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HISTORY ion 

EUGENE AMIH, 

WHO WAS CONVICTED AT YORK ASSIZES, 
OF THC 

MURDER of BAN I'. CLARK 

OF KNARESBOROUGH, 
Fourteen Years after the Crime was committed. 

Giving an account how he was executed at Tyburn, and after, 
wards hung in chains in Knaresborough Forest. The respect- 
able sphere of life in which he acted, when accused of the crime 
—his wife the principal witness against him. Singular and 

TALENTED DEFENCE 

he made on his trial — his own account of himself, written af- 
ter his condemnation — his attempt at self destruction, just 
previous to his execution ; with other interesting particulai^ 
of this extraordinary character. 




A large Collection of Histories, Song- books See. a! ways on liand. 



PKINrEiJ AND SOU) BY W. & T. FORDYCr^, 
[m 1.% Gf^RV SI R i:r, NFWrASFLF. 



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'GENE ARAM. 



I of that extraordinary person, Eugene 
with the account of his Life, written by 
Je under sentence of death, will, it is pre- 
piteresting to the reader, and not without 
Eugene Aram devoted all his leisure time 
jtudy ; he became master of several lan- 
read tbe works of most of the celebrated 
llors in their originajs — he was also a lover 
>istory, and antiquities, and was delighted 
pensive display of nature which the fasci- 
i of botany afforded him. That a man of 
on, taste, and feeling should be guilty of 
i crime^s murder seems an anomaly in 
16 limits of this publication, however, will 
room for remarks, and we proceed at once 
:t proposed, and leave the reader to his 
)ns. 

ark was born in Knaresborough, where he 
followed the business of a shoemaker, 
oonth of January, l^h^-Oy he married a 
fortune of ^62 00, or upwards ; and being- 
good credit in Knaresborough, it was 
scheme was laid by Eugene Aram, then 
,er in that town, and Richard Houseman, 
, to defraud several persons of goods and 
at Clark sliould be the man to carry these 
' execution ; for, as he then lived in very 
and was lately married, he was the pro- 
i for the intended purpose: accordingly, 
me few days, went to several persons in 
juaresborough, and took up great quaiw 
I and woollen drapery goods, under pre- 
s he was lately married, he wanted not 
to appear in on the occasion, but also 
I linen; in v.iiich he succeeded so well, 
lied goods to a considerable amoiuit. 
icioiB i'ircumsrnnres lippeariiio; that rtif^lit 



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and the following morning, caused a rumou 
town, that Clark was gone off; and, upon 
it could not be learnt what had becometiiai 
Search was imniediately made for the goods 
he had got, when some part of the goods wi 
at Houseman's, and another part, some vel sin[ 
w«s dug up m Aram's garden. Js 
From the above circumstances, Aram was ; i! 
of being an accomplice with Clark; uponic 
process was granted from the Steward of thiol 
of Knaresborough, to arrest him for a delienl 
one Mr. Norton, which was done with a vi 5Di« 
tain Aram until such time as a warmnt cot lll^ 
from a justice of peace, to take him up for ^ She 
cerned along with Clark, in defrauding peoj ne c 
plate, &c. Contrary to the expectation ! «sat 
person in the town, he (being then esteeS ifi 
poor) paid what he was arrested for, and p r 
large sum of money, and in a few days «ei 
considerable mortgage upon his house in- jom 
near Ripon. Soon after his releasement I liec 
town of Knaresborough, and was not h 
any certainty until the month of June, 1 
be was found to be at Lynn, in Norfolk. 

Aram's departure from Knaresborou^ 
have put a stop to any further examinati 
affair ; for nothing was effectually disco vi 
ing Clark^s been murdered, until the firsl 
1758, (upwards of 13 years from the ti 
being missing) when it happened that a I 
ployed in digging for stone to supply a liiil< 
place called Thistle-hill, near Knaresborottf 
at the edge of the cliff, dug about a yard 
quarter deep, found an arm-bone, and th-^ 
of the leg of a human skeleton. In digger 
he discovered all the rest of the bones be 
the body, which, by the position of it, seeil 
been put in double, as the bones weW 
This remarkable accident beini^ rumoured 




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I naresborough, gave reason for a suspicion that 
^l.iel Clark had been murdered and buried there , 
the rathei', as there had been no other person 
feing thereabouts^ to any one's knowledge, for up- 
Ids of 60 years. The strangeness of the event 
lited people's curiosit}^ to enquire strictly into it : 
i coroner was sent foi*, and an inquest held. The 
of Eugene Aram^ who had before frequently 
len hints of her suspicion that Daniel Clark had 
Jm murdered, was now examined by the coroner 
jj the jury, as to what she knew concerning Clark. 
iShe said, ^ Daniel Clark was an intimate acquaint- 
ice of her husband*s ; and that they had frequent 
msactions together before Feb 8, 174'4-5, and that 
chard Houseman was often with them : particularly 
Feb. 7^ about six o'clock in the evening, Aram 
.me home when she was washing in the kitchen ; 
pen which he directed her to put out the nre, and 
jliake one above stairs : she accordingly did so. About 
in the morning on the 8th of February, Aram, 
lark, and Houseman came to Aram's house, and 
7ent up stairs to the room where she was : they staid 
jbout an hour. Her husband asked her for an hand- 
;:erchief for Dickey (meaning Richard Houseman) to 
jue about his head : she accordingly lent him one. 
JiFhen Clark said, // jvill soon he morning, and we 
hnusl gel off. After which, Aram, Houseman, and 
BCIark all went out together • that, upon Clark's going 
lout, she observed him take a sack or wallet upon his 
Iback, which he carried along with Iiim : whither they 
iwent she could not tell. That about 5 o'clock the 
I same morning, her husband and Houseman returned, 
fj and Clark did not come with them. Her husband 
came up stairs and desired to have a candle, that he 
ft might make a fire below. She objected, and said 
I? there was no occasion for two fires, as there was a 
good one in the room above, where she then was. 
Her husband answered, Dickey (meaning Richard 
Houseman) was below, and did not choose to come 



