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A GLOSSARY /<f>6 z 










1861 . 






This Glossary is intended to assist the student of scientific 
works, and the general reader, by giving the etymologies and 
significations of such words as are peculiar to the various 
sciences, together with those of common use having special 
meanings in science. 

In drawing up the work, the author has collected the defini¬ 
tions, wherever practicable, from the most modern standard 
treatises on the different sciences. He has also availed him¬ 
self of the assistance derivable from the “ Imperial Diction¬ 
ary,” and the excellent “Expository Lexicon” of Dr. Mayne. 
In all cases he has endeavoured to give the definitions in as 
concise and simple a form as is compatible with clearness. 
The accentuation of the words has been carefully marked; and, 
for the use of those unacquainted with Greek, the Greek words 
have been printed in both Greek and Roman characters. 

1 5, George Street, Portman Square, W. 

November , 1860. 



Ab acus (Lat. a slab or board). An in¬ 
strument for calculating, consisting 
of an oblong frame, across which are 
stretched wires, each supplied with 
ten balls; in architecture, a table 
forming the upper part or crowning 
of a column and its capital. 

Abattoir' (Fr. abattre, to fell or strike 
down). A public slaughter-house. 

Abdomen (Lat. abdo, I hide). That 
cavity of the animal body in verte¬ 
brates which contains the organs of 
digestion; in insects, the hinder 
part of the body, which appears 
united to the fore part by a thread. 

Abdom'inal (Lat. abdomen). Belong¬ 
ing to the abdomen : applied to an 
order of fishes which have the ventral 
fins attached under the abdomen 
behind the pectoral fins. 

Abdn'cent (Lat. ab, from ; duco, I 
lead). Drawing away or separating. 

Abduc'tion (Lat. ab, from ; duco, I 
lead). A drawing away. 

Abduc'tor (Lat. ab, from ; duco, I 
lead). A leader or drawer away : 
applied to certain muscles. 

Aber'rant (Lat. ab, from ; erro, I 
wander). Deviating from the type 
of the natural group. 

Aberration (Lat. ab, from ; erro, I 
wander). A wandering aw 7 ay; in 
optics, spherical aberration is indis¬ 
tinctness in the optical image pro¬ 
duced by a convex lens, from the 
formation of images on the exterior 
part of the lens ; chromatic aberra¬ 
tion, false colouring of an optical 
image from the decomposition of 

light by a lens into its primary 
colours; in astronomy, an apparent 
motion of the fixed stars, by which 
they appear at a small distance 
from their real place; in medicine, 

Ablacta'tion (Lat. ab, from ; lac, 
milk). Weaning. 

Abla'tion (Lat. ab, from; latus, car¬ 
ried). A taking away. 

Ablative (Lat. ab, away; latus, borne). 
Taking away; in grammar, applied 
to a case of nouns, denoting an 
action of taking away. 

Ablu'tion(Lat. ab, from; lavo, I wash). 
A washing. 

Abnor'mal (Lat. ab, from ; norma, a 
rule). Not according to rule ; un¬ 

Aboma'sum (Lat. ab, from ; omasum, 
the paunch). The fourth stomach 
of ruminant animals. 

Aboriginal (Lat. ab, from ; origo, an 
origin). First; primitive ; original. 

Aborigines (Lat. ab, from ; origo, an 
origin). The first or primitive in¬ 
habitants of a country. 

Abor'tion (Lat. aborto, I miscarry). 
The expulsion of a foetus before the 
proper term ; a miscarriage; an in¬ 
complete formation. 

Abor'tive (Lat. aborto, I miscarry). 
Unfruitful; incomplete; having the 
property of arresting development. 
Abran'chiate (Gr. a, a, not; f3pa.yx ia ) 
bran'chia, gills). Without gills. 

Abra'sion (Lat. ab, from ; rado, I 
shave). A tearing or rubbing off, 
as of a piece of skin. 




Abrupt (Lat. ab, from; rumpo, I 
break). Broken off; in botany , 
applied to leaves and roots which 
appear as if the extremity had been 
cut off. 

Abscess (Lat. absctdo, I depart). 
A collection of pus or matter. 

Abscis'sa (Lat. abscin'do, I cut off). 
- That part of the diameter of a conic 
section which lies between thevertex 
or some other fixed point and a semi¬ 
ordinate, or the half of a straight 
line drawn at right angles to the 

Abscis'sion (Lat. ab, away ; scindo, I 
cut). A cutting away, or removal. 

Ab'solute (Lat. ab, from; solvo, I 
loosen). Independent; perfect or 
complete in itself ; pure. 

Absorb'ent (Lat. absorb 1 eo, I sup up). 
Having the property of sucking or 
supping up fluids, as a sponge. 

Absorp'tion (Lat. absorb'eo, I sup up). 
The act or process of sucking or 
supping up moisture. 

Abster'gent (Lat. abster'geo, I wipe 
clean). Cleansing. 

Abstract (Lat. abs, from ; traho , I 
draw). Separate ; applied to the 
ideas of number, properties of mat¬ 
ter, &c., considered by themselves 
without reference to the subject 
which they qualify; an outline of a 
treatise or writing. 

Abstraction (Lat. abs, away ; traho, 
I draw). Removal; a taking away; 
the consideration of a part or pro¬ 
perty of an object independently of 
the rest. 

Acale'phse (Gr. aKaXycpy, acalephe, a 
nettle). A class of sea-animals of the 
radiated division; so called because 
some of them, when taken in the 
hand, sting like nettles. 

Acantha'ceous (Gr. cucavOa, acantlia, 
a spine). Having prickles. 

Acanthoceph'ala (Gr. a.K<xvQa.,acantha, 
a spine ; KecpaXrj, keph'ale, the head). 
Intestinal worms having the head 
armed with spines or hooks. 

Acanthopteryg'ii (Gr. b.KavQa,acantha, 
a spine; ttt epvyiov, pteru'gion , afin). 
An order of fishes having the first 
fin supported by bony spiniform 

Acar'diac (Gr. a, a , not; uapfiia, 
kar'dia, a heart). Without a heart. 

Acaules'cent (Gr. a, a, not; Lat. 
caulis, a stem). Having no stem. 

Acau'lous (Gr. a, a, not; Lat. caulis, 
a stem). Stemless. 

Accelerate (Lat. ad, to; celer, quick). 
To quicken. 

Accelerated motion. In mechanics, 
that motion which constantly re¬ 
ceives additional velocity. 

Accel'erator (Lat. ad, to; cel'er, quick). 
That which quickens : applied in 
anatomy to certain muscles. 

Accessory (Lat. accedo, I approach, 
or am added to). Added to some 
person or thing in a secondary rela¬ 

Aocip'itres (Lat. ad, to; capio, I 
take). An order of birds including 
the rapacious fowl, as the eagle, 
vulture, hawk, &c. 

Acclima'tion (Lat. ad, to ; Gr. k\ iga, 
klima, a region of the earth). The 
process of becoming accustomed to 
a climate. 

Accliv'ity (Lat. acclivus, ascending). 
A slope of the earth, considered as 

Accre'tion (Lat. ad, to ; cresco, I 
grow). A growing or increase ; a 
growing together. 

Accumula'tion (Lat. ad, to; cumulo, 
I heap up). A heaping together ; 
in mechanics, accumulation of 
power is the quantity of motion 
existing in machines after constant 
acceleration of the velocity of the 
moving body. 

Aceph'ala (Gr. a, a, not; icecpaX 77 , 
keph'ale, a head). An order of in¬ 
vertebrate animals without a head ; 
including oysters, mussels, and 
other bivalve animals. 

Aceph'alocyst (Gr. axecpaXos, akeph'- 
alos, headless ; kvcttis, kustis, a 
bladder). A parasitic hydatid con¬ 
sisting of a headless cyst or bag. 

Aceph'alous (Gr. a, a, not; KecpaXr], 
keph'ale, a head). Without a head. 

Ac' erose (Lat. acus, chaff). In botany, 
resembling chaff : applied to leaves 
which are linear and permanent, as 
in the pine or juniper. 

Aces'cent (Lat. acesco , I grow sour). 



Having a tendency to become 

Acetabuliferous ( Acetab'ulum; fero, 
I bear). Having acetabula or 

Acetab'ulum (Lat. a saucer). The 
round cup-like cavity in the pelvic 
bone, into which the head of the 
thigh-bone is received ; applied also 
to the sucking-cups of some inver¬ 
tebrate animals. 

Ac'etate (Lat. acetum, vinegar). A 
compound of acetic acid with a base. 

Aee'tic(Lat. acetum, vinegar). Belong¬ 
ing to vinegar. 

Acetom'eter (Lat. acetum , vinegar; 
Gr. perpor, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
strength of vinegar. 

Ace'tous (Lat. acetum, vinegar). 
Sour : producing vinegar. 

Ac'etyl (Lat. acetum, vinegar ; Gr. 
vXy, hula, material). The supposed 
base of vinegar and its allies. 

Ache'nium (Gr. a, a, not; x alvu i 
cliaino, I gape). A form of fruit 
consisting of a single hard pericarp, 
not splitting, and inclosing a single 
non-adherent seed. 

Achlamyd'eou3(Gr. a, a, not; x^ a P- v s, 
chlamus, a garment). A term ap¬ 
plied to plants, the flowers of which 
have neither calyx nor corolla. 

Achromatic (Gr. a, a, not; xpup-a, 
chroma, colour). Free from colour : 
applied to optical instruments in 
which the confusing effect of chro¬ 
matic aberration, or decomposition 
of light into colours, is avoided. 

Achro'matism (Gr. a, a, not; xp° J / ia f 
chroma , colour). Freedom from 
colour : applied to optical instru¬ 
ments which do not decompose light 
so as to produce colours. 

Acic'ular (Lat. acic'ula, a little needle). 
Occurring in needle-like crystals. 

Acid (Lat. aceo, I am sour). In com¬ 
mon meaning, sour , in chemistry, 
applied to all bodies which combine 
with bases to form salts. 

AcidifFable (Lat. ac'idus, acid ; fio, 
I become). Capable of being con¬ 
verted into an acid, or made 

Acid'ify (Lat. ac'idus , acid; facio, I 

make). To make acid, or change 
into an acid. 

Acidim'eter (Lat. ac'idus , acid ; Gr. 
perpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for ascertaining the 
quantity of acid in a fluid. 

Acid salt. In chemistry, a name 
given to some salts which have an 
acid reaction. 

Acid'ulate (Lat. ac'idus, acid ; dim. 
ulus). To make slightly acid. 

Acid'ulons (Lat. ac'idus, acid ; dim. 
ulus). Slightly or mildly acid. 

Acinac'iform (Gr. cuavaKys, aJcinaJccs, 
a scimitar ; Lat. forma, shape). 
Like a scimitar; in botany, ap¬ 
plied to leaves which are convex 
and sharp on one side, and straight 
and thick on the other. 

Ac'ini (Lat. ac'inus, a grape-stone). 
The secreting parts of glands, when 
suspended like grains or small ber¬ 
ries to a slender stem. 

Acin'iform (Lat. ac'inus, a grape- 
stone ; forma, shape). In clusters 
like grapes. 

Ac' inose (Lat. ac'inus, a grape-stone). 
Consisting of small granular con¬ 

Acme (Gr. aKp.ii, acme, a point). The 
height or extreme limit. 

Acotyle'donous (Gr. a, a, not; kotvXt}- 
Sau, kotuledbn, a cup, or seed-lobe). 
Having no seed-lobes, or leaves 
which first appear above ground. 

Acous'tic (Gr. aicovco, akoud, I hear). 
Relating to sound and hearing. 

Acous'tics (Gr. anouoc, akouo, I hear). 
The science which describes the 
phenomena of sound. 

Ac'rita (Gr. aupiros, alc'ritos, unar¬ 
ranged). A term applied to the 
lowest animals, in which the tissues 
were supposed to be confusedly 
blended together. 

Ac'rodont (Gr. anpos, akros, at the 
summit; oSovs, odous, a tooth). A 
term applied to fossil scaly saurians, 
which have the teeth anchylosed to 
the summit of the alveolar ridge. 

Ac'rogen (Gr. aupos, akros, high or 
extreme ; yevvaw, gennao, I pro¬ 
duce). A class of vegetables charac¬ 
terised by growing from the top or 

B 2 



Acro'mial (Acromion). Belonging to 
the acromion. 

Acro'mion (Gr. cucpos, aJcros, high or 
extreme ; wyos, omos, a shoulder). 
The projecting or outer point of the 

Acrop'olis (Gr. cucpos, ah'os, highest; 

7 toAis, polis, a city). The highest 
part or citadel of a city ; in par¬ 
ticular that of Athens. 

Ac'rospire (Gr. cucpos, akros, a sum¬ 
mit ; crneipa, speira, a spire). The 
shoot or sprout of a seed. 

Acrote'rium (Gr. cucpoTtipiov, akroti- 
rion). In architecture, a small 
pedestal at the angle or vertex of a 

Actin'ic (Gr. cuctiv, aktin, a ray). 
Applied to those rays of the sun 
by which chemical effects are pro¬ 

Actin'iform (Gr. cuctiv, aktin, a ray ; 
Lat. forma, form). Having a 
radiated form. 

Actinism (Gr. cuctiv, aktin, a ray). 
A property of certain rays of the 
sunbeam, by which chemical changes 
are produced. 

Actinoc'eros (Gr. cuctiv, aktin, a ray; 
icepas, keras, a horn). A term im¬ 
plying the radiated disposition of 
parts like horns. 

Actin'olite (Gr. cuctiv, aktin, a ray 
or thorn ; A idos, lithos, a stone). 
A granitic mineral composed of 
radiated thorn-like crystals. 

Actinom'eter (Gr. cuctiv, aktin, a ray; 
pccTpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the heat¬ 
ing power of the sun’s rays. 

Aculea'ta (Lat. acu'leus, a sting). A 
group of hymenopterous or mem¬ 
brane-winged insects, provided with 
stings, as wasps and bees. 

Acu'leate (Lat. acu'leus, a prickle). 
Having prickles or stings. 

Acu'minate (Lat. acu'men, a sharp 
point). Having a long projecting 

Acupunc'ture (Lat. acus, a needle ; 
pungo , I prick). The operation 
of pricking with a needle. 

Acute (Lat. aciitus, sharp). Sharp, 
in geometry, applied to an angle 
which is less than a right-angle ; 

in medicine, applied to diseases 
which speedily come to an end. 

Adaptation (Lat. ad, to ; aptus, fit). 
A fitting. 

Addu'cent (Lat. ad, to ; duco, I lead). 
Leading or bringing towards. 

Adduc'tion (Lat. ad, to; duco, I lead). 
The act of bringing towards. 

Adduc'tor (Lat. ad, to; duco, I lead). 
A leader or bringer towards. 

Ade'niform (Gr. adyv, aden, a gland; 
Lat. forma, shape). Shaped like 
a gland. 

Adeni'tis (Gr. afir}v, aden, a gland; 
itis, denoting inflammation). In¬ 
flammation of glands. 

Ad'enoid (Gr. atiriv, aden, a gland; 
eiSoy, eidos, form). Like a gland. 

| Adenol'ogy (Gr. dSrjv, aden, a gland; 
A 070 S, logos, a word or discourse). 
A description of glands. 

Adfec'ted (Lat. ad, to; facio, I make). 
Compounded ; containing different 
powers of the same quantity. 

Adhe'sion (Lat. ad, to ; hcereo, I stick 
fast). A sticking together. 

Adhe'sive (Lat. ad, to; hcereo, I 
stick.) Having the power of ad¬ 
hering ; or promoting this pro¬ 

Adipoce f re (Lat. adeps, fat; cera, 
wax). A peculiar substance pro¬ 
duced in dead animal bodies under 
certain circumstances. 

Ad'ipose (Lat. adeps, fat). Belonging 
to, or consisting of fat. 

Adit (Lat. adeo, I go to). A passage 
or approach to a mine. 

Adjacent (Lat. ad, to ;jaceo, I lie). 
Lying near to. 

Adjustment (Lat. ad, to; justus, 
just). A fitting; the means by 
which an optical instrument is fitted 
for taking a correct view of an ob¬ 

Admixtion (Lat. acl, to ; miscco, I 
mix). A mixing of different sub¬ 
stances, without change of nature. 

Adnascent (Lat. ad, to; nascor, I am 
born). Growing to or on. 

Adnate (Lat. ad, to ; nascor, I am 
born). Growing together. 

Adoles'cence (Lat. adoles'co, I grow). 
The period between childhood and 
full growth. 



Adul'terate (Lat. ad, to ; alter, the 
other). TA) corrupt or make im¬ 
pure by an admixture of materials 
of inferior quality. 

Adus'tion (Lat. ad, to; uro, I burn). 
A burning or heating to dryness. 

Adventitious (Lat. ad, to; venio, I 
come). Coining accidentally, or 
out of place. 

Adynam/ic(Gr. a, a, not; 5wapus, du'- 
namis, power). Without power ; 
applied to invalids, in which there 
is diminution of the powers of life 
to resist the disease. 

iEgoph'ony (Gr. dt£, aix, a goat; 

< pwvri, phone, voice). In medicine, 
a peculiar trembling sound of the 
voice as heard through the chest in 
some diseased states, resembling 
the bleating of a goat. 

A'erated (Lat. aer, the air). Charged 
with air; applied to waters charged 
with carbonic acid gas. 

Aera'tion (Lat. aer, the air). The 
art of charging with air or gas ; 
or of exposing soils to the action of 
the air. 

Ae'rial (Lat. aer, the air). Belong¬ 
ing to, or consisting of air. 

A'eriform (Lat. aer, the air; forma, 
shape). Resembling air. 

Aerodynamics (Gr. drip, aer, air;, dvlnamis, power). The 
science of the mechanical effects of 
air in motion. 

A'erolite (Gr. drip, aer, air; \i9os, 
lithos, a stone). A meteoric stone ; 
a mineral mass which falls through 
the air. 

Aerol'ogy (Gr. drip, aer, air; Xoyos, 
logos, a word or description). A 
description of the air. 

Aerom'eter (Gr. drip, aer, air; fierpov, 
metron, a measure). An instru¬ 
ment for ascertaining the weight of 
air, or the bulk of gases. 

Aerom'etry (Gr. drip, aer, air; fierpov, 
metron, a measure). The science 
of measuring air. 

A'eronaut (Gr drip, aer, air; vavr-qs, 
nautes, a sailor). One who sails 
in the air by means of a balloon. 

Aeropho'bia (Gr. drip, aer-, air; (polios, 
phobos, fear). A dread of air. 

A'erophyte (Gr. drip, «cr, air; <pva>, 

phuo, I grow). A plant which lives 
in air. 

Aerostatics (Gr. drip, aer, air; tarrifu, 
histemi, I weigh). The science 
which describes the properties of 
air at rest. 

Esthetics (Gr. aladavofiai, aisthan'o- 
mai, I perceive). The science of 
sensation, or of the cause of mental 
pleasure and pain derivable from 
observing the works of nature and 

-Estivation. See Estivation. 

Affection (Lat. ad, to; facio, I 
make). A disposition; used in 
medicine in the same sense as 

Afferent (Lat. ad, to; fero, I bring). 
Bringing to. 

Affinity (Lat. ajfi'nis, near to, or 
bordering on). Relationship ; an 
agreement in most essential charac¬ 
ters; disposition to unite, so as to 
form a new substance. 

Afflux (Lat. ad, to; fiuo, I flow). A 
flowing towards. 

Affusion (Lat. ad, to; fundo, I pour). 
A pouring on. 

After-damp. A gas emitted in coal¬ 
mines, very fatal to life; choke- 
damp or carbonic acid. 

Ag'amous (Gr. a, a, not; 7 apos, ga- 
mos, marriage). A term applied 
to cryptogamic plants, or those 
which appear to have no distinction 
of sexes. 

Agas'tric (Gr. a, a, not; yaar-qp, 
gaster, a stomach). Without a 
stomach or intestines. 

Agglom/erate (Lat. ad, to; glomus, 
a roll of yarn or thread). To col¬ 
lect together like thread on a ball. 

Agglu'tinant (Lat. ad, to; gluten, 
glue). Fastening together like glue. 

Agglu'tinate (Lat. ad, to; gluten, 
glue). To fasten together like glue. 

Aggregate (Lat. ad, to ; grex, a 
herd). To collect together into a 
mass; collected together. 

Aggregation (Lat. ad, to; grex, a 
herd). A collection; the act of 
collecting together into a mass. 

Agon'ic (Gr. a, a, not; ycovia, gonia, 
an angle). Without an angle : ap- 
i plied to two lines on the surface of 



the earth in which there is no decli¬ 
nation of the magnetic needle from 
the meridian. 

Agra'rian (Lat. ager , a field). Rela¬ 
ting to lands. 

Agriculture (Lat. ager, a field ; colo. 
I cultivate). The science of culti¬ 
vating the ground. 

Aiguille (Fr. a needle). In physical 
geography, applied to the sharp 
needle-like points of lofty moun¬ 

Air-bladder. A bladder containing 
air ; generally applied to a bag in 
the interior of fishes, capable of 
being filled with air—a rudimen¬ 
tary lung. 

Air-cell. A cell or cavity containing 

Air-pump. An instrument for with¬ 
drawing air from a vessel. 

Air-sac. A receptacle for holding air. 

Ak'era (Gr. a, a, not; uepas, lceras, 
a horn). A family of mollusca 
without horns or feelers. 

A'la (Lat.) Awing, ora projection 
like a wing. 

Alar (Lat. ala, a wing). Belonging 
to a wing. 

Alate (Lat. ala, a wing). Having 

Aibi'no (Lat. albus, white). A person 
or animal in whom the natural co¬ 
louring matter of the skin, hair, 
and eyes, is absent. 

Albugin'ea (Lat. albugo, a white spot 
in the eye). The white appearance 
in front of the eye, formed by the 
expanded tendons of the muscles 
which move the organ. 

Albugin'eous (Lat. albugo, a white 
spot in the eye). Belonging to or 
resembling the white of the eye. 

Albu'men (Lat. albus, white). A sub¬ 
stance found in animals and vege¬ 
tables, of which the white of egg is 
an example. 

Albuminip'arous (Lat. albumen, the 
white of egg ; pario , I produce). 
Producing or secreting albumen. 

Albu'minoid ( Albumen ; Gr. e!5os, 
eidos, form). Resembling albumen. 

Albu'minous (Lat. albumen, the white 
of egg). Belonging to or containing 

ATbur'num (Lat. albus, white). The 
softer wood or sap-wood, between 
the bark and the heart-wood. 

AT chemist (Arabic, al, the; Tcimia, 
secret; or Gr. ched, I pour). A 
person who practises alchemy. 

APchemy (Arab, al, the ; Jcimia , se¬ 
cret ; or Gr. %e<io, clieb, I pour). 
The pretended science of changing 
other metals into gold, &c. 

Al'cohol (Arab, al, the ; Jcohol). A 
fluid body produced by distillation 
from fermented spirits, in which it 
has been formed from sugar. 

Alcoholism (Alcohol). A diseased 
state, arising from the excessive 
use of alcoholic liquors. 

Alcohom'eter ( Alcohol; Gr. gerpov, 
vietron, a measure). An instru¬ 
ment for determining the strength 
of spirits by indicating the per¬ 
centage of pure alcohol. 

Alem'bic (Arab, al, the ; ambilc, a 
chemical vessel). A vessel used in 

Algse (Lat. alga, sea-weed). An order 
of cryptogamous plants, including 

Al'gebra (Arab, al, the ; gabar or 
chabar , to reduce parts to a whole). 
A method of computation in which 
signs (usually the letters of the al¬ 
phabet) represent quantities. 

Algebraical (Algebra). Pertaining 
to or performed by means of Algebra. 

Al'gia (Gr. d\yos, algos, pain). Used 
as the ending of a word, denotes pain 
in the part spoken of. 

Ai'gide (Lat. al'geo, I am cold). Ac¬ 
companied by great coldness ; ap¬ 
plied to diseases, such as fevers and 

Alienation (Lat. alienus, belonging 
to another ; foreign). A transfer¬ 
ring to another ; in medicine, in¬ 

Alienist (Fr .alie'ne, insane). Relating 
to insanity : applied to physicians 
who specially study insanity. 

Aliform (Lat. ala, a wing ; forma, 
shape). Shaped like a wing. 

Ailment (Lat. alo, I nourish). Food 
or nourishment. 

Aliment'ary (Lat. alo, I nourish). 
Belonging to food. 




Alimenta'tion (Lat. alo, I nourish). 
The act of receiving or imparting 

Aliquot (Lat. aliquot , some certain). 
A part which, multiplied by any 
entire number, exactly makes up a 
given whole. 

Alisphe'noid (Lat. ala, a wing; 
sphenoid). A term applied to the 
part of the skull in fishes which 
corresponds to the ake or wings of 
the sphenoid bone. 

Alkales'cent {Alkali). Having a ten¬ 
dency to be or to become alkaline. 

Al'kali (Arab.). A substance hav¬ 
ing the property of changing vege¬ 
table blues to red, and turmeric 
and rhubarb to brown, and of 
neutralising acids. 

Alkalig'enous ( Alkali; Gr. yevmw, 
gennab, I produce). Producing al¬ 

Alkalim'eter {Alkali; Gr. gerpov, 
metron, a measure). A graduated 
measure used by chemists in pro¬ 
cesses for ascertaining the amount 
of alkali in any substance. 

Alkalim'etry {A Ikali; Gr. gerpov, 
metron , a measure). The process 
by which the quantity of alkali in 
any substance is measured. 

Al'kaline {Alkali). Having the pro¬ 
perties of or containing an alkali. 

Alkalinity {Alkali). The condition 
produced by an alkali. 

Al'kaloid {Alkali; Gr. cloos, eidos, 
form). An organic body consisting 
of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and 
oxygen, having the general pro¬ 
perties of an alkali. 

Allan'toid {Allantois). A term ap¬ 

plied to the vertebrate animals 
of which the foetus is provided with 
an allantois ; including mammals, 
birds, and reptiles. 

Allan'tois (Gr. a\\as, alias, a sausage; 
elSos, eidos, form). One of the 
membranes which invest the foetus. 

Ailia'ceous (Lat. allium, garlic). Be¬ 
longing to or resembling garlic. 

Alliga'tion (Lat. ad, to; ligo, I bind). 
A tying together ; a rule in arith¬ 
metic for finding the average price 
of a compound of different sub¬ 

Allophyl'ian (Gr. aWos, alios, ano¬ 
ther ; <pv\rj, phule, a tribe). A 
term applied to the races supposed 
to have inhabited Europe before 
the passage into it of the Asian 

Allotrop'ic (Gr. a\\os, alios, another ; 
t p€7rcv, trepo, I turn). Having the 
property of existing in two or more 
forms with different physical pro¬ 
perties, the composition remaining 
the same. 

Alloy (Lat. ad, to ; ligo, I bind). A 
compound of two or more metals. 

Allu'vial (Lat. allu'vies, a muddy 
stream). Produced by deposit of 
mud, &c., washed down by water. 

Allu'vium (Lat. ad, to; lavo, I wash). 
The soil or land formed of matter 
washed together by the ordinary 
operations of water. 

Alope'cia (Gr. aAcvirri^, albptx, a 
fox). Loss of hair: foxes have 
been said to be subject to it. 

Alt-az'imuth. A term applied to an 
astronomical instrument for ob¬ 
serving both the altitude and 

Al'terative (Lat. alter, another). A 
medicine which gradually produces 
a change in the constitution. 

Altern'ate (Lat. alternus, belonging 
to one another). Being by turns; 
in botany, applied to branches and 
leaves which rise on opposite sides 
alternately; in geometry, to the 
internal angles made by a straight 
line cutting two parallel lines, and 
lying on opposite sides of the cut¬ 
ting line. 

Alternate generation. A form of 
reproduction in which the young do 
not resemble the parent but the 

Alt'itnde (Lat. altus, high). Height; 
in astronomy, applied to the l'eal 
or apparent height of a heavenly 
body from the horizon; in geo¬ 
metry, the distance of the vertex 
or summit from the base. 

Alula (Lat. ala, a wing). A little 

Aluminiferous (Lat. alumen, alum; 
fero, I bear). Producing alum. 

Alve'olar (Lat. alveolus, a socket). 



Belonging to the sockets in which 
the teeth are fixed; containing cells 
or pits. 

Alve'olus (Lat.) A cell or socket; in 
anatomy, the socket of a tooth ; the 
minute depressions in the mucous 
membrane of the stomach are also 
called alveoli. 

Al'vine (Lat. alvus, the belly). Be¬ 
longing to the bowels. 

Amal'gam (Gr. paXuacroo, malas'sb, I 
soften). A compound of mercury 
with another metal. 

Amalgamation. A process by which 
silver ore is purified by mixture 
with mercury ; a blending. 

Amauro'sis (Gr. agavpos, amauros, 
dark). Blindness from loss of power 
in the nervous system of the eye to 
receive or transmit the impression 
of light. 

Amblyg'onous (Gr. ag/dXvs, amblus, 
obtuse; yoovia, gonia, an angle). 
Having an obtuse angle. 

Amblyo'pia (Gr. d,u/3Aus, amblus, 
dim ; unp, bps, the eye). Amaurosis 
in a milder degree. 

Ambula'cra (Lat. am'bulo, I walk). 
The perforated plates in the shell of 

Am'bulance (Lat. am'bulo, I walk). 
A moveable hospital attached to an 
army in the field. 

Am'bulatory (Lat. am'bulo, I walk). 
Made for walking. 

Amentaceous {Amentum). Having 
flowers arranged in amenta or cat¬ 

Amen'tia (Lat. a, from or without; 
mens, the mind). Want of intel¬ 
lect; idiocy. 

Amen'tum (Lat., a thong). In botany , 
a form of inflorescence, resembling 
a spike. 

Ammoni'acal ( Ammonia, the volatile 
alkali). Pertaining to, or contain¬ 
ing ammonia. 

Am'monite {Ammon, one of the 
titles of Jupiter, under which his 
statue was represented with ram’s 
horns). A fossil shell of a cephal- 
opod, of a spiral form. 

Am'nion (Gr. dpviov, amnion, a bowl). 
One of the membranes surrounding 
the foetus; in botany, a thin sub¬ 

stance in which the embrvo of a 


plant is suspended when it first 

Amniot'ic {Amnion). Belonging to 
the amnion. 

Amor'phous (Gr. a, a, not ; yopcp-q, 
morphe, form). Without regular 
form; shapeless. 

Amorphozo'a (Gr. a, a, not; pop(prj, 
morphe, form ; (coov, zbon, an ani¬ 
mal). Animals ■without definite 
shape : applied to sponges and their 

Amphi (Gr. aycpis, amphis, on both 
sides; or, ag-cpu, amphb, both). A 
prefix signifying the co-existence of 
two things or properties; some¬ 
times signifying around (from agtyi, 
amphi, around). 

Amphiarthro'sis (Gr. aycpis, amphis, 
on both sides; apdpov, arthron , a 
joint). A form of joint which has 
the properties of two others, named 
diarthrosis and synarthrosis, and 
allows slight motion. 

Amphibich'nites {Ampliib'ia, animals 
living both on land and in water; 
Gr. ix^os, ichnos, a footstep). Fossil 
footprints of amphibious reptiles. 

Amphibious (Gr. agcpis, amphis, on 
both sides; jiios,bios, life). Liv¬ 
ing both on land and in water. 

Am'phibrach (Gr. agcpis, amphis, on 
both sides; [ipaxvs, brachus, short). 
In versification, a foot consisting of 
two short syllables with a loug one 

Amphicce'lia (Gr. dgcpis, amphis, on 
both sides ; kolXos, Tcoilos, hollow). 
A term applied to a sub-order of 
crocodiles which have the vertebral 
bones hollowed at both ends. 

Am'phipods (Gr. butyis, amphis, on 
both sides ; irons, pous, a foot). An 
order of Crustacea having feet for 
both walking and swimming. 

Amphis'cians (Gr. apcpts, amphis, on 
both sides ; cnaa, slcia, a shadow). 
The inhabitants of the tropics, whose 
shadows are thrown to the north in 
one part of the year and to the 
south in the other. 

Amphit'ropous (Gr. dycpis. amphis, on 
both sides ; rpe-rru, trepb, I turn). 
In botany, applied to ovules or 



seeds which are attached by the 

Amphoric (Lat. amphora, a pitcher). 
Belonging to a pitcher ; in medi¬ 
cine. , applied to a sound resembling 
that produced by speaking into an 
empty pitcher. 

Amplex'icaul (Lat. amplexor, I em¬ 
brace ; caulis , a stem). Embra¬ 
cing or surrounding a stem. 

Am'plitude (Lat. ampins, large). Size, 

Ampulla (Lat. a pitcher). In botany, 
applied to a leaf in which the petiole 
is dilated and hollowed out in the 
shape of a hollow vessel, open at 
the upper end ; in anatomy, to the 
diluted part of the membranous 
semicircular canals in the ear. 

Amputation (Lat. amputo, I cut or 
lop off). A cutting off a limb, or 
some part of the body. 

Amy'eious (Gr. a, a, not; fxveAos, 
mu'elos, marrow). Without a spinal 

Amyg'daloid (Lat. amyg'dala, an al¬ 
mond ; Gr. el5os,eidos, form). Like 
an almond : applied in geology to 
igneous rocks containing small al¬ 
mond-shaped cavities filled with 
some mineral of a different nature 
from the mass of the rock. 

Amyla'ceous (Lat. amylum, starch, 
from Gr. a, a, not; pvAri, mule, a 
mill). Belonging to or containing 

Am'yloid (Lat. amylum, starch ; Gr. 
ddos, eidos, shape). Resembling 

Anach'ronism (Gr. a va, ana, implying 
inversion ; xP ovos i chronos, time). 
An error in stating dates. 

Anse'mia (Gr. a, a, not; alga, haima, 
blood). Want of blood. 

Anae'mic (Gr. a, a, not; alga, haima, 
blood). Bloodless ; having a very 
insufficient quantity of blood. 

An8esthe'sia(Gr. a, a, not; aladavoyai, 
aisthan'omai, I feel). Loss of feel¬ 
ing or sensation. 

Anaesthetic (Gr. a, a, not; alaOavoyai, 
aistlian'omai, I feel). Producing loss 
of feeling or sensation. 

A'nal (Lat. anus, the excretory ori¬ 
fice). Belonging to or like the 

anus; applied to certain fins in 
fishes, from their position. 

Analep'tic (Gr. avaAayfiavw, analam'- 
band, I take up or restore). Re¬ 
storing health and strength. 

Anallan'toid(Gr. a, a, not ;allan'tois). 
A term applied to the vertebrate 
animals, of which the foetus is not 
provided with an allantois,—in¬ 
cluding batrachians and fishes. 

Analogous (Gr. ava, ana, with; 
A oyos, logos, ratio). Having a 
degree of similarity, but not iden¬ 
tical ; applied to parts which per¬ 
form a similar function, but are 
not identical in structure. 

An'alogue. That which bears a great 
resemblance to something else ; a 
part or organ in an animal which, 
though anatomically different, has 
the same function as another part 
or organ in a different animal. 

Anal'ogy (Gr. avaAoyia). An agree¬ 
ment in some characters, not in all. 

An'alyse (Gr. ava, ana, back ; Ai/&>, 
lud, I loosen). To separate any¬ 
thing into the parts or elements of 
which it is composed. 

Anal'ysis (Gr. ava, ana, back ; Avco, 
lud, I loosen). Separation of any¬ 
thing into its component parts or 

Analytical (Analysis). Pertaining 
to or performed by analysis. 

Anamnes'tic (Gr. ava, ana, back; 
pvaopai, mna'omai, I remember). 
Calling to remembrance. 

An' apsest (Gr. ava, ana, back; iraiw, 
paid, I strike). In versification, a 
foot consisting of three syllables, 
the first two short, the last long. 

Anasar'ca (Gr. ava, ana, through; 
<rap£, sarx, flesh). Dropsy of the 
parts lying beneath the skin. 

Anas'tomose (Gr. ava, ana, through ; 
aropa, stoma, a mouth). To unite 
as if by open mouths, as blood¬ 

Anastomosis (Gr. ava, ana, through; 
<tt oya, stoma, a mouth). A com¬ 
munication as if by mouths. 

Anat'omy (Gr. ava, ana, apart ; 
Teyvce, temnd, I cut). The science 
which teaches the structure of ani¬ 
mals and plants, as learned by dis- 



section. Vegetable anatomy teaches 
the structure of plants; human 
anatomy, that of man ; compara¬ 
tive anatomy, that of all animals, 
with the object of comparing them 
■with each other ; microscopic ana¬ 
tomy teaches the appearances of 
structures as seen under the micro¬ 
scope ; pathological anatomy, the 
changes in position and appearance 
produced by disease ; surgical ana¬ 
tomy describes regions of the body 
in reference to surgical operations. 

Anat'ropous (Gr. ava, ana, back; 
Tpeiroo, trepo, I turn). In botany, 
applied to a seed or ovule which is 
curved down and grown to the 
lower half. 

Anchylo'sis (more properly Ancylosis ; 
Gr. ayKv\ea, anku'leu, I bend). An 
immoveable state of a joint, from 
union of the surfaces which should 
move on each other. 

Ancone'us (Gr. ayuuv, ankon, the 
elbow). A name applied to a 
muscle situated over the elbow. 

Anco'noid (Gr. ayuwv, anlcun, an 
elbow; eidos, eidos, shape). Like 
an elbow. 

Androg'ynous (Gr. avpp, anir, a man ; 
yvvy, gune, a female). Having 
two sexes : applied to plants of 
which some flowers have stamens 
only, and others pistils only, on the 
same plant. 

Anelec'trode (Gr. ava, ana, up; 
electricity; oSos, hodos, a way). 
The positive pole of a galvanic 

Anella'ta (Lat. annellus, a little ring). 
See Annulata. 

Anemog'raphy (Gr. avegos, an'emos, 
wind ; ypa<pw, graphu , I write). A 
description of the winds. 

Anemol'ogy (Gr. avegos, an'emos, 
wind ; A oyos, logos, discourse). The 
doctrine of winds. 

Anemom'eter (Gr. avegos, an'emos, 
wind ; gerpov, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
direction and force of wind. 

Anem'oscope (Gr. avegos, an'emos, 
wind ; (TKoireco, skopeo, I look). 
An instrument for showing the 
•direction of the wind. 

Anencephal'ic (Gr. a, a, not; iyue- 
< pa\ov, enkepli'alon, the contents of 
the skull). Without brain. 

Anen'terous (Gr. a, a, not; evrepov, 
en'teron, an intestine). Without in¬ 

An'eroid (Gr. a, a, not; an)p, aer, air; 
eidos, eidos, form). Without air : 
applied to a peculiar kind of baro¬ 
meter, consisting of a small box 
from which air is exhausted. 

An'eurism (Gr. ava, ana, through ; 
evpvvw, euru'nd, I widen). A dis¬ 
eased state of an artery, in which 
it is widened at any part (generally 
from injury) so as to form a pouch 
or bag. 

Aneuris'mal (Aneurism). Pertaining 
to an aneurism. 

Anfraetuos'ity ( Anfractuous ). A 
turning or winding ; in anatomy, 
applied to the windings on the sur¬ 
face of the brain. 

Anfrac'tuous (Lat. anfrac'tus, a wind¬ 
ing). Winding ; in botany, applied 
to the lobes of an anther which are 
folded back on themselves, and 
doubled and bent, as in the cu¬ 

Angien'ehyma (Gr. ayyeiov, angei'on, 
a vessel ; eyx v P a , en'chumci, any¬ 
thing poured in). The vascular 
tissue of plants. 

Angi'na (Gr. dyx w > emchd, I strangle). 
Quinsey; a choking. 

Angiocar'pous (Gr. ayyeiov, angei'on, 
a vessel; Kapnos, karpos, a fruit). 
In botany, applied to seed-vessels 
inclosed in a case which does not form 
part of themselves, as the filbert. 

Angiol'ogy (Gr. ayyeiov, angei'on, a 
vessel ; A oyos, logos, discourse). A 
description of blood-vessels. 

Angiomonosper'mous (Gr. ayyeiov, 
angei'on, a vessel; govos, monos, 
single ; crnepga, sperma, a seed). 
Having one seed only in a pod. 

Angiosper'mous (Gr .ayyeiov, angei'on, 
a vessel ; cnrepga, sperma , a seed). 
Applied to plants the seeds of which 
are enclosed in a vessel. 

Angle of contact. The angle which a 
circle, or other curve, makes with 
a tangent at the point of contact. 

Angle of depression. The angle at 



which a straight line drawn from 
the eye to any object dips below 
the horizon. 

Angle of direction. In mechanics, 
the angle contained by the lines of 
direction of two forces tending to 
the same point. 

Angle of elevation. In trigonometry, 
the angle formed by two straight 
lines drawn in the same vertical 
plane from the observer’s eye, one 
to the top of the object, the other 
parallel to the horizon. 

Angle of incidence. The angle which 
a body, or a ray of light, forms at 
the surface on which it falls with 
a perpendicular to that surface. 

Angle of inclination. The mutual 
approach of two bodies, so as to 
make an angle where their lines of 
direction meet. 

Angle of polarization. In optics, the 
angle of incidence of a reflecting 
surface which, added to the cor¬ 
responding angle of refraction, sup¬ 
posing the ray to enter the medium, 
would make up a right angle, or 
90 degrees. 

Angle of position. In astronomy, the 
angle contained by two great circles 
passing through the earth, one per¬ 
pendicular to the plane of the 
ecliptic, the other to that of the 

Angle of reflection. The angle which 
a body or a ray of light rebounding 
from a surface makes with a per¬ 
pendicular to that surface. 

Angle of refraction. In optics, the 
angle which a ray of light passing 
from one medium to another makes 
with a perpendicular drawn through 
the line of incidence. 

Angle, solid. An angle made by 
more than two plane angles meeting 
in a point, and not lying in the 
same plane. 

Angle, spherical. An angle on the 
surface of a sphere, contained within 
the arcs of two intersecting cir¬ 

Angle, visual. In optics, the angle 
formed in the centre of the eye by 
lines drawn from the extremities of 
an object. 

An'gular (Lat. an'gulus, a corner). 
Having or relating to angles. 

An'gulate (Lat. an'gulus, an angle). 
Having an angular shape. 

Anhelation (Lat. anhelo, I breathe 
short). Short breathing; pant¬ 

Anhy'drous (Gr. a, a, not; vSoop, 
huddr, water). Free from water; 
without water of crystallization. 

Animal (Lat. anima, life, breath). A 
body having life, sensation, and vo¬ 
luntary motion. 

Animal'cule (Lat. animal, an animal; 
ule, signifying smallness). An ani¬ 
mal of very small size. 

Animal heat. The warmth which 
animals possess in themselves. 

Animalisa'tion (Lat. animal, an ani¬ 
mal). The art of imparting the 
properties belonging animal, 
or to animal structures; a peopling 
with animals. 

An'ion (Gr. duct, up ; lav, ion, going). 
That substance which passes to the 
anode in electrolysis. 

Anneal (Saxon on, on : celan, to 
burn). To heat glass, &c., for 
the purpose of rendering it less 

Annual (Lat. annus, a year). Oc¬ 
curring every year. 

An'nelids (Lat. annel'lus, a little ring; 
Gr. elSus, eidos, form). A class of 
invertebrate animals, so called be¬ 
cause appai'ently composed of rings, 
including earth-worms and leeches. 

An'nular (Lat. annulus, a ring). 
Shaped like a ring. 

Annula'ta (Lat. annulus, a ring). 
Having rings : applied to a division 
of the animal kingdom, including 
invertebrates having the body ar¬ 
ranged in rings. 

An'ode (Gr. ava, ana, up; o5os, hod'os, 
a way). The way by which elec¬ 
tricity enters substances. 

An'odyne (Gr. a, a, not; ddvurj, odu'nt, 
pain). Relieving pain. 

Anom'alous (Gr. a, a, not; oyaXos, 
hom'alos, level, or equal). De¬ 
parting from a general rule; 

Anom'aly (Gr. a, a, not ; dyaXos, 
hom'alos, level or equal). Irregu- 



larity ; deviation from an ordinary 
law or type ; in astronomy , the 
angle formed by a line drawn from 
the sun to the place of a planet, 
with the greater axis of the planet’s 

Anomodon'tia (Gr. avogos, an'omos, 
irregular ; odovs, odous, a tooth). 
An extinct order of reptiles, with 
teeth wanting, or in various irregular 

Anomou'ra (Gr. avogos, an'omos, irre¬ 
gular ; oh pa, our a, a tail). A 
section of decapodous or ten-footed 
crustaceans, having tails of interme¬ 
diate length between the long-tailed 
and short-tailed, as the hermit crab. 

Anoplothe'rium (Gr. a, a, not; ottAov, 
hoplon, a weapon ; 6-rjpiov, therion, 
a beast). A fossil pachydermatous 
animal, having no evident organs 
of defence. 

Anoplu'res (Gr. a, a, not; bnAov, 
hoplon, a weapon ; ovpa, oura, a 
tail). An order of wingless and 
stingless insects, living as parasites 
on other animals. 

Anorexia (Or. a, a , not; ope£is, 
orexis, desire). Loss of appetite 
for food. 

Anor'mal (Lat. a from ; norma, a 
rule). See Abnormal. 

Anou'rous (Gr. a, a, not ; ovpa, oura, 
a tail). Without a tail. 

An' serine (Lat. anser, a goose). Be¬ 
longing to or resembling a goose. 

Antac'id (Gr. am, anti, against ; 
acid). Opposed to acids ; counter¬ 
acting their effects. 

Antae. In architecture, the pier- 
formed ends of the side-walls of 
temples, when they are prolonged 
beyond the face of the walls ; pilas¬ 
ters standing opposite a column. 

Antag'onism (Gr. am, anti, against ; 
aya>vi('ofxat, agdni'zomai, I contend). 
Active opposition. 

Antagonistic (Gr. avn, anti, against; 
ayoovi(o/, agdni'zomai, I contend). 
Iu direct or active opposition to. 

Antarctic (Gr. avm, anti, against or 
opposite ; apuros, arlctos, the north 
pole). Relating to the south pole. 

Ante. A Latin preposition used in 
composition, signifying before. 

Antecedent (Lat. ante, before ; cedo, 
I go). Going before. 

Ante'cian (Gr. am, anti, opposite; 
olnew, oiJceo , I dwell). In geo¬ 
graphy, applied to the inhabitants 
of the earth, under the same meri¬ 
dian of longitude, but at equal dis¬ 
tances on opposite sides of the 

Antefix'se (Lat. ante, before ; Jingo, 
I fix). In architecture, upright 
ornamental blocks placed at inter¬ 
vals on the cornice along the sides 
of a roof; also heads of animals 
as water-spouts below the eaves of 

Antefiex'ion (Lat. ante, before; Jlecto, 
I bend). A bending forwards. 

Antemu'ral (Lat. ante, before; murus, 
a wall). In architecture, the out¬ 
ward wall of a castle. 

Anten'nae (Lat. anten'na, a sail-yard). 
Filaments, apparently organs of 
touch, projecting from the heads of 
insects and Crustacea. 

Antepenult' (Lat. ante, before; penc, 
almost; ul'timus, last). The last 
syllable but two. 

Antever'sion (Lat. ante, before; verto, 
I turn). A turning forwards. 

Anthe'lion (Gr. am, anti, opposite; 
r]\ios, helios, the sun). A mock-sun. 

Anth'elix (Gr. am, anti, opposite; 
eAi|, helix, a spiral). A part of 
the external human ear, before or 
rather within the helix. 

Anthelmin'tic (Gr. am, anti, against; 
eA puvs, helmins, a worm). Ca¬ 
pable of destroying or removing the 
worms which inhabit the animal 

Anther (Gr. avOos, anthos, a flower). 
The top of the stamen, or male part 
of a flower, containing the pollen 
or fertilising dust. 

Antherid'ium [Anther). A structure 
in some flowerless plants, supposed 
to be the analogue of an anther. 

Anthocar'pous (Gr. avOos, anthos, a 
flower; uap-rros, karpos, a fruit). 
In botany, a term applied to fruits 
which are formed of masses of in¬ 
florescence in a state of cohesion, 
as the fir-cone and pine-apple. 

1 Anthocy'anine (Gr. avOos, anthos, a 



flower; uvavos, Jcu'anos, blue). 
Blue colouring matter of plants. 

Anth'olites (Gr. avdos, anthos, a 
flower ; \idos, lithos, a stone). The 
fossil impressions of flowers. 

Anthol'ogy (Gr. avdos, anthos, a 
flower ; \oyos, logos, discourse). A 
description of flowers. 

Anthoxan/thine (Gr. avdos, anthos, a 
flower; £avdos, xantlios , yellow). 
Yellow colouring matter of plants. 

Anthozo'a (Gr. avdos, anthos, a flower; 
(wov, zdon, an animal). Animal 
flowers ; the class of polypes in¬ 
cluding the actinia and allied 
species, which resemble flowers. 

Anth'racite (Gr. avdpa£, anthrax, a 
coal). A peculiar shining kind of coal. 

Anthracothe'rium (Gr. avdpa£, an¬ 
thrax, coal ; drjpiov, therion, a 
beast). A fossil pachydermatous 
animal found in the coal-formation. 

Anthro'poid (Gr. avdpuiros, anthropos, 
a man, i.e. human being; e!5os, 
eidos, form). Resembling man. 

Anthropol'ogy (Gr. avdpcoiros, an- 
thrdpos, a man ; A oyos, logos, dis¬ 
course). A description of the human 
body or of the human species. 

Anthropomor'phous (Gr. hvdpwnos, 
anthropos, a man ; gopcpr], morphe, 
form). Resembling man. 

Anthropophagous (Gr. avdpwivos, 
anthropos, a man ; (payco, phago, 
I eat). Eating men ; cannibal. 

Anthropos'ophy (Gr. avdpconos, an- 
thropos, a man; ao<pia, soph'ia, 
wisdom). The knowledge of the 
nature of man. 

Anti (Gr. avn, anti). A Greek pre¬ 
position used in composition, signi¬ 
fying against. 

Antiarthrit'ic (Gr. am, anti , against; 
apOpins, arthritis, gout). Curing 

Antiasthmat'ic (Gr. am, anti, 
against ; asthma). Curing or pre¬ 
venting asthma. 

Antibra'chial (Lat. antibra 1 chium, the 
forearm). Belonging to the fore¬ 

Antibra'chium (Lat.). The forearm, 
from the elbow to the wrist. 

Anticli'nal (Gr. am, anti , against; 
kXlvw, Jclind, I bend). Inclining in 

opposite directions, like the ridge of 
a house. 

An'tidote (Gr. avn, anti, against; 
SiScopi, diddmi, I give). A remedy 
to counteract poisons or anything 

Antife'brile (Gr. am, anti, against; 
Lat. febris, fever). Removing 

Antilith'ic (Gr. am, anti, against; 
Xidos, lithos, a stone). Prevent¬ 
ing the formation of calculi. 

Antip'athy (Gr. avn, anti, against; 
7 rados, pathos, suffering or passion). 
A strong dislike or repugnance. 

Antiperiodlc (Gr. avri, anti, against; 
periodic). Preventing or curing 
diseases which recur at regular 
periods, as ague. 

Antiperistal'tic (Gr. dm, anti, 
against; it ept, peri, around; <rreAAw, 
stello, I send). A term applied to 
an unnatural or reversed action of 
the alimentary canal. 

Antiphlogistic (Gr. dm, anti, 
against; cp\o £, phlox, flame). 
Diminishing inflammation. 

Antipodes (Gr. avn, anti, against; 
7 tovs, a foot). The inhab¬ 

itants of the opposite side of the 
globe, whose feet are, as it were, 
applied against ours. 

Antis'cians (Gr. avn, anti, against; 

< TKia, skia, a shadow). The in¬ 
habitants of the earth on different 
sides of the equator, whose shadows 
at noon are cast in contrary direc¬ 

Antiscorbutic (Gr. avn, anti, against; 
Lat. scorbfitus, scurvy). Prevent¬ 
ing or curing scurvy. 

Antiseptic (Gr. avn, anti, against ; 
(TTjTTio, sepd, I make putrid). Pre¬ 
venting putrefaction. 

Antispasmod'ic(Gr. avn,anti, against; 
airaco, spad, I draw). Preventing 
spasms or convulsions. 

Antitk'esis (Gr. avn, anti, against; 
t idrjui, tithemi, I place). Opposi¬ 
tion or contrast, especially of words 
or ideas. 

Antit'ragus (Gr. avn, anti, opposite ; 
tragus). A projecting part of the 
outer ear opposite the tragus. 

Antit'ropous (Gr. avn, anti, opposite; 



rpeivco, trepo, I turn). In botany, 
applied to the position of the embryo 
in a seed in which the nucleus is 
erect, the embryo being consequently 

Ant'lia (Gr. avrXia, ant'Via, a baling- 
out). The spiral apparatus by which 
butterflies and other insects pump 
up the juices of plants. 

Ant'orbital (Lat. ante, before; orbit). 
In front of the orbits. 

A'orist (Gr. d, a, not; opifa, hori'zd, I 
limit or define). In grammar , a 
tense which expresses past action 
without reference to duration or time. 

Antrum (Lat. a cave). In anatomy, 
a term used to designate certain 
cavities of the body. 

Aor'ta (Gr. deipu, aei'rd, I take up or 
carry). The great vessel which, 
arising from the left ventricle of 
the heart, carries the blood to all 
parts of the body. 

Aor'tic (Gr. doprip, aortc, the aorta). 
Belonging to the aorta. 

Aorti'tis (Lat. aorta ; itis, denoting 
inflammation). Inflammation of 
the aorta. 

Ape'rient (Lat. aperio, I open). Open¬ 
ing ; laxative. 

Ap'erture (Lat. aperio, I open). An 
opening; in geometry, the space 
between two straight lines forming 
an angle; in optics, the hole next 
the object-glass of a telescope or 
microscope through which the light 
enters the instrument. 

Apet'alous (Gr. d, a, not; neraXov, 
pct'alon, a flower-leaf or petal). 
Having no distinction of sepals and 

Apex (Lat.). The top or highest 
point of anything. 

Aphae'resis (Gr. ano, apo, from; 
alp€u>, haired, I take). In gram¬ 
mar, the taking a letter or syllable 
from the beginning of a word. 

Aphanip'tera (Gr. a, a, not; <paivu, 
phaind, I show; nrepov, pteron, a 
wing). An order of insects with 
rudimentary wings only, as the flea. 

Aphelion (Gr. drro, apo, from; 7 ;A< os, 
helios, the sun). The point in the 
orbit of a planet which is most dis¬ 
tant from the sun. 

Aphlogis'tic (Gr. d, a, not; (pXoyi(co r 
phlogizd, I set on fire). Flameless; 
burning without flame. 

Apho'nia (Gr. d, a, not; <picvr], phone, 
voice). Loss of voice. 

Aph'orism (Gr. ano, apo, from ; 6pi£w, 
hori'zd, I limit). A principle or 
precept expressed in a few words. 

