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Full text of "Father Tuck's natural history book. Animals, birds, fishes, reptiles & insects"

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Natural History. 

Natural History is the science that teaches us about all living creatures, 
and it is impossible to imagine a more interesting subject. The more 
one learns about the habits of the thousands of living things that inhabit 
the world, the more one wonders at the marvels of Nature. 

It does not fall to the lot of most children to be able to study the ways 
of many animals in their natural state, but they can always read about 
them , and in their own country there is always plenty of animal life 
around them, and even the most commonplace things are extremely 

interesting if their habits are carefully observed. There can be no doubt 
that the study of these creatures both large and small enlarges the mind 

and fills the heart more and more with admiration and love of Nature. 




ZEBRA : Two species of this animal are found in. South Africa, the one frequents mountainous .districts, while the 


other only inhabits the plains. It is a beautifully marked creature and is of the same species as the 
i horse and ass, but it is almost untameable. 

BISON : The bison’s home is in North America, but there are very few of these animals left, except in the private 
parks. They are very often wrongly called the buffalo, but ‘buffaloes are not to be found in America, 
but in South Africa. , 

MONKEYS: These are to be met with in most tropical countries, for they love heat and dislike the cold. They are 
very mischievous and are gifted with the power of mimicking. There is a very large variety of these 
animals including apes, baboons, and many other sorts of monkeys. 

ML-V- v ' ■ & I - ' ’ 










GIRAFFE: This is the tallest animal in the world and has no other native cotmtry than Africa. - 

CAMEL: This is a drawing of the Arabian camel, which has one hump and is found mostly in Arabia, Syria and 
Northern Africa. It is sometimes called the dromedary. ' , ; . 





ALPACA : The hair of this animal is long and silky. He is not found in a wild state but is raised with great care 

by South Americans for his valuable coat. - 

ANTELOPE: There are numerous species of this beautiful little creature and they 'are to be found in many parts 
of the world. The name antelope means the beautiful eye. 

KANGAROO: The home of this curiously- shaped animal is Australia, and New Guinea, and the islands near by. 

, : v The kangaroo can spring fifteen feet in a, single leap. v 

-' ' 































Cape Buffalo 


ZEBU There are several kinds of zebus, some big as large oxen, others as small as a Newfoundland dog. In 

India, China, and the east coast of Africa they are the domestic cattle. 

COW: It is hardly necessary to say anything about our friend the cow, she is so well known to most of you. * 

YAK: The yak is a mountain ox, his home being in the hills of Thibet. He is tamed and made very useful to 
his owners. 

GAYAL: A wild ox often tamed in the East. 

CAPE BUFFALO: This is a fierce and strong beast. His horns sometimes measure four or five feet between the 
points. His home is Southern Africa. 


Cow 


Yak 







. * ~ Two Toed Sloth - 

\ > 

FOX: This little animal is found wild all over the world; and of all beasts of prey he is considered to be the most 
cunning and sagacious. , * 

HYAEJJA: He is a nasty, cruel, cowardly beast who lives in Africa and Asia. He belongs to the dog tribe, and is 

something like a large spotted wolf. 

* 

BADGER: The badger is found in Europe and Asia. He lives a solitary life in the wood, and burrows underground. 
The 'flesh of the badger is considered a great delicacy. 

TWO TOED SLOTH: This peculiar animal inhabits South America. It always moves in the way shown in the 
picture, and never on the top of the branch. 




















Indian Rhinosceros 



/ v / . rT 

ELEPHANT: largest and strongest animal ot. his class. He comes from Asia and Airica. The Indian 

elep^Btsvis' larger than his African brother, and both are most useful animals, being exceptionally 
clever and easy to train. They are also hunted for their tusks, which are very valuable, and from 
, which ,fehp be d ivory is obtained. ✓ 


RHINOSCEROS: He is a cousin of the elephant, and also makes his home in the warm parts of Africa and India 

• ' . •*_ * * 



.^/rhe rhinosceros has an extraordinary love for its young which the little things return. 
/ T^/that the African rhinosceros has two horns, whereas the Indian species has only one. 



You notice 






























ROEBUCK: This is a graceful animal about the size of a large dog. He is much petted and kept m parks. 

Unlike most deer he lives in pairs instead of herds. 