up stairs: upo). which she asked (Clark not retunil 
With ilieiii) what the}' had done wh li Daniel ? to tl 
her husband ^rave no answer : but desired her to „ 
to bed, which she refused; and told him they hffl'lj}^ 
been doing something bad. Then Aram went do\^^ 
with the candle. She being desirous to know whU j^jji 
her husband and Flouseman were doing, and beirL,^J|.j^ 
about to go down stairs, she heard Houseman say 
Aram, She is coming Her husband replied, We*i ^j^j 
not let her. Houseman then said, If she does, she*L| / 
tell. What can she tell ? replies Aram, poor simpll 
thing ! she knows nothing. To which HousemaiL^ 
said. If she tells that I am here, it -will be enougra|^'^ 
Her husband then said, I will hold the door to pi'ei 
vent her from coming. Whereupon Houseman, saidii ' 
something must be done to prevent her telling, and! ^ 
pressed him to it very much ; and said. If she does! 
not tell now, she may at some future time. No, said! j^^^ 
her husband, we will coax her a little until her passionl '^^ 
be off, and then take an opportunity to shoot her • I 
upon which Houseman seemed satisfied, and said,! 
What must be done with her clothes ? whereupon | 
they both agreed, that they should let her lie where 
she was shot in her clothes. She hearing this dis- 
course was much terrified, but remained quiet, until 
near seven o'clock in the same morning, when Aram 
and Houseman went out of the house. Upon which, 
Mrs. Aram coming down stairs, and seeing there had' 
been a fire below, arid all the ashes taken from out of 
the grate, she went and examined the dunghill ; and 
perceiving ashes of a different kind to lie upon it, she 
searched amongst them, and found several pieces of 
linen and woollen cloth, very near burnt, which had 
the appearance of belonging to wearing apparel. 
When she returned into the house from the dunghill, 
she found the handkerchief she had lent Houseman 
the night before ; and looking at it, found some blood 
upon it, about the size of a shilling : upon which she 
immediately went to Houseman., and shewed him the 



to 



pieces of c!utii she hud founds and said. She was afrmd 
Drjjjjthey had done something bad to Clark. Bui Housci- 
> .jg^man then pretended he was a stranger to her accusa- 
tion, and said, he knew nothing what she meant* 
From the above circumstances, she believes Daniel 
Clark to have been murdered by Richard Houseman 
and Eugene Aram, on the 8th of February, 1744-5* 
Mr. John Yeates, a barber in Knaresborough, said, 
I He knew Daniel Clark, and the last time he saw him 
;,^'Jwas then about 13 or 14 years ago, and that he had 
been missing ever since. Some time after which, as 
he, Mr. Yeates, was going over Thistle-hill, near the 
lOck, he observed a place to be fresh dug and obiong ; 
he presumed it might contain a boy of about 12 years 
of age ; that he had seen the place where the bones of 
a man were found, and ^id it was the same he saw so 
fresh dug up. Letham, gave similar evidence. 

Mr. Higgins and Mr. Locock, of Knaresborough, 
surgeons, upon breaking a thigh-bone of the skeleton, 
and viewing it, gave it as their opinion, that the body 
might have lain in the ground about thirteen or four- 
teen years. 

Upon the skeleton s being produced. Houseman, at 
the Coroner's request, took up one of the bones ; and, 
in his confusion, dropped this unguarded expression. 
This is no more Dan Clark's bone than it is mine ! 
from which it was concluded, that if Houseman was 
so certain that the bones before him were not Dan 
Clark's, he could give some account of him ; and being 
told so, he answered, ^ That he could produce a wit- 
ness who had^seen Daniel Clark upon the road, two 
or three days after he was missing at Knaresborougi). 
Accordingly the witness (one Parkinson) was sent 
for, who, on being asked tlie questi ni, told the coro- 
ner and the jury. That he had never seen Daniel 
Clark after that time, viz. the 8th of February, 
1744-5 ; that a friend of his (Parkinson's) told him 
he had met a person like Daniel Clark ; but as it was 



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Aram 
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coat up, lie could not my, with the least degree of 
certainty, who he was. 

This so far from being satisfactory, increased the 
suspicion, that Houseman was either the murderer 
of Clark, or au accomplice in the murder : whereupon 
the constable applied to William Thornton, Esq. who 
being informed, from the coroner, of the depositions 
taken, granted them a warrant to apprehend House- 
man, and bring him before him. He was accordingly 
brought and examined : here he said. He was in 
company with Daniel Clark the night before he went 
off, which he believes might be on a Thursday in 
February, 1 74*4-5 ; that the reason of his being then 
with him was upon account of some money, (viz. £20) 
that he had lent Clark, which he wanted to get again 
of him, and for which he then g-ave him some goods 
that took up a considerable time in carrying from Da- 
niel Clark's house to his, viz. from eleven (the hour 
at which he went to Clark) till some time the next 
morning : that the goods he took were leather, and 
some linen cloth, which, as soon as he had possessed 
himself of, and also a note of the prices he was to sell 
them at, he left Clark in Aram's house, with Aram 
and another man, unknown to this examinant : who 
further saith, that Aram and Clark, immediately after, 
followed him out of Aram's house, and went into the 
market-place with the other unknown person, which 
the light of the moon enabled him to see ; that he 
does not know what became of them after : and ut« 
lerly disavows that he came back to Aram's house 
that morning with Aram and without Clark, as is 
asserted by Mrs. Aram, nor was he with Aram, but 
with Clark at Aram's house that night, whither hie 
went to seek him, in order to obtain from him the 
note as above ; that when he had lodged the goods 
he had got at Clark's house safely in his own, he 
went to seek Clark, found him at Aram's with the 
unknown person, and after having procured the note. 



He further saith, that he did not sec Clark 
IjT wallet, plate, or things of value along with 
i«n they came out of the house the last time, 
IT jjp^ Iras early in the morning. But admits, that 
'mc after Clark was missing, Anna Aram came 
in a passion, and demanded money of him, and 
had money of her husband's in his hands, and 
[3ed to shew him such shi eds of cloth, and asked 
new what they were ? to which he^ answered, 
fe did not know. And utterly denies that he 
das been charged with the murder of Daniel 
[, till now by Anna Aram, 
ing asked if he chose to sign this examination ? 
d, he chose to waive it for the present; for he 
k have something to add, and therefore desired 
ve time to consider of it. 

Is he chose not to sign this examination, it was pre- 
d that he was conscious he had not declared the 
|i of the matter, and Mr. Thornton thought proper 
immit him to York castle the morning foIlowing>^ 
reenhammerton, in the road to York, he behaved 
its conductors in such a manner as to shew that he 
concerned in the murder, or knew of it, and that 
as desirous of making a more ample confession on 
ir arrival at York. Being come to the Minster, in 
cklegate, they were acquainted that Mr. Thornton 
|s then passing by ; Houseman desired he might be 
Sited into the house, and in his presence made the fol* 
iving confession : That Daniel Clark was murdered 
r Eugene Aram, late of Knaresborough, a school* 
aster, and, as he believes, on Friday the 8th of Feb. 
744-5, for that Eugene Aram and Daniel Clark were 
)gether at Aram's house early that morning (being 
icon-light, and snow upon the ground) and that he 
Houseman) left the house and went up the the street a 
ittlc before, and they called to him, desiring he would 
go a short way with them, and he accordingly went 
along with them to a place called St. Bobert's Cave, 
near Grimble-bridge, where Aram and Clark stopped, 



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and tbere he saw Aram strike him several tii 
the breast and head, and saw him fall as iflj i^]^^^\tA 
dead, upon which he came away and left themi 
w^hetiier Aram used any weapon or not to kill Gli i 
could not tell ; nor does he know what he did wi' i 
body afterwards ; but believes that Aram left itl j 
mouth of the cave ; for that, seeing Aram do thil \i 
he might share the same fate, he made the bestj ,p 
, way from him, and got to the bridge end, wliere,j ^ 
ing back, he saw Aram coming from the cavej 
(which is a private rock adjoining the river) and a 
discern a bundle in his hand, but did not know I 
it was ; upon this he hasted away to the town, will 
either joining Aram, or seeing him again till t 
day, and from that time to this he never h, 
private discourse with him. Afterwards, ho^ 
Houseman said that Clark's body was buried 
Robert's cave, and tliat he was sure it was then 
but desired it might remain till such time as 
should be taken. He added furthei', that Clai' 
head lay to the right, in the turn at the enttiail 
of the cave. These words Houseman repeat 
day after to Mr. Barker, the constable. 