Aphthae (Gr. amu, hapto, I fasten 
upon). Small white ulcers on the 
inside of the mouth. 

Aphyllous (Gr. a, a, not; (pvXXov, 
phullon, a leaf). Leafless. 

Ap'ical (Lat. apex, a top). Belonging 
to the top of a conical body. 

Aplanat'ic (Gr. a, a, not; nAavaopai, 
plana'omai, I wander). Opposed 
to wandering; applied to lenses or 
combinations of lenses which cor¬ 
rect the effects of spherical aberra¬ 
tion of light. 

Aplas'tic (Gr. d, a, not; nAacraw, 
plassd, I form). Incapable of being 
moulded or organised. 

Apnoe'a (Gr. a, a, not; nreu, pneo, I 
breathe). Loss of breath; suffocation. 

Ap'o (Gr. d 7 ro, apo). A Greek pre¬ 
position in compound words, signi¬ 
fying from. 

Apocar'pous (Gr. ano, apo, from 
Kapnos, Jcarpos, fruit). Applied to 
flowers and fruits inwhich the carpels 
are separate or only partially united. 

Ap'odal (Gr. d, a, not; novs, jious, a 
foot). Without feet. Apodal fishes 
have no ventral fins, which are the 
anologues of feet. 

Apogee (Gr. a 7 ro, apo, from; 777 , ge, 
the earth). The point in the orbit 
of a planet which is most distant 
from the earth or the moon. 

Aponeuro'sis (Gr. a 7 ro, apo, from; 
vevpov, neuron, a string or tendon). 
The membranous spreading out of 
a tendon. 

Apoph'ysis (Gr. ano, apo, from; (pvcv, 
phud, I grow). A prominent eleva¬ 
tion from the surface of a bone. 

Apoplec'tic (Gr. ano, apo, from; 
nXpaau, plessd, I strike). Rela¬ 
ting to apoplexy. 

Ap'oplexy (Gr. a 7 ro, apo, from; 
nAriaaw, plessd, I strike). A dis¬ 
ease in which consciousness of the 
power of voluntary motion is 



abolished, from injury within the 

Apparatus (Lat. ad, to ; paro, I 
make). An instrument or organ 
for the performance of any operation 
or function. 

Ap'plicate (Lat. ad, to ; plico, I fold). 
In geometry, a straight line drawn 
across a curve so as to be bisected 
by the diameter. 

Ap'sides (Gr. uktco, haptd, I touch). 
The points in the path of the moon 
or a planet when it is respectively 
nearest to and most distant from 
the earth. 

Ap 'terous (Gr. a, a, not; ttt epor, 
pteron, a wing). Without wings. 

Ap 'tote (Gr. d, a, not; ptosis, 

case). In grammar, applied to 
nouns, which have no distinction of 

Apyret'ic (Gr. a, a, not ; irvpzaaw, 
puresso, I have a fever). Without 

Apyrex'ia (Gr. a, a, not; 7r vpeacra, 
puresso, I have a fever). Freedom 

Aqua fortis (Lat. strong water). A 
name for nitric acid. 

Aqua regia (Lat. royal water). A 
mixture of nitric and hydrochloric 
acids, used to dissolve gold. 

Aqua vitae (Lat. water of life). A 
name for strong spirits. 

Aquat'ic (Lat. aqua, water). Belong¬ 
ing to, or living or growing in water. 

A'queous (Lat. aqua, water). Watery; 
consisting of or having the proper¬ 
ties of water ; made with water. 

Ar'able (Lat. aro, I plough). Capable 
of being cultivated by the plough. 

Arach'nida (Gr. dpax^n, arachne, a 
spider). A class of invertebrate 
animals, including spiders, scor¬ 
pions, and mites. 

Arachni tis (A rachnokl; ids, denoting 
inflammation). Inflammation of 
the arachnoid membrane of the 

Arach'noid (Gr. dpaxry, arachne, a 
spider or spider’s web ; eiSos, 
eidos, form). A thin membrane 
covering the brain. 

Ara'neiform (Lat. ara'neus, a spider; 
forma, shape). Resembling a spider. 

Arbor (Lat. a tree). In mechanics, 
the part of a machine which sus¬ 
tains the rest; an axis or spindle. 

Arbor vitae (Lat. tree of life). In 
anatomy, a tree-like appearance of 
the brain-substance, seen when the 
cerebellum is cut transversely. 

Arbores'cent (Lat. arbor, a tree). Re¬ 
sembling a tree ; becoming woody. 

Arc (Lat. arcus, a bow). A part of 
the circumference of a circle or of 
a curved line. 

Arca'num (Lat. area, a chest). A 

Arch (Gr. apxv , arche, the beginning 
or head). A prefix denoting emi¬ 

Archaeol'ogy (Gr. apxcuos, archaios, 
ancient ; A 070 ?, logos, discourse). 
The science which describes an¬ 

Ar'chaism (Gr. dpxaios, archaios, 
ancient). An ancient or disused 
word or expression. 

Archenceph'ala (Gr. apxos, archos, 
chief; iyuecpaAos, enJceph'alos, the 
brain). Chief-brained : a term 
proposed by Professor Owen to de¬ 
note the highest sub-class of the 
mammalia, comprising only man, 
from the superior development of 
his brain. 

Ar'chetype (Gr. apxv, arche, a begin¬ 
ning ; rxiiros, tupos, a type). An 
original pattern or model. 

Archime'des’ screw. An instrument 
formed of a tube wound round a 
cylinder in the form of a screw, 
and used either for raising fluids 
or for propelling through water. 

Architecture (Gr. apxos, archos, 
chief; tsktcou, teJcton, a builder). 
The science of constructing houses, 
bridges, and other buildings, 
according to rule. 

Architrave (Gr. apxos, archos, chief ; 
Lat. trabs, a beam). The lowest 
part of an entablature, being the 
chief beam resting immediately on 
the column. 

Ar'ciform (Lat. arcus, a bow ; forma, 
shape). Like an arch. 

Arctic (Gr. apuros, arktos, a bear, or 
the north pole). Relating to the 
north pole. 



Ar'cuate (Lat. arcus, a bow). Shaped 
like a bow. 

A'rea (Lat. an open space). A plain 
surface ; in geometry, the super¬ 
ficial contents of any figure. 

Arena'ceous (Lat. arena, sand). 

Are'nicole (Lat. arena, sand; colo, I 
inhabit). An animal which inhabits 

Are'ola (Lat. area, an open space). 
A small surface or space. 

Are'olar {Areola). Containing little 
spaces; applied to the connect¬ 
ing tissue of the body, which 
forms a number of little spaces or 

Areom'eter (Gr. dpaios, araios, thin ; 
yerpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the spe¬ 
cific gravity of liquids. 

Argentiferous (Lat. argen'tum, silver; 
fero, I produce). Producing or con¬ 
taining silver. 

Argil (Gr. apyos, argos, white). Gen¬ 
erally clay ; technically, pure clay 
or alumina. 

Argilla'ceous (Lat. argil'la, white 
clay). Consisting of argil or clay, 
especially pure clay. 

Aril. In botany, the expansion of 
the funiculus or placenta round the 
seed, as the mace of a nutmeg. 

Aris'ta (Lat.). In botany, the beard 
of corn and other grasses. 

Arithmetical mean. The middle 
term of three numbers in arithme¬ 
tical progression. 

Arithmetical progression. A series 
of quantities increasing or decreas¬ 
ing by the addition or subtraction of 
the same number. 

Arithmetical ratio. The difference 
between any two terms in arithme¬ 
tical progression. 

Ar'mature (Lat. arma, arms). A sup¬ 
ply of weapons ; applied, in physics, 
to two pieces of soft iron fastened 
to the poles of a magnet, and con¬ 
nected at their ends by a third piece, 
so as to increase its power. 

Armil'lary (Lat. armilla, a bracelet). 
Like a bracelet ; generally applied 
to an artificial sphere composed of 
a number of circles of the mun¬ 

dane sphere, placed in natural 

Arrag'onite. A mineral consisting of 
carbonate of lime, with some car¬ 
bonate of strontia. 

Arrhi'zous (Gr. d, a, not; pi(a, rhiza, 
a root). Without roots. 

Arse'niate {Arsenic). A salt of arsenic 
acid with a base. » 

Arsen'ic. In chemistry , applied to 
an acid containing an equivalent 
of metallic arsenic and five of oxy¬ 
gen. _ 

Arse'nious {Ar'senic). In chemistry, 
applied to an acid containing an 
equivalent of metallic arsenic and 
three of oxygen ; the common 
arsenic of the shops. 

Ar'senite (Arsenic). A salt formed of 
arsenious acid with a base. 

Arte'rial {Artery). Belonging to 
an artery or to arteries. 

Arteri'tis (Lat. arteria , an artery ; 
itis, denoting inflammation). In¬ 
flammation of arteries. 

Ar'tery (Gr. a-pp, aer, air; mpeco, 
tereb, I keep; because originally 
supposed to contain air). A vessel 
or tube which conveys blood in a 
direction from the heart to all parts 
of the body. 

Arte'sian (Lat. Artois, a province of 
France). Artesian wells, supposed 
to have been first made in Artois, 
are perpendicular borings to a con¬ 
siderable depth in the earth for 
procuring water. 

Arthritic ( Arthritis ). Relating to 
inflammation of the joints, or gout. 

Arthri'tis (Gr. dpSpov, arthron, a 
joint; term, itis, inflammation). 
Any inflammation of the joints; 
but specially applied to gout. 

Arthro'dia (Gr. apOpoco, arthroo, I fit 
by joints). A joint in which the 
head of one bone is received into 
the socket of another ; a ball-and- 
socket joint. 

Arthrodyxi'ia (Gr. apOpov, arthron, a 
joint; 65vur], odu'ne, pain). Pain 
in the joints. 

Arthropod'aria (Gr. dpOpov, arthron, 
a joint ; irons, pous , a foot). A 
term applied to those invertebrate 
animals which have jointed limbs, 



including insects, myriapods, arach- 
nides, and Crustacea. 

Artie'ular (Lat. artic'ulus, a joint). 
Belonging to joints. 

Articula'ta (Lat. artic'ulus, a joint). 
A division of the animal kingdom, 
including the invertebrates with 
jointed bodies. 

Artic'ulate (Lat. artic'ulus, a joint). 
To join together ; jointed or having 

Artieula'tion (Lat. artic'ulus, a joint). 
A connection by joint; also speech, 
because composed of sounds joined 

Artiodac'tyle (Gr. apnos, ar'tios, even, 
daicrv\os, daMtulos, a finger). Hav¬ 
ing an even number of toes. 

Aryte'noid (Gr. dpvrcuva, arutai'na, a 
pitcher; eidos, eidos, shape). 
Shaped like a pitcher ; applied to 
two small cartilages at the top of 
the larynx. 

Aslxes'tos (Gr. a, a, not ; afievvv/ju, 
sbennumi, I extinguish). A fibrous 
variety of hornblende, capable of 
resisting heat. 

As'caris (Gr. acneapifa, aslcari'zd, I 
leap). A small intestinal worm. 

Ascen'sion (Lat. ascen'clo, I rise). A 
rising ; in astronomy, right ascen¬ 
sion denotes the distance of a 
heavenly body from the point of the 
spring equinox, measured on the 
celestial equator. 

A'scian (Gr. a, a, not; ama, shia, a 
shadow). Having no shadow at 
noon : applied to the inhabitants of 
the torrid zone, who, at certain 
times, have no shadow at noon. 

Ascid'ian (Gr. daicos, aslcos, a leather 
bottle; eidos, eidos, form). Acepha¬ 
lous or headless mollusca, shaped 
like a leather bottle. 

Ascid'ium (Gr. dauos, aslcos, a leather 
bottle). In botany, a form of leaf 
in which the stalk is hollowed out 
and closed by the blade as a lid. 

Asci'tes (Gr. daKos, aslcos, a leather 
bag). A collection of fluid in the 

Asex'ual (Gr. a, a, not; Lat. sexus, 
sex). Without distinct sexes. 

Ashlar. In architecture, the facing of 
square stones on the front of a 

building; freestones roughly squared 
in the quarry. 

Asperity (Lat. asper, rough). Rough¬ 

Asper'mous (Gr. a, a, not; envepya, 
sperma, seed). Without seed. 

Asphyxia (Gr. d, a, not ; (r<pv(w, 
sphuzd, I beat, as the pulse). 
Originally, failux-e of the pulse ; 
but now applied to the symptoms 
of suffocation produced by an ac¬ 
cumulation of carbonic acid in the 

Assay (Fr. essayer, to try). To try 
the quality of metals. 

Assimilation (Lat. ad, to; sim'ilis, 
like). The process by which a sub¬ 
stance or thing is rendered similar 
in form and property to that with 
which it comes into contact. 

As'sonance (Lat. ad, to ; sonus, 
sound). Resemblance in sound or 
termination without making rhyme. 

Astatic (Gr. a, a, not ; iarpyi, his- 
te'mi, I fix or make to stand). Not 
moving; applied to a magnetic 
needle which is not affected by the 
magnetism of the earth. 

Asteracan'thus (Gr. darpp, aster, a 
star ; anavda, akan'tha, a thoim). 
A genus of fossil fin-spines of fishes, 
having star-like tubercles on their 

As'teroid (Gr. dcrrpp, aster, a star ; 
eidos, eidos, form or likeness). A 
name applied to the small planets 
of the gi'oup which revolves be¬ 
tween Ma rs and Jupiter ; also to 
star-like echinodenns. 

Asterophyl'lites (Gr. dcrrvp, aster, a 
star ; (puWou, pliullon, a leaf). In 
geology, the fossil remains of some 
plants found in the coal-measure, 
lias, and oolite, having leaves ar¬ 
ranged in star-like whorls. 

Asthenia (Gr. d, a, not; erdevos, 
sthen'os, strength). Want of 

Asthenic (Gr. d, a, not; adevos, 
sthen'os, strength). Characterised 
by want of strength. 

Astheno'pia (Gr. a, a, not; aQeuos, 
sthen'os, sti'ength ; dip, dps, the 
eye). Weakness of vision. 

Asthma (Gr. aw, ao, I blow). A diffi- 





culty of breathing, occurring in par¬ 
oxysms, with intervals of freedom. 

Asthmat'ic (Gr. aadya, asthma). Be¬ 
longing to, or having asthma. 

As'tomous (Gr. a, a, not ; aroya, 
stoma , a mouth). Without a mouth. 

Astrag'alus (Gr. darpayaAos, astra'- 
galos, an ankle-bone). The bone 
of the foot which forms part of the 

As'tral (Gr. aarpov, astron , a star). 
Belonging to stars. 

Astric'tion (Lat. ad, to ; stringo, I 
bind). The act of binding. 

Astrin'gent (Lat. ad, to ; stringo, I 
tie fast). Binding or contracting. 

As'trolabe (Gr. aarpov,astron, a star; 
A afieiv, labein, to take). An in¬ 
strument formerly used for taking 
the altitude of the sun or stars. 

Astrology (Gr .aarpov, astron, a star; 
Aoyos, logos, a word or description). 
The science w*hich pretends to teach 
the effects and influence of the 

Astrom'eter (Gr. aarpov, astron, a 
star ; yerpov, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for ascertaining the 
relative brightness of stars. 

Astronomical (Gr. aarpov, astron, a 
star ; voyos, nomos, a law). Be¬ 
longing to astronomy. 

Astron'omy (Gr. aarpov, astron, a 
star ; voyos, nomos, a law). The 
science which describes the magni¬ 
tude, position, motion, &c., of the 
heavenly bodies, as taught by ob¬ 
servation and mathematical calcu¬ 

Asymmetrical (Gr. d, a, not; aw, 
sun, with ; yerpov, metron, a mea¬ 
sure). Not consisting of similar 
parts on each side. 

Asym'ptote (Gr. a, a, not; aw, sun, 
with ; irrow, ptou, I fall). A line 
approaching a curve, but never 
meeting it. 

Atax'ic (Gr. a, a, not; raaaca, tasso, 
I put in order). Wanting order ; 

Ate (Lat. term, atus ). In chemistry, 
a termination applied to compounds 
of which the acid contains the 
largest quantity of oxygen. 

Atelec'tasis (Gr. a, a, not; reA os, 

telos, an end ; enreivcc, eJdei'no, I 
stretch out). Imperfect expansion. 

Atheric'era (Gr. aOrip, ather, a spike 
of corn ; nepas, leer as, a horn.) A 
section of dipterous insects, having 
only two or three joints to the an¬ 

Ather'mancy (Gr. a, a, not; Qepyaivw, 
thermai'no, I make warm). The 
property of transmitting the light 
but not the heat of the sun. 

Ather'manous (Gr. a, a, not; Qepyaivw, 
thermal!no, I make warm). Inca¬ 
pable of transmitting heat. 

Ather o'ma (Gr. aOapa, athara, or 
adripr ?, athcre, a porridge of meal). 
A diseased state of blood-vessels 
and other structures of the body, 
characterised by a soft pulpy de¬ 

Atlas (Gr. ’ArAay, Atlas, a mytholo¬ 
gical personage, who was said to 
carry the world on his shoulders). 
The first vertebra of the neck ; so 
called because the head rests on 

Atmom'eter (Gr. aryos, atmos, va¬ 
pour ; yerpov, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
amount of evaporation from a moist 
surface in a given time. 

Atmosphere (Gr. aryos, atmos, va¬ 
pour ; acpaipa, sphaira, a ball or 
globe). The mass of air surround¬ 
ing the earth ; also applied to any 
gas surrounding an animal or other 

Atmospheric Pressure. The weight 
of the atmosphere on a surface ; the 
mean being 14*7 pounds to the 
square inch. 

Atoll. A coral island, consisting of 
a circular belt or ring of coral, with 
a lagoon or lake in the centre. 

Atom (Gr. a, a, not; reyvoo, temno, 
I cut). A particle of matter which 
can no longer be diminished in size. 

Atomic (Gr. aroyos, at'omos, an 
atom). Relating to atoms. 

Atomic Theory. An hypothesis in 
chemistry, which teaches that the 
atoms of elementary substances 
become combined in certain definite 

Aton'ic (Gr. &, a, not; reivco, teino , 



I stretclx or tighten). Weakened ; 
characterised by want of energy. 

At'ony (Gr. a, a, not ; t eivw, teind, 

I stretch or tighten). Want of 

At'rophy (Gr. a, a, not; rpeepw, tre- 
pho, I nourish). Want of nourish¬ 
ment ; a wasting. 

At'ropous (Gr. a, a, not ; rpeirw, 
trepo, I turn). Not turned ; in 
botany, applied to that form of the 
ovule or seed, in which its parts 
have undergone no change of posi¬ 
tion during growth. 

Attendant )Lat. ad, to; ten'uis, thin). 
Making thin; diluting. 

Atten'uate (Lat. ad, to; ten'uis, thin). 
To make thin. 

Attol'lent (Lat. ad, to ; tollo, I raise). 
Lifting up. 

Attraction (Lat. ad, to; traho, I 
draw). A drawing towards ; the ten¬ 
dency of bodies to unite or cohere. 

At'trahent (Lat. ad, to; traho, I 
draw). Drawing towards. 

Attrition (Lat. ad, to ; tero, I rub). 
The act of wearing by rubbing 

Auditory (Lat. au'clio, I hear). Be¬ 
longing to the sense or organ of 

Aug'ite(Gr. avyr), auge, bright light). 
A mineral, closely allied to horn¬ 
blende, entering into the composition 
of many trap and volcanic rocks. 

Au'ricle (Lat. auridula, a little ear). 
The external part of the ear ; also 
apart on each side of the heart, from 
resembling the ears of animals. 

Auric'ular (Lat. auridula, a little ear). 
Belonging to an auricle. 

Auric'ulate (Lat. auridula). Shaped 
like a little ear ; in botany, applied 
to leaves which have the lobes at 
the base forming distinct segments 
like little ears. 

Auric'ulo-ventric'ular. Belonging to, 
or lying between the auricles and 
ventricles of the heart. 

Aurif'erous (Lat. aurum, gold; fero, I 
produce). Yielding or producing gold. 

Au'riform (Lat. auris, an ear ; forma, 
form). Shaped like an ear. 

Auscultation (Lat. ausculto, I listen). 
The act of listening : applied, in 

medicine, to a means of distinguish¬ 
ing the condition of internal parts 
by listening to the sounds which 
are produced in them. 

Austral (Lat. auster, the south wind). 
Belonging to the south : applied to 
that pole of the magnet which points 
to the south. 

Autochthon (Gr. avros, autos , self; 

chthon, the earth). Origin¬ 
ating from the earth of the country ; 

Autog'enous (Gr. avros, autos, self; 
yew aw, gennad, I produce). Self- 
produced : applied to those parts 
of a vertebra which are developed 
from independent centres of ossifi¬ 

Autograph (Gr. avros, autos, him¬ 
self ; 7 pacpco, graph'd, I write). The 
actual signature of an individual. 

Autographic Telegraph. An electric 
telegraph for transmitting messages 
in the handwriting of the person 
sending them. 

Automatic (Gr. avros, autos, self; 
yaw, mad, I move). Having me¬ 
chanical m ovem ent, as an automaton: 
applied, in physiology, to muscular 
movements produced independently 
of the will; self-moving. 

Automaton (Gr. avros, autos, self; 
paw, mad, I move). A machine 
which, by means of mechanical 
contrivances, imitates the motion 
of living animals. 

Au'topsy (Gr. avros, autos, self: oipis, 
opsis, sight). Direct or personal 
observation ; applied especially to 
an examination of the body after 

Auxiliary (Lat. auxil'ium, help). 
Aiding ; taking a share of labour. 

Av'alanche (Fr.) An accumulation of 
snow, or of snow and ice, descend¬ 
ing from mountains. 

Aves (Lat. birds). A class of ovi¬ 
parous vertebrate animals with 
double circulation, mostly organised 
for flight. 

Avic'ula (Lat. a little bird). An un¬ 
equal valved shell, fixing itself by 
a byssus. 

Avic'uloid (Avic'ula; Gr. eidos, eidos, 
form). Like anavicula. 

c 2 



Ax'ial (Axis). In the direction of the 

Ax'il (Lat. axilla , the armpit). In 
botany , the angle formed by a leaf 
with the stem. 

Axilla (Lat.) The armpit. 

Axillary (Lat. axilla, the armpit). 
Belonging to the armpit; in botany, 
growing in the angle formed by a 
leaf with the stem. 

Axiom (Gr. a^ioco, axiod, 1 think wor¬ 
thy). A self-evident truth, incapable 
of being made plainer by reasoning. 

Axis (Lat. axis, an axletree). A 
straight line passing through the 
centre of a body ; a pivot on which 
anything turns ; the second verte¬ 
bra of the neck, because the head 
turns on it. 

Azimuth (Arab, samatha, to go to¬ 
wards). The direction of an object 

in reference to the cardinal points, 
or to the plane of the meridian. 

Azimuth Compass. An instrument 
consisting of a magnetic bar or 
needle balanced on a vertical pivot, 
so as to turn freely in an horizontal 

Azoic (Gr. a, a, not ; (coav, zdon, an 
animal). Without animals ; ap¬ 
plied to the lowest or primary geo¬ 
logical strata, in which no remains 
of animals are found. 

Az'ote (Gr. a, a, not ; (coy, zbe, life). 
A name for nitrogen gas, because 
it will not support animal life. 

Az'otised (Azote). Containing azote 
of nitrogen. 

Az'ygos (Gr. a, a, not; (vyou, zugon , 
a yoke). Without a fellow ; having 
no corresponding symmetrical p&rt. 


Baccate (Lat. bacca, a berry). Re¬ 
sembling a berry. 

Baily’s Beads. In astronomy, an 
appearance as of a string of beads 
round the sun in an eclipse. 

Bal'anoid (Gr. fiaXavos, bal'anos, an 
acorn). A family of cirripeds or 
barnacles, having shells arranged 
conically, like an acorn. 

Balsam (Gr. /3a Xcra/xov, baVsamon). 
A natural mixture of resin with a 
volatile oil. 

Barb'ule (Lat. barba, a heard). A 
little beard. 

Barilla (Spanish). An impure car¬ 
bonate of soda. 

Barom'eter (Gr. fiapos, baros , weight; 
[xerpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the weight 
or pressure of the air. 

Basalt'. A close-grained rock of the 
trappean group, dai-k-coloured, 
often arranged in more or less regu¬ 
lar columns. 

Base (Gr. /3a<ns, basis, a foundation). 
The lower part of anything, or that 
on which it rests ; in chemistry, a 
substance which, when combined 
with an acid, forms a salt. 

Basement Membrane. A fine, trans¬ 
parent layer, lying underneath the 
epithelium of mucous and serous 
membranes, and beneath the epi¬ 
dermis of the skin. 

Ba'sic (Base). In chemistry, having 
a large proportion of base ; basic 
water is water which appears to act 
as a base in the formation of certain 

Bas'ilar (Lat. basis, a base). Ba¬ 
sic ; belonging to the base of the 
skull; applied especially to an ar¬ 
tery of the brain. 

Basin (Fr. bass in). A hollow vessel; 
in geology, a hollow or trough 
formed of rocks older than the 
deposit contained in it. 

Basioccip'ital (Lat. basis, a base; 
occiput, the back of the head). A 
bone of the head of lower vertebrate 
animals, answering to a part of the 
occipital bone in man. 

Bathymet'rical (Gr. /3advs, bathus, 
deep ; pxrpov, metron, a measure). 
Relating to the distribution of 
plants and animals along the bot¬ 
tom of the sea, according to the 
depth which they inhabit. 



Eatra'chia (Gr. fiarpaxos, hat'rachos, 
a frog). The order of reptiles of 
which the frog is the type. 

Eatra'chian (Gr./3arpaxos, bat'radios, 
a frog). Belonging to the order of 
animals of which the frog is the 

Bat'tery. In diemistry, an apparatus 
of coated jars for electrical action, 
or of portions of zinc and copper, 
used for producing electro-chemical 
or voltaic action. 

Belem/nite (Gr. /3e\egvov, belemnon, 
a dart). Arrow-head ; also called 
thunderbolt ; a fossil shell of the 
cephalopod order, found in chalk 
and limestone. 

Bell-metal. An alloy of copper and 
tin used in making bells. 

Ben'zoate {Benzoin). A salt formed 
of benzoic acid with a base. 

Bergmehl (Swedish, mountain-meal). 
A whitish, mealy earth, contain¬ 
ing infusorial animalcules, said to 
be eaten by the Finns and Laplan¬ 
ders in scarcity. 

Ei (Lat. bis, twice). A prefix signi¬ 
fying twice or twofold. 

Biba'sic (Lat. bis, twice ; base). In 
diemistry, applied to acids which 
unite with two equivalents of base 
to form salts. 

Eib'ulous (Lat. bibo, I drink). 
Spongy; having the property of 
imbibing moisture. 

Bicar'bonate (Lat. bis, twice; carbo¬ 
nate). A carbonate containing two 
equivalents of carbonic acid, to 
one of base. 

Eicen'tral (Lat. bis, twice ; centrum, 
a centre). Having two centres. 

Bi'ceps (Lat. bis, twice; cap'ut, 
a head). Having two heads; 
in anatomy, applied to certain 

Bichlo'ride (Lat. bis, twice; chlorine). 
A compound consisting of two 
equivalents of chlorine with one of 
another element. 

Eicip'ital (Lat. bis, twice ; cap'ut, a 
head). Belonging to that which 
has two heads. 

Bicuspid (Lat. bis, twice ; cuspis, the 
point of a spear). Having two 
points or fangs. 

Bidens (Lat. bis, twice ; dens, a 
tooth). Having two teeth or prongs. 

Bien'nial (Lat. bis, twice ; annus, a 
year). Continuing two years; or 
occurring every second year. 

Bifid (Lat. bis, twice; jindo, I cleave). 
Cleft in two parts. 

Bifurcated (Lat. bis, twice ; furca, a 
fork). Divided into two prongs or 

Bifurcation (Lat. bis, double ; furca, 
a fork). A division into two 

Bigeminal (Lat. bis, twice ; gcm'ini, 
twins). Arranged in two pairs. 

Bi'hamate (Lat. bis, twice ; liamus, 
a honk). Having two hooks. 

Bi'jugate (Lat. bis, twice ; jugum, a 
yoke). In botany, having two pairs 
of leaflets. 

Bila'biate (Lat. bis, twice ; labium, a 
lip). Having two lips. 

Bilat'eral (Lat. bis, twice ; latus, a 
side). Having two sides. 

Bil'iary (Lat. bills, bile). Belonging 
to or containing bile. 

Bilit'eral (Lat. bis, twice ; lit!era, a 
letter). Containing two letters. 

Bilo'bed (Lat. bis, twice; Gr. Ao/3oy, 
lobos, a lobe). Having two lobes. 

Biloc'ular (Lat. bis, twice ; loc'ulus, 
a little place). Containing two cells. 

Bi'manous (Lat. bis, twice; manus, 
a hand). Having two hands : ap¬ 
plied in zoology to man. 

Bi'nary (Lat. bini, two and two). 
Arranged in couples. 

Bi'nary Theory of Salts. In diemistry, 
a theory which supposes that oxygen 
salts are constituted on the same 
plan as haloid salts (as chloride of 
sodium), of a metal in union with a 

Bi'nate (Lat. bini, two an'd two). In 
botany, applied to compound leaves, 
the leaflets of which come off in two 
from a single point. 

Binax'ial (Lat. bini, two and two ; 
axis). Having two axes. 

Einoc'ular (Lat. bini, two and two : 
oc'ulus, an eye). Having two eyes ; 
also applied to optical instruments 
that have two apertures, so that 
both eyes may be used at once. 

Bino'mial (Lat. bis, twice; nomen, a 



name). In algebra, applied to a term 
consisting of two quantities joined 
V>y the sign + plus or — minus. 

Binox'alate (Lat. bis, twice ; oxalic 
acid). An oxalate containing two 
equivalents of acid to one of base. 

Binox'ide (Lat. bis, twice ; oxygen). 
A term applied in chemistry to the 
second degree of oxidation of a 
metal or other substance. 

Bipartite (Lat. bis, twice ; pars, a 
part). Having two corresponding 

Biped (Lat. bis, twice ; pcs, a foot). 
Having two feet. 

Bipen'nate (Lat. bis, twice ; penna, a 
wing). Having two wings ; or 
wing-like leaves on each side of a 

Bipin'nate (Lat. bis, twice ; pinnate). 
Doubly pinnate ; applied to com¬ 
pound leaves, of Avhich the leaflets 
are pinnate. 

Eiquad'rate (Lat. bis, twice; quadra, 
a square). In mathematics, the 
fourth power of a number, or the 
square multiplied by the square. 

Bira'mous (Lat. bis, twice ; ramus, a 
branch). Having two branches. 

Bisect' (Lat. bis, twice ; seco, I cut). 
To divide into two equal parts. 

Bise'rial (Lat. bis, twice; series, an 
order or row). Arranged into two 
series or courses. 

Biser'rate (Lat. bis, twice; serra, a 
saw). Doubly serrated ; applied 
to the edges of leaves which are 
doubly marked like the teeth of a 

Bisul'cate (Lat. bis, twice ; sulcus, a 
furrow). Cleft in two ; having 
cloven feet. 

Bisul'phate (Lat. bis, twice; sulphuric 
acid). A sulphate containing two 
equivalents of sulphuric acid to one 
of base. 

Biter'nafe (Lat. bis, twice; terni, 
three and three). In botany, ap¬ 
plied to compound leaves, which 
form three leaflets on each second¬ 
ary vein. 

Bituber'culate (Lat. bis, twice; tuber'- 
culum, a tubercle). Having two 

Bituminiferous (Lat. bitu'men, min¬ 

eral pitch or tar ; fero, I produce). 
Yielding bitumen. 

Bitu'minous. Having the property 
of or containing bitumen. 

Bivalve (Lat. bis, twice; valves, 
folding-doors). Having a shell of 
two valves, closing with a hinge. 

Black flux. A mixture of carbonate 
of potash and charcoal, used in 
chemical operations. 

Blaste'ma (Gr. fiXatTravca, blas'tano, 

I bud forth). Material exuded 
from the blood through the minute 
vessels or capillaries, and capable 
of organisation. 

Blas'toderm (Gr. fiXacrros, blastos, a 
bud ; Sepya, derma, a skin). The 
germinal disc which forms on the 
ovum or egg in the early stage of 

Blende (German blenden, to dazzle). 
A term applied to minerals having 
a peculiar lustre or glimmer. 

Blow-pipe. An instrument by which 
a current of air is driven on the- 
flame of a lamp or candle, thereby 
producing an increased heat. 

Boiling-point. The temperature at 
which a substance boils ; it varies 
greatly for different substances, 
but is constant for the same, under 
the same circumstances. 

Bole (Gr. B wXos, bolos, a clod). A 
friable clayey slate or earth, usually 
coloured with oxide of iron. 

Borate (Borax). A salt formed of 
boracic acid Avith a base. 

Bo'real (Gr. £ opeas, boreas, the north 
wind). Belonging to the north or 
north wind ; applied to the pole of 
a magnet which points to the north. 

Borboryg'mus (Gr. fiopfiopvyyos, bor- 
borug'mos). The sound caused by 
wind within the intestines. 

Bot'any (Gr. fiorarri, bot'ane, a plant). 
The science which describes vege¬ 
tables. Descriptive botany teaches 
the description and naming of 
plants ; geographical botany, the 
manner in which plants are dis¬ 
tributed on the earth ; palce- 
ontological botany comprehends the 
study of fossil plants; physiological 
botany describes the functions of 
plants and their organs; structural 



botany teaches the structure of the 
various parts of plants ; systematic 
or taxological botany, the arrange¬ 
ment and classification of plants. 

Bothren'chyma (Gr. (3o8pos, bothros, 
a pit; iyxvya, en'chuma, any thing 
poured in, a tissue). A vegetable 
tissue, consisting of cylindrical cells 
marked by pits resembling dots. 

Botryoid'al (Gr. fiorpns, botrus, a 
bunch of grapes; iihos, eiclos, shape). 
Resembling a cluster of grapes. 

Boulder. A rounded or water-worn 
block of stone. 

Boustrophe'don (Gr. /Sous-, bous, an 
ox; <TTpe<pu>, strephu, I turn). A 
form of writing alternately from 
left to right, and from right to left, 
like ploughing, used by the ancient 

Bo'viform (Lat. bos, an ox ; forma, 
shape). Resembling the ox. 

Bovine (Lat. bos, an ox). Belonging 
to oxen and cows. 

Brachely'tra (Gr. fipaxvs, brachus, 
short; iXnrpou, elu'tron, a case). 
A family of beetles characterised by 
the shortness of their elytra or 
outer wings. 

Bra'chial (Lat. bra'chium , the arm). 
Belonging to the arm. 

Bra'chio-cephal'ic (Lat. bra'chium, the 
arm; Gr. uecpaXy, lceph!ale, the 
head). Belonging to the arm and 
the head : applied to an artery of 
the body. 

Era'chiopods (Gr. fipaxiuv, bra'cliidn, 
an arm; irons, pous, a foot). A 
genus of molluscous invertebrate 
animals, so called because their 
feet, or organs of progressive mo¬ 
tion, resemble arms. 

Brachyu'ra (Gr. Ppaxvs, brachus, 
short ; obpa, our a, a tail). A class 
of Crustacea with short tails, as 
the crab. 

Bract (Lat. brad tea, a thin leaf of 
metal). In botany, a leaf from the 
axil or angle of which a flower-bud 

Bractlet ( Bract). A little bract ; any 
rudimentary leaf on a flower-stem 
between the bract and the calyx. 

Bran'chiae (Gr. j3pa.yx La , bran'chia, 
gills). The gills or breathing organs 

of animals which live entirely in 
water ; they are analogous to lungs 
in air-breathing animals. 

Bran'chial (Gr. Ppayxia, bran'chia, 
gills). Belonging to the branchiae 
or gills. 

Bran'chiopods (Gr. fipayx La > bran'chia, 
gills; irons, pous, a foot). Crus- 
taceous animals which have gills 
attached to the feet. 

Branchios'tegal (Gr. Ppayxm, bran'¬ 
chia, gills ; areyw, stego, I cover). 
Covering gills : applied to certain 
rays or bent bones which support a 
membrane covering in the gills of 

Branchios^egous (Gr. /3pa yx ia , bran'¬ 
chia, gills; (rTe 7 os, stegos, a 
covering). Having covered gills. 

Brassica'ceous (Lat. bras'sica, a cab¬ 
bage). Belonging to the order of 
plants of which the cabbage is a type. 

Brec'cia (Italian, a crumb). A term 
applied to rocks composed of agglu¬ 
tinated angular fragments. 

Brevipen'nes (Lat. brevis, short; 
penna, a feather). A family of 
grallrn or stilt-birds, characterised 
by the shortness of their wings, as 
the ostrich and emeu. 

Bro'mate {Bromic acid). A salt formed 
by the combination of bromic acid 
with a base. 

Bron'chia (Gr. (Spoyxos, bronchos, the 
windpipe). The smaller tubes into 
which the windpipe divides in 
entering the lung. 

Bron'chial (Gr. Ppoyxos, bronchos , 
the windpipe). Belonging to the 
divisions of the windpipe. 

Bronchi'tis v Gr. (3poyx°s, bronchos, 
the windpipe ; term, iris, itis, de¬ 
noting inflammation). Inflamma¬ 
tion of the tubes into which the 
windpipe divides. 

Broil'chocele (Gr. Ppoyxos, bronchos, 
thewindpipe ; kele, atumour). 
A kind of tumour on the front part 
of the neck. 

Bronchoph'ony (Gr. Bpoyxos, bron¬ 
chos, the windpipe ; <po>vr], phono, 
sound). The sound produced by the 
passage of air through the bronchi. 

Bronchot'omy (Gr. fipoyxos, bronchos, 
thewindpipe; re/iw, temnb, I cut). 



An operation in which the windpipe 
is cut open. 

Bronch'us^Gr. fipoyxos, bronchos , the 
throat or windpipe). One of the 
large or primary divisions of the 
trachea or windpipe. 

Bryozo'a or Bryozoa'ria (Gr. fipvos, 
bruos, moss ; £a>ov, zoon , an ani¬ 
mal). A term denoting the minute 
mollusca which live united in 
masses in a branched and moss¬ 
like manner. 

Buccal (Lat. bucca, the cheek). Be¬ 
longing to the cheek, or to the 
cavity of the mouth. 

Buc'cina'tor (Lat. buc'cina, a kind of 
trumpet). A muscle forming a 
large part of the cheek, so called 
from its use in blowing wind-instru¬ 

Buffy Coat. The viscid layer formed 
on the surface of blood in inflam¬ 
matory diseases. 

Bulb (Lat. bulbus). In botany, a part 
of a plant, generally beneath the 
ground, formed of layers of scales 
in the manner of a bud, as the 
onion; in anatomy, applied to 
various parts from their shape. 

Cachec'tic (Gr. nanos, JcaJcos, had; 
4£is, hexis, habit). Belonging to, or 
having, a vitiated state of the body. 

Cachex'ia (Gr. kcikos, JcaJcos, bad; 
e£is, Jiexis, habit). A deranged or 
vitiated state of the constitution. 

Cacoe'thes (Gr. Kanos, JcaJcos, bad; 
rjdos, etJios, custom). A bad habit 
or disposition. 

Cacoph'ony (Gr. kukos, JcaJcos, bad ; 
(pwvt), phone, voice). A disagree¬ 
able sound, produced by the meeting 
of harsh letters. 

Cacoplas'tic (Gr. Kanos, JcaJcos, bad ; 
■KXaaao}, plasso, I form). Having 
a defective power of being organised 
or taking a definite form. 

Cadaver'ic (Lat. cadaver, a carcase). 
Belonging to a dead body. 

Cadu'cous (Lat. cado, I fall). Having 
a tendency to fall off. 

Bulbif'erous (Lat. bulbus, a bulb ; 
fero, I bear). Producing bulbs. 

Bulblet {Bulb). A little bulb. 

Bulbous (Lat. bulbus, a bulb). Con¬ 
taining bulbs. 

Bulim'ia (Gr. pov, bou, a prefix sig¬ 
nifying large or enormous ; A igos, 
limos, hunger). Excessive appetite 
for food. 

Bulwark-plains. In astronomy, 
circular areas in the moon enclosed 
by a ring of mountain-ridges. 

Bunter (Germ.) A term in geology 
for new red-sandstone, from its va¬ 
riegated appearance. 

Bursa (Lat. a purse). In anatomy, 
a closed sac containing synovial 

Butyra'ceous (Lat. butyrum, butter). 
Having the properties of, or con¬ 
taining butter. 

Bulyr'ic (Lat. butyrum, butter). Be¬ 
longing to butter; applied to an 
acid formed in butter. 

Byssus (Gr. Puaaos, bussos, fine 
flax). The thread or fibres by 
which some marine animals attach 
themselves to rocks. 

Csecal ( Caecum). Having a closed 

end ; belonging to the caecum. 

Ceecuni (Lat. ccecus, blind). A tube 
with a closed end ; applied to a 
part of the intestinal canal. 

Csenozo'ic, or Cainozo'ic (Gr. naivos, 
Jcainos, new; (wou, zdon, an 
animal). Applied in geology to 
the tertiary strata, which include 
the most recent remains of ani¬ 

Caf'fein. A vegetable alkali found in 
tea and coffee. 

Cal'amites (Lat. cal'amus, a reed). A 
genus of fossil stems, resembling 
gigantic reeds, occurring in the coal 

Calca'neal (Lat. calx, the heel). Be¬ 
longing to the heel. 

Cal'carate (Lat. calcar, a spur). Like 
or having a spur. 



Calca'reo-arena'ceous. Consisting of 
lime, or clialk, ancl sand. 

Calca'reous (Lat. calx , lime). Having 
the properties of or containing lime. 

Cal'ceolate (Lat. cal'ceus, a shoe). 
Like a shoe or slipper. 

Calcifica'tion (Lat. calx , lime ; facio, 

I make). A hardening by the de¬ 
position of salts of lime. 

Cal'cify (Lat. calx , lime ; facio, I 
make). To change into lime or 
chalk ; to harden by the deposition 
of salts of lime. 

Calcina'tion (Lat. calx, lime). The 
expelling by heat some volatile 
matter from a substance, as carbo¬ 
nate of lime (limestone) is reduced 
to lime by driving off the carbonic 
acid by heat. 

Calci'ne (Lat. calx , lime). To drive 
off volatile matter by heat so as to 
render a substance friable, as in 
the operation of lime-burning. 

Cal'culus (Lat. a pebble). In mathe¬ 
matics, a term applied to certain of 
the more abstruse branches of 
calculation ; in medicine a concre¬ 
tion formed within the body. 

Calefa'cient (Lat. color, heat ; facio, 
I make). Making warm; heating. 

Cal'endar (Lat. calen'dce, the first 
day of the Roman months). A 
table of the days of each month, 
with the events connected with 

Cal'enture (Span, calentar', to heat). 
A violent ardent fever, principally 
affecting sailors in hot climates. 

Calibre (Fr.). The diameter of a 
round body ; the bore of a cylin¬ 
drical tube, as of a gun. 

Calic'iform (Lat. calix, a cup ; forma, 
shape). Shaped like a cup. 

Calisthenics (Gr. KaXos, halos , beau¬ 
tiful ; oOevos, sthen'os, strength). 
Exercise of the body and limbs to 
promote strength and graceful 

Callosity (Lat. callus, hardness). A 

Callus (Lat.). A hard deposit ; also 
applied to the excess of bony matter 
which is often formed in the process 
of union of broken bones. 

Caloric (Lat. color, heat). The prin¬ 

ciple of heat ; the cause of the 
effects or phenomena popularly 
recognised as heat. 

Calorifa'cient (Lat. color, heat; facio, 

I make). Producing heat ; fur¬ 
nishing material for the production 
of heat. 

Calorific (Lat. color, heat; facio, I 
make). Producing heat. 

Calorim'eter (Lat. color, heat; Gr. 
fierpou, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the rela¬ 
tive quantities of heat contained in 

Cal'otype (Gr. naXos, halos, beautiful; 
tvkos, tupos, a type or impression). 
A process of photography, in which 
the picture is produced by the rapid 
action of light on paper prepared 
with iodide of silver and gallo- 
nitrate of silver. 

Calyc'ifioral (Lat. calyx, a cup or 
calyx ; flos, a flower). A subdivi¬ 
sion of exogenous plants, including 
those which are provided with both 
calyx and corolla, the stamens being 
perigynous or epigynous. 

Calyp'tra (Gr. ica Xv-ktu, halupto, I 
cover). An appendage of the theca 
in mosses, covering it at first. 

Calyp'trate (Gr. KaXm-rpa, haluptra, 
a covering). Having a calyptra or 
covering ; in botany, applied to the 
calyx of plants when it comes off 
like an extinguisher. 

Calyx (Gr. /caAu|, calux, a shell, or 
unopened flower). The row of 
leaf-like organs, generally green, 
which immediately surrounds a 

Cam'bium. In botany, the mucilagi¬ 
nous fluid which lies between the 
young wood and the bark of a tree. 

Cam'era Luc'ida (Lat. a bright cham¬ 
ber). An apparatus for facilitating 
the delineation of objects, by pro¬ 
ducing a reflected picture of them 
on paper by means of a prism. 

Cam'era Obscu'ra (Lat. a dark cham¬ 
ber). An apparatus in which, the 
images of objects are received 
through a double convex glass, and 
exhibited in the interior of the 
machine on a plane or curved sur¬ 

2 G 


Campan'ulate (Lat. comp ana, a bell). 
Shaped like a bell. 

Campylit'ropous (Gr. KapenvXos, Icam'- 
pulos, curved; rpe-rru, trepo, I 
turn). In botany, applied to an 
ovule bent down on itself till the 
apex touches the base. 

Canalic'ulus (Lat. candlis, a channel; 
ulus, denoting smallness). A little 

Can'cellated (Lat. cancelli, cross-bar, 
or lattice-work). Resembling lat¬ 
tice-work : applied to the least com¬ 
pact structure of bones. 

Cancelli (Lat. lattice-work). In ana¬ 
tomy, the network which forms the 
less compact part of bones. 

Canic'ular (Lat. canid ulus, a small 
dog). Belonging to the dog-star. 

Cani'ne (Lat. canis, a dog). Belong¬ 
ing or having relation to a dog. 

Cannel-coal. A compact brittle 
variety of coal, breaking with a 
conclioidal fracture, and not soiling 
the fingers. 

Can'nula (Gr. kuvvol, Tcanna, a reed or 
cane ; ula, implying smallness). A 
small pipe. 

Can'tharis(Gr. nardapos, Jcan'tharos, a 
kind of beetle). The Spanish fly, 
an insect of the beetle tribe : used 
for producing blisters. 

Canthus. The angle or corner of the 

Caoutchouc, or India-rubber. The 
produce of several trees in tropical 
countries, which produce a juice 
that hardens on exposure to 

Capacity (Lat. capio, I receive). The 
power of containing ; in chemistry, 
applied to the proportion in which 
bodies take in and contain caloric ; 
the space included within the cubic 
boundaries of a body. 

Capillary (Lat. capil'lus, a hair). Re¬ 
sembling or having relation to flue 
hairs, or to the minute blood¬ 

Capitate (Lat. caput, a head). End¬ 
ing in a knob, like the head of a 

Capit'ulum (Lat. caput, a head). A 
little head ; in botany, a flower- 
head, composed of a number of 

florets an*anged without stems on 
the summit of a single peduncle. 

Ca'priform (Lat. caper, a goat; forma, 
shape). Resembling a goat. 

Cap'sular (Lat. cap'sida, a capsule). 
Belonging or having relation to a 

Capsule (Lat. cap'sula, a little chest). 
In chemistry, a clay saucer for 
roasting ; in botany, a form of dry 
fruit containing many seeds; in 
anatomy, a membranous bag in¬ 
closing an organ. 

Car'amel. Burnt sugar. 

Car'apace (Gr. napatios, lcar'abos, a 
stag-beetle or crab). The bony 
shield-like structure which pro¬ 
tects the upper part • of the turtle 
and toi’toise ; also the shell cover¬ 
ing the crab, formed by the union 
of the head with the thorax. 

Carbide (Carbon). A compound of 
carbon with hydrogen or a metal. 

Carbona'ceous (Lat. carbo, a coal). 
Belonging to or containing carbon 
or charcoal. 

Car'bonate (Lat. carbo, a coal). A 
salt formed by the union of carbonic 
acid with a base. 

Carbonic (Lat. carbo, a coal). Be¬ 
longing to, or containing carbon 
or charcoal. 

Carboniferous (Lat. carbo, coal; 
fero, I bear). Producing or yield¬ 
ing coal. 

Carbonisation (Lat. carbo, coal). The 
process of burning a substance 
until nothing but the carbon or 
charcoal is left. 

Car'bonise (Lat. carbo, coal). To turn 
into coal. 

Car'buncle (Lat. carbo, a coal). A 
painful form of excrescence or growth 
on the skin. 

Car'buret (Carbon). A compound 
of carbon with hydrogen or a 

Carcinolna (Gr. napntvos, har'hinos, 
a crab). A form of cancer. 

Carcinomatous (Gr. Kapnirwya, 
JcarTcindma, a cancer). Consisting 
of or belonging to the form of 
cancer called carcinoma. 

Car'dia (Gr. naphta, har'dia, the heart). 
The opening in the stomach which 



admits the food : a term originating 
in the former confusion of ideas 
between the heai’t and the stomach. 

Car'diac (Gr. xapdia, Jcar'dia, the 
heart). Belonging to the heart; or 
to the upper orifice of the stomach. 

Car'diaci (Gr. icapdia, Jcar'clia, the 
heart). A term proposed to be 
applied to the diseases of the heart. 

Cardial'gia (Gr. Kapdia, Jcar'dia, the 
heart; dAyos, algos , pain). Pain 
in the stomach. 

Car'dinal (Lat. cctrdo, a hinge). In 
astronomy, applied to the four 
principal intersections of the hori¬ 
zon with the meridian, or North, 
South, East, and West; in zoology, 
belonging to or connected with the 
hinge in bivalve molluscs. 

Cardi'tis (Gr. icapdia, Jcar'dia, the 
heart; ids, denoting inflammation). 
Inflammation of the heart. 

Ca'ries (Lat., the state of worm-eaten 
wood). Ulceration of the substance 
of bones. 

Ca'rious (Lat. caries). Affected with 

Carmin'ative (Lat. carmen, a poem 
or song). A medicine used to relieve 
pain in the stomach and flatulence; 
so called because it acts as incanta¬ 
tions (carmiua) or charms were 
supposed to act. 

Carna'ria (Lat. caro, flesh). An or¬ 
der of mammalian animals which 
live on flesh, as the lion, tiger, &c. 

Carnifica'tion (Lat. caro, flesh; facio, 
I make). Conversion into a sub¬ 
stance resembling flesh. 

Carniv'ora (Lat. caro, flesh; roro, I 
devour). See Carnaria. 

Carnivorous (Lat. caro, flesh; roro, 
I devour). Living on animal food. 

Carotid (Gr. napa, Jcara, the head; 
ovs, ous, the ear). A name given 
to the arteries which proceed to the 

Carpal {Carpus). Belonging to the 

Carpel (Gr. uap-nos, Jcarpos, fruit). 
A name given to the separate pis¬ 
tils of which a compound fruit is 

Carpel'lary {Carpel). Belonging to 
a carpel. 

Carp'ology (Gr. uapiros, Jcarpos, a 
fruit; Aoyos, logos, discourse). The 
description and classification of 

Carp'ophore (Gr./cap7ros, Jcarpos, fruit; 
cpepcv, phero, I carry). The axis or 
stalk which supports the aclneniaof 
which a cremocarp is formed. 

Carpus (Gr. Kapnos, Jcarpos, the 
wrist). The wrist. 

Car'polithes (Gr. uapiros, Jcarpos, fruit; 
Aid os, litJios, a stone). In geology, 
the general term for fossil fruits. 

Car'tilage (Lat. cardial go). Gristle. 

Cartilaginous (Lat. cardial go, carti¬ 
lage). Belonging to or consisting 
of gristle; applied also to certain 
fishes, the skeleton of which is of a 
gristly consistence. 

Car'uncle (Lat. caro, flesh). A small 
fleshy excrescence. 

Caryatides (Gr. Kapvai, Car'uai, a 
city of Laconia). In architecture, 
female figures used to support en¬ 
tablatures ; so called from the 
women of Caryoe (Kapucu), when 
the city was taken by the Athe¬ 
nians, being represented in this 
posture to perpetuate the memory 
of the event. 

Caryop'sis (Gr. icapvov, Jcar'uon, a 
walnut; dif/is, opsis, appearance). 
A form of dry fruit, consisting of 
one cell, not splitting, and con¬ 
taining a seed which is adherent 
to the pericarp. 

Ca'sein (Lat. cal scum, cheese). A pe¬ 
culiar compound substance, the 
characteristic component of milk, 
and the principal ingredient in 

Cat'aclysm (Gr. icaTaKAvfa, Jcataclu'zo, 
I inundate). A deluge or inunda¬ 

Catalepsy (Gr. Kara, Jcata, down ; 
A rppis, lepsis, a seizing). A 
sudden suppression of conscious¬ 
ness, in which the body retains the 
position in which it was when the 
attack commenced. 

Catal'ysis (Gr. Kara, Jcata , down ; 
Avw, lud, I loosen). A term applied 
to certain chemical phenomena, in 
which changes in the composition 
of substances are effected by the 



presence of another body, which it¬ 
self remains unaltered. 

Catalyt/ic (Gr. Kara, Icata, down; 
Aow, lad, I loosen). Relating to 

Cat'aplasm (Gr. Kara, Icata, down, or 
on ; irAaacra), plassd, I mould). A 

Cat'aract (Gr. Karapp'q'yvvy.i, Jcatar- 
rhegnu'mi, I break down). A water¬ 
fall ; in medicine, a disease of the 
eyes, consisting in opacity of the 
crystalline lens. 

Catar'rh (Gr. Kara, Tcata, down; pew, 
rhed, I flow). A disorder attended 
with increased secretion from the 
nose and fauces ; a cold. 

Catar'rhal (Gr. Kara., Icata, down; 
pew, rhed, I flow). Belonging to 

Catastal'tic (Gr. icara, down : crreA- 
Aw, stellu, I send). Acting from 
above downwards, or from the 
centre to the circumference: ap¬ 
plied to nervous action. 

Catas'trophe (Gr. Kara, down or over; 
<rTpe<pu,strephd, I turn). Ingeology, 
a supposed change in the globe from 
some sudden violent physical action. 

Catenarian (Lat. catena, a chain). 
Relating to or resembling a chain. 

Cate'nopores (Lat. catena, a chain ; 
porus, a pore). Chainpore coral : a 
form of fossil coral. 

Cathar'tic (Gr. uaBaipcc, Jcathai’ro , I 
clean or purge). Purgative. 

