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i-inb ;\ND INDUSTR 


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This book i^ 01 IP ■• the last date stamped belo' 


«^"^UTHF^7^] BRANCH, 


;los angeles, calif. 




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C()I>VKI(;HT, 191_*, n\ WAI.TKH SAlMiENT 



I, INN AND (' l^^•A^"^■ ■ I'l^o- 

I'KIhTuRS • IJUS'loN • L'.S.A. 



DuriiiiX the jiast few years the amount of new subject 
matter rehuiiiy' to the line and inchisti'ial arts in elementary 
schools has ra})i(lly increased. Thi' oroani/.ation of this 
material into a form invohing' dehnite progression and 
reasoiud)le standards of attainment at \arious stages has 
not wliolly kept [)ace with its introduction. 

The considerations here presente(l regarding a scheme for 
such organization ha\ c taken shape in the course of numerous 
conferences with those interested in the suhject. and as a result 
of investigations which were suggeste(l hy tlii'se discussions. 

I wish to make acknowledgment of my innnt'diate indebt- 
edness in this endeavor to Professor ( 'harles I Iubl)ard .Judd 
of The I niversity of Chicago, who urged the im[)ortance 
of some attempt to [)resent a surve\" of the subji'ct. 

I am under obligation also to Professoi' Fraid<; M. Leavitt 
of The I'niversity of Chicago, .Mr. .lanu'S Hall, formerh' of 
the Ethical Culture School of Xew York City. .Mr. Charles 
E. Whitnev of the Normal School of Salem, .Massachusetts. 
Mr. Fred II. Daniels of Xewton. Massachusetts, and .Mi'. John 
( '. I)i'odhead of l)Oston, for valuable suggestions; and to 
AEss Helen E. Cl.-aves. Miss Fucy D. Taylor, and .Miss 
.Vmy Rachel W'hittier for their ludp in cai'i'x iii'_;' on obscr- 
\ations for two years in tlie public schools of Uoston. 

I also take this occasion to recogiii/.e a debt of long 
standing to Mr. Ib'nr\- '{"niiici- Failrx-. editoi- of the Srlm,,! 
Ai-Ik liunli. wlio hrst dii'ectcfl my attention to the e(liica- 
lioual importance of the arts. 

( 'in< \(,u. I III vols 


\V. S. 

Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2007 witii funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 




I. EorcATioxAi. Axn Pkac ru ai. Values ok the Fixe 



THE (Ikades 17 





VI r. 

i;.\i)E I o2 


HADES IV .\XD V . . . . . (i'2 


HADES VII AXD VIII ............ 98 

INDEX i;u 


(irAPTEi{ I 


Since 187'* drawino", eonsirnctivc work, and (It'si^'ii as 
coniinou-scliool studies lia\'e been sul)jeets of o-ciieral discus- 
sion. The Centennial Exposition in Pliila(lel[)liia in 1S7<) 
exerted a strong iidiuence in faxor of public education in 
the industrial and line arts. The educatioiud exhil)itions 
were a revelation to the American peo[)l(' of the ixissihil- 
ities aloUL!,' these lines, and of their own shortcomings. 
Since then drawing-, constructive work, and desi^'u have 
received steadily increasing' reco^'uit ion in clemeiUai'N' edu- 
cation so far as provision for instruction and e(|uipnicnt 
has been concerned. 

I'ntil re(-cntly. howcxcr, these subjects Iuinc lieeii left 
lar^'elv in the hands of specialists, lioai'ds of e(hication. 
sui)eriiilcndents. and principals liaxc often hcsitalcil to 
make suggest ions because tliev felt that they had not re- 
cei\'ed the sort of traiinng which would ht them to judi^e 
m<'thods and results in these snbjects. 'i'his I'eelinL;- has 
btM'ii retMiforced by the inlhience of the tradition that e\en 



ordinary al)ility in the arts comes more as tlie result of 
intuitive a[)preeiation than of well-direeted effort. 

Tlie present ^\■ide aeeeptanee of tlie manual arts as an 
im[)ortant part of general education is lapidly removing 
them from the class of special suhjects. and hoth educators 
and the general public arc now taking an aclixc interest in 
them. The educator recognizes that the manual arts con- 
stitute a uni(jue t_v})e of aiudvsis of the object i\'c world. 
Each science deals A\ith material from a pai'ticular stand- 
point, and each different kind of amdysis adds greater sig- 
niticance and wider range to experience. The contriljution 
which the mainud ai1s make toward a moi'c compi'ehensi\ c 
l)asis foi' mental acti\"ity is to a great degree inaccessible 
by other methods of ap[)roach. lie linds in the manual arts 
a line of activity the results of which are concrete and fur- 
nish a visible record of good or poor work, which the cliilil 
interprets into rational terms of cause and effect more easilv 
tlian is possil)le in the case of subjects ^\■hich deal mainl\- 
with language. He sees in them an o[)portunitv for obtain- 
ing ex[)erience with concrete material and with some of the 
processes by mIucIi it is shapctl to human needs, lie usc^ 
the arts as a method of devel()[)ing and mastering ((main 
ideas l)y \\()rking them out in visible j)roducts. so ihat 
materials lu'comc a means of expressing and of stimulating 
thought. He linds also that these arts sometimes furnish 
a point f)f contact with the interests of nianv childicn who 
a})parently are not reache<l l)y more formal studies, and lliat 
these interests when once awakened ai'e likely to extend to 
other lines of school work. 

The general pul)lic more frctpu-nily expresses its con\ie- 
tions in terms of the ad\antages result ing in later life from 
the traiinng in mantud arts which was receixed in school. 



or the (lisiulvantages experienced, from the lack of such 
traininu;. The attainments conunonly described as most 
useful and desirable by these peo[)le who view the subject 
from the standpoint of industrial and professional occupa- 
tions may be o'cnerali/.ed as follows: 

.\bilitv to sketch with pencil or brush so as to show how 
an object appears or how it is constructed, oi- to illustrate 
one's ideas or record ones observations. 

Skill in the use of connnon tools and materials, and 
ability to plan and work out problems iuvoIviiiL;' ordinary 
constructive processes — such knowledge and ability as 
every householder needs. 

An appreciation of what is in good taste a'sthetically, 
especially as I'cgards the things which constitute one's 
immediate environment, and sul'licient knowledge of such 
matters to justify one's taste. 

Some ac(piaintance with excellent t'xam[)les of ai1 in 
architecture, painting, sculpture, and the crat'ls. and a dis- 
criminating ca[)acity for enjoyment ol beauty of form and 
color in nature and ai't. 

These advantages thus stated by people outside the 
schools, in terms of dt'linite attainment which results in in- 
creased ei'licicncy and enjoyment, do not coidlict with the 
idea of the educator. If acce[)ted, these standards constitute 
a basis foi' estimating the success of manual arts in school 
courses. When children leave the high school iheir abilities in 
this held may be measured about as delinilely as in any other. 

'i'he purpose of this book is to pi'cseiit some considera- 
tions on the following (|ueslions, 'v\ hicli ai'ise from the 
])resent situat ion : 

What ai'c the distiucti\(' functions nf the xai'ious sid)- 
iccts taic'lit under liic liea<l of manual arts in elcmeiitary 


education ? TTow shall iiistnictiou be oro-aiiized so that 
progress in attainment shall Ije evident from year to vear ? 
What are reasonable standards of attainment at any given 
stage ? 

The general statements that learning to draw is learrnng 
to see. that drawing is a valuable language, that consn'nctiNc 
work [iroduees accuracy and ertieiem-y in dealing with vdw 
materials, that design develo[)s taste and awaicens ai)pre- 
ciation of 1)eauty, are not now considered as linal or as 
suftieiently delinite to justify the connnunity in leaving the 
matter wholly with the specialist. Further (juestions arise, 
such as: How does the secnng which results frtun drawing 
differ from that which exists where drawing is not taught ? 
Are children who comi)lete the elementary-school courses 
able to use this language of drawing freely as a connnon, 
cop.venient means of e.\[)ri'ssi()n ? Does consti'uctive work- 
as taught produce accuracy, efliciency. the ])lcasure of in- 
telligent mastery of material, and an appreciation of things 
iu terms of the skill and elfort i-e(piired to [)roduce them? 
Does it arouse industrial interests and a desiiv to be of 
service in the world ? \\niat delinite signs of better ta>te 
are evident in children who com[)lete an elementary-school 
coitrse which includes design, when conipare(l with childi'cn 
who have had no training in that line? Ai:e there jil)iects 
of fine art which awaken more enjoyment, and phases of 
beautv in nature which give moi'c pleasure on account of 
the instruction which has been gixcn ? A\'hat stc[)S have 
led to this api)reciation ? There is need of detailed testing 
of methods and examination of results in terms of such 
(pu'stions as these. 

In elementarv schools only rudiments of the arts can be 
tau'i'ht, such as the Ijcginnings of frt'c-hand draw ing : simple 


forms of constnu'tive work and prohlcms in design, espc- 
eiallv as rdatt'd to i-omnion things; and an awakening;- of 
some response to beanty in natnre and art. \\'ork in these 
lines, however, has [)roved to be of g-einiine vahie. even w hen 
instruction ends in tlie elementary schools. It deals with fac- 
tors which have a cdose. permanent relationship to the life 
and work of [)eople at large, and presents a typi' of training 
which the eliild has a right to ex[)ect from the conunnnity. 

The various phases of manual expression are not marked 
off by sharply detined limits. It is im})ossil)le to construct 
an object well without exereising some judgment in design, 
or to design an ol)ject satisfactorily without some knowledge 
of construction and some ability in I'cpresentation. The 
school activities continually call for sinuiltaneous work along 
all three of these lines. They differ sufficiently, however, 
to allow of sepai'ate discussion. The following [)aragraphs 
consider more in detail the values attributed by l)oth eihi- 
eators and the general [)ublie to these three lines of study 
in the [)ublic school. 

Iii'/irrst/ifiifinti. Drawing is a language, a mode of repro- 
ducing i(h'as, and as such is a means of forming and devel- 
oping tiiese ideas. A child who draws dot-s not set fortii 
ideas already [)erfcctly formed, but [)erfects them in [»art b\' 
the very act of setting them forth. Drawing tlius Ix'coines 
a tool with which to think. 

Little children draw almost wholly fnnii iiiiagiiiat ion. 

and \\hd in drawing a means of excrcisiu'^- tlicir mental 

imacrcrv Ilv pultiu''- it into some sort of \ isible form. This 
o . »^ 1 .-> 

l)i'oeess appeal's to stinmlate menial a(ii\il\. ami at lirst 
produces a (h'gi'ce of sal isfact imi. h(i\\c\er crude the results 
may be. because the ciiild iccogiii/.es his id(>as in the draw- 
iim's, althou'ih the marks mas be uniiil«'lliL!'ible to dthcrs. 


Later conies a desire that (Irawing- sliall be more than a 
motor ontlet for imagination, and tliat the result shall repre- 
sent the idea well enough not only to recall the thought to 
the one ^\h() made it. hut also to express that thought intel- 
ligibly to otiiers. Thus begins an ap})reciation of the imjtor- 
tance of art as a means of social connnunication. This leads 
to a more careful contemplation of oi)jects for the sake of 
obtaining data f(jr more satisfactoiy representation, and a 
corresponding increase in knowledge of form and in trust- 
worthiness of the testimony of the senses is de\eloped. 

Children trained to express themselves l)y drawing learn 
to aiudyze and to interpret their visual impressions. Draw- 
ing I'rom objects re(piires a selection of' the charactei'istic 
features. After the early period of satisfaction with crude 
svmbols has passed, and children reacli the stage Avhen thev 
desii'c to re[)resent a[)i)earances truthfully, they must learn 
to recognize, among the bewildering com[)lexity of details 
Avhich nature [)resents, those which are signiticant — wliich, 
if reproduced, will rej)resent the object. Hand, eyes, and 
mind are busy trying to interpret what is seen into terms 
of lines or shapes. Drawing thus develops a specilic kind of 
analysis which is impossible when tlie tei'ms cnn)l(tyed are 
the more general and less ol)jective Ncrbal descriptions. 

Drawing })artakes more of the nature of a convention 
than is generally supi)osed. An oi'iental or an occidt'utal 
draws each in tlu' way he regards as best, yet the I'csults 
differ remarkably. Each is expressing himself in his own 
gi'aphic dialect. l*'or example, western art makes general use 
of effects of illumination, shade, and sIkkIow as ])r(»niiiient 
pictoi'ial features, while in orii-ntal pictures such effects 
are largeh' ignored. 'I'he objects de[)i<-ted seldom cast 
shades or shadows, and variations of light and dark are 


usuallv due to actnal dift'crences in local coloi'. In these 
pictures, huwevei'. elements ap[)ear, the beauty and ett'i'c- 
tiveness of which many westei'u artists never a[)[)recialed 
till they studied oriental art. The ap[)reciation of another 
people's methotl of drawing is akin to an ap[)i'eciation of 
another language, in the rcNclations ii gives of differeiu 
ways of seeing and thinking. 

Drawing, as it exists at })resent, is the I'esult of an 
evolution. Its vocabulary has been added t(» by each gen- 
eration, and end)odies the accuunilati'(l results of human 
observations. One imagines that he is expressing himself 
in terms suggesti'(l directly by thi' object, but this is only 
partly true. Drawing an object means translating one's 
{)t'rceptions into terms which have been e\"olved bv the race, 
and which demand can'ful selection. It means organizing 
ones seusatic)ns so as to determine what produces the 
impression, and the modes in which that im[)ression can be 
inter})reted. To draw an object re(iuires a mental activity 
comparable to that which occurs when a thought is trans- 
late(l from oni^ language into another. 

In addition to these general educational values, elemen- 
tary representation is of direct incbistrial, scieiuitic, and 
a'Sthetic importance. 

To the man engage(l in constructive woi'k. drawing of- 
fers a means of endless experimentation. Workers in metal 
or wood, when discussing a mechanical or const rud i\-e 
[»rol)lem, often can present its different possibilities and 
deline the I'csnlts almost as well b\- the use of the pencil 
as by manipulating tiie actual iwatcrial. ( 'oust ruct i\c 
sketching is also a great stimulus to iii\ciiti(in. The more 
linished woi-king drawings afford a means of rccinding all 
necessar\' data reiiardiuL:' loim and construction. 


A mrtiiufac'turer witli lumsually Avide experit'iice thus 
refers to the vahie of ability to sketcli and draw: 

I wisli to fin]ihasi/.c tlic iiuportanct' of industrial drawing' for 
tli(> mass of trade workers in those lines of inanufacturinn' where 
the artistic or a'sthetic sense is not sujiposed to hold a jironiinent 
]ilaee. For exaniiile, in the line of machine luiildinL;' the art of 
drawing;' has a very imj>ortant relation to our industrial future. 
To this particular class of mechanics drawing- has a broad field of 
nsefuhiess : first, liecause it is a valuable means of expression, since 
tlie mechanic who is abh^ to express himself by a rajtidly made draw- 
ing is inspired ther(d)y to more and better thouyiit ; second, liei'ause 
it 0}iens up for him especially a broad field for ex])erimentation 
and choice. 

A\'hen l)y a sketcli the manufacturer or mechanic can i)lace before 
himself and others iiumy ways of (h)ing a thing, he at once makes 
com]iarisons. and immediately chooses what he deems the best, the 
fittest, or the most beautiful. He hits the nuirk after su(di a com- 
parison, because with his skt'tches he has tried many stduMues and 
com])ared them. 

Fxperimentation, comjiarison, and (dioice mark tlie way of ad- 
vancement. Rut life is too short to ti'v many expei-inuuits, uidess 
the methods of trying them are very simple. To build things of 
wood and stone and metal in orch'r to test them ami to prove 
wlii(di oiu' is best and fittest re(iuires too much \\aste of lime and 
luaterial. liut the I'ealm of experimentation that is possible with a 
]iencil is wouderfid and fascinating: it is almost as unlimited as 
thought itself. 

I have asked myself from whence conies this fascinati(Ui as we 
find it in the shops; and I think it is because through the art of 
drawing, by delineating and by designing, the mecdianie himsidf 
becomes the creator of things. lie not only learns to see clearly 
things emanating from others, but. iiehold, he finds he can express 
his own ideas to himself and to others, and above all he recogni/,es 
that they are his own evolulion. 

For mechanics of all grades and ranks the habit of ski'tching and 
drawing bei-oines a great developing force. For a mecdianic drawing 
becomes the avenue oiit of himself into the universe. lie is not only 
learuiug about other people and other things, as we do in the study 



of history and ^vonrapliy. but he is rcvcaliii^' himself to Iiiiiiself and 
to others: and the thiui^s re\eaU'd are new — new to liiui and new 
to the worhL This to liini is the inspiring' quality of his work.' 

In sciciitilic studies, drawing- focuses attention upon, 
and (juickens ol)ser\'ation of, facts of forms and slrnclure, 
renderiuL;' the senses nioi'e accurate in tlieir testimony 
and furnishing a means of making delinite rt'cords. 

Representation is also the lano-uao-c of the tine arts of 
painting and sculpture. The regular work in di'awing in 
elementarv schools, involving, as it does, conliniu'd use of 
lines, light and dark, and of eoloi'. is giving childi-en constant 
practice in expressing their ideas and observations by means 
of tlu' same Nocahnlary which the artist himself employs. 
These attem[)ts to use, even though crudely, the terms by 
which art is e\[)ressed are necessary to that kind of artistic 
appreciation which yields the fullest [)leasure. The relation 
of draw ing to art resembles that of language to literature. 

Instructors in drawing should regard the elementary 
phases (d' the subject as a scieiu-e and not as something 
acipiircd b\- intuition. 'I'hey nmst choose between acourse 
planne(l for the few in every school who have what is eom- 
monl\ calkMl "talent," and a course [)laiuied for the major- 
it\' of tlie children and within easy reach of those of no 
s})ecial abihty. While any [)ul)lic-scliool system should take 
account of special talent and encourage and conser\'(> it, 
vet in the eh'mentar\' gi'ades such work sluuild l)e phuuied 
as will iustif\' itseU' on genei'al grounds and be \ahiable 
for alb whalcN'er their future occu|)at ions are to be. The 
work outhned should l)e such as can be lau'ihl in lai'ijc 

' Froni an addri'ss l)y Mr. .Mili<ni 1'. Iliuuiiis. jwesident of the Nornm 
I''.iiieiv Wlici'l Co.. Worcester. M a»ailiusi ■! 1 ,-. priiiled iu the sixl y-eiuiit h 
Aiuni'il l:rj,i,il n/l/ii M((s>^ar/nis(ll s Slillr Ilniinl of EiUtnil in,i . I'.IOl. 



part l)y tlu' I'et^Hilai' grade teaclu'i' and be wvW dDiic by as 
large a pr(i[)()rti()ii of the children as can accomplish the 
work given in other subjects. 

In order to cai'ry out such a [)lan it is necessary to teach 
drawing in the most direct and simple way })ossible, testing 
methods by the resulting increase in ability to draw on the 
part of the majority of the children. A lack of such im- 
provement in the many should be interpivtetl as a fault of 
the method I'ather than of the children. Results have already 
shown that the majority of children can learn to draw suf- 
ficiently well for pur[)Oses of ordinary practical ex[)ression 
with pencil or brush, and can be led to appre<-iate what is 
in good taste, as readily and generally as the\" can [)i'ogress 
in other studies of the school curriculum. S[)ecial talent is 
a factor to be reckoned with in elementar\' drawing on the 
same basis as in elementary language or mathematics. 

Coiistrurf/oii. Construeti\e work providi's an objective, 
permanent ty[)e of expression which ap[)eai's to connuand 
the keen interest of all children. Jt brings ex[)erience in 
shaping raw material till that material embodies the worker's 
ideas in concrete form, 'i'lie worker is thus brought into 
expi'rimental contact with the great range of constructive 
acti\'ities which constittite a world never fully o]:)ene(| u[) 
bv words. His own t'XperieniH' is illuminated by a sort of 
ap})reciation otherwise inaccessible. All this I'csults in 
buikling u[) a tv[)e of thinking ami [)lanning which should 
acconn)an\' other forms of education ami make its contribu- 
tion bt'fore habits of thinking and [)lainiiug lia\"e become 
fixed along moi'c .abstract lines. 

Constructive work gives pi'actical familiarity with com- 
mon tools, pi-ocesscs. and materials, and develops a mmpi'e- 
hiMision of problems of ordinary construction which e\'ei'v 


oiu' should [)()sst'ss. It hriun's llic iii\ i^orat ion of dcaliiiL;' 
witli tlu' uii\ arviii!^'. iin[)artial laws of matter, and of hciiit;- 
coniptdK'd to face the obvious iitness or uulitiiess of visil)le 
results. It awakens [)leasure in sha[)ino; material to a pre- 
deti'rmiiied form hy patit'uce, foresio'ht, and skill. It hi'in^-s 
a healthy realization of the gaj) which exists l)etN\'een an 
idea and its tinished embodiment in concrete form, and of 
the persistence necessary when one deals with the slowly 
yielding- conditions of stubborn material. This realization 
develo[)s a seriousness in nndertakini;' [)rol)lems, because of 
the knowledtj^e o-ained by experii'uce as to tlu^ amount of 
time and effort in\ol\cd in carryinn' them to com[)letion, 
l)ut it is accompanied by the i)leasure of a consciousness 
of skill and of increasing mastery over raw material. 

School authorities sometimes discuss the (piestion as to 
whetlu'r any time in the burdent'd school program can be 
sparcil for occupations involving muscular activity, and 
presume to settle tlu' matter by oHicial action. The natui'e 
of children has already settled that ([Uestion in the affirma- 
tix'c. Motoi' acti\ity will be an important part of any school 
program. Piobably the only jurisdiction which the author- 
ities actually exercise in the matter is in deciding whether 
these activities shall hindei' or help school work : whether 
tliey shall ai)pear as mischief-making or as manual arts. 
' ('onstructi\(' work is not oid\- an essential element in 
general eilucation, valuable alike to the scholar and the 
artisan : it is also a factor in awakening \oealional interests 
and promoting vocational eriicicncw 'ilie fact that a large 
proportion of the school population. \aiiousl\' estimatc(l 
ti'om one half to 1\\<i thirds, drops out during oi' at the 
end ol the eleiiicntar\-school course to go tt» wdi'k, should 
be considered in its full signilicanee by cducatoi's. These 


cliildren never enter a liio'li school. They are too yonng to 
go into skilled industries. A few rise through any eireuni- 
stanees, but the majority drift I'roni one to another unskilled 
occupation, taking whatever })ays best. 'Jdiey spend two 
im[)ortant years in employments whieh present no industrial 
interest and offer no vocational outlook. Such work is 
usually monotonous drudgery, whieh develops an uidortu- 
nate attittule of mind toward work and compels the child 
to seek all his pleasure outside of his occu[)ation. 

It has been shown that certain kinds of industrial educa- 
tion can come intcj elementary schools without interfering 
with the (juality of the academic work, and that such edu- 
cation serves to keep children in school and to awaken 
occupational intei'ests which serve as a reenforcement of 
general educatioiud interests. 

Certain dangers attending the introduction of industi'ial 
education into elementary schools readily suggest them- 
selves, but they can scarcely exceed the dangers arising 
from a lack of any suitable provision foi' properly satisfviug 
the desire which manifests itself at about the sixth year of 
school, namely to come into touch with tlie activities of the 
world and to join with others in making a contribution to 
the general welfai'c. Schools should be e(pii[)ped to offer 
such training as \\ill promote the ultimate interests of the 
children, and, on the other hand, to coml)at etf'ectively anv 
attem[)t to ex[)loit the children counnerciallv by littiiig 
them in school to perform particular, unskilleil processes 
to be iiumediately titilized in local industries. 

