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VOL. LXIV. . HONOLULU, T. H., JANUARY, 1907, No. |, 


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THE FRIEND. 


HAWAIIAN TRUST €O.IDEIE RRIEBND 


LIMITED 
Fire, Marine, Life 
and Accident 


Insurance, 
SURETY ON BONDS 


and Burglary Insurance 


923 Fort Street, Safe Deposit 
Building. 


OLLEGE HIEES, 


The magnificent residence trace of 
the Oahu College. 


COOL CLIMATE, SPLENDID VIEW 


The cheapest and most desirable lots of- 
fered for sale on the casi.zt terms: one-third 
cash, one-third in one year, one-third in two 


years. Interest at 6 per cent. 


For information as to building require- 


ments, etc., apply to 
TRUSTEES OF OAHU COLLEGE, 
404 Judd Building. 


Honolulu - - - - Hawaiian Islands. 


~ 


AHWU COLLEGE, 
(Arthur F. Griffiths, A.B., President.) 
and 
PUNAHOU PREPARATORY SCHOOL 
(Samuel Pingree French, A. B., Principal.) 
Offer complete 
College preparatory work, 
together with special 
Commercial, 
Music, and 
Art courses. 
For Catalogues, address 
JONATHAN SHAW, 
Business Agent, 
Oahu College, - - - Honolulu, H. T. 


J M:. WHITNEY Map e:-D? S. 


DENTAL ROOMS 


Is published the first week of each month 
in Honolulu, T. H., at the Hawaiian Board 
Book Rooms, Progress Block, 1188 Fort St. 

Subscription price, $1.50 per year. 


All business letter should be addressed 
and all M. O.’s and checks should be made 


out to 
THEODORE RICHARDS, 


Business Manager of The Friend. 
P. O. Box 489. 
All communications of a literary character 
should be addressed to DOREMUS SCUDDER, 


MANAGING EpITor oF THE FRIEND, 


1188 Fort St., Progress Block, Honolulu, T, H 
and must reach the Board Rooms by the 24th 
the month 


THE Boarp oF EpItTors: 


Doremus Scudder, Managing Editor. 
Sereno E. Bishop, D. D. . 

Rey. Orramel H. Gulick. 

Theodore Richards. 

Rev. Edward W. Thwing. 

Rev. Edward B. Turner. 

Rev. William D. Westervelt. 


Entered October 27, 1902, at Honolulu, Hawait, as second 
class matter, under actof Congress of March 3, 1879. 


MOVED 


into new quarters in the 


Progress Block 


where hereafter may be 
found Bibles in 


English 
Hawaiian 
Japanese 
Chinese 
Portuguese 


as well as general 


RELIGIOUS LITERATURE 


We plan to keep a stock of 
Sunday School materials 
Quarterlies, Notes and commentaries 


(We have Peloubet, Arnold and Tarbell 


in stock now and much beside. ) 


Fort Street. - - - Boston Building. | 


ISHOP & COMPANY, 
BANKERS. 


HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 


Established in 1858. 


Transact a General Banking and Exchange 
Business. Loans made on approved security. 
Bills discounted. Commercial Credits grant- 
ed. Deposits received on current account sub- 
ject to check. 


Regular Savings Bank Department main- 
tained in Bank Building on Merchant Street, 
and Insurance Department, doing a Life, Fire 
and Marine business on most favorable terms, 
in Friend Building on Bethel Street. 


Henry Waterhouse Trust Co., Ltd. 


STOCKS, BONDS 
AND 18 DA Ne 
SECU RA T Tiss 


Fort and Merchant Streets, Honolulu. 


F. WICHMAN, & CO., LTD. 
Manufacturing Optician, 
Jeweler and Silversmith. 


Importer of Diamonds, American and Swiss 
Watches, Art Pottery, Cut Glass, 
Leather Goods, Etc. 


Honolulu. - - - - Hawaiian Islands. 


ASTER &-GOOKE. Lads 
Honolulu, H. I. 


COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 
SUGAR FACTORS. 


Agents for 
The Ewa Plantation Co., 
The Waialua Agricultural Co., Ltd., 
The Kohala Sugar Co., 
The Waimea Sugar Mill Co., 
The Apokaa Sugar Co., Ltd., 
The Fulton Iron Works, St. Louis, Mo., 
The Standard Oil Co., 
Geo. F. Biake Steam Pumps, 


Weston’s Centrifugals, 
New England Mutual Life Ins. Co., Boston, 


Aetna Fire Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn., 
Alliance Assurance Co., of London. . 


EORGE J. AUGUR, M. D,, 
HOMOEPATHIC PRACTITIONER. 


Residence, 435 Beretania ~~ St.; 


¢ Office, 431 
Beretania St. Tel. 1851 Blue. 


Office Hours :—1o to 12 a. m., 3 to 4 and 7 


The 


OLDEST 


Friend 


NEWSPAPER WEST OF THE ROCKIES. 


\ OID Bp. aXe 


TREASURER’S STATEMENT. 


For the Month Ending December 20th, 1906. 


RECEIPTS, 

RR 
To Cash received on the following accounts: 
November 21, 1906—To Cash on hand.$ 


Order Department ...... 
Kee Et@alolia.. ... «+. 


Ministerial Relief "Fand, ee eee 300.00 
hesttiend ....... Pk eee 7.65 
iMTESeMVORK: «5s .ccG et scented eee 50.20 
OL, TE (CAS ee a ay te ae 19.25 
Publications . 99.98 
Leo Hoonani .... 15.00 
Wainee Church (Hale Aloha). 105.00 
Oahu General Fund . L 2,078.50 
Palama Mission 80.00 
General Fund . dirs ht yaise Sealed a « 90.06 
Kanai General Fund.. 6,432.75 
WORREROIMN OE I2Gs onic ce clors see ness ae hee 75.00 
BGO Md fs cele Se vee ee ss oe 195.00 
C. M. Cooke Fund . = 120.00 
a AMeSeL VN OLKere 25's. Sl relas srccidicw viele as 70.00 
UNOS coke cisbaie cjots’ ore, 010 40.00 
Portuguese Work 15.00 
Howe General Fund: >... 5... 0.15... 3.50 
Bush’ Place ...::; MS tee aN 48.00 
Maui General Fund Mis ON ds 2.50 
$9,915.69 
DISBURSEMENTS. 

MiaieeM I XPENSe: <2... 205+ «0 $175.73 

Salaries . . .. 540.50 
$ 716.23 

Wapanese Work .............$358.00 

Salaries . .- 773.00 
=) STAs 

aelistaWVork «5.4 os f000's./..$) 15.00 

idlattess. Sra caiie 5 eben 698.00 
713.00 
Publications . 61.51 
Palama Mission Pasay det AER 78.75 
Palama Mission Fund Jee x A Ri gai 50.00 
ieagameGeneral Pund . ...024s05.08.:. °207.00 
Siner Department fo .2 020.) babies 086 504.35 
NAMELESS icaj-orat ofc Sep oan; %0' «ons anes ale «ds 38.87 
General Fund Brae 40.00 

imleve SWOT ys. 00... ae $102.05 

Salaries . 971.00 
1,073.05 
Periodicals . 326.95 
SPRPMPN TUG rsp c= NS! 2p «poss ayes 3.3 0) 6 cash oiee sis 42.51 
Hawaiian Work—Salaries ........... 286.00 
Portuguese Work—Salaries 258.00 
Settlement . . 10.00 
Do aS)e G0) Oe ee 12.36 
Cash on Hand OS SOO ee Po eee 79.890 
MEIC CE AL SEAL. 5 oo n16a.s.0 5 fess eo oe oes 4,285.81 
$9,915.69 


10.40 | 
32.96 | 


|has known. 


HONOLULU; H: T3"JANUARY;’ 1907 


No. 1 


Happy New Year. 

The Friend begins its sixty-fifth 
year with this, the first number, of its 
sixty-fourth volume. 


was issued in January, 1843, by its 


|founder and for exactly forty-two years 


editor, Rev. S.C. Damon. Throughout 
its career the dominating characteristic 
of The Friend has been its advocacy of 
everything making for larger life, high- 
er ideals and better conditions through- 
out these Islands. Its most strenuous 


early. battles were waged against in- 
|temperance. For many years it was 
conspicuously a newpaper, but the 


monopolization of this function by the 
dailies led gradually to the change 
which today sees it the special advocate 
of all that makes for the triumph of 
righteousness in the Territory. Its in- 
terpretation of righteousness is as wide 
as the universe of good things. On an- 
other page the announcement of its 
plans for 1907 appears. The list of 
writers for our columns promises a bet- 
ter year than any preceding volume 
Meantime we call upon all 
our friends throughout the Islands to 
add to the attractiveness of our pages 
by sending us snap shots or photos of 
island life recording scenes of unusual 
interest. The Friend is reaching a 
large number of mainland readers 
who desire to keep in touch with the 
march of events in this Territory. We 
invite the widest cooperation in en- 
abiing us to satisfy this desire. Our 
wish for all is that the year 1907 may 
prove the richest in blessing and most 
fruitful in service of any thus far ex- 
perienced. 


Hawaiian Board Headquarters. 

Since August I, Igor, the fourth floor 
of the Boston building has been the 
busy center of the Board’s s official life, 
but for many months evidences have 
accumulated to force the conviction 
that the growth of our _ business 
department must cease or removal 
to larger quarters on the ground 
floor must supervene. The sale of 
Bibles in all languages and of other 
religious books and periodicals has 
steadily augmented until it has fairly 
compelled recognition as one _ dis- 


The first copy) 


tinct feature of the Board’s enterprise. 
Fortunately commodious and centrally 
located premises in the Progress block, 
corner of Fort and Beretania streets, 
(1188 Fort street), were available and 
on December 15 the removal was 
effected. It seems a happy augury 
that within a few months of the issue 
of its annuai report entitled “That 
They Go Forward,” the Board should 
be constrained to make its head- 
quarters in a building bearing the 
name of Progress Block. Let us trust 
that this may prove a prophesy not 
only of material growth but far better 
of new and constantly enlarging 
spiritual ministry. 


Thanksgiving. 

It was the afternoon preceding our 
great National religious holiday. The 
Board was in debt. Just what the way 
out was to be no one knew. A tele- 
phone message came asking, “What is 
the exact amount of the debt of the 
Board?” Our stenographer and book- 
keeper, who received the message, an- 
swered: “I will look it up and reply as 
soon as possible.’ Then somewhat 
later the message went, “Six thousand 
two hundred and twenty-five dollars 
and seventy-five cents.” Not long 
thereafter a messenger entered bearing 
a check for this amount with the brief 
announcement, “Mother Rice wishes to 
pay the debt of the Board.” For the 
rest of that afternoon an unusual quiet- 
ness reigned in the office. Soon the 
only officers of the Board who were 
present were on their knees pouring 
out their thanksgiving to the Great 
Giver and beseeching forgiveness for 
doubt of His loving care. Far over on 
Kauai a holier joy reigned in the heart 
of the servant of Jehovah who once 
more was testing the richness of the 
promise, “It is more blessed to give 
than to receive.” 


Dr. Barton’s Visit. 


The tidings that the American Board 
had appointed a special delegation to 
visit the four great Missions in China 
sent several Ictters from Honolulu to 
Boston urging that Hawaii be included 
in the itinerary. The gentlemen ap- 


THE FRIEND. 


pointed to the task were Rev. 
IL. Barton, D. D., foreign secretary of 
the Board; Rev. Edward C. Moore, 
D. D., chairman of the Board’s Pruden- 
tial Committee and Professor in Har- 
vard University, 
er; M. D., L. 1. Dy of New YorkCity: 
In reply to the invitation from the Is- 
lands it was learned that only Dr. Bar- 
ton was to be expected this way and 
that he would arrive on the Mongolia 
December 27. President Jones of the 
local Board immediately mapped out a 
full day for the distinguished visitor. 
On the arrival of the steamer a large 
delegation of friends and members of 
the Board headed by the president 
were on hand to welcome Dr. Barton, 
who was driven at once to Mr. Jones’ 
home, where a host of friends had been 
invited to a reception and lunch. After 
a delightful season of sociability Dr. 
Barton, accompanied by a dozen or 
more members of the Board, in a gen- 
erous barge provided by the host of the 
day, was taken to the Capitol to call 
upon the Governor, after which a drive 
through the city and to the Aquarium 
followed. In the evening a grand in- 
ternational raily of welcome was held 
in historic Kawaiahao Church. A good- 
iy audience, which but for the heavy 
rain would have been sufficiently aug- 
mented to fill the auditorium, gathered 
to testify the gratitude of the Chris- 
tians of the Territory regardless of race 
to the American Board for the wonder- 
{ul work done here under its auspices. 
Stirring hymns sung in unison by Ha- 
waiians, Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese 
and Americans, each in his own tongue, 
music by Kamehameha Glee Club. 
prayer by the venerable missionary to 
the Gilbert Islands, Rev Hiram Bing- 
ham, D. D., son of the first pastor of 
Kawaiahao Church and member of the 
pioneer band that came to Hawaii in 
1820, scripture reading by Rev. W. N. 
Lono, himself a missionary to the Gil- 
bertese for 20 years, and words of wei- 
come from Churches of five nationali- 
ties ushered in a ringing missionary 
address by Dr. Barton, Rev. O. H. Gu- 
lick closing with the benediction. It 
was one more memorable scene added 
to the many which this glorious old 
meeting house has witnessed. On the 
morning of the 28th Dr. Barton spent 
some hours looking into the local work 
and at noon he was given a typical Ha- 
waiian farewell. 


James 


The Paulist Fathers. 

The past month was made memor- 
able for our Roman Catholic friends by 
the campaign of evangelism conducted 
by the Paulist Fathers. The delegation 


and Lucien C. Warn-| 


consisted of Very Rev. Henry H. Wy- 
man and Rev. Henry L. Stark. For 
some weeks they held services in the 
Roman Cathedral, the meetings gen- 
erally being crowded to the doors. <A 
cordial invitation was extended to Pro- 
testants as well as Romanists to attend 
and was generously accepted. The 
Paulist Fathers are well known to Con- 
gregationalists because of the promi- 
nence in their order of the late Father 
Hewitt, son of a noted Congregational 
preacher, and of Father Wyman, an- 
other convert from the same church. 
The order has done notable work 
throughout the East, especially in New 
York City where its missions for Pro- 
testants have won not a few to the Ro- 
man communion. We are glad to rec- 
ognize the good work done here and 
elsewhere by. these faithful ministers of 
Christ, . Until the Spirit of God shail 
have wrought such vital changes in all 
Churches as shall lead Christians of 
every name to unite on the basis of 
right living rather than that of what 
each may consider correct thinking, the 
Protestant and Roman divisions of the 
true Catholic Church are likely each to 
consider that the other holds certain 
doctrines that are not sound. Mean- 
time there are and will continue to be 
Protestants and Romanists who are 
such merely in name, minus that 
vital religion which consists in personal 
loving union with God. If any mis- 
sioner of the Church of Rome can so 
present the Gospel to one of these con- 
ventional Protestants as to arouse in 
him the consciousness of God’s life and 
lead him to let that life have its will 
with him, we shall sing the Te Deum 
over the conversion: for there are some 
natures to whom the Church of Rome 
makes its special appeal and like New- 
man and Faber the sooner they yield 
to it the better. ‘There are also in the 
Roman Church not a few whose make- 
up is essentially Protestant. To such 
the contact with some messenger of 
the freer Church is the open door into 
the realm of happy religious life. As 
long as this continues to be true, work 
by Romanists for Protestants and by 
Protestants for Romanists will be work 
well done. Herein is the true answer 
to the question, why maintain our Por- 
tugtese mission work? Because there- 
by we are leading men and women 
from bondage to liberty. So we re- 
joice over every convert from nominal 
to real religious life by whomsoever 
made. and we congratulate our Roman 
friends upon the successful mission 
just closed. The removal of the Ha- 
waiian Board rooms to a location al- 


most opposite the Catholic Cathedral is, 


let us trust, a presage of brotherly re- 
gard and of sincere fraternal relations 
ever to characterize our respective en- 
teprises as they move on side by side in 
the great mission of opening mens eyes 
to their supreme privilege as sons of 
the Eternal Father. 


Library Extension. 


A question recently put to one of our 
Editorial Board by the efficient Head 
Worker of Baldwin House, Lahaina, 
Miss Mary J. Austin, disclosed one of 
the vital unmet needs of the people of 
this Territory. It asked whether it 
would be possible to secure the loan of 
library books from Honolulu for the 
use of the constituency of the Settle- 
ment. The reply unfortunately was 
that since Honolulu possessed no free 
public library such a demand could not 
be supplied. Our local library under the 
able management of Miss Hillebrand 
does meet the wants of subscribers on 
the other Islands, but this service is 
necessarily restricted by the cost of 
subscription. \Vhy should not Hawaii 
give immediate attention to the need 
vocalized by Miss Austin? There can 
be no question that the Hawaiians are 
book-lovers, but unfortunately those of 
them who read only their own language 
have no means for gratifying this pas- 
sion because of the dearth of books in 
their own tongue. Steadily and very 
rapidlv however, those who “ound from 
this disability are slipping away and 
already the larger proportion of the 
race can read English. If the young 
people whom we take so much pains to 
teach the national language are to grow 
up to be strong, progressive, intelligent 
and widely useful citizens, the treasures 
of English literature and of contem- 
porary thought must be placed within 
their reach. Should it not be the aim 
of our philanthropists and of our legis- 
lature to supply this demand? To se- 
cure a like end New York State has for 
years pursued a very simple and effec- 
tive plan. Any companv of persons in 
that commonwealth with the guarantee 
of some reliable citizen can apply to the 
State Library in Albany for a set of 
selected books on any subject and they 
will be immediately sent. The only ex- 
pense is that of carriage. On their re- 
turn other sets may be procured in suc- 
cession indefinitely. Thus the entire 
library, outside of reference books and 
the like, is being placed at the service 
of all the people. Reading clubs of 
women, groups of workingmen, bands 
of school children recruited by teach- 
ers, all sorts of organizations for mu- 
tual study and improvement make large 


THE ERIEND, 


use of this privilege and the area of 
culture is being constantly widened. 
There is good reason to believe that as 
soon as the local government, Terri- 
torial-or County, will agree to make an 
adequate annual appropriation for its 
up-keep and steadily enlarging equip- 
ment, Mr. Carnegie may be induced to 
consent to present to Honolulu a spa- 
cious library building with generous 
reading rooms and up-to-date facilities. 
We trust that Governor Carter may 
find it possible to include in his mes- 
sage to the Legislature of 1907 a rec- 
ommendation for such an appropria- 
tion. While it would seem as though 


the Honolulu Library might serve as) 


an excellent nucleus for such an insti- 
tution, it may be doubted whether a 
private enterprise of this kind will find 
it possible to come into such a scheme. 
It certainly is time that the Territory 


of Hawaii should cease to stand unique) 


among all the States and Territories 
of the American Union in having no 
Free Public Library. 


The Cail to Prayer. 

We print in another column a letter 
to the Churches of Hawaii from the 
American Board, signed by its Foreign 
Secretary, Dr. Barton. This is easily 
the most important communication 
which has come hither from that honor- 
ed Society in many years. The Hawai- 
jan Board calls upon all ministers to 
read it to their people upon the first 
Sabbath of the New Year. The most 
casual acquaintance with the deep cur- 
rent of modern life shows its irresista- 
ble set towards the spiritual. There is 
a new ferment in the world, made evi- 
dent by the emergence of men of the 
tvpe of Theodore Roosevelt, by the 
tremendous earnestness of the propa- 
ganda against predatory wealth and in 
behalf of social unselfishness, by the 
books which most profoundly are stir- 
ring men’s souls, by Great Britain’s 
repudiation of the abhorrent opium in- 
iquity, and by mighty religious move- 
ments. Japan is literally being born 
into a higher moral experience. The 
insufficiency of old time sanctions, the 
rottenness of much of its family life, 
its lack of commercial honor and the 
terrible plight of its best young man- 
hood and young womanhood without 
God and without hope are burning into 
the soul of. the nation a craving for 
Friendship with the Eeternal, which 
bodes a spiritual awakening beside 
which that of the past 30 years into 
the world consciousness will- pale. 
China is just passing through the gates 
into a paradise of hope and life which 
must constitute for the nation ati ex- 


y 


perience unparalleled in the history of 
humanity. Tor China is so great that 
the transformation must move upon a 
colossal scale, dazzling to contemplate. 
Blessed are the heroes. now being forg- 
ed who are to lead in this wondrous 
campaign. Central in it all stands the 
Lord Christ, whose life is already form- 
ing a part of the curriculum of every 


school in the Imperial province of Chihli,’ 
and soon doubtless to be studied by 


every boy and girl in the great Empire. 
The prayers of the ages are hastening 


to their fulfilment with a speed that, 
No wonder that) 


light alone can typify. 
we read with amazing joy how Gipsy 
Smith is stirring staid Boston as never 
before, how centers of learning which 


twenty years ago seemed almost carc-} 


less of religion now strive to outfoot 
one another in establishing foreign mis- 


sions and in sending their leading pro-, 


fessors to inspect mission fields, how 
the Bible is coming to its own again in 
careful reverent study on the part of 
hundreds of thousands of college stu- 
dents, men of affairs, clerks and labor- 
ers. There never was a time when 


prayer was more needed or the pros- 


pects of its achievements so’ bright. 
Here in Hawaii we have seen the scale 
turned from dejection over a decline 
that has lasted-more than forty years 
into a glorious upward movement brim- 
ful of promise. By all means 
pray. Let every Church read the mes- 
sage of the American Board and burn- 
ing with new optimism seek the Mercy 
Seat, longing ior that baptism of Fire 
and the Spirit which shall usher in the 
full noon-day of achievement for Christ 
and His Kingdom which reverent pro- 
phecy seems to declare at hand. 


Well Done. 


Churches and pastors are surpassing 
themselves. Revs. R. A. Buchanan of 
Kohala, and S. L. Desha of Hilo carry 
off the banner for early reports. They 
sent them as early as December 20. 
Other first honor men were Revs. J. N. 
Kamoku and M. Kuikahi, Dec. 23; Ho 
Tsz Tsung, Dec: 27; J. Fukuda and N. 
Washiyama, Dec. 28; K. Maeda, S. P. 
Kaaia, J. M: Lydgate, Lee Kui, G. Tana- 
ka, D. Kahooio, G. L. Kopa and L. D. 
Keliipio, Dec. 31. Such promptness is 
a great comfort to the Secretary. 


THE JAPANESE QUESTION. 


The complications involved in the 
treatment of Japanese children by San 
Francisco promise to eventuate in the 
most serious international question 


let us} 


series of events which culminated in 
the enunciation of the Monroe Doc 
irine. A hundred years ago the new 
commonwealth in the Western Hemis- 
phere was confronted by the problem 
of how to adjust itself to the conflicting 
interests of European States. After 
many years of diplomacy and not a few 
of warfare the pronunciamento which 
bears the name of our fifth president 
settled the questions at issue justly and 
permanently. It was one of the great 
achievemens of the early nineteenth 
century. Voday America faces Asia 
and a mere accident of race prejudice 
bids fair to raise the question of the 
relations of the vast multitudes peo- 
pling and to people the two sides of the 
ocean of the future. The nineteenth 
century was still the slave of war civi- 
lization, hence the Monroe Doctrine 
was a threat. The twentieth century 
aspires to become the hand maid of 
Peace, therefore the decision will move 
in the fealm of commerce. 

San Francisco’s point of view as out- 
lined in the Chronicle of December 20 
in reply to a demand from the Eastern 
States for a Gispassionate statement of 
Golden Gate sentiment is that the op- 
position to the Japanese is based on 
the conviction that if thev be allowed 
to continue to emigrate freely they 
will impose their Oriental civilization 
upon the Western States. “Hawaii is 
today a Japanese colony.” “Within a 
quarter of a century the whole Pacific 
Coast would become what Hawaii is 
now—a Japanese community with a 
japanese mcimiiZatOns | —litesise mot ea 
question of ‘labor’ but of the preserva- 
tion of American civilization.” “The 
Asiatic civilization, as we see it here, 
differs trom our own, first, in over- 
crowding in tenements, in a lower 
standard of diet and a lower standard 
of comfort generally. Americans can 
compete with them only by adopting 
their standards: secondly, in the ideas 
of personal and family morality.” 

Notwithstanding the declaration that 
“it is not a question of ‘labor’,” that 
“at present no white man in this State 
is deprived of work by the presence of 
the Asiatics, nor are his wages reduc- 
ed,” the article gives clear evidence that 
the 


economic argument is the main 
spring of the entire contention. “But 


should times change and the labor sup- 
plysexceed the demand, white labor 
would go to the, wall in an instant. 
Workingmen know that they would be 
the first sufferers, and hence lead in 
the agitation.” 

Other utterances of the San Francisco 
press on the issue reveal an unfortu- 


which. America -has faced since the|nate race prejudice affecting the minds 


THE FRIEND 


of a large circle of people. Japanese 
wavs of looking at things are so dif- 
ferent from ours, they themselves are 
such strangers to us that the primitive 
conception of stranger as enemy rises 
unbidden and dominates, just as it does 
though to a less degree in the case of 
the raw immigrant from the less at- 
tractive European countries. “A man’s 
a man for a that” 
provincial American to learn. 

A darker view of this opposition to 
the Japanese is frankly stated by a San 
Francisco weekly, The Wasp, of De- 
cember 8, in the following terms: 

“All the trouble has been caused by 
local labor poiiticians and a few news- 
papers working in harmony with them 
to create a race war. The number of 
Japanese schoo] children now in San 
Francisco is insignificant. 
more negro children go to the public 


schools and sit side by side with their) 
Ey ery day one can| 


white companions. 
see kinky haired little negroes going 
laughingly to school, accompanied by 
white children and no protest has been 
raised by politicians or newspapers. 


lead to a lynching. 


objection to the attendance of a hand- 


ful of Japanese pupils at its public! 


schools. So far, therefore, the Japa- 
nese question in San Francisco has not 
become more than a small local one, 
and the President is to be commended 
in endeavoring to prevent it from being 
magnilied into an international dif- 
ficulty which might cause grave com 


mercial complications and perhaps lead| 


up to a serious war. 
a casus belli, as long as the Govern- 
ment oi the United States declares 
positively that the Japanese shall have 
all the rights to which they are legally 
entitled under their treaty with us. 


This at once changes the quarrel, from | 
the United States and 


one between 
Japan to one between the United States 
Government at Washington and the 
Government of Mayor Schmitz and 
Abe Ruef in San Francisco. The Fed- 
eral Government can be trusted to take 
care of itself, in such a controversy, 
and see that nothing will be done ex- 
cept what is creditable to the people of 
the United States. The man who rep- 


resents the American people in this, 
Theodore | 


controversy is President 
Roosevelt, who has placed himself as 
near to the hearts of his countrymen as 
any person who has filled his exalted 
position. The man at the head of the 
3oard of Education in San Francisco is 
a small politician, who, by reason of 
close family relationship to the bood- 


is a hard lesson for a 


Many times| 


‘the Board. 


Tn} 
the South the same scene would almost| 
On the other hand) 
a Southern community would raise no) 


It cannot become! 


| 


'with the threat of complete domination. | 


ling and indicted political boss, Abra- 
es Ruef, has been made President of | 


The demagoguery that strives to retain | 
power today as it did in the sand- lot! 
era by appeals both to race hatred and| 
to the fear of a competition that will, 
starve out American labor and _ that! 
hopes to impress the Nation by dis-! 
playing the generation—old scarecrow 
of immoral Asia over-awing San Fran- 
cisco’s love of righteousness seems tc 
die hard. 

It is strange that the attempt is made} 
to buttress San Francisco’s case by cit- 
ing Hawaii’s experience. No possible 
statement could be farther from the! 
truth than the assertion that “Hawaii is| 
today a Japanese colony.” Numerical- 
ly the people of this race predominate 
but the one most noticeable feature of| 
the life of these Islands is the victory 
of American ideals over those of Asia| 
here. Some years ago . vice was 
licensed. With full annexation the) 
American spirit demanded the abolition 
of this abhorrent system. Among its) 
advocates were many white men and} 
women including some Americans pro- 
minent in church life. Many Japanese) 
non-Christians and the baser sort of all 
nationalities helped swell the rank and, 
file that marched after this leadership. 
But the American spirit won. 

Again last November a_ grafting) 
police force hand in glove with Asiatic 
and white gamblers menaced Honolulu 


One Japanese ‘sheet was bold enough 
to side openly with this element. Here 
again not a few of our leading Ameri- 
cans publicly supported the corrupt 
machine. But the spirit of the Nation 
downed the combination. 

In each of these instances Christian 
Asiatics as well as their nobler non- 
Christian compatriots sided _ loyally 
with the victorious forces of righteous- 
ness. Instead of Hawaii being Japa- 
nese in civilization, it is more truly 
American than San Francisco has been 
since the era of pure government im- 
mediately succeeding the rise of the 
vigilantes and preceding the day of 
fierce anti-Chinese agitation. The test 
of a civilization is not found in the 
clothes worn or in skin color but in the 
spirit which moves forward towards 
realization of higher ideals. 

Hawaii is steadily proving the propo- 
sition that when two civilizations meet, 
the higher and more vital must prevail. 
With about two-thirds of the popula- 
tion Asiatic and a large proportion of 
the rest Polynesian, our civilization is| 
intetisely American and it is becoming 
more so—fortunately, howeyer, it is noti 


| they 


|tending towards the type of American- 
ism that San Francisco is by some 
‘reputed to represent so much as that 
‘which characterizes Southern Califor- 
nia and the East generally. Honolulu 
is better governed than its big sister 
by the Golden Gate. 


Certainly in view of the conquest of 


Japan’s older civilization at the hands 
of that of the Western world it is 
puerile to debate that on the Pacific 


‘coast Asiatic will supplant Christian - 
‘ideals. 


if they ever should do so, it 
will only be because they ought. No, let 
San Francisco learn a lesson from Ha- 
walii’s experience, begin to treat the 
Asiatic as a brother man, and be honor- 
able tewards him, and he will respond 
there as he has done here. 

Take for instance the school ques- 
tion. Honolulu had to face it years ago. 
Young Japanese men desired to enter our 
public schools. Ignorant of English 
were graded into the primary 
classes, but unable to sit in the seats 
for the little tots, they quickly dropped 
out. At the same time the religious 
agencies of the city have been quick to 
supply a large number of evening 
schools which do more for them than 
merely give them a knowledge of our 
language. 

As to the young children, the uni- 
versal testimony is that they are 
among the best behaved pupils we 
have. If the politeness and docility 
which they evince could by some happy 
accident be inoculated into multitudes 
of American boys and girls throughout 
the Mainland, our country would owe 
Japan a debt of deepest gratitude. To 
us in Flawaii who know Japanese far 
better than San Francisco with its race 
hatred possibly can hope to do, the 
prejudice against 
seems the acme of absurdity. 

It may, of course, be true that there 
have been cases of diseased or deprav- 
ed Japanese boys and girls in the San 
Francisco schools, but no one would 
think of objecting to their being ex- 
cluded just as diseased or depraved 
children of any other race should 
be. The crux of the sittai@aemss 
that San Francisco has in effect declar- 
ed that the Japanese child is not fit to 
associate with the child of American, 
Irish, British, Italian, Greek, Slav, 
Armenian or Syrian parents. This dec- 
laration is both untrue and an interna- 
tional insult. 

It is exactly here that the battle is 
to be joined. The American Republic 
set out upon its national career with 
the assertion that all men are equal. 
What it meant by this was clear 
enough, not equal in material or mental 


Japanese children - 


THE FRIEND. 


endowment but equal by reason of) 
sonship in God’s great family, equal as 
brothers are equal. When the Consti-| 
tution was framed economic considera- 
tions prevented the States from squar- 
ing their treatment of slavery with this 
fundamental axiom. But after more 
than three-quarters of a century of 


moral conflict culminating in war the 
doctrine of equality prevailed. ned 
South could not be expected at once to 
accept fully the result. It will take 
generations of bitterness and struggle 
to bring Negro and White to the status 
of brotherhood that equality demands. 


Similarly though to a far lesser de- 
gree the coming of poor, ignorant, op- 
pressed Europeans with habits to us 
strange and uncouth has always awak- 
ened in many Americans a sentiment of, 
distrust, dislike and superiority. The. 
Italian today is finding it necessary to 
live down the epithet “Dago’’ just as 
the Hebrew must conquer the sneer 
and contempt which lurk in the term 
“Sheeny.” These prejudices are marks 
of provincialism, of slavery to traits 
bred into our savage ancestors. But 
slowly the ideal of equality is winning 
its way. 


| 
| 


Fer setting aside the black man, the 
process of learning to treat as brothers 
men of racial stock so closely allied to 
us as the various European peoples is 
not proving so discouraging. We are 
doing well. And the main reason 
therefor is that we admit them readily 
-to our citizenship and. thus they soon 
acquire formidable powers. With the 
Asiatic, however, the case is entirely 
different. Unlike the black he is the 
product of a hoary civilization, one far 
antedating our own. In many ways he 
is our superior, evolution having taught 
him certain lessons which we have not 
vet learned and which have equipped 
him with rare powers for survival in 
the great industrial era of peace, now 
dawning on earth. He is so far from us 
_in some of his habits and in his mental 

approach to subjects of common interest 
that he evokes the distrust and dislike 


to which differences so easily predis- 
pose. Hence we have denied to him 
the privilege of citizenship, the mighti- 
est unifying force in our national life. 

The most remarkable feature of the 
situation is that we need him and he 
needs us. Annihilation or conquest of 
one by the other is impossible. We 
have got to live at peace, to trade, to 
have ever increasingly intimate associa- 
tion with one another. America in fact 
convinced Japan of this fifty years ago. 
‘Inexorable fate ordains the conditionsi 


of equality which our Declaration of In- | 
dependence asserts to be our national | 
ideal. 


Japan sees all this with absolute clar- 
ity of vision. Therefore she has ex- 
perienced a most violent shock to rea-| 
son and moral sense in the discovery of 
the fact that the America of today is being | 
strong dy moved to belie both the axiom 

hat underlies her existence as a state 
and the revelation of her . character 


made when she rudely awakened Dai) 


Nippon to the consciousness of her 


|membership in the family of Nations. 


It is a most critical moment in her ex- 


, perience—one of the most serious crises 


in present day history. 


Of course China and Japan must} 


stand together in the near future. If 
the solidarity of the human race is to 


be realized these nations must pool is-| 


sues. They are doing it. If human 


brotherhood means anything at all they 
“You shall treat! 
President | 


must say to America, 
us as you do other men.’ 
Roosevelt iss nicht. “hie. has proved 
himself a seer in’demanding the privi- 
leze of naturalization for Japanese. 
The next step will be to grant this to 
all men upon precisely equal terms. 
We have no right to refuse it. 


This does not mean that we should 
not safeguard our citizenship. Japan 
will have done us an incalculable bene- 
fit if as an outcome of this controversy 
our government be led to require that 
no alien shall be naturalized before 
passing an English examination in 
American civics under the auspices of 
a Board constituted somewhat after the 
manner of our Board of Civil Service 
Commissioners. With such a safe- 
guard we can afford to admit men of 
any race to our citizenship. 


Unless insensate folly should lead 
California people to commit some great 
outrage upon Japanese, war between 
the two nations is unthinkable. The 
statesmen of the Emperor are as wise 
as our own. It may please the press 
of both countries to make larger sales 
by war scare talk, but there is too much 
conscience in the world today to suffer 
any such outcome as a reference of the 
question to arms. 


The danger is something far graver 
and of much greater menace to human 
progress. A ruptured friendship be- 
tween individuals is an experience 
whose pain may blight a lifetime, but a 
sundered international relation of mutual 
trust, respect and admiration just at 
this moment when the world stands on 
the threshold of the New Era of Peace 
will be unspeakably tragic. It is in 


| 


Asia’s power to deal American com- 
mercial expansion a blow that for de- 


hows will be irreparable. If we per- 
“sist in our cruel treatment of the 
|Asiatic—for nothing in the material 


eee can compare in cruelty with the 
‘denial of essential brotherhood to a fel- 
\low human race—this blow must fall. 
Asia may not always be able to live 
unto itseli alone but it can do this more 


|successiully than we can. Much better 
for us to.go hand in hand each reacting 
helpfully upon the other than to force 


Asia into a bitterness of competition 
wherein her ideal resources in labor and 


in land give her such vast advantage. 

Is it not time for labor in the United 
States to become truly international in 
spirit? Much labor literature delights 
in the expression, human solidarity. It 
is more than a term, it embodies a 
mighty truth. But to restrict it to 
whites is to stultify it. It is perfeetly 
clear that acting under this general 
principle of equality it may be both just 
and wise for nations to regulate and 
restrict immigration so as to protect 
workingmen from a disturbance of 
economic conditions likely to prove dis- 
astrous to large numbers of men. This 
is a question of policy to be determined 
by experiment. But all such regula- 
tions must never interfere with the 
basic principle of brotherhood, of hu- 
man solidaritv. Japan and China care 
not a whit what labor exclusion or 
regulation laws our Nation enacts as 
long as they bear equally upon all 
aliens. Whether we wish to extend to 
their nationals the privilege of natu- 
ralization or not matters nothing if we 
treat other foreigners likewise. Race 
hatred, discriminations on the ground 
of such mere accidents as color or place 
of birth, or that deny such a concept as 
humanity, are the factors in this pro- 
'blem that demand absolute elimination 
before a righteous solution can be had. 

We believe the American Nation can 
be trusted finally to decide the ques- 
tion aright. We have a splendid asset 
in our undaunted President. If the is- 
;sue be clearly joined and fair free dis- 
|cussion press it home to the minds and 
consciences of the people, there is no 
fear of the outcome. Some day San 
Francisco will be the happiest port in 
the Union because the Nation refused 
to let provincial narrowness and that 
most despicable of all emotions, race 
hatred, prevail over the principle of 
human brotherhood in the shaping of 
the relations of Great Asia and Great 
America, Se 


THE CERIEND: 


THE FRIEND FOR 1907 


While no startling new departures are planned for this year it is the 
hope of Editorial Board to be able to keep the Friend close to its ideal. That 
ideal is to advocate the interests and give tidings of 


The Kingdom of God in Hawaii 


‘This we understand in its widest sense, as involving the entire higher in- 
terests of the Territory, political, social, industrial, educational and religious. 
The Friend aims to give a monthly resume of the more important occur- 
rences, to discuss questions of public interest and to record the progress of 
every reform. [he work of such organizations as the Civic Federation 
and the Anti Saloon League receives especial consideration. Particular 
attention is given to the many sided enterprises of the Hawaiian Board. 
Space is devoted regularly to the Hawaiian Mission Children’s Society and 
to news from the Churches. During the year the following special contn- 
butors will write for our columns: 


REV. S. E. BISHOP, the expert on Hawaiiana, well known by his nom de plume of 
Kamehameha. 

JOHN T. GULICK, Ph. D., D. Sc., whose contributions to the Theory of Evolution 
are so familiar in scientific circles. 

PRESIDENT PERLEY L. HORNE, of the Kamehameha Schools. 

REV. J. W. SYLVESTER, D. D., Pastor of Central Union Church, Honolulu. 

W. D. ALEXANDER, L. L. D., Hawait’s leading scholar. 

RIGHT REV. HENRY B. RESTARICK, Bishop of Honolulu. 

PRESIDENT ARTHUR F. GRIFFITHS, of Oahu College. 

JUDGE EMMA METCALF NAKUINA, one of the few women in the United States 
who adorns the bench, will write on Hawatian antiquities. 

MRS. J. M. WHITNEY, President of the W. C. T. U. of Hawaii. 

MRS. W. F. FREAR, President of the College Club. 

REV. W. D. WESTERVELT promises a number of Hawaiian legends. 

HON. GORHAM D. GILMAN of Boston will contribute several of his charming rem- 


iniscences,. 


As a chief attraction also we are able to announce that Rev. Hiram 
Bingham, D. D., will tell some of the string incidents that he expenicaaay 
in the heroic due of his sojourn in the Gilbert Islands. 


THE FRIEND. 9 
AN APOSTOLIC APPEAL. with the Spirit of God no obstacles can|dential Committee of the American 
block the way and no lack of external]! Board, 


To the Churches of the Hawaiian 
Islands. 

Dear Brethren: There has hardly 
been a time in the history of our coun- 
try when the leaders in the Congrega- 
tional churches of the United States 
have been so united in earnest prayer 
and effort for a special outpouring of 
the Holy Spirit upon the churches of 
the land, that through them a mighty 
work of grace may be experienced. 

Why should not this effort be wid- 
ened to include the fellowship of 
churches that encircle the world? 
There is inspiration in the thought that 
through such an effort, belting the 
globe, a union of prayer will be formed, 
at some point of which, at all hours of 
the day and night, devout men and 
women will be engaged in prayer and 
special service. 

The great aim of all our effort is to 
bring the nations of the earth into the 
Kingdom and make them know Jesus 


means can stay the progress of the} 


Kingdom. 

Let us therefore—we in this country 
and you our Christian brethren across 
the sea—unite our prayers and efforts, 
as we have never done before, to_bring 
into the Kingdom this winter multi- 
tuces who do not yet know! their Lord. 
He who declared that all power in 
heaven and in earth was committed to 
Him has promised to be with us as we 
strive to this end. We need but claim 
the promise of the Lord as we join ina 
united prayer for the outpouring of His 
Spirit. It is time for everyone who has 
a voice with which to utter the tender 
invitation, or a hand to stretch out to a 
needy tellowman and brother, to con- 
secrate that voice and that hand in a 
special manner to the service of the 
Master. We believe God is waiting for 
us to reveal our faith by our works that 
He may open the windows of heaven 
and pour us out a measureless blessing. 


JAMES L. BARTON, 
Foreign Secretary. 


THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 


By a Wanderer far from Home. 


O lonely islands of the boundless waste! 
O children of the watery world! All wrapped 
In wealth of terns and flowers wild, and 
capped 
| With forests green, from which the fountains 
haste 
|To send their sparkling streams down to the 
vales. 
There languid 
speil, 
And beauty sinks to sleep within each dell, 
While murmuring brooks recite their endless 
tales. 
'© calm retreat upon the sunlit seas, 
: © quiet shades, beyond this toil and strife ;— 
Beyond the ceaseless rush and dizzy whirl! 
On your fair shores may I my canvas furl, 
And rest from all this care and fevered life, 
Waiting the final call, when God shall please. 
Joun T. GuLick. , 


summer weaves her subtle 


a 


Christ as personal Redeemer and 
Lord. Perhaps, absorbed in the muli- 
titude of labors, for the moment the 
main purpose of all our endeavors has 
been obscured. Let us together turn 
our thoughts to the fact that it is not 
primarily by, great institutions or 
through multiplied agencies or by use 
of money that the power of God is to 
be supremely manifested and the na- 
tions brought into the light. All these 
external means, although necessary, 
must lamentably fail unless we have 
with us the presence and power of the 
Holy Spirit. But if we are in accord 


A HAWAIIAN FOREST 


‘Lhe Officers and Prudential Commit- 
tee of the American Board urge. that 
this call to special prayer and effort be 
read in all the churches, that it be 
printed in the vernacular papers and 
made the subject of conference and 
prayer. This will “demand personal 
sacrifice, tireless effort, unwavering 
faith, and absolute reliance upon God. 
Let us hold to God and His promises 
until He bless us as He never yet has 
done. Pray for us, brethren, that we 


here at home be not found wanting in; 


faith, prayer and sacrifice. 
On behalf of the Officers and Pru- 


MAUI, .THE DISCOVERER OF 
PIRE, 


Rev. W. D. Westervelt. 


Promethens, the classical fire finder, 
stole fire from the sun—Maui, the Poly- 
nesiau, captured the sun, but paid no 
lattention to its power to grant fire. 
Nor was he satisfied to carry away 
coals lighted by volcanic forces. He 
found the secret of fire in the wood of 
certain trees and then taught his 
friends how to rub sticks together until 
the flame burst forth. Promethens be- 


10 


THE FRIEND. 


longed to Greece and Rome—but Maui 
belonged to the length and breadth of 
the Pacific Ocean. 

The American Indians found fire in 


sometimes his grandmother bore the 
name Hina, Ina or Lina. His ances- 
tress was sometimes called Mahuia or 
Mafuie. This change in orthography 


flakes of flint and grouped their legends! was due to dialect-pronunciation which 


about the hard rocks in which the light- 
ning had forced itself. 
fire producers are not found in the 
Polynesian myths. 

In Australia it was said, that in the 
long, long ago an old man and his 
daughtei lived in the realm of darkness. 
Then they found their way. into the 
light, and were at once surrounded by 
a great host of serpents. The daughter 
seized a staff and begun to kill them. 


varied in different parts of Polynesia. 


Flint rocks as|Taking these variations into account 


the fagt remains that in almost all of 
the widely separated groups of islands 
in the main part of the Pacific ocean 
the discoverer of a method by which to 
'make fire was attributed either to Maui 
or to some member of his immediate 
family. 

Maui’s home in the Hawatian Islands 
was not far from Rainbow Falls, near 


SCENE NEAR HILO 


She wielded it so vigorously that it be- 
came hot in her hands. At last it 
broke, but the heated splinters rubbed 
against each other and broke into flame. 
Thus mankind learned that fire was 
buried in wood. 

The natives of De Peyster’s Island 
say that their ancestors learned how to 
make fire by seeing smoke rise from 
crossed branches rubbing together 
while the trees were shaken by fierce 
winds. 


In most of the groups of islands of 
the Pacific the supernatural element is 
introduced and the stories recognize a 
fire-ged and his connection with Maui 
or one of his family. 


Maui’s full name was Maui Tikitii 

a Taranga, sometimes spelled Kiikii a 
“il His father was some- 

times known as ‘Taranga and some- 
times as Kanaloa (Tangaroa), one of 
the four. greatest gods of Polynesia. 
His wife, his mother, his sister and 


the town of Hio, on the island of Ha- 
wail. He was in the habit of going out 
fishing with his brothers. Sometimes 
when they turned their eyes toward the 
mountain side they saw fire burning 
near a place where the sacred bird, the 
alae, lived with its family. Maui ulti- 
mately caught the alae and was dispos- 
ed at first to kill the old bird in his 
anger because she had not revealed the 
secret of fire-making to mankind. 

But the Alae cried out: “If you are 


also—and you cannot have fire.” 


Maui then promised to spare her life 
if she would tell him what to do, 


Then came the contest of wits. The 
bird told the demi-god to rub the stalks 
of water plants together. He guarded 
the bird and tried the plants. Then 
she told him to rub reeds together— 
but they bent and broke and he could 
make no fire. Ele twisted her neck un- 
til she was half dead—then she cried 


the death of me—my secret will perish! 


out: “I have hidden the fire in a green 
stick.” 

Maui workea hard but not a spark of 
fire appeared. Again he caught his 
prisoner by the head and wrung her 
neck, and she named a kind of dry 
wood. Maui rubbed the sticks together 
but they only became warm. The 
twisting process was resumed—and re- 
peated again until the mud hen was al- 
most dead—and Maui had tried tree 
after tree. At last Maui found fire. 
Then as the flames rose he said: “There 
is one more thing to rub.” He took a 
fire stick and rubbed the top of the head 
of his prisoner until the feathers fell off 
and the raw flesh appeared. Thus the 
Hawaiian mud hen and her descendants 
have ever since had bald heads, and the 
Hawatians have had the secret of fire- 
making. ‘hey learned to draw out the 
sparks secreted in different kinds of 
trees. ‘The sweet sandalwood was one 
of these fire trees. Its Hawaiian name 
is “Th-ahi’—the “ilv’ (bark) and “ahi” 
(fire), the bark in which fire is con- 
cealed. 

A legend of the Society Islands is 
somewhat similar. Ina (Hina) promis- 
ed to aid Maui in finding fire for the 
islanders. She sent him into the un- 
derworld to find Tangaroa (Kanaloa). 
This god Tangaroa held fire in his 
possession—Maui was to know him by 
his tattooed face. Down the dark path 
through the long caves Maui trod 
swiftly until he found the god. Maui 
asked him for fire to take up to men. 
The god gave him a lighted stick and 
sent him away. But Maui put the fire 
out and went back after fire. This he 
did several times, until the wearied giy- 
er decided to teach the intruder the art 
of fire making. He called a white duck 
to aid him. Then, taking two sticks of 
dry wood, he gave the under one to the 
bird and rapidly moved the upper stick 
across the under until fire came. Maui 
seized the upper stick, after it had been 
charred in the flame, and burned the 
head of the bird back of each eye. Thus 
were made the black spots which mark 
the head of the white duck. Then arose 
a quarrel beween Tangaroa and Maui— 
but Maui struck down the god and 
thinking he had killed him, carried away 
the art of making fire. His father and 
mother made inquiries about their rela- 
tive—Maui hastened back to the fire 
fountain—and made the spirit return to 
the body—then coming back to Ina he 
bade her good-bye and carried the fire 
sticks to the upper world. The Ha- 
wiaiians, and probably others among the 
Polynesians, feit that any state of un- 
consciousness was a form of death in 
which the spirit left the body but was 


THE FRIEND. 


DE 


called back by prayers and incanta- 
fions. 

The New Zealand legends picture 
Maui as putting out, in one night, all 
the fires of his people. This was 
serious mischief, and Maui’s mother 
decided that he better go to the under- 
world and see his ancestress, Mahuika, 
the guardian of fire. She warned him 
against attempting to play tricks upon 
the inhabitants of the lower regions. 


last finger nail on the ground. Fire 
poured out and laid hold of everything. 
Maui ran up the path to the upper 
world, but the fire was swifter-footed. 
Then Maui changed himself into an 
eagle and flew high up into the air, but 
the fire and smoke still followed him. 
Then he saw water and dashed into it, 
but it was too hot. Around him the 
forests were blazing, the earth burning 
and the sea boiling. Maui, about to 


IN AN ISLAND JUNGLE 


Maui gladly hastened down the cave- 
path to the house of Mahuika, and ask- 
ed for fire for the upper+world. In some 
way he pleased her so that she pulled 
off a finger nail in which fire was burn- 
ing and gave it to him. As soon as he 
had gone back to a place where there 
was water, he put the fire out and re- 


perish, called on the gods for rain. 
Then floods of water fell and the fire 
was checked. 
Mahuika and she fled, almost drowned. 
Her stores of fire were destroyed, 
queuched by the storm. 


The great rain fell on 


But in order 


The Samoan Islanders tell almost ex- 
actly the same story as the New Zea- 
landers, only using the name Ti'iti’i for 
Maui and Mafuie for Mahuika. They 
accuse Maui of leaving the god Mafuie 
only one arm. With this the earth- 
quakes are made which sometimes 
shake the islands. 

The Savage Island legends are simi- 
lar except that that they say Maui stole 
the fire and was chased by his father 
into the upper world with a great burst 
of fire. 

In Tahiti the fire god of the under- 
world lived in a banyan tree. For this 
reason the fire maker of ancient times 
uttered the following incantation while 
rubbing the sticks together: 

“Grant, oh grant me thy hidden fire, 
O Banyan Tree! 

Perform an incantation, 

Utter a prayer 
To the Banyan Tree. 

Kindle a fire in the dust 
Of the Banyan Tree.” 


In the Bowditeh or Fakaofa Islands 
the fire god Mafuika, when conquered, 
taught not only the method of making 
fre by friction, but also what fish were 
to be cooked and what were to be eaten 
taw. 

In the Hervey Island legends we 
read that Maui assumed the form of a 
pigeon_and flew a long-tunnel left in 
the lava until he entered Hawaiki—the 
Tahitian underworld. Here he found 
Mahuika, the god of fire, one of his an. 
cestors, and entered into a “tossing” 
contest with him. Maui agreed to let 
the fire god throw him up first. Ma- 
huika tossed Maui so high that the fall 
seemed to be certain death. But Maui 
uttered an incantation and became a 
feather and floated lightly to the earth. 
Then he seized the fire god and threw 
him up again and again with such 
violence that he soon zegged for mercy. 
Maui gave him rest on condition that 
he be taught the secret of making fire. 

The Tokelau Islanders have the 
legend of Kalanga (Kalana, Maui’s 
father), finding Mafuike a blind, but 
bloodthirsty goddess. He compelled 
her to teach him how to make fire. 

The Gilbert Islanders say that Tan- 
garoa, the god, gave fire to an old 
j woman who put the sparks in certain 
trees, and taught me nhow to find them. 


to save fire for the use of men, as she CHRIST’S BODILY ASCENSION 


fled she threw sparks into different’ 


turned to Mahuika, asking another gift,|kinds of trees where the rain could not 


which he destroyed. This he did for 


reach them, so that when fire was need- 


both hands and feet until only one nailjed it might be brought into the world 


remained. Maui wanted this. 
Mahuika became angry and threw the 


sticks. 


TO ELE AW EIN: 


The very noted heresy case of the 


Thenjagain by rubbing together the fire Rev. Algernon 5. Crapsey, Rector of 
1St. Andrew’s Church, Rochester, N. Y., 


I2 


THE FRIEND. 


was formally closed on November 26, 
by Mr. Crapsey’s formal resignation of 
his ministry into the hands of , his 
Bishop. Mr. Crapsey refused to re- 
nounce either of the two heresies prov- 
ed against him, one being his denial 
of Our Lord’s Virgin Birth, and the 
other, his denial of His Bodily Ascen- 
sion into Heaven. 

This present notice of the case is not 
intended to express any opinion as to 
the justice of Mr. Crapsey’s condemna- 
tion by the Church Court, in which it 
appears that his appointed judges were 
unanimous. He seems to be a devout 
and conscientious Churchman, even if 
disqualified by his intellectual errors to 
continue as a teacher in the Church. 
His mental attitude appears to be one 
averse to belief in anything miraculous, 
or contrary to the regular working of 
Natural Law. Our present object is 
only to controvert his language relat- 
ing to the Bodily Ascension of our 
Lord, of which he writes as follows: 

“When I say of Jesus that he ascend- 
ed into heaven I do not mean and can- 
not mean that with his physical body 
of flesh, blood and bones he floated into 
space and has for 2000 years been ex- 
isting, somewhere in the sky, in that 
very physical body of flesh, blood and 
bones. Such an existence would seem 
to me not giorious but horrible, and 
such a conception is to me not only un- 
believabie, it is unthinkable.” 

In these sentences Mr. Crapsey seems 
to exhibit a very gross misconception 
of the event which the Scripture ex- 
plicitly declare to have taken place. It 
seems like a perverse disposition, so to 
travesty the fact described, and to ig- 
nore the universally accepted Christian 
understanding of that fact. In the act 
of ascending to Heaven, Christ’s earth- 
iy body became “glorified,” celestializ- 
ed, as it were, etherealized. Such is 
Paul’s language, Phil. 3:27: “Who shall 
fashion anew the body of our humilia- 
tion, that it may be conformed to the 
body of his pas The nature of that 

“glorified” “celestial” body as dis- 
tinguished ‘hota its earthly condition, 
has been very explicitly discussed by 
Paul in the 15th chapter of 1st Corin- 


thians. ‘That conception has ruled in 
Christian thought from the earliest 
period. How dares this good divine 


Crapsey. thus to ignore and travesty 
the well known record? 

In the closing passages of the Gospel 
records there are the clearest intima- 
tions that the risen body of our Lord 
after it left the tomb, had become en- 
dowed with extraordinary qualities 
which it did not possess before death, 
Such a quality repeatedly exhibited 


was his power to disappear and appear} He wore in his earthly life. 


at will, such as he never had exercised 
before his death. That same body 


‘which had hung on the cross, and had 


lain in the tomb, when reoccupied by 
his glorified spirit, became at will in- 
visible, presumably etherealized, and at 
will resumed its earthly condition. 
This strange fact we are incapable of 
explaining, simply because we are un- 
familiar with celestial conditions, and 
the physiology of heavenly bodies. 

An analogy suggests itself in the ex- 
istence of water as a visible fluid or 
solid, and its sudden conversion into 
invisible vapor, while still retaining its 
identity. Of what kind of substance 
the celestial human body is composed, 
what are its physical properties and 
capabilities, we have no knowledge. It 
is probable that earthly human facul- 
ties are incapable of ever penetrating 
such mysteries of higher forms of ex- 
istence. We must wait until we our- 
selves by God’s grace ascend ‘to that 
higher state of being. But this our 
ignorance does not in the least render 
improbable the theory that there is a 
celestial sphere of existence, whose 
denizens may at will assume terres- 
trial forms. Thus angels might appear 
and commune with men. Thus did 
Jesus appear to Paul on the road to 
Damascus. 

The gross futility of such a blind 
materialistic attitude as Mr. Crapsey’s 
is becoming more evident than ever 
through the advancing progress of 
science. Later researches are break- 
ing up the old boundary lines of de- 
marcation between tangible substance 
and the immaterial region of ethereal 
substance pervading the universe. The 
X-rays and Radium emanations are 
throwing into confusion the long-estab- 
lished theories of the atomic constitu- 
tion of matter.. Those supposedly fixed 
principles are adrift. This solid, tangi- 
ble bodily substance which we seemed 
to understand, is being proved to be some- 
thing changeable into material forms 
which are beyond the cognition of our 
human faculties. There is evidently a 
vast universe of ethereal being which 
lies outside of our scope of cognition. 
It is evidently not for our purblind 
faculties to assert the limits of exist- 
ence. Heaven is immeasurably higher 
and wider than our poor experiences of 
visible or tangible matter. 

The Lord Jesus in his Ascension has 
given his Church a glimpse of those 
measureless possibilities. He still re- 
tains his earthly body in a glorified con- 
dition. For lack of a better word, we 
may say that it is etherealized. But it 
continues to be the same body which 


Whenever 
he chooses, he can resume its earthly 
form. 5: Eye 


THE HOLY CITY COMING DOWN OUT 
OF HEAVEN FROM GOD.* 


Daily, daily sing the praises 
Of the City, soon to be 

Built by men inspired of Jesus 
In this world from sin set free. 


REFRAIN. 


Grant us, Christ King, Thy strong Spirit, 
God’s dear Will to do alway; 

That th’ ideal now so distant 
May be nearer brought each day. 


In the hearts of all Her people 
Naz-reth’s Carpenter is Lord; 

Pestilence and Want and dark Crime 
Ne’er disturb the blest accord. 


here the air is sweetly laden 
With the songs of children’s glee: 
Gaily decked with fragrant flowers, 
All the streets bloom endlessly. 


Strong and weak their burdens sharing; 
Love the City’s holy light; 
Work which yieldeth life abundant 
Every citizen's birthright! 
ANON. 


* These lines were suggested by Baring- 


Goulds “Daily, eg sing the praises,” etc. 
GENERAL COMMISSION OF EDU- 


CATION. 


The Educational Committee recently 
organized by the Civic Federation 
should prove an eftective agency in bet- 
tering the public school system of Ha- 
waii. It should be fully understood 
‘hat the creation of the new commis- 
sion is in no way a reflection on the 
Territorial Board of Education. This 
commission is but another step in the 
progress of development. The Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction gladly 
cooperates in every way with the com- 
mission, giving it the benefit of his ex- 
perience and his advice, and placing be- 
fore it all the material at hand that 
may be of aid to the commission in its 
work. 

In Massachusetts in 1905, the Hon. 
W. L. Douglass, then Governor, rec- 
ommended the creation of a similar 
commission for Massachusetts, to 
study the claims of technical educa- 
tion; and he further asked that a well 
considered report be brought before the 
State Legislature with suggestions for 
bettering public education. Such a 
commission in Hawaii is a need. Its 
creation marks an onward step. 

We all recognize defects in our pres- 
ent system in Hawaii. The public 
school teachers are poorly paid, so poor- 
ly that the Territory can scarcely ex- 


THE FRIEND. 


13 


pect efficient service if relief does not 
come almost immediately. Inadequate 
provision is made for students, the 
schools are too crowded, more schools 
are needed. Modern education de- 
mands that systematic courses of study 
be provided in gardening, agriculture, 
manual training, domestic science, 
nursing, sanitation and the like. How 
best to educate the children is one of 
the live questions of the decade. It is 
not a new question. The problem has 
not been solved. But new light is be- 
ing shed constantly on many questions 
by those whose lives are devoted to the 
protession. The results of their expe- 
riences can well be collected and stu- 
died. Many helpful suggestions will be 
found. The knowledge of what other 
cities do, the finding out of their pro- 
blems, and of how they have met these 
problems will present new possibilities 
to us here in Hawaii. We are cut off 
from the inspiring educational confer- 
ences and conventions, the stirring 
talks from renowned educators, and 
practical discussions by many teachers 
assembled together to go over at length 
all phases of school work. In Massa- 
chusetts, there are separate commis- 
sions on the study of -English, of 
Mathematics, of Modern Languages, 
and on technical work. Certainly Ha- 
waii needs at least one general com- 
mission to take up the study of her edu- 
cational problems. 

Many questions will immediately 
present themselves to this commission. 
Let me enumerate a few: The scope of 
education, its administration, its 
method and its course; the enriching of 
elementary education because this 
branch of the work affects by far the 
greatest number of young people; edu- 
cation for adults; supplementary edu- 
cation; the using of school buildings 
and premises for other than distinctly 
school purposes; free evening schools 
conducted by the city in public school 
buildings; the introducing, in part, at 
least, of the many lines of technical 
education for boys and girls, now con- 
fined largely to a few private schools ; 
taking the necessary steps to secure for 
Hawaii a Territorial agricultural col- 
lege; equal educational opportunities 
for all children; the question of free 
text books; questions, particularly of 
health and sanitation; systematic and 
regular medical inspection of all pupils 
‘in all schools, not a hurried running 
over, but a careful well-defined study 
of each pupil with the record kept of 
each and subsequent examinations 
compared and tabulated; the probation 
system and its bearing upon juvenile 
delinquency; parental responsibility. 


These are but a few of the questions 
that a cursory review of the situation 
suggests. Many others will follow nat- 
urally. 

A comprehensive statement of exist- 
ing conditions with definite recommen- 
dations for legislation should be pre- 
sented to the ‘Territorial legislature. 
Perhaps this cannot be done-in such a 
way at the present session, for the sub- 
ject is too large to be studied in so short 
a time, but a beginning can be made. 

Every large community has at least 
four legalized institutions: the jail, the 
poor house, an asylum for the mentally 
unbalanced, “and ‘the school. (Lhe 
greater the attention paid to the last, 
the less will be needed for the other 
three. Neglect the school, and the oth- 
ers will demand constantly increasing 
attention, a steady out-go with no re- 
turn but an added curse. The free pub- 
lic school, established by the wisdom 
of our fathers, developed to the highest 
efficiency along the broadest lines is 
the greatest factor in giving every com- 
munity a high social order. The new 
commission certainly has much work 
ahead of it, and I believe that the re- 
sults it brings will justify its creation. 

Brey. 


A SABBATH AT EWA. 


The Sabbath, December 16th, was 
spent at Ewa, where the Hawaiian 
Board has providentially placed as 
evangelist one of the most humble and 
faithful of our Japanese fellow labores. 

As a result of six months’ instruc- 
{ion on the part of this diligent evan- 
gelist, accompanied, as we believe, by 
the influence of the Holy Spirit, sixteen 
persons—thirteen young men and three 
young women—professed their faith in 
the Saviour, and joyfully received bap- 
tism. This rite was followed by the 
Lord's Supper, in which celebration the 
young members united with perhaps 
twenty-five of the former members. 

The evening preaching service was 
held at the lower camp, perhaps one 
and a half miles from the point of the 
first meeting. ‘This service was attend- 
ed by fifty or sixty, the most of whom 
were not at the earlier service. These 
listened with attentive interest to the 
preaching of the Word. 

We congratulate Brother Maeda, on 
having sown the seed which has fallen 
on good ground. Gospel seed sowing, 
and the reward thereof, was to be seen 
that day in the midst of the immense 
fields of waving cane—a better crop we 
trow than ever cane field yielded. 

Still another thought we brought 


home from Ewa. The hope of every 
land is in the children; and the hope 
that the children of our public schools 
will make worthy citizens of the Grand 
Republic yet to be, depends largely 
upon the influences that the teacher ex- 
erts in our common schools. The coun- 
try school teacher has one of the finest 
nussionary fields in the world. The 
hope of Hawaii today rests largely 
upon the shoulders of the devoted 
Christian women who upon small sala- 
ries, and leading self-denying lives are 
working for the blessing of the young 
people who daily come under their in- 
fluence. 

_ Not a school boy, be he Portuguese, 
Japanese, Chinese, Porto Rican, or Ha- 
waiian, who has stubbed and broken 
his toe, not a girl who has lost mother, 
sister, or brother, not a soul comes to 
the Ewa government school but feels 
the up-lifting influence of the earnest, 
seli-denying Christian woman principal 
of that school—one who lives for ser- 
vice, and not for money. And this good 
woman is not alone. All over our is- 
lands today are to be found many ex- 
cellent Christian men and women, liy- 
ing and working in our schools for 
something better than the gold or sil- 
ver for which so many spend their 


lives. Oo HAG 


The Cousin’s Society. 


THE COUSINS’ MEETING. 


An adjourned meeting of the 
H. M. C. Society was held at the resi- 
dence of C. li. Cooke, Keeaumoku 
street, on the evening of Dec. 1, 1906. 
This was an especially interesting 
meeting. Nine papers were read, giv- 
ing incidents in the lives of the mis- 
sionaries, long ago, away back in the 
20’s and 30’s. The papers were writ- 
ten by the children of the missionaries, 
and read by Mrs. E. A. Weaver, Mrs. 
L; B:.Coan, Mrs. WF. Frear, Mrs. .C. 
H. Austin, Rev. O. H. Gulick, Mr.. F: 
W. Damon and Judge S. B. Dole. 


Some personal reminiscences were 
given, and then an animated discussion 
was held on the needs and benefits of a 
permanent home for the society and the 
danger by delay. W. O. Smith, Gov- 
ernor Carter, Dr. A. B. Clark and F. W. 
Damon were the speakers, and they 
were unanimous in the opinion that the 
old coral Chamberlain house, near Ka- 
waiahao church should be bought and 
renovated for this purpose. 


14 


THE FRIEND. 


Governor Carter spoke of  such| 
memorial buildings at Montreal and 
other cities which he had visited, and| 
urged the establishment of such a home. | 
The committee, who have been work- 
ing up this matter for the past two) 
years, was enlarged by the addition of 
Governor Carter and Mr. J. P. Cooke. 

A beautiful piano solo was rendered | 
by Mrs. Henry Bicknell, and Mrs. A. 
Francis Judd led the Cousins in the 
opening hymn, “Come Thou Almighty 
King,” in the very appropriate song, 
“The Breaking Waves Dashed High,” 
and in the closing hymn, “From Green- 
land’s Icy Mountains.” 


_ From Berlin. 


A letter to Miss Chamberlain, from 
Mrs. Laura Wilder Wight, in Berlin, 
Germany, says: “While the Americans 
set apart a special day for thanksgiv- 
ing, the German people have a day to 
especially ask ior forgiveness, and it is 
kept in the strictest manner. Our land- 
lady told-us at the supper table last 
night that no pianos could be opened 
today, no loud talking or laughing in 
the halls, and warned all of her board- 
ers that in case of any one being arrest- 
ed for not obeying the rules she was 
not in any way responsible. So I am 
spending the morning with my friends. 
First I write to mother, then to Aunt 
Nellie, and now to you. 

“Last Sunday I went to the ‘Doni,’ 
the State Church of Berlin, where the 
Emperor worships nearly. every Sun- 
dav. We left the house two hours be- 
fore the hour of service, for hundreds 
are turned away every Sunday. Church 
begins at ten o’clock and though we 
were there at nine, the crowds were large. 
However, I had made up my mind to 
enter, and after some patience I found 
a German who spoke some English and 
went in with his wife and himself. He 
had a sitting: which he gave to me. It 
is a round church and very beautiful, 
though of course a modern one, and 
after the wonderful cathedrals in 
Cologne, Milan and Paris, was tame to 
me. The singing was only by children, 
two hundred boys, and the pastor was 
most eloquent. 
stand by his manner. 

“Thursday, the King and Queen of 
Denmark came to Berlin for a two 
days’ visit. I was up early and away 
to the park to get a good place to see 
all the royal family meet him. With 
my poor German and the help of an 
American, I got one of the police to get 
me a good place on the corner, where 


I could almost under-| 


the carriages were to turn to enter the 
parade ground. When the Household 


Guards, 200 men, all six feet tall in 
silver armour on white horses went by, 
I shut my eyes and wished for the days 
of the Hawatian Monarchy. 

“The German Kaiser is a very fine 


looking man, and very fond of gold lace 


and glorv. and as a king does not come 


Ito call on him every day in the week, 


the streets were all trimmed in great 
display. 

“T particularly noticed the cape of 
ermine that the Queen of Denmark 
wore. She is the richest queen in the 
world for she owns many copper mines. 

“The American Church, which is a 
union church of all creeds, is only 
around the corner from here. You can 
sign your name and the name of your 
church in the church record, and that 
makes you a member during your stay 
in Berlin. Now that I am planning to 
stay longer, I shall do so on Thanks- 
giving Day. 

“You have no idea how interested 
the people here are to have me tell 
about the early missionary days, and I 
have quite an audience whenever I sit 
down stairs after supper in the Public 
Salon. It am so proud of my grand- 
father and grandmother Judd, and of 
my own parents. I wish I knew more. 

“This is winter and the trees are 
bare, and every day the young people 
are looking forward to skating. 

“There are so many nationalities in 
this house. First, there are many 
Americans, young and old, for music 
mostly ; three Russians, two professors, 
one who has his family, three little 
girls, and can you imagine how sur- 
prised I was to hear them sing “Light- 
ly Row—Over the Glassy Waves We 
Go,’ and ‘Hop, Hop, Hop, Nimble as 
a Top.’ Aunt Hattie Judd used to sing 
it with us, and how we used to yell 
when the last line of “Hop’ came! Then 
there is a Turk here, his name is James 
Bey; such a fine looking polished man, 
who is attached to the embassy here. 
There are Swedes, Norwegians, En- 
glish, Italians, a Servian and a Rou- 
manian, but all speak the German lan- 
guage.” 


LAURATWILDER: WiGH 


Cousin Norton. 


We have already called the attention 
of the H. M..C. Society to the Pres- 
byterian College, lately opened at 
Eustis, Florida, where Miss Helen 
S. Norton, once so prominent in educa- 
tional circles here in Hawaii as the 
head of Kawaiahao, is now happily en- 
gaged. The first year closed about the 
first of July. 


Miss Norton decided to spend her 
vacation in the beautiful old homestead, 
in Howell, Michigan. As she is a good 
sailor, she went from Florida, north to 
New York, by ocean travel. She had 
made arrangements with other rela- 
tives to have a family gathering in 
New York State, not far from Buf- 
falo and Niagara Falls. She was able 
to carry out these plans and greatly en- 
joyed Niagara. From here, by railroad 
to Michigan, the family party reached 
Howell. Of her return trip she says: 

“T had a very unpleasant time on my 
journey back to Florida, because the 
trains were behind time and we failed 
to make connections everywhere. We 
were obliged to change cars at Cincin- 
nati, Oakdale, Knoxville, Ashville and 
Jacksonville. I took a carriage and 
drove for an hour about historic Knox- 
ville. Saw Parson Brownlow’s old 
home with the door-plate marked 
Brownlow on the door. It is a curious 
house on the hillside and a front 
veranda coming out even with the side- 
walk. There are many fine shrubs and 
trees. Some of them were new to me 
and the driver could not give me in- 
formation. 

Knoxville is very hilly and the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee is on an eminence 
overlooking the whole country and the 
river, a branch of the Tenn. -# have 
never seen a more picturesque town 
with its many beautiful homes, grounds 
and buildings. The old homes were 
very quaint, and perched often on hill- 
sides reminded one of the pictures of 
some of the European cities. I wanted 
to stay several days, and hope I can 
some time. 

“T chose this route to see the country 
as I had been by Chattanooga several 
times. The country was most pic- 
turesque and beautiful all the way, re- 
minding me of Hawaii; clouds, moun- 
tains, valleys, rivers, all with changing 
aspects and colors made a panorama 
not to be forgotten. 


“We made our last change at Jack- 
sonville about 9:30 a. m. in time for the 
Eustis train and arrived here at 6:30 
Monday evening. I was very tired but 
busy Tuesday as the college opened 
next day. The college opened with 
many more students than we had last 
years at this time.” 

Mi Ag 


Siberia Guests. 

On Monday, the 19th of November, 
there was an arrival of the steamer 
Siberia from the Orient, and to the 
great pleasure of the Cousins it was 


THE FRIEND. 


T5 


found that among the passengers were 
those ‘n whom we felt a great interest 
—mermbers of the Society, by inheri- 
tance or adoption; and before the day 
was over they had sought their own, 
and had received the warm alohas and 
been claimed. ; 

The first to be mentioned are Rev. 
Wm. H. Day and his wife, Julia 
Lyman Day, who passed through the 
shipwreck of the Manchuria and then 
visited almost a month on Hawaii. 
We are glad to know they have safely 
returned as far as Honolulu where they 
spent a day as they are now home- 
ward bound to their church and peo- 
ple in Los Angeles, in Southern Cali- 
fornia. 

Then there were Rev. and Mrs. 
rie@- Cheek, ofssiam.. Mrs. Cheekis 
remembered here by the young people 
as Lucy Wilcox, who visited Honolulu 
in the early part of 1904, on her way to 
be married at her sister’s, in Tokyo, 
Japan. 

As Mr. and Mrs. Albert S. Wilcox, 
her uncle, happened to be in town, he 
insisted upon their leaving the steamer 
for a week’s visit on Kauai. 

Then Rev. and Mrs. Wm. W. Ran- 
ney, of Hartford, Conn., at the winding 
up of the day, after having found our 
peerless cousins and entertainers, Mr. 
and Mrs. F. W. Damon, and had spent 
a day that they will not soon forget, 
said they must find their old friends 
and call before they went on board the 
steamer. 

Mrs. Ranney is the daughter of Mary 
Anderson Street, who visited us in her 
youth, when her father, Rev. Rufus 
Anderson came here in 1863. 

The Damons directed these friends 
to find the Binghams and the Chamber- 
lains. It was an exquisite pleasure to 
Pier. C.” to greet. Helen Street, and 
to say she had, perhaps “telepathetic” 
notice of this interview, having turned 
over a box of letters received in 1904, 
and taken out the latest letter of her 
mother and made up her mind to an- 


swer it again to Helen Ranney. 
MiseA. C: 


ops ace 1: 


A quarter-century has passed since 
the first Christian Endeavor Society 
was formed. It is proposed that a 
Christian Endeavor memorial com- 
memorate this. The plan is for present 
and past Indeavorers to contribute 
25 cents or more—one cent for each 
of the twenty-five years of the society. 
The money is to be used, first for a 
building—one of modest size and no 


debt on it—which will be the interna- 
tional center of this work for young 
people and relieve the United Society 
of the large rentals now paid for office 
space; second, to establish a fund to 
promote the work of Christian En- 
deavor. 

During the last twenty-five years Dr. 
Clark and his associates have been help- 
ing on the cause of Christian Endeavor 
without a cent of support from any 
source. They have earned their own 
living conducting various publishing 
enterprises, writing for the press, etc. 
Moved by the opportunity offered to 
Christian Endeavorers in missionary 
lands for the past five years they have 
raised $10,000.00 a year to aid in estab- 
lishing Christian Endeavor in mission 
fields) © Ko its) ‘usefulness’. Revs Me. 
Fitch, the president of the Chinese C. 
E. Union, testified when here from the 
Manchuria wreck. 

Under this burden Dr. Clark’s health 
gave way last year. 
of the world should not allow him to 
bear it. The first C. E. Society: outside 
the United States was formed in Ha- 
waii long before annexation. We 
should take our part in this memorial. 


Let each society in the Territory try to | 


contribute an average of twenty-five 
cents apiece for all its members. All 
money is to be sent to Mr, Wm. Shaw, 
treasurer, 600 Tremont Temple, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Lyle A. Dickey of Hono- 
lulu is member for Hawaii of the 
Memorial Committee and will receive 
and send forward any contributions if 
desired. There must be many on the 
islands not now connected with any so- 


ciety who will wish to join in this| 


memorial. EVACD: 


GOOD WORK FOR ONE 
EVENING. 


Alice Freeman Palmer had an en- 
gagement to speak one Sunday even- 
ing to some boys in connection with 
work of a social nature carried on by 
the University of Chicago. When the 
night of her appointment came, the reg- 
istration of the thermometer was far 
below zero. It was doubtful if any of 
the lads would be in their place of 
meeting, yet, not willing to run the risk 
of disappointing any who might come, 
the faithful woman, accompanied by 
one of the students of the university, 
drove through the piercing cold far to 
the outskirts of the city. 

When the hall was reached it was 
found to be nearly full. of expectant 
street lads, representing various nation- 
alities. 


The Endeavorers | 


At the close of Mrs. Palmer’s lecture, 


'which urged the study of living things 


about them, the boys approached her 
and told her what special group of ani- 
mals they wished to study. Among 
them was a group which seemed rough- 
er than the rest. They had chosen one 
of their number as spokesman, and he 
exclaimed in eager tone and broken 
English, “We take lizards. We take 
lizards.” It was some time before she 
could discover the meaning of his 
words, and he was unable, because of 
his limited English vocabulary, to en- 
lighten her. But finally she learned 
that this group of urchins had decided 
to confine their scientific studies to 
lizards. 


Their success in this line of research 
was great. They explored the sur- 
rounding country, far and near, and 
were constantly bringing their speci- 
mens to the university for the students 
to preserve in alcohol. They even dis- 
covered two or three new varieties of 
the lizard, which the scientists duly en- 
tered in their classified lists. 


But the most encouraging result of 
that Sabbath evening lecture was its 
influence upon the young scientists 
themselves. Their interest in some- 
thing new and their touch with nature 
made new beings of them. They seem- 
ed to unconsciously break away from 
their evil habits, and one of them, who 
had been under the constant watch of 
the police officers, now gave them no 
further trouble-—Alice May Douglas in 
the Housekeeper. 


A MESSAGE. 


Many years I’ve lived and waited, 
By the ocean’s sandy shore, 
And the changes all about me 
Are recalling days of yore. 
Davs when merry were the Monarchs, 
Of our Island Kingdom dear ; 
Days when Missionary Fathers 
Worked and prayed for visions clear. 


To these Music loving People, 
I’ve a message, I would give— 

Sing your praises to the Highest, 
And in glory, shall you live. 

In your singing, in your laughter, 
There is pleasure evermore; 

God above you, gave His promise 
Of the Love, He has in store. 

For the dear Hawatian People, 
Listen ere it is toto late— 

Do not loose the Life Eternal, 
Do not hesitate and wait. 


16 


THE FRIEND. 


As the sunshine never fails you, 
And the glories of your Land 
Gladden weary, heartsore travelers, 
God will bless you, take His hand. , 
Take His hand and He will guide you, 
Guide you o’er the stormy: way— 
And at last, at rest beside Him 
You will find the Brightest Day. | 
By La RS 4 


PORTUGUESE CHRISTMAS. 


The Christmas exercises of the Por-| 


tuguese Church were held on the 
Christmas night. A very large number 
of people being present: parents, 


friends of the mission and also some 
who had never been there before. It 
was very pleasant to hear the children} 
sing and recite the beautiful songs and 
recitations appropriate to the occasion. 
The children all did well. 

The exercises were strictly religious, 
helpful and instructive. 


REV. EDWIN MORRIS 
PAS Evie: 

This obituary notice of a very noble 
veteran Missionary to Micronesia 1s| 
condensed from one appearing in the 
Pomona Times. Dr. Pease died No- 
vember 29th at Claremont, Cal., where} 
he had made his home for the past 
twelve years, since his return from) 
seventeen years of strenuous mis- 
sionary labor in Kusaie and the Mar- 
shall Islands, whither he went in 1877. | 

Dr. Pease was a graduate of Amherst 
College, Union Theological Seminary, | 
and Columbia Medical College. He 
served three years as army surgeon in 
the Civil War, entering Richmond in| 
Col. Armstrong’s’ regiment. After 11 
years local medical practice, he mar-| 
ried, and went to Micronesia as a Mis- 
sionary. He was especially. serviceable 
in developing the Training Schools for 
Catechists located at Kusaie or Strong’s 
Island. He compiled a dictionary of) 
the Marshall language, hymn and tune 
books and many educational books. | 
He translated the New Testament} 
which he brought to America and pub- 
lished in 1884. Since 1894 in Clare- 
mont he had completed a translation of 
the Old Testament as far as Isaiah,| 
when death suddenly interrupted his| 
labors at the age of nearly 78 years. 

The members of the Hawaiian Board | 
and Missionary workers in Honolulu) 
used to be familiar with Dr. and Mrs. 
Pease and their labors. Two sons were 
born to them in Kusaie, one a medical 
student in Kansas City, the other a 
freshman at Pomona College. His 


| beer is sold than before. It is the liquor 


widow was last heard from at Clare- 
mont. His best monument is the Gos- 
pel among the Marshall Islanders in 
their own tongue. og cha 2% 


DOES: HIGH ,LIGENSE ABATE 


CHE EN Tis OT saree OG LG 
DRINKS? 


Says The Advance of Chicago, in its 


issue of Oct. 4, 1906: 


“High license in Chicago has not 
hindered the sale of beer. Notwith- 
standing the fact that the saloon license 
fee was raised from $500 to $1,000, the 
sales of beer in August amounted to 
504,597 barrels, or 51,057 barrels more 
than in August, 1905. The sale of beer 
for eight months were 3,066,565 barrels, 
a gain of 209,366 barrels over the same 
peri@d of last year.” 

Again, in The Advance of Oct. 18, 
we have the following: 

“We must do something more than 
increase the license of the liquor seller. 
Chicago doubled the saloon license, and 
according to published statistics, more 


drinker who pavs the bill, not the liquor 
seller, and increasing the cost does not 
stop the drinker. He pays the added 
price and in the end his family foots the 
bill out of the comforts and necessaries 
of life. The wife who takes in wash- 
ing or goes out to work, the child who 
goes to school in thread-bare -clothes, 
and the baby neglected and pinched: 
with hunger are the victims. Surely 
this kind of process can not be called! 
intelligent reform.” 

There are some kinds of grass that, 
are not injured in the least by running 
2 lawn mower over them. The oftener 
mown the more vigorous the growth. 

The liquor business possesses this 
same irresponsible quality. The most 
of legislative tinkering with it, avails 
little or nothing in the way of abate- 
ment. e 

High license may have some effect in 
closing up the cheap and shabby saloon, 
but does it not contribute to the ap- 
parent respectability of the business, 
and thus promote the financial pros- 
perity of the traffic? The more gilded 
the drinking hall, the better furnished 
and the more elegant the appointments 
the greater the temptation the gin pal- 
ace presents to the young, the self-in- 
dulgent and the easily persuaded. 

Let none of our legislators imagine 
that their electors who have had a 
vision of the death and ruin of all that| 
is highest and best in this world, that is 
the direct outcome of the liquor busi- 
ness, are to be satisfied with a high) 


license. No indeed: It is doubtful 
whether high license is of any, avail in 
reducing the evils of the dram shops, 
evils that are imposed upon the whole 
community that a few may be enriched. 
No: What the temperance man wants 
is to put an end to this whole business, 
and the right to express his opinion 
upon this question by the passage of a 
local option law, which will give the 
community, say every two years, a 
chance to say whether they will have 
the saloon in their midst or not. 

When the wnole community have the 
opportunity to decide at the polls 
whether or not they will have this de- 
structive snare laid in the pathway of 
their sons and daughters, then, and not 


till then, will the voters have cause to 


be satisfiel with the course of their 
representatives. 


O. H..GUBTC re 


EXTRACTS, FROM MISS CUCIA 
LYON’S LETTERS: 


Pang Chuang, China, 
March 16, 1906. 

I have been marking the questions in 
vour letters and will proceed to an- 
swer them. The. Chinese” gett them 
water from streams or springs if there 
are any,—if not, from wells. Of 
course, we did not drink water on the 
journey—only tea or cocoa, but you 
can always buy (hot) boiled water 
wherever there is an inn. 


THE GROWING FAMILY NEEDS 


AN ENCYCLOPEDIA 


The cost hitherto has been so great that al- 
though CHILDREN ARE FOREVER WANT- 
ING to consult one in their school work, few 
can afford a set. 


NOW COMES ___ 


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HAWAIIAN BOARD 
BOOK ROOMS 


THE FRIEND. 


17 


I realize that I have not told much 
about Dr. Tallmon. She is thirty- 
three years old and her home is in Ber- 
keley. She has seven sisters and one 
brother, all married but two, and six- 
teen nephews and nieces. Until three 
years ago they lived in Iowa, first on 
mean and then’ in Grinnell. Her 
mother died when she was seventeen, 
but her father is still alive. Her past 
history, with such a big family, is just 
like a story. She tells the boys stories 
and gets them interested in all sorts of 
scientific things which she makes very 
interesting. 

Well, to go on with the questions: 
There certainly are good sized trees 
here, lots of them, both in the village 
and in the compound. All the villages 
have nice trees. The villages are not 
walled always—more than half are not. 
The walls are usually of mud. But 
the cities, of all three grades, are wall- 
ed, and usually the walls are brick. 

We have been having warm weather 
this week. ‘The grass is beginning to 
have a slight greenish tinge. Tuesday 
morning ground was broken for the 
academy building in the boys’ school 
yard. They had a little service which 
we all attended. The boys were all 
assembled at the place, and some mats 
were fixed up on frames along side of 
them so that the school-girls could also 
be there without being seen. We went 
over with them and all the women in 
the yard went too. We went in at the 
side gate and stood on our side of the 
mats very properly. We sang two 
hymns, one of the teachers read from 
the Bible and one made a prayer, and 
Giane Hsien” Sheng ““opened the 
grounds,” as they say, with three 
strokes of the pick-axe. Then we all] 
departed, the boys all gazing after us 
as we went back into the school-room. 
Mr, Stanley took a picture of this 
divided group; I hope it will be good. 

Wednesday afternoon the boys and 
I got Mrs. Chapin to go walking with 
us. In the evening we went to the 
Stanley’s as usual. Mr. Stanley is hav- 
ing trouble with his eyes so Miss Grace 
did the reading. About half the people 
I know are having bad eyes just now. 
The Chinese are having dreadful times, 
with their eyes all swollen and inflam- 
ed and tearful. Miss Grace goes over 
to the school every night to put in eye 
' medicine for the people. 

‘This afternoon we took the girls to 
walk again, around the village. When 
we came back Miss Grace sent out a 
basket of pears, one apiece, which was 
a great treat. 


The girls and women, men too, in 


fact, are shedding their wadded gar- 
ments and seem to be much thinner 
than they were. With some of them 
your chief feeling is one of relief to sve 
something that can be washed. Of 
course, the wadded garments can’t be 
washed, yet they are made of cotton 
and show the dirt. 

I meant to tell you last week about 
Mrs. Stanley’s woman, the baby’s 
nurse. She is a Tien-tsin woman, a 
Christian, but one who could not read 
and knew very little about the Bible. 
Now Mrs. Stanley is helping her learn, 
and she is very much interested in 
Matthew. She said the other day, 
“Chia Mu Shih preached one Sunday 
that we ought to have hope. When I 
am reading Matthew I keep thinking 
‘How good this is!’ and I am almost 
afraid to go on for fear the next page 
won't be so good as the last; I sup- 
pose I ought to have hope about that 
because it always turns out that it is 
just as good.” Think of having tlie 
Bible as fresh to you as that! 

March 24.—It is interesting to see 
the men at work. They “pound” with 
a great stone which eight of them raise 
by means of ropes and let fall with a 
thud. Every time they lift it they all 
shout out strange noises, very much 
as sailors do. There are ever so many 
workmen here now; these who are 
pounding the ground for foundations, 
and the masons and carpenters for the 
boys’ building and the ladies’ house. 
Yesterday they were all called into the 
church where the pastor and others told 
them how they should behave. 

Yesterday noon I went over to the 
school to “open shop.” There was the 
usual rush to buy cloth for shoe linings. 
Quarterly meeting comes at Easter 
and people will come from all over the 
field to the communion service. So it 
behooves the girls to have their new 
shoes and spring garments ready, and 
it takes time to embroider. 

As I write there are two or three 
girls who come and gaze in at the 
window—people from some other vil- 
lage who are interested in the wonder- 
ful foreigner. 

April tst—‘“The early part of this 
week our woman’s husband, Mr. Chang 
Chih Ping, came back from his field 
for a few days, and Tuesday afternoon 
he gave his report at prayer-meeting. 
He goes:to a good many different 
towns and villages, and this time he 
has come upon one where the people 
were very much interested. About 
twenty were willing to put down their 
names as inquirers, and—he opened a 
package and brought out three bronze 
idols which they gave up. He told in 


very graphic language, which I could 


‘not understand, how afraid the men 


were to take them down, and how they 
expected some sort of retribution, and 
how long they hesitated. One was a 
very old Buddha which had come from 
India and been in the family for a great 
many years. It had wooly hair. The 
other two were Chinese. You should 
have seen the interest of the boys and 
girls as these idols were produced, ex- 
actly as if they had lived where there 
were no idols. I think they are to be 
given to Miss Gertrude. 

On Friday Mrs. Stanley’s cook made 
a special cake in honor of Mrs. Ellis, 
and Miss Grace, Dr. Tallmon and I 
were invited to help eat it up. It was 
a delicious cake and was decorated on 
the top with Chinese characters in pink 
frosting to the effect that the love of 
preaching “the. doctrine” would even 
make a husband and wife willing to be 
separated for a while. There were also 
some English words which we could 
not make out. 

Yesterday afternoon we all went to 


\look at the buildings. The boys’ school 


has got about three feet above the 
ground. Dust was flying around ev- 
erywhere, and there is lime mixed with 


it. Mr. Campbell says it is hard on the 
eyes. We call the building operations 
“Mr. Campbell’s school,” for he is 


teaching the Chinese so many better 
ways of doing things, and they are so 
glad to learn. 

April §—-Thursday night, Mrs. Ellis 
told all about the station class. She 
had been taking notes so as to know 
how to do. She told about one old 
weman who came with some one else 
and knew nothing at all about “the doc- 
trine.”’ She wanted to study, but had 
nothing to begin on, so after explaining 
and talking with her for a day or two 
Miss Gertrude told her to go home and 
take down her kitchen god and come 
back. She wanted to prove the 
woman's sincerity. Her home was 
eight miles away and she went off and 
for some time she didn’t come back. 
Finally, just before the end of the class, 
she walked in. Miss Gertrude asked 
her what she had done at home. She 
told of a funeral and other things she 
had attended to. The kitchen god? 
Oh yes, she had burned him all right 
and now she was ready to study. She 
was old and the time was short, but 
she learned the little rhymed prayer 
and the blessings and two or three 
Bible verses. 

Mrs. Ellis’ birthday came while they 
were there, and she gave them a feast 
of meat dumplings. Three women, 
who had been delayed in starting arriv- 


iss 


THE FRIEND. 


ed at the class that very morning; they 
were hot and tired after an eight-mile 
walk, but said it was surely the grace 
of God that they arrived in time for 
the dumplings. There were other in- 
teresting people there.. Quite a number 
of unbound their feet while 
they were there. 


women 


The Chou family matters have work- 
ed out beyond our hopes. The older 
brother who was not in the church has 
at last consented to give up his opium 
shop, and it has been bought by the 
Tuckers, Ellises and Mrs. Smith and 
turned into a street chapel. The young 
men in the church, several of them, 
take turns going there to preach, and 
Ting Hsien Sheng, the Ellises’ teacher, 
goes every night to take to the more 
educated men. Dr. Tucker wrote that 
he went the other night and there were 
150 people there. 

You spoke of thinking Lin Ching 
It is only ,a newly 
awakened work, for the Chapins, Per- 
kins and Dr. Wagner’s family were ail 
there a good while, But it was only 
after the Boxers had devasted things 
as much as possible that there began 


was a new work. 


to be any interest. Now the harvest 
is suddenly. at hand with no one there 
but Mrs. Smith to take charge of the 
That 
anxious to go there next year, for al- 
though Dr. Tallmon and I could not 
work yet, Mr. Chapin would be in his 
parish instead of two days’ journey 


reaping. is why we are so 


away. 


ANENT THE CHINESE. 


The new work on Hotel street is 
growing. ‘Night school and children’s 
meetings are showing larger attendance 
every week. The pressing need is for 
more teachers to help instruct those 
who come so eager to learn. 

Mr. H. Jackson reports a splendid 
opportunity at the station just opened 
at Hanapepe, Kauai. Between 30 and 
40 Chinese children attend the Mission 
school daily. More would come if there 
was more room. 

Mr. C. How Fo writes from Kula, 


/hoping that he will come again. 


| Maui: “IT want the readers of The! 


Friend’ to know that our church is do-| 
ing better now than at this time last 
year. The communion is held every 
three months. Twenty children, 16 
boys and 4 girls, now attend the Mis- 
sion school, and come to Sunday 
School also. Mr. Thwing came up te 
the first part of the year, and we are 
The 


work is in good condition.” 

Wailuku welcomes back Miss Turner 
after her year at home. She is glad 
to be back and writes of much encour- 
agement in the work there. 

Ewe T. 


ITEMS FROM WAILUKU. 


Christmas festivities are planned for 
the Chinese children at Wailuku, Paia 
and Makawao. 

This will be the first Christmas in 
which the Chinese of Makawao have 
taken part, and it is probable that they 
will unite with the Pookela Church in| 
having a Christmas tree, and share with 
them Christmas joys. 

Makawao is indeed a very important 
Mission center. 

For the past fourteen days all our 
work has been hindered on account of 
the presence of diphtheria, measles and} 
whooping cough, which closed all the 
schools and all of the Mission work. 

Schools have again opened, and all is 
wel, so that work moves on as usual. 


(Crm ea he 


@ 


RECORD OF EVENTS. 


Nov. 23—-Sleet in quantity at Vol- 
cano Hotel. Temperature 44°. 

20th—Rainfall Honolulu, 4.15 
inches.—Thanksgiving Day duly ob- 


in 


served. 

Dees 1st—Atnhivalvotsa oe SuIVeLIC, 
with 1325 Portuguese immigrants, 51 
days from the Azores. 

2d.—tLava begins flowing copiously 
in Halemaumau pit at Kilauea. 

otla—Mother Parker enters her 1o2d 
year. 


A. SCHAEFER & CO., 
Importers and 


COMMISSION MERCHANTS. 


Honolulu, T. H. 


OPP & COMPANY, 


Importers and Manufacturers of 
FURNITURE AND UPHOLSTERY. 
CHAIRS TO RENT. 


Nos. 1053-1059 Bishop St. - - Honolulu. 


ee a & BALDWIN, Ltd. 


OFFICERS—H. P. Baldwin, Pres’t; J. B. 
Castle, 1st Vice-Pres’t; W. M. Alexander, ad 
Vice-Pres’'t; J. P. Cooke, Treas.; W. O. 
Smith, Sec’y; George R. Carter, Auditor. 


SUGAR FACTORS AND COMMISSION 
MERCHANTS. 


AGENTS FOR—Hawaiian Commercial & 
Sugar Co., Haiku Sugar Co., Paia Plantation 
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Draw Exchange on the prircipal ports of the 
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lowest price ever issues. Write 
to the Hawaiian Board. You 
can get a set 


FOR YOURSELF 


THE; RRIENDSs 


19 


The Bank of Hawai, Lea. 


Incorporated Under the Laws of the Territory 


of Hawaii. 
PMA) CAPETA Ts @oo..n ee cen $600,000.00 
OR GERI 2DT GB ES Se ee er ree 300,000.00 
UNDIVIDED PROFITS ......... 107,346.65 


OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 


Mpimegmes IVE. COOKE fs dic.acreies sv. oes President 
Rem PMEPOUES:: 5 chases vale avs aleve ¢ erates Vice-President 
ey, Macfarlane......... 2nd Vice-President 
MEIER COOK G! srys fetcticis Sek bisa 0 slates eve: 5 Cashier 
Ghas: Hustace, Jr.......... Assistant Cashier 
BPE DATION 2h o's c c05 ccsseue sis Gee Assistant Cashier 


C. H. Atherton and F, C. Atherton, 
COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS DEPART- 
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Strict Attention Given to all Branches of 
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JUDD BUILDING. 


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In addition to Hardware and 
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22 


TELEPHONES———92 


.|storm, especially severe on Maui. 
}|inches of rain in Honolulu. 


11th—After a week’s severe contest 
for the Shrievalty, the Supreme Court 
decides the count of votes for Iaukea 
against A. M. Brown.—The body of 
J. W. Girvin, an esteemed old resident, 
is found floating in the harbor, after 
three days submersion. 

15th—The southerly rains end, after 
more than 14 inches of rainfall in four 
weeks. 

19th—New house at point of comple- 
tion of I’. L. Waldron in College Hills, 
Manoa, destroyed by fire at 9 p. m. 
Insured for $10,000. 

20th—Albert F. Judd arrives from 
Manila with 15 Filipino laborers as an 
experiment. 

20th to 26th—Heavy easterly rain- 


5-55 


26th—Death in San Francisco of 


|Capt. W. B. Seabury, for 30 years in 


PouM Aaa CONSerViCce: 
27th— Reception in Kawaiahao 
Church to Rev. Dr. Barton, secretary 


OreAn BGs Faw. 


MARRIED. 


JAMIE-HUTCHINSON—At Hilo, Nov. 24th, 
James Muir Jamie, of Ayr, Scotland, to Miss 
Bessie Hutchinson, of Scotland. 


CRAWFORD-AARS— At Puunene, Maui, 
F. T, Crawford to Miss Ragna Aars. 
HALL-BROWN—At Honolulu, Dec. 1, 


Charles L. Hall to Miss Annie K. Brown. 

DOLE-DICKEY—At Jamaica Plain, Boston, 
Noy. 24, James D, Dole to Miss Belle Dickey, 
both of Oahu. 

WHITE-WRIGHT—At Honolulu, Dec. 
Fred. White to Miss Elizabeth Wright. 

HANSON-TOLLEFSON—At Honolulu, Dec. 
17, Harold E. Hanson to Miss Margaret 
Tollefson. 

BORN-SMITH—At Paia, Maui, Dec. 25, 
Frnest O. Born, of Kahului, to Miss Evelyn 
M. Smith, 


10, 


DIED. 


HOUGHTAILING—In Honolulu, 
Mrs. Eliza Houghtailing. 

DUNBAR—In Belvidere, Cal., Nov. 30, Mrs. 
Genevieve Dowsett Dunbar, aged 20 years. 


Nov. 20, 


GIR VIN—In Honolulu, Dec. oth, by drowning | 


James W. Girvin, an esteemed old resident, 
aged 62 years. 

CLARK—At Honolulu, Dec. to, Walter Clark, 
aged 35 years, Registrar of Kamehameha 
Schools. 


ENA—At Los Angeles, Cal., Dec. 12, John 
Ena, aged 63, a prominent Honolulu capi- 
talist. 

KAAE—At Honolulu. Dec. 19, Junius Kaae, 
formerly prominent in the service of King 
Kalakaua. 

PEASE—At Claremont, Cal., Nov. 29, Rev. 
Edwin Morris Pease, M. D., aged 78 years. 


9 BREWER & CO., Limited, 


General Mercantile Commission Agents. 
Queen St., Honolulu, T. H. 


AGENTS FOR—Hawaiian Agricultural Co., 
Onomea Sugar Co., Honomu Sugar Co., Wai- 
luku Sugar Co., Makee Sugar Co., Haleakala 
Ranch Co., Kapapala Ranch. 

Planters’ Line Shipping Co., Charles Brewer 
& Co.’s Line of New York Packets. 

Agents Boston Board of Underwriters. 

Agents Philadelphia Board of Underwriters. 


LIST OF OFFICERS—Charles M. Cooke, 
President; Geo. H. Robertson, Vice-President 
and Manager; E. Faxon Bishop, Treasurer and 
Secretary; F. W. Macfarlane, Auditor; P. C. 
Jones, C. H. Cooke, J. R. Galt, Directors. 


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WALL PAPERS, 
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SUGAR FACTORS 


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COMMISSION AGENTS. 
Agents for the Oceanic Steamship Co. 
W. W. AHANA & CO., LTD. 
MERCHANT TAILORS, 


P. O,!Box 986. Telephone Blue 2741 
62 King Street 


CLOTHES CLEANED AND REPAIRED. 


HENRY H. WILLIAMS 


FUNERAL DIRECTOR 


Graduate of Dr. Rodgers Perfect Hm- 
balming School of San Francisco, Cals 
also of The Renouard Training School 
for Embalmers of New York. And a 
Licensed Embalmer for the State of 
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PROGRESS BLOCK FORTS ERLE? 


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Sos germ reernenenes meer omen 


reed BROKEN! 


With the publication of Nelson’s Encyclopaedia, THE PADLOCK 
OF PROHIBITIVE PRICE has been broken, and for no man or woman 
who is mentally alive and who really is a lover cf knowledge is there left 
an excuse not to have at hand a high-class work of reference, comprehen- 
sive enough for the scholar, handy enough for the school boy and inter- 
esting reading for everybody. 


The New York Times says: ‘*** Cheap in price, though in 
nothing else. It seems as though the ideal encyclopaedia had been found 
for readers of English. 


NELSON’S ENCYCLOPAEDIA 
. Everybody’s Book of Reference 


FRANK MOORE COLBY, M. A., New York, American Editor. GEORGE SANDEMAN, M. A., Edinburg, European 
: Editor. With over 600 contributors, each the authority in his fleld. 

To have, collected and arranged in 12 full volumes the endeavors and achievements of the human race up to the pre- 
sent time—to have at hand the knowledge of the world sifted, certified and presented in one great working library for 
quick and easy reference; all done effectualy and completely. This of itself has been cause for wonderment, but that the 
entire set should be offered to the public at the amazingly low price of $42.00 for the set, marks the undertaking as the 
wonder in this day of wonders in the realm of book publishing. 

Imagine its price four times what it is, put it to the severest encyclopaedia tests you know, either as to comprehen- 
siveness, accuracy, reliabiiity, newness, clearness and charm of expression, profusion and character of illustration, charac- 
ter of paper, binding—examine it from every standpoint and you will finding nothing lacking. 

