- 
hering to  Sir  Wilfrid's  former  pro- 
gramme, supposing  Parliament  as  gen- 
erous to  that  as  to  Mr.  Borden's  plan. 

But  that  is  not  all  the  gain.  The 
Premier  clearly  indicated  that  the  Ad- 
miralty, upon  completion  of  the  three 
Canadian  i)attleships  (perhaps  earlier) 



will  be  enabled  to  liberate  and 
will  detach  for  service  along  or 
off  Canada's  coasts,  such  cruisers, 
gunboats  and  other  minor  craft  as 
will  sufficiently  insure  these  coasts 
against  their  main  or  sole  danger  in  a 
great  British  war,  viz.,  the  danger  from 
raids  by  hostile  cruisers.  Our  three  big 
ships  will  supply  England  with  more 
than  the  line-of-battle  strength  of  nu- 
merous smaller  craft  formidable  enough 
to  serve  Canada's  only  need,  and  we 
shall  get  the  use  of  these  speedily — a 
fair  exchange. 

Yet  the  story  is  not  all  told.  The 
T^ondon  Government  will  employ  the 
projected  Canadian  naval  yards  to  build 
and  repair  armed  vessels  for  Atlantic 
and  Pacific  service,  thus  aiding  Canada 
to  maintain  effective  staffs  of  artificers, 
whose  presence  here  will  facilitate  the 
construction  of  such  craft  as  we  may 
undertake  on  account  of  a  future  Can- 
adian Navy,  or  for  the  existing  Fish- 
eries Protection  service.  In  short, 
everything  needful  to  increase  Can- 
ada's security,  to  guard  her  coasts,  and 
to  promote  her  presumed  ambition  to 
acquire  a  serviceable  navy  of  her  own, 
is  intended  by  the  Premier's  business- 
like, masterly  plan.  He  came  to  this 
success  by  looking  straight  at  the  mili- 
tary problem,  with  resolution  to  meet 
its  requisitions.  To  those  who,  like 
myself,  are  convinced  that  Britain's 
sea-supremacy  is  necessary  to  her  life; 
that  both  are  now  gravely  endangered; 
and  that  Canada's  separate  political 
existence  on  this  continent  must  de- 
pend on  ample  coast  defence  in  case  of 
Britain's  very  possible  defeat  at  sea, 
Mr.  Borden's  plan  may  well  appear  the 
best  possible.  Thirty-five  millions  is  a 
bagatelle  compared  with  advanta,2;es  to 
accrue.  As  much  more,  promptly,  for 
Canadian  shipyards  and  coast  defence 
appliances  would  be  another  flea-bite  in 
comparison  with  the  benefits. 

To  him  who  deals  sincerely  much 
more  than  he  apparently  sought  is 
often  added.  How  about  the  political 
aspects  of  the  Premier's  scheme?  Prima 
facie  it  must  please  Imperialists  of 
gvery  degree.     Shall  we  who  are  pri- 

marily Nationalists,  or  decentralization- 
ist   Imperialists,    be   therefore   woful? 
Surely  it  must  be  well  to  rejoice  that 
our  centralizationist  brethren  are  glad 
over  what  may  much  please  ourselves. 
There  does  not  appear  to  be  the  slight- 
est  infringement   on   Canada's   auton- 
omy, or  what  I  prefer  to  term  independ- 
ence.   Were  we  absolutely  independent, 
in  the  sense  of  separation  from  Great 
Britain  and  the  Crown,  even  as  Chile 
and  Argentina  are,  it  would  be  within 
our  independent  right  to  build  battle- 
ships in  England;  to  sell  or  loan  them 
at  any  price  or  none  to  France,  Greece, 
Germany  or  Great  Britain;  and  to  ac- 
company the  sale  or  loan  with  a  pro- 
viso for  recall  of  the  vessels  in  certain 
contingencies,  our  own  Government  re- 
taining right  to  decide  as  to  when  these 
had   arrived.      Sovereign   governments 
have  often  sold  warships  to  other  sov- 
ereign   governments.      Such   craft   are 
commercial    commodities   between    na- 
tions as  between  builders  and  govern- 
ments, even  as  locomotives  might  be. 
The  seller  assumes    no  accountability 
for    the    use    by    buyer    or    borrower. 
Hence  Canada  is  not  one  iota  more  in- 
volved politically  by  Mr.  Borden's  plan 
than  at  present.    The  Dominion  might, 
perhaps,  be  slightly  more  involved  than 
now,  if  the  three  battleships  were  man- 
ned and  officered  by  Canadians.     By 
the  way,  there  is  a  staring  absurdity  in 
protests  that  Canada  is  not  adding  men, 
but  only  ships,  to  Old  Country  sea-force. 
Those  who  lament  this  should  either 
enlist  or  propose  a  scale  of  naval  pay 
that   will   induce    other   Canadians   to 
serve.     Though  the  pay  offered  on  the 
Laurier  cruisers,   ''Niohe"  and  "Rain- 
how''  is  better  than  Old  Country  naval 
pay,  crews  for  these  ships  could  not  be 
enlisted  in  the  Dominion.      They    re- 
cruited but  349  men  and  boys  in  Can- 
ada, up  to  the  end  of  last  March,  and 
111  of  these  deserted,  besides  38  who 
enlisted  elsewhere.     In  Vancouver  har- 
bor last  July  the  training-ship  "Egeria" 
of  the  local  "Navy  League"  had  but  two 
volunteer  boys  aboard.    It  is  ridiculous 
10  suppose  that  either  patriotism  or  im- 
perialism will  move  men  and  boys  of 



the  working  class  to  volunteer  in  peace 
time  for  naval  service  at  lower  pay  than 
they  can  get  ashore.  Do  men  and  boys 
of  the  mercantile,  professional  or  gen- 
tleman class  often  volunteer  on  pure 
sentiment  at  a  dead  loss  of  money?    As 

purposes  coast  defence,  even  Messrs. 
Ilourassa  and  Lavergne  cannot  consist- 
ently complain,  since  they  have  ever 
favored  such  defence.  This  is  written 
in  no  derision  of  those  most  honorable, 
consistent,    upright,    brave   gentlemen. 


it  has  been  necessary  to  raise  R.  N.  W. 
M.  Police  pay,  or  do  without  good  re- 
cruits, so  it  is  necessary  to  raise  Cana- 
dian naval  pay,  greatly,  or  do  without 
Canadians  in  the  service. 

Back  now  to  the  political  aspect  of 
Mr.   Borden's  scheme.     Insofar  as   it 

They,  as  well  as  Messrs.  Monk,  Doherty 
and  many  others  of  Quebec,  contended 
that  Canada  should  abstain  from  going 
afloat  in  armed  ships  on  the  high  seas. 
Why?  Because  such  procedure  could 
not  but  involve  Canada  newly  in  liabil- 
ity to  be  engaged  in  the  Old  Country's 



possibly  world-wide  wars,  not  as  mere 
defender  of  Canadian  territory,  but  as  a 
country  maintaining  afar  ships  auxil- 
iary to  those  of  Great  Britain.  They 
held  that  a  voice  in  directing  Great 
Britain's  foreign  policy  should  accrue 
to  Canada  if  she  put  armed  ships  on  the 
high  seas.  This  contention  surely  im- 
plied that  Canada,  if  her  voice  were 
over-ruled  in  council,  might  and  should 
revert  to  her  old  obligation  to  do  no 
more  than  defend  herself  in  any  Old- 
Country-made  war.  That  was  the  tra- 
ditional position  of  both  our  political 
parties,  till  the  Boer  war  caused  both  to 
desert  it.  Now  Mr.  Borden  does  not 
propose  to  put  Canada  immediately 
afloat  on  the  high  seas. 

We  do  not  go  there  by  paying  for 
ships  and  loaning  them  to  England,  any 
more  than  if  we  built  them  and  sold  or 
loaned  them  to  France  or  the  United 
States.  We  shall,  so  far  as  those  vessels 
are  concerned,  remain  precisely  where 
w^e  have  ever  been  in  a  political  sense, 
i.e.,  liable  to  be  engaged  willy-nilly  in 
our  own  defence,  after  strengthening 
Great  Britain's.  Again,  Mr.  Borden  has 
not,  at  time  of  this  writing,  even  pro- 
posed that  Canada  shall  go  afloat  armed 
off  her  own  shores.  He  has  stated  that 
the  London  Government  will  detach 
ships  for  the  high-seas  guard  of  our 
coasts,  as  of  old.  If  his  projected  Can- 
adian shipyards  build  war  vessels  for 
Great  Britain,  as  proposed,  Canada  still 
will  not  be,  any  more  than  Vickers  or 
Cramp,  shipbuilders,  going  afloat  on 
the  ocean.  Not  till  Canadian  craft,  con- 
trolled by  Ottawa,  and  flying  a  distinct- 
ive Canadian  flag,  shall  take  to 
the  high  seas,  can  this  Dom- 
inion be  newly  placed  political- 
ally,  toward  Great  Britain  or  for- 
eign powers.  Wherefore  the  Borden 
policy,  except  inasmuch  as  it  proposes 
large  expenditure,  ought  to  be  approved 
by  the  ''Nationaliste"  chiefs.  This  is 
so  clear  that  we  may  expect  to  hear  the 
programme  denounced  by  ingenious 
"Grits"  as  one  contrived  by  Messrs. 
Bourassa  and  Lavergne!  ^  It  does  not 
appear  that  a  Canadian  Minister  on  the 
so-called  Imperial  Defence  Committee 
can  newly  involve  us  in  a  political  sense. 

There  is  only  one  point  of  view  from 
which  the  Premier's  sincere  yet  subtle 
plan  can  be  consistently  and  powerfully 
attacked.  That  vantage  ground  is  held 
by  Mr.  John  S.  Ewart,  K.C.,  who  has 
long  contended  that  Canada  should  take 
or  receive  the  status  of  an  independent 
kingdom  of  the  British  Crown.  His  lat- 
est pamphlet  (No.  11,  ''Kingdom  Pap- 
ers") is  amazingly  thorough  and  ably 
argued.  It  was  written  before  Mr.  Bor- 
den's scheme  had  been  published. 
After  acquaintance  with  its  details,  Mr. 
Ewart,  now  in  England,  may  perhaps 
see  reason  to  modify  some  arguments 
in  his  contention  that  Mr.  Borden  is 
bound  by  the  spirit  of  the  Canadian  con- 
stitution to  pass  a  Redistribution  Act, 
and  then  call  a  general  election  on  his 
naval  policy.  However  desirable  such 
procedure  may  be  in  view  of  so  import- 
ant a  matter,  there  is  less  reason  for 
doing  so  than  Mr.  Ewart  supposed  when 
he  wrote,  i.e.,  if  it  be  true,  as  herein 
.-ug2;ested,  that  the  Premier  presently 
proposes  no  change  of  Canada's  status 
toward  foreign  countries  or  Great  Bri- 

But  nothing,  except  sentiments  con- 
trary to  Mr.  Ewart's,  can  make 
light  of  his  argument  that  it  is 
not  only  unreasonable  for  Canada 
to  remain  liable  to  be  involved 
m  Old  Country  wars,  but  that 
Canada  might  be  far  more  useful  to 
England  as  a  neutral  than  as  a  combat- 
ant. And  no  degree  of  contrary  senti- 
ment can  annul  the  force  of  his  exposi- 
tion as  to  the  prodigious  accmnnlated 
wealth  of  the  Old  Country  British,  and 
the  consequent  monstrosity  of  their  in- 
viting and  receiving  from  Canada  the 
price  of  three  super-dreadnoughts.  Con- 
sider Mr.  Ewart  s  own  sentences: — 

''Turning  now  to  the  capabiUty  of  the 
wealthy  and  well-to-do  classes  in  the 
United  Kingdom  to  pay  for  their  own 
navy,  let  it  be  noticed  that  the  national 
wealth  is  simply  colossal.  The  United 
Kingdom  is  the  2:reat  creditor  nation  of 
the  world.  Almost  every  corner  of  the 
globe  pays  tribute  to  lier.  Part  of  the  in- 
come of  almost  every  civilized  man  (and  of 
n  good  many  of  the  uncivilized)  goes  to  pay 
the  great  banker  her  interest.  Her  foreign 
investments  amount  to  about  £3,750,000,000, 


and  on  this  she  draws  every  year  the  ago.  ''If  the  United  Kingdom  provided 
enormous  revenue  of  £180,000,000.  What  four  new  battleships,  at  cost  of  ten  mil- 
does  she  do  with  It?  Well,  as  she  has  noth-  ]^q^  pounds,  her  total  war  expenditure 
ing  else  to  do  with  it,  she  re-mvests  it.  ^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^^  ^^^  twenty-fifth  part  of 
Her  new  foreign  investments  last  year  were  ,i  j.-  i  •  tp  ^u  x  -ir 
about  £175,000,000.  In  fifteen  years  these  ^^^  national  income.  If  the  ten  million 
investments  have  increased  as  follows:  pounds  were  paid  out  of  income  there 

Investments  in  1911   £3,750,000,000  would  still  be  left  an  increase  m  m- 

Investments  in  1896    2,092,000,000  come,  over  the  previous  year,  of  £37,- 

000,000.    And  what  would  be  the  pro- 

An  increase  of  £1,658,000,000  portion  between  the  ten  millions  and 

Or    an    annual    average    in-  the  total  foreign  investments  of  £3,750,- 

crease  of £110,000,000  000,000.     Not  one  three-hundred-and- 

The    annual    enhancement    naturally    in-  geventy-fifth-part.       The     poor     weary 

creases  in  amount  as  the  unexpended  sur-  ^-^^^  f     jj^^  ^^^    ^^    be    expected    to 

pluses  are  re-mvested.     Last  year,  for  ex-  ,                                   .,i       x            v   j    ? 

ample,  exceeded  the  average  of  its  fourteen  P^eet^an  emergency  without  somebody  s 

predecessors  as  follows :  neip  . 

Increase  in  1911 £175,000,000  Mr.   Ev\^art  gives  many  more  unde- 

Average  increase  in  previous  niable  statistics,  observing  that  the  Ti- 

fourteen  years £110,000,000  tan  might  be  less  weary  if  the  orb  un- 

An  enhancement  of £65,000,000  ^^^  ^^^^^^  ^f  ''  fancifully  said  to  stag- 
Foreign  assets  are  but  one-quartet  of  the  ^^'  V^""'  ""f^^^^  ''^ M^:  ^^^  Previous 
total  wealth  of  the  United  Kingdom.  The  P^mbers  ot  this  series  of  contributions 
magnificent  aggregate  is  £16,000,000,000.  it  has  been  similarly,  though  lar  less 
It  was  estimated,  in  1885,  by  Sir  Robert  elaborately  argued  that  the  Old  Count- 
Giffen,  at  £9,600,000,000 ;  increase  in  twenty-  ry  British  wealthy  ought  to  pay  for 
six  years,  £6,400,000,000,  or  an  annual  in-  their  own  safety,  and  the  wealthier  of 
crease  of  over  £246,000,000.  Canada  pav,  per  income  tax,  for  any 
Analysis  of  income  confirms  these  fig-  defensive  armament  needed  here.  As 
ures.  The  annual  revenue  of  the  wealthy  ^^  Premier  Borden  has  not  intimated 
islanders  is  not  less  than  £2,000,000,000.  •  -  .•  -  j  j.\^  anr  nnn 
Tv,«  r.^w;^r,  ^r.  ^ri.;.\.  ^ v, «^rv. «  f o ^  * c  v^o'/i  ^u  intcntiou  to  producc  the  $35,000,- 
Ihe  portion  on   which  income  tax  is  paid  ^^^  «           .,            ^    ,     ,            •      x           i 

can  be  stated  with  precision.  For  the  year  ^^0  from  the  more  bulgy  private  pock- 
ending  5th  April,  1910,  it  was  £1,011,100,-  ets  of  our  beloved  fellow-countrymen. 
345.  In  1896  it  was  £677,769,850;  annual  But  all  that  line  of  contention  can- 
increase  £23,809,320;  increase  in  fourteen  not  count  with  a  people  of  grand  sen- 
years  £333,330,495.  As  the  total  income  is  timents.  It  is  not  to  relieve  either  the 
about  twice  the  income  taxed,  we  may  qj^j  Country  wealthy  nor  the  Old  Coun- 
double  this  annual  increase  of  revenue.  ^  ^^^^  ^^^  Canadians  mean 
The  respective  amounts,  therefore  are  as  /  -^  thirty-five  millions  to  Admiral- 
follows:  Aggregate  wealth  £16,000,000,-  ^  ^  -i-^.  •  .  i  ^  i  .i 
000;  annual  income  £2,000,000,000;  annual  ^y  use.  It  is  not  merely  to  do  them- 
increase  in  wealth  £246,000,000;  annual  in-  selves  proud.  It  is  not  even  to  gratity 
crease  in  income  £47,000,000.  Figures  like  their  sense  of  humor,  though  nothing 
these  are  far  from  arousing  my  sympathy,  could  be  more  delightful  to  a  humor- 
They  do  not,  by  themselves,  prove  poverty  ist  of  moderate  wealth  than  to  drop  a 
or  distress.''  bit  of  money  into  the  extended  hat  of 
Mr.  Ewart  proceeds  to  show  that  the  a  billionaire.  Wouldn't  we  all  rush  to 
public  debt  of  Great  Britain  has  de-  contribute  if  Baron  Rothschild,  John 
creased  by  £69,000,000  since  1854,  and  Rockefeller,  or  Andrew  Carnegie 
by  £56,000,000  during  the  last  five  were  personally  soliciting  alms?  There 
years.  The  expenditure  on  army  and  is  a  good,  practical  reason  for  approv- 
navy  is  paid  out  of  the  ordinary  reven-  ing  Premier  Borden's  ostensible  scheme, 
ue,  and  there  was  a  surplus  of  £6,545,-  It  may  be,  it  probably  is,  but  part  of 
000  last  year.  Compared  with  his  his  entire  real  project.  Behind  the  pre- 
wealth  "the  weary  Titan"  is  paying  less  liminary  of  December  5th,  considerate 
to-day  for  armaments  than   ten  years  eyes  may  perceive  a  swiftly  developed 



Canadian  Coast  Defence  and  Navy. 
Whatever  may  be  incidentally  done, 
meantime,  to  aid  Great  Britain  vnW  be 
kindly  done,,  valuable  to  our  high 
seas  defence,  useful  to  Canadian 
self-respect,    and   elevating   esteem    for 

Canada  in  British  and  American  kin. 
Said  Edmund  Burke — "Never  was 
there  a  jar  or  discord  between  genuine 
sentiment  and  sound  policy.  Never, 
no,  never  did  nature  say  one  thing  and 
wisdom  say  another." 

'Cairnbrogie,"  Claremont,  Ont.,  the  new  residence    just    completed     by     Graham    Bros.,    the 

well-known   horse   breeders. 

Manipulating    the    right    half   of   the  udder   to    obtain    the   "strippings." 


By  George  H.  Dacy 

Note. — In  connection  with  this  admirable  article  written  for  Farmer's 
Magazine  by  Mr.  Dacy,  we  might  quote  the  following  from  Col.  F.  M. 
Woods,  of  Lincoln,  Nebraska,  the  well-known  auctioneer.  He  says;  "O, 
you  who  would  abuse  the  cow,  I  wish  that  I  could  for  once  take  from  your 
table,  as  you  are  about  to  sit  down  to  the  evening  meal,  ail  that  the  cow 
has  placed  thereon.  I  would  take  the  cup  of  milk  sitting  by  the  baby's 
chair;  I  would  take  the  cream  biscuit,  the  custard  pie,  the  cream  for  coffee, 
the  butter,  the  cheese,  the  smoking  roast  of  beef,  or  steak,  or  the  sweet 
corned  plate  of  juicy  meat.  In  fact  I  would  leave  you  to  make  your  meal 
upon  Irish  potatoes,  beet  pickles  and  toothpicks. ' ' — Editor. 

''CONSARN  ye,  get  over.     Drat  these 
(.•rowding,  shoving  cows." 

Then  followed  the  sound  of  many 
bangs  and  thumps  issuing  from  the 
stable,  and  as  I  reached  the  barn  door 
10  ascertain  the  cause  of  the  disturb- 
ance I  saw  a  scene  which  is  too  often 
enacted  on  the  average  dairy  farm. 
Hunched  up  against  the  side  of  the 
stanchion    was  the    hired   man,  milk 

stool  in  hand,  soundly  belaboring  one 
lof  the  cows.  Immediately  I  interfered 
and  asked  what  he  meant  by  abusing 
one  of  the  best  mannered  animals  in 
the  entire  herd. 

^'Gol  darn  her  measly  hide,"  the 
hired  man  exclaimed,  ''she  stepped  on 
my  foot  and  when  I  lammed  her  one 
in  the  ribs  she  hauled  off  and  kicked 
me.     I'll  show  her  who's  boss  around 




here  before  I'm  through  with  her 

Thereupon  he  resumed  beating  the 
dumb  beast  with  the  stooh  It  was  only 
after  a  physical  set-to  that  I  finally  per- 
suaded him  to  desist  from  his  cruelty. 
Vowing  future  vengance  on  the  poor 
animal  he  resumed  the  milking  opera- 
tion and  the  manner  in  which  he  jerk- 
ed at  the  teats  and  the  udder  of  the 
cow  indicated  the  revengeful  disposi- 
tion that  he  possessed.  I  noticed  that 
he  drew  some  of  the  milk  over  his 
hands  in  order  to  remove  a  little  dirt 
which  had  stained  his  fingers  during 
the  encounter.  Furthermore,  he  con- 
tinued to  milk  with  his  w^et  hands  and 
one  could  see  the  most  objectionable 
things  happening  around  that  milk 
pail.  As  soon  as  the  udder  of  the  cow 
began  to  shrink  in  size  and  the  flow  of 
milk  materially  decreased  he  made  a 
superficial  attempt  at  stripping  the  cow 
before  he  began  to  milk  the  animal  in 
the  next  stall. 


I  This  hired  man — who  by  the  way  is 
only  typical  of  thousands  of  other  hir- 
ed men  employed  on  dairy  farms  the 
country  over — was  a  criminal.  In  the 
first  place  he  was  guilty  of  inhuman 
treatment  of  a  dumb  beast  while  sec- 
ondly he  was  offending  against  the 
hnvs  of  sanitation  by  the  manner  in 
which  he  milked.  In  the  third  place 
he  was  robbing  his  employer  by  not 
thoroughly  milking  the  cows  dry.  Is 
it  any  w^onder  that  dairying  is  nick- 
named '^profitless  farming,"  when  such 
conditions  as  these  prevail  on  a  sup- 
posedly up-to-date  milk  farm? 

For  maximum  production  dairy  ani- 
mals- must  be  maintained  in  peace, 
quiet,  and  contentment.  They  must 
be  fed  liberal  amounts  of  a  well  bal- 
anced ration ;  they  must  have  access  to 
pure  drinking  water  and  salt;  they 
must  daily  have  an  opportunity  for  a 
bit  of  exercise.  Above  all  dairy  cows 
must  be  kindly  treated  as  they  are 
naturally  of  an  excitable  and  nervous 
disposition.  Where  the  animals  are 
abused,  knocked  about,  and  unduly  ex- 

Tlie    practice     of    "wet     milking"    is     neither 

cleanly   or  sanitary,  and  should   be 

vigorously  condemned. 

cited  invariably  their  milk  flow  is  ser- 
iously impaired.  The  manner  in  which 
the  milking  operation  is  performed  is 
of  immeasurable  importance.  As 
every  dairy  farmer  knows  the  "strip- 
pings"  are  as  rich  as  cream  and  where 
the  cow  is  not  thoroughly  milked  out 
a  portion  of  the  richest  milk  is  sacri- 
ficed. In  addition  in  the  case  of  such 
a  cow  the  development  of  the  teats, 
udder,  milk-elaboration  system,  and 
the  productive  capacity  is  seriously 
checked  where  the  practice  of  not 
milking  the  animal  dry  is  continued 
for  some  time. 


To  properly  understand  the  milk- 
producing  ability  of  the  cow  let  us  take 
a  moment  to  investigate  what  veterin- 
ary science  has  to'  say  about  the  milk 
secreting  system  of  the  dairy  cow.  Ac- 
cording to  the  findings  of  the  experts 
of  '^cowology,"  the  dairy  animars  ud- 
der is  composed  of  four  glands  or 
quarters,  each  of  which  has  an  outlet 
through  a  teat.  The  interior  of  the 
udder  is  a  series  of  spongy,  fibrous 
masses  which  are  known  by  the  name 



of  ''milk  glands.''  These  glands  are 
composed  of  more  ducts  and  cavities. 
Immediately  above  each  teat  is  a  milk 
cistern  of  an  average  ca])acity  of  one- 
half  a  pint.  Milk  canals  branch  up- 
wards in  all  directions  from  these  cis- 
terns and  terminate  in  sack-like  aper- 
tures called  alveoli.  Herein  the  milk 
is  directly  manufactured  from  the 
blood;  the  arteries,  veins,  nerves,  and 
lymph  vessels  supplying:  the  glands 
with  food  materials  as  well  as  carrying: 
away  the  waste  products.  The  alveoli 
are  egg-shaped  '  and  are  about  five 
thousands  of  an  inch  in  length.  When 
they  are  full  and  busily  engaged  in 
milk  manufacture  the  udder  enlarges 
while  it  subsequently  shrinks  after  the 
milking  process.  When  milk  is  sec- 
reted the  alveoli  are  filled  with  detach- 
ed cells,  tissue  and  fat  globules  which 
are  used  in  the  manufacture  of  milk. 

As  the  dairy  calf  develops  the  teats 
and  udder  also  enlarge.  It  is  of  utmost 
importance  that  everything  be  done  to 
favor  the  maximum  and  uniform  de- 
velopment of  these  organs  in  the  dairy 
animal.  The  mammary  glands  of  the 
cow  have  been  developed  from  the 
stase  where  the  animals  produced  only 
enough  milk  for  their  young  to  the 
period  when  a  good  cow  of  the  present 
era  will  yield  about  six  times  her  own 
weight  in  milk  every  year  as  well  as 
approximatelv  half  of  her  weight  in 
butter  fat.  The  intensive  practice  of 
rigid  selection,  careful  feeding  and 
painstaking  breeding  as  well  as  the 
pursuit  of  re2:ular  and  persistent  milk- 
ing have  accomplished  this  transfor- 
mation. The  udder  of  the  heifer  be- 
gins to  develop  with  the  birth  of  her 
first  calf  and  following  the  dropping 
of  each  subsequent  calf  the  mother 
shows  an  improvement  in  her  ability 
to  secrete  milk  until  the  maximum 
T)oint  is  reached  after  she  bears  her 
third  or  fourth  offspring. 

Nature  intended  that  the  cow  should 
beein  to  yield  milk  as  soon  as  she  pro- 
duced her  calf.  Man  has  improved  on 
the  plan  of  nature  and  has  developed 
the  cow  so  that  she  will  produce  milk 
for  approximately  three  hundred  days 

in  the  year.  Immediately  after  calv- 
ing for  several  days  the  cow  yields 
what  is  known  as  colostrum  milk.  This 
milk  is  not  suitable  for  human  food 
but  is  essential  for  the  feeding  of  the 
calf  as  it  possesses  valuable  laxative 
properties.  The  cow  has  become  too 
useful  as  a  producer  of  human  food  to 
allow  her  to  suckle  her  calf  for  long, 
the  usual  plan  being  to  remove  the 
youngster  from  the  dam  two  or  three 
days  after  birth.  Then  the  mother  is 
ready  to  enter  the  milking  herd. 
Henceforward  her  udder  is  emptied  of 
milk  two  or  three  times  a  day  in  con- 
sequence of  the  milker  handling  the 
teats  and  the  base  of  the  udder  so  as  to 
bring  down  the  milk. 


By  alternately  opening  and  closing 
his  hands  over  the  teats  the  milker 
presses  out  the  milk  that  has  gathered 
in  the  cisterns.  The  milking  process 
must  be  continuous  until  the  flow  of 
milk  stops.  It  is  worthy  of  particular 
note  that  the  composition  of  the  milk 
drawn  throughout  the  milking  is  not 
uniform.    The  first  streams  of  milk  are 

Where  manipulative  milking  was  practiced  142 
cows  in  13  different  herds  showed  a  daily 
increase  of  1  pound  of  milk  and  .1  pound 
of  fat  per  animal. 



not  as  rich,  ranging  from  two  to  six 
and  one-half  per  cent,  in  fat  content, 
as  are  the  last  streams  or  '^strippings" 
which  contain  from  twelve  to  fifteen 
per  cent,  of  bntter  fat.  These  figures 
only  go  to  show  the  importance  of 
milking  the  cow  dry  and  of  securing 
all  of  the  ^'strippings."  Many  dairy- 
men suffer  large  annual  losses  in  con- 
sequence of  their  cows  not  being  milk- 
ed dry  at  each  milking.  Where  the 
stripping  is  efficiently  carried  out  an 
increase  in  the  production  per  cow  of 
one  pound  of  milk  and  one-tenth  of  a 
pound  of  fat  per  day  over  the  yield 
where  the  cow  is  not  thoroughly  milk- 
ed out  is  quite  common.  A  primary 
rule  in  every  dairv  barn  should  feature 
the  securing  of  all  the  milk  present  in 
the  udders  of  the  animals  at  the  time 
of  milking. 


Some  years  ago  over  in  Denmark,  a 
country  that  ranks  high  in  the  annals 
of  dairying,  a  native  veterinarian 
named  Doctor  Hegelund  devoted  some 
time  to  investigating  the  problem  of 
efficient  and  economical  milking.  He 
found  that  where  the  ''stripping'' 
method  was  painstakingly  practiced 
that  all  the  milk  was  obtained  from  the 
udder  of  the  cow.  However,  after  de- 
tailed test  he  devised  an  easier  method 
of  manipulating  the  udder  of  the  ani- 
mal so  that  all  the  milk  was  given 
down.  The  Hegelund  system  required 
only  a  minute  or  two  of  work  and  was 
practiced    as    soon   as  the  animal  was 

The  correct   position   of  the   baud  and  fingers 
for  the  milking  operation. 

showing  a  decrease  in  the  flow  indica- 
tive of  the  fact  that  her  udder  was 
about  empty.  He  showed  that  accord- 
ing to  the  old  method  of  stripping  the 
milk  was  usually  not  entirely  drawn 
from  the  cow  while  that  by  the  prac- 
tice of  his  manipulation  system  it  is 
often  possible  to  obtain  an  extra  two 
pounds  of  milk  from  a  cow  that  has 
been  apparently  milked  dry.  He  gain- 
ed as  much  as  a  ten  per  cent,  increase 
in  the  fat  yield  per  cow  by  practicing 
udder  manipulation. 

Doctor  Hegelund's  explanation  of 
his  system  of  milking  is  concise  and 
specific.  His  summation  of  the  man- 
ipulation method  is  about  as  follows: 
''The  process  consists  of  three  different 
manipulations.  To  begin  with  the 
right  quarters  are  pressed  against  each 
other  (in  case  the  udder  is  unusually 
large  only  one  quarter  is  taken  at  a 
time)  with  the  left  hand  on  the  hind 
quarter  and  the  rigjht  hand  on  the  fore 
quarter,  the  thumbs  being  placed  on  the 
outside  of  the  udder  and  the  four  fin- 
gers in  the  division  between  the  two 
halves  of  the  udder.  The  hands  are 
now  pressed  toward  each  other  and  at 
the  same  time  lifted  toward  the  body 
of  the  cow.  This  pressing  and  lifting 
motion  is  repeated  three  times;  the 
milk  collected  in  the  milk  cisterns  is 
then  pressed  out  and  the  manipulation 
is  repeated  until  it  is  impossible  to  ob- 
tain any  more  milk  in  this  manner. 
The  left  quarters  are  then  treated  like- 


"The  second  manipulation  consists  in 
pressing  the  glands  together  from  the 
^ide;  the  fore  quarters  are  milked  each 
by  itself  by  placing  one  hand,  with  the 
fingers  spread,  on  the  outside  o*^  the 
quarter  and  the  other  hand  in  the  divi- 
sion between  the  fore  quarters.  The 
hands  are  pressed  against  each  other 
and  the  teat  is  then  milked.  When  no 
more  milk  is  obtained  by  this  manipu- 
lation the  hind  quarters  are  milked  by 
placing  a  hand  on  the  outside  of  each 
quarter,  likewise  with  fingers  spread 
and  turned  upward,  with  the  thumbs 



Au  increased  daily  production   of  5.5  pounds  of   milk    and    .64   pounds    of  fat    per   cow 
attended  the  practice  of  ttie  manipulation  method. 

just  in  front  on  the  hind  quarters.  The 
hands  are  lifted  and  grasp  into  the 
glands  from  behind  and  from  the  side, 
after  which  they  are  lowered  to  draw 
the  milk.  The  manipulation  is  repeat- 
ed until  no  more  milk  is  brought  down. 
''In  the  third  manipulation  the  fore 
teats  are  grasped  in  partly  closed  hands 
and  lifted  with  a  push  towards  the  bodj^ 
of  the  cow,  both  at  the  same  time,  by 
which  method  the  glands  are  pressed 
between  the  hands  and  the  body  of  the 
cow;  the  milk  being  drawn  after  every 
third  push.  When  the  fore  teats  are 
emptied  the  hind  teats  are  milked  in  a 
like  manner.  When  all  the  teats  are 
dry  the  process  is  finished.  To  the 
average  farmer  these  operations  may 
appear  laborious  but  as  a  matter  of  fact 
they  are  relatively  simple  and  easily 
performed  in  the  course  of  two  or  three 
minutes  after  the  milker  has  gained  a 
bit  in  experience.  Some  farmers  have 
simplified  the  system  by  merely  prac- 
ticing   extra    handling,    pressure    and 

massage  movements  on  the  udder  so  as 
to  secure  the  last  drops  of  milk." 

In  order  to  definitely  ascertain  the 
value  of  this  massage  method  of  milk- 
ing the  Wisconsin  Agricultural  College 
conducted  a  series  of  experiments  and 
practical  tests  to  find  out  the  commer- 
cial value  of  the  system.  The  first  tests 
were  run  with  ten  cows  of  the  Univer- 
sity dairy  herd.  These  animals  had 
been  making  an  average  daily  yield  of 
25.1  pounds  of  milk  by  the  ordinary 
method  of  milking  while  they  showed 
an  increase  of  two  pounds  of  milk  daily 
per  cow  where  the  manipulation  meth- 
od was  practiced.  The  animals  showed 
an  increase  of  8.1  per  cent,  total  milk 
yield  and  18.1  per  cent,  total  butter  fat 
yield.  The  milk  secured  by  the  man- 
ipulation method  was  extremely  rich, 
containing  from  six  to  fifteen  per  cent. 
of  fat  while  the  milk  resulting  from 
the  ordinary  system  of  milking  varied 
from  2.  95  to  6.73  per  cent,  in  fat  con- 



A  second  test  was  carried  out  with 
twenty-four  cows  which  were  members 
of  five  different  herds.  For  four  weeks 
these  animals  were  milked  by  the  man- 
ipulation method  and  they  showed  an 
average  gain  of  4.5  per  cent,  in  total 
milk  production  and  an  increase  of  9.2 
per  cent,  in  the  amount  of  fat  yielded. 
In  special  cases  some  of  the  cows  in- 
creased their  fat  yield  over  thirty  per 
cent.  In  order  to  secure  data  from  a 
large  number  of  animals  maintained 
under  a  great  variety  of  conditions  in 
different  herds  one  hundred  and  forty- 
two  cows  were  milked  in  thirteen  sepa- 
rate herds  in  this  manner.  The  cows 
were  milked  for  a  three-day  period,  the 
manipulation  method  being  practiced 
just  as  soon  as  the  animal  became  dry 
by  the  ordinary  way  of  milking.  The 
results  of  these  detailed  trials  showed 
an  increase  of  one  pound  of  milk  and 
one-tenth  of  a  pound  of  butter  fat  per 
animal  per  day.  The  range  in  the  in- 
creased milk  yield  for  the  different 
herds  ran  from  .55  to  1.87  pounds  daily 
while  the  yield  of  fat  per  animal  was 
increased  from  .06  to  .18  pounds  daily. 
The  average  increase  in  milk  amount- 
ed to  5.3  per  cent,  while  the  fat  yield 
showed  a  gain  of  12.6  per  cent.  Sev- 
enty-seven of  the  one  hundred  and 
forty-two  cows  gained  more  than  ten 
per  cent,  in  fat  yield  during  the  period 
that  the  manipulation  method  of  milk- 
ing was  practiced.  In  special  instances 
an  increase  of  as  much  as  5.5  pounds  of 
milk  and  .64  pounds  of  fat  per  animal 
per  day  was  noted. 

The  annual  monetary  loss  in  conse- 
quence of  the  practice  of  inefficient 
milking  is  large.  By  the  simple  prac- 
tice of  the  manipulation  method  this 
waste  can  be  readily  controlled.  Mr. 
Milk  Farmer  are  you  going  to  do  your 

share  towards  eliminating  this  loss? 
For  this  is  a  problem  that  it  is  up  to  the 
individual  dairyman  to  solve.  Really 
the  difficulty  is  already  worked  out  for 
him.  All  he  has  to  do  is  to  make  use 
of  the  answer  to  the  riddle.  The  coun- 
tryman who  milks  his  cows  according 
to  the  manipulation  method  is  not  only 
fattening  his  own  pocket-book  by  in- 
creasing the  dollar  and  cent  income 
from  his  dairying  operations  but  he  is 
also  improving  the  productive  capacity 
of  his  herd.  Thorough  milking  is  one 
of  the  greatest  aids  in  developing  the 
mammary  glands  of  the  cow  and  in 
increasing  her  capacity  for  profitable 
milk  production. 

The  additional  expense  of  practicing 
the  manipulation  method  is  practically 
negligible  as  the  gain  in  milk  and  fat 
yield  more  than  covers  the  added  cost. 
Where  the  milker  is  paid  fifteen  cents 
an  hour,  the  after  milking  of  twenty 
cow^s  would  cost  thirty  cents  a  day  as  it 
would  require  about  two  hours  to  per- 
form this  work.  However,  if  each  of 
the  animals  gave  an  increase  of  one- 
tenth  of  a  pound  of  fat  this  would  mean 
a  daily  gain  of  two  pounds  of  fat.  If 
butter  fat  is  worth  thirty  cents  a  pound 
the  net  profit  from  the  manipulative 
milking  of  the  twenty  cows  would 
amount  to  thirty  cents  a  day.  Figur- 
ing the  average  lactation  period  as  three 
hundred  days  the  average  net  profit 
from  a  herd  of  twenty  cows  milked  in 
this  manner  would  be  about  $90.  In 
the  average  dairy  state  that  has  a  cow 
population  of  one  million  animals  an 
increase  in  the  amount  of  resultant 
dairy  products  of  $4,500,000  per  year 
would  be  possible  where  the  method  of 
after  milkinc  by  the  manipulation  sys- 
tem was  practiced. 


Col.   Talbot's   old   bouse   nenr   St.   Tbomns.     A   pioiilr   party   on_  tbe   grounds. 


By  Hattie  Robinson 

Note. — Canada  has  many  instances  of  pioneering  experiments.  To-day 
we  are  particularly  impressed  with  such  colonization  work  as  railroad  com- 
panies in  the  West  are  doing,  and  as  foreign  colonies  are  doing,  such  as  the 
Doukhobors,  the  Mennonites,  and  others.  Other  schemes  in  New  Ontario 
and  the  West  are  being  brought  forward  from  time  to  time.  At  present 
some  attention  is  being  paid  to  the  C.P.E. 's  irrigation  scheme  around  Cal- 
gary. Hon.  Clifford  Sifton  and  Hon.  Frank  Oliver  started  immigration 
policies  for  Canada  that  really  began  the  big  flow  of  population  this  way 
from  Europe.  The  American  invasion  is  featured  in  this  issue  on  page  46. 
This  account  by  Miss  Hattie  Eobinson,  a  prominent  worker  in  the  Grange 
at  Middlemarch,  will  be  of  special  interest  in  throwing  light  upon  the  way 
some  of  the  older  settlements  of  Ontario  were  made. — Editor. 

NEAR  the  centre  of  Pinafore  Park,  St. 
Thomas,  stands  a  pyramid-shaped  cairn 
made  up  of  twenty-eight  blocks  of  sand- 
stone of  various  colors  and  shapes,  set 
together  with  cobblestone  and  cement. 
On  each  of  these,  one  word  is  chiseled. 
On  the  top  reads  "Erected  at  Centen- 
nial Anniversary  of  Talbot  Settlement 
May  1903."  Below  this  are  the  names 
of  the  seven  townships  of  Elgin  and  the 
initiated  know  that  the  remaining 
twenty-one  are  the  names  of  the  town- 

ships included  in  the  Talbot  Settle- 
ment. This  is  one  of  the  permanent 
marks  of  the  Centennial  festivities 
which  were  held  in  St.  Thomas  for  a 
week  including  the  21st  of  May,  and 
were  among  the  most  successful  ever  at- 
tempted in  Canada,  all  classes,  creeds 
and  nationalities  joining  harmoniously 
towards  making  this  event  worthy  of 
those  noble  pioneers  who  ''came,  saw 
and  conquered"  a  vast  wilderness  ex- 
tending from  the  Detroit  River  to  Long 




Point  and  for  many  miles  north  of  the 
shores  of  Lake  Erie  where  now  stand 
the  influential  cities  of  Chatham,  St. 
Thomas  and  London. 

The  leading  spirit  in  changing  all 
this  was  the  Honorable  Thomas  Talbot 
of  Castle  de  Malahide,  County  of  Dub- 
lin, Ireland,  born  17th  July,  1771.  At 
an  early  age  he  became  an  officer  in  the 
British  army  and  was  a  youthful  com- 
panion of  Arthur  Wellesley,  afterwards 
the  Iron  Duke.  They  served  together 
as  Aides  to  the  Duke  of  Buckingham,  a 
relative  of  Talbot.  His  regiment  being 
ordered  to  America,  Talbot  served  for 
four  years  as  private  secretary  to  the 
first  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Upper  Can- 
ada, the  faithful  and  energetic  Governor 
Simcoe,  who  was  never  so  happy  as 
when  exploring  the  unbroken  forest  and 
investigating  Canada's  magnificent 
lakes  and  rivers. 

In  the  winter  of  1793  the  Governor 
with  a  party  of  officials,  including  Tal- 
bot, visited  the  Mohawk  village  on  the 
Grand  River  and  under  the  guidance  of 
Chieftain  Brant,  proceeded  to  the 
Thames  where  the  Delaware  and  Chip- 
pewa Indians  lived.  Even  at  that  date 
the  church  and  school  on  the  reserve 
near  Brantford,  had  been  built  and  the 
Moravian  missionaries  were  teaching 
not  only  Christianity,  but  agriculture. 
The  Governor's  road,  Dundas  street,  be- 
tween Hamilton  and  London  was  the 
result  of  this  journey,  the  Governor  re- 
marking he  would  have  a  road  as 
straight  as  a  crow  could  fly.  Although 
the  site  of  the  city  of  London  did  not 
become  the  Government  centre  as  plan- 

Stoue  on  which  Indian  axes  were  ground  near 

The    cairn     at     Pinafore     Parli,    St.     Thomas, 
erected  iu  1903  at  the  Talbot  Centennial. 

lied  by  Governor  Simcoe,  to  be  called 
Georgian  a  in  honor  of  King  George  III, 
it  has  long  been  recognized  as  the  com- 
mercial capital  of  the  Western  penin- 

In  1797  Talbot's  regiment  was  re- 
called and  soon  after  was  sent  to  the 
Continent.  At  the  close  of  the  war  he 
returned  to  Canada,  for  in  1801,  a  let- 
ter dated  at  Skitteewaabaa,  was  writ- 
ten to  the  Duke  of  Cumberland,  ask- 
ing for  his  influence  in  obtaining  the 
usual  grant  of  land  of  5,000  acres  to 
an  officer  desiring  to  make  his  perman- 
ent home  in  the  province.  After  con- 
siderable delay  and  much  correspon- 
dence, he  went  to  England  and  obtain- 
ed the  desired  patent  from  the  Crown, 
with  a  right  of  reserving  other  adjac- 
ent lands  for  settlement. 


For  every  50  acres  on  which  he  plac- 
ed a  bona-fide  settler,  he  was  to  receive 
50  acres.  This  additional  grant  he 
often  sold  to  the  settler  at  $3  per  acre. 
According  to  Talbot's  rule,  every  set- 
tler was  obli,o;ed  to  do  his  settlement 
duties  before  receiving  his  title.  These 
consisted  in  cultivating  ten  acres  of 
land  on  his  lot,  building  a  dwelling  on 



it,  and  clearing  the  trees  on  one  half 
of  the  road  allowance  in  front  of  his 
land  inside  of  three  years.  He  after- 
wards obtained  permission  to  place 
settlers  on  100  acres  of  land  on  condi- 
tion of  performing  the  same  duties 
and  paying  the  fees  to  the  Government 
of  about  $33.  Many  agree  that  this 
2)Ian  was  a  wise  one  as  by  this  means, 
the  roads  were  established  and  the 
lazy  or  improvident  weeded  out.  Col. 
Talbot  was  proud  of  his  foresight  in 
this  matter  as  is  shown  by  this  extract 
from  a  letter  to  Sir  John  Colborne, 
written  in  1831,  when  the  population 
was  over  40,000. 

^'I  was  the  first  person  who  exact- 
ed the  performance  of  settlement 
duties  and  actual  residence  on  the 
land  located  which  at  that  time, 
was  considered  arbitrary  on  my 
part,  but  the  consequence  now  is 
that  the  settlers  that  I  forced  to 
comply  with  my  system  are  most 
grateful  and  sensible  of  the  ad- 
vantage they  could  not  otherwise 
have,  for  a  length  of  time,  deriv- 
ed by  the  accomplishment  of  good 
roads;  and  T  have  no  hesitation  in 
saying  that  there  is  not  another 
settlement  in  North  America 
which  can,  for  its  age  and  extent, 
exhibit  so  compact  and  profitably 
settled  a  portion  of  the  new  world 
as  the  Talbot  Settlement.'' 


If  Colonel  Talbot  had  a  way  of  his 
own  in  settling  his  land  his  manner  of 
registering  it  was  still  more  unique. 
Upon  the  wall  of  the  room  used  for  an 
office,  hung  a  map  with  the  lots,  con- 
cessions, and  roads  marked  thereon. 
When  a  settler  arrived  this  was  taken 
down,  his  lot  selected,  and  name  en- 
tered with  lead  pencil.  Should  he  sell 
of  become  dispossessed  of  it,  the  name 
was  erased  and  the  new  one  entered. 
The  Colonel  appeared  as  judge,  jury, 
lawyer  and  registrar  in  one  which  cer- 
tainly would  be  less  expensive  than  the 
present  system. 

It  was  not  until  the  21st  of  May, 
1803,  that  he  arrived  by  boat  from  Long 

Point  with  a  few  menservants  to  make 
his  home  on  the  very  spot  so  much  ad- 
mired ten  years  before.  A  log  house 
was  built  on  the  brow  of  the  hill  over- 
looking the  lake  and  here  with  a  block 
of  wood  for  a  table  and  boughs  for  a 
bed,  his  backwoods  life  began.  He 
cooked  the  meals  for  his  men,  ground 
out  the  flour  by  means  of  a  hollow 
stump  and  a  stone,  mended  the  boots 
and  churned  the  butter.  The  one- 
roomed  hut  was  soon  exchanged  for  a. 
more  commodious  one,  '^his  castle  de 
Malahide"  which  was  a  long,  low 
range  of  buildings  built  of  logs  con- 
taining three  rooms,  store  room,  dining 
room,  also  used  as  office  and  reception 
room,  and  kitchen. 


For  five  years  the  Colonel  and  his 
men  toiled  alone  exploring  the  coun- 
try, making  friends  with  the  Indians 
and  getting  ready  for  ''the  hum  of 
voices  yet  to  come."  The  only  one 
known  to  have  taken  up  a  homestead 
during  that  time  was  George  Crane, 
a  discharged  soldier  who  came  with 
him,  stayed  in  his  employ  for  three 
years,  and  then  settled  about  four 
miles  distant.  In  1804  John  Bost- 
wick  surveyed  and  blazed  a  trail  for 
a  road  which  is  now  part  of  the 
famous  Talbot  street,  and  took  up  two 
lots  at  the  mouth  of  Kettle  Creek,  now 

The  old  registry  and  post-office  built  by  Col, 
Burwell,  the  first  brick  building  in  the 
Talbot  settlement. 



The   oldest    church    in     constant    use    in     the 
Talbot  settlement.     Built  in   1828. 

Port  Stanley.  He  married  a  daughter 
of  Col.  Joseph  Ryerson,  of  Long  Point 
in  1808,  and  his  family  afterwards  be- 
came the  first  residents  of  Port  Stan- 
ley. Colonel  John  Bostwick  distin- 
guished himself  in  the  war  of  1812, 
and  was  a  man  of  high  character.  In 
1822  he  built  a  warehouse  and  dealt 
in  grain.  He  also  gave  the  land  in 
1840  to  build  Christ  church,  the 
pulpit  being  supplied  at  first  by 
St.  Thomas  Church  rector.  Rev.  M. 
Burnham,  a  son-in-law  of  Col.  Bost- 
wick. The  I-ondon  and  Port  Stanley 
gravel  road  was  laid  out  by  him  start- 
ing at  St.  Thomas  in  1823.^  Thi^ 
road  was  built  on  an  old  Indian  trail 
from  the  mouth  of  the  creek. 

The  progress  of  the  settlement  was 
very  slow  for  in  1809  twelve  families 
only  are  recorded.  In  that  year  elohn 
Pearce,  a  native  of  Rhode  Island,  Col. 
Patterson,  Mrs.  Story  and  son  Walter, 
natives  of  Ireland,  came  tog^ether  by 
way  of  Pennsylvania.  Mr.  Ermating- 
er  says,  "These  early  settlers  are  among 
the  best  who  have  ever  entered  the 
settlement.''  The  story  of  their  jour- 
ney reads  like  a  romance  and  is  told 
by  a  great  grandson,  Walter  Pearce. 
"The  three  families  and  a  hired  man, 
thirteen  souls  in  all  started  from  Erie, 
Pa.,  and  rowed  in  a  large  open  boat, 
around  the  eastern  end  of  Lake  Erie. 
keeping  near  the  shore.  But  Walter 
Story  walked  around  by  land  alone 
and  drove  the  cattle.       They  were  a 

month  on  the  voyage  before  they  arriv- 
ed at  Port  Talbot." 


About  this  time  John  Barber  and 
James  Watson  also  from  Pennsylvania, 
settled  in  Southwold,  North-east  of 
Port  Talbot.  It  seems  John  Barber 
was  a  stiff  Presbyterian,  who  kept  the 
Sabbath  from  sunset  on  Saturday  to 
sunrise  on  Monday.  Whilst  doing 
his  settlement  duties  he  was  in  the 
habit  of  returning  to  Port  Talbot  on 
Saturday  afternoon  to  get  his  food 
ready  for  the  coming  week.  One  night 
he  failed  to  appeaar.  The  Colonel  be- 
coming alarmed  walked  to  his  clearing 
carrying  some  provisions.  John,  who 
was  reading  his  Bible,  said  he  had 
worked  too  late,  so  could  not  break  the 
Sabbath  by  walking  over.  It  need  not 
be  told  the  scolding  he  received. 

James  Watson,  whose  farm  is  now 
called  Watson's  Corners,  gave  an  acre 
of  land  in  1816,  on  which  the  first 
school  house  was  built  in  the  settle- 
ment. It  was  made  of  logs,  and  was 
twenty  by  eighteen  feet.  The  first 
teacher  was  Wm.  Hannah,  and  the 
trustees,  John  Barber,  James  Watson 
and  Colonel  Burwell.  In  1820  this 
building  was  destroyed  by  fire.  A 
frame  building  took  its  place  which  in 
turn  gave  place  to  the  present  brick 
structure.  Crowell  Wilson,  after- 
wards M.P.P..  taught  here  four  years. 
Being  an  excellent  Latin  scholar,  he 
taught  some  of  the  boys  this  language 
at  noon,  receiving  one  hundred  acres 
of  land  extra  for  this  work. 

Remains  of  two  rows  of  earthworks  on  an 
Indian  fort  three  miles  from  Port  Talbot, 
on  the  Henderson  farm.  Quite  large  trees 
have  since  grown  on  the  mounds. 



Modern  science  makes  a  big  change  in  the  look  of  the  country.     This  is  Lynrlhurst  Bridge, 
St.   Thomas,   being   the   longest  cement  span  in  Canada. 

Colonel  Mahlon  Burwell  was  a  noted 
ynd  conspicuous  figure  in  political  and 
military  affairs  for  years.  He  came 
fiom  New  Jersey  and  being  a  surveyor, 
was  employed  in  laying  out  the  town- 
ships and  the  site  of  London.  For  his 
services  large  tracts  of  land  were  allot- 
ted to  him.  In  1811  appointed  Reg- 
istrar of  Middlesex,  Elgin  being  then 
a  port,  he  built  the  first  registry  and 
post  office  of  red  brick  on  his  lot  on 
the  town  line  between  Southwold  and 
Dunwich,  about  three  miles  from  Port 
Talbot.  The  walls  are  still  standing 
in  Burwell  Park. 


After  the  ill-fated  engagement  at 
Moravian  town  the  United  States  sol- 
diers over-ran  this  part  of  the  province 
committing  many  depredations  as 
shown  by  a  petition  presented  by  Col- 
onel Talbot  to  the  Loyal  and  Patriotic 
Society,  asking  for  assistance.  The 
names  of  fifty  families  are  given  as  los- 
ing their  all.  The  grist  and  saw  mills 
erected  on  the  creek  by  the  Colonel, 
were  completely  destroyed,  causing 
great  inconvenience  as  the  nearest  one 
was  60  miles  away.  The  irons  of  this 
mill  were  afterwards  taken  to  Alaboro 
and  used  there  by  Peter  McKellar  at 
Sixteenth  Creek,  being  16  miles  from 
Port  Talbot.     Colonel  Talbot  narrowly 

escaped  death  as  the  following  instance 
by  Captain  Patterson  shows: 

'^On  the  approach  of  the  ma- 
■  rauders  they  both  agreed  it  was  in 
vain  to  resist.  The  first  who  en- 
tered the  premises  was  an  Indian, 
and  the  following  colloquy  took 
place  between  him  and  the  Cap- 
tain:— 'You   one  officer?'      'Yes.' 

On  the  bench   of  Lake  Erie,  just   below   the 
Talbot   house. 



^What  officer?'    'Oh!  big  officers- 
Captain/    Others  came  rushing  up 
to  the  house  when  they  saw  Colonel 
Talbot  walking    off.      'Who  that 
yonder?'  said  the  Indian.  'He  big 
officer,  too?'     'No,'  said  Patterson. 
'He  is  only  the  man  that  tends  the 
sheep.'  (which  statement  was  true 
in  part).       At  the  same  moment 
two  Indians  levelled  their  rifles  at 
him,  when  the  other  called  not  to 
fire  on  the  poor  old  man  that  kept 
the  sheep  ^d  they  dropped  their 
rifles.        But  seeing   the   Colonel 
walking  off  at  a  brisk    step,  they 
were  not  satisfied    and  raised  their 
rifles  again  but  the  Colonel  in  the 
meantime  was  lost  to  sight  in  the 
The  house  was  rifled  and  fired  but 
was   extinguished  by   Captain   Patter- 
son.    The    cattle  were    all  driven  off. 
Proceeding  along  Talbot  street  leaving 
desolation  in  their  wake  they  encamp- 
ed for  the  night  on  Daniel  Rapelje'? 
new  farm   (now    the   west    end  of  St. 
Thomas) . 

The  women  were  equally  brave  for 
they  cut  their  grain,  sometimes  having 
only  a  knife  to  do  it  with,  ground  their 
flour  in  a  handmill  if  x)ne  was  owned 
within  reaching  distance  and  cared  for 
the  stock,  being  obliged  to  defend  them 
from  the  wolves.    It  is  no  wonder  with 

such  mothers  that  the  Talbot  Settle- 
ment in  spite  of  reverses  grew  and  pros- 

In  1817  a  movement  was  set  on  foot 
by  Dr.  Rolph  to  hold  a  Talbot. Anni- 
versary on  the  21st  of  May  to  comme- 
morate the  landing.  The  first  one  was 
held  at  Dr.  Lee's  hotel  in  Yarmouth, 
near  St.  Thomas,  attended  by  seventy- 
five  persons.  After  this  it  became  an 
annual  event,  and  was  celebrated  for 
twenty  years  with  appropriate  festivi- 
ties. A  dinner  and  speeches  and  toasts 
at  which  Colonel  Talbot  replied  always 
ending  with  "God  bless  you  all."  After 
the  dinner  the  ball  commenced  led  by 
the  Honorable  Founder  of  the  Settle- 
ment accompanied  by  the  prettiest  lady 
there,  even  hi?  advancing  years  proving 
no  hindrance  to  the  joyful  occasion. 

Mrs.  Jameson,  the  gifted  writer,  vis- 
ited the  Talbot  Settlement  in  1837, 
where  she  sperft  a  week  with  Colonel 
Talbot,  she  described  the  farm  of  600 
acres,  the  orchard  of  sixteen  acres  and 
its  roses.  In  conversation  she  question- 
ed him  about  his  life  work,  when  he 
made  the  oft-quoted  remark,  "I  have 
accomplished  what  I  resolved  upon.  My 
work  is  done.  But  not  for  the  universe 
would  I  again  go  through  the  horrors 
of  forming  this  settlement.  But  do  not 
imagine  I  repent  it.  I  like  my  retire- 

Auother  big  change  in  the  lools  of  the  valley  since  Col.  Talbot  landed  there — the  M.C.R. 
Railway  Bridge.  This  view  shows  the  corner  where  the  first  four  settlers  located  lu 
St.  Thoraas. 


Note. — This  is  an  examination  paper  as  prescribed  for  the  examina- 
tions of  students  taking  the  agricultural  course  at  Guelph.  The  farmer  who 
reads  this  might  try  his  hand  at  *answering  the  questions.  He  will  find  in 
many  cases  that  it  is  a  good  deal  easier  to  do  things  than  it  is  to  tell  how 
to  do  them,  and  an  attempt  of  this  kind  might  disabuse  the  mind  of  some 
farmer  who  apparently  has  no  use  for  book  learning,  to  give  him  more 
respect  for  that  fine  class  of  men  who  are  writing  to  dignify  the  profession 
of  agriculture.  The  greatest  drawback  of  the  farm  life  to-day  is  the  man 
who  knows  it  all. — Editor, 

1.  On  Farm  Animals — Sketch  a  half  of  beef,  marking  the 
butcher's  cuts,  OR,  Describe  a  typical  dairy  cow. 

^.  On  Dairying — The  0.  A.  C.  is  to  have  new  dairy  stables: 
how  will  you  expect  them,  to  be  planned,  equipped  and 
finished  f 

S.  On  Poultry — Point  out  the  structural  features  of  the  100- 
fowl  hen-house  advocated  by  the  Poultry  Department. 

Jf..  On  Physics — The  site  on  which  your  school  garden  is  to  be 
made  is  heavy  clay.    Explain  how  you  will  try  to  work  it. 

5.  On  Bacteriology — How  do  bacteria  act  beneficially   (a)  in 

soil,  (b)  in  milk,  (c)  in  animals? 

6.  On  Agronomy— Outline  a  schedule  for  scoring  a  standing 

field  crop. 

7.  On  Field  Crops — Explain  the  process  of  plant  improvement 

by  selection  by  sketching  the  history  of  0.  A.  C.  No.  21 
Barley,  or  0.  A.  C.  No.  72  Oats. 

8.  On  Weeds — A  farmer's  field  is  infested  ivith  mustard  or 

couch  grass  or  perennial  sow  thistle.    Outline  a  plan  for 
eradicating  any  one  of  them. 

9.  On  Botany — Describe  a  typical  grass  flower,  OR,  Outline  the 

life  history  of  wheat  rust. 

10.  On  Plant  Propagation — Explain  the  method  employed  by 

nurserymen  in  producing  an  apple  tree  OR  a  peach  tree. 

11.  On  Vegetable  Gardening — Explain  structure  and  use  of  cold 

frame,  OR,  Tell  how  to  prepare  a  hot  bed. 

12.  On  Orcharding — What  are  the  requisites  for  a  proper  site 

for  an  apple  orchard? 

13.  On  Chemistry — Name  the  common  artificial  fertilizers  (giv- 

ing formulae  if  possible)  and  describe  a  test  for  any  one 
of  them. 

H.  On  Entomology — Name  the  common  insect  pests  of  the 
apple  and  describe  one  of  them. 



By  Augustus  Bridle 

Note. — This  ,article  by  Mr.  Bridle  will  be  found  to  be  interesting  read- 
ing to  those  who  do  not  travel  enough  to  realize  what  a  big  shuffle  is  being 
made  in  population  and  how  fast  new  settlements  of  Canada  are  being 
turned  into  populous  neighborhoods.  The  Yankee  is  coming  across  the 
border.  He  is  not  only  invading  the  homestead  lands,  but  is  even  coming 
into  the  older  parts  of  Canada  and  buying  up  the  farms,  often  for  prices 
less  than  the  cost  of  the  improvements  before  the  spiritless  owners  of  these 
rich  Eastern  soils  awaken  to  the  possibilities  that  are  in  them.  The  Corn 
Show  at  Essex  in  February  will  be  a  success  if  it  turns  the  attention  of 
our  farmers  to  the  value  of  our  farms. — Editor. 

WHEN  a  Yankee  becomes  immigra- 
tion agent  for  Canada — well  at  any 
rate  it's  a  new  role,  and  one  very  un- 
popular with  public  opinion  t'other 
side  of  the  line.  Even  the  efforts  of  our 
diligent  and  enthusiastic  Canadian  of- 
ficials to  deplete  the  farm  lands  of  the 
western  States  have  not  been  appre- 
ciated by  American  editors  and  poli- 
ticians. The  fact  that  we  have  already 
more  than  half  a  million  Americans  in 

the  West  seems  to  irritate  these  political 
economists.  That  in  the  words  of  the 
old  Salvation  Army  song,  ''There's 
room  for  millions  more,"  makes  them 
suspicious  of  our  real  loyalty  to  the 
interests  of  the  United  States. 

We  were  not  always  so  generous  pro- 
viding homes  for  people.  They  re- 
member when  last  generation  we  had 
al)0ut  six  million  people,  being  one  to 
about  every  twenty-five  square  miles  of 



territory;  j^et  we  sent  hundreds  of  thou- 
sands across  the  line,  into  New  Eng- 
land, to  Chicago,  New  York,  Boston, 
Buffalo,  Cleveland,  Detroit  and  San 
Francisco.  At  that  time  the  United 
States  were  kind  enough  to  take  care 
of  our  surplus  population.  We  were 
over-populated.  They  knew  it.  With 
rather  less  territory,  they  had  more 
than  ten  times  as  many  people — yet 
they  had  room  for  millions  more.  We 
sent  some  of  the  millions  along. 

According  to  the  best  reports  these 
Canadians  we  shipped  out  to  Uncle  Sam 
had  no  capital — in  the  shape  of  money, 
goods  and  chattels.  They  went  out  to 
make  money,  which  was  very  scarce  in 
Canada.  In  those  days  we  had  but  one 
little  gold-mine,  down  around  Madoc; 
no  silver  mines  at  all;  apparently  no 
iron  and  copper  and  nickel ;  only  a  few 
million  acres  of  land  fit  for  anything 
but  pastures  or  moose  runs;  plenty  of 
forest  but  no  market  for  timber;  only 
two  cities  and  both  asleep;  Winnipeg 
a  mediaeval  fur  post,  Vancouver  a  place 
for  ships  that  coi>ld  get  no  further  into 
a  country  that  seemed  to  have  no  trade, 
Toronto  a  college  town,  Montreal  with 
about  two  hundred  thousand  French  or 
less,  a  few  thousand  Irish  and  very  few 
English,  and  Quebec  merely  a  remnant 
of  war. 


In  fact  Canada  was  a  first-class  land 
to  leave,  and  the  average  youns;  man 
'•'with  any  sand  in  his  craw"  left  it. 

So  far  as  we  can  remember  those 
days  there  was  no  howl  in  the  United 
States  about  young  Canadians  stealing 
jobs  from  young  Americans.  There 
seemed  to  be  room  in  Chicago  and  New 
York  for  all  we  had  a  mind  to  send — 
of  the  kind.  And  most  of  them  were 
young  men  from  high  school,  business 
college  and  university,  who  had  spenr, 
what  little  money  they  had  been  able 
to  rake  up  in  paying  for  w^hat  educa- 
tion they  had. 

Ever  since  the  hard  times  that  suc- 
ceeded the  World's  Fair,  the  big  popu- 
lation-octopus across  the  line  seems  to 
have  been  tolerably  glad  to  have  and 

to  hold  these  many  thousands  of  ca- 
pable Canadians.  It  didn't  really  mat- 
ter that  a  large  percentage  of  them 
never  became  American  citizens,  re- 
nouncing allegiance  to  Great  Britain. 
They  were  good  producers,  good  con- 
sumers, good  boosters — and  a  great  deal 
more  efficient  to  the  United  States  than 
the  millions  of  polyglots  that  went  in 
from  Europe.  They  had  the  best  hard- 
knocks'  training  that  a  new  world  could 
give.  They  knew  the  value  of  hard 
labor  and  plenty  of  it.  In  fact  they 
had  a  sort  of  capital  to  invest  in  the 
United  States  better  than  money,  goods 
and  chattels.  They  had  brains  and 
diligence  and  love  of  labor. 

And  these  Canadians  have  helped  to 
make  the  United  States.  They  have 
helped  to  build  up  industries,  to  extend 
railroads,  to  man  colleges,  to  operate 
factories,  to  manage  businesses,  to  solve 
political  problems,  to  get  out  news- 
papers and  to  write  for  magazines. 

EACH   YANKEE   BRINGS   $1,000. 

The  half  million  or  more  of  Amer- 
icans that  have  drifted  across  from  the 
wTstern  States  into  the  wheat  lands  of 
Canada  are  said  to  bring  an  average 
of  a  thousand  dollars  each  of  real  cap- 
ital. At  least  that  is  the  average  for 
the  last  couple  of  years,  though  the 
first-comers  brought  little  but  a  wagon- 
load  and  a  hope  for  the  future. 

According  to  United  States  methods 
of  arithmetic  a  vearly  investment  of 
$50,000,000  American  capital  in  Can- 

Bi-ight  Canadian   girls  on  sleek   Indian   ponies 
enjoying  -ife  west  of  Edmonton. 



Farmers  from  the  South  reaping  bumper  oat  crops  in  Agricola  settlement  near  Fort  Sas- 
liatchewan.  Northern  Alberta,  which  25  years  ago  was  looked  upon  as  beyond  the 
bounds  of  civilization. 

ada,  coupled  with  the  extra  investment 
of  50,000  lives — is  rather  too  generous 
on  the  part  of  the  United  States.  Uncle 
Sam  has  no  objections  to  investing  two 
or  three  hundred  millions  in  Canadian 
factories,  if  Canadians  will  be  so  selfish 
as  to  keep  tariffs  up  and  American 
goods  out.  But  he  hates  like  sin  to  lose 
population  along  with  the  money;  be- 
cause the  population  has  a  habit  of 
never  coming  back — whereas  dividends 
cross  the  line  without  duty  or  inspec- 
tion by  the  immigration  authorities. 

Uncle  Sam  has  a  notion  that  our  ab- 
sorption of  his  people  along  with  their 
goods  and  chattels  is  a  poor  pay-back 
for  his  kindness  in  accepting  our  sur- 
plus population  that  we  had  no  work 
for  a  few  years  ago. 

But  the  movement  still  goes  on. 
Canadian  governments  and  railroads 
are  looking  after  that. 

Now  the  latest  phase  of  the  move- 
ment is — that  down  in  Indiana  the 
Yankee  has  himself  turned  immigra- 
tion agent  for  Canada.  During  the  past 
year  or  two  thousands  upon  thousands 
of  acres  of  corn  lands  in  the  counties 
between  Lake  Huron  and  Lake  Erie 
have  been  bought  by  a  syndicate  from 
Ontario  farmers.  The  land  is  being  re- 
sold to  farmers  from  Indiana.  The 
syndicate  have  an  office  in  Detroit. 
They  have  agents  in  the  counties.  The 
lowlands  of  Essex,  Kent  and  Lambton 
have  been  spied  out.  The  corn-cribs 
have  been  inspected.     The  corn  fields, 

this  year  ten  to  twelve  feet  high  with 
white  and  yellow  Dent  corn,  have  been 
sized  up. 


The  syndicate  say  that  these  corn 
lands  are  as  good  for  corn  as  the  land 
in  Indiana  that  sells  for  two  hundred 
dollars  an  acre.  The  price  paid  for  the 
Canadian  land  varies  ^rom  fifty  to  sev- 
enty-five dollars  an  acre.  The  syndi- 
cate tile  the  land.  In  those  lowlands 
tiling  increases  yield  about  twenty-five 
per  cent.  The  cost  of  tiling  is  about 
ten  or  twelve  dollars  an  acre;  at  least 
that^s  all  it  costs  the  syndicate  who  put 
their  tiles  down  every  eight  rods  which 
is  reckoned  to  be  about  half-tiling.  But 
it  will  do  for  the  present.  The  Indiana 
farmer  who  is  crowded  out  at  home  can 
finish  the  job. 

Meanwhile  the  Indiana  farmer  pays 
from  a  hundred  to  a  hundred  and 
twenty-five  dollars  an  acre  for  the  land. 
He  brings  up  his  family  and  his  goods 
and  chattels.  The  Ontario  farmer 
moves  out.  He  and  his  father  before 
him  chopped  the  trees  and  cleared  the 
land  and  dug  the  ditches.  But  he  has 
no  objections  to  letting  the  Yankee 
have  it.  Sentiment  he  may  have  had 
for  the  land  that  his  fathers  made;  just 
a?  the  Englishman  has  for  the  land 
where  the  bones  of  his  ancestors  lie 
buried.  But  modern  betterment  and 
the  march  of  civilization  on  the  farm 
has  become  a  bigger  economic  fact  than 



sentiment.  The  son  of  the  man  who 
chopped  the  trees  in  lower  Ontario  sells 
out  to  the  grandsons  of  men  who  clean- 
ed up  the  scrub  oaks  of  Indiana. 


The  shifting  of  population  in  new 
Canada  may  be  a  problem:  in  older 
Canada  it  is  something  of  a  paradox. 
We  have  long  ago  forgotten  how  the 
Indian  felt  when  his  hunting-grounds 
were  camped  upon  by  French  and  Eng- 
lish ;  when  he  saw  the  bush  cut  down 
and  logged  up  and  burned,  that  the 
white  man  might  gj:ow  crops  and  make 
roads  and  build  towns.  Yet  the  old 
sentiment  once  in  a  while  re-emerges, 
and  we  discover  that  after  all  our  civi- 
lized development  we  still  have  about 
us  lingering  traces  of  the  savage  who 
never  dreamed  of  a  railway,  and  whose 
bump  of  locality  was  so  strong  that  he 
never  got  far  away  from  the  voice  of 
one  river. 

The  double  shuffle  of  population  is 
particularly  felt  in  the  English-speak- 
ing provinces  of  older  Canada.  Quebec 
has  little  of  which  to  complain.  True, 
that  years  ago  many  thousands  of 
T'rench-Canadians  migrated  to  New 
England;  but  the  cause  was  simple — 
too  many  folk,  too  little  land  and  scarce 
any  wages  at  all.  The  places  left  by 
these  Frenchmen,  who  with  their  de- 
scendants work  in  the  factories  of  New 
England,  were  never  filled  by  any  but 
their  own  people.  Quebec  is  still 
French.  And  outside  of  the  big  cen- 
tres of  trade  and  industry,  Quebec  will 
probably  never  be  anything  else. 

Not  so  in  Nova  Scotia  and  New 
Brunswick,  where  already  thousands  of 
young  men  and  women  have  gone  to 
the  Western  wheat  lands,  and  whose 
places  it  is  necessary  to  fill  with  fresh 
immigrants  from  the  British  Isles.  The 
recent  effort  of  New  Brunswick  through 
the  Farm  Lands  Act  to  people  its  vacant 
lands  illustrates  how  keenly  the  eastern 
provinces  have  felt  the  competition  of 
the  prairie. 


So  in  Nova  Scotia.  Newspapers  have 
wailed — largely  in  vain.     So  fair  was 

the  land  slowly  being  drained  of  its 
increase  of  people  by  migration  to 
cheap  land  and  free  land  in  the  West, 
that  it  began  to  feel  to  many  an  East- 
erner like  a  repetition  of  Goldsmith's 
"Deserted  Village."  What  was  the 
remedy?  Every  year  thousands  of 
young  men  trekked  West  to  help  har- 
vest the  wheat.  Every  year  hundreds 
failed  to  use  iheir  return  tickets.  The 
wheat-fields  had  got  them.  They  home- 
steaded  or  bought  cheap  farms  or  drove 
slakes  in  the  towns  where  work  was 
plentiful  and  wages  high.  Immigrants 
that  came  in  by  the  first  liners  of  spring 
before  the  St.  Lawrence  route  was  clear, 
saw  the  lovely  land  that  to  so  many 
looked  for  all  the  world  like  England 
or  Scotland  over  again.  But  they  pass- 
ed on  to  the  prairie.  Perhaps  if  the 
Government  could  induce  the  steamship 
companies  to  land  immigrants  at  Van- 
couver, they  would  keep  the  trail  till 
they  got  to  the  valleys  of  Nova  Scotia 
and  New  Brunswick.  For  it's  the  way 
of  population,  once  it  sets  out,  to  move 
as  far  as  possible,  as  long  as  the  price 
of  moving  is  low ;  especially  if  the  tick- 
ets read  right  through  from  Liverpool 
or  Bristol  or  Southampton  to  some 
place  on  the  fabulous  prairie. 

How  has  it  been  in  Ontario?  Similar 
but  not  the  same.  Here  again  thou- 
sands have  gone  west.  That  movement 
began  as  soon  as  the  C.  P.  R.  was 
through.  It  died  away  and  revived 
again.  None  too  soon  perhaps  in  many 
cases.  The  families  were  bigger  than 
the  farms.  Twenty  or  thirty  years  ago 
a  fifty-acre  farm  supplied  labor  and 
food  and  clothes  to  a  family.  But  their 
wants  were  few.  Now  twice  the  land 
will  scarce  do  for  half  the  family.  The 
modern  Ontario  farmer  is  a  bigger 
farmer.  He  needs  more  land.  He  is 
able  to  work  more  land.  Machinery 
has  multiplied  his  powers  along  with 
the  cost  of  living.  To  make  a  profit  on 
the  land  commensurate  with  what  the 
land  is  worth  the  farmer  must  spend 
more.  His  standard  of  living  is  higher. 
I/ess  than  thirty  years  ago  Goldwin 
Smith  in  his  book  "Canada  and  the 
Canadian   Question" — as  if  one  ques- 



tion  was  all  Canada  had  and  one  man 
might  settle  it! — defined  the  Canadian 
farmer's  economics  by  stating  that  he 
sold  all  of  his  produce  that  was  fit  to 
sell  and  consumed  the  rest.  Which 
was  somewhat  true,  as  it  has  been  of 
many  a  primitive  people  forced  to  wrest 
a  living  from  small  plots  of  land  in  the 
teeth  of  the  very  devil. 

The  farmer  of  this  century  has  no 
such  economics.  He  is  sure  of  a  mar- 
ket for  all  he  produces.  He  is  equally 
sure  that  he  needs  to  consume  the  best 
of  what  he  can  raise;  that  he  must 
spend  more  on  what  once  would  have 
been  called  luxuries  than  he  then  spent 
upon  the  necessaries  of  life. 


So  the  increase  in  the  cost  of  living 
has  brought  about  a  need  for  more  land 
to  make  it  possible  to  live  at  a  fair  pro- 
fit on  the  investment.  When  the  west- 
ward  trek   first   began   to   deplete   the 

farms  of  Ontario  about  the  time  of  the 
Northwest  Rebellion,  an  average  farm 
in  Ontario  was  worth  less  than  forty 
dollars  an  acre.  To-day  the  same  land 
is  worth  from  eighty  to  a  hundred  dol- 
lars an  acre.  Why?  Because  it  pro- 
duces more;  because  modern  methods 
of  farming  have  reduced  the  waste  of 
nature  and  increased  the  fertility  of  the 
soil.  More — because  the  general  pros- 
perity of  the  country  has  called  into 
being  a  bigger  home  market  right  at 
the  farmer's  door.  The  urban,  mainly 
consuming  population  of  Ontario  has 
much  more  ihan  doubled  in  twenty 
years.  The  amount  of  produce  con- 
sumed has  increased  faster  than  the 
urban  population.  The  standard  of 
living  has  been  raised  in  the  town  even 
more  than  in  the  country.  Prices  of 
farm  commodities  have  gone  up.  Rail- 
ways and  trolley  lines  and  better  roads 
have  multiplied  the  ease  of  transporta- 
tion.    A  hundred-acre  farm  within  ten 

Packing  apples   on    the   old    Home   Farm    in    Elgiu    County.    Ontario. 



4        ;A'--V---    - 

Essex  corn  lands  are  good,  but  this  is  not  Essex.  It  is  a  corn  field  near  Fort  Saskatche- 
wan on  the  12th  of  September,  1912.  The  corn  measured  over  SV2  feet,  and  justifies  the 
slogan  of  the  Corn  Growers  in  extending  the   corn   line   Northward. 

miles  of  any  considerable  town  or  city 
to-day  produces  much  more  than  twice 
the  value  of  what  it  did  in  the  days  of 
few  factories  and  low  prices  and  small 

At  the  same  time  to  bring  about  an 
increase  of  production  the  farmer  has 
been  compelled  to  invest  more  in  his 
land.  He  has  a  better  house  and  bigger 
barns;  more  horses  at  three  times  the 
price  they  used  to  be;  more  cattle  and 
hogs  and  sheep — all  at  an  increased 
value ;  more  machinery — in  many  cases 
costing  as  much  to  buy  as  the  whole 
farm  was  worth  when  father  was  a  mid- 
dle-aged man.  He  has  wire  fences  that 
cost  about  four  hundred  dollars  a  mile 
for  the  raw  material.  He  has  tile 
drains  that  cost  at  least  twenty  dollars 
an  acre.  He  has  fruit  trees  that  have 
cost  large  money  to  improve  and  to 
preserve.  He  has  better  roads,  better 
schools,  more  expensive  teachers,  better 
churches  with  preachers  whose  salaries 
have  also  increased — at   least    a   good- 

sized  fraction  of  the  increase  in  the  cost 
of  living.  Along  the  road  are  the  poles 
and  wires  of  rural  telephones  connect- 
ing with  every  farmhouse  whose  owner 
is  willing  to  pay  the  annual  rental  for 
the  same.  Rural  delivery  of  mails  has 
put  him  on  a  near  level  with  the  towns- 
man. Motor-cars  call  for  his  cream  and 
in  many  cases  delivers  his  goods.  He 
is  able  to  market  his  wheat  and  his  hogs 
and  his  fruit  at  the  station  three  miles 
away,  whereas  once  he  had  to  drive 
twenty  miles  to  the  county  town. 

In  short  life  on  the  Ontario  farm  has 
b<^.come  so  much  revolutionized  that  it 
not  only  costs  more  but  is  worth  more 
to  live  than  it  used  to  be  in  the  days  of 
the  saw-mill  and  the  logging-bee.  The 
value  of  living  is  reflected  in  the  price 
of  the  land. 

The  one  offset  to  this  increase  of 
value  in  the  land  has  been  and  still  is 
the  scarcity  of  help.  Machinery  has  in- 
creased the  efficiency  of  men  and 
horses.    But  it*  has  not  compensated  for 



the  disappearance  of  that  useful  and 
admirable  type  of  citizen  once  known 
as  the  hired  man.  There  is  now  no 
Ontario  hired  man  in  the  sense  that 
there  used  to  be.  He  is  either  the  own- 
er of  a  farm  or  a  tenant  of  one;  or  he 
has  gone  west  along  with  the  immi- 
grant and  become  a  homesteader.  His 
place  is  precariously  taken  by  the  new- 
comer; in  many  cases  by  the  English 

But  the  supply  is  less  than  the  de- 
mand. The  farmer  is  neither  willing 
nor  able  to  pay  the  hired  man  as  much 
wages  as  he  can  get  in  town;  nor  to 
compensate  him  for  staying  off  the  land 
as  a  freeholder.  The  difficulty  of 
either  getting  or  keeping  a  man  is  the 
bugbear  of  many  a  farmer  in  Ontario. 
One  man  .makes  all  the  difference  be- 
tween getting  a  crop  harvested  on  time 
and  leaving  it  out  till  it  throws  all  the 
farm  operations  behind.    In  many  cases 

it  makes  the  difference  between  get- 
ting it  in  decently  at  all  and  waiting 
until  the  farmer  is  able  to  borrow  help 
from  a  neighbor  who  probably  needs 
to  borrow  from  somebody  else. 

The  advent  of  the  immigrant  and 
uncertain  hired  man  who  may  be  here 
to-day  and  ten  miles  away  to-morrow  is 
one  phase  of  the  paradox  of  shifting 
population  in  Ontario.  The  farmer's 
son  and  the  once  bushwhacker  who  be- 
came a  regular  hired  man  has  been 
replaced  by  the  itinerant. 

These  changes  are  unsettling.  They 
are  part  of  a  silent  resolution  in  rural 
life  that  has  been  more  radical  in  Can- 
ada than  in  the  United  States,  because 
more  sudden.  But  they  are  part  of  the 
making  of  a  bigger  Canada  which  as  it 
began  on  the  farm  must  look  mainly  to 
the  farm  for  the  prosperity  of  the 


Oh,  the  old  sea-wall  on  the  coast  of  Clare, 

Against  a  sunlit  sky, 
The  hush  of  the  keen,  salt-scented  air. 

And  the  white  clouds  sailing  high. 

A  bird-note  soaring  in  reckless  joy, 
And  clear,  from  a  tossing  boat. 

The  call  of  a  gray-eyed  sailor-boy 

From  a  brave  young  Irish  throat. 

Out  from  the  past  it  comes  back  to  me. 
Soft  through  a  mist  of  tears; 

I  hear  the  croon  of  the  treacherous  sea 
Across  the  lonely  years. 

Never  again  were  skies  so  blue 

Above  the  water's  gleam. 
For  an  Irish  heart  is  ever  true, 

And  only  once  comes  the  dream! 

— By  Faith  Baldwin  in 



Note. — Farmer's  Magazine  has  run  the  whole  series  of  Smoke  Bellew, 
by  Jack  London,  and  has  been  gratified  to  learn  of  the  way  these  have 
been  received  by  our  readers.  Many  farmers  have  told  us  that  this  series 
has  been  one  of  the  best  features  of  the  magazine,  and  they  have  enjoyed 
every  issue.  This  series  will  be  concluded  in  our  February  number.  The 
whole  series  is  put  out  in  book  form.  Other  stories  are  being  arranged  for 
which  assure  to  our  readers  the  highest  class  literature  that  any  farm 
paper  has  ever  attempted  in  Canada. — Editor. 

By  Jack  London 


SMOKE'S  new  situation  at  Snass's 
fire  was  embarrassing.  He  saw  more  of 
Labiskwee  than  ever.  In  its  sweetness 
and  innocence,  the  frankness  of  her  love 
was  terrible.  Her  glances  were  love 
glances ;  every  look  was  a  caress.  A  score 
of  times  he  nerved  himself  to  tell  her  of 
Joy  Gastell,  and  a  score  of  times  he  dis- 
covered that  he  was  a  coward.  The 
damnable  part  of  it  was  that  Labiskwee 
was  so  delightful.  She  was  good  to  look 
upon.  Despite  the  hurt  to  his  self-es- 
teem of  every  moment  spent  with  her, 
he  pleasured  in  every  such  moment.  For 
the  first  time  in  his  life  he  was  really 
learning  woman,  and  so  clear  was  Lab- 
iskwee's  soul,  so  appalling  in  its  inno- 
cence and  ignorance,  that  he  could  not 
misread  a  line  of  it.  All  the  pristine 
goodness  of  her  sex  was  in  her,  unclut- 
tered by  the  conventionality  of  know- 
ledge or  the  deceit  of  self -protection.  In 
memory  he  reread  his  Schopenhauer 
and  knew  beyond  all  cavil  that  the  sad 
philosopher  was  wrong.  To  know  wo- 
man, as  smoke  came  to  know  Labiskwee, 
was  to  know  that  all  woman-haters  were 
sick  men. 

Labiskwee  was  wonderful,  and  yet,  be- 
side her  face  in  the  flesh  burned  the 

vision  of  the  face  of  Joy  Gastell.  Joy 
had  control,  restraint,  all  the  feminine 
inhibitions  of  civilization,  yet,  by  the 
trick  of  his  fancy  and  the  living  preach- 
ment of  the  woman  before  him,  Joy 
Gastell  was  stripped  to  a  goodness  at  par 
with  Labiskwee's.  The  one  but  appre- 
ciated the  other,  and  all  women  of  all 
the  world  appreciated  by  what  Smoke 
saw  at  Snass's  fire  in  the  snow-land  in 
the  soul  of  Labiskwee. 

And  Smoke  learned  about  himself, 
He  remembered  back  to  all  he  knew  of 
Joy  Gastell,  and  he  knew  that  he  loved 
her.  Yet  he  delighted  in  Labiskwee. 
And  what  was  this  feeling  of  delight 
but  love?  He  could  demean  it  by  no 
less  a  name.  Love  it  was.  Love  it  must 
be.  And  he  was  shocked  to  the  roots  of 
his  soul  by  the  discovery  of  this  poly- 
gamous strain  in  his  nature.  He  had 
heard  it  argued,  in  the  San  Francisco 
studios,  that  it  was  possible  for  a  man 
to  love  two  women,  or  even  three  wo- 
men, at  a  time.  But  he  had  not  believed 
it.  How  could  he  believe  it  when  he 
had  not  had  the  experience?  Now  it  was 
different.  He  did  truly  love  two  wo- 
men, and  though  most  of  the  time  he 
was  convinced  he  loved  Joy  Gastell 
more,  there  were  other  moments  when 




he   felt   with   equal   certainty   that   he 
loved  Labiskwee  more. 

''There  must  be  many  women  in  the 
world,"  she  said  one  day.  ''And  women 
like  men.  Many  women  must  have 
liked  you.     Tell  me." 

He  did  not  reply. 

"Tell  me,"  she  insisted. 

"I  have  never  married,"  he  evaded. 

"And   there  is   no  one   else? no 

other  Iseult  out  there  beyond  the  moun- 

Then  it  was  that  Smoke  knew  him- 
self a  coward.  He  lied.  Reluctantly 
he  did  it,  but  he  lied.  He  shook  his 
head  wdth  a  slow  indulgent  smile,  and 
in  his  face  was  more  of  fondness  than 
he  dreamed  as  he  noted  Labiskwee's 
swift  joy-transfiguration. 

He  excused  himself  to  himself.  His 
reasoning  was  Jesuitical  beyond  dis- 
pute, and  yet  he  was  not  Spartan 
enough  to  strike  this  child-woman  a 
quivering  heart-stroke. 

Snass,  too,  was  a  perturbing  factor 
in  the  problem.  Little  escaped  his 
keen  black  eyes,  and  he  spoke  signific- 

"No  man  cares  to  see  his  daughter 
married,"  he  said  to  Smoke.  "At  least, 
no  man  of  imagination.  It  hurts.  The 
thought  of  it  hurts,  I  tell  you.  Just 
the  same,  in  the  natural  order  of  life, 
Margaret  must  marry  some  time." 

A  pause  fell,  and  Smoke  caught  him- 
self wondering  for  the  thousandth  time 
what  Snass's  history  must  be. 

"I  am  a  harsh,  cruel  man,"  Snass 
went  on.  "Yet  the  law  is  the  law,  an-d 
I  am  just.  Nay,  here  with  this  primi- 
tive people,  I  am  the  law  and  the  jus- 
tice. Beyond  my  will  no  man  goes. 
Also,  I  am  a  father,  and  all  my  days 
I  have  been  cursed  with  imagination." 

Whither  his  monologue  tended, 
Smoke  did  not  learn,  for  it  was  inter- 
rupted by  a  burst  of  chiding  and  silvery 
laughter  from  Labiskwee's  tent,  where 
she  played  with  a  new-caught  wolf-cub. 
A  spasm  of  pain  twitched  Snass's  face. 

"I  can  stand  it,"  he  muttered  grim- 
ly. "Labiskwee  must  be  married,  and 
it  is  my  fortune,  and  her's,  that  you 
a,re  here.     I  had  little  hopes  of  Four 

Eyes.  McCan  was  so  hopeless  I  turn- 
ed him  over  to  a  squaw  who  had  light- 
ed her  fire  twenty  seasons.  If  it  hadn't 
been  you,  it  would  have  been  an  In- 
dian. Libash  might  have  become  the 
father  of  my  grandchildren." 

And  then  Labiskwee  came  from  her 
tent  to  the  fire,  the  wolf-cub  in  her 
arms,  drawn  as  by  a  magnet,  to  gaze 
upon  the  man,  in  her  eyes  the  love  that 
art  had  never  taught  to  hide. 


"Listen  to  me,"  said  McCan.  "The 
spring  thaw  is  here,  an'  the  crust  is 
comin'  on  the  snow.  It's  the  time  to 
travel,  exceptin'  for  the  spring  blizzards 
in  the  mountains.  I  know  them.  I 
w^ould  run  with  no  less  a  man  than 

"But  you  can't  run,"  Smoke  contra- 
dicted. "You  can  keep  up  with  no 
man.  Your  backbone  is  limber  as 
thawed  marrow.  If  I  run,  I  run  alone. 
The  world  fades,  and  perhaps  I  shall 
never  run.  Caribou  meat  is  very  good, 
and  soon  will  come  summer  and  the 

Said  Snass:  "Your  partner  is  dead. 
My  hunters  did  nbt  kill  him.  They 
found  the  body  frozen  in  the  first  of 
the  spring  storms  in  the  mountains, 
No  man  can  escape.  When  shall  we 
celebrate  your  marriage?" 

And  Labiskwee:  "I  watch  you. 
There  is  trouble  in  your  eyes,  in  your 
face.  Oh,  I  do  know  all  your  face. 
There  is  a  little  scar  on  your  neck,  just 
under  the  ear.  When  you  are  happy, 
the  corners  of  your  mouth  turn  up. 
When  you  think  sad  thoughts  they 
turn  down.  When  you  smile  there  are 
three  and  four  wrinkles  at  the  corner 
of  your  eyes.  When  you  laugh  there 
are  six.  Sometimes  I  have  almost 
counted  seven.  But  I  cannot  count 
them  now.  I  have  never  read  books. 
I  do  not  know  how  to  read.  But  Four 
Eyes  taught  me  much.  My  grammar 
is  good.  He  taught  me.  And  in  his 
own  eyes  I  have  seen  the  trouble  of 
the  hunger  for  the  world.  He  was  often 
hungry  for  the  world,  yet  here  was  good 
meat,    and    fish    in    plenty,    and    the 



berries  and  the  roots,  and  often 
flour  that  came  back  for  the  furs 
through  the  Porcupines  and  the  Lusk- 
was.  Yet  was  he  hungry  for  the  world. 
Is  the  world  so  good  that  you,  too,  are 
hungry  for  it?  Four  Eyes  had  noth- 
ing. But  you  have  me.''  She  sighed 
and  shook  her  head.  ''Four  Eyes  died 
still  hungry  for  the  world.  And  if  you 
lived  here  always  would  you,  too,  die 
hungry  for  the  world?  I  am  afraid 
T  do  not  know  the  world.  Do  you  want 
to  run  away  to  the  world?" 

Smoke  could  not  speak,  but  by  his 
mouth-corner  lines  was  she  convinced. 

Minutes  of  silence  passed,  in  which 
she  visibly  struggled,  while  Smoke 
cursed  himself  for  the  unguessed  weak- 
ness that  enabled  him  to  speak  the 
truth  about  his  hunger  for  the  world, 
while  it  kept  his  lips  tight  on  the 
truth  of  the  existence  of  the  other 

As^ain  Labiskwee  sighed. 

"Very  well.  T  love  you  more  than 
T  fear  my  father's  anger,  and  he  is 
more  terrible  in  anojer  than  a  moun- 
tain storm.  You  told  me  what  love  is. 
This  is  the  test  of  love.  I  shall  help 
you  to  run  back  to  the  world." 


Smoke  awakened  softly  and  without 
movement.  Warm  small  fingers  touch- 
ed his  cheek  and  slid  gently  to  a  pres- 
sure on  his  lips.  For,  with  the  chill 
and  frost  clinging  in  it,  next  tingled  his 
skin,  and  the  one  word,  ''Come,"  was 
breathed  in  his  ear.  He  sat  up  care- 
fully and  listened.  The  hundreds  of 
wolf-dogs  in  the  camp  had  lifted  their 
nocturnal  song,  but  under  the  volume 
of  it,  close  at  hand,  he  could  distinguish 
the  light  regular  breathing  of  Snass. 

Labiskwee  tugged  gently  at  Smoke's 
sleeve,  and  he  knew  she  wished  him  to 
follow.  He  took  his  moccasins  and 
German  socks  in  his  hand  and  crept 
out  into  the  snow  in  his  sleeping  moc- 
casins. Beyond  the  glow  from  the  dy- 
ing embers  of  the  fire,  she  indicated 
to  him  to  put  on  his  outer  foot-gear, 
and  while  he  obeyed,  she  went  back 
nnder  the  fly  where  Snass  slept. 

Feeling  the  hands  of  his  watch 
Smoke  found  it  was  one  in  the  morn- 
ing. Quite  warm  it  was,  he  decided, 
not  more  than  ten  below  zero.  Labisk- 
wee rejoined  him  and  led  him  on 
through  the  dark  runways  of  the 
sleeping  camp.  Walk  lightly  as  they 
could  the  frost  crunched  crisply  under 
their  moccasins,  but  the  sound  was 
drowned  by  the  clamor  of  the  dogs,  too 
deep  in  their  howling  to  snarl  at  the 
man  and  woman  who  passed. 

"Now  we  can  talk,"  she  said  ,when 
the  last  fire  had  been  left  half  a  mile 

In  the  starlight,  facing  him.  Smoke 
noted  for  the  first  time  that  her  arms 
were  burdened,  and,  on  feeling,  dis- 
covered she  carried  his  snowshoes,  a 
rifle,  two  belts  of  ammunition,  and  his 
sleeping  robes. 

"I  have  everything  fixed,"  she  said, 
with  a  happy  little  laugh.  "I  have  been 
two  days  making  the  cache.  There  is 
meat,  even  flour,  matches,  and  skis, 
which  go  best  on  the  hard  crust  and, 
when  they  break  through,  the  webs  will 
hold  up  longer.  Oh,  I  do  know  snow-tra- 
vel, and  we  shall  go  fast,  my  lover." 

Smoke  checked  his  speech.  That 
she  had  been  arranging  his  es- 
cape was  surprise  enough,  but  that  she 
had  planned  to  go  with  him  was  more 
than  he  was  prepared  for.  Unable  to 
think  immediate  action,  he  gently,  one 
by  one,  took  her  burdens  from  her.  He 
put  his  arm  around  her  and  pressed 
her  close,  and  still  he  could  not  think 
what  to  do. 

"God  is  good,"  she  whispered.  "He 
sent  me  a  lover." 

Yet  Smoke  was  brave  enough  not  to 
suggest  his  going  alone.  And  ere  he 
spoke  he  saw  all  his  memory  of  the 
bright  world  and  the  sun-lands  reel 
and  fade. 

"We  will  go  back,  Labiskwee,"  he 
said.  "You  will  be  my  wife,  and  we 
shall  live  alwavs  with  the  Caribou  peo- 

"No !  no !"  She  shook  her  head ;  and 
her  body,  in  the  circle  of  his  arm,  re- 
sented his  proposal.  "I  know.  I  have 
thought  much.  The  hunger  for  the 
world  would  come  upon  you,  and  in  the 



long  nights  it  would  devour  your  heart. 
Four  Eyes  died  of  hunger  for  the  world. 
So  would  you  die.  All  men  from  the 
world  hunger  for  it.  And  I  will  not 
have  you  die.  We  will  go  on  across 
the  snow  mountains  on  the  south 

''Dear,  listen/'  he  urged.  "We  must 
go  back." 

She  pressed  her  mitten  against  his 
lips  to  prevent  further  speech. 

"You  love  me.  Say  that  you  love 

"I  do  love  you,  Labiskwee.  You  are 
my  wonderful  sweetheart." 

Again  the  mitten  was  a  caressing  ob- 
stacle to  utterance. 

"We  shall  go  on  to  the  cache/'  she 
said  with  decision.  "It  is  three  miles 
from  here.     Come." 

He  held  back,  and  her  pull  on  his 
arm  could  not  move  him.  Almost  was 
he  tempted  to  tell  her  of  the  other 
woman  beyond  the  south  traverse. 

"It  would  be  a  great  wrong  to  you 
to  go  back/'  she  said.  "I  .  .  .  . 
I  am  only  a  wild  girl,  and  I  am  afraid 
of  the  world ;  but  I  am  more  afraid  for 
you.  You  see,  it  is  as  you  told  me.  I 
love  you  more  than  anybody  else  in  the 
world.  I  love  you  more  than  myself. 
The  Indian  language  is  not  a  good 
language.  The  English  language  is  not 
a  good  language.  The  thoughts  in  my 
heart  for  you,  as  bright  and  as  many 
as  the  stars — there  is  no  language  for 
them.  How  can  I  tell  you  them? 
They  are  there — see." 

As  she  spoke  she  slipped  the  mitten 
from  his  hand  and  thrust  the  hand  in- 
side the  warmth  of  her  parka  until  it 
rested  against  her  heart.  Tightly  and 
steadily  she  pressed  his  hand  in  its 
position.  And  in  the  long  silence  he 
felt  the  beat,  beat  of  her  heart,  and 
knew  that  every  beat  of  it  was  love. 
And  then,  slowly,  almost  imperceptibly, 
still  holding  his  hand,  her  body  began 
to  incline  away  from  his  and  toward 
the  direction  of  the  cache.  Nor  could 
he  resist.  It  was  as  if  he  were  drawn 
by  her  heart  itself  that  so  nearly  lay 
in  the  hollow  of  his  hand. 


So  firm  was  the  crust,  frozen  during 
the  night  after  the  previous  day's  sur- 
face-thaw, that  they  slid  along  rapidly 
on  their  skis. 

"Just  here,  in  the  trees,  is  the 
cache,"  Labiskwee  told  Smoke. 

The  next  moment  she  caught  his 
arm  with  a  startle  of  surprise.  The 
tiames  of  a  small  fire  were  dancing  mer- 
rily, and  crouched  by  the  fire  was  Mc- 
Can.  Labiskwee  muttered  something 
in  Indian,  and  so  lash-like  was  the 
sound  that  Smoke  remembered  she  had 
been  called  "cheetah"  by  Four  Eyes. 

"I  was  minded  you'd  run  without 
me,"  McCan  explained  when  they  came 
up,  his  small  peering  eyes  glimmering 
with  cunning.  "So  I  kept  an  eye  on 
the  girl,  an'  when  I  seen  her  caching 
skis  an'  grub,  I  was  on.  I've  brought 
my  own  skis  an'  webs  an'  grub.  The 
fire?  Sure  an'  it  vvas  no  danger.  The 
camp's  asleep  an'  snorin.'  the  wait- 
in'  was  cold.    Will  we  be  startin'  now?" 

Labiskwee  looked  swift  consternation 
at  Smoke,  as  swiftly  achieved  a  judg- 
ment on  the  matter,  and  spoke.  And 
in  the  speaking  she  showed,  child- 
woman  though  she  was  in  love,  the 
quick  decisiveness  of  one  who  in  other 
affairs  of  life  would  be  no  clinging  vine. 

"McCan,  you  are  a  dog,"  she  hissed, 
and  her  eyes  were  savage  with  anger. 
"I  know  it  is  in  your  heart  to  raise  the 
camp  if  we  don't  take  you.  Very  well. 
We  must  take  you.  But  you  know  my 
father.  I  am  like  my  father.  You  will 
do  your  share  of  the  work.  You  will 
obey.  And  if  you  play  one  dirty  trick, 
it  would  be  better  for  you  if  you  had 
never  run." 

McCan  looked  up  at  her,  his  small 
pig-eyes  hating  and  cringing,  while  in 
her  eyes,  turned  to  Smoke,  the  anger 
melted  into  luminous  softness. 

"Is  it  right,  what  I  have  said?"  she 

Daylight  found  them  in  the  belt  of 
foot-hills  that  lay  between  the  rolling 
country  and  the  mountains.  McCan 
suggested  breakfast,  but  they  held  on. 
Not  until  the  afternoon  thaw  softened 



the  crust  and  prevented  travel  would 
ihey  eat. 

The  foot-hills  quickly  grew  rugged, 
and  the  stream,  up  whose  frozen  bed 
they  journeyed,  began  to  thread  deeper 
and  deeper  canyons.  The  signs  of 
spring  were  less  frequent,  though  in 
one  canyon  they  found  forming  bits  of 
open  water,  and  twice  they  came  upon 
clumps  of  dwarf  willow  upon  which 
were  the  first  hints  of  swelling  buds. 

Labiskwee  explained  to  Smoke  her 
knowledge  of  the  country  and  the  way 
she  planned  to  baffle  pursuit.  There 
were  but  two  ways  out,  one  west,  the 
other  south.  Snass  would  immediate- 
ly dispatch  parties  of  young  men  to 
guard  the  two  trails.  But  there  was 
another  way  south.  True,  it  did  no 
more  than  penetrate  half  way  into  the 
high  mountains,  then,  twisting  to  the 
west  and  crossing  three  divides,  it  joined 
the  regular  trail.  When  the  young  men 
found  no  traces  on  the  regular  trail  they 
would  turn  back  in  the  belief  that  the 
escape  had  been  made  by  the  west  trav- 
erse, never  dreaming  that  the  runa- 
ways had  ventured  the  harder  and 
longer  way  around. 

Glancing  back  at  McCan,  in  the  rear, 
Labiskwee  spoke  in  an  undertone  to 

"He  is  eating,"  she  said.  ''It  is  not 

Smoke  looked.  The  Irishman  was 
secretly  munching  caribou  suet  from 
the  pocketful  he  carried. 

"No  eating  between  meals,  McCan," 
he  commanded.  "There^s  no  game  in 
the  country  ahead,  and  the  grub  will 
have  to  be  whacked  in  e(iual  rations 
from  the  start.  The  only  way  you  can 
travel  with  us  is  by  playing  fair." 

By  one  o'clock  the  crust  had  thawed 
so  that  the  skis  broke  through,  and  be- 
fore two  o'clock  the  web-shoes  were 
breaking  through.  Camp  was  made 
and  the  first  meal  eaten.  Smoke  took 
stock  of  the  food.  McCan's  supply 
was  a  disappointment.  So  many  silver 
fox-skins  had  he  stuffed  in  the  bottom 
of  the  meat-bag  that  there  was  little 
space  left  for  meat. 

"Sure  an'  I  didn't  know  there  were 

so  many,"  he  explained.  "I  done  it  in 
the  dark.  But  they're  worth  good 
money.  An'  with  all  this  ammunition 
we'll  be  gettin'  game  a-plenty." 

"The  wolves  will  eat  you  a-plenty," 
was  Smoke's  helpless  comment,  while 
Labisk wee's  eyes  flashed  their  anger. 

Enough  food  for  a  month,  with  care- 
ful husbanding  and  appetites  that  never 
blunted  their  edge,  was  Smoke's  and 
Labiskwee's  judgment.  Smoke  appor- 
tioned the  weight  and  bulk  of  the  packs, 
yielding  in  the  end  to  Labiskwee's  in- 
sistence that  she,  too,  should  carry  a 

Next  day  the  stream  shallowed  out 
in  a  wide  mountain  valley,  and  they 
were  already  breaking  through  the 
crust  on  the  flats  when  they  gained  the 
harder  surface  of  the  slope  of  the  divide. 

"Ten  minutes  later  and  we  wouldn't 
have  got  across  the  flats,"  Smoke  said, 
when  they  paused  for  breath  on  the 
bald  crest  of  the  summit.  "We  must  be 
a  thousand  feet  higher  here." 

But  Labiskwee,  without  speaking, 
pointed  dowm  to  an  open  flat  among  the 
trees.  In  the  midst  of  it,  scattered 
abreast,  were  five  dark  specs  that  scarce- 
ly moved. 

"The  young  men,"  said  Labiskwee. 

"They  are  wallowing  to  their  hips," 
Smoke  said.  "They  will  never  gain  the 
hard  footing  this  day.  We  have  hours 
the  start  of  them.  Come«on,  McCan. 
Buck  up.  We  don't  eat  till  we  can't 

McCan  groaned,  but  there  was  no 
caribou  suet  in  his  pocket,  and  he  dog- 
gedly brought  up  in  the  rear. 

In  the  higher  valley  in  which  they 
now  found  themselves,  the  crust  did  not 
break  till  three  in  the  afternoon,  at 
which  time  they  managed  to  gain  the 
shadow  of  mountain  where  the  crust 
was  already  freezing  again.  Only  once 
did  they  pause  to  get  out  McCan's  con- 
fiscated suet,  which  they  ate  as  they 
walked.  The  meat  was  solidly  frozen, 
and  could  only  be  eaten  after  thawing 
over  a  fire.  But  the  suet  crumbled  in 
their  mouths  and  eased  the  palpitating 
faintness  in  their  stomachs. 



Black  darkness,  with  an  overcast  sky, 
came  on  after  a  long  twilight  at  nine 
o'clock,  when  they  made  camp  in  a 
clump  of  dwarf  spruce.  McCan  was 
whining  and  helpless.  The  day's  march 
had  been  exhausting,  but  in  addition, 
despite  his  nine  years'  experience  in  the 
Arctic,  he  had  been  eating  snow  and 
was  in  agony  with  his  parched  and 
burning  mouth.  He  crouched  by  the 
lire  and  groaned,  while  they  made  the 

Labiskwee  was  tireless,  and  Smoke 
could  not  but  marvel  at  the  life  in  her 
body  at  the  endurance  of  mind  and 
muscle.  Nor  was  her  cheerfulness  forc- 
ed. She  had  ever  a  laugh  or  a  smile 
for  him,  and  her  hand  lingered  in 
caress  whenever  it  chanced  to  touch  his. 
Yet,  always,  when  she  looked  at  Mc- 
Can, her  face  went  hard  and  pitiless 
and  her  eyes  flashed  frostily. 

In  the  night  came  wind  and  snow, 
and  through  a  day  of  blizzard  they 
fought  their  way  blindly,  missing  the 
turn  of  the  way  that  led  up  a  small 
stream  and  crossed  a  divide  to  the  west. 
For  two  more  days  they  wandered,  cros- 
sing other  and  wrong  divides,  and  in 
those  two  days  they  dropped  spring  be- 
hind and  climbed  up  into  the  abode  of 

"The  young  men  have  lost  our  trail, 
an'  what's  to  stop  us  restin'  a  day?"  Mc- 
Can begged. 

But  no  rest  was  accorded.  Smoke 
and  Labiskwee  knew  their  danger. 
They. were  lost  in  the  high  mountains, 
and  they  had  seen  no  game  nor  signs 
of  game.  Day  after  day  they  strug- 
gled on  through  an  iron  configuration 
of  landscape  that  compelled  them  to 
labyrinth  in  canyons  and  valleys  that 
led  rarely  to  the  west.  Once  in  such  a 
canyon,  they  could  only  follow  it,  no 
matter  where  it  led,  for  the  cold  peaks 
and  higher  ranges  on  either  side  were 
unscalable  and  unendurable.  The  ter- 
rible toil  and  the  cold  ate  up  energy, 
yet  they  cut  down  the  size  of  the  ration 
they  permitted  themselves. 

One  night  Smoke  was  awakened  by 
a  sound  of  struggling.-  Distinctly  he 
heard  a  gasping  and  strangling    from 

where  McCan  slept.  Kicking  the  fire 
into  flame,  by  its  light  he  saw  Labisk- 
wee, her  hanas  at  the  Irishman's  throat 
and  forcing  from  his  mouth  a  chunk  of 
partly  chewed  meat.  Even  as  Smoke 
saw  this,  her  hand  went  to  her  hip  and 
flashed  aloft  with  the  sheath-knife  in  it. 
"Labiskwee!"  Smoke  cried,  and  his 
voice  was  peremptory. 

The  hand  hesitated. 

"Don't,"  he  said,  coming  to  her  side. 

She  was  shaking  with  anger,  but  the 
hand,  after  hesitating  a  moment  longer, 
descended  reluctantly  to  the  sheath.  As 
if  fearing  she  could  not  restrain  herself, 
she  crossed  to  the  fire  and  threw  on 
more  wood.  McCan  sat  up,  whimper- 
ing and  snarling,  between  fright  and 
rage  spluttering  an  inarticulate  expla- 

"Where  did  you  get  it?"  Smoke  de- 

"Feel  around  his  body,"  Labiskwee 

It  was  the  first  word  she  had  spoken, 
and  her  voice  quivered  with  the  anger 
she  could  not  suppress. 

McCan  strove  to  struggle,  but  Smoke 
gripped  him  cruelly  and  searched  him, 
from  under  his  armpit,  where  it  had 
been  thawed  by  the  heat  of  his  body, 
drawing  forth  a  strip  of  caribou  meat. 
A  quick  exclamation  from  Labiskwee 
drew  Smoke's  attention.  She  had 
sprung  to  McCan's  pack  and  w^as  open- 
ing it.  Instead  of  meat,  out  poured 
moss,  spruce  needles,  chips — all  the 
light  refuse  that  had  taken  the  place  of 
the  meat  and  given  the  pack  its  due 
proportion  minus  its  weight. 

Again  Labiskwee's  hand  went  to  her 
hip,  and  she  flew  at  the  culprit  only  to 
be  caught  in  Smoke's  arms,  where  she 
surrendered  herself,  sobbing  with  the 
futility  of  her  rage. 

"Oh,  lover,  it  is  not  the  food,"  she 
panted.  "It  is  you,  your  life.  The  dog! 
— he  is  eating  you,  he  is  eating  youl" 

"We  will  yet  live,"  Smoke  comforted 
her.  "Hereafter  he  shall  carry  the 
flour.  He  can't  eat  that  raw,  and  if  he 
does  I'll  kill  him  myself,  for  he  will  be 
eating  your  life  as  well  as  mine."      He 



held  her  closer.  "Sweetheart,  killing  is 
men's  work.     Women  do  not  kill." 

"You  would  not  love  me  if  I  killed 
the  dog?"  she  questioned  in  surprise. 

"Not  so  much,"  Smoke  temporized. 

She  sighed  with  resignation. 

"Very  well,"  she  said.  "I  shall  not 
kill  him." 