* i 

REINDEER: One of the most important animals in Northern Europe. He is taught to draw sledges and to carry 
' men or packages on his back. 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN SHEEP : As the name shows, these are the wild sheep of the Rocky Mountains in North 
America. - ( • 

RED DEER: They are to be found in Asia and most of Europe . 1 


MUSK OX: This creature’s home is in the most northern part of America. He is fleet and sure footed ampng the 
rocks where he dwells. ' v - 

























Armadillo Flying Fox ", v > > 

TASMANIAN WOLF: This animal, as can be seen from the drawing, is prettily striped and is not'very unlike a 
fox. Tasmania is. a portion of Australasia. 

CAPE ANT-EATER: This strange creature lives in South Africa and is also known by the name of Aard Yark. 

ARMADILLO : He is well known in Central and South America, and has a peculiar armour or covering of horny 
plates on his back. 

FLYING FOX: This animal belongs tp .the bat tribe, and its home is in the Tropics. Its food consists of fruit. 

GLUTTON : The glutton lives in the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. He is very greedy, hence his 
name. He is also called the wolverine. 






















BROWN BEAR : This bear is more common than any other in Europe, and is also found in Asia, Japan, and 

America. He sleeps through the. winter, and is often tamed as a pet for travelling shows. 

POLAR BEAR: This is the largest animal in the bear family. His home is in the Arctic Regions. His 
silver white lightly tinged with yellow. 

SEAL: This wonderful animal lives the greater portion of his life in the sea, but he likes to sleep on land and bask 
in the sunshine. Instead of legs he has fins which enable him to swim and dive very beautifully, but 
when out of the water he is very awkward. He is hunted for his skin. 

WALRUS: This creature is of the same tribe as the seal, but he is much larger. 

Y ' . - ' 




















































TIGER: This, the fiercest and most powerful of the cat tribe, lives in the jungles of India, and some other parts of 
Asia, where it is considered a royal sport to hunt him. 

LEOPARD : Africa and Asia are the native countries of the leopard. Men as well as animals dread the leopard for 
he has a crafty brain in addition to strong and supple body and sharp teeth. 

LYNX: This creature has a very sharp sight. He is to be found in the forests of Europe and America, and 
* very much resembles the wild cat. 

CIVET-CAT: He is a native of several parts of Africa and India. In appearance he is something like a fox. 


Leopard 


Civet-Cat 


















RACCOON : Is chiefly found in the northern parts of America, and also in some of the West Indian Islands. He is 


a very savage little animal, at the same time he can be tamed. The fur of the raccoon is valuable. 

LION: He is called the King of Beasts. His home is chiefly in Africa although he is sometimes found in Asia. 

CAT : This little animal whom we love so well belongs to the same family as the savage lion, although we all 
know how different his nature is. 

WOLF: A ferocious animal found in Europe, Asia, and America, and one to be dreaded by travellers across country. 

DOG: This is our faithful friend. There are many species of dogs, but they are one and all devoted to man. The 
faithful dog is first cousin to the cunning wolf. 







HIPPOPOTAMUS: A gigantic inhabitant of the African rivers, who lives on grass and other herbage, and doe’s 
much damage to the rice plantations when he has an opportunity... 

;WILD BOAR: Is a native of .Europe and Asia, he is a fierce animal armed with long, sharp, and curved tusks. 

PORCUPINE: This strange animal, covered with sharp quills, inhabits Africa, India, the Indian Islands and warm 
parts of Europe. He is a solitary animal and is never seen by daylight when he stays in his burrow. 

BEAVER: This is a clever little, creature who lives in the rivers of North America where he builds for himself most 

wonderful houses out of mud and trees. He is hunted for his fur.' 

> * , . ^ , . 

HEDGEHOG: A funny little animal, covered with spikes, to be found in most parts of Europe and Asia. He eats 
beetles and worms, and slugs and snails, and is therefore useful to keep in'the garden and kitchen to 
rid the house of pests. 










































HARE : A most timid creature known all over the world. His flesh is excellent eating, and in consequence he is much hunted 


SQUIRREL: This animal is also known almost everywhere. It lives mostly in trees where it builds nests. 

RAT: This is also to be met with everywhere, and is looked upon as vermin. 

DORMOUSE: Is not unlike a little squirrel; he builds his nests'in summertime in the bushes, and in the winter 
goes to sleep for several months in holes and hollow trees. 

BAT: This singular animal has wings with which he goes whirring about in the night-time. There are many varieties, 
and they range in size from that of a mouse to a squirrel. Large bats live in tropical countries. 

MOLE : A peculiar little creature something like a mouse who lives his life underground where he bores most wondertul tunnels. 