We might write pages about its 60,000 subjects, its 7,500 three-column pages, its 6.000 illustrations, the color plates 
the full-page plates, the perfect cross-reference system and the many other advantages. But we won’t. We will do bet- 
ter than that. They can be seen at the Hawaiian Board Book Rooms. : 


Eee 


VOL. LXIV. 


KILAUEA CRATER IN ACTION JANUARY, 1907 


VUolcane Dumber 


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LIMITED 


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OLDEST NEWSPAPER WEST OF THE ROCKIES. 


VOL. LXIV 


HONOLULU, H. T., FEBRUARY, 1907 


The Lenten Program. 


The season of the year is at hand when 
Christian Churches the world over, with 
ever increasing unanimity as time passes, 
focus their activities upon the cen- 
tral verity of religion—the undying life 
of God in the human soul. The ever- 
living God was regnant in Jesus, there- 
fore death had no power over’ him. 
That same God breathes in the heart 
of every man and if he will enthrone 
Him, life everlasting is his surest pos- 
session. It is well that fashionable 
society should pause in its round of 
pleasures, that the daily call to worship 
should be heard above the din of con- 
flicting business interests, that men 
should attend to the still small voice 
within them and that every possible 
means should be used to open their 
ears to the resurrection duet sung by 
Nature and her Lord Christ. °° For 
though Lent is supposed to concern it- 
self much with the sufferings of the 
Savior, Easter glory shines through it 
all. Weare glad to see that in Hono- 
lulu this solemn joyous season is not 
suffered to be the priceless possession 
of one or two churches but is claimed 
_ by all and used by all. Fortunately 
. the forty days are to be ushered in by 
a series of services under Rev. Howard 
Agnew Johnston, D.D:, of New York, 
who is just returning from a trip to 
the mission fields of Asia whither he 
was sent by the General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church as the repre- 
sentative of its Committee on Evangel- 
istic work. Dr. Johnston is a strong 
preacher and has the gift of stirring 
Christians to realize and exercise their 
privilege of power. He has just com- 
pleted a series of meetings in Japan 
with marked success. Dr. Johnston is 
slated to reach Honolulu February 5th 
and will remain in the Islands for about 
two weeks. Part of his time will be 
given to Hilo. 


Dean Bosworth. 

_ February 27th Rev. Edward Increase 
Bosworth, D. D., Dean of Oberlin The- 
clogical Seminary is expected from the 
mainland on the “Siberia.” Dean Bos- 
worth is one of the great forces in 
American Christianity. Pri y he 


mari 


is a teacher of the New Testament, and; 


until within a very few years he has 
been comparatively. unknown beyond a 
small circle. Like the leaven in our 
Lord’s parable, however, his influence 
bas spread quietly and imperceptibly 
throughout the entire Union until now 


he is known everywhere in the student| 


world. It is’ characteristic of the 
wideawakeness of Japan that four 
years ago a movement was inaugurated 
there to get Dr. Bosworth to lecture 
in the Empire. Japanese Christian 
leaders do not ask any but scholars and 
speakers of the first rank to come to them 
for lecture courses. 

One of the peculiarities of Dr. Bos- 


worth’s growing influence has been its| 


spontaneous character. With no flour- 
ish of trumpeting press-notices he has 
gone from larger to larger hearing un- 
til the announcement that he is to have 
charge of New Testament study at a 
Convention or summer _ school 
enough to ensure success. 
Conference in 1901. “We will have 
Dr. Bosworth,” said the gentleman 
who was projecting it. “Who is he?” 
was the inquiry. “An Oberlin profes- 
sor. But just wait till you hear him.” 
We waited. ~The -Conference heard 
him. He won the East as he had done 
the West. Yet his method is simplicity 
itself. Where he lectures men and 
women take their note books and pen- 
cils along. His insight into truth is 
wonderful. He grips the deepest and 
holiest in those who listen. Honolulu 
is to be congratulated upon Dr. Bos- 
worth’s willingness to give a short se- 
ries of Bible lectures here. 
Season of 1907 thus introduced ought 
to go on to large results. 


Historic Center. 


Another great step towards perfecting | 


Honolulu’s historic center has been taken 
on behalf of the Cousins Society by Hon. 
Cc. M. Cooke in the purchase of the old 
frame house on King street, which is the 
first modern dwelling built on these Is- 
lands. The frame for this building was 
cut to shape in Massachusetts and ship- 
ped to Honolulu in 1821, where it was 
erected on the spot where it now stands. 
It was originally the home of Rev. Hiram 


1s | 
The writer | 
well remembers the first Silver Bay'| 


ivounded up and convicted. 


| courteoussly 


The Lenten |ration would be welcomed at headquar- 


Bingham, of the pioneer band of. mis- 
sionaries. Several other mission families 
occupied it. Finally it passed into the 
hands of the Cooke family. As a result 
of the discussion at the last meeting of 
the Cousins. Society, Mr. C. M. Cooke 
decided to purchase the property and 
place it at the disposal of the Society for 
its headquarters. It is proposed to estab- 
lish therein a historical museum, which 
shall be to Honolulu what the Chateau 
de Ramesy is to Montreal, and Pilgrim 
Hall is to Plymouth, Mass. The next 
step in the development of this historic 
center will be the acquirement of the 
Chamberlain place for the headquarters 
of the Hawaiian Board. 


Making Good. 


The year opened with the glad an- 
nouncement that Sheriff laukea had ap- 
pointed Mr. Albert P. Taylor of the 
Advertiser staff chief of detectives. 
Mr. Taylor is a fearless lover of civic 
righteousness who has served Hono- 
lulu’s best interests notably during the 
past two years by unearthing a number 
of flagrant abuses. Immediately af- 
ter his inauguration as Chief of Police 
Mr JIaukea began in a very quiet, unos- 
tentatious way to show the wisdom of 
his election to office. Gamblers were 
An arrest 
for selling liquor to a minor was made 
on evidence secured by the department, 
a herd of unworthy office seekers were 
given notice that there was nothing for 
them in the gift of the sheriff and citi- 
zens able to assist the police in thor- 
ough enforcement of the law were 
y informed that their coope- 
ters. The outgoing grand jury which 
closed its term of public spirited ser- 
vice on January 4th with a notable ad- 
dress in which occurred the sentence 
“Open gambling cannot exist where 
the officers of the law do their duty” 
has already had the pleasure of seeing 
its dictum verified. Honolulu is promis- 
ed an era of clean government that will 
be a credit to a mid-ocean paradise. 


Among Japanese Christians. 


The Nuuanu Street Church has called 
Rey. Giichi Sugiura of the Hokkaido to 


THE FRIEND. 


—_—— 


become its permanent pastor. Mr. Kin- 
saku Yamaguchi, who has served the 
Church most faithfully and acceptably as 
supply for a year, will go to Olaa for a 
few months and then will enter the Pa- 
cific Theological Seminary at Berkeley. 
The Hilo Church has just raised $80.00 
for beautifying its grounds. This has 
been expended in painting the meeting 
house and erecting a fence on the side 
of the old prison site. Mr, Suehiro has 
resigned the secretaryship of the Chris- 
tian Club in Honolulu and Mr. Jingu, 
formerly of Ewa, has been called as his 
successor. We shall miss Mr. Suehiro 
and his talented wife. We are hoping 
that something may yet eventuate to keep 
them in the Islands. 


THE: SWEAT BOX: 


This is the name for the modern 
equivalent of the medieval instrument of 
injustice known as “torture.” Although 
it is popularly supposed that persons ac- 
cused of crime are granted the constitu- 
tional right of not being compelled to in- 
criminate themselves, the irresponsible 
agent called the police force has been in- 
geniously developed to such a point that 
this right has lapsed. In many of our 
American cities the police prides itself 
upon its ability not only to apprehend 
criminals, but also to convict those whom 
its detectives suspect of crime. The most 
disgraceful methods are used and the sus- 
pected individual has absolutely no re- 
dress. Alone without counsel or friend 
present to aid him he is often subjected 
to a relentless persecution of cross-ques- 
tioning with no judge to maintain the 
semblance of his constitutional rights. 
Every admission wrung from him is used 
to entangle him. 
manding “yes” or “no” for an answer and 
a misstep may precipitate a floundering 
that means years in jail or even the gal- 
lows. The Advertiser of this city has 
more than once charged that the local 
police force has not hesitated to use force 
to compel dangerous admissions. In 
many cities the poor suspect has to face 
his keen unscrupulous foes day after day 
ere he is let alone. It is even the boast 
here that agents employed by the police 
have wormed themselves into the confi- 
dence of accused aliens and led them step 
by step to make damaging admissions. 

Dr. J. S. Christison of Chicago, chanc- 
ing early last year into a court room 
where a young man, Ivens by name, was 
on trial for murder, was powerfully im- 
pressed with the conviction that a so- 
called confession, wrung from the pris- 
oner by “sweat-box” methods, was due 


Questions are put de-| 


entirely to hypnotic suggestion. 
once interested himself in the case, 
studied it deeply and became convinced 
of the innocence of the accused. The 
man was convicted, sentenced and hang- 
ed. But not before Dr. Christison had 


laid the circumstances before a number, 
. . . ! 
of leading specialists, among whom were 


Professors James and Munsterberg of 
Harvard. Prof. James went so far as to 
send a telegram asking a reprieve, but all 
to no avail. Both of these gentlemen ex- 
pressed the conviction of the worthless- 
ness of the extorted confession as evi- 
dence in this case. 

Enough is known of the case now to 
make it almost impossible that this young 
man should have committed the murder. 


Dr. Christison has investigated criminal | 


records and secured startling testimony 
bearing upon the question of the weight 
to be given to “sweat-box” confessions 
of crime where no corroborating evidence 
is available. The Springfield’ Republican 
of December 27, 1906, in commenting on 
this subject, says: 

“There is no sort of question that many 
innocent people have been put to death 
through stich evidence. Not long ago we 
noted an articie in the Green Bag, a legal 
publication, which gave an account of a 
case happening vears ago in Bennington 
county, Vt., where a man suddenly dis- 
appeared and two brothers with whom he 
was iast seen, after being held in jail for 
some time and in the midst of much pop- 


ular excitement, finally were induced to| 


confess the crime, going into all the de- 
tails of a shocking murder. Through a 
string of bare chances of a most remark- 
able “character, the murdered man was 
found alive down in New Jersey and 
brought back just in time to save the 
brothers from execution. He had gone 
off of his own free will. One of the most 
famous cases of this sort is recorded of 
Gloucestershire, Eng., back in 1660, 
where two Perry brothers and_ their 
mother were charged with the murder of 
William Harrison, who had disappeared. 
They confessed it, but later repudiated the 
confession, as did Ivens, but were con- 
victed and hanged. Several years later 
Harrison returned home. One Chicago 
lawyer tells Dr. 
found recorded in modern criminal annals 
117 cases of execution for murder upon 
confessions in which the alleged victims 
were afterward found to be alive. The 
hypnotic theory of dissociated personality 
certainly has enough substance to it to 
compel from the administrators of crimi- 
nal law great caution regarding confes- 
sions which have been induced by what 
are known as police sweat-box methods.” 

Our present Sheriff is one in whom all 
citizens may haye full confidence in guard- 


Christison that he has} 


He me ing against the evils of this practice. 


| 


But 
a,strong public opinion should condemn 
all these star chamber investigations. It 
were far better to compel a prisoner to 
testify in a court of justice where due 
legal guarantees will protect him than to 
expose him to the secret terrors of the 
“third degree” and the “sweat box,” too 
often manipulated by cruel and entirely 
irresponsible police employees. 


DSS 


NATURE’S PYROTECHNICS. 


As we sat at breakfast at Kamuela on 
Thursday morning, January 10, 1907, 
the Chinese cook remarked, “Plenty fire 
on Mauna Loa last night.” True enough, 
as several servants reported, though but 
few others at Kamuela saw it. Ques- 
tioning brought out the fact that the ap- 
pearance of fire was considerably to the 
right of the summit as we viewed it, at 
what we guessed was about 10,000 feet 
elevation, on the side toward the line be- 
tween Kau and Kona. 

Although ‘we were on the watch the 
next two nights nothing could be seen 
until we reached our home in Kona on 
Saturday. This night the glow was 
bright, but well down on the side of 
Mauna Loa. The flow had evidently pro- 
ceeded underground and broken out 
afresh at an elevation of perhaps 7,000 or 
8,000 feet, near Puu Ohohia. From this 
latter opening has poured the fiery flood 
which in two streams has buried the goy- 
ernment road, destroyed the telephone 
line, and, it is reported, has again united 
below, spreading over the flatter country 
some little ways above the ocean. 

Earthquakes have been slight and few 
in number in Kona, though many little 
ones were reported in Kau. The earth- 
quakes began just a little before the out- 


| break, and the last one observed by me | 


occurred on Sunday, January 20. Since 
then the flow has been dying, and after 
two weeks from the beginning the flow 
is reported over, and our energetic tele- 
phone company has managed to string its 
wites across the Manuka flow, ready to 
open communication again with Kau. 
Sometime during the night of Satur- 
day, January 12, the first stream crossed 
the road, at an elevation of perhaps 1,800 
feet above the sea, for on Sunday morn- 
ing no message could be sent over the 
telephone line to Kau. Early Monday ’ 
we started for the scene, some 36 miles 
from home and about five miles south of 
the Kona line. A few had visited the 
flow on Sunday night, but Monday was 
the greatest day of all—both for mag- 
nificence and variety of display and for 
the crowd present, which I estimated at 


THE FRIEND. 


about 150. All kinds of vehicles were 
seen in use, from an automobile to an old 
family brake driven tandem, with one 
boy perched on the forward horse. . The 
stream of people poured in until mid- 
night. 

We arrived just at dark and prepared to 
camp under the open sky a fourth of a 
mile from the flow, on alittle rise beside 
the tent of Mr. Aungst, who had remain- 
ed over in charge of the telephone. 
Every one could enjoy this most awe-in- 
spiring sight, although it was a quiet en- 
joyment as far as noise went. The flow 
was also quiet, for but little sound could 
be heard beyond the constant clink of 
falling stones as the front wall of solid 
fire advanced or an occasional rushing 
sound from the central molten stream or 
a faint explosion of gas. We could en- 
joy it because we were all in compara- 
tive safety and the flow was doing such 
very little damage because of its posi- 
tion on still older flows. 


Once before I have felt something of 
the same awe, and that was on beholding 
the results of the wearing force of water, 
as viewed from the brink of that stupen- 
dous canon of the Colorado River in Ari- 
zona, which is over a mile deep and hun- 
dreds of miles long. Here on Mauna 
Loa we have the absolutely irresistable 
force of fire, and one felt it overwhelm- 
ingly as he watched it advance straight 
towards him. As I stood but a few feet 
in front of the slowly advancing snout 


of this writhing fiery monster, I could} 


only say to myself, ““What is man, that 
thou art mindful of him?” and feel with 
Micah, “Behold, Jehovah cometh forth 
out of his place, and will come down, and 


AT THE SIDE OF THE GREAT FLOW 


tread upon the high places of the earth. 
And the mountains shall be melted under 
him, and the vatleys shall be cleft, as wax 
before the fire, as waters that are poured 


down a steep place.” And to remember 


that the other side of this same mountain 
summit is covered with glistening snow! 

We had hoped to reach the first flow 
which had crossed the road already, but 
a glance at the one now advancing show- 
ed us how foolhardy would be such an 
attempt. The first flow was in Kahuku, 
in the flow of 1887 and overlapping it to- 
vard Kona. This was reported to have 
flowed almost molten and very rapidly, 


!N FONT OF THE FLOW 


and it was said to be from a half to a 
mile or more wide. Our flow was about 
six miles this way on the Manuka lands. 
At 5:30 p. m., when we arrived, it was 
perhaps a half-mtle above the road, but 
by midnight it was far below. It crossed 
the road about 9 p. m., covering the road 
where we stood so shortly before to a 
depth of 25 feet and more with its glow- 
ing rocks. The very front part was an 
almost perpendicular wall about 15 feet 
high, for it did not quite reach the top 
of the 18 feet telephone poles, which were 
soon in a blaze as the wires parted. 


We could see this flow for some ten or 
fifteen miles from the opening, marked 
by the red changing glow on the clouds 
of sulphurous vapor and smoke. It was 
probably some two-thirds of a mile wide, 
and showed us all kinds of phenomena. 
Its movement varied greatly, for though 
advancing with scarcely perceptible 
motion for some time, it later cross- 
ed the road with a sudden rush and 
hastened on below. This movement 
was not at all dependent upon the 
the slope of the ground, but on the vary- 
ing amount of material conveyed from 
the source. A friend called my attention 
to the glacier-like resemblance of the 
fiery front and edges with its cooler 
blackened top constantly falling over as 
it advanced. After this mass of seething 
“a-a’’ passed, the center seemed to run a 
molten stream carrying down huge 
masses of all shapes and sizes, red-hot or 
cooling in all stages. At times every one 
was reminded of a stately procession of 
massive ships, or again of a river at flood 
bearing away houses and people. Above 
us appeared rapids where the waves of 


6 


THE FRIEND 


fire tumbled and broke into fiery spray, 
and again there was a hill w hich formed | 
a breastwork at one side behind which 
the flood gathered until a more copious 
flow overtopped it to spread a solid sheet 
of flame in a huge semi-circle to its base. 
Again and again through the night this | 
would cool, and again and again over- 
flow. The whole surface of the stream 


was constantly changing, black or fiery, ' 


at places resembling “nothing so much as) 
the lights of an enormous city, especially 
that portion below us. The scattered 
trees burned here and there in its course, 
and the whole region for miles about was 


turned from night almost into day. For) 


the first few days, until smoke filled all 
the air, I could tell time on these moon- 
less nights when in my 
miles away. Little fierv explosions arose 
here 

sional short side flows appeared. 
a fine cindery dust parched the air, but 
we were fortunate in having a strong 
breeze to drive off the smoke from our 
side, although ‘occasional hot eddies were 
whirled about us. 


after our returm home our eyes felt badly 
and every light quivered and twinkled. 

We remained long enough to view the 
scene by daylight, but found it as nothing 
compared to the scene by night. Fire 
scarcely showed at all, 
most step upon the flow without knowing 
it, were it not for the still quivering radia. 
tions of heat. ‘The clink of falling stones 
was still heard from the sides, but the 
appearance was only that of a huge ridge 
blackened by a fire which had passed, 
although the trees were still burning in 
the distance. ; 

No definite report has yet come from 
above, as the region is almost inaccessible. 
Not only has the air been full of smoke, 
but the land is such that a horse constant- 
ly breaks through the crust, sometimes to 
an alarming extent. We can never be 
too thankful that we viewed the stupen- 
dous spectacle just when and where we 
did. 

AS, 


VOLCANIC ERUPTION; 


HAWAI?TS 


The past year has been signalized by 
unusual disturbances of the crest of our 
globe. Vesuvius has been in magnificent 
eruption. The two chief Pacific sea- 
ports of North and South America, San 
Francisco and Valparaiso, have been stuc- 
cessively destroyed by earthquakes. In 
the Carribean sea, Kingston, in Jamaica, 
has just .experienced a similar disaster. 
And now, almost simultaneously with 
Jamaica, but without any disaster, Ha- 


room over 30) 
and there on the flood, and occa-| 


The, 


heat was intense on nearing the flow and | 


Heat radiations kept 
all the air aquiver, and for some time) 


and one could al-| 


‘\vaii, its equal island in Mid-Pacific, has 
broken out into sudden and_ splendid 
eruption. 


At midnight opening the roth of Janu-. 
the people of the town of Hilo, on| 
ast side of tne island, were called out | 


ary, 
ithe 
to gaze at a marvelous glow shining on 
the. sky over Mauna Loa, our chief vol- 
‘cano. That glare was not, however, from 
the great crater of Mokuaweoweo, forty 
‘miles away. It shone from a vast fire- 
‘fountain which had suddenly gushed 
forth at Kahuku, more than twenty miles 
beyond. 
| This Kahuku outbreak, unlike its ter- 
rible predecessor of 1868, was attended 
only by a few hours of moderate earth- 
jshakings. That former eruption was 
preceded by many weeks of terrific con- 
vulsions. The long-sealed. vent of the 
KCahuku volcano could be opened only by 
the most violent rendings. Just before 
the final agony, a weak spot in the side 
of Mauna Loa opened at Kapapala, and 
flung out a huge river of mud which de- 
stroyed scores of the native people. At 
the same moment a vast tidal wave de- 
stroyed the viliages of Honuapo and Pu- 
naluu on the Kau shore. By that and 
|the previous earthquakes, every stone 
/house and wall in the district of Kau was 
levelled to the ground. Finally on the 
western mountain-side, a vent burst open 
and emitted three immense fountains of 
lava, in size like cathedrals. For several 
days a broad stream of lava ran for six 
miles into the sea. 

in January, 1887, another eruption 
from a little higher up the mountain, but 
attended by only trifling earthquakes, 
poured a still larger flood of lava into the 
ocean. It was the writer’s privilege to 
visit the foot of that flow while still glow- 
ing. It spread over the country like a 
vast black apron nearly a mile wide, twen- 
ty feet deep, and stretching nearly eight 
miles up the mountain. The previous 
fiow of 1868 was in full view to the south- 
east, near the base of the great Kahuku 
precipice, which runs south several miles 
to the point of the island, while facing 
the west. 


Now, Just twenty years later, has come 
this third eruption from the same vol- 
canic center of Kahuku. Like its pre- 
decessor, it was ushered in by a few 
hours of moderate earth-tremors. The 
seat of the outbreak has not at the pres- 
jent writing been precisely defined, but is 
evidently a little higher than the last one, 
and a little north of it. While the amount 
of lava emitted may be even greater, it 
has divided into two separate streams, 
neither of which has reached the sea. 
Hundreds of visitors have flocked by 
land to the wonderful spectacle from the 


fers from Hilo. 


them driving or riding nearly one hun- 
dred miles. Others have come by steam- 
On the 19th a party of 
250 excursionists left Honolulu on two 
hoats. They returned in 48 hours, hay- 
ing experienced calm and bright weather, 
and spent many hours on shore. They 
visited the foot of the slowly advancing 
iava mass four miles inland. It seemed 
to be about one-fourth mile wide, and 
creeping forward about fifty feet in an 
hour. Its front presented a huge mound 
of the rugged clinkers. These sluggishly 
moved forward, tumbling over’ each 
other, while beneath and among them 
would occasionally protrude a tongue of 
the flaming molten lava which was bear- 
ing along the mass. The movement was 
attended by a roaring clatter, as of a 
rolling mass of dry bones. This exhibi- 
tion would seem to have been a dying 
effort of the stream, whose activity, at 
least at the front, seems to have ceased 
two days later, according to last reports. 
Those clinkers, or a-a (ah-ah) are a 
common form which the molten rock very 
commonly assumes in cooling. They are 
spongy, knotty, bristling fragments of 
rock, of every conceivable form of rag- 
gedness, borne along on the heavier 
molten liquid. Lava is a viscid, liquid — 
rock, saturated with occluded gases, 
which, on reaching the surface, expand 
into innumerable vesicles. If the lava 
cools and hardens immediately without 
further movement, it forms pahoehoe or 
ropy lava, whose vesicles are spherical. 
But if it continues to move and roll along 
while half cooled, the vesicles are pulled 
out of shape and elongated, and ragged, 
misshapen forms are developed. 


These clinkers often take a peculiar 
form of a sort of boulders, or bombs, 
floating short distances on the surface be- 
fore they break. A bunch of the spongy 
red-hot clinkers is gathered up on the sur- 
face of the flowing lava, rolled over and 
over, and coated on the outside with a 
shell of rock a few inches thick. Inside 
of this egg-shell is the spongy bunch of 
meat. In a short time the rolling bomb 
breaks open, and the red-hot contents fall 
apart. The writer has seen a few of these 
bombs, perhaps ten feet long, which had 
survived on the oe front of a cooled 
flow. In 1887, the eminent Prof. T. D. 
Dana, attended by myself, inspected one 
on the front of the great clinker flow of 
Punaiuu. Part of one side was broken 
out, disclosing the spongy clinkers. 

WHY KAHUKU IS A SEPARATE VOLCANO, 

It is usuaily admitted that Kilauea is a~ 
separate volcano. from Mokuaweoweo, 
although it is located on the foot-slope 


northern districts of the island, some ofiof Mauna Loa, and occasional sym- — 


THE FRIEND. 


pathetic activity is shown between the two 
great calderas, or “craters of engulf- 
ment.” Now my contention is that the 
Kahuku center of activitv is equally 
separate from, and independent of Mo- 
kuaweoweo, and should therefore be 
treated as a distinct volcano. 

1. So far as I am aware, there is no 
evidence of there having been any erup- 
tive activity in Mokuaweoweo during 
either of the three recent violent out- 
breaks of Kahuku, dating in 1868, 1887 
and 1907. There may possibly have been 
some sympathetic movement in Moku- 
aweoweo, but too slight to attract atten- 
tion. There was no eruptive smoke there 
nor emission of lava. 

2. The distance from the Kahuku 
volcano to Mokuaweoweo is over twenty 
miles, or about the same as the distances 
of the separate volcanoes of Hualalai and 
Kilauea. 

3. The Kahuku mountain, as seen 
from the sea on the southwest, stands out 
as a distinct mountain from Mauna Loa. 
which it completely hides. Kahuku is 
really a distant shoulder of the greater 
mountain whose summit is twenty miles 
away from Puu Keokeo, the summit of 
Kahuku. The latter is 6,300 feet high, 
and more than ten miles from the sea, a 
much larger mountain than that of West 
Maui, back of Lahaina. Kahuku moun- 
tain is commonly mistaken for Mauna 
Loa itself by observers from its sea-front. 

Now this immense mountain mass of 
Kahuku has been for ages piling up by 
local eruptions, just as Hualalai has done, 
and deserves to be reckoned as an in- 
dependent volcano. 


4. The immense southern extension of 
Hawaii island to the south cape, has been 
derived from lava-flows from this Ka- 
huku center, twenty miles north, and not 
from Mokuaweoweo, forty miles away. 
The jurisdiction of the latters falls far 
short of the South Cape, whose parentage 
is entirely from the flows of Kahuku vol- 
cano. 

5. A powerful reason for this conten- 
tion is the existence of the great Moho- 
kea volcano, long quiescent, only ten miles 
east of Puu Keokeo, and exactly twenty 
miles south of Mokuaweoweo. Mohokea| 
is one of the largest calderas on the globe. | * 
It is five miles in diameter, having three 
times the area of Mokuaweoweo, and 
twice that of Haleakala. But what con- 
fers upon Mohokea its chief distinction 
is the fact that it has been the seat of 
one of the greatest explosive eruptions 
ever known. At a very recent period, 
probably not much over one- thousand 
years ago it threw out an enormous 
column of yellow “ashes,” which covered 
over one hundred and fifty square miles 
of the surrounding country with a layer 


| 

of ashes more than ten feet deep, besides | 
extending far over the ocean. 

The close vicinity of the active Ka- 


to be regarded as equally independent of 
Mauna Loa volcano, although like Ki- 
lauca, sumpathetic with their central 


parent. 
le eae 


THE GREAT: LAVA FEOW. 


By E. W. THwINc. 


Great volcanic energy was felt in many 
parts of the world during January, 1907, 
but in no part of the world was there a 
more marvelous or grandly spectacular | 
display than on the island of Hawaii. 
Here is the great velcanic mountain of} 
more than 13,000 feet in 
Down its sloping sides for near- 


Mauna Loa, 
height. 
ly two weeks, flowed the molten lava, tor- 
ients of burning and glowing rock, mov- 
ing for miles downward toward the sea. 


And following this tremendous display | 


of the world’s hidden fires, which was 


watched by many hundreds of people, a) 
new outbreak of golden lava, and tossing | 
fountains of fire, occurred in the world’s | 
famous crater of Kilauea, some 30 miles | 


away. Here the traveler can come and) 


— 


SLAW OVE SGN OSES), 


aye 


POM Oe Ge See 


view, without the least danger, the great 
bubbling spring of fire, and watch the 
golden lake of molten lava, which has 
formed again, after cpenpamative quiet 
for the past 13 years. The lake has now | 
covered the entire bottom of the great pit, 
some 800 feet across, and gives an area 
of about 15 acres of molten lava. This, 
crater of Halemaumau, which is within 
the much larger crater of Kilauea, is 
about one-quarter of a mile across at the 


ithe pit with golden fire. 


| hoehoe,’ 


| Loa. 


top, the lake being now 550 feet below 
the crater’s edge. As the writer viewed 


‘it, the latter part of January, the lake was 
huku to the quiescent Mohokea entitles it i 


ast filling up the pit, and was in constant 
and terrific activity. From a glowing 
hole at one side, the burning flow came 
pouring out covering the black surface of 
This in turn 
would soon become blackened, only again 
to break and crack, allowing the molten 
hery rock to spread its quilt of gold. 
I*rom the volcano house, three miles, 
where every comfort is given the travel- 
er, the bright glow can be plainly seen. 

The fountains of liquid fire, and bright 
Jowing streams of burning lava, brighten 
the whole heavens, so that one can read 
at midnight by the light of this great lake 
of fire. Iwo blackened cones tower up 
near the crater’s edge, as mighty guar- 
dians of this nature’s great wonder house, 

This flow in Halemaumau is of “‘pa- 
or more molten lava, than the 
flow, which has been pushing its 
way down the mountain slopes of Mauna 
By night the ‘“‘a-a” flow glows fiery 
red, like jong bright serpents on the 
mountain side. By day it looks like some 
large hill of rock and cinders, pushing its 
relentless way over the older lava flows, 
and through the trees and forest. Often 


ce 


BSL BVE ONE BNE SINE BYE ONE BICONE OVE ONE BYE Me QUEM 


from the grayish looking bank, large 
molten rocks roll down, and crimson 
fiery lava splashes out almost to one’s 
feet. No where in the world can the 
erand spectacle of voleanic action be 
watched with such ease and safety as in 
Hawaii. This great’ flow of Mauna Loa, 
occurring just twenty years from the not- 
able one of 1887, is now finished, but the 
wonderful exhibition of nature's fiery 
forces is still to be seen by the traveler 
to Halemaumau’s burning lake. The 
sight is one that cannot be described, to 
give full justice to the mighty spectacle. 
Nor when once seen can it ever be for- 
gotten. 


& 


THE FRIEND. 


A brief record of some of the earlier 
flows may be of interest. The first re-| 
corded eruption was during 1789 anl| 
1790, when the crater of Kilauea sent out | 
burning lava and poisonous gases, which 
killed some of the army against which 
Kamehameha was then fighting. Since 
that time no one has been known to have 
been injured by this Hawaii's tame vol- 
cano. 


’ 


In 1801 Mt. Hualalai, since then inac- 
tive, sent out a flow of molten lava, which 
reached the sea, pouring its fiery fury 
into the broad Pacific. 


During 1823 Kilauea was again in ac- 
tion, sending out a great flow which 
reached the sea at Kapapala, where it 
extended for six miles. Mokuaweoweo, 
the summit crater of Mauna Loa, was 


active for eighteen days in June, 1832, | 


but the flows did not reach the ocean. 


In May, 1840, Kilauea sent the fiery 
flow through deep fissures and over the 
ground, reaching the sea, 35 miles away, 
in five days. Mauna Loa again in Janu- 
ary, 1843, for four weeks poured out a 
great flow of lava, and also in 1852, the 
summit crater of this same mountain sent 
out fountains of fire some hundreds of 
feet into the air, together with an ex- 
tremely rapid flow of lava. Three days 
later a new crater opened up three-fourths 
of a mile below, from which a stream of 
lava flowed for 40 miles in the direction 


of Hilo. 


During August, 1855, once again from 
Mauna Loa came another flow of unusual 
size, which lasted for six months, stop- 
ping within seven miles of Hilo. For 9 
months longer activity continued with 
many smaller flows. 


January, 1859, another outbreak from 
the summit crater reached the sea in 
eight days, at a place not far from the 
landing of Kawaihae. For three weeks 
the burning lava kept up its mighty flow 
into the ocean at this point. 


1866 witnessed another flow from 
Mauna Loa, but one of the greatest 
known in the history of the islands oc- 
curred in 1868. Beginning at the top in 
March, it was followed in May, by an un- 
usual mud flow three miles in extent, 
which moved so rapidly that over 1,000 
cattle and 31 people were killed. The 
1881 flow, which came so near to the 
town of Hilo, and other later eruptions 
are so well known that they need not be 
mentioned at this time. The story of 
Hawaii's fire mountains is one of mighty 
power and sublime grandure, and he who 
sees can only exclaim, as those of old, 
“Great and marvelous are the works of 
God!” 


| 


FROM HARTFORD. 


Under date.of December 28, 1906, Mr. 
Akaiko Akana writes to Mrs. R. B. Baker 
of Kona a letter of great interest from 


‘which we cull the following: 


My Dear Mrs. Baker: 


Aloha oe: The old year is coming to 
its end and the new year is approaching, 
and I wish you all a happy New Year. 
The latter part of the school term has 
been a busy one. Examinations permit- 
ted me no time to write letters. For three 
weeks in succession I sat up until twelve 
o'clock at night to study, and I feel quite 
rested since vacation began. The work 
here is very interesting indeed and I am 
giving as much time as I possibly can to 
the several details of each line of work I 
have at present. Psychology is the most 
interesting study here. Its wonderful ap- 
plication to Christian life is something 
that I have been amazed at. It is one of 
the most important subjects that Hawaii 
needs to know, and I am gathering mate- 
tial at present as a foundation for the 
more advanced work along that line for 
the coming years. The work in the 
school of pedagogy is also interesting, 
but I am sorry to say that a number of my 
classmates (ladies) have left because of 
the many difficulties and doubts that were 
brought about in our work on textual 
criticism. The trouble is, as far as I can 
see, that they have believed every word 
(word for word) of the Bible from Gene- 
sis to Revelations and that they have fail- 
ed to see the true interpretation of the 
Old Testament as well as the New Testa- 
ment. My faith will never shake and 
nothing will shake it. I know that the 
truth is in the Bible and as I go into 
studies of textual criticism I can see more 
plainly where the truth lies and what its 
true interpretation is. JI may say that 
textual criticism is good. It gives us 
grounds to stand against arguments. 

I am enjoying the cold weather very 
much indeed. I like it better than the 
warm weather. My health is perfect and 
I have nothing to complain of. It may be 
of interest to you to know that I have 
gained eight pounds since I got here. 
The students here have always wondered 
why I should be in such a condition. I 
told them that I take an hour and a quar- 
ter every day, except Sunday, for physical 
culture in the gymnasium and that keeps 
iny appetite good and strong and my 
blood circulation in its normal condition. 
The other day they had quite a good time 
with me. The snow was beginning to 
fall, for the first time since I got here. 
In the meantime I was attending a class 
at the school of pedagogy. About eleven 
o'clock in the morning I came back. On 


my way home, I saw floating in the air 
some wooly stuff. Having had no knowl 
edge of what snowflakes look like before, 
I thought that they were cotton or wool 
swept out of factories. I stood for awhile 
and looked at them until more came and I 
ran into the building and inquired. The 
boys came laughing at me and said that 
they were snowflakes. Ina short time the 
air was filled with the beautiful flakes. 
My nction of the snow was something like 
that which I saw in ice factories, that is 
frozen moisture on the ground. The 
story was repeated at the school of peda- 
gogy and the girls laughed at me and 
came after me with snowballs. I could 
not make a snowball then because the 
snow was too cold for me. So they got 
the best of me the whole afternoon. It 
was then necessary for me to keep away 
from them as much as possible. Two 
days ago we had the pleasure of seeing the 
most beautiful sight of snow fall. The 
students here informed me of the fact that 
nothing of its kind was noticed here be- 
fore. It was absolutely charming. The 
trees were beautifully arrayed with snow 
and as I passed along the Asylum street 
that evening the trees looked as if they 
were overlaid with polished silver. Oh, 
if the world wiil be as white as that snow 
and the hearts of men be arrayed with 
purity as those trees were how much 
more joy would we have in the presence 
of the Creator of all these things. I only 
wish I knew the English well enough to 
be able to describe to you fully the effect 
upon me of that most magnificent sight. 
It is a thing that will never disappear 
from my memory and to my dying day I 
hope I shall see more of that purity and 
brightness. Yes, I hear occasionally from 
Dr. Scudder. Today I wrote a letter to 
him. I could not write to you the last 
month on account of the many examina- 
tions which occurred. It gives me great 
pleasure to read your letter and to know 
something of the “Sunny Kona.” I am 
exceedingly glad to hear favorable re- 
ports of the work there in spite of the 
many pilikias. 

Thank you for the corrections you have 
made. I hope that you will keep on cor- 
recting me. I need your help Mrs. Baker 
along this line. It is hard to get the folks 
bere to correct me. I am writing this let- 
ter just as fast as I can write. I want 
to get the training, both in writing and in 
speaking. 

Yes, my dear Mrs. Baker, I spoke at 
the Haystack Meeting, to six or eight 
thousand people. It was the largest gath- 
ering [ ever saw in my life. The affair 
was both interesting and inspiring. A 
number of the native workers were pres- 
ent and I alone from the “Paradise of 
the Pacific.” The people applauded every 


THE FRIEND. 


time I stopped and I had to yell at them. 
I hardly could hear myself speak in the 
midst of the applauses. After the meet- 
ing a number of people came to see me 
and to tell me how interested they were 
in Hawaii and that they were glad that 
they could see a Hawaiian for the first 
time in their lives. The meetings lasted 
three days. On the very day of the open 
air meeting several thousands of dollars 
were taken up for collection. The occa- 
sion was something that I shall not forget. 

Immediately after I left Williams- 
town I was invited out to New Britian 
to speak to the folks there on Hawaii. 
There I spoke to three hundred people. 
After that I again spoke at the Centre 
Church, in this city. I have three in- 
vitations now to attend the evening 
services on different dates, at three 
churches, outside of the city. This 
gives me splendid opportunities to see 
a number of places here and to see the 
work of different churches in this State. 
These honors are enough to bring 
about “big head” within a person who 
loves to be praised, but I am not aim- 
ing to be praised. I hope that the above 
statement will not lead you all to think 
that I shall be in my black suit when I 
get back. 

I have been greatly surprised to 
know of the fact that a number of 
church members here do not believe in 
foreign missions. After my talk at 
New Britian a number of folks came to 
me and said that they were glad to see 
for the first time in their lives the fruit 
of the work of missionaries on foreign 
fields and that they will not adhere to 
their old notions that work on foreign 
fields is useless. They were glad that 
I have proved to them the fact that 
missionaries are needed to carry the 
gospel to the darkest parts of the world, 
that the world can be christianized and 
that Christ is for the world. For this 
very reason I accept every invitation 
that comes to me whether the place is 
one mile or one hundred miles away 


_ from here. So, you may be sure that I| 


go to these different places, not for the 
sake of praise and honor, but that 
. Christ may be exalted and the unbeliefs 
be destroyed. ‘There are several folks 


here who are not willing to aid foreign | 


missions. 


Three or four weeks ago today I re- 
ceived a welcome letter and greetings 
from the American Missionary Asso- 
ciation. Dr. Cooper, the secretary, in- 
formed me of the fact that the Associa- 
tion has been greatly interested in Ha- 
waii and myself and that it has under- 
taken to aid the Hawaiian Evangelical 

Association every year. The Associa- 
tion has already decided to send some 


thousands of dollars to Hawaii annual- 
ly. As I have sent the same letter to 
Dr. Scudder already, I cannot tell you 
the exact figures. Don’t you think this 
is an encouragement? I was exceed- 
ingly delighted to know this. Dr. 
Cooper promised to meet me _ here 
sometime in the future when it is con- 
venient. 

Yes, I met Mr. Richards, his wife, 
Mrs. Damon and several other ladies 
from Honolulu. Today I received a 
letter from Mrs. Hill, formerly a matron 
ifor the dining hall-at Kamehameha. I 
was glad to see Mr. and Mrs. Rich- 


Williamstown. I saw them first, at the 
Y. M. C. Ax Hall and last after the 
open air meeting. 

My associates here are Mr. Small and 
his wife, Mr. Mix, Mr. Murai, a Japa- 
nese; Mr. Johnson, Mr. Williams (Mr. 
Hopwood’s friend), Mr. Khoeler, Mr. 
Bivens and Dr. Dawson (Professor of 
Psychology), and also Mr. Newman. 
These are warm-hearted friends of 
mine. 

My time is pau for writing letters 
and I must ciose. Kindly give my 
“aloha nui” to Mrs. Albert Baker, Dr. 
Baker, De Corte and to all the church 
members. Remember me to the chil- 
dren. 

This is vacation week, and I confess 
that I have but only one day. for vaca- 
tion and that was Christmas day. I 
have given up the rest of the week for 
study and to be ready for the coming 
term. Aloha oe. 

Very truly yours, 
A. AKANA. 


LEPER CHRISTMAS, 1907. 


Received— 
‘Balance on hand (last year). ..$20.65 
Mrs. Hopper 10.00 


Meso il, C2 Colenmante. tienes: 5.00 
Mestielinahele! c.cl¢ dames oe 5.00 
Kaumakapili Sunday School... 5.00 


Waikane Sunday School and 


Churistianglndeavorm cs ase 6.00 
Waiakea Christian Endeavor... 5.00 


Waiole, Hanalei, Christian En- 
deavor 
WhiseS tells @inigencssteeass oo eee ee: 
Mr. F. C. Atherton 
Balance short 


@ipalre feksir elle) ¢) iv) «) v8) 6, © wu 6 


$95.35 
Paid— 
Cash japanese toys and other 
POOH SE ey Uh x. CAM ett ts $ 7.40 
Freight on goods from New 
INGO Tigress | cnt onstiays cua eine Seats 5-90 
Candy ..2dsindpyaite as. as es 12.00 


ards as they were about readv to leave 


9 

Hackfeld for dry goods, toys, 
fancy articles, soap, etc... 4. 26.70 
Wall, Nichols, toys, etc......... 28.45 
BOs Hall’ cutlery, etesae Ts 
Ehlers) dry “poods: ete. wan 7.65 
$95-35 


It would be hard to enumerate the con- 
tents of the 300 and odd bundles. They 
were made up with great care and separ- 
ately packed,—those for women and chil- 
dren labelled as such. The usual amount 
of materials for a Christmas tree was sent 
and little was lacking in the way of gifts 
to a compiete Christmas celebration. In- 
deed we learned afterwards from the Rev. 
D, Kaai that the gifts were received with 
much pleasure by the large company that 
gathered for the celebration, the only flaw 
in the arrangements being the attendance 
of a larger company than was expected 
judging by the size of the congregation. 

Special mention should be made of the 
efforts of the buyers and packers, Mrs. 
Richards and Mrs. Hopwood, while the 
courtesy of the Inter-Island S. N. Co., in 
sending freight free, is none the less 
gratifying though it is recorded of them 
yearly. 

An unusual event was the receipt of a 
valuable box of goods from John Wana- 
maker of New York in response to a note 
from the writer while he was in New 
York. This box did not arrive in time to 
go up with the rest of the goods, and it 
has been thought best (with their per- 
mission) to save it for another Christ- 
mas. 


KALAUPAPA NATIVE CHURCH. 


The appeal which came from the “Si- 
loama” Church in the Leper Settlement 
appeared not long ago in the Advertiser. 
Responses came in immediately and it is 
now possible to announce that all the ma- 
terials which were called for have been 
arranged for and will be sent on the 
steamer of January 29. 

It will be remembered that the storms 
which were felt all over the Islands were 
severe also at Kalaupapa and the old 
church building where the Rev. D. Kaai 
officiates was almost totally blown down. 
The iron roofing was distributed all over 
the place while some was carried out to 
sea. The deacons were called and all 
agreed that the work of repairs should go 
on immediately and with their crippled 
hands they commenced to put up the bell 
house. Materials were needed and hence 
the appeal referred to above. The con- 
tributors up to date are as follows: 
(eee b ants. hard eon eats oe $20.00 
Kamehameha Alumnae 10.00 
Mrs. Hopper 


Bileire) (ea) 9) 8) (ef.0), 4) 4) 9: len ellepie. 6) 


10 


THE TFRIEND. 


Lewers & Cooke, 1,000 shingles. 

Allen & Robinson, 1,0c0 shingles. 

Wilder & Co., 500 shingles. 

E. O. Hail & Son, 100 Ibs. shingle nails, 
25 gallons paint, 5 gallons turpentine. 

Inter-Island S. N. Co., the freight on 
all the above. : 

Thanks in behalf of these plucky crip- 
pled folk are hereby extended to all those 
who have agsisted in any way one of the 
most sincere and consistent bodies of 
Christians on the islands. 


TR 


THE MISSION FROM HAWAII TO 
THE MARQUESAS. 


Fifty years ago the Marquesas Islands 
occupied much thought, and elicited most 
liberal contributions from the churches of 
Hawaii whence in 1853, had been sent as 
missionaries the two heroic men, Rev. 
James Kekela- and Rev. S. Kauwealoha, 
and their wives, accompanied by Messrs. 
L. Kuaihelani and J. W. Kaiwi and their 
wives. 

After 50 years of missionary service, 
Rey. James Kekela was laid to rest in 
Honolulu, leaving Rev. S. Kauwealoha, 
still in the group, the sole survivor of 
that early and successful mission to one 
of the most difficult fields in the world. 

The following letter from Mr. Kauwe- 
aloha, to Treasurer T. Richards, gives a 
glimpse of the work, and of the results of 


the Marquesas Mission. 
OMG: 


LETTER OF REV. S. KAUWEALOHA. 


Hakuhetau, Uapeu, July 17, 1906. 
To Mr. Richards: 


On account of infirmity, my sight, 
hearing and service of limbs is poor— 
hence, I do not often write of work ac- 
complished. But will report in brief. 

The Savior sent his disciples into all 
the world to teach and baptize. 

The society to which the Hawaiian 
30ard is the successor sent their mis- 
sionaries to Fatuhiva to fulfill the com- 
mand at the call of Matunui. They came 
and have been at work 53 years. 
Triumphantly the Savior has fulfilled the 
commands of the Father: Raised the 
dead, healed the sick, established the 
Lord’s Supper; has risen from the dead 
and returned to the Father. Peter 
triumphed on the day 
James, John, Paul and Barrabas—healed 
the sick, cast-out devils. They kept the 
communion, established the Sabbath on 
the day of the Resurrection. Have pa- 
tience with me. The fathers of the Ha- 
waiian Board were men full of the Spirit 
and of humility, the Holy Spirit being 
with them. 


of Pentecost, | 


S| 

The loye of God for the islanders ‘led 
the Hawaiian Board to send missionaries 
to these islands, answering the Mace- 
donian call. I tell you the Gospel has 
triumphed in Hivaoa and neighboring is- 
lands. The following persons have visit- 
ed us and given rejoicing witness, name- 
ly: Reve lL Smith, Emersons Goan, 
Bishop, John li, Baldwin and Alexander. 

A company of our people—men, 
women and children—were taken to Ho- 
nolulu by Mr. Bicknell and the chief, 
John li, and they sojourned at Ewa, and 
all save their Christian character. Among 
them was the family of Tiietai, who was 
a chief and a deacon of the Church at 
Oomoa. Those fruits of our work were 
seen in 1856. 

Let me assure you the rain has not 
fallen upon barren ground on the islands 
of Hivaoa and Fatuhiva; the hills and 
valleys are green. This is the work of 
the Holy Spirit, softening the hard hearts, 
bringing to an end the tabus and the 
cannibalism. 

The tabus of the Gods are ended, in- 
fanticide stopped, the lascivious dances 
and feasts are no more. The laws of 
France are respected—-with the exception 
of the manufacture of strong drinks. 

Civil marriage has been established and 
the family protected. The believers are 
livnig in fear of God. Preachers are 
touring the islands exhorting and in- 
structing the people, arousing the sleepers 
and the backsliders. 

I have great regard for Rev. Paul 
Vernie, the son of Rev. F. Vernie, pastor 
of the church in Papeete. This young 
man first came into the fields of Messrs. 
Hapuku and Kekela. This was the result 
of the visit of Rev. Kekela and myself to 
Papeete, where we urged Rev. F. Vernie 
that he permit his son and wife to come to 
Hivaca and help us, because we were 
growing old and feeble, and the Hawaiian 
Board would send us no more mission- 
aries. Mrs. Vernie opposed her son’s 
coming, fearing he might be eaten up by 
the cannibals. But the young man came 
with his wife and lived at Atuona. He 
was a man of ability, both in medical 
practice and in preaching, and was a de- 
vout Christian. Upon the death of- his 
wife he returned to Papeete, and to 
France; but he has come again to us. 
Now we have as preachers Rev. Matahi 
at Puamau, and Rev. Hareula at Atuona. 
These are efficient workers, true Chris- 
tians and much respected by the people. 

With love to the Hawaiian Board. 

Sauls 


AN AFFECTING ROMANCE. 


I have lately received from a lady in 
California a story narrated at a mission- 


gullible strangers. 


| 1S incomplete. 


ary meeting by a visiting minister about 
the Hawaiian Mission. The lady had the 
good sense to write to me for verification 
of its truth, which she somewhat doubted. 
It is as follows: 

“A traveller went to the Sandwich Is- 
lands, and attended a native church. Be- 
coming interested, he got into conversa- 
tion with a lady, who told him that she 
had come out to marry a missionary, but 
when she reached the Islands, the young 
man had been killed and eaten by the sav- 
ages. She remained to work, and told 


|the traveller, that the native preacher in 


the pulpit that day was the chief who had 
killed and feasted on her betrothed!” 


“The story sounded all right.” 


Many remarkable stories have been ad- 
ministered here about missionaries to 
Can any one report 
a stranger story? 

A lady friend suggests that this story 
It should have been added 
that the lady applied herself to the con- 
version of the cannibal chief, and then 
married him, and so fulfilled as nearly as 
possible her original engagement to her 
incorporated fiancee. 

Hawaiians, by the way, always had a 
horror of cannibalism. 


SP re 


AT WAILUKUW: 

We wish to thank the friends who so 
kindly and generously contributed to the 
Christmas entertainment of the Alexan- 
der House, boys and girls. Could each 
one have been present at the party for the 
girls in the afternoon, and again in the 
evening to the one for the boys, to have 
seen the happy faces no greater reward 
could have been desired. There was a 
spirit of happiness and joy which per- 
vaded the atmosphere. 

We also take this opportunity of thank- 
ing the faculty of the Kamehameha Pre- 
paratory School for the set of American 
Cyclopedia, books and magazines sent. 
and the one who so kindly sends us the 
new magazines. These are greatly ap- 
preciated. Magazines, papers and books 
for children will be thankfully received. 

It may be of interest to the readers of 
The Friend to know the program of work 
at the Settlement. Monday evening we 
have a gymnasium class under the direc- 


‘tion of Rev. R. B. Dodge, which is proy- 


ing very popular; from twenty to thirty — 
boys taking part. Tuesday night a class 
in shorthand under Mrs. Bett. Wednes- 
dav and Friday night drawing for those 
who wish, and vocal lessons under the 
direction of Mr. Moses Kauhimahu. 
The latter are preving quite an attraction 
to young men, and we feel we are very 


THE FRIEND. 


1 § 


¥ 
fortunate in securing such an efficient 
teacher in this line. Thursday night 
English work, which is largely attended 
hy Japanese young men and women and 
Korean boys. Every afternoon during 
the week are classes for girls in plain 
sewing and fancy work. On Tuesday 
and Thursday afternoons lessons in lau- 


hala work are given by Miss Hana Kia- | 


kona. 
twelve. 
ed twenty-five. No matter how hard the 
rain may pour the boys always come to 
enjoy the games and the reading room. 


Noel 


Average attendance of afternoons, 


NOTES. 

Christmas exercises were largely at- 

tended by the Chinese of Wailuku, Paia 
and Makawao. 


cere gratitude to all friends who con- 
iributed to their Christmas enjoyment. 
The parsonage connected with the Chi- 
nese Church is now completed, and occu- 
pied by the evangelist, Mr. Ah Lin. 
Galads 


THE MU Slur ESTIVAL. 


There is no thought of abandoning the 
Music Festival. 
year it is likely to become a biennial in- 
stitution. The reason for this lies in the 
amount of work required of the choruses 
which is burdensome in view of the 
amount of regular school work. Then 


too, there is planned something more am- | 


bitious than the desultory choruses hith- 
erto rendered. With more time to prac- 
tice a cantata having musical worth as 
well as melody could be rendered as well 
as not. 

There has been a committee appointed 
by the schools interested which com- 
prises the leaders in the music work of | ¢ 
the city and this committee will go about 
choosing a suitable work to engage the 
attention of the choruses at the beginning 
of the next school year, thus allowing 
for several months more practice than 
usual. 
place some time in May of 1908, and the 
soloists may be secured from the main- 
land. Correspondence has already been 
entered into with available — soloists, 
among whom is Mr. Fred Butler, basso, 
who delighted Honolulu a year ago. 

An interesting fact in reference to the 
work already done is the probable estab- 
lishment by the school authorities of a 
large school chorus as a permanent fea- 
ture of the closing of the schools. This 
will cover the chorus work usually pre- 
sented at the Boys’ Field by the six hun- 
dred children at the time of the annual 


Instead of coming every | 


The Festival will probably take | 


= 


Music Festival. Rumor has it that a fine 
amphitheater wiil be made at the Normal 
School to accommodate a still larger 
number of-children. That is a result of 
the Music Festival and the remarkable 
good work of Mrs. T. Tucker, which is 
worth while. 


ALAiRS 


: LIBUES LIBRARY EXPERIENCE.| 
Attendance at night has averag- |. 


To the Editor of The Friend: 


The communication from your corre-| 


spondent on Maui prompts me to give 
you my experience. 

Five or six years ago I came to the 
conclusion that a local library in Lihue 
ought to be a good thing in spite of the 
fact that it was a small scattered com- 


‘munity and many people already had 
The Chinese wish to express their sin- 


more than they could read in the way of 
magazines and other periodicals. No 
one else, so far as I know, agreed 
with me, or at any rate was at all en- 
thusiastic in approval. So that means 
for the purpose were not readily forth- 
coming. However, I secured four or 


\five generous patrons who became life 
members by paying $10.00 each, and one} 


of them fitted up suitable cases in the 
Sunday School room of the new church. 
With this start I ordered the first install- 
ment of books from New York, and when 
they came varnished them to protect them 
from insects and wear and tear. An- 
nual membership I fixed at $1.00 a year 
—purposely very low. Many libraries, in 
my opinion, buy a valuable lot of books 


and then lock them up by too high a 


membership fee. As I expected, onlv 
more so, scarcely anybody patronized my 
library, even when, by various means I 
had considerably increased the number 
of books. In spite of low membership 
fees the library was lying idle. I was 
driven to a radical new departure. 

By way of experiment I undertook to 
deliver the books to members. Every 
two weeks the boy went round and took 
orders and then promptly delivered the 
books. This resulted in the immediate 
extension of the usefulness of the library, 
people took books regularly, and read 
them faithfully, who would never in the 
world have come after them. This solved 
the problem. 
a steadily growing appreciation of the 
library and a consequent interest in it. 
We have now upwards of 700 volumes, 
almost all new and valuable books and 


we still keep the membership at $1.00 a 


year. Once a year the proceeds of an 
art exhibition go towards the support of 
the library, and since the adoption of a 
fair element in this exhibition to which 


the friends of the library contribute arti-./ 


Since then there has been | 


cles for sale, these proceeds have been 
considerable. 

In conclusion I wish to bear testimony 
to the appreciative interest and generous 
support which have grown up in the com- 
munity and which abundantly justify the 
faith of a somewhat doubtful prophet. 


7. Mey DGATE 


KAUAI GLEANING 


Sh 


Not in many years has there been so 
stormy a season as that in which 1906 
went out and 1907 came in. For two 
successive Sundays at Lihue it was im- 
possible to have any services. The rain 
fell in torrents and the roads were almost 
impassable. The same was true of Koloa 
and other parts of the island. 

The Sunday School exhibitions ar- 
ranged for Hanapepe and Koolau for the 
first Sunday of January were postponed. 

Considering the bad weather it is for- 
tunate that the week of prayer was 
changed to Easter. 

A special session of the ‘Ministers’ 
School” was held at Lihue on January 11, 
and was fairly well attended in spite of 
the bad roads and a steady torrent of 
rain. Mrs. J. M. Lydgate entertained 
|the “‘school” at lunch. ; 

Extensive repairs are being made to the 
Hanalei parsonage, which will put it in 
first class condition. 

Rev. R. Puike retires from the Board 
of County Supervisors, of which he has 
proved himself a conscientious and use- 
ful member. 

A class is being formed at Lihue under 
the leadership of Rev. J. M. Lydgate for 
}a regular course of careful Bible study, 
along the line of the International Les- 
sons. This will be particularly beneficial 
to Sunday School teachers as well as 
others. 


SPATE MENT KAUALS PASTORS’ 
AID SOCIETY, YEAR ENDING 
DECEMBER 31, 1906. 


Receipts. 


(BalancemnnrommlOOS ae amanrs me $129.07 
Piniortelr. Nis Wilcox: tied eaten aoe 150.00 
eee PMV Lot S ARG ahaa angels ce 400.00 


“ee 


Estate Hon. Paul Isenberg 150.00 


$829.07 
Expenditures. 

In Aid Hanalei Church, Pastor’s 
Salary <= a ehes.«'0<. eee $210.00 

In Aid Koolau Church, Pastor’s 
SaAL VE Shue! ein Maen, cae 140.00 
fii, WaNitel SIMA ORE, clei dba crc mo chee 100.00 
tana pepe tit Na) Wtmneae. 49.80 
iVWiattimeaa aun. gaykewent Sata. 180.00 
Anahola Parsonage Repairs..... 50.00 


12 


“a 


THE FRIEND. 


Horse for use Hanalei Pastor.... 45.00 
Incidentals’ | Sse ae ee 9.50 
$784.30 
Balance: .. tia ee aera oe 44.77 
$829.07 
J. M. LYDGATE, 
Treasurer. 


THRUM’S ANNUAL FOR 1907. 


One-third of a'century old and yet ever 
young is the story of “this recognized 
book of information about Hawaii.” 
“Better than ever” comes the conviction 
after a careful reading. The leading arti- 
cle consists of a full list of Heiaus and 
Heiau sites on the islands of Kauai and 
Oahu, together with descriptive details 
under the heading of “Tales from the 
Temples,” by Mr. Thomas G. Thrum. It 
is one more piece of painstaking, accurate 
work which the community associate with 
the name of the author. Weare promised 
a further installment ‘next year. The 
series will be of the greatest antiquarian 
value. Mr. Westervelt contributes one 
of his valuable studies on the compara- 
tive mythology of the Pacific. Legends 
and tales of olden days, a delightful chap- 
ter of remiscence by Gorham D. Gilman, 
several articles of a historic nature, a not- 
able utterance on the liquor evil and a 
very readable account of the free-lance 
Bully Hayes combine to give spice and 
variety to the charming make up. Apro- 
pos of Bully Hayes and the mass of fic- 
tion which has woven itself about his 
name it is interesting to. read in the 
autobiography of that stirring missionary 
martyr, James Chalmers, of New Guinea, 
whom Robert Louis Stevenson character- 
ized as “‘the most attractive, simple, brave 
and interesting man in the whole Pacific,” 
a description of the sea rover. Chalmers 
was wrecked on the Island of Niue when 
en route to his first mission station in 
1867. He scon found his way to Samoa. 
His autobiography reads: “Soon after 
we arrived at Samoa, Captain Williams 
and his wife were brought to 
Samoa in the Rona, a brig of 150 tons, 
owned and commanded by the notorious 
Bully Hayes. After spending 
six weeks on Samoa Hayes was chartered 
to take us to Rarotonga. 


Hayes seemed to take to me during the 
frequent meetings we had on shore, and 
before going on board for good I met 
him one afternoon, and said to him, ‘Cap- 
tani Hayes, I hope you will have no ob- 
jection to our having morning and even- 
ing service on board, and twice on Sab- 
baths. All will be short, and only those 
who like to come need attend.’ 


ae - 


‘Certainly not; my ship is a mission- 
ary ship now, and I hope you will feel it 
so. All on board will attend these ser- 
vices. 

“Only if they are inclined,’ I replied. 

“We were well treated on board, Hayes 
was a perfect host and a thorough gentle- 
man. His wife and children were on 
pOandseeand although we had fearful 
weather nearly all the time, yet I must say 
we enjoyed ourselves. 
several times lost his temper, and did very 
queer things, acting under the influence 
of passion more like a madman than a 
sane man. Much of his past life he re- 
lated to us at table; especially such things 
as he .had done to cheat governments. 

“When near to Rarotonga I had a very 
kind letter from Hayes, thanking me for 
the services I had held on board the ship, 
and for my kindly demeanor towards 
him, saying, ‘[f only you were near me, 
I should certainly become a new man, and 
lead a different life. Yet a few days 
after arriving at Rarotonga, the vessel 
being anchored in Ararua, he nearly kill- 
ed his supercargo with a bag of dollars 
which I had given him as the last pay- 
ment of the charter for the voyage now 
successfully completed.” 

We note a few new features in the very 
useful tables, but wonder why the church 
statistics on page 21 were not brought 
down to date. Certainly those for the 
Evangelical Churches could easily have 
been corrected by the statistics printed in 
“That They Go Forward.” The list of 
Honolulu “Places of Worship” on pages 
209 and 210 omit the flourishing Makiki 
Congregational Church (Japanese), cling 
to the name Japanese Union Church for 
Nuuanu Street Japanese Church and give 
the name of Rev. S. Kodama as pastor. 
Mr. Kodama merely supplied the pulpit 
for a few months some two years ago. 
But one has to search hard for even minor 
slips in such a reliable and excellent pub- 
lication. Like all its predecessors it is in- 
valuable. Ed. 


IN| THEVOLDEN DAYS * 


I. Exras Bonn. 


Rey. E. Bond and his wife, in company 
with Rev. Daniel Dole, Rev. J. D. Paris 
and Mr. Wm. H. Rice, with their wives, 
were landed in Honolulu on the 21st. day 
of May, 1841, during the annual session 
of the missionaries, and after a month’s 
stay in that town he was assigned to the 
mission station at Kohala, where he and 
Mrs. Bond duly arrived after a passage 
of ten days in the old time schooner. The 
thatched house of worship was found to 
be in a dilapidated condition, and roam- 
ing swine occupied it as a very conveni- 


Hayes | 


ent shelter at night. The creation of a 
new and presumably larger building was 
after a time decided upon, to be located 
on the hill a little higher up. The frame 
was to be of heavy ohia, thatched, and 
it must have been during the year 1842 
that the process of getting these timbers 
was begun. Let us follow the leader in 
the operations as far as is possible, in his 
own words; but let it be borne in mind 
that the narrative was written by special 
request, for his own children only, and 
was never intended for publication. 

“Tt was very laborious, the drawing by 
human muscles of such heavy timber, 8 
by ro inches, but the work was gradually 
accomplished, and in 1843 we had a 
strong frame up, neatly wattled on sides 
and ends with ki leaf and thatched with 
cane leaf on the roof. The design was to 
floor and ceil the building, lining the 
sides also, with koa boards. Pine at that 
time was brought from Boston and was 
very costly—r12 cents a foot. Koa was 
sawed by hand in the Waimea mountains, 
and cost, delivered at Kawaihae, 4 and 
4% cents per foot. From Kawaihae it 
was brought on schooner to Mahukona, 
and tlience on men’s backs. No carpen- 
ters were to be had. I broke in my good 
deacon, Paku, to the use of the plane 
and saw, and he, at that time, the best 
of our 32 school teachers, generally left 
his school and gave himself unstintedly to 
the work with me, for all the time we 
could command during a period of six 
months, planing and putting up the 
boards on floor, sides and overhead. The 


THES 


THE GROWING FAMILY NEEDS 


AN ENCYCLOPEDIA 


The cost hitherto has been so great that al- 
though CHILDREN ARE FOREVER WANT- 
ING to consult one in their school work, few ~ 
can afford a set. 


NOW COMES___ 


THE BEST YET 


Thos. Nelson & Sons, the great Bible Pub- 
lisher has produced the most complete at the 
least cost; $42.00 will buy set in cloth. Better 
binding up to $72.00. Bright boys and girls as 
AGENTS wanted in every town. Write to the 


HAWAIIAN BOARD 
BOOK ROOMS 


THE FRIEND; 


13 


lumber was green and tough, so that the|animal in this part of the island. Every- 


working of it was doubly hard. Paku 
did all this without the expectation of 
any pay. There was no money ever seen 
here at that time. All I had went to buy 
‘the necessary lumber, glass, etc., for the 
building. The circulating medium was 
brown cotton. We raised but small 
amounts of cloth at any one time, with 
which to purchase lumber, a few hun- 
dred feet at a time, and used that up 
whilst raising more cloth for another 
supply. Occasionally, however, some 
friend would send a gift of a piece of 
brown cotton, and this I was accustomed 
to divide with Paku. He never asked for 
anything in the way of pay. He was one 
of the noblest souls that ever trod the 
earthly footstool. In this way we had 
got four-fifths of the floor laid and nearly 
one-half the house ceiled on sides and 
overhead, when a terrible Kona (south- 
west wind) leveled the building with the 
ground. 

“Tt was a sad day for us all. The na- 
tives had made rough settees at a great 
cost of labor, and kept the floor filled as 
fast as we laid it. But now all was de- 
stroyed. I called a meeting of the people 
and we cleared up the rubbish on the 
floor, and then and there talked over the 
situation. After a sufficiency of talk, we 
cesolved : 

“7. We will build a stone church, 
with the help of God, and begin now to 
collect the materials—stones, lime, sand, 
wood, etc. 

» “2. We will not beg aid of any kind 
for any one. 

“These resolutions were carried out 
fully. This was in 1848. We immedi- 
ately set to work, and it was soon evi- 
dent that we had undertaken no child’s 
play. One or two days’ work each week 
were devoted to the service. Each land 
had its luna (overseer). The stones were 
gathered from neighboring ravines and 
brought on men’s shoulders to the site. 
The lime was made from bunches of 
coral procured by divers in three to five 
fathoms of water for miles along the 
coast, and carried on the shoulders of 
the people to the church site. And the 
wood was brought in the same way, from 
eight to ten miles mauka. A fathom pile 
of coral required the same measure of 
wood for burning. Then came sand— 
hundreds of barrels. It was brought by 
women and children from all along the 
coast, from Kawaihae around to Pololu, 
in bits of kapa, small calabashes, and 


small lauhala bags, from wherever it}. 


could be scraped up along the shore. 
But the most formidable part of the task 
was hewing the large timber in the hills 
and drawing it thence, a distance of eight 
to twelve ies There was not a draught 


thing was done by human muscles. There 
was no one who could marshal the people 
and have them draw together save my- 
self; so that I was always at the large 
drawings, twice each week. Three large 
ropes and 150 men with a stick of heavy 
ohia that would sink in water, and the 
problem was to reach Iole with the bur- 
den. -It was rought hauling, up and 
down deep ravines; but the job was final- 
ty brought to a successful end. The large 
and small timber was finally gathered, 
with God’s blessing, at the site of the 
former building. The size, too, was to 
be the same—85 feet by 45. We found 
a mason, a native from Lahaina. He was 
to receive $300’ for putting up the walls, 
aided by daily relays of the people for 
carrying stone, sifting sand, mixing mor- 
tar, etc. In due process of time the walis 
were up, as they now stand. In the 
search for a carpenter, we had difficulty 
in finding a decent man, and had great 
difficulty in getting the frame on. Like 
all earthly pilikias this, however, passed 
away; and finally. after a herculean ef- 
fort, the house stood completed in 1855.” 

There was no bell tower at that time, 
and no beli save a small one, the gift of 
Rev. H. T. Cheever, that had been cracix- 
ed in ringing. 


“Finally the inside was finished and we 
came to the dedication, 1855. The king 
had designed to be here, it was said, and 
dedicate the house. When a knowledge 
of his purpose came to my ears, I could 
scarcely credit the story, especially as he 
had never deigned to mention the pur- 
pose tome. But lo! On the p. m. before 
the day appointed, he came with his train 
and before dark a note came from his 
secretary saying that His Majesty would 
like to have a meeting in the new build- 
ing at 10% o'clock! Here wasa fix! But 
the house was built for divine worship, 
and could we suffer the king or any man 
to come in and first dedicate the house 
after the old style, making the King the 
Mea Mana (the Mighty One) and not 
God! No, never. So I wrote him say- 
ing that he had named the very hour set 
for consecrating the house to God, and 
that at the close of this service we would 
be glad to see and hear His Majesty 
(Kamehameha IV). Soon after came a 
second note reiterating the request, to 
which my reply was the same. It was a 
trying ordeal, yet I must be true to God, 
and He must be the first in his own 
NOticce mm eeemecen | ahadse inirmyamnotes: 
cordially invited them up to the dedica- 
tion, but had no thought of asking the 


King into the pulpit as he designed, un- 


COLLE 


Sam 


Transit. 


GE-HILL5 
HONOLULU’S CHOICEST SUBURB 
City Streets, City Water, City Lights 


Unsurpassed Marine and Mountain Views, Rapid 


no Saloons. : : : 


A FEW CHOICE LOTS FOR SALE 


No Pake Stores, no Japanese Shacks, 


* ° e ° e 
° 


MONEY AT 6% TO HELP BUILD 
APPLY TO 


14 


THE FRIEND: 


til the dedication service had come to an 
end; but the King and party took the 
rebuff illy, and heing balked in his origi- 
nal purpose, he now took a method of 
revenge. 

“The royal party was at Naihe’s place 
in Kapaau (a half-mile from the church). 
In the morning, about an hour before the 
service, the King sent up Ruth Keeliko- 
lani, the governess of this island, saying 
that he wished to speak to the people 
about some public matters, and would be 
greatly obliged if I would send them 
down to his place, promising that it 
should not interfere with our dedication 
exercises. The people were beginning to 
assemble, and I stated the King’s request 
and begged them to go down. (ihe, saw 
through the rtise at once, and replied, 
‘No, this is a trick of the king’s to break 
up our service. We will not go down.’ 
But I entreated them to go down, insis*- 
ing that we must trust to the King’s 
honor. But the King had nothing to say 
until our last bell was tolling. Then the 
speeches began. Those only who heard 


wounds, give doses of medicine, then go 


to my study till some one calls for advice, 
etc., which is often in five minutes, and 
repeated till ten o’clock at night. I am 
cumbered with many cares. In the after- 
noon [ teach singing and lecture again. 
On the Sabbath I preach at sunrise, speaix 
to the children at ten, a sermon at eleven 
to the people, Bible class at one, lecture at 
five and on Mondays I am somewhat 
blue. 

“T spend every third Sabbath at the out 
stations, where the labor is greater than 
at home.” 

During his five years’ ministry .on 
Maui es wide- spread parish included 

5,000 souls and in that time he built 25. 

Cheeehes and school houses, of >, 
adobé and stone respectively, started a! 
saw mill to cut koa timber at hand, for’ 
fioors, benches and doors for the churches 
and school houses, and built a crude 
sugar-mill—-which is now a relic. at Wai- 
juku—that his church members might 
work out their industrial education by 
planting sugar cane under his directions 


the faint sound of the small bell came and grinding out sugar and molasses to 


up, 


and we went through the services sell to traders that came into Hawaiian 
(Brother Lyons and 1) with two-thirds waters. 


Building churches and_ school 


of a house-full instead of a jam as there pote. meant going with his people into 
would have been but for the King’s un-|the mountains for days and nights of 


worthy game. The King and 


party exposure 


and poi diet, while sharpen- 


showed their sense of outraged dignity, ing tools for cutting the timber, directing 
by not coming near the church, and de-|the pulu gathers, which product was used 
} palu g Pp 

parted from the district so early the next, for filling pillews on which many little 


morning, that when I went to call upon missionary heads slept sturdily. 


him, 
” 
gone an hour. 


EK. C. Bono. 
II. Richard ARMSTRONG, 
They nobly earned the crowns they 


wear—our forebears who brought the 
banner of the cross to Hawaii neti. 
Bravely they carried the message of 


God’s love and mercy over steep and rug-. 


ged ways, through self-denial, discour- 
agement, sorrow and: sickness to break 
the bonds of cruel superstition, and dis- 
pel the horrors of heathenism. There is 
no legacy like the legacy of a noble life. 
May their cherished memories be the in- 
spirations of our lives, made easier by 
well laid foundations through years of 
heroic service to God and man. 

Lest we forget how much the Hawaii 
of today has cost in prayer, brain and 
brawn, let us read from the letters pages 
of those early days. In 1839 Richard 
Armstrong writes to his family in Amer- 
ica from Wailuku: “My work is pleasant 
but arduous. I attend a meeting every 
morning at dawn of day, and speak to 
an audience of about two hundred, visit 
my school from eight to nine then attend 


Coming 


I found that the party had been) down from the mountains he superintend- 


ed the buildings, wrote hymns, taught 


‘the people to sing them, preached in a 


new tongue, coined words, and gently led 
his flock in ways of righteousness, even 
to directing the details‘of homely living 
—as on one occasion he was called up at 
midnight to counsel a conscientious dea- 
con who came far in the darkness to in- 
quire if he could assist in administering 
the communion the next day, without any 
trousers, as his wayward son had stolen 
his only pair. The missionary mothers 
“looked well to the ways of their house- 
holds’ and were not behind their hus- 
bands in good works. <A chronicle of 
their lives “would reveal stalwart service 
to God and Hawaii. 


ELLEN ARMSTRONG WEAVER 
(To be continued in next number), 


RECORD OF EVENTS. 


Dec. 31—Forty-ton schooner Lavinia 
stripped of her sails in violent squall in 
passing Diamond Head, and wrecked on 
Waikiki reef. Capt. Sam Manu and his 
five men, all natives, swim safely to shore 


to the sick, blister, cup, poultice, dress,through the breakers—Colored watch- 


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TELEPHONES———92 


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55 miles per hour.. Many algaroba trees 
uprooted in the city and park.—In even- 
ing, F. H. Kilbey’s cottage in Palolo 
demolished by a whirlwind. 

January 1—Albert P. Taylor of the 
Advertiser staff accepts position of Chief 
of Detectives on staff of Sherift Iaukea. 
—Fierce storm of Kona wind‘and rain 


does much damage in Honolulu and else- | 


where. 
21—Kihei wharf destroyed by gale. 


3rd—-Death of Henry FE. Highton, | 


eminent jurist of California. 

7th—New Sheriff Iaukea takes charge 
of the police department.—S. S. Arizonan 
sails from Kaanapali with the first cargo 
of sugar for the Tehuantepec railroad. 

1oth—Brilliant eruption visible over 
Mauna Loa.—Oahu Railway trains ob- 
structed by freshets——Copious lava-flow 
bursts forth close to flow of 1887 in Ka- 


lhuku, Kau. 
. . | 

14th—At noon, splitting crashes of| 
thunder, and heavy down pour of rain. | 


Steamer Alameda at Oceanic wharf 
struck by lightning—no. damage.—A sec- 
ond great lava flow issues in Manuka, 
north of the first one. 52 white and many 
other visitors camp on the north side of 
the lava flows in Kau. 


MARRIED. 


MAAGE-BOURKE—At Flonolulu, 


Jan. 16; 


Frederick W. Maage to Miss Lilian Irene} 


Bourke. 

BROOKS-CONKEY—At Honolulu, Jan. 18, 
Dr. Frank Terry Brooks, of Greenwich, Ct., 
to Miss Madeline Conkey, of New York. 

DALTON-HILLEBRAND—At Victoria, B. C., 


Jan. 19, William Robert Ingle Dalton, M. D..,| 


of Seattle, to Miss Helen Louise Hillebrand 
of Honolulu. 


DIED. 


WINTER-—At Puako, Hawaii, Dec. 27, Wil-| 


liam Winter, aged 24, by suicide. 


HAYWOOD.—At Fort Bayard, N. M., Dec. |} 


19, William Haywood, former U. S. Consul- 
General at Honolulu. 

HIGHTON—In Honolulu, Jan. 3, Hon. Henry 
E. Highton, aged 74. 

SEABURY—At Ross Valley, Cal., Dec. 25, 
Capt. W. B. Seabury, senior captain 
PeeVieeswcm Go. aged, O5 years. 

WRIGHT—At Honolulu, Jan. 15, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Hoskins, wife of John Wright, aged 67. 

STURTEVANT—At Honokaa, Hawaii, Jan 


13, of typhoid, C. F. Sturtevant, aged 30, prin- | 


cipal of Honokaa school. 

KALAMA—At Makawao, Maui, Jan. 16, Mrs. 
Sarah Kalama, aged 60 years, mother of 
Senator Kalama. 

TOEPELMANN—In Dresden, Dec. 17, O. L. 

Toepelmann, former chemist of Pacific Fer- 
tilizer Works. 

GODFREY—At San Francisco, Jan. 18, Capt. 
William B. Godfrey, for ten years president 
of the Inter-Island’ Steam Navigation Co., 
aged 68 years. 5 

KITTREDGE—At Santa Barbara, Cal., Jan. 
15, Charles Stewart Kittredge, M.D., aged 
74 years, former resident of Honolulu. 


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Agents Philadelphia Board of Underwriters, 


LIST OF OFFICERS—Charles M. Cooke, 
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BROKEN! 


With the publication of Nelson’s Encyclopaedia, THE PADLOCK 
OF PROHIBITIVE PRICE has been broken, and for no man or woman 
who is mentally alive and who really is a lover cf knowledge is there left 


an excuse not to have at hand a high-class work of reference, comprehen- 
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PORE NON, 


for readers of English. 


NELSON’S ENGYGLOPAEDIA 
>. Everybody's Book of Reference 


FRANK MOORE COLBY, M. A., New York, American Editor. GEORGE SANDEMAN, M. A., Edinburg, European 
Editor. With over 600 contributors, each the authority in his fleld. 

To have collected and arranged in 12 full volumes the endeavors and achievements.ef the human race up to the pre- 
sent time—to have at hand the knowledge of the world sifted, certified and presented in one great working library for 
quick and easy reference; all done effectualy and completely. This of itself has been cause for wonderment, but that the 
entire set should be offered to the public at the amazingly low price of $42.00 for the set, marks the undertaking as the 
wonder in this day of wonders in the realm of book publishing. 

Imagine its price four times what it is, put it to the severest encyclopaedia tests you know, either as to comprehen- 
siveness, accuracy, reliability, newness, clearness and charm of expression, profusion and character of illustration, charac- 
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We might write pages about its 60,000 subjects, its 7,500 three-column pages, its 6.000 illustrations, the color plates, 
the full-page plates, the perfect cross-reference system and the many other advantages. But we won’t. We will do bet- 
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eee 


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Entered October 27, 1902, at Honolulu, Hawaii, as second 
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OLDEST NEWSPAPER WEST OF THE ROCKIES. 


VOL. LXIV 


PREASURER’S STATEMENT. 


January 20-February 20. 


RECEIPTS. 
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le ee va lee 26.00 
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Excess of Expenditures over 
MMe Ae 2,619.22 
$7,272.39 
EXPENDITURES. 

Oricesexpense...... $239.63 
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$7,272.39 
Overdraft at the Bank....... $2,345.29 

THEODORE RICHARDS, 
4 Treasurer. 


HONOLULU, H. T., MARCH, 1907 


The Johnston Meetings 


Rey. Howard Agnew Johnston, 


D. D., the Commissioner appointed by, 


the General Assembly’s Evangelistic 
Committee to visit the missions of the 
Presbyterian Board throughout the 
world, landed in Honolulu February 4. 
On the 5th he set out for Hilo, where 
he arrived the 6th. During the two 
days of his stay in that city he held 
no less than seven services. The at- 
tendance was much larger than had 
been dreamed possible and the impres- 
sion made upon Christians was deep 
and abiding. Returning to the capital 
February. 9, his campaign opened Sun- 
day the 1oth, and closed Sunday the 
«7th. During these eight days no 
fewer than twenty addresses were de- 
livered by him. Their chief purpose 
was to stimulate disciples to do the ag- 
gressive work incumbent upon follow- 
ers of Jesus. -A course of lectures upon 
methods of personal work occupied 
several week day afternoons. . Here 
Dr. Johnston is at his best. He is eyi- 


dently a master of tact and his long’ 


experience in meeting men and leading 
them to Christ has both enriched his 
life and furnished him with rare illus- 
trations. Those who attended these 
lectures were profoundly stirred. The 
other services were inspirational in 
character and calculated to stimulate 
believers to realize to fuller degree 
their power as coworkers with God. 
Dr. Johnston’s work is not of the 
showy kind. He plows deep in Chris- 
tian experience. Perhaps the largest 
service he rendered lay in bringing 
many back to a richer prayer-life. His 
Own experiences in prayer have been 
remarkable and he realizes that the 
Church is missing victories every day 
by its failure to pray. Just at this 
juncture, when observationally Chris- 
tian work in Hawaii shows rich 
growth, it is significant that a Messen- 
ger of the Spirit should have been sent 
to direct our energies along the more 
silent and potent channels of spiritual 
effort. The gratitude of the Christian 
community is extended to Dr. Johnston 
for his loving, faithful service. 


Dean Bosworth 


We are glad to be able to give to our 
friends the likeness of Dr. Bosworth on 
our cover page. Before this issue will 
reach them, many to whom he has been 
a stranger will have begun to regard 
him as a friend. The friendship into 
which Dr. Bosworth binds men is not 
of the momentary sort. It is his rare 
privilege to minister to the deep things 
in human nature and whoever enters 
the circle of those whom he thus 
touches counts him a comrade of the 
spirit life, one of the eternal friends of 
whom Jesus spoke. It is Honolulu’s 
rare privilege to have one week of Dr. 
Bosworth and this we owe to Japan, 
where for five years plans to entice him 
across the ocean have been slowly per- 
fecting. Japan is coming to be one of 
those parts of the earth that get what 
they set their heart upon. Steadily 
from the English-speaking world a con- 
stantly enlarging stream of men and 
women of international worth is mov- 
ing over sea to give of the best for the 
upbuilding of the new national life. 
The going of the World’s Student Fed- 
eration to Tokyo is one more testimony 
to the drawing power of the Little 
Giant of the Far East. It is also an- 
other commentary, on Jesus’ promise, 
“To him that hath shall be given.” Ho- 
nolulu being on the road gets much of 
this inspiration which Japan is secur- 
ing. There is no reason why every 
world traveler should not find it im- 
possible to leave out of his itinerary 
these Islands. To make them the 
Magnetic Center of the Pacific World, 
they must become what God intended 
them for, a Stronghold of His King- 
dom. Let us beautify our city, culti- 
vate such blossoms as Floral Parades 
and Outdoor Fetes of varied hue, and, 
better still, Ict us strengthen every 
manifestation of the Life of the Spirit, 
schools, churches, honest government, 


libraries, social settlements and true 
brotherhood between all races. 
Governor Carter’s Message 

This is a strong state paper. It 


opens with the right note and main- 
tains it to the end. Hawaii is fortu- 


THE, FRIEND. 


nate 1n having as its chief executive 
one who knows no race prejudice and 
who believes that, small as it is, this 
mid-cceanic Territory is sure to bulk 


large in its contribution to human 
solidarity. fortunately he has behind 
him “in the ‘native race) -ayconstitn- 


ency rarely fitted by its nature to con- 
tribute towards this destiny, for hos- 
pitality always has been a basal qual- 
ity in the Hawaiian. Meantime there 
is a breadth and sanity in the plea of this 
message for securing a larger white 
immigration. For while Hawaii wel- 
comes the Asiatic, she realizes that 
her unique mission of demonstrating 
to the world how naturally brother- 
hood between East and West can be 
incarnated in a single community will 
not be fulfilled unless something like 
race equilibrium be maintained. We 
want the Asiatic and the white man 
to merge here into one great self-gov- 
erning commonwealth. It can be done 
and we have faith to believe it will be. 
Governor Carter is nothing if not a 
business man end the financial section 
of his message always speaks his prac- 
tical good sense. 
to education is also unusually thought- 
ful and timely. Not a day should be 
lost in developing our present system 
of public school training along more 
practical lines and in restoring the sala- 
ries of the faithful teachers who are our 
best public servants. If the pension sys- 
tem recommended by Mr. Carter be in- 
stituted it will mark a splendid advance. 
The plea for a Public Library is especi- 
ally valuable. The Governor has thought 
out a workable plan and the Legisla- 
ture can do nothing better than to 
carry it into effect. Balloting ma- 
chines, corporate bonding of public 
servants, a campaign against the 
“white plague,” the acquirement of the 
Kona Orphanage, and despatch in leg- 
islative business are but a few of the 
details which show the watchful wis- 
dom of our chief executive. 


Legislature of 1907 


Once more the Island Solons have 
gathered to prove the wisdom of the 
people’s choice. The Hawaiian race 
is, as it should be, in full control of 
both houses. Matters of immense mo- 
ment for the Territory are before this 
Legisiature and a heavy responsibil- 
ity to maintain the steadily-increasing 
gain in public spirit manifested suc- 
cessively by its. predecessors rests 
upon its shoulders. The matter of 
greatest importance before our law- 
makers is the regulation of the liquor 


‘The portion devoted | 


traffic. The Senate of 1905 passed the 
so-called Dickey Local Option Bill, but 


‘at the last moment it was left unenact- 


ed by the House. This is a measure 
which is demanded very widely by the 
people throughout the Territory and 
it should be passed promptly by both 
houses. Last spring, when the well- 
known Civic Federation questionnaire 
on the liquor law was sent to one hun- 
dred and sixty-eight of the leading 
men of affairs throughout the Islands, 
72 replies to the question “Do you 
favor local option?” were received. 50 
of ‘these “were Yes” “andi 22 swere 


“No,” a majority of more than two- 
thirds. This was a very fair test of 


public opinion. Next to local option 
the question of high license demands 
considleration. The questionnaire 
showed 57 in favor of this to 17 
against and there was a very general 
concensus that the amount should be 
$1,000 per year. All the other points 
enumerated in the proposed bill of the 
Anti-Saloon League and the Civic 


Federation should be embodied in the, 


statute law. Prominent also among the 
good things to be done is the passage 
of a bill to secure a quieter Sunday. 
The Asiatics have, as was feared, 
abused the provisions of the present 
law to keep their stores open gener- 
ally. Other legislation of first im- 
portance is well indicated in Governor 
Carter’s message. There is good evi- 
dence that the Hawaiian Senators and 
Representatives are conscious that 
they are under trial this year as per- 
haps never before and that if they ac- 
quit themselves honorably the Amer- 
ican Nation will come to ‘repose a con- 
fidence in their race which a few years 
ago seemed beyond the possible reach 
of this generation. The Friend be- 
lieves that the Hawaiian citizen and 
legislator are as capable of the best as 
those of any race. The last election 
showed what the Hawaiian voter can 
and will do when the issue is clearly 
understood. We look for a like rec- 
ord in the new Legislature. We _ be- 
lieve that the appeal should be made 
to the noblest in these our mid-Pacific 
brothers and we trust that the out- 
come will be the cleanest, most busi- 
ness-like and public-spirited company 
of law makers this Territory has ever 
seen. There can be no question that 
early statehood for Hawaii hinges 


largely upon.the sort of work done by, 


the Legislature of 1907. If local op- 
tion, strict control of the liquor traf- 
fic, high license, better Sunday legis- 
lation, adequate compensation and 
pensions for teachers, an up-to-date 
primary law, an honest, economical 


budget be enacted on the one hand 
and the bete noir of interference with 
our wise leper laws be avoided on the 


Other, this year of grace will mark a 
‘long step forward towards the erec- 
‘tion of the first Island State of tht 


American Union. 


Police Triumphs 


Hardly a day has passed since Jan- 
uary 7, when Col. Iaukea became 
Sheriff, without added testimony to 
the efficiency, honesty and fearlessness 


of himself and his Chief of Detectives, 


Mr. Taylor. For the first time jim 
many years Chinese New Year’s pass- 
ed without open gambling. What this 
must have meant for the happiness 93f 
many poor families no one but those 
conversant with the misery, which this 


‘vice when unrebuked by the authori- 


ties has cest, can know. The better 
side of Chinatown among us has risen 
nobly to the support of our courage- 
ous police leaders and has _ heartily 
thanked them for their splendid public 
services. One of the most spectacular 
bits of successful policing that Hawati 
has ever known was the sensational 
entrapping of the Chinese gambling 
fraternity, in the very act of bribery of 
authorities, by Chief Taylor, acting 
under the advice of Sheriff Iaukea and 
Editor Smith of the Advertiser. If the 
grand jury act its duty in probing this 
affair to the bottom, .the community 
bids fair to be treated to an exposure 
of crooked practices in the past as 
well as to a punishment of evil doers 
that will long be remembered. Mean- 
time testimony comes from poor fami- 
lies all over the city that the depreda- 
tions of petty thieves, who seem to 
have imagined themselves specially 


|privileged in times past, have wonder- 


fully lessened. Liquor laws are no 
longer being wantonly set at nought, 
and a very healthful respect for au- 
thority is everywhere apparent. Ho- 
nolulu is not the same city it was six 
months ago. It is fitting that the po- 
lice department know how grateful and 
appreciative the people are for the fine 
record its members are achieving. The 
most notable feature in this reform is 
its quietness. The Sheriff and his 
lieutenant are gentlemen. Their work 
is done quietly, with no flourish of 
trumpets or advertising. To know the 


,extent of their public service one must 


go among the uncomplaining poor 
who always suffer from police incom- 
petence and benefit most from faithiul 
public service. 


Record of Progress 


In another column the story of the 
emancipation of Hilo Boarding School 
from debtistold. Every lover of the high- 
er life of Hawaii will rejoice over 
this achievement. The Friend especial- 
ly makes merry, congratulates Hilo 
friends most heartily and trusts that 
this may be the beginning of great en- 
largement in the work of this splendid 
institution. Maui Island, too, is re- 
joicing. For the same good friend 
who so generously completed the Hilo 
School’s deliverance has come forward 
most openhandedly with a gift of 
$2,200, the purchase price of a fine 
lot in the very center of Wailuku 
for our fast-growing Japanese Church 
and Schooi there. The Sunrise Chris- 
tians of the Progressive Island are full 
of joy and are rallying to the en- 
deavor to collect $4,000 for the new 
meeting-house and parsonage. Thus 
month by month this year is justifying 
its motto “That They Go Forward.” 
More earnest petition centered upon 
the page in the last annual report en- 
titled “Incentives to Prayer” should 
see several other of our wants supplied. 
The Mid-Pacific Institute lags be- 
cause of a deadlock in the Board over 
the question of site. But this prom- 
ises scon to be solved to the satisfac- 
tion of all. If some good friend 
should come to the rescue with a 
pledge of $50,000 provided $250,000 
extra should be promised within, say, 
a year, this greatest’of the Board’s en- 
deavors would be well established. 
Meantime in Kauai the Chinese under 
the energetic lead of Evangelist Yee 
Kui have, with the aid of a generous 
contribution of $50 from Mr. Aubrey 
Robinson, raised the $300 necessary to 
secure a parsonage at Waimea. Mean- 
time from Kona a letter comes report- 
ing very substantial advance towards 
the payment of the debt resting upon 
Holualoa parsonage. A gift of $50 
for this object came from Massachu- 
setts, the donor writing significantly to 
Mrs. R. B. Baker: “Yesterday even- 
ing I read in the January American 
Missionary Dr. Baker’s letter and, am 
glad to send to the treasurer of the 
A. M. A. $50 to be used for Hawaiian 
work, preferably Dr. Baker’s; and will 
enclose cheque for same amount to 
you.” It is certainly, wise to keep our 
praying friends on the Mainland well 
in touch with the Island work. 


Anonymous Contributors 


Recently two short sketches evi- 
dently intended for publication reach- 
ed this office. They bore no signa- 


THE FRIEND. 


ture. It is the invariable rule of The 
'Friend not to print that which is not 
‘deemed worthy of signature by the 
writer. We welcome contributions, 
but must. know who the author is. 
Where writers are well known to our 
readers it is our custom to use initials 
alone. 


PERMANENT HEADQUARTERS. 


The large number of members of the 
Board privileged to be present at the 
regular meeting on February, 1 will 
not forget the moment when President 
Jones, calling upon Mr. W. W. Hall to 
take the chair, announced the decision 
of Mrs. Jones and himself to present 
the Board with a fine stone building 
close to the very business center of 
Honolulu for a future headquarters 
and official home. Much of what he 
said was of a personal nature and gave 
one more evidence of his deep affec- 
tion for the work to which he has 
given so much time, thought and 
money these many years. President 
Jones was elected a member of the 
Hawaiian Board June 9, 1871, and has 
been subsequently chosen without in- 
termission whenever his term of ser- 
vice has expired. On the resignation 
of President Henry Waterhouse, Mr. 
Jones was unanimously elected his 
successor, November, 1903. 

It is safe to say that no other presiding 
officer of the Board has seen such a large 
development of the work as Mr. Jones 
has been privileged to witness and to 
stimulate. During his administration a 
new era of cooperation with the Main- 
land Churches has opened and the conse- 
quent growth has been beyond expec- 
tation. This expansion has been ac- 
companied by a [corresponding en- 
largement in our business department, 
demanding more room. When the 
Board moved into the spacious apart- 
ments in the Progress Block it seem- 
ed as though all the needed growth 
could be accommodated for some 
years. But the purchase of this build- 
ing by the Japanese Government set) 
us adrift, and at this opportune mo-| 
ment Mr. and Mrs. Jones came _ for- 
ward with their generous gift. 

The new permanent home of the 
Board is a two-story building on the, 
northeast corner of Alakea and Mer- 
chant streets. The entire second floor 
will be utilized for offices and book) 
rooms. Here will also be the meet-, 
ing room of the Board. The ground 
floor will be used partly for storage 
and partly for rental. It is possible 


| lulu’s 


that within a few years the growth of 
‘our publication department may ne- 


cessitate the use of the entire building. 
As soon as the new wharves of the 
Pacific Mail Company are completed, 
the convenience of the location will be 
all the greater. The property is in the 
line of the inevitable growth of Hono- 
lulu’s business section and will be 
close to the new National building. 

After Pres. Jones had ended his re- 
marks conveying the gift, a number of 
members voiced the deep gratitude of 
all present and a committee of seven 
was appointed to frame an expression 
of the thanks of the Board for this 
noble donation. The letter of this 
committee follows: 


February 20, 1907. 


Hon, and Mrs. Peter Cushman Jones, 
Honolulu, T. H. 


Honored and Dear Friends:—At its 
recent meeting on February first the 
announcement of your very generous 
and most timely gift of the business 
block on the corner of Alakea and 
Merchant streets, to serve as an offi- 
cial home for work of the Board of 
the Hawaiian Evangelical Associa- 
tion, deeply. moved the members pres- 


ent, and in thankfully accepting this 


notable contribution it was voted that 
we the undersigned present to you in 
the name of the Board an expression 
of its gratitude. So far as its meet- 
ing place is concerned, the Board has 


|fer many years led a wandering life. 


You doubtless recall the days of its 
vouth when its first home was the Old 
Bindery on Ning street, whence it 
moved to the Mission Depository near 
Kawaiahao Church, and then after 
many years shifted its habitat to the 
little frame building which until re- 
cently stood upon the lot on Beretania 
avenue close to the home of Secretary 
O. P. Emerson. The latter proving 
too far from the business center of 
town, the Board for a short time met 
over the Henry Waterhouse Trust 
Company, on the corner of Merchant 
and Fort streets. Thereafter two of- 
fices were in turn occupied on the 
fourth floor of the Boston Building, 
and now during a brief two months 
we have sojourned in the Progress 
Block. Driven hence, it was antici- 
pated that it would be no easy task 


‘to secure permanent quarters, when, to 


our great relief and joy, your kindness 
vouchsafed a commodious, substantial 
home, close to thes center of Hono- 
financial life. We feel as 
though, like Noah’s dove, we had 
reached a haven of rest where we may 
abide in our future labors. Thus in a 


THE FRIEND. 


most thoughtful manner you have 
provided the satisfaction of one of the 
pressing wants of the Board. 

In this connection it may interest 
you to note that not a few of our 
needs recorded upon page 9g of the last 
Annual Report, and entitled “Incen- 
tives to Prayer,” have already been 
supplied. The debt of Makiki Japa- 
nese Church has been paid. The in- 
cumbrance resting upon Hilo Board- 
ing School has been removed through 
the generosity of Mr. George N. Wil- 
cox. Mr. Charles M. Cooke has pro- 
vided a Missionary Memorial and you 
have given the Headquarters. The 
special need embodied in the item for 
the Chinese Hospital is on the road to 
adequate fulfilment. The closed kin- 
dergarten in Hilo is in very process of 
reopening. If we continue instant in 
prayer our Father will grant us all the 
desires of our heart for the enlarge- 
ment of His work in these Islands. 

We therefore thank you for your 
loving thought of the Board, not only 
as expressed in this generous provi- 
sion, but as made evident through 
many years of faithful service, and of 
open-handed benefaction. You have 
given yourselves, which is of more 
lasting value than any material dona- 
tion, and we wish you to know that we 
appreciate the anxieties, the petitions 
at the throne of Grace, the many pa- 
tient hours of attention to details and 
the abundant love so unselfishly dedi- 
cated to the work of the Board. That 
you may be spared to cooperate in the 
many enterprises wherein God_ has 
called the Board to labor, and’ may 
have cause to rejoice year by year in 
fresh triumphs of the divirte Power 
and in the steady growth of His King- 
dom here in these Islands and through- 
out the world, is our earnest petition. 

Aloha Nui Oe. 

Yours in the Comradeship of the 
Cross, 

Sereno Edwards Bishop, 
Orramel Hinckley Gulick, 
Hiram Bingham, 

William De Witt Alexander, 
Enoch Semaia Timoteo, 
William Richards Castle, 
Doremus Scudder. 


For the Board of the Hawaiian Evangelical 
Association. 


JAPANESE’ EXCLUSION. 


It is very gratifying to read the 
text of the new @mmigration Law en- 
terprisingly printed by the Adver- 
tiser. Cable despatches had led our 
community to conclude that by its 
terms Japanese laborers were specif- 
ically either excluded from the main- 


land or prevented from going thither 
from Hawaii. It is good to know that 
neither of these impressions is cor- 
rect, that no mention whatever of Ja- 
pan or Japanese is made in the law, 
and that its provisions bear equally 
upon all aliens with the exception of 
those from China. Of course, no one 
expected any modification of our un- 
just attitude to the Chinese just yet. 
In time the conscience of America 
will prove equal to the task of treat- 
ing this people on the same brotherly 
basis with all other aliens. 

While, however, there is no specific 
allusion to Japanese laborers, the ef- 
fect of the new law will be to prevent 
them from crossing over to the main- 
land from Hawaii if the passports of 
their Government permit emigration 
to this Territory alone. It is well 
known that Japan does not favor its 
laborers going to the mainland. Thus 
the President has placated San Fran- 
cisco and by securing the consent of 
the Pacific Coast authorities to relax 
their rigor towards Japanese children 
he has soothed the feelings of our 
Western neighbor. It is a triumph of 
diplomacy, but hardly one of princi- 
ple. It can not but leave a bitter after 
taste throughout Japan. It is a clever 
law, but not a righteous one, because 
one-half of righteousness consists in 
treating all men as brothers. Japan 
does not desire her nationals to go to 
the American mainland simply be- 
cause she fears international compli- 
cations as a result of possible violence 
towards them on the part of our peo- 
ple. 


If a sympathetic knowledge of Jap- 
anese laborers had existed throughout 
the United States, it is very. doubtful 
whether even the great influence of 
President Roosevelt could have car- 
ried this provision in the new law 
aimed at them. It is unfortunate that 
among other causes of this ignorance, 
the general application of the epithet 


“coolie’ to Asiatic laborers has so 
much infiuence. 
Those of us who have lived in 


the New England and Middle States 
find no reason why this term should 
not apply with equal force to the 
poor and illiterate class of immi- 
grants from Italy, Greece, Turkey, 
Austria and some other European 
States. The Japanese who goes to 
America is, as a rule, better educated 
than the less fortunate of these nation- 
alities. The latest statistics from the 
Sunrise Empire show a shade over 94 
per cent. of children between the ages 
of 6 and 14 either pursuing or having 
finished the course in the primary 


schools. In the United States during 
the census year the proportion of chil- 
dren enrolled in the common schools 
to the total number of children, ages 
5-14, was 63.30 per cent. In Japan 
1903-4 this proportion, ages 6-14, was 
69.05 per cent. Thus Japan has, in the 
sphere of primary popular education, 
forged ahead of America. How much 
farther in advance is she of these other 
countries and how much better -pre- 
pared intellectually are the young im- 
migrants that come to us from her than 
from the nations of Southern Europe? 

Firsthand acquaintance with this im- 
migration from Japan awakens large 
expectations of the possibilities of this 
people. As a rule the mainland has 
hitherto gotten a more intelligent and 
educated class of Japanese than Ha- 
waii so that what is true here should 
be more evident there. The extreme 


|youth of most of those who come to us 


is a further striking fact, and the 
younger people have had more school- 
ing than their elders because of the 
rapid advances made in popular educa- 
tion in Japan. ‘ 

Hawaii's’ immigrants are almost 
entirely from the poorer farming class. 
Yet they show a marked tendency to 
rise. Two of the largest wholesale 
Japanese establishments in Honolulu 
are run by men who came here as 
“coolies.’” In fact, outside of the banks 
and some five large mercantile houses 
which are branches of Japanese firms, 
practically all the large and small bus- 
iness concerns are captained by ex- 
“coolies.”’ Outside of Honolulu ail 
over the Islands one meets with pros- 
perous Japanese shopkeepers, nearly all 
of whom came over as contract or 
other laborers. One of the ablest evan- 
gelists of the Hawaiian Board emi- 
grated to Hawaii in the same capacity. 
He became a Christian, then returned 
to Japan to study and is now a most 
successful, devoted missionary. A phy- 
sician well known among his country- 
men in this city arrived years ago as 
a contract “coolie,” saved his money, 
crossed to San Francisco, earned a 
medical education, returned to the Is- 
lands, passed his examination and is a 
successful practitioner. 


