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The Common 
Curriculum Framework 



International Languages 



Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 



Western Canadian Protocol for 
Collaboration in Basic Education 




Alberta Version 



2001 



ydlborra 



LEARNING 




Ex LIBRIS 

UNIVERSITATIS 

ALBERTENSIS 



The Common Curriculum 
Framework 

for 

International Languages 



Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 



Alberta Version 



Western Canadian Protocol for 
Collaboration in Basic Education 



2001 



ALBERTA LEARNING CATALOGUING IN PUBLICATION DATA 

Alberta. Alberta Learning. Curriculum Branch. 

The common curriculum framework for international languages, 
six-year program (grade 7 to grade 12) : Western Canadian Protocol for 
Collaboration in Basic Education. 

Alberta version. 
ISBN 0-7785- 1322-X 

1 . Language and languages — Study and teaching — Alberta — Curricula. 

2. Languages, Modern — Study and teaching — Alberta — Curricula. I. Title. 
II. Title: Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education. 

P57.C2.A333 2001 407 



Available on the Internet at <www. learning.gov. ab.ca>. 



Additional copies are available for purchase from: 

Learning Resources Centre 
12360 -142 Street 
Edmonton, Alberta 
T5L 4X9 



For more information, contact the Director, Curriculum Branch, Alberta Learning, 1 1 160 Jasper Avenue, 
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T5K 0L2. Telephone: 780-427-2984; Fax: 780-422-3745; E-mail: 
curric.contact@learning.gov.ab.ca. Inside Alberta call toll free at 310-0000. 



The primary intended audience for this document is curriculum developers. 



Copyright © 2001 , the Crown in Right of Alberta, as represented by the Minister of Learning. Alberta 
Learning, Curriculum Branch, 1 1 160 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T5K 0L2. 

Permission is given by the copyright owner to reproduce this document for educational purposes and on a nonprofit basis, with 
the exception of materials cited for which Alberta Learning does not own copyright. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



The Common Curriculum Framework for International Languages, 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) was developed through the 
cooperative efforts of the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba and 
Saskatchewan. These jurisdictions acknowledge the following 
contributors: 

Alberta 



Janice Aubry 
John Sokolowski 



the numerous stakeholders across Alberta 
who made a contribution at vetting sessions 
and replied to the draft framework vetting 
survey 



Manitoba 



Cynthia Balaberda 
Teresa de Castro-Graham 
Linda Crawford 
Paulette Dupuis 
John Erskine 
Catherine Froese-Klassen 
Barbara Graham 
Birgit Hartel 



Mariusa Kulyk 
Pepe Labra 
Pat Matthews 
Gregg Sametz 
Lothar Schmidt 
Caterina Sotiriadis 
Antonio Tavares 



Saskatchewan 



Bev Anderson 
Harry Banes 
Joan Boyer 
Helen Christiansen 
Myra Froc 
Sigrid Hanson 
Joan Kanigan-Fairen 
Mary Kolitsas 



Vera Labach 
Jessica Latshaw 
Doug Pritchard 
Nadya Prokopchuk 
Irina Reshetova 
Kathleen Rezansoff 
Cornelia Taschow 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Acknowledgements /iii 
2001 



Thank you to the following individuals who contributed to the 
development of this Alberta Version document. 

Alberta Learning 

Raja Panwar Director, Curriculum Branch 

John Sokolowski Program Manager, Curriculum Branch 

Chris Ewanchuk Learning and Teaching Resources Branch 

Kim Blevins Learning and Teaching Resources Branch 

Dianne Moyer Learning and Teaching Resources Branch 

Lin Hallett Learning and Teaching Resources Branch 

Esther Yong Learning and Teaching Resources Branch 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
iv/ IMIVFRQITY I IRRARV Six " year Pr ° gram (Grade 7 l ° Grade 12) 

2001 UNIVtKbl I T LltSHAKT ©Alberta Learning, Alberta. Canada 

UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Acknowledgements iii 



Introduction 

Background 

Rationale 

Assumptions 

Effective Language Learning ..., 

The Conceptual Model 

Organization of the Framework 



Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

Applications 

Language Competence 

Global Citizenship 

Strategies 



11 
12 

22 
34 
42 



Appendix I: Using the Framework 

Appendix II: Areas of Experience 

Appendix III: Global List of Strategies ... 
Appendix IV: Sample List of Text Forms 
Appendix V: Glossary 



51 
57 
59 
65 
67 



References 



73 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Table of Contents /v 
2001 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 
University of Alberta Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/g7to12internatlang01albe 



INTRODUCTION 



BACKGROUND 



Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) 



The Common Curriculum Framework for International Languages, 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) is a project of the Western 
Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education. This 
Framework was developed through the cooperative efforts of the 
provinces of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The ministers of 
education of these provinces have agreed to collaborate in basic 
education because of the importance they place on four major goals: 

• high standards of education 

• common educational goals 

• removing obstacles to the access of educational opportunities for 
students, including improving the ease of transfer from 
jurisdiction to jurisdiction 

• optimum use of educational resources. 

Description of the Project 



For the purposes of this document, international languages are 
defined as languages other than Canada's two official languages, 
English and French. Aboriginal languages and cultures are the 
subject of another Western Canadian Protocol project. 



The Common Curriculum Framework for International Languages, 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) will provide curriculum 
writers with student learning outcomes they can use to develop 
curricula for international language courses. The Framework is 
intended to be used for languages other than English, French and 
Aboriginal languages. Teachers, educational administrators, parents 
and other interested parties will find useful information about what to 
expect from international language courses and about effective 
approaches to language learning. 

This form of language study is usually optional; e.g., taking the form 
of an elective in junior high and senior high schools, and may begin 
at different levels. These courses are distinct from bilingual or 
immersion programming, in which the language is not only a subject 
but is also used as the medium of instruction for other school subjects 
during a significant part of the day. 

This Framework provides outcomes for a six-year program that 
would be entered at Grade 7 and would continue until Grade 12. 
Frameworks for other entry points are also available. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Introduction /l 
2001 



RATIONALE 



Rationale for Learning International Languages 

The value, for Canadian society as a whole, of learning international 
languages can be summarized as follows: 

• increased awareness of and sensitivity to cultural and linguistic 
diversity 

• improved potential in the Canadian and global marketplace and 
workplace 

• enhanced role in the international community. 

There are also many personal reasons for learning an additional 
language or for enrolling in an international language course at school 
or in a community program. Students who have no previous 
knowledge of the language may be interested in: 

• more opportunity to communicate directly with people from other 
language groups and gain a deeper insight into their culture 

• a broader range of educational, career and leisure opportunities. 

Students who possess some knowledge of the language or a family 
connection to the culture may have different reasons for learning: 

• renewing contact with a heritage language and culture that may 
have been lost through assimilation 

• maintaining a first language that is not the majority language in 
the community 

• developing literacy in a first language that is not the majority 
language in the community. 

There is significant evidence to suggest that all language learners 
receive some additional indirect benefits from their language learning 
experience: 

• development of increased grammatical abilities in the first 
language — phenomenon of additive bilingualism 

• enhanced cognitive functioning, particularly increased ability to 
conceptualize and to think abstractly; more cognitive flexibility: 
and greater divergent thinking, creativity and metalinguistic 
competence. 



2/ Introduction 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning. Alberta. Canada 



Rationale for a Common Curriculum Framework 

A common Framework of general and specific outcomes will help: 

• curriculum writers develop courses for specific international 
languages by providing a common base 

• program developers plan a coherent course of study that moves 
smoothly from one level to the next, especially at the transition 
points between different sections of the school system 

• post-secondary institutions plan international language courses 
that articulate well with secondary level courses 

• post-secondary institutions determine equivalency between 
different second language courses, for entrance or assessment 
purposes 

• parents and students transferring from one jurisdiction to another, 
whether from one school jurisdiction to another or one province 
to another 

• employers know what to expect from students in terms of 
language proficiency.* 



ASSUMPTIONS The following statements are assumptions that have guided the 

development process of this Framework: 

• Language is communication. 

• All students can be successful learners of language and culture, 
although they will learn in a variety of ways and acquire 
proficiency at varied rates. 

• All languages can be taught and learned. 

• Learning an international language leads to enhanced learning in 
both the student's primary language and in related areas of 
cognitive development and knowledge acquisition. This is true of 
students who come to the class with no knowledge of the 
international language, who are learning it as a second or 
additional language. It is also true for students who have some 
knowledge of the international language and develop literacy 
skills in that language. 

For a brief discussion of some of the factors that need to be 
considered when developing and implementing curricula for 
international languages, see Appendix I: Using the Framework. 



* Words in this document that are followed by an asterisk [*] are defined in the Glossary — Appendix V at the end of 
the document. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 

Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) Introduction /3 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 200 1 



EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE 
LEARNING 



The following are some general principles of effective language 
learning that the research on second language learning and 
acquisition has identified. These principles have guided the 
development of the conceptual model used in this Framework. 

Focus on Meaning 

Language learning is more effective when classes are structured 
around meaningful tasks* rather than around elements of the 
language itself, such as grammatical structures, vocabulary themes or 
language functions. The principal focus of classroom activities is on 
communication while learning about a content area; e.g., wolves and 
their habitat, or while carrying out a project; e.g., creating a family 
album. Specific language skills are taught when students have 
noticed that they need specific vocabulary, structures or functions to 
carry out the task they have chosen to do. When language learning 
has a purpose, students are more highly motivated. 

Focus on Interaction 

Students learn languages more effectively when they have ample 
opportunity to work in small groups on tasks that they have had a 
hand in choosing and that require them to negotiate meaning — make 
themselves understood and work to understand others — with their 
fellow students. In classrooms structured this way, students have 
more practice time; they are working on tasks that reflect their 
interests and are using the language in situations that more closely 
resemble those outside of school. 

Focus on Strategies 

Successful language learners use a number of strategies that help 
make their learning more effective. These language learning 
strategies* are often categorized as cognitive, metacognitive and 
social/affective. Communication or language use strategies* are an 
important component of communicative competence. These include 
strategies used regularly by speakers of any language to enhance 
communication. They also include repair and compensation 
strategies, which are particularly important in the early stages of 
language learning if students are to engage in communicative 
activities before they have extensive knowledge of the language. 

Not all students acquire these strategies on their own. Most of them 
will benefit from explicit classroom instruction regarding language 
learning and language use strategies provided alongside instruction in 
the language itself. Once students are consciously aware of strategies, 
have practised using them, can select the most effective ones for a 
particular task, and can see the link between their own actions and 
their learning, they will be more motivated and more effective 
language learners. 



4/ Introduction 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning. Alberta. Canada 



Building on Prior Knowledge 

The constructivist theory of learning suggests that we learn by 
integrating new information or experiences into what we already 
know and have experienced. Students do this most effectively 
through active engagement with tasks that are meaningful to them, in 
authentic contexts, using actual tools. For this reason, the content 
and tasks around which lessons and units are structured should be 
chosen from within the areas of experience of students. For 
example, if students are involved and interested in a particular sport, 
a task can be chosen that links with this interest. The learning 
activities will build on their knowledge and experience while 
encouraging them to increase their understanding and broaden their 
horizons. 

Students will come to their language learning experience with 
different prior knowledge, even if they have similar cultural and 
socioeconomic backgrounds. Classroom activities that provide them 
with choice and flexibility allow students to make meaningful 
connections and to be actively involved in constructing their own 
learning. 

Transfer 

In addition to knowledge about content, students will come to their 
international language class with a large body of useful knowledge 
about language, even if they have never spoken a word of the 
language being taught. They can transfer knowledge of their first 
language and other languages they know or are learning to their 
learning of the new language. However, their first language may also 
be a source of interference initially, as students try to apply 
generalizations that are valid for their dominant language to the new 
language they are learning. Students benefit from an awareness of 
differences as well as similarities in relation to any component of the 
language: the sound system, grammar structures, vocabulary, 
discourse* features. They may also transfer language learning and 
language use strategies from one language context to another. 

Language Learning and Culture* 

Intercultural competence* is an essential element of any language 
learning endeavour. Knowledge of the target culture alone is not 
sufficient. Cultures evolve over time. Minority cultures exist within 
the dominant culture in any society. If students develop the skills to 
analyze, understand for themselves and relate to any culture they may 
come in contact with, they will be prepared for encounters with 
cultural practices that have not been dealt with in class. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 

Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) Introduction /5 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 200 1 



THE CONCEPTUAL 
MODEL 



The aim of the Framework is the development of communicative 
competence* in the specific international language. 

Four Components 

For the purposes of this Framework, communicative competence is 
represented by four interrelated and interdependent components. The 
Applications component deals with what the students will be able to 
do with the language, the functions they will be able to perform and 
the contexts in which they will be able to operate. Language 
Competence addresses the students' knowledge of the language and 
their ability to use that knowledge to interpret and produce 
meaningful texts* appropriate to the situation in which they are used. 
Global Citizenship aims to develop intercultural competence, with a 
particular focus on cultures associated with the target language. The 
Strategies component helps students learn and communicate more 
effectively and more efficiently. Each of these components is 
described more fully at the beginning of the corresponding section of 
the Framework. 