Cath'ode (Gr. Kara, Icata, down; 
obos, liodos, a way). The surface 
at which electricity passes out of 
a body. 

Cat'ion (Gr. Kara, Icata, down ; loov, 
ion, going). A name given by Dr. 
Faraday to those substances which 
appear at the cathode. 

Catop'trics ( Gr. KaroirTpor, lcatoptron, 
a mirror). That part of optics 
which explains the phenomena of 
reflected light. 

Cauca'sian {Gay!casus). A term pro¬ 
perly denoting the peoples dwelling 
about the Caucasus, but applied 
also as the name of a class to most 
of the European and several Asi¬ 
atic nations. 

Cauda equi'na (Lat. a horse’s tail). 

The brush-like collection of nerves 
which terminates the spinal mar¬ 

Caudal (Lat. cauda, a tail). Belong¬ 
ing to the tail. 

Caudate (Lat. cauda, a tail). Slaving 
a tail. 

Caul'icle (Lat. cavlis, a stalk ; cle, 
denoting smallness). In botany, a 
term sometimes applied to the neck 
of the embryonic plant. 

Caul'inary (Lat. caalis, a stem). In 
botany, applied to the leaves of 
mosses when produced on the 

Caul'ine (Lat. caidis, a stem). Be 
longing to a stem; applied to the 
leaves growing from the main axis 
of a plant. 

Caustic (Gr. /catw, Jcai’d, I burn). 
Burning; in surgery, destroying 
animal textures by powerful che¬ 
mical action. 

Cau'terise (Gr. naiw, Jcai'd, 1 burn). 
To destroy animal tissues by heat, 
as with a hot iron. 

Cau'tery (Gr. icaiu, Jcai'd, I burn). 
The destroying animal tissues by 
the application of heat ; an iron in¬ 
strument for the purpose. 

Cav'ernous (Lat. caver’na, a cavern). 
Full of caverns ; or like a cavern. 

Celes'tial (Lat. ccelum, heaven). 
Belonging to the sky or visible 

Cell (Lat. cella, a store-house or 
chamber). In physiology, a mi¬ 
nute bag or vesicle. 

Cellular (Lat. celllula, a little cell). 
Consisting of or containing cells ; 
applied to the connecting tissue of 
the different parts of the body, 
which form cells or interstices. 

Cellulose (Lat. celllula, a cell). A 
compound of carbon, hydrogen, and 
oxygen, forming the fundamental 
material of the structure of plants. 

Centigrade (Lat. centum, a hundred ; 
gradus, a degree). Consisting of a 
hundred degrees ; the scale on 
which thermometers are constructed 
in France. 

Centigramme (Fr. cent, a hundred ; 
gramme, a weight so called). A 
French weight, the hundredth pari 



of a gramme : about ^ths of a 
grain avoirdupois. 

Centilitre (Fr. cent, a hundred; 
litre, a quart, or If English pints). 
The hundredth part of a litre : 
about ^th of an English pint. 

Centime'tre (Fr. cent, a hundred; 
metre, a measure equal to Eng¬ 
lish feet). The hundredth part of 
a metre : equal to a little more 
than -j^ths of an English inch. 

Centipede (Lat. centum, a hundred ; 
pes, a foot). Having a hundred 
feet : applied to certain insect-like 
animals which have a large number 
of feet. 

Cen'trical (Lat. centrum, a centre). 
Having coinciding centres ; centri¬ 
cal interposition, in astronomy, is 
the appearance presented in eclipses 
when the centres of the discs co¬ 
incide, the margin of the larger 
disc being left free. 

Centrifugal (Lat. centrum, the centre; 
fugio, I flee). Having a tendency 
to fly off in a direction from the 
centre; in botany, applied to plants 
in which the expansion of flowers 
commences at the top and proceeds 

Centrip'etal (Lat. centrum, a centre ; 
peto, I seek). Having a tendency 
towards the centre ; in botany, 
applied to plants in which the 
flowers expand from below upwards. 

Cephalal'gia (Gr. uecpa A 77 , Tceph'ale, 
the head; a\yos, algos, pain). 

Cephalic (Gr. uecpaXy, Tceph'ale, the 
head). Belonging to the head. 

Cephal'ici (Gr. KecpaXp, Tceph'ale, the 
head). A term proposed to be 
given to diseases seated in the head. 

Ceph'alopods (Gr. icecpaXr,, Tceph'ale, 
the head ; novs, pous, a foot). A 
class of molluscous invertebrate 
animals, which have their organs 
of motion arranged round the head, 
as the cuttle-fish. 

Cephalotho'rax (( jr. icecpaXy, Tceph'ale, 
the head ; Oupa^, thorax, a breast¬ 
plate). The anterior part of the 
external skeleton of arachnida, 
consisting of the head and chest 
united in one mass. 

Cerate (Lat. cera, wax). An oint¬ 
ment consisting of wax and oil. 

Cer'atites (Gr. icepas, Tceras, a horn). 
A genus of fossil cephalopods in 
the triassic strata. 

Cer'ato- (Gr. icepas, Tceras, a horn). In 
anatomy, a prefix in compound 
words signifying connection with 
the cornua or horns of the hyoid 

Cer'atose (Gr. icepas, Tceras, a horn). 
Horny ; applied to sponges, of which 
the hard part is of a horny con¬ 

Cercae (Gr. icepicos, TcerTcos, a tail). 
The feelers projecting from the hind 
part of the body in some insects. 

Cer'eal (Lat. Ceres, the goddess of 
corn). Belonging to, or producing 
eatable grain. 

Cerebellar ( Cerebellum ). Belonging 
to the cerebellum or little brain. 

Cerebellum (Lat. cer'ebrum, the brain; 
ellum, signifying smallness). The 
little brain ; a portion of the mass 
within the skull, situated at the 
lower and back part. 

Cer'ebral (Lat. cer'ebrum, the brain). 
Belonging to the brain. 

Cer'ebric (Lat. cer'ebrum, the brain). 
Belonging to or produced from the 

CerebTiform (Lat. cer'ebrum, the 
brain; forma, shape). Shaped 
like the brain. 

Cerebri'tis (Lat. cer'ebrum, the brain; 
itis, denoting inflammation). In¬ 
flammation of the brain. 

Cer'ebroid (Lat. cer'ebrum, the brain ; 
Gr. eidos, eidos, shape). Like or 
analogous to a brain. 

Cer'ebro-spi'nal (Lat. cer'ebrum, the 
brain ; spina, the spine). Belong¬ 
ing to or consisting of the brain 
and spinal cord. 

Cer'ebrum (Lat). The brain proper. 

Ceru'minous (Lat. cerumen, the wax 
of the ear). Belonging to the wax 
contained in the ear. 

Cerulean (Lat. ccelum, the sky). Sky- 
coloured ; blue. 

Cervi'cal (Lat. cervix, the neck). Be¬ 
longing to the neck. 

Ces'toid (Gr. icearos, Jccstos, a girdle ; 
eidos, eidos, form). Like a girdle ; 



applied to intestinal worms with 
long flat bodies, as the tape-worm. 

Cestra'cionts (Gr. Ktarpa, Tcestra, a 
kind of fish). A family of fishes, 
mostly fossil, of which the Port 
Jackson shark is a type. 

Ceta'ceous (Gr. Kyros, ketos, a whale). 
Belonging to the order of mamma¬ 
lian animals of which the whale is 
a type. 

Chala'za (Gr. %aA a(a, chala'za, a 
small tubercle). The twisted mem¬ 
branous cord attached at each end 
of the yolk of an egg; in botany, 
an expansion at the base of an 
ovule, uniting the coverings with 
the nucleus. 

Clialyb'eate (Gr. x a b- ux l / > chalubs, 
steel). Containing iron. 

Chameleon. (Gr. x a , ua h chamai, on the 
ground ; Aecor, leon, a lion). Akind 
of lizard ; in chemistry, a manganate 
of potassa, from the changes in colour 
which its solution undergoes. 

Cha'os (Gr. x ao5 > chaos , void space, 
or unformed mass). A mass of 
matter without arrangement. 

Cheirop'tera (Gr. x e 'P> clieir, a hand; 
TTrepov, pteron , a wing). Wing¬ 
handed animals; applied to an 
order of mammalian animals, of 
which the bat is an example, in 
which the toes of the fore-limbs 
are connected by a membrane, so 
as to serve as wings. 

Chelate ( ). Having chelae or 
two-cleft claws. 

Chele (Gr. chele, a hoof or 

claw). The two-cleft claws of 
the Crustacea, scorpions, &c. 

Chelic'era (Gr. XV^V, chele, a claw; 
itepas, Jceras, a horn). The pre¬ 
hensile claws of the scorpion. 

Ciielo'nia (Gr. x e ^ wvr !^ chelbne, a 
tortoise). The order of reptiles 
including tortoises and turtles. 

Chemical (Gr. x ew > chcb, I pour). 
Belonging to chemistry. 

Chemistry (Gr. x 6w , ched, I pour). 
The science which has for its object 
the study of the nature and proper¬ 
ties of all the materials which 
enter into the composition of the 
earth, sea, and air, and of the 
beings inhabiting them. 

Chert. A term applied to flinty 
portions occurring in limestone and 
other rocks. 

CkiaTo-oscu'ro (Italian, chia'ro, clear; 
oscu'ro, dark). A drawing in black 
and white ; the art of advantage¬ 
ously distributing the lights and 
shadows in a picture. 

Chilogna'tha (Gr. x 6£ ^ os > cheilos , a 
lip ; 7 vaQos, gnathos, a jaw). A 
family of myriapodous invertebrate 
animals, having a pair of stout 
horny mandibles with sharp toothed 

Chilop'oda (Gr. x eiAos > cheilos, a lip; 
7 tovs, pous, a foot). A family of 
myriapodous invertebrate animals, 
having an additional lip formed by 
the second pair of legs, containing 
each a canal for the discharge of a 
poisonous liquid, as the centipede. 

Chirur'gical (Gr. x^p, cheir, a hand ; 
ipyov, ergon, work). Relating to 
surgery, or that branch of medicine 
which treats diseases and injuries 
by manual operations and instru¬ 

CM'tine (Gr. x LTWV i clutdn, a coat). 
The hardening substance of the 
covering of insects. 

Chi'tinous {Chitine). Consisting of, or 
of the nature of, chitine. 

Chlo'rate (Chlorine ; term. ate). A 
compound of chloric acid with a 

Chlo'ride (Chlorine ; term. ide). A 
compound of chlorine with a metal 
or other elementary substance. 

Chlo'rine (Gr. xhupos, chlbros , yel¬ 
lowish green). An elementary gas, 
so called from its yellow colour. 

Chlo'rite (Gr. x^ w P 0S > chlbros, yel¬ 
lowish-green). A mineral occur¬ 
ring in the granite and metamor- 
phic rocks, often disseminated 
through or coating the laminge. 

Ciilorom'etry (Chlorine ; Gr. gerpov, 
metron, a measure). The process 
of testing the quantity of chlorine 
contained in chloride of lime or any 
other bleaching material. 

Chlo'rophyll (Gr. x Aco P°h chlbros, 
yellowish-green ; QvXAov, phullon, 
a leaf). The green colouring mat¬ 
ter of the leaves of plants. 



Chloro'sis (Gr. xAwpos-, chldros , yel¬ 
lowish-green). A diseased state, 
characterised by poverty of blood, 
and in which a greenish colour of 
the skin is a prominent symptom. 

Chlorot'ic (Gr. x^ u P 0S i chluros , yel¬ 
lowish-green). Relating to or 
having chlorosis. 

Choke-damp. Carbonic acid gas dis¬ 
engaged in mines. 

Cho'lagogue (Gr. x 0 ^!, chole, bile ; 
ayoo, ago, I lead). Having the 
property of causing an evacuation 
of bile. 

Choled'ochus (Gr. x 0 ^Vt chole, bile ; 
oexogai, dech'omai, I receive). Re¬ 
ceiving bile ; applied to the tube 
formed by the junction of the cystic 
and hepatic ducts. 

Chol'era (Gr. x°^Vi chole, bile : pew, 
rhed, I flow). An epidemic disease, 
characterised by diarrhoea and 
vomiting, and symptoms of depres¬ 
sion of the powers of life. 

Choles'terin (Gr. x oAr ?> chole, bile ; 
<7 t epeos, ster'eos, solid). A sub¬ 
stance having the properties of fat, 
found principally in bile. 

Chondrin (Gr. x ov ^P os > chondros, 
a cartilage or gristle). A substance 
somewhat resembling gelatine or 
animal jelly, produced by the ac¬ 
tion of hot water on cartilage. 

Chon drites (Lat. chondrus, a kind of 
sea-weed). Fossil marine plants 
in the chalk and other formations. 

Ckondropteryg'ii (Gr. x ov ^P°^ chon¬ 
dros, cartilage or gristle ; Trrepvyiov, 
pteru!gion, a little wing). An order 
of fishes, the fin-bones of which are 
composed of gristle only. 

Chord (Gr. x°P$ 7 h chorde, a string). 
In geometry, a line extending from 
one end of the arc of a circle to 
the other; in music, the union of 
two or more sounds uttered at once, 
forming a harmony. 

Chor'ea (Gr. x°P 0S > choros, a dance). 
The disease commonly called St. 
Vitus’s Dance, consisting of in¬ 
voluntary movements of the mus¬ 
cles, consciousness being retained. 

Cho'rion(Gr.xwpew, chdred, I contain). 
The external membrane which 
covers the foetus. 

Cho'risis (Gr. x u P‘C a , chdri'zu , I sepa¬ 
rate). A separation; in botany, 
applied to the increase in number 
of the parts of a flower produced by 
the splitting of organs during their 

Chorog'raphy (Gr. x^pos, chdros, a 
place or region ; ypa<pa>, grapho , I 
write or describe). The descrip¬ 
tion of a region or country. 

Chor'oid (Gr. x°°P L0V i chorion , the 
chorion ; eiSos, eidos, shape). Re¬ 
sembling the chorion : applied to 
a coat of the eye, also to a network 
of blood-vessels in the brain. 

Chro'mate (Gr. xP a l ia i chroma, co¬ 
lour). A compound of chromic 
acid with a base. 

Chromatic (Gr. xpoyia, chroma, co¬ 
lour). Relating to colour; in 
music, the chromatic scale is that 
which proceeds by semitonic inter¬ 

Chro'matrope (Gr. xP w P a , chroma , 
colour ; Tpe-rrw, trepd, I turn). An 
optical apparatus for exhibiting the 
appearance of a stream of colours, 
by the revolution of a double set of 
coloured circular arcs. 

Chrohnogen (Gr. xP a P- a > chroma, co¬ 
lour ; yevvaco, gennad, I produce). 
The colouring matter of plants. 

Chronol'ogy (Gr. xP 0V0S -> chronos, 
time; A oyos, logos, a word or de¬ 
scription). The arrangement of 
events in order of time. 

Chronometer (Gr. xp ovos i chronos, 
time; gerpor, metron, a mea¬ 
sure). An instrument for measur¬ 
ing time. 

Chronomet'ric (Gr. xP 0V0S i chronos, 
time ; gerpov, metron, a measure). 
Relating to or employed in the 
measure of time. 

Chro'tici (Gr. xp (j3S -> chrds , the skin). 
A term proposed to be applied to 
diseases of the skin. 

Chrys'alis (Gr. XP V(T0S > chrusos, gold). 
The form which certain insects as¬ 
sume between the caterpillar and 
the winged states ; so called be¬ 
cause yellow in some. 

Chyle (Gr. x^Aos, chulos, juice). The 
milky liquid prepared from the 
food, to be absorbed by the lacteal 



vessels, and supplied to the blood 
for nutriment. 

Chylif'erous (Lat. chylus, chyle; fero, 
I carry). Carrying chyle. 

Chylif'ic (Lat. chylus, chyle ; facio, I 
make). Making chyle ; especially 
applied to a part of the digestive 
apparatus of insects. 

Chylifica'tion (Lat. chylus, chyle; 
facio, I make). The process of 
making chyle. 

Chylopoiet'ic (Gr. x v ^ os , chulos, 
juice or chyle ; Troiew, poi'eo, I 
make). Making chyle : commonly 
applied to the stomach and intes¬ 

Chyme (Gr. x v l jL0S i chumos, juice). 
The pulpy mass formed by digestion 
of the food in the stomach. 

Cicatri'cula (Lat. cicatrix, a Scar ; 
ula, denoting smallness). A spot 
resembling a small scar. 

Cicatrisation (Lat cicatrix, a scar). 
The process of healing a wound. 

Cic'atrise (Lat. cicatrix, a scar). To 
heal a wound, or induce the for¬ 
mation of a scar. 

Cica'trix (Lat.) The scar left after 
the healing of a wound. 

Cilia (Lat. cil'ium, an eyelash). In 
anatomy, the eyelashes ; also cer¬ 
tain minute bodies projecting from 
various parts of animals, and having 
waving motion ; in botany, hairs on 
the margin of a body. 

Ciliary (Lat. cil'ium, an eyelash). 
Belonging to the eyelashes or eye¬ 
lids, or to the minute vibratory 
bodies called cilia. 

Ciliated (Cilia). Provided with vi- 
bratile cilia : applied to a form of 

Ciliobra'chiate (Lat. cil'ium; bra'- 
chium, an arm). Having the arms 
provided with cilia ; applied to a 
class of polypes. 

Cil'iograde (Lat. cil'ium; gra'dior, I 
step). Swimming by the action of 

Cinen'chyma (Gr. uivew, Ici'neo, I 
move ; iyxoga, en'chuma, a tissue). 
A name given to the laticiferous 
vessels of plants. 

Cineri'tious (Lat. cinis, ashes). Re¬ 
sembling ashes ; grey. 

Cin'nabar. A crystalline sulphide of 

Cir'cinate (Lat. cir'cino, I turn round). 
Curled round like a shepherd’s crook 
or a crosier. 

Circulate (Lat. cir'cuius, a circle). To 
move in such a manner as to return to 
the starting point, as the blood does. 

Circulation (Lat. cir'culus, a circle). 
A motion in a circle ; the process 
by which a moving body returns to 
the point from which it started. 

Circum. A Latin preposition, used as 
a prefix in compound words, signi¬ 
fying around. 

Circumduction (Lat. circum, around; 
cluco, I lead). A leading round; 
in physiology, a motion in which a 
bone is made to describe a cone, 
the apex of which is at the joint; 
as with the arm. 

Cir'cuniflex (Lat. circum, around ; 
Jlecto, I bend). Bent round; in 
anatomy, applied to certain vessels 
and nerves, from their course. 

Circumgyration (Lat. circum, about; 
gyrus, a circle). Motion in a circle. 

CircumnavTgate(Lat. circum, around; 
navis, a ship). To sail round. 

Circumpolar (Lat. circum, around; 
polus, the pole). Round the pole : 
a term applied to the stars near the 
North Pole. 

Circumscis'sile (Lat. circum, around ; 
scindo, I cut). In botany, applied 
to a foi-m of dehiscence or opening 
of fruits, in which the upper part 
separates like a lid, as if cut off. 

Cirrho'se (Lat. cirrhus, a curl or ten¬ 
dril). Having or giving off ten¬ 

Cirrho'sis (Gr. mppos, Jcirrhos, tawny). 
A term applied to a diseased state 
of the liver. 

Cirri (Lat. cirrus, a lock of hair or 
curl). The curled filaments acting 
as feet to barnacles ; in botany, 

Cirrig'erous (Lat. cirrus, a curl ; 
gero, I bear). Supporting cirri or 
curled filaments. 

Cir'rigrade (Lat. cirrus; gra'dior, I 
step). Moving by means of cirri. 

CirTipeds (Lat. cirrus; pes, a foot). 
See Cirropods. 



Cir'ropods (Lat. cirrus, a fringe ; Gr. 
7 tovs, pous, a foot). A class of 
invertebrate animals with curled 
jointed feet. 

Ci'tigrade (Lat. citus, quick ; graclus, 
a step). Moving quickly. 

Ci'trate (Lat. citrus, a citron or lemon). 
A compound of citric acid with a 

Cit'ric (Lat. citrus, a lemon). Be¬ 
longing to or existing in lemons • 
applied to an acid found in lemons 
and some other fruits. 

Cladoc'era (Gr. k\ ados, Jclados, a 
branch ; nepas, Jceras, a horn). 
Having branched horns: applied 
to a family of crustaceous animals 
with branched antennae. 

Clairvoy'ance (Fr. clair, clear; voir, 
to see). A state in which persons 
pretend to see that which, under 
ordinary circumstances, is not ap¬ 
parent to the eye. 

Clarifica'tion (Lat. clonus, clear; 
facio, I make). A making clear. 

Class (Lat. classis). A group of 
things or beings, having some con¬ 
spicuous mark of similarity, but 
capable, on further examination, of 
being subdivided into other groups 
or orders. 

Classifica'tion (Lat. classis, a class ; 
facio, I make). An arrangement 
into classes. 

Cla'vate (Lat. clavus, a club). Club- 

Clavicor'nes (Lat. clavus, a club; 
cornu, a horn).. A family of insects 
whose antennce end in a club-shaped 
enlargement, as the necrophorus 
or burying beetle. 

Clay. In geology, a fine impalpable 
sediment from water, nearly en¬ 
tirely consisting of aluminous and 
flinty particles, forming a tough 
plastic mass. 

Cleav'age. A tendency to split in 
certain fixed directions. 

Clep'sydra (Gr. nXeirrco, Jclepto, I steal 
or hide; vdwp, hudor, water). An 
instrument in which time was 
attempted to be measured by the 
flow of water ; a water-clock. 

Climac'teric (Gr. K\tga^, Mimax, a 
ladder). A period of human life 

in which a marked change is sup¬ 
posed to take place in the constitu¬ 

Climatolog'ical (Climate ; A oyos, lo¬ 
gos, discourse). Relating to climate, 
or to a description of climates. 

Climatol'ogy (Gr. K\iga, klima, a 
region ; A oyos, logos, discourse). 
The description of the general phe¬ 
nomena of the climate or state of 
weather of different countries. 

Clinical (Gr. k\lvt] , Mine, a bed). 
Belonging to a bed; in medicine, 
applied to instruction derived from 
the actual observation of patients. 

Cli'noid (Gr. n\ivr), Mine, a bed or 
couch; flSos, eidos, form). Like 
a couch ; in anatomy, applied to 
certain processes of bone, from an 
imagined resemblance to a couch. 

Clinom'eter (Gr. kXivu, Mind, I bend 
or slope; gerpov, metron, a mea¬ 
sure). An instrument for ascer¬ 
taining the angle at which geological 
strata are inclined. 

Cloa'ca (Lat. a sink). The common 
excretory outlet of birds and some 
other animals. 

Clon'ic (Gr. uXoveco, Mon'ed, I agitate). 
Applied to spasm or convulsion 
which rapidly alternates with re¬ 

Clove (Lat. clavus, a nail). A bulb- 
let formed in the axil of a leaf 
which is still part of a bulb, as in 

Clyp'eiform (Lat. clyp'eus, a shield; 
forma, form). Like a shield. 

Clyster (Gr. kXv(w, Muzo, I wash). 
A liquid substance thrown into the 
lower intestine. 

Coag'ulable (Lat. con, together; ago, 
I drive). Capable of being con¬ 
gealed, or changed from a liquid to 
a thick state. 

Coag'ulate (Lat. con, together;- ago, I 
drive). To turn from a fluid to a 
thick state. 

Coagula'tion (Lat. con, together ; ago, 
I drive). A turning from a fluid to 
a thick or solid state. 

Coal-formation. The strata or layers 
of the crust of the earth in which 
coal is found. 

Coales'cent (Lat. coales'co, I grow 




together). Growing together or 


Coalit'ion (Lat. coales'co, I grow 
together). A union of separate 

bodies or parts in one mass. 

Coapta'tion (Lat. con, together ; apto, 

I fit). A fitting together. 

Coarctation (Lat. con, together; 
arctus, narrow). A narrowing or 

Coch'lea (Gr. kox^os, hochlos, a shell¬ 
fish with a spiral shell). In ana¬ 
tomy, a part of the internal ear, of 
a conical form, marked by a spiral 

Coefficient (Lat. con, together; effic'io, 
I effect or make up). That which 
unites with something else to pro¬ 
duce a result. 

Ccelelmin'tha (Gr. kolAos, hoilos, 
hollow; eAfxivs, helmins, a worm). 
The intestinal worms which have 
an alimentary tube. 

Coe'liac (Gr. KoiAia, koilia, the belly). 
Belonging to the abdomen. 

Coertive (Lat. con, together; arceo, 
I drive). Driving together; applied 
to the force which brings about the 
recomposition of bodies after separa¬ 
tion into their elements. 

Cohe'sion (Lat. con, together ; hce'reo, 
I stick). The property by which 
bodies stick together. 

Coleop'tera (Gr. koAcos, hol'eos, a 
sheath ; nrepov, pteron, a wing). 
Having sheathed wings : applied to 
an order of insects of which beetles 
are the type, in which the outer or 
upper wings form sheaths for the 
inner or lower. 

Coleorhi'za (Gr. koAcos, lcol'cos, a 
sheath ; pi (a, rliiza, a root). The 
sheath which covers the bundle of 
young x-oots in endogens. 

Col'ic (Gr. kcoAov, kolon, a part of the 
large intestine). In anatomy, be¬ 
longing to the colon ; in medicine, 
a painful disorder of the intestines. 

Collapse (Lat. con, together ; labor, 
I glide or fall). To fall together ; 
a falling together. 

Collateral (Lat. con , together ; latus, 
a side). Placed side by side ; des¬ 
cending from the children of a 
common ancestor. 

Collen'chyma (Gr. noAAa, holla, glue ; 
^7X u b La , en'chuma, a tissue). In 
botany, the substance lying between 
and uniting cells. 

Collima'tion (Lat. con, with ; limes, 
a limit). The art of aiming at a 
mark ; in astronomy, the line of 
collimation is the line of sight that 
passes through the point of inter¬ 
section of the wires fixed in the focus 
of the object-glass and the centre 
of that glass. 

Colliq'uative (Lat. con, with ; lic[ueo, 
I melt). Melting ; applied to 
diseases attended with profuse loss 
of the animal fluids. 

Collision (Lat. con, together ; Icedo, 
I strike). A striking together. 

Collo'dion (Gr. noAAa, holla, glue). 
A solution of gun-cotton in a mix¬ 
ture of ether and alcohol. 

Collum (Lat. a neck). In botany , the 
portion between the plumule and 
the radicle. 

Collyr'ium (Gr. KoAAvpa, collu'ra, 
eye-salve). A wash for the eyes. 

Co'lolites (Gr. kwAov, kolon, one of 
the intestines; A lOos, lithos, a 
stone). In geology, a name given to 
tortuous masses and impressions, 
resembling the intestines of fishes. 

Columella (Lat. a little column). In 
conchology, the central pillar round 
which a spiral shell is wound ; in 
anatomy, applied to the central part 
or axis of the cochlea of the ear. 

Colum'nae Car'neae (Lat. fleshy co¬ 
lumns). Small rounded muscular 
bands covering the inner surface 
of the ventricles of the heart. 

Colum/nar (Lat. colum'na, a column). 
Arranged in columns. 

Coma (Gr. Kcoya, hbma, a sound sleep). 
A state of complete insensibility, 
with loss of power of speech and 

Coma (Gr. Koyy, home, hair). The 
nebulous or hazy appearance which 
surrounds a comet. 

Combination (Lat. con, with ; him, 
two and two). Union of different 
substances into a new compound. 

Combustible (Lat. comburo, I bum 
up). Capable of being burned. 

Combustion (Lat. comburo, I burn up). 


O O' 


A burning ; the process in which, 
by the aid of heat, a substance 
unites with oxygen, or sometimes 
with chlorine. 

Corn'et (Gr. ko/ut], home, hair). A body 
revolving round the sun in an el¬ 
liptical orbit, and having generally 
a tail or train of light, whence its 

Com'ma (Gr. kotttu, hopto, I cut). 
In music, an interval between two 
sounds, distinguishable by the ear. 

Commen/surable, or Commen'surate 
(Lat. con, together; mensu'ra, a 
measure). Having a common mea¬ 
sure ; applied to two or more num¬ 
bers capable of being divided by the 
same quantity without leaving a 

Com'minute (Lat. con, together ; mi- 
nuo, 1 lessen). To break into small 
pieces ; to reduce to powder. 

Com'missure (Lat. con, together; 
mitto, I send). A joining together; 
a joint or seam. 

Com'xnutator (Lat. con, with ; muto, 
I change). That which changes one 
with another : an apparatus to con¬ 
trol and modify the course of an 
electric current. 

Co'mose (Lat. coma, hair). Hairy. 

Compatible (Lat. con, with ; pa'tior, 
I suffer or endure). In logic, ex¬ 
pressing two views of one object at 
the same time ; in chemistry and 
pharmacy, not decomposing each 

Compensa'tion Balance. In a watch 
or chronometer, a contrivance for 
correcting errors caused by varia¬ 
tions of temperature, by means of 
bars of two or more metals of dif¬ 
ferent powers of expansion. 

Com'plement (Lat. com'pleo, I fillup). 
That which is required to fill up or 
complete some quantity or thing. 

Com'plex (Lat. con, with ; plecto, I 
weave). Made up of two or more 

Complica'tion (Lat. con, together; 
plico, I fold or weave). An inter¬ 
weaving or involving together ; in 
medicine, applied to a disease which 
appears during the presence of 

Compo'nent (Lat. con, together; pono, 

I put). Making up a compound 

Com'posite (Lat. con, together; pono, 

I put). Formed of things placed 
together; in architecture, applied 
to an order the characteristics of 
which are made up from other 
orders ; in arithmetic, applied to 
numbers which can be divided 
exactly by a whole number greater 
than unity. 

Compres'sible (Lat. con, together; 
premo, I press). Capable of being 
pressed together into a smaller 

Compressor (Lat. con, together ; 
premo, I press). That which presses 
together : an apparatus for exer¬ 
cising pressure on bodies viewed 
through a microscope. 

Concave (Lat. con, with ; cavus, hol¬ 
low). Sinking into a depression in 
which a rounded body would lie. 

Con'cavo-con'vex. Concave on one 
surface and convex on the other. 

Concentrate (Lat. con, together; cen¬ 
trum, a centre). To bring to a 
common centre; to increase the 
strength of a compound fluid by 
evaporating the water contained 
in it. 

Concentric (Lat. con, together ; cen¬ 
trum, a centre). Having a common 

Conchif'erous (Lat. concha, a shell ; 
fero, I bear). Shell-fish; espe¬ 
cially those with bivalve shells. 

Conchoi'dal (Gr. uoyxv, honche, a 
shell; etSoy, eidos, form). Like a 

Conehol'ogy (Gr. Koyxv, honche, a 
shell ; \oyos, logos, a word or 
description). The science which 
describes shells. 

Conchyliom'etry (Gr. Koyxv\iov, 
konchu'lion, a shell; gsrpou, me- 
tron, a measure). The art of mea¬ 
suring shells or their curves. 

Concoction (Lat. con, implying per¬ 
fection ; coquo, I cook). A diges¬ 
tion, or ripening. 

Concomitant (Lat. con, with ; comes, 
a companion). Accompanying. 

Concord (Lat. con, with ; cor, the 

d 2 



heart). Agreement ; in music, 
the union of two or more sounds 
so as to produce an agreeable im¬ 
pression on the ear. 

Con'crete (Lat. con, together ; cresco, 
I grow). Grown together, or united ; 
in logic, applied to a term which 
includes both the subject and its 
quality ; in architecture, a mass of 
lime, sand, and gravel, or broken 
stones, commonly used for the 
foundation of buildings. 

Concre'tion(Lat. con, together; cresco, 
I grow). The act of growing to¬ 
gether, or becoming consistent or 
hard ; a mass formed by the union 
of particles. 

Concre'tionary Deposits. In geology, 
the recent alluvial strata, including 
calcareous and other deposits from 

Condensation (Lat. con, together; 
densus, thick). The act of making 
dense, or of causing the particles 
of a body to approach each other 
more closely ; the state of being 
made dense. 

Condens'e (Lat. con, with; densus, 
thick). To make dense or thick, 
by forcing the particles of a body 
into a smaller compass. 

Condens'er (Lat. con, with ; densus, 
thick). An instrument or apparatus 
by which gases or vapours may be 

Conduction (Lat con, with; duco, 
I lead). A leading ; the property 
by which heat, electricity, &c., is 
transmitted without a change in 
the particles of the conducting 

Conductor (Lat. con, together : duco, 
I lead). A leader; in natural 
’philosophy, a body that receives 
and communicates electricity or 

Condu'plicate (Lat. con, together; 
duplex, double). Double, or folded 
over together ; applied in botany to 
leaves, when folded together from 
the midrib. 

Con'dyle (Gr. kovSv\os, Tcon'dulos, a 
knuckle). A rounded projection at 
the end of a bone ; a knuckle. 

Con'dyloid (Gr. novov\os, Tcon'dulos, a 

knuckle ; elSos, ehlos, form). Re¬ 
sembling a condyle : applied espe¬ 
cially to the projection by which 
the lower jaw is articulated with 
the head. 

Con'dylopods (Gr. Kovbv\os, Tcon'dulos, 
a knuckle; -jtovs, pous, a foot). 
Articulated animals with jointed 
legs, as insects and Crustacea. 

Cone (Gr. kuvos, Tconos). A body 
with a circular base, ending in a 
point at the top ; in botany, a mass 
of hard scales or bracts covering 
naked seeds. 

Confer'vse (Lat.). Plants consisting 
merely of round or cylindrical cells 
united into a filament. 

Confer'void (Lat. conferva, a kind of 
water plant; Gr. eibos, eidos, 
form). Resembling conferva ; a 
kind of fresh-water plant consist¬ 
ing of jointed stems. 

Configuration (Lat. con, together; 
figu'ra, a figure). The shape or 
outline of a body. 

Con'fluent (Lat. con, together; fluo, 
I flow). Flowing or running to¬ 
gether : applied to the union of 
parts originally separate. 

Conform'able (Lat. con, together; 
forma, form). In geology, applied 
to strata or groups of strata ly¬ 
ing in parallel order one above 

Conformation (Lat. con, together; 
forma, form). The manner in 
which a body is formed; structure. 

Congela'tion (Lat. con, together; gelo, 
I freeze). The process of passing 
from a fluid to a solid state, as 
water becomes converted into ice. 

Congen'erate (Lat. con, together; 
genus, a kind). Of the same kind 
or nature, or having the same 

Congenital (Lat. con, with; gignor, 
I am born). Born with; belong¬ 
ing to an individual from birth. 

Conge'ries (Lat. con, together; gero, 
I bear). A mass of things heaped 
up together. 

Congestion (Lat. con, together; gero, 

I bear). An accumulation of blood 
or other fluid in the vessels. 

Congestive (Lat. con, together; gero, 



I bear). Belonging to or attended 
by congestion. 

Con'globate (Lat. con, together; glo¬ 
bus, a ball). Gathered into a 
round mass or ball. 

Conglomerate (Lat, con, together; 
glomus, a ball). Gathered into a 
ball or mass. Applied to works 
composed of rounded fragments. 

Con'ic (Gr. kwvos, konos, a cone). 
Having the form of or belonging to 
a cone. 

Con'ic Sections. The figures formed 
by the division of a cone by a plane : 
they are five in number—the tri¬ 
angle, circle, ellipse or oval, para¬ 
bola, and hyperbola. 

Coniferous (Lat. conus, a cone; fero, 
I bear). Bearing cones : an order 
of plants, of which the fir, pine, 
and juniper are examples; so called 
because their fruit is in the form 
of a cone. 

Coniros'tres (Lat. conus, a cone; 
rostrum, a beak). A tribe of in- 
sessorial or perching birds having 
strong conical beaks, of which the 
finches, crows, and hornbills are 

Conjugate Foci. In optics, when part 
of the rays falling on a lens are 
refracted so as to meet in another 
focus than the principal focus, then 
the two foci are called conjugate foci. 

Conjunction (Lat. con, together; 
jungo, I join). A joining; in as¬ 
tronomy, the meeting of two or 
more stars or planets in the same 
degree of the zodiac ; a planet is 
in conjunction with the sun, when 
it appears in the same straight line 
from the earth. 

Conjuncti'va (Lat. con, together; 
jungo, I join). The fine membrane 
covering the front of the eye, which 
is a continuation of the mucous 
membrane lining the eyelids. 

Con'nate (Lat. con, together ; nascor, 
I am born). Growing together. 

Connec'tive (Lat. con, together; necto, 
I knit). Connecting or joining to¬ 
gether ; in botany, the mass of 
cellular tissue and spiral vessels 
generally connecting the lobes of the 

Co'noid (Gr. kcovos, Jc'mos, a cone ; 
et’Sos, eiclos, shape). Like a cone; 
in geometry, the solid figure formed 
by the revolution of a conic section 
round its axis. 

Conserva'trix (Lat. corner'vo, I pre¬ 
serve). Preserving : applied, in 
the expression vis conservatrix 
naturce, to the power which the 
body has of resisting hurtful in¬ 

Consolidate (Lat. con, together; sol'i- 
dus, solid or firm). To make or 
become firm and hard. 

Con'sonance (Lat. con, together; 
sonus, a sound). A sounding to¬ 
gether; in music, an accord of 
souuds which produces an agreeable 
sensation in the ear. 

Constellation (Lat. con, together; 
Stella, a star). A cluster or assem¬ 
blage of stars. 

Constituent (Lat. con, together; 
stat'uo, I place). Forming an es¬ 
sential or necessary part of anything. 

Constitutional Diseases. Diseases 
which become developed under the 
influence of agents acting within the 

Constrictor (Lat. con, together; 
stringo, I bind). A binder or 
drawer together: applied in ana¬ 
tomy to muscles which close any 

Consumption (Lat. consti'mo, I con¬ 
sume). A consuming or destruction ; 
in medicine, a gradual decay of the 
body, especially attended with a 
disease of the lungs. 

Contact Theory. In electrical science, 
the hypothesis of Volta, by which 
any two different conductors of elec¬ 
tricity placed in contact with each 
other produce a decomposition and 
mutual transference of their elec¬ 
tric fluids. 

Conta'gion (Lat. con, together; tango, 
I touch). A touching; in medicine, 
the communication of disease by 
touching the sick or his clothes, 

Conta'gious (Lat. con , together; tango, 
I touch). Capable of being com¬ 
municated by touch, or containing 
communicable matter. 



Continent (Lat. con, together ; teneo, 
I hold). In geography, a large con¬ 
nected tract of land. 

Contort'ed (Lat. con, together; tor'queo, 
I twist). Twisted. 

Contor'tion (Lat con, together ; tor'¬ 
queo, I twist). A twisting out of 
the natural situation. 

Contor'tive (Lat. conlor'queo, I twist 
together). In botany , applied to 
the arrangement of a flower-bud in 
which the edges of the parts alter¬ 
nately overlap, while each part is 
twisted on its axis. 

Contra. A Latin preposition signi¬ 
fying against, used in composition. 

Contrae'tile (Lat. con, together; 
traho, I draw). Having the pro¬ 
perty of contracting or drawing 

Contractility (Lat. con, together; 
traho, I draw). The property by 
which bodies shrink or contract. 

Contu'se (Lat. cun, together ; tundo, 
I beat). To beat or bruise. 

Contu'sion (Lat. con, together; tundo, 
I beat). The act of beating or 
bruising ; a bruise. 

Convalescence (Lat. con, together ; 
valeo, I am in health). The re¬ 
covery of health after illness. 

Convec'tion (Lat. con, with ; veho, I 
carry). The power which fluids 
have of transmitting heat or elec¬ 
tricity by currents. 

Conver'ge (Lat. con, together ; vergo, 
I incline). To tend to one point. 

Con'verse (Lat. con, with ; verto, I 
turn). In mathematics or logic, a 
proposition formed by inverting or 
interchanging the terms of another. 

Con'vex (Lat. convex’us). Rising into 
a spherical or rounded form. 

Con'volute (Lat. con, together ; volvo, 
I roll). Rolled together ; applied 
to leaves rolled together in the bud 
in a single coil. 

Convolu'tion(Lat. con, together; volvo, 
I roll). A rolling together ; in 
anatomy, applied to the windings 
of the brain and the intestines. 

Convul'sion (Lat. con, together ; vello, 
I pull). General involuntary con¬ 
traction of the muscles. 

Co-or'dinates (Lat. con, together; or- 

dino, I put in order.) In geometry, 
a system of lines to which points 
under consideration are referred, 
and by means of which their po¬ 
sition is determined. 

Coper'nican ( Copernicus, an astrono¬ 
mer). In astronomy, applied to 
the system proposed by Copernicus, 
who taught that the earth revolves 
round the sun. 

Cop'rolites (Gr. uonpos, kopros, dung ; 
A(0o?, lithos, a stone). Fossilised 
excrements of animals. 

Cor'acoid (Gr. uopa^, korax, a crow ; 
eiSos, eidos, shape). Resembling a 
crow’s beak : applied to a process of 
the shoulder-blade, which attains a 
large size in birds and reptiles. 

Coral (Gr. tcopaWiov, koral'lion). A 
general term for all calcareous 
structures formed by the action of 
marine polypes or zoophytes. 

Cor'alloid ( Coral ; Gr. eibos, eidos, 
shape). Resembling coral. 

Cord'ate (Lat. cor, the heart). Shaped 
like a heart. 

Cord'iform (Lat. cor, the heart; forma, 
form). Shaped like a heart. 

Coria'eeous (Lat. co'rium, leather). 
Resembling leather ; tough. 

Co'rium (Lat. skin or leather). The 
true skin, lying beneath the cu¬ 

Corm (Gr. uopyos, kormos, a stem or 
log). In botany, a thickened under¬ 
ground stem. 

Corm'ogen (Gr. uopyos, kormos, a 
corm ; yevvaw, gennao, I produce). 
Producing conns ; applied to plants 
which produce stems composed of 
both vessels and cells. 

Cornbrash. A coarse shelly limestone 
in the upper oolite. 

Cor'nea (Lat. cornu, a horn). The 
horny membrane : a part of the 
eye, so called from its resembling 
transparent horn. 

Cor'neous (Lat. cornu, a horn). Horny. 

Cor'neule((7oj , nea; ule, denotingsmall¬ 
ness). A little cornea ; such as 
covers each segment of the com¬ 
pound eyes of insects. 

Cor'nice (Gr. uopwvis,koro'nis, a crown). 
The highest part of the entablature 
of a column ; any series of orna- 



mental work that crowns a wall 
externally or internally. 

Oor'nua (Plural of Lat. cornu, aliorn). 
Horns : applied in anatomy to cer¬ 
tain parts from their position. 

Corolla (Lat. coro'na, a crown). The 
inner whorl or row, generally 
coloured, of the leaves which form 
a flower. 

Cor'ollary (Lat. corol'la , a crown). A 
conclusion drawn from something 
already demonstrated. 

CorollifloTal ( Corolla ; jtos, a flower). 
A sub-class of exogenous plants 
which have both calyx and corolla, 
the petals being united, and the 
stamens hypogynous. 

Corona (Lat. a crown). In anatomy, 
the upper surface of the molar 
teeth ; in botany, the circumference 
or margin of a radiated compound 
flower ; in optics , a halo or lumi¬ 
nous circle round the sun, moon, or 

Coro'nal (Lat. coro'na, a crown). Be¬ 
longing to the top of the head. 

Cor'onary (Lat. coro'na, a crown). 
Belonging to a crown ; applied in 
anatomy, to the vessels which sup¬ 
ply the heart with blood for its 
nutrition, also to vessels of the lips 
and stomach. 

Coro'niform (Lat. coro'na, a crown ; 
forma, shape). Like a crown. 

Coro'noid (Gr. uopwry, korone, a crow ; 
elbos, eidos, form). Resembling a 
crow’s beak ; in anatomy, applied 
to certain processes of bones from 
their shape. 

Cor'pus (Lat.) A body : applied in 
anatomy to several parts of the 

Corpus'cle (Lat. corpus'culum, a little 
body, from corpus, a body). A 
small particle. 

Corpuscular (Lat. corpus'culum, a 
little body). Relating to small 
particles ; applied to a theory of 
light, which supposes it to consist 
of minute particles emitted from 
luminous bodies. 

Correlation (Lat. con, together ; re- 
latus, brought). A mutual or 
reciprocal relation. 

Corro'de (Lat. con, together; rodo, I 

gnaw). To eat or wear away by 


Corro'sion (Lat. con ; rodo, I gnaw). 
A wearing away, as of metals, by 
the action of acids. 

Corro'sive (Lat. con; roclo, I gnaw). 
Having the property of gradually 
eating or wearing away. 

Cor'rugate (Lat. con; ruga, a wrinkle). 
To draw into folds or wrinkles. 

Cort'ical (Lat. cortex, bark). Belong¬ 
ing to or forming the external 

Coruscation (Lat. corusco, I flash). 
A flash of light. 

Cor'ymb (Gr. Kopvyfios, kor'umbos, a 
cluster). A form of inflorescence 
consisting of a raceme or panicle in 
which the lower flowers have short 
pedicels, and the upper short ones, 
so that all form a nearly level 

Cose'cant (Lat. con; seco, I cut). 
The secant of the complement of an 
arc of a circle. 

Co'sine (Lat. con, with; sine). The 
sine of the complement of the arc 
of a circle. 

Cos'mical (Gr. Koayos, kosmos, the 
universe). Relating to the uni¬ 

Cosmog'ony (Gr. Koayos, kosmos, the 
world or universe ; yevvaw, gennao, 
I produce). The science which 
treats of the orgin or formation of 
the universe. 

Cosmog'raphy (Gr. ko<t/jlos, kosmos, 
the universe; ypacpoo, graplib, I 
write). A description of the uni¬ 

Cosmol'ogy (Gr. uocryos, kosmos, the 
universe ; Xeyw, lego, I describe). 
The science of tlie universe, or of 
the formation and arrangement of 
its component parts. 

Cosmora'ma (Gr. Kocryos, kosmos, the 
universe; opaw, horab, I see). A 
view, or series of views, of the 

Cosmos (Gr. Koayos, kosmos, order or 
arrangement; also the world.) The 
universe ; the w T hole created things 
constituting the perceptible world. 

Cos'mosphere (Gr. uoayos, kosmos, the 
world ; ocpuipa, sphaira , a sphere). 



An instrument for showing the po¬ 
sition of the earth with respect to 
the fixed stars. 

Costal (Lat. costa, a rib). Belonging 
to the ribs. 

Cotan'gent (Lat. con , with ; tango, I 
touch). The tangent of the com¬ 
plement of an arc of a circle. 

Coti'dal (Lat. con, with; tide). Having 
tides at the same time. 

Cotyle / don(Gr. KorvAiqhuv, Tcotuledon, 
a cup-like hollow). In botany, the 
temporary leaf which first appears 
above ground; in anatomy, ap¬ 
plied to the portions of which the 
placentae of some animals are 

Cot'yloid (Gr. kotvA- q, Tcot'ule, a cup or 
socket; elSos, eidos, shape). Re¬ 
sembling the socket of a joint. 

Coup (Fr.). A blow or stroke. 

Coup d’ceil (Fr., stroke of the eye). 
A general view. 

Coup de soleil (Fr., stroke of thesun). 
A disease produced by exposure of 
the head to the rays of the sun. 

Ccxal'gia (Lat. coxa, the hip ; Gr. 
aA. 70 s, algos, pain). Pain in the hip. 

Cra'nial (Lat. cra'nium, the skull). 
Of or belonging to the skull. 

Cramol'ogy (Gr. upaviov, Tcra'nion, the 
skull; Aoyos, logos, a description). 
A description of the skull. 

Crasis (Gr. Kepavvvpa, kerannu'mi, I 
mix). A mixture : applied to the 
just mixture of the fluids of the 
body: in grammar, the union of 
two short vowels into a long one or 
a diphthong. 

Crassament'um (Lat. crassus, thick). 
The thick part or clot of blood. 

Crater (Gr. Kparyp, Tcrater, a large 
cup). The mouth of a volcano. 

Crayon (Fr. craie, chalk). A coloured 
stone or earth used in drawing; a 
kind of pencil made of the same. 

Cre'asote (Gr. upeas, Tcreas, flesh; 
( rco(u>, sozu, I preserve). An oily 
liquid consisting of carbon, oxygen, 
and hydrogen, obtained from tar, 
and named from its property of 
preserving animal substances. 

Cre'atin (Gr. Kpeas, Tcreas, flesh). A 
substance obtained from flesh, be¬ 
lieved to be its essential element. 

Creat'inin (Gr. /rpea?, Tcreas, flesh). 
A modified form of creatin. 

Crexn'ocarp (Gr. Kpeyaco, Jcremao, I 
suspend; uapnos, Tcarpos, fruit). 
A fruit consisting of two achsenia 
united by their faces, and covered 
by the tube of the calyx. 

Cre'nate (Lat. crena, a notch). 
Notched; in botany, applied to 
leaves having superficial rounded 
divisions at their edges. 

Crepitant (Lat. crep'ito, I crackle). 
Crackling or snapping. 

Crepitate (Lat. crep'ito, I crackle). 
To crackle. 

Crepitus (Lat.). A crackling sound. 

Crepuscular (Lat . crepus'culum, twi¬ 
light). .Of or relating to twilight. 

Crepuscula'ria (Lat. crepus'culum, 
twilight). A family of lepido- 
pterous or scaly-winged insects, 
which mostly fly by twilight, as 
the sphinxes or hawk-moths. 

Creta'ceous (Lat. creta, chalk). Of or 
relating to chalk. 

Cretinism. The state of a Cretin: a 
diseased state characterised by im¬ 
becility of mind and body, common 
in Switzerland and some other 
mountainous countries. 

Crib'riform (Lat. cribrum, a sieve ; 
forma, shape). Like a sieve. 

Cri'coid (Gr. upiKos, Tcrilcos, a ring ; 
elSos, eidos, shape). Like a ring. 

Cri'noid (Gr. Kpivos, Trinos, a lily; 
elSos, eidos, shape). Like a lily : 
applied to certain fossil echinoder- 
matous invertebrates supported on 
jointed stalks. 

Cri'sis (Gr. upiuco, Tcrino, I judge or 
determine). That state of a disease 
or other affair, in which it has 
arrived at its height, and must soon 
change; in medicine, generally 
applied to the change itself. 

Cris'ta (Lat. a crest). In anatomy, 
a term applied to several processes 
of bones. 

Critical (Gr. upivco , Trind, I judge or 
determine). Relating to judging ; 
in medicine, marking or producing 
a change in a disease. 

Crocodilla ( Crocodile ). The class of 

reptiles of which the crocodile is the 



Crop. In geology , the edge of an in¬ 
clined stratum when it comes to 
the surface. 

Cru'cial (Lat. crux, a cross). Trans¬ 
verse ; like a cross ; in experimental 
science, searching, decisive. 

Cru'cible (Lat. cru'cio, I torment). A 
vessel of clay, sand, and ground 
ware, or other material capable of 
enduring heat : used in chemistry 
and manufactures. 

Cruciferous (Lat. crux, a cross ; fcro, 
I bear). Bearing a cross : applied 
to an order of plants, the four petals 
of the flowers of which are arranged 
in the form of a cross. 

Cru'ciform (Lat. crux, a cross forma, 
shape). Shaped or arranged like a 

Crudity (Lat. crudus, raw). Rawness,; 
undigested substance. 

Crura (Lat. crus, a leg). Legs ; in 
anatomy, applied fancifully to pro¬ 
jections of some parts of the body. 

Crural (Lat. crus, a leg). Of or be¬ 
longing to the legs. 

Crusta petrosa (Lat. a strong crust). 
A bony layer which covers the fangs 
of the teeth. 

Crusta'ceous (Lat. crusta, a crust or 
shell). Having a crust: applied to 
a class of invertebrate animals, of 
which the lobster is an example, 
which have hard jointed shells. 

Cryoph'orus (Gr. Kpvos, Jcruos, ice ; 
< pepu>, phero, I bear). An instru¬ 
ment for freezing water by its own 

Crypt (Gr. KpuiTTw, krupto, I hide). A 
hidden recess ; in anatomy, applied 
to some of the minute cavities or 
simple glands of mucous membranes. 

Cryptobranch/iate (Gr. Kpvrrrw, krupto, 
I hide ; Ppayxia, branchia, gills). 
Not having conspicuous gills; ap¬ 
plied to certain articulated and 
molluscous animals. 

Cryptogam'ia (Lat. npv tttw, krupto, I 
hide; yap.os, gamos, marriage). 
An order of plants in which the 
distinction of sexes is not obvious. 

Crystal (Gr. upvaraWos, krustal'los, 
ice). A geometrical figure, assumed 
by most substances under favour¬ 
able circumstances; also a general 

name for some transparent mineral 

Crystalline (Gr. KpocrraWos, krus¬ 
tal'los, ice or crystal). Consisting 
of or resembling crystal : applied to 
a lens of the eye. 

Crystallisation (Gr. KpvcrraWos, krus¬ 
tal'los, ice or crystal). The as¬ 
suming of crystalline or geometrical 
forms by substances. 

Crystallography (Gr. KpocrraWos, 
krustal'los, ice or crystal; ypa<pa>, 
graphd, I write). The science which 
describes crystals. 

Cten'oid (Gr. nreis, Jcteis, a comb ; 
eidos, eidos, form). An order of 
fishes having scales jagged like the 
teeth of a comb. 

Ctenoptych'ius (Gr. ureis, kleis, a 
comb; irroxv, ptuclie, a wrinkle). 
A genus of fossil teeth distinguished 
by the serrated margin of their 
cutting edges. 

Cube (Gr. icvfios, kubos, a solid square). 
In geometry, a solid body having 
six equal sides with equal angles ; 
in arithmetic, the product of a 
number multiplied twice into itself. 

Cubic (Gr. Kvfios, kubos, a cube). 
Having the property of, or capable 
of being contained in, a cube. 

Cu'bital (Lat. cubitus, the elbow). Of 
or belonging to the elbow. 

Cu'boid (Gr. kv&os, kubos, a cube ; 
eidos, eidos, shape). Like a cube 
or die. 

Cucul'late (Lat. cucul'lus, a hood). 
Like a hood. 

Cul-de-sac (French). A passage closed 
at one end. 

Cul'minate (Lat. culmen, a top). To 
become vertical, or gain the extreme 
point of height. 

Cultriros'tres (Lat. culter, a plough¬ 
share ; rostrum, a beak). A family 
of grallse or stilt-birds, having a 
long, thick, stout beak, including 
cranes, herons, and storks. 

Cum'brian ( Cumbria , Wales). A name 
given to the strata which lie be¬ 
neath the true Silurian system, 
from their occurring largely in 
Wales and Cumberland. 

Cu'neate (Lat. cu'neus , a wedge). Like 
a wedge. 



Cu'neiform (Lat. cu'neus, a wedge ; 
forma, shape). Like a wedge. 