The same spirit of forging ahead is 
found in many of these “coolies” as 


existed in our “Coolie” Presidents, 
Lincoln, Grant and Garfield, who 
were sons of poor, hard-working 
farmers. Some “of these eieaaan 
Japanese “coolies” occupy honored 
positions in the army and navy 


of Japan. There is good likelihood that 
others wiil climb into exalted stations 
in the civil service. ‘The characteristic 


THE FRIEND. 


of a true Japanese is the will and the 
ability to improve his station. This 
trait is as marked in the “Yankee of 
the East” as in his New England 
brother. It is doubtful whether any 
other race immigrating into America 
can show in the first generation a 
larger percentage of men who have 
risen from the poorest estate to large 
competence than is true of the Japa- 
nese of these Islands. 

A great, generous, over-prosperous 
giant like the United States ought to 
be ashamed of itself legislating against 
such a people. The whole principle of 
special exclusions is a false one. That 
our nation should guard against unde- 
sirable immigrants is granted by. all 
patriots, but there is no such thing as 
racial undesirability. The undesirable- 
ness of evil character or of menace 


through disease is the only one that) 
can withstand the scrutiny of Christian | 


principle. ers: 


A TRANSITIONAL PERIOD IN 
THEOLOGY. 


The Twentieth Century, like the last 
one, has opened as a time of storm 
and stress. Conspicuous among other 
features of disturbance, physical, polit- 
ical and social, is this one of serious 
agitation in the religious world in re- 
spect to doctrinal belief, especially 
among the evangelical churches. The 
old rallying standards of such belief, 
notably the doctrinal forms of the 
Westminster Cathecism, have long 
been growing unsatisfactory and un- 
tenable in the clearer light of the 
Scriptures. In the efforts to formulate 
better expressions of belief, great con- 
flicts have arisen. Tendencies have 
appeared of extreme departures from 
accepted teachings, as well as from 
clear statements of our Lord and His 
Apostles. Altogether, it is a time of 
painful unsettlement and conflict. 

But we wish to urge that this is also 
especially a time for the patient exer- 
cise of calm courage, of faith in God, 
of wise forebearance, of loyalty to the 
Lord Jesus, It is not a time for bit- 
ter and agitating controversy, nor yet 
for careless swinging away from moor- 
ings, and, above all, no time for relax- 
ing prayer or labor or faith. In every 
night of storm is needed the calm and 
brave mind, trusting in God, who rules 
the tempest. : 

There can be no doubt that in due 
time the Lord will bring His beloved 
-people into clearer and more restful 
comprehension of His truth, as well as 
into greater unity and harmony of ac- 
tion, such as has hitherto been sadly 


| 


impeded by needless controversies. 
This time of general doctrinal confes- 
sion and unrest may prove to have 
been the needed agency and discipline 
required to bring Christians into har- 
mony and unity. 


While awaiting clearer light respect- | 
is the extensive flooding of the land, 


ing doctrinal beliefs, all earnest fo!- 
lowers of Christ are peculiarly called 
upon to do His work in His spirit. His 
shining example is not one of thie 


things that are obscure. That holy and | 


loving life at least is conspicuously be- 
fore us. Every Christian must feel 
called upon to follow his Lord and 
Master in His work of love and self- 
sacrifice. The world is full of sorrow, 
of suffering and of sin. Those evils 
were never so accessible to us as now, 


and never so clamoring for our efforts | 


to relieve them. And never was there 
so much organization of benevolent 
agencies for relieving and uplifting 
darkened and suffering mankind. It 
will be by following our Lord in His 
life of loving service that we, His peo- 
ple, shall emerge into the full light of 
His truth. 

There seems to be no doubt that the 


largest element of deficiency in the Old, 
fields ready for the second crop were 


Theologies was their failure to recog- 
nize the pervading prevalence and 


power of the Divine Lord. That defi-| 


ciency has at last come to be keenly 
felt, and, more than anything else, 
causes the present dissatisfaction and 
sense of need for change in statements 
of belief. The Westminster Catechism 


in its much-vaunted definition of God’ 


does not use the word Love. Nor does 
it anywhere make that central quality 
of His character conspicuous. It is 
His Holiness, Wisdom and Justice that 
are emphasized. But the churches 
have learned to recognize His Love, es- 
pecially as revealed in Jesus, and to un- 


derstand the need of a warm and great! 


passion of Love in dealing with the) which would be needed for the next 


It then | 


sinful and fallen and suffering. 
must be by an ardent and active exer- 
cise of this Christlike temper and spirit 
that His churches will emerge into 


clearer light and escape from their) 


present perplexities and divisions. 


Not hot and bitter controversy will | 


bring relief and rest, but united and 
unselfish Christlike labors of love to 
remove social evils and crimes, 
causes of degradation, to uplift the de- 
pressed, and enlighten the ignorant, 
and to do for the whole world those 
things which Christ has given His peo- 
ple to do. In such diligent, active and 
loving work will the Churches of Christ 
eradually emerge into full and united 
understanding of His spiritual truths. 
Spiga oa 


and | 


;}also an immense’ amount of 


CAUSES OF CHINA’S FAMINE. 


So much has been told of China’s 
famine that a brief review of the 
causes of this great calamity may be 
of interest. The first and immediate 
cause of the distress in Central China 


Drought about by, unusual heavy rains. 
All over the country, among the low- 


lying villages and towns, are found in- 


numerable canals and waterways. Not 
only did the rains occasion a great 
local rise of these many streams, but 
water 
came down from the northern province 
of Shantung. At the same time the 
great lakes of the province of Kiang- 
su rose to an alarming extent, sending 
floods over the nearby districts. The 
Grand Canal receives its waters from 
these lakes, and it is said that one 
frightened Chinese official, to save his 
own neighborhood, opened the sluice- 
gates at the lake and so sent a vast 
stream of water southward, which 
added to the already large flood. 
Many of the houses are made of 
mud bricks, dried in the sun. These 
soon melted before the flood. The 


soon covered so deeply with water that 
no planting could be done. Even 
much of the wheat already gathered 
from the first crop of the year was 
ruined. 

Low-lying Country. 


Near the City of Huaiau is an ex- 
tensive plain, 30 miles long by about 
15 miles wide. Two crops are gener- 
ally planted here each year. Much of 
the first crop, just ready to be gar- 
nered, was destroyed by the onrushing 
waters before it could be saved. Anil 
nothing could be done towards plant- 
ing a second crop. Now the cattle 


year’s plowing have had to be sold, for 
almost nothing, to secure food. Many 
families have sold their all, including 
the children, and now are facing star- 
vation and death. The entire plain 
west of the Grand Canal, 200 miles 
long and 100 miles wide, has been en- 
tirely covered with water, and most of 
the wheat, under this vast body of 
water, have become rotten and useless. 
Many fields have now been covered 
from one to two months with water. 
The same story of flood, and fields and 
villages covered with water, comes 
from many places. 

The entire country for many miles 
around the great hsien or “city” 
of Antung (with a population of 
800,000) is all under water. Here on 


THE FRIEND. 


the old bed of the Yellow River, just. 
under the city walls, is the great em- 
bankment, built to keep back the 
waters of the river in flood times. 
Along its top runs the main highway 
through the country. In a distance of 
fifteen miles six large washouts can 
now be Seen. 


Official Corruption. 


Why are not these dykes repaired? 
The officials say they have no money 
to spend for such works. That is why 
roads are not repaired and the dredg- 
ing is not done in the Grand Canal. 
And so the great works built in for- 
mer years are left to go to ruin be- 
cause of the corruption and_ ineffici- 
ency of the government of the present 
day. The people starve and die be- 
cause the Mandarin is usually looking 
out for his own pocket, and is no 


sufficient salary, little can be expected 
of administration reform, and the pub- 
lic good may be expected to be only a 
secondary consideration, from their 
point of view. 


Few Railroads. 


The lack of railroads is another im- 
portant reason why a great famine be- 
comes possible in China. When food 
supplies are short in one district, 
prices rise so quickly that the poor are 
forced to sell everything they, have, at 
ruinous rates, to get enough to eat. 
Soon they have nothing, and when 
food at last is brought from a distance 
they have absolutely no money to buy, 
and must starve or be assisted by 
charity. 

The few railroads in China, the bad 
public roads, the inferior methods of 
transportation, all make the distribu- 


COUNTRY VILLAGE NOW UNDER WATER. 


longer “the father of his people:” This 
lack of public spirit and maladminstra- 
tion on the part-of so many of the of- 
ficials, is one great cause which makes 
possible such terrible conditions as 
are found in China today. Very often 
the official position is bought, with no 
real salary allowed. The ruling Man- 
darin, with the prospect of a change to 
another post in a few years, in many 
cases takes little interest in the wel- 
fare of his people or the condition of 
public works; his chief aim is to see 
how much money he can secure dur- 
ing his time of office. Until the gov- 
ernment of China is so changed that 
all officials when appointed to their 
positions shall be given a good and 


tion of supplies both slow and costly. 
So there is little incentive to send to 
any great distance. There may be 
plenty and to spare in one part of the 
Empire, and the direst destitution at 
another place. 


Great Population. 


The people are so thickly settled in 
the central provinces of China that 
every available part of the land_ is 
needed to produce enough food for the 
inhabitants. Very little of the coun- 
try is allowed to go uncultivated, ex- 
cept that used for, the cities, the houses 
in the villages and the graveyards, so 
important to the Chinese. The people 


are most industrious and constant in 
the cultivation of their fields and gar- 
dens. Far up on the sides of the hills, - 
terrace upon terrace of cultivated land 
can be seen. But the numbers of peo- 
ple living in the country are so enor- 
mous that a failure of six months to 
secure a return from the land must 
lead to great want. China’s cities are 
like great swarming ant-hills, the 
streets full of moving, busy, industri- 
ous, working multitudes. Passing in 
and out at every gate, from early: morn 
until dark, a constant, almost endless 
stream of these toiling millions can 
daily be seen. Most of them are poor 
men, hard workers, earing just enough 
io give them food; and yet there are 
men, like those of any other land, with 
their little homes, their wives and chil- 
dren, their loves and hates, desires and 
aspirations, men who wish to live and 
seek for something out of life. Their 
lives are valauble, for these countless 
multitudes are, in God’s providence, 
some day to be changed, uplifted, and 
form a better, higher, happier China. 
E. W. ia 


MAUI MOVING ON. 


A year and three months have pass- 
ed since the long-closed doors of the 
Wailuku Union Church were opened 
for services. The Church had been 
practically dead for several years. One 
member—Mr. Edward H. Bailey— 
who had long served the Church as 
trustee, had kept the Church organi- 
zation alive until that happy day in 
September when five joined on confes- 
sion of faith and ten by letter. At the 
November communion two more were 
added. 

On the first Sunday of January, at 
a business meeting of the Church and 
congregation, the following officers 
were elected to serve until June, 1908: 
Trustees} Manager Chas. B. Wells, 
Edward H. Bailey, Daniel H. Case; 
Treasurer, Judge Wm. A. Mackay; Fi- 
nancial Committee, Principal C. E. 
Copeland and Mr. Henry B. Penhal- 
low. 

The financial year has been a good 
one, with a considerable balance in the 
treasury after all bills have been paid. 

The Church has recently received 
from Central Union a supply of hymn 
books, which have been very much ap- 
preciated in the services. 

The ladies have formed themselves 
into a Woman’s Aid Society, whose 
object it is to assist the Church in 
every way possible. Their meetings 


(Continued on Page T4). 


THE FRIEND. 


9 


The Sunday School Association 


President—E. B. TurNER. 


. FE. S. Timoteo, 
Vice-Presidents— 1k Hepa 


Rec, Secretary—E. K. LintKALant. 
Treasurer—G, P. CASTLE. 


Opportunities for improving the 
Sunday schools of Hawaii are so plen- 
tiful that one is bewildered as to where 
to begin first. It is one thing for the 
Executive Committee to plan work and 
another thing for them to do it. It can 
not be that our Association is not suf- 
ficiently organized. With our Depart- 
mental Secretaries to make suggestions 
after studying their different fields, and 
with our Corresponding Secretaries to 
project these suggestions into every 
Sunday school in the Islands, of what- 
ever race or color, much ought to be 
accomplished. -To be sure, we are all 
busy people and have much to occupy 
our time and thought. But this work 
of bettering the Sunday schools is the 
King’s business, and if we do not do 
it, it will not be done. 


Organized Sunday School Work. 


It is well to keep in mind just what 
the organized Sunday school work pro- 
poses to do. The prime conception in 
the plan of organization is the recogni- 
tion of the different departments in the 
work and the appointment of leaders 
and committees, who will make these 
particular departments the subject of 
prayer, thought and work. The fol- 
lowing departments are being worked 
to great advantage in every State in 
the Union: 


1. Primary-Junior, or Elementary. 


Some of the benefits this department 
desires to accomplish are: A Cradle 
Roll in each) school. The pupils under 
thirteen grouped into three depart- 
ments, the beginners three to six, the 
primary: six to nine, the junior nine to 
thirteen. A separate room or screens 
for each of the three departments. Sup- 
plemental lessons taught. Each teach- 
er studying some training course. 


2. Teacher-Training. 


This department should seek the or- 
ganization of a Training Class in con- 
nection with each Sunday school in the 


BKXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 
Corresponding Secretaries. 


English—-Miss EpitH PERKINS. 
Hawauan—M. K. NAKkuINa. 
Portuguese—Mrs. J. D. MARQUES. 
Chinese—E. W. THwINc. 
Japanese—T. OKUMURA. 
Korean—C. S. YFE. 


Islands. If this subject were properly 
brought to the attention of our superin- 
tendents and teachers, it would seem 
that many classes could be organized. 
There ought to be several teacher- 
training classes in Honolulu and at 
least one in each of the outlying dis- 
tricts and towns. With the system of 
examination and graduation with di- 
plomas, used by the International As- 
sociation, a great incentive should be 
given to this work. Everyone recog- 
nizes the value and necessity of well- 
trained teachers. It is the greatest fac- 
tor in efficient Sunday school work. 
Dr. Hulburt’s normal course is one of 
the best. 


3. Home Department. 


The Sunday, school should be carried 
into every home. There are many who 
do not and can not attend the school 
session. This requires energetic Home 
Department superintendents and vis- 
itors who will secure new members and 
keep in prayerful touch with the old. 
There are immense possibilities for 
good connected with this line of work. 
Through its agency thousands have 
been reclaimed to the Christian life and 
the family altar set up in the homie. 
Now the whole family is studying the 
Bible lesson, whereas before only the 
small boy enjoyed this privilege. Sev- 
eral of our Island schools are working 
this department, though there should 
be many more. 


4. The Adult Department. 


Does it not seem a travesty upon the 
Christian religion that we should care- 
fully nurture and train our boys and 
girls in Scripture truths from the time 
they are three years old until they are 
eighteen, and then see them quietly slip 
out of our hands and away from all 
Church influences, into the indifference 
of a worldly life? And yet this very 
thing has been happening in thousands 
of Sunday schools all over the land. 
The question is: “How stop the leak?” 
The Adult Department has just been 


of Hawaii. 


Departmental Secretaries. 


Primary—Junior—Miss Frances Law- 
RENCE, 

Home—Mks. O. H. WALKerR. 

Teacher Training—A. M. Meriter. 

Temperance—G,. D. Epwarps. 

Missionary—E. W. THwrinc. 


organized by the International Associ- 
ation. This department is now study- 
ing this question with all possible ear- 
nestness. 

Mr. W. C. Pearce, superintendent of 
the International Teacher-Training De- 
partment, has been transferred and 
made superintendent of the newly-cre- 
ated Adult Department. The most 
successful features of well-tried Bible 
classes, such as the Baraca, Philathea, 
Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip, the 
Yokefellows and others, will be taken 
and a widespread effort made to or- 
ganize and promote adult Bible classes 
in all Sunday schools. 


5. Temperance Department. 


The work of this department is to aid 
in the teaching of those special Bible 
truths which “shall educate the chil- 
dren for total abstinence and for the 
destruction of the liquor traffic.” There 
are four temperance lessons during this 
next year—one each quarter. By 
thoughtful preparation and codpera- 
tion these lessons can be made the 
most attractive and helpful of the year. 
The temperance lesson of the second 
quarter is to be used as Anti-Cigarette 
Day, when the evils and dangers of the 
cigarette habit shall be taught. Pledge- 
signing is recommended. The work of 
this department can be benefited 
through the employment of such spe- 
cial methods as pledge-signing (much 
of the oldtime prejudice against pledge- 
signing is being removed, by having 
pledges signed which are to be binding 
only for one year); temperance books 
in Sunday school libraries; distribution 
of up-to-date temperance literature and 
the holding of temperance rallies. 


6. Missionary Department. 


The missionary spirit must be devei- 
oped in the Sunday school of today or 
both the Home and Foreign Missions 
of tomorrow are doomed. Our Sunday 
school leaders recognize this fact and 
in another year there will be one mis- 
sionary lesson each quarter. 


10 


THE FRIEND. 


All over the United States schools 
are having their own missionary or sta- 
tion. In many places native mission 
aries can be supported on $25 a year. 
This is within the reach of almost any 
school. Denominational boards are 
only too eager to cooperate with 
schools in supplving them with native 
workers. 

Miss Martha B. Hixson has just 
written a remarkably suggestive book 
on “Missions in the Sunday School.” It 
is an inspiring manual of methods. 

With these six departments of work, 
vitally affecting the spiritual lives of 
the boys of the present and of the men 
of the future, possible in every Sunday 
school in the Islands, what giant strides 
of progress might be made? 

Until we can have a superintendent 
giving much or all of his time to the 
work of the organized Sunday schools 
of the Islands, let everyone lend a hand 
in volunteer service. 


Annual Convention. 


Now that the date has been set for 
our Annual Convention—May 25-June 
3—it was hoped that we might have the 
presence of a Sunday school expert 
from the mainland. 

Unfortunately, the World’s Fifth 
Sunday School Convention will be held 
in Rome, May 18th to 23rd, and nearly 
all of the international workers will be 
there. It would have been a great in- 
centive to better work here if the Is- 
lands could have been represented in 
this gathering. Very cordial invita- 
tions were sent by the Executive Com- 
mittee of this convention, asking that 
such a representation be made. Alas, 
the lack of money and of time forbade 
the acceptance of the invitation. 

For this trip two large steamers 
have been chartered. Stops will be 


made, en route to Rome, at The 
Azores, Madeira, Gibraltar, Algiers, 
Naples, Pompeii, Genoa and_ Pisa. 


Many of the leading Christian workers 
in America and in England will be 
present and there will be twenty-eight 
days of unbroken fellowship on the 
steamer with many inspiring people. A 
side trip could easily be taken to the 
Holy Land, after the convention, The 
experience of such a trip would cer- 
tainly add years to any man’s life. 
Es. T: 


TIDINGS FROM KAUAT. 


The Ministers’ School met February 
1 at Lihue under the leadership of 
Rev. J. M. Lydgate, and was well at- 
tended in spite of the fact that it was 
one of the stormiest days of the sea- 


son. ‘The session was devoted main- 
ly to a careful study of the Sunday 
schoo] lessons for the month of Febru- 
airy, together with a sermon criticism 
and analysis, special attention being 
called to the sermon material in the 
lessons. While primarily intended for 
the Hawaiian ministers, other intelli- 
gent Hawaiians find these sessions in- 
teresting and profitable. 

Mrs. Lydgate entertained the class 
at lunch. Owing to the day being so 
dark and stormy the lamps had to be 
lighted during lunch, an unusual expe- 
rience for Hawaii. 

The Lihue Library has received 
large accessions of new books during 
the last month—mostly books newly 
published. 

The Eleele Library, founded on the 
same Jines as that at Lihue, has also 


received large accessions. . 
Jonas lee 


A. HS POR VO Te ey EEC) 
BOARDING SCHOOL’ NEW 
BUILDING: 


Among the many kind thoughts 
which last Christmas brought happi- 
ness to dwellers on this green earth, 
none perhaps carried more joy than 
did a small slip of blue paper. It con- 
tained very few words. But it had an 
air about it that brought cheer with its 
every crisp crinkle. Three lines told 
the whole story and those three lines 
were, “Three thousand dollars, to the 
Hilo Boarding School,” and at the bot- 
tom of the slip the all-important sig- 
nature which converted the simple 
paper into pure gold was “George N. 
Wilcox.” This paper meant the pos- 
sibility of wiping out the debt on the 
school building. It meant that the 
racking worry was now relieved. 

With the good news of this happy 
Christmas comes the wish from some 
kind friends of the school for a few 
items on the history of the building. 

In the Christmas holidays of 1903 
the old school house was removed 
to the rear of its former site to make way 
for a new building. But the finances 
of the country tightened about this 
time, and for the next two years the 
school assembled in this old building 
now under the mango trees, while the 
site cleared for the much-needed new 
structure lay bare. 

It was not till April 17th, 1905, 
that the first load of lumber for 
the new structure was brought upon 
the grounds. From this day the work 
progressed rapidly. 

The carpenters began the work with 
a contract signed to build only the} 


main part of the house and one wing. 


There were not funds in sight for a - 


complete building, hence the north 
wing was to wait for better times. One 
month later the trustees of the school 
met to discuss the matter and it was 
decided to go on with the complete 
plan. On the 5th day of May work on 
the foundation was begun. | 

It was on the 24th of May that the 
school boys themselves desired to add 
their mite to the new schoolhouse in 
labor, as they could not do it with 
money. Enthusiasm grew so hot that 
it was. deemed best to carry. on this 
work by classes, in order that the 
schoolroom routine be not too greatly 
disarranged. Each class volunteered 
three days per week to the good work. 
And they did work as only Hawaiian can 
when the heart and soul are in it. The 
new arrangement of the building had 
necessitated a change of driveways. 
The boys undertook to make these 
driveways. The stone had to be dug 
and carted from the quarries on the 
Kaumana road, and then crushed. 
While some boys took this for their 
work, the others were constructing the 
roadbed or spreading the crushed rock. 
In this way. about 400 feet of roadway 
was. constructed, and 4o feet of cul- 
verts were walled in. Two other boys 
undertook the difficult task of digging 
and walling up a cesspool. Two car- 
penter boys offered to make a koa 
table for the new assembly hall, and 
another boy offered his services to 
polish it. Little fellows who could 
not get possession of a wheelbarrow 
went to the taro fields to keep the food 
growing while the big boys placed 
their muscle at the service of the 
new work. Other boys were tearing 
down the old dining-hall, as the lum- 
ber was to be used in the construction 
of the new cook-house. Still others 
were busy laying the foundation for 
the cement floor in the new dining-hall 
and in the lavatory. All this was be- 
gun and a large part of it was finished 
by, the happy boys as their gift to the 
new building. 

As the term neared its close the reg~ 
ular classes went on as usual prepar- 
ing for the closing examinations and 
the graduating exercises. With the 
close of school came an opportunity 
for the boys to again spend their 
strength on. the good work. Such 
boys as could be - profitably used 
were hired through the vacation 
weeks to go on with the work on the 
basement floor. The hired carpenters 


were still busy with the house proper. — 
was © 


Before vacation closed there 
much to speak for their faithful ser-* 


> 


THE FRIEND. 


II 


vice. A new cook-house was com- 
pleted, containing a kitchen, serving- 
room and food closets. This was a 
separate building connected with the 
dining-hall by a covered veranda. I 
might add that a large stone and iron 


range was constructed by the boys| 


likewise. The dining-hall was fin- 
ished, so was the lavatory, the dispen- 
sary and two new rooms for the pol- 
ishing department. At the same time 
they completed the plumbing and lay- 
ing 9,448 square feet of coment floor- 
ing. 

In the first week of September of 
1905 the carpenters turned the keys of 
the new Hilo Boarding School build- 
ing over to the Principal. 

The old desks had been cleaned and 
varnished. Nothing new was bought 
for furnishing. There was no money 
to buy anything new. And we were 
happy to find that sandpaper and var- 
nish had done good work. That is, it 
was good as far is it went, but alas, 
it did not go far enough. Each room 
had just a few desks less than were 
absolutely needed, and two rooms 
were left without anything. But there 
were old tables that were not good 
enough for the new dining-hall. Could 
we, would we, dare put those old 
things up in the pretty schoolrooms? 
We did dare, and they are there still. 
And now, with the debt paid off, we 
shall hope next to work for furniture. 
And it does not look so hopeless. So 
much has come to aid us in this work, 
and we are able to save a little each 
month from our own workshops, we are 
sure that we shall in time see our 
rooms all furnished with all neces- 
saries. VU SH ls iL. 


SEMI-ANNUAL REPORT. 
Last Half of 1906. 


Honolulu Japanese Christian Boarding | 


School. 


In September, 1906, I visited my be- 
loved country Japan. My sick son ac- 
companied me, with the hope that his 
disease might turn to a favorable condi- 
tion by the change of climate, also 
wishing to remove the danger of infec- 
tion to the children under our care. 
It was my first vacation after twelve 
years of work in Honolulu. 
~ During the three months of my ab- 
sence, the school was left entirely to 
the charge of Mrs. Okumura. On my 
return, it was a great pleasure to find 
every wheel turning smoothly. The 
children, understanding that my. hasty 
trip to Japan was not for my own 


pleasure, but was partly for their wel- 
fare, behaved especially well, and were 
absolutely obedient to Mrs. Okumura. 
We feel very grateful for the love and 
svmpathy of these children, and are 
thankful for the favorable test given to 
our schocl. 


The property on Punchbowl street, 
used by the school for three years, was 
sold. In August, 1906, we moved to 
a temporary residence on Beretania 
street. This locality seemed to be un- 
healthy: ten children left on account of 
ailments and there was a lack of reci- 
tation rooms. We are glad that the 
Hawaiian Board have arranged to 
move us to a better locality. We hope 
the coming year will find the school 
more prosperous. 

Notwithstanding our effort of exer- 
cising the strictest economy, we have 
more or less deficits. This is account- 
ed for by the fact that the sum paid 
by each boarder is small, also that the 
school supports eight children free of 
charge, some of whom are orphans, 
while others have only a mother who is 
unable to render financial aid. 

We thank our generous, kindhearted 
friends who have assisted by liberal do- 
nations for this work and we hope 
they will see the fruit from their of- 
ferings. 


FINANCIAL REPORT. 


Receipts. 

Received from boarders...... $ 856.80 
lnlenrabinin IBoebRel eS Jule do osce 60.00 
Mrs. Castle and Coleman..... 60.00 
Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Bowen.. 25.00 
MUEB Wanye Castle... sa ons 150.00 
* pe SSA) (ihe Re 8 Kok CHa ema a 35.00 
Wire com PeeG@OOke) encom. : 5.00 
EGEOL. Wie 1): ALEXANGET «525210 0 10.00 
Bvt erie 5 CASUNCy sc Aatas crs oye crag. 25.00 
SLOT» sues cca rote te crore $1,226.80 


Disbursements. 


Rice, bread and groceries....$ 856.25 
Fuel, kerosene oil and minor 
expenses 
Washing 
Wages of cook and general 


eC Ly Ct) Ke ie CAC C1 ORCC BO 


So akecete) ee cells se eleesie « sy 


SERVAMES ... crstetete cRetenoty- io iaiats 154.00 

Deficitiofilastareports .4:);. «13 205.80 

oD CRAIGS ORE. Ul aae AOE tats $1,398.65 

MDE LET AT RG MF kn Nae MAN is RNS $171.85 
T. OKUMURA. 


Gis, Tircs. Ann, Fipenra (GeCoan 


It is not easy to select anything in re- 
gard to Titus and Fidelia Coan suitable 
for this occasion that has not already 


been in print. These are disjointed 
memories. Shall we call them “Jot- 
tings?” : 


A childhood memory is of my father’s 
faithful daily afternoon visits among his 
flock; also the swarms of people who 
came to see him. 

In the mornings he busied himself in 
lis study, but he never refused a caller, 
nor looked ruffled at any interruption. I 
never saw or heard either parent betray 
any sign of impatience, nor speak in un- 
favorable criticism of grown people be- 
fore children. J thought grown people 
were perfeci! 

During the early days, the untutored 
Hawaiians were in the habit of coming 
freely uninvited to any and every room 
in a house. Like many other families we 
had a door cut across in half, so that my 
father could talk across to his people, as 
they sat in a little reception-room out- 
side. Later, as they learned better man- 
ners, this was dispensed with. 

Here they came for such simple medi- 
cal treatment as a missionary must give 
where there is no doctor (there was none 
resident till 1849)-—tooth-pulling, even 
bleeding. Often they came Sunday 
morning; and I have seen them sitting 
in church taking little pinches from a 
paper of salts, just as if they enjoyed it. 
Here they brought their contributions of 
dried fish, goat skins, etc., to be turned 
into cash for the benevolent fund, when 
my father could dispose of them. Coin 
was scarce. 

They came with their offerings and 
wants, not only from the village, but from 
all parts of the large parish from seventy 
to eighty miles long, through which the 
pastor walked four times a year, till, at 
about the age of sixty, he sprained an 
ankle; after that he used a horse. 

During the walking tours some food, 
clothing and bedding were carried for 
him on shoulder-sticks, a big calabash 
on one end, and a covered wooden bucket 
on the other. He depended a good deal 
on the hospitality and the culinary skilk 
of his people. One time in Puna, where 


12 


THE FRIEND. 


fresh water was often scarce, he told his, 


host that he might boil the sea-water to 
cook the eggs in. When the meal was 
prepared, behold the eggs all broken and 
stirred into the ocean brine! 


Scattered through Hilo town and 


vicinity are the small churches built in) 


the later 50’s or early 60’s, for the Sun- 
day afternoon “apana’ meetings and 
Sunday Schools. These same services 


had already been carried on for many| 


years under the direction of different 
deacons, or “iunas.” Six or more of the 
buildings still stand in the old spots. 
These four o'clock services my father vis- 
ited in turn after the morning Sunday 
School, two preaching services and the 
noon luna meeting between them. 

Father Coan for many years made 
every babe he baptized who was eligible 
for “Cousin-ship” a life member of this 
Mission Children’s Society. He was a 
man of marvelous spiritual devotion and 
mental as well as physical stamina, “‘striv- 
ing to do the right as God gave him to 
see the right.” 

From 1838 to 1846 Mrs. Coan carried 
on a quiet, simple little boarding school 
for girls, not more than twenty at a time, 
in a thatched building in our yard. The 
people built it—the Hawaiians did such 
things with cheerful generosity. The 
beds were in the Hawaiian style and cur- 
tained off by mats in little alcoves. The 
parents brouglit food for their daugh- 
ters, and otherwise helped to supply their 
needs. No aid was asked from the Amer- 
ican Board. 


Sometimes a missionary box arrived 
around Cape Horn—‘‘common-stock’— 
great excitement among the Lyman, 
Coan and Wilcox children as to the divi- 
sion! Bonnets, skirts, and aprons could 
not go to those boy families, nor to the 
Boys’ Boarding School; they stayed with 
us, and the Coan little girls had much fun 
“trying on” up garret before they were 
given to the school girls. Some gar- 
ments occasionally fell to our share, too. 

My mother’s teaching was of the most 
practical and simple sort. She aimed to 
train the girls to be discreet, industrious, 
orderly homekeepers. And in the gen- 
eration now nearly passed away, any 


traveler across country, noticing the neat-! 
est home (grass houses they were), the; 
most civilized appearing household, the| 
most modest interior arrangements, the| 


prettiest garden, would be told, “That is 
the home of one of Coana Wahine’s 
girls.” ; 

Mrs. Coan’s family cares and delicate 
health prevented her going on more than 
eight years with the school, but every- 
where and always her quiet, gentle, refin- 
ing influence impressed itself and bless- 


ithe other Fidelia Coan. 
‘heard the call first; her parting words 


ed the women and helped mould their 
lives. Her memory is blessed. 

Two saints lay one day in 1872, await- 
ing the heavenly call: one, old Kaliloa, 
The former 


asked about the other one. “Tell her we 
shall soon meet in the home-lani,” she 
said. That same day they did, indeed 
meet. Their earthly resting places lie 


hill slope that is named “Homelani’” from 
that day. 
HARRIET COoAN. 


TV. Cuarves H. anp Lucy T. Wetmore. 


On a May day, in 1849, arrived in Hilo 
from “around the Cape” (via Honolulu) 
a tall, blue-eyed young man, with a wee 
little wife who could almost stand under 
kis arm. This was the doctor for the out- 
station village, which had never yet had 
a doctor, and in which the early mis- 
sionaries had formerly dealt out “by the 
book” the salts, sulphur, castor oil, and 
used the forceps at the teeth, and the 
lancet at the vein. 

The bride and groom took the house 
built by Father Lyman, vacant then, that 
had echoed with the romps of Wilcoxes 
and Parises, and would echo again with 
the voices of children and grandchildren. 
It was close neighbor to the Coans, whose 
young brood at once claimed friendship 
through the fence and cross-cut over the 
veranda, where the doctor was very like- 
ly to be waiting in ambush for a pounce 
upon the little friends, and a merry frolic. 
For oh, joy! he loved children, and found 
leisure for them. His kind face and smil- 
ing eyes beamed on them to his old age: 
and often has he been seen, beyond his 
seventieth year, in high frolic with his 
grandsons, dashing through passages and 
even under tables, to escape “the sud- 
den rush from the stairway, the sudden 
raid from the hall.” 

Of course, they were malihinis when 
they came here, and it was fun to the 


young fry to watch the initiation to the 


place, the people, the language. But the 
very funniest thing of all was that the 
little lady was afraid of spiders! She— 
why she was even detected by open-eyed 
children on their knees at prayers herself 
open-eved on her knees, cringing away 
from one that was running across the 
floor to clamber up her gown! Spiders 
just loved to chase her. 

Presently the attraction of the house 
was the babies and their pretty ways and 
dainty clothes. All hand sewing then— 
not till years afterwards did sewing ma- 
chines come, and then this young mother 
had the first one in Hilo. ; 


The babies grew up. The only son, a 


near together, the first two on the green, 


manly, helpful lad, died at about thirteen, 
the three daughters are living—one in the 
old home. 

The house was altered, enlarged and 
improved, from time to time, so that it 
now hardly seems the same place. But 
the “cubby holes” under the roof remain, 
such as are probably to be found in any 
story-and-a-half house. Perhaps, long, 
dark, mysterious, into which a child 
creeps with a thrill, and wonders when 
he shall ever again find daylight. Ne 
doubt in this day, trunks and household 
lumber occupy the spaces once allotted to 
coffee and pia bags, stores of Hawaiian 
curios, and a collection of beautiful 
Micronesian corals and shells. These 
came in later years when the doctor or 
himself went in 1885 with a daughter as 
a delegate from Hawaii to Micronesia, 
and have now found places in cabinets, 
etc. 
Mrs. Wetmore in early years was 
slight and in delicate health, but she was 
ever strong in every good work. In her 
parlor she gathered a little singing 
schoo! ; in another room taught for sev- 
eral years a small school of part-Hawai- 
ian children. Only two years ago, one or 
two of those bright girls, now grown old, 
looked in with affectionate remembrance 
upon the little room where “Kauka wa- 
hine” helped them towards the usefui- 
ness and honor that have marked their 
adult years. 

Dr. Wetmore was an ardent admirer 
of natural beauty, and even in latest years 
a student. in some branch or other of 


"fn fees 


THE GROWING FAMILY NEEDS 


AN ENCYCLOPEDIA 


The cost hitherto has been so great that al- 
though CHILDREN ARE FOREVER WANT- 
ING to consult one in their school work, iew 
can afford a set. 


NOW COMES_7__ 


THE BEST YET 


Thos. Nelson & Sons, the great Bible Pub- 
lisher has produced the most complete at the 
least cost; $42.00 will buy set in cloth. Better 
binding up to $72.00. Bright boys and girls as 
AGENTS wanted in every town. Write to the 


HAWAIIAN BOARD 
BOOK ROOMS 


THE FRIEND. 


13 


natural science. Botany was a favorite 
pastime, and took him and many a friend, 
or friend’s friend, long tramps, rides, or 
drives into the wilderness of our tropical 
woods and ravines. 

All these listeners must know that he 
was also a man of abounding hospitality 
and genercsity, identified with every 
benevolent and progressive movement in 
Hilo, even long after the active mis- 
sionary work of the American Board was 
laid aside. A _ collection of postage 


stamps made by Mrs. Wetmore was sold | 


by her family, after her death in 1883, 
and the proceeds donated to furnish the 
tower of the new church with a large, 
four-faced striking clock. Twice in times 
of sore sickness has that clock been ask- 
ed to hush its voice: the first time was 
when the dear doctor lay on his dying 
bed, in 1898. 


MISSION CHILDREN’S SOCIETY. 


IN MEMORIAM. 


Mrs. Celia W. Chamberlain, who 
finished her earthly career on Febru- 
ary Ist, was a very modest, unassum- 
ing Christian, never placing herself in 
any position of prominence, yet taking 
her share of some public duties, and 
always ready for home duties; and 
was highly esteemed by those who 
knew her best and regarded her as 
fulfilling her responsibilities beauti- 
fully. 

She took a partial course at Mount 
Holyoke Seminary and was under the 
personal care of Miss Mary Lyon, its 
beloved founder. After some time oc- 
cupied in school teaching she came to 
these Islands in the ship Ocean Pearl, 
that reached Honolulu April 1st, 1854, 
and was married! fo Mr. Warren 
Chamberlain on her arrival, she hav- 
ing made his acquaintance when he 
was living with his grandparents in 
Easthampton, Mass. For twelve years 
her residénce was at Waialua, Oahu, 
and after a visit to her early homeland 
she returned to Hawaii nei, where for 
thirty-six years to the time of her de- 
cease her home was in Honolulu. 

She was the mother of five children, 
of whom three survive—Rev. Horace 
Wright Chamberlain; Mrs. Helen C. 
Ives, who with four children and her 
husband, Charles G. Ives, M.. D., re- 
side in Pecatonica, Illinois; and the 
youngest son, Mr. William Warren 
Chamberlain. 

She was laid to rest in the Mission 
lot in Kawaiahao cemetery, and there 
Rev. Walter Frear of Oakland, now on 


a visit here, who was with us as our 
pastor when her eldest daughter was 
buried, kindly led in the closing 
ptayer. 


THE HILO BOARDING SCHOOL, 
All friends of the Hilo Boarding 


School wiil rejoice that the remainder! 


of the debt they had worked so hard to 
eliminate, and which rested so heavily 
upon them, was wiped out shortly be- 
fore Christmas by a gift from G. N. 


Wilccx. Now they hope to work for 
jthe class-room furniture, so much 
needed. The trustees appointed a 


committee of Rev. W. D. Westervelt, 
Reve CoM. Hill’ and LC. Lyman: to 
canvass for the school and bring in 
new boys. Mr. Westervelt will take 
his lantern and some good pictures of 
the school, and they hope it will result 
in filling the school. This is a part 
of the working out of their overflow- 
ing gratitude. 
ITEMS. 

The former secretary of the H. M. 
C. Society, Miss M. A. Chamberlain, 
received a New Year’s present of a 
fine picture which she expects to be- 
queath to the society and which will 
one day adorn the walls of their head- 
quarters. 


It is a large photograph of the Dole 
family. In the center of the picture 
sit Mr. and Mrs. George H. Dole, hale, 
hearty and happy, apparently in the 
very vigor of manhood and woman- 
hood. Around them are clustered) a 
group of ten young men and five fair 
women, their own twelve children and 
three adopted by marriage. About 
their feet also are gathered four grand- 
children and the fifth and youngest is 
held high in the arms of the proud 
erandmother. Death has never enter- 
ed this happy family. If treasure may 
be reckoned in “olive plants,” Mr. 
Dole may be called the wealthiest man 
in the society. Ms Are 


POR ERA ND NTR: 


33 Welleslev Street, 
East Cleveland, O., Jan. roth, 1907. 


Dear Friend and Cousin: My daugh- 
ter, Miss Bertha Conde, Gen. College 
Secretary on the National Board of 
Young Women’s Christian Associations, 
expects to sail from San Francisco Feb. 
21st on the Siberia on her way to Japan 
and China to attend a World’s Confer- 
ence at Tokio and a Missionary Confer- 


HONOLULU’S CHOICEST SUBURB 


City Streets, City Water, City Lights 


Unsurpassed Marine and Mountain Views, Rapid 


Transit. 


no Saloons. : : t 


A FEW CHOICE LOTS FOR SALE 


MONEY AT 6% TO HELP BUILD 
APPLY TO 


No Pake Stores, no Japanese Shacks, 


: + * e * 
° « + ° ° 


14’ THE FRIEND. 


scription papers seems to please both 
ence at Shanghai. It is her intention to, Hawaiians and English-speaking peo- 
stop over at Honolulu until the next,ple, for every subscription paper is 
steamer, which I think will be about a quickly filled. Every few weeks these 
week or ten days. She wants to make a, papers are returned to the Treasurer 
flving trip to Wailuku, Maui, to see her, of the Maui Aid Association with the 
father’s old home and also visit her grand-| whole amount of the cash that has 
mother’s grave at that place. She would|been collected. The papers are then 
also be glad to meet you and other kind| checked up, and receipts sent through 
friends among the Cousins while in Ho-|the mail for amounts of.one dollar and 
nolulu. I would be very glad if there}over upon postal cards printed for the 
should be a “Cousins’” gathering while|purpose. This system trebles the 
she is there, which she could attend as}amounts that were previously given 
my representative. JI am _ sure thejon subscription papers. 

“Cousins” would be glad to hear her} The Huelo Church recently voted to 
speak. She has been actively connected/deed its property to the Hawaiian 
with the National Y. W. C. A. for nearly| Board, with the immediate result that 
ten years and has developed much power!a friend of the Church gave $150 to- 
as a speaker to women all over this coun-| ward the repair of the building, which 
trv. J am sure you will be glad to know 

her. As she will be a total stranger at 

the Islands i would be very grateful to 

you and others who would show her any 

kindness within your power. Any word 

for her may be left with the secretary of 

the Y. W. C. A. in Honolulu. I hope I 

am not trespassing on your good will in 

making these requests in behalf of my 

dear daughter. I want her to see some- 

thing of my old Hawaiian home and kind 
friends. 


had already collected. 
The Chinese Parsonage in Wailuku 
was completed last month, costing 


raised by the Chinese of Maui. There 
ig now a debt of about fifty dollars, 
which we hope some friend of our Chi-! 
nese work will raise for us. | 

The debt to Rev. John Nua of Wai-| 
luku Native Church, amounting to al-' 
most $400, has been largely raised, and 
the building of the Sunday schoolroom 
for the Church nearly paid for. This 
extra room will greatly facilitate the, 
carrying on of a larger native Sunday 
school in this Hawaiian center. 


The repairs of the historic Pookela 
Church, so dear to many former stu- 
dents of the present Maunaolu Semi- 
nary, and so closely associated with 
the life and work of the splendid mis- 
is the subject for the next few months.|sionary family, the Greens, are now 

The Churches of the Maui Associa-|begun in earnest. The Board, to 
tion have been generous in their giftsj| which this property was deeded about 
to missions this past month. Over|a year ago, departed from its usual 
one hundred dollars have been paid| custom of not aiding Hawaiian and 
the agent to divide between the Amer-, Union churches in their repair, and 
ican and Hawaiian Boards. Churches}gave a handsome sum for this old 
that have made no contribution for|Church. The action of the Board was 
years have at the last Christmas sea-|based upon two facts: the scattered 
son given generously for the extension] membership of the Church and the his- 
of the Kingdom in Hawaii and the|torical associations of the old building, 
world. which was fast tumbling to ruins. 

In the last few months the Hawai-| Maui’s generous giver offered his help, 
ians in the region of Haiku, under the}and the handful of attendants at the 
ieadership of Rev. Isaac D. Iaea, have!old Church have received new courage 
moved their Church building from|for their task of keeping up the ser- 
Hauku to Pauwela, at a cost of about|vices. Pastor Santos has _ bravely 
$400. Offers of financial aid from|faced the situation and is doing his 
large givers have been repeatedly re-jbest to gather together the scattered 
fused by the pastor and his Church: members of his flock. 
until the members themselves sball} At the monthly ministers’ meeting, 
have raised as much as possible. The; Rev. B. V. Bazata has begun a very 
Maui Aid Association issued ten sub-jvaluable course of lectures upon the 
scription - papers, the money fromjsubject, “How We Got Our Bible.” 
which is paid the agent who settles the; Such advanced studies the Maui min- 
accounts of the Church. This some-|isters greatly enjoy. RB. D. 
what novel arrangement of the sub-- Wailuku. 


Cordially your “Cousin,” 
S: E."COnDE. 


(Continued from Page 8). 


are held every two weeks at the Wil- 
liam and Mary Alexander Parsonage. 
Under the able direction of Mrs. C. B. 
Wells an excellent literary and educa- 
tional study. is zealously undertaken. 
“The Early Days of French History” 


about $650, nearly all of which feel 


Ax) SCHAEFER) & C@3 
Importers and 


COMMISSION MERCHANTS. 


Honolulu, T. H. 


OPP & COMPANY, 


Importers and Manufacturers of 
FURNITURE AND UPHOLSTERY. 
CHAIRS TO RENT. 


Nos. 1053-1059 Bishop St. - -  Honolutu. 


| NRE Ts ia & BALDWIN, Ltd. 


| 
was added to a neat sum the eoncch 


OFFICERS—H. P. Baldwin, Pres’t; J. B. 
Castle, rst Vice-Pres’t; W. M. Alexander, 2d 
Vice-Pres’'t; J. P. Cooke, Treas.; W. O. 
Smith, Sec’y; George R. Carter, Auditor. 


SUGAR FACTORS AND COMMISSION 
MERCHANTS. 


AGENTS FOR—Hawaiian Commercial & 
Sugar Co., Haiku Sugar Co., Paia Plantation 
Con Kihei Plantation Co., Hawaiian Sugar 
Co., Kahului R. R. Co., and Kahuku Planta- 
tion. 


Tru. Marn 109 C. A, Benuina, Mgr | 


CLUB STABLES 


FORT ST., ABOVE HOTEL 


RIGS OF ALL KINDS 
GOOD HORSES 
CAREFUL DRIVERS 


LAUS: SPRECKELS © 7G@e8 
BANKERS. 


st ot 


CG 


Draw Exchange on the prizcipal ports of the 
world and transact a general 
banking business. 


st 


Honolulu Hawaiian Islands. 


S. K. Kamaiopill 


Notary Public, Agent to Grant Marriage License, 
and Seacher of Titles. 


OFFICE WITH PUBLIC LANDS OFFICE 


JUDICIARY BLD HONOLULU, H. T. 


THE FRIEND. 


15 


The Bank of Hawaii, Lea. 


Incorporated Under the Laws of the Territory 


of Hawaii. 
PAID-UP CAPTTA TG. saan cs ft $600,000.00 
ro RE) LO SSS: SP ee 300,000.00 
UNDIVIDED PROFITS .. .......107,346.65 


OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 
Charles M. Cooke 


FMM rNOMGS oo foils: dsc ado evece\ oes se Vice-President 
Hea. Mactarlane.:......% 2nd Vice-President 
CMMI COORG. Chivas. cca tesa ss acdinews Cashier 
Cham clustace. JT... ee acess Assistant Cashier 
ee WAMOM. c. osc. a es ewes Assistant Cashier 


EK. F. Bishop, E. D. Tenney, J. A. McCandless, 
C. H. Atherton.and F. C. Atherton, 
COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS DEPART- 
MENT. 
Strict Attention Given to all Branches of 
Banking. 
JUDD BUILDING. 


pee. LIALL ca. SON 


In addition to Hardware and 
General Merchandise have now a 
complete assortment of 


HOUSEHOLD GOODS, 


including Crockey, Glassware, 
Stoves, Kitchen Furniture, Re- 
frigerators and Ice Chests, Etc. 
Alsa Garden Tools of all kinds, 
Rubber Hose, Lawn Mowers. 

Call and examine our stock at 
the Hall Building. 


FORT STREET. 


evi 


Pao. DAY & CO. 


FINE GROCERIES 
CLD Kona Coffe a Specialty 


B. F. Ehlers & Co. 


eO OK, LPO 
MoONOLULU, T.H. 


The Leading Dry 
Goods House in the 
Territory. Especial 
attention given to 
Mail Orders. 


‘|}ner Merchant and Alakea streets, 


ALWAYS USE 


California Rose. 


OREAMERY BUTTER) 


aan tees the Best and full 16 


HENRY MAY & CO. Ltn. 
22 TELEPHONES——_—92 


RECORD OF EVENTS. 


Jan. 19th—Steamers Kinau and Mauna 
Toa sail on a special trip to Kau lava- 
flows with some 250 excursionists. 

2ist—Excursionists return after 
grand trip of 48 hours. 

25th—Hon. Charles R. Bishop’s 85th 
birthday observed in Pauahi Hall. 

26th.—Lava in three days has risen 
150 feet in Haleamaumau Lake. 

27th—Schooner Luka makes Waima- 
nalo, after eighteen days drifting, dis- 
abled, and search by Cutter Manning. 

3ist.—Rev. James C. Beissel has oc- 
cupied three colunins of the Advertiser 
for a week with a defense of the Holy 
Inquisition. 

Feb. 1st.—P. C. Jones donates to the 
Wawaiian Board the block on east cor- 
for 


a 


their permanent rooms. 

ard.—Deluging rain of three inches 
in two hours after midnight tears up 
some streets badly. Damage to River 
street from Nuuanu Stream. 

rith._ Chinese New Year begins. 

13th.—-Police Detective Taylor is 
tendered a bribe of $1400 a week to se- 
cure protected monopoly of gambling 


to Lee Let. 
DIED. 
GREENFIELD—At Honolulu, Hawaii, Jan. 
25, Dr. C. B. Greenfield, of England, aged 


63. 

DUTRO—At Honolulu, Jan. 27 
aged 58 years. 

EAMES—At Oakland, Cal., Feb. 4, Mrs. 
Anna Alward Eames, late of Wahiawa. 

BARTON—In Toronto, Canada, Feb. 3, Ger- 
ard Barton, late musical instructor Oahu 
College. 

FERNANDEZ—In Hilo, Feb. 8, William Fer- 
nandez, aged 31 years. 

BRASH—In Honolulu, Feb. 13, Susan Brash, 
aged 55 years. 

DICKENSON—At Wailuku, Feb. 
Rosa Dickenson, aged 62 years. 

DICKENSON—At Lahaina, Feb, 16, Henry 
Dickenson, aged 60 years. 

KAI—At Hilo, Feb. 14, of paralysis, Paul 
John Kai, aged 68, a prominent resident. 
REGAN—At Honolulu, Feb. 18, of aneurism, 

J. J. Regan, an old "resident. 


,» Mike Dutro, 


10, Miss 


BROWN—At Honolulu, Feb. 19, Andrew 
Brown, long in public life, aged .. years. 
BARTLETT—At Honolulu, Feb. 25, Mrs, 

Ethel P. Bartlett, nee Gurney. 
MARRIED. 
GEDGE-SMITH—At Honolulu, Feb. 12, Nor- 


man KE, Gedge to Miss Helen ©. Smith, 
daughter of Henry C. Smith, Clerk of Su- 
preme Court. 

JUDD-McCARTHY—At Martinez, Cal., Feb. 
7, Allen Wilkes Judd of Honolulu, to Eliza- 
beth Anna McCarthy of Watsonville, Cal. 

DAMON—GRAY—At Albany, N. Y., Feb. 7, 
Maurice Sherman Damon, late of Honolulu, 
to Miss Cornelia H. D. Gray, daughter of 
James 8S. Gray. 


‘e BREWER & CO., Limited, 


General Mercantile Commission Agents. 
Queen St., Honolulu, T. H. 


AGENTS FOR—Hawaiian Agricultural Co., 
Onomea Sugar Co., Honomu Sugar Co., Wai- 
luku Sugar Co., Makee Sugar Co., Haleakala 
Ranch Co., Kapapala Ranch. 

Planters’ Line Shipping Co., 

Agents Boston Board of Underwriters. 

Agents Philadelphia Board of Underwriters. 


LIST OF OFFICERS—Charles M. Cooke, 
President; Geo. H. Robertson, Vice-President 
and Manager; E. Faxon Bishop, Treasurer and 
Secretary; F. W. Macfarlane, Auditor; P. C. 
Jones, C. H. Cooke, J. R. Galt, Directors. 


B EAVER LUNCH ROOM. 


ss 
TEMPERANCE “COFFEE “HOUSE. 
3s 8 


Fort St., Honolulu, T. H. 


IE NWIBIRS iz COON, Iie. 
DEALERS IN 
PAINTS. Etc. 


WALL PAPERS, 


MATERIALS, 
LUMBER, BUILDING 


Honolulu, T. H. 


W, 


G. IRWIN & CO., 


Fort Street, Honolulu 
SUGAR FACTORS 


AND 
COMMISSION AGENTS. 
Agents for the Oceanic Steamship Co. 


W, W. AHANA & CO.,, LTD. 
MERCHANT TAILORS, 


P. O, Box 986. Telephone Blue 2741 
62 King Street 


CLOTHES CLEANED AND REPAIRED. 


HENRY H. WILLIAMS 


FUNERAL DIRECTOR 


Graduate of Dr. Rodgers Perfect Em- 
balming School of San Francisco, Cal., 
also of The Renouard Training School 
for Embalmers of New York. And a 
Licensed Embalmer for the State of 
New York, also a member of the State 
Funeral Directors Association of Cali- 
fornia. 

MONUMENTS AND TOMBSTONES 
FURNISHED. 
Chairs to Rent. 


LOVE BUILDING 1142, 1144 FORT S'r. 


Telephones: Office Main 64. Res. cor. 
Richards and Beretamia, Blue 3561. 


NOT “MANY BOOKS” BUT NEW AND GOOD 


at THE HAWAIIAN BOARD ROOMS 


CORNER OF ALAKEA AND MERCHANT STREETS 


Helpful reading for CHILDREN—good; | For Christian Endeavors Chalk . and Wey ks oe eh rr 
for instance for Sunday Reading C..Ey Calendar tory errs. tars .25| Child Life if Many Lands .... 1.00 
A number of fine stories including Romance of Miss’nary Heroism 1.50 Soh tl Gk EE Hormone eee Sait 
Juaddie;”’» ‘J Cole; rete" @' $ 125) This is for You yes a aageeeeny OU 
Other Wise Ment... o. ec. SO Daily Strenothi rasa ere 1.00 | Kindergarten Stories......... 1.25 
Children of the Forest ....... 1.25} For Sunday School Workers and Boys Life of Christ 1. 72) iaem 
Algonquingiales cae. vues Aco Mothers Hymn of Work and Worship 
Timorous Beasties........... 1.50) How to Plan ae Lesson’. eee 1.25| (Used in Central Union 
Beasties ees: Tiseee ees oe 1;50)) Practical ‘Primary Rlans eee 1.00 Church’? on aa eee cette 85 


wt A FINE LINE OF BIBLES AND PRAYER BOOKS .# 


Dr. Johnstone’s Studies for “Personal Workers” 
HIS LIFE 


BROKEN! 


With the publication of Nelson’s Encyclopaedia, THE PADLOCK 
OF PROHIBITIVE PRICE has been broken, and for no man or woman 
who is mentally alive and who really is a lover of knowledge is there left 
an excuse not to have at hand a high-class work of reference, comprehen- 
sive enough for the scholar, handy enough for the school boy and inter- 
esting reading for everybody. 


The New York Times says: ‘“*** Cheap in price, though in 
nothing else. It seems as though the ideal encyclopaedia had been found 
for readers of English. 


NELSON’S ENGYGLOPAEDIA 
Everybody’s Book of Reference 


FRANK MOORE COLBY, M. A., New York, American Editor. GEORGE SANDEMAN, M. A., Edinburg, European 
Editor. With over 600 contributors, each the authority in his fleld. 

To have collected and arranged in 12 full volumes the endeavors and achievements of the human race up to the pre- 
sent time—to have at hand the knowledge of the world sifted, certified and presented in one great working library for 
quick and easy reference; all done effectualy and completely. This of itself has been cause for wonderment, but that the 
entire set should be offered to the public at the amazingly low price of $42.00 for the set, marks the undertaking as the 
wonder in this day of wonders in the realm of book publishing. 

Imagine its price four times what it is, put it to the severest encyclopaedia tests you know, either as to comprehen- 
siveness, accuracy, reliabiiity, newness, clearness and charm of expression, profusion and character of illustration, charac- 
ter of paper, binding—examine it from every standpoint and you will finding nothing lacking. 

We might write pages about its 60,000 subjects, its 7,500 three-column pages, its 6.000 illustrations, the color plates, 
the full-page plates, the perfect cross-reference system and the many other advantages. But we won’t. We will do bet- 
ter than that. They can be seen at the Hawaiian Board Book Rooms. 


Su WZ 


NSS Ts 
VSS 
wees. 


SEATS 
SENN ANAS, 


‘. 


ND 


RON 
li 


ae 


THE FRIEND. 


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SURETY ON BONDS 


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The cheapest and most desirable lots of- 
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years. Interest at 6 per cent. 


For information as to building require- 
ments, etc., apply to 
TRUSTEES OF OAHU COLLEGE, 
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Hawaiian Islands. 


Honolulu - = - 
API COREE GIS: 
(Arthur F. Griffiths, A.B., President.) 
and 
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(Samuel Pingree French, A. B., Principal.) 
Offer complete 
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together with special 
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Art courses. 
For Catalogues, address 
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Oahu College, - - - - Honolulu, H. T. 


€| M. WHITN“Y, M. D., D. D. S. 


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IAN TRUST CO.|/n oe FBIEND 


Is published the first week of each month 
in Honolulu, T. H., at the Hawaiian Board 


Book Rooms, cor. Alakea and Merchants | 


Sts. Subscription price, $1.50 per year. 


All business letter should be addressed } 


and all M. O.’s and checks should be made 


out to 
THEODORE RICHARDS, 


Business Manager of The Friend. 
P. O. Box 489, 


All communications of a literary character 


should be addressed to DoREMUS SCUDDER, 
MANAGING EpiTor oF THE FRIEND, 
cor. Alakea & Merchant Sts., Honolulu, T, H. 


and must reach the Board Rooms by the 24th of 
the month 


THE Boarp oF EpDITors: 


Doremus Scudder, Managing Editor. 
Sereno E. Bishop, D. D. 

Rev. Orramel H. Gulick. 

Theodore Richards. 

Rev. Edward W. Thwing. 

Rev. Edward B. Turner. 

Rev. William D. Westervelt. 


Entered October 27, 1902, at Honolulu, Hawatt, as second 
class matter, under act of Confress of March 3, 1879. 


MOVED 


Again—This Time 


To Our Own Building 
ALAKEA and MERCHANT STREETS 


where hereafter may be 
found Bibles in 


English 
Hawaiian 
Japanese 
Chinese 
Portuguese 


as well as general 


RELIGIOUS LITERATURE 
AND PRAYER BOOKS. 


We plan to keep a stock of 
Sunday School materials 


Quarterlies, Notes and commentaries 


| 


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BANKERS. 


HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 


Established in 1858. 


Transact a General Banking and Exchange 
Business. Loans made on approved security. 
Bills discounted. Commercial Credits grant- 
ed. Deposits received on current account sub- 
ject to check. 


Regular Savings Bank Department main- 
tained in Bank Building on Merchant Street, 
and Insurance Department, doing a Life, Fire 
and Marine business on most favorable terms, 
in Friend Building on Bethel Street. 


Henry Waterhouse Trust Co., Ltd. 


STOCKS, BONDS 
AND ISLAND 
SECURI Pig 


Fort and Merchant Streets, Honolulu. 


F. WICHMAN, & CO., LTD. 
Manufacturing Optician, 
Jeweler and Silversmith. 


Importer of Diamonds, American and Swiss 
Watches, Art Pottery, Cut Glass, 
Leather Goods, Ete. 


Honolulu - - - - Hawaiian Islands. 


ASTLE & COOKE, ltd® 
Honolulu, H. I. 


COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 
SUGAR FACTORS. 


Agents for 
The Ewa Plantation Co., i; 
The Waialua Agricultural Co., Ltd., 
The Kohala Sugar Co., 
The Waimea Sugar. Mill Co., 
The Apokaa Sugar Co., Ltd., 
The Fulton Iron Works, St. Louis, Mo., 
The Standard Oil Co., 
Geo. F. Blake Steam Pumps, 
Weston’s Centrifugals, 
New England Mutual Life Ins. Co., Boston, 
Aetna Fire Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn., 
Alliance Assurance Co., of London. 


EORGE J. AUGUR, M.D., 
HOMOEPATHIC PRACTITIONER. 


Residence, 435 Beretania St.; Office, 431 
Beretania St. Tel. 1851 Blue. 


Office Hours:—10 to 12 a. m., 3 to 4 and 7 


The 


Frien 


OLDEST NEWSPAPER WEST OF THE ROCKIES. 


MOL... LP XLV 


TREASURER’S STATEMENT. 


February 20—March 20. 


Receipts, 
HOMME TS Seis Leic.ios sie b bcc dd ohe pie BOSS $ 734.50 
Re REMOMMEN 1- Hlcds 5 ce GSR re oe 1 PUP. is 6.8 200.50 
ScemateerOry a oiste ss o hl is dak. 42.00 
BROCE Paeikte . site Sith « ply 2h. ABs 50.00 
erertor we et)... Filaiieles Sic ve wale elds 9.00 
emma INTE. SiS J4 stad cae lis « 17.00 
HOMME MOND teers Ve «cr liehs bis PRES Ae eS 28.71 
IS) PIE VOGUE DS a i en en TO ro. ce 71.77 
Hee AMTSSLON. f.. ha hb fed fbf ed 3 SYS 110.00 
Joy Nile GaN A Ae Ce ea 30.00 
RUD OMELOUE ITA bh. 3 frie & « Wal. 2 FSi voles SESS 55.00 
OrderaMepartment: (4:15... 2 Feige. sale 38.81 
Re MOMOMIECESE | sf cinlets ooo ahi sia Glas o's 218.89 
TOMA Gied oa circ le sielnlatiels « » atlehbedsls 33.90 
Depemase WOTK (4 )f.. fet. oie hie ieee 70.00 
Makiki’ Japanese Work............ 500.00 
MRE GOCE NIIUGS) 5 5h. fs pls sew lcelacde thie 354.90 


Excess of Expenditures over Re- 
0 a ee a ee 2,403.14 
$9,968.12 
Expenditures. ; 
ILO X00 Cy Cee 
So MERU GTN Olea ay 5, 2 posts geval ey <0) s otasjs cameo ese « 1.81 
iX2) TELODIOL TE Ron ee ee 39.35 
MS OTN MEOITING! Soreys bueys: rer Lido ppy sipte #09. 20.50 
a eM ee USSU OD are, sid « Sashes crdivyelete [apie sles 139.45 
PSG S a a re ee 51.09 
ES. IE COM LR Se ee ree 208.80 
iSpecialmoccretany 8) EXpPer ecw anaes 36.00 
MS EOM ME UN CST 2... vyersyiyain eye on txeient ys 6 98.35 
OME HxPEDse, oie: s0 a5 00 sls $ 969.93 


RS AAU OS pe a\ccay cre bance eye 460.75 1,430.68 
Japanese Work .........$ 542.90 
i SAIATIOS Go sacr oe 723.00 1,265.90 
KCnimese: Work f........... $ 5.60 
Salaries ........ 1,368.50 1,374.10 
Hawaiian Work, Salaries .......... 372.00 
English Work, Salaries ............ 765.50 
MBOERUeMCNC, WOKK 2... cee eee ae ss 183.00 
Kawatahao Seminary .........--..: 225.00 
Mad-Pacine Institute ................ 3,408.95 
$9,968.12 
Overdraft at the Bank........... $4,374.78 


THEODORE RICHARDS, 
Treasurer. 


_|have a part in them 


Mother Castle. 


On the 13th of March, Mrs. Mary 
Tenney Castle fell quietly asleep at the 
ripe age of eighty-seven years. She 
came to Hawaii in 1843 with her hus- 
band, the late Samuel N. Castle, and 
had witnessed many of the most stir- 
ring events in the story of the Chris- 
tian conquest of these Islands. Al- 
though the great revival of 1837-9 had 
preceded her coming by a few years, 
she saw the culmination of that mighty 
movement in the steady extension of 
religious influence which by 1863 had 
achieved the record that told of one- 
third of the Hawaiian people enrolled 
upon the membership books of the mis- 
sionary Churches. Those were pre- 
eminently the days of romance in the 
history of the planting of Christianity 
here, and the missionaries privileged to 
ever thereafter 
looked back as to the golden age. 
Through the succeeding forty-one years 
of steady and sorrowful decline Mother 
Castle lived with a serenity and cheer- 
fulness that made her home a Mecca to 
all visitors interested in the better side 
of Hawaiian life. Not to have been 
discouraged at times during this pe- 
riod would not have been human, but 
after the advent of large resources a 
constant pouring forth of benefactions 
for the Churches so near her heart tes- 
tified to the unbounded hope which 
Mother Castle cherished of another re- 
vival sure to visit them some day. It 
is good that she lived to see the down- 
ward course changed. For the past 
few years there has been a steady gain 
and the Hawaiian Christians are giv- 
ing wide evidence of the new order of 
growth. Mother Castle’s noble faith 
and that generosity which seemed to 
some misplaced are being amply 
justified. We hazard the prophecy 
that some day her most profitable in- 
vestments in giving will prove to be 
those which she made in behalf of the 
Hawaiian race. This is a bolder pre- 
diction than appears on its face, for the 
heart of this elect lady was wide 
enough to take into itself the world, 
and her kindly interest in humane 
movements extended far beyond the 
confines of her native country. In 


many mission fields the tidings of her! 


HONOLULU rt. TO APRIL. 1607 


departure will bring sorrow, mingled 
with joy over her entrance into the 
upper kingdom of privilege. She was 
one of those quiet forces to which in 
vision Jesus alluded when He said “the 
kingdom of heaven cometh not with 
observation.” Hawaii is rich in having 
held this life so long. For she had 
many of the qualities which Jesus pre- 
dicted of the men of the New Order. 
During all the years of its existence 
the Hawaiian Board has had no firmer 
friend. Again and again when some 
far-reaching measure halted for lack of 
funds, a quiet message has reached the 
rooms, and with a “Thank God” the 
new movement has been pushed. An 
old Hebrew poet in singing the praises 
of the Ideal Mother chanted, “Her 
children rise up, and call her blessed.” 
It is the picture of the power which 
the rare woman has of so impressing 
her nobility upon her children that the 
loftiness of their own lives shall best 
speak out her, virtues. Mrs. Castle 
was a mother of this type, and Hono- 
lulu today is experiencing the blessing 
of being the home of sons and daugh- 
ters whose public spirit, unselfish ser- 
vice and generous giving form the kind 
of a benediction dearest to the heart of 
this sainted woman. 


Toward Another Goal. 


Our last annual report “That They 
Go Forward” devoted its ninth page to 
making its wants known. A number 
of these have been quietly supplied ina 
manner not only to evoke the deepest 
gratitude, but also to astonish us with 
its rebuke to lack of faith. Among 
these “Incitements to Prayer’ were 
two items asking for $250,000 endow- 
ment for the Mid-Pacific Institute and 
$100,000 for the erection of dormitories. 
The former of these is still out of 
sight, but Mrs. S. C. Allen has given 
$5,000 towards the school site and Mrs. 
J. B. Atherton has contributed $35,000 
towards a dormitory for Kawaiahao as a 
memorial of her husband, late Presi- 
dent of the Hawaiian Board. Already 
plans are being discussed and building 
operations will soon be under way. 
Just whence the remaining $65,000 are 
to come is a conumdrum, but we be- 
lieve it will be forthcoming in due sea- 


THE FRIEND. 


son, 
site of this our crowning educational 
institution is of no little interest. One 
year ago the Hawaiian Board decided 
to purchase the land of Kapahulu, em- 
bracing some 300 acres. It was a 
princely domain and would have con- 
stituted the noblest school site in the 
Islands. But difficulties over details, 
coupled with the conviction that the 
Mid-Pacific Institute could scarcely 


hope for funds sufficient to develop all| 


the possibilities of such a commanding 
location, led to a reconsideration of the 
decision to secure this property. Every 
other possible location in and about 
Honolulu was most patiently canvass- 
ed. Finally all were narrowed down to 
a site in beautiful Manoa Valley, ad- 
joining College Hills. Here some 37 
acres of undulating land suitable for 
the varied needs of the school, and af- 
fording a natural division for the boys 
and girls departments, were found and 
promptly purchased by the Board. 

There is a fine spring of water on 
the premises, which should yield at 
least 100,000 gallons per day. The two 
entrances are but a block from the Col- 
lege Hills electric line. Inspiring views 
of mountain and sea are commanded 
from the higher points. The school 
will have room for its agricultural and 
dairy ieatures, in addition to ample 
playgrounds. Through the generous 
cooperation of the Castle Estate it was 
possible for the Board to acquire this 
property by cash purchase. The Es- 
tate offered to buy the land upon which 
Kawaiahao now stands in order to add 
it to the grounds of the Castle Home. 
This will tend to preserve to all time 
the integrity of Honolulu’s missionary 
center. 4 The Sum) defived, bythe 
Board from this deal, together with 
the $18,000 realized from the sale last 
year of the North Pacific Missionary 
Institute grounds to the Methodist 
Church and Mrs. Allen’s gift, a little 
more than covered the purchase price of 
the new school site. The friends of the 
Board are singing hallelujah over this 
large forward step towards the consum- 
mation of their plan for a great interna- 
tional Christian institute of learning in 
the strategic center of the Pacific World 
The Bosworth Campaign. 

Like its central figure, it was a quiet 
movement devoid of all advertising 
outside of a simple postal card invita- 
tion sent to one thousand men and the 
usual press notices. The time fixed 


upon was half-past four in the after-| 


noon, convenient enough for all, but 
demanding the sacrifice of the recrea- 
tion hour from busy men. The first 
lecture of the six delivered in Centrai 


Meantime the story of the future | 


Union Church was given in the chapel. 
This proved too small, and the main 
auditorium was used.thereafter. The 
gatherings were notable in personnel, 
being remarkable for the large number 
of men of affairs and those not often 
seen at Church who attended. Noth- 
ing suggesting the typical evangelistic 
campaign was present—choir, popular 
singing, after meeting, cards, special 
workers all were wanting. The at- 
mosphere was that of a course of lec- 
tures by a scholar to those anxious to 
learn. Dr. Bosworth is careful to dis- 
card all the conventional arts of the 
platform. He knows his sphere, that 
of the teacher, Tle fills itis: one 
great extraneous asset is his voice, 


clear, sympathetic and adaptable. His} 


language is a study. He despises the 
ear of repetitions. In fact, iteration is 
one of his cardinal virtues. ° He ham- 
mers a point home. This saying over 
again of the same phrases constitutes 
one of the charms of his teaching 
method. The care that most speakers 
give to the avoidance of repetition, Dr. 


Bosworth concentrates upon shunning | 


cant. He is always new. He has a 
nomenclature of his own and it belongs 
first to common sense, second to the 
twentieth century. He is the antipodes 
of the learned German who talks so 
that no one can understand him. The 
plainest hearer is Dr. Bosworth’s ob- 
jective. If he can land him, everyone 
else is necessarily, caught. But the 


simple is not confounded with the| 


commonplace. Hence every lecture 
sends the audience away delighted with 


expressive phrases which are as far| 


apart as possible from theological plat- 
itudes and whose chief distinction it is 
to put new life into familiar passages 
of Jesus’ teaching. These, however, 
are but minor features. The peculiar 
characteristic of Dr. Bosworth’s work 
is his wonderful insight into the mind 
of Christ and his rare power to enable 
all who hear him to see what he sees. 
He deals with the great fundamentals, 
but in such a way as to make them grip 
mind and conscience with fresh insist- 
ence. The tonic quality of all he 
teaches is found in the effect upon the 
will. One goes away with the deter- 


|mination to make life worthier of the 


vision of its possibilities. This is the 
finai test of a great teacher, not the ad- 
miration of cleverness, eloquence or 
erudition which he elicits, not the 
amount of mental pabulum which the 
student absorbs from him, but the high 
volitions he inspires. Therefore Ho- 
nolulu was moved, not widely, because 
there was no great popular hearing, but 
deeply, because the large number who 
did hear him were profoundly stirred. 


5 


The Friend goes out of its way to fur- 
nish a crude synopsis of his seven ad- 
dresses, because they will be welcomed 
by all who heard him as a means of 


[keeping fresh in mind his vital mes- 


sages. 


Civic Federation. 


This aggressive and public-spirited 
organization held its annual meeting 
March 28. The record of work done 
during the past year was condensed 
into brief reports which were issued in 
neat pamphlet form and sent to each 
member. These show an immense 
amount of detailed effort expended 
along the line of public health, chari- 
ties, popular education, parks, streets 
and the city beautiful, law and order, 
good government and wise legislation, 
The right arm of the Federation is its 
Executive Committee of Fifteen, di- 
vided into five sub-committees. These 
sub-committees do the bulk of the 
work and report monthly to the Ex- 
ecutive Committee. Honolulu is to be 
congratulated upon the faithfulness 
with which the very busy men compris- 
ing these committees devote time and 
energy to this form of public service. 
The absence of a quorum from the 
monthly meetings is a thing practi- 
cally unknown in the history of this 
vigorous organization. While the 
most spectacular service rendered to 
the people during the past year was the 
part the Federation took in downing 


the corrupt Oahu gang last fall, the agi- 


tation for new parks and playgrounds, 
for a filtration plant, for greater ef- 
fectiveness in public education and for 
the allied reforms of local option and 
stricter temperance legislation prom- 
ises to issue in benefits that will mul- 
tiply as the years roll on, The) iive 
meinbers chosen upon the Executive 
Committee for three years to replace 
those whose terms had expired were 
Messrs. W..R. Castle, F.,S. Diedgemae 
H. Trent, Z. K. Myers and J. Aas 


of whom the first three were reélected. 


The two great functions of a Civic 
Federation are those, first, of a herald, 
to arouse the public to new possibili- 
ties of larger life, and, second, of a 
watchdog, to awaken the public to the 
stealthy approach of the enemies of its 
peace and order. Honolulu’s Federa- 
tion has fulfilled its duty in each of 
these spheres. 


An Apostolic Figure. 

The Friend next month hopes to be 
able to present its readers with a con- 
tribution from the pen of Rey. Philip 
H. Delaporte, the missionary of the 


THE FRIEND. 


; ght 
American Board and of Central Union 


Church on Nauru or Pleasant Island. 
The story of this remarkable man’s 
achievements reads like a page from 
the Acts of the Apostles, with the ad- 
dition of language conquests unknown 
in that brief history of the early 
Church. With meager resources this 
quiet missionary has translated and 
printed a large part of the New Tes- 
tament and, together with Mrs. Dela- 
porte, has been able to lead many hun- 
dreds of the natives to Christ. Backed 
by the devoted Christian capitalist, Mr. 
Arundel, he and his wife are fast 
transforming their island into a Chris- 
tian stronghold. The incoming of 
Chinese workmen will complicate their 


problem, but may in the future add an’ 


element of permanent power to all that 
they are achieving. 
laporte, with four children, reached 
Honolulu on the Suveric, March tst. 
After a short stay in Honolulu they left 
for San Francisco, March 16, taking 
two children and leaving the others in 
this city. accorfing to medical advice. 
They will go to Germany during their 
furlough and will return to their field 
after an absence of about one year. The 
close connection of Hawaii with this 
splendid work in Nauru is a cause of 
great joy to all our Churches. 
Hawaiian Number. 

The Independent of 
makes the announcement. of a special 
issue to be devoted to Hawaii. The 
magazine of May 2, 1907, will contain 
no less than six articles by residents 
of Honolulu, namely, Hon. W. F. 
; Frear, Bishop H. B. Restarick, Rev. S. 
ie Picnapy Llon..5,..B..Dole,..Dr:D. 
Scudder and 
Other features will be in keeping with 
the purpose, which is to show the re- 
markable progress and present inter- 
esting condition of the Islands. Dur- 
ing the past three months many in- 
quiries have come to our office request- 
ing exactly the kind of information 
. which this issue will contain. We 


therefore advise our readers to be 


forehanded in placing their orders for, 


this forthcoming Hawaiian number. 
Legislative Progress. 

Unless some untoward emergency 
occur, the present Legislature promises 
to fulfill all the bright hopes enter- 
tained for it. In fact, it would be hard 


to match its good work among its fel- 


lows of the mainland. Although there 
has been no little aimless talk, it has 
settled down to business and has trans- 


Mr. and Mrs. De-: 


| 
New York) 


Editor\We"G.. Smith. 


remuneration of supervisors and some 
other officials, paid highly enough al- 
ready, wiil fail. Another ruinous 
measure for multiplying office-holders, 
the municipal bill, is also likely to die 
by weight of its evident worthlessness. 
, the ignoble and utterly unworthy per- 
sonal attack upon Governor Carier 
voiced in the “undated resignations’ 
bill will, it is hoped, sting itself to death. 
Tarnine from these evidences of bad 
ead it 1s a pleasure to note that 
| the Senate is preparing a notable 
\liquor law which if supplemented by 
,the local option statute promises a fair 
'settlement of this vixed question. Two 
measures of general excellence were 
offered, one for the Republican organ- 
ization by Senator Lane and the other 
by Senator McCarthy for the liquor 
idealers.. (Vhese. were “referred to) a 
committee and the latter gave all in- 
‘terested parties a patient hearing which 
lasted several hours. Remarkable agree- 
;ment was evidenced at this hearing 
by the saloon men on the one hand and 
by the representatives of the Civic 
federation and the Anti-Saloon 
League on the other. Both measures 
had been drafted with great care and 

ith true public spirit. Except in some 


| wi 
details it was found that all parties could 
be satisfied. Subsequently the two 
bills were carefully overhauled and the 
resultant is now before the committee. 
| It is possible that the committee will ad- 
| vocate three forms of liquor license, one 
wholesale with an annual fee of $1000, 
one retail with a fee of $1000 for 
Honolulu and $500 outside, and a 
third for not over three days at $15 
per day in the case of public Oitextaine| 
ments race meets, etc. This latter 
form of license will be bitterly fought 
iby all the friends of temperance. It 
certainly. ought not to pass. With the 
‘exception of this provision the will is 
likely to prove acceptable. The Benes 
‘to grant licenses is to be vested in a 
County Board of five men appointed by 
‘the Governor, with the consent of the 
Senate. Provisions safeguarding pub- 
lic interests in the granting of licenses, 
jand others voicing practically all the 
‘demands of the Federation and League, | 
were embodied in the Lane measure. 
and are likely to appear in that re- 
ported by the committee. If this like- 
lihood eventuate and the bill pass with- 
out damaging amendments it will be a 
great victory for good government. | 
| 
Local Option. | 
| Meantime, in the House, where Rep- 


| 
| 
| 
i 


where ever since it has quietly reposed. 
Representative Rawlins, chairman of 
this committee, has shown consider- 
able public spirit in expediting busi- 
mess and has merited public approba- 
tion therefor. But, unfortunately, he 
is credited with the determination to 
let the local option bill sleep until the 
general liquor law shall have been 
enacted, when the former will be killed, 
as it was two years ago, with the cry 
that the general bill provides for local 
option. The general bill now in the 
Senate does repeat the provision in the 
present law for local petition. But this 
is the very antithesis of local option. 
Local petition is both a very expensive 
and very impossible measure. It is 
thoroughly un-American, as it denies 
the privilege of testing at the ballot- 
box the question of liquor selling. The 
temperance forces should never yield 
to this thoroughly unjust way of shelvy- 
ing the liquor issue. There is a very 
iarge public demand throughout the 
Territory for local option. If a bill to 
provide for it were to be submitted to 
popular vote it would undoubtedly be 
passed. The Legislature ought to face 
the question fairly and Mr. Rawlins has 
no right to smother the measure in 
committee. The Civic Federation at 
its annual meeting appointed a com- 
mittee of nine to wait upon Mr. Raw- 
lins and endeavor to secure from him 
a promise to have his committee act on 
this bill at an early day. 


Territorial Public Library. 


Following the suggestion of Govy- 
ernor Carter's message, Representative 
Hughes introduced into the House a 
bill to provide for a public library to 
be known as the Hawaiian Library. 
The bill calls for the appointment of 
a Board of Trustees and gives them 
wide powers to create and maintain a 
public library and to extend its privi- 
leges to all persons in the Territory, 
especially to all pupils in public and 
private schools. This bill is likely to 
pass both houses. Simultaneously 
with this an attempt was made to sc- 
cure from the House the inclusion in 
the appropriation bill of an item setting 
apart $5000 per year for two years for 
library purposes. This item was 
thrown out by the House under the 
general misapprehension that the li- 
brary would benefit Honolulu alone. 
Careful enlightenment of opposing 
members has followed and the present 
likelihood is that in the Senate the ap- 


acted a large amount of detailed work resentative Hughes introduced the lo-; propriation will be voted and that sub- 


with despatch and wisdom. At this cal option bill, a different treatment sequently the House in 


conference 


writing it looks as though the “salary, has been accorded. The bill was re-|committee will acquiesce. If this be 
grab” which proposes to increase the ferred to the Judiciary Committee, done the way will be clear to organize 


THE -ERIEND, 


a library that shall be a credit to the 
Territory. Inasmuch as the trustees 
are given power to make agreement 
with any other Library Board, it is pos- 
sible that the existing Honolulu Li- 
brary may be drawn into the scheme. 
There is no reason why Mr. Carnegie 
should not be willing to assist in the 
erection of a suitable building. At 
last, then, after many years of thought 
and quiet agitation, one more modern 
institution of first moment will have 
been added to our equipment of enlight- 
enment. 


The Windward Associations. 


Geographically and in point of time 
the Associations of Hawaii and Maui 
lie to the windward, Oahu and Kauai 
following in the lee. As Dr. Baker’s 
report printed elsewhere shows, the 
meeting at Hilo was marked by no 
special excitements, but accomplished 
its work with celerity and proved a 
source of great refreshment and_ in- 
spiration to all members and delegates. 
A fine spirit pervaded the assembly, 


and the Church reports showed life 
and progress. Maui, Molokai and La- 
nai Association met at Pata. ~~ This 


company; of Churches was ambitious 
enough to attempt a program covering 
an entire week. The order of exercises 
was printed both in English and Ha- 
waiian. The attendance was excellent. 
This Association always has been noted 
for its aggressive spirit (to put it mild- 
ly), and in some years it has been a 
source of much anxiety to its friends. 

But of late years this superabundant 
vitality has been directed into channels 
of usefulness, and as a consequence 
Maui is fast becoming a center of en- 
couragement and large hope. The 
spring meeting which closed last week 
was the best in many years. It was 
marked by the full cooperation of the 
Union Churches of Paia and Wailuku, 
and the Chinese, Japanese and Portu- 
guese Churches of Maui. This in it- 
self was a splendid achievement. The 
noble way in which Rev. Mr. Bazata 
of Paia is throwing himself heart and 
soul into the work of all the Churches 
is a great joy. He puts all the ardor 
of a champion polo and tennis player 
into this larger endeavor, and as a con- 
sequence is endearing himself to all. 


One of the most effective sessions of| 


the Association was that in which, 
after reading the report of Paia Foreign 
Church, he called upon the pastors to 
rally to the support of Maunaolu. This 
appeal set the ball rolling, and one 
after another Messrs. Dodge, Kalino 
and Scudder took a hand in the sport 
until the enthusiasm of the pastors over 


sending the girls of their parishes to 
the Seminary rose to a high pitch. 


The Two Dodges. 


The quiet, effective leadership of 
Rev. R. B. Dodge throughout Maui is 
more and more in evidence. It is 


based not upon any fictitious preroga- 
tive, but upon unselfish service. The 
inanner in which he has turned chaos 
into order in the money matters of the 
Churches is little less than wonderful. 
His semi-annual report as agent of the 
3oard and treasurer of the Maui Aid 
Association showed more than $6000 
passing through his hands. His sys- 
tem of checks and vouchers has cleared 
the reputation of the Churches among 
the outside communities immensely. 
Vien are giving as never before on 
Maui to religious work, because now 
they have an absolute guarantee that 
what they give goes entirely to the ob- 


. Ae 


ject they wish to aid. Of course, all 
this has stirred the enmity of some 
who fattened on the loose system of 
other@ days, but the results evidenced 
in repaired Churches, promptly-paid 
salaries, comfortable parsonages, a hap- 


pier and more effective ministry, 
are so overwhelming that the few 
erumblers have no audience. The 


missionary enthusiasm of the Chris- 
tians in consequence is rising higher 
and higher. Maui will probably be en- 
titled to a Corporate Membership in 
the American Board this year, or the 
next at the farthest, as a direct result 
cf its determination to have every 
Church give something annually, to for- 
eign missions. Collections to the Ha- 
waiian Board are increasing in equal 
ratio. The Endeavor Societies decided 
at the recent meeting to set apart the 
last Sunday in April in which to make 
an offering to the Hawaiian and Amer- 


I 


Har Ae O Rabdown 
NEW CHURCH AT KAH 


ican Boards. It is a delight to see 
how enthusiastically the two Dodges, 
father and son, work together in this 
common enterprise. On the afternoon 
of March 24, at 3 o’clock, the Union 
Church of Kahului, of which Rev. John 
FE. Dodge (the father) is pastor, was 
dedicated. Through the kindness of 
Hon. H. P. Baldwin, the chief pro- 
moter of this enterprise, free trains 
were run from Paia and Wailuku for the 
occasion. ‘The meeting house is a very 
tasteful structure, the most attractive 
building in Kahului, and by service 
time it was crowded, every seat filled 
and many standing within and on the 
porch. By actual count more than 220 
were present. The service was most 
appropriately arranged. After invoca- 
tion, congregational singing, scripture ~ 
and prayer, led by Rev. Messrs. White, 
Santos and R. B. Dodge, and a stirring 
anthem by Paia Union Church choir, a 
grandchild of Rev. Mr. Opunui was 


ue ee 


consecrated in baptism and the form&k~ 
builder, Mr. Moody, handed the keys 
of the completed edifice to Mr.. Bald- 
win, who with brief, appropriate words 
transferred them to the pastor. Then 
the audience rose while Mr. Dodge led 
his people in a beautiful responsive 
service of dedication, Mr. Bazata of- 
fering the consecrating prayer and ail 
joining in the hymn. The first collec- 
tion was then taken in the new edi- 
fice and was set apart by prayer for 
the work of the Hawaiian Board. Next 
followed the sermon by Mr. Scudder 
and the singing of “I Know that My 
Redeemer Liveth,” by Miss Ormerod, 
with the closing devotions. The occa- 
sion was most inspiring from begin- 
ning to end. The Church building 
consists of a main audience chamber 
with connecting Sabbath school and 
minister’s rooms. The Ladies’ Auxil- 
dedicatory exercises were opened. The 


THE FRIEND. 


lary of Kahului raised over $700 to 
provide the seats, pulpit equipment and 
furniture for the pastor’s study. Thus 
equipped, Mr. Dodge is eager for work 
and expects to see his people organized 
into a Church before many months. 
The enterprise will know no sectarian 
nor racial lines and will constitute a 
large factor in the fast-developing life 
of Maui’s chief seaport. Kahului is 
ambitious to become the metropolis of 
the Island. MS. 


SOME REMINISCENCES. 


The beloved Mother Castle has gone. 
A blessed woman—a noble life. Hon- 
ored, loved, revered, she is at last with 
her Redeemer, for whose call she had 
long waited. 


I look back to the year 1839, when 
the Castle home at Kawaiahao was 
presided over by the young Angeline 
Castle, and remember how I was 
startled to see her young babe rolling 
down the front steps. That infant was 


named Mary Tenney, after the younger | 


sister who was so long to preside in 
the same home which Angeline occu 
pied only two years more. 

I was living in Rochester, N. Y., in 
1842, then nearly fitted for college, 
when dear Mr. S. N. Castle surprised 
me with a hurried call, and I accom- 
panied him down to a canal packet- 
boat (for railways were then few) and 
met his intended wife who was travel- 
ing with him. She closely resembled 
her elder sister, but was very youthful 
in appearance, and shy in demeanor. 
They reached home in Honolulu, 
March 17 following. 

Going back ten years to my early 
childhood in 1832 when five years old, 
a very distinct impression remains of 
the welcome given in the Bingham par- 
lor May 17th, to the fifth company of 
missionaries, and especially of the fine 
aquiline and pleasant features of the 
then young Rev. W. P. Alexander, who 
sat next west of the door leading into 
the dining-room. 

Nineteen days later, in the evening, 
immediate vicinity of the “Puuhonua” 
I was taken up Manoa Valley to the 
residence of the late Mother Castle, to 
see the aged and honored Queen Ka- 
ahumanu dying. I remember the large 
thatched house, the great pile of mats 
forming the bed, and the somewhat 
massive form of the dying queen, 
formerly so terrible to her people, but 
for several years a devout and liumble 
Christian. 

Mary Tenney was then in her thir- 
teenth year, and Kaahumanu in her 


sixty-fifth. I wonder if the queen was 


the other day watching the parting) 


spirit on the scene of her own passing. 
Sac e es 


MRS. MARY CASTLE. 


By Rev. W. D. Westervelt. 

Mrs. Mary Tenney Castle passed 
through the valley of the shadow of 
death into the life eternal on Wednes- 
day, March 13, 1907. She was born 
October 26, 1819, in Plainfield, Otsego 
Caf New? York, October:'15) “18t9, 
within a few days of her birth, the 
first church of the Sandwich Islands 
Mission was organized in Boston. Oc- 
tober 23, 1819, the members of this 
Church embarked on the brig Thad- 
deus to transplant that Church to these 
islands, in which it has been fruitful 
to a degree passing all the expectation 


lof those who founded it. 


A large part of this fruitfulness in 
Christian civilization was due to the 
missionary mothers, among whom 
“Mother” Castle exerted her strong, 
loving and helpful influence nearly 
sixty-five years, after her marriage 
with Mr. S. N. Castle, who was at that 
time serving the American Board as its 
financial agent. 

Mrs. Castle’s sister, Angeline, the 
eldest daughter of the family, was the 
first wife of Mr. Castle. She was the 
first Oberlin student appointed to for- 
cign missionary work. They came to 
these Islands in 1837. Four years 
later Angeline died, leaving a little girl 
to Mr. Castle’s care. 

The missionary spirit of this elder 
sister was overflowing in the heart of 
Mary Tenney. The Islands about 
which she had heard so much were 
very dear to her. The motherless lit- 


tle one appealed to a heart which was, 


always tender toward all human need; 
therefore, with a full consecration to 
missions, she took her sister’s place and 
work and was married to Mr. Castle, 
October 13, 1842. Thus almost three- 
fourths of the years of active Christian 
development in the Hawaiian Islands 
came in connection with the faithful 
labor of “Mother” Castle. She was de- 
voted to ali nationalities and to all 
classes. In later years, as her oppor- 
tunities and ability increased, she aid- 
ed the growth of her Lord’s kingdom 
in all parts of the world. Missionaries 
were cheered. Churches and schools 
and students were enabled to do bet- 
ter work by the multitude of loving 
gifts which were carefully and prayer- 
fully sent to places beyond the power 
of anyone now to enumerate. 

One incident of her spirit of helpful- 
ness must suffice. This incident comes 


from Mrs. Castle’s nephew, Mr. W. A. 
Bowen, one of Honolulu’s business 
men, now in California for a few weeks’ 
rest. He writes as follows: ‘While 
the cablegram telling of Aunt Mary’s 
death was being delivered at the house, 


[a Rev. A. D. Wyckoff was telling me 


down town of his landing in Honolulu 
on the morning of July 4, 1852, nearly 
fifty-five years ago. His ship had put 
in Saturday evening in distress. He 
was ill, but that morning he managed 
to get to Church. He was practically 
stranded, sick, and only five dol- 
lars in his pocket. He said, ‘Father 
Damon and Mr. Dimond were kind to 
me, but MRS. CASTLE GAVE ME 
A ROOM.’” 

This was Mother Castle’s life work 
—giving “rooms” for rest and renewed 


usefulness. 


Of nine children, six survive Mrs. 
Castle, three sons and three daughters, 
five of whom are residing in Honolulu 
and one in Chicago. These, with their 
children, reverently loved their mother, 
but beyond this family circle the ben- 
ediction of her influence fell on many 
more, who felt such close relationship 
that they also rightfully spoke of 
“Mother” Castle. 


THE PLACE OF ORIGIN OF THE 
MOON—WAS IT THE PACIFIC 
OCWAN 7 = PICKERING SS LHe 
ORN: 


(By S. E. Bishop.) 


It may be remembered that Hawaii 
was visited in 1905 by Prof. W. H. 
Pickering, who has made a specialty of 
subjects relating to the moon. He re- 


cently published an article embodying 


his observations of Hawaiian volca- 
noes, comparing them with craters ob- 
served in the moon. 

Now Dr. Pickering has just issued a 
later pamphlet upon “The Place of 
Crigin of the Moon.” This has espe- 
cial interest for dwellers in Hawaii, be- 
cause he assigns the location of the 
moon’s origin to the present area of 
the Pacific Ccean. He supports this 
theory by strong considerations. A 
plausible case seems to be made out 
for it, the substance of which it is now 
sought to present to the Hawaiian pub- 
lic. It may be observed at the outset 
that we of Hawaii need not apprehend 
therefrom any imputation of lunatic 
tendencies, because all the luna ele- 
ment is supposed to have been with- 
drawn from the Pacific, leaving only 
what is sane. 

‘The opening sentences are as fol- 
lows: 


THE FRIEND. 


“Tn 1879 Professor ‘George Hy Dar- 
win propounded the view that the moon 
formerly formed a part of the earth. 
That it was originally much nearer to 
the earth than it is at present, and is 
now slowly recedmg from us, was 
clearly shown by his equations. After 
considerable discussion, his conclu- 
sions have been accepted by the great 
majority of astronomers, although 
many of the geologists do not view 
them with favor.” 

It is conceived that the fission or dis- 
ruption of the moon from the earth 
took place after the planet had con- 
densed to substantially its present 
solidity and density. In a more ex- 
panded condition it would have lacked 
the high speed of rotation calculated by 
Varwin, about four hours, and with it 
lacked the centrifugal force necessary 
to fling off the satellite from its pro- 
tuberant equatorial region. 

At that stage of the earth, as now, 
a solid crust would already have form- 
ed upon the surface of the very ellip/ 
soidal globe, while the interior would 
have been in a viscid or liquid condi- 
tion, as now, except as solidified by 
pressure. The temperature of 
crust would have been, thouch not in- 
candescent, too high for water to rest 
upon its surface. 

“The specific gravity of the earth as 
a whole ie s6.. "That "Ob the -surtace 
material ranges in general between 2.2 
and .2, with an average of 2.7.. The 
specific gravity of the moon is 3.4. 
This indicates clearly that the moon is 
composed of material scraped off from 


the outer surface of the earth, rather | 


than of matter obtained from a con- 
siderable depth. At the same time, the 
specific gravity 3.4 indicates that the 
layer of material removed had an ap- 
preciable thickness.” 

The matter flung off as moon there- 
fore included not merely crust, but a 
very much larger portion taken from 
considerable depths, where the  sub- 
stance waé initch heavier: The mass 
torn off now forming the moon 
of vast area on the surface, must have 
been even hundreds of miles in depth. 
It is evident that so large a body torn 
out of the crust and interior of our 


the | 


while | 


elobe, must have left a very large and} 


noticeable scar, even after the viscid| 


interior had swelled itself up to fill the 
gap made, and to replace the absent 
crust, and that new crust being form- 
ed from material taken from denser 
strata, would itself be above the aver- 
age density of the other portions of the 
earth’s surface. 

Dr. Pickering finds the expected scar 
in the vastly preponderant ocean-area 
of “the “Pacific. He conceives ‘that 


'sions, as now. 
jof the great catastrophe which tore out 


prior to the disruption of the moon, 
the present great inequalities of alti- 
tude in the earth’s crust did not exist. 


There were then no vast continual ele-| 


vations nor immense oceanic depres- 
These all were a result 


a large portion of the earth’s crust and 
underlying interior, . But for this. ab- 


‘normal catastrophe, nearly all-of our 


globe’s surface would have been cov- 
ered by uniform ocean, and the land 
area have been extremely limited. 

What the author conceives to have 
ensued upon the great disruption may 
be stated somewhat as follows: The 
moon’s mass was torn out of that side 
of our globe now occupied by the Tor- 
rid Zone of the Pacific Ocean. To fill 
and even up the vast gap created, im- 
mense drafts were made not only upon 
the viscid interior, but upon the ad- 
iacent portions of the solid crust which 
floated as it were upon the semi-liquid 
interior. 

The largest draft upon the crust was 
from the eastward, That immense 
section of crust constituting the pres- 
ent continents of North 
America was broken away from the 
great eastern mass and drawn west- 
ward three thousand miles to its pres- 


jent position, leaving the vast depres- 


sion now occupied by the Atlantic 
Ocean. 
In support of this contributory theory 


of the formation of the Atlantic Ocean, 
‘the author furnishes a diagram (Fig. 
14) which , 


shows the peculiar cor- 
respondence of outline between the 
borders of the two continents, as if one 
had separated from the other: notably 
the correspondence of Cape St. Roque 
to the Gulf of Guinea. 

The author also conjectures that 
large drafts were made from the crust 
occupying the area of the Indian 
Ocean, whence came the Australian 
and the Antarctic continents. 


An argument of considerable ap- 
parent value is drawn from the higher 
specific gravity found in the Hawaiian 
mountain bases. 


ton reported as follows: “It appears 


‘that the lower half of Mauna Kea is of 


a very much greater density than the 
upper. The former gives a value of 
3.7 and the latter of 2.1.” Pickering 
observes, “The upper half is clearly 
due to matter, chiefly scoria, which has 
been expelled frcm the various vents. 
The lower half is probably due to the 
slow uplifting of the former ocean 
bed.” The argument is that the bed 
of the Pacific is evidently composed of 
heavier material than the rest of the 
earth’s crust. It must therefore have 
been of later formation, from the heay- 


The late E. 1D: Pres- | 


and South) 


ier substances of the deeper interior. 
Altogether, this speculation of Pro- 
fessor Pickering possesses a _ high 
plausibility and, one inclines to believe, 
a permanent value. It will add inter- 
est’ to students of physical geography. 


GOSPEL LEAVEN IN; CHINA: 


Rev. E. W. Thwing. 

On every hand are reports of reform 
and progress in China. Current mag- 
azines are full of articles telling of 
great changes taking place in that vast 
empire. There is talix of China’s new 
army, of her young men studying in 
the universities of Europe and Amer- 
ica, of her new railroads and rapidly- 


'developing commerce and of the possi- 


iblities of her sectiring new laws anda 
constitutional government. There is 
to be a new China, a new Asia; a new 
civilization is pervading the whole Ori- 
ent. Will this new life and thought 
that is springing up in Eastern Asia 
be a blessing to China: and to the 
world, or will it bring strife and blood- 
shed and sorrow? Only as the roots 
of this growing reform and new na- 
tional life are planted deep in truth and 
righteousness can one look for a fu- 
ture of peace and true prosperity in this 
land of China. 

All that is best in the present life 


and history and experience of the 
strong mations of the earth to- 
day has sprung up and grown 


cut of the teachings of Christianity. So 
in China, as Christ is known by her 
people, and His teachings are incor- 
porated into her new life, so she will be- 
come strong and powerful and a great 
and happy nation. 

And what of the advance of Chris- 
tianity and the progress of the Gospel 
in China today? This leaven is at 
work and spreading everywhere. Since 
ihe Boxer uprising of six years ago, in 
which so many Churches were  de- 
stroyed and many Christians lost their 
lives, there has been a wonderful re- 
building. Vhroughout the land larger 


Churches and finer mission schools 
have being going up. Never in the 
hundred years of Protestant mission 


work have there been such great crowds 
gathering to hear the Gospel preached. 
Mission stations are now to be found 
nearly everywhere. IJ» many parts of 
China one can hardly travel a day’s 
journey without finding a chapel or 2 
mission school. Speaking of the Can- 
ton. province, a recent. writer, says: 
“There are Christian chapels and 
Christian societies to be met with 
everywhere. 
day’s walk, say twenty miles, the tray- 
eler will find. them if he looks for 


a 


At distances of a good 


THE FRIEND. - 


them. He will find also therein a con- 
gregation of perhaps a hundred. He 
will find the Hongkong native papers 
in the shops of the best educated and 
most aggressive. If he could converse 
with the natives he would be plied with 
pertinent questions anent the present 
political situation, and many other top- 
ics of interest. He would discover that 
those whose ancestors lived in these 
inland valleys for centuries, and knew 
not that there was an outside world 
beyond, have been made aware that 
such does exist beyond their mountain 
tops and that somehow what is trans- 
piring outside will affect themselves. In 
great centers like Canton, the Chris- 
tians are lost in the countless crowds, 
but in the country districts, when a 
hundred men, women and_ children 
gather together, in a clean, well-ven- 
tilated chapel, to sing hymns and to 
read the Scriptures and hear them ex- 
plained, by which their minds are fur- 
nished with new standards of virtue 
and facts of information, and their 
hearts are moved by new and might 
hopes, and when to this hundred must 
be added another, that have come to 
see what it all means, and to know for 
themselves whether this Christianity is 
so vile a thing as gamblers and opium 
-smokers tepresent it to be; and when 
this happens Sunday by Sunday, where 
the entire population does not number 
more than a thousand, then we may 
safely assume that Christianity is be- 
coming and, indeed, has become a vital 
force in the midst of their humdrum 


lites That all this. takes place we 
know to be true. This is no ideal pic- 
ture.” 


What is true of the country in this 
province is also true of Central China 
and the north. The Gospel leaven is 


working mightily. Christianity is 
spreading everywhere, even to the 
most distant corners of the Empire. 