Modes of Communication 

Because of the focus on using language to communicate in specific 
contexts, with a particular purpose or task in mind, three modes of 
communication are used to organize some of the specific outcomes. 

Interaction is most often direct, face-to-face oral communication, but 
it can take the form of written communication between individuals, 
using such a medium as e-mail where the exchange of information is 
fairly immediate. It is characterized principally by the opportunity to 
negotiate meaning actively; that is, making others understand and 
working to understand others. Interactive communication generally 
requires more speed but less accuracy than the other two modes. 

Interpretation is receptive communication of oral and written 
messages in contexts where the listener or reader is not in direct 
contact with the creator of the message. While there is no 
opportunity to ask for clarification, there is sometimes the possibility 
of rereading or listening again, consulting references, or making the 
meaning clearer in other ways. Reading and listening will sometimes 
involve viewing and interpreting visual elements, such as illustrations 
in books or moving images in television and film. Interpretation goes 
beyond a literal comprehension to include an understanding of some 
of the unspoken or unwritten meaning intended by the speaker or 
author. 



6/ Introduction 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta. Canada 



Production is communication of oral and written messages in 
contexts where the audience is not in personal contact with the 
speaker or writer, or in situations of one-to-many communication; 
e.g., a lecture or a performance where there is no opportunity for the 
listener to interact with the speaker. Oral and written presentations 
will sometimes be enhanced by representing the meaning visually, 
using pictures, diagrams, models, drama techniques or other 
nonverbal forms of communication. Greater knowledge of the 
language and culture is required to ensure that communication is 
successful, since the participants cannot directly negotiate meaning. 

Topics and Domains 

In the Framework, three domains — the personal, the public and the 
educational — are suggested as organizers to guide the choice of tasks. 
Appendix II contains a list of areas of experience under each of the 
three domains and a table showing how topics can be developed at 
different levels. The topics listed are not mandatory but are intended 
to provide a broad range of language learning experiences at every 
level. Choices should be guided by the needs, interests and daily 
experiences of the students. 



Applications 



Language 
Competence 



Global 
Citizenship 



Strategies 



Grade 12 



Grade 10 



A Spiral Progression 

Language learning is 

integrative, not merely 

cumulative. Each new 

element that is added must be 

integrated into the whole of 

what has gone before. The 

model that best represents the 

students' language learning 

progress is an expanding 

spiral. Their progression is 

not only vertical; e.g., 

increased proficiency, but 

also horizontal; e.g., broader 

range of applications and experience with more text forms, 1 contexts 

and so on. The spiral also represents how language learning activities 

are best structured. Particular areas of experience, learning strategies 

or language functions, for example, are revisited at different points in 

the program, but from a different perspective, in broader contexts or 

at a slightly higher level of proficiency each time. Learning is 

extended, reinforced and broadened each time a point is revisited. 




Grade 7 



1 For a sample list of text forms, see Appendix IV. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Introduction II 
2001 



ORGANIZATION OF 
THE FRAMEWORK 



General Outcomes 

General outcomes are broad statements identifying the knowledge, 
skills and attitudes that students are expected to achieve in the course 
of their language learning experience. The four general outcomes 
serve as the foundation for the Common Curriculum Framework for 
International Languages and are based on the conceptual model 
outlined above. 

• Students will use the international language in a variety of 
situations and for a variety of purposes. 

• Students will use the international language effectively and 
competently. 

• Students will acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes to be 
effective global citizens. 

• Students will know and use strategies to maximize the 
effectiveness of learning and communication. 

The order in which the general outcomes are presented in the 
Framework does not represent a sequential order, nor does it indicate 
the relative importance of each component. A jurisdiction may 
choose to emphasize or expand one component more than others in 
response to the needs and interests of its students. 

Specific Outcomes 

Each general outcome is further broken down into specific outcomes 
that students are to achieve by the end of each grade. The specific 
outcomes are interrelated and interdependent. In most classroom 
activities, a number of learning outcomes will be dealt with in an 
integrated manner. 

The specific outcomes are categorized under cluster headings that 
show the scope of each of the four general outcomes. These headings 
are shown as bullets in the table on the following page. 

The specific outcomes are further categorized by strands that show 
the developmental flow of learning from the beginning to the end of 
the program. However, an outcome for a particular grade will not be 
dealt with only in that particular year of the program. The spiral 
progression that is part of the conceptual model means that activities 
in the years preceding will prepare the ground for acquisition and in 
the years following will broaden applications. 



8/ Introduction 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning. Alberta. Canada 



Applications 



Language Competence 




Students will use the international language in a 
variety of situations and for a variety of purposes. 

• to impart and receive information 

• to express emotions and personal perspectives 

• to get things done 

• to form, maintain and change interpersonal 
relationships 

• to extend their knowledge of the world 

• for imaginative purposes and personal 
enjoyment 




Students will use the international language 
effectively and competently. 

• attend to form 

• interpret and produce oral texts 

• interpret and produce written texts 

• apply knowledge of the sociocultural context 

• apply knowledge of how discourse is 
organized, structured and sequenced 



Global Citizenship 




Strategies 




Students will acquire the knowledge, skills and 
attitudes to be effective global citizens. 

• historical and contemporary elements of the 
culture 

• affirming diversity 

• personal and career opportunities 



Students will know and use strategies to maximize 
the effectiveness of learning and communication. 



• language learning 

• language use 

• general learning 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Introduction /9 
2001 



Guide to Reading the Framework 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will use the international language effectively and competently. 



] 



cluster heading 

for specific 

outcomes 



interpret and produce oral texts 

Grade 10 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 11 



Grade 12 





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• understand short texts 
on unfamiliar topics in 
guided situations 



produce short texts in 
guided and unguided 
situations 



manage short 
interactions with ease, 
with pauses for 
planning and repair 




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understand short texts 
on unfamiliar topics in 
guided situations 



produce a variety of 
short, simple texts in 
guided and unguided 
situations 



manage simple, routine 
interactions without 
undue difficulty, 
asking for repetition or 
clarification when 
necessary 



• understand the main 
point and some 
supporting details of 
lengthy texts on 
familiar topics in 
guided situations 

• produce short texts on 
unfamiliar topics in 
guided situations 



manage simple, routine 
interactions without 
undue difficulty 





read each page horizontally for developmental flow of 
outcomes from grade to grade 




10/ Introduction 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta. Canada 



SIX-YEAR PROGRAM 
(GRADE 7 TO GRADE 12) 



This section provides specific outcomes for each grade of a six-level 
course of study, beginning with Grade 7 and ending with Grade 1 2. The 
learning outcomes reflect not only the level of competence expected of 
students at any particular grade but also take into consideration the 
developmental levels of the students. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 

Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) /l 1 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 200 1 



APPLICATIONS 



The specific outcomes under the heading Applications deal with what 
the students will be able to do with the language; that is, the functions 
they will be able to perform and the contexts in which they will be 
able to operate. This functional competence,* also called actional 
competence* by Celce-Murcia, Dornyei, Thurrell 1995, is important 
for a content-based* or task-based* approach to language learning 
where students are constantly engaged in meaningful tasks. 

The functions are grouped under six cluster headings — see the 
illustration on the following page. Under each of these headings there 
are one or more strands that show the developmental flow of learning 
from grade to grade. Each strand, identified by strand headings at the 
left end of a "row" deals with a specific language function; e.g., share 
factual information. Students at any grade level will be able to share 
factual information. Beginning learners will do this in very simple 
ways; e.g., This is my dog.. As students gain more knowledge and 
experience, they will broaden the range of subjects they can deal with, 
they will learn to share information in writing as well as orally, and 
they will be able to handle formal and informal situations. 

Different models of communicative competence* have organized 
language functions in a variety of ways. The organizational structure 
chosen here reflects the needs and interests of students in a classroom 
where activities are focused on meaning and are interactive. For 
example, the strand entitled "manage group actions" has been 
included to ensure that students acquire the language necessary to 
function independently in small groups, since this is an effective way 
of organizing second language classrooms. The strands under the 
cluster heading "to extend their knowledge of the world" will 
accommodate a content-based approach to language learning where 
students learn content from another subject area as they learn the 
second language. 

The level of linguistic, sociolinguistic* and discourse competence* 
that students will exhibit when carrying out the functions is defined in 
the specific outcomes for Language Competence for each grade. To 
know how well students will be able to perform the specific function, 
the application outcomes must be read in conjunction with the 
language competence outcomes. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
12/ Applications Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

2001 ©Alberta Learning. Alberta, Canada 




Applications 



to express emotions and 
personal perspectives 



to impart and 
receive information 




to get things done 



Students will use the international 

language in a variety of situations and for 

a variety of purposes. 



to form, maintain and change 
interpersonal relationships 




for imaginative purposes 
and personal enjoyment 



to extend their knowledge 
of the world 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Applications /13 
2001 



General Outcome for Applications 

Students will use the international language in a variety of situations and for a variety of purposes 



] 



to impart and receive information 

Grade 7 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 8 



Grade 9 





• share basic information; 


• 


ask for and provide 


• ask for and provide 




e.g., their name 




information 


information on a range of 


re c 
3 O 


• identify concrete people, 


• 


respond to simple. 


familiar topics 


£ 1 

— — 


places, things 




predictable questions 


• describe people, places, 


•^ s 




• 


describe people, places, 


things and series or 






things 


sequences of events or 










actions 



to express emotions and personal perspectives 

Students will be able to: 





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express simple preferences 
express a personal response; 
e.g., respond to a song or 
story 



identify favourite people, 
places or things 
express a personal response 
to a variety of situations 



respond to and express 
emotions and feelings; e.g., 
pleasure, happiness 



identify, express and 
respond to a variety of 
emotions and feelings; e.g., 
love, sadness, surprise, fear 



inquire about and express 
likes and dislikes 
record and share thoughts 
and ideas with others; e.g., 
keep a journal of ideas for 
stories 



inquire about and express 
emotions and feelings 
record and share personal 
experiences involving an 
emotion or feeling; e.g., 
happiness, anger, 
embarrassment 



14/ Applications 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learnine. Alberta. Canada 



General Outcome for Applications 

Students will use the international language in a variety of situations and for a variety of purposes 




to impart and receive information 
Grade 10 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 11 



Grade 12 





• provide information on 


• share facts about events that « 


► share detailed information 




several aspects of a topic; 


took place in the past or that 


on a specific topic; e.g., a 


~ — 

3 O 


e.g., give a simple report 


may take place in the future 


report or biography 


«1 

b O 

CO <*H 

X! § 

en •"" 


• understand and use 






definitions, comparisons, 
examples 







to express emotions and personal perspectives 

Students will be able to: 



00 ?> 

o fe 



set 






e 





e 



inquire about and express 
agreement and 
disagreement, approval and 
disapproval, satisfaction and 
dissatisfaction, interest and 
lack of interest 



inquire about and express 
emotions and feelings in a 
variety of familiar contexts 
compare the expression of 
emotions and feelings in a 
variety of informal 
situations 



inquire about and express 
probability and certainty 



• express opimons 

• support their own opinions 



express emotions and 
feelings in formal situations; 
e.g., make a complaint in a 
store, restaurant 



compare the expression of 
emotions and feelings in 
formal and informal 
situations 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Applications /15 
2001 



General Outcome for Applications 

Students will use the international language in a variety of situations and for a variety of purposes. 



] 



to get things done 

Grade 7 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 8 



Grade 9 





• indicate basic needs and < 


» suggest a course of action, 


• 


relay simple messages 


«5 

c 


wants 


and respond to a suggestion 


• 


encourage or discourage 


o £ 

f » X- 


• give and respond to simple < 


» make and respond to a 




others from a course of 


M £ 


oral instructions or 


variety of simple requests 




action 


1 ° 


commands < 


» seek, grant or withhold 


• 


give and follow a simple 


00 


• ask for permission 


permission 




sequence of instructions 




• respond to offers, < 


» indicate choice from among 


• 


make an offer or an 


Cu 


invitations, instructions 


several options 




invitation, and respond to 


c 


• ask or offer to do something 


» express a wish or a desire to 




offers and invitations made 


5/3 C 

<u .2 




do something 




by others 


o 






• 


inquire about and express 


cS 








ability and inability to do 


5/3 








something 




• manage turn taking < 


» ask for help or clarification 


• 


encourage other group 




• encourage other group 


of what is being said or 




members to participate 


oo 


members to act 


done in the group 


• 


assume a variety of roles 


C 

<u .2 


appropriately < 


» suggest, initiate or direct 




and responsibilities as group 


ao It- 
's y 




action in group activities 




members 


03 Q. 

C- 3 






• 


negotiate in a simple way 


- C 

00 






• 


with peers in small-group 

tasks 

offer to explain or clarify 



to form, maintain and change interpersonal relationships 

Students will be able to: 



C3 




C 


C/l 





£^ 






— 


J3 


V 


t/> 


D. 


e 


u 


c 


".ii 




- 


.j 


z^ 


i) 


71 


Ui 



exchange greetings and 

farewells 

address a new acquaintance, 

and introduce themselves 

exchange some basic 

personal information 



initiate relationships; e.g. 
invite others to play 
apologize and refuse 
politely 



talk about themselves, and 

respond to the talk of others 

by showing attention or 

interest 

make and break social 

engagements 



16/ Applications 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning. Alberta. Canada 



General Outcome for Applications 

Students will use the international language in a variety of situations and for a variety of purposes. 



to get things done 

Grade 10 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 11 



Grade 12 





• 


make and respond to 


• make and respond to • lodge a complaint 


Efl 




suggestions in a variety of 


suggestions or requests in 




e 
2 £ 




situations 


formal situations; e.g., in a 




*3 4} 


• 


give and respond to advice 


public library, post office, 




1 = 

00 




and warnings 


travel agency 






• 


state personal actions in the 


• accept or decline an offer or • express possibility in 


"3 
(3 




past, present or future 


invitation with explanations 


relation to their own actions 


O BO 

05 C 
'— — 


• 


make a promise, and 






<u .2 




express intention in a 






0? 




variety of situations 








• 


check for agreement and 


• paraphrase, elaborate on and • take on a leadership role in 






understanding 


clarify another member's 


small group projects 


05 

c 

ft 


• 


express disagreement in an 


contribution 




4> .2 




appropriate way 








• 


express appreciation, 






C 3 




enthusiasm, support and 






I— 1 

ao 




respect for contributions of 
others 







to form, maintain and change interpersonal relationships 

Students will be able to: 



S3 




e 


05 





Q. 