Cupel (Lat. cupel'la, a little cup). A 
kind of cup used in chemistry, 
which, when heated, absorbs the 
refuse matter of the metals placed 
in it for purification. 

Cupella'tion (Lat. cupel'la, a little cup). 
The process of refining, especially 
gold and silver, by means of a cupel. 

Cu'pola. A spherical or spheroidal 
covering to a building. 

Cuprif'erous (Lat. cuprum , copper ; 
fero, I bear). Yielding copper. 

Curso'res (Lat. curro, 1 run). An 
order of birds constituted for run¬ 
ning only, as the ostrich : also a 
division of spiders which have the 
legs adapted for running. 

Curvicau'date (Lat. curvus, curved ; 
cauda, a tail). Having a bent tail. 

Curvifo'liate (Lat. curvus, curved ; 
fo'Hum, a leaf). Having bent 

Curvilin'ear (Lat. curvus, crooked ; 
lin'ea, a line). Having or moving 
in a curved line or curved lines. 

Curviner'vate (Lat. curvus, curved ; 
nervus, a nerve). Having the 
veins or nervures curved. 

Curviros'tral (Lat. curvus, crooked; 
rostrum, a beak). Having a bent 

Cusp'idate (Lat. cuspis, the point of 
a weapon). Pointed : applied in 
anatomy to the canine or eye-teeth. 

Cuta'neous (Lat. cutis, the skin). Of 
or belonging to the skin. 

Cu'ticle (Lat. cutis, the skin). The 
external or scarf skin, a membrane 
covering the true skin. 

Cutis (Lat.) The skin. 

Cy'anate. A compound of cyanic acid 
with a base. 

Cyan'ic (Gr. uvavos, Jcu'anos, blue). 
Relating to blue ; applied to a series 
of colours having blue as the type. 

Cy'anide (Cyan 1 ogen ; terminal ide). 

A compound of cyanogen with an 
elementary substance. 

Cyan'ogen (Gr. uvavos, Jcu'anos, blue; 
yewaoc, gennad, I produce). A gas 
consisting of carbon and nitrogen : 
it enters into the composition of I 
hydrocyanic acid, and has its name ‘ 

from the blue colour produced by 
its compounds with certain salts of 

Cyano'sis (Gr. uvavos, Jcu'anos, blue). 
A diseased condition, arising from 
a defect in the formation of the 
heart, and characterised by blue¬ 
ness of the skin. 

Cyan'otype ( Cyanogen ; Gr. twos, 
tupos, an impression). A photo¬ 
graph prepared by washing paper 
with cyanide of potassium. 

Cyca'deous. Belonging to the order of 
plants which has the palm-tree as 
a type. 

Cyc'adites ( Cycas ). Fossil plants 
allied to the cycas and zamia. 

Cycle (Gr. uvuAos, JcuJclos, a circle). 
A series of numbers, as of years, in 
which, after a certain round has 
passed, a similar course com¬ 

Cyclical (Gr. uvuAos, JcuJclos, a circle). 
Belonging to a cycle. 

Cyclobran'chiate (Gr. uvuAos, JcuJc¬ 
los, a circle; fipayxi-a, bran'cJiia, 
gills). Having the gills disposed 
in a circle : applied to an order of 

Cy'cloid (Gr. uvuAos, JcuJclos, a circle ; 
ei8os, eidos, form). Resembling a 
circle ; applied to an order of fishes 
having smooth round scales, simple 
at the margin. 

Cycloneu'rous (Gr. uvuAos, JcuJclos, a 
circle; vevpov, neuron, a nerve). 
Having the nervous system in the 
form of a circle ; as in some of the 
radiated invertebrate animals. 

Cyclopae'dia (Gr. uvuAos, JcuJclos, a 
circle; -uaiSeia, paidei'a, instruc¬ 
tion). A woik which contains an 
account of all the arts and sciences, 
or of all that relates to any par¬ 
ticular department. 

Cyclop'teris (Gr. uvuAos, JcuJclos, a 
circle ; irrepis, pteris, a fern). A 
genus of fossil fern-like plants, with 
circular leaflets. 

Cyclo'sis (Gr. uvuAos, JcuJclos, a circle). 
Motion in a circle : applied to a 
movement of fluid observed in some 
parts of plants. 

Cyclcs'tomous (Gr. uvuAos, JcuJclos, a 
circle ; aroga, stoma, a mouth. 



Having a circular mouth, as certain 

Cylinder (Gr. Kv\Ludw, Jculin'dd, I 
roll). A roller; a body produced 
by the revolution of a right-angled 
parallelogram round one of its 

Cyme (Gr. kvu.u, Jcuma, a wave ?). In 
botany, a form of inflorescence re¬ 
sembling a corymb, but branched, 
so as to have in part the character 
of an umbel. 

Cynan'che (Gr. kvojv, Jcuon, a dog ; 
ayxco, ancJio, I strangle). Quinsy. 

Cyn'osure (Gr. kvwv, Jcuon, a dog; 
oupa, oura, a tail). The dog’s tail: 
a constellation of seven stars near 
the north pole; generally called 
Ursa Minor, or Charles’s wain. 

Cyst (Gr. kvgtls, Jcustis, a bladder). 
A small bladder ; generally applied' 
to small sacs or bags containing 
matter of various kinds in disease. 

Cystic (Gr. kvgtls, Jcustis, a bladder). 
Belonging to, or resembling a cyst 
or bladder : applied to a class of 
parasitic animals ; also to a duct or 
tube proceeding from the gall¬ 

Cystid'eoe (Gr. kvgtls, Jcustis, a blad¬ 
der). A family of fossil echino- 
derms, of a bladder-like shape. 

Cy'toblast (Gr. kvtos, Jcutos, a cell ; 
fi\a.GTavcti, bias'tand, I bud forth). 
The nucleus of animal and vegetable 

Cytoblaste'ma (Gr. kvtos, Jcutos, a 
cell ; fiAaGTavu >, blas'tanb, I bud 
foi’th). The viscid fluid in which 
animal and vegetable cells are pro¬ 
duced, and by which they are held 

Cytogen'esis (Gr. kvtos, Jcutos, a cell; 
yeveGLs, gen'csis, origin). The de¬ 
velopment of cells in animal and 
vegetable structures. 


Dac'tyl (Gr. daicTvXos, daJc'tulos, a 
finger). A foot in verse, consisting 
of a long syllable followed by two 
short ones, like the joints of a 

Daguer reotype. A picture produced 
according to the process invented by 
M. Daguerre, by the action of light 
on iodide of silver. 

Da'ta (Lat. do, I give). Things given ; 
facts or quantities, the existence of 
which is admitted as a foundation 
for the discovery of other results. 

Da'tive (Lat. do, I give). Giving; 
that case or part of nouns which 
conveys with it the idea of giving 
or acquisition. 

Debacle (Fr.). In geology, a sudden 
flood or rush of water which breaks 
down opposing barriers. 

Debility (Lat debilis, weak). Weak¬ 

De'bris (Fr. waste). Fragments ; 
broken pieces ; in geology, gener¬ 
ally applied to the larger fragments. 

Deca (Gr. deuce, deJca, ten). A prefix 
in compound words, signifying ten. 

Decade (Gr. daca, deJca, ten). A 
collection of ten. 

Dec'agon (Gr. 5 eua, deJca, ten ; ywvia, 
gonia, an angle). A figure having 
ten sides and ten angles. 

Dec'agramme (Gr. detect, deJca, ten ; 
Fr. gramme, a weight so called). 
A French weight consisting of ten 
grammes, or nearly 1544 g ra i ns - 

Decagyn'ia (Gr. detect, deJca, ten; ywr\, 
gune, a female). An order of plants 
in the Linntean system, having ten 

Decahed'ron (Gr. deua, deJca, ten ; 
edpa, ■ Jiedra, a base). A solid 
having ten sides. 

Dee'alitre (Gr. deua, deJca, ten; Fr. 
litre, a quart, or If English pints). 
A measure of ten litres. 

Dec'alogue (Gr. Sera, deJca, ten ; 
A oyos, logos, a word). The ten 

Decimetre (Gr. 5e/ca, deJca, ten ; Fr. 
metre, a measure equal to Eng¬ 
lish feet). A measure of ten metres. 

Decan'dria (Gr. detect, deJca, ten ; 
avr\p, aner, a man). A clas3 of 



plants in the Linnsean system, 
having ten stamens. 

Decap'oda (Gr. 5 eua, cleJca, ten ; nous, 
pcms, a foot). Animals having ten 

Decar'bonize (Lat. de, from ; carbon). 
To remove carbon from a body. 

Bec'astyle (Gr. de/ca, deka, ten; 
<ttv\o$, stulos, a column). Having 
ten pillars or columns. 

Decay (Lat. de, down ; cado, I fall). 
A slow destruction ; a decomposi¬ 
tion of moist organic matter ex¬ 
posed to air, by means of oxygen, 
without sensible increase of heat. 

Decern (Lat. ten). A prefix in com¬ 
pound words, signifying ten. 

Decen'nial (Lat. decern, ten ; annus, 
a year). Occurring every ten years ; 
lasting ten years. 

Decid'uous (Lat. de, down; cado, I 
fall). Apt to fall off. 

Decigramme (Lat. decern, ten ; Fr. 
gramme). A tenth of a gramme ; 
about English grains. 

Decilitre (Lat. decern, ten ; Fr. litre, 
a quart, or § English pint). A 
tenth of a litre. 

Decimal (Lat. decern, ten). Relating 
to the number ten ; increasing or 
diminishing tenfold. 

Decimetre (Lat. decern, ten ; Fr. 
metre, a measure equal to 3^ Eng¬ 
lish feet), A tenth part of a metre ; 
nearly 4 English inches. 

Declen'sion (Lat. decli'no, I bend 
down). A descent or slope ; the 
variation in a noun produced by a 
change of the ending of the word. 

Decli'nal (Lat. decli'no, I bend down). 
Bending down or sloping ; in geo¬ 
logy, applied to the slope of strata 
from an axis. 

Declina'tion (Lat. decli'no, I bend 
down). A variation from a fixed 
line or point : as of a heavenly body 
from the equator, or of a magnetic 
needle from the true meridian. 

Decoction (Lat. de, down; co'quo , I 
cook). The art of boiling a sub¬ 
stance in water ; fluid impregnated 
with any substance by boiling. 

Decollated (Lat. de, off; collum, a 
neck). Having the apex or head 
worn off. 

Decolorisa'tion (Lat. de, from ; color, 
colour). Removal of colour. 

DeccForise (Lat. de, from ; color, 
colour). To remove colour. 

Decompose (Lat. de, from; compo'no, 
I put together). To separate the 
constituent parts of a body from 
each other. 

Decomposition (Lat. de, from ; com¬ 
po'no, I put together). The separa¬ 
tion of a body into its constituent 
parts or elements. 

Decomposition of Forces. The term 

applied to the division of any force in¬ 
to several others, the result of which 
is equal to the force decomposed. 

Decomposition of Light. The separa¬ 
tion of a beam into the several rays 
producing prismatic colours. 

Decompound' (Lat. de, from ; com¬ 
po'no, I put together). In botany, 
applied to leaves, of which the 
petiole is so divided that each part 
fonns a compound leaf. 

Decor'ticate (Lat. de, from ; cortex, 
bark). To strip off the bark or 
outer covering. 

De'cremeni (Lat. decres'co, I grow 
less). The quantity by which any¬ 
thing is lessened. 

Decrepitation (Lat. de, from ; crep'- 
itus, a crackling). A roasting with 
a crackling noise, produced by a 
series of small explosions from sud¬ 
den expansion by heat. 

Decu'bitus (Lat. de, down ; curnbo, I 
lie). A lying down ; position in bed. 

Decum'bent (Lat. decumbo, I lie down). 
Lying down ; in botany, applied to 
stems which lie on the ground, but 
rise towards their end. 

Decuss'ate (Lat. decus'so, I cut across). 
To intersect or cross, like the strokes 
of the letter X. 

Decuss'ation (Lat. decus'so, I cut 
across). An intersection or crossing. 

Defeca'tion (Lat. de, from; feex, 
dregs or refuse matter). Purifica¬ 
tion from dregs ; expulsion of ad¬ 
ventitious matter. 

Deferent (Lat. de, from; fero, I 
carry). Carrying away. 

Definite (Lat. de, down ; jinio, I 
limit). In logic, marking out a 
particular class; in botany, applied 



to inflorescence when it ends in 
a single flower, which is the first 
on the stem to expand. 

De'flagrate (Lat. de, down ; jlagro, I 
burn). To burn rapidly. 

Beflec'ted (Lat. de, down ; Jlecto, I 
bend). Bent down. 

Deflec'tion (Lat. de, from ; jlecto, I 
bend). A bending or turning aside 
from the direct course. 

Deflec'tive (Lat. de, from jlecto, I 
bend). Bending or turning aside. 

Deflux'ion (Lat. de, down; jluo, I 
flow). A flowing down. 

Degeneration (Lat. de, down ; genus, 
a kind). A growing worse or in¬ 
ferior ; a falling from the normal 
or healthy state to one which is in¬ 

Deglutition (Lat. de, down ; glutio, 
I swallow). The act of swallowing. 

Degradation (Lat. de, down ; gradus, 
a step). In geology, a removing or 
casting down step by step. 

Degree (Lat. de, from ; gradus, a 
step). A step ; in geometry, the 
three hundred and sixtieth part of 
the circumference of a circle. 

Dehis'cence (Lat. dehis'co, I gape). 
A gaping or opening ; the splitting 
open of a bag containing eggs, or of 
a fruit containing seeds. 

Dehis'cent (Lat. dehis'co, I gape). 
Opening like the pod of a plant. 

Delete'rious (Gr. S-rjAeoyai, dcleomai, 
I destroy). Destructive ; injuri¬ 
ous ; poisonous. 

Deliques'cence (Lat. de, down ; liques'- 
co, I melt). A melting ; the pro¬ 
cess by which saline matters attract 
water from the air, and thus be¬ 
come melted. 

Deliq'uium (Lat. want or defect). A 
failure of power ; fainting. 

Delirium (Lat. deli'ro, I dote or rave). 
A wandering of the ideas of the mind. 

Delta (the Greek letter A). A piece 
of land enclosed within two mouths 
of a river which branches before 
reaching the sea : originally ap¬ 
plied to the land enclosed between 
the mouths of the Nile. 

Del'toid (Gr. AeAronthe letter delta or 
A; elSos, eidos, shape). Resembling 
the letter A or delta; triangular. 

Demen'tia (Lat. de, from ; mens, the 
mind). Want of intellect ; a form 
of insanity characterised by a rapid 
succession of imperfect and uncon¬ 
nected ideas, with loss of reflection 
and attention. 

Demi (Lat. dimid'ivm, half). A prefix 
in compound words, signifying half. 

Demotic (Gr. d-qyos, demos, people). 
Belonging to the people : applied to 
the alphabet used by the people, as 
distinguished from that used by a 
certain class ; as among the Egyp¬ 

Demul cent (Lat, de, from ; mul'ceo, 
I soothe or soften). Softening or 

Denary (Lat. deni, a series of tens). 
Containing tens; having the number 
tens as the characteristic. 

Dendriform (Gr. devdpov, dendron, a 
tree; Lat. forma, shape). Re¬ 
sembling a tree. 

Dendritic (Gr. devdpov, dendron, a 
tree). Resembling a tree or shrub ; 

Den'droid (Gr. Set 'dpov, dendron, a 
tree ; eidos, eidos, shape). Resem¬ 
bling a tree. 

Den'drolite (Gr. Set >dpov, dendron, a 
tree ; A idos, lithos, a stone). A 
fossil plant or part of a plant. 

Dendrom'eter (Gr. devdpuv, dendron, 
a tree; yerpov, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring trees. 

Density (Lat. densus, thick). Thick¬ 
ness ; the quantity of matter in a 
substance, compared with that in 
an equal volume of another sub¬ 

Dental (Lat. dens, a tooth). Belong¬ 
ing to the teeth ; formed by the 

Dental Formula. A formula used to 
denote the number of the different 
kinds of teeth in an animal. 

Dent'ary (Lat. dens, a tooth). A 
bone in the head of fishes and rep¬ 
tiles, which supports the teeth. 

Dentate (Lat. dens, a tooth). Having 
tooth-like projections. 

Den'ticle (Lat. dens, a tooth ; cle, 
denoting smallness). A little tooth, 
or projection like a tooth. 

Dentic'ulate (Lat. dens, a tooth). 



Having small teeth, or projections 
like teeth. 

Ben'tifrice (Lat. dens, a tooth ; frico, 

I rub). A substance used in clean¬ 
ing teeth; tooth-powder. 

Bentig'erous (Lat. dens, a tooth; gero, 
I bear). Bearing teeth. 

Ben'tine (Lat. dens, a tooth). The 
part of a tooth commonly known as 

Dentiros'tres (Lat. dens, a tooth ; 
rostrum, a beak). A family of birds 
of the passerine order, having the 
upper hill notched towards the 

Dentition (Lat. dens, a tooth). The 
process of breeding or cutting teeth. 

Denuda'tion (Lat. de, from ; nudus , 
bare). A stripping bare. 

Deo'dorise (Lat. de, from; odor, 
smell). To deprive of smell. 

Deodorisa'tion (Lat. de, from ; odor, 
smell). A depriving of smell. 

Deoxidate, or Deoxidise, or Deoxyg'- 
enate (Lat. de, from ; oxidate, 

to charge with oxygen). To de¬ 
prive of oxygen. 

Dephlogis'ticated. Deprived of phlo¬ 
giston, the supposed principle of 
inflammability : a term formerly 
applied to oxygen gas. 

Depilatory (Lat. de, from ; pilus, 
hair). Having the property of 

removing hair. 

Depletion (Lat. de, from ; pleo, I 
fill). Emptying ; diminishing the 
quantity contained. 

Deposit (Lat. de, down ; pono, I 
put). Any thing or substance 

thrown down, as from fluid in 

which it has been suspended. 

Deprava'tion (Lat. de, down; pravus, 
bad). A making bad or worse. 

Depression (Lat. de, down ; prem'o, 
I press). A pressing down ; a 
sinking in or down. 

Depres'sor (Lat. de, down ; prem'o , I 
press). That which depresses or 
draws down : applied to certain 

De'purate (Lat. de, from ; purus^ 
pure). To render free from impurities. 

Depura'tion (Lat. de, from ; punts, 
pure). Purification ; rendering free 
from impurities. 

Derby-spar. Fluoride of calcium, or 

Derivation (Lat. de, from ; rivus, a 
stream). In grammar, the tracing 
a word to the source from which 
it has been obtained. 

Deriv'ative (Lat. de, from; rivus, a 
stream). Turning aside, or draw¬ 
ing away from another part, as 
applied to medicines ; in grammar, 
a word which has its origin in 
another word. 

Derma (Gr. 5 epga, derma, skin). The 
true skin. 

Der'mal (Gr. Sepqa, derma, skin). 
Belonging to or formed of skin. 

Dermatol'ogy (Gr. Sepgct, derma, 
the skin ; Xoyos, logos, discourse). 
A description of the skin. 

Dermone'ural (Gr. hepga, derma, the 
skin ; vevpov, neuron, a nerve). A 
name given to the outer or upper 
row of spines on the back of a fish, 
from their connection with the 
skin, and their position in respect 
to the part of the skeleton which 
protects the nervous system. 

Dermoskel'eton (Gr. Sepga, derma, 
skin ; crusher or, sJcel’eton). A skin 
skeleton ; the external covering, 
more or less hard, of many inverte¬ 
brate animals ; also the skeleton 
formed of bones connected with the 
skin in fishes and some other ver¬ 

Desic'cate (Lat. de, from; siccus, 
dry). To make dry. 

Desicca'tion (Lat. de, from ; siccus, 
dry). The act of making dry. 

Besic'cative (Lat. de, from; siccus, 
dry). Drying. 

Desmog'raphy (Gr. Seagos, desmos, 
a ligament; ypaipco, grapho, I 
write). A description of the liga¬ 
ments of the body. 

Desquama'tion (Lat. de, from ; squa¬ 
ma, a scale). A throwing off in 

Determent (Lat. de, from ; tergo, I 
wipe). Cleansing. 

Deter'minate (Lat. de, from ; termi¬ 
nus, an end). Limited ; in mathe¬ 
matics, applied to problems that are 
capable of only one solution. 

Be'tonate (Lat. de, from; tono, I 



thunder). To explode, or cause to 

Detona'tion (Lat. de, from ; tono, I 
thunder). An explosion or sudden 

De'trahent (Lot. de, down ; tv alio, I 
draw). Drawing down. 

Detvi'tus (Lat. de, down; tero, I 
rub). That which is worn off 
from solid bodies, as rocks,' by- 
friction : generally applied to the 
more finely divided portions. 

Detru'sion (Lat. de, from ; trudo, I 
thrust). A thrusting from or 

Deu'tero- or Deuto- (Gr. Seurepos, 

deu'teros, second). A prefix, deno¬ 
ting the second degree of the word 
joined with it. 

Deutox'ide (Gr. Sevrepos, deu'teros, 
second ; oxide). The compound 
of a body with oxygen, containing 
the next greatest quantity of oxygen 
to the protoxide, or basic oxide. 

Development (Fr. developper, to un¬ 
fold). An unfolding ; the change 
which takes place in living bodies 
m their progress towards maturity. 

Devo'nian (Devon). In geology, a 
term applied to the old red sand¬ 
stone system, of which portions are 
particularly developed in Devon¬ 

Dew-point. The temperature at 
which the watery vapour in the 
atmosphere begins to be deposited 
on the surface of the earth. 

Dextrin (Lat. dexter, right). A sub¬ 
stance resembling gum, and used 
in art as a substitute for it : so 
called from turning the plane in 
polarised light to the right hand. 

Diabe'tes (Gr. 8ia, dia, through ; 
fiouvw, baino, I go). An immode¬ 
rate flow of urine. > 

Diacous'tics (Gr. 5 ia, dia, through ; 
anovw, akouo, I hear). The science 
of refracted sounds. 

Diadel'phia (Gr. 8is, dis, double ; 
a8e\(pos, adel'phos, a brother). A 
class of plants in the Linnsean sys¬ 
tem, having the filaments of the 
stamens united into two parcels. 

Diae'resis (Gr. 8ia, dia, apart ; atpeco, 
haired, I take). A separation ; in 

grammar, the separation of a syl¬ 
lable into two ; or the mark ", 
which denotes that the vowel on 
which it is placed is separated from 
that which precedes it. 

Diagnosis (Gr. 5 ia, dia, through or 
between ; yivcoauw, ginos'kd, I 
know). A distinction or differ¬ 
ence ; in medicine, the distinction 
of one disease from another. 

Diagonal (Gr. 8ia, dia, through; 
yooviu, gdnia, an angle). A line 
drawn from one angle of a four¬ 
sided figure to the opposite angle. 

Di'agram (Gr. 8ia, dia, through; 
ypa<pco, grapho, I write). A figure 
drawn for the purpose of giving a 
general idea of an object, without 
accuracy in minute details. 

Di'alect (Gr. 8ia, dia, separate; \eyco, 
lego, I speak). The form in wdiich 
the parent language of a state is 
spoken in a province. 

Dial'lage' (Gr. 8ia\\ayg, interchange). 
In mineralogy , a mineral con¬ 
sisting of silica and magnesia of a 
changeable colour; in rhetoric, a 
figure by which arguments are 
placed in different points of view, 
and then brought to bear upon one 

Diamagnetic (Gr. 8ia, dia, through; 
gayvgs, magnes, a magnet). A 
term applied to substances which, 
under the influence of magnetism, 
take a position at right angles to 
the magnetic meridian. 

Diamag'netism (Gr. 8ia, dia, 
through ; gayvgs, magnes, a mag¬ 
net). A peculiar property of many 
bodies, which, not being themselves 
magnetic, are repelled by sufficiently 
powerful electro-ma.:nets, and take 
a position at right angles to the 
magnetic equator. 

Diam'eter (Gr. 8ia, dia, through ; 
gerpov, metron, a measure). A 
straight line passing through the 
centre of a body from one side to 
the other. 

Dian'dria (Gr. 8is, dis, double; augp, 
aner, a man). A class of plants in 
the Linnsean system, having two 

Diaph'anous (Gr. Sia, dia, through; 



< paivoo, phaino, I show). Allowing 
light to pass through, but not so as 
to form distinct images of objects. 

Diaphore'sis (Gr. Sia, dia, through ; 
(popeco, phor'eo, I carry). An in¬ 
crease of perspiration. 

Diaphoretic (Gr. Sict, dia, through ; 
(popeco, phor'eo , I carry). Producing 
an increase of perspiration. 

Diaphragm (Gr. 5 ia, dia, apart; 
(ppaaaci), phrasso, I fence in). The 
midriff, or membranous and mus¬ 
cular partition which divides the 
chest from the abdomen ; a black 
perforated plate, used in optical 
instruments, for allowing only the 
central rays to reach the eye. 

Diaphragmatic (Gr. Stcuppayua, dia- 
phragma, the midriff). Belonging 
to the diaphragm. 

Diaph'ysis (Gr. Sia, dia, apart; 
(pvoo, phuo, I grow). A term ap¬ 
plied to the shaft of a long bone, 
of which the ends are completed 
by the addition of portions ossified 

Diapoph'ysis (Gr. Sia, dia, apart; 
airo, apo, from ; (pvoo, phuo, I 
grow). A name given to the trans¬ 
verse process of a vertebra in the 
archetype skeleton. 

Diarrhoe'a (Gr. Sia, dia, through; 
peoo, rheo, I flow). An excessive 
discharge from the bowels. 

Diar thro'sis (Gr. 5 ia, dia, through ; 
apOpov, arthron, a joint). A move- 
able joint, such as those of the 
limbs or lower jaw. 

Di'astase (Gr. Suarypi, diistemi, I 
separate). A peculiar azotised 
substance found in germinating 
seeds or buds in a state of develop¬ 
ment, and having the property of 
transforming starch into sugar. 

Dias'tole' (Gr. Sia, dia, apart ; 
areWoo, stelld, I send). In physi¬ 
ology, the dilatation or opening of 
the heart after contraction ; in gram¬ 
mar, a lengthening of a syllable. 

Diather'mancy (Gr. 5ia, dia, through;, thermal!no, I heat). The 
property which some substances 
possess of allowing rays of heat to 
pass through them, as light passes 
through glass. 

Diather'manous (Gr. Sia, dia, 
through ; deppaiuoo, thermal' no, I 
heat). Having the property of 
transmitting heat, as glass trans¬ 
mits light. 

Diath'esis (Gr. Sia, dia, apart; n6ijpi, 
tithemi, I place). A particular 
state or disposition. 

Diatonic (Gr. Sia, dia, through ; 
r ovos, tonos, sound). Ascend¬ 
ing or descending from sound to 

Dibran'chiate (Gr. 5 is, dis, double ; 
fipayxia, hran'chia, gills). Having 
two gills : applied to an order of 

Diceph'alous (Gr. Sis, dis, twice ; 
tce(pa\r), keph'ale, a head) Having 
two heads on one body. 

Dichlamyd'eous (Gr. Sis, dis, twice ; 
XAapvs, chlamus, a garment). 
Having two coverings ; in botany, 
having calyx and corolla. 

Dichobu'ne (Gr. Six?, dicha, doubly; 
fiovvos, bounos, a ridge). A genus 
of fossil quadrupeds, having deeply 
cleft ridges in the upper molar 

Dichotomous (Gr. Sixa, dicha , 
doubly; repvoo, temno , I cut). 
Dividing by pairs. 

Dicoe'lous (Gr. Sis, dis, double; 
kolAos, koilos, hollow). Having 
two cavities. 

Dicotyledonous (Gr. Sis, dis, double; 
kotvAtjScoi', kotuledon, a seed lobe 
or leaf). Having two cotyledons 
or seed-leaves. 

Dic'tyogens (Gr. Siktvov, diJc'tuon, 
a net; yevvaoo, genn'ao, I produce). 
A sub-class of endogenous plants, 
having the veins of the leaves ar¬ 
ranged in a net-work, like exogens, 
instead of parallel. 

Dictyophyl'lum (Gr. Si ktvov, dik'tuon, 
a net; (pvAAor, phullon, a leaf). 
Net-leaf: a genus provisionally in¬ 
cluding all unknown fossil dicoty¬ 
ledonous leaves of net-like struc¬ 

Dicyn'odon (Gr. Sis, dis, double ; 
kvoou, kuon, a dog ; oSous, odous, a 
tooth). Double canine-toothed : 
a provisional genus of reptiles with 
no teeth in the upper jaw, except 



two long tusks in sockets, curved 

Didac'tyle (Gr. Sis, dis, double ; 
SaKTvXos, dak'tulos, a finger). 
Having two fingers or toes. 

Diderphic (Gr. Sis, dis, double; 
SeXcpvs, delphus, the womb). A 
term applied to a division of mam¬ 
mals of which the young are born 
prematurely, including the mar- 
supiate and monotrematous ani¬ 

Didynam'ia (Gr. Sis, dis, double; 
Svua/, du'namis, power). A 
Linnsean class of plants, having 
four stamens, two long and two 

Dielec'tric (Gr. Sia, dia, between; 
electric). A bad conductor of 

Dietetic (Gr. Siaira, diai'ta, food or 
diet). Relating to food or diet. 

Differen tial (Lat. dis, apart; fero, I 
bear). Pointing out a distinction 
or difference : applied to a ther¬ 
mometer which shows the difference 
in the temperature of two portions 
of air ; also to an infinitely small 
quantity in arithmetic or algebra. 

Differentiate (Lat. differentia, a 
difference). To establish a distinc¬ 
tion or difference. 

Diffrac'tion (Lat. dis, apart; frango, 
I break). The turning aside of 
rays of light from their straight 
course, when made to pass by the 
boundaries of an opaque body. 

Diffu'sible (Lat. dis, apart; fundo, I 
pour). Capable of being poured or 
spread in all directions. 

Diffu'sion (Lat. dis, apart; fundo, I 
pour). A pouring or spreading in 
all directions. 

Diffusion of Gases. The process by 
which gases mix with each other. 

Digas'tric (Gr. Sis, dis, double ; 
yatTTTjp, gaster, a belly). Having 
a double belly. 

Diges'tion (Lat. di, apart; gero, I 
bear or carry). A division or sepa¬ 
ration ; the process by which the 
nutritive parts of food are separated 
and rendered available for nutrition. 

Diges'tive (Lat. di gero, I digest). Re¬ 
lating to or promoting digestion. 

Digit (Lat. dig'itus, a finger). A 
finger’s breadth ; the twelfth part 
of the diameter of the sun or moon, 
used in measuring the extent of 
eclipses; in arithmetic, a single 

Dig Itate (Lat. dig'itus, a finger). 
Arranged like fingers. 

Dig'itigrade (Lat. dig'itus, a finger or 
toe ; gradior, I step). Walking on 
the toes, as the lion, eat, &c. 

Digyn'ia (Gr. Sis, dis, twice ; 701 / 77 , 
gune, a female). A Linnsean order 
of plants having two pistils. 

Dihed'ral (Gr. Sts, dis, double ; iSpa, 
hedra, a seat or face). Having 
two sides. 

Dilata'tion (Lat. dis, apart; latus, 
wide). A widening in all direc¬ 

Diluent (Lat. di'luo, I wash aw r ay). 
Making thin, or more liquid ; 
weakening in intensity. 

Dilu'te (Lat. di'luo, I wash away). 
Reduced in strength ; rendered 
more liquid. 

Dilu'vial (Lat. dilu'mum, a deluge). 
Relating to or produced by a deluge; 
in geology, applied to those deposits 
which give indications of having 
been carried from a distance by a 
violent current of water. 

Dilu'vium (Lat. di'luo, I wash away). 
In geology, a term applied to the 
results of extraordinary or violent 
agency of water. 

Di'merous (Gr. Sis, dis, double ; 
yepos, meros, a part). Having 
parts arranged in twos. 

Dimidiate (Lat. dimid'ium, half). 
Divided into two halves. 

Dimorphism (Gr. Sis, dis, double ; 
gopcpT], morphe, form). The property 
of assuming two forms under differ¬ 
ent circumstances. 

Dimor'phous (Gr. Sis, dis, double ; 
yop<pr], morphe, form). Having 
two forms. 

Timy'ary (Gr. Sis, dis, double ; pus, 
mus, a muscle). Applied to bivalve 
shells which are closed by two 

Dinor'nis (Gr. Seivos, deinos, terrible; 
bpvis, ornis, a bird). A gigantic 
extinct bird of New Zealand. 




Binosau'ria (Gr. Seivos, cleinos, ter¬ 
rible ; aavpos, sauros, a lizard). 
Gigantic fossil animals of the sau¬ 
rian or lizard tribe. 

Dinothe'rium (Gr. Salvos, deinos, 
terrible ; Qppiov, therion, a beast). 
A gigantic fossil pachydermatous 

Dioe'cia (Gr. Sis, dis, double ; ohcos, 
oi'Jcos, a house). A Linnman class 
of plants, having male flowers on 
one plant, and female on another. 

Dioptric (Gr. Sia, dia, through ; 
oiTTo/nai, op'tomai, I see). Afford¬ 
ing a medium for the sight : re¬ 
lating to the science of refracted 

Dioptrics (Gr. Sia, dia , through ; 
dirro/xcu, op'tomai, I see). The part 
of optics which describes the phe¬ 
nomena of the refraction of light. 

Biora'ma (Gr. 5ia, dia, through ; 
opaco, hora'o, I see). An apparatus 
in which a picture is exhibited 
through a large aperture, partly by 
reflected, and partly by transmitted 

Dip. The angle which the magnetic 
needle, freely poised, makes with 
the plane of the horizon ; the in¬ 
clination of a geological stratum or 
bed to the horizon. 

Bipet'alous (Gr. Sts, dis, double; 
ireraXoi/, pet'alon, a petal). Having 
two petals. 

Diphthe'ria (Gr. SupOeoa, diph'thera, 
leather). A disease characterised 
by the formation of a leathery mem¬ 
brane in the throat and fauces. 

Diphtheritic (Gr. SupOepa, diph'¬ 
thera, leather). Tough, like leather ; 
attended with the formation of a 
leathery membrane. 

Diphyl'lous (Gr. Sis, dis, double; 

< pvAAov, phul'lon, a leaf). Having 
two leaves. 

Diphy'odonts (Gr. Sis, dis, double ; 
(pvco, phud, I produce ; oSovs, 
odous, a tooth). Animals which 
produce two sets of teeth in suc¬ 

Dip'loe'(Gr. SnrAovs, dip'lous, double). 
The network of bone-tissue which 
fills up the interval between the 
two compact plates in the bones of 

the skull ; in botany, the cellular 
substance of a leaf. 

Diplo'ma (Gr. SnrAow, dip'loo, I 
double). Originally, a folded letter 
or writing ; now applied to a letter 
or writing conferring some power, 
privilege, or dignity. 

Diplo'pia (Gr. SnrAovs, dip'lous, 
double; oirrogai, op'tomai, I see). 
Double vision ; a state in which 
objects are seen double, from a dis¬ 
turbance of the combined action of 
the eyes. 

Diploptera (Gr. SnrAovs, dip'lous, 
double ; irrepov, pter'on, a wing). 
A family of hymenopterous or mem¬ 
brane-winged insects, having the 
fore-wings folded longitudinally, as 
the wasp. 

Dip'terous (Gr. Sis, clis, twice; irrepov, 
pter'on, a wing. Having two wings, 
as certain insects : in botany, ap¬ 
plied to seeds which have the 
margin prolonged in the form of 

Dipteryg'ian (Gr. Sis, dis, twice; 
irT6pvyiov,pteru'gion, a fin). Having 
two fins. 

Dip'tote (Gr. Sis, dis, double ; irnrTcc, 
pipto, I fall). A noun having two 
cases only. 

Disc. See Disk. 

Disc'oid (Gr. Sktkos, dishos, a quoit ; 
elSos, eidos, form). Shaped like a 
disk or quoit. 

Discord (Lat. dis, sepai’ate ; cor, the 
heart). Disagreement ; in music, 
the mixed sound of notes, the vibra¬ 
tions producing which are not in a 
simple ratio to each other. 

Discord'ant (Lat. dis, apart; cor, the 
heart). Disagreeing; in geology, 
applied to strata deposited horizon¬ 
tally on other strata which have 
been thrown into an oblique di¬ 
rection by disturbing causes. 

Disep'alous (Gr. Sis, dis, double ; 
sepal). Having two sepals. 

Disinfect (Lat. dis, from; infect). 
To purify from infection. 

Disintegrate (Lat. dis, from; in'teger , 
entire). To break up into integrant 
parts, not by chemical action. 

Disjunc'tive(Lat. dis, separate ;jungo, 
I join). Separating ; in grammar, 



uniting words or sentences, but dis¬ 
joining tlie sense. 

Disk (Gr. 5 ktkos, dislcos, a quoit). In 
astronomy, the surface of the sun, 
moon, or planet, as it appeal’s to an 
observer on the earth ; in botany, 
a body seated between the base of 
the stamens and the base of the 
ovary ; also the central parts of a 
radiate compound flower. 

Dislocate (Lat. dis, from ; locus, a 
place). To put out of place. 

Disloca'tion (Lat. dis, from ; locus, a 
place). A putting out of place. 

Disper'mous (Gr. Sis, dis, double; 
airepya, sperma, a seed). Having 
two seeds. 

Disper'sion (Lat. dis, apart; spargo, 

I scatter). A scattering ; in optics, 
the separation of the coloured rays 
of light in passing through a prism, 
varying according to the refracting 
power of the material of which the 
prism is composed. 

Disrupted (Lat. dis, apart; rumpo, 

I break). Violently torn apart. 

Disrup'tion (Lat. dis, apart; rumpo, 

I break). A rending asunder ; in 
geology, a displacement in the crust 
of the earth by earthquakes, or 
other disturbing causes. 

Dissec'tion (Lat. dis, apart; seco, I 
cut). A cutting in pieces; the . 
cutting up an animal or vegetable 
to ascertain its structure. 

Dissepiment (Lat. dis, from ; sepes, 
a hedge). A partition in an ovary 
or fruit. 

Dissolu'tion (Lat. dis, from ; solvo, I 
loosen). Melting ; the separation 
of the particles of a body from each 

Dissolve (Lat. dis, apart; solvo, I 
loosen). To melt; to separate the 
particles of a substance from each 

Dissyllable (Gr. Sis, dis, double; 
avAAa/3y, sul'labe, a syllable). A 
word of two syllables. 

Dis'tal (Lat. dis, apart; sto, I stand). 
At a distance from a given line or 

DisYichous (Gr. Sis, dis, double; 
anxos, stichos, a row). Arranged 
in two rows. 

Distil' (Lat. dis, from ; stilla, a 
drop). To let fall in drops; to 
separate a lighter fluid from another 
by heat or evaporation, the vapour 
being cooled and falling in drops 
into a vessel placed to receive it. 

Dis'tillation (Lat. dis, apart ; stilla, 
a drop). The process by which 
substances are separated which rise 
in vapour at different degrees of 
heat, or by which a volatile liquid 
is parted from a substance incapable 
of volatilisation. 

Distortion (Lat. dis, apart; torqueo, 
I twist). A twisting out of regular 
shape ; in optics, the change in the 
form of an image depending on the 
form of the lens. 

Diu'resis (Gr. Sia, dia, through ; 
ovpov, our on, urine). An increased 
flow of urine. 

Diuret'ic (Gr. Si a, dia, through ; 
ovpov, ouron, urine). Increasing 
the secretion of urine. 

Diurnal (Lat. diurnus, daily). Re¬ 
lating to, or performed in a day. 

Divarica'tion (Lat. di, apart; varico, 
I straddle). A branching at an 
obtuse angle. 

Divel'lent (Lat. di, apart ; vello, I 
pull). Drawing asunder. 

Divertic'ulum (Lat. di, apart; verto, 
I turn). A turning aside ; a short 
blind tube branching out of a larger 

Divisibility (Lat. di'vido, I divide). 
The propei’ty of bodies by which 
their parts are capable of being 

Dodeca- (Gr. SooSena, dodelca, twelve). 
A prefix in compound words, signi¬ 
fying twelve. 

Dodec'agon (Gr. ScoSeua, dodelca, 
twelve ; yccvia, gonia, an angle). 
A figure consisting of twelve equal 
sides and angles. 

Dodecagyn'ia (Gr. ScoSeua, dodelca, 
twelve ; yoivy, gune, a female). An 
order of plants in the Linnsean 
system haviug twelve pistils. 

Dodecahed'ron (Gr. SooSeua, dodelca, 
twelve : eSpa, hedra, a seat or face). 
A solid figure having twelve equal 
bases or sides. 

Dodecan'dria (Gr. 5w8e/ca, dodelca, 

e 2 



twelve ; o-vpp, aner, a man). A 
class of plants in the Linnsean 
system, having twelve stamens. 

Dol'omite. A variety of magnesian 

Dome (Lat. domus, a house). A 
house; the external part of a 
spherical roof. 

Dominical (Lat. (dies) domin'ica, 
Sunday). Belonging to Sunday; 
applied to the letter prefixed in 
Almanacks to the Sundays, from 
which the days of the week falling 
on the successive days of past or 
present years may be computed. 

Dor'sal (Lat. dorsum, the back). 
Placed on, or belonging to, the 

Dorsibran'chiate (Lat. dorsum, the 
back; Gr. Ppayxta, bran'cilia, gills). 
Having the branchia or breathing 
organs distributed on the back; 
applied to cei’tain mollusca. 

Dorso. (Lat. dorsum, the back). In 
anatomy, a prefix in compound 
words signifying connection with, 
or relation to, the back. 

Double Salt. A salt in which the 
acid is combined with two different 

Double Stars. Two stars placed so 
close together that to the naked 
eye they appear single. 

Doublet. A magnifying glass, con¬ 
sisting of a combination of two 
plano-convex lenses. 

Drastic (Gr. Spaco, dr an, I do or act). 
Acting powerfully ; applied to cer¬ 
tain medicines. 

Dropsy (Gr. v5wp, hudor, water ; o\pis, 
opsis, an appearance). An un¬ 
natural collection of watery fluid in 
any part of the body. 

Drupa'ceous (Drupe). Of the nature 
of a drupe ; bearing fruit in the 
form of a drupe. 

Drupe (Gr. Spumra, druppa, an over¬ 
ripe olive). A pulpy fruit without 
valves, containing a stone with a 
kernel, as the peach. 

Du'al (Lat. duo, two). Relating to 
two ; applied to a form of nouns 
and verbs in which two persons or 
things are denoted, as in the Greek 
and some other languages. 

Duality (Lat. duo, two). The state 
of being two in number. 

Duct (Lat. duco, I lead). A tube 
or vessel for conveying a fluid, 
especially a secretion from a 

Ductile (Lat. duco, I lead). Capable 
of being drawn out. 

Ductility (Lat. duco, I lead). The 
property which substances possess 
of being drawn out. 

Duode'cimal (Lat. duod'ecim, twelve). 
Proceeding in a scale of twelves. 

Duodenary (Lat. duode'ni, twelve). 
Increasing in a twelvefold pro¬ 

Duode'num (Lat. duode'ni, twelve). 
The first portion of the small in¬ 
testine ; which, in man, is twelve 
finger-breadths in length. 

Du'plicate (Lat. duplex, double). 
Double; duplicate proportion or 
ratio is the proportion or ratio of 

Dura Mater (Lat. hard mother : be¬ 
cause the other membranes were 
supposed to proceed from it). The 
strong fibrous membrane which 
envelopes the brain and spinal 

Dura'men (Lat. durus, hard). The 
central or heart wood of an exo¬ 
genous tree. 

Dyke. A wall or fence ; in geology, 
applied to wall-like intrusions of 
igneous rock which fill up veins 
and fissures in the stratified 

Dynamic (Gr. Swayis, du'namis, 
power). Relating to strength or 

Dynamics (Gr. dvrayis, du'namis, 
power). That part of natural 
philosophy which investigates the 
properties of bodies in motion. 

Dynamom'eter (Gr. hwayis, du'namis, 
power; yerpov, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring 

Dysaesthe'sia (Gr. Svs, dus, badly; 
aladavoyai, aisthan'omai, I feel). 
Impaired power of feeling. 

Dys'entery (Gr. Svs, dus, badly; 
evTtpov, en'teron, an intestine). A 
discharge from the intestines ac- 



companied by blood, mucus, or 
other morbid matter. 

Dyspep'sia (Gr. Svs, dus, badly; 
7T67TTUJ, pepto, I digest). Indi¬ 
gestion ; difficulty of digestion. 
Dyspha'gia (Gr. 5vs, dus, badly; t 

(payco, pliago, I eat). Difficulty of 

Dyspnce'a (Gr. Svs, dus , badly; iri/eoo, 
pneo , I breathe). Difficult breath¬ 


Earth. In chemistry, an oxide of a 
metal: but applied especially to the 
oxides and salts of barium, calcium, 
magnesium, and aluminium. 

Ebrac'teate (Lat. e, from ; brac'tea, 
a bract). Without bracts. 

Ebullition (Lat. e, out ; bulla, a 
bubble). Boiling ; the formation 
by heat of bubbles of vapour within 
a liquid, which rise to the surface. 

Eburna'tion (Lat. ebur, ivory). A 
rendering dense like ivory ; the 
excessive deposition of compact 
osseous matter which sometimes 
takes place in diseased states of 

Eccen'tric (Gr. 4k, ek, from ; Ktvrpov, 
kcntron, a centre). Deviating from 
a centre; incapable of being brought 
to a common centre. 

Eccentricity (Gr. 4k, elc, from ; 
Kevrpou, Icentron, a centre). The 
state of being eecentric; the dis¬ 
tance between the centre of an ellipse 
and either of its foci. 

Eccliymo'sis (Gr. e/r, elc, out ; xyuos, 
chumos, juice). An effusion of blood 
under the skin ; a bruise. 

Eccoprotlc (Gr. 4k, elc, out; Konpos, 
lcopros, dung). Promoting the dis¬ 
charge from the bowels. 

Ec'dysis (Gr. 4k, ek, out ; Suco, duo, 
I put on). A casting off or moulting. 

Echinococ'cus (Gr. 4x^os, echi'nos , a 
hedgehog ; kokkos, kokkos, a berry). 
A parasitic animal, consisting of a 
membranous sac or bag, and pro¬ 
vided with a series of minute 

EehinoderTnataor Echi'noderms (Gr. 

4xwos, echi'nos, a hedgehog ; Seppa, 
derma, a skin). A class of inverte¬ 
brate animals, the bodies of which 
are covered by a thick covering or 
shell, often with spikes. 

Echom'eter (Gr. nx®, echo, sound; 
perpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the dura¬ 
tion of sounds, and their intervals. 

Eclamp'sia (Gr. 4k, ek, from ; Aapirco, 
lampo, I shine). An appearance of 
flashing of light which attends epi¬ 
lepsy ; but now applied to epilepsy 
or convulsive disease itself. 

Eclec'tic (Gr. 4k, ek, out ; Aeyuo, lego, 
I choose). Selecting or choosing ; 

Eclips'e (Gr. 4k, ek, from ; A einoo, 
leipo, I leave). A failure ; an inter¬ 
ception of the light of the sun, 
moon, or other luminous body. 

Eclip'tic (Gr. 4k, ek, from; Aemo, leipo, 
I fail). The circle of the heavens 
which forms the apparent annual 
path of the sun : so called because 
eclipses can only take place when 
the moon is very near it. 

Ecliptic Limits. In astronomy, the 
limits within which an eclipse of the 
sun or moon may occur. 

Econ'omy (Gr. oikos, oikos, a house ; 
vopos, nomos, a rule). The regula¬ 
tion of a family or household ; the 
operations of nature in the formation 
and preservation of animals and 

Ec'stacy (Gr. 4k, ek, out ; larppi, 
histemi, I make to stand). A 
state in which the senses are sus¬ 
pended in the contemplation of some 
extraordinary object. 

Ecthlip'sis (Gr. 4k, ek, from ; 6Ai #&>, 
thlibo, I press or rub). In Latin 
grammar, the cutting off in pro¬ 
nunciation the final syllable of a 
word ending in m, when the next 
word begins with a vowel. 

Ecto- (Gr. 4ktos, ektos, outside). A 
prefix in some compound words, 
signifying outside. 



Ecto'pia (Gr. 4/c, eh, out; tokos, 
top'os, a place). A displacement. 

Ectro'pium (Gr. e/c, eh , out; rpsKw, 
trepo, I turn). A disease in which 
the eyelashes are turned outwards. 

Ec'zema (Gr. ia, eh, out; (ea>, zeb, I 
boil). An eruption on the skin, 
of small pustules, without fever, 
and not contagious. 

Ede'ma, Edem'atous. See (Ede'ma and 

Edentate (Lat e, out; dens, a tooth). 
Without teeth ; applied to an order 
of mammalian animals which have 
no front teeth. 

Edentulous (Lat. e, out; dens, a 
tooth). Without teeth. 

Ed'ible (Lat. edo, I eat). Fit to be 
eaten as food. 

Edrioph'thalmia (Gr. 45 pa, hedrci, a 
seat; ocpOaXyos, ophthal'mos, an 
eye). A section of crustaceous 
animals, having the eyes sessile, or 
not mounted on a foot-stalk. 

E'duct (Lat. e, out ; duco, I lead). 
Any thing separated from another 
with which it was previously com¬ 

EfFerves'cence (Lat. ex, out ; fer'veo, 
I boil). The escape of bubbles of gas 
from a fluid, not produced by heat. 

Efflores'cence (Lat. ex, out ; ftos, a 
flower). In botany, the time of 
flowering; in medicine, an eruptive 
redness of the skin; in chemistry, 
the formation of a dry powder in 
some salts on exposure to the air, 
by losing water of crystallisation. 

Efflu'vium (Lat. ex, out ; Jiao, I 
flow). A flowing out; the minute 
particles which exhale or pass off 
into the air from substances. 

Efflux (Lat. ex, out ; jiao, I flow). 
A flowing out. 

Effodien'tia (Lat. cffo'dio, I dig out). 
Digging : applied to a family of 
edentate animals from their digging 
habits, as the armadillo. 

Effu'sion (Lat. ex, out ; fundo, I 
pour). A piouring out ; the escape 
of a fluid from the vessel or cavity 
containing it. 

Ei'dograph (Gr. elSos, eidos, form ; 
ypcupco, graphd, I write). An in¬ 
strument for copying designs. 

Ejection (Lat. e, out; jacio, I cast). 
A casting out. 

Elaborate (Lat. e, out; labo'ro, I 
labour). To produce by labour, 
or by successive operations. 

Elain (Gr. eAa iov, elai'on, oil). The 
liquid principle of oils and fats. 

Elas'tic (Gr. iAavrw, elau'no, I drive). 
Having the property of springing 
back to its original form after this 
has been altered. 

Elasticity (Gr. i\avua, elau'no, I 
drive). The property by which a 
body, after having been compressed, 
or having had its form changed, 
recovers its original shape on being 
released from the force applied to it. 

El'ater (Gr. i\avvw, elau'no, I drive). 
A spiral fibre in the thecse or seed- 
cases of some cryptogamic plants, 
serving to disperse the sporules by 

Elective Affinity (Lat. e'ligo, I choose 
out). The disposition which bodies 
have to unite chemically with cer¬ 
tain substances in preference to 

Electric (Gr. h^xrpov, electron, 
amber). Containing, pertaining to, 
derived from, or communicating 

Electricity (Gr. yXearpor, electron, 
amber; became first observed in 
amber). A series of phenomena 
(also their cause) in various sub¬ 
stances ; supposed to be due to the 
presence of a compound fluid, which 
is developed by friction or other 
mechanical means. 

Electro-chemistry. The science which 
explains the phenomena of the de- 
composingpower of electric currents. 

Electro-mag'netism. The branch of 
electrical science which explains the 
phenomena of the action of a voltaic 
current on the magnetic needle. 

Electrify [Electricity; Lat. jacio, I 
make). To charge with, or affect 
by, electricity. 

Electrode [Electricity; Gr. o5os, 
hodos, a way). The termination 
of a voltaic battery, by which the 
electricity passes into or from the 
fluid in which it is placed. 

Electrology [Electricity ; Gr. A oyos, 



logos, discourse). The department 
of physical science which treats of 

Elec'tro-dynam'ic {Electricity; Gr. 
Svua/jus, du'namis, power). Re¬ 
lating to electricity in motion, and 
producing its effects. 

Electrolysis ( Electricity; Gr. \vw, 
luo, I loosen). Decomposition by 
an electric current. 

Elec'tro-magnet'ic ( Electricity; mag'- 
net). Relating to magnetism as 
connected with electricity. 

Elec'trolyte {Electricity; Gr. Xuco, 
luo , I loosen). A body capable of 
being decomposed by an electric 

Elec'tro-metallur'gy {Electricity; Gr. 
yeraWov, metal'Ion, a metal; ipjov, 
ergon, a work). The art of de¬ 
positing metals from solutions of 
their salts, by the voltaic current, 
on other bodies. 

Electrom'eter {Electricity; Gv./xerpoP, 
metron, a measure). An instru¬ 
ment for measuring the intensity of 
the electricity of a body. 

Elec'tro-mo'tive. Moving by means 
of electricity : applied by Yolta to 
the power of decomposition by the 
electric current. 

Elec'tro-neg'ative. Having negative 
electricity, and appearing at the 
positive pole of a voltaic battery. 

Elec'troph'orus {Electricity; Gr. 
c pepco, phero, I bear). An appara¬ 
tus for collecting electricity, for 
the purpose of fixing gaseous mix¬ 
tures in close vessels. 

Elec'tro-pla'ting. The process of 

depositing a coating of metal on some 
other metal or substance by means 
of electric action. 

Elec'tro-pos'itive. Having positive 
electricity, and appearing at the 
negative pole of the voltaic battery. 

Elec'troscope {Electricity ; Gr. 

< TKoireco, skop'eo, I look). An in¬ 
strument for measuring the inten¬ 
sity of electricity. 

Electrostatic {Electricity ; Gr. 

arariKos, stat'ikos, stationary). 
Relating to electricity in a state of 

Elec'tro-teleg'raphy {Electricity; Gr. 

Tr]\e, tele, far off; 7 pcupu>, grapho, 
I write). The application of elec¬ 
tricity to the conveying of mes¬ 

Elec'tro-type {Electricity; Gr. t vivos, 
tupos, a type). The process of 
copying medals, plates, &c., by 
means of depositing metals from a 
solution by a galvanic current. 

Elec'tuary (Gr. £k, ek, out; Aetxw, 
leicho, I lick). A medicine made 
in the form of a confection. 

El'ement (Lat. elemen'tum). The 
first principle or constituent part 
of anything; in chemistry, espe¬ 
cially, any substance which has 
resisted all efforts to decompose it; 
in anatomy, the autogenous or pri¬ 
mary part of a vertebra. 

Elemen'tary (Lat. elemen'tum). Pri¬ 
mary ; incapable of further ana¬ 

Elephantiasis (Gr. £\ evpas, el'ephas, 
an elephant). A disease of the 
skin, attended with much thicken¬ 
ing and the formation of tubercles. 