On Houseman's commitment to the Castle, pi 
persons Were appointed to examine St. Robert's 
where, agreeable to his confession, was found the 
leton of a human body, the head lying as he 
had said : upon which a coroner's inquest was ti 

Houseman having declared that Clark was mun 
ed by Aram, who, upon inquiry, was found to be il 
Lynn, in Norfolk, Mr, Thornton issued his warrant tl 
apprehend him, and directed Mr. John Barker and Mi] 
Francis Moor, the constables of Knaresborough, to Sil 
John Turner, a justice of peace in Lynn. On their atrj 
rival, they waited on this gentleman, who indorsed thtl 
warrant; arid Aram was apprehended in a school! 
where he was usher, and conducted to YorkshireJ 
Being brought before Mr. Thornton, and examine^, 
lie confessed. That he was well acquainted with Daniel 



11 



Clark ; and to the best of his remembrance, it was 
about, or before the 8th of Febuary, 174'4-5 ; but ut- 
terly denied he had any connection vvith him in those 
frauds which Clark stood charged vvith at or before the 
time of his diappearance, which might be about the 
10th of February, 1744-5, Vvhen he (Aram) was ar- 
rested by process for debt : that, during the time of his 
being in custody, he first heard that Clark was miss- 
ing ; that, after liis release, he was apprehended by a 
warrant from a justice of peace for a misdemeanor ; 
but appearing before the justice, and the charge not 
being made out against him, he was dismissed : after 
tliis he continued at Knaresborough a considerable 
time, without any molestation ; and then he removed 
to Nottingham, to spend a few days with his relations, 
from whence he went to London. There he resided 
publicly till he came down to Lynn, which was about 
seven months before he was arrested by warrant, on 
suspicion of being concerned in the murder of Daniel 
Clark. He admits that he might be with Clark in 
February, 1744-5 ; but does not recollect that he was 
at Mr. Carter's, who keeps a public-house in Knares- 
borough, with a Jew, Richard Houseman, a flax- 
dresser, and Daniel Clark, about twelve o'clock at 
night, on the 7th of February, 1744-5 ; nor does lie 
recollect he was in company with Clark & Houseman, 
after two o'clock in the morning, at any particular 
time or place, in February, 1744-5, nor at or after 
three o'clock in the morning, nor at Grimble-bridge ; 
nor at or near a place called St. Robert's Cave, on the 
8th of February, 1744-5, in the moaning; nor does he 
know any thing of Clark's being murdered ; nor does 
he recollect that he was with Clark and Houseman, 
when Clark called upon Wilham Tuton, on the 8th of 
February, 1744-5, in the morning ; nor does he re- 
member any thing of a mason's tool being found in his 
own house, when arrested by a warrant, 1744-5 ; nor 
does he remember of meeting Mr. Barnett, or seeing 
him in companj^ with tl*e abovesaid persons, the 8th 



12 



of February, 17454-5, in the morning ; nor does he re- 
member that he came home that morning at 5 o'clock, 
with Houseman, and made a fire for them in his own 
house, which is asserted by his wife ; nor does he re- 
member that he had so great a sum of money as fifty 
guineas about that t ime, or pulled any such sum out of 
his pocket ; nor did he seek to suborn or ask any one 
person to say that he had seen Clark since the 8th of 
February, 1744-5, who really had not seen him ; but 
true it was, that he has often made inquiry about him, 
and particularly his brother, Stephen Aram, but does 
not recollect any other person, except another brother 
of his, Henry Aram, who has said that he saw him ; 
nor does he know where it was those brothers say they 
saw him The declaration of other circumstances, and 
the signing this examination he choses to waive, that 
be might have time to recollecthimself better, and least 
any thing should be omitted, which might hereafter 
occur to him. It was thought proper, however, to com- 
mit him, and upon being a second time examined, said, 
That he was at his own house the 7th of February, 
1744-5, at night, when Richard Houseman and Daniel 
Cjark came to him with some plate, and both of them 
v;ent for more several times, and came back with seve- 
ral pieces of plate, of which Clark was endeavouring to 
defraud his neighbours : that he could not but observe, 
that Houseman was all that night very diligent to as- 
sist him to the utmost of his power, and insisted that 
this was Houseman's business that night, and not the 
signing any instrument, as is pretended by House- 
man. That H^nry Terry, then of Knaresborough, ale- 
keeper, was as much concerned in abetting the said 
frauds, as either Houseman or Clark ; but was not now 
at Aram's house, because it was market-day, his ab- 
sence from his guests might have occasioned suspicion: 
that Terry, notwithstanding, brought two silver tan-f 
kards that night upon Clark's account, which had 
been fraudently obtained : and that Clark so far from 
having borrowed twenty pounds of Housemad, to his 



13 



knowledg never borrowed more than nine pounds, 
which he had paid again before that night 

That all the leather Clark had, which amounted to a 
considerable value, he well knows was concealed under 
flax in Houseman's house, with intent to be disposed of 
by little and little, in order to prevent suspision of his 
being concerned in Clark's fraudulent practices. 

That Terry took the plate in a bag, as Clark and 
Houseman did the watches, rings, and several small 
things of value, and carried them into the flat, where 
they and he (Aram) went together to St. Robert's 
Cave, and beat most of the plate flat ; it was thought 
too late in the morning, being about four o'clock on the 
8th of February, 1744^-5, for Clark to go off so as to 
get to any distance, it was therefore agreed he should 
stay there till the night following, and Clark according- 
ly staid there all day, as he believes, they having a- 
greed to send him victuals, which were carried to him 
by Henry Terry, he being judged the most likely per- 
son to do it without suspicion, for as he was a shooter, 
he might go thither under the pretence of sporting : 
that the next night, in order to give Clark the more 
time to get off", Henry Terry, Richard Houseman, and 
himself, went down to the cstwe very early ; but he 
(Aram) did not go in, or see Clark at all ; that Richard 
Houseman and Henry Terry only went into the cave, 
he staying to watch, at a little distance on the outside, 
lest any body should surprise them. 