— 


•C 


u 


05 


& 


c 


u 


O 


tali 




cd 


CS 


c 


u 


« 


c 


£ 





initiate and participate in 
casual exchanges with 
classmates 
use routine means of 
interpersonal 
communications; e.g., 
telephone calls, personal 
notes, e-mail messages 



• give and respond to 

compliments, and explain 
actions 



offer and respond to 
congratulations, and express 
sympathy or regret 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Applications /17 
2001 



General Outcome for Applications 

Students will use the international language in a variety of situations and for a variety of purposes. 



to extend their knowledge of the world 
Grade 7 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 8 



Grade 9 



= 




3 


<l> 




— 

o 


> 


Oh 


u 


X 


•-> 


<D 



c 

&0 



c 

Xj 
00 



x> 

o 



c 

.2 M 

c <u 

o « 

b ^ 

o c 

X 



investigate the immediate 
environment; e.g., use 
kinaesthetic*, spatial*, 
musical abilities 



• gather simple information 

• organize items in different 

ways 



experience problem-solving 
situations in the classroom; 
e.g., in stories 



listen attentively to the 
opinions expressed 
respond sensitively to the 
ideas and products of others 



investigate the immediate 

environment 

make and talk about 

personal observations 



sequence items in different 

ways 

record and share personal 

knowledge of a topic 



choose between alternative 

solutions 

define a problem, and 

search for solutions 



make connections between 
behaviour and values; e.g., 
in texts or role play 
recognize differences of 
opinion 



explore alternative 
classification systems and 
criteria for categories 
discover relationships and 
patterns 



compare and contrast items 

in simple ways 

compose questions to guide 

research 

identify sources of 

information 

record observations 



recognize and describe a 

problem, then propose 

solutions 

understand and use the steps 

in the problem-solving 

process 



express their views on a 

variety of topics within their 

direct experience 

gather opinions on a topic 

within their direct 

experience 



18/ Applications 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Applications 

Students will use the international language in a variety of situations and for a variety of purposes. 



to extend their knowledge of the world 
Grade 10 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 11 



Grade 12 






« C 

oc o 

o « 

— — 

m o 

■£ 



X) 

o 



s 

CS 

c 
.2 M 

c "-> 

■a| 

o « 
_o 

D- 
X 

4J 



ask questions to gain 

knowledge and clarify 

understanding 

explore meaning in a variety 

of ways; e.g., by drawing a 

diagram, making a model, 

rephrasing 

gather information from a 
variety of resources; e.g., 
print, human, multimedia 
organize and manipulate 
information; e.g., transform 
information from texts into 
other forms, such as tables, 
diagrams, story maps 

describe and analyze a 

problem, then propose 

solutions 

generate and evaluate 

alternative solutions to 

problems 

explore how values 
influence behaviour; e.g., 
describe characters and their 
motivations in a story 
provide reasons for their 
position on an issue 



explore and express the 
meaning of what they are 
doing; e.g., what they will 
learn from a particular 
activity 



gather information, using a 
prepared format; e.g., 
interview people, using 
prepared questions 



use information collected 
from various sources to 
solve problems 



distinguish fact from 
opinion 



explore connections and 
gain new insights into 
familiar topics; e.g., using 
analogy, brainstorming 



• identify key ideas, 

summarize and paraphrase 



• extract and manipulate key 
elements from a problem 



understand the concept of 
stereotype, and recognize 
stereotyping in a variety of 
situations 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Applications /19 
2001 



General Outcome for Applications 

Students will use the international language in a variety of situations and for a variety of purposes. 



for imaginative purposes and personal enjoyment 

Grade 7 Grade 8 

Students will be able to: 

• use the language for fun 



3 

o 
E 

3 



<L> 



o 

& 

3 



§ I 

(H O 

<U •=-, 

a, c 
u 



use the language for fun; 
e.g., learn simple riddles, 
jingles and humorous songs 



use the language creatively 



use the language creatively; 
e.g., create a picture story 
with captions 



• use the language for 
personal enjoyment 



use the language for 
personal enjoyment; e.g., 
make a collection of 
pictures or artifacts related 
to the target culture 



Grade 9 



use the language for fun and 
to interpret humour; e.g., 
play a variety of sports and 
games, both indoors and out 



use the language creatively 
and for aesthetic purposes; 
e.g., write poems based on 
simple, repetitive and 
modelled language 



use the language for 
personal enjoyment; e.g., 
listen to favourite songs in 
the target language 



20/ Applications 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learninc. Alberta. Canada 



General Outcome for Applications 

Students will use the international language in a variety of situations and for a variety of purposes. 



for imaginative purposes and personal enjoyment 

Grade 10 Grade 11 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 12 



c 




-i 




■■*- 




— 




p 




c 




E 




p 




xs 




o 












u 




t7) 


1/3 

0> 


u 
Si 


05 

o 




— 


u 


u. 


> 


3 


•~ 


D. 


ca 




u 




— 




CJ 










C 


£3 


<D 




E 


/- 


>^ 


|H 


o 


u 




c^ 


E 1 




<u 



use the language for fun and 
to interpret humour; e.g., 
play a variety of sports and 
games, both indoors and out 



use the language creatively 
and for aesthetic purposes; 
e.g., experiment with the 
sounds and rhythms of the 
language 



use the language for 
personal enjoyment; e.g., 
find a personal pen pal and 
exchange letters 



use the language for fun and 
to interpret and express 
humour; e.g., learn and 
perform songs, dances, short 
plays 



use the language creatively 
and for aesthetic purposes 



use the language for 
personal enjoyment; e.g., 
use the Internet to explore 
the culture being studied 



use the language for fun and 
to interpret and express 
humour; e.g., participate in 
class excursions, field trips, 
twinning projects 



use the language creatively 
and for aesthetic purposes; 
e.g., write new words to a 
known melody or create a 
rap 



use the language for 
personal enjoyment; e.g., 
keep a personal journal 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Applications /21 
2001 



LANGUAGE COMPETENCE 



Language competence is a broad term that includes linguistic or 
grammatical competence,* discourse competence,* sociolinguistic or 
sociocultural competence,* and what might be called textual 
competence. The specific outcomes under Language Competence 
deal with knowledge of the language and the ability to use that 
knowledge to interpret and produce meaningful texts appropriate to 
the situation in which they are used. Language competence is best 
developed in the context of activities or tasks where the language is 
used for real purposes; in other words, in practical applications. 

The various components of language competence are grouped under 
five cluster headings — see the illustration on the following page. 
Under each of these headings there are several strands, identified by 
strand headings at the left end of each row, which show the 
developmental flow of learning from grade to grade. Each strand 
deals with a single aspect of language competence. For example, 
under the cluster heading "attend to form," there is a strand for 
phonology* (pronunciation, stress, intonation), orthography* 
(spelling, mechanical features), lexicon* (vocabulary words and 
phrases) and grammar (syntax* and morphology*). 

Although the outcomes isolate these individual aspects, language 
competence should be developed through classroom activities that 
focus on meaningful uses of the language and on language in 
context. Tasks will be chosen based on the needs, interests and 
experiences of students. The vocabulary, grammar structures, text 
forms and social conventions necessary to carry out a task will be 
taught, practised and assessed as students are involved in various 
aspects of the task itself, not in isolation. 

Strategic competence is often closely associated with language 
competence, since students need to learn ways to compensate for low 
proficiency in the early stages of learning if they are to engage in 
authentic language use from the beginning. This component is 
included in the language use strategies in the Strategies section. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
22/ Language Competence Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

200 1 ©Alberta Leaminc. Alberta, Canada 



Language Competence 




interpret and 

produce oral texts interpret and produce 

written texts 



attend to form 



Students will use the international language 
effectively and competently. 





apply knowledge of the 
sociocultural context 



apply knowledge of how 
discourse is organized, 
structured and sequenced 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Language Competence /23 
2001 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will use the international language effectively and competently. 



— 



attend to form 

Grade 7 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 8 



Grade 9 



* 

o 

"o 
c 
o 



* 

O 

o 



* 

c 
o 
u 

s 



M> 



pronounce some common 

words and phrases 

comprehensibly 

use intonation to express 

meaning 



recognize and name 
elements of the writing 
system; e.g., letters of the 
alphabet or characters 



associate words in the 
language with the 
corresponding object, action 
or notion 

recognize and repeat 
isolated words and set 
phrases in concrete 
situations 

imitate some basic 
grammatical structures 
commonly used in the 
classroom 



distinguish particular sounds • recognize some critical 



of the language 
use comprehensible 
pronunciation, stress and 
intonation when producing 
familiar words or phrases 



write familiar words, 
phrases and sentences 
relate letters to the sounds 
they commonly make 



use a repertoire of isolated 
words and set phrases in 
familiar contexts 



recognize and use 
previously learned 
grammatical structures 



sound distinctions that are 
important for meaning 
recognize some of the 
effects that intonation and 
stress have in different 
situations 

recognize and use some 
basic spelling patterns 
recognize and use some 
basic mechanical 
conventions; e.g., 
capitalization, punctuation 

combine learned words and 
phrases to fulfill some 
simple purposes 
experiment with and use a 
variety of words and 
expressions in familiar 
contexts 



• recognize, identify and use a 
variety of basic grammatical 
structures 



24/ Language Competence 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning. Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will use the international language effectively and competently. 



attend to form 

Grade 10 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 11 



Grade 12 



* 

_o 

"o 

c 
o 

JS 

D. 



Q. 

a 

H 

60 
O 

5 

o 



identify and reproduce some 
critical sound distinctions 
that are important for 
meaning 
approximate the 
pronunciation of unfamiliar 
words 

apply some common 
spelling rules 
consistently use basic 
spelling patterns in writing 
familiar words and phrases 



use a variety of words and 
expressions in familiar 
contexts 

recognize that one word 
may have multiple 
meanings, depending on the 
context, and that various 
words and expressions may 
express the same idea 

identify and use, with 
reasonable accuracy, a 
variety of basic grammatical 
structures 

explore grammar by 
combining and manipulating 
learned grammatical 
structures 



use intonation, stress and 
rhythm appropriately in 
familiar situations 



use basic mechanical 
conventions; e.g., 
capitalization, punctuation 



use specialized vocabulary 
of personal significance 
use a small range of 
vocabulary to convey 
shades of meaning 



recognize and use some 
complex grammatical 
structures 



speak clearly and 
intelligibly in a variety of 
situations 



recognize and correctly 
spell familiar words; e.g., 
sight words 



select vocabulary and 
expressions from within 
their repertoire to fulfill a 
variety of purposes in a 
variety of contexts 



apply understanding of 
grammatical structures in a 
variety of contexts 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Language Competence /25 
2001 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will use the international language effectively and competently. 



interpret and produce oral texts 
Grade 7 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 8 



Grade 9 



c 

— 03 



c 
_o 

o 

=3 
T3 
O 






• understand simple sentences 
in guided situations 



understand short, simple 
texts in guided situations 



produce simple words and 
phrases in guided situations 



produce simple sentences in 
guided situations 



understand short, simple 
texts in guided and 
unguided situations 



produce short, simple texts 
in guided situations 



• engage in simple 

interactions, using short, 
isolated lexical phrases* 



engage in simple 
interactions, using simple 
sentences 



• engage in simple 
interactions 



26/ Language Competence 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta. Canada 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will use the international language effectively and competently. 



interpret and produce oral texts 
Grade 10 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 11 



Grade 12 





c 




c 












Cfl 


—, 




— 


4> 


3 
- 


— 




u 








3 






a 




s 












:> 




3 




— 




3 




N 




c_ 




3 




h 









u 




> 


>> 




'.J 


u 


c 


ed 

s 

c 


3 



• understand short texts on 
unfamiliar topics in guided 
situations 



• understand short texts on 
unfamiliar topics in guided 
situations 



produce short texts in 
guided and unguided 
situations 



manage short interactions 
with ease, with pauses for 
planning and repair 



produce a variety of short, 
simple texts in guided and 
unguided situations 



manage simple, routine 
interactions without undue 
difficulty, asking for 
repetition or clarification 
when necessary 



understand the main point 
and some supporting details 
of lengthy texts on familiar 
topics in guided situations 



produce short texts on 
unfamiliar topics in guided 



situations 



manage simple, routine 
interactions without undue 
difficulty 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Language Competence /27 
2001 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will use the international language effectively and competently. 



interpret and produce written texts 
Grade 7 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 8 



Grade 9 



i> is 

• — ■— 

% e- 
a 

c 



c 
c .2 
g o 

."5 3 

& p 



c 

<L) 



c 



a. 