From an educational standpoint the \ahie of a \'o<-ational 
interest is not primarily economic, but I'clates to the i'act 
that when such an interest is awakeiieil it is lii<ely soon 
to become doiuimuit and form a ccim'i' around w hich other 


interests cluster. A domiiiatino- interest tends to collect 
and or^-anize varyint;- and many-sided interests. Tlu' dif- 
ferent stutlies of the school curriculum oft'cr a laro-e body 



loii School 


12 3 4 5 7 Gnuu- I n HI ly 








i \ A" 


;\ \ 






\ 1 


\ \ 


1 2 .3 4 5 (3 7 Gnim- I 11 III IV 


Fn;. 1. Diairrain sliowiiiir irradcs at wiiicli eliildreii leave school. IJesults 

lu-eseiited \,y Dr. 'I'lii iriidike are iudirated liy dotted line; tlios,.' \,y 

Dr. Avers, by solid lini' 

From Dr. Fconai-d 1'. Ayi-rs"s " Lauuards in ( )iir Srhools." ji. 71 

(>\' infoiinalidn and many di\'cro-ciit interests. These are 
impiiitanl tn e(hicati(»n hnl are not its end. The ultimate 
|)iii-])(ise of education is the dexcli ipiiieiit ol an indi\idiial 
wiiose mental interests, ahhoiioh \;irie(l, aie well oroani/ed. 
1 he chief factor in mental or'-'ani/at ion is a strono', central 



selective interest whieli l)riii^'s seatteretl thino-s into place. 
The ()ccu[)<iti(>nal interest a[)[)ears to l)e the natui'al center 
toward whicli otliers readily convert;e. 

/A'^•////^ The stndy of design in elenientaiy schools t'nr- 
nishes a means of exei'cisinn" and thns dev(do[)inn' n'ood 
taste in connection with the thing's which make n[) the 
en\ironment of e\eryday life, and of awakeniiiL;' apprecia- 
tion of heanty in natui-e and in ait. (iood taste im[)lies 
more than information ii-oarding what is n'(>od. It means 
that the rig'ht sort of thiiio's awaken pleasnre, and that a 
desire is aronsed which demands excellence i'or its satisfac- 
tion. The power to discern l)etween the mi'icdy pretty, with 
attraetiveness \\hich is sn[)erficial and transitory, and that 
which is permanently and niuversally heantifnl. o'ives capac- 
ity for an enjoyment tin- possibilities of which are nnlimited. 

.\de(p.uite appreciation of heanty seldom comes withont 
definite training'. It de[)ends lari^'ely upon estal)lishe(l hahits 
of seeinn'. As one tinds the oljjective wr)rld assuming' a cer- 
tain order pleasiuL;' to his intcdlect after, he knows the scien- 
tific catei-ories and can reari'an^'e facts in tei'ms of tl'iem, so 
he hnds that after he knows the best tyi>es of artistic inter- 
pretation, which ha\(' S(decte(l fi'om the mass those elements 
which ai'e ;esthetically [)leasini4' and ha\'e portrayed them, 
lie tends to recast his own perce])tions in those terms. 

The studv of desi^'n in public schools should contribute 
dirceth' to an appreciation of tlie ))eauty of the landscape 
and of plant and animal forms. inTdidso of the artistic pos- 
sibilities of the conunuinty in its natural and architectural 
features and in its local industri(\s.- 

Unless the problems of desio'n I'tdate to familiar sur- 
roundino-s. ]>u})ils ai'c likidy to consider the term ' anistie" 
as one which applies only to uiuisual thing's; whereas it 


does not (K'scriln' tlie i-lass to \\liicli an ol)j('('t 1h'1oiil;'s. hut 
means tlial the object, l)eeaiise of its adecjuaey, and the 
rerinenient of its essential parts and |)ro[)ortions. and the 
o-raee and litness of its decoration, if it [)ossesst's anv, is 
unnsnally excellent of its kind. A kitchen chair or ntensil 
mav l)e artistic and thus in its sphere [)ro\e a source of con- 
tinind [)leasure as truly as may a vase or a picture. The 
o'eneral appearance of written school work, arrangement of 
plants and flowers. franiiuL!,' and han^'in^- of [)ictures, choice 
of wall papers, ru^'s, furnitui-e, etc.. are amoni;' the oppor- 
tunities of exercising- that api)recialion of order and fitness 
which is an important jtai't of artistic taste. 

1)\' collecti(tns of photo!4'raphs or other re[)i'escntations. 
children may hecome ac(|uainted with the best desions f(ir 
])i'idL;'es. water fronts, public buildings and [)ri\ ate houses of 
all classes, park furnislhno-s, scul[)ture. fountains, and other 
thino's which may contribute to beauty in modern com- 
nuinities. and thus become interested in the ways in which 
tow ns and cities are sohino- the problems of <'ivic i)t'autv. 

Schools should n'ive [)upils some ac<pnuntance with L;-(tod 
examples of drawing-. [)aintin(4'. and sculptui'e. I^\en where 
collections of oi'in'inals are not a\ailal)Ie, al)undaiu material 
is at hand in the shape of photoL;raphs. illustrations, and 
the best nf modern color [)rints. 

Pictures which a])[)ear in schools ma\' be di\ide(l into two 
general classes: those which are of use mainly as sources 
(»f infiii'mation — historical. ^'cdM'i'ajihical. sciciiiilic. etc: 
and thdsc which are for the purpose of awakening;' a'slhetic 
cnjoNnifUt. The former should usually br regarded as a 
portfolio collection, to be bi-on<_;lit out and wsrd when occa-- 
sion demands and t hen piu a\\a\'. The lat tcr just ify a more 
permanent [)lacc upon the walls. ^ " 


The main question is not liow many pictures can be 
brought within the child's range of ^■isi()U, l)ut on how many 
can his imagination be awakened to lay hold. In the days 
when pictures were fewer, a child would often pore for a 
long time over some poor print till his imagination wan- 
dered far into its perspective and lived with its characters. 
Such a print sometimes grew to be so full of suggestion 
that in later years the gro\\n man hesitated to throw it away 
even after he had come to see its artistic worthlessness. 
Even the wayward cracks in the walls of old l)are school- 
rooms became interesting to the imaginations of children 
who pictured scenes among them, as one sees constella- 
tions in the stars. When imagination can Ix; set at [)lay 
inider the stinmlus and direction of a good [)icture, feelings 
may be awakened that later will develop into a'stlietic 

]Many small pictures distract the attention of the pupils. 
A few excellent pictures in a classroom, appropriately chosen 
and careftilly hung, usually have a liner intluence and give 
more enduring memories than a large number scattered 
about the walls. 


THE (;rai)E8 

The folic )wino- survey o( the progression of work in the 
arts through the elementary grades forms the basis for the 
suggestions offered in more detailed form in the following 
ehapters regarding woi'k particularly a[)propriate for various 
stages of maturity. The material was obtained in part by 
presenting similar to[)ies to pu[)ils of different ages in many 
seliools, to discover wliere the subjects were assimilated most 
readily and processes mastered with greatest ease. 

Teachers of the manvud arts will recognize the fact that 
types of interest and al)ility here reconnnended to s[)ecial 
consideration in certain grades usually manifest themselves 
to a greater or less degree throughout all grades. For 
instance, children in (irades 1 and II are often interested 
in— tH'presenting [)ropfutions and shapes truthfully, and in 
handling such advanced implements as woodworking tools, 
wiiile in these [)ages emphasis upon those phases of drawing 
and construction is deferred until a more mature age. This 
survev of work is not meant to im[)ly that capabilities do 
not appear earlier than hei't; recognized, or caiuiot ])c inei- 
dentally encouraged to a considerai)le extt-nt with advan- 
tage. It seeks niei-elv to suggest the perioils when results 
seem to indicate that ])ai'ticular phases can be most readily 
assimilated anil certain j)rocesses be niasiei-ed with greatest 
economv of time and effort and become a trust\\()rtliy basis 



for later work. Children ot'ten s})eii(l nuicli time in {)riinary 
gi'udes over what eould be i^-ras^jed with far less effort a 
few years later; and continue in grannnar grades to be 
liandicapped l)v lack of knowledge and skill which might 
have been gained easily in lower grades by special em[)ha- 
si.s and drill at the right time. 

Rejvese)ttatl<m. (ieneral nse of drawing as a connnon 
means of expression and desci'iption is of lirst importance 
throughout all the grades. 'I'lic results of this practical us(> 
of drawing should be studied at each stage, and the evident 
deficiencies in knowledge and skill should \h) remedied l)y 
intensive study. Under the present arrangement of the 
school [)rogram the best opportunity for offering this in- 
tensive study appears to occur during the time devoted to 
special lessons in drawing. 

There are, then, two phases of the ^\•ork : namely, the 
general practical use of drawing, and the contiiuious contri- 
bution of knowledge and skill gained by concentrating for 
a time u})on intensive study of particular aspects of tlu; 
subject. In order to [)lan this intensive study most econom- 
ically it becomes necessary to iind out what phases should 
receive emphasis in different grades, and for what deli- 
ciencies in skill innnediate instruction is the best remedy, 
and what may be left to disapjiear naturally as maturity 

The firtjt.iitages in I'eprescntation appear to be domimitiMl 
by an interest in narrative, with a readiness to nse drawing 
rathci' than writing as a means of expressing ideas. Small 
children abstract from the object or situatiim only those 
characteristic features \\hich will sei've them as symbols. 
These symbols appear to be satisfactory to the children if 
they support the thought of the stcjry. 

PK<)(iHKssi()X riii{()r(;ii riii: chadhs 


\t first cliildrt'ii williiio'ly use drawing- for Lj'fiirral ex- 
pression of ideas. Later, wlieii their acciuaiiitaiiee with 
written huig'uage becomes better (h'veloped, (h'awiuL;' is 
tised more speeitieally foi" sneh di'sci'ipt ions and ilhisti'ations 
as cannot he so well ex[)i'esse(l hy lan^na^e. 'I'hese specitic 
uses retjuire differentiation in style. Thus the drawiuL;' mav 
l)e for dia^'rams. for detaile(l I'ecord of facts of sti'Ucture, for 
illustration of n-eiieral characteristics, for pictorial effet-ts, 
etc., as the purpose in hand may demand. 

In (irades I. II, and III there appears to he little justiti- 
catiou for making' nuu'h differentiation hetween tiie general 
and the sjjiitaui, work. Technical deticieucics and lacl\<'rr 
knowlcdLi'e ai'c e\idi'nt. hut a purpose other than the correc- 
tion of these is more important duriui.;' these ycai's, namelv, 
to develo[) a r^-adiiu'ss to illustrate ideas, ho\\'e\'er crudeh', 
and a hal)it of usiu;^' drawing' conuiioidy as a lauLi'uai^'c. At 
this time ohjects placed before the children ser\'e as a 
means of sugu'est inn' idi'as, rather than as h)rms which are 
to l)e cori'ectly delineated. 

Toward the end of this period some emphasis may protit- 
alilybc laid upon a moi'e detailed study, by fre(pienl draw- 
ini;', modeliuL;-. observation of pictui'cs, etc., of a \'v\v ol»jects 
selecte(l with a \iew to iiU'reasinn^ the ^'laphic Nocabulary of 
tlie children, so that there may be some w fll-uudci'stood 
material for use in illustrati\'e sketchiuL;'. 

( 'hildrcn in ( irade 1 1 1 appreciate and may easily be taught 
to use the simple L4-eon'',-tric relations of \cilical, liori/.oiUal, 
and parallel, when these ai'c in\'ol\'cd in di'awiuns : foi' ex- 
ample, in pictui-in^- houses as standdii^- xcil ically. etc. 

In (ii'adcs III, I\', and \' children show a ddiiiitc desire 
to Iviiow how to i-cprescnt (jhjcri> iiinfe irutlifulK and to 
picture different effects: as, foi' cxamplt', of thing's lyiiii;' tiat 


or placed one beyond another. They ask to be shown liow 
to prodnee these effects, and readily learn from seeing- some 
one else represent them, and from pictnres. They gradnally 
become able to interpret effects from their own observations. 
Dnring the fonrth and lifth years it ap})ears to ])e of especial 
importance that children be traine*! to jndge gvneral })ropor- 
tions by visnal impressions, as to whether the drawing is 
too long or too short, too wide or too narrow, in order that 
they may represent the general proportions trnthfnlly by 
the judgment of the eye as to the eff'ect of the whole, and 
not by devices for measuring. In addition to objects, such 
arbitrary forms as maps and diagrams off'er excellent mate- 
rial for some formal drill in relative proportions. 

In (irades \I, All, and VIII the f(dlowing arc promi- 
nent among the lines of definite study \\hicli pi'ofitaljly 
sup}»lement a general practical nse of drawing: 

1. Uepresentation of ol)jects by means of I'apid sketches, 
made as simply as |)ossil)lc, and yet showing the general 
characteristics, proportions, ami position. 

2. Careful drawings to I'cpresent details of form and 
structure with some degree of accuracy and to convey 
correct iid'ormation. 

3. Re})rescntation of solid objects so that they appear to 
exist in three dimensions and in given positions. This latter 
appears to be accomplished most surely and rapidly not 
by a study of formal })erspective but by supplementing the 
drawing from actual ol)jects, with nnich experimentation 
in building uj) solid shapes pictoi'ially, c-hanging their form 
and working out various problems of structure aiul j)osi- 
tion till objects based on the ordinary ty[)es of solidity — 
iX'Ctangular, cylindrical, spherical, etc. — can be sketched 
in any position, added to, or cut into any desired form, from 

ruocJKKssiox I'liKorfiii riii-: (;kai)i;s 


iinao'imitioii. Tliesi' are jjrobleins which can he huisIci'cmI 
only hy persistent and systematic ap[)hcatit)n. Without 
such mastery no great })raetieal abihty in drawing- can he 

4. Siii'lii-ient ae(]uaintanee with water colors to use them 
with some freedom, U) lay Hat washes, and to match the 
colors of nature. 

(''iHsfnictioH. In constructive work the lirst activities 
a[)pear to arise from a desire to [)lay with constructive 
material/'Small children seem to ha\e no clearly detiued 
ends in view, hut work' chiefly for the sake of havino- a 
concrete accompanimcni lor their thought, and for the 
[)leasure of Ix'ing the cause of changes and modifications 
in materials. From this stage, progress in constructive work 
should he along the line of devidoping the child's ahility to 
work with increasino- manual skill, toward (h'finite ends, 
and to define thosi' ends and the processes necessary for 
reaching them, hy plans whii-h forecast results more and 
more com[)lctely. 

At first he can gain some familiarity \\'ith sim[)le means 
of [)redeterniiiung results accurately, for example, hy meas- 
urements and patterns. Later can he develo[)ed increasing 
ahilitv to perform preliminaiy thiid^ing hy means of plans, 
and to realize these plans thi'ough mastery of implements, 
processes, aiul materials. I'ltimatelv the gi'owing ahility to 
deal with matt'i'ials should l)e so directed as to awaken a 
desire to produce results wliieh contrihiUe to social welfai'e. 

In (iraih's I and II the most \alual)le consti'Uct i\'e work 
appeal's to consist in the IVee use oi' malei'ial so easily ma- 
nipulated that it gi\'es iiiiiiiediate I'csuits w it hout (leman(h 
iiig elahorate tools or technical skill. Sand, claw hnilding 
l)locks, etc., fulfill the important function of furnishing 



niediuiiis through which a child's coiistnictive imao'iuation, 
which at this agv is satislied witli results which serve to 
suggest the original ideas, can express itself in concrete 
form. .\t tlie same time childrt'n gain some realization of 
the inert (jualities of matter and of the necessity of effort 
to shape it into desire(l form, and their thinking is modi- 
fied thereby. However, such mediums as are here suggested 
are so easily handled that they do not compel the imagina- 
tion to wait u[)on the slow processes by which more stubborn 
material is shaped, nor to have its own creati\'e ^•itality 
interfered with by elaborate [perfection of detail. 

The (piestion is sometimes raised as to ^\•hethel• the 
interest of the children will be inci'cased and the things 
which they construct A\ill be given broader signilicance 
and become a means of wider interpretation of the activi- 
ties of life, if they are given all materials and processes 
relating to the idea ■which thev are working out : for 
exani[)le, if children in the lowest grades cook the food 
they serve, and use woodworking tools to make the furni- 
ture of the doll house, etc. One who watches the I'esults 
of such experiments is impressed by the eager interest of 
the children. The (|Uestion ai'ises. howe\'i'i-, as to whether 
children associate these di\"erse processes as an adult does. 
For instance, if a child in (irade I, in modeling a rivei- on 
the sand taljle. linds ueeil of a bridge, he may be gi\'en 
stri[)S of wood, hammer, and luiils with which to construct 
a bridge, or he ma\' simplv lav a stri|) of wood across, 
adding building l)l(/cks if he wishes a moi'c ornate struc- 
ture. Observation of small childi-en under these circum- 
stances leads to the intei'eiice that tlu' use of saw and 
hammer and nails distracts the coiistructi\-e imagination 
which was directing tlie molduig of the ri\cr. Again, if 


cooking" is introdiu-ed to n'ive more nu'aiiino- to the [)lav of 
housekeeping, it is a (juestion whether at this age an oceii- 
pation wliieh must he (dosely supervised l)y aihdts (h)es 
not dissociate rather than aid in organizing the mental 
processes. 'I"o the adult mind these activities are in closely 
related se([Uence. To the child it is prol)al)le that they are 
kaleidoscopic and distracting. The material hecomes too 
detinitive in its character and forces him to think along 
prescrihed lines in a tield where he cannot hi' allowed free 
scope to cxpei'iment hy himsidf outside of school hours in 
a way tliat is at all hel[)ful socially. The child who makes 
believe can serve any food he chooses. The imagination 
recei\es hints and intimations and follows their lead. 

If the a[)[)ropriate time educationally for introducing 
given activities may be judged b}' their social helpfulness, 
they are a[)})ropriate when the tise of the knowledge gained 
would be at all helpful in a household where each mem- 
l)er was given a share in the home activities at as early a 
date as he could conti'ibute hel[)fully, or when it can be 
ttsed in play which does not re(piire close supervision. I'his 
relation to the social scheme appears to offer a reasonable 
criterion for determining the place of most mainial aclixities 
in schools. 

In later years, when the mind demands for its satisfac- 
tion that the product of its activity attain some degree of 
perfection and sei've an objective purpose, sti'uggle witli 
the difliculties of tools and pi'occsscs necessary to sha[)e 
wood and metal into pi'edetermincd foi'ui bt'coines a factor 
in develo])ing intelligent consideration of conditions and 
encouraging persistinit effort with coiihdeiicc in the out- 
come. On the other hand, at tiiat caiiy age when the mind 
is l)usied chiell\- with its own acti\ities and investigations. 


and wlien it can reg'ard materials as invested with (jnalities 
largely of its own creation, so that thev ser\e })ert'ectly well 
to snp[)ort and stimulate the current of thought even when 
they end)ody none of its terms, as when chairs serve as a 
train of cars, elaborate processes and paraphernalia appear 
to interrupt what continuity such thinking might develo[) 
and rol) it of muchof its vitality. Too earl^ access to. 
abundant [)araphernalia limits the scope of imagination and 
lessens ability to receive satisfactoi'v pleasure from moder- 
ate stimulation. To a degree, limitation of material ap[)ears 
to increase the activity of the imagination. 

In (irades III. \\\ and \' children show a desire to be 
able so to handle material that it shall not oidy furnish a 
concrete accompaniment to the activities of their thought, 
but shall be itself shaped to e.\})ress that thought with in- 
creasing completeness. This appears to be tlx' appropriate 
time for l)eginning a defmite study of technical [)rocesses 
and of the use of sim[)le instruments of precision, such as 
the rule and later the com[)ass. to shape material accord- 
ing to a predetermined form. Udiis stage is signiticant in 
that it marks the first ste[)s toward ielin(iuishment of the 
primiti\e method of ari'iving at results l)y mere experimen- 
tal haiulling of matt'rial, and tlu' beginning of masterv of 
matter by mathematics and in terms of patterns and plans 
which constitute a language of construction. 

tirades \'I. ^'II, and \'III ap})ear to be the most a})pro- 
priate period for undertaking jtrojects involving more 
complicated pi'ocesses with tools and materials, which re- 
quire s(mie maturity of judgment and satisfy the desire 
which generally api)ears at this age to undei'take some- 
thing evidently related to the industrial activities of the 
home and the connnunity. Among the projects sn.iiabK' to 

riKXiKEssiox TiiRoriJii TiiK (;i!Ai)i:s 25 

this age arc those necessitatint;' constnietion in wood and 
the handhno- of materials ust'd in doniestie science and 
domestic art. All tliesi- demand carct'iil plannino- and the 
exercise of skill and g-ood taste ac({uired nntU'r careful 

These materials, because of their miture, make it neces- 
sary that a large part of the [)reliminary plamung and 
ex[)erimentation be done in terms of skett-hes and patterns 
and other forms of description. ( )ne of the important atti- 
tudes toward work which these undertakings should 
(U'velo[) in the minds of tlu' children is that it is possible 
and wholly desirable that processes and results shall be 
pretty detiiutely considered and determined in gi'a[)hic or 
verbal terms before any direct attack is made U[)on difiicult 
or yaluable material. 

I)i'xl<in. The progression along the liiu' of a'sthetic ap- 
preciation to be gained from the study of design ap[)eai's 
to haye the following general tendency: namely, from 
juyenile [)leasure in obyious repetitions of conunon[)lace 
relations of mt-asures, to a response to the beauly of con- 
sistent but sul)tle interrelations of liiu' proportions and of 
beautiful outliiu's ; and fi'om the tcmporai'y stimulation of 
the senses by gaudy eui'ichmcut and b\- mere collections 
of material I'cgardless of any worthy j)riiiciplcs of selection, 
to a i-es[)onse to the appeal of things which are excellent 
and which gi\(' lasting satisfaction. 

Twn aspc<-ts of design become e\ident in an\' detailed 
stud\' of the sul^ject — the element of iililil\ and that nf 
formal beauty. 

W'iien one attcinpts to design a wall paper oi' hook coxcr 
oi' utensil, there are conditions to he ohsei'\ed peculiar to 
each subject. The wall pa[»er should ha\c the (pialities of 



a backn'i'ound. and its pattcni should l)c adapted to a flat, 
vertical sui-tiU'c : tlit- l)ooi<; coxci' should display its title 
eleai'lv, and its color and ornamentation should he in har- 
inon\- with its content : the titensil must })ossess the prac- 
tical (dements which make it ser\'e its pui'pose. IJroadlv 
speakiuL;'. an\thinn' ^\ liich is to serve a })urpose is not <^'oo(l 
in desi^'n unless it is well fitted in every possible wav to 
sei've that purpose, and any ornament which ohseures or 
hinders that puipose is in had taste, liowever perfect it ma\' 
he technically. The \alues of litness to ])urj)ose and of 
structural integrity ai'e ohvious from the point of view of 
tUilitw hut they nnist also i'e(H'i\e consideration from the 
;esthetic standpoint. The satisfaction A\hich arises from 
contemplating a well-constructed object which perfectly 
ftiltills its p\irj)ose is lai-gtdy an a-sthelic one. 

'J"he Aiilue oi utilitarian considerations is readily [)ei'- 
ceived. On the other hand, the student of design is soon 
made aware that in dealing with coiistructe(l ohjects. 
Iiuman demands other than those of utility hecome innne- 
diat(d\' evident. lie Hnds inherent in iiuman nature certain 
(demeiUal prim-iples of choice in matters of foi'm and coloi> 
whicli appear to he hase(l on consistencies of projiort ional 
i'(dations in ai'cas. cur\'atui'es. or tones, 'hhesr (h^mands 
seem to appear as earh' in human history and to he as 
insistent as those of utility. 

'i'he wall paper ma\' he perfectly snili d in coloi' and 
pattern to its position as a \"ertical hackgroun<l. hut tlie 
interrelation of thost- coloi's and the hnai (list lihut ion of 
pattern are matters of a'sthetic pi'eference ratlier than of 
utilitarian necessity. The title may he e(pnilly plain in 
anv (»iie of a nuni1)er of positions on the coNcr. hut e(|ually 
])leasing in oidv a few. It is usually possible to modify 

PKOGREssiox Tinu)r(;ii tiik (jkades -il 

the proportions and outlines of the utensil or of any other 
eonstrueted ohjeet so that a slig-hi variation of the rela- 
tions, or a niodifieation of structural elements, makes of 
its desio-u a harmonious and satisfying whole instead of a 
eonnnonplaee eolleetion of parts. 