Rey. John Parker very recently made 
a ten days’ journey through the far 
inland province of Sz-chuen. What 
most impressed this missionary was 
the fact that in all of the important 
cities and towns, and in many of the 
smaller places, a Christian Church or 
preaching hall was to be found. . In 
all these places, which are generally 
found on the principal streets of the 
cities, native preachers are actively en- 
gaged in preaching and teaching Gos- 
pel truth. Today, from Shanghai on 
the coast all the way up the great 
Yanegtse river, every city of any Size 
has its Protestant Church. The cross- 
_roads also have their centers of Gospel 
light in some mission chapel or school. 
Yhe great missionary conference to be 


held in May, at Shanghai, will tell a 
wonderful story of the far-reaching 
spread of the Gospel everywhere in 
China. The hundred years of seed- 
sowing is to bring still greater things 
in the near future. sPhe power? of 
God’s word is mightily at work and is 
bringing about a change in the hearts 
of these people, and giving the prom- 
ise that a true and lasting reform will 
certainly come to this ancient Empire 
of the East. 


HAWAII ASSOCIATION MEET- 
ING, HILO, MARCH 14-17. 


We were fortunate in reaching Hilo 
just in time for the big luau, given at 
the Armory in honor of the visitors 
from Southern California on the S. S. 
Ohio. About 600 enjoyed the full Ha- 
walian menu, the music and speeches 
and the pretty decorations, while some 
400 more sat at the second table. 

On the following morning the Asso- 
ciation began its sessions, with all but 
two of its active ministerial members 
present and many delegates. The usual 
routine of reports, discussions, and 
general business took place, helpful to 
those present but not of especial gen- 
eral interest. 

Mr. Ho Tsz Tsing, the Chinese work- 
er at Hilo, reported to the Association, 
and was duly examined and licensed, 
as were also Mr. William Laeha of 
Laupahoehoe and Philip Haae of Hoo- 
kena. Seven others, whose licenses 
lapsed at this time, were relicensed for 
one year. No changes were made in 
the stationing of pastors or supplies. 

The Aid Department Fund was in- 
creased by an offering of $13.00, and 
the recently established Widows’ Fund 
gained $20.00. A grant of $2.50 per 
month was made to a worthy woman 
in most straitened circumstances. 

The special address of the meeting 
was made by Rev. O. H. Gulick on 
“Temperance.” One evening hour was 
devoted to the Hilo Boarding School, 
for a report and illustrated description 
by Revs. Shields and Hill and Mr. 
Lyman. This school is in excellent 
condition and the new buildings should 
be filled with the boys of the island. 
On Saturday afternoon the delegates 
were shown over the buildings, after 
which they were given a pleasant lunch 
at the Waiakea Settlement. 

On Sunday came the usual Sunday 
School exhibition, a sermon by the 
Rev. C. W. P. Kaeo, and an evening 
union C. E. rally, with music and five 
brief addresses. One seldom sees a 
more inspiring audience than the large 
gathering of various nationalities at 


the monthly union services of Haili 
,Church. 

As usual at Hilo, we were delight- 
fully cared for through the able man- 
agement of Rev. Stephen L. Desha. 
The next meeting will be held in Sep- 
tember at Lanakila Church, Kona, un- 
|der the same officers as heretofore. 
ioe. 


KAUAT NOTES: 


Rev. J. M. Lydgate is successfully 
developing a plan to make the Lihue 
Church a general union Church for the 
island of Kauai. He has been for 
some years conducting regular services 
at Koloa and Eleele in addition to Li- 
hue, and to these appointments he has 
recently added Kilauea, while he has 
always been ready to serve other com- 
munities and has frequently been re- 
quired to do so. These ministrations 
have found increasing favor and the 
time has come for gathering up the re- 
sults into a Church organization. These 
rural plantation communities are so 
small and so unstable that they furnish 
hardly material enough for independent 
local organizations, so that the plan is 
to gather the communicants into the 
central Lihue Church with local 
branches at Eleele and Kilauea.- At 
Koloa there is an independent Church. 
These points will then become con- 
venient rallying points for the whole 
island—excepting the Waimea Dis- 
trict, which is effectively served by the 
Rev. C. T. Milliken. Some of the in- 
coming members will join by letter, 
some on confession of faith and some 
on reaffirmation of faith, having been 
long out of active Church connection. 

This extension will materially 
strengthen the Lihue Church, will stim- 
ulate interest throughout the island 
and in every way encourage and ad- 
vance the work of the kingdom. 

The Eleele community have formed 
an association and elected a body of 
ifive trustees to take over and conduct 
the Eleele Library heretofore conduct- 
ed in the interests of the community 
by Rev. J. M. Lydgate. 

They propose at an early date to hold 
a lawn social for the purpose of rais- 
(ing additional funds for the library. 

Alterations and improvements are in 
hand to render the Eleele hall more 
suitable for the Church services held 
there. 

Very interesting and helpful Passion 
Week of Prayer services were held in 
the Lihue Church and were well at- 
tended. They: were of a union char- 
acter and were largely attended by the 
Hawaiian as well as the English-speak- 
ing community, 


10 


THE FRIEND. 


THE BOSWORTH CAMPAIGN 


SYNOPSIS OF 


DEAN BOSWORTH’S ADDRESSES IN HO- 
NOLULU. 


I. WHO IS JESUS CHRIST? 


In order to tell who a person is, it is neces- 
sary to know two things: the principal fea- 
tures of his personal consciousness, and the 
degree of corroboration which they find in 
the effect he is able to produce upon others; 
his fundamental ambitions and the extent to 
which he is able to realize them; what he 
thinks himself to be, and the corroboration 
which his thought of ‘himself finds in what he 
shows himself able to do. The real artist is 
he who feels himself able to paint a great 
picture, and is actually able to produce the 
picture. 

To tell who Jesus Christ is, is not to de- 
seribe in metaphysical terms His relation to 
God and man, for this is impossible until we 
have proceeded further in the solution of 
the unsolved problem of personality, cer- 
tainly until a man ean answer the question, 
‘‘who am I,’’ in metaphysical terms. 

Nor can we tell who Jesus Christ is by 
the application of a title, such, for instance, 
as ‘‘the Son of wod.’? We can do it only by 
studying the personal consciousness of Jesus 
and the corroboration His consciousness finds 
in the effect He has produced upon the life 
of the world. 

The principal features in the personal con- 
sciousness of Jesus were first a profound in- 
terest in men as men because of their bare 
humanity. Poor people, children, outcasts, 
crowds made up of ordinary men and women 
held for Him a strange fascination. He 
called His disciples, who were for the most 
part plain people, His friends—‘‘No longer 
do I eall you servants, but I have called you 
friends.’ 

Is there anything in the history of the 
world since Jesus which stands over against 
this feature in His personal consciousness as 
its corroboration? To ask the question is to 
answer it. The force of this virile friendli- 
ness radiated from Jesus through the ever 
widening circle of His associates until it has 
belted the globe. Today it persists all over 
the world as one of the great characteristics 
of modern lite as contrasted with that of an- 
cient times. Some sense of this interest in 
men as men is found even in wide circles out- 
side the Church. 

A second characteristic in Jesus’ personal 
consciousness was that He expected to con- 
tinue associating with men on earth after He 
had passed out of sight. He said that when- 
ever two of them should meet in their friend- 
ship for Him He would make a third. One 
of His last sayings was to promise that in all 
their travels to make Him known to others 
He would ke with them. This seems to have 
keen the essential element in the resurrection 
which He expected, ‘‘T go away, and I come 
unto you. Such love as He felt for men 
would not permit Him to stay away from 
them. 

The corroboration of this expectation of 
Jesus has found one of the characteristic 
features of the Christian faith. Ever since 
His resurrection the Christian has believed 
himself to be in personal association with the 
founder of his faith. He has found himself 


able to overcome sin by the power of this 
Presence. So Paul exelaims, ‘‘It is no longer 
I that live, but Christ that liveth in me.’’ 
And Tennyson chants: 


“Strong Son of God, Immortal Love, 
Whom we that have not seen by face 
By faith and faith alone embrace.’’ 


While Whittier sings— 

“‘No dead fact stranded on the shore 
Of the oblivious years;— 

But warm, sweet, tender even yet 
A present help is he; 

And faith has still its Olivet; 
And love its Galilee. 

The healing of his seamless dress 
Is by our beds of pain, 

We touch him in life’s throng and press, 
And we are whole again.’? ~ 


Third—Jesus seems to have felt that He 


was the only one able to show men what 
kind of a person the unseen God is. You re- 
call His statement, ‘‘Neither doth any know 
the Father, save the Son, and he to whomso- 
ever the son willeth to reveal Him.’’ When 
Philip asked Jesus to show the twelve the 
Father, Jesus replied, ‘‘Have I been so long 
time with you, and dost thou not know me 
Philip? He that hath seen me hath seen the 
Father.’’ He not. only made these astound- 
ing declarations but He also sustained them 
with perfect poise. 

Very wonderful is the corroboration of this 
astounding feature of Jesus’ consciousness 
found in human history. For the moral sense 
of the world for nineteen centuries has been 
satisfied with a ‘‘Christlike God.’’ Any new 
deity would be compelled to measure him- 
self by the standards of deity found in the 
life and character of Jesus Christ. 

Several very important incidental features 
of this sense of His ability to show men who 
God is stand out in His life. The first of 
these is the absence of any confession of sin. 
Altho the searchlight of the ages has been 
focussed upon His words and deeds, the 
world has never found sin in Him. He is 
today as ever, the one sinless man. 

The second feature is His sense of being 
able to express God’s forgiving love. Men 
now as well as in every preceding genera- 
tion since He walked in walilee, only in ever 
enlarging numbers, find in coming to Him the 
peace of forgiveness. 

A third characteristic is His sense of being 
able to express God’s judgment on sin. Both 
forgiving and judging involve (a) the power 
of insight into the soul’s life and (b) the 
power to feel and express God’s attitude 
towards what is seen in the soul. Men find 
Jesus still judging their deeds, that is, they 
find themselves asking what Jesus would do 
in their places. Huis standards of conduct are 
crowding upon them. 

A fourth striking feature is His sense of 
being able to Judge men 
towards Himself since He 
God. No less impressive is the corrobora- 
tion of this consciousness. For pee recog- 
nize today that the test of a man’s character 
is his attitude towards the character of Jesus 
Christ, not necessarly towards the Christ of 
Theology, but of the Gosjels. If he does not 
find his heart moving out with interest in 


is a revelation of 


by their attitude’ 


ose 


and desire to know sometime and somewhere 
the Jesus of the Gospels he is moray de- 
fective. For example, a man’s attitude 
towards the Sistine Madonna reveals his ar- 
tistic nature. If he views that masterpiece 
with no interest, he is artistically defective, 
the picture judges him. Richard . Watson 
Gilder’s Heathen in the Year 32 A. B., voices 
the corroboration of this feature oft Jesus’ 
consciousness when he exclaims— 


“<Tf Jesus Christ is a man— 
And only a man—lI say 

That of all mankind I eleave to him 
And to him will I cleave alway. 


If Jesus Christ is a God— 
And the only God—I swear 

I will follow him through heaven and hell, 
The earth, the sea, the air.’’ 


A fifth characteristic in Jesus’ conscious: 
ness of His power to show God to men is His 
sense of being able ‘to express the suffering. 
of the heart of God over sin in such a way 
as to purify the world. Setting aside all 
theories and speculations woven hy theology 
akout this feature of Jesus’ self revelation it 
is enough by way of corroboration to note 
that men ever since His day have had an ex- 
perience which they best explain by saying, 
“Christ died for me.’?’ 

Again Jesus felt that men ought to love 
Him and yield to Him the control of their 
lives in order that He might bring them to 
God. He claimed the right to be first in 
their lives. ‘‘He that loveth father or mother 
more than me is not worthy of me; and he 
that loveth son or daughter more than me is 
not worthy of me.’’ 

Here, too, history has given and is giving 
its corroborating testimony. For Jesus has 
shown himself able to win and hold the af- 
fection of men. Men and women have loved 
Him better than any other, have left fathers, 
mothers, children for Him, have died for 
Him. 

Lastly, Jesus felt able to bind men into a 
great world brotherhood of the endless life. 
And lo! today we find this actually taking 
place. The great British Christian leader, 
Dr. Fairbairn, in his ‘‘Studies in the Life of 
Jesus Christ,’? has summarized the effects 
produced by Jesus upon the life of the world 
—the corroboration in history of His von- 
sciousness—as follows: 

““Jesus Christ is the most powerful spirit- 
ual force that ever operated for good on and 
in humanity. He is today what he has been 
for centuries, an object of reverence and 
love to the good, the cause of remorse and 
change, penitence and hope to the bad; of 
moral strength to the morally weak, of in- 
spiration to the despondent, consolation to 
the desolate and cheer to the dying. He has 
ereated the typical virtues and moral ambi- 
tions of civilized man; has heen to the 
benevolent a motive to benevolence, to the 
selfish a persuasion to self-forgetful obe- 
dience; and has become the living ideal that 
has steadied and raised, awed and guided 
youth, braced and enobled manhood, mellow- 
ed and beautified age. In Him the .... ages 
have seen the manifest God, the Eternal liy- 
ing in time, the Infinite within the limits of 
humanity; and their faith has glorified His 
sufferings into a sacrifice by the Creator for 


THE FRIEND. 


II 


the creature, His death into an atonement for 
human sin,’’ 

What shall our attitude be towards this 
great double fact of personal consciousness 
and corroboration? 

1. It is inconceivable that Jesus’ personal 
consciousness should be a fraud; for the pure 
ethical system and the mighty redemptive 
force that have come from him forbid this 
supposition. 

2. He was not mistaken. To be mistaken 
in these fundamental points means to be 
mentally unbalanced. A pure ethical system 
and a great redemptive force cannot come 
from such a source. 

3. He is true and trustworthy. Jesus 
Christ is such a revelation of God in terms of 
human life, siruggle, victory, death and 
resurrection glory as warrants us in yielding 
to Him the control or our lives. 

When this is done the personal demon- 
stration is made. We find out in experience 
who Jesus is. His words, ‘‘I will manifest 
myself unto you’’ prove themselves in our 
lives. 

Jesus is patient with the feeble beginnings 
of faith. You remember how the brigand on 
the cross moved by the quiet bearing of 
Jesus turned to Him and with a kind of 
grim humor said, ‘‘ Jesus, rememker me when 
you come into your kingdom.’’ Jesus de- 
tected the germ of faith and met the man at 
once with the pledge, ‘‘Teday you shall Le 
with me in Paradise.’’ The earnest soul 
groping in the dark after God makes the 
deepest demands upon the heart of Jesus. 
Patiently He will lead him into the light. 


Il. HOW JESUS TEACHES MEN TO 
FIND GOD. 


The greatest fact in the history of man is 
the consciousness of Jesus Christ. The funda- 
mental ambition of Jesus Christ was to share 
with men his personal religious experience of 
the Father. He wished to share hig deep 
peace, his profound joy, his mission and his 
works with men. It seems as though Jesus 
came to the laboratory of his own person>] 
experience and urged upon men to seek and 
find as he did. How to proceed in thus ex- 
perimenting to find God in one’s laboratory 
Jesus taught with clearness. 

Virst Jesus expected men to find the 
Father in experience with Himself as His 
disciples. He said ‘‘No man cometh to the 
Father except through me.’’ There is no arbi- 
‘trary spirit in this word. It is as though a 
Swiss guide should happen upon a lost travel- 
er in the Alps and say, ‘‘I will lead you.’’ 

Jesus also urged men to helieve in God. 
What is the content of this expression ‘be- 
lieve?’ Jesus means by it that a man shall 
on sufficient evidence take as his working 
theory of life, that God is a Heavenly Father 
present with him, ana shall act on this theory. 
That is what every scientist does in his lab- 
oratory work.’ He takes a theory on suffi- 
cient evidence and puts it to the test by ex- 
periment until he builds up an experience of 
its validity. To believe in God as a Father 
is to act like a son and thus put the theory 
of His fatherhood to the test of experiment. 

Again, Jesus taught men to act as if 
there were a Heavenly Father by beginning 
to pray. Edison says to the student who has 
as his working hypothesis the theory of elec- 
trie force, ‘*Go into the laboratory and try 
this experiment.’’ Jesus did the same with 
regard to the theory of the Father: ‘‘Enter 
into thine inner chamber, shut thy dour, and 
pray.’’ Prayer is no form of words but a 
reaching out of a man’s spirit to the great 
spirit of the Heavenly Father. 

Jesus always insisted that if a man be- 


eves in God he must obey. For a man to 
act as a Son, to put the theory of Father- 
hood to the test of experiment means to do 
what he thinks his Father wishes him to do. 

Then Jesus taught that his disciples must 
agree with his Heavenly Father in His feel- 
ing about His other children. We must join 
in His search for His lost children, those 
who are getting farther from home, famiiy 
and persons to whom they rightly belong. 
The law of the spiritual world is that he who 
will not share with some other man will lose 
what he has. 

What are some of the results of finding 
God? How shall I know that I am finding 
God? First, I shall have a new satisfaction. 
To some this will come as a sudden illumina- 
tion; to others it will be the slow growth of 
years. In a laboratory some students find 
quickly, others must experiment for years 
with ever increasing largeness of results. 

Second, there will be a gradual transfor- 
mation of character. The experimenter will 
slowly be becoming like the person with 
whom he assumes he has daily intercourse. 
This change will manifest itself in various 
ways. He will become increasingly sincere, 
inereasingly sympathetic with men. A great 
and deepening peace will enter his life. He 
will ke so mindful of God that he will grow 
less irritable, will feel less itch for notice, for 
the click of the camera or the scratch of the 
pen, but he will become more satisfied in his 
work for God. The worry will pass out of 
his life. He will feel new enthusiasm for 
achievement with God. With Jesus he wil 
say, ‘‘My Father worketh hitherto and 1 
work.’’ 


lI. IS A MAN INTELLECTUALLY 
JUSTIFIED IN PRAYING? 
Matthew 7:11—‘‘If ye then, being evil 


know how to give good gifts untc your chil- 
dren, how much more shall your Father who 
is in heaven give good things to them that 
ask Him?’’ These are the words of a great 
specialist in the spiritual realm spoken out 
of his own experience. A woman on the 
Syrian hills onee looked into His face ad 
said, ‘‘Sir, I know that, whatsoever Thou 
shalt ask of wuod, God will give Thee.’’ 
This man who could make this impression 
voiced His life experience in these words, 
and, however startling they may he, they are 
worthy of consideration. 

If a young man should say to you in New 
York City, ‘‘Speak into this tube and some- 
one in London standing just inside St. Paul’s 
cathedral will hear what you say,’’ you 
would hesitate to credit the statement be- 
cause such a thing has as yet never been done. 
But if he should add, ‘‘Edison has so per- 
tected the telephone as to make it possible to 
talk through the cable across the ocean,’’ you 
would listen because of the authority of the 
great specialist. 

These words of Jesus are built upon the 
theory that God is a Heavenly Father always 
present with us. They are a voice, ‘‘O heart, 
speak to the heart that made thee.’’ Prayer 
is an appeal of the heart made to the Great 
Heart that made it. Prayer is far more than 
mere asking for definite things. Prayer is the 
intercourse of the human spirit with the 
Great Spirit that made it.. We do violence to 
Jesus when we view prayer as an appeal to 
God for specific things, for then we reduce 
God to a mere convenience. No man can 
overestimate the great value to the individual 
of reaching out to the Father. Sometimes 
your boy comes to your room and you ask, 
“‘What do you want, my boy?’’ ‘‘Nothing, 
I only want to be with you.’’ The best 


prayer is wanting nothing, but to be with 
God, 

Yet in the teaching of Jesus prayer in- 
cludes asking for good things, Here we come 
upon the great question, ‘‘Do things ever 
happen in answer to prayer that otherwise 
would never happen?’’ To many men prayer 
is esthetically beautiful in children, an orna- 
mental bit of ritual at the opening of a religi- 
ous service or in some sharp crisis a ery of 
the heart for which apology must thereafter 
be made to the intellect. If this be all, 
prayer will cease or degenerate into a mere 
soliloquy. Hence we must look fairly in the 
face this second view of prayer, that it in- 
cludes asking for good things. 

What troubles us is the increasing appre- 
ciation of the relation of cause and effect in 
this universe of changeless law. We have the 
greatest reason for gratitude that there is a 
fixed order of nature. It is essentially good 
that no man in keen distress is able by prayer 
to shorten the duration of the day by two 
hours so that he may abridge his suffering. 
If it were absolutely uncertain whether the 
temperature in this island six months from 
now would be 40 degrees below zero or 100 
degrees above, civilization would be impos- 
sible. There are certain things which chil- 
dren know they cannot get by asking. 

But the more a man learns about the forces 
of nature the more he is able to do not in 
spite of them but because of them. A hun- 
dred years ago a fevered boy in the tropics 
might have asked his father for ice to cool 
his brow, but the answer would have been, 
““No, it cannot ke.’’? Now, able to make use 
of natural forces in his ice machine, he says 
““Yes.’? ‘“et me speak with mother,’’ a 
sick child said to his father with mother 500 
miles away. Fifty years ago it would have 
been an impossible request, but today the 
telephone connection is made and the little 
one, comforted by the tones of mother’s 
voice, falls into a healing sleep. If you with 
the forces of nature can do this how much 
more your Heavenly Father can do by means 
of these laws. 


But nine out of ten of specific requests can 
be granted without involving physical laws 
if it be conceded that God ean put a thought 
into the mind of a man through psychical 
laws. The summer before his death I heard 
Mr. Moody tell how in 1893 he found that his 
Chieago Institute must close its year in dekt 
unless a certain sum of money should come 
that day. He prayed over it in the morning 
and let it slip from his mind. In the after- 
noon a young woman came and handed him 
an envelope with a check in it for almost 
exactly the amount needed. It was signed 
by a lady of wealth who had occasionally 
aided his work. The next morning he called 
and inquired how she came to make the gift. 
She said that the morning before she was 
deeply impressed that Mr. Moody needed 
money. She sat down, made out the check 
and sent it by her maid. Is*this an answer 
to prayer? It is granted by pychologists 
that a man can convey an impression of this 
kind to another mind. Yet here there is room 
for God’s activity in directing whose mind 
should receive the impression. If God can 
put a thought into a man’s mind acting 
through psychical laws, then permission is 
made for answer to nine out of ten specific 
requests. We have much to learn yet of 
mind in relation to other mind. 

Sometimes it is said by our modern spirit 
that every occurrence must be in God’s plan. 
Jf the thing prayed for is in His plan, it will 
happen. If it is not in God’s plan it will 
not happen. But this when scrutinized proves 
absurd, For if it be true, then it is useless 


THE FRIEND: 


to ask anybody for anything. Honolulu has 
been very generous to me in her invitations 
to dinner, but under the influence of this 


: ; 
objection one might say, ‘‘no need to ask : 


him to dinner, if it is God’s plan he wiil 
come.’’ The nonsense is apparent. lor 
prayer is common sense in the spiritual world, 
To teach men to pray is to urge that our 
eivilizaiion, which after all is merely asking 
some things under 1s 
getting some things under certain conditions, 
be extended to the spiritual world. 

Another suggestion of our time is that God 
will do for you whether you ask or not. Yet 
often parents do not give till they are asked. 
Wise parents frequently act so as to give a 
large part of achievement to the children. 
They stimulate,,them into partnership with 
themselves. Prayer is a rousing up of the 
personality to codperate with God. 

God often waits till He is asked because 
the main end of family life is the stirring up 
of children to be genuine brothers and sis- 
ters, that is genuinely interested in each 
other, Hence the Father sometimes waits 
until the child says, ‘‘Why not do this for 
my brother.’’ Almost all prayer of a vital 
kind is asking for others. 

Prayer then is not an effort to bend the 
will of God but the reverent rising of the 
soul into the waiting will of God, to inquire 
whether this is not the will of the lather. 

In a well ordered family there are three 
classes of things. First, the things which the 
father does for the children without waiting 
to ke asked. Second, things the children ask 
for and do not receive. Nine out of ten 
things we petition for ought not to be grant- 
ed. For nearly a year my little boy asked 
me for a revolver. He did not get it. The 
oldest of us are litlte children in the eternal 
life. Nine out of ten things we ask for are 
things which we were glad years after that 
we did not receive. It is our privilege to 
make all our wants known with freedom, to 
bring our petitions, wise and foolish, with the 
assurance that the peace of God shall guard 
us. Third, things done only when and be- 
cause the child asks for them. 

What are the conditions by which we may 
move freely in this third class? Christ gives 
them. ‘‘Abide in Me and I in you.’’ Full 
fellowship with Him gives freedom. If we 
suffer Him to train us to take the broader 
view of life, to see as He sees, then great will 
ke our action with Him in prayer, then He 
will te our partner in the prayer life. Let 
our great petition be, ‘‘God, teach us to 
PLAY at 
IV. THE OPENING SENTENCES OF THE 

SERMON ON THE MOUNT. 


Some years ago the news was flashed over 
the cable that two young Englishmen had dis- 
covered a fragment of papyus in Egypt which 
contained five ompix mutilated sentences, pur- 
porting to havetbeen uttered by Jesus and 
more or less different from any other known 
word of His.. Instantly the attention of the 
world was focussed upon those two scholars 
and their tiny find, for the unearthing of a 
new saying of Jesus was of more absorbing 
interest to mankind than any other interna- 
tional event. Men today are centering their 
thought and study more and more upon this 
carpenter of whose words so few were left 
that one.can read, them all, I suppose, in the 
space of a single hour. Central among them 
is the address that goes by the name of the 
Sermon on the Mount. It is not so much a 
sermon as a lecture—a lecture on the New Or- 
der which Jesus announced He had come to 
institute. 


certain conditions and) 


The first thing that impresses you in this 


leciure 1s its hopetuiness, Nothing in the age 
in whicu He lived held out to men the prom- 
ise of better things. It was a day of hope- 
lessness everywhere. Yet amid all the sur- 
rounding darkness Jesus held up this bright 
picture of the Civilization of the Blessed 
iM@en, Irom beginning to end it sounds a 
note of cheer. it comes,from a heart full of 
toundiless ,oy for others. I have a friend liy- 
ing in Kast saginaw, Michigan, who for years 
has conducted a Saturday evening meeting 
open for free interchange of opinion by every- 
one. He said that only lately a man not a 
Christian had risen in one of the meetings 
and said in the course of his remarks: ‘‘'lhe 
one thing that impresses me most about 
Jesus 18 tis great hope of good things for 
men,’’ 

Again one cannot but realize that the posi- 
tive statements which crowd this lecture on 
the New Order are convictions born of a per- 
sonal experience of their truth. We do. not 


attach enough importance to the quiet years 


Jesus spent in Nazareth. Manhood begins 
early, in the Hast. Jesus’ manhood began at 
twelve and He spent eighteen years working 
at his trade. Pieces of furniture made witu 
faithful care, houses which He had built with 
honest toil had suggested to Him many ot 


| His beautiful ideas as He sad wrought over 


them, 

A third impression whien the student gains 
is the sense of autnoritative importance wita 
which Jesus Himself regarded these words. 
You remember the paragraph which closes the 


lecture. Jn His intense moments Jesus was 
wont to relapse into the language of His 
trade. He did it at that crisis in His life 


when He led His disciples to face the ques- 


tion who He really was, and when Peter 
moved by a sudden inspiration exclaimed, 
“{¥ou are, they) Mesiahy“< sn >the. intense 


spiritual exaltation of the moment He said, 
‘+ Ah, Peter, you have struck bed rock at last 
and on this rock I will buila my Church.’’ 
so here at the climax of this revolutionary ad- 
dress Jesus relapses into the language of His 
trade and draws the picture of the rock 
founded character, the man so convinced ot 
the vital moment of. what Jesus has been say- 
ing that he builds his whole life upon it. 
As He outlined the contrast which He pic- 
tured, there may have flashed before His eye 
the memory of the house which He Himself 
had builded tor some friend, digging deep 
and tying to the solid rock, and of the fear- 
ful storm which had.swept away so many 
frail structures, that He had wondered how 
fis work had tared until He found it secure 
amid the surrounding ruin. 

The opening verses of this lecture show the 
kind of men who are to have a place in the 
New Order. 

The first characteristic is traced by Jesus in 
the words ‘‘poor in spirit,’’ that is he who in 
spirit feels ke a poor man. The Moham- 
medans have one month in the year when 
from morning until night the faithful be- 
iiever takes neither food nor drink. At even- 
ing feasting begins. The object is that every 
man may know how it feels to be poor, to be 
really hungry and thirsty. The poor in spirit 
is the man who does not want special privi- 
leges. 

The second characterization of the men of 
the New Order was ‘‘mourners.’’ Jesus’ sym- 
pathy had keen deeply stirred by niourners. 
He Himself had mourned first His father’s 
death and then that of His relative and elose 
friend, John the Baptizer. Everywhere He 
went He saw mourners. He was destined to 
mourn Hig own life out over the sin of the 
world.. But He was not.a selfish mourner. 


It is possible to mourn over oneself until all 
comfort is lost. In the New Order to mourn 
will be to find-comfort from all the men and 
women of the Order, to awaken to the new 
conception of the Brotherhood of those who 
mourn, for comforters will be all about us in 
the New Order. 

The next trait sketched by Jesus is meek- 
ness. Now the meek man is not the one who 
underrates himself. Jesus was meek yet He 
had a fair estimate of His powers. The meek 
man is he who with a clear estimate of him- 
self holds himself ready to be helpful to other 
men, Jesus here says that the selfish man 
must be eliminated from the world. When 
the New Order comes, the selfish man will be 
the dark memory of the past. snd 

Then Jesus adds that the man of the New 
Order will be hungry and thirsty for char- 
acter, The Pharisee of His day was hungry 
and thirsty for reputation. His counterpart 
of this age thirsts to see his name in the 
papers. But Jesus said that the man who 3s 
hungry and thirty for character is fortunate 
because he is going to realize his ambition. 
Every ideal of character which you honestly 
Jong after is a sure prophecy of what you 
shall be. 

Hungry and thirsty for character in others 
as well as in oneself. Jesus felt this so keen- 
ly that when He found character forming in 
an ignorant woman by a well side, He was 
satisfied and forgot to care for food. 

‘*Blessed are the merciful.’’? The merciful 
are people who forgive, not those who say, "4 
can forgive but I can’t torget.’’ 

‘‘Blessed are the pure in heart.’? When 
the Rabbi went up to the temple to see God 
he cleansed nis body. Jesus says, ‘“When 
you go to see od the essential thing to do 
is to clean up not your body but your heart.’’ 
Three elements in this cleansing are em- 
phasized by Jesus. To strengthen the sense 
of God one needs to see whether in his lfe 
there are any insincereties, whether he seems 
to others to ke a better man than in his heart 
he knows he is. These must ke gotten rid of 
if he is to have Jesus’ consciousness of God. 
Then again if you have a grudge put it away. 
If another’s suecess troubles you, you must 
get it out of your heart. Pray for that other 
until you learn to rejoice in his suecess. The 
third meaning whien Jesus had was unclean- 
ness of thought. 

To these classes Jesus added the ‘‘peace- 
makers.’’ He had in mind those who make 
peace hetween 
Later on in His lecture He gave a clear pic- 
ture of His meaning when He drew the scene 
of the man going into the temple with his 
gift and just before he offered it remember- 
ing a friend with whom he was not on terms 
of peace, Leave your religious duty, your so- 
called duty to God unfinished and get first in- 
(0 right relations to the other man, then go 
ahead with your worship, Jesus also was 
thinking of the man who reconciles enemies, 
who make peace between other men. He ealls 
them Sons of God. God is the great Peace- 
maker and they are like Him. 


Finally He adds, ‘‘Blessed are the perse-— 


euted, the men who are willing to stand by 
their convictions regardless of cost. You are 
in good company, stand firm and wait for the 
New Order.’’ 

Persons with this sevenfold character form 
the company of the Blessed Men, says Jesus. 
They are the salt of the earth, preserving it 
from decay. These are the Men of the In- 
vincible Good Will. Friendly men hold so- 
ciety in its orderly development. One of my 
students told me about a place in his State, 
West Virginia, called Troublesome Valley, 


where all the families were at odds. When 


themselves and other men. - 


*”. 


ed 


n 


7s 


‘Italy. 


THE. FRIEND, 


T3 


a person dies in that valley his people have 
to send for men from some neighboring val- 
ley to come and bury him. Society would go 
to pieces were it not for the men of the in- 
vineible good will. 

Again Jesus called these men ‘‘the light of 
the world.’? What a man is determines what 
his influence shall ke. A company of Ger- 
man students, fired with the wish to help so- 
ciety in its aevelopment, went to Tolstoi with 
the question, ‘‘ How can we make the world 
better.’’ The grim old philosopher saw into 
their hearts and sent them home with the 
words ringing in their ears, ‘‘ Young’ men, 
you will never make the world better till you 
are better men yourselves.’’ ; 

It has been well said that ‘‘a man’s char- 
acter is what he is in the dark.’’ Someone 
has wisely remarked, ‘‘There are five gospe!s 
—the Gospel according to Matthew, the Gos- 


pel according to Mark, the Gospel according | 


to Luke, the Gospel according to John, and 
the Gospel according to You.’’ This gospel 
of your life is the only one that some one will 
read. 

VY. THE.MEANING OF LIFE, 
Galatians 4:7—‘‘If a son then an heir.’’ 
There is one story that possesses unfailing 

interest, the story of the real and vital ex- 
periences of a human life. If a plain man 
should come to this platform and tell you the 
real story of nis lite he would hold this audi. 
ence/ to the end. 

Our question tonight is, What is the mean- 
ing of a plain human life? What is it all for? 
The answer must be sought at the point sug- 
gested by this text. The meaning of human 
life can only ke understood when man is 
viewed as a son of God with a prospective in- 
heritance—a son who has an ambitious Father 
with an ideal future for His son, a Pather 
who desires to see him fit for his prospective 
inheritance. He is a conscientious Father. 
A conscientious father trains his son for his 
inheritanee. In Europe there was once a 
king’s son who seemed unlikely to fulfil his 
destiny, tut his father trained him with great 
wisdom in self control, in statecraft, in social 
service, in political history, and today there 
is no worthier king than the present king of 
Tt is said of a leading American that 
he endeavors to interest his sons in his own 
great enterprises. 

As we look at God we men are deeply im- 
pressed with His Power. Go. seems to have 
planned all things to kindle in man’s mind 
not only respect for power but the expecta- 
tion of power. ‘‘Subdue the earth’’ is a 
primal command. So Jesus strove to stimu- 
late the expectation of coming power. 
“(Greater works than these shall ye do,’’ He 
said to His disciples in that last intimate talk 
before His death. 


I want to put before you one proposition 

in answer to the question of the evening. It 
is this: 
Human life is a situation devised by the in- 
finite ingenuity of God in which to train sons 
for an inheritance of power by teaching them to 
use power in « frienaly fashion. 

Our Father is the supreme inventive genius 
of the universe. We think of his sons as in- 
ventive geniuses. In point of inventiveness 
we take after our father and the supreme in- 
vention of the Supreme Genius is the situa- 
tion that we cail daily life—a situation in 
which to train sons for an inheritance of 
power by teaching them to use power in a 
friendly 1ashion. 


This seems true in the first place when we | 


look over the long history of the world and 
observe that God has crowded power into 
men’s hands as fast as they became able to 
use it with friendliness, If a new explosive 


|- Look at the family, 


should be discoverea today by which a million 
men might be killed in a minute the senti- 
ment of the modern world would bar it out 
of warfare.. Men have progressively learned 
to see that power must be used in friendly 
fashion and according as they have willed so 
to employ it, their command of power has 
increased. Just as fast as they can use it 
with kindliness God has crowded power into 
their hands. 

This is still more evident when we look at 
the two most distinctive features of human 
iife. These are first suffering and second the 
institution of the family. 

How widespread suffering is, how many go 
to bed hungry, how much pai there is to- 
night in the world’s hospitals, how few are 
present this evening who do not know what 
it is to suffer. Human suffering makes a tre- 
mendous appeal for the exercise of power in 
ariendly fashion; it calls out for sympathy. 


(he sutfering of the world fairly tempts men | 


to use power in friendly fashion, to crowd 
steam and electricity into service that it may 
kear food to starving China. Fifty thousand 
persons each have $1.00 yet they can combine 
and send it with lightning speed by eable to 
the end of the world to help suffering men. 
child is born, sim- 
ply an appetite ana a cry. An appeal for af- 
fection ig forthwith made to it first by the 
mother, next an appeal quite different is 
made by the father, as the years slip on a 
third appeal is made by a new brother, then 
one by a sister. By and bye the child grown 
to man meets a woman and a new appeal is 
made for the best affections of his heart. 
Soon a baby is put into his arms and the 
affection of a father for his gon is born, then 
once more for his daughter. Hach of these is 
different in kind. We cannot conceive any 
other appeal stronger than this seven-fold 
plea of mother, father, sister, brother, wife, 
(or husband), son and daughter made upon 
a man in the complete family. Jt is an ap- 
peal made for the use of power in friendly 
fashion. 

We are not surprised to see that this is 
yesus Christ’s theory of lite. A young man 
came to Him and asked what he must do to 
survive into the civilization of the future 
fe. Jesus called to His attention the suf- 
tering all about and appealed to him to use 
the power of his wealth with invincible good 
will. 

This is elear when one finds Him discussing 
how a man should use his money ,‘‘ With your 
money make friends who when the money 
is gone shall receive you into the eternal 
habitations.’’ ‘‘Use your money,’’ Jesus 
said, ‘‘to lay the foundations of eternal 
friendship.’’ 

Jesus speaks of money, however, as a low 
form of power, ‘‘If, therefore, ye have not 
been faithful in the unrighteous mammon 
[i. e., money for mannon or unrighteous mam- 
mon was like our filthy lucre, a term for 
money], who will commit to your trust the 
true riches.’? ‘By a right use of this lower 
form of power He wished men to acquire 
ability to use higher power in friendly fash- 
ion. We may well ask how can God’s Church 
ke trusted with prayer power so long ag it 
has not learned to make good use of money 
power? Prayer is classed by Jesus with the 
higher, the spiritual powers. 

Again He says, ‘‘If ye have not been faith- 
ful in that which is another’s, who will give 
you that which is your own.’’ Here Jesus 
calls money another’s. He is right. Money 
is entrusted to us, but a short time. The 
slightest disaster may take it from us; at 
death we must part with it. It is a tempor- 
ary possession at best. lf we cannot use this 


temporary power in friendly fashion how 
shall we ever learn to us» real power which is 
to ke ours forever? 

This is a theory of tife which fits Jesus 
-urist’s salvation. Life is a situation big 
enough for and suitable to a great Savior. 

Jesus comes among men to train them by 
association with His own invisible spirit to 
use power in friendly fashion. Hence He 
said to the rich young man, *‘ Follow me.’’ 
‘“Join yourself to me and learn how to use 
power in kindlinegs.’’ 


The Church is a company of people who 
are being trained by Jesus Christ in the 
friendly use of power, so that when any need 
is found one or two may ke dispatched to 
the point of need to supply this power. The 
purpose of God through the Church is to 
train men in this use of power and so fit them 
for the inheritance of power which He waits 
to Lestow upon them. 

Here is the point of peril in life. If a man 
refuses to be trained he must wreck himself. 
What will become of him we will study later 
on. 

Here, too, is the great hope of life. It 
makes man look forward to eternity with 
enthusiasm. It connects the future life with 
the present as one. 

The future life then is not a time for rest. 
In approaching the close of a long earthly 
ufe a hereafter of rest looks attractive, Lut 
to men in their active years the future ap- 
peals because of the chance to achieve, to do, 
which it holds out. This is what reconciles 
the man called away in the midst of his 
strenuous years to the summons— 


““Even if cut off in full tide, 
At noonday in the hattle of life’s work, 
Greet the unseen with a cheer.’’ 


Men of our day do not love overmuch the 
song of the cloister: 


“Jerusalem the golden, 
With milk and honey blest.’’ 


But Tennyson’s lines stir us with ther 
views of our inheritance of power— 


“‘And doubtless unto thee is given 
A life that kears immortal fruit, 

In those great offices that suit 

The full grown energies of 'heaven.’’ 


While Browning echoes the same refrain in 
his sturdy ery— 


“¢Bid him forward, breast and back ag either 
should ke, 

Strive and thrive, ery ‘Speed, fight on, for- 
ever 

There as here.’’ 


From this standpoint we have a concep- 
tion of the future as a place where power 
shall be exercised by us. So we stand on the 
shores of the waters of time not cowering or 
shivering, but walking on the strand like 
Columbus as he strode the beacn to board 
his vessels or like the Viking expecting con- 
quest, activity, achievement on the other side 
ois the sea— 


‘“Wor life with all it yields of joy or woe, 

And hope and fear, believe the aged friend, 

Is just our chance o’ the prize of learning 
love?” 


“Tf a son then an heir,” 


14" 


THE FRIEND. 


VI. THE MESSAGE OF JESUS TO THE 
SELFISH MAN. 


Jesus appeared among men with a great 
hope of good for humanity. Over the lives 
of abandoned men Jesus pronounced magical | 
words of friendship and good will that raised 
them up to new careers of joy and purity. 
There is a certain strenuousness in Jesus, a 
certain sense of peril, of danger to be avoid- 
ed by men whom self rules. What was His 
message to the selfish man? 

What did Jesus think selfishness to be? 
Selfishness is the refusal to take account of 
other men. By unselfishness Jesus does not 
mean the ignoring of one’s own interests. 
Paul phrased it well when he said that selfish- 
ness is the refusal to look on the things of the 
other man; refusal, that is, to take account 
of the other man. 

The New Testament pictures two natures 
in every personality. It calls them flesh and 
spirit. Flesh is the inheritance from the ant- 
mal past or a bond of connection with the 
animal present. It is that which says, ‘‘ What 
I want I take.’’ 

The other half of personality, the spirit, is 
that which rises up into communion with God 
and other spirits. Browning’s words are 
significant: 


‘«Rejoice, we are allied 

To that which doth provide 

And not partake, effect and not receive! 

A spark disturys our clod: 

Nearer we hold of God 

Who gives, than of his tribes that take, I 
must believe.’’ 


The spirit is the part which we have in 
common with wod and other men. 

Now selfishness consists in giving to the 
flesh the dominance. In San Francisco a few 
weeks after the fire I was told of a young 
woman who in fleeing from a hotel put on all 
her jewels as the best way to save them. A 
man saw her, said in his heart, ‘‘ What u 
want I take,’’ crushed her throat with his 
hands and took her jewels. 

Selfishness shows itself in various forms. 
There is a lazy selfishness which does not re- 
gard others because it costs effort. Jesus re- 
buked such in his parable, ‘‘Thou wicked 
and slothful servant.’’? There is a commer- 
cial selfiskmess. I met a business man some 
months ago on my travels. We grew conti- 
dential while we were together and one day 
he said: ‘‘When you have business dealings 
with men you must take no account of 
friendship.’’ Many of us know this is not 
true of what the best business is coming to 
be, yet it represents the ideal of commercial 
selfishness. | 

There is also a selfishness of culture, of the 
college man who gratifies his intellectual 
tastes regardless of other men. It is matched 
by the selfishness of the society woman ig- 
norant of the sea of wretchedness that washes 
up against the back steps of her palatial 
home. Still another form is the regretful 
selfishness which was that of the rich young 
man who turned away sorrowful from Jesus 
when the Master told him to share his wealth 
with the poor. He was full of regret but he 
turned away. 

What are the consequences in the per- 
sonality of the selfish man? We live in an 
age impatient of words. Men want to know 
faets. It is no longer possible to scare men 
with the word hell or to fascinate them with 
the term heaven. What are the facts back 
of these expressions? 

I will read you a passage from the works 
of a man with an imagination which if turned 


into the channel of pure literature might 
have riveled Dante: 

“The God that holds you over the pit of 
hell much as one holds a spider or some 
loathsome insect over the fire, abhors you 
and is dreadfully provoked; his wrath 
towards you burns like fire; he looks upon 
you as worthy of nothing else but to be cast 
into the fire—you are ten thousand times so 
avominable in his eyes as the most hateful 
and venemous serpent is) in ours. “* ~~ 
He will not only hate you, but he will have 
you in the utmost contempt. No place shall 
be that fit for you but under his feet to be 
trodden down in the mud in the streets.’’ 

We know that Mr. Moody could never have 
used this language of the man of two cen- 
turies ago. Over our thought a change has 
come which has atrected our mode of speech. 
We do not think of the poetic statements of 
doom in the Bible as literal. We lay stress 
upon the fact that the only punishment of 
sin is the consequences of sin. We in this 
age do not speak of God sending men to hell, 
but often as sending themselves there. 

Our inquiry today, however, is, can we 
from the teaching of Jesus ascertain what 
seemed to Him to be the consequences of life 
in the personality of the selfish man. To put 
it in a word, Jesus seems to have regarded 


| the consequences of selfishness to ke a dam- 


aged personality; not a damage put upon the 
personality from the outside, but one s lf 
caused and from within. ‘‘What shall it 
profit a man if he gains the whole world and 
lose himself?’’ oe asks. So of the rich, sel- 
fish farmer, ‘‘This night thyself shall be re- 
quired of thee, then whose shall these things 
bet?” 

The first great consequence in this damaged 
personality is the pain of loneliness. Sepa- 
ration is the dominant idea in the mind of 
Jesus, ‘‘Depart from me,’’ ‘‘Into the outer 
darkness.’’ We see how this must be so. Sel- 
fishness is the contradiction of friendship. 
No true friendship can exist between two 
selfish persons. If two such unite, say a 
man and a woman in marriage, friendship in 
time vanishes. It would seem that in many 
men, in selfish men, the capacity for friend- 
ship slowly decays. Paul here has a sentence 
of vast and solemn moment, ‘‘Whatsoever a 
man soweth, that shall he also reap. Tor he 
that soweth unto his own flesh shall of the 
flesh reap decay.’’ Corruption is the word 
used, rottenness, decay is the meaning. The 
capacity to feel interest in another person 
shall decay. Hence the selfish man comes to 
be left atone, condemned by the violated laws 
of his own being to solitude. 

Jesus once shrank from this terrible conse- 
quence when he faced a great temptation 
to ke selfish, ‘‘ Except a grain of wheat fa'l 
into the earth and die, it abideth by itself 
alone.’’ Alone! not separate in space, for 
there is no such loneliness as is found in great 
cities by the friendless, Have you ever 
visited an insane hospital ward and seen the 
loneliness of the poor souls who dwell there- 
in? One attendant can care for twenty be- 
cause they have no power of coOperation. 
They are alone, but not separated in space. 

Such loneliness must ke painful because the 
one great instinctive human dread is to ke 


alone. It is seen in the child erying alone at 
night. Through this dread men congregate in 
cities. And for this reason no punishment 


man knows is so awful as solitary confine- 
ment. 

Yet there are men who wall themselves up 
stone by stone, day, after day, in a cell of 
solitary confinement. We do not have to say 
that God shuts them up, but by the violated 
laws of their own nature they have separated 


themselves from God and their brother man. 
Whittier, whose contributions to theology 
are, I sometimes think, not so fully real- 
ized as they deserve, sings: 


No word of doom may shut thee out, 
No wind of wrath may downward whirl, 
No sword of fire keep watch about 
The open gates of pearl. 


A tenderer light than moon or sun, 
Than song of earth a sweeter hymn 
May shine and sound forever on 
And thou be deat and dumb. 


Forever round the mercy seat 

The guiding hghts ot 1ove shall burn, 
But what if, habit-bound, thy feet 
Shall lack the will to turn? 


What if thine eye refuse to see, 

Thine ear of heaven’s free welcome fail, 
And thou a willing captive be, 

Thyself thine own dark jail? 


O doom beyond the saddest years, 
As the long years of God unroll, 
To make thy dreary selfishness 
The prison of thy soul! 


Side by side with this goes the pain of 
aimlessness, the sense of having nothing to 
do, no purpose, no goal. For the chief motive 
for achievement is gone when one loses in- 
terest in persons. When wife and children 
are taken a man orten finds no more incentive 
to accumulate. Moreover, it is impossible to 
do anything worth while without the codpera- 
tion of other persons. Conceive yourself to 
ke shut entirely away from all connection 
whatsoever with other persons and you will 
find yourself where you can do nothing. So 
the consciousness of Jesus made Him ery, 
‘‘Of myself 1 can do nothing.’’ Hence He 
reached out after God and His brothers. 

The decay of this capacity for achievement 
is pain of the keenest sort. For the soul’s 
divinest instincts are first the capacity for 
friendship and second the ability to achieve. 
Therefore your chiud loves to exelaim in 
triumph, ‘‘1 did it myself.’’ After finding 
Livingstone, when stanley came out in Cairo, 
he wrote: 

‘*No honor or reward, however great, can 
be equal to that subtle satisfaction that a 
man feels when he can point to his work and 
say, ‘See now the task which I promised you 
to perform with all loyalty and honesty, with 
might and main, to the utmost of my ability, 
and God willing, is today finished. Say i: i 
well and truly done?’ And when the em- 
ployers shall confess that it is well and truly 
done, can there be any recompense higher 
than this to one’s inward self?’’ 

The great joy of achievement to which 
Jesus appealed would seem necessarily to die 
out of the selfish man. Jesus deseribes such 
a man in these words, ‘‘He walketh in the 
darkness and knoweth not whither be goeth.’’ 
He walks alone with no sense of others left— 
in the darkness—and he has nowhere to go. 
This is the New Testament picture of the 
doom of the selfish man. 

Over against the civilization of brotherly 
men, over against the career of achievement, 
stands this selfish man puttering away in his 
little lonely self-made cell. What is his 
ultimate condition? Does he become an 
idiot, insane? Does his being go out? Is 
there in the great resources of God some hope 
for him? 

Here we cannot dogmatize, we find we eas- 
ily go beyond our Maker, Hear the words 
of Tennyson— 


THE FRIEND. 


15 


“*T ean but trust that Good 
' At last—far off—at last, to 
And every winter turn to 


shall fall 
all, 


spring.’ 


But in the next sentence he 
my dream.’’ 


adds, ‘‘So runs 


«<*So runs my dream, but what am I? 
An infant erying in the night: 
An infant erying for the light 
And with no language but a ery.’’ 


Still more definitely he writes what seems 
to me the proper temper of mind in the Vision 
of Sin— 


*“*Below were men and horses pierced with 
worms 

And slowly quickening into lower forms. 

* = = = = = = = = * 

ba “At last I heard a voice upon the slope, 

Cry to the summit, ‘Is there any hope?’ 

To which an answer pealed from that high 

land 
4 But in a tongue no man could understand.’’ 


The poet is right, ‘‘no man could under- 
stand,’’ and until we know more about the 
nature of personality we do well to stop at 
that point. 

Thank God that all He has done tends to 
> @raw men out of the selfish life—Jesus Christ, 
ir wniverse. In God’s eye it is a thing to be 
dreaded and avoided. Though the fire may 
| burn below decks, if the eaptain’s face be 
— ealm and his eyes resolute, you feel safe. But 
if his countenance pales then yeu know you 
are in the presence of danger. When Jesus 
the man of hope viewed this side of life He 
fell on the ground pale and with great drops 
. ef blood He oathed the earth in His horror. 
Here we resent the words ox the great and 
good man of two hundred years ago. We 
speak ec our Father’s view of this doom as 
the Sorrow of wod. We may say reverently 
of the fate of the selfish man as he breaks 
away from God, from divine and human 
friendship and plunges inte the abyss of lone- 
Tiness, that the place inte which he goes must 
7 be the spot of horror in the universe. 
Since IT have vecome a father with boys of 
ewn 1 confess that the most majestic 
thought of God is not the sky and the sea, 
but how the Heart of the Father must feel in 
the less of His enildren. 

Thank Ged that allHe has done tends to 
draw men out of the selfish life—Jesus Christ, 
the great Savior, reaching down to save men 
te the company of the friendly workmen! 
Thank.Ged for His mighty influences which 
He is daily bringing to bear upon men at this 

point ef danger which seems to be a necessary 
Stage im the evolution of His children. 
“<Por the love of God is breader 
Than the/ measure of man’s mind: 
And the heart of the eternal 
Is most wonderfully kind.’’ 
‘Wil, THE MESSAGE OF THE CHRISTIAN 
‘rt TO OTHER MEN. 


_ Jesus with His marvelous consciousness of 
@ presence of God, of His being the revela- 
ef God to men had seen a vision of the 

ation of the Kingdom of Ged and the 
& had occasioned such joy that the shame 

» Cross seemed but a little thing. It 
$ a vision of what men were to be, the 
mn of a situation characterized by two 
First it was a situation in which 
@ividuality should have full oppor- 
‘develop the twe great powers of 
and of achievement. Second, it 


was a situation characterized by the develop- 
ment of the latent powers of nature until 
they should be made to contribute to the wel- 
fare of the men for whose sake they had 
been stored up. That is, in the vision of 
Jesus men were to master the world. 

The countrymen of Jesus rejected both Him 
and His vision and killed-Him. When once 
more he appeared among His friends, He be- 
gan again talking about this theme, the vision 
of the Kingdom of God. He spoke still of a 
civilization whose characteristics should be 
life and love and while He talked to them 
of its feasibility He laid before them the 
method of realizing it. However, they had 
been dreaming of power, never able to shake 
off the expectation of being chieftains and ot 
possessing political authority. Hence they 
said, ‘‘Sir, dost thou at this time restore the 
Kingdom to Israel??? With that quiet humor 
which He showed so often, He dropped into 
this conception of the situation and remark- 
ed, ‘‘It is not for you to know the times or 
seasons, whieh the Father hath set within His 
own authority. sut ye shall receive power, 
when the Holy Spirit is come upon you.’ 
Then He outlined His program, ‘‘And ye 
shall be my witnesses both .n Jerusalem, ana 
in all Judea and Samaria, and unto the utter- 
most part of the earth.’’ 

His policy for the realization of His vision 
of the Cilivilization of Brotherly Men was 
that each individual disciple should report his 
personal experiences with Him, and through 
such report He felt sure that the vision would 
be realized. 

Look at the company of men He addressed 
—an inoffensive set, variously constituted. 
There were the eleven apostles, fish packers, 
economicaty renting an upper room in which 
to unroll their mats and sleep, one or two 
business men, one from each of the two poli- 
tieal extremes, on the one hand of implac- 
able hatred against the Roman overlord wit: 
motto, ‘*No ruler but God’’ and a dagger car- 
ried in the clothing to kill the alien official, 
on the other one of those who let their names 
go on the civil list and made money out of the 
Imperial taxes. .»eside this inner cirele there 
was a larger group of followers that includea 
rich as well as poor. Two came often to- 
gether from Jericho, the wealthy capitalist 
Zaecheus and Bartimeus the beggar. Edu- 
eated men, such as the Rabbi Nicodemus and 
the Counsellor Joseph, together with a large 
eompany of women reeruited from all social 
ranks helped make up His audience on the oe- 
easion of His farewell conversation. All had 
one thing in common, each for himself had 
eome into contact with Jesus and in vir- 
tue thereof was able to make some personal 
report concerning their great Friend. 

Look at this policy which seemed so inade- 
quate. The most fundamental thing a man 
ean do to extend his knowledge and experi- 
ence is to report what he has seen and done 
with unseen forees. In the scientific world 
the man able to report his personal experi- 
ences with unseen physical forces has done 
ene of two things possible to the scientific 
man. There is a man in the world able to 
hold this Church full if he should come here. 
He is one who is seeking personal experience 
with the forces of nature and is able 
to report what he has seen and done with 
them. There is a second sort of man who 
ean look over the whole field and arrange the 
reports of his fellow observers in orderly 
fashion. These are the two who do the funda- 
mental things in science. 

Jesus’ method therefore was scientific. He 
proposed that after men in His company had 

rimented with the great Foree—God— 
they should report what they had seen and 


done in the laboratory of experience. 


The 
man who does this after experience with this 


supreme Force has done something elemental 
and fundamental in the view of the scientific 
world. 


The note of personal experience runs 


throughout the Bible. 


“‘This poor man cried and Jehovah heard 


him,’’ 


This is the report of the man who has seen 
the unseen God and then he sings— 


“*O taste and see that Jehovah is good: 


Blessed is the man that taketh refuge in 
Him.’’ 


The value of the great Christian creeds 
lies here and here only—to explain an experi- 
ence that it may repeat it in others’ lives. 
It is a record of what some men have found 
in their laboratory work, bidding others test 
the experience for themselves. Any other use 
of a creed is full of danger. 

This method expresses the very genius of 
Christianity, which is to share real values 
with another. When a Christian comes to you 
with a personal experience, it is not in argu- 
ment or to tear down, but to share with you 
what is best in his life. So Browning— 


**Needs must there be one way, our chief, 
Best way of worship; let me strive 
To find it and when found contrive 
My fellows also take their share! 
This constitutes my earthly care; 
God’s is above it and distinet. 
For I a man with men am linked 
And not a brute with brutes; no gain 
That I experience must remain 
Unshared.’’ 


Contrive my fellows also take their share. 

There is a feeling abroad, especially among 
our college men that a man must not meddle 
with anothers religion. It is a natural re- 
action due to abuses, but at bottom a man 
must share the highest values that come into 
his own experience so far as possible. The 
brute keeps all for itself. But men must 
share. ° 

With what effectiveness a man’s experl- 
ence becomes helpful when properly shared! 
A student came once to tell me an incident 
in his life. He had been delayed at a small 
station. While waiting he began to wish that 
he could give a report to some one of his ex-+ 
perience with God and prayed that he might. 
He went out on to the platform, fell in with 
a German wearing the uniform of a band, 
found that he had had a university training 
in philosophy and in the course of conversa- 
tion the topic of religion was reached. A 
squirrel ran across the park and he talked 
of design, then the whistle sounded and he 
reached out his hand with the word, ‘‘My 
brother, I know one thing. God is my 
heavenly Father, He has forgiven my sins 
and I have profound satisfaction, for once I 
was without Him.’’ The German took his 
hand with a man’s grip and answered, ‘‘I be- 
lieve there is something in this for you have 
found it in your experience.’’ 

The great leaders of this early movement 
were wont to lay stress on their experience 
with Jesus. It was so with Peter who headed 
the Jewish contingent in that early campaign 
when he reached the point where he coul 
say, ‘Thou art the Christ.’’ Jesus exclaim- 
ed, ‘‘God bless you Simon, flesh and blood 
never told you that,’’ and lapsing into the 
language of His trade He added, ‘‘This re- 
port of inner experience is bedrock and on it 
I can bnild.’’ 


16 


THE “FRIEND. 


So Paul the great non-Jewish leader, felt 
he was commissioned to give a report, ‘‘ Arise 
and stand upon thy feet; for to this end 1 
appeared unto thee, to appoint thee a witness 
of the things wherein thou hast seen me.’’ 
When the great crisis came in Galatea Paul 
appealed to his own experience, ‘‘It is no 
longer I that hye, but Christ liveth in me; 
and the life which I now live in the flesh |] 
live in faith, the faith which is in the Son of 
God, who loved me, and gave Himself up for 
me.’? 

It is the same with John. Hear him lay 
emphasis upon this in his first letter, ‘‘That 
which we have heard, that which we have 
seen with our eyes, that which we beheld, 
and our hands handled.’’ hen again a sent- 
ence further on, ‘‘And we have seen and 
bear witness.’’ Still, a third time, ‘‘That 
which we have seen and heard declare we 
unto you.’’? Three times in as many verses. 
So much for the fundamental importance of 
this policy. 

Look at the character of the Christian’s 
report. Its substance is twofold. First—l 
have acted for what is to me a sufficient rea- 
son on the supposition that Jesus Christ is 
alive and I have given Him control of my 
life. Second—As a consequence of this ac- 
tion I find myself experiencing increasing 
honesty, enlarging sympathy and deepening 
peace. 

The great fundaments of character are in- 
volved in this report of personal experience. 
There is no exaggeration in such a report for 
it deals with the beginnings of new character 
—sincerity, sympathy and peace. 

It is not necessary for a man to report per- 
fection, but only progress. It is not always 
made in words—that is a matter of tempera- 
ment. It is a report that breaks forth in 
character, in action, in life, a character that 
shall begin to show evidence of a likeness to 
the character with which it is assumed to be 
in contact. Thus the dying Baron Bunsen 
looked up into the face of his wife with the 
message, ‘‘In thy face have I seen the face 
of the eternal.’’ Browning had this in mind 
in Saul: 


St shaliaeive 
A Face like my face that receive thee: a 
Man hke to me 
Thou shalt love and be loved by forever; a 
Hand like this hand 
Shall throw open the gates of new life to 
thee: See the Christ stand.’’ 


Not many weeks ago on a Sabbath evening 
in Columbus I went to see a friend of my 
college days, who for five years had served 
as a pastor, when creeping paralysis came 
upon him and for nine years his wife had 
been compelled to put food into his mouth. 
He was able to speak only one word at a 
time with great difficulty and so faintly that 
wife or daughter bending over him could just 
eatch the accents. Yet the power of Jesus 
Christ was so evident in his character and 
life that he preached to all in his little sec- 
tion of Columbus the message of Christlike- 
ness with far greater influence than ever he 
did while in his pulpit. 

What are the results of this policy? All 
the spiritual forees of the universe often seem 
so coordinate as to make one public witness 
produce effects far beyond possible estima- 
tion. It is like the explosion of Hell Gate in 
New rk harbor where the labor of hun- 
dreds of men and the mighty foree of the ex- 
plosives all waited upon the touch of a little 
girl’s finger upon the electric key to co- 
ordinate them into one tremendous effect. 
Likewise, the forces of the universe seem so 


codrdinated that when a man begins to give 
his report tactfully and gracefully, great re-| 


sults are secured. 
President Strong, of Rochester University, 


once said that while a student at Yale another 


student approached him with a remark that in- 
volved a personal report of Christian experi- 
ence. ‘‘I wish you were.a Christian’’ was all 
that was said when the chapel bell rang and 
they separated. Young strong became a Chris- 
tian in consequence of that word and both stu- 
dents entered the ministry. Years later they 
met and President Strong said: ‘‘ Now I have | 
the chance to say what I long have wanted 
co tell you. I owe all that I am and that 1 
have done to you.’’ ‘‘How is that?’’? ‘‘ Don’t 
you remember what you svid to me that day 
at college’ just before chapel?’’ ‘‘No, I do 
not.’’ Dr. Strong told him, but he could not 
recall it.- In a large sense all the wonderful 
influence of Dr. Strong, 
by numbers of young men in hig lecture 
room, are the results of that one report mace 
by his classmate. 

Last spring while in California I heard Dr. 
Mchean, of Berkeley, tell an experience ot 
his while in college. Up to his senior year 
ne was not a Christian. 
made him think a little. One day he and a 
classmate noted for speaking to others akout 
Christ met. McLean parried the subject 
again and again whenever it approached. 
They reached his room and courtesy com- 
pelled nim to invite his friend in. More than 
once the man brought the subject round onty 
to be put off. Finally he put the direct ques- 
tion: ‘‘Mac, do you ever think about your 
soul?’’ Then they talked. Soon it was re- 
marked in the class that ‘‘ Mae was serious.’’ 
““T have sometimes been inclined to say,’ 
added Dr. McLean, ‘‘that if that man had 
not spoken to me out of his own experience I 
should never have been a Christian.’’ If 
that be true, all the wide results of the great 
ministry of Dr. McLean in Oakland and else- 
where and his present work as President of 
the Seminary in Berkeley have flowed out of 
that talk. 

The chief satisfactions of the Christian life 
flow out of the consciousness of being helpful 
in this manner. Some time since a group of 
Methodist ministers grouped themselves about 
one of their leading Bishops and asked what 
experience gave him the most satisfaction in 
all his ministry. He said that in his first 
pastorate at a time of special interest he 
and a parishioner called upon .an old man and 
tried to help him into the Christian life. The 
final answer was, ‘‘I’m too old, but if you 
ean do anything for my son Tom, for God’s 
sake do it.’? The young minister asked his 
parishioner who Tom was and found that he 
was a lazy, good for nothing tough, hanging 
about saloons, ready for anything that might 
bring an occasional drink. The pastor 
sought him out at a job cleaning saloon cuspi- 
dores. He took the young man home with 
him, gave him a place to sleep, clothed him 
decently, went with him to meeting and there 
the man rose and said he wished he were a 
Christian. The young minister soon moved 
and it was years before he revisited the town. 
He came there as Bishop, was met at the sta- 
tion by this man, taken to the finest house 
in the place and after grace, as the family 
sat about the table, the man turned to him 
and said: ‘‘ Bishop, it’s all your work.’’ 
Never as pastor, college president or bishop 
had he found such deep satisfaction, he said, 
as at that moment. 


Happy experiences attend the beginning of 
the Christian life, but there is none such 
deep satisfaction as dwells in the experience 
of leading another into the friendship of 


felt with such power; 


A letter came that} 


Jesus. ‘‘It is more blessed to give than to re- 
ceive’’ does not apply alone or chiefly to 
money, but to the sharing of our experience 
of Christ with others. 

‘“‘Trebly blessed art thou, my brethren, 
| whose joyful lot it is to stretch thy soul in 
a soul that is dead as Hlisha stretched him- 
self on the dead son of the Shunamite and 
raise him up breathing and calling upon 
God.?? 


OUR NEW SCHOOL Sis 


For one, I must express a great sat- 
isfaction in the site finally secured for 
our much desired Mid-Pacifie Institute. 
It is not so conspicuous as the lofty 
Kapahulu location, so long struggled 
for, but if more lowly, to my mind far 
more desirable. I believe that it whol- 
lv excels any other possible location, 
both in climate and in accessibility. 
The climate of this lower Manoa Val- 
lley is an ideal one. For over four vears 
we have been residing on the “College 
Hills” tract, only a few rods from the 
new school site, and have found the 
climate ideal. The rain is moderate, 
yet sufficient to maintain verdure at 


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17 


nearly all seasons without irrigation. 
One mile farther up the valley the rain 
becomes rather in excess of what is 
most agreeable. 

Poain while “there is nearly always 
a pooling breeze, we rarely have a driv- 
ing gale. such as a good part of the 
time pours down Nuuanu through the 
grcat Pali gap. Our unbroken moun- 
tain ridge at the head of Manoa de- 
fends us from the rush of gales either 
down or up. But the great charm of 
our climate is this peculiar mountain 
air, well charged with the invigorating 
ozone, which meets one like a draught 
of wine as soon as one passes Rocky 
Hill. It is a most refreshing change 
from the duller air of the city plains 
and slopes. Kapahulu probably has 
the same ozone, but too much wind. 

Another great advantage over the 
Kapahulu site so long in contemplation 
is, that this is easy of access. The 
other one was a full mile from the elec- 
tric car terminus at Kaimuki, with a 
climb of three hundred feet in altitude, 
which was formidable for teachers and 
scholars, although leading to a grand 
outlook. This new site is close to the 
Manoa car line, and only twenty min- 
utes’ ride from the postoffice. 

There is abundance of rain for all 
necessary uses of the schools. There 
are fairly copious springs on the school 
tract, from which wind-mills can lift 
the water. And the tract lies below the 
elevation already well supplied from 
the government pipes in College Hills 
adjacent. We hope by the Fall open- 
ing of the school year, to welcome to 
the new buildings the hard-working 
teachers from Kawaiahao and Chaplain 
lane to take deep ee of this fresh 
Manoa air. 

5.1 Ey Br 


LETTER FROM OUR KONA CAN- 
DIDATE FOR HARTFORD 
SCHOLARSHIP. 


Kealakekua, Central Kona, 
March 14, 1907. 


My Dear Mr. Horne: Aloha oe. I 
feel that I must write to you and give 
you an idea of my work and the people. 
First, I must thank you for the oppor- 
tunity you gave me to work for the 
Lord. I am getting along very nicely 
Wig eiriJAlsS.) Baker, Mrs. .A. S. 
Baker and Mrs. Ruth Baker. Once in 
three months I accompany Dr. A. S. 
Baker to Kailua, Holualoa (makai) 
and Healani, interpreting his com- 
munion sermon. Once a month we 
have the preachers’ meeting and once 
in three months we have the delegates’ 
meeting of the different Churches. [ 
have to interpret all these meetings. I 


was admitted to the membership of 
Central Kona Church by letter, on Feb- 
ruary twenty-fourth. I was _ elected 
superintendent of the Sunday: school 
for the rest of the year. I have a Sun- 
day school class also. During the week 
I make calls on different homes, asso- 
ciating with them and encouraging 
them to live in the right wav. I have 
learned to keep closer to Christ and 
love the:Savior more and more. Our 
earnest desire here is to have a revival 
in Kona like that of seventy years ago. 
In some Churches it has been already 
felt: We are praying that more boys 
will-take up the work for the Master. 

Kona is a lovely place. Today is the 
clearest day I have seen in Kona. I 


could observe Lanai and Maui from 
where 1 am living. I have many 
friends here. I visited Capt. Cook’s 


monument at Kaawaloa with them. 
George and John Smith’s parents here 
are some of my close friends. 

It may be of interest to you to know 
that I am pounding my own poi and 
planting taro and other vegetables. I 
have rented about onethird of an acre 
from the landlord, close to where I am 
living. All the spare time I have I 
work’on it. My taro and corn are 
growing. 


Dr. and Mrs. A. S. Baker went over- 
land to Hilo. They will be away for 
three weeks. Rev. Chas. Wm. Hill 
will come over here during Dr. Baker’s 
absence, 

We have organized a Young Men’s 
Debating Club. We meet every other 
friday. Olur debate was held on Feb- 
ruary twenty-second. We will meet 
again on the twenty-second of this 
month. The debate on the eighth of 
this month was postponed on account 
of lack of preparation. 

I think I had better close my letter. 
Give my best regards to the faculty, to 
the schools, and to the members of the 
Christian Endeavor. 


With my best 
aloha, I remain, 
Yours truly, 
JAMES KAMAKAIWI. 


[It is expected that Mr. Kamakaiwi 
will go to Hartford Theological Semi- 
nary in the fall of 1908. We hope to 
have at least two more young men 
ready to accompany him. This work 
of training a band of Hawaii’s most 
promising youths for Christian leader- 
ship in the Islands is one of most 
important lines of effort in the whole 
range of the Hawaiian Board’s many- 


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18 


THE FRIEND. 


sided enterprise. It is expected that 
every candidate for scholarship privi- 
leges at Hartford shall have had expe- 
rience in the field under one of our 
agents, and if possible shall also have 
taken a normal course. Mr. Akaiko 
Akana, now in Hartford, is our first 
scholar at work under this plan —Ed. ] 


THE: - LAND ORLA ER. SOU TH 
WIND. 


The death of Mrs. T. K. R. Amalu 
of Hookena, Hawaii, on March 2, 1907, 


MRS. AMALU 


at the age of 46 years and nine months, 
has come as a shock to all in Kona, 
although she has known for some time 
that her heart was very weak. There 
is no one among the Hawaiians of 
Kona whose loss to the Church would 
be so great. 

Elizabeth K. Amalu was born and 
lived at Honolulu until she was mar- 
ried, at the age of nineteen. Ever since 
that time, for more than twenty-seven 
years, Mrs. Amalu has been a member 
of the Hookena Church, and, with her 
good husband, has been a teacher both 
in the public school and in the Sunday 
school. She has, indeed, been as a 
mother to many of the young people 
of South Kona. 

The funeral service was held in the 
new chapel at Kealia, being conducted 
by Kevs. “A. co. baket.s Caw oP. Kase 
and John Keala. About 150 people 
were present. School children led the 
procession to the grave, in a new cem- 
etery just set apart through the kind- 
ness of Mr> W.cRioGastles, A: liner of 
men drew the carriage containing the 
body, and many others followed 

Mrs. Amalu will long be remembered 
as a true Christian lady, always con- 


sistent and faithful. Mr. Amalu has 
the sympathy of all. 
A Young Men’s Club has_ been 


started at Central Kona for current 
events, debates and social intercourse, 
to meet once in two weeks in the So- 
cial Hall. Two Catholic young men 
joined us one night, but their parents 
heard of it and came over a mile to get 
them out. 

A similar club, only combining more 


of a religious element, is maintained by 
the Japanese at Holualoa, and your 
correspondent much enjoyed a recent 
evening with them. - 

A weekly paper and a quarterly 
magazine are published by the Japa- 
nese of Kona. It was a great surprise 
to be asked to contribute short relig- 
ious articles to be translated for use 
in these papers, but the opportunity has 
been gladly accepted. 

It is a great pleasure to report He- 
lani Church free from debt, after many 
years. New records have been made 
to supply those lost, and new life seems 
evident. It is hoped that the present 
small building may be enlarged in the 
near future on a more advantageous 
site. 

The agent in Kona exchanged for the 
last two weeks in March with Rev. C. 
W. Hill of East Hawaii. Aci B: 


Cousins Past and Present. 


FROM COUSIN CARPENTER, 

No doubt a great many persons hold in 
valued memory a lady who wrought on 
Maui and Oahu for more than twenty 
years in the instruction of Hawaiian 
girls, Miss Helen E. Carpenter, who is 
passing the winter in Worcester, Mass. 

A letter from her to Mrs. S. E. Bishop, 
of January 12, 1907, contains the follow- 
ing relating to attending the meeting of 
the American Board last October: 

“The first persons I saw in taking the 
cars in Worcester were Mrs. John Wa- 
terhouse and Mrs. Cornelia Damon. 
Then as you know there were several 
cthers, Dr. and Mrs. Whitney, Mr. and 
Mrs. W. R. Castle, Rev. Mr. McCully 
and others. On reaching the hotel in 
which my room had been engaged, I went 
into the cafe for a lunch. The only per- 
son in it at the time was a lady dressed 
in black. J naturally walked towards her, 
and who was it? Mrs. Hyde, quietly 
taking her dinner. 

“T have attended several meetings of 
the Board, but this was unique. The 
Berkshire hills were in their autumn 
glory. The Academic Service was in the 
Thompson Memorial Chapel of the col- 
lege, said to be the most beautiful in the 
country. The addresses of the three 
presidents, Hopkins, Tucker and Hyde, 
with that of Dr. Judson, son of the 
pioneer Judson, will long be remembered. 
Then there was the great out-door meet- 
ing in the park, near the Haystack monu- 
ment. But you have read of it all.” 

We are pained to learn that this aged 
and noble lady’s life is quite lonely, al- 
though she continues in comfortable 
health, and writes a most cordial and en- 
tertaining letter. pepe Sel & 


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OFFICERS—H. P. Baldwin, Pres’t; J. B. 
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19 


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PAID-UP CAPITAL............. $600,000.00 
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Mbarles: Mi. Cooke ..cc0cecocese dices President 
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Strict Attention Given to all Branches of 
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RECORD OF EVENTS. 


Feb.. 17th.—Rev. Dr. Howard Agnew 
Johnston closes an eight days’ Union 
Mission, preaching at Central Union 
Church. 

18th.—Japanese 


mass meeting at 


|Japanese school premises makes ve- 


hement protests against U.S. policy of 
prohibiting Japanese laborers passing 


|from Hawaii to the mainland. 


19th—Arrival of Japanese training 
squadron of three second-class cruisers 
and 1200 men. 

Many Japanese coolie passengers per 
Mongolia to -San Francisco detained 
here by U.S. Immigration Law. 

2oth.—Biennial Session of Territorial 
Legislature meets and organizes. 

22nd.—Automobile Floral Parade 
and Pa-u Riders. 

28—Admiral Tomioka and staff, of 
the Japanese training squadron,. visit 
Kilauea Volcano.—Oahu College buys 
adjoining land for $12,300. 

March 2—Miss Anna Mantei of 
Waimea, Kauai, drowned while driv- 
ing home with her father, by a flood 
from a burst reservoir in Makaweli. 

March 5—British ship Loch Garve 
fast on sand spit off Kamalo, Molokai, 
which she mistakes for Honolulu. 


MARRIED. 


ROBINSON-RIPLEY—At Honolulu, Feb. 26, 
James L, P, Robinson to Miss Lilla May 
Ripley. 

HERZER-LYLE—At Honolulu, March 
Hugo Herzer to Miss Agnes Lyle. 

JOHNSON-HARDY—At Honolulu, March 2, 
Peter W. Johnson to Mrs. Maggie N. Hardy. 

BOOTH-WARD—At Honolulu, Feb. 25, Rob- 
ert Kk. Booth to Miss Kealani Ward. 

MILLER - CUNNINGHAM — At Honolulu, 
March 4th, J. F. Miller to Mrs. Anna Cun- 
ningham. 

DE FRIES-WILHELM—At Honolulu, March 
llth, H. R. De Fries to Miss Louisa Wil- 
helm. 

ADAMS-COOK—At Honolulu, March 13th, 
William Dennet Adams to Miss Susanne 
Cook of Marionette, Wis. 

JUDD-McCARTHY—At Martinez, Cal., on 
Feb. 7, 1907, Elizabeth Anna McCarthy of 
Watsonville, Cal., to Allan Wilkes Judd of 
Honolulu, H. T. 


2, 


DIED. 
McDOUGALL—At South Kona, Feb, 28, at 
her gson’s residence, Mrs. Isabella Me- 


Dougall, aged 79 years. E 

GRAY—In Berkeley, Cal., Feb. 16, Mrs. Mary 
A. Gray, mother of Jas. L. McLean of Ho- 
nolulu, aged 76 years, 

DOWER—At Honolulu, March 6, Capt. John 
J. Dower, aged 39 years. 

CASTLE—At Honolulu, March 13, Mrs. Mary 
T. Castle, aged 87 years. 

JORGENSEN—At Makawao, March 9, Mrs. 
Josephine Awana Jorgensen of Kohala, 
aged 23 years. 


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Agents Philadelphia Board of Underwriters. 


LIST OF OFFICERS—Charles M. Cooke, 
President; Geo. H. Robertson, Vice-President 
and Manager; E. Faxon Bishop, Treasurer and 


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Helpful reading for CHILDREN—goed; | For Christian Endeavors Chalk . 


for instance for Sunday Reading [Ci E. Calendar for 707 v0 ...5. 125 | Child Life in-Many Lands «+. 


A number of fine stories including |} Romance of Miss’nary Heroism 1.50 
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Jonhnstone’s. Studies for “Personal Workers” 
HIS LIFE 


Vy With the publication of Nelson’s Encyclopaedia, THE PADLOCK 
OF PROHIBITIVE PRICE has been broken, and for no man or woman 
who is mentally: alive and who really is a lover cf knowledge is there left 
an excuse not to have at hand a high-class work of reference, comprehen- 
sive enough for the scholar, handy enough for the school boy and inter- 
esting reading for everybody. 7 
The New York Times says: ‘*** Cheap in price, though -in 
nothing else. It seems as though the ideal encyclopaedia had been found 
for readers of English. 


a NELSON’S ENGYGLOPAEDIA ~ 
\ ao ee | Everybody's Book of Reference 


FRANK MOORE COLBY, M. A., New York, American Editor. GEORGE SANDEMAN, M. A., Edinburg, European 
Editor. With over 600 contributors, each the authority in his fleld. 

To have collected and arranged in, 12 full volumes the endeavors and achievements of the human race up to the pre- 
sent time—to have at hand the knowledge of the world sifted, © certified. and presented in one great working library-for - 
quick and easy reference; all done effectualy and completely. This of itself has been cause for wonderment, but that the 
entire set should be Orerca to the public at the amazingly low price of $42.00 for the set, marks the undertaking: as. the 
wonder in this day of wonders in the realm of book publishing. 

Imagine its price four times what it is, put it to the severest encyclopaedia tests you know, either as to comprehen- 
siveness, accuracy, reliabiiity, newness, clearness and charm of expression, profusion and character of illustration, charac- 
ter of paper, binding—examine it from every standpoint and you will finding nothing lacking. 

We might write pages about its 60,000 subjects, its 7,500 three-column pages, its 6.000 illustrations, the color plates, 
the full-page plates, the perfect cross-reference system and the many other advantages. But we won’t. We will do bet- © 
ter than that. They can be seen at the Hawaiian Board Book Rooms. 


VOL. LXIV. HONOLULU, T. H., MAY, 1907, No. 9, 


HON. JOHN G. WOOLLEY. 


THE FRIEND. 


LIMITED 


H4W4GIAN TRUST <0. B62 SO DINO® 


Is published the first week of each month 


Sa 
By : : in Honolulu, T. H., at the Hawaiian Board 
Fire, Marine, Life Book Rooms, Com Alakea and: Meréhants 
and Accident Sts. Subscription price, $1.50 per year. 
Insurance, a 


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All communications of a literary character 


OLLEGE HILLS, 


' The magnificent residence trace of 
the Oahu College. 


should be addressed to DOREMUS SCUDDER, 
MANAGING EpiTor oF THE FRIEND, 
cor. Alakea & Merchant Sts., Honolulu, T, H. 


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cash, one-third in one year, one-third in two Sereno E. Bishop, D. D. 


years. Interest at 6 per cent. Rie Orrameite Gulick. 
Theodore Richards. 
Rev. Edward W. Thwing. 
For information as to building require- Rev. Edward B. Turner. 
Rev. William D. Westervelt. 
ments, etc., apply to 


Entered October 27, 1902, at Honolulu, Hawati, as second 


TRUSTEES OF OAHU COLLEGE, RRM Lane ig ST AL TL a 
404 Judd Building. - om 


Honolulu - - - - Hawaiian Islands. 


and 


PUNAHOU PREPARATORY SCHOOL 


Again—This Time 


AHU COLLEGE". ~ 
(Arthur F. Griffiths, A.B., Prestucsic.) 


To Our Own Building 
ALAKEA and MERCHANT STREETS 


where hereafter may be 
found Bibles in 


English 
tlawalian 
Japanese 
Chinese 
Portuguese 


as well as general 


RELIGIOUS EMERATURE 
AND PRAYER BOOKS. 


(Samuel Pingree French, A. B., Principal) 
Offer complete 
College preparatory work, 
together with special 
Commercial, 
Music, and 
Art courses. 
Fur Catalogues, address 
JONATHAN SHAW, 
Business Agent, 


Oahu College, - - - Honolulu, H. T. 


M. WHITNEY, M. D., D. D. S. 
qj We plan to keep a stock of 


Sunday School materials 


Quarterlies, Notes and commentaries 


DENTAL ROOMS 


—_——— 


Fort Street. - - - Boston Building. 


[SHOP & COMPANY, 
BANKERS. 


HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 


Established in 1858. 


Transact a General Banking and Exchagge 
Business. Loans made on approved security. 
Bills discounted. Commercial Credits grant- 
ed. Deposits received on current account sub- 
ject to check. : 


Regular Savings Bank Department main- 
tained in Bank Building on Merchant Street, 
and Insurance Department, doing a Life, Fire 
and Marine business on most favorable terms, 
in Friend Building on Bethel Street. 


Henry Waterhouse Trast Co., Ltd. 


STOCKS, BONDS 
AND ISLAND 
SECURIT 2 ise 


Fort and Merchant Streets, Honolulu. 


PF. WICHMAN, & CO., LTD. 
Manufacturing Optician, 
Jeweler and Silversmith. 


{mporter of Diamonds, American and Swiss 
Watches, Art Pottery, Cut Glass, 
Leather Goods, Etc. 


Honolulu - - - -- Hawatian Islands. 


C 


ASTLE & COOK, Lede 
Honolulu, H. I. 


COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 
SUGAR FACTORS, 


Agents for 
The Ewa Plantation Co., 
The Waialua Agricultural Co., 
The Kohala Sugar Co., 
The Waimea Sugar Mill Co., 
The Apokaa Sugar Co., Ltd., 
The Fulton Iron Works, St. Louis, Mo., 
The Standard Oil Co., 
Geo. F. Blake Steam Pumps, 


Weston’s Centrifugals, 
New England Mutual Life Ins. Co., Boston, 
Aetna Fire Insurance Co., Hartford, Comnn., 
Alliance Assurance Co., of London. 


Ltd., 


EORGE J. AUGUR, M. D., 
HOMOEPATHIC PRACTITIONER. 


Residence, 435 Beretania St.; Office, 431 
Beretania St. Tel. 1851 Blue. 


Office Hours:—1o to 12 a. m., 3 to 4 and 7 


The 


Friend 


OLDEST NEWSPAPER WEST OF THE ROCKIES. 


VOL. LXIV 


HONOLULU Terentia Y rroo7 


No. 5 


TREASURER’S STATEMENT. 
MARCH 20—APRIL 20, 


Receipts. 
prmmniake WiGeting. 7 :.). chia. o% ssi ohh ots $ 16.00 
(Ono 22 SRB OG Oe SIT amen ince 1,219.50 
POSS UCSS IW OLK 2. co. ss esscersiene tne 46.00 
MEE UNGISC Scheie hes Pk aes 293.64 
mamesen Work! )0). Jee, 243.90 
DpAMese POE, o/it,. hire ile ea blele ik ts 177.95 
(Srl ent). (2) eS eerie Seeeeegl 118.96 
SMO MEOUN NE, €.5) pai o's bias levaves 9 a¥e Oye. @ 61.3 
PMO REN res Pee ee eins ss ty oe 207.30 
ley 410.3 SM an eee er ee 129.25 
RUM eet steve afi e 5; Fils Clash. « Sys) 5,043.85 
te DEED als o/s) xs eve. cane © Specs 5 74.60 
IDA ESGKON 7s Cee eee 1,462.52 
i 1, Jeg Sag en i ea 25.00 
HelammaeMeIssiONs |)... ble ee ceded’ 113.00 
(@Mreey pense 654 i).1. ipe lieth fi flek 50.00 
iasuaieGeneral Mund. : soley. spades 60.65 
RanCMETOMIeNE: IIIA) 5 isis fois eros sls oye» 6.46 
He AGOl resis oho) sgt sievc\Aieverese 8 ele wae 70.00 
Order Department :..i.:.)/0..0... 17.10 
DPORMOCCOIS. weld. fib» mo Ta ides deblinls te 211.45 
RommiinntOn, VIE wel. 6 ae-cps ss sieeve 1.45 
Molokai General Fund ........:... 11.25 
Meee CNTNOVLOL Kv. o} cece «ice: eek s 'o-3. 6,0 oe, 6 183.35 
Th Ses ULE) | eee Oe A 165.00 
$10,009.53 
Excess of expenditures over receipts 557.09 
$10,587.12 
Expenditures. 
OMIM MEIACTISES ioc sere este ees $ 236.88 
DEMISE NPS eo elles we ldaled lesa 5,192.50 
MEORPIFCHG! |i (f+). . 5 61 s)csis 2» Ale 94.55 
DDS g LATO 31) he ce oe ne 292.64 
NSSAMEROOHOUS) coc. ales c's bi0isue sie sus «cen 40.40 
Palama Special Fund ............. 50.00 
‘Balemes Mrssion 5/44) 20. es 94.60 
MRRP SETMLOMG Yb rats fda ats sf fered bas ete bie 265,00 
BERNE kc tyds Ynys aedacoeh of0 245.35 
American Board Lands............ 37.50 
RRMEAMIV OLS niwle ec cue.c wye[s sede. + sie a pie e's 60.00 
(COLL se Le Seen ee 75.00 
TECACIRID 3 SIS RI Ed Stig ees OS 7.00 
DUMPS 5 aleve ooo coos ss esis ls ane 77.40 
HES HMOVVOTIC 9. Sie sie cis ha eys $ 20.00 
salaries (70 245.42 626.00 
646.00 
ARS irate Tes 5 rade fore ete.sh tis op 6, 6: ov io 7.70 
Mormym1on WINE . 65-0 csc ee ewiees 50 
Japanese WOrkK,.......+.0.. $182.00 
Sallapleg sis ec. c se 760.50 
942.50 
MA RGAGLON AL SEUNG. 7 were cz kiwrayo «scr sysraye TialO 
12 J). SRS nee ee 106.25 
dawanan Work .......-....- Selous o 
Malarles hs. at Me. 302.00 
BUTT, 
Portuguese, Work.) 2... wes) $150.00 
Salaries .;..'.... 258.00 
408.00 
Waitakea Settlement .............. 10.00 
PeOnala Seminary i.e kesh lsh 25.00 
@Whmesew Work .6 556.6). jejed- $ 92.50 
ATIOS cs a. 5 701.00 
793.50 
MOMICCMRAIATICS Fo... wt tee ee eee 484.00 
$10,587.12 
Omerarreh At BANK. :... 542. clee de ees $ 3,335.71 


The Triunion 

The greatest religious event of the 
first quarter of this year has been the 
meeting at Chicago on March 19 of the 
General Council of delegates appoint- 
ed by the General Conferences of 
United Brethren and Methodist Prot- 
estants and by the Congregational Na- 
tional Council. Previous meetings had 
at November of last 
At the outset the delegates had 


Pittsburg in 
year. 


thing like organic union, but as meet- 


resistibly) towards this 
goal. 
more than 200 delegates were present, 
gathered from al! over the United 
States, was marked by unusual grace and 
wisdom and culminated in the adoption 
of an Act of Union by vote of all the 
delegates except two. Such practical 


unhoped for 


unanimity upon a question involving) 


changes of polity in each of the three 
denominations, agreement upon a Dec- 
laration of Faith and delicate legal ad- 
justment of vested interests is one of 
the “greater works than these” which 
Jesus promised that His disciples 
SHomid wdoye palne Cw Ctaiot WWinion: 
now before the Churches of three de- 
nominations for adoption or rejection. 
Among Congregationalists it will be 
acted upon by State and Territorial As- 
sociations or Conferences and by the 
National Council. It will come before 
the Hawaiian Evangelical Association 
at its next meeting this month. 


tition the National Council either in 
favor or against the movement and to 


signify that it stands ready to carry, 


into effect in Flawaii the requirements 
of the “Act of Union.” These require- 
ments are very simple. 
a vote to change the name of “The Ha- 
waiian Evangelical Association” lo 
“The Annuai Conference of the United 
Churches of Hawaii.’ The clumsy 
word Congregational! will no longer ap- 
pear in the names of the several [sland 


Associations, which will be known as) 


the District Associations of the United 


Churches of Hawaii, of Kauai, of Mauti,) 


Molokai and Lanai, and of Oahu, re- 
spectively. Once in four years the 


been held at Dayton in February and) 


not thought it possible to attempt any-' 
ing followed meeting the way was un-: 
expectedly made clear and it was evi-| 
dent that God’s Spirit was leading ir-| 


The Chicago meeting, at which | 


Tt will | 
be the duty of the Association to pe-| 


They involve | 


| Territory will be entitled to send to 
the National Council one ministerial 
and one lay delegate for every 5000 
Church members or major fraction 
thereof. In all other respects there 


will be no changes in the conduct or 
government of our Churches. If the 
union be consummated the United 


Churches will become the fifth largest 
company of Christian disciples in the 
United States. From now on until the 
National Council meets in October, and 
until the National Conferences of the 
United Brethren and Methodist Prot- 
estants assemble, let all our Church 
inembers make this mighty movement 
a subject of daily prayer. If these 
three companies of disciples join, 
doubtless the impetus given to believ- 
ers of every name to forget their dif- 
ferences in obedience to the prayer of 
ithe Master for union will hasten to be- 
come irresistible. Those Churches 
jthroughout the Territory that already 
;bear the name “Union” will feel espe- 
cially at home in the new triunal de- 
nomination. 


Our Annual Meeting 


The program for this anniversary, 
‘which will convene in Kawaiahao 


:;|Church, Honolulu, March 25 to June 3, 


is practically complete. The general 
topic will be “The Problem of Relig- 
ious Education in Hawaii.” Paul’s 
letter to the Philippians will be the 
expository theme. Ample time has 
been allowed for business and a very 
interesting array of speakers is prom- 
ised. Hawaii’s delegate to the Inter- 
[national Y. M. C. A. Convention in 
| Tokyo, Mr. D. L. Ai, and the Board’s 
delegate to the Centenary Conference 
of Missions in China,: Rev. E. W. 
| Thwing, will be heard from. A new 
feature of this session will be ten min- 
utes every morning given to learning 
and singing some great hymn. This ‘s 
‘to be no perfunctory matter, commit- 
‘tees will not be allowed to meet at this 
time, and every delegate will be spe- 
cially requested to be present and join 
in the inspiring exercise. Mr. Richards 
will have charge of this part of the 
program. We hope for a large attend- 
ance and request that every Church and 
every Christian make the anniversary 
a subject of special prayer. 


THE FRIEND. 


Kindly Mention 

It is pleasant to see The Friend gen- 
erously spoken of by its contempo- 
raries. The Advertiser constantly 


brings messages .to its readers from us, | 


for which we are always grateful. It 
would be natural to expect a friendly 
word from a comrade like The Pacific, 
cr even from our big brother, the Con- 
gregationalist, of the distant Hub. But 
we hardly looked for so flattering a no- 
tice of a modest editorial as filled some 
two-thirds of a column in the Army 
and Navy Journal of March 9g or the 
column editorial upon the same article 
in the Boston Transcript of March 4. 
These kindly references are, of course, 
a tribute to the unique position Hawaii 
holds in the Pacific and to the contri- 
butions her conglomerate population, 
together with the resulting problems 
and her way of tackling them, enabie 
her to make to social science. These 
Islands must grow increasingly inter- 
esting to the world at large according 
as we grapple successfully with the 
great questions that face us. For this 
reason a failure like that of the present 
Senate to pass the Local Option Bill 
is a cause for keen regret. We all 
want Hawaii to do things in an ideal 
way. She can and please God she will. 


The Peace Movement 
The Chamber of Commerce of Ha- 
wail has appointed Mr. W. R. Castle, 


Jr., who holds the position of Assistant| 


Dean in Harvard University, to repre- 
sent the business interests of the Ter- 
ritory at the Mohonk Conference on 
International Arbitration, soon to con- 
vene at Lake Mohonk. This is the 
first time’ these Islands have formally 
participated in this worldwide Confer- 
ence, though Island residents have at- 
tended previous sessions. The move- 
ment for World Peace is fast growing 
irresistible. The advocates of this, 
which is by far the one most important 
human interest, are showing the great- 
est wisdom in their propaganda. In 
the first place, all the leading parlia- 
ments of the world are being reached 
through the Interparliamentary Union. 
This is a Congress in the interests of 
Peace which is composed of 2500 of the 
15,000 members who make up the na- 
tional assembiies of earth. This au- 
gust body has formulated a platform 
of four principles, which the nations 
have agreed to discuss at the Second 
Hague Conference, scheduled to meet 
on June 15. These four questions are: 
first, Shall the Conference meet here- 
after automatically and periodically; 
second, Shall a model arbitration treaty 
be drawn; third, Shall disarmament be 


discussed; fourth, Shall contraband of 
war be defined. Another mighty 


agency bearing the promise of larger | 


achievement even than the Interparlia- 
mentary Union is that which aims to 
enlist all the financial magnates of earth 
into a movement that shall be pledged 
to close the sources of money power to 
nations that wish to urge war. If this 
end be achieved fighting must cease, 
for only the government that can com- 
mand loans can afford to be belligerent. 
The third great aggregation which 
shows growing hostility to war is or- 
ganized labor. The day is fast nearing 
when the common people the world 
Gver, who from the earliest ages have 
borne the weight of war’s burdens, tlie 
inen who form the targets for one an- 
other, who do the weary marching, 
undergo the degradation of camp life, 
lose the finer fiber of manhood in train- 
ing for the shambles, and the women 
who stay at home to care for the chil- 
dren, besides earning the food that the 
absent husbands should provide, who 
swell the ranks of widows or toil 
through life for maimed and wounded 
veterans, will play the fool no more, 
will crowd tumultuously into one great 
union of Peace and end forever the in- 
sensate madness of public murder. To 
popularize these features of the cam- 
paign and to create a regnant public 
cepinion that shall tolerate war no more, 
vigantic Peace Conferences like that in 
New York which concluded its ses- 
sions April 17 are constantly projected. 
It does not take Mankind long to come 
to mighty and momentous decisions 
nowadays. By the time the Hague 
Conference of 1907, which will be com- 
posed of delegates from all the forty- 


|five nations of the globe while its pre- 


decessor represented only twenty-six, 
shall have ended, a definite World Par- 
liament may be organized. Who can 
tell? Hawaii is small, but it has its 
part in this vast movement. When 
June 15 is reached a series of cable- 
grams should go from Chamber of 
Commerce, Merchants’ Association, 
University and College Clubs, the vari- 
ous Churches and Fraternal Orders to 
our American delegates calling upon 
the Conference to take the great step 
of declaring that war must cease and 
the reign of law be established among 
all nations. 


Progress in Temperance 


Indications are not wanting that the 
noble campaign of education waged 
now for twenty years and more by the 
National Woman’s Christian Temper- 
ance Union in the public schools of 


‘the Nation is issuing in victory. Drink- 


ing to excess is becoming unfashion- 
able. The presence of much wine or 
many varieties of intoxicants on the 
tables even of Society leaders is no 
longer good form. The doctrine of 
the sanity of good health is merging 
into an axiom. People are giving heed 
to questions of dietetics as never be- 
fore. Simple food, less meat in the 
daily regimen, abstinence even from 
'tea and coffee, as well as from alco- 
holic stimulants, not in any Puritanic 
spirit or from ascetic notions of 
through religious scruples, but solely 
because the man of brains does not 
care to play the fool by drugging his 
powers into lesser efficiency, and be- 
cause he wishes to be all there at every 
moment in the growing strenuousness, 
complexity and matchless charm of 
present day life, all are evidences that 
intellect is progressively asserting it- 
self as master over animalistic in- 
stincts. The newer sort of collegian 
trained tinder the dominance of this 
type of common sense is bound to live 
more widely, achieve more, enjoy mote 
and contribute more to his age than 
his predecessors. It is this spirit that 
tortures the saloon advocates with the 
specter of the downfall of their power. 
They cannot fight this sort of foe. You 
may laugh yourself into seeming vic- 
tory over a fanatic or a saint, but when 
you tackle cold common sense, the 
laugh and the victory are on the other 
side. No wonder, then, that The Wine 
and Spirit Circular, one of the leading 
liquor journals of America, has _ this 
sage advice for its readers: 

“Tf there is one thing that seems set- 
tled beyond question it is that the re- 
tail liquor trade of this country must 
cither mend its ways materially or be 
prohibited in all places save the busi- 
ness or tenderloin precincts of our 
larger cities.” 

What “mend its ways” means it is 
hard to tell. The editorial continues: 

“Tf the Anti-Saloon League can 
maintain its present organization it 
looks as if it will certainly destroy the 
legalized saioon in all of the Southern 
States, except perhaps in Missouri, and 
it is certainly making strong headway 
in Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, 


Minnesota, and other Western and 
Northern States. The Anti-Saloon 


League is not a mob of long-haired fa- 
natics, as some of the writers and 
speakers connected with our business 
have declared, but it is a strongly-cen- 
tralized organization, officered by men 
of unusual ability, financeered by cap- 
italists with very long purses, sub- 
scribed to by hundreds of thousands of 
)}men, women and children who are so- 


4 
| 


i aan 


THE’ FRIEND. 


. . . . H 
licited by their various Churches, ad- 


vised by well-paid atturneys of great 
ability, and it is working with definite 
ideas to guide it in every state, in every 
county, in every city and in every pre- 
mick” 

Why all this is true the Wine and 
Spirit Circular does not state. It is 
because the man of today knows more 
about his body and its care than his 
predecessors. The consummate folly 
of taxing himself to support such an 
institution as the saloon, the father of 
brothels, jails, insane asylums, orphan- 
ages and poor houses is fashioning it- 
self into an axiom, 


The Indiana Decision 


Human progress has oftentimes 
strange manifestations. <A great social 
truth comes silently into men’s souls 
almost unguessed. Then some man 
utters it so simply and so startlingl, 
that the world stands aghast. In olden 
times the astonishment expressed it- 
self by stoning or hanging or crucifying 
or otherwise murdering the human 
mouthpiece of the universal conscience 
and a few years later canonizing him. 
We do not do this today. Sometime: 
we make a fuss for a while, especially 
if vested interests be menaced, but in 
# surprisingly short time intellect ral- 
lies to conscience side and the new so- 
cial truth begins to coin witticisms at 
the expense of previous mental density. 
The case of Judge Artman of Indiana is 
to the point here. He has just de- 
cided, in what promises to become one 
of the historic pronouncements in the 
war of common sense versus the sa- 
loon, “that the State cannot under the 
euise of a license delegate to the sa- 
loon business a legal existence, be- 
cause to hoid that it can is to hold that 
the State may sell and delegate the 
right to make widows and orphans, the 
right to break up homes, the right to 
create misery and crime, the right to 
make murderers, the right to produce 
idiots and lunatics, the right to fill or- 
phanages, poorhouses, insane asylums, 
jails and penetentiaries, and the right 
to furnish subjects for the hangman’s 
‘gallows.” The Judge therefore rules 
that the State law licensing saloons is 
unconstitutional. This decision may 
not stand when appealed to the Su- 
preme Court. But that it is the prod- 
uct of the social common sense of the 
American people and not the utterance 
of one man, and hence that it will pre- 
vail ere long in the life of our Nation, 
cannot be doubted. The American 
people are doing more thinking upon 
this question than ever before, and they 
are doing it in an entirely new way. 


They are approaching it from the point 
of view of hard common sense. The 
saloon is ‘‘a fool thing,” as the college 
boy puts it. Pouring into one’s body 
stuff, every drop of which tends to 
weaken, is, after all, beneath contempt. 
It is childish and the world of men 
must outgrow it. 
today. Like war, the traffic in women 
and slavery, the saloon must go as a 
irightful travesty upon the civilization 
of brotherly men. 