• understand simple sentences 
in guided situations 



understand short, simple 
texts in guided situations 



• produce simple words and 
phrases in guided situations 



derive meaning from visuals 
and other forms of nonverbal 
communication in guided 
situations 



use visuals and other forms 
of nonverbal communication 
to express meaning in 
guided situations 



produce simple sentences in • 
guided situations 



derive meaning from a 
variety of visuals and other 
forms of nonverbal 
communication in guided 
situations 



use a variety of visuals and 
other forms of nonverbal 
communication to express 
meaning in guided 
situations 



understand short, simple 
texts in guided and 
unguided situations 



produce short, simple texts 
in guided situations 



derive meaning from the 
visual elements of a variety 
of media in guided and 
unguided situations 



express meaning through 
the use of visual elements in 
a variety of media in guided 
and unguided situations 



28/ Language Competence 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Leamins. Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will use the international language effectively and competently. 



interpret and produce written texts 
Grade 10 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 11 



Grade 12 



c 
o 

gl 

c 



c .a 

A) -*- 

& P 



00 

c 
(U 



c 



Q. 



understand short texts on 
unfamiliar topics in guided 
situations 



• produce short, simple texts 
in guided and unguided 
situations 



understand short texts on 
unfamiliar topics in guided 
situations 



derive meaning from 
multiple visual elements in a 
variety of media in guided 
situations 



express meaning through 
the use of multiple visual 
elements in a variety of 
media in guided situations 



produce a variety of short, 
simple texts in guided and 
unguided situations 



derive meaning from 
multiple visual elements in a 
variety of media in guided 
and unguided situations 



express meaning through 
the use of multiple visual 
elements in a variety of 
media in guided and 
unguided situations 



understand the main point 
and some supporting details 
of lengthy texts on familiar 
topics in guided situations 



produce short texts on 
unfamiliar topics in guided 
situations 



propose several 
interpretations of the visual 
elements of a variety of 
media in guided situations 



explore a variety of ways 
that meaning can be 
expressed through the visual 
elements of a variety of 
media in guided situations 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Language Competence /29 
2001 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will use the international language effectively and competently. 



] 



apply knowledge of the sociocultural context 

Grade 7 Grade 8 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 9 



00 



o 



£ 2 



— 

> 

c 
o 
c 



• speak at a volume 
appropriate to classroom 
situations 

• respond to tone of voice 



imitate age-appropriate 
idiomatic expressions 



experience a variety of 



voices 



• use basic social expressions 
appropriate to the classroom 



understand the meaning of 
and imitate some common 
nonverbal behaviours used 
in the target culture 



distinguish between formal 
and informal situations 
recognize that some topics, 
words or intonations are 
inappropriate in certain 
contexts 

understand and use a variety 
of simple idiomatic 
expressions as set phrases 



acknowledge and accept 
individual differences in 
speech 



use basic conventions of 

politeness 

use appropriate oral forms 

of address for people 

frequently encountered 



experiment with using some 
simple nonverbal means of 
communication 
recognize that some 
nonverbal behaviours may 
be inappropriate in certain 
contexts 



experiment with and use 
formal and informal 
language in familiar 
situations 



use learned idiomatic 
expressions in new contexts 
to enhance communication 



experience a variety of 
accents, variations in speech 
and regional variations in 
language 



recognize verbal behaviours 
that are considered impolite 
recognize simple social 
conventions in informal 
conversation 



recognize and use 
appropriate nonverbal 
behaviours in a variety of 
familiar contexts; e.g., eye 
contact 



30/ Language Competence 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning. Alberta. Canada 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will use the international language effectively and competently. 



apply knowledge of the sociocultural context 

Grade 10 Grade 11 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 12 






•3 



cS 



a - 



l-l 

> 
c 
o 
c 



• identify socially appropriate 
language in specific 
situations 

• explore formal and informal 
uses of language in a variety 
of contexts 

• use learned idiomatic 
expressions in a variety of 
contexts 



recognize some common 

regional variations in 

language 

recognize other influences 

resulting in variations in 

language 



recognize important social 

conventions in everyday 

interactions 

interpret the use of social 

conventions encountered in 

oral and written texts 

use appropriate nonverbal 
behaviours in a variety of 
familiar contexts 
recognize nonverbal 
behaviours that are 
considered impolite 



use suitable, simple formal 
language in a variety of 
contexts 



examine the role of 
idiomatic expressions in 
culture 



recognize other influences 
resulting in variations in 
language; e.g., level of 
education, occupation 



interpret and use important 
social conventions in 
interactions 



avoid nonverbal behaviours 
that are considered impolite; 
e.g., eye contact, touching, 
interpersonal space, sounds 
and noises 



explore differences in 
register between spoken and 
written texts 



identify influences on 
idiomatic expressions; e.g., 
region, age, occupation 



recognize other influences 
resulting in variations in 
language; e.g., office held 
by the speaker, his or her 
social status, and his or her 
relationship with others 
involved in the interaction 

interpret and use appropriate 
oral and written forms of 
address with a variety of 
audiences 



recognize a variety of 
nonverbal communication 
techniques in a variety of 
contexts 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year ProgTam (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Language Competence /3 1 
2001 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will use the international language effectively and competently. 



1 



apply knowledge of how discourse is organized, structured and sequenced 
Grade 7 Grade 8 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 9 



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• follow and imitate speech 
that uses simple link words 



• experience a variety of oral 
text forms 

• recognize some simple oral 
text forms 



• respond using very simple 
social interaction patterns; 
e.g., question-answer, 
greeting-response 



• sequence elements of a 
simple story, process or 
series of events 

• link words or groups of 
words in simple ways; e.g., 
using words like and, then 

• recognize some simple oral 
and written text forms; e.g., 
lists, letters, stories, songs 



initiate interactions, and 
respond using simple social 
interaction patterns; e.g., 
request-acceptance/ 
nonacceptance 



link several sentences 

coherently; e.g., on a single 

theme 

use common conventions to 

structure texts; e.g., titles, 

paragraphs 

recognize a variety of oral 

and written text forms; e.g., 

recipes, invitations, 

messages 

use some simple text forms 

in their own productions; 

e.g., maps, questionnaires 

use simple conventions to 
open and close 
conversations and to 
manage turn taking 
initiate interactions, and 
respond using a variety of 
social interaction patterns; 
e.g., statement-reaction 



32/ Language Competence 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning. Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will use the international language effectively and competently. 



apply knowledge of how discourse is organized, structured and sequenced 
Grade 10 Grade 11 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 12 



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• organize texts, using 
common patterns; e.g., 
cause and effect, 
straightforward time 
sequencing 

• interpret simple references 
within texts; e.g., pronouns, 
demonstratives 

• organize texts to indicate 
steps in a procedure or 
directions to follow 

• recognize a variety of text 
forms delivered through a 
variety of media; e.g., 
videotaped instructions, 
reports with visuals 

• analyze and identify the 
organizational structure of a 
variety of text forms; e.g., 
folk tales, newspaper 
articles, instructions for a 
game 

• initiate interactions, and 
respond using a variety of 
social interaction patterns; 
e.g., routine telephone calls 



use a variety of conventions 
to structure texts; e.g., titles, 
paragraphs, letter forms 
interpret and use references 
within texts; e.g., pronouns, 
demonstratives 



use a variety of familiar text 
forms and media in their 
own productions; e.g., 
recipes, comic strips, letters, 
radio or television reports, 
articles 



combine simple social 
interaction patterns to 
perform transactions and 
interactions; e.g., invitation- 
acceptance/refusal with 
explanation 



interpret texts that use 
patterns involving time or 
chronological sequencing 



use a variety of familiar text 
forms and media in their 
own productions; e.g., 
brochures, advertisements, 
reports, poetry, stories 



combine simple social 
interaction patterns to 
perform complex 
transactions and 
interactions; e.g., request 
goods/services 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Language Competence /33 
2001 



GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP 



The learning outcomes for Global Citizenship deal with the 
development of intercultural competence,* encompassing some of the 
knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to be effective global citizens. 
The concept of global citizenship encompasses citizenship at all 
levels, from the local school and community to Canada and the world. 

The various components of global citizenship are grouped under three 
cluster headings — see the illustration on the following page. Under 
each of these headings there are several strands, identified by strand 
headings at the left end of each row, which show the developmental 
flow of learning from grade to grade. Each strand deals with a single 
aspect of intercultural competence. For example, under the cluster 
heading "historical and contemporary elements of the culture,"* there 
are strands for accessing/analyzing cultural knowledge, knowledge of 
the culture, applying cultural knowledge, diversity within the culture 
and valuing the culture. 

Developing cultural knowledge and skills is a lifelong process. 
Knowledge of one's own culture is acquired over a lifetime. Cultures 
change over time. Within any national group, there may be a 
dominant culture or cultures and a number of additional cultures. 
Rather than simply try to develop a bank of knowledge about the 
culture, it is more important for students to develop skills in accessing 
and understanding information about culture and in applying that 
knowledge for the purposes of interaction and communication. 
Students will gain cultural knowledge in the process of developing 
these skills. In this way, if they encounter elements of the culture 
they have not learned about in class, they will have the skills and 
abilities to deal with them effectively and appropriately. 

The "affirming diversity" heading covers knowledge, skills and 
attitudes that are developed as a result of bringing other languages and 
cultures into relationship with one's own. There is a natural tendency, 
when learning a new language and culture, to compare it with what is 
familiar. Many students leave a second language learning experience 
with a heightened awareness and knowledge of their own language 
and culture. They will also be able to make some generalizations 
about languages and cultures based on their experiences and those of 
their classmates who may have a variety of cultural backgrounds. 
This will provide students with an understanding of diversity within 
both a global and a Canadian context. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
34/ Global Citizenship Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

200 1 ©Alberta Learning, Alberta. Canada 



Global Citizenship 



historical and contemporary 
elements of the culture 




affirming diversity 




personal and career opportunities 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Global Citizenship /35 
2001 



General Outcome for Global Citizenship 

Students will acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes to be effective global citizens. 



historical and contemporary elements of the culture 

Grade 7 Grade 8 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 9 



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ask questions, using their first 
language, about elements of 
the culture experienced in 
class 



participate in activities and 
experiences that reflect 
elements of the culture 



recognize elements of the 
culture in the classroom 



experience diverse elements 
of the culture 



participate in cultural 
activities and experiences 



make observations of the 

culture; e.g., as it is portrayed 

in texts* and in the 

community 

seek out information about 

the culture from authentic 

sources; e.g., people 



participate in activities and 
experiences that reflect 
elements of the culture 



identify elements of the 
culture in the school and 
community 



identify some elements that 
reflect diversity within the 
culture 



• participate in cultural 
activities and experiences 



compare and make 
connections between some 
elements of the culture being 
studied and their own; e.g., 
geography and climate 



identify some things they 
have in common with people 
their own age who live in the 
culture 

explore some elements of the 
culture; e.g., influence of the 
geography and climate on 
their way of life 

identify commonalities and 
differences between the 
culture being studied and 
their own 

apply knowledge of the 
culture to interpret 
similarities and differences 
between that culture and their 
own 

identify commonalities and 
differences among diverse 
groups within the culture 
apply knowledge of the 
culture to interpret 
similarities and differences 
among diverse groups within 
the culture 

identify similarities between 
themselves and people of the 
culture being studied 
express an interest in finding 
out about people their own 
age who speak the language 
being learned 



36/ Global Citizenship 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learninc, Alberta. Canada 



General Outcome for Global Citizenship 

Students will acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes to be effective global citizens. 