DUCK-BILLED PLATYPUS: Its home is in New Holland and Van Dieman’s Land, and in form, it is one of 
the most extraordinary creatures in nature, too wonderful to describe in a few words. 

JERBOA: Is something between a squirrel and a rat ft is a native ot Egypt, and is also found in the Cape of Good Hope- 
















\ 



PIGEONS: There is a very great variety of these birds of alk shapes, colours, and sizes, but they are all. descended 
from the common dove. 

BLUE TIT: This is one of the prettiest of British birds, although very small. 

QUAIL: The home of the quail is Asia, Africa and Southern Europe, it is a brown bird something- like a partridge. 

CUCKOO : Everybody rejoices when they hear the voice of this bird, as it is an assurance that Spring is at hand. The 
cuckoo does not build a nest but lays its egg in that of another bird.. 

ROBIN: This bright little bird with a. red breast.sings cheerfully in the winter months. 

WREN : One of the smallest of British birds, it lays sometimes no less than eighteen eggs. 

KINGFISHER: This bird has a very brilliant plumage, it lives on the banks of rivers. Its principal food is fish. 

HUMMINGBIRDS: These are the smallest and most brilliantly coloured birds in the world. They are only to be 
found in very hot countries. 






























TURKEY: The Turkey originally came from North America where it is still to be found in a wild state. It is a very 
useful member of the poultry yard. - .- 

PEACOCK : A bird of splendid^ plumage chiefly found in parks and ornamental gardens. It originally came from India. 
GUINEA FOWL: This bird is a native of Africa but is now common in most poultry yards. The eggs are considered 
delicious eating. J C 

FOWLS : It is hardly necessary to describe these creatures. We are all familiar with them. 

GOOSE : This bird belongs to the web-footed family-. In its wild state it is to be found in all parts of the world 
from Lapland to the Cape of Good Hope. _ ; » 










































Pheasant 



a\vv* 


Golden Pheasant 


Silver Pheasant 


MAGPIE : A very handsome bird, but an exceedingly mischievous one. He kills the young of other birds and 
destroys small game. When tamed he can be taught to say a few words. 

JAY: The jay inhabits mostly temperate parts of Europe, living in woods and feeding on acorns, berries, etc. It is 
a pretty bird and it also can be taught to say a few words. 

PHEASANT : This beautiful bird originally came from eastern climes. The pheasant tn England is considered game, 
and no one is allowed to shoot it without a licence from Govern ment. 

GOLDEN PHEASANT: This is another species of remarkable beauty, and is a native of China. 

SILVER PHEASANT : This again is another rare species. It is of a silvery white colour with very delicate black 
lines on each feather. This bird also comes from China. 






The Swallow whose nest the Chinaman eats 



SWALLOW. There are very many different kipds of swallows, but the one here shown is remarkable for the nest 
which he builds. This nest has the appearance of isinglass, and in the East it is considered a very _ 
great delicacy, a delicious soup being made from it. 

BLACK COCK: This is a species of grouse common in Russia, Siberia and other northern countries. 

RED GROUSE : This species is much smaller than the black grouse or black cock. It is peculiar to Great Britain, 
and is very plentiful in the Highlands of Scotland and the northern counties of England and Wales. 

PARTRIDGE: This is one of the birds that in England is considered game, but it is found all over Europe. 

CROWNED PIGEON : So called from the crest of feathers on its head. It is one of the handsomest of the pigeon tribe. 



















STORKS : These are very useful birds for they destroy vermin in great quantities. They are to be found in most of 
the temperate parts of Europe though they rarely visit England. There is also a species inhabits 
various parts of America. . . \ , 

ADJUTANT : This remarkable bird is a native of the warmer parts of India and, lik.e the Stork, is useful in destroying 
obnoxious animals. It measures, from the tip of the bill to the claws, no less than seven and a half feet.' 
SPOONBILLS: These birds are the same order as the Stork, and in different varieties are to be found both in Europe 
and America. • 

SWALLOW: The swallow is almost continually on the wing, searching for its food which it eats when flying, and 
which consists of insects. All swallows migrate to warm countries as soon as the cold weather approaches. 
MARTIN: This is another species of swallow, and it is very common in England. 































Macaw 


Cockatoo 


Toucan 


LOVE BIRDS: A beautiful and very small species of parroquet found in tropical countries. 