Steamship Disasters 


A lady passenger on the steamship 
Dakota busy packing her trunk in an- 
ticipation of landing soon at Yokohama 
glanced out of the porthole of her cabin 
and exclaimed to her husband, “I never 
knew that large steamers like this sail- 
ed so near the shore.” A few minutes 
later the Dakota was a wreck. Japa- 
nese on land, abserving the course she 
was taking, had their boats all in readi- 
ness and some had even started out to 
lend a helping hand before the vessel 
struck. A gentleman, standing upon 
the deck of the Mongotia as she steam- 
ed towards Midway in a calm, clear 
night, pointed out to a fellow traveler 
a line of breakers a little ahead and to 
one side with the word, “We seem to 
be getting close to the rocks.” In less 
than two minutes the steamer ground- 
ed. In each case the captain was on 
the bridge. Every one of the accidents 
to the liners Manchuria, Mongolia and 
Dakota and the transport Sheridan 
were entirely avoidable. A most com- 
petent witness in court at Honolulu re- 
cently testified that if the captain had 
used “the commonest discretion” the 
Mongolia could not have gone ashore 
on Midway. Ugly rumors are afloat 
connecting the names‘of some of these 
ship-wrecking captains with the use of 
alcoholic stimulants. These tales may 
be entirelv false in all cases. But we 
wonder whether the transpacific steam- 
ship companies are as careful to pro- 
hibit the use of intoxicants by their 
employes as are the leading railroads 
of the Union? It may be that they 
are. If so, would it not be well for 
them to advertise this fact as the rail- 
road companies do? Certainly if an 
engineer or conductor even by one 
known indulgence in drink, though 
moderate, renders himself liable to dis- 
charge, an officer of an ocean liner 
should be equally subject to discipline. 
It might be a wise thing for passengers 
to study the habits of the captains with 
whom they sail and let it be known if 
they find unmistakable evidences of 
even the moderate use of alcohol. For 
tests made by the German Government 


All this is axiomatic} 


clearly establish the fact that even a 
very sparing use of alcohol tends to 
cloud the judgment and lessen ac- 
curacy. By all means let us have light 
on the subject of the possible relation 
of avoidable shipwrecks to the use of 
intoxicants. Is it not time also for the 
traveling public to demand that greater 
care be used by our American trans- 
pacific lines in the choice of captains? 
It seems singular that out of the five 
recent startling accidents upon the Pa- 
cific, namely, those befalling the Man- 
churia, Mongolia, Sheridan, Dakota 
and Mongolia a second time, all oc- 
curred in steamships under American 
captains and that each of these ground- 
ings was due to what seems to the pub- 
lic to have been criminal carelessness. 
The bigness of the ship in no case was 
responsible for the clumsiness of its 
handling. 


S. E. B. 


For the first time in years we miss 
these familiar initials at the close of 
one or more articles in our columns. 
Dr. Bishop’s service to The Friend has 
been so constant, so vigorous and so 
provocative of thought that an inter- 
mission of it is like the absence of a 
near companion. A week or two ago 
the Doctor was prostrated by illness, 
and though he is well on his way to 
recovery, he is not suffered to give time 
te his usual round of work. As many 
know, he has had exclusive charge of 
the Record of Events and the column 
of Marriages and Deaths. These have 
added definite value to The Friend for 
ready reference. The fertility and re- 
sourcefulness of Dr. Bishop’s mind 
have for many years been a revelation 
and a delight to a large circle both in 
Hawaii and on the mainland. One 
never knows just what subject he will 
tackle, from volcanoes and moon-birth 
theories to New Theology and the 
Higher Criticism, but the disclosure of 
his theme and his handling of it are 
always forceful and possess a peculiar 
charm. May he soon again enter our 
editorial rooms, copy in hand, and 
long continue to give joy to his friends 
through the columns of this periodical, 
which owes its prolonged life and vi- 
tality, so much to him. 


John G. Woolley 

Monday, April 29, the Anti-Saloon 
League cabled to Hon. John G. Woolley 
of Chicago a call to come to Honolulu as 
Superintendent and Counsel of the 
League with full liberty to devote what 
time he might think best to general law 
practice. This was done in response to 
information that Mr. Woolley had de- 


THE: FRIEND, 


cided to resume his former vocation as a 
counsellor at law and was inclined to 


view favorably Honolulu as a permanent | 


home. A reply is expected at an early 


day stating that the invitation has been | 


accepted and that Mr. and Mrs. Woolley 
with one son will soon be on their way. 
Honolulu is to be congratulated upon the 
prospect of securing so distinguished a 
citizen of the United States to take up 
his permanent abode here. Some twenty- 
five years ago Mr. Woolley was practic- 
ing law in Minneapolis and had succeed- 


one of the best known and most success- 
ful lawyers of the then northwest. In 
1881 he was prosecuting attorney of that 
city. In 1886 f= was practicing law in 
New York City. In 1888 he surrendered 
his business to take up cudgels against 


and most widely known spokesman of 
the Prohibitionists of the Union. In 1900 


he was the candidate of the Third Bone 
As 


for President of the United States. 
an orator he is a man of remarkable 
power and has been sought by the organ- 


ized enemies of the saloon as an advocate | 


in all the principal English-speaking 
cities of the world. He is equally weil 
known as an author and editor. For 
many years he conducted “The New 
Voice.” Latterly his affiliations have been 
more closely with the Anti-Saloon than 
the Third Party Prohibition movement. 
Experience has mellowed him and. re- 
moved the bitterness that once used to 
characterize his public utterances. He is 
a militant Christian, a lover of righteous- 
ness and a fighter for every good cause. 
He will mightily strengthen the local 
campaign for civic betterment in these 
Islands. The coming of Mr. and Mrs. 
Woolley is, we believe, prophetic of what 
we may expect during the next twenty 
years. 
righteousness in our government, mak- 
ing over our churches into servants of 
God’s Kingdom, and curtailing the power 
of the saloon until the drink evil is expell- 


ed from this Paradise, we shall attract] 


large numbers of people who yearn for a 
perfect climate with a social system at 
once just and brotherly to all men. If we 
can only keep out the caste spirit and the 
demon of race prejudice, welcome East 
and West to equal privileges of citizen- 
ship, take from each the best that each 
has to give and incorporate the genial 
gentleness of the people of the Pacific 
Mid-Sea, Hawaii will become one of the 
most unique, most attractive, populous, 
prosperous and influential centers on the 
globe. Why not make it so?) We can if 
we will. To association in the fight for 
this ideal we welcome Mr. John G. Woaol- 
ley and his family. 


As we succeed in standing for | 


| pathy. 


'gems of beauty. 


/pulmonary troubles, 


Dr. Sylvester 


“Welcome the coming, speed the part- 
ing guest.” This seems to be Hawaii's 
chief prerogative. Few places in the 
world are lke it in this respect and as 
the Pacific grows irto its full destiny as 
the ocean of the future, this verse culled 
by Pope from Homer will tell the story 
even more forcefully. A little less than 
one year ago Central Union_Church be- 
gan its welcome of Dr. Sylvester who 
came to its pulpit with many messages of 


ae Hat ig ae UC Apa introduction from distinguished 
ed in climbing to the enviable position Of | 


friends in the East. The struggle with 
illness that has marked the intervening 
months has revealed a heroic spirit and 
has drawn many close to him in sym- 
The quality of his mind as re- 
vealed in his sermons has moved and 


Inst| attracted large numbers, not a few of 
the saloon and soon became the accredited 


whom cared little for church attendance 
as a rule. Dr. Sylvester has a literary 
faculty of rare force and knows how to 
glean the best for his sermons. Some of 
his prayer meeting addresses have been 
If health had been 
added, enabling him to enter into the 
homes of his people and to come into 
personal touch with men on the street 
and in the office, the peculiar magnetic 
charm of his personality would have en- 
deared a very large circle to him with 
singular power. But this climate, so full 
of genial balm for most of us, is an tn- 
sparing foe to many stifferers from 
and notwithstand- 
ing the utmost care and a fight whiose 


Sylvester, advised by his physicians, has 
been compelled to decide to surrender his 
charge and seek the more bracing air of 
our motintain States. Honolulu has come 
enough within the power of his attractive 
personality to regret deeply this outcome. 
The church and city in bidding him fare- 
well wish him every blessing and in es- 
pecial a speedy complete recovery and a 
wide sphere of service in the Kingdom. 


The Erdmans 

At a special meeting held forthe pur- 
pose on April 16, the Hawaiian Board is- 
sued an invitation to Rev. John P. Erd- 
man, now laboring in Yamaguchi, Japan, 


under the Presbyterian Board, to come to | 
Hawaii as missionary, with headquarters | 


at Waialua. The Board has iong wanted 


| to station a man at this old-time mission 


center to care for its interests outside of 
the Kiona district of Oahu. The effect of 
Japan upon Mrs. Erdman’s health mak- 
ing a change of field wise, the Board 
gladly came forward with its call. Rev. 
Mr. Erdman is well known in Honolulu 
where he served as assistant to Dr. Kin- 
caid for more than one year. His resi- 
dence in Japan has given him a working 


knowledge of the language, which will be 
very useful to him here. Inasmuch as so 
many immigrants hail from Yamaguchi 
Prefecture, Mr. Erdman will find in Ha- 
waii ample opportunity to influence the 
work in the part of Japan where he now 
labors. His association with the Ha- 
waiian side of the Board’s work in Pa- 
lama gave him a most helpful insight in- 
to Hawaiian character. In fact, he suc- 
ceeded rarely in winning his way to the 
hearts of the Hawaiians with whom he 
was brought into contact. The friends of 
Mrs. Erdman will be overjoyed to know 
that she is to find work hete in her old 
homestead where she will perpetuate the 
missionary traditions of her family. 
Negotiations are now in progress with 
the Presbyterian Board looking to an 
early transfer of Mr. Erdman, It is 
hoped that he may reach Honoltilu before 
September. The Erdmans will have a 
warm welcome to their new field. 


CHEERING NEWS. 


Under date of April 2, Revie 
Greene, D. D., veteran American Board 
missionary in Tokyo, writes as fol- 
lows: “The World’s Student Federa- 
tion is drawing near the close of its 
session. It is a great success;. Diem 
great ten of Japan have done their 
prettiest to show good will and sym- 
pathy. Marquis Ito gave yen 10,000 
towards the expense. Baron Mitsui 


'gave ven 3000 and many others smaller 
courage has been almost pathetic, Dr. | 


suis. Count Okuma and Baron Goto 


jhave given or are to give garden par- 


ties. Baron Shibusawa and_ other 
prominent citizens, including the 
Mayor, gave a collation to the foreign 
delegates. Perhaps the most notable 
of all was the opening of the Shiba De- 
tached Palace by the Household De- 
partment for the entertainment of the 
foreign delegates. Prof. Bosworth, 
Rey. John Carter of Oxford, Mr. Hun- 
ton (negro), Mr. Ebina, Mr. Miya- 
gawa, Frank Lenwood and others gave 
most impressive addresses; but the 
brightest of all was by a Korean, an 
ex-Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs. 
It was full of humorous passages, but 
it was not less full of sound sense and 
Christian feeling. On the whole, I 
think Prof. Bosworth has contributed 
the most to the success. He has won 
warm opinions even from the most crit- 
ical. We were happy to have him and 
Mrs. Bosworth under our roof during 
their stay in Tokyo. One could not 
have more agreeable guests. The Ku- 
miai [Congregational] Churches re 
ceived, in round numbers, 1700 into the 
Churches last year and 800 during the 
first three months of this year, an in- 


THE FRIEND. 


7 


crease of nearly 25 per cent. in fifteen 
months—2234 + per cent. to speak ac- 
curately.” 

We of Honolulu who were helped so 
much by Dr. Bosworth are glad to 
know of his great service to Japan. Re- 
ports from all over that Empire show 
that a new era of advance has begun 
in Christian work. No one, however, 
has been prepared for this story of 
growth chronicled by Dr. Greene. A 
gain of 2234 per cent. in fifteen months 
would seem like the greatest miracle in 
history to our American Congregation- 
al Churches. Perhaps that wonder is yet 
in store for us, however. Late tidings 
from the mainland tell of one of our 
brethren in the Western States who 
has written to the American Board of- 
fering in the name of his wife and him- 
self to support a missionary and his 
wife in China for thirty years at a cost 
of $2200 per annum. Two other friends 
have agreed to foot a bill of $25,000 to 
open a new mission in Albania. The 
Albanians, who number 3,000,000 souls, 
are one of the hardiest and freest peo- 
ples in Europe. They gave to the 
world ages ago Philip of Macedon and 
his son Alexander the Great. If the 
spirit of consecration evidenced in 
these notable gifts begins to pervade 
our Churches we shall soon be singing 
hallelujahs over conversions of large 
numbers. The Layman’s missionary 
moveiment, which aims to unite laymen 
in earning money for the extension of 
the Kingdom, holds vast possibilities. 
Even Russia is responding and the 
American Board is entering the terri- 
tory of this dread foe to Protestant 
work. In fact, the whole world seems 
moving towards Jesus Christ as never 
before in its history. 


POCAL OPTIONS VICTORY. 


But for the desertion of three Sen- 
ators who had pledged themselves to 
support the measure, Hawaii today 
would be rejoicing in as up-to-date a 
- Local Option law as any State in the 
American Union.. It was a. very 
strenuous battle and the defeat of the 
bill was a victory for the cause in that 
the supporters of Local Option gained 
eround all along the line. In 1903 the 
advocates of this thoroughly: American 
method of settling the liquor question 
were practically laughed out of court 
in the Legislature. In 1905 the bill, 
introduced and championed by Hon. C. 
H. Dickey, passed the Senate. This 
year it passed the House with but three 
adverse votes, and but for the knifing 
of professed friends in the upper cham- 


ber would have won out. As it was, 
it was lost by but one vote. 

A number of factors contributed to 
the gain achieved. First of all was the 
active sympathy of Governor Carter; 
second, the ardent championship of the 
measure by Delegate Kuhio; third, the 
honorable treatment of Speaker Hol- 
stein; and, fourth, the splendid fighting 
of Representative John A. Hughes. The 
Hawaiian members of the House acted 
nobly. They patiently studied its fea- 
tures, and when convinced of its fair- 
ness voted to a man for its passage. 
In the Senate the bill was zealously 
championed by the President, Hon. E. 
IF, Bishop, and Hon. W. O. Smith. It 
was actively supported also by Sena- 
tors J. M. Dowsett, A. N. Hayselden, 
S. E. Kalama, E. A. Knudsen and J. C. 
Lane. 


These were overborne, however, by 
the opposition, led by the liquor dealer 
member, Mr. C. J. McCarthy, whose 
election to the Senate last fall hinged 
upon his declaration in favor of Local 
Option. The plea he made for his vote 
before the Senate, namely, that if Local 
Option passed, the liquor bill would be 
killed, was a mere excttse with no 
foundation, for, as a matter of fact, 
the Local Option supporters had join- 
ed their forces with the Republicans to 
ensure the success of the liquor meas- 
ure. Either Mr. McCarthy knew this 
to be so or if he had taken the least 
trouble to find out he could have known 
it. His declaration before the last 
election, that he believed in Local Op- 
tion because he did not want a saloon 
near his home and he thought every 
citizen should have the right to say 
whether he did or not, secured the en- 
dorsement of the Civic Federation and 
bis consequent election. It was a bit- 
ter pill to some to have him lead the 
forces that killed the measure. Those 
who made the statement that a saloon 
man cannot under any circumstances, 
no matter what his pledges are, vote 
against the interests of the liquor traf- 
fic, seem to have proved their point, 
for such is the standing of Mr. Mc- 
Carthy in the community that if any 
dealer in intoxicants could be trusted 
to abide by such a declaration he could 
be. The other plea urged by some for 
him, that he is in favor of Local Op- 
tion but not the kind of Local Option 
in the bill, is, of course, an unworthy 
quibble. 


The liquor interests exhausted their 
resources in trying to defeat the bill. 
Senator Chillingworth’s course in en- 
gaging to vote for the measure and 
then siding with its opponents was a 


|disappointment to many of those who 


know him. He is said to have enter- 
ed the Senate with the determination to 
burn his bridges behind him and makea 
record that should win the approval of 
good citizens, but his aid in killing two 
bills of first importance to Hawaii, the 
Primary and Local Option measures, 
are hard to reconcile with this purpose. 
The young man has good in him and 
we still hope that he will pull out of 
the connections which drag him down. 
The pleas made against both the 
Primary and Local Option measure by 
Senator Chillingworth deserve a mo- 
ment’s consideration. The argument 
in brief is that the Hawaiian voter 
cannot be trusted. We have it on good 
authority that in Waimea, Kauai, there 
would be no saloon if Local Option 
should prevail, because of the large Ha- 
waiian vote there. At Kalapana, in 
Hawaii, at the other extreme of the 
group, no saloon can get in because 
the town is almost pure Hawaiian. 
Mr. Chillingworth is credited with say- 
ing that if the Primary Law _ should 
pass no white man could ever be nom- 
inated for office. Some of our most 
trusted white citizens whose lives have 
been spent in close association with 
Hawaiians scout this as arrent non- 
sense. They say they would trust 
themselves as candidates every time 
to a secret ballot primary of Hawaiiin 
voters. Mr. Chillingworth’s  retlec- 
tions upon the good sense of his Ha- 
watian fellow citizens are, to our mind, 
an insult to the race. We have no 
such low idea of the people of these 
Islands. We believe the great anxiety 
of the liquor dealers not to have the 
Local Cption bill become law demon- 
strates the conviction of these keen ob- 
servers of human nature that the Ha- 
waiian can be trusted to vote the sa- 
loons out of the Islands. It is a sig- 
nificant fact that very few Hawaiians 
are liquor sellers. The genius of the 
race is opposed to the traffic to which 
so many of them have fallen victims. 
Their great kings without exception 
did all they could to keep liquor from 
the people, because they knew that 
drink to the Hawaiians means death. 
The third Senator who promised to 
vote for Local Option and then voted 
against it was Mr. Coelho. The five 
others who united to defeat the meas- 
ure ‘in the Upper House were, as 
stated in the Star, Messrs. Brown, 
Gandall, Hewitt, Makekau and Woods. 
The disappointment of the Local Op- 
tion supporters at this narrow escape 
from complete victory is considerably 
alleviated by the conviction that this 


'temporary check is likely in the end to 


prove a decided advantage. The Ter- 


& 


THE \ FRIEND: 


allanits 
Option. 


ritory does not yet grasp in 
meaning the value of Local 


This was made evident in dealing with | 


the Hawaiian members of the Lower 
House. ‘They yielded a glad support 
as soon as its sound American features 
were explained. Although there is al- 
ready large public backing for the 
measure, it should have the pressure 
of still stronger public opinion behind 
it. The fight in the Legislature has 
been a splendid propaganda in its fa- 
vor. During the ensuing two years 
the Anti-Saloon League will see to it 
that all the voters of the Islands are 
enlightened as the Representatives 
have been. Then we may look for 
such a triumphant movement in_ its 
favor in 1909 that there will be no sub- 
sequent reaction. 

So the present issue only; postpones 
the inevitable result. We confidently 
expect this two years hence, but it 
will make no difference in our fighting 
spirit if it should take fifty. For the 


advocates of temperance never give up. | 


As the Wine and Spirit Circular in its 
now famous editorial remarked, “If the 
Anti-Saloon League is defeated at any 
point it immediately prepares for an- 
other attack along new lines, and when 
it succeeds it at once begins work for 
a more telling victory.” The few sa- 
loon men who have prevented the bill 
from becoming law will fade out just 
as the present personnel of the forces 
opposed to them will. But there is 
this difference. As a rule no saloon 
man wants his boy to carry on his 
traffic; he wishes his children in bet- 
ter business. At heart he is ashamed 
of it. But every fighter for temper- 
ance trains his boys to wiser and more 
successful warfare for the cause in 
which he believes with all his heart. 
We serve due notice on the liquor 
men that two years hence we will cross 
swords with them again, nay, we mean 
to keep up the battle every day between 
now and the session of the Legislature 
of 1909. We are glad to be able to 
announce that we expect as Superin- 
tendent and Counsel of the Anti-Sa- 
loon League of Honolulu no other than 
that doughty champion the Hon. John 
G. Woolley. May God give the vic- 
tory in this campaign of conscience and 
of ideals to those with whom the truth 
lies. Meantime let us all remember 
that the fight is not personal. How- 
ever we differ, we are all brothers in 
the same great family of the Eternal 
Father, and though at times much 
plainness of speech must he used and 
definite political and social contests 
must be joined, all this is compatible 
with a reverence for one another as 


men differing in many things, but es- 
sentially, alike in bearing the image of 


God. DAS 


RELIGIOUS. DARE CAG se iA 
MEHAMEHA SCHOOLS. 


By CHAPLAIN JOHN L. Hopwoop. 


The first Sunday of April was a day 
long to be remembered in the religious 
life of the Kamehameha _ Schools. 
Thirty-one boys and girls, all from the 
upper grades, united with the Church 
seven with Central Union, six with 
KKaumakapili, and eighteen with Ka- 
waiahao, This splendid and inspiring 
showing was not the result of sudden 
conversion due to religious excitement, 


i but of a gradual growth of the spiritual 


life. Throughout the whole year the 
Spirit of Christ has been evident, work- 


ing in the lives of the boys and girls, 


and it led them step by step, until, of 
their own accord, they confessed 
Christ as their Savior. The most im- 
pressive service ever held in the Bishop 
Memorial Chapel was on Easter Sun- 
day, when ten of these young disciples 
were baptized by the chaplain. The 
whole school felt that it was a solemn 
and significant rite and all were im- 
pressed by its meaning and its obliga- 
tions. 

This body of young men and women 
joining Christ’s Church testifies more 
strongly than words to the religious 
condition of the schools. Great inter- 
est has been shown, throughout the 
whole year, in all the Christian activi- 
ties of the schools. Underneath this 
visible interest was a depth of feeling 
which proved conclusively the gen- 
uineness of the spirit. Every oppor- 
tunity for Christian study has been 
eagerly seized and every call to ser- 
vice has been promptly. responded to 
and accepted. We have had a spiritual 
revival, almost without our knowledge, 
but the right sort of a revival because 
it came as Christ’s Spirit comes, quiet- 
ly but effectively. 

This new life has shown itself in the 
spirit of the whole school, in its be- 
havior and general demeanor. It has 
shown itself in the Christian Endeavor 
Society, which has on its roll about 80 
per cent. of the boys in school. It has 
shown itself in the attitude of our 
senior class, every one of whom is an 
active Christian and Church member. 
It has shown itself in the prayer meet- 
ings held by the boys early every 
morning, when even the chaplain was 
unaware of such meetings. It has 
shown itself in the fact that three of 
the senior class will enter the ministry 


and two of the junior class have al-. 


ready consecrated themselves to the 
same work. The Christian Endeavor 
meetings have had an average attend- 
ance of over sixty for the year, and 
have throbbed with the Spirit of Christ. 
They have been a source of inspiration 
and power to all and have developed 
the Christian consciousness and . con- 
science of many of the boys. The same 
spirit has been shown in the meetings 
at the Girls’ School, where the Y. W. 
C. U. and King’s Daughters are main- 
tained by them. Here are developing 
the lovely Christian spirits which shall 
rule in the homes of Hawaii and bring 
up the next generation in the fear of 
the Lord. 

It is especially gratifying to see so 
many of the students unite with the 
native Churches. The Hawaiian 
Churches need educated young men 
and women to help them and we hope 
and pray that the students of these 
schools, founded to uplift Hawaii, may 
be true to the Church of their fathers, 
and give it their devotion and service. 
“Blessed is the nation whose God is 
the Lord” is a call to all young Ha- 
waiians to make their people blessed. 

This school year has proven conclu- 
sively that there is a deep Christian 
spirit here. Plans for the summer and 
the next year are already being made. 
Many boys have pledged themselves to 
help their home Churches in every pos- 
sible way, during’ the summer, by 
teaching Sunday School classes and 
helping in the other Church services. 
The candidates for the ministry will go 
into active work under different pas- 
tors for the summer, and will enter the 
Normal School next year, when they 
will assist in the city missions. 

Next year there will be two Bible 
classes for the study of Old and New 
Testaments. A training class for can- 
didates for the ministry will also be 
organized. It is planned to take active 
work in the Mission Sunday Schools, 
and also to hold occasional evangelistic 
meetings in the weaker Hawaiian 
Churches in the vicinity of the schools. 
Kamehameha must become a power in 
the religious life of the Hawaiian peo- 
ple. The new era has already, come, 
and great blessings are in store for the 
schools, for the students and for the 
Hawaiian people. 


JOTTINGS BY THE WAY. 


March 16, 1907. 
A bright, clear morning, and just 
passing Bird Island, the last point of 


land seen until the shores of the “Sun- — 


rise Kingdom” come into view. Every 
morning at 10 a. m. and every evening 


THE FRIEND. 


6 


at 8:30 a lecture is given by some one 
of the gentlemen who are on their way 
to the great. conference of Eastern 
Asia. This morning I was asked to 
speak on Hawaii, with special refer- 
ence to Hawaii’s influence on China, 
and the development of the East. An 
endeavor was made to present the 
claims which Hawaii holds to a place 
of supreme importance as a mission 
center between America and the Ori- 
ent. Hawaii is the fulcrum upon 
which rests the great lever of Chris- 
tian education that shall aid in uplift- 
ing the great empire of China. Many 
of the young men educated here have 
returned to China and are having a 
strong influence upon the student body 
there. All seemed greatly interested 
in the wonderful opportunity that 
Christian America has to influence 
China and Japan through the thou- 
sands who are in Hawaii. Many. ques- 
tions were asked, and the present ad- 
vanced condition of many of the Chi- 
nese living on the Islands, the delight- 
ful Chinese home life and the fine type 
of Chinese citizenship were brought 
out. At the close of the address, Dr. 
W. R. Lambuth, speaking on behalf of 
Christian America, said: “I believe that 
now is the ae for the Christian 
Church of America to put forth spe- 
cial efforts toward pushing on the Ori- 
ental work in these islands of the 
Pacific.. The various Missions Boards 
and organizations of America should 
be led to realize the -great importance 
of the work of the Hawaiian Board 
for the Chinese and Japanese of Ha- 
wail, and should give every aid possi- 
ble—I mean not only by their influ- 
ence, but by financial support—that 
the work may be carried on more ag- 
gressively than ever before.” ‘Dr. D. 
Spencer of Japan said of the 40,000 
Buddhists in Hawaii, that they are not 
now full of enthusiasm for their re- 
ligion, but are open to the influence of 
a forward movement of Christian ef- 
fort. A very marked interest was 
shown, by all who had visited Hono- 
lulu, in the Christian work of the Is- 
lands. The sermon on Sunday was by 
Rey. Dr. A./K. du Blois of Chicago, 
from Luke 2:10: “Behold I bring you 
good tidings of great joy, which shall 
be to all people.” He began by say- 
ing: “I owe the choice of my text 
this morning to a name, one I had not 
heard before, but which is now among 
the list of missionary heroes, which I 
delight to treasure in my mind—the 
name of Hiram Bingham, that embas- 
sador from the Courts of Heaven to 
the people of Hawaii. As I looked at 
that memorial tablet placed in the old 


‘coral Church of Honolulu, I thought 


‘of the time, long ago, on the 25th of 
April, 1820, when Hiram Bingham 
came to Hawaii, bringing the message 
of this text.” He then spoke of the 
grand work of the missionaries in Ha- 
wail, and in the world, who came with 
the tidings of great joy, with a message 
of a Savior, to lift men up. He thus 
introduced his great subject, the 
“Saviourhood of Jesus.” It was a 
grand and inspiring address. 

March 20.—Nearing the shores of 
Japan. Will be in Yokohama this af- 
ternoon. This trip has been a notable 
one. It has been, indeed, a school of 
missions afloat. The daily conferences 
have turnished a large amount of val- 
uable information, and have brought 
into personal relationship leaders of 
Christian thought and men of wealth 
and influence from many parts of the 
United States. About thirty American 
citizens on board have united in an 
appeal to do away with the present 
unjust Chinese Exclusion Law. This 
trip of the S. S. Mongolia will be one 
to be remembered with much pleasure 
by the many who have had the privi- 
lege to enjoy it. 


Tokyo, April 2. 


The impressions of one coming back 
to Japan, after an absence of some 
years, are strongest in regard to the 
most wonderful changes that have been 
taking place in this great Empire of 
the East. 

Just at this time, every visitor can 
have a splendid opportunity to study 
the new industrial Japan, at the “Ha- 
kuran-Kwai” or the Tokyo Industrial 
Exhibition. Here can be seen what 
Japan can do herself, how she is keep- 
ing step with the world in the various 
arts and manufactures. It is a most 
interesting exhibition of all the kinds 
of modern and up-to-date machinery 
that is now made in Japan. In every 
building and in every room are the con- 
crete illustrations of Japan’s marvelous 
progress. As one watches the happy, 
laughing crowds of bright-faced Japa- 
nese, who daily come to look at and ad- 
mire the great whirling machines, and 
the many other interesting things that 
show their country’s achievements, one 
feels that the Orient and Occident are 
very much mixed up. And, indeed, 
there is not so great a difference be- 
tween the people of the Orient and the 
Occident after all—each can learn of 
the other, and each can help the other. 
All are men and members of the one 


fwith her wonderful people, with 


of the earth. The mien of New Japan, 
of the New Orient, are showing to the 
men of the so-called Western nations 
that there is no impassable barrier be- 
tween the life, the ideals and the possi- 
bilities of the Occident and the Orient. 
The fdeas of truth and liberty, justice 
and right, when followed produce the 
same results in the East or the West. 
With these ideas prevailing in Japan, 
her 
great industrial and commercial oppor- 
tunities, she may expect to bécome still 
greater with newer and larger growth 
and expansion, and continue to be a 
leading power in the life of Eastern 
Asia. Ee Ww. T. 


BOOK REVIEWS. 

“Christ’s Secret of Happiness.”* One 
is never at a loss to understand Lyman 
Abbott. We may not agree with 
him, but his perfect clarity, of style 
sharms us. This booklet, however, of- 
fers no ground for disagreements. It 
is a series of flashlight views. Nothing 
prosy or long-drawn-out here. Only 
eleven chapters, each of a few pages 
given over to the discussion of such 


{themes as “The Spring of Perpetual 


Youth,” “The Vision of God,”’: “The 
Honors of Peace,” “The Blessedness 
Ore Battles Why? ArestYou —Not 
Happy?” 

We cull from these chapters such 


characteristic nuggets as these: 

“There are three kinds of happiness; 
pleasure, joy, and blessedness. Pleas- 
ure is the happiness of the animal na- 
ture; joy, of the social nature; blessed- 
ness, of the spiritual nature. Pleasure 
we share with the animals; joy, with 
one another; blessedness, with God. 
These three types of happiness are not 
inconsistent. One may have them all. 
God does not require us to choose.” 

“Prayer is not a message by, wireless 
telegraphy to some unknown station, 
remote, invisible, from which some 
wireless answer may return. Prayer 
is not a check presented at a bank call- 
ing for money to be paid out over the 
counter at sight or after three days or 
thirty days of waiting. Prayer is the 
communion of spirit with spirit.” 

“The pursuit of life is itself life’s 
highest prize.” This little volume is 
full of winged arrows that hit the 
mark. It is a book of inspiration, of 
comfort and of truth worth living by. 
Our age is notable for the richness of 
its aids to the life of right doing. This 
is one of the worthier of them. 


*¢¢Qhrist’s Secret of Happiness,’’ ky 


great family of nations. There really|,yman Abbott, New York, T. Y. Crowell & 


is no east nor west among the people! Co. 


75 cents. 


10 


THE FRIEND. 


MOTHER 


MARY, CLENNEY CASTILE, 


Wednesday afternoon, March 13, the 
community received the not unexpect- 
ed tidings oe Mother Castle had pass- 
ed away. 
and intimately connected with all that 
is good in the development of Hawaii 
cannot fail to excite moe than ordinary 
interest. Her life was full of sugges- 
tion to all. 
ful close of a finished career. 

Mary Tenney was born in Plainfield, 


a little farming community in Otsego 


County, New York State. . Her par- 
ents, Levy Tenney, and his wife, Mary 
(Kingsbury), with the two 
born in Sudbury, emigrated from 
Southern Vermont about 1813 to what 
was then the promising West-Central 
New York, He was a stern Puritan in 


religious belief, a man of forceful mind, 


and character. His wife was an intel- 
lectual! woman and a devoted, active, 
earnest Christian. With such quali- 


The closing of a life so long | 


Her death was the peace-} 


children | 


CASTLE. 


ties, they soon occupied a position of 
influence in the community. Mary was 
born October 26, 1819, and her early 
life was quietly spent among the hills 
surrounding the home, She was fourth 
in a family of nine children, all but 
one of whom are now dead. The vil- 
lage schools afforded a common school 
education, but this was not enough to 
satisfy either the parents or children, 
and several terms were spent in semi- 
naries elsewhere. About 1836, after 
the marriage of her eldest sister, Ange- 
line, to S. N. Castle, and their depar- 
ture for the mission field of the Ha- 
watian Islands, Mary left home and 
-went to Deerfield, Massachusetts, and 
entered the academy. It was a school 
‘of high reputation at that time, and it 
iwas there, probably, that she received 
the substantial basis of her school-ac- 
‘quired knowledge. The great financial 
distress and disasters of 1837 evidently 
compelled her to leave the Deerfield 
Academy, and she returned to Plain- 
field and lived quietly with the family 


for several years, part of the time teach- 


ing in the district school. 

Tn the fall of 1841 she accompanied 
her invalid aunt, Miss Jedidahy Kings- 
bury, to Columbus, Georgia, giving de- 
voted care to her, until she died in the 
spring of 1842. Miss Kingsbury was a 
woman of rare intellect, education and 
attainments, a thinker and accomplish- 
ed writer. Her influence proved a 
strong mental stimulus to the young 
country girl, and she resumed _ her 
studies with the view of preparing her- 
self to teach in the higher schools. 
Death changed all these plans; at that 
time, also, S. N. Castle returned from 
Hawaii to the States with his mother- 
less little daughter. He offered his 
hand to Mary, inviting her to become 
his wife and companion in Hawaii, his 
chosen field of missionary labors. Her 
letter accepting his offer is a very 
touching picture of her mental state at 
that time. She sadly and humbly 
doubted her fitness to become a mis- 
sionary. The lofty character of that 
work, as she conceived it, seemed to 
be something beyond her, and which 
she was unworthy to undertake. 

Returning north to her childhood’s 
home, she was married,October 13, 
1842, in West Exeter, a. Yorkaga 
mile or two from her. birthplace, and 
the start was soon made on the long 
voyage to Honolulu, bringing back the 
little daughter of her sister Angeline. 
In Honolulu, from her arrival in May, 
1843, till 1862, much of her time was 
necessarily occupied in the bearing and 
training of a large family; besides 
which she had special duties as hostess, 
for her husband, as secular agent of 
the American Board, was expected to 
entertain many of the guests of the 
Mission. In fact, most of the mission 
families in Honolulu very nearly kept 
open house, for visitors were many in 
those days. 

Vhe children born of this marriage 
were Samuel, Charles Alfred, Harriet 
Angeline (now Mrs. H. C. Coleman), 
William Richards, George Parmelee, 
Albert Tyler, James Bicknell, Caroline 
Dickinson (now wife of Rev. W. D. 
Westervelt), Helen Kingsbury (wife of 
Prof. George Meade of the University 
of Chicago), and Henry Northrup. Of 
this family, Samuel, Charles Alfred, Al- 
bert Tyler and Henry Northrup have 
died before the mother. Honolulu has 
remained the home of all who live in 
the Islands. Mrs. Coleman lived with 
the mother for many years and until 
her death. 


With the evidences of an enlight- 
ened civilization everywhere visible 
throughout Hawaii, it is hard to realize _ 


THE FRIEND. 


qias 


the wonderful changes which have 
taken place since Mother Castle landed 
in Honolulu. Kawaiahao Church was 
just finished ; grass huts were universal. 
The streets consisted »f weedy alleys, 
without sidewalks, of uncertain width, 
dusty and unclean. 


everywhere. White people were rare. 
It was almost impossible to 
meat and vegetables, except kalo. Even 
if the 
employ servants, none were obtainable. 
In ‘the early morning, the growers of 
kalo used to bring around the roots in 
bundles hanging to each end of a stick 
carried over the naked shoulder, the 
only other covering being the malo. In 
place of a hat, a frowsy mass of hair 
stood out all over the head. Carts or 
carriages were almost unknown, and 
were not needed, as there was nowhere 
to drive. In going to distant points, 
people walked or took passage in filthy 
little schooners, enduring untold mis- 
eries on the lofig vovages. It was to 
such surroundings that the youthful 
missionary was introduced. 


Tt seems hardly necessary to repeat 
the story of her life. It is well known 
in these Isiands. Only once during the 
long period of residence in Hawaii—64 
years, almost—did she re-visit the land 
of her birth. In July, 1877, with Mr. 
Castle, she went to America and was 
absent about two years and a half. She 
had been hungry, faint with longing 
sometimes, to again see and be with 
her own, and, this wish gratified, only 
those who saw her with friends there 
can understand how much it meant to 
her; she was content and happy to re- 
turn here and live out her days. Those 
who have been associated with her in 
religious, benevolent and educational 
work can best testify to the value of 
~what she did. Her whole heart, to the 
day of her death, was enlisted in the 
work for which she came to Hawaii. 
‘It came to her mind always ahead of, 
and more important than, any other 
concern. At first, her time and ener- 
‘gies were devoted to helping and im- 
proving the condition, physical and 
spiritual, of the native Hawaiian. Then, 
as -changing circumstances brought 
those of other nations to our shores, 
her sphere widened, and Chinese, Jap- 
anese, Portuguese, Europeans, all, were 
embraced in her plans for helping and 
elevating mankind. A severe attack of 
ilIness in the latter part of July, 1904, 
so weakened the remaining three years 
of her life that she was unable per- 
sonally to attend to the duties she 


Unkempt natives, : 
dressed mostly in nature’s garb, were, 


obtain | 


. . . | 
missionaries had been able to 


grasp on the main objects of her life, 
and her interest continued to the end. 
The gradual success of various busi- 
ness enterprises in which her husband 
was engaged, more particularly after 
the termination of his connection with 
the American Board, and in many of 
which enterprises he was an originator 
and projector, gave her an income 
which in the latter part of her life en- 
abled her to give something to the 
cause she loved, besides personal labor. 
It is interesting to note that she never 


regarded the possession of property and 


income otherwise than as a trust placed 
in her hands for the accomplishment of 
worthy ends. She has always devoted 
her means, beyond the expense of sim- 
ple living and the needs of her family, 


ito religious, charitable and educational 


purposes. Her desires in this respect 
have been perpetuated by the establish- 
ment during her lifetime of several per- 
manent charitable trusts. The old 
homestead at Kawaiahao and _ other 
property have been dedicated to such 
uses. The creation of the Henry and 


; Dorothy Castle Memorial Free Kinder- 


garten was her work, and its mainte- 
nance devolves upon one of these 
trusts. A considerable portion of her 
husband’s estate is now in trust for 
the same purposes, the income to be 
used for such eleemosynary purposes 
as the trustees may from time to time 
elect. 

Aiter alftne=nrere-outline of the 
events of a life do not tell the whole 
story. To gain a real insight into the 
springs of action, to know why the 
character was finally rounded into its 
definite completeness, something more 
is necessary. There must be some 
knowledge of the inner life, of the soul 
struggles, of the influences bearing on 
the individual from youth up, to under- 
stand the final rounding out of charac- 
ter and to see whence came that “pu- 
rity, peace and love” which Dr. Frear 
so aptly termed, in his address at the 
memorial service, as the distinguishing 
features of Mother Castle. 


As above stated, ,the parents were 
possessed of more than ordinary force 
and were deeply religious. All of the 
influences bearing on her early life be- 
longed to the uncompromising and 
sturdy faith of the Puritans, and the 
moulding of her character was the nec- 
essary result of such surroundings. The 
departure of a loved sister to a highly- 
interesting missionary field must have 
produced a very deep impression, and 
when she went to Deerfield she prob- 
ably carried with her impulses that 


loved, but, in the midst of physical | would result in producing the mission- 


weakness, her mind still retained its 


ary. A letter from her mother, dated 


some time in 1837, gives a vivid pic- 


ture cf some of these influences. After 
speaking of the very hard times and 
that it would be impossible for her 
parents to send any money to help in 
her schooling, meager as the bills were 
in those days, she refers to her daugh- 
ter’s studies. She called her attention 
to the need of earnest devotion to her 
work, that she might fit and prepare 
herself for a life of self-support. She 
urged denial of self, study of the Bible, 
prayer, in order that the spirit might 
be chastened and purified. 


At that time some sort of a mental 
and moral process called “conversion” 
was deemed necessary befos®one could 
be allied with the Church of Christ. 
This change young Mary struggled to 
realize, and, believing that it came to 
her, in 1837 she united in Deerfield with 
the Presbyterian Church. The imme- 
diate and characteristic result was a 
fervent enthusiasm and desire to en- 
gage in the work of converting the 
world. But how could there have been 
any radical change in the heart or life 
of one whose whole girlhood had been 
sweet and pure, whose habit was obe- 
dience to the law of God? What might 
have been expected, followed. She 
could not feel that deep contrition and 
conviction of sin which her education 
taught her to believe was essential to 
salvation, and much unhappiness result- 
ed to her on that account. She be- 
lieved that something was the matter 
with herself; that she had not been 
“converted.” As she said in after life, 
her soul was filled with terror at the 
thought that perhaps she had “grieved 
away the Spirit,’ and that salvation was 
not for her. Ina letter written to S. N. 
Castle from Columbus, Ga., after the 
death of her aunt, she tells something 
of her mental and religious attitude 
after she had first joined the Church. 
Coldness, doubt and suffering had fol- 
lowed her union with the Church in 
Deerfield, under which she thought she 
had fallen away from the love of 
Christ, and in August of the preceding 
year she had again resolved to devote 
her life to Jesus, and on a re-confession 
of faith had again united with the 
Church, this time in Columbus, Ga. But 
she continued to be troubled about that 
necessary “conviction of sin and change 
of heart.” She felt that something 
was radically wrong with herself, be- 
cause she did not have those feelings 
which she believed necessary to. indi- 
cate a real conversion from the world 
to a spiritual life. Still she seemed 
happier in her new experiences, and, al- 
though humble and doubtful as to her 
fitness, she was ready to undertake the 


12 


THE FRIEND. 


missionary work. It is interesting to 
note that, in order to receive the ap; 
pointment as a missionary of the Amer- 
ican Board, she procured a certificate 
from the Church in Columbus, Ga. 


““AN EARLY PORTRAIT OF MRS. CASTLE.’’ 


For several years after coming to 
Hawaii the old questions about change 
of heart, forgiveness of sin, and love of 
the Father were a heavy weight to her. 
She spent many hours in prayer, read- 
ing and. struggling with her own 
heart. But peace did not come. She 
read much, and, amid her many cares, 
found time to get an. intimate ac- 
quaintance with grave theological 
problems which were then agitating 
men through all the Christian world. 
The- “Oberlin Evangelist” was _ for 
many years familiar reading matter in 
the house, and she entered deeply into 
the yearnings for holiness and _ per- 
fection so much written of in that 
sheet. The writings of Fenelon, the 
sermons of Bossuet, the life of 
Madame Guyon, Upham’s “Interior 
Life,” and similar works, produced a 
deep impression on her mind. The 
misery caused by sin; its dreadful and, 
to her, apparently undeserved effects 
on innocent women and children; the 
questions of punishment, justice and 
mercy, caused her untold suffering. 
lier agonized and constant prayer for 
light and peace and a certain ground 
for faith, seemed never answered. For 
years her face was wan and sorrowful. 
The internal struggle was never at rest 
and she was not allowed the peace she 
so earnestly desired. Those who did 
not understand thought she was grow- 
ing misanthropic, but the influence of 
the books she had read opened a new 


current of religious thought, which in 
time brought her to a new world of 
life and liberty. After a while she read 
less of what others thought and did— 
others who were perhaps in as_ deep 
darkness and whose minds were strug- 
gling as much as her own—and read 
ore constantly of the life of Jesus, 
dwelling more on his.own words. It 
was then that she came fully into the 
light; and with the light came peace. 
She felt that the love of Jesus was all- 
sufficient. She ceased to struggle for 
the mental assurance that she 
“perfect, even as God is perfect,’ and 
was satisfied to let the law of love be 
the guiding inspiration of her life. It 
was enough to live by that rule, 
though she well recognized that she 
must fail to reach her ideals, not be- 
cause of wrong intentions, but on ac- 
count of human frailty. What that 
light and peace, illumined with the 
love of Jesus, meant to her, how it 
blossomed into the beautiful life of 
the final years, only those know who 
were with her constantly. But all her 
friends and companions in the 
Churches and elsewhere saw and noted 
the change and felt the purity, peace 
and love which until the end were the 
mainsprings of her life’s conduct. 
We who are left must always feel 
the influence of her beautiful life. Does 
not such a record make life more 
worth the living? IW: R. G: 


ADDRESS OF REV. WALTER 
FREAR. 


IN MEMORAIM OF MRS. MARY T. 
CASTLE. 


As this service must be brief, my words 
must be few. There can be no adequate ex- 
pression of the appreciation and affectionate 
regard in which our Mother Castle is held by 
us all. We can add nothing to the honor she 
already has in our hearts. 

This privilege of making the address on 
this occasion comes to me because I was so 
long her pastor in former years. Pardon then 
just a personal word. By this privilege I 
am carried back in precious memories as I 
could scarcely be in any other way, and I 
want to testify that she was one of those 
who did so very much to brighten and cheer 
that pastorate of a quarter of a century ago. 
During it all she was near as a neighbor and 
still nearer as a friend, She was always sym- 
pathetic, responsive and helpful in every effort 
for the good of the church and the com- 
munity and for the advancement of the king- 
dom, 

We all feel that it has been a great bless- 
ing to us and to many that she has been 
spared so long, in that apart from all that 
she has done she herself has been like an 
abiding benediction upon her children and 
upon the whole community. 

Kulogy is not at all in my thought and we 
know it would be farthest from her wish. 
What most of all we want, and she herself 
would desire is, that her influence should con- 
sinue to live for good in us; for we do live 


was } 


on in each other. We write our lives on 
each other’s hearts, and our friends live on 
in us after they are gone. It was a true note 
that sounded in the harmonies of Paul’s ex- 
perience when-he said: ‘‘Be ye followers 
of me even as I also am of Christ,’? and 
again when he said, ‘‘Be followers of them 
who through faith and patience have in- 
herited the promises.’’ 

I know of nothing therefore more fitting 
on this occasion than that we should open 
our hearts to a few lessons from her. char- 
acter and life. I mean special lessons that 
come from marked qualities in her personal- 
ity. 

I will mention but three. 

First, though the mention of it may some- 
what surprise you, is the lesson of purity. 

This is a superlative quality in the spirit 
and character of beings like ourselves, sin 
stained and impure. Pure in mind, pure in 
heart, pure in body, what more beautiful 
thing could be said of one living in such a 
life, and so conditioned as is this of ours. 
The practical James says, as if it were a 
primal thing: ‘‘First pure, then peaceable.’’ 
The loving John says: ‘‘He that hath this 
hope in him purifieth himself even as He is 
pure.’’ Paul as fixing the ultimate end tells 
us that Christ gave himself for us to purify 
unto himself a peculiar people. More than 
all, our Savior himself says, ‘‘Blessed are 
the pure in heart for they shall see God.’’ 
Pure in heart shall see God. Mow much it 
means. 

During the years of my near acquaintance 
with Mother Castle she impressed me as hay- 
ing in rare degree this refined purity of spirit. 

I do not mean at all that in any sense 
technical or historical she was what some 
might call puritanic, bound to formal ob- 
servance and to restrictive narrowness, but 
there was in her this refined quality of spirit 
purity. In unusual degree she was clean in 
heart and of a pure mind, freed from the 
lusts of the flesh and the pride of life, from 
the vain desire, the empty wish, and the sel- 
fish aim. In all the relations of life there 
was to ne seen in her this beautiful single- 
ness and purity of spirit. 

It might not be quite the thing to say that 
she had almost a passionate desire for this 
purity of heart and lite, but one thing is 
clear that the dross was refined out of her 
nature until this purity became a warm glow 
and beauty in her character. 

Let us learn this lesson from her and strive 
to be pure as she was. 

The next lesson that we may well learn 
from our beloved and venerated mother, is 
that of peace. 

First purity, then peace. It is not placid- 
ity or serenity, or evenness and peaceable- 
ness of disposition and temperament that is 
meant. It is the peace of God. It is the rieh 
legacy which Christ left to his disciples, when 
in his last words he said: ‘‘Peace I leave 
with you. My peace I give unto you.’’ It 
is the peace of God that passeth understand- 
ing, that peace which we are told to let rule 
in our life, and which is spoken of as that 
whereunto we are called. It is the peace of 
the divine benediction in the various epistles, 
Beautiful and blessed peace, that is like a 
river of love and life in the soul, that lets 
not the heart be troubled, and that comes to 
sinful men only through our Lord Jesus 
Christ. 

Have we not seen this blessed peace in 
Mother Castle? Yes, the real thing—the 
peace of God—the peace that Jesus gives. 


We have seen it in her heart, we have seen 
it in her life, we have seen it in her face. 
The beauty marks of it, I am told, were on 


THE FRIEND. 


13 
her face, as the cold form laid upon the! usefulness would be more than all. that has A SIGNIFICAN 
a ‘ “ £Lve i JAN eis BR ENS. 
couch after the spirit has passed to the better} gone before. <i hes 
home. The memory of this, her peace, will It is a deep lesson in loving that we have : pooh 
abide with us. It was a fruit of the spirit.|to learn here today from this mother in We print the subjoined letter be- 


It was the gift of Christ. May this blessing 
$0 joyously seen in her lead us likewise to 
seek it if we have it not. 

A third, prominent and dominating quality 
in the character and life of Mother Castle 
was love. 

It is in this respect especially that these 
should come to us from her abiding lesson, 

Purity, peace and love, and the greatest of 
these is love. 

Love is the very essence and soul of Chris- 
tian character and life. Faith shall pass into 
sight, and hope into fruition, but love abideth 
forever. It never faileth. It is the final, 
finished, perfected, fruitage of Christ’s re- 
deeming work in us. Love is of God, and 
God is love. It is in us the fulfilling of all 
righteousness. To love God with all tke 
heart and the neighbor as oneself is the ulti- 
mate of moral and spiritual perfection. To 
ke constrained, in all the inner and outer 
life, by the love of Christ, who loved us and 
gave himself for us, is the acme of Christian 
motive. The Christ spirit in man is the spirit 
of love. fis final word was, ‘‘As I have 
loved you, so love ye one another.’’ 

In this respect the heart, the life, the char- 
acter of Mrs. Castle had been transformed 
into the likeness of Christ. She learned of 
him what love is, and how to love, and lov- 
ing as he loved became the rule of her life. 

This love in her was not a sentiment. It 
was a principle. It was not a mere feeling. 
It was character and life. It manifested it- 
self with Christ-like spirit in the motives, 
and aims, and purposes, and doings and deeds 
of her daily life. It was the controlling 
force in her being, 

I have no reference here to the fact that 
she was loved. She was loved dearly and 
widely. She had endeared herself to multi- 
tudes. But this was no part of her. It was 
not in her thought or aim or ambition. I 
mean that she herself loved in a Christ-like 
way—widely. It is vastly more central and 
vital in us to love than to be loved, and she 
had a large place in this Christ-like loving. 

Her love was as wide as humanity. It 
reached out in unnumbered ways, known and 
unknown, in ministries large and small, sym- 
pathetic and helpful ministries, to the poor, 
the distressed, the discouraged, the orphaned, 
the homeless, the young, the old, the heathen, 
near and far. Every man was her brother, 
every woman was her sister. Worthy appeals 
found an open door to her heart. 

She also loved wisely as well as widely. 
The orphanage, the home, the school, the 
ehureh, the Mission Board, institutions that 
work for the permanent well-being of society 
and the world received the blessing of love 
. from her strong and generous hand. 

There is a love that suffereth long and is 
kind, that envieth not, that vaunteth not 
itself, and is not puffed up, that behaveth 
not itself unseemly, and seeketh not her own, 
that thinketh no evil, that rejoiceth not in 
iniquity, but in the truth, that beareth all 
things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, 
endureth all things. This love she had in 
her richly, but she had more. She had the 
love that went out as the Master’s did to 
seek and to save, to educate and enlighten, 
to help and lift up the children of men and 
to establish the kingdom of righteousness on 
earth. 

She has lived for much in her long life, 
but, it this, her power of unselfish loving, 
could ve perpetuated in her children and in 
us all, that which would follow on in her 


Israel. 

In a closing word permit me to say thai it 
has been such lives and labors as those of the 
venerated mother whom we honor today, and 
the influences that have gone forth from 
them, that have given to these Islands their 
best charm. 

The charms of mountain and valley and 
shore, of tropical verdure and bloom, and of 
gentle clime are indeed rarely great, but it 
has been the moral and spiritual and social 
beauty and attractiveness that have been 
added to these, by, and resulting from the re- 
fined Christian characters, the pure personali- 
ties, and the devoted labors of those who 
in the far gone years left the cultured home 
to bring the light of life to these darkened 
Isles, that have made them the Paradise of 
the Pacific that they are. Had they been 
left to be exploited in the interests of com- 
merce only,: had not the standards of purity 
and righteousness been lifted, had not the 
church been built, and the school and the 
home planted, and the Christian civilization 
established, all the salubrities of air and the 
grandness of nature, and the riches of soil 
would not have made these-Islands the loved 
place of abode that they are. - 


Does it not behoove the descendents of 
these more than loyal Christian worthies, and 
all who here enjoy the fruits of their labors, 
to see to it that the good work of the fathers 
and mothers fail not, but that the heritage 
they have received become increasingly glori- 
ous. 


IN MEMORIAM. 


Old Honolulans recall with pleasure 
the visit to these Islands of Gen. and 
Mrs. Horatio Phillip Van Cleve of Min- 
nesota some twenty-eight years ago. 
Gen. and Mrs. Van Cleve were the 
parents of Mrs. William W. Hall of 
tihs city. The General passed away 
in 1891. Mrs. Charlotte Onisconsin 
Clark Van Cleve survived her husband 
until April 1, 1907, when she was call- 
cd home at the age of 87 years. Mrs. 
Van Cleve was the daughter of the gal- 
lant Major Nathan Clark, U.S. A., and 
was born at Fort Crawford, Wiscon- 
sin, July 1, 1819. At that time the 
name of the region was called Oniscon- 
sin, the form used bw the early French 
Explorers. hey received this as her 
second name and retained it through 
life. Fort Crawford is now known as 
Prairie du Chien. Her father was on 
the way up the Mississippi River to 
build Fort Snelling when she was born. 
The latter became her early home and 
gave her the right to style herself one 
of the “old settlers” of the great North- 
west Territory. The Van Cleves, a 
family after the Rooseveltian heart, 
numbered an even dozen of children, 
seven of whom survive their mother, 
six of these being sons. Mrs. Van 
Cleve was a leading Church worker, 
deeply interested in missions and in 
every philanthropic undertaking —Ed. 


cause it reveals so clearly certain fea- 
tures of plantation work and life from 
the point of view of a Japanese Chris- 
tian that it deserves preservation. Mr. 
Sokabe, the writer, has been stationed 
at Honomu for years and is trusted and 
honored by everyone who knows him: 


Honomu, April 11, 1907. 
Rev. D. Scudder. 


My Dear Dr. Scudder: According 
to your demand, I write here my plan 
for Christian home. 

From a long experience 1 find that, 
many of my church members, who 
have a simple faith, and do not hesi- 
tate to confess anywhere, are those 
who were once passed the school life 
in my house. 

They, who ieft Honomu school can- 
not forget their school life at Honomu 
and they are always longed for Hono- 
mu and their memory of Honomu will 
not allow to leave their Christian faith 
cnce believed. - 

Mr. T. Okuyama a completer of ag- 
ricultural .school of Mr. S. Tsuda at 
Vokyo and was an Editor its magazine 
is a Christian for long yet his faith 
was very cold. Since he came to Ho- 
nomu school he became a warmhearted 
Christian and he is a Sunday. school 
teacher at Yoshida, lyo, Shikoku. 

Mr. T. Hatanaka a completer of a 
business school came to H. school ani! 
became a good Christian and died at 
Los Angeles. 

Mr. G. Yamada a completer of a col- 
lege of Engineering of Tokyo came to 
Honomu school and became a_ good 
Christian and he has yet a good faith 
in Japan. 

“Two couples in Olaa. 

Three men and one woman in For- 
mosa. 

Two in Hilo Boarding School (not 
boys). 

Five in the States. 

One in Maui (a teacher of Methodist 
school). 

One in Honolulu. 

Five men and four women in Ho- 
nomu. 

Three men and one woman are con:- 
ing to be Christian. 

Three men are coming to this school 
in this week. 


One man who baptized by Mr. Gu- 
lick ten years ago at Papaikou but 
after that he could not stand strong, 
as a Christian but wine dranker and 
gambler but since he came to Honomiut |. 
school he became now a good Chris- 
tian, 


14’ 


THE FRIEND. 


In above written lines I counted not 
school children, but men and women 
only. 

This is a common word between us 
like a proverb saying that Honomu 
Boarding School is a pond (or hot 
spring) and everybody who has sick- 
ness may come and jump in this pond 
and may be healed. The scheme of 
this time came forth from these expe- 
riences. 


I think that true (or healthy) faith 
must instruct at home very sweet and 
I wished to have a Christian home for 
them seeing there is no sweet home in 
these Islands between our people. 


Sixteen men and six women [ have 
even now and three men are coming in 
this week and if Board or piantation 
should support a suitable building I 
can soon include thirty or forty labor- 
ers of whom no need for strike or any 
other troubles because they are alwiys 
instructed in Christian home. 


The idea of Christian home :ame 
forth out of these line written below. 
Erasmus speaks of Sir Thomas More’s 
home as “a school and exercise of the 
Christian religion.” “No wrangling, 
no angry word was heard in it; no ore 
was idle, every one did his duty with 
alacrity and not without a_ temperate 
cheerfulness.” 

Now Honomu Boarding School is 
not enough to sav but must be exercise 
of the Christian religion and a home. 
Let nobody be idle but must do every 
body his duty. 

“Sir Thomas won all hearts to obe- 
dience by his gentleness. He was a 
man clothed in household goodness 
and he ruled so gently and wisely that 
his home was pervaded by an atmos- 
phere of love and duty.” These lines 
are my idea upon my scheme. : 


These lines written below are the 
principle of the Christian home. 

“Servants be obedient unto them 
that according to the flesh are your 


masters with fear and trembling in sin-' 


gleness of your heart as unto Christ; 
not in any way of eyeservice of Christ 


doing the will of God from the heart, 


with good will doing service as unto 

the Lord and not unto men.” 
“Servants, obey in all things 

that are your masters according to the 


flesh, not with eyeservice, as men pleas- | . ; : ‘ 
‘day or night having no anxious for his 


ers but in singleness of heart, fearing 
the Lord; whatsoever ye do, work 


men.” “Let as many as are servants 
under the yoke count their own mas- 
ters worthy of all honour that the name 
of God and the doctrine be not blas- 
phemed.” 


tein 37 : 
‘My home is a refuge for woman and 


“Exort servants to be in subjection 
to their own masters and to be well- 
pleasing to them in all things not gain- 
saying not purloining but shewing all 
good fidelity that they may adorn the 
doctrine of God our Saviour in all 
things.” 


“Servants be in subjection to your 
masters with all fear not only to the 
good and gentle but also to the fro- 
ward.” 


From these lines, our principle came 
forth that to do our labour is to fulfil 
our duty. Our labour for plantation 
is labour for our Lord. lf we steal the 
time or be lazy at our work is the same 
to steal the money. One who receive 
the money for labour must labour 
faithfully. Who is excellent in heaven? 
Togo? No! Napolerr? No! Many 
heroes? No! One who is faithful in 
a very little and live always. in the 
Lord alone shall be great in the 
heaven. O, labourers! do not neglect 
yourselves. You may be excellent in 
heaven more than heroes of this world 
if you are faithful to your duty even 
your labour. 


Nearly one-third of Honomu sugar 
mill tabourers (not field) are church 
members. Now thirty-five Christian 
and ten Christian sided people in three 
hundred Japanese labourers at Ho- 
nomu. 


These are of course the evangelical 
work but at the same time this is prof- 
itable to plantation so I asked Mr. 
Pullar, Honomu manager, to be support 
some lot and building. It is surely 
profitable to plantation to keep always 
40 or 50 or some more number of la- 
bourers of whom need no fear of strike, 
nor need anxious if their work well or 
lazy being those laborers working for 
their duty and not eyeservice. 

I am afraid if 1 make much mistake 
in this writing but there is no time to 
write anew after I have finished this 
long letter. ; 


Yours truly, 
5. DOA BE. 


P. S. One thing I forgot to write 
about the matter of keeping the wives. 


husband; and husband can go to work 


wife if he live in my home. Many hus- 


heartily as unto the Lord and not unto | Pands like to come this home if I do 


not refuse it but there 1s no room for 
them. 


The labourers of the Christian home 
will be ideal labourer of the planta- 
tion. 


GOOD WORDS FROM A GOOD 
FRIEND. 


Under the heading of “A Devoted 
Roman Catholic Missionary,” the Con- 
gregationalist of Boston prints the fol- 
lowing letter from the former Secre- 
tary of the Hawaiian Board, Rev. Mr. 
Emerson: 

I wish to give my testimony to the 
devotion and heroism of Rey. L. L. 
Conrardy, now in this country trying 
to raise a fund in aid of the lepers in 
Canton, China. I understand that he 
has already raised about $28,000, of 
which $10,000 was raised in Belgium, 
In one of his re- 
cent addresses in Boston, he said that 
the condition of the lepers in Canton 


his native country. 


was so repulsive that if he were to 
consult only his physical feelings, he 
would rather be hung than return to 
live among them, as he hopes to do; 
but that his pity for them is such he 
is impelled to go back. He said it 
would supremely happy 
could he secure the means to care for 
a thousand lepers. 


make him 


His plan is to se- 
cure a piece of land on which to build 
cottages for the lepers and give the 
able-bodied ones a chance to eke out 
for themselves a better living by do- 
ing garden work. Many of the lepers 
are helpless, and must be cared for and 
fed. The Chinese government does lit- 
tle or nothing for them. He claims 
that ten dollars a year will support a 
leper. 


My acquaintance with Father Con- 
rardy began while I was Secretary of 
the Hawaiian Board of Missions. I 
had met him at the Leper Settlement, 
and one day received a letter from 
him asking for a supply of New Tes- 
taments and Bibles, for, said he, “My 
people are good at prayer and song, 
but they fail in keeping the command- 
ments, and I think it might be helpful 
for them to read the Bible.” His first 
letter to me was headed, “Dear Sir.” T 
wrote back, Dear Brother. In his re- 
ply, he said, “You call me Brother, and 
so we are, for our work is one.” And 
this seems to be the real conviction of 
this brave, consecrated man, who is 
truly the apostle to the lepers, who is 
the most loyal of churchmen in that he 
is loyal to humanity. 


O. P EMERSON. 


THE FRIEND. 


15 


= 


Seer er arapy sae | 


Hawan Cousins 
ee 
I. ANNUAL MEETING. 

For the delightful evening spent by 
the Hawaiian Children’s Society on 
April 27, thanks are due first to Gov- 
ernor Carter, who opened his home and 
welcomed the “Cousins” and their 
friends with genuine Hawaiian hospi- 
tality, and to Mrs. Carter, our most 
charming hostess. Thanks are due to 
Mrs. Frear and her committee of help- 
ers, for the music. Mrs. Bicknell play- 
ed “Blest Be the Tie” and “Greenland's 
Icy Mountains” as if she were a born 
“Cousin” and heard in the strains the 
echoes of half a century of “Cousins’ 
Meetings.” She has quite won her 
way into the heart of the Society. Miss 
Clark’s music rippled over the keyboard 
as gracefully as a gondola, and min- 
gled Italian melodies with the memory 
bells of far-away Hawaiian sights and 
sounds. It was a most appropriate se- 
lection and gracefully rendered. Thanks 
are due Dr. Alexander for the view of 
a drawing of the mission premises be- 
fore the erection of the frame building, 
and to Governor Carter for a peep into 
his serap-book of Hawaiian publica- 

tions. 

The literary’ exercises centered 
around the old mission house. Gov- 
ernor Carter struck the keynote of the 
meeting when he read the report of 
the House Committee, telling of the 
present condition of the building, the 
architects’ opinions, the decisions ar- 
rived at, and work being done. He also 
read a circular letter, to be printed and 
sent out, called “A Missionary Trust.” 

Then the onlv items from the Secre- 
fatys report were “History and 
Echoes from the Old Mission House,” 
and Mrs. L. B. Coan read extracts from 
her brother’s, Dr. Bingham’s, journal, 
written in April, 1857, just fifty vears 
"ago, on the arrival of the “Morning 
Star, which told of his revisiting Ho- 
nolulu and the old home after many 
years of absence. This was not only 
intensely interesting, but most oppor- 
tune, and so took the place of some 
of the papers of r*miniscense which 
will be the attraction for the adjourned 
meeting to be held later. ’ 

R. W. A. 


II. A BREATH FROM FLORIDA. 


“Miss M, A, Chamberlain on Febru- 


ary I received a letter from Miss Helen 
S. Norton of Eustis, Florida, from! 
which we quote the following: 

“The Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 
directed in your handwriting, reached! 
me last evening, and it is a joy to see, 
|how benevolent and Christian work is 
carried on in the Islands. The gift of 
Mr. and Mrs. P. C. Jones will be of un- 
told benefit, giving the Hawaiian Board 
a ‘local habitation’ which will be per- 
manent. What joy it must be to be 
able to do such things, and what joy to 
.the Master that His followers have the, 
heart to bestow for His kingdom! Dear 
Hawaii, if it can be kept under the di- 
rection of the founders of its civiliza- 
tion, will continue to be a_ sort of 
training school for other portions of 
the nation. My heart is sad, especial- 
ly, for the Southland where so little 
interest is felt, where race hatred cuts | 
off eifort (to such a large extent) for| 
nine or ten millions of black people, 
and where obstructions are put in the 
way of those who would help them. | 
They can not hear the best sermons, 
cr attend the best lectures or concerts, 
cr be at patriotic services excepting on 
the outskirts of out-of-door meetings. 
The whole aim is to cut them off from 
white teachers, so they must be train- 
ed by those of their own race, hear only 
their own preachers, singers and teach- 
ers, who, if they do their best, are 
largely those who have had inefficient 
training. Think what it would be for 
your Hawaiians, Chinese and Japanese 
to be cut off largely from influence of | 
white teachers and to be shunned i7; 
they come into any services. I trem- 
ble when I hear of teachers being sent 
to the dark races from this Southland 
lest they introduce this feeling of 
hatred. I believe there is no place in 
our nation so hard to work in as the 
South. In this Christian community, 
made up, too, of so many Northern 
people, there is absolutely nothing 
done for the uplifting of our colored, 
people, and it seems as if nothing could 
open the door for such work. My soul 
cries, ‘O Lord, how long, how long!’ 
May the spirit in your isles never die.” 

Miss Chamberlain has also had a let- 
ter from Mrs. Loomis, the grandmother 
of the triplet boys. In July, 1906, Mr. 
Loomis resigned his pleasant pastorate 
in Rochester, Wis., where they had re- 
sided fer five years, and spent some 
months with their children. They 
found the triplet boys as dear and in- 
teresting as ever and their sister a 
happy schoolgirl. In February, 1907, 
Mr. Loomis accepted a call to a small 
Church at Randolph, Wis., where they 
are now happily settled. 


| 
' 


Ill. REMINISCENCES OF REV, E. W. CLARK 
AND MRS. CLARK. 


Written by their Daughter, Mrs. Caro- 
line H. Austin, 


I was asked to write something of 
interest about my parents, or “our 
parents,” as one of my sisters, when a 
little girl, always insisted on saying 
“our father” or “our mother,” much to 
the amusement of her elders. Our fa- 
ther and our mother were in the minds 
of their children very important indi- 


‘viduals, and two more lovely parents 


children never had. Their lives were 
quiet and unobtrusive, but full of good 
works and kind deeds that were known 
to but few. I well remember when 
I was going to school our teacher's 
wife was sick, and they had no cook. 
My. mother said to me, “Take that 
plate of biscuit and leave it on their 
dining table, but say nothing about it,” 
which I did, and I do not know 
whether they ever knew where the bis- 
cuit came from. 

That is a small thing, but a sample 
of what she was always doing. When 
our father was chosen to go, as a rep- 
resentative of the mission, to Micro- 
nesia, with the first missionaries that 
were sent out there, he went willingly 
for the cause of Christ. It was a sad 
and anxious time, for we knew not 
what was before them. The Islands 
were but little known, and the sailing 
vessels small and uncomfortable. I 
have often thought what a hard ordeal 
it was for mother to pass through, and 
what anxious months she lived, but 
not a complaint escaped her lips. She 
had made the sacrifice for her Mas- 
ter’s cause and was brave and self-de- 
ning to the end, but it was a strain 
on her health. It was a day of rejoic- 
ing when the Caroline came into port 
bringing the wanderer home safe and 
sound, though the voyage had been 
fraught with danger and discomfort. 

Perhaps a little insight into the early 
days of missionary life might be in- 
teresting, as shown by a_ few items 
irom. Jetters:. In_a letter from our 
mother to Mrs. Chamberlain, dated 
Lahainaluna, October 5, 1836, she 
says, “Your whale ships are anchored 
in Lahaina roads, one home bound. The 
captain, it is said, a friendly man, of 
course, we could not help thinking per- 


haps Mr. ——--— and the little boys 
will take passage in her. I can not 
think of it. How, then, does your 


heart beat at the thought of sending 
your dear boys from you, but, dear sis- 
ter, if your Heavenly Father calls you 
to make the sacrifice, He will give you 
strength and moral courage to bear it; 


16 


THE FRIEND. 


nay, more, He will support and com- 
fort you. I have been engaged with 
Mr. Clark all forenoon 
copying an article of his. 
be short. Caroline scolds. 
trying to quiet her. Adieu, 
tery 

Another later date: “ Lahainaluna, 
February 27, 1839. My evenings are 
my only time for sewing. I have more 
time in my family now than formerly, 
for we are out of cloth, and I could 
not keep my sewers together, and have 
disbanded and sent them on to the 
farm all except Halili. I keep him em- 
ploved. We are blessed with health. 
Ah! what a blessing. 1 work hard, 
labor is pleasant, and sleep is sweet. I 
have devoted four hours to my chil- 
dren—-pleasant hours. Since Mrs. 
Knapp’s return this week she has taken 
them one and a half hours. She is a 
kind sister. We have had a pleasant 
day today, a day of fasting for schools 
and seminaries. 
and a blessing bestowed upon this and 
seminaries in our beloved land.” 
Under date of January 21, 1841, she 
writes: “I received your kind note; 
was sorry I kept the girls’ bonnets so 
long as to make you regret that you 
had sent to me to make. I assure you 
I was happy to do something for the 
little girls, laying aside all obligations 
1 am under to you for your many fa- 


Now I must 
Mr. Clark 
dear sis- 


vors. Mr. and Mrs. Bailey are with 
us; came over for a visit. Just a call 
from Mr. Brinsmade; he took tea wit) 


us last eve. Tell sisters Cooke and 
Knapp I shall write them soon.” 
“Watltnkws;fantiaty, Ls440. ito is a 
long time since I have written you. I 
hardly find time to touch my pen. My 
only time for writing is late in the 
evening or in the morning before light, 
and even that time is broken. Charles 
calls me at five or a little after and he 
keeps close to me from that time till 
it is fairly light. He is mother’s boy 
and must know where mother is, and 
be with her most of the time. Lucinda 
Maria is a very quiet little babe, full 
of smiles, but she must have a good 
share of mother’s time, as my woman 
has been laid aside for three weeks, 
and I do not like to break in upon 
Anna Eliza’s hours for study, so I take 
care of her myself. Mrs. Richards is 
not as well as she has been—is look- 
ing for Mr. Richards daily, perhaps 
hourly. She thinks he will be along in 
the Hespard. I hope she will not be 
a aera but I Ee she will. It is 
a long time to be left alone with her 
feeble health. She is very comfortably 
situated with Miss Ogden; no cares 
but those of her two little girls. It is 
cold and rainy here. I really suffer 


assisting in| 


with the cold and dampness; 
hardly keep. baby warm. 


“Yours affectionately, 
\ MARY Ws sC ERA 


While living at Lahainaluna, 
early forties, I think, the Clark fam- 
ily and the Andrews family and Miss 
Ogden planned a trip to Wailuku. 
They were to go by canoes to Maalaea 
bay, and horses were to be sent from 
Wailuku to meet us at the landing. 
This was a great event for the children 
of the party, and they were all, of 
course, in high 


excited company, after a hastily-eaten 
breakfast, accompanied their hardly 
less eager parents down the hill to La- 
haina, where all embarked in canoes 
paddled by expert natives. It was a 
beautiful sail, for most of the. way the 


|canoes glided along under sail along 
May prayer be heard | 


the coast of Maui. We had been out 
some hours, all, even the restless chil- 
dren, enjoying the sail over the smooth 
water, and were approaching our land- 


ing place, when a strong breeze came 


down upon us, stirring up the waves 
and, in some unaccountable way, over- 
turning a canoe containing a part of 
the company, and all within it had an 
unexpected bath in the ocean. The 
agile natives soon rescued the unfortu- 
nates and put them in the other ca- 


noes, but, alas, Elizabeth Andrews was} 


missing. A native instantly dove 
under the overturned canoe and came 
up with the little girl in his arms, half 
drowned but soon resuscitated. The 
canoe was righted and all were made 
comfortable with clothes belonging to 
those in the other canoes. I well re- 
member how funny Judge Andrews 
looked in one of Miss Ogden’s wrap- 


pers, while his clothes were being 
dried. 
Land was soon reached, and the 


party, none the worse for their bath, 
were shortly after relating their expe- 
riences to their Wailuku friends. 

One oi the smallest members of the 
capsized party, who had_ swallowed 
some salt water, caused much amuse- 
ment by saying that she drank some 
coffee ! 


IVa REV. E. AND MRS: L. H. JOHNSON. 


By Miss Frances Johnson. 


By the year 1836 the mission at Ha- 
waii was fairly established, a noble 
band of workers had broken the soil, 
but there was great need of more 
workers to bring forth the seed already 
sown, and an earnest plea went forth 
for consecrated men and women ta 


can 


in the! 


spirits over the trip.! 
Bright and early one fine morning, the, 


come and help in the great work. 
Thirty-two young people gladly heard 
the call and, like the disciples of old, 
were willing to leave all and work for 
the Master. Young men who had just 
finished their educations and were 
ready to take up their life’s work, they 
and their young wives stood ready to 
go. The last good-bye and the last 
look at home, and their early associ- 
ates; and they gather at Boston, 
whence they were to embark and where 
the last services were to be held. The 
good bark Mary Frazier had been en- 
gaged to carry this large company to 
their island home. She had been very 
comfortably fitted up with a cabin run- 
ning the whole length of the vessel. 
A heavy gale had been blowing, but 
as the worst was over, the 14th of De- 
cember was set for sailing, and on the 
day appointed they embarked, and ina 
few hours the land so dear to them 
was lost to sight and there was noth- 
ing to be seen but the wide ocean, and 
a notable voyage was begun, notable 
for several reasons—-the company was 


American Board Number 


on 
THE FIRVE Nm 
DECS7e2 


This number is in considerable demand 
for mission study and we still have a 
quantity on hand 


THE PRICE FOR THE PRESENT IS 


257@C aS" 


(Postage paid) 


ila ote 


THE GROWING FAMILY NEEDS 


AN ENCYCLOPEDIA 


The cost hitherto has been so great that al- 
though CHILDREN ARE FOREVER WANT- 
ING to consult one in their school work, few 
can afford a set. 


NOW COMES __ 


THE BEST YET 


Thos. Nelson & Sons, the great Bible Pub- 
lisher has produced the most complete at the 
least cost; $42.00 will buy set in cloth. Better 
binding up to $72.00. 


AGENTS wanted in every town. Write to the 


HAWAIIAN BOARD 
BOOK ROOMS 


Bright boys and girls as — 


THE FRIEND. 17 


large, all young people, all leaving: 
home for the same purpose, the cap-' 
tain and crew kindly men, and the ves- 

sel comfortable. The winds and waves 
were favorable, and the voyage quick 
and prosperous. ‘The first night at sea 
was rough, and the captain, wishing to 
do something for the comfort cf the 
ladies, took a bottle of cologne and 
went around wetting their handker- 
chiefs, and I have heard my mother say 
that ever after that the smell of co- 
logne recalled that night, and she could 
not abide it. Among the sailors of the 
Mary Frazier were three Hawaiians 
working their way back to the Islands, 
and the captain kindly allowed them 
to assist the missionaries in their study 
of the Hawaiian language, and many 
progressed so rapidly that they were 
able to talk to the people when they 
landed. The days passed quickly and 
pleasantly by and all were so earnest 
in their work and their zeal was so 
great that even the crew were brought 
to feel that these young people had 
something worth getting, and a num-| 
ber of them decided to be on_ the 
Lord’s side. My mother had an auto- | 
graph album on board and in it I find| 
the earnest testimony of several of the} 
crew. Fair winds and no gales blew: 
them quickly around the Horn and! 
across the Pacific, and in 116 days their , 
voyage was completed. It was on a| 
beautiful Sabbath morning when they | 
dropped anchor in Honolulu harbor: 
and first looked upon the shores of, 
their new home. They remained on| 
board until the Sabbath was over. 
Their first impressions of the people 
were formed by seeing the dusky oc-| 
cupants of the canoes, which swarmed | 
around the vessel. Many of them were 
scantily clad, but one man who went 
on board evidently thought himself in 
the height of style, as he had an old 
battered stovepipe on his head and! 
shoes on his feet. The mission was| 
holding its annual meeting and most 
of its members were in attendance, and 
they gladly welcomed the new rein- 
forcement on its arrival, and_ before 
many days the new members were as- 
signed to their several stations. My, 
father and mother went to Waiole, on 
' Kauai, where they remained for many 
years, devoting themselves to most | 
earnest work for the mission. -One of, 
my earliest recollections was of secing 
my mother in a room full of women, 
teaching them to sew and fashion 
clothes for themselves; and of my: fa- 
ther starting off on his tours through! 
the district. 


| 


t 


Dean of Harvard University. Site of 
new Federal building in Honolulu se- 
lected—the lot on King and Merchant 
streets, behind the E. O. Hall building. 


RECORD OF EVENTS. 


March 7—Loch Garve successfully 
aulled off by steamers from Honolulu, 
not leaking. April 4—J. Lor Wallach, a palpable 
fraud, appears before the House of Rep- 
Angeles arrive per Ohio at Hilo to|resentatives of the Territory petitioning 
visit volcano. |to be allowed to go to Molokai to cure 
lepers. Annual meeting of the Anti 
Saloon League. 


11th—240 excursionists from Los 


13th—Death of the venerable Mother 
Castle. 

April 6—House Committee of Legisla- 
ture visit Lanai, rendering unfavorable 
report of value of the Island Fake Lepe r 
Doctor Wallach is granted permission by 
the Legislature to experiment upon lepers 
at Molokai. 


15th—Ohio arrives with Los Angeles 
excursionists. 


26th—Nakana, Japanese woman, fa- 
tally burned in filling kerosene lamp. 


March 24—Union Church at Kahului 
dedicated with much enthusiasm. 


March 28—Civic Federation holds 
third annual meeting. Its reports 
show a large amount of useful work 
accomplished. 


April 9—Robert Gibbs, passenger on 
S. S. Ventura, arrested when steamer 
reached Honolulu for obtaining $60 on 
false pretenses in Auckland, N. Z. 


April t1—J. Lor Wallach is convict- 
ed of perjury. 


April 12—Local Option Bill killed in 
the House of Representatives. 


March 29—Col. Chas. W. Zieglei 
elected to the command of the First 
Regiment, N. G. H. 


March 31—The Legislature visit the 


April 13—Through efforts of Civi 
Pee tienen pril’ 13 irough efforts of Civic 


Federation and Anti-Saloon League, 
Local Option Bill is tevived in the 
House. 


April 1—News received of appoint- 
ment of W. R. Castle, Jr., as Assistant 


COLLFGE-HILLS 


HONOLULU’S CHOICEST SUBURB 


City Streets, City Water, City Lights 


Unsurpassed Marine and Mountain Views, Rapid 


Transit. Io Pake Stores, no Japanese Shacks, 


* 
¢ 


e 


* 
° 


* 


° 


* ° * ° 
° + ¢ * ° 


no Saloons. 


A FEW CHOICE LOTS FOR SALE 


MONEY AT 6% TO HELP BUILD 
APPLY TO 


THE FRIEND. 


= Se 


April 14—Mr. and Mrs. P. C. Jones 
give $8500 to Oahu College. Bishop 
James M. Thoburn passes through Ho- 
nolulu and preaches in the Methodist 
Church. 

April 15—Captain Samuel Johnson 
elected Colonel First Regiment, N. 
Gn. 

April 16—Capt. Ritchie is removed 
from command of Loch Garve for having 
ship on Molokai when 


stranded his 


drunk. | 

April 17—Board of Health forbids J. 
Lor Wallach’s going to Molokai to 
practice on lepers. 

April 20—Local Option Bill passed 
by the House of Representatives with 
only three dissenting votes. Kaimuki 
trolley car kills Japanese embalmer. 


April 23—Senate finally kills Local 
Option Bill by a vote of 8 to 7; three, 
of the eight had promised to vote for) 
local option. Expert Engineer Schuyler 


ia 


reports favorably upon the Nuuanu dam. 
April 26—S. S. Heliopolis arrives, 47 
days from Malaga, with over 2200 Span- 
ish immigrants. 
April 28—Rev. J. Walter Sylvester 
dD. 1: 
Union Church. 


d 


resigns pastorate of Central 


MARRIED. 


BELL-LYNN—At Honolulu, April 4, by Rev. 
J. W. Wladman, Gillson D. Bell to Miss 
Cecil 8. Lynn. F 

COCKBURN-KING— At Victoria, B. C., 
March 23, James L. Cockburn of Honolulu, 
to Eliza Victoria Hammond-King. 


DEATHS. 


NOLTE—At Honolulu, March 27, Herr Hein- 
rich Julius Nolte, aged 73. 

TILLEY—At League Island, Pa., March 18, 
Rear Admiral Benjamin F, Tilley. 


ANDERSON—At Waialua, March 29, John 
F. Anderson, a Mexican war veteran, aged 
86. 

VAN CLEVE—In Minneapolis, Minn., April 
1, Charlotte Onisconsin Clark Van Cleve, 
mother of Mrs. W. W. Hall of Honolulu, 
aged 87. 

AITCHISON—At Queen’s Hospital, April 3, 
Edwin William Aitchison of Treland. 

LOEBENSTEIN—At Hilo, April 4, A. B. 
Loebenstein, prominent public man. 

JACKSON—In San Francisco, March 25, 
Admiral George Edward Gresley Jackson, of 
the late Hawaiian Royal Navy. 

SAVIDGE—At Honolulu, April 6, Mrs. Sarah 
Savidge, aged 75. 

SMITH—In Chefoo, China, Mareh 18, Louis 
Henry Smith, son of Mrs, E. A. Smith and 
the late Rev. Thomas Smith and brother of 
George W. Smith. 

AGNEW—In Honolulu, April 8, Mrs, Rose 
Agnew, aged 90 years. 

WIHITE—At Honolulu, April 18, by aeei- 
dental drowning, William White, an old 
resident, aged 62. 

COCKETT—At. Paia, April 21, George 
Cockett, a prominent Kula rancher, aged 56. 


ep gaat 


ce 
: 
: 
| 


Donors under 50 years of age 4 per cent. 
Donor between 65 and 75 years of age 6 per cent. 


An Assured Income for Life 


How to invest money so that it will not be necessary 
to re-inbest it When good securities are hard to find is the 
great question which menaces many people. 
has been solved by the 


Conditional Gift Plan 


of our foremost American Missionary Socteties, such as the 
Amertcan and Presbyterian Boards and many others. 
plan is most heartily endorsed by leading financters. 


fts Features are 


I. Absolutely safety. 
3. Freedom from all care. 
$. The final use of the investment for the noblest of all causes. 


This problem 


The 


2. Prompt semi-annual payment. 
4, A fair rate of interest. 


The donor pays his money to the Treasurer of the Hawatian Board. The principle is invested 
by the Board and the interest thereon is guaranteed both by this investment and by all the other 
invested funds of the Board amounting now to more than $200,000. Interest is paid semi- 
annually according to the following schedule: 


Donors between 55 and 65 years of age 5 per cent. 
Donors over 75 years of age 7 per cent. 


On the death of the donor the principal becomes the property of the Board for its missionary work. 


ee ee re ee ne Se On Se OT Oe OO Se TT We OTT OTTO 


THE FRIEND. 


19 


The Bank of Hawaii, Lad. 


Ineorporated Under the Laws of the Territory 


of Hawaii. 
PAID-UP CAPITAL............. $600,000.00 
Di LLU ie Gi gr 300,000.00 
UNDIVIDED PROFITS ......... 107,346.65 


' OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 


IGS e VE. COOKE .2.0cescece nr cees President 
2, C (GOWGC ieee Vice-President 
F. W. Macfarlane........ 2nd Vice-President 
SOME OOIK ON). .o occ esilsisteis osha ea dee Cashier 
Gianmerliustace, Jr. l.....5.. Assistant Cashier 
BIO ATVOT 5 cies 6 cele sceleee Assistant Cashier 


E. F. Bishop, E. D. Tenney, J. A. McCandless, 
C. H. Atherton and F. C. Atherton, 
COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS DEPART- 
MENT. 
Strict Attention Given to all Branches of 
Banking. 
JUDD BUILDING. 


EO; HALL @ SON 


In addition to Hardware and 
General Merchandise have now a 
complete assortment of 


HOUSEHOLD GOODS, 


including Crockey, Glassware, 
Stoves, Kitchen Furniture, Re- 
frigerators and Ice Chests, Etc. 
Also Garden Tools of all kinds, 
Rubber Hose, Lawn Mowers. 

Call and examine our stock at 
the Hall Building. 


FORT STREET. 


fed. DAY & «CO. 


FINE GROCERIES 


OLD Kona Coffe a Specialty 


B. F. Ehlers €5 Co. 


PO BOX IG 
PONOLULU, TH. 


The Leading Dry 
Goods House in the 
Territory. Especial 
attention. given to 
Mail Orders. 


ALWAYS USE 


California Rose... 


OCREAMERY BUTTER 


Guaranteed the Best and full 16 


HENRY MAY & CO. Lrp. 
TELEPHONES ys 


22 


A. SCHAEFER. &.CO., 
° Importers and 


COMMISSION MERCHANTS. 


Honolulu, T. H. 


OPP & COMPANY, 


Importers and Manufacturers of 


FURNITURE AND UPHOLSTERY. 
CHAIRS TO RENT. 


Nos. 1053-1059 Bishop St. - - Honolulu. 


ee aE & BALDWIN, Ltd. 


OFFICERS—H. P. Baldwin, Pres’t; J. B. 
Castle, 1st Vice-Pres’t; W. M. Alexander, 2d 
Vice-Pres’t; J. P. Cooke, Treas.; W. O. 
Smith, Sec’y; George R. Carter, Auditor. 


SUGAR FACTORS AND COMMISSION 
MERCHANTS. 


AGENTS FOR—Hawaiian Commercial & 
Sugar Co., Haiku Sugar Co., Paia Plantation 
Co., Kihei Plantation Co., Hawaiian Sugar 
Co., Kahului R. R. Co., and Kahuku Planta- | 
tion. 


C, A. Batra, Mgr 


[CLUB STABLES 
FORT ST., ABOVE HOTEL 
RIGS OF ALL KINDS 
GOOD HORSES 
‘AREFUL DRIVERS 


Pena | Marn 109 


LAWS tSPRECKELS-& CO.; 
BANKERS. 


ae 


Draw Exchange on the prixcipal ports of the 
world and transact a general 
banking business. 


ae 


Honolulu Hawaiian Islands. 


S. K. Kamaiopili 


Notary Public, Agent to Grant Marriage License, 
and Seacher of Titles, 


OFFICE WITH PUBLIC LANDS OFFICE 


JUDICIARY BLD 


HoNno.Lu.u, H. T. 
| 
i 


fe BREWER & CO., Limited, 


General Mercantile Commission Agents. 
Queen St., Honolulu, T. H. 


AGENTS FOR—Hawaiian Agricultural Co., 
Onomea Sugar Co., Honomu Sugar Co., Wai- 
luku Sugar Co., Makee Sugar Co., Haleakala 
Ranch Co., Kapapala Ranch. 

Planters’ Line Shipping Co., 

Agents Boston Board of Underwriters. 

Agents Philadelphia Board of Underwriters. 


LIST OF OFFICERS—Charles M.. Cooke, 
President; Geo. H. Robertson, Vice-President 
and Manager; E. Faxon Bishop, Treasurer and 


Secretary; F. W. Macfarlane, Auditor; P. C. 
Jones, C. H. Cooke, J. R. Galt, Directors. 


PAYER LUNCH ROOM. 


st 


TEMPERANCE COFFEE HOUSE. 
se 
Fort St., Honolulu, T. H. 


EWERS & COOKE, Ltd., 


DEALERS IN 
PAINTS. Etc. 


WALL PAPERS, 
MATERIALS, 
LUMBER, BUILDING 


Honolulu, T. H. 


| W G. IRWIN & CO., 


Fort Street, Honolulu 
SUGAR FACTORS 


AND 
COMMISSION AGENTS. 
Agents for the Oceanic Steamship Co. 


W., W. AHANA & CO,, LTD. 
MERCHANT TAILORS, 


P. O, Box 986. Telephone Blue 2741 
62 King Street 


CLOTHES CLEANED AND REPAIRED. 


HENRY H. WILLIAMS 


FUNERAL DIRECTOR 


Graduate of Dr, Rodgers Perfect Em- 
balming School of San Francisco, Cal., 
also of The Renouard Training School 
for Embalmers of New York. And a 
Licensed Embalmer for the State of 
New York, also a member of the State 
Funeral Directors Association of Cali- 
fornia. 


MONUMENTS AND TOMBSTONES 
FURNISHED. 


Chairs to Rent. 
LOVE BUILDING 1142, 1144 FORT ST. 


Telephones: Office Main 64. Res. cor. 
Richards and Beretania, Blue 3561. 


NOT “MANY BOOKS” BUT NEW AND GOOD 


at tHE HAWAIIAN BOARD ROOMS 


CORNER OF ALAKEA AND MERCHANT STREETS 


Helpful reading for CHILDREN—good; For Christian Endeavors Binal ere cr. staccco ange wie ie weer Py hs 
for instance for Sunday Reading = C.F. Calendar for ’07....... .25| Child Life in Many Lands :... 100 


i number ’ fine stories including Romance of Miss’nary Heroism 1.50 Se alia the’ Heiieh ice 
Laddie”** 7. "Cole, etc, @: $;.25)| This is for" You's. 1. ee eee 1,00). j 
Other: isechen # we. ft cas -50| Daily Strength ............. 1.00| Kindergarten Stories......... yas: 
Children of the Forest ....... 1.25, For Sunday School Workers and | Boys Life of Christ .......... 1.50 
Algonquin Tales’; 20.0°55 2... 4925 Mothers Hymn of Work and Worship 
| ; . : 
Timorous Beasties........... 1.50}| How to Plan a Lesson ....... 1.25| (Used in Central» Union 
Beasties Gace Be Magee 1.50)| Practical Primary Plans ...... WOO Gee Church 4. et. bane seeeees -85 


wt A FINE LINE OF BIBLES AND PRAYER BOOKS 


Dr. Johnstone’s Studies for “Personal Workers” 
HIS LIFE 


BROKEN! 


With the publication of Nelson’s Encyclopaedia, THE PADLOCK 
OF PROHIBITIVE PRICE has been broken, and for no man or woman 
who is mentally alive and who really is a lover of knowledge is there left 
an excuse not to have at hand a high-class work of reference, comprehen- 
sive enough for the scholar, handy enough for the school boy and inter- 


esting reading for everybody. Ps 


The New York Times says: ‘*** Cheap in price, though in 
nothing else. It seems as though the ideal encyclopaedia had been found 
for readers of English. 


NELSON’S ENGYGLOPAEDIA 
Everybody's Book of Reference 


FRANK MOORE COLBY, M. A., New York, American Editor. GEORGE SANDEMAN, M. A., Edinburg, European. 
Editor. With over 600 contributors, each the authority in his field. 

To have collected and arranged in 12 full volumes the endeavors and achievements of the human race up to the pre- 
sent time—to have at hand the knowledge of the world sifted, certified and presented in one great working library for 
quick and easy reference; all done effectualy and completely. . This of itself has been cause for wonderment, but that the 
entire set should be offered to the public at the amazingly low price of $42.00 for the set, marks the undertaking as the 
wonder in this day of wonders in the realm of book publishing. 

Imagine its price four times what it is, put it to the severest encyclopaedia tests you know, either as to comprehen- 
siveness, accuracy, reliability, newness, clearness and charm of expression, profusion and character of illustration, charac- 
ter of paper, binding—examine it from every standpoint and you will finding nothing lacking. 

We might write pages about its 60,000 subjects, its 7,500 three-column pages, its 6.000 illustrations, the color plates, 
the full-page plates, the perfect cross-reference system and the many other advantages. But we won’t. We will do bet- 
ter than that, They can be seen at the Hawaiian Board Book Rooms. 


| 


June 


JAttan Donn. 


CENTRAL UNION’S MISSIONARY PASTORS. 


PUBLISHED.BY THE, BOARD OF THE 


wt Hawaiian Evangelical Association 


, bed 
PM OLA, 


NUARN 


NEN 
VN Sas 


Le 


a8 


90 7 


SNSSIAS 
BY SSAWS 


2 


THE FRIEND. 


HAWANAN TRUST GCO., 
LIMITED so: 
Fire, Marine, Life 
and Accident 
Insurance, 
SURETY ON BONDS 


Plate Glass, Employers’ Liability, \\ 
and Burglary Insurance. 


923 Fort Street, Safe Deposit 
Building. 


OLLEGE. HILLS, 


The magnificent residence trace of 
the Oahu College. 


COOL CLIMATE, SPLENDID VIEW 


The cheapest and most desirable lots of- 
fered for sale on the easi.zt terms: one-third 
cash, one-third in one year, one-third in two 


years, Interest at 6 per cent. 


For information as to building require- 
ments, etc., apply to 
TRUSTEES OF OAHU COLLEGE, 


404 Judd Building. 


Honolulu - - - - Hawaiian Islands. 


~ 


AHU COLLEGt. 
(Arthur F. Griffiths, A.B:, Presidenc.) 
and 
PUNAHOU PREPARATORY SCHOOL 
(Samuel Pingree French, A. B., Principal.) 
Offer complete 
College preparatory work, 
together with special 
Commercial, 
Music, and 
Art courses. 
For Catalogues, address 
JONATHAN SHAW, 
Business Agent, 


Oahu College, - - - Honolulu, H. T. 


J M. WHITNEY, M. D., D. D. S. 


DENTAL ROOMS 


Fort Street. - - - Boston Building. 


| Book Rooms,*cor. Alakea and Merchants 


& COMPANY, 
BANKERS. 


“pean | 
ISHOP 
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Is published the first week of each month 
in Honolulu, T. H., at the Hawaiian Board 


HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 


Sts. | Subscription price, $1.50 per year. 


Established in 1858. 


All business letter should be addressed 
and all M. O.’s and checks should be made 
out to 


Transact a General Banking and Exchange 
Business. Loans made on approved security. © 
Bills discounted. Commercial Credits grant- 
ed. Deposits received on current account sub- 


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Business Manager of The Friend. 
P. O. Box 489. 


All communications of a literary character 


Regular Savings Bank Department main- 
tained in Bank Building on Merchant Street, 
and Insurance Department, doing a Life, Fire 
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in Friend Building on Bethel Street. 


Henry Waterhouse Trust Co., Ltd. 


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AND ISLAND 
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cor. Alakea & Merchant Sts., Honolulu, T, H. 
and must reach the Board Rooms by the 24th of 
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Doremus Scudder, Managing Editor. 
Sereno E. Bishop, D. D. 
Rev. Orramel H. Gulick. 

Theodore Richards. 


Rev. Edward W. Thwing. 
Rev. Edward B. Turner. 
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Entered October 27, 1902, at Honolulu, Hawati, as second 
class matter, under act of Congress of March 3, 1879. 


MOVED 


Again—This Time 


To Our Own Building 
ALAKEA and MERGHANT STREETS 


where hereafter may be 
found Bibles in 


English 
Hawaiian 
Japanese 
Chiense 
Portuguese 


as well as general 


RELIGIOUS LITERATURE 
AND PRAYER BOOKS. 


Fort and Merchant Streets, Honolulu. 


F. WICHMAN, & CO., LTD. 
Manufacturing Optician, 


r Jeweler and Silversmith. 


Importer of Diamonds, American and Swiss 
Watches, Art Pottery, Cut Glass, 
Leather Goods, Ete. 


Honolulu - - - - Hawaiian Islands. 


ASTLE. & COOKE, lige 
Honolulu, H. I. 


COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 
SUGAR FACTORS. 


Agents for 
The Ewa Plantation Co., 
The Waialua Agricultural Co., Ltd., 
The Kohala Sugar Co., 
The Waimea Sugar Mill Co., 
The Apokaa Sugar Co., Ltd., 
The Fulton Iron Works, St. Louis, Mo., 
The Standard Oil Co., 
Geo. F. Biake Steam Pumps, 
Weston’s Centrifugals, 
New England Mutual Life Ins. Co., Boston, 
Aetna Fire Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn., 
Alliance Assurance Co., of London. 


EORGE J. AUGUR, M. D., 
HOMOEPATHIC PRACTITIONER. 


Residence, 435 Beretania St.; Office, 431 
Beretania St. Tel. 1851 Blue. 


We plan to keep a stock of 
Sunday School materials 


Quarterlies, Notes and commentaries 


Office Hours:—to to 12 a. m. 3 to 4 and 7 


ee 


The 


Friend 


OLDEST NEWSPAPER WEST OF THE ROCKIES. 


VOL. LXIV 


TREASURER’S COLUMN. 
E. Herrick Brown, 


At its annual meeting the Hawaiian 
Board engaged Mr. E, Herrick Brown 
to take charge of its steadily enlarging 
religious book trade. We ate happy to 
introdtice otir new associate to all our 
friends in Hawaii. Some years ago Mr. 
Brown was chief assistant in the Con- 
gregational Book-store in Boston, the 
literary headquarters of the Congtega- 
tional Churches of the East. Pastors 
and laymen throughout that region es- 
teemed him for his accurate knowledge 
of all new books in their line, for his 
unfailing couftesy and genial happy 
manner, When the removal of the 
managet of the Congregational Book- 
store in Chicago called for a successor 
and the directors took the only wise 
course open to them by promoting Mr. 
Brown to its management, his loss was 
keenly felt in the Boston region. Hard 
work brought the success predicted in 
the new place but Chicago climate 
proved too much for the new manager 
and forced him to seek California, 
where a season of ranching has given 
him back his old time vigor. Fortu- 
nately for Hawaii the bright picture of 
conditions here, painted by Mr. Henry 
C. Brown, formerly: of the Y. M. C. A. 
of this city, but now successful small 
farmer of Wahiawa, called Mr. E. Her- 
rick Brown to the Islands at the very 
moment when the remarkable growth 
of its book business compelled the Ha- 
waiian Board to seek a manager. It 
seems most providential that the Ter- 
ritory is to have at the head of its reli- 
gious book enterprise so capable, well- 
trained and energetic a man as Mr. 


HONOLULU, H. T., JUNE, 1907 


No. 6 


Another Milestone. 


The eighty-fifth annual meeting of 
the Hawaiian Evangelical Association 


was by general consent the best within | 


the memory of those present. The 
theme “The problem of religious educa- 
tion in Hawaii” was timely and was 
developed in a way to stimulate the 
deepest interest.. The musical feature, 
introduced by Treasurer Richards, was 
carried ottt in both novel and devotional 
fashion. It did everybody good. The 
papers presented were by experts, were 
most carefully prepared and blended 
theory and practice very happily. 
expositions were tnusually good. The 
attendance was latge and it was re- 
marked by several that the entire an- 


The | 


niversary was a species of Chautauqua | 


or Summer School for Pastors and Lay 
Christian Workers of the highest value. 
The steadily increasing use of the 
English language, the growing number 
of Hawaiians in attendance able intel- 
ligently to foliow discussions therein, 
the deepening interest manifested by 
Chinese and Japanese evangelists and 
the evident progress made in the de- 
velopment of esprit-de-corps on the part 
of all races were most gratifying. Com- 
pared with the kind of meeting held 
tour years ago it hardly seems the same 
country or the same people. We are 
moving in an entirely different age. 


The Queen Coming to Her Own. 


The generous participation of Queen 
Lijiuokalani in the anniversary, both 
by the openhandedness of her gifts to 
the Entertainment Committee and by 
her presence at the annual luau, added 
a feature of peculiar significance. Her 
deep interest in the old historic Church 
at Lahaina during her visit there last 
winter and her manifestation of sym- 


Brown. _Large orders have gone to the) pathy with the work of all the Churches 
mainland and to Asia, and in a few!during the past two weeks testify that 
months the Board Book Rooms will be} the era of good feeling has returned 
equipped with up to date religious litera-| never again, we trust, to know an end- 
ture, Sunday School supplies and all the}ing. Prince Kalanianaole was also 
other essentials of a modern establish- present at the feast and has on many 
ment of this character. Mr. Brownyrecent occasions taker? pains to show 
may he consulted at any time with ref-lthat he is one of the factors in the 
erence to orders for books of any de-|growth of the new sentiment of broth- 
scription and will be able to quote|erhood that is becoming so powerful 
prices in his line that will be very at-ithroughout the Islands. The Queen 
tractive. ; seems alive to the possibilities of the 


is 


Ye = 


large influence for good that is hers and 
is moving in a sphere of kindly service 
which doubtless is bringing peculiar 
satisfaction. After the stormy experi- 
ences, disappointments and sorrows of 
many years there appears to be open- 
ing before her a career of serene joy 
and wide usefulness in which she may 
be privileged to make her life tell as a 
blessing to all in helping to weld to- 
gether the forces which, regardless of 
race, make for civic righteousness and 
social brotherliness. Following this 
path of kindly service she is sure to 
come to a throne in the hearts of her 
fellow-citizens more stable, fuller of 
true influence and more abounding in 
real satisfactions than that of the olden 
days of turmoil. 
Significant Actions. 