These illustrations suggest two lines of [)roeedure in a 
course in desio-n. The first is largely one of training the 
pupil to reason out the most ade(}uate fullillment of con- 
ditions: the second is to develop his (demental u'sthetic 
preferences, relining them by exercise and by the influence 
of excellent examples till they become defiinte and discrim- 
inating in their choices, and intelligent regarding the possible 
sources of satisfaction. These two lines are evident in all 
stages of progress, with the mininuim of emphasis at the 
beginning upon that requiring judgment of conditions. 

Throughout the grades the instructor should see that 
there is continual exei'cise of taste in matters of school and 
home work and general surroundings. The special time 
devoted to design should aim at a development which will 
tend ultimately to correct whatever bad taste is noticeable 
in actual choices \\hicli the children make. The problem 
is necessai'ily slow of accomplishment, for it consists in 
producing changes of mental attitu(h's, not in obedience to 
statements of oj)inion by the teacher, but as a result of 
the development of right choices on grounds of geiniine 
pHiference. yT.sthetic appreciation is a slowly aciiuired 
type (jf mental behavior. The outcome. howe\ cr, is not 
a matter of theoi-y, for actual ex[)erience has shown that 
where the insti'uctor undei'stands the coudilioiis, the begin- 
nings of good taste in matters of design and of apj)recia- 
tion of beaut il'ul tilings may \>it \'cry delinitely de\'elope(l in 
elementarv schools. 


In Grades I. II, and III cliildren have a feeling for 
rliytlnnic arraug-enient in repeating single forms indeiinitely, 
as in borders and surfaee patterns, and show eonsiderahle 
ingennity in making new eonibinations of given elements. 
During the latter part of this period, and especially in 
(irades IV and \\ some appreciation of moi'e complicated 
relations of spaces than those inAolved in mere re})etition 
is evident; for exam[)le, the })leasing arrangement of eU'- 
ments within a given area, such as the [)lacin.g of a title, 
decoration, and monogram in consistent relations on the 
same i>age, or in the choosing of border spaces. This last 
problem invohcs such designs as stripes in weaving, mar- 
gins in written or [)rinte(l pages, widths of frames or mats 
for [)ictures, etc. It offers opportunity for endless invention 
in relathig single and multiple sti'ipes of varying widths 
and S[)acings, and in introducing modilicatious. accents, and 
interlachigs at corners and elsewhere. It |)rescnts principles 
wdiich may be develoi)ed and applied indefinitely. 

Children in these grades also ap|)reciate the various 
effects of 1)ilateral svunnetry, ^\•hi(■h owe their interest to 
the du})lication of given elements in I'cversc foi'ui. 

In (ii'ades \'I, \'II, and \'II1 the sco})e for general 
exercise of taste is much greater than in the grades which 
pi'tM'cde, and includes, in addition to general school work, 
constructive pi'ol)lems. the iields of the doniestic arts and 
social and iiuhisii-ial community interests. iJeeause ot' the 
increased maturity oi' the children and the pre\ioiis prac- 
tice, a far more deiinite a})peal can ap})roj)riatelv l)e made 
t() indi\idual judgment in matters of design which (h-mand 
consideration of purpose and s[)ecilic conditions, and also 
in those which involve the more formal problems of Hue 
sj)acing and beautiful outline. 

riuxatEssiox tiikoich the (;kai)i:s 29 

Appreciation seems to be better developed and originality 
enabled the sooner to exercise itself if children are ac- 
qnainted with good ty[)es from the tirst. These types are 
the result of long experimentation by skilled designers. 
In actual [)ractice the greatest stimulus to originality 
appears to be ju'esent not when a mhid is left to work 
alone but when it is brought into contact with the best 
which other minds have produced. 

With the advancing maturity of pupils increasing atten- 
tion should be paid to chooshig the best things from 
availal)le sources, which usually present both good and bad 
exam[)les. Even though one may have designed a good vase 
or wall paper, certain different kinds of mental Ijehavior 
are called forth when instead of beginning with raw ma- 
terials he nuist choose from a multitude of linished })rod- 
ucts. In the tirst case there is a slow working toward 
the realization of an idea with materials which are under 
one's control. In the second there is more or less rapid 
choice among different ideas as expressed by others, and 
definite comparison of these with one's own ideals. Original 
designing is an excellent experience and should certainly 
form part of the training of every pupil, but it is only one 
of the factors which go to form good taste. Thoughtful 
selection from available material and familiai'itv ^\•ith ex- 
cellent exam[)les are also effective intlueiU'cs. In actual 
life, for e\cry designer there are a thousand people who 
will oidy select designs. 

Ciil'ir. The sludv of color is associated willi both repre- 
sentation and design, and tlie [)rogress in color Avork 
through the gi'ades is closelv iclate(l to the progress in 
these two lilies of worlc A cliilds tirst use of color aj)pears 
to 1).' somewhat arhiti'ary. lie is interested in making 


patches of differt'iit tdues forth*' pui-posc of making sliai)es 
more distim-t, and for the sake of tlie resulting color sen- 
sations. Tlu' ultimate aims held in view hy the instructor 
are generally the ability to use color truthfully when em- 
ployed in scientiiic and other infoi'mational diawing, to use 
it with good taste in matters relating to the arts, and to 
appreciate good color effects in nature and in art. Coloi' 
appreciation develops rapidly under A\ise direction in choos- 
ing and combining tones and in actual manipulation of })ig- 
ments. Progress is usually from general consciousness of 
color sensations, pleasurable or otherwise, to keen dis- 
crimination of tine color (jualilies, as, for example, when 
certain tones of a color give greater satisfaction than othei' 
tones of the same color, \\hich would not have ap[)ealed 
as essentially different if no special study had been given 
them; to pleasure in harmoniously ndated tones and ability 
to harmonize given colors: and also to the cnjoymenl of 
beautiful color effects in nature and art. not simply in the 
first impressions of strong coloring, as in bi'illiant sunsets or 
autumn hues, but in those (jualitics which constitute beauty 
of color, whether. the tones are intense or subduecl. 

In (irades I. II, and III the children I'eadily gain ac- 
(puiintance with the more prominent color tones, as red, 
orange, yellow, green, blue, and \ iolet. 'i'licy are inlereste(l 
in collecting samples or in separating into color groups 
samples ah'cady gathei'cd. they learn to compare samples 
so as to match colors as nearly as possible, and later can 
sort out material with considerable discrimination: for 
exam})le. in [)lacing two gi\('n colors, as yellow and green 
or green and blue, at a little distance apart and arranging 
samples so as to form a graded series of intermediate tones 
between the two, or in making series of lighter and darker 

ri:<)(;i:Kssi()x riiitorcii iiii: (.kadf.s 


tones of single colors by means of s;un[)k's. A liniitc'(l use 
of color in (Irawiny- is also of \alue. 

In (iratU's I\'. \'. and \'I one of the most ^■alual)le 
factors in (lcvelo[)in^' kno\\"U'(lnc and a[)pi'eciation of color 
is the use of water colors in rcprt'sentation, with special 
practice in carefullv matching differi'iit colors of ohjects. 
Experimentation with pigments, in producing tones of 
colors that shall diifer from given colors in heing nioi'e or 
less intense or in heing lighter and darker, or in forming 
a series between one color and another, as was suggested 
with sam[ik's, also develops discrimination. 

In (irades ^' 1 1 and \'I1I the nse of color in description 
and truthful re[)resentation is increasingly \aluable. The 
children are readily interested in learning something of suit- 
al)le and harmonious relations of colors as used in industries 
and in home surroundings. They should be hel[)e(l in 
making collections of good exam[)les of color in textiles, 
color prints such as occur in magazines, miscellaneous color 
designs, cXr. They should be interested in the color effects 
in nature, in lan(lsca[)e and in plant and ainmal forms, and 
should be given some [)ractice in making good color com- 
l)inations for use. At this age elaborate verbal discussions 
of color theories seem to be of little \alue to the children. 

(;i{Ai)i-: I 

'i'lic most valuable outconu' of llic ^^■ork of the lirst Near 
in school appears to be the formation of a liabit of draw- 
ing things uppermost in the interests of the children, and 
of shai)ing easily handled material till manual expression 
becomes a matter of course. 

This is accomplished most satisfactorily when there is 
little criticism of results and when technical instruction 
is only incidental. The greatest progress a[)[)ears to come 
wlien the instructor works at times with and for the chil- 
dren, in order that they may see l)etter ways of obtaining 

The function of manual woi'k at this time is to furiush 
the children with a means of expressing their constructive 
and imitative tendencit'S in c()ncrete form. When children 
shape clay or mold sand or draw, tliey lind their i<U'as are 
assuming visil)le shape. This discovery stimulates still 
further the mental imagery and the desire to ex[)ress it. 
Little technical skill is ac(iuired, l)ut a coi)rdinatioii is 
developed between ideas and nuisculai' reactions and the 
children become aware of certain inhei'cnt (jnalities and 
laws of inert material. 

The following paragra[)hs pi'esenl more d(;laile(l consid- 
erations regarding those phases of i-e[)reseutalion. construc- 
tion, and design which seem to be of greatest value (hiring 
the lirst year in school. 


{;uAi)K I 33 

Represe)ttation. This should consist in o-cneral pictorial 
expression of things of interest to the children, with much 
encotiragenient and little criticism from the teacher. Their 
other lessons, their toys and g-ames, incidents of their (expe- 
rience. — in fact, all tiiose things which are most vividly in 
mind and which form the topics of their conversation. — are 
a[)pr()priate subjects for drawing. Their jtictorial expression 
is so symbolic and arbitrary in its shorthand conventions 
that it lends itself to free, rapid ex[)ression as later and 
more elal)orated drawing eamiot. 

The first interest children show in using a pencil seems 
to be awakened by the pleasure of making marks \\\\\\ it, 
regardless of any signiticance in the marks themstdves. 
Thev will cover one sheet of paper aftt'r another with 
mt-aningless scrawls and be delighted ap[)arently by the 
fact that movements of the j)encil over the [)aper leave 
visible marks in their path. 'I'his pei'iod has bi-en termed 
the " scril)ble stage." 

IJy degi'ces the marks take on signihcance. Interest in 
representing things is added to tlu' interest in mere sci'ib- 
bling. When children enter school they are usually just 
emerfjino- from the scribblino- stasj'e and are beu'inninu' the 
use of forms, somewhat as hieroglyphics in a sort of [)icture 
writing. Fig. 2 shows early interpretations of the human 
ligure. a house, a tree, and an animal. 

At this time children show little interest in I'epresenting 
accurately a pailicular object placed befoi'c them. Passy 
thus describes the altitude of a jirimary child toward a 
model given him to draw : 

III" (Idcs not licsitati'. Imt sci/.cs his |iciiril and ilraws i-apidly in an 
uiit(jniatie manner. It is ini]iii-sililc td maki- liini in(]l< at tliis nicHlcj 
with anv attention. Ii' an\ one (dininand;^ iiiin to look atj it, he 



Imrriedly casts upon it a (listractcd and disdainful glance and con- 
tinues without concerning' himself with that whicli he sees. Tlie 
moment he has finished he shows it to you with a triunqihaiit air.^ 

¥ii,. 2. Karly drawings l.)y cliildreu 

Duriiio- tills period Avheu the cliildreu ai'c interested in 
re})reseiitiiig l)y crude picloo-raplis the ideas which thiiio's 
suggest, rather than the correct a[)p(!arance of the things 
themselves, almost any result satisdes them. The draw ing, 

1 Quoted Ity Freilerick I5urk in " Tlie (ieuetie vs. tlie Logical ( )rder in 
Drawing," I'edagoykul IStmlnary (1!»02), p. 21M». 



altlioiig'li il may bo ineaniiij^'k'.ss to others, is for the child 
who nnuU' it a sutlicifiit suo-ovstion of the i<h'a that inspired 
it. He has a reason for e\ery mark. 

These symbols once nsed are likely to be re[)eated un- 
niodilied by reference to the object. For example, Fi^'. o 
shows symbols which different children dre\\' to represent 

¥i(.. ;■]. Symbols used by diiferL-iit cliildrt'ii to rcpi-t'scut tlu' liitiiiaii fii^urc 

the linman lig-nre. In each the pai'ticnlar sort of lini- chosen 

])y each child to ri'presenl arms and lejgs is re})eate(l in 

all the hgui'cs bv that child, 'i'he same recnrreiice of the 

symbol lirsl nsed is to be seen in drawinL^'s of most other 

objects, as trees, lionses, etc. 'Idicse s\inl)ols aic (d'ten 

strikinglN' similar to those wsvd by ancient and primitive 
peoples whose drawings ari- highly conventicjiudizecl. 



Young cliildren drnw wluit tlicv know al)oiit the oljjects, 
rather tlian what thi'ir eyes see at any given moment. For 
example, they will show botli ends of a house in the same 
(h'awing, and will sketch not oidy the exterior, but. if 
allowed time, will add the furinture and people inside, as 
if the walls were transparent ( Fig. 4). The attitude of mind 
which leads the children to do this is not a fault to be oxer- 
come l)y insti'uction, but a stage lo be li\-ed through and 

Fi(.. 4. ('liil(lii-ii"s attfinjits \n show what tln'v kimw ratln-r than what 
thfv can si-c at tlie tiiiiL' the drawiim- is hukU' 

one which eontri])utes directly to further dexflopmcnt. 'Hie 
fact that children often make little progress at lirst towai-d 
what adults consider to be good drawing, and that tliev 
fre(piently revert to scribl)]ing. should not be a cause for 
discouragement on the part of the teacher in these grades. 
Aftt'r children liave obtained a little familiarity with the 
pencil their drawings frecpiently become sui'pi'isingly e\- 
pi'essive of character, as. for example, the group of sketches 
shown in Fiii'. ■>. 



IiU'icU'iitally. with this ^'ciicral use of ilhistratiN r (h'aw iiiii^ 
a (k'liniti' ht'!4'iiniiiio' may he iiKuU' in (levc'l()[)iiiL;' al)iHt\- to 
draw more Initht'ully hy (IcN'otiiiu' a iiuinlH'i- of It'ssoiis to 
the sauu' siibji'ct. with new su^-o-cst ions rc^'anliii^' it at each 
lesson. For example, in I^'io'. (> the child who has made 
ernde re[)rt'sentations of houses, as in A, tries in another 
lesson to draw a house and fence which shall stand uni'iL'ht, 


Fii.. 5. ]lliistrati\(_' skutclics by cliildrcn 

with the result shown in /.' : and later draws C and />, 
which, while fai- from perfect, indicate a distinct advance 
in ability to re[)i-esent structui'c. V'v^. 7 shows sketclu's 
iii\dl\inL;' a snow sIioncI. 

The results of careful and I'cpeatcd study of a few 
topics will l)e discussed in fullci' detail in ( 'haplei' 11, 
]». 411. In n'eneial, liowe\cr. it nia\ lie sai<l that al)ilil\ to 
recoi'd ol)ser\at ions coi-rcct l\ can he dc\'elope<l when the 
childi-cii ;ii'c oldci', with much less cxpcnditui'c of time and 



'i 'i /-- ^^ '^• 





Fid. 0. SkctcliL's shuwiiiic cliildrcirs ijvonrcss in drawiiin- houses 


Fi<^ 7. Sketches iiivdhiiiu- ;i study of the shape of a simu sh 


(JRADE I 39 

effort : but facility of g-rapliic expression comes most readily 
(luring- these early years and is diriicull to oljtaiii later. 
During" the tirst year or two of school life, the technical 
acciuisition in drawing which is of greatest advantage to the 
next stage of the work is this facility which a child gains 
by drawing in his own way, with the aid of encouragement 
and good example. He needs continual use of this primitive 
})icture language in describing things associated with home, 
out-of-door, and school life. Thus the children l)ecome ac- 
customed to express their ideas l)y drawing before the age 
of self-consciousness and hesitation is reached. 

Perha[)s the best sei'vice a teacher of drawing can render 
in (irade I is to di'aw a great deal for the children on the 
board or elsewhei'c, not for the sake of setting them a cojn', 
but of furnislnng to them the uneipnded stinuilus of seeing 
some one do easily and well what thev are attempting. 
Elaborate systems and courses can accom[)lish little without 
the encouragement and suggestions of exam[)U\ Instruction 
in the language of di'awing. as in the (ierman or French 
language, should make use of the conversational method. 
At tins age tlie tendency to imitate is an important factor 
in development in all lines, including the ails. In fact, the 
matter of drawing in early grade's might alm(»st be sununed 
up as f(jllows: Children who arc with an instructoi- who 
draws well and uses his drawing as a common means of 
expression will learn to draw. Anv otluT circuiiislances 
are less promising. 

('(iHsti-Kcfinn. 'l"he value of constructi\c work in this 
gi'ade consists mainly in the fact iiiat it I'urnishcs another 
medium for expi'cssing ideas in \isil)je fonu. As in drawing, 
the material serves to snpport and retlect the train of ideas, 
and this nu-ntal acti\il\' is in ureat dan''-er of beinu' checked 


if any emphasis is placed at lirst upon technical accuracy 
in processes. The problems therefore should not entail 
complicated i)lanning nor [jrolons^'cd [)rocesses, and the 
material should not be too deiiniti\-e, but be adapted to 
general ex[)ressi(»n and invite the childi'en to endless ampli- 
fication of their ideas. 'J'he construction in this grade might 
be terme(l free re})resentation in three dimensions. 

'Idle sand tal)le offers a wide, range of possibilities for 
such \\()rk. The sand is readily shaped to rej)iesent \arious 
conligui'ations of land, and on these, with su[)plementarv 
material, different localities may be represented and scenes 

Modeling in clav or other plastic material is a means 
of expression which awakens strong and long-sustained in- 
terest. In using sand or clay both hands are re(]uire(l to 
shape the res[»oiisive material into the desii'cd form, and 
every touch makes an evident modilication. Modeling has 
not been so universally adopted as its \alue would seem 
to justify, largely on account of the difliculty in caring for 
the materials. It is, howevei', one of the important modes 
of manual expression in primai-y giades. 

Cutting given pictures and othei- shapes from ])aper 
gives valuable training in gaining coiurol over a tool as a 
means of sha[)ing material to a pi'eclctcrmiiied form, and 
is an important form of manual woi'k in primaiy gi'ades. 
Practice in paper cutting of gi\'en forms results in marked 
progress in ability to control the hand so as to follow an 
outline. In addition to the technical control, childi'en gain 
new suggestions of form from the [)ictures they cut out. 
and these are likely to a^Jix-ar in later drawings, j-'reediand 
})a[)er cutting is also of great use as a means of interpreting 
objects ill terms of silhouette (Fig. S ). 



Arc'uracy in nioasiiivinent should not l)e ex[HH'te(l from 
small children, hut first steps in handlino- a rule may he 
taken hv nsino- it as a means of drawing straight lines 

I-'k.. b. Frcc-liaml paper ciitliiii: 

hetween given points. Toward the end of tiif year some 
simple measui'cments which do not in\-o]\c fi-actions of 
inches nia\ l)e undei'takeii wilii prolit. 

liuilding with hlocks is a type of consti'uct i\-e work 
which is of imporlancc for small cliildrcn. liy matching 


the blocks tog-ether and selecting those ^\•hich tit they learn 
to estimate ionn with some degree of precision. Wy placing 
one block upon another so that the structure stands lirndy 
they gain a sense of horizontal and vertical relations. 

Objects so shaped as to offer hints to the imagination 
without embodying more than a suggestion oftt'U in^'ite 
mental activity \\hen more detinitely elaborated forms fail. 
For example, children who have learned the names of chess- 
men will often carry on lengthy plays full of incident and 
dialogue, using the pieces as actors. The children appear to 
clothe the king and queen witli more personality than would 
be the case if the pieces were realistic in ai)pearance : and 
the knights seem to awaken greater intei'est than a complete 
representation of a horse. Ex[)erimentation with suggestive 
toys and figures promises to yield some answer to the (ptes- 
tion as to \\hether Avithin reasonable limits, the sustained 
vigor of constructive imagination is not in inverse ratio to 
the specific elaboration of the material furnished. 

IJesif/n <(H(J color. Small children ap[)ear to lia\e little 
judgment regarding htiiess of designs foi' any gi\-en pur- 
pose. Thev are not mature enougli to undertake, unaided, 
problems which rcipiire tasteful distribution of dilferent 
elements within a given area. In designs in\"ol\ing such 
arrangements, as. for example, 'I'haid\sgiving souNcnirs, 
("lu'istmas cards. Aalentines. etc., progress in geiniiiie ap[)re- 
ciation seems most certain when thi' teacher works out 
with the children designs which are sim[)le and yvi excel- 
lent, and thus accustoms them to examples of good 
arrangement which will inlluencc their choices when later 
thev })lan their own scheme of s[)acing. 

'Vo reconnnend. as the writer unhesitatingly docs, that 
these lirst arranuemeiits shotlld be nuaU' under the moi'e (»r 


less immediate influence of excellent exanipk's, is to pre- 
cipitate at once the general discussion of the [)lace of 
originality in design. In recognition of the ini[)()rlance of 
this (]uestion, but without entering u[)on any full discussion, 
it may be suggested that good design is not the chance 
output of an uninformed mind. A young child may produce 
somethino- orio'inal in the sense that it is a fortuitous ar- 
rangement of shapes that never existed before. Such a result, 
however, is not necessarily a design because it is original : 
nor is there any value merely in the fact that it did not 
exist before, if it is not good enough to be in itself a 
reason why it should exist at all, or if the experience 
involved leads to no better production in the future. It is 
probable that children who at this age, with no exam[)le or 
suggestion, have made an original arrangement, generally 
like it because it is their own production. I'nless there is 
opportunity to compare it with something better, a common- 
place arrangement becomes fixed in mind and its influence 
persists and is evident in subsecpuMit efforts. 

On the other hand, children at this age readily develop 
considerable proflciency in })ro(lucing the simpler forms of 
decorative arrangement, which consist in the repetition of 
a single slia[)e to form a border or surface pattern. Such 
[)atterns occur automatically in certain forms of weaving, 
and children often show nuich ingenuity in working out 
the [)Ossible variations. 

A sense of rhythmic arrangement can be directly devel- 
oped by reix'ating a sini[)l(! unit, with pencil or brush, 
free-hand, so as to form a border or a surface' pattern. The 
feeling of rhythm appears to be iiicreasc(l w lien tliis repeti- 
tion is done in [)art to a time count, wliich at lirst is led 
bv the teacher. This coinit nia\' be socal or indicatt'd 



upon the piano. 'J'liis practice in repeatinp^ a series of 
forms to a corresponding movement of time gives a sense 
of rhythm \\hicli is not (le\'el()[)e(l bv (b'awing borders in 
which tlie spacing of ilie units is iinbcated either by dicta- 
ted })oints or with tlie aid of measurements before tlie 
units are (b'awn (Fig. 9). 

Exercises with tliese simj)l(! borders are the tirst steps 
t(jward more complicated problcnns in up[)er grades, such 
as surface designs, bihiteral forms, and bahniced designs of 
al)stra(;t shapes, or conventionalized tlower forms produced 
with a few pencil or brush strokes. In tliis practice, as in 
[)enmanship, beautiful form and style are gained, not by 
pausing over one unit to perfect it, but by re[)eating the 
shape till the hand has mastered it and can use it with 

During the first year in school children should become 
familiar with the colors most easily recognized, such as red, 
orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. This may be done 
by placing before the children a fairly large sam[)le of one 
after anothci" of these coloi's and having them collect objects 
of a similar color. In bits of cloth and [)aper, and in llowers 
and leaves, the color undei' consideration will be discovered 
and its sensation perceived more clearly than by chance 
observation. The use of colored crayons for drawing is also 
an im})ortant means of traiiung recognition and discrhnimi- 
tion (jf color. 

A reasonable standai'd of accomplishment has been 
reached if, at the end of the lirst year in school, the children 
have develo{)ed a habit of expressing their ideas with pencil 
so that drawing seems to them a matter of course; if they 
have gained ability to handle sini[)le matei'ial sueii as ])aper, 
chi\', sand, and blocks, so that such matei'ials assume <lesired 





















ii i i i iit tti ii i ri rni i ffft rrTmiiiiaBW"»i»niirn ii iiiiiiiiM ' 

Fi<;.'.>. Horilcrs ili'iiw 11 Ircc-liainl 


shapes; and if tliev have o-aiiicd sonic ideas of ociod spacing 
and arrano'cment under guidance of the teaclier, and liave 
begun to enjoy the rhythmic spacing of forms and to discover 
tlie general distinctions of color. 