I 



historical and contemporary elements of the culture 

Grade 10 Grade 11 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 12 



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formulate questions about 
elements of the culture; e.g., 
patterns of behaviour or 
interaction typical of people 
their own age 
use basic research skills to 
find out about the culture 



explore and identify some 
elements of the culture; e.g., 
key historical events and 
their influence on 
contemporary ways of life 
and cultural values 

apply knowledge of 
elements of the culture to 
interpret cultural behaviour 
that is different from their 
own 

apply knowledge of 
elements of the culture in 
interactions with people and 
texts; e.g., interpret 
historical references 

apply knowledge of diverse 
elements of the culture in 
interactions with people and 
text; e.g., ethnic or religious 
minorities 



express empathy for those 
whose cultural behaviour is 
different from their own 
choose to participate in and 
contribute to activities and 
experiences that reflect the 
culture 



make and test hypotheses 
about the culture 
identify and use a variety of 
sources of information to 
find out about the culture 



organize and represent 
information about elements 
of the culture in a variety of 
ways 



explore and identify some 
elements of the culture; e.g. 
major current events as a 
reflection of contemporary 
ways of life and cultural 
values 

identify different 
perspectives on the culture 
and speculate on their 
origins; e.g., stereotypes of 
the culture present in their 
own community 



identify different 
perspectives on diverse 
elements of the culture, and 
speculate on their origins; 
e.g., stereotypes within the 
culture 

examine their own 
perception of the language 
and culture, including 
stereotypes 



explore and identify some 
elements of the culture; e.g., 
cultural values, attitudes and 
interests of people their own 
age in the culture 



apply knowledge of 
elements of the culture 
derived from a variety of 
sources to interpret 
behaviours and texts 



apply knowledge of diverse 
elements of the culture 
derived from a variety of 
sources to interpret 
behaviours and texts 



seek out and use 
opportunities to enter into 
contact with members of the 
culture; e.g., exchange 
letters with a pen pal 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Global Citizenship /37 
2001 



General Outcome for Global Citizenship 

Students will acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes to be effective global citizens. 



affirming diversity 



Grade 7 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 8 



Grade 9 



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distinguish between their 
first language and the 
language being learned; e.g. 
specific words 



explore the variety of 
languages spoken by their 
schoolmates and members 
of their community 
identify similarities among 
words from different 
languages within their 
personal experience 

explore similarities between 
their own culture and other 
cultures 



participate in activities and 
experiences that reflect 
elements of different 
cultures 



work and play with others 
who are different 



adapt to new situations 



identify similarities between • 
their first language and the 
language being learned; e.g., 
basic word order 



identify differences and 
similarities among writing 
systems from different 
languages within their 
personal experience 
describe ways languages 
can be taught and learned 



recognize similarities 

between their own culture 

and other cultures 

make connections between 

individuals or situations in 

texts and their own personal 

experiences 

recognize that a variety of 
cultural practices are 
followed by their 
schoolmates and different 
groups in their community 
recognize that culture is 
expressed through a variety 
of forms 

engage in activities that 
reflect other ways of doing 
things or other perspectives 



listen with attention to the 
opinions of others 
initiate and maintain new 
relationships; e.g.. make a 
new classmate feel welcome 



identify similarities and 
differences between their 
first language and the 
language being learned; e.g., 
different social conventions 

recognize that, within any 

linguistic group, individuals 

use language in personal 

ways 

recognize that in any 

language there are different 

words for the same thing 

recognize and identify 
similarities and differences 
between their own culture 
and other cultures; e.g., 
occupations, seasonal 
activities 



recognize that speakers of 
the same language may 
come from different cultural 
backgrounds 
recognize some of the 
factors that affect the culture 
of a particular region; e.g., 
geography, climate 

identify the limitations of 
adopting a single 
perspective 



reflect on their actions and 
the consequences of their 
actions for others 
explore how their 
perspective is shaped by a 
variety of factors 



38/ Global Citizenship 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Global Citizenship 

Students will acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes to be effective global citizens. 



affirming diversity 



Grade 10 



Grade 11 



Grade 12 



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Students will be able to: 

• compare oral and written • 
aspects of their first language 
and the language being 
learned 

• identify some words in their 
first language that have been 
borrowed 

• recognize that languages can • 
be grouped into families 
based on common origins 

• identify how and why 
languages borrow from one 
another 

• identify some influences on • 
the development of their 
personal identity 

• identify shared references 
and the different 
connotations attached to 
them in their own culture and 
the target culture 

• recognize that within any • 
culture there are important 
differences in the way people 
speak and behave 

• recognize some of the factors 
that affect the culture of a 
particular region 

• demonstrate curiosity about • 
other languages and cultures 

• recognize and acknowledge 
different perspectives 

• explore representations of • 
their own culture as seen 

from the outside 

• identify and make use of 
public and private institutions 
that facilitate contact with 
other countries and cultures 



identify some regional 
variations in their first 
language 



recognize that languages 
may have regional 
differences in 
pronunciation, vocabulary 
or structure 



identify some of the past and • 
present relationships 
between the culture being 
studied and their own; e.g., 
immigration, war 



recognize that different 
cultures may have different 
interpretations of texts, 
cultural practices or 
products 



recognize and acknowledge 
the value of different 
perspectives 



recognize stereotypical 
thinking 



identify aspects of their 
personal style in both speech 
and writing 



describe ways languages 
evolve over time and the 
reasons for their evolution 



identify ethnocentric 
elements in documents from 
their own culture 



describe some causes of 
breakdown in communication 
and of misunderstanding, 
when communicating with 
people from an unfamiliar 
culture 



seek out opportunities to 
interact with people from 
various cultures that have an 
interest in the language 
and/or culture being studied 

use a variety of strategies for 
dealing with breakdowns in 
communication and 
misunderstandings when 
encountering an unfamiliar 
culture 

identify ethnocentric 
perspectives in a document or 
event, and explain their 
origins 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Global Citizenship /39 
2001 



General Outcome for Global Citizenship 

Students will acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes to be effective global citizens. 



1 



personal and career opportunities 

Grade 7 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 8 



Grade 9 



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suggest some reasons for 
learning the specific 
international language 



suggest some reasons for 
learning an additional 
language 

suggest some reasons for 
participating in activities 
and experiences that reflect 
elements of different 
cultures 



suggest some reasons for 
learning the specific 
international language 
identify some personal uses 
they have made of their 
knowledge of the specific 
international language and 
culture 



suggest some reasons for 
participating in activities 
and experiences that reflect 
elements of different 
cultures 

identify some personal uses 
they have made of their 
knowledge of different 
languages and cultures 



identify some careers for 
which knowledge of 
international languages is 
useful 

identify some places that 
they could visit where the 
language being learned is 
spoken 



identify some careers for 
which knowledge of 
different languages and 
cultures is useful 
identify some countries 
where there is significant 
linguistic and cultural 
diversity 



40/ Global Citizenship 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning. Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Global Citizenship 

Students will acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes to be effective global citizens. 



personal and career opportunities 
Grade 10 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 11 



Grade 12 







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identify aspects of the 
history, literature, arts and 
crafts of the culture that are 
of personal interest 
identify some careers that 
use knowledge of the 
specific international 
language 



identify aspects of the 
history, literature, arts and 
crafts of different cultures 
that are of personal interest 
identify some careers that 
use knowledge of 
international languages and 
cultures, and intercultural 
skills 



explore personal reasons for 
learning the specific 
international language 



explore opportunities for 
further education related to 
the specific international 
language and culture 



explore personal reasons for 
learning additional 
languages and experiencing 
other cultures 



explore opportunities for 
further education related to 
languages and cultures 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six -year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Global Citizenship /41 
2001 



STRATEGIES 



Under the Strategies heading are specific outcomes that will help 
students learn and communicate more effectively. Strategic 
competence* has long been recognized as an important component of 
communicative competence, although early models identified mainly 
the compensation and repair strategies important in the early stages of 
language learning when proficiency is low. The learning outcomes 
that follow deal with strategies for language learning,* language use* 
in a broad sense, as well as general learning strategies that help 
students acquire content. The language use strategies encompass not 
only compensation and repair strategies, but also strategies used by 
effective speakers of any language to enhance their communication. 
Although people may use strategies unconsciously, the learning 
outcomes deal only with the conscious use of strategies. 

The strategies are grouped under three cluster headings — see the 
illustration on the following page. Under each of these headings there 
are several strands that show the development of awareness and skill 
in using strategies from grade to grade. Each strand, identified by a 
strand heading at the left end of the row, deals with a specific 
category of strategy. Language learning and general learning 
strategies are categorized as cognitive, metacognitive and 
social/affective. The language use strategies are organized by 
communicative mode: interactive, interpretive, productive. 

The strategies that students choose depend on the task they are 
engaged in as well as on other factors, such as their preferred learning 
style, personality, age, attitude and cultural background. Strategies 
that work well for one person may not be effective for another person, 
or may not be suitable in a different situation. For this reason it is not 
particularly useful to say that students should be aware of, or able to 
use, a specific strategy at a particular grade level. The strategies 
described in the learning outcomes are only examples that give an 
idea of the kinds of strategies from which students of that age and that 
level of proficiency might benefit. 

A global list of the strategies mentioned in the specific outcomes can 
be found in Appendix III of this document. Teachers need to know 
and be able to demonstrate a broad range of strategies from which 
students are then able to choose. Strategies of all kinds are best taught 
in the context of learning activities where students can apply them 
immediately and then reflect on their use. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
42/ Strategies Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

200 1 ©Alberta Learning. Alberta, Canada 



Strategies 




language learning 




language use 



Students will know and use strategies 

to maximize the effectiveness 

of learning and communication. 



general learning 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Strategies /43 
2001 



General Outcome for Strategies 

Students will know and use strategies to maximize the effectiveness of learning and communication. 



language learning 

Grade 7 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 8 



Grade 9 



c 
ot> 
o 
o 



e 

00 

o 
o 



use simple cognitive 
strategies, with guidance, to 
enhance language learning; 
e.g., learn short rhymes or 
songs incorporating new 
vocabulary or sentence 
patterns, imitate sounds and 
intonation patterns 



use simple metacognitive 
strategies, with guidance, to 
enhance language learning; 
e.g., make choices about 
how they learn 



use simple social and 
affective strategies, with 
guidance, to enhance 
language learning; e.g., 
participate in shared reading 
experiences 



use a variety of simple 
cognitive strategies, with 
guidance, to enhance 
language learning; e.g., 
make personal dictionaries, 
experiment with various 
elements of the language 



use a variety of simple 
metacognitive strategies, 
with guidance, to enhance 
language learning; e.g., 
rehearse or role play 
language 



use a variety of simple 
social and affective 
strategies, with guidance, to 
enhance language learning; 
e.g., reread familiar self- 
chosen texts to enhance 
understanding and 
enjoyment 



• identify and use a variety of 
cognitive strategies to 
enhance language learning; 
e.g., group together sets of 
things — vocabulary, 
structures — with similar 
characteristics, identify 
similarities and differences 
between aspects of the 
language being learned and 
their own language 

• identify and use a variety of 
metacognitive strategies to 
enhance language learning; 
e.g., reflect on the listening, 
reading and writing process, 
check copied writing for 
accuracy 

• identify and use a variety of 
social and affective 
strategies to enhance 
language learning; e.g., 
understand that making 
mistakes is a natural part of 
language learning, 
experiment with various 
forms of expression, note 
their acceptance or 
nonacceptance by more 
experienced speakers 



44/ Strategies 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Leaminc. Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Strategies 

Students will know and use strategies to maximize the effectiveness of learning and communication. 



language learning 

Grade 10 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 11 



Grade 12 



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ao 

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select and use a variety of 
cognitive strategies to 
enhance language learning; 
e.g., associate new words or 
expressions with familiar 
ones, either in the language 
being learned or in their 
own language 



select and use a variety of 
metacognitive strategies to 
enhance language learning; 
e.g., evaluate their own 
performance or 
comprehension at the end of 
a task, keep a learning log 



select and use a variety of 
social and affective 
strategies to enhance 
language learning; e.g., use 
self-talk to make themselves 
feel competent to do the 
task 



select and use a variety of 
cognitive strategies to 
enhance language learning; 
e.g., find information, using 
reference materials like 
dictionaries, textbooks, 
grammars; use available 
technological aids to 
support language learning 



select and use a variety of 
metacognitive strategies to 
enhance language learning; 
e.g., experience various 
methods of language 
acquisition, and identify one 
or more they consider 
particularly useful 
personally 



select and use a variety of 
social and affective 
strategies to enhance 
language learning; e.g., take 
risks, try unfamiliar tasks 
and approaches 



select and use appropriate 
cognitive strategies to 
enhance language learning 
in a variety of situations; 
e.g., use word maps, mind 
maps, diagrams, charts or 
other graphic 
representations to make 
information easier to 
understand and remember 

select and use appropriate 
metacognitive strategies to 
enhance language learning 
in a variety of situations; 
e.g., be aware of the 
potential of learning through 
direct exposure to the 
language, know how 
strategies may enable them 
to cope with texts 
containing unknown 
elements 

select and use appropriate 
social and affective 
strategies to enhance 
language learning in a 
variety of situations; e.g., 
repeat new words and 
expressions that occur in 
conversations in which they 
participate, make use of 
them as soon as appropriate 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Strategies /45 
2001 



General Outcome for Strategies 

Students will know and use strategies to maximize the effectiveness of learning and communication. 



language use 

Grade 7 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 8 



Grade 9 



4J 
> 

& 
a 



o 



use simple interactive 
strategies, with guidance; 
e.g., interpret and use a 
variety of nonverbal clues to 
communicate 



use simple interpretive 
strategies, with guidance; 
e.g., make connections 
between texts on the one 
hand, and prior knowledge 
and personal experience on 
the other 

use simple productive 
strategies, with guidance; 
e.g., copy what others say or 
write, use words that are 
visible in the immediate 
environment 



use a variety of simple 
interactive strategies, with 
guidance; e.g., ask for 
clarification or repetition 
when they do not 
understand 

use a variety of simple 
interpretive strategies, with 
guidance; e.g., determine 
the purpose of listening, 
listen or look for key words 



use a variety of simple 
productive strategies, with 
guidance; e.g., use 
illustrations to provide 
detail when producing their 
own texts 



identify and use a variety of 
interactive strategies; e.g., 
assess feedback from a 
conversation partner to 
recognize when a message 
has not been understood 

identify and use a variety of 
interpretive strategies; e.g., 
use knowledge of the 
sound-symbol system to aid 
reading comprehension 



• identify and use a variety of 
productive strategies; e.g., 
use knowledge of sentence 
patterns to form new 
sentences 



46/ Strategies 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learnins, Alberta. Canada 



General Outcome for Strategies 

Students will know and use strategies to maximize the effectiveness of learning and communication. 



language use 

Grade 10 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 11 



) 



Grade 12 



4> 
> 

c 



> 

'■*— • 

o 

3 

•a 

2 
a. 