The  pursuit  by  the  young  men  was 
relentless.  By  miracles  of  luck,  as  well 
as  by  deduction  from  the  topography 
of  the  way  the  runaways  must  take,  the 
young  men  picked  up  the  blizzard- 
blinded  trail  and  clung  to  it.  When 
the  snow  flew,  Smoke  and  Labiskwee 
took  the  most  improbable  courses,  turn- 
ing east  when  the  better  way  opened 
south  or  west,  rejecting  a  low  divide 
to  climb  a  higher.  Being  lost,  it  did 
not  matter.  Yet  they  could  not  throw 
the  young  men  off.  Sometimes  they 
gained  days,  but  always  the  young  men 
appeared  again.  After  a  storm,  when 
all  trace  was  lost,  they  would  cast  out 
like  a  pack  of  hounds,  and  he  who 
caught  the  later  trace  made  smoke  sig- 
nals to  call  his  comrades  on. 

Smoke  lost  count  of  time,  of  days  and 
nights  and  storms  and  camps.  Through 
a  vast  mad  phantasmagoria  of  suffering 
and  toil  he  and  Labiskwee  struggled  on, 
with  McCann  somehow  stumbling  along 
in  the  rear,  babbling  of  San  Francisco, 
bis  everlasting  dream.  Great  peaks, 
pitiless  and  serene  in  the  chill  blue,  tow- 
ered about  them.  They  fled  down  black 
canyons  with  walls  so  precipitous  that 
the  rock  frowned  naked,  or  wallowed 
across  glacial  valleys  where  frozen  lakes 
lay  far  beneath  their  feet.  And  one 
night,  between  two  storms,  a  distant 
volcano   glared  the  sky.     They   never 

saw  it  again,  and  wondered  whether  it 
had  been  a  dream. 

Crusts  were  covered  with  yards  of 
new  snow,  that  crusted  and  were  snow- 
ccvered  again.  There  were  places,  in 
canyon  and  pocket-drifts,  where  they 
crossed  snow  hundreds  of  feet  deep,  and 
they  crossed  tiny  glaciers,  in  draughty 
rifts,  wind-scoured  and  bare  of  any 
snow.  They  crept  like  silent  wraiths 
across  the  faces  of  impending  avalan- 
ches, or  roused  from  exhausted  sleep  to 
the  thunder  of  them.  They  made  fire- 
less  camps  above  timber-line,  thawing 
their  meat-rations  with-  the  heat  of 
their  bodies  ere  they  could  eat.  And 
through  it  all  Labiskwee  remained  La- 
biskwee. Her  cheer  never  vanished, 
save  when  she  looked  at  McCarw  and 
the  greatest  stupor  of  fatigue  and  cold 
never  stilled  the  eloquence  of  her  love 
for  Smoke. 

Like  a  cat  she  watched  the  apportion- 
ment of  the  meager  ration,  and  Smoke 
could  see  that  she  grudged  McCan 
every  munch  of  his  jaws.  Once,  she 
distributed  the  ration.  The  first  Smoke 
knew  was  a  wild  harangue  of  protest 
from  McCan.  Not  to  him  alone,  but  to 
herself,  had  she  given  a  smaller  por- 
tion than  to  Smoke.  After  that, 
Smoke  divided  the  meat  himself. 
Caught  in  a  small  avalanche  one  morn- 
ing after  a  night  of  snow,  and  swept  a 
hundred  yards  down  the  mountain, 
they  emerged  half-stifled  and  unhurt, 
but  McCan  emerged  without  his  pack 
in  which  was  all  the  flour.  A  second 
and  larger  snow-slide  buried  it  beyond 
hope  of  recovery.  After  that,  though 
the  disaster  had  been  through  no  fault 
of  his,  Labiskwee  never  looked  at  Mc- 
Can, and  Smoke  knew  it  was  because 
she  dared  not. 

To  be  Concluded  in  the  February  Issue. 

A   splendid    j'oung    orchard  near  Heathcote,  Grey  County. 

APPLES    MAKE    $100    LAND 

By  T.  H.  Binnie,  B.S.A. 

The  counties  of  old  Ontario  are  just  beginning  to  awaken  in  spots  to 
the  value  there  lies  in  advertising.  Only  a  little  while  ago  Lambton 
County  began  to  do  something  to  make  herself  known.  The  consequence  is, 
as  was  remarked  at  a  gathering  of  farmers  the  other  day,  that  ''Lambton 
is  known  to  everybody."  Farmer's  Magazine  has  been  trying  to  bring  out 
these  stories  of  the  wealth  that  is  possible  in  the  farms,  and  in  this  article 
by  Mr.  Binnie  a  start  is  made  on  Grey  County.  Everybody  believes  his 
county  is  best.  The  people  of  Grey  think  they  have  possibilities  that  can- 
not be  beaten.  Our  advice  to  every  farmer  in  the  county  is  to  "follow  the 

''CAN  we  grow  apples  here?"  If  you 
could  have  seen  the  surprised  look  on 
the  face  'of  the  man  who  said  that  to 
me  you  would  think  that  I  had  insult- 
ed him  when  I  asked  him  if  any  apples 
were  grown  in  his  locality.  "If  you  do 
not  think  we  can,  just  look  at  that,  and 
I  have  sold  about  100  barrels  just  as 

''That"  was  a  great  big  spy,  of  good 
shape  and  well  colored.  It  made  one 
wish  he  could  do  nothing  else  but  eat 

such  fruit.  His  was  one  of  the  few 
good  orchards  around.  By  "good"  I 
mean  one  of  the  few  that  had  been  well 
cared  for.  It  had  been  cultivated  and 
fertilized  and  sprayed.  The  result  was 
a  fair  crop  of  good  apples  in  a  year 
when  apples  were  scarce. 

Why  were  they  scarce?  Not  because 
of  the  lack  of  trees  or  for  the  want  of 
a  good  climate  but  because  the  we^ither, 
when  the  trees  were  in  blossom,  was  wet 
and  the  blossoms  did  not  get  a  chance 



to  set.  It  is  seldom  that  this  happens 
in  Grey  county  but  this  year  it  did. 

In  the  county  of  Grey  in  the  pro- 
N'ince  of  Ontario  there  are  two  valleys 
and  a  portion  of  the  land  facing  to  the 
(Georgian  Bay  that  can  and  do  grow 
as  good  or  better  apples  than  can  be 
grown  any  other  place  in  Ontario. 

This  is  a  big  statement  to  make  in 
the  present  race  for  apple  production. 
Perhaps  some  people  have  never  heard 
of  the  county  in  connection  with  the 
fruit  industry.  That  is  because  the 
people  of  that  locality  who  grow  the 
fruit  have  never  advertised  th'e  possi- 
bilities which  are  at  their  doors.  They 
have  never  advertised  their  fruit  at  any 
of  the  big  shows.  There  was  a  move- 
ment on  foot  for  the  county  to  adver- 
tise itself  by  placing  a  good,  exhibit  at 
the  Flower,  Fruit  and  Honey  Show 
at  Toronto  this  year  but  the  county 
council  put  their  foot  down  and  would 
not  assist  the  farmers  in  this.  They 
thought  that  it  would  be  wasting 
money.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  they 
will  see  clearer  after  the  elections  at 
the  first  of  the  year. 

Little  or  nothing  has  been  done  for 
some  years  in  the  way  of  setting  out 
young  trees  or  enlarging  the  orchards 
in   the  county.     The  majority   of  the 

orchards  are  old  and  in  bad  need  of 
care.  By  care  I  mean  pruning,  spray- 
ing and  cutlivating.  The  trees  are  al- 
lowed to  grow  as  they  like;  the  grass 
is  allowed  to  grow  underneath  them; 
the  insects  and  diseases  play  with  the 
trees  as  they  like  and  then  the  farmer 
wonders  why  he  cannot  have  a  good 
crop  of  fruit. 

Along  the  southern  shore  of  the 
Georgian  Bay  and  up  the  valleys  of  the 
Beaver  and  Big  Head  Rivers  things 
have  taken  on  a  different  hue  during 
the  past  few  years.  There  the  farmers 
depend  on  the  trees  for  much  of  their 
income  and  the  orchards  are  cared  for 
and  attended  to  as  they  should  be. 
These  sections  of  Grey  are  well  pro- 
tected and  are  well  adapted  to  apple 
growing.  One  member  of  the  County 
Board  of  Agriculture  states  that  from 
25,000  to  50,000  barrels  are  shipped 
from  his  locality  every  year.  This  at 
the  price  received  means  from  $25,000 
to  $75,000  yearly  to  the  farmers  in 
that  settlement  alone. 

All  the  while  I  had  been  getting  this 
and  other  information  I  had  been  eat- 
ing that  big  juicy  spy.  ''Do  you  not 
grow  a  cover  crop  on  the  orchard?"  I 
asked.  ''No/'  he  said,  "I  do  not  but  I 
believe  it  is  the  correct  method.    To  tell 




Tbis   is  the  Kimberley   Demonstration   Orchard.     Pruned  aud  attended  well, 

far    from  the    Railway. 

but  rather  too 



you  the  truth,"  he  added,  "there  are 
many  things  that  I  do  not  do  exactly 
as  I  would  like  to  do.  Not  because  I 
do  not  care  but  because  fruit  growing; 
is  only  one  part  of  my  farm  work." 
This  caused  me  to  enquire,  "Do  you 
not  think  it  would  pay  you  to  let  the 
other  parts  of  the  farm  work  go  and 
spend  all  your  time  on  the  orchard  and 
enlarge  it?"  "If  I  thought  it  would," 
he  said,  "I  would  do  so.  Although  I 
am  not  one  of  these  'high  financiers' 
yet  there  is  nothing  done  that  does  not 
pay  me  if  I  know  it." 

There  were  two  acres  of  orchard  on 
the  farm,  and  all  the  trees  were  apple 
trees.  He  said  that  the  rent  of  the  two 
acres  would  be  about  $5.00 ;  the  cost  of 
fertilizer  and  work  would  run  to  about 
$80.00:  the  cost  of  barrels  would  be 
about  $15.00,  making  a  total  cost  for 
the  year  of  $100.00.  This  year  he  sold 
100  barrels  at  $1.25  per  barrel,  making 
a  gross  return  of  $125.00.  Therefore 
he  had  only  $25.00  for  his  year's  bank- 
ing fund.  He  says  this  is  the  lowest  re- 
turn he  has  ever  had.  These  figures  he 
gave  me  out  of  his  head  as  he  was  too 
busy  for  me  to  ask  him  to  go  to  the 
house  to  get  the  right  figures  from  him. 
I  asked  him  if  he  thought  he  would  be 
money  in  pocket  to  pack  the  apples  in 
boxes.  "No,  it  would  not.  I  have  not 
time  to  take  from  the  other  farm  work 
to  do  the  packing  properly  and  if  it  is 
not  done  properly  it  is  better  not  done 
at  all.  I  believe  it  would  pay  me  to  do 
so  if  I  had  some  place  to  store  the  ap- 
ples till  after  the  rush  of  the  fall  work 
was  over.  In  fact  I  have  been  seriously 
thinking  of  building  such  a  place  and 
holding  the  fruit  for  the  late  fall  and 
early  winter  trade.  I  know  I  would 
make  money  by  so  doing." 

"Look  at  that  farm  over  there,"  he 
said,  pointing  across  to  his  neighbor's 
fields.  "Two  years  ago  I  could  have 
bought  that  place  for  $60  per  acre  but 
to-day  the  owner  would  not  sell  for 
$100  an  acre.  Apple  growing  has 
taken  a  boost  here  and  the  farmers  are 
all  going  in  for  more  fruit  and  better 
fruit.     It  pays  them  well  and  they  are 

going  after  some  of  the  money  the  city 
people  have  to  spend." 

Rents  have  also  advanced.  Farms 
that  used  to  rent  for  $3.00  per  acre  and 
less,  are  now  renting  for  $5.00  per  acre 
and  those  who  want  to  rent  have  to  get 
on  the  ground  early  if  they  are  going 
to  get  a  chance  at  the  place  they  want. 

Now  one  of  the  questions  which  con- 
cerns some  of  the  portions  of  the  fruit 
sections  is  the  lack  of  a  railway.  The 
Canadian  Pacific  Railway  comes  into 
the  county  at  Dundalk  and  angles 
through  to  Owen  Sound.  The  Grand 
Trunk  comes  along  the  shore  of  the 
Georgian  Bay  through  Thornbury  to 
Meaford.  "Now,"  said  my  fruit-grow- 
ing friend,  "if  we  had  a  railway  to  go 
straight  across  the  county  from  east  to 
west  it  would  pierce  this  fruit  belt  and 
we  could  market  our  fruit  in  better  con- 
dition. If  you  can  interest  the  finan- 
ciers of  Ontario  in  this  project  we  will 
stand  by  them  and  give  them  all  our 
trade."  This,  however,  has  not  pre- 
vented the  farmers  from  raising  fruit 
nor  has  it  prevented  the  rise  in  land 
values.  These  two  latter  will  keep  on 
increasing  till  the  financiers  will  be 
glad  to  spend  some  of  their  money  in 
Ontario  and  develop  it  instead  of  West- 
ern Canada. 

Another  member  of  the  County 
Board  of  Agriculture  asks  for  a  de- 
monstration orchard.  This  is  being 
remedied.  Mr.  H.  C.  Duff,  the  district 
representative,  has  several  this  year  in 
the  county  and  although  the  wet  wea- 
ther was  against  the  fruit  growers  these 
orchards  have  more  than  paid  for  the 
work  which  has  been  put  on  them. 
They  have  shown  the  improvement 
that  can  really  take  place  in  old  orch- 
ards. "Look  at  that,"  said  the  owner 
of  one  of  these  orchards.  "I  have  never 
grown  fruit  like  that  before.  It  means 
4hat  I  look  after  my  orchard  after  this 
and  get  all  out  of  it  I  can."  All  I  can 
say  is  this,  that  the  public  will  suddenly 
sit  up  and  take  notice  one  of  these  fine 
days  when  Grey  county  apples  are 
placed  on  the  exhibition  stands  and  for 
color  and   flavor  will   beat   all   others. 


By  Dr.  Orison  Swett  Marden 

Note. — Dr.  Marden,  the  late  Editor  of  Success  Magazine,  has  already 
made  a  name  for  himself  as  a  writer  of  inspirational  literature.  There  is 
no  farmer  who  has  made  a  success  of  his  department  but  knows  the  value 
of  being  himself  enthused  with  his  work,  and  of  keeping  those  who  work 
for  him,  whether  it  be  his  family  or  his  hired  help,  thoroughly  seized  with 
the  joy  of  doing  what  they  are  doing.  It  is  this  same  principle  that  makes 
these  articles  by  Dr.  Marden  so  attractive.  Every  farmer  and  lover  of  the 
country  life  will  find  this  article  to  be  worthy  a  careful  perusal.  Many 
are  binding  their  copies  of  Farmer's  Magazine  and  keeping  them  for  refer- 
ence, and  in  a  library  such  an  article  as  this  will  be  found  of  inestimable 
benefit,  not  only  for  the  present,  but  for  future  reference. — Editor. 

DID  you  ever  come  across  the  hog  at 
home — the  man  who  is  so  affable,  such 
a  genial  good  fellow  in  the  club  down- 
town and  among  his  men  friends  and 
business  associates,  but  who,  when  in 
his  home,  throws  off  his  mask  and  feels 
no  obligation  to  restrain  himself  or  to 
temper  his  language;  the  man  who 
finds  fault  with  everything,  abuses 
everybody,  criticises  everything,  who 
storms  about  the  house  like  a  mad  bull 
when  he  is  out  of  sorts  and  things  do 
not  please  him? 

We  have  all  undoubtedly  met  this 
man,  the  good  fellow  at  the  club  and 
the  hog  at  home — the  man  who  uses 
his  home  for  a  kicking  post. 

The  hog  at  home  is  a  very  curious 
animal.  I  have  seen  him  in  the  midst 
of  a  terrible  rage  when  he  seemed  to 
be  the  plaything  of  his  passion,  become 
as  gentle  and  docile  as  a  lamb  in  an  in- 
stant with  the  ringing  of  a  door-bell 
and  the  announcing  of  company.  It 
would  seem  as  though  there  must  be 
some  magical  connection  between  the 
door-bell  and  this  man's  temper. 

When  it  did  not  seem  possible  for 
him  to  get  control  of  himself,  he  did 
not  have  the  slighest  difficulty  in  calm- 
ing down  in  an  instant  when  a  caller 
was  announced,  thus  proving  that  this 
matter  of  self-control  was  largely  one 
of  vanity,  self-pride.  He  would  be 
mortally  ashamed  to  have  the  caller  see 

the  hog  husband  that  was  there  when 
the  door-bell  rang. 

We  often  see  him  in  llie  home  sitting 
cross,  crabbed,  glum,  during  the  entire 
evening  and  at  meals,  without  making 
the  slightest  effort  to  be  agreeable.  At 
the  club  or  in  his  business  dealings, 
even  if  things  go  wrong,  he  feels  oblig- 
ed to  restrain  himself  and  be  decent  be- 
cause he  would  not  have'  his  business 
friends  see  him  with  his  mask  off.  He 
has  too  much  pride  and  vanity  for  that. 
But  when  he  is  at  home  he  thinks  he 
is  under  no  obligation  to  be  agreeable; 
he  thinks  he  has  a  perfect  right  to  do 
just  what  he  feels  like  doing,  and  to  be 
just  as  mean,  hateful,  and  disagreeable 
as  he  wants  to  be.  He  makes  no  at- 
tempt to  restrain  or  control  himself. 

Such  boorishness  and  lack  of  oom- 
panionableness  between  husband  and 
wife  are  among  the  most  common  do- 
mestic joy  killers. 

Of  course  the  woman  is  often  at 
fault,  but  she  is  more  naturally  a 
home  maker  at  heart  than  the  man. 
He  is  more  selfish  and  apt  to  be  indif- 
ferent to  the  home,  and  he  is  the  one 
who  needs  to  be  roused  to  the  respon- 
sibility of  making  home  happy,  and 
marriage  full  of  the  mutual  joy  in  giv- 

''If  there  are  women  who  do  not,  by 
study  and  that  best  companionship 
which   they   could  offer  to   their  hus- 




bands,  learn  rightly  to  play  the  part 
of  helpmeets,  there  are  far  more  men 
who,  for  one  selfish  reason  or  another, 
never  give  their  wives  the  opportuni- 
ty," writes  Mrs.  John  Logan. 

A  woman's  thirst  for  sympathy  and 
close  companionship  is  very  difficult 
for  the  average  man  to  comprehend. 
It  would  be  as  impossible  for  a  woman 
to  live  her  normal  life  under  abuse  or 
indifference  without  sympathetic  com- 
panionship, as  for  a  rose  to  develop  its 
normal  beauty  and  fragrance  without 
sunshine.  This  is  often  the  reason  why 
so  many  wives  seek  elsewhere  the  sym- 
pathy which  their  husbands  deny 

There  are  men  who  think  that  if 
(hey  do  not  actually  strike  their  wives, 
if  they  provide  a  house  and  clothing 
for  them,  they  ought  to  be  satisfied  and 
happy.  But  these  things  will  never 
insure  happiness  to  the  kind  of  a 
woman  you  would  desire  your  wife  to 
be,  my  friend. 

It  often  occurs  that  a  man  marries 
a  beautiful,  bright,  cheerful  girl,  who 
is  always  bubbling  over  with  animal 
spirits,  and  in  a  short  time  everybody 
notices  a  complete  change  in  her  char- 
acter, brought  about  by  the  perpetual 
suppression  of  her  husband,  who  if  not 
actually  brutal,  is  severe  in  his  criti- 
cisms and  unreasonable  in  his  de- 
mands. The  wife  is  surrounded  with 
this  joy  killing  atmosphere  of  sharp 
criticism  or  severity  until  she  entirely 
loses  her  naturalness  and  spontaneity, 
and  self-expression  becomes  impossible. 
The  result  is  an  artificial,  flavorless 

Think  of  the  suffering  of  a  wife 
who  feels  her  spirits  gradually  drying 
up,  and  her  buoyancy  and  youthful- 
ness  evaporating;  her  beauty,  her  at- 
tractiveness gradually  fading;  in  fact 
her  ambition  strangled,  her  whole  life 
being  blighted  in  a  cold,  loveless  en- 

A  lady  recently  told  me  that  not 
once  during  several  months  which  she 
spent  at  the  house  of  friends  did  she 
see  the  husband  display  the  slightest 
sign  of  affection  for  his  wife,  although 

she  is  a  woman  vastly  superior  to  him 
in  every  way. 

She  has  dragged  out  an  unloved, 
miserable  existence  for  more  than  a 
quarter  of  a  century  with  a  husband 
who  is  cold  and  absolutely  indifferent 
to  her  comfort,  pleasure,  or  happiness. 
Not  once  in  a  year  does  he  take  her 
anywhere.  He  is  practically  never  seen 
with  her  away  from  home.  He  never 
thinks  she  needs  an  outing,  a  vacation, 
or  a  change.  When  he  travels,  he  goes 
tdone  or  in  the  company  of  others, 
never  even  suggesting  that  his  wife 
accompany  him.  This  man  is  not  un- 
kind or  cruel,  he  is  only  indifferent  to 
his  wife.  He  has  not  a  particle  of  sen- 
timent for  her. 

To  many  w^omen  indifference  is 
worse  than  cruelty,  if  the  cruel  hus- 
band shows  at  least  a  little  affection 
now  and  then.  Utter  indifference  is 
one  of  the  things  that  the  feminine 
heart  cannot  endure  without  keen  suf- 

Indifference  and  cruelty  are  evident 
forms  of  selfishness,  the  root  of  domes- 
tic unhappiness.  Less  evident,  per- 
haps, is  that  self-love  which  many  men 
mistake  for  love  of  their  wives.  It  is 
a  sort  of  projection  of  themselves  with 
which  they  are  in  love.  They  think 
more  of  their  own  comfort,  their  own 
well-being,  their  own  ambitions,  their 
own  pleasure,  than  they  do  of  the  high- 
est welfare  of  their  wives. 

Many  such  men  do  not  mean  to  be 
selfish  in  their  home  life,  and  really 
believe  they  are  generous,  but  their 
minds  are  so  focused  upon  themselves 
and  their  ambition  that  they  can  only 
think  of  a  wife  in  reference  to  them- 
selves. Whereas  the  highest  love  has 
the  highest  welfare  of  the  individual  at 
heart,  not  its  own. 

It  is  fortunate  for  the  world  that  a 
woman's  love  is  not  so  selfish,  not  so 
self-centred  as  a  man's.  If  it  were, 
civilization  would  go  back  to  barbarism. 

AVhen  a  woman  has  given  up  every- 
thing for  a  husband  who,  before  mar- 
riage was  always  bringing  her  flowers 
and  showing  other  little  evidences  of  his 
affection,  who  was  generous  and  loving 



ho  real  importance,  get  offended  with 
each  other,  and  the  husband  goes  away 
without  his  usual  morning  kiss, —  goes 
down  town  and  is  miserable  all  day 
long,  and  the  wife  stays  at  home  and 
is  miserable  all  day  long;  and  over 
what?  They  forget  the  time  when  she 
was  the  one  ideal  of  all  that  was  beau- 
considerate  while  pursuing  the  object 
of  his  regard,  could  become  indifferent 
and  cruel  after  he  had  secured  the 
prize;  but  this  is  true  of  multitudes  of 
men.  i 

With  many  men  romance  ends  with 
marriage,  as  a  hunter's  interest  dies 
with  the  game  when  he  has  fired  the 
shot  that  kills. 

If  there  is  any  person  who  needs  pity 
in  the  world,  it  is  the  wife  who  gives 
love  and  makes  perpetual  sacrifices  in 
return  for  indifference,  neglect,  and 
even  cruelty.  Is  it  not  a  crime  for  a 
man  to  take  a  beautiful,  affectionate 
buoyant  girl  from  a  happy  home,  after 
a  romantic  courtship,  and  then  crush 
her  spirit,  and  freeze  her  love  by  cold, 
heartless  indifference  and  selfishness ;  to 
wreck  her  happiness?  Can  any  greater 
disappointment  come  into  a  woman's 
life  than  to  see  her  dream  of  love,  mar- 
riage, and  a  happy  home  blighted  by 
cold-hearted,  indifferent,  cruel  neg- 

"Jealousy  and  suspicion  poison  the 
atmosphere  of  the  family.  The  home 
joy  cannot  live  where  they  are  enter- 
tained. At  the  outset  young  people 
who  marry  should  resolve  never  to  per- 
mit the  sun  to  go  down  on  their  wrath, 
l^overs  fondly  fancy  that  they  will 
never  have  a  quarrel.  However,  most 
husbands  and  wives  occasionally  have 
little  differences  which  need  not 
amount  to  much  if  they  simply  follow 
one  rule;  never  to  go  to  sleep  at  night 
except  in  friendly  harmony.  If  there 
has  been  a  disturbance  of  peace,  settle 
it  before  bedtime.  If  either  has  done 
or  said  anything  to  wound  the  other, 
confess  and  seek  forgiveness  before  the 
head  touches  the  pillow. 

"We  take  offence  too  easily.  I  know 
cases  of  husbands  and  wives — who,  in 
a  discussion  over  a  matter  of  perhaps 

and  kind,  but  who  afterwards  seldom 
thinks  of  these  little  attentions  so  much 
appreciated  by  women,  but  is  often  in- 
different, cross,  and  fault-finding,  she 
cannot  help  feeling  unhappy  at  the 

It  does  not  seem  possible  that  a  man 
who  could  be  so  affectionate,  kind,  and 
tif ul ;  they  forget  the  time  when  he  was 
the  one  hero  picked  out  of  all  the  sons 
of  earth.  For  a  contemptible,  petty, 
little  nothing  they  think  unkindly  and 
harshly  of  each  other.  Is  a  little  trifle 
like  that  worth  purchasing  at  the  price 
of  the  happiness  of  a  day?  How  petty 
it  is!  If  people  would  only  stop  and 
think,  they  would  be  ashamed  of  them- 
selves, and  ask  each  other's  pardon, 
and  devote  themselves  to  creating  sun- 
shine and  peace  instead  of  getting  of- 
fended over  things  that  are  of  no  eartti- 
ly  account." 

"If  folks  could  have  their  funerals 
when  they  are  alive  and  well  and  strug- 
gling along,  what  a  help  it  would  be!'^ 
sighed  Mrs.  Perkins,  upon  returning 
from  a  funeral,  wondering  how  poor 
Mrs.  Brown  would  have  felt  if  she 
could  have  heard  what  the  minister 
said.  "Poor  soul,  she  never  dreamed 
they  set  so  much  by  her! 

"Mis'  B*own  got  discouraged.  Ye 
see;  Deacon  Brown,  he'd  got  a  way  of 
blaming  everything  on  to  her.  I  don't 
suppose  the  deacon  meant  it, — 'twas 
just  his  way, — but  it's  awful  wearing. 
When  things  wore  out  or  broke,  he  act- 
ed just  as  if  Mis'  Brown  did  it  herself 
on  purpose ;  and  they  all  caught  it,  like 
the  measles  or  the  whooping  cough." 

Just  think  what  a  woman  who  has 
half  a  dozen  children  has  to  endure  if 
she  is  obliged  to  do  all  her  work, — sew- 
ing, cooking,  washing,  and  cleaning — 
without  even  the  assistance  of  a  hired 
girl.  How  long  could  a  man  stand  this 
kind  of  an  existence,  shut  up  in  a  house 
or  a  little  flat  year  in  and  year  out, 
rarely  ever  going  anywhere,  with  very 
little  variety  or  change?  How  would 
he  keep  his  cheer?  A  few  days  of  con- 
flnement  in  the  home  is  about  all  most 
men  can  stand,  especially  if  their  rest 
is  disturbed  at  night  by  sick  children. 



Most  men  little  realize  how  rapidly  a 
woman  fades  and  uses  herself  up  and 
loses  her  cheer  when  she  works  like  a 
slave  all  day  and  long  into  the  night, 
caring  for  a  large  family.  Just  because 
a  wife  is  willing  to  do  everything  she 
can  to  help  her  husband,  is  no  reason 
why  he  should  allow  her  to  ruin  her 
health  and  attractiveness,  rob  her  of 
the  zest  for  living,  in  the  operation. 
There  is  nothing  more  wearing  and  ex- 
asperating, nothing  which  will  grind 
life  away  more  rapidly  than  monoton- 
ous, exacting  housework.  A  man  has 
a  gre£(t  variety  during  the  day  in  his 
business;  but  his  wife  slaves  at  home 
and  rarely  gets  any  variety.  How  is 
she  to  keep  joy  in  the  home  for  the 
children,  or  for  guests  and  friends? 

She  is  plodding  and  digging  all  day 
long,  year  in  and  year  out,  cleaning, 
scrubbing,  mending  clothes,  caring  for 
ihe  children, — a  work  which  grinds  life 
away  rapidly,  because  of  the  drudgery 
and  monotony  in  it. 

The  husband  has  constant  chaniie 
which  rests  and  refreshes  him ;  but  to 
the  average  wife  it  is  one  dull,  mono- 
tonous routine  of  hard,  exacting,  ex- 
asperating toil.  And  yet  the  wife  and 
mother  should  be  the  fountain  head  of 
joy  in  the  home. 

Many  a  man  is  cross  and  crabbed 
when  he  comes  home,  just  because  his 
wife  is  not  quite  as  buoyant  and  cheer- 
ful and  entertaining  as  he  thinks  she 
ought  to  be  after  a  nerve-racking,  ex- 
acting day's  work.  What  does  he  do  to 
make  the  evening  pleasant  for  her? 
How  many  times  during  the  last  year 
has  he  taken  his  wife  out  to  entertain- 
ments or  to  dinner?  When  did  he 
last  take  her  away  on  a  little  trip? 
How  long  has  it  been  since  he  brought 
her  home  some  flowers,  confectionery, 
n  book,  or  some  other  little  gift  which 
would  tell  her  that  he  was  thoughtful 
of  her?  How  often  has  he  given  un 
his  club,  or  the  society  of  his  compan- 
ions, or  his  own  pleasure  to  remain 
home  and  help  his  wife  take  care  of  the 
children,  or  make  the  evening  delight- 
ful for  his  family? 

Saving  only  the  dregs  for  the  home, 
exasperated  nerves  and  jaded  energies. 

is  a  very  short-sighted  policy.  Thous- 
ands of  homes  in  this  country  are  made 
up  of  shreds  and  patches.  All  we  find 
there  is  the  by-product  of  a  man's  oc- 
cupation. Many  a  man  gives  the  home 
what  he  has  left  over, — the  crumbs,  the 
odds  and  ends.  Instead  of  bringing  to 
it  his  freshest  energies,  his  buoyant 
spirits,  he  often  comes  a  physical 
wreck.  He  remains  in  the  store  or  of- 
tice  as  long  as  there  is  anything  left  of 
him  that  is  any  good.  Then  he  goes 
home,  and  he  wonders  why  the  child- 
ren avoid  him,  why  they  do  not  run 
and  throw  their  arms  about  his  neck, 
delighted  to  see  him. 

The  children  know  that  when  such 
a  father  reaches  home  their  fun  is 
pretty  nearly  over.  They  do  not  see 
anything  very  interesting  or  attractive 
in  his  long,  tired  face.  They  know 
there  is  no  spring  in  his  dragging,  hesi- 
tating steps.  They  know  there  is  no 
vitality  left  for  a  romp  with  them  on 
the  floor  or  on  the  lawn.  They  know 
they  have  to  keep  quiet  or  they  will  be 
sent  to  bed  or  out  of  the  room. 

The  average  modern  man  has  taken 
the  cream  ofl'  his  energies  during  the 
(iaytime,  and  brings  home  only  the 
skimmed  milk,  and  this  is  often  very 
sour.  Then  he  wonders  why  his  wife 
is  not  as  bright  and  as  agreeable  as  she 
used  to  be!  He  cannot  see  the  poor, 
mean,  miserable,  starved  part  of  him- 
self that  he  brings  to  her,  and  he  ex- 
pects her  to  match  it  all  with  the  same 
charm  and  sweetness,  the  same  joyous 
response  that  she  gave  him  when  he 
brought  the  best  part  of  himself  to  her. 
His  weariness  and  depression  cannot 
summon  forth  that  happy  response; 
they  paralyze  the  children's  play;  they 
strangle  the  home  joy. 

The  fun  loving  faculties  in  many 
children  are  never  half  developed; 
hence  the  melancholy  traits,  the  ten- 
dency to  sadness,  moroseness,  morbid- 
ness, which  we  see  in  men  and  women 
everywhere.  These  are  not  normal. 
They  are  indications  of  stifled,  sup- 
pressed, dwarfed  nature.  And  they  are 
to  be  laid  at  the  door  of  the  killers  of  the 
home  joy.  j 

Glenmarnock,   the   grand   champion   Angus   fat  steer   at   Chicago,   owned   by   Mr.    McGregor, 
of  Brandon.    The  grand  championship  on  carload  lots,  was  secured  also  by  the  Angus  cattle. 


By  F.  M.  Chapman 

COMMERCE  .  knows  no  ^  flag.  The 
spirit  of  barter  is  cosmopolitan.  When 
the  Indian  met  the  white  man  on  the 
shores  of  North  America  he  had  not 
even  a  language  of  communication. 
Nevertheless  the  white  man  having 
some  things  that  the  red  man  desired, 
an  exchange  took  place  and  trade  be- 
gan. It  was  between  them  solely  a 
question  of  arriving  at  the  point  when 
the  white  man  would  be  willing  to  part 
with  his  goods  for  what  was  offered  by 
the  red  man.  All  this  was  as  if  it  were 
only  yesterday.  To-day  warehouses, 
long  lines  of  wharves,  big  carrying 
steamers  and  miles  of  freight  cars  tell 
of  the  progress  of  barter.  Last  sum- 
mer there  were  over  forty  steamers  on 
the  Lesser  Slave  Lake,   Northern  Al- 

berta, trying  to  handle  the  goods  for 
that  district  which  was  not  very  long 
ago  looked  upon  as  an  impossible  land. 
The  community  dealings  of  men  in 
a  big  city  abundantly  illustrate  the 
fact  that  nationality  counts  for  little,  in 
the  buying  and  selling  of  produce.  The 
whole  question  of  national  law  is  being 
settled  by  reference  to  the  courts  of 
commerce.  The  little  Balkan  war  in 
Europe  progressed  only  with  the  con- 
sent of  the  trading  states.  It  is  becom- 
ing more  and  more  evident  that  bet- 
ter trading  relations  between  nations 
mean  a  greater  security  for  peace.  The 
men  who  produce  are  the  real  govern- 
ors of  the  nation  and  democracy  is  thus 
in  the  ascendant,  because  aristocracy 
was  founded  upon  the  personal  rule  of 


Gainsford  Marquis,  the  champion  Shorthorn  bull  at  Chicago,  owned  by  R.  W.  Caswell, 

of  Saskatoon. 

The  grand  champion   Wether  at  Chicago,  owned  by  John   Campbell,   of  Woodville,  Ontario. 



the  sovereign  and  the  acknowledgment 
of  privilege.  This  old  divine  right  idea 
of  superiority  on  the  part  of  some  has 
to  give  way  in  the  practical  world  to 
efficiency  and  ability. 


This  largely  explains  why  farmers  as 
a  rule  are  democratic  in  their  ideals. 
They  believe  in  a  fair  field  with  no  fa- 
vors. They  w^ant  everybody  to  have  a 
chance.  The  man  who  can  do  things 
is  the  man  who  should  have  them,  and 
no  condemnation  is  too  severe  for  the 
clique  or  combination  of  circumstances 
which  so  hampers  their  free  movements 
as  to  prevent  the  attainment  of  this 
end.  A  farmer  is  a  producer.  He  is 
also  a  salesman  of  that  produce  and  as 
such  has  to  enter  the  commercial  world 
and  make  as  good  a  bargain  as  he  can 
in  the  world's  markets.    It  is,  therefore. 

easily  seen  that  there  are  two  sides  to 
agricultural  life,  one  the  producing  and 
the  other  the  commercial.  Many  men 
are  first-class  producers.  They  can 
grow  the  No.  1  hard  wheat  under  the 
most  discouraging  conditions.  They 
can  carry  off  the  honors  in  the  fat  stock 
shows  and  yet  when  it  comes  to  the 
marketing  of  these  products  they  are 
helpless  in  the  teeth  of  the  combination 
they  meet.  The  same  story  holds 
throughout  the  country.  It  is  given  in 
popular  parlance  in  the  following  man- 
ner:— • 

'^John  Jones  is  a  very  decent  fellow. 
He  works  hard  and  slaves  away  from 
morning  until  night  and  practically  has 
his  nose  to  the  grindstone  all  day,  yet  he 
is  a  poor  man  and  at  sixty  years  of  age 
has  to  work  as  hard  for  his  daily  bread 
as  at  twenty.  He  doesn't  seem  to  have 
had  anv  head  on  him." 

'Xhi^  ciiumpiou  Sliiopsliiie  ewe  at  Chicago,  owned  by  John  Campbell,  of  Woodville,  ODtario. 



Every  reader  knows  many  such  men 
through  the  country  who  have  been  fine 
producers,  good,  steady,  honest  work- 
ers but  who  knew  absolutely  nothing 
of  the  commercial  end  of  farming. 


Then  there  is  the  other  man.  He 
goes  to  the  other  extreme.  He  is  no 
good  to  work  nor  steady  at  employ- 
ment but  he  can  scheme  the  utmost 
^ut  of  the  other  men  in  a  first-class 
manner.  His  bump  of  commercial  life 
is  well  developed,  and  he,  perhaps,  en- 
joys more  of  the  sweets  of  this  present 
life  than  the  other  fellow. 

Neither  of  these  fellows  are  very  good 
neighbors.  You  pity  the  one  and  you 
watch  the  other.  Modern  education  is 
trying  to  unite  the  two  men,  not  by 
marrying  eTohn  Jones'  daughter  to  Bill 
Smith's  son  but  by  teaching  the  young 
farmer  to  be  a  good  producer  and  a 
student  at  the  same  time. 

In  this  work  there  is  no  greater  force 
for  education  than  the  fat  stock  shows 
which  have  been  held  during  the  last 
month  and  which  are  to  be  held  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  Canada  before  the  win- 
ter ends. 


What  is  called  the  world's  greatest 
live  stock  show  has  for  the  thirteenth 
time  held  its  annual  session  at  that  cen- 
tre of  live  stock  production,  Chicago. 
Admirably  located  because  of  the  Un- 
ion Stock  Yards  and  the  gravitation 
there  of  the  carloads  of  cattle,  sheep, 
horses  and  hogs  daily,  the  international 
fat  stock  show  at  this  point  makes  it 
almost  impossible  for  it  to  be  a  failure. 
Stockmen  from  all  over  the  world, 
breeders,  commission  men,  ranchmen 
and  dealers  visit  the  show  for  the  sake 
of  its  new  ideas  and  for  the  market  fea- 
tures which  it  presents. 

Canada  has  entered  the  arena  at  al- 
most every  one  of  the  shows  and  has 
carried  ofP  high  class  generally.  This 
year  in  the  breeding  sheep  classes,  On- 
tario has  well  nigh  swept  the  boards. 
John^  Campbell,  of  Woodville,  after 
winning  the  championship   in   Shrop- 

shires  might  well  be  excused  for  think- 
ing that  he  knows  about  all  there  is  to 
know  in  the  breeding  and  production 
of  a  fat  wether.  In  horses  the  old 
Scotch  Clydesdale  has  been  recognized 
as  the  first  horse  in  Canada.  If  Can- 
ada should  win  at  Chicago  on  any  line 
of  horse  flesh  it  should  be  on  this  line, 
and  such  has  been  done  time  and  again. 
This  year  the  lists  were  again  entered 
and  championship  carried  off  by  the 
Cairnbrogie  Stables,  of  Claremont,  On- 
tario, by  one  of  the  best  specimens  of 
the  breed  that  has  ever  been  shown 
there.  Lord  Gleniffer,  after  winning 
the  prize,  was  sold  to  a  millionaire  near 


In  cattle,  Western  Canada  took  a 
turn.  Already,  through  the  West, 
many  magnificent  breeding  farms  are 
springing  up  with  an  equipment  of  fine 
buildings  and  field  production  second 
to  none  in  the  world.  Despite  the  al- 
lurements of  real  estate  advancements 
and  the  glitter  of  the  golden  Marquis 
and  the  Red  Fyfe,  the  glory  of  breed- 
ing animals  to  perfection  has  so  taken 
hold  of  a  great  many  of  these  good 
farmers  that  have  been  actually  invad- 
ing the  Canadian  National  Exhibition 
at  Toronto  as  well  as  the  International 
at  Chicago,  to  carry  off  its  hio;hest  hon- 
ors. Mr.  R.  W.  Caswell,  of  Saskatoon, 
takes  no  greater  joy  than  when  he 
jumps  into  his  automobile  in  his  city 
residence  by  the  river  to  motor  out  to 
his  farm  where  his  splendid  animals 
are  feeding.  He  was  induced,  along 
with  several  others  of  Saskatchewan,  by 
the  live  stock  department  of  the  Sask- 
atchewan Government,  to  show  at  Chi- 
cago and  the  accompanying  cut  shows 
his  winning  animal. 


Ontario  is  rapidly  coming  to  the 
front  with  her  live  stock  show  in  the 
royal  city  of  Guelph.  From  a  humble 
beginning  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Guelph  Fat  Stock  Club,  this  show  has 
grown  to  its  present  large  proportions. 
This  year  the  immense  crowds  and  the 



A  grand  pose  of  a  model  Clydesdale,  Lord  Glenififer,   the  champlonsliip  Clydesdale  at  Chi- 
cago shown  by  Graham  Bros.,  Cairnbrogie,  Claremont,  Ontario,  and  sold  to  a  millionaire 
near  Boston.     In  conversation  with  Mr.  Wm.  Graham,  of  the  firm  of  Graham  Bros., 
this  horse  was  claimed  to  be  the  best  horse  they  had  ever  owned,  and  although 
the  price  was  not  announced,  it  is  understood  that  the  figure  was  also  one  of 
the  highest  ever  paid  for  a  Clydesdale  in  America. 

large  entries  made  the  stone  buildings 
seem  like  overcrowded  annexes  on  a 
many-roofed  Dutch  farm.  It  was  only 
under  such  conditions  of  popularity 
that  the  total  lack  of  architectural 
design  in  these  buildings  became  so 

It  is  apparent  that  if  Guelph  is  going 
to  remain  the  centre  of  the  Ontario  live 
stock  in  winter  time  they  will  have  to 
get  out  in  the  open,  shake  themselves 
free  from  lean-tos  and  butcher  stalls 
and  put  up  a  building  worthy  of  the 
province  and  of  the  industry  they 

The  show  of  horses  was  perhaps  this 
year  better  than  anything  that  has  ever 

been  held  previously.  Clydesdales  and 
Shires  were  as  good  as  any  other.  New 
men  are  coming  into  the  lists.  The 
quality  of  the  horses  demonstrates  the 
force  of  these  live  stock  shows  in  de- 
veloping a  type.  The  people  have  been 
educated  to  see  a  Clydesdale  after  the 
style  of  Baron's  Pride  and  that  same 
beauty  of  form  and  intelligent  head  are 
to  be  seen  in  the  winners  in  almost 
every  class. 


The  show  of  sheep  this  year  excelled 
other  years  in  the  matter  of  quality. 
The  Dominion  Government  has  been 
making    an    effort    to    encourage    the 


sheep  industry  in  Canada  and  interest 
is  reviving  through  the  many  provinces 
in  this  regard.  The  only  undesirable 
thing  about  the  sheep  show  at  Guelph 
was  the  accommodation  and  prize 
monies.     There  both  were  inadequate. 

In  dairy  cattle  the  protest  against 
this  shelving  of  the  exhibits  has  taken 
a  definite  shape  and  the  dairymen  of 
Ontario  are  now  looking  towards  the 
formation  of  a  national  dairy  show 
likely  to  be  held  in  the  city  of  Toronto 
where  the  dairy  cow  will  receive  that 
attention  that  is  her  due.  This  is  like- 
ly to  take  place  despite  any  promises  on 
the  part  of  the  winter  fair  officials.  It 
is  recognized  by  all  that  a  fat  stock 
show  is  no  place  for  a  dairy  show. 

The  educational  features  of  the  win- 
ter fair  have  in  the  past  been  a  notable 
feature.  Former  Ministers  of  Agricul- 
ture giving  their  sanction  to  the  pro- 
vincial grants  for  the  exhibition  have 
looked  upon  this  feature  of  the  fair  as 
one  of  prime  importance.  Things  have 
changed  somewhat  this  year  and  it 
i?  noted  that  Ontario's  Minister  of 
Agriculture,  the  Hon.  James  Duff, 
has  not  taken  the  personal  interest 
in  the  affair  that  the  former  oc- 
cupants of  the  office  did.  In  speak- 
ing of  this  the  Weekly  Sun  says: 
"The  chief  cause  of  the  falling  off  in 
attendance  at  the  Lecture  Hall  is  found 
in  the  changes  which  have  taken  place 
in  the  office  of  Minister  of  Agriculture. 
Where  there  was  an  acknowledged 
leader  among  progressive  farmers  there 
is  now  a  politician." 

The  Maritime  Provinces  during  the 
last  five  years  have  been  gradually 
awakening  to  the  effect  of  a  real  live 
stock  in  their  midst  and  at  the  Mari- 
time winter  fair  are  presenting  one 
that  is  really  creditable  to  the  provinces 
by  the  sea.  The  farmers  there  are  be- 
ginning to  see  that  they  have  the  soil 
and  the  climate  for  live  stock  produc- 
tion and  that  if  they  can  get  a  proper 
spirit  infused  into  the  farmers  that  they 
will  assume  that  importance  in  the 
breeding  world  that  they  should. 
They  look  at  old  Scotland  with  her 
hills  and  dales  and  uninviting  moun- 

tains and  lake  scenery  as  evidence  of 
what  can  be  done  when  enthusiasm 
takes  hold  of  people,  in  the  matter  of 
raising  high-class  live  stock. 

The  Western  Provinces  of  Canada 
have  three  live  stock  shows  later  in  the 
winter.  The  reason  for  this  no  doubt 
largely  lies  in  the  fact  that  harvesting 
of  grain  occupies  the  major  portion  of 
attention  of  the  farmers  up  to  Christ- 
mas. Brandon  and  Regina  and  Cal- 
gary are  each  having  fat  stock  shows 
while  no  doubt  others  will  spring  up 
as  the  population  grows.  So  far  the 
Brandon  show  has  premier  place  and 
is  a  sort  of  clearing  house  for  Western 
ideas  in  the  month  of  March. 

The  people  of  Brandon  fully  realize 
the  benefits  to  be  derived  by  encourage- 
ment of  live  stock  raising.  The  erec- 
tion of  a  new  building  in  Brandon 
w^hich  will  be  ready  for  the  coming 
show  is  along  the  lines  of  the  big  ideas 
that  have  prevailed  with  the  manage- 
ment for  some  time.  Breeders  of 
Western  Canada  may  confidently  look 
to  much  better  accommodation  and  to 
a  record  attendance  during  the  coming 
fair.  It  is  said  that  Brandon's  show 
of  horses  is  second  to  none  in  America. 
The  Ottawa  live  stock  show,  which 
takes  place  in  the  Howick  Hall  during 
January,  is  also  coming  to  the  front  as 
a  high-class  show.  Situated  as  it  is 
with  its  back  to  the  Laurentian  rocks 
oT  the  north  and  in  a  valley  where  the 
dairy  industry  has  been  largely  pre- 
dominant, this  show  has  to  draw  upon 
Western  Ontario,  the  eastern  town- 
ships and  other  far  away  places  for  its 
main  supply  of  fat  stock.  It  will  be 
noted  this  year  that  the  encouragement 
and  demand  of  the  show  has  raised  the 
standard  of  the  local  breeders. 

A  private  enterprise  at  Toronto  in 
the  Union  Stock  Yards  there  has  for 
the  last  two  or  three  years  been  hold- 
ing a  small  fat  stock  show.  It  is  grow- 
ing in  importance  for  the  same  reason 
that  Chicago  grew.  The  big  stock 
yards  to  which  the  big  American  farm- 
ers have  been  gradually  drawn  have 
proved  of  immense  value  in  getting  a 
bunch  of  animals  for  show  purposes. 

The    splendid    f;>rm    buildings    of    T.    Banbury,    near    Ingersoll,    Ontario.      Note    the    thrifty 
appearance  of  everything,  the  cement  silo,  the  painted  barns,  good   fences  and  the 

milk  house. 


By  W.  J.  Brown,  B.S.A: 

Note. — After  all  the  farmers  of  our  country  suffer  a  great  deal  from 
isolation.  In  the  little  district  not  thirty  miles  from  Toronto  through 
which  two  transcontinental  railroads  are  now  being  built  there  is  as  fine 
opportunity  for  the  business  of  dairying  as  is  to  be  found  in  any  part  of 
the  country.  Yet  the  farmers  there  are  barely  making  a  living.  This  story 
of  South  Oxford  will  make  interesting  reading  to  all  the  young  men  on  the 
farm  who  believe  that  the  farm  has  to-day  as  great  opportunities  as  it  ever 
had.  The  principle  thing,  indeed,  is  enthusiasm  or  in  other  words,  faith. 
The  personnel  of  the  neighborhood  suffers  in  like  proportion  with  the  de- 
crease of  wealth.  Only  the  less  intelligent  will  remain  where  the  interest 
in  production  lags.  Go  over  Oxford  County  and  you  will  find  not  only  fine 
farmsteads,  well  tilled  farms  and  up-to-date  residences,  but  a  class  of 
farmers  of  which  any  Country  may  well  be  proud.  It  is  the  dairy  coW  that 
is  making  Oxford  rich.    Here  is  the  story. — Editor. 

SINCE  1864,  when  the  first  cheese  fac- 
tory in  Ontario  was  established  in  Ox- 
ford County  by  Mr.  Harvey  Farring- 
ton,  this  section  has  taken  a  keen  in- 
terest in  dairying.  The  southern  part 
of  the  county  ranks  high  to-day  among 
the  leading  dairy  districts  of  Canada. 
The  country  is  undulating  and  slopes 
gradually  toward  the  south.  The  scen- 
ery is  attractive,  chiefly  because  of  its 
commercial  aspects.  Natural  drainage 
is  excellent.  The  soil  is  for  the  most 
part  clay  loam.    Owing  to  the  presence 

of  an  abundance  of  gravel  and  the  en- 
terprise of  the  people,  the  roads  are 
wonderfully  good.  The  farm  homes, 
out-buildings,  fences,  etc.,  indicate  a 
thrifty  and  aggressive  and  a  prosperous 
community.  There  was  a  time  when 
South  Oxford  was  famous  for  its  Short- 
horns, its  beef  cattle,  its  sheep,  and  its 
swine;  but  to-day  its  specialty  is  dairy- 

The  cow  is  supreme.  It  is  for  her 
that  the  fields  are  cropped,  the  buildings 
and  silos  erected,  the  highways  improv- 



ed,  and  the  farm  help  employed.  She 
is  a  machine  that  works  twenty-four 
hours  in  the  day  for  seven  days  m  the 
week,  and  seldom  fails  to  pay  dividends. 
She  turns  hay  and  grain,  grass  and 
roughage,  silage  and  oil  cake  into  milk. 
The  quantity  and  the  quality  of  her 
produce  depend  on  her  feeding,  her 
breeding,  her  care,  and  her.  individu- 
ality. The  weigh  scale  and  Babcock 
test  reveal  the  fact  that  individuality  is 
the  chief  requisite  in  determining  a 
cow's  value.  Oxford  has  the  largest 
sum  of  money  invested  in  milch  cows 
of  any  county  in  Ontario.  The  aggre- 
gate value  is  about  $2,170,000.  The 
leading  breeds  are  Holstein-Friesian, 
Ayrshires  and  Shorthorns,  with  a  few 
Guernseys  and  Jerseys.  The  larger 
herds  consist  of  Holstein  and  Ayrshire 
grades.  There  are  many  Short-horn 
grades,  but  these  are  rapidly  giving 
place  to  the  special  dairy  breeds.  The 
Oxford  dairyman  has  only  one  stand- 
ard of  selection.    He  wants  the  cow  that 

^i  There  are  some  spots  of  pasture  land   in   old 
u  I  Ontario  that  are  almost  ideal. 

Twin   stave   silo   ou   a   farm   in   South   Oxford. 
This   building   is   equipped   with   wind   power. 

will  produce  the  largest  quantity  of 
milk  of  the  best  quality  for  the  food 

AN    OCEAN    OF    MILK. 

In  the  County  of  Oxford  there  are 
49  cheese  factories  using  nearly  116,- 
000,000  pounds  of  milk,  and  making 
more  than  10,000,000  pounds  of  cheese 
annually.  There  are  4  creameries  using 
1,209,000  pounds  of  milk  and  making 
293,000  pounds  of  butter  each  year. 
The  mxilk  condenser  at  Ingersoll  has  a 
capacity  of  150,000  pounds,  and  the 
condenser  at  Tillsonburg  a  capacity  of 
100,000  pounds  of  milk  per  diem.  The 
milk  powder  factory  at  Brownsville  has 
a  capacity  of  55,000  pounds  of  milk  a 
day.  All  three  of  these  institutions 
operate  at  their  full  capacity  for  the 
greater  part  of  each  season.  In  fact, 
the  milk  flow  in  the  vicinity  of  Browns- 
ville ifc  sufficient  during  the  summer 
months  to  supply  not  only  the  milk 
powder  factory,  but  a  cheese  factory  as 

It  is  doubtful  if  there  are  many  other 
districts  in  Canada  of  the  same  area 
which  are  devoting  more  attention  to, 
or  have  made  a  greater  success  of  dairy- 
ing than  Brownsville.  There  are,  of 
course,  many  individual  herds  through- 
out the  country  which  have  established 
a  reputation  for  breaking  records  in 
milk  production  by  single  cows,  but 
these  herds  do  not  necessarily  indicate 
the  standard  of  the  average  dairyman 
in  their  respective  sections.  The 
Brownsville  district  is,  however,  fam- 
ous for  the  number  and  producing  ca- 



pacity  of  the  cows  kept  on  each  and 
every  farm.  Nature  has  favored  the 
farmers  here,  as  there  is  practically  no 
waste  land,  while  all  the  farms  are  in 
a  high  state  of  cultivation.  Lines  may 
be  drawn  through  Brownsville  extend- 
ing north,  south,  east  and  west  for  two 
miles  or  more  in  each  direction  making 
the  radii  of  a  circle.  Within  the  area 
thus  described  the  farms  range  in  size 
from  50  acres  to  300  acres,  while  the 
dairy  herds  average  20  cows  to  100 
acres.  The  largest  herd  is  75  cows,  and 
30  young  cattle  on  300  acres,  owned  by 
Mr.  Spencer  Freeman,  of  Cullodeu.  The 
next  largest  is  50  cows  and  25  young 
cattle  on  200  acres  owned  by  Mr.  Isaac 
Holland.  The  herd  belonging  to  Mr. 
F.  J.  Brown,  consisting  of  40  cows  and 
20  young  cattle  on  200  acres,  may  be 
considered  the  standard  for  that  section. 

EACH  cow  RETURNS  $100  YEARLY. 

Mr.  Isaac  Holland  is  perhaps  the 
most  successful  dairy  farmer  in  South 
Oxford.  He  secures  the  largest  returns 
from  his  cows.  His  50  head  of  cows 
and  heifers  yield  him  $100  per  cow  per 
annum.  In  his  herd  are  30  pure  bred 
Holsteins,  and  among  them  are  several 
famous  producers.  Mr.  Holland's  farm 
is  one  of  the  most  perfectly  equipped  in 
Western  Ontario.  His  buildings  are 
modern  and  contain  everything  that 
convenience  and  comfort  demand,  not 
only  for  his  live  stock  but  for  his  fam- 
ilv  as  well. 

Midnight  Glen   DeKol,  five  years  old  with  tlie 
following  record:— In  1  days,  513.6  pounds 
of  milk;  in  7  days,  22.97  pounds  of  but- 
ter;   in    1    year,    18,492.    pounds    of 
milk;  in  1  year,  $252.52  at  Con- 

An   ordinary   pasture  scene  In   South   Oxford. 

He  began  his  cai'eer  about  thirty 
years  ago  as  a  chore  boy.  Later  he 
rented  the  James  Williams  homestead 
at  Culloden  and  there  laid  the  founda- 
tion for  his  fortune.  For  several  years 
he  made  a  specialty  of  raising  swine. 
During  the  time  that  the  bacon  indus- 
try was  on  the  up-grade  in  Canada  Mr. 
Holland  frequently  marketed  $4,000 
worth  of  hogs  annually.  He  now  owns 
a  splendid  farm  in  the  ninth  conces- 
sion of  Dereham  Township,  consisting 
of  200  acres  and  worth  easily  $28,000, 
while  his  herd  of  cows,  young  cattle, 
etc.,  would  net  him  at  an  ordinary  sale 
not  less  than  $7,000  more. 

He  practices  soiling  in  the  summer 
and  silo  feeding  in  winter.  Like  all 
the  other  farmers  of  the  Brownsville 
district  he  not  only  feeds  all  the  grain 
he  can  grow,  but  he  buys  many  oar- 
loads  of  bran,  shorts,  mill  feed,  oil- 
cake, cotton  seed  meal,  etc.  He  endeav- 
ors to  feed  each  cow  according  to  her 
ability  as  a  milk  producer. 

For  some  years  he  has  kept  a  record 
of  each  cow,  but  recently  having  in- 
stalled a  milking  machine  he  found  it 
inconvenient  to  keep  the  milk  of  each 
cow  separate  in  order  to  weigh  it  and 
record  the  amount.  The  milking  ma- 
chine is  very  useful  for  the  full  flow 
months  of  the  summer  season,  but  is 
not  so  successful  when  the  cows  are  be- 
ginning to  go  dry.  Mr.  Holland  em- 
ploys seven  milkers  for  his  herd.  The 
milking  machine  has  often  milked  40 
cows  while  the  force  of  milkers  were 
stripping  out  10.  This  shows  that  the 
machine  is  a  great  time-saver  at  cer- 



tain  seasons.  It  is,  however,  of  doubt- 
ful eonnnercial  value.  Mr.  Holland 
does  not  now  devote  any  attention  to 
keeping  bacon  hogs.  He  sells  his  milk 
to  the  milk  powder  factory.  His  cows 
are  not  kept  in  show  condition.  He 
tries  to  adhere  closely  to  nature's  re- 
quirements in  order  that  his  cows  may 
be  able  to  maintain  a  healthy  existence 
and  may  produce  the  maximum  quan- 
tity and  quality  of  milk  for  the  food 
consumed  and  care  given.  The  aver- 
age butter  fat  test  for  the  herd  for  the 
whole  of  last  season  was  3.7  per  cent. 


The  largest  individual  dairyman  in 
South  Oxford  is  Mr.  Spencer  Freeman. 
He  has  an  excellent  farm  at  CuUoden 
and  keeps  one  of  the  best  dairy  herds 
in  the  Province.  His  idea  about  dairy- 
ing is  that  ''it  is  not  what  the  cows  pro- 
duce, but,  do  they  pay  or  do  they  not?" 
His  herd  is  made  up  of  grades  of  var- 
ious kinds  including  Jerseys,  Guern- 
seys, Ayrshires,  Holsteins  and  Short- 
horns.  Each  cow  occupies  her  place  in 
his  stable  because  of  her  individual  ex- 
cellence as  a  producer  of  milk.  His 
cows  average  nearly  7,000  pounds  of 
milk  each  per  annum.  The  milk 
powder  factory  pays  an  average  of 
$1.23  per  cwt.  for  milk.  Mr.  Freeman's 
cows  yielding  7,000  pounds  of  milk 
bring  him  a  revenue  of  $86  each,  or 
$6,450  cash  for  the  milk  from  the 
whole  herd  each  year.  He  too,  made 
a  specialty  of  producing  bacon  hogs  for 
a  number  of  years,  and  has  one  of  the 
largest  piggeries  in  western  Ontario. 
This  building  is  now  standing  idle. 
His  contention  is  and  apparently  the 
other  farmers  of  South  Oxford  who  are 
sending  their  milk  to  the  milk  powder 
factory  or  to  the  condensers  agree  with 
him,  that  it  pays  better  to  devote  the 
whole  attention  of  the  management  to 
the  dairy  herd  and  that  the  extra  feed 
consumed  by  the  hogs  will  give  equal 
results  if  fed  to  the  cows.  Mr.  Free- 
man has  four  silos  on  his  farm,  three 
of  which  are  of  large  proportions.  No 
one  can  visit  his  place  without  being 
impressed  with  the  fact  that  he  is  a 

man  of  largo  ideas  and  best  of  all 
knows  how  to  put  his  plans  into  opera- 

Prices  for  dairy  cows  in  South  Ox- 
ford range  from  $47  upwards  accord- 
ing to  breeding  and  milking  capacity. 
During  the  past  few  months  a  large 
number  of  good  cows  have  been  ship- 
ped from  South  Oxford  to  the  north- 
west for  the  purpose  of  establishing  the 
dairy  industry  in  the  vicinity  of  Saska- 
toon, Edmonton,  Calgary,  Moosejaw, 
etc.  Mr.  E.  A.  Butler  has  shipped 
sixty-four  carloads  of  dairy  cows  from 
Ingersoll  during  the  autumn  of  1912. 
There  were  a  number  of  other  buyers 
carrying  on  this  business  in  similar 
proportions  until  many  of  the  farmers 
of  the  county  became  alarmed  regard- 
ing the  possible  depletion  of  the  dairy 
herds.  The  prices  therefore  stifiFened 
until  it  is  now"  exceedingly  difficult  to 
buy  a  good  dairy  cow  in  Oxford  at  her 
real  value. 


The  general  practice  is  a  short  rota- 
tion of  crops  and  thorough  tillage. 
The  standard  rotation  for  the  county 
is  corn  and  roots,  oats  or  oats  and  bar- 
ley, wheat,  clover.  All  the  manure 
w^hich  is  taken  direct  from  the  stables 
to  the  fields  in  the  winter  time  is  on 
most  farms  given  to  the  corn  crop. 


The  Oxford  county  farmer  still  ad- 
heres tenaciously  to  fall  wheat.  He 
likes  the  straW'  for  bedding  and  as  he 
has  good  wheat  land  he  thinks  that  it 
pays  him  to  grow  this  crop.  The  aver- 
age yield  per  acre  for  the  whole  county 
is  about  29  bushels,  but  in  the  better 
sections  of  South  Oxford  it  runs  to  34 
bushels.  On  one  farm  near  Culloden 
a  field  of  wheat  was  growm  in  1911-12 
which  yielded  54  bushels  per  acre. 
This  farm  was  formerly  owmed  by  Mr. 
R.  T.  Williams,  and  the  field  of  wheat 
was  protected  by  large  and  dense  woods. 
.  Owing  to  the  increase  in  the  number 
of  silos  fodder  corn  is  becoming  more 
largely  grown  from  year  to  year.  It  is 
the  main  source  of  supply  for  food  for 
the  dairy  herd.    Every  farm  h<as  a  silo 



The  milk  coudensery  at  lugersoll,  Ontario.     The  milk  received  iu  1912  was  30,000,000  pounds. 

The  amount  paid  the  farmers  for  this  milk  was  $350,000.     There  are  three  condenseries 

in  the  County  and  they  have  just  made  a  contract  with  the  farmers  for  $1.65  a  can 

for   the   milk   delivered   at   their   factories.     The     one     at   Tillsonburg   brought 

20,000,000    pounds    and   at    Brownsville,    12,500,000    pounds    this    year. 

and  it  has  become  difficult  to  get  them 
filled  in  the  short  season  available  for 
this  purpose  during  the  fall.  On  one 
thresher's  beat  in  South  Oxford  there 
were  ninety  silos  to  be  filled  in  Septem- 
ber, 1912.  Each  year  the  silos  erected 
are  more  substantial  and  more  costly 
and  are  larger  in  size. 

There  are  a  few  silos  made  of  cement 
..;|^pcfe  and  a  large  number    made    of 
i^!=;oli(l  'cement — the   monolithic   type — 
bTrt  the  well-constructed  wooden  silo  on 
a    cement    foundation    is    the    favorite 
with    the    majority  of  the  progressive 
'farmers  of  the  community.    The  inside 
'(Jf  the  monolithic  silo  seems   to  scale 
because  of  the  action  of  the  acids  de- 
veloped during  the  making  of  the  en- 
I.  silage. .    To  overcome  this  tendency  a 
"ctoent  plaster  is  now  used  consisting 
;X)i  one  part  cement,  one  part  of  asbestos 
'^lOXir^  mixed  with  the  usual  proportion 
of  plaster  sand.    It  is  claimed  that  this 
preparation  can  be  made  as  smooth  as 

glass  and  is  impervious  to  water  and 
resists  the  action  of  acid.  The  mono- 
lithic silos  that  have  been  erected  for 
a  few  years  seem  to  need  strengthening 
by  the  use  of  hoop  iron  on  the  outsidfe. 

From  a  distance  these  silos  appear 
like  wooden  silos  because  of  the  num- 
ber of  hoops.  The  wooden  silos  are 
usually  made  of  good  lumber  and  are 
thoroughly  painted  before  they  are 
erected.  It  is  generally  agreed  that 
they  do  not  freeze  as  readily  as  the 
cement  silos  and  less  ensilage  is  spoil- 
ed, but  they  require  to  be  anchored 
either  by  rods  or  guy  wires  to  the  foun- 
dation or  nearby  buildings,  in  order  to 
prevent  them  from  blowing  over  while 
they  are  empty. 

As  South  Oxford  is  very  largely  de- 
nuded of  Its  tree  growth  the  wind  at 
certain  seasons  of  the  year  is  a  factor 
that  must  be  taken  into  account.  .Most 
farmers  practise  soiling  more  or  less. 
The  crops  used  are  rye,  clover,  peas  and 



oats,  and  corn.  Every  effort  is  made 
to  keep  the  cows  in  full  flow  of  milk 
throughout  the  season ;  grass  alone  can- 
not be  depended  upon  to  do  this.  The 
cows  not  only  need  to  be  fed  to  their 
capacity  and  must  have  abundance  of 
water,  but  they  require  to  be  protected 
from  the  flies.  On  many  farms  during 
the  dry  portions  of  each  season  the  food 
obtained  in  the  pasture  fields  is  supple- 
mented by  ensilage,  bran,  oat  chop, 
etc.,  fed  morning  and  evening  in  the 


The  average  100-acre  farm  in  South 
Oxford  is  worth  e$10,000.  The  build- 
ings average  in  value  about  $4,000  for 
each  100-acre  farm.  Each  dairy  farm- 
er keeps  about  twenty  cows  and  these 
yield  to  him  about  $1,600  a  year  in 
cash.  There  is  a  marked  tendency  to- 
ward herd  improvement.  The  poor 
cows  are  being  weeded  out  and  more 
intelligent  methods  are  being  employed 
in  selection,  feeding  and  care  of  the 
cows,  as  well  as  in  handling  the  pro- 
duct. Practically  every  farm  now  has 
a  special  building  in  which  the  dairy 
utensils  are  kept,  and  the  milk  cooled 
before  it  is  sent  to  the  factory.  The 
labor  problem  is  one  of    the    severest 

handicaps  in  developing  the  dairy  in- 
dustry, but  the  farmers  who  employ 
their  men  throughout  the  year  find  less 
difficulty  than  those  who  depend  on 
getting  labor  for  only  a  portion  of  the 

Married  men  with  families  receive 
about  $400  a  year  wages  including  a 
cottage  rent  free,  a  garden,  fire  wood, 
and  a  supply  of  milk  daily.  The  wage 
bill  on  a  200-acre  farm  is  about  $1,000 
per  annum. 

The  statement  has  been  made  that 
the  dairy  cow  has  made  the  farmers  of 
South  Oxford  wealthy.  A  close  study 
of  the  conditions  that  prevail  in  Dere- 
ham and  Norwich  abundantly  confirm 
this  view.  Almost  every  farm  has  good 
buildings,  complete  and  excellent  equip- 
ment, and  has  about  it  the  atmosphere 
of  contentment  and  prosperity.  The 
village  schools  and  churches  also  indi- 
cate the  progressive  spirit  of  the  com- 
munity. The  people  apparently  enjoy 
all  the  good  things  of  life  and  are  not 
content  with  merely  the  necessities  of 
rural  existence.  While  the  competition 
among  the  dairy  farmers  is  keen  and 
each  man  is  striving  to  make  a  record 
for  himself,  yet  the  public  spirit  and 
community  interests  are  neither  for- 
gotten nor  neglected. 

The  thrifty  farm  buildings  of  John  Starliey,  near  Aylmer,  Ontario.     Note  the  use  of  wind 
power  and  the  splendid  residence.    Such  farmsteads  as  this  are  common  through- 
out the  whole  County  of  Oxford. 

On  a  small  lake  near  Wiuterburn,  Alta.     The    farm  house  is  nearby  and  is  delightfully  set 

among  the  trees  on   its   bank. 


By   Alberta    Kepper 

Note. — A  great  deal  has  been  said  of  late  on  the  subject  of  Eugenics. 
Prof.  Atkinson,  of  Montana,  read  a  paper  on  the  subject  at  the  recent  Leth- 
bridge  conference.  An  interview  with  Dr.  English  of  the  Hamilton  Asylum 
has  confirmed  in  us  the  great  necessity  there  is  for  intelligent  work  along 
this  line.  No  doubt  a  similar  state  of  affairs  will  be  revealed  by  the  head 
of  every  public  institution.  We  want  no  further  additions  to  the  criminal 
classes,  and  an  intelligent  regulation  of  the  laws  governing  matrimony  will 
do  much  to  bring  about  desired  ends.  The  healthy  farm  family  is  to-day 
the  greatest  source  of  the  world's  supply  of  good  men  and  women.  This 
article  was  written  especially  for  Farmer's  Magazine  by  Mrs.  Kepper  and 
will, be  found  worth  re-reading. 

IT  has  long  been  a  matter  of  grave  con- 
cern, this  trouping  of  our  young  men 
cityward,  and  the  questions  would  re- 
cur "What  is  it  the  country  lacks  that 
the  boys  are  impatient  under  the  roof- 
tree?     Would  it  always  be  the  same?^' 

It  wasn't  a  comforting  thought  thai 
when  the  years  have  mostly  come  and 
gone,  and  we  need  the  strong  right 
arms  of  those  we  love,  that  they  will  all 
be  somewhere,  far  away,  absorbed  in 
a  diflerent  life,  forgetful  of  the  old 
home  and  but  half  mindful  of  the  par- 

A  study  of  the  Smiths  and  their  drift- 

ing offspring,  though  a  composite  pic- 
ture, reveals  the  cause  of  the  unrest. 
The  homesteads  are  not  homelike; 
there  is  a  barrenness  of  gentler  things; 
there  is  heart  hunger.  The  fields  were 
fairly  cultivated,  for  these  gave  money 
returns ;  sleek  kine  were  finished  on  the 
corn  and  these  herds  were  ever  a  source 
of  pride  to  the  owner.  But  gates  hung 
by  a  single  hinge;  the  dooryard  was 
without  grass;  chickens  tracked  about 
the  steps;  there  were  rag-filled  windows; 
the  mother  appeared  fifteen  years  older 
than  the  family  Bible  declared  her  to 
he.     She  walked  to  town,  carrying  her 




"Grandfather  gave  us  each  a  wee  ewe  lamb." 

produce,  then  walked  home;  this  bent, 
tired,  dust-grimed  mother  that  no  am- 
bitious boy  can  look  upon  and  not  grow 
resentful  towards  the  life  that  made  this 

New  clothes  were  events  in  the  lives 
of  the  Smith  boys,  and  the  few  allow- 
ed them  were  always  far  too  big  in  the 
beginning,  but  were  worn  for  best  until 
their  limbs  came  through  so  far  they 
looked  like  new  born  colts.  Mother 
cut  their  hair;  which  did  not  resemble 
the  real  barber's  work,  but  father  did 
not  believe  in  spending  mr^ney  reck- 
lessly, and  "it  didn't  matter  anyway 
how  a  boy  looks.  It  is  what  he  is  that 
counts,"  they  told  themselves.  Poor, 
deluded  Smiths.  If  someone  had  only 
whispered  to  them  that  somehow  boys 
are  thought  to  be  just  as  they  look, 
they  would  have  been  saved  many  a 

The  bottle-fed  lambs  and  pigs  'vere 
taken  by  the  father  as  soon  as  they  no 
longer  required  special  care.  lie  tried 
to  make  peace  with  his  sons  and  hi* 
conscience  by  saying,  ''Everything  will 
be  yours  sometime — ^^when  I  am  gone." 
There  was  to  be  a  gala  day  ahead !  but 
it  seemer  so  far  in  the  future  that  the 
sons,  one  by  one,  as  they  attained  their 
majority  entered  the  trades  or  profes- 
sions, and,  without  appreciating  the 
tragedy  that  drove  them  there,  the  old 

folks  were  alone  with  their  hoardings. 

True,  not  every  boy  born  upon  the 
farm  is  fitted  by  inclination  to  follow 
the  furrows  of  his  ancestors,  and  it  is 
just  that  every  human  being  choose  his 
life  work — but,  by  our  short-sighted- 
ness, we  can  make  any  avenue  so  re- 
pulsive that  none  cares  to  travel  it.  The 
good  and  the  beautiful  that  rightfully 
belong  to  it  are  obscured. 

Parents  must  not  value  their  boys  as 
80  much  power  for  wealth  production 
alone.  They  are  something  higher 
than  the  horse  or  the  gasoline  engine. 
They  have  minds  that,  rightly  directed, 
Vv'ill  place  them  as  executors,  not  mere 
drudges,  in  farm  work  as  well  as  in  any 

Whether  or  not  any  circumstances 
turned  the  Smith  boys  away  from  the 
farm  may  be  a  question ;  but  it  did  not 
hold  them  to  it.  Another  plan  must  be 

The  home  was  neither  fine  nor  mod- 
ern. The  income  must  be  saved  close- 
ly ;  for  on  a  farm  the  taxes,  interest,  up- 
keep, etc.,  must  ever  be  placed  before 
anything  that  may  be  termed  a  luxury. 
But  in  front  of  it  all  was  the  resolve 
that  my  boys  in  their  childhood  should 
have  the  same  measure  of  joy  as  a  moth- 
er in  like  financial  circumstances  could 
give  them,  if  the  father  had  chosen  an- 
other calling.  Their  home  must  be  as 
good;  the  lawn  well  kept  and  the  trees 
set  so  as  to  add  beauty.  There  must  be 
flowers  in  and  about  the  house. 

It  was  easier  planning  than  doing: 
but  first  the  yard  was  brought  to  a  fine 
grade  and  the  blue  grass  carpeted  it 
thickly.  Then  a  lawn  mower  was  pro- 
cured and  each  time  the  grass  was 
mown  the  elder  son  was  paid  25  cents. 

It  is  not  our  custom  to  pay  the  child- 
ren for  regular  work;  they  must  be 
taught  to  bear  their  share  of  the  burd- 
ens of  civilization,  though  disagreeable 
ciud  unusual  labor  was  always  reward- 
ed. Such  chores  as  cleaning  the  hen 
house  are  not  half  so  disagreeable  if 
there  is  a  piece  of  money  awaiting  the 
worker  when  he  has  finished.  After  a 
few  seasons  of  mowing  for  pay,  the 
sons^  pride  was  aroused  and  they  would 
not  permit  an  unkept  lawn. 



They  encourage  the  birds  to  live  near 
us.  We  have  a  regular  mooning  song 
service  from  the  day  the  first  robin,  with 
his  "cheer  up/'  brings  news  of  the  end 
of  winter  till  the  black  birds  meet  and 
chatter  wildly  about  going  South,  and 
still  we  have  happy  and  contented 
neighbors  throughout  the  winter  for 
the  "cardinal"  and  the  "blue  jay'^  are 
year  'round  dwellers  in  the  pines. 

It  is  one  of  my  convictions  that  the 
birds  pay  higher  for  the  fruit  they 
take  than  any  customer  we  might  find, 
and  our  children  were  taught  to  love 
them  and  leave  them  free  to  go  over 
the  lawn,  gathering  worms  or  work  on 
tree  trunks,  or  on,  the  wing,  as  do  the 
martins,  in  search  of  moths. 

I  heard  a  mother  say  to  her  boy  who 
had  been  all  the  afternoon  trying  to 
kill  song  birds,  "hurry  home,  dear,  and 
say  your  prayers.  Now  don't  forget  it, 
because  I  am  away."  To  me  it  seemed 
prayers  could  never  rise  on  the  wings 
of  dead  birds. 

Long  journeys  we  made  for  flowers. 
They  thought  my  fondness  for  them 
alone  called  me  out,  but  to  me  it  seem- 
ed if  I  could  only  fill  those  first  rest- 
less and  impressionable  years  wdth  in- 
nocent occupations,  desirable  traits 
would  be  fixed. 

Grandfather  gave  each  a  wee  ewe 
lamb.  The  income  has  always  been 
their  own.  In  tending  their  small 
flocks  they  grew  fond  of  farm  animals 
and  were  getting  valuable  lessons  in 
thrift  and  management. 

When  a  young  man  is  fond  of  birds 
and  flowers  and  animals — when  he  de- 
lights in  the  wonders  and  beauty  of 
earth  and  sky,  there  is  a  strong  tie 
binding  him  to  country  life. 

A  wise  housewife  once  said,  "If  I 
must  have  cohtvehs,  let  them  he  in  my 
house  rather  than  in  my  brain,  or  in 
the  brains  of  m,y  children."  Appre- 
ciating this,  our  boys  always  had  access 
to  the  best  reading  matter.  Early  in 
life  they  were  taught  pleasant  rhjrmes 
and  jingles  that  have  to  do  with  coun- 
try life  and  pleasures. 

Not  being;  of  musical  turn,  but  lov- 
ing it,    a    high-class    talking  machine 

Mrs.  Alberta  Kepper     of     Winfleld  Iowa, 
writer  of  this  article. 


with  more  than  150  records  was  placed 
in  the  house.  On  rainy  days  this  is 
busy  for  hours.  I  hear  some  one  say 
"how  tiresome  I"  It  is,  at  time,  wear- 
ing; but  mothers,  if  we  are  not  willing 
to  put  a  little  self-sacrifice  into  the  lives 
of  those  we  love  we  are  the  losers;  for 
the  world  returns  just  what  we  put  in- 
to it.  And  if  my  boy  is  permitted  to 
loaf  in  town  during  rainy  weather,  bad 
influences  may  get  the  better  of  his 
judgment:  and  I  have  found  that  the 
contented  boy  is  the  busy  one.  It  is  the 
parent's  duty  to  keep  the  children 
pleasantly  employed  at  work  or  play 
while  the  character  is  still  plastic.  A 
neighbor  asked  me  how  we  manage  to 
keep  the  boys  out  of  town,  when  it  is 
but  half  a  mile  away,  and  they  had  al- 
ways attended  school  there.  We  answ- 
ered: "they  were  never  forbidden,  as 
that  would  spur  the  desire,  we  just  al- 
lowed them  to  be  busy  at  home." 

It  is  very  trying  when  children  insist 
on  popping  corn  or  making  candy 
when  they  cannot  be  out  of  doors,  nor 
is  it  restful  to  play  games  all  the  even- 
ing after  a  hard  day's  work;  but  no 
gambler  ever  plays  for  higher  stakes 
than  the  mother  that  takes  a  hand  in 
innocent  games  for  her  boy's  sake,  hop- 
ing, by  so  doing,  to  beat  the  streets  and 
alleys  out  of  their  prey. 



Just  now  the  farm   boy  delights  in  a  day  off 
with  his  gun  when  the  rabbit  tracks  are  fresh. 

This  i-  just  as  it  was  all  through 
their  childhood ;  and  now  that  they  are 
men  iind  still  interested  and  happy  in 
country   jil'e,  1  feel  repaid. 

They  plan  crop  rotations,  are  enthus- 
ed breeders  and  feeders  of  live  stock, 
and  put  their  strong  young  shoulders 
lo  the  wheel  and  together  push  for  bet- 
ter farmir?;  yet  they  appreciate  the 
cultural  -i'lo  of  life  though  loving  na- 
ture more,  bat  the  self  respect  incul- 
cated all  tli  rough  their  childhood  causes 
them  to  ft'cl  they  are  the  equals  of 
their  schoolmates  that  are  taking  up 
law,  banking  or  medicine. 

I  like  to  recMll  the  Quaker  mother^s 
advice  to  her  son  that  was  about  to  go 
out  in  the  world :  '^Remember,  my  hoy, 
thee  is  as  good  as  anybody;  remember, 
also,  thee  is  no  better/' 

Never  by  word,  or  act  allov)  the  boy  to 
think  the  farm,  tvill  drag  him  doivn. 
We  must  dignify  our  own  profession 
and  yield  not  a  jot  in  self  respect  to  any- 
one, if  we  ivoidd  see  our  sons  take  up 
their  life  work  in  the  very  heart  of 
things,  and  there  in  delight  practice 
the  ancient  and  honorable  art — agri- 


I  teach 
The   earth   and  soil 
To  them  that  toil, 
The  hill  and  fen 
To  common  men 
That  live  just  here ; 

By  L.  H.  Bailey. 

The  plants  that  grow, 
The  winds  that  blow, 
The  streams  that  run 
In  rain  and  sun 

Throughout  the  year 

And  then  I  lead 
Thro'  wood  and  mead. 
Through  mould  and  sod 
Out  unto  God; 

With  love  and  cheer 
I  teach ! 

r'  -\ar    i  li    ;  ■     \-^ 


By   Dorothy  Dot 

Note. — This  is  a  new  department.  Dorothy  Dot  in  her  spare  moments 
has  been  writing  her  diary.  So  far  she  has  produced  something  really  good 
and  as  you  sit  in  a  sunny  window  on  the  winter's  afternoon  you  will  enjoy 
the  reveries  that  appear.  Further  from  her  pen  will  appear  in  the  February 
Number. — Editor. 

OCTOBER  20.— The  Housekeeper  is 
one  only  in  the  sense  that  a  man  is  a 
housekeeper.  She  earns  the  where- 
withal, and  in  emergencies  she  ''turns 
in"  and  helps.  She  wasn't  born  with 
an  inordinate  love  for  housekeeping. 
No  woman  should  be.  She  should  love 
mind-keeping  and  body-keeping  first, 
housekeeping  next.  The  Housekeeper 
believes  in  having  a  book  or  a  maga- 
zine on  hand  to  pick  up  for  a  few  min- 
utes every  day — not  when  there  is  a 
lemon  pie  browning  in  the  oven  and 
not  when  it  is  time  to  put  the  dinner 
on,  but  some  set  few  minutes  some 
time.  An  active  woman  is  apt  to  fall 
asleep  if  she  sits  down  to  read,  there- 
fore she  should  read  something  suf- 
ficiently short,  such  as  a  magazine 
would  afford  her,  or  a  book  interesting 
enough  to  keep  her  awake.  The  House- 
keeper has  just  finished  ^'Elizabeth  and 
Her  German  Garden,"  and  liked  it — 
even  the  cynicism — but  wished  there 
had   been   more   of  the   garden.      She 

quite  agrees  with  the  sentiments  regard- 
ing too  much  housekeeping.  'Tf  my 
furniture  ever  annoyed  me  by  wanting 
to  be  dusted  when  I  wanted  to  be  doing 
something  else,  and  there  was  no  one 
else  to  do  the  dusting  for  me,  I  should 
cast  it  all  into  the  nearest  bon-fire  and 
sit  and  warm  my  toes  at  the  flames  with 
great  contentment."  The  Housekeeper 
to-day  voiced  her  opinion  that  every 
woman  on  a  farm  should  read  some- 
thing comical,  or  at  least  cheerful, 
every  day  if  it  is  only  a  joke  from  the 
newspaper.  The  trouble  is  there  are  so 
few  jokes  in  the  newspaper.  This  opin- 
ion was  received  with  scorn  by  the  com- 
pany. When  people  reach  maturity 
they  should  put  away  childish  things. 
A  grown  woman  can  work  without 
such  foolish  aids.  Have  you  ever  no- 
ticed that  the  people  who  have  put 
away  such  childish  things  as  fun,  so- 
ciability and  love  of  change,  have  not 
also  put  away  such  childish  things  as 
anger,  irritability,  malice  and  clamor? 




OCTOBER  22.— A  day  in  the  house  I 
It  rains  and  the  wind  is  never  weary ! 
What  a  comfort  it  is  to  be  able  to  stay 
a  whole  day  in  the  house!  That  is,  to 
those  whose  vocation  drives  them  out 
every  day !  A  day  which  drives  one  in 
is  a  treat.  The  Housekeeper's  last 
duties  for  the  day  were,  locking  the 
door,  winding  the  clock,  and,  as  she  has 
an  eye  to  economy  in  morning  duties, 
she  made  the  porridge  in  the  rice  boiler 
that  it  might  be  hastily  prepared  for 
breakfast,  though  not  for  hers.  The 
kindling  wood  and  the  coal  were  placed 
in  readiness  to  light  the  range. 

When  she  reached  her  room  she 
glanced  out  to  see  what  of  the  night, 
finding  it  clear  and  cold.  Out  of  the 
west  window  could  be  seen  the  Spin- 
ning Maiden,  Vega,  glittering  in  the 
black-blue  sky,  and  Hercules  plunging 
into  the  western  abyss  in  a  most  undig- 
nified manner,  head  first  and  legs 
sprawling.  At  the  south  window  she 
was  greeted  by  Fomalhaut  (Fo  malo) 
The  Lonely,  the  only  bright  star 
straight  south  this  month.  She  put  a 
wedge  between  the  upper  and  lower 
sashes  of  the  window  to  prevent  its  rat- 
tling when  open,  then  jotted  these  few 
notes  in  her  journal.  Now  she  is  ready 
to  fall  like  a  log,  thanking  heaven  she 
is  tired  enough  to  sleep. 

OCTOBER  28.— The  Housekeeper 
had  the  extreme  pleasure  of  cleaning 
the  dining-room.  A  spark  of  love  for 
housekeeping  which  she  thought  she 
had  not  inherited  flared  up  and  some 
dried-up  fragments  of  fuel  blazed  a  lit- 
tle as  she  dusted  the  walls  and  ceiling 
and  cleaned  the  windows.  She  even 
had  a  friendly  feeling  to  the  leaded 
panes  of  the  little  window  as  she  rub- 
bed them  though  they  are  so  good  for 
developing  patience.  The  Housekeep- 
er is  not  fond  of  the  process  of  having 
patience  developed  in  her.  Now,  the 
clean  curtains  are  up,  the  pictures  are 
hung  and  everything  back  in  its  place. 
She  is  reminded  of  Longfellow's  Black- 
'^Something    accomplished,    something 

Has  earned  a  night's  repose." 

NOVEMBER  l.--Nearly  every  day 
Little  Boy  Brown  is  brought  in  for  a 
few  hours  after  his  nap.  Little  Boy 
Brown  is  just  learning  to  eat.  Some- 
times the  Housekeeper  is  reminded  of 
the  infant  the  Khan  spoke  of  last  sum- 
mer. It  took  the  mother,  the  grand- 
mother, the  auntie,  the  hired  girl  and 
the  'ome  boy  to  feed  that  one  child. 
Little  Boy  Brown  can  amuse  himself 
for  hours  with  saucepans  and  lids.  The 
only  counter-attraction  is  an  open  door, 
preferably  pantry  or  cellar.  Or  some- 
times when  Little  Boy  Blue  gets  an 
elevator  shaft  built  of  blocks  and  is 
shouting  ''Millinery,  mantles,  boots 
and  shoes !"  along  comes  Little  Boy 
Brown  racing  on  all  fours  and  hurling 
himself  upon  it  laughs  as  none  but  Lit- 
tle Boy  Brown  can  laugh  at  the  smash- 

When  the  Housekeeper  thinks  of 
things  to  do,  she  likes  to  be  up  and 
doing.  A  psychologist  would  call  this  a 
vicious  tendency.  The  Housekeeper 
sometimes  suffers  for  it  but  remains  as 
vicious  as  ever.  Her  grievance  just  now 
is  a  combination  stain  and  varnish. 
Wanting  to  have  the  floor  done  quickly 
she  applied  this  alluring  mixture.  Nas- 
ty, sticky  stuff!  She  has  learned  to  pre- 
fer slow  processes,  stain  first  and  varnish 

NOVEMBER  12.— What  sort  of  a  re- 
cipe-book have  you  got?  The  House- 
keeper finds  the  most  convenient  to  be 
a  hard-backed  reporter's  note-book.  It 
can  be  thrown  open  on  the  table  and 
remain  open.  She  has  it  indexed  down 
the  right  side  like  a  dictionary  for  easy 
reference.  About  a  dozen  pages  each 
are  devoted  to  cakes,  candies,  pies,  pud- 
dings, pickles,  preserves,  sauces,  salads 
and  the  rest.  A  bit  of  transparent  ad- 
hesive tape  pasted  on  each  name  will 
prevent  them  becoming  worn  with  the 
thumb  when  the  cook  is  finding  her 
recipe.  Some  people,  of  course,  are 
clever  enough  to  cook  without  taking 
out  the  recipe-book.  That's  the  first 
thing  the  Housekeeper  puts  on  the  table 
when  she  begins  to  bake.  There  are  far 
pleasanter  things  than  recipes  whereby 



she  can  exeivLse  lier  iinuscle  of  remeiu- 
bering.  In  the  front  of  her  book  she 
has  a  Valentine  post-card  which  was 
sent  her  once.    It  bears  the  lines : — 

''Oh,   queen   of  cooks,   your  comely 

And  dishes,  how  they  stir  me !" 
It  was  sent  her  by  a  woman,  not  by  a 
man.    She  also  has  this  written  on  the 
first  page: — 

''Look  so  neat  and  sweet  in  all  yer 

frills  and  fancy  pleatin' ! 
Better  shet  yer  kitchen,  though,  afore 

ye  go  to  meetin'. 
Better  hide  yer  mince-meat  an'  stew- 
ed fruit  an'  plums; 
Better  hide  yer  pound-cake  an'  bresh 

away  the  crumbs ; 
Better  hide  yer  cupboard  key  when 

Billy  Goodin'  comes 
A-eatin',  an'  a-eatin',  and'  a-eatin'." 

—J.  W.  Riley. 
Why  not  decorate  your  recipe-book 
with  pictures  and  verses  and  jokes?    It 
will  make  your  baking  hours  go  more 

Cranberry-pie  time  has  come.     You 
can  make  your  cranberry-pie  taste  like 
cherry-pie  if  you  make  it  this  way. 
For  one  pie: 
1  c.  cranberries,  cut  and  seeds  wash- 
ed out ; 
%  c.  seeded  raisins  chopped; 
1  tablespoon  flour,  %  c.  boiling  wa- 
ter, make  sauce; 
1  c.  sugar; 
1  teaspoon  vanilla. 

After  lining  a  large  pie-plate,  fill  the 
plate  with  the  above,  cover  and  bake. 

NOVEMBER  19.— How  the  days  fly! 
Old  Father  Time  is  such  a  hustler  for 
his  age!  He  does  not  give  us  a  chance 
to  draw^  proper  hygienic  breaths. 
When  the  Housekeeper  wishes  to  do 
some  writing  she  has  to  seize  him  by 
the  forelock  with  her  left  hand  and 
hold  on  with  might  and  main  while 
she  does  some  ' 'scarfing"  with  her  right. 

The  Ontario  Horticultural  Show  is 
just  over.  The  main  attraction  was 
apples.  The  old  countries  of  Durham 
and  Northumberland  had  a  grand  ex- 
hibit.    There  was  a  steamship  built  of 

apples,  Kings,  Alexanders,  Baldwins, 
with  railings  of  little  red  crabs  and 
smoke-stacks  of  Greenings.  Lambton 
county  had  its  map  in  apples.  Lake 
Huron  in  Greenings  and  the  county  in 
Spys.  The  Housekeeper  is  always  in- 
terested in  the  Ribston  Pippin.  She 
once  read  a  description  of  it  in  The 
Globe,  which  she  seized  as  eagerly  as 
the  writer  of  it  did  the  apple. — "A  grey- 
ish apple,  russet  about  the  stem  and 
top,  streaked  with  red  and  yellow  like 
an  aged  cheek,  medium  in  size,  unpre- 
possessing, a  fruit  to  be  indifferently 
passed  over  in  the  company  of  highly 
colored  Wealthy  and  Alexander,  unless 
the  buyer  is  a  connoisseur.  In  that 
case  he  will  choose  without  hesitation. 
'Thou  when  thou  makest  a  feast  if  it  be 
of  Rihstons,  eat  it  thyself!'  The  flesh 
is  short — short  as  shortbread,  neither 
crisp  nor  juicy.  The  flavor  is  a  mix- 
ture of  Golden  Russet  and  Bartlett 
pear.  But  conceive  of  the  goldenest  of 
Russets  and  a  Bartlett  pear  just  turned 
ripe,  skilfully  compounded,  and  it  falls 
short  of  that  orchard  joy — quick,  thy 
tablets,  Memory!     Ribston  Pippin." 

NOVEMBER  29.— 10  p.m.  Sirius 
is  rising.  How  very  far  south  he  is! 
And  what  a  sun!  Will  he  find  the 
Housekeeper  performing  her  round  of 
winter  work  as  beamingly?  She  has 
not  begun  it  so.  Keep  yersel'  in  mind 
o'  Sirius  this  winter,  Housekeeper.  Ye 
need  it,  ye  ken !  How  many  people 
have  thought  of  making  friends  with 
the  stars.  They  are  never  in  the  way. 
They  are  never  offended  if  they  are  for- 
gotten, and  when  they  are  wanted, 
there  they  are.  They  never  disapprove 
of  what  is  done  and  want  it  done  dif- 
ferently. They  are  never  disappoint- 
ing. All  other  signs  may  fail  but  the 
stars  are  true.  What  has  this  to  do 
with  housekeeping?  Nothing.  But  it 
has  much  to  do  with  the  Housekeeper. 
What  countless  generations  of  people 
have  the  stars  seen  living  their  little 
lives  and  disappearing!  "Keep  placid," 
they  say.     "Everything  comes  to  pass." 

(Continued  in  February  issue) 


The  Twentieth    Century    Farnier's 


By  J.  Muldrew 

Note. — A  sensible  talk,  on  a  sensible  subject,  by  a  sensible  woman,  will 
be  the  verdict  of  everyone  who  takes  the  time  to  thoroughly  digest  this 
article.  Mrs.  Muldrew  is  the  Principal  of  the  new  Ladies'  College  at  Eed 
Deer,  Alberta,  and  has  written  this  especially  for  Farmer's  Magazine. 
Her  address  at  Lethbridge  was  one  of  the  cleverest  things  given  at  the 
Woman 's  Congress,  and  the  manner  that  she  carried  with  it  marks  her  for 
a  splendid  work  among  the  girls  who  shall  attend  the  Eed  Deer  Ladies' 
College.  You  do  not  have  to  read  this  very  far,  to  see  that  she  knows  farm 
life  conditions  and  can  size  them  up  admirably. — Editor. 

THE  twentieth  century  farmer's  wife  is  a  new  kind  of  farmer's 
wife,  just  as  the  twentieth  century  farmer  is  a  new  kind  of  farmer. 
He  does  not  use  a  sickle  any  more,  or  bind  by  hand,  or  hoe 
potatoes  in  large  quantities  with  a  hand  hoe,  or  spray  by  hand,  or 
pitch  hay,  or  thresh  with  a  flail  on  the  barn  floor,  or  draw  water 
for  the  cattle  with  a  well-hook,  or  do  any  other  kind  of  antiquated 
farming.  No,  it  is  safe  to  say  he  is  up-to-date  in  every  respect. 
He  reads  agTicultural  journals,  understands  rotation  of  crops,  he 
has  learned  the  value  of  mixed  farming,  of  the  dairy  industry 
for  the  keeping  up  of  the  land,  he  knows  the  value  of  a  clover 
crop  and  has  learned  to  use  all  modern  machinery.  He  also 
knows  the  value  of  experimental  institutions.  He  will  tell  you 
they  save  him  the  cost  of  experimenting,  and  allow  him  to  profit 
from  the  results  they  have  obtained.  He  knows  the  value  of 
co-operation,  and  how^  to  build  an  excellent  barn.  He  knows  a 
heap  that  our  splendid  pioneers  did  not  know,  in  fact  there  is  no 
more  interesting  person  to  meet  and  to  converse  with  than  an  up- 
to-date  farmer. 

He  has  been  awake  a  long  time,  but  his  good  wife  has  been 
slower  to  awaken.  Nevertheless,  she  is  awakening  fast,  and  the 
twentieth  century  farmer  is  going  to  work  hard  if  he  manages  to 
keep  ahead  once  she  gets  up  speed  in  the  race  towards  improve- 
ment in  the  home. 

This  is  as  it  should  be.  A  man  w^orks  with  growing  things 
in  soil  and  with  the  animals  on  the  farm,  both  of  great  interest, 
but  a  woman  has  to  do  with  human  beings,  and  the  results  from 
her  work  are  more  important  for  the  welfare  of  our  country  than 
any  other  results  that  can  be  secured  on  a  Canadian  farm. 

Yet  in  most  respects  they  are  partners  and  co-w^orkers  in  a 
more  intimate  sense  than  a  business  man  and  his  wife.  A  farm- 
er's wife  is  very  closely  connected  with  the  work  of  the  farm,  and 
indeed  it  is  not  an  unheard  of  thing  to  find  the  farmer's  wife  the 
better  farmer  of  the  two.  She  has  always  been  very  much  inter- 
ested in  farm  improvements  and  has  almost  always  sacrificed  much 
for  the  purchase  of  modern  machinery,  that  the  farm  work  may 
be  done  more  smoothly.     In  many  respects  improvements  on  the 


farm  help  the  house  mother  in  that  it  means  fewer  laborers,  and 
this  means  less  cooking,  less  cleaning,  less  washing  and  ought  to 
bring  more  leisure.  It  seldom  does,  however,  figure  it  as  you  may. 
However,  she  is  to-day  asking  the  twentieth  century  man  to  take 
an  increased  interest  in  the  work  of  the  home,  and  to  lend  his 
support  towards  indoor  progress,  and  he  is  doing  it  like  the  wise 
man  he  generally  is.  For  if  from  selfish  reasons  only,  it  would 
be  an  unwise  thing  to  refuse,  seeing  it  must  mean  increased  com- 
fort and  increased  happiness  to  him. 

She  is  learning  the  value  of  machinery  to  save  her  strength 
and  hence  prolong  her  life.  Talk  about  keeping  the  boys  on  the 
farm,  why  a  little  effort  and  a  little  wise  expenditure  of  money 
in  modern  helps  and  conveniences  and  sanitary  surroundings 
would  keep  most  mothers  a  little  longer  on  the  farm  than  many 
of  them  stay.  There  are  not  so  many  old  women  on  the  farms 
to-day  as  there  should  be,  as  the  grim  Harvester  reaps  earlier  than 
he  needs  in  many  cases. 

Why  should  a  modern  barn  and  machinery  shed  be  supplied 
with  the  best  the  market  has  to  offer,  and  a  woman  struggle  with 
a  washboard  and  tub? 

W^hy  should  a  gasoline  engine  run  machinery  for  the  farm 
and  not  for  the  house?  It  is  just  as  easily  obtained  and  just  as 
easily  run.  I  have  seen  women  put  up  with  a  wretched  cooking 
range  for  years  when  it  was  consuming  twice  the  fuel  a  good  up- 
to-date  economic  cooking  range  would  use,  and  the  old  one  was 
fit  for  old  iron  only. 

The  twentieth  century  farmer's  wife  is  going  ahead  as  fast  in 
other  ways  as  her  husband.  She  is  beginning  to  question  the 
unfairness  of  giving  an  education  in  farming  to  the  boys  and 
withholding  the  corresponding  training  in  home-making  from 
the  girls. 

She  is  also  alive  to  the  fact  that  there  are  experimental  places 
where  women  are  working  out  household  problems  and  she  is 
asking  that  these  be  placed  within  her  reach,  in  order  that  from 
these  results  she  may  reap  in  time  and  money  the  value  of  others* 
experiments  on  household  control. 

She  is  also  realizing  that  ^^man  cannot  live  by  bread  alone," 
and  that  no  woman  can  live  and  grow  in  richness  of  thought  who 
does  not  continually  refresh  her  mind  with  new  ideas.  Just  as 
man  muvst  read  to  keep  pace  with  modern  movements  in  agricul- 
ture and  science,  s^o  women  must  have  access  to  literature  and 
read  to  keep  pace  with  modern  housekeeping. 

The  aim  of  the  twentieth  century  woman  is  to  become  a  better 
mother,  a  better  wife,  a  better  home-maker.  She  is  a  woman  of 
ideals,  and  the  men  who  would  see  the  progress  of  the  homes 
alongside  the  general  prosperity  of  the  country  must  stand  by 
the  women  in  their  efforts  to  make  the  homes  the  most  advanced, 
the  most  beautiful,  the  most  interesting  homes  that  it  is  within 
the  possibility  of  their  united  strength  to  bring  about. 

Illllllll  lllllllll  lllllllll  llllllllll  lllllllll  llllllll 

House  Helps 


Farm  Kitchen 




Oats  heated  in  a  frying  pan  until 
very,  very  hot,  then  put  quickly  into 
a  warmed  flannel  bag  will  greatly  re- 
lieve cramps,  headache,  etc.  It  is  light 
and  retains  heat.  The  top  must  be  se- 
curely tied.  T.  R. 


To  clean  a  frying  pan  after  fish  or 
onions,  boil  out  the  pan  with  soda 
water,  wash  it  clean,  then  put  on  the 
fire  and  shake  a  little  oatmeal  in ;  let 
this  brown ;  after,  wipe  out  with  a  dish 
cloth.  All  unpleasant  taste  or  smell 
will  have  vanished.  J.  T. 


To  clear  a  room  of  mosquitoes  put  a 
teaspoonful  of  oil  of  lavender  in  a  cup 
of  boiling  water.    They  can't  endure  it. 

J.  T. 


When  there  is  a  little  meat  left  on  a 
ham  bone,  a  palatable  dish  may  be 
made  of  it  by  using  a  few  good  sized 
tomatoes.  Hollow  out  the  centres. 
Fill  with  onion  and  ham,  chopped  fine, 
and  bread  crumbs.  Season  with  pepper 
and  salt.  Cover  the  opening  on  top 
with  a  thin  slice  of  ham,  putting  a  piece 
of  butter  on  each.  Bake  in  a  buttered 
dish  until  tomatoes  are  done. 

G.  A.  M. 


Put  the  macaroni  in  a  wire  flour- 
sifter  having  a  tin  handle  and  immerse 

this  in  a  kettle  of  boiling  water.  There 
will  be  no  trouble  caused  by  the  stick- 
ing of  the  macaroni  to  the  bottom  of  the 
kettle,  and  the  sifter  may  be  easily 
lifted  from  the  hot  water.       F.  H.  E. 


Seven  pounds  pumpkin,  cut  fine. 
Five  pounds  white  sugar.  Sprinkle 
sugar  over  pumpkin  and  let  stand  over 
night.  In  the  morning  add  two  lemons 
cut  fine  and  five  cents  worth  of  crys- 
talized  ginger  cut  fine.  Boil  until  thick. 
This  is  just  as  nice  as  orange  marma- 
lade and  much  cheaper.  J.  T.  E. 


This  is  my  way  for  keeping  pies 
from  losing  their  juice  while  baking. 
After  wetting  and  pressing  the  edges 
together,  dip  your  hands  in  flour  and 
run  them  around  the  edges.  Then  with 
a  knife  make  an  incision  in  the  top 
crust,  almost  across  the  pie.  This  en- 
ables the  steam  to  escape  without  burst- 
ing apart  the  edges.  When  serving  the 
pie  use  this  incision  for  the  dividing 
line.  B.  C. 


To  prevent  the  icing  from  running 
off  a  cake  first  sift  flour  over  it.  Then 
wipe  off  with  a  soft  cloth.  You  will 
find  this  method  will  set  and  dry  much 
more  easily  than  without  it.         B.  C. 

A  fine  thing  to  relieve  hoarseness  is 
to  mix  one  teaspoonful  of  dry  mustard 
with  a  table  spoon  of  lard.    Spread  on 



a  piece  of  liuniiel  and  apply  to  the 
lungs.  I  cured  myself  of  bronchitis  by 
this  means  and  many  cases  of  pneu- 
monia could  be  prevented  if  used  in 
time.  This  can  be  used  on  infants 
with  good  results.  Within  a  very  short 
time  they  will  breathe  easier.      B.  C. 


Rub  white  soap  on  the  cloth  first. 
When  making  eyelet  embroidery  hold 
a  piece  of  soap  under  the  material  and 
let  the  stiletto  pass  through  into  it. 
The  soap  gives  a  slight  stiffness  to  the 
cloth  and  a  much  -better  eye  can  be 
made.  If  you  have  no  stiletto,  a  nut- 
pick  makes  a  fine  substitute. 

R.  E.  M. 


The  next  time  your  fire  has  almost 
gone  out,  try  throwing  a  little  granulat- 
ed sugar  on  it,  which  will  have  the 
same  effect  as  kerosene,  but  is  not  at  all 
dangerous.  R.  E.  M. 


To  remove  the  smell  of  cooked  vege- 
tables from  the  house,  put  a  piece  of 
apple,  or  peeling,  on  the  stove  and  let 
it  fry  for  a  while.  L.  H. 


To  remove  stains  from  brown  shoes, 
take  a  piece  of  cut  lemon  and  rub  it  for 
a  while  on  the  shoe  where  the  stain  is. 
Polish  with  brown  polish  and  all  the 
stain  will  disappear  and  the  shoe  will 
look  like  new.  G.  D. 


A  most  palatable  and  nourishing 
dish,  much  prized  on  Mexican  bills-of- 

Take  scant  half  cup  of  best  rice,  wash 
thoroughly,  let  stand  for  a  few  minutes 
while  preparing  the  following:  One 
medium-sized  ripe  tomato,  peeled  and 
crushed  smooth.  Into  a  frying  pan  put 
a  tablespoon  of  lard,  heat  quite  hot,  add 
a  small  finely  shredded  onion,  a  little 

salt  and  a  dash  of  cayenne  pepper. 
Into  this  pour  the  rice  and  keep  stir- 
ring and  turning  till  slightly  colored  in 
the  hot  fat.  Next  add  the  tomato  and 
stir  again  a  minute.  Pour  all  into  an 
earthen  bowl  or  granite  dish,  add  suf- 
ficient water  to  swell  the  rice,  cover,  set 
back  on  stove  where  it  may  cook  slowly 
and  thoroughly.  To  be  eaten  hot — de- 
licious— savory — nutritious. 

H.  B.  M. 


Fill  your  boiler  with  water,  soft  pre- 
ferred, and  after  shaving  the  soap  into 
the  water  put  a  tablespoonful  of  coal  oil. 
This  will  be  found  to  whiten  the  clothes 
l)eautifully  and  leave  no  odor. 

E.  L.  D. 


To  prevent  cheese  from  getting 
mouldy  wrap  it  in  a  cloth  that  has  been 
dipped  in  vinegar  and  wrung  as  dry  as 
possible.    Keep  in  a  cool  place. 

E.  C.  T. 


If  you  have  house  plants  which  are 
troubled  with  little  green  lice,  try 
breaking  up  a  cigar  in  bits  and  sprinkle 
around  the  plant.  J.  B. 


Two  eggs,  1  cup  sugar,  1  cup  of  but- 
ter or  meat  drippings,  2  handsful  of 
currants,  a  little  cinnamon,  2  teaspoons 
of  cream  tartar,  1  teaspoon  of  soda, 
flour  to  stiffen.  Take  a  piece  of  dough 
in  the  hand  and  form  into  small  cakes. 

B.  M.  A. 


Saturate  a  woolen  rag  with  equal 
parts  of  linseed  and  olive  oil  and  apply 
to  the  white  patch  at  intervals  of  a  half 
hour.  It  depends  upon  the  duration 
and  depth  of  the  stain  as  to  how  many 
applications  will  be  necessary,  but  per- 
sistence in  this  treatment  will  positively 
remove  it.  A.  L. 


SOME      GOOD      THINGS      THAT      HAVE      APPEARED      IN      OTHER 



It  is  the  purpose  of  Farmer's  Magazine  to  reprint  articles  of  merit 
from  other  magazines  from  time  to  time.  It  is  often  impossible  for  a  far- 
mer to  take  all  the  magazines  that  are  published,  and  this  department  will 
give  him  in  short  form  some  of  the  leading  articles  that  have  appeared. 

Faith   in  One's  Farm 

From  the  Maritime  Farmer. 

DICKSIE  Land  Farm  at  Board  Landing 
Bridge,  near  Truro,  N.S.,  is  not  only  the 
Lome  of  one  of  the  most  promising  herds  of 
Guernseys  in  the  Maritime  Provinces,  but 
also  the  home  of  Mr.  Hugh  A.  Dickson,  one 
of  our  most  enthusiastic  and  successful 
young  farmers. 

Mr.  Dickson  comes  from  a  family  of  suc- 
cessful farmers.  His  father  and  grand 
father  were  pioneers  in  underdraining  and 
clover-growing  in  their  district.  Long  be- 
fore the  advent  of  the  Agricultural  College 
they  had  their  farms  underdrained  with  a 
thorough  system,  which  reached  every 
square  rod  of  their  uplands,  at  a  cost  of 
$50.00  per  acre.  Mr.  Dickson  says  that  he 
has  often  heard  his  father  tell  of  some  of 
their  first  lessons  on  the  real  value  of  un- 
derdrainage,  gleaned  by  observing  the  re- 
sults of  their  own  experiments. 

Mr.  Dickson  is  a  young  farmer  who  is 
full  of  faith  and  enthusiasm  in  the  highest 
calling  open  to  man.  He  is  full  of  faith  in 
the  future  of  his  province  and  of  the  oppor- 
tunities which  it  presents.  He  is  full  of 
faith  in  his  farm  and  the  Guernsey  cow. 

Most  people  would  call  such  faith  as  Mr. 
Dickson  evidences  a  spirit  of  optimism. 
Call  it  what  you  will.    He's  got  it. 

When  Mr.  Dickson  was  fifteen  years  of 
age  his  father  died,  and  as  he  was  the  old- 


est  boy  he  left  school,  which  he  had  been 
regularly  attending  up  to  that  time,  and 
ever  since  he  has  been  carrying  on  farming 
operations,  largely  under  the  guidance  of 
his  mother  for  the  first  few  years. 

At  the  age  of  nineteen  or  twenty,  partly 
under  the  spur  of  having  a  very  productive 
farm  and  partly  the  ambition  to  do  things 
right  he  began  to  branch  out  and  soon 
worked  into  a  very  intensive  system  of 
farming,  raising  ten  to  twelve  thousand 
bushels  of  vegetables  yearly,  keeping  about 
thirty-five  milch  cows  and  retailing  the 
milk  in  the  neighboring  town  of  Truro.  He 
carried  on  the  retail  milk  business  for  the 
five  years  previous  to  the  first  of  last  Janu- 
ary, when  he  sold  the  milk  route.  He  now 
wholesales  the  milk  to  the  man  who  bought 
his  route.  The  retail  trade  was  somewhat 
the  more  profitable  but  there  was  so  much 
more  detail  to  look  after  in  connection  with 
accounts,  collecting,  etc.,  and  as  he  had  to 
depend  on  hired  help  to  deliver  it  he  decid- 
ed to  sell  the  route. 

The  breeding  of  pure  bred  stock  and  ex- 
hibiting at  the  exhibitions  and  fairs  made 
it  harder  to  watch  the  details  of  all  depart- 

Dicksie  Land  Farm  comprises  129  acres 
under  cultivation,  45  of  which  is  marsh 
land.  The  marsh  is  all  high  and  dry  and 
produces   the  best  quality   of  Englisli   liay 



and  a  splendid  crop  of  after  grass  on  which 
the  herd  thrives  for  three  or  four  weeks 
every  fall. 