That their graphic expressions during this iirst year are 
crude and their constructions inaccurate wlien ju<lged by 
adult ideas, and that their standai'ds of good design are 
gained from their instructors, are notcauses for apprehension. 
Detailed instruction as to methods of holding pencils, or the 
quality of line to ])c obtained, or attempts to teach such 
items of the technical grammar of drawing as foreshorten- 
ing or convergence almost invariably do nnich harm and no 
good at this age. 

'J'he })rimary instructor who draws with and for the chil- 
dren, and who constructs objects with them, is furnishing the 
most potent stinuilus and inspiration for progress toward in- 
dividual ability. Compared with the effect of this, methods 
and courses without sucli example are of secondary \ahie. 



( liildii'ii wlio attend schools wlu'i'c instructors cncourao'c 
drawinn' and constructive work as an cvcrvdav means of 
expression usually gain reniai'kaMe facility during- tlu' lirst 
year in setting forth their idi-as by thi'se lut'ans. Throuo-h 
tlk'ir own invention and the suggestions of the teacher and 
of their fellow pupils they gain conunaud of a \\ide vai'ietv 
of gra[)hie synil)ols and simple constructive processes. 
Elxpressiou hy means of illustration and constrtu'tion, al- 
though crude and archaic, becomes a matter of course and 
is carried on with apparent pleasure and satisfaction. 

A change in attitude towai-d the results is apparent, 
however, as the childi'cn grow oldci'. 'Jdiev soon cease to he 
wholly satislied with manual ex^jression as a mere activity 
without regard to the (pudity of the product. When (hiring 
the first year in school the child"s im[)ulse to prodiu-e some- 
thing had found an outlet in lines or shapes, the crudity of 
the I'csult seldom intci'fercd with his exultation as he dis- 
played liis production, or causi'd him to pause for impi'ove- 
ments oi' coi-rections before he pi-oceeded to his next attempt. 
In Cirades 1 1 and 1 1 1 the pi'oduct as a ])roduct seems to make 
an impression on the children and gain iinjtorlaucc in their 
estimation. 'I'liey show indication'; ol cai'ing for the truth 
of the icj»i-esentat ion and the (pialily of t he construction, 
and wish greatei' know ledge and nioi'e ade(puUe means for 
cai-rying out their ideas. This iicwly awakened desire is 



illustrated by such au iustance as the announceineut of a 
child attempthig to represent a ship at sea, that he was 
going to find some pictures of ships iu order that he might 
know more definitely how the prow of a ship was shaped 
so he could draw his as it should l)e. Cliildren who were 
making nature drawings iiKpiired how to make the bulhs 
"look round," how to make some leaves look as if they 
were behind others, how to paint a white narcissus on 
white paper, etc. 

This realization of the need of data in order to represent 
adequately, and of knowledge as to how to [)ut material 
together if the product is to be satisfactory, offers oppor- 
tunity to give instruction which the children can put to 
inuiiediate use, and which at the same time enriches their 
ideas and extends their knowledge of shapes, materials, 
and processes.' 

IJased largely on this fact, work of the followin.g general 
character along the lines of representation, consti-uction, and 
design is reconnnended as appropriate for children during 
the second and third years in scliool. 

]{i'pr<'Hciit((fioii. (Jcueral use of drawing and modeling 
as means of expression and (lescri])tion should continue 
through these grades. Tlic freedom and facility gained 
during tlus first year enable the children to rcj)resciit the 
salient features of scenes and incidents with cf»nsiderable 
effect (Fig. 10). 

'J'he growing interest of the childi'cn in the (pialitv of 
results makes worth while a more cai'cfnl and detailed study 
of objects than was advisable during the lirst vear : and the 
chief additional contribution in the way of special teclmicid 
instruction which these grades can make, aj)pears lo be a 
somewdiat intensive study of a i(i\\ typical things conducted 

(;i!Al)i:s II AM) III 


1)V (k'Vdtiiii;" a scries of lessons to eaeli, for the purpose of 
enabling" the ehiUhvu to draw these partieiihir thiuos welL 
Sueh study frees the drawing from some of its crudity and 
directs the beginnino-s of tlie kind of ol)servation whicli 
slioukl resuh hiter in correct im[)ressions aiul the ahihty to 
record them with some (U\gree of accuracy. Chihh-en of tliis 
age progress rapidly when they work for se\'eral consecutive 






Fio. 10. lllustrativf .skc'tclies 

lessons upon the same to[)ic, ex[)i'essing it each time in a 
ditVerent wa\'. 

For example, if the subject luidei' consideration is a 
house, after the children have doiu' their best in rcpi'c- 
senting it, attention mav be callcil to [)ailicular and sig- 
niticant points: foi' instance, the desirability that the sides 
of a house stand nch icalh'. TlicN' should examine the 
houses thev arc drawing to see if an\ of tlicm lean. They 
I'cadiK" become iiitei'cstcd in this gcdiiicti'ic relation, and 
for a time will work earnest 1\ o\cr houses on paper and 


l)lackl)()ai'(l, ill tlie eiuleavor to make the sides, doors, win- 
(lows, and cliimiieys exactly vertical. They are then eager 
to draw villages in \\liich every liouse stands n[)right and 
where feiiees, poles, etc., are in proper })osition. 

Later thev niav add to their fund of delinite knoM'ledfre 
by a study of houses and })ictures of liouses. to see liow 
gables ai'e sha})ed, how doors and windows are placed, how 
ehimneys join roofs, etc. They may cut pictures of houses 
from paper or trace them, and by actual nuiscular move- 
ments over the shapes gain a clearer perception of them. 
They may make patterns for the construction of houses in 
paper or cardboard and build houses in the sandbox, which 
shall embody the ideas thus far gained. 

If the material out of ^\•hich the house is constructed is 
of particular interest, as in the case of a log liouse, the 
problem of learning how to re[)resent this becomes a topic 
for study. Fig. 11 shows studies of houses by cjiildreii in 
these grades. The result of practice in vertical and hori- 
zontal relations is observal)le in the sketcli of the lire, 
where, notwithstanding the intei'est in depicting exciting 
details, the geometric relations of the sli'uctural lines have 
been fairly wtdl I'cpresented. 

Again, if the suljject for illustration is a bii'd, the iirst 
drawing may be followed by a study of the shape of the 
laird's head, the way his feet are place(l upon the ground, 
the angle at which he stands. The bird may be drawn on 
{)aper, modided in (day, cut from pa{)er, [)ainte(l or drawn 
in coloi'. Pictures nuiy l)e collecte(l illustrating the bird in 
\arious [)ositions and activities, and some of these may l)e 
traced and cut out. After a child has gained what he can 
fi-om observation, and his progress in i-epreseiit iiig a gi\fn 
object seems to have reached its limit for the time, his powers 



of expression reeeive a fresh impulse if lie can si-e some 
one draw skillfully the thing's he is irvini;- to i'c[)res('nt. 'I'o 
furnish sueh an impulse hy drawing with faeility l)eforc the 
ehildren is one of the most valual)le eontrihutions a s[)ecial 
teaeher of dra\\ini4' ran make durino- these two years. 

.Vfter a few lessons the ehildren master tlie general sha})e 
and charaeteristies of the bird so that they ean illustrate 

i i J 

i -» d^ 

Fii... 11. Drawiim.s of;: 

any story whieh admits of interpi'etation in terms of that 
l)ird and its actiyiti»'s. and the drawings arc informed with 
all the details and data gained in the seyeial steps. 

The interest of the children increases with successiye 
lessons it each presents some new [)hasc. Thcic is a familiar 
background to which to I'cfer iicv, elements. Al lirst the 
chililreii are likely to make thcii' drawings nnnli alike. 
.\fter al)sorbing items of detail fidiii piciuics ami objects, 
their productions show great \ ariety and a marked ad\ ance 

o2 FIXE AND IM)rs'J'KIAI> Ali'lS 

in defiiiiteness of sliape, eoiTectiiess of general pro{)ortion.s, 
and expressiveness of eliaraeter. 

The important advantage (jf tlie enmnlative efTeet of a 
number of earefully planne(l conseeutive lessons on the 
same topic is often overlooked, and as a result drawing 
frecjuently fails to show definite })rogress. and either ceases 
to interest or becomes so mnch a matter of sn[)erhcial 
facility that children miss the stimulation tliat comes with 
a measural)ly thorongh mastery of a subject. Advancement 
in al)ilitv to draw seems to become evident, not at lii'st in 
gradual incrcnise of [)ower to draw anything that may be 
presentt'd, but in learning how to draw one thing after 
another and thus accunuilating a graphic vocabulaiy. The 
facts that children have to l)e taught how to draw t'ach 
new object, and that the true sco[)e for originality at tiiis 
age is not so nuu-h in attempting to learn by unaideil efforts 
how to draw an object as in using it expressively aftei' it 
is leai'ued, should be taken into account in plainung work 
for [)rimary children. 

The interest tliat is evident when a group of children 
woi'k together on a single topic, devtdoping tlie descri[ition 
as tlun' [)roceed, is a factor that mav be utihze(l. I'^or 
example, when tlie beginning of an illustration of some 
topic in wliich the cliildren are interested is made on tlie 
l)oard, all are generally enthusiastic in contributing a shai-e 
to the result. Topics suggested by the school woi'k or out- 
side interests, such, for example, as a farm, a cit\" street, a 
wharf, a market, a harvest held. etc.. ai'c excellent, llie 
children show grt'al resoui'cefulncss in com])osing the 
scene and offering additional matei'ial. and after the hrst 
rapid sketching is done they are rt'ady to collect data for 
coi'rection and improvement of the results. Fig. 1:^ show's 



an arrangement of paper cuttings by a class wliicli was 
making a study of frogs. 

The results of the special instruction should continually 
be absorbed into the general descriptive drawing and be- 
come apparent there. Otherwise little inipro\enient will l)e 
evident in the general drawing, and not nuich that is of 
permanent value will come from the technical instruction. 



^ '^ 

t^^ ^ :^^^» 

Fi<;. 12. Paper ruttiiii,'s uuule l)y a primary class after stiidyini; frog.s 

(JoHiffructirc K'fjrk. Part of the construct ivi' \\"ork mav 
with advantage [)arallel the \\()rk in drawing, so that the 
same things which ai'c being re[)resentc(l in two dimensions 
may also be constructc(l in thi'cc. That such a relation 
enriches the value of both means of expi'cssion is shown b\ 
the inci'cased un<lerslandiiig of form rellecte(l by the draw- 
ings, when the same objects are being constructed, and by 
the amount of data and snu'ijestion which is secured iirst 


by drawing and then embodied in the construction. Such 
problems as houses, furniture, and the various articles 
related to studies, games, and occupations, are continually 
presenting themselves and offer an abundant list of topics. 
In most primary manual problems drawing and construc- 
tion are both involved in the final result. 

In addition to free, illustrative construction, these grades 
should also present the lirst steps in wtdl-planned work 
which I'ecjuires careful measurements and exact delinea- 
tion of pattei'us. This means the beginning of working 
drawings. During the first year most of the })aper cut- 
ting that necessitated following a predetermined shape was 
based upon outlines furnished to the children, such as pic- 
tures and patterns. In addition to this the children should 
now l)egin to make their own patterns, and should come to 
ap})reciate the value of tin- rule as an instrument for deter- 
mining measurements and straight lines A\ith precision. It 
is not dillicult to awaken and maintain interest in the 
accurate use of the rule, if the problems presented involve 
at lirst only a few lines and measurements of even inches 
and later half and (pnu'ter inches. Tlie rule used by the 
children for constructive woi'k during these years should 
not contain smaller divisions than (|uarter iuchc^s. The 
children should l)e sliown how lo manipulate it, and sliould 
\)e interested in maintaining a relatively high standard 
of accuracy \\henever the work departs from free-hand 
expression and re(piires an instrument of accuracy. The 
rules provided for children are often confusing because of 
the method used in many cases for indicating dimensions. 
The hgures are fre(p,iently place<l beside instead of over 
the line. So many mistakes in measurements made by 
young children are directly traceable to this cause that it 


seems worth while to select a rule which, as in Fii;-. 18, 
eliminates this eoiifusion. 

Bookmarks, tags, weather signals, flags, pinwheels, val- 
entines, covers, envelopes and folders for school work, illus- 
trative diagrams such as plans for school gardens and other 
projects of this sort will give opportunity for [)lanning 
objects l)y simple patterns in the' flat. 

It is important that during these two years a few funda- 
mental geometric relations should be thoroughly appre- 
hended by repeated use. The relations of vertical, horizontal. 

Fi(j. 13. Foot rules properly marked for primary children 

and parallel occur in such drawing and construction as are 
called for by the house already suggested. 

In addition to the subjects involving these relations some 
drill work repeated at frecpUMit intervals is necessary to in- 
sui'e the complete mastery of such relations, and ease and 
conlidencc in using them. In the third grade this drill may be 
undertaken with good results. For example, when lines are 
drawn on the board at various angles children are interested 
in trying to draw other lines pai'allel to the givtMi ones and 
testing their e(piidistance. 'I'liey ;dso like to acconi[)any 
their fi'ce-hand drawing and coiistiiiclioii witli occasional 
drawings of \'ertical lines on tiie Itoard. holding tlie ohalk at 
arm's length and [)roducing tlie line slowly and steadily to a 



length (if two or three feet and then testing it witli a })hinib 
hne. Horizontal lines and lines to represent given slants 
shonld also reeeive r.ttention. It is of gri'at ini[)ortanee that 
these geometric relations shonld hi' thorongldy mastered so 
that they may he nsed A\ith facility. 'I"he mind has then 
a developed appreciation of fnndamental relations, and a 
standard for estimating and comparing variations from these. 

F\(;. 14. Desiuus for budkiiiarks and vali'iitiiu' 

7Jrs!(//i. 'I'lie general lines of work snggested tor(irade I 
continne through (irades II and III with liighei' stand- 
ards of aeeoiiiplishmeiit. The problems invoKc plamung 
simj)le forms to he constrneted and decorating them \\itli 
snitahle oi'iiameiitation — sneli olijects as holiday greetings 
and souN'enirs, bookmarks, \alentines. covers tor school 
])a[)ei's. etc. Fig. 14 shows bookmai'ks and a \alentine. 
Tlie decorations mav consist of nnits and b(ii'(h'rs. which 
the cliiMren I'cadily iiixent by [ilacing [)egs and lentils. 


•5» •o- 'ih -if 

•r •*• •?. .o- 

.4. .0. •i.-.o- 


1 — ^ ' — ~*;-*i- 

^ ••. .«. .^. 
















-.. i 


•C-* «#• •«• ! 

► • t '■ 

)*i^ •«• .•> •*» 

--Aj^ftjft. -^ ^^ 

I . . • J 

Fk;. ]';. Surface patterns made uf tlil'tVreiit arraimeiiieiits df simts 

iiftcrwards sclcctiiiL;' aiul <lra\\iiii;' the best of tlicst' arraii^'c- 
iiieiits ( I'vj;. I'")). 'I'lic ii!\ciiti(iii of tlic cliildrcii at this a^X' 
can vci'V easily Ix' <lii'cct('(| aloiit;- the lines of i^'ood types of 


(k'sigii by the example of the teaeher. Leadership whieli, 
by example, directs inventive activities along right lines 
at iirst, obviates the necessity of much of that correction 
and verbal instruction which are sometimes necessary \\hen 
poor arrangements have become fixed in the mind. 

The children should continue the rhythmic drawing of 
borders by repeating units to a time count corresponding 
somewhat to that of nuisic. After the experience of the 
first year they are usually able to use more dii'licult units, 
to draw them with excellent spacing, and to a})ply them 
in making decoi'ative borders and sim})le surface patterns 
upon the forms they have constructed, employing no other 
measurements than those I'apidly estimated by the eye as 
tlie drawing proceeds. Fig. It! shows the bowls of the 
Three IJears, a parrot which had been a subject for form 
study, and a flower, used as units. 

During the second year the children learn readilv to 
discriminate hues of color more exactly than in the first 
year, and to bring in samples oi' to pick out objects, the 
Cfdors of which ai'c like the samples shown Iw the teacher. 
In the third year they may with advantage learn to dis- 
tinguish sevei'al ste[)s in the diffei'eiit values of a given 
color. The woi'd "value "" is used here to denote the rela- 
tion of a color to light and dark. In this significance of the 
term the value of a color changes as the color grows lighter 
or darker. For example, if white is mixed with green the 
resulting lighter grei'U is higher in \alue. If black instead 
of white is mixed with it, the resulting darker <()lor is 
lower in value than the original grt-en. Children may col- 
lect or be furnished with an abundance of color samples, 
and after selecting those of one color hue, — for example, 
blue, — arranu'e these so as to form a series of different 

(;kai)i:s ii and hi 


valiu's. iaii;4iii;4' from li<4'lit hliics wliicli arc alniosl wliiir id 
tliosi- w liicli a[i[)r(iacli black. In a similar maiiiu'r llic\ iiia\ 
arraiii^'c \aliic scales of ollici' colors. Any L^'i'cal dci^rcc i){ 
accui'ac\- ill these arraiiL;-emciits should not he (lemaii(le(l. 
nor should the numher of stc[)S hetween the lightest 
and dai'kcst ln' so manv that the children cannot rt-adih' 

6 6^ v^d«5 4 6 i5 

{*^» ^i^(>>(*^C^i^ixcm^Xfx 

V\<.. IC.. ISMnliTs lit' \iiiit- ^uuuc.-ted liy l^iiics in ililTiTciit .-ili.i,,l >niiliis 

l>el'cei\-e the chailL;'*' from one step to another. I'"i\-e steps 
hetween hi^htest and darkest ai'c suflicieut to ilhisiiale well 
the effects of \ ai'ious \alnes. while seNcii ai'c as maii\' as 
ean he appi-eciate( j h\- most childi-eu in these L;i'ades. 

Ahm\' of the desi'_;'ns maile h\ ehildi'en call for color 
eomhinations and '/wv opporlnnitx lo use ihi' eiVecls of 
different steps of \alue in jileasin^' eomhinations. 


Youiio- children can use water color to excellent achan- 
tage for the occasional experience of color effects, but they 
are too young for any very intelligent handling of a medium 
so capricious. During the first three years al)out all the 
color expression that is valuable can be secured 1)V collec- 
tions of samples and by the use of cojored crayons. The 
disadvantages of postponing the reguliu' use of water color 
till tlie fourth year are probably moiv than compensated 
for by the fresh stimulation from the introduction of a 
new medium at that time, and by the fact that the results 
obtained l)y primaiy children in water color, A\hich are 
admired by adults, are almost always chance effects caused 
l)y the Huid character of the me(lium and were uid'oreseen 
l)y tlu' child. Experimentation with accidental color effects 
has a dehnite value, but this value is perhaps greater when 
the experimenter is somewhat more mature and le^s likidy 
to gain the idea that careless ventures which may turn out 
to be pleasing are more worth while and likely to receive 
greater rec-ognition than purposeful effort. 

A reasonaljle standard of accomplishment has been 
reached if. at the end of the third year in school, the chil- 
dren, in addition to increased facility in drawing, have also 
added to their resources of expression a somewhat dclinilc 
knowledge ol a few typical ol)jects. gaine(l l)y sncccssixc 
lessons on the same to^jic, and have lixed in mind certain 
fundamental gcometi'ic relations, such as \ertical. jierpeu- 
dicular, horizontal, and parallel, not as dehnitious l)ut as 
means of comprehending and expressing I'oi'in : if tliey ha\'e 
developt'd their al)ility to embody ideas in matci-ials. not 
only as a result of increase(l skill of hand but also because 
of the added j)ower gix'cn bv some connnand over sncli an 
aid to accuracN', foresi'ihl, and econoin\ as a toot rule: if 

(;kai)i:s ii and hi 


tliev have better ideas of o-ood sjiaein;^" and proportions, and 
an inert'ascd pleasure in al)ilily to distriUute forms o\cr a 
surface in consistently related measures, and to discrimi- 
nate (jualities of color. 

'i'lie stinuilation of leadership and example of the teacher 
continues to he a factor of the lirst importance in securin;.;' 
these results. 

(•iiAi''ri:i{ \' 

(iKADKS 1\- AM) \' 

Wlu'ii cliildrcii rcacli tlic t'ourtli ycai' in school the [)ri'io(l 
of satisfaction in tlie nu'iv spontancons play willi drawinL!,' 
and \\itli consti'ucti\c inatt-i-ials rcoai'dlcss of tiic (|nalit\" 
of the [)rodnct is nsnally ovci'. Al)ility in spoken and 
written lani^'na^e has otowii. and expression hy draw inl- 
and construction is resorted to less frec^nently exce[.t in 
cases where lanL;'naL;'e is not ade([nate. (liilih'cn who at 
an earlier peri(td ha\t' heen dehuiitcfl in sha})inu lines and 
forms which were a I'uninn^' acconipaninieiil of theii' ti'ains 
of ideas now see tliini^'s more oliject i\(d\' and ai'c con- 
scions of the techincal shorlcominL^'s of tlieir work to a 
dt'o-i-ce that i-ohs il of its spontaneity. 

The \isitor to exliihitions oi' pnhlic-scliool work in man- 
ual arts is usually impressed l»y the \'iLi'or and expres- 
siveness of the productions of small cliildreii. an<l ofttMi 
]ool<s in \ain in the ^\•ork of upj)er grades toi' an\' ade(puUc 
fultillnieiit of tlie eai'lv promise. Indeed it is doubtful if 
drawing and construction as means of general narrati\c 
expression will e\'er a^'ain l)e of as i^real \alue as in pi'i- 
mar\ ^fades. The function of manual arts hccomcs iiici-cas- 
inL;i\' speciHc as the school ai^'e ad\ances ami lan^uauc 
assumes its propel' place as the most appi'opi'iate medium 
of n'eliel-al expression. 

.Manual arts in these L;-railes should awaken a pleasure 
in the sort of work which i'e(|uii'es sustained effort dii-ected 



toward a (Icliiiilc riid. A wrll-or^aiii/.i'tl courst' prrsciits 
prohK'ins to the cliildiTii which arc as spccihc as those in 
inalhi'iuatics. The sohilioii of cacli of these [)rol)leiiis means 
a slep toward some mastery of materials or meliiods, and 
this masterv should he insured hy work iu\(>l\ ine' re[)ealed 
eouet-ntratioii upon the same prohlem in various foiins till 
the fundamental proei'sses heeonu' matters of hahit. 

Interest in new projects is easily awakened, hut that 
interest which is aroused hy cai^ryin^' a [iroject throun'h 
to com[)]etion after the tirst enthusiasm has passed is of 
nuu-h slower growth, hut is more trustworthy, and when 
systematicallv developed becomes a motix'e that can he 
relie<l u[)on. The attitude of mind towards the arts which 
is awakeiu'd in the children in these ^-rades seems lai'^'ely 
to deti'rnune the (lev(do})ment (»f ahility durinL;' the rt'inaiu- 
dei' ol the school course. 

The followin;^' su^e'estions foi' woi'k in repi'csentation, 
construction, and (lesion em[)hasi/.e the points in ti'chnical 
dcNclopmeiit which the abilities of childi'cn seem to indi- 
cate as j)ail icuiarJN' ap})ropriate to these grades, and which 
are factors necessary to freedom of ex[)i'ession. 

Hijirixi'iitdtinii. ()iu' of the most important technical 
conirihutioiis which (ii'ades J \' and \' can make to a childs 
skill in drawino' appears to he ahilit\' to represent ot'iuMal 
projxirtions cori'e(;tlv. This more than anytiiint;' else helps 
him to reali/.e his wish at this a^'c. t(» make thing's 'look 
i-i^hl."" ('hildi'cn readily discern whethci' a di-awino- is 
too tall "" ol' too slioit "" as coiupai'cil w ilh the ohject, and 
they de\t'lop ahilitx' to estimate relati\c lengths of |)arts 
with some decree of precision. 