Eleva'tion (Lat. c, from ; levo, I 
raise.) A raising ; in astronomy, 
the distance of a heavenly body 
above the horizon ; in trigonometry, 
angle of elevation is the angle 
formed by two lines drawn in the 
same vertical plane from the obser- 
vers eye, one to the top of the 
object and the other parallel to the 
horizon ; in architecture, a drawing 
of the front or a face of a building. 

Eleva'tor (Lat. e, from ; levo, I raise). 
A lifter or raiser. 

Eliminate (Lat. e, out; limen, a 
threshold). To thrust out ; to 
remove or expel. 

Elision (Lat. cli'do, I strike out). A 
cutting off or suppression of a 
vowel at the end of a word. 

Ellipse (Gr. e/c, ek, out ; Xenvcc, 
leipo, I leave). An oval figure, 
produced by the section of a cone 
by a plane cutting both sides ob¬ 
liquely ; in grammar, an omission 
of words. 

Ellipsoid {Ellipse; Gr. EEos, eidos, 
form). A figure formed by the 
revolution of an ellipse round its 



Ellip'tic (Gr. in, eh, out; \tnvw, 
leipu, I leave). Relating to, or 
having the form of, an ellipse. 

Elonga'tion (Lat. e, from ; longus, 
long). A lengthening or stretch¬ 
ing ; in astronomy , the apparent 
recession of a planet from the sun. 

Elutria'tion (Lat. e, from; Gr. 
Xourpov, loutron , a bath). The 
process of removing lighter matter 
from a powdered solid substance by 
washing it with water, and pouring 
off the latter. 

Ely'trum (Gr. ixvco, eluo, I roll over 
or cover). The outer sheath which 
protects the body and membranous 
wings in beetles. 

Emanation (Lat. e, out; mano, I 
flow). That which issues from any 
substance or body. 

Emar'ginate (Lat. e, from ; mar go, a 
margin). Having a piece appa¬ 
rently notched or bitten out of the 

Embank'ment. The act of surround¬ 
ing by a bank ; a structure raised 
to protect lands from the overflow 
of rivers or the sea. 

Emboss' (Fr. cn, in ; bosse, a stud or 
knob). To form bosses or protu¬ 
berances ; to ornament by the for¬ 
mation of ornaments in relief or 
projecting from the surface. 

Em'bouchure (Fr. louche, a mouth). 
The mouth of a river, &c. 

Embroca'tion (Gr. iv, en, in ; /3pexa, 
brecho, I moisten). A mixture of 
oil, spirit, &c., with which any 
part of the body is rubbed. 

Em'bryo (Gr. ip.ftpvov, em'bruon). 
The first or rudimentary form of 
an animal or vegetable. 

Embryog'eny (Gr. igfipvov, em'bruon, 
an embryo; 7 evvaoo, gennad, I 
produce). The development of the 

Embryol'ogy (Gr. iyPpvov, em'bruon, 
an embryo ; Xoyos, logos, a de¬ 
scription). A description of the 
foetus or embryo. 

Emer'sion (Lat. emer'go, I issue out). 
In astronomy, the passage of a satel¬ 
lite out of the shadow of a planet. 

Emet'ic (Gr. igew, em'ed, I vomit). 
Producing the act of vomiting. 

Eminence (Lat. emin'eo, I stand 
above others). In anatomy , a gene¬ 
ral term for a projection on a bone. 

Emollient (Lat. e, from ; mol'lis , 
soft). Softening or relaxing. 

Emphysema (Gr. eV, en, in ; <pv(rau, 
phusa'u, I blow). Distension with 

Empiric (Gr. iv, en, in; ireipa, 
peira, experience). Properly, one 
who makes experiments ; a physi¬ 
cian- whose knowledge consists in 
observation alone ; but commonly 
applied to a quack. 

Empirical (Gr. iv, en, in ; napa, 
p>eira, experience). Relating to or 
derived from simple experience or 
observation, without the aid of 

Empiricism (Gr. iv, en, in ; neipa, 
peira, experience). Practice on the 
ground of experience alone. 

Emprosthot'onos (Gr. ipirpoadev, 
empros'then, before; reiva>, tei'nb, I 
stretch). A form of tetanus in 
which the body is bent forward. 

Empye'ma (Gr. iv, en, in; nvov, 
puon, pus). A collection cf pus in 
the cavity of the chest. 

Empyreu'ma (Gr. iv, en, in ; irvpevco, 
pureud, I set on fire). A disagree¬ 
able smell arising from the burning 
of animal and vegetable matter. 

Empyreumat'ic (Gr. iv, en, in ; nv- 
pevw,pureud, I set on fire). Having 
the taste or smell of slightly burn/ 
animal or vegetable substances. 

Emul'gent (Lat. e, out; mul'geo, I 
milk). Milking or drawing out: 
applied to the blood-vessels of the 
kidneys, which were supposed to 
strain the serum. 

Emulsion (Lat. e, from ; mul'geo, I 
milk). A milk-like substance, 
produced by rubbing oil with sugar 
or gum, &c., and water. 

Emunc'tory (Lat. ernun'go, I wipe 
out). Removing excreted matter. 

Enai'ma (Gr. iv, cn , in ; at pa, haima, 
blood). Having blood ; applied by 
Aristotle as a distinctive character 
of certain animals. 

Enaliosau'rians (Gr. iv, en, in ; aXs , 
hals, the sea; aavpos, sauros, a 
lizard). A name given to some 



extinct gigantic lizards, supposed 
to have lived in the sea. 

Enal'lage' (Gr. tv, en, in; aWarTw, 
allot!to, I change). A figure in 
grammar, by which one word or 
mode of expression is substituted 
for another. 

Enam'el. A compound of the nature 
of glass, but more fusible and 
opaque ; the smooth hard substance 
covering the crown of a tooth. 

Enarthro'sis (Gr. tv, en, in ; apBpov, 
arthron, a joint). The ball-and- 
socket joint, such as is formed by 
the head of the thigh-bone and the 

Encaustic (Gr. tv, en, in ; uaiw, kaid, 
I burn). Applied to a kind of 
painting in which colours are made 
permanent by being burned in. 

Enceph'ala (Gr. tv, en , in ; KecpaXy, 
keph'ale, the head). Molluscous 
animals having a distinct head. 

Encephali'tis (Gr. tynecpaXov, en- 
keph'alon, the brain ; ids, denoting 
inflammation). Inflammation of 
the substance of the brain, or of the 
structures in general within the 

Enceph'alon (Gr. tv, en, in ; KtcpaX-q, 
keph'ale , the head). That part of 
the nervous system which is con¬ 
tained in the skull. 

Enclitic (Gr. tv, en, on; kAivw, 
klind, I lean). Leaning on; ap¬ 
plied to certain words which throw 
their accent on the word immedi¬ 
ately preceding, and thus, as it were, 
lean on it. 

En'crinite (Gr. tv, en, in ; Kpivov, 
krinon, a lily). A fossil radiated 
animal, resembling a lily. 

Encysted (Gr. tv, "en, in ; kv<xtis, 
kustis, a bladder or sac). Enclosed 
in a sac or bag. 

Endeca-. See Hendeca-. 

Endem'ic (Gr. tv, en, in ;5 t igos, demos, 
people). Among the people; applied 
to diseases which habitually pre¬ 
vail in any locality. 

Endermat'ic, or Ender'mic (Gr. tv, 
en, in ; Sepga, derma, the skin). 
A term applied to the administra¬ 
tion of medicines by means of the 

Endo- (Gr. tvSov, en!don, within). A 
prefix to words, signifying within. 

Endocar'dial (Gr. tvSov, en'don, with¬ 
in ; KapSia, kar'dia, the heart). Re¬ 
lating to the lining membrane of 
the heart. 

Endocardi'tis (Gr. tvSov, en'don, with¬ 
in ; KapSia, kar'dia, the heart; ids, 
denoting inflammation). Inflamma¬ 
tion of the lining membrane of the 

Endocardium (Gr. tvSov, en'don, 
within; KapSia, kar'dia, the heart). 
The membrane lining the interior 
of the heart. 

En'docarp (Gr. tvSov, en'don, within ; 
Kapiros, karpos, fruit). The mem- 
branein some fruit, as apples, which 
lines the cavity containing the seeds. 

Endogen (Gr. tvSov, en'don, within ; 
yew aw, genna'd, I produce). A 
plant which grows by deposition of 
woody matter in the interior, without 
distinction of pith, wood, and bark. 

Endog'enites {Endogen). Fossilstems 
exhibiting the endogenous struc¬ 

En'dolymph (Gr. tvSov, en'don, with¬ 
in ; Lat. lympha, watei'). A watery 
fluid in the interior of the mem¬ 
branous labyrinth of the ear. 

Endophloe'um (Gr. tvSov, en'don, 
within ; (pAoios, phloios, bark). 
The inner layer of the bark of trees. 

Endopleu'ra (Gr. tvSov, en'don, with¬ 
in ; 7 tA evpa, pleura, a rib or mem¬ 
brane). The coat of the nucleus 
in the seed. 

Endorhi'zal (Gr. tvSov, en'don, with¬ 
in ; pt(a, rhiza, a root). Having 
a root within ; applied to plants of 
which the root bursts first through 
the coverings of the seed before 
elongating downwards. 

Endoskel'eton (Gr. tvSov, en'don, 
within; aueAerov, skeleton, a frame¬ 
work of bone). An internal skele¬ 
ton ; such as exists in vertebrate 

Endosmom'eter (Gr. tvSov, en'don, 
within ; wag os, osmos, an impulse ; 
/uerpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the in¬ 
tensity of endosmose. 

En'dosmose (Gr. tvSov, en'don, with- 



in ; udeu, dthed, I push). The pro¬ 
cess by which a fluid, separated 
from another by a membrane, mixes 
with it in a direction from within 

Enclos'teum (Gr. ivdov, en'don, with¬ 
in ; oareov, os’teon, a bone). The 
fine membrane lining the medullary 
canal of bones. 

En'dostome (Gr. ivdov, en'don, within; 
aropa, stoma, a mouth). The inner 
aperture of an ovule. 

Ene'ma (Gr. eV, en, in ; lypi, hiemi, 
I send). A medicine thrown into 
the lower bowel. 

Engineering. The art of construct¬ 
ing and using engines or machines. 

Engor'gement (Fr. en, in ; gorge, the 
throat). A swallowing greedily ; 
but applied in medicine to an over¬ 
filled state of the vessels of a part. 

Enneagyn'ia (Gr. ivvea, en'nea, nine; 
7 wq, gune, a female). An order 
of plants having nine pistils. 

Ennean'dria (Gr. ivvea, en'nea, nine ; 
avyp, aner, a male). A class of 
plants in the Linnacan system having 
nine stamens. 

Enode (Lat. e, from ; nodus, a knot). 
Without knots or joints. 

En'siform. (Lat. ensis, a sword; forma, 
shape). Like a sword. 

Entablature (Lat. in, in; tab'ula, a 
board or table). The structure 
which lies horizontally on columns, 
divided into architrave, frieze, and 

Enteric (Gr. ivrepov, en'teron, an in¬ 
testine). Belongingto the intestines. 

Enteri'tis (Gr. ivrepov, en'teron, an 
intestine ; itis, denoting inflamma¬ 
tion). Inflammation of the intestines. 

En'terocele (Gr. ivrepov, en'teron, an 
intestine; KyAy, Jcele, a tumour). 
A hernial tumour containing intes¬ 

En'terolith (Gr. ivrepov, en'teron, an 
intestine ; A l9os, lithos, a stone). 
A concretion resembling a stone, 
formed in the intestines. 

Enthet'ic (Gr. iv, en, in; ndypi, 
tithemi, I place). A term applied 
to diseases which become developed 
in the body after the introduction 
of a poison. 

En'thymeme (Gr., entliv!- 
meomai, I think). In rhetoric, an 
argument consisting of two propo¬ 
sitions only, an antecedent and a 

Ento- (Gr. ivros, en'tos, within). A 
prefix in compound words, signify¬ 
ing to the inner side. 

En'tomoid (Gr. ivrop.ov, en'tomon, 
insect, from iv, en, into; repvu, 
temno, I cut; eidos, eidos, form). 
Resembling an insect. 

Entomol'ogy (Gr. ivropov, en'tomon, 
an insect; A 070 s, logos, a descrip¬ 
tion). A description of insects. 

Entomoph'agous (Gr. ivropov , en'to¬ 
mon, an insect; <paya>, phago, I 
eat). Feeding on insects. 

Entomos'traca (Gr. ivropov, en'tomon, 
an insect ; oarpanov, os'trakon, a 
shell). A section of minute crus- 
taceous animals. 

Entomot'omy (Gr. ivropov, en'tomon, 
an insect; repvu, temno, I cut). 
The dissection of insects. 

Entomozoa'ria (Gr. iv, en, into ; 
repvu, temno, I cut; faov, zdon, 
an animal). Invertebrate animals, 
having their bodies arranged in 
ring-like segments. 

Entozo'on (Gr. ivros, en'tos, within ; 
(uov, zdon, an animal). An animal 
which lives on the bodies of other 
animals : properly applied to those 
infesting the interior. 

En'trochite (Gr. iv, en, in; rpoxos, 
trochos, a wheel). A name given 
in geology to the wheel-like joints 
of the encrinite. 

Entro'pium (Gr. iv, en, in ; rpeirco, 
trepo, I turn). A turning of the 
eyelashes inwards towards the 

Enu'cleate (Lat. e, out of; nu'cleus, 
a kernel). To remove as a kernel 
from a nut. 

E'ocene (Gr. yus, eos, the dawn; 
uaivos, kainos, new). Early ; ap¬ 
plied to the earliest deposits in the 
tertiary geological strata. 

Eol'ipile (Lat. jE'olus, the god of the 
winds ; pila, a ball). An instru¬ 
ment consisting of a hollow metal 
ball, with a tube, used for exhibit¬ 
ing the elastic power of steam by 



filling the ball with water and heat¬ 
ing it. 

Ep'act (Gr. eV i, ep'i, on ; ayco, ago, I 
drive.) The number which denotes 
the age of the ecclesiastical moon 
on the first day of any year in a 
cycle of nineteen years. 

Epen'thesis (Gr. Zm, ep'i , on; Zv, 
en, in; ridrjyi, tithemi, I place). 
The insertion of a letter or syllable 
in the middle of a word. 

Ephe'lis (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on ; yXios, 
hclios , the sun). Freckles ; an 
eruption of greyish or yellowish 

Ephem'eris (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on ; pyepa, 
hemera, a day). A diaiy; an ac¬ 
count of the daily positions of the 

Ep'i, or ep- (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on). A pre¬ 
fix in compound words, signifying 

Epic (Gr. eVw, ep'o, I speak). Nar¬ 
rative ; applied to poems which re¬ 
late real or supposed events. 

Ep 'icarp (Gr. Zm, ep'i , on ; Kapiros, 
karpos, a fruit). The outer skin 
of a fruit. 

Ep'icene (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on; koivos, 
koinos, common). Common; ap¬ 
plied to nouns which denote both 
the male and the female species. 

Epicon'dyle (Gr. Zm, ep'i , on; uov- 
ZivXos, kon'dulos, a knuckle). In 
anatomy, an additional condyle, a 
joint placed on a condyle. 

Epicy'cle (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on ; kvkXos, 
kuklos, a circle). A small circle, 
of which the centre is in the cir¬ 
cumference of a larger one. 

Epicy'cloid (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on ; kvhXos, 
kuklos, a circle ; Z 180 y, eidos, 

form). A curve produced by the 
revolution of the circumference of 
a circle along the convex or concave 
side of another circle. 

Epidem'ic (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on ; drgios, 
demos, the people). Attacking 
numbers of people in any locality 
at the same time, but of temporary 
duration, and not essentially con¬ 
nected with the locality. 

Epidemiol'ogy (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on; 
Srjfxos, demos, the people ; Xoyos, 
logos , a description). The descrip¬ 

tion or investigation of epidemic 

Epider'mal ( Epidermis ). Belonging 
to, or formed from the epidermis. 

Epider'mis (Gr. Zm, dpi, on; Sepya, 
derma, the skin). The cuticle, or 
scarf-skin ; the external layer of 
the skin, or of the bark in plants. 

Epigas'tric (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on ; yaarpp, 
gaster, the stomach). Belonging 
to the upper and anterior part of 
the abdomen ; over the stomach. 

Epiglottis (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on ; yXwrra, 
glotta, a tongue). A tongue-shaped 
projection lying over the entrance 
of the windpipe, and preventing the 
entrance of food or drink. 

Epig'ynous (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on ; ywp, 
gune, a female). Growing on the 
top of the ovary in plants ; applied 
to stamens which are united both to 
the calyx and to the ovary. 

Epilepsy (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on ; At gxf/is, 
lepsis, a seizing). The falling sick¬ 
ness; a sudden loss of sensation 
and voluntary power attended by 
convulsions, recurring at irregular 

Epilep'tic (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on ; Xpxpis, 
lepjsis, a seizing). Subject to epi¬ 
lepsy. _ 

Epilep'tiform ( Epilepsy; Lat .forma, 
form). Resembling epilepsy. 

Epime'ral (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on ; yppos, 
meros, a thigh or limb). The part 
of the segment of an insect or 
other articulated animal which is 
above the joint of the limb. 

Epipet'alous (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on; 
mraXov, pet'alon, a petal). Placed 
or growing on the petals. 

Epiphloe'um (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on ; cpXoios, 
phloios, bark). The layer of 
bark immediately beneath the epi¬ 

Epiphyllous (Gr. Zm, ep'i, upon; 
(pvKhov, phullon, a leaf). Inserted 
on a leaf. 

Epiph'ora Gr. Zm, ep'i, on; cpepco, 
plied 0 , I bear). Watery eye; a 
disease in which the tears flow over 
the cheek, from an obstruction in the 
canal which should carry them otf. 

Epiph'ysis (Gr. Zm, ep'i, on ; <pvw, 
phuo , I grow). The end of a long 



bone, which is formed at first 
separately from the shaft, and 
afterwards is united to it. 

Ep'iphyte (Gr. iiu, ep'i, on ; (pvcc , 
pliud, I grow). A plant which 
grows on or adheres to another 
vegetable, or to an animal. 

Epiploon (Gr. 4m, ep'i, on ; ir\ew, 
pleo, I float). The caul; a por¬ 
tion of the peritoneum, or lining 
membrane of the abdomen, which 
covers in front, and as it were 
floats on, the intestines. 

Epispas'tic (Gr. 4m, ep'i, on ; airaw, 
spad, I draw). Drawing; blistering. 

Ep'isperm (Gr. im, ep'i, on ; anepiua, 
sperma, a seed). The outer covering 
of a seed. 

Epistax'is (Gr. im, ep'i, on ; ara(w, 
stazb, I drop). Bleeding from the 

Epister'nal (Gr. im, ep'i, on; (rrepvov, 
sternon, the breast). Situated on 
or above the sternum or breast¬ 

Epithelial ( Epithelium ). Belonging 
to, or formed of, epithelium. 

Epithelium. A covering membrane 
in animals and vegetables, formed 
of the same structure as epidermis, 
but finer and thinner. 

Ep'ithem (Gr. im, ep'i, on ; r< Oripu, 
tithemi, I place). A liquid in 
which cloths are dipped to be laid 
on any part of the body. 

Epit'ome' (Gr. im, ep'i, on ; tc/uvco, 
temnb, I cut). An abridgment of 
a book or writing. 

Epizo'on (Gr. im, ep'i, on ; faov, zdon, 
an animal). An animal which 
fastens itself to the exterior of 
other animals and lives on them. 

Epizootic (Gr. im, ep'i, on; C wov > 
zdon, an animal). A term applied 
to diseases prevailing among ani¬ 
mals, as epidemic diseases among 

E'poch (Gr. im, ep'i, on ; e’xw, ech'o, 
I hold). A fixed point of time from 
which dates are numbered; any 
fixed time or period. 

Equa'tion (Lat. cequo, I make equal). 
A making equal ; in algebra, a 
form expressing the equality of two 
quantities ; in astronomy, the dif¬ 

ference between real and apparent 
time or space. 

Equa'tor (Lat. cequo, I make equal). 
A great imaginary circle, surround¬ 
ing the earth at an equal distance 
from each pole. 

Equato'rial (Equator). An astro¬ 
nomical instrument, capable of re¬ 
volving on a fixed axis, coinciding 
in direction with that of the celestial 

Equicru'ral (Lat. cequus, equal; crus, 
a leg). Having equal legs ; or two 
sides of equal length, as a triangle. 

Equidifferent (Lat. cequus, equal ; 
different). Having an equal dif¬ 
ference ; applied to numbers in 
arithmetical progression, which in¬ 
crease or decrease by the addition 
or subtraction of the same number. 

Equidis'tant (Lat. cequus, equal; dis, 
from ; sto, I stand). At equal dis¬ 
tances from some point. 

Equilat'eral (Lat. cequus , equal ; 
Latus, a side). Having all the sides 

Equilib'rium (Lat. cequus, equal; 
libra, a balance). Equality of 
weight or force ; balance. 

Equimultiple (Lat. cequus, equal; 
multip'lico, I multiply). The pro¬ 
duct of multiplying a number by the 
same quantity as that by which 
some other number is also multi¬ 

Equinoc'tial (Lat. cequus, equal; nox, 
night). A term applied to the 
points at which the ecliptic inter¬ 
sects the celestial equator : so called 
from the days and nights being 
equal when the sun arrives in 

Equinox'es (Lat. cequus, equal; nox, 
night). The times at which the 
sun’s centre is found in the equi¬ 
noctial points, the days and nights 
being equal. 

Eq'uipoise (Lat. cequus, equal; Fr. 
pcids, weight). Equality of weight; 
equilibrium ; even balance. 

Equirat'ional (Lat. cequus, equal; 
ratio, a reckoning). Having an 
equal ratio ; applied to numbers in 
geometrical progression, which in¬ 
crease or decrease regularly by 



being multiplied or divided by the 
same number. 

Equivalent (Lat. cequus, equal; 
val'eo, I am worth). Equal in value 
or power ; in chemistry, a term 
applied to the numbers in which 
elements uniformly replace each 
other in combination. 

Erec'tile (Lat. drigo, I raise up). 
Haviug the property of raising 

Erec'tor (Lat. drigo, I raise up). That 
which raises up: applied to some 

Eremacau'sis (Gr. yp*i ua > erema, gra¬ 
dually ; Kaiw, hail, I burn). Slow 
combustion : the process by which 
the matters formed in the fermen¬ 
tation and putrefaction of animal 
and vegetable bodies combine gra¬ 
dually with the oxygen of the air. 

Er'ethism (Gr. epe0i£t w, erethi'zo, I 
excite). Excitement ; unnatural 
energy of action. 

Er'gotism {Ergot, spurred rye). A 
diseased state, characterised by a 
kind of mortification, produced by 
eating spurred rye. 

Ero'dent (Lat. e, out; rodo, I gDaw). 
Eating into ; gnawing. 

Ero'sion (Lat. e, from ; rodo, I gnaw). 
The state of eating or being eaten 

Erratic (Lat. erro, I wander). Wan¬ 
dering ; not fixed ; occurring in a 
casual manner. 

Erlhine (Gr. c-v, en, in ; piv, rhin, 
the nose). Affecting the nose; 
producing discharge from the nose. 

Eruct'ation (Lat. cruc'to , I belch). A 
bursting forth of wind from the 
stomach ; or of gases or other matter 
from the earth. 

Erup'tion (Lat. e, out; rumpo, I 
break). A breaking forth ; a rash 
on the skin. 

Erysip'elas (Gr. ipvu, erud, I draw ; 
7 reA as, pelas, near). A spreading 
inflammation of the skin ; St. An¬ 
thony’s fire. 

Erythe'ma (Gr. ipvBpos, eru'thros, 
red). A superficial redness of the 

Esca'pement. An apparatus in 
clocks and watches for regulating 

the action of the pendulum or ba¬ 
lance wheel. 

Escar'pment. (Fr. escarper, to cut 
a slope.) Ground cut away nearly 
vertically about a military position ; 
also a natural cutting away of the 
ground, as in ravines. 

Eschar (Gr. ecrxapa, es' ckara, a hearth 
or gridiron). A crust or scab pro¬ 
duced by heat or caustics. 

Escharot'ic (Gr. icrxapa. es'chara, a 
hearth or gridiron). Producing an 
eschar or crust on the flesh. 

Esophagot'omy (Gr. olaocpayos, oi- 
soph'agos, the oesophagus ; regvoc, 
temno, 1 cut). The operation of 
making an incision or opening into 
the oesophagus. 

Esoph'agus (Gr. olw, oio, I carry ; 
< payu >, phaifo, I eat). The gullet, 
or tube which carries food to the 

Esoteric (Gr. icrw, eso, within). Pri¬ 
vate ; applied to the private in¬ 
structions of Pythagoras. 

Es'sence (Lat. esse, to be). The par¬ 
ticular and distinguishing nature of 
a being or substance. 

Essen'tial (Lat. esse, to be). Neces¬ 
sary to the constitution of a thing ; 
specially distinctive. 

Esthetics. See Aesthetics. 

Estiva'tion (Lat. cestas, summer). 
The manner in which the petals of 
a flower are arranged within the 

Es'tuary (Lat. cestus, tide). An arm 
of the sea, or mouth of a river, 
where the tide meets the current. 

Ethe'real (Gr. alJyp, aither, ether). 
Relating to or formed of ether. 

Etherisa'tion {Ether). The production 
of insensibility by inhaling the 
vapour of ether. 

Ethical (Gr. r)0os, ethos, habit of 
men, manners). Relating to public 
manners or morals. 

Ethics (Gr. r/0os, ethos, manners). 
The science of moral philosophy, or 
of the duties of men. 

E'thmoid (Gr. 77^0?, ethmos, a sieve ; 
et’Sos, eidos, form). Perforated 
with holes like a sieve. 

Ethnol'ogy (Gr. eOuos, ethnos, a na¬ 
tion; A 070 S, logos, discourse). The 



science which describes the relation 
of the different varieties of mankind 
to each other. 

E'tiolate. To whiten by excluding the 
l’ays of the sun. 

E'tiology (Gr. alrta, aitia, a cause ; 
Aoyos, logos, a discourse). A de¬ 
scription of causes; in medicine, the 
department of the science which 
studies the agents by which diseases 
are produced. 

Etyniol'ogy (Gr. irvgos, et'umos, 
true ; Aoyos, logos, a word). A 
description of the origin, derivation, 
and changes of words. 

Et'ymon (Gr. irvgos, et'umos, true). 
The root of a word, from which it 
is derived. 

Eudiom'eter (Gr. eu, ew.well; Stos, dios, 
air; gerpov, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
amount of oxygen contained in air 
or in gaseous mixtures. 

Eudiom'etry (Gr. eu, eu, well; Sios, 
dios, air; gerpov, metron, a 
measure). The art of measuring 
the quantity of oxygen in the air or 
in gaseous mixtures. 

Euphemism (Gr. ev, eu, well; (p-pgi, 
phemi, I speak). The substitution 
of a delicate or agreeable word for 
one which is offensive. 

Euphonic (Gr. ev, eu, well; (peevrj, 
phone, voice). Having an agree¬ 
able sound. 

Eu'phony (Gr. ev, eu, well ; <puvr), 
phone, voice). A combination of 
letters and syllables which is agree¬ 
able to the ear. 

Eusta'chian Tube (Eusta chius, a 
celebrated anatomist). The tube 
which connects the internal ear 
with the back part of the mouth. 

Eusta'chian Valve. A fold of mem¬ 
brane lying between the anterior 
margin of the low r er vena cava and 
the right auricles of the heart. 

Evac'uant (Lat. e, from ; vac'uo, I 
empty). Emptying. 

Evac'uate (Lat. e, out; vac'uo, I 
empty). To empty or free from. 

Evacuation (Lat. e, out; vac'uo, 
I empty). An emptying or clear¬ 

Evap'orate (Lat. e, from; vapor, 

vapour). To pass off in vapour ; to 
convert into vapour. 

Evap'oration (Lat. e, from ; vapor, 
vapour). The conversion of a fluid 
into vapour or steam ; the removal 
of fluid from any substance by con¬ 
verting it into vapour. 

Evec'tion (Lat. e, out; veho, I carry). 
A carrying out; in astronomy, an 
inequality in the moon’s place, pro¬ 
duced by the mean progression of 
the apsides, and the variation of 
the excentricity. 

Evolu'tion (Lat. e, out ; volvo, I roll). 
An unfolding or unrolling ; in al¬ 
gebra and arithmetic, the extraction 
of a root, or the unfolding of a num¬ 
ber multiplied into itself any num¬ 
ber of times ; in military affair.s, 
changes in the position and arrange¬ 
ment of troops. 

EvuTsion (Lat. e, from; vello, I 
pluck). A pulling out by force. 

Exacerba'tion (Lat. ex, from ; aceE- 
bus, sharp). Irritation ; an in¬ 
crease in violence. 

Exalbu'minous (Lat. ex, from ; albu'- 
men). Without albumen. 

Exan'thema (Gr. e|, ex, out; avdos, 
anthos, a flower). An eruption : 
now' applied to contagious diseases, 
attended by fever and by an erup¬ 
tion on the skin. 

Excen'tric. See Eccen'tric. 

Excentricity. See Eccentricity. 

Excis ion (Lat. ex, from ; ccedo, I 
cut). A cutting off. 

Excitability (Lat. ex, from ; cito, I 
provoke). The power of being 

roused to action. 

Exci'tant (Lat. ex, from; cito, I 
provoke). Calling into action; 


Exci'to-mo'tor (Lat. excito, I excite ; 
moveo, I move). A term applied 
to those actions which arise from 
an impression made on the extremity 
of a nerve, conveyed to the spinal 
cord, and thence reflected, without 
sensation, to the nerves supplying 
the muscles of the part moved. 

Excoriate (Lat. ex, from ; co'rium, 
the skin). To strip off the skin. 

Ex'crement (Lat. ex, from ; cerno, I 
separate). Refuse matter. 



Excres'cence (Lat. ex, from; cresco, 
I grow). An unnatural or super¬ 
fluous growth. 

Excre'tion (Lat. ex, from ; cerno, 
I separate). A separation of fluids 
from the body by means of glands ; 
the fluids separated. 

Excre'tory (Lat. ex, from ; cerno, I 
separate). Having the property of 
excreting orthrowing off; removing. 

Exege'sis (Gr. i^yeop-ai, exegeomai, 
I explain). An explanation. 

Exfoliate (Lat. ex, from ; fo'Hum, a 
leaf). To separate in scales, as 
diseased bone, or the lamina of a 

Exha'lant (Lat. ex, from; halo, I 
breathe). Breathing out or evapor¬ 

Exhala'tion (Lat. ex, from; halo, I 
breathe). The act of exhaling or 
sending forth in vapour; that which 
is emitted as vapour. 

Exhale (Lat. ex, from; halo, I 
breathe). To breathe or send out 

Exhau'st (Lat. ex, from ; hau'rio, I 
draw). To draw off; to empty by 
drawing out the contents. 

Exocar'dial (Gr. exd, outside; 
KapSia, kar'dia, the heart). Out¬ 
side the heart. 

Ex'ogen (Gr. e£o>, exd, outside; 
yevvaco, gennad, I produce). A 
plant which grows by additions to 
the outside of the wood. 

Exog'enites (Ex'ogen). Fossil stems 
exhibiting the exogenous structure. 

Exogenous (Gr. i£w, exd, outside ; 
yevvaw, gennad, I produce). In 
botany, growing by addition to the 
outside; in anatomy, growing out 
from a bone already formed. 

Exor'dium (Lat. ex, from ; or'dior, I 
begin). The introductory part of 
a discoui-se. 

Exorhi'zal (Gr. <=|a>, exd, outside; 
pi(a, rhiza, a root). A term applied 
to plants of which the roots do not 
burst through the coverings of the 
seed before growing downwards. 

Exoskel'eton (Gr. e|o>, exd, outside; 
(jkzAztov, skel'eton). An external 
skeleton, such as is found in many 
invertebrate animals ; also in those 

vertebrate animals which have ossi¬ 
fied or bony plates connected with 
the skin. 

Ex'osmose (Gr. e£, ex, out ; adea>, 
dthed, I drive). The passage of 
one fluid to another through a 
membrane from within outwards. 

Ex'ostome (Gr. e£o, exd, outwards ; 

( TToga , stoma, a mouth). The 
outer aperture in the ovule of a 
plant, towards which the apex of 
the nucleus points. 

Exosto'sis (Gr. cf, ex, out; ooreov, 
os'teon, a bone). An unnatural 
projection or growth from a bone. 

Exoteric (Gr. e|o>, exd, outside). 
Exteimal; public. 

Exothe'cium (Gr. e£w, exd, outside ; 
OrjKLov, the'Jcion, a box). In botany, 
the outside covering of the anther, 
the inner being the endothecium. 

Exot'ic (Gr. e|a>, exd, outside). 
Brought from a foreign country. 

Expansibility (Lat. ex, out; pamdo, 
I open). Capability of being en¬ 
larged or extended in all directions. 

Expec'torant (Lat. ex, from; pectus, 
the breast). Promoting discharge 
from the air-passages and lungs. 

Expec'torate (Lat. ex, from; pectus, 
the breast). To discharge from 
the air-passages or lungs. 

Expira'tion (Lat. ex, from ; spiro, I 
breathe). A breathing out of air 
or vapour. 

Expo'nent (Lat. expo'no, I set forth). 
A number or figure which, placed 
above and to the right hand of a 
number, denotes what root is to be 
extracted, or to what power it is to 
be raised : in the former case, 
fractions are used ; in the latter, 
whole numbers ; also the number 
which denotes the ratio between 
two quantities. 

Expression (Lat. ex, out ; prem'o, 

I press). A pressing out; in 
algebra, any quantity, simple or 

Exsan'guine (Lat. ex, from ; sanguis, 
blood). Without blood ; deprived 
of blood. 

Exsert'ed (Lat. ex'serso, I thrust out). 
In botany , extending beyond an 



Exsicca'tion (Lat. ex, from ; siccus, 
dry). Drying. 

Exstip'ulate (Lat. ex, from ; stipule). 
Without stipules. 

Exten'sor (Lat. ex, out ; tendo, I 
stretch). A stretcher out; applied 
to certain muscles. 

External Contact. In astronomy, the 
apparent touching of two disks at 
their edges, without interposition. 

Extine (Lat. ex, out). The outer 
covering of the pollen-grain. 

Extracellular (Lat. extra, beyond ; 
cell'ula, a cell). Without cells: 
applied to the formation of nuclei 
or cells in animal and vegetable 
matter, without the influence of a 
previously existing cell. 

Extravas'cular (Lat. extra, beyond ; 
vas'cular). Without vessels. 

Extraction (Lat. ex, from; traho, I 
draw). A drawing out. 

Extractive (Lat. ex, from ; traho, I 
draw). That which is drawn out : 
a term used in chemistry to denote 
matter of a peculiar kind obtained 
from substances by chemical opera¬ 

Extravasation (Lat. extra, out of ; 
vas, a vessel). The pouring of a 
fluid, as blood, out of its vessels. 

Extro'rse (Lat. extror'sum, outwards). 
Turned outw T ards. 

Exudation (Lat. ex, out ; sudo, I 
perspire). A discharge of moisture 
through pores. 

Exu'de (Lat. ex, out; sudo, I per¬ 
spire). To discharge through pores. 

Exu'viae (Lat. from exuo, I put off). 
Cast-offshellsorskinsof animals; re¬ 
mains of animals found in the earth. 

Eye-piece. The lens or combination 
of lenses in a microscope to which 
the eye is applied. 


Fac'ade (Fr.). The front view of a 

Fa cet (Fr.: a little face). A small 
face ; applied to the small terminal 
faces of crystals and cut gems. 

Fa'cial (Lat. fa'cies, the face). Be¬ 
longing to the face. 

Fa'cial An'gle. In anatomy, the 
angle formed by a line drawn 
through the opening of the ear and 
the base of the nostrils, with 
another drawn from the most pro¬ 
jecting part of the forehead through 
the front of the upper jaw; re¬ 
garded as a measure of intelligence 
in animals. 

Fac'tor (Lat. fac'io, I make). A 
maker up or agent ; in arithmetic 
and algebra, the factors of a 
quantity are those by the multi¬ 
plication of which into each other 
it is formed. 

Fa'cules (Lat. fa'cula, a little 
torch). A term applied to varie¬ 
ties in the intensity of the bright¬ 
ness of different parts of the sun’s 

Fae'ces (Lat. fee: e, dregs). Excrement 
or refuse matter. 

Falcate (Lat. falx, a sickle). Bent 
like a sickle. 

Falciform (Lat. falx, a hook or 
sickle ; forma, shape). Shaped 
like a sickle. 

Falx Cer'ebri (Lat. falx, a sickle). 
A curved projection downwards of 
the dura mater, which divides the 
brain into two hemispheres; a 
similar structure also divides the 
cerebellum, or little brain. 

Farina (Lat. far, corn). Meal or 
flour ; consisting of gluten, starch, 
and gum ; in botany, the pollen or 
fine dust of the anther. 

Farina'ceous (Lat. fari'na, flour). 
Consisting of, or containing meal or 

Fas'cia (Lat. a band). A band ; in 
architecture, a band-like structure; 
a surgical bandage ; a membranous 

Fas'ciate (Lat. fas'cia, a band). 
Bound, or apparently bound, with 
a band. 

Fas'cicle or Fascic'ulus (Lat, fas¬ 
ciculus, a little bundle). A small 
bundle; in anatomy, a bundle of 
muscular fibres. 



Fascic'ulate (Lat. fasciculus, a small 
bundle). Arranged in small 
bundles or clusters. 

Fasci'ne (Lat. fas'cia, a band). A 
fagot used in military operations for 
raising batteries, filling ditches, &c. 

Fauces (Lat. faux , the jaws). The 
opening by which the back part of 
the mouth communicates with the 

Fault (Lat. fallo, I deceive or fail). 
A failing ; in geology, an inter¬ 
ruption of the continuity of strata. 

Fauna (Lat. Faunus). The entire 

collection of animals peculiar to a 

Favose (Lat. favus, a honey-comb). 
Resembling a honey-comb. 

Favus (Lat. a honey-comb). A 
disease of the skin, popularly known 
as scaldhead. 

Feather-edged. In architecture, 
made thin at one edge. 

Febric'ula (Lat. febris, a fever ; via, 
denoting smallness). A slight 


Feb'rifuge (Lat .febris, a fever ; fugo, 

I drive away). Diminishing or 
preventing fever. 

Fe'brile (Lat. febris, a fever). Re¬ 
lating to, or indicating fever. 

Fec'ula (Lat. fax, dregs ; ula, de¬ 
noting smallness). Starch. 

Fec'ulent (Lat. fcecula, small dregs). 
Containing dregs or sediment. 

Fe'cundate (Lat. fecun'dus, fruitful). 
To make fruitful. 

Feeun'dity (Lat. fecun'dus, fruitful). 
Fruitfulness ; power of producing. 

Feld'spar (Germ, feld, afield ; spar). 
The soft part of granite ; consisting 
of a mixture of alumina, lime, 
and potash or soda, with silicic 

Feldspath'ic (Feldspar). Consisting 
of, or abounding in feldspar. 

Fe'line (Lat. fe'lis, a cat). Belonging 
to cats, or to the cat tribe. 

Fel'spar—Felspath'ic. See Feld¬ 
spar and Feldspath'ic. 

Fem'oral (Lat. femur, the thigh). 
Belonging to the thigh. 

Femur (Lat). In anatomy, the thigh¬ 
bone ; in entomology, the third joint 
of the leg in insects. 

Fenes'tra (Lat. a window). A term 
applied in anatomy to two small 
openings in the bones of the ear. 

Fenes'tral (Lat. fenes'tra, a window). 
Having openings like a window. 

Fenes'trate (Lat. fenes'tra, a window). 
Belonging to, or resembling a 

Ferae (Lat. /era, a wild beast). An 
order of mammalia in the Linnsean 

Ferment (Lat. fer'vco, I boil). That 
which causes fermentation. 

Permenta'tion (Lat. fermentum, 
leaven). A peculiar change oi 
organic substances, by a rearrange¬ 
ment of their elements under the 
agency of an external disturbing 
force, different from ordinary chemi¬ 
cal attraction. 

Fer'reous (Lat. ferrum, iron). Re¬ 
lating to or consisting of iron. 

Fer'ric (Lat. ferrum, iron). Derived 
from iron. 

Ferriferous (Lat. ferrum, iron; fero, 
I bear). Producing iron. 

Ferro- (Lat. ferrum, iron). A prefix 
denoting that iron enters into the 
composition of the substance named. 

Ferru'ginous (Lat. ferrum, iron; 
gigno, I produce). Producing or 
yielding iron. 

Fertilisation (Lat. fero, I bear). In 
botany, the application of pollen to 
the stigma of a plant. 

Fertilise (Lat. fero, I bear). To 
make fruitful or productive. 

Fetal (Lat. foetus, the young of a 
creature). Belonging to the foetus. 

Fetus or Fcetus (Lat). The young 
unborn animal, in which all the 
parts of the body are formed. 

Fibre (Lat. fibra, a small sprout). 
A thread; a minute slender 
structure entering into the com¬ 
position of various parts of animals 
and vegetables. 

Fi'bril (Lat. fibra, a small sprout; 
il, denoting smallness). A minute 

Fi'brin (Fibre), An organic sub¬ 
stance found in the blood, which 
forms, on removal, long white 
elastic filaments. 

Fi'bro-car'tilage (. Fibre ; cartilage). 




An animal tissue composed of 
fibrous tissue mixed with cartilage. 

Fi'bro-se'rous ( Fibre ; serum). Con¬ 
sisting of fibrous tissue covered by 
a serous membrane. 

Fi'brous (Lat. fibra, a small sprout 
or fibre). Containing or consisting 
of fibres. 

Fib'ula (Lat. a buckle). The outer 
or small bone of the leg. 

Fib'ular (Fib'ula). Belonging to or 
situated near the fibula. 

Fic'tile (Lat. Jingo, I mould). Manu¬ 
factured by the potter’s art. 

Fig'urate Numbers. In arithmetic, 
a series of numbers capable of being 
placed in such order as to represent 
a geometrical figure. 

Filament (Lat. filum, a thread). A 
thread; in anatomy, a thread-like 
structure ; in botany, the part of the 
stamen which supports the anther. 

Fil'icoid (Lat. filix, fern ; Gr. eibos, 
eidos, form). Resembling fern. 

Filiform (Lat. filum, a thread; forma, 
shape). Like a thread. 

Filter [Felt, fulled wool). A strainer : 
to strain, in order to separate fluid 
from solid matter. 

Filtrate. The liquid which has passed 
through a filter. 

Filtra'tion. The act of filtering or 

Fim'briae (Lat. fim'bria, a fringe). 
In anatomy, a structure resembling 
a fringe. 

Fim'briated (Lat. fimibria, a border 
or hem). Llaving a fringed edge. 

Fi'nite (Lat. finis, an end). Having 
a limit. 

Fire-damp. Light carburetted hy¬ 
drogen : the explosive gas of coal¬ 

Firestone. A stone that stands heat; 
in geology, a stone of lime and 

First Intention. In surgery, the 
process by which wounds heal by 
direct union. 

Fis'sile (Lat. findo, I cleave). Capable 
of being split. 

Fissip'arous (Lat. findo, I cleave ; 
par'io, I produce). Multiplying 
the species by the division of the 
individual into two parts, as in 

polygastric animalcules and po¬ 

Fissiros'tres (Lat. findo, I cleave ; 
rostrum, a beak). A tribe of in- 
sessorial or perching birds, having 
the beak much depressed or flat¬ 
tened horizontally, so as to give a 
wide opening, as the swallows and 

F is'sure (Lat. findo, I cleave). A 
cleft; in anatomy, an opening in a 
bone or other part resembling a 

Fis'tula (Lat. a pipe). In surgery, a 
deep, narrow, callous ulcer. 

Fis'tulous (Lat .fistula, a pipe). Like 
a pipe ; in botany, applied to cylin¬ 
drical bodies which are hollow but 
closed at each end. 

Fixed (Lat. figo, I fix). Firm ; fixed 
air, carbonic acid gas ; fixed stars. 

Fixed Oils. Oils which are not capable 
of being distilled without decompo¬ 

Flabel'liform (Lat. flabeVlum, a fan ; 
forma, shape). Like a fan. 

Flat'ulency (Lat .flatus, a blast). A 
generation of gases in the stomach 
and intestines. 

Flexible (Lat. fiecto, I bend). Capable 
of bending ; a changing form in 
obedience to a force exerted across 
the length of the material. 

Flexion (Lat. fiecto, I bend). A 

Flex'or (Lat. fiecto, I bend). A 
bender ; applied to the muscles 
which bend the limbs. 

Flex'ure (Lat. fiecto, I bend). The 
bending or curve of a line or surface. 

Flex'uose (Lat. fiecto, I bend). Wind¬ 

Floc'culent (Lat. floccus, a lock of 
wool). Consisting of or containing 
flocks, as of wool. 

Flora (Lat. the Goddess of Flowers). 
The entire collection of plants be* 
longing to a country. 

Flo'ral (Lat. fios, a flower). Belong¬ 
ing to a flower. 

Flower-bud. A bud which becomes 
developed into a flower. 

Flu'ate (Flu'orin). A compound of 
fluoric acid with a base. 

Fluid^(Lat. Jiao, I flow). Capable of 



flowing ; not having sufficient force 
of adhesion in the component parts 
to prevent their separation by their 
mere weight readily changing their 

Fluidity (Lat. fluo, I flow). The 
state of being fluid. 

Flu'or, or Fluor-spar. A mineral con¬ 
sisting of fluoride of calcium, or the 
element fluorine with the metallic 
base of lime. 

Fluoric. Relating to, or containing 
the element fluorine. 

Flu'oride (Fluorine). A compound 
of fluorine with another elementary 

Flu'orine ( Fluor-spar ). An elemen¬ 
tary substance which, in combina¬ 
tion with calcium, forms fluor¬ 

Flu'vial (Lat. flu'vius , a river). Be¬ 
longing to a river, or fresh water. 

Flu'viatile (Lat. flu'vius, a river). 
Belonging to a river, or fresh 

Flux (Lat. fluo, I flow). A flowing ; 
a substance used in chemical opera¬ 
tions to promote the melting of 
metals or minerals. 

Flux'ion (Lat. fluo, I flow). A flow¬ 
ing ; in mathematics, the finding of 
an infinitely small quantity, which, 
taken an infinite number of times, 
becomes equal to a given quantity. 

Flywheel. A wheel used in ma¬ 
chinery for the purpose of rendering 
motion equable and regular. 

Focal. (Lat. focus, a fire-hearth). 
Relating to a focus. 

Focal Distance. The distance of a 
focus from some fixed point ; in 
optics, the distance between the 
centre of a lens or mirror, and the 
point into which the rays are 

Focus (Lat. a hearth). A point in 
which rays meet. 

Folia'ceous (Lat. fo'Hum, a leaf). 
Consisting of, or resembling leaves. 

Foliated (Lat. folium, a leaf). Con¬ 
sisting of, or resembling a plate or 
leaf; arranged in layers like leaves. 

Folia'tion (Lat. fo'lium, a leaf). The 
arrangement of leaves on a tree. 

Follicle (Lat. follis, a bag). A little 

bag; in botany, a form of fruit 
with one suture. 

Follic'ulated (Lat. follic'ulus, a little 
bag). Having follicles. 

Foii'tanel (Lat. fons, a fountain). The 
opening in the skull of infants, 
between the bones, at each end of 
the sagittal suture. 

Footstalk. The stem of a leaf. 

For'alites (Lat. foro, I bore ; Gr. 
Aiflos, lithos, a stone). Tube-like 
markings in sandstones and other 
geological strata, apparently the 
burrows of worms. 

Fora'men (Lat. foro, I pierce). A 
hole or aperture. 

Foraminif'erous (Lat. fora'men, a 
hole; fero, I bear). Having a 
hole or holes ; applied to a class of 
marine animals, having shells con¬ 
sisting of chambers separated by 
partitions having in each a small 

Formation (Lat. formo, I shape or 
build up). In geology, a term ap¬ 
plied to any assemblage of rocks 
connected by geological position, by 
immediate succession in time, and 
by organic and mineral affinities. 

For'miate. (Formic acid). A com¬ 
pound of formic acid with a base. 

Formic (Lat. formi'ca, an ant). Be¬ 
longing to or obtained from ants : 
applied to an organic acid pro¬ 
curable from ants, and also from 
the oxidation of wood-spirit under 
the influence of finely divided 

Formica'tion (Lat. formi'ca, an ant). 
A sensation of ants or small insects 
creeping over the skin. 

For'mula (Lat. forma, a form ; ula, 
denoting smallness). A form; in 
mathematics, a general expression 
by means of letters ; in chemistry, 
an expression denoting the compo¬ 
sition of a substance ; in medicine , 
a prescription, or directions for 
making up medicines. 

Fos'sil (Lat. fo'dio, I dig). Dug out 
of the earth ; in geology, applied 
generally to mineralised animal and 
vegetable remains, found in rocks 
or in the earth. 

Fossilif erous (Lat. fo'dio, I dig; fero, 

f 2 



I bear). Producing or containing 
fossil remains of animals and vege¬ 

Fos'silize (Lat. fos'silis, that which 
may be dug out). To convert into 
a fossil. 

Fourchette (Fr. a fork). The bone in 
birds formed by the junction of the 
clavicles ; the merrythought. 

Fovil'la (Lat. white ashes). The 
minute granular matter which exists 
in the interior of the pollen-grains 
in flowers. 

Frac'tion (Lat. frango, I break). A 
broken part of an entire quantity 
or number. 

Frac'ture (Lat. frango, I break). A 
break ; the manner or direction in 
which a break takes place. 

Freezing' Mixture. A mixture which 
produces cold sufficient to freeze 
other liquids. 

Freezing Point. The point at which 
the mercury stands in the ther¬ 
mometer when immersed in a fluid 
in the act of freezing. 

Frem'itus (Lat. frem'o, I roar or 
murmur). A vibrating sensation 
felt on applying the hand to the 

Fri'able (Lat. frio , I break or crumble). 
Easily crumbled. 

Fric'tion (Lat. frico , I rub). The 
act of rubbing one body against 

Frieze. The part ot the entablature 
of a column which is between the 
architrave and cornice. 

Frig'id (Lat. fri'gus, cold). Cold; 
wanting heat. 

Frigorific (Lat. fri'gus , cold ; fa'cio , 
I make). Producing cold ; freezing. 

Frond (Lat. frons, a leaf, or bough 
with leaves). In botany, the 
flattened expansion produced by the 
spores of some acotyledonous or 
flowerless plants : leaf of a tree- 

Frondip'arous (Lat. frons, a leaf; 
pa'rio, I produce). In botany, 
applied to fruits which produce 
leaves from their upper part. 

Fron'tal (Lat. frons, the forehead). 
Belonging to the forehead. 

Fructification (Lat. frudtus, fruit; 

fac'io, I make). The production 
of fruit. 

Fructify (Lat. frudtus, fruit; fac'io, 
I make). To make fruitful; to 

Frugiv'orous (Lat. fru'gcs, fruit; voro , 
I devour). Eating or living on fruits. 

Frustum (Lat. a broken piece). A 
piece broken off; in geometry, the 
part of a solid body nearest the 
base, which remains after the top 
has been cut off by a plane parallel 
to the base. 

Fuciv'orous (Lat. fu'cus, sea-weed ; 
voro, I devour). Eating or living 
on sea-weed. 

Fu'coid (Lat. fu'cus, sea-weed; Gr. 
elSos, eidos, form). Resembling 

Ful'crum (Lat. ful'cio, I support). 
A support : the fixed point on 
which a lever turns. 

Ful'minate (Lat. ful’men, thunder). 
To detonate : a compound of ful- 
minic acid with a base, character¬ 
ised by a tendency to explode 

Ful'minic Acid (Lat. ful'men, thun¬ 
der). An acid produced by the 
action of nitric acid on alcohol in 
the presence of a salt of silver or 
mercury, and forming salts which 
have a tendency to explode vio¬ 

Fu'marolles (Lat. fu'mus, smoke). 
Crevices in the earth in volcanic 
districts from which steam and 
boiling fluids are emitted. 

Fu'migate (Lat. fu'mus, smoke). To 
apply smoke or vapour. 

Func'tion (Lat. fungor, I perform). 
In physiology, the use of a part or 

Fun'gi (Lat. fun'gus, a mushroom). 
An order of flowerless plants of 
which the mushroom is the type. 

Fun'goid (Lat. fun'gus, a mushroom : 
Gr. ilSos, eidos, form). Resem¬ 
bling a mushroom. 

Fungos'ity (Lat. funvgus, a mush¬ 
room). A soft excrescence, often 
of rapid growth. 

Fun'gous (Lat. fun'gus, amushroom). 
Consisting of, or resembling mush¬ 



Funic'ulus (Lat. fa'nis, a bundle). A 
ittle bundle : in anatomy, a bun¬ 
dle of fibrils of a nerve, enclosed in 
a sheath; in botany, the stalk by 
which the ovule is attached. 

Furfura/ceous (Lat. far'fur, bran). 
Resembling bran. 

Fuss'e (Lat. fu'sus, a spindle). The 
conical part of a watch or clock 
which has the chain or cord wound 
round it. 

Fusibility (Lat. fan'do, I pour out). 

Ga'bion (Fr.). A large cylindrical 
basket of wicker-work, filled with 
earth, used in fortifications. 

Gable (Welsh, gavael, a hold). The 
upright triangular end of a house. 

Galac'tagogue (Gr. yaAa, gala, milk; 
ayoo, ago, I drive). Increasing the 
secretion of milk. 

Galac'tic Circle. In astronomy, the 
circle at right angles to the diam¬ 
eter forming the galactic poles. 

Galac'tic Poles. In astronomy, the 
opposite, points of the celestial 
sphere, round which the stars are 
most sparse. 

Galactom'eter (Gr. yaXa, gala, milk : 
gerpou, metron , a measure). An 
instrument for ascertaining the 
purity of milk by means of its 
specific gravity. 

Galactoph'agous (Gr. yaXa, gala, 
milk ; cpayco, phag'd, I eat.) 
Living on milk. 

Galactoph'orous (Gr. 7aAa, gala, 
milk ; <pepec >, phero, I bear). Pro¬ 
ducing or conveying milk. 

Gal'axy (Gr. yaXa, gala, milk). The 
milky way : a dense cluster of stars, 
giving to the naked eye an appear¬ 
ance of whitish nebulous light. 

Gal'eated (Lat. gal'ea, a helmet). 
Covered as with a helmet: having 
a flower like a helmet. 

Gale'na. Sulphuret of lead ; a com¬ 
pound of sulphur with lead. 