• select and use a variety of 
interactive strategies; e.g., 
invite others into the 
discussion, ask for 
confirmation that a form 
used is correct 



• select and use a variety of 
interpretive strategies; e.g., 
prepare questions or a guide 
to note down information 
found in a text 



• select and use a variety of 
productive strategies; e.g., 
use resources to increase 
vocabulary 



select and use a variety of 
interactive strategies; e.g., 
use a range of fillers, 
hesitation devices and 
gambits to sustain 
conversations, use 
circumlocution to 
compensate for lack of 
vocabulary 

select and use a variety of 
interpretive strategies; e.g., 
use key content words or 
discourse markers to follow 
an extended text 



select and use a variety of 
productive strategies; e.g., 
take notes when reading or 
listening to assist in 
producing their own text 



select and use appropriate 
interactive strategies in a 
variety of situations; e.g., 
repeat part of what someone 
has said to confirm mutual 
understanding 



select and use appropriate 
interpretive strategies in a 
variety of situations; e.g., 
reread several times to 
understand complex ideas 



• select and use appropriate 
productive strategies in a 
variety of situations; e.g., 
use a variety of resources to 
correct texts 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Strategies /47 
2001 



General Outcome for Strategies 

Students will know and use strategies to maximize the effectiveness of learning and communication. 



general learning 

Grade 7 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 8 



Grade 9 



c 

o 
o 



c 

00 

o 
to 



use simple cognitive 
strategies to enhance 
general learning; e.g.. use 
models, classify objects 



use simple metacognitive 
strategies to enhance 
general learning; e.g., 
choose from among learning 
options 



use simple social and 
affective strategies to 
enhance general learning; 
e.g., seek help from others 



use simple cognitive 
strategies to enhance 
general learning; e.g., 
experiment with and 
concentrate on one thing at 
a time 

use simple metacognitive 
strategies to enhance 
general learning; e.g., 
decide in advance to attend 
to the learning task 



use simple social and 
affective strategies to 
enhance general learning; 
e.g., participate in 
cooperative group learning 
tasks 



identify and use a variety of 
cognitive strategies to 
enhance general learning; 
e.g., write down key words 
and concepts in abbreviated 
form 

identify and use a variety of 
metacognitive strategies to 
enhance general learning; 
e.g., make a plan in advance 
about how to approach a 
task 

identify and use a variety of 
social and affective 
strategies to enhance 
general learning; e.g., 
encourage themselves to try 
even though they might 
make mistakes 



48/ Strategies 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 

Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta. Canada 



General Outcome for Strategies 

Students will know and use strategies to maximize the effectiveness of learning and communication. 



] 



general learning 

Grade 10 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 11 



Grade 12 



c 

00 

o 



c 
ao 
o 
u 
« 



select and use a variety of 
cognitive strategies to 
enhance general learning; 
e.g., use mental images to 
remember new information 



select and use a variety of 
metacognitive strategies to 
enhance general learning; 
e.g., manage the physical 
environment in which they 
have to work 



select and use a variety of 
social and affective 
strategies to enhance 
general learning; e.g., use 
support strategies to help 
peers persevere at learning 
tasks 



select and use a variety of 
cognitive strategies to 
enhance general learning; 
e.g., formulate key 
questions to guide research 



select and use a variety of 
metacognitive strategies to 
enhance general learning; 
e.g., keep a learning journal 
such as a diary or a log 



select and use a variety of 
social and affective 
strategies to enhance 
general learning; e.g., take 
part in group problem- 
solving processes 



select and use appropriate 
cognitive strategies to 
enhance general learning in 
a variety of situations; e.g., 
make inferences, identify 
and justify the evidence on 
which their inferences are 
based 

select and use appropriate 
metacognitive strategies to 
enhance general learning in 
a variety of situations; e.g., 
work with others to monitor 
their own learning 



select and use appropriate 
social and affective 
strategies to enhance 
general learning in a variety 
of situations; e.g., take risks, 
try unfamiliar tasks and 
approaches 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Strategies /49 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
50/ Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

2001 ©Alberta Leamine. Alberta. Canada 



APPENDIX I: USING THE FRAMEWORK 



When using this Framework to develop curricula for specific 
international languages, a number of factors need to be considered at 
the curriculum development stage: 

• the amount of time available for instruction 

• the entry level of the programming 

• the students' prior knowledge of and experience with the 
language, and the skills they have developed as a result 

• the nature of the language being learned, and, particularly, how 
different it is from the language or languages with which the 
students are already familiar. 

Other factors need consideration later when the curricula that have 
been developed are ready to be implemented. 

• support for the international language in the school, among 
parents and in the community at large 

• the skill and knowledge of the teacher 

• how classes are scheduled on a weekly and yearly basis 

• the choice of topics and tasks 

• the resources used for learning activities 

• the language of instruction 

• how multigrade groupings are handled 

• the assessment and evaluation strategies used 

• the opportunities for real-life applications of language learning. 



CURRICULUM When using the Framework to develop a curriculum for a specific 

DEVELOPMENT ISSUES international language, the context in which the language will be 

taught should be taken into consideration. The following are some 
guidelines for adjusting the information in this document to suit local 
circumstances. 

Time 

The amount of time allocated to the study of an international language 
may vary. The Framework was designed on the basis of the 
following time allocations: 

• 1 50 hours per year at the junior high school level 
(Grade 7 to Grade 9) 

• 1 25 hours per grade at the senior high school level 
(Grade 10 to Grade 12). 

If the amount of time is reduced, then the expected level of 
achievement should be adjusted accordingly. 

WCP Framework for International Languages 

Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) Appendix I: Using the Framework /5 1 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 200 1 



Where there is a good collaborative relationship between the 
international language teacher and the classroom teacher, or where 
one person is teaching a variety of subject areas, the international 
language can be integrated with other subjects. This allows for more 
efficient use of limited time and should enhance language learning. 

Entry Level 

The debate over whether it is better to begin learning a second 
language at an early age or to wait until students are more mature has 
not been resolved. There is, however, some evidence in support of 
starting second language learning early. Students have a greater 
exposure to the language over time and develop more native-like 
pronunciation. Although the increased cognitive abilities of older 
students may, in part, compensate for the reduced amount of time 
spent on language learning in the case of late entry, students cannot be 
expected to attain the same level of skill and knowledge as those who 
begin in Kindergarten or Grade 1 . 

Prior Knowledge 

The Framework assumes that the students will have limited or no 
previous knowledge of the specific international language. In 
situations where the majority of students do have previous knowledge 
of the international language, schools may offer an accelerated 
program or assess students and plan courses that suit their particular 
needs. In situations where there is a mix of levels in one grade, 
students should be assessed and activities planned to meet their 
individual language learning needs. 

Students who already have a second language, particularly one that is 
related to the language being studied, can be expected to learn 
additional languages more quickly and easily than those beginning 
their study of a second language. For example, English-speaking 
students enrolled in French immersion, who are beginning the study 
of Spanish in Grade 7, will probably progress more quickly in that 
language than students beginning Spanish with no other experience of 
a second language. 

Nature of the Language 

The Framework is designed to be used to develop curriculum for any 
language. However, the amount of time and practice needed to attain 
comparable performance outcomes will vary from language to 
language. All other variables being equal, students will take longer to 
learn a language that is very different from their first language. 

Some curriculum writers may have to adjust the learning outcomes to 
take into consideration the difficulty of the specific international 
language for English speakers. In particular, expectations may need 
to be adjusted to reflect the dissimilarity between the written form of 
the specific international language and that of English. 

WCP Framework for International Languages 
52/ Appendix I: Using the Framework Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

200 1 ©Alberta Learnins. Alberta, Canada 



IMPLEMENTATION Once the curriculum for the specific international language has been 

ISSUES developed and is ready to be implemented, a number of decisions 

remain to be made about how the program will be staffed and 
administered. The following are some guidelines for making these 
decisions. 

Community Support 

Successful international language programming is dependent on the 
support of all the partners in education. It is critical, however, to have 
the active involvement of: 

• the administration and staff of the school 

• parents of the students enrolled 

• members of the community at large, particularly those who speak 
the language being taught. 

Teachers 

A communicative approach to second language teaching, which uses 
content based on the interests and experiences of the students, 
demands a broad range of teacher knowledge and skills both in the 
international language and in second language pedagogy. 

Teachers need to be proficient in the language being taught, and have 
training and experience in a variety of current approaches to second 
language teaching, including the communicative approach. In 
addition, teachers will benefit from experience and expertise in: 

• responding to diversity in the classroom and using multilevel 
groupings 

• cooperative learning and student-centred learning 

• multimedia and computer-assisted learning 

• resource-based language learning. 

Teachers also need to demonstrate willingness to engage in 
professional development in order to maintain or improve their 
fluency in the language and keep their teaching skills current. 

Scheduling 

International language courses should be scheduled to ensure 
maximum continuity of exposure to the language. If students lose 
contact with the language for long periods of time, whether on a 
weekly or a yearly basis, time is lost reviewing previously learned 
material that has been forgotten. Students benefit from using the 
language on a daily basis. Classroom periods of less than 30 minutes 
make it difficult to use a student-centred, task-based or content-based 
approach. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 

Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) Appendix I: Using the Framework /53 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 200 1 



Choice of Topics and Tasks 

In the Framework, three domains — the personal, the public and the 
educational — are suggested as organizers to guide the choice of tasks. 
Appendix II contains a list of areas of experience under each of the 
three domains and a table showing how topics can be developed at 
different levels. The topics listed are not mandatory but are intended 
to encourage teachers to provide a broad range of language learning 
experiences at every level. Choices should be guided by the needs, 
interests and daily experiences of the students. 

Resources 

Planning lessons and assembling resources for a task-based language 
course means more than finding a good text with an accompanying 
workbook and listening tapes. As much as possible, students should 
work with all kinds of authentic documents; that is, documents that 
were designed for speakers of the language in question rather than for 
the purpose of second language teaching. These documents should 
also be appropriate for the age and the developmental level of the 
students. Activities should reflect the principles outlined in the 
Effective Language Learning section of this document. 

Language of Instruction 

It is expected that the international language will be used for 
instruction in order to maximize exposure to the language. Learners 
will sometimes use their first language, especially in the early stages 
of learning, but will gradually move to the second language as they 
gain more skill and knowledge. There may be some situations where 
a few minutes of class time will be spent using the students' first 
language for reflection on the learning process. 

Multigrade Groupings 

In some situations, students from two or more grades may have to be 
combined into one international language class. By organizing the 
classroom activities around a task or a content-related project, 
students of different ages and different levels of ability can be 
accommodated in a single classroom. Although all students will be 
working on the same task or project, expectations will be different for 
each grade or subgroup. Careful planning from year to year will 
ensure that students experience a variety of learning activities on a 
broad range of topics. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
54/ Appendix I: Using the Framework Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

200 1 ©Alberta Leaminu. Alberta. Canada 



Assessment and Evaluation 

Language learning that is task-based and student-centred cannot 
adequately be assessed by traditional grammar quizzes or even 
structured oral interviews. Teachers need to use a variety of authentic 
assessment strategies, such as: 

observation checklists 

rating scales 

anecdotal records 

communicative tests 

portfolios 

self-assessment 

peer and group assessment 

performance profiles. 

Real-life Applications 

Students will be more successful language learners if they have 
opportunities to use the language for authentic communication in a 
broad range of contexts. The Framework supports and encourages the 
real-life application of language learning through meaningful contact 
with fluent speakers of the specific international language. 