MACAW: This magnificent bird also belongs to the parrot tribe. It is most gorgeous in its colouring, and its home 
is South America. * ■ 

'GRAY PARROT: This species is remarkable for the way it talks. It can be taught to say long sentences and 

to pronounce every word correctly. This bird comes from Africa. „ 

TOUCAN: A wonderful bird distinguished by the enormous size of its bill, which in some species is nearly as long 
and large as the body itself. It is only found in tropical America. 

COCKATOO: The Cockatoo belongs to the same family as the parrot, but is distinguished by a crest on its head 
which it can raise or depress at will. It is a native of Australia and the Indian Islands. 



















TAILOR BIRD: The Tailor Bird lives in India and - Ceylon, and gets its name from the fact that it stitches 
its leaves together to make its nest, with thread formed of spider’s web. 

LYRE BIRD: So called from its tail which is in the form of a musical instrument called the Lyre. It is a very 
curious and beautiful bird' and its home is Australia. 

WOODPECKER: There are many species of this bird, so called because it pecks at the bark of trees in search 
of food. The various species are to be found in Great Britain and in North and South America. 

DOTTREL: This bird inhabits the Northern parts of Asia and Europe. It is a migratory bird , that is to say living 
in one country at one time of the year and flying to another at another time of the year. 

PLOVER: There are several species of Plovers found in Europe and America. The eggs of these birds are considered 
great delicacies. . 

WOODCOCK: ’This is a migratory bird belonging to the snipe kind. It is to be found on moors and gives excellent 
sport. Its flesh is very good to eat. „ • , • 


























































RUFFS: These birds are almost always fighting. They are migratory birds and appear in great numbers in Northern 
Europe at certain seasons of the year. . • 

KIWI: This is a wingless bird of. New Zealand, and a very peculiar' looking creature. ' - . 

CURLEW: This bird is of the snipe tribe and inhabits marshes and feeds upon worms.. It is met with in most parts 

of Europe and also in several parts of Asia. , 

OSTRICH: The Ostrich is a very large bird and stands from seven to eight feet high. He has-hardly any wings but 

his legs are very powerful and he can run at a great speed. He is an inhabitant of Africa where he 

is reared for his beautiful feathers. 

EMU: A very singular bird and a native, of Australia.lt is. nearly as large as the Ostrich. It is hunted for the oil 
which isr obtained from its flesh. 

CASSOWARY-: A peculiar bird which is only to be found in the South Pacific Islands. It is an amazingly swift 
runner, far surpassing the speed of a horse. 





























































CONDOR : A large species of vulture found in the highest parts of the Andes. 

VULTURE: A bird of prey of which there are many species, some of which inhabit the South of Europe, the 

others Asia, and tropical America. It is a very repulsive bird of a horrible nature. 

EAGLE : There are also many species of this bird to be found all over the world. It is a bird of prey, but, unlike 
the Vulture, it is very courageous. 

FALCON: The species of this bird are very numerous. They are handsome birds but much smaller than the Eagle. 
In former' days they were used to chase game, and the sport was called Falconry. 

KESTREL: A beautiful bird of the hawk kind. It is to be found all over Europe . and the more temperate 

parts of America. 













Flamingo 


Long-tailed Tit 


Thrush 


LONG-TAILED Tit: An active little bird that is always flitting from spray to spray and suspending itself 
in all kinds of attitudes. It is common in Great Britain. 

FLAMINGO : Is a strange and beautiful aquatic bird. It lives in the warm climates of Asia, Africa, and America. 

THRUSH: A bird with a beautiful song. There are numerous kinds of Thrushes, but the best known and admired 
is the song-thrush or mavis. 

SWAN: A handsome white web-footed bird generally to be seen in ornamental waters. The wild Swan is to be 
found in Europe, Asia and America. A totally black Swan is found in Australia. 

PELICAN: Flocks of these birds are to be found in Egypt in September, and in the summer months they take 
up their abode on the borders of the Black Sea and the shores of Greece. They are fish eating birds 
and have a very remarkable appearance. 














Barn Owl 



Heron 


Great Horned or Eagle Owl 


BARN OWL: There are many sorts of Owls, and one of the commonest species is the common White, Barn, or 
Screech Owl. These birds are. peculiar in that they sleep by day and fly about by night. / 

THE GREAT HORNED or EAGLE OWL : It is very destructive to hares, rabbits and game generally. It is 
to be found in the mountainous parts of Central Europe and in almost every quarter of the United States. 