That he believes they were beating some plate, for 
he heard them make a noise ; they staid there about 
an hour, and then came out of the cave, and told him 
that Clark was gone off. Observing a bag they had 
along with them, he took it in his hand, and saw that 
it contained plate. On asking why Daniel did not take 
the plate along with him ? Terry and Houseman re- 
plied, that they had bought it of him, as well as the 
watches, and had given him money for it, that being 
more convenient for him to go off with, as less cumber- 
some and dangerous. After which they all three went 



14 



into Houseman*s warehouse, and conceaVd the watches 
with the small plate there, but that Terry carried 
away with him the great plate : that afterwards Terry 
told him he carried it to Howhill, and hid it there, and 
then went into Scotland, and disposed of it : but as to 
Clark, he could not tell whether he was murdered or 
not, he knew nothing of him, only that they told him 
he was gone off. 

After he had signed this second confession, he was 
conducted to York Castle, where he and Houseman 
remained till the assizes. 

From the above examinaiion of Aram, there ajipear^<i 
•'Teat reason to suspect Terry to he an accomplice in tliis 
black alfair, and he likewise was committed to the Castle. 
Bills of indictment were found ajj'ainst them : but it ap- 
pearing* to the court upon affidavit, that the prosecutor 
could not be fully provided with witnesses at that time, 
the trial was |)ostponed till the Lammas assizes. 

On the 3d of August, 1769, Richard Houseman and 
Eugene Aram were broug ht lo the bar. Houseman was 
arraigned on his former indictment, acquitted, and ad 
mitted evidence against Aram, who^was thereupon ar- 
raigned. Ilouseman deposed, That in the nigiit between 
the 7th and 8th of February, 1744-5, about elevpii 
o'clock, he weid to Aram's house: that after two hours 
spent in passing- to andlVo between their several houses, 
to dispose oi' several goods, and to settle some notes con- 
cerning them, Aram proposed first lo Clark and then to 
Houseman, to take a walk out of town : that when they 
came into the field where St. Robert's Cave is, Aram 
and Clark went into it over the hedge, and when they 
came within six or eight yards of the cave he saw them 
fjuarrelling- : that he saw Aram strike Clark several times, 
upon which Clark fell, and he never saw him rise again. 
That he saw no instrument Aram had, and knew^ not that 
he had any : that upon this, without any interposition or 
alarm, he left them and returned home: thai the next 
morning-lie w ent to Aram's house, and asked w hat busi- 
ness he had with Clark last night, and what he had done 
with liim ; Aram replied not to this question ; but 
fhrealned him if be spoke of being in Clark's company 
that nighi ; vowing revenge either by himself or some 
other person, if he told any thing relating' to the affair. 



15 

Peter IVloor, (Clark's servant) deposed, That a Jittle 
time before his disappearing", Clark went to receive liis 
wife's fortune. That upon his return he went lo AraniV 
house, where the witness then was : upon Clark's coming' 
in, Aram said, How do you do, iMr, Clark? I'm glad to 
see you at home again, pray what success? To which 
Clark replied, I have received my wife's fortune, and 
have it in m} [>ocket, though il was with difficulty I j^ot 
it. Upon which Aram said to Clark, (Houseman being" 
present) Let us go up stairs; accordingly they went; 
upcui whlce the witness returned home. 

Thomas Barnet deposed, J'haton the 8ih of Fcbruai v, 
nhoiit one in the morning, he saw a person come out from 
Aram's house, who had a wide coat on, with the capu 
about his head, and seemed to shun him ; whereupon he 
went up to him, and put by the cape of his great cont, 
and perceiving" it to be Richard Houseman, wished him 
a good night, alias a good morning. 

John Barker, the const.ible who executed the wananl 
granted by IVir. Thornton, and indorsed by Sir John 
l uriHir, deposed, That at Lynn, Sir John i urner, and 
some others, first went into the school where Aram was, 
(he witness waiting at the door. Sir John asked him if 
he knew Knaresborouij^h ? he replied, No. And he beisig 
further asked, If he had any acquaintance with one Dan. 
CI uk ? lie denied that he eve r knew such a man. The 
witness then entered the school, and said. How do yoti 
do, Mr. Aram? Aram re[)lied, How do you do, 8ir? I 
do not know you. What ! said the witsiess, Don't you 
know me? — don't you remember Daniel Clark and you 
had a spite against me when you lived at Knaresbro' ? 
Upon this he recollected the witness, and owned his re« 
sidence there. The witness then asked him, If he did 
not kn }w St. Robert's Cave ? He answered. Yes. The 
witness replied, Aye, to your sorrow. 

The scull was then produced in court, on the left side 
of which there was a fracture, that from ttie nature of it 
c ould not have been made but by the stroke of some blunt 
instrument ; the piece was beaten inwards, and could not 
be replaced but from within. Mr. Locock, the surgeon 
who produced it, said, that no such breach could pro- 
ceed from any natural decay ; that it was not a recent 
fracture by the instrument wilh which it was dug 
but seemed to be of many years standing". 

After these several depositions, Aram was asked wlia 



16 



he had to say in his Ijehalf, and begyfed that he niijj^ht 
be indulg"ed in readin"- his defence. The following is a 
faithful copy of it, printed from liis own orignal. 

ARAM'S DEFENCE. 

My LorD) — I know not whether it is of ri;»ht, or through 
some indulgence of your Iordsln|), that I am allowed the liberty 
at this bar, and at this time, to attempt a defence, incapable 
and nninslructcd as I am to speak SiiK C, whi'e I see so many 
eyes upon me, so nnmerous and awful a concourse, fixed with 
attention an<! filled witU I know not what expectancy, I labouf 
not with §:uilt, my lord, but with perplexity. For ha%'inj|; never 
seen a court but this, beingj wholly unacquainted with law, the 
customs of ihe bar, an<l all judiciary proceed in;i^s, 1 fear I shall 
be so little cap ible of speaking; with propriety in this place, 
that it exceeds my hope, if 1 shall be able to speak at all. 

I have heard, my lord, the indictment read, wherein I find 
myself rhari^ed with the highest crime ; with an enormity I am 
altOi»ether incapable of ; a fact, to the commission of which there 
goes far more insensibility of heart, mot e profligacy of moraU, 
than ever fell to my lot. And nothing possibly could have ad* 
mitied a presumption of this nature, but a depravity, not infe- 
rior to that imputed to me However, as I stand indicted at 
yonr lordship's bar, and bavins; heard what is called evidence 
adduced in support of such a charge, I very humbly solicit your 
lordship's patience, and beg the hearing of ibis respectable au- 
dience, while 1, single and unskilful, destitue of friends, and un- 
assisted by counsel, say something, perhaps like argument, in 
my deft'ttce. I shall consume but little of yonr lordship's time ; 
what I have to say will be short, aud this brevity, probably, 
will be the be^t part of it ; however, it is offered with all pos- 
iible regard, and the greatest submission to your lordship's con. 
sideration, and that of this honourable court. 