The  marsh  has  all  been  turned  over  dur- 
ing the  last  six  years,  a  crop  of  grain  has 
been  grown  on  every  part  of  it  and  it  has 
l)een  reseeded  with  timothy  and  clover,  and 
fertilized  by  the  application  of  7  or  8  cwt. 
of  basic  slag  per  acre.  The  result  is  that 
this  year  it  produced  an  average  crop  of 
nearly  three  tons  of  hay  to  the  acre. 

Mr.  Dickson  and  his  father  before  him 
have  always  followed  a  systematic  rotation 
of  crops  on  their  uplands.  The  rotation  has 
been:  roots,  grain,  clover  hay  and  pasture, 
sometimes  varied  a  little  by  taking  two 
crops  of  roots  off  the  same  land  such  as 
small  vegetables  following  potato  crop  or 
allowing  it  to  go  two  years  in  pasture. 

Mr.  Dickson  finds  two  years  of  incessant 
pasturing  will  kill  any  couch  grass  which 
may  have  gotten  into  the  land.  This  year 
the  .returns  from  the  Dicksie  Land  Farm 
garden  vegetables  amount  to  about  $1,800, 
F.O.B.  besides  the  large  quantities  of 
mangels,  turnips,  etc.  used  for  feeding  pur- 
poses. The  sales  of  vegetables  are  as  fol- 

Turnips $550.00 

Parsnips 400 .  00 

Carrots 175 .  00 

Cabbage  300.00 

Potatoes 160.00 

Garden  Truck  200 . 00 

Total $1,785.00 

The  Dicksie  Land  vegetables  find  a  ready 
market  in  Truro  and  they  hold  it  on  their 
merit  and  they  prove  to  be  one  of  the 
farmer's  main  sources  of  revenue. 

We  hear  a  great  deal  now-a-days  about 
farmers  raising  their  own  feed  instead  of 
sending  so  much  money  out  of  the  country 
for  mill  feeds,  Mr.  Dickson's  contention 
is  that  this  is  all  right  in  sections  of  the 
Maritime  Provinces  where  it  is  impossible 
to  market  very  much  farm  produce  and 
where  land  is  cheap;  but  in  sections  of  the 
country  where  land  is  worth  from  $100  to 
$300  per  acre  he  considers  a  man  would  be 
foolish  to  raise,  say  fifty  bushels  of  fifty 
cent  oats  to  the  acre,  netting  him  perhaps 
$25  per  acre  when  he  could  net  from  $100 
to  $200  per  acre  by  growing  vegetables. 

Grain  growing  on  Dicksie  Land  Farm  is 
used  as  a  means  to  an  end  viz: — for  the 
purpose  of  seeding  down. 

Mr.  Dickson  says  "Let  the  West  raise 
our  mill  feeds  where  land  is  worth  but  $20 

per  acre.  For  my  part  I  prefer  to  follow 
an  intensive  system  of  farming  on  high 
priced  land." 

If  a  man  can  grow  strawberries  on  his 
farm  cheaper  than  he  can  grow  grain,  let 
him  sell  strawberries  at  $600  per  acre  and 
buy  his  mill  feed. . 

Mr.  Dickson  also  considers  that  the  use 
of  hoed  crops  in  the  rotation  is  the  only 
sure  way  of  keeping  the  farm  clean,  while 
grain  growing  is  especially  conducive  to 
the  seeding  of  noxious  weeds  and  conse- 
quently weedy  farms  result. 

As  all  grain  grown  on  Dicksie  Land  Farm 
is  fed  on  the  farm,  Mr.  Dickson  prefers  to 
grow  mixed  grain  as  they  give  a  larger 
yield  per  acre  and  stand  up  much  better 
thus  allowing  the  clover  to  make  a  better 

His  seeding  mixture  consists  of  10  pounds 
of  common  red  clover,  2  pounds  alsike  and 
8  pounds  timothy.  He  finds  the  common 
red  clover  is  much  more  preferable  than  the 
mammoth  red  as  the  stalks  are  not  so 
coarse  and  the  common  red  produces  an 
aftermath  while  the  mammoth  red  does  not. 

Mr.  Dickson  has  been  experimenting  with 
alfalfa  and  we  would  judge  that  he  is  on 
the  high  road  to  success  in  the  undertaking. 
He  has  one  and  one-quarter  acres,  started 
in  1911,  without  inoculation,  from  which 
four  and  one-half  tons  of  hay  were  harvest- 
ed in  1912,  from  two  cuttings  and  there  is  a 
strong  growth  left  for  winter  covering. 

The  Dicksie  Land  herds  consist  of  35 
milch  cows  and  a  number  of  young  stock, 
which  is  turned  to  hay  field  pastures  (as 
there  are  no  rough  pastures  on  the  farm) 
about  the  first  of  June. 

The  farm  rotation  is  so  planned  that 
sufficient  hay  fields  are  let  out  to  pasture  to 
carry  three  head  per  acre.  As  the  grass  has 
had  a  good  start  before  the  stock  is  turned 
out  they  get  all  they  want  to  eat  through- 
out the  month  of  June  or  longer  if  good 
showery  weather  prevails.  As  soon  as  the 
pastures  begin  to  fail,  Mr.  Dickson  com- 
mences the  feeding  of  soiling  crops  to  make 
up  the  deficiency.  The  soiling  crops  consist 
of  clover  or  alfalfa  first,  then  a  mixture  of 
green  oats,  peas  and  vetches  which  had 
been  sown  at  different  ])eriods  so  as  to  be 
ready  for  soiling  about  every  two  weeks. 
This  green  feed  carries  the  stock  along  un- 
til the  earliest  soft  turnips  will  be  ready  for 
feeding — the  Greystone  and  Aberdeen 
Yellow  make  excellent  crops  for  summer 
feeding  and  are  very  easily  harvested. 


The   Glories  of   the   Kitsilano 

By  Bruce  in  The  Sunset. 

THE  stranger  in  Vancouver,  not  to  say  the 
citizen,  is  attracted  by  the  wonderful  di- 
versity of  interest  to  be  obtained  from  a 
trip  over  the  Kitsilano  car  route.  It  is  a 
scenic  railway  line  on  a  plan  of  its  own, 
combining  the  natural  with  the  acquired 
charm,  and  affording  scope  to  that  imagin- 
ation which  is  latent  in  everyone.  It  is  one 
of  those  routes,  so  rare  in  cities,  which 
lends  itself  easily  to  the  spirit  of  play.  We 
begin  by  pretending  that  we  are  in  a  train 
instead  of  a  street  car  and  that  we  are 
speeding  from  Vancouver  to  an  unknown 

After  traversing  the  city  at  almost  its 
entire  length  by  the  main  streets  of  Hast- 
ings and  Granville,  in  which  we  get  an  im- 
pression of  Vancouver  as  a  modern  city — 
not  un-American  in  type — we  leave  it  be- 
hind as  we  round  the  corner  to  the  Eburne 
station.  There  we  see  all  classes  of  people 
awaiting  the  tram-car  which  is  to  carry 
them  far  from  the  city's  ''madding  crowd'"' 
—chiefly  the  Anglo-Saxon  race,  but  also 
Hindus,  Indians,  Chinese  and  Japanese, 
such  a  mixture  as  may  be  seen  at  big  union 

Moving  on,  we  approach  the  labor  pal- 
aces of  the  monarchs  of  industry,  whence 
the  kings  of  steel,  lumber,  coal,  brick  and 
marble  dispense  their  benefactions  far  and 
near.  They  own  a  kingdom  of  their  own 
upon  the  waterfront  of  False  Creek,  with 
tugs,  dredges  and  scows  at  their  royal  com- 

At  their  feet,  but  a  distinct  colony  by 
themselves,  with  a  government  of  their 
own,  live  the  float-dwellers  in  the  most  pic- 
turesquely Bohemian-like  boathouses,  and 
flaunting  to  the  breeze  a  fine  disregard  for 
the  petty  conventions  of  inland  life.  The 
inhabitants  may  sometimes  be  seen  captur- 
ing their  fish  breakfast  or  hanging  out 
their  washing.  They  have  their  commercial 
transactions,  too,  as  witnessed  by  signs 
such  as  ''House  for  sale,  furnished,"' or 
"Tom  Greene's  saloon."  Farther  amid- 
stream^  lives  the  lumber- jack,  a  picturesque 
figure  in  sweater  and  top-spiked-boots,  who 
may  be  seen  any  time  in  the  day  walking 
the  logs  with  careless  ease  and  carrying  his 
pike-pole  and  peavie-hook.  Often  he  rides 
the  logs  as  they  are  towed,  raft-shape,  down 
the  stream. 

The  bridge  across  the  Creek  possesses  as 
much  spirit   of  enchantment   as  the  draw- 

bridge of  old  which  led  to  moated  castles 

and  keeps.  There  is  so  much  to  see  and  so 
much  to  understand.  It  seldom  swings 
open,  and  then  only  for  some  tall-masted 
ship  or  obdurate  blue  or  yellow  funnels. 
Being,  for  the  most  part,  a  one-track  bridge 
it  necessitates  much  mechanical  contrivance, 
and  it  is  interesting  to  mark  the  ingenuity 
and  skill  employed  in  conducting  a  mode 
of  safe  traffic  with  beacon-lights  and  elec- 
trical wires.  Not  the  least  interesting  de- 
vice is  the  right-of-way  pole,  which  demon- 
strates what  primitive  people  we  are,  after 
all,  with  primitive  instincts. 

Across  the  stream  lives  the  Red  Man, 
child  of  the  wandering  foot,  who  seems  to 
have  found  a  stay  for  his  restless  spirit 
in  his  three-beamed  teepee  or  his  log  hut. 
He  is  secure  in  his  reserves  and  will  have 
none  of  his  near  neighbors,  the  Hindus, 
whose  settlement  savors  of  Orientalisili  and 
the  Far  East. 

Beyond  these  calling  places  lies  a  bit  of 
real  railroad  scenery,  where  the  car-rails 
lead  between  banks  cut  out  for  the  purpose. 
The  vegetation  growing  on  these  banks  is 
practically  mountain  vegetation.  Moss  and 
vines  overrun  the  slopes,  and  great  clumps 
of  bracken,  dried  up  now,  intersperse  the 
spaces  between  the  scrubby  fir  and  pine 

As  we  emerge  from  the  cut  and  arrive  at 
the  first  of  the  little  Kitsilano  stations  we 
see  straggling  houses,  which,  in  a  railroad 
trip,  are  the  usual  precursors  of  approach- 
ing towns  or  cities.  On  arriving  at  the  last 
station  we  see  to  our  right  the  waters  of 
English  Bay  stretching  away  in  limitless 
expanse  beneath  the  shadow  of  the  black 
mountains,  whose  distant  snow-capped 
peaks  can  be  seen  on  a  day  of  very  rareful  m 
atmosphere.  To  our  left  is  a  well-groomed  3 
park  whose  beauty  is  diversified  by  hedges 
and  shrubbery  of  tropical  growth.  Beyond 
the  park  rises  Kitsilano,  a  city  in  itself. 
Seen  in  the  glow  of  the  setting  sun,  it  looks 
like  a  many-spired  minaret-ed  city  of  ro- 

This  section  of  the  city  of  Vancouver  has 
grown  to  such  proportions,  and  has  so  ex- 
ceeded the  most  sanguine  expectations  of 
the  B.  C.  Electric  Railway  Company  as  to 
present  an  unexpected  problem  of  trans- 
portation, and  we  understand  they  are  now 
entertaining  in  thought  a  project  for  a  two- 
track  })ri(lge  as  a  means  of  obviating  their 



The   Trials   and   Tribulations   of    a  Country   Church 

THE  LATEST  United  States  religious  cen- 
sus reports  the  statistics  of  one  hundred  and 
eighty-six  separate  and  distinct  denomina- 
tions, besides  more  than  a  thousand  indi- 
vidualistic and  independent  churches  that 
could  not  find  a  place  within  any  of  the 
regular  sects.  Organized  religion  in 
America  is  a  vast,  concrete  and  practical 
fact  attested  by  fifteen  hundred  millions  of 
dollars  invested  in  property  with  overhead 
fixed  charges  of  about  two  hundred  mil- 
lions a  year.  But*  these  figures,  observes 
Joseph  H.  Odell  in  a  widely  discussed  ar- 
ticle in  Munsey's  Magazine,  are  somewhat 
deceptive.  Christianity  is  not  as  strong  as 
it  seems  to  be. 

Especially,  continues  Mr.  Odell,  is  the 
country  church  in  America  in  need  of  new 
support  and  vitality  at  the  present  time. 
The  very  largeness  of  its  plant  is  one  of 
its  chief  difficulties.  ^'From  a  poetical 
standpoint,"  Mr.  Odell  reminds  us,  ''it  is 
advantageous  to  have  the  white  spire  of 
a  church  in  every  landscape;  from  a  prac- 
tical point  of  view,  it  is  a  financial  and 
spiritual  crime.  Ten  churches  may  dis- 
mally fail  where  one  would  be  conspicu- 
ously successful.  When  you  overmultiply 
prophets  they  become  parasites." 

Mr.  Odell  takes  a  typical  case — that  of 
Lake  Township,  in  Wayne  County,  Penn- 
sylvania. Lake  Township  has  a  popula- 
tion of  twelve  hundred,  the  people  being 
representative  American  citizens.  They 
have  three  post-offices,  seven  schoolhouses, 
one  bank  and  one  saloon.  The  church 
figures  are  as  follows: 

10  church  buildings. 

14  congregations  (two  of  them  meeting  in 

10  denominations. 

$30,000  invested  in  church  property. 

$4,180  i-aised  by  churches  per  year. 

$500  sent  into  the  township  by  denomina- 
tional home  mission  boards. 

405  church  members — 36.75  per  cent,  of 
the  population. 

29  average  membership  of  churches. 

$10.07  average  annual  contribution  per 

40  average  attendance  at  Sunday  worship 
of  each  church. 

10  ministers  engaged  in  preaching. 

$750  maximum  salary  paid  to  minister. 

1  minister  with  regular  college  and  theo- 
logical training. 

7  ministers  with  little  more  than  high- 
school  training. 

One's  first  impression  from  these  figures 
might  be  that  Lake  Township  is  the  most 
intensely  religious  spot  on  the  American 
continent.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  more  than 
sixty-three  per  cent,  of  its  people  are  not 
members  of  any  church  organization.  I  a 
a  community  that  provides  a  congregation 
for  every  eighty-eight  inhabitants,  nearly 
two-thirds  of  the  total  population  are  out- 
side of  the  pale.  Mr.  Odell  criticises  the 
ministers  as  ill-equipped  for  their  task; 
he  notes  that  the  small  congregations  are 
necessarily  involved  in  a  desperate  struggle 
for  self-preservation;  but  the  outstanding 
cause  for  failure,  he  says,  is  the  fact  that 
these  churches  are  not  meeting  the  ob- 
vious needs  of  the  community. 

*'In  one  part  of  this  particular  township 
there  is  a  book-club,  organized  three  or 
four  years  ago.  There  is  one  small  school 
library.  A  patrol  of  Boy  Scouts  is  being 
organized  in  one  of  the  churches.  If  there 
were  one  or  two  centrally  placed  churches, 
with  reading  rooms  and  recreation  grounds, 
with  agricultural  institutes  and  exhibits 
at  stated  intervals,  with  literary  and  social 
entertainments  of  a  high  type,  with  min- 
isters trained  to  understand  and  fill  the 
varied  needs  of  the  people,  there  is  little 
doubt  that  the  story  would  be  entirely  dif- 
ferent. Ten  men  and  ten  churches  can  fail 
where  one  would  succeed." 

The  conclusion  reached  by  Mr.  Odell 
from  a  study  of  rural  counties  in  Indiana 
are  exactly  the  same  as  in  Lake  Township  in 
Pennsylvania.  ''We  find,"  he  says,  "that 
there  are  too  many  small  churches;  the 
ministry  is  ill-equipped  for  its  work;  and 
there  is  almost  complete  neglect  of  oppor- 
tunity in  grasping  the  peculiar  needs  of 
rural  communities."  The  last  point  is  il- 
lustrated by  an  analysis  of  the  manner  in 
which  each  dollar  is  spent  by  the  churches. 

Minister's    salary    53    cents 

Buildings   and   repairs    20   cents 

Benevolences    16    cents 

Sunday  school 10  4-5  cents 

Social  life  One-fifth  of  one  cent 

The  effect  of  this  policy,  Mr.  Odell  pro- 
ceeds, is  visible  at  once  in  the  composition 
of  the  churches.  "Out  of  tlie  ninety-one 
churches  in  Marshall  County,  twenty-five 
report  that  they  have  no  young  men  under 
twenty-one  years  of  age,  and  Boone  County 



has  twenty-one  churches  without  young 
men.  With  literature  brought  by  the  rural 
free  delivery,  and  lodges  at  the  various 
crossroads,  young  men  are  not  likely  to 
flock  to  institutions  which  deny  their  so- 
cial instincts  and  offer  nothing  but  sec- 
tarian doctrinal  pabulum.  *' 

The  immediate  need  of  the  hour,  Mr. 
Odell  remarks,  is  not  a  revival  of  religion, 
but  a  renascence  of  common  sense;  less 
homiletics  and  more  economics.  He  pro- 
poses, in  the  first  place,  that  boards  of 
home  missions,  sustentation  or  church  ex- 
tension of  the  various  denominations  with- 
hold money  from  any  church  in  an  over- 
churched  region.  ''If  a  number  of  rigid 
sectarians  in  any  given  neighborhood  have 
not  sufficient  charity  to  worship  with  their 
fellow  Christians,  they  should  at  least  be 
compelled  to  pay  for  the  luxury  of  their 
differentiating  dogmas."  In  the  next  place, 
he  suggests  that  the  leading  men,  both  cler- 
ical and  lay,  of  all  denominations  of  kin- 
dred faith  should  begin  at  once  a  propa- 
ganda designed  to  reach  the  rural  districts. 
"The  points  of  agreement  in  doctrine  and 
polity  should  be  emphasized,  and  grounds 
of  union  pointed  out.  Where  organic  union 
is  impossible  or  inexpedient,  a  form  of  fed- 
eration should  be  advocated,  by  which 
churches  of  any  given  locality  could  be 
grouped  for  worship  and  social  service." 
In  the  third  place,  an  economic  conscience 
must  be  developed  in  the  matter  of  church 
finance.     Mr.  Odell  writes: 

''Four  churches,  existing  in  a  kind  of 
suspended  animation  on  a  revenue  of  five 
hundred  dollars  a  year  each,  would  be  a 
vigorous  and  aggressive  institution  if 
united  and  possessed  of  an  income  of  two 
thousand  dollars.  The  proceeds  of  a  sale 
of  the  three  abandoned  churches  would 
equip  a  building  really  adequate  to  the  needs 
of  the  neighborhood.  Wherever  the  country 
church  has  become  vitally  related  to  the 
life  of  the  community,  it  has  been  success- 
ful. The  ideal  is  not  impossible  of  attain- 
ment, if  the  farmers  will  use  the  same  com- 

mon sense  that  they  ordinarily  give  to  the 
establishment  of  the  communal  grain  ele- 
vator, cheese  factory,  or  day  school,  and  if 
they  are  not  encouraged  in  sectarian  cranki- 
ness by  denominational  leaders  and  liter- 

The  country  minister,  Mr.  Odell  con- 
cludes, must  be  better  trained  for  his  task, 
and  must  learn  to  extend  his  sympathies. 
He  ought  to  ''know  something  of  the  re- 
generation of  the  soil,  as  well  as  of  the 
soul."  But  the  essential  thing  is  that  the 
local  churches  should  coalesce  in  such  a 
way  that  they  can  establish  and  maintain 
a  plant  that  will  furnish  a  worthy  expres- 
ion  of  their  life. 

"The  village  or  open-country  churches, 
to-day,  are  chiefly  the  one-room  type — an 
oblong,  barnlike  structure,  furnished  with 
hard,  straight-backed  pews.  With  a  pro- 
per amalgamation,  that  may  become  one  of 
a  cluster  of  buildings,  or  a  part  of  a  multi- 
form plant.  There  should  be  a  reading- 
room  and  a  library;  a  play-room,  perhaps 
a  bowling-alley  and  a  pool-table;  a  place 
for  exhibitions  and  lectures  bearing  upon 
agriculture  or  social  enjoyment.  The 
curse  of  the  country  is  its  social  sterility, 
and  nothing  but  the  church  can  safely  re- 
move that  curse. 

"The  recreation  of  the  young  people 
should  be  encouraged  and  supervised  by  the 
church,  with  suitable  grounds — baseball 
diamonds  and  tennis  courts — and  with  regu- 
lar fleld-days  and  tournaments  and  fairs, 
where  such  are  not  already  conducted  by 
county  or  State  associations.  But  none  of 
these  ideals  can  be  reached  by  the  present 
little  segregations,  each  occupied  in  its 
vain  struggle  for  existence. 

"The  only  way  in  which  the  country 
churches  can  regain  and  maintain  their  hold 
upon  the  people,  and  minister  to  the  total 
life  of  the  community,  is  to  find  a  basis  of 
union  and  sink  their  infinitesimal  differ- 
ences of  doctrine  and  polity.  Then  they 
will  really  serve  their  age  as  their  Master 
served  his." 

Thanksgiving   a   Farm   Festival 

By  W.  L.  Nelson,  in  the  Breeder's  Gazette. 
AUTUMN  in  the  country  is  a  season  of 
inviting  sights  and  sounds  and  smells,  of 
happy  harvest  days  and  joyous  farm  festi- 
vals. In  woodland,  orchard  and  vineyard 
;are  nuts  in  such  generous  store  that   the 

squirrels  do  not  miss  the  children's  share, 
wild  grapes  purple  and  plentiful,  and  per- 
simmons and  paw-paws  sweetened  and 
mellowed  by  the  first  frosts.  As  scarlet  and 
gold  of  leaf  is  lost  in  blending  to  brown, 
there   bursts   into   beauty    along   highwa^vs 




and  by-ways  the  lasting  bitter-sweet  whose 
tiny  cups  of  burnished  gold  are  filled  each 
frosty  morning  with  rubies  and  diamonds. 
Brighter  still  are  the  colors  of  the  Indian 
arrow  with  red  and  pink  in  profusion — 
pink  as  bright  as  that  of  springtime  blos- 
soms in  which  Nature  writes  her  proclama- 
tion of  plenty.  In  the  Indian  turnip  red 
has  run  riot,  while  in  sumach  it  tends  to- 
ward the  sombre.  Red,  too,  are  the  buck- 
berry  bushes  under  which  quail  feed  and 
where  later  they  find  shelter  from  the  snow. 

In  early  autumn,  in  the  orchards  which 
men  planted,  apples  with  cheeks  reddened 
by  the  kisses  of  sun  ^nd  frost  make  beauti- 
ful the  trees  bending  with  their  loads.  In 
the  field  is  the  golden  corn  and  the  golden 
pumpkins,  for  this  is  the  ^'golden  age"  of 
the  year.  The  farmer's  storehouse  is  rich 
in  gold — gold  that  grows  and  gold  that 
bears  the  stamp  of  the  Master's  mint. 
What  does  it  matter  now  if  the  stretches 
of  sunshine  are  shorter,  for  locked  away 
against  the  cold  that  is  to  come  is  an  ample 
supply  of  the  late  summer  sun. 

To  the  ear  attuned  to  nature's  music 
there  is  in  fall-time  sounds  a  matchless 
melody.  There  is  cheer  even  in  the  cricket's 
chirp,  and  in  the  sometimes  stillness  of  In- 
dian summer,  a  peace  almost  sacred.  Often 
* 'through  the  ghost  gray  mist  of  the  morn- 
ing" comes  the  covey  call,  the  staccato 
whistle  of  Bob  White.  In  mid-day  squirrels 
chatter  to  one  another  as  they  put  away 
their  winter's  store  of  nuts,  and  as  the  day 
dies  wild  geese,  feathered  weather  forecast- 
ers, take  up  their  flight  marked  by  a  rush 
of  wings  and  a  ceaseless  ''honk,  honk." 

It  is  in  the  twilight  hour  of  an  autumn 
day  when  the  appetizing  odors  of  fresh 
pork  frying,  apple  butter  boiling,  or  cider 
or  sorghum  making  are  most  distinct,  that 
we  are  most  likely  to  appreciate  the  mean- 
ing of  the  fall  time  in  the  country.  In  the 
city,  autumn  may  be  a  mere  matter  of  cal- 
endar calculation,  but  where  dwell  rural 
folk  it  is  a  time  which  marks  the  fullness 
of  farm  festivals  and  frolics.  The  old- 
fashioned  husking  bee  finds  a  worthy  suc- 
cessor in  the  modern  seed  corn  picnic.  For 
nutting  parties,  with  camp  fires,  there  has 
been  found  no  satisfactory  substitute.  Cider 
and  apple-butter  making,  especially  during 
years  of  such  splendid  apple  crops  ,  are 
among  the  customs  generally  observed. 
Then  along  about  Thanksgiving  comes  but- 
chering time  or  hog  killing,  to  put  it  in  rur- 
al parlance. 

All  these  are  red  letter  days  on  the  farm. 
They  are  preparations  for  feasts  soon  to 
follow — for  Thanksgiving  days  by  the  doz- 
en^ The  farmer  who  has  so  much  for  which 
to  be  thankful,  whose  fields,  orchards,  vine- 
yard and  garden  have  yielded  of  great 
plenty,  enters  heartily  into  the  spirit  of  the 
established  Thanksgiving  Day,  with  its  re- 
minder of  his  partnership  with  the  Master 
of  the  vineyard,  but  just  one  Thanksgiving 
Day  will  not  do. 

In  the  country,  fall  time  is  feast  time. 
The  invitation  to  eat  is  even  in  the  air. 
Everybody  has  an  appetite  and  something 
savory  with  which  to  satisfy  it.  Take  home- 
made cider,  apple  butter,  for  instance.  No 
highly  spiced  concoction  put  up  in  fancy 
pails — and  sold  at  fancy  prices — can  com- 
pare with  this  pure  food  product  that  does 
not  need  the  Government  guarantee.  Made 
of  sound  apples  and  pure  sweet  cider  it  is 
a  wonderful  appetite  agitator.  Eat  as 
much  as  we  please — or  rather  as  much  as 
we  can,  for  capacity  must  be  taken  into 
account — we  suffer  no  ill  effects.  It  is  both 
food  and  medicine.  It  is  a  real  "love  po- 
tion," too,  just  as  much  so  as  any  myster- 
ious mixture  that  ever  came  from  a  black 
kettle  stirred  by  a  black  "mammy."  Mes- 
meric is  the  effect  it  enables  its  maker  to 
exert  upon  mere  man,  especially  if  he  is  a 
city  cousin  just  come  to  the  country. 

The  work  of  apple-butter  making  begins 
in  the  orchard  where  the  proper  selection 
of  apples  must  'be  made.  If  cider  apples 
of  choice  fiavor  are  ground  in  a  hand  mill, 
the  wine-like  cider  as,  it  runs  into  earthen 
crock  or  galvanized  pan  foretells  the 
matchless  flavor  of  the  apple  butter  that  is 
to  be.  Placed  in  a  big  copper  kettle  and 
boiled  down  half,  it  smells  sweeter  still. 
Apples,  carefully  pared,  sliced  and  cored, 
are  added.  Then  comes  the  start  at  five 
hours  of  stirring,  but  with  a  revolving 
paddle,  fitted  in  the  kettle  so  as  to  sweep 
the  bottom  and  kept  moving  by  a  person 
comfortably  seated  in  a  chair  at  the  end 
of  a  long  handle  attached  to  the  stirrer; 
this  job  is  easy.  Shortly  before  the  cook- 
ing has  been  completed  sugar  and  spices 
are  added,  but  both  should  be  used  sparing- 
ly. Almost  before  we  know  it  a  big  kettle 
of  apple  butter,  smooth  and  fine  and  with- 
out a  lump,  has  been  made.  It  is  apple 
butter  such  as  the  money  of  the  millionaire 
in  the  city  cannot  buy.  It  is  food  for 
feasts,  and  the  making  of  it  was  fun  for  all 



Seven  Wonders  of   the   Modern  World 

WRITING  in  The  Cosmopolitan  Dr.  Henry 
Smith  Williams  presents  an  interesting 
contrast  of  the  monumental  wonders  of  the 
ancients  and  the  seven  achievements  of 
modern  science. 

The  seven  wonders  of  antiquity  were  ex- 
amples of  engineering  or  architectural  skill 
or  of  sculpture  on  a  colossal  scale.  In  our 
day,  such  enterprises  have  become  so  com- 
mon that  their  results  have  for  the  most 
part  ceased  to  cause  wonder.  In  other  di- 
rections, however,  the  scientific  workers  of 
our  time  have  produced  results  which  ex- 
cite the  astonishment  even  of  the  initiated. 
The  publishers  of  Popular  Mechanics  re- 
cently desired  to  ascertain  which  among  the 
remarkable  modern  achievements  are  best 
entitled,  in  the  opinion  of  experts,  to  rank 
as  the  seven  most  remarkable  of  the  pres- 
ent-day wonders.  Therefore  they  made  out 
a  list  including  fifty-six  discoveries  or  in- 
ventions of  modern  times,  all  of  which 
might  properly  be  described  as  wonderful. 
The  list  was  comprehensive  in  its  scope,  in- 
eluding  the  results  of  great  engineering 
efforts  such  as  the  Simplon  Tunnel,  the 
Catskill  Aqueduct,  subway  transportation, 
and  the  Panana  Canal  at  one  end  of  the 
scale,  and  such  achievements  of  theoretical 
science  as  have  to  do  with  ultra-violet  rays, 
the  ultra-microscope,  and  synthetic  chem- 
istry at  the  other. 

This  comprehensive  list  of  modern 
achievements  was  sent  out  to  1,000  eminent 
men  in  Europe  and  America,  including 
members  of  the  French  Academy  of  Sci- 
ence, the  Royal  Society  of  London,  the 
great  German  Universities,  and  the  Amer- 
ican Academy  of  Science.  The  request  was 
made  that  each  would  mark  off  on  the  list 
of  fifty-six  subjects  the  seven  that  seemed 
to  him  to  represent  the  most  wonderful 
modern  achievements.  It  is  reported  that 
about  700  of  the  scientists  responded.  The 
result  of  their  balloting  is  not  definitive,  of 
course,  but  it  has  obvious  interest.  It  pre- 
sents seven  modem  ''wonders,"  in  the  fol- 
lowing order:    (1)   the  wireless  telegraph; 

(2)  the  telephone;  (3)  the  aeroplane;  (4) 
radium;  (5)  antiseptics  and  antitoxins;  (6) 
spectrum  analysis;   (7)   the  X-ray. 

As  illustrating  the  wide  diversity  of 
opinion,  it  is  to  be  noted  that,  although  the 
wireless  telegraph  led  all  competing  won- 
ders by  a  wide  margin,  yet  the  vote  for  it 
was  only  244,  or  just  over  one-third  of  the 
total.  Meantime  the  telephone,  second  on 
the  list,  received  only  185  votes,  or  a  little 
over  one-fourth  of  the  total.  The  aeroplane 
received  167  votes,  and  the  others  success- 
ively fewer,  down  to  the  X-ray  with  111 

Of  the  seven  chief  ''wonders,"  all  but 
one  are  familiar  to  the  general  public  as  to 
their  main  developments.  The  exception 
is  spectrum  analysis,  which  is  less  familiar 
partly,  perhaps,  for  the  rather  paradoxical 
reason  that  it  has  been  longest  in  evidence. 
The  first  efforts  at  spectrum  analysis  were 
made  before  the  middle  of  the  nineteenth 
century,  and  the  spectroscope  was  applied 
to  the  analysis  of  the  composition  of  the 
nebulae  by  Higgins  in  1864.  The  perfected 
instrument,  however,  is  a  matter  of  mucTi 
more  recent  development,  and  its  feat  of 
measuring  the  flight  of  stars  and  testing 
their  chemical  composition  has  failed  to  at- 
tract wide  popular  interest  chiefly  because 
it  deals  with  subjects  so  remote  from  every- 
day life. 

Of  the  remaining  six  modern  wonders, 
the  telephone  dates  from  about  the  year 
1876,  and  the  initial  use  of  antiseptics  is 
but  a  few  years  older.  Wireless  telegraphy, 
the  aeroplane,  radium,  the  antitoxins,  and 
the  X-ray  have  all  seen  their  entire  devel- 
opment within  the  past  sixteen  years.  No 
doubt  their  extreme  newness  accounts  in 
part  for  their  selection  in  the  present  in- 
stance, for  of  course  things  seem  wonderful 
somewhat  in  proportion  as  they  are  novel; 
but,  on  the  other  hand,  we  can  hardly  doubt 
that  each  of  these  strictly  up-to-date  dis- 
coveries and  mechanisms  will  continue  to 
hold  high  rank  among  the  things  extra- 
ordinary of  coming  generations. 



The  Biggest  Baby  Chick  Farm 

Visit   to    a    Scotch   Chicken    Farm  by  a  Writer  in  the 
"Country    Gentleman  " 

CANADIANS  do  not  realize  that  Great  Bri- 
tain has  the  developments  along  agricul- 
tural lines  that  a  visit  there  will  reveal  to 
them.  It  will  be  interesting,  therefore,  to 
all  Farmer's  Magazine  readers,  to  hear 
what  Mr.  J.  L.  Tormey  has  to  say  about  his 
visit  to  the  poultry  farm  of  Mr.  Robert  Mil- 
ler at  Denny,  Stirlingshire. 

This  quaint  old  Scotch  village  with  a 
population  of  about  5,000  is  not  in  itself 
prepossessing.  The  principal  industries 
are  paper-making,  iron-working  and  coal- 
mining. At  the  station  I  found  that  Mr. 
Miller  was  well  known  as  one  of  the  best 
patrons  of  the  road.  After  a  drive  of  three 
and  a  half  miles  over  roads  better  in  qual- 
ity than  fifty  per  cent,  of  our  city  streets, 
through  a  rather  rugged  and  not  especially 
productive-looking  section  of  Stirlingshire, 
we  came  in  sight  of  ''Boards,"  located  on 
a  rather  non-productive  spot.  Although 
not  especially  adapted  to  cropping,  the 
land  is  proving  to  be  one  of  the  best  agri- 
cultural investments  in  Scotland,  thanks 
to  Mr.  Miller's  skillful  application  of  good 
business  methods  to  the  poultry  industry. 
A  view  of  over  a  hundred  colony  houses  that 
covered  about  forty  acres  suggested  to  me 
that  I  was  approaching  no  small  or  second- 
ary establishment. 

An  Unsuspected  Market. 

Arriving  at  Boards  Farm  I  met  Mr. 
Miller  near  the  house — a  fine,  neatly  ap- 
pointed stone  house,  covered  with  ivy.  A 
neatly  kept  lawn  surrounded  by  a  well- 
trimmed  ivy  hedge  added  much  to  the 
beauty  of  the  place  and  attested  the  thrif- 
tiness  of  the  owner.  A  lesson  or  two  in 
the  Scotch  method  of  finishing  off  a  home 
would  do  no  great  harm  in  some  of  our 
American  locations.  I  found  Mr.  Miller  as 
fine  a  man  as  one  would  wish  to  meet  and 
willing  to  give  information  concerning  his 
affairs,  of  which  he  had  thorough  knowl- 
edge. Briefly  he  told  me  the  story  of  how 
he  came  to  build  up  from  mere  experiment- 
ation an  industry  about  which  he  knew 
nothing  some  eight  or  nine  years  ago,  but 
which  now  has  reached  such  immense  pro- 
portions that  he  expects  to  sell  over  90,000 
day-old  chicks  the  coming  year. 

Mr.  Miller  is  a  man  about  forty  years  of 
age  who  started  to  prepare  himself  for  the 
ministry  at  Edinburgh.  He  was,  however, 
forced  to  abandon  this  plan  and  took  over 
the  management  of  the  old  farm,  which 
has  been  in  the  Miller  family  for  over  three 
hundred  years.  For  a  few  years  he  tried 
straight  agriculture,  and  about  seventeen 
or  eighteen  years  ago  he  started  in  the 
chicken  business  for  egg  production — even 
though  he  was  laughed  at  more  or  less  by 
his  neighbors.  Beginning  moderately  with 
about  100  crossbred  hens  of  good  laying 
qualities,  Mr.  Miller  was  successful.  Think- 
ing to  double  his  output  he  doubled  the 
number  of  hens,  but  had  comparatively 
poor  results.  He  recognized  the  cause — • 
too  much  crowding — and  the  colony  idea 
struck  him  as  being  proper.  While  in  the 
egg  business  he  aimed  to  keep  only  hens 
that  would  produce  from  120  to  130  eggs  a 
season,  and  by  careful  study  he  learned  the 
fine  points  of  the  chicken  business  and 
mastered  the  mysteries  of  the  incubator. 
In  the  commercial  egg  business  a  net  profit 
of  five  shillings  was  expected  from  each 
hen  and  five  or  six  shillings  was  expected 
to  pay  the  feed  bill. 

How  He  Started. 

His  start  in  the  day-old-chick  business 
came  as  a  sequel  to  a  strange  coincidence. 
About  eight  years  ago  a  woman  in  the 
town  of  Denny  who  had  no  incubator  and 
wanted  some  chickens  asked  Mr.  Miller  if 
he  would  let  her  have  50  chickens  from  one 
of  his  hatches  about  the  first  of  July.  At 
that  time  he  hatched  only  enough  chicks  to 
supply  his  own  required  quota  of  new  lay- 
ing hens.  His  incubator  hatched  400  chick- 
ens. As  the  request  came  at  a  time*  when 
Mr.  Miller  had  all  his  hatching  done,  he 
found  himself  with  about  350  extra  chicks 
on  hand.  He  inserted  a  small  advertise- 
ment in  a  poultry  paper.  The  result  of 
that  one  advertisement  was  that  he  worked 
liis  machines  steadily  that  year  until  Oct- 
ober and  produced  nearly  4,000  chicks  for 

At  once  struck  with  the  idea  that  this 
might  be  a  lucrative  part  of  the  poultry 
business,  Mr.  Miller  began  a  campaign  of 




advertising  the  following  year  and  sold 
16,000  chicks;  the  third  3^ear  he  sold  32,- 
000;  the  fourth,  48,000;  the  fifth,  56,000; 
the  sixth,  66,000.  Last  year  his  season  ran 
from  February  to  November,  and  he  sold 
74,000  in  all  parts  of  Great  Britain,  from 
the  Shetland  Islands  to  Kent  and  over  in 
Ireland.  He  expects  the  number  to  go  to 
90,000  by  the  end  of  the  season  of  1912. 
He  now  operates  48  big  400-egg  machines 
and  6  420-egg  machines;  has  100  colony 
houses,  of  which  80  are  for  breeding  chick- 
ens of  the  laying  hens  and  20  for  the  chicks 
which  he  keeps  to  replenish  the  stock  of 
hens.  About  1900  laying  hens  are  kept 
.busy  and  2,500  chickens  are  raised  annually 
on  the  farm  to  replace  the  old  hens,  it  be- 
ing considered  false  economy  to  keep  a  hen 
after  she  is  two  years  old,  and  many  of  the 
cocks  are  sold  at  the  age  of  one  year.  Only 
the  best-bred  chicks  are  kept  for  home  use 
to  insure  customers  young  birds  of  the  best 

The  Leghorn  a  Favorite. 

The  advantage  of  selling  the  day-old 
chicks  over  the  commercial  egg  business  is 
that  one  reaps  the  benefit  to  be  derived  from 
carefully  conducted  purebred  sales.  Mr. 
Miller  breeds  purebred  Black,  White  and 
Cuckoo  Leghorns,  Black  Wyandottes,  White 
Wyandottes,  Buff  Orpingtons,  Rhode  Island 
Reds  and  a  few  Partridge  Wyandottes.  He 
favors  the  Leghorns  quite  strongly  on  ac- 
count of  their  superb  laying  qualities.  Some 
six  or  seven  years  ago  a  black-and-white 
sport  came  from  the  White  Leghorns  and 
from  this  was  developed,  by  selecting  and 
mating,  a  pure  strain  which  Mr.  Miller  fa- 
vors very  strongly.  Just  now  the  Rhode 
Island  Red  is  very  popular  in  Scotland  and 
Mr.  Miller  last  year  imported  40  for  breed- 
ing stock  from  a  well-known  breeder  in 
America.  Besides  the  day-old  chicks  there 
are  sold  from  the  farm  breeding  stock,  both 
male  and  female,  and  about  15,000  to  16,000 
eggs  for  breeding  purposes  during  the  sea- 
son. The  prices  of  chicks  average  about 
eight  shillings  a  dozen.  The  prices  of  sett- 
ing eggs  run  from  five  to  nine  shillings  a 
dozen.  The  hens  are  sold  for  about  five 
shillings  each. 

There  must  needs  be  considerable  system 
about  this  establishment,  and  during  the 
liatching  season  Mr.  Miller  is  never  absent 
from  the  farm.  The  hens  are  all  kept  in 
colony  houses,  each  containing  about  35 
hens  and  3  cocks.    Each  breed  is  kept  in  a 

colony  by  itself,  so  that  there  is  no  danger 
of  crossing.  There  is  no  rule  as  to  the 
number  of  houses  in  a  colony.  The  colony 
idea  is  preferred  to  the  system  of  a  separate 
yard  for  each  house,  since  the  hens  get  more 
exercise  and  a  better  range  of  grass.  Mr. 
Miller  says  that  the  grass  is  much  better  on 
the  40  acres  that  have  been  set  aside  for 
the  chickens  than  it  was  before  the  poultry 
plant  was  started,  and  horses  and  cattle 
seem  to  relish  it  a  great  deal. 

In  one  colony  covering  seven  acres  550 
hens  are  kept.  In  addition  to  the  hens  over 
1,000  chicks  are  also  kept  until  they  are 
about  ten  weeks  old,  when  they  are  trans- 
ferred into  a  common  16-acre  range  set  off 
expressly  for  young  growing  breeding  stock. 
They  are  kept  on  this  range  containing  20 
colony  houses  until  the  end  of  the  season, 
when  they  are  brought  back  to  the  colony 
houses  of  their  respective  breeds  to  replace 
the  hens  which  are  sold  off  at  the  end  of 
their  second  season.  In  two  other  colonies 
of  21/2  acres  each  are  kept  about  640  birds 
and  about  550  are  kept  in  31  houses  with 
individual  yards.  In  the  big  colonies  each 
acre  has  about  100  birds,  while  in  the  small 
ones  there  are  about  twice  as  many. 

The  Cost  of  it  All. 

The  business  end  of  the  establishment  is 
carefully  attended  to  and  an  idea  of  the 
amount  of  supervision  necessary  can  be  ob- 
tained when  I  say  that  the  farm  has  sent 
away  as  many  as  2,300  chicks  in  one  day. 
One  of  the  largest  hatchings  was  3,000 
chicks  in  one  day.  During  the  busy  sea- 
son about  150  letters  are  received  daily 
and  the  stamp  bill  alone  from  January  to 
June,  1912,  amounted  to  over  $600.  Adver- 
tising costs  about  $2,500  a  year  and  Mr. 
Miller  contemplates  extending  the  cam- 
paign the  coming  year.  Other  printed  mat- 
ter runs  to  about  $1,000  annually.  The 
bill  for  labor  amounts  to  about  $1,500 
with  board.  Young,  untrained  men  are 
preferred  because  they  have  no  ideas  of 
their  own  which  may  not  coincide  with 
those  of  Mr.  Miller.  Orders  are  received 
in  all  sizes  from  3  up  to  1100,  which  is  the 
largest  single  order  ever  received.  All 
orders  must  be  accompanied  by  cash,  and 
all  are  received  with  equal  courtesy  and 
dispatched  in  regular  order.  During  the 
latter  part  of  the  season  special  induce- 
ments are  offered  to  the  buyers  and  Mr. 
Miller  sends  out  pamphlets,  advertising, 
post-season  specials,  so  to  speak. 



Efficiency  for  Hydraulic   Ram 

An   Orchard    and    Farm   Writer   tells    about  the   Principle 
of   the   Ram   in   Forcing   Water 

It  takes  only  a  small  fall  for  a  farraer 
to  make  use  of  the  hydraulic  ram  to  have 
plenty  of  running  water  in  his  buildings. 

The  hydraulic  ram  as  an  automatic  ma- 
chine has  been  in  use  ever  since  it  was 
invented  by  Joseph  Michael  de  Montgolifer 
in  1796.  The  principle  of  the  ram  is  very 
simple.  The  machine  must  be  located  at  a 
point  where  a  fall  for  power  may  be  ob- 
tained, as  on  the  banks  of  a  stream,  pond, 
lake  or  near  a  spring  from  where  the  water 
can  be  brought  in  a  pipe  from  a  higher  level 
to  give  the  required  head  to  operate  it. 
The  occasional  submergence  of  the  machine 
will  not  interfere  with  its  operation, 
which  may  permit  of  a  more  desirable  lo- 
cation where  the  total  effect  of  the  fall 
might  not  otherwise  be  obtained  because  of 
an  occasional  flood  or  high  tide. 

The  difference  in  level  between  the  water 
supply  and  the  ram  forms  the  power  head. 
The  direct  line  of  pipe  connecting  the  ram 
to  the  power  water  is  called  the  drive  pipe. 
The  difference  in  level  between  the  ram 
and  the  reservoir  or  tank  into  which  the 
water  is  pumped  by  the  ram  forms  the 
pumping  head.  The  smaller  pipe  leading 
from  the  ram  to  the  reservoir,  tank,  house 
or  other  point  is  called  the  delivery  pipe. 

In  operation,  water  enters  the  drive  pipe 
from  the  source  of  supply  and  flows  toward 
the  ram,  where  it  is  allowed  to  escape 
through  the  open  working  valve.  When  it 
reaches  a  certain  velocity  the  working  valve 
is  suddenly  closed  by  the  force  of  the  water. 
It  is  at  this  moment  the  ramming  effect 
takes  place  and  the  water,  being  prevented 
in  going  through  the  working  valve,  which 
is  now  closed,  enters  the  air  chamber 
through  the  delivery  valve,  or  valves.  The 
pressure  in  the  air  chamber  stops  the  flow 
of  water  in  the  drive  pipe,  which  causes  a 
reaction  or  rebound  of  water,  producing  the 
effect  of  a  momentary  reversal  of  direction 
of  flow.  This  allows  the  working  valve  to 
again  open  of  its  own  accord  and  water 
commences  to  flow  out  to  the  atmosphere 
again  as  it  did  in  the  first  instance.  This 
operation  goes  on  continuously,  repeating 
itself  from  twenty  to  several  hundred  times 
per  minute,  depending  upon  the  conditions 
as  to  pumping  head  and  power  head.  The 
supply  of  air  in  the  chamber  causes  a  steady 
delivery  of  water  from  the  ram  into  the 

reservoir,  no  matter  if  it  enters  the  cham- 
ber in  an  intermittent  way. 

In  the  double  acting  ram  the  impure  water 
is  used  as  power  by  conveying  it  through 
the  larger  drive  pipe  to  operate  the  ma- 
chine, which  forces  the  limited  supply  of 
purer  water  up  through  the  smaller  dis- 
charge pipe  leading  from  the  ram  to  the 
point  of  delivery. 

Where  Practicable. 

The  ram  is  practicable  where  the  water 
supply  is  only  eighteen  inches  higher  than 
the  machine,  which  should  be  located  not 
less  than  twenty-five  to  fifty  feet  from  the 
water  supply  point  in  order  to  secure  the 
velocity  of  water  requisite  to  work  it  prop- 
erly. As  the  height  of  power  head  in- 
creases, the  more  powerfully  the  ram  oper- 
ates, and  its  ability  to  force  water  to  a 
greater  elevation  and  distance  is  corres- 
pondingly increased. 

The  relative  height  of  the  source  of  sup- 
ply above  the  ram,  and  the  elevation  to 
which  it  is  required  to  raise,  determine  the 
relative  proportion  between  the  water  rais- 
ed and  wasted,  the  quantity  raised  varying 
according  to  the  height  it  is  conveyed  with 
a  given  fall.  Also  the  distance  the  water 
has  to  be  conducted,  and  the  consequent 
length  of  pipes,  have  some  influence  on  the 
quantity  delivered  at  the  point  of  dis- 
charge as  the  greater  the  length  of  pipes 
through  which  the  water  has  to  be  forced 
by  the  ram  the  more  friction  there  is  to 
overcome  by  the  machine.  A  fall  of  ten 
feet  from  the  water  supply  to  the  ram  is 
sufficient  to  raise  water  to  any  height  less 
than  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  above  the 
location  of  the  machine,  while  the  same 
amount  of  fall  would  also  raise  water  to  a 
point  considerably  higher,  though  the  sup- 
ply delivered  will  be  proportionately  dim- 
inished as  the  height  and  distance  increase. 
For  ordinary  purposes  it  is  sufficient  to  say 
in  conveying  water,  say  one  thousand  feet, 
it  may  be  safely  calculated  that  one- 
seventh  of  the  water  can  be  raised  and  dis- 
charged at  an  elevation  five  times  as  high 
as  the  fall,  or  one-fourteenth  part  can  be 
raised  and  discharged,  say  ten  times  as 
high  as  the  fall  or  power-head  applied  to 
the  ram,  and  so  in  like  proportion  as  the 
fall  or  height  is  varied.     Thus,  with  a  fall 



of  five  feet,  of  every  seven  gallons  of  water 
taken  from  the  source  of  supply  one  gallon 
may  be  raised  twenty-five  feet,  or  one-half 
gallon  fifty  feet,  or  with  a  ten-foot  fall  one 
gallon  for  every  fourteen  may  be  raised  to 
the  height  of  one  hundred  feet,  and  so  in 
proportion  as  the  fall  and  height  are  varied. 
The  first  cost  of  a  ram  is  practically  the 
only  cost,  and  with  the  occasional  renewal 
of  inexpensive  valves  it  will  last  a  number 

of  years  and  give  a  service  that  is  similar 
to  a  gravity  system,  but  at  a  much  lower 
cost  of  installation.  Practically  no  attend- 
ance is  required  and  where  an  economical 
use  of  the  water  supply  is  of  no  import- 
ance and  natural  conditions  will  permit  of 
its  use  it  is  cheaper  than  any  other  form  of 
water  supply,  for  it  will  probably  not  be 
necessary  to  touch  it  from  one  year's  end 
to  another. 

The  Lighting  of  Farm  Homes 

The   Comparative   Costs   of   Four  Systems  as   given 
by    Kimball's   Dairy   Farmer 

TO  farmers,  who  are  looking  around  for 
improved  lighting  systems,  there  are 
four  improved  lighting  systems  that  pre- 
sent themselves,  viz.,  acetylene  gas,  gaso- 
line, electricity  and  kerosene  mantle  lamps. 
Alcohol  might  be  considered  as  a  lighting 
fuel,  but  at  its  present  price  is  prohibitive. 

The  results  of  comparative  tests  made  by 
R.  M.  West,  of  the  Minnesota  Experiment 
Station,  indicate  that  kerosene  burned  in  a 
mantle  lamp,  as  compared  with  acetylene 
gas,  illuminating  gas  and  electricity,  is 
economical  and  efficient,  and  that  a  16- 
candle  power  light  may  be  maintained  giv- 
ing 17,000  candlepower  hours  for  $1;  while 
to  give  the  same  economy  alcohol  would 
have  to  sell  at  from  31/2  to  5c  per  gallon  as 
compared  with  the  present  price  of  59c.  A 
kerosene  mantle  lamp  with  wick  feed  can 
be  purchased  at  from  $3  to  $4.50,  which,  ac- 
cording to  the  above  tests,  burns  satisfac- 
torily with  both  alcohol  and  kerosene. 

The  results  of  comparative  tests  of  the 
lighting  values  of  gasoline  and  alcohol  made 
by  J.  B.  Davidson  and  M.  L.  King,  of  the 
Iowa  Experiment  Station,  show  that  alcohol 
of  94  per  cent,  purity  must  be  sold  at  from 
11  to  17c  per  gallon  to  compete  with  gaso- 
line for  lighting  purposes  at  20c  per  gallon. 
The  gasoline  lamp  and  gasoline  gas  lighting 
systems  operate  on  the  same  principle  and 
differ  only  in  that  the  latter  can  supply  one 
or  several  lamps.  Gasoline  gas  when  prop- 
erly mixed  with  air  burns  with  great  heat, 
and  when  burned  in  a  mantle  lamp  heats 
the  mantle  to  incandescence  and  gives  a 
good  white  light.  In  both  of  the  gasoline 
systems  a  few  minutes  must  be  taken  for 
generation,  during  which  a  small  quantity 
of  gasoline  is  burned  in  a  generator  cup. 

heating  the  gas  supply  pipe,  which  causes 
the  gasoline  to  vaporize  and  form  a  burn- 
ing mixture  very  readily.  In  the  gasoline 
lamps  the  feed  is  by  gravity  or  by  air  pres- 
sure and  in  the  gas  generators  by  air  pres- 
sure. The  gasoline  lamps  that  underwent 
satisfactory  tests  at  the  Iowa  Experiment 
Station  were  gravity  feed  lamps,  using  a 
clear,  pearl-glass  chimney  and  a  4-inch 
mantle  with  3^  inches  of  the  mantle  ex- 
posed to  heat,  A  gasoline  lighting  system 
is  fairly  safe  when  judgment  and  caution 
are  exercised  in  its  operation.  Especial  care 
should  be  taken  to  prevent  leaks,  as  gaso- 
line gas  is  heavier  than  air  and  settles  in 
a  layer  at  the  bottom  of  the  room,  the  top 
of  the  layer  forming  a  highly  explosive  mix- 
ture with  air. 

Acetylene  Gas. 

The  acetylene  gas  lighting  system  is  con- 
sidered safer  and  more  sanitary.  Acetylene 
gas  is  a  product  of  the  combination  of  water 
and  calcium  carbide.  The  residue,  slaked 
lime,  makes  a  good  fertilizer.  Commercial 
carbide  yields  from  41/4  to  5^  cubic  feet  of 
gas  per  pound,  requiring  about  0.562  pound 
of  water  for  complete  decomposition.  Acety- 
lene gas  is  colorless,  tasteless,  lighter  than 
air  and  has  a  pungent  odor  which  easily 
enables  one  to  detect  a  leak.  It  bums  with 
a  luminous  white  flame  with  no  perceptible 
smoke  or  odor,  and  the  light,  on  account 
of  its  whiteness,  is  easy  on  the  eyes  and 
very  desirable  for  domestic  use. 

The  results  of  tests  made  by  I.  T.  Os- 
mond, of  the  Pennsylvania  Experiment  Sta- 
tion, show  that  acetylene  is  much  more 
sanitary  than  coal  gas,  kerosene  or  gaso- 
line for  lighting,  since  it  takes  up  less  ox- 



ygen  from  the  surrounding  air  and  forms 
less  carbon  dioxide  per  unit  of  gas  burned 
than  any  of  these  three. 

J.  D.  Bowles,  of  the  Missouri  Engineer- 
ing Experiment  Station,  estimates  the  to- 
tal cost  of  an  acetylene  lighting  system  for 
a  country  home,  including  fixtures,  installa- 
tion, etc.,  at  about  $285,  with  a  total  yearly 
cost  of  operation  of  about  $67.  He  also  es- 
timates that  an  installation  omitting  several 
of  the  more  elaborate  fixtures  and  handy 
devices  would  cost  about  $225,  with  an  an- 
nual cost  of  operation  of  about  $50.  An 
acetylene  gas  lighting  system  requires 
judgment  and  caution  in  operating  for  safe- 
ty and  efficiency. 

Electric  Lighting. 

The  modern  farm  electric  lighting  sys- 
tem, although  more  expensive,  is  very  effi- 
cient and  satisfactory.  It  has  an  element  of 
safety  when  properly  installed  and  operat- 
ed which  the  other  systems  do  not  have. 
The  element  of  danger  which  is  inherent  in 
high  voltage  municipal  light  plants  is  elim- 
inated entirely  by  the  low  voltage  required 
to  operate  the  number  of  lights  sufficient 
for  the  average  farm.  The  farm  electric 
lighting  plant  consists  esentially  of  a  small 
gasoline  engine,  dynamo,  storage  battery, 
switchboard,  transmission  wiring,  lamps, 
fixtures,  etc.  The  storage  battery  can  be 
charged  with  sufficient  energy  to  run  the 
entire  system  for  at  least  one  night,  there- 
by eliminating  the  necessity  of  starting  and 
stopping  the  engine  whenever  a  few  lights 
are   needed.     The   high   cost   comes   in   the 

storage  battery,  as  one  large  enough  to  give 
sufficient  voltage  to  operate  the  lamps  on  a 
farm  is  rather  expensive.  However,  the  ad- 
vent of  the  tungsten  lamp  has  greatly  im- 
proved the  situation,  since  one  of  these 
lamps  will  produce  about  three  times  the 
candle  power  that  can  be  produced  by  an 
ordinary  lamp  with  the  same  amount  of 
electricity,  making  possible  the  cheapest 
kind  of  plant. 

In  designing  and  selecting  a  system  an 
estimate  should  be  made  of  the  number  of 
lamps  and  the  highest  number  of  lamp 
hours  required.  The  storage  battery  should 
be  large  enough  to  a  little  more  than  accom- 
modate these  lamps;  the  dynamo  should  be 
of  such  size  as  to  charge  the  battery 
against  its  own  voltage  and  must,  therefore, 
be  of  higher  voltage  than  the  maximum 
voltage  of  the  battery.  The  gasoline  en- 
gine should  be  large  enough  to  operate  the 
dynamo  and  cover  its  own  and  the  dyna- 
mo's losses. 

The  introduction  of  the  improved  tung- 
sten filament  lamp  has  made  it  possible  to 
greatly  reduce  the  cost  of  such  plants.  Mr. 
Amrine,  of  the  Illinois  Engineering  Experi- 
ment Station,  estimates  that  a  plant  having 
13  25-volt  lamps  and  using  a  maximum  of 
35^/2  lamp  hours  daily  requires  a  15-cell,  40- 
ampere  hour  storage  battery,  giving  a  pres- 
sure of  about  39  volts,  a  one-half  kilowatt 
dynamo,  and  a  two-horse  power  gasoline 
engine.  This  system,  including  all  equip- 
ment, fixtures,  labor  of  installation,  etc., 
costs  about  $550,  with  an  average  annual 
cost  of  operation  of  $8  to  $10. 

TO     GRACIA     IN     HEAVEN 

Too  soon  bereft  am  I,  sweetheart,  too  soon ! 
Too  long  and  void  is  life  to  wander  through 
Until  the  blessed  God  bestows  the  boon 
Of  that  last  call  when  I  shall  follow  you 
And  blend  our  souls  in  ultimate  attune — 
O  love — 0  star  of  white  in  fields  of  blue! 

— F.  B.  Vrooman. 


Note. — An  immense  number  of  orders  for  Farmer's  Magazine  patterns 
arrive  at  the  office  daily.  Strange  as  it  may  seem  there  are  many  who  forget 
to  sign  their  names,  many  who  forget  the  money,  many  who  neglect  to  state 
the  size  of  the  patterns  required  and  many  who  send  their  orders  to  our 
Branch  offices  instead  of  to  the  Central  office  at  Toronto.  Ladies  ordering 
patterns  of  Farmer's  Magazine  so  as  to  avoid  error  and  delay  will  please 
observe  the  following  conditions: 

First,  address  your  letter  to  the  Farmer's  Magazine,  143  University 
Avenue,  Toronto,  Ontario. 

Second,  write  on  one  side  of  the  paper  only,  state  clearly  what  you  want. 

Third,  enclose  the  money. 

Fourth,   sign   name   and   address  plainly. 

Comply  with  these  conditions  carefully  and  it  will  be  our  fault  if  you 
do  not  get  your  patterns  within  a  few  days  after  the  arrival  of  your  letter. 

4361— NEAT    DRESSING    SACK. 

4847— BOYS'   RUSSIAN   SUIT. 

This  suit  is  a  little  different  from  the  common 
one,    having    a    broad    panel   effect    in    front    and 
back,   and   a   side   front   closing.     Galatea,   linen, 
gingham,     serge     and     the     lilje     are     suitable 
The  pattern,  No.  4847,  is  cut  in  sizes  2,  4  and 
The    pattern,  No.  4847,  is  cut  in  sizes  2,  4  and 
inch   material.     Price   of  pattern,   10c. 

The  shirt-waist  dressing  sack  is  excellent  for 
the  Fall  and  Winter  wear,  the  long  sleeves  and 
high  neck  being  very  acceptable.  It  can  be  made 
with  plain  or  tucked  front,  and  with  plain  or 
bishop  sleeves,  sateen,  etc.,  will  be  pretty  for  a 
dressing  sack. 

The  pattern  is  cut  in  sizes  32  to  44  inches  bust 
measure.  Medium  size  requires  2%  yards  of 
36-inch    material.     Price   of   pattern,   10c. 



5913— LADIES'  DBBSS. 

5731— LADIES'   YOKE   DRESS. 

This  graceful  model  would  develop  attractively 
in  any  of  the  exquisite  woollen  materials  that  are 
being  displayed  for  winter,  and  outline  an  eCEec- 
tive  dress  which  is  easy  of  construction.  This 
dress  can  be  made  with  or  without  the  yoke 
facing,  and  with  long  or  short  sleeves. 

The  pattern.  No.  5731,  is  cut  in  sizes  32  to  42 
inches  bust  measure.  Medium  size  requires  3% 
yards  of  50-inch  material,  with  %-yard  of  18- 
inch   allover.     Price  of  pattern,   10c. 

Here  is  a  clever  costume  in  blue  and  white 
striped  voile  with  blue  satin  collar  and  cuffs. 
The  dress  is  stylish  and  smart,  but  quite  easy  to 
malie.  It  closes  at  the  back,  and  the  pattern 
provides  for  a  separate  guimpe.  The  collar  and 
yoke  are  of  all-over,  and  the  whole  appearance 
of  the  garment  is  rich  and  attractive. 

The  pattern,  5913,  is  cut  in  sizes  32  to  42 
inches  bust  measure.  Medium  size  requires  for 
the  dress  4^^  yards  of  36-inch  material  and  1 
yard  of  24-inch  satin,  and  for  the  guimpe  1% 
yards  of  36-inch  material  and  %-yard  of  22- 
inch   allover.     Price  of  pattern,   10c. 




5292— I.ADIES'    WORK    APRON. 

For  kitchen  or  studio  worli  a  large  apron  that 
completely  protects  the  dress  is  necessary.  Here 
is  a  good  design  for  such  a  garment.  It  is  made 
in  princess  style,  and  has  two  large  pockets.  The 
apron  fastens  on  the  shoulders.  Gingham  is  the 
best   material   to    use. 

The  pattern,  No.  5292,  is  cut  in  sizes  from  32, 
36,  40  and  44-inch  bust  measure.  To  make  the 
apron  in  the  medium  size  will  require  4%  yards 
of   27-inch    material.     Price    of   pattern,    10c. 

4635— BOYS'    SHIRT-WAIST    SUIT. 

The  shirt  waist  suit  is  a  favorite  with  all 
boys.  The  blouse  is  made  with  a  back  yoke  and 
with  removable  collar.  The  trousers  can  be  fin- 
ished with  or  without  a  fly,  and  with  legbands 
or  elastics. 

Serge  or  cheviot  can  be  used  to  make  this 
suit.  The  pattern,  4635,  is  cut  in  sizes  4  to  12 
years.  Medium  size  requires  2%  yards  of  36- 
inch    material.      Price    of    pattern,    10c. 


Some  Recent  Ideas  in  Neckwear 

One  of  the  new  mid-season  milling  models 
worn  with  a  Shetland  veil.  Neckwear  is 
inclined  to  be  fussy  and  important  and 
the  collar  of  fine  embroidered  net  edged 
with  a  ruffle  of  Valenciennes  lace  illus- 
trates its  prominence.  "With  this  dress  is 
worn  a  guimpe  of  embroidered  net  and 
accordion  pleated  chiffon  which  also  indi- 
cates another  strong  feature  in  dress  aces- 

Neck  ruche  niul  nuiff  of  marabout  and  os- 
trich. The  color  is  taupe  grey,  and  the  long 
ties  are  of  ribbed  velours. 




Draped  gown  of  deep  Persian  blue,  plain  and 
velvet  brocaded  charmeuse,  with  vest  of  blue 
chiffon  over  white.  Gold  passementerie  masks 
the  closing,  and  is  repeated  in  the  girdle  effect 
at  the  waist.  The  sleeve  is  one  much  used  for 
dressy  gowns  at  present,  and  would  seem  to 
point  the  way  for  similar  sleeves  next  spring. 
Back  and  front  combined  give  a  clear  idea  of 
the  latest  form  of  collar.  The  collar  is  of 
heavy  Russian  lace,  and  has  an  edge  of  the 
brocade.  Note  the  bolero  effect  given  the 
waist  at  the  back. 

Suit  of  novelty  cord  silk  in  black  and  leather 
brown.  The  vest  and  collar  is  amber  faille,  the 
fur  is  raccoon.  The  buttons  are  of  amber  glass, 
and  the  button  holes  bound  with  black.  The 
waist  of  the  coat  blouses  under  a  peplum  fast- 
ening with  a  girdle  effect  in  front.  The  skirt 
shows  the  scant  draping  now  the  mode.  The 
sleeves  are  a  little  over  %  length,  and  are  fin- 
ished with  a  frill  of  ecru  shadow  lace. 



A  Spring  Millinery  Hint 



Advance  spring  millinery  model  on  the  Tain 
order — The  underbrim  is  of  velvet  and  the 
fancy    feather    is    of    straight    ostrich. 

A  group  of  ski  enthusiasts,  taking  a  winter  outing  in  tbe  country.  There  is  a  growing 
tendency  for  city  dwellers  to  spend  their  Thanksgiving,  Christmas  and  Easter  holidays 
in  the  country  as  well  as  the  regulation  summer  ones. 


By  Mary  Spafford 

It  is  becoming  increasingly  the  custom  in  Canada  for  people  to  spend 
their  festive  holidays — Thanksgiving,  Christmas,  New  Year's,  Easter — in 
the  country.  Especially  in  this  true  of  the  Yuletide  celebrations.  Particu- 
larly timely,  therefore,  is  this  article,  ' '  Snowtime  in  Canada, ' '  •  which 
describes  something  of  the  charm  and  beauty  of  Canadian  rural  life  in  the 
winter  m.onths.  It  conveys  a  new  conception  of  its  grandeur  and  presents 
new  phases  of  its  pleasures. 

A  CANADIAN  country  winter  begins, 
to  all  intents  and  purposes,  when  prepar- 
ation for  it  becomes  necessary.  In  the 
purple  twilights  which  mark  the  fore- 
runners of  winter  days,  one  comes  in 
from  the  outside  world  intoxicated  by 
the  cold,  fall  air,  and  conscious  mainly 
of  but  two  sensations — sleep  and  hung- 
er. There  are  lights  on  the  supper 
table,  and  the  things  which  taste  best 
then  are  smoking-hot  dishes — baked 
beans  and  brown  bread;  Johnny  Cake; 
baked  potatoes;  and  baked  apples  with 
the  autumnal  blush  still  vivid  on  their 

But  some  day,  as  one  stacks  one's 
beans  in  frowsy  heaps  in  one's  devastat- 
ed garden,  or  gathers  the  last  of  one's 
tomatoes,  thrillingly  prophetic  from  the 

darkening  heights  will  fall  the  *^honk" 
of  the  Canadian  wild  goose,  as  with  un- 
erring instinct  he  leads  his  squadron 
southward  before  the  first  snowstorm. 
However  often  the  observer  may  have 
heard  that  sound,  he  stands  with  quick- 
ened pulse  to  watch  the  stately  wedge- 
shaped  throng  wing  by;  its  leader  out 
ahead,  instinct  with  authority — pathet- 
ically alone  in  his  high  trust. 

Fainter  and  weaker  comes  back  that 
guiding  cry.  Dimmer  grow  the  swift- 
dimishing  forms  till  they  merge  into  a 
single,  wisp-blown  speck  on  the  south- 
ern horizon,  and  one  finds  oneself  star- 
ing— forsaken  and  left  behind — into 
the  sky  where  they  have  been,  while 
over  the  dying  summer  a  sudden,  omin- 
ous shadow  seems  to  drop,  like  the  first 




light  folding  of  a  pall.  Then  one  real- 
izes that  the  air  is  pregnant  with  winter, 
and  unfinished  tasks  are  rushed  upon, 

In  the  rural  districts  of  Canada  the 
mere  making  ready  for  winter  is  im- 
bued with  a  sort  of  portentous  excite- 

earth,  or  fragrant  balsalm  boughs,  as  an 
encourager  of  winter  warmth.  The 
more  pretentious  farmers,  who  carry 
considerable  live  stock  on  their  farms, 
get  the  cattle  down  from  the  hill  pas- 
tures, and,  incidentally,  experience  an 
enlivening     time     in     capturing     the 

'The  streams  are  not  tight-frozen   yet. 

ment,  where  members  of  the  human 
family  identify  their  interests  with 
those  of  the  animal  and  vegetable 
worlds,  in  preparing  for  the  great 

If  one  is  a  farmer  of  modest  heritage, 
one  banks  one's  little  house  about  with 

''young  stuff" calves  born  in  the 

pasture,  which  are  as  wild  as  deer,  and 
as  unapproachable. 

If  the  farmer  has  a  front  cellar  with 
an  earth  or  sand  floor,  he  subjects  his 
lately-pulled  beets  and  turnips  to  a  sec- 
ond burial — drawing  them  forth  as  re- 



Winter's  artist  work. 

quired  during  the  winter,  and  rejoicing 
to  find  them  in  as  firm  a  state  of  preser- 
vation as  when  they  were  interred. 

In  the  late  pause  before  winter  snows 
have  fallen,  the  country  housewife  per- 
forms the  last  kind  services  for  her 
garden  family.  She  tenderly  detaches 
the  honeysuckle  from  its  trellis  support, 
and  covers  it  with  straw ;  she  swathes  the 
half-hardy  roses  in  winter  wrappings, 
and  tucks  the  strawberry  bed  beneath  a 
blanket  of  fir  boughs.  Along  the  road- 
sides, or  on  tree-bordered  lawns,  where 
the  maples'  gorgeous  burden  now  lies 
sere  and  pungent,  children  are  seen  frol- 
icking madly  amid  the  rustling  leaves, 
and  pressing  them  into  bags  to  be  used 
as  winter  bedding  in  stables  and  hen 

Now,  also,  the  entire  family  of  many 
a  farmer  occupies  itself  with  drying 
apples,  destined  for  mid-winter  sauce 
and  pies.  The  sourest  apples  are  best 
for  this  purpose;  the  variety  known  as 
the  "Kentish  Fillbasket"  being  especi- 
ally well  suited.  The  apples  are  pared, 
cored,  and  quartered,  then  strung  by 
threaded  darning  needles  in  long  white 
chains  which  are  hung  in  loops  and  fes- 
toons about  the  kitchen  stove  to  dry,  or 

are  laid  on  trays  in  an  open  oven  where 
they  warp  and  shrivel  till  they  are  gro- 
tesque and  leathery  shapes,  distorted 
past  recognition,  but  fitted  for  keeping 
purposes.  And  dear  to  the  heart  of 
Canadians  is  the  rare  red  apple  sauce 
which  these  dried  apples  make,  when  al- 
lowed to  swell  the  previous  night,  and 
to  simmer  slowly  on  the  back  of  the 
stove  for  a  whole  day. 

The  first  white  plastering  of  snow  is 
joyfully  hailed  by  the  children  as  an  in- 
fallible sign  that  winter  has  arrived.  But 
older  heads  know  that  between  this  un- 
stable forerunner,  and  the  Frost  King's 
reign,  come  steadfast,  penetrating  rains, 
and  brutal  winds  which  range  the  land 
in  a  fury,  and  bubbly  frozen  roads 
where  the  earth  temporarily  stiffens, 
and  blanches,  to  meet  the  first  snow 
flakes;  then  backslides  into  mud,  again. 

The  old  saying  that  the  snow  which 
lasts  must  fall  in  mud,  is  generally  cor- 
rect. Some  night  you  go  to  bed  with 
the  insistent  wash  of  rain  in  your  ears, 
and  in  the  morning  it  is  a  fairy  world. 
Every  branch,  and  twig,  and  twiglet,  is 
rimed  with  soft  aerial  puffing.  The 
crotches  of  the  trees  hold  the  snowy 
fluffs  awkwardly,  as  though  unused  to 



"The  slow-crawliug  wood  teams,  which  groan  aud 
creak  laboriously  over  the  snowy  roads — the  driv- 
ers weather-bronzed;  the  horses  often  white  with 
frost,  and  enveloped  in  a  mist  made  by  their  reek- 
ing sides  and   smoking  breath." 

such  dainty  burdens;  and  the  veranda 
posts  wear  huge  white  hehnets,  piled 
soft  as  thistledown.  After  a  time,  the 
sun  looks  out  to  ravish  the  white  world 
with  a  gold  glory,  and  diamonds  thick 
as  dewdrops  stud  the  mighty,  spotless 
blanket  of  the  snow — great  brilliant 
things,  shot  through  with  light ! 

On  the  edges  of  the  streams,  which 
are  not  tight-frozen  yet,  the  naked  trees 
shudder  in  a  refined  agony  of  cold,  and 
startlins;  the  season  from  its  new-born 

'One  and  one-half  cents  per  cake  is  paid  to  the  ice 
harvesters  for  the  great  greenish  squares  whicli 
they  cut  from  tbe  parent  bed." 

lethargy,  comes  the  sound  of 
the  first  sleigh-bells. 

The  voices  of  the  sleigh- 
bells.  They  are  so  instinct 
with  variety,  so  imbued  with 
associations,  and  memories. 
Sometimes  they  are  thick 
with  frost-rime,  and  ring  out 
hoarsely,  as  if  their  tongue^ 
were  furred  beyond  action. 
Sometimes  they  dash,  sil- 
very-clear, across  the  snow, 
in  an  abandonment  of  glee. 
On  the  wood-teams,  their 
tones  are  deep  and  solerap.. 
always,  as  befits  their  steady- 
ing connection  with  the 
work-a-day  world.  Punctuat- 
ing the  monotony  of  No- 
vember and  December,  come 
the  church  oyster  and  chicken  pie 
suppers;  and  as  Christmas  approaches, 
little  cliques  of  village  girls  begin  to 
work  diligently  upon  dainty  gifts  for 
their  friends  and  relatives — meeting  at 
one  another's  houses  with  their  bright 
work  bags,  while  for  two  or  three  hours 
in  the  afternoon  they  sew  and  chat  over 
the  gay  Christmas  trifles.  Sometimes  the 
girl  hostess  will  invite  them  to  a  real  sit- 
down  supper.  Sometimes  it  will  be  fi\e 
o'clock  tea,  with  oyster  patties,  or  cream 
puffs,   as   a  toothsome  inno- 


One  of  the  episodes  which 
we,  as  country  Canadian  chil- 
dren, used  to  associate  with 
the  short  dark  days  of  De- 
cember, was  ^'killing  the 
pig."  We  would  see  the  re- 
spectable porker  gradually 
attain  a  condition  of  helpless 
corpulence.  Then,  in  the 
dusky  closing  of  some  short- 
lived day,  our  unsleeping 
vigilance  would  discover  a 
squad  of  men  making  their 
way  around  the  corner  of  the 
barn,  and  revealing  some- 
thing in  their  uncompromis- 
ing aspect  which  caused  our 
hearts  to  flutter  with  fore- 
bodings. Later  in  the  even- 
ing,   still   a-thrill   with   hor- 



ror,  we  would  see  from  the 
dining-room  window  a  stark, 
white  figure  stretched  on  a 
sort  of  litter  in  the  lee  of  the 
barn,  and  illuminated  in  a 
ghastly  way  by  the  flare  of 
lanterns,  while  a  smoking 
caldron  stood  near  by,  and 
the  figures  of  the  men  flitted 
busily  here  and  there. 

The  flashing  lanterns,  the 
blood-stained  snow,  the  dark 
shapes  of  the  men,  made  a 
scene  which  to  us,  was  the 
embodiment  of  the  weird  and 
the  uncanny;  quite  uncon- 
nected wdth  the  sausages, 
souse-meat  and  juicy  roasts, 
which  were  names  to  conjure 
by  in  the  days  that  followed. 

There  seems  to  be  a  grow- 
ing custom  for  city  dwellers 
to  spend  their  Thanksgiving,  Christ- 
mas, and  Easter  holidays,  as  well 
as  their  summer  ones,  in  the  coun- 
try. Last  winter,  a  jolly  party  of  city 
boys  and  girls,  known  to  the  writer, 
and  accompanied  by  a  chaperone,  spent 
the  week  after  Christmas  in  a  pictureque 
village  resort  which  they  had  never  seen 
before  in  its  winter  garb.  Each  day  was 
dedicated  to  some  out-of-door  amuse- 
ment, and  the  landlord  had  no  cause  to 
complain  of  appetites  when  his  guests 
came    trooping 

tramp,  a  run  on  their  skis, 
or  a  tobogganing  expedition, 
with  cheeks  as  red  as  holly 
berries,  and  eyes  as  clear  as 
summer  trout  pools. 

About  the  middle  of  Feb- 
ruary, we  of  the  country  ex- 
pect with  philosophic  calm- 
ness the  really  pretentious 
snow  storms  of  the  season. 
The  air  seems  full  of  spun 
glass  particles,  which  well- 
nigh  cut  the  blood  out  of 
one's  face  with  their  relent- 
less lash.  Through  the  white 
frown  of  the  blizzard  a  blear- 
eyed  sun  shines  faintly,  and 
across  its  pallid  face  go 
the  drif tings  of  the  storm — 

Winter  fishermen  keeping  water  over  their  "tip-up" 
sticks,  which  are  driven  slantwise  over  the  ice- 
holes,  and  arranged  with  leather  bobs  which  fall 
when   the  fish  tug  the  lines  attached. 

shredded,  phantom-like  things,  floating 
ever  on  and  on.  Two  such  storms  gen- 
erally occur  in  a  season ;  three  days 
comprising  their  duration,  when  the 
Frost  King  yields  in  clear-flung  bright- 
ness to  the  hoarse  voice  of  the  little  red 
snow-plow  engine,  which,  brow-beetled 
with  icicles,  struggles  to  the  rescue  oi  a 
trainless,  snow-submerged  community. 
In  the  country,  in  Canada,  skating 
constitutes  one  of  the  orthodox  winter 
amusements,  since  a  lake,  river,  or  pond, 
in  from     a  snow-shoe^  ^n   the  vicinity  generally  affords  good 

Cold  weather  sport— fish  from  under  the  ice. 



skating  at  some  time  during  the  season, 
or  can  be  kept  cleared  by  the  boys.  One 
memorable  Christmas,  the  lake  behind 
the  writer's  house  was  frozen  in  a  line- 
less,  gleaming  sheet  from  edge  to  edge. 
Ah,  the  rare  joy  of  it !  Five  miles  of 
glare  ice  floor  where  one's  steel  blades 

ing  on  isolated  farms,  consists  chiefly  in 
doing  the  ^'chores,"  and  cutting  and 
drawing  wood  to  sell  in  near-by  villages. 
These  slow-crawling  wood-teams,  driven 
by  weather-bronzed  men  in  bright 
toques  and  sashes,  line  the  village  streets 
in  almost  continuous    squads    on  mid- 

The  fascinating   hoar-frost  moruings   when   the  trees  are  fuzzy   with 
prickly,   cobweb  stuff. 

could  clip  the  shimmering  mirror  mile 
on  mile,  in  a  clangorous  embrace.  When 
the  very  vials  of  atmospheric  purity 
were  unbottled,  regardless  of  economy, 
and  one  grew  drunk  with  the  air,  the 
wild  rhythmic  motion,  the  lust  of  speed ! 
The  mid-winter  work  of  farmers  liv- 

winter  days.  The  best  weather  for 
''teaming"  is  when  the  snow  holds  mois- 
ture enough  to  pack  readily,  causing 
the  sled  runners  to  slip  smoothly  and 
easily,  as  if  on  a  greased  trail.  In  dry, 
cold  w^eather  the  snow  is  apt  to  be  what 
is  termed  "mealy,"  when  it  packs  grud- 



gingly,  or  not  at  all,  and  the  sledges 
groan  and  creak  laboriously  over  it ;  the 
horses  white  with  frost,  and  enveloped 
in  a  mist  made  by  their  reeking  sides 
and  smoking  breath. 

When  a  village  borders  on  a  lake  or 
fresh-water  pond,  cutting  and  drawing 
ice,  gives  employment  to  a  number  of 
men.  The  ice-vendor  lays  in  a  supply 
for  the  following  summer's  trade,  and 
often  private  individuals  get  a  stock 
first-hand  for  their  ice-houses;  paying 
one  and  one-half  cents  a  cake  to  the 
men  who,  day  after  day,  saw  the  great 
greenish  squares  from  the  parent  bed. 

Other  men  of  fluctuating  and  indefin- 
ite trade,  constitute  themselves  winter 
fishermen,  and  wage  a  cold  and  tedious 
means  of  livelihood  by  fishing  from 
holes  cut  in  the  ice.  They  generally 
build  a  little  shanty  in  close  proximity 
to  a  good  fishing-ground,  where  they 
store  their  tools,  and  retire  at  intervals 
to  warm  their  benumbed  fingers,  and 
beguile  the  monotony  with  soul-refresh- 
ing ''yarns — keeping,  at  the  same  time, 
a  sharp  surveillance  over  their  bristling 
grove  of  'Hip-up"  sticks  driven  slantwise 
above  the  ice-holes,  and  arranged  with 
leather  bobs  which  fall  when  the  fish 
tug  the  lines  attached.  The  fish  (con- 
sisting mainly  of  pickerel  and  lake 
trout)  are  sold  to  the  village  at  about 
ten  cents  a  pound.  The  demand  often 
exceeds  the  supply,  as  the  flesh  of  these 
fish,  freshly  taken  from  the  ice-chilled 
water  of  the  lake,  is  particularly  firm 
and  sweet-flavored. 

AVith  the  Canadian  farmers,  winter 
is  the  social  time  of  the  whole  year, 
since  then,  if  ever,  they  enjoy  what  is 
known  as  a  "slack"  season.  In  the  vil- 
lages, too,  a  varying  tide  of  social  life 
ife  always  kept  up.  In  a  certain  village 
known  to  the  writer,  each  succeeding 
winter  for  a  number  of  years,  has 
brought  its  distinct  and  favorite  amuse- 
ment. One  winter  it  was  evening  part- 
ies, where  guessing  contests  of  every 
description,  were  indulged  in.  Another 
year,  the  lot  fell  upon  public  dinners, 
given  always  for  some  ostensible  reason, 
when  the  village  folk — ladies,  gentle- 
men and  young  people — ^would  congre- 

gate to  enjoy  an  excellent  menu,  fol- 
lowed by  speeches,  toasts  drunk  in  wat- 
er, and  music.  It  was  a  simple  and 
pleasant  way  of  bringing  people  to- 
gether, and  of  promoting  sociability. 

Canadians  are  accustomed  to  regard 
winter  as  a  single  climatic  condition. 
In  reality,  the  most  varied,  and  fascin- 
ating changes  are  rung  upon  the  central 
theme.  At  times,  the  sunset  colors  are 
boiled  to  strongest  dregs,  and  smeared 
in  bloody  welts,  on  the  low  south-west 
sky.  Seen  through  a  filter  of  dull-black 
tree  trunks,  over  a  stainless  waste  of 
snow,  they  seem  to  mark  the  trail  of  a 
red  and  fiery  hand. 

There  are  days  when  the  winter 
world  is  dressed  in  the  innocent  baby 
colors  of  blue,  and  white.  Such  a  rav- 
ishing, childish  blue  on  the  hills!  Such 
a  deepening,  tender  blue  in  the  radiant 
sky!  Such  a  white-swept  earth,  reach- 
ing away  and  away  to  the  mountains! 

There  are  the  hoar-frost  mornings, 
when  the  trees  are  fussy  with  prickly, 
cob-web  stuff,  and  the  snow  is  gray- 
gummed  with  a  dazzling,  frozen  mesh. 

There  are  the  careless,  inconsequent 
little  snow  storms,  hardly  caring  wheth- 
er they  snow,  or  not.  There  are  the  fine, 
sifting  storms  which  unobtrusively, 
but  steadily,  pack  their  tough  crust,  and 
drift  the  roads  level.  And  there  are  the 
business-like  snow  storms,  when  the 
flakes  come  down  nearly  straight,  are 
fair-sized,  and  very  soft  and  downy.  As 
one  looks  up,  they  appear  a  pale-gray 
color,  and  swarm  and  swirl  in  mighty 
conflict,  like  a  tangle  of  mammoth  mos- 
quitoes. Sometimes  a  flock  of  snow 
flakes  falls  daintily,  and  separately, 
with  the  sun  filtering  through  them — 
pale-gold,  aerial  things  which  spurn  the 
ground,  so  lightly  do  they  touch  it. 

But  surpassing  all  these  in  magnifi- 
cence, in  wonder,  in  awesomeness,  is  the 
ice  storm.  It  ushers  in  days  that  are 
pitiless  and  bitter,  but  beautiful  as  a 
dream.  The  trees  stand  stiffly,  helpless- 
ly, in  a  glittering  ice  casing;  run,  as  it 
were,  in  a  mould  of  transparent  sugar 
syrup  which  has  cooled,  and  hardened 
on  them.  The  sun  dances  cold  and 
bright  on  their  predicament,  and  a  bru- 



tal  wind  sings  through  them.  One  who 
has  never  heard  the  sound  cannot  im- 
agine it.  Those  who  have  heard  it,  will 
never  forget  it — that  awful  singing  in 
those  anguished  tree  tops.  Even  the 
horses,  as  they  pass  beneath  with  sledg- 
es, look  awed  and  startled  at  the  wild, 
rasping  dirge. 

Following  the  due  order  of  things, 
come,  at  last,  our  Canadian  spring 
mornings — typical,  charming,  inimit- 
able. There's  nothing  like  them  in  the 
world!  They  ravish  the  soul  out  of 
your  body  in  ecstacy.  The  air  is  a  ton- 
ic, distilled  to  intoxication  point.  The 
surface  layer  of  snow,  slightly  thawed 
by  the  warmth  of  the  previous  day,  has 
frozen  during  the  night,  and  will  bear 
your  weight.  Places  are  open  to  you  on 
these  radiant  mornings  which  will  be 
inaccessible  when  the  ardent  sun  has 
again  pressed  the  chaste  snow  to  its 
yielding;  and  for  a  few  exhilarating 
hours  you  can  pass  an  unceremonious 

"time-o'-day"  with  the  tops  of  apple 
trees,  or  cultivate  a  walking  acquain- 
tance with  the  submerged  tips  of  fence 

And  now,  if  you're  a  housewife,  with 
the  heart  of  woman  in  you,  you  make 
"vanity,"  and  old-fashioned  twisted 
doughnuts,  and  quivering  custards,  and 
lemon  pies,  for  your  family's  delecta- 
tion. And  if  you're  a  man,  and  a  farm- 
er, you  watch  with  growing  impatience 
the  brown-backed  ridges  come  through 
on  the  hill  sides,  for  the  action-incit- 
ing influences  of  seed-time,  and  spring 
plowing,  have  cast  their  feverish  speli 
upon  you. 

From  the  barns  the  bleat  of  new- 
born lambs  sounds  weak  and  shrill,  and 
in  the  blood-cells  of  the  maples  the  sap 
is  stirring.  Already,  the  ''hounds  of 
spring  are  on  Winter's  traces,"  and  we 
are  trespassing  on  the  precincts  of  an- 
other season. 

A  snowshoeing  expedition  in   readiness  for  the  start. 

By  Grasmere 

"  To    Idealize   one    Spot   in    Nature    is    Every    Farmer's   Privilege." 

KEEP  the  poultry  house  dry,  well  ven- 
tilated and  sunny. 

The  poultry  mating  pens  should  be 
arranged  for  this  month. 

Pure  air  is  one  of  the  best  medicines 
in  the  live  stock  barns. 

Keep  the  sheep  in  open  or  well  aired 
pens,  free  from  dampness. 

Use  some  good  disinfectant  in  your 
stock  pens  every  three  weeks. 

Feed  the  horse  a  few  carrots,  and  mo- 
lasses meal  this  month. 

If  your  hens  do  not  start  to  lay  this 
month,  the  fault  is  not  the  hen's. 

Have  you  named  that  farm  of  yours 


iP.O  you  keep  any  books  of  your  farm 

Have  you  a  camera  and  a  scrap 

Grade  your  potatoes  before  marketing 

Nobody  wants  all  your  little  potatoes 
mixed  in  the  bag  with  the  others. 

All  remaining  useless  cockerels 
should  be  fattened  and  sold  this  month. 


Increase  the  rations  of  meal  slightly 
to  the  fattening  cattle  this  month. 

What  about  organizing  a  Grange  or 
Grain  Growers'  branch  in  your  neigh- 

If  you  have  to  buy  stock  to  make 
new  matings  among  the  geese  and 
ducks,  look  after  it  this  month. 

If  any  animal  shows  any  lack  of 
thrift,  do  not  trust  to  luck  for  its  recov- 
ery.   There  is  a  cause.    Find  it. 

Breed  this  month  to  get  the  litters 
in  early  part  of  May,  when  grass  and 
sunshine  make  their  advent  welcome. 

Use  a  pure  bred  sire  every  time,  for 
defects  transmit  themselves  far  more 
readily  than  do  the  good  points. 

Arrange  the  sheep  feeding  racks  so 
that  they  wdll  get  as  little  dirt  in  their 
wool  as  possible. 

Give  the  horses  regular  exercise  in 
the  open.  Many  paddocks  around  the 
barn  are  an  excellent  thing. 

The  brood  mares  should  have  their 
shoes  removed  this  month  if  they  are 
not   doing  team   work. 



The  ox  and  the  mule  get  very  little 
attention  this  month,  but  some  care 
would  make  them  more  serviceable. 

Spraying  may  be  done  on  the  dor- 
mant trees  this  month  if  the  weather 
is  mild  enough  to  operate. 

This  is  the  best  month  of  all  for 
the  taking  of  a  farm  inventory.  Know 
where  you  stand  each  year. 

The  camera  will  teach  you  many 
things  of  interest  from  year  to  year  in 
your  live  stock  work. 

The  modern  farmer  believes  in  sell- 
ing a  good  article  and  being  honest  with 
his  buyers. 

Do  not  be  so  grasping  for  dollars  that 
your  own  family  has  to  go  away  from 
home  to  taste  a  chicken  pie. 

If  any  steer  in  the  fat  pens  is  not 
doing  well,  take  him  out  and  ascertain 
the  cause. 

Salt  is  essential  to  the  animals  during 
the  winter.  Rock  salt  in  the  manger 
is  handy. 

How  do  you  expect  to  handle  the 
hired  help  problem  next  year?  The 
married  man  for  the  year  is  the  best. 
Be  careful  about  the  disposition  of  the 
wastes  from  the  house.  Be  sure  the  well 
is  free  from  pollution. 

Lifting   big   stones    in    winter. 

Raising  a  splendid  bum  near  Aylmer,  Ontario.     The   owner  values   the   sunlight   among    his 




The  boys  on  this  farm  are  foud  of  their  work. 
Stacking  timothy   hay  on   a   farm   west   of 
V  Edmonton. 

Plan  to  lighten  the  work  of  the  farm 
women.  Washday  and  other  busy  days 
are  hard  when  there  are  no  conveni- 

Bind  your  Farmer's  Magazines  and 
keep  them  for  reference.  The  index  in 
each  can  be  pencil  marked  for  especial 
reference  by  yourself. 

Order  your  nursery  stock  this  month 
and  next.  Get  a  catalog  from  all  the 
nursery  growers  and  find  out  just  what 
you  want. 

Watch  the  young  fruit  trees  for  at- 
tacks by  rabbits  and  mice.    It  may  pay 

to  wrap  the  trunks  of  such  trees  as  are 
near  fence  rows. 

Have  a  sun-room  if  possible  for  the 
early  lambs  that  you  expect  for  your 
Easter  trade.  They  do  much  better 
when  the  sun  gets  in. 

Watch  the  apple  cellar.  See  that 
the  thermometer  stands  about  30  de- 
grees above  zero  as  much  of  the  time 
as  possible. 

The  farm  family  should  use  good 
apples  for  their  own  use.  Otherwise 
you  will  be  using  rotten  ones  all  the 

If  the  weather  keeps  open  at  all, 
much  work  on  the  clearing  of  rough 
parts  of  the  farm  can  be  done  this 

That  young  colt  is  very  likely  to  eat 
too  much  hay  and  straw.  See  that  he 
gets,  not  too  much  roughage,  but 
enough  crushed  oats  and  bran. 

Plan  the  drains  you  intend  to  put 
in.  You  have  had  enough  experience 
with  water  this  past  year,  to  tell  you 
where  they  are  needed  the  most. 

What  about  a  bathroom  and  running 
water  in  the  farm  home?  There  is  no 
home  more  in  need  of  these  creature 
comforts,  even  more  urgent  than  a 

The  model  farm  at  Guelph  prepares 
the  ensilage  feeds  for  the  cattle  a  day 
ahead.  The  feeder  mixes  pulped  tur- 
nips and  ensilage  with  cut  straw  and 
chaff.       . 

steers  fattened  in  the  open  at  Lacombe,  Alta.,  for    which    the    highest    price-     was    received. 



A    homestead    view    in    Sask.      A      beginning    in    live    stock. 

The  stallion  must  be  exercised  and 
groomed  regularly,  as  at  other  times. 
One  cannot  afford  to  let  him  get  out 
of  condition.  It  helps  his  disposition 

Pigs  thrive  well  on  alfalfa  and  red 
clover  in  the  winter  time.  Soak  some 
in  hot  water  and  try  it.  Even  put  the 
clover  in  racks  and  see  how  they  w^ll 
go  for  it. 

Write  the  Government  for  bulletins 
on  any  subject  on  which  you  want  in- 
formation. The  bulletins  mentioned  in 
the  December  number  of  Farmer's  on 
page  71  are  nearly  all  obtainable.   • 

Examiine  the  ewes  for  ticks.  If  any 
are  found  chose  a  good  day  and  when 
sheep  are  in  the  barn,  pour  some  good 
wash  along  their  bodies  where  the  wool 
has  been  parted.  An  ordinary  sprinkler 
can  with  the  sprinkler  off  is  first  class. 

white  Leghorns  on  a  large  scale,  gave 
to  the  boys  eggs  in  the  following  way : — 

A    Financial    Puzzle 

What  farmer  can  send  first  a  correct 
solution  for  this? 

Tom,  Dick  and  Harry  were  three 
young  brothers  living  on  a  farm  in 
Brookville.     Their  father,   who  raised 

To  Tom 

-       10 

"    Dick 

.      30 

"   Harry 

-      50 

The  three  boys  started  off  to  town 
with  their  baskets  of  eggs,  intending  to 
have  some  spending  money  from  the 
proceeds.  The  sale  was  slow  at  first, 
but  finished  up  better.  However,  they 
decided  not  to  spend  any  of  the  money, 
and  w^hen  the  three  boys  again  met  at 
the  supper  table  at  their  home,  it  was 
found  that  something  really  amazing 
had  happened.  The  father  was  non- 
plussed and  thought  his  boys  were  put- 
ting up  a  game  on  him.  *  In  reality  they 
were  not. 

Each  came  back  with  the  full  pro- 
ceeds of  his  sale.  Each  sold  the  eggs  in 
the  same  market  at  the  same  rate  and 
each  had  identically  the  same  amount 
of  money.  The  father  could  not  make 
it  out.  "It  is  impossible, '*  said  he,  "for 
the  boy  with  only  10  eggs  to  get  as 
much  as  the  boy  with  50  eggs." 

Yet  that  is  what  he  did.  How  was 
it  done? 

(Address  all  answers  to  Grasmere,  c|o 
Farmer's  Magazine,  143  University 
Ave.,  Toronto,  Ontario.) 



Fall  Wheat   Prospects 

Special    report   in   the   U.    S.   crop   by    the 
Orange-Judd  Farmer. 

EVERY  farmer  in  Canada  will  be  inter- 
ested in  the  prospects  for  next  year's 
crops.  The  reports  of  the  Orange-Judd 
Farmer  show  that  the  winter  wheat  crop 
has  made  excellent  growth  over  practically 
all  of  the  district  this  fall,  and  has  gone 
into  winter  quarters  strong  and  vigorous 
and  very  promising.  The  figures  of  condi- 
tions of  winter  wheat  on  December  1  show 
an  average  of  92.2,  which  is  from  three  to 
four  points  above  the  average  for  a  series 
of  years,  and  is  about  six  points  higher 
than  it  was  at  this  time  last  year.  Of 
course,  the  report  of  condition  at  this  early 
date  in  the  history  of  the  crop  really  carries 
very  little  significance,  so  far  as  probable 
results  are  concerned,  except  that  it  indi- 
cates that  the  plant  has  made  a  good  start, 
and  is  in  better  than  usual  position  to  with- 
stand the  vicissitudes  of  the  winter.  The 
only  point  to  be  gathered  from  this  high 
appearance  of  condition  is,  that  in  spite  of 
a  little  drouth  here  and  there  and  some  un- 
favorable soil  conditions  in  a  limited  ter- 
ritory, the  general  situation  is  that  the 
wheat  has  begun  its  career  with  favorable 

There  is  a  little  complaint  of  lack  of 
sufficient  rainfall  during  the  latter  part  of 
the  aufumn  in  parts  of  Kentucky  and  Ten- 
nessee and  in  limited  districts  in  Texas,  Ok- 
lahoma and  Southern  Kansas.  Elsewhere 
throughout  the  belt  all  conditions  have  been 
favorable  and  the  growth  has  been  so 
strong,  particularly  in  the  southwestern 
states,   that  the   fields  have  been  pastured 

Best  Sliortboru   steer  at  the  Maritime  Winter 

Sweepstakes  cow  in  tlie  72-hour  dairy  test  at 
the  Maritime  Winter  Fair,  Amherst,  N.S., 
owned  by  A.  McRae  &  Sons,  of  Charlotte- 
town,  P.E.I. 

much    heavier    than    is    often    the    case,    in 
order  to  hold  back  the  top  growth. 

Comparisons  With  a  Year  Ago. 

The  acreage  seeded  to  wheat  in  the  fall 
of  1911  was  reported  at  a  little  over  32,- 
000,000  acres.  A  more  complete  survey  of 
the  situation  proves  that  there  was  an  un- 
derestimate at  that  time  of  almost  a  million 
acres  in  Kansas.  This  fact  is  now  substan- 
tiated by  the  returns  of  the  local  township 
assessors  for  that  state.  The  greater  part 
of  this  under-statement  represented  the 
area  that  was  seeded  in  the  far  western 
and  north-western  counties,  where,  on  ac- 
count of  unfavorable  winter  conditions,  fol- 
lowed by  severe  drouth  during  June  and 
part  of  July,  the  rate  of  yield  finally  se- 
cured was  very  small,  so  that  the  acknowl- 
edgment of  this  underestimate  of  acreage 
for  tliat  state  does  not  result  in  any  very 
material  change  in  the  final  crop  of  the 
state  as  previously  estimated. 

According  to  the  returns  of  our  corres- 
jiondents  the  acreage  this  year  is  2.8  per 
cent,  less  than  the  area  actually  seeded  in 
1911;  this  conclusion  giving  a  total  area  this 
year  of  32,551,000  acres,  as  the  preliminary 
report  of  our  correspondents. 

There  is  a  decrease  in  the  acreage  seeded 
in  the  soft  winter  wheat  states  east  of  the 
Mississippi  river,  and  quite  marked  in  Illin- 
ois, where  the  shortage  is  15  per  cent.  Off- 
setting this  to  some  extent  is  a  slight  in- 
crease in  Iowa  and  Texas,  and  a  material 
increase  in  Oklahoma,  Nebraska  and  the 
north  Pacific  coast. 




bur  Home  Atfainst  Dirt 




It  will  pay  you  to   answer  advertisements. 






$500  in  Gold  Cash  Prizes 

Why  not  be  a  WINNER  in   this  Contest. 

We  are  giving  away  $500  in  Gold  Cash  Prizes  to  users  of  the  "Champion"  Evaporator. 
Full  particulars  will  be  mailed  on  receipt  of  inquiry. 

The  Competition  will  take  place  during  the  last  two  weeks  of  April,  and  the  samples 
of  syrup  and  sugar  received  will  be  placed  on  exhibit  in  the  show  windows  of  the 
•^^ Montreal  Star."  Every  purchaser  and  user  of  the  Grimm  "Champion"  Evaporator  may 
take  part  in  this  contest.  Now  is  the  time  to  properly  equip  yourself  to  make  high-grade 
syrup  and  sugar — high-priced,  and  therefore  profitable.     Do  it  now  before  the  sap  runs. 

State  the  number  of  trees  you  will  tap,  and  we  will 
give  you  price  on  a  suitably  sized  outfit.  Address 
all  enquiries:  Prize  Contest, 


56-58  Wellington  St.,  MONTREAL,  QUE. 

Ontario  Wind  Engine  &  Pump  Company's 


There  is  nothing  in  chance 
or  number  13 

In  buying  the  O.  W.  E.  &  P.  Co.'s  lines  you  will 
^^get  an  Engine  in  the  Stickney  or  Chapman  that 
;^^will  start  at  Zero.  A  Windmill,  the  Toronto, 
with  30%  more  material  in  its  legs  to  stand  the 
gale.  A  Feed  Mill  that  has  the  accurracy  and 
efficiency  of  a  Flour  Mill.  A  Well  Drill  without 
Gears,  friction  driven,  with  sand  lined  speed  of 
from  400  to  600  feet  per  minute,  and  you  can 
give  Luck  and  No.  13  a  shrug  and  a  laugh. 

Ontario  Wind  Engine  &  Pump  Co.,  Ltd, 

Winnipeg  Toronto  Calgary 

'Stickney"    or    "Chapman* 

'Toronto"    Grinder. 

"Chapman"  Well   Drill. 

•Toronto"    Wind    Mill 




The  Sunrisers' 
Club  of  Successful  Men. 

EVERY  morning  —  about 
the  land  —  there  is  a 
bunch  of  get-there  men 
who  are  off  the  mattress  at  the 
first  crack  of  a  bell. 

They  swing  down  to  their 
work  with  cheek  aglow — with 
•  grit  afresh — with  eye  alight — 
they're  the  Sunrisers'  Club  of 
Successful  Men — most  are  ac- 
quainted with  Big  Ben. 

They've  left  it  to  him  to  get 
them   up   in    the    world  —  and 

he's  done  it  so  loyally,  so 
cheerfully,  so  promptly,  that 
he's  already  sleepmeter  to  two 
millions  of  their  homes. 

Big  Ben's  the  clock  for  get-there  men. 
He  stands  7  inches  tall,  massive,  well-poised, 
triple  plated.  He  is  easy  to  read,  easy  to 
wind,  and  pleasing  to  hear. 

He  calls  just  when  you  want  and  either  way 
you  want,  steadily  for  5  minutes  or  intermittently 
for  10. — He's  two  good  clocks  in  one,  a  dandy 
alarm  to  wake  up  with,  a  dandy  clock  to  tell 
time  all  day  by. 

Big  Ben  is  sold  by  6,000  Canadian  dealers.  His  price  is 
$3.00  anywhere  in  the  Dominion.  If  you  can  not  find  him 
in  your  town,  a  money  order  sent  to  his  designers,  Westdox,  La 
Salle,  Illinois,  will  bring  him  to  you  attractively  boxed  and 
duty  charges  prepaid. 

Say  you  saw  the  ad.  in  Farmer's  Magazine. 






additional  arrangements  for  representation  in  Can- 
ada. This  line  is  widely  advertised,  very  favorably 
known  to  the  trade  and  is  now  carried  by  a  good 
proportion  of  the  hardware  dealers  in  the  country, 
additional  representation  is  desired  in  Eastern  and 
Central  Canada.  Box  132,  Farmer's  Magazine,  143- 
147   University   Ave.,    Toronto,    Ont.  (tf) 


anyone  can  learn  it  at  home.  Small  cost.  Send  to- 
day. 2  cent  stamp  for  particulars  and  proof.  O.  A. 
Smith,  Room  D73,  823  Bigelow  St.,  Peoria,  111., 
U.S.A.  (3c) 


— Twenty  complete  lessons.  The  successful  Poultry 
Book.  Treatise  on  care  of  domestic  fowls,  sent  free 
on  request.  O.  Rolland,  Sole  agent,  Des  Moines  In- 
cubator  Department   25.     P.O.   Box   2363.    Montreal. 

of  large  white  eggs.  Best  general  purpose  fowl  for 
farmers.  Lays  more  eggs  than  any  hen.  Easily 
raised.  No  expense.  Make  fine  table  birds.  Stock 
and  eggs  for  sale  at  all  times.  %Send  for  full  infor- 
mation. C.  J.  Edgar,  M.D.,  Cozy  Nook  Duck  Farm. 
North  Hatley,  Prov.  Que.  (tf) 


about  land  and  realty,  commercial  and  industrial 
opportunities  on  receipt  of  stamp.  Straight  truthful 
information.  H.  A.  R.  Macdonald,  9  Dominion 
Building,    Calgary,    Canada.  (tf) 


ton,  F.C.S.  Treating  with  the  utmopt  clearness  and 
conciseness,  and  in  he  most  popular  manner  possible, 
of  the  relations  of  chemistry  to  agriculture,  and 
providing  a  manual  for  those  not  having  time  to 
systematically  study  chemistry  and  its  relations 
to  operations  on  the  farm.  120  pages.  5x7  inches. 
Cloth.  $1.00.  Technical  Book  Dept..  MacLean  Pub. 
Co..   143  University   Ave.,   Toronto. 

By  Prof.  Thomas  Shaw.  The  place  for  this  book 
will  be  at  once  apparent  when  it  is  stated  that  it  is 
the  first  book  that  has  ever  been  written  which  dis- 
cusses the  management  and  feeding  of  cattle,  from 
the  birth  of  the  calf  until  It  has  fulfilled  its  mission 
in  life,  whether  on  the  block  or  at  the  pail.  The  book 
is  handsomely  printed  on  fine  paper,  from  large, 
clear  type.  Fully  illustrated.  51/2x8  inches.  496 
pages.  Cloth.  Net.  $2.00.  Technical  Book  Dept., 
MacLean   Pub.   Co.,  143  University   Ave.,   Toronto. 

smith.  A  most  helpful  book  to  all  farmers  and  stu- 
dents interested  in  the  selection  and  improvement 
of  corn.  It  is  profusely  illustrated  from  photographs, 
all  of  which  carry  their  own  story  and  contribute 
their  part  in  making  pictures  and  text  matter  a 
clear,  concise  and  interesting  study  of  corn.  Illus- 
trated. 5x7  inches.  100  pages.  Cloth.  Price,  net, 
$0.50.  Technical  Book  Dept.,  MacLean  Pub.  Co., 
143  University  Ave.,  Toronto. 

Rewritten,  greatly  enlarged  and  brought  up  to 
date.  A  new  method  of  growing  onions  of  largest 
size  and  yield,  on  less  land,  than  can  be  raised 
by  the  old  plan.  Many  farmers,  gardeners  and 
experiment  stations  have  given  it  practical  trials 
which  have  proved  a  success.  Illustrated.  140 
pages.    5x7   inches.     Cloth,   $0.50. 

practical  guide  for  beginners  and  a  standard  refer- 
ence of  great  interest  to  persons  already  engaged 
in  celery  growing.  It  contains  many  illustrations 
giving  a  clear  conception  of  the  practical  side  of 
celery  culture.  The  work  is  complete  in  every  detail, 
from  sowing  a  few  seeds  in  a  window-box  in  the 
house  for  early  plants,  to  the  handling  and  market- 
ing of  celery  in  carload  lots.  Fully  illustrated. 
150  pages.  5x7  inches.  Cloth,  $0.50.  Technical  Book 
Dept.,  MacLean  Pub.  Co..  143  University  Ave..  Tor- 

William  Burkett.  This  book  abounds  in  helpful 
suggestions  and  valuable  information  for  the  most 
successful  treatment  of  ills  and  accidents,  and  disease 
troubles.  A  practical  treatise  on  the  diseases  of 
farm  stock;  conaining  brief  and  popular  advice  on 
the  nature,  cause  and  treatment  of  disease,  the  com- 
mon ailments  and  the  care  and  management  of  stock 
when  sick.  It  is  profusely  illustrated,  containing  a 
number  of  half-tone  insert  illustrations  and  a  great 
many  drawings  picturing  diseases,  their  symptoms 
and  familiar  attitudes  assumed  by  farm  animals 
when  affected  with  disease,  and  presents,  for  the 
first  time,  a  plain,  practical  and  satisfactory  guide 
for  farmers  who  are  interested  in  the  common  dis- 
eases of  the  farm.  Illustrated.  5x7  inches.  288 
pages.  Cloth.  Net.  $1.50.  Technical  Book  Dept 
MacLean   Pub.  Co..  143  University  Ave..  Toronto. 

J.  B.  Davidson  and  L.  W.  Chase.  This  is  the  first 
American  book  published  on  the  subject  of  Farm 
Machinery  since  that  written  by  J.  .T.  Thomas  in 
1867.  This  was  before  the  development  of  many  of 
the  more  important  farm  machines  and  the  general 
application  of  power  to  the  work  of  the  farm. 
Modern  farm  machinery  is  indispensable  in  present- 
day  farming  operations,  and  a  practical  book  like 
Farm  Machinery  and  Farm  Motors  will  fill  a  much- 
felt  need.  The  book  has  been  written  from  lec- 
tures used  by  the  authors  before  their  classes  for 
several  years,  and  which  were  prepared  from  prac- 
ical  experience  and  a  thorough  review  of  the  liter- 
ature pertaining  to  the  subject.  Although  written 
primarily  as  a  text-book,  it  is  equallv  useful  for 
the  practical  farmer.  Profusely  illustrated.  5^^x8 
inches.  520  pages.  Cloth.  Net.  $2.00.  Technical 
Book  Dept.,  MacLean  Pub.  Co.,  143  University  Ave. 


S.  B.  Reed.  This  useful  volume  meets  the  wants 
of  persons  of  moderate  means,  and  gives  a  wide 
range  of  designs,  from  a  dwelling  costing  $250  up 
to  $8,000.  and  adapted  to  farm,  village  or  town 
residences.  Nearly  all  of  these  plans  have  been 
tested  by  practical  working.  It  gives  an  estimate 
of  the  quality  of  every  article  used  in  the  construc- 
tion, and  the  cost  of  each  arti^-le  at  the  time  the 
building  was  erected  or  the  design  made. 
Profusely    illustrated.     243    pages.     5x7.      Cloth. $1.00 

dred and  fifty-seven  illustrations.  A  most  valuable 
work  full  of  ideas,  suggestions,  plans,  etc.,  for  the 
construction  of  barns  and  outbuildings,  by  prac- 
tical writers.  Chapters  are  devoted  to  the  economic 
erection  and  use  of  barns,  grain  barns,  horse  barns, 
cattle  barns,  sheep  barns,  corn  houses,  smoke  houses, 
ice  houses,  pig  pens,  granaries,  etc.  There  are  like- 
wise chapters  upon  bird  houses,  dog  houses,  tool 
sheds,  ventilators,  roofs  and  roofing,  doors  and'  fast- 
enings, workshops,  poultry  houses,  manure  sheds, 
barnyards,  root  pits,  etc.  235  pages.  5x7  inches. 
Cloth.   $1.00. 