Two votes of the Association link 


|the Churches to the great achievements 


for which the Twentieth Century is 
destined to be remembered. One of 
these is Christian Union, the other is 
the End of War. For many years the 
Congregationalists of America have 
with a peculiar self satisfaction pro- 
claimed their polity to be one divinely 
ordained to facilitate the union of deno- 
minations. Sometimes this has been 
done with an unctuousness that has 
savored of cant. Now at last God has 
taken them at their word and has faced 
them with an opportunity of proving 
their boasts true or of having to plead 
something like hypocrisy. Finding 
their their way into an assembly of 
Methodist-Protestants and United 
Brethren who were debating union they 
asked to be allowed to be a third party 
at the feast of combination. Since then 
every step of the negotiations has dem- 
onstrated the fact that when Christians 
really mean business in uniting, God's 
Spirit will clear away every obstacle. 
With a unanimity unparalleled, conclu- 
sions were reached and now the Con- 
gregational Churches are presented 
with a tangible Act of Union to which 
their representatives without one dis- 
senting voice have agreed. What the 
outcome will be it is hard to say. Here 
and there a number of leaders, who be- 
lieve that a Bill of Inalienable Rights 
must accompany every organic docu- 


THE FRIEND. 


ment or all is lost, have shown anxiety 
lest liberties dear to the individualist 
in religion be sacrificed because not 
guaranteed explicity in the Act of 
Union. Meantime patient kindly dis- 
cussion is busy pointing out the fact 
that the doctrine of rights has been 
learned by mankind never to be eradi- 
cated from human consciousness while 
brotherhood duties are the next lesson 
which awaits social conning. What the 
outcome will be cannot be foretold. At 
the next meeting of the National Coun- 
cil in Cleveland decisive action will be 
taken. Meantime the various State As- 
sociations are putting themselves on 
record upon this question. Hawaii has 
spoken in no uncertain voice. The ac- 
tion taken by her Association is given 
on another page. 


World-Peace. 


The Second World-Peace Congress 
will assemble at the Hague June 15. 
From all over the United States 
numerabie religious assemblies, Church 
conventions, labor unions, working- 
men’s federations, chambers of com- 
merce, boards of trade, fraternal socie- 
ties and miscellaneous associations a 
stream of cablegrams will go to the 
representatives of the Union petition- 
ing fer action that will guarantee the 
Peace of Mankind. It will be a most 
impressive exhibition of the demands of 
enlightened common people that the 
world has ever seen. Hawaii is to have 
a share in it. So the Evangelical Asso- 
ciation has decreed by its vote to re- 
quest its Board to send on June 15 the 
following cablegram: 


American Delegates, 
Peace Congress, 
The Hague. 
ninety - seven historic 
Churches petition action ensuring estab- 
lishment permanent international parlia- 


Hawaii's 


ment meeting automatically and periodic- 
ally to substitute law for war. 


It is to be hoped that Hawaii’s com- 
mercial organizations, fraternal orders, 
and labor associations will not suffer 
the Churches to be alone in this move- 
ment on behalf of Peace. The Ameri- 
can Delegates at the First Peace Con- 
egress testified that it was the multitude of 
cablegrams from the United States that 


turned the tide and made it possible to, 


carry the Congress for a Permanent 
Court of Arbitration, when it seemed 
utterly hopeless to expect any action 
whatever in this direction. 


in- | 


Fund of Experience. 


If anyone had any doubt of the wis- 
dom of the policy adopted by the Ha- 
waitan Board in 1904 which reversed 
Secretary Anderson’s famous procedure 
of missionary withdrawal instituted in 
1863, under which nearly every subsequent 
year showed a decline in the number 
of Hawaiian Church members until the 
low water mark of 3695 was reached 
when the change was made, the annual 
meeting would have convinced him not 
only with its numerical showing of 4158 
native Church members and its report 
of a net gain of 5 per cent. for 1906, but 
far more conclusively through the 
statements of experience made by the 
local missionaries, Revs. C. W. Hill, 
J. M, Lydgate AwS., Bakereyib, kk. 
B. Dodge and Mr. J. A. Rath. These 
men, who represent the policy of mis- 
sionary supervision, fresh from their 
fields brought conclusive testimony 
that a new age has dawned. Their 
optimism -was most refreshing while the 
pastors and delegates bore out their re- 
ports of vigorous life stirring every- 
where. From being the most backward 
of our racial Church groups the Ha- 
waiians have in two years stepped to 
the front. The movement bears none of 
the ear marks of spasmodic manifesta- 
tion. It has been very quiet and so 
little apparent that not until re- 
turns from all the Churches were re- 
ceived and added did any of the work- 
ers dream that the advance had been 
so general or had reached so far. The 
truth is the actual story of achievement 
surprised us all, even those who were 
most sanguine and thot they were best 
informed. 


Campaign of Evangelism. 


The most important action taken in 
many a year by the Association was to 
call upon all the Hawaiian Churches 
of the Islands to join in.an evangelistic 
movement during the months of June, 
July and August. The quiet revival in 
Kamehameha schools has resulted in a 
solemn pledge by the Christian stu- 
dents to go to their homes and work 
for Christ. This splendid company of 
workers committed to special effort 
acted as a powerful incentive upon the 
members of the Association who voted 
to request every Church to institute 
house to house visitation in order to 
reach each family in its parish. Kau- 
makapili, Wainee, Haili and Kapaa 
Churches were asked to surrender 
their pastors—Rev. Messrs. Poepoe, 
White, Desha and Kaauwai—who, 
with Evangelist Timoteo will tour the 
five large islands. Messrs. Timoteo 


and Kaauwai will work on Kauai dur-! 


ing June, while Messrs. Desha and 
Poepoe visit the Oahu Churches. In 
July Messrs. Timoteo and Desha will 
take Maui as their field, Molokai falling 
to Brothers White and Poepoe. In 
August Messrs. Desha and White will 
tour Kau and Kona while Messrs. Ti- 
moteo and Poepoe give themselves to 
the east coast of Hawaii from Puna to 


| Kohala. The evangelists will endeavor 


to reach as many homes by visitation 
as possible. All the Christians of the 
Territory are earnestly requested to re- 
member this campaign in prayer. It 
may mean large things for the Islands. 
God grant it. 


Good Things. 


The formal addresses before the As- 
sociation were so carefully prepared 
and of such a high order of excellence 
that we greatly regret our inability to 
publish them. The annual meeting is 
just closing as we go to press. Next 
inonth we hope to give a resumé of a 
number of the papers even tho we may be 
unable to print them as they were pre- 
sented. Sometime ago the Friend Edi- 
torial Board voted to issue an Educa- 
tional Number in July and therefore the 
contributions to the annual meeting will 
prove most appropriate. 


The Delaportes. 


Our title page bears the portrait of 
Central Union’s Missionary Family. It 
is an interesting group and the Church 
is to be congratulated upon being able 
to send to the field six such attrac- 
tive representatives. The home is the 
glory of modern missionary endeavor. 
The children preach the gospel often as 
powerfuliy as their parents while the 
family as a whole is the most success- 
ful agency known to Christian propa- 
ganda. We begin in this month’s issue 
a serial article by Mr. Delaporte which, 
we believe, to be of permanent value. 


Turning The First Sod. 


Mr. F. W. Damon, chairman of the 
Managers, arranged a most delightful 
and significant ceremony at _ the 
grounds of the Mid-Pacific Institute 
Friday afternoon, May. 31, on the occa- 
sion of turning the first sod for the 
foundation of the new Kawaiahao or 
Girls’ Department. The portion of the 
Institute tract where this building is to 
stand had been tastefully decorated 
with the American, Hawaiian, Chinese, 
Japanese, Korean, Portuguese and oth- 
er flags, chairs had been provided for 
managers and the ladies, and the stu- 
dents of Kawaiahao, Mills, the Jap- 
anese and Korean schools were seated 


ai 


THE FRIEND. 


on the grass about a fine algaroba tree 
where the speakers’ desk stood; while 
a fringe of Hawaiian pastors, delegates 
and friends of other nationalities formed 
an amphitheater shut in by trees atid 
backgrounded by the Manoa hills. The 
afternoon was perfect and the scene one 
of great beauty. 
by Messrs. Damon, Scudder and Wad- 
man, singing by Kawaiahao girls and 
Mills boys in English, by the Japanese 
and Korean students in their own lan- 
guages, the Kawaiahao Seminary song 
in Hawaiian was sung, prayer was offer- 
ed by Rey. O. H. Gulick and then Master 
Joseph Atherton Richards, the grandson 
of the late Joseph B. Atherton, to whose 
memory the new building is to be erect- 
ed, stepped forward and with a few 
dedicatory words turned the first sod. 
Rey. E. S. Timoteo closed with the 
benediction in Hawaiian. Thus the 
new enterprise is at last launched by 
an actual beginning of construction on 
the noble site which it is to occupy. 
The entire occasion was characterized 
by an appropriateness of utterance and 
a symbolism of participating racial 
groups that gave to it a prophetic sig- 
nificance which appealed powerfully to 
all who were present. 


Back Again. 

We welcome Rev. Mr. Thwing on his 
return from his trip to Japan and China. 
He brings a story of great interest and 
will tell our readers in July of the deep- 
est impressions made upon him by what 
he saw and learned concerning the 
progress of God’s Kingdom in the two 
Empires. Events are moving so fast in 
the Far East nowadays that it taxes 
even an alert Yankee to keep pace with 
them. It is good to have so wideawake 
a representative as Mr. Thwing to de- 
tail his experiences. He was permitted 
to have a part in the World’s Christian 
Student Federation as a spectator, in 
Japan’s National Endeavor Anniver- 
sary as a speaker and in China’s Mis- 
sion Centennial as a delegate. 


Spanish Problem. 


“We are Republicans not Catholics.” 
This was the answer that greeted a 
questioner who endeavored to find out 
the religious preferences of some of the 
2200 Spaniards lately: landed here. 
Further probing showed that the speak- 
er and his friends had shaken off the 
Roman yoke and were religious liberals 
with no very definite or fixed beliefs. 
Our Portuguese Evangelists” report 
that they find these interesting new ar- 
rivals singularly open-to the teaching 
of the truth. One account has it that 


After brief addresses| 


panied by their own priest but that he 
proved not to be a Jesuit and was of 
singularly. liberal tendencies so that he 
has been compelled to leave. We can- 
not vottch for the truth of this story. 
Work among these Spaniards is being 
forced upon our Board and will be in- 
stituted at once. We hope soon to 
have a weil stocked Spanish depart- 
ment in our book rooms, and shall be 
happy to stimulate a wide circulation 
of this literature. 


Welcome Guests. 


Rev. Warren F. Day, D. D., senior 
pastor of the First Congregational 
Church of Los Angeles, the fourth in 
size of the denomination and excluding 
Brooklyn, N. Y., the largest, has been 
spending a number of weeks in the Is- 
lands. He has been good enough to 
preach for Central Union Church sev- 
eral Sabbath mornings and has endear- 
ed himself to a wide circle of new 
friends. Fortunately he brought with 
him Mrs. Day, and coming to know 
both, Honolulans understand the secret 
of the great work these two honored 
leaders have been privileged to do. 
The combination of social and spiritual 
gifts Dr. and Mrs. Day exhibit is a 
rare one and withal full of attractive 
power. We thank their people for lend- 
ing them to us a short time and thank 
them for their willingness to give their 
days of rest to such patient kindly: en- 
deavor in seeking acquaintance with 
Christian enterprises here. Rev. Wil- 
liam barker, |r, pastor of Olivet 
Presbyterian Church, San Francisco, 
has come and gone quietly. Seeking 
recuperation after illness he was unable 
to meet many but he impressed all 
whom he touched with his genial, help- 
ful Christian manhood. We hope to 
see him again in Honolulu. 

Mrs. Susan Tolman Mills, President 
of Mills College, California, has just ar- 
rived for a short visit. Her eighty-one 
years sit lightly upon her and her former 
pupils at Punahou, grown to ripe man- 
hood and womanhood, are busy exhibit- 
ing their grandchildren to this wonderful 
Christian educator who seems to have 
drank of the fountain that lured Ponce 
de Leon to Florida. Mrs. Mills has al- 
ready charmed more than one audience 
with her gracious gifts of speech. 


The Saloon Commission. 


The liquor bill passed by our recent 
legislature promises to be a decided 
gain for stricter regulation of the traf- 
fic. It is too early yet to record results 
but by next month there will be con- 


some of the immigrants were accom- (siderable evidence as to the decrease 


in the number of saloon licenses grant- 
ed. No definite tidings have come 
from the other counties, but in Oahu 
the commissioners have started in with 
commendable public spirit. Their 
choice of Mr. W. P. Fennell for in- 
spector seems beyond criticism. The 
public have been informed that narrow 
limits are to be set to the district with- 
in which saloons will be permitted, that 
none will be licensed near the King 
street market, that men who have run 
low dives shall be barred from the 
traffic and that a large reduction in the 
number of saloons is certain. This is 
good news. Meantime the commis- 
sioners are finding their task anything 
but an easy one and some of them are 
busy agitating for local option as the 
only proper solution of the difficulty 
which besets a commission upon which 
the discretion to grant or refuse li- 
Genses, tests, It-is,. too much, to ask 
any company of five men to decide 
what the people of each precinct ought to 
determine, 1. e. whether saloons shall 
be permitted near their homes. 


The Congressional Party. 


The long-talked of delegation of Con- 
gresstnen has come and gone. They 
were well treated as all of Hawaii’s 
guests from time immemorial have 
been. They were taken over the Is- 
lands, luaued and feasted, given oppor- 
{unity to see the possibilities of the 
Territory and departed with clear no- 
tions of what in their minds Hawaii 
needs. Naturally the “small farmer” 
question was presented to them by both 
sides with great clearness and force. 
Just what the effect of this was upon 
them it is impossible to say. We have 
no doubt that the Advertiser is correct. 
Hawaii will some day become the para- 
dise of the small farmer. That day 
would be greatly hastened if some capi- 
talist would set out to do what the pro- 
moters of the banana lines of the East 
did for the West Indies. They studied 
out how to transport bananas success- 
fully, built ships for this business, paid 
cash for every bunch delivered in good 
condition at the wharf and thus forced 
the growing of this fruit. Jamaica, it 
is said, was redeemed as a result. 
Every bunch of bananas carried in the 
West Indies trade is hung. “Between 
decks” are built some four feet high. 
Pipes for heating in winter are laid and 
an even temperature is maintained. 
The grower has no responsibility be- 
yond producing the fruit and delivering 
it at the wharf in good condition. He 
is sure of his money without delay. 
The transportation company assumes 
all risks. Vessels arrive with such fre- 


THE FRIEND. 


quency. that the grower never loses ba- 
nanas by ripening between sailing 
dates. If such an enterprise should be 
inaugurated between the Pacific Coast 
and Hawaii, these Islands would fill 


with small farmers. As the trade 
is now carried on here, bananas 
for shopping are wrapped in dried 


leaves, are piled in great heaps which 
sometimes are used as sleeping places 
for steerage passengers, absolutely no 
care is taken to preserve even tempera- 
tures, the vessels sail so unfrequently 


that growers lose large quantities of) 


fruit by ripening between sailing dates, 
they are not paid for the fruit on deliv- 
ery at the vessel, much of the ship- 
ment decays en route because of the 
conditions of shipping and as a conse- 
quence the banana business is for mis- 
management ideal. 


pany studies the methods that have 
made the West Indies trade so prosper- 
ous and with such modifications as local 
conditions demand puts them into ef- 
fect. The Eastern promoters built their 
vessels so as to be able to carry tour- 
ists with comfort. They created a vast 
winter travel by charging cheap rates 
and added greatly to their profits. 
the case of Hawaii conditions of climate 
make possible a year round tourist 
trade, which at one way charges of $50 or 
a $75 return trip, would after due ad- 
vertisement crowd every steamer. Aft- 
er the movement was well under way 
many a tourist would be found remain- 
ing as small farmer. We believe some 
such development is surely in store for 
Hawaii. ‘The Pacific Coast is fast fill- 
ing with people. This Territory is the 
only banana producing section within 
easy reach through water transporta- 
tion. Americans are pronounced ba- 
nana eaters. Hawaii has rare varieties 
of this fruit which will become very 
popular. Our apple and Brazilian ba- 
nanas are susceptible of great improve- 
ment. Others should be introduced and 
will be when the demand is felt. As a 
matter of fact banana production in the 
world is in its infancy. Let Hawaii give 
scientific attention to this industry as it 
has to sugar production and its output 
will become world famous. Fortunately 
the cultivation of this fruit is essentially 
a small farmer possibility. The care 


that the owner of a small acreage can! 


give is what is required in all such fruit- 
raising if the best results are to be had. 
And what is true of this product holds 
of not a few other tropical fruits, the 
growing of which is bound to fill these 
Islands some day with a teeming popu- 
lation. 


It will continue to} 
be such until some transportation com-| 


In) 


NAURU AS IT WAS, AND AS IT 
IS NOW. 
Lv 
By Rey. Philip H. Delaporte, Mission- 
ary of the American Board and of 
Central Church, Honolulu. 

“The isles shall wait for His law.”—— 
Isa. 42-40. 

Nauru, the pleasant island, waited 
aineteen hundred years for this life- 
giving law. Whiskey, guns and other 
things of the same kind had reached 
Nauru long before the Gospel of Christ. 
The Nauru man’s conception of the 
white man in former days was anything 
but flattering. New Caledonia and 
Australia had furnished their quota of 
escaped convicts and you will believe 
me if I tell you that “Pleasant Island” 
was anything but a pleasant place to 
live in. 

Nauru, once one of the poorest 
among the isles of the sea, is.now, be- 
cause of its vast deposits of phosphate 


lof lime, one of the richest of the South 


Sea islands. It is situated but 33 miles 
south of the equator under the 163rd 
meridian East. Nothing but the cocoa- 
nut palm and the pandanus tree were 
found on the island. However, bread- 
fruit, limes, soursop and bananas have 
been introduced by the missionaries 
and the government. Rivers and creeks 
are unknown; a few wells, furnishing 
brackish water, have been dug, but 
even these fail during a prolonged dry 
season. IJuropeans depend on rain- 
water entirely. During the frequent 
droughts water is at a premium unless 
the residents on the island are supplied 
with sufficient tanks or cisterns. Har- 
bors. there arelnone. (“In the center of 
the island is a lagoon which contains 
brackish water and which the natives 
stock with fish. This lagoon, as well 
as the fish in it, is called “ebia.” The 
island rises to a height of about 270 
feet. It has been estimated that there 
are about forty million tons of phos- 
phate of lime on the island. 

Thus we have given you a picture 
of the little island which we love bet- 
ter than any spot I can think of at 
present. 

The Nauru native is well built and 
makes a fine physical appearance. In 
his original state he was not any too 
clean, but since the Gospel of Christ 
has begun its cleansing work in his 
heart he takes better care of his body 
too. 

Not long ago a trader said to us 
that he wished the “good old times” 
would come back to Nauru once more. 
But we trust these so-called “good 
times” will never return to dear old 
Nauru again. ° 


The old Gospel ts still able to change 
men and enlighten dark heathen hearts! 
Eight years ago not a single house 
could be found in which family wor- 
ship was held. Today songs of praise, 
prayers of thanksgiving, and petitions 
ean be heard going up to the Throne 
of Grace in many, many huts morning 
and night. It is a good sign of a man’s 
spirituality if he gathers his family 
around the family altar, it is a good 
sign in the well-churched homeland, it 
is even a better sign among the South 
Sea Islanders. His former master, the 
trader, loses all influence over the na- 
tive the very moment he begins family 
worship. Formerly the trader’s veran- 
da was the meeting place of the major-. 
ity of the population, but the coming 
of the missionary, has changed all this 
—instead of drinking bad gin and 
smoking worse tobacco in the trader’s 
house, the Christian natives go about 
their business and send their children 
to school and are glad when the Sab- 
bath day comes around. The Govern- 
ment and many others want to intro- 
duce the Continental Sabbath on Na- 
uru, but we pray that their efforts will 
be in vain. 

Of course if we begin to dissect the 
Nauru Christian we will find that he 
has not yet attained a state of perfec- 
tion, we will find that he still needs 
much spiritual polishing. But we be- 
lieve that he compares favorably with 
many American and European Chris- 
tians. Ils the old Nauru warrior still 
somewhat superstitious? Are some 
still afraid to go into the bush alone at 
nights fearing to meet an “eani” 
(ghost)? Why, we have many good 
people in the home land who would not 
enter a cemetery at night. We dare 
say that now and then an old Nauru 
woman consults the spirits about her 
future, on the quiet, of course; well, 
how many people go to the fortune- 
tellers to have their fortune told, pay- 
ing hard coin to be deceived? Ti a 
Nauru Christian is known to do such 
things he will be reprimanded by his 
deacon and teachers. 


However, few or none of the old cus- 
toms are found on Nauru now. Olut of 
a total population of, say, 1550, nearly 
1200 are adherents of the Protestant 
Mission, 603 are members of the 
Church and 317 children are baptized. 
Not a bad showing we think, not the 
work of man but the work of the Holy 
Spirit. 

What has God done for Nauru? Old 
things have passed away, new things 
have come. T.et us recall some of the 
old things: 


When we landed on Nauru on the 


THE FRIEND. 


) 


_ 9th day of November, 1899, and during 
the first years we were there, heathen 
darkness and superstition reigned su- 
preme. Often we saw canoe-loads of 
fine fish coming ashore, but not even 
a small one would find its way into the 
missionary’s kitchen. At last we found 
out that the white man’s frying pan 
was a terror striking article. To fry 
fish in a frying pan meant that all the 
fish would leave Nauru for a season. 
It took some time before we could 
demonstrate to the people the absurd- 
ity of the thing. The missionary can 
buy all the fish he needs now. 

The Frigate Bird was tabooed, it was 
the personification of the eani (spirits). 
To catch this bird was the great na- 
tional sport. This is a short account 
of their national game: August is here! 
The time ior the game has come. Great 
excitement prevails on the island! The 
sorcerers (amen mwaeaeo) are busy 
offering sacrifices to the particular god 
(eani or spirit) of the family, also to 
the spirits of the departed members of 
the tribe. The catchers have from now 
on until the end of the game to abstain 
from eating fish, nor can they live with 
their wives and children. The sorcer- 
ers or heathen priests consult their par- 
ticular eanis or spirits whether many 
“itsi” (frigate bird) would come or 
not. [ff the answer was in the affirma- 
tive, the old sinner and his company of 
bird-catchers would paint their faces 
with charcoal (burnt cocoanut shells) 
and proceed to the beach where the 
game was to be held. This place is 
called “Atsi.’ The accommodating 
eani would now fetch the birds along. 
With a peculiar whistle by, the ghost- 
man the birds are brought near the 
“Etaeo” or platform where the “Ewa- 
wa” or decoy birds are kept. One of 
the principal catchers has a fish in each 
hand with which he feeds the decoy 
birds thal they will not follow the wild 
birds which have just arrived. This 
man is called an “Amen Kanan” or 
bird charmer. If the wild birds are 
slow in descending the “Amen Mwae- 
eo” stands up and by means of sup- 
posed sorcery induces the birds to come 
‘down. The whole assembly now 
eagerly watches whether the efforts of 
the old deceiver are effective. If so, 
all hands get their “Abio” (sling) ready 
to lasso the birds. If one of the men 
is successful enough to catch a bird, his 
fellow catchers will hold the captured 
bird down to the ground, but not lift 
it up that the heathen priest may have 
an opportunity to practice his ‘sorcery 
@meit. if it is a. first class, bird the 
company will give three howls, if a sec- 
ond rate bird it will receive but two 


howls. een, 


The game being now properly start- 
ed, it is imperative that none of those 
engaged in it should leave the beach 
and go “Apoe” (towards the bush). 
No one is permitted to come near them. 
The catchers must neither gap nor 
stretch themselves, must not embrace 
cach other, they must not scratch them- 
selves, must not run, must not bathe in 
the ocean, must not lie in their canoes, 
must not be lazy, must not say that 
they are tired, that the birds may not 
leave the island before the game is 
over. 

If the wife of any of the catchers 
goes astray while her husband is en- 
gaged in the game, it is signified to him 
by a bird dropping its offal into the 
man’s eyes. If an abio becomes entan- 
gled it is considered a sign that the 
owner thereof is continually thinking 
of his darling wife instead of paying at- 
tention to the game. If anyone catches 
a bird with a black head he marches up 
and down the beach singing and wring- 
ing his fringe as this is considered an 
extra favor from the spirits. The strict 
law of isolation is now broken, as this 
Is guitey ay fare occurrence. ., Young 
cocoanuts are now brought from all 
parts of the island in honor of the bird 
with a black head. Thus the catchers 
are plentifully supplied with young, 
delicious nuts for many days ahead. 
The lucky catcher adorns himself with 
a beautiful bracelet made from red 
shells, paints his arms, decorates the 
basket in which the sling is kept and 
abstains from food during mornings. 
No one is permitted to sit on his mat 
and many other tabooes are made on 
such an occasion, too many to recall 
here. 

The game is kept up until thirty birds 
are caught. When the number of birds 
has been secured the catchers will re- 
main for three days longer on the 
beach, but return to their homes on the 
evening of the third day. A big feast 
and dance are the order of the day now. 
The feathers of possible dead birds are 
given to the wives and daughters of 
the men engaged in the game. The 
birds were hoiy and could not be eaten, 
-—but happily those days are past, ta- 
booes and immoral customs have dis- 
appeared and the frigate birds is now 
caught as an additoin to their scant 
feod supply. It was hard work to con- 
vince the people to do so, but when old 
Naboub, the great Menen chief, and his 
wife, E Dae, had killed and eaten one 
of these birds, the ice was broken. 
When no serious consequences attend- 
ed this, in their eyes, awful blasphemy, 
every one began to catch birds for 
sport and focd only. 

(To be continued. ) 


HAWAIL MUST BE FORTIFIED. 


Not far distant, we may dimly hope, 
is the day when the nations “shall not 
learn war any more.” But that day 
has not yet shown signs of arriving. 
More actively now than ever are the 
nations jearning the arts of war. 
Barely one long ocean stride beyond us 
one great competitor in the art has just 
come to the front in heavy mail, and 
vearly growing mightier in arms. 

We do not believe that war will ever 
actually arise between America and 
Japan, who confront each other across 
the Pacific. The relations of the two 
nations are cordially friendly, and 
never should become otherwise. May 
the Divine mercy prevent two such 
great powers from so needlessly rush- 
ing at each other’s throats! There 
ought never to arise any bitter con- 
troversy between them. Yet in the 
perversity of human passions there is 
no lack of danger of such an evil. 
Mere ordinary prudence demands of 
America the diligent adoption of every 
possibie defensive precaution against 
the danger of such a war. 

At the time when America hastily 
consummated the annexation of Hawaii 
in 1898, the immediate apprehension 
felt was that of a possible attack upon 
our mid-Pacific commerce by the navy 
of Spain at Manila, which was soon 
proved to be so feeble. Hawaii was 
felt to be the central point of defense. 
Japan was then unthought of as a 
source of danger, having acquired no 
naval or commercial reputation. Rus- 
sia had begun to be looked at with some 
apprehension, as she was actively push- 
ing forward as a Pacific power, with 
her great naval ports of Port Arthur 
and Vladivostok. But in seven short 
years Japan came to the front, vic- 
torious alike on land and sea, and has 
become so thoroughly equipped with 
all the elements of military and naval 
power as to constitute an extremely 
dangerous enemy. It has become, from 
a military point of view, an urgent 
duty to defend the Pacific Coast of 
America against all possible danger 
from such a source. Such defense is 
the surest guaranty of continued peace. 

It must be understood that the vital 
point of competition is not at all the 
holding of commercial superiority in 
the Pacific Ocean, which America until 
lately has looked upon as her natural 
inheritance. With her growing popu- 
lation and enormous wealth, America 
has expected to dominate in the mari- 
time traffic of this great ocean so new- 
ly opened to commerce. But of late 
Japan has undergone a wonderful mari- 
time development. With admirable 


THE FRIEND. 


energy, she is demonstrating her capac- 
ity for taking the leadership in the 
commerce of the Pacific, for which she 
is unmistakably reaching out. For it 
she possesses some great advantages 
over the United States. The greatest 
doubtless, is Japan’s possession of a 
very large, capable, and cheaply-hired 
sea-going population. As an island 
kingdom, surrounded by productive 
fisheries. Japan has an immense sea- 
coast population, trained for ages to be 
at home in stormy seas. Although 
America is not lacking in such a mari- 
time class, still her population is main- 
ly continental, unacquainted with the 
ocean. 

And then the current wages of the 
Japanese are iow. Their ships can be 
manned for less than half the price 
which America must pay. It is impos- 
sible to compete with ships manned at 
such low wages, and by capable sea- 
men. It is perhaps true that compe- 
tent Chinese sailors and firemen could 
be supplied to American ships at equal- 
ly low rates; but the labor unions re- 
lentlessly forbid resort to any such ex- 
pedient, which perhaps other strong 
reasons may render unwise. Then asa 
builder of steamships both mercantile 
and naval, Japan has recently been 
demonstrating the highest capacity. 
Already she is practically independent 
of foreign aid in increasing her navies 
of war and peace, which are assuming 
most formidable dimensions. 

The question then is not at all that 
of preventing Japan from’ dominating 
the mercantile traffic of the Pacific. Tf 
by peaceful means and superior advan- 
tages she is able to do that, it is her 
right, and America has only to con- 
cede her superiority. But the present 
great problem is for the United States 
to sectire immunity from naval assaults 
of their own Pacific Coast, and from 
warlike destruction of such proportion 
of commerce as remains to them, espe- 
cially of their great coasting trade 
along the Pacific. Japan is doubtless 
not, now inclined to hostility, or con- 
templating a probable war. upon 
America. But she is a spirited nation 
and also a very impulsive one. It is 
only common prudence to be thorough- 
ly fortified against dangerous possibili- 
ties. 

It has long since come to be general- 
ly accepted by military and naval 
authorities that Hawaii is the one 
great strategic point for the defense of 
the American Pacific Coast. Any hos- 
tile power operating from the Orient is 
seven thousand miles away and too re- 
mote for hostile action, that distance 
being far beyond any possible steam- 
ing radius of warships. But Hawaii is 


at the convenient distance of only two 
thousand miles from the American 
coast. An enemy in possession of this 
convenient outpost can deliver attacks 
with every advantage for the destruc- 


tion of ports, cities, and the coasting 


trafic. And then Hawaii is isolated, 
and has no competitor as a position for 
either attack or defense of the Coast. 

Hawaii's greatest qualification for 
being securely occupied by either 
America or America’s enemy consists 
in our singular possession of one of the 
best land-locked harbors of the globe, 
namely Pearl Harbor in this island of|z 
Oahu. It is not needful here to de- 
scribe this harbor. Once properly 
cleared and fortified, it can be held in- 
definitely against any force capable of 
being brought against it. With proper 
docking facilities and naval workshops, 
it will constitute America’s great 
haven of refuge and repair for her Pa- 
cific fleets and commerce. At the same 
time it will be America’s permanent 
outpost of defense against the approach 
of an enemy against her Western 
Coast. 

It remains for America to complete 
the preparations for this essential de- 
fense which have so far barely been 
begun. As they now stand they serve 
only as a temptaton to induce any de- 
termined enemy to make a timely seiz- 
ure of them. Happily no such enemy 
yet exists, or seems likely soon to ap- 
pear. Whenever Pearl Harbor is com- 
pletely improved and occupied, it will 
constitute the strongest possible guar- 
anty against the arising of any such an 
enetny. Pearl Harbor is the natural 
Malta of this larger Mediterranean, the 
North Pacific. In the interests of 
Peace, let it be occupied and fortified, 
with all speed. 

Ss: 


MAD Tel? PNG CEUN A. 


[Through the kindness of Mrs. J. **. 
Atherton we are permitted to ches 
two letters written by Mr. J. L. Mott 
concerning his recent trip in China. 
Except for the omission of super and 
sub-scriptions the letters are given en- 
tire —Ed. j 

On my way to Japan I write to tell 
vou a few things about the busy five 
weeks spent in China. Attention was 
concentrated on the eight great cen- 
ters: Hongkong, Canton, Shanghai, 
Soochow, Nanking, Hankow, Peking 
and ‘Tientsin-—cities averaging about 
cne million inhabitants and each being 
a point of commanding commercial, 
political and educational influence. The 
almost fauitless preparations which had 


been made enahled me to accomplish . 


more in these few weeks than I could 
have done in a much longer period a 
few years ago before our Association 
movement was established. 

An event of capital importance was 
the National Convention held in Shang- 
hai. We limited the attendance to 
about three hundred and fifty men, but 
these were so carefully selected that 
the number included the very flower of 
the Chinese Christian Church so far as 
men are concerned. Twelve of the 
eighteen provinces were represented as 
well as Manchuria, Hongkong, Korea 

and Japan, besides fraternal delegates 
from nine distant nations. The “Chi- 
nese personnel was so strong and rep- 
resentative that this convention stands 
out as the most remarkable gathering 
of Oriental Christians ever held. TIT 
could not but contrast it with the first 
convention of our movement in China, 
which was held over ten years ago dur- 
ing my first visit to the Far East when 
we were organizing the movement. 
The first gathering had a little over 
thirty delegates; this one had over 
three hundred. A majority of the dele- 
gates at the first convention were for- 
eigners, all but two or three scores of 
the delegates this year were Orientals. 
The officers and members of commit- 
tees in the first convention were nearly 
all foreigners ; in this convention all the 
officers were Chinese and also all ex- 
cept one or two members of the work- 
ing committees. With but one or two 
exceptions, the speakers in the first con- 
vention were foreigners; in this gath- 
ering, with the exception of the three 
addresses I was invited to give, all the 
main speeches were made by Orientals. 
At the first convention one was con- 
scious that we were feeling our way; 
this year one had constant evidence 
that the movement had found itself, 
that it had a clearly defined goal and 
that it was pressing toward that goal 
with aggressive enthusiasm. The As- 
sociation movement has become indi- 
genous in China. I am fully persuaded 
that were it to die out in America and 
Europe it exists with such vitality and 
propagating power in China that it 
would ultimately spread from that 
country back to the West. An advance 
policy was outlined, thoroughly dis- 
cussed and unanimously adopted. 
Among other things, this calls for set- 
ting apart an able Chinese secretary 
to cultivate the Christian colleges and 
schools; the devoting of at ledge two 
able men to work among the students 
of the hundreds of government and 
gentry schools which are springing up 
on every hand; the commissioning of — 
an experienced Chinese leader to extend 
the movement among the Chinese colo- 


‘ 
' 
4 


THE FRIEND. 


nies in the Philippines, the Straits Set- 
tlements, the East Indies, 
Africa, the Hawaiian Islands, and the 
Western Coast of America; the allocat- 
ing of at least two Chinese scholars to 
devote themselves to meeting the clam- 
ant need for Christian literature for 
young men; the conducting of an ag- 
gressive campaign to influence Chinese 
students of capacity to devote their 
lives to Christian work; the laying of 
special stress on the enlisting and 
training of Chinese leaders for the scc- 
retaryship; the maintaining of the a4- 
mitted primacy of the Association 
movement in the Bible study develoo- 
ments throughout the Chinese Empire; 
and the sounding out of the note of 
evangelism on behalf of the most. in- 
fluential classes of men. 

My private conference with the In- 
ternational Association secretaries, at 
which we considered exhaustively a 
program for the next five years in the 
work of the Associations of the Far 
East, was in some respects of even 
greater importance than the Conven- 
tion. This was supplemented by un- 
hurried interviews with each of the 
twenty-five secretaries concerning his 
own work, relationships and plans. I 
went into matters even more extensive- 
iy with the national leaders, Brockman 
and Lyon, one or both of whom travel- 
ed with me during my entire visit in 
their field. The word statesmanlike is 
a much abused term and yet it applies 
with aptness to the policy of these two 
men who have already accomplished a 
work out of all proportion to their 
years. 

Wherever possible I threw myself 
with the keenest interest into the work 
of evangelism. While there was not 
time to conduct as many meetings of 
this character as one would have liked, 
those which were held ranked among 
the most fruitful in my experience. 
These meetings in the different places 
averaged in attendance over one thou- 
sand young men, and the work of in- 
vitation was so well carried out that 
the audience were composed of picked 
young men of the most important 
classes. Not a gathering was held 
which did not crowd the largest hall 
which could be obtained. In two cities 
large temporary pavilions were erected 
for this special purpose. Each meet- 
ing, including the time I devoted to 
the process of sifting out the inquirers 
and anchoring impressions, lasted three 
hours. Notwithstanding the handicap 
of being obliged to do everything 
through interpreters, the intense atten- 
tion and responsiveness of these audi- 
ences was of such a character as to be 
inexplicable apart from the working of 


South | 


the supernatural Spirit of God. Bion 
forty to seventy young men in connec-, 
tion with each meeting stood the final 
test indicating their desire and purpose 
to become earnest disciples of Jesus 
Christ. Gratifying as are such results, 
some think that an even more helpful 
influence of these evangelistic cam- 
paigns has been the quickening of hun- 
dreds of the Chinese Christian workers 
and the strengthening of their faith to 
expect the immediate cooperation of 
God in work of this kind. As I recall 
my experiences in different parts of 
China on the occasion of my visit five 
years ago and the one ten years ago, 
this recent tour has given unmistakable 
evidence of a great ripening of the field 
unto harvest. Seldom, if ever, have I 
been in a country where I found all of 
the influential classes of young men so 
accessible, so open-minded and so re- 
sponsive. I need not tell you that it is 
a matter of regret to me that I was un- 
able to tarry longer in this field which 
presents such a marvelous concentra- 
tion of opportunity for the most endur- 
ing work—that of relating men to, 
Jesus Christ as Lord. There is one 
other point in connection with my visit 
to China, but I shall write you con- 
cerning that a few days later. 


In accordance with my promise I 
write regarding one aspect of my visit 
to China which I did not have time to, 
describe in my last letter. As you 
doubtless know, the general attitude of, 
(Chinese government officials has not 
been favorable to Christianity. In view 
of the enormous difficulties which they, 
are in a position to place in the path-} 
way of the work of Christ if they are 
actively hostile and, on the other hand, 
in view of the great help they can ren- 
der to the spread of Christianitv if they 
are even passively sympathetic, and 
particularly in view of the efforts being, 
made by the Chinese revolutionists 
among the Chinese students in Tokyo 
as well as elsewhere to use the Asso- 
ciation to advance their purpose, it 
seemed wise for me to give special at- 
tention to cultivating prominent and 
influential members of the govern-! 
ment. In this connection I had some 
interesting and, I trust, helpful experi- 
ences. 

While in Peking our Association 
leader, Mr. Gailey, brought it about so 
that four of the leading members of the 
Wai Wu Pu or the Imperial Foreign 
Office gave a dinner in honor of my 
visit at the home of His Excellency Na 
Tong. Among those present were 
Prince Pu Lun, two presidents and two 
vice-presidents of the Board of Foreign 
Affairs, the president and two vice- 


lleading officials. 


presidents of the Board of Education, 
the president of the Board of War, the 
president of the Board of the Interior, 
and the president of the Board of Im- 
periol Customs. Three were members 
of the Grand Council. At least four 
were Hanlins; that is, men holding the 
highest possible literary degrecs. 
Brockman, Gailey and Walter Lowr'e 
were with me. We were told that this 
was the first time that private citizers 
of any country have been received in 
this way. During the dinner I was 
asked to speak and gave a short address 
on the important relation which the 
Association sustains to the best life of 
the nations both in the Olccident and 
Orient, emphasizing especially its work 
among the educated classes. It was a 
rare opportunity to meet in a personal 
way the most powerful group of men 
in the Empire and I sought to improve 
it by doing all I could to make clear 
our attitude and methods. This will 
doubtless be of special help to the As- 
sociation which is soon to be organized 
in Peking under Gailey’s leadership 
and backed by Princeton men. 

In Tientsin, the most progressive 
city of China, Gailey had also arranged 
for a tiffin to be given in connection 
with our visit, attended by most of the 
This afforded me a 
further opportunity to make known in 
a public way as well as in conversation 
the principles of our movement. Most 
of these men have already been so fav- 
orably impressed by the actual work 
done in Tientsin that they have be- 
come sttpporters of the work. The 
same is also true of Yuan Shi Kai, pos- 
sibly the most influential Viceroy in 
China. 

An even more important opportunity 
came to me in Tientsin. The depart- 
ment of education of the Province of 
Chihli, which has the most advanced 
educational policy of any of the pro- 
vinces, invited me to give a lecture un- 
der their auspices. They took entire 
charge of all the arrangements. The 
Jecture was given in one of the large 
government buildings. They had pres- 
ent over three hundred prominent men 
including nearly all of the head officials 
of the educational department, the 
superintendents and directors of educa- 
tion and the professors and teachers of 
the government colleges and schools. 
Tn addition they admitted some 1700 of 
the more mature students from the 
various government colleges. The 
president of the Imperial University 
presided. I spoke for over an hour on 
“The Aims of Education.” I devoted 
over one-half of my address to the 
ethical side of education and gave spe- 
cial attention to showing the vital ser- 


10 


THE FRIEND. 


vice which the Association renders talaeen interest in my address on “Why to the comparative merits of the two 


the cause of education by promoting 
the morai and religious development, of 
the students. At the close of the ad- 
dress the president of the Imperial Uni- 
versity not only endorsed the positions 
I had laid down, but urged upon the 
teachers and students personally, the 
claims of what I had said. After the 
audience was dismissed the Commis- 
sioner of L’;ducation of the province and 
the president of the Imperial Univers- 
ity had me spend two hours with them 
‘discussing educational problems. One 
of the main subjects of conversation 
was the attitude of the government to- 
ward Christian colleges in China. I 
regard this as one of the most impor- 
tant opportunities which has ever come 
to me, especially as this particular pro- 
vince is setting the pace for the whole 
Empire in educational matters. 

At Nanking, the ancient capital of 
China, the Viceroy, Tuan Fang, who 
is one of the three most influential Vice- 
roys of China, kindly arranged for us 
to call upon him. He was Governor of 
Shensi at the time of the Boxer war 
and, contrary to the Imperial orders, 
protected the lives of the missionaries. 
He was a member of the Imperial Com- 
mission which visited America last 
year. He is at the head of three pro- 
vinces and has power of life and death 
over more people than are ruled by the 
President of the United States. Brock- 
man, Lyon and Pettus went with me. 
The Viceroy had present the forty 
leading officials of his Viceroyalty to 
meet us. I spent an hour alone with 
him in conversation on various topics 
related to education, the Association 
and Christian missions. He also had 
his Commissioner of Education join us 
to discuss certain subjects. I invited 
the Viceroy to send a representative to 
the National Convention of Young 
Men’s Christian Associations of China, 
Korea and Hongkong to be held a few 
days later in Shanghai. He cordially 
accepted the invitation, expressing re- 
egret that he could not come himself. 
He sent a. very fine man as his personal 
representative who attended every ses- 
sion throughout the four days and who 
spoke helpfully on two occasions. This 
is the first time that a Christian gather- 
ing in China has received such distin- 
guished recognition and is highly; sig- 
nificant. 

In Shanghai a dinner was given, at- 
tended by a large company of Chinese 
men who are foremost in the commer- 
cial and social life of this gateway city 
which is in very truth the New York 
and San Francisco combined of the 
Chinese Empire. The wealthiest men 
of the city were present and evinced 


{ 


We Believe in the Young Men’s Chris-' dates but it was finally agreed that pas- 
tian Association?’ A good proof of sion. week was a more appropriate 
this is that during the next day or two,'time if the Hawaiian Board or some 
two or three of their number gladly, as-;one would post them as to the time and 


sumed responsibility for providing the 
$30,000 Mexican additional needed for 
the enlarged Association jot and equip- 
ment. 

‘hese experiences in themselves il- 
lustrate the vast change which has 
come over China since my last visit five 
years ago. In fact I found a new 
China. The proudest and most seclud- 
ed nation under heaven has begun to 
go to school to the rest of the world on 
a scale which has never characterized 
any other nation. The revolution of 
her ancient educational system has 
been nothing less than marvelous. The 
spirit of nationalism is gathering mo- 
mentum on every hand. The influen- 
tial classes are open to truth of all kinds 
as never before. In my judgment we 
shail see reproduced in China during 
the next ten years on a colossal scale 
what has actually taken place in Japan 
during the past thirty years. Never in 
the history of the human race has there 
been a spectacle of such vast numbers 
of people bringing about so radical 
changes. Talk about crises is certainly 
overdone, but there is no shadow of 
doubt that the present is the time of 
times in the life of this Empire, wheth- 
er one has in mind education, politics, 
or religion. It is of first importance 
that Christianity assume and continue 
the leadership of educational work and 
of efforts to impress the influential 
classes. What is done in the next five 
years will be vastly more important 
than what is done in the subsequent 
fifteen years. The Association because 
of its platform and methods is in a 
position to do more than any other 
agency to influence the three most im- 
portant classes; namely the govern- 
ment officials, the government students 
and the men of money power. 


ASSOCIATION’S SPRING 
MEETING. 


KAUAI 


The sessions were unusually lively 
this year and developed several spirited 
discussions. 

The week of prayer, changed from 
the first week of January to Holy week, 


'was observed by only one Church, 


‘the subjects. 

‘There was some uncertainty as to the 
collections for the Hawaiian Board. 
Fornierly Kauai has been giving a cer- 
tain sum: which has been apportioned 
among the individual Churches. This 
iast year we have been requested to take 
up two special collections to be divided 
between- the Hawaiian and American 
Boards. This was condemned by some 

us an innovation of the secretary, but 
| was finally shown to be in pursuance 
of a resolution of the general associa- 
tion at its last session. Are these spe- 
cial collections meant to supersede and 
take the place of the former granis 
from the Churches or are they in addi- 
tion to these grants? The local agent 
of the Board recommended them by 
all means to continue these grants until 
there was some assurance that they 
ere superseded. 
A request from Rev. E. S. Timoteo 
for further aid towards the expenses of 
the General Association in Honolulu, 
in addition to the $5.00 expected from 
each Church, called forth a good deal of 
discussion. Why is it that in former 
years there was no demand on the 
country churches, and now they have 
to pay $5.00 each and that isn’t enough, 
they must get up concerts and serenad- 
ing parties to raise more money? For- 
merly the Board took a friendly and 
generous interest in the Hawaiians and 
were ready to help them. Of late years 
most of the interest and all the money 
has been turned in other directions; 
when the poor Hawaiian pastor goes 
to Honolulu to attend the annual Asso- 
ciation he must take his own fish and 
poi along with him. 

In response it was pointed out that 
the demands on the Board had greatly 
increased of late years. While the 
facilities for entertaining the delegates 
had decreased so that it was an increas- 
ingly difficult problem. The Churches 
last year responded very imperfectly to 
,the call so that only a three days’ en- 
\tertainment was available had not out- 
side aid been extended. It was finally 
'decided to raise money, by means of a 
concert in Honolulu at the time of the 


’ 


|W 


| 
| meeting. 


A veiled appeal for financial assist- 


Lihue Union, which reported a very' 


|profitable and interesting series of ance made by S. Hyen of the Methodist 


meetings. “The Hawaiian pastors com- Korean work in Lihue in order that he 
plained that there were no longer lists, might return to his native land was 


)of subjects prepared as in former years responded to with characteristic gene- 


and they were at a loss to know when jrosity by a proposition to appoint Rev. 
the time came or what the subjects|J. M. Lydgate a committee to solicit 
were. There was some discussion as'itunds for this purpose. Mr. Lydgate, 


THE FRIEND. 


however, declined to be appointed for 
this purpose, claiming that this was an 
unwatranted and discourteous interfer- 
ence in the affairs of the Methodist 
Mission, Until we knew something of 
Mr. Wadman’s attitude toward the 
matter it would be wise to tend to our 
own affairs—-the more so as there were 
indications of strained relations be- 
tween Mr. Hyen and his _ superiors. 
The matter was finally dropped. 

The Hawaiian pastor at Waimea ap- 
pealed for the speedy ordination of Mr. 
Yee Kui worker under the Board in 
the Chinese field at Waimea. He had 
been licensed at the last Association 
and it was proposed to ordain him now 
without further examination and in the 
absence of the head of the Chinese de- 
partment, Rev. E. W. Thwing. An or- 
dination committee was appointed but 
this committee was so strongly im- 
pressed with the inadvisability of such 
precipitate action that they reported in 
favor of postponement until Mr. 
Thwing’s return. 

There was a surprising unanimity of 
sentiment in favor of allowing unli- 
censed and uneducated practitioners to 
experiment on the unfortunate lepers 
at Kalawao. The Board of Health was 
occupying a dog in the manger position 
—they wouldn’t do anything them- 
selves—nor let any one else. Special- 
ists came from all over the world—and 
madeja great show‘of wisdom and skill, 
took samples and specimens and went 
away again and nothing more was ever 
heard of them. The regular practi- 
tioners were powerless. Why not give 
the men who stood ready: to do some- 
thing a chance?’ 

In response it was pointed out that a 
man wouldn’t turn over a delicate and 
valuable watch to a blacksmith to re- 
pair but to a trained watchmaker. The 
bodies of the unfortunate lepers at Ka- 
lawao were infinitely more valuable and 
delicate than watches, and we ought 
not to turn them over to every ignor- 
ant bungler to experiment on. If the 
specialist and the regular practitioner 
could do nothing it was certain that 
the ordinary man wholly ignorant of 
the human organism couldn’t, and it 
would be the height of inhumanity to 
expose the poor lepers to the ignorant 
bungling of such practitioners. No ac- 
tion was taken in the matter. 

On the whole it was a most inter- 
esting and profitable meeting. 


Jods 


II 


EVANGELICAL AASSOGIATION 
ON TRIUNION. 


Honolulu, T. H., May 29, 1907. 


To the National Council of The Con- 
gregational Churches of the Unit- 
ed States: 


The Hawaiian Evangelical Associa- 
tion, assembled in its eighty-fifth an- 
nual meeting at Honolulu, 
sendeth greeting. 

Having learned with great joy of the 
movement towards union which for the 


past few years has stirred the hearts! 


of the members of the Methodist Pro- 
testant, United Brethren and Congre- 
gational Churches, believing that this 
movement was born of the Holy Spirit 
and has from its birth consistently evi- 
denced His guidance, and realizing 
that the occasion in which to justify 
our professions now confronts us, who, 
as a denomination of believers, have 
long declared both our desire to be 
used of Ged as a factor in the answer 
of our Lord’s prayer for union and the 


peculiar fitness of our polity and_his-|} 


tory, to serve as a denominational 
solvent, we, the Pastors and Delegates 
of the ninety-seven Churches of Ha- 


wail, respectfully petition you to take) 


such action as shall facilitate the pro- 
posed consolidation of these three com- 
panies of Christian disciples. 


Since the time of their founding our) 


Churches have been singularly free 
from denominationalism, not a few of 
them bear the name of “Union,” and 
they have consistently striven with 
large success to keep sectarian narrow- 
ness out of these fair Islands. The 
blessings of this condition of few com- 
peting communions are apparent ev- 
erywhere here and form one of the 
unique features of local Christian ex- 
perience. What we enjoy we wish to 
see prevail throughout the country, 
leading on to the final realization of 
our Lord’s ambition for all His dis- 
ciples. 

We hold ourselves in readiness to in- 
stitute whatever alterations in name 
may be necessary to carry into local 
effect the Act of Union, provided the 
three denominations adopt it. These 
seem to be the only changes the union 
would require of us. The doctrinal 
platform and the treatment of vested 
interests call for no modifications of ex- 
isting features of our Church life. As 
to polity, although we have no declara- 
tions with reference to the autonomy 
of the local Church in the constitutions 
of our ecclesiastical organizations in 
these Islands, we have the thing itself, 
and there is nothing in the Act of 


Union threatening to deprive us of it. 


ys Et | 


~— 


We prefer the reality to any academic 
assertions concerning it. Ministerial 
standing here rests with the local as- 
sociations and until they surrender this 
prerogative, which the Act of Union is 
not understood to require them to do, 
we know no power, except that of our 
Master to whom all authority hath 
been given, that can take it away. 

We believe that the time for putting 
union into effect has come. The prac- 
tise of this great virtue, so near to our 
Lord’s heart, is the demand of the 
hour. If the three denominations 
adopt the Act of Union and begin to 
work upon it, experience will teach 
what modifications may be wise. Our 
own denomination, which, outnumbers 
both of the other parties to the union, 
has no need to fear any deprivation of 
bloodbought liberties. The visible 
Church of Jesus Christ in the world is 
in far more danger of loss of influence, 
if not of real life, through unwilling- 
ness to progress towards effective com- 
bination, whither God’s Spirit and our 
age so clearly point, than through the 
pugbear of lost rights. 

Wherefore in the faith that the 
Great Head of the Church is leading 
His Congregational followers into 
larger life through the open door, on 
the threshold of which they now are 
standing, we advocate entering boldly 
this realm of opportunity by the adop- 
tion of the Act of Union. 


FOR THE HAWAIIAN EVANGEL- 
ICAL ASSOCIATION. 

HeNrY H. PARKER, 

Moderator. 

Epwarp K. LILIKALANI, 

Scribe. 
DorEMUS SCUDDER, 

Corresponding Secretary. 


GREAT WORD! FROM A GREAT 
MAN. 


Carroli D. Wright, U. S. Commis- 
sioner of Labor, recently said: “I have 
looked intc a thousand homes of the 
laboring people of Europe; I do not 
know how many in this country. I 
have tried to find the best and the 
worst. And while, as I say, 1am aware 
that the worst exist, and as bad as un- 
der any system and as bad as in any 
age, I have never had to look beyond 
the inmates for the cause; and, in every 
case, so far as my own observation 
goes, drunkenness was at the bottom 
of the misery, and not the industrial 
system or the industrial conditions sur- 
rounding the men and their families.” 


I2 


THE FRIEND. 


NEW MEMORIAL WINDOW. 


A recent issue of a paper published 
in Danbury, Connecticut, contains the 
following item: 

There has been placed in one of the 
north windows of the First Congrega- 
toinal Church a beautiful stained glass 
window, the work of the Tiffany Stu- 
dios, New York, which will be seen 
with a great deal of interest by the peo- 
ple of the Church tomorrow, and makes 
a splendid addition to the interior dec- 
orations of the Church auditorium. 

The window is the gift of Charles 
Montague Cooke, of Honolulu, Hawaii, 
who gave it in memory of his parents, 
who went to those islands as mission- 
aries many vears ago. At the bottom 
of the window is the following inscrip- 
tion: 


In Memoriam 


Amos Starr Cooke and his wife Juliette 
Cooke, 


Missionaries to the Hawaiian Islands in 


1836. 


The giver of the window has not 
seen it himseif, for A. Cooke Seeley, of 
this city, acted as his agent in securing 
it! tas onepof the finest works of the 
Tiffany Studios, aud its cost was about 
one thousand dollars. 

The picture in the glass is that of 
“The Sower,”’ a representation of the 
parable of the sower as told by the 
Christ and recorded in -the gospels. 
The colorings are harmonious and per- 
fectly in keeping with the other win- 
dows in the Church. It represents a 
man in the garb of a Hebrew spreading 
seed upon a field, taking the seed from 
a small bag which he carries at his 
side. The window is protected on the 
outside by a covering of glass a quar- 
ter of an inch in thickness. 


FALSE BIOLOGY AND FATAL-|? 


ISM. 


i. 
By John T. Gulick. 


Herbert Spencer rests his denial of 
the ireedom of the human will on the 
biological assumption that all vital 
activities are predetermined by activi- 
ties in the environment. (See Princi- 
ples of Psychology, sec. 220.) In his 
Principles of Biology sections 169 and 
170, we read: “At first, changes in the 
amounts and combinations of external 
inorganic forces, astronomic, geologic, 
and meteorologic were the only causes 
of the successive changes undergone 
by organisms. In time however, the 


action of organisms on one another be- 
came new sources of organic modifica- 
tions.” And again: “That there may 
be continuous changes in organism, 
there must be continuous changes in 
incident forces.” 

It is evident that if our natural pow- 
ers and our present conditions are so 
determined by the environment that 
we can produce but-one set of actions, 
then no effort on our part, either in- 
dividual er collective, can in the least 


the struggle for life among irrational 
creatures who are the environment, and 
the other class varying so as to be the 
inost pleasing to man, and through his 
care and protection gaining a chance to 
live and propagate. The one class 
adapt themseives to the natural (or 
irrational) environment, the other class 
to the rational environment. In either 
case change in the character of the selec- 
tion may be produced through change in 
the organism, without any change im the 


affect the result; for we cannot change | environment. 


our circummetanees without acting and 


cord 


I will now refer to cases that illus- 


our actions are already determined by ‘trate and prove this statement. 


our circumstances. 


We now raise the question, whether | Selection and $ 


It shouid be noted that Natural 
Sexual Selection the two 


the assumption on which Herbert | forms of selection discussed by Darwin 


Spencer founds his philosophy, and 
which has been accepted without ques- 
tion by many biologists, is in accord 
with the facts of biology. 

Is it true that change in the character 
of the selection affecting any organic 
group is wholly determined by change in 
the activities surrounding the group? 
Or can change in the selection be ini- 
tiated and maintained through change in 
the organism, without any change in the 
environment ? 

(1) External nature furnishes the 
means and the occasions but not the 
cause. Can any thing be surer than 
that through the activities of the or- 
eanism changes in its relations to the 
environment are often produced; and 
that through these changes the charac- 
ter of its survival is changed, and so 
the character of its selection. It is by 
virtue of its power to strive for the con- 
tinuance of its life that an organism is 
an organism ; and selection is the direct 
result of varying degrees of survival in 
the exercise of this power. We See, 
therefore, that the doctrine, common 
amongst a certain class of evolutionists, 
that the environment makes the or- 
ganism, rests on a false assumption. 
One cause of this assumption has been 
the habit of speaking of the transform- 
ing power of selection as if it were quite 
distinct from the power of variation; 
whereas the diversity of survival, which 
is diversity of selection, is the direct 
result of the varying adaptation of the 
organism. The transforming power of 
selection is the direct result of variation 
and heredity, with the elimination of 
the less fit. 


If we wish to draw a true parallel be- 
tween Natural Selection and Artificial 
(or rational) Selection, we must con- 
sider both wild and domestic creatures 
as gaining opportunity for propagation 
by adapting themselves to the environ- 
ment; the one class varying so as to be 
the best able to perpetuate its kind in 


belong to widely different spheres of 
action, and, as I have elsewhere shown, 
there are other forms of ‘selection of 
equal importance with these, arising in 
each of these spheres. Natural Selec- 
tion is one form of Environal Selection, 
the changes of which are determined by 
changes in the natural environment. 
Another form of Environal Selection is 
Artificial Selection, the changes of 
which are determined by changes in the 
rational environment surrounding the 
species. «A third form of Environal 
Selection is what I have called Endono- 
mic Selection, diverse forms of which 
are determined by different methods of 
using the same environment adopted by 
isolated branches of the same species. 
The valleys of Manoa and Nuuanu, 
though oniy about three miles apart, 
present a greater difference in vegeta- 
tion than that found between Manoa 
and Kawailoa, (in the district of Wai- 
alua,) which are twenty) miles apart; 
but the divergence in the species of 
snails of the genus Achatinella, occu- 
pying these valleys, varies according to 
the number of ridges by which they ; are 
separated, and not according to the con- 
ditions to which they are exposed. The 
largest species of the genus are found 
in Manoa and Makiki clinging to the 
trunks of the ohia and kukui trees 
while their nearest of kin in Waialua, 
are much smaller, are of different forms 
and colors, and have deserted the 
trunks of the larger trees to live on the 
lobelia and other shrubs. 
Several species of birds found in 
North America have changed or are 
now in the process of changing, their 
relations to the environment, in such a 
way as to introduce themselves to new 
forms of selection. One is the cliff 
swallow, which, instead of plastering 
its nest against the roof of a cave or 
hole in a cliff, attaches it to the over- 
hanging eaves of a house. Another is 
the chimney swift. We know that be- 
fore the coming of Europeans these 


THE FRIEND. 


ae ee a ey 13 


EXPERIENCES OF A NATURALIST—A PERILOUS LANDING. 


birds chose hollow trees as the appro- 
priate places for their nests, but now 
most of the species have deserted the 
hollow trees, and established them- 
selves in the chimneys. 


The influence of habits in determin- 
ing new relations to the environment 
is well illustrated by a colony of cats 
on Tarpon Island, rear the mouth of 
the Mississippi river. One of the most 
decided instincts of the ordinary: cat is 
to avoid immersion in water or any 
other liquid. He dislikes to wet even 
his feet; but there may arise conditions 
under which he will use his paws in 
drawing food out of the water. More 
than one has learned to help himself to 
cream placed in an open jar, by thrust- 
ing his paw into the liquid and then 
licking off what adheres. Some have 
learned to skim pans of milk in a simi- 
lar way, and others have become 
adepts in fishing for gold fish kept in 
glass globes. These undoubted exam- 


ples of the partial overcoming of their 


natural aversion, makes it easier to be- 
lieve the account given by the New 
Orleans ‘Times-Democrat concerning 
the Tarpon Island cats. Their separa- 
tion from other families of cats has 
allowed of their establishing their 
habits of feeding on entirely new lines 
of tradition, for they all wade freely in 
the shallow waters of the beach hunting 
for small fish, and three or four of the 
bolder ones swim off to oyster boats 
lying at anchor near by. ‘This is an 
example of an innovation becoming a 


permanent habitude; and as Captain 
Bosco, who owns these cats, says it is 
many years since they began to go into 


the water, we have reason to believe 
that a coincident form of Endonomic! 
Selection has begun to produce a breed | 


whose innate instincts are better adapt- 


ed to this mode of life than were those 


of the original stock. 


Returning to Sexual Selection we 
find that it is one of.several forms of 
selection arising from the relations in 
which the members of the same species 
stand to each other and which may, 
therefore, be classed as forms of Re- 
flexive Selection. Sexual Selection se- 


cures between the sexual instincts of| 


one sex and the instints and charac- 
ters of the other sex, such harmony as 
is necessary for the sexual propaga- 
tion of the group. Ill. birds, insects; 
201, 200. Social Sélection maintains 
such social instincts and related char- 
acters as are necessary for the pros- 
perity of the group. Social habits in a 
great measure determine the food and 
clothing of a community, and thus deep- 
ly affect the conditions of survival. The 
degree of exposure to which the young 
are habitually subjected is also largely 
determined by social custom, and so the 
innate- endowments of those that sur- 
vive. In many beasts and birds recog- 
nition marks are of great importance; 
and the disadvantage coming to those 
deficient in these characters results in 
Social Selection. : 

A third form of Reflexive Selection 


American Board Number 


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RoHS fF REND 
DEC. 702 


This number is in considerable demand 
for mission study and we still have a 
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is what I have cailed Filio-parental 
Selection, which maintains coordina- 
tion between the powers and charac- 
ters of parents, and the size, number, 
form and instincts of the young. How 
the power of giving suck and the corre- 
sponding instinct for sucking were first 
developed it may be impossible to tell; 
but it is evident that having once been 
established as the method of sustenta- 
tion for the young of mammals, any 
mother lacking the power of giving 
suck, and any young lacking the in- 
stinct for sucking, would in all proba- 
bility fail of leaving descent. The 
death at birth of children with exces- 
sively large heads, as also the failure of 
a mother with a contracted pelvis to 
produce living children, are examples 
of filio-parental selection. 

There are several other forms of Re- 
flexive Selection, but the only one that 
we can take time to consider is Institu- 
tional Selection. Institutional Selec- 
tion is due to the suppression of human 
reproduction in certain cases, and the 
favoring of it in other cases, by means 
of ecclesiastical, military, commercial, 
sanitary and penal institutions. It is 
of great interest to the student of social 
problems, for it shows how even the in- 
herited powers of the civilized races of 
mankind are being constantly molded 
by their institutions, and the forms of 
social organization that prevail. 

In all divergent evolution of racial 
characters segregate generation (that is 
the generation of like with like,) has 
been a fundamental condition. It is 
also at present a fundamental condition 
in the very structure of the organic 
world; for without Segregate Genera- 
tion, races, species, genera and the 
higher groups could not continue to 
exist: even if they were independently 
created. 

(To be Continued.) 


RECORD OF EIVENTS. 

May 1—Close of legislative session. 

8th—Congressional visitors arrive, 
24 in number, with 18 ladies. 

t1th—Congressional party, make the 

circuit of Kauai by steamer and land- 


carriage.—Ex-Queen lays corner-stone | 


of T. H. Davies Parish-house. 

12th—Sudden death of Geo. D. Gear, 
a leading jurist. 

13th—Congressmen visit Honolulu 
public schools.—U. S. Supreme Court 
awards to the Hawaiian Board $15,000 
from the Hawaiian Government on ac- 
count of Lahainaluna. 

15th—Congressional party visit Iao 
Vallevi—Death of John M. Horner, 
veteran sugar planter. 


) 


17th—Congressional party view sun- 
tise from summit of Haleakala. 


19gth—Congressional party visit 
North Kona. 
2oth—They arrive at Hilo—Ex- 


amine harbor. 


21st—Reach Kilauea at noon. 
on the brink of Halemaumau. 

2oth—Arrival of-ketch Snark. 

25th—Congress party back at Ho- 
noluiu.—-Steamer Claudine runs 
aground at mouth of harbor, but soon 
proceeds on voyage.—Opening session 
of Hawaiian Evangelical Association. 

27th—Congressmen examine Pearl 
Harbor and are banqueted at Moana 
Hotel. 

28th—-Congress party: visit Wahiawa 
and Waialua. 


Dine 


MARRIED. 


ANDREWS-NUNES—At Honolulu, April 
27, Henry J. Andrews to Miss Minnie Nunes. 

JONES-BUSH—At Honolulu, May 2, John 
H. Jones to Miss Juliette K. Bush. 

ROSS-RICKARD—At Laupahoehoe, May 
Dr. Harvey Lee Ross to Miss Ethel Ada 
Rickard of Honolulu. 


i) 


“) 


BELL-BAILEY—At Honolulu, May 12, Wil- 
liam Bell of Hermiston, Scotland, to Miss 
Elsie M. Bailey of Honolulu. 

PHILLIPS-BAKER—At Honolulu, May 21, 
W. H. Phillips of Liverpool, Ohio, to Miss 
Gertrude A. Baker of Honolulu_ Library. 


DIED. 


GUERRERO—In Honolulu, April 26, Basilio 
L. Guerrero, long chief steward on steamer 
Kinau. 

FREITAS—In Honolulu, 
Freitas, aged 50 years. 
McCORRISTON—In Honolulu, May 4, Mrs. 
Daniel McCorriston, aged 51, of Kamalo, 

Molokai. 

KEKAUONOHI—At Honolulu, May 7, 
Chiefess Olga K. Kekauonohi, aged 18 years. 

SILVA—At Honolulu, May 8, Mrs. Rosa Sil- 


May 3, Vincent 


va. 

HORNER—At Kukaiau, Hawaii, May 11, John 
M. Horner, an old resident, aged 85 years. 

GEAR—At Honolulu. May 12, of cerebral 
meningitis, George D. Gear, 39 years of age. 

HINGLEY—At Honolulu, May 16, Mrs. E. E. 
Hingley. 

TENNEY—At Brownwood, Texas, May 16, 
Rev. Levi Venney, last survivor of family 
of the late Mrs. Mary Tenney Castle. 

EVANS—At Honolulu, May 17, George 
Seriven Evans, aged 57 years. 

PERREIRA—At Honolulu, May 23, Manuel 
S. Perreira, wealthy Portuguese resident, 
aged 62 years. 

CHAPMAN—At Honolulu, May 24, Capt. 
Benj. F. Chapman, long in Pacific trade, 
aged 76 years. 


HONOLULU’S CHOICEST SUBURB 


City Streets, City Water, City Lights 


Unsurpassed Marine and Mountain Views, Rapid 


Transit. 


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A FEW CHOICE LO 


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TS FOR SALE 


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APPLY © 


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15 


The Bank of Hawaii, Led. 


Incorporated Under the Laws of the Territory 


of Hawaii. 
maT Ue CAPITAL. ....65 065066 $600,000.00 
SUR DEU UGS Soo. 5) 2. sofa ditvodeiece. oie. shots 300,000.00 
UNDIVIDED PROFITS ......... 107,346.65 


OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 
Charles M. Cooke President 


MO MEOUCS 5. cele sacccc esses Vice-President 
PEW. Macfarlane... .ii... 2nd Vice-President 
METER OOK GO) a 5. focicieie sebofaspeis'emarccye s Cashier 
@has:.Hustace, Jr.......... Assistant Cashier 
TEA DAMON . .. .3 s6c.c0e ass Assistant Cashier 


E. F. Bishop, E. D. Tenney, J. A. McCandless, 
C. H. Atherton and F, C. Atherton, 
COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS DEPART- 
MENT. 
Strict Attention Given to all Branches of 
Banking. 
JUDD BUILDING. 


FORT STREET. 


Pao. TALL @ SON 


In addition to Hardware and 
General Merchandise have now a 
complete assortment of 


HOUSEHOLD GOODS, 


including Crockey, Glassware, 
Stoves, Kitchen Furniture, Re- 
frigerators and Ice Chests, Etc. 
Also Garden Tools of. all kinds, 
Rubber Hose, Lawn Mowers. 

Call and examine our stock at 
the Hall Building. 


met DAY & CO. 


FINE GROCERIES 
OLD Kona Coffe a Specialty 


B. F. Ehlers €5 Co. 


i. O: BOX, 716 
Po NOLUL sor, HH. 


The Leading Dry 
Goods House in the 
Territory. Especial 


attention given to 
Mail Orders. 


ALWAYS USE 


California Rose... 


CREAMERY BUTTER 


Guaranteed the Best and full 16 


HENRY MAY & CO. Lr. 
22 TELEPHONES 392 


| Vice-Pres’t; 


A. SCHAEPER, &/CO¥ 
° Importers and 


COMMISSION MERCHANTS. 


Honolulu, T. H. 


OPP & COMPANY, 


Importers and Manufacturers of 
FURNITURE AND UPHOLSTERY. 
CHAIRS. TO RENT. 


Nos. 1053-1059 Bishop St. - - Honolulu. 


a grasa ae & BALDWIN, Ltd. 


OFFICERS—H. P. Baldwin, Pres’t; J. B. 
Castle, 1st Vice-Pres’t; W. M. Alexander, 2d 
J. P. Cooke, Treas.; W. O. 
Smith, Sec’y; George R. Carter, Auditor. 


SUGAR FACTORS AND COMMISSION 
MERCHANTS. 


AGENTS FOR—Hawaiian Commercial & 


Sugar Co., Haiku Sugar Co., Paia Plantation | 


Co., Kihei Plantation Co., Hawaiian Sugar 
Co., Kahului R. R. Co., and Kahuku Planta- 
tion. 


Trex. Marn 109 


LUB STABLES 
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RIGS OF AuL KINDS 
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ae 


Draw Exchange on the principal ports of the 
world and transact a general 
banking business. 


ae 


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S. K. Kamaiopili 


Notary Public, Agent to Grant Marriage License, 
and Seacher of Titles. 


OFFICE WITH PUBLIC LANDS OFFICE 


JUDICIARY BLD HONOLULU, H. T. 


‘ 


(co BREWER & CO., Limited, 


General Mercantile Commission Agents. 
Queen St., Honolulu, T. H. 


AGENTS FOR—Hawaiian Agricultural Co., 
Onomea Sugar Co., Honomu Sugar Co., Wai- 
luku Sugar Co., Makee Sugar Co., Haleakala 
Ranch Co., Kapapala Ranch. 

Planters’ Line Shipping Co., 

Agents Boston Board of Underwriters. 

Agents Philadelphia Board of Underwriters. 


LIST OF OFFICERS—Charles M. Cooke, 
President; Geo. H. Robertson, Vice-President 
and Manager; E. Faxon Bishop, Treasurer and 


| Secretary; F. W. Macfarlane, Auditor; P. C. 


Jones, C. H. Cooke, J. R. Galt, Directors. 
_ LUNCH ROOM. 


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TEMPERANCE COFFEE HOUSE. 
s&s 
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EWERS & COOKE, Ltd., 


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WALL PAPERS, 
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Honolulu, T. H. 


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) 


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SUGAR FACTORS 


AND 
COMMISSION AGENTS. 
Agents for the Oceanic Steamship Co. 
W. W. AHANA & CO., LTD. 
MERCHANT TAILORS, 


P. O, Box 986. Telephone Blue 2741 
62 King Street 


CLOTHES CLEANED AND REPAIRED. 


HENRY H. WILLIAMS 


FUNERAL DIRECTOR 


Graduate of Dr. Rodgers Perfect Em- 
balming School of San Francisco, Cal., 
also of The Renouard Training School 
for Embalmers of New York. And a 
Licensed Embalmer for the State of 
New York, also a member of the State 
Funeral Directors Association of Cali- 
fornia. 


MONUMENTS AND TOMBSTONES 
FURNISHED. 


Chairs to Rent. 
LOVE BUILDING 1142, 1144 FORT ST. 


Telephones: Office Main 64. Res. cor. 
Richards and Beretania, Blue 3561. 


THE NEW BOOK Rooms 


or THE HAWAIIAN BOARD 


CORNER OF ALAKEA AND MERCHANT STREETS 


INVITE YOUR INSPECTION 


Since removing from the Boston Block to our own building we have decided to increase our stock in the 
line of Church and Sunday-School books and supplies, Miscellaneous books, Bibles, Prayer and Hymnals, En- 
cyclopedias, Gift Books, “Missionary Books, Organs, Maps, Charts, Wall Mottoes, etc. Our stock is new and 
fresh, our priceslow, come and see us and get acquainted whether you wish to purchase now or later. Maga- 
zines or Books ordered from the East promptly and at satisfactory prices. 


JUS ARRIVED 
A NEW LINE OF mm 


Bibles, Red Letter Testaments, Prayer Books, Hymnals 
and Miscellaneous Books Ee he MAGA ae oe 


THE NEW VOLUMES COMPLETING THE SETS OF 


NELSON’S CYCLOPABDIA 


JUST ARRIVED 


We can now supply complete sets without delay. 


L HAWAIIAN BOARD BOOK ROOMS, E. HERRICK BROWN, Manager. 
BES eee 
PS Si RO Na 

BROKEN! 


With the publication of Nelson’s Encyclopaedia, THE PADLOCK 
OF PROHIBITIVE PRICE has been broken, and for no man or woman 
who is mentally alive and who really is a lover of knowledge is there left 


an excuse not to have at hand a high-class work of reference, comprehen- 
sive enough for the scholar, handy enough for the school boy and inter- 
esting reading for everybody. 


The New York Times says: ‘“*** Cheap in price, though in 
nothing else. It seems as though the ideal encyclopaedia had been found 
for readers of English. 


NELSON’S ENGYGLOPAEDIA 
Everybody's Book of Reference 


FRANK MOORE COLBY, M. A., New York, American Editor. GEORGE SANDEMAN, M. A., Edinburg, Eure 
Editor. With over 600 contributors, each the authority in his fleld. 

To have collected and arranged in 12 full volumes the endeavors and achievements of the human race up to the pre- 
sent time—to have at hand the knowledge of the world sifted, certified and presented in one great working library for 
quick and easy reference; all done effectualy and completely. This of itself has been cause for wonderment, but that the 
entire set should be offered to the public at the amazingly low price of $42.00 for the set, marks the undertaking: as the 
wonder in this day of wonders in the realm of book publishing. 

Imagine its price four times what it is, put it to the severest encyclopaedia tests you know, either as to comprehen- 
siveness, accuracy, reliability, newness, clearness and charm of expression, profusion and character of illustration, charac- 
ter of paper, binding—examine it from every standpoint and you will finding nothing lacking. : 

We might write pages about its 60,000 subjects, its 7,500 three-column pages, its 6.000 illustrations, the color plates, 
the full-page plates, the perfect cross-reference system and the many other advantages. But we won’t. We will do bet- 
ter than that. They can be seen at the Hawaiian Board Book Rooms. 


VOL. LXV. HONOLULU, T. H., JULY, 1907, No. 7, 


ap a de de we de ee ae 


THE NEW KAWAIAHAO---J. B. ATHERTON MEMORIAL " 


NOW IN PROCESS OF ERECTION. 


OS HS FS FS IS He GS Hs 


ee Educational Dumber = « 


2 THE FRIEND. 


HAWAIIAN TRUST 0, THE FRIEND 


LIMITED 
Is published the first week of each month 


Ki eae ete in Honolulu, T. H., at the Hawaiian Board 

ire, etic, 1e Book Rooris, car. Alakéa, and. MercBants 
and Accident Sts. Subscription price, $1.50 per year. 
_ Insurance. i 


SURETY ON BONDS 


Plate Glass, Employers’ Liability, 
and Burglary Insurance. 
e 


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Building. 


All business letter should be addressed 
and all M. O.’s and checks should be made 
out to 


THEODORE RICHARDS, 
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P. O. Box 489. 


All communications of a literary character 


OLLEGH AILS; 


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should be addressed to DOREMUS SCUDDER, 
the Oahu College. 


MANAGING EpiTor oF THE FRIEND, 
cor. Alakea & Merchant Sts., Honolulu, T, H 


and must reach the Board Rooms by the alte of 
the month 


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fered for sale on the etasnct terms: one-third 
cash, one-third in one year, one-third in two 


THE BoArD OF EDITORS: 


Doremus Scudder, Managing Editor. 
Sereno E. Bishop, D. D. 


years. Interest at 6 per cent. Revi Orrarsell eGulel 
Theodore Richards. 
Rev. Edward W. Thwing. 
For information as to building require- Rev. Edward B. Turner. 


Rev. William D. Westervelt. 


Entered October 27, 1902, at Honolulu, Hawatt, as second 
class matter, under act of Congress of March 3, 1879. 


MOVED 


Again—This Time 


To Our Own Building 
ALAKEA and MERCHANT STREETS 


where hereafter may be 
found Bibles in 


English 
Hawaiian 
Japanese 
Chiense 
Portuguese 


as well as general 


RELIGIOUS LITERATURE 
AND PRAYER BOOKS. 


ments, etc., apply to 
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404 Judd Building. 


Honolulu - - - - Hawaiian Islands. 


~ 


AHU COLLEGH 
(Arthur F. Griffiths, A.B., President.) 
and 
PUNAHOU PREPARATORY SCHOOL 
(Samuel Pingree French, A. B., Principal.) 

Offer complete 
College preparatory work, 
together with special 
Commercial, 
Music, and 
Art courses. 
Fur Catalogues, address 
JONATHAN SHAW, 
Business Agent, 


Oahu College, -  -  - Honolulu, H. T. 


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Quarterlies, Notes and commentaries 


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Importer of Diamonds, American and Swiss 
Watches, Art Pottery, Cut Glass, 
Leather Goods, Etc. 


Honolulu - - -  - Hawaiian Islands. 


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COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 
SUGAR FACTORS. 


Agents for 
The Ewa Plantation Co., 
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The Fulton Iron Works, St. Louis, Mo.,, 
The Standard Oil Co., 
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Weston’s Centrifugals, 
New England Mutual Life Ins. Co., Boston, 
Aetna Fire Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn., 
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Ltd., 


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OLDEST NEWSPAPER WEST OF THE ROCKIES. 


VOL. LALV 


Our Educational Number. 

We are glad to be able to give to our 
friends some of the nuggets mined at 
the meeting of the Evangelical Asso- 
ciation and to outline roughly the reach 
of our educational department. The 
Hawaiian Board is slowly developing 
a very considerable educational move- 
ment. Its purpose is to duplicate noth- 
ing that the state or privately endowed 
instittitions are doing. Its undertaking 
is along unequivocally Christian lines, 
that is to say its main purpose in all 
its educational work is to bring every 
pupil into personal friendly contact 
with Jesus Christ. There is nothing 
sectarian in this aim. What the special 
view of Jesus may be in the mind of 
the pupil is not its concern. Jesus is 
able to take care of this with every- 
one who becomes His friend, The first 
step in the Board’s educational plan is 
the primary school. The Government 
does all that is necessary here except 
in the cases of Japanese, Chinese and 
a few white families who wish what 
the Public School.cannot give. The 
Asiatic wants his own language taught 
to his children. Hence the Board en- 
courages its evangelists to form 
schools upon the plantations for teach- 
ing their native tongues to Japanese 
and Chinese. These meet for a couple 
of hours a day and, together with the 
language instruction, acquaintance with 
Jesus is fostered. We have a large 
number of these schools all over the 
Territory. The next step in our sys- 
tem is the Christian Boarding School. 
The Lyman School for Boys in Hilo, 
Kohala and Maunaolu Seminaries for 
Girls, Kawaiahao and Mills Institute 
come in this class. The Honomu and 
Honolulu Japanese Boarding Schools 
occupy an intermediate position. With 
the consolidation of Kawaihao and 


Mills into the Mid-Pacific Institute al 


still higher grade will be developed, 
‘fitting boys and girls of all races for 
practical life in this Territory. An in- 
ter-racial institution of this character 
is absolutely demanded if Hawaii is 
to develop roundedly and impress the 
world with the lesson that all men are 
fundamentally of one variety, essential- 
ly brothers, and capable of living to- 
gether as brothers should. This is a 


HONS TUE Cert ir UW O07 


No. 6) 


glorious mission and ought to attract 
the largest endowment of all our Is- 
‘and schools. If it holds to this ideal 
there can be no question that it will 
appeal to men whose resources match 
their vision. 

Central Union Pastorate. 


On the evening of June 12 Central 
|Union Church voted to issue a call to 
Rev. Doremus Scudder to become its 
pastor. The invitation was accepted 
in a letter dated June 21 and read from 
the pulpit the following Sunday by 
Rev. Dr. Day-oi Los. Angeles. On 
June 17, at a special meeting of the Ha- 
waiian Board, Dr. Scudder resigned as 
secretary. It was subsequently voted 
by the Board not to endeavor to secure 
a successor at present, but an invita- 
tion was sent to Rey. Frank S. Scud- 
der of Tokyo, Japan, to come to Ha- 
waii to be associated in the oversight 
of the Japanese work with Rey. O. H. 
Gulick and to give such time as may 
be desired to office duties. The reason 
for the change from the position of sec- 
retary to that of pastor is found in the 
relation of Central Union Church to 
the entire work in the Islands. The 
resources in men at the disposal of this 
work must be marshaled where needed. 
This Church, which means so much to 
all, seems the point of special demand, 
and it appears wise to spare Dr. Scud- 
der for this service. The hope of every 
friend of the Board’s wide enterprise 
is that the issue will justify the expe- 
dient. 

How Mistakes Grow. 


Some time ago one of the leaders in 
the Young People’s Missionary move- 
ment, preaching in the Congregational 
Church in Berkeley, California, used as 
illustration a story which he had heard 
of a traveler visiting the Sandwich Is- 
lands. The traveler attended an even- 
ing meeting with a missionary lady, 
who said of the native preacher, “This 
preacher is the chief who, years ago, 
led the party who killed and ate the 
‘man who was to have been my hus- 
band.” Some one in the audience in 
Berkeley knew that Sandwish Island- 
ers had never practised cannibalism 
and therefore this story could not have 
been true. The preacher was remon- 


strated with and promised to look up 
his authority. He did so and the gen- 
tleman who told him the story, replied 
that the preacher had made a mistake. 
The gentieman had said “New Zea- 
land” not “Sandwich Islands,” and ad- 
ded that looking up his notes he found 
that he himself had been in error in 
that the missionary lady had said that 
the native who preached the sermon 
was the son of the chief who had led the 
party: that forty years before had killed 
and eaten her betrothed. The preacher 
who made the statement in the Ber- 
keley Church has circulated the correc- 
tion. Fortunately the story is not at all 
spoiled by running it down to earth 
and getting at the exact facts. 


Mr. E. Herrick BROWN 


Book Room Activity. 

It is a pleasure to present the face of 
the genial manager of the Hawaiian 
Board Book Rooms. There is an air 
of stir in connection with this depart- 
ment, that is very invigorating. Or- 
ders are constantly coming in and peo- 
pie all over the Islands are beginning 
to show that they appreciate the new 
facilities for purchasing religious lit- 
erature. Mr. Brown can render ser- 
vices in other lines also and will al- 
ways be ready to accommodate friends 
of the Board. The motto of the rooms 
is kindly ministry and all of the office 


4 


THE FRIEND. 


force rejoice in the steady -widening of | the introduction of system into chaos 


this sphere of activity. On the twen- 
ty-seventh of last month the Secretary 
and Mrs. Scudder left on the Sierra for 
the mainland. They will go directly to 
the East where business of impor- 
tance for the Board claims early atten- 
tion. After a few days in New York 
and Boston their plan is to find a 
mountain retreat where complete 
relaxation and quiet for meditation 
may be assured. Their return is set for 
September 30. During the absence of 
the Managing Editor the Friend will 
be in special charge of Revs. W. D. Wes- 
tervelt and E. W. Thwing. 


DOES ITT PAY? 

Not a few of the traditional friends ot 
Hawaii and its native people may, be 
heard to express doubt of the value of 
such educational work as is done for 
Hawaiian girls by Kamehameha, Ka- 
waiahao, Maunaolu and  Kohaia 
schcols. The current criticism is that 
the pupil in these schools receives a 
training that adds certainly to her at- 
tractiveness and makes her a more de- 
sirable companion, but that it is impos- 
sible to develop in her a corresponding 
moral resistence to temptation, hence 
she is more ardently sought for by evil 
men and easily falls a victim. It is sur- 
prising how widespread this idea is. 
If it were true it would be a strong ar- 
gument against those who believe that 
“education is salvation.” 

The only way in which to meet gen- 
eralizations of this kind is not to quote 
instances of educated Hawaiian girls 
who are conspicuous for virtuous and 
noble lives—and there are numbers of 
them—but rather patiently to institute 
a study of the graduates of these 
schools and ascertain the facts. Un- 
fortunately for years Kohala, Mauna- 
olu and Kawaiahao seminaries had no 
fixed courses of study, no definite grad- 
uations, no goals set before the girls in 
acquirement of knowledge. Conditions 
prevailing at the time doubtless made 
it difficult to do anything else than run 
the educational machine haphazard. 
Such a ‘system or lack of system would 
naturally lead to haphazardness of! liv- 
ing, yet there are many instances of 
sturdy womanhood developed during 
this period in these schools. 

Of late, however, all this is changed. 
The influence of Kamehameha has with- 
out question been very helpful in this 
direction and now for several years all 
of our Christian Girls’ Schools have had 
determined courses with fixed require- 
ment for graduation and diplomas that 
stimulate ambition. Coincident with 


the habit of keeping in touch with the 
graduates has been cultivated. Ka- 
mehameha has done this from the first 
and its record of all its alumnae is a 
model of good work. For seven years 
KXawaiahao has maintained a like in- 
terest in its former students, while Ma- 
unaolu and Kohala are just beginning 
to institute a like custom. The two 
latter schools have suffered from fre- 
quent changes of principals. Kame- 
hameha has organized its graduates 
into a very effective and loyal alumnae 
association, which holds the highest 
ideals constantiv before both its mem- 
bers and the undergraduates. Similar 
organizations will without question 
soon surround each of the three other 
seminaries with a wall of defense. No 
greater moral force for growing a 
healthful school spirit is known than a 
vigorous association of its graduates. 

The records carefully maintained by 
Kamehameha for ten years and by Ka- 
waiahao for seven years afford accu- 
rate data for testing the flippant criti- 
cism urged against educating Hawai- 
ian girls. The facts are simply over- 
whelming. Kawaiahao has during the 
past seven years sent forth 74 girls. 
Their story today is as follows: 


Mantied: oleh a hans cite ators aetna 16 
Ca CHig gah hip. dine ciara ken tera venue 19 
INITSOS Ayes cis ta eis ices ences Beets 2 
DDT OSS MIaKGTS 6 tee ree te sk estas 2 
Organisteta GChinch as. epics + an I 
DOMES HESSOLVICES am cree ese fe imueie 5 
elepNone fOperatOtre alee se osu I 


it SCA ta saat Gy erie tenis at aniag 3 
Clerk any sStOneaeen es Ga RN A neal ear he I 


Millimet se Wratece Gene... rusia soit ae I 
Living in their parents’ homes.... 4 
Attending Normal and High 

DS CHOGISE sea iehEe otc bial ia tise B 15 


Leading openly immoral lives..... 4 
During its ten years Kamehameha 

Girls School has graduated 85 with the 

result noted below: 

Deceased . 


Sera /\ f lna ehh tae ae ih 3 
Married (teachers 3, clerk'1)...... 34 
Teachers isran.& HUN eee cs 13 
Students aire oe 12 

Stanford University ) fi 8 the Se, I 

High) School..3 9 Be ake ae 2 

Norinal 44% BO ) NASA Th 9 
Stenographers, typewriters ....... 4 
Seamistressesiss A Te cesses 5 
Maternity Home Assistant........ I 
Once (Assistant eis ys eee I 
Matron sieNSsistant hee... B 
Doctors Assistant! .Qh eC Nes I 
Telephone Hxchange. ait. e. 2% I 
Bookbinder =r. ISA Sie Ge are I 
Home “(invalids/ 2) its Wea AG. 6 


The records adds “There is a per- 
sonal knowledge of 27 of the 34 homes 


of the married members. All are mak- 
ing for decent living with possibly one 
exception.. More than a majority are 
in well kept comfortable houses, and 
are taking good care of their children. 
Many show evidence of taste in the 
arrangement of household effects, 
making much of what they have. Thir- 
teen own their own homes. 

“Eight have had doubtful reputations. 
Six of the eight are married and are 
now doing well. One is earning a live- 
lihood supporting her child and is 
truly repentant. One I have not been 
able to trace.” 

These facts speak volumes to those 
who know the conditions of life in Ha- 
waii and who appreciate. the awful 
truth that there have always been and 
are now numbers of white men whose 
habit it is to prey upon the girls of the 
native race. A Hawaiian young 
women who stands the storm that as- 
sails her purity here is worthy of far 
larger praise and honest admiration 
then her white sister. 

These records not only show that 
Christian education for Hawaiian girls 
is justified by its fruits but also demon- 
strate to the man who has any concep- 
tion of the battle that these alumnae 
have to fight, that the Christian girls’ 
schools of Hawaii are its chief social 
hope. It is a speaking fact detailed by 
Miss Pope that of eight graduates who 
fell before the first onset of the storm, 
seven have reasserted their woman- 
hood and now stand true. The imper- 
fect records of Maunaolu and Kohala 
tend to reénforce the above careful 
study made by the principals of the 
two schools cited. In a few more years 
there will be a still larger body of as- 
certained facts. There can be no doubt 
whither they will point, for every year 
is showing better results. The day for 
doubts as to the wisdom of educating 
Hawaiian giris in Christian schools, 
whose aim is to equip them with an in- 
dustrial as well as mental and spiritual 
panoply for winning righteous charac- 
ter, has past. Already a number of the 
nobler names identified with Hawaii’s 
first century of civilization—Pauahi, 
Rond, Bishop, Atherton, Baldwin and 
others-—are intimately, associated with 
the deveiopment of this movement that 
is to culminate in a redeemed glorified 
Polynesian womanhood. 


D8! 
TOKYO’S FIRST WORLD CON- 
VENTION. 
By Dean Edward I. Bosworth, D.D. 


The ‘Tokyo Conference of the 
World’s Student Christian Federation, - 


THE FRIEND. 


in session April 3-7, was the first inter- 
national meeting to be held in Japan. 
The attitude of the nation towards it 


was One of ample hospitality. Marquis, 


Ito’s generous contribution of 10,000 
yen to its expenses and the social at- 
tentions showed to delegates by pro- 
iminent officials, expressed the feeling 
of the people. The “Japan Times” in 
its editorial columns said of the confer- 
ence at its close: “So passes into his- 
tory one of the most memorable events 
this country has witnessed in the 
course of its foreign intercourse. In 
less than fifteen years we have twice 
tasted the bitterness of war, and the 
sweetness of peace is sweeter with us 
than perhaps with most other nations 
at this time. 
son that the conference with its mes- 
sage of good will and universal frater- 
nity has been welcomed by us with 
open arms. ‘There is another reason, 
not less gratifying to remember. Many 
countries of Europe and America have 
had world gatherings of one kind or 
another held within their bounds; but 
none in this part of the world has until 
now had a similar fact to record. And 
it will be writ large in our annals that 
when Japan entered the fellowship of 
civilized nations in receiving a world 
representing body, the first that came 
was a poweriul conference essaying to 
ebliterate the line that separates the 
East from the West, and merge them 
into spiritual brotherhood, to mark for 
us as it were the return of peace.” 

The statistics of the Conference are 
interesting. The 
from 25 countries and numbered 627, 
constituted as follows: Delegates from 
abroad, 160; visiting and honorary for- 
eign members, 24; delegates from Jap- 
anese Young Men’s Christian Associa- 
tions, 245; delegates from Japanese 
Young Women’s Christian Associa- 
tions, 48; foreign teachers and mis- 
sionaries, 45; members of national com- 
mittees of Christian Associations, etc., 
g4; miscellaneous, IT.. 

The meetings were held in the audi- 
ence rocm of the Tokyo Young Men’s 
Christian Association, the largest room 
available with smaller rooms about it 
for the use) of committees, but not 
nearly large enough to accommodate 
those who would have been glad to at- 
tend the sessions. 

The Conference was of the inspira- 
tional type rather than educational like 
that held later in the month in Shang- 
hai. Vhe underlying thoughts of the 
program were three: (1) The contribu- 
tion made by Christianity to the life of 
the principal nations of the world; (2) 
The great unifying religious truths 


It is largely for this rea-j 


membership canie| 


which the Federation movement em-| 


phasizes; the power of the spirit of 
God, the Lordship of Jesus, and the 
value of the Christian scriptures, the 
scientific attitude to Christianity; (3) 
The responsibility which rests upon 
students for the evangelization of the 
world. 

The presence of large numbers of 
pastors from all over Japan insured the 
communication of the inspirational in- 
fluence of the Conference to all parts 
of the Enipire. This result was further 
secured by a carefully planned evan- 
gelistic campaign carried on in all parts 
of the Empire for a number of weeks, 
both before and after the Conference. 
Everywhere the amplest opportunity 
was given for the presentation of Chris- 
tian truth. Eien in strong Buddhistic 


his Lord and Master, and to approach the 
representatives of these other religions 
as if they held comparatively similar au- 
|thority? Or is he to unfurl the flag of 
| Jesus’ supreme Kingship, and unquali- 
| fiedly declare Him to be Sovereign Lord? 
In these later days we have heard much 
of Comparative Religion and Congresses 
|of Religions. We have had it explained 
how Brahminism and Buddhism and 
Confucianism and Shintoism are, like 
Christianity, definite parts of the great 
evolutions of religious belief among the 
different races of men. We are told how 
they are to be approached with fraternal 
respect and deference, and their claims to 
regard honorably acknowledged, while 
the supreme authority of the Lord Jesus 
Christ is to be modestly held in abeyance, 
lest offense be given and the other party 


centers the municipal authorities grant-, repelled. 


ed the use cf the city hall for evangelis- 
tic meetings. 
It.is impossible, of course, to deter- 


We hold all this to be a pitiable mis- 
take. While acknowledging all that is 
ethically worthy in those ethnic relig- 


mine with accuracy what the outcome| ions, let the glorious standard of the Lord 


of this evangelistic campaign has been. | 


The most important result is thought 
to be the larger opportunity which has 
been secured for the effective presenta- 
tion of Christianity henceforth by resi- 
dent Christians in the cities visited by 
evangelistic speakers. At the close of 
the campaign, about two weeks after 
the Conference, 1700 inquirers and ap- 
plicants for baptism had been reported. 
A little later one whose estimates are 
carefully made wrote me as. follows: 
“When the results are all in, no doubt 
there will be over 2000 seekers, and 
of these I estimate that 1400 are really 
earnest men who will be followed up 
and brought into the Church within the 
next year or two.” 

During the Tokyo Conference out- 
side evangelistic meetings were held 
for Chinese, Korean and Japanese 
students studying in Tokyo. These 
meetings were attended by more than 
10,000 students. 

The whole movement has been most 
carefully planned and is intended not 
to be sporadic but to serve as an in- 
troduction to an era of continued evan- 
gelism carried on by Japanese Chris- 
tians. The type of evangelism needed 
in Japan, as in most other places, is 
that which emphasizes the person and 
teaching of Jesus Christ and which is 
at the same time in full sympathy with 
a constructive scientific spirit. 


CHRIST’S, IMPERIAL SOVER- 
EIGNTY. 

What is the true and loyal attitude of 
the Christian Missionary when he con- 
fronts the great World-Religions? Is he 
modestly to veil the supreme claims of 


Jesus be broadly unfurled, and His su- 
preme authority be unswervingly assert- 
ed, as God’s Anointed Son, and the Su- 
preme King of the world’s Empire. “I 
am a King,” calmly asserted our dying 
Redeemer as he was going to his cross. 
And by our Risen Lord let us faith- 
fully rally, maintaining his supreme 
kingship. From this loyal attitude let 
us never for a moment withdraw, nor 
compromise for the sake of diplomatic 
policy. Let Christ’s messengers loyally 
maintain their Lord’s supremacy and un- 
failingly maintain his imperial sover- 
eignty. ; 

We are glad to hope that when Sakya- 
mune passed from earth, instead of fad- 
ing into a Nirvana, he was ultimately 
raised by the ascended Jesus into the 
home of the redeemed, and that he there 
joyfully prostrated himself before his 
Savior, and hailed him Lord and King. 
And when Kon-fu-tze, as we trust, found 
admission to those courts, be too bowed 
his dignified head before that supremely 
“Superior Man,” and adored Him as 
King. Plato and Socrates humbly kneel 
before that exalted throne. There is no 
approximate equality. Those noble souls 
whom the Father of mankind permitted 
to arise in realms of darkness for the ele- 
vation of their kindred before He gave 
his own Son to Israel—those noble ones 
brought no competing revelation, nor is it 
fitting to honor them with any concession 
of equality. We may treat with respect 
all that is of true worth in their best 
thinking, and duly honor their efforts to 
enlighten and elevate their people. But 
when Christ’s servant brings to those na- 
tions God’s direct Revelation in Jesus 
Christ, he should never meet the old re- 


THE FRIEND. 


ligion on terms of any equality. He 
comes as the accredited Apostle of God’s 
Royal Son. That Imperial Royalty he, is 
to assert. 

This does not mean that the authority 
of Jesus is to be pushed against the 
Ethnic Religions with violent assertion 
and overbearing demeanor. It is to be 
declared in the loving tenderness of 
Jesus. But it is to be pressed with un- 
flinching authority as the claim of the 
Imperial King of Kings to rule over all 
hearts and lives. The Gospel of Jesus is 
God’s one final dnd supreme Revelation 
to mankind, which all are summoned to 
obey. Let it be proclaimed with no wav- 
ering or shrinking or uncertainty. Christ 
summons all men to yield and obey him. 
He comes to establish his throne in 
righteousness, and all kings to bow be- 
fore Him. The Christian Missionary 
needs to be one who is profoundly as- 
sured of his Heavenly mission He is 
the bearer of an Imperial message. He 
is the apostle of the Heavenly King—of 
the Lord—before whom “every knee 
shall bow, and every tongue confess.” 

Then lift high the banner of the 
‘Cross, and preach the Gospel of Salva- 
tion with no doubtful sound. Assert it 
boldly. Trust the Power of the Holy 
Spirit to conquer with it the minds and 
subdue the hearts of men. Lay aside all 
doubts and shrinking before the sub- 
tleties of opposing Heathendom. Declare 
the ‘whole counsel of God.’ Press on 
under the imperial banner of the cruci- 
fied Redeemer, who now reigns as Lord 
in Heaven and earth. 


Shot Ong st 


d 


WHAT “BEING A> MISSIONARY” 
MEANS. IN KUSAITE, 


We consider it a privilege to be able 
to publish the following letter from Miss 
Jenny Olin, missionary of the American 
Board in the Carolines, to a friend in 
Honolulu. The tiny Pacific Islands have 
always seemed to us the hardest field in 
the world, requiring more real self-sacri- 
fice than any other. Certainly the story 
told below with no thot of publicity gives 
an inner view of the life of these heroines 
* who are enabling the rest of us to have a 
share in obeying our Great Captain’s 
command to reach every creature with 
his Glad Tidings by sending them forth. 


—Ed. 
Kusaie, Caroline Islands, 
March 18, 1907. 


As you see, I am still at Kusaie, and 
see no prospect of leaving it in the near 


future. That sounds as if I wanted to 
leave it, but I do not. However, there 
has been talk of moving the whole mis- 
sion to the low islands, and if that ever is 
done, I shall probably go with it. But in 
my opinion it will not be for the better- 
ment of the school. Meanwhile I am 
here, and likely to stay for some time. 


I arrived here Sept. 11, 1905, nearly 
two years ago, and Miss Hoppin left by 
the same steamer, according to previous 
arrangement. When I got here the car- 
penters were putting the finishing touches 
to a small house built out of the debris of 
our old house and four or five others. 
This house is the one we are still occupy- 
ing, and to judge from the way things 
don’t move, probably shall continue to 
occupy for the rest of our existence as 
the Girls’ School of Kusaie. It is a little 
cottage, about 16x30, containing two 
rooms and an attic, and surrounded on 
three sides by a wide veranda. In the 
attic the girls sleep, all but six, who flow 
over into the room which they use during 
the day for a school room, and general 
living room. My bed occupies the front 
veranda and our dining table another cor- 
ner of it. You know it is healthy to sleep 
out: of doors, but with as much rain as 
we have, especially when the wind helps 
drive it in everywhere, I sometimes wish 
I had a place where I might keep out of 
it. The front room of the cottage is Miss 
Wilson’s and my sitting room, but it 
often has to be used for other purposes, 
owing to the smallness of the house. 


Miss Wilson has a little shanty to her- 
self, about Iox12, with a thatched roof. 
She slept at first in our sitting room, but 
the gitls make so much noise turning 
over in the night, that she got no rest at 
all, and was growing very nervous, so 
about a year ago we had this little shed 
put up for her. 