First, my lord, the whole tenor of my conduct in life contra, 
diets every particular of the indictment. Yet h;)d I never said 
this, did not ray present circumstances extort it from me, and 
seem to make it nessesary. Permit me here, my lord, to call 
upon malignity itself, so long and cruelly busied in this prose« 
eution, to charge upon me any immorality, of which prejudice 
\ras not the author. No, my lord, 1 concerted no schemes of 
fraud, projected no violence, injured no man's person or pro- 
perty; my days were honestly laborious, my nights intensely 
studious. And I humbly conceive, my notice of this, especially 
at this time, will not be thought impertinent, or unseasonable^ 
but, at least, deserving some attention, because, my lord, that 
any person, after a temperate use of life,a s( ries of thinking and 
acting regularly, and without one single deviation from sobrictyi 
should plunge into the very depth of profligacy, precipitately, 



i7 



and at once, h altogether impi(?bable and iinprec'Pilenkil, and 
absolulely inconsistent with the course of thrags. Mankind is 
never corrupted at once ; villainy is always progressive, and 
declines from right, step after step, till evei y regard of probity 
13 lost, and every sense of all moral obligation totally perishes. 

Again, my lord, a suspicion of this kind, which nothing but 
malevolence could entertain, and ignorance propagate, is vio. 
lently opposed by my very situation at that time, with respect 
to health ; for but a little space before I had been confined to 
my bed, and sufFerrd under a very long and severe disorder, 
and was not able, for half a year together, so much a^ to walk. 
The distemper left me indeed, yet slowly, and in part ; but so 
macerated, so enfeebled, that I was reduced to crutches; and 
•o far from being well about the time I am charged with this 
fact, that I never to this day perfectly recovered. Cculd then 
a fiei-son in this condition take any thing into his head so unlike- 
ly, FO extravagant ? I, past the vigour of my age, feeble and 
valetudinary, with no inducement to engage, no ability to ac- 
complish, no weapon wherewith to perpetrate such a fact ; with* 
out interest, without power, without motive, without means. 

Besides, it must needs cccur to every one, that an action of 
this atrocious nature is never heard of, but, when its springs are 
laid open, it appears that it was to support some indolence, or 
supply some luxary, to sati?;fy some avarice, or oblige sume 
malice; to prevent some real, or some imaginary want; yet I 
lay not under the influence of any of these. Surely, my lord, I 
may, consistently with both truth and modtstj^, affirm thus 
much; and none who have any veracity, and knew me, will 
ever question this. 

In the second place, the disappearance of Clark is suggested 
as an argument of his bi ing dead. But the uncertainty of such 
an inference from that, and the fallibility of all conclusions of 
>uch a sort, from such a circumstance, are too obvious, and too 
notorious to require instances. Yet, superseding many, permit 
me to produce a very recent one, and that afforded by tbit 
castle. 

In June, 1757, William Thompson, for all the vigilance of 
this place, in open day-light, and double- ironed, made his es- 
cape ; andi notwithstanding an immediate enquiry set on foot, 
the strictest^search, and all advertisement, was never seen or 
heard of since. If then Thompson got off unseen, through all 
these difficulties, how very easy was it for Clark, when none of 
them opposed him ? But what would be the thonght of a prose- 
cution commenced against any one seen last with Thompson? 

Permit me next, ray lord, to observe a little upon the bones 
which have been discovered. It is said, which perhaps is Baying 
Tery far, that these are the skeleton of a man. It is possible iiu 
deed it may ; but is there any certain known criterion, which in- 



<"^;^,^u iiol i<» precede auy attempt 1o indcntiry iintM. 

The place of their (k^positum too claims much more attention 
ihan is commonly l.t^stowef! upon iL Tor, of all places in the 
world, none could have mentioned any one, wherein there was 
£,reater certainly of hndin^c liMman bones, tli;in a hrrmitiio-e; ex- 
cept he should point out a church yard- FIermitji<j;es, in lime 
past, bein» not on'y places reli|^i<ms retirement^ but of buri- 
al too; and it has scarce or never In en hea}<l of, hut that every 
cell, now known, contains or contained these relics of humanity, 
'^ome mnlilated,Nand some entire. I do not inform, hut ^^ive me 
leave to remind, your loidship, thatli re pat solitary sanctity, 
and here the hermit, or the auchoress hoped that repose for their 
hones, when dead, they heiC enjoyed when living-. 

All the while, my lord, 1 am sensible this is known to-your 
lortlship, and many in the court better than to me. l^ut it seems 
n«'cess:ary to my case, that others who have no$ at ail, perhaps, 
adverted tothins;"s of this nature, and may have concern in my 
trial, should be made acquainted with it. Suffer me 'hen, my 
lo'-d, to produce a few uf many evidences, that these cells were 
used as repositories of the dead, and to enumerate a few, iu 
which human bones have been found, as it happened in thi;^ 
question ; lest, to some, that accident might seem extraordinary, 
and consequently occasion prejudice. 

1. The bones, as was supposed, of the Saxon, St, Dubritins, 
were discovered, biirie<i in his cell at Guy's C\\i\\ near War^ 
wi( k, as appears from the authoiitv of Sir William Duji^dale. 

2 The bones thought to be those of the anchoress Rosia, were 
l»ut lately discovered in a cell at Royston, entire, fair, and un- 
•lecayed, though they must have lain interred for several cen- 
turies, as is proved by Dr. Stukely. 

3. But my own country, nay, almost t!iis nei«hbourhocKl, sup. 
plies another instance: for in January, 1 747, were found by 
Mv. iStovin, accompanied by a reverend gentleman, the h{>n( s in 
part, of some recluse, in the cell at Lindholm, near Hatfield. 
They were believed to be those of William of Lindholm, a her- 
mit, who had long made this cave his habitation 

4. In February, 1744, part of W^oburn Abbey Rising ptiUed 
down, a large portion of a corpse appeared, even with the flesh 
on, and which bore cutting with a knive; though it is certain 
this had lain above 200 years, atid much longer is dtmbtful ; <or 
this Abbey was founded in 1 145, and dissolve<I in 1638, or 1539 
What would you have said, what believed, if this had been an 
accident to the bones in question ? 

Further, my lord, it is not yet out of living memory, that at 
a little distance from Knaresborough, in a field, part of the. 
manor of the worthy and patriotic baronet, who does that bo- 
rou<>li the honour to represent it in piarliament, were fonvM' 



1^ 

fii^giiig foi' gravel, not oiiehumaii skeletmi 'jaly, bu! iiveo. . 
rieposiietl side by sidr, willi each an arn piaced a I IteiMl, :* 
3'our lordship knouN was usual in ancient interments. 

About the same time, and in another lield, almost close to 
ibis boiough, was discovered also, in searching tor grave), ano^ 
ther human skeleton ; but the piety of the same worthy pfentlc- 
man ordered both pits io be filled np again, commeridahly iin. 
willing to disturb the dead. 

fs tiie invention of these bones forgotten, then, or industrious- 
ly concealed, that the discoveiy of tho^e in question may ap- 
pear the more singular mid extraordinary ? whereas in fact, 
there isnolhing extraordinary in it. My lord, almost every place 
conceals such remains. In fieldtJ, in hills, in hij^iiway sides, and 
in commons, lie frequent and unsuspected bones. And our pr(». 
sent allotments for rest for the departed, are but of nome cen- 
turies. 