Say  you  saw  the  ad.  in  Farmer's  Magazine. 

Adverti^inir  FARMERVS    MAGAZINE  125 


Impossibilities  of  Yesterday  are  Realizations  of  To-day 

THE  I.X.L. 

Washes  a  Tub  of  Clothes  Perfectly  in  3  Minutes 

Not  Only  WASHES  but  RINSES  and  BLUES. 

A  New  Patent — A  New  Process.  No  Rubbing  or  Batting. 
Absolutely  no  Friction  and  consequently  No  Wear  on  the 
Clothes  in  Washing  Them. 

Rubbing,  Not  Wearing,  Shortens   the  Life  of  Most  Garments. 


the  water  and  soap  through  the  goods  by  compressed  air  and 
suction,  and  cleans  perfectly  all  classes  of  washable  clothes  in 
less  than  half  the  time  it  takes  to  do  it  by  any  other  method. 

Clothes  that  have  become  dingy  from  poor  washings  are  soon 
restored  to  their  original  whiteness. 

THE  BACK  to  operate  it.     Simple  as  A.B.C. 

A  CHILD  can  do  any  ordinary  Family  Washing  and  have  it 
ready  for  the  line  in  HALF  AN  HOUR. 

You  can  also  do  all  your  DRY  CLEANING  of  every  descrip- 
tion with  this  machine.  A  saving  of  MANY  DOLLARS  to  you 
every  year. 

Delivered   to  you   all   Charges  paid   on  receipt  of  $3.50  under 
MONEY  BACK  GUARANTEE  if  it  does  not  do  ALL  we  claim       c\ 
and  MORE.  0^'^ 

SEND  FOR  IT  TO  DAY.  ^^     c^ 

See  Special  Coupon  Of  f  er  to  Readers  of  ^  >^  /    ^t^- 

Farmer's  Magazine  qJ9  ^^o^^^^*^4^^e^'^^ 

Dominion  Utilities  Manufacturing  ^^?C^^5v^.^'' 

Company,  Ltd.  ,c^^^^  >;     : 

Authorized  Capital— $100,000.00  a  >J   <&^  "S&V^S**  ' 

Capital  Fully  Paid— $55,000.00  -^v^  V'    »*t'  «*" 

482J  Main  St.,  Winnipeg,  Man.        J^    J^f^v^** 

^        *<-^o«^  ■  *»*^'     >^=^'%^°" 

It  is  to  your  advantage  to  mention   Farmer's   Magazine. 




The  ^ 




Masse  y-Harris 
Manure  Spreader 

Insures  Even  Spreading. 

Teeth  are  arranged  spirally,  thus  working  the  manure 
evenly  over  the  entire  width  of  the  machine. 

Beater  has  positive  drive  and  works  in  self-ahgning 
bearings,  which  prevent  binding  and  excessive  wear  on  the 
working  parts. 

Adjustable  Rake  above  Beater  assists  in  levelling 

and  pulverizing  large  pieces  of  manure  before  Beater 

deposits  it  on  the  ground. 



Toronto,     Montreal,     Moncton,     Winnipeg,     Regina, 
Saskatoon,  Calgary,  Edmonton. 

Illustrated  Booklet  upon 

It  is  to   your  advantage  to  mention   Farmer's   Magazine. 





cannot  afford  to  ignore  if  they  wish  to  obtain 


POTASH  in  the  highly  concentrated  forms  of  SULPHATE  OF  POTASH  and 
MURIATE  OF  POTASH  may  be  obtained  from  all  leading  fertilizer  dealers  and 
seedsmen.     Write  us  for  FREE  copies  of  our  bulletins,  which  include: 

"Artificial  Fertilizers,  Their  Nature  and  Use." 
"Fertilizing  Orchard  and  Garden." 
"Fertilizing  Fodder  Crops." 
"The  Potato  Crop  in  Canada." 
"The  Farmer's  Companion,"  etc. 


Manager:   B.  LESLIE  EMSLIE.  P.A.S.I.,  F.C.S.,  C.D.A.  (Glas.) 


Our  specialty  is  Canadian  Raw  Furs.  Write 
for  our  free  price  list  of  Canadian  Furs.  We 
pay  all  mail  and  express  cliarges.  Remit  same 
day  as  goods  received.  Hold  shipments  separ- 
ate when  requested.  Prepay  charges  for  re- 
turning furs  if  valuation  is  not  satisfactory. 
We  do  not  buy  from  dealers,  but  from  trap- 
pers only. 


141  King  Street  East  •  -         TORONTO 

N.   HALLMAN,    Mgr.,        E.   J.   HAGEN,   Secy., 
Four  years  with  John  Hallam     11  years  with  John  Hallam. 

,.^-  >r^^,.',«mm»i 

Better  Light 
for  $3.00 

i.     \i 


doubles  the  brilliancy  of 
your  table  or  hanging  lamp. 

Makes  reading,  writing 
and  sewing  a  pleasure. 

Fits    any  ordinary  lamp. 

The  General  Sales  Co. 

272  Main  Street 
1                Winnipeg,  Man. 

TL^  lilllFOTAnC  I  IDDIIDV  Authoritative  works  on  InTestment  and  Speculation:  in- 
1116  IliVtulUnU  LlDllAtll  valuable  to  those  interested  in  Stock  Market  Operations 
■  ■■W     ■■^■fciWlWlMW        ^■■#■■^■■1        g^^  ^^j^g^  j^^^g  ^j  investment.    These  books  are  hand- 

somely  printed  and  bound  in  cloth. 


THE  ART   OF   WALL   STREET   INVESTING,   By    John    Moody    fl.OO 

Deals  with  the   methods  and  phrases   of  Wall   Street   investing,  giving  rules   for  analysing 
railroad  securities     and   statements  and  explaining  syndicates  and   re-organizations. 
MINING  INVESTMENTS— HOW  TO  JUDGE  THEM,  By  Francis  C.  Nicholas,  Ph.D..     $1.00 
The  author  is  a  mining  engineer  of  world-wide  experience,  who  has  made  special  study  of 
mining  values  the  world  over. 

THE    PITFALLS   OF    SPECULATION,    By    Thomas    Gibson    fl.OO 

Dealing  exclusively  with  marginal  stock  and  grain  speculation. 

THE  CYCLES  OF  SPECULATION,   By  Thomas  Gibson   fl.50 

In  this  book  the  author  goes  a  little  deeper  Into  great  questions  of  investment  and  specu- 
lation than   he  does  In  his  "Pitfalls  of  Speculation." 


Maclean  Publisljing  Company,  Technical  Book  Dept.    "' "'  "''KI^?}?S  *'''^""^ 

128  l^^ARMER'S    MAGAZINE  AdvertUinsr 


The  telephone  is  a  public  servant.  Day  in 
and  da^  out  all  through  the  twenty-four 
hours — the  people's  word  is  carried  through 
the  hoard.  The  constancy  of  this  wear  and 
tear  will  soon  result  in  big  depreciation  costs 
if  the  equipment  has  not  the  necessary  quality 
and  endurance  to  '* stand  up'*  under  it 

There,  is  this  thing  to  remember  about 
Kellogg,  it  will  give  you  many  years  of 
reliable  service. 

10,000  complete  plants  in  the  United 

The  Service  of  the  Telephone.  Proves  the  Worth  of  the  Line 


Main  Factory  and  Office:  CHICAGO 

It  is  to   your  advantage  to  mention   Farmer's   Magazine. 




Plow--Disk--Sow--One  Operation 

The  Strongest 
Plough  Engine 

About  It 

In  considering  the  Tractor  question  be  sure  you  get  DURABILITY,  RELIABILITY,  EFFICIENCY 


have  proven  their  reliabilty  under  the  severest  western  conditions.    Their  reputation  is  undisputed. 


Portage  La  Prairie,  Man. 

Head  Office  and  Factories: 

Waterloo,  Ont. 

Regina,  Sask. 

The  Ideal  Pump  for  the  Farm 

Is    the    '^Imperial"    Anti-Freezing   Force   Pump   which   em- 
bodies every  good  quality  that  is  essential  to  a  pump. 

It  has  a  large  air  chamber  extending  to  top  of  stand,  contain 
ing  127M:  cu.  inches.  Has  1%  inch  plunger  pipe  instead  of 
stuffing  box.  The  advantage  over  the  stuffing  box  is  that  it  has 
three  plunger  buckets  which  are  self-expanding,  and  therefore 
require  no  attention.  Can  be  used  on  any  sized  pipe  from  1^ 
to  2  inches  in  diameter,  tapped  for  li/4,  1%  or  2  inch  pipe.  On 
tubular  wells  the  plunger  can  be  withdrawn  without  removing 
the  pump.     Altogether  the  best  pump  for  farm  purposes. 


Aylmer  Pump  and  Scale  Co.,  Ltd, 

Aylmer,  Ontario 

It  is  to  your  advantage  to   mention    F.irmer's   Magjizine. 

ISO  FARMER'S    MAGAZINE  Advertisinir 


Are  You  Interested  in  Canadian 
Investments  ? 

The  Financial  Post  of  Canada  is  the 
authority  on  Canadian  investments. 
Authentic  information  on  the  following 
topics  is  furnished  weekly  : 

LONDON  and  NEW  YORK  letters  explain  conditions 
affecting  Canadian  stocks  on  these  markets. 

MIDDLE  WEST  and  PACIFIC  COAST  correspond- 
ence discusses  activity  in  those  fast  expanding 

THE  BUSINESS  OUTLOOK  reviews  and  forecasts  in- 
dustrial and  commercial  conditions. 

THE  REALTY  MARKET  throughout  Canada  is  closely 
studied  and  discussed. 

THE  MINING  MARKET  and  its  trend,  explaining 
cause  and  effect,  is  ably  treated. 

THE  BOND  SITUATION,  both  of  municipalities  and 
corporations,  is  closely  followed. 

THE  SECURITY  REVIEW  gives  much  exclusive  in- 
formation as  to  the  growth,  earnings  and  busi- 
ness prospects  of  Canadian  corporations. 

tained free  to  subscribers. 


The  Financial  Post 

of  Canada 


Offices : 

Montreal,    Toronto,  Winnipeg,  Vancouver, 

New  York,  and  London,  England. 

When  writing  advertisers  kindly  mention   Farmer's   Magazine, 




^  What  is  a 

^  Good  Roof? 

"-^  Is  it  something:  like  this  ?    A 

• — -»  roof   that  can't   catch   fire  from 

— —  burning  embers.    A  roof  that  will  wear 

'**~"  as  longr  as  good  cedar  shingles  used  to 

— ~  wear,      A  roof  that  isn't  going  to  be  an  expense  for  repairs.    You 

— ^  get  everything  that  makes  a  high-grade  roof  when  you  buy 

I      rslEPQNBET 


~~^  Over  3,000,000  square  feet  have  been  used  in  the  Panama  Canal  work.    Leading 

^"^  Railway  Systems  are  also  big  users,  including  the  Canadian  Pacific,     Bought  every- 

"  where  by  farmers  for  high-grade  barns  as  the  best  roofing  value  on  the  market.  A  big 

«...  warehouse  roofed  in  1898  was  torn  down  last  summer  with  the  NEPonsET  Paroid  roof  in 

— —  good  condition.  This  is  the  roofing  with  a  record.  Make  sure  that  you  get  it.  Sold  only 

— —  by  regularly  authorized  NEPdnseT  dealers,  leading  hardware  and  lumber  merchants. 

Send  for  Blue  Print  Bam  Plans— FREE 

You  will  like  these  plans  as  expressing  the  Canadian  idea 
of  a  real  barn. 

NEPONSET  Roofinas  are  made  in  Canada. 
F.  W.  BIRD  &  SON  (f;^5]  369  Heintzman  Bldg.,  Hanulton,  Ont. 

Winnipeg  St.  John.  N.  B.  Vancouver,  B.  C. 


Proslate  Roofing 

makes  a  handsome 
red     or   green 
for  houses. 


A  Razor  is  only  as  Good  as  its  Steel 

When  you  buy  a  razor  with  the  Barrel  Trade  Mark  you  get  razor  perfection  and  the 
Barrel  Mark  is  its  guarantee — made   of  the  finest  steel  tempered  to  keep 
your  temper. 



Canadian  Agents 

Say  you  gaw  the  4^.  in  Farmer's  Magazine. 



A  <1' V  e  r  t  i  s  i  n  8f 
Sec  t  ion 

ANTI-DUST-A  Household  Necessity 


It  is  a  Disinfectant  Sweeping  Powder  which 
kills  all  germs,  cleans  and  brightens  floors 
and  carpets  and 


You  can't  afford  to  be  without  it. 



Sapho  Manufacturing  Co., 

Montreal,        Limited  Q„e^ 

Toronto  Ottawa  Kingston 

What  Can  Be  Done 
With  Paint 

For  Fall  renovation  the  possibilities  with  paints 
and  varnishes  are  many,  There  are  infinite 
opportunities  to  improve  the  aspect  of  the  house 
during  the  shut-in  Avinter  season. 




are  ideal  for  house  use,  whether  for  indoor  or 

outdoor  purposes.     Made  of  the  best  materials, 

perfectly  mixed  by  special  machinery  under  the 
supervision  of  experts. 



Montreal         Established  1858         Vancouvcr 

Owning  and  Operating  P.  D.  Dods  &  Co.,  Limited 

Keudiug   advertisemeuts    is  in-ofituble  to  you. 




TUif%wmg^  ^/Tlllr  i  ^^^  ^^^  feed  your  cows  straw  without  any  grain,  and  they  will 
MtfK\JM%^  ATAlIlk  ■  live.  But  they  won't  produce  as  much  milk.  You  can  stuff  them 
with  corn,  bran,  ensilage,  or  hay.     But  they  won't  produce  half  as  much  milk  as  though  fed  on 


(41  to  48%  Protein) 
Why?     Because  they  are  deficient  in  PROTEIN,  the  milk-producing  element.     They  contain 
a  small  amount,  but  not  enough.  '^ Farmer  Brand"    supplies    Protein    at    less    cost    than    any 
other  feed. 

Two  pounds  of  '^ Farmer  Brand"  per  day,  added  to  your  home-grown  feed,  will  cut  down 
the  feed  bill  and  produce  nearly  twice  the  amount  of  milk. 

We  have  agents  and  shipping  stations  all  over   Canada.     Prices  $32.00  Ton  Lots  F.O.B.  Sarnia 
or  Woodstock;   $33.00  Toronto;   $34.00  Peterboro.     Send  cash  or  draft  with  order. 

THE  BARTLETT  CO.,  400  Hammond  Building,   DETROIT,  MICHIGAN 


irpOR  seventy-two  years  the 
■*■  Nordheimer  Co.  have  main- 
tained their  reputation  of  being 
the  Quahty  Music  House  of  Can- 
ada, and  it  is  gratifying  to  the 
managemenfthat  the  Nordheimer 
is  known  as  the  "  Quality-Tone  ' 
Piano  of  Canada.  It  stands  pre- 
eminently above  all  others. 


The  Nordheimer  Piano  &  Music  Co.,  Ltd. 

Head  Office:    15  King  Street  East 
Branches  and  Agencies  throughout  the  Dominion 

[\trade    [\mark     |\     Colli 




Note  the  Patented  Flexible  Lips  that  relieve  all  strain  at  the  front 
fold.  Also  Reinforced  Buttonhole,  and  Patented  Slit,  which  pre- 
vents pressure  of  button  upon  the  neck.  It  is  linen,  and  retains  its 
linen   appearance. 

Buy  one  at  your  dealer's,  or    send    25c.,  giving 

the  style  and  the  size  desired,  for  sample  collar. 

One  grade  only^  and  that  the  Best 





Say   you  saw  the  ad.  iu  Farmer's  Magazine. 





U  l^t 

It's  all  right 


Save  the  wrappers. 
The  oftener  you  use  it, 
the  more  you  Hke  it. 


Can  Yott  Write  Good  Letters? 

Correspondence  plays  such  an  important  part  in 
modern  business  that  people  who  can  write  really 
good  "business  letters  are  enormously  in  demand 
at  splendid  salaries. 

Letters  are  now  used  universally  in  creating  busi- 
ness; following  up  advertising  inquiries;  helping 
salesmen.  You  can  learn  to  write  better  letters ; 
letters  that  dodge  the  waste  basket;  letters  full 
of  selling  force,  by  studying  S'herwin  Cody's 

"Success  in  Letter  Writing" 

This  book  is  the  outgrow ch  of  one  of  the  most 
successful  mail-order  selling  campaigns  ever  car- 
ried out.  It  embodies  principles  that  are  being 
successfully  applied  to  the  correspondence  of  the 
world's  greatest  business  houses.  Every  young 
man  and  woman  in  business ;  every  business  and 
professional  man,  should  read  it. 

Send  us  75c.  to-day  and  we  will  mail  you 
"Success  in  Letter  Writing"  to-morrow. 


143-149  University  Avenue 




How  to  Train  Scary,  Vicious,  Balliy,  Tricity  Horses 

Write  for  Prof.  Jesse  Beery's  FREE  "HORSE-TRAINER'S  PROSPECTUS" 

If  ycu  are  the  owner  of  a  vicious,  tricky,  kicking,    balky,    dangerous    and    unsaleable 
horse  or  colt,  don 't  get  rid  of  the  horse — get  rid  of  its  bad  habits.    Write  for  Prof.  Jesse 

Beory  's  ' '  Horse-Trainer 's  Prospectus, ' '  a  large,  handsome,  illustrated  book  written  by  the 

King  of  World's 

Prof.  Jesse  Beery  won  world- 
wide fame  and  was  tremendously 
successful  giving  exhibitions  of  his 
marvelous  sliill  in  mastering  maii- 
killing  stallions,  training  wild 
horses  to  drive  without  bridle  or 
reins.  The  whole  country  was 
thrilled  by  his  daring  deeds. 

Secret  of  His  Power 
Revealed  at  Last 

In  the  grand  Free  "Horse- 
Trainers'  Prospectus"  Prof.  Beery 
now  reveals  the  secret  of  his  pow- 
er and  shows  the  way  to  duplicate 
his  dazzling  success. 

Train  a  Colt  in  8  Hours 

You  can  do  it  by  the  Beery  Sys- 
tem. There  is  lots  of  money  in 
breaking  colts.  The  field  is  un- 

What  His  Graduates  Have  Done 

Prof.  Beery's  Correspondence 
Course  in  Horse-Training  and  Colt- 
Breaking  is  the  only  instruction  of 
the  kind  in  the  world.  Thousands 
of  his  graduates  are  reaping  the 
profits  and  benefits  of  his  wonder- 
ful course.  For  example,  take  the 
case  of  Emmett  White,  Kalona, 
Iowa,  now  a  prosperous  profes- 
sional horse-trainer.  Mr.  "White 
says :  "I  wouldn't  take  $500  for 
what  you  have  taught  me.  You 
may  judge  of  my  success  when  I 
tell  you  that  I  have  been  able  to 
buy  a  home  and  an  automobile 
solely  through  earnings  from 
training  horses  as  taught  by  your 
excellent  methods." 

Buys  "Man-Killers"  Cheap, 

Trains  and  Re-Sells  at  Big  Profit 

Prof.  Jesse   Beery  ^^  L^  Dickinson,  Friendship, 

N.  Y.,  writes:  "I  am  working  a  pair  of  horses  that  cleaned  out  several  different 

men.     I   got   them   for   $110,   gave   them   a   fewr  lessons,    and   have   been   offered 

$400   for  the  .pair." 

S.  M.  Ryder,  Mercersburg,  Pa.,  writes:  "I  am  making  money  buying  3- 
year-old  kickers  CHEAP,  handling  them  for  a  few  days,  and  selling  them, 
perfectly  broken,   at  a  large  profit." 

So  it  goes.  Everywhere,  Beery's  graduates  are  making  money  as  trainers 
and  "traders,"  giving  exhibitions.  Write  and  we  will  tell  you  about  more  of 
them.     It's   intensely   interesting. 

Retires  from  the  Arena — Now  Teaching  Horse-Training  by  Mail 

Prof.  Beery  has  retired  from  the  arena,  after  a  career  of  un- 
paralleled success,  and  is  devoting  his  time  to  teaching  his 
methods  to  a  limited  number  of  selected  pupils — both  men  and 
women — by  correspondence. 

Graduates  Making  $1,200  to  $3,000  a  Year  at  Home 
or  Traveling 

The  wonderful  success  of  Prof.  Beery's  graduates — taugrht  by- 
mail  at  home  during  spare  time — proves  beyond  question  the  value 
of  his  instructions.  People  gladly  pay  his  graduates  $15  to  $25 
a  head  to  have  horses  tamed,  trained,  cured  of  bad  habits,  and 
colts  broken  to  harness. 

A  Penny  Postal  May  Make  Your  Fortune 

No  matter  who  you  are  or  where  you  live,  if  you  love  horses 
and  are  ambitious  to  earn  more  money  in  a  profession  you  will 
be  proud  of,  write  for  the  wonderful  Free  "Horse-Trainer's  Pros- 
pectus" to-day,  without  fail.     Tell  me  all  about  your  horse. 

PROF.  JESSE  BEERY,  Box  338.  Pleasant  Hill,  Ohio 

BANG!     BANG!     BANG! 

The  Beety  System  Drives  Out  Fear 

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The  great  struggle  in  the  Old  Country  i'w 
and  against  Home  Rule  has  again  drawn  tlit^ 
attention  of  the  world  to  the  Irish  people, 
and  has  resulted  in  the  revival  of  all  kinds 
of  stories  about  them. 

Of  these  stories,  now  appearing:  in  ilie 
important  magazines,  none  is  more  interest- 
ing than  those  centred  about  the  folk  lore 
legends  of  olden  times,  when  the  people  of 
this  romantic  land  are  reputed  to  have  had 
amazing  blessings  bestowed  upon  them  at 
times  by  the  fairy  folk  who,  disguised  in 
one  form  or  another,  or  invisible  altogether, 
visited  the  sick  and  performed  marvellous 

It  is  interesting  to  trace  these  stories  to 
their  source,  so  far  as  possible,  and  when 
this  is  done  it  usually  is  discovered  that 
the  legend  had  its  origin  in  some  perfectly 
natural  cure  which  became  widely  talked 
about  and  the  facts  distorted. 

From  time  immemorial  natural  cures  have 
been  going  on  in  every  country,  not  less,  in 
our  own  than  in  others,  through  the  efficacy 
of  natural  remedies.  It  is  the  result  which 
sometimes  seems  miraculous  to  one  who  has 
suffered  long  without  relief.  For  example, 
Dr.  Thomas'  Eclectric  Oil  is  above  all 
things  a  natural  remedy,  composed  of  pene- 
trating and  soothing  ingredients  that  have 
caused  cures  seemingly  impossible  through 
ordinary  means. 

It  takes  the  fire  out  of  burns  and  scalds 
and  immediately  starts  to  restore  the  in- 
jured surface,  keeping  the  cuticle  soft  and 
pliable  as  it  heals,  and  not  only  hastening 
full  recovery,  but  preventing  scars.  Noth- 
ing miraculous  about  it,  though  it  almost 
seems  so. 

It  is  even  more  wonderful,  however,  in 
its  power  of  reaching  to  deep  seated 
troubles  like  rheumatism,  stiff  joints,  lame 
back,  lumbago,  sciatica,  stiffened  muscles 
(as  in  the  neck),  lame  cords  and  tendons. 
Rubbed  in  persistently.  Dr.  Thomas' 
Eclectric  Oil  accomplishes  wonders. 

That  its  use  is  not  confined,  however  to 
external  application  is  seen  in  its  efficacy  in 
dealing  with  croup,  colds,  sore  throat,  etc., 
checking  serious  trouble  which  promises 
rapidly  to  become  worse. 

Dr.  Thomas'  Eclectric  Oil  is  a  natural 
remedy,  but  its  accomplishments  are  house- 
hold stories. 



H.  A.  Moyer,  Syracuse, 

N.  Y.,  says  "  they 


in  feed  in  one  winter." 
Send  address  for  speci- 
Jfications   of   inexpensive 
-yet  sanitary  cow  stable  to 
WALLACE  B.CKUMB.  F2,Forestv«le.f;omi.,r.S.A. 

Canadian  orders  filled  from  Canadian  factory. 
All  correspondence  should  be  adclressed  to  the  home  ofS'ca, 
State  in  inquiry  if  you  prefer  booklet  in  French  or  Englisb. 


Mud.  snow,  dust  and  dirt  will  not  be 
tracked  over  your  floors  if   you  use 

Grab's  Foot  Scraper 

outside  your  door.    The  only  de- 
vice made    which  cleans  bot- 
toms   and   sides  of  shoe  In 
one   operation.    Has    ten 
parallel  plates  for  scrap- 
ing soles  and  two  stiff 
bristle    brushes     which 
clean  sides  of  shoe.   Ad* 
lustable    to     any    size. 
Handsomely    enameled. 
Looks  neat.    Can  be  ro- 
tated and  swept  under. 
Fastens  to  doorstep  or 
any  handy   place.     Qet 
one    and    save   useless 
work.  Prlce81.00.1f  your 
'  Will  not  supply  you,  don't  take  substitute,  but  eentf 
your  order  direct  to  us.   Illustrated  folder  FREE, 

Onward  Mfg.  Co.,  Berlin,  Ont. 


We  are  buyers 




Improve  the  Soil  and  Enrich  the    Farmer. 


Including  Bone  Meal,  Meat  Meal,  Ground 
Chicken  Bone,  Ground  Oyster  Shells. 
Prices  and  Satnplms  on  Apptlcaiion 

The  Hen  that  Lays  is  the  Hen  that  Pays. 
Agents  Wanted  in  every   District 

Montreal  Abattoirs,  Limited 

P.O.  Box,  1624  M»tre«l 

When   writing  advertisers   kindly    mention    Farmer's    Magazine. 

S  t'  f  t  i  o  n 




rE    NOW. 

A  GILSON  "GOES-LIKE-SIXTY"  ENGINE  With  new  features 
MORE  VALUE  MORE  POWER  and  latest 

MORE  SERVICE        MORE  SATISFACTION  improvements 

Does  satisfaction  mean  anything  to  you?  Does  money  saved  in  fuel,  in 
time,  in  repairs  and  expense  bills  appeal  to  you?  Get  Gilson  Facts  and 
find  out  how  the  Gilson  60-SPKED  engine  does  the  greatest  variety  of 
work— how  it  gives  the  maximum  satisfaction— saves  money  in  equipment, 
,ind  yields  100  per  cent,  service  at  lowest  cost.  Every  engine  covered  by  a 
cast-iron  guarantee. 

The  new  GUson  5,  6,  and  8  h.p.  engines,  equipped  with  our  new  friction 
clutch  pulley,  with  five  removable  rims,  each  of  a  diflferent  diameter. 
Change  to  the  "i^roper  speed  for  any  job  in  five  minutes.  A  NEW  AND 
EXCLUSIVE  GILSON  FEATURE.  We  also  make  60-SPEED  engines  in 
1%  and  3  h.p.  sizes.  Tliese  are  mounted  on  tiucks,  with  line  shaft  and 
five  interchangeable  pulleys  •  and  pump-jack.  Drop  us  a  card  to-day,  and 
We  are  making  special  prices  to  the  first  purchaser  of  one  of  these  engines  in 

GILSON  MFG.  CO.  LTD.,   124  YORK  ST.,  GUELPH,  ONT. 




have  banished  Collar  Trouble.  Look 
like  the  best  linen  and  wear  far  better. 
The  Ideal  Collar  for  every  kind  of 
weather.  Are  Waterproof,  and  can  be 
cleaned  instantly  with  a  damp  cloth. 

Collars— 25c.      Pair  of  Cuffs— 50c. 
If  your  dealer  can't  supply,  write  us 


54-56  Fraser  Avenue  F54  TORONTO 

As  small  as  your   note   book 
and  tells  the  story  better 

1%  X  2M.. 



Vest  Pocket 


Simple,  efficient.  So  flat  and  smooth  and 
small  that  it  will  slip  readily  into  a  vest 
pocket.  Carefully  tested  meniscus  achro- 
matic lens.  Kodak  Ball  Bearing  shutter. 
Fixed  focus.  Made  of  metal  with  lus- 
trous black  finish.    Quality  in  every  detail. 

All  Kodak  Dealers.  Toronto 


Sweet  Wholesome  Bread 

the  kind  th:it  gives  zest  to  every  meal  is  made  from  Reindeer  Flour, 
which  is  a  special  bread  flour.  Housewives  who  use  Reindeer  Flour 
know  the  pleasure  of  baking  because  of  the  gratifying  results  obtain- 
ed. Make  a  loaf  with  the  ordinary  flour  on  hand,  then  try  Reindeer 
Flour  and  ask  the  family  which  they  like  the  best.     TRY  IT. 



SIMCOE  ST.  ... 







For  the 

Winter  Sports 
You  should  wear  a 


Sweater  Coat 

THERE  is  a  ''MONARCH-KNIT"  gar- 
ment suitable  for  every  demand.     Our 
years  of  experience  is  a  guarantee  to 
style,  quality  and  finish.     Special  orders  for 
clubs  given  through  your  dealer  are  given  our 
best  attention. 

ASK    YOUR    DEALER    TO     SHOW    YOU 

The  Monarch  Knitting  Co.,  Ltd 

Head  Office:  Dunville,  Ontario 
Factories  at  Dunville,  St.  Thomas,  St.  Catharines  and  Buffalo,  N.Y. 

Reading  advertitementa    is  profitable  to  you. 






A  perfect  baker.  Saves  fuel.  The  oven  gives  an 
even  heat  on  all  sides  and  the  large  firebox  allows 
the  use  of  22-inch  wood  or  coal.  An  ideal  range 
for  up-to-date  farmer. 

Enquire  of  your  nearest  dealer  or 
send  us  your  address  for  catalogue. 

Canadian  Heating  &  Ventilating  Co.,  Ltd. 

Owen  Sound,  Ontario 
Winnipeg  Vancouver  Montreal 


Cattle  or  Horse  hide,  Calf, 
Dog,  Deer,  or  any  kind  of 
skin  with  hair  or  fur  on.  We 
tan    and     finish    them    rig^ht; 

make  them  into  coats  (for 
men  and  women),  robes,  rugs 
or  gloves  when  ordered. 

Your  fur  goods  will  cost 
you  less  than  to  buy  them, 
and  be  worth  more.  Send 
three  or  more  cow  or  horse 
hides  in  one  shipment  from 
anywhere  east  of  Winnipeg. 
and  we  pay  the  freight  both 
ways.  In  returning  the  manu- 
factured goods  there  would 
be  a  duty  of  about  35%  for 
you  to  pay  in  addition  to  our 

Our  illustrated  catalog  gives 
a  lot  of  information.  Tells 
how  to  take  off  and  care  for 
hides :  about  our  safe  dyeing 
process  which- is  a  tremendous 
advantage  to  the  customer, 
especially  on  horse  hides  and 
calf  skins;  and  about  the  fur 
goods    we    sell. 

THE         CROSBY        FRISIAN 
FUR     COMPANY.  ^ 



Stock  Food 



pN*T  let  your  horses 

run  down  during  the 
winter  and  get  so  soft  that 
they  will  lose  flesh  badly  when 
you  start  your  spring  plowing. 
If  horses  are  not  worked 
regularly  during  the  winter,  they  need  the 
splendid  tonic  effects  of  INTERNATIONAL 
STOCK  FOOD,  to  tone  up   the   digestive 
organs,  enable  them  to  get  all  the  good  out 
of    their    feed,    prevent    the    blood     from 
becoming  overheated,  and  thus  ward  off  disease. 
I^ANGHAM,  Sask.,  Jan.  26th.  1912. 

'  I  have  fed  INT^RNATIONAJ;  STOCK  FOOD  for  many  years.  I  always  have 
a  25  pound  pail  standing  in  my  bam.  I  bought  a  pair  of  three  year  old  colts  and  they 
were  so  worked  down  that  my  neighbors  said  I  had  been  beat.  When  I  bought  the 
colts,  they  weighed  1400  lbs.  I  ploughed  25  acres  and  they  weighed  2650— then  I 
harvested  163  acres  and  threshed  and  hauled  one  carload  to  town,  6  miles,  I  weighed 
them  a-ain  and  they  weighed  2850,  and  I  said  "They  shall  weigh  3000  before  spring". 
Now,  the  Neighbors  want  to  buy  them  but  there's  no  chance".        J.  G.  REMPEL,. 

,  For  sale  by  dealers  everywhere.    Our  $3,000.00  Stock  Book— sent  free  when  we 
receive  your  name  and  address.       INTERNATIONAL  STOCK  FOOD  CO.  LIMITED.  TORONTO. 

<4^t|  AND  GUIDE  FREE 

GUIDE  is  as  different  from  any  Guide  you  ever 
saw,  as  an  AUTOMOBILE  is  different  from  the  old 
time  STAGE  COACH.  $100.00  would  not  buy  It 
of  you  If  you  could  not  get  another.  You  never  saw 
Its  equal.  You  get  the  GUIDE  FREE,  ordered  on 
our  blanks.  Write  the  Old  Sfluare  Deal  Fur  House, 
[WEIL  BROS.&CO.     Box  A-S8.  Ft.Wayne.  Ind. 

/y/^  TRADE  MARK       >\ 


\     ASBESTOS     f 
%   SHINGLES  # 


a  lifetime  -without   paint  or 

repairs -they  are  fireproof— 

/$='     liffhtnini):  proof,  wear  proof, 

^      weather    proof    and    decay 

proof.  Best  for  any  buildins- 

The  Asbestos  Mfg.  Co.,Ltd. 

E.T.  Bank  Bld«.             Montreal 

Factory  at  Lachine.  P.O. 







Wireless  Set 

One'^man  made  and  sold  $400.00  wortli  of  one  piece 

Mission  Furniture,  How  to  Make  It 


Part  One— Plain  directions  with  working  drawings  and  illustra- 
tions for  making  21  different  designs.  96  pages.  Part  Two  — 32 
additional   designs  treated  in  the  same  manner.  128  pages. 

Artistic.    Inexpensive.    Easily  made  in  the  home 

Arts-Crafts  Lamps,  How  to  Make  Them 

By  J.  D.  ADAMS 

Explicit  instructions  for  making  16  different  beautiful  lamps  out 
of  paper,  cardboard  and  wood.  A  working  drawing  and  illustration 
accompany  each  design.  96  pages. 

18  beautiful  designs  which  the  amateur  can  easily  make 

Lamps  and  Sliades  in  Metal  and  Art  Glass 


Four  different  kinds  of  construction,  built  up— soldered— etched 
and  sawn  shades  are  treated.  The  designs  range  from  ordinary 
reading  lamps  to  pretentious  chandeliers.  128  pages. 

Covers  every  essential  step  in  wood-working 

Wood-Working  for  Amateur  Craftsmen 

By  IRA  S.  GRIFFITH.  A.  B. 

Special   chapters  bring  out  every  cut,  joint  and  process,  proper 
use  and  care  of  tools,  working  up  of  material,  etc. 

125  illustrations.     128  pages. 

A  complete  handbook  for  art  metal  workers 

J.  D.  ADAMS 

Metal  Work  and  Etehing 

Gives  every  detail  for  making  a  great  variety  of  useful  and  orna- 
mental objects  such  as  book  ends,  desk  sets,  jewelry,  hinges,  drawer 
pulls,  paper  knives,  letter  openers,  match  boxes,  tie  and  pipe  racks, 
pad  corners,  etc.  50  illustrations.     96  pages. 

The  only  book  published  on  this  interesting  art 

Metal  Spinning 


A  practical  working  manual  for  those  who  desiie  to  spin  metal  as 
an  art  recreation  or  to  follow  this  work  as  a  trade. 

33  illustrations,    80  pages. 

Authorities  proclaim  it  one  of  the  best  books  on  the  subject 



A  treatise  which  will  n,ot  only  enable  the  humblest  beginner  to 
make  a  start,  but  which  gives  pointers  of  value  to  even  the  most 
experienced  electroplater.  62  illustrations.     112  pages. 

Any  boy  can  construct  this  at  a  trifling  cost 

How  to  Make  a  Wireless  Set 


Explains  in  an  understandable  manner  the  construction  of  an  outfit 
suitable  for  transmitting  4  or  5  miles.     Fully  illustrated.    96  pages. 

A  wonderful  story 


An  immensely  interesting  and  instructive  book  pertaining  to  heat 
and  its  relation  to  modern  mechanics.     50  illustrations.     128  pages. 

One  of  the  most  remarkable  non-technical  books  written 

The  Kingdom  of  Dust 


The  author  deals  with  this  vast  kingdom  as  :  A  Boundless  Domain, 
The  Friend  of  the  Housewife.  The  Foe  of  the  Workman,  The 
Skeleton  in  the  Closet,  The  Right  Hand  of  Death,  Earth's  Winding 
Sheet,  Beginning  and  Ending  of  All  Things  Earthl.v. 

40  illustrations.     128  pages. 

A  uniform  series.    Size  5x7  inches.    Extra  cloth  covera 

Metal  work 





Technical  Book  Dept.,  Maclean  Publishing  Co.,  Toronto 

>^dV  e  J*  t  i  8  i  n  g 
S'ec  t  i  o  n 



Piiake$zooo9-»more  perYear 

Hundreds  of  farmers  right  now  are  making  from  $1000.00  to  $2000.00  a 
year  extra  money,  besides  keeping  up  their  farm  work,  making  wells  with  the 

Improved  Powers  Boring  and  Drilling  Machine 

Bores  100  ft.  in  10  hours.  One  man  can  run  it;  a  team  operates  it  and  easily 
j^moves  It  over  any  road;  Bores  slate,  coal,  soapstone—everything  except  hard  rock,  and 
fC^!^  it  drills  that.     No  tower  or  staking— rotates  its  own  drill. 

20  years  actual  service  all  over  the  world  have  proven  this  the  fastest  and  most 
convenient  well  machine  made.     Easy  terms.     Write  for  catalog. 

LISLE  M'F'G.  CO..      ■        u      Box  463  Clarinda.  Iowa. 



should   be  to  make  more    money  than  you 
did  during  the  past  year. 

There  is  no  better  way  of  fulfilling  any 
such  agreement  than  taking  subscriptions  to 

We  pay  excellent  remuneration. 
Write  for  Tull  particulars  to 

143-149  University  Ave.,  Toronto,  Can. 


Poultry  raising  can  never  be  quite  successful  unless  jou 
have  pure-brerl  stock.  It  then  becomes  auite  profitable 
to  laise  poultry.  Get  a  supply  of  hatching  eggs  that 
can  be  deijended  on  to  give  the  best  results.  Our  eggs 
are  from  the  very  best  breeds. 

J.  H.  Rutherford. 

Caledon  East,  Ontario 

."Bissell"   Rollers, 
are  a  Specialty 

built  by  SPECIALISTS  IN  THE  BUSINESS.  Search 
as  you  may,  there  are  no  such  peifect  Land  Rolleis 
on  the  Continent  as  the  "Bissell."  Compai4  the 
'Bissell"  Roller  with  any  other  Land  Roller  in  Amferica. 
\l-r}}]S  Bissell"  does  not  convince  you  that  it  is  the 
BEST,  then  don't  buy.  It  will  pay  any  person  to 
make  the  comparison. 

The  .  18    cold    rolled    anti-fiiction    Beaiings    V2, 
nich  thick,  with  lathe  cut  ends,  held  in  the  one 
piece    Malleable    Iron    Cage,    is    a    single    point 
placing     the      "Bissell"      Roller 
away  ahead. 

Look  for  the  name  "Bissell" 
on  every  Roller.  No  other  is 
genuine.  ASK  DEPT.  Y  for 
free    catalogue. 

"■    T.  E.  Bissell  Co.,  Ltd.,  Elora,  Ont. 


Metal    car    labels    for    Cattle    and     Sheep 
with    owner's    name    and    address,    and    any 
5,j    numbers    required.      The    greatest    thing    for 
>    keeping   tab   of   your   stock,    at   small    cost. 
Send  your  name  and   address  and  get 
free    sample    and    circular.      Send    to- 
day   without   fail. 
F.  G,  JAMES  -  -  Bowmanville.  Ont 


We  Want  Ten  Million  Dollars'  Worth  o£  Furs 

Biggest  Prices!      Better  Grading!       Most  Money  by  Return  Mail! 

Tliose  are  the  advantages  you  have  in  sending  your  furs  to  Funsteii.  We 
are  the  hirgest  In  the  wo.riti  in  our  line.  The  biggest  American,  Canadian  and 
European  buyers  are  rei)resented  at  our  regular  sales.  Competition  for  Funsten 
Furs  is  greatest.  As  we  sell  furs  in  larger  (juantities  and  get  more  spot  casli. 
we  can  pay  you  more  cash  for  yours  than  you  can  get  anywhere.  We  count  on 
large  volume  of  business  and  small  margin  of  pi-ofllt.  No  travelling  buyers- 
do   all   our   business   direct  with   you.     We   want   ten    million    dollars'    worth   of 

1  furs.      We   want   your   shipments,   anything — from    one   skin    up. 

'' RIcy  Mnnow  in  TrQnnino'      1!'.'   trapping   during   spare   time.     It's   good- sjiprt' and   pays   big. 

-  Dig  money  in  trapping      M,„k,   coon,   skunk,   muskrat,   fox,    wolf,   lynx,   white  weasel   and 

^,  .ill    kinds   of  furs  are  valuable. 

>  Trone  '^^  accommodate  trappers  and  shippers  we  furnish  traps-;   including  the  famous  VICTOR 

;  I  ■  dp:>  at  fa  "  '       " 

%fW'^''   mm 




factory  cost.     Largest  stock  in   U.S. 
Flinctpn  Anim'il  R'ii4'    <^"<''-Tnt''ed    to    increase    your    catch    or,   money    back.      Beware    of 
I  uiiaicil  nnimdl  Ddll    imitations.      Funsten    Animal    Baits    won    Grand    Prize    at    World's 
hair    ni    1901       I.    s.    Government    tises    Funsten    Baits.      One    can    of    Funsten    Animal    Bait 
brought    one    man    in    St.    Michaels,    Alaska,    $1,199    CLEAR    PROFIT.      Costs    onlv    $1    a    can.      Different 


Kincis  ror  amerent  animals.  Whether  you  are  an  experienced  trapper  or  just  a  beginner,  we  can  heir 
you  catch  more  fins-make  more  money.  Wiite  to-day  for  FREE  Trapper's  Guide.  Game  Laws  and 
"""''"" "      'JPPly    Catalogue— three     books     in     one-Fur    Market    Reports.    Funsten    Safety    I 

Funsten  Bros,   &  Co.,  739  Funsten  Building,   St.   Louis,   Mo. 

Tt  is  to  your  advantage  to    mention    Farmer's    Magazine. 




Six  Months 

of  every  year — sometimes  even  more — is 
furnace  weather  in  Canada.  But  where 
there  is  a  Kelsey  Warm  Air  Generator  in 
the  cellar  the  rigors  of  winter  are  kept 
strictly  out  of  doors. 

The  Kelsey  is  a  better  heater  than  any 
other,  simply  because  it  is  so  constructed 
as  to  generate  nearly  double  the  amount 
of  warm  air  that  can  be  generated  in  any 
other  furnace,  having  the  same  grate  sur 
face.  In  the  Kelsey  the  fire  pot  and  com- 
bustion chamber  are  formed  of  long,  corru- 
gated tubes,  placed  side  by  side,  and 
through  each  tube  fresh  air  travels  con- 
stantly upward,  gathering  heat  on  the  way. 
The  air  space  represented  by  these  tubes 
is  additional  to  an  outer  radiating  surface, 
similar  to,  and  quite  as  large  as  the  only 
radiating  surface  in  many  other  types.  By 
reading  our 


and  comparing  the  construction  of  the 
Kelsey  with  others,  you  will  soon  realize 
why  the  Kelsey  is  the  most  efficient  house- 
warming  apparatus  in  the  world. 


The  James  Smart 
Manufacturing  Co.,  Limited 

Brockville,     ::       ::     Ontario 

Wilson's  Invalids' 
Port    Wine 

(a  la  Quina  du  Perou) 

"  The  services  that  wine  render  to  health  are  more  im- 
portant than  those  of  any  medicine  with  which  I  am 
acquainted."— Francis  E.  Anstie,  M.D.,  F.R.C.P. 


sapsivitality.  Hard  work  tires  the  stoutest  muscles.  Con- 
tinued concentration  and  work  without  relaxation  result  in 
infinite,    permanent   depression   of  mind    and  lassitude   of 


Wilson's  Invalids'  Port  Wine  is  a  bracing, 
invigorating  tonic  that  steadies  the  nerves  and  builds 
staunch  bone  and  muscle.     Doctors  know  ! 

Remembei — a  brimming  wineglass  before  each  meal 

Ask  YOUR  Doctor 

Boys^  Own  Toy  Maker 

Tells    ho 

ike  a  Talking   Machine,  Camera,    Electrical 

Motor.  Bicycle  Boat,  Canoe,  Boomerang,  Bobsled,  Wind  Mill. 
I  Microscope,  Water  Wheel  and  Motor,  Stilts,  Toboggan,  Snow 
Coaster  and  Sail  Boat,  Telephone,  Electric  Bell,  Railroad,  Wind 
Mobile,  Paddle  Raft.  Traps,  Kites,etc.  AlllOc,  poatpaid. 
J.    C.    DORN,  707   So.   Dearborn   St.,   Dept.   42,   Chicago,    DL 

Standard    Cream    Separators 
Bring   the   Largest    Profit 

and  require  the  least  attention.     Be  shrewd 
enough  to  use  a  "Standard." 


Renfrew.     Ontario 

The  publisher  of  the  best  Farmer's  paper  in 
the  Maritime  Provinces,  in  writing  to  us,  states: 

"I  would  say  that  I  do  not  know  of  a  medi- 
cine that  has  stood  the  test  of  time  like 
MINARD'S  LINIMENT.  It  has  been  an  un- 
failing remedy  in  our  household  ever  since  I  caik 
remember,  and  has  outlived  dozens  of  would- 
be  competitors  and  imitators." 

When  writing  advertisers  kindly  mention   Farmer's  Magazine. 





A  railroad  navvy  may 
be  an  honest  soul  and 
a  worthy  citizen,  but 
that  does  not  equip 
him  for  the  position  of  general  mana- 
ger of  the  system. 

It  is  the  same  with  washing-machines. 
Others  may  be  honestly  constructed, 
but  the  New  Century  maintains  its  par- 
amount position  by  honesty  PLUS. 
The  "plus"  means  patented  and  ex- 
clusive features  found  only  in  the  New 
Century.  It  represents  experience 
■■  and  brains  applied  to 
washing  machine  pro- 
blems, and  assures 
convenience  and  ec- 
onomy to  New  Cen- 
tury owners. 
Yourdealercan  telWou  the 
reasons  for  New  Century 
leadership  or  we  will  send 
full  information  direct. 

Cummer-Dow«well  Ltd., 
Hamilton.  Ontario  10<< 

Canada's  Best 

Unexcelled  in  Tone  Quality,  Perfec- 
tion of  Scale,  Design,  Finish  and  Dur- 

Comparison  with  other  instruments 
only  serves  to  emphasize  the  quality 
that  makes  the  NEWCOMBE 

Distinctive  and  Pre-eminent. 
Never  Suffers  by  Comparison. 

Let  us  show  you  our  exclusive  method 
of  construction,  which  is  the  founda- 
tion of  that  pure  qu  Uty  of  tone  always 
found  in  the  NEWCOMBE. 
Call  at  our  Wareroom  or  upon  ou^ 
nearest  agent  and  examine  our  Pianos» 
or  write  us. 



19  and  21  Richmond  St.  W. 


The  Systematic 
Use  of 

Molasses  Meal 

means  prime  conditioned  stock  at 
less  cost  than  your  present  feedings 

Get  that  fact!  Caldwell's  Molasses  Meal 
does,  not  add  to  your  present  feeding 
costs.  It  is  a  distinct  economy.  Use  it 
according  to  directions  and  your  Horses 
will  look  better,  work  better  and  live 
longer.  Cows  will  keep  up  in  flesh  and 
give  more  milk.  Sheep  will  thrive, 
Lambs  come  earlier  to  maturity,  and 
Hogs  show  an  increased  profit. 

N.B.  You  can  buy  Caldwell's  Molasses  Meal 
either  direct  from  the  factory  or  from  your 
feed  man. 

The  Caldwell  Feed 
Co.^  Ltd. 

Dundas       -       Ontario 

Clip  out  coupon — mail  to  us  and  we  will  send 
you  full  particulars. 


Please   send    me   full    particulars,    etc.,    as   to 
cost  of  Molasses  Meal. 


Post  Office 
Province    .. 

Say  you  saw  the  ad.  in  Farmer's  Magazine. 



-Ad  vertising 

Planet  Jr. 

^Get  these  time-saving,   labor-lightening  farm  and  garden  tools  to, 
secure  the  greatest  yield  from  your  crops.      Fully  guaranteed. 

No.  4  IpUnet  Jr  Combined  Hill  and  Drill  Seeder,  Wheel  Hoe,  Cultivator, 
and  Plow  sows  accurately  all  garden  seeds,  cuJuvates,  hoes,  furrows,  and  plows* 
Indestructible  steel Jrame. 

^***  ^  I  '^fanet  Jr  Horse  Hoe  and  Cultivator  does  more  kinds  of  work  bet- 
ter, quici      .  and  easier  than  any  other  cultivator.     Can  be  fitted  with  plow  and 

disc  attachment  and  all-steel  wheel — new  this  year. 

PR  FP  Instructive  64-page  illustrated  catalogj 

*  •■•V-"-'*-*  Describes  55  implements.    Send  postal /or  it  t^uay ' 

S  L  ALLEN  &  CO 

B0XI202T  Philadelphia 


Write  for  name  of  our  nearest  agene 

125-Egg  Incubator  and  Brooder  F.?  $13.75 

If  ordered  together  we  send  both  machines  for  only  $13.75  and  we  FREIGHT 
pay  all  freight  and  duty  charges  to  any  R.  R.  station  in  Canada.  AI)IO  DUTY 
We  have  branch  warehouses  inWinnipeg,  Man.  and  Toronto. Ont.  PAID 

Orders  shipped  from  nearest  warehouse  to  your  R.  R.  station. 
Hot  water,  double  walls,  dead-air  space  between,  double  glass 
{12c)  doors,  copper  tanks  and  boilers,  self-regulating.  Nursery  under 
egg  tray.  Especially  adapted  to  Canadian  climate.  Incubator  and  Brooder 
shipped  complete  with  thermometers,  lamps,  egg  testers — ready  to  use  when  you  get  them.  Five 
year  guarant^^— 30  days  trial.  Incubators  finished  in  natural  colors  showing  the  high  grade  Cali- 
fornia Redwood  lumber  used — not  painted  to  cover  inferior  material.  If  yoa  will  compare  ourj 
machines  with  others,  we  feel  sure  of  your  order.  Don't  buy  until  you  do  this — you'll  save  money] 
— it  pays  to  investigate  before  you  buy.  Remember  our  price  of  $13.75  is  for  both  Incubator  and 
Brooder  and  covers  freight  and  duty  charges.    Send  for  FREE  catalog  today,  or  send  in  your  order  and  save  time. 

"g'o'nTdX?  WISCONSIN  INCUBATOR  CO,  Box  217,  Racine,  Wis.,  U.  S.  A. 



•■Kxtc'imino"  lias  niiide  unuecfssaiy  the  existence  of  rats— the  mast  efifective  agency  in 
the  world  for  the  destruction  of  rats— No  odor,  no  scheduled  poison.  Prominent  agri- 
•iilturists  and  health  officers  testify  regarding  its  excellent  results.  Equally  efifective 
-or   mice,    moles,    cockroaches,    etc. 


The  "EXTERMINO"  CHEMICAL  CO.,  Montreal,  New  P.O.  Box  774 

Talking  to  the  Point 

CLASSIFIED  WANT  ADS.  get  right  down  to  the  point  at  issue.  If 
you  want  something,  say  so  in  a  few  well-chosen  words.  Readers 
like  tliat  sort  of  straight-from-the-shoulder-talk,  and  that  is  the 
reason  why  condensed  ads.  are  so  productive  of  the  best  kind  of 

CLASSIFIED  WANT  ADS.  are  always  noticed.  They  are  read  by 
wide-awake,  intelligent  dealers,  who  are  on  the  lookout  for  favorable 
opportunities  to  fill  their  requirements. 


Reading  advertisements   is  profitable  to  you. 

A  d  V  e  r  t  i  8  i  ] 



CLAY  GATES  are  ideal  winter  gates 
be  adjusted  (as  shown)  to  lift  over  deep  or  drift- 
ed snow.  Clay  Gates  have  been  installed  by  the 
leading  stockmen  of  Ontario  and  Eastern  Can- 
ada.     "There's    a    reason." 

Good  Gates  on  a  Farm 

ix?^--  add  to  its  value;  win  for  the  farmer  the 

^1'S>  praises  of  his  neighbors;  are  delightfully  easy  to  work  ;  and 
-  are  an  out-and-out  economy.     The  best  farm  gates  made  are 


They  can't  bend,  sag,  break,  blow  down,  burn  or  rot.  Light 
yet  strong  enough  to  keep  back  breachy  bulls.  Raise  (as 
shown)  to  let  small  stock  through  or  to  lift  over  snow  in 
winter.  Are  fully  guaranteed.  30,000  sold  in  1912.  SEND 


39  MORRIS  ST.  -         -         GUELPH.  ONT. 

Make  Your 
Own  Tile 

Cost    $4.00  to  $6.00 
per     1.000,    Hand  or 

Power  Machines, 

Write  for 

Catalog  "  F" 

which  explains 

operation,  etc. 

Farmers'  Cement 
Tile  Machine  Co., 

Walkerville,  Ont. 



and  the  feature  of  our  terms — the  best  at  the  lowesl 
cost — enables  you  to  get  it.  Just  a  few^  more  locta 
agents  needed.     WRITE  US  TODAY. 



Yovi  should  use  the  "Safe  Lock."     Find 
out    just    what    the     "Safe    Lock"     wire 
fence    will    mean    to    you. 
WRITE    FOR    IT    TO-DAY. 
Agents   wanted   in   every  locality. 


Owen  Sound  -  Ontario 


Landscape  Oardeoing 

Having  secured  the  services  of  Mr. 
Roderick  Cameron,  formerly  Superiu- 
teudent  of  Queen  Victoria  Park,  and 
latterly  Superintendent  of  Parks  of  the 
City  of  Toronto,  the  Auburn  Nurser- 
ies are  in  a  position  to  do  full  justice 
to  the  highest  class  patronage.  If  you 
desire  the  opportunity  of  having  the 
wide  experience  and  ability  of  Mr. 
Cameron  applied  to  your  Landscape 
Gardening,  it  is  necessary  that  you 





Head  Office 



Give   Your   Stock  a  Chance 

to  do  their  best  for  you.  Special  attention  in  the  winter 
months  pays,  not  only  now  but  t^  ughout  the  whole 
year.  Lack  of  exercise  and  heavy  feeding  of  dry  feeds 
make  liver  and  bowels  sluggish,  and  the  animals  un- 
thrifty and  unprofltable. 

pf0^  Animal  Regulator 

corrects  these  conditions  at  small  cost.  Test  at  our  risk  I 

25c,  50c,  $1;  2;-lb.  pail  $3.50 
For  sprains,  bruises,  stiff  m  scles — man  or  beast — use 

of^Sf^  Liniment 

1^  ^^  25c,  50c.  $1 

("an    he    usi-d    as    a    blister    if    necessary.      Keei)    it    on    lian<l. 
'YOril  MONEY   RA(JK   IF   IT   FAILS."  1913  Almanac 

I'^REE    at    dealers    or    write    ns.      Our    products    are    sold    by 
dealers   eveiywhere,   or 
PRATT    FOOD    COMPANY,   liimited,    TORONTO. 

146  FARMER'S    MAGAZINE  Adverti8inff 


Be  Successful 

Many  energetic  young  men  find  it  hard  to  accumulate  sufficient 
capital  to  start  them  towards  success.  We  have  scores  of  such  persons 
now  adding  a  substantial  increase  to  their  weekly  income  placing 
FARMER'S  MAGAZINE  in  the  hands  of  the  progressive  agricultural 

It  is  your  aim  to  quahfy  yourself  for  some  higher  position  than  that 
which  you  now  hold?  We  can  assist  you  no  matter  whether  you  wish 
to  take  a  course  at  some  particular  school,  a  business  college,  or  a 
salesmanship  training. 

This  work  will  not  interfere  with  your  regular  duties.  All  you 
need  to  do  is  spend  a  few  hours  each  week  in  the  interests  of  our  publi- 
cation. We  give  you  all  the  assistance  that  is  necessary  to  make  good 
besides  a  practical  training  in  meeting  men  in  a  business  manner.  Write 
us  to-day  for  all  details. 

MacLean  Publishing  Company 

143-149  University  Avenue  -  -  Toronto,  Ont. 

Are  You  in  Love  With  Your  Farm  Work  ? 

You  should  be,  and  these  books  should  help  you 
know  more  about  farm  work.     They  are   new. 

•*How   To    Keep    Bees."  **Farm  Management." 

By  Anna  Botsford  Comstock.  By  F.  W^.  Card. 

A    charminarly   written    manual.    Th«    outfit,  first  Deals  with  accounts,  business,  marketinir   comDar 

•tepsand  methods  are  given  clearly  and  in  detail;  ative  value  of  products,  buyins  the  land  etc     The 

and  the  author's  well-known  literary  ability  has  com-  man  about  to  embark  in  farming  could  do  nobetter 

bined  with  her  enthusiasm  for  the  subject  to  produce  than  to  heed  the  wise  words  here  set  down     Thev 

■n     unusual    volume.     Photographic     illustrations;  maysavehlma  world  of  trouble  and  perhaps  his  whole 

Cloth ;  Postpaid,  $1.1».  investment.     Illustrated     from     photographs,   crash 

"Farm    Animals."  **Soils,  How  to  Handle  and 

By  E.  V.  Wilcox.  Improve  Them." 

A  valuable  manual  of  how  to  breed,  dare  for,  use  d     o    «r    fi«*^i,__ 
and  doctor  the  cow,  horse,  sheep,  swine  and  other  '         vv  .  r  letcner. 
animals  on  the  farm-    A  practical  book  for  general  Packed  to  bursting  with  instantly  available  know- 
farm  use,  judiciously  arranged  for  the  largest  helpful-  ledge  of  the  kind  practical  farmers  cannot  afford  to  be 
iiess  to  the  largest  number  of   readers.     Illustrated  ignorant     of.    More    than    109    photoeraoha  •     Craah 
from  photographs.    Postpaid,  $2.20.  Cloth  ;  Postpaid.  $2.20.                              *     vb,    v^rasn 

Also  books  on  Farm  Science, ^Irrigation  and  Drainage,  Cattle  and  Dairying,  Horses  and  their 
Care,  Sheep  and  Swine,  Poultry,  Bees  and  Pets,  Farm  Crops,  Fruit  Crops,  Vegetable  Crops,  Flori- 
culture, Landscape,  Gardening  and  Forestry,  Insects  and  Plant  Life,  Buildings  and  Conveniences. 
In  fact,  all  kinds  of  books  for  Farmers,  Gardeners,  Florists,  Stock  Raisers,  Fruit  Growers,  Etc. 


MACLEAN  PUBLISHING  CO.  -  -  143-149  University  Ave.,  Toronto 

Don't  fail  to  mention  Farmers'    Magazine  wben  writing  advertisers, 

A  dvertisinir 



Provincial  Chemical  Fertilizer  Co.,  Limited 

ST.  JOHN,  N.B. 

Manufacturers    of 

High  Grade  Commercial  Fertilizers 

Importers  of 

Agricultural  Chemicals 


A  Bi^  Saving  in  Feed 

To  keep  your  animals  in  a  thorough  con- 
dition it  is  necessary  to  crush  the  grain. 
The  importance  of  this  cannot  be  over- 
stated. The  ''Champion"  oat  crusher  is 
indispensible  to  the  farmer  who  desires 
that  his  animals  get  the  full  benefit  of 
their  feed  and  keep  in  a  thorough  condi- 

by  the  "Champion,"  which  makes  a  big 
saving  in  feed.  A  durable  machine,  with 
no  delicate  me- 
chanism to  get  out 
of  order;  easily 
operated,  gives 
satisfaction  and 
long    service. 

FREE  O  N  RE- 
«*  QUEST.  SEND  A 

S.  VESSOT  &  CO. 




Saw  your  own  wood 
and  save  time, 
coal  and  money; 
saw  your  neigh- 
bors' wood  and 


$5  to  $15  a  Day 

Hundreds  are  doing  it 

with  an  APPLETON  WOOD  SAW 

We  make  7  styles — steel  or  wood  frame 
— stationary  or  mounted  on  truck  with 
gasoline  engine,  making  a 

Portable  Wood-Sawing  Rig. 

Rigid   frame,   lathe-tuvned   arbor,   running 
in    self-adjusting,    non-heating,    dust-proof 
boxes     makes     our     saw     frames     simple, 
strong,  safe  and  successful. 
We  also*  make  the  famous 




606  Fargo  Street 

Batavia,  Ills. 


Beats  Electric 
or  Gasoline 

ONE  FREE  To  Use  On  Your  Old  Lamp  ! 

^^  '  ^  *■■  ■  "  ^  *"  *"■  Our  special  introductory  offer  entitles  one  person  in  each 
locality  to  one  free.  Powerful  white  incandescent  mantle  light.  Replacing  common  oil  lamps 
everywhere.  Bums  70  hours  on  one  gallon  of  coal  oil  AGENTS  Expferience  Unnecessary. 
(kerosene).  No  odor  or  noise,  simple,  clean.  Brightest  ■>7AMYer\  "^^ke  Money  Evenings  or 
and  cheapest  light  for  the  home,  office  or  store.  WAWTCO  Spare  Time.  Write  Quick. 
Better  light  than  gas  or  electric.    Send  postal  for  FREE  OFFER  and  agents'  wholesale  prices. 

MANTLE  LAMP  CO.,  262  Aladdin  BIdg.,  Montreal  and  Winnipeg,  Can. 

It  is  to  your  advantage  to   mention    Parmer's   Magazine. 






Farmers  and  Ranchers 

every  facility  for  the  transaction  of  their  banking  business,  including  the  discount 
and  collection  of  sales  notes.     Blank  sales  notes  are  supplied  free  on  application. 

Banking  by  Mail 

Accounts  may  be  opened  and  conducted  by  mail  and  will  receive  the  same 
careful  attention  as  is  given  to  every  other  department  of  the  Bank's   business. 

A  Savings  Bank  Department 

is  open  at  every  branch  in  Canada  (except  in  the  Yukon  Territory)  and  interest 
is  allowed  on  deposits  of  $1  and  upwards  at  current  rates.  Accounts  may  be 
opened  in  the  names  of  two  or  more  persons  and  operated  by  any  one  of  the 
number  or  by  the  survivor.  This  method  avoids  much  trouble  in  deciding  the 
ownership   of   money  after   death. 

Paid-up  Capital,  $15,000,000 

Rest,  $12,500,000 

f  rtttrp  O^^nrg? 


In  Centre  of  Shopping 

and  Business  District. 

260  ROOMS— 100  with  Private  Baths 

European  and  American  Plan 

A  la  Carte  Restaurant 

SAM.  H.  THOMPSON,  prop. 


Two  Practical  Books  of 
Exceptional  Interest 

FARM  DAIRYING  by  Laura  Rose  |1.50. 
Covers  the  Dairy  Business  most  thorough- 
ly from  the  farmer's  standpoint  Miss 
Rose  is  a  recognized  authority,  having 
taught  for  years  at  the  Ontario  Agricul- 
tural College  and  lectured  very  extensive- 
ly. Indispensable  to  the  practical  dairy- 
man the   teacher   and    the  student. 

TliEMAN  by  E.  K.  Parkineson,  $1.25. 
Deals  exhaustively  and  authoritatively 
with  the  planning  of  buildings,  storing  of 
water,  care  of  stocli,  crop  rotation,  etc. 
Just  the  book  for  the  farmer  who  cannot 
attend  college,  or  for  the  city  man  tak- 
ing up  farming  who  lacks  experience. 

Either  of  these  excellent  books  will  be 
sent  to  any  reader  on  receipt  of  two  new 
yearly  paid  in  advance  subscriptions  to 

The  MacLean  Publishing  Co., 

Montreal  Toronto  Winnipeg: 

When   writing   ndvertigers   kindly   mention    Faimer's    Magazine. 








Q  Our  low- voltage  outfit  is  absolutely 
safe,  easy  to  install  and  simple  to 
operate  and  care  for.  Engine  can 
be  used  to  run  other  machinery  or  a 
water  system. 

QBattery  supplies  current  when  engine  is  idle, 
50-light  outfit  shown  here  is  complete, 
including  50  Mazda  lamps  and  fixtures. 
Q  Larger  plants  for  large  hotels  and  town 

lighting.  WRITE    FOR    CATALOGUE 

NO.  CN   2526 

IT  COSTS  little  with  a 
Fairbanks- Morse  Light- 
ing Plant.  Gives  you  the 
brightest,  healthiest,  most 
convenient  light  known. 

Q[No  lamps  to 
clean  and  fill;  no 

The  Canadian  Fairbanks -Morse  Co.  Limited 

444  St.  James  Street 


Headquarters  for  Gasoline  and  Oil  Engines,  Dynamos  and  Motors,  Electric  Light  Plants,  Steam  and  Power 
Pumps,  Water  Systems,  Windmills,  Marine  Engines,  Etc. 

More  Work 

With  Less  Power 

The  '^ Little  Wonder"  Grinder  is  a  dandy  and  just 
the  machine  for  a  man  who  uses  only  11/2  to  31/2  H.P. 
It  does  more  work  with  less  power  than  any  other 

We  have  letters  of  appreciation  from  many  pleased 
customers  who  have  been  able  to  grind  ten  bushels 
of  barley  per  hour  with  a  3  H.P.  You  can  derive 
equal  benefits  by  using-  the  ''Little  Wonder." 


J.  Fleury's  Sons 

Aurora,  Ont< 

Medals  and  Diplomas,  World's  Fairs — Chicago  and  Paris 

John  Deere  Plow  Co.,  Ltd.  -         -         -  Western  Agenti 

Winnipeg,   Regina,   Calgary,   Edmonton,   Saskatoon  and   Lethbridge 

Say   you    saw   the   ad.   in   Fanner's  [Magazine. 

150  FARMER'S      MAGAZINE  Advertising 

S  e  c  tioa 

The  Royal  Bank  of  Canada 


The  Traders  Bank  of  Canada 


Capital  Authorized          ...  $  25,000,000 

Capital  Paid  Up              ...  11,500,000 

Reserve  Fund         ...         -  12,500,000 

Total  Assets            ....  175,000,000 

290  Branches  throughout  Canada. 

290  Branches  Throughout  Canada 
Savings   Department  at   all    Branches. 


Bank  Buildings — Princes  St.  Cor.  William  and  Cedar  Sts. 

$100  "BABY"  BONDS 

Bonds  of  $1,000  denominations  are  as  old  as  investing  itself,  but  the  $100  ''Baby"  Bond 
is  virtually  an  innovation — new  only  in  denomination,  however,  as  it  is  simply  a  part 
of  the  whole.  It  bears  all  the  elements  of  the  $1,000  Bond — its  efficiency,  conservatism 
and  safety. 

$100  ''Baby"  Bonds  are  the  boon  of  the  small  investor.  Conservative  investors  buy  them. 
They  are  readily  sold.  Banks  will  loan  on  them.  A  net  return  of  4^4  to  5^  per  cent, 
may  be  secured.  They  can  be  bought  outright,  or  I  will  buy  them  for  you  on  My  Partial 
Payment  Plan  on  monthly  payments. 


EDWARD  L.  DOUCETTE,  "The  Hundred  Dollar  Bond  House" 



IT        $5.00        EACH        WEEK? 
We  have  put  four  hundred  young  and  old  business  men 
in  Canada  in  the  way  of  earning  $5.00  more  every  week. 
If  you  are  an  enterprising  man,  you  can  get  the  same  offer 
by  writing  us.  The  work  is  easy,  educative  and  profitable. 


143-149    UNIVERSITY    AVENUE  :  :  TORONTO.   CANADA. 

Reading  advertisements   is  profitable  to  you. 




'^aXte/u  "Quite  Content" 



"X  ^ 

I        IN    CULTIVATION, 


James  Carter  s,  C? 




Six  or  seven  feet 
higli,  pods  of  un- 
usually large  size. 
The  newest  and 
largest  pea  in  ex- 
istence. Carter's 
Catalogues  show 
many  new,  rare 
and  interesting 
varieties  in  veget- 
ables and  flowers. 

ALL   who    are    interested    in  flowers   or  gardening,  will  need  the    1913  Catalogue  of 
Carter's  Tested  Seeds.     It  is  an  invaluable  guide  book  to  all  who  want  choice,  rare 
or  particularly  reliable  seeds  for  Spring  sowing. 


are  not  an  experiment  in  Canada,  as  they  have  long  been  g-rown  here  and  have  shown  remark- 
able superiority.  Their  excellence  is  due  to  pedigree,  careful  selection,  cleaning-  and  thorough 
testing-.  Get  Carter's  Tested  Pedigree  Seeds  ;  they  are  this  season's  crop,  g-rown  and  packt  d 
by  James  Carter  &  Co.  of  London,  England,  and  sold  in  sealed  packages. 

1913    CATALOGUES    ARE    NOW    READY 

One  is  reserved  tor  you.    They  are  sent  free,  postage  paid.    When  writing-  address,  Depart- 
ment I,  and  mention  whether  you  wish  the  Farni  Catalogue  or  the  Garden  Catalogue. 

Patterson^  Wylde  &  GOiy  JamesCa^ri"r^&"coroU^ondon.Eng. 
Dept.  L 

133  King  Street  East,  Toronto,  Canada 



280  ealibre  Examine  the  ^QSS  Records 


"^  Before  Buying  a  Sporting  Rifle 

Experts   in   Europe   and   America   admit  that  the    Ross   .280  High    Velocity   is   the   best   of   modern   arms. 

It   combines   the   flattest   trajectory,    greatest   accuracy,    and  most  smashing  power,  with  the  strongest  and  fastest  of  actions. 

At  Bisley,  in  1911,  it  absolutely  distanced  all  competitors,  winiiiug  almost  every  first  place  in  the  long  range  match  rifle 
competitions,  and  first  and  second  in  the  aggregates,  while  the  regular  Military  Ross  won  the  King's,  the  Prince  of  Wales', 
the   Territorial    aggregate,    etc.,    etc.,    etc. 

Ask  your  dealer  to  show  you  the  "Ross"  High  Velocity,  which,  despite  its  quality,  sells  at  only  $70.00.  Let  him  get  one 
on   to  show  you   if  he   has   not   one   on   hand— you    should   not  miss  a   chance  of  owning  one. 


Other  styles   sell   at  from   $25.00   up.     Every   one   guaranteed. 


It  will  pay  you  to  answer  advertisements. 




Are  You  One  of  the  Capable  Men 
of  Your  Locality  ? 

Does  your  present  income  permit  you  to  enjoy  all 
the  every-day  luxuries,  an  occasional  vacation  trip,  a  new 
watch,  bicycle,  or  possibly  an  extra  fall  suit  ? 

We  are  anxious  to  appoint  a  capable  man  in  your 
district  to  represent  Farmer's  Magazine. 

In  all  parts  of  the  country  hundreds  of  energetic  men 
are  representing  our  publication  supplementing  limited 
home  incomes,  or,  in  other  cases,  making  this  work  their 
only  vocation.  Some  of  them  earn  more  than  managers 
of  leading  concerns. 

The  work  is  enjoyable,  keeping  you  out  of  doors 
and  in  touch  with  the  activities  of  the  community.  You 
will  not  be  a  canvasser,  for  as  a  representative  of 
Farmer's  Magazine  you  will  be  received  as  one  of  the 
successful,  capable  men  of  the  community.  Consequently 
your  success  is  assured  from  the  very  start. 

On  each  order,  new  or  renewal,  you  will  receive  a 
definite  commission,  so  that  your  salary  will  be  gauged 
entirely  by  your  efforts.  No  previous  business  exper- 
ience is  necessary.  We  coach  you  and  co-operate  with 
you  at  all  times.  If  you  will  write  us  to-day,  we  will 
gladly  tell  you  further  about  the  work. 

Do  not  delay  Writing 

Farmer's    Magazine, 

143-149  UNIVERSITY  AVE. 


Dou't  fail  to  mention   Farmers'   Mag^uzine   wben   writing   advertisers. 

City/  Real  EstateOpportunities 


Before  deciding  to  leave  Ontario  consider 
well  the  opportunities  which  she  offers  on 
every  hand.  Consider  the  various  types  of 
soils  capable  of  producing  all  the  products 
between  No.  1  hard  spring  wheat  and  the 
tender  fruits  such  as  peaches,  apricots,  and 
also  early  vegetables  and  melons.  Consider 
the  equable  climate  possessed  by  the  more 
southerly  portions,  while  that  of  the  north- 
erly parts  is  to  be  preferred  before  many 
others  in  Canada.  Cop«ider  carefully  the 
transportation  facilities  offered  for  the  mark- 
eting of  these  various  products  both  by  rail 
and  by  water;  remember  that  Ontario  is 
centrally  situated  in  North  America,  practical- 
ly surrounded  by  the  greatest  inland  water- 
ways of  the  world.  Remember  that  suburban 
lines  are  being  projected  into  various  dis- 
tricts and  every  day  surveys  are  being  made 
for  other  new  ones.  Also  remember  that  com- 
petition between  various  transportation  com- 
panies is  keener  here  than  in  some  other 
places.  The  greatest  home  market  in  Canada 
is  in  Ontario;  the  great  manufacturing  cen- 
tres are  either  in  the  Province  or  just  on  the 
border.  New  Ontario  offers  one  of  the  best 
growing  home  markets  on  the  continent.  On- 
tario offers  the  greatest  inducements  to  the 
upbuilding  of  large  centres — cheap   power. 

She  is  a  complete  and  self-sustaining  Prov- 
ince.     The    southerly    parts    can    supply    the 

tender  products  in  abundance;  the  more 
northerly  districts  can  furnish  the  grains, 
meats,  dairy  products,  horses  and  the  rough 
fodders.  Internal  trade  is  bound  to  be  the 
outcome — the  north  will  be  bound  to  the 
south  by  an  interdependence  impossible  in 
other  parts  of  our  Dominion.  The  south  will 
also  demand  the  lumber  of  the  north,  besides 
claiming  a  share  in  the  development  of  the 
Kich    mineral   lands. 

Ontario's  soils  cannot  be  outclassed  else- 
where in  America.  They  are  easily  cultivated, 
easily  fertilized,  easily  drained  and  easily  ob- 
tained. Production  per  acre  is  higher  in  On- 
tario than  in  other  parts.  Intensive  agricul- 
ture is  the  dominant  note.  Increased  returns 
are  the  result.  Thousands  of  acres  are  still 
undeveloped — these  offer  greater  opportunities 
than   do   the  majority   of  the  far  away  lands. 

Agricultural  organization  is  finding  its 
greatest  development  in  Ontario.  Remember 
this  means  larger  prices  and  a  better  reputa- 
tion. Don't  leave  when  the  boom  is  on, 
when  the  people  are  just  awakening.  Re- 
member you  count  one  in  the  development  of 
these   untold    resources. 

Remember  that  wealth  is  only  part — On- 
tario offers  the  greatest  social  advantages; 
telephones,  rural  mail,  good  roads  and  pub- 
lic libraries.  Remember  Ontario's  possibili- 
ties— do    not    procrastinate    but    consider    and 

For  further  information  write 


HON.   JAS.   S.   DUFF,   Minister  of  Agriculture 


become  a  flrst-class  Ad.  "Writer  in  three  months  by  study- 
ing our  lessons  at  home  during  your  spare  time, 
The  entire  cost  is  only  $30,  payable  monthly.    Shall  we 
Hend  you  full  particulars? 



good  fertile  soil,  good  timber,  good  water,  good 
markets,  good  roads,  easily  obtained  and  near 

Now   is   the   time   to    buy    while   they    are    cheap. 
Prices  $3.00  to  $6.00  per  acre,  easy  terms. 
LEO  L.  LEET       -      212  McGill  St..  Montreal.  Que. 


They  are  a  series  of  two  hundred  volumes  covering 
all  phases  of  outdoor  and  home  life.  "From  bee-keep- 
ing to  big  game  shooting"  indicates  the  scope. 

The  series  is  based  on  the  plan  of  one  subject  to  a 
boolt  and  each  book  complete.  The  authors  are  experts. 
Every  book  is  specially  prepared  for  this  series. 

W^hile  OUTING  Handbooks  are  uniform  in  size  and 

appearance  they  are  not  in,  any  sense  connected.     Size 

4%  X  7/^  inches.     Bound  in  green  cloth,  flexible  cover. 

Fixed  price,  seventy  cents  per  volume, postage  5c.  extra. 



Technical  Book  Department, 

Toronto,   Canada 

It  is  to  your  advantage  lo   mention    Farmer's   Mag-azine. 





The  Future 



^'Ring  out  the  Old;  Ring  in  the  New.  Ring 
out  the  False;  Ring  in  the  True."  It  Rings 
in  Your  Ears,  and  Well  it  May.  Tennyson 
never  Wrote  a  More  Beautiful  Poem,  and  You 
never  Read  a  More  Helpful  One.  Read  It  Over 
Again.  Every  Man  Should  Strike  a  Balance  on 
jNTew  Year's  Morning,  even  Though  He  May 
Have  Been  a  little  Off  his  Balance  New  Year's 
Eve.  It's  Easy  to  Turn  Over  a  New  leaf,  but  it 
Takes  a  Real  Man  to  Keep  it  Turned.  ''Eternal 
Vigilance"  is  the  Price,  not  Only  of  Liberty, 
but  of  Habits,  Health  and  Happiness — Now  and 
Hereafter.  Good  Resolutions 
will  Become  Realizations  only 
when  Backed  up  By  Persist- 
ent  Purpose. 

How  about  your  Balance 
Sheet  for  1912?  Haven't  You 
Charged  off  a  Lot  of  Things 
to  ''Profit  and  Loss"  that 
Ought  to  Be  On  the  .Credit 
Side  of  the  Ledger?  Haven't 
You  Frittered  away  a  Great 
Deal  of  Your  Hard  Earned 
Cash  for  Petty  Pleasures,  or 
Lavish  Luxuries,  when  You 
Could  Have  Laid  By  Some- 
thing for  the  Inevitable 
"Rainy  Day?"  How  much 
Better  Off  are  You  than  Last 
Year,  or  the  Year  before 
That?  True,  You  have  "Kept 
the  Wolf  from  the  Door,"  but 
by  a  Little  Economy  and  Self- 
Denial  You  Might  have  Be- 
gun the  Erection  of  a  Fortifi- 
cation that  would  Forever 
Free  your  Family  From  Fear 
of  It's  Ferocious  Fangs. 

Your  Good  Job  may  not  al- 
ways Last,  Some  of  These  Days  a  Younger  Man 
May  Fill  Your  Place.  I  said  a  "Younger," 
not  a  Better  Man.  The  Gray  is  Creeping  into 
Your  Hair,  and  the  Boss  is  likely  to  Forget  the 
Splendid  Things  You  Did — Once  Upon  a  Time. 
"Yo'  Ben  a  Good  Old  Wagon,  But  Yo'  Dun 
Broke  Down."  The  World  Wants  a  Winner, 
and  Won't  Worry  Along  With  Wornout  Work- 

"Parted  From  the  Pay-Roll"  is  a  Little 
Drama  in  which  You  may  Expect  to  Play  the 
Principal  Part  Some  Sad  Saturday,  P.M.  Then 
the  "Good  Fellows"  who  Helped  You  Spend 
Your  Money  Will  Likely  Pass  By  on  the  Other 
Side,  and  the  Only  Place  You  can  Look  for 
Sympathy  will  be  in  the  Dictionary. 

Let  Us,  therefore,  "Ring  Out  False  Pride," 
and  Hereby  Firmly  Resolve  to  Establish  a  New 
Record  for  1913,  which  Will  Enable  You  to  Face 

the  Future  Fearlessly.  Strikes,  Lockouts,  Panics 
and  Periods  of  Financial  Depression  Cannot  De- 
press You,  if  You  Will  Make  it  a  Rule  to  Save 
a  Little  Something  Every  Day.  Again  I  Repeat 
It — Saving  is  the  Antidote  for  Slaving. 

The  Best  Incentive  to  Persistent  and  Sys- 
tematic Saving  is  the  Desire  to  Get  a  Home. 
The  Best  Place  I  Know  of  to  Get  a  Home  is 
in  the  Rain  Belt  of  Gulf  Coast  Texas,  where 
You  can  Grow  Three  Big  Money-Making  Crops 
a  Year,  and  where  Irrigation  and  Fertilization 
do  Not  Eat  Up  the  Profits  Your  Hands  Create. 

I  believe  you  could  save  Twenty-Five  Cents 
a  Day  if  You  tried.  I  know  you  would  Try  if 
you  Realized  that  our  Growers  of  Figs,  Straw- 
berries and  Early  Vegetables  clear  a  net  Profit 
of  $300  to  $500  an  Acre.  Men  have  Realized 
more  than  $1,000  an  Acre  growing  Oranges  in 
our  Country.  Remember  that  our  Early  Vege- 
tables get  to  Northern  Markets  in  Mid-Winter 
and  Early  Spring,  when  they  command  Top 

One  German  Truck  Grower 
on  adjoining  lands  this  spring 
realized  nearly  $500  from 
three-fourths  of  an  acre  of 
Strawberries.  You  could  do 
as  well  if  you  only  Tried,  and 
on  a  Ten-Acre  Tract  Find 
Financial  Freedom. 

The  Biggest  Price  paid  for 
a  car  of  water-melons  on  the 
Houston  Market  this  year 
was  $140.  The  car  was  ship- 
ped by  the  Danbury  Fruit 
and  Truck  Growers'  Associa- 

We  are  situated  within 
convenient  shipping  distance 
of  Three  Good  Railroads  and 
in  addition  to  this  have  the 
inestimable  Advantages  of 
Water  Transportation  through 
the  Splendid  Harbors  of  Gal- 
veston and  Velasco,  so  that 
our  Freight  Rates  are  Gut 
Practically  in  Half.  The 
Climate  is  Extremely  Health- 
ful and  Superior  to  that  of 
Calif  orna  or  Florida — Winter  or  Summer — owing 
to  the  Constant  Gulf  Breeze. 

Our  Contract  Embodies  Life  and  Accident 
Insurance,  and  should  you  Die  or  become  totally 
disabled,  Your  family,  or  anyone  else  You  name, 
will  get  the  Farm  Without  the  Payment  of  An- 
other Penny.  If  you  should  be  Dissatisfied,  we 
will  Absolutely  Refund  your  Money,  as  per  the 
Terms  of  our  Guarantee. 

Write  for  our  Free  Book,  which  contains 
nearly  100  Photographs  of  Growing  Crops,  etc. 
Fill  out  the  Blank  Space  below  with  your  Name 
and  Address,  plainly  written,  and  mail  it  to  the 
Texas-Gulf  Realty  Company,  1333  Peoples  Gas 
Building,  Chicago,  Illinois.  Read  it  Carefully, 
then  use  your  own  Good  Judgment. 

Two  Texas  Gulf  Coast  Products'  ±1 

Please   send   me    your   book,    "Independence    With    Ten  Acres.' 

When  writing  advertisers  kindly  mention   Farmer's  Magazine. 




Why  Accept  Less? 

The  Intelligent  Investor 


5fo  to  7% 


"  Maximum  Yield  Minimum  Risk  " 

ASK  FOR  LIST  No.  5 



Est.  1908  40  Exchange  Place,  New  York 



Expert  scientific  taxidermists 

Buyers  of  raw  furs 

Established  1880 


Farm  and  Orchard 

County    Huntington,    Quebec 

150  Acres,  70  in  orchard,  balance  in  bush 
and  pasture,  house  and  outbuildings  in 
good  order.  About  2,500  apple  trees,  Mc- 
intosh, Russet,  Fameuse,  Scotts  Winter, 
Arabka,  Baxter,  also  some  plum  trees. 
For  full  particulars  apply, 


142  Notre  Dame  Street,  West 

Lovely  Fruit  Farm 
l=FOR  SALE=i 


On  account  of  the  ill-health  of  the  proprietor, 
Mr.  C.  W.  McCalla,  St.  Catharines,  the  farm 
is  to  be  sold.  It  is  the  best  kept  farm  in 
the  Niagara  District,  and  lies  two  miles  from 
St.  Catharines.  It  consists  of  fifty  acres  of 
sandy  loam,  practically  all  in  bearing  fruit, 
consisting  of: — 

825  Apple  125  Cherry 

250  Plum  555  Pear 

32  Quince*  1055  Peach 

also  625  grape  vines,  700  black  and  red  cur- 
rant and  gooseberry  bushes,  and  one  and 
two-fifth  acres  of  asparagus.  Has  fine  8-room 
frame  house,  five-roomed  cottage,  1  large  fruit 
house  with  cellar,  two  large  implement 
houses,  barn  and  fruit  pickers'  shelter.  Every- 
thing   in    first-class    condition. 



Real  Estate,  Insurance  and   Financial    Brokers 





1//^  Farming,  Stock  Raising  and  Fruit 
Growing  are  highly  profitable  in 

Virginia  and  North  Carolina 

iji;cause  of  mild  winters,  long  growing 
seasons,  good  markets  and  high  prices  for  farm 
produce.  $1 5.00  an  acre  and  up  buysimproved 
farms  and  old  plantations  near  railroad  stations  on  the 

Norfolk     &     Western      Railway 

Abundant  rainfall,   modern  schools, 
good  roads,    low    priced  lands  and  best 
locial  conditions,  make  the  New  South; 
very   attractive.         Write    for    our 
beautifully  illustrated  magazine,  maps, 
excursion  rates,  timetables  and  other 

F.  H.  LaBaume 

AgrU  Agent 

Roomlie.N.  &W.  Ry. 

Say  j^ou  saw  the  ad.  in  Farmer's  Magazine. 

156  FAKMEli'S    MAGAZINE  Advertisinr 


$45.00  BICYCLE  FREE! 

DO    YOU    WANT    A    WHEEL? 

Here's  a  chance  for  every  Canadian  boy  to  get  one  FREE  by  doing  a  little 
work  in  liis  spare  time. 


All  you  have  to  do  is  to  get  32  yearly  paid-in-advance  subscriptions  to 
FARMER'S  MAGAZINE.  We  will  send  you  immediately  on  the  receipt  of 
payment  for  32  subscriptions  a  $45.00  bicycle.  This  wheel  has  all  the  modern 
improvements,  including  coaster-brake,  mud-guards,  full  set  of  bicycle  tools.  It 
is  substantially  built  and  will  stand  the  most  severe  road  test. 

These  wheels  have  been  shipped  to  our  representatives  in  all  parts  of  Can- 
ada and  in  no  case  have  we  had  a  single  complaint. 

If  you  are  interested  in  earning  a  wheel,  fill  in  the  coupon  beloT/  and  mail 
to  us  to-day. 


148-149  University  Ave.,  Toronto,  Ont. 

GENTLEMEN, — I  would  like  to  win  one  of  the  Bicycles  you  oCftr  for  32  new  yearly 
pald-ln-advance  subscriptions  to  PARMER'S  MAGAZINE.  Please  send  sample  copy 
and  order  book. 



FARMER'S  MAGAZINE  Tohonto'^""'."^  ^o"nt. 

Ueading   advertisements   is  prolitable  to  you. 

!S  e  «■  t  i  o  n 



A  Six-Passenger  Car  for  $1375 

And  It's  a 

This   new   Hupmobile   is   the   answer   to 

thousands  of  queries  which  said : — 

"Why  don't  you  build  a  car  to  carry  more 

people?     Not   a    better   car — we   dou't   see    how    it 
could  be  better — but  a  bigger  one." 

Just   as  the   original    ^^20"     touring   car 

grew  out  of  the  runabout  and    was   developed   into 
the   splendid   "32"   of   to-day — 

So    has    the    six-passenger     Hupmobile 

grown   out  of  the  "32." 

The  same  beautiful  lines  that  distinguish 

the  "32"  in  any  gathering  of  cars. 

The   same    powerful,   silent,     long-stroke 

motor;  the  same  sturdy  axles,  transmission  and 
clutch — for  these  were  always  built  fit  for  duty 
in  a  heavy  seven-passenger  car. 

With    heavier     springs    and     frame    of 

course;  and  other  parts  proportionately  strength- 
ened where  need  be. 

With  a  body  that  accommodates  six  in 

ease  and  comfort. 

During  the  last  year  we  have  made  you 

familiar  with  the  Hupmobile's  mechanical  ex- 

But  we  want  to  say  again,  with  renewed 

emphasis — we  believe'  the  Hupmobile  to  be,  in  its 
class,  the  best  car  in  the  world. 

Your  Hupmobile  dealer  has  the  new  car 

The  six-passenger  "32"  $1375  P.O.B.  Windsor,  has  equipment  of  two  folding  and  revolving  occasional 
seats  in  tonneau,  tonneau  foot  rest;  windshield,  mohair  top  with  envelope,  Jifify  curtains,  quick  detach- 
able rims,  rear  shock  absorber,  gas  headlights,  Prest-o-Lite  tank,  oil  lamps,  tools  and  hom.  Three  speeds 
forward  and  reverse,  sliding  gears.  Four  cylinder  motor,  3%-inch  bore  and  bVz-inch  stroke;  126-inch 
wheelbase;  33  x  4-inch  tires.     Standard  color,  black.    Trimmings,  black  and  nickel. 

"32"   Touring  Car,  fully  equipped, 
"32"   Roadster,  fully  equipped, 
"32"   Delivery,  fully  equipped, 
"20"  Runabout,  fully  equipped. 

$1150  F.  O.  B.  Windsor 
$1150  F.  O.  B.  Windsor 
$1125  F.  O.  B.  Windsor 
$  850  F.  O.  B.  Windsor 


Desk  D, 


It  will  pay   you  to  answer  advertisements. 





is  the  most  productive  of  beautiful,  large, 
luscious  fruit  of  any  variety  in  existence. 
A  dozen  plants  properly  cared  for  will 
supply  a  family  with  abundance  of  beau- 
tiful berries.  Price  of  plants,  $1.00  per 
doz.  by  mail,  post  paid  for  GENUINE 
TRUE-TO-NAME  HERBEETS,  grown  di- 
rect from  the  Originator's  stock. 




Get  a  ''Comfy"  Collar  Button 

Different  from  the  ordinary  col- 
lar button.  The  "Comfy"  lies  flat, 
is  absolutely  unbreakable,  and  does 
not  catch  the  tie.  Saves  the  wear 
and  tear  of  your  ties.  No  tugging 
or  pulling  collar  out  of  shape  or 
breaking  of  buttonholes.  To,  enjoy 
collar  comfort  wear  a  "COM FY" 
collar  button. 


The  Robinson  Sales  Co. 

113  Wellington  Street        -        Montreal,  Que. 

Big  Entertainer  f?««Jsg 

153  Parlor  Games  and  Mapric,  IS 
Recitations, 3  Monologues,  22  Funny 
Readings.  Also  Checkers, Chess, Dom- 
inoes. Fox  and  Geese,  9  Men  Morris.     All  lOc.  postpaid. 

J.  0.  DORN,  709  So.  Dearborn    St..  Dept.  41,  Chicago,  lU. 

What  the  Critics  say  of  MacLean's    Magazine 

"The  one  magazine  which  maintains  its  popularity  by 
i'iving:  clever  fiction  and  up-to-date  readable  articles." 
*'  No  superior  in  point  of  literary  merit  and  in  judicious 
editing.  Emphatically  the  magazine  for  the  thinker 
and  the  worker. " 

Send  in  your  order  now.     $2.00  per  year. 


143-149  University  Ave.  Toronto 

Can't  Cure 

If  you  wanted  to  clean  an  engine  you  would  not  force 
a  cleaner  through  it  that  would  injure  its  parts— yet 
this  is  the  process  you  employ  when  you  drug  your  sys- 
tem to  rid  it  of  waste.  Drugs  force  nature  instead  of 
assisting  her.  Drugs  have  to  be  taken  in  constantly  in- 
creasing doses  to  be  at  all  efficient,  and  soon  we  find 
ourselves  slaves  to  this  drug  habit. 
This  is  an  unnatural  and  positively  harmful  method  of 
treatment.  Two  of  the  most  prominent  physicians  on 
the   Continent   state   as  follows: 

Professor  Alonzo  Clark,  M.D.,  of  the  New  York  Col- 
lege of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  states: 
"All  of  our  curative  agents  are  poison,  and  as  a  con- 
sequence evei-y  dose  diminishes  the  patient's  vitality." 
Professor  Joseph  M.  Smith,  of  the  same  school,  says: 
"All  medicines  which  enter  the  circulation  poison  the 
blood  in  the  same  manner  as  do  poisons  that  produce 

Now  there  is  a  natural  and  simple  and  much  more  effi- 
cient way  of  keeping  our  system  clean  and  pure  and 
wholesome.  This  is  by  the  internal  bath  as  applied  by 
Dr.  Charles  A.  Tyrrell's  J.  B.  L.  Cascade.  This  is 
now  being  enthusiastically  used  by  thousands,  and  is 
prescribed  by  the  most  enlightened  physicians  every- 

A  most  interesting  book  has  been  publisheO 
on  this  system  by  Dr.  Tyrrell,  which  will  be 
sent  you  free  upon  request  if  you  will  write 
Dr.    Charles    A.    Tyrrell,    M.D.,    Boom    584,    280 

College    St.,  Toronto. 



THIS  is  what  one  of  the 
circulation  representa- 
tives of  MacLean's  Maga- 
zine earned  in  commissions 
during  the  months  of  August 
and  September  last  year. 
You  can  secure  a  position  in 
your  town  similar  to  the  one 
which  enabled  this  man  to 
earn  the  $300  by  writing  to 

The  MacLean  Publishing  Co. 

141-149  University  Avenue 


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Sagging  of  a  seed- 
er allows  the  centre 
drills  to  sow  too 
deep,  and  delays 
crop  growth  and 
ripening.  But  in 
the  Cockshutt,  a 
strong,  I  -  beam 
across  the  entire 
machine  prevents 
this.  All        crop 

grows  at  once,  and 
ripens  evenly. 
Each  disc  hns  an  oil 
well  and  dust-proof 
bearings.  Oil  once 
a  season  only.  You 
have  light  draft  and 
quick   seeding. 

The  close-set  crop 
sown  by  the  "Cock- 
shutt" prevents  eva- 
poration of  mois- 
ture. You  get  bet- 
ter yield.  The  feed 
device  is  indepen- 
dent of  wear  and 
t,ear  from  jolting, 
and  gives  proper 
distribution.  Write 
for  full  details. 

THE  '' Cockshutt''  Drill  differs  from  others  in 
having  the  discs  set  zig-zag,  and  only  6  inches 
apart  instead  of  7  inches.  It  will  get  you  as 
much  crop  from  6  acres  as  other  drills  get 
from  7  acres.  This  means  500  extra  bushels  on  each 
100  acres  of  crop,  if  you  use  the  Cockshutt  Drill.  This 
is  pure  profit,  year  after  year.  Just  buying  a  ''Cock- 
shutt" gets  it  for  you.  Why  not  do  it? 
This  drill  does  not  clog  with  mud  or  trash.  The  boots 
are  mud-proof.  The  discs  have  large  scrapers  to  clean 
them.  Besides,  they  "draw  away"  from  the  boot,  and 
clinging  trash  falls  off,  instead  of  wedging.  This 
feature  means  that  you  sow  all  your  land.  Also  that 
stops  are  prevented.  Seeding  is  done  early.  You  save 
time  and  wages.  Your  crop  gets  an  early  start. 
The  ''Cockshutt*'  is  a  perfect  seeder,  so  built  that 
it  withstands  wear  for  years. 
Get  our  drill  booklet. 


Send  for  our  "Drill"  information.  It  is  free.  A  post  card 
brings  it.  All  sizes,  in  single  disc,  double  disc  or  drag  shoes 
from  13  to  22  discs. 

Cockshutt  Plow  Co.,  Limited 

Brantford,  Ont.       Winnipeg^,  Man. 

Sold  in  Eastern  Ontario,  Quebec  and  Maritime  Provinces  by 

The  Frost  &  Wood  Co.,  Ltd.    smith's  Faiu,  Ont: 

Montreal,    St.  John 


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X  d  V  e  r  t  i  s 

For  even  an  inferior  tractor, 
new  from  the  factory,  may  look 
substantial  in  a  coat  of  fresh, 
glistening  paint.  In  the  hands 
time,  especially  if  working  condi- 

of  an  expert,  it  may  even  operate  perfectly  for 
tions  are  ideal. 

But  fresh  paint  often  hides  a  multitude  of  defects  in  design,  construction  and 
material.  And  it  doesn ' t  count  for  much  when  that  tractor  goes  into  hard,  continuous 
field  service. 

Then  it  is  that  cheap,  flimsy  construction  is  bound  to  show  up  at  every  point. 

So  don't  judge  a  tractor  by  its  looks  only.  Go  deeper  than  the  painted  surface. 
We  invite  you  to  look  well  into  the  design  and  construction  of  a 


The  tractor  that  not  only  looks  good  but  is  built 
right   from   wheel-base   to   cooler   stack. 

We  want  yon  to  first  examine  and  then  compare 
every  detail  of  its  construction  with  that  of  any 
other  tractor  on  the  market.  You  will  quickly  imder- 
stand  why  Hart-Parr  tractors  outsell  all  others.  Why 
they  make  good  in  the  hands  of  their  owners.  And 
if  you  carefully  investigate  a  Hart-Parr  Tractor, 
here's    what    you'll    find: 

DESIGN— highly  efficient,  yet  very  simple,  with  few- 
est working  jjarts  to  get  out  of  order  and  give  trouble. 

(JONSTRUCTION-that's  a  marvel  of  strength  and 
durability.  Streiigth  buUt  into  every  part,  yet  no  ex- 
cessive weight  at  any  point.  We  use  steel,  largely, 
and    so    avoid    dead,    useless   weight. 

MATERIALS— of  the  best  quality,  selected  for  their 
fitness  to  withstand  the  strains  and  stresses  of  heavy 
traction   and    belt   work. 

HAPPILY,  SATISFIED  OWNERS-Qwners  who  find 
the  Hart-Parr  Oil  Tractor  a  wise  investment  that  pays 
for  itself  in  a  few  seasons.  Owners  who  find  they 
can  put  a  Hart-Parr  Tractor  against  work  so  severe 
that  it  would  soon  send  an  inferior  tractor  to  the 
scrap    pile. 

Judged  on  the  basis  of  working  economy,  a  Hart- 
Parr  Tractor  is  a  revelation.  It  does  the  work  of  15 
to  30  sturdy  horses,  operates  on  cheapest  kerosene  at 
all  loads  and  requires  but  one  man  to  operate  aud 
care  for  it. 

Hart-Parr  Co. 

42  Main  St.,  Portage  la  Prairie,  Man. 

1626   8th  Ave..   Regina 
67   West  23rd  St..   Saskatoon.  Sask. 


33S  8th  Ave.  West,  Calgary 
Agents  for  Alberta 

Cheaply  built  tractors  add  daily  to  their  first  cost 
because  of  heavy  repairs  and  up-keep.  These  are  items 
that  a  Hart-Parr  Tractor  holds  down  to  the  lowest 
notch.  In  100  days  of  actual  work,  one  farmer  plowed 
540  acres  of  sod,  disced  and  seeded  800  acres,  har- 
vested 1,440  acres,  threshed  16,000  bushels  of  grain  and 
haided  it  to  market.  He  did  all  this  with  a  Hart- 
I'arr  Oil  Tractor  and  his  total  repair-bill  was  only 
$4.00.  Hundreds  of  equally  good  records  prove  the 
superior    reliabiltty    of    Hart-Pan     Oil    Tractors. 

Hart-Parr  Services  Really  Serves 

Hart-Parr  Service  is  just  as  reliable  and  efficient 
as  Hart-Parr  Tractors.  We  have  experts  stationed  at 
convenient  points  to  give  you  prompt  aid  should  yon 
need  it. 

It's  comforting,  also,  to  know  that  you  can  get 
repairs  in  double  quick  time.  We  carry  a  complete 
stock  of  repairs  at  all  our  Branches  and  can  get 
them  to  you  in  the  shortest  time.  This  means  a  lot 
to  you  when  you  are  busy  and  must  make  every 
minute    coimt. 

If  you  are  now  in  the  market  for  a  tractor,  or  if 
you  expect  to  buy  one  at  some  future  time,  get  our 
catalog  and   literattu-e   on   power   faimiug   costs. 

Consult  "Sovereign" 
Makers  About  Your 


Heating  by  the  hot  water  system 
must  be  a  thorough  improvement  on 
any  other  method  or  it  would  not 
be  so  generally  used. 

It  must  be  better  than  the  warm 
air  system,  because  it  has  displaced 
hot  air  furnaces,  even  in  the  most 
cheaply  built  houses  in  the  cities. 
The  hot  water  system  makes  home 
more  comfortable  and  healthy — reduces  house-work — per- 
mits of  the  better  management  of  the  fire  to  save  coal. 

The  ^'Sovereign"  hot  water  boiler  is  an  improved  design. 
It  has  a  deeper  fire  pot  and  a  larger  first  section.  All  the 
advantages  of  the  hot  water  heating  system  are  best  realized 
in  the  "Sovereign"  boiler. 

Write  us  about  your  heating  plans.  We  will  give  you 
the  benefit  of  our  advice. 



Offices    and    Showrooms,    Representatives   and   Agents  in    all 

parts  of  Canada 





I  See  The  Point?  \ 

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AND    Instructive     —    Mailed   on  Request 

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The  handy, 
floating  oval 
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UlRY  SOAP  is  good 
soap— pure  soap— the 
best  soap  we  know  how 
to  make.  CFairy  Soap  is 
white  because  it  has  nothing 
to  hide.  No  dyes  or  strong 
perfumes  to  disguise  the  qual- 
ity of  its  ingredients.  C  Fairy 
Soap  wears  down  to  the  last 
wafer  of  the  cake — does  not 
break  like  soaps  made  in  the 
awkward,  ob- 

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is  therefore 







Let  Us  Show  You  How  to  Build  a 
Modern  Dairy  Barn 


Write  us.     We'll  plan  your  barn  for  you  free  of  charge.     We've  had  years  of  experi-      / 
ence  in  designing  new  barns  and  in  making  old  barns  modern.     We'll  solve  your    / 
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can  give  you  many  valuable  suggestions  in  regard  to  the  best  layout,  and     /      BEATTY 
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/    281  Hill  St., 

BT  "Sanitary  Barn  Equipment      , '   "^"""^  °"* 

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p....  >      ing  or  remodelling. 

ritting'S  ^  How  many  Horses?   .. 

Investigate    the   BT    Stable    Equipment.      WRITE    FOR   FREE     .        aF^^^j^^^cS^I^i*^^^    '■■ 

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BT   Steel   Stalls,   Stanchions,   Pens,  Etc.     Our   Carrier  Book       •  oilo?     

shows    the    BT    Manure    Carrier    Outfit.      Don't    start    to  Eoot    Cellar?    

alter  your  barn  before  getting:  this  information.     Fill  /      Dimensions    of   Barn? 

in    the    Coupon,    and    get   our    books    by    return    mail.        y        When  are  you  going  to  build  ?'.". '. 


BEATTY  BROS.,  Limited 

28  U  Hill  Street 


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Send  us  pencil  sketch  of  the 
plan    of   your   barn.      This 
enable    us    to    make    you    the 
very  best  plan  for  building 
or   remodelling. 



Stall  Book 

Litter  Carrier  Book. 

Book  on  Stable  Construction. 

Sig.  1. 

It  is  to  your  advantage  to  mention    Farmer's   Magazine. 




"I  use  a  littleSpaint  every  spring  and   fall,    and   it   helps    me  keep 
my    buildings,  implements  and  wagons  in  good  shape,  at  small  ex- 
pense" said  a  successful  farm  owner. 

This  man  has  discovered  the  economy  of 
using  a  little  paint  occasionally.  Have  you? 

Here  are  a  few  suggestions  for  painting  you  can  do  this  spring.  Give  your 
Mowers,  Binders,  Drills,  Wagons,  Farm  Machinery  and  Tools,  a  coat  of  Wagon 
and  Implement  Paint.  You  can  save  a  good  deal  of  money  by  keeping  your  property 
in  good  repair.  Buggies  and  Carriages  need  retouching  with  Sherwin-Williams 
Buggy  Paint  before  they  are  put  into  service  in  the  spring.  Now  is  the  best  time 
to  do  it.  Before  the  busy  spring  days  come  around  is  the  best  time  to  brighten  up 
in  the  house.  Renew  your  furniture  and  woodwork  with  Sherwin-Williams 
Varnish  Stain.  It  stains  and  varnishes  at  one  operation.  Many  little  things  need 
a  touch  of  paint — Family  Paint  is  made  specially  for  painting  things  in  the  house. 
Flat-tone  is  the  most  desirable  finish  for  walls  and  ceiling — it  produces  sanitary  and 
artistic  flat  effects  with  little  expense  or  labor. 

The  Sherwin-Williams  Co. 

of  Canada,  Limited. 

LINSEED        OIL        CRUSHERS, 

When  writing  advertisers  kindly  mention  Farmer's  Magazine. 

FARMER'S  Magazine 

Vol.  V.  aCoronto,  Jfebruarp,  1913  No.  3 


Edited  by  Frank  Mackenzie  Chapman 

Eeview  of  Eural  Life  THE  EDITOE  7 

A  Eeferendum  on  the  Navy — The  Empire  in  the  Peace  Eiver — 
Insidious  Politics — The  Grain  Blockade — Sir  James  and  Eef  orm — 
Not  Absconders — Pure  Arsenate  of  Lead — The  Grange  and  its 
Policies — Destruction  of  Shade  Trees — Americans  Coming  to 


Cost  of  Electricity  to  the  Farmer PEOF.  W.  H.  DAY  18 

How  Uncle  Sam 's  Eggs  are  Marketed GEO.  H.  DACY  33 

Distributing  Copenhagen's  Milk W.  Y.  KILGOUE  46 

The  Dairy  Shorthorn  JOS.  SMITH  58 

Domestic  Science  Carried  to  the  Farm GEO.  A.  PUTNAM  67 

Our  Goose  Grass  Schoolyards  M.  D.  MOFFAT  79 

How  Apples  Won  $4,000  F.  M.  CHAPMAN  84 

Farm  Information  in  Bulletins  EDITOE  95 

February  on  the  Farm GEASMEEE  100 


Grange  Eesolutions 23 

The  Naval  Issue W.  J.  BEOWN,  B.S.A.  25 

How  Canada  May  Help  England E.  C.  DEUEY,  B.S.A.  30 

The  Power  of  Home  Joy DE.  O.  S.  MAEDEN  61 


The  Dodds-Sinders  At  Home ED.  CAHN  41 

Miss  Nette MABEL  BUEKHOLDEE  51 

Grandma TEMPLE  BAILEY  64 

Smoke  Bellew  (concluded)    JACK  LONDON  71 


The  Little  House  Party  (Poetry)   .• AMY  CAMPBELL  40 

The  Housekeeper's  Journal DOEOTHY  DOT  91 

The  Gentle  Art  of  Cookery JEAN  McKENZIE  93 

The  Pattern  Department   97 

The  Dress  Department   100 

Issued  monthly  by  The  MacLean  Publishing  Company,  Limited  :  John  Bayne  MacLean,  President 
Publication  Office:  143-149  University  Ave.,  Toronto.  Montreal'Office:  Eastern  Townships  Bank  Bldg 






additional  arrangements  for  representation  in  Can- 
ada. This  line  is  widely  advertised,  very  favorably 
known  to  the  trade  and  is  now  carried  by  a  good 
proportion  of  the  hardware  dealers  in  the  country, 
additional  representation  is  desired  in  Eastern  and 
Central  Canada.  Box  132,  Farmer's  Magazine,  143- 
147  University   Ave.,    Toronto,    Ont.  (tf) 



learn  it  at  home.  Small  cost.  Send  to-day,  2  cent 
stamp  for  particulars  and  proof.  O.  A.  Smith,  Room 
D71,  823  Bigelow  St.,   Peoria,   111.,  U.S.A.  (tfe) 


—Twenty  complete  lessons.  The  successful  Poultry 
Book.  Treatise  on  care  of  domestic  fowls,  sent  free 
on  request.  O.  Rolland,  Sole  agent,  Des  Moines  In- 
cubator  Department  25.    P.O.   Box  2363.   Montreal. 



of  large  white  eggs.  Best  general  purpose  fowl  for 
farmers.  Lays  more  eggs  than  any  hen.  Easily 
raised.  No  expense.  Make  fine  table  birds.  Stock 
and  eggs  for  sale  at  all  times.  Send  for  full  infor- 
mation. C.  J.  Edgar,  M.D.,  Cozy  Nook  Duck  Farm, 
North  Hatley,  Prov.  Que.  (tf) 


about  land  and  realty,  commercial  and  industrial 
opportunities  on  receipt  of  stamp.  Straight  truthful 
information.  H.  A.  R.  Macdonald,  9  Dominion 
Building,    Calgary,    Canada.  (tf) 

ments  in  Toronto  property,  Ontario  and  Western 
farms,  communicate  with  A.  C.  Miller,  1263  King  W., 
Toronto.  (2) 


ton,  F.C.S.  Treating  with  the  utmost  clearness  and 
conciseness,  and  in  he  most  popular  manner  possible, 
of  the  relations  of  chemistry  to  agriculture,  and 
providing  a  manual  for  those  not  having  time  to 
systematically  study  chemistry  and  its  relations 
to  operations  on  the  farm.  120  pages,  5x7  inches. 
Cloth,  $1.00.  Technical  Book  Dept.,  MacLean  Pub. 
Co.,   143  University   Ave.,   Toronto. 