Galen'ic ( Gale'nus, an ancient physi¬ 
cian). Relating to Galen : ap¬ 

Capability of being melted, or con¬ 
verted from a solid to a liquid state 
by heat. 

Fu'sible (Lat. fun'do, I pour out). 
Capable of being melted, or con¬ 
verted from a solid to a liquid state 
by heat. 

Fu'siform (Lat. fu'sus, a spindle; 
forma, shape). Like a spindle : 
tapering at each end. 

Fu'sion (Lat. fun'do, I pour out). 
A melting by heat. 

plied to medicines derived from the 
vegetable kingdom. 

Gal'late. A compound of gallic acid 
with a base. 

Gall-ducts. The ducts or canals 
which convey the bile from the 

Gal'lic (Lat. galla, a gall). Belong¬ 
ing to gall-nuts: applied to an 
organic acid derived from them. 

Gallina'ceous (Lat. galli'na, a hen). 
Belonging to the order of bii’ds of 
which the domestic fowl and the 
pheasant are examples. 

Galli'nse (Lat. galli'na, a hen). An 
order of birds of which the com¬ 
mon fowl is the type. 

Galvan'ic. Relating to, containing, 
or exhibiting galvanism. 

Gal'vanism. See Voltaic Electricity. 

Gal'vanise. To affect with gal¬ 

Galvanom'eter {Gal'nanism ; Gr. 
y<=Tpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the in¬ 
tensity of galvanic or voltaic 

Galvan'oscope ( Gal'vanism ; Gr. 
CKoneco, skop'eo, I view). An ap¬ 
paratus for ascertaining the direc¬ 
tion in which the pole of a mag¬ 
netic needle is moved by a galvanic 

Gamopet'alous (Gr. yagas, gam'os, 
marriage; ireraXor, pet'alon, a 
petal). Having petals united by 
their margins. 



Gamosep'alous (Gr. yagos, garn'os, 
marriage ; sep'al). Having sepals 
united by their margins. 

Gan'gliated {Ganglion). Provided 
with ganglia. 

Gan'glion (Gr. yayyXiov, gan'glion, a 
knot). In anatomy, a small mass 
of nervous matter resembling a 
knot, found in the course of various 
parts of the nervous system ; in 
surgery, a tumour consisting of a 
cyst filled with serous fluid, occur¬ 
ring generally at the wrist and 

Ganglionic (Gr. yayyXior, gan'glion, 
a knot;. Containing, or belonging 
to ganglia : applied especially to a 
part of the nervous system in which 
these structures abound, otherwise 
called the sympathetic nerve. 

Gan'grene (Gr. yayypaivo., gangrai'na, 
an eating sore). Death of a limited 
portion of the body, or of any of 
its tissues. 

Ganoceph'ala (Gr. yavos, gan'os, 
splendour; Kecpa A.77, keph'ale, a 
head). An order of fossil reptiles 
having polished bony plates cover¬ 
ing the head. 

Gan'oid (Gr. yavos, gan'os, splen¬ 
dour ; eiSos, eidos , appearance). 
Of splendid appearance ; applied to 
an order of fishes, mostly extinct, 
with angular scales covered by a 
thick coat of shining enamel. 

Gar'goyle (Lat. gurgu'lio, the throat- 
pipe). A spout in the cornice or 
parapet of a building for discharg¬ 
ing water from the roof. 

Gas (Saxon gast, German geist, a 
spirit). A body of which the com¬ 
ponent particles are not held to¬ 
gether by mutual cohesion, and 
also have a disposition to separate 
from each other. 

Gasholder. An apparatus for holding 


Gasom'eter ( Gas; Gr. gerpov, metron, 
a measure). An apparatus for 
measuring, collecting, or mixing 

Gas'teropod (Gr. yaarrip, gaster, the 
stomach ; ttovs, pous, a foot). 
Moving on the belly : applied to an 
order of molluscous invertebrate 

animals, of which the snail and 

slug are examples. 

Gastral'gia (Gr. ya<rrrjp, gaster , the 
stomach ; aXyos, algos, pain). Pain 
in the stomach. 

Gastric (Gr. yaarnp, gaster, the 
stomach). Pertaining to the sto¬ 

Gastri'tis (Gr. yaarrip, gaster, the 
stomach ; itis, denoting inflamma¬ 
tion). Inflammation of the stomach. 

Gas'tro- (Gr. yacrrrip, gaster, the 
stomach). In anatomy and medi¬ 
cine, a prefix in compound words 
signifying relation to, or connection 
with, the stomach. 

Gastrocne'mius (Gr. yacrrrip, gaster, 
the stomach; Kv-pgr/, Jcneme, the 
leg). A muscle which forms the 
chief part of the calf of the leg. 

Gastrodyn'ia (Gr. yacrrnp, gaster, 
the stomach ; 68 vvt], odune, pain). 
Pain in the stomach. 

Gas'tro-enteri'tis {Gwyaampp, gaster, 
the stomach ; ivrepov, en'teron, an 
intestine ; itis, denoting inflamma¬ 
tion). Inflammation of the sto¬ 
mach and intestines. 

Gastro-pul'monary (Gr. yaarr/p, gas¬ 
ter, the stomach ; Lat. pulmo, a 
lung). Connected with the lungs 
and intestinal canal : applied to a 
track of mucous membrane. 

Gastro'raphy (Gr. yaarrjp, gaster, the 
stomach; jhacpr), raphe, a suture). 
Union of a wound of the stomach 
or abdomen by suture. 

Gault. In geology, a common term 
for the chalky clays of the lower 
division of the chalk system. 

Gel'atine (Lat. gelo, I congeal). The 
softish substance produced by dis¬ 
solving animal membranes, skin, 
tendons, and bones, in water at a 
high temperature ; animal jelly. 

Gelatinize {Gelatine). To change 
into gelatine. 

Gelatinous (Gel'atine). Belonging to 
or consisting of gelatine. 

Gemina'tion (Lat. gem!ini, twins). 
A doubling. 

Gemma'tion (Lat. gemma, a bud). 
Budding ; the construction of a 
leaf-bud ; multiplication by budding. 

Gemmip'arous (Lat. gemma, a bud; 



par'io, I produce). Producing 
buds ; multiplying by a process of 

Gem'ucule (Lat. gemma, a bud ; ule, 
denoting smallness). The growing 
point of the embryo in plants. 

Geneal'ogy (Gr. yevos, genos, a race; 
\oyos, logos, a description). A 
history of the descent of a person or 
family from an ancestor. 

Gener'ic (Lat. genus, a kind). Per¬ 
taining to a genus; distinguishing a 
genus from a species or from ano¬ 
ther genus. 

Gen'esis (Gr. yevvaw, gennad, I pro¬ 
duce). A production or formation. 

Genet'ic (Gr. yeuraco, gennad, I pro¬ 
duce). Relating to the origin of a 
thing or its mode of production. 

Ge'nio- (Gr. yeveiov, genei'on, the 
chin). In anatomy, a prefix in 
several names of muscles, denoting 
attachment to the chin. 

Gen'itive (Lat. gigno, I produce). In 
grammar, applied to that case which 
denotes the person or thing to which 
something else stands in the rela¬ 
tion of descent, possession, or other 

Gen'us (Lat. a kind). An assemblage 
of species possessing certain common 
distinctive characters. 

Geocen'tric (Gr. 777, ge, the eai’th ; 
nevrpov, Icentron, a centre). Hav¬ 
ing the earth as a centre : applied 
to the position and motion of a 
heavenly body as viewed from the 

Ge'ode (Gr. 777, ge, the earth). In 
geology, a rounded nodule with 
internal cavities. 

Geod'esy (Gr. 777, ge, the earth ; Sauv, 
daio, I divide). The science which 
measures the earth and portions 
of it by mathematical observation. 

Geognos'tic (Gr. 777, ge, the earth ; 
7 vcocris, gnosis, knowledge). Rela¬ 
ting to a knowledge of the struc¬ 
ture of the earth. 

Geogno'sy (Gr. 777, ge, the earth ; 
yvucris, gnosis, knowledge). The 
knowledge of the earth. 

Geographical (Gr. 777, ge, the earth ; 
7 pa<pu>, graph’d, I write). Rela¬ 
ting to geography. 

Geography (Gr. 777, ge, the earth ; 
ypacpo), graphd, I write). The 
science which describes the surface 
of the earth, its divisions, their 
inhabitants, productions, &c. This 
is general or universal geography. 
Mathematical geography applies the 
knowledge of mathematics to the 
solution of problems connected with 
the earth’s figure, the position of 
places, &c. Medical geography 
describes the distribution of dis¬ 
eases on the globe. Physical geo¬ 
graphy describes the various cli¬ 
mates, the causes influencing them, 
and their bearing on animal and 
vegetable life. Political geography 
describes the political and social 
organisation of the various human 
inhabitants of the earth. 

GeoPogy (Gr. 777, ge, the earth ; 
\oyos, logos, a description). The 
science which describes the condi¬ 
tion or structure of those parts of 
the earth which lie beneath the 

Geometrical {Geometry'). According 
to geometry. 

Geometrical Progression. A form 
of progression in which numbers 
increase or decrease by being mul¬ 
tiplied or divided by the same 

Geom'etry (Gr. 777, ge, the earth; 
perpov, metron, a measure). Lite¬ 
rally and originally, the art of 
measuring the earth ; but now de¬ 
noting the science of the mensura¬ 
tion and relations of bodies, and 
their physical properties. 

Geothermom'eter (Gr. 777, ge, the 
earth; Qeppos, thermos, warm ; 
perpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the tem¬ 
perature of the earth at different 
points, as in mines, artesian wells, 

Ger'minal (Lat. germen, a bud). Be¬ 
longing to a germ or bud. 

Ger'minal Membrane. The mem¬ 
brane, formed of cells, which imme¬ 
diately surrounds the ovum or egg 
after segmentation. 

Ger'minal Spot. The opaque spot on 
the germinal membrane, which is 



intended to be developed into the 

Ger'minal Ves'icle. The small vesi¬ 
cular body within the yolk of the 
ovum or egg. 

Ger'minate (Lat. ger'men, a sprout). 
To sprout or begin to grow. 

Germina'tion (Lat. ger'men, a sprout). 
The act of sprouting. 

Ger'und (Lat. ger'o, I bear). A part 
of a verb, partaking of the charac¬ 
ter of a noun. 

Geyser. A boiling spring or foun¬ 
tain, of volcanic origin. 

Gib'bous (Lat. gibbus, a bunch on the 
back). Humped ; presenting one 
or more large elevations. 

Gin'glymoid (Gr. yiyyXv/uos, gin'glu- 
mos, a hinge or joint; eidos, eidos, 
form). Resembling a hinge. 

Gin'glymus (Gr. yiyyXvgos, gin'glu- 
mos, a hinge or joint). A joint 
allowing motion in two directions 
only, such as that of the elbow and 
lower jaw. 

Gla'brous (Lat. gla'ber, smooth). 
Smooth ; destitute of hair. 

Glac'ial (Lat. glac'ies, ice). Resem¬ 
bling ice. 

Glac'ier (Lat. glac'ies, ice). A mass 
of snow and ice, formed in the 
higher valleys, and descending into 
the lower valleys, carrying with 
them masses of rocks and stones. 

Gland (Lat. glans, an acorn). A 
structure in animal and vegetable 
bodies, for the purpose of secreting 
or separating some peculiar mate¬ 

Gland'ula (Gland). In anatomy, a 
little gland. 

Gland'ular. Consisting of or relating 
to glands ; in botany, applied to 
hairs having glands at their tips 
containing some special secretion, 
or fixed on glands in the epidermis. 

Glauco'rna (Gr. yXavicos, glaucos, 
blue-grey). A disease of the eyes, 
attended with a greenish discolora¬ 
tion of the pupil. 

Gle'noid (Gr. yXiivt], glene, the pupil, 
or a shallow pit ; eidos, eidos, 
form). A term applied to a round 
shallow excavation in a bone, to 
receive the head of another bone. 

Glo'bose (Lat. globus, a globe). In 
botany, forming nearly a true 

Glob'ular (Lat. globus, a globe). A 
very small round body. 

Glob'ular Projection. That projec¬ 
tion of the sphere which so repre¬ 
sents it as to present the appear¬ 
ance of a globe. 

Glob'uline ( Glob'ule ). An organic 

substance, somewhat resembling 
albumen, found in the red cor¬ 
puscles of the blood. 

Glochid'iate (Gr. 7Awyu, glochis, a 
projecting point ; the point of an 
arrow). In botany, applied to hairs, 
the divisions of which are barbed 
like a fish-hook. 

Glom'erule (Lat. glo'mus, a clew of 
thread; ule, denoting smallness). 
In botany, a kind of dense tuft of 
flowers ; also the powdering leaf 
lying on the thallus of lichens. 

Glomer'ulus (Lat. glo'mus, a clew of 
thread). A name applied to small 
red bodies in the kidney, consist¬ 
ing of tufts of minute vessels, 
covered in by the dilate end of the 
secreting tubes of the organ. 

Glos'sary (Gr. yXcoaaa, gldssa, a 
tongue). A dictionary of difficult 
words ; sometimes an ordinary 

Glossi'tis (Gr. yXcoaaa, gldssa, a 
tongue ; itis, denoting inflamma¬ 
tion). Inflammation of the tongue. 

Glos'so- (Gr. yXwcraa, gldssa , the 
tongue). In anatomy, a prefix in 
several compound words, signifying 
connection with the tongue. 

Glosso-liyal (Gr. yXwaaa, gldssa , the 
tongue ; hyoid bone). Connected 
with the tongue and the hyoid bone. 

Glottis (Gv.yXooTTa,gldtta, the tongue). 
The narrow opening at the top of 
the windpipe. 

Glu'cose (Gr. yXvuvs, glu'Jcus, sweet). 
Grape-sugar, or the sugar of fruits. 

Glume (Lat. gluma, chaff). The 
bracts covering the flower of grasses 
and coi’n. 

GlumelTae (Lat. gluma, chaff; ella, 
denoting smallness). The scales 
forming the flowers of grasses and 



Giu'teal (Gr. yAovros, glon'tos, the 
Linder region). Belonging to the 

Gluten (Lat. glue). An insoluble 
substance obtained from wheat-flour 
by washing with water and straining. 

Glyc'erine (Gr. yAvnvs, glulcus, sweet). 
An organic substance existing in 
fats and oils, and obtained by 
saponifying them with an alkali or 
with oxide of lead. 

Glycogen'esis (Gr. yAvnvs, gluJcus, 
sweet; yerraco, genna'd , I produce). 
The formation of sugar in the ani¬ 
mal body. 

Glyphog'raphy (Gr. yAixpa>, glupho, 
I engrave ; ypaepcn, gvapho, I write). 
A process by which designs are en¬ 
graved on a coating of wax or other 
soft substance spread on a metal, a 
sheet of other metal being then depo¬ 
sited on it by the electrotype process. 

Glyptothe'ca (Gr. yAv<pw, glupho, I 
engi'ave ; rid-pgi, tithemi , I place). 
A building or room for preserving 
works of sculpture. 

Gneiss. A hard tough crystalline 
rock, composed mostly of quartz, 
feldspar, mica, and hornblende, 
differing from granite in having its 
crystals broken, indistinct, and 
confusedly aggregated. 

Gneiss’oid (Gneiss; Gr. Gfios, eiclos, 
form). Resembling gneiss ; applied 
to rocks intermediate between 
granite and gneiss, or between mica- 
slate and gneiss. 

Gnomiomet'rical (Gr. yvaiyoov, gnomon, 
an index ; ysrpov, metron, a mea¬ 
sure). Relating to the measure¬ 
ment of angles by reflexion. 

Gno'mon (Gr. yvugoiv, gnomon, one 
that knows or interprets). The 
index of a dial. 

Goitre (Fr). A large soft swelling in 
front of the neck. 

Gompho'sis (Gr. yoyepos, gomphos, a 
nail). A form of joint in which a 
conical body is fastened into a socket; 
as the teeth. 

Go'niodont (Gr. yuvax, gonia , an 
angle; oSovs, odous, a tooth). Having 
angular teeth ; applied to certain 

GonionTeter (Gr. yon no., gonia, an 

angle ; yerpov, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring angles. 

Gorget (Fr. gorge, the throat). A 
piece of armour for defending the 
throat or neck ; in surgery, a cer¬ 
tain cutting instrument. 

Gothic. Belonging to the Goths : in 
architecture , applied to the archi¬ 
tecture of the middle ages. 

Gouty Concretions. Calculi or de¬ 
posits of urate of soda in the joints, 
arising from gout. 

Govbrnor. A contrivance in machi¬ 
nery for maintaining uniform velo¬ 
city with varying resistance. 

Gra'dient (Lat. grad'ior, I step). The 
degree of slope of the ground over 
which a railway passes. 

Grad'uate (Lat. gradus, a step). To 
receive a degree from an university; 
to mark with regular divisions ; to 
change gradually. 

Graduation. The receiving a degree 
from an university ; the marking 
instruments with regular divisions. 

Gral'lae or Grallato'res (Lat. gralla'- 
tor, one who goes on stilts). An 
order of birds, remarkable for the 
length of the legs, as bustards, 
cranes, herons, and snipes. 

Graminabeous or Gramin'eous (Lat. 
gramen, grass). Belonging to 
grasses, or the order of plants 
which includes grasses and corn. 

Graminiv'orous (Lat. gramen, grass ; 
voro, I devour). Eating grass. 

Gramme. A French weight ; the 
weight of a cubic centimetre of 
distilled water, or 15’438 grains 

Granite (Lat. granum, a grain, from 
its appearance). A stone or rock 
consisting of grains of quartz, fel¬ 
spar, and mica ; chemically com¬ 
posed for the most part of silica or 
flint-earth and alumina. 

Granitic (Granite). Relating to or 
formed of granite. 

Granitoid (Granite ; Gr. eioos, eidos, 
form). Resembling granite. 

Graniv'orous (Lat. granum, a grain 
or seed ; voro, I devour). Eating 
grains or seeds. 

Gran'ular (Lat. granum, a grain). 
Consisting of or resembling grains. 



Gran/ulate (Lat. granum, a grain). 
To form, or be formed, into grains 
or small masses. 

Granula'tion (Lat. granum, a grain). 
The act of forming into grains ; a 
small fleshy body springing up on 
the surface of wounds. 

Graph'ite (Gr. ypcupco, grapho, I 
write). Black-lead; a mineral con¬ 
sisting of carbon, generally w'ith a 
small quantity of iron. 

Grap'tolites (Gr. ypacpw, grapho, I 
write; AlOos, lith'os, a stone). Fossil 
zoophytes or protozoa which give 
the appearance of writing or sculp¬ 
ture to the stone in which they are 

Grauwac'ke or Greywac'ke (Germ. 
grau, grey ; vjaclce, a kind of stone 
so called). A kind of sandstone 
consisting of different minerals. 

Gravim'eter (Lat. gravis, heavy ; Gr. 
gerpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring specific 

Grav'itate (Lat. gravis, heavy). To 
tend towards the centre of a body. 

Gravita'tion (Lat gravis, heavy). 
The act of tending towards a centre ; 
the force by which bodies are drawn 
towards the centre of the earth or 
other centres. 

Gravity (Lat. gravis, heavy). Weight; 
the force by which bodies tend 
towards the centre of the earth or 
another centre. Specific gravity is 
the weight of a body compared with 
the weight of an equal bulk of some 
other body, taken as unity. 

Greensand. The lower group of the 
chalk system, in which many of the 
beds are coloured green. 

Greenstone. A rock composed of 
feldspar and hornblende. 

Grega'rious (Lat. grex, a herd). 
Living in flocks or herds. 

Grego'rian Year. The year accord¬ 
ing to the ordinary reckoning, as 
reformed by Pope Gregory XIII. 

Greywac'ke. See Grauwacke. 

Grit. In geology , a term applied to 
any hard sandstone in which the 
grains are sharper than in ordinary 

Groined. In architecture, formed of 

vaults or arches which intersect and 
form angles with each other. 

Gummif'erous (Lat. gummi, gum ; 
fero, I bear). Producing gum. 

Gun Cotton. An explosive material, 
formed by steeping cotton-wool or 
vegetable fibre in a mixture of 
nitric and sulphuric acids. 

Gus'tatory (Lat. gusto, I taste). Be¬ 
longing to taste. 

Gutta Sere'na (Lat.). An old term 
for blindness from loss of power in 
the nervous system of the eye. 

Guttif erous (Lat. gutta, a drop; fero, 

I bear). Producing gum or resin. 

Gut'tural (Lat. guttur, the throat). 
Belonging to, or formed by, the 

Gymna'sium (Gr. yvgvos, gumnos, 
naked). Originally, a place for 
athletic exercises ; but also applied 
to schools for mental instruction. 

Gymnas'tic (Gr. 7 vyuos, gumnos, 
naked). Pertaining to athletic ex¬ 

Gym'nodont (Gr. 7 vgvos, gumnos, 
naked; odovs, odous, a tooth). 
Having naked teeth : applied to 
some fishes in which the jaws are 
covered with an ivory-like substance 
in place of teeth. 

Gym'nogens (Gr. yvgvos, gumnos, 
naked ; yevvaw, gennad, I produce). 
Plants with naked seeds. 

Gym'nosperms (Gr. yvgvos, gumnos, 
naked ; a-irepya, sperma, seed). 
Plants having seeds apparently 
without a covering. 

Gym'nospore (Gr. 71 pros, gumnos, 
naked ; airopa, spora, seed). A 
term applied to the spores of aco- 
tyledonous plants, when they are 
developed outside the cell in which 
they are produced. 

Gynan'dria (Gr. yvvr\, gune, a fe¬ 
male ; avrip, aner, a man). A class 
of plants in the Linnsean system, 
in which the stamens and pistils 
are consolidated. 

Gy'nobase (Gr. ywy, gune, a female; 
/3 cur is, basis, a base). In botany, 
a fleshy substance in the centre of 
a flower, bearing a single row of 

Gynoe'ceum (Gr. ywy, gune, a female; 



oIkos, oilcos , a house). The female 
apparatus of flowering plants ; the 

Gy'nophore (Gr. yw-p, gune, a fe¬ 
male ; (pepco, pher'o, I bear). The 
stalk of a carpel in plants. 

Gyp'seous (Gypsum). Containing or 
consisting of gypsum or sulphate of 

Gyp%um (Gr. yvif/os, gupsos, chalk 
or plaster of Paris). Sulphate of 

Gyra'tion (Gr. yvpos, guros, a 
whirling). A turning or whirling. 

Gyrenceph'ala (Gr. yvpou, gurou, I 

wind; iyuecpaXos, enJceph' alos, the 
brain). Winding-brained; applied 
by Professor Owen to a sub-class 
of mammalia in which the surface 
of the brain is convoluted, but not 
to the same extent as in man. 

Gyri (Gr. yvpos, guros, a turning). 
In anatomy, a name given to the 
convolutions of the brain. 

Gy'roscope (Gi\ yvpos, guros, a 
whirling ; aKoirtw, skop'eo, I look 
at). An instrument for demon¬ 
strating the rotation of the earth 
by another apparent motion arti¬ 
ficially produced. 


Habitat (Lat. hah'ito, I dwell). The 
natural abode or locality of an 
animal or plant. 

Haema- or Haemat- (Gr. alga, haima, 
blood). A part of some compound 
words, signifying blood. 

Haemadynamom'eter(Gr. alga, haima, 
blood ; Zvvagis, du'namis, force ; 
gerpor, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the force 
of the flow of blood in the vessels. 

Haemal (Gr. alga, haima, blood). 
Relating to blood : applied to the 
arch proceeding from a vertebra, 
which encloses and protects the 
organs of circulation. 

Haemapoph'ysis (Gr. alga, haima, 
blood ; apoph'ysis). A name given 
to the parts projecting from a 
vertebra which form the haemal 

Haema tem'esis (Gr. alga, haima, 
blood ; igew, cm'eo, I vomit). A 
vomiting of blood. 

Hae'matin (Gr. alga, haima, blood). 
The colouring matter of the blood. 

Kae'matite (Gr. alga, haima, blood). 
Blood-stone ; native sesquioxide of 

Haemat'ocele (Gr. alga, haima, blood ; 
/ojA.77, kele, a tumour). A tumour 
filled with blood. 

Haematoc'rya (Gr. alga, haima, 
blood ; upvos, lcruos, frost). Cold¬ 
blooded vertebrate animals. 

HaematoPogy (Gr. alga, haima, blood; 
A oyos, logos, discourse). A de¬ 
scription of the blood. 

Heemat'osin. See Haematin. 

Haemato'sis (Gr. alua, haima, blood). 
The formation of blood. 

Haematother'ma (Gr. alga, haima, 
blood; Oepgos, thermos, warm). 
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals. 

Haematu'ria (Gr. alga, haima, blood ; 
ovpov, our on, urine). A discharge 
of blood with the urine. 

Haemop'tysis (Gr. alga, haima, 
blood ; tttvoo, ptuo, I spit). A 
spitting of blood. 

Haem/orrhage(Gr. alga, haima, blood ; 
pyyvvgi, rhegnu'mi, I burst forth). 
An escape of blood from its vessels. 

Haem'orrhoid (Gr. alga, haima, blood ; 
p(a), rheo, I flow; elSos, eidos, 
form). An enlargement of the veins 
of the lower bowel, commonly at¬ 
tended with loss of blood. 

Haemostatic (Gr. alga, haima, blood ; 
larygi, histemi, I make to stand). 
Arresting the flow of blood. 

Hagiog'rapha (Gr. ayios, hag'ios, 
holy; ypacpto, grapho , I write). 
Sacred writings. 

Habitus (Lat. halo, I breathe out). 
A breathing; the odour or vapour 
which escapes from blood. 

Hallucina'tion (Lat. hallu'cinor, I 
blunder). An error of the senses. 

Halo (Gr. aA us, halos, a threshing- 



floor or area). A circle apparently 
■round the sun or moon, sometimes 
white and sometimes coloured, pro¬ 
duced by the passage of light 
through or near vapours in the 

Hal'ogen (Gr. a\s, hals, salt ; yewaw, 
genna'o, I produce). Producing 
salts by combination with metals. 

Ha'loid (Gr. a\s, hals, salt; elbos, 
eidos, form). Resembling salt: a 
name given to a class of saline sub¬ 
stances constituted of a metal, and 
another element which is a salt 
radical ; after the type of common 
salt or chloride of sodium, where 
sodium is the metal, and chlorine 
the salt radical or halogen. 

Kam'ite (Lat. hamus, a hook). A 
genus of fossil shells of cephalopods, 
with a hook at the end. 

Harmo'nia (Gr. app. 0 ^ 00 , harmozd, I fit 
together). A form of articulation in 
which the surfaces of bones are 
merely placed in apposition to each 
other, so as not to allow motion. 

Karmon'ical (Gr. apgofa, harmozd, I 
fit together). Relating to harmony ; 

Harmonical Proportion. In arith¬ 
metic, that relation of four quanti¬ 
ties to each other, in which the 
first is to the fourth as the difference 
between the first and second is to 
the difference between the third and 

Ilar'mony (Gr. appo(cc, harmozd, I fit 
together). A proper fitting of parts 
together ; agreement; in music, the 
, effect produced on the ear by the 
sounding of notes, the vibrations of 
which have a certain limit of co¬ 

Hastate (Lat. hasta, a spear). Like 
a spear. 

Haustel'late (Lat. liaustel'lum, a 
sucker). Having a sucker for 
sucking or pumping up fluids ; ap¬ 
plied to a large division of insects. 

Haustel'lum (Lat. hau'rio, I draw). 
A sucker, such as some insects are 
provided with for taking their 
liquid food. 

Haver'sian Canals ( Havers, a physi¬ 
cian, their discoverer). Small longi¬ 

tudinal canals in the substance of 

Heat. The sensation produced by 
the contact of a hot body; the 
quality of the body by which this 
sensation is produced ; caloric, or 
the agent to which the quality is 
due. Sensible heat is that which 
is perceptible to the body. Latent 
heat is that which a substance re¬ 
ceives or loses without exciting an 
increased or diminished sense of 
warmth. Specific heat is the amount 
required to raise a substance to a 
given degree of temperature. 

Hebdom'adal (Gr. e/35 opas, heb'domas, 
a period of seven days). Relating 
to a week. 

Hectic (Gr. e£is, hexis, habit). A form 
of fever arising from local irritation 
in a weakened constitution. 

Hee'togramme (Gr. enaTor, hek'aton, 
ahundred; Fr. gramme). A French 
weight of 100 grammes, or about 
3^ pounds avoirdupois. 

Hec'tolitre (Gr. enarov, heh'aton, a 
hundred ; Fr. litre, a quart). A 
French measure of 100 litres. 

Hec'tometre (Gr. eiearop, hek'aton, a 
hundred ; Fr. metre). A French 
measure of 100 metres, or about 
328 British feet. 

Heli'acal (Gr. i]\ios, hellos, the sun). 
Emerging from, or passing into the 
light of the sun. 

Helianthoi'da (Gr. rj\ios, helios, the 
sun ; ai>8os, anthos, a flower ; eidos, 
eidos, shape). An order of polypes, 
resembling a sun-flower in appear¬ 
ance ; of which the actinia or sea- 
anemone is an example. 

Helicoid (Gr. e\ if, helix, a spiral 
body ; elbos, eidos, shape). Twisted 
like the shell of a snail. 

Helical (Gr. eA i£, helix, a spiral 
body). Spiral. 

Helicotre'ma (Gr. eAi£, helix, a spiral; 
Tpriga, trema, a hole). An opening 
in the apex of the cochlea, or spiral 
structure of the internal ear. 

Heliocentric (Gr. 7)\ios, helios, the 
sun; Kerr pop, kentron, a centre). 
Having relation to the centre of 
the sun. 

Heliocentric Lon'gitude. The angle 



formed at tlie sun’s centre by the 
projection of the radius vector of a 
planet on the ecliptic with a line 
drawn from the sun’s centre to the 
first point of Aries. 

Heliograph'ic (Gr. r]\ios, helios, the 
sun ; ypa<pot>, grapho, I write). 
Delineated by the rays of the sun. 

He'liolites (Gr. ijkios, helios, the sun ; 
Aidos, lith'os, a stone). A genus 
of fossil corals, distinguished by 
the central radiating or sun-like 
aspect of the pores. 

Heliom'eter (Gr. ykios, lielios, the 
sun ; /ue-rpoi', metron, a measured 
An instrument for measuring the 
diameter of the heavenly bodies. 

Helioscope (Gr. ^Aios, helios, the 
sun ; (TKoirect), slcop'co, I view). A 
telescope fitted for viewing the sun 
without injury to the eyes. 

He'liostat (Gr. rjkLos, helios, the sun; 
iarygi, histemi, I make to stand). 
An instrument for fixing (as it 
were) a sunbeam in an horizontal 

Helisphe'rical(Gr. eAi helix, aspire; 
acpatpa, sphaira, a sphere). Ap¬ 
plied to a course in navigation, 
which winds spirally round the 

Helix (Gr. eA«£, helix, from eAicrcra>, 
helisso, I turn round). A spiral 
line or winding ; the cartilaginous 
structure forming the external rim 
of the ear. 

Hellenic (Gr. 'Ekkyv, Ilellen, a 
Greek). Belonging to the Hellenes 
or inhabitants of Greece. 

Hellenism (Gr. 'Ekk-pv, Hellen, a 
Greek). The Grecian idiom used 
by the Jews living in countries 
where Greek was spoken. 

Helminth'agogue (Gr. eA gtus, hel- 
mins, a worm ; aycv, ago, I drive). 
Removing or expelling intestinal 

Helmin'thoid (Gr. ekpivs, helmins, a 
worm ; eiSos, .shape). Like a worm. 

Hema- or Hemat-. For words with 
this beginning, see the same words 
commencing with Htema- or 

Hemeralo'pia (Gr. ygepa, hemera, 
day ; akaopai, ala'omai, I grope 

about; an//, ops, the eye). A de¬ 
fect of sight, in which the patients 
can see by night, but not by day. 

Hemicra'nia (Gr. ppuavs, hemisus, 
half; Kpaviov, h'a'nion, the skull). 
A painful affection of one side of 
the head and face. 

Hemihed'ral (Gr. rjyurvs, hemisus, 
half; eSpa, hedra, a side). Half¬ 
sided ; a form assumed by crystals 
from the excessive growth of some 
of their sides and the obliteration 
of others, so that they have only 
half the number of faces required 
by the laws of symmetry. 

Hemily'tra (Gr. r}p.iavs, hemisus, 
half; e’A vrpov, elu'tron, a cover). 
Wing in insects, of which one half 
is firm, like an elytrum, and the 
other membranous. 

Hemio'pia (Gr. ppuavs, hemisus, 
half ; wif/, op>s, the eye). A defect 
of sight in which only half of an 
object is seen. 

Hemiple'gia (Gr. ppuavs, hemisus, 
half; ir\7]aaoo, plesso, I strike). 
Loss of power in one lateral half 
of the body. 

Hemip'tera (Gr. ypucrvs, hemisus, 
half ; irrepov, pteron, a wing). An 
order of insects which have the 
upper wings half hard and half 
membraneous; as the cock-roach 
and grasshopper. 

Hemisphere (Gr. p/uiavs, hemisus, 
half; <r<pcupa, sphaira, a round 
body). A half sphere ; the half of 
the earth, divided by the equator ; 
a map of half the globe ; in 
anatomy, applied to each lateral 
half of the brain. 

Hemispherical (Gr. 7]/j.iavs, hevmsus, 
half; acpaipa, sphaira, a round 
body). Having the shape of half 
a globe. 

He'mitrope (Gr. ■pgiaus, hemisus, half; 
Tpe 7 ro>, trep'o, I turn). Half turned. 

Hemop'tysis. See Htumop'tysis. 

Hem'orrhage. See Haem'orrhage. 

Hendec'agon (Gr. erdeica, hen'delca, 
eleven ; 70 ma, gonia, an angle). 
A figure of eleven sides and as 
many angles. 

Hepat'ic (Gr. ^7rap, hepar, the liver). 
Belonging to the liver ; applied to 



a tube or duct conveying tbe bile 
from the liver. 

Hepati'tis (Gr. pirap, liepar, the 
liver ; itis, denoting inflammation). 
Inflammation of the liver. 

Hepatiza'tion (Gr. pirap, liepar, tbe 
liver). A diseased condensation of 
parts of the body, or the lungs, so 
that they resemble liver. 

Hepato- (Gr. pirap, liepar, the liver). 
A pi'efix in compound words, signi¬ 
fying connection with, or relation 
to, the liver. 

Hepatoga'stric (Gr. rjivap, liepar , the 
liver; yaarpp, gaster, the stomach). 
Belonging to the liver and stomach. 

Hep tagon (Gr. eirra, liepta , seven ; 
yonna, gdnia, an angle). A figure 
of seven sides and seven angles. 

Heptagyn'ia (Gr. ewra, liepta , seven ; 
ywri, gune, a female). A Linnoean 
order of plants, having seven 

Heptan'dria (Gr. eirra, hepta , seven; 
aviip, aner, a man). A Linnsean 
class of plants, having seven sta¬ 

Heptas'tichous (Gr. enra, liepta,seven; 
(TTixos, stichos, a row). In seven 
rows ; in botany , applied to the 
arrangement of leaves in seven 
spiral rows, the eighth leaf in the 
series being placed above the first. 

Herba'ceous (Lat. herba, a herb). 
Pertaining to herbs ; applied to 
plants which perish yearly, at least 
as far as the root. 

Herbiv'orous (Lat. herba, a herb ; 
voro, I devour). Feeding on vege¬ 

Her'borize (Lat. herba, a herb). 
To search for plants for scientific 

Hereditary (Lat. hceres, a heir). 
Acquired from ancestors; trans¬ 
mitted from parents to children. 

Hermaph'rodite (Gr. ’Eppps, Hermes, 
Mewury; Acppodirp, Aphrodi'te, 
Venus). Partaking of both male 
and female natures in the same 

Hermeneu'tic (Gr. eppevevw, her - 
meneu'd, I interpret ; from 'Eppps, 
Hermes, Mercury). Relating to 
interpretation or explanation. 

Hermeneutics (Gr. eppevevoo, her- 
menevlo, I interpret). The art of 
explaining the meaning of a writ¬ 

Hermetically (Gr. 'Eppps, Hermes, 
the supposed inventor of chem¬ 
istry). Chemically; a vessel is 
hermetically sealed, when the neck 
is heated to melting, and closed by 
pincers until it is air-tight. 

Heriiia (Gr. epvos, hernos, a branch). 
A protrusion of any organ of the 
body from the cavity containing it. 

Herpes (Gr. epiru, herpo, I creep). 
Tetters or shingles; an eruptive 
spreading disease of the skin. 

Herpetic (Gr. epirw, herpo , I creep). 
Relating to, or of the nature of 

Herpetol'ogy (Gr. epirerov, her'peton, 
a reptile ; Aoyos, logos, discourse). 
The description of reptiles. 

Ket'ero-(Gr. erepos, het'eros, another). 
A prefix in many compound words, 
signifying another, or different. 

Heterocer'cal (Gr. It epos, het'eros, 
another; Kepnos, Jcerkos, a tail). 
A term applied to fishes in which 
the caudal fin, or tail, is unsym- 
rnetrical; arising from the pro¬ 
longation of the vertebral column 
into its upper lobe. 

Het'eroclite (Gr. erepos, het'eros, 
another ; kAii/w, hlind, I bend). 
Leaning another way ; applied to 
words which depart from the 
ordinary form in declension or con¬ 

Heterod'romous (Gr. erepos, het'eros, 
another ; Spopos, drom'os, course). 

. In botany, applied to the arrange¬ 
ment of leaves in branches in a 
different manner from the stem. 

Heterog'amous (Gr. erepos, het'eros, 
another ; yapos, gamos, marriage). 
Having florets of different sexes on 
the same flower-head. 

Heterogan'gliate (Gr. erepos, het'eros, 
another ; yayyAiou; gan'glion, a 
knot or nervous ganglion). Having 
the nervous ganglia scattered un- 
symmetrically; applied to the 
molluscous invertebrate animals. 

Keteroge'neous (Gr. erepos, het'eros, 
another ; yevos, genos, kind). Un- 



like in kind ; consisting of elements 
of different nature. 

Heterome'ra (Gr. erepos, het'eros, 
another; gr]pov, meron, a thigh). 
A section of coleopterous insects, 
having five joints in the four 
anterior tarsi, and one joint less 
in the hind tarsi. 

Heteromor'phous (Gr. erepos, liet'eros, 
another; gop<pr], morphe, form). 
Having an irregular or unusual 
form; applied to the larvse of in¬ 
sects which differ in form from the 

Het'eropa (Gr. erepos, het'eros, 
another; ttovs, pom, a foot). A 
section of amphipodous Crustacea, 
having fourteen legs, of which at 
least the four posterior are fitted 
only for swimming. 

Heterophyllous (Gr. erepos, het'eros, 
another ; <pv\\ov, phullon, a leaf). 
Having two different kinds of leaves 
on the same stem. 

Het'eropods (Gr. erepos, het'eros, 
another; ttovs, pous, afoot). An 
order of gasteropodous molluscous 
animals, in which the foot forms a 
vertical plate, serving as a fin. 

Heterop'tera (Gr. erepos, het'eros, 
another ; -n re pov, pteron, a wing). 
A section of hemipterous insects, 
having the wing-cases membranous 
at the end. 

Heterorhi'zal (Gr. erepos, het'eros, 
another; pi(a, rhiza, a root). In 
botany, applied to acotyledonous 
plants, because their roots arise 
from every part of the cellular axis 
or spore. 

Heteros'cian (Gr. erepos, het'eros, 
one of two ; auia, shia, ( a shadow). 
Having a shadow only in one direc¬ 
tion ; applied to the inhabitants of 
the earth between the tropics and 
polar circles. 

HeterotTopous (Gr. erepos, het'eros, 
another ; rpeiroj, trep'b, I turn). 
Turned another way; applied to 
the embryo of seeds when it lies 
in an oblique position. 

Hex'agon (Gr. 4£, hex, six; yojvia, 
gdnia, an angle). A figure having 
six sides and six angles. 

Hexagyn'ia (Gr. 4|, hex, six ; ywtj, 

gune, a female). A Linnaean order 
of plants, having six pistils. 

Hexahed'ron (Gr. 4|, hex, six ; 45 pa, 
hedra, a base). A regular solid 
body of six sides ; a cube. 

Hexam'eter (4£, hex, six ; per pov, 
metron, a measure). A verse in 
ancient poetry consisting of six 
feet, as in the Iliad and iEneid. 

Hexan'dria (Gr. 4|, hex, six ; avrjp, 
aner, a man). A Linngean class of 
plants having six stamens. 

Hexan'gular (Gr. 4f, hex, six; Lat. 
an'gulus, an angle). Having six 

Hex'apod (Gr. 4|, hex, six ; ttovs, 
pous, a foot). Having six feet. 

Hex'astyle (Gr. 4|, hex, six ; arv\os, 
stulos, a pillar). A building with 
six columns in front. 

Hia'tus (Lat. hio, I gape). An open¬ 
ing or chasm ; the effect produced 
by the uttering of similar vowel 
sounds in succession. 

Hiber'nate (Lat. hibe/nus, belonging 
to winter). To pass the winter in 
a torpid state, as some animals. 

Hierat'ic (Gr. [epos, hi'eros, sacred). 
Sacred ; applied to the characters 
used in writing by the ancient 
Egyptian priests. 

Hieroglyphic (Gr. lepos, hi'eros, 
sacred ; y\v<paj, glupho, I carve). 
A sacred character ; the represen¬ 
tation of animals and other objects 
used by the ancient Egyptians to 
represent woixls and ideas. 

High-pressure Engine. A steam- 
engine in which the direct power of 
steam is used, or that produced by 
the evaporation of water. 

Hilum (Lat. the black of a bean). The 
scar marking the union of a seed 
with the fruit. 

Hippocratic (Gr. 'lirTroKparyjs, Hippo¬ 
crates, an ancient physician). Per¬ 
taining to Hippocrates ; applied to 
the appearance of the face indica¬ 
tive of approaching death, as de¬ 
scribed by him. 

Hippopathol'ogy (Gr. Ittttos, hippos, 
ahorse; pathology). The doctrine 
or description of the diseases of 

Hippu'ric (Gr. Ittttos, hippos, a horse 



ovpov, our on, urine). A term applied 
to an acid existing in the urine of 

Hippu'rites (Gr. tniros, hippos, a 
horse; ovpa, oura, a tail). A genus 
of plants in the coal-formation, re¬ 
sembling the hippuris or mare’s 

Hirsute (Lat. hirsultus, hairy). In 
botany, applied to plants having 
long, distinct, and tolerably soft 

His'pid (Lat. his'piclus, rough). Shaggy 
or prickly ; in botany, applied to 
plants having long soft hairs. 

Ilistogen'esis or Histog'eny (Gr. 
taros, histos, a tissue; yeuuaco, 
gennao, I produce). The forma¬ 
tion of organic tissues. 

Histological (Gr. taros, histos, a tis¬ 
sue ; Aoyos, logos, discourse). Re¬ 
lating to histology or the descrip¬ 
tion of tissues. 

Histol'ogy (Gr. taros, histos, a tissue; 
Aoyos, logos, discourse). The des¬ 
cription of the tissues which form 
an animal or plant. 

His'tory (Gr. taropeco, historeo, I 
learn by inquiry). A narration of 
events ; a description of things that 

Homo- (Gr. ogos, homos, the same). 
A prefix in compound words, signi¬ 
fying identity or exact similarity. 

Homocen'tric (Gr. ogos, homos, the 
same ; Keurpov, kentron, a centre). 
Having the same centre. 

Homocer'cal (Gr. ogos, homos, the 
same; k* pKos, kcr'kos, a tail). 
Having a symmetrical tail ; applied 
to fishes. 

Komod'romous (Gr. ogos, homos, 
similar ; Spogos, drom'os, a course). 
In botany, applied to the arrange¬ 
ment of leaves on branches in the 
same manner as on the stem. 

Homoe'o- (Gr. bgoios, homoi'os, 
similar). A prefix in compound 
words, implying similarity but not 

Homoeomerlc (Gr. bgoios, homoi'os, 
similar; gepos, meros, a part). 
Having or relating to similarity of 

Homoeop'athy (Gr. bgoios, homoi'os, 

similar ; 7 rados, pathos, suffering). 
A system by which it is alleged 
that diseases can be cured by 
doses of substances capable of ex¬ 
citing similar diseased states in 
healthy persons. 

Homogan'gliate (Gr. ogos, homos, 
the same; yayyAiou, gan'glion, a 
knot or nervous ganglion). Having 
the nervous ganglia arranged sym¬ 
metrically ; applied to the articu¬ 
lated invertebrate animals. 

Homogeneous (Gr. ogos, homos, the 
same; yevos, genos, a kind). Of 
the same kind ; consisting of ele¬ 
ments of a like nature. 

Homoi'ogous (Gr. ogos, homos, the 
same; Aoyos, logos, reasoning). 
Constructed on the same plan, 
though differing in form and func¬ 

Ilom'ologue (Gr. ogos, homos, the 
same ; Aoyos, logos, reasoning), 
The same part or organ, as far as 
its anatomical relation is concerned, 
although differing in form and func¬ 
tions ; as the arms of man, the 
wings of birds, and the pectoral 
fins of fishes. 

Hcniol'ogy (Gr. ogos, homos, the 
same; Aoyos, logos, reasoning). 
The doctrine of the corresponding 
relations of parts in different beings, 
having the same relations but differ¬ 
ent functions; affinity depending 
on structure, and not on similarity 
of form or use. 

Homomor'phous (Gr. ogos, homos, 
the same ; gopcpy, morphe, form). 
Of similar form ; applied to certain 
insects of which the larva is like 
the perfect insect, but without 
w r ings. 

Homop'oda (Gr. ogos, homos, the 

same ; nous, pous, a foot). A sec¬ 
tion of amphipodous crustaceans, 
having fourteen feet all terminated 
by a hook or point. 

Komop'tera (Gr. ogos, homos, the 

same ; nrepov, pteron, a wing). 

Having the four wings alike ; re¬ 
stricted to a section of the hemi¬ 
pterous class of insects. 

Hom'otype (Gr. ogos, homos, the 

same; run os, tupos, a type). A 



part homologous with another in a 

Ho'rary (Lat. horct , an hour). Re¬ 
lating to, or denoting an hour. 

Hori' zon (Gr. opifa, hori'zb, I bound). 
The line in the celestial hemisphere 
which bounds the view on the sur¬ 
face of the earth. 

Horizontal {Horizon). Parallel to 
the horizon. 

Hornblende (Germ, blenden, to daz¬ 
zle). A mineral, generally of a black 
or dark green colour, found fre¬ 
quently in granitic and trappean 

Ho'rologe (Gr. wpa, hora, an hour ; 
\eyu>, lego , I describe). An in¬ 
strument for indicating the hours 
of the day. 

Horol'ogy (Gr. upa, hora, an hour ; 
Aeycc, lego, I tell.) The art of 
constructing machines for indicat¬ 
ing time. 

Horom'etry (Gr. &>pa, hora, an hour; 
p.€Tpov, metron, a measure). The 
art of measuring time by hours. 

Horse-power. The power of a horse, 
estimated as equal to the raising of 
33,000 pounds one foot high per 
minute, used in calculating the 
power of steam-engines. 

Horse-shoe Magnet. An artificial 
magnet, in the form of a horse¬ 

Horticul'ture (Lat. hortus, a garden ; 
colo, I cultivate). The art of cul¬ 
tivating gardens. 

Hortus Siccus (Lat. a dry garden). 
A collection of dried plants. 

Hot Blast. A current of heated air 
thrown into a furnace. 

Hu'mate (Lat. humus, the ground). 
A compound of humic acid with a 

Humecta'tion (Lat. humec'to, I 
moisten). A making wet. 

Hu'meral (Lat. hu'merus, the shoul¬ 
der). Belonging to the humerus, 
or upper part of the arm above the 

Hu'merus (Lat. the shoulder). The 
arm from the shoulder to the 
elbow ; the bone of this- part. 

Hu'mic (Humus). Belonging to hu¬ 
mus ; applied to an acid produced 

from the decomposition of humus 
by alkalies. 

Hu'moral (Lat. humor, moisture). 
Belonging to humours or fluids : 
in medicine, humoral pathology is 
the doctrine which attributes dis¬ 
eases to a disordered state of the 
fluids of the body. 

Humour (Lat. humor, moisture). 
Moisture ; in anatomy, applied to 
certain parts of the eye which 
abound in fluid. 

Hu'mus (Lat. soil). The common 
vegetable mould or soil, consisting 
of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, 
arising from the decay of vegetable 

Hy'ades(Gr. uoo, hud, I rain). A cluster 
of five stars in the Bull’s Head, 
supposed by the ancients to bring 

Hy 'aline (Gr. vaAos, hu'alos, glass). 
Like glass ; transparent. 

Hy'aloid (Gr. vaKos, hu'alos, glass ; 
eiSos, eidos, form). Resembling 
glass ; transparent. 

Hy'bodonts (Gr. v/3os, hu'bos, humped; 
bbovs, odous, a tooth). A family 
of fossil shark-like fishes with 
knobbed teeth. 

Hy'brid (Gr. vflpts, hubris, force or 
injury). The offspring of two ani¬ 
mals or plants of different varieties 
or species ; in etymology, applied 
to words compounded from different 

Hydat'id (Gr. vbcop, hudbr, water). 
A transparent vesicle filled with 
water; often applied to parasitic 
animal growth found in the liver 
and other organs. 

Hydrac'id (Hy'drogen ; Lat. ac'idus, 
acid). An acid containing hydro¬ 
gen as one of its forming elements. 

Hy'dragogue (Gr. vbwp, hudbr, water; 
ay a, ago, I lead). Producing a 
discharge of fluid ; applied to cer¬ 
tain medicines. 

Hy'drate (Gr. 65 wp, hudbr, water); 
A compound body in which water 
exists in chemical combination. 

Hydrau'lic (Gr. 65 wp, hudbr, water; 
avAos, aulos, a pipe). Relating to 
the conveyance of water through 




Hydraulic Depth. The depth which 
a volume of flowing water would 
take in a channel, whose breadth is 
equal to the outline of the bottom 
and sides of the actual bed. 

Hydraulic Head. The measure of a 
given hydraulic pressure, expressed 
in terms of the height of a baro¬ 
metrical column of the fluid. 

Hydraulic Press. A machine in 
which powerful pressure is produced 
by water forced into a cylinder, and 
therein acting on a piston which 
raises a table on which the material 
to be pressed is placed. 

Hydraulic Pressure. The pressure 
which a liquid moving in a closed 
channel, exerts on the surfaces by 
which it is confined. 

Hydraulics (Gr. vdwp, hudor, water; 
avAos, aulos, a pipe). The science 
which teaches the application of the 
knowledge of the forces influencing 
the motion of fluids, to their con¬ 
veyance through pipes and canals. 

Hydrenceph'alocele (Gr. vScop, hudor, 
water ; iyuecpaAov, enlceph' alon, the 
contents of the skull ; ktjA p, Icele, 
a tumour). A hernial protrusion 
from the head containing water. 

Hydrenceph'aloid (Gr. vSwp, hudor, 
water ; iyuecpaAov, enlceph'alon, 
the brain ; eldos, eidos , from). Re¬ 
sembling hydrocephalus or dropsy 
of the brain. 

Hydri'odate ( H't/drogen and Iodine). 
A compound of hydriodic acid with 
a base ; now described by chemists 
as an iodide, or compound of iodine 
with a metal, together with an 
equivalent of water. 

Hydriod'ic (. Hy'drogen and I'odine). 
Consisting of hydrogen and iodine. 

Hydro- (Gr. vSocp, hudor, water). A 
prefix implying the existence of 
water; but, in chemical terms, 
implying that hydrogen is a compo¬ 
nent part of the substance. 

Hydrocar'bon ( Hy'drogen and Car¬ 
bon). A compound of carbon and 

Hydrocar buret (Hy'drogen and Car¬ 
bon). A compound of carbon and 

Hydroceph'alus (Gr. uScop, liudbr, 

water; uecpaAp, lceph'ale, the head). 
A disease characterised by the 
presence of water within the head ; 
a dropsy of the membranes covering 
the brain. 

Hydrochlo rate (Hy'drogen and Chlor¬ 
ine). A compound of hydrochloric 
acid with a base : now described by 
chemists as a compound of chlorine 
with a metal, together with an 
equivalent of water. 

Hydrochlo'ric (Hy'drogen and Chlor¬ 
ine). Consisting of hydrogen and 

Hy'drocy'anate (Hy'drogen and Cyan¬ 
ogen). A compound of hydrocyanic 
acid with a base : now described by 
chemists as a compound of cyanogen 
and a metal, together with gn 
equivalent of water. 

Hydrocyanic (Hy'drogen and Cyan - 
ogen). Consisting of hydrogen and 

Hydrodynamics (Gr. o8wp, hudor, 
water; Svvapus, du'namis, force). 
The science which treats of the 
motion of liquids and the causes 
influencing it. 

Hydro-elec'tric (Gr. v8wp, hudor, 
water; electric). A term ap¬ 
plied to a machine in which elec¬ 
tricity is developed by the action of 
the steam of water; also to the 
voltaic current into the combina¬ 
tion of which a liquid element 

Hydroflu'ate (Hy'drogen and Flu'- 
orine). A compound of hydrofluoric 
acid with a base. 

Hydrofluoric (Hy'drogen and Flu'- 
orine). Consisting of hydrogen and 

Hy'drogen (Gr. v8oop, hudor, water; 
yevvaoo, gennao, I produce). The 
lightest of elementary bodies; a 
colourless combustible gas, which, 
with oxygen, forms water. 

Hydrog'rapher (Gr. v8up, hudor, 
water ; ypacpw, grapho, I write). 
A person who describes the physical 
or geographical conformation of 
seas or other bodies of water. 

Hydrog'raphy (Gr. vocop, hudor, 
water; ypacpco, grapho, I write). 
The science of describing the physi- 



cal or geographical conformation of 
seas, lakes, and other bodies of 

Hydrol'ogy (Gr. hticop, hudor, water; 
Xoyos, logos, discourse). The science 
which describes water. 

Hydrom/eter (Gr. hUcop, hudor , water; 
iuerpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the spe¬ 
cific gravity of fluids. 

Hydromet'rograph (Gr. hhup, hudor, 
water; perpov, metron, a measure; 
ypacpw, grapho, I write). An in¬ 
strument for recording the quantity 
of water discharged from a pipe or 
orifice in a given time. 

Hydropericar'dium (Gr. hdoop, hudor, 
water ; pericar'dium). Dropsy of 
the pericardium or covering mem¬ 
brane of the heart. 

Hydropho'bia (Gr. hhcop, hud7ir, water; 

< pofios, phob'os , fear). A disease 
characterised by a dread of water. 

Hy'drophyte (Gr. hhoop, hudor , water ; 
<pvw, phuo, I grow). A plant 
which grows in the water. 