Another particular seems not to claim a iiule of yovir lord- 
ship's notice, and that of the gentlemen of the jury which is 
that perhaps no example occurs of more than one skeleton be- 
ing found in one cell ; and in the cell in question was found but 
OTVE ; agreeable in this, to the peculiarity of every other known 
cell in Britain. Not the invention of one skeleton, then, but of 
two would have appeared suspicious and uncommon. 

But then, my lord, to attempt to identify these, when even 
to identify living men sometimes has proved so difficult, as in 
the case of Perkin VVarbeck, and Lambert Symnel at home, aud 
of Don Sebastian abroad, will he looked upon, perhaps, as an 
attempt to determine what is indeterminable. And I hope too, 
it will nol'pass unconsidered here, where gentlemen believe with 
caution, think with reason, and decide with humanity, what in- 
terest the endeavour to do this is calculated to serve, in assign- 
ing proper peisonality to those bones, whose particular appro- 
priation can only appear to eternal Omniscience. 

Permit me, my lord, also very humbly to remonstrate, that, as human 
bones appear to have been the inseparable adjuncts of every cell, even any 
person's naming such a place at random as containing thern, jn this case, 
shews him rather imfortunate than conscious prescient, and that these at- 
tendants on every hermitage only accidentally concurred Avith this conjec- 
ture. A mere casual coincidence of words and things. 

But it seems another skeleton has been discovered by some labourer, which 
v/as full as confidently averred to be Claxk's as this. My lord, must some 
of the living, if it promotes some interest, be made answerable for all the 
bones that earth hath concealed, and chance exposed ? And might not a 
place where bones lay be mentioned by a person by chance, as well as found 
by a labourer by chance ? Or, is it more criminal accidentally to name 
where bones lie, than accidentally to find where they lie ? 

Here too is a human skull produced, which is fractured ; but was this th^ 
cause, or was it the consequence of death — was it owing to violence, or was 
it the effect of natural decay ? If it was by violence, was that violence be- 
fore or aftee death ? My lord, in May, 1732, the remains of William, lord 
archbishop of this province, were taken vip, by permission, in this cathedral, 
and the bones of the skull were found broken ; yet certainly he died bv no 
violence offered to him alive, that could occasion the fracture there. 
Let it be con«^iderpn; my lojrd, tltrit. u\you rlio di<5!=ol\u ion of relififiou=; 



houses, and the commencemeiu of the reformation, the ravages, of those 
times affected both the ]ivim nnn \he denfh T n seavdi .afir-r imaginary trea- 
sure,?, coiTins vverc broken up, graves and vaults dug open, monuments ran- 
•acked, and shrines demolished; your lordsliip knows that those violations 
proceeded so far, as to occasion parliamentary authority to restrain them : 
and it did, ahout the reign of queen Elizabeth. I entreat your lordship to 
suffer not the violence, the depredations, and the iniquities of those times 
to be imputed to this. 

Moreover, what gentleman here is ignorant that Knaresborough had a 
castle, which, though now a ruin, was once considerable both for Its strength 
and garrison. x\ll know it was vigorously besiegeil by the arms of the par- 
liament. At which siege, in sallies, conflicts, flights, pursuits, many fell in 
all the places round it ; and where they fell were buried : for every place, 
my lord, is burial earth in war ; and many, questionless, of these rest yet 
imknown, whose bones futurity will discover. 

I hope, with all imaginable submis.-ion, that what has been said will not 
be thought impertinent to this indictment; and that it will be far from the 
wisdom, the learning, and the integrity of this place, to impute to the living 
what zeal in its fury may have done ; "what nature may have taken oft*, and 
piety interred ; or what war alone may have destroyed, alone deposited. 

As to the circumstances that have been raked together, I have nothing to 
observe ; but that all circumstances whatsoe-\ er are precarious, and have 
tj«en but too frequently found laraentablv fallible ; even the strongest have 
failed. They may rise to the utmost degree of probability ; yet they are 
but probability still. Why need I name to your lordship the two Harrisons, 
recorded by Dr. Howell, who both suffered upon circumstances, because of 
the sudden disappearence, of their lodger, who was in credit, and contract- 
ed debts, lx)rrowed money, and went oft" unseen, and returned again a great 
many years after their execution. Why name the intricate affair of Jacqu&a 
de Moulin under king Charles IT. related by a gentleman who was council 
for the crov.'n. And why the vinhappy Coleman, who sufffered innocently, 
though covicted \ipon positive evidence, and whose children perished for 
want, because the world uncharitably believed the father g\iilty. Why 
mention the perjury of Smith, incautiously admitted king's e vidence? who, 
to screen himself, equally accused Fainloth and Loveday of the murder of 
Dunn; the first of whom in 1749, was executed at Winchester; and Love- 
day was about to suff*er at Reading, had not Smith been proved perjured, 
to the satisfaction of the court, by the surgeon of Gosport Hospital. 

Now, my lord, having endeavoured to stiew that the whole of this process 
is altogether repugnant to every part of my life ; that it is inconsistent with 
my condition of health about that time; that no rational inference can be 
drawn, that a person is dead who suddenly disappears ; that hermitages were 
the constant repositories of the bones of the recluse ; that the proofs of this 
are w^ell authenticated ; that the revolutions of religion, or the fortune of 
war, mangle<l, or buried, the dead ; the conclusion remains, perhaps, no 
less reasonably than impatiently wished for, I, at last, after a year's con- 
ftnement, equal to either fortune, putanyself upon the candour, "thejustice, 
and the humanity of your lordship, and upon yours, my countrymen, gen- 
tlemen of the jury. . ' ' 



It might have been expected that the prisoner, in his defence, would liave 
reraarked upon Houseman's testimony, which certainly in many instances, 
lay open to him t but Viv.a tlefence was drawn up long before his trial, and he 
seems not ever to have entertained a suspicion of the fidelity of his confetle- 
rate. The judge stated the evidence very particularly to the jury, and after 
having observed how the testimonies of the other deponents confirmed that 
of Houseman, he proceeded to remark upon Aram/s defence, in order to 
shew that he alleged nothing that could invalidate the positive evidence 
against him.—Wlthout leaving the court, the-jury presently found the pri- 
soner guilty. During the whole trial he behaved with great steadiness and 
decency. He heard his conviction and received his sentence with profound 
composure, and left the bar with a smile upon his countenance. 

At the request of the Rev. Mr. Collins, of Knaresborough, who, by his 
own particular desire, attended him after his condemnation, Aram wrote 
the following short account of his family, and his life, sometime in the in- 
terval between his >;pntence and the night that preceded execution. 