By  Prof.  Thomas  Shaw.  The  place  for  this  book 
will  be  at  once  apparent  when  it  is  stated  that  it  is 
the  first  book  that  has  ever  been  written  which  dis- 
cusses the  management  and  feeding  of  cattle,  from 
the  birth  of  the  calf  until  it  has  fulfilled  its  mission 
in  life,  whether  on  the  block  or  at  the  pail.  The  book 
is  handsomely  printed  on  fine  paper,  from  large, 
clear  type.  Fully  illustrated.  5%x8  inches.  496 
pages.  Cloth.  Net,  $2.00.  Technical  Book  Dept., 
MacLean   Pub.  Co.,  143   University  Ave.,  Toronto. 

smith.  A  most  helpful  book  to  all  farmers  and  stu- 
dents interested  in  the  selection  and  improvement 
of  corn.  It  is  profusely  illustrated  from  photographs, 
all  of  which  carry  their  own  story  and  contribute 
their  part  In  making  pictures  and  text  matter  a 
clear,  concise  and  interesting  study  of  corn.  Illus- 
trated. 5x7  inches.  100  pages.  Cloth.  Price,  net, 
$0.50.  Technical  Book  Dept.,  MacLean  Pub.  Co., 
143  University  Ave.,  Toronto. 


practical  guide  for  beginners  and  a  standard  refer- 
ence of  great  interest  to  persons  already  engaged 
in  celery  growing.  It  contains  many  illustrations 
giving  a  clear  conception  of  the  practical  side  of 
celery  culture.  The  work  is  complete  in  every  detail, 
from  sowing  a  few  seeds  in  a  window-box  in  the 
house  for  early  plants,  to  the  handling  and  market- 
ing of  celery  in  carload  lots.  Fully  illustrated. 
150  pages.  5x7  inches.  Cloth,  $0.50.  Technical  Book 
Dept.,  MacLean  Pub.  Co.,  143  University  Ave.,  Tor- 

William  Burkett.  This  book  abounds  In  helpful 
suggestions  and  valuable  information  for  the  most 
successful  treatment  of  ills  and  accidents,  and  disease 
troubles.  A  practical  treatise  on  the  diseases  of 
farm  stock;  conaining  brief  and  popular  advice  on 
the  nature,  cause  and  treatment  of  disease,  the  com- 
mon ailments  and  the  care  and  management  of  stock 
when  sick.  It  is  profusely  illustrated,  containing  a 
number  of  half-tone  insert  illustrations  and  a  great 
many  drawings  picturing  diseases,  their  symptoms 
and  familiar  attitudes  assumed  by  farm  animals 
when  affected  with  disease,  and  presents,  for  the 
first  time,  a  plain,  practical  and  satisfactory  guide 
for  farmers  who  are  interested  in  the  common  dis- 
eases of  the  farm.  Illustrated.  5x7  inches.  288 
pages.  Cloth.  Net,  $1.50.  Technical  Book  Dept., 
MacLean  Pub.  Co.,  143  University  Ave.,  Toronto. 

J.  B.  Davidson  and  L.  W.  Chase.  This  Is  the  first 
American  book  published  on  the  subject  of  Farm 
Machinery  since  that  written  by  J.  J.  Thomas  In 
1867.  This  was  before  the  development  of  many  of 
the  more  important  farm  machines  and  the  general 
application  of  power  to  the  work  of  the  farm. 
Modern  farm  machinery  is  indispensable  in  present- 
day  farming  operations,  and  a  practical  book  like 
Farm  Machinery  and  Farm  Motors  will  fill  a  much- 
felt  need.  The  book  has  been  written  from  lec- 
tures used  by  the  authors  before  their  classes  for 
several  years,  and  which  were  prepared  from  prac- 
ical  experience  and  a  thorough  review  of  the  liter- 
ature pertaining  to  the  subject.  Although  written 
primarily  as  a  text-book,  it  is  equally  useful  for 
the  practical  farmer.  Profusely  illustrated.  5%x8 
inches.  520  pages.  Cloth.  Net,  $2.00.  Technical 
Book  Dept.,  MacLean  Pub.  Co.,  143  University  Ave., 


S.  B.  Reed.  This  useful  volume  meets  the  wants 
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It  is  to  your  advantage  to    mention   Farmer's   Magazine. 

FARMER^S    MAGAZINE  Advertisinif 


Be  Particular  in  the  Reading 
That  Goes  Into  Your  Home 


Farmer's  Magazine  has  endeavored  to  dignify  the  farm  homes  by  placing  within 
their  reach  a  magazine  that  would  place  the  Business  of  Farming  in  its  proper  place 
before  all  readers.  Too  long  we  have  been  allowing  our  farm  boys  and  girls  to  envy 
the  professions  and  the  other  business  enterprises.  At  the  distance  of  the  farm  from 
these,  they  see  only  the  big  income  and  the  glamor  of  publicity  of  business  and  social 

The  family  does  not  see  the  cost  of  getting  these;  the  eternal  grind  to  remain 
in  the  front;  the  monotonous  times  of  the  big  body  of  city  employees,  as  well  as  the 
closed-in  home  surroundings.  The  money  returns  also  are  big  only  to  one  man  in  a 


Whereas  on  the  farm,  the  blessings  of  intimate  association  with  nature;  the  joy 
of  out-of-doors,  the  possibilities  of  better  business  methods  increasing  the  farm 
output,  the  general  health  and  moral  superiority  of  the  country  home,  are  overlooked. 
All  this  is  reversed  on  the  pages  of  every  issue  of  Farmer's  Magazine.  The  farm  is 
dignified,  the  business  of  farming  is  discussed,  and  the  independence  of  the  farmer 


The  Publishers  of  Farmer's  Magazine  have  only  one  interest  to  serve,  and  that 
is,  better  life  for  the  farmer.    The  company  is  controlled  by  no  outside  capital. 

Farmer's  Magazine  contains  no  insidious  appeals  and  lays  no  powder  magazines 
under  agriculture.  The  greatest  good  of  our  country  homes  is  the  slogan  of  the 


The  success  of  the  past  year  of  the  magazine  has  been  most  encouraging.  Farmers 
in  every  province  of  Canada  are  reading  every  issue.  The  kindly  words  of  praise  are 
most  appreciated. 

Our  new  covers  and  the  quality  of  the  reading  matter  of  past  issues  is  a  guar- 
antee of  future  worth.     Here  are  a  few  encomiums: 

"Your  magazine  is  a  fine  one  indeed.  We  all  like  it." — Miss  Robinson,  Ceres 
of  Dominion  Grange. 

"I  must  congratulate  you  on  your  splendid  issues." — E.  C.  Drury,  B.S.A.,  Cana- 
dian Council  of  Agriculture. 

"This  is  an  up-to-date  magazine,  in  time  with  all  modern  improvements  in  agri- 
culture."— J.  G.  Taggart,  B.S.A.,  District  Representative,  Frontenac. 

'  *  We  are  preserving  our  copies  for  future  reference. ' ' — L.  Routledge,  Oak  Ridges. 

"I  hope  all  farmers  will  see  to  it  that  they  get  a  copy  of  Farmer's  Magazine 
regularly. ' ' — Henry  Fitzpatrick,  Wright,  Quebec. 

"I  should  not  like  to  miss  a  copy  of  Farmer's." — H.  Henken,  New  Brigden, 

"I  appreciate  Farmer's  Magazine  very  much  and  I  must  have  every  copy." — 
E.  W.  White,  Sardis,  B.C. 

The  March  issue  will  contain  one  or  two  articles  that  we  have  not  been  able  to 
get  into  this  issue,  as  well  as  some  leading  matter  on  orchard,  live  stock,  poultry, 
market  gardening.  Farm  House  Building,  and  making  money  from  chestnuts. 

See  that  your  neighbor's  home  gets  a  copy. 

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Farmer's  Magazine 


OUCCESS  is  nothing  more 
^^     or  less  than  having 
common   sense  enough    to 
know  what  you  ought   to 
have,  plus  the  gumption  to 
go  after  it  and   keep  after 
it  until  you  get  it. 



MONTREAL                                          TORONTO                                           WINNIPEG 






PETER     WHITE.    K.C., 

President  of  the 

Eastern     Ontario     Live 

Stock   Association 

J.  H.  GRISDALE.  B.S.A.. 

Director  of  the 

Dominion  Experimental 


MR.     JOHN    BRIGHT. 
The  New  Commissioner  of  Live  Stock  for  Canadi 




Vol.  5  TORONTO     FEBRUARY,     1913  No.  4 

A     REVIEW     OF     RURAL     LIFE 


The  people  of  Canada  should  have  a  chance  to  pass  upon  the  Navy  pro- 
posals by  means  of  the  referendum.  No  vote  of  the  people  has  yet  turned  on 
this  question.  It  is  the  greatest  question  affecting  us  as  a  nation  that  has 
ever  come  up  in  our  history.    And  the  people  can  be  trusted. 

It  is  this  assumption  of  undelegated  power  that  has  brought  the  present 
agitation  with  Anglo-Saxon  countries  against  the  old  Party  systems  of  gov- 
ernment, in  favor  of  direct  legislation.  We  have  had  too  many  instances  of 
it  in  Canada.  Too  many  corporations  and  parties  in  the  state,  have  been 
granted  privileges  by  a  parliament  that  has  had  no  mandate  for  so  doing.  Sir 
Wilfrid  Laurier  passed  his  Navy  Act  under  such  a  protest.  His  previous  elec- 
tions had  not  hinged  upon  the  question  at  all.  The  Grand  Trunk  Pacific  un- 
dertaking was  the  main  thing  before  the  electors,  under  which  the  slogan  of, 
^let  Laurier  finish  his  work,'  was  so  well  used. 

The  present  cabinet  swung  into  power  under  the  Reciprocity  proposals. 
The  Navy  Act  was  strenuously  objected  to,  by  the  Nationalists  who  had  form- 
ed a  coalition  with  Mr.  Borden,  on  the  question  to  the  people.  Such  has  not 
been  done. 

It  is,  therefore,  the  duty  of  the  present  Government,  and  a  just  demand 
on  the  part  of  the  farmers  in  all  parts,  that  an  opportunity  be  given  the  people 
of  Canada  to  speak  on  this  question.  And  that  voice  ought  to  be  obtained  by 
means  of  a  referendum.  Sir  Wilfrid  Laurier's  government  coupled  the  Reci- 
procity question  with  their  appeal  to  the  country  doubtless  with  the  hope  of 
swinging  back  into  power  on  the  strength  of  it.  This  action  has  beclouded  the 
issue.  Such  action  always  will  do  so.  The  people  demand  that  the  question 
be  submitted  to  them  in  a  way  that  the  answer  cannot  be  mistaken. 

Why  do  the  rulers  fear  the  voice  of  the  people?  Can  not  we  trust  our- 
selves to  do  the  correct  thing?  Have  we  not  as  much  of  the  average  wisdom 
in  our  craniums,  that  has  obtained  in  the  heads  of  our  not-above-the-average 
members  of  parliament? 

We  call  for  the  referendum.  The  Borden  Government  is  in  duty  bound  to 
submit  the  whole  question  of  a  Navy  to  the  people. 




The  vision  that  floats  before  the  eyes 
of  Deputy-Minister  of  Agriculture,  Geo. 
Harcourt,  of  Alberta,  is  soon  to  be  visu- 
alized. There  is  a  mighty  empire  of 
people  coming  to  inhalDit  the  Peace 
River  country. 

From  the  maps  in  his  office  Mr.  Har- 
court grows  truly  optimistic  when  he 
points  out  that  the  Isothermal  lin*..^ 
that  is,  the  lines  that  tell  of  equal  tem- 
peratures over  the  earth's  surface,  run 
from  a  little  south  of  Alaska  across  Al- 
berta, North  of  Edmonton,  dipping 
down  into  Southern  Manitoba  and 
thence  into  the  States  and  crossing  On- 
tario through  the  fruit  belt  of  Niagara. 

'This  teaches  us,"  said  he,  ''that  we 
have  as  good  a  climate  up  here  as  they 
have  in  Southern  Ontario,  and  means 
that  the  productions  of  these  parts  will 
yet  astonish  the  world.  Besides  we 
have  little  wind,  the  land  has  consider- 
able timber  and  is  underlaid  with  coal, 
oil,  salt  and  gas." 

The  explanation  of  this,  as  was  point- 
ed out  in  the  report  of  the  Senate  of 
Canada  some  years  ago  in  its  report  on 
the  Mackenzie  Basin,  is  that  the  Japan- 
ese current  in  the  Pacific,  strikes  Alas- 
ka, and  the  warm  air  is  carried  across 
the  valley  at  the  upper  end  of  British 
Columbia.  The  Japanese  current  is  as 
important  to  the  West  as  the  Gulf 
Stream  is  to  the  East.  For  this  reason 
it  is  argued  that  the  Peace  River  Coun- 
try, into  which,  already  thousands  of 
settlers  have  gone,  will  support  a  diver- 
sified farming  population  that  will  yet 
be  an  important  part  of  Canada. 

Apple  trees  were  planted  last  year 
100  miles  north  of  Edmonton  and 
promise  to  grow  to  maturity.  The  last 
report  of  the  U.  S.  Experiment  Station 
at  Sitka,  Alaska,  shows  that  the  apples 
planted  there  in  1903  have  ripened 
fruit  for  the  first  time  last  year.  Among 
these  is  the  Yellow  Transparent,  an  ap- 
ple well-known  in  older  parts  of  Can- 

Over  200,000  square  miles  of  land 

near  Edmonton  is  ready  foi-  settlement, 
while  there  is  an  immense  hinterland 
even  within  the  Arctic  Circle,  where 
wheat,  oats  and  barley  ripened  in  Sept- 
ember last  year. 

The  Alberta,  Peace  River  and  East- 
ern Railway  Company,  owning  800,000 
acres  of  land  in  this  district,  is  buildins; 
a  system  of  1,450  miles  from  Hudson's  , 

Bay  to  the  Pacific  Coast.  Lord  Farrer  '| 
V.C.,  a  director  of  large  railway  enter- 
prises in  Great  Britain,  is  the  capitalist 
behind  the  scheme.  The  Canadian 
Northern  Railway  are  already  into  the 
heart  of  the  district  with  a  splendid  ser- 
vice. The  Grand  Trunk  Pacific,  will 
soon  be  finished  to  Prince  Rupert.  The 
C.  P.  R.  which  has  been  slow  in  getting 
into  this  country  are  about  ready  with 
their  high  level  bridge  over  the  Saskat- 
chewan into  Edmonton. 

The  first-named  railway  corporation 
are  planning  to  bring  in  ?e1  tiers,  for  a 
railway  is  little  good  without  them. 
They  propose  to  settle  1,500  experienc- 
ed farmers  from  South  Africa  on  these 

It  is  therefore  that  we  reason  that  the 
future  of  Canada  looks  rosy  for  years. 
The  people  are  coming.  Money  is 

Farmers  are  producing  greater  year- 
ly additions  to  our  material  wealth,  and 
so  long  as  these  conditions  prevail  and 
the  mass  of  the  people  are  engaged  in 
their  legitimate  vocations  of  produc- 
tion and  distribution,  the  end  of  the 
expansion  is  yet  a  long  way  off. 

Sir  Edmund  Walker,  of  the  Bank  of 
Commerce  advises  caution  in  specula- 
tion. The  curse  of  many  Western 
towns  has  been  their  excessive  lot-sub- 
division schemes  whereby  people  of 
small  means  have  been  induced  to  buy 
lots,  seen  only  on  paper,  and  located 
where  even,  the  town  clerk  of  the  place, 
knows  not.  One  of  the  problems  of 
civic  government  in  the  West  lies  in  a 
remedying  of  this  evil.  The  tax  sys- 
tems are  along  the  right  tack  and  alto- 
gether the  West  is  in  a  most  healthy 
condition  for  1913. 




The  National  Review,  a  High  Tory 
magazine  published  in  England,  in  its 
January  issue  takes  a  questionable 
means  of  discrediting  Lloyd  George  and 
his  activities  on  behalf  of  Great  Bri- 
tain's down-and-out  classes.  The  article 
calls  attention  to  the  salary  of  the  Chan- 
cellor and  to  the  fact  that  he  is  build- 
ing a  new  house  and  putting  his  son  into 
a  commercial  concern  in  which  the  ex- 
master  of  Elibank  is  a  member.  The 
sneering  references  to  these  outward 
signs  of  creature  comforts,  certainly  op- 
tional to  every  British  subject,  are  made 
for  the  purpose  of  discrediting  Lloyd 
George's  work  for  the  betterment  of 
the  common  people. 

The  National  Review  by  such  an  ap- 
peal, at  once  tacitly  admits  that  there 
is  poverty,  destitution  and  inequality  in 
the  political  and  commercial  life  of  the 
British  Isles.  With  such  an  admission 
there  must  follow  an  equal  responsibil- 
ity for  those  conditions,  and  the  Na- 
tional Review  must  regard  its  readers 
in  a  very  pessimistic  light,  if  it  deems 
them  quite  capable  of  accepting  such 
logic.  But  perhaps  this  high  tory 
journal  only  circulates  among  the  pri- 
vileged classes  who  fatten  on  the  in- 
equality that  exists  among  the  popula- 
tion and  as  such  are  blind  to  the  re- 
forms that  are  long  overdue. 

Not  only  does  this  knowledge  of 
these  conditions  on  the  part  of  the  Re- 
view, demand  some  action  by  way  of 
address,  but  it  renders  vicious,  the  at- 
tack on  the  minister  in  question  by 
appealing  to  the  baser  passions  that  are 
always  latent  in  a  certain  portion  of 

''With  all  their  houses  and  all  this 
money,  how  dare  he  face  the  poor," 
concludes  this  truly  lofty  and  logical 
appeal.  It  smatters  of  the  old  might- 
have-been-sold  -  for  -  much  -  argument 
u?ed  at  the  beginning  of  the  Christian 

Farmers  in  Canada  know  as  yet  little 
about  the  misery  and  abject  conditions 
that  prevail  in  the  cities  and  rural  plac- 
es in  Great  Britain.     Possibly  the  new 

Mr.  J.  G.  Taggart,  B.  S.A.,  District  Represen- 
tative for  Frontenac  County,  who  ably  dis- 
cussed feeding  of  dairy  cattle  at  the  Eastern 
Dairymen's  Association  at  Kingston  in  Janu- 
ary.   He  is  a  Nova  Scotia  boy. 

comers  to  Canada's  free  land  and  equal 
opportunities  will  resent  such  appeals 
when  it  comes  their  turn  to  say  if  the 
same  conditions  must  re-appear  here. 
The  farmers  are  fighting  stern  battles 
on  Canadian  soil.  They  are  breaking 
ground  as  an  advance  guard  for  an  in- 
dustrial army  that  is  soon  to  follow  up. 
The  future  welfare  of  agriculture  and 
of  labor,  depends  upon  the  sane  and 
righteous  views  of  government  and  leg- 
islation that  are  held  by  the  tillers  of 
the  soil. 

® , 


There  is  little  being  heard  from  the 
West  this  year  about  a  grain  blockade. 
This  does  not  mean  that  the  conditions 
there  are  satisfactory  by  any  means. 
There  is  an  abundance  of  grain  yet  in 



the  fields  that  cannot  get  cars  for  its 

The  weather  is  dry  and  cold  and  so 
there  is  no  cry  from  the  farms  that  their 
grain  is  spoiling.  People  in  the  East 
hear  a  little  of  what  is  going  on  in  the 
West,  and  they  read  so  many  contra- 
dictory reports  that  they  are  really  at  a 
loss  to  know  which  ones  are  authentic. 
Moreover,  the  optimism  of  the  West  is 
of  such  stern  stuff,  that  big'  losses  and 
troubles  are  passed  over  lightly.  For  in- 
stance, last  year,  whole  miles  of  stooked 
wheat  could  be  seen  rotting  in  the  fields 
along  the  railway  lines  from  Winnipeg 
West.  The  writer  passed  over  farms  in 
Saskatchewan  where  the  blackened 
shocks  of  grain  next  the  roadway  were 
tossed  out  to  clear  them  for  the  1913 
operations.  Hundreds  of  acres  of  wheat 
were  bunrt  up  in  the  stook. 

These  farmers  who  lost  were  never 
heard  from.  No  long  wail  of  woe  ever 
reached  the  outside  world.  Some  people 
have  remarked  that  a  loss  of  such  mag- 
nitude in  the  East  would  be  the  subject 
of  black  headlines  and  Jeremiads  for 

This  is  again  the  spirit  of  the  new 
country.  A  fall  down  to-day,  is  suc- 
ceeded by  a  spring  onward  to-morrow. 
This  overlooking  of  oppression,  and 
this  light  regard  for  inequalities  in 
transportation  and  money  advantages, 
is  the  very  chance  that  the  shark  seeks 
to  carry  on  his  nefarious  work.  The 
economic  commercial  evils  that  the 
West  suffers  are  real  things  and  the 
farmers  are  showing  that  they  are 
studying  more  and  deeper  and  some 
day  they  will  assert  themselves. 

According  to  F.  W.  Green  of  the 
Saskatchewan  Grain  Growers,  there  are 
many  parts  of  that  province  where  the 
grain  still  stands  out  in  open  bins  at 
the  stations  awaiting  cars  for  shipment, 
with  all  the  available  elevators  full. 

Prices,  too,  for  this  wheat  are  down 
to  50  cents  and  60  cents  per  bushel  to 
these  farmers.  "Why  not  a  $35,000,- 
000  contribution  to  wipe  out  the  fouler 
blotch  and  deeper  stained  debt  Canada 
owes  to  Western  Agriculturists."  said 
Mr.  Green.     ''They  have  made  Canada 

and  given  her  a  name  that  echoes  round 
the  world  and  they  are  carrying  on  an 
economic  struggle  with  an  entirely  in- 
adequate unpracticable  storage  and 
transportation  system." 



The  Premier  of  Ontario  has  placed 
himself  in  a  most  unenviable  position 
by  his  logical  following  out  of  the  phil- 
osophy of  bluff.  Sir  James  Whitney 
has  apparently  prided  himself  on  the 
fact  that  he  could  say,  ''no"  with  a 
sound  like  the  crack  of  a  doom.  He 
had  built  up  for  himself  a  reputation 
for  the  autocratic  disposal  of  debatable 
questions,  regardless  of  the  views  of 
the  advocates,  whether  from  a  liberal 
or  a  conservative. 

In  many  cases  this  attitude  is  re- 
garded by  people  as  one  of  strength  and 
wisdom.  It  takes  a  strong  mind  to  pose 
as  a  strong  man  all  the  time.  Jupiter 
was  a  God  for  hurling  thunderbolts, 
and  if  these  bolts  fell  contrary  to  the 
general  views  of  rightness,  or  foul  of 
the  worshippers,  the  whole  thing  was 
settled  by  an  advocation  of  his  omni- 
potence and  his  omniscience.  But 
worship  of  a  political  head,  usurping 
some  of  these  attributes  is  denied  to  him 
by  the  fact  of  reason  being  enthroned 
in  the  body  politic. 

The  latest  pronunciamento  from  the 
Premier,  is  that  he  will  have  none  of 
this  Tax  Reform  movement.  It  is  the 
product  of  the  brains  of  a  few  irrespon- 
sible journalists,  he  says.  The  ques- 
tion of  local  option  in  tax  ^  reform, 
whereby,  a  people  ar^  to  be  given  the 
right  to  say  whether  they  shall  be  taxed 
for  improvements  on  an  equal  basis 
with  land  values,  is  therefore  denied 
Ontario,  no  matter  how  many  may  de- 
mand it. 

A  recent  vote  in  Toronto  gave  an 
overwhelming  vote  in  favor  of  it.  Con- 
servative journals  in  various  parts  of 
the  province  have  been  advocating  this 
measure  and  have  openly  broken  with 
their  party  on  the  question. 



The  fact  is,  that  the  majority  of  the 
Conservative  party  favor  the  retirement 
of  Sir  James  from  the  leadership,  pre- 
ferring to  work  under  the  direction  of 
Hon.  Mr.  Hanna.  Sir  James  has  car- 
ried his  autocratic  way  into  the  caucuses 
of  the  party,  as  well  as  into  all  inter- 
views from  persons  or  departments. 
This  question  of  one  man  rule  is  not 
at  all  agreeable  to  any  democratic  body 
of  men.  The  Provincial  Secretary  has 
proven  himself  a  master  of  diplomacy 
as  well  as  one  of  the  few  cabinet  mem- 
bers who  have  shown  real  ability  in  his 
executive  and  administrative  work.  The 
question  of  how  to  arrive  at  the  read- 
justment is  what  is  troubling  the  Con- 
servatives of  the  Ontario  House.  If 
the  Premier  could  be  induced  to  accept 
the  office  of  Lieutenant-Governor  in 
succession  to  Sir  John  Gibson,  an  easy 
way  would  be  open  for  this  shuffle. 
Under  such  a  much-to-be-desired  re- 
arrangement, the  departments  would  no 
doubt  be  able  to  work  out  their  own 
policies  in  a  better  manner,  and  that  of 
agriculture  especially,  grow  in  strength. 



Hearsay  has  often  been  credited  with 
the  statement  that  farmers  were  not 
good  clients  for  bank  loans  because  of 
their  unreliability. 

This  whole  accusation  falls  to  the 
ground  upon  inquiry  into  the  facts, 
just  as  does  another  theory  that  farm- 
ers' wives  are  the  biggest  suppliers  of 
the  insane  asylums.  Both  are  false. 
Bankers  in  almost  every  town  in  Can- 
ada will  tell  you  that  their  losses  from 
farm  defalcations  are  almost  nothing. 

The  same  cannot  be  said  of  the 
manufacturers  or  other  classes  of  the 
community.  Dun's  report  in  a  recent 
issue  says:  "Examination  of  the  failure 
returns  according  to  occupation,  shows 
that  defaults  were  more  numerous  than 
in  1911  in  seven  of  the  fifteen  manu- 
facturing classes,  with  increases  of  7 
each  in  the  iron  and  printing  trades,  6 
in  earthenware,  4  in  milling,  3  in  chem- 

Pi-iucess  Patricias  sister,  tlie  Crown  Princess 
of  Sweden. 

cals  and  drugs,  2  in  machinery  and  1  in 
the  miscellaneous  group." 

The  Dominion  Government  have 
done  nothing  to  relieve  the  farm  money 
situation.  Already  private  enterprises 
are  springing  up,  for  this  purpose. 

Farmers  must  have  cheaper  money. 
They  have  paid  10  and  12  per  cent, 
rates  on  first-class  security  too  long. 
Canada,  instead  of  leading  the  world 
in  reforms,  is  already  lagging  behind 
the  older  countries  in  many  regards. 
It  is  little  wonder  that  the  party  system 
of  government  is  being  discredited  by 
nearly  every  farm  organization  in  Can- 



.  The  United  States  Department  of 
Agriculture  has  been  examining  the 
Paris  Green  and  Lead  Arsenate  sent  out 
by  the  manufacturers  for  distribution 
among  the  farmers  and  fruitgrowers. 
Advices  from  the  Secretary  of  Agricul- 
ture are  to  the  effect  that  several  firms 
have  recently  been  fined  for  false  brand- 
ing and  adulteration  of  these  goods. 
It  is  most  essential  to  the  fruitgrowers 



of  Canada  that  Canadian  goods  of  this 
kind  be  kept  up  fully  to  the  standard 
that  is  claimed  for  them.  Not  only  does 
the  American  Government  demand  a 
certain  standard  for  all  its  preparations, 
but  it  requires  the  manufacturer  to  have 
the  chemical  analysis  labelled  on  the 

In  the  cases  in  point,  the  packages  of 
Paris  green  and  lead  arsenate  were 
found  to  contain  considerable  less 
amount  of  the  active  principle  than  the 
label  called  for. 

It  is  just  as  necessary  that  Canada  be 
as  strict  in  this  regard.  The  fruitgrower 
depends  upon  his  chemicals  for  the  suc- 
cess that  shall  attend  his  season's  work. 
He  is  not  a  chemist.  He  has  no  way  of 
determining  the  strength  of  his  poisons. 
It  is  thus  the  clear  duty  of  the  govern- 
ment to  watch  all  these  goods  and  to 
promptly  report  any  violations  without 
fear  or  favor.  The  people  must  be  pro- 
tected against  greed  and  deception.  Just 
as  the  United  States  is  awaking  to  their 
economic  injustices,  and  to  their  sub- 
servience to  the  big  interests,  so  in  Can- 
ada, the  mills  of  God  are  grinding. 


The  Dominion  Grange  has  just  com- 
pleted another  annual  session  in  the  city 
of  Toronto.  Although  the  attendance 
was  less  than  formerly  the  enthusiasm 
and  deliberations  were  quite  equal  to 
anything  heretofore. 

A  forward  step  was  taken  when  they 
decided  to  raise  a  fund  to  place  an  or- 
ganizer in  the  field.  It  is  felt  that  there 
should  be  one  man  who  could  devote 
his  time  to  organization  work  and  to 
the  superintendence  of  already  exist- 
ing local  divisions.  The  proposal  met 
with  a  hearty  response,  following  the 
reading  of  the  secretary's  report  which 
pointed  out  that  the  present  loose  meth- 
ods of  the  work  were  liable  to  lead  to  a 
total  dissolution  -of  this  historic  old 

It  is  notoriously  bad  feature  of  farm- 
ers that  they  are  too  willing  to  be  led 
and  governed  by  others,  so  long  as  they 

can  criticise  and  yet  have  none  of  the 
funds  to  meet.  They  should  be  self- 
centred.  They  must  be  independent  if 
they  are  to  accomplish  anything. 

It  is  this  one  feature  of  relying  on  the 
outside  leadership  that  is  destroying  the 
resourcefulness  of  the  farmer.  The 
Grange,  if  it  realizes  its  worth,  and  gets 
rid  of  a  considerable  amount  of  the  ab- 
stractions that  fetter  it,  will  be  just  the 
organization  to  develop  in  our  young 
farmers  those  qualities  of  mind  and 
tongue  that  will  stand  the  whole  agri- 
cultural body  in  good  stead. 

There  many  good  resolutions  en- 
dorsed. The  demand  for  a  referendum 
on  the  Navy  question  was  unanimous. 
They  re-asserted  their  demand  for  wid- 
er markets  and  for  a  reform  in  the 
assessment  laws.  Parcels  Post  was  call- 
ed for,  as  it  would  bring  relief  to  the 
consumers  in  the  city  as  well  as  return 
to  the  farm  a  more  just  proportion  of 
the  prices  paid  for  farm  products. 

Yet  there  is  something  lacking  in  the 
cement  that  binds  the  Grangers  to- 
gether. It  appears  that  there  is  no  tan- 
gible connection,  no  questions  of  ma- 
terial advantage  that  claim  their  atten- 
tions and  fire  their  ambitions.  This 
side  of  farm  organizations,  has  been 
supplied  in  the  West  by  the  Grain 
Growers,  who,  besides  the  social  and 
educative  advantages,  have  commercial 
activities  that  chain  the  members  to- 

^  It  has  been  suggested  that  the  Cana- 
dian Council  of  Agriculture  should  act 
in  the  formation  of  Agricultural  Loan 
Banks.  They  could  easily  start  some 
agitation  for  a  thorough  discussion  in 
the  local  lodges,  and  outline  a  plan  for 
its  working.  Another  opportunity  is  in 
the  canning  business  in  Ontario.  In 
fact  there  are  a  multitude  of  ways  that 
the  organization  could  engross  attention 
and  wield  a  mighty  influence  if  the 
same  amount  of  energy  were  directed 
that  way,  as  is  directed  in  the  framing 
of  resolution  timbers. 

Here  is  a  splendid  opportunity  for  a 
rich  man  who  is  a  friend  of  the  farm. 
Let  him  support  or  help  to  support  the 
organizer  who  is  to  go  into  the  field. 




Telephone  and  telegraph  companies 
in  passing  along  country  highways  are 
too  often  guilty  of  destroying  the  shade 
trees  in  front  of  the  farms.  Their 
ruthless  dealing  with  those  trees  has  in- 
censed many  a  farmer,  who,  upon  pro- 
test, is  met  with  the  reply  that  they 
have  the  authority  of  the  law  to  pro- 

This  is  not  strictly  correct.  Farmers 
have  a  vested  right  in  such  things  and 
by  the  common  law  of  England,  have 
the  right  to  be  consulted  and  regarded 
in  the  erection  of  poles  in  front  of  their 

The  same  objection  holds  against 
railway  companies.  At  present  there  is 
a  great  deal  of  construction  work  going 
on,  and  the  construction  companies  en- 
tering upon  the  land,  cut  down  shade 
trees  at  their  will  and  then  refuse  to 
make  any  remuneration  for  them.  Cas- 
es like  this,  have  recently  been  the  sub- 
ject of  arbitration  in  Ontario  where 
farmers  claim  that  they  have  been  re- 
fused simple  justice  and  have  been 
frightened  into  accepting  a  settlement. 

A  recent  case  in  New  York  has  just 
been  decided  upon,  that  bears  some 
light  in  this  situation. 

The  Appellate  Division  of  the  New 
York  Supreme  Court  has  confirmed  a 
judgment  of  the  lower  court,  fixing 
what  may  be  called  a  good  round  value 
of  trees  in  that  city. 

A  construction  company  doing  some 
work  on  a  street  found  that  the  trees 
hindered  their  progress.  They  there- 
upon cut  dDwn  the  trees  without  so 
much  as  considering  for  one  moment 
their  value  to  the  owner's  property. 

Suit  was  at  once  brought  against  the 
company,  the  damages  being  laid  at 
$500  for  each  tree  cut  down.  The 
plaintiff  recovered  for  the  full  amount 
as  the  value  of  the  trees,  and  the  court 
added  $1,000  more  for  punitive  dam- 
ages. It  was  this  verdict  which  was 
carried  to  the  Appellate  Court  and  has 
been  sustained. 

Five  hundred  dollars  may  seem  a 
large  stim  for  a  tree  in  the  city,  but  it 

The  old  gun  that  fired  the  first  shot  in  the 
Riel  rebellion,  now  standing  at  the  R.N.W. 
M.P.  Barracks,  Prince  Albert,  Sask.  The 
wife  of  the  superintendent,  Major  Routledge, 
with  their  daughter,  Isabel,  seated  on  the 
carriage,  may  be  seen  in  the  centre. 

must  be  remembered  that  the  value  of 
the  tree  as  kindling  wood  or  as  lumber, 
or  even  as  the  material  for  house-trim 
or  furniture,  is  not  the  thing  to  be  con- 
sidered. The  tree  required  many  years 
to  grow.  It  not  only  adorned  the  prop- 
erty, but  it  afforded  health,  comfort,  en- 
joyment and  protection  to  its  owners. 
Its  place,  when  destroyed  could  not  be 
filled  by  another  tree  inside  of  fifteen, 
twenty  or  thirty  years. 

The  loss  of  a  shade  tree  in  the  coun- 
try is  equally  as  hurtful  to  many  farm- 
ers. It  has  taken  long  years  to  pro- 
duce them  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that 
Canadian  courts  will  regard  these 
things  in  as  sensible  a  way  as  did  the 
New  York  one. 


The  Labor  Gazette  for  December, 
gives  a  statement  of  the  Homestead  en- 
tries in  the  Western  Provinces  as  well 
as  the  nationalities  of  the  people  taking 
them  up,  during  the  month  of  October. 
These  are  comp>lete  for  the  whole  of  the 



West  with  the  exception  of  the  Peace 
River  District  which  would  account  for 
considerably  more. 

The  number  of  people  represented 
by  entries  was  5,326.  Of  these  190 
went  to  Manitoba,  1,213  to  Saskatche- 
wan, 877  to  Alberta  and  20  to  British 

Looking  up  their  origin,  it  is  found 
that  180  came  from  Ontario  and  48 
from  Quebec;  Canadians  returning 
from  the  States  19;  Americans  578; 
English  281 ;  Scotch  60 ;  Irish  28 ;  Ger- 
mans 53;  Austro-Hungarians  119; 
Swedes  and  Norwegians  124,  and  Rus- 
sians 90. 

Now,  the  Conservative  Party  of  Can- 
ada, made  a  big  mistake  during  the  last 
election  in  branding  the  majority  of 
these  incoming  American  settlers  as 
disloyal.      This  talk  was  resented  by 

hundreds  of  these  settlers  in  many  parts 
of  Alberta  and  Saskatchewan,  who  have 
come  to  Canada  to  abide  by  the  laws  in 
many  cases,  adopting  from  choice  this 
life  under  the  free  government  of  a 
British  nation. 

Politics  do  queer  things  with  many 
people.  It  is  explained  only  on  the 
basis  that  we  explain  the  actions  of  the 
crowd  or  the  mob.  It  is  a  pyschological 
question.  Ordinarily  sensible  and  well- 
balanced,  many  men,  during  an  election 
fight,  will  be  carried  away  into  the  most 
unheard  of  and  unreasonable  actions. 
This  calling  in  question  the  loyalty  and 
motives  of  American  settlers  in  Canada, 
during  the  last  general  election  was  one 
that  the  body  of  the  Conservative  party, 
no  doubt,  were  not  entirely  in  sympathy 
with.  It  is  this  renegade  element  in 
both  parties  that  dishonors  the  whole. 


Eeviewing  briefly  the  Education  Eeports  of  previous  years,  we  would  again  call 
attention  to  the  following: 

(1)  The  advisability  of  improving  and  extending  continuation  class  work  in  rural 
schools,  of  encouraging  the  teaching  of  elementary  agriculture  by  means  of  school  gardens 
and  nature  study,  and  of  extending  the  consolidation  of  rural  schools  so  as  to  permit  of 
more  advanced  work,  to  the  end  that  the  work  advised  be  carried  out,  recommend  that 
the  grant  to  Public  Schools  be  largely  increased. 

(2)  A  reduction  in  that  rigidity  and  uniformity  of  school  work  which  is  imposed 
upon  us  by  bureaucratic  control.  Teachers  ought  to  be  given  more  liberty,  and  examina- 
tions should  not  be  emphasized  so  much. 

(3)  The  propriety  of  teaching  the  duties  and  responsibilities  of  citizenship,  both  by 
information  concerning  the  mechanism  of  our  social  and  political  life,  and  by  concrete 
object  lessons  given  through  democratic  school  organization. 

(4)  The  dangers  that  are  inseparable  from  the  growth  of  military  drill  in  our  schools, 
tending  to  the  increase  of  international  antipathies  and  the  development  of  a  narrow 
sense  of  national  self-sufficiency,  miscalled  self-respect.  We  desire  especially  to  protest 
against  the  use  of  the  Boy  Scout  movement  and  the  Cadet  Corps  as  means  whereby  to 
carry  on  the  propagation  of  militarism. 

We  desire  to  commend  the  educational  work  of  the  District  Eepresentatives  of  the 
Department  of  Agriculture,  and  to  express  the  hope  that  the  good  work  which  they  are 
doing  or  can  do,  may  be  very  widely  extended.  Subordinate  Granges  should  co-operate 
with  the  District  Eepresentatives  in  holding  meetings  and  in  demonstration  work. 

We  desire  again  to  emphasize  the  need  for  more  outdoor  work  in  connection  with 
our  rural  schools. 

— ^Passed  by  Dominion  Grange. 



Note. — Farmers  in  Ontario  are  anxious  to  know  exactly  what  possibility  lies  in 
the  use  of  electricity  on  the  farm.  Is  it  going  to  be  a  practical  thing  for  them  at  a 
moderate  cost?  In  order  to  shed  some  light  on  this  we  have  secured  an  article  from 
the  Department  of  Physics  at  Guelph.  Every  farmer  will  find  this  of  exceeding  value 
to  him.  It  begins  to  look  as  if  some  other  form  of  power  will  have  to  be  introduced 
on  the  farm.  Is  it  near  at  hand?  Farmer's  Magazine  will  keep  you  posted.  The  fol- 
lowing letter  from  Prof.  W.  H.  Day,  explains  our  present  quest  for  information  that 
really  counts  on  the  farm. 

''Replying  to  your  enquiry  about  the  economy  of  electric  service  on  the  farm, 
I  would  say  that  last  winter  I  conducted  quite  an  extensive  series  of  experiments 
and  have  since  gathered  other  information  upon  this  point,  of  which  study  I  will 
give  you  the  results." — Editor. 

By  Professor  W.  H.  Day,  B.S.A. 

SELECTING  two  motors  and  two 
gasoline  engines  we  used  them  to  grind 
oats  and  3rd  grade  Manitoba  wheat,  the 
latter  of  which  proved  very  hard  to 
grind.  In  all  a  ton  and  a  half  of  each 
was  ground,  half  by  electricity  and 
half  by  gasoline.  The  position  of  the 
grinder  plates  was  marked  so  that  they 
could  always  be  set  the  same  for  both 
kinds  of  power.  The  electric  current 
and  the  gasoline  were  carefully  meas- 
ured in  all  cases.  Four  tests  were  made 
with  each  kind  of  power. 

The  average  cost  of  grinding  100 
pounds  of  grain  was  1.98  or  practically 
2  cents,  with  gasoline  at  20  cents  a  gal- 
lon, but  if  the  gasoline  cost  25  cents 
that  would  increase  the  cost  of  grinding 
100  pounds  to  21/2  cents. 

To  determine  the  cost  of  grinding 
by  electricity^  is  not  an  easy  matter  It 
is  believed  by  many  that  a  farmer 
should  be  able  to  buy  his  electricity  on 
a  meter  rate  and  thus  pay  for  what  he 
uses,  and  no  more.  A  meter  rate  of 
4%  cents  per  k.w.h.  (kilowatt-hour) 
would  make  the  grinding  cost  the  same 
by  electricity  as  by  gasoline.  This  is 
equivalent  to  $280  per  horsepower  per 
year  if  used  constantly,  but  if  used  only 
a  short  time  each  day,  it  would  give 
cheaper  power  than   at  a  flat  rate  of 

$40  or  $50  per  year.  In  Guelph  we 
pay  7%  cents  per  k.w.h.  for  electricity 
for  lighting  purposes. 


But  I  understand  this  method  is  not 
as  yet  practicable  in  the  country — it 
would  require  a  large  staff  of  men  to 
read  the  meters,  especially  so,  as  they 
would  be  much  farther  apart  than  in 
cities  and  towns.  Hence,  even  if  it 
were  practicable,  the  rate  would  be 
higher  than  in  cities  and  towns  Any 
farming  community  supplied  witjfi 
hydro-electric  power  will  pay  for  it  just 
what  it  costs  to  deliver  the  power  to 
that  community.  It  is  argued  that  if 
a  meter  had  to  be  provided  for  every 
user,  and  a  staff  of  men  paid  to  read 
the  meters,  the  cost  of  delivering  the 
power  would  be  increased  thereby,  and 
the  price  to  the  community  increased  by 
the  same  amount.  Then  a  flat  rate  be- 
ing claimed  to  be  the  cheaper  and  more 
practicable,  it  will  in  all  probability 
be  the  method  adopted,  although  in  it 
there  is  room  for  some  inequality.  Sup- 
pose thirty  users  are  supplied  from  one 
line,  and  each  contracts  for  three  horse- 
power, then  each  is  entitled  to  3  horse- 
power, twenty-four  hours  in  the  day, 
every  day  in  the  year.    Suppose  further 




that  ten  of  these  men  actually  use  their 
full  quota  of  power,  but  that  the  other 
twenty  use  theirs  on  an  average  only 
6  hours  per  day,  then  these  twenty  men 
are  paying  four  times  as  high  a  rate  as 
the  others  for  the  power  actually  used. 
In  other  words,  the  twenty  are  helping 
to  pay  for  the  power  used  by  the  ten. 
The  blame  for  the  inequality,  of  course, 
rests  with  the  twenty  themselves.  They 
had  the  right  to  use  just  as  much  as 
the  others,  but  did  not  avail  themselves 
of  it  On  a  fiat  rate,  each  user  pays  for 
the  right  to  use  a  certain  amount  of 
power  All  the  users  collectively  must 
pay  for  the  power  actually  used. 

st  an  ding  then 
that  when  hy- 
d  r  0  -  electric 
power  comes 
to  the  farm- 
ers of  a  certain 
community  it 
will  likely  be 
paid  for  on  a 
flat  rate,  let  us 
enquire  what 
that  rate  will 
be.  The  Hon. 
Adam  Beck, 
speaking  at 
Guelph  last 
winter,  stated 
$50  per  horse- 
power  per 
year  as  an  ap- 
proximate fig- 
ure. This  esti- 
mate, I  under- 
stand is  based 
on  supplying  twenty  users  from  one 
line.  I  believe  another  later  estimate  has 
been  made  based  on  the  assumption  that 
250  persons  in  a  township  would  become 
users,  the  permanent  charge  for  each 
being  $20  per  year,  which  covers  the 
cost  of  constructing  the  township  sys- 
tem, the  power  to  be  supplied  at  $30  per 
horsepower  per  year.  Combining  these 
rates  1  horsepower  would  cost  $50,  two, 
$80,  or  $40  per  h.p.,  three,  $110,  or 
$36.66  per  h.p.  For  four  horsepower 
the  rate  would  be  $35  per  h.p.  for  five, 
$34  per  h.p.,  and  for  six  $33.33  per 
h.p.    But  knowing  the  price  per  horse- 

The  farm  buildings  of  F.  H.  Westney,  of  Pickering,  Ont. 
showing  the  wind  power  used.  His  brother  uses  gaso- 
line power,  as  is  shown   in  another  cut. 

power  does  not  enable  us  to  determine 
definitely  the  price  of  grinding,  because 
farmers  will  use  their  power  only  part 
of  the  time.  Suppose  a  farmer  who  pays 
for  one  horsepower  ($50)  uses  the  full 
power  twenty-four  hours  a  day  every 
day  in  the  year,  then  it  costs  him  a 
shade  over  a  half  cent  an  hour,  for  work 
actually  done.  But  if  he  uses  the  one 
horsepower  only  1  hour  each  day  (365 
days)  then  he  is  paying  $50  for  365 
hours  of  actual  work,  which  makes  his 
power  cost  him  13%  cents  an  hour  for 
one  horsepower.  Thus  we  see  in  com- 
puting the  cost  of  grinding  by  electric- 
ity we  must  take  into  consideration  the 

number  o  f 
hours  per  day 
that  the  farm- 
er will  use  his 

If  he  uses 
the  full 
amount  con- 
tracted for  all 
the  time  for 
power  purpos- 
es, part  of 
which  is  for 
grain,  then  his 
grinding  is 
done  very 
cheaply.  On 
this  basis  the 
grinding  in 
our  tests 
would  range 
in  cost  from 
.195  cents  to 
.293  c  e  n  t  s 
for  100  ])ouiul«  of  grain,  which  is 
from  one-tenth  to  one-seventh  of  the 
cost  by  gasoline,  but  if  he  uses  his  power 
only  one  hour  a  day  it  will  cost  from 
4  2-3  cents  to  7  cents  to  grind  100 
pounds,  which  is  from  2 1-3  to  3% 
times  as  much  as  by  gasoline.  A  table 
will  show  the  cost  under  various  condi- 

From  this  table  it  will  be  seen  that 
in  order  to  grind  grain  by  electricity  at 
2  cents  per  100  pounds,  the  same  as  by 
gasoline,  the  current  must  be  used  at 
full  strength  from  2  hours,  20  minutes, 
to  3  hours,  31  minutes,  each  and  every 





If  full  power  Is  used. 

1st — 24  hours  per  day   

2nd — 12  hours  per  day    

3rd — 6  hours   per  day    

4th— ^3  hours  31  minutes  per  day 
5th — 2  hours  49  minutes  per  day 
6th — 2  hours  41  minutes  per  day 
7th— 2  hours  28  minutes  per  day 
8th — 2  hours  24  minutes  per  day 
9th — 2  hours  20  minutes  per  day 
10th — 1  hour  per  day   


$50  per 








of  grinding   100  lbs.  of  grain   with 

electricity  at 

$40  per    $36.66    $35  per  $34  per    $33.33 

h.p.      per  h.p.    h.p.  h.p.     per  h.p. 

cts.          cts.          cts.  cts.        cts. 

.234         .223         .205  .199         .195 

.468         .446         .410  .398         .390 

.892         .820  .796         .780 




5.616      5.352       4.920 



day  in  the  year.  It  must  be  emphasized 
that  the  farmer  must  use  for  power  pur- 
poses or  other  purposes  that  are  just  as 
expensive,  all  the  power  he  contracts  for 
during  the  times  specified,  in  order  to 
get  that  result.  If  he  contracted  for 
3  h.p.  and  then  used  only  1%,  he  would 
have  to  use  it  twice  as  long  as  shown 
by  the  table. 


Since  making  these  tests  I  have  ask- 
ed a  large  number  of  farmers  individu- 
ally how  many  hours  a  day  they  could 
use,  say,   3  horsepower.     No  one  has 

E laced  the  figure  anywhere  near  2  1-3 
ours  per  day,  to  say  nothing  about 
3%.  Most  of  them  have  stated  that 
they  might  average  1  horsepower  about 
1  hour  a  day.  If  such  men  were  paying 
for  three  horsepower  their  grinding 
would  cost  about  10  times  as  dear  as  by 

gasoline,  if  paying  for  6  h.p.  thirteen 
times  as  dear — and  they  could  hardly 
buy  less  than  three  if  they  wish  to 
grind,  cut  feed  and  fill  silo  with  the 
motor.  Indeed,  these  men  claim  that 
three  horsepower  would  be  practically 
useless  for  their  heavier  kinds  of  work, 
especially  grinding  and  filling  silo.  In 
our  tests  we  did  some  grinding  with 
a  21/2  h.p.  engine,  and  we  found  it 
would  do  the  work,  although  very  slow- 
\j.  The  same  would  be  true  of  a  3  h.p. 
motor ;  it  would  grind  about  10  bushels 
per  hour,  judging  from  our  tests. 
Whether  a  farmer  can  afford  to  spend 
his  time  in  attendance  upon  such  slow 
operations  is  for  him  to  decide.  The 
motor  itself  needs  little  attention,  but 
those  with  experience  in  grinding  know 
it  is  never  safe  to  get  very  far  away  for 
any  length  of  time — a  nail  may  get  in 
between  the  plates,  or  straw  may  block 
the  feed,  or  the  grain  may  run  too  fast, 



Plan  of  F.  H.  Westney's  wind  power.  The  windmill  is  set  on  a  70  ft.  tower.  The  cost, 
including  pulleys  and  shafting,  was  $260.  The  mill  grinds  all  the  grain,  pulps  roots, 
and  cuts  straw.  Upwards  of  100  bags  of  grain  per  month  are  ground.  It  will  give 
-%  h.p.,  which  will  drive  a  12  ft.  cutter  box  350  r.p.m.,  besides  driving  a  small  blower 
attached.  Yearly  expenses  are  estimated  by  the  owner,  F.  H.  Westney.  at  $12.75.  which 
includes  allowances  for  depreciation  and  interest  on  capital  invested.  Wind  power  is 
certainly  the  cheapest  kind  of  power,  although  its  greatest  difficulty  lies  in  the  un- 
evenness   of  the  power  given. 



choke  the  motor,  throw  the  belt,  etc. 
But  let  us  assume  that  the  farmer  can 
aft'ord  to  give  the  necessary  attendance 
to  a  3  h.p.  outfit,  and  that  the  estimate 
given  me  of  1  horsepower  for  1  hour  a 
day  represents  the  average  farm,  then 
the  grinding  by  electricity  as  already 
pointed  out,  costs  about  ten  times  as 
much  as  by  gasoline.  At  one  pint  of 
gasoline  per  hour  per  horsepower,  the 
usual  basis, 
$9  worth  of 
would  be  am- 
ple to  give  1 
h.p.  1  hour  a 
day  every 
day  in  the 
year.  One  of 
the  men  who 
gave  me  this 
estimate,  and 
who  has  a 
31/2  b.p.  gas- 
oline engine, 
told  me  his 
bill  for  gaso- 
line during 
the  year  was 
only  $5.  But 
let  us  be  lib- 
eral and  say 
the  average 
farmer  will 
require  three 
times  as 
much  power 
as  these  men 
have  told  me, 
i.e.,  3  h.p. 
one  hour  a 

Here  i  s 
what  3  h.  p. 
1  hour  a 
day  includes: 

Filling  silo — 3  h.p.  not  suffici- 

Grinding — 20  days  of  10  hours 
each,  using  full  3  h.p.,  which, 
judging  by  our  tests,  would  grind 
from  2,000  to  2,500  bushels  of 
mixed  grain.  Farmers  tell  me  this 
is  more  than  twice  the  average. 
Pumping — %  hour  every  day, 

Showing  the  gnsollne  engine  house  on  Mnple  Dale  Farm, 
Pickering,  owned  by  a  young  farmer,  W.  H.  Westuey. 
The  arrow  points  to  the  shafting  connections  with  the 

using  1  h.p.  This  will  pump  2,500 
gallons  or  621/2  barrels,  from  a  well 
40  feet  deep  or  125  barrels  from  a 
well  20  feet  deep. 

Cutting — 3    days    of    10    hours 
each,  using  full  3  h.p. 

Pulping  Roots — 1/2  h.p.  1  hour 
per  day  for  6  months. 
Sawing — 1  day  of  10  hours,  using 
full  3  h.p.  Washing— 

1-6  h  p.  6 
hours  per 

—1-6  h.p.  1/2 
hour  every 

— 1-6  h.  p. 
1%  hours 
per  week. 

F  a  rm  ers 
will  know 
know  that 
these  estim- 
ates are  liber- 
al for  the 
average  farm 
The  gaso- 
line for  3 
horsepower  1 
hour  a  day 
would  cost 

What  about 
lighting  and 
h  eating? 
Now  twelve 
ordinary  in- 
c  a  n  descent 
lamps  equal 
one  horse- 
power. On 
the  average 
farm  four 
lamps  three  hours  a  day  (which  is 
the  same  as  twelve  lamps  one  hour  a 
day)  would  probably  be  a  liberal  esti- 
mate. In  the  winter,  more  might  be 
used,  but  in  the  summer  certainly  less. 
This  adds  another  hour  each  day  for 
our  one  horsepower.  The  average 
farm,  however,  will  not  use  over  20 
gallons  of  coal  oil,  per  year,  worth  20 
cents  a  gallon,  a  total  of  $4.00. 




^ :5P-T 










Heating  still  remains.  It  has  been 
reported  by  those  who  are  familiar  with 
the  use  of  hydro-electric  power  on  the 
farm  in  Europe  that  the  farmers  of 
Saxony  use  their  electricity  ''to  saw 
their  firewood"  (Farmer's  Magazine, 
Nov.  No.,  p.  71,  col.  1,  lines  4  and  5). 
We  may  take  this  as  conclusive  proof 
that  wood  is  more  economical  than 
electricity  for  heating  purposes.  How- 
ever, let  us  see  why.  If  we  assume  that 
40  to  45  per  cent,  of  the  heat  from 
coal  or  wood  passes  up  the  chimney 
then  three  horse-power  of  electricity 
used  at  full  strength  twenty-four 
hours  every  day  for  seven  months  will 
give  about  the  same  amount  of  heat  in 
the  house  as  burning  2  1-3  tons  of  hard 
coal,  value  $17.50  or  5  double  cords  of 
soft  wood,  value  $20  or  3  cords  of  No. 
1  hard  wood,  value  $21.  Anyone  who 
uses  more  coal  or  wood  than  the  above 
amounts,  and  their  name  is  legion, 
would  not  find  three  horsepower  ample 
for  his  heating  purposes.  If  he  used 
just  these  amounts  his  fuel  bill  would 
range  from  $17.50  to  $21,  or  say  $19.50 
on  the  average.  On  this  basis,  i.e.,  2  1-3 
tons  of  coal,  or  its  equivalent  in  wood, 
in  7  months  the  average  consumption 
of  coal  per  day  would  be  22  pounds, 
which  would  give  the  same  amount  of 
heat  as  3  horsepower.  On  very  cold 
days  the  consumption  of  coal  would 
probably  be  twice  the  average,   hence 

In  Ontario,  the  Hydro-Electric 
are  proposing  to  carry  their  lines  in- 
to the  rural  parts  and  step  down  the 
power  for  the  use  of  the  farmers.  In 
their  meetings  in  Ontario  and  Peel 
Counties,  they  made  the  following 
prices :  A  fixed  charge  of  $24  a  year 
to  each  farmer.  Then  $36  per  H.P. 
per  year.  Thus  3  H.P.  will  cost  the 
farmer,  a  year,  $132.  Against  this, 
another  power  company  have  offer- 
ed farmers  near  Lake  Simcoe.  power 
at  $35  for  the  first  H.P. ;  $60  for  2 
H.P.  and  $25  per  H.P.  for  those 
taking  3  H.P.  or  more. 

on  such  days  three  horsepower  would 
be  only  half  sufficient,  and  would  have 
to  be  supplemented  by  22  pounds  of 
coal,  or  its  equivalent  in  wood,  thus 
requiring  a  double  heating  equipment 
— both  stoves  and  electric  heaters.  Dur- 
ing the  time  the  lights  were  lit  or  ma- 
chinery run  he  would  not,  of  course, 
get  3  horsepower  of  heat  and  would 
have  to  supplement  it  still  further  by 
coal  or  wood. 


Thus,  covering  the  whole  field  of  pos- 
sibility for  small  motors,  heat  and  light 
on  the  average  farm.,  we  find  that  the 


IMau  of  W.  H.  Westney's  Gpsoline  Power.  Tliis  g'nsoline  engine  U  4%  h.p.,  not  6.  as 
given  in  the  cut.  Cost  of  ouilay.  iuciurliug  engi]ie  house,  was  $:.'75.  This  engine  eives 
complete  satisfaction,  and  furnishes  all  the  power  he  wisroS  for.  except  in  rlireshing 
and  silo  filling.  He  has  a  IVo  h.p.  engine  at  his  house  which  does  all  the  wife's  work. 
It  is  always  ready,  costs  little  for  repairs  and  gasoline,  and  is  simple  in   mechanism. 



services  to  be  rendered  by  three  horse- 
power of  electric  energy  can  be  had 
otherwise  at  the  following  prices: 

Power,   gasoline,   1   li.p.    -    hour   a 
day   $9.00 

Or  3  h, p.  1  hour  a  day   27.00 

(which  is   ihe  same  as  1  h.p.  3 
hours  a  day.) 

Light,  coal  oil  4.00  4.00 

Heat,  coal  or  wood   19.50  19.50 

Total    $32.50  or  $50.50 

while  three  h.p.  of  electricity  costs 
$110.00,  to  which  we  must  add  some- 
thing for  the  price  of  coal  for  supple- 
mentary heating. 

To  be  sure  there  is  much  convenience 
in  having  an  electric  button  handy  to 
turn  on  the  lights  instantly.  It  remains 
to  be  seen  whether  this  convenience  will 
induce  the  farmer  to  pay  $110  for 
services  which  experience  has  shown 
him  he  can  have  otherwise  at  about 
one-third  of  that  price.  It  may  be 
the  same  here  as  with  rural  tele- 
phones —  convenience  coupled  with 
some  increase  in  comforts  may  count 
a  great  deal,  maybe  enough  to  lead  to 
the  adoption  of  electricity,  despite  the 
increased  cost  it  will  entail  for  power, 
light  and  heat. 

Personally,  I  have  been  deeply  dis- 

appointed at  the  result  of  this  enquiry. 
I  was  one  of  those  who  hailed  the  advent 
of  hydro-electric  power  as  destined,  be- 
cause of  cheapness,  to  revolutionize 
power,  lighting  and  heating  methods  on 
the  farm,  wherever  available,  but  now 
I  am  not  nearly  so  hopeful  for  the  im- 
mediate future  as  before  looking  into 
the  matter.  I  expect  it  will  do  so  yet, 
however,  when  the  use  of  current  by 
cities,  towns  and  townships  becomes  so 
general  that  the  price  can  be  made  to 
approximate  that  of  the  gasoline,  oil 
and  wood  (?)  which  the  current  is  ex- 
pected to  supplant.  Or,  looking  at  it 
from  another  aspect,  I  should  be  quite 
hopeful  for  a  rather  general  adoption 
of  electric  power  by  the  farmers  at  an 
early  date,  if  some  feasible  system 
could  be  devised  whereby  each  consum- 
er would  pay  for  only  the  power  actu- 
ally used,  the  limit  extending  up  to 
say  6  or  possibly  10  horsepower  instead 
of  three,  that  is  if  the  current  could 
be  sold  by  meter  as  we  have  been  in- 
formed is  the  case  (see  Farmer's  Maga- 
zine, December  number,  page  53,  col- 
umn two,  line  thirteen)  In  parts  of 
Germany,  where  electric  power  is  used 
on  the  farm. 


This  is  F.  L.  Green's  farm  dairy  building,  Ontario  Co.  A  complete  system  of  farm  light- 
ing and  power  is  furnished  from  a  dynamo  installed  in  his  grist  mill  nearby  and  run 
by  water  power.     His  costs  for  electrical  operation  are  decidedly  cUeap. 

Resolutions   Passed  by  the  Grange  at  the 
Annual  Session,  January,  1913 


The  Dominion  Grange  has  persistently  advocated  any  and  every  movement  towards 
freer  trade,  and  heartily  supported  the  Keciprocity  agreement  of  1911.  The  defeat  of 
that  agreement  by  the  general  election  of  September,  1911,  we  believe  to  have  been 
secured  by  an  unfair  and  irrelevant  appeal  to  partisanship  and  to  create  international 
prejudice.  We  are  still  confident  that  Eeciprocity  in  trade  with  the  United  States  would 
be  to  the  great  and  lasting  benefit  of  both  countries,  and  we  are,  moreover";  equally 
confident  that  its  realization,  though  it  may  be  delayed  by  selfish  interests,  cannot  be 
permanently  blocked.  We  are  glad  to  reaffirm  our  allegiance  to  that  cause,  and  we  desire 
to  express  the  hope  that  when  next  the  question  is  placed  before  the  Canadian  people  it 
may  be  put  in  the  form  of  a  referendum,  so  that  the  public  mind  may  not  be  distracted 
and  confused  by  appeals  to  party  spirit  and  the  intrusion  of  wholly  different  questions. 
It  is  only  fair  to  the  Canadian  voter  that  he  be  given  a  chance  of  giving  a  definite  answer 
to  a  specific  question. 


We  again  recommend  such  a  gradual  increase  in  the  British  Preference  as  will,  in 
the  course  of  a  few  years,  lead  to  complete  free  trade  with  the  mother  country.  This 
is  one  of  the  best  ways  in  which  we  can  render  assistance  to  Britain,  and  at  the  same 
time  reduce  the  cost  of  clothing,  ironware,  and  other  manufactured  articles  to  the  Cana- 
dian people.  We  must  confess  to  a  feeling  of  amazement  when  we  see  those  who  are 
loudest  in  their  protestations  of  patriotic  devotion  to  the  Empire,  unwilling  to  extend  to 
the  British  people  the  same  market  advantages  that  they  give  us.  The  conclusion  is  so 
obvious  and  so  damaging  that  we  refrain  from  expressing  it  in  words. 


We  would  again  express  our  belief  that  the  protective  principle  should  be  entirely 
eliminated  from  the  tariff,  and  that  as  soon  as  may  be  the  public  revenues  be  raised  by 
direct  instead  of  indirect  taxation.  An  indirect  tax,  such  as  customs  duties,  is  susceptible 
of  gross  unfairness  of  incidence,  is  expensive  to  collect,  and  is  out  of  harmony  with 
progressive  thought.  The  incidence  of  a  direct  tax  is  patent  to  all,  and  its  expenditure 
will  therefore  be  more  carefully  watched.  It  is  easier  to  collect  and  much  more  difficult 
to  evade. 


Prior  to  the  last  general  election  we  were  told  by  Mr.  Borden  that  we  should  have  a 
chance  to  pronounce  upon  the  whole  question  of  the  Navy,  if  he  and  his  party  were 
returned  to  power.  The  public  generally  understood  his  promise  to  be  clear  and  clefinite, 
and  they  accepted  it  in  good  faith.  Now  they  are  confronted  with  the  prospect  of  handing 
over  $35,000,000  to  the  British  Admiralty  without  any  constitutional  means  of  protesting 
against  the  same.  And  further,  if  the  question  is  placed  before  the  people  in  a  general 
election,  into  which  many  other  issues  will  enter  in  addition  to  the  inevitable  and 
unfortunate  intrusion  of  partisanship,  it  will  be  quite  impossible  to  get  any  intelligible 
verdict  upon  the  one  specific  question.  And  even  if  all  other  questions  could  be,  for  the 
time,  put  aside,  and  if  partisanship  could  be  completely  and  immediately  eradicated,  we 
should  even  then  be  compelled  to  choose,  as  it  were,  between  the  devil  and  the  deep  sea. 
We  have  no  hesitation  in  condemning  the  naval  policies  of  both  parties  and  reaffirming 
our  belief  that  both  Canada  and  Great  Britain  stand  to  lose  heavily  by  either  building  a 
Canadian  navy  or  our  assisting  Great  Britain  in  maintaining  naval  supremacy.  The 
"German  peril,"  which  has  thrust  the  naval  question  into  prominence,  is  largely  Great 
Britain's  own  creation,  being  due  to  her  expressed  determination  to  remain  mistress  of 
the  seas,  and  her  refusal  to  accept  the  proposition  made  at  The  Hague  Conference  that 
private  property  should  be  immune  from  capture  on  sea  as  on  land.  Her  acceptance  of 
this  latter  proposition,  to  which  Germany  gave  her  consent,  would  have  removed  the  whole 
foundation  of  the  now  popular  argument  that  Great  Britain  must  of  necessity  dominate 
the  seas  in  order  to  escape  starvation  in  time  of  war,  and  at  the  same  time  leave  Germany 



without  the  excuse  which  she  now  frankly  gives  in  justification  of  her  naval  policy,  viz., 
the  necessity  of  protecting  her  growing  maritime  commerce  in  time  of  war.  Britain's 
failure  to  accept  the  very  reasonable  proposition  then  made,  and  her  continued  refusal  to 
make  amends  for  the  mistake  she  then  made  we  regard  as  disastrous  in  the  highest 

While  condemning  both  naval  policies  now  before  the  public  we  think  that  the 
majority  should  rule,  and  that  a  fair  and  clear  pronouncement  upon  the  whole  naval 
question  is  called  for.  This  is  impossible  unless  the  question  is  submitted  to  the  electors 
separately  in  a  referendum,  and  also  impossible  unless  other  choices  besides  the  two  now 
before  the  Canadian  Parliament  are  submitted  at  the  same  time.  That  the  politicians 
will  take  such  contemptible  advantage  of  our  constitutional  system  as  to  deny  these 
privileges  to  the  Canadian  electorate,  we  are  reluctant  to  believe. 

We  demand  a  referendum  presenting  at  least  three  choices,  viz.: 

(1)  A  money  contribution; 

(2)  A  Canadian  navy; 

(3)  To  remain  as  we  have  been. 


The  blocking  of  tax  reform  in  provincial  politics  and  the  prospect  of  being  unable 
to  vote  at  all  intelligently  upon  the  naval  question,  taken  along  with  the  growing  convic- 
tion that  the  manner  of  settling  the  question  of  Eeciprocity  was  in  the  highest  degree 
unfortunate,  lend  special  emphasis  to  the  Grange's  endorsation  of  Direct  Legislation 
through  the  Initiative  and  Eeferendum.  We  have  the  Initiative  now  in  the  Ontario 
Liquor  License  Act,  and  it  is  working  to  general  satisfaction.  A  further  extension  of 
the  principle  would  take  a  great  many  important  questions  ''out  of  party  politics,"  and 
enable  them  to  be  settled  largely,  if  not  wholly,  upon  their   own  merits. 


The  spending  of  public  money  to  build  transcontinental  highways  for  automobile 
traflSc  we  consider  to  be  highly  reprehensible.  Through  roads  are  of  no  use  to  the  farming 
community,  and  it  is  a  malversation  of  public  funds  to  apply  the  hardly  earned  money 
of  the  people  to  construct  ''coast  to  coast"  roads  which,  in  the  very  nature  of  the  case, 
can  be  of  little  or  no  benefit  to  those  whose  earnings  build  them.  Good  roads  we  need 
and  want,  but  they  should  be  the  average  country  roads  leading  from  the  farms  to  various 
market  centres.  Let  the  automobilists  pay  for  the  roads  they  wish  to  use,  and  let  the 
farmer's  money  be  applied  to  maintain  the  roads  he  uses.     Surely  this  is  but  scant  justice! 


The  rapid  spread  of  rural  free  delivery  in  Canada  lends  special  importance  to  the 
establishment  of  some  system  of  parcel  post  such  as  has  been  used  in  Germany  for  over  a 
quarter  of  a  century,  or  such  as  has  been  recently  established  in  the  United  States.  In 
the  elimination  of  the  middleman,  in  bringing  producer  and  consumer  closer  together,  and 
in  cheapening  the  cost  of  transportation,  a  system  of  parcels  post  would  be  of  first 
importance.  Regular  shipments  of  farm  produce  could  be  sent  from  individual  growers 
in  the  country  to  individual  consumers  in  the  cities  at  a  minimum  cost,  and  various  kinds 
of  commodities  of  urban  manufacture  could  be  returned  to  the  farms.  A  special  advantage 
would  be  the  collecting  and  delivering  of  all  parcels.  The  establishment  of  parcel  post, 
moreover,  would  furnish  the  people  with  a  way  of  escape  from  the  extortionate  charges 
of  express  companies.  The  extensive  use  made  of  this  system  in  those  countries  where 
it  is  in  vogue  leads  us  to  expect  that  it  would  be  of  great  advantage  to  the  Canadian 

We  would  respectfully  urge  the  Post  Oflfice  Department  to  investigate  the  workings 
of  the  system  in  other  countries,  with  a  view  to  its  adoption  here. 


We  note  with  pleasure  the  growth  of  public  opinion  in  favor  of  local  option  in 
taxation,  and  we  again  protest  against  the  injustice  of  denying  to  municipalities  the  right 
to  exempt  improvements  from  taxation  if  they  so  wish. 

In  this  connection  we  would  direct  attention  to  the  statement  recently  made  on  the 
authority  of  the  Bank  of  Commerce,  that  the  increase  of  taxable  real  estate  (a  large  part 
of  which  is  land  value),  in  the  City  of  Montreal  during  the  last  year  has  been  $120,000,- 
000.  Under  present  conditions  most  of  this  goes  into  the  pockets  of  a  few  land  owners, 
whereas  it  should,  in  justice,  return  to  those  who  have  created  it,  viz.,  the  community. 
The  increased  taxation  of  land  values  would  have  the  effect  of  expropriating  a  greater 
share  of  this  "unearned  increment"  for  the  public  treasury,  and  would  assist  in  making 
possible  the  change  from  indirect  to  direct  taxation. 


Note. — We  have  given  considerable  space  to  the  discussion  of  the  Naval  Issue 
in  the  January  issue.  This  is  the  biggest  question  that  has  been  before  our  Parlia- 
ment for  some  time,  and  it  is  fitting  that  our  readers  get  a  chance  to  hear  the 
arguments  on  every  side  of  it.  Mr.  Drury  contended  for  our  status  quo.  Mr. 
Thompson  argued  for  the  Borden  proposals,  and  now  Mr.  Brown,  who  was  formerly 
editor  of  the  Weekly  Globe  of  Toronto,  makes  a  splendid  argument  for  the  Laurier 
policy.  It  is  but  following  up  the  policy  of  Farmer's  Magazine,  in  thus  getting  all 
sides  of  the  case. — Editor. 

By  Walter  James  Brown,  B.S.A. 

THE  naval  debate  in  the  House  of 
Commons,  the  discussion  of  the  issue 
by  the  Press  and  the  keen  interest 
manifested  by  the  Canadian  people  as 
they  talk  over  the  question  from  day 
to  day  have  brought  out  in  clear  relief 
many  facts,  which  the  farmers  of  this 
country  have  not  failed  to  note.  There 
is  perhaps  no  other  class  of  people  in 
the  Dominion  who  are  weighing  with 
greater  care  the  advantages  or  disad- 
vantages of  the  two  policies  placed  so 
clearly  before  the  House  of  Commons  by 
the  Right  Honorable  R.  L.  Borden, 
Premier  of  Canada,  and  by  the  Right 
Honorable  Sir  Wilfrid  Laurier,  Leader 
of  the  Federal  Opposition. 

While  it  is  true  that  the  Grain 
Growers  Association  of  the  Central 
provinces  of  the  West  have  with  appar- 
ent enthusiasm  taken  a  stand  against 
any  expenditure  for  defence  purposes, 
and  while  their  views  must  be  accord- 
ed the  respect  they  deserve,  yet  it  is 
difficult  to  believe  that  the  Grain 
Growers  have  studied  the  questions  in- 
volved with  intelligent  interest.  Their 
position  is  similar  to  that  taken  by 
many  people  in  Canada  previous  to 
1900.  Before  the  South  African  War 
the  people  of  this  country  were  so  ab- 
sorbed in  solving  the  problems  inci- 
dent to  their  material  achievements, 
and  were  so  secure  under  the  protec- 
tion of  the  British  Navy,  that  they  did 
not  concern  themselves  regarding  the 

larger  questions  of  international  rela- 
tionships and  were  unfamiliar  with  the 
reasons  that  actuated  responsible  states- 
men in  building  and  maintaining  fleets 
of  battleships  on  the  high  seas.  As 
soon  as  their  attention  was  called  to 
the  responsibilities  of  national  and  im- 
perial existence  they  began  to  study  de- 
fence problems  with  avidity.  In  res- 
pect to  these  questions  the  farmers  of 
Canada  have  not  been  different  from 
any  other  patriotic  and  intelligent  class 
in  the  community.  Because  they  have 
been  slow  to  speak  their  indifference 
has  been  taken  for  granted;  but  every 
farmer  has  a  stake  in  the  country  and 
if  the  facts  are  presented  to  him  with 
clearness,  so  he  is  capable  of  coming  to 
a  sound  conclusion,  he  is  always  found 
on  the  side  of  self-respecting  citizen- 
ship, and  he  is  not  afraid  to  assume 
for  himself  and  his  family  the  respon- 
sibilities that  such  a  standard  of  citi- 
zenship involves.  Certainly  no  one  in 
intimate  touch  with  the  thinking  men 
among  the  farmers  of  Ontario  would 
agree  for  one  moment  that  their  views 
were  in  harmony  with  the  Grain  Grow- 
ers' resolution. 

The  two  articles  in  the  Farmer's 
Magazine  for  January  entitled  '^Can- 
ada and  the  Empire,"  by  E.  C.  Drury: 
and  ^'The  Question  of  Naval  Defence," 
by  Edward  William  Thomson,  while 
expressing  individualistic  views  leave 
much  to  be  desired  in  making  it  pos- 




sible  for  the  reader  to  reach  a  satisfac- 
tory conclusion  on  the  merits  of  the 
naval  issue.  Mr.  Drury  seems  uncer- 
tain in  his  own  mind  as  to  whether  or 
not  there  should  be  any  naval  defence. 
The  gist  of  his  article  may  be  summar- 
ized in  the  statement  that,  '"no  valid 
reason  can  be  urged  against  giving  the 
people  a  chance  to  decide  by  a  referen- 
dum upon  the  navy  question.^'  He 
does  not  accept  Borden's  policy  which 
he  says  is  wrong,  or  Laurier's  policy 
for  which  he  says  there  is  no  need.  He 
leaves  the  impression  that  the  whole 
issue  of  naval  defence  or  naval  contri- 
bution has  been  "made  the  occasion  of 
reckless  political  jockeying."  On  the 
other  hand,  Mr.  Thomson's  point  of 
view  appears  to  be  that  Mr.  Borden  has 
adopted  the  wisest  course  and  notwith- 
standing that  the  money  must  be  bor- 
rowed from  Great  Britain  to  build  the 
ships  to  loan  to  the  British  Navy,  such 
a  contribution  is  in  harmony  with  Can- 
adian sentiment  and  is,  therefore,  the 
forerunner  of  a  sound  policy. 

Mr.  Drury 's  argum.ents,  if  pushed 
to  their  logical  conclusion,  would  neces- 
sitate probably  two  plebiscites  or  the 
creation  of  a  Third  Party  standing  for 
no  defence.  He  would  like  one  plebiscite 
submitted  in  such  form  that  the  people 
might  voif^  against  any  navy  or  any 
defeiu-e.  ihrn  if  this  should  carry  in 
favor  of  a  navy  he  would  ask  that  the 
two  policies  be  submitted  in  some  form 
so  the  people  could  say  "yes"  or  "no" 
to  either.  This  argument  for  a  refer- 
endum ignores  the  principle  of  respon- 
sible government,  which  is  one  of  the 
strongest  bulwarks  of  the  British  Con- 
stitution. It  is  only  in  countries  where 
the  principle  of  responsible  government 
is  not  operative,  or  understood,  that 
questions  are  submitted  by  direct  vote 
to  the  whole  people.  According  to  our 
practice  a  government  must  announce 
its  policy  and  then  stand  or  fall  by  an 
appeal  to  the  electorate.  If  there  were 
any  considerable  number  of  people  in 
Canada  who  believed  that  no  defence 
of  any  kind  is  necessary  they  have  the 
right  to  make  their  views  known  indi- 
vidually and  collectively  to  their  rep- 
resentatives in     Parliament.       If  the 

force  of  public  opinion  were  clearly  op- 
posed to  any  defence  measures  the 
House  of  Commons  would  be  aware  of 
the  fact  and  would  so  trim  its  sails  as 
to  secure  the  support  of  that  opinion; 
but  the  question  before  the  country  is 
not  "defence  or  no  defence,"  but,  how 
shall  the  defence  be  provided?  It  is  a 
question  of  method,  and  method  only. 
There  are  very  few  people  in  Canada 
who  are  unwilling  to  assume  the  res- 
ponsibilities of  national  existence,  and 
if  the  prejudices  of  the  people  in  Que- 
bec had  not  been  appealed  to  by  the 
Nationalists  there  would  have  been  no 
opposition  to  the  Laurier  naval  policy 
from  that  quarter.  There  are  those,  of 
course,  who  are  opposed  to  defence 
measures  because  of  their  religious 
views.  You  cannot  argue  with  people 
of  this  class  and  the  best  way  to  con- 
vince them  that  they  are  wrong  is  to 
insist  on  them  undertaking  the  respon- 
sibilities of  government. 

The  British  people  have  tried  time 
and  again  to  follow  the  teachings  of 
the  leaders  of  the  peace-at-any-price 
party,  but  in  every  case  have  regretted 
their  action.  Richard  Cobden  was  not 
only  a  great  free  trader^  but  a  life-long 
non-interventionist.  He  was  constantly 
making  speeches  about  disarmament, 
non-intervention,  and  naval  retrench- 
ment. But  he  systematically  shirked 
practical  responsibility  for  his  views, 
and  would  not  accept  a  cabinet  position. 
He  helped  defeat  the  Derby  Ministry 
and  put  Lord  Aberdeen  into  power  with 
a  coalition  cabinet.  As  every  one  knows 
the  peace  party  predominated  in  the 
British  Government  for  several  years 
before  the  Crimean  War.  The  country 
was  hopelessly  unprepared,  but  the  in- 
capacity and  indecision  of  the  peace 
cabinet  brought  on  war  with  Russia. 
Mr.  Cobden  did  public  penance  for 
placing  his  friends  in  power.  In.  one 
of  the  Crimean  debates  he  said: 

"I  look  back  with  res^ret  on  the  vote 
which  changed  Lord  Derby's  Govern- 
ment. I  regret  the  result  of  that  action, 
for  it  has  cost  the  country  a  hundred 
millions  of  treasure,  and  between  thirty 
and  forty  thousand  good  lives." 



The  trouble  is  that  those  who  are 
opposed  to  all  defence  measures  and 
who  at  the  same  time  refuse  to  person- 
ally take  the  responsibility  of  putting 
their  theories  to  the  test  are  very  free 
with  their  criticisms  of  ministers  and 
political  parties;  but  the  alternative 
course  which  they  recommend  is  gen- 
erally something  that  has  never  been 
tried  and  that  no  responsible  stateman 
is  ever  likely  to  try. 

The  question  before  the  Canadian 
people  is  merely  the  method  of  provid- 
ing for  our  defence  on  sea,  that  there 
may  not  in  future  years  be  a  waste  of 
millions  of  money  and  countless  valu- 
able lives.  It  is  a  question  of  insurance 
for  ourselves,  a  question  of  police  pro- 
tection for  Canadian  and  all  other  Brit- 
ish commerce  on  the  high  seas,  a  ques- 
tion of  doing  our  part  as  a  self-respect- 
ing people  in  providing  at  least  a  por- 
tion of  our  own  defence  and  in  helping 
to  provide  for  the  permanent  integrity 
and  peace  of  the  Empire  to  which  we 
belong.  The  British  Empire  is  not  ag- 
gressive, desires  no  additional  territory, 
stands  for  freedom  and  equality  the 
world  over,  is  the  greatest  promoter  of 
enlightened  civilization  in  the  history 
of  the  world  and  carries  a  large  part  of 
"the  white  man's  burden,"  because 
Providence  has  judged  her  capable  and 
worthy.  Canada  is  an  important  part 
of  the  British  Empire.  Canada  is  a 
nation  and  should  no  longer  hesitate 
in  undertaking  to  discharge  the  respon- 
sibilities and  assume  the  duties  of  a 
nation.  Providence  imposes  on  no  na- 
tion supreme  opportunity  that  does  not 
respond  to  the  call  of  supreme  duty. 
The  duty  and  the  opportunity  now  lie 
plainly  before  the  Canadian  people. 

Every  thinking  farmer  in  Canada  is 
trying  to  ascertain  in  his  own  mind 
which  is  the  better  policy  for  the  coun- 
try, and  which  will  do  more  for  the 
British  Empire, — the  policy  of  Mr. 
Borden,  which  means  a  direct  contri- 
bution of  $35,000,000,  which  will  be 
devoted  to  the  building  of  three  super- 
Dreadnoughts  to  be  equipped,  manned 
and  maintained  bv  this  British  Admir- 

alty and  used  as  the  British  Govern- 
ment may  see  fit  until  such  times  as 
they  may  be  recalled  to  form  a  nucleus 
for  a  Canadian  Navy;  or  the  policy  of 
Sir  Wilfrid  Laurier,  which  would  use  a 
similar  amount  of  money  in  building 
two  Canadian  fleet  units,  one  for  the 
Atlantic  and  one  for  the  Pacific,  and 
carry  out  the  same  policy  as  the  other 
self-governing  Dominions  have  in 

The  Canadian  farmer  realizes  that 
proper  naval  defence  is  but  a  step  in  the 
evolution  of  our  status  as  a  nation.  We 
provided  for  our  land  defence  and  our 
naval  defence  also,  so  far  as  we  were 
able,  during  the  War  of  1812-14. 

The  first  time  that  Canada  was  asked 
to  participate  in  the  naval  defence  of 
the  Empire  was  in  1887.  It  was  sug- 
gested that  she  should  provide  coaling 
stations  or  naval  bases  and  assist  in 
maintaining  them.  Australia  respond- 
ed to  this  appeal,  but  Canada  did  not. 
Sir  John  A.  Macdonald  refused  because 
in  the  negotiations  preceding  Confed- 
eration the  British  Government  had 
undertaken  to  provide  for  the  naval 
defence  of  Canada  if  the  Canadian 
Government  would  spend  not  less  than 
two  hundred  thousand  pounds  a  year 
on  her  land  defence.  From  1887  until 
1902  Canada  took  no  action  in  respect 
to  her  defence  on  the  high  seas. 

In  1911  the  representatives  of  Can- 
ada met  the  representatives  of  Great 
Britain  and  the  representatives  of 
Australia  and  they  worked  out  together 
a  plan  for  the  co-operation  of  the  fleets 
of  the  Empire,  both  in  peace  and  war. 
In  the  first  place  they  recognized  the 
autonomy  of  the  Dominions  and  their 
right  to  control  their  own  fleets.  Sec- 
ondly, they  delimited  the  areas  in 
which  Australia  and  Canada  should  fly 
the  flag,  protect  the  commerce,  and 
maintain  the  honor  of  the  Empire. 
They  gave  Australia  a  portion  of  the 
Southern  Pacific,  adjacent  to  the  Com- 
monwealth. They  gave  Canada  the 
west  half  of  the  North  Atlantic  and  the 
east  half  of  the  North  Pacific.  Australia 
is  building  the  ships  to  fly  the  flag  and 
protect  the  commerce  in  her  portion  of 



the  high  seas,  and  if  Sir  Wilfrid  Laurier 
were  in  power  Canada  would  be  build- 
ing her  ships  to  carry  out  her  portion 
of  the  contract  also. 
The  Laurier  policy  assumed  from  the 
time  it  was  formulated  and  assumes  to- 
day that  Canada  is  prepared  to  under- 
take her  share  of  the  responsibility  for 
the  defence  of  the  Empire  as  far  as  her 
means  will  permit.  Everybody  agrees 
that  w^e  must  have  a  navy  sometime.  A 
beginning  must  be  made.  The  plans 
for  such  a  beginning  have  been  formu- 
lated. The  arrangements  have  been 
made  with  Great  Britain  and  Australia 
to  carry  out  those  plants.  They  are 
admittedly  in  the  highest  interests  of 
this  country  and  of  the  Empire  as  a 
whole;  but  while  Mr.  Borden  agrees 
that  a  Canadian  Navy  will  sometime  be 
necessary  he  has  left  the  w^hole  question 
in  abeyance.  He  has  failed  at  this 
writing  to  say  that  any  attempt  will  be 
made  to  establish  a  naval  service  in 
this  country.  He  expresses  the  belief 
that  it  will  require  ''fifty  years"  to 
establish  such  a  service.  The  fact  is 
that  Mr.  Borden  is  at  the  head  of  a 
coalition  government.  There  are  those 
in  the  country  who  believe  that  noth- 
ing should  be  done  to  provide  for  our 
naval  defence.  While  there  seems  to 
be  another  group  who  grudgingly  as- 
sent to  doino^  as  little  as  possible,  there 
are  a  few  who  want  a  contribution  of 
money  which  will  be  spectacular,  and 
a  very  few  perhaps  who  say,  ''make  a 
contribution  and  build  the  Canadian 
Navy  also."  These  elements  among  the 
Premier's  followers  have  apparently 
agreed  upon  a  compromise.     The  cash 

contribution  is  the  most  spectacular 
offer  possible;  the  building  of  a  Can- 
adian Navy  is  indefinitely  postponed; 
the  ships  are  to  be  loaned  only,  thus 
guarding  local  autonomy ;  and  they  are 
to  be  manned  and  maintained  by  the 
British  tax  payer,  thus  saving  Can- 
adians the  trouble  of  personal  service 
or  expense.  This  is  the  policy  that  a 
self-respecting,  loyal  people  is  asked  to 

The  Laurier  policy  is  already  em- 
bodied in  the  Law  of  the  land.  It 
means  facilitating  our  industrial  de- 
velopment, utilizing  our  own  materials, 
establishing  large  manufacturing  plants 
in  this  country,  increasing  our  popula- 
tion, encouraging  our  merchant  marine, 
giving  Canadians  new  opportunities  for 
service,  providing  training  schools  for 
our  youth,  and  thus  putting  them  in 
the  way  of  getting  the  benefits  of  dis- 
cipline, self-control,  manliness  and 
character  development  that  have  made 
the  British  blue- jacket  the  best  sailor 
and  the  finest  type  of  man  on  the  high 

The  establishment  of  a  Canadian 
Naval  Service  is  a  self-respecting  mea- 
sure of  practical  Imperialism,  and  is  in 
harmony  with  the  traditions  of  the  Lib- 
eral Party  in  Canada  during  our  whole 
history.  Such  a  Service  will  broaden 
the  outlook  of  the  people,  give  them  an 
intense  interest  in  international  ques- 
tions, develop  patriotic  sentiment,  and 
enable  us  as  a  nation  to  remove  the  re- 
proach of  depending  for  our  defence 
on  the  high  seas  on  the  ships  and  men 
of  the  Motherland. 



By  E.  C.  Drury,  B.S.A. 

A  year  or  so  ago  a  prominent  Canadian,  returned  from  a  tour  of  England, 
made  this  statement, — ''Britain's  greatest  danger  is  not  German  Dread- 
noughts, hut  British  Breadn'ots."  The  staiem.ent  contains  more  than  a  grain 
of  truth.  Britain  is  in  no  appreciable  danger  of  foreign  invasion.  In  making 
this  assertion  I  am  fully  aware  of  the  fact  that  certain  great  British  military 
authorities  claim  that  there  is  danger.  In  rating  the  opinions  of  these  men  at 
their  proper  values,  hoivever,  it  is  ivell  to  hear  in  mind  that  their  views  are 
likely  to  he  hiased  hy  three  factors; — first,  their  personal  amhition,  which  can 
only  he  gratified,  hy  increasing  military  preparations,  or  hy  war  itself:  second, 
hy  the  fact  that  their  training  leads  them  to  measure  everything  in  terms  of 
military  force,  on  the  supposition  that  war  will  occur,  and  to  ignore  the  con- 
ditions that  make  war  improhahle;  and  third,  hy  the  contempt  which  the 
professional  sold,ier  usually  feels  for  the  mere  civilian,  which  leads  him.  to 
entirely  ignore  the  defensive  poivers  of  the  latter,  though  history  shows  that, 
the  most  terrihle  arm.y  of  defense  is  that  composed  of  civilians  defending  their 

Great  soldiers  have  rarely  been  states- 
men, nor  is  it  wise  to  entrust  the  af- 
fairs of  any  nation  too  largely  to  the 
professional  military  class.  We  may 
more  safely  believe  the  opinions  of 
those  British  statesmen  who  assure  us 
that  Britain's  foreign  relations  are 
peaceful,  and  her  defensive  forces  ade- 
quate. Circled  by  the  protecting  sea, 
it  is  as  true  now  as  when  Shakespeare 
wrote  it  that 

''This  England  never  did,  nor  never  shall 
Lie  at  the  proud  foot  of  a  conqueror 
Until  herself  first  dealt  the  mortal  blow.'' 

The  danger  of  foreign  invasion,  even 
if  it  be  considered  as  possible,  is,  to  say 
the  least,  exceedingly  remote. 

A     REAL     DANGER. 

But  Britain  is  threatened  with  a 
danger  very  real,  very  near,  and  more 
to  be  feared  than  any  foreign  inva- 
sion. That  danger  is  nothing  less  than 
the  physical,  mental  and  moral  degen- 
eracy of  her  common  people,  the  work- 
ers on  whom  after  all  the  nation 
stands,  due  to  wrong  social  conditions, 

overcrowding  in  urban  centres,  and 
the  press  of  modern  industrialism. 
That  conditions  in  England  are  very 
bad,  no  one  can  doubt.  These  words 
of  the  Bishop  of  London,  who,  as  a 
bishop  of  the  Established  Church, 
which  is  the  church  of  the  Privileged 
Classes  in  Engla^nd,  can  scarcely  be 
called  a  revolutionary,  are  full  of  sig- 

^' There  are  thousands  of  the  poor  wanting 
everything,  while  others  have  more  wealth 
than  they  know  what  to  do  with.  I  am  no 
socialist,  but  we  have  got  to  readjust  the 

The  following  quotations,  which  de- 
pict some  of  the  unsatisfactory,  even 
terrible  conditions  which  surround  the 
workers  of  England,  are  taken  from  a 
report  published  by  R.  L.  Outhwaite  in 
the  London  and  Manchester  Daily 
News  of  June  10,  1912,  and  relate  to 
the  great  manufacturing  city  of  Shef- 

"We  left  the  centre  of  the  city  and  in  a 
few  minutes  were  in  Attercliffe,  the  dark 
realm  of  the  clan  of  Tubal  Cain.  Black 
clouds    of    smoke    hung    low,  poisoning    the 




atmosphere,  obliterating  the  sky;  the  begrim- 
med    streets,    the    toil-stained    workers,    the 
squalor    and    overpowering    evidence    of    the 
gigantic  and  remorseless  activities  were  sug- 
gestive  of   the   grim  brutality   of   industrial- 
ism.   ...   In  the  manufacturing  quarter    of 
Sheffield  one  saw,  on  all  sides,  how  progress 
was  fructified  in  ground  rents  for  his  Grace 
the  Duke  of  Norfolk.   .    .    .   We  passed  into 
the  Baily  Street  area  of  back-to-back  houses, 
of  which  Sheffield  has   17,000,  and  inspected 
foul,   evil-smelling  habitations.     Here     death 
reaps  a  full  harvest  of  20  per  thousand,  com- 
pared  with   the    8   per   thousand   among   the 
villas   of    Fulwood    suburb.    .    .    .    Then  we 
went  up  the  slope,  still  on  the  Duke's  prop- 
erty, into  a  miserably  congested  area  where 
inhabited   hovels   are    mixed   up   with   others 
untenanted  and  in  ruins.     We  stopped  at  one 
tumble   down   cottage   to   talk  with  a  miner 
and  his  wife.    The  whole  abode  of  two  little 
rooms  above  and  two  below  only  provided  the 
space   of   a   small  room.     There   was   a  hole 
through  the  outer  wall.     The  rent  is  4s.  9d. 
($1.24)    per    week,    and     helps     to     maintain 
Arundel   Castle.    .     .     .    The   burden   of  civic 
endeavor   and   national   obligation   grievously 
penalizes  industry  and  cruelly  taxes  the  strug- 
gling worker,  whose  wretched  abode  is  made 
subject   to   it,   while   the    ducal   tax   collector 
(the  Duke  of  Norfolk),  can  hold  20,000  Sus- 
sex acres   as   an   appanage  to   the   castle   on 
which  he  spent  £750,000,  and  a  territory  in 
Scotland  for  the  preservation  of  grouse. '* 

More  significant  still  is  a  recent  edi- 
torial comment  on  the  motherhood 
bonus  feature  of  the  new  British  in- 
surance measures,  recently  published 
in  the  Toronto  Globe. 

''In  many  British  industrial  districts  men 
and  women  are  constantly  employed.  The 
earnings  of  husband  and  wife  are  necessary 
to  their  sustenance.  The  mother  cannot  af- 
ford the  rest  necessary  to  her  own  health, 
and  the  healtli  of  her  newly-born  child.  The 
discouraging  infantile  mortality  rate  is  due 
largely  to  the  exacting  employment  of  the 
mothers  and  the  necessity  which  causes  sub- 
sequent neglect.  The  conservation  of  human- 
ity threatened  with  destruction,  is  the  most 
urgent  need  of  to-day  in  Britain.** 

A  country  with  vast  inequalities  of 
wealth,  where  a  Duke,  and  not  one, 
but  dozens,  can  have  a  castle  costing 
millions,  surrounded  by  a  park  the 
size  of  a  township,  with  a  o^ame  reserve 
in  Scotland  to  boot,  while  the  wretched 
workers  who  provide  the  revenues  to 
pay  for  this  splendor,  live  in  death- 
breeding  hovels;  a  country  where  the 
workers  have  not  leisure  even  to  be 
born  decently, — such  is  the  dark  pic- 

ture which     shows 
threatening  Britain. 

the     real  danger 


The  British  people  need  transplant- 
ing, like  a  pot-bound  houseplant.  Cen- 
turies of  peaceful  occupation  lof  the 
country,  undisturbed  by  any  real  revo- 
lution, have  resulted  in  the  growth  of 
conditions  which  are  literally  destroy- 
ing the  nation.  It  is  perhaps  well,  in 
the  struggle  of  the  human  race  for  ex- 
istence, that  the  strong,  the  efficient, 
should  reap  to  a  certain  extent  the  re- 
ward of  their  strength  in  attaining  a 
position  above  their  fellows,  but  when 
the  strong  use  their  strength  to  create 
conditions  and  to  enact  laws  which  pre- 
serve for  their  descendants,  to  the  fur- 
thest generation,  the  reward  of  their 
ancestor's  strength  or  cunning,  while 
the  children  of  the  weak  are  thrust  in- 
to a  condition  of  servitude  and  poverty 
from  which  it  is  impossible  for  them  to 
rise,  a  condition  is  reached  which 
must  result  in  the  decline  of  all  that  is 
good  in  the  nation.  This  is  what  has 
taken  place  in  Britain. 

The  landed  aristocracy  have  had  for 
centuries  past,  the  largest  share  of  the 
law-making  power.  They  have  used 
this  power  and  the  power  of  their 
wealth  to  place  themselves  in  a  posi- 
tion to  levy  a  perpetual  and  enormous 
tribute  on  the  workers  of  the  nation, 
in  the  form  of  rents.  The  revenues 
thus  obtained  have  been  used  to  pro- 
vide luxurious  livings  for  the  favored 
classes,  of  a  sort  of  which  we  in  Canada 
can  have  no  conception.  Country 
castles;  thousands  of  acres  of  fertile 
land  withdrawn  from  cultivation  to  be 
used  for  private  parks;  vast  tracts, 
from  which  the  one-time  peasant-work- 
ers have  been  expelled,  used  for  pri- 
vate game-reserves: — such  are  the  con- 
ditions found  to  a  very  large  extent  in 
rural  England  and  Scotland.  And  as 
these  conditions  have  grown,  the  popu- 
lation, tt)  a  greater  and  greater  degree, 
have  been  forced  into  the  great  cities 
and  the  occupations  of  modern  indus- 
trial life,  in  order  to  find  means  of  ex- 
istence.   Here,  amid  unwholesome  sur- 



roundings,  such  as  the  quotations  above 
given  depict,  and  under  the  exacting 
conditions  of  modern  factory  life, 
which  demand  that  both  man  and  wo- 
man shall  labor,  and  makes  them 
slaves  to  some  machine,  performing 
over  and  over  some  little  operation 
which  allows  no  room  for  mental  and 
physical  development, — under  these 
conditions  they  have  become  unman- 
ned, have  lost  their  virility.  This  con- 
dition, which  is  found  in  an  alarmingly 
large  section  of  the  British  people,  is 
the  real  danger  which  threatens  the 
British  Empire. 


It  is  true  the  British  people  have 
awakened  to  these  evils,  and  are  tak- 
ing steps  to  correct  them.  But  reform 
is  slow.  It  will  be  fought  relentlessly 
at  every  stage  by  the  privileged  classes, 
and  it  is  doubtful  if  the  remedy  can 
hope  to  overtake  the  ravages  of  the  dis- 
ease. Another  remedy,  however,  stands 
ready  to  hand,  in  emigration.  If  these 
people  can  be  removed  from  their  un- 
wholesome surroundings  and  trans- 
planted into  some  section  of  the  British 
Empire  where  climatic  conditions  are 
favorable  to  the  best  development  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  race,  where  democratic 
conditions  prevail,  and  social  relations 
are  such  that  they  may  meet  their  fel- 
low-men as  equals,  and  if,  under  these 
conditions  they  can  be  employed  in 
outdoor  occupations,  they  will  become 
valuable  British  citizens,  and  while  de- 
veloping the  natural  resources  and  in- 
creasing the  wealth  of  that  portion  of 
the  Empire  where  they  make  their  new 
home,  will  at  the  same  time  regain 
their  mental  and  physical  powers,  and 
their  lost  self-respect.  The  surest  and 
quickest  remedy  for  the  admittedly 
serious  condition  of  the  British  people 
can  be  found  in  this  sort  of  transplant- 
ing, not  to  do  away  with  the  necessity 
of  reform  in  Britain  itself,  but  to  miti- 
gate the  evils  of  overcrowding  till  these 
reforms  can  be  carried  out. 

Canada's  chance. 

Herein  lies  Canada's  opportunity  to 

serve  the  Enipire.  Of  all  the  colonies 
of  Great  Britain,  she  alone  has  that 
vigorous  northern  climate,  necessary  to 
the  best  development  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon.  On  her  wide  expanses  of  farm 
lands,  in  her  forests,  on  her  lakes  and 
rivers,  there  is  room  for  all  the  over- 
crowded people  of  Britain,  where  they 
may  find  not  only  a  living,  but  re- 
newed vigor  of  body  and  mind,  inde- 
pendence, and  manhood. 

It  has  often  interested  me  to  observe 
this  gradual  evolution  of  the  British 
immigrant  into  the  independent  self- 
reliant  Canadian  citizen.  I  am  not 
speaking  of  the  specimens  of  the  mid- 
dle and  upper  classes  who  find  their  way 
here,  generally  with  a  plentiful  stock 
of  self-esteem,  with  a  somewhat  errone- 
ous idea  that  "England  owns  Canada," 
and  something  of  contempt  for  ''Col- 
onials.'' These  people  generally  have 
the  English  habit  of  snubbing  those 
"below"  them,  and  kow-towing  to  those 
above  them.  If  they  survive  the  shock 
of  our  rough-and-tumble  Canadian 
democracy  they  sometimes  make  good 
citizens,  but  oftener  than  not  they  vege- 
tate in  the  "exclusive"  circles  of  some 
little  town  that  makes  some  pretentions 
to  "society,"  and  are  not  of  much  use, 
either  to  themselves  or  to  anyone  else. 
The  immigrants  whose  evolution  I 
would  describe  are  those  of  the  working 
class,  who  find  their  way,  as  "hired 
men"  to  the  farms  of  Canada.  Fresh 
from  the  land  of  the  squire  and  the 
lord,  used  to  calling  their  employer 
"master,"  they  are  quite  prepared  to 
touch  their  cap  and  say  "sir"  to  him 
often  to  the  decided  embarrassment  of 
that  good  man,  who  has  never  been 
used  to  the  like.  Very  soon  comes  an 
awakening  in  this  regard.  The  new- 
comer soon  finds  that  he  is  not  being 
treated  quite  as  he  has  been  used  to. 
He  is  not  looked  down  upon  solely  be- 
cause he  works  for  another,  but  is  treat- 
ed like  a  man,  and  is  rated  in  the  sim- 
ple rural  neighborhood,  not  according 
to  his  position,  but  according  to  his  be- 
havior. If  he  is  wise,  he  gladly  ac- 
cepts the  new  condition  and  gains  in 
self-respect  and  manliness.    Sometimes, 



however,  there  is  another  result.  The 
new-comer  cannot  get  rid  of  the  atmos- 
phere of  the  old  land.  He  fancies,  be- 
cause his  employer  does  not  bully  him, 
that  he  is  afraid  of  him,  and  starts  to 
run  things.  Then  of  course  there  is 
trouble.  The  old  countryman  who 
comes  out  to  this  country  is  generally 
at  first,  very  lacking  in  self-reliance 
and  resourcefulness.  His  employer 
sends  him  to  the  field  to  plow.  An 
hour  or  two  later,  as  the  farmer  is  busy 
about  something  else,  behold  man  and 
team  coming  up  the  lane.  A  bolt  is 
lost,   a  plow-point  broken,   or  perhaps 

a  clip  has  come  off  a  whipple-tree,  and 
he  comes  to  report  the  breakage  and  to 
find  out  what  to  do  about  it.  With  some 
impatience  the  busy  farmer  sends  him 
back  with  instructions  as  to  how  to 
make  the  repair,  and  an  intimation  that 
next  time  he  had  better  see  what  he  can 
do  himself  before  coming  to  his  em- 
ployer. And  so  he  learns.  He  gains 
in  efficiency  and  self-reliance.  At  the 
end  of  three  or  four  years  he  is  no 
longer  an  English  laborer,  but  a  self- 
respecting,  resourceful  Canadian  citi- 


If  money  made  the  birds  sing  any  sweeter. 

Or  made  the  skies  a  brighter,  better  blue 
If  money  made  a  summer  day  completer. 

Or  added  to  the  sunset's  gorgeous  view 
If  money  made  a  meadow  more  entrancing; 

A  shady  lane  a  better  place  to  stroll ; 
If  gold  could  add  one  bit  to  my  romancing, 

On  money"  then  I'd  strive  to  feed  my  soul. 

— Exchange. 

Sig.  1. 

Practically  two  out  of  every  dozen  farm  eggs  are    not    fit    for     home     consumption. 
enormous  annual  loss  can  be  controlled    by    better   methods. 



The  ordinary  farmer  can  make  money  by  paying  close  attention  to  the  marketing 
of  the  eggs  which  are  produced  on  his  farm.  In  Canada  some  movements  have  been 
made  towards  securing  dependable  eggs  for  the  summer.  The  Gunns,  of  Montreal, 
some  time  ago  inaugurated  a  system  near  Beaverton,  Ontario  County,  something  after 
the  fashion  described  by  Mr.  Dacey.  Mr.  J.  H.  Hare,  District  Eepresentative  for  the 
County  of  Ontario,  has  successfully  inaugurated  egg  circles  in  that  county,  and 
readers  of  Farmer's  Magazine  tell  us  that  during  the  first  week  in  January  last  they 
were  getting  53  cents  a  dozen  at  their  gate  for  guaranteed  fresh  eggs.  The  way  the 
United  States  farmers  are  meeting  this  question  will  be  interesting  news  to  all  these 
readers.  It  will  also  be  interesting  to  read  the  rules  attached  here  that  are  used  by 
the  egg  circles  in  Denmark,  where  the  idea  first  began. 

By  George  H.^Dacy 

IN  MANY  of  our  Middle  states  two 
eggs  out  of  every  dozen  that  are  mar- 
keted from  the  farm  are  deteriorated 
to  such  an  extent  by  the  time  they  arrive 
on  the  central  market  that  they  have 
to  be  discarded  or  sold  as  culls  or  sec- 
onds. A  total  annual  loss  of  about 
seventeen  per  cent,  of  the  egg  crop  re- 
sults in  consequence  of  the  poor  grad- 
ing, selection,  and  methods  of  handling 
market  eggs.    The  detrimental  changes 

Big.  2. 

in  market  eggs  are  distributed  about 
as  follows,  according  to  data  collected 
by  the  United  States  Department  of 
Agriculture : 

Per  cent.  loss. 

Dirties 2       per  cent. 

Breakage    2       per  cent. 

Chick  development    5       per  cent. 

Shrunken  or  held  eggs 5       per  cent. 

Kotten   eggs    2l^  per  cent. 

Mouldy  and  flavored  eggs ....     %  per  cent. 




For  a  minute  let  us  investigate  the 
farm  egg  proposition  as  it  is  handled 
on  the  average  country  place.  Ordin- 
arily the  farmer  gathers  the  eggs  when- 
ever it  is  convenient,  sometimes  daily, 
but  more  often  only  two  to  three  times 
a  week.  He  brings  the  eggs  to  the 
house  and  keeps  them  until  a  sufficient 
amount  have  accumulated  to  justify  a 
special  trip  to  the  village  grocery  store, 
where  he  exchanges  the  eggs  for  flour, 
sugar,  or  calico.  During  the  sojourn 
of  the  eggs  in  the  farm  kitchen  or 
cellar  no  particular  care  is  exercised 
to  keep  the  eggs  in  good  condition. 
In  many  instances  the  eggs  are  kept 
in  a  room  where  the  temperature  is 
extremely  high,  with  the  result  that 
they '  have  arrived  at  a  more  or  less 
advanced  stage  of  deterioration  by  the 
time  they  reach  the  village  store.  In 
other  cases  the  eggs  are  stored  in  a 
damp  cellar  where  they  become  moldy. 
Furthermore  no  attention  is  paid  to 
maintaining  the  nests  in  a  cleanly  con- 
dition; no  grading  or  selection  of  the 
eggs  is  practiced  nor  is  any  premium 
attached  to  the  production  of  white  or 
brown  eggs.  Partly  incubated  and 
spoiled  eggs  are  marketed  with  the  good 
ones  irrespective  of  their  condition. 

The  farm  eggs  are  produced  accord- 
ing to  happy-go-lucky,  haphazard  meth- 
ods. Farm  poultry  are  generally 
treated  as  necessary  evils  to  be  handled 
in  the  easiest  and  cheapest  manner  that 
is  possible.  The  village  merchant 
would  often  like  to  register  a  ''kick" 
with  his  patrons  as  regards  the  quality 
of  the  eggs  that  they  bring  in  to  him, 
but  he  "dasn't"  give  utterance  to  his 
feelings  for  fear  that  he  will  lose  the 
custom  of  these  farmers.  He  is  verit- 
ably bound  hand  and  foot  to  accept 
all  the  eggs  that  the  farmers  offer.  The 
merchant  holds  the  motley  collection  of 
good,  bad,  fresh,  stale,  clean  and  dirty 
eggs  until  he  has  gathered  a  sufficient 
amount  to  ship  to  the  city.  In  transit 
to  the  city  the  eggs  further  deteriorate. 
At  the  packing  house  they  are  assembled 
in  great  numbers  and  here  they  are  sub- 
jected to  grading,  selection,  and  cand- 
lins:  in  order  to  ascertain  their  condition 

and   suitability   for   human   food  pur- 



All  the  bad  eggs  are  discarded  and 
those  that  are  not  excessively  spoiled  are 
sold  at  cut  rates.  The  city  merchant 
has  to  protect  himself  against  the  losses 
that  he  will  surely  experience  through 
the  purchase  of  farm  eggs.  He  does 
so  by  quoting  the  village  storekeeper  a 
low  enough  price  per  dozen,  so  that  he 
will  not  lose  money  on  the  amount  of 
bad  eggs  that  are  shipped  to  him.  Then, 
in  turn,  the  village  merchant  pays  the 
farmer  a  correspondingly  lower  price 
per  dozen  for  the  eggs.  In  fact,  the  low 
price  of  eggs  ultimately  reacts  on  the 
producer.  It  is  on  this  account  that 
there  is  little  incentive  for  the  conscien- 
tious farmer  who  produces  good  eggs 
to  continue  his  painstaking  methods. 
He  finds  that  his  good  eggs  sell  for  the 
same  price  at  the  store  as  the  bad  eggs 
of  his  neighbor.  It  is  a  case  of  the 
profits  of  the  good  eggs  standing  for 
the  losses  of  the  eggs  of  inferior  quality. 


''How  can  this  difficulty  be  reme- 
died ?''  is  the  natural  question  that  con- 
fronts the  progressive  farmer.  The  sol- 
ution of  the  problem  is  to  pay  for  eggs 
according  to  their  quality  and  condi- 
tion. This  method  will  place  a  prem- 
ium on  the  production  of  good  eggs. 
One  of  the  leading  poultry  states  of  the 
Middle  West  annually  loses  about  $2,- 
500,000,  due  to  the  poor  quality  of  its 
eggs.  Millions  of  dollars  are  annually 
wasted  in  the  farm  egg  business  on  ac- 
count of  the  average  farmer  not  market- 
ing eggs  of  standard  quality  that  arrive 
on  the  central  market  in  a  fit  condition 
to  be  used  on  the  family  breakfast 
table  in  the  home  of  our  American  con- 
sumer. Bad  eggs  exert  a  depressing 
influence  on  the  market  egg  trade.  A 
person  who  tastes  a  spoiled  egg  will  re- 
frain from  eggs  for  some  w^onths  to 
come.  The  housewife  that  discovers 
that  three  eggs  in  the  dozen  that  she 
purchased  are  bad,  will  as  far  as  pos- 
sible, shun  the  egg  as  an  article  of  food 



Alberta    is    giving    away    over    three    hundred  roosters  to  encourage  the  poultry  industry  in 
that  Province.     This  is  a  cut  of  the  breeding   station    at    Edmonton. 

to  be  placed  on  the  home  menu  for  a 
long  time.  On  the  other  hand  good 
eggs  tickle  the  palate  of  the  consumer, 
and  create  a  keen  demand  for  more  of 
a  similar  quality. 

The  control  measures  that  qualify 
as  first  aids  to  the  farm  egg  problem 
include  the  marketing  of  eggs  that 
weigh  at  least  two  ounces  apiece.  It  is 
preferable  to  consume  lighter  eggs  on 
the  home  farm,  and  rather  than  to  sell 
them  at  a  reduced  price  on  the  city 
market.  Only  such  breeds  of  fowl 
should  be  maintained  on  the  general 
farm  as  lay  eggs  of  a  uniform  size.  The 
general  purpose  breeds  including  the 
Plymouth  Rocks,  Rhode  Island  Reds, 
Wyandottes,  and  Orpingtons  satisfy  this 
requirement.  Excessively  large  eggs  or 
those  that  are  abnormal  in  shape  should 
also  be  used  on  the  home  table,  as  they 
are  easily  crushed  in  the  case  and  they 
will  always  grade  as  seconds. 