Language programs being taught in a "foreign language" context, in 
other words, with no language community immediately available, can 
make use of authentic materials, electronic communications and 
multimedia resources to support language learning. They can also 
facilitate student participation in exchanges, within Canada or abroad; 
language camps or immersion experiences; field trips; or longer 
excursions. Schools or communities can be twinned, pen pals 
arranged or visitors invited into the school. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 

Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) Appendix I: Using the Framework /55 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 200 1 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
56 / Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

' ©Albena Learning. Alberta, Canada 



APPENDIX II: AREAS OF EXPERIENCE 



RSONAL 


PUBLIC 


EDUCATIONAL 


Family (extended) 


Commercial 


Humanities 


• roles and responsibilities 


Transactions and 


• literature 


• special events and family 


Business 


• arts 


celebrations 


• shopping 






• restaurants 


Social sciences 


Home 


• services 


• geography 


• rooms and furnishings 




• history 




Travel 


• social issues 


Self 


• daily 




• physical 


• vacations 


Natural sciences and 


- body 




MATHEMATICS 


- clothing 


Occupations 


• weather and climate 


• emotional 


• trades 


• animals and plants 




• professions 


• technology 


Friends 


• careers 


• inventions 


• relationships 




• money 


• shared activities 


Mass media 


• ecology and the 




• television 


environment 


Daily activities 


• newspapers and 


• outer space 


• routines and chores 


magazines 




• meals 


• Internet 


Health and physical 


• family traditions 




Education 




Arts and Entertainment 


• physical activity 


Leisure Activities 


• professional sports 


• nutrition 


• sports 


• theatre, dance, films 


• public health issues 


• hobbies 


• music performances 




• music 


• visual arts and design 

Institutions 

• government, churches, 
schools 

• public celebrations 

• business and industry 

Civic responsibilities 

• conservation 

• charitable activities 





WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix II: Areas of Experience /57 

2001 



Areas of Experience: Example of Distribution by Grades 





Personal 


Public 


Educational 




My family 


Going shopping 


Stories and rhymes 


K-3 


My home 


Going on vacation 


Today's weather 




My body 


Jobs people do 


Domestic/wild animals 




Clothing for each season 


Being a good neighbour 


Counting things 




Games and songs 


Holidays and festivals 


Songs and dances 




Favourite foods 


Around school 


Sports and games 




My birthday 








My family tree 


Public transport 


Caring for pets 


4-6 


Helping at home 


What's on TV? 


Food and nutrition 




My room 


My community 


Maps and plans 




Friends 


People who help others 


Making things grow 




My hobbies and pastimes 


Going to the doctor 


Spatial relationships 




Happy and sad 




Making music/art 




Favourite times of the year 








Family traditions 


Going out (restaurants, 


Healthy living 


7-9 


Fashion 


movies, sports, shows) 


Space travel 




Peer pressure 


Emergencies 


Helping the environment 




Extracurricular activities 


Cartoons and comics 


Peoples that make up 




Cooking at home 


Community service 


Canada 






Summer holidays 


Short stories and poems 
The arts around the world 
How much will it cost? 




Family relationships 


Career options 


Literature and the arts 


10-12 


Special friends 


Getting information 


Personal finances 




Personal identity and style 


Consumerism 


Technology 




Leisure time 


Media 


Peace and human rights 






Public institutions 


Responsible citizenship 






Travel 


Lifelong fitness 



58/ Appendix II: Areas of Experience 
2001 



WCP Framework, for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning. Alberta. Canada 



APPENDIX III: GLOBAL LIST OF STRATEGIES 



LANGUAGE LEARNING 
STRATEGIES 



Cognitive 

Students will: 

listen attentively 

perform actions to match words of a song, story or rhyme 

learn short rhymes or songs, incorporating new vocabulary or 

sentence patterns 

imitate sounds and intonation patterns 

memorize new words by repeating them silently or aloud 

seek the precise term to express their meaning 

repeat words or phrases in the course of performing a language 

task 

make personal dictionaries 

experiment with various elements of the language 

use mental images to remember new information 

group together sets of things — vocabulary, structures — with 

similar characteristics 

identify similarities and differences between aspects of the 

language being learned and their own language 

look for patterns and relationships 

use previously acquired knowledge to facilitate a learning task 

associate new words or expressions with familiar ones, either in 

the language being learned or in their own language 

find information, using reference materials like dictionaries, 

textbooks and grammars 

use available technological aids to support language learning; e.g., 

cassette recorders, computers 

use word maps, mind maps, diagrams, charts or other graphic 

representations to make information easier to understand and 

remember 

place new words or expressions in a context to make them easier 

to remember 

use induction to generate rules governing language use 

seek opportunities outside of class to practise and observe 

perceive and note down unknown words and expressions, noting 

also their context and function 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix III: Global List of Strategies /59 

2001 



Metacognitive 



Students will: 

check copied writing for accuracy 

make choices about how they learn 

rehearse or role play language 

decide in advance to attend to the learning task 

reflect on learning tasks with the guidance of the teacher 

make a plan in advance about how to approach a language 

learning task 

reflect on the listening, reading and writing process 

decide in advance to attend to specific aspects of input 

listen or read for key words 

evaluate their own performance or comprehension at the end of a 

task 

keep a learning log 

experience various methods of language acquisition, and identify 

one or more they consider particularly useful personally 

be aware of the potential of learning through direct exposure to 

the language 

know how strategies may enable them to cope with texts 

containing unknown elements 

identify problems that might hinder successful completion of a 

task, and seek solutions 

monitor their own speech and writing to check for persistent 

errors 

be aware of their own strengths and weaknesses, identify their 

own needs and goals, and organize their strategies and procedures 

accordingly 



Social/affective 



Students will: 

initiate or maintain interaction with others 

participate in shared reading experiences 

seek the assistance of a friend to interpret a text 

reread familiar self-chosen texts to enhance understanding and 

enjoyment 

work cooperatively with peers in small groups 

understand that making mistakes is a natural part of language 

learning 

experiment with various forms of expression, and note their 

acceptance or nonacceptance by more experienced speakers 

participate actively in brainstorming and conferencing as 

prewriting and postwriting exercises 

use self-talk to make themselves feel competent to do the task 

be willing to take risks, and try unfamiliar tasks and approaches 



60/ Appendix III: Global List of Strategies 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Leamina. Alberta. Canada 



repeat new words and expressions occurring in conversations in 

which they participate, and make use of the new words as soon as 

appropriate 

reduce anxiety by using mental techniques, such as positive 

self-talk or humour 

work with others to solve problems, and get feedback on tasks 

provide personal motivation by arranging rewards for themselves 

when successful 



LANGUAGE USE 
STRATEGIES 



Interactive 



Students will: 

• use words from their first language to get their meaning across; 
e.g., use a literal translation of a phrase in the first language, use a 
first language word but pronounce it as in the second language 
acknowledge being spoken to 

interpret and use a variety of nonverbal clues to communicate; 
e.g., mime, pointing, gestures, drawing pictures 
indicate lack of understanding verbally or nonverbally; e.g., 
"Pardon," "Sorry," "I didn't understand," raised eyebrows, blank 
look 

ask for clarification or repetition when they do not understand; 
e.g., "What do you mean by ...?" "Could you say that again, 
please?" 

use other speakers' words in subsequent conversation 
assess feedback from a conversation partner to recognize when a 
message has not been understood; e.g., raised eyebrows, blank 
look 

start again, using a different tactic, when communication breaks 
down; e.g., "What I'm trying to say is ..." 

use a simple word similar to the concept they want to convey, and 
invite correction; e.g., "fish" for "trout" 
invite others into the discussion 

ask for confirmation that a form used is correct; e.g., "Can you 
say that?" 

use a range of fillers, hesitation devices and gambits to sustain 
conversations; e.g., "Well, actually ..." "Where was I?" 
use circumlocution to compensate for lack of vocabulary; e.g., 
"the thing you hang clothes on" for "hanger" 
repeat part of what someone has said to confirm mutual 
understanding; e.g., "So what you are saying is ..." 
summarize the point reached in a discussion to help focus the talk 
ask follow-up questions to check for understanding; e.g., "Am I 
making sense?" 

use suitable phrases to intervene in a discussion; e.g., "Speaking 
of ..." 

self-correct if errors lead to misunderstandings; e.g., "What I 
mean to say is ..." 

WCP Framework for International Languages 

Six-year ProgTam (Grade 7 to Grade 12) Appendix III: Global List of Strategies /61 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 200 1 



Interpretive 



Students will: 

use gestures, intonation and visual supports to aid comprehension 

make connections between texts on the one hand, and prior 

knowledge and personal experience on the other 

use illustrations to aid reading comprehension 

determine the purpose of listening 

listen or look for key words 

listen selectively based on purpose 

make predictions about what they expect to hear or read based on 

prior knowledge and personal experience 

use knowledge of the sound-symbol system to aid reading 

comprehension 

infer probable meaning of unknown words or expressions from 

contextual clues 

prepare questions or a guide to note down information found in a 

text 

use key content words or discourse markers to follow an extended 

text 

reread several times to understand complex ideas 

summarize information gathered 

assess their own information needs before listening, viewing or 

reading 

use skimming and scanning to locate key information in texts 



Productive 



Students will: 

mimic what the teacher says 

use nonverbal means to communicate 

copy what others say or write 

use words visible in the immediate environment 

use resources to increase vocabulary 

use familiar repetitive patterns from stories, songs, rhymes or 

media 

use illustrations to provide detail when producing their own texts 

use various techniques to explore ideas at the planning stage, such 

as brainstorming or keeping a notebook or log of ideas 

use knowledge of sentence patterns to form new sentences 

be aware of and use the steps of the writing process: prewriting 

(gathering ideas, planning the text, research, organizing the text), 

writing, revision (rereading, moving pieces of text, rewriting 

pieces of text), correction (grammar, spelling, punctuation), 

publication (reprinting, adding illustrations, binding) 



62/ Appendix III: Global List of Strategies 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning. Alberta. Canada 



use a variety of resources to correct texts; e.g., personal and 

commercial dictionaries, checklists, grammars 

take notes when reading or listening to assist in producing their 

own text 

revise and correct final version of text 

use circumlocution and definition to compensate for gaps in 

vocabulary 

apply grammar rules to improve accuracy at the correction stage 

compensate for avoiding difficult structures by rephrasing 



GENERAL LEARNING 
STRATEGIES 



Cognitive 

Students will: 

• classify objects and ideas according to their attributes; e.g., red 
objects and blue objects, or animals that eat meat and animals that 
eat plants 

• use models 

• connect what they already know with what they are learning 

• experiment with and concentrate on one thing at a time 

• focus on and complete learning tasks 

• write down key words and concepts in abbreviated form to assist 
with performance of a learning task 

• use mental images to remember new information 

• distinguish between fact and opinion when using a variety of 
sources of information 

• formulate key questions to guide research 

• make inferences, and identify and justify the evidence on which 
their inferences are based 

• use word maps, mind maps, diagrams, charts or other graphic 
representations to make information easier to understand and 
remember 

• seek information through a network of sources, including 
libraries, the Internet, individuals and agencies 

• use previously acquired knowledge or skills to assist with a new 
learning task 

Metacognitive 

Students will: 

reflect on learning tasks with the guidance of the teacher 

choose from among learning options 

discover how their efforts can affect their learning 

reflect upon their thinking processes and how they learn 

decide in advance to attend to the learning task 

divide an overall learning task into a number of subtasks 

make a plan in advance about how to approach a task 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix III: Global List of Strategies /63 

2001 



identify their own needs and interests 

manage the physical environment in which they have to work 

keep a learning journal, such as a diary or a log 

develop criteria for evaluating their own work 

work with others to monitor their own learning 

take responsibility for planning, monitoring and evaluating 

learning experiences 



Social/affective 



Students will: 

watch others' actions and copy them 
seek help from others 

follow their natural curiosity and intrinsic motivation to learn 
participate in cooperative group learning tasks 
choose learning activities that enhance understanding and 
enjoyment 

encourage themselves to try, even though they might make 
mistakes 

take part in group decision-making processes 
use support strategies to help peers persevere at learning tasks; 
e.g., offer encouragement, praise, ideas 
take part in group problem-solving processes 
use self-talk to make themselves feel competent to do the task 
be willing to take risks, and try unfamiliar tasks and approaches 
monitor their level of anxiety about learning tasks, and take 
measures to lower it if necessary; e.g., deep breathing, laughter 
• use social interaction skills to enhance group learning activities 



64/ Appendix III: Global List of Strategies 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learnine. Alberta, Canada 



APPENDIX IV: SAMPLE LIST OF TEXT FORMS 



Written Texts 

Advertisements 

Biographies and autobiographies 

Brochures, pamphlets and leaflets 

Catalogues 

Dictionary and grammar items 

Encyclopedia entries 

Folk tales and legends 

Forms 

Instructions and other "how to" texts 

Invitations 

Journals, diaries and logs 

Labels and packaging 

Letters — business and personal 

Lists, notes, personal messages 

Maps 

Menus 

Newspaper and magazine articles 

Plays 

Poetry 

Programs 

Questionnaires 

Recipes 

Reports and manuals 

Short stories and novels 

Signs, notices, announcements 

Stories 

Textbook articles 

Tickets, timetables and schedules 



Oral Texts 

Advertisements 

Announcements 

Ceremonies — religious and secular 

Debates 

Formal and informal conversations 

Interviews 

Lectures 

Messages 

Oral stories and histories 

Plays and other performances 

Reports and presentations 

Songs and hymns 

Telephone conversations 

Multimedia Texts 

• Comic strips 

• Computer and board games 

• Movies and films 

• Slide/tape and video presentations 

• Television programs 

• Web sites 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix IV: Sample List of Text Forms /65 

2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
66/ Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

..,., ©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



APPENDIX V: GLOSSARY 



Actional competence 
Cohesion and coherence 



Communicative competence 



See "communicative competence." 