I have one little cubby hole to myself; 
a part of the veranda, 10x6, being in- 
closed. In this I have my dressing room, 
my writing table, and all the sewing ma- 
terials for the school. If you think its 
not crowded, just come and see. But it 
is better than nothing at all. 


Beyond the house proper is a little 
dolly house kitchen. You know my arms 
are pretty long. Well, I can stand in 
front of the fire, and reach nearly every- 
where in that kitchen. . When two per- 
sons are inside it, it is full, and if more 
come in they overflow. Strange to say, 
it is not nearly as hot as one might ex- 
pect. It has two doors, and two window 
holes, for there are no windows, only 
blinds to keep out the rain, and it is not 
ceiled overhead. The girls have their own 
cooking shed and eating house which is 
only a roof anda floor. In rainy weather 


it is wet and disagreeble, and at any time 
the chickens think it was made especially 
Thus we have lived nearly 
two years now, and yet I am no grayer 


for them. 


and no thinner than when you saw me on 
my way down., 

If you ask me what we do, and how 
we manage I hardly know. The nervous 
strain of working in this way is great, 
and probably both Miss Wilson and I 
will begin to show it very soon. In fact 
I think we do already. But the constant 
noise is something terrible and yet the 
girls are not excessively noisy. It is only 
that there are too many of them for the 


place. We have forty-one girls living in 


the house with us, and two young men 


who spend most of their time here except 
nights. Also one small boy who comes 
to school every day, making forty-four 
pupils in all. This is less than we had 
before, but I do not think we could find 
sleeping space for one more. Of these, 
twelve come under Miss Wilson’s teach- 
ing. The other thirty-two are Marshall 
have seven recitations daily, using three 
languages beside English; and sewing 
class every afternoon for nearly two 
hours, beside doing my part of the house- 
hold work. Add to this Sabbath School 
on Sunday, meetings with the girls and a 
weekly meeting with the Kusaiens, and I 
think you will realize that my time is 
fairly well filled. Do you remember once 
telling me that at boarding school you 
had to have recreation day on Monday to 
get rested after Sunday? I sometimes 
have the same spirit, after I have had a 
Wednesday evening meeting, a Thursday 
afternoon meeting with the girls, a two 
hours’ class with the superintendents of 
the: various Sunday Schools on Kusaie, 
topped off with a preaching service an 
hour or more long, in which I am ex- 
pected to find and impart the next Sun- 
day’s sermon to all the four preachers for 
the day. These last two on Friday. 


When Friday night comes I am usually 
limp. But it is only every other week 
that I have the girls, the other one Miss 


‘Wilson takes them, but the Kusaien work 


is all my own. I tried to drop it a while 
back, but they did not think they could 
possibly get along without help and there 


/is no one else to help them at this time. 


In'a week from today I go to Lelu to 
meet the mail steamer. That is the regu- 
lar bi-monthly program. We have a lit- 
tle shanty there, but I generally sleep out 
of doors even there. Now it is time for 
school, so goodby. 


Jenny OLIN. 


THE FRIEND. 


An Loducational Symposium, 


THE OUTLOOK OF THE MID-PACIFIC 
INSTITUTE, 


The launching of any educational move- 
ment, which seeks the glory of God and the 
uplift of humanity, is an event of import- 
ance to the race. Though its inception may 
be attended with difficulties and its advance 
a constant struggle against opposing ob- 
stacles, it is in itself an eloquent attesta- 
tion to the faith of its founders in the re- 


gence of certain great national factors in 
the vast problem of human reconstruction 
and adjustment, of far-reaching importance. 
Our school is favored too in its position at 
the cross-roads of the Pacific, this ‘‘great 
central station,’’ in the mighty ocean which 
is yet to see the development of the vastest 
commerce the world can offer. But above all 
and thrice blest is it, that its foundations are 
laid in an unwavering faith in the potent and 
vivifying truths of Christianity and that it is 
pledged to a vigorous and unequivocal enun- 


sources of their Heavenly Father and their| ciation of the same. 


will come from irreligious or heathen homes, 
homes where poverty and ignorance with their 
attendant conditions are sadly conspicuous, 
and to them, in this important formative 
period of their lives, the love and care of 
kind Christian preceptors, the cultivation of 
regular habits of life, wholesome food, and 
clean, sanitary surroundings will be inesti- 
mable blessings, blessings not only to the 
individuals but to the homes from which they 
come and the homes which they will later 
make for themselves. As a semi-coeduca- 
tional institution, it will surround its students 


Mid-Pacific Institute, Selected Race Group. Pure Chinese, Pure Hawaiian, Pure Japanese, Pure Korean, Pure Portuguese, Part Filipino Part 
Hawaiian, Part French Part Portuguese, Part Norwegian Part Hawaiian, Part Chinese Part Hawaiian, Part Japanese Part Hawaiian, 


Part Anglo-Saxon Part Hawaiian. 


belief in the possibility of higher develop- 
ment in their earthly brother. It is another 
contribution to the general good and the 
world lovingly treasures the history of such 
beginnings. Today, in Hawaii, we stand, face 
to face, with an educational opportunity of 
rare attractiveness, which is already gather- 
ing to itself an outward form and substance, 
which promises much of real and practical 
development in the immediate future. Its 
outlook presents certain unique and sugges- 
tive features. It will bring together in a 
varied mosaic the young of many different 
races; its various elements have been well 
tested in individual schools; we believe they 
will amalgamate well in a composite whole. 
The Mid-Pacifie Institute will take shape at 
an intensely interesting time in the history 
of the race. We are living in a period, which 
may be regarded without exaggeration as 
constituting a great ‘‘psychologic moment’’ 


in inter-racial development,—a time of emer-| Christian education. 


This does not exhaust the list of mixtures in the Institute, 


THE OUTLOOK FOR THE INDIVIDUAL. 


The ultimate influence of such a Christian 
educational institution, inter-racial and unde- 
nominational in its breadth, established in 
this interestine period of international his- 
tory and at this convenient meeting place of 
the East and the West, is impossible to esti- 
mate, but certainly it is most inspiring in its 
prospect. With its splendid equipment for 
academic and industrial training, with its 
ample provision for both sexes of all races, 
with its broad fields and delightful surround- 
ings, the Mid-Pacific Institute will offer to 
its students unexcelled opportunities for the 
moral, mental, and physical training that con- 
stitute the ideal preparation for a life of use- 
fulness. . 

For the individual, the first consideration 
of all educational effort, it will provide a 
Christian home, the most important factor in 
Many of the students 


with those ennobling influences which inspire 
the proper respect and consideration in the 
relations of the sexes, raising the woman to 
her proper sphere and teaching the man the 
true dignity of his position as her protector. 
The intermingling of students of all races 
will develop a delightful Christian spirit of 
liberality, and friendships will be made that 
through life will prove, to the individuals at 
least, the fact of the universal brotherhood 
of man, 

The methods employed in the academic 
work will be such as to develop a well bal- 
anced mind, while the industrial features will 
train the students for lives of usefulness and 
helpfulness. 


THE OUTLOOK TOWARD THE TERRI- 
TORY. 

Hawaii’s great task has been to take the 

widely diverse elements of her population and 


| with them build up an American community, 


THE FRIEND. 


a community of Christian homes and Chris- 
tian ideals. It has been proven that the un- 
dertaking, while arduous, is not impossible 
of achievement, and its tremendous import- 
ance to the Territory, to the United States, 
to Asia, and to the Church of Christ is suffi- 
cient justification for the most determined 
and persistent effort. It is the object of the 
Mid-Pacific Institute to take those elements 
of our population which by tradition and 
habits of life are farthest removed from 
American Christian ideals, and by the influ- 
ence of a Christian home, by ennobling en- 
vironment and educational forces to make 
them useful, intelligent citizens, able to ap- 
preciate the blessings of political liberty and 
of the truer and greater liberty of a life in 
Christ. This institution will work in hearty 
coOperation with the forces already at work 
and will, in a large measure, fill the gap in 
our present system of private schools by 
providing for those races not already pro- 
vided for. The industrial work will be along 
lines laid down in government institutions, 
and the agricultural work, so far as possible, 
will be preparatory to that of the proposed 
Agricultural College. Thus it will be a valu- 
able addition to the educational forces of 
the Territory, bringing its influence to bear 
upon hundreds of homes and lifting thousands 
to higher standard of life. 


THE OUTLOOK TOWARD 
LAND. 


THE MAIN- 


In finding a satisfactory solution jto her 
educational and social problems, Hawaii has 
attracted considerable attention from the 
mainland where similar problems have become 
vexatious. In the eyes of many Americans, 
Hawaii has* achieved the impossible, she has 


Mid-Pacific Institute: 


proven that the Occident and the Orient will 
fuse; she has proven the superior strength of 
Christian education over superstition and 
tradition; she has shown that kind and gener- 
ous treatment will receive a like response. 
And these facts will have a decided historical 
value, for they must enter largely into 
America’s future policy with the Orient. The 
rich and rapidly growing commerce of the 
Pacific is coveted by America, but, owing to 
a mistaken policy, it is slipping from her 
grasp. Americans have spent millions on for- 
eigu. missions in China and Japan, but the 
hostile attitude of certain sections toward the 
Orientals has neutralized much of the good 
done by the missionaries. America will not 
permit a blunder to become a permanent im- 
pediment to her progress, and the mistakes of 
the past and the present will be corrected 
when conditions are properly unerstood, Ha- 
wail has faced and mastered these same con- 
ditions and, with a perfect understanding of 
them, stands today as the International 
Schoolmaster of the Pacific, teaching the na- 
tions the blessedness of charity and fair play. 
The Mid-Pacifie Institute is destined to take 
a prominent part in this general educational 
work. The schools of which it is composed 
have already done much toward bringing to- 
gether the East and the West in-this Terri- 
tory, they have exerted a salutary influence 
in China through their former students, and 
they have sent to America splendid speci- 
mens of Oriental youth wha have made most 
favorable impressions and given to many a 
more correct opinion of Oriental charazter. 
With increased capacity and better equip- 
ment, the Mid-Pacific Institute will be able 
to multiply this usefulness in bringing these 
great peoples to a better understanding of 
each other. 


THE OUTLOOK ASIA-WARD. 


A member of the Japanese Parliament, who 
has recently visited Hawaii, has left this 
graceful and satisfactory testimony: ‘‘This 
is a beautiful country and the most aston- 
ishing thing that I have learned during my 
short stay here is the harmony which exists 
in this cosmopolitan town, where nearly every 
nation of the earth is represented. I will re- 
port favorably to the home government on 
the conditions and the treatment of the Jap- 
anese residing in Hawaii.’’ This should be 
ever the meaning of Hawaii to Asia! No- 
where will these harmonious notes be more 
surely struck than in the Mid-Pacifie In- 
stitute where will be gathered, in friendly 
union, representatives, (at a most formative 
period of their lives), of three great Asian 
peoples, together with fellow students of our 
aboriginal and other races. The links which 
will bind us to China, to Japan, and Korea 
will be the hearts of our school boys and 
girls, beating in sympathy with the music of 
the Golden Rule of Christ, here inculeated 
by precept and practice. In the great lands 
beyond the sea ‘‘the old order changeth,’’— 
in the Orient is dawning a better and brighter 
day and towards the new light are turned the 
expectant faces of the young. Our doors 
should open in welcome not only to those 
who are already here, but to other eager 
students from their home-lands, who may 
seek further knowledge in this favored spot. 


Here is to arise a school, set in the midst of 
a landscape of surpassing beauty, in a climate 
of unusual charm, from which we trust will 
go forth a long succession of those who shall 
be indeed ‘‘heralds of truth’’ to the millions 
of Asia. Their training will be in the Eng- 
lish language, which will unlock for them 


Turning the Sod for the First Dormitory. 


THE FRIEND. 


vast treasure houses of inspiration, but they 
are to be guided as well to an accurate knowl- 
edge of those ‘‘mother tongues,’’ which will 
enable them, in turn, to dispense the treasure 
found to multitudes in darkness who await 
their coming. In view of such opportunities 
before our students,—the eall to. reinforce 
such a work comes with no uncertain sound. 
It has been well and vigorously said: ‘‘It is 
a great work to increase the candle power 
of our educational are-lights, but to give to 
cave dwellers an incandescent may be bet- 
ter.’’ Already there have gone forth from 
our affiliated schools those who are helping 
forward the good work. They are but the 
advance guard of many more we trust will 
issue from our united work. They are to ne 
not only missionaries of spiritual truth, but 
stimulaters of all healthful scientific research 
and application, advocates of a sound mind 
in a sound body, true fruitage of a wise 
athletic training; the builders of a pure and 
beautiful home-life; chivalrous supporters of 
a lofty type of womanhood; wise discoverers 
of the hidden resources of uature, Asia 
needs these ‘‘all round’’ missionaries, It will 
be the privilege and duty of var Institute to 
furnish such. 


THE OUTLOOK TOWARDS THE WCRLD. 


The day of the ‘‘divided life’’ of the race 
is passing away. China’s ‘‘great wall’ in 
decay, with its gaping rents, and its masses 
of useless material, is a fitting figure of the 
downfall which awaits those humanly devised 
but not divinely appointed barriers between 
the races. We have not yet, by any means, 
entered into the free glory of the millennium, 
but there is a flushing of the eastern sky of 
the race which is a harbinger of a brighter 
day. We have a great deal still to learn 
about the equality of mankind, but we are 
on the road which leads to the truth. We 
believe that, perhaps above all else, the mes- 
sage of Hawaii to the wide world is that 
equal opportunity should be given to all and 
that the ‘‘yellow peril’’ and all similar perils 
are most successfully.met and vanquished 
by the spirit of love and justice. . To an 
honorable place in this practical. translation 
into daily life of the gospel of good will to all 
men the Mid-Pacifie Institute would seem to 
have a legitimate call and this alone would 
justify and establish its reason of being. 


EARLY DAYS AT KAWAIAHAO. 


| By Lydia Bingham Coan. 

On Aug. 3rd, 1840, a little girl sailed away 
from Oahu with her parents, who for twenty 
years had been faithful, laborious mission- 
aries on these shores. Over the waves came 
a plaintive sound. It was the wailing of a 
multitude of once heathen people as: they 
watched the departing barque, bearing from 
them their pastor’ and their teacher. Is it 
any wonder this child held in kindly remem- 
brance these natives so devotedly attached to 
her father and her mother? 

As the vears went on her life was marked 
by varied providences—one very striking one 
was a call to return to her native’ land to 
conduet a boarding school for Hawaiian girls. 
Forty-six years ~c.ore her mother began the 
first school ever established in these Islands. 
Why should she not take up the work that 
blessed mother would have loved to carry on? 
Resigning her position, that of Principal of 
the Ohio Female College, near Cincinnati, 
she embarked at Boston, on board Morning 
Star No, 2, then under command of Rey. jae 
Bingham, Jr., and after a voyage of four 
months around Cape Horn, landed at 
Honolulu, in March, 1867, She looks back 


now over these past forty years and tries to 
recall some of the scenes and experiences of 
the far-away days of small things. 


Four buildings stood within the enclosure 
now occupied by Kawaiahao Seminary. Two 
were in front; these were the old bindery of 
the mission, and a dwelling house, that had in 
turn been the home of the Shepherds, the 
Judds and the Clarks. In the rear was the 
somewhat imposing coral-stone building that 
had been the Mission’s printing house, from 
which Bibles and hymn books and school 
books had been issued in great numbers. Not 
far away stood the quaint litlle adobe struc- 
ture, that in the earlier years had been the 
sehool house for missionaries’ children. The 
bindery and the printing house were the prop- 
erty of the American Board, and were kindly 
offered for the use of the new enterprise. 
The dwelling house belonged to Rev. E. W. 
Clark and was at that time occupied by Dr. 
L. H. Gulick, then Secretary of the Hawaiian 
Board. He and his noble wife had been ac- 
tive agents in the project now being started. 
In the largeness of their hearts they had 
taken into their home and under their care 
two little girls, children of Hawaiian Mis- 
sionaries in the Marquesas Islands; a half- 
white, whose father was a sea captain; a half- 
Chinese, daughter of a Honolulu Chinese mer- 
chant, and two older native girls, who were 
their helpers in domestie work. This was the 
nucleus of the school. Bindery and printing 
house had long been unused as such, and were 
somewhat dismal in condition. Through the 
thoughtful kindness of members of the 
Cousins’ Society (the H. M. C. S.) a room in 
the bindery, approached by stairs on the out- 
side of the house, was put into comfortable 
shape for the new teacher. At a later day 
when paint pots, in further attempts at im- 
provements on the premises, were in evi- 
dence, she watched her chances when work- 
men were gone at close of day, to apply their 
brushes to the begrimed door and window- 
casings. Adjoining rooms were afterwards 
made ready for oceupanecy of ten or twelve 
girls. The school room was in the basement 
of the printing house. The flooring was part- 
ly in wood, partly in coral stones, upon which 
the heavy presses had stood. More or less 
the boards were rotten and broken, but 
Ponape mats spread over them were safe 
guards ‘against. sprained ankles. The thick 
but somewhat porous walls, aforetime white: 
washed,.were stained with mould. It was. not 
an especially attractive place either as school 
room or dining room, which it had also to be 
for the boarders. A spacious apartment on 
the first story, with windows on its four sides, 
seemed: to be a. general. storage room for 
empty boxes, for rubbish and for plastering 
that fell from the ceiling.at every firing of 
salutes: from the guns on Punchbowl. The 
teacher early had her eye on his room and a 
craving desire in her-heart to have it put in 
repair and made a suitable ‘‘assembly hall.’’ 
Very kindly the Hawaiian Board made a 
grant to carry this into effect. A donation 
from friends in the States furnished means 
to procure desks and benches—plain, simple 
furniture, made in.a Honolulu. carpenter’s. 
shop. The second story, in course of time, 
came under consideration asa place that 
could be made (if there were money to do 
it) a suitable dormitory for the. younger 
pupils. Here again the-kindness of friends 
eame to the aid of the scheme. The Ladies’ 
Benevolent Society in addition to paying the 
salary of an assistant teacher, voted the 
money needed for the dormitory. A trap 
door, reached by a permanent step-ladder, 
opened into a darg attic above this room. 
It offered closet facilities—a place to put 


trunks and to hang clothing, but its unlighted 
depths made trouble. A carpenter was con- 
sulted and would put in a dormer window 
for thirty dollars. The next mail from the 
coast brought that amount unsolicited. 

On the withdrawal of Dr. and Mrs. Gulick 
from the school, the Principal assumed the 
burden of paying the rent for the Clark 
house. When this came to the knowledge of 
Miss Atherton, sister of Hon. J. B, Atherton, 
she very soon set<herself to the raising of 
funds for the purchase of the property. It 
was then deeded in trust to the A. B. C. F. 
M. Kindness unmeasured and favors un- 
numbered filled the records of those days and 
put the Seminary on foundations that have 
not failed it. 

It was a little acorn, planted in missionary 
soil, watered by some trials and tears, nour- 
ished by the prayers and gifts of many 
friends, protected and blest, we trust, by one 
who is our Master, even Christ. A vigorous 
oak, it is soon to be transplanted to the hills, 
to spread its branches under the sunshine, 
the showers and the rainbows of beautiful 
Manoa Valley. 

_ May the blessing of the Lord ever rest 
upon it, and upon her through whose munifi- 
cence it is to find its new home. 


THE BENEFIT TO THE JAPANESE OF 
MID-PACIFIC INSTITUTE. 

The question of education to meet the needs 
of Japanese in Hawaii is causing much 
thought and discussion. We believe the 
problem will be solved by the Mid-Pacifie 
Institute which will prove to be the ‘‘Silver 
lining to the cloud.’’ 

Thirteen years ago, during my first month’s 
work in Honolulu, I was shocked and sur- 
prised to discover that Japanese children born 
in Hawaii had no command of our language, 
but were using a mixture of three tongues— 
English, Hawaiian and Japanese. My first 
Surprise was when J asked a young girl, 
‘“Why does not your mother come??? Tie 

irl replied, ‘‘Me mamma hanahana yoko- 
nai.’’~ Of course I could not understand her, 
so the words were interpreted by a friend, 
““My mother is too busy to come.’* I was 
astonished to find this to be the usual ex- 
pressions of the Japanese children born in 
Hawaii, and that these-children could neither 
read, write nor speak Japanese, This thought 
worried and grieved me.. At the earnest 
Solicitation of the parents I decided to open 
4 school: in. Honolulu for the instruction of 
dur language to these young people. As the 
English training is most important, we were 
compelled to open our school two hours after 
the closing of the public schools. We now 
think that seven hours of lessons every day 
(five at the public, and two at the Japanese 
schools) is undermining the health of our 
children; we fear such a constant nerve 
strain may injure the development of the 
brain. We are therefore very thankful that 
this Mid-Pacific Institute will teach the lan- 
guages, Iinglish and Japanese, in the regular 
school hours, and our children are to receive 
such a beneficiai education. 

Manual training is of great importance to 
the children, in directing them to a useful 
future and in teaching them the American 
methods of labor. 

. During the past ten years two hundred and 
seven children have entered my boarding 
school. Nine of them attended the High 
School. The Japanese parents are necessi- 
tated to enforce their children to take up 
some work for remuneration to help with the 
expenses incurred by their school life. - We 
think this manual training is of vast im- 


Io 


THE FRIEND. 


portance during the grammar grade work. 


As many of our children will not be able to 
take a higher course of study this training 
will aid them to become good mechanics and 
also direct them toward a useful future life. 

We are sure when the Japanese understand 
the methods of education of the Mid-Pacific 
Institute and the great benefit to be derived, 
the children from far and near will enter 
this school. 

T. OKUMURA. 
June 23d, 1907. 


WITH FACE TOWARD THE FRONT. 


The teachers and pupils of Kawaiahao 

eminary are looking forward with joyful 
anticipation to the greater opportunities ana 
wider sphere of usefulness in store for all in 
the new school. The High School course 
which it will offer will enable students to re- 
main through the years when they most need 
the protection of the school, and furnish op- 
portunity tor cultivation of the seeds of moral 
training sown in the stormy period of transi- 
tion between childhood and womanhood—a 
period in which few results appear. Hitherto 
most of the pupils have left at just this age 
to attend the higher grade public schools, and 
very few by that time are able to enter with 
safety upon the freedom of public school life. 
A longer connection with the home school 
will undoubtedly be productive of results far 
more enduring. 

In domestic science also, and in all of the 
industrial work, equipment, room and an 
adequate teaching force, will secure results 
such as have been impossible to the school 
in its present condition. Graduates of that 
department may henceforth expect to leave 
the school fully prepared in some handicraft 
which will insure them a livlihood. The har- 
vest of good which may be gathered from 
such an institution, properly equipped is 
plenteous; let us both work and pray that the 
laborers, and the tools with which to labor, 


may be equally plenteous. c 
Ker Mr. 


SOME GOOD THINGS FROM THE AN- 
NUAL MEETING. 


FROM PROF, I. M. COX ON THE PUBLIC 
SCHOOLS AS A RELIGIOUS FORCE. 


It may wow be fairly assumed that the 
American people are firmly committed to the 
poliey of excluding from the public schools 
any sectarian religious instruction. 

There have been times when it seemed that 
a strong and concerted movement might in 
places result in a division of the public 
money for education, a portion of it being 
diverted to sectarian schools. But the fact 
that in the entire history of American educa- 
tion such movements have uniformly failed 
of success seems to fairly establish an irre- 
vokable policy in publie school education. 

Realizing this unmistakable tendency, 
timid souls here and there have deplored the 
inereasingly liberal appropriations of money 
for public school education, have lamented 
that the schools are or must surely become 
godless schools, and have proposed makeshift 
devices to ameliorate a condition they have 
felt themselves powerless to remedy. 

Meanwhile the publie school teacher, with- 
out argument or controversy, has gone stead- 
ily forward with' his work. He has realized 
that the school is only one of many institu- 
tions working for the education of the child. 
He has not sought to lesson the influence of 
the home, or the church, of libraries, 


museums, the parks, the woods or the sea, of 
the industries and commerce. He has ae- 
knowledged that the right bringing up of 
children is worthy of the best energies of a 
the people. He has taken the child as he 
finds him, has endeavored to utilize all that 
he finds of value in the child’s life and ex- 
perience. Where the influences have been 
found to be perverted or defective the school 
has reached out in an effort to stimulate or 
counteract. The public school has broadened 
immensely within the memory of men now in 
middle life. While some people have been 
declaiming about the godlessness of the 
schools, and the need of introducing direct 
religious teaching, the schools have been 
quietly adjustine themselves to the situation, 
have set character as their highest aim, have 
broadened and enriched their courses for the 
sake of a larger ethical content, have called 
into service a class of men and women better 
trained for their work, and have almost un- 
consciously undertaken to supply the defects 
of home and society. Restrictions on the 
giving of direct religious instruction do not 
appear to have worked the exclusion of re- 
ligious influence. The relations of teachers 
and pupils have become more cordial and 
sympathetic, and their daily intercourse is on 
a much higher plane, as regards friendly co- 
operation and sympathetic helpfulness, Home 
and school have come into closer harmony. 


Even those who had been accustomed to 
teach in denominational schools and who had 
taken up publie school work with some mis- 
givings, have testified that they have fou: 
in practice that they are not hampered in giv- 
ing the ethical and religious culture the 
child’s development demands. The mind + 
the child is the mind of nrimitive man an 
grasps truths in the elements. It finds no 
room for hair-splitting aiscriminations or fine- 
spun dogmas. In prohibiting sectarian re- 
ligious instruction in public schools the law 
has but put a legal sanction on a pedagogic 
principle that had already become the prac- 
tice of the best educators. The law, psy- 
chology, and the best practice of teaching 
seem to concur in the doctrine that the schoo] 
should avoid matters of controversy and con- 
fine their teaching to those broad truths of 
ethics and religion that mect with the gen- 
eral acceptance of men. 

And surely this is no narrowly circum- 
seribed field of effort. To teach children to 
be kind, punctual, industrious, persevering, 
cleanly, honest, truthful, loyal, obedient, is 
worthy of the best effort of the school, the 
chureh, and the home. Every hour of schoo] 
life is rich in opportunity, and the schools are 
becoming stronger from day to day in the 
practice of social virtue and the acquiring 
of good habits. The personality of the 
teacher is the chief element in the solution. 

The school curriculum, too, is rich in ma- 
terial for ethical and spiritual culture. The 
exercises connected with the salutation of the 
flag should be a continuous lesson of loyalty 
and patriotism. The hymns and songs of the 
School are devotional and inspiring. The 
weeks of preparation for those special exer- 
cises given on Thanksgiving Day, Arbor Day, 
Christmas, Easter, the birthday celebrations 
of Whittier, of Longfellow, of Washington 
and Lineoln are full of those things that 
make for spiritual uplift in the mind of the 
ghild. There is wealth of material for 
ethical culture of the child in the fairy tales 
used in school, particularly in such tales as 
the Germans call Marchen, tales that have 
been used in the education of children gen- 
eration after generation until the superfluous 
and the objectionable have been well nigh 
eliminated. 


Personally I believe it to be wrong in prin- 
ciple to exclude by law from the teacher’s 
use any available material, particularly a 
literature as rich in poetry and in ethical con- 
tent as is the Bible. But even where the 
Seriptures are excluded there remains much 
other literature that breathes the very spirit 
of the Bible. With the poets and orators of a 
vast literature furnishing an atmosphere of 
spiritual uplift our teachers do not complain 
of lack of material for an appeal to the 
spiritual side of the child’s nature. 

_ And it is possible to find compensations in 
these very restrictions. It is often of ad- 
vantage to teachers and others to be com- 
pelled to get out of the ruts. The usual ap- 
peals sometimes become hackneyed. Let him 
who would teach the lessons of truth and 
‘oyalty and obedience, and who feels that he 
can no longer with propriety take ‘‘Thou 
shalt not bear false witness’’ for his text, or 
appeal to the story of Ananias and Sapphira, 
let him once try reading from the Idylls of 
the King the story of the casting away of 
the sword and let him note the effect when 
he comes to that rebuke of King Arthur be- 
ginning with the line, ‘‘This is a shameful 
thing for men to lie.’? The newness of the 
approach will count for much and the re- 
sourceful teacher will find a thousand and 
one unlooked for ways of getting at a point. 

In a word, just so long as religion main- 
tains a close relation with right living I ven- 
ture the belief that there is very little in 
vital Christianity that may not rightly be 
taught and practiced in the public schools. 


GLEANINGS FROM PRESIDENT A. F. 
| GRIFFITH’S ADDRESS, NEW METHODS 
IN THE SUNDAY SCHOOLS. 


| The subject of this paper suggests that 
there may be something the matter with the 
old methods in the Sunday school. I believe 
that I can say that there are radical defects 
without appearing to be a fault-finder or a 
pessimist. 


| The most sanguine of us are not satisfied 
with the results of the work of the Sunday 
schools in either of their great purposes: (1) 
ee educational, in teaching and studying the 
ible; (2) the religious, in the conversion of 
men to Christianity. We want still better re- 
sults than we are getting. 


Our secular schools and colleges are com- 
plaining of the lack of knowledge of the Bible 
shown by the young people. Not long ago we 
gave a set of simple questions to the students 
gf Oahu College. I looked over the papers 
of the two upper classes which contain boys 
dnd girls about seventeen or eighteen years 
df age who came from Sunday schools all 
over the Islands and from churches of vari- 
dus denominations. It has to be admitted 
that there was much lack of knowledge, not 
to say ignorance. Paul was quite generally 
made a disciple; David wore the coat of 
ey colors, wrote the Songs of Solomon, was 
‘ast in the den of lions, and was also one of 
the twelve apostles. 


| The things which were left unsaid and 
which showed unfathomable depths were per- 
haps the saddest part of it all. This condi- 
tion of affairs is not, of course, confined to 
our children alone. Regretfully it is fairly 
general. 

| The three things which will most surely and 
most completely effect a change are a teach- 
ing ministry and a curriculum of study which 
will be intelligently planned to better meet 
the needs of our Sunday schools which have 
students from the infant class to the aged, 


and a consecrated body of teachers, trained 
by the pastor, who will wisely teach such a 
course of study. 

1. The Teaching Minister. 

If a church is large enough to employ two 
ministers, it is ideal if she can have a preach- 
er and a teacher, If she can afford only one 
minister, his work in teaching should be just 
as important as his work in preaching and 
caring for, his flock. In particular the pas- 
tors should realize and assume the responsi- 
bility of seeing that the Bible is taught by 
properly trained persons, 

He must become a teacher of the teachers, 
a leader in Biblical interpretation and in- 
struction, 


GRADED COURSE OF STUDY. 


One of the erying needs of all Bible schools 
is a comprehensive and adequate course of 
study. The preparation of such a course is 
the work of experts. 

It should be planned with a view to bring- 
ing out the interest and to appealing to the 
intellect of the pupil at all stages in his de- 
velopment, It should meet his religious needs. 

It should be founded on the Bible, but 
other matter should be included. The revela- 
tions of God wherever they appear should 
have a place. Biography and geography, 
literature and science should contribute. The 
present fragments should be replaced with a 
course which has progression and interrela- 
tion. Everything should be brought to bear 
in the illustration of vital truth. 


THE TRAINED TEACHER. 


The teacher is the essential factor of this 
scheme, It is not enough that we have conse- 
erated teachers; we must have consecrated 
and trained teachers. Consecration, education 
and pedagogical training in the teachers wi 
almost make a school. 


OTHER NEEDS AND CHANGES. 


In addition to these three prime needs, 
there are many other conditions which need 
remedying or changing; there are new 
methods which may be applied; new ideag 
which may be introduced; real dangers which 
must be avoided, and certain accomplish- 
ments which must be worked for and hoped 
LOT. 

1. The school should be carefully graded. 
The grades of the public schools may serve 
as suggestions if they do not furnish the 
model. 

2. The lessons should have unity. The 
course from the earliest to the latest years 
should be carefully planned; the matter to be 
taught should meet the intellectual and 
spiritual needs of the pupils. The fragment- 
ary bits which have been fed to children 
have spoiled the taste of the meal and have 
ruined the digestions of the diners. 

3. The teaching should be in accordance 
with right principles, It should appeal to the 
intellect and to do so it must be adapted to 
the mental development of the pupil. 

4. The careful system of grading implies 
regular advancement or promotion. It serves 
a double purpose: it gives an incentive to 
the pupil; it brings him under new teachers 
from whom he should get a fresh inspiration. 

5. A Sunday school should have good dis- 
cipline. There seems to be a notion, based 
largely on sentiment, that a disturber must 
be kept and his offences pardoned in the hope 
that he may ultimately be reclaimed. The 
vital interests of the ninety and nine should 
receive more consideration. 

6. The teacher should always have in mind 
that the religious purpose must underlie all 


THE FRIEND. 


II 


central idea worked out for the year. The 
pastor of the church is or should be the moy- 
teaching. The spirit of her work and the at- 
mosphere createa by the way that the work 
is carried forward are important factors in 
establishing a proper religious basis. 

7. Of all the’ smau problems, which vex 
the soul of the Sunday school teacher, none 
worries more and seems less near a solution 
than the one of getting the pupil to study 
his lesson. 

(a) An appeal to duty on the part of some 
teachers to some pupils is sometimes enough. 

(b) ‘The only sure way is to arouse inter- 
est not in the teaching of the lesson, not in 
the class, not in the school, but in the lesson 
itself. Clubs, class picnics, debates, sports 
may arouse a class pride, but these are means 
to the great end of a studious interest in the 
Bible. Amusing the class by stories or any 
resource makes the person in charge an en- 
tertainer and not- a teacher. 

Plain pedagogy suggests that establishing 
some common ground between the pupil anu 
the lesson ig a first requisite. A skilful 
teacher will not be long in finding it but, u 
it cannot be found, it must be made. The 
lesson should be imbued with life by giving it 
an historical and geographical setting. An 
abstract lesson lacks interest; it must be con- 
crete. If a parallel can be made between 
some event in history with which the class is 
familiar or in their own lives, it will serve a 
good purpose. A certain definite amount ot 
study should be required. 

8. Most of our churches are poorly adapted 
to effective Sunday school work. We cannot 
easily change them; we can only plan for the 
future to pay more attention to the Sunday 
school room even if we have to leave off the 
steeple. The church should have a specially 
planned room adapted to its size and needs. 

Thinking church people are convinced that 
Bible schools organized on some such lines 
as these are now an educational necessity. The 
church has no greater duty than to make sure 
that its Bible school by effective organiza- 
tion, right methods and adequate equipment 
shall be prepared to do its part in the educa- 
tion and redemption of those who are soon to 
be the support of Christ’s church on earth. 


A FEW HITS MADE BY PRESIDENT P. L. 
HORNE ON A NEW SUNDAY SCHOOL 
PROGRAM FOR HAWATI. 


The Sunday school should follow closely 
the organization, aim, and methods of the 
public schools. The two are closely allied. 
The instructions in the Sunday school must 
supplement that of the day school, in every 
department from the Kindergarten to the Col- 
lege. 

A definite plan must be followed and 
teachers secured who are willing to prepare 
themselves weekly to carry out this definite 
plan. The aim of the Sunday school is not to 
teach the children to be good, but to do good, 
not to proselyte but to educate, not to teach 
the Bible but to interpret the teachings of 
the Bible in terms of daily life, so that the 
child shall see the love of God in everything. 

A new Sunday school program for Hawaii, 
I do not know that J could present one. 
doubt if one altogether new could be or ought 
to be accepted. Many have been tried. All 
have excellent features. If I can present a 
program which seems to embody some of the 
best parts of many, perhaps with that as a 
basis, a schedule for Hawaii might be worked 
out. , 

Unity of action must be the central 
thought. The leading churches of the Terri- 
tory should unite on a definite schedule, dif- 


fering some in details perhaps to meet differ- 
ent local conditions, but all with the same 
ing spirit of the Sunday school. He need not 
and except in rare instances, ought not to be 
the Superintendent of the Sunday school. A 
layman is better, but the Superintendent 
must know the pastor’s plan and must carry 
it out. The teachers of the Sunday school 
must be another factor in the work. They 
cannot teach the pastor’s ideal if they do not 
know it. Their training will depend largely 
upon the pastor’s realization of his own re- 
sponsibility. 

The Sunday school needs to be carefully 
divided, a definite program for a year estab- 
lished, and the work of each Sunday carefully 
defined at least a year in advance. 

Suppose then that we divide the Sunday 
school into eight regular grades according to 
the ages of the members, adopting so far as 
possible the public school divisions. The fol- 
lowing divisions suggest themselves: 


1.—Cradle Roll 


Zgebeybramarys Classe yis saersiacters 3 to 6 
3.—The Intermediate Class............ 6 to 8 
4.— Lhe Grammar: C168 ment ape cise eke 8 to 12 
ST he: JInimiors Classy. os ssateolsiecs ater 2) tool 
G:Phe, SeniomiClassivacissdcva cea ee a 16 to 21 
eee OR rA Catt AOL ASS i rotor coke a byes aco abet 21 


8.—The Home Class, 

Of course this division cannot be arbitrary. 
They must overlap. Let me take them brict) 
one by one. 


The Cradle Rell, 


These little tots should be enrolled at birth 
and the mother given their certificate ot 
membership, Their names can be placed in 
the Cradle Roll Register, which might 
hang in the Primary room. A Church Album 
might contain the pictures of these little peo- 
ple. Sometimes this would be a most valu- 
able book in the library. 

A social for these litle folks and their par- 
ents should be given annually. On their 
birthdays, the Superintendent should send a 
letter to the mother and a card to the child. 


The Primary Class, 


This class should meet in its own room 
specially furnished with Kindergarten equip- 
ment. Kindergarten methods should be 
adopted. Two important agencies can be 
used in this grade—memory and imagination. 
The child learns easily to commit and even 
though his understanding is limited, he can 
learn the Commandments, the Lord’s Prayer, 
short texts, the 23d Psalm, and some simple 
hymns; all of them should be explained for 
the child to understand. Little texts can be 
given on little cards as, Be merciful, God is 
love, A soft answer turneth away wrath, Be 
patient, Jesus loves me. ; 

The most important of all are Bible stories 
told simply as a definite plan. A regular out- 
line of stories from Adam to John’s vision in 
Revelation should be made and certain stories 
fixed for each Sunday and the order kept, 
Little children will require very little ma- 
terial besides. The dramatic quality is em- 
phasized. The stories will carry their moral 
lessons just as truly as the best nursery tales. 


The Intermediate Class. 


This grade too should have a separate room 
or if not possible might divide a room with 
the Grammar grade. But each should meet 
around a separate table. This grade would 
amplify the work of the preceding division. 
Additional passages and hymns should be 
learned. The books of the Bible should be 
learned in order and the pupils instructed 
how to find references, 


I2 


THE FRIEND. 


Then the Bible story telling should be an 
important part. The same general plans as 
in the former grade, but the stories amplified 
many more added and the pupil encourage 
to tell the stories to the class. 

Note books might well be kept. The teach- 
er could give simple questions for home study. 
The answers should be put in the note books 
and corrected by the teacher, Pictures se- 
leeted by the pupil from the Perry, Wilde or 
3rown collections could be pasted in the note 
book to illustrate the lessons. 

The Grammar Grade. 

The note book feature should be continued 
in this grade and developed. These note books 
should be reviewed quarterly, and graded. 
The picture feature should be greatly de- 
veloped also. Additional story telling, stress 
now being made less on the plot but more to 
its adaptation to daily life. 

In this grade the study of heroes may well 
be taken up. The study of Abraham, Jacob, 
Moses, David, Ahab, Elijah, Nehemiah, 
Jesus, Paul, Peter, will be the study of the 
history of biblical times. Heroes always best 
illustrate their times. 


The Junior and Senior Departments. 

These two departments should meet in the 
main room, The opening service should be 
short but made a very important feature. 
Suppose five different subjects be taken: The 
Chureh Creed, The Ten Commandments, The 
Lord’s Prayer, The 23rd Psalm, and The 
Beatitudes. Let one be recited each Sunday 
by all in the room. This would make it pos- 
sible to have each subject ten times during 
the year. Then let the Superintendent or the 
pastor take five minutes, not more, to explain 
a tenth of the selection recited. By the end 
of the year each of the five would have been 
carefully considered and the school have a 
conception of the whole, impossible to be got 
in other ways. 

The conversation method may be developed. 
The Juniors and Seniors may be questioned 
extempore. This can be made very attractive 
and instructive. But this method must be 
used with care. Every tendency towards 
coming to the Sunday school without prepar- 
ing the lessons, trusting to extempore ques- 
tions must be speedily checked. If not, the 
lessons will tend to develop into desultory 
talks. 

These two grades are in many ways the 
most important of all. They are the classes 
that are usually the smallest. The younger 
pupils of the Sunday school come because 
they are told. They often learn to love to go. 
But these upper grades do not, as a class, 
have to go. Some do, but more do not. They 
are at the age of greatest unrest, the critical 
age. 

For boys of this age, a man is needed. 
Women are excellent Sunday school teachers 
as they are day school teachers; indeed, they 
are the natural teachers of the child. But 
every child loses, who does not have in his 
educational course the touch of a man teach- 
er. Remember that Christianity has always 
been the religion of the world’s strongest 
manhood. 

These grades are given to ideals. And this 
is the time then that the strongest type of 
man the school can get, needs to take this 
class of young people for they will see their 
ideal through him. 

Adult Class. 

All the other classes of the Sunday school 
may well be considered under the head of the 
Adult Class. Perhaps all could meet in one 
large class, meeting in the auditorium. This 
class needs the best trained man in the church 
except the pastor. 


The plan outlined presupposes a large 


church. The small church must simply make 
fewer divisions and have smaller classes. 
The Cradle Roll and the Adult Class is pos- 
sible for every church. Between these two 
the small church can make as many divisions 
as seems wise, utilizing as many of the fea- 
tures suggested as seem feasible. 


VITAL REQUIREMENTS IN SUNDAY 
SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT. 


This association has been formed with re- 
markably clear and carefully prepared papers 
by the ablest educators of the Territory. We 
have all listened with keen interest to their 
suggestions for developing the Sunday school, 

The excellent advice that has been given 
must necessarily largely apply to city Sun- 
day schools or to rather thickly settled rural 
districts, and especially where the church can 
obtain many efficient workers. 

The majority of our Sunday schools in this 
Territory have an inadequate supply of teach- 
ers, and often only a single room in which 
to hold classes. The result is that there are 
usually only two classes in each school—one 
for adults and one for children. Under such 
conditions how can we do more effective ser- 
vice? I should like to give three simple, prac- 
tical rules which, if followed, will improve 
our Sunday schools remarkably. 

Rule 1—Half hour for Bible study every 
Sunday. 

Notice the words I have used—Bible Study. 
‘‘Bible study’? does not mean that we never 
ought to look at the lesson before we come to 
the Sunday school, as too often is the case. 
Many a time I have seen members of a class 
hurriedly open their Ka Hoaloha just be- 
fore the lesson was read and rely wholly upon 
that paper, excellent though it is, for their 
knowledge of the Bible lesson for the day. 
The passage should be carefully studied in 
the Bible with its setting and with the use 
of references. Then we would know some- 
thing about our Sunday school lesson. 

Again, ‘‘Bible study’’ does not mean an 
occasion for a debate. Often I could easily 
have mistaken a Sunday school for a Re- 
publican club. Debate followed debate, argu- 
ment clashed with argument; three or four 
men were on their feet at onve, trying to get 
in a word on the discussion. There was none 
of the quiet spirit of reverence which should 
pervade our study of God’s word. 

Let us try to correct this tendency and 
spend more time in calm, thoughtful study of 
our Bibles in the half hour of the Sunday 
school. 

The delegates would do well to make a 
careful inspection of Kawaiahao Sunday 
school, where classes for different ages spend 
thirty minutes in thorough devotional Bible 
study. 

Rule 2—At least five cents a month from 
every pupil in the Sunday school. 

There is a great lack of system in our con- 
tributions, We should give regularly. If we 
cannot give more than five cents a month, 
let us give that upon a regular Sunday, and 
we will be surprised at the amount we shall 
have in a year’s time. A school of twenty 
pupils giving five cents a month would give 
$12.00 a year. 

I know one little school on Maui where the 
boys and girls gave regularly for a year. 
They bought their supplies and weekly papers 
and gave $6.00 to the American Board. 

Five cents a month will buy the Well- 
spring for a year. This is one of the best 
papers published and it is a splendid help in 
the religious education of every boy and girl. 


should our Christian children be taught to 
give systematically through the Sunday 
school, to which is entrusted so much of the 
religious training of the modern child. 

Rule 3—Spend less money for general con- 
tributions and more for equipment. 

tI is the great fault of the Sunday ‘schools 
that we give, give, give, all the time to out- 
side calls, and keep so little with which to do 
the work that the Sunday school must do. 
It is a beautiful spirit to want to give to 
everything that needs money. J have known 
of Sunday schools, however, that give large- 
ly to every one who asks of them, and then 
are too poor to buy even lesson cards for the 
children. 

Every Hawaiian Sunday school should be 
supplied with the Ka MHoaloha, with song 
books and cards of the infant class, before a 
single cent is given to assist a neighboring 
chureh repair its building. 

We owe a duty to ourselves. We must edu- 
cate our children. We need Bibles and song 
books. If we are not equipped as a school 
let us give nothing outside but let us pro- 
vide the necessary supplies to do the work 
to which God has called us. 

R.. Be ADE 


A STRIKING BOOK. 


The features 
of Rey. Ambrose 
White Vernon, 
until recently 
pastor of the 


Dartmouth Col- 
lege Church and 
now Professor 
of Homiletics in 
Yale Theological 
Seminary and 
Acting Pastor of 


the College Church, reveal the kind of 
writing to be expected of their possessor. 
Prof. “Vernon is a clear, keen thinker. 
The book put forth by him just before 
entering on his new duties at Yale is en- 
titled the Religious Value of the Old 
Testament. There are only 81 pages and 
a man must have a bold spirit who can 
expect to state what this value is in such 
brief compass. No one who looks for 
thoroughness in this volumne will close it 
with any degree of satisfaction. But the 
single thesis set before himself by the 
author is followed with power and mark- 
ed clearness of thought. It is in brief 
that the Old Testament contains the rec- 
ord of pioneers in religious experience 
blazing a trail which every age has to 
travel and therefore possesses absolute 
value for all generations. 

In seeking to establish this proposi- 
tion Prof. Vernon sets himself earnestly 
to sweep away values which he believes 
uncritical ages of Christian disciples 
have attributed to the Old Testament. 
The spuriousness to him of these values 
he exhibits with entire frankness. There 


The heathen mother in India teaches her|i8 much vigorous writing. The main 


baby to give to the idol. 


How much more! criticism upon this part of his task is the 


THE FRIEND. 


13 


absence of measured judgment expressed 
in qualifications. Prof. Vernon is sure 
of some things that many foremost schol- 
ars are unable to assert boldly. He thus 
overshoots his mark as so many enthu- 
siasts are tempted to do and produces a 
mild distrust of his entire effort. The 
error is wholly pardonable in a young 
author. 

The book is worth reading if taken by 
no means as a last word, but as a slight 
contribution to the many sided undying 
influence of the most wonderful collec- 
tion of writings this world has ever seen. 
In a certain sense the Old Testament 
produced Jesus. The world is not likely 
to outgrow this fact and as long as He 
grips men, the writings that made Him 
will not lose their grasp. 

(The Religious Value of the Old 
Testament by Ambrose White Vernon. 
New York: T. L. Crowell’ & Co. 90 
cents. ) 


TO SUNDAY SCHOOL FRIENDS 
IN HAWAII. 


Atlantic Ocean—Nearing Gibraltar, 
May 6, 1907. 


Dear Fellow-Christian Workers: 
Aloha nui: I wish very much that all 
our Sunday School friends in Hawaii 
could be with me at this time. I am 
now nine days at sea from Boston, on 
my way to attend the World’s Fifth 
Sunday School Convention to be held 
in Rome, Italy, May 18th-23rd. We 
have chartered this large steamer to 
carry this load of delegates to Rome. 
We have 325 delegates on board this 
vessel. There is another ship—the 
S. 5. “Neckar”—which is taking a load 
of delegates, starting from New York. 
On this latter vessel is Mrs. E. B. Wa- 
terhouse and her four daughters, all 
bound for the Rome Convention. Mrs. 
Waterhouse is one of our most devoted 
Island Sunday School workers. 

I am already having a feast of good 
things on board this ship. We have 
with us the foremost Sunday School 
‘workers in America and in Canada. 
Every day, we have two or three ses- 
sions. It 1s not only, doing me much 
good but people are asking me many 
questions about the Islands. It is 
bound to resuit beneficially to our 
Sunday School work. I have already 
put in an application for some Sunday 
School material which will be on exhibi- 
tion in Rome. It is my desire to have 
an exhibit which ban be taken all over 
the Islands, to show what is being done 
in the Sunday School world of today. 

I hope to return to Honolulu in 
July or August. If it is God’s will, the 


way may open for me to give all of my 
time to cur Island Sunday School 
work. 

May God bless you richly and guide 
you wisely in this your annual conven- 
tion. Let us resolve to keep closer to 
Him this coming year than ever be- 
fore. 

Cordially your co-worker, 
(Signed) E. B. TURNER. 
NAURA AS IT WAS, AND AS IT 
IS NOW. 


(Continued from June Number). 


iT. 


Seven years ago, even five years ago, 
the heathen priests were still doing a 
ruching business selling charms, chant- 
ing incantations over the sick, and tell- 
ing fortunes. But now you can walk 
right around the island and then go 
through the bush and you will not find 
one “Amen mweaeo,” his trade is a 
thing of the past. When all the sorcer- 
er’s customers had left him and when 
he was compelled to lead an unprofita- 
ble life, the Holy Spirit had an oppor- 
tunity to convict his dark, lying heart, 
too, and not very long ago we had the 
glorious privilege of baptizing the last 
one, formerly one of our most active 
enemies, one of the last original Nauru 
sorcerers. What a glorious time they 
must have had before the missionary 
looked after them! 

War was profitable to them, as their 
services were then very much required. 
Let me give you a short account of 
how war was managed down on Pleas- 
ant Island or Nauru. 

After war had been declared the first 
step was to offer sacrifices to the spirits 
of the departed members of the family 
and to the innumerable gods of war. 
Tabuarik was the name of the principai 
god of war while Tamamak, Kabwinan, 
Awirieria, Tagaburoro and the two fe- 
male gods, E Roduwabin and E Do- 
wene, were his associates. Each dis- 
trict of the contending parties would 
select one of these gods to be theirs for 
the particular war which was about to 
commence. Sacrifices in the form of 
the heart of a young cocoanut tree ora 
bunch of young nuts would be offered 
to him at once. Often the fruit of the 
pandanus with leaves attached to it, 
tobacco (for seemingly Tabuarik did 
not object to a good smoke of “Nigger- 
head tobacco’’), pork and fish would be 
offered also. If Tabuarik or any of the 
gods were well feasted by the people 
of the district, he would come down 
with thunder, lightning and wind to 
assist his friends. Lightning would 


strike into the camp of the enemy and 
destroy all. If a male “eani” was 
thought not to be sufficient, a female 
“eani” was called upon. These Amazon 
“eani”’ would lead the “brave” Nauru 
warriors to sure victory. 

The spirits of the dead warriors of 
the district had to do their share too 
to help their friends out of their dif- 
ficulties. 

The people of the district, which was 
about to go to war, would gather 
around one of their “amen mweaeo” 
begging this cunning individual to call 
the spirits of their departed friends. 
This was generally done by giving a 
sharp whistle. But after all it was 
Tabuarik who made the decision. At 
his “arrival” he was asked many ques- 
tions through the sorcerers, to which 
he answered with a sort of whistling. 
The people claimed to be able to inter- 
pret these sounds. According to Tabu- 
arik’s decison the people would or 
would not go to war. If victory was 
promised all was well, but if otherwise 
all means would be tried to pacify the 
opposing party. Tabuarik, through the 


‘American Board Number 


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HAWAIIAN BOARD 
BOOK ROOMS 


14 


THE FRIEND. 


z = = 


amen mweaeo, proved his decision in 
the following manner: He took three 
dead “ibia” (fish from the lagoon in 
the interior) and placed them on a mat. 


If they moved (which often was done} 


by an ingenious contrivance) it was a 
sign that the chief of their opponents 
would be killed in the coming strug- 
gle, and it would thus be easy to over- 
come the enemy. 

If the people of a district decided to 
go into battle, a number of heathen 
priests would accompany them, keep- 
ing themselves, however, in the rear 
of the common people. This was very 
wise of them, as a stray spear (or in 
more recent years a bullet) might hit 
them. 

When the contending “armies” were 
in sight of each other firing began. A 
striking feature was that not many 
warriors got hit, or else the island 
would have been very quickly depopu- 
lated after the introduction of firearms. 
The amen mweaeos, standing behind 
the fighting “armies,” 
catch all bullets with small mats which 
they were holding up. If anyone dared 
to stand behind them, he was sure to 
die, as the priests had power only: to 
protect those before them. 

The old style of fighting was some- 
what different from the modern war- 
fare. Three days’ notice would be giv- 
en before actual hostilities commenced. 
Ten oi the strongest men in the respec- 
tive districts were selected by each of 
the warring parties. These men put 
an kabina” (armor) on to protect 
themselves. ‘This armor was made out 
of cocoanut fibre. Their only weapon 
was an “Eragow,” a sort of a long and 
very heavy spear made from cocoanut 
wood. Each fighter was attended by 
about ten other men who were armed 
with shorter spears called “Ekado” or 
“Ewere.” These men wore a somewhat 
inferior armor. When a certain num- 
ber of the strong men had succumbed, 
their friends would give up the fight, 
considering themselves vanquished. 
Women who were in a certain delicate 
condition were not permitted near the 
battlefield. The warriors had to ab- 
stain from eating fish as long as the 
war lasted. It was considered impor- 
tant to shoot as many women and chil- 
dren of the enemy as possible to pre- 
vent his increase. 


(To be Continued. ) 


pretended to} 


“ 
Mesa nes Sa 
Hawai Cousins 
Agr? looting, ott AE Sip el a 


A most interesting meeting of the 
|Hawaiian Mission Children’s Society 
was held at the hospitable home of 
Mrs. A. Francis Judd on June Ist, at 
which a charter for the Society was 
adopted. 

Papers of reminiscence were read by 
|Dr. W. D. Alexander, W. O. Smith 
jand Mrs. C. M. Cooke. 
|written by dear Mother Rice in her 
ninety-second year. All were exceed- 
ingly interesting and will be published. 
The remaining papers were postponed 
till another meeting. 

The music too was a rare treat; a 
trio on violin, piano and cello, and a 
fine tenor solo by Philip Hall. 

A large company of Cousins with 
many welcome guests were present. 
|Mrs. Mills, of Mills College, Cal., in 
her greeting spoke of her arrival in the 
long ago with Mr. Mills, of their warm 
weicome, of their stop with Warren 
Chamberlain and his dear wife, of Rev. 
Mr. Corwin, of W. D. Alexander and 
his bride, of the early days at Puna- 


The latter was! 


hou when they made oxygen gas on the 
cook-stove, of the hard and varied 
duties and economies, and of their suc- 
cess during the third year of their 
stay in making the school self-support- 
ing and thus releasing the American 
Board from its financial aid. She re- 
called many of the old students, and 
said that though she was eighty-one 
years old and had taught at Holyoke, 
in India, and in California, she never 
forgot her pupils at Punahou nor lost 
interest in them. 

Rev. James Alexander of Oakland 
was called upon for remarks and told 
of the intense delight with which the 
absent Cousins read the annual reports, 
of the importance of these islands, of, 
their extent of territory—all the So- 
ciety, Hervey, Astral, Pearl, Samoan, 
Prtcairn and Marquesas islands being 
less than one-half the extent of our is- 
lands,—_the charm of civilization as 
well as beauty of scenery, and the 
progress of the Territory in Christian 
development. Other islands were 
prospered, he said, in proportion to 
their seclusion. Hawaii had no seclu- 
sion and yet had prospered. She had 
overcome difficulties and was fitted to 
overcome greater ones in the future. 
The rainbow which overarched the 


ro 


COLLE 


Transit. 


no Saloons. : : : 


GE-HILLS 


HONOLULU’S CHOICEST SUBURB 
City Streets, City Water, City Lights 


Unsurpassed Marine and Mountain Views, Rapid 


A FEW CHOICE LO 


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No Pake Stores, no Japanese Shacks, 


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TS FOR SALE 


MONEY AT 6% TO HELP BUILD 
APPLY TO 


THE FRIEND. 


15 


islands as he came ashore, and the 
strife for promoting benevolence 
which he found in Honolulu, were to 
him a banner of hope and sign of fu- 
ture success. 


Miss M. A. Chamberlain has receiv- 
ed a postal from Rev. E. B. Turner, 
which she appreciates highly, also a 
letter from Mrs. Helen Street Ranney 
from which we quote a few lines. 

“Thank you for sending us ‘The 
Friend’ with the notice you so kindly 
put in, and for the postal of the 
Church, too. We saw it as we went 
by. Remember us most cordially to 
Mrs. Coan and Mr. Bingham, and to 
Mr. and Mrs. Damon when you see 


them, with kindest remembrances to| 


your sister and nieces also, and much 
love to yourself.” 

Mr. Turner’s postal was as follows: 
“May 8, 07. Am having a great trip— 


spent yesterday in Gibraltar—today in| 
in | 


Algiers—Friday and Saturday 
Napies—have a fine company of Chris- 
tian people on board—two meetings a 
day. Expect to go to Palestine and 
Egypt. Love to all. E. B. Turner.” 


RECORD OF EVENTS. 
May 31.—Congressional visitors sail 
for home on transport Sherman. 


| 


| Ground broken in Manoa for Atherton | 


| Girls’ School of Mid-Pacific Institute 
j amid large attendance. 
| June 4—New house being finished for 
President. at Oahu College burned to 

| ground 2 a. m. 
| 5th—Death of Rev. J. Kauhane, emi- 
}nent native pastor. 

11th —Kamehameha 
served. 

Death of John Blossom, haif-brother 
of the late King Kalakaua. 
| Sharp earthquake in Kau. 
| t2th—Central Union Church call Dr. 
| Doremus Scudder to their pastorate. 
| 14th—Reception at Oahu College to 
early Associate President, Mrs. Susan L. 
| Mills. 


Day well ob- 


| 


| 15th—Nuing Pee fined $1o for selling 
| pieces of watermelon dyed with aniline. 
| 22nd.—360 baskets wild raspberries 
|from Olaa, the first importation of such 
| fruit to Honolulu. 

23d.—Rey. and Mrs. A. S. Baker of 
N. Kona severely injured by being 
| thrown from carriage. 
| 25th.—Chief Justice Walter F. Frear 
| receives appointment as Governor of Ha- 
; waii Territory. 

Kauai Planter A. S. Wilcox offers 
$50,000 for the erection of a Children’s 
Hospital in Honolulu. 


27th.—Alfred S. Hartwell appointed 
Chief Justice. 

Death of Rev. David A-i, Editor of the 
Kuokoa, and recent Delegate to Tokio 
Conference. 


MARRIED. 


ROBERTSON-McQUAID—At Honolulu, May 
29, A. G. M. Robertson to Miss Ululani Mc- 
Quaid. 

THOMAS-OLSEN—At Honolulu, June 12th, 
Manuel Thomas to Miss Annie Olsen. 

MICHELSTEIN-TODD—At Honolulu, June 
17, Joseph J. Michelstein to Miss Loise 
Todd. 

GRAY-LISHMAN—At Honolulu, June 24, 
Herbert Scott Gray to Miss Daisy Lishman. 

JOHNSTON-THRONAS—At Honolulu, June 
23, John Charles .ohnston to Anna Thronas. 

RAHE-BLAKE— At Honolulu. June 27, 
Bernard H. siahe of Puunene, Maui, to 
Miss Emma K. Blake of Honolulu. 


DIED. 
MOSSMAN—At Honolulu, May 29, Alfred 
Mossman, aged 29 years. 
HOLEK—At Honolulu, May 28, Mrs. Jacob 


Holek, aged 78 years. 

KAUHANE—At Honolulu, June 5th, Chiefess 
Manele Laanui. 

MERCELLINE—At Sacred Heart Convent, 
June 17th, Sister Mercelline, aged 86 years. 

A-I—At Honolulu, June 27th, Rev. David A-i, 
aged 35 years. 


PSVAT Eo Our 


Since removing from the Boston Block to our own building we have decided to increase our stock in the 
line of Church and Sunday-School books and supplies, Miscellaneous books, Bibles, Prayer and Hymnals, En- 
cyclopeedias, Gift Books, Missionary Books, Organs, Maps, Charts, Wall Mottoes, etc. 
fresh, our prices low, come and see us and get acquainted whether you wish to purchase now or later. 


THE NEW BOOK Rooms 


or THE HAWAIIAN BAORD 


CORNER OF ALAKEA AND MERCHANT STREETS 


zines or Books ordered from the East promptly and at satisfactory prices. 


JUST ARRIVED 


A NEW LINE OF Lp 


iS He CarlOoOnNn 


Our stock is new and 
Maga- 


Bibles, Red Letter Testaments, Prayer Books, flymnals 
and Miscellaneous Books : : : 


THE NEW VOLUMES COMPLETING THE SETS OF 


NELSON’S CYCLOPAEDIA 


JUST ARRIVED 


We can now supply complete sets without delay. 


f HAWAIIAN BOARD BOOK ROOMS, 


E. HERRICK BROWN, Manager. 


16 


THE FRIEND. 


The Bank of Hawaii, Luo. 


Incorporated Under the Laws of the Territory 


of Hawaii. 
PAID-UP  GCAPITAI. scssce ener $600,000.00 
SURPLUS". Seen ie EAE crate. ears 300,000.00 
UNDIVIDED PROFITS ..... )... .107,346.65 


OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 


“Charles “Ma Cooke-. 9 sn gave osu sae President 
PHC:  SONES jie. nskeic Ne SGP . Vice-President 
F. W. Macfarlane. eee. 2nd Vice-President 
Cr H. Cooke. sehioiracckte eriserorcseteteare Cashier 
Chas. -blustace sd x08. cui ss Assistant Cashier 
f.-BeDamoneh. nui ce ite Assistant Cashier 


E. F. Bishop, E. D: Tenney, J. A. McCandless, 
C. H. Atherton and F. C. Atherton, 
COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS DEPART- 
MENT. 
Strict Attention Given to all Branches of 
Banking. 
JUDD BUILDING. 


E. O. HALL @ SON 


In addition to Hardware and 
General Merchandise have now a 
complete assortment of 


HOUSEHOLD GOODS, 


including Crockey, Glassware, 
Stoves, Kitchen Furniture, Re- 
frigerators and Ice Chests, Etc. 
Alsa Garden* Tools of all kinds, 
Rubber Hose, Lawn Mowers. 

Call and examine our stock at 
the Hall Building. 


FORT STREET. 


Ct Davee eo. 


FINE GROCERIES 


OLD Kona Coffe a Specialty 


B. F. Ehlers & Co. 


PP. OF BOX AIG 
HONOLULU, T.H. 


The Leading Dry 
Goods House in the 
Territory. Especial 
attention given to 
Mail Orders. 


ALWAYS USE 


California Rose... 


CREAMERY BUTTER 


Guaranteed the Best and full 16 


HENRY MAY & CO. Ltp. 
22 TELEPHONES——— 92 


A. SCHAERERSS& (CO. 4 
° Importers and 


COMMISSION MERCHANTS. 


Honolulu, T. H. 


OPP & COMPANY, . 


Importers and Manufacturers of 
FURNITURE AND UPHOLSTERY. 
CHAIRS TO RENT. 4 


Nos. 1053-1059 Bishop St. - - Honolulu. 


A LEXANDER & BALDWIN, Ltd. 


OFFICERS—H. P. Baldwin, Pres’t; J. B. 
Castle, 1st Vice-Pres’t; W. M. Alexander, 2d 
Vice-Pres’t; J. P. Cooke, Treas.; W. O. 
Smith, Sec’y; George R. Carter, Auditor. 


SUGAR .FACTORS AND COMMISSION | 


MERCHANTS. 


AGENTS FOR—Hawaiian Commercial & 
Sugar Co., Haiku Sugar Co., Paia Plantation 

Co., Kihei Plantation Co., Hawaiian Sugar 
Co., Kahului R. R. Co., and Kahuku Planta- 
tion. 


Tru. Marn 109 C, A. Brnurna, Pei, spiny: seegptrna, Mar 


[CLUB STABI CLUB STABLES] 


FORT ST., ABOVE HOTEL 


RIGS OF ALL KINDS 
GOOD HORSES 
CAREFUL DRIVERS 


BANKERS. 
st 


Cries SPRECKELS &'CO., 


Draw Exchange on the pricipal ports of the 
world and transact a general 
banking business. 


se 


Honolulu *: -: : . + Hawaiian Islands. 


S. K. Kamaiopili 


Notary Public, Agent to Grant Marriage License, 
and Seacher of Titles. 


OFFICE WITH PUBLIC LANDS OFFICE] LOVE BUILDING 


JUDICIARY BLD HONOLULU, H. T. 


_| luku Sugar Co., 


(ors BREWER & CO., Limited, 


General Mercantile Commission Agents. 
sigh St., Honolulu, T. H. 


AGENTS FOR—Hawaiian Agricultural Co., 
Onomea Sugar Co., Honomu Sugar Co., Wai- 
Makee Sugar Co., Haleakala 
Ranch Co., Kapapala Ranch. 

Planters’ Line Shipping Co., 

Agents. Boston Board of Underwriters. 

Agents Philadelphia Board of Underwriters. 


LIST OF OFFICERS—Charles M. Cooke, 
President; Geo. H. Robertson, Vice-President 
and Manager; E. Faxon Bishop, Treasurer and 
Secretary; F. W. Macfarlane, Auditor; P. C. 
Jones, C. H. Cooke, J. R. Galt, Directors. 


ee LUNCH ROOM. 


st 


TEMPERANCE COFFEE HOUSE. 
os 
Fort St., Honolulu, T. H. 


EWERS & COOKE, Ltd., 


DEALERS IN 
PAINTS. Etc. 


WALL PAPERS, 
MATERIALS, 
LUMBER, BUILDING 


Honolulu, T. H. 


W G. IRWIN & CO., 


Fort Street, Honolulu 
SUGAR FACTORS 


AND 
COMMISSION AGENTS. 
Agents for the Oceanic Steamship Co. 


W. W. AHANA & CO, LTD. 
MERCHANT TAILORS, 


P. O, Box 986. Telephone Blue 2741 
62 King Street 
CLOTHES CLEANED AND REPAIRED. 


HENRY H. WILLIAMS 


FUNERAL DIRECTOR 


Graduate of Dr. Rodgers Perfect Em- 
balming School of San Francisco, Cal., — 
also of The Renouard Training School 
for Embalmers of New York. And a 
Licensed Embalmer for the State of 
New York, also a member of the State 
Funeral Directors Association of Cali- 
fornia. 


MONUMENTS AND TOMBSTONES 
FURNISHED. 


Chairs to Rent. 
1142, 1144 FORT S'T. 


Telephones: Office Main 64. Res. cor. 
Richards and Beretania, Blue 3561. 


VOL LX HONOLULU, T. H., AUGUST, 1907, 


THE NEW AND PERMANENT HOME OF THE HAWAIIAN BOARD---A 
PRESENT TO THE BOARD FROM MR. AND MRS. P. C. JONES. 


OS HS FS FE AB HE qs Gs 


a 
———— 
————e—e——————— 


No, 8, 


| 
| 


* 


HAWAIIAN TRUST €O., 


THE FRIEND. 


OWS OPV cee) Doe 


Is published the first week of each month 


LIMITED 


eS — : a 
Re : ; in Honolulu, T. H., at the Hawaiian Board 
Five, Marine, Life Book Rooms, cor. Alakea and Merchants 
and Accident Sts. | Subscription price, $1.50 per year. 
Insurance, s 


Plate Glass, Employers’ Liability, \\ 


923 Fort Street, Safe Deposit 


fered for sale on the eas.ct terms: 
cash, one-third in one year, one-third in two 


JIRETY ON BONDS , 
BU All business letter should be addressed 


and all M. O.’s and checks should be made 


out to 


and Burglary Insurance 


THEODORE RICHARDS, 
Business Manager of The Friend. 


P: O. Box 489. 


All communications of a literary character 


Building. 


CULEGE HILES: 


The magnificent residence trace of 


should be addressed to DoREMUS SCUDDER, 
the Oahu College. 


MANAGING EpiTor oF THE FRIEND, 
cor. Alakea & Merchant Sts., Honolulu, T, H. 


and mus! reach the Board Rooms by the 24th of 
the month 


COOL CLIMATE, SPLENDID VIEW 


The cheapest and most desirable lots of- Tue Boarp oF Epirors ; 


one-third Doremus Scudder, Managing Editor. 


Sereno E. Bishop, D. D. 


years. Interest at 6 per cent. hes sO ee Lenieie 
Theodore Richards. 
Rev. Edward W. Thwing. 
For information as to building require- Rev. Edward B. Turner. 


ments, ete., apply to 


Honolulu - - - - 


(Samuel Pingree French, A. B., Principal.) 


Oahu College, - - - 


i] Me WHITNEY, M.D $D.D.S. 


Fort ‘Street, =) - = 


Rey. William D. Westervelt. 


Entered October 27, 1902, at Honolulu, Hawati, as second 
class matter, under act of Congress of March 3, 1879. 


MOVED 


Again—This Time 


To Our Own Building 
ALAKEA and MERCHANT STREETS 


where hereafter may be 
found Bibles in 


English 
Hawaiian 
Japanese 
Chiense 
Portuguese 


as well as general 


RELIGIOUS LITERATURE 
AND PRAYER BOOKS. 


TRUSTEES OF OAHU COLLEGE, 
404 Judd Building. 


Hawaiian Islands. 


AHU COLLEG". 
(Arthur F. Griffiths, A.B., President.) 


and 


PUNAHOU PREPARATORY SCHOOL 


Offer complete 

College preparatory work, 

together with special 

Commercial, 

Music, and 

Art courses. 
For Catalogues, address 

JONATHAN SHAW, 

Business Agent, 
Honolulu, H. T. 


We plan to keep a stock of 
Sunday School materials 


Quarterlies, Notes and commentaries 


DENTAL ROOMS 


Boston Building. 


ISHOP & COMPANY, 
BANKERS. 


B 


HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, 


Established in 1858. 


Transact a General Banking and Exchange 
Business. Loans made on approved security. 


Bills discounted. Commercial Credits grant- 
ed. Deposits received on current account sub- 
ject to check. ) 


Regular Savings Bank Department main- 
tained in Bank Building on Merchant Street, 
and Insurance Department, doing a Life, Fire 
and Marine business on most favorable terms, 
in Friend Building on Bethel Street. 


Henry Waterhouse Trust Co., Ltd. 


STOCKS, BONDS 
AND ISLAND 
SECU YD aie 


Fort and Merchant Streets, Honolulu. 


F. WICHMANN, & CO., LTD. 
Manufacturing Optician, 
Jeweler and Silversmith. 


Importer of Diamonds, American and Swiss 
Watches, Art Pottery, Cut Glass, 
Leather Goods, Etc. 


Honolulu - - - - Hawaiian Islands. 


C 


ASTLE & COOKE, Ltd, 
Honolulu, H. I. 


COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 
SUGAR FACTORS. 


Agents for 
The Ewa Plantation Co., 
The Waialua Agricultural Co., Ltd., 
The Kohala Sugar Co., 
The Waimea Sugar Mill Co., 
The Apokaa Sugar Co., Ltd., 
The Fulton Iron Works, St. Louis, Mo., 
The Standard Oil Co., 
Geo. F. Biake Steam Pumps, 
Weston’s Centrifugals, 
New England Mutual Life Ins. Co., Boston, 
Aetna Fire Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn., 
Alliance Assurance Co., of London. 


EORGE J. AUGUR, M. D., 
HOMOEPATHIC PRACTITIONER. 


Residence, 435 Beretania St.; Office, 431 
Beretania St. Tel. 1851 Blue. 


Office Hours:—iIo to 12 a. m., 3 to 4 and 7 


The 


Friend 


OLDEST NEWSPAPER WEST OF THE ROCKIES. 


VOL. LXIV 


HONOLULU, H. T., AUGUST, 1907 


No. 8 


TREASURER’S STATEMENT. 


RECEIPTS. 

PAGEL ANG ogc b ar cpale le ers nian Sei ole vious $ 1.00 
PrenuGM, SLB. + PUM. oi of. 2 eer eed oe. 452.50 
BPN O Ses LUIS cre ec.c so ele nie 120.00 
COM Te ol) oie alee ive eles hele eie «wees 47.00 
METRES VVIOTO Sahn cars etn ale oe ce es 3.90 
CASHES IN pRUNG. cscs en teens é 630.90 
(Cova Ce VIER ch 102% EE ae ce aaa 525.00 
Bi CTN MGs ae oa) c se ite's © thee oh 100.65 
Cereal) Sah a rs eee 7.00 
BAGceHLONN AMR Sic iele itech. (aioe Sele esa sts & 61.15 
PME SO IV LOUK... Taio nse la sced ie late 4 40.00 
mea ALOL EMITNL «5 oir chee ensera te reere a oye 60.00 
Kawaiahao Seminary .............. 60.00 
EMO MM AR PSCMLIMAL Yi 255 sc ede ete te ee 60.00 
Makiki Japanese Church ........... 25.00 
Mamma General Fund . 0. s.c08 2 8 old 101.00 
MiadrPaentic, Institute -. 2.60.0). ses 1,302.00 
Ministerial Relief Kund: 22... 5... . » 300.00 
aan teneral Mund ... 2) secede te 1,169.91 
Wiige mS pense’ Wo. 6k. IN liens os 57.50 
MEMO NUTS STOUT. a5 64) fh ae ole letebe » 50.00 
arrmomese: WOT: oy... cc eiele oje 2 wel ele 15.00 
MRM Se ELI caps cpoue «= plays etaje mas 60.00 

90.00 


Sayre Fund 


$5,337.71 


EXPENDITURES. 
American Board Lands..... $ 324.00 
MEISIU RECO cn siete eeis eats a's 53.00 
JEIStiND) 0g) CAML hao cE econ 4.00 
M@iprnese: OW OVI’ s, foci eile $125.00 
PSUR ATMOS os, shut ssete te «jaieress 968.50 1,093.50 
Educational Work ........ 10.00 
WOME OMYVIOTK oe. ne tee ee 7.50 
eamIOS: clk: oeidce eae 576.00 583.50 
TM PEIETO IMC. sj. fa stoic, doe sisoste & 39.75 
Hawaiian Work Salaries... 317.00 
RMT OMOINA, ios cc se eye oe es 56.75 
JPG SL, eC I 2.14 
AWAMOSD WOrk «wii. 6 ie le. 444,69 
SABA S -a¥ 2 oi esses sia) 681.00 1,125.69 
Makiki Japanese Church... 12.25 
Mid-Pacific Institute ...... 372.00 
BHINGe BURR CTISE -\ . je eines es « 329.15 
PETTERS! ee te ecicd © 242.00 571.15 
Paloma yMassiOM ..)s. vse. ec 114.85 
Palama Special Fund...... 50.00 
‘Portuguese Work ......... 32.50 
RAIAIVOS, ches ween «aie sscens 258.00 290.50 
10.00 


Waiakea Settlement ....... 
Excess of receipts over expenditures. 


. $5,337.71 


Overdraft at bank $1,786.03 
June’s income was very small, this ac- 
counts for the overdraft. August, ordinarily, 
is a ‘‘dry’’ month. Please take notice. 
T. B. 


307.63 


OAHU AID SOCIEPY, 


Report for the year ending May 15, 
1907: } 


AMOUNTS RECEIVED. 


Balamcemtrom) last ivear aes. s+ waclos $ 50.00 
NETS Gee ieee TORU OMA Ew ahs ate tacts ere 100.00 
GAP AC ASU O Watch cette take hota le 100.00 
Many Castle firsts: jae ec wis tie bis Sites 50.00 
OM ONLGS eng RS ech so orn cy dakar ic reusiore ake 50.00 
NEUE  TORICLE ON styl 2 Sis Cie NSE ee pence oltre 50.00 
VV Ue ENC atu erate SeMRnR STS ac ete atk ia. Ses gene ee ace 25.00 
WiO. Smarthtareaetss tence close sere cen « 50.00 


Indebtedness for year 


$485.00 
EXPENDITURES. 

Rev. 8. Ps Kaaia at swWaranae..)....... $160.00 
Rev. S. D. Nuuhiwa at Hauula....... 120.00 
Rev. W. K. Leleiwi at Kaneohe...... 140.00 
Rev. H. K. Poepoe at Honolulu....... 40.00 
On repairs Kalihi native church...... 25.00 

$485.00 


It becomes harder and harder each 
year for the native churches of this 
island to get along. The members die or 
move to Honolulu, or perchance are 
proselyted by the Mormons. This makes 
the support of the faithful Hawaiian 
pastor more and more precarious. Our 
society has an important mission then. 
To preserve worship is to preserve the 
people and to insure for the next genera- 
tion some little chance to exist—nay 
even, to rise to better things. 

THEODORE RICHARDS, 
Treasurer. 


RESIGNATION OF DR. SCUDDER. 


June 17, 1907. 
The Board of the Hawaiian Evangelical 

Association, Board Building, Hono- 

eoilitbie (ADs dial 
Dear Brethren :— 

At your meeting of January 8, 1904, a 
vote was passed choosing me your Corre- 
sponding Secretary and the General 
Superintendent of your work. After 
corresponding with every member of the 
Board concerning its future policy, I ac- 
cepted the position the following Febru- 
ary first. The months that have inter- 
vened have been so crowded with duties 
that it seems longer than three and a half 
years since we set out on the journey of 
service together for our Master in the 
relationship then established. 

Like your first summons from the pas- 


| 
| 


torate in Woburn and your subsequent 
choice of me for your executive officer, 
the: call of Central Union Church has 
now come with the authority of a com- 
mand from the Master. Bearing the re- 
lation that it does to the entire Christian 


movement in these Islands, this Church 
holds the key position in the campaign 
of the future. It must be fortified and 
developed if the work entrusted to the 
Board for the Churches of the Islands is 
to be progressive and to realize its possi- 
bilities. The task is by no means light and 
imposes responsibilities that might well 
make any maf pause before shouldering 
them. But they are vital to all our work. 
The next logical step in the development 
of the Christian enterprise in Hawaii is 
to lead this great Church to fulfill the 
promise of its position, its history and 
its constituency. That is the burden laid 
upon us who are the heirs of the historic 
missionary conquest of these Islands and 
such changes in the disposal of men at 
our command, as our Master seems to 
indicate, are to be viewed from the stand- 
point of the essential solidarity of the 
entire movement. For the work is one. 
The Board and Central Union Church 
are each but a part of it. Thus leaving 
a position in the former for one in the 
latter is merely a question of wise ad- 
justment of the resources in hand. 
That the change involved in the ac- 
ceptance of the call from the Church is 
the next duty has been made evident first 
by the prayer history which has issued 
in the summons, second by the spon- 
taneity of the action of the Church, 
which, so far as | am aware, voted abso- 
lutely without solicitation or urging on 
the part of anyone, third by the assur- 
ances of personal cooperation from men 
who have hitherto not been active in its 
work, and fourth by the conviction that 
it is the Father’s will. The policy of the 
Board has been clearly defined and justi- 
fied, and its forces are so organized that 
the Secretary’s office is now largely con- 
cerned with details. Expansion is cer- 
tain because of the deep interest of the 
men who compose its membership. It is 
therefore a good time to pass the office 
over to other hands, and give first atten- 
tion to leading our strongest Church into 
line, as a vital force in our campaign for 


4 . 


THE FRIEND. 


the Kingdom in this, the strategic center ation to the Hawaiian work. Already 


of the Pacific world. 
think that there is to be no separation. | 
We shall 


1 all be true yoke fellows in the of the Board’s enterprise. 


| 


It is pleasant , to|there has been timé enough to see splen- 


did results that have effected every side 
On Hawaii, 


future just as we have been during the Maui and Kauai the evangelists in the 


past four years. 


different languages are associated, en- 


In order that time may be afforded to couraged, taught and generalled in the 


tender my resignation as Corresponding 
Secretary 
of the Board of the Hawaiian Evangeli- 
cal Association to take effect Septem- 
ber 30, 1907. In doing this it is a joy 
both to record my testimony to the ideal 


relations which have subsisted between | 


us since first you called me to this service 
and to express my deep gratitude to you 
all for the uniform kindness, the af- 


fectionate overlooking of faults, the gen-| 
erous support and the noble Christian | 


spirit which have characterized all your 
actions toward me. 
work done together for our Master, and 
He has richly blessed us. That you may 
be guided from above in the effort to se- 


cure His man for the special emergency | 


created by this change and that the Great 
Head of the Church may lead our be- 
loved Board to constantly enlarging 
achievement for His Kingdom is the 
daily prayer of 
Your fellow comrade of the Cross, 
DorEMUS SCUDDER. 


DR. SCUDDER AND THE BOARD. 


In May, 1902, Dr. 
Scudder came to us 
as associate with Mr. 
O. H. Gulick in the 
Japanese work. It 
was not till January, 
1904, that he became 
secretary and it 
probable that no other three years in the 
Board’s history have been crowded with 
such signs of progress and of promise. 
Briefly enumerated, these are some of the 
things we owe under God, to Dr. Scud- 
der’s leadership. 

The beginning of a better union of the 
churches of different nationalities on the 
Islands. Although there is much left to 
be desired here (due largely to a lack of 
appreciation on the part of the English- 
speaking congregations of their privi- 
leges and responsibilities as leaders) a 
big advance in this particular is a result 

f Dr. Scudder’s efforts. 

The stationing of English-speaking 
“bishops” in different parts of the Is- 
lands, is almost entirely Dr. Scudder’s 
work. This is a very wide departure 


It has been royal | 


is | 


The Hawaiian Churches 
particularly have felt the stimulus. and 


In connection with the foregoing it is 
entirely through Dr. Scudder’s efforts 
that the American Missionary Associa- 
tion has lent so much financial aid to our 
undertakings. It has been the $8,000 a 


year from that body that has made pos- 
sible in the securing of trained white lead- 


‘ers for Kona, Maui and Palama and has 


added many Japanese and Chinese evan- 
gelists to our field. Incident to this, 
through the appeals of the A. M. A., has 


been brought about a far wider knowl- 


edge of Hawaii and her needs on the 
part of Christians on the mainland. 


Dr. Scudder has had much to do with 
defining the relations of our Board with 
the American Board, particularly in the 
matter of land. Having always been 
identified with missions he has lent him- 
self to the increased support among Is- 
land Churches of the American Board 
work. A new zeal that bids fair to be 
widespread has sprung up among the Ha- 
waiian Churches. 

Having come to us in connection with 
work for the Japanese it would not be 
surprising if his influence were particu- 
larly felt in that department. Having 
had unusual and recent opportunity to 
study the Japanese he has been able to 
deal with this very sensitive people. The 
Makiki Japanese Church has felt his en- 
couragment and suggestion while it may 
be said that their new church might not 
have been obtained without his aid. The 
Japanese Christian Club is his creation, 
and whereas it has not won the enthusias- 
tic support of the Japanese yet it has a 
fine plant and excellent prospects. The 
Kozaki scholarship plan of getting new 
evangelists for this field is largely Dr. 
Scudder’s, and small Japanese boarding 
schools in various places have been fos- 
tered by him till there are several pros- 
pective feeders to the Mid-Pacific In- 
stitute. 


This brings us to some very vigorous 
championing of the Mid-Pacific Institute. 
Dr. Scudder has enthusiastically stood in 
the. fore front of this, the most signally 
hopeful Christian enterprise ever fathered 
by the Hawaiian Board. What will be 
the Board’s chief joy and crown is enter- 
ing upon a career of prosperity already 
coming into plain view. Kohala, Ma- 


from the Board’s policy, especially in re-i] unaolu and Hilo Boarding Schools have 


all felt the stimulus of Dr. Scudder’s 
presence and heartily evinced sympathy. 

Not to attempt a catalogue of the Doc- 
tor’s deeds-and virtues it were well to 
close with but a reference to the thor- 
oughly changed character of the annual 


meeting, as well as the monthly meetings, 
make such arrangements as will be neces- | interests of Christ’s Kingdom by these, 
sary for succession in this office, it seems | new leaders. 
wise to take action now and [ therefore | 
/have responded nobly. 
and General Superintendent | 


of the Board. The Association meetings 
now are planned to supply inspiration for 
the year. Helpful programs of deep 
spiritual significance bear immediately on 
island problems. People representing all 
our languages go and get profit. As for 
the Board a marked improvement in or- 
der as well as great gains in efficiency 
are a result of Dr. Scudder’s leadership. 

The best part of it all is that we are 
not to lose him. Contemplating his ac- 
ceptance of the Central Union paastorate, 
many of . belonging to both the Church 
and the Board, felt that the interests of 
hoth would be furthered by his encum- 
hency. He will not become narrowed by 
accepting the leadership in this most im- 
portant Church. The Islands will still 
feel his interest plus the growing interest 
of the powerful body of believers, never 
fully enlisted before in the cause of Christ 
as it is related to the native and foreign 
peoples in the. Islands. 

As for THE FRIEND, for which paper 
he has done such effective service as 
editor, we gladly hail the prospect of his 
return to continued leadership. 


Tah 


REV. B. V. BAZAR 


The islands lose another man who has 
been of great benefit to the Churches of 
our Protestant community. Mr. Bazata 
has been pastor of the Union Church at 
Paia, Maui, about two years, and from 
that important center has exerted an in- 
fluence which has been felt far and wide. 
For family reasons, however, he felt that 
he must return to the coast. After 
thorough consultation with his Church 
his resignation was accepted and a coun- 
cil of the neighboring Churches was 
called on July 11, 1907, to consider and, 
if advisable, ratify the action of the pas- 
tor and his Church. After a hearty ex- 


pression of the harmonious feeling exist- 


ing, the council recognized the necessity 
of Mr. Bazata’s return to California, and — 
voted to dissolve the pastoral relationship. 
It is not easy to find tried men of great 
worth for these apparently out of the way 
stations. The country Churches are nec- 
essarily small. The opportunity of 
growth in the particular Church is very 
limited. The people who attend Church 
come from the neighboring plantations, 
several miles distant, and are constantly 
changing. The work does not look large. 
But when our earnest young men are in 


THE FRIEND. 


| 
the field, they quickly learn that the mis- 


sion work is unlimited. Portuguese, Jap- 
anese, Chinese and Hawaiian ministers 
and Churches are very near at hand need- 
ing influence and counsel from these 
wiser brethren of theological training. 
This fact Mr. Bazata realized and for this 
reason among many others his departure 
is regretted. 


GILBERT ISLAND JUBILEE. 

The suggestion was made in the gen- 
eral Association meeting that a delegate 
from the Hawaiian Churches might be 
sent to the Gilbert Islands to aid in ob- 
serving a jubilee celebration of the found- 
ing of the mission at that place. Rev. 
W. N. Lono was appointed by the 
Churches to attend if possible. 
considered the difficulties in the way were 
found to be too many to permit any profit- 
able returns for the time, trouble and ex- 
pense of sending a delegate to the Gilbert 
Islands. 

It would be proper for the Kawaiahao 
Church to make arrangements for the re- 
membrance of the founding of the mis- 
sion by a Sabbath’s services in which the 
history of its origin and the ordination of 
the first missionaries (Hawaiians) might 
be brought before the public in a way 
calculated to do much good. 


HAWAIIAN EVANGELIZATION. 


A new step was takén by the Hawaiian 
Churches at the last meeting of the Gen- 
eral Association. A plan was outlined in 
accordance with which the Churches 
were to appoint delegates and lend them 
to sister Churches for a few days’ meet- 
ings. This plan entered into operation 
in June when the summer vacation of the 
schools opened. 

It is reported that good results have 
already been secured on the island of 
Maui. Revs. E. S. Timoteo and Poepoe, 
after aiding on Maui, are intending to 
make a tour of Hawaii. 


REY, FRANK 5. SCUDDER. 


In the latter part of June, at a called 
meeting of the Hawaiian Board, Rev. 
Frank 5. Scudder, of Japan, a cousin of 
Dr. Doremus Scudder, was invited to 
come to aid in the Japanese work and 
stich other duties as the Board might de- 
sire. 

The letter of invitation was sent by the 
next day’s mail. It found Mr.. Scudder 
almost perfecting arrangements for an- 
other year’s work in Japan. A week’s 
delay in issuing the call would have found 
Mr. Scudder with definite plans which 
_ would be difficult to set aside, 


{ 
Mr. Scudder’s reply to the call of the 


Hawaiian Board is as follows: 
Tokyo, July 12, 1907. 
To the Rey. W. D. Westervelt, 
Recording Secretary of the Ha- 
waiian Board. 

My Dear Mr. Westervelt: Last Satur- 
day’s mail brought your letter conveying 
to me the invitation from the Hawaiian 
Evangelical Association to join that 
Board in its missionary work in the Is- 
lands. 

When I came to Japan, I came with the 
purpose of devoting my life to the ser- 
vice of God in this country, but circum- 
stances in which I have been placed dur- 
ing the past year have been such that I 
lave been seriously considering whether 
I could much longer continue the work in 
which I have become so much interested 
here. 


That this invitation should have come 


from your Board unsought by me, offer- 
ing me an opportunity to continue my 
work among the Japanese, and just at the 
time when I was reluctantly considering 
the advisability of relinquishing it here, 
seems to me a gracious leading of God 
which [ should thankfully accept, and I 
ask you, therefore, kindly to inform your 
Board of my appreciation of its invita- 
tion, and my hearty acceptance of the 
same. 

The many pleasant acquaintances 
which [ made during my short stay in 
Honoluiu three years ago, I hold in the 
pleasantest remembrance, and I look for- 
ward with pleasure to undertaking work 
in cooperation with you, and trust that 
God will enable me to meet the require- 
ments of the position. 

With fraternal greetings, | am 

Yours sincerely, 
FRANK S. SCUDDER. 


WITNESSES OF COOKS DEBATE. 


Editor Friend: An interesting testi- 
mony is given in the Sydney Morning 
Flerald, ois jumer26,- by «one. Gaptain 
Samuel Charles, who in March, 1850, 
interviewed at Kealakekua an aged 
man who had witnessed the death of 
Capt. James Cook, seventy-one years 
previous. 

This is especially interesting to my- 


: | 
self, because in my, childhood, while 


living at Kailua, I was familiarly ac- 
quainted with the aged Kekupuohi, 
who stood close to Cook, when he fell. 
She was then a youthful wife of the 
King Kalaiopuu, or “Terreoboa,” whom 
King Kalaiopuu, or ‘“Terreoboo,’”? whom 
Cook had arrogantly arrested, and was 
leading by the hand to his boat, intend- 
ing to detain him as a hostage on board 
of his ship, until satisfaction should be 


5 
given for the theft of a boat. The ex- 
asperated chiefs killed Cook at the 

edge. 


water's 
| I often saw the spot when a child, 
and was born in a house twenty rods 
north thereof in February, 1827. Ke- 
kupuohi lived not far from the Bishop 
‘house in Kailua, and only a short dis- 
tance south from the stone church, 
which was built in 1836, the year in 
which the Bishops removed to Ewa, 
;Oahu. I was then nine years old, and 
have a more distinct recollection of Ke- 
kupuohi than of perhaps any other Ha- 
‘waiian of Kailua. 

| She must then have been nearly 
eighty vears of age, but was not very 
inne elem face was to va child) a 
rather pleasant and comely one. I have 
the strongest impression of a certain 
beauty in the fine wrinkles which cov- 
ered the whole of her features. 


All the facts relating to the death of 

Capt. Cook were carefully and thor- 
cughly investigated by the earlier mis- 
sionaries, while many vigorous and in- 
telligent natives were still surviving 
who were eye-witnesses. Those facts 
are well summed up in Alexander’s 
History, and accord substantially with 
the journals of Ledyard and Dr. Ellis. , 
Jessrs. Thurston, Ruggles and Bishop 
lived near the spot, and were all ex- 
tremely intimate with the native peo- 
ple. 
The chief and governing fact in that 
most singular series of incidents, was 
the people’s worshipping of Capt. Cook 
as their God Lono, and consecrating to 
iim a heiau, or temple. 


One of my own most impressive re- 
‘collections of Kailua: is that of four 
huge timber idols erected on a heiau 
immediately seaward of Kamehameha's 
‘old house. They were probably spared 
from the universal destruction of idols 
in 1819, out of reverence to the departed 
king’s memory. They were of the most 
hideous type. I have heard that later, 
Governor Kuakini fell away so far as 
to offer them worship, for which Father 
Thurston valiantly rebuked the formid- 
able chieftain and brought him to re» 
pentance. 


| >. 2. BISHOP: 
Honolulu, July 27, 1907. 


| 
\ 


DESTRUCTIV Er CRI LICSAON THE 
| NEW TESTAMENT. 


1 


| 


In the Congregationalist of July 6, 
President Churchill King, of Oberlin 
College, briefly and pointedly reviews the 
recent book on “The Finality of the 


by Professor Foster 


; Christian Religion,” 


THE FRIEND. 


of Chicago University. The object of 
the present article is to report the later 
treatment of the Gospels by the Destruc- 
tive Critics) Prof. Foster “transfers | 
bodily the New Testament criticism of 
Wernie.” So says President King, who 
is himself a Moderate Liberal, who ac- 
cepts some of the views of the advanced 
Critics, and is entirely open to new 
thought that is reasonable. 

He charges Foster with “Setting much 
in the Gospels quite unnecessarily aside.” 
“He thus hardly makes it possible to 
trust the New Testament records at all.” 
“There is here a good deal of quite un- 
justifiable assertion and assumption.” 
“Some quite apriori judgments.” “The 
critical position involves Jesus in moral 
and spiritual lack of insight, and makes a 
consistent conception of him almost im- 
possible.” “In the discussion of the re- 
lation of Jesus to modern life he seems | 
to me specially unsatisfactory, because I 
cannot avoid the impression that he is 
here particularly narrow, literalistic and 
dogmatic in his interpretations and asser- 
tions.” 

It appears evident that Prof. Foster | 
has adopted the apriori methods of the 
destructive critics, and followed them to 

, their rationalistic conclusions of unbe- 
lief, which discredit the Historical Verity 
of the New Testament, just as they had 
already done with the Old. 

The fundamental vice of that method 
of Criticism is that it is based not upon | 
facts, but on a Theory. It assumes as a 
fundamental principle that the Super- 
natural or Miraculous is of itself abso- 
lutely incredible. It is impossible that 
the “Finger of God” should have inter- 
fered with the ongoing processes of Na- 
ture. It is incredible that God should 
directly have spoken to Man. Therefore 
wherever Miracle or direct Revelation is 
asserted in the Record, the Critic is com- 
pelled to assume that there is an error, 
and corrects it accordingly. He thus 
takes the utmost liberties with the His- 
tory, and freely destroys whatever does 
not harmonize with his own apriori as- 
sumption. And this he calls scientific 
Criticism, and demands that we all bow 
down to his wonderful insight. 

But this is not real criticism. It is 
simply reckless, irreverent unbelief tear- 
ing out the sacred pages. Such has been 
the systematic evil treatment of the Old 
Testament, as has been learnedly demon- 
strated by Prof. J. B. Orr of Glasgow. 

And of this character is Wernie’s 
reckless dealing with the New Testa- 
ment, which Professor Foster cheerfully 
adopts. All this is only a new phase of 
the old warfare of Rationalistic unbelief 
against the glorious Revelation which 


our light and guide. 


But no humble be- 
liever need be shaken in his confident 
trust in our Lord Jesus, by these ar- 
rogant clamors. The Lord in his own 
good time will lead His beloved Church 


ut of all mists and fogs into the clea 
light of his truth. Sr ear 


A’ PORTENTOUS ‘CENTURY “FOR 
CHINA. 


This Twentieth Century is going on to 
be a period of extreme social and political 
disturbance. All the signs of the times 
presage vast commotion. A most promi- 
nent storm center promises to be in the 
Chinese Empire. That huge nationality 
has evidently arrived at its period of 
radical change and reconstruction. It re- 
sembles an animal which is on the point 
of sloughing off its long worn skin, and 
of forming a new and changed one. The 
light and warmth of this modern age has 
clearly agitated the long torpid mass of 
China. It is awaking to new and strong 
activities. 

In evidence of this we are assured of 
such great facts as the following: China 
has formally abandoned its old outworn 
standards of scholarship, and is adopting 
the science of the enlightened nations as 
the basis for public examination and pro- 
motion. Schools for foreign and modern 
learning are being systematically created 
throughout the empire. Railways are 
being taken out of the hands of the for- 
eign companies, and being actively con- 
structed by the provincial governments. 
The absolute necessity for such means 
of intercourse and traffic has overcome 
the opposition of superstitious attach- 
ment to ancient graves disturbed there- 
by, and railways are rapidly to gridiron 
the empire. And then the old barbaric 
military methods are giving place to 
modern martial organization in imitation 
of the mighty cohorts of Japan. Armies 
are already in solid and effective array 
under the viceroys of the different pro- 
vinces. 

These immense processes of change 
are as yet but imperfectly advanced, but 
they are in an active progress, which is 
evidently to be permanent. There is to 
be in return to the old stupid inertia. 
The Revolution in Science and Econom- 
ics, in Military life is an established and 
permanent fact. China cannot revert to 
the past torpidity. 

It is evident among other things that 
this new life in China cannot possibly 
consist with its ancient political organi- 
zation under a feeble central government. 
Vast political changes must necessarily 
take place before the enormous bulk of 


cal political reform and reorganization. 
And here is where the prospect is clouded 
and dark with storm. It seems impos- 
sible to predict the future for the reor- 
ganization of China and the reconstruc- 
tion of its political arrangements. Polli- 
tical typhoons impend, and the advancing 
century portends tempest and confusion. 

Fortunately the Chinese are a race of 
solid qualities. They are not impulsive 
or hastily violent. Their civilization is 
ancient, and deeply inwrought into their 
mental and moral fiber. Even though 
their political convulsions should become 
cruel and destructive, their inbred ten- 
dencies to order and organization will 
prevail in the end, and a great and 
mighty nationality is likely to emerge 
from the storm, to take its place among 
the formative and controlling forces of 
modern civilization. 

Toward the better promise of this not 
distant future of China, our Christian 
community in Hawaii is striving to con- 
tribute, especially by educating young 
Chinese, not only in modern science, but 
most especially in that central Light of 
all our light, the knowledge of the Lord 
Jesus. It is He that must rule in the 
minds and hearts of men, before they can 
win lasting and solid peace with each 
other. Hawaii possesses a blessed modi- 
cum of that beneficent Light. Christ's 
Church is planted here in Mid-Pacifie to 
help in radiating that healing Light into 
the Orient. 

Our geographical position is critical. 
Political convulsions in the Orient may 
or may not disturb our insular security. 
Our social and political security in the 
coming years is in the hands of Divine 
Providence, which is the supreme pro- 
tection of any people. Amid any storms 
of war in this ongoing century, our sea- 
girt home will be as safe as any other. 


St Eee 


THE VALUE OF RELIGIOUS EDU- 
CATIONAL WORK. 


WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CONDITIONS 
IN HAWAIL. 


By F. W. Damon. 

“The Gospel takes the whole man and 
develops the best in him.” 

THE EDUCATIONAL INSTINCT. 

The history of humanity is interwoven 
with the development of its educational 
systems. Like a golden thread runs the 
long story of man’s upward struggle 
towards these high ideals, which are as 
guiding stars to our race. Following the 
divine monition and the inward gleam, 
and impelled by the necessities of his 


the Chinese race can move and act in 


God has given in his Holy Word, to be 


harmonious concert. There must be radi- 


being, man has sought to devise those 
means and methods which shall best fit. 


THE FRIEND. 


the individual to develop most soieatiy’ 
and successfully the powers that are, 


within him; to draw from his environ- 
ment, so far as possible, the wealti: of its 
resources; to contribute to the good of 
the many as of the few; to elevate and 
benefit humanity and to pass on to suc- 
ceeding generations the ever-increasing 
light of discovered knowledge. In these 
different educational systems widely 
varying standpoints have been taken, 
numberless have been the methods sug- 
gested and followed. Some have scarce- 
ly risen above a merely material basis, 
seeking the quick satisfaction of mere 
outward needs, lacking much of the finer 
altruistic quality. While others ‘have 
risen high and sought to benefit and up- 
lift along certain lines and yet have not 
sought the finest training of the spiritual 
nature, without which tHe stimulus and 
inspiration to the largest and noblest ac- 
tion is lacking. Finally, there have al- 


ways been those who have contended for 


the education of man’s entire being, who 
feel that there should be no divorce of 
the intellectual and spiritual, that man 
stands ever in the presence of the eternal, 
and that this life should be a worthy 
preparation for his immortal destiny. To 
such it is a vital belief that the religious 
education, in its highest and noblest 
sense, is the only true and legitimate 
training for God’s children. Ecclesiasti- 
cism and too often narrow denomination- 
alism and exaggerated fanaticism have 
‘served at times to obscure and well nigh 
eclipse this ideal, but it has never been 
wholly lost and will rise yet to fuller and 
clearer recognition with the onward 
march of mankind. 


THE RELIGIOUS EDUCATION THE ONLY 
TRUE EDUCATION. 


| 

Man is essentially a religious being 
and to ignore this fundamental fact is to 
strike at the very root of his highest de- 
velopment and endanger the safe advance 
of all human progress. As has been 
wisely said, “No nation can afford to be 
without a religion, for the vital reason 
that its very existence depends upon hav- 
ing one. If we read history, we find 
that the decadence of the great empires 
of the past began with the decadence of 
their religions and the acceptance of low 
ideals.” Dr. Lyman Abbot in a striking 
essay, entitled, “Can a nation have a re- 
ligion?” says, “It would be difficult to 
mention a political philosopher who has 
not more or less distinctly recognized re- 
ligion as at once the foundation of the 
state and the inspiration of its life.” “Of 
all the dispositions and habits,” says 
George Washington, “which lead to po- 
litical prosperity, religion and morality 
are indispensable.” One taking a broad 


and historic view finds as a result of his 
observation, “The religious races in gen- 
eral are the expanding and achieving 
ones. Every race with a true and intense 
ethical or religious spirit has been ex- 
pansive in some way, the Roman and 
English in government; the Greek and 
German in philosophy; the Hebrew and 
English in poetry and colonization and 
missionary enterprise.” If these results 


are true in the nation, the great agerega- | 


tion of individuals, how essential is it, of 
what paramount importance is it, that 
careful training should be given along 
these lines which will ensure its success 
and perpetuity! With peculiar: force does 
this apply to us as a part of the great 
American Union for, as that keen French 
student of our national life, De Tocque- 
ville, has remarked, “Despotism may 
govern without faith but liberty cannot. 
Religion is much more needed in the re- 
public than in the monarchy; it is more 
needed in democratic republics than in 
anv others.” 