( )nc (if ihc most coMuiioii nicthnds of (ll)taillin^• <-orrcct 
[ii'oport ions IS to hold the pencil at arms length so that it 



appears to cover liiu's of tlie ()l)jeet to l)e drawn. Thus 
one is ena])le(l to use it as a measure of relative dinien- 
sions. .Aside from the fact tliat it is practically impossible 
to teach youno- children to use this method with any 
trustworthy results, the assistance obtained by sucli meas- 
urements, even when they are skillfully taken, is of 
extremely doubtful value. ProiJi^ress in ability to draw cor- 
rectly de})ends largely u^jou th(i power to compare visual 
images and discern their likenesses and differences. Pencil 



Fk;. 17. Helativt' propcirtiniis of width and lii'iulit 

measurements substitute a mathematical computation for 
this visual perception. 

For example, in Fig. 17 tlu; pu})il can measure and 
ascertain that the width of the to[) of the tumbler is two 
thirds of the apparent height, and with this information 
can plan his drawing correctly. ( )n the other hand, if he 
will indicate the to[) and bottom of his tund)k'r by lines of 
indeterminate length, and place two splints to I'cprcsent 
the sides, moving them until the incduded shape satisiies 
his eye, lie will discover that he can thus determine tlie 
proportions with great accuracy. If one looks at u, \\ hich 

(;i;ai)Ks iv and v 

is tlic sliajK' to be rt>[)resciile(l, and then at Ik lie sees iinnu'- 
(liatrly that A is too narrow, wliilc the imao'c of <( Ills tliat 
of r, and the similarity of proportions satislies llie eve. 
The source of this satisfaction is not due to any continua- 
tion from a mathematical estimation that the pro[)ortions 
of width and heiyht are related as '1 to ■]. hut to au innue- 
diate perce})tiou of c()rres[)ondeuce of images. Discrimi- 
nation' aloni;' this line develo[)s rapidly with exercise. In 
(irades W and \' much should be done toward training 
the eye to swift and unerring" })erception of the a^'reement 
or disa<;'ret'ment of the shape of the drawino- with that of 
the o])ject. I'ldess this is done, drawing' will be as halt- 
ing' and uncertain as are matiicmatical j)i'ocesst's when the 
worker is not suri' of tlu' nuiltiplication table. 

Pencil nieasni'cments mi<4'lit be recommeiide(l as a linal 
veriiication, except for the fact that they are sel(h)m so 
relial)le. even when carefully taken, as the visual perce[)- 
tion which has rt'ceived an amount of training' e(pnU to that 
re([uired in lower (dementary g-radcs for the mere process 
of leai'uiu^" to take pencil measurements. 

Occasional ]'e})resentation of objects by s[)lints o-iyos 
excellent practice in jud^ino- proportions. A mo\('meiit of 
tiie splints oives op[)oi-tunity to experiment with appear- 
ances without the necessity of erasing' lines. Such i'e[)re- 
sentation is often a htd[)ful introduction to di'awing the 
object with ])cncil. 

In the drawing of a tov boat ( I'ig. 1 J^ ), a child can be 
le(l to take great interest in I'epresent ing the hull in propel- 
])roport ions, and in mo\ing the pencil along the di'awing 
till it I'caches the exact position wlici-e the mast should be 
j)laced and then in showing liow tall it should be to Idok 
lik(,' the ino(lel. lie is thus le(l t(i tliink \\ hei'c his liui; 



should o-() hel'div lir draws it. and tlic cultiN atioii (if this 
hahit of pr()fe<luiv (•(Hitrihutcs lar^'cdy to correct drawiun'. 
A laro'c pait of the poor di'awiii;^ found in schools is diiccth' 

Fk.. is. Cliihrs ilrawiiiu i)t' a tnvhuat in rui-i-cct in'Mjini'ti'iii.^ 

traceable itt a i'e\('i'sal of this iiieihod. iianu'h'. to draw iui;' 
a line llioui4hllessly and then looldiiL;' to sec if it is riuiit. 
(hildi-cu al this a^c seldom develop a hahil of hlockin'.;' in 
the whole shape at tirsl. csptM'ially in a group of ohjects. 



Thai aj)[)inu's to 1)0 a nictliod of analysis and s\iitlicsis 
(U'Hiandiiin' uuirc intt'llcctual nialurity than they possess. 
Tlu'V add pari to j)art and so hnild U[) the iTsull. 

IVTct'ption of ])i'oporlions often may In- slinndalcd Itv 
having- pu[)ils rxchantic drawings and iiidicalc to each 
other, hv sketches or otherwise, how they think ini[)ro\('- 
nients may he made. The child who hahitualh' maizes his 
drawing's loo hroad and lunny may with proht exchan^'e 
drawin<;'s and suo'^'estions with the child who n'oes to the 
op[)osite extreme. Thi' instructor too often mono[)oli/,es this 
\ahial)le experience of correctiiiL;' the di'awinos of othei's. 

('onstrncted ohjects such as toys or implements offer 
exc(dlent op[)ortunily for pi'aclice in representing' correct 
proportions. Nature drawino's with pencil or with water 
eoloi' or hrush and ink call for careful re[)resenlal ion of 
shapes and of chai'acler of o'rowth. Mechanical slowness 
may he avoide(l hy alleinat in^' rapid sketches which exj)ress 
as nnicli as [jossihle hy a few lines and hrush strokes, with 
drawings carried to comj)letion hy hein^' worked o\ fr till 
thev are as correct as the pupil can make them. 

A second appropi'iate topic for these o'rades is the stu(l\' 
of a U'W simple prohlems of appearance of ohjecis in dif- 
fei'enl positions, for example, one ohject hcNond another, 
or the same ohject turned at difi'ereiit angles. I'he solut ion 
sliould c(»nstitute a delinite [)iece of work foi' the pupil, and 
should he souLi'lit hy ohseiAation, hy experimental sketciies, 
and 1)\' the collection and study of pictui'cs which repi'csent 
such el'fects. 

A more oi- less iutensix'c stud\' of a few topics in each 
!4'ra(h' is necessar\- lo pi-os^i'css in free use of (h'awiiiL;'. 
Ahinidaiice of know lediL;'e rcLjarihiiL;' an ohject oi' a picloiial 
effect tends to produce a willingness to expi'css w hal is 


known. 'J'lie nse of sketclil^ooks devoted to particular 
subjects in tlicir various aspects and details is an important 
nietliod of gainino- pictorial data. The knowledge accunui- 
lated by intensive study of a topic persists for a long time. 

CniMrucflo/i. The most important advance in construc- 
tive work which (Jrades I\' and \' can make, a})pears to 
be along the line of ability and willingness to undertake 
more careful preparation in the way of plans and patterns 
before shaping the material for final consti'uction. In addi- 
tion an increase of skill in handling new implements and 
more refractory materials, and a gi'eater satisfaction in good 
workmanship, should be evident. 

Problems will xnvy with the conditions of given locali- 
ties. Some instructors [)refer to use c(jnstructive work as 
a center for other subjects. Others plan a course to de- 
velop appreciation of industries and occupations, and still 
others choose as a basis for problems the innnediate needs 
and interests of school and home. Wlnchever line is em- 
phasized, much of what is valuable in the rest may be 
include(l, and in any case oj)portunity will be f)ffered for 
experimentation with plans and designs and for increased 
mastery of tools and materials. 

Some of the inost valuable projects for these grades are 
those involving patterns to l)e cut, folded, and pasted. 
Continued use f)f the rule, with the addition of compasses 
and 45° triangles, and more complete control of scissors 
give the lu^cessary mechanical ability. The children should 
be enabled to })lan and make picture mounts, lesson covers, 
emelopes for \arious specified pui'poses, etc. W'itli vellum, 
l)inding pajx'is. tape, j)aste, sewing linen, and a puncli 
cardboai-d work niav be extended to include simple forms 
of bookbinding, such as portfolios, sketchbooks, pocket 



memorandum pails, notebooks, ncedleeases. Ijook covers, 
clipping tik'S, etc. (Fig- 19). 

Weaving is an occupation of tiniversal interest during 
these gra(k\s. It devek)ps some acciuaintance with ti'xtik's 
and calls for knowleilge of design and color. The looms 
for small articles may l)e of the simplest construction, such 

Fn.. I'J. ( )lijt'cts involviiii:- siiupU.' bodkbiinliiii:- proccsst's. ukuIc l>y cliildiTii 
ill (Iradfs lY ami V. Tlu' talilc was iiiailc liy a |>ui)il in (iraili' \'ll 1 

as can he made hy the [)Upils tlu'inselves. Clay \\()rk in 
tiles and simple pottery sha[)es is anothei- \ aluahU' mediuui 
of ex[)ression of form. 

The sort of work'ing drawing recjuircfl in making patterns 
ac(|uaints childi'en with this means of ])nMlcteriiiiiiing the 
shape material shall tak'c. and is the liest soil of pi('|)aral ion 
for later working drawings w hich represeiii t hree din h 'lis ions. 
Some of the [)atterns should imoKc diiiw ing to seak'. 



The o'lvat valiu' of a iclalively tli(ir(iiii;li inasU'ry of llic 
type of [)atteni and constniclioii iiiNolvfd in a i^ivcn |ii'ol)l('in 
should be rcconni/.(.'<h l''oi' cxani})!!'. to make one or two 
fUNchipes is a sonicw hat formal [)roceedinn' and arouses oidy 
a passing' interest. To understand the eonstruetive i)rol)leins 
in\dl\(Ml. so one can plan workable })atterns and [)roperlv 
eonstruct en\(dopes to servt' various [)urposes. from those 
suited to hold street-ear tickets to portfolio en^"eloJ)es for 
school work, implies much practice. I'o do this a child 
inust y'ain ability to see the linished result in terms of pat- 
terns, and to know readily whetlu'r the pattern will work 
or not. Incidentally he will have taken to jjieces a numl)er 
of envelopes of diffei'cnt types to see Jiow they are ma(h\ 
and often will have exercised his iiiL;'enuity in modifyiiiL:,' 
tvpes to suit his purposes. l"'amiliarity with processt's will 
have done away Avith distracti\'e technical hindi'ances and 
opeiie(l the way for a child"s powers of iiiN'cntion to ha\ c 
free })lav under the influence of the st inuilatinu' realization 
that he has skill to put his inventions into concrete form. 
This I'csult seldom comes when ideas are partially assimi- 
late(l and pi-ocesscs ai'c unccrlainlv performed. 

Simple foi'uis of woodwork which can be done most 1\' with 
the knife are well adaple<l to these ^•l■adcs. and L;'i\'e some 
familiaritx' with the material, which is useful as an intro- 
duction to bench work in up[)er j^'radcs. l''or most of tiiis 
work, thin wood which can casilv be prepared in the ]'oUL;'h 
and does not rei|uire bench tools, is sullicicnt. 

Amon;4' the projects most fi'e(|Uentl\' sUL;'L;'e steel by the 
children are [x-ncil sharpeners, pen and pencil boxes, paper 
cutters, brush and watci'-eup holdei's. sti'iiit;' and lishiiiL;-line 
winders, windmills, weather \anes. watei- wheels, ^'anics. 
mo(lels lor bridii'es. derricks, etc.. to\' carts. sle(ls. boats of 

(;i!Ai)i:s i\- AM) \' 


various kinds, kitfs. llyiiiL;- inadiiiu's. tops, piii-liolc cameras, 
ln\- lidusfs ami tuniisliiiiLjs, Ijird lioiiscs, elr. 

Ihs'hjii. As a comrihutidU towai'd jiro^Tcss in ilic two 
pliasi's of dfsij_;ii Ix-fori' dcscTiUrd, — tirst. tree piacticc in 
drroraiixc ai ranncnu'nls for liu' sal^r of a[)[»r('cialion of 
such elements of formal Ueautv as pleasinu'ly related spaces 
and harmonious forms, and sec(»ndly. designs for specitic 
purposes involvin^• utilitarian as well as a'sthetic considera- 
tions, — (irades I \' and \' can easily deV(do[) skill in the 
followiuL;' lines. 

1. Moditication of natui'al foi-ms for [)urposes of desin-n. 
If a child stdects a form which he has alrcad\' learned to 
i-epreseni and draws it rapidly and repeatedly from memory, 
he will soon re(luce it to a symhol l)y elimination of all hut 
a few S(dected lines. This symhol will tend to hecome lixed 
h\- repetition and will ii^ain a certain indi\ idualit \ of st\le 
as liand\\ I'itinu' does. When this form is learned so that it 
can he drawn easil\- fi-om memory it can he used as a unit 
for I'cjietitiou in hordei's and also ovei' a suiiace. as. foi- 
example, a wall i)apci' for a doll s house, a hook" co\-er. end 
papers for hooks, etc. Ahxlilication of tonus for decoi'ati\e 
treatment nia\- also he ohtained hy repeatiiiL;' tliem undci' 
the limitations imposed l)y ccriain materials, foi- example. 
1)\' sipnu'cd papci'. tlie wea\'es of hasketr\' and fahrics. cross- 
stitcli. etc. ( V\%. 1*0). 

-. I'laniMUL;' designs foi' specific piirjioses. 'Tlic most 
important (picslioii in design is not how much can he iii- 
cludcd in the space hut what is the hest (list I'ihill ion of 
appiopi'iiile matci'iak 'I'liis can he emphasized at lirst hy 
furnishing- the elements and lea\ iii^- !o the children only 

I he pl'ohlcm of I he dispovil ioll of 1 hesc ^i^ en clciilcm V. \\ hicli 

at I his a''c is (luitc siiflicieiii . 



For example, if tlie object to be oi'uainented is a mg. a 
foldei'. or a box cover, the elements of decoration may widl 
l)e limited at tirst to a [)lain band for a border. Tlie pupils 

Fii.. -Id. i;iril fiii-ms mhiiitfil \n iTuss-sI il cli and to hiisl.rtrv 

call cxperiiiieiil by iiic;iiis of splints or otlici' material wliicli 
will represent bands ami can easil\- be moved to give tlie 
elTccts of different widths of iiiarij'ins and of borih'r lines. 


Thev can thus (Irtenniue the spac-iii;^' \\liich pnxhices the 
most [)leasiiiL;" effect. 

Suppose the [)robleui is to ehoose the spaeing- for two 
strips aeross a rug" which is to he woven. If tlie cliil- 
dreu cut patterns of the rug and place two sphnts or 
pencils or strips of paper across to re[)resent tlu' stri[)es, 
and move these Ixick and forth to see the effect of diff'er- 
ent s|)aeino-s, experiments have shown that they will gener- 
allv select as the final choice an arrangement not greatlv 

l-'ii.. "Jl. Hdi'dtT (Ifsiuiis tor nms made bv difffrfut arraimt'iiitMits df lines 

dift'ereiit from the [)ro[)ortions shown in Fig. '21. -which 
are pleasing. 

^Vfter children can space a simple border well, the com- 
l)inations mav he nuuU' mon' varied l)y a study of the best 
effects of borders com[)osed of two or three lines of \ arying 
widths, l.atei' the childi-en should experiment ^\ith the 
possibilities of moditications of the bordi'rs to foiiii decora- 
tive coi-nei's or accents ( I''ig. 2'2). 

The simple decoration ol Constructed forms and tiie spac- 
ing of j)rinting on coNcrs for school wdrk. the planinng (d 
m;u-gins. titles, etc. so that language. sj)clling. and arithme- 
tic j);i[)crs ma\- present a good appearance, tui-nish appid- 
priate prol)lcnis. In all these cases the results depend tor 



o o o o o 

o o o o 

1 o 






o o o o 


o o o o o 

3 [ 

o o o o 

O O C) o o 


] t: 

O O O O r 








^ o} 

Fii.. 2l'. liordcr ilcsi-ns with simple iiidililicnt idiis Inr (■oi-iici'.- 
lIcpi'diluc.Ml by pcniiissidii of the Si-liiml Arts l;,„,l, 



tla'ireft'ect ui)on well-ivlaled spaces. Fig, 2o shows a (U'sign 
for a niatcli scratclu'r, iiivolviiio' \vell-cli()S(,'ii pi'oportioiis. 

I)V limiting the elements wliieh children are allowed to 
use. attenti(tii is concentrated upon an attempt to make 
the l)est possible ar- 
rangement of what 
is given. The abil- 
ity, which is ap[)arent 
at about this age, to 
a})preciate good spac- 
ing should be devel- 
o[)eil from year to 
year till it becomes 
unerringly discrimi- 
nating, 'llioughtful 
ex})erimentat ion with 
a few elements is 
an effective method 
of (U'Veloping this 

Children are read- 
ily iutt'i'estetl ill the 
collecting of designs 
similartothosew liicli 
thev themsehfs are 
making. 'I'hese col- 
lections are always 
valuable in widening the accpiaiiilaiicc of the children with 
the; general use of design and in presenting sugut'sl ions for 
new decoi'ali\'e combinations. l'"ig. '24 shows a collection of 
c()riicr iiiodihcat ions of borders, gathci'cd Iroiii magazines, 
ad\crtisements. etc. 

Fn.. 2o. Dt'siiiii fur a niatc-li sci'ati-licr. iii- 
volviuL;' \V(.'ll-cli()scii i)riiii()riiniis nt' inar^iiiH 



In the foni'tli year in school, chilcU'en can ust' water 
eohir intelH<;"ently for matching the hnes of objects, for 
h'arning wliat effects the different [)ignients })ro(hu'e wlien 
nnxed, and for representing simple color effects. They 
shonld also learn how to make even Hat washes of color 
over given areas. Jn addition to matching colors, special 

Fig. 24. 15nnk'i' and iMinuT dcsiiiiis colUTtcd fr(.)in iiiai^^aziiics and 

training in discriminating color tones may he given hy hav- 
ing pn[)ils make, in water color, sam[)les showing sexcral 
deiinite steps in values of etich color and in lines intermedi- 
ate between two given colors, i^'or example, by ])ainting 
a patch of pnre blue, iuid then other patches of blue incretis- 
ingly diluted, and still others a\ here more ami more black 
is mixed with l)lue, ;i number of tones will be obtained 
showing the range of values of blue from jaire bhie to 



wliiio and also to black tlirou^'li sncc-essive gradations. \\v 
j)iacing on these patches a small circnlar or ohlong pattern 
ahont one and a lialt' inches or two inches across, and trac- 
ing aronnd it and cntting out the shapes, a number of col- 
'ored sani|,)les uidforni in size will ])e secitred. from which 
children can select a fi'W, perhaps live, which uiake e([md 
intcr\als of value from the lightest to the darkest. These 
mounted in a row form a scale of values of the given color, 
(iraded steps of hue between any two given colors, for 
exam[)le, yellow and blue, may be made by painting iirst a 
[)atch of i)ure yellow and then others, each with more bltie 
and less yellow, till pure blue is reached, liv such pi-actico 
childi'en become ac{puunte(l with the behavior of colors as 
they ascend toward \\hitt' or descend to\\ard black or be- 
come modilied by other colors. They also (le\'elo[) a dis- 
crimination of intervals of color and of light aiul dark 
which is of great importance in problems of representation 
and of d(^sign. 

A reasonable standard of accomplishment has been reached 
at the end of the fifth year in school. wlu>n to the increased 
facility in graphic ex[)ressiou, which comes from continued 
geiu'ral }»ractice and from iuiensi\e study of a few forms, 
has been addecl detinite training in (juick pei'ception of 
proportions of shapes and slants of liiu's, so that the mind 
is able to I'ctain the image of the object and compare it w ilh 
that of the i'e[)resentation and to discern the corresponcU'iices 
and (litTci-ences ; when chihlreii bring to their const ructive 
expression such ac(|uaintaiice with new tools as gixcs them 
new niastei'v of matei'ial. and such kn(»\\hM|ge of ])atterns 
as enal)les them to tiiiid< out processes and foi'eeast results 
more deliuiteh- and iiilcnigeiU l\' : and when the\' liud iu- 
ci'ca^ed pleasure in w ell-relalcil spaces, in the best sohition 


of sim})le problems in design, and in the greater familiarity 
with color that comes from continned study, aided by the 
addition of a new medium of expression in the form of 
water color. 


(iUADi: VI 

Children in Grade \\ have generally reached a stage of 
niatnrity where they ai'e able to enjoy working with sus- 
tained purpose for a result that re(juires a eonsiderahle 
length of time for its realization and that demands thonght- 
ful and somewhat eom[)licate(l planning. They take [)ride 
in attaining a good standard of workmanslii[) in what they 
produce, and hud satisfaction in its usi'fulness, even though 
that usefulness is foi' the henelit of society at large and 
not directly for tlu'insclves. An a})preciation of the beauty 
of well-related proportions is increasingly api)arent. ('hil- 
dren at this age will occnpy themselves industriously with 
problems of design that demand, as a book cover does, the 
experimental arranging of title, ornament, and other ele- 
ments until the space relations are most pleasiug. In 
representation the children desire a knowledge of liow to 
picture objects so that they will a[>[)ear to be i-eal and con- 
vincing, or, in the case of diagrams or drawings rehuing to 
the sciences, to make sncli records as A\i]] con\ey irusi- 
worthv iidormation. 

All these altitudes towai'd the manual arts are often 
e\ident earlier than the sixth year in sciiool, but at tliis 
time the\- furnish sullicieiUly strong motiNcs to lead the 
children to sustained elTort for the sake of so]\ lug a pi'oblcm 
in rcpi-eseutat ion or of mastering tools ami pi'ocesses as a. 
means of freedom and sureucss in execution. 


Perhaps the most signilieant attitude of mind character- 
istic of children in (irade VI is the awakening- of the desire 
to be connected with tlie activities of tlie outside world 
and to do something worth while. T.,ife in the country 
ot^'ers abundant occasions for such occupations. Each child 
as he comes to suitable age can assume some responsil)ility, 
the meeting of which contril)utes directly to the welfare 
of the family. Tlie garden, the woctdpilc, tlie poultry yard, 
the kitchen, give concrete 0})p()rtuiiities in which the rela- 
tions to family welfare are innnediate and e\ident. 

In large towns and cities otitlets for activities which make 
the boy or girl a responsible contributing factoi' in the social 
system are not so obvious. Products are bouglit ready-iuade. 
Children come to regard things as the equivalents of money, 
rather than of labor and skill. Moreover, the providing of 
all school su[)plies by the town or city often ju'eseiits, with 
its evident advantages, the disadvantage of leading children 
to feel tliat the mtmicipality is an impersonal, inexhaustible 
source of supply. In (irade \'I a[)pear also symptoms of 
that deflection of chihh'cn from schools into industries which 
readies its height at the end of (iraiU' VIII (see Fig. 1. 
p. l-5j. Pile fact confronts us that aiiout two thirds of all 
children leave school by the end of the eighth grade and go 
to work. As has Ix'cn already [lointed out, the scrit)usii('ss 
of this situation is found in the fact that tliese children are 
too young to enter vocations which call for skill or offi-r 
opportunity for develo[)ment. Such occupations as those 
of eri'and Ijoys and cash girls are typical of what is open 
to childi'cn in the cities. The majority appear to drift 
alioiit with no industrial interests or vocational outlook 
and take whatever i»ays l)cst. They spend impoiianl form- 
ative years in enijdovment which offers slight pi'ospccls of 



advancement. This experience tends to prodnce an nnfor- 
tiinate attitude toward work as sonietliinL;- which contains 
witliin itself no interest nor scope lor reahzing ambitions. 
A small })roportion of the children will rise in spite of these 
conditions, but not the majority, unless vocational interests 
and right attitudes toward work are awakened before they 
leave school. 

The educational system, with its high schools and its 
growing number of tec-hnical schools, oi'fers increasingly ex- 
cellent oitportunities for those who will remain. The appal- 
lingly large [)roportion who do not remain makes [)ert incut 
the question as to whether schools com[)k'tely fulfill their 
function by })roviding advanced opportunity for those who 
will take it : or whether, in addition, elementary schools 
ought not to give a training planned detinitt'ly to awaken 
industrial interests and to promote industrial el'liciency and 
thus satisfy the desire to begin to do something worth while 
and to have a part in the world's activities. Tiie linal form 
which this training will take nnist be determined by wide 
experimentation ; but the e\ i(U'nt need that cliihh'cn sliould 
have a part in some \\()rk which develops a realization of 
the interde[)cndence of individuals in modern civilization 
and of the responsibility of each, of the fact that wliat 
the municipality furnishes is produced or sup[)lied liy its 
individual inhabitants, and of the meaning of industrial 
life, gives some hints of the lines along w hich cx[)criincnts 
should be tried. 