Cohesion and coherence are two important elements of discourse 
competence — see below. Cohesion in a discourse sequence is created 
by many words or phrases that link one part of the text to another. 
Coherence is more concerned with the large structure of texts: a 
single theme or topic, the sequencing or ordering of the sentences, and 
the organizational pattern; e.g., temporal sequencing, cause and effect, 
condition and result. Texts that are cohesive and coherent are easier 
to interpret. 

The model of communicative competence adopted in this document is 
roughly based on the models of Canale and Swain (1980), and Celce- 
Murcia, Dornyei and Thurrell (1995), but it includes insights from a 
number of other researchers including Byram (1997), Bachman 
(1990) and Cohen (1998). It includes the following components: 

Grammatical competence is defined by Savignon (1983) as 
"mastery of the linguistic code, the ability to recognize the lexical, 
morphological, syntactic, and phonological features of a language and 
to manipulate these features to form words and sentences" (p. 37). 
These elements of communicative competence are developed in the 
Language Competence component under the cluster heading "attend 
to form." Following Celce-Murcia, Dornyei and Thurrell (1995), 
orthography has been added in the Framework. 

Discourse competence "is the ability to interpret a series of sentences 
or utterances in order to form a meaningful whole and to achieve 
coherent texts that are relevant to a given context" (Savignon 1983, 
p. 40). It involves understanding and being able to use words and 
grammatical functions to make connections between elements of a 
text so that the text forms a meaningful whole. 

Some examples of these words and grammatical functions are 
noun-pronoun references; relative pronouns; conjunctions, such as 
but, and, so; and words and phrases, such as therefore, afterward, on 
the other hand, besides, for example. Discourse competence is 
developed in the Language Competence component under the cluster 
heading "apply knowledge of how discourse is organized, structured 
and sequenced." 



Sociolinguistic or sociocultural competence has to do with the 
appropriateness of language in relation to the context or situation. It 
includes such elements as sensitivity to differences in register or 
variations in language, nonverbal communication, and idiomatic 
expressions. Sociocultural competence is developed in the Language 
Competence component under the cluster heading "apply knowledge 
of the sociocultural context." 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix V: Glossary /67 
2001 



Content-based language 
learning 

Culture 



Functional or actional competence covers the purposes of language 
users, the contexts in which they can operate and the functions that 
they can carry out using the language. This competence is defined in 
the Applications component of the Framework. 

Intercultural competence is a combination of knowledge, skills and 
attitudes that enables individuals to communicate and interact across 
cultural boundaries. It includes the skills of finding information about 
a culture; interpreting this information in order to understand the 
beliefs, meanings and behaviours of members of that culture; relating 
one's own culture to the target culture; and interacting with members 
of that culture. In the process of developing these skills, language 
learners will acquire knowledge of the other culture, a heightened 
awareness of their own, as well as knowledge of the processes of 
interaction between two cultures. A precondition for successful 
intercultural interaction is an attitude of openness and curiosity, as 
well as a willingness to look at the world from the point of view of the 
other culture. Intercultural competence is developed in the Global 
Citizenship component of the Framework. 

Strategic competence, in early models of communicative 
competence, was defined as "ways to avoid potential [difficulties], or 
repair actual difficulties in communication, coping with 
communication breakdown, using affective devices" (Citizenship and 
Immigration Canada 1996, p. 13). The concept was later expanded to 
include any strategies used to enhance communication and language 
learning. See the entries for "language learning strategies" and 
"language use strategies" in this glossary. Strategic competence is 
developed in the Strategies component of the Framework. 

In content-based language learning, students learn a second language 
while they are learning content from another subject area. This is the 
approach taken in French immersion and bilingual programming. 

The members of the culture task force of the National Core French 
Study (LeBlanc 1990) have defined culture as "the general context 
and way of life. It is the behaviours and beliefs of a community of 
people whose history, geography, institutions, and commonalities are 
distinct and distinguish them to a greater or lesser degree from all 
other groups" (p. 44). An important element of a people's way of life 
is their means of communicating amongst themselves; that is, their 
language. 

Historical and contemporary elements of the culture may include 
historical and contemporary events; significant individuals; emblems 
or markers of national identity (myths, cultural products, significant 
sites, events in the collective memory); public institutions: 
geographical space (regions, landmarks, borders, frontiers); social 
distinctions; conventions of behaviour; and beliefs, taboos, 
perceptions and perspectives. Choices about which elements to 
include should reflect the importance of the element within the 
culture, and the interests and developmental level of the students. 



68/ Appendix V: Glossary 
2001 



WCP Framework tor International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning. Alberta. Canada 



Discourse 



Discourse is connected speech or writing that extends beyond a single 
sentence or utterance. 



Discourse competence 
Diverse, diversity 



Functional competence 
Grammatical competence 
Guided situations 



See "communicative competence." 

Within most cultures, there are groups of people who have cultural 
beliefs, values and practices that are different from the majority or 
mainstream culture. These differences may be based on religion, 
national or ethnic origin, social class, race, or colour. 

See "communicative competence." 

See "communicative competence." 

This term is used to describe all the methods teachers and other 
helpful conversational partners use to help language learners 
understand and produce language. 

Oral language is more easily understood if speech is slow and clearly 
articulated, with pauses to assimilate meaning, and if it is 
accompanied by gestures, facial expressions, body language or visuals 
that help to express the meaning. Language learners will have less 
difficulty understanding a familiar speaker — one whose voice, accent 
and speech habits are well known to them — speaking about a topic 
that they know well and are interested in. 

Written language is more easily understood if, for example, there are 
illustrations to support the text, there are titles and subtitles to guide 
the reader, and the topic is a familiar one. 

Both oral and written production can be guided by providing 
students with language models; e.g., sample sentence structures, text 
forms and patterns of social interaction, and by providing a 
language-rich environment; e.g., illustrated thematic vocabulary lists 
on classroom walls, labels on classroom objects, correction guides, 
illustrated dictionaries. 



Idiomatic expression 



As students become more proficient, these supports can gradually be 
removed until the language they are exposed to closely resembles 
language in authentic situations. 

An idiom or an idiomatic expression is a word or group of words that 
has a commonly accepted meaning that is different from the literal 
meaning. Some examples are: he passed away (he died), happy as a 
lark (very happy), I'm fed up (I've had enough, I'm disgusted, I'm 
bored). 



Intercultural competence 
Kinaesthetic ability 



See "communicative competence." 

This is the ability to use the body to express ideas and feelings, and to 
use the hands to produce or transform things. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix V: 



Glossary /69 
2001 



Language learning strategies 



Language use strategies 



Lexical phrase 



Lexicon 



Mechanical conventions 



These are actions taken by learners to enhance their language 
learning. 

Cognitive strategies operate directly on the language and include 
such things as using different techniques for remembering new words 
and phrases, deducing grammar rules or applying rules already 
learned, guessing at the meaning of unknown words, or using 
different ways to organize new information and link it to previously 
learned language. 

Metacognitive strategies are higher order skills that students use to 
manage their own learning. They include planning for, monitoring 
and evaluating the success of language learning. 

Social strategies are actions learners take in order to interact with 
other learners or with speakers of the target language. 

Affective strategies are methods learners use to regulate their 
emotions, motivation and attitudes to make them more conducive to 
learning. 

These are actions taken to enhance communication. In early 
conceptual models of communicative competence (Canale and Swain 
1980), strategic competence was one component. It was defined as 
the strategies used "to compensate for breakdowns in communication 
due to performance variables or to insufficient competence" (p. 30). 
Subsequent models have broadened the definition to include non- 
compensatory strategies. The term "language use strategies" is being 
used, rather than "communication strategies" to reflect this broader 
range. The strategies in the Framework are organized according to 
the three communicative modes: interactive, interpretive and 
productive. 

Language use strategies can be seen as a subcategory of language 
learning strategies, since any action taken to enhance communication 
or to avoid communication breakdown can be seen as increasing the 
chances that language learning will take place. Language use 
strategies can, however, be used with no intention of trying to 
improve learning of the language. 

A group of words that functions like a single word; e.g., all of a 
sudden, lie down, well done. 

Lexicon covers all kinds of words, both content words; e.g., dog, run, 
happy, and function words; e.g., him, from, but. It also includes 
lexical phrases, which are groups of words that function like single 
words; e.g., all of a sudden. 

These are the conventions used to make written text easier to read. 
They include such things as capitalization, punctuation, paragraphs, 
titles or headings. 



70/ Appendix V: Glossary 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Leamine. Alberta. Canada 



Morphology 



Nonverbal communication 



Morphology is the part of grammar that deals with changes in words 
that mark their function in the sentence; e.g., changes in verb endings 
or adjectives to mark agreement. 

A large part of what we communicate is done without the use of 
words. Meaning can be communicated by gestures, eye contact, 
facial expressions, body language, physical distance, touching, 
sounds, noises and silence. 



Orthography 



Patterns of social interaction 



Orthography describes the writing system of the language: the 
correlation between the sounds and the spelling where the writing 
system is alphabetic; the rules of spelling; as well as mechanical 
conventions, such as capitalization and punctuation. 

Social interaction often follows fairly predictable patterns. Very 
simple patterns are made up of two or three exchanges; e.g., 
greeting-response. More complex patterns may have some 
compulsory elements and some optional elements that depend on the 
situation; e.g., express an apology, accept responsibility, offer an 
explanation, offer repair, promise nonrecurrence. Lengthy 
interactions and transactions can be carried out by combining simpler 
ones to suit the situation. 



Phonology 



Phonology describes the sound system of the language, including 
pronunciation of vowels and consonants, intonation, rhythm and 
stress. 



Proficiency 



Register 



Social conventions 



Canadian Language Benchmarks (Citizenship and Immigration 
Canada 1996) defines proficiency as "communicative competence, 
demonstrated through the ability to communicate and negotiate 
meaning and through the ability to interact meaningfully with other 
speakers, discourse, texts and the environment in a variety of 
situations" (p. 10). 

Register is the level of formality of speech or writing, based on the 
social context in which the language is used. Casual conversation 
uses an informal register, while situations like a public lecture or a 
radio broadcast demand a more formal register. The language used in 
a personal letter to a good friend or a close family member differs 
considerably from that in a formal letter in the business world. 

These are the customs that accompany speech in social situations. 
They include actions, such as bowing, shaking hands or kissing; 
topics that are taboo in conversation; conventions for turn taking, 
interrupting or refusing politely; and appropriate amounts of silence 
before responding. 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 



Appendix V: Glossary /71 
2001 



Sociocultural competence 
Sociolinguistic competence 
Spatial ability 

Strategic competence 
Syntax 



See "communicative competence." 

See "communicative competence." 

This is the ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and 
to work with these perceptions. It includes sensitivity to colour, line, 
shape, form, space and the relationships among them. 

See "language use strategies." 

Syntax is the part of grammar that deals with language at the sentence 
level; e.g., word order, types of sentences, the way sentences are 
constructed. 



Task 



Task-based language learning 



Text 



Text forms 



Variations in language 



Task is used in the Framework to mean "a piece of work that involves 
learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in 
the target language while their attention is principally focused on 
meaning rather than form" (adapted from Nunan 1989). 

In task-based language learning, classes are structured around 
meaningful tasks rather than around elements of the language itself, 
such as grammar structures, vocabulary themes or language functions. 

Any connected piece of language, whether a spoken utterance or a 
piece of writing, that language users/learners interpret, produce or 
exchange. There cannot, therefore, be an act of communication 
through language without a text. 

Different kinds of texts have typical structures. A letter, for example, 
has a different form or structure than a report or a poem. An oral 
interview is different from an announcement or an oral presentation. 
A sample list of text forms can be found in Appendix IV. 

Within any language, there are variations in the way people speak and 
write. Language can vary with the age, gender, social class, level of 
education and occupation of the speaker or writer. It can also vary 
from region to region within a country. Variations include differences 
in accent, vocabulary and sometimes syntax, as well as differences in 
social conventions. 



72/ Appendix V: Glossary 
2001 



WCP Framework for International Languages 
Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

©Alberta Leamine, Alberta. Canada 



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74/ References Six-year Program (Grade 7 to Grade 12) 

2001 ©Alberta Learnirm. Alberta. Canada