NIGHT JAR or GOATSUCKER: There are many kinds of Goatsuckers. They are migratory birds and like 
the Owl are seldom seen in the daytime. Various species are found all over the world. 

•HERON: This bird belongs to the same' family as the Stork. It lives on the banks of lakes and rivers and 
marshy places. The Heron, of various kinds, inhabits nearly all countries. 

SECRETARY BIRD : His home is in Southern Africa. He is a bird of prey and lives on reptiles, especially serpents. 
* * 


A? 


Night Jar 


Secretary 
* Bird 

















































GREAT CRESTED GREBE: This bird is found in almost every lake in the North of Europe and is mostly valued 
for the plumage of its breast. 

PENGUIN: An aquatic bird found only in the Antatctic Seas. The wings are so small that they have not the power 
of raising the body. They are very fast swimmers and when on land walk in an upright position. 

CORMORANT: This is the greediest of all web-footed birds. It is a most excellent diver and pursues fish 
with great swiftness beneath the surface of the water. The Cormorant is found in every climate. 

STORMY PETREL: The smallest of web-footed birds. This little creature is much dreaded by sailors as it is the 
forerunner of bad weather. Sailors call it ’’Mother Carey’s Chicken 

PUFFIN: These birds are met with in every part of Northern Europe where they inhabit the rocks on the sea 
coast. They are noted for their very strong bills-. 

SEAGULL: The species of this web-footed bird are very numerous and they are found all over the world, 
often in prodigious quantities. 














































SALMON: This handsome fish is chiefly found in northern temperate countries. It quits the sea at certain seasons 
for the gravelly beds of rivers. A full grown Salmon averages in weight from between twenty and thirty 
pounds. It is celebrated for the delicacy of its flavour. 

PIKE : This fish is found in the fresh waters of most parts of Europe. It grows to a large size, weighing sometimes 
as much as forty pounds. It is a very strong, fierce, and active fish. 

PERCH: Is found nearly all over Europe, and varies in size from ten to eighteen inches. 

TROUT: It belongs to the same genus as the salmon, and is much sought after by anglers. It is also very good 

to eat, and is to be found in most of the rivers of temperate Europe. 

EEL: This fish is very like a snake, and is to be found in nearly all countries in various forms. 

BREAM: A fish of the carp tribe, by no means nice to eat. • 

BARBEL: The flesh of this fish also is very coarse and is seldom eaten. It sometimes measures as much as three 

feet in length, and it is to be found in great quantities in the Thames. 

















































DOG-FISH: A species of shark. It is caught in considerable quantities on the British coast. Its rough skin is 
used for polishing wood. • • A ’ 

JOHN DORY: There are many species of this strange looking creature, they are to be found in the Mediterranean, 

Northern, and Atlantic Seas. It is considered a delicious fish to eat. • * s 

BASS: There are several kinds of Bass, or Sea-perch as they are sometimes called. The striped Bass grows to 
• an enormous size and weighs sometimes as much as sixty or seventy pounds. 

HADDOCK: The Haddock is a native of the Northern Seas where it assembles in large shoals ) and forms a great 

, industry for fishermen. 

SOLE : Is considered the finest fish for the table. It is to be found on the British coast,, and in the Northern 
* Baltic, Mediterranean and American seas. ^ 1 - y I 

BULL-HEAD . Is a peculiar little fish about four inches long to be found in the clear rivers of most parts of Europe. 








































Sword-Fish from Indo-Pacific 



SWORD-FISH : There are many kinds of Sword-Fish, the one shown here comes from the Indo-Pacific Ocean. It has 
not unfrequently happened that a Sword-Fish has struck a ship and driven its sharp weapon through the 
planking. 

SEA-PERCH: This illustration represents another species of the Sea-Perch or Bass. 

TARPON : Is one of the" so-called big-eyed herrings, and is common in the warmer waters of the Atlantic. 









COD: It is almost impossible to estimate too highly the importance of this valuable fish. It lives in immense shoals in 
• the Northern Seas. , 

CONGER EEL: The largest of the Eel tribe, it sometimes weighs as much as a hundred pounds. It resides generally 

in the sea. 

PLAICE : A common fiat fish that swims with great rapidity and is greatly esteemed for food. 

HERRING This fish frequents the coasts of Great Britain in enormous quantities, and provides food for thousands 

. upon thousands of persons. 

SWORD-FISH: Here is the illustration of another species of Sw 7 ord-Fish. The common Swmrd-Fish is sometimes more 
than twenty feet long. 