21 



Rev. Sht — I alwrty.-. belleveU any relation of my liiV of no roanue-r q( \m- 
portance or service to the public, and I never had either any temptation or 
desire to appeuB in print. The publications ushered to the world, which j 
«ver had little concern for, and have as little now, by persons of my situa- 
tion, always appeared to me only calculated for the advantage of the prefts, 
and for the amusement of a very idle curiosity. But to oblige you, and not 
to forget my promise, I will recollect as many particulars as I can, upon ao 
sudden a notice, and the small pittance of time which I have left me will 
allow. 

I was born at Ramsgill, a little village in Netherdale, in 1704. My mattr* 
ual relations had been substantial and reputable in that dale, for a great pa- 
ny generations : my father was of Nottinghamshire, a gardener of great 
abilitiefi in botany, and an excellent draftsman. He served the right rev. 
tlie Bishop of London, Dr. Compton, with great approbation ; which occa- 
sioned his being receomendcd to Newby, in this county, to Sir Edwarci 
Blackett, whom he served in the capacity of a gardener, with much credit 
to himself, and satisfaction to that family, for above 30 years. Upon tht 
decease of that baronet, he went and was retained in the service of Sir JohD| 
lufilby, of Ripley, Bart, where he died ; rcBpected when living, and lamen- 
ted when dead. 

My father's ancestors were of great antiquity and consideration in this 
county, and originally British. Their surname is local, for they were for- 
merly lords of the town of Haram, or Aram, on the southern banks of the 
Tees, and opposite to Sockburn, in the bishopric of Durham ! and appeal 
in the records of St. Mary's at York, among many charitable names, early 
and considerable benefactors to that Abbey. They, many centuries agO; 
removed from these parts, and were settled under the fee of the Lords Mow- 
bray, in Nottinghamshire, at Aram, or Aram Park, in the neighbourhodi* 
of Newark upon Trent, where they were possessed of no less than thri 
knights' fees in the reign of Edward IIL Their lands, I find not whetht 
by purchase or marriage, came into the hands of the present Lord Lexin|{ 
ton. While the name existed in this country, some of them were severe 
times high sheriffs for this county ; and one was professor of divinity, if 
remember right, at Oxford, and died at York. The last of the chief of th 
family was '1 homas Aram, Esq. some time of Gray's Inn, and one of tl 
commissioners of the Salt-office, under the late queen Anne. He i:;:irri< 
one of the co-heiresses of Sir John Coningsby, of North-Mims, in UcH for 
shire, where I saw him, and where he died without issue. 

Many more anecdotes are contained in my papers, which are not ] <' ■ em. 
yet these perhaps may be thought more than enough, as they may i»e cor 
sidered rather as ostentatious than pertinent; but the first was ahv, fa 
from me. 

I was removed very young, along with my mother, to Skelton, near Nev' 
by, and thence at five or six years old, m.y father making a little purchai 
in Bondgate, near Ripon, his family went thither. There I went to schoc, 
where I was made capable of reading the testament, which was ail I was ev^ 
taught, except, a long time after, about a month, in a very advanced age f 
that, with the Rer. Mr. Alcock, of Burnsal. 

After this, at about thirteen or fourteen years of age, I went to my fath 
at Newby, and attended him in the family there, till the death of Sir K 
ward Blackett. It was here my propensity to literature first appeared ; f^ 
being always of a solitary disposition, and uncommonly fond of retireme 
and books, I enjoyed here all the repose and opportunity I could wish. IV, 
study at that time was engaged in the mathematics ; I know not what r^ 
acquisitions were ; but I am certain my application was at once intense a' 
unwearied. I found in my father's library there, wihch contained a gn 
number of books in most branches. Kersey's Algebra, Leyburn's Cursug 5 
thematicus. Ward's young Mathematician's Guide, Harris's Algebra, an« 
great many more ; but these being the books in which I was ever most c 
versant, I remember them the better. I was even then equal to the mana 
ment of quadratic equations, and their geometrical constructions. Af 
we left Newby, I repeated the same studies in Bondgate, and went over 
the pait8 I had studied before ; I believe not unsuccessfully. 

Being about the age of sixteen, I was sent for to Londoii, being thoug! 
upon examination by M r. Christopher BlacKi^tt, qualified to serve hi rr^ 
book-keeper in his counting-house. Here, after a year or two's continuan 
I t(X)k the small-pox, and suffered severely under that distemper. My r 
ther WHH s*j iui]>at>^)it lo -ee me, tliat r-lir \vr>:^ very iir-ar -h jonrney to']. 



I don, which I, by an m vital ion from my father, prevented, by going to lier. 
f At home, with leisure upon my hands, and a new addition of authors to 
I tliose brought me from Newby, I renewed not only my mathematical stu- 
^ ^ dies, but began and prosecuted others of a diSerent turn, with much avidity 
and diligence : these were poetry, history, and antiquities, the charms of 
•which quite destroyed all the heavier beauties of numbers and linps, whose 
applications and i)roperties 1 now pursued no longer, except occasionally 
in teaching. 

I was, after some time employed in this manner, invited into Netherdale, 
my native air, where 1 first engj^ged in a school, where I married, unfor- 
tunately enougli for me ; for the misconduct of the wife which that place 

fforded me, has procured me this place, this prosecution, this infamy, and 

lis sentence. 

During my marriage here, perceiving the deficiencies in my education, 
ul sensible of the want of the learned languages, and prompted by an irre- 
sistible covetousness of knowledge, I commenced a series of studies in that 
vay, and undertook the tediousness, the intricacies, and the labour of 
jrammar : and selected Lily from the rest— all which I got and repeated by 
\eart. The task of repeating it all every day, was impossible, while I at* 
nided the school, so I divided it into portions : by which method it was 
ronounced thrice every week— and this I performed for years. 
Next, I became acquainted v/ith Camden's Greek Grammar, which Iab>o 
peated in the same manner, from memory. Thus instructed, I entere<l 
' pon the latin classics, whose allurements repaid my assiduities and my la« 
3urs. I remember to have, at first, hung over five lines for a Avhole day 5 
-Id never in all the painful course of my reaching, left any one passage, but 
did, or thought I did perfectly comprehend. 