Five  farm  eggs  out  of  every  hundred 
that  are  marketed  come  under  the  clas- 
sification of  "dirties."     Such  eggs  are 

stained,  smeared,  muddy,  or  covered 
with  filth.  The  odor  of  whatever  soils 
the  egg  will  soon  penetrate  the  shell 
and  spoil  or  at  least  taint  the  egg  itself. 
Clean  nests,  one  to  every  five  hens, 
should  be  provided  on  the  average 
farm.  The  poultry  house  should  be 
kept  clean  and  sanitary,  and  the  eggs 
should  be  frequently  gathered  in  order 
that  ihej  may  not  be  soiled  by  the 
dirty  feet  of  the  fowl.  This  is  es- 
pecially necessary  during  wet  weather. 
Market  eggs  should  never  be  washed, 
as  such  eggs  rapidly  take  up  odors  and 
soon  become  stale.  Eggs  should  be 
marketed  in  cases  only,  and  should 
never  be  packed  in  bran  for  the  trip 
to  market,  as  the  bran  adheres  to  the 
shell  and  causes  the  eggs  to  be  classed 
with  the  "dirties." 

In  the  trip  from  the  producer  to  the 
consumer  about  eight  per  cent,  of  the 
farm  egg  crop  is  broken.  Checked, 
dented,  or  leaky  eggs  sour  rapidly  and 
have  to  be  sold  at  cut  prices.  Eggs  of 
this  quality  should  be  used  in  the  farm 
home,  while  all  the  standard  eggs  that 
satisfy  market  requirements  should  be 



sold.  About  $15,000,000  worth  of 
American  eggs  annually  have  to  be 
sacrificed  due  to  the  growth  of  chicks 
in  the  fertile  market  eggs.  This  results 
from  the  infrequent  gathering  of  eggs 
on  the  farm,  and  from  the  storage  of  the 
eggs  in  rooms  where  the  temperature  is 
excessively  high.  Eggs  should  be 
gathered  often  and  should  be  kept  in 
a  cool,  dry  place  until  the  first  oppor- 
tunity occurs  for  marketing  them. 

Shrunken  eggs  also  mire  up  the  pos- 
sibility of  deriving  the  maximum  profit 
from  the  farm  egg  output.  As  one  ex- 
pert puts  it,  '^Sixty-five  per  cent,  of  the 
contents  of  a  fresh  egg  is  water;  and 
because  of  a  porous  shell,  this  evapor- 
ates rapidly  under  most  conditions,  re- 
sulting in  a  loss  of  weight  and  value.  As 
soon  as  the  newly-laid  egg  cools,  an  air 
cell  appears,  which  increases  in  size  as 
the  contents  shrink  due  to  evaporation. 
The  freshness  of  an  egg  is  commonly 
supposed  to  be  disclosed  by  the  size  of 
the  air  cell  but  this  is  not  a  reliable 
guide  for  the  temperature  at  which  the 
egg  has  been  kept  must  be  taken  into 
consideration.  Shrunken  eggs  may  be 
detected  by  candling  or  by  gently  shak- 
ing when  held  at  the  ear.  When  the 
'^gurgle"  of  the  contents  is  very  dis- 
tinct the  egg  is  questionable.  During 
the  summer  months  eggs  should  be  ac- 
corded the  same  attention  as  butter  and 
cream  and  should  be  marketed  daily 
if  possible.  The  common  practice  of 
holding  eggs  for  a  higher  price  in  the 
autumn  results  in  poor  quality  and  ser- 
ious loss  instead  of  gain.  Under  ordin- 
Siry  conditions  eggs  should  never  be 


Rotten  eggs  usually  result  on  account 
of  exposure  to  too  much  moisture.  It 
weakens  the  shell  and  membranes  and 
allows  the  entrance  of  bacteria  which 
effect  a  heavy  decay  of  the  egg.  Like 
fresh  milk  a  fresh  egg  will  readily  ab- 
sorb odors.  Therefore  it  behooves  the 
egg  farmer  not  to  expose  his  product  in 
musty  and  damp  cellars  or  in  rooms 
where  fruit,  fish,  or  vegetables  are 
stored.    A  man  who  is  a  thorough  stu- 

dent of  the  egg  market  and  who  is  fam- 
iliar with  the  farm  egg  question  from 
stem  to  stern,  recently  remarked,  ''The 
sale  of  bad  eggs  has  exerted  a  marked 
effect  in  lessening  the  demand  and 
damaging  the  market.  A  great  increase 
in  the  demand  will  follow  a  uniform 
and  permanent  improvement  in  the 
quality.  The  average  farm  home  an- 
nually consumes  about  two  hundred 
and  ten  dozen  eggs.  If  the  fresh  eggs 
that  were  slightly  damaged  or  were  not 
of  the  right  size  or  shape  or  were  not 
clean  enough  to  satisfy  market  require- 
ments were  eaten  on  the  farm  and  used 
as  a  part  of  this  consumption  the  egg 
profits  of  every  farm  would  be  mater- 
iallv  increased.  In  the  future,  also, 
dealers  promise  to  pay  for  eggs  on  the 
quality  basis  and  this  should  mean  an 
increase  in  value  of  the  egg  surplus  of 
from  ten  to  fifteen  per  cent." 


In  Minnesota  the  marketing  of  farm 
eggs  has  been  reduced  to  a  practical 
and  profitable  basis  through  the  medi- 
um of  co-operatively  disposing  of  the 
eggs  through  the  local  creameries.  The 
creameries  accept  the  eggs  of  a  standard 
quality  on  about  the  same  basis  as  they 
take  in  whole  milk  or  cream.  In  some 
places  the  cream  gatherer  who  journeys 
through  an  assigned  part  of  the  dis- 
trict collects  farm  es^s^s  as  well  as  cream 
at  the  farms  along  his  route.  In  other 
instances  the  farmers  deliver  the  eggs  to 
the  factory  or  at  some  central  warehouse 
from  which  they  are  consigned  to  the 
transportation  companies.  Some  .of  the 
egg  producing  districts  have  gone  so 
far  as  to  organize  co-operative  market- 
ing societies.  The  aim  of  all  this  en- 
deavor is  to  induce  the  farmer  to  im- 
prove the  quality  of  the  farm  eQ:g  crop 
and  this  end  is  accomplished  by  buying 
the  eggs  on  the  quality  basis. 

The  creamery  at  Barnum,  Minnesota, 
has  been  particularly  successful  in  its 
operations  in  the  handling  of  farm  eggs 
and  it?  system  of  management  is  quite 
typical  of  that  followed  by  the  twenty- 
five  factories  and  egg  selling  associa- 
tions that  at  present  are  operating  in  the 



The  crating  of  eggs.     Little  eggs,  checks  and  dirties   are   reserved   to   be  used   on   the  farm 
tables.      Full   size,    clean,    uniform   eggs   of  the   same   color   are   packed    in    the   case. 

Gopher  state.  This  creamery  has  over 
two  hundred  and  fifty  egg  patrons,  in 
fact,  one  man  finds  that  it  pays  him  to 
drive  over  fourteen  miles  in  order  to 
sell  his  eggs  to  the  factory.  At  this  fac- 
tory the  farmers  deliver  their  eggs  daily 
with  their  whole  milk.  They  receive  an 
average  price  of  from  five  to  ten  cents 
more  per  dozen  for  their  eggs  than  the 
general  market  quotation  as  a  result  of 
their  producing  eggs  of  a  uniform  qual- 
ity of  freshness  and  wholesomeness. 


According  to  the  rules  of  the  cream- 
ery the  farm  eggs  must  be  delivered  at 
the  factory  when  they  are  not  over  eight 
days  old.  The  eggs  must  be  gathered 
from  the  nests  on  the  farm  twice  a  day : 
they  must  be  of  uniform  size ;  they  must 
be  clean ;  and  they  must  be  stored  in  a 
cool,  dry  place  until  they  are  taken  to 
market.  The  brown  and  white  eggs 
must  be  separated  and  packed  in  indi- 
vidual dozen  cartons  and  marked.  In 
addition,  each  egg  must  be  stamped 
with  the  serial  number  of  the  farm  that 
produced  it  for  identification  purposes 
in  case  the  egg  is  bad  when  it  reaches 
the  consumer.  The  carton  is  marked 
with  the  name     of  the     factory     from 

which  the  eggs  are  marketed  and  it 
also  contains  the  brand  or  trademark 
of  this  creamery  as  well  as  its  guaran- 
tee that  all  the  eggs  contained  in  the 
package  are  strictly  fresh.  The  farmer 
pledges  himself  not  to  sell  any  of  the 
eggs  marked  with  the  creamery  com- 
pany's trade  mark  to  anyone  but  the 

One  of  the  principal  reasons  for 
branding  the  eggs  is  to  establish  a  repu- 
tation for  the  output  of  a  certain 
creamery  so  that  the  eggs  will  be  pur- 
chased by  the  brand  or  trade  mark  just 
as  is  the  case  in  the  marketing  of  fruit. 
The  purpose  of  the  creamery  or  egg 
association  is  to  secure  a  grade  of  clean, 
uniform,  and  dependable  eggs  of  rea- 
sonable freshness  for  use  in  the  dietary 
of  the  American  consumer.  The  fac- 
tory furnishes  to  each  of  its  egg  pa- 
trons a  small  rubber  stamp  for  marking 
the  e2;gs  with  the  name  of  the  cream- 
ery, its  brand,  and  the  serial  number 
of  the  producer.  In  addition  it  sup- 
plies the  farmer  with  cartons  in  which 
he  may  pack  the  eggs.  By  means  of 
the  producer's  number,  bad  eggs  can 
be  traced.  The  farm  that  markets  in- 
ferior eggs  is  first  fined  and  on  a  second 
offence  it  loses  its  right  to  market  eggs 



through  the  creamery  any  longer.  In 
consequence  the  farmers  are  obliged  to 
produce  good  eggs  as  they  know  that 
their  product  will  be  discredited  and  re- 
fused if  it  is  poor. 

The  carton  or  package  that  contains 
one  dozen  eggs  carries  the  guarantee 
from  the  creamery: 

This  Package  Contains 

One  Dozen  Guaranteed  Fresh  Eggs 


Manufacturers    and   Dealers  in  Eggs,    Butter, 
Pasteurized  Cream  and  Ice  Cream. 



Note.— Eggs  in  This  Package,  If  They  Have 
Our  Trade  Mark  On  Them,  Are  Guaranteed 
To  Be  Strictly  Fresh,  Clean,  and  Full  Size, 
and  If  Found  Otherwise  We  Wish  You  Would 
Do  Us  The  Favor  To  Report  It,  Giving  The 
Number  Found  On  The  Egg. 

Barnum  Creamery  Company. 

The  farmer  gathers  the  eggs  twice  a 
day  and  after  grading  and  selecting 
them  he  packs  the  marketable  ones  in 
cartons  ready  for  their  trip  to  the  fac- 
tory. At  the  creamery  the  egg  buyer 
examines  the  eggs  brought  in  by  each 
countryman  and  if  they  are  satisfactory 
he  immediately  gives  the  farmer  a  check 
in  payment  for  the  product.  At  the 
factory  the  cartons  are  packed  in  thirty 
dozen  cases  and  shipped  to  the  city  of 
Duluth  where  they  are  marketed  with  a 
large  grocery  company.  The  eggs  are 
not  handled  at  the  creamery  as  reliance 
is  placed  in  the  patrons'  honesty  to  that 
extent.  It  costs  the  creamery  about 
one-half  a  cent  to  one  cent  a  dozen,  in- 
cluding the  expense  of  the  cartons  for 
handling  the  eggs.  During  the  last  two 
years  of  operation  only  two  complaints 
have  been  registered  with  the  creamery 
on  account  of  bad  eggs.  In  Duluth  a 
fine  reputation  has  been  established  for 
the  brand  of  eggs  marketed  by  this 
creamery.  People  come  from  the  most 
distant  portions  of  the  city  in  order  to 
buy  eggs  at  the  grocery  store  that 
handles  this  guaranteed  brand. 

The  following  table  shows  the  amount 
of  eggs  marketed  per  month  and  the 

price  they  brought     at  tlie     Barnum 
creamery  during  a  recent  year. 

Month.  Eggs  marketed  Aver,  price. 

January    630  doz.  35.6  cents 

February    1,329  ''  25.9  " 

March    1,771  ''  19.0  " 

April    2,069  "  18.2  '' 

May    2,445  "  19.8  " 

June    1,725  "  20.0  '' 

July    1,509  "  22.7  '' 

August    1,898  ''  24.5  '' 

September    1,562  "  25.*L  '' 

October    507  ''  27.0  " 

November 229  ^^  37.4  " 

December    810  ''  40.0  '' 


It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  co-oper- 
ative system  of  egg  marketing  and  the 
selling  of  eggs  through  the  creamery 
originated  in  Denmark  where  co-oper- 
ative endeavor  in  practically  every 
branch  of  agriculture  has  been  devel- 
oped to  its  intensive  limit.  The  rules 
of  the  Danish  Farmer's  Co-operative 
Association  popularly  termed  a  "Cir- 
cle" are  of  so  much  significance  that  I 
sive  them  verbatim  from  a  recent  trans- 
lation : — 

1.  The  ''circle"  belongs  to  the  Danish  Co- 
operative Egg  Export  Association,  and  has  to 
submit  to  its  statues  in  force  at  any  time. 

2.  Members  are  accepted  on  application  to 
the  officers  of  the  ''circle."     They  pay  13.5 

.cents  each  as  a  fee  to  the  main  association. 

3.  Every  member  is  without  any  special 
declaration,  under  the  lavv^s  of  the  "circle," 
as  they  now  are,  or  as  they  may  legally  be 

4.  Members  have  to  deliver  all  eggs  pro- 
duced by  their  hens — home  consumption,  set- 
ting eggs,  and  accidentally  found  ones  except- 
ed— in  the  manner  and  on  the  days  decided 
on  by  the  officers  of  the  "circle."  This  obli- 
gation holds  good  for  one  calendar  year  at  a 

5.  No  eggs  older  than  seven  days  may  be 
delivered;  transgression  of  this  rule,  as  well 
as  the  delivery  of  stale  eggs,  is  punished  by 
a  fine  of  $1.35  imposed  by  the  directors  of 
the  main  co-operative  association,  and  may 
be  increased  to  $2.70.  One-half  of  the  fine 
goes  to  the  main  association,  and  the  other 
half  to  the  local  "circle."  The  decision  of 
the  main  directors  cannot  be  appealed. 

6.  The  eggs  must  be  carefully  collected 
every  day,  and  in  the  hot  season  twice  a  day 
at  least.  Accidentally  discovered  eggs  (stolen 
nests),  must  not  be  delivered.  Artificial  eggs 
only  may  be  used  as  nest  eggs,  and  the  hens 
must  be  kept  from  the  nests  at  night. 

7.  Only  clean  eggs  may  be  delivered,  and 
they  must  be  protected  against  the  sun,  rain 



Eggs  of  the  highest  class  packed  in  cartons 
ready  for  delivery  to  the  consumer.  Such 
eggs  command  a  premium  of  three  to  eight 
cents  per  dozen  above  the  general  market 

and  frost  by  the  members,  as  well  as  by  the 

8.  The  members  may  only  deliver  eggs  to 
the  *^ circle"  from  their  own  hens;  trans- 
gression of  this  rule  leads  to  a  fine  of  6.75 
cents  for  the  first  time,  and  13.5  cents  per 
pound  for  the  second  time  of  any  such  un- 
authorized deliveries. 

9.  The  membership  list  of  the  ''circle'^ 
must  show  the  number,  the  name,  and  the 
position  of  each  member,  and  the  number  on 
the  list  must  be  the  same  as  that  with  which 
he  stamps  his  eggs.  Every  member  receives 
— on  the  payment  of  5.4  cents — a  rubber 
stamp  with  ink  and  pad.  The  number  of 
the  "circle,"   as  well  as  that  of  the  mem- 

ber,   appears    on    this    stamp,    and    each    egg 
must  be  plainly  stamped  on  the  big  end. 

10.  The  egg  collector  can  only  accept  eggs 
that  are  clean  and  which  are  plainly  and 
neatly  stamped. 

11.  The  ' '  circle ' '  directors  may  temporarily 
refuse  to  accept  eggs  from  a  member,  and 
a  member  may  be  expelled  by  a  majority  vote 
at  a  general  meeting,  or  by  the  directors. 

12.  The  necessary  capital  for  paying  cash 
on  delivery  of  the  eggs  of  the  members  is 
provided  by  a  loan,  the  members  of  the 
* '  circle ' '  becoming  responsible  for  this  loan 
which  is  paid  to  the  egg  collector,  who  has 
to  provide  a  satisfactory  bond. 

13.  The  eggs  are  paid  for  on  receipt  at 
the  price  set  by  the  "circle"  directors.  What- 
ever more  the  eggs  may  net  is  only  paid  to 
the  members,  after  retaining  a  sufficient 
amount  for  the  working  capital  according  to 
the  views  of  the  "circle"   directors. 

14.  Notice  of  withdrawal  is  given  to  the 
"circle"  directors,  but  only  so  as  to  take 
effect  at  the  end  of  the  business  year.  With- 
drawn or  expelled  members  have  no  claims 
on  surplus  reserve  funds  or  other  assets  of 
the  "circle,"  and  they  have  to  return  their 
stamp,  without  compensation,  to  the  "circle" 

15.  The  work  of  the  directors  is  to  take 
care  of  the  business  of  the  ' '  circle ' '  in  the 
best  manner  possible,  thus  seeing  to  it  that 
the  eggs  are  delivered  to  the  association  in 
the  condition  demanded.  They  appoint  and 
discharge  the  egg  collector  who,  usually  is 
paid  27  cents  per  hundred  pounds  for  col- 
lecting the  eggs. 

16.  The  ' '  circle ' '  sends  a  delegate  to  the 
meeting   of  the   general   association. 

17.  In  case  of  an  eventual  dissolution  of 
the  "circle,"  any  possible  surplus  —  after 
settling  all  liabilities  —  is  to  be  divided  be- 
tween the  members,  in  proportion  to  the  eggs 
delivered  by  them   during  the  past  year. 

18.  Formerly  the  main  office  printed  the 
weekly  quotations  to  be  paid  by  the 
"circles,"  but  now  they  are  mailed  every 
week  privately. 





The  little  house,  so  low  and  grey, 
Stands  silent  in  the  clinging  snoiv; 

About  its  roof  the  willows  sway, 
In  lonely  wonder,  to  and  fro. 

The  rose-vines,  shorn  of  leaf  and  flower. 
Creep  up  the  windows,  small  and  old. 

And  quite  in  keeping  with  the  hour. 
The  pine  trees*  sorroivs  are  unrolled. 

The  little  house  you  chose  with  me. 

All  silent  in  the  winter  s  night! 
It  calls  and  will  not  let  me  be. 

While  friendly  mists  bedim  my  sight, 

God  keep  you,  little  house  of  grey. 

She  called  you  ''dear,  and  quaint  and  old** — 
Perchance  she* II  miss  you  some  glad  day, 

Ah,  then,  your  sleeping  heart  unfold! 

— Amy  E,  Campbell, 


Note. — The  Dodds-Sinders  stories  will  run  in  Farmer's  Magazine  during  Febru- 
ary, March  and  April.  Almost  every  reader  has  known  of  some  family  that  has 
suddenly  acquired  wealth  and  has  tried  to  at  once  attain  social  prominence  in  the 
town  or  city.  This  story  is  a  humorous  experience  of  just  such  a  fortunate  or  unfor- 
tunate Canadian  family.  The  three  issues  will  deal  with  the  Dodds-Sinders  at  home, 
abroad,  and  on  their  return. — Editor. 

By  Ed.  Cahn 

THE  doorbell  rang  just  as  James,  but- 
ler to  the  Binders  family,  was  in  the 
midst  of  a  graphic  account  of  how  Miss 
Birdie  Sinders  had  managed  to  over- 
turn a  plate  full  of  soup  into  her  young 
man's  lap  the  evening  before.  He  had 
reached  the  most  dramatic  part  of  his 
story,  there  was  a  broad  grin  upon  the 
faces  of  all  his  hearers  and  James  was 
too  much  of  an  artist  to  stop  upon  the 
very  brink  of  a  climax. 

He  continued  and  the  bell  sounded 
again,  but  not  until  he  was  rewarded 
by  a  howl  of  laughter  from  the  Jimp- 
kin's  butler,  Mrs.  Jimpkin's  maid,  all 
the  Sinders'  servants  and  Jones'  valet 
assem.bled  in  the  kitchen  and  disposed 
around  a  table  decorated  with  several 
bottles  of  Sinder's  best  imported  beer, 
did  he  make  any  move  to  answer. 

As  the  echoes  died  away  after  the 
second  summons,  James  donned  his 
coat,  pulled  down  his  cuffs  and  assum- 
ing his  professional  air  of  funeral  grav- 
ity picked  up  the  solid  silver  card  tray 
from  a  corner  of  the  stove  and  leisurely 
proceeded  to  the  discharge  of  his  duty. 

Mr.  Sinders,  finding  himself  to  be  in 
bad  odor  mth  his  family,  had  taken 
refuge  from  their  wrath  in  the  library, 
that  vault-like  home  of  learning  in  the 
most  expensive  bindings,  arranged  up- 
on the  shelves  in  a  sort  of  checker- 
board effect  that  Sinders  thought  and 
freely  said  was  '^swell  and  neat." 

All  the  books  in  black  bindings  were 
together,  those  in  grey  beneath,  flanked 
a  little  below  by  those  in  green  and  red. 
Sinders  had  been  to  considerable  pains 

to  find  shades  enough  to  continue  the 
idea  upon  all  four  walls  of  the  big  room 
and  had  not  spared  expense,  even  going 
to  the  lengths  of  having  a  stack  of  city 
directories  rebound  in  sky  blue  to  fill 
out  a  corner. 

But,  even  in  the  midst  of  his  literary 
kaleidoscope,  Sinders  was  not  happy, 
for  he  had  nothing  to  read. 

Mrs.  Sinders  and  the  girls  carefully 
examxined  every  book  and  magazine 
that  came  to  the  house  and  had,  ever 
since  the  awful  day  when  Mrs.  T.  T. 
Byble  had  found  nothing  but  fashion 
plates  and  five  numbers  of  the  Pinkun 
and  seven  of  a  horrible  Yankee  Police 
Gazette  on  the  library  table. 

Sinders  had  been  sitting  gloomily 
smoking  and  wishing  himself  poor 
again  when  the  first  summons  came. 
He  sprang  up  and  was  making  for  the 
door  when  he  recollected  that  he  now 
had  a  butler  to  open  doors  and  so  even 
that  small  pleasure  was  denied  him. 
At  the  second  ring  he  began  to  hope 
that  James  had  fallen  down  the  cellar 
stairs  and  broken  his  superior  neck  and 
to  wonder  if  he  did  not  now  have  suf- 
ficient excuse  to  offer  Sally  for  answer- 
ing it  himself. 

Then  it  flashed  upon  him  that  in  a 
reckless  moment  that  day  he  had  in- 
vited old  Donald  Hicks  to  call  upon 
him  and  have  a  pipe  whilst  they  talked 
over  the  old  days.  He  shuddered  at 
the  thought  of  a  visit  from  Hicks  upon 
such  an  evening.  He  would  just  tip 
him  the  wink  to  make  himself  scarce 




since  the  Missis  and  the  girls  were  in 
such  critical  humors. 

Sinders  scrambled  out  of  the  enorm- 
ous chair  in  which  he  was  half  buried 
and  hastened  across  the  slippery  pol- 
ished floors  toward  the  door.  He  trod 
as  warily  as  a  cat  upon  hot  bricks  but 
a  rug  with  all  the  fiendish  treachery 
of  the  Persian  slid  beneath  him  and  all 
but  laid  him  low.  At  this  instant  he 
heard  James  approaching  and  prompt- 
ly gave  way  to  downright  panic. 

lie  would  have  sworn  before  all  the 
K.C.'s  in  Canada  that  he  who  stood 
without  the  portal  was  none  other  than 
Donald  Hicks,  stewed  of  course,  for  was 
it  not  close  on  to  ten  p.m.  :had  not 
Donald  made  a  modest  clean-up  at 
Porcupine,  and  who,  with  brains  in  his 
head,  putting  those  things  together 
could  doubt  but  what  he  had  employed 
every  shining  moment  in  an  energetic 
attempt  to  put  himself  outside  of  all 
the  moisture  to  be  had  in  the  city — far 
famed  as  the  most  virtuous  in  Canada? 

Hicks  was  unconventional  at  all 
times  but  at  ten  in  the  evening  of  a 
festive  day!  Well,  he  must  be  headed 
off  at  all  costs.  What  might  he  not  say 
to  the  painfully  correct  and  formal 
James?  What  sort  of  a  shindy  would 
he  not  kick  up  right  there  on  the  door- 
step? St.  George  Street,  hearing  it, 
would  elevate  its  already  lofty  nose  and 
Sally  and  the  girls — 

Sinders  bit  his  under  lip  and  swore 
a  miner's  oath  to  reach  that  door  first. 

Alas,  thanks  to  the  slippery  floor  and 
the  cursed  Persian  he  had  lost  too  much 
time.  He  heard  his  butler  sliding  back 
the  door  and  entering  the  hall.  He 
had  seen  his  employer  leaping  from 
rug  to  rug  down  the  long  vista  of  the 
rooms  and,  knowinji;  that  if  he  allo\-ved 
him  to  open  the  door  he  would  hear 
from  Mrs.  Sinders  without  fail,  hast- 
ened his  pace  to  a  dog  trot. 

"Hi'll  hawnser,  sir!"  he  said,  but 
Sinders  still  kept  on. 

"The  old  fool  i?  getting  deaf,'' 
thought  James  and  mended  his  pace. 
Sinders  not  daring  to  raise  his  voice  lest 
Sally  should  overhear,  increaseid  his 
pace  and  so,  master  and  man  ran  noth- 

ing more  nor  less  than  a  foot-race  to 
the  door. 

Thanks  to  the  butler's  handicap, 
Sinders  won  by  a  nose  and  opened  the 

Sure  enough,  there  stood,  or  rather 
leaned,  friend  Hicks,  very  much  the 
worse  for  wear  and  showing  every  sign 
of  distress  in  visage  and  eccentric  ap- 
parel. He  was  shedding  copious  tears 
and  vainly  endeavoring  to  dry  them 
upon  the  hard  and  unresponsive  sur- 
face of  all  that  remained  of  a  three-dol- 
lar derby  hat. 

The  verandah  light  was  bathing  this 
operation  in  a  golden  glow  and  the  de- 
parting gTiests  at  the  house  across  the 
way  were  showing  marked  signs  of  in- 

One  glance  was  enough  to  reveal  to 
Sinders  the  futility  of  asking  Donald  to 
depart.  He  must  remove  him  from  the 
public  gaze  come  what  might.  He 
reached  for  Donald's  collar  with  one 
hand  and  for  the  light  switch  with 
the    other. 

His  friend's  untimely  lurch  forward 
confused  him  and  so  he  not  only  failed 
to  put  out  the  verandah  light  but  jerk- 
ed Hicks  into  a  hall  as  dark  as  the  in- 
side of  a  blind  man's  hat. 

James,  mystified  by  all  this,  had  re- 
tired a  few  feet  and  stood  waiting,  part- 
ly for  orders  but  mostly  in  order  to  hear 
what  was  to  happen  next. 

The  slamming  of  the  front  door  and 
Donald's  incoherent  greetings  brought 
Mrs.  Sinders  rustling  to  the  head  of  the 

"James!"  she  called,  alarmed  at  the 
darkness  and  the  strange  voice. 

"Yes,  madam,"  said  James  from  the 

"What's  the  trouble?  Turn  on  the 
lights !     This  instant !" 

"Yes,  madam." 

"No,  sir!"  hissed  Sinders  desperately. 

"Nozzer  lady  lost  in  the  fog,"  ob- 
served Hicks.  "I'll  shing  to  keep  'er 
company."     And  raised  his  voice. 

"Shut  up!"  roared  Sinders. 

"Turn  on  the  lights!"  called  Mrs. 
Sinders  furiously. 

James  started  for  the  switches.     Sin- 



(lei's  pushed  Hicks  toward  the  library; 
he  protested  and  tried  to  go  the  other 
way.  Mrs.  Sinders  ran  down  the  stairs 
just  in  time  to  meet  all  three  at  the  foot 
of  them.  There  was  a  head-splitting 
collision  and  they  all  fell  in  a  heap,  the 
four-hundred-dollar  grandfather  clock, 
which  had  just  that  day  been  sent  home 
from  Byryre's  and  forgotten  in  its  new 
place,  crashing  over  upon  them. 

There  was  a  shower  of  glass,  the 
chimes  sounded  wildly  and  then  they 
untangled  themselves. 

^'Beg  pardon,  sir,"  said  James. 

-Tohce!"  croaked  Donald.  ''It's  a 
raid !"  Mrs.  Sinders  began  to  scold  ve- 
hemently, and  what  Sinders  said  could 
never  be  repeated. 

The  girls  came  running,  the  French 
maid  excitedly  telephoned  for  the 
police,  the  neighbor's  servants  remain- 
ed in  the  background  but  missed  none 
of  the  details  and  Donald,  separated 
from  the  debris  of  the  grandfather 
clock,  was  thrust  into  the  library  and 
onto  the  lounge  to  sleep  it  off  and  be 
out  of  harm's  way.  Instead  of  subsid- 
ing, however,  he  amused  him.self  by 
pulling  down  books  and  endeavoring 
to  throw  them  back  into  place  after  the 
manner  of  a  game  of  quoits. 

After  all  this,  of  course,  no  power  on 
earth  could  save  Sinders  from  the  inter- 
view with  Sally  and  the  girls  which  had 
been  impending  all  evening.  He  an- 
swered the  numerous  questions  of  the 
policeman  who  came  in  answer  to  the 
maid's  call,  and  bribed  James  into  a 
promise  of  silence,  under  the  impres- 
!!^'on  that  he  was  the  only  dangerous 
witness,  and  then  he  meekly  obeyed  or- 
ders and  joined  his  wdfe  in  her  sitting- 

Nora  and  Birdie  were  there,  too.  He 
saw  that  they  had  recently  been  weep- 
ing and  his  heart  softened,  imtil  he 
noticed  that  they  both  wore  the  gowns 
whose  exaggerated  cut  had  provoked 
him  to  stern  criticism  earlicT-  in  the 

^  He  sat  down  before  his  better  five- 
eig;hths,  jauntily  crossed  his  legs  and 
thrust  his  thumbs  into  the  arm-holes  of 
his  vest. 

His  wife  looked  at  him  witheringly 
until  he  could  bear  it  no  longer. 

''Sally!  As  sure  as  my  name's  San- 
dy Sinders  I " 

•'Don't  call  me  Sally.  And  your 
name  is  not  Sandy.  You  are  S.  Hob- 
son  Sinders,  or  at  least  you  used  to  be, 
but  the  girls  and  me  have  decided  that 
from  now  on  you  and  us  are  the  Dodds- 
Sinders.  Your  ma's  folks  were  Dodds 
and  good  people  in  the  old  country  and 
everybody  knows  I  was  a  Dodds,  and 
my  family  can't  be  beat  in  Canada,  bO 
we  are  Dodds-Sinders  from  this  out." 

"But  everybody  calls  me  Sandy.  All 
the  boys " 

"Don't  interrupt !  It's  bad  form  and 
'Sandy'  is  vulgar." 

"The  boys,  miners  like  that  Hicks, 
we  are  not  going  to  know  any  more. 
They're  bad  form." 

Seeing  the  downcast  look  upon  her 
father's  face  Birdie  handed  him  a  card 
upon  which  was  engraved  "Dodds-Sin- 
ders."    "See  here,  pa,  it  looks  swell." 

He  looked  at  it  doubtfully. 

"What's  this  here  mark?" 

"It's  a  hyphen." 
"Hi — hife — Dodds,   line   between   Sin- 
ders, eh?     I'll  keep  this.  Birdie,  and 
learn  it  before  I  spring  it  on  anybody." 

Mrs.  Sinders  sighed  impatiently. 
"There  you  are  again,  using  slang.  I 
tell  you  Dodds-Sinders  we  will  never 
get  anywhere  or  be  anything  until  you 
get  refined." 

"Well,  Sally,  Sarah  I  mean !  We 
don't  need  to  be  refined.  We've  got 
plenty  of  money.  We  have  one  of  the 
swellest  houses,  and  the  swellest  clothes 
and " 

"Yes,  and  nobody  will  look  at  us  be- 
cause everybody  calls  you  Sandy  and 
slaps  you  on  the  back,  and  folks  like 
Hicks  come  and  make  a  show  of  us. 
Everybody  has  heard  about  how  your 
ma  insisted  on  doing  the  cooking  her- 
self even  though  I  have  a  high-priced 
French  chef  in  the  kitchen,  and  she 
w^ould  call  him  "Cheffie"  and  gossip 
with  the  Jimpkin's  maid  over  the  back 

"Well,  ma  can  make  better  tea-bis- 
cuit than  that  chef  and  you  used  to 



gossip  with  everybody  up  in  the  mines." 

^'Oh,  be  still!  Porcupine's  society 
don't  count.  We  are  millionaires  now. 
I  want  Nora  and  Birdie  to  have  some 

'"So  do  I." 

"Well,  for  pity's  sake  then,  pa,  don't 
order  any  more  'cuisine'  at  a  restaur- 

''Say!"  exclaimed  Dodds-Sinders,  in- 
terested at  last,  "I  could  see  from  that 
waiter's  face  that  something  was  wrong. 
I  heard  Bob  Short  say  the  cuisine  at 
that  hotel  was  fine.  I  was  tired  of  all 
the  queer  stuff  w^e've  been  getting  for 
to  top  off  with  and  so  I  says  to  him, 
'Bring  along  a  big  order  of  that  there 
cuisine.'  " 

Nora,  divided  between  laughter  and 
tears,  explained,  but  her  father  was  still 

"I  don't  know,  Nora.  Bob  Short  is 
up  to  date.  He  said  it  and  he  ought 
to  know." 

"Him  know!"  cried  Mrs.  Dodds-Sin- 
ders. "Why,  his  pa  was  nothing  but 
a  barber." 

"You  don't  say!  How  do  you 

"I  heard  Mrs.  Toppe-Nyche  say  he 
was  a  barbarian  and  his  father  before 
him.  So  you  see  you  can't  go  by  what 
he  says." 

"Um,  maybe,  but  I  could  buy  and  sell 
the  Toppe-Nyches  and  they  don't  live 
on  such  a  swell  street  either.  I  don't 
see  why  you  set  such  store  by  them." 

"They're  in  society,  real  society,  and 
they  know  lords  and  earls  and  every- 
thing in  England,"  answered  Mrs. 

"Pa,  we  are  going  to  England." 

"What  for?" 

"For  culture." 

"What's  that?  Don't  they  keep  it 

The  silence  that  greeted  this  ques- 
tion, and  the  hopeless  expression  upon 
three  feminine  faces  made  Dodds-Sin- 
ders realize  that  he  had  made  one  more 
mistake.    He  grinned  unhappily. 

Nora  sprang  up  and  ran  to  throw  her 
arms  around  him. 

"Dear  old  dad.     This  is  not  your 

lucky  day.  I'll  tell  you.  Ma  and 
Birdie  and  I  have  spent  a  lot  of  money 
furnishing  up  this  house  like  a  palace 
and  hiring  all  these  saucy  servants  and 
trying  to  get  into  the  best  society,  but 
we  can't  do  it  while  we  are  so  ignorant 
of  what's  the  right  thing  to  do,  and 
have,  and  say,  and  go  to." 

"We  think  that  your  way  of  making 
money  is  a  good  way  to  get  what  we 
want  if  we  just  use  it  right.  When  you 
first  landed  in  the  mines  you  didn't 
know  quartz  from  railroad  iron  and  in- 
stead of  trying  to  prospect  right  away, 
you  hired  out  and  learned  from  the  be- 
ginning up — didn't  you?" 

Dodds-Sinders  nodded  and  smoothed 
Nora's  bonny  brown  head  with  a  dia- 
mond-decked but  still  horny  hand. 

"Well,  we  have  tried  to  learn  this  so- 
ciety life  from  the  top;  it  don't  work, 
and  so  we  are  going  over  to  England 
where  they  really  know  how,  and  see  if 
we  can't  pick  up  a  few  points." 

"Then  we  will  come  back  here  and 
we  will  see  who  turns  up  their  nose  at 
us!"  cried  Birdie. 

"All  right,  me  girls.  Go  along.  I'll 
pay  the  bills  and  never  hoi — complain. 
Yer  ma  can't  say  I  ever  denied  her  a 
thing  I  could  give  her,  but  look  out  you 
don't  come  back  so  culturated  that  I 
don't  know  you  at  all." 

They  all  laughed. 

"You  are  going  along,  Sam,  right 
along.  You  need  cultivation  as  much 
as  we  do." 

"But  Sally,  dear,  I'm  too  old  to  be 
learning  new  tricks." 

Oh,  no,  you're  not ;  you're  only  forty- 

"I  wish  I  was  ninety." 

"It  wouldn't  save  you." 

"I  wish  you'd  tell  me  why  you " 

"I'll  teach  this  town  that  Sarah 
Dodds-Sinders  always  gets  what  she 
goes  after." 

"All  right.  I'll  go  along  and  watch 
the  fun." 

"Mercy!"  exclaimed  Birdie,  "what  a 
queer  odor !  Something  must  be  burn- 

Dodds-Sinders  gave  a  gasp  and  dash- 



ed  down  to  the  library  followed  by  his 

There,  on  the  hearth-rug  before  the 
fire,  lay  donald  Hicks  fast  asleep,  beside 
him  were  two  gold  fish  and  a  third,  im- 
paled upon  the  papercutter,  was  toasted 
to  a  turn. 

They  looked  at  their  unconscious 
guest  with  various  expressions  and  fin- 
ally Mrs.  Dodds-Sinders  spoke. 

'^Samuel,  please  don't  make  any 
friends  like  Hicks  in  London.  It's  a 
good  thing  we  are  sailing  next  week." 

''I'll  be  awful  lonesome  over  there. 

Sarah'.  Can't  I  take  along  a  valet  for 

''Certainly  !     The  very  thing." 

"All  right.  I'll  sober  up  Hicks.  He 
needs  culturating  too  and  me  and  him 
could  have  some  fun  I  bet  you." 

"I  bet  you  can't!"  chorused  three  in- 
dignant voices. 

Dodds-Sinders,  left  alone,  sank  into 
a  chair  beside  Hicks.  "You  lucky 
pup,"  he  said  enviously.  "You  ain't 
got  a  copper  to  your  name  and  ain't 
never  going  to  have.  I  wish  you  was 
me  and  I  w^as  vou." 


Grant  me,  dear  Lord,  the  alchemy  of  toil, 

Clean  days  of  labor,  dreamless  nights  of  rest. 

And  that  which  shall  my  weariness  assoil 
The  sanctuary  of  one  beloved  breast : 

Laughter  of  children,  hope  and  thankful  tears, 
Knowledge  to  yield  with  valour  to  defend, 

A  faith  immutable  and  steadfast  years 

That  move  unvexed  to  their  mysterious  end. 

— Alan  Sullivan. 

Milking  in   summer   on 

the  open  fields  in  good   weather 
shelter  tent   is   used. 

in   Denmark.     In   bad   weather   the 


Note. — Canadian  farmers  are  often  of  the  opinion  tliat  the  Anglo-Saxon  way  of 
farming  is  not  surpassed  by  that  of  any  other  people.  Such  farmers  often  receive  a 
rude  shock  when  they  read  that  many  foreign  people  are  solving  these  questions  in 
a  more  up-to-date  manner.  We  have  learnt  a  great  deal  from  the  Dutch,  the  Ger- 
mans, and  the  Danes,  and  a  knowledge  of  what  they  are  doing  for  the  production  of 
clean  milk  will  be  interesting.  Mr.  Kilgour  is  living  in  Copenhagen,  and  writes  espe- 
cially for  Farmer's.  This  description  is  given  from  a  personal  knowledge  in  that 
city. — Editor. 

By  W.  Y.  Kilgour 

THE  Copenhagen  Milk  Supply  Co., 
has  been  chosen  for  the  theme  of  this 
article,  because,  though,  there  are  others 
equally  important,  and  one,  the  Tri- 
polium,  is  the  largest  in  Denmark,  the 
Copenhagen  Milk  Supply  Co.,  is  the 
first  society  in  the  world  for  the  distri- 
buting of  pure  milk. 

Thirty-four  years  ago,  the  sanitary 
conditions  of  dairies  in  Copenhagen 
were  very  bad.  Cows  were  fed  on  tjie 
refuse  of  distilleries,  the  stables  were 
dirty,  and  without  light  or  ventilation 
and  there  was  no  inspection.  In  the 
country,  conditions  were  about  the 
same.  Milk  was  treated  with  borax  or 
bi-carbonate  of  soda,  to  prevent  its  sour- 
ing, and  to  conceal  its  age,  as  it  was 
hawked  about  the  streets  from  door  to 

Then  occurred  the  incident  which  led 
to  the  formation  of  the  society.  A  mer- 
chant of  the  city,  a  Mr.  Qunni  Rusck, 


in  1878  heard  one  of  his  workmen  com- 
plaining that  he  could  not  get  milk  for 
his  sick  child,  unless  he  also  bought 
brandy  (the  distilleries  generally  kept 
cows  and  sold  milk)  Mr.  Rusck's  indig- 
nation stirred  him  to  immediate  action. 
The  company  started  with  a  very  small 
capital  (£500)  and  Mr.  Rusck  as  dir- 
ector-general has  continued  to  manage 
the  steadily  growing  enterprise  without 
any  remuneration. 

All  the  milk  comes  from  40  selected 
farms  grazing  together  about  5,000 
cows.  These  figures  are,  of  course,  sub- 
ject to  modification,  as  the  numbers  na- 
turally vary.  The  best  milk  is  supplied 
at  the  same  prices  as  ordinary  milk.  In- 
fant's and  children's  cost  more. 

AT    THE    DErOT. 

A  visit  to  the  company's  milk  depot 
will  impress  the  visitor  with  the  well- 
nigh  perfect  manner  in  which  the  milk 



is  handled,  and  the  absolute  cleanlin- 
ness.  This  cleanliness  is  also  extended 
to  the  farms.  Any  deviation  from  the 
street  rules  being  punished  by  with- 
drawal of  the  offender's  name  from  the 
company's  list. 

The  milk  arrives  by  train,  which 
runs  alongside  the  landing  platform  on 
the  society's  premises.  It  comes  in  spe- 
cial vans  belonging  to  the  company, 
and  is  contained  in  sealed  cans.  From 
these  vans  the  milk  cans  are  run  to  the 
weighing  machine,  note  being  taken  of 
weight  and  name  of  the  sending  farm- 

They  are  then  opened,  and  a  sample 
from  each  is  examined  by  smell  and 
taste  by  a  woman  expert.  These  ex- 
perts can  detect  at  once  the  slightest 
taint.  Other  samples  are  scientifically 
tested  and  suspected  milk  is  set  aside. 

After  this  has  been  done  the  cans 
are  emptied  through  a  sieve  into  vats. 
Near  these  is  another  filled  with  a  mix- 
ture of  2  parts  of  ice  and  1  part  salt  and 
water.  This  mixture  is  pumped  into 
the  coolers  which  stand  about  12  feet 
high,  over  which  coolers,  the  milk  is 
also  pumped,  leaving  them  at  a  temper- 
ature of  40  degrees  Fahr.  It  then  runs 
into  an  enamelled  tank,  where  it  is 
forced  through  filters  of  linen  and  fine 
gravel,  the  latter  being  sterilized  every 
day  after  use. 

Finally  it  goes  into  large  tanks  from 
which  it  is  drawn  at  '3  a.m.  for  distri- 
bution in  the  company's  special  vans. 
It  is  not  pasteurized  at  all.  The  objec- 
tion is  that  it  is  impossible  to  tell  when 
the  milk  has  gone  bad,  as  the  process 
of  pasteurization  kills  everything  that 
is  good  as  well  as  bad  in  the  milk,  in- 
cluding the  lactic  acid  bacilli. 

Children's  and  infant's  milk  is,  how- 
ever, pasteurized,  the  infants'  milk  be- 
ing specially  treated.  All  cows  supply- 
ing that  milk  are  tested  for  tuberculosis. 

The  milk  is  separated  from  the  cream 
by  steam-driven  Alfa  Separators,  the 
cream  flowing  over  cylinders  filled  with 
ice,  and  leaving  them  at  a  temperature 
of  85  degrees  Fahr.  The  half  skim 
THalo  skimmet)  milk  containing  % 
per  cent,  of  butter  is  cooled  in  the  same 

manner,  by  running  it  over  a  larger 
cylinder.  It  is  sold  at  half  the  price  of 
whole  milk. 

In  another  room  at  a  long  tin-covered 
table,  twelve  women  dressed  in  the  regu- 
lation white  uniform,  stand,  bottling 
the  cream  which  has  been  separated 
twelve  to  fifteen-  hours  previously. 

This  cream  is  fed  from  a  tank  in  an- 
other room  over  the  coolers,  and  into 
an  enamelled  vat,  thence  drawn 
through  pipes  into  the  filters,  and  from 
them  into  a  large  bottling  machine. 
This  machine  consists  of  small  cylind- 
ers open  at  the  top,  corresponding  to 
the  number  of  discharge  pipes  below. 
Each  cylinder  holds  the  exact  amount 
required  for  each  bottle,  they  rise  and 
fall,  filling  automatically.  When  full, 
each  opens  a  valve  at  the  top  of  the  dis- 
charge pipe  to  which  a  bottle  is  attach- 

The  revolution  of  the  vat,  brings  the 
bottle  round  to  a  woman  who  equalizes 
the  amount,  and  passes  them  to  another 
who,  by  means  of  a  rubber  sheathed 
mallet  swiftly  drives  in  the  corks,  and 
the  bottles  go  on  to  other  women  who 
fasten  the  leaden  seals  round  the  neck 
of  each,  as  a  guarantee  of  the  quality, 
and  also  of  the  place  of  origin.  There 
are  three  grades  of  cream,  Nos.  1,  2  and 

In  this  cut  will  be  seen  drawings  of  the  whole- 
milk  bottle,  the  cream  bottle,  the  dairy 
man's  cap,  and  the  Busck  milk  pail  used. 
You  will  note  in  the  milk  pail  the  recep- 
tacle for  the  ice  in  the  bottom  of  the  pail. 



whipping,  all  of  which  are  dealt  with 


The  infants'  milk  is  all  milked  on  to 
ice  at  the  farms.  The  milk  is  passed 
through  a  sieve  outside  the  cow  house 
immediately  after  milking,  and  taken 
to  premises  specially  fitted  up  for  the 
purpose,  where  it  is  aired  and  cooled. 
The  milk,  after  arrival  in  Copenhagen, 
and  examination  by  experts,  is  cleansed 
by  means  of  the  Rusck  filter,  bottled 
and  kept  cool. 

The  milk  pail,  which  is  an  invention 
of  Mr.  Rusck's,  consists  of  a  cylinder 
steel  pail,  in  the  bottom  of  which  is 
placed-  a  pear-shaped  copper  receptacle, 
which  is  closed  by  means  of  a  fiat  lid 
under  the  bottom  of  the  pail,  this  lid 
can  be  screwed  off  and  on  by  means  of 
a  large  screw  key. 

When  the  pail  has  to  be  used,  it  is 
turned  upside  down,  the  lid  of  the  re- 
ceptacle is  unscrewed,  and  the  latter, 
through  a  small  wide  funnel,  i-  filled 
with  a  mixture  of  1  part  ice,  and  3  parts 
crushed  ice  or  snow  and  salt. 

The  lid  is  then  screwed  on,  and  the 
pail  is  ready  for  use.  The  ice  and  salt 
in  the  cavity  causes  the  milk  which  is 
milked  straight  into  the  pail  to  be  at 
once  materially  cooled.  The  milk  thus 
loses  at  once  its  cow  heat,  and  any 
micro-organisms  which  may  have  got 
into  it  during  milking  are  destroyed. 


The  other  improvement  which  Mr. 
Rusck  introduced  was  the  providing  of 
special  milking  premises  on  one  of  the 
estates  which  supply  the  children's 

These  premises,  situated  in  the  vicin- 
ity of  the  cow  house,  consist  of  a  well- 
lighted  and  well  ventilated  room  into 
which  the  cow  is  let  through  an  outer 
room  where  the  final  brushing  has  tak- 
en place.  In  the  milking  room,  the 
maid,  in  a  clean  white  dress,  first  wipes 
the  cow's  udder  with  a  damp  cloth,  then 
washes  her  hands  prior  to  the  beginning 
to  milk. 

The  milk  from  the    Rusck     pail  is 

poured  through  a  milk  filtci  into  a 
large  can  which  stands  in  a  tank  with 
ire,  where  the  milk  is  quickly  cooled  to 
about  5  degrees  centigrade. 


The  accompanying  illustrations  give 
a  good  idea  of  the  wire  stands,  which  by 
lielp  of  another  society  are  made  and 
-old  to  the  poor.  They  hold  from  6  to 
10  bottles,  and  are  retailed  for  about  4c 
each.  Each  one  holds  sufficient  milk 
to  supply  the  children  for  a  day.  The 
younger  the  child,  the  greater  the  num- 
ber of  bottles  in  the  stand.  The  mother 
sets  the  bottle  into  tepid  water  and 
when  sufficiently  warm,  affixes  a  rub- 
ber teat,  and  the  baby  is  happy. 

Special  boxes  are  provided  in  which 
the  stands  can  be  sent  sealed  and  pack- 
ed in  ice  all  over  Denmark,  and  they 
will  keep  for  more  than  48  hours.  16,- 
000  bottles  have  to  be  dealt  with  by  this 
society  between  10  p.m.  and  1.30  a.m. 
on  every  night  of  the  year,  Christmas 


The  method  of  washing  the  bottles 
and  cans  is  interesting.  The  cans  are 
placed  on  an  inclined  wheel  at  an  angle 
of  35  degrees,  the  wheel  is  then  given  a 
half  turn  and  the  cans  are  dipped  into 
lime  water  which  is  made  very  strong. 
They  are  then  removed  and  held  over 
steam,  by  means  of  which  they  are 
dried  more  quickly,  and  are  less  liable 
to  rust.  The  noise  in  this  room  is  very 
great.  I 

The  bottle  cleaning  is  done  in  a  simi- 
lar manner  except  that  the  wheel  is  not 
used,  and  soda  is  substituted  for  the 
lime  water. 


The  churning  is  carried  on  in  an- 
other part  of  the  building  and  is  shut 
off  by  glass  partitions  from  any  con- 
nection with  the  outside.  The  large 
churns  hold  each  350  Hs.  (Danish)  of 
cream,  this  cream  stands  in  long  narrow 
tanks,  kept  at  an  even  temperature  by 
means  of  ice,  for  ripening  purposes. 
The  wooden  churns,  power  driven,  are 



The  arrival  of  the  milk  train  from  the  farms.      The    engine    would    be   a    curiosity    on    our 

Canadian   railways. 

daily  scalded  out  with  hot  water  and 

The  butter,  of  which  about  600  Hs. 
are  made  daily,  is  rolled  and  worked  on 
circular  revolving  tables,  by  means  of 
a  roller  attached  to  a  central  spindle. 

The  unsold  milk  is  converted  into 
cheese,  and  there  is  likewise  a  large  busi- 
ness done  in  buttermilk.  In  1910,  3,000 
quart  and  pint  bottles  were  distributed 
every  day  at  about  3  cents  per  quart. 

The  milk  is  distributed  as  follows: 
200  cans  are  sent  to  the  hospitals,  each 
containing  100  Hs.  Some  goes  to  the 
three  shops  belonging  to  the  company, 
and  the  rest  is  sold  to  customers. 


The  vans  used  in  distributing,  are 
specially  built  for  that  purpose.  The 
cans  of  whole,  or  skim  milk,  are  plac- 
ed on  either  side  of  the  front  of  the 
vehicle,  and  locked  up  in  such  a  posi- 
tion that  the  milk  can  be  drawn 
through  taps  which  are  dust  proof.  It 
cannot  be  reached  in  any  way  by  those 
in  charge  of  the  van.  Over  the  taps  is 
written  the  quality  and  price  of  the 
milk.  At  the  back  are  trays  whicli  fit 
the  cans  that  hold  the  cream,  the 
children's  and  the  buttermilk,  the 
prices  of  which  are     over     the     door. 

These  trays  are  covered  with  ice  in 
summer.  The  driver  of  each  van,  who 
is  responsible  for  everything  connnect- 
ed  with  the  sale  and  return  of  the  milk, 
has  under  him  several  boys  who  carry 
the  milk  into  the  customer's  houses. 
These  boys,  who  must  be  over  12 
years  of  age,  and  the  man,  are  dressed 
in  special  uniforms.  The  boys  are 
well  looked  after  and  great  care  is  tak- 
en to  have  them  civil  and  obliging, 
they  are  also  prevented  from  wasting 
their  wages. 

With  single  exception  of  the  horse 
brushing  machine,  which  is  electric, 
the  motive  power  comes  from  a  35 
H.P.  Diesel  motor  burning  raw  oil. 
The  ice-making  machine  is  also  con- 
nected with  the  motor. 


It  has  been  suggested  that  the  milk 
supply  of  the  large  cities  should  be 
taken  in  hand  by  the  corporations  of 
those  cities,  and  that  in  such  a  manner 
the  health  of  the  community  and  es- 
pecially of  the  children  could  be  bet- 
ter preserved.  It  seems  feasible,  and 
no  doubt  will  be  considered  some  time 
in  the  future.  Denmark  in  her  great 
dairies  has  shown  how  it  can  be  done 
privately  at  least. 



I  quote  from  a  portion  of  the  rules 
which  every  dairy  farmer  must  sign. 
They  speak  for  themselves. 

1.  "All  provender  given  to  the  cows 
must  be  perfectly  fresh,  and  in  good 
condition,  free  from  anything  that 
could  communicate  any  abnormal 
odor  or  color.'' 

2.  "In  summer  the  cows  must  be 
turned  out  to  graze,  and  given  nothing 
but  grass  and  clover." 

3.  "Only  in  case  of  necessity  may  the 
cows  be  given  dry  forage  and  chopped 
barley,  and  then  only  in  the  open  air. 
It  is  forbidden  to  keep  them  stalled 
during  this  portion  of  the  year.  The 
farmer  must  arrange  with  the  society  as 
to  the  nature  of  the  food  he  proposes 
to  give  during  the  winter,  and  must  ad- 
here to  the  following  rules." 

A.  "Roots — carrots  and  beetroot  in 
proportion  of  36  litres  (1%  bushels) 
per  cow,  but  only  on  condition  that 
they  are  mixed  into  at  least  5  lbs. 
(Danish)  corn,  bran  and  cake.  Cows 
which  supply  milk  for  infants  may  be 
given  roots  in  proportion  of  %  bushel." 

Turnips,  cabbage,  swedes,  and  the 
tops  of  turnips  or  Kohl  rabi  may  not 
be  included  in  the  food." 

B.  "Cake — Only  oil  and  sunflower 
cake  may  be  used  in  proportion  of  at 
most  1  H.  (Danish)  with  not  less  than 
5  ITs.  corn  and  bran.  Cows  supplying 
milk  for  infants  may  not  have  cake." 

C.  "All  refuse  from  distilleries  is  for- 

D.  "Before  stabling  the  cows  in  the 
autumn,  the  tails,  hind  quarters,  and 
udder  must  be  shorn." 

E.  "Milk  from  recently  calved  cows 
may  not  be  supplied  during  the  first 
fortnight  after  they  have  come  into 
milk.  The  society  also  refuses  to  take 
the  milk  of  sick  cows,  or  of  cows  which 
do  not  give  more  than  6  litres  per 


"The  milking  must  be  carried  out 
with  the  greatest  care  and  cleanliness. 
The  conditions  are: 

1.  "The  milkers,  during  milking, 
must  wear  a  special  dress,  and  be  pro- 
vided with  a  towel  to  use  when  they  re- 
quire to  wash  their  hands." 

2.  "The  byre  must  be  well  lighted 
especially  between  the  cows  in  such  a 
fashion  that  the  milker  can  do  his 
work  properly." 

3.  "Immediately  after  milking  the 
milk  must  be  passed  through  a  metal 
sieve  covered  with  a  clean  and  fine  lin- 
en cloth." 

4.  "Thereafter  the  milk  must  be  at 
every  season  of  the  year  be  passed 
through  a  refrigerating  apparatus 
which  lowers  the  temperature  to  41  de- 
grees Fahr.  It  must  be  kept  at  this 
temperature  until  it  leaves  the  farm. 

5.  "The  removal  of  manure  must  be 
carried  out  in  the  morning  after  milk- 
ing, and  be  finished  in  the  afternoon 
at  least  an  hour  before  the  evening 

6.  "The  farmer  must  have  in  store  al- 
ways a  fresh  supply  of  ice  of  at  least 
30  Hs.  of  ice  to  every  100  litres  of 

II..  Miss  Nette 



Mabel  BurRholder. 

The  fact  that  we  make  frequent  use  of  Miss  Burkholder's  stories  is  in  itself 
proof  that  we  regard  them  highly.  She  has  done  some  excellent  work  for  Farmer's 
both  in  the  way  of  articles  and  short  stories.  In  a  recent  extended  tour  of  the  Cana- 
dian West,  Miss  Burkholder  gathered  material  for  a  great  deal  of  manuscript.  The 
story,  ' '  Miss  Nette, ' '  is  an  outcome  of  the  trip. 

''TRADV  I  called  from  the  doorway 
of  our  shack;  "Thad  Balfour,  here 
is  a  visitor  to  see  you!'' 

The  young  giant,  who  had  just  fin- 
ished taking  his  daily  plunge  in  the 
gelid  waters  of  the  Northern  British 
Columbia  stream  on  which  our  pros- 
pectors' camp  was  located,  sprang  to 
his  full  height  on  the  river  bank  and 
treated  me  to  a  scornfully  incredulous 

"A  visitor  for  me?  None  of  your 
joshing,  Dicky!" 

^'Come  all  the  way  from  Vermont," 
I  finished  teasingly,  as  1  turned  my 
back  on  him  and  re-entered  the  shack. 

The  last  word  changed  his  expression 
materially.  The  look  of  incredulity 
faded,  giving  place  to  a  hope,  almost 
too  great,  too  joyous,  to  be  trusted. 
Vermont  was  home  to  Thad.  Was  it 
possible  that  some  of  the  long-lost 
home  folks  had  hunted  out  his  mount- 
ain fastness  and  come  with  greetings 
from  friends? 

I  understood  the  reason  for  the  crit- 
ical scrutiny  to  which  he  was  subject- 
ing his  features,  as  he  rubbed  and 
twisted  at  his  hair  before  a  tiny  pocket 
mirror.  Vermont  was  to  him  the 
home  of  all  refinement  and  elegance. 
Whoever  it  was  that  had  come  all  the 
way  from  the  old  state  to  visit  him 
must  not  be  too  badly  disappointed  in 
the  mountain  scapegrace. 

Thad's  naive  efforts  at  toilet-making 
on  the  river  bank  amused  me.  As  if 
artificial  aid  were  necessary  to  enhance 

the  beauty  of  that  tall,  well-knit  figure, 
with  its  superabundant  life,  with  its 
elastic  step,  with  its  forceful  shoulders 
and  fair  head  so  proudly  poised! 

Presently  he  came  swinging  up  the 
river  path,  whistling  a  little  erratic 
tune  under  his  breath,  a  trick  that 
was  characteristic  of  him  when  under 
feeling.  At  his  back  lay  the  tree- 
belted  valley  through  which  the  rapid 
river  swirled;  above  the  bare  mountain 
peaks  stabbed  the  sky.  Everywhere 
the  hand  of  the  Master-Artist  had 
moved  almightily  in  broad,  forceful 
strokes.  It  spoke  well  for  Thad's  in- 
dividuality that  he  was  not  dwarfed 
by  his  surroundings.  He  fitted  into 
his  setting  like  a  picture  into  its 

Perhaps  he  had  made  a  pretty 
shrewd  guess  at  the  identity  of  the 
visitor,  for  he  went  straight  to  an  el- 
derly gentleman  seated  near  the  win- 
dow and  gripped  his  hands  joyfully. 


''Well,  well,  Thad,"  exclaimed  the 
stranger,  "is  it  really  you?" 

"Do  not  say  I  have  changed  past 
recollection,"  protested  Thad. 

To  my  surprise  Thaddeus  Balfour 
senior  was  looking  his  son  up  and  down 
with  keen  disapproval. 

"You  have  been  living  a  rough  life 
for  the  past  six  years,  Thad." 


The  word  was  put  half  interroga- 
tively. The  word  "rough,"  as  applied 
to  a  man  has  two  meanings.     While 



Thad's  hands  were  horny,  his  clothes 
coarse,  and  his  fight  with  elemental  na- 
ture stern  and  unyielding,  he^  was  con- 
scious that  he  had  kept  his  inner  na- 
ture as  tender  as  a  girl's. 

The  old  man  got  up  and  walked  the 
length  of  the  room,  as  if  its  limited 
dimensions  cramped  him.  Obviously 
he  was  accustomed  to  more  spacious 
halls  with  more  elaborate  furniture. 
In  the  course  of  his  wanderings  he 
kicked  over  a  primitive  stool,  which 
Thad  graciously  picked  up  and  restored 
to  its  usual  corner. 

^'It's  not  as  if  such  a  life  was  neces- 
sary," said  the  visitor,  a  note  of  irri- 
tability creeping  into  the  suave  voice. 

''No.  I  must  say  I  adopted  it  by 
choice,"  admitted  Thad,  quite  at  a  loss 
to  see  whither  all  these  preliminaries 
were  tending. 

The  old  gentleman  sat  down  again 
and  locked  his  pudgy  hands  over  his 
knee.  It  seemed  as  if  every  movement 
was  designed  to  show  how  much  of  a 
gentleman  he  was.  He  never  sat  down 
without  looking  in  disgust  on  the  hum- 
ble seat  he  was  forced  to  use;  and  he 
never  rose  up  without  stepping  gin- 
gerly about  as  if  in  fear  of  the  floor 
going  through  with  him.  He  never 
opened  his  coat  without  displaying  his 
diamond  shirt-stud;  he  never  folded 
his  hands  without  leaving  his  heavy 
seal  ring  on  top. 

"Did  you  say  that  all  were  well  at 
home?"  Thad  inquired  politely. 

"Aunt  Harriet  is  dead." 

"Ha!  The  lady  with  the  estate  at 
Navarre — eh?  She  must  have  grown 
extremely  wealthy  by  this  time.  And 
*  did  she  to  the  end  refuse  to  adopt  or 
select  an  heir?  Well,  Governor,  I 
hope  you  are  benefited  by  her  will." 

"You  are  Aunt  Harriet's  heir,"  an- 
nounced Thaddaeus  Balfour  in  weigh- 
ty tones. 

"I?  The  saints  preserve  us!  You're 
joking.  Dad" 

"You  are  the  sole  heir  to  Aunt  Har- 
riet's money  and  estates,  valued  at  four 
hundred  thousand  dollars.  But  there 
is  a  condition  attached — one  extremely 
easy  of  fulfilment,  I  must  say." 

"Reel  it  off.  Governor,"  said  Thad 

"It  is  that  you  consent  to  settle  down 
at  Navarre,  and  marry  the  young  lady 
whose  lands  join  on  the  south.  She 
is  a  distant  relative,  and  it  was  Aunt 
Harriet's  dearest  wish  that  the  two  es- 
tates should  be  joined,  as  they  were  in 
her  great-grandfather's  time.  This 
condition  your  aunt  believes  easy  of  ac- 
complishment, as  in  the  old  days,  be- 
fore your  infatuation  for  the  West,  you 
lost  no  opportunity  to  make  love  to 
Miss  Clarice  Martin." 

An  expression  bordering  on  a  grim- 
ace crossed  Thad's  expressive  features. 

"Does  Clarice  still  do  wool-work? 
Have  you  any  idea  how  many  cushion- 
tops  she  has  by  now?"  He  was  pro- 
perly crushed  by  his  father's  look,  but 
not  before  his  tongue  had  formed  the 
words:  "I  suppose  she  still  has  her 

"With  her  wealth  joined  to  yours, 
you  come  into  possession  of  about 
three-quarters  of  a  million  of  money." 

"Pfui!"  whistled  Thad;  then  sud- 
denly, "Does  the  lady — does  Clarice 
expect  this  of  me?" 

"She  has  many  suitors  of  course," 
said  the  old  man,  unwilling  to  under- 
value the  girl  who  had  been  selected 
for  his  son's  wife.  "But  no  doubt  she 
sees  the  expediency  of  the  arrange- 

Suddenly  into  the  clearing  bounded 
a  horse,  a  mettlesome  little  thing, 
which  did  considerable  dancing  on  its 
hind  feet  and  then  took  an  unaccount- 
able notion  to  stand  on  its  nose  and 
put  its  hind  feet  in  the  air.  On  the 
broncho's  back  sat  a  girl  who  kept 
her  position  with  amazing  ease. 

From  the  moment  of  her  appearance 
Thad  never  took  his  eyes  off  ner. 

The  old  gentleman  followed  his  gaze 
uneasily.  The  girl  had  slipped  lightly 
off  the  horse,  which  now  stood  rubbing 
his  nose  against  her  shoulder.  Her 
bright,  sun-kissed  face  was  fully  turned 
towards  the  house.  Her  skirts  were 
short  and  her  boots  correspondingly 
high,  while  down  her  back  hung  two 
magnificent  braids  of  dark  hair. 

The  old  man's  face  whitened  at 
Thad's  look. 

"Don't  tell  me  you  have  got  tangled 

"The  girl  had  slipped  lightly  off  the  horse.' 



up  with  some  dusty  Siwash  maiden/' 
he  muttered. 

''I  was  not  intending  to  tell  you  any 
such  thing!'' 

Thad's  fist  had  clinched  angrily,  but 
before  he  could  say  more  the  girl  was 
at  the  door. 

Thad!  Dicky  1"  she  cried  exultant- 
ly, ''I  have  conquered  the  broncho! 
He  is  going  to  travel  at  a  splendid 

Then  she  noticed  the  stranger  stand- 
ing in  the  window. 

Thad  advanced  graciously.  There 
were  times,  under  stress  of  feeling, 
when  the  blue  blood  of  a  dozen  genera- 
tions of  haughty  ancestors  drove  him 
to  most  magnificent  action.  His  lord- 
ly manner  suggested  the  throne  room 
of  a  monarch  rather  than  a  shack  in 
the  heart  of  the  mountains. 

'Tather,  this  is  Miss  Nette,  Boss  Mc- 
phail's  daughter." 

"Ah— hi" 

The  old  man  eyed  her  suspiciously 
over  his  glasses,  as  if  in  strong  doubt 
of  the  ancestry  which  had  bequeathed 
on  her  that  brown  complexion  and 
those  dangling  braids  of  dusky  hair. 

Miss  Nette  was  courageous — no  brav- 
er soul  was  ever  clothed  with  woman's 
form.  But  she  quailed  and  drew  back 
a  step  under  that  piercing  scrutiny.  A 
shiver  of  fear,  as  if  she  saw  some  dire 
misfortune  pending,  chilled  her  blood 
and  blanched  her  cheek  under  the  tan. 
Thad  moved  toward  her  as  if  for  pro- 

"Dicky,"  she  said  inconsequentially, 
the  quaver  in  her  voice  perceptible 
only  to  me,  while  the  profile  toward 
the  stranger  was  cold  and  proud,  "if 
my  father  is  coming  home  to  dinner 
you  and  I  should  be  in  the  kitchen." 

I  went  obediently.  She  knew  she 
could  count  on  me  to  the  last  limit  of 
my  powers.  I  was  her  relative.  I 
had  fought  battles  innumerable  in  her 
name.  I  loved  her  more  than  most 
relatives  are  supposed  to  love,  and  she 
knew  that  too,  though  I  never  pained 
her  by  putting  it  into  words.  It  was 
all  impossible.  I  was  making  a  fight 
for  health  there  in  those  vast,  silent 
northern  mountains,  and  sometimes  it 
was  Nette  who  soothed  and  petted  me, 

while  at  most  times  her  strength  on  the 
river  or  on  horseback  was  greater  than 

No  reference  was  made  by  either  of 
us  to  the  unexpected  visitor.  A  subdued 
hum  of  conversation,  now  rising  to  the 
pitch  of  excitement,  now  falling  to  the 
depths  of  concentrated  earnestness,  was 
all  allowed  to  go  unnoticed. 

Presently  Thad  merged  and  took  a 
hasty  course  across  the  corral,  saddled 
his  swiftest  horse,  mounted  and  rode 
away.  Nette  watched  him  in  fascina- 

"Dicky,  where  can  Thad  be  going?" 
she  asked. 

I  had  no  idea. 

Just  then  Thaddaeus  Balfour  senior 
stood  in  the  doorway. 

"What  called  Thad  away^  so  sud- 
denly?" I  made  bold  to  enquire. 

"I  am  sorry  to  have  to  inform  you 
that  a  messenger  has  just  made  him 
acquainted  with  a  serious  accident 
down  at  the  camp,"  was  the  reply. 

The  girl  turned  to  him  a  scared 

"My  father!"  her  trembling  lips  ut- 

The  human  monster  regarded  her 
sufl^ering  with  a  remarkable  degree  of 

"It  is  true.  Miss — er,  Miss  Nette  that 
your  father's  name  was  mentioned  as 
among  the  injured." 

Already,  with  the  decision  of  the 
mountaineer,  Nette  had  regained  mast- 
ery of  herself.  She  dropped  her  cook- 
ing utensils  and  flung  oft'  her  apron. 

"  We  will  go  by  the  river  way, 
Dicky,"  she  said,  commanding  me  as 
usual.  "It  will  carry  our  canoe  down 
swiftly,  no  matter  how  long  it  takes 
us  to  get  back.  I  will  put  the  boat 
in  to  the  water,  while  you  find  out 
exactly  where  the  accident  took  place, 
and  if  we  can  carry  anything  down 
that  will  be  of  use  to  the  wounded." 

I  was  preparing  to  follow  the  flying 
figure,  which  was  already  almost  to 
the  river's  edge,  when  a  hand  was  laid 
heavily  on  my  shoulder. 

"Don't  get  excited,  young  man! 
There  is  no  hurry." 

Old  man  Balfour  was  close  behind 
me,  and  when  I  turned  to  look  into 



his  face  I  saw  a  very  curious  expression 

"No  hurry — with  the  boss  injured 
so  far  away  from  home?" 

"You  will  not  find  him  seriously  in- 

I  faced  the  man  sharply,  the  truth 
pressing  home  on  me. 

"Is  he  injured  at  all?" 

"He  is  not,"  came  the  response  with 
astounding  coolness.  "It  was  a  story 
I  invented  myself  to  separate  my  son 
from  his  dusky  enchantress,"  he 
laughed  harshly,  "and  I  must  say  I  am 
pleased  with  the  success  of  the  experi- 

"But  Thad?" 

"I  set  him  on  an  errand  in  an  op- 
posite direction.  He  has  almost  de- 
cided to  go,  and  the  girl  shall  not  hang 
around  with  her  soft  ways." 

My  blood  rose.  When  I  looked 
down  he  was  holding  out  a  handful  of 
bills — bills  of  such  a  high  denomina- 
tion that  I  had  only  seen  the  like  once 
or  twice  in  my  life  before.  He  was 
trading  on  my  poverty  and  sickness. 
He  was  bribing  me  to  carry  out  my 
part  of  the  nefarious  scheme. 

I  took  the  bills  and  flung  them  flat 
in  his  face.  Probably  I  hurt  him,  for 
he  rubbed  an  eye  as  if  a  sharp  corner  of 
paper  struck  the  ball. 

"If  you  want  more,"  he  was  saying, 
"if  you  want  more  to  give  to  the — the 
little  native — you  see  I  mean  to  treat 
her  fairly — " 

Then  I  found  my  speech,  though  my 
tongue  was  still  thick  with  rage. 

"I  mean,  sir,  that  you  shall  take 
back  those  insinuations  concerning  the 
young  lady's  ancestry.  She  shares 
with  me  the  honor  of  belonging  to 
one  of  the  most  respected  families  in 
this  province." 

"Oh,  perhaps — perhaps.  I  was  too 
hasty.  But  I  feel  deeply  on  the  ques- 
tion— deeply.  Can't  you  see  what  a 
monstrous  mistake — what  a  mesalli- 
ance— for  a  girl  of  her  education,  her 
position — " 

"I  agree  with  you,"  I  whipped  in,  as 
I  turned  on  my  heel,  "that  it  would  be 
a  monstrous  mistake  to  expose  my 
cousin  to  the  degradation  of  connecting 
herself  with  a  family  of  your  calibre. 

I  will  join  with  you,  sir,  in  preventing 
such  a  calamity." 

Nette  was  waiting  with  what  pa- 
tience she  could  muster  by  the  river- 

"This  way?"  she  asked.  "  Five 
miles  down  to  Cory's  Landing?  And 
then  strike  out  into  the  bush?" 

Absently  I  answered,  "Yes,  yes, 
yes,"   to  all  her  questions. 

She  looked  at  me  sharply,  but  said 
never  a  word.  Soon  the  canoe  was 
racing  past  the  trees  at  a  dangerous 
speed.  Nette  knelt  stiffly  erect  in 
front,  with  the  paddle  poised. 

In  the  few  moments  of  embarking 
I  had  weighed  a  score  of  arguments. 
The  thought  uppermost  in  my  mind 
was  to  tell  the  girl  the  truth.  And 
then  came  the  desire  to  spare  her,  to 
shield  her,  not  to  allow  the  old  dragon 
to  gloat  over  her  suffering.  That  con- 
sideration finally  outbalanced  all  else. 
For  I  knew  she  loved  Thad,  and  I 
knew  the  crushing  effect  the  news 
would  have  on  her  intensely  loyal  na- 
ture. Thad  should  have  known  it, 
too.  Hb  had  never  actually  declared 
his  love,  but  he  had  won  hers.  He 
was  quite  free — hers  be  the  grief.  The 
shimmer  of  gold  was  in  his  eyes.  Good 
fortune  had  shown  him  to  be  a  crawl- 
ing, invertebrate  thing. 

During  that  swift  run  we  indulged 
in  no  conversation.  In  an  incredibly 
short  time  we  were  pulling  up  at  Cory^s 

"Which  way  now?"  asked  the  girl, 
considering  the  trails  which  led  off 
from  the  tiny  wharf. 

I  took  her  hand  gentl}^. 

"Nette,  my  little  girl,  sit  down." 

She  sank  obediently  down  on  a 
huge  boulder  and  looked  at  me  with 
suddenly  dilating  pupils., 

"Dicky,  what  is  it?  You  know 
something.     Is  he  dead?" 

I  don't  know  how  I  told  her.  After 
the  first  suspicion  entered  her  mind  she 
was  c[uiet  enough.  She  listened  ap- 
athetically, her  fingers  lying  listessly 
in  her  lap,  and  her  underlip  caught 
between  her  teeth. 

An  early  evening  gloom  was  already 
purpling  the  hills.  The  customary 
sounds  of  the  forest    were    lulled    to 



for  the  afternoon  was  warm. 
I  stumbled  on  with  my  story,  my  voice 
the  only  sound  that  broke  the  unnatur- 
al stillness.  I  dared  not  take  her  in 
my  arms  to  comfort  her.  No  one] 
could  do  that  but  Thad,  and  he  was 
throwing  away  what  to  me  was  the 
most  priceless  treasure  on  earth. 

Presently  she  looked  up  into  my  face 
with  dry,  lustrous  eyes. 

^^You  shall  not  blame  him,  Dicky," 
she  said,  with  a  piteous  quiver  in  her 
voice.  ''His  father  only  brought  him 
to  a  true  realization  of  his  position. 
And  it  is  not  hard  to  guess  by  his  man- 
ner what  was  his  former  position  by 
birth  and  education.  And  she"  the 
brave  voice  faltered,  "she  can  do  those 
things  too." 

"What  things?"  I  demanded  hotly. 
"Embroider  cushions  and  tend  to  cats? 
That  is  all  the  accomplishment  she  is 
said  to  have!" 

Nette  put  her  hand  over  my  lips. 

"He  never  realized  before  that  I 
didn't  know  how  to  make  or  to  wear 
pretty  clothes,  that  I  am  just  a  little 
sun-browned  mountain  girl,  with  hair 
in  braids — " 

"If  he  had  realized  it  sooner,  and 
saved  for  you  your  peace  of  mind,  and 
for  himself  the  name  of  a  gentleman-" 
I  began  hotly. 

"Listen!     What  was  that?" 

Our  attention  was  arrested  by  a  noise 
on  the  mountain  slope  above  us,  a 
noise  of  loose  falling  stones,  of  hoof- 
beats  on  the  trail. 

"A  horse,"  I  said.     "No,  two!" 

A  stone  loosened  and  clattered  away 
into  the  abysmal  depths.  The  two 
horses  were  coming  down  the  trail  at 
a  tremendous  rate.  It  was  plaving 
with  death  to  ride  at  such  a  pace  on 
the  high  ledges. 

I  had  already  made  a  fairly  shrewd 
guess  who  the  riders  were.  The  Bal- 
fours,  senior  and  junior,  were  making 
their  way  to  the  boat  landing  at  the 
head  of  the  lake  ten  miles  away.  They 
were  racing  the  afternoon  steamer, 
which  only  stopped  a  minute  there  on 
its  southward  journey.  It  was  bold 
of  them  to  double  up  on  our  tracks, 
but  they  were  sorely  pressed  for  time. 

I  knew  the  same  surmise  was  shared 

by  Nette,  for  she  stiffened,  as  a  crea- 
ture instinctively  will  when  made 
aware  of  the  presence  of  an  enemy. 
She  stood  almost  touching  my  should- 
er, yet  there  was  no  suggestion  of  my 
supporting  her.  Her  wide  eyes  had 
caught  the  amethystine  gloom  of  the 
hills,  and  her  lips  were  slightly  parted. 

"Ah  I" 

The  horses  had  turned  the  curve 
of  the  road.  One  was  a  powerful  gray, 
the  other  a  little  bay  broncho  with  a 
dare-devillish  look.  The  little  bron- 
cho was  riderless! 

"It  is  Thad  on  his  grey  mare,"  I 
exclaimed;  "and  he  is  leading  your 

Nette  spoke  never  a  word,  until  the 
rider  reined  in  close  to  us. 

"I  knew  you  would  be  here,"  Thad 
said  briefly,  looking  quite  past  me  to 
the  girl  who  was  meeting  his  ardent 
gaze  with  steady  eyes.  "I  mean  to 
take  you  with  me  over  to  the  head  of 
the  lake." 

"I  mean  not  to  go!"  flashed  Nette. 
"I  mean  to  go  home  with  Dicky.  I 
hardly  think  my  company  would  be 
appreciated  at  the  head  of  the  lake." 

He  looked  down  at  her  and  laugh- 

"So  you  heard,  did  you?  I  was  al- 
most hoping  that  some  of  the  disgrace- 
ful details  might  be  kept  from  you. 
But  it  is  better  that  you  should  know 
how  they  tempted  me  with  all  the  arts 
of  Satan.  Perhaps  you  don't  know 
though  that  I  was  caused  to  ride  ten 
miles  away  on  a  useless  errand  to  keep 
me  from  talking  it  over  with  you,  or 
from  seeing  your  face.  For  a  few 
awful  minutes  my  father  saw  me 
weaken.  He  took  the  advantage  and 
extracted  from  me  a  promise  that  I 
would  meet  him  at  the  boat  landing 
at  five  o'clock.  God  help  me!  I 
meant  to  keep  my  word." 

"You  must  keep  it,"  breathed 
Nette.  I  wondered  how  her  voice 
could  sound  so  cold  when  I  knew  the 
love  in  her  heart. 

But  he  only  laughed  and  stooped 
from  his  saddle  until  his  face  was  al- 
most on  a  level  with  hers. 

"Keep  it?  Certainly.  But  you  are 
going  with  me,  Nette." 



"I  am   going  home." 

''You  are  not  going  away  from  me, 
Nette.  That  is  fixed  and  settled  for 
all  time  to  come.  The  one  hour  that 
I  tried  to  live  without  you  was  mad- 
ness of  the  brain.  It  was  a  kaleidos- 
copic dance  before  my  eyes  of  seven 
hundred  and  fifty  thousand  separate 

"Dicky,  what  did  I  say  about  going 
home?     You  are  not  usually  so  slow." 

How  long  would  the  little  girl  per- 
sist in  her  pride?  Was  it  possible  that 
she  meant  what  she  said?  Though 
her  heart  break  in  the  process,  would 
she  undertake  to  show  him  that  her 
family  pride  was  as  great  as  his  own? 
I  was  growing  distinctly  uneasy,  and 
I  fancied  Thad's  swarthy  cheek  was 

Then  a  sudden  thing  happened. 
Thad  stooped  and  put  his  arm  around 
her,  lifting  her  from  the  ground.  Then 
wheeling  his  horse  abruptly,  he  set  her 
down  on  the  back  of  the  broncho  which 
had  been  browsing  a  few  feet  away. 
When  he  saw  that  she  had  grasped  the 

reins,  as  a  good  horseman  instinctively 
does,  he  gave  the  broncho  a  gentle  slap 
on  the  flank  which  caused  it  to  bound 
up  the  hill. 

At  first  I  was  frightened.  Then  I 
saw  that  Nette  was  laughing  through 
the  tangle  of  curls  that  fell  around  her 
face.  Ah,  it  was  right — right  that  she 
should  go  with  him!  So  would  they 
go  to  the  end  of  life.  While  I  would 
be  alone,  always  alone  to  the  end.  Tut ! 
I  must  not  brood  over  it.  It  was  the 
happiest  misery  I  had  ever  experienced. 
I  had  never  thought  it  was  possible 
that  I  should  be  so  satisfied  to  see  any- 
one take  Nette  away  from  me. 

"But  why  are  you  going  to  the  head 
of  the  lake?"    I  called  after  them. 

"Well,  you  see,"  said  Thad  in  reply, 
"I  made  a  solemn  promise  to  be  there. 
There's  a  certain  good  bishop  lives 
across  the  lake  whom  I  have  long  wish- 
ed to  see.  Nette  and  I  have  no  objec- 
tion to  accompanying  the  pater  that 
far  on  his  journey.  I  never  told  him 
I  would  go  all  the  way  I" 

Model  Concrete  Farm  Buildings 

A  SET  of  thirty  models  of  all-cement 
farm  buildings  and  miscellaneous  struc- 
tures for  use  upon  the  farm  recently 
made  a  most  interesting  exhibit  occu- 
pying about  400  square  feet.  The  plan 
was  to  exhibit  such  concrete  work  as 
could  be  successfully  constructed  on 
the  farm  and  to  demonstrate  it  in  the 
simplest  manner  possible  to  every  one 
who  might  be  interested. 

The  use  of  concrete  blocks  was  shown 
in  a  wall  31/2  feet  high,  while  the  wide- 
ly discussed  concrete  furniture,  consist- 
ing of  two  tables  and  four  chairs,  a 
bench  and  two  small  milking  stools 
were  also  exhibited. 

All  the  models  were  built  to  the  scale 
of  one  inch  to  the  foot.  A  farm  resi- 
dence   was    displayed    measuring    22 

inches  wide,  36  inches  deep  and  28 
inches  high. 

To  the  rear  of  the  residence  were  lo- 
cated the  following  models  in  the  order 
named:  cistern,  well-house,  and  wind 
mill,  a  dog  house,  smoke-house,  ice- 
house, garage,  carriage  and  wagon 
shed,  horse  and  hay  barn  with  water- 
ing trough  adjoining,  dairy,  cow  barn, 
with  silo,  and  elevated  water  tank,  cir- 
cular watering  trough  and  masonry 
base  adjoining  the  concrete  approach 
to  the  second  story  of  the  barn,  which 
was  intended  to  be  utilized  as  a  root  cel- 
lar. Following  these  was  a  corn  crib 
and  granary  and  lastly  a  chicken  house 
which  completed  the  equipment. 

The  exhibit  was  first  shown  at  the 
Chicago  Cement  Show. 


Note. — Frequent  references  have  been  made  in  Farmer's  Magazine  to  the  use- 
fulness of  the  Dairy  Shorthorns  on  the  average  farm,  in  Canada.  Last  April  we  had 
an  article  on  this  subject,  which  has  met  with  considerable  favor,  not  only  in  the 
East,  but  in  the  Prairie  Provinces.  Since  then  the  Ontario  Government  has  tried  to 
import  a  few  Dairy  Shorthorns  for  their  farm  at  Guelph,  while  the  Alberta  Govern- 
ment have  already  secured  the  best  Dairy  Shorthorns  that'  are  to  be  procured  in 
Canada  for  their  experimental  work  in  that  province.  Mr..  Smith  lives  on  the 
Boutcyre  Eanch,  near  Penhold,  Sask.,  and  his  opinions  on  the  subject,  as  contained 
here,  are  worth  reading,  since  he  came  from  Northern  England,  where  he  was  sur- 
rounded with  Shorthorn  society. — Editor. 

By  Joseph  Smith 

MY  attention  has  been  drawn  with  in- 
terest to  the  papers  which  have  appear- 
ed from  time  to  time  in  the  Farmer's 
Magazine  for  the  past  year  on  the  sub- 
ject of  "The  Dairy  Shorthorn  Cow/' 
which  subject  to  my  mind  does  not  ap- 
pear to  have  proper  attention  paid  to 
it  by  the  press  or  by  the  governments. 

In  this  Western  country  there  are 
so  many  rising  towns  that  the  diffi- 
culty of  supplying  milk  and  dairy 
produce  to  rapidly  increasing  popu- 
lation is  becoming  more  and  more 
pronounced.  This  opportunity  has 
afforded  the  champions  of  the  vari- 
ous special  dairy  breeds  to  push  the 
sale  of  their  favorites,  of  which  they 
have  not  been  slow  to  avail  themselves. 
Now,  without  calling  in  question  the 
merits  of  any  other  kind,  I  wish  to  em- 
phasize the  claims  to  merit  of  the  Short- 
horn cow  of  the  dairy  type. 

It  doesn't  seem  to  be  generally  known 
or  recognized  that  the  Shorthorn  was 
originally  a  dairy  animal  in  almost  ex- 
clusive use  for  hundreds  of  years  on  the 
farms  of  the  Northern  counties  of  Eng- 
land, and  their  milking  properties  were 
improved  and  developed  by  the  care 
and  attention  given  them  by  the  dairy 
farmers  and  the  monks  who  inhabited 
the  monasteries  situated  in  the  rich  val- 
leys of  the  North  of  England,  where 
they  had  access  to  rich  pasture  and  pure 
streams  of  water. 



The  Monks  were  generally  the 
scientists  of  their  time  and  took  an  in- 
terest in  advanced  agriculture.  Most  of 
these  Monasteries  had  glebe  lands  or 
farms  attached,  which  supplied  the 
bodily  needs  of  the  inhabitants  and 
brought  them  in  a  revenue.  I  lived 
for  years  before  coming  out  to  Sas- 
katchewan on  a  farm  which  had  form- 
erly belonged  to  the  Monks  of  Byland 
Abbey  which  for  seven  hundred  years 
was  renowned  as  a  dairy  and  wheat 
growing  farm.  From  forty  to  eighty 
milk  cows  were  kept.  All  were  of  the 
original  Shorthorn  type.  In  my  fa- 
ther's time,  this  number  was  greatly 
reduced,  and  feeding  or  fattening  Irish 
cattle  was  largely  resorted  to,  with  less 
satisfactory  results,  in  the  long  run. 

It  was  because  of  their  superior  qua- 
lifications as  beef  producers  that  the 
Shorthorns  were  chosen  by  the  Coates, 
the  Bates,  the  Booths,  the  Collings  and 
the  Cruickshanks,  to  develop  into  a 
beef  producer  and  for  some  years  al- 
most exclusive  attention  was  taken  in 
this  form  of  development  until  they 
awoke  to  the  fact  that  they  vvere  sacri- 
ficing two  of  the  most  useful  character- 
istics of  the  breed,  that  of  milk  pro- 
ducing and  stamina.  Many  dairymen 
who  had  bought  in  order  to  improve 
the  quality  of  their  stock  found  that 



The   Dairy   Shortborn    Cow,   Bertha   13.     A   winner  at  the  English  shows  and  a  type  of  the 
animal  that  would   greatly   enrich  the    mixed    farms    of    Canada. 

they  were  sacrificing  the  milking  power 
and  in  consequence  a  dairy  Shorthorn 
society  was  established  and  many  fan- 
ciers and  practical  men  went  in  for 
pedigree  Shorthorns  of  dairy  type  with 
a  view  to  preserve  and  develop  the  old 
milking  properties. 

Now  we  have  side  by  side,  first  the  old 
dairy  strain  in  the  valleys  and  dales  of 
Yorkshire.  Durham,  Westmoreland, 
Cumberland,  etc.  The  registered  im- 
proved dairy  Shorthorn,  and  the  Short- 
horn for  beef  purposes  only,  from 
which  the  Shorthorn  breed  on  this  side 
of  the  water  has  been  established  and 
from  which  it  is  continually  being  re- 

BEEF^    NOT    MILK,    WAS    WANTED. 

I  do  not  wonder  that  there  should 
be  manifest  on  the  part  of  dairymen  in 
this  country  such  prejudice  against  the 
Shorthorn  when  the  general  experience 
has  been  limited  to  such  specimens  as 
have  been  brought  in  by  the  ranchers 
and  others  for  beef  purposes.  Until 
recently,  beef  has  been  all  the  cry.  You 

cannot  change  the  results  of  the  early 
circumstances  suddenly.  It  takes  time 
to  do  it  and  I  know  of  no  quicker 
method  than  importing  a  quantity  of 
iirst-class  pedigreed  Shorthorn  dairy 
breeding  stock  from  the  old  country. 

The  beef  question  is  an  acute  one 
just  now.  Prices  are  high  and  many 
farmers  who  have  the  old  style  of  beef 
cattle  do  not  care  to  sacrifice  them  in 
order  to  go  in  for  the  so-called  dairs' 
types  which  are  not  as  good  for  beef 
production.  If  a  genuine  dual  pur- 
pose cow  were  available  such  as  the 
Shorthorn  dairy  type  alone  can  lay 
claim  to,  the  question  would  be  a  great 
way  nearer  to  be  solved,  for  at  the  same 
time  as  she  is  producing  a  good  flow  of 
rich  milk,  she  can  raise  a  calf  on  the 
prairie  which  at  three  vears  old  will 
weigh  1,800  or  1,400  Ibs."^ 


The  Shorthorn  cow  in  the  old  coun- 
try has  proven  to  be  the  successful  com- 
petitor of  all  other  breeds  both  in  the 
show-ring  at  the  London  Dairy  Show, 



and  on  the  farm  for  supplying  milk 
and  butter  to  the  innumerable  large 
towns  and  cities  of  the  old  land.  More- 
over nearly  90  per  cent,  of  the  cows 
that  breed  are  used  for  that  purpose 
in  England.  This  will  show  the  farm- 
ers and  dairy  men  of  that  country  are 
no  theorists,  but  practical  men  who 
know  their  business.  It  is  sufficient 
proof  that  more  attention  should  be 
paid  to  this  breed  and  greater  facilities 
afforded  by  our  governments  for  the 
improvement  of  the  breed  on  the  av- 
erage farm  of  the  country.  The  Dairy 
Shorthorn  is  the  great  pioneer  cow. 
She  would  have  kept  this  dear  m'eat 
question  away  from  our  doors,  had  she 
been  more  numerous  on  our  Western 

SOME     1912     RECORDS. 

A  celebrated  Shorthorn  herd  in  Ohio 
reports  recently  some  milk  and  butter 
records  from  their  special  dairy  herd. 
During  the  last  20  years  78  cows  in  this 
herd  have  made  151  yearly  records 
above  8,000  pounds,  that  average 
9,328.8  pounds.     Of  this  number  64 

have  made  130  records  above  8,000 
pounds,  that  average  9,450.79  pounds, 
and  72  records  above  9,000  pounds, 
that  average  10,167.2  pounds. 

Twenty-eight  cows  have  records 
above  10,000  pounds,  including  Rose  of 
Glenside  with  the  world's  Shorthorn 
record  of  18,075  pounds  of  milk  and 
735  pounds  of  butter.  Her  average  for 
seven  years  in  succession  was  9,417 
pounds.  Her  dam  made  two  records 
above  9,000  pounds,  and  had  an  aver- 
age for  six  years  of  8,239  pounds.  Her 
grandam  had  a  record  of  10,043 
pounds,  and  an  average  for  eight  years 
in  succession  of  8,426  pounds.  One  of 
her  daughters  made  a  record  that  year 
of  11,539  pounds  at  five  years  of  age. 
She  now  has  an  averao-e  for  six  years 
in  succession  of  8,966  pounds.  An- 
other daughter  has  a  record  of  9,.158 
pounds;  a  half-sister  has  a  record  of 
15,215  pounds.  This  is  one  of  the 
many  instances  proving  conclusively 
that  Shorthorns  possess  a  dairy  inheri- 
tance that  may  be  transmitted  from 
generation  to  generation  by  careful 
mating.  ! 

Replacing  Devastated  Forests 

During  the  past  year  Uncle  Sam 
gathered  enough  Douglas  fir  seed  to 
plant  750,000,000  trees.  The  seed  was 
planted  on  burned-out  tracts  of  the  Na- 
tional reserves  that  had  been  devastated 
by  fires  in  the  past  three  years.  Forest 
fires  were  unusually  destructive  during 
the  summer  months  of  1910  and  1911, 
despite  the  large  army  of  rangers  con- 
stantly on  patrol.  At  least  20,000  acres 
of  the  finest  timber  in  the  National  for- 
ests were  burned.  A  very  great  por- 
tion of  this  was  planted  to  fir  seed  last 
fall,  and,  according  to  the  reports  of 
district  forest  superintendents,  the 
young  trees  have  sprouted  up  through 

the  soil.  If  all  goes  well  they  will  be 
full  grown  firs  in  twenty-five  to  forty 

In  order  to  secure  the  seed,  an  espe- 
cial appeal  was  made  to  the  boys  and 
girls  of  Washington  and  Oregon,  where 
the  Douglas  fir  abounds,  for  fir  cones, 
and  many  lads  made  from  two  to  three 
dollars  per  day  gathering  them.  Three 
methods  were  followed :  First,  the  cones 
that  squirrels  had  cut  down  and  drop- 
ped were  picked  up;  second,  they  were 
taken  from  standing  trees;  third,  they 
were  gathered  from  felled  trees.  The 
greater  quantity  was  picked  up  from 
the  ground. 


The  following  contribution  by  Dr.  Harden  is  a  companion  article  to  ''Home  Joy 
Killers"  which  was  published  in  Farmer's  in  January.  The  ''Power  of  the  Home 
Joy"  makes  a  pleasing  contrast  to  the  former.  Both  articles  constitute  chapters  of 
a  new  book  which  Dr.  Harden  is  to  issue  shortly  on  "The  Joy  of  Living." 

By  Dr.  O.  S.  Marden 

SOME  of  the  happiest  homes  I  have 
ever  known,  ideal  homes,  where  intelli- 
gence, peace  and  harmony  dwell,  have 
been  homes  of  poor  people.  No  rich 
carpets  covered  the  floors;  there  were 
no  costly  paintings  on  the  walls,  no 
piano,  no  library,  no  works  of  art.  But 
there  were  contented  minds,  devoted 
and  unselfish  lives,  each  contributing 
as  much  as  possible  to  the  happiness  of 
all,  and  endeavoring  to  compensate  by 
intelligence  and  kindness  for  the  pov- 
erty of  their  surroundings. 

What  a  pitiable  sight  to  see  a  man 
struggling  with  all  his  might  to  pile  up 
a  big  fortune,  and  yet  utterly  neglect- 
ing the  very  thing  for  which  he  was 
born — self-enlargement  and  happiness 
shared  with  wife  and  children. 

The  majority  of  men  do  not  realize 
how  little  it  takes  to  make  a  woman 
happy.  She  will  put  up  with  most 
everything,  poverty  and  all  sorts  of 
hardships  and  make  a  cosy,  comfort- 
able home  out  of  any  kind  of  a  hearth 
if  her  affections  are  satisfied.  But  if 
her  heart  is  not  fed,  she  will  wither,  and 
the  best  thing  will  die  out  of  her,  even 
though  she  live  in  a  palace  and  be  sur- 
rounded with  regal  luxuries.  No 
amount  of  money  will  compensate  a 
true  woman  for  the  lack  of  affection 
and  appreciation  expressed  by  her  hus- 
band in  a  multitude  of  little  attentions 
and  considerations. 

Gold  can  buy  and  furnish  houses  but 
no  money  ever  yet  bought  or  made  a 
home;  yet  what  wealth  of  tenderness, 
of  self-sacrifice,  of  kindliness,  of  peace 

have  transformed  the  humblest  dwell- 
ings into  treasure-houses  of  the  heart? 

The  young  husband  should  remem- 
ber that  a  girl  sacrifices  infinitely  more 
for  the  man  she  loves  than  he  does  for 
her,  and  he  should  study  to  prevent 
early  disappointments.  If  both  husband 
and  wife  could  do  this  for  each  other, 
the  divorce  courts  would  be  without 

It  should  be  the  great  aim  of  young 
married  people  to  keep  the  common- 
place out  of  their  lives  and  maintain 
not  only  love,  but  the  expression  of  it 
in  a  hundred  delicate,  winning  ways. 
In  happiness  at  home  lies  the  strength 
of  both.  I 

Not  sentiment  alone  but  practical  ad- 
justments will  count  for  harmony  and 
satisfaction.  A  level-headed  husband 
should  try  to  avoid  every  possible 
means  of  friction,  and  there  is  no  bet- 
ter way  of  avoiding  a  large  part  of  it, 
than  by  forming  an  actual  partnership 
in  which  the  wife  runs  the  household 
in  her  own  way,  just  the  same  as  he 
runs  his  business  without  the  wife's  in- 
terference. The  home  should  be  re- 
garded as  the  wife's,  and  she  should 
manage  it  to  suit  herself.  If  she  wishes 
to  ask  her  husband's  advice,  all  well 
and  good,  but  there  should  be  an  un- 
derstanding that  the  home  is  absolutely 
the  wife's  domain,  that  it  is  under  her 
exclusive  control,  and  she  should  be 
made  to  feel  as  independent  in  her 
realm,  as  the  husband  is  in  his.  A 
great  deal  of  the  friction  in  the  average 
home  centres  around  financial  matters, 




and  could  be  avoided  by  a  simple,  defi- 
nite understanding,  and  a  business  ar- 
rangement about  household  finances. 

As  a  rule,  it  is  a  very  rare  man  who 
can  spend  money  for  the  home  so  wise- 
ly and  with  as  good  taste  as  can  the 

Fortunately  it  is  becoming  more  and 
more  customary  for  men  to  allow  their 
wives  a  certain  proportion  of  the  in- 
come every  week  or  month,  and  to  let 
them  run  the  household  as  they  see  fit, 
and  pay  all  expenses  without  any  ques- 
tion being  asked  as  to  where  the  money 
went  to.  The  wife  pays  the  provision 
bills,  the  servants'  salaries,  buys  the 
clothing  for  the  family  and  pays  her 
own  personal  expenses.  She  will  de- 
light in  her  independence.  Disputes 
are  not  as  liable  to  arise  as  when  money 
is  doled  out  to  the  wife  by  piecemeal. 

When  freedom  and  joy  are  the  wife's 
share,  they  become  the  children's  heri- 
tage. A  happy  childhood  is  an  impera- 
tive preparation  for  a  happy  maturity. 

We  have  all  seen  children  who  have 
had  no  childhood.  The  fun-loving 
element  has  been  crushed  out  of  them. 
They  have  been  repressed  with  "don'ts" 
and  forbidden  to  do  this  and  that  so 
long  that  they  have  lost  the  faculty  of 
having  a  good  time.  We  see  these  little 
old  men  and  women  everywhere. 

Children  should  be  kept  children  just 
as  long  as  possible. 

The  little  ones  should  be  kept  stran- 
gers to  anxious  care,  reflective  thoughts 
and  subjective  moods.  Their  lives 
should  be  kept  light,  bright,  buoyant, 
cheerful,  full  of  sunshine,  joy  and 
gladness.  They  should  be  encouraged 
to  laugh  and  to  play  and  to  romp  to 
their  heart's  content.  The  serious  side 
of  life  will  come  only  too  quickly,  do 
what  we  may  to  prolong  childhood. 

The  child  that  has  been  trained  to 
be  happy,  that  has  been  allowed  free 
expression  to  his  fun-loving  nature, 
will  not  have  a  sad  or  gloomy  disposi- 
tion. Much  of  the  morbid  mentality 
which  we  see  everywhere  is  due  to 
stifled  childhood. 

The  home  ought  to  be  a  sort  of  the- 
atre for  fun  and  all  sorts  of  sports — a 

place  where  the  children  should  take 
the  active  parts,  although  the  parents 
should  come  in  for  a  share  too.  You 
will  find  that  a  little  fun  in  the  even- 
ing, romping  and  playing  with  the 
children,  will  make  you  sleep  better. 
It  will  clear  the  physical  cobwebs  and 
brain-ash  from  your  mind.  You  will 
be  fresher  and  brighter  for  it  the  next 
day.  You  will  be  surprised  to  see  how 
much  more  work  you  can  do,  and  how 
much  more  readily  you  can  do  it,  if 
you  try  to  have  all  the  innocent  fun 
you  can. 

We  have  all  felt  the  wonderful  balm, 
the  great  uplift,  the  refreshment,  the 
rejuvenation,  which  have  come  from  a 
jolly  good  time  at  home  or  with  friends, 
when  we  have  come  home  after  a  hard, 
exacting  day's  work,  when  our  bodies 
were  jaded  and  we  were  brain-weary 
and  exhausted.  What  magic  a  single 
hour's  fun  will  often  work  in  a  tired 

Have  music  in  the  home. 

Music  tends  to  restore  and  preserve 
the  mental  harmony.  Nervous  diseases 
are  wonderfully  helped  by  good  music. 
It  keeps  one's  mind  off  his  troubles,  and 
gives  nature  a  chance  to  heal  all  sorts 
of  mental  discords. 

''Music  gives  a  soul  to  the  universe, 
wings  to  the  mind,  flight  to  the  imag- 
ination, a  charm  to  sadness,  gayety  and 
life  to  everything.  It  is  the  essence  of 
order,  and  leads  to  all  that  is  good, 
just  and  beautiful." — Plato. 

"The  man  that  hath  no  music  in 

Nor  is  not  moved  with  concord  of 

sweet  sounds 
Is  fit  for  treasons,  stratagems  and 


Happiness  should  begin  in  the  home. 
The  family  gathering  around  the  table 
for  the  evening  meal  should  be  full  of 
chat  and  cheerfulness.  The  children 
should  bring  to  the  table  their  happiest 
moods,  the  best  manners. 

Swallow  a  lot  of  fun  with  your  meals. 
The  practice  is  splendid.  It  is  the  best 
thing  in  the  world  for  your  health.  It 
is    better    than    swallowing    dyspepsia 



with  every  mouthful  of  food.  The 
meal  time  ought  to  be  looked  forward 
to  by  every  member  of  the  family  as 
an  occasion  for  a  good  time,  for  hearty 
laughter,  and  for  bright,  entertaining 
conversation.  The  children  should  be 
trained  to  bring  their  best  moods  and 
say  their  brightest  and  best  things  at 
the  table.  If  this  practice  were  put  in 
force  it  would  revolutionize  American 
homes  and  drive  the  doctors  to  despair. 

Who  could  estimate  what  civilization 
owes  to  man's  dream  of  a  happy  home 
of  his  own !  What  an  incentive  to  man 
in  all  ages  has  been  this  vision  of  a 
home  of  his  own !  It  is  this  picture 
which  holds  the  youth  to  his  task, 
buoys  him  up  in  times  of  hardship  and 
discouragement.  This  picture  of  a 
home,  this  vision  of  a  little  cottage  and 
some  fair  maiden  waiting  at  the  door — 
this  home  vision  has  ever  been  the 
great  incentive  of  his  struggles,  the 
greatest  incentive  of  all  mankind. 

To  multitudes  of  people  home  is  the 
only  oasis  in  their  desert  life. 

What  will  men  not  do  for  the  sake  of 
the  home?  They  cross  oceans,  they 
explore  continents.  They  endure  the 
heat  of  the  Tropics  and  the  cold  of  the 
Arctics,  they  explore  mines  in  the  wil- 
derness, cut  themselves  off  from  civil- 
ization for  years  for  the  sake  of  the 

Home  is  the  sweetest  word  in  the  lan- 
guage. It  has  ever  been  the  favorite 
theme  of  the  poet,  the  author  and  the 
artist.  History  is  packed  with  the 
achievements  of  men  for  the  sake  of 
the  home.  The  inventor,  the  discov- 
erer, in  all  ages  has  been  sacrificed  for 
the  home. 

Take  this  vision  of  home  out  of  a 
young  life,  and  how  empty,  meaning- 
less, incentiveless,  it  would  become.  It 
is  this  vision  of  home  that  enheartens 
the  poor  struggler  and  enables  him  to 
bear  up  under  his  daily  dry,  dreary 
drudgery.  It  is  this  dream  of  a  home 
that  holds  up  the  heart  of  the  worker 
and  gives  him  the  courage  to  bear  all 
sorts  of  inconveniences  and  to  perform 
most  menial  and  disagreeable  tasks. 
That  vision  of  the  home  that  he  has,  or 
the  far-off  one  that  he  is  to  found, 
makes  all  the  difference  between  de- 
spair and  hope.  It  is  this  vision  of  a 
home  that  makes  multitudes  of  earth's 
toilers  endure  all  sorts  of'  hardships 
amid  want  and  woe.  It  is  the  dream 
of  "a  home  of  my  own"  that  has  lifted 
multitudes  of  youths  out  of  obscurity. 
There  is  no  spur  on  earth  which  has 
had  anything  like  the  influence  over 
man  that  this  home  vision  has.  The 
thought  of  his  home  and  wife  and  chil- 
dren, dearer  to  him  than  life,  keeps 
vast  multitudes  of  men  grinding  away 
at  their  dreary  tasks,  when  they  see  no 
other  light  in  the  distance. 

If  there  is  anything  in  this  world 
that  requires  the  spirit  of  joy,  it  is  mar- 
riage and  home  making. 

Half  the  misery  in  the  world  would 
be  avoided  if  people  would  make  a  busi- 
ness of  having  all  the  joy  they  can  at 

^^Now^  for  Rest  and  Happiness." 
"No  Business  Troubles  Allowed  Here." 
These  are  good  home-building  mottoes. 
The  home  joy  is  the  greatest  power 
for  good  in  the  world. 


Sometimes  all  that  is  required  to  make  a  story  is  a  single  incident.  It  need  not 
be  a  very  unusual  one,  either — that  depends  somewhat  on  the  characters  involved  in 
it.  That  is  what  we  have  in  this  story  by  one  of  the  most  successful  American 
writers.  "A  little  white  slip  of  a  thing" — a  salesgirl — gets  six  pairs  of  silk  stock- 
ings. That  is  the  incident;  out  of  it  is  evolved  a  little  story  of  business  life — direct, 
simple,  earnest;  one  that  cannot  fail  to  interest  and  influence  the  reader. 

By  Temple  Bailey 

UP  TO  THE  TIME  that  Croesus  Plain 
bought  six  pairs  of  silk  stockings  over 
the  counter  of  his  own  huge  department 
store  from  a  little  white  slip  of  a  thing 
with  frightened  eyes,  the  Recording  An- 
gel had  made  few  black  marks  on  the 
page  of  his  souFs  history. 

But  when  Croesus  asked,  "May  I  send 
them  to  you?"  and  looked  at  the  palpi- 
tating little  salesgirl  with  eyes  that  held 
a  meaning,  the  Recording  Angel  set 
down  these  words,  underscored  and  em- 
phasized, "Woe  unto  you,  scribes  and 
Pharisees,  hypocrites  1"  for  Croesus  Plain 
stood  high  in  church  circles  and  passed 
the  plate  on  Sundays. 

There  were  six  pairs  of  stockings,  as 
I  have  said,  all  black,  but  black  with  a 
difference,  for  on  two  of  them  pink 
rose-buds  rioted  over  the  instep,  on  two 
more  forget-me-knots  were  intertwined, 
and  the  wickedest  pair  of  all  had  red 

And  the  little  white  slip  of  a  thing, 
whose  name  was  Mary,  shivered  and 
shook  as  she  put  them  into  a  box,  and 
said,  "Hush,"  to  her  country-trained 
conscience,  and  with  her  lips,  "How 
kind  you  arel"  Then  she  addressed  the 
box  to  Grandma,  because  she  did  not 
want  the  bundle-wrappers  and  the  cash- 
girls  to  know  that  they  were  hers. 

Now  Grandma  was  not  Mary's  real 
grandmother ;  she  was  simply  a  little  old 
lady  who  lived  across  the  hall  in  the 
same  shabby  tenement,  and  kept  house 
for  her  daughter's  son,  who  was  young 


and  strong  and  the  last  of  his  race,  and 
who  had  the  grace  to  realize  his  obliga- 
tion to  keep  Grandma  out  of  the  poor- 

When  Mary  reached  home  that  night. 
Grandma  was  at  her  door.  "I  guess 
there's  a  mistake;"  and  she  dangled  the 
wicked  red  heels  before  Mary's  eyes. 
"Nobody  would  send  me  silk  stockings." 

"They're  mine,"  Mary  said  steadily. 
"It  isn't  a  mistake." 

"Well,  they're  real  pretty,  dearie," 
Grandma  quavered.  Her  heart  was  like 
lead.  Only  once  had  Mary  spoken  of 
Croesus  Plain.  He  had  asked  her  to 
lunch  with  him  and  to  ride  afterwards 
in  his  automobile.  Mary  had  said,  "No." 
But  now — surely  Mary's  four  dollars  a 
week  could  not  compass  silk  stockings  at 
four  dollars  a  pair? 

Mary  gathered  up  her  gay  trophies 
and  went  across  the  hall  to  her  own 
room.  Grandma  sighed,  and  the  sigh 
seemed  to  beat  against  Mary's  closed 
door.  But  it  remained  closed  while 
Mary  got  out  a  box  of  crackers  and  a  bit 
of  bacon  and  a  frying-pan,  and  spread 
a  napkin  on  a  corner  of  the  table.  As 
she  worked,  she  had  a  vision  of  another 
table — pink-lighted  with  wax  candles, 
with  a  glitter  of  glass  and  silver,  and  of 
herself  in  a  crystal-beaded  gown  of 
white  tissue  which  she  had  seen  on  the 
third  floor  of  Croesus's  big  store.  The 
face  of  the  man  on  the  other  side  of  the 
table  was  blurred.  It  was  not  of  him 
that  Mary  thought,  but  of  the  things 

Sig  2. 



that  he  could  give  her.  She  thought  of 
a  set  of  ermine,  of  a  gold-meshed  bag,  of 
a  sapphire-studded  bracelet,  of  a  diam- 
ond star — how  wonderful  they  had 
seemed  in  the  store — how  much  more 
wonderful  to  wear  them  I 

Grandma's  voice  brought  her  back  to 

''I've  got  a  nice  hot  supper,  dearie," 
she  said.    "You  come  over." 

Mary  stood  in  the  open  door.  She  was 
white  and  slim,  and  straight  as  a  forest 
pine,  and  young  enough  to  please  even 
Croesus  Plain. 

''I'm  not  hungry,"  she  said,  for,  with 
that  pink-candled  vision,  what  to  her 
was  a  pot  boiling  on  the  back  of  Grand- 
ma's stove? 