MACKEREL : This well known fish is one of the most beautiful with regard to the brilliancy of its colours, and is one of the 
most useful for food. It is a native of the European and American Seas and lives in great shoals. 
GREY MULLET: Is an inhabitant of the Mediterranean and Northern Seas, like the salmon, this fish in the summer 
ascends rivers to a considerable distance. 







> 


































SUN-FISH : This is a very remarkable looking fish, being nearly round. It grows an immense size and sometimes ' 
weighs as much as five hundred pounds. It is very fat and yields a quantity of oil. 

SEA-HORSE: This is a curious little creature inhabiting the seas of Europe. 

COBBLER FISH: Has derived its name from the long sharp spines on its fins which are thought to be like the 
awl and bristles used by cobblers. It lives in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. 

TIGER-FISH: or Sea-Wolf. This fish is very useful to the Icelanders who salt its flesh for food and use its skin for leather. 

FLYING-FISH: There are different species of this fish to be found in the Mediterranean and in the tropics. Their 
side fins are so long that they use them as wings. 

SKATE: This is a very peculiar flat fish and varies considerably in size. It is very voracious and is to be found on 
, , the Scottish coast, and also on the coast of Cornwall and Kent. 

CLIMBING PERCH; It is to be met with in Asia and the East Indies. It travels across country at night and in 
the early morning when the ground is moist With dew. 


. 















































































HAMMER-HEADED SHARK: Of all sea animals this perhaps is the most peculiar in shape. It is a native of the 
Mediterranean and Indian Seas. It is very voracious and will attack bathers. 

SHARK: There are also many other species of this terrible fish, but the White Shark is the most formidable of all and 
it sometimes attains a length of from twenty to thirty feet. 

STURGEON: It is generally about six feet long, and sometimes attains the length of eighteen feet. It inhabits 
Northern, European, and American Seas. Its flesh is greatly prized. 

SAW FISH: The Saw Fish has a weapon like that of the sword fish growing out many feet from its head. It 

belongs to the shark tribe. * ' i) \ 

GARFISH: Is found in Dutch and British waters. Its flesh is like that of a mackerel ut is drier, while its bones 
are green. 















































TREE FROG : This little creature is found in Southern Europe. It is of a bright green colour and lives among the 
leaves of-the trees. - 

CONGO SNAKE : This peculiar reptile is to be found on the banks of the Congo river. You will notice that it has 
the body of a snake but the feet of a lizard. 

SURINAM TOAD: This is a very uncouth creature and is much larger than the common toad. It lives in the 
obscure nooks of houses in Cayenne and Surinam. 

FRILLED LIZARD : There are numerous species of the Lizard family and they vary considerably in size. The one 
on this page is the Frilled Lizard and inhabits South America. - . . 

THE LEATHERY TURTLE: This Turtle differs from other turtles, in that it has an external covering resembling 
^strong leather. It has been known to be eight feet long and weigh a thousand pounds. 


c 


^ r * 




\ 














































































* 


'*'■ V. 

THE COMMON TOAD: It is found in gardens, woods, and fields. This extraordinary creature has been known to 
live for many years shut up without food, existing only upon moisture. 

TADPOLE : This funny little object is hatched from the spawn of a frog, and itself gradually turns into a frog as 
you can see in the illustrations. . 

COMMON FROG: Here we have the Frog in its perfect state. Different species of frogs are to be found all over 

the world. ' : 

CRAB : There are many sorts of Crabs, both sea and land Crabs, but the most common is the sea species. 
LOBSTER: This creature is found in great numbers about most of the European shores. 

SHRIMP : This inhabitant of the sea is allied to the lobster, it frequents shallow water along the coast and does not . 
exceed two inches in length. 

STICKLEBACK: This little fish is to be found in nearly every river, brook and pond. It' is peculiar, for it builds 

a nest where it lays its eggs. 

** 





















































































Gigantic Land Tortoise. 



LIZARD AND FLYING LIZARD: Here are two more species of this reptile. The Flying Lizard is to be met < 
with only in very hot countries, while the common Lizard is to be found all over Southern Europe. 

TORTOISE : There are numerous kinds of this interesting order of reptile. The common Tortoise is found in the 
islands of the Archipelago, Corsica. Sardinia and many parts of Africa. 

GIGANTIC LAND TORTOISE: This is the largest species of Tortoise, it grows to a considerable size and is so 
extraordinarily fat and sweet that no fowl is more delicate in flavour. 