One promising suggestion ])i'opose(l to meet tliis [)roblcm 
is that the time allotted to handwork in (ii'adcs \'I. \' II. and 
\TII sluMild be increased to at least li\-e hours a week, the 
extra time being taken from tlie special time gi\-eii to draw- 
ing and arithmetic, thcs(.' activities being embodied in the 


constructive work, and that a part of this time Ik* devoted 
to making material which the city or town uses in its school- 
supply department. In this way a utilitarian standard of 
technical excellence would Ije furnished and at the same 
time financial complications would be avoided. Since the 
city can buy these materials in the market at any time, the 
projects may be changed fre(]iUMitly enough to escape a 
too mechanical routine. Snch work would frankly uiidei'- 
take the production of articles in (luantity. and l)y such 
iiulustrial methods as division of labor and oi'gani/.ation 
of a system by which poor work might be traced to its 

Wliile such work should never interfere ^\•ith domestic 
science and household art for girls, and may not soon super- 
sede what is now known as manual training f(»r boys, it may 
at least share the time with the latter, and it possesses certain 
important educational advantages. For example, su[)[)osing 
the project to be the supi)lying of classes with portfolios or 
sketchbooks: if each boy in the class compk-tes one, and 
then the class is dixided into groups and each group \k'V- 
forms a single o[)eration. the great economy in time and 
material and the cousecjuent increase in producing power 
are at once evident. These are important items in indus- 
trial education. ^b)reovei', the repetition of a process, if not 
too long continued, instead of dulling the mind, awakens it 
to invent devices for performing these processes more ra[)- 
idly and accurately. All danger of automatic routine may 
be avoided by the use of good judgment as to A\hen the 
pi'ocess sliall l)e changed. 

The interest shown by such a class ^\■hen the school- 
supply team calls to take the product has pro\ (m1 tliat the 
motive of personal ownership is not necessary at this age as 

(iUADK ^'I 80 

an inducement to do o'ood work.^ These eontributions made 
by tlie [)Ui)ils to the system which is oivino- so mucli to them 
readily awaken a new a[)preciation of school material in i;'en- 
eral and of all public property and its relation to individuals. 
Work such as this may be an important factor in ci\ic edu- 
cation for all, while to the \)o\ who goes cai'ly into indus- 
trial employment it gives a realization that any process to 
which he is assigned is part of a whole. 'I'liis realization is 
likely to awaken a demand on his part to know and master 
the whole. It is not unreasonable to ho[)c> that such ' work 
teaching," which awakens interest in effect Inc ways of doing 
things, may bring discontent with unskilled occu[)ations and 
a desire for moi-e thorough industrial and technical training. 

It is not unlikely that future ex[)erimcuts w ill pi-ove that 
where a suitable amount of time in elementai'V schools is 
devoted to gaining experii'Uce with industrial methods 
applied to appropriate problems which contribute to the 
good of the conuuonwealth, the results, in terms of appre- 
ciation of the relation of material products to human skill 
and ei'fort, will not only be of practical value to a part of 
the [)o[)ulation hut will be also an element of broad culture 
for all, whatever their vocations may be. 

]n coniu'ction with the regular school program the follow- 
ing suggestions for work in re[)resentation, consti'uction, 
an<l design emphasize the j)hases which the abilities of the 
children seem to indicate as [)articularly a[)[)ropriale to 
(irade \'I. 

lii-j>rrKi'n1i(tii>n. 'I'he use of drawing as a means of plain 
desci-i[)tion should c(»ntiuue in connection wit h ot her school 

1 Tlicsi' consiclcratiiiiis arc liascd lai'-dy nii (he ic-iilis dI' cNiifriiiiciils 
trifil ill I5(.si(jii hy rrufcsMir Frank M .\in ami (Icsrrilicil in detail liy 
liini in Uic Mdnaul Tniinin^i Miujuziiic I'm- .June, l'.»()S. 


subjects. On the merely teeliiiical side the work of (Trades 
jy and A" should have developed a habit of keen observa- 
tion and correct representation of relative proportions and 
slants of lines in the objects drawn. That of (jrade W 
should continue delinitely along' these lines l)y develo})- 
ing a habit of thinking out the directions and limits of 
lines before they are drawn, by carrying the brush or 
pencil over the paper experimentally hi the path the line 
is to take. 

In this grade a greater differentiation in styles of draw- 
ing is called for to meet different needs. Each subject will 
readilv suggest the methods of drawing which are most 
appropriate. For example, nuq)s and routes call for plain 
explanatorv drawing in which correct j)rop()rtions are a 
necessary framework with which no freedom can l)e taken. 
Children readily ap[)reciate this fact and are interested to 
draw routes which a stranger might depend upon in linding 
his way about town. The following (piotation from a school 
paper describes a method of interpreting relative proportions 
in terms of a diagram (Fig. 2oj). 

A\'i' linpc yoii will 111- ])lcascil with (Uii- jilaiis (if Historical llox- 
liiirv. A\'c lia\"c liail ,L;rcat fiiii iiiakiiiL;' thciii. "\\'c walkcil to the places 
aii<l coiiiitcd our steps and wi'oti' down on a jiiccc of jiapcr how many 

steps it was to each jilacf. Then .Miss hfl[ii'(l ns plan it out on 

a seal*.' of 270 steps to an inch. All the places arc- within ten minutes' 
walk of the scliool. 

Accurate representation of a different sort is called for 
when drawing is used in connection with ruiture study. 
In this case another element enters in, because plant forms 
iiiN'olve pro[)orlioiis and shapes which present not only 
facts of structure btit also elements of beautv in the sha[)es 
w hich the stnu'tui'c assumes. Excpiisite representations of 





I SITE OP OLD F OftT b CUtMtY S:i\:Jl. 
■} ^ E HALE hC ySE S' WA R?^ L r\ -BTRTH Pi /\. t 
'- I \. iOT S (k -. HURJ H ;0 N L MR f r. oi • F. 

Fii,. :!"). A chilirs oi'iiziiia! iiiaji 

plant sli<ii)('S appear wlicii tlic jilaul is held in llic siiii- 
liLi'lit so as to tlirnw its sliadow on a [)ifcc ot papci- and 
tlif cliilil stands wlici-c lie can sec only the shadow, lie 
linds the sti-nctui'c of stems, tlie shapes of lai'^e masses, 
the loreshoi'teiiin;4' of leaxcs and llowers, and tiie (Kdieaey ot 



grasses and thistledown translated into terms of ])lack and 
white. E(|ually perfect records may be made by [)lacing 
plant forms n[)on blue-print paper and exposing them in 
a pnnting frame to the sun. The [)lant prints its shape 
upon the paper in a few minutes and the image may Ix; 

Fig. 20. I'rints from iiluiit forin.s 

made permanent l)y wasliing in water (Fig. 2*')). These 
interpi'etations are often a greater incentive to rei)reseuta- 
tion of beautiful details tlian the l)est Yerl)al instruction, 
lii'ush and ink give results that look like shadows, and tiie 
child is stimulated by tliis evident similarity in effect to 
try to e(|ual the perfection of the actual shadow or print 
of the plant he is studying (Fig. 27). 



With water color the ehildreu can learn to match the 
c-(»lors of ohjeets and diseriiuinate hetwecn tones of <M»l(ir, 
as, for example, the greens of the U})[)er and the nnder 
side of leaves. 

Another snl)ject appropriate to (Jrade \ \ is the study of 
a few simple objects to show how each appears in several 
positions; ft)r example, a leaf or flower lield at various an- 
gles (Fig- -8), or a toy or implement tttrned successively 



Fig. '2'. IJrusli tlrawinus (if plants 

in a nund)er of directions. A topic sttch as this presents a 
detinite })rol)lem for solution. 

Cliildren of this age usually make small diawings wlien 
following their own inclinations, while nuicli time is spent 
by instructors in the attempt to lead them to (haw lai'ge. 
l>efore regar<ling as wholly a fault the natui'al lendenc\ to 
make somewhat conti'acted drawings, ii is well to consider 
the small size of a gi'cat pro[)oi'tion of the trial sketches hy 
men who drew with much exj)rcssioiu as did .1. I'\ .Millet, 
.lolin La I-'arge, and many of llie early Italian masters, in 
many cases the liiuil ])ictures a])pear to have been enlarged 
from tlu' lirst small sketches. 


Fi<:. 28. Drawiiitis (if leaves at dilYereiit angles 

The need of matliematical conipavisoii of ])roportioiis is 
greatly increased whh llie iiicreast'd size of tlie drawing. 
When the (h'awiiig is small the eye sees it as a whole and 
makes eompaiisons readily. 'Idie e\(' seems to ti'anslate 



shapes most easily and directly when the size of the draw- 
ing approaches that whieh wotild resnlt it" a transparent 
plane were held between the eye and the object, at the 
same distance from the eye as was the paper when the dra\\ - 
ing was made, and the object traced tipon the plane. I'nder 
these circnmstances it is not necessary to change the scale 
of the visual impression. 

Much earnest mental effort as well as manual practice is 
necessary if children learn to draw with any degree of cor- 
rectness. Careless drawing is easy, but serves no valuable 
utilitarian or lesthetic end, and. if allowed, begets a certain 
contempt for the subject. Correct drawing is difticult of 
attaimnent and the effort is more than [)lay, but if the work 
is well organized and undertaken in i-arnest, truthful de- 
lineation grows to be a habit. This habit should l)e estab- 
lished early. Children who learn to represent things as 
they are, gain a knowledge of form which enables them to 
justify their courage when they venture to alter the actual 
to conform to their ideal. Attempts at [)octic expi'ession 
in half-mastered terms ai'c best't with dilhculties. 

('o/isfrurtiiiif. A desire to })roduce things which have a 
definite use, and a willingness to s[)end time mastering new 
tt)ols so that they may be titilized as an added means of 
dealing w ilh material, are characteristic of this grade. The 
making of sim[)le mechanical ap[)aralus, such as is imolved 
in the manufacture of certain toys, and tlie i)roduclion of 
things that are of evident use in the school and home are 
especially a[»pi'o[)riale to this grade. 

In plamiing courses in woodworking, (irade \ I, in most 
locaHties. seems to be the suital)]e place for introihu'ing 
ciiil(h-en to bench work. This iiiNoKcs the use of tools 
whicii demand streiigtii and skill, and should come at a 


time when the .stiimihis of new material and of the means 
of handling it is especially effective. 

Two ways of organizing woodwork have been evident 
(hiring the history of mannal traiidng. One prescribes a 
series of forms invohing constrnctive elements and proc- 
esses so arranged that there is a graded progression in 
diilicnlty and com[)lexity. In some cases the problems are 
isolated parts of constrnction, given for the pnrpose of de- 
velophig technique without regard to any use to which the 
result shall be })ut, as in the Russian system. In other 
cases the results are objects which will be of use, but are 
so chosen as to insure a logical progress in tlie order of 
tools and processes involved. 

I'he other method of organizing ^\'()od\\■ork is based on the 
theory that a constructive problem in its entirety involves 
three steps. First, a choice is madi* of an object suggested 
by a need for it, so definite in character that the conditions 
furnish the workt-r with a means of reasoning out just 
what the size, form, and construction of the object should 
l)e in order l)est to fulHU the needs of the case. For ex- 
ample, if the object is a bii'd liouse, its shape, the size of 
the door, and other details will l)e determined detiiiitely 
bv knowing the hal)its and size of the bii'd for which it 
is to be built and the locality in A\'hich it is to l)e ]»laeed. 
Secondly, after ideas of the ol)ject in its com[)leted form 
are clearly defuied. the most litting method of construc- 
tion is reasoned <)ut and patterns or working drawings 
are made wliich sho^\■ the number of })arts net'ded and 
their exact shape and size. In this way tlie greater part of 
the constructive thiidciiig is dout' l)eforehand in terms of 
drawings and })atterns, so that ^\■ork in material may be 
pi'cdetermined and not experimental. Thirdly, the tools 


neecknl and the knowledge of how to use them .should be 
provided as neeessity arises. 

Woodwork with beneh tools is in itself so interesting, 
and at the same time so suggestive of world aetivities, that 
however it may be presented, there is seldom any laek of 
enthusiasm on the part of the ehildren. In fact, every 
system of woodwork cites as testimony to its suitability 
the ofreat interest it arouses in the children. 

Children trained by the iirst method are likely to develop 
a dehnite consciousness of ability to deal with material and 
a pride in excellent construction, but tend to be somewhat 
lacking in power to plan and to design, (ienerally the ma- 
jority of a given class produce good work. Those trained 
by the second method have excellent opportunity to develop 
judgment and al)ility to plan how conditions may be met, 
but often the majority of a given class fail in the technical 
skill required to put their ideas into creditable material form. 
In actual experience elementary-school pupils can seldom 
plan perfectly l)eforehand, and need some experimentation 
with material, which often modifies the Iirst plans. Usually 
only a few produce good results. 

In })i-actice a combination of the two methods is gen- 
erally followed. The children begin with given models by 
means of which the class can be taught as a whole, and 
attain a dcgi'cc of nuistery of certain tools. After a year 
or two those who show sui'licient skill to justify uiulei'tak- 
ing indi\i(lual [)rojects ai'c allowed to do so. l-'ixMpu'ntly 
the technical abiHlN' developed, leads the children to under- 
take j)rojecis of theii' own oulside of school liours. l>y 
means of chiss lessons a standard of workmansliip is main- 
tained, and the desire to [)ro(hice an indeix'iident ])iece 
of work acts as a strong stimuhis. A class model, while 



reciuiriiig the siiine processes of all pii})ils, need not resnlt in 
nieclianieal nniformity. Fiij,'. 2U shows the variety of design 
availal)le in so eonniKjn a stock model as the pen tray. 

With the hitrodnctif)n of bench tools it is important to 
realize that a somewhat complete mastery of one implement 
and })rocess aftei' another is ultimately necessary tr) any 

Fii,. 21). A st_'t nf (Icsimis fnr pen trays 

frrcdom of expression. In his consideration of the interest 
of childmi in the practical ontcome of their iiidixidnal 
])rojects. the instructor should not forget that other iulerest 
which discovers itself to tlie person wIk) liuds his hand ad- 
justing itself to a tool ^\•llich is l)ecC)miug increasingly obi'- 
dieut. Tliis new sensation often leads a hoy to continue 
planing a piece of wood till he lias foi'gotten its use and 
has gone past the line, in the pleasure of feeling the l)lade 

(iiiADK vr 


cut with perfect evenness. The eonti'ihution to enjoyment 
and elheiency nui<U' hy this satisfaction in complete mastery 
of a process shonld not be nnderestimateiL 

In this <4ra(U' ;_;'irls shouUl n'ain some systematic accpuiint- 
ance with one or hotli of the characteristic activities of 
American households, cooking and sewing. The children 
are old enongh to nnderstand and feel that they are genu- 
inely hel[>fnl in some of the simi)ler forms of cooking, such 
as the preparation of cereals and certain vegetables, etc. : 
and in the related household activities, such as the use of 
the kitchen e<|uii)ment, the i)roper setting and clearing of 
the tabic, the washing of dishes, and the care of rooms. In 
sewing they may bi' taught simple stitches, useful and or- 
namental, the method of holding the cloth, and the use of 
measurements. simi)le patterns, and sketches. Doll's clothes 
and the simpler processes in garments will offer o[)portunity 
to use this knowledge. The constructive work for both 
bovs and girls should bi'ing them into sym[)atlietic contact 
with industries in the home and neighborhood. 

J)i's/(/ii. The two phases of design before described, namelv. 
that of free practice with decorative forms and that of plan- 
ning objects to meet gi\'en conditions, should contimu'. 
One of the important contributions which free practice 
may make is the interpretation of forms into arrangements 
of bilateral symmetry. This is one <»f the simplest tv[)es of 
l)alance and one which children readily apj-reciate. 

Children at this age easily develop considerable facilitv 
in drawing simple units at the board with both hands at 
the same time. After a little practice both hands move 
apparently to one impulse, though the action of the left 
hand is the i'e\ci-sc of that of the right. When a form 
has liceu learned it can be drawn icadih' in this \\a\. and 



occasional practice of this sort gives the cliildreii a feeling 
of bilateral l)alance more vivid than can be obtained when 
the dra\\ing of l)oth sides is made with one hand. The 
possibilities of mechanical dtiplication in I'evei'se are many. 
Some of them, if used \\'ith a realization of their limitations, 
serve to stinnilate experimentation and to snggest new 
ideas. Foi- example, the <U'corative effect of dnplicating 
forms in reverse, even those that are less often studied for 
decorative possibilities, as handwriting, may 1)e seen l)v 
making the foi'm \\ith a soft pencil and then folding the 
paper over the form and rul)bing it. 'I'he image ^\ill be 
transferred faintly and needs oidy the strt'ngihening of the 
lines to complete the balance. Folding paper o\'er a blot 
of ink and pressing it \\ill often produce interesting bilat- 
eral forms, the suggestions of \\hich may be (level(»ped 
and ])erfected. In genei'al these fortuitous pi'oductions are 
valuable only as occasional stinuilations. 

In the second field of design the most valuable opportu- 
nities are geut'i'ally found in couiu'ctiou \\itli the })rojt'cts 
of constructive ^\■ork and of the household arts. .As in 
(irade W the best I'csults in decoration are usually obtained 
1)\- limiting a jiroblem to the most [)leasing dis[)osili()n of a 
few elements. At this age an a]»peal may be made directh' 
to a feeling of ;eslhetic pleasure. 'I'lu' (|Uestiou, " Which 
looks best?" generally calls forth thoughtful replies. (Jood 
judgment in the matter of ai'cas and ri'lative pi'opoi'tions 
ap})ears to be developed most ra})idly by nuich experinieii- 
tation ill placing the elements of design to determine what 
arrangcnieiil [)roduces the gi'eatcst satisfaction. For exam- 
j)lc, in j)laniiiiig the i)rintiiig on a book cover, such steps as 
the following make it certain that the child thinks out the 
problem tirst in terms of spatial relations. 

(;i;ai)i-: vr 


Place the ruler or pencil across the sliect of pai)er w hicli 
is to he the cover and move it n[) and down to deterniini' 
where the title will look hest ( FIl;'. ■><>, .1). Mark tlie posi- 
tion chosen and place two pencils across this area. Moxc 
them toward and away from the center till the inclosed 
space seems tlie hest lenn'th for the title (Fig- ■>'*, l>). 
Modify the space so that the letters will he of a suitahle 
height, and print the title to lill the I'cctangle exactly. ^ 

A 3 

Fk.. ;!(!. Method of choosiiin' tlit; most j)lt'asiini- position tor a, coNcr title 

Whei'c the desio-n eml)odies two elements, ;is a title and 
monoo-rani, or adds a third, as a horder, the experiments 
may he carried on easily hy means of splints and shapes 
of pajx-r. 

'Idle cause of pleasure ill those dis|)osit ions of the (de- 
ments which trained jiidoiuciil calls o()()(l ap|)cars to lie in 
the consistent rtdatioii <»l iiicasurcs. ( '(Uiihiiiat ions which 
are cntir(dv sat isfactors' can he approx iiiiat(d\ calculated 

' I-"or siiiincslioiis as to printing williiii a i;i\(;ii spare, see l'"ii;. 40, ji. l^.'J. 


mathematically. The method of calculation, althouo-h of 
much interest to the scientist, appears to be of no value in 
developing [esthetic appreciation in children. On the other 
hand, the method which consists in the comparison and con- 
templation of tentative arrano-ements usually results in a 
ready response in terms of pleasure when a line adjustment 
of spaces is ol)tained. 'Jdie aptitude of the majority of chil- 
dren for innnediate })erception, of pleasinu- arrangements, 
when the terms of the })roblem are wisely selected and 
defined, is an encouragement to the teacher who seeks to 
develo}) good taste hi matters of design. 

Conti)uied use of water color should develop ability to 
discriminate colors more accurately. 'J'he children should 
learn to mix paints so as t(^ match any given sample or 
produce any desired color. In addition to matching colors, 
a special study of color intensities will aid discrimination. 
This may be carried on by Inning the cliildi'cn select some 
color, for example, blue, and paint a spot of as intense a 
blue as the paints will [)roduce, and another spot of gray 
which is the same value as the blue, that is, neither lighter 
]ior darker, but such a gray as would be obtained by plio- 
tographing the l)lue with a plate that rendere(l the colors 
in their true relative \alue>.. 'i'liey may then paint tither 
spots, each time mixing an increasing amount of gi'av with 
the blue, so that tlie spots approach gray without becom- 
ing lighter or darker, i'^i-om these spots three niav be 
selected, which, with the blue and gray, form a sei'ies of 
five c(|ually graded steps of intensity. In a similar manner 
charts of different intensities of other spectrum colors may 
be made. These charts will aid in disci'iniinating the rela- 
tive intensity of colors in nature which the children are 
attempthig t<j match. 


A reasona])le standanl of aecdinplisliment lias l)eeu 
reached at the end of the sixtli year, if drawiiis;' has grown 
to l)e more eorreet and expressive hecanse each Hne is 
thoughtftilly (h'awn and form is ])etter iindersidod : if rt'p- 
resentations of ol)jefts show moi-e adecpuitely the charac- 
teristics, proportions, and positions of these ol)jects; and 
if the chil(h-en have become familiar with the nse of the 
more connnon indnstrial tools and have hegnii to make 
things which a})[H'al to them as worth while as a contrihn- 
tion to general or individnal needs. In design an important 
end has been achieved if they are able to i)lan simple con- 
strnctive problems so that the I'csuhs are not only adecpiate 
to the j)nrpose bnt pleasing in general [)roi)ortions, if they 
have gaint'd an ac(piaintance with some of the decorative 
possil)ilities of bilaterally synnnetrical arrangements, and 
also if al)ility to match colors and to discriminate between 
different tones is increased. 


Instructors in manual arts duriiiL;' tlic earlier school years 
should make certain that the children \\ ho reach (irades 
VII and Vlll have already mastered ct-rtain finidamental 
processes and have overcome elementary technical diilicul- 
ties. The chil<lren -will then have contidence and skill to 
undertake [)rojects appropriate to their widening- interests, 
and will possess a stinnilating sense of ability to think out 
the solutic)ns and use materials and implements to work 
out the results. 

In these grades children show an interest in crmcentrating 
whatever knowledge they can gather and all the skill they 
can command u})on hicreasingly specific pi'ohlems. This 
leads to a (dose study of conditions and often to observation 
of the ways employed by skille(l Morkei's. and it results in 
careful selection from among many possible nu'thods and 
materials, of those most suitable to the j)articular end in 
view. For example, in constructive or diagrannnatic draw- 
ing, children who have previously learned to sketch pat- 
terns and draw to scale are now interested in seeing how 
such drawings are used in actual indnsti'ial processes, and 
what are the de\iccs and coiiNentions emphyed to illus- 
trate particular details and characteristics. In I'cpresenta- 
tion children are intei'csted in working out the best means 
iov portraying particular effects and in trying the results 
of different sorts of technicpie. Uhey will experiment with 




i\ particular l(»[)ir, for cxainpU'. rfctani^'ular solidity, and 
Icarii how to i-('[)resi'iit rcctaiimilar forms in any position 
and to draw tlieni from imaq-ination so that tlifv appear 
well I'onstructed. In woodwork, agriculture, sewiuL;', cook- 
inn\ etc.. these pui)ils show a similar I'cadiuess to inider- 
lake individual [)rojects ^\■llich necessitate knowledt^-e. skill, 
and persistency, and they dis[)lay enthusiasm in seekino- 
data regardino- ihc \\-ork and in perfecting!,' their skill in its 

The technical elements of the work in these o'rades as 
well as its prevocational as[n'ct render instruction by s[)ecial 
teachers more necessary than in previous years. 

The following" suggestions relati' to phases mIucIi seem 
especially \\'orth emphasizing. 

Hcj>rcsf)if((ti<>)i. The most valuable work in these grades 
api)ears to be a continuation of the conunou use of di'aw- 
ing as a means of ex[»lanation and (h-sciiption, and also 
a somewhat thorough training in re[)resenting the geo- 
metric solidity of rectangular and cur\ilinear objects of 
three dimensions and the l)eaiity of structure and slia[)e 
of natural forms. 