"You  come,"  Grandma  pleaded. 
"Bob  can't  get  home  till  late;  and  I  am 

So  Mary  put  away  her  frying-pan 
and  tucked  the  stockings  out  of  sight 
and  went  over  to  Grandma's  room, 
where  the  clean  curtains  shut  out  the 
spring  twilight,  and  shut  in  a  lamp- 
lighted  picture  of  comfort.  A  bird  sang 
in  a  little  gold  cage,  there  was  a  rag- 
carpet  on  the  floor,  a  geranium  in  the 
window,  and  on  the  round  black  stove 
the  dinner-pot  boiled  and  bubbled. 

And  when  they  had  partaken  of  the 
good  food.  Grandma  brought  out  a 
basket  of  socks  and  sat  on  one  side  of 
the  lamp  while  Mary  sat  on  the  other 
and  they  talked  of  Mary's  day. 

But  not  a  word  did  Mary  say  of 
Croesus  Plain.  And  so  her  story  was  like 
French  history  with  Napoleon  left  out; 
or  a  Norse  legend  without  the  Vikings ; 
or  a  fairy  tale  without  Prince  Charm- 
ing; or  Red  Riding  Hood  without  the 

And  Grandma  knew  it. 

So  presently  she  began  to  talk  of 
Grandpa.  "The  spring  makes  me  think 
of  him." 

There  wias  silence  after  that.  Mary's 
mind  was  on  the  crystal  tissue  and  the 
diamond  star;  Grandma's,  on  the  old- 
fashioned  garden  and  a  young  lover's 

"On  such  a  night,"  Grandma  dream- 
Sig.  3. 

cd  aloud,  "I  said  'yes,'  and  we  were  al- 
ways poor,  but  we  were  always  happy." 

Mary  looked  at  her  across  the  nim- 
bus of  the  lamp's  glow.  "Nobody  is  poor 
and  happy  in  these  days." 

"He  picked  a  bunch  of  the  first  vio- 
lets. I  have  them  yet  in  my  Bible," 
sighed  Ancient  Romance. 

"And  he  left  you  to  die  in  the  poor- 
house,"  was  the  unspoken  challenge  of 
Modern  Sophistication. 

Then  Bob  came  in  hungry.  He  nod- 
ded to  Mary,  and  flushed  with  boyish 

Grandma  served  a  big  dish  of  the 
stew.  Bob  had  a  little  bunch  of  wild 
violets.  He  handed  them  to  Mary.  "I 
picked  them,"  he  said.  "They  grow  on 
a  bank  behind  the  foundry." 

Mary  pinned  them  to  her  blouse,  and 
the  vision  of  the  diamond  star  and  the 
crystal  tissue  faded. 

Grandma  watched  the  pair.  Then 
she  questioned,  "Why  don't  you  two 
take  a  walk?  Mary  looks  white  from 
staying  in." 

When  they  had  gone  Grandma  nodd- 
ed alone  in  the  dimness.  The  curtains 
Happed  in  the  warm  spring  wind.  The 
bird  tucked  his  head  under  his  wing  and 
slept.  The  noise  in  the  streets  came  up 

In  the  Park,  facing  the  river,  Bob  and 
Mary  sat  and  looked  at  the  golden  lights 
above  the  water  and  at  the  little  moon 
above  the  lights.  Then  Bob  said,  "I 
love  you,  little  Mary,"  and  Mary  ans- 
wered. "Don't — ^You  may  kiss  me  once, 
Bob-— dear;  but  I  couldn't  be  poor." 

And  Bob  went  home  later,  bitter  and 
bruised,  and  hating  his  poverty. 

And  the  next  morning  Grandma  tied 
on  her  little  plain  bonnet  and  shabby 
old  shawl,  and,  in  some  Providence-pro- 
tected way,  reached  the  West  Side  and 
Croesus  Plain's  store. 

Now  Croesus's  door  was  closed  more 
strictly  than  the  gates  of  Heaven  against 
such  as  Grandma. 

"You  can't  see  him,"  said  the  office- 
boy,  and  everybody  else  to  whom 
Grandma  applied. 

"Well,  at  least,  you'll  let  me  rest," 
said  Grandma;  and  because  she  smiled 



when  she  said  it,  the  office-boy  smiled 
back,  as  everybody  else  smiled  when 
Grandma  looked  at  them. 

And  when  Croesus  Plain  came  out  a 
little  later,  he  saw  Grandma  smiling, 
and  he  stopped  and  asked,  "Is  there 
anything  I  can  do  for  you?'' 

"You  can  give  me  ten  minutes  of 
your  time;"  and  grandma  stood  up  in 
her  plain  little  bonnet  and  her  shabby 
old  shawl  and  was  ushered  into  Croesus 
Plain's  private  office. 
^  And  when  they  were  alone,  she  open- 
ed the  box  that  she  carried,  and  laid  on 
Croesus's  desk  a  pair  of  silk  stockings 
with  red  heels,  and  a  pair  with  rose- 
buds on  the  instep,  and  a  pair  on  which 
forget-me-nots  were  intertwined.  Then 
she  looked  at  Croesus  Plain,  and  he 
turned  red  and  white. 

And  he  muttered,  "I  didn't  mean 
anything."  ^  J 

"If  you  don't  mean  anything,"  said 
Grandma  tartly,  "stop  doing  it  1" 

Thus  was  the  great  Croesus  Plain  ar- 
raigned like  a  schoolboy  before  Grand- 
ma, who  had,  as  you  might  say,  one 
foot  in  the  poorhousel 

"Stop  doing  it,"  said  Grandma 
again,  "and  let  her  marry  the  boy  who 
loves  her."  | 

"I  thought  I'd  give  her  a  good  time," 
said  Croesus  Plain. 

"A  good  time  for  a  girl  like  Mary 
ought  to  mean  youth  and  love.  When 
it  means  anything  else,  it  is  because 

some  old  man  has  forgotten  the  things 
his  mother  taught  him." 

There  was  a  mirror  opposite  Croesus's 
desk,  and  it  showed  a  man  well  set  up, 
well  groomed,  and  well  preserved,  so 
Croesus  frowned  at  Grandma's  adjective, 
and  then  he  laughed,  and  with  that 
laugh  the  evil  spirit  which  had  possiess- 
ed  him  fled. 

"If  all  women  were  like  you,  we 
wouldn't  forget,"  he  said  gallantly. 

"And  now" — Grandma  rose  and 
pushed  the  stockings  towards  Croesus 
Plain — "how  will  this  affect  little 

Croesus  Plain  rose  also.  "If  you  mean 
that  I'll  take  it  out  on  her,"  he  flamed, 
"I'll  have  you  know  that  I  may  be  a 
fool,  but  I  am  not  a  cad." 

Grandma  held  out  her  hand.  "All 
men  are  fools,"  she  said,  but  she  said  it 
smiling,  so  Croesus  forgave  her. 

Then  he  made  her  go  to  lunch  with 
him.  And  he  told  her  about  his 
mother,  and  they  parted  wistfully. 

And  when  Mary  married  Bob,  Croe- 
sus Plain  sent  her  a  wedding  present, 
not  of  silk  stockings,  but  of  good  table- 
linens  and  flat  silver  and  solid,  substan- 
tial furniture,  such  as  a  father  gives  his 

And  whether  Mary  lived  happily  ever 
after  or  not,  she  at  least  lived  righteous- 
ly, and  perhaps  the  Recording  Angel 
divided  the  credit  between  Croesus  and 
Grandma,  but  I  like  to  think  that  he 
gave  it  all  to  Grandma. 

A  Wentworth  County  gathering  of  the  Women's   Institute. 



Note. — Women's  Institute  workers  will  be  intensely  interested  in  this  article  by 
the  well-known  Superintendent  of  Ontario  Institutes.  It  tells  of  the  recent  new 
movement  meeting  with  such  success  in  Ontario,  that  of  carrying  to  the  farm 
women  in  their  local  centres,  the  good  things  that  heretofore  have  been  possible 
only  to  the  few  who  could  attend  the  colleges.  The  Women's  Institute  movement 
in  Ontario  is  the  greatest  movement  that  has  been  inaugurated  in  that  province  for 
the  uplift  of  the  farm  home. — Editor. 

By  Geo.  A:  Putnam,  B.S.,A 

THE  directors  of  education  in  our 
schools  and  colleges  are  attaching  more 
and  more  importance  to  Domestic 
Science.  The  special  efforts  along  this 
line  by  Y.W.C.A/s,  technical  schools, 
ladies'  colleges  and  private  schools, 
have,  for  the  most  part,  reached  only 
our  young  women.  What  about  the 
great  band  of  women  (young,  middle 
aged  and  old)  who  cannot  take  advant- 
age of  the  above  mentioned  facilities, 
but  who  are  desirous  of  learning  some- 
thing of  that  science  which  has  made 
such  great  progress  during  recent  years 
and  which  can  be  made  of  special  value 
even  to  women  who  have  had  many 
years  of  experience  in  directing  the  ac- 
tivities of  a  household? 

A  brief  history  of  the  development  of 
the  Women's  Institute  work  in  Ontario 
indicates  the  interest  which  mature  wo- 

men of  responsibility  take  in  efforts  to- 
wards their  instruction  along  Domestic 
Science  lines ;  they  also  accept  with  ap- 
preciation directions  as  to  how  they 
may  be  mutually  helpful  in  the  dis- 
cussion of  the  every  day  responsibilities 
which  are  theirs. 

Some  thirty  years  ago  systematic  in- 
struction to  farmers — the  giving  of  lec- 
tures by  agricultural  scientists  and  prac- 
tical farmers  in  the  rural  districts — 
was  inaugurated  From  the  beginning, 
the  women  living  on  the  farm  took 
more  or  less  interest  in  these  lectures 
a*id  read  some  of  the  articles  appearing 
in  the  Departmental  publications,  espe- 
cially those  bearing  upon  dairying, 
fruit  growing,  poultry  raising,  garden- 
ing and  other  activities  in  which  women 
on  the  farm  are  specially  interested. 
An  evidence  of  their  appreciation  was 




shown  in  the  request  for  a  separate  or- 
ganization to  deal  with  only  those  feat- 
ures of  work  with  which  women  are 
directly  concerned.  As  a  result,  what 
is  known  as  the  Women's  Institutes  of 
Ontario  had  their  beginning  and  have 
expanded  until  we  now  have  over  700 
separate  organizations  luith  a  Tnember- 
ship  of  22,000.  While  their  activities 
from  the  first  embraced  all  that  is  im- 
plied in  ''The  Objects  of  Women's  In- 
stitutes":— ''The  objects  of  Women's 
Institutes  shall  be  the  dissemination  of 
knowledge  relating  to  domestic  econ- 
omy, including  household  architecture, 
with  special  attention  to  home  sanita- 
tion; a  better  understanding  of  the 
economic  and  hygienic  value  of  foods, 
clothing  and  fuel,  and  a  more  scientific 
care  and  training  of  children  with  a 
view  to  raising  the  general  standard  of 
the  health  and  morals  of  our  people," 
much  has  been  added  in  recent  years. 
Food  values,  cooking,  preserving,  hy- 
giene, feeding  of  invalids  and  children, 
training  of  children,  literature  in  the 
home,  beautifying  the  home,  etc.,  w^ere 
considered  from  the  first,  but  of  recent 
years  child  welfare  in  its  broadest  sense, 
social  questions,  civic  improvement, 
business  methods  for  women,  laws  gov- 
erning women  and  children,  school  im- 
provement, rest  rooms  for  women,  in 
fact  all  matters  which  have  for  their 
object  the  betterment  of  home  and  com- 
munity conditions  have  been  added  to 
the  list  of  their  good  works. 

Having  taken  up  Domestic  Science 
to  a  limited  extent  through  isolated  lec- 
tures and  by  unsystematic  study,  the 
members  became  impressed  with  its 
value  and  asked  that  provision  be  made 
for  giving  them  systematic  instruction 
along  these  lines.  The  first  attempt  to 
give  grouj)s  of  women  living  in  the 
rural  district  such  instruction  was  un- 
dertaken in  the  fall  of  1911  at  the  fol- 
lowing places  where  classes  of  at  least 
twenty-five  were  formed,  and  at  two 
points,  Caledonia  and  Dunnville,  even- 
ing classes  were  held  for  the  benefit  of 
the  High  School  girls:  —  Cayuga, 
Dunnville,  Delhi,  Hagersville,  Cale- 
donia, Canfield.  The  average  attend- 
ance at  the  classes  was  thirty-five, 
and      at      one      point      the      attend- 

MISS   D.   I.   HUGHES, 

Demonstration      Lecturer     in      Sewing     and 

ance  was  over  seventy-five.  The  lec- 
turer, Mrs.  C.  H.  Burns,  a  graduate  of 
Macdonald  Institute,  Guelph,  spent  one 
day  a  week  at  each  point  for  a  period  of 
fifteen  weeks.  The  course  embraced  the 
following  list  of  Demonstration  Lec- 
tures : — 


1.  Fruit — Typical     methods    of    cooking; 

combinations;  different  ways  of  serv- 
ing fresh  fruit. 

2.  Vegetables — Fresh,  starchy  and  dried. 

3.  Milk    Soups,  puddings    and    combina- 

tions, with  especial  relation  to  in- 
fant, children  and  invalid  diet. 

4.  Cereals   and   Cheese — Various   methods 

of  cooking:  their  high  food  value 
compared  with  other  more  expensive 

5.  Eggs — Correct     methods     of     cooking; 

variations  on  methods;  storage. 

6.  Tender  Meats — Eoasting  and  broiling; 

the  correct  cuts;  food  value  com- 
pared with  other  meat  cuts  and  other 

7.  Tough  Meat — Braised  dishes,  stews  and 


8.  Substitutes    for     Meat — Nuts,    beans, 


9.  Baking  powder — ^Breads. 



10.  Yeast  Bread  and  Fancy  Breads. 

11.  Cake   and  little   cakes. 

12.  Puddings  and  Desserts. 

13.  Salads — Preparation      of    the    ingredi- 

ents, dressings,  etc. 

14.  Poultry — Drawings,   trussing,   roasting, 

fricassee,  etc. 

15.  Invalid  Cookery  —  Liquid   diet,  semi- 

solid, etc. 


1.  Vegetables,  fresh,  starchy  and   dried. 

2.  Made-over  Dishes. 

3.  Gelatine  Dishes. 

4.  Hot  Weather  Foods. 

5.  Breakfast  Dishes. 

6.  Fireless  Cookery. 

7.  Frozen  Dishes. 

Altogether  the  experiment  was  most 
encouraging  and  in  the  fall  of  1912  we 
offered  the  Institutes  not  only  a  Dem- 
onstration Lecture  Course  in  Cooking, 
but  also  one  in  Sewing,  and  one  em- 
bracing both  Cooking  and  Sewing.  The 
full^  Sewing  Course  embraced  the  fol- 
lowing : 

2  lessons  on  needlework 

2  lessons  on  shirt  waists 

2  lessons  on  skirts 

2  one  piece  dresses 

2  accessories  or  combinations. 


Demonstration   Lecturer  in   Cooking. 

while  the  combination  course  in  Cook- 
ing and  Sewing  is  indicated  by  the  fol- 
lowing list: 



cutting  and  fitting. 

Adjusting  patterns, 

Fitting  one's  self. 



Plain  Sewing. 


Children's  Clothing. 

(OPTIONAL  LIST)    Sewing. 

Fancy  Waists. 
Girl's  Dresses. 

Household  Sewing. 
Fancy  Work. 


Cheese  and  Cereals. 
Tender  Meats. 
Tough  Meats. 

Demonstrator  in   Cooking. 


1.  Soups. 

2.  Egg  and  Milk. 

3.  Left  Overs. 



MRS.    N.    H.    ALTENBURG, 
Demonstrator   in    Sewing, 

4.  Frozen  Desserts. 

5.  Paper  Bag  Cookery. 

6.  Cakes  and  Little  Cakes. 

NOTE. — Any  lecture  in  tlie  Optional  list 
may  be  substituted  for  one  in  the  regular 

The  Institutes  taking  advantage    of 
this  work  are  required  to : — 

1.  Provide  for  any  necessary  local 
printing  and  advertising. 

2.  Provide  a  room  or  hall  suitable 
for  the  lectures,  equipped  with  the 
necessary  chairs,  tables  and  cook- 
stove  ;  also  to  see  that  the  hall  used  is 
properly  cleaned,  lighted  and  heated. 

3.  Provide  all  materials  for  dem- 
onstration work. 

4.  Provide  an  assistant  who  will 
become  responsible  for  the  opening 
of  the  room,  do  the  necessary  local 
marketing,  and  clear  up  and  clean 
the  demonstration  tables,  dishes,  etc. 

5.  Guarantee  the  sale  of  twenty- 
five  (25)  course  tickets  at  $1.00  per 

6.  Appoint  some  person  who  will 
be  required  to  keep  an  exact  record 
of  the  attendance,  in  addition  to 
those  holding  course  tickets,  at  each 

session  and  report  the  same  to  the 
teacher  within  two  weeks  after  the 
close  of  the  course. 

7.  Pay  the  $25.00  charged  for  the 
course  and  one-half  of  the  receipts 
above  $25.00,  whether  payments  be 
on  account  of  course  tickets  or  single 
admissions,  to  the  teacher  and  secure 
a  receipt  from  her  for  the  same 

8.  The  Institute  concerned  is  at 
liberty  to  sell  course  tickets  in  addi- 
tion to  the  twenty-five  required  and 
also  to  admit  members  and  others  to 
single  lectures  at  ten  cents  per  person. 

The     Department     of     Agriculture 
agrees  to: — 

1.  Provide  all  portable  equip- 
ment, except  the  necessary  tables, 
chairs  and  one  cookstove. 

2.  Defray  the  cost  of  the  teacher's 
board,    lodging    and    railway    and 

other  transportation. 

3.  Provide  one  teacher  for  the 
five  or  six  Institutes,  who  will  (a) 
Give  fifteen  demonstration  lectures 
in  Domestic  Science  or  eight  lectures 
in  Home  Nursing,  or  ten  lessons  in 
Sewing,  one  each  week,  the  date  and 
subject  to  be  according  to  the  sched- 
ule agreed  upon  between  the  Insti- 
tutes concerned  and  the  Department. 

(b)  Instruct  each  local  assistant  in 
her  assistant  and  marketing  duties. 

(c)  Furnish  her  assistant  with  writ- 
ten directions  for  any  local  market- 
ing or  special  preparation,   at  least 
one  week  before  they  are  needed. 
The  courses  already    held    and  the 

ones  now  in  progress  have  clearly  dem- 
onstrated that  the  women  on  the  farms 
and  in  our  smaller  towns  and  villages 
value  the  opportunity  which  has  been 
afi^orded  for  instruction  in  Domestic 
Science  and  Domestic  Art.  Women  with 
responsibilities  in  the  homes  are  ready 
and  anxious  for  instruction  in  these 
lines.  At  a  comparatively  small  outlay 
the  whole  rural  population  of  the  pro- 
vince could  be  similarly  served.  Is  there 
any  good  reason  why  the  women  who 
have  never  had  the  opportunity  of  in- 
struction in  Domestic  Science  or  Dom- 
estic Art  should  not  be  given  the  ad- 
vantages of  instruction  without  coming 
to  the  cities. 



By  Jack  London 


It  was  a  morning,  stark  still,  clear 
blue  above,  with  white  sun-dazzle  on 
the  snow.  The  way  led  up  a  long,  wide 
slope  'of  crust.  They  moved  like  weary 
ghosts  in  a  dead  world.  No  wind  stir- 
red in  the  stagnant,  frigid  calm.  Far 
peaks,  a  hundred  miles  away,  studding 
the  backbone  of  the  Rockies  up  and 
down,  were  as  distinct  as  if  no  more 
than  five  miles  away. 

''Something  is  going  to  happen," 
Labiskwee  whispered.  ''DonH  you  feel 
it — here,  there,  everywhere?  Every- 
thing is  strange." 

"I  feel  a  chill  that  is  not  of  cold,'' 
Smoke  answered.  ''Nor  is  it  of  hun- 

"It  is  in  your  head,  your  heart,"  she 
agreed,  excitedly.  "That  is  the  way  I 
feel  it." 

"It  is  not  of  my  senses,"  Smoke  diag- 
nosed. "I  sense  something,  from  with- 
out, that  is  tingling  me  with  ice;  it  is 
a  chill  of  my  nerves." 

A  quarter  of  an  hour  later  they 
paused  for  breath. 

"I  can  no  longer  see  the  far  peaks," 
Smoke  said. 

"The  air  is  getting  thick  and  heavy," 
said  Labiskwee.  "It  is  hard  to  breathe." 

"There  be  three  suns,"  McCan  mut- 
tered hoarsely,  reeling  as  he  clung  to 
his  staff  for  support. 

They  saw  a  mock  sun  on  either  side 
the  real  sun. 

"There  are  five,"  said  LabisWee; 
and  as  they  looked,  new  suns  formed 
and  flashed  before  their  eyes. 

"By  heaven,  the  sky  is    filled    with 

suns  beyant  all  oountin',"  McCan  cried 
in  fear. 

Which  was  true,  for  look  where  they 
would,  half  the  circle  of  the  sky  daz- 
zled and  blazed  with  new  suns  forming. 

McCan  yelped  sharply  with  surprise 
and  pain. 

"I'm  stung  I"  he  cried  out,  then  yelp- 
ed again. 

Then  Labiskwee  cried  out,  and 
Smoke  felt  a  prickling  stab  on  his 
cheek  so  cold  that  it  burned  like  acid. 
It  reminded  him  of  swimming  in  the 
salt  sea  and  being  stung  by  the  poison- 
ous filaments  of  Portuguese  men-of- 
war.  The  sensations  were  so  similar 
that  he  automatically  brushed  his 
cheek  to  rid  it  of  the  stinging  sub- 
stance that  was  not  there. 

And  then  a  shot  rang  out,  strangely 
muffled.  Down  the  slope  were  the 
young  men,  standing  on  their  skis,  and 
one  after  another  opened  fire. 

"Spread  out!"  Smoke  commanded. 
"And  climb  for  itl  We're  almost  to  the 
top.  They're  a  quarter  of  a  mile  below, 
and  that  means  a  couple  of  miles  the 
start  of  them  on  the  down-going  of  the 
other  side." 

With  faces  prickling  and  stinging 
from  invisible  atmospheric  stabs,  the 
three  scattered  widely  on  the  snow  sur- 
face and  toiled  upward.  The  muffled 
reports  of  the  rifles  were  weird  to  their 

"Thank  the  Lord,"  Smoke  panted  to 
Labiskwee,  "that  four  of  them  are  mtis- 
kets,  and  only  one  a  Winchester.  Be- 
sides, all  these  suns  spoil  their  aim. 
They  are  fooled.  They  haven't  come 
within  a  hundred  feet  of  us." 




^'It  shows  my  father's  temper,"  she 
said.     "They  have  orders  to  kill." 

"How  strange  you  talk,"  Smoke  said. 
"Your  voice  sounds  far  away." 

"Cover  your  mouth,"  Labiskwee 
cried  suddenly.  "And  don't  talk.  I 
know  what  it  is.  Cover  your  mouth 
with  your  sleeve,  thus,  and  do  not  talk." 

McCan  fell  first,  and  struggled  wear- 
ily to  his  feet.  And  after  that  all  fell 
repeatedly  before  they  reached  the  sum- 
mit. Their  wills  exceeded  their  mus- 
cles, they  knew  not  why,  save  that  their 
bodies  were  oppressed  by  a  numbness 
and  heaviness  of  movement.  From  the 
crest,  looking  back,  they  saw  the  young 
men  stumbling  and  falling  on  the  up- 
ward climb. 

"They  will  never  get  here,"  Labis- 
kwee said.  "It  is  thS  white  death.  I 
know  it,  though  I  have  never  seen  it. 
I  have  heard  the  old  men  talk.  Soon 
will  come  a  mist — unlike  any  mist  or 
fog-frost  or  smoke  you  ever  saw.  Few 
have  seen  it  and  lived." 

McCan  gasped  and  strangled. 

"Keep  your  mouth  covered,"  Smoke 

A  pervasive  flashing  of  light  from  all 
about  them  drew  Smoke's  eyes  upward 
to  the  many  suns.  They  were  shim- 
mering and  veiling.  The  air  was  filled 
with  microscopic  fire-glints.  The  near 
peaks  were  being  blotted  out  by  the 
weird  mist;  the  young  men,  resolutely 
struggling  nearer,  were  being  engulfed 
in  it.  McCan  had  sunk  down,  squat- 
ting, on  his  skis,  his  mouth  and  eyes 
covered  by  his  arms. 

"Come  on,  make  a  start,"  Smoke  or- 

"I  can't  move,"  McCan  moaned. 

His  doubled  body  set  up  a  swaying 
motion.  Smoke  went  toward  him  slow- 
ly, scarcely  able  to  will  movement 
through  the  lethargy  that  weighted  his 
flesh.  He  noted  that  his  brain  was 
clear.  It  was  only  the  body  that  was 

"Let  him  be,"  Labiskwee  muttered 

But  Smoke  persisted,  dragging  the 
Irishman  to  his  feet  and  facing  him 
down  the  long  slope    they    must    go. 

Then  he  started  him  with  a  shove,  and 
McCan,  braking  and  steering  with  his 
staff,  shot  into  the  sheen  of  diamond 
dust  and  disappeared. 

Smoke  looked  to  Labiskwee,  who 
smiled,  though  it  was  all  she  could  do 
to  keep  from  sinking  down.  He  nod- 
ded for  her  to  push  off,  but  she  came 
near  to  him,  and  side  by  side  they  flew 
down  through  the  stinging  thickness  of 
cold  fire. 

Brake  as  he  would.  Smoke's  heavier 
body  carried  him  past  her,  and  he 
dashed  on  alone,  a  long  way,  at  tre- 
mendous speed  that  did  not  slacken  till 
he  came  out  on  a  level,  crusted  plateau. 
Here  he  braked  till  Labiskwee  overtook 
him,  and  they  went  on,  again  side  by 
side,  with  diminishing  speed  which 
finally  ceased.  The  lethargy  had  grown 
more  pronounced.  The  wildest  effort 
of  will  could  move  them  no  more  than 
at  a  snail's  pace.  They  passed  McCan, 
again  crouched  down  on  his  skis,  and 
Smoke  roused  him  with  his  staff  in 

"Now  we  must  stop,"  Labiskwee 
whispered  painfully,  "or  we  will  die. 
We  must  cover  up — so  the  old  men 

She  did  not  delay  to  untie  knots,  but 
began  cutting  her  pack-lacings.  Smoke 
cut  his,  and,  with  a  last  look  at  the  fiery 
death-mist  and  the  mockery  of  suns, 
they  covered  themselves  over  with  the 
sleeping-furs  and  crouched  in  each 
other's  arms.  They  felt  a  body  stumble 
over  them  and  fall,  then  heard  feeble 
whimpering  and  blaspheming  drowned 
in  a  violent  coughing  fit,  and  knew  it 
was  McCan  who  huddled  against  them 
as  he  wrapped  his  robe  about  him. 

Their  own  lung-strangling  began, 
and  they  were  racked  and  torn  by  a  dry 
cough,  spasmodic  and  uncontrollable. 
Smoke  noted  his  temperature  rising  in 
a  fever,  and  Labiskwee  suffered  similar- 
ly. Hour  after  hour  the  coughing 
spells  increased  in  frequency  and  viol- 
ence, and  not  till  late  afternoon  was 
the  worst  reached.  After  that  the  mend 
came  slowly,  and  between  spells  they 
dozed  in  exhaustion. 

McCan,    however,    steadily    coughed 



worse,  and  from  his  groans  and  howls 
they  knew  he  was  in  delirium.  Once, 
Smoke  made  as  if  to  throw  the  robes 
back,  but  Labiskwee  clung  to  him 

^'No,''  she  begged.  "It  is  death  to 
uncover  now.  Bury  your  face  here, 
against  my  parka,  and  breathe  gently 
and  do  no  talking — see,  the  way  I  am 

They  dozed  on  through  the  darkness, 
though  the  decreasing  fits  of  coughing 
of  one  invariably  aroused  the  other.  It 
was  after  midnight.  Smoke  judged, 
when  McCan  coughed  his  last.  After 
that  he  emitted  a  low  and  bestial  moan- 
ing that  never  ceased. 

Smoke  awoke  with  lips  touching  his 
lips.  He  lay  partly  in  Labiskwee^s 
arms,  his  head  pillowed  on  her  breast. 
Her  voice  was  cheerful  and  usual.  The 
muffled  sound  of  it  had  vanished. 

"It  is  day,"  she  said,  lifting  the  edge 
of  the  robes  a  trifle.  "See,  0  my  lover. 
It  is  day;  we  have  lived  through;  and 
we  no  longer  cough.  Let  us  look  at  the 
world,  though  I  could  stay  here  thus 
for  ever  and  always.  This  last  hour  has 
been  sweet.  I  have  been  awake,  and  I 
have  been  loving  you." 

"I  do  not  hear  McCan,"  Smoke  said. 
"And  what  has  become  of  the  young 
men  that  they  have  not  found  us?" 

He  threw  back  the  robes  and  saw  a 
normal  and  solitary  sun  in  the  sky.  A 
gentle  breeze  was  blowing,  crisp  with 
frost  and  hinting  of  warmer  days  to 
come.  All  the  world  was  natural  again. 
McCan  lay  on  his  back,  his  unwashed 
face,  swarthy  from  camp-smoke,  frozen 
hard  as  marble.  The  sight  did  not 
affect  Labiskwee. 

"Look!"  she  cried.  "A  snow  bird! 
It  is  a  good  sign." 

There  was  no  evidence  of  the  young 
men.  Either  they  had  died  on  the 
other  side  of  the  divide  or  they  had 
turned  back. 


There  was  so  little  food  that  they 
dared  not  eat  a  tithe  of  what  they  need- 
ed, not  a  hundredth  part  of  what  they 

desired,  and  in  the  days  that  followed, 
wandering  through  the  lone  mountain- 
land,  the  sharp  sting  of  life  grew 
blunted  and  the  wandering  merged  half 
into  a  dream.  Smoke  would  become 
abruptly  conscious,  to  find  himself  star- 
ing at  the  never-ending  hated  snow- 
peaks,  his  senseless  babble  still  ringing 
in  his  ears.  And  the  next  he  would 
know,  after  seeming  centuries,  was  that 
again  he  was  roused  to  the  sound  of  his 
own  maunderings.  Labiskwee,  too,  was 
light-headed  most  of  the  time.  In  the 
main  their  efforts  were  unreasoned,  au- 
tomatic. And  ever  they  worked  toward 
the  west,  and  ever  they  were  baffled  and 
thrust  north  or  south  by  snow-peaks 
and  impassable  ranges. 

"There  is  no  way  south,"  Labiskwee 
said.  "The  old  men  know.  West,  only 
west,  is  the  way." 

The  young  men  no  longer  pursued, 
but  famine  crowded  on  the  trail. 

Came  a  day  when  it  turned  cold,  and 
a  thick  snow,  that  was  not  snow  but 
frost  crystals  of  the  size  of  grains  of 
sand,  began  to  fall.  All  day  and  night 
it  fell,  and  for  three  days  and  nights  it 
continued  to  fall.  It  was  impossible  to 
travel  until  it  crusted  under  the  spring 
sun,  so  they  lay  in  their  furs  and  rested, 
and  ate  less  because  they  rested.  So 
small  was  the  ration  they  permitted, 
that  it  gave  no  appeasement  to  the  hun- 
ger pang  that  was  much  of  the  stomach 
but  more  of  the  brain.  And  Labiskwee, 
delirious,  maddened  by  the  taste  of  her 
tiny^  portion,  sobbing  and  mumbling, 
yelping  sharp  little  animal  cries  of  joy, 
fell  upon  the  next  day's  portion  and 
crammed  it  into  her  mouth. 

Then  it  was  given  to  Smoke  to  see  a 
wonderful  thing.  The  food  between 
her  teeth  roused  her  to  consciousness. 
She  spat  it  out,  and  with  a  great  anger 
struck  herself  with  her  clenched  fist  on 
the  offending  mouth. 

It  was  given  to  Smoke  to  see  many 
wonderful  things  in  the  days  yet  to 
come.  After  the  Ion 2:  snow-fall  came 
on  a  great  wind  that  drove  the  dry  and 
tiny  frost  particles  as  sand, is  driven  in 
a  sand  storm.  All  through  the  night 
the  sand-frost  drove  by,  and  in  the  full 



light  of  a  clear  and  wind-blown  day, 
Smoke  looked  with  swimming  eyes  and 
reeling  brain  upon  what  he  took  to  be 
the  vision  of  a  dream.  All  about  tow- 
ered great  peaks  and  small,  lone  sen- 
tinels and  groups  and  councils  of 
mighty  Titans.  And  from  the  tip  of 
every  peak,  swaying,  undulating,  flar- 
ing out  broadly  against  the  azure  sky, 
streamed  gigantic  snow-banners,  miles 
in  length,  milky  and  nebulous,  ever 
waving  lights  and  shadows  and  flashing 
silver  from  the  sun. 

"Mine  eyes  have  seen  the  glory  of 
the  coming  of  the  Lord,"  Smoke  chant- 
ed, as  he  gazed  upon  these  dusts  of  snow 
wind-flung  into  sky-scarfs  of  shimmer- 
ing silken  light. 

And  still  he  gazed,  and  still  the  ban- 
nered peaks  did  not  vanish,  and  still  he 
considered  that  he  dreamed,  until  La- 
bisk  wee  sat  up  among  the  furs. 

"I  dream,  Labiskwee,"  he  said. 
"Look.  Do  you,  too,  dream  within  my 

"It  is  no  dream,"  she  replied.  "This 
have  the  old  men  told  me.  And  after 
this  will  blow  the  warm  winds,  and  we 
shall  live  and  win  west." 


Smoke  shot  a  snow-bird,  and  they 
divided  it.  Once,  in  a  valley,  where 
willows  budded  standing  in  the  snow, 
he  shot  a  snowshoe  rabbit.  Another 
time  he  got  a  lean,  white  weasel.  This 
much  of  meat  they  encountered,  and 
no  more,  though,  once,  half-mile  high 
and  veering  toward  the  west  and  the 
Yukon,  they  saw  a  wild-duck  wedge 
drive  by. 

"It  is  summer  in  the  lower  valleys," 
said  Labiskwee.  "Soon  will  it  be  sum- 
mer here." 

Labiskwee's  face  had  grown  thin,  but 
the  bright,  large  eyes  were  brighter  and 
larger,  and  when  she  looked  at  him  she 
was  transfigured  by  a  wild,  unearthly 

The  days  lengthened,  and  the  snow 
began  to  sink.  Each  day  the  crust 
thawed,  each  night  it  froze  again ;  and 
they  were  afoot  early  and  late,  being 

compelled  to  camp  and  rest  during  the 
midday  hours  of  thaw  when  the  crust 
could  not  bear  their  weight.  When 
Smoke  grew  snow-blind,  Labiskwee 
towed  him  on  a  thong  tied  to  her  waist. 
And  when  she  was  so  blinded,  she  tow- 
ed behind  a  thong  to  his  waist.  And 
starving,  in  a  deeper  dream,  they  strug- 
gled on  through  an  awakening  land 
bare  of  any  life  save  their  own. 

Exhausted  as  he  was.  Smoke  grew 
almost  to  fear  sleep,  so  fearful  and  bit> 
ter  were  the  visions  of  that  mad,  twi- 
light land.  Always  were  they  of  food, 
and  always  was  the  food,  at  his  lips, 
snatched  away  by  the  malign  image  of 
dreams.  He  gave  dinners  to  his  com- 
rades of  the  old  San  Francisco  days, 
himself,  with  whetting  appetite  and 
jealous  eye,  directing  the  arrangements, 
decorating  the  table  with  crimson-leaf- 
ed runners  of  the  autumn  grape.  The 
guests  were  dilatory,  and  while  he 
greeted  them  and  all  sparkled  with 
their  latest  cleverness,  he  was  frantic 
with  desire  for  the  table.  He  stole  to 
it,  unobserved,  and  clutched  a  handful 
of  black  ripe  olives,  and  turned  to  meet 
still  another  guest.  And  others  sur- 
rounded him  and  the  laugh  and  play 
of  wit  went  on,  while  all  the  time,  gnaw- 
ing hidden  in  his  closed  hand,  was  this 
madness  of  ripe  olives. 

He  gave  many  such  dinners,  all  with 
the  same  empty  ending.  He  attended 
Gargantuan  feasts,  where  multitudes 
fed  on  innumerable  bullocks  roasted 
whole,  prying  them  out  of  smouldering 
pits  and  with  sharp  knives  slicing  great 
strips  of  meat  from  the  steaming  car- 
cases. He  stood,  with  mouth  agape, 
beneath  long  rows  of  turkeys  which 
white-aproned  shopmen  sold.  And 
everybody  bought  save  Smoke,  mouth 
still  agape,  chained  by  a  leadenness  of 
movement  to  the  pavement.  A  boy 
again,  he  sat  with  spoon  poised  high 
above  great  bowls  of  bread  and  milk. 
He  pursued  shy  heifers  through  upland 
pastures  and  centuries  of  torment  in 
vain  effort  to  steal  from  them  their 
milk,  and  in  noisome  dungeons  he 
fought  with  rats  for  scraps  and  refuse. 
There  was  no  food  that  was  not  a  mad- 



ness  to  him,  and  he  wandered  through 
vast  stables,  where  fat  horses  stood  in 
mile-long  rows  of  stalls,  ever  seeking 
and  never  finding  the  bran-bins  from 
which  they  fed. 

Once,  only,  he  dreamed  to  advantage. 
Famishing,  shipwrecked  or  marooned. 

time  there  was  no  intruding  presence 
to  whisk  the  meal  away.  At  last — so 
he  dreamed  within  the  dream — the 
dream  would  come  true.  This  time  he 
would  eat.  Yet  in  his  certitude  he 
doubted,  and  he  was  steeled  for  the  in- 
evitable shift  of  vision  until  the  salmon- 

"Beside  the  fire,  within  arm's  length,  sat  Shorty. 

he  fought  with  the  big  Pacific  surf  for 
rock-clinging  mussels  and  carried  them 
up  the  sands  to  the  dry  flotsam  of  the 
spring  tides.  Of  this  he  built  a  fire, 
and  among  the  coals  he  laid  his  pre- 
cious trove.  He  watched  the  steam  jet 
forth  and  the  locked  shells  pop  apart, 
exposing  the  salmon-colored  meat. 
Cooked  to  a  turn — he  knew  it ;  and  this 

colored  meat,  hot  and  savory,  was  in 
his  mouth.  His  teeth  closed  upon  it. 
He  ate!  The  miracle  had  happened  I 
The  shock  aroused  him.  He  awoke  in 
the  dark,  lying  on  his  back,  and  heard 
himself  mumbling  little,  piggish 
squeals  and  grunts  of  joy.  His  jaws 
were  moving,  and  between  his  teeth 
meat  was  crunching.    He  did  not  move, 



and  soon  small  fingers  felt  about  his 
lips,  and  between  them  was  inserted  a 
tiny  sliver  of  meat.  And  in  that  he 
would  eat  no  more,  rather  than  that  he 
was  angry,  Labiskwee  cried  and  in  his 
arms  sobbed  herself  to  sleep.  But  he 
lay  on  awake,  marvelling  at  the  love 
and  the  wonder  of  woman. 

The  time  came  when  the  last  food 
was  gone.  The  high  peaks  receded,  the 
divides  became'  lower,  and  the  way 
opened  promisingly  to  the  west.  But 
their  reserves  of  strength  were  gone, 
and,  without  food,  the  time  quickly  fol- 
lowed when  they  lay  down  at  night  and 
in  the  morning  did  not  arise.  Smoke 
weakly  gained  his  feet,  collapsed,  and 
on  hands  and  knees  crawled  about  the 
building  of  a  fire.  But  try  as  she 
would,  Labiskwee  sank  back  each  time 
in  an  extremity  of  weakness.  And 
Smoke  sank  down  beside  her,  a  wan 
sneer  on  his  face  for  the  automatism 
that  had  made  him  struggle  for  an  un- 
needed  fire.  There  .was  nothing  to 
cook,  and  the  day  was  warm.  A  gentle 
breeze  sighed  in  the  spruce  trees,  and 
from  everywhere,  under  the  disappear- 
ing snow,  came  the  trickling  music  of 
unseen  streamlets. 

Labiskwee  lay  in  a  stupor,  her 
breathing  so  imperceptible  that  often 
Smoke  thought  her  dead.  In  the  after- 
noon the  chattering  of  a  squirrel  arous- 
ed him.  Dragging  the  heavy  rifle,  he 
wallowed  through  the  crust  that  had 
become  slush.  He  crept  on  hands  and 
knees,  or  stood  upright  and  fell  forward 
in  the  direction  of  the  squirrel  that 
chattered  its  wrath  and  fled  slowly  and 
tantalizingly  before  him.  He  had  not 
the  strength  for  a  quick  shot,  and  the 
squirrel  was  never  still.  At  times 
Smoke  sprawled  in  the  wet  snow-melt 
and  cried  out  of  weakness.  Other  times 
the  flame  of  his  life  flickered,  and 
blackness  smote  him.  How  long  he  lay 
in  the  last  faint  he  did  not  know,  but 
he  came  to,  shivering  in  the  chill  of 
evening,  his  wet  clothing  frozen  to  the 
re-forming  crust.  The  squirrel  was 
gone,  and  after  a  weary  struggle  he  won 
back  to  the  side  of  Labiskwee.    So  pro- 

found was  his  weakness  that  he  lay  like 
dead  through  the  night,  nor  did  dreams 
disturb  him. 

The  sun  was  in  the  sky,  the  same 
squirrel  chattering  through  the  trees, 
when  Labiskwee's  hand  on  Smoke's 
cheek  awakened  him. 

'Tut  your  hand  on  my  heart,  lover," 
she  said,  her  voice  clear  but  faint  and 
very  far  away.  "My  heart  is  my  love, 
and  you  hold  it  in  your  hand." 

A  long  time  seemed  to  go  by,  ere  she 
spoke  again. 

''Remember  always,  there  is  no  way 
south.  That  is  well  known  to  the  Cari- 
bou People.  West  .  .  .  that  is  the  way 
.  .  .  and  you  are  almost  there  .  .  . 
and  you  will  make  it." 

And  Smoke  drowsed  in  the  numb- 
ness that  is  near  to  death,  until  once 
more  she  aroused  him. 

"Put  vour  lips  on  mine,"  she  said. 
"I  will  die  so." 

"We  will  die  together,  sweetheart," 
was  his  answer. 

"No."  A  feeble  flutter  of  her  hand 
checked  him,  and  so  thin  was  her  voice 
that  scarcely  did  he  hear  it,  yet  he  did 
hear  all  of  it.  Her  hand  fumbled  and 
groped  in  the  hood  of  her  parka,  and 
she  drew  forth  a  pouch  that  she  placed 
in  his  hand.  "And  now  your  lips,  my 
lover.  Your  lips  on  my  lips,  and  your 
hand  on  my  heart." 

And  in  that  long  kiss  darkness  came 
upon  him  again,  and  when  again  he 
was  conscious  he  knew  that  he  was 
alone  and  he  knew  that  he  was  to  die. 
He  was  wearily  glad  that  he  was  to  die. 

He  found  his  hand  resting  on  the 
pouch.  With  an  inward  smile  at  the 
curiosity  that  made  him  pull  the  draw- 
string, he  opened  it.  Out  poured  a  tiny 
flood  of  food.  There  was  no  particle  of 
it  that  he  did  not  recognize,  all  stolen 
by  Labiskwee  from  Labiskwee — bread- 
fragments  saved  far  back  in  the  days 
ere  McCan  lost  the  flour;  strips  and 
strings  of  caribou-meat,  partly  gnawed; 
crumbles  of  suet;  the  hind-leg  of  the 
snowshoe  rabbit,  untouched;  the  hind- 
leg  and  part  of  the  fore-leg  of  the  white 
weasel;  the  wing,  dented  still  by  her 
reluctant  teeth,  and  the  leg  of  the  snow- 



bird — pitiful  remnants,  tragic  renun- 
ciations, crucifixions  of  life,  morsels 
stolen  from  her  terrible  hunger  by  her 
incredible  love. 

With  maniacal  laughter  Smoke  flung 
it  all  out  on  the  hardening  snow-crust 
and  went  back  into  the  blackness. 

He  dreamed.  The  Yukon  ran  dry. 
In  its  bed,  among  muddy  pools  of  wa- 
ter and  ice-scoured  rocks,  he  wandered, 
picking  up  fat  nugget-gold.  The 
weight  of  it  grew  to  be  a  burden  to  him, 
till  he  discovered  that  it  was  good  to 
eat.  And  greedily  he  ate.  After  all,  of 
w^hat  worth  was  gold  that  men  should 
prize  it  so,  save  that  it  was  good  to  eat. 

He  awoke  to  another  sun.  His  brain 
was  strangely  clear.  No  longer  did  his 
eyesight  blur.  The  familiar  palpitation 
that  had  vexed  him  through  all  his 
frame  was  gone.  The  juices  of  his  body 
seemed  to  sing,  as  if  the  spring  had  en- 
tered in.  Blessed  well-being  had  come 
to  him.  He  turned  to  awaken  Labis- 
kwee,  and  saw,  and  remembered.  He 
looked  for  the  food  flung  out  on  the 
snow.  It  was  gone.  And  he  knew  that 
in  delirium  and  dream  it  had  been  the 
Yukon  nugget  gold.  In  delirium  and 
dream  he  had  taken  heart  of  life  from 
the  life  sacrifice  of  Labiskwee,  who  had 
put  her  heart  in  his  hand  a^nd  opened 
his  eyes  to  woman  and  wonder. 

He  was  surprised  at  the  ease  of  his 
movements,  astounded  that  he  was  able 
to  drag  her  fur-wrapped  body  to  the  ex- 
posed, thawed  gravel  bank,  which  he 
undermined  with  the  axe  and  caved 
upon  her. 


Three  days,  with  no  further  food,  he 
fought  west.  In  the  mid  third  day  he 
fell  beneath  a  lone  spruce  beside  a  wide 
stream  that  ran  open  and  which  he 
knew  must  be  the  Klondike.  Ere 
blackness  conquered  him,  he  unlashed 
his  pack,  said  good-bye  to  the  bright 
world,  and  rolled  himself  in  the  robes. 

Chirping,  sleepy  noises  awoke  him. 
T'he  long  twilight  was  on.  Above  him, 
among  the  spruce  boughs,  were  ptar- 
migan. Hunger  bit  him  into  instant 
action,  though  the  action  was  infinitely 
slow.     Five  minutes  passed  before  he 

was  able  to  get  his  rifle  to  his  shoulder, 
and  a  second  five  minutes  passed  ere  he 
dared,  lying  on  his  back  and  aiming 
straight  upward,  to  pull  the  trigger.  It 
was  a  clean  miss.  No  bird  fell,  but  no 
bird  flew.  They  ruffled  and  rustled  stu- 
pidly and  drowsily.  His  shoulder  pain- 
ed him.  A  second  shot  was  spoiled  by 
the  involuntary  wince  he  made  as  he 
pulled  trigger.  Somewhere,  in  the  last 
three  days,  though  he  had  no  recollec- 
tion how,  he  must  have  fallen  and  in- 
jured it. 

The  ptarmigan  had  not  flown.  He 
doubled  and  redoubled  the  robe  that 
had  covered  him,  and  humped  it  in  the 
hollow  between  his  right  arm  and  his 
side.  Resting  the  butt  of  the  rifle  on 
the  fur,  he  fired  again,  and  a  bird  fell. 
He  clutched  it  greedily  and  found  that 
he  had  shot  most  of  the  meat  out  of  it. 
The  large-caliber  bullet  had  left  little 
else  than  a  mess  of  mangled  feathers. 
Still  the  ptarmigan  did  not  fly,  and  he 
decided  that  it  was  heads  or  nothing. 
He  flred  only  at  heads.  He  reloaded, 
and  reloaded,  the  magazine.  He  miss- 
ed; he  hit;  and  the  stupid  ptarmigan, 
that  were  loath  to  fly,  fell  upon  him  in 
a  rain  of  food — lives  disrupted  that  his 
life  might  feed  and  live.  There  had 
been  nine  of  them,  and  in  the  end  he 
clipped  the  head  of  the  ninth,  and  lay 
and  laughed  and  wept  he  knew  not 

The  first  he  ate  raw.  Then  he  rested 
and  slept,  while  his  life  assimilated  the 
life  of  it.  In  the  darkness  he  awoke, 
hungry,  with  strength  to  build  a  fire. 
And  until  early  dawn  he  cooked  and 
ate,  crunching  the  bones  to  powder  be- 
tween his  long-idle  teeth.  He  slept, 
awoke  in  the  darkness  of  another 
night,  and  slept  again  to  another  sun. 

He  noted  with  surprise  that  the  fire 
crackled  with  fresh  fuel  and  that  a 
blackened  coffee-pot  steamed  on  the 
edge  of  the  coals.  Beside  the  fire,  with- 
in arm's  length,  sat  Shorty,  smoking  a 
brown-paper  cigarette  and  intently 
watching  him.  Smoke's  lips  moved, 
but  a  throat  paralysis  seemed  to  come 
upon  him,  while  his  chest  was  suffused 
with  the  menace  of  tears.    He  reached 



out  his  hand  for  the  cigarette  and  drew 
the  smoke  deep  into  his  lungs  again 
and  again. 

"I  have  not  smoked  for  a  long  time/' 
he  said  at  last,  in  a  low,  calm  voice. 
'*For  a  very  long  time." 

"Nor  eaten,  from  your  looks," 
Shorty  added  gruffly. 

Smoke  nodded  and  waved  his  hand 
at  the  ptarmigan  feathers  that  lay  all 

''Not  until  recently,"  he  returned. 
"Do  you  know,  I'd  like  a  cup  of  coffee. 
It  will  taste  strange.  Also,  flapjacks 
and  a  strip  of  bacon." 

"And  beans?"  Shorty  tempted. 

"They  would  taste  heavenly.  I  find 
I  am  quite  hungry  again." 

While  the  one  cooked  and  the  other 
ate,  they  told  briefly  what  had  hap- 
pened to  them  in  the  days  since  their 

"The  Klondike  was  breakin'  up," 
Shorty  concluded  his  recital,  "an'  we 
just  had  to  wait  for  open  water.  Two 
polin'  boats,  six  other  men — you  know 
'em  all,  an'  crackerjacks — an'  all  kinds 
of  outfit.  An'  we've  sure  ben  a-comin' 
— polin',  linin'  up,  an'  portagin'.  But 
the  falls'll  stick  'em  a  solid  week. 
That's  where  I  left  'em  a-cuttin'  a  trail 
over  the  tops  of  the  bluffs  for  the  boats. 
I  just  had  a  sure  natural  hunch  to  keep 
a-comin'.  So  I  fills  a  pack  with  grub 
an'  starts.  I  knew  I'd  find  you  a-drift- 
in'  an'  all  in." 

Smoke  nodded,  and  put  forth  his 
hand  in  a  silent  grip. 

"Well,  let's  get  started,"  he  said. 

"Started ^  hell!"  Shorty  exploded. 
"We  stay  right  here  an'  rest  you  up  an' 
feed  you  up  for  a  couple  of  days." 

Smoke  shook  his  head. 

"If  you  could  just  see  yourself," 
Shorty  protested. 

And  what  he  saw  was  not  nice. 
Smoke's  face,  wherever  the  skin  show- 
ed, was  black  and  purple  and  scabbed 
from  repeated  frost-bite.  The  cheeks 
were  fallen  in,  so  that,  despite  the  cov- 
ering of  beard,  the  upper  row  of  teeth 

ridged  the  shrunken  flesh.  Across  the 
forehead  and  about  the  deep-sunk  eyes, 
the  skin  was  stretched  drum-tight, 
while  the  scraggly  beard,  that  should 
have  been  golden,  was  singed  by  fire 
and  filthy  with  camp-smoke. 

"Better  pack  up,"  Smoke  said.  "I'm 
going  on." 

"But  you're  feeble  as  a  kid  baby. 
You  can't  hike.     What's  the  rush?"^ 

"Shorty,  I  am  going  after  the  big- 
gest thing  in  the  Klondike,  and  I  can't 
wait.  That's  all.  Start  packing.  It's 
the  biggest  thing  in  the  world.  It's 
bigger  than  lakes  of  gold  and  moun- 
tains of  gold,  bigger  than  adventure, 
and  meat-eating,  and  bear-killing." 

Shorty  sat  with  bulging  eyes. 

"In  the  name  of  the  Lord,  what  is 
it?"  he  queried  huskily.  "Or  are  you 
just  simple  loco?" 

"No,  I'm  all  right.  Perhaps  a  fel- 
low has  to  stop  eating  in  order  to  see 
things.  At  any  rate  I  have  seen  things 
I  never  dreamed  were  in  the  world.  I 
know  w^hat  a  woman  is  .  .  .  now." 

Shorty's  mouth  opened,  and  about 
the  lips  and  in  the  light  of  the  eyes  was 
the  whimsical  advertisement  of  the 
sneer  forthcoming. 

"Don't,  please,"  Smoke  said  gently. 
"You  don't  know.    I  do." 

Shorty  gulped  and  changed  his 

"Huh!  I  don't  need  no  hunch  to 
guess  her  name.  The  rest  of  'em  has 
gone  up  to  the  drainin'  of  Surprise 
Lake,  but  Joy  Gastell  allowed  she 
wouldn't  go.  She's  stickin'  around 
Dawson,  waitin'  to  see  if  I  come  back 
with  you.  An'  she  sure  swears,  if  I 
don't,  she'll  sell  her  holdin's  an'  hire  a 
army  of  ,g;un-fighters,  an'  go  into  the 
Caribou  Country  an'  knock  the  ever- 
lastin'  stuffin'  outa  old  Snass  an'  his 
whole  gang.  An'  if  you'll  hold  your 
horses  a  couple  of  shakes,  I  reckon  I'll 
get  packed  up  an'  ready  to  hike  along 
with  you." 



School,    Wentworth    County,    Ontario,  in   the   midst  of  the  fruit  country.     There   is 
no    pessimism    laught    by    these   surroundings. 


Note. — A  perusal  of  Ontario's  Annual  Eeport  of  Women's  Institutes  reveals 
the  energy  that  many  women  of  various  parts  of  the  province  are  putting  into  the 
better  country  life  movement.  Many  rural  schools  are  being  ably  assisted  in  their 
improvement  efforts  by  the  Women's  Institutes.  There  are  hundreds  of  schools  yet 
that  are  little  better  than  barns,  with  surroundings  that  degrade  rather  than  uplift. 
A  visit  to  our  Canadian  woods,  where  trees,  and  the  wild  things  run  riot,  has  in  it 
more  of  cheer  than  comes  to  the  scholars  of  our  day  schools.  Such  things  should  not 
be.  If  the  "little  red  schoolhouse"  cannot  show  better  things,  it  must  go.  This 
article  by  Miss  Moffatt  is  the  second.  The  first,  which  has  been  much  commented 
upon  by  trustees  and  teachers,  appeared  in  the  last  October  number. — Editor. 

By  M.  D.  Moffat 

THE  watchword  of  the  Boston  Public 
School  Art  League  reads  as  follows: 
''It  is  the  ideal  of  this  League  to  make 
the  schoolhouse  a  Temple,  worthy  to  re- 
ceive and  fitted  to  inspire  the  children 
of  all  the  people  to  the  dignity  of  free 
citizenship  in  this  Republic." 

Isn't  a  resolution  like  that  enough  to 
foretell  dignity,  power  and  achieve- 
ment for  any  organization  forming  it? 
How  many  schoolhouses  have  you  seen 
in  Canada  which  you  could  dream  of 
calling  Temple,  worthy  to  receive  and 
fitted  to  inspire  the  children  of  the 
Canadian  people  to  the  dignity  of  free 
citizenship  in  this  Dominion? 

Is  there  any  other  building  whose  ap- 
pearance outside  and  inside  is  better 
calculated  to  "take  the  heart  out  of  a 
body,"  than  the  little  Noah's  Arkshap- 
ed  rural  schoolhouse?  Can  you  imag- 
ine anything  more  dejected  and  forlorn, 
with  ''I'm  dying  for  some  one  to  love 
me,"  written  all  over  it — from  the  worn- 
out  doorstep  and  faded-paint  trimmings 
to  the  May -weed  and  goose  grass  in  the 

''Still,  sits  the  schoolhouse  by  the  road 
A  ragged  beggar  sleeping; 

Around  it  still  the  sumachs  grow, 

And  blackberry  vines  are  creeping. 




^'Within,  the  master^s  desk  is  seen 
Deep  scarred  by  raps  official; 

Tlie  warping  floor,  the  battered  seats, 
The  jacknife's  carved  initial." 

So  sang  the  Poet  Whittier.  But  then 
it  was  a  New  England  school  which 
looked  like  a  ragged  beggar — not  a 
Canadian  one  and  it  was  long  ago,  not 
in  these  enlightened  times.  You  see  it 
at  intervals  everywhere  as  you  drive 
through  the  country  or  as  you  gaze 
from  a  train  window  and,  that  instant, 
if  you  have  ever  taught  in  one,  you 
look  the  other  way.  It  has  been  grov- 
elling in  the  grub  stage  long  enough.  It 
is  high  time  for  it  to  be  metamorphosed 
into  a  glorified  body  with  great  liberty, 
capable  of  perpetuating  life,  not  stagna- 
tion. Lift  it  up.  Set  it  on-  a  founda- 
tion high  enough  for  it  to  see  over  the 
fence  that  it  may  look  the  passers-by 
squarely  in  the  face,  and  leave  no  cause 
to  be  ashamed  of  itself. 


This  is  the  Era  of  Associations,  Clubs 
and  Combines.  The  day  of  the  one- 
horse  power  is  gone,  its  place  being  tak- 
en by  the  thousand  horse-power.  Man 
finds  no  stronghold  in  Independence 
but  in  Interdependence.  The  Evils  and 
the  Goods  of  the  World  are  mighty.  So 
must  the  Force  to  move  them  be 
mighty.  You  can  get  what  you  want 
when  you  want  it,  provided  you  All 
want  it  and  All  work  for  it.  The  time 
of  the  Beginning  of  New  Things  is  at 
hand  for  the  Primary  schools,  now  that 
women  are  taking  an  interest  in  and 
taking  a  '^hand"  in  things  outside  their 
own  homes.  One  may  expect  the  bet- 
terment of  many  conditions  which  have 
been  long  neglected;  and  one  of  these 
is  that  of  the  Little  Red  Schoolhouse. 
The  Church  has  its  Ladies'  Missionary 
Society  and  its  Ladies'  Aid.  Why  can- 
not the  School  also  have  a  Ladies'  Aid, 
or,  as  the  Director  of  A2;riculture  calls 
it,  A  School  Progress  Club?  But  the 
work  of  the  Church  is  religious.  So  is 
the  work  of  the  School.  Training; 
children  to  make  the  full  use  of  their 
power  and  the  best  use  of  their  lives  is 

truly  religious.  There  is  work  enough 
to  be  done  about  the  rural  school  to 
keep  a  club  busy  for  years. 

Many  city  schools  have  organizations 
for  this  purpose.  Toronto  has,  among 
others,  the  Western  Ave.  School  Asso- 
ciation of  Mothers  and  Teachers,  and 
Howard  Park  Educational  Association, 
also  of  mothers  and  teachers.  Doesn't 
that  sound  well?  There  is  great  hope 
for  a  superior  type  of  future  Canadian 
citizens  when  the  mothers  and  teachers 
work  together.  Too  frequently  mothers 
have  misunderstood  teachers.  Quite  as 
frequently  teachers  have  expected  too 
much  from  mothers,  not  thinking  that 
mothers  have  the  same  problems  with 
the  children  that  teachers  have  and  find 
them  no  easier;  because  children  are 
Beings  with  Wills  to  be  reckoned  with 
at  home  as  well  as  at  school.  The 
mothers  make  it  their  duty  to  see  that 
the  School  and  surroundings  are  in 
proper  condition  for  the  housing  and 
the  education  of  their  children.  They 
plan  the  methods  by  which  to  raise 
funds  for  better  school  equipment  and 
undertake  the  work  themselves. 


Mothers  should  think  of  the  school 
room  as  part  of  their  home.  The  at- 
tention paid  to  kitchens  has  been  out  of 
all  proportion  to  their  value.  There 
isn't  a  woman  on  a  farm  who  doesn't 
scrub  her  painted  or  oiled  floor  once  a 
week,  and  mop  it,  if  not  every  day,  at 
least  every  wash-day,  while  this  other 
room  in  which  her  children  spend  the 
days  of  eight  important  years,  is  scrub- 

This   same  dull  schoolhouse  appearance  "cal- 
culated to  take  the  heart  out  of  a  child." 



bed  once  a  year.  Who  knows  but  that 
the  ill-health  of  many  a  country  mother 
and  father  is  due  not  to  overwork,  but 
to  the  days  when  they  sat  with  droop- 
ing shoulders  over  a  desk  calculated  to 
induce  deformity,  inhaling  air,  foul 
with  the  breaths  of  forty  children  and 
laden  with  dust  that  was  too  thick  ever 
to  settle?  Fortunately  mothers  are  no 
longer  satisfied  to  send  their  children  to 
school  merely  fed  and  clothed.  They 
want  to  be  sure  that  there  is  no  Old 
Witch  at  the  Well  stealing  them  away 
in  their  absence.  There  is  much  truth 
in  a  Fairy-tale. 

A  School  Progress  Club  should  first 
of  all,  provide  the  school  and  itself  with 
a  name,  Summerdale  S.P.C,  or  Fair- 
fields  S.P.C. — then,  with  the  regulations 
of  the  Education  Department  regarding 
school  premises  and  equipment,  to  find 
out  how  far  short  their's  comes.  It  can 
also  get  bulletins  on  Improving  School 
Grounds.    These  should  be  studied. 

Every  mother  in  the  section  should 
belong,  even  if  she  cannot  attend  often. 
Girls  who  are  through  with  school  and 
are  living  at  home  should  belong.  Their 
help  is  needed.  The  trustees  should  be 
honorary  members.  Their  consent  must 
be  obtained  for  every  undertaking  but 
trustees  have  always  been  careful  to  car- 
ry out  the  wishes  of  the  people.  If  the 
school  is  new  the  problem  is  easy.  It  is 
one  of  beautifying,  and  increasing 
equipment.  If  the  school  is  old,  but 
well-built,  it  needs  to  be  raised  and  have 
a  basement  built.  If  it  is  old  and  quite 
unfit  there  is  bnt  one  fate  for  it.    In  the 

S.  S.  No.  0,  Raleigh  and  Dover,  iu  Kent  Co.. 
used  in  the  evenings  by  the  young  peoples' 
society.  Needless  to  say  this  is  a  live  rural 

old  provinces  it  may  be  expedient  for 
two  sections  or  more  to  join.  Two  school 
sections  in  Hastings  County,  Ont.,  did 
this  recently,  building  a  pretty  two- 
roomed  school  with  a  large  basement  for 
a  play-room.  The  land  of  the  site  was 
drained  and  levelled,  a  lawn  made  and 
vines  planted.  A  neat  wire  fence  en- 
closed the  grounds. 


A  new  school  should  be  planned  so 
that  it  can  be  used  for  social  gatherings. 
It  should  have  lamps.  It  should  have 
a  smaller  room  at  the  back  separated 
from  the  school-room  by  sliding  doors 
that  they  may  be  thrown  into  one  at  any 
time.  The  smaller  room  can  be  used  as 
a  teacher's  private  room,  as  a  library,  as 
a  study-room  for  the  older  scholars  and 
''Club  Room  for  the  S.P.C.  The  S.P.C. 
meeting  at  school  will  discover  many 
wrong  things  that  otherwise  might  not 
come  to  their  notice.  Many  uses  can  be 
found  for  it.  In  lighting  the  school- 
room no  window  should  ever  be  facing 
the  teacher.  A  teacher  subject  to  head- 
aches from  bad  lighting  can't  be  effi- 
cient. If  the  children  are  to  be  well 
taught  the  teacher  must  be  kept  well  as 
far  as  the  people  can  do  it.  The  base- 
ment should  be  divided  into  two  play- 
rooms besides  the  furnace  room.  Girls 
and  boys  should  not  play  together  un- 
less the  teacher  is  with  them. 

If  there  is  one  blot  on  a  civilized  com- 
munity it  is  the  condition  of  the  out- 
door closets  of  the  rural  school.  They 
are  in  nearly  every  case  filthy,  and  al- 
ways with  some  unclean  writing  or  cut- 
ting. One  would  think  the  children 
belonged  to  orientals  or  savages  and  had 
not  been  taught  the  decencies  of  life  be- 
fore they  were  six  years  old.  Ask  any 
one  of  thousands  of  teachers  about  this 
and  the  reply  will  be  a  look  of  disgust. 
Who  is  to  blame?  Everybody  is  to 
blame,  least  of  all,  the  teacher.  It  is  ab- 
solutely impossible  for  a  young  girl  just 
out  of  school,  to  deal  with  such  things 
alone.  And  people,  like  ostriches  with 
their  heads  buried  in  sand,  ignore  this 
state  of  things  just  because  it  is  disagree- 
able.   The  children  discover  that  this  is 


















The  Lockaber  School,  near  Miniota,  Manitoba. 
This  school  has  a  telephone,  a  flag,  curtains 
and  blinds  on  the  windows,  and  is  like  a 
home  inside.  Visited  by  the  editor  of 
Farmer's   Magazines  last  autumn. 

something  they  are  not  brought  to  ac- 
count for  and  the  evil  is  done.  Beautify 
the  interior  of  your  school  as  you  like. 
Supply  all  the  elevating  influences  you 
can.  Your  efforts  are  in  vain  so  long  as 
there  is  anything  unclean  about  to 
leave  its  mark.  An  S.P.C.  should  face 
this  evil  and  efface  it.  The  closets 
should  be  in  the  least  conspicuous 
part  of  the  yard.  The  screens 
should  be  covered  with  vines  in  sum- 
mer. But  permanent  natural  screens 
should  be  made  by  planting  spruce  or 
cedar  trees  and  caring  for  them  till  they 
are  well  established.  The  buildings,  if 
not  of  brick,  should  be  made  "of  dressed, 
matched  lumber  and  the  outside  paint- 
ed dark,  red,  green,  or  brown. 


The  interior  should  not  be  left  to 
spiders  and  mud-wasps  but  should  be 
finished  with  dressed,  matched  boards, 
ceiling  and  all.  It  should  be  lighted 
and  ventilated.  The  whole  interior 
should  be  given  two  coats  of  white  paint 
(not  whitewash)  followed  by  a  coat  of 
white  enamel.  Eight  inches  at  the  bot- 
tom of  the  seats  and  walls  should  be 
painted  black,  where     the     children's 

boots  touch.  The  seats  should  have  cov- 
ers fastened  on  with  hinges.  The  doors 
should  have  hinges  and  locks  in  good 
repair,. be  furnished  with  keys  and  be 
locked  by  the  teacher  every  night.  When 
the  enamel  becomes  soiled  with  dust  or 
finger-marks  it  can  be  washed  when  the 
school  is  cleaned.  Since  the  closets  of 
city  schools  have  been  painted  white 
there  has  been  no  attempt  by  anybody 
to  mark  them.  It  is  like  lessening  crime 
by  lighting  the  streets.  ''Honor  and 
Beauty  are  on  the  side  of  restraint." 
When  the  children  are  taught  the  laws 
of  life  by  their  parents  truthfully  ac- 
cording to  their  understanding,  fear- 
lessly and  reverently,  and  when  their 
play-time  is  occupied  by  supervised 
games  and  the  school  garden,  the  un- 
clean thought  will  have  little  chance  of 
a  lodging-place. 


Have  the  grounds  ploughed  up.  If 
the  soil  is  clay,  put  in  drainage.  Level 
the  ground  and  plan  some  arrange- 
ment for  it.  Make  a  wide  flower-border 
the  whole  length  of  the  front  fence. 
Don't  spoil  the  playground  by  putting 
small  flower-beds  in  the  middle.  Seed 
the  playground  thickly  with  Blue 
Grass  and  Dutch  Clover.  Buy  a  lawn- 
mower.  Have  the  lawn  rolled.  Weed 
it.  Feed  it.  Seed  it  until  there  is 
heavy  sod.  Plant  Boston  Ivy  by  the 
school  wall.  If  there  is  an  old  shade 
tree,  preserve  it.  Plant  new  treps.  Re- 
serve part  of  the  ground  for  the  school 
garden.  This  does  not  need  to  be  large. 
Some  of  the  new  school  gardens  are 
too  large.  One  argument  against  the 
school  garden  is  that  it  is  neglected  at 
mid-summer,  and  the  home  garden  is 
the  thing.  Children  must  be  taught  by 
a  qualified  teacher  by  means  of  the 
school  garden  before  they  are  compe- 
tent to  manage  a  home  garden.  Espe- 
cially when  to  some  of  them  their  fath- 
er's whole  farm  is  an  example  of  "How 
Not  to  Keep  the  Plot."  You've  seen 
farms  like  that.  Set  children  on  fire 
with  any  project  and  they  will  find  a 
way,  ''like  Sentimental  Tommy." 

A  small  boy  having  been  told  about 



taking  care  of  a  school  garden  suggest- 
ed at  once  that  he  could  ride  down  on 
horseback  sometimes  in  the  holidays 
and  attend  to  his  plot. 

The  yard  should  have  a  good  strong 
fence  all  round  it  and  a  close  neat  gar- 
den wire  fence  in  front,  close  enough  to 
keep  the  noses  of  animals  from  nipping 
the  flowers.  A  strip  of  sod  could  separ- 
ate the  flower  border  from  the  fence  and 
permit  seed-sowing  on  both  sides,  and 
high  enough  to  keep  them  from  reach- 
ing over.  The  gate  should  receive  par- 
ticular attention.  Both  posts  should  be 
in  good  condition.  The  gate  should 
have  strong  hinges  and  should  be  pad- 
locked every  night.  Let  the  gate  be  left 
open  once  and  all  the  work  of  beautify- 
ing the  yard  may  be  ruined  for  the 
year.  That  is  why  the  majority  of 
teachers  do  not  attempt  to  have  flowers 
or  vines.  The  young  men  of  the  vicin- 
ity go  to  the  school  yard  for  a  game  of 
football  occasionally  and  the  gates  are 
left  open  by  somebody.  Let  them  jump 
the  fence  if  one  will  not  be  responsible 
for  locking  the  gates.  Gates  of  city 
school  yards  are  locked  every  night. 


How  can  children  ever  be  taught  to 
do  anything  well  when  they  see  noth- 
ing well  done  around  them.  The  build- 
ing they  work  in  is  only  a  makeshift 
not  fitted  for  its  great  duty.  They  have 
to  see  better  things  than     they     have 

known  if  they  are  to  aspire  to  anything 
better.  Our  future  citizens  cannot  but 
''acquire  a  school-taught  standard  of 
dirt  and  carelessness."  A  boy  who  at 
school  is  daily  accustomed  to  a  gate  in 
danger  of  tumbling  from  a  decrepit 
post,  or  to  doors  on  the  outbuildings 
parting  with  their  hinges  and  refusing 
to  shut,  will  be  satisfied  with  the  same 
state  of  things  when  he  has  a  farm  of 
his  own.  His  fences  and  barns  will  al- 
ways be  out  of  repair,  his  gates  tumb- 
ling to  pieces,  his  cattle  breachy  and  his 
neighbors,  enemies. 

A  man  would  be  considered  an  idiot 
in  these  modern  times  if  he  persisted  in 
harvesting  his  grain  with  a  cradle  and 
threshing  it  with  a  flail.  Yet  these  in- 
struments are  no  more  inadequate  or 
out-of-date  than  the  two-or-three  gener- 
ation old  schoolhouse  is  in  the  equip- 
ping of  this  generation's  boys  and  girls 
for  their  life.  Recollect  the  maxim 
that  used  to  be  memorized  from  the  old 

''When  a  task's  to  be  begun, 
With  some  judgment  view  it. 
Never  idlv  wish  it  done. 
Begin  at  once  and  DO  IT." 

Remember:  There  is,  that  scattereth, 
and  yet  increaseth;  (farmers  know 
that)  and  there  is  that  with-holdeth 
more  than  is  meet,  but  it  tendeth  to 

VIneland  school,   Lincoln  Co.,   and   School  Garden. 



..«■».«.; '"'■^''-"''  ■'     '  --\-  ^-  -  ^s^-K* 

You  do  not  have  to  climb  up  a  24-foot  ladder   to    pic-k   the   Okanagan   apples. 

HOW  APPLES  WON  $4,000 

A  customary  rejoinder  for  an  Easterner,  in  discussing  British  Columbia  apples, 
is  that  their  apples  may  have  the  color  and  size,  but  they  have  not  the  flavor.  Now, 
a  visit  to  the  orchards  of  the  Okanagan  has  proven  to  our  satisfaction  that  they 
have  all  these  qualities.  No  more  perfect  specimens  of  apples  are  to  be  seen.  The 
appearance  and  color  is  most  attractive,  and  the  flavor  of  an  Okanagan  Mcintosh 
Eed  is  something  to  remember.  The  great  need  of  the  British  Columbia  apple  grow- 
ers is  for  co-operation  among  the  producers  so  that  their  goods  can  be  placed  in  the 
right  markets  at  the  right  time. 

By  F.  M:  Chapman 

The  big  red  apple  is  a  product  of  enthusi- 
asm. Nature,  in  her  wild  vagaries,  develops 
no  such  glory.  The  brilliant  red  of  the  lovely 
Mcintosh  is  a  distillation  of  suns,  dews  and 
visions.  Its  loveliness  of  flavor,  aroma  and 
appearance  rivals  the  fabled  apples  of  gold 
in  those  gardens  so  faithfully  watched  by 
the  nymphs  of  the  Hesperides.  And  Hercules 
is  not  the  only  admirer  that  has  plotted  for 
their  capture. 

Down  in  the  mountain-locked  val- 
ley of  the  Okanagan,  where  fable 
might  well  have  painted  its  modern 
myth,  this  crimson  temptation  hangs 
rich  and  lustrous  like  rubies  in  a  mon- 
ster pendant  of  the  embattling 
Rockies.         Here      the      adventurous 


Anglo-Saxon,  discovering  the  riches  of 
the  soil  and  climate,  has  built  for  him- 
self a  veritable  paradise  of  wealth  and 
beauty.  Here  the  big  red  apple  grows 
as  nowhere  else.  Here  the  Mcintosh, 
the  Jonathan,  the  Spy  and  the  King 
revel  in  the  radiance  of  perfection. 

A  peculiar  geniality  pervades  the 
air.  An  indefinable  charm  breathes 
its  sj)ell  on  the  .dweller  and  seems  to 
fill  his  spirits  with  the  same  rosy  views 
of  life  and  the  same  golden  hopes  that 
distill  in  the  Jonathan  its  royal  blood, 
and  in  the  Grimes  its  gold.  Men 
everywhere  in  the  valley  are  lovers  of 
the  out-of-doors.     They  have  been  at- 

HOW  APPLES  WON  $4,000 


They  thin  their  fruit,  but  as  the  trees  bear  so  youuu   the   liinl)s  often  have  to  be  supported. 

tr acted  to  this  spot  by  its  charm,  and 
to  live  under  its  spell  for  a  time  is  to 
be  forever  dissatisfied  elsewhere. 

Some  such  praises  as  had  been  sung 
led  me  to  visit  this  charming  apple 
land  during  the  sunny  days  of  last 
October.  Like  the  frost  upon  pump- 
kin, the  cold  upon  the  hills  had  touch- 
ed all  nature  with  her  loveliest  green, 
gold  and  crimson.  October  beneath 
Okanagan  skies  is  exquisitely  beauti- 
ful, and  I  enjoyed  the  royal  display 
quite  as  much  as  if  it  had  been  staged 
for  my  visit. 


A  trip  from  Sicamous  Junction  on 
a  branch  line  of  the  pioneer  railway  in 
these  parts  brought  me  in  the  early 
morning  through  a  winding  tree- 
covered  valley  past  growing  towns  and 
villages,  to  the  city  of  Vernon,  where 
the  hum  and  stir  of  prosperity  and 
the  tortuous  channel  of  the  Grey  Canal 
spoke  great  things  in  fruit  production. 

Not  far  from  town  is  the  celebrated 
Coldstream  estate  owned  by  Lord 
Aberdeen  and  Mr.  Buchanan,  the  cele- 
brated distiller  of  Scotland.  A  real 
estate  office  is  fast  inducing  settlers, 
and  a  prosperous  community  on  the 
estate  seven  miles  from  town  already 
enjoys  its  own  progressive  munici- 

Two  or  three  miles  on  and  the  train 
pulls  up  at  the  head  of  the  beautiful 
Okanagan  Lake,  a  narrow  ribbon  of  blue 
water,  set  among  the  mountains  that 
rise  almost  perpendicularly  in  places, 
from  its  bosom.  Steamers  await  us, 
and  a  most  enjoyable  trip  towards  the 
south  reveals  many  small  settlements 
with  their  cosy  red-roofed  cottages  and 
cultivated  orchard  rows  up  the  hill- 


Kelowna  is  situated  about  half  way 
down  the  lake  on  the  west  side,  and 
is  a  city  of  fast  growing  importance, 



built  upon  the  water's  edge,  apparent- 
ly pusned  there  by  the  surrounding 
hills.  A  closer  acquaintance,  however, 
reveals  the  deception  of  the  perspec- 
tive, for  65,000  acres  of  rich  land  en- 
circles the  place  or  stretches  off  ,  in 
various  angles  around  the  upland  pro- 
minences. Further  down  the  water 
Feachland,  Summerland  and  Pentic- 
ton  lie  in  the  midst  of  similar,  if  not 
as  extensive,  pockets  of  orchard  pos- 
sibilities. We  were  in  the  garden  of 
the  gods.  The  red  apple's  isolation  was 
such  to  us  no  longer.  Almost  sacrile- 
giously we,  motored  up  the  bench  land 
^,..   road,  planted  feet  on  the  grey  soil    of 

of  cosy  architecture,  surrounded  by 
their  five  or  ten  acres  of  growing  or- 
chards, around  the  foothills  on  the  best 
of  roads,  and  up  over  the  lower  bench 
lands,  the  same  stories  of  wealth  and 
productiveness  were  reiterated. 


''Over  yonder,"  said  Mr.  DeHart,  ''is 
a  twenty-five  acre  farm  owned  by  an 
Italian  who  came  out  with  the  Roman 
Catholic  missionaries  a  quarter  of  a 
century  ago  as  assistant  to  the  bishop. 
He  was  given  this  grant  of  land  and 
to-day  he  is  w^orth  his  hundred  thous- 



''The  score  card  shows  the  basis  upon  which  the  awards  were 
made.  The  judge  asumed  that  the  principal  pwrposes  of  this 
exhibit  teas  to  bring  out  the  features  of  attractiveness  and  com- 
mercial value.  To  this  were  added  the  factors  of  quality  and 
extent  of  exhibit.  Naturally,  the  num^ber  of  varieties  included 
in  the  exhibit  had  an  important  bearing  upon  the  result.'' 

''The  fine  displays  were  difficult  to  judge.  After  passing 
upon  them,  by  using  the  score  card  system.,  they  were  examined 
again  from  the  general  impression  m^ade  upon  the  visitor.  This 
latter  method  corroborated  the  finding  of  the  forTuer.'' 

Signed  (Prof.)  John  Craig. 
Horticulturist,  Cornell  University 


the  irrigated  gardens  and  bore  from 
the  heavily  laden  Mcintosh  eight-year- 
old  trees  their  delicious  burdens.  The 
joy  of  intimate  personal  touch  with 
with  such  fruit  that  had  cast  a  shadow 
over  the  Hood  River,  the  Wenatchee 
and  Yakima  Valleys,  upon  their  own 
stamping  ground  at  Spokane,  a  few 
years  before,  was  heightened  by  the 
fact  that  the  driver  of  our  McLaughlin- 
Buick  was  my  old  friend  Frank  De- 
Hart,  the  man  to  whose  indomitable 
not-to-be-beaten  courage  the  winnings 
of  that  year  have  forever  placed  Bri- 
tish Columbia  fruit  in  the  forefront  of 
the  world's  big  red  apple  worship. 

A  trip  among  the  many  fruit  farms 
of  this  section,  past  many  residences 

''Up  here,"  as  we  rounded  a  pine- 
clad  rocky  ridge,  "lies  the  celebrated 
fruit  farms  of  the  Kelowna  Fruit 
Lands  Company."  And  suddenly 
came  into  view  on  these  rich  lower 
benches,  a  mile  long  stretch  of  young 
apple  trees  clean  cultivated,  vigorously 
foliaged,  and  charmingly  regular  in 
their  lines,  a  vision  of  fruit  prosperity 
that  no  picture  has  as  yet  exagerated. 

"This  land  cannot  be  bought  as  it 
is  paying  such  big  dividends  from  its 
fruit.  The  trees  bear  at  four  years  of 
age  and  continue  bearing  regularly 
every  year,  provided  the  same  care  as 
you  see  is  given  it,  and  the  apples  are 
thinned  each  year.  Its  soil  :s  prac- 
tically inexhaustible,  being  filled  with 

HOW  APPLES  WON  $4,000 


the  phosphates,  nitrates  and  potash  of 
ages'  wash  from  the  eternal  hills.'' 

'Talk  $2,000  an  acre  to  the  owners 
and  they  would  laugh  at  you.  Why, 
a  Mr.  Renfrew,  of  Toronto,  purchased 
forty  acres  of  raw  land  down  yonder," 
and  our  guide  pointed  off  towards  the 
north-east,  where  the  trail  leads  its 
way  behind  the  mountains  towards 
Vernon,  ''for  $30,000,  and  he  has  since 
planted  orchards  and  built  that  attrac- 
tive red-tiled  bungalow  you  see  there 
to  the  right  among  the  pines." 


Mcintosh  trees  on  an  estate  farther 
up  the  government-made  road,  for  the 

"Yes,  Frank,  but  the  land  is  nearly 
all  taken  up  and  the  prices  are  too 
high  now  for  dividends." 

"Are  they?  Take  108  trees  of  Mc- 
intosh to  an  acre.  Get  an  average  of 
$10  per  tree  this  year  from  an  intelli- 
oent  handling  and  marketing  of  the 
fruit,  and  you  have  an  income  of 
$1080.  The  expenses  of  raising,  then, 
is  not  great.  You  see  we  have  no 
worms.  You  will  not  find  a  wormy 
apple  even  in  the  discarded  ones  under 
the  trees.  Yet  we  spray  to  prevent  any 
fun2;us  attacks.  Will  not  this  income 
justify  land  at  $2,000  an  acre?" 

"That  looks  good  to  me,  but  what 
about  the  five  years'  wait  for  fruit?" 


''I  congratulate  you  upon  your  success  at  the  National  Apple 
Show  in  Spokane.  Your  individual  exhibits,  as  well  as  the  District 
exhibit  from  Kelowna,  have  established  the  fact  that  British 
Columbia  can  compete  with  the  world  in  the  matter  of  apples. 

'7  regret  that  the  Canadian  apple  growers  in  the  East  did 
not  com^pete.  Not  that  I  would  expect  them,  to  surpass  the  efforts 
of  British  Columbia;  but  nevertheless  I  think  that  they  could  have 
done  som^ething  to  show  that  Canada  as  a  whole  can  produce  the 
best  apples  in  the  world." 

To  F.  R.  E.  De  Hart, 
Kelowna,  B.  C. 

A.  McNeill, 
Chief  Fruit  Division,  Ottatua 

Provincial  Government  builds  all  the 
roads  in  British  Columbia,  were  stand- 
ing red  with  their  big  apples.  The 
temptation  to  explore  was  too  great, 
and  from  a  tree  on  the  border,  where 
its  branches  swayed  out  over  the  ce- 
ment boxes  of  the  irrigating  canal, 
some  of  the  most  delicious  and  most 
perfect  apples  were  picked.  "These 
trees,"  said  the  ex-mayor,  "were  load- 
ed with  fruit  and  netted  the  owner  $14 
each  this  year.  You  sum  up  what  an 
acre  will  do  when  the  trees  grow  only 
20  feet  apart  and  you  will  see  that  the 
returns  are  good  enough  to  warrant 
some  of  your  eastern  farmers  from  On- 
tario County,  where  we  were  boys  to- 
gether, in  selling  all  they  have  and 
coming  out  to  this  land  of  promise." 

"You  can  raise  potatoes  and  vege- 
tables of  all  kinds  enough  to  pay  in- 
terest charges  and  support  yourself 
moderately  well.  I  tell  you,  five  acres 
of  land  will  support  a  family.  And  we 
have  families!  Last  year  there  were 
thirteen  cases  of  twins  and  a  bunch  of 
triplets  on  the  banks  of  the  Okana- 
gan,"  humorously  asserted  this  opti- 
mistic Ontario  expatriate. 

The  journey  back  to  the  town  by 
another  route  revealed  continued  sur- 
prises. The  old  mission  was  past 
where  tobacco  culture  was  in  full 
swing.  A  visit  to  the  tobacco  barns, 
with  their  drying  racks  and  slow  fires, 
revealed  the  long  leaves  of  the  weed 
in  orderly  array.  A  little  further  on 
the  old  Inn,   now  venerable   with  its 



MR.  F.   R.  E.  DEHART, 

of  Kelowna,  formerly  Mayor  of  the  town,  and 
the  man  who  won  such  signal  honor  for 
Okanagan  apples  at  Spokane. 

history,  stood  beside  the  trail,  where 
several  old  apple  trees,  stripped  of  their 
fruitage,  seemed  ready  for  the  winter's 
dormant  stage. 

"These  are  the  first  apple  trees  in 
this  place,"  Mr.  DeHart  pointed  out, 

''and  they  are  perhaps  50  years  old  and 
still  bearing  choice  apples." 

This  fact  was  of  much  interest,  as 
we  were  beginning  to  doubt  whether 
the  soil  would  keep  on  with  this  pro- 
ductions of  winning  reds.  The  trees 
were  certainly  healthy  and  spoke 
volumes  for  the  future  of  the  apple 
l)usiness  in  this  section. 


Having  heard  of  the  winning  of 
$4,423  by  our  apple  friend  at  the 
Spokane  National  Apple  Show  a  few 
years  since,  we  dug  out  the  story  of 
how  he  became  interested  in  the  work 
which  carried  to  British  Columbia 
generally  such  signal  honor. 

The  Okanagan  had  been  producing 
apples  of  superior  quality  from  the 
time  that  the  pioneers  at  the  south  end 
of  the  lake  had  accidently  discovered 
that  such  qualities  were  possible  in 
their  fruit.  But  there  had  been  no 
attempt  to  tell  the  world  that  it  was 
pre-eminent.  F.  R.  E.  DeHart  left 
Ontario  some  twenty  years  ago,  settling 
near  Indian  Plead,  Saskatchewan, 
v/here  he  wheat-farmed  on  a  big  scale. 
Having  made  fairly  well,  and  filled 
with  a  wanderlust  and  a  desire  for  new 
fields  of  endeavor,   as  so  many  West- 





■HHB^^^^^R^jnJ^OHSLeif  ^  Tt^'^^^^i^^^^^^SK^^l^BtsB^^^SIk 




^^^^'^^'^^^/'''''f'^^^i^^'^''^^l^^bki^^K^^.^&  v^t'^I^^BBRH^^^SSBH 

Near  the  Mission  they  raise  splendid  tobacco,  and    the    oldest    apple    trees    stand    near    this  field. 

— Photo  by  Hudson. 

HOW  APPLES  WON  $4,000 


This   is   typical  of  the  newer  fruit  lands  in    all   the   mountain   valleys   of  B.   C. 

erners  are,  he  located  with  a  company 
of  others  in  the  Kelowna  district,  then 
only  a  few  houses  on  the  water  front. 
His  company  purchased  a  big  block  of 
the  land  and  resold  it  for  orchard  pur- 
poses to  many  incoming,  opulent,  and 
educated  men  for  homes  in  this  Cali- 
fornia of  Canada.  He  later  went  into 
the  nursery  business  to  supply  the 
trees  for  the  planting,  and  proved  how 
easily  it  was  to  grow  all  kinds  of  trees. 
His  own  lawn  is  a  perfect  forest  of 
trees  and  shrubs  of  rare  bloom  and 
leaf,  growing  as  fast  in  one  year  as 
they  do  in  three  or  four  in  Eastern 

The  beauty  of  the  apples  and  their 
perfect  shape  made  him  cast  envious 
eyes  on  the  big  apple  show  at  Spokane, 
where  the  celebrated  Oregon  and 
Washington  Valley  apples  were  being 
pitted  in  combat  for  the  championship 
of  attractiveness  and  quality. 


Opinions  of  local  dealers,  growers 
and  others  were  sought,  but  no  one  was 
enthusiastic  over  the  proposition  ex- 
cept a  friend,  one  James  Gibb,  the  ex- 
Eert  packer  of  a  local  fruit  shipping 
rm.  A  visit  among  the  growers 
secured  the  best  boxes  of  apples  in 
their  orchards,  while  from  his  own 
orchard  Mr.  DeHart  took  several  boxes 
of  the  choicest. 

Now  there  were  obstacles  in  the  way 
that  would  have  killed  the  same  pro- 
posal if  made  by  an  easterner.  Rail- 
way freight  rates  were  almost  exorbi- 

tant. The  fruit  had  to  be  handled 
twice  to  reach  the  show.  Besides,  it 
meant  personal  care  and  attention  en 

But  the  idea  gained  its  day.  He 
set  to  work.  The  fruit  was  assembled 
and  selected.  So  that  when  he  left 
Kelowna  he  had  72  boxes  of  fruit.  He 
arrived  in  Spokane  a  week  before  tlie 
show  and  emptied  his  boxes  in  a 
packing  room  provided  by  the  manage- 
ment where  they  were  repacked  by  Mr. 
Gibb.  Six  days  in  all  were  taken 
in  this  careful  pack,  but  there  was  the 
skill  that  fairly  stampeded  the  prize 

One  of  the  particular  beauty  spots 
of  the  exhibit  was  the  class  that  called 
for  two  boxes,  two  barrels,  two  plates, 
etc.  These  were  set  in  all  the  beauty 
of  plush,  silver,  roses  and  ribbons. 
This  created  much  favorable  comment 
and  was  only  beaten  by  the  sentimental 
yet  unique  display  of  Wenatchee 
apples  set  into  an  American  flag  with 
all  the  stars  and  stripes  fully  pictured. 


There  were  apples  on  exhibition  from 
New  Mexico,  Georgia,  North  Carolina 
and  New  York,  besides  all  the  adjacent 
Western  and  Northern  States.  Buyers 
and  apple  dealers  from  Europe  and 
all  America  were  present.  The  judges 
were  well  known  and  expert  horticul- 
turists, such  as  Prof.  Craig,  of  Cornell, 
Maxw^ell  Smith,  of  British  Columbia, 
and  representatives  from  the  Iowa,  Ore- 






An   orclmrcl   iu   which   the  trees   have  been  largely   grafted   to   better   fruit.      Note   the  clean 


gon,  Washington,  Montana  and  Idaho 

The  awards  surprised  even  the  optim- 
istic exhibitor  from  Kelowna.  That  an 
individual  from  Canada  could  enter 
their  lists  and  carry  away  $4423  in 
prizes  and  the  cream  of  the  glory  was 
almost  too  good  to  be  true.  The  news- 
papers next  day  told  the  story  and  Bri- 
tish Columbia  generally  congratulated 
the  plucky  man  from  the  mountains 
for  his  unusual  yet  most  creditable 

WINS    OVER    $100   A   BOX. 

These  prizes,  when  he  started  to 
count  them,  amounted  to  13  firsts,  1 
second,  1  silver  cup  and  two  medals. 

They  amounted  to  the  astonishing  total 
of  $4423.00.  When  he  repacked  his 
apples  he  had  43  boxes  on  exhibition 
and  thus  it  is  seen  that  the  prize  money 
netted  him  over  $100  a  box.  In  writing 
of  the  event  the  day  after  the  show,  the 
Vernon  News  ably  edited  by  a  Mr.  Jas. 
McKelvie,  who  came  from  Toronto 
twenty-five  years  ago,  had  this  to  say : 

"No  such  triumph  as  this  has 
ever  been  achieved  by  any  district 
in  any  country;  and  the  heartiest 
congratulations  of  British  Colum- 
bia will  go  out  in  unstinted  meas- 
ure to  the  energetic  and  progress- 
ive fruit  growers  of  Kelowna.  To 
Mr.  F.  R.  E.  DeHart,  too  much 
praise  cannot  be  given." 

By  Dorothy  Dot 

Note. — This  is  the  conclusion  from  its  January  number.  Our  Housekeeper  fell 
into  a  dream  on  New  Year's  Day,  and  fancy  took  her  into  the  future,  where  women 
vote,  become  members  of  Parliament,  and  perhaps  Fellows  and  Bachelors  of  every 
University. — Editor. 

DECEMBER  16.  —  Many  people 
make  their  Christmas  cakes  weeks  be- 
fore. The  Housekeeper  makes  hers 
when  she  is  ready.  This  year  she  was 
ready  to-day.  Do  you  ever  put  mo- 
lasses into  a  Christmas  cake?  If  you 
are  a  cooking-school  graduate  you  will 
involuntarily  turn  up  your  nose  at  this 
question  and  stare  slightly  rudely,  if 
not  simply  surprisedly,  while  you  ejac- 
ulate ''Oh!  Horrors!"  Don't  look  like 
that.  The  Housekeeper  didn't  put  any 
into  hers. 

Speaking  of  molasses  reminds  one  of 
a  story:  A  colored  boy  had  been  at- 
tending an  industrial  school  in  the 
South  and  had  learned,  among  other 
things,  English.  Upon  spending  a 
holiday  at  home  he  overheard  a  young- 
er brother  at  the  table  ask  for  some 
'lasses  on  his  "piece."  The  scholar  un- 
dertook to  correct  him.  ''You  should 
say  ''molasses"  not  "  'lasses."  "Well," 
retorted  the  youngster,  "how  could  I 
ask  fo'  mo'  'lasses  when  I  hain't  had 
any  yet?" 

Does  it  remind  you  of  oooking-school 
w^hen  you  sit  down  to  "figger"  out  the 
eighth  of  a  recipe?     The  Housekeeper 

uses  the  half  of  this  for  a  Christmas 
cake  for  her  family. 

1  lb.  butter 

1  lb.  sugar 

1  lb.  currants 

1  lb.  raisins 

1/4  lb.  mixed  peel 

1/2  lb.  blanched  almonds 

2  T.  cloves  (ground) 
2  T.  cinnamon 

2  T.  allspice 

2  T.  nutmeg 

T  =  teaspoon 

9  eggs  or  6  eggs  +  %  cup  milk,  coffee 
or  orange  juice. 

Measure  4%  cups  flour  but  don't  use 
it  all. 

N.B. — Don't  be  too  hopeful  of  suc- 
cess. The  eggs  are  cold  storage  eggs — 
yea,  even  the  very  best  of  cold  storage 
eggs,  w^ith  the  air-cell  as  big  as  a  fifty- 
cent  piece! 

A  farmer  came  into  the  grocery  to- 
day with  three  dozen  new-laid  eggs  and 
asked  seventy  cents  a  dozen  for  them. 
When,  oh  when,  shall  the  Housekeeper 
have  courage  to  start  that  little  poultry 
farm  she  speaks  of  so  often?  Seventy 
cents  a  dozen  forsooth!     The  hens  are 




getting  a  few  commercial  ideas  stirred 
in  with  the  wet  mash.  Maybe!  But 
you  can  guarantee  that  the  hens  see 
very  little  of  that  seventy  cents.  Other- 
wise they  would  lay  more  eggs  for 

Which  is  easier  to  remember,  the  rule 
for  baking  a  cake  or  the  rule  for  find- 
ing the  true  remainder?  They  are 
something  similar — the  process  being 
multiplying,  adding  and  dividing.  At- 
tend to  the  firing  first.  Have  fuel 
enough  for  an  even  heat.  Arrange  the 
stove  draughts  so  as  to  heat  the  oven. 
Grease  the  cake-tins.  Bring  together 
on  the  table  all  the  ingredients  of  the 
cake.  Cut  the  peel  fine.  Chop  the 
raisins.  Wash  the  currants.  Blanch 
the  almonds.  Measure  the  dry  ingred- 
ients first  with  the  measuring-cup. 
Cultivate  the  habit  of  economizing  in 
the  number  of  dishes  you  use.  Meas- 
ure flour  into  sifter.  Add  spices.  Add 
pinch  of  salt.  Sift  all  two  or  three 
times.  Cream  the  butter.  Add  sugar 
gradually.  Add  beaten  eggs.  Add 
wet  and  dry  ingredients  alternately 
while  beating  the  whole.  Add  fruit, 
peel  and  nuts  last.  Pour  into  tins  and 
bake.  Also  you  need  a  small  boy  sit- 
ting on  the  end  of  the  table  helping 
himself  to  currants,  raisins  and  nuts, 
cleaning  out  the  remains  of  oranges  and 
licking  certain  spoons  and  dishes.  You 
have  also  to  bake  a  little  cake  in  a  tin 
for  him  by  himself  if  you  want  success 
with  your  own. 
^  JANUARY  1.  — This  is  the  muni- 
cipal election  day.    The  Housekeeper  is 

a  five-year-old  elector.  Well  she  re- 
members her  first  visit  to  the  poll! 
How  important  she  felt!  How  was  she 
to  know  for  whom  to  vote?  Oh,  she 
read  the  newspaper  for  a  few  weeks  be- 
fore to  see  whom  her  party  paper  was 
'^backing  up"  and  she  noticed  particu- 
larly who  nominated  the  candidates  and 
formed  her  conclusions  that  way.  As 
for  by-laws  she  had  to  ask  a  man's  ad- 
vice about  some  of  them.  She  isn't 
such  a  suffragette  that  she  wouldn't 
give  in  to  the  men  that  far.  The  poll- 
ing subdivisions  were  in  school-houses. 
When  she  reached  the  door  she  did  not 
know  to  w^hich  room  to  go.  But  she 
rallied  her  fast-fleeing  wits  and  fol- 
lowed the — 'sense  me — ''spit."  It  prov- 
ed an  infallible  guide.  She  walked  up 
to  the  ''poll"  and  announced  that  she 
had  come  to  exercise  the  right  of  a  re- 
spectable citizen.  The  "poll"  turned 
the  leaves  of  his  book,  checked  off  her 
name  and  said  "Five,"  to  another 
"poll,"  his  assistant.  The  assistant  tore 
off  five  sheets  from  as  many  different- 
colored  pads,  initialed  them  and  hand- 
ing them  to  her  said,  "You  will  find  a 
pencil  on  the  window-sill."  She  pro- 
ceeded to  the  window  where  she  drew 
the  saw-horses  in  the  places  contem- 
plated. After  folding  the  ballots  care- 
fully, initials  outward,  she  duly  de- 
posited them  in  the  ballot-box.  Then 
buttoning  her  glove  she  was  bowed  out 
by  an  officer  and  the  Housekeeper  had 
voted.  Needless  to  say  that  all  her  men 
were  elected. 


Note. — Miss  McKenzie  is  a  Western  girl.  She  lives  on  a  thousand  acre  farm 
near  Edmonton.  Last  summer  she  attended  the  McDonald  College  at  Guelph  for 
a  course  in  domestic  science,  after  having  been  under  tlie  tuition  of  a  good  mother 
for  several  years.  Her  writing  here,  then,  will  be  of  interest  to  every  farm  home, 
where  cooking  is  so  essential  a  part  of  the  day's  program.  She  will  be  pleased  to 
answer  or  have  answered  any  questions  our  readers  may  submit  to  her  to  the  office 
of  the  Magazine. — Editor. 

By  Jean  McKenzie 

COOKERY— what  a  fascinating  theme ! 
Of  what  interest  to  the  average  femin- 
ine mind  from  the  days  when  with  a 
large  apron  festooned  about  her  small 
figure,  the  little  girl  kneels  on  a  stool 
beside  the  bakeboard,  flouring  with 
strict  impartiality  the  scrap  of  dough 
entrusted  to  her  tender-mercies,  and  her 
own  face?  This  is  her  apprenticeship. 
Later  on,  when  such  childish  delights 
have  lost  their  charm,  what  normal  girl 
is  not  seized  with  the  candy-making 
craze?  Every  new  recipe  must  be  tried, 
and  the  results,  which  sometimes  vary 
a  little  in  quality,  are  fed  to  the  long 
suffering  family.  But  do  not  pity 
them  too  much,  they  usually  survive 
and  never  refuse  to  taste  the  next  batch. 
But  the  time  comes  when  the  young 
cook  wants  to  try  real  dishes,  and  what 
a  proud  day  it  is  when  she  makes  her 
first  cake,  and  it  is  a  success.  After 
this,  there  is  nothing  that  she  dares  not 
attempt,  at  least,  and  after  many  les- 
sons, the  glad  day  comes  when  she  is 
left  in  charge  while  the  presiding  geni- 
us of  the  kitchen  takes  a  holiday,  usu- 
ally, well-earned.  What  if  our  new 
cook,  elated  by  her  important  position, 
essays  some  fearful  and  wonderful  dish- 
es, which  are  not  all  unqualified  success- 
es? The  experience  gained,  the  self- 
reliance  which  is  called  out,  will  inevi- 
tably stand  her  in  good  stead  when  she 
graduates  from  her  training,  into  a 
house  of  her  own.  Under  no  circum- 
stances can  she  ever  have  cause  to  regret 

her  knowledge  of  household  science, 
w^hich  will  be  of  a  practical,  and  not  a 
theoretical  order.  After  all  the  talk  now- 
a-days  about  cares  for  women  in  the  bus- 
iness or  artistic  world,  who  will  say  that 
a  homelike  home,  or  a  carefully  plan- 
ned, well-cooked  and  daintily  served 
dinner,  is  not  a  work  of  art,  and  just  as 
much  an  achievement  as  any  accomp- 
lished by  the  successful  woman  of  busi- 

The  following  recipes  are  true  and 
tried  ones,  ones  which  refused  to  be 
spoiled  even  during  the  first  atteihpt  of 
an  ambitious  young  cook  ,  and  I  can 
conscientiously  recommend  them  as  be- 
ing most  reliable.  I^m  sure  they  will 
only  require  one  trial  to  become  favored 
with  all.  The  first  one  comes  to  me  from 
an  old  country  friend,  in  whose  family 
the  recipe  has  been  handed  down  for 


Take  fourteen  pounds  of  the  thick  rump  of 
beef,  one-half  pound  of  brown  sugar,  one  ounce 
of  saltpetre,  one-quarter  pound  of  whole  allspice 
(pounded)  and  one  pound  of  common  salt. 

Method    of   Doing:   It. 

Rub  the  sugar  well  into  the  beef,  and  let  it 
lie  for  twelve  hours,  then  rub  the  salt  petre  and 
allspice,  both  pounded,  over  the  meat,  and  let 
it  remain  for  another  twelve  hours;  then  rub  in 
the  salt.  Turn  it  daily  in  the  liquor  which 
forms,  for  a  fortnight,  then  remove  the  bone 
from  the  meat,  fill  the  cavity  with  suet,  bind  the 
round  in  shape  with  tape,  place  in  a  deep  stone 
crock,  or  granite  kettle,  pour  the  liquor  over  it, 
add  one  quart  of  water,  cover  closely,  and  bake 
in  a  moderate  oven  for  four  hours.  Leave  to 
cool  in  the  liquor.  This  is  to  be  served  cold, 
sliced  thinly.  You  will  find  this  a  pleasant 
change  from  the  plain  cold  meats,  and  It  is 
very  nice  in   sandwiches  as  well. 





Cut  up  a  chicken  as  for  fricassee,  and  to  each 
pouud  of  meat,  allow  two  tablespoons  flour,  one 
scant  half  teaspoon  salt,  and  a  dust  of  pepper. 
Mix  these  well,  and  roll  each  piece  of  chicken 
in  it,  pack  closely  in  a  large  bean-pot,  and  cover 
with  boiling  water.  Bake  for  three  and  one-half 
hours,  put  on  a  cover  as  soon  as  it  boils.  Serve 
in  the  dish  in  which  it  was  baked. 


7  lbs.  currants;  3  tablespoons  cinnamon;  5  lbs. 
brown  sugar;  3  tablespoons  cloves;  li^  pts. 


tick  over  the  currants,  wash,  drain  and  re- 
move stems.  Put  into  a  preserving  kettle,  add 
sugar,  vinegar,  and  the  spices  tied  in  a  muslin 
bag.  Heat  to  boiling  point,  and  cook  slowly  for 
one  hour.  Store  in  a  stone  jar,  and  keep  in  a 
cool  place.  Spiced  currants  are  a  delicious  relish 
to    serve    with    cold    meats. 

If  any  of  my  readers  have  a  weakness  for  the 
four  o'clock  cup  of  tea,  or  want  some  dainty 
little  wafers  to  serve  at  a  seception,  I  know  they 
will    be    delighted    with 


Ingredients — One  cup  butter;  one-half  cup  su- 
gar; two  egg-yolks;  two  tablespoons  cold  water; 
one-half  teaspoon  baking  powder;  grated  rind  of 
one   lemon. 

Flour  to  make  a  very  stiff  dough.  Be  care- 
ful to  work  in  flour  until  the  dough  will  absorb 
no  more.  Roll  out  very  thin,  cut  with  a  suit- 
able round  cutter  not  larger  than  two  Inches 
in    diameter,    and    bake    in    a    quick    oven. 


Two  cups  icing  sugar,  moistened  with  the 
juice  of  one  orange,  and  one-half  lemon.  Add 
two  teaspoons  of  melted  butter,  and  work  until 
very  smooth.  Put  two  of  the  little  wafers  to- 
gether with  a  generous  layer  of  this  between 
them.  For  variety,  fill  half  with  orange  filling, 
and  the  rest  with  a  rich  chocolate  icing.  These 
are    very    delicious    to    serve    with    tea. 


Ingredients — One  cup  butter;  one  cup  sugar; 
one  cup   lard;   four  cups  flour. 


Cream  the  butter  and  lard  together  thorough- 
ly, and  work  in  the  sugar  gradually.  Next  add 
the  flour,  a  little  at   a  time,   working  it   in    well 

before  adding  the  next  lot.  It  takes  a  great 
deal  of  time  to  get  this  worked  in,  and  moist 
enough  to  roll  out.  You  must  just  persevere 
and  do  not  add  any  water,  as  it  spoils  the  short- 
ness of  the  cake.  It  is  best  to  knead  it  be- 
tween the  fingers,  as  one  does  bread.  When  it  is 
well  mixed,  and  can  be  rolled,  roll  out  to  about 
three-quarters  of  an  inch  thick,  cut  in  squares, 
triangles,  or  any  fancy  shapes,  and  crinkle  the 
edges  between  the  thumb  and  forefinger,  or  with 
a  fork.  Place  on  a  baking  sheet,  and  bake  in  a 
moderate    oven    until   a    golden    brown    color. 


Ingredients — One-half  cup  sugar  beaten  well 
with  one  egg;  one-half  cup  of  cream;  one  and 
one-half  teaspoon  soda;  one  tea-spoon  salt;  one 
grnted    nutmeg. 

Thicken  with  flour  to  a  very  stiff  batter.  Drop 
into  hot  fat,  not  more  than  one-half  teaspoon  at 
a  time,  and  fry  to  a  golden  brown,  the  same  as 
fried  cakes.  Do  not  fry  to  increase  the  size  of 
the  Johnnies,  for  you  will  find  that  they  will 
turn  out  beautiful  round  balls,  but  alas,  quite 
raw  in  the  middle.  These  are  very  simply  made, 
and  are  very  different  in  flavor  from  the  ordin- 
ary doughnut,  and  in  appearance  as  well,  and 
will   appeal   readily   to   the   children. 


A  novel  way  to  serve  ice-cream  at  an  evening 

Ingredients — Three  cups  rich  milk;  three  eggs, 
or  six-egg-yolks;  one  pint  cream;  two  cups  sift- 
ed and  rolled  macaroons;  ond  and  one-fourth 
cup  sugar;  one-half  teaspoon  almond  extract; 
one    teaspoon    vanilla. 

Make  a  custard  of  milk,  egg  and  sugar.  Re- 
move from  fire,  chill,  ndd  cream  and  flavoring. 
Stir  In  the  powdered  macaroons  and  freeze  hard 
in  three  parts  ice  to  one  part  salt.  Have  ready 
some  coarsely  rolled  macaroons,  scoop  out  the 
cream,  and  serve  with  a  sauce  of  preserved 
s'trawberries  or  raspberries. 


Slive  very  thin,  rind  and  all,  three  very  large 
seedless  oranges,  and  one  large  lemon.  Pour 
over  them  eleven  tumblerfuls  of  water,  and  ^t 
away  for  twenty-four  hours,  then  boil  slowly 
for  one  hour.  After  boiling,  add  four  pounds  of 
granulated  sugar,  and  set  away  for  twenty- 
four  hours  longer.  Then  boil  for  one  hour  and 
twenty-five  minutes.  Pour  into  tumblers,  and 
set  away  in  a  cool  place  covered  with  paraffine. 
This  will  keep  fndefinitely,  and  is  very  nice  for 
breakfast,    served    with    hot    biscuits    or    muffins. 

Haymaking   in    the   Peace   River   Country. 



By  The  Editor 


The  average  yield  in  "Michigan  for  1910  and 
1911  as  reported  in  the  year  book  of  the  Michi- 
gan Department  of  Agriculture  was  eighteen 
bushels  per  acre.  Wheat  number  60,101,  which  is 
a  selection  from  the  American  Banner,  yielded 
42.8  bushels  per  acre  on  an  average  for  two  sea- 
sons. So  reads  a  bulletin  on  the  above  subject 
of  Frank  A.  Spragg,  which  is  issued  by  the  Michi- 
gan Agriculture  Station  at  East  Lansing  and  con- 
tains a  lot  of  valuable  information  along  the  lines 
of  wheat  production.  The  bulletin  will  be  of  es- 
pecial value  to  farmers  in  the  prairie  Provinces. 


The  United  States  Bureau  of  Plant  Industry, 
in  circular  Number  104,  gives  a  concise  account 
of  the  corn  selection  clubs  of  the  United  States. 
Every  farmer  should  have  a  seed-corn  breeding 
plot  by  the  head  of  his  crops.  Considerable  in- 
formation is  given  in  this  bulletin  which  can  be 
had  by  addressing  the  above  office  at  Washington, 


The  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture 
issues  a  bulletin  number  124  under  the  above 
caption.  It  is  edited  by  Dr.  Casteel,  who,  by  illus- 
tration and  explanation  tells  how  the  honey  bee 
works  in  securing  its  supply  of  pollen.  Bee-raisers 
in  Canada  will  find  this  bulletin  to  cover  the  sub- 
ject to  their  satisfaction. 


Just  as  the  work  of  developing  new  varieties 
of  apples  is  pushed  at  the  Experimental  Farm  at 
Ottawa  so  the  New  York  experimental  station  at 
Geneva  have  found  out  some  very  interesting 
things  about  the  new  varieties  of  apples  obtained 
from  known  parents.  For  instance,  the  Courtland 
is  a  large  apple  of  the  Mcintosh  type.  It  is  in 
season  from  November  to  February  and  promises 
to  be  a  good  one  commercially.  Its  two  parents 
were,  that  old  standby,  the  Ben  Davis,  and  the 
Mcintosh.  A  full  description  of  these  varieties  is 
contained  in  this  bulletin.  The  same  experimental 
station  has  just  issued  its  report  on  the  inspection 
of  feeding  stuffs  which  gives  the  analysis  of  all 
the  leading  stuffs  in  use  in  the  country. 