TURTLE: The Edible or Green Turtle often measures five feet in length and weighs over six hundred pounds, 
The hunting of the Turtle for its flesh forms a considerable industry. 

SALAMANDER: This animal is allied to the frog, and much resembles a lizard. The common Salamander is found 
all over Europe. There are many other species in North and South America. 

NEWT: The Great Water Newt measures about six inches in length and is allied to the Salamander in appearance. 

HERMIT CRAB : Is so called because it occupies empty shells in which it protects its soft tail. 

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HAWKSBILL TURTLE: This illustration shows you another sort of Turtle which gets its name from the shape 
of its head. 

IGUANA: There are many species of this reptile to be found in the Tropical parts of America, some of them live 
on vegetable food and these are considered very delicious to eat. They are sometimes found five 
feet in length though they are much more often from two to three feet. 

BOA CONSTRICTOR: Of all the reptiles that exist none equals in size and strength this wonderful snake. Some 
Boa Constrictors have been known to measure thirty five feet in length and they are able to destroy 
deer and oxen and other animals in their folds. Some species are found in America and in Asia and 
Africa, but the true Boa Constrictor is only to be met with in South America. 







COBRA DI CAPELLO: A very venemous snake of India, which when irritated puffs out his head in the form of 


. - a hood. 

ABOMA : A large species of serpent found in the fens and morasses of South America. 

RATTLE SNAKE: One of the most deadly of poisonous serpents sometimes found, as thick as a man’s leg and 
six feet long but usually much smaller than this. At the end of the tail is situated the rattle 

' consisting of little hard dry bony substances, this it rattles when angry. 

CHAMELEON : Is a lizard-like reptile that has the wonderful power of-changing, its colour at will. It is found 
in many parts of the world, but chiefly in India and Africa. 

VIPER OR ADDER . Is the only poisonous reptile found in Great Britain, iri Iceland it does not exist. The Viper 
seldom grows to more than two feet. 








































Alligator (America) 


AMERICAN RIVER TORTOISE: Here again is another species of Tortoise to be found in some of the rivers of 
America. 

SNAPPING TURTLE: This illustration gives another variety of the large family of Turtles. 

CROCODILE: Few creatures are so sly and wary as the Crocodile. It is also a very dangerous reptile. It inhabits 
• India and also the banks of the Nile and other parts of Africa. 

ALLIGATOR: This belongs to the Crocodile family, but he never goes in salt water while the Crocodile is found 
in both salt and fresh water. Alligators are found in North and South America. 






























































Marbled White 


Red Admiral 


Brown Fritillary 


Butterflies, Moths, and other Insects. 

It is qu^te impossible to attempt to describe in so short a space the hundreds 

upon hundreds of different varieties of butterflies and moths that flit about the earth. 

Those that live in tropical climes are the most beautiful in colour and the 

largest in size, although those that are to be found in more temperate countries 

are very pretty. • • ' 


Purple Emperor 


Meadow Brown 


Small Ringlet 


The Grayling 



























Large Veined White 


Tortoiseshell 


Purple Hairstreak 


White Admiral 


Common Copper 


Though the life of a butterfly is only a short one, it is certainly a very 
happy cn.e. It spends its time flying about in the sun among the sweet flowers 
and then it lays its eggs and dies. At the same time it must .nob be supposed 
that the butterfly has no enemies. Its life is often in danger from birds. 

The eggs of the butterfly and moth are laid upon those plants which will 

nourish the young grub or caterpillar when hatched, for these little creatures have 

no parents to look after them and bring them food. 




























Peacock 


Ladybird 


Swallow Tail 


As there are numerous species of butterflies and moths, so there are numerous 
kinds of caterpillars v.arying greatly in size and shape and habits. Some caterpillars 
do not feed on plants, but upon woollen and cotton substances, upon fur and 

other materials. The caterpillar eats a very great deal, and grows very fast, and 

it sometimes changes its skin as much as four or five times during its life. After 
a while it stops eating and becomes very restless, and then it spins itself a 

silken house which is called a cocoon. 


Clouded Yellow 


Comma 


Marbled White 


Camberwell Beauty 


Speckled Wood 


Blue 











• •' V-. * ! 



Flea (enlarged) Daddy Long Legs 

In some cases the caterpillar does without the cocoon and buries itself in 
the earth or makes itself a shelter among chips of wood or dried leaves; here 

it shuts itself up and goes to sleep. Then a great change takes place, the cater¬ 
pillar turns into a peculiar looking creature called a chrysalis or pupa, and in due 
time 'the chrysalis changes into a butterfly or moth and eats its way out of the 
cocoon. Here again is the butterfly or moth whose life is a repetition of its 


Great* Crane Fly 


Butterfly which when resting looks like a leaf 


parents . 
