Hydro-salts (Gr. hhccp, hudor, water). 
A name given to salts, the acid or 
base of which contains hydrogen. 

Hydrostatic (Gr. hhccp, hudor, water; 
iarripi, histemi, I place). Relating 
to the pressure of fluids at rest. 

Hydrostatic Pressure. The pressure 
of water or any fluid, at rest, on a 
given surface. 

Hydrostatics (Gr. htiwp, hudor, 
water ; iarppi, histemi, I make to 
stand). The science which treats 
of the properties of fluids at rest. 

Hydrosul'phuret ( Hydrogen and 
Sulphur). A compound of hydro* 
sulphuric acid with a base: now 
described by chemists as a sulphide, 
or compound of sulphur with a 
metal, together with an equivalent 
of water. 

Hydrotho'rax (Gr. hhoop, hudor, 
water ; dapa £, thorax, the chest). 
A disease characterised by the 
presence of water in the chest; 
dropsy of the chest. 

Hydrous (Gr. hhu>p, hudor, water). 
Containing water ; watery. 

Hydrozo'a (Gr. hhpa, hudra, a water- 
serpent ; Quov, zoon , an animal). 

The polypes which are organised 
like the hydra. 

Hyetog'raphy (Gr. heros, hu'etos, 
rain; ypa<h<a, graph' 0 , I write). 
The science of rain ; the knowledge 
of the quantities and localities in 
which rain has fallen in a given 

Hygiene (Gr. hyips, hu'gies, healthy). 
The science which treats of the 
preservation of health. 

Hygienic (Gr. hyips, hu'gies, healthy). 
Relating to the health and its pre¬ 

Kygro- (Gr. hypos, hu'gros, moist). 
A prefix in compound words, im¬ 
plying moisture. 

Hygrom'eter (Gr. hypos, hugros, 
moist ; perpov, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
amount of moisture in the atmos¬ 

Hygromet'ric (Gr. hypos, hugros, 
moist : perpov, metron, a measure). 
Relating to the measurement of 
the moisture in the air ; readily 
absorbing moisture from the air. 

Hygrom'etry (Gr. hypos, hu'gros, 
moist; perpor, metron , a measure). 
The branch of meteorological science 
which treats of the measuring the 
pressure, quantity, and effects, of 
watery vapour in the atmosphere. 

Ily'groscops (Gr. hypos, hugros, moist; 
aKoireco, skop'eo, I view). An in¬ 
strument for ascertaining approxi- 
matively the moisture of the at¬ 

Hygroscopic (Gr. hypos, hugros, 
moist; aKoirew, slcop'eo, I view). 
Liable to absorb moisture from the 

Hyme'nium (Gr. hppv, humen, a mem¬ 
brane). The mass formed by the 
union of the organs of fructification 
in the mushroom tribe. 

Hymenop'tera (Gr. hppv, humen , a 
membrane; nrepov, pter'on, a wing). 
An order of insects having fine 
membranous wings, as bees and 

Hy'o- (The Greek letter v, or upsilon). 
In anatomy , a prefix in compound 
words, implying connection with 
the hyoid bone. 

a 2 



H/cid (The Greek letter v, or upsilon; 
elSos, shape). Resembling the 
letter v ; applied to the bone which 
supports the tongue, from its shape. 

Ilypje'thral (Gr. inro, hupo, under ; 
aiOpp, aither, the air). Exposed to 
the open air; without a roof. 

Hypariage' (Gr. viro, hupo , under ; 
aAAaaaco, allas'so, I exchange). In 
grammar , an interchange of cases ; 
as an accusative of the thing given 
and a dative of the recipient, for an 
accusative of the recipient and a 
dative of the thing given. 

Ilypapoph'ysis (Gr. viro, hupo, under ; 
apoph'ysis). An apophysis of a 
vertebra growing downwards. 

Hyper- (Gr. inrep, huper, above). A 
preposition signifying excess in com¬ 
pound words. 

Hyperae'mia (Gr. virep, huper , be¬ 
yond ; aipa, haima, blood). An 
excessive supply of blood. 

Hyperaem'ic (Gr. virep, huper , be¬ 
yond ; alga, haima, blood). Re¬ 
lating to, or having an excessive 
supply of blood. 

Hypersesthe'sia (Gr. virep, huper, 
beyond ;, aisthan'omai, 

I feel). Excessive sensibility. 

Hyper'baton (Gr. inrep, huper, be¬ 
yond ; Paivw, baind, I go). A 
figure in grammar, in which the 
natural order of words or sentences 
is inverted. 

Hyper'bola (Gr. virep, huper, beyond ; 
fiaAAw, hallo, I throw). A curve 
formed by the section of a cone by 
a plane passing parallel to its axis. 

Hyper'bole' (Gr. virep, huper , beyond ; 
fiaAAu}, ballo , I throw). A figure of 
speech, characterised by exaggera¬ 
tion, or the representation of the 
qualities of an object as greater or 
less than they really are. 

Hyper'boloid (Hyper’bola ; Gr. elSos, 
eidos, form). A solid formed by 
the revolution of an hyperbola 
about its axis. 

Hyperbor'ean (Gr. virep, huper, be¬ 
yond ; /3 opeas. bor’cas, the north 
wind). Dwelling far to the north. 

Hypercathar'sis (Gr. virep, huper, 
beyond ; KaOaipoo, Icathai'ro, I 
cleanse). Excessive purgation. 

Hyperino'sis (Gr. virep, huper, be¬ 
yond ; Is, is, force or fibre). A 
state characteiised by an excessive 
formation of fibrine in the blood. 

Hyper'trophy (Gr. virep, huper, be¬ 
yond ; rpecpco, trepho, I nourish). 
Excessive gi'owth of a part. 

Hypo- (Gr. viro, hupo, under). A 
preposition implying diminution or 
inferiority, in quality or situation. 

Hypocarpoge'an (Gr. inro, hupo, 
under ; uapiros, Tcarpos, fruit ; yp, 
ge, the earth). Producing fruit 
under ground. 

Hypochon'drium (Gr. viro, hupo, 
under; xo^Spov, chonclros, a car¬ 
tilage). The part of the abdomen 
which lies under the cartilages of 
the lower ribs. 

Hypocbondri'asis (Gr. viroxovtipia, 

hupochon’dria, the hypochondria, 
because formerly supposed to be 
connected with this region). A form 
of insanity, in which the patient 
converts an idea of purely mental 
origin into what appears to him to 
be a real material change. 

Hypocrater'iform (Gr. viro, hupo, 
under ; trparpp, Tcrater, a cup ; Lat. 
forma, shape). Shaped like a 
saucer or salver. 

Hypogas'tric (Gr. viro, hupo, below ; 
yaarpp, gaster, the stomach). Re¬ 
lating to the middle part of the 

Kypoge'al (Gr. inro, hupo, under ; yv, 
ge, the earth). Under the earth. 

Hy'pogene (Gr. viro, hupo, under; 
yewaio, genna’o, 1 produce). A 
term proposed to be applied to the 
primary strata in geology, to de¬ 
note their formation from below. 

Kypoglos'sal (Gr. mro, hupo, under ; 
yAcoaaa, glossa, the tongue). Under 
the tongue. 

Hypog'yncus (Gr. viro, hupo, under; 
yvvr], gune, a female). Inserted 
beneath the pistil. 

Hypophos'phite ( Hypophos'phorous ). 
A compound of hypophosphorous 
acid with a base. 

Hypophos'phorous (Gr. inro, hupo, 
under ; phos'phorus). A name ap¬ 
plied to an acid which contains less 
oxygen than phosphorous acid. 



Hypo'pion (Gr. viro, hupo, under ; 
ops, the eye). A collection of 
pus in the anterior part of the eye. 

Hyposul'phate (Gr. vivo, hupo, under; 
sulphate). A compound of hypo- 
sulphuric acid with a base. 

Hyposul'phite (Gr. inro, hupo, under ; 
sulphite). A compound of hypo- 
sulphurous acid with a base. 

Hyposulphu'ric (Gr. viro, hupo, under ; 
sulphu'ric). Applied to an acid 
containing less oxygen than sul¬ 
phuric and more than sulphurous 

HyposuTphurous (Gr. viro, hupo, 
under : sul!phurous ). Applied to 
an acid containing less oxygen than 
sulphurous acid. 

Kypoth'enuse, or, more correctly, 
Hypot'enuse (Gr. in to, hupo, under; 
reive*:, teino, I stretch). The side of 
a right-angled triangle which sub¬ 
tends or is opposite to the right 

Hypothesis (Gr. viro, hupo, under ; 
riOrjpi, tithemi, I place). An ex- 

Iam'bic (Gr. lagfios, lain'bos). Re¬ 

lating to or consisting of the iambus. 

Iam'bus (Gr. lagfios, iam'bos ). A 
foot in verse consisting of a short 
syllable followed by a long one. 

Ia'tro- (Gr. larpos, ia'tros, a physician). 
A part of some compound words, 
signifying a connection with medi¬ 
cine or physicians. 

-Ic. In chemistry, a termination de¬ 
noting the acid containing most 
oxygen, when more than one is 
formed from the same element. 

Iceberg (Ice ; Germ, berg, a mountain). 
A mountain or hill of ice. 

Ich'nites (Gr. Ixvos, ichnos, a foot¬ 
step). In geology, fossil foot-prints. 

Ich'nolite (Gr. tx"°s> ichnos, a foot¬ 
step ; A i 6 os, lithos, a stone). A 
stone retaining the impression of 
the foot mark of a fossil animal. 

Ichnol'ogy (Gr. t’x^os, ichnos, a foot¬ 
step ; Aoyos, logos, a discourse). 
The science of fossil foot-prints. 

planation of phenomena, not founded 
on the actual observation of facts, 
but assumed in order to demonstrate 
a point in question. 

Hypozo'ic (Gr. viro, hupo, under; 
&OV, zbon, an animal). A term 
applied in geology to the rocks in 
which no organic remains have been 

Hypsom'etry (Gr. v\pos, hup'sos, 
height; perpov, metron, measure). 
The art of measuring the heights 
of places on the earth, by the 
barometer or by trigonometrical 

Hy steran'thous(Gr. bar epos, hus'teros, 
later ; avQos, anthos, a flower). In 
botany, applied to plants of which 
the leaves expand after the flowers 
have opened. 

Hyste'ria. A diseased state, consist¬ 
ing in a morbid condition of the 
nervous centres, giving rise to 
paroxysmal symptoms, and to the 
imitation of various diseases. 

Ichor (Gr. ichor). A thin 

watery humour. 

Ich'thyic (Gr. t’xflos, ichthus, a fish). 
Relating to fishes. 

Ichthyodor'ulites ^Gr. Ix^us, ichthus, 
a fish ; Sopv, doru, a spear ; A idos, 
lithos, a stone). Fossil spines of 

Ich'thyoid (Gr. i’xflus, ichthus, a fish ; 
elSos, eidos, shape). Like a fish ; 
applied to certain saurian reptiles. 

Ich'thyolite (Gr. txflus, ichthus, a 
fish; Ai 60 s, lithos, a stone). A 
fossil fish, or portion of a fish. 

Ichthyol'ogy (Gr. ‘x^ vs , ichthus, a 
fish; Aoyos, logos, a discourse). 
The description of fishes. 

Ichthyoph'agous (Gr. ixfius, ichthus, 
a fish; (payen, phago, I eat). Living 
on fishes as food. 

Ichthyopteryg'ia (Gr. tx^s, ichthus, 
a fish ; 7 tt epvyiov, pteru'gion, a fin). 
An order of fossil reptiles with limbs 
formed for swimming, like fins. 



Ichthyosaurus (Gr. t’xflu?, ichthus, a 
fish ; cravpos , sauros, a lizard), A 
fossil animal, having a structure 
between that of a lizard and a 

Ichthyo'sis (Gr. Ix^os, ichthus, a 
fish). A disease in which the body, 
or parts of it, are covered by scales 
overlapping each other like those of 
a fish. 

Icosahed'ron (Gr. dicoai, ei'Jcosi, 
twenty ; iSpa, hedra, a base). A 
figure having twenty sides and 

Icosan'dria(Gr. ditto# i, ei'lcosi, twenty; 
avipp, aner, a man). A class of 
plants having twenty or more 

Icter'ic (Lat. id terns, jaundice). Re¬ 
lating to, or affected with jaundice. 

Ic'terus (Lat.). The jaundice. 

-Idae (Greek termination -iSrjs, -ides, 
signifying descent). A termination 
employed in zoology , signifying some 
degree of likeness to the animal to 
the name of which the termination 
is affixed. 

-Ide. A termination applied in chem¬ 
istry, to denote combinations of non- 
metallic elements with metals, or 
with other non-metallic elements. 

Idea (Gr. eiSw, eicld, I see). An 
image or model formed in the mind. 

Ide'alism (Idea). A system of phi¬ 
losophy, according to which what 
we call external objects are mere 
conceptions of the mind. 

Ideographic (Gr. I8ea, idea ; ypcapoo, 
grapho, I write). Expressing ideas. 

Idiocy (Gr. iSicorps, idiutes, a private 
or ignorant person). A state of 
defective intellect existing from 

Idioelec'tric (Gr. i’Stoy, id'ios, pecu¬ 
liar or separate ; electric). Having 
the property of manifesting elec¬ 
tricity on friction. 

Idiom (Gr. iSios, id'ios, proper or 
peculiar). The form of speech pe¬ 
culiar to a country. 

Idiomatic (Gr. ifiios, id'ios, proper or 
peculiar). Pertaining to the par¬ 
ticular modes of expression be¬ 
longing to a language. 

Idiopathic (Gr.tSios, id'ios, peculiar; 

irados, path'os, suffering). Applied 
to diseases which arise without any 
apparent exciting cause. 

Idiosyncrasy (Gr. ISlos, iclios, pecu¬ 
liar ; (rvyicpacris, sunhra! sis, a mixing 
together). An extreme susceptibility 
to the effects of certain articles of 
food or medicine, consisting gene¬ 
rally in the production of effects 
different from those which usually 

Idiot (Gr. tStcoTrjy, idiotes, a private 
or ill-informed person). A person 
whose intellect is altogether deficient 
from birth. 

Idol (Gr. dSooAov, eidolon, an image, 
phantom, or fancy). A term used 
by Bacon to denote fallacies of the 

Idols of the Den. The mental 

fallacies arising from the nature of 
the mind and body of the indi¬ 

Idols of the Market. The fallacies 
arising from reciprocal intercourse, 
and the popular application of 
words and names. 

Idols of the Theatre. The fallacies 
arising from false theories or per¬ 
verted laws of demonstration. 

Idols of the Tribe. The fallacies 
inherent in human nature. 

Ig'neous (Lat. ignis, fire). Arising 
from, or connected with fire; in 
geology, applied to the apparent 
results of subterraneous heat. 

Ignis Fat'uus (Lat. foolish fire). A 
luminous appearance sometimes 
seen at night, and produced by the 
combustion of phosphorus which 
has escaped from organic matter. 

Ignition (Lat. ignis, fire.) A setting 
on fire. 

I'leo- (Ileum). In anatomy, a prefix 
denoting connection with, or rela¬ 
tion to, the intestine called ileum. 

Ileo-cce'cal ( Ileum; ccecum). Be¬ 
longing to, or lying between, the 
ileum and ccecum. 

Il'emn (Gr. dAea, ei'leo, I roll). 
The lower portion of the small 

Iliac (Lat. Ilia, the flank). Be¬ 
longing to the ileum; or to the 
bone called ilium. 



II lo- (Ilium). In anatomy, a prefix 
denoting connection with, or rela¬ 
tion to, the iliac bone. 

IT ium (Lat. Ilia , the flank). The 
large partly flattened bone which 
forms the principal part of the 
pelvis, and enters into the compo¬ 
sition of the hip-joint. 

Illa'tive (Lat. in, on ; la'tus, borne). 
Denoting an inference; applied in 
logic, where the truth of the con¬ 
verse follows from the truth of the 
proposition itself. 

Ima'go (Lat. an image). A name 
given to the perfect state of an 

Imbecility (Lat. in, on; bacil'lus, a 
staff). Weakness : a defective 
state of intellect, not amounting to 

Im'bricate (Lat. imbrex, a tile). 
Lying over each other like tiles ; 
in botany, applied to the arrange¬ 
ment in the bud in which the outer 
leaves successively overlap the 

Immer'sion (Lat. in, in; mergo, I 
dip). A putting beneath the sur¬ 
face, as of a fluid ; in astronomy, 
the entrance of one body into such 
a position with regard to another, 
as to apparently sink into it, and 
become invisible. 

Im'pact (Lat. in, on; pango, I drive). 
A stroke ; the action of two bodies 
on each other in coming together. 

Impalpable (L,at. in, not ; palpo , I 
feel). Incapable of being felt. 

Imparisyllab'ic (Lat. in, not: par, 
equal; syl'laba, a syllable). Not 
having the same number of sylla¬ 
bles ; applied to nouns which have 
not the same number of syllables 
in all their cases. 

Impenetrability (Lat. in, not; perl- 
etro, I pierce). In physics, the 
property in virtue of which a body 
occupies a certain space, which 
cannot at the same time be occu¬ 
pied by another body. 

Imperative (Lat. im'pero, I com¬ 
mand). Commanding ; in gram¬ 
mar, implying a command or en¬ 

Imper'meable (Lat. in, not; per, 

through ; meo, I pass). Incapable 
of being passed through by a fluid. 

Imper'sonal (Lat. in, not; perso'na, 
a person). Without persons ; ap¬ 
plied to verbs which have only the 
third person singular. 

Imper'vious (Lat. in, not; per, 
through ; via, a way). Incapable 
of being passed through. 

Impeti'go (Lat. im'peto, I attack). 
A disease of the skin characterised 
by clusters of pustules which run 
together into a crust; a running 

Impetus (Lat. from in, against; peto, 
I urge). The force with which a 
body is driven. 

Imping'e (Lat- impin'go, I strike 
against). To strike or dash 

Implu'vium (Lat. in; plu’via, rain). 
A basin to receive rain, in the 
middle of the atrium or court¬ 
yard of ancient Roman houses. 

Impon'derable (Lat. in, not ; pon- 
dus, weight). Without perceptible 

Impulse (Lat. in, on or against; 
pello, I drive). The effect of one 
body striking on another, being 
the result of the motion of the 
striking body. 

Impulsion (Lat. in, against ; pello, 
I drive). The act of driving 
against : the process by which a 
moving body changes the motion 
of another by striking it. 

Inanimate (Lat. in, not; an'ima, 
animal life). Without animal life. 

Inanition (Lat. ina'nis, empty). 
Emptiness; want of nutrition ; 

Inartic'ulate (Lat. in, not ; artic'- 
ulus, a joint). Not having the 
power of articulation or speech ; 
in botany, without joints. 

Incandescence (Lat. in; candes'co, 
I grow white). A white heat ; 
the luminous appearance which 
bodies assume when heated to a 
certain point. 

Incandes'cent (Lat. in; candes'co, I 
grow white). White or glowing 
from heat. 

Incep'tive (Lat. incip'io, I begin). 



Beginning ; applied to verbs which 
imply a commencement of action. 

Incidence (Lat. in, on ; caclo, I fall). 
A falliug on ; in dynamics and 
optics, the angle of incidence is the 
angle made by a body or ray of 
light falling on an object, with a 
line drawn perpendicularly to the 
surface struck. 

In'cident (Lat. in, on ; cado, I fall). 
Falling on. 

Incin'erate (Lat in, into; cinis, 
ashes). To burn to ashes. 

Incinera'tion (Lat. in, into; cinis, 
ashes). A burning to ashes. 

Incis'ion (Lat. in, into; ccedo, I cut). 
A cutting into ; a cut. 

Inci'sor (Lat. in, into; ccedo, I cut). 
A cutter ; applied to the fore teeth, 
which cut the food. 

Inclina'tion (Lat. in; clino, or Gr. 
kAivcv, Iclind, I lean). A leaning ; 
in physics, the direction of one 
body with respect to another, as 
measured by the angle formed at 
their point of meeting. 

Incline (Lat. in, towards ; clino, I 
bend). A slope ; the direction of 
a surface, as of a road, with respect 
to the horizon. 

Inclined Plane. A plane forming an 
angle, less than a right angle, with 
the horizon. 

Inclu'ded (Lat. in, in ; claudo, I 
shut). In botany, applied to sta¬ 
mens when they do not project 
beyond the corolla. 

Incombus'tible (Lat. in, not; com- 
bn'ro, I burn up). Incapable of 
being burned. 

Incommen'surable (Lat. in, not; con, 
with ; mensu'ra, a measure). Not 
capable of being measured together; 
applied to quantities and magni¬ 
tudes which do not exactly measure 
each other, or of which one is not 
contained a definite number of times 
in the other; or which cannot be 
divided without a remainder by 
some other number. 

Incommis'cible (Lat. in, not; con, 
together; mis'ceo, I mix). Incapable 
of being mixed together. 

Incompatible (Lat. in, not ; con, 
with; pat'ior, I suffer). Not capable 

of subsisting with something else ; 
applied to substances which chemi¬ 
cally decompose each other when 
brought into contact in a solution. 

Incompressibility < Lat. in, not; con, 
together ; prem'o, I press). The 
property of resisting forcible reduc¬ 
tion into a smaller space. 

Incompres'sible (Lat. in, not; con, 
together ; prem'o, I press). Resist¬ 
ing compression into a smaller space. 

Incorporate (Lat. in, into ; corpus, 
a body). To mix into one body or 

Incorporation (Lat. in, into; corpus, 
a body). A mixing into one body 
or mass. 

Increment (Lat. in; cresco, I grow). 
An increase ; in mathematics, the 
quantity by which a variable quan¬ 
tity increases. 

Incrustation (Lat. in, in ; crusta, a 
crust). The covering of a body 
with a rough coating, as with a 

Incubation (Lat. in, on ; cumbo, I 
lie). The act of sitting on eggs 
for the purpose of hatching young. 

Incum'bent (Lat. in, on ; cumbo, I 
lie). In botany, applied when the 
radicle lies on the back of the 

Incurvation (Lat. in, towards; 
curvus, bent). A bending, or turn¬ 
ing out of a straight course. 

Indecli'nable (Lat. in, not; cle, from ; 
clino, I bend). Not declinable; 
applied to words incapable of being 
varied by terminations. 

Indef 'inite (Lat. in, not; de, down ; 
finis, an end). Not definite or 
limited ; in botany, applied to in¬ 
florescence, in which the central or 
terminal flower is the last to expand. 

Indehis'cent (Lat. in, not; dehis'co, 
I gape). Not gaping ; applied to 
fruits which do not split open, as 
the apple. 

Indent' (Lat. in, in ; dens, a tooth). 
To notch, as if by the teeth, or 
into inequalities like teeth. 

Indent'ed (Lat. in, in; dens, a tooth). 
Notched, as if bitten by teeth, or 
into margins like teeth. 

Indent'ure (Lat. in, in; dens, a 



tooth). A deed of agreement bet ween 
two persons, of which the upper 
edge of the first page has a waving 
line like a row of teeth. 

Indeter'minate (Lat. in, not; de, 
down; ter'minus, a limit). Not 
limited; in mathematics, applied to 
problems which admit an unlimited 
number of solutions ; in botany, 
applied to inflorescence with the 
same meaning as indefinite. 

Indicator (Lat. in'dico, I point out). 
A pointer : applied to the muscle 
which extends the fore-finger. 

Indigenous (Lat. in, in ; yigno, I 
produce). Native; produced natu¬ 
rally in a country. 

Induction (Lat. in, into; duco, I 
lead). A bringing in : the leading 
an inference or general conclusion 
from a number of particular in¬ 
stances ; in electricity and mag¬ 
netism, the process by which an 
electrified or magnetic body pro¬ 
duces an electrical or magnetic 
state in surrounding bodies. 

Inductom , 'eter(/»rfacfio»; Gr. yerpov, 
metron, a measure). Au instru¬ 
ment for measuring differences of 
electrical induction. 

Induc'tive (Lat. in, into; duco, I 
I lead). Leading to inferences : 
applied to those sciences which are 
based on the observation of facts 
and the conclusions drawn from 

Indu'plicate (Lat. in, in; duplex, 
double). Doubled inwards : in 
botany, applied to the arrangement 
of a flower-bud in which the edges 
of the petals are slightly turned 

Indura'tion (Lat. in, into; durus, 
hard). Hardening. 

Indu'sium (Lat. in'duo, I put on). A 
covering : in botany, the epidermic 
covering which encloses the spores 
or analogues of seeds in some ferns. 

Inen'chyma (Gr. Is, is, fibre; iyxuya, 
en'chuma, a tissue). In botany, a 
tissue consisting of cells with spiral 
fibres in them. 

Inertia (Lat. iners, inactive). The 
quality in virtue of which matter 
is incapable of spontaneous change, 

whether from motion to rest, or 
from rest to motion ; inactivity. 

In'fantile (Lat. infans, an infant). 
Belonging to or occurring in infants. 

Infec't (Lat. infidio, I taint). To 
introduce into a healthy body the 
emanation or miasma proceeding 
from one which is diseased, so as 
to propagate the disease. 

Infec'tion (Lat. infic'io, I taint). 
The communication of disease by 
means of the miasm or emanation 
proceeding from a diseased body. 

Infectious (Lat. infic'io, I taint). 
Capable of being communicated by 

Infe'rior (Lat. below). In botany, 
applied to the ovary when it is ad¬ 
herent to the calyx, or to the calyx 
when it is not adherent to the 

Inferobran'chiate (Lat. in'ferus, be¬ 
low ; Gr. fipayxia, bran'chia, gills). 
Having the gills arranged along the 
sides of the body under the mar¬ 
gin of the mantle: applied to an 
order of gasteropods. 

Infiltration (Lat. in, into ; filter). 
The process of entering a body 
through pores ; the substance 
which has so entered. 

In'finite (Lat. in, not; finis, an end). 
Without a limit; an infinite 
decimal or series is one which 
cannot be brought to an end. 

Infinitesimal (Lat. in, not; finis, an 
end). Indefinitely small: having 
relation to indefinitely small num¬ 
bers or quantities. 

Infinitive (Lat. in, not; finis, I 
limit). Placing no limit: in gram¬ 
mar, applied to that part of the 
verb which expresses its name. 

Inflam'mable (Lat. in, into ; flamma, 
flame). Capable of being set on 

Inflammation (Lat. in, into; flam¬ 
ma, flame). A getting on fire: 
in medicine, a diseased state, 
characterised by redness, heat, 
pain, swelling, and disturbance of 
the function of a part. 

Inflect'ed (Lat. in, on ; flecto, I 
bend). Bent or turned out of a 
straight course ; curved inwards. 



Inflection (Lat. in, towards ; fledo, 
I bend). A turning from a straight 
course: in optics, the effect pro¬ 
duced by the edges of an opaque 
body on the light passing in con¬ 
tact with them, by which the rays 
are bent out of their coui-se either 
inwards or outwards; in grammar, 
the variation of words by changes 
of termination. 

Inflexible (Lat. in, not; fledo, I 
bend). Incapable of being bent. 

Inflorescence (Lat in, in; flos, a 
flower). The arrangement of flow¬ 
ers on the flowering stem or 

Influen'za (Italian, influenza, in¬ 
fluence). An epidemic catarrh or 
cold, attended with great loss of 
strength and severe fever. 

Influx (Lat. in, into; fluo, I flow). 
A flowing into. 

Infracos'tal (Lat. infra , beneath ; 
costa, a rib). Beneath ribs. 

InframaxilTary (Lat. infra, be¬ 
neath ; maxil'la, a jaw). Beneath 
the jaw. 

Infraor'bital (Lat. infra, beneath; 
or'bita, an orbit). Beneath the 

Infraspi'nous (Lat. infra, beneath ; 
spina, a spine). Beneath a spine 
or spinous process. 

Infundib'uliform (Lat. infundib'u- 
lum, a funnel ; forma, shape). 
Shaped like a funnel. 

Infu'sion (Lat. in, on; fundo, I 
pour). The process of steeping 
substances in liquid, so as to ex¬ 
tract certain qualities from them ; 
the liquid thus prepared. 

Infuso'ria (Infusion). A term given 
to microscopic animals of several 
orders, found in water in which 
organic matter has been infused. 

Inges'ta (Lat. in, in; gero, I carry). 
Things taken in; applied to food. 

Inglu'vies (Lat. a crop). • A crop or 
partial dilatation of the oesophagus. 

In'guinal (Lat. in'guen, the groin). 
Relating or belonging to the groin. 

Inhala'tion (Lat. in, into ; halo, I 
breathe). A breathing in ; the 
act of drawing in fumes or vapours 
with the breath. 

Inhale (Lat. in, into; halo, I 
breathe). To draw in air or va¬ 
pours by means of the breathing 

Inject 7 (Lat. in, into; jac'io, I throw). 
To throw into. 

Injec'tion (Lat. in, into; jac'io, I 
throw). A throwing in ; a medi¬ 
cine 5 thrown into the body : the 
act of filling the vessels of a body 
with some coloured substance, so 
as to render them distinct; also 
the substance thrown in. 

Inna'te (Lat. in, into or en ; nascor, 
I am born). Natural; applied to 
ideas supposed to exist in the mind 
from birth ; in botany, applied to 
anthers when attached to the top of 
the filaments. 

Innerva'tion (Lat. in, into ; nervus, 
a nerve). The properties or func¬ 
tions of the nervous system. 

Innominate (Lat. in, not; nomen, a 
name). Without a name ; applied 
to a bone forming the pelvis, con¬ 
stituted of three bones which grow 
together ; also to a large arterial 
trunk arising from the aorta. 

Inoc'ulate (Lat. in, into ; oc'ulus, an 
eye). To engraft buds; to com¬ 
municate disease to a person by in¬ 
serting infectious matter into his 

Inoper'cular (Lat. in, not; oper'cu- 
lum, a lid). Without an opercu¬ 
lum or lid. 

Inor'dinate (Lat. in, not; or'dino, I 
put in order). Irregular : in mathe¬ 
matics, applied to two ranks of 
quantities, which are proportionate 
in a cross order. 

Inorganic (Lat. in, not ; organ'ic). 
Without the organs or instruments 
of life ; in medicine, not apparently 
connected with change in structure. 

Inos'culate (Lat. in, into ; os'culum, 
a little mouth). To open into, as 
by little mouths. 

Insal'ivation (Lat. in, into ; saliva). 
The blending of the saliva with the 

Insa'ne (Lat. in, not; sanus, sound 
or healthy). Unsound in mind. 

Insanity (Lat. in, not ; sanus, sound 
or healthy). A term used to express 



in general derangements of tlie 
mind, except the temporary deli¬ 
rium occasioned by fever. 

In'sect (Lat. in, into ; seco, I cut). 
A class of invertebrate animals, 
having a body composed of three 
distinct parts jointed together, with 
three pairs of feet, and generally 

Insectiv'orous (Lat. insec'ta, insects ; 
voro, I devour). Living on insects. 

Insensibility (Lat. in, not; sentio, 
I perceive). Loss of the power of 
feeling or sensation. 

Insesso'res (Lat. in, on; sed'eo, I sit). 
An order of birds, including those 
which habitually perch on trees, 
excepting the rapacious and the 
climbing birds ; as the crow, star¬ 
ling, finch, and swallow. 

In situ (Lat. in, in ; situs, a situa¬ 
tion). In the place where it was 
originally formed or deposited. 

Insolation (Lat. in, in; sol, the 
sun). Exposure to the rays of the 
sun ; or the effects of such exposure. 

Insol'uble (Lat. in, not; • solvo, I 
melt). Incapable of being melted. 

Inspiration (Lat. in, into ; spiro, I 
breathe). The act of drawing in 
air by the lungs. 

Inspi'ratory (Lat. in, into ; spiro, I 
breathe). Relating to the act of in¬ 

Inspire (Lat. in, into ; spiro, I 
breathe). To draw in air by the 
breathing organs. 

Inspiss'ate (Lat. in, in ; spissus, 
thick). To thicken. 

In'stinct (Lat. instin'guo, I urge on). 
The power by which, independently 
of instructi on or experience, animals 
are unerringly directed to do what¬ 
ever is necessary for their preserva¬ 
tion and the continuance of their 
species, in a manner incapable of 
modification or improvement by 

Instinc'tive (Lat. instin'guo, I urge 
on). Arising from instinct. 

In'sulate (Lat. in'sula, an island). To 
separate ; to surround a body with 
substances incapable of carrying 
off the electricity or caloric accu¬ 
mulated in it. 

Insulation (Lat. in'sula, an island). 
The state of being separated or 

In'sulator (Lat. in'sula, an island). 
The substance which prevents the 
passage of electricity from. a body. 

In'teger (Lat. entire). The whole : 
applied especially to whole numbers, 
in contradistinction from fractions. 

Integral (Lat. in'teger, entire). En¬ 
tire ; making part of a whole. 

Integral Calculus. A branch of 
mathematical analysis, in which the 
primitive function is derived from 
its differentiate, or its differential 

In'tegrant (Lat. in'teger, entire). 
Making part of a whole ; applied 
to parts which are of the same 
nature as the whole. 

Intellect (Lat. intel'ligo, I under¬ 
stand). The faculty of the human 
mind which receives and compre¬ 
hends the idea enunciated by the 
senses or by other means. 

Intelligence (Lat. intel'ligo, I under¬ 
stand). The faculty which leads to 
the performance of operations as the 
result of experience, and capable of 
improvement by exercise. 

Interambula'cra (Lat. inter, between; 
ambula'crum). The plates between 
the perforated plates, or ambu¬ 
lacra, in the echinoderms. 

Interartic'ular (Lat. inter, between; 
artic'ulus, a joint). Between joints. 

Interauric'ular (Lat. inter, between ; 
auridula, an auricle). Between 
the auricles of the heart. 

Intercal'ary (Lat. inter, between; 
calo (Gr. Ka\eu, lcaled), I call). 
Inserted : applied to the day in¬ 
serted in the calendar every fourth 
year to compensate for the deficiency 
in the three preceding years : also 
to a month inserted in the old 
Roman calendar to make up a 

Intercellular (Lat. inter, between; 
cel'lula , a cell). Between cells. 

Intercepted (Lat. inter, between; 
cap'io, I take). Included or com¬ 
prehended between. 

Interclavic'ular (Lat. inter, between *, 
clav'icle). Between clavicles. 



Intercon'dvloid (Lat. inter, between; 
Gr. icovfjuAos, Tcon'dulos, a condyle). 
Between condyles. 

Intercos tal (Lat. inter , between; 
costa, a rib). Between ribs. 

Xntercurrent (Lat. inter, between ; 
curro, I run). Running between ; 
in medicine, applied to diseases 
which occur in a scattered manner 
during the prevalence of epidemic 

Interdigital (Lat. inter, between ; 
dig'itus, a finger). Between the 

Interfa'cial (Lat. inter, between • 
fac'ies, a face). Included between 
two faces or planes. 

Interfe'rence (Lat. inter, between; 
fero, I bear). A term applied to 
the phenomenon of the effacement 
of an undulation by the meeting of 
two waves; and in optics especially, 
to the mutual intersection of rays 
of light under certain conditions, 
so that they extinguish each other. 

Interfo'liar (Lat. inter, between ; /o'* 
limn, a leaf;. Between two opposite 

Interganglion'ic (Lat. inter, between ; 
Gr. yayyAior, gan'glion, a knot). 
Lying or extending between gang¬ 

Interhse'mal (Lat. inter, between; 
Gr. alga, haima, blood). Between 
the haemal processes in vertebrae. 

Interlob'ular (Lat. inter, between ; 
lo'bulus, a little lobe). Between 
lobules or little lobes. 

Intermaxillary (Lat. inter, between, 
muxil'la, a jaw). Between the 
maxillary or jaw bone. 

Intermis'sion (Lat. inter, between; 
mitto, 1 send). Temporary cessation 
as applied to fevers ; complete ces¬ 
sation for a time. 

Intermittent (Lat. inter, between; 
mitto, I send). Ceasing for a time; 
applied to diseases in which the 
symptoms leave the patient entirely 
for a time, and then return. 

Intermus'cular (Lat. inter, between ; 
mus 1 cuius, a muscle). Between 

Interneu'ral (Lat. inter, between, 
(Gr. vevpov, neuron, a nerve). Be¬ 

tween the neural processes in ver¬ 

In'ternode (Lat. inter, between ; nodus, 
a knot). The space in a stem be¬ 
tween the nodes, or parts where the 
leaves are formed. 

Interos'seous (Lat. inter, between; os, 
a bone). Between bones. 

Interpedun'cular (Lat. inter, be¬ 
tween ; ped'uncle). Between ped¬ 

Interpet'iolar (Lat. inter, between ; 
pet'iole). Between petioles of oppo¬ 
site sides. 

Interpolation (Lat. inter'polo, I place 
between). The insertion of words, 
passages, or numbers between others. 

Interposition (Lat. inter, between ; 
pono, I put). A placing or coming 

Intersect' (Lat. inter, between ; seco, 
I cut). To cut or cross mutually. 

Intersection (Lat. inter, between ; 
seco, I cut). A mutual cutting or 

Interspi'nal or Interspi'nous (Lat. 
inter, between ; spina, a spine). 
Inserted between the spinous pro¬ 
cesses of the vertebrae. 

Interstellar (Lat. inter, between ; 
Stella , a star). Between the stars, 
beyond the limits of our solar system. 

Inter'stice (Lat. inter, between ; sto, 
I stand). A small space between 
the parts which compose a body. 

Interstitial (Lat. inter, between ; 
sto, I stand). Relating to or occu¬ 
pying interstices; taking place 
gradually throughout a body. 

Interstrat'ifi ed (Lat. inter, between ; 
stratum, a layer ; fac'io, I make). 
Interposed in strata between other 

Intertu'bular (Lat. inter, between ; 
tubule). Between tubules or small 

Interver'tebral (Lat. inter, between ; 
ver'tebra, a bone of the spine). 
Between vertebrae. 

Intes'tines (Lat. intus, within). The 
alimentary canal from the stomach 
to its termination. 

In tine (Lat. intus, within). The 
inner covering of the pollen-grain. 

Intona'tion (Lat. in, in ; tonus, a 



tone). The manner of sounding the 
notes of a musical scale. 

Intracellular. (Lat. intra, within; 
cell'ula, a cell). Within cells ; ap¬ 
plied in histology to the formation 
of cells within cells. 

Intralob'ular (Lat. intra. within; 
lo'bulus, a lobule). Within lobules 
or little lobes. 

Intran'sitive (Lat. in, not ; trans, 
over ; eo, I go). Not passing on : 
applied to verbs in which the action 
does not pass to or act on an object. 

Intrau'terine (Lat. intra, within; 
u'terus, the womb). Within the 
uterus or womb. 

In'trorse (Lat. intror'sum, within). 
Turned inwards ; in botany, applied 
to anthers which open on the side 
next the pistil. 

Intuition (Lat. in, on ; tu'cor, I look). 
The process by which the mind 
perceives a fact at once, without 
the intervention of other ideas, or 
of reasoning. 

Intuitive (Lat. in, on ; tu'eor, I look). 
Perceived immediately by the mind, 
without a process of reasoning. 

Intumescence (Lat. in, in ; tu'meo, 
I swell). A swelling. 

Intussusception (Lat. intus, within ; 
suscip'io, I take up). A drawing 
of one part of a tube or canal into 

Invention (Lat. inven'io, I find). A 
finding ; the production of some 
combination or contrivance that 
did not before exist. 

Inver se (Lat. in; vcrto, I turn). 
Placed in a contrary order; as in 
an arithmetical proportion, when 
the ratio of the numbers to each 
other appears to be reversed. 

Inversion (Lat. in; verto, I turn). 
A placing in a contrary order ; a 
mutual changing of position. 

Invertebrate (Lat. in, not; ver'tebra, 
a bone of the spine). Without ver¬ 
tebrae or spinal bones. 

Involu'cel (Involv!crum; cel, de¬ 
noting smallness). In botany, the 
collection of bractlets which sur¬ 
rounds a secondary or partial umbel. 

Involu'crum (Lat. in, in ; volvo, I 
roll). A covering membrane : in 

botany, a collection of bracts round 
a cluster of flowers : the layer of 
epidennis covering in the spore- 
cases on ferns. 

Invol'untary (Lat. in, not; rolun'tas, 
will). Not dependent on or pro¬ 
ceeding from the will. 

In'volute (Lat. in, in ; rolvo, I roll). 
Rolled inwards ; in botany, applied 
to a leaf which has each of its 
edges rolled inwards towards the 

Involution (Lat. in, into ; rolvo, I 
roll). A folding or rolling in ; in 
arithmetic and algebra, the raising 
a number from its root to a power, 
as if it were folded or rolled on 

I'odate ( I'odine ). A compound of 
iodic acid with a base. 

Iod'ic (I'ocline). Containing iodine. 

I'odide (I'odine). A compound of 
iodine with a metal or other sub¬ 

I'odine (Gr. lov, i'on, a violet). A 
solid elementary body, the vapour 
of which has a violet colour. 

I'odism (I'odine). In medicine, a 
morbid condition sometimes pro¬ 
duced by the use of iodine. 

I'on (Gr. Icau, ion, going). A name 
applied to the elements of sub¬ 
stances capable of decomposition by 
the voltaic current, and which are 
evolved at the poles of the battery. 

Iris (Gr. Ipis, iris, the rainbow). 
The ring-shaped diaphragm which 
surrounds the pupil of the eye; so 
called from being coloured. 

Irides'cence (Gr. Ipis, iris, the rain¬ 
bow). A play of colours like a 

Irides'cent (Gr. Ipis, iris, the rain¬ 
bow).. Marked with colours like 
the rainbow. 

Ironstone. A term for the car¬ 
bonates of iron found in nodules or 
thin layers in secondary rocks. 

Irra'diation (Lat. in; ra'dius, a 
ray). Emission of light; illumi¬ 

Ir'rigate (Lat. in, on; ri'go, I mois¬ 
ten). To moisten. 

IrritabiLity (Lat. irrito, I excite). 
Excitability : the property of 



muscles by which they contract 
on the application of an exciting 

Irrup'tion (Lat. in, in; rumpo, I 
break). A breaking in. 

Tsagon (Gr. laos, isos, equal; ycovicx, 
gdnia, an angle). A figure with 
equal angles. 

Ischiat'ic (Gr. iaxcov, is'chion, the 
hip). Belonging to the hip. 

Iso- (Gr. icros, isos, equal). A prefix 
in compound words, denoting 

Isobaromet'ric (Gr. Icros, isos, equal; 
barom'eter). Applied to lines con¬ 
necting places on the earth’s sur¬ 
face which present the same mean 
difference between the monthly 
extremes of the barometer. 

Isochei'mal (Gr. laos, isos, equal; 
Xeijua, cheima, winter). Having 
the same winter temperature. 

Isochromat'ic (Gr. Icros, isos, equal; 
Xpcoga, chroma, colour). Having 
the same colour. 

Isoch'ronal (Gr. Icros, isos, equal; 
Xpovos, chronos, time). Uniform 
in time ; occurring in equal times. 

Isoclin'ic (Gr. laos, isos, equal ; 
k\ivcd, Mind, I bend). Bending 
equally ; applied to curves in the 
earth’s surface in which the dip of 
the magnetic parallels is equal. 

Isodynam'ic (Gr. Icros, isos, equal; 
8 wa/jus, du'namis, power). Of 
equal power; applied to lines on 
the earth where the magnetic in¬ 
tensities are equal. 

Isogeother'mal (Gr. Icros, isos, equal; 
7 t], cje, the earth ; depuos, thermos, 
warm). See Isothermal. 

Isogo'nic (Gr. laos , isos, equal; 
7 coma, gdnia, an angle). Having 
equal angles ; applied to lines on 
the earth’s surface in which the 
magnetic needle has the same de¬ 

Isoliyeto'ses (Gr. laos, isos, equal; 
veaos, hu'etos, rain). Lines con¬ 
necting places on the surface of the 
globe where the quantity of rain 
which falls annually is the same. 

Isomer'ic (Gr. laos, isos, equal; 
gepos, meros, a part). Consisting 
of the same elements in the same 
proportions, but possessing different 
physical and chemical properties. 

Isom'erism (Gr. laos, isos, equal; 
gcpos, meros, a part). The state 
of compounds which contain the 
same elements in the same propor¬ 
tions, but have different proper¬ 

Isomorphism (Gr. laos, isos, equal; 
gopcpr], morphe, form). The pro¬ 
perty which certain substances 
have of replacing each other in 
crystallised compounds without 
change of form. 

Isomor'phous (Gr. laos, isos, equal; 
gopcpT], morphe, form). Of equal 
form ; applied to substances capa¬ 
ble of replacing each other in crys¬ 
talline compounds without altera¬ 
tion of form. 

Isop'odous (Gr. laos, isos, equal, 

7 rovs, pous, a foot). Applied to an 
order of crustaceans with fourteen 
legs, not having the respiratory 
organs attached to them. 

Isos'celes (Gr. laos, isos, equal; aneXos, 
slceVos, a leg). Having two equal 
legs or sides. 

Isoste'monous (Gr. laos, isos, equal ; 
ariq/j-cov, stemdn, a stamen). In 
botany, applied when the stamens 
are equal in number to the sepals 
or petals. 

Isoth'eral (Gr. laos, isos, equal ; 
6epos, theros, summer). Having 
the same mean summer temper¬ 

Isother'nial (Gr. laos, isos, equal; 
depgws, thermos , hot). Having 
equal heat: applied to lines drawn 
round the globe, and passing over 
points where the mean temperature 
is equal. 

-Ite. A termination in chemistry, 
denoting a salt formed of an acid 
in a lower state of oxygenation. 

-Itis. A termination denoting in- 



Jacob’s Membrane. A layer of tbe 
retina in the eye, described by Dr. 
Jacob as a sei'ous membrane, but 
consisting of numerous rod-like 
bodies placed vertically together. 

Jactita'tion (Lat. jac'tito, I throw 
about). A tossing about of the 
body; restlessness. 

Jeju'num (Lat. jeju'nus, empty; be¬ 
cause often found empty). A part 
of the small intestines, reaching 
from the duodenum to the ileum. 

Jo'vian (Lat. Jovis, the genitive case 
of Jupiter). Belonging to the 
planet Jupiter. 

Ju'ga (Lat. jugum, a yoke). The 
elevated portions traversing the 
carpels of umbelliferous plants. 

Ju'gate (Lat. jugum , a yoke). In 
botany , applied to the pairs of leaf¬ 
lets in compound leaves. 

Kalei'dophone (Gr. uaXos , leal os, 
beautiful ; elSos, eiclos, form; 
(par7], plidne, sound). An in¬ 
strument consisting of an elastic 
rod, with a polished knob at the 
free end, which exhibits beautiful 
curves of vibration when put in 

Kaleidoscope (Gr. uaXos, halos, 
beautiful ; elbos, eidos, shape ; 
c TKonew, sJcop'eo, I look at). An 
optical instrument, formed on the 
principle of multiplied reflection of 
light, for the purpose of exhibiting 
a variety of beautiful colours and 
symmetrical forms. 

Ka'olin. A very fine earth or clay 
consisting of decomposed feldspar, 
used in the manufacture of porce¬ 

Kathetom'eter (Gr. naOeros, Tcath'etos, 
perpendicular height; gerpou, me- 
tron, a measure). An instrument 
for measuring small differences of 
perpendicular height. 

Ju'gular (Lat. ju'gulum , the throat). 
Belonging to or connected with the 
neck or throat. 

Julian ( Julius Ccesar ). A term ap¬ 
plied to the system of reckoning 
the year promulgated by Julius 
Caesar, and which continued until 
the adoption of the new style. 

Juras'sic (Jura, Mont Blanc in 
Switzerland). A name given in 
geology to the oolitic system, from 
its occurrence in the Jura moun¬ 

Jurisprudence (Lat. jus, law ; pru- 
den'tia, knowledge). The science 
of law. 

Juxtaposition (Lat. juxta, near ; 
pono, I put). A placing side by 

Kelaenone'sian (Gr. iceXairos, Jeelai’nos, 
black ; vtjctos, nesos, an island). 
A term applied to the inhabitants 
of the islands in the Pacific, whose 
skin is of a dark colour. 

Kelp. The ashes of seaweed, from 
which carbonate of soda was pro¬ 

Kepler’s Laws. The laws of the 
courses of the planets, according to 
Kepler: viz., that a line drawn 
from the sun to the planets de¬ 
scribes equal areas in equal times ; 
that the planets move in elliptic 
orbits; and that the squares of 
the periods of revolution of the 
planets are very nearly in the ratio 
of the cubes of their mean dis¬ 

Kil'ogramme (Gr. chil'ioi, a 

thousand; Fr. gramme). A French 
weight equal to a thousand grammes, 
or 2‘205 pounds avoirdupois. 

Kil'olitre (Gr. chil'ioi, a thou¬ 
sand ; litre). A French measure 



of a thousand litres, or 220 gal¬ 

Kil'ometre (Gr. xiAjoi, chil'ioi, a 
thousand ; metre). A French mea¬ 
sure of a thousand metres, or about 
1094 Knglish yards. 

Kim'meridge Clay. A blue and 
greyish yellow clay of the oolite 

Kleptoma'nia (Gr. KAeirrw, Hepto, I 
steal; yavia, mainia, madness). 
An irresistable desire to steal. 

Kinetics (Gr. Kireev, Jcineo, I move). 
The part of mechanical science 
which treats of motion without 
reference to the forces producing it. 

Kreasote. See Cre'asote. 

Kre'atin and Kreat'inin. See Cre'a- 
tin and Creat'iniu. 

Ky'anize (Mr. Kyan, the inventor of 
the process). To steep timber in 
a solution of corrosive sublimate in 
order to preserve it from dry rot. 


Labellnm (Lat. la'bium, a lip). A 
little lip. 

La'bial (Lat. la'bium, a lip). Be¬ 
longing to the lips; produced by 
the lips. 

La'biate (Lat. la'bium, a lip). Having 
lips; applied in botany to a form 
of flower in which the corolla pre¬ 
sents two portions resembling lips. 

Labioden'tal (Lat. la'bium, a lip; 
dens, a tooth). Formed by the 
sction of the lips and teeth. 

La'bium (Lat. a lip). The lower lip 
of insects; the inner lip of a shell. 

Laboratory (Lat. labo'ro ,I work). A 
place where operations or experi¬ 
ments are carried on. 

Lab'radorite ( Labrado'r ). A mineral, 
consisting of a species of feldspar ; 
consists chiefly of silica, alumina, 
and lime, with some oxide of iron. 

La'brum (Lat., the brim of a vessel). 
The upper lip of insects ; the outer 
lip of a shell. 

Lab'yrinth (Gr. AafivpivQos, laburin'- 
thos, a maze). A name given to 
the internal ear, from its complex 

Labyrinth'iform (Gr. Aafivpn'Oos, 
laburin'lhos, a maze ; Lat. forma, 
shape). Having the form of a 
labyrinth ; applied to a family of 
fishes in which there are a number 
of cells for containing water, formed 
by the plates of the pharyngeal 
bones above the gills. 

Labyrinth'odonts (Gr. Aa&vpivQos, 
laburin'thos, a labyrinth; oSovs, 

odous, a tooth). An order of 
fossil reptiles, so called from the 
complex undulating structure of 
the teeth as seen in section. 

Lacer'tian (Lat. lacer'tus, a lizard). 
Relating to the lizard tribe. 

Lacertil'ia (Lat. lacertus, a lizard). 
An order of reptiles of which the 
lizard is the type. 

LacliTymai (Lat. lach'ryma, a tear). 
Relating to the tears. 

Lach'rymal Canals. The canals 
which convey the tears from the 
eye to the nasal ducts. 

Lach'rymal Ducts. The ducts or small 
tubes which convey the tears from 
the lachrymal gland to the eyes. 

Lach'rymal Gland. The gland which 
secretes the tears. 

Lacin'iated (Lat. lacin'ia, fringe). 
Irregularly cut into narrow seg¬ 

Lac'tate (Lat. lac, milk). A salt of 
lactic acid with a base. 

Lacta'tion (Lat. lac, milk). The act 
of giving milk ; suckling. 

Lac'teal (Lat. lac, milk). Conveying 
milk, or a fluid like milk ; applied 
to the vessels which take up the 
chyle from the alimentary canal 
and convey it to the thoracic duct. 

Lactes'cence (Lat. lac, milk). A 
state resembling milk. 

Lactes'cent (Lat. lac, milk). Yield¬ 
ing milky juice. 

Lac'tic (Lat. lac, milk). Belonging 
to milk ; applied to an acid ob¬ 
tained from milk. 



Lactiferous (Lat. lac, milk ; fero, I 
carry). Conveying milk. 

Lac'tin (Lat. lac, milk). Sugar of 
milk ; a sweetish substance existing 
in milk. 

Lactom'eter (Lat. lac, milk ; Gr. 
gerpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for ascertaining the 
specific gravity of milk. 

Lacu'na (Lat. a ditch). A little pit 
or depression, or hollow cavity. 

Laeus'trine (Lat. lacus, a lake). Be¬ 
longing to or produced in lakes. 

Lsemodip'oda (Gr. A aigos, laimos, a 
throat; novs, pous, a foot). An 
order of Crustacea in which the 
two fore-legs form part of the 

Lamb'doid (The Greek letter A, 
AagfiSa, lambda; elSos, eidos, 
shape). Resembling the Greek let¬ 
ter A or lambda. 

Lamella (Lat.). A little plate or 

Lamellar (Lat. lamel'la, a little 
plate). Arranged in thin scales or 

Lamellibran'chiate (Lat. lamel'la, a 
little plate; Gr. Ppnyxia, bran'chia, 
gills). Having gills in symmetrical 
semicircular layers. 

Lamelliform (Lat. lamel'la, a small 
plate; forma, shape). Having the 
form of a small plate. 

Lamelliros'tral (Lat. lamel'la, a 
small plate ; rostrum, a beak). 
Having the margins of the beak 
furnished with plates, as the duck 
and goose. 

Lamina (Lat. a plate). A plate or 
scale ; in botany, the blade of a 
leaf, or the broad part of a sepal 
or petal. 

Laminar or Laminated (Lat. 
lamina, a plate). Arranged in 
plates or scales. 

Lamina'tion (Lat. la'mina, a plate). 
An arrangement in plates or scales. 

Lanate (Lat. lana, wool). Covered 
with a curly hair like wool. 

Lan'ceolate (Lat. lan'cea, a lance). 
Gradually tapering to the outer end. 

Lanialiform (Lat. lanio, I tear ; 
forma, shape). Shaped like the 
canine teeth of carnivorous animals. 

La'niary (Lat. lanio, I tear). Formed 
for tearing. 

Lanig'erous (Lat. lana, wool ; gero, 
I bear). Bearing or producing 

Lanu'ginous (Lat. lanu'go, down). In 
botany, woolly; covered with inter¬ 
laced bairs. 

Lanu'go (Lat. down, or fine hair). 
The first hair which is produced in 
the foetus. 