The descri[)ti\'e drawing Mill show the extent to which 
di'awing has become a practical means of exi)ression. Skill 
in this coii\-ersational use of drawing does not come from 
slowlv and carefullv tinished work. It is gaineil (iiil\- b\- 
piactice in lajiid sketching. ( )n the other hand, rapid 
(U'scii[)tive drawing tends to become superlicial uidess 
supplemente(l ])y some seiious and painstaking representa- 
tion. .Memory and iniaginati\»' diawing should recei\'e 
considei'ation, as abilit\ in this line is necessar\' to read\ 
expression of ich'as. In the ease of some children, imagina- 
tive drawing readily takes the form of [)iclorial comj)osit ions. 


wliile with otliers it consists in tlie representation of thinf^s 
they propose to construct. 

Children in these grades sliould liave opportunity for 
much use of these three modes of representation, especially 
in connection with subjects ^\•hich call detinitely for one 
or another of these means of interpretation. Vov example, 
incidental blackboard descriptions or sketch notes in con- 
nection with arithmetic, geography, or history are often of 
little ^■aluc unless tlu'V can be made (ptickly and \\ ith a 
few strokes. Children freiiuently lack power to make such 
sketches l)ecause it is sometimes mistakenly su];)posed that 
practice in slo\\ly Hulshed work will give this ability. I'^acil- 
itv with this sort of graphic exj)ression should not be left 
to chance, but should constitute a dc^hiite aim. Nature 
sttidy, physics, and constructive work, on the other hand, 
demand a closer adherence to certain facts of form, a clear 
itnderstanding of details of structttre, and accuratt' records 
of olxservation A\hich cannot Ije hastily sketched or ade- 
quately shown by a few strokes of the pencil. The children 
appreciate the nee(ls of the case in hand and can be led 
readily to adopt the style of drawing which suits the occa- 
sion. Kapid sketching is learnecl oidy by sketching rapidly: 
al)ility in exact delineation comes only by making exact re[)- 
resentations ; and facility in expressing ideas is de\elo[)ed 
onlv through drawing from memoiw and imagination. The 
sort of undifferentiated drawing from o])jects, which so often 
constitutes the larger part of the special work in dra\\ing, 
will not produce that facility in all three lines ^\•hich is so 
valuable an asset. 

When interest in any topic is awakeiu'<k the appro- 
priate method of drawing is l)rought into use natuially. 
The children make rapid notes for general suggestions 



and careful studies for data. Tlic habit ol usiii;,;- sketcli- 
l)0()ks should be detiuitelv estahlisluMl. Such l)ooks become 
valued possessions, full of material which coiuribulcs to 
the subject in hand. Usiudly the children can be led to 
add to tiieir own sketches a collection of [)ictures from 
niat;'a/.ines, papers, and other sources, I'clatetl to tlie subject. 
Fig. ol shows cover and pa<4"es from a boy"s sketchliook. 



i^ S fc..W<i.*«.Ui.-'':,i.'j|^fj%^|-££l'a- ■ 


CANDY i:«''::i<--'"" "■-.: 


Fi(.. 31. I'a<;es from a b(iy".s sketchlxKik 

The cnnnilative results of a series of efforts to under- 
stand and represent a sim|)le object or effect will be e\ident 
after a succession of lessons where atteutiou at each step 
is concentrated upon a sin^-le detiinie aspect of ihe thinn' 
under cousich-ratiou. Ihe problems of each lesson are thus 
made clear for l)oth insti'uctor and [»upil aud furnish, what 
is i^i'eatK' nee(led iu courses iu diaw iui:,'. a wcH-understood 
<roal of effoil and staudard of aci-oiuhhslimeiit. 


For example, in nature drawing the following steps 
illustrate successive phases which might he considered in 
different lessons. 

1. Free drawings witli hrush and ink to represent with 
a few strokes the growth and general character. Here the 
whole attention is focused u})on salient characteristics 
(Fig. :i2, J). 

2. Representation of a flower and a leaf turned at different 
angles (Fig. 32. B). 

o. Careful drawings of details of structure, such as the 
exact shape of a petal, the construction and outline of a 
flower or leaf, and the fine curvature of a stem. These 
should be drawn with a pencil wliich is hard and sharp 
enough to record facts. The purpose here is not a pictur- 
esque result but an accurate record of such facts as would 
l)e used for a science notel)Ook or for material for design 
(Fig. 82, C). 

■4. Matching in color the exact hue of petals, stem, u})per 
and under sides of leaves, etc. 

o. Use of tlie forms as elements in design, as in a l)order 
for eml)roiderv or a unit for decoration of a cover for nature- 
study pa})ers, etc. 

A similar opportunity for concentration upon a single topic 
for a considerable period of time is found in landscape draw- 
ing in connection with geography. Suppose the country un- 
der consideration is Holland. A large drawing may be begun 
upon the l)oard and this may be nioditicd oi- addt'(l to from 
time to time as the children obtain additional data or more 
definite knowledge of the subject matter. Meanwliile each 
child may start a drawing of his own on a sheet of [)aper. 
At first }K'rlia})s the results may l)e meagt'r and include 
onlv a few suo'crestions of the countrv, such as a horizontal 



line to ro})rest'nt its level eharacter and crude suo'o'estioiis 
of eaiials and windmills. C'olleetions of })ictnres and the 
hints gathered from descriptions will innnediately furnish 
new material. One group of pu[)ils may he assigned to 
gather pictures of canals and learn how to re[)resent them 
so they ai)[)ear to stretch away into tlie distance. ^Vnother 
group may collect data regarding the ap[)earance of wind- 
mills, and still others may study eanal hoats, houses, and 
other items ri'lating to Holland. Day hy day the picture on 

/ S/ 

Fjc. '.j'2. Dil'tVivut kinds df plant drawini 

the board will evolve and old drawings l)e replaced In' new 
ones wliich are more adiMjuate. The indi\idual sketches 
will give opportunity for original compositions. Cliildrt'U 
will he encouraged to practice on })arlicular effects till tliev 
havt' mastere(l them. 

.Moods of natui'c furnish e([tndly interesting suhjects: for 
examj)le, autumn. t\\ ilight, stoi'iii. sunshine, etc. In the case 
of j)oelical ctTects sucii as these, the children should sup- 
plement theii' own attempts with collections of illusirations 
of the toj)ic in hand, made i'rom all availahle sources, and 


they should at the same thne become acquainted with some 
related literary descriptions. ^Esthetic appreciation is more 
likely to be developed l)y interpreting familiar subjects than 
by searching for the traditionally picturesque. 

The representation of geometric solidity is of especial 
importance to the student of constructive work, and is one 
which appeals to children at an early age. ( )ne fa\'orite juve- 
nile method is to draw two rectangles which partly overlap 
and connect the corners. The result a[)pears like a trans- 
parent solid (Fig. •^>o, J ). Children soon diseoNci' what lines 
to erase in such a iigui'e so that one appears to l)e looking 
do\Mi upon it or up at it (Fig- •>». J>)- They readily learn 
that thi-ce lines furnish a key to the structure and [)osition 
of the box and that the other lint'S follow respectively the 
general directions of these f Fig. ^v). C). 'Idicir first attempts 
at completing the l)ox are fre(iuent]y like l-'ig. ^lo. ]>. l)ut 
practice in treating this iigure as a problem in eonsti-uctioiu 
by trinnning down the top and sides till these are satisfactory 
representations of rectangular faces, soon results in a con- 
vincing [)icture of a I'eetangular solid. The children are then 
readv to experiment with different slants of the hrst three 
kev lines to see tlu' etfect in changing the a})part'nt position 
of the solid ( Fig. •]•). E and ,/•'). Xothing seems so I'eadily 
to develop al)ility to re[)resent rectangular solidity and to 
draw from actual ol)jects as progi'essi\e work in this con- 
structive drawing from imagination. Awy elaborate study 
of the pi'inciples of formal })ers[)ective. such as the con\er- 
gence of retreating lines or the relation of the object to the 
level (»f the eye, (hx'S not seem to be necessary or helpfu.l 
at this time. 

'Idle children learn later to discover in more complex 
constructed objects the few lines which show the position 



and structure, and by moans of tliesc to (U'terniiue tlie 
directions of others, and tlius lind the solution of somewhat 
complicated })r()blems of representation. They proceed with 
their drawing- of objects as if they were actually construct- 
ing them. For example, in drawino' a cliaii'. the same series 
of structui'al lines su^'gested in the drawing of a box gives a 
means of reducing to systiMU the more mimerous lines of the 
chair, which if luirelated would ^)ro^•e confusing. In Fig. 34 





Fi(i. ;j4. The I'flatinii uf tin.' liufs of roctaiiuular cilijccts lu tlirce key lines 

the lint's mai-ked 1. li, and -] furnish the key to the dii'eetion 
of most of the others. If tiiese art' determine(l in the right 
pi'oportion and at the right angles, the general structure 
mav easily be completed. All slants extending U[)ward to 
the left are determined by 1. and all to the right by 2. 

The closed book in I'"ig. '-W re[»resents a distorted outline 
fre(pteiilly drawn by chil(h'en, and within this outline the 
correct a])})carance ai'ri\cd at b\- (h'awing lines to corres|)()n(l 
with the kev hnes. 1. 1*. and •). 



Tliis (Iocs not mean that all the slants arc parallel to 1 
oi' '2. In fact till' lines a[)i)car to convcro-c as they extend 
away from the (tbserver, but when some facility in i'e[)re- 
sentino- n'ctano'ular objects in different [)ositions has been 
i^'aincd and the eye n'rows accustomed to intci'preting draw- 
ings, it will lu" found that the attempt to make the sha[)es 
look rig'ht results in an approximation to the [)ro[)er cou- 
vero'cnci'. This method of ap[)roach to perspective differs 
from that which begins with discussions of the relations of 
the object to data external to itself, such as the level of the 
eye and tlu' vanishino' points of retreatino- lines, in that it 
aims to develo[) the trustworthiness of the testimony of the 
eye concerning' actual ap[)earances bt^fore attem[)ting to 
make deductions regardino- these ap[)eai'ances from a theory 
based u[)on external and usually in\isible data. The mak- 
ing of such (h'diu-tions is valuable as a means of checking 
u[> icsults aftei' the visual pt-rceptions can be depended 
upon, but it is doubtful if these I'onditions can be fully 
attained bctoi'c childi'cn arri\-e at the high-school age. 

Tlic sanu' general principles hold regarding the re[)re- 
scnlation of curvilinear objects, such as a glass oi- a bowl. 
'Ihe (luestion most full of (U'scri[)tive suggestion is not, 
"How far below the lev(d of the eye is this glass?" 
but How far can one see into it?" The line answering 
this <|uesti()n establishes the cur\(' which determiiu's all 
relatcil circles ( I'ig. ■)•">, -I and />'). 

I)\' means of sketches each child should construct such 
foiiiis (111 paper with the pencil, conijiaring and modif\iiig 
tliciii until llicir appearance satisfies his e\-e. lie should do 
this till he forgets that he is working in two dimensions 
and feels instead that he is slia]iiiig these forms in all tlii'ee. 
lie sliould not think of his foreshortened circle as an ellij)se. 




Fi... ;!•"). n 

10! I 



])ut as a circle wliicli extends 1)ack into tlie pictui'c, and 
which he shapes until it is a satisfactory picture of a 
circle lying- flat. He should hviild up representations of 
solids from iniao-ination till his eye can detect any false 
construction or any shape that does not cany" the impres- 
sion of curvilinear or of rectangtilar solidity. lie should 
|)lay with these figures till he can place them in what- 
ever position he chooses, and build on additions, or modifv 
by cutting into different shapes, lie Avill thus devtdop 
delinite concepts of types of solidity. 'Die fact is some- 
times overlo(jked that one can seldom draw an object well, 
the general type of which he has not mastered and made 
his own so that he can draw it readilv from imagination 
(Fig. 36, .1 and Jl). 

Interest in searching for pictorial ex[)ressiou for one's 
ideas helps to (le\e]o|) artistic a[)preciation. When pu})ils 
ha\"e become interested in tr\ing to interpret into lines and 
colors their impressions of a sceiu\ for example, of autumn, 
and ha\'e stdected from among autunm pictures those wliicli 
are most in harmon\' with tlu^ir own feelings, they ai'c gain- 
ing experience which will ludp them enter into the spirit 
of a \\'ork of ai't which is an artist's interpi-etation of this 
topic, witli much nioi'c svmpathv and res[)onsiveiu'ss tlian 
if they had made no effort to express it or to select good 
interpretations of it. 'J'he seai'ch among many sources in 
miture, literature, and art. for the embodiment of a partic- 
ular idea or the expression of a mood should be an impor- 
tant element in all picture study. 

In each grade the pictui'es stuilied should be such as 
embod\' o])jects and interests which touch somewhere the 
experiences of the children. The lirst [)leasui'e. which later 
may dcNchtp into a'Sthetic ap})reciati(»n, may he awakened 

(iHADKS VII AM) \' III 111 

by well-drawn, vi^'oroiisly coloivd pictmvs designed for 
children, as well as by fanions niaster[)ieees. 

The followino- deseription of an experiment in pietnre 
study in upper grades is reprinted by courtesy of Tlte 
School A)i>< Booky 

Tlic topii', " Picture Study." \vliicli occurs in most courses in draw- 
ing', deserves all the jironiinence that is now i^iveu to it. The niajoi'- 
ity of peojile want to he ahle to appreciate and enjoy works of art. 
IntelliL^'ent enjoynient of art is seldom i^ained except through s]iecial 
study detinitely [ilanne(l to accomplish that eU(L To (K'teriuine what 
lines that study should follow has heen tlie pur[iose of luucdi discus- 
sion and eX])eriinentation. 

One method, pierhaps the method of least value in elementary 
schools, is to analyze ])ictures in order to discover centers of interest, 
halance of masses, leading' lines, etc. This is helpful to adults as a 
study of one phase of the jiainter's way of doiuL;' thin,L;s, but uidess 
presented with clear understamling' of its relative value it is likcdy 
t<i fail to (h'Vtdoj) a sincere enjoynu'ut of jiictures. 

Another method is to show jiictures to the (diildren and encourage 
them to talk aliout wliat they see and enjoy. Incidentally, stories of 
the artist, tlie tiiues iu wintdi he lived, and the thiiiL;'s he cdiose 
to paint are presentcfl to add historical interests and associations to 
the ]iictures. 'I'liis L;ives a ]>leasant acvpiaintauce with works of art 
and awakens oftentimes a sincere likint;' for them. 

If one allowed his judi;nient \o he hased upou the written papers 
wliicli are sonu'times asked for after lessons in picture study, he 
mi,u'ht he le(l to douht souie asjiects of this method ; hut perhaps the 
fault is not in the uiethod. liut iu askinj^' too soou thai (diildren luake a 
statement, in definite terms of laiii^uai^c, reL;ardiun' nuitters of fe(din,i;'. 

Instructoi's who \\ish to awaken iu their ]iiipils true eujoyuieiit 
of pictures, an eiijoyuieiit that is not a passim^' ])reference hut an 
aliidin.i;' pleasure, uii,L;ht find ludpful suL;'i;'estious fi-om considering' 
carefully the familial' statement that one nets from a picture only 
what he lirinL;s to it. If follows that preparation for seeiun' a ]iic- 
tiire should lie made liefore the picture is presented, iu order that 

' ".\ii Kxperiiiieiit in Picture 8tu(ly."' 77/c School vl/ts llt>i>k. ()ctol)er, 


Fig. .3(), .1 





-■ --N. 


( I 

vr, '/, im t OB ricn. 

Vu.. .](;. li 



tlie children may liave some directly related experiences to hrini;' to 
it, and that the teacher's explanations may Ite unnecessary at the 
time. It is probable that such enjoyment of art as we wish our ]iupils 
to possess can come only when tliey liave l>een jireviously interested 
l)y ol)servations of their own in the subject which the artist jiortrays, 
so when they come to it they come to something' which tliey tluMu- 
selves have tried to express, ev(>n though crudely, and which they 
rejoice to see set forth skillfully. 

The following experiment was tried with a larn'c number of 
children in Boston in tlie sixth, seventh, and eighth years of scliool, in 
order to observe the results of giviug the childrtMi exiieriences whii'h 
sliould prepare them to see the pictures which were to be studied. 

Twilight was selected as a topic for s[)ecial o])servation. The chil- 
dren were encouraged to gather pictures of twilight fi'om magazine 
illustrations, ]ihotogra})hs, and other sources. They were led to ol)- 
serve twilight effects out of doors. The results of these observations 
were rendered definite by means of notes made with water color. 
The colors of tlie sky, clouds, trees, and buildings on different even- 
ings wer<i I'ecorded. The children noted whether the buildings seen 
against the sunset sky ai)peared in tlieir local color, or wei-e flooded 
with the golden glow, or contrasted with it liy appearing to be com- 
plementary in hue. ^lany children were (Mithusiastic in their de- 
scriptiiMis (jf twilight effects and made sketches, s(nn(.' of which wei'e 
crude in color while others wtM-e soft and delicate. 

The next steps in the expeiinu'ut were made possible by the cor- 
dial cooperation of the ^Museum of Fine Arts, which reproduced in 
half tone several of its pictun-s representing twilight, and made 
these reproductions availalile for the schools at cost. About sixteen 
hundred of these were bought by the teachers and disti'iliuted to the 
pupils. Fach child nuide two or three sinn)le copies in jiencil of tlie 
^Museum jiicture given liim, rejiroducing the effect as well as ]iossil)le 
by this means, lie then (^xperinuMited i)y painting over these peni-il 
sketches with water tht; ditferent schemes of twilight color 
whicli he had recorded. He thus gained intimate actpiaintauce with 
an excellent black-aud-white com]iosition, and added to this the 
color, an element which was the result of his own obsei'vaiion. 

After this numy of the children wisheil to visit tlie Museum in 
order that th(\v might see the original jiicture. Those who had oji- 
liortunity to do so, when they saw for the first time the painting 
with the composition of which they were already familiar, viewed it 

(;KA1)KS VII AM) \II1 


witli iiarticiilar attt'iitiou to see wiiat colors liad liccu used liy the 
artist and liow liis sclu'iiu' ('oiiipart'd with tlicir own. I'sually an 
art innsciini apjiears to a cliild soincwliat like a panorama. The 
previous study of a jiarticular topic, liowever. served to isohite a few 
pictures from tlie mass and make tliem oijjects of sjx'cial attraction. 
The children felt a fellowship of interest and effort ln'tween them- 
sehcs and the artist. 

Kveu those who did not visit tlie Museum i^ained much enjoyment 
of twilight effects in nature and of descrijitions of them in literature. 

One priiicipal wrote as follows: 

"You will lie as jileased as I was myself when I tell yon that two 
of my l>oys. e\idently ins|iired liy our collection of twilight picturt^s 
and without any suL;',uestiiui ou my ]iart, hrou^;ht me two poems 
liearin;;' u]M)n the theme we were studying' in our drawim;'. One 
hi'ou^ht in a clipping' from a newspaper, wlTudi told of the endiuL;' of 
the day with the fadinn' of the sunset colors, the niL;'ht, and tlie 
dawninu of another day, makinn' application to the cdosini;' of a 
human life in this world and its sulise(pu'nt awakening;' in eternity. 
The other, with the air of a discoverer, laid upiui my desk I'ennv- 
son"s 'Sweet and i^ow, ^^'illd of the A\'(.'stern Sea.' 

" I read these to the class with sim])ly an acknowledi;inent of the 
soui'ces from \\hi(di 1 had ohtained them. I was not surprised when 
hoy No. :> laid (iray"s ' l-]leL;y ' before me a day later. I plan to have 
the class learn this while the strong' side li^n'ht of their |iicture st udy 
is still shiniuL;' upon it, and I see the possihility of otiu'r work with- 
in the outline for readin.n', in correlati(Mi with drawing;'." 

Tlic po.ssihility nf (l('V('l()j)ino- other t(i])ics in a siinihif 
iimnnci' i.'^ cNidciit. To each !4'ival artist sonic pliasc of 
tlic world lias iiiadc a j)articiilar tippcal and it bccoiin's liis 
liidd for stiuly and iiitcrprctat ioii. The bt'st wav to dcNclop 
tlic fullest eiijoynieiit aii<l appreciation of his work appears 
to lie in awakeniuo- interests siinihir to tliose which inspired 
his art. and in cncouraL^ino- eflorts at e\])ression, howH'Ncr 
crude, of the same thino'. .\ilislic pictorial material of line 
(piality is now c\cr\ where ;i\ailal>le. An instructor who 
culls fi'oiii 1 he Itcst of the nioiithh' niao'azincs can soon foi'in 
a collection of [)ictures exc(dleni not oid\' in composition 


Imt in color. Pul)lic'-spirite(l citizens are always ready 
to contribute magazines a month old. and thus interpre- 
tations of the different subjects of study can gradually 
be collected. 

ConstnicftDn. In these grades the prol)lems dealing with 
concrete materials have a wide range of ap[)lication, for 
example, in agriculture, woodworking, household science, 
household art, and various prevocational activities. 'J'hese 
are influenced strongly by local conditions. The wcirk is 
also largely in the hands of special teachers, and the oppor- 
tunities for excellent training for such teachers ai'e continu- 
ally im})roving. The suggesticjns here given are therefore 

The character of the work should be such as to satisfy 
the rapidly awakening economic instinct, and to develop 
a techni(|ue sufficiently excellent to connnand I'cspect. It 
should be noted, however, tliat skill of hand, although 
necessary, is not the only important outcome of construc- 
tive work in these grades. 

A fault of former education ^^•as that it furnished little 
opportunity for anything but specified lines of intellectmil 
activity. Constructive work in modern education may err 
in failing to associate itself as dclinitely as it might with 
intellectual activity. Each line of Avork should involve, in 
connection with its imme(liate technical processes, its wider 
social, u'sthetic, and industrial relati(»ns. In addition the 
instructor should never lose sight of the importance of 
steadily increashig a student's ability to forecast processes 
and results, as far as })ossible, in detinite tei-ms. 

Oftentimes tlie constructive enlliusiasni is so great, and 
the realization of the value of preliminary planning so 
slight, that a child needs the experience of discovering in a 

(iliADKS VII AND \- 11 1 117 

practical way the waste of tinic and cneruv n'sultiiig- from 
a direct, thouu'iitless attack upon material. However, after 
tlie lirst practical accpiaiutance with the tools and processes 
of a prol)leni has lu'cn gained, the handlinn' or cutting;' of 
material should he made to wait till the results June been 
thought out and, as far as possible, foretold in terms of 
verbal descriptions, sketches, plans, estimates, and meas- 
urements. Mere technical excellence can carry one but a 
short way in larger constructive })r()blems. 

During these grades a recognition of social relations 
becomes evident, and the desire to contribute something 
to the woi'ld's work tisiudly grows keen. Nature study 
a[)propriately takt's the form of agriculture. C'hildr(>n are 
interested in attempting to raise the best products and to 
try for prizes for the l)est ear of corn, etc. They like to be 
able to modify natural conditions for the sake of l)etter 
results, as by grafting trees or making hotbeds. 

In woodworking, if the training in previous grades has 
been thorougli and progressive, pupils can undertake indi- 
vidual projects of some importance, such as chairs, desks, 
tables, cabint'ts, bookracks, etc., which can be put to 
actual use in the school or at home, and they enjoy the 
effort and exercise of skill recpiired to carry them to com- 
pletion. I'nder S[)ecial conditions skill may be ac<|uired 
bv means of in(livi<lual [jrojeets from the tirsl. but tiie 
practical outcome of an attempt to do this with wood- 
working classes of reasonal)le size is that the insti'uctor is 
luiable to give the attention to each pu])il which is neces- 
sarv to the formation of desii'able habits of woi'k. A small 
proportion of the whole number j)roduce excellent results, 
but the majority make relatively little })rogress and do not 
acquire freedom from technical ditliculties soon enough to 



enjoy the results of skill. Figs. 37 and 88 show samples of 
woochvork by boys of Grade YIII in a public school. 

Industrial work whicli contributes to some actual needs 
of the school system is an important factor. There is 
opportunity for many activities, such as making furniture, 

i'i(.. yi 


by boys in (ii'ade \'lll 

picture frames, window boxes, sketchl)Ooks, card-catalogue 
boxes, portfolios, a})paratus, pi'inting and binding, etc. 