Vfter I had accurately perused every one of the latin classics, historians, 
1 poets, I went through the GreekTestament ; first, parsing every word 
i proceeded; next I ventured upon Hesiod. Homer, Theocritus, llero- 
tiis, Thucidides, and all the Greek Tragedians ;— a tedious labour this; 
t ihy former acquaintance with history lessened it extiemely ; because it 
ew alight upon many passages, which, without that assistance, must 
e appeared obscure. 

n the midst of these literary pursuits, a man and horse, from my good 
1 'nd, William Norton, Esq. came for me from Knaresborough, along with 
/ t genteman's letter, inviting me thither; and accordingly I repaired 
j ither in some part of the year 1734, and was, 1 believe, well accepted an(5 
I feemed there. — Here, not satisfied with my former acquisitions, I prose- 
1} \ ted the attainment of the Hebrew, and with indefatigable diligence. 1 
1; ' 1; d Buxtorfs grammar ; but that being perplexed or not explicit enoui'ti, 
u% \ least in my opinion at that time. I collected no le>.s than eight or ten dil - 
i t I ent Hebrew grammars— and here one very often supplied the omissions 
I others; and this wa- , I found, of extraordinary advantage. Then I 
tght the bible in the original, and read the Pentateuch, with an intention 
10 through the whole 01 it, which 1 attempted, but wanted time. 
1 April, 1 think the lf5th, 1744, I went again to the metropolis. (The rea- 
i i s shall follow.) Here I agreed ?to teach the latin and writing, for the 
|ii Mr. Painblanc, in Piccadilly, which he, slong with a salary, returned, 
11 .eaching me French ; wherehi I observed the pronunciation, the most 
nidable part, at least to me, who had. ne\er known a word of it ; but 
i my continutd application every night or other opportunity overcame, 
[ I soon became a tolerable master of French. I remained in this situa- 
I two years and above. 

ome time after this 1 went to Hays, in the capacity of writing-master, 
, ; served a gentlewoman there, since dead ; and staid, after that, with a 
1 '.hy and rev. gentleman. I continued here between three and four years, 
'cceeded to several other places in the south of England, an<l all that 
e used every occasion of improvement. 1 then transciibed the acts of 
lament, to be registered in Chancery, and after wint down to the free- 
ol at Lynn. 



i 



rom ray leaving lvnaresborou<'h to this period is a lonp; inter \ al, whlcli 
.d filled u)) with the farther study of history and anliquiti's, heraldr\ 
botany; in the last of which I "was very agreeably enierttiwed, th-i^' 
ig so extei sive a disphiy of nature. I well knew '^I'urneforte, fJav, Mil- 
Linnfcus. i.\:c. I made fre(!uent visits to the ix>tanic garden at ( he!so/i. 
traced ph insure tlirongh a tbousami fields : ar !asr, few plaiit-^, sh^iupsiK- 
»xuiU', Wx \i\ i-rto-.va n» \\\-\ .vmid.^i .'ill ih*- I \ .'"laur. d iipun ilu- 



Chaldee and Arabic ; and, with a design to undierstand them, supplied my- 
self with Erpenius, Chapelhow, and others ; but had not time to obtaki 
any great knowledge of the Arabic ; the Chaldee I found easv enough, be • 
cause of its connection with the Hebrew. 

I then investigated the Celtic, as far as possible, in all its dialects, — begun • 
collections, and made comparisons betwee|i that, the English, the Latin, the 
Greek, and even the Hebrew. I had many notes, and compared aliove 
three thousand of these together, and found such a sur|)rising affinity, even 
beyond any expectation or conception, that I was determined to proceed 
through the whole of all these languages, and form a comparative lexicon, 
which I hoi)ed would account for numberless vocables in use with us, the 
llomans and Greeks, before concealed and unobserved. This, Or something 
like this, was the design of a clergyman of great erudition ; but it must 
prove abortive, /or he died before he executed it, and most of my books 
nid papers are now scattered and lost. 

Something is expected as to the affair upon which I Wcis committed, to 
which I say, as I mentioned in my examination, that all the plate'of Knares- 
K)r6ugh, except the watches and rings, were in Houseman's possession ; as 
'or me, I had nothing at all. My wife knows that Terry had the large ydate, 

imd that Houseman himself took both that and tlie watches at my house, 
rom Clark's own hand ; and if .she will not give this in evidence for the 
own, she wrongs both that and her own conscience ; and if it is not done 
oon Houseman will prevent her. She likewise knows that Terry's wife 
lad some velvet, and if she will, can testify it. She deserves not the regard- 
.f ■ the town if she will not — That part of Houseman's evidence, wherein 
le said threatened him, was absolutely false ; for what hindered him , when 
I was so long absent and far distant ? I must need observe another thing to 
<e perjury in Houseman's evidence, in which he said, he went home from 
SSlark — whereas he went straight to my house, as my wife can also teiitify, 
* I be not believed. EUGENE ARAM. 

NOTE. — It is generally believed, and upon good grouads, that Aram got 
^1 the money Clark had received for his wife's fortune, viz. about 
[ ad there were strong circumstances to prove it ; but it was thought unne- 
fssarv, as there was sufficient proof against him without iu 



Aram confessed the justness of* his .sentence to two 
!eig"ynien, (u lio had a licence fronj the judg'e to attend 
m) by declarin<»* that he riHirderod Clark. When he 
as called from bed, on the morninj^ of his execution to 
p^ve liis irons taken offV he would not rise, alle<^*in;^' he 
as very weak. On examination his arm appeared 
oody ; and it was found tijat he liad attem})ted t,) take 
vay his own life, by cnttini;,' his arm in two places with 
'razor, which he had concealed. By proper applica- 
^ >ms he was brought to liimself, and, though weak, was 
gimducted to 'fybnrn, where being asked if he had auy 
iuglosiay, he answered, No. humediately after be 
Q AS executed, and his body taken to Knart- shurouy h 
>rest, and hung' in chains — On his table, in the cell, 
isfutmd a papfr, containing the following reasons for 
'4 b above attempt : — 

:** What am 1 better than ujy fati»ers ? To die is natu- 
l~and necessary. Periectiy sensible of this, I tear no 
i fue to die rhait f ilid lo be born, iiitl the maiiiier of it 



24 

is somethiug' wiiich should, in my opiiuon, be decent 
and manly. I think I have regarded both tliese poinU. 
Certainly no body has a better rig^ht to dispose of inan*« 
life than himself; and he, not others, should determine 
how. As to any indig^nities offered to ray body, or silly 
reflections on my faith and morals, they are, as they 
always were, things indifferent to me, I think, though 
contrary to the common way of thinking', I wrong* no 
man by this, and hope it is not offensive to that Eternal 
Being that formed me and the world ; and by this S in- 
jure no man, lib man can be reasonably offended.— 
1 solicitously recommend myself to the Eternal and Al- 
mighty Being, the God of Nature, if I have done amiss. 
But perhaps I have not ; and perhaps this thing will ne- 
ver be imputed to me. — Though I am now stained with 
malevolence, and suffer by prejudice, I hope to rise fair 
and unblemished. My life was not polluted, my morals 

irieproachable, and my opinions orthodox. 1 slept 

soundly till three o'clock, awak*d and writ these lines : — 



** Come pleasing rest, eternal slumber fall. 
Seal mine, that once must seal the eyes of all ; 
Calm and compos'd, my soul her journey takefi, 
No guilt that troubles, and no heart that aches ; 
Adieu ! thou sun, all bright like her arise ; 
Adieu ! fair friends, and all that's good and wise." 

These lines, witii the foregoing, were supposed to 
written by Aram just before he cut himself with the r 
zoiS Notwithstanding he pleads a sovereign right ovi 
himself, in vindication of this last horrid crime, and aj] 
pears, at first view, actuated by honour and courage,-' 
yet a little reflection will convince any one, his motiij 
for such ah inhuman deed was noihlng more than t|l 
fear ol shame.