Essential as this higher life is to the 
nation, how vital is it to the success of 
the individual! How incumbent it is 
upon those who are the leaders and 
guides of a people to see well to it that 
they send forth those committed to their 
trust, well equipped to meet the issues 
of life. With a tenderness whose frag- 
rance has come down to us through two 
millenniums and more and a philosophy 
worthy of one of the greatest sages of all 
time, Confucius, the leader of the Chin- 
ese, has left to all races this noble state- 
ment, “Reverent regard is due to youth.” 
Could a nobler theme be brought before 
us during this week which we are privi- 
leged to spend together, than that of the 
religious trainne of the vouth within 
our Territory? No field of labor is more 
inviting, no one more certain to produce 
wide and far-reaching results. In the 
spring-time of life, with heart and brain, 
with their enshrining temple, open to 
truth and sensitive to guiding, the youth 
of our composite life present a stimu- 
lating opportunity. We can make no mis- 
take in bringing to them a trulv religious 
training. The consensus of opinion of 
the wisest and hest in all ages declares 
that this “begets a fundamental and com- 
prehensive enlargement of soul that 
makes time short, the world small, all 
work easy, great in itself and begetting 
all other kinds of expansion.” 


TESTIMONY OF GREAT EDUCATORS AND 
STATESMEN. 


As in other departments of thought 
and experience we turn to the great and 
trustworthy sources of authority, so here 


in viewing this subject of paramount im-] work. 


testimony of those competent to judge 
with reference to the highest educational 
values. Surely no finer product of our 
best educational systems could be found 
than William Gladstone, conspicuous in 
scholarship and statesmanship, who has 
given us this valuable opinion: “The 
Christian idea, taking possession of man 
at the center and summit of his being, 
could not leave the rest of it a desert, but 
evidently contemplated its perfection in 
all its parts. I appeal to those great and 
comprehensive words of Saint Paul, 
which may have been a prophecy not less 
than a precept, and which enjoin us to 
lay hold on ‘Whatsoever things are true, 
whatsoever things are honest, whatso- 
ever things are just, whatsoever things 
are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, 
whatsoever things are of good report.’ 
It is here conveyed to us that in the 
Christian religion there lay, from the 
very first, the certain seed of all human 
Culture.” Guizot said, “Popular edu- 
cation to be truly good and socially use- 
ful must be fundamentally religious.” 
The commissioners selected by the Crown 
to investigaté the English system of 
education in 1886, stated, that “While 
the whole commission is animated by one 
and the same desire, to secure for the 
children in the public elementary schools 
the best and most thorough instruction 
in secular education suitable to their 
years, and in harmony w'th the require- 
ments of their future life, it is also unani- 
mously of the opinion that their religious 
and moral training is a matter of still 
ligher importance alike to the children, 
the parents and the nation.” 
[ Zo be Continued. | 


a 


— 


NAURU AS IT WAS, AND IT IS 
NOW. 


By Rev. P. H. DELAPORTE. 
(Continued from June.) 


Prisoners of war were cruelly dealt 
with. Thev were slowly put to death. 
In a cunning way, to prolong their 
agony as long as possible, they were 
cut to pieces. First the ears, then nose, 
then fingers and toes and then the larg- | 
er limbs were cut off. If a prisoner 
was fortunate enough to have a rela- 
tive or a member of his own tribe in the 
victorious district his life would be 
spared, but he became the slave of his 
particular relative or tribesman. 

The natives were always glad to 
have a white man to assist them in 
their wars. Many escaped convicts 
from -Australia and New Caledonia 
were only too willing to engage in such 
As the white men were permit- 


portance, we should not fail to note the!ted to go anywhere on the island with- 


THE FRIEND. 


out molestation, many would abuse 
this liberty and act as spies for the 
people in the district in which they, had 
their abode. The wants of the people | 
in those days, when the Gospel of. 
Christ had not yet wrought a change in 
their hearts, consisted of three articles 
only: gin, guns and tobacco. It was 
therefore profitable for the white trader 
or beachcomber to encourage and even 
foster war. Gin was a great factor in 
those, as a trader once said to us, 
“Good old days.” 


Not so very long ago a certain trader 
in his drunken fits would insist on 
shooting at the people. One day he 
seriously wounded two Bushmen 
which, however, he had to pay for with 


his life. He died a fearful death. An- 
other white man shot the father of one 
of my present teachers, seemingly 


without any cause whatever. 

Perhaps it will interest you to hear 
that the price of a cannon was from 
100 to 150 fatted pigs, while a musket 
could not be bought for less than 15,- 


600 to 30,000 cocoanuts, which repre-| 


sents a value of $150. The present 
Mission Station is in part built on such 
cannons. 


That the natives were anxious to get 
guns and ammunition, the following 
account will prove 

An American whaler had arrived off 
the northern point of Nauru and, as 
usual, many canoes went out to the 
vessel to buy guns and gin. Captain 
Potts, which seems to have been the 
name of the doomed man, refused to 
sell anything and especially the two 
G’s, to the people of that particular 


district, and enraged them by telling. 


them that he would only sell to their 
deadly enemies, the Menefi people. 
This brought the excitement of the 
people to the boiling point. A con- 
ference was held and it was decided 
to kill the captain and crew and plun- 
der the vessel. A few of the natives 
were afraid and left the ship but the 
rest killed the officers and crew, plun- 
dered the ship, cut the rigging and set 
her adrift. 

Another ship was taken in this man- 
ner: The captain had ill-treated some 
natives on board of his ship. He claim- 
ed that they had stolen some hard- 
ware. The natives swore vengeance. 
Next day a party of natives went on 
board with a peace offering, consisting 
of pigs, fowls and nuts. The captain 
was willing enough to make peace as 
he was in need of fresh provisions. 
After a while one of the leaders told 
him that he knew where the stolen axes 
and nails were hid and that he would 


gladly bring them there, and also point when a certain chief kneeled beside alneer missionary’s wife, 


out the thieves to him. Nice young 
,girls, a dance and a big feast were 
promised also and the old captain 
could, of course, not withstand such 
, temptations. The cunning old chief 
took him in his canoe and ‘ashore they 
went. He was hardly ashore when 
hundreds of natives.overpowered him 
and literally tore the poor man to 
pieces. 


| 


When the captain did not re-appear 
on board of the ship, part of the crew 
came ashore to look for him. They, 
j}however, met with the same fate. At 
last the natives went aboard the ves- 
sel, killed the remainder of the crew 
and officers and plundered the ship. 


The Nauru native was never a canni- 
bal, but he was very cruel and treach- 
‘erous. I think that it was in 1892, 
about three years after the Germans 
had taken possession of the island, 
when on a calm day a large Gilbert 
‘Island canoe, filled with men, women 
.and children, was seen off the island. 
Two Nauru canoes went out to see 
what was the matter. They found that 
these Gilbert Islanders had drifted 
away from their island 400 miles east. 
They were nearly starved. Theirs was 
‘a large sailing canoe and quite helpless 
in a calm and strong current. When 
the Nauru men saw the little money 
.and other things these poor creatures 
,had they killed every one of them. 
‘They brought among other things a 
number of Gilbert Bibles ashore, thus 
proving that the unfortunate people in 
the Gilbert canoe were Christians. 
‘Vengeance is mine, said the Lord.” 
On the very same day a trading schoon- 
er hove in sight. Three or four boats 
Joaded with white traders and natives 
;went on board. Gin and whiskey flow- 
ed freely. On account of the strong 
current and dead calm the schooner 
had nearly drifted out of sight of the 
land. The traders‘and natives, after 
imbibing faithfully, went towards even- 
ing into their boats to return to the is- 
land. They pulled away from the ship. 
and all but one boat were never heard 
lof. They drifted and drifted and at 
last reached the Solomon Islands, 
where their wasted bodies made a feast 
for the cannibals. Thus on the same 
day God punished Nauru for murder- 
ing the poor starved castaways. One 
of these murderers acted as a kitchen 
helper to the writer’s wife afterwards. 
Not very long ago one of these murder- 
ers became a member of the Church, a 
“new creature in Christ Jesus.” Truly 
“His blood cleanseth from all unright- 
eousness.” Ome of the most pathetic 
sights we saw in our House of God was 


young woman whose mother he had 
murdered some years before, to receive 
baptism. Old things have passed 
away. ‘The old tribal hatred is grad- 
ually passing away, a few years ago 
the people of one district would not 
even mingle in Church with the peopie 
of a former antagonistic tribe. The 
chief of Ewa is the friend of the chief 
of Menefi, the Bush Queen has buried 
the hatchet and is at peace with chief 
Auweyeda. Even Degout and the 
mighty Tsim have smoked the pipe of 
peace. The government has taken the 
etns out of their hands, but the Gos- 
pel has taken the hatred out of their 
hearts. 


FISHING AS IT USED TO BE DONE ON 
NAURU. 


When the rainy; season was over 
great joy prevailed among the hungry 
people. Little fish had been caught 
during the whole season. As the peo- 
ple live principally on cocoanuts and 
fish, they missed the latter very much. 
The high surf and heavy westerly gales 
prevented the frail canoes from launch- 
ing out upon the deep. But now, as 
the wind had gone back to the right 
quarter, north to east, all was well. 
For three days the fishermen would 
watch the ocean. They could now live 
on the beach only, away from wife and 
children. Women had to keep away 
from the beach. 

On the third day the whole fleet of 
canoes would proceed to sea. No at- 
tempt to fish near the beach was made. 
The first step was to hunt up drifting 
logs, of which there generally were 
many far out at ‘sea. Around these 
Jogs most of the valuable fish gathered. 
While on their way the fishermen were 
not permitted to speak, only incanta- 
tions were chanted. 

When near a log, two or three fish, 
never more, would swim towards the 
canoe. The “eani’ had sent them to 
find out whether the fishermen were 
good or bad men. If a fish found that 
a man who had not separated himself 
from his wife during the past three 
days was in the canoe, they would not 
jump in the peculiar net, called “Thi- 
bon,” which was held up, but if all was 
well, they would. 

(To be Continued.) 


HAWAII COUSINS. 


SCENES GATHERED FROM MY 
MOTHER'S JOURNAL. 


V. 


November 6, 1820, was Monday and 
washing day in Honolulu. The pio- 
little accus- 


THE FRIEND. 


| 
tomed to such service in her American 


home, is at the washtub, and with the 
help of a young native lad has the 


clothes upon the lines and herself ready | 


for teaching school by noon. 
pupils (though generally not more than 
thirty would be in daily attendance) 
had been gathered from among most 


Forty’ 


t 


“In all the changing scenes of life, 
In trouble and in joy, 
The praises of my God shall still 
My heart and tongue employ.” 
During the day she had forgotten 
her weakness as well as she could, that 
she might entertain in conversation, 
through an interpreter, a chiefess with 


abject heathen, their nakedness cover-'a company of twelve or fifteen attend- 


ed, and for six months had been under ants. 


Three of these at the order of 


the instruction and the refining influ-'the friendly “alii” brought to the door 
ence of this devoted teacher, the first! “half a bushel of bananas, half a bushel 
school teacher of “Hawaii nei.” Pretty of potatoes and a fine hog,” as a pres- 
uniformly from ten to twenty specta-. 


tors, curious friends and kin, look or 
in wonder at the novel scenes. 


fe! 7 and & the school goes on jand the next day the night is recorded 


ias having been a restless and sleepless 


‘as usual, and some of the week’s iron- 
ing is done after tea. But on the even- 


ing of the 8th, as the darkness gathers, | 


there is not much prospect of rest. On 
the morning of the 9th there is the ar- 
rival of a little stranger, the first white 
girl baby born on Oahu. No physician 
is present to introduce her to the fond 
parents, but she is “a sweet babe,” as 
her mother thinks, and very welcome. 

Two days later the “Cleopatra’s 
Barge” comes sailing into Honolulu 
harbor, and with glad hearts the mis- 
sionaties hear that she has brought 
large packets of letters from numerous 
friends, 18,000 miles away. More than 
twelve months have passed since they 
had parted from those friends and in 
all the long year no tidings had they 
heard concerning them. How their 
hearts leap at the thought of news from 
honie. 


The day passes and the wakeful 
night, in which the young mother is 
studying patience while she waits, not 
for permission to break the seals and 
read, but for the precious missives to 
be brought on shore. Royal red tape 
must first be cut before the letters may 
be delivered to those for whom they 
were sent. On the 11th she pens her 
prayer to be strengthened to bear 
whatever intelligence comes; and on 
the «12th gratefully records that 
strength was given, though there were 
moments when “a tumult of feeling” 
caused her amid tears to exclaim as 
the letters recalled one dear friend and 
another, “Will their pleasant voices 
again fall on my ear, will their sweet 
countenances never again brighten 
these longing eyes?” 


On the evening of the 15th we find 
her sitting for an hour in her easy 
rocking chair, the gift of her husband 
and the work of his skillful hands. She 
is holding her darling first-born in her 
arms while she joins with others as 
they sing at their evening worship, 


ent to the tiny white baby whom her 


‘highness had delightedly been tossing 


in her tawny arms. This company 
was followed later by other visitors, 


one. Was my mother presumptuous? 
Yet these risks were all incurred in the 
spirit breathed forth in the exclama- 
tion, “O who would not leave sisters, 
friends and kindred to tell the despair- 
ing pagan mother there may be hope 
for her and her dear offspring, too, in 
the Christians’ God,. the Christians’ 
Savior? We would by all means win 
their favor and their confidence if we 
could.” La By COAN: 


Vi.W EVENTS IN THE CAREER Ol TWO OF 


THE GULICKS. 


In the year 1842, when the four big 
boys had left the Kaluaaha, Molokai, 
home, and were marshaled under the 


care of fathers Dole and Rice, 
and Miss Smith, little brother 
Thomas Lafon Gulick, the seventh 


son, thei three years old, put a cas- 
tor-oil bean in his ear. The shiny 
seed with its firm shell slipped in easi- 
ly, but evaded every effort of two anx- 
ious parents at its extraction. Ina 
short time the warmth and moisture of 
the ear caused the unwelcome seed to 
swell and threaten the life of the Ben- 
jamin of the family. 

The nearest physician was the good 
Dr. Baldwin of Lahaina, whom many 
a household had cause to bless. Our 
little boy and his father must go to see 
the doctor at Lahaina. 

The large single canoe, not the pele- 
leu, or double canoe, was equipped and 
at early dawn Father Gulick and his 
little son and three or four canoe men 
set sail from Kaluaaha for Lahaina. 
Naught but a bird on the wing could 
fly more lightly than a single canoe be- 
fore a fair wind. With the rising of 
the orb of day, the breeze freshened 
and the flying shell touched lightly the 
crests of the rising waves. In a sud- 
den puff of wind over went the outrig- 
ger, the canoe was upset, and all were 


struggling in the waves. The little 
boy, where was he? Nowhere to be 
seen. Down dove Paaluhi, and, free- 
ing the lad from entanglement in the 
ropes of the canoe sail, brought him up 
and set him upon the rounding bottom 
of the capsized canoe. The aquatic 
Hawaiian soon righted the canoe; then 
it was discovered that the thin and 
frail craft had been cracked from end 
to end by the leverage of the heavy 
mast and sail, which belonged to the 
double canoe, and which had been bor- 
rowed by the canoe men for this trip 
only. 


No headway could he made by pad- 
dling a canoe full of water. For two 
or three hours this company of five or 
six people were battling hopelessly 
with a strong wind and dashing waves, 
perhaps six or eight miles from land. 
At this point the weary swimmers 
descried an open whale-boat, which 
three or four hours later than the ill- 
fated canoe was crossing from Molo- 
kai to Lahaina, laden with bundles of 
pai-ai (hard poi). These boatmen saw 
the signal of distress of the wrecked 
canoe, bore down for them, and, light- 
ening their load by throwing into the 
sea a part of the cargo of poi, and tak- 
ing on board the distressed company, 
soon landed them safely at Lahaina. 
With the delicate instruments, and the 
superior skill of the good doctor, the 
castor-oil bean, source of all this trou- 
ble, was soon removed from brother 
Thomas’ ear, and ere many days the 
thankful father and son returned to 
their Molokai home. 

Months, or perhaps years, later I 
heard father rehearse this thrilling 
story of escape from the hungry deep 
to one of his fellow missionaries, Fa- 
ther Thurston, and I saw the tears of 
love and sympathy that the older mis- 
sionary shed on hearing of the watery 
trial that had befallen the Molokai 
brother. Such was the sympathy that 
knit the American Board’s missionaries 
into one successful and triumphant 
band. 

Little do we know where the resting 
place for our frail bodies is ordained to 
be. These two Gulicks were saved 
that day from a watery grave. 

Thomas sleeps in the soil of Kijabe, 
300 miles inland from Mombasa, in the 
heart of British East Africa; while 
Father Gulick and his lifelong partner, 
our devoted mother, after spending 
their last years with their missionary 
children in distant Japan, were laid 
{o rest under the whispering pine trees 
in Kobe, near the shore of the Inland 


Sea. 
©y jah YGWULiGk. 


10 


THE FRIEND? 


THE LATE REV. DAVID L. 


Mr. A-i was a graduate from the Ka- 


imehameha Boys’ School and later from | 


the Theological Seminary in Honolulu, in 
which most of the Hawaiian ministers 
were educated. He worked for a time in 
the neighborhood of Hilo, then came to 
Honolulu as a helper of Rev. Henry 
Parker, the pastor of Kawaiahao 
Church. 
take more responsible position. Mean- 
while he was chosen by the manager of 
the Hawaiian Gazette Co. as the editor of 
and ‘pure lives. 


Later Mr. Parker asked him to| 


A-|, DIED JUNE 27, 1907. 


the native weekly newspaper, the Kuo- 
koa. 

Mr. A-i went as a delegate to the Chris- 
tian Endeavor in Japan. 
Soon after his return he was taken sud- 
de" ill and died of heart failure on June 
27, 1907. Mr. A-i was one of the lead- 
ing Hawatians. He was very conscien- 
tious and faithful. There are other Ha- 
walian young men like him, and there are 
many more who are not honoring this 


Convention 


| Wawatian blood by living honest, true 


FALSE BIOLOGY AND FATALISM 


By Rev: JonN' 1. Guiick, DeD. 
(Continued from June.) 


In every case where a sexually propa- 
gating species becomes divided into 
several distinct races, we find isolation, 
(i. e. the prevention of free crossing,) 
between the races, with intergeneration 
within each race, and each race show- 
ing separate’ powers of variation and 
heredity. This initial segregation hav- 
ing once been established, intensive 
segregation is sure to be introduced 


and carried forward from generation to 
generation, even when the conditions 
lying outside of each group are the 
same; for the isolated groups will in 
time adopt different methods of using 
the environment, and so subject them- 
selves to different forms of selection. 
Divergent forms of Reflexive Selection 
will also arise bringing intensified 
segregation and increasing divergence 
in the characters of each group. 

We will now briefly consider the evo- 
lution of acquired characters; and for 
the sake of brevity, I will at the same 
time refer to some of the ways in which 
these acquired characters, with their or- 


‘ 


ganized habitudes and customs, become 
controlling factors in the racial evolu- 
tion of the same groups. But that there 
may be no misapprehension, I wish to 
have it carefully noted, that the influ- 
ence of acauired characters which I am 
here considering is entirely independent 
of any direct modification of inheritance 
in the young through acquired charac- 
ters gained by the continued practice 
of the parents. Whether there is any 
such direct influence has long been dis- 
cussed, and the prevailing opinion is 
that it has been disproved; but what- 
ever the truth on that point may be, the 
influence of acquired characters, 
through their control of the forms of 
selection must be recognized as of com- 
manding importance in many of the 
higher animals and especially in man. 
This influence operates: (1) By par- 
tially setting aside a form of selection, 
(2) By wholly setting aside some form 
of selection, or (3) By establishing a 
new form. Acquired characters by par- 
tially setting aside a form of selection 
arising from changes that would other- 
wise limit the range of the species, may 
give time for many generations to arise 
with successive variations that in their 
turn more or Jess fully meet the new 
conditions, and thus lead to a new form 
of Natural Selection, and the establish- 
ing of a new race. 

As an illustration let us consider the 
case of the Eskimo race of the Arctic 
regions. If we could follow their an- 
cestry back to remote ages there is 
every reason to believe that we should 
find a stage in which they were naked 
savages living in a warm climate with 
but little knowledge of houses, clothing, 
or fire. It may be a matter of debate 
whether they reached the northern re- 
gions in a period when the climate was 
a continuous summer, or whether their 
approach required an increasing fight 
with cold weather as they went north; 
but in either case they could not have 
established themselves in these regions 
where they now are without the several 
arts by which man protects himself 
from the cold. It is therefore, evident 
that these arts were part of the equip- 
ment that has enabled them to remain 
for countiess generations in these cold 
regions, till their inherited constitution 
has become very different from that of 
tropical man. F. A. Cook, ethnologist 
of the first Peary North Greenland Ex- 
pedition, writing of the Eskimo, states 
that “the muscular outlines of the body 
are nearly obliterated from the fact that 
they have immediately beneath the skin 
a layer of blubber, or areolar tissue, 
which protects them against extreme 
cold.” 


We find that accommodation with 


THE FRIEND. 


EY 


habitudinal segregation fills a sphere of 
importance in the evolution of animals 
according to the degree of their mental 
endowments. In studying the evolution 
of the higher animals it is, therefore, 


necessary to consider the molding of! 


accommodations by election as well as 
the molding of adaptations by selec- 
tion. 

In the case of the Eskimo we have 
an illustraticn of the setting aside, or 
prevention, of Natural Selection suffi- 
cient to preserve the group from de- 
struction; for Natural Selection in such 
a case is the elimination of the unfit, 


and as none were capable of surviving 


without the aid of clothing and houses, 
Natural Selection unchecked by. these 
arts would have been the elimination of 
all. The prevention of Natural Selec: 
tion was, however, not complete; and 
in the end we find a race of men en- 
dowed with innate characters protect- 
ing them in a considerable degree from 
the destructive effects of the low tem- 
perature. Let us now consider cases 
in which Natural Selection in regard to 


certain endowments has been entirely | 


set aside by acquired characters; and 
other cases in which 
selection have, at the same time, been 
introduced. J'rom 
earliest mammals till very recent 
times every mammalian mother that 
failed to give milk to her young also 
failed of raising her young, and the 
propagation of a stock seriously defici- 
ent in this respect was prevented by 
Filio-parental Selection. Amongst hu- 
man mothers there are, however, a few 
who are deficient in the power of giving 
suck, and, in civilized races, the provi- 
sion for the young of such mothers is 
so’ complete that they are placed at no 
disadvantage. There is, therefore, rea- 
son to believe that the power of moth- 
ers to give suck is being gradually 
diminished by the setting aside of this 
long established form of  Filio- parental 
Selection. We may even begin to won- 
der whether this is not the first step to- 
ward the production of avariety of the 
human species in which this power will 
be comparatively obsolete. 

Another example of a similar kind is 
the deterioration of the power of sight 
in the more civilized races of man. I 
believe it is fully recognized that the 
proportion of individuals with defective 
sight is much greater in civilized than 
in savage races. 

Is there any reason to doubt that 
the difference is due to the fact, that, 
for many generations, savages with 
deficient sight have had less opportuni- 
ty for leaving descendants, than have 
individuals with the same deficiency 
belonging to civilized races? 


new forms of| 


the time of the} 


| 


Degeneration of important powers 
has also occurred in many animals that 
have become parasitic, or have learned 


to shift the responsibility of raising | 


their young onto other species. The 
old-world cuckoo has entirely lost the 
instincts that would lead it to build its 
own nests and hatch its own eggs. In 
the eastern part of the United States 
of America the black-billed cuckoo and 
the yellow-billed cuckoo have started 
on a course that will probably lead to 
the extinction of both species, unless 
they succeed in finding some alien 
species on which the labor of raising 
their young may be imposed. There 
are now shirking individuals who lay 
their eggs in the nests of other birds, 
either of their own species or of the 
allied species, and thus the instinct for 
faithful service is being lowered from 
generation to generation. 


When public attention has been turn- 
ed te the danger of degeneration that 
threatens mankind. through the setting 
aside of certain forms of long establish- 
ed selection, the remedy will not be 
found in restoring the conditions of 
savage life. in which the deaf and the 
blind are eliminated by starvation; but 
tather by establishing new forms of in- 
stitutionai and, prudential selection. 
The marriage of those who are special- 


ly liable to have defective offspring may | 


thus be prevented. 


The illustrations I have presented, 
show conclusively that in many ways 
old forms oi selection may be set aside 
and new forms introduced, without ref- 
erence to any change in the activities 
outside of the species. If even the 
snails are capable of dealing with the 
same environment in different ways, 
how much more may we expect of man- 
kind? The voices of science, of philos- 
ophy and of religion, appeal to us both 
as individuals and-as communities, say- 
ing in the words of Paul, “Work out 
your own salvation with fear and 
trembling ; for it is God that worketh 
in you.” 


THE SOCIAL SEPITLEMENT: AS A 
FACTOR IN RELIGIOUS 
EDUCATION. 


BYarpA. RAGE: 


It may not be out of place at the com- 
mencement of this paper to give a short 
definition of Secial Settlements. No bet- 
ter definition can be given than is found 
in the New International Encyclopedia, 
viz: “The name given to those houses, 
situated in the poorer districts of cities, 
where educated men and women live, 


\ 


that they may come in contact with the 
poor and better the condition of that 
class.” 


The function of the Settlement is also 
very aptly described in the same work 
as: “An attempt to establish closer rela- 
tions between the higher and lower social 
classes, with the aim of giving to the poor 
opportunities for culture, while securing 
for the rich a broader view of life 
through closer contact with the people.” 


It is not within the scope of this paper 
to sketch the history of Social Settle- 
ments. It will suffice to say in passing 
that it had its origin in the influence of 
such men as Dr. Arnold, Frederick D. 
Maurice, John Ruskin, Thomas Hill 
Green, Edward Denison, Arnold Toynbee 
and others, who in one way or another, 
inspired those with whom they came in 
contact, to go into the slums and help 
solve the problem of the slums. 


It is necessary, in order to obtain a 
somewhat clear and intelligent idea of the 
Settlement as a factor in religious life and 
education, to briefly review the changes 
in life and thought of the latter half of 
the Nineteenth Century. These changes 
nave been many; brought about chiefly 
through the thirodaction of steam and 
electricity. By the use of these two forces 
the world has been made smaller and 
communication made easier and quicker. 


ECONOMIC CHANGES. 


The two great forces which have prov- 
ed such a blessing to the world have of 
themselves brought about great changes. 
The day has long since passed when the 
youth apprenticed himself to an artisan 
of some sort in order to learn his trade. 
He is no longer received into the house- 
hold of his master while serving his ap- 
prenticeship and seldom, if ever, con- 
cludes his apprenticeship by marrying his 
master's daughter. These simple condi- 
tions have changed. The factory has 
taken the place of the individual artisan. 


; Steam and machinery with their power to 


do more work than the artisan’s hand, 
have changed the quiet workships of the 
old days into the mighty and busy fac- 
tories of today. Very few operatives to- 
day own their tools, and most of them 
specialize on some part of the machinery 
in the factory. In this way the men have 
come to be dependent for their living on 
the owner or owners of the factory, and 
are subject to his wish and pleasure. 
This has brought about the formation of 
two distinct classes, on the one hand the 
operative and on the other the capitalist. 
Each of these two classes has tried to pro- 


tect its interests, which has led to the 
formation of corporations and trade 
unions. 


12 THE FRIEND. 
SOCIAL CHANGES. ment of the normal man all three sides|active and alert mind; a spirit so quick- 
' |need attention. We are also coming to]ened that it can discern between right and 
The changes in economic conditions| realize that it is not sufficient for man to] wrong and good and evil, not only 


have brought about social changes. 
rapid growth of the modern city is one 
of the marked features of the age. They 
have sprung up around mills and fac- 
tories; what a score of years ago was a 
sinall village or town has, by the coming 
in of a factory or mill, grown into a city. 
In these cities the choice residence lots 
are taken by the rich,—the mill and fac- 
tory owners, and capitalists, —while the 
operatives and unskilled laborers have 
had to take homes in the less desirable 
parts of the city. The houses in which 
they live are not generally owned by them 
and are invariably built for revenue with- 
out any regard to comfort and decency. 
These houses have come to be called tene- 
ments, and the part of the city in which 
they are situated is called the slums. 


The extreme between the healthy and 
comfortable houses of the rich and the 
hovels of the poor has caused a wide 
breach between these two classes. The 
dwellers of the slums have come to look 
upon the capitalist with suspicion and 
distrust in every way. They have noth- 
ing in common either in their social or 
religious life. In a very great number of 
instances the capitalist and man of wealth 
does not even know, the operative or 
laborer. So huge have our industries be- 
come that the work of supervision has to 
be committed to hands other than the 
owner or capitalist. Together with this 
state of affairs, comes one other, brought 
about by education. 

The spread of modern education 
through the public schools and the press 
has caused a feeling of dissatisfaction 
among the tenements. The dwellers of 
these tenements are realizing more and 
more that while it is the capitalist’s brains 
and money that is contributing much to 
the world’s progress, yet their brawn or 
labor is also a factor in this progress. 
This is leading them to all sorts of ex- 
tremes in the way of Socialism and labor 
unionism, ‘The more baalnced of the 
operatives and laborers, however, are 
coming to realize that the interests of 
capital and labor are not opposed, but one 
—and it can only be by a better under- 
standing of one another that good can 
come, 


RELIGIOUS CHANGES. 


Our view of man and his relation to 
God and his fellow man has also changed 
No longer do we view man as consisting 
of three water-tight compartments called 
“Body,” “Mind” and “Spirit.” We have 
come to realize that it is not three, but 
three in one; and for the healthy develop. 


The| 


resented by the Church. 


seek pardon-from God when he offends 
against his fellow; but to seek pardon 
from his fellow-man also by making 
proper restitution for the wrong done. 
In other words, our ‘view of man’s reli- 
gious duty is becoming more social. We 
are putting greater emphasis on what a 
man is and on a man’s worth and char- 
acter rather than on a man’s creed or 
church membership. As for the changes 
in theological thought, that must be left 
to the theologians to settle. 


THE SETTLEMENT AS A FACTOR IN ADAPT- 
ING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION AND IDEALS 
TO THESE CHANGED CONDITIONS. 


The changes so briefly indicated above, 
have brought about a change in the atti- 
tude of the common people toward the 
Traditional Church and religion as rep- 
The old idea of 
Mission work was to rent a room in the 
slum district and to hold religious meet- 
ings one, two or more evenings a week. 
This, together with the distribution cf 
tracts and leaflets, at one time formed the 
ideal mission work. 


The people who undertook this kind of 
work were generally consecrated men and 
women who desired to uplift their less 


tortunate brothers and_ sisters. The 
greater number of the people in the 


Church took no active part in this work, 
and hence the estrangement between the 
Church and the masses in the slums was 
as great as ever. No attempt was made 
to study their conditions. The Social 
Settlement has tried to solve this great 
problem of the age, of not only bettering 
the conditions of the poor but also the 
bringing about of a better understanding 
hetween the rich and poor. It is idle for 
any church or organization to hope to up- 
lift the people of the slums by merely 
sending one or more people to work 
among them for an hour or more. It can 
only be done by consecrated and educated 
men and women living in the midst of 
the people and sharing their lives with 
them. The doing of this has led to a 
hetter understanding of conditions among 
the poor and has forced the Church ‘o 
adopt new ways and methods in order to 
meet these changed conditions. 

Before proceeding to detail in just what 
way the Settlement is a factor in religious 
education, it may not be out of place to 
state the Settlement’s ideal of religion. 


It is of a practical rather than a 
theoretical nature. It lays stress on char- 
acter rather than dogma. It believes in 
an all round developed manhood and 
womanhood. A clean, healthy body; an 


and cleanly way ; 
young men can live free from the tempta- 


spiritual matters, but in temporal affairs 
as well; in the social life, in the economic 
life and in our political life. In the work- 
ing of this practical religious ideal it 
employs various legitimate ways and 
means. These for the sake of brevity will 
be classed under four heads, viz: (1) 
Physical, (2) Educational, (3) Social, 
(4) Religious and Moral. 


(1) PHYSICAL. ° 


The day has long gone by when we be- 
lieved “‘the more filthy the man the more 
holy the saint.” The ideal of filth being 
a sign of holiness belongs to the dark 
ages and to a class of men today who 
live in countries less advanced in civiliza- 
tion than ours. We have come to believe 
that cleanliness goes hand in hand with 
godliness. We are: putting more eni- 
phasis on the fact that our bodies are the 
temple of God’s spirit. In the doing of 
this, many agencies are employed. Gym- 
nasiums, to give the human body the ex- 
ercise it needs to keep it healthy and 
strong; baths to keep the body clean; 
playg stounds to help cultivate those quali- 
ties in the child that wall help him in his 
later life; district nurses, not only to tend 
the sick, but to teach the people that the 
surroundings of the homes and persons 
must be kept clean if disease is ever to be 
fought successfully; day nurseries in 
which the babes of the wage-earning 
mothers can be looked after in a proper 
lodging rooms where 


tions of vice and crime; soup kitchens 
where the body may be fed with good, 
wholesome food; pure milk depots where 
parents may obtain pure milk—that most 
necessary diet for the infant—at a rea- 
sonable cost. These and other methods 
are used to lay emphasis on a clean, 
kealthy bedy, fit for the indwelling of the 
spirit. A diseased body will invariably 
lead to a diseased mind and spirit. 


(2) EDUCATIONAL, 


Not only does the body of man need 
care but his mind needs training also. 
The Settlement realizes this and supplies 
this training. Circulating libraries and 
reading rooms are maintained where the 
people niay obtain and read the best there 
is on all matters affecting life. Lectures 
on all subjects are delivered by the lead- 
ing experts of the day, and in this way 
the peopie are brought into direct touch 
with the great minds ' of the day. Instrue- 
tion in music and art is given in order to 
develop the esthetic side of the mind. 
Classes in business methods are held in 


THE FRIEND. 


13 


order to give those who desire it, a chance 
of fitting themselves for a business life. 
Evening classes are invariably conducted 
in all subjects, from the teaching of 
ptimary English to the classics. Kinder- 
gartens are part of the equipment of every 
well organized Settlement. 


Yot only is the mind trained, but the 
hand also,—classes in manual work, car- 
pentry, sloyd, dressmaking, weaving, 
lace-making, etc. In this way the Settle- 
ment is trying to combat the evil idea 
abroad that manual labor is degrading. 

“The devil finds some mischief still, for 
idle hands to do.” While our ideas abou’ 
his Satanic Majesty may have changed, 
this saying still holds good. Given an 


untrained, empty and idle mind, it will) 


not take jong before it gets into trouble of 
one sort or another. Thus in the realm 
of education of the mind the Settlement 
is doing for that part of man what the 
traditional Church has neglected to do. 


(3) SOCIAL, 


One of the first duties of the Settle- 
ment is the furnishing of clean, healthy 
enjoyment for the people among whom it 
is situated. Man is primarily a social 
animal. The form of amusement and re- 
creation merely takes different. forms in 
different grades of society according to 
the training and environment of the peo- 
ple. The club feature is strong in the 
Settlement scheme. Besides a social, it 
has an educational value. Athletic clubs 
not only teach a boy clean athletics and 
give him a certain amount of exercise but 
also teach him deference to the wish of 
others. The boy soon learns in the club 
that he is one of a social group and if he 
desires to live in peace and harmony with 
his group he must learn to give and take. 
In this way he is taught the great lesson 
of obedience to the wishes of his fellows 
and to the organized forces of govern- 
ment. The Settlement acts as a center 
where people. of like tastes may meet and 
exchange thoughts and ideas and in this 
way “help each other on.” 


(4) RELIGIOUS AND MORAL. 


This has been placed last as it is really 
not only the culmination of the others. 
~but also the combination. Not all Settle- 
ments have direct religious teaching ; they 
are none the less religious in their influ- 
ence. In connection with those settle- 
ments that have religious instructions, the 
usual methods are employed; Sunday 
Schools and Church services are held on 
Sunday. The people, however, are pre- 
pared for these services and classes by 
the work that has been done for them 
during the preceding six days. They 


kind deeds. 


come gladly and willingly to hear the 
gospel of the Nazarene. This gospel has 
iost none of its force to attract and hold 
men. The fault is not with the gospel, 
but with the method of presentation. 
When presented as it is by the Settlement, 
not ontv on Sundays but throughout the 
week, its old power and force to draw 
men—even in the slums—to it, is as great 
as ever. 

In depicting the last great scene in the 
twenty-fifth chapter of Matthew, when 
all the world would be gathered before 
the tribunal from which there will be no 
appeal, the test laid down by the Master 
was not one of creed or dogma; it was 
not one of churchmembership or affilia- 
tion; it was not even one of belief, but of 
“Tnasmuch as ye did it (did 
it not) unto one of these my brethren, 
‘even these least, ve did it (did it not) 
unto me.” This is the religious ideal the 
Settlement is trying to instil into the peo- 
ple of the slums—of kind forebearance to- 
ward others; of good will to all, whether 
capitalist or labor leader—together with 
those qualities that go to make a clean, 
healthy, law-abiding and honest citizen of 
either this great republic or any other. 
It not only helps the people of the slums 
to a higher view of life, but it also gives 
the weaithy classes a broader and more 
sympathetic view of humanity. 


HOW Om LisACE <THE. BIBL Beal 
THE DAY-SCHOOE | 


[ 


By A. M. MERRILL. 


As an introduction to what I may have 
te say on the subject, “How to Teach the 
Bible in the Day-school,” allow me to say 
that I consider the general subject for 
discussion at this conference well chosen. 
It is, without doubt, one of the most 1m- 
portant problems of this or of any age, 
and upon its solution depends the success 
of the age, the destiny of the Church as 
an organization, and the fate of all social 
institutions. The decay of the races and 
the doom of the nations whose ruins now 
strew the earth was invariably preceded 
by and, in fact, caused by their inability 
to find an effective solution to the pro- 
blem of religious and moral education. 
And like causes doubtless produce like re- 
sults. 


As to the present age, a review of ex- 
isting conditions leads us to question the 


lefficiency of our accepted system of edu- 


cation and to desire a more satisfactory 
solution of the problem. The general un- 
rest and increasing discontent among all 


‘classes of society, social disorders, civic 


unrighteousness, commercial and indus- 
trial conquests, and the struggle for su- 
premacy in all lines of activity and in all 


walks of life—these may be the manifesta- 
tions of noble aspirations in the 
hearts of men, but they show alarming 
symptoms of being undirected or mis- 
guided. The spirit of the age is plainly 
shown in the educational slogan of the 
masses, “Learn more, earn more,” and in 
the fact that many institutions of higher 
learning have caught the spirit and are 
emphasizing the utilitarian at the ex- 
pense of the humanities. 

We have come to consider education 
in general as susceptible of a well defined 
division into (1) Secular Education and 
(2) Religious Education. The govern- 
rent schools of many States, by common 
consent of the patrons, owing to differ- 
ences in religious beliefs and doctrin¢s, 
are restricted to secular education; re- 
ligious education being left to the Church. 
It is evident that five days of systematic 
training in strictly secular branches is 
quite out of proportion to the one day’s 
religious training, often unsystematic or 
entirely neglected, and that the result 
must be the development of a big head 
aud a small heart, or keen wits and dull 
sensibilities. 


(Continued on Page r4.) 


American Board NEES: 


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DEC. 702 


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for mission study and we still have a 
quantity on hand ; : ; 


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14 


THE FRIEND. 


Religious education, in its compre- 
hensive sense, we consider as including 
speculative theology, scholastic theology, 
and moral theology. The first and sec- 
ond of these may with propriety be leit 
to the Church, but the third comes well 
within che scope of popular education and 
is absolutely indispensable in the making 
of good citizens, which is the prime ob- 
ject of government institutions of learn- 


ing. 


The fear of doctrinal offense in teacli- 
ing the Bible in the day-school is largely 
imaginary. A judicious elimination of 
doctrinal questions, articles of faith, and 
all speculative subjects, still leaves a 
wonderful volume of most interesting 
and most helpful material. There is but 
little to inspire doctrinal controversy in 
Bible biography or Bible history, in the 
decalogue or the Sermon on the Mount, 
in the Psalms of David or the ethnical 
maxims or practical proverbs of Solomon. 
Put there is abundant material for the 
inculcation of all moral virtues, material 
suitable for all stages of life, by which 
the child may be led by proper and ra- 
tional steps through his own _herotc, 
romantic, poetic, and philosophic ages, 
with the name of God ringing in his ears, 
the thought of God lingering in his mind, 


and the love of God entering his heart. | 


The same spirit that inspired the Book 
and has preserved it through the ages 
may be trusted to make its own interpre- 
tation to the heart of the child and accom- 
plish that whereunto it was sent. 


We are taught that the life of each in- 
dividual is an epitome of the history of 
the race, and that each stage in the life 
of the individual has its corresponding 
period in racial history. Whatever has 
been of general interest to the human 
family, from its birth to the present time, 
will be of special interest to the indivi- 
dual while in the corresponding stage of 
life. Leading educators during the past 
quarter of a century, recognizing this 
principle, and believing that the spon- 
taneous interests of the child are the ex- 
pressions of a stage of life and indicate 
fundamental needs and aptitudes, have 
spent much time in studying child inter- 
ests with a view to the more systematic 


arrangement of the materials and meth- 
ods employed in the development of mind 
and character. The play interests, liter- 
ary interests, historical interests, geo- 
graphical interests, musical interests, 
ethical interests,—-all have been studied, 
and as the years in which the several in- 
terests develop and culminate are deter- 
mined the gradation of lesson materials 
is adjusted to meet them. 


The child’s interests in the Bible have 


r 


been studied by such eminent educator 
as Dr. Dawson, of ‘Clark University, to 
determine what portion of the Sacred 
Books are of special interest in the dif- 
ferent stages of life, and the results of! 
their investigations are most helpful in 
shaping a curriculum of religious educa- 
tion. Dr. Dawson’s investigations, car- 
ried on among representative American 
children, show, for example, that at the 
age of eight years, children are more in- 
terested in the New Testament than in 
the Old—due doubtless to the story of the 
birth of Jesus, which is, perhaps, the most | 
popular of all stories. 


From eight to fourteen, children are 
more interested in the Old Testament 
than in the New, owing to the large num- 
ber of stories in the Old Testament that | 
appeal to children of those years. From 
fourteen on the New Testament is in- 
creasingly popular, reaching its maxi- 
mum with 97 per cent. in the twentieth 
year, 


In the choice among the books of the 
Bible, at the age of eight the interest is 
divided equally between the historical 
books and the Gospels. Interest in the 


eight and fourteen, but after that rapidly 
increases and reaches its maximum with 
78 per cent. in the twentieth year. In- 
terest in the- poetic books begins at nine 
and culminates at fourteen.\ From 
twelve to fourteen there is considerable 
interest in the prophetic books ; and from 
sixteen to eighteen in the wisdom books. 
Out of one thousand children examined 
not one expressed a preference for a book 
that could be classed as doctrinal. The 
results of these investigations also show 
the comparative interest of children in the 
characters, stories and scenes of the 
Bible, which are valuable aids in selecting 
materials for a course of study. 

From these facts gathered from scien- 
tific research and from personal experi- 
ence in teaching the Bible in a day-school 
the nucleus of a course of study may be 
suggested. 

In the early years the child should be 
taught the story of the birth of Jesus, 
with stories relating to his childhood and 
to the childhood and youth of such char- 
acters as Moses, Samuel, Joseph and 
David. The adult Jesus should be taught 
as the King of men,’ whose great love for 
children led him to say, “Suffer little chil- 


historical books increases to the four- 
teenth year, after which it falls off. In- 
terest in the Gospels declines between 


dren to come unto me, for of such is my 
kingdom.” 
(To be Continued.) 


HONOLULU’S CHOICEST SUBURB 
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THE FRIEND. 15 
RECORD OF EVENTS. MO PAED: 
CAMPBELL-DE L’ARTIGUE—At Hono- 
lulu, July 3, Albert N. Campbell to Miss 
: . + sya , Josephine de l’Artigue. 
July 3—Prince Fushimi arrives on|j,oRTH-THOMMESEN—At Lihue, Kauai, 
Br. cruiser Monmouth, and is welcom- July 6th, J. J, Hiorth to Miss Louise Thom- . BY 
ed effusively by the Japanese of Oahu.| mesen, _ 
: McGUIRE- NOLTE—At Waikiki, July roth, JOHN G. WOOLLEY and MARY V. G. 
July 4th—Independence Day worth- ' WOOLLEY. 
a oo ek Z 3 James W. L. McGuire to Miss Fredrica J. 
ily observed—Kilauea Lake again Nolte 
0 C . 
very active. LOUGHER-MURRAY—At Honolulu, July! Now that our famous temperance 
July sth—Very light earthquake 25, William Lougher of Puunene, Maui, to} Jeader, MR. WOOLLEY, is coming to 


after midnight in Honolulu, but felt 


more distinctly on Maui—Activity in 
Kilauea increasing. — New Federa! 
military station is named Camp 
Shafter. 

July ioth—Paia Church accepts 


resignation of Pastor B. V. Bazata. 


July 13th——Incipient fire in Boston 
building. 


July 17th.—Incipient: fire near corner 
Alakea and Merchant streets. 


July zoth—Incipient fires found in| 


eight japanese sampan boats back of 
Channel wharf—small damage. 


Miss Lillie Adele Murray. 
LOW-SMITH—At Honolulu, July 28, Thomas 
Low to Miss Dora Smith, of Durham Co.. 


England. 
DIED. 


WATERHOUSE—At Honolulu, July 7, S. T. 
Alexander Waterhouse, aged two years and 
eight months. 

ALBRIGIHT—At Honolulu, July 13, Cora B. 
Albright, for seven years teacher in Kame- 
hameha Girls’ School. 


ANDREW-—At Honolulu, July 15, Mrs. Sarah 
J. Andrew, aged 81 years. 

LISHMAN—At Vancouver, 
R. H. Perey Lishman, of Honolulu, aged 30 
years, in consequence of accident. 

BAKER—At Honolulu, July 25, Emerson 
Baker, aged 27 years, of Stanford class 1907. 


By. Cy Maly om 


i make his home with us, a special interest 
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Mr. 


in 


and Mrs. Woolley of their last visit 
New 


The volume will 


Hawaii, Samoa, Tonga, Fiji, 
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—— 


16 


THE FRIEND. 


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VOL. LXV, HONOLULU, T. H., SEPTEMBER, 1707, No. 9, 


OUR NEW GOVERNOR, W. F. FREAR 


2 


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POL.. LXV 


HONOLULU, H. T., SEPTEMBER, 


1907 No. 9 


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FRIEND, especially 
Office Expense .............$597.10 3 
ot 319.72 $ 716.82 “RANGE LIGHTS.” : 
Japanese Work ............$148.15 There Dina Keener, 
Malaries of... 0.5.6... 750.25  s9s.40/{ Kindlier comment writ- 
ten now-a-days. 
Mid-Pacific Institute ...... 374.50 
Educational Work ........ 10.00 Further announce- 
General Fund ............. 200/ ments may expected 
Preis WOLK 5. 6 eee ees $ 7.50 soon. 
SH UICLOCh earn eer tere 576.00 583..50 3 
Sill ih i The Publisher. 
Waiakea Settlement ...... 10.00 
Personal Accounts ........ 109.00 | -———— 
Palama Settlement ........ 108.45 : Vie 
Palama Special Fund....... 50.00| Lhe most important political event of 
iets Work .......... $ 15.00 the month was the inauguration of ex- 
A 281.50 286.50} Judge W. F. Frear as Governor of the 
; Territory of Hawaii. He is a man of 
PA ie... 41.12] considerable experience and sound judg- 
Mimeeee Work ......0..0... $ 99.40 ment and will attend to the duties of his 
i 968.50  1,067.90| Office carefully, faithfully and earnestly. 
= The greatest part of his life has been 
oS oa 38.59 | Spent in these islands. His official posi- 
Portuguese Work ......... $ 90.00 - tion as Chief Justice has given him an 
es 259,00 349.00; excellent opportunity to understand 
island matters. His sterling integrity, 
$4,855.69 | which has been thoroughly proved in the 
Overdraft at the Bank.............. $5,472.20 | past, assures a continuation of the thor- 


dts Beis 


oughly honest administration of affairs 


which has characterized the days of Gov- 
ernor Dole and Governor Carter. The 
Territory of Hawaii has great reason to 
be thankful for the character of the men 
who so far have been appointed Governor 
of these islands. 


Rev. John P. Erdman has arrived from 
Japan and will commence his work in 
September. He will be the agent of the 
Hawaiian Board for the larger part of 
the Island of Oahu. He has been en- 
gaged in work in Honolulu in the years 
past. Then he lived in Japan about three 
years, now returning to a field and 
friends which welcome him very heartily. 
His father and mother visited’ him in 
Japan and now are at Mr. B. F. Dilling- 
ham s’pleasant home. 


AS PRAYER: 


OQ Father! Lead us through the multi- 
tude of thoughts 

Surrounding and confusing thoughtful 
men ; 

Keep us from traveling without a guide, 

For we have strayed again and still 
again. 


Help us to know the great realities, 

The principles which underlie all things, 

The deep foundations on which Thou 
dost rest, 

The truth from which confusing sub- 
truth springs. 


Help us to know the meaning of pure 
faith 

Amid the tangled maze of scientific 
thought. 

It is so easy not to see the stars 

Behind the darkness which the clouds 
have brought. 


Be patient with us Lord, our wayward- 
ness 

Deserves the swift correction of the rod; 

But oh, in tender love of Fatherhood 

Unfold to us the truth which comes from 


God. W. D. W. 


It is no slight thing for Hon. John G. 
Woolley to forsake the green pastures 
and larger flocks of the central United 
States to make his home for a time in 


THE FRIEND. 


the Hawaiian Islands. His life has been 
preeminently that of a reformer for 
many years. In recognition of acknowl- 
edged ability he was made the candidate 
of the Prohibition party for President of 
the United States. His literary acquire- 
ments procured for him the highest de- 
gree conferred upon scholarly men, that 
of Doctor of Laws. He comes now to 
an entirely new field and one which can- 
not give an enthusiastic response to the 
fine thought and eloquent periods which 
have attracted crowds of hearers in the 
past. Outside of Central Union Church 
there are no large congregations. Only 
handfuls of English-speaking people can 
be gathered together in the outside towns 
and districts. There will be deep-seated 
appreciation, but the response to burning 
thoughts must come from individuals 
rather than from crowds. 

Mr. Woolley will take a prominent 
place on the editorial force of The Friend 
and will conduct a Temperance Depart- 
ment which will glisten with suggestive 
thoughts. 

Mrs. Woolley has received a warm 
welcome from the friends who feel that 
she will fill a large place in the circle 
which seeks the welfare of the home. The 
members of the W..C. T. U. have already 
assured her that they open to her their 
hearts and homes. 

Coming to such a quiet work as goes 
on in these islands, will prove a great 
change to such active workers as Mr. and 
Mrs. Woolley, but it is hoped that from 
this center of the Pacific they may for 
many years send forth worldwide influ- 
ence. 


The people of Kauai have united upon 
a plan for decreasing the number of 
saloons and also for making it somewhat 
difficult for the lover of strong drink to 
quench his appetite. The leading men of 
the island gave careful thought to the 
matter—apparently no one tried to shove 
off his responsibility upon his neighbor. 
The liquor problem was felt to be suffi- 
ciently serious to receive the best atten- 
tion that could be given to it. The few 
saloons were limited to wholesale licenses 
—and these have been restricted in their 
operations. According to Charles L. 
Rhodes of the Advertiser: “The whole 
traffic is put nuder bonds, as it were, to 
keep the peace.” 


A Japanese saloonkeeper in Wailuku, 
the chief town at present of the Island 
of Maui, protests against a kindergarten 
which is under the care of the Hawaiian 
Board of Missions and has been located 
across the street from his saloon. This 
Japanese is liable to have his application 


for a renewal of his license refused on 
account of the proximity to the kinder- 
garten. But he wants to get in his blows 
first so he protests against the kinder- 
garten. He seems to think that the school 
demoralizes the customers of his saloon. 
So he says “he cannot stand the be- 
havior of the children on the opposite 
side of the street. While he could en- 
dure the noises from the drunken people 
in his saloon, he will not tolerate any 
noise at all from the opposite side.” 
The man is apparently honest in thinking 
that a saloon should be protected from 
those who would prepare a counter at- 


{traction to keep the children out of the 


doors of his den. 


“The Big Four” is the name given by 
the daily press to the U. S. men-of-war 
which have just entered the harbor of 
Honolulu as The Friend is about to go 
to press. Many of the men have al- 
ready been granted shore leave and are 
trying to see all they can of the first 
part of “God’s Country” which they 
have placed their feet upon for some- 
time. 

It is noticeable that these men are so 
acting as to create an excellent impres- 
sion upon the citizens of Honolulu. 

Horses, carriages and bicycles are <n 
great evidence bearing their loads ot 
white-clad man-of-wars men. 

Honolulu has prepared a special wel- 
come in the shape of a reception and 
reading room under the care of the Sai- 
vation Army, where lectures and enter- 
tainments will be provided each even- 
ing. Especial stereopticon lectures, 
illustrating the Hawaiian Islands, are 
being provided for the fleet to be giveti 
on the Maryland. 


A polo team from Maui won two 
straight games from the Oahu polo play- 
ers—and that, on the Oahu grounds. 
There was a fine display of horseman- 
ship and skill in handling the ball. 
The Maui team consisted of the follow- 
ing young men: Captain, F. F. Baldwin, 
S .A. Baldwin, D. T. Fleming and C. C. 
Krumbhaar. The Oahu men were: Cap- 
tain Walter Dillingham, Dr. W. D. Bald- 
win, J. L. Fleming and Robert Shingle. 
Three games had been planned, but when 
the two games were won by the Maui 
men the third game was dropped as un- 
necessary. 


THE HOMES OF THE HAWAIIAN 
BOARD. 


The Friend of August presented on its 
title page a fine cut of the new building 
of the Hawaiian Board—the recent gift 
of Hon. and Mrs. P. C. Jones. It is now 


worth while to look back over the years 
which have passed since the Board was 
organized and note the path it has 
traveled and its stopping places before 
finding its permanent home. 


The Hawaiians who are interested in 
the Board’s work compare the different 
places in which the Board’s meetings 
have been held to the seven days of the 
week. Thus the Sabbath typifies the time 
when anxiety and unrest are over and the 
permanent day of rest is found. — 

The senior member of the Board, our 
revered Dr. Bingham, says that the 
first gatherings of the members was June 
23, 1863, in the old Mission school 
house in the Kawaiahao Church grounds, 
south of the Mission cemetery. This is 
one of the oldest mission buildings in 
the islands and was occupied by the 
school which Mrs. Bingham (Dr. Bing- 
hams’ mother) taught for years. It was 
also the place where the annual meetings 
of the missionaries were held. This prop- 
erty belongs to Kawaiahao Church. The 
officers elected at that first meeting were: 
President, Rev. Titus Coan; Vice-Presi- 
dent, Dr. G. P. Judd; Corresponding 
Secretary, Rev. L. H. Gulick; Recording 
Secretary, Rev. E. W. Clark; Treasurer, 
E. O. Hall; Auditor, J. Bartlett. 


In 1867 the Board was holding its 
meetings in the lower story of the old 
book bindery which stood on what are 
now the grounds in front of the southern 
portion of Kawaiahao Seminary. 


From these quarters the Board moved 
to a coral stone building west of the old 
mission house known as “The Chamber- 
lain House.” . This building was later a 
part of the first store of Castle & Cooke. 


Rev. A. O. Forbes became the corre- 
sponding secretary and persuaded the 

oard to build him a dwelling house on 
Beretania street in which to carry on the 
Board’s work. A small cottage was 
erected in the grounds for the papers, 
books and meetings. This building was 
some distance from the center of the city 
—hence only the regular meetings were 
held there as a rule and the called special 
meetings in different places near the 
business offices. 


After a time the Board meetings were 
changed from the evening to the after- 
noon and convenient down town places 
were successively used. 


Thus the Board occupied for a time the 
second story of the old building used by 
the Advertiser, and also rooms in the 
Judd building, on the corner of Fort and 
Merchant streets; then rooms in the Ma- 
goon block, corner of Merchant and Ala- 
kea streets; then in the Campbell block 
on Fort street; then in the Boston build- 


THE FRIEND. 


ing on Fort street, and then in the Pro- 
gress block on Fort street. When the 
Japanese government purchased the half 
of the block in which the Board rooms 
were situated for use by its consular of- 
fices, the Hawaiian Board was without a 
home. 

Mr. P. C. Jones, the President of the 
Board, felt the need of permanent quar- 
ters within close reach of business men, 
therefore wisely consulted with his wife, 
and with her advice and aid gave to the 
Board the fine business block which it 
now occupies as its permanent home. The 
second story of this building is used for 
meetings, offices and book rooms. There 
are two rooms for stores on the first 
floor. One of these is rented and one 
is used as a sales room for the books of 
the Board. W. D. W. 


CHIEP FUNCTION OF CAMP- 
BELL'S “NEW THEOLOGY.” 


Sometimes a book with a bold title be- 
gins a real new movement of thought. 
This cannot be claimed for the work en- 
titled “The New Theology,” by Rev. 
Reginald J. Campbell of the City Temple, 
London. The movement with which the 
author identifies himself had already been 
familiar for about fifteen to twenty years. 
Various writers in England and America 
had been shouting the phrase to each 
other, like wanderers in a mist looking 
for the road homewards, to keep up each 
other’s courage. Sometimes a book which 
professes to interpret.a movement thor- 
oughly, ends it. The real tendency latent 
in the premises from which it starts be- 
comes revealed in the frank statement of 
conclusions which only the enemies had 
hitherto attributed to it. These infer- 
ences had oftentimes been denied ; or they 
had been accepted with softening phrases 
and hazy modifications. Attempts had 
been made to retain the virtues of the old 
in the clothing of the new, to hallow with 
the sacred associations of long centuries 
and deep experience, assertions which 
could not have produced that ¢éx- 
perience nor glorified those centuries. 
But at last a zealous champion, more 
zealous than discreet, states the bare 
facts. He authoritatively, officially com- 
mits the whole “school” to its conclusions, 
or to the explicit statement of doctrines 
which had been involved in its character- 
istic method from the beginning of its 
story. Such a book will usually be found 
to end that particular phase of thought. 
For any man after that to wear that 
title, as this one of “The New Theology,” 
is equivalent to avowing himself a follow- 
er, say, of Mr. Campbell. It will be hard 
indead after that to say, “I accept the 
New Re ey: but not Mr. Campbell’s,” 


if the public of thoughtful men insists 
that Mr. Campbell has only stated clearly. 
and frankly what others had apparently 
not though through. Then the adventur- 
ous spirit of man will try some other way 
of retaining the ethical and esthetic value 
of Christianity while rejecting its histori- 
cal facts and its characteristic doctrines. 
This I venture to think is going to be the 
chief function of Mr. Campbell’s book. 
Signs are not wanting that already writ- 
ers, who had triumphantly used the 
phrase, “The New Theology” in ex- 
pounding their own ideas of the im- 
manence of God, are being driven back 
by Mr. Campbell’s fearless exposition of 
his deductions from it, to make fresh con- 
nections with the Christian conscious- 
ness.— (Rev. W. D. Mackenzie, D. D., in 
Hartford Seminary Record.) 


A RIBERA Ss OPINION Wr 
TREGELE RAGRITICS.” 


Professor Shailer Mathews is a distin- 
guished member of the “liberal’’ school 
of theologians so prominent in Chicago 
University. To a great extent he accepts 
the conclusions of the critics respecting 
the Old Testament, and considers their 
methods correct. One is therefore glad 
to find him rejecting the allegation that 
the Gospel has been destroyed by such 
criticism as applied to the New Testa- 
ment. Referring particularly to the testi- 
mony of. the Apostles to the Bodily 
Resurrection of Jesus, he says of the in- 
credulous “critics”: ‘These conclusions 
are not likely to prevail except among 


those who live in the highest altitude of 


the anti-supernaturalism.” “The real 
difficulty is that such critics use as criteria 
of their normative processes certain pre- 
suppositions and ingenious guesses, as to 
what things are not and cannot be.” 

Translating this into simpler English, 
Prof. Mathews means that these “ad- 
vanced critics” are not governed by a 
plain and reasonable system of judgment. 
They are governed by a settled and fixed 
opinion that anything supernatural is 
necessarily imaginary and untrue. Thus 
they arrive at ungrounded and false con- 
clusions. Instead of being, as they sup- 
pose, wise and discerning judges of the 
truth, they follow deluding phantasms 
and become misleading and “destructive 
critics.” 

Neither in the Old Testament or the 
New, are the fanciful and fantastic con- 
clusions of these fallacious critics going 
to stand, however ingeniotts may be their 
inventions to destroy the historical trtith 
of the Bible. This is not saying that 
these industrious and ingenious searchers 
into the history and details of the Bible 
literature have riot made important and 


valuable discoveries. But the false and 
truly irrational principle which is the 
guiding star of most of them has led 
them deplorably and fatally astray. That 
false principle is, as said above, that noth- 
ing purporting to be miraculous or super- 
natural can possibly be historically true. 
Into whatever vogue the “higher critic- 
ism” may have grown among our Ameri- 
can scholars,—and it is very great—it is 
doomed to a certain and discreditable 
fall. 

The Bible—with doubtless many hu- 
man imperfections, being largely the 
work of man—is the Record of God’s 
long and gracious personal interposition, 
by means of Miracle and Revelation, for 
the purpose of enlightening and saving 
His wayward and ignorant children on 
Earth. That glorious and gracious rec- 
ord will continue to stand for our light 
and comfort, when the fanciful dreams of 
the “‘Critics” have been forgotten. 

Se daa ey. 


PEE GOOD MAN IS MY MAN?” 


Kamehameha III was a king gifted 
in epigrams. ‘Debt is a moth and rum 
is a poison god,” is very forcible when 
we recall the historical fact that the early 
chiefs laid away many pieces of cloth re- 
ceived in return for sandalwood only to 
find them quickly destroyed by moths. 

The king learned that debt was as de- 
structive to his prosperity as the moth 
was to the cloth of his ancestors. Then 
he remembered Kalaipahoa—the poison 
god—the reputed most powerful destroy- 
er of his people. He saw the destruction 
wrought to home and business and life 
by rum. Therefore he put the axiom: 
“Rum is a poison god.” 

Like unto this crisp wisdom is the say- 
ing which he applied to the choice of men 
for public office. He was beset by ap- 
plicants. For the men of Hawaii loved 
office then even as they love it today. 
Influence was used for the appointment 
of certain persons. Kamehameha, how- 
ever, to the surprise of his court, appoint- 
ed other men. “Why did you do this?” 
was the question. The answer came back 
giving the best principle upon which to 
base electoral ballots: “The good man is 
my man.’ 

The day for the selection of party 
nominees is near at hand. Party leaders 
are even now preparing the slate for pre- 
cinct action. A good campaign slogan 
for any party, especially strong in its in- 
fluence among the native voters, backed 
up by honest “effort, would be the king’ s 
ery: “The good man is my man.’ 


W. D. W. 


THE FRIEND. 


THE: EE UP BASIS:-O& SOCIAG.RE- 
FORM. 

Although known as very “liberal” in 
his theology, Prof. Shailer Mathews pre- 
sents the following impressive contribu- 
tions to Social Wisdom and Reforming 
efficiency: ‘“lhe gospel of the risen 
Christ is also the gospel of regenerate 
men building the eternal life into a fra- 
ternity that must some day include all so- 
cial relations.” “Regenerate men are the 
only materials out of which to construct 
regenerate society.” 

We believe that this is a most funda- 
mental truth. The deep, corroding evils 
pervading society can only be relieved 
by the healing of a multitude of sin- 
diseased souls and making them indi- 
vidual centers of reforming and refining 
power among their diseased and per- 
verted fellow men. Society cannot be up 
lifted in the mass, nor its corruptions 
cured as a whole. The degraded com- 
munities must be pervaded by redeemed 
individuals, radiant with purifying and 
reforming touch of life. 

Prof. Mathews also sounds a deep 
fundamental note of Gospel wisdom in 
farther asserting that there is “need of a 
sturdy insistence upon the sinfulness of 
sin.” “The pulpit has partly abandoned 
attempts to arouse moral discontent in 
the human soul, and has been giving 
prominence to congratulatory descrip- 
tions of men as the sons of God. Admir- 
able as this hopefulness regarding hu- 
manity may be, it will be a sad day for 
society if its moral teachers undertake to 
widen the straight gate and broaden the 
nariow way.” “Society needs to be con- 
vinced afresh of the elemental distinction 
between evil and good.” “Knowledge is 
not virtue, and art is not righteousness.” 


We feel that the emphasis placed by 
the “New Theology” upon the “Father- 
hood of God” and the “Brotherhood of 
Man” has not escaped the damaging evil 
of minimizing the poisonous and con- 
taminating qualities of Sin. While our 
God is a Father of tender compassion 
and outreaching mercy, He is Holy, and 
cannot regard iniquity without aversion 
and condemnation. While men are made 
to be brethren and to love one another, 
yet there is contamination and poisoning 
ta consorting with the morally leprous 
and unclean. Lot could not take his fam- 
ily to dwell in Sodom without their being 
poisoned and ruined. It is neither wis- 
dom or truth to set forth the amiable and 
pleasing facts of morality and religion, 
and be reserved about the facts that are 
stern and dark. 


It is not the Old Testament alone that 


constantly presents the Holiness of God, 
and denounces the wickedness of human 


corruptness. The Gospel of Christ bears 
the same testimony. Our Lord Jesus 
closed his earthly life by dashing himself 
unflinchingly against the evil-doing of 
the proud leaders, and by his cross bear- 
ing testimony against the evil thing which 
God abhorred. His death is the Divine 
Witness against the Wickedness of Sin. 
Let the Church ever maintain like testi- 
mony. Sa: By 


TAHITI AND HAWAIKI. 

A word sometimes outgrows itself and 
becomes large of meaning beyond all that 
legitimately belongs to it. 
inclusive word. This has been recognized 
as true concerning the use in the Ha- 
waiian Islands of the word “Tahiti,” or 
as it is usually spelled “Kahike.” Tahiti 


hundreds of years ago meant the same, 


island as that which bears the same name 


today. The sea rovers from Hawaii went | 


to Tahiti and returned—even as from 
Samoa—and the larger island groups 
toward the south. After several hundred 
years the mists of fable gathered around 
the stories which were handed down from 
generation to generation, until all for- 
eign lands received the general name Ka- 
hiki. 

The New Zealand legends concerning 
Hawaii under the name Hawaiki, have 


It becomes an | 
have taken the word Hawaiki as meaning 


been very numerous and very puzzling to. 
the thoughtful men who have tried to 
trace the land from which the ancestors 
of the Maoris (the natives) of New Zea- 
land came. ° The legends almost indis- 
criminately refer to Hawaiki. But it was 
evident that Hawaiki sometimes referred 
to the original home of the Polynesians 
in the region around the Straits of Sunda 
from which they were driven out by the 
Malays who conquered and dispersed 
them over the Pacific ocean. It was also 
evident that Hawaiki sometimes referred 
to islands nearer New Zealand and to lat- 
er migrations. The New Zealand writers 


one place—from which the various mi- 
erations have come—and they find much 
difficulty in finding any place to corre- 
spond with the conditions of the various 
legends. It is a simple suggestion which, 
perhaps, we of the Hawaiian Islands 


have no right to make to the scholars of 
New Zealand and yet there seems to be 
no reason why the word Hawaiki should 
not be “inclusive.” Centuries of use 
among the Maoris might very easily lead 
them to cover all foreign lands with the 
one term—in e.actly the same way that 
their kindred of the Hawaiian Islands 
cover any part of the world in the term 
Tahiti or Kahiki. W. D. W. 


wf RANGE LIGHTS. -# 


By Joun G, Wootey, L.L.D. 


Wherefore seeing we,also are com- 
passed about with so great a cloud of 
witnesses, let ws lay aside every weight, 
and the sin which doth so easily beset us, 
and let us run with patience the race that 
is set before us.—Bible. 

I am not a minister, but I delight to 
anchor on the lea side of one of these 
great volcanic islands of literature and 
common sense, and go ashore for pure 
food, living water, a whiff of ozone and 
a run in boundless liberty. 

It is about a race. The ringside is 
packed with witnesses. It is to be a fair 
trial of strength and ring sense in the 
open. There are no questicas of privi- 
lege, influence, family, school, party or 
church. The best man will win, because 
he is the best, and with the best man, the 
best thing—the man first, for this is not 
Heaven but Hawaii. They look alike, 1 
reckon, but they are different. Where- 
ture let us get rid of all rubbish—it im- 
pedes us, and all meanness—it weakens 
us—and run WITH PATIENCE the race— 
not the chromatic scales of Divine 
prescience—the race. The prize is for 


the best running, not the best argument 


I 


on running, nor the best taste as to what. 


ought to be hung up for the winner. 


Keep Sweet and 
Keep Moving. 


At once the heaviest weight upon the 


strength of the reformer and the sin ~ 


which all too easily besets him is a 
chronic impatience which greatly dimin- 
ishing his nelpfulness in bringing others 
to his way of thinking, in the end makes 
him color-blind to the signals of his own 
success and indifferent, contemptuous, or 
actively oppose to the small, preliminary 
victories that, however small, have no 
meaning save to show that he has turned 
into the home stretch and won a racer’s 
chance to make the goal. 

This strange infirmity of earnest minds 
has ever put an element of pathos into 
great moral triumphs and sometimes 
caused the social daybreaks of humanity 
to be brought forth amid the jeers of 
their own prophets. The hardest words 
that ever tore like shrapnell through the 


THE FRIEND. 


great, tender heart of Lincoln were hurl- 
ed by good men who through the long 
night of apathy and doubt and fear had 
watched in utter loyalty for the coming 
of emancipation. 

It would seem that a reform so great, 
so sure, so altruistic, so Christian in its 
origin, purpose and the means employed 
to push it, so palpably righteous, as the 
prohibition movement, would, in an age 
like this, touch such a habit only in the 
breach of it; and, in a way, it does. But 
too many of our stalwart nation-wide 
prohibitionists seem inclined to meet the 
present general advance of the flying 
squadron of local option, with criticism 
or damn it with faint praise. 

This is not due to any lack of loyalty 
to the main purpose of the movement nor 
to any coarse bigotry as to the methods 
hitherto employed. For  clear-eyed 
loyalty and willingness to sacrifice or to 
perish for the sake of a cause, there is no 
better record in existence than that of the 
Prohibition party. But from the very in- 
tensity of their desire and the long heart- 
ache of hope deferred some of us have be- 
come too far-sighted to see clearly things 
near at hand or rightly to understand the 
foreground as related to the whole pic- 
zure of the times. 

Nor is it matter for surprise that the 
astronomy phaze of the voyage carries its 
seculiar temptation, in political expedi- 
tions. Steering by the stars does svem to 
be a nobler sort of navigation than look- 
ing out for painted buoys that mark 
known channels, and cairns and blazed 
trees and range points’ and beacon fires 
on the shore. But in this world all things 
and all truths are relative; and for sea- 
manship, where the course is up a wind- 
ing river of strenuous economics and 
over sand bars of old habit prejudice and 
tradition, a white rock on the hillside 
with a tall tree on the nose of a cape in 
range takes far precedence of Ursa 
Major or the Southern Cross. 

Stumps Better than 
Stars Sometimes. 

We have crossed the restless, chartless 
ocean of agitation, guided—almost towed 
—hby the stars; and we do well to make 
- our boast on those celestial certainties as 
against the sea-rocks and sea-rips and 
doldrums and) Sargossoes we have seen 
on the long passage. But we are now en- 
tering the rivers of prohibitory sentiment 
pushing the bows of the greatest and 
most difficult of reforms into the 
body of the continent of popular goy- 


ernment. Here, the eternal values 
of latitude and longitude remain. Here 
the same stars light the way. But the 


actual course from day to day is laid— 
has to be laid—by humble, terrestrial, 
temporary things—by stumps and sand-| 


spits and sunken barges and all the multi- 
farious traffic of economics and the rac- 
ing craft of selfishness. For it is a 
democracy that we invade, an old 
democracy, and we are relatively new. 
It is not yet a hundred years since Billy 
Clark raised the first organized voice 
against the drink, in America. It is not 
sixty years since Kamehameha II] and 
the chiefs of these islands signed the 
pledge of total abstinence and povred out 
the royal store of liquors on the ground. 

We shall possess the land—by those 
very stars that some of us would vainly 
and foolishly fight for instead of trusting 
their majestic and changeless certainty to 
fight for us. But every unit of the 
democracy, that strives in some way of 
his own for better things but ‘‘followeth 
not with us” is equal with us in right and 
perhaps in conscience and in wisdom 
too at bottom; and we must learn the 
lesson—there is no escape from it—of 
keeping the log of our progress in terms 
of the established chartings and signals 
in the various channels of human en- 
deavor where we are led or driven to 
compete, or else we shall only fail and 
swing hopeless and derelict across the 
stream. Knowledge of the Mississippi 
will not equip ‘a pilot for the Tennessee. 
Orion would be a will o’ the wisp to a 
boat on Snake river, and to follow the 
sun would mean shipwreck on the Colo- 
rado. 

Crossing an unknown ocean is certain- 
ly a great achievement, but it amounts to 
little in the upshot, without the horse- 
sense that is near inspiration and the 


patience which is only courage of a rarer | 


kind, to explore and utilize the shallower 
waters that weather highways into the 
heart of the discovered continent. We 
came in a ship—the great, broad-beamed, 
deep-draft proposition that the beverage 
liquor traffic ought to die. But, now that 
we are here, we moor the mighty craft, 
fully armed, manned, provisioned and 
ship-shape from top to keelson, while we 
build a fleet of less imposing bottoms, of 
light draft, easily handled, fit for bars 
and narrow tortuous channels, and local 
traffic, and even possible of portage, on 
occasion. It is folly to spurn this humble 
moral marine. 

I write this as the same radical that I 
have been for twenty years, and without 
a thought of paring or abandoning any 
principle. But the fundamental prin- 
ciple in the constructive work now open- 
ing to us by the general acceptance of 
out right to take a hand in the politics 
of the day and work out the details of our 
doctrine, is that the people are the own- 
ers and the governors. 

All the People. 
This is not a government of the tem- 


perance people, for the temperance peo- 
ple, by the temperance people, although it 
surely will be, some day. Even the drinker 
and the drink seller have a right to be 
heard and to be obeyed if they can con- 
tinue to hold, as up to this time they do 
hold, the majority. Our case now is sim- 
ply one of decent and reasonable states- 
manship upon all the facts and all the 
kinds of facts involved. It is perfectly 
true that local option tends to municipal 
smirking and self satisfaction. But it is 
just as true that in the long run, it tends 
to disappointment and humility. Those 
two facts are range lights of profound 
importance. Every prohibitory locality 
must finally, in the nature of things, 
become a storm center of state and na- 
tional prohibition; for, as it is, state 
license defeats local prohibition more or 
less; and our national system of internal 
revenue defeats the prohibitory states 
shamefully. 

I was never stronger in the conviction 
that the only antedote for the beverage 
liquor traffic is no beverage liquor traffic. 
But the weakness of this theory in prac- 
tice in the immediate present is that there 
are not vet enough citizens who hold to 
that opinion. Clearly then our main 
chance as well as our only right in the 
premises is to behave ourselves and direct 
our energies so as to increase the number 
of prohibitionists ; and the way to do that 
is to run the race that is set before us by 
the sovereign—the People, to-wit: na- 
tional exallation by local righteousness. 

Patiently. There is no hope that the 
goal will run to meet us, nor any way to 
shunt the People from their plan. There 
is no sense in wasting time and strength 
and losing self-respect and the respect of 
others, by stopping to throw stones at 
other runners, nor to dodge the stones 
that may be thrown at us. 

But wherever and whenever the public 
sentiment shows a light and tries to hit 
the road of civic righteousness, shame on 
us if we do not our level best to cheer it 
and to help it on the way! This neces- 
sarily means delay—clean, honorable, un- 
whining delay—patience. 

Umty Against Diversity. 

Another thing that makes a strong de- 
mand for patience is the solidarity of the 
liquor traffic. Licensed or illicit, whole- 
sale or retail it is one. Not far from 
ninety per cent. of the saloons—tak- 
ing the country over—are owned by 
the breweries, the distilleries, the whole- 
sale wine and spirit merchants, or tied 
to them by cutthroat leases and chattel 
mortgages. 

On the other hand, we who are in the 
race against the liquor trade are as di- 
verse as it is united. They call us fana- 
tics, and themselves, liberals. The fact is 


THE FRIEND. 


that the temperance movement has been 
waterlogged for half a century by con- 
servatism, and the liquor power is or- 
ganized fanaticism, with the power of 
fooling, frightening or purchasing its bet- 
ters almost. reduced to a science. 

But there is one point upon which we 
who are opposed to the liquor traffic do 
agree and ought to agree. We are in 
favor of majority rule, and enforcement 
of the prohibitory features of the laws as 
they stand. The only way we can win, 
or ought to win, is by drawing to our 
standard enough to make us a majority. 
The only way to do that is via the old 
corduroy highway of patriotic obedience 
to the laws and patriotic endeavor to 
make them better. There is no truer 
scripture than the one which says in sub- 
stance: The law is the schoolmaster to 
lead the democracy away from selfish- 
ness and meanness to altruism and true, 
sane socialism. Respect for law is the 
long way and the hard way, but the only 
way the feet of democracy can travel and 
there is no winged foot-gear for that 
course in any wise near equal to the 
broad, old-fashioned army shoes of pati- 
ence: 


All Roads Lead to Rome. 


I have been arguing in public and in 
private for twenty. years that the liquor 
problem is not a local matter at all, but 
as national as money, quarantine regula- 
tions or fortifications, since at the last 
analysis, or by the most superficial analy- 
sis, it raises the question of the quality of 
the men, and the homes of men, which 
are the foundation stones of the republic. 
I have not changed my mind. But the 
very thousands whom I have been so 
happy as to convince have taken the view 
that the national issue must wait until 
the trial of local prohibition forces it into 
the arena. [ am a stubborn man and | 
still think that a national campaign, like 
the Bryan campaign of the gold standard 
versus bimetallism, on the single issue 
of the right or wrong of licensing the 
most demoralizing trade a man ever put 
a hand to, would be the greatest educa- 
tion in finance, labor, marriage and di- 
vorce, dietetics, epidemics, clean politics, 
municipal government, immigration, rail- 
road wrecks, strikes, insanity, pauperism | t 
and crime, the world has ever witnessed, 
and the door into a period of incalculable 
prosperity and efficiency such as this 
richest of the nations has not dreamed of. 

But such a lot of men, probably as 
wise as I and certainly as good as I, have 
decided against me, that I am up against 
the question whether I am man enough, 
as to the method of trial, to follow, where 
the people will not let me lead. I am. 

As to my individual matters, my per- 
sonal opinions govern and ought to gov- 


ern and when I entez the polling booth I 
must speak into the ear of the nation, the 
state or the city the highest thought I 
have, as to measures and as to men. So 
my consent can never be given that any 
man, at any price, in any place, for any 
hours or days or years may have a license 
to sell alcoholic liquors as a beverage. 

I am at present stopping in the Ha- 
watian Islands. I brought my principles 
with me. It is absolutely clear to me that 
the Territorial government ought not to 
license the beverage alcohol business. It 
owes better faith to the natives. It owes 
better care of the children and the homes. 
And it is just as clear to me that if the 
influential men and women of the islands 
were to take to the high altruism of per- 
sonal abstinence and unconditional re- 
fusal to license the traffic. it would be 
comparatively easy to draw so large a 
part of the native vote with them as to 
give and assure a no-license majority. 

There would be grave difficulties about 
enforcement, and much discouragement 
first and last. But it would be ethically 
and practically a great deal better for the 
better elements of the community to 
stand out against a bad business with 
small success than to stand in with it with 
great success. 

But, we appear to be going to federal 
prohibition via state sovereignty demand- 


ling decent faith and credit for its judg- 


ments in the exercise of the police power, 
and local option demanding justice for the 
locality from the state. It seems to me a 
very Irish way to go about it, but there is 
a strong Irish strain in the people. So I 
say that any legislature, city council, 
board of supervisors or board of license 
commissioners which is trying in a real 
and honest way to pry open the jaws of 
the great gray wolf now shut so tight 
upon the throat of our body politic, de- 
serves the aid of every prohibitionist, 
however tenaciously we stand by our 
proposition which is as true as holy writ, 
that the system of licensing an evil thing 
in order to prevent its natural conse- 
quences is vicious in principle and power- 
less as a remedy. 

At all events there are signs of prog- 
ress everywhere. From every corner of 

he Union comes the cry, “The saloon 
must go.” In Maine at last the law is 
well enforced. In Kansas, splendidly. 
In the east end of North Dakota, almost 
perfectly, and the west end improves. 
Georgia has joined the ranks of sister 
states whose virtue may be violated but is 
not for sale. Alabama is sure to follow 
soon. Then Mississippi, then South 
Carolina, the old North State, Texas. 
Tennessee and Kentucky. The north, of 
course, moves more slowly, but it moves. 
* The liquor traffic rides an ebbing tide and 


these islands at no distant day will take 
and keep their rightful place with tie 
elite in civic morals even as already it 
leads the nation and the world in physica] 
beauty. 


COUSINS” SOCIETY "N@iES 


A letter to Miss Martha Chamberlain 
from Miss Paulding, former principal of 
Kawaiahao Seminary, mentions several 
of the Island people as follows: 


Pasadena, Aug. 2, 1907. 
Dear Miss Chamberlain. 


Miss Bicknell, whom I saw a couple of 
weeks ago, told me that you are improy- 
ing in health, that you are able to walk 
and that you have been once to church. 

We had a Honolulu picnic at one of 
the beaches. Miss Knapp and Miss Bick- 
nell were the only ones who still live in 
Hawaii. We had Mr. and Mrs. Bristol 
and Miss Gearhart, formerly of Kame- 
hameha, and her mother, and Miss Ma- 
lone and Miss Schweizer, who taught at 
the Baldwin School, and besides Miss 
Knapp’s brother and wife from Denver, 
and baby Bristol, a dear little girl of two 
years. Those of us who have been away 
for a time were glad to see our old 
friends. 

A few weeks ago I was at Venice, one 
of the beach towns, and met Ah Moe 
Lum, one of our Chinese girls at Ka- 
waiahao. She lived with Mrs. Henry 
Castle after leaving the Seminary and 
then came over here and took a course of 
training for nursing at St. Helena Sana- 
torium. She had finished the course and 
has had some work since. She was tak- 
ing care of a sick baby at Venice. \ She 
expects to go back to Honolulu in the 
fall. 

Aloha nui oe, 


CHRISTINA W. PAULDING. 


MAYOR WATERHOUSE REMEM- 
BERED. 


A surprise party recently called upon 
former Mayor Waterhouse of Pasadena, 
formerly of Honolulu, and presented him 
with a $200 solid silver fern-dish on 
which was inscribed the following : 

Presented to William Waterhouse as a 
token of esteem by his fellow citizens and 
friends for his integrity, energy and abil- 
ity in the service of the whole people as 
mayor of the city of Pasadena from May, 
1906, to May. 1907. 

This was accompanied by an address 
telling of the deep regard and apprecia- 
tion of the people for his loyal and honor- 
able public services to that fair city, and 
for his manly efforts, patience and for- 
bearance in endeavoring to bring about 


THE FRIEND. 


9 


those civic improvements most advant- | 
ageous to the city’s public welfare. 


mackA AS IT WAS, AND AS IT 
IS NOW. 


Rev. P. A. DELAPORTE. 
(Continued from August.) 


If there was an unclean person in the 
canoe the fish would return to the 
“Etalwejuwe” (log) telling the spirits 
about the deceit which had been prac- 
ticed. The log would now assume the 
shape of a fish and with a fearful speed 
come down on the canoe, killing every- 
body in it. If no defiled person was 
found in the canoe, it would slowly 
move towards the log and the natives 
began operations. Fish could be 
caught on this occasion with or without 
hook. Even sharks were taken up with 
bare hands. Of course this could only 
be done if the fishermen had gone 
through the abstinence process ; at other 
times the regular means to catch fish 
had to be used. No knives (stone 
knives) could be used on fish caught 
in this manner. 


When we began our work on Nauru 
no grown up girl or woman could go 
down to the beach when the rainy sea- 
son was expected to close, that it may 
not begin to blow again, and the fish- 
ing season be thus delayed. 

Fish caught in traps were tabooed. 
Women could not eat them. In fact, 
most of the delicious fish women could 
not partake of. Children under, say, 
twelve years of age, were prohibited 
from eating most of the better kinds of 
fish, as it might make weaklings of 
them, or interfere with their good 
looks, or make them lazy. Perhaps this 
ig the reason why many, of the natives 
are not lovers of work, they must have 
eaten fish in their youth. One of our 
old deacons told us that the people for- 
merly were much fonder of work than 
now. 


Miscellaneous Customs. 


A little child was never permitted to 
sleep at sunset, its spirit might follow 
the setting sun. We very often in the 
early days of our work, while attend- 
ing an infant or young child sick with 
fever, had to remain and watch, not 
the child but its relatives. If we had 
not done so its sleep, which at such 
times is even better than medicine, 
would have been disturbed. They let 
them sleep now and are glad if they do 
sleep. 

Another remarkable custom we re- 
member is that the people would wear 
nice red coral necklaces but only morn- 
ings and eyenings. When we investi- 


gated the matter we found that these 
necklaces were charms against sick- 
ness, misfortune in war and also to 
keep bad “eanis” (evil spirits) off who 
might be in the neighborhood. Well, 
the Protestant Christian people of 
Nauru don’t wear charms now, but the 


opposition party has been supplied, 


with strings of holy beads, crosses and 


pictures of Mary in abundance to take 


the place of the old-fashioned “emwar” 
or necklace. 


One of the most peculiar customs 
was the “Itsibemin.” It meant the 
cursing of one’s enemy, the desire for 
his death or misfortune. If a Nauru 
man desired that his foe should become 


blind he would have a sorcerer watch! 


his house closely, and woe unto the 
man if he would go away: while this 
sorcerer was on the lookout. Perhaps 
the doomed man had just had a meal of 
juicy roasted fish, flavored with scraped 
cocoanuts; if so, a fire was sure to be 
there. ‘Tle watcher, as soon as the 


owner of the home had left, would; 


creep near this fire, make with a stick 
a few hieroglyphies in the ashes, ac- 
companying his work with a vile 
heathen song. This was by many be- 
lieved to be very effective and some 
perhaps became blind through fear if 
told that they were itsibemin. 

The old people had a very effective 
way of keeping thieves off their prem- 
ises. A sort of basket was made and 
filled with refuse. After being tabooed 
it was either placed in the cocoanut 
patch, or pandanus grove or even in 
the hut. This basket was called “De- 
bugougoe.” It was a peculiar shaped 
basket finished off with a knot. If any- 
one dared to steal cocoanuts, pandanus 
or any other food from the field or 
house where this basket had been plac- 
ed, he would be attacked by a peculiar 


disease consisting of a fearful swelling} 


of the abdomen, its severity being reg- 
ulated by the rising or falling of the 
tide. 


A mother could not eat of the food 
which had been touched or which be- 
longed to one of her male children. The 
very moment food had been given to 
her boys or boy, or was handled by 
them, it became tabooed. Not only the 
mother, but all female relations of boys 
were restricted from partaking of their 
food. Among chieflsh people it was 


not only the mother and female rela-! 


tions that could not eat of a boy’s food, 
but the father also. This curious cus- 
tom was not only in force during the 
earlier years of the boys, but during 
their whole life. If a boy’s mother, or 
sisters, or aunts, or any other female 
relations partook of his food, he was 


ete not to be able to throw a spear 
;accurately in years to come, he would 
be unfortunate in fishing, he would bea 
constant loser in the great national 
game of frigate bird catching—in fact, 
he would be a weak piece of humanity. 

Food carried in a basket tied around 
the hip of a female relation could not be 
eaten by a boy. Should any woman 
deceive him and give him such food, 
he would ill treat and abuse her dur- 
ing her or his whole life. 
| A mother or any woman related to a 
boy could not anoint herself with 
cocoanut oil belonging to him, if they 
had done so there would have been 
trouble in store for them. 

In order that a boy, would develop 
jinto a strong man he had to wear 
bracelets and anklets made from cocoa- 
nut and pandanus leaves. 

Cocoanuts and pandanus grown near 
a grave were not eaten because it af- 
fected the teeth. 

If cocoanuts were pressed into oil, 
the refuse could not be discarded near 
a grave, as it would turn the offender’s 
hair red. 

When a chiefish young girl entered 
into womanheod, the whole population 
assembled in the girl’s home. Each 
visitor would bring young nuts or oil. 
A big feast was in the order of the day. 
The girl was clothed with a very short 
fringe, barely sufficiently long enough 
to cover the lower parts of her body, 
in order that she could obtain a “lover” 
and that the world may know that she 
had attained her womanhood. Her 
body, weil oiled, was adorned with the 
very best of Nauru finery. Many of 
her friends, during a very lewd dance, 
would beat themselves with stones un- 
til their blood was streaming down 
their bodies. At last the girl was put 
on an “Edebae” (throne) which is fast- 
ened to two spears and thus arrayed 
and seated she was carried around the 
island. The crowd which followed her 
had license to take anything they saw 
on the way. The most obnoxious part 
of this feast was that all young girls 
disrobed themselves in the presence of 
the whole population. 

Praise God that all this is a thing of 
the past. 

The great revival of 1905 has not 
abated yet, seeing that 80 men, women 
and children received baptism during 
1906. We have now a total membership 
of 603 adults and 317 children, or 920 
baptized souls in all. 

The scoffers of these last days have 
said that the anticipated conquest of the 
world for Christ is but a dream, or an 
ambitious thought, which crossed our 
Leader’s mind, but which 1s never to be 
accomplished. It is asserted by some 


10 


THE FRIEND: 


that the superstitions of the heathen are 
too strong to be battered down by our 
teachings, and that the strongholds of 
Satan are utterly impregnable against 
our attacks. Is this true? Let them go 
to the heathen lands and prove to us the 
truth of their assertions. But let them 
go, not as globe trotters spending but a 
half day in each place. Let them not 
judge the influence of the Gospel in 
heathen lands like the proverbial Eng- 
lishman who spends a week or two in 
New York and then writes a book on 
the United States. Such men do injus- 
tice to our glorious country, they do harm 
to the Master’s cause in heathen lands. 
When during our great revival in July, 
1905, it was our privilege to baptize more 
than 100 young men and women on a 
single Sabbath, I wished that some of 
our skeptical friends could have peeped 
in and seen the results of seven years’ in- 
fluence of the Gospel. Let them come 
and see our newly-born Society of Chris- 
tian Endeavor. About 120 Christian En- 
deavorers assemble every Sabbath morn 
to prepare themselves for the day’s work. 
They have “put on the whole armour!” 
They have charge of the outstation meet- 
ings on Sabbath afternoons aid thus be- 
come living examples to their parents 
and relatives. Their influence is so great 
thet, we believe, the Roman Catholics 
used their influence with the former 
local official who, in turn, warned us to 
discontinue our Young People’s meet- 
ings. Said he: “The government has 
given permission to two societies only to 
work on Nauru, (viz: the American 
Board and the Roman Catholics) and 
does not desire a third society to come 
in.’ This much for his knowledge of 
relicioms matters, the Yo" Po S.C me. 
was to him a new “Missionary Society.” 
I paid no attention to his warning what- 
soever, and the good work goes on as 
before. We were always able to get 
along well with the officials, seeing that 
we speak and write their language. The 
Endeavorers make good headway in 
German, but our former official was 
seemingly not well posted on the subject. 
Perhaps it would interest the Board 
to know how we spend our Sabbaths 
down Nauru way. We begin with a 
sunrise prayer meeting at 6 a. m., con- 
tinue with our C. E. meeting at 8 a. m., 
keep the fire burning with an up-to-date 
Sabbath school at 10 a. m., and finish the 
morning off with the regular preaching 
service at 11. After lunch the gospel is 
taken to those who are too weak, or per- 
haps too lazy, to walk the 12 miles te 
the main station. Services are held at 
3 p. m. at our four out-stations, Menen, 
Anibare, Ewa and Buada. One-half of 
our young people walk every Sabbath 


from six to twelve miles to carry the 
gospel to these out-stations. Many of 
the older people have been brought to 
the Master through the influence of these 
young people. Let us win the young 
men and women and children for Christ, 
and all will be well. 

Since the Pacific Phosphate Co., Ltd., 
has come to Nauru, we have opened a 
service for Europeans on Sabbath even- 
ings. Thus you see our Sabbaths are 
quite full. Without our missionary 
bicycles we could not do this work. 

The Lord’s Supper has been observed 
four times during the year. Nearly 1,200 
people at the five stations hear the gospel 
every Sabbath. The average attendance 
at our morning services was 804. Quite 
a number of Chinese have attended our 
services at times. These Chinese seem 
to learn the Nauru language fairly quick 
and will perhaps in time know sufficient 
of it to understand the preaching and be 
thus brought to Christ. 


On August 28, 1906, we began print-[ 


ing the New Testament on our small 
mission press, and completed the work 
on January 16, of the present year. There 
was great rejoicing on the island when 
this important work was finished. The 
seven scholars of our training school did 
all the printing and setting type. We 
have brought the printed Testaments 
with us and hope to have them bound. 

We have, during the eight years we 
were on the field, translated and printed: 

1. The New Testament. 

2. The Bible Stories of the 
Testament. 

3., Lhe Bible Catechism. 

4. Naurw hymn book. 

5. German hymn book, 


Old 


6. School book (containing stories 
and geography). _ 

7. Pocket Dictionary — Nauru - Ger 
man, 


8.. History of the Christian Church. 

Thus you see we managed to fill out 
our spare time. 

I certainly can only plead for the 
Nauru Mission. The German officials, 
with one or two exceptions, have always 
been friendly to our work. Perhaps being 
natives of Germany ourselves has some- 
thing to do with this. The family of our 
present local magistrate attends even na- 
tive services. However, our Heavenly 
Father, whose work it is, will guide the 
officers of the Board to decide this im- 
portant question. 

We believe that we shall henceforth, 
as the conditions of the natives are im- 
proving, be able to support our four na- 
tive teachers. Contributions have in- 
creased very much since an opportunity 
has been given to the natives to work 
and fish for the Company. 


Well, thank God, the old Nauru is pass-. 


ing away and the new Nauru is coming, 
and has come in part already. The so- 
called “Good old times” when the trader 
was king, have gone forever. he gos- 
pel is making law-abiding, peaceful peo- 
ple out of the once so vicious Nauru war- 
riors. The old tribal warfare is a thing 
of the past, the songs of the heathen 
priest are heard no more, the fortune- 
tellers’ business has become dull, tabooes 
have been abolished. Praise God for it 
all! The work is not yet finished, other 
enemies of a pure and free gospel have 
come in, but the Church militant will be 
victorious. It is sad that the Church of 
Rome seems to make it her business to 
destroy the Master’s work on the isles of 
the sea. She is trying to do it on the 
Gilbert Islands, she is hard at work on 
the Marshalls and she has tried to de- 
stroy our work at Nauru. Some of our 
officials and traders assisted, but God has 
had mercy on His flock and the Nauru 
church stands today stronger and purer 
than of yore. 

We have thus endeavored to give you 
a short account of our Church work. ‘The 
greater part of the work, however, can- 
not be told, it is unknown save to our 
Master, the all-glorius God, and to the 
hearts of the individuals concerned. 


SCHOOLS, 


Our schools are prosperous. The four 
teachers have proven themselves faithful 
and have the confidence of their scholars. 
The attendance was several times inter- 
rupted during the year through epidem- 
ics of influenza and cholera morbus. 
i'wo hundred and eighty-eight scholars 
are enrolled in our four schools. Seven 
bright boys are in the training school. 

for six months the writer has, in the 
upper grade of the Orao school, taught 
in the German language only. As this 
experiment has been fairly successful, it 
will be continued if we return. Lessons 
for the year were: Bible, reading, arith- 
metic, writing, geography, German and 
singing. 

We have some really bright scholars 
among our boys. About six years ago 
our attention was called to a little bandy- 
legged fellow wearing nothing but a red 
lawa-lawa, he being a very bright boy 
in our day school. We took him into our 
training school and found a jewel in him. 
For the last three years this young man 
has acted as our secretary, he does all 
the writing connected with our transla- 
tions and quite a portion of our corre- 
spondence. He uses the Remington type- 
writer as well as a white typist, writes 
both German and Roman characters and 
if he keeps true to his faith, will make 
a good teacher in the near future. Dur- 


THE FRIEND. 


II 


ing our absence he is doing typewriting 
in the office of the Pacific Phosphate Co. 

Another little fellow came along one 
day with his outfit, which consisted of a 
mat, a short fringe and a wooden pillow. 
He desired immediate admission into our 
training school. We took him and found 
him full weight. He is fully as good as 
the former and has printed the New 
Testament for us. He is the mission 
printer now. He, too, works for the Pa- 
cific Phosphate Co. during our absence. 
Thus you see that something can be done 
with the South Sea Islander. Both boys 
are but 15 years old. 

GENERAL ITEMS. 

The year 1906 has brought many 
changes to our once so lonely island. 
Pleasant Island, or Nauru, as it is called 
by the natives, has become an important 
place. The mission has now not only to 
deal with the 1,550 natives who consti- 
tute its population, but the 1 900 Chinese 
who are on the island now offer new op- 
portunities to work for the Master. We 
are fortunate that the company which 
employes these people is a body of Chris- 
tian men who do all they can to assist 
your missionaries. 

We are glad to extend our hospitality 
to the manager and to a number of their 
officers for nearly seven months. We 
were also in position to use our influence 
among the natives to obtain laborers and 


land) ter the P. P. Co., Ltd., when they 
first began operation. 
That the company appreciated our 


hospitality and other assistance rendered, 
is shown by the fact that the Norwegian 
steamer “Sildra,’ loaded with 5,600 tons 
of phosphate, was specially sent from 
Ocean Island to Nauru, a distance of 
165 miles, to take us on board and con- 
vey us, free of charge, to San Francisco 
via Honolulu. As the expense of such a 
large steamer amounts to more than $500 
per day, and seeing that the vessel had 
to make an extra run of two days 
(Ocean Island to Nauru and return), it 
costs the company just $1,000 to take us 
off the island, exclusive of transporta- 
tion to San Francisco. We were thus 
able to save $1,000 for the Board, i. e., 
our tickets from Nauru to Sydney, at 
$60—$240, and four tickets from Syd- 
ney to San Francisco, at $200, $800. 
Grand total saved, $1,040. 

The company has furthermore granted 
to us free transportation back to Nauru, 
either from Sydney, Honolulu or Japan. 
Henceforth, all freight belonging to the 
Nauru mission will be cartied freight 
ree: 


Thus you see we have with hard work 
and many inconveniences won the favor 
of this company in a legitimate way 
do not court the favor of man, but it is 


certainly a grand thing to be at peace 
with all men. 

In July we were able to purchase the 
five lots on which the different mission 
stations are situated. The purchase price 
amounted to 2,500 marks ($625). We 
expected to pay much more but the peo- 
ple were quite generous. Governor 
Berg assisted us very much and made 
out the deeds personally. These deeds 
have been sent to the Foreign Office in 
Berlin to be confirmed, but had not come 
back at the time of our departure. The 
deeds are made out in the name of the 
American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions and cannot be trans- 
ferred without the permission of the im- 
perial government. 


VALUER FOP SRELIGIOUS Ee DUCAS 
TIONAL WORK. 


By F. W. DAmon. 
(Continued from August.) 


Probably one of the most successful 
teachers who has ever lived was Thomas 
Arnold, head-master of Rugby School, 
England, a man of unsurpassed wisdom, 
tact, charm and’ force. “~The idea of a 
Christian school was to him the natural 
result, so to speak, ct the very idea of a 
school itself. Religious and moral ex- 
cellence was to him the aim and end of 
all education. He was fond of dwelling 
on the cross which rose from the top of 
the school chapel,.‘a visible symbol’ of 
Christianity as the end and flower of 
education.” Froebel, who looked into 
the heart of the child, with a vision which 
has never been surpassed, thus writes, 
“Only the Christian, only the human 
being with the Christian spirit, life and 
aspiration, can possibly attain a true un- 
derstanding and a living knowledge of 
Tiature. > The school should first of 
all teach the religion of Christ. Every- 
where and in all_zones, the school should 
instruct for and in this religion.” In this 
noble company of witnesses, our honored 
countryman, General Armstrong, as- 
suredly deserves a conspicuous place. Of 
him it has been said, “He started an edu- 
cational movement which has now spread 
over the whole country and which has 
well nigh revolutionized the whole sys- 
tem of education. “There are two ob- 
jective points before us,” said he, “toward 
one or the other of which all our energies 
must be directed as the final work of this 
institute. One is the training of the in- 
tellect, storing it with the largest amount 
of knowledge, producing the brightest 
examples of culture; the other is the 
more difficult one of attempting to edu- 
cate in the original and broadest sense 
e| of the word, to draw out a complete man- 
hood.” 


EDUCATIONAL LIGHT-HOUSES 


DARKNESS. 


Conspicuous have been the contribu- 
tions of certain more advanced