Locust 

\ . ' . 

The most useful of all these little creatures is the silkworm. It is cultivated 

in enormous districts in the far East and provides hundreds of thousands of people 

with employment from the time the eggs are laid until the silk is woven and 

ready for making into clothing. Should you wish to know anything more about 
this wonderful little insect your best plan is to buy a few of its eggs and watch, 

the various stages of development yourself. 






























Honeycomb of Hive Bee 


Wasp 


Hive Bee 


Nut Weevil 


Humble Bee 


Nest of Humble Bee 


Giant Wood Wasp 


Another 

insect which is 

most useful to 

man is the 

bee, 

and 

it 

is 

also 

one of the 

most interesting and intelligent. The 

common or 

hive 

bee 

is 

a 

very 

sociable little 

thing, living in 

companies. Large 

numbers of 

them 

call 

ed 

swarms. 

make their home together with 

a Queen Bee, at 

their head. ^ 

To. their 

queen 

they 


pay great attention, and her duty in life is to lay eggs. 

The other inhabitants of the hive are divided into drones and. workers. The 






































































Timberman Beetle 

Silk Worm Moth #- 



Grasshopper' Hawk Moth 


drones do no work of any sort and after the swarming season are killed by the 
workers. The duties of these workers are to look after the young, and to collect 
honey from the flowers and store it in the different cells that fill the hive. These 

cells are made of wax of the finest quality, and the honey they store in them 

is meant to be their food for the winter. Instead of that it is taken from them 
and they are supplied with sugar in its place. 




























Humming Bird 
Hawk Moth 


Death’s Head Hawk Moth 


Emperor 


Caterpillar of Death’s Head Moth 


An insect that is much like the bee is the wasp, but it is not of the 

same use-, • for it does not store honey and it is a very vicious little creature 

with an exceedingly painfull sting. It must not be forgotten that the bee also 
has a sting, but it- does not think of using it except when irritated. 

One ,of the most industrious and interesting of insects is the ant. Like 

the bee he too lives in colonies. He makes his nests for the most part under- 

. ^ . . . - 

*. ■ j ' ■ • . 


















The Turnip Moth 


Tiger Moth 


Magpie 


The Antler 


Black Burnet 


Red Underwing 


Elephant Hawk Moth 


ground, but abroad, in tropical countries, he raises large mounds. It would seem 
from observation that ants have a regular system of government in their towns. 

They have sentries guarding the entrances, and armies that go forth in regiments 

like real soldiers to attack their enemies. They also have been known to hold 

trials over ants 4 that have done. something wrong and have punished them by 

execution. Indeed they are very marvellous little creatures. 
















Lime Hawk 


Crimson Speckled 
Footman 


Galium Hawk 


Scotch Burnet 


Privet Hawk Moth 


Privet Hawk Caterpillar 


There is another insect we might mention that also lives in enormous swarms, 

and that is the locust. Of all animals capable of injuring mankind the locust 
seems to possess the most dreadful powers of destruction. In Syria, Egypt, and 

almost all Southern Asia these insects make their appearance in legions, and carry 
ruin with them; in a few hours changing the most fertile provinces into barren 

deserts, for they devour every bit of vegetation that comes in their way. 













Water Beetle Atlas Beetle 


This formidable locust is as a rule of a brownish. colour but it varies with 

pale red while the legs are bluish. A traveller in Africa writing about these insects, 
has known them to cover the earth for an area of nearly two thousand square 

miles, and when driven into the sea by a north west wind they form upon the 
shore, for fifty miles, a bank three or four feet high. 

In hot countries the insects grow to greater sizes, and some are extremely 
venemous. The scorpion is a horrible animal for instance, it carries a sting in 







































































V 



Crab Spider 


Trap Door Spider 


Water Spider 


Garden Spider 


Scorpion 


Centipede 


its tail the effect of which is very dangerous to health. The largest species . of 


scorpion is about five or six inches in length, and is to be found in all 

tropical- climes. ^ 

There are other less dangerous species that are to be met with in Europe 
and more temperate regions. 

Of spiders and beetles and other insects there are thousands of different 

kinds but we can do no more here than .give the pictures and . names of some 
of them. * . • 





























































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