A  handsome  booklet  has  been  issued  by  the 
Government  Printing  Bureau  at  Ottawa  for  the 
purpose  of  being  a  guide  to  the  experimental 
farms  and  stations  in  their  department.  It  con- 
tains a  map  showing  the  locations  of  the  farms, 
photographs  of  the  various  places  and  descrip- 
tions of  the  work  in  each  department  of  the  sever- 
al farms.  The  bulletin  is  written  in  a  concise 
manner.  There  is  no  useless  and  verbose  lan- 
guage used.  Thus  the  student  of  agriculture  has 
the  subject  with  his  wishes  treated  right  under 
his  thumb  in  a  moment's  notice.  It  can  be  ob- 
tained by  writing  to  the  Agricultural  Department 
at  Ottawa. 


The  Department  of  Agriculture  in  Ontario 
have  issued  a  bulletin  on  this  subject  which  is 
edited  by  Professor  Dean,  of  the  O.  A.  C.  While 
various  subjects  are  treated  by  other  writers.  It 
treats  of  such  subjects  as  the  farm  dairy,  cheese 
making,  farm  butter  making,  cream  separators, 
the  care  of  milk,  soft  cheese-making,  milk  and 
cream  testing,  and  the  selection  of  dairy  cows. 
While  it  gives  the  form  used  for  dairy  and  indi- 
vidual cow  records  as  well  as  the  score  card  used 
at  the  Farmer's  Institute  meetings.  It  can  be 
had  by  writing  to  the  Department  of  Agriculture, 


The  rose  may  well  be  considered  the  queen  of 
flowers  but  unfortunately  there  are  many  parts  of 
Canada  where  only  a  limited  number  of  the 
hardiest  varieties  can  be  successfully  cultivated. 
For  this  reason  many  who  would  grow  roses  are 
debarred  from  doing  so  because  of  a  lack  of 
knowledge  of  which  are  the  most  hardy  sorts  and 
the  treatment  that  should  be  given  them.  To 
supply  this  information  in  readily  available  form, 
the  Dominion  Horticulturist,  Mr.  W.  T.  Macoun, 
has  prepared  a  pamphlet  of  a  dozen  pages  en- 
titled "Hardy  Rose  Culture  in  Canada."  It  is 
designated  Pamphlet  No.  9  of  the  Experimental 
Farm  and  may  be  had  free  by  applying  to  the 
Publications  Branch,  Department  of  Agriculture, 

The  pamphlet  treats  in  a  very  practical  man- 
ner the  culture  of  roses  under  the  following 
heads :  site  and  soil,  plants  and  planting,  cultiva- 
tion and  watering,  manuring,  pruning,  winter  pro- 
tection, insects  and  fungus  enemies  and  how  to 
treat  them.  Then  follow  lists  of  the  best  var- 
ieties of  the  various  classes  with  a  brief  descrip- 
tion of  each  as  regards  form,  color  and  fragrance. 
In  the  preparation  of  this  treatise  the  conditions 
in  all  parts  of  Canada  were  kept  in  view  so  that 
prospective  rose  growers  in  every  province  may 
receive  valuable  information  from  its  pages. 


The  efficiency  of  Bordeaux  mixture  in  prevent- 
ing certain  cherries  of  certain  plants  is  depending 
upon  several  factors.  These  are  dealt  with  in  a 
bulletin  number  265  issued  by  the  United  States 
Department  of  Agriculture  at  Washington.  Every 
person  who  is  using  spray  machine  will  find  this 
pamphlet  to  be  a  really  helpful  one  to  them. 


The  Commission  of  Conservation  have  just  is- 
sued a  book  on  this  subject.  A  hurried  glance 
over  the  work  shows  that  the  Commission  have 
gone  into  the  subject  on  forest  growth  in  Nova 
Scotia  in  an  exhaustive  manner.  It  is  found  out 
that  a  great  deal  of  Nova  Scotia  is  barren  of 
trees  and  practically  valueless  and  it  is  now  one 
of  the  important  problems  facing  those  who  direct 
the  forest  policy  of  the  Province  to  introduce  seed 




bearing  trees  into  these  areas  and  to  protect  them 
from  fire.  A  number  of  half-tone  illustrations 
appear  in  the  book  as  well  as  a  complete  set  of 
maps.  This  can  be  had  by  writing  to  the  Com- 
mission of  Conservation  at  Ottawa. 


The  work  of  the  Jews  in  agriculture  in  Amer- 
ica has  been  brought  to  the  attention  of  readers 
through  the  efforts  of  Mr.  Leonard  G.  Robinson, 
general  manager  of  the  Jewish  Agriculture  So- 
ciety, New  York  City.  This  book  of  100  pages 
takes  up  the  whole  question  of  Jewish  coloniza- 
tion and  the  work  of  various  philanthropists  in 
their  colonies.  It  is  interesting  to  know  that  in 
old  Palestine  the  spirit  of  modern  progress  is 
working  wonders  in  agriculture.  This  subject 
was  drawn  to  the  attention  of  the  people  who  at 
tended  the  Dry  Farming  Congress  at  Lethbridge 
last  fall,  when  Dr.  Aaronsohn  delivered  an  address 
on  the  subject  of  his  work  on  the  experimental 
station   near  Jerusalem. 


The  annual  report  of  the  Alaska  Agriculture 
stations  has  just  been  issued  by  the  United  States 
Department  of  Agriculture,  It  will  be  interest- 
ing to  a  great  many  people  to  know  that  ripe 
apples  were  produced  for  the  first  time  at  the  sta- 
tion at  Sitka  from  trees  planted  in  1903.  One  of 
these  varieties  were  the  Yellow  Transparent.  They 
also  grow  many  other  small  fruits  to  perfection. 
The  report  has  some  photographs  showing  the 
various  fruits  and  fruit  trees.  One  interesting 
photo  is  that  of  an  early  Richmond  Cherry  tree 
laden  with  fruit.  Another  shows  a  cabbage 
weighing  sixteen  pounds.  In  fact,  this  country 
away  up  North  grows  a  great  variety  of  farm  pro- 
ducts which  is  well  told  in  this  bulletin.  It  can 
be  had  by  writing  to  the  above  department. 


W.  A.  Brown,  B.  S.  A.,  of  the  Department  of 
Agriculture,  Ottawa,  has  reviewed  the  whole  ques- 
tion of  the  marketing  of  eggs  in  bulletin  Number 
36.  It  is  well  illustrated  showing  the  stages  of 
deterioration  that  an  egg  passes  through  and  how 
to  detect  stale  eggs.  One  illustration  shows  the 
wide  variation  there  exists  in  the  size  of  eggs. 
One  dozen  showed  a  weight  of  16  oz..  while  an- 
other showed  a  weight  of  25  ozs.  Specific  instruc- 
tions are  given  at  the  close  of  the  article  to  the 
farmer,  the  merchant,  the  buyer,  the  railway  com- 
pany, the  dealer  and  the  consumer  which  will  be 
worth  reading  by  every  person  interested.  Send 
for  a  copy  to  the  above  department. 


The  main  Agricultural  station  at  Orono, 
Maine,  U.S.A.,  in  bulletin  Number  204,  discusses 
this  question.  The  bulletin  gives  a  detailed  des- 
cription of  a  set  of  Triplet  Calves  produced  by 
a  cow  with  a  hereditary  tendency  towards  mul- 
tiple gestation.  The  bearings  of  the  case  on  the 
same  general  problems  of  practical  and  theoretical 
animal  breeding  are  much  discussed.  Farmers  in- 
terested in  this  discussion  can-  obtain  a  copy  by 
writing  to  this  station. 


This  is  the  subject  of  a  bulletin  Number  116 
issued  by  the  United  States  Department  of  Agri- 
culture. The  moth  is  an  insect  enemy  of  the 
grape  of  long-standing  in  the  vineyards  of  the 
Lake  Erie  Valley.  Fred.  Johnson,  and  A.  G. 
Hammer,  assistant  Entymologists,  have  thorough- 
ly gone  into  the  subject  and  reported  their  find- 
ings with  illustrations  in  this  bulletin.  Persons 
who  have  had  any  trouble  with  this  pest  will  do 
well  to  get  a  copy  of  this  bulletin.  As  is  usual, 
this  pest  has  a  parasite.  A  picture  of  it  is  given 
in  the  bulletin. 


The  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture 
Bureau  of  Soils  Division  in  bulletin  Number  88 
have  reported  upon  exhaustive  experiments  in  the 
matter  of  organic  acids  in  the  soil.  The  student 
of  Agriculture  who  has  taken  a  little  notice  of 
chemistry  would  do  well  to  read  this  bulletin. 


The  American  Beet-Sugar  industry  has  been 
reviewed  in  bulletin  Number  260  issued  from  the 
Department  of  Washington.  It  goes  into  the 
whole  subject  of  beet  raising  and  its  allied. indus- 
tries. It  can  be  obtained  by  writing  to  the  above 


So  much  has  been  written  about  the  high 
cost  of  living  and  the  prices  for  farm  products 
to  the  consumer  that  many  will  be  tired  of  read- 
ing works  on  this  subject.  The  man  who  is  anx- 
ious to  make  money  out  of  the  soil  from  his  pro- 
ductions will  find  it  to  his  advantage  to  read  re- 
port Number  98  on  this  subject  prepared  by 
George  K.  Holmes,  Statistical  Scientist  of  the  De- 
partment of  Agriculture,  "Washington.  D.C.  A 
great  deal  of  meat  will  be  found  in  the  report 
from  all  the  various  co-operative  associations  and 
exchanges  operating  in  the  United  States.  It  can 
be  had  by  writing  to  this  department. 

Sig.  3. 


Note. — An  immense  number  of  orders  for  Farmer's  Magazine  patterns 
arrive  at  the  office  daily.  Strange  as  it  may  seem  there  are  many  who  forget 
to  sign  their  names,  many  who  forget  the  money,  many  who  neglect  to  state 
the  size  of  the  patterns  required  and  many  who  send  their  orders  to  our 
Branch  offices  instead  of  to  the  Central  office  at  Toronto.  Ladies  ordering 
patterns  of  Farmer's  Magazine  so  as  to  avoid  error  and  delay  will  please 
observe  the  following  conditions: 

First,  address  your  letter  to  the  Farmer's  Magazine,  143  University 
Avenue,  Toronto,  Ontario. 

Second,  write  on  one  side  of  the  paper  only,  state  clearly  what  you  want. 

Third,  enclose  the  money. 

Fourth,  sign  name  and  address  plainly. 

Comply  with  these  conditions  carefully  and  it  will  be  our  fault  if  you 
do  not  get  your  patterns  within  a  few  days  after  the  arrival  of  your  letter. 


This  dress  may  be  made  wim  nign  or  low 
neck  and  with  long  or  short  sleeves.  It  fastens 
at  the  front  and  collar,  cuffs  and  wide  belt  are 
made    of    contrasting    material. 

The  pattern,  No.  6062,  is  cut  in  sizes  2  to  8 
years.  Medium  sizes  will  require  2%  yards  of 
36  inch  material  and  %  of  a  yard  of  27-incii 
contrasting   material. 

Price    of    pattern    10   cents. 

5696— GIRIiS'    DRESS. 

This  dainty  little  dress  is  a  modified  sailor 
model  with  the  popular  Gibson  plaits  at  front. 
It  can  be  fashioned  with  long  or  short  sleeves 
and  with  plaited  or  gathered  skirt.  Serge,  cash- 
mere or  any  of  the  wanted  wash  fabrics  can  be 

The  pattern  5696  is  cut  in  sizes  6  to  12  years. 
Medium  size  requires  SMs  yards  of  36  inch  mater- 
ial and  2%  yards  of  braid. 

Price    of    pattern    10   cents. 


Sig.  4. 



4650— XADIES'    HOUSE    DRESS. 

The  dress  we  illustrate  is  one  of  the  simplest. 
It  has  Gibson  tucks  at  the  shoulders  in  both 
front  and  back  and  these  extend  all  the  way  to 
the  belt.  The  closing  is  at  one  side  of  the 
waist.  The  sleeves  are  the  plainest  of  leg 
o'mutton   shape   and   full   length. 

The  pattern  4650  is  cut  in  sizes  32  to  42  inches 
bust  measure.  Medium  size  requires  8  yards 
of  27  inch   material. 

Price    of    pattern    10   cents. 

6479— liAD IBS'    DRESS. 

Here  is  an  attractive  frock  which  can  be  made 
with  high  or  Dutch  neck,  long  or  short  sleeves 
and  three  piece  skirt.  It  can  be  fashioned  of 
checked    gingham,    percale    or    serge. 

The  pattern  5479  is  cut  in  sizes  32  to  42  Inches 
bust  measure.  Medium  size  requires  6%  yards 
of  27  inch  material  with  2%  yards  of  Insertion. 
Price    of   pattern    10   cents. 





This  stylish  skirt  is  appropriate  for  dressy 
occasions.  It  is  a  four-gored  model  closing  at  the 
left  side  of  the  front  and  has  the  clever  new 
panniere  at  the  back.  This  panel  is  stitched 
partly  down  the  length,  but  hangs  loose  a  few 
inches  above  the  bottom.  At  the  front  of  the 
skirt  a  triangle-shaped  piece  of  contrasting  goods 
Is  set  in  at  the  bottom. 

Panama,  serge  or  broadcloth  may  be  used. 

The  pattern,  No.  5665,  is  cut  in  sizes  from  22 
to  30  inch  waist  measure.  To  make  the  skirt 
in  the  medium  size  will  require  3%  yards  of 
36  inch   material. 

The  pattern  can  be  obtained  by  sending  10 
cents   to   the  office   of  this   paper. 

5562— I.ADIES'   WAIST. 

In  this  dainty  model  we  have  one  of  the  more 
dressy  styles  which  will  be  excellent  as  part  of 
a  three-piece  suit. 

The  shoulder  is  of  kimono  cut,  with  a  group 
of  tucks  arranged  bretelle-wise  across  it.  There 
is  a  gore  on  the  under  side  of  the  sleeve  and 
along  the  underarm  seam  of  the  dress  and  a  fan- 
cifully  shaped   yoke. 

Chiffon,  marquisette,  net,  messaline,  crepe  de 
Chine  and  other  soft  fabrics  are  suitable  for 
this    waist. 

The  pattern  5562  is  cut  in  sizes  32  to  42  inches 
but  measure.  Medium  size  requires  1%  yards 
of  44  inch  material. 

Price    of    pattern    10    cents. 


Skirt  of  checked  mixture  cloth, 
showing  the  introduction  of  pleats 
at  one  side  of  the  front  and  back 
panel  and  the  stitched  belt  that  is 
newer  than  the  high  waist. 

Dress  of  linen,  showing  new  Eus- 
sian  tunic  in  heavy  embroidery.  This 
dress  shows  the  new  tendency  to 
Eastern  fashions. 


By  Grasmere 

February  on  the  Farm 

A  farmer  is  now  face  to  face  with 
practical  problems  of  another  year.  He 
has  to  look  ahead  and  plan  how  he  can 
best  prepare  for  the  coming  spring  and 
summer's  work.  This  brings  us  the 
question  of  the  farm  office.  It  is  be- 
coming to  be  recognized  by  all  up-to- 
date  farmers  that  an  office  in  his  house 
or  in  a  heated  room  in  some  other  part 
of  the  buildings  is  of  first  importance. 
It  gives  the  farmer  a  sense  of  the  im- 
portance of  his  work.  It  enable?  him 
10  have  all  the  facts  of  his  farm  work 
under  his  thumb.  It  tends  towards 
business  methods,  a  thing  that  is  most- 
ly desired  on  a  great  many  farms. 

Clean  the  Seed 

This  month  will  furnish  plenty  of 
idle  time  on  many  Western  farms  for 
the  preparation  of  the  seed  grain  for 
the  seed-drills  which  will  likely  be  run- 
ning in  the  latter  part  of  March.  It 
will  pay  to  hand-pick  a  lot  of  this 
grain.     This  operation     can     be  done 

quickly.    Weeds  are  far  too  common  in 
the  West  as  well  as  the  East. 

Harvesting  Ice 

In  Eastern  Canada  the  ice  harvest 
has  so  far  this  season  been  an  unsatis- 
factory one  this  year.  Owing  to  the 
open  season  the  ice  ponds  have  not  been 
frozen  to  the  thickness  that  farmers 
like   to   see   before   securing  their   ice. 

Champion    Holstein    cow    at    the    Dairy    Test, 
Eastern  Ontario  Live  Stock  Show,  1913. 



However,  there  is  a  good  part  winter 
yet  to  come  and  it  will  mean  that  you 
will  have  to  be  ready  to  take  out  your 
supply  quickly  and  at  short  notice.  A 
speaker  at  the  Dairymen's  Convention 
in  Ontario,  stated  that  only  ten  per 
cent,  of  the  farmers  of  Middlesex 
County,  which  is  looked  upon  as  one  of 
the  big  dairy  counties,  were  using  ice 
for  the  cooling  of  milk.  The  import- 
ance of  ice  in  the  dairy  industry  ought 
not  to  be  overlooked  by  our  farmers. 

House  Building  for  1913 

Many  farmers  will  doubtless  be 
erecting  new  houses  during  the  com- 
ing year.  Now  is  the  time  to  make 
every  preparation  on  paper  for  the 
work  so  that  the  most  can  be  done  for 
the  money  expended.  It  will  be  inter- 
esting to  note  the  article  which  will 
appear  in  the  March  issue  by  an  archi- 
tect. This  gives  a  plan  of  a  farm  house 
at  a  moderate  cost.  Too  many  of  our 
farm  buildings  are  awkwardly  built 
and  make  no  provision  for  proper  heat- 
ing and  water  installation.  The  wife 
who  has  to  do  the  work  in  this  house 
should  be  the  first  person  consulted  in 
the  planning. 

The  Poultry  on  the  Farm 

Owing  to  the  mildness  of  the  winter 
the  poultry  have  been  giving  better  re- 
sults and  the  price  of  eggs  is  lower  than 
last  year.  The  main  thing  in  success 
depends  upon  proper  ventilation, 
cleanliness,  and  the  freedom  of  the 
fowls  from  dampness  and  drafts.  The 
use  of  incubators  is  growing  more  com- 
mon. The  March  issue  of  Farmer's 
Magazine  will  give  the  experience  of  a 
farm  woman  in  the  handling  of  chick- 
ens hatched  in  the  incubator.  The 
failures  in  many  cases  have  been  due 
to  the  ignorance  and  carelessness  of 
the  operators.  The  farm  poultry  can 
be  a  valuable  side  line  for  every  farm- 
er. The  success  that  is  intended  the 
co-operative  egg  circles  is  something 
that  you  should  inquire  into.     Mr.  J. 

H.  Hare,  B.S.A.,  of  Whitby,  Ont.,  is 
completing  a  system  for  this  county 
that  will  mean  thousands  of  dollars  to 
the  farmers  there.  You  will  note  the 
article  in  this  issue  on  this  subject. 

Cattle  Feeding 

Feeders  of  fat  cattle  for  the  Eastern 
market  should  have  their  cattle  in  fair- 
ly good  shape  now.  They  will  find  the 
keeping  of  them  up  to  this  mark  and 
at  the  same  time  gaining  a  little,  a  very 
easy  proposition.  Increase  will  have  to 
be  made  in  the  feeding  of  concentrates. 
Oil  cake  is  perhaps  the  best  for  this 
purpose.  Molasses  Meal  is  a  fine  thing 
to  keep  the  animals  in  condition.  For 
dairy  cattle  enough  feed  should  be 
given  to  supply  sufficient  protein.  The 
cow  needs  one  pound  of  protein  daily 
per  1,000  lbs.  of  weight  for  her  bodily 
support.  If  she  is  giving  milk  she  will 
need  two  lbs.  more  of  protein  for  every 
50  lbs.  of  milk  daily.  This  protein  is 
best  supplied  by  giving  oil  cake.  All 
dairy  cattle  should  have  an  abundance 
of  roughage,  as  all  ruminants  are  bet- 
ter when  they  are  kept  full. 

Test  the  Corn 

Many  stands  of  corn  were  lost  or 
nearly  so,  last  year,  owing  to  the  poor 
germination  qualities  of  the  seed  used. 
The  Corn  Growers  have  been  urging 
farmers  for  some  time  to  test  their  seed. 
This  is  easily  done  if  a  little  care  is 
taken.  It  is  well  to  have  your  seed 
shipped  to  you  now  in  the  ear,  if  pos- 
sible. Director  Grisdale,  of  Ottawa  says 
that  the  Learning  and  the  White  Cap 
Yellow  Dent  are  the  varieties  of  fodder 
corn  which  are  giving;  the  best  results. 
The  real  corn  belt  lies  in  south  West- 
ern Ontario  and  a  few  other  varieties 
are  doing  well  there. 

That  Financial  Puzzle 

I  have  received  several  correct  ans- 
wers to  the  Financial  Puzzle  given  in 
the  January  Number.  Several  others 
submitted   solutions  that  were  indeed 



ingeniously  made  out,  but  which  neg- 
lected to  take  into  account  the  fact  that 
the  eggs  were  sold  in  each  transaction 
with  each  lad,  at  the  same  rate. 

Correct  answers  were  received  by  the 
following  in  the  order  named: — D. 
Barr,  Jr.,  Renfrew,  Ont. ;  Stuart  Nisvet, 
Wyoming,  Ont.;  G.  W.  Robertson, 
Iroquois,  Ont. ;  and  Gerald  Van  Blairi- 
com,  Picton,  Ont. 

The  correct  solution  is  as  follows : 

The  first  buyer  on  the  market  pays 
1  cent  for  7  eggs.  Tom  can  sell  him  7, 
Dick  28,  and  Harry  49.     This  leaves 

Tom  with  1  cent,  Dick  with  4  cents  and 
Harry  with  7  cents. 

The  next  buyer  pays  3  cents  an  egg 
and  finds  Tom  with  3,  thus  giving  him 
9  cents;  Dick  has  2  and  gets  6  cents; 
while  Harry  has  1,  getting  3  cents. 

Total  amounts  received  by  Tom 
came  to  10  cents,  to  Dick  10  cents  and 
to  Harry  10  cents. 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  this  has 
come  about  in  a  legitimate  and  quite 
possible  way.  The  moraliser  will  prob- 
ably be  able  to  solve  the  whole  differ- 
ence between  the  rich  and  poor  from 
this  instance. 


WE  all  buy  manufactured  goods,  and  wisdom  demands  that  we 
read  the  catalogs  issued  by  the  manufacturers.  Reputable 
firms  live  up  to  what  they  claim  in  their  catalogs.  This  de- 
partment gives  a  review  of  the  recent  catalogs  issued  by  the  firms 
who  are  manufacturing  up-to-date  goods  for  the  farm. 

As  the  name  of  Hornsby  is  so  well  known  by 
agriculturists  throughout  the  British  Empire,  we 
feel  sure  that  their  Engines  will  be  welcomed  in 
the    Dominion. 

The  C.  C.  Shoemaker  Co.,  Box  1126  Freeport,  111., 
have  just  published  their  1913  catalogue,  which  is 
a  combination  of  catalogue  and  almanac.  It  describes 
their  incubators,  and  gives  many  helpful  sugges- 
tions in  poultry  raising.  Every  reader  should  have 
a  copy  of  it. 

The  Alberta  Incubator  Co.,  Box  937,  Mankato, 
Minn.,  are  sending  out  their  1913  catalogue,  which 
is  very  complete,  and  shows  the  improvements  made 
in  the  incubator  line.  Along  with  each  incubator 
goes  their  Ironclad  Guarantee  and  60  days'  trial. 
This  catalogue  will  be  gladly   sent  to   any   address. 

The  Sovereign  Construction  Co.,  608  Lumsden 
Bldg.,  Toronto,  are  issuing  their  booklet  on  Ready 
Cut  Houses.  It  illustrates,  with  fine  half-tone  cuts, 
different  styles  of  houses.  A  plan  of  each  house 
accompanies  the  illustration.  With  the  material  for 
each  house  goes  a  guarantee  covering  the  quality, 
fit,  and  safe  arrival  of  all  material.  Every  farmer 
contemplating   building   should   have    this   catalogue. 

We  learn  that  Richard  Hornsby  &  Sons,  Ltd., 
Grantham,  Eng.,  with  a  Canadian  office  at  212  McGill 
St.,  Montreal,  have  concluded  negotiations  with  the 
Holt  Mfg.  Co.  for  the  sale  of  Tractors  for  farm 
and  other  uses  throughout  the  Dominion.  The 
Montreal  office  will  be  continued  and  will  have 
charge  of  the  sale  of  their  other  Internal  Combus- 
tion Engines  for  farm  use. 

The  Lisle  Mfg.  Co.,  Box  563,  Clarenda,  Iowa, 
through  their  catalogue,  are  calling  attention  to  the 
opportunities  offered  for  money-making  through 
operating  their  Well  Drillers.  This  catalogue  is 
highly  illustrated,  showing  the  machine  operating 
in  Canadian  territory  at  45  below  zero.  Instances 
are  given  where  Canadians  are  making  from  $85 
to  $100  per  week  with  these  machines,  over  and 
above  operating  expenses.  A  card  to  this  company 
will  bring  their  catalogue   to   you.     It  is   free. 

Our  attention  has  been  called  to  the  (General 
Catalogue  as  issued  by  the  Asbestos  Manufacturing 
Company,  Limited.  This  booklet  is  printed  on 
heavy  paper,  with  numerous  half-tone  illustrations 
of  the  Asbestoslate  Shingles  and  Asbestos  Corru- 
gated Sheathing,  as  manufactured  at  their  plant, 
Lachine,  P.Q.  It  is  surprising  to  note  the  great 
number  of  pleasing  effects  which  can  be  obtained 
by  the  use  of  this  material,  although  we  understand 
that  the  style  generally  employed  for  farm  build- 
ings, is  that  known  as  the  French  or  diagonal 
method.  The  Asbestoslate  Shingles  laid  according 
to  this  method  are  very  reasonable  in  price  when 
it  is  remembered  that  they  are  absolutely  fireproof 
and  waterproof,  and,  in  fact,  practically  everlasting. 

They  would  seem  to  be  the  best  kind  of  insurance 
when  placed  upon  the  roof  of  a  farm  house,  barn  or 
stable.  This  catalogue  is  sent  free,  upon  applica- 
tion, and  any  one  interested  in  Fireproof  Roofing 
would  do  well  to  address  a  request  to  Dept.  F, 
Asbestos  Mfg.  Co.,  705  E.  T.  Bldg.,  Montreal. 

Reading  advertisements  Is  profitable  to  you. 






THE  old  Swiss  Lady  who  traveled  up  the 
mountain  side  from  her  humble  valley 
home,  and  who  remarked — "Groodness 
sakes  I  did  not  know  the  world  was  so 
big/'  was  not  so  much  of  a  back  number 
as  the  ordinary  Canadian  may  be  dis- 
posed to  call  her. 

Her  mountain  climb  was  difficult  and 
tiresome.  Physical  conditions  were  se- 
vere and  the  way  seemed  long.  Had  she 
stepped  into  the  comfortable  cabin  of  the 
inclined  railway  her  ideas  of  distance 
would  have  been  wonderfully  modified. 

The  solving  of  transportation  problems 
has  been  one  of  the  big  features  of  the 
past  century.  A  man  has  to  be  a  long 
ways  removed  from  the  ordinary  pale  of 
commerce  to  be  even  as  isolated  in  his  se- 
clusion, as  was  this  Swiss  woman  of  yes- 
terday. Yet  we  have  isolated  lives  in  the 
modern  world  to-day,  despite  the  oppor- 
tunities before  us.  Some  individuals 
have  not  placed  themselves  in  line  with 
this  march  of  progress.  They  are  working 
to-day  with  a  pick  where  they  should  be 
using  a  steam  shovel. 

I  ran  across  such  a  man  in  a  heart  of  a 
good  agricultural  district  not  twenty-five 
miles  from  the  big  city  of  Toronto.  He 
was  a  prosperous  farmer  of  forty  years, 
strong  and  happy.  He  had  no  modern 
power  improvements  on  his  farm,  or  had 
he  traveled  five  miles  from  his  home  in 
his  life.  He  was  farming  with  the  old 
methods  as  much  a  hermit  as  were  the 
storied  recluses  of  ancient  Europe.  This 
man  has  never  been  on  a  railway  train. 
A  slow  traveling  Clydesdale  horse  or  his 
sturdy  own  limbs  constituted  his  trans- 
portation system.       Thus  a  trip  to  the 

neighboring  village  for  supplies  meaiut 
a  half-day  of  time,  and  much  physical  in- 

In  contrast  with  this  man,  the  business 
man  travels  five  times  this  distance  to 
reach  his  office  for  the  day's  work  in  the 
morning  and  looks  upon  the  operation  as 
a  trivial  one.  These  two  stories  tell  ac- 
curately the  whole  development  in  mod- 
ern travel.  Space  has  been  annihilated. 
The  bodily  discomfort  has  been  reduced 
to  a  minimum,  so  that  it  is  not  the  num- 
ber of  miles  a  man  travels  but  the  physi- 
cal handicaps  under  which  he  moves  that 
determines  the  distance. 

No  better  illustration  of  the  wonderful 
development  of  travel  facilities  and  me- 
chanical power  can  be  had  than  from  a 
trip  over  the  splendid  C.P.R.  system  that 
crosses  Canada.  To  entrain  at  the 
Eastern  side  of  the  country  at  the  begin- 
ing  of  the  week,  and  to  spend  the  week- 
end by  the  quiet  waters  of  the  I^acific, 
after  having  witnessed  the  grandest 
scenery  of  mountains,  plains  and  water 
with  all  the  diversified  interests  of  com- 
merce, manufacturing  and  agriculture, 
is  a  pleasure  that  cannot  be  fully  de- 
scribed in  the  pages  of  any  magazine. 
Even  the  photographs  do  not  reveal  the 
wonders  of  such  a  trip. 

Not  the  least  pleasing  feature  is  the  re- 
moval of  all  discomforts  in  passage.  The 
traveler  has  the  same  conveniences,  the 
same  enjoyments,  and  the  same  seclu- 
sion that  he  has  in  his  own  library  or 
den,  is  his  home  on  the  farm  or  in  the 

We  boarded  the  C.P.R.  Vancouver  ex- 
press at  Toronto  on  the  1st  of  last  Oc- 

It  Is  to  your  advantage  to  mention   Farmer's  Magazine. 




tober  with  a  ticket  that  read  via  Saska- 
toon and  Edmonton  with  a  return  via  the 
Crow's  Nest  Pass,  and  the  Kootenay. 

The  splendid  coaches,  the  magnificient 
Pullman  cars  with  a  library  observation 
car  were  at  our  disposal.  The  comforts 
of  a  home  and  the  little  attentions  for 
convenience  and  amusement  which  had 
apparently  been  made  the  subject  of  study 
on  the  part  of  the  Company,  made  it  pos- 
sible for  the  ordinary  routine  of  our  lives 
to  be  uninterrupted  even  to  the  matter 
of  correspondence,  the  daily  news  taken 
from  bulletin,  and  the  afternoon  tea  with 

The  menus  are  also  reasonable  in  price 
and  the  service  the  best  that  can  be  put 
up.  It  was  also  worthy  of  remark  that 
the  dining  room  service  on  the  train  was 
so  good  that  many  persons  expressed 
themselves  as  enjoying  its  service  far 
more  than  they  did  that  of  the  leading 
hotels  in  the  average  towns,  and  that  at 
a  lower  cost. 

At  Vancouver  the  express  runs  along- 
side of  the  dock  where  the  big  C.P.R. 
boats  from  the  Orient  tie  up.  Here  also 
the  Princess  line  of  steamers  load  for  the 
Coast  points  and  Victoria.     The  same  ex- 

Lake  Louise  at  Laggan,  Alta.,  on   C.P.R. 

friends  who  told  of  the  glories  of  the 
various  parts  of  the  world  they  hailed 

From  the  observation  car  the  enjoy- 
ment of  the  scenery  en  route  was  perfect. 
Columbia  the  eagerness  of  the  people,  the 
impelling  principles  of  business  and  the 
enthusiasm  everywhere  manifested  ,  is  in 
splendid  keeping  with  the  magnificient 
and  mighty  works  of  nature  seen  on  every 

One  cannot  speak  too  highly  of  the  ho- 
tel accommodation  wherever  the  C.P.R. 
'has  built  a  hotel.  These  are  furnished 
with  the  same  disregard  of  cost  in  the  de- 
sire to  cater  to  the  comforts  of  the  people. 

cellence  of  service  is  a  feature  of  all  their 
boat  service  so  that  the  passenger  comes 
to  look  upon  the  letters  C.P.R.  as  a  guar- 
antee of  satisfactory  conditions  of  travel. 
It  is  the  same  in  the  Okanagan  Valley  and 
On  the  rear  platform  one  could  breathe 
the  invigorating  ozone  from  the  hills  and 
the  plains;  one  could  feel  the  sweep  of 
the  prairie  winds  from  the  fields  of  wheat 
and  sunshine;  one  could  revel  in  the 
glorious  Chinook  at  the  foot-hills,  while 
the  gorgeous  path  through  the  rockies  was 
a  continual  kaleidoscope  of  surprises  and 
wonderment.  Words  cannot  picture  the 
sensations  of  such  a  trip.  Within  view 
from  Calgary  are  the  snow-capped  rock- 

When   writing  advertisers  kindly  mention   Farmer's   Magazine. 




ies  to  the  west.  We  pass  through  the  Gap  by 
the  Three  Sisters  of  Canmore,  and  Wind 
Mountain  and  on  between  the  tremendous 
uplifts  of  stratified  rocks  broken  out  of 
the  crust  of  the  earth  by  the  Great  Artist. 
Until  at  an  altitude  of  4,520  feet  we  stop 
for  the  night  at  the  beautiful  Banff  Park 
where  surrounded  by  the  mountains,  the 
glories  of  such  an  existence  burst  upon 
you  overwhelmingly. 

The  next  morning  from  the  cosy  bunga- 

by  the  use  of  the  descriptive  Annotated 
Time  Tables  all  the  passengers  appreci- 
ate this  trip  because  of  the  interest  that  is 
attached  to  knowing  the  names  of  the 
peaks  and  the  rivers  with  the  descriptions 
and  history  of  the  surrounding  parts. 

The  tremendous  expense  that  this 
Company  has  gone  to,  to  provide  comfort- 
able and  quick  passage  over  the  moun- 
tains is  indeed  a  wonderful  tribute  to 
modern  science  and  humanitv.     The  one 

Interior  C.P.R.  Observation  Car. 

low  station,  we  once  more  take  train  for 
as  beautiful  a  day's  journey  as  nature  has 
ever  prepared  for  the  tourist.  The  high- 
est part  of  the  Rockies  is  reached ;  beauti- 
ful valleys  are  passed ;  immense  mountain 
peaks  are  skirted  and  at  Field  one  stops 
for  a  time  to  enjoy  the  grandeur  of 
Mount  Stephen  and  Mount  Field  from 
the  comforts  of  the  railway  company's 
palatial  hotel  at  this  point. 

Going  on  down  the  Kicking  Horse 
Pass  into  the  Canyon  of  the  Eraser,  is  a 
succession  of  delightful  views.  By  the 
kindness  of  the  guides  on  the  train  and 

example  of  the  cork-screw  tunnel  under 
Cathedral  Mountain,  will  suffice  to  show 
the  magnitude  of  the  enterprise.  The 
length  of  the  tunnel  is  one-and-a-quarter 
miles  and  the  length  of  the  cutting  out- 
side of  the  tunnel  is  seven  miles.  They 
have  reduced  the  grade  from  4.5  of  their 
first  track  to  2.2.  The  work  cost  $1,500,- 
000.  It  took  1,000  men  with  complete 
steam  equipment  nearly  two  years  to  do 
the  work.  They  used  seventy  five  car- 
loads of  dynamite.  Steam  shovels  were 
operated  by  compressed  air  and  worked 
their  way  from  both  ends  of  the  tunnel. 

Say  you  saw  the  ad.  in  Farmer's  Magazine. 




So  accurately  has  science  reduced  these 
calculations,  that  in  every  case  they  met 

Nevertheless  to  insure  speed  to  the 
traveling  public  on  this  series  of  tunnels 
they  now  use  two  engines  where  former- 
ly four  were  used.  Many  of  these  en- 
gines now  burn  oil  instead  of  coal,  so  that 
the  tourist  on  the  rear  platform  is  not 
troubled  with  the  flying  cinders. 

At  the  Pacific  Coast  after  a  winding 
trip  down  the  Eraser  river  the  scenery  is 
most  delightful. 

Perhaps  the  most  home-like  hotel  on 
the  continent  is  that  of  the  Empress,  situ- 
ated opposite  the  splendid  Parliament 
Buildings  on  the  water  front  at  Victoria. 
The  traveler  meets  not  only  with  every 

and  the  tamarac,  turning  them  to  living 
gold;  in  the  crevices  of  the  rock,  the 
thickly-lined  huckleberry  bushes  flamed 
in  red;  the  native  spruce  and  pine  stood 
emerald  green  against  the  rocky  ridges. 
The  scene  was  most  charming  and  every 
passenger  was  delighted  with  the  magni- 
ficent appearance  of  this  beautiful  yet 
almost  barren  landscape  upon  which  the 
sun  smiled  in  all  its  brilliance. 

From  the  Investor's  standpoint  the  trip 
over  this  line  is  one  that  is  bristling  with 
opportunity.  The  traveler  is  in  constant 
touch  with  enterprising  news  from  all 
parts  of  the  world  and  he  usually  succeeds 
in  getting  a  great  deal  of  useful  informa- 
tion about  the  several  localities  through 
which  he  passes,  by  contact  with  the  men 
who  really  know  the  conditions  in  these 

Farm   Scene,  Western   Canada. 

convenience  and  comfort  but  enjoys  the 
society  of  business  men  and  tourists  from 
all  over  the  world  so  that  as  one  sits  in  the 
splendid  corridors  enjoying  his  magazine 
or  his  conversation  he  becomes  a  better 
educated  man  by  reason  of  the  stories  that 
charm  him  and  the  ideas  that  are  gathered 
from  men  of  other  climes  and  races.  Truly 
the  C.P.R.  has  proven  to  us  that  travel  is 
a  liberal  education. 

Looking  back  over  the  trip,  w^e  find  an- 
other feature  that  is  outstanding.  What 
is  commonly  regarded  as  the  barren 
wastes  of  Northen  Ontario,  the  land  of 
the  stunted  poplar,  as  Premier  Whitney 
once  described  it,  becomes  a  picture  of 
beauty  on  memory's  wall.  In  the  early 
morning  of  October  the  frost  had  just 
touched  the  leaves  of  the  poplar,  the  birch. 

parts.  He  is  therefore  in  a  better  shape 
to  talk  more  intelligently  about  invest- 
ments than  the  majority  of  the  men,  whose 
lives  are  fixed  in  these  places.  He  can 
size  up  the  bigness  of  the  situation.  Ho 
gets  a  grasp  of  things  as  they  are,  and  can 
apply  the  vision  of  his  broader  outlook, 
to  the  detailed  stories  that  he  hears.  He 
can  arrive  at  conclusions  as  others  have 
done  in  their  accumulations  of  fortune. 

As  a  development  of  agriculture,  the 
C.P.R.  is  a  most  aggressive  and  persever- 
ing agency.  We  do  not  wish  to  imply  that 
the  C.P.R.  is  a  big  philanthropic  corpora- 
tion. Philanthropy  never  made  enter- 
prises worth  having.  What  is  better  still, 
they  have  applied  business  wisdom  to  the 
development  of  agriculture  in  every  part 
through  which  they  have  passed.    Especi- 

Reading  advertisements  is  profitable  to  you. 




ally,  is  this  marked,  in  their  land  opera- 
tions around  Calgary  in  the  Irriga^tion  dis- 
trict at  their  big  Natural  Resources  build- 
ing which  has  lately  been  enlarged.  They 
maintain  an  elaborate  staff  of  agricultural 
experts  who  are  working  upon  the  prob- 
lems of  the  farmer  and  the  soil.  Farm- 
ers are  made  welcome  at  these  offices  and 
any  help  that  this  department  can  give 
to  him  by  way  of  increasing  his  returns, 
is  gladly  done.  Their  recent  move  in  en- 
gaging Dr.  J.  G.  Rutherford,  former  Live 
Stock  Commissioner  for  Canada,  has 
marked  them  as  foremost  in  extension 
work  in  scientific  up-to-date  agriculture. 
Another  move    remarks    them  as  pro- 

practice  is  being  discouraged  by  the 
C.P.R.  by  offering  to  small  farmers  the 
help  that  they  have. 

Reviewing  the  whole  system  of  the 
C.P.R.  travel  everyone  must  be  struck 
with  the  wonderful  expansion  of  this  sys- 
tem and  with  the  intricate  knowledge 
they  possess  of  local  conditions  and  the 
painstaking  attention,  they  are  putting 
to  all  parts  of  their  system  whereby  the 
burdens  of  the  public  in  matters  of  trans- 
portation are  being  lessened.  The  en- 
couragement that  is  being  given  to  the 
legitimate  enterprises  and  to  the  develop- 
ment of  the  country  that  has  followed 
the  laying  of  the  steel  across  the  contin- 

C.P.R.   Empress  Hotel,   Victoria,  B.C. 

gressive.  They  are  going  to  loan  the  far- 
mers money  on  long  term  payments. 
The  farmer  can  get  money  up  to  $2,000 
for  twenty  years  at  6  per  cent.  If  de- 
sired, they  will  furnish  the  farmer  with 
live  stock  and  poultry  and  give  him  the 
best  knowledge  of  their  agriculture  ex- 
perts from  their  headquarters  or  from 
their  demonstration  farms  throughout 
their  holdings.  The  C.P.R.  recognizes 
that  there  is  a  big  feeling  in  Western 
Canada  against  the  buying  up  of  large 
tracts  of  land  by  Companies  to  be  rented 
out  for  the  sake  of  making  big  profits  to 
an    absentee   bunch   of   landlords.      This 

ent  is  most  marvelous.  In  a  country 
where  politicians  only  a  short  time  ago, 
stated  there  would  be  not  enough  busi- 
ness to  pay  for  the  grease  on  the  axles, 
there  is  to-day  the  throbbing  of  a  mighty 
empire  with  the  distant  hum  of  approach- 
ing millions. 

The  building  up  of  Canada  will  for 
ever  have  associated  with  it,  the  expansion 
of  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway.  This 
big  National  enterprise  has  gone  into  the 
Avilderness  and  made  its  brambles  give 
place  to  wheat,  its  loneliness  to  joyful 
homes,  and  its  rivers  to  float  a  nation's 

It  will  pay  you  to  answer  advertisements. 






an  absolutely  pure 
cut  plug 

Smoking  Tobacco 

A  blend  of  choicest  Virginia  and 
Carolina  tobaccos — the  natural  leaf, 
unflavored  — sweet,  cool,  mellow,  sa- 





When  writing  advertisers  kindly   mention   Farmer's   Magazine. 




From  Profits  or 


We  all  advertise. 

A  man  advertises  his  character  by  his  deeds,  his  wisdom  by 
his  words  or  by  his  silence.  A  merchant's  store,  stock,  and 
windows  speak  either  well  or  ill  of  his  business. 

So  when  a  man  says  ''No,  I  do  not  advertise,"  he  knows  not 
what  he  says.  What  he  really  means  is  that  he  does  not  pub- 
lish printed  advertisements. 

Some  proclaim  this  as  though  it  were  a  virtue — yet  spend  much  effort  and  in- 
vest much  money  in  advertising  their  business  through  mediums  other  than  the 
printed  word. 

They  may  make  their  wares  fit  for  a  king — yet  hesitate  to  introduce  them  to 
Brown  or  Smith. 

Continued  on  Page  112. 

Index  to  Advertisements 


Hupp  Motor  Car  Co 122 


Canadian  Kodak  Co 136 

Ross   Rifle  Co 131 


Beery,  Prof.  J 125 

Box   222    5 

British  American  Bus.  College  5 

Dominion  Business  College  . .  5 

Home  Corr.  School  5 

Kennedy  School,  Toronto 5 

L'Academie  De  Brisay   5 

National      Salesmen's      Train 

ing   Association    5 

Slingerland's  School  of  Music  5 


Kellogg   Switchboard   Co.    ...  156 
Northern  Electric  Co 154 


Alberta   Incubator  Co 150 

Allen,   S.   L.,   Co.    , 150 

Appleton   Mfg.  Co 151 

Aylmer  Pump  &  Scale  Co 152 

Bateman-Wilkinson   Co.,   Ltd. 
119,  124,   127 

Bissell,  T.  E.  Co 133 

Canadian  Engines,  Ltd 124 

Cockshutt  Plow  Co 159 

Fleury's,  J.  Son's   152 

Grimm  Mfg.  Co 132 

Gilson   Mfg.  Co 126 

Hart-Parr  Co 160 

International    Harvester    Co.. 

119,  121,  123 

Lisle   Mfg.   Co 150 

Luther   Mfg.   Co 153 

Massey-Harris  Co 158 

Martin  Mfg.  Co 135 

McKinnon  Chain  Co 116 

Niagara     Brand     Spray     Co., 

Ltd 145 

Ontario      Wind      Engine      & 

Pump  Co 118 

Renfrew   Machy.   Co 132 

Rife   Engine   Co 124 

Rumely  Products  Co 143 

Tolton   Bros 121 

Vessot.   S.,   &   Co 150 

Waterloo   Mfg.  Co 120 

Wisconsin    Incubator   Co.    . . .  123 


Banwell-Hoxie  Wire  Fence  Co  153 

Canadian   Gate  Co 151 

Owen   Sound  Wire  Fence  Co.  142 

Selkirk  Fence  Co 126 

Continued  on   Page   112. 


Provincial  Chemical  Fertilizer 

Co 139 

German    Potash    Syndicate. . .  151 

Harris    Abattoir  155 

Montreal  Abattoirs,  Ltd 150 


Canadian  Bank  of  Commerce  146 

Financial  Post   130 

Royal  Bank  of  Canada 147 

Slattery  &  Co 147 


Bartlett  Co.,   The    114 

Matthews-Laing,   Limited    ...  132 

Peterborough  Cereal  Co 114 

St.   Lawrence  Sugar  Co 114 

Wilson,  L.  A 142 


Funsten  Bros.  &  Co 144 

Hallman  Fur  Co 144 


Canadian    Heating   &    Ventil- 
ating Co 126 

Smart,   The  Jas.   Mfg.   Co....  129 

Taylor  Forbes  Co.,  Ltd 

Inside  back  cover 

Say  you  saw  the  ad.  in  Farmer's  Magazine. 




sleep  jinx 

For  that  thing  that  tries  to 
chloroform  you  in  the  morning — 
for  that  other  fellow  that  pulls 
the  covers  up  around  your 
neck  —  claims  five  minutes 
won't  matter,  then  double- 
crosses  you  and .  lets  you  sleep 
t  venty: 

For  a  pleasant  on-time  awak- 
<iningy  a  velvet-like  shaving,  a 
Sunday-like  breakfast  —  for  a 
good  hard  day's  work  that  will 
put  feathers  in  any  old  bed — 
tor  a  little  spare   time   around 

the  evenings  and  a  little  play 
with  the  little  ones: 

Big  Ben — seven  inches  tall, 
two  good  clocks  in  one.  A 
rattling  good  alarm  to  wake 
up  with,  a  rattling  good  time- 
piece to  tell  time  all  day  by. 

Great  easy  winding  keys  that  almost  wind 
themselves — big,  bold  hands  and  figures  you 
can  see  at  a  glance  in  the  dim  morning  light — 
big,  jolly,  deep  toned  voice  that  greets  you  on 
the  dot   on    your   drowsiest  mornings. 

Rings  just  as  you  want,  five  straight  minutes  or  every  otlier  half 
minute  for  all  of  ten  minutes. — Sold  by  6,000  Canadian  dealers  gladly. 
— His  price  is  SJ.OO  anywhere.  Made  in  La  Salle,  Illinois  by  U^estclox. 
If  you  can't  find  him  at  your  dealer's,  a  money  order  sent  to  them  "wiil 
bring  him  to  you  attractively  boxed  and  duty  charges  paid. 

Reading  advertisements  is  profitable  to  you. 



Advert  islnff 

From  Profits  or  Losses? — continued 

This  is  inconsistency. 

The  truth  is,  printed  advertising  is  a  vital  force  in  every  business,  just  as  is 
the  '^silent''  advertising  of  a  product's  quality  or  a  merchant's  service. 

When  you  employ  the  Printed  Word  as  your  solicitor  in  the  Court  of  Public 
Opinion,  you  build  good  will  for  your  product  or  service — a  good  will  that  re- 
sults in  profit. 

If  unrepresented  at  this  Court,  your  interests  are  as  unprotected  as  though,  when 
involved  in  a  law  suit,  you  failed  to  ^'enter  an  appearance"  and  the  case  is  de- 
cided against  you — by  default. 

So  it  is  clear  you  pay  for  advertising — one  way  or  the  other.  If  you  pay  it 
wages,  it  will  work  jor  you. 

If  you  refuse  its  offers  of  service,  it  will  work  against  you,  in  just  the  measure 
of  its  employment  by  your  Competitors. 

So  you  are  paying  for  advertising  either  out  of  your  profits  or 
by  your  losses. 

Advice  regarding  your  advertising  problems  is  available  through 
any  good  advertising  agency,  or  the  Secretary  of  the  Canadian 
Press    Association,    Room   503  Lumsden  Building.  Enquiry 

involves   no    obligation   on   your    part  —  so  write,    if   interested. 

Index  to  Advertisements — continued 


Cudaliy    Packing    Co 115 

Cummer-Dowswell,    Ltd 133 

Dominion    Utilities    Co 119 

Dominion   Sales   Corporation.  119 

Fairbank,  The  N.  K.  Co 

Inside  front  cover 
Johnson-Ricliardson  Co.,  Ltd.  133 

Nagle,  H.,  &  Co 127 

Onward  Mfg.  Co 126 

Pugsley  Dingmau  &  Co 135 

Sapho  Mfg.  Co 153 

Western  Clock  Co Ill 


Rutherford,  J.  H 153 

James,    F.   G 139 

Shoemaker,  C.  C 139 


Dorn,  J.  C 126,  153 

Extermino  Chemical  Co 116 

Farmer's  Cement   Tile  Co 153 

Hall-Borehert      Dress      Form 

Co.   of  Canada,  Ltd 129 

Indian  Curio  Co 150 

jMiuard's   Liniment    132 

Northrop  Lyman  &  Co 134 

Ross   Rifle   Co 131 


Newcombe  Piano  Co 131 


Auburn    Nurseries,   Limited..  145 
Canadian   Nursery   Co.,   Ltd..  147 

Dupuy  &  Ferguson    147 

Hewer  Seed  Co 127 

Patterson,  Wylde  &  Co 117 

Ottawa  Nurseries   118 

Rennie,  Wm.,  Co.,  Ltd 149 


Jamieson,  R.  C,  &  Co 139 

Sherwin-Williams  Co 2 


Imperial  Tobacco  Co 109 

Reynolds,   R.  J.,  Co 113 


Director  of  Colonization    140 

Leet,   Leo.   L 140 

LaBaume,  F.  H 142 

Gayman,   Melvin    142 

Sun   Life  Ins.  Co 142 

Texas   Gulf   Realty   Co 141 


Asbestos  Mfg.  Co.,  Ltd...  118,  132 
Bird,  F.  W.,  &  Son 157 


International  Stock  Food  Co.  114 
Pratt  Food  Co.,  Ltd 145 


Beatty  Bros 1 

Crumb,  Wallace  B 139 


Arlington    Co.,    of   Can.,    Ltd.  131 

Clarke,  A.  K.  Co 

Outside  back  cover 
Monarch  Knitting  Co.,  Ltd..  137 
Parsons  &  Parsons  Canadian 

Co 135 

Robinson  Sales  Co 126 

Smith  D'Entremont  Co.,  Ltd.  129 

It  will  pay  you  to  answer  advertisements. 




Get  this 
off  your  mind 

Cut  out  the  fret  and  stew  about 
tongue-biting  tobacco. 
This  applies  to  you,  Mr.  Pipe 
Smoker :  also  to  pipe-shy  men  who 
have  had  their  tongues  broiled — and 
to  men  who  never  did  dare  smoke 
a  pipe  because  every  puff  was  agony. 
Also  to  cigarette  smokers  whose  taste 
has  been  worn  out  by  r/;^^  brands  ! 
Now,  gentlemen,  for  a  short  piece 
of  change  buy  the  2-oz.  tin  of 
Prince  Albert.  Jam  it  into  your  pipe 
or  roll  up  a  cigarette.  Light  up  ! 
Smoke  it  hard,  smoke  it  fast — red 
hot !  Be  as  mean  to  it  as  you  can. 
Just  try  to  make  it  burn  your  tongue! 
It  won't ! 


the  inter -national 
joy  smoke 

hits  a  high  spot   in   pipe   tobacco. 

There's  some  class  to  it.     And  stick 

a  pin  right  here.     No  other  tobacco 

can  be  like  Prince  Albert^  because  it 

is  produced   by    a  patented   process 

which  we  absolutely  control! 

Try  the  imitations  !     We  want  you 

to  know  yourself  just   how   much 

Prince  Albert  tobacco   has  on  'em 

all.     Get  the  question  settled — get 

it  right  off  your  mind  ! 

G.  T.  I.  Q. — which  means  "Go  to  it  Quick!"     Enjoy  a  pipe  as  you 

never  enjoyed  one  before.     Why,  men,  do  you  realize  what  it  means 

to  smoke  four  or  five  pipes  full  at  a  sitting  and  never  even  have  your 

tongue  tingle? 

Most  Canadian  dealers  now  sell  Prince  Albert 
in  the  tidy  2'Oz.  red  tin.  If  your  dealer  does 
not  handle  it,  tell  him  to  order  from  his  jobber. 
Leading  Canadian  jobbers  are  now  supplied. 

Winston-Salem,  N.  C,  U.  S.  A. 

Don't  fail  to  mention  Farmers'  Magazine  wlien   writing  advertisers. 




^T^M#^  IVTillr  ^  ^°^  ^^^  ^^^^  ^^^^  cows  straw  without  any  grain,  and  they  will 
*»*"*  ^  ITAllIkB'  live.  But  they  won't  produce  as  much  milk.  You  can  stuff  them 
with  corn,  bran,  ensilage,  or  hay.    But  they  won 't  produce  half  as  much  milk  as  though  fed  on 


(41  to  48%  Protein) 
Why?     Because  they  are  deficient  in  PROTEIN,  the  milk-producing  element.     They  contain 
a  small  amount,  but  not  enough.  ''Farmer  Brand"    supplies    Protein    at    less    cost    than    any 
other  feed. 

Two  pounds  of  ''Farmer  Brand"  per  day,  added  to  your  home-grown  feed,  will  cut  down 
the  feed  bill  and  produce  nearly  twice  the  amount  of  milk. 

We  have  agents  and  shipping  stations  all  over  Canada.    Prices  $32.00  Ton  Lots  F.O.B.  Sarnia 
or  Woodstock;  $33.00  Toronto;  $34.00  Peterboro.     Send  cash  or  draft  with  order. 

THE  BARTLETT  CO.,  400  Hammond  Building,   DETROIT,  MICHIGAN 

The  Housewife  has  Reason  to  be  Proud 

of  her  baking  when  REINDEER  FliOUR  is  used,  and  the  family 
look  forward  to  mother's  baking  day.  REINDEER  FLOUR  is  a 
SPECIAIi  BREAD  FL-OUR  which  makes  a  sweet,  wholesome  bread, 
that  is  simply  irresistible. 


MOST     OF     THE     BEST     GROCERY     STORES. 



Take  a  Scoopful  of 
Each  — Side  by  Side 

Take  "St.  Lawrence"  Granulated  in 
one  scoop — and  any  other  sugar  in 
the  other. 

Look  at  "  St.  Lawrence  "  Sugar — its 
perfect  crystals  —  its  pure,  white 
sparkle — its  even  grain.  Test  it  point 
by  point,  and  you  will  see  that 




is  one  of  the  choicest  sugars'ever  refined — with  a  standard  of  purity  that  few  sugars  can  boast. 
Try  it  in  your  home, 

Analysis  shows  "  St.  Lawrence  Granulated  "  to  be  "  99  99/100  to  100% 
Pure  Cane  Sugar  with  no  impurities  whatever." 

*'  Most  every  dealer  sells  St.  Lawrence  Sugar." 



It  is  to  your  advantage  to  mention   Farmer's   Magazine. 




The  hardest 
things  clean 
easiest  ivith 











,    _,^    .,.„     i 

fc,.    '  '     ^       '  '    i 

■:'i  "1  n  ri     1 
■71  n  n  ~]   ^ 
:t  n  n       M 

C?  t>utch  " 

J^               Many  uses  Si 

I^^B             '^"  directions 

,^^^^^^                on  large 
■'^ftP^^_         ^         siftercanl04 


When  writing  advertisers  kindly  mention  Farmer's  Magazine. 




Made  in 

Electric-Welded  Chain 

Made  in 



Electrically  welded  from  highest  quality  drawn  steel  wire ;  actually  tested  before  being 
shipped;  lighter  yet  stronger  by  25%  than  any  other  make  of  equal  size;  McKinnon 
Electric-welded  Tie-outs  represent  the  highest  value  possible  to  secure. 

Guaranteed  to  you 
by  the  makers. 

Handled  by  all 
Leading  Jobbers 

25%    Stronger 

Made  by 

McKinnon  Chain  Co< 

St.  Catharines,  Ont. 

Insist  on  McKinnon 
Guaranteed  Chain 

Sold  by  all 
Leading  Dealers 



"Extermino"  has  made  unnecessary  the  existence  of  rats— the  most  effective  agency  in 
the  world  for  the  destruction  of  rats— No  odor,  no  scheduled  poison.  Prominent  agri- 
culturists and  health  officers  testify  regarding  its  exceUent  results.  Equally  effective 
for  mice,  moles,   cockroaches,   etc. 


The  "EXTERMINO"  CHEMICAL  CO.,  Montreal,  New  P.O.  Box  774 


This  is  all  it  costs  you  to  keep  your  stock  in 

prime  condition  with  the  world's  most 

famous  animal  tonic — 

International  Stock  Food 

Every  cent  invested  in  this  wonderful  health- 
^ver,  brings  back  dollars  in  strong',  healthy 
horses,  cows,  sheep  and  hogs. 
Careful  tests  show  that  4  quarts  of  oats  and 
the  regular  feed  of  INTERNATIONAL 
STOCK  FOOD  will  keep  horses  in  better  condition  than 
FIVE  quarts  of  oats  without  it. 

INTERNATIONAL  STOCK  FOOD  will  make  your  cow. 
rain  1  to  4  quarts  of  milk  per  day. 
Nothing  like  INTERNATIONAL 
STOCK  FOOD  to  fatten  animals  for 
market.  Your  hog*  need  it.  Ask  yoor 
dealer  for  it. 

We  have  a  copy  of  our  $3,000  Stock 
Book  for  you.  Send  us  your  name  and 
address,  and  tell  us  the  number  of  bead 
of  stock  you  own. 




Hsyfleld  Sta.,  Uko..  Not.  IIC IML 

laUnationsa  Stock  Food  Co.  I  Ad. 

Toronto,  Ont 

D«sr  Sin,  —I  want  to  mt  that 

SOT  Stock  Food  is  an  ricnt  I 
TO  had  moro  food  from  its  om 
than  any  other  kind  I  OTer  nsed, 
and  do  not  caro  to  itart  winter 
feeding  without  It.  Please  ship  as 
ioOB  as  you  can  to  Carroll.  Yours 
Tsrytnily  (sirned)  JomH  Kogxrs 

Mkmtion  this  Patkb. 

Say  you  saw  the  ad.  in  Farmer's  Magazine. 




The   Secret   of  Big  Crops 
Is  In  the  Seed 






Are  the  Big  Crop  Seeds.  They  possess  the  power  of  giving  wonderful 
tesults,  due  to  long  pedigree,  careful  selection,  purity  of  strain  and  thorough 
resting.  They  produce  as  good  results  in  Canada  as  anywhere  else  in  the 
world,    and    every    gardener   and  farmer  in  this  country  should  try  them  for 

himself.     The  most  successful  growers  of 




Flowers,  Vegetables, 
Roots  and  Lawn  Grass 

throughout    the    British    Empire    are    users  of 
these  seeds  are  perfectly  adopted  to  Canadian  Soils  and  Climate 
is  proven  by  practical  tests   all  overlTthe    Dominion  for    many 
years  past.    Order  your  spring  needs  from  Toronto  office. 

Address  Dept.,    1 


Sole   Agents   for   Canada 

133  King  Street  East 


CO.        _ 



Reading  advertisements  is  profitable  to  you. 






1          i 


A                  JL 

is  the  most  productive  of  beautiful,  large, 

'  B 1          f      ii^Hb' 

luscious  fruit  of  any  variety  in  existence. 

1              flBi^^L  hHK 

A   dozen  plants  properly     cared  for  will 

jLj        flllll^H^^HB 

supply  a  family  with  abundance  of  beau- 


tiful  berries.     Price   of  plants,  $1.00  per 

1    ■^^^^■■^^^^^^^■■■L 

doz.    by    mail,   post   paid   for    GENUINE 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^m  ■ 

TRUE-TO-NAME  HERBERTS,  grown  di- 


rect  from  the  Originator's  stock. 






NURSERY      STOCK.        OUR 




PRISE      YOU,      AND      THE 






&t.  Agnes   Church,  Megantic,   T.Q. 





It  is  very  doubtful  if  any  other  roofing 
will  give  perfect  protection  for  as  long 
as  will 


A  Few  Dollars 

//^  TRADE  MARK       >^ 


More  a  Week 

makes  a  big  difference  in  your  year- 

\    ASBESTOS     m 

ly  income. 


Have  you  ever  thought  how  you 
might    add    to    your    weekly    salary 

^^  M  ^j^ 

without  interfering  with  your  regular 



Will  you  let  us  solve  this  problem 

for  you? 

for,  made  of  Portland  Cement  and  Asbes- 

So far  this  year,  we  have  shown 

tos,  these  shingles     are     practically  inde- 

seventy-five  enterprising  and  ambi- 


tious    clerks   how   to   make   $5.00    a 

No    other   roofing   can   better   guard  your 

week  more  ri-.ring  their  spare  hours. 

building  against  fire,  for  Asbestoslate  Ce- 

They will  each  make  this  additional 

ment   Shingles   are,   in   their   very   nature, 

salary    every    week    this    year,    and 

absolutely  fire-proof. 

longer  should  they  wish. 

Scarcely  any  other  roofing  is  so  handsome 

If  you  would  like  us  to  show  you. 

as  Asbestoslate  Cement  Shingles. 

write  to-day. 


This  is  genuine. 



Address  E.  T.  Bank  Building,     -     Montreal 
Factory  at  Lachine,   Que.  (near  Montreal)      1 

143-149  University  Ave.,  Toronto 

It  will  pay  you  to   answer  advertisements. 





can  be  done  at  home  with  the 


ready  for   use   with    a  reel  of  waxed  thread  and 
three  needles  assorted  sizes  post-paid 


With  each  order  for  a  Speedy  Stitcher  re- 
ceived during-  February  we  will  forward  post 
free  a  Veterinary  Book  on  the  diseases  and 
treatment  of  animals. 


316    Willoughby    Sumner   Blk.    3rd   Ave. 


Think  of  finding  one  to  eleven  $5  bills 

in  the  furrow,  on  every  acre  you 

plant.     It's  been  done  many 
times.  Plant  the  spaces  you 
skip,  sell  the  potatoes, 
ey.    No  extra  land, 
no  extra  work. 
It  costs  no 
more  to 
spray  and 
dig  a  per- 

ork.  aT 

>*0^o*         itself 

*    C*^*       This 


soon  pays  for 

itself  and  yet  puts 

real  money  into  your 

pocket.     One  seed  piece  in 

every  space  and   one  only 

Uniform  spacing.     No  injury 

to  seed.  Ask  your  dealer  to 

show  it  and  write  us  for 

free   booklet,    "  loc  per 

cent  Potato  Planting:' 

We  make  full  line  Potato 

machines,  Garden  tools. 

The  Bateman- 

Wnkinaon  Co.,  Limited 

48*?  Symington    Ave. 

Toronto  Ontario 


Landscape  Gardening 

Having  secured  the  services  of  Mr. 
Roderick  Cameron,  formerly  Superin- 
tendent of  Queen  Victoria  Park,  and 
latterly  Superintendent  of  Parks  of  the 
City  of  Toronto,  the  Auburn  Nurser- 
ies are  in  a  position  to  do  full  justice 
to  the  highest  class  patronage.  If  you 
desire  the  opportunity  of  having  the 
wide  experience  and  ability  of  Mr. 
Cameron  applied  to  your  Landscape 
Gardening,  it  is  necessary  that  you 





Head  Office 








Saves  You 


If  You  Use   the 

I.  X.  L. 



Saves  You 



Price  $3.50 

Washes  a  Tub  of  Clothes  Perfectly  in  Three 
Minutes.  No  Severe  Exertion  Required.  Not 
Only  "Washes,  but  Rinses  and  Blues,  as  Thou- 
sands of  Users  from  Coast  to  Coast  GLADLY 

Sent   Under   a   MONEY-BACK   GUARANTEE 

AH    Charges   Prepaid 

Send    For   One,    You   Run   no   Risk 




Present  or  mail  this  Coupon  and  $1.50  to  Dominion  Utili- 
ties Mfg.  Co.,  Ltd.,  4821/^  Main  Street,  Winnipeg,  Man., 
and  you  will   receive  one  J.   X.   L.   VACUUM   WASHER. 

All  charges  prepaid  anywhere  in  Canada  on  condition  that 
your  money  is  to  be  refunded  if  the  Washer  does  not  do  aU 
that  is  claimed. 






Built  For  Heavy  Service  and 



Have  an  undisputed  reputation  for  Reliability  and  Efficiency.  The  name  Waterloo  on  your 
Engine  is  a  [i^uarantee  of  the  highest  type  of  construction  and  insures  longest  service  and  utmost 
satisfaction.  PLOW,  DISK,  SOW,  IN  ONE  OPERATION 



Portage  La  Prairie,  Man. 

Head  Office  and  Factories: 

Waterloo,  Ont. 

Regina,  Sask. 

Ontario  Wind  Engine  &  Pump  Company's 

"Stickney"   or   "Chapman' 


A  Sure  Thing 

An  Irish  homesteader's  definition  of 
Homestead  Law  was: — ''The  Government 
bets  you  160  acres  of  land  against  $10.00 
that  you  cannot  live  on  it  five  years  and 
not  starve."  The  0.  E.  &  P.  Co.  bets  you 
their  reputation  against  your  time  writing 
for  our  illustrated  catalogues  of  whatever 
you  are  interested  in,  that  you  will  find  the 
machine  that  will  give  you  entire  satis- 

Ontario  Wind  Engine  &  Pump  Co.,  Ltd. 

Montreal         Winnipeg        Toronto         Calgary 

Toronto"   Grinder. 

Chapman"  Well  l>rill. 

•Toronto"    Wind    Mill. 








THAT  is  the  wonderful  speed  at  which  an  I  H  C 
separator  bowl  turns.  The  rim  of  a  six-inch  bowl, 
running  at  separating  speed,  is  traveling  at  the  rate 
of  nearly  two  and  a  half  miles  a  minute,  faster  than  the  swiftest 
express  train  that  ever  ran.  Such  speed  as  this  means  strain  on  shafts, 
bearings,  gears,  frame,  in  every  part  of  a  separator,  such  strain  as 
can  only  be  rendered  harmless  by  the  nicest  adjustment  of  strength, 
flexibility,  and  quality  of  material  and  workmanship.  The  business 
of  a  cream  separator  is  to  skim  the  butter-fat  from  whole  milk,  but  to 
do  this  it  must  be  made  mechanically  right,  or  it  soon  ceases  to  be 
useful  as  a  separator.  The  machine  that  meets  these  conditions  and 
sells  at  the  right  price  is  an 

I  H  C  Cream  Separator 
Bluebell    or    Daiiymaid 

I  H  C  separators  have  that  carefulness  of  adjustment  and  balancing 
of  moving  parts  which  make  for  durability  and  easy  running. 

There  are  points  in  the  construction  of  I  H  C  separators,  such  as 
the  heavy  phosphor  bronze  bushings,  trouble-proof  neck  bearing,  cut- 
away wings,  dirt  and  milk-proof  spiral  gears,  etc.,  which  make  I  H  C 
separators,  beyond  any  doubt,  the  best  of  all  to  buy.  There  are  four 
convenient  sizes  of  each  style.  Ask  the  I  H  C  local  agent  for  demon- 
stration. Get  catalogues  and  full  information  from  him  or 
write  the  nearest  branch  house. 


International    Harvester   Company   of   America 


At  Brandon,  Calgary,  Edmonton,  Estevan,  Hamilton,  Lethbridge,  London,  Montreal, 
N.  Battleford,  Ottawa,  Quebec,  Regina,  Saskatoon,  St.  John,  Winnipeg,  Yorkton 

Tolton's  I  GjvE  YOU  E:".... 

Harrows  j  Double 




HARROWS   with  an    unequalled   record. 

Pre-eminently   the    most   efficient,  strongest  and  most 

durable  Harrow   manufactured. 




Address  Dept.  "M". 


When  writing  advertisers  kindly   mention   Farmer's   Magazine. 

122  FARMER'S  MAGAZINE  "^^  Ve'cVion "" 


President  Managing  Editor  Associate  Editor 


Financial  Post 

of  Canada 

Gives  every  week  the  Facts  regarding 
latest  developments  in  the  Cana- 
dian Investment  Field. 

Throu^j^h    the    Post's    Investors'    Information    Bureau, 

which  is  under  the  personal  supervision  of  the  associate 
editor,  subscribers  obtain,  without  extra  charge,  confi- 
dential and  unbiased  advice  respecting  investments  in 
which  they  are  particularly  interested. 

If  you  are  interested  in  Bonds,  Stocks,  Real  Estate, 
Company  Progress  or  the  General  Business  Outlook, 
you  will  appreciate  the  Post. 



$3.00  PER  YEAR 

The  Financial  Post  of  Canada 

Montreal  Toronto  Winnipeg  Regina 

London,  Eng.  New  York 

''The  Canadian  Newspaper  for  Investors" 

Say   you  saw  the  ad.  in  Farmer's  Magazine. 






You  Will   Need  Extra  Power 

WHEN  you  buy  your  engine,  get  it  big  enough  to 
do  more  than  your  present  work.     If  it's  an  I  H  C 
engine  it  will  last  a  long* time.     Your  farm  work  is 
bound  to  increase  in  volume.     Very  likely  you  can  save  yourself  the 
price  of  another  engine  four  or  five  years  from  now,  by  getting  an 
engine  a  size  larger  than  you  need  now. 

Over-speeding  and  straining  harm  any  engine.  There  is  one  correct 
speed  for  each  I  H  C  engine,  a  speed  at  which  the  parts  balance  and 
at  which  the  engine  runs  without  harmful  vibration.  When  you  buy 
an  engine  powerful  enough  to  handle  your  work  easily  while  running 
at  the  correct  speed  you  add  years  to  its  life.  Get  your  engine  big 
enough  and  buy  an 

I  H  C  Oil  and  Gas  Engine 

An  I  H  C  oil  and  gas  engine  will  deliver  10  to  30  per  cent  above  its 
rated  horse  power  when  occasion  requires,  but  it  gives  the  longest  ser- 
vice when  carrying  a  normal  load.  AH  parts  are  carefully,  accurately 
ground  and  perfectly  balanced.  The  best  material  obtainable  is  used. 
Combustion  is  perfect  and  the  maximum  power  is  secured. 

Sizes  —  1  to  50-horse  power.  Styles  —  stationary,  portable,  skidded, 
vertical,  horizontal,  tank-cooled,  hopper-cooled,  air-cooled.  Fuels — 
gas,  gasoline,  naphtha,  kerosene,  distillate  or  alcohol.  Kerosene- 
gasoline  tractors,  12  to  60-horse  power. 

The  I  H  C  local  agent  will  help  you  decide  on  the  size  of 
I  H  C  engine  you  need.  Get  catalogues  from  him,  or,  write 
the  nearest  branch  house. 


International   Harvester   Company   of   America 


At  Brandon,  Calgary,  Edmonton,  Estevan,  Hamilton,  Lethbridge,  London,  Montreal, 
N.  Battleford,  Ottawa,  Quebec,  Regina,  Saskatoon,  St.  John,  Winnipeg,  Yorktoo 



A  GILSON  "GOES-LIKE-SIXTY  "  ENGINE  With  new  features 
MORE  VALUE  MORE  POWER  and  latest 

MORE  SERVICE        MORE  SATISFACTION  improvements 

Does  satisfaction  mean  anything  to  you?  Does  money  saved  in  fuel,  in 
time,  in  repairs  and  expense  bills  appeal  to  you?  Get  Gilson  Facts  and 
find  out  how  the  Gilson  60-SPEED  engine  does  the  greatest  variety  of 
work— how  it  gives  the  maximum  satisfaction— saves  money  in  equipment, 
rtnd  yields  100  per  cent,  service  at  lowest  cost.  Every  engine  covered  by  a 
cast-iron  guarantee. 

The  new  GUson  5,  6,  and  8  h.p.  engines,  equipped  with  our  new  friction 
clutch  pulley,  with  five  removable  rims,  each  of  a  different  diameter. 
Change  to  the  proper  speed  for  any  job  in  five  minutes.  A  NEW  AND 
EXCLUSIVE  GILSON  FEATURE.  We  also  make  60-SPEED  engines  in 
l-;4  and  3  h.p.  sizes.  These  are  mounted  on  trucks,  with  line  shaft  and 
five  interchangeable  pulleys  and  pump-jack. 
T>Pop  as  a  card  to-day,  and  we  will  send  you  full  descriptive  literature.  We  are  making:  special  prices  to 
the  first  purchaser  of  one   of   these  engines   in   every   locality.      WRITE   NOW.     Agents   wanted. 


Reading  advertisements  is  profitable  to  you. 




for  all  purposes 

is  easily  secured  by  simply  installing 


The  cost  is  so  low  and  these 
rams  are  so  easy  to  install 
that  every  man  can  have  a 
running  water  supply  night 
and  day. 


The  RIFE   RAM  operates  with  any  fall  from 

2  to  50  ft.,  and  will  pump  water  to  a  height 

3  to  25  times  the  fall.  If  you  have  a  flow  of 
3  or  more  gallons  per  minute  from  a  spring, 
artesian  well,  brook  or  river,  write  for  our 
free  catalogrue  and  information. 


2134  Trinity  Building  NEW  YORK  CITY 


SPECIAL— O.A.C.  No.  21  Barley 

cotton  bags  included. 
Peas,   Lakefleld  White 

ton    bags    included. 
Peas,  Early  Centennial 

ton    bags  included.. 
Red  Clover,  Standard  No.  1 

bags  included. 
Red  Clover.  Standard  No.  2, 

bags  included. 
Alfalfa  or  Lucerne,   No.  1  ( 

bags  included. 
Timothy,    Standard    No.   2    @   $3.00   per   bus., 

goes  No.  1  for  purity,  bags  included. 
These  prices  are  for  immediate  acceptance,  terms 
cash,   F.O.B.  Guelph.     Samples  if  desired. 

HEWER  SEED  CO.  -  Guelph,  Ont. 

$1.25  per  bus., 
$2.00  per  bus.,  cot- 
$2.00  per  bus.,  cot- 
!  $16.00  per  bus., 
I  $15.00  per  bus., 
$11.50  per  bus., 

mum,  etc.  in  two  minutes  wit 
out  any  tools.      Saves  Time  and 
Money.      Any  woman  can  mend 
the  holes  in  her  kitchen  utensils. 
25c  pel  package  nostoaid,  enough  to 

mend  60  holes.  AGENTS    WANTEI       

Hirb.  NAGLE  &  Co.,    Montreal.  Can, 

When  He  Wants  Money 

The  man  with  brains  and  initiative  does  not  sit  down  and 
waste  time  wondering  where  it  will  come  from.  He  uses  the 
means  that  are  at  hand  to  secure  it.  He  takes  advantage  of 
his  spare  time  by  spending  it  at  work  that  will  net  him  the 
best  possible  returns. 

The  MacLean  Publishing  Company  furnishes  business  that 
employs  thousands  of  energetic  men  and  women  in  their  spare 
hours.  These  representatives  of  our  publications  derive  a, 
large  revenue  looking  after  our  business.  The  work  is  not  only 
remunerative  and  congenial,  but  fascinating. 




The  MacLean  Publishing  Co*,  Limited 

143-147  University  Avenue 


It  will  pay  you  to  answer  advertisements. 




Learn  Horse-Training 
—Make  Big  Money! 

$1,200  to  $3,000  a  Year^at  Home  or  Traveling 

Send  Coupon  for  "Horse-Trainers'  Book"  FREE 

Prof.  Jesse  Beery,  kn'own  from  one  end  of  the  country  to  the 
other  as  the  World's  Master  Horseman,  having  retired  from  the 
arena  with  an  independent  fortune,  is  giving  the  world  the  price- 
less secrets  of  his  marvelous  success.  A  copy  of  his  wonderful 
''HORSE-TEAINEES'  PEOSPECTUS''  will  be  mailed,  free  of 
charge,  to  all  who  are  ambitious  to  master  this  highly  profitable 
and  intensely  interesting  profession. 

Vast  Audiences  Thrilled 
by  Beery  Exhibitions 

The  thrilling  exhibitions  given  by  this  King  of 
Horse-Tamers  and  Horse-Trainers  have  never 
been  equalled.  His  mastery  of  fierce,  man-killing 
stallions,  without  whip,  curb  bit  or  other  cruel 
devices,  has  astounded  the  world.  The  most  un- 
ruly horses — kickers,  tricksters,  balkers— subdued 
while  multitudes  watched,  wondered  and  ap- 
plauded. Medals,  trophies  and  honors  of  all 
kinds,  showered  upon  Prof.  Beery  by  admiring 
thousands,  bear  eloquent  testimony  to  his  match- 
less skill. 

Learn  Beery  System  by  Mail, 
at  Home 

Prof,  lesse  Beery 

The  Beery  Correspondence  System  of  Horse- 
manship is  the  only  instruction  of  the  kind  in  the 
world.  The  lessons  are  simple,  practical  and 
complete.  Learn  in  spare  time,  right  at  home,  to 
take  the  most  vicious  horse  and  subdue  him  in 
a  few  minutes.  Prof.  Beery  can  teach  you  how 
to  break  any  horse  of  bad  habits — teach  a  horse 
to  drive  without  reins.  How  to  tell  the  disposi- 
tion of  a  horse  on  sight — judging  a  horse  right 
the  first  time!  How  to  cure  shying,  kicking,  bit- 
ing, balking,  fear-of-automobiles-aud-trains  and 
all  other  bad  traits  forever. 

Coupon    Brings"  Prof.    Beery's 

Great  "Horse-Trainers* 

Prospectus"  FREE 

Break  a  Colt  in  8  Hours ! 

The  lessons  in  Colt-Breaking  alone  are  worth 
the  price  of  the  entire  course.  You  can  train  a 
colt,  in  8  hours,  to  be  absolutely  trustworthy. 
There  is  big  money  in  breaking  colts  and  curing 
horses  of  bad  habits. 

Graduates  Making  Big  Money 

For  example,  take  the  case  of  Emmett  White, 
Kalona,  Iowa,  now  a  prosperous  professional 
Horse-Trainer.  Mr.  White  says:  "I  wouldn't  take 
$500  for  what  you  have  taught  me.  You  may 
judge  of  my  success  when  I  tell  you  that  I  have 
been  able  to  buy  a  home  and  an  automobile  solely 
through  earnings  from  training  horses  as  taught 
by   your  excellent  methods." 

A.  L.  Dickinson,  Friendship,  N.Y.,  writes :  "I 
am  working  a  pair  of  horses  that  cleaned  out 
several  men.  I  got  them  for  $110,  gave  them  a 
few  lessons  and  have  been  offered  $400  for  the 

Cut  Out,  Sign  and  Mall  NOW! 


Prospectus"— FREE ! 

If  you  want  to  get  into  a  big  money-  | 

making    profession— if    you    own    unruly  _ 

horses    with    bad    habits— if    you    enjoy  I 

travel— if  you   are   a  natural-born   trader  ■ 

and    can    buy    cast-off    horses    cheap    to  ■ 

sell   at   big  profit   when   trained.    SEND  | 
NOW;    TO-DAY,    fo"    this    grand    Free 

Horse-Trainers'   Prospectus.     TELL   ME  | 


Box  388.  Pleasant   Hill 


Box  388.  Pleasant  Hill,  Ohio 

Please  send  the  book  free,  postpaid. 


Ohio   I  R.  F.  p. 








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It  is  to  your  advantage  to  mention   Farmer's  Magazine. 




ready      | 

Sprayers  $4  to  $400 

For  large  or  small  orchards,  market  gardens,  potato 
farms,  grain,  cotton,  tobacco,  home  and  garden  work, 
poultry  plants,  whitewashing,  cleaning,  cold-waterpaint- 
ing,  etc. 

Bucket  and  Knapsack  Sprayers,  Horizontal  and  Vertical 
Barrel  Sprayers,  Traction  Sprayers  for  field  crops.  Power 
Sprayers,  50,  100,  150,  250  gal.  Furnished  complete  or 
in  part  to  build  up  Sprayers 
already  in  use.  Forty  com- 

No.  190 
50  Gallon  Horizontal 


Now  Made 
in   Canada. 

50  gallon 
Power  Sprayer 

Sprayers  have  outside  pumps— no  corrosion,  pleasant  for  handling;  easy  to  get  at. 
The  pumps  have  the  greatest  efficiency,  that  is,  the  least  slippage  of  any  pumps  m 
use  on  any  sprayer— this  has  been  shown  by  disinterested  tests.  Unit  sprayers,  so  you 
build  bigger  when  necessary.  Ask  your  dealer  to  show  them  and  write  for  new  booklet 
•'Sprayfng  Vines,  Trees  and  Bushes." 

We  also  make  full  line  Potato  Machines,  Garden  Tools,  etc. 





Double  Acting 
Pump,  direct 
connected    Chain 
driven  agitator, 
Outside  sediment 
chamber  and 


480  Symington  Avenue,  Toronto,  Ontario 

Furnished    with 

or   without     Steel 






125-Egg  Incubator  and  Brooder  F.?  $13.75 

If  ordered  together  we  send  both  machines  for  only  $13.75  and  we 
pay  all  freight  and  duty  charges  to  any  R.  R.  station  in  Canada. 
We  have  branch  warehouses  in  Winnipeg,  Man.  and  Toronto, Ont. 
Orders  shipped  from  nearest  warehouse  to  your  R.  R.  station. 
Hot  water,  double  walls,  dead-air  space  between,  double  glass 
ft2c)   doors,  copper  tanks  and  boilers,  self- regulating.  Nursery  under 
egg  tray.    Especially  adapted  to  Canadian  climate.    Incubator  and  Brooder 
te  with  thermometers,  lamps,  egg  testers — ready  to  use  when  you  get  them.  Five 
—30  days  trial.  Incubators  finished  in  natural  colors  showing  the  high  grade  Cali- 
fornia Redwood  lumber  used — not  painted  to  cover  inferior  material.     If  you  will  compare  our| 
machines  with  others,  we  feel  sure  of  your  order.  ■  Don't  buy  until  you  do  this — you'll  save  money 
— it  pays  to  investigate  before  you  buy.    Remember  our  price  of  $13.75  is  for  both  Incubator  and 
Brooder  and  covers  freight  and  duty  charges.    Send  for  FREE  catalog  today,  or  send  in  your  order  and  save  time.  ] 

^^o'^rd^ay?'  WISCONSIN  INCUBATOR  CO.,  Box  217,  Racine,  Wis.,  U.  S.  A. 





shipped  compj 

year  guarant 

When  writing  advertisers  kindly  mention   Farmer's   Magazine. 







Wash   Day 

Makes  the  Clothes  as 

White  as  Snow 

Try  It  ! 

Manufactured  by 

The  Johnson-Richardson  Co 

Limited,  Montreal,  Can. 

Wipe  Your  Feet 

Mud,  snow,  dust  and  dirt  will  not  be 
tracked  over  your  floors  if  you  use 

Grab's  Foot  Scraper 

outside  your  door.    The  only  de- 
vice made   which  cleans  bot- 
toms   and   sides  of  shoe  In 
one   operation.    Has    ten 
parallel  plates  for  scrap- 
ing soles  and  two  stiff 
bristle   brushes     which 
clean  sides  of  shoe.   Ad- 
justable   to     any    size. 
Handsomely    enameled^ 
Looks  neat.    Can  be  ro- 
tated and  swept  under. 
Fastens  to  doorstep  or 
any  handy  place.     Qet 
one    and    save  useless 
-    .  —  work.  Price •1.00.  If  your 

Oealer  will  net  supply  you,  don't  take  substitute,  but  send 
your  order  direct  to  us.   Illustrated  folder  FREE. 

Onward  Mfg.  Co.,  Berlin,  Ont. 



and  the  feature  of  our  terms— the  best  at  the  lowest 
cost— enables  you  to  get  it.  Just  a  few  more  local 
agents  needed.     WRITE  US  TODAY. 



become  a  first-class  Ad.  Writer  in  three  months  by  study 

ing  our  lessons  at  home  during  your  spare  time, 
The  entire  cost  is  only  $30,  payable  monthly.    Shall  we 

aend  you  full  particulars? 



A  perfect  baker.  Saves  fuel.  The  oven  gives  an 
even  heat  on  all  sides  and  the  large  firebox  allow^s 
the  use  of  22-inch  wood  or  coal.  An  ideal  range 
for  up-to-date  farmer. 

Enquire  of  your  nearest  dealer   or 
send  us  your  address  for  catalogue. 

Canadian  Heating  &  Ventilating  Co.,  Ltd. 

Owen  Sound,  Ontario 
Winnipeg  Vancouver  Montreal 


T  S  without  real  serious  meaning:  to 
Jt  many  thousand  farmers  because 
they  think  it  is  too  hard  work  or 
it  is  not  convenient  to  work  a  horse. 
So  many  farmers  fail  to  understand 
what  truly  wonderful  possibilities 
there  are  in    modem    hand    tools 

Wheel  Hoes 
and  Drills 


(Now   made   in  Canada) 

do  all  of  the  sowing-,  hoeingr.  cultiva- 
ting, weeding,  furrowing,  ridging.etc, 
in  any  garden  with  better  results,  far 
less  work  and  some  real  pleasure  for 
the  operator.    38  or  more  combina- 
tions at  $3.00  to  $15.00.     Ask  your 
dealer  about  them  and  write  us  for 
new  booklet.    "Gardening 
with  Modem  Tools"   also 
copy  of  our  paper  "Iron         _ 

Age    Farm    and    Garden ,  .:,Jo«i  

News'"— both  are   free. 

482  The  Fatemau-Wllkinson  Co.,  Limited 

SvTn'rRtor  Ave.,  Toronto.  Ontario. 


The  "COMFY"  Collar  Button  lies 
flat,  is  absolutely  unbreakable.  No 
tugging,  no  pulling  collar  out  of 
shape,  no  broken  button  holes.  For 
collar  comfort  wear  a  "COMFY." 
Sent  to  any  address  in  Canada 

on  receipt  of  25  cents. 


113  We  lih^lon  M..  H«n.teal.  Qae. 

^cT^flb^  B'g  Entertainer  "o^id^dt^ 

153  Parlor  Games  and  Magic,  15 
TriekswithCards,73Toaats.7  Comic 
Recitations,  3  Monologues.  22  Funny 

Readings.  AlsoCheckers,Ches8,Doni- 

Inoes,  Fox  and  Geese,  9  Men  Morris.     All  lOc.  postpaid. 
J.  0.  DORN,  709  So.  Dearborn    St.,  Dept.  41,  Chicago,  lU. 

Sig.  4. 




BUST  and  HIPS 

Every  woman  who  attempts  to 
make  a  dress  or  shirt  waist  imme- 
diately discovers  how  difficult  it  is 
to  obtain  a  good  fit  by  the  usual 
"trying-on-method,"  with  herself  for 
the  model  and  a  looking-glass  with 
which  to  see  how  it  fits  at  the  back. 




do  away  with  all  discomforts  and 
disappointments  in  fitting,  and  ren- 
der the  work  of  dressmak- 
ing at  once  easy  and  sat- 
isfactory. This  form  can 
be  adjusted  to  50  different 
shapes  and  sizes;  bust 
raised  or  lowered,  also 
made  longer  and  shorter  at  the 
waist  line  and  form  raised  or  lower- 
ed to  suit  any  desired  skirt  length. 
Very,  easily  adjusted,  cannot  get  out 
of  order,  and  will  last  a  lifetime. 

Write  for  Illustrated  Booklet,  con- 
taining: complete  line  of  Dress  Forms 
with  prices. 




156  Bay  Street        -        TORONTO 


S.D.  Collars 

TheSmart  Collar  for  Particular  Men 


The  smart  collar  for  particular  men  is  the 
S.  D.  Collar.  In  every  respect  like  a  linen 
collar  without  the  disadvantages  of  linen.  No 
laundering  x-equired.  S.  D.  Collars  can  be 
cleaned  in  a  minute  with  a  wet  sponge.  No 
odor  of  rubber,  no  breaking  or  cracking  like 
rubber  collars.  They  are  perfect  water-proof 
linen  collars.  Just  the  collar  you  want.  Made 
in  linen,  gloss  or  dull  finish. 
Sizes  13-18.     Price  25c  each. 


The   Smith-D'Entremont  Co.,    Ltd. 

1475-1477  Queen  St.  W.      -  Toronto,  Can. 

Heat    Your    House    with 



One  owner  of  a  Kelsey  says:  '*In  place  of 
another  heater  I  installed  last  season  a  Kelsey. 
The  season's  saving  in  fuel  was  astonishing 
and,  at  the  same  rate,  I  calculate  to  pay  for 
its  cost  in  less  than  five  years."     The 

Kelsey  Warm    Air   Generator 

— brings  in  fresh,  pure  air,  full  of  oxygen, 
from  the  outside,  warms  it  and  distributes  it 
in  your  rooms  at  a  saving  of  20  to  30%  in 
coal  bills.  The  very  fact  that  the  Kelsey  ven- 
tilates as  well  as  heats  makes  your  coal  bills 
less  because  much  less  coal  is  required  to  heat 
a  ventilated  house?    Did  you  know  that? 




Reading  advertisements   is  profitable  to 









T  T  matters  not  what  heating 
system  you  use — Steam,  Hot 
Water  or  Warm  Air,  you  cannot 
get  that  much  desired  gentle,  rest- 
ful and  wholesome  atmosphere 
without  proper  humidity. 

ATED  FREELY,  and  the 

*iir  FURNACE 

with  its  big  CIRCLE  WATERPAN  holding  from 
four  to  six  gallons,  presents  the  one  heating 
medium  which  does  afford  a  really  comfortable 
and  healthful  warmth. 


The  James  Stewart  Mfg.  Co.,  Ltd, 

Woodstock,  Ont. 
Western  Branch:  Winnipeg,  Manitoba. 

When  writing  advertisers  kindly  mention   Farmer's   Magazine. 





•  280  ealibre  Examine  the  THROBS  ^^^^^^^ 

High  Velocity'     -^ 

"^         Before  Buying  a  Sporting  Rifle 

Experts  in   Europe   and   America  admit  that  the   R088   .280  High   Velocity   is   the  best  of  modem   arms. 

It  combines   the   flattest   trajectory,    greatest   accuracy,    and  most  smashing  power,  with  the  strongest  and  fastest  of  actions. 

At  Bisley,  in  1911,  it  absolutely  distanced  all  competitors,  winning  almost  every  first  place  in  the  long  range  match  rifle 
competitions,  and  first  and  second  in  the  aggregates,  while  the  regular  Military  Ross  won  the  King's,  the  Prince  of  Wales', 
the  Territorial   aggregate,   etc.,    etc.,    etc. 

Ask  your  dealer  to  show  you  the  "Ross"  High  Velocity,  which,  despite  its  quality,  sells  at  only  $70.00.  Let  him  get  one 
on  to  show  you  if  he  has  not  one  on  hand— you   should  not  miss  a  chance  of  owning  one. 


Other  styles   sell   at  from  $25.00  up.     Every   one  guaranteed. 




The  Acme  of  Comfort 

is  assured  to  every  wearer  of 

«<  CM  AL-I-E:  IM  o 

They  have  the  same  dull  finish,  texture  and  fit 
as  the  best  linen  collar,  and  won't  wiU  or  crack. 
"Challenge"  Collars  can  be  cleaned  with  a  rub 
from  a  wet  cloth ,  Always  amart,  always  dressy. 
If  your  dealer  doesn't  sell  "  Challenge"  Brand 
send  us  25c.  for  collar  or  50c.  for  pair  of 
cuffs.  You'll  be  delighted. 
The  Arlington  Go.  of  Canada,  Limited 
54-56  Fraser  Ave.,  Toronto 

■'  ^-^-V 

The  Leading  Canadian 


The  only  piano  equipped  with 
Howard's  Patent  Straining  Rods, 
which  ensure  permanence  and 
purity  of  tone. 


Contain  all  the  latest  improvements  and 
devices.  They  are  perfect  in  tone,  artistic 
in  design  and  capable  of  giving  life-long 

CALL      at     our     Warerooms     or     upon    our 
nearest  agent  and    make  careful  examinat- 
ion   of    our  Pianos.        If     more     convenient 



19  and  21  Richmond  St.  W. 



IT       $5.00        EACH        WEEK? 
We  have  put  four  hundred  young  and  old  business  men 
in  Canada  in  the  way  of  earning  $5.00  more  every  week. 
If  you  are  an  enterprising  man,  you  can  get  the  same  offer 
by  writing  us.  The  work  is  easy,  educative  and  profitable. 


143-149    UNIVERSITY    AVENUE 


Say  you  saw  the  ad.  in  Parmer's  Magazine. 






$500  in  Gold  Cash  Prizes       " 

Why  not  be  a  WINNER  in  this  Contest. 

We  are  giving  away  $500  in  Gold  Cash  Prizes  to  users  of  the  ''Champion"  Evaporator. 
Full  particulars  will  be  mailed  on  receipt  of  inquiry. 

The  Competition  will  take  place  during  the  last  two  weeks  of  April,  and  the  samples 
of  syrup  and  sugar  received  will  be  placed  on  exhibit  in  the  show  windows  of  the 
^'Montreal  Star."  Every  purchaser  and  user  of  the  Grimm  ''Champion"  Evaporator  may 
take  part  in  this  contest.  Now  is  the  time  to  properly  eciuip  yourself  to  make  high-grade 
syrup  and  sugar — high-priced,  and  therefore  profitable.     Do  it  now  before  the  sap  runs. 

State  the  number  of  trees  you  will  tap,  and  we  will 
give  you  price  on  a  suitably  sized  outfit.  Address 
all  enquiries:  Prize  Contest, 


56-58  Wellington  St.,  MONTREAL,  QUE. 

a  lifetime  without  paint  or 
repairs— they  are  fireproof— 
ligrhtnins:  proof,  wear  proof, 
weather  proof  and  decay 
proof.  Best  for  any  building- 

The  Asbestos  Mfg.  Co.,Ltd. 

E.T.  Bank  Bldar,  Montreal 

Factory  at  Lachine,  P.O. 



Bring  the  largest  profits  aud  require  the  least 
attention.  You  should  have  a  STANDARD 



Renfrew,     Ontario. 


Laing's  Bone  and 
Meat   Meal 

Fattens      and     Increases     the     productive 
power  of   your  poultry. 










on  the 









Because  of  its  capacity,  time  after  time  the 
"Bissell"  Disk  Harrow  has  done  double  the 
work  in  field  competitio'n  against  all  competi- 
tors, under  the  same  conditions. 

The  special  shape  of  the  "Bissell"  plates 
cause  them  to  enter  the  ground  naturally 
and  turn  the  soil  easily.  Steel  scraper  blades 
meet  the  Disk  Plates  chisel  fashion,  and  keep 
the  plates  clean  of  trash  by  movable  clod 
irons — the  only  Harrow  that  has  this  feature. 

Anti-friction  balls  (40)  are  used  in  the 
bearings,  on  every   "Bissell"   Disk. 

The  seat  is  placed  back  on  the  Harrow,  so 
that  the  weight  of  the  driver  when  riding 
balances  over  the  frame  and  removes  neck 
weight.  The  hitch  is  well  back,  making  light 

Search  the  Continent  over  and  you  will  not 
find  a  Harrow  with  such  cutting  capacity, 
easy  draught  and  correct  proportions  as  the 
"Bissell."  A  POSTCARD  TO  DEPT,  Y  WIIiL 

T.  E.  BISSELL  CO.,  LTD.,  Elora,  Ont. 




Means  a  saving-  of 
money  to  the  farmer 
and  his  wife.  The  time  and 
energy  spent  over  the  wash 
tub  could  be  employed  more 
profitably  in  some  other  way. 
It  might  mean  more  and  better 
butter,  poultry,  fruit  and  eggs. 
The  "Playtime"  is  adapted  to 
either  hand  or  power  operation. 
In  either  case  it  eliminates  the 
HARD  work  of  washing  and 
saves  wear  and  tear  on  the 

Ask  your  dealer  to  ihow  you  the 
"Playtime"  or  aend  to  as  tor  lull  In- 
formation 109 

Cammar-Downrell  Ltd.. 
Kaaaitonp   Ont. 

Home  Dyeing 

It's  the  Cleanest,  Simplest,  and  Best  Home 

Dye,  one  can  buy—Why  you  don't  even  have 
to  know  what  Kind  of  cloth  your  Goods  are 
made  of.     So  mistakes  are  Impossible. 

Send  for  Free  Color  Card,  Story  Booklet,  and 
Booklet  giving  results  of  Dyeing  over  other  colors. 
The  Johnson-Richardson  Co.,  Limited,  Montreal. 



THIS  is  what  one  of  the 
circulation  representa- 
tives of  Farmer's  Maga- 
zine earned  in  commissions 
during  the  months  of  August 
and  September  last  year. 
You  can  secure  a  position  in 
your  town  similar  to  the  one 
which  enabled  this  man  to 
earn  the  $300  by  writing  to 

The  MacLean  Publishing  Co. 

141-149  University  Avenue 


It  will  pay  you  to  answer  advertisements, 




Why  Men  Keep  Young 

Nothing  is  more  common  than  to  call  this 
the  young  man's  era.  And  so  it  is— but  not 
altogether  in  the  sense  in  which  the  expres- 
sion is  generally  understood.  Couple  with 
this  expression  the  one  to  the  effect  that  a 
man  is  as  young  as  he  feels  and  the  situa- 
tion is  put  in  a  clearer  light. 

Lord  Strathcona  was  by  no  means  a  young 
man  when  he  finally  attained  wealth  and 
prominence,  and  yet  what  a  notable  example 
to  every  Canadian  Is  "Canada's  Grand  Old 
Man"!  The  achievements  of  this  great  man 
who  is  such  a  potent  factor  in  the  advance- 
ment of  Canada  among  the  nations  is  trace- 
able not  alone  to  his  opportunities,  but  to 
his  virility,  energy  and  unceasing  effort. 

Only  health  and  strength  could  permit  a 
man  so  well  along  in   years  to  do  so   much. 

In  sharp  contrast  to  the  modern-day  active 
man — active  up  to  well  advanced  years  is  the 
man  of  yesterday.  A  generation  ago  men  and 
women  were  looked  upon  as  "getting  along" 
at  an  age  which  we  to-day  consider  as  the 
very  prime  of  life.  Because  they  felt  old 
they  were  old — old  before  their  time  and 
counted  out  In  the  race. 

To-day  the  modern  man  is  slow  to  acknow- 
ledge age  and  slower  to  show  it.  This,  too, 
although  his  pace  is  greater,  the  tax  on  his 
brain  and  body  heavier  than  was  dreamed  of 
years  ago,  and  the  amount  to  be  accomplish- 
ed   beyond    measure. 

Health  is  the  one  indispensable  adjunct  to 
this  twentieth-century  activity.  To  feel  young 
a  man  must  be  well.  All  the  organs  of  the 
body  must  perform  their  natural  functions 
regularly.  The  stomach  must  extract  strength 
from  meals  too  often  eaten  hastily.  The  liver 
must  secrete  its  essential  fluid  and  work  in 
unison  with  the  rest  of  the  digestive  system. 

There  is  no  time  for  ill  health,  no  room  for 
the  unhealthy.  To  the  well  man  age  Is  a 
far-off  thing.  To  the  broken  down  dyspeptic 
age  Is  knocking  at  the  door,  no  matter  how 
young  in  years  he  may  be. 

Clearly  the  care  of  the  digestive  system 
should  be  the  first  consideration  with  us  all, 
for  upon  this  care  rests  the  whole  structure 
of  accomplishment.  To  keep  the  liver  and 
stomach  normal  Is  to  prevent  a  train  of  dis- 
orders so  devastating  to  health  and  spirits 
that  life,  when  afflicted  with  them,  seems  not 
worth  the  living  and  full  efficiency  in  busi- 
ness  is  impossible. 

To  Parmelee's  Vegetable  Pills,  perhaps  as 
to  no  other  remedy,  will  be  given  credit  by 
thousands  of  grateful  users  for  their  age- 
repelling   good    health. 

Parmelee's  act  gently  upon  the  liver,  stom- 
ach and  bowels.  They  are  carefully  com- 
pounded of  mandrake,  dandelion  and  other  in- 
gredients equally  efficacious  for  trouble  In 
the  digestive  tract,  and  their  use  is  never  at- 
tended by  those  distressing  results  usually 
associated   with  unreliable  preparations. 

At  this  season  of  the  year  Parmelee's  Vege- 
table Pills  will  be  found  particularly  valu- 
able. As  spring  comes  on,  the  general  bodily 
condition  Is  usually  at  Its  lowest  ebb.  The 
bowels  get  sluggish  and  lazy,  and,  as  a  con- 
sequence, food  is  retained  in  them,  ferments 
and  causes  much  sickness  and  misery.  Vari- 
ous disease  germs  attack  at  this  time,  and 
to  throw  them  off  a  healthy  condition  of  the 
digestive  system   Is   a  first  essential. 

No  one  should  let  a  spring  go  by  without 
a  box  of  Parmelee's  Vegetable  Pills  at  hand 
for  frequent  use.  As  a  preventative,  as  well 
as  a  remedy,  their  value  has  been  proven  for 
many  years. 

They  can  be  had  from  dealers  everywhere  in 
26-cent   boxes   within   the  reach   of  everybody. 

Prepared  only  by  Northrop  &  Lyman  Co., 
Limited,  Toronto. 

Wilson's    Invalids' 
Port  Wine 

(a   la    Quina    du   Perou) 

is  a  rational  preparation  that  has  the  hearty 
support  of  the  modern  physician.  It  is  a 
superb  brain  and  nerve  tonic  that  success- 
fully combats  the  depressing  effects  of  sud- 
den and  unseasonal  changes  in  tempera- 
ture which  exhaust  the  most  robust  unaided 
organism.     Doctors  know  ! 

Prepared  from  the  rich  juice  of  selected 
Oporto  grapes  and  extract  of  the  Peruvian 
Cinchona  Bark — absolutely  no  alcohol  or 
other  harmful  ingredients  are  added. 

Ask  YOUR    Doctor 

Two  Practical  Books  of 
Exceptional  Interest 

FABM  DAIRTINO  by  Laara  Rose  |1.60. 
Covers  the  Dairy  Business  most  thorough- 
ly from  the  farmer's  standpoint  Miss 
Rose  Is  a  recognized  authority,  having 
taught  for  years  at  the  Ontario  Agricul- 
tural College  and  lectured  very  extensive- 
ly. Indispensable  to  the  practical  dairy- 
man the  teacher  and   the  student. 

TliEMAN  by  E.  K.  Parkineson,  |1.25. 
Deals  exhaustively  and  authoritatively 
with  the  planning  of  buildings,  storing  of 
water,  care  of  stock,  crop  rotation,  etc. 
Just  the  book  for  the  farmer  who  cannot 
attend  college,  or  for  the  city  man  tak- 
ing up  farming  who  lacks  experience. 

Either  of  these  excellent  books  will  be 
sent  to  any  reader  on  receipt  of  two  new 
yearly  paid  in  advance  subscriptions  to 

The  MacLean  Publishing  Co., 

Montreal  Toronto  Winnipeg 

Pon't  fail  to  mention  Farmer's  Magazine  when  writing  advertisers, 





Martin's   Grinders  are   conceded    the 

They  will  save    you  money.      Manufacturing    12  years  and  never  had  a 
repair  list  printed.     All  sizes  from  1  H.P.  up. 


MARTIN  MFG.  CO.,  St.  Louis    Park,  Minn. 


"It's  all  right" 

Save  the  wrappers. 
The  oftener  you  use  it, 
the  more  you  like  it. 




The  KantKraoK  Coated  Linen  Collars  are  linen  collars  waterproofed  so 

that  they  may  be  sponged  off  at  any  time. 

They  fit  easily  and  comfortably  on  the  neck.  Note  the  flexible  lips  at  the 
front,  which  relieve  all  strain,  and  the  patented  slit  at  the  back, 
which  prevents  pressure  of  the  button  on  the  neck.  The  rein- 
forced buttonholes  never  wear  out. 

Ask  your  dealer  for  KANTKRACK  Collars,  or  send   us   25c., 
with   style  and   size. 

One  grade    only  and   that   the  best. 


Hamilton.  Ont. 










Frnm  a  Kadak  neeative  (  roduced) 

The  Kodak  Way 

The  deep  satisfaction  and  pleasure  of  intimate  home 
portraits  of  family  and  friends — taken  in  the  every-day 
home  surroundings  and  atmosphere,  are  possible  to  every 
Kodak  owner. 

Ordinary  window  lighting — no  dark  room 
required  for  any  of  the  work — not  even  for 
developing  and  printing. 

At  Home  with  the  Kodak,  ^^  charminely  illustrated,  tells  you  how. 
Free  for  the  asiin^.     At  your  dealers  or  write  us- 


It  is  to  your  advantage  to   mention   Farmer's  Magazine. 




This  will  be  Popular 

Entirely  New 

Full  fashion  Cashmere 
Middy  Blouse,  a  new  crea- 
tion that  will  meet  with 
exceptional  favor.  Gives 
a  charming  grace  to  the 
figure  and  has  a  neat  ap- 
pearance enhancing  the 
charm  of  the  wearer. 

ATIONS  FOR  1913. 

Middy  L-3 


The  Monarch  Knitting  Co.,  Ltd. 

Head  Office:    Dunnville,  Ontario 
Factories  at  Dunnville,  St.  Thomas,  St.  Catharines  and  Buffalo,  N.Y. 

It  is  to  your  advantage  to   meBtion  Farmer's  Magazine. 




Are  You  One  of  the  Capable  Men 
of  Your  Locality  ?  i 

Does  your  present  income  permit  you  to  enjoy  all   ' 
the  every-day  luxuries,  an  occasional  vacation  trip,  a  new 
watch,  bicycle,  or  possibly  an  extra  fall  suit  ? 

We  are  anxious  to  appoint  a  capable  man  in  your 
district  to  represent  Farmer's  Magazine. 

In  all  parts  of  the  country  hundreds  of  energetic  men 
are  representing  our  publication  supplementing  limited 
home  incomes,  or,  in  other  cases,  making  this  work  their 
only  vocation.  Some  of  them  earn  more  than  managers 
of  leading  concerns. 

The  work  is  enjoyable,  keeping  you  out  of  doors 
and  in  touch  with  the  activities  of  the  community.  You 
will  not  be  a  canvasser,  for  as  a  representative  of 
Farmer's  Magazine  you  will  be  received  as  one  of  the 
successful,  capable  men  of  the  community.  Consequently 
your  success  is  assured  from  the  very  start. 

On  each  order,  new  or  renewal,  you  will  receive  a 
definite  commission,  so  that  your  salary  will  be  gauged 
entirely  by  your  efforts.  No  previous  business  exper- 
ience is  necessary.  We  coach  you  and  co-operate  with 
you  at  all  times.  If  you  will  write  us  to-day,  we  will 
gladly  tell  you  further  about  the  work. 

Do  not  delay  WrlUng 

Farmer's    Magazine, 


It  is  to  your  adyantaire  to   mention   F\arnreT's  MagiaZine. 




Provincial  Chemical  Fertilizer  Co.,  Limited 

ST.  JOHN,  N.B. 

Manufacturers    of 

High  Grade  Commercial  Fertilizers 

Importers  of 

Agricultural  Chemicals 


It  Depends  Upon  the  Paint 
You  Dip  Your  Brush  In 

whether  you  will  make  a  satisfactory  job  of 
your  painting.  The  many  opportunities  for  reno- 
vating your  home  during  the  **STAY  IN'* 
months  of  winter  should  be  seized  upon  when  you 
are  assured  of  the  most  satisfactory  results  by 




The  ideal  paints  for  INDOOR  and  OUT- 
DOOR work. 



Montreal         Established  1858        Vancouvcr 

Owning  and  Operating  P.  D.  Dods  &  Co.,  Limited 


F.  G.    JAMES 

The  greatest   thing  for   keeping  tab   of  your 
stock    is    the    METAL    EAR    LABEL,    with 
owner's  name  and  address  and  any  numbers 
required.     Metal   Ear   Labels  for   Sheep   and 
Cattle   are  inexpensive,   practical,   simple. 
Send    name    and    address    and 
ge*   free   sample   and   circular. 
Send  a  postcard  to-day,  sure. 

Bowmanville,  Ont. 



and  Almanac  for  1913  has  224  pages  with  many 
colored  plates  of  fowls  is  true  to  life.  It  tells  all 
about  chickens,  their  prices,  their  care,  diseases 
and  remedies.  All  about  INCUBATORS,  their 
prices  and  their  operation.  All  about  poultry 
houses  and  how  to  build  them.  It's  an  encyclo- 
pedia of  chickendom.  You  need  it.  ONLY  15c. 
O.    C.    SHOEMAKER,    Box    1126,    Freeport,    m. 



Hem-y  H.  Albertson,  Burl- 
ington, N.  J.,  writes:  "My 
new  Stanchions  add  greatly 
to  the  comfort  of  my  cows." 


yours  with  rigid  stanchions? 
Send  for  specifications 
^  of  Inexpensive  yet  sani- 
-tary  cojv  stable  to 
Wallace  B.  crumb.  F3,Forentvllle,Conii..U.8.A, 

Canadian  orders  filled  from  Canadian  factory. 
All  correspondence  should  be  addressed  to  the  home  offics. 
State  in  inquiry  if  you  prefer  booklet  in  French  or  EngUeh. 

It  will  pay  you  to  answer  advertisements. 




City.-"  Real  EstateOpportunities 



Before  deciding  to  leave  Ontario  consider 
well  the  opportunities  which  she  offers  on 
every  hand.  Consider  the  various  types  of 
soils  capable  of  producing  all  the  products 
between  No.  1  hard  spring  wheat  and  the 
tender  fruits  such  as  peaches,  apricots,  and 
also  early  vegetables  and  melons.  Consider 
the  equable  climate  possessed  by  the  more 
southerly  portions,  while  that  of  the  north- 
erly parts  is  to  be  preferred  be