Household science and household art may be so presented 
as to awaken a sense of the dignity of the h()usckee})ing 
})i'oblem and of the possibilities of accomplishment that 
result from intelligent skill. I'lic children should learn 
to handle materials economically, according to plans held 
clearly in mind. In household science suitable prol)lems are 



abuiulant. Aitiou^" these are the care of foonis, the sei'\iiii;' 
(if nu'als, the pn'paratioii of vej^etahles, meats, l)rt-a(ls. and 
pu(hliii^'s, the eai'e of foods, sinipU' prohlenis in marketing" 
and in kee[)inn' aet-onnts. In liousehold ai'ts, nieiidino- and 
(hirniiii:'. ])astiiiu; and sewing", sini[)le sewino- by maeliine. the 


Fi(,. ;l.s. WiMidwcrk liv l)uvs in (iradc \'lll 

making;' of underwear and of simple (h'esses, and some ich'as 
rclatiuL;' to the care of fahi'ies and the liygiene of clothes 
are w itliin the scope of elementaiy-school work. I^xperienee 
in classilicatioii of textiles and knowledg'e of methods of 
manufacture and of costs and uses shoulil de\(dop practi- 
cal judginent of (|Uality an<l of a])pi<)priate ])rice. 

Ihstijii. In (ii'adcs \' 1 1 autl \ III those pliases of desio-u 
which call for jud'-incnt rcLiardiu''' the htness of thinti's. 


the beauty of proportions and of outlines, and tlie suitability 
of ornament and harmony of color are of increasino' impor- 
tance. The pupils are sufficiently mature to appreciate to 
some extent fine forms and harmonious colors; to realize 
the difference between excellence of desi^-n which renders an 
object beautiful and permanently satisfactory, and that sen- 
sational or connnonplace modilication of form and addition 
of unrelated ornament which contribute nothino- toward the 
graceful setting forth of the idea involved in the object. 

Free decorative practice may be gained in large irdvt in 
connection with the experimental sketches for designs. 
Children in these grades who are making a design for a 
constructive shape which involves beauty of outline, or for 
an interlacing of lines as in a monogram or in patterns of 
embroidery, develop a feeling f(U' fine curves by gradually 
modifying the sliapes till the lines flow pleasingly and 

Development of appreciation of beauty of form may come 
in part from the careful detailed drawing of line forms in 
nature, l)ut such ap}>reciation may be greatly reenforced by 
practice in making many free sketches of plaiU forms with 
a brush. The plant should l)e interjU'cted into as few lines 
us })Ossible and this convention repeateil till, like pemuan- 
shi[), it gains a swing and flow of line that is not ]abore(l. 
The l)est of these results may be worked over and })ei'feeted 
l)y the use of tracing paper. 

The children should be impressed bv example as well as 
precept, A\ith the idea that the possibilities for beauty lie 
mostly in the })lanning and proportioning of t'ssential parts 
of objects, and not in added ornament. The flnest l)eauty 
of a boat is its shape and not its (h'coi'ation : of a chair, its 
proporti(jns and not its ornamental carving. No element 


can contribute more to the beauty of tlie outside ajjpear- 
aiiee of a house tliau the line proportioning- and s[)aeino- of 
doors and \vin(h)\\s. Walter Crane states this principle 
Mell when he says : 

Xdtliinq' lias (It-ynuUnl tlic form of coiniiuni things so luiicli as a 
iiiistakfii lovi' of oriiainent. . . . Decoration or oriiainciit wc liave 
Ik'cii too iiiucli arciistonu'd to consider as an accidental and unre- 
lated addition to an oKject. not as an essential ex}iression and orgaTuc 
part of it : not as a Iteauty which may satisfy ns in simple line, f<n-ni, 
or jirojportion comltined with fitness to [nirjiose, even withont any 
surface onuunent at all.^ 

Children are readily interested in makin^i^ designs where 
the solution lies in the best possible disposition of neces- 
sary constructive elements with little or no ornamentation, 
and soon appear to enjoy such a })roblem, partly becatise 
of the detiniteness produced by its limitations. The lesson 
covers in Fig. 80 illustrate the different results obtained 
when the ])ossibilities for good design in line arrangement 
of parts are realized and when they are not. I'ig. o9, ./, 
is tvpical of what a child is likely to produce when, without 
any foundation of previous training, lu' is left free to make 
his design as he pleasc-s. He has not responded to the ver- 
tical and horizontal suggestions of the inclosing s[)ace, but 
has violated tlu'se with his diagonal printing. He finds no 
pleasure in exjjcrimenting with tlic architectural effects of 
line spacing and well-ari'angcd margins. His [)rimarv inter- 
est is the ])arbaric one of eollection and dis[)lav. with onlv 
seeondai'V regard for ai'rangcment. Theix' is no lasting 
satisfaction and no cleai'ly delined goal for this interest. It 
is a matter of nu-i'c sensation. It demands e\er brighter 
colors and more profuse ornamentation. 

' Walter Ciaue. "The I'.ases of l)e>i-ii," p. '.»(). 



Such a design as Fig-. 39, />, results from long experience 
in })lacing words Avliere they divide the spaet^ niost })leas- 
ingly, and in spacing letters in the words till satisfaction 
is awakened more by the harmonious distrilxition of the 
words on the page and tlie letters within tlie words, than 
by profuse ornamentation. 

In such a design as this, the exact areas wliich tlie [)rint- 
ing is to occupy are iirst chosen by such ex[)ei-imentation 

Fit.. li'.K A 

:;'.t. /; 

as is described on l)age 95, l-'ig. 3<>, and tlie letters made to 
conforn:i to these. Children sho\\' much interest in woi'k- 
ing out this pi'o])lem. They like to experiment by prim- 
ing the same woi'd in rectangles differing entirely as to 
pro|)ortions, so that in each case tlie \\()rd shall exactly 
till the gi\-en form { I'ig. 4<j). Such printing should be 
done free-hand and the spaces determined not by measure- 
ment but \)y tentative indications made at Iirst by \-ery 
light lines and gradually detinecl as tin- letters become 


equal)lv distiibuti'd. Fi^-. 41 shows a page of caiTfully 
plaiiiU'd rovers. 

Design ^\ili(■h consists in the best [xissihle arrangement 
of given elements, so that they fnhill their pnr[)osi' a<le- 
(juately and graeefully withont reconrse to sensational or 
ineongrnons interests, gives pt'rmanent satisfaction in a 
detinite end attained and a single idea perfectly realized. 

The eonstrncti\e work and honsehold science and art 
afford some of the most important o[)[)ortnnities for design 


Fn.. 40. Words tittud to (liftVrciit spaces 

hecanse they furnish a I'eason for shapes and materials and 
an incentive to experiment with them (Fig. 42). 

Putting into Ixiok form the \\'ork u})on other school to[»ics 
is a feature of design which is of increasing \alue each vear. 
It in\(>l\-cs the coN'cr design, the litle-[)age. margins, ar- 
rangement of text, illustrations, tailpieces, etc. It is not 
necessary to artistic pi-ogrcss that the children make all 
their illustrations. The search for and choice of pictures 
wliii-h best embody the idea one wishes illusiralcd is an 
excellent means ol' de\-eloping appreciation of art. 

One (it the most important pur|)oses of design is to 
dcNflop gdod a'sthctic judgment regarding tlu' things 



with wliicli one comes into daily contact. Svicli judgment 
can 1)0 cultivated by choosing the best from among many 
examples, good and l)ad, as ^^■ell as by making original 



rwE n nRifiA 1 vaarioEs 





Fi(;.41. Covers fur 

)ii paper? 

designs. For one \\ho Avill design a vase or a M'all paper, 
many thousands will buy the article. It is therefore im- 
poitant to know how to choose well, and making designs 



is not the only nor alwavs the snrest Avay of developing 
(lisei'iniination in selection. 

This choosing should be from collections similar to 
those from which the [tupil will be obliged to make his 
choice when he comes to buy for himself, as well as from 
examples which Avill always l)e bt-yond his reach. l'\)r 





•O.O. •o>o. 



a'Wa:a-avv'a"a"a'W«s"XV."» , •• ••■ — •• — ••• • .*. — -. 

Fi(.. 42. Desii^iis fur eniln'oidci'iMl bdi'ders by i;irl.s in (inulc A'llI 

instance, if one wishes to cultivate good taste regarding 
vases, it is well worth while to study those in line collec- 
tions : but such stiul\' will lose nothing of practical value 
if it is supplcmeiitt'd by a choice, from among the material 
available in a local stoiv. of the vase best suited to show 
the beaut N' of a [)articula)' style of bou(pU't. such as a 
few spra\s of tall, sleiidei' llowers or a round bunch of 
short -st en uued blossoms. 


Practically all the objects of lioiuc funiisliing-s are the 
results of long evolution, and the different styles have 
successively reached high levels of artistic excellence. 
Furniture and lamps, for example, are interesting suljjects 
for study, historically and artistically, hut added to knowl- 
edge of and interest in the Hnest known t'xaniples should 
l)e some exercise of jud^'ment in ehoosing the hest j)ossil)le 
from available sources, and this necessitales some concrete 
acquaintance with these sources. The present generation 
may thus be led to patronize the l)est at hand and to create 
a demand for what is still better. 

Children should also make or have access to collections 
of pictures of well-designed dwellings of all classes, and 
})ublic Ijuildings for towns similar in size and means to 
their o\\ii locality, and ])e led to choose wisely among 
these. They should be encouraged tt. ri'[iort on the most 
beautiful views in town. Where cameras are owned by 
pu})ils a collection of local pictures should be made. \ 
study of one place under various aspects gives results full 
of interest and artistic suggestion : as. for exam^/le. a street 
sceni', or a laiulscape. at ^■ari()us hours of day and night, 
and in different seasons. This encourages the sort of study 
which the artist gives to his chosen subjt'ct. 

Sometimes children may V)e led to thiid-; about the 
U'Sthetic possibilities of their home surroundings l)y descril)- 
ing fa\'orite places indoors an<l out. under such topics as 
My l-'avorite N'iew, 'Idie Room i like best. What a Window- 
adds to a House, etc. 

An example of sensible teaching of design is that of a 
country teacher who found her one-room schoolhouse 
poorly furrdshed. with no pictui'cs. an unpleasant wall color. 
and with papei-s in the windows instead of curtains. She 


undertook to cliann'e one iti'iii at'lcr aiiotlicv. Tlic childrt'ii 
discussed tlie bt'st ec^lor tor the wall. A tone was decided 
u[)on and pi-esented to the connnittee, who ao-ixH'd to retint 
tlu' room. Curtains were tlu-n considered. Samples were 
ol)tained and the best coloi' and material decided upon. 
The chihh'cn not only were allowed to ha\e a part in the 
selection l)\it were reprt'sented at the purchasino'. ('hairs, 
pictures, and frames M'ere later discussed and choices made 
with the aid of catalo^'ues ami visits to stoi'es. The making 
of the changes occupied two or three years, and the money 
was ol)tained in })art from entertainments given by the 
children. 'I'lie artistic ti'aining was such that it develo})ed 
nnu'h practical ac(iuaintance with ways of selecting furnish- 
ings, and incidentally the chikh'en developed a sense of 
owni'rship in the school. Tlu'V sometimes impiired of tiie 
teacher, after a visitor had gone, whethei' any I'emai'ks had 
l)een made I'egarding the excellent a[)pearance of the room. 

Pi'ogress in a'sthetic a[)preciation is not by way of a 
gcuci-al advance in discrimination as a I'csult of tln'orcti- 
cal statements, but by delinite study of individual things 
which art' beautiful. 

Continued use of water color should de\-elop ability to 
match colors more exactly, to disci'iminate ami I'ccord some- 
^\■hat subtle distinctions in color tones, and to harmonize 
colors. ( )ne can usually secure excelU'nt color hai-nioni(>s 
by choosing with some care among coloi- pj'ints, fabrics, etc., 
and iVom nature, 'i'lie grou[)S of coloi-s occuri'ing in llowers, 
lichens, faded lea\'es. etc., fui'uish excellent material, liv 
matching these colors the children can secure beautiful 
combinations foi' use in design. 

Together w ith a gi'ow iiig a<-(|naiiitance with good exam- 
ples, simple exj)ei-iments in harmonizing gi\-en colors may 


be tried, by iiitrodueing a common element into each of a 
group of two or tlu'ee colors to bring tliem into closer re- 
lation. For example, two colors like red and blue, \\liicli 
in full intensity are not usually pleasing, can be made 
more agreeable in conil)inalion by mixing a little gray 
with each. ^Mixing a little of each with tlie other or some 
of a third color with each produces a similar result. 'I'he 
red still counts as red and the bhu' as l)lue, unless too 
much has been added in the mixing, but the common ele- 
ment has made them less antagonistic, ('hildren should 
try such experiments Avith a number of colors and choose 
for use in their designs the tones N\here the proportion of 
mixture gives the l)est effect. 

By the end of the eighth year children should have gained 
ability to use drawing as a common means of expression, 
and to make rapid descriptive sketches, careful, well- 
constructed drawings, or truthful records of ol)servations, 
as occasion may reipiire. They should l)e able to undertake 
common constructive proljlems with knowledge of tools and 
processes, and should have accpiircd some ability to convert 
raw materials into a fuiished product according to a prede- 
termined plan. Tliey should have the beginnings of good 
taste in choosing what is excellent among things relating 
to the home and community, and should enjoy l)eauty of 
form and harmony of coloi' in nature and in art. They 
should ha\'e enough acfpuiintance with what artists have 
produced to lead them to find some favorites among objects 
of fine art, as they have among ])0()ks. so that tliey will 
desire to })()ssess re})roductions of t]iest\ and they should 
have developefl a general sympathetic attitude toward art. 
I'hey should also have gained an interest in productive 
labor sufHcient to inteipret things in terms of the effort 



and skill required to [)r()duce them, and should have devel- 
oped a healthful enjoyment in the exercise' of llieii' abilities 
wliieh will lead them to he dissatistied w ith any occupation 
which does not add to the well-being of the conununity. 

Whether the aims and the methods considered in these 
pages meet with general aceeptaiu-e or in>t, the fact remains 
that the formulation of some fairly deliidte standard of at- 
tainment based on the relati\e value of the differi'iit acti\i- 
ties involved and on the tested ca[)acity of the children, 
and some specific progression from grade to grade towai'd 
this standard are lu-cessary to thi' highest effectiveness of 
work in manual arts in elementarv schools. 


.I'.stlietic appi'fciatinii. ;-]. 14, 15 

(if ])rop(jrti(ins. !»•"). '.Hi 

jiiourt'ss in. 2"). 104 

relation to (U'sii,Mi, 2()-2'.t. 120-124 
Ai^^rioultural education, 117 

Blocks. 41. 42 

I'.ook covers. 122-124 

Color, study of. 2'.i. ?,0 

proizrcssioii of. through grades, 
:;o. :J1 
Grade I. 44 

Grades II and III. oH-OO 
(iradi's 1\' and \'. 70. 77 
Grade VI. '.Mi 

(irades \'I1 and VIII. 127-128 
fonstructive work, awakened in- 
terest in. l-.'i 
jirogression through grades. 21-2.") 
(irade I. .•;'.t-41 
(irades 11 and 111. .'):)-.m 
(irades W and \'. OH. (i'.» 
(iradi' \\. h'.)-<.t2 
(irades \l\ and \'III. IIO-11'.I 
i-elatiou to draw iiiii. 7. H 
value of. :;. 10. 11. :;2 

Desii:!!. awaki-ned interest in. 1 . .'J 
edueatioiial value. 1 1. 1 .") 
proLMT-.>ioii through i:rades, ifS'. 
(iiadr I. l-_'-U 
(■rad<'s 11 and III. .'.O-.V.) 

Design, jirogression through grades 
(irades IX and V. 71-7-") 
tirade \'I. oy-OO 
Grades VII and VIII. ll<.t-127 
two aspects of. 2.V27. 71. u:l. ',»4 
Domestic art. '.»:], 118. ]2«i 
Domestic science. (»o. 118. 110 
Drawing, awakened interest in. l-:> 
courses in. 
geometric. ">o. 50 
of maps. 84 
mechanical. 7. 8. 25. 41. 54. 55. 

(i8-70. 08. 110. 117 
nature of. (i. 7. 
of ohjects. curvilinear. 107. 110 
of objects, rectilinear. 104-107. 

112. 11. J 
pictorial. ;);!-;-}5, ;-]'.l, 48-.5:). 102. 

lo.j. no 

of plants. 84-8(1. 102 
progression through grades. 18-20 

(irade I. :!.•!-.•]'.• 

(irades II and III. 47-.5:; 

(irades !\' and \'. o:;-07 

(irade \'l. 8;;-8'.l 

Grades VII and \'1II. '.t'.i-lIO 
\alues and aims of. a'sthetic. '.• 

eilucational. 2. :;. 5. <;. :]-2 

industrial. 7. 8 

seiiMitilic. ;> 

llouseh.ild art. '.»:;. 1 lis. liiO 
Industrial e(lucation. 12. I:!. 80-8;) 



Manual training, see C'nnstructive I'muressidn nf subjects thrnu^ii 

work yradfs, drawint;-. 18 

Measuring. 41 Grades I. II. and III. 10.;«-3'.i. 

Mechanical drawing, value of. 7. 8 47-->o 

Grade I, 41 Grades IV and V. 111. 20. («- 

Grades II and III. 54. uo 07 

Grades IV and V, 08-70 Grades VI. VII. and VIII. 24. 

Grade VI. 00 2-'). 8:J-81t. '.I'.KllU 

Grades VII and VIII. 25. (t8. Proportions. ai>i>i'eriation of. '.»5. 

116, 117 '.»0. 121. 122 

rei)resentation of. Oo-07 
Object drawing, 104-107. 110. 112. 

113 Rapid sketching. 8, 67, iHi, 100 

Kepresentation. .sec Drawing 
Paper cutting. 40 

Perspective. 8-10. 20. 104-106 Size of drawings. 87-80 

Pictures, study of. 15. 10. 110. 111. Sketchbooks. 68. 101 

114. 115 Special teachers. P,U. 51. 00 

Progression of subjects throuuh Standards of attaimnent. 10 

grades. 17. 18 Grade I. 45. 46 

color, 20 (trades II and III. 00-01 

Grades I. II. and III. 30. 44. (irades IV and \'. 77. 78 

40. 58-00 Grade VI. 07 

Grades IV and V. 31. 02. 03 Grades VII and VIII. 128. 120 
Grade VI. 31. 70. 80 

Grades VII and YIU. 31. N'alues. of constructive work. 3. lo. 

08 11.32 

constructive work. 21 of design. 14. 15 

Grades I. II. and III. 21-24. "f drawing. 2. 3. 5-0. 23. 32 

30-41, 53-55 of industrial and vocational edu- 

Grades IV and A'. 24. 08. 00 t'atioii. 12. 13. 80-s;! 

Grades VI. A'll. and \'III. 24. A'ocational eductttion, we Indus- 

25. 80-02. 116-110 trial education 
design. 25 

Griulesl. II. andlll. 28. 42-44. Water cohir. 21. 60. 7(). XI. Oti 

50-50 WeaviiiL;-. 0)0 

Grades ]V and \'. 28. 71-75 Woodwork, (irades 1 \' and \'. 70 

Grades W. VII. and VIII. 28. Grade VI. 0(l-'.)2 

110-127 Grades Vll and ^']I1. 117-110 



Allen: Civics and Health ^'-5 

Brigham : tjeographic Influences in American History .... 1.25 
Channing and Hart: Cluide to the Study of American History . 2.00 

Hall: Aspects of Child Life and l-".ducation 1.50 

Harrington: Live Lssues in Classical .Study 75 

Hodge: Nature Study and Life 1.50 

Johnson : Education by Plays and (lames 90 

Johnson: What to do at Recess 25 

Jones: Education as (irowth 1.25 

Kern: .\mong Country Schools 1.25 

Mace: Method in History i .00 

>Ltc\'icar : Principles of Education 60 

Moral Training in the Public Schools 1.25 

Prince: Courses of Studies and Methods of Teaching 75 

Scott: Social ICducation 1.25 

Smith: The Teaching of Geometry 1.25 

Tompkins: Philosophy of School Management 75 

Tompkins: Philosophy of Teaching 75 

Wiltse : Place of the Story in Early Education, and Other Ivssays. 

A ^LlnuaI for Teachers 50 


Comings: Complete Record — .\ttendance and .Scholarship 

(jraded- School l-".dition 30 

High-.School I->_lition 30 

Comings: .Semiannual Record for Craded Schools 15 

(iinn and ( 'ompany : 'J'eacher"s Class Hooks 

>^"- I 30 

\o. II 40 

'l'\vent\' Weeks" Class liook ;o 




l2mo, cloth, 344 pages, 75 cents 

THIS is a brief plan of studies for elementary schools, 
and a simple and direct statement of good methods 
of organization, teaching, and discipline. 

Although the hints and suggestions arc directed mainly 
to untrained and inexperienced teachers, it is hoped that 
they may commend themselves to the judgment of the 
best teachers, as based upon correct principles of teaching. 
The following outline of the contents indicates the 
scope of the book. 

I. Courses of Study 

II. Methods of Teaching 

Writing Observation Lessons 

Spelling Information Lessons 

Language Drawing 

Grammar Singing 

Arithmetic Memory Lessons 

Geography Busy Work 

History Physical Exercises 
Physiology and Hygiene 

III. Organization, Moral Training, and Government 

GINN & COMPANY Publishers 


By G. STANLEY HALL, President of Clark University and Professor of 
Psychology, ^nd Some of His Pupils 

l2mo. Cloth. 326 pages 

DURING the last twenty years one of the lines 
of research carried on by President G. Stanley 
Hall and students working under his direction, at 
Clark University, has been the psychology of child- 
hood and its applications to education. These 
researches have been published in the University 
periodicals, which are of necessity expensive and 
limited in circulation, and have not, therefore, 
hitherto been available to the general public. The 
object of the present volume, which is to be the 
first of a series, is to make accessible to parents 
and teachers, in somewhat condensed form and 
at moderate price, the results of these researches 
which are now recognized as of fundamental 
importance in all educational work. 

GINN & COMPANY Publishers 


W'nh Some Educational Applications 

By .MKLiioiKNK SrcART Read. Professor of l^sychology and 
Education in C(jlgate L'niversitv 

I imo, cloth, 309 pages, illustrated, 5 1. 00 

THE aim of the book is to present to the reader the main 
truths of the science of psychology in a simple, direct, 
and interesting fashion. It is the normal dexelopment and 
workings of the reader's own mental experience which the book 
attempts to help him understand, the mind being conceiyed 
as a part of a psychophysical organism, adjusting itself to the 
conditions of its life. 

The main topics taken up are the foll(_)wing : 'J"he nature and 
problems of ps\'chology ; the general nature of consciousness; 
the nervous system : the simple adaptive ])rocesses. — impulse, 
instinct, and habit: the simple and the complex processes of 
.sense stimulation, — sensation and ])erce[)tion ; attention and 
interest : as.sociation ; the simpler and the more complex affec- 
tive processes, — affection, feeling, emotion, and sentiment; 
the ideational processes, — memory, imagination, conception, 
and thought ; and the processes of complex conscious adapta- 
tion, — the will. 

Considerable space has been given to ])ractical applications, 
as they help decidedly in making clear and in fixing iii mind 
the principles involved. Applicatioiis of ])s_\-chology are. of 
course, especially useful to the teacher, and the learning and 
teaching processes have received much attention. 

As its title indicates, this is a first book in ])sychology. It 
is esi)ecially designed for use as a text in normal schools, teach- 
ers' training classes in high schools, and in elementary coiu'ses 
in colleu'cs. 

GINX AND COMPANY Pl hli.shers 


Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 

N ^ ^ m 


^^ ^qq 

f ??j^0 lo^JW 

^^ DEC 101966 

'-20rn-ll '^''8525s4)444 

N Sargent - 

350 _ r^inf and ind. 

S2/+f ustriai arts in 
cop. 2 elerientary 

' '.K ■: '] 19571 


cop, 2 

3 1 

nil lllil II 111 

58 01 

111111 niiii Mliiilll 

57 3671 


A A 000 149 974