Lapidif'ication (Lat. lap'is, a stone ; 
fac'io, I make). Conversion into 

Lapid'ify (Lat. lap'is, a stone; fac'io, 
I make). To convert into stone. 

Lapil'li (Lat. lapil'lus, a little stone). 
A variety of volcanic cinders. 

Lap'is (Lat. a stone). A term applied 
to various mineral substances. 

Larda'ceous (Lat. lardum, lard or 
bacon). Resembling lard or bacon. 

Larva (Lat. a mask). An insect in 
the caterpillar or grub state. 

Lar'viform (Lat. larva; forma, 
shape). Like a larva. 

Larvip'arous (Lat. larva; par'io, I 
bring forth). Producing young in 
the state of larvae or grubs. 

Larynge'al (Gr. A apvy£, larunx, the 
larynx). Belonging to the lai'ynx 
or windpipe. 

Laryngis'mus (Gr. Aapvy£, larunx, 
the larynx). Spasmodic action of 
the larynx. 

Laryngi'tis Gr. Aapuy^, larunx, the 
larynx; itis, denoting inflam¬ 
mation). Inflammation of the 

Laryngot'omy (Gr. Aapvy£, larunx, 
the larynx ; regvco, temnu, I cut). 
The operation of opening the 

Larynx (Gr. Aapvy £, larunx ). The 
enlarged upper part of the wind¬ 
pipe, projecting in the neck. 

La'tency (Lat. lat'eo, I lie hid). A 
lying hid. 

Latent (Lat. lat'eo, I lie hid). Hid¬ 
den ; not apparent to the senses. 

Lat'eral (Lat. lat us, a side). Be¬ 
longing to or placed at a side. 

Lat'erigrade (Lat. latus, a side ; 
gradus, a step). Able to walk 



Laterit'ious (Lat. later, a brick). Like 
bricks or brick-dust. 

Latex (Lat. a liquor or juice). The 
elaborated sap of plants. 

Laticif'erous (Lat. latex; fero, I 
carry). Conveying latex or elabor¬ 
ated sap. 

Latitude (Lat. lat us, wide). Width. 
Terrestrial latitude is the position 
of a place on the surface of the 
earth north or south of the equator. 
Celestial latitude is the distance of 
a heavenly body from the ecliptic, 
measured in a direction perpen¬ 
dicular to the ecliptic. 

Lava. The general name for melted 
rocky matter discharged from vol¬ 

Lax'ative (Lat. laxo, I loosen). 
Loosening ; mildly purgative. 

Laxa'tor (Lat. laxo, I loosen). That 
which relaxes or makes loose ; 
applied to certain muscles. 

Leaf-bud. A bud which produces 

Legume (Lat. legu'men, pulse). In 
botany, a pod opening at the front 
and back, as in the pea. 

Legu'minous (Lat. legu'men, pulse). 
Belonging to the bean tribe, the 
fruit of which is a legume or pod. 

Lemma (Gr. \ag/3aocc, lam'banb, I 
receive). A proposition laid down 
to demonstrate for the purpose of 
rendering more plain another that 
is to follow. 

Lens (Lat. a lentil). A transparent 
substance, with two curved sur¬ 
faces, or with a curved surface and 
a plane surface, for the purpose of 
altering the direction of rays of 
light passing through it. 

Lentic'ular (Lat. lentic'ulus, a little 
lentil). Having the form of a 
double convex lens, or the form or 
size of a lentil. 

Lentor (Lat. lentus, slow). Slowness; 
viscidity or thickness of fluids. 

Lepidoden'dron (Gr. \sms, lep'is, a 
scale; SevSpov, dendron, a tree). 
A family of fossil plants in the coal 
formation, so called from the scale¬ 
like arrangement of the scars of 
their leaves. 

Lepidogan'oid (Gr. \ems, lep'is , a 

scale; yauos, ganos, splendour; 
ei’Sos, eidos, form). A sub-order 
of fossil fishes. 

Lep'idoid (Gr. Ae 7 ns, lep'is, a scale ; 
eidos, eidos, shape). Resembling 

Lep'idote (Gr. Xems, lep'is, a scale). 
Covered with scales. 

Lepidop'tera (Gr. Ae 7 m, Zeph’s,ascale ; 
7 rrepou, pter'on, a wing). An order 
of insects having four membranous 
wings covered with fine scales, as 
butterflies and moths. 

Lepra (Gr. A ems, lep'is, a scale). 
The leprosy ; a disease of the skin 
characterised by the formation of 
whitish opaque scales. 

Le'sion (Lat. Icedo, I hurt). An in¬ 

Leth'argy (Gr. \rj9i 7 , lethe, oblivion ; 
apyos, argos, idle). Preternatural 

Leucae'mia (Gr. Aetucos, leulcos, 
white; alga, haima, blood). White 

Leucin (Gr. A evuos, leulcos, white). 
A white crystallisable organic sub¬ 
stance obtained from muscular fibre, 
and from the compounds of protein. 

Leucocythae'mia (Gr. A evKos, leulcos, 
white ; kotos, Jcutos, a cell ; alga, 
haima, blood). A diseased state 
characterised by an excess of white 
corpuscles in the blood. 

Leucophlegma'sia(Gr. A euuos, leulcos, 
white; <p\eyga, phlegma, phlegm). 
A condition of body characterised 
by paleness and flabbiness, with an 
excess of serum in the blood. 

Leva'tcr (Lat. levo, I raise). That 
which raises : applied to certain 

Lever (Lat. levo, I raise). A solid 
bar turning on an axis or fulcrum, 
employed for the purpose of raising 

Levigate (Lat. Icevis, smooth). To 
make smooth ; to rub to a fine im¬ 
palpable powder. 

Lexicon (Gr. A eyu, lego, I speak). 
A dictionary : applied generally to 
dictionaries of the Greek or Hebrew 

Leyden Jar. A glass jar coated on 
both sides with tinfoil to within 



several inches of the top, for the 
purpose of accumulating electricity. 

Lias (said to be from liers or layers, 
from its occurrence in thin beds). 
The lowest portion of the oolitic 
system in geology, composed of 
clayey limestones, bluish clays, and 
bituminous and pyritous shales. 

Liber (Lat. bark). The inner por¬ 
tion of the bark of a tree. 

Libra'tion (Lat. libra , a balance). A 
state of balancing : in astronomy, 
a variation in the appearance of 
portions of the edge of the moon, 
whereby, under certain circum¬ 
stances, they become alternately 
visible and invisible, as if the mo¬ 
tion of the moon were subject to 

Li'chen (Gr. A lei chert , a tree- 

moss). A division of cryptogamic 
plants covering trees and rocks : a 
disease of the skin. 

Lien'tery (Gr. Aetoy, leios, smooth ; 
£vt epov, en'teron, an intestine). A 
disease in which food is discharged 
undigested from the bowels. 

Lig'ament (Lat. ligo, I bind). That 
which binds together; a fibrous 
structure connecting bones. 

Ligamen'tous (Lat. ligo, I bind). 
Having the nature of or acting as a 

Lig 'ature (Lat. ligo, I bind). A 
band ; the act of binding ; a cord 
or string used in surgery for tying 

Lig'neous (Lat. lignum, wood). Con¬ 
sisting of or resembling wood. 

Lignifica'tion (Lat. lignum, wood; 
facio, I make. A making wood, 
or converting into wood. 

Lignin (Lat. lignum, wood). Vege¬ 
table fibre ; the substance which 
constitutes the essential part of the 
structure of plants. 

Lignite (Lat. lignum, wood). Brown 
coal : a variety of coal of recent 
formation, in which the woody 
structure is distinctly apparent. 

Lig'ulate (Lat. lig 1 ula, a strap). Like 
a bandage or strap. 

Lilia'ceous (Lat. lil'ium, a lily). Be¬ 
longing to or resembling a lily. 

Limb (Lat. limbus, an edge or bor¬ 

der). In astronomy, the border or 
outer edge of the sun or moon. 

Limestone. A mineral composed of 
carbonate of lime, and of which 
there are several varieties. 

Linctus (Lat. lingo, I lick). A me¬ 
dicine of the consistence of honey 
or treacle. 

Lin'eal (Lat. lin'ea, a line). Belong¬ 
ing to a line or length ; like a line. 

Lin'ear Numbers. In mathematics, 
numbers which have relation to 
length only. 

Lin'ear Perspective. That perspec¬ 
tive which regards only the posi¬ 
tions, forms, and sizes of objects. 

Lin'eate (Lat. lin'ea, a line). Marked 
longitudinally, with parallel de¬ 

Lin'gual (Lat. lingua, the tongue). 
Belonging to the tongue. 

Linguistic (Lat. lingua, tongue or 
language). Relating to language 
or the affinities of languages. 

Lin'iment (Lat. lin'io, I anoint). 
An oily composition for rubbing 
into external parts of the body. 

Liquation (Lat. liquo, I melt). The 
art of melting ; the process of 
melting out from an alloy an easily 
fusible metal from one less capable 
of fusion. 

Liquefaction (Lat. liquefac'io, I make 
liquid). A melting. 

Liq'uefy (Lat. liquefac'io, I make 
liquid). To melt or dissolve by 

Liq'uid (Lat. liq'ueo, I melt). A 
substance of which the component 
parts are not held together with 
sufficient force to prevent their 
separation by their own weight, 
but have not a mutual repulsion 
like gases. 

Liquor San'guinis (Lat. the liquor of 
the blood). The transparent colour¬ 
less fluid part of the blood, in 
which the corpuscles float. 

Lissenceph'ala (Gr. A iaaos, lissos, 
smooth ; eyicecpaAos, enkeph' alos, 
the brain). Smooth-brained ani¬ 
mals ; a term applied by Owen to 
a sub-class of mammalia in which 
the brain is more connected than in 
lyencephala, but has few or no 

B 2 



convolutions, as in the rodents and 
insectivorous animals. 

Lit/eral (Lat. lit'era, a letter). Ac¬ 
cording to the letter or exact ex¬ 
pression ; consisting of letters : in 
algebra, applied to equations in 
'which the known quantities as well 
as the unknown are represented by 

Lith/ate (Gr. Ai %s, litli'os, a stone). 
A salt of lithic acid with a base. 

Lith'ic (Gr. A idos, litli'os, a stone). 
Belonging to a stone or calculus ; 
applied to an acid formed in the 
animal body, and often forming a 
part of calculi. 

Lith'o- (Gk. A l6os, lith'os, a stone). 
A prefix in compound words, signi¬ 
fying stone. 

Lith'ocarp (Gr. A 160s, lith'os , a stone; 
nap-nos, Jcarpos, fruit). Fossil fruit. 

Lithog'raphy (Gr. A 160s, lith'os, a 
stone; 7 pacpco, grapho , I write). 
The art of tracing letters or figures 
on stone and transferring them to 

Lithol'ogy (Gr. \160s, lith'os, a stone; 
A070S, logos, discourse). The de¬ 
partment of geology which describes 
the rocks and strata, without refe¬ 
rence to fossils. 

Lith'ophyte (Gr. A 160s, lith'os, a stone; 
(purov, phuton, a plant). Stone 
plants ; a tribe of polypi having a 
fixed internal axis of stony con¬ 

Lithot'omy (Gr. Ai 60s, lith'os, a stone ; 
regrcr, temnb, I cut). An opera¬ 
tion for the removal of stones from 
the bladder. 

Litmus. A blue colouring matter 
obtained by the action of ammonia 
on certain lichens, and used in 
chemistry to detect the presence of 
acids, which turn it red. 

Litre (Fr.). The French standard 
measure of capacity, equal to a 
cubic decimetre, or about If Eng¬ 
lish pint. 

Lit'toral (Lat. littus, the shore). Be¬ 
longing to the shore. 

Lixiv'iate (Lat. lixa, ley of ashes). 
To impregnate with salts from 
wood ashes, as by passing water 
through them. 

Llandei'lo Formation. In geology, 
the lowest series of the Silurian 

Llanos (Spanish llano, flat, from Lat. 
planus). A name given to the 
plains extending along the banks 
of the Orinoco in South America. 

Loadstone ( Lead and Stone). The 
magnet; an ore consisting of prot¬ 
oxide and peroxide of iron. 

Loam. Any soil composed of clay 
and sand, containing neither in a 
distinct form. 

Lobe (Gr. A o/ 3 os, lohos). A part 
or division of an organ, as of 
the brain, lungs, or liver; or of a 

Lob'ular ( Lobule ). Belonging to or 
affecting a lobule. 

Lob'ule (Gr. Ao/ 3 os, lobos, a lobe). A 
little lobe, or sub-division of a lobe. 

Local (Lat. locus , a place). Belonging 
or confined to a part. 

Locomo'tion (Lat. locus, a place; 
viov'eo, I move). Motion from 
place to place. 

Locomo'tive (Lat. locus, a place; 
mov’eo, I move). Moving from 
place to place. 

Loc'ulament (Lat. loc'ulus, a cell). In 
botany, a cavity in an ovary. 

Locular (Lat. loc'ulus, a cell). Having 
one or more cells. 

Loculici'dal (Lat. loc'ulus, a cell; 
ccedo, I cut). In botany, applied 
to that form of opening of fruits in 
which the cells are split open at the 

Loc'ulose (Lat. loc'ulus, a cell). Di¬ 
vided by one or more partitions 
into cells. 

Locus (Lat. a place). In geometry, a 
term applied to a line by which a 
local or indeterminate problem is 

Lode (Sax. Icedan, to lead). In geology, 
a vein or course, whether contain¬ 
ing metal or not. 

Log'arithm (Gr. Kayos, logos, a ratio ; 
apiQgos, arith'mos, a number). 
The index or power to which any 
number, taken as a base, is to be 
raised so that the result may be 
equal to a given number. 

Logic (Gr. A oyos, logos, a word, rea- 



son). The science of the operations 
of the understanding which are 
subservient to the estimation of 
evidence; pointing out the rela¬ 
tions between given facts and 
the conclusions to be drawn from 

Logog'raphy (Gr. Xoyos, logos, a 
word; ypacpoo, grapho, I write). 
A system of printing by words 
instead of letters. 

Logom'eter (Gr. Xoyos, logos, propor¬ 
tion ; gerpou, metron, a measure). 
A scale for measuring chemical 

Logomet'ric (Gr. Xoyos, logos, a pro¬ 
portion ; |Uer pov, metron , a mea¬ 
sure). Measuring proportionate 

Lomenta'ceous (Lat. lomen'tum, bean- 
meal). In botany, applied to 
legumes or pods with transverse 
partitions, each division containing 
one seed. 

Longi- (Lat. longus, long). A pre¬ 
fix in compound words implying 

Lon'gitude (Lat. longus, long). 
Length; the distance, eastward or 
westward, of any meridian on the 
earth’s surface from some fixed 
meridian arbitrarily selected. The 
longitude of a celestial body is the 
arc of the ecliptic between the first 
point of Aries and the circle which 
measures its latitude. 

Loph'iodon (Gr. Xopos, loph'os, a 
crest or ridge ; oSovs, odous, a 
tooth). An extinct pachydermatous 
or thick-skinned animal found in 
the tertiary strata ; so called from 
the eminences on its teeth. 

Lopkobran'chiate (Gr. Xocpos, loph'os, 
a tuft; fipayx ia, bran'chia, gills). 
Having gills arranged in tufts : ap¬ 
plied to an order of fishes. 

Lo'ricate (Lat. lori'ca, a coat of 
mail). Covered as with a coat of 
mail or plate armour, as crocodiles, 
alligators, &c. 

Loxodrom'ic (Gr. X o£os, loxos, ob¬ 
lique ; bpoyos, drom'os, a course). 
Having an oblique course ; applied 
to a course in sailing, in which the 
ship is directed constantly towards 

the same point of the compass in 
an oblique direction. 

Lu'bricate (Lat. lu'bricus, slippery). 
To make smooth or slippery. 

Lu'cules (Lat. lux, light ; ule, de¬ 
noting smallness). A name given 
to the variations in the intensity of 
the brightness of the sun’s disk. 

Lumba'go (Lat. lumbus, the loin). 
A rheumatic affection of the region 
of the loins. 

Lumbar (Lat. lumbus , the loin). 
Belonging to the loins. 

Lumbrica'les (Lat. lumbri'cus , an 
earth-worm ; from their shape). A 
name given to certain small long 
muscles of the fingers and toes. 

Luminiferous (Lat. lumen, light; 
fero, I bear). Producing or con¬ 
veying light. 

Lu'minous (Lat. lumen, light). 
Shining; applied to bodies which 
are original sources of light. 

Lu'nacy (Lat. luna, the moon ; be¬ 
cause formerly supposed to be in¬ 
fluenced by the moon). Insanity 
or madness ; strictly, that form of 
insanity which is accompanied by 
intervals of reason, but commonly ap¬ 
plied to all states of unsound mind. 

Lunar (Lat. luna, the moon). Re¬ 
lating to the moon ; measured by 
the revolutions of the moon. 

Lu'nate (Lat. luna, the moon). 
Shaped like a crescent. 

Lu'natic (Lat. luna, the moon). 
Affected with lunacy. 

Luna'tion (Lat. luna, the moon). 
The period of the monthly revolu¬ 
tion of the moon, or the time from 
one new moon to another. 

Luniso'lar (Lat. luna, the moon ; sol, 
the sun). Compounded of the 
periods of revolution of the sun and 

Lu'nula (Lat. a little moon). The 
portion of the human nail near the 
root, which is whiter than the rest; 
also the narrow portion at the 
margins of the semilunar valves of 
the heart. 

Lupus (Lat. a wolf). In medicine, a 
disease characterised by its tendency 
to destructive ulceration of the 
parts which it attacks. 



Luxate (Lat. luxo, I loosen). To put 
out of joint. 

Luxation (Lat. luxo, I loosen). A 
putting out of joint; a dislocation. 

Lyenceph'ala (Gr. Xvw, luf>, I loosen; 
eyuecpaAos, enkeph' alos, the brain). 
Loose-brained : a term proposed by 
Professor Owen to denote the lowest 
group of mammalia, in which the 
hemispheres of the brain are com¬ 
paratively loose and disconnected, as 
in the monotremes and marsupials. 

Lymph (Lat. lympha, water). A 
transparent and nearly colourless 
fluid, which is conveyed into the 
blood by the lymphatic vessels. 

Lymphatic (Lat. lymplia, water). 
Belonging to lympli: applied to the 
vessels which convey lymph. 

Lyrate (Lat. lyra, a lyre). In botany, 
applied to leaves of which the apex 
consists of a large rounded lobe, 
and the divisions become gradually 
smaller towards the base. 


Mac'erate (Lat. macer, lean). To 
make lean or thin; to soften and 
dissolve away by steeping in a 

Macera'tion (Lat. macer, lean). The 
act of softening and dissolving away 
by steeping in a fluid. 

Macro- (Gr. yo.Kpos, makros, long). 
A prefix in compound words signi¬ 
fying length. 

IvIacroceph'alous(Gr. yanpos, makros, 
long; K€(pa\y, keph'ale, the head). 
Having a long head; applied in 
botany to embryos of which the two 
cotyledons grow together. 

Macrodactyl'ic (Gr. yaupos, makros, 
long; haurvAos, dak'tulos, a finger 
or toe). Having long toes. 

Macrom'eter (Gr. yanpos, makros, 
long ; yerpoi', matron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring in¬ 
accessible heights and objects. 

Macrop'odous (Gr. yaKpos, makros, 
long; tvovs, poas, a foot). Having 
long feet; applied to a family of 
crustacean invertebrate animals. 

Macrou'rous (Gr. yaKpos, makros, 
Jong ; ovpa, oura , a tail). Long¬ 
tailed ; applied to a tribe of crusta¬ 
ceans of which the lobster and 
shrimp are examples. 

Mac'ula (Lat. a spot). A spot: the 
name is given in the plural (maculce) 
to an order of diseases of the skin. 

Mad'repore (Fr. maclre, spotted; 
pore). A kind of coral. 

Maestricht Beds ( Maestricht , a town 

in the Netherlands). In geology, 
the upper layers of the chalk form¬ 
ation, consisting of a soft yellowish 

Mag'deburg Hemispheres. An ap¬ 
paratus for illustrating atmospheric 
pressure, consisting of two hollow 
brass hemispheres fitting together, 
which, when the air is withdrawn 
from their interior, cannot be 

Magellanic Clouds (MagaVhaens or 
Magellan, a Portuguese navigator). 
A name given to two nebulous 
patches of stars in the southern 

Magma (Gr. yaaaw, I knead). A 
mass of matter worked up into a 

Magne'sian Limestone. A limestone 

containing magnesia ; in geology, 
the term characterises a portion of 
the Permian system, or new red 

Magnet (Gr. yayvr\s, magnes ; from 
Magnesia in Asia Minor, where 
first observed). The loadstone ; 
an ore consisting of protoxide or 
sesquioxide of iron, which has the 
property of attracting small pieces 
of iron and of pointing to the poles; 
a piece of iron to which these pro¬ 
perties have been imparted. 

Magnetic (Gr. yayvps, magnes, a 
magnet). Belonging to or having 
the properties of the magnet. 

Magnetic Eat'tery. A battery formed 



of several magnets with all their 
poles similarly disposed. 

Magnetic Equa'tor. A line on the 
earth traced through the points at 
which the magnetic needle rests 

Magnetic Meridian. A line on the 

earth’s surface, bearing the same 
analogy to the magnetic equator as 
the terrestrial meridian to the ter¬ 
restrial equator. 

Magnetic Poles. The two regions of 
attraction separated by the equator 
of a magnet. 

Llag'netisni (Gr. gaytnjs, magnes, a 
magnet). The science which de¬ 
scribes the properties of the magnet; 
the property which is possessed by 
the magnet. 

Mag'netise (Gr. gayv-qs, magnes, a 
magnet). To impart magnetic pro¬ 
perties : to become magnetic. 

Mag'neto-electric'ity (Magnet; elec¬ 
tricity). The phenomena of elec¬ 
tricity called into existence by 

Magnetom'eter ( Magnet; Gr. gerpov, 
metron, a measure). A magnetised 
bar of steel for the purpose of de¬ 
termining the absolute amount of 
magnetic declination, or the inten¬ 
sities of terrestrial magnetism in 
horizontal or vertical directions. 

Mag'nitude (Lat. magnus, large). 
Size. Linear magnitude is length or 
distance. Superficial magnitude or 
area is the space included in length 
and breadth expressed in squares. 
Solid magnitude or volume is the 
bulk expressed by the length, 
breadth, and thickness of a body, 
or the space which it fills, expressed 
in cubes. Apparent magnitude, in 
optics , is the size of the picture 
formed on the retina, as measured 
by the angle formed between the 
object seen and the centre of the eye. 

Mal'achite (Gr. gahaxv, mal'ache, 
mallows ; from its appearance). A 
mineral, consisting of green car¬ 
bonate of copper. 

Mal'aco- (Gr. ga t'.anos, mal'akos, 
soft). A prefix in compound words, 
signifying softness. 

Malacol'ogy (Gr. ga.ha.Kos, mal'akos, 

soft; hoyos, logos, a description). 
The description of molluscous or 
soft-bodied animals. 

Malacopteryg'ian (Gr. ga.ha.Kos, 

mal'alcos, soft; ivTcpvyiov, pterv !- 
gion, a little wing, or fin). Having 
soft fins ; applied to an order of 
fishes, of which the rays of the fins 
are cartilaginous. 

Malacopteryg'ii abdomina'les. Abdo¬ 
minal malacopterygians; soft-finned 
fishes, with the ventral fins situ¬ 
ated under the abdomen behind the 
pectoral fins. 

Malacopteryg'ii subbranchia'ti. Sub- 

branchiate malacopterygians ; soft- 
finned fishes, with the ventral fins 
placed under the pectorals. 

Malacopteryg'ii ap'odes. Apodal or 
footless malacopterygians ; soft- 
finned fishes, without ventral fins, 
the homologues of feet. 

Malacos'teon (Gr. ga.ha.Kos, mal'alcos, 
soft ; oareor, os'teon, a bone). Soft¬ 
ness of bones ; the disease other¬ 
wise called mollities ossium. 

Malacos'tracous (Gr. gahaKos, mal'a¬ 
lcos, soft ; barpa-Kov, os'trakon , a 
shell). A section of Crustacea, of 
which the shell is generally solid ; 
named from the relative softness of 
the shell as compared with that of 

Malar (Lat. mala, the cheek). Be¬ 
longing to the cheek. 

Mala'ria (Italian, mal, bad ; a Via, 
air). Bad air ; an exhalation, as 
from marshes, tending to produce 

Mala'rial (Mala'ria). Produced by 

Mala'rious (Mala'ria). Containing 
or of the nature of malaria. 

Ma'late (Lat. malum , an apple). A 
compound of malic acid, or acid of 
apples, with a base. 

Malic (Lat. malum, an apple). Be¬ 
longing ■ to apples : applied to an 
organic acid, found principally in 

Malleabil'ity (Lat. mal'leus, a ham¬ 
mer). The property of being re¬ 
duced to thin plates or leaves by 
hammering or rolling. 

Malleable (Lat. mal'leus, a hammer). 



Capable of being beaten or rolled 
into tbin plates. 

Malle'olar (Lat. mal'leolus). Belong¬ 
ing to the ankle ; applied to certain 
small arteries. 

Malle'olus (Diminutive of Lat. maV- 
leus, a hammer). An ankle, or 
the joint formed with the legs on 
each side of the foot. 

Mammal (Lat. mamma, the breast), 
A name given to those vertebrate 
animals which suckle their young. 

Mammalif'erous (Mammalia or 

mammals; fero, I bear). Pro¬ 
ducing mammalian animals ; ap¬ 
plied to the geological strata which 
contain remains of mammals. 

Mam'mary (Lat. mamma, the breast). 
Belonging to the breast. 

Mam'mifer (Lat. mamma, the breast; 
fero, I carry). See Mammal. 

Mammillary (Lat. mammil'la, a 
teat). Belonging to or resembling 

Mam'millated (Lat. mammil'la, a 
teat). Having protuberances like 

Man'dible (Lat. mando, I chew). 
The upper jaw of an insect. 

Mandib'ulate (Lat. mando, I chew). 
Provided with an upper jaw. 

Manduca'tory (Lat.. mandu'co, I 
chew). Relating to or employed 
in chewing. 

Man'ganate (Mangane' se). A com¬ 
pound of manganic acid with a 

Manganic (Mangane'se). An acid 
consisting of an atom of manganese 
with three of oxygen. 

Manipulation (Lat. manip'ulus, a 
handful). Work by hand ; ap¬ 
plied to the manual and mechanical 
operations in science. 

Mannite. A variety of sugar ob¬ 
tained from manna. 

Manom'eter (Gr. gavos, manos, thin; 
gsrpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the 
rarity or density, or the elastic force 
of any gaseous substance. 

Man'oscope (Gr. gavos, manos, thin ; 
tTKonew, skop'ed, I view). See 

Mantis'sa (Lat. over-measure). A 

name given to the decimal part of 
a logarithm. 

Mantle. In zoology, the skin of mol¬ 
luscous animals, which covers in 
the viscera and a large part of the 

Manu'brium (Lat. a handle). A 
name sometimes given to the upper 
part of the sternum or breast-bone. 

Maras'mus (Gr. gapaivw, marai'no, I 
cause to waste away). Atrophy; 
a wasting of the body. 

Marces'cent (Lat. marces'co, I pine 
away). Withering or fading. 

Mar'garate (Gr. gapyapirr] ?, marga¬ 
rines, a pearl). A compound of 
margaric acid, with a base. 

Margar'ic (Gr. gapyapirrjs, marga- 
ri!tes, a pearl). Belonging to 
pearl, or to the pearl-like substance 
called margai’ine ; applied to one 
of the acids existing in oils. 

Mar'garine (Gr. gapyapirr] s, marga- 
ri'tcs, a pearl). A pearl-like sub¬ 
stance obtained from oils by expo¬ 
sure to cold. 

Mar'ginate (Lat. margo, a rim or 
edge). In botany, applied to the 
calyx when it is reduced to a mere 

Marine (Lat. mare, the sea). Be¬ 
longing to or produced in the sea. 

Marl. A general term for all friable 
or crumbly compounds of lime and 

Marlstone. A layer of calcareous, 
sandy, and inony beds, forming 
one of the strata of the lowest or 
liassic group in the oolitic system 
in geology. 

Marsu'pial (Lat. marsu'pium, a 
pouch or bag). Having or belonging 
to a pouch ; applied to an order of 
mammalia which bring forth their 
young in an imperfect state, and 
keep them, until developed, in a 
pouch formed by a peculiar ar¬ 
rangement of the skin on the ab¬ 
dominal surface of the animal. 

Marsupia'ta (Lat. marsu'pium, a 
pouch or bag). See Marsupial. 

Marsu'pium (Lat. a pouch). A dark 
coloured membrane in the vitreous 
body of the eyes of birds. 

Mas'sicot. Yellow oxide of lead. 



Mas'ticate (Gr. /aacrros, mastos, the 
jaws or mouth). To chew. 

Masti'tis (Gr. /aaaros, mastos, the 
breast; itis, denoting inflamma¬ 
tion). Inflammation of the breast. 

Mas'todon (Gr. yaaros, mastos, a 
nipple : 65 ovs, odous, a tooth.) A 
fossil animal of the elephant kind, 
so called from the nipple-like pro¬ 
minences on its teeth. 

Mastodyn'ia (Gr. /aacrros, mastos, the 
breast ; oSvvrj, od'une, pain). 
Pain of the breast. 

Mas'toid (Gr. /aacrros, mastos, a 
nipple; elSos, eidos, shape). Re¬ 
sembling a nipple. 

Mater (Lat. a mother). A name 
given to two of the membranes 
covering the brain, because for¬ 
merly supposed to be the source of 
all the other membranes. 

Mate'ria Med'ica (Lat. medical ma¬ 
terial). The collective name for the 
substances used in medicine ; the 
science which describes these sub¬ 
stances, their properties, modes of 
preparation, &c. 

Mathematics (Gr. /aady/aa, mathema, 
learning; from /aavQavw, man'thand, 
I learn). The science which treats 
of whatever can be measured or 
numbered. Pure mathematics 
considers quantity and number 
without reference to matter. 
Mixed mathematics treats of mag¬ 
nitude in connection with material 

Matrix (Lat. mater, a mother). The 
place or substance in which any¬ 
thing, as a mineral ore, fossil, &c., 
is imbedded. 

Maturate (Lat. matu'rus, ripe). To 

Maxilla (Lat. a jaw). A jaw ; the 
lower pairs of horizontal jaws in 
invertebrate animals. 

Maxillary (Lat. maxilla, a jaw). 
Belonging to the jaws. 

Maxil'liped (Lat. maxilla, a jaw; 
joes, a foot), A jaw-foot; applied 
to the foot-like organs covering the 
mouth in Crustacea. 

Maximum (Lat. greatest). The 
greatest quantity or degree attain¬ 

Mean (Fr. moyen, from Lat. mc'dius, 
middle). Having an intermediate 
or average value between two or 
more quantities. 

Mea'tus (Lat. meo, I pass). A pas¬ 

Mechanics (Gr. /ar/x avr h mechane, 
an artificial contrivance). The 
science which investigates the ac¬ 
tion of bodies on one another, 
either directly or by means of ma¬ 

Mec'onate (Gr. /ay kcou, melon, a 
poppy). A salt of meconic acid 
with a base. 

Meconic (Gr. /ar/Kocr, melon, a 
poppy). Belonging to the poppy ; 
applied to an acid found in opium. 

Medise'val (Lat. me'dius, middle ; 
cevum, an age). Belonging to the 
middle ages. 

Me'dian Plane (Lat. me'dius, middle). 
A plane or flat surface supposed to 
pass down through a body from 
before backwards, so as to leave 
equal partes on both sides. 

Mediasti'num. The partition formed 
by the meeting of the pleurae, divi¬ 
ding the chest into two lateral 

Medical Jurisprudence. The science 
which treats of subjects in which 
both law and medicine are applied. 

Medicate (Lat. med'icus, a physi¬ 
cian). To impregnate with medi¬ 
cinal substances. 

Medicine (Lat. med'eor, I cure; from 
Gr. /aeSo/aai, med'omai, I attend 
to). The science of relieving, 
curing, or preventing diseases; 
any substance used with these 

Medie'val. See Mediaeval. 

Me'dium (Lat. me'dius, the middle). 
The space, substance, or matter in 
which bodies exist, or in which 
they move; the agent through 
which a cause or power acts in 
producing its effect. 

Medulla (Lat.). Marrow; in botany, 
the pith of plants. 

Medulla Oblonga'ta (Lat.). The 
lengthened or prolonged marrow ; 
the continuation of the spinal cord 
within the skull. 



Medulla Spinalis (Lat.) The spinal 
marrow or cord. 

Med'ullary (Lat. medul'la, marrow). 
Relating to marrow ; in botany, 
belonging to or connected with 

Med'ullary Rays. In botany , masses 
of cells connecting the pith with 
the hark. 

Med'ullary Sheath. The sheath 
which surrounds the pith in exo¬ 
genous plants. 

Mega- or Megal- (Gr. geyas, meg'as, 
large). A prefix in compound 
w'ords, denoting large size. 

Megac'eros (Gr. gey a?, meg'as, great; 
Kepas, leer'as, horn.) The fossil or 
sub-fossil deer of the British Isles, 
commonly named the Irish elk. 

Megalich'thys (Gr. gey as, meg'as, 
great; IxGvs, ichthus, a fish). A 
large fossil fish. 

Megalon'yx (Gr. geyas, meg'as, 
great; on'ux, a nail). An 

extinct animal allied to the sloth ; 
named from the large size of its 

Megalosau'rus (Gr. geyas, meg'as, 
great ; aavpos, sauros, a lizard). 
A large fossil land reptile. 

Megathe'rioids (Gr. geyas, meg'as, 
great ; Gnptov, iherion, a wild 
beast; elSos, eidos, form). A 
family of fossil mammalia allied to 
the megatherium. 

Megathe'rium (Gr. geyas, meg'as, 
great; Gyp, tiler, a beast). A large 
extinct animal, allied to the 

Melee'na (Gr. geXas, mel'as, black). 
A discharge of dark blood from the 

Melano'sis (Gr. geXas, mel'as, black). 
A diseased formation of a black or 
dark colour. 

Melanot'ic (Gr. geXas, mel'as, black). 
Having or of the nature of mela¬ 

Melas'ma (Gr. geXas, mel'as, black). 
A blackening or darkening. 

Melliferous (Lat. mel, honey; fero, 
I bear). Producing honey. 

Melliv'orous (Lat. mel, honey ; voro, 
I devour). Feeding on honey. 

Mel'ody (Gr. geXos, md'os, a tune ; 

d>577, ode, an ode). An agreeable 
succession of sounds. 

Membrana'ceous (Lat. membra'na, a 
membrane). Consisting of mem¬ 

Membra'na Nic'titans (Lat.) The 
winking membrane; a moveable 
fold of skin with which birds cover 
their eyes. 

Mem'branous. See Membranaceous. 

Menin'ges (Gr. gyviy^, meninx, a 
membrane). The membranes cover¬ 
ing the brain and spinal cord. 

Meningi'tis ( Meninges; ids, deno¬ 
ting inflammation). Inflammation 
of the membranes covering the 

Menis'cus (Gr. g-pvicrKos, menislcos, 
a crescent; from gyvr), meat, the 
moon). A lens convex on one side 
and concave on the other, with a 
sharp edge. 

Mensura'tion (Lat. mcnsu'ra, a mea¬ 
sure). The art of measuring. 

Mentag'ra (Lat. menturn, the chin ; 
Gr. ay pa, agra, a seizing). An 
eruptive disease affecting the chin 
and upper lip. 

Mepliit'ic (Lat. mephitis, an ill 
smell). Offensive ; pestilential; 
destructive to life. 

Merca'tor’s Chart (Gerrard Merca'tor, 
a Flemish geographer). A repre¬ 
sentation of the earth on a plane 

Mereu'rial (Lat. Mercv!rius, Mercury, 
also quicksilver). Belonging to or 
formed of mercury or quicksilver. 

Mer'icarp (Gr. gepos, mer'os, a part; 
Kapnos, harpos, fruit). The half of 
the fruit of an umbelliferous plant. 

Meridian (Lat. merid'ies, mid-day). 
A great circle supposed to be drawn 
through the poles of the earth at 
right angles to the equator, dividing 
the hemisphere into eastern and 
western : when this circle arrives 
opposite the sun, it is midday at 
the place. Celestial meridian is 
the vertical circle which passes 
through the celestial pole. Mag¬ 
netic meridian. See Magnetic. 

Merid'ional ( Merid'ian ). Belonging 
to the meridian. 

Merisniat'ic (Gr. gepiCw, meri'zd, I 



divide). Fissiparous; multiplying 
by division. 

Mesencepli'alic (Gr. peaos, mes'os, 
middle ; eyiceipakov, enceph'alon, 
tlie contents of the skull). Be¬ 
longing to the middle part of the 

Mesenteric (Gr. peaos, rues'os, midst; 
iurepov, en'teron, the intestine). 
Belonging to the mesentery. 

Mes'entery (Gr. peaos, mes'os, middle; 
evrepov, en'teron, an intestine). The 
fold of membrane which attaches 
the intestines to the spine. 

Mes'o- (Gr. peaos, mes'os, middle). 
A prefix in compound words, signi¬ 
fying middle. 

Mesocae'cum (Gr. peaos, mes’os, 
middle; Lat. caecum, a portion of 
the large intestines). The part of 
the peritoneum which attaches the 

Mes'ocarp (Gr. peaos, mes'os, middle; 
napnos, Jcarpos, fruit). The mid¬ 
dle of the three layers in fruits. 

Mesoceph'alon (Gr. peaos, vies'os, 
middle; K«pa\ri , keph'ale, a head). 
A name sometimes given to the 
pons Varolii of the brain, from its 

Mesocolon (Gr. peaos, mes'os, middle; 
colon, a part of the intestines so 
called). The portion of mesentery 
which attaches the colon. 

Mesogas'tric (Gr. peaos, mes'os, mid¬ 
dle; yaaapp, gaster, the stomach). 
Attaching the stomach to the walls 
of the abdomen. 

Mesono'tum (Gr. peaos, mes'os, mid¬ 
dle; voctos, ndtos, the back). The 
upper half of the middle segment of 
the thorax in insects, covering in 
the back. 

Mesophloe'um (Gr. peaos, mes'os, 
middle; (p\oios,phloi'os, bark). In 
botany, the middle layer of the bark 
of a tree. 

Mesophyll'um (Gr. peaos, mes'os, 
middle ; <pvk\ov, phullon, a leaf). 
The cellular substance of a leaf. 

Mes'osperm (Gr. peaos, mes'os, mid¬ 
dle ; aireppa, sperma, a seed). The 
middle coat of a seed. 

Mesoster num (Gr. pen os, vies'os, mid¬ 
dle; arepyov, sternon , the breast). 

The lower half of the middle seg¬ 
ment of the thorax in insects. 

Mesotho'rax (Gr. peaos, vies'os, mid¬ 
dle ; 0 wpa£, thorax, a breast-plate). 
The middle part of the thorax ot 
insects, bearing the anterior pair 
of wings and the middle pair of 
legs. _ 

Mesozo'ic (Gr. peaos, mes'os, middle ; 
far], zde, life). A name given in 
geology to the middle period, as 
regards animal remains ; compre¬ 
hending the cretaceous, oolitic and 
triassic epochs. 

Met'a- (Gr. pera, met'a, beyond). 
A prefix in compound words, signi¬ 
fying beyond. 

Metacar'pal (Gr. pera, met'a, be¬ 
yond ; icapwos, Jcarpos, the wrist). 
Belonging to the mctacarpos. 

Metacarpus (Gr. pera, viet'a, be¬ 
yond ; Kapiros, Jcarpos, the wrist). 
The hand between the wrist and the 

Metach'ronism (Gr. pera, viet'a, be¬ 
yond; xp ovos i chron'os, time). The 
placing an event in chronology after 
its real time. 

Metagenesis (Gr. pera, viet'a, im¬ 
plying change; yevvau, gennad, I 
produce). Alternating generation; 
the succession of individuals, which 
present the same form only at every 
alternate generation ; the changes 
of form which the representative of 
a species undergoes in passing from 
the egg to a perfect or more com¬ 
plete state. 

Metagenet'ic (Gr. pera, viet'a, imply¬ 
ing change ; yeyyaco, gennad, I 
produce). Referring to the changes 
of form undergone in passing from 
the egg to a perfect state. 

Metalliferous (Lat. metal'lum, a 
metal; fero, I bear). Producing 
or yielding metals. 

Metalloid (Gr. peaaWov, metal'l-on, 
a metal; eldos, eiclos, form). Like 
metal; a name sometimes given to 
the non-metallic elements. 

Metallurgy (Gr. perakkoy, vietal'lon, 
a metal ; ipyov, ergon, work). 
The art of working metals ; 
especially separating them from 
their ores. 



Metamor'phic (Gr. gera, met'a, im¬ 
plying change ; poppy, morphe, 
form). Changing form ; a name 
given in geology to those rocks 
which have undergone a change in 
their original structure and texture; 
in medicine, applied to diseases 
having their seat in the processes 
of development and nutrition. 

Metamor'phism. (Gr. gera, met'a, im¬ 
plying change ; poppy, morphe, 
form). Change in form ; a term 
applied in geology to the change in 
structure and texture which has 
been undergone by some rocks. 

Metamorph'osis (Gr. gera, met'a, im¬ 
plying change; goppy, morphe, 
form). A change in shape ; the 
change undergone by some ani¬ 
mals, such as insects and reptiles. 

Metano'tum (Gr. per a, met'a, behind ; 
vccros, nutos, the hack). The up¬ 
per half of the hinder division of 
the thorax in insects. 

Met'aphor (Gr. gera, met'a, beyond ; 
pepoo, pher'd, I bear). A similitude 
expressed without the sign of com¬ 

Metaphysics (Gr. gera, met'a, be¬ 
yond ; pvaucy, phu'sike, physics, or 
the science of nature). The science 
of mind or intelligence. 

Metapoph'ysis (Gr. gera, met'a, be¬ 
tween ; apoph'ysis) . A part grow¬ 
ing between apophyses. 

Metas'tasis (Gr. gera, met'a, beyond; 
iarygi, histemi, I place). A trans¬ 
ference of diseases from one place to 

Metaster'num (Gr. gera, met'a, be¬ 
hind ; arepvov, sternon, the breast). 
The lower part of the posterior 
division of the thorax in insects. 

Metatar'sal (Gr. gera, met'a, beyond ; 
rapaos, tarsos, the instep). Be¬ 
longing to the metatarsus. 

Metatar'sus (Gr. gera, met'a, beyond ; 
rapaos, tarsos, the instep). The 
foot from the ankles to the toes. 

Metath'esis (Gr. gera, met'a, imply¬ 
ing change ; rtdygi, tithemi, I 
place). A transposition of the 
letters or syllables of a word. 

MetathoTax (Gr. gera, met'a, beyond; 
6 wpa£, thorax, a breast-plate). The 

hinder part of the thorax of insects, 
bearing the posterior pair of wings 
and legs. 

Me'teor (Gr. gereojpos, meted'ros, 
lifted up ; from gera, met'a, beyond ; 
alpoo, airo, I raise up). Any at¬ 
mospheric appearance or phenome¬ 
non of a transitory nature. 

Meteoric {Me'teor). Relating to 

Meteoric Stones. Aerolites, or 
masses of hard matter, containing 
metallic iron, nickel, and other 
bodies, occasionally falling on the 

Me'teorite {Me'teor). A solid sub¬ 
stance falling on the earth from 
the higher regions of the atmos¬ 

Meleorolite {Me'teor; Gr. Xidos, 
lith'os, a stone). See Meteorite. 

Meteorol'ogy {M e'teor ; \oyos, logos, 
a description). The science which 
describes atmospherical phenomena, 
whether accidental or permanent. 

Meth/yl (Gr. ge6v, metli'u, wine; vXy, 
hule , material). An hypothetical 
compound of carbon and hydrogen, 
forming the base of certain com¬ 
pounds, as wood-spirit and chloro¬ 
form, analogous to the alcohol series. 

Meton'ic Cycle (M yrwv, Metun, an 
Athenian astronomer). A cycle or 
period of nineteen years, at the end 
of which the lunations of the moon 
return to the same days of the 
month as at first. 

Meton'ymy (Gr. gera, met'a, implying 
change ; ovoga, on'oma, a name). 
A putting one word for another 
which has some relation to it; as 
an effect for a cause ; an author’s 
name for his writings ; &c. 

Me'tre (Gr. gerpov, metron, a mea¬ 
sure). A French measure of length, 
being the ten-millionth part of the 
distance from the equator to the 
north pole, equal to 39 ’37 English 

Met'ronome (Gr. gerpov, metron, a 
measure ; vogos, nom'os, a law). 
An instrument consisting of a pen¬ 
dulum suspended by a point be¬ 
tween the extremities, used for 
measuring by its vibrations the 



quickness or slowness of musical 

Mezzotin'to (Italian mezzo, middle or 
half; tinto, painted). A manner 
of engraving on copper, in which 
the lights of the figure represented 
are obtained by the erasure of dents 
and furrows previously scratched 
on the plate. 

Mias'ma (Gr. puaivw, miai'no , I taint 
or pollute). Effluvia floating in 
the air, often injurious to health. 

Miasmatic (Gr. /uiaa/xa, mias'ma). 
Pertaining to or characterised by 

Mi'ca (Lat. mi'co, I glitter). A soft 
glistening mineral, chiefly composed 
of silica, potash, and magnesia; it 
forms the glistening scaly appear¬ 
ance in granite. 

Mica-schist. A slaty rock, of which 
mica is the principal ingredient, 
together with quartz. 

Miea'ceous (Mica). Belonging to or 
resembling mica, or chiefly con¬ 
sisting of mica. 

Micro- (Gr. punpos, mihros, small.) 
A prefix in compound words, signi¬ 
fying smallness. 

Microm'eter (Gr. paxpos, milcros, 
small; perpou, met'ron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring small 
bodies or spheres, or small visual 
angles formed by remote objects, by 
means of which the magnitude of 
bodies seen through the telescope 
or microscope may be ascertained. 

Mi'cropyle (Gr. punpos, mihros, small; 
ttvAtj, pule, a gate). The opening 
or foramen in a seed, towards which 
the radicle is always pointed. 

Mi'croscope (Gr. pinpos, mihros, 
small ; gko-kcw, shop'ed, I look at). 
An optical instrument formed of 
lenses which magnify the image of 
small objects placed in their focus, 
so as to render them visible or 
more distinct than before. 

Microscopical ( Mi'croscope ). Rela¬ 
ting to the microscope ; visible by 
means of the microscope. 

Midrib (Mid and rib). The principal 
vein of a leaf, which runs from the 
stem to the point. 

Miliary (Lat. mil'ium , millet). Like 

millet-seeds ; applied to an erup¬ 
tive disease characterised by the 
presence of innumerable white 

Milky Way. An appearance of 
nebulous light extending over a 
large extent of the celestial sphere, 
and found by the telescope to con¬ 
sist of countless multitudes of stars, 
so crowded as to give the place 
they occupy a whitish appearance. 

Milligramme (Lat. mil'le, a thou¬ 
sand ; Fr. gramme). A French 
weight of a thousandth part of a 
gramme, or "015 English grain. 

Millime'tre (Lat. mil'le, a thousand ; 
Fr. metre). A French measure, 
equal to the thousandth part of a 
metre, or *03937 English inch. 

Mimetic (Gr. pugeopai, mim'eomai, I 
imitate). Imitative. 

Mineral (Mine). A body destitute 
of organisation, existing naturally 
within the earth or at its surface. 

Mineral'ogy (Mineral; Gr. A oyos, 
logos, a description). The science 
which describes the properties and 
relations of simple mineral sub¬ 

Minimum (Lat. min'imus, least). 
The least quantity assignable in a 
given case. 

Minium (Lat.) A compound of pro¬ 
toxide and deutoxide of lead, of a 
red colour. 

Min'uend (Lat. min’uo, I diminish). 
That which is to be diminished ; 
in arithmetic, the number from 
which another is to be subtracted 
or taken. 

Min'ute (Lat. minu'tus, diminished). 
A sixtieth part of an hour or de¬ 

Mi'ocene (Gr. jxeiwv, mciun, less ; 
Kaivos, hainos, new). A name 
given in geology to the middle 
group of the tertiary strata, from 
its containing a less number of 
shells identical with existing species 
than the upper or pliocene group. 

Mira'ge (Fr.) The name given to an 
atmospheric phenomenon, consist¬ 
ing in the appearance in the air of 
inverted images of distant objects, 
produced by the rays of light pro- 



ceeding from them through a dense 
stratum of air falling on the surface 
of a rarer stratum, and being, 
under certain conditions, reflected 

Mi'tral (Lat. mi'fra, a head-dress, or 
mitre). Resembling a mitre ; ap¬ 
plied to the valve at the orifice of 
the left ventricle of the heart. 

Mi'triform (Lat. mi'tra, a mitre; 
forma, shape). Shaped like a 

Mnemonics (Gr. / xvaogai , mna omai, 
I remember). The art of assisting 
the memory. 

Mobility (Lat. mo'bilis, moveable). 
Capability of being moved. 

Mo'dal (Lat. mo'dus, manner). Re¬ 
lating to manner or form ; in logic, 
applied to propositions which show 
the manner in which the predicate 
is connected with the subject. 

Mod'ule (Lat. mod'ulus, a measure). 
A model : in architecture, a mea¬ 
sure taken to regulate the propor¬ 
tions of an edifice; generally the 
semi-diameter of the column at the 
bottom of the shaft. 

Mo'lar (Lat. mo'la, a mill). Grinding; 
applied to the large double teeth 
by which the food is ground. 

Molec'ular ( Mol'ecule ). Consisting 

of or relating to molecules. 

Molec'ular Attraction. That form 

of attraction which operates on the 
molecules or particles of a body. 

Molec'ular Forces. The attractive 
and repulsive forces existing be¬ 
tween the molecules of a body. 

MoTecules (Lat. mo'les, a mass; ule, 
denoting smallness). A very mi¬ 
nute particle of a mass. 

Mollit'ies (Lat. softness). In medi¬ 
cine, a diseased softening of various 

Mollus'ca (Lat. moVlis, soft). A di¬ 
vision of invertebrate animals, so 
called from the softness of their 
bodies; comprising cephalopods, 
pteropods, gasteropods, acephala, 
and brachiopods. 

Mollus'coid ( Mollus'ca; Gr. etSoy, 
eidos, form). A subdivision of 
the molluscous division, including 
tunicata and bryozoaria. 

Momen'tum (Lat. moveo, I move). 
The force which a moving mass of 
matter exercises against an object 
with which it comes into contact, 
being the product of its quantity 
of matter and its velocity. 

Mon- or Mon'o- (Gr. govos, mon'os, 
alone). A prefix in compound 
words signifying single. 

Mon'ad (Gr. govos, mon'os, single ). 
An ultimate atom ; a name given 
to the smallest of visible animal¬ 

Monadel'phia (Gr. govos, mon'os, 
single ; a5e\cpos, adelphos, a bro¬ 
ther). A class of plants in the 
Linnean system, in which all the 
stamens are united in a cylindrical 
body, through the midst of which 
the pistil passes. 

Monan'dria (Gr. govos, mon'os, 
single ; avrip, aner, a man). A 
class of plants in the Linnsean sys¬ 
tem, having only one stamen. 

Mongolian (Mongol). A term ap¬ 
plied to a class of mankind having 
the Mongols and Chinese as the 
type ; 

Monil'iform. (Lat. moni'le, a necklace; 
for'ma, shape). Like a necklace ; 

Monoba'sic (Gr. govos, mon'os, single; 
Pains, ba'sis, a foundation). Having 
a single atom of base. 

Monocar'pous (Gr. govos, mon'os, 
single; Kapvos, Jcadpos, fruit). 
Bearing a single fruit. 

Monochlamyd'eous(Gr. govos, mon'os, 
single ; chlamus, a tunic). 

Applied to flowers having a single 

Monocli'nate (Gr. govos, mon'os, 
single; kXivu, hlinb, I bend). 
Having one of the axes turned 
obliquely ; applied in mineralogy 
to certain crystals. 

Mon'ochord (Gr.^umov, mon'os, single; 
X°P^V, chorde, a chord or string). 
A musical instrument or apparatus 
of one string, used for the purpose 
of determining the rates of vibration 
of musical notes. 

Monochromatic (Gr. govos, mon'os, 
single ; xpw/ia, chroma , colour). 
Of one colour only. 



Monocotyle / donous(Gr.MOJ / os,mon'os, 

single ; cotyle'don). Having one 
cotyledon or seed-lobe. 

Monoc'ular (Gr. govos, mon'os, one ; 
Lat. oc'ulus, an eye). Having one 
eye only. 

Monoe'cia (Gr. govos, vion’os, single ; 
oIkos, oikos, a house). Aclass of plants 
in the Linnsean system, having the 
stamens and pistils in different 
flowers, but on the same plant. 

Monogam'ia (Gr. govos, mon'os , sin¬ 
gle ; yagos, gamos, marriage). An 
order of plants in the Linnsean 
system having the anthers 

Mon'ogram (Gr. govos, mon'os, single; 
ypagga, gramma, a letter). A 
character composed of two or more 
letters interwoven. 

Mon'ograph (Gr. govos, mon'os, sin¬ 
gle ; ypcupo), graph'd, I write). A 
treatise or book on one subject or 
class of subjects. 

Monogyn'ia (Gr. govos, mon'os, sin¬ 
gle ; 7 vug, gune, a female). An 
order of plants in the Linnsean 
system, consisting of plants having 
one pistil. 

Monoma'nia (Gr. govos, mon'os, sin¬ 
gle ; gavia, ma'nia, madness). A 
form of insanity in which the mind 
is deranged with regard to one idea. 

Monome'ra (Gr. govos . mon'os, single; 
ggpov, meron, a thigh). A section 
of hemipterous insects having only 
one joint in the tarsi. 

Monomor'phous (Gr. govos, mon'os, 
single ; gopcpg, morphe, form). Of 
a single form. 

Monomy'ary (Gr. govos, mon'os, sin¬ 
gle ; gvs, mus, a muscle). Having 
one muscle ; applied to certain bi¬ 
valve mollusca, of w'hich the shell 
is closed by a single muscle. 

Monopet'alous (Gr. govos, mon'os, 
single ; -kstciKov, pet'alon, a petal). 
Having petals united by their 

Mon'optote (Gr. govos, mon'os, single ; 
ivToiais, ptosis, a case). A noun 
having only one case besides the 

Monorgan'ic (Gr. govos, mon'os, sin¬ 
gle ; bpyavov, or'ganon, an organ). 

Belonging to or affecting one organ 
or set of organs. 

Monosep'alous (Gr. govos, mon'os, 
single; sepal). Having sepals 
united by their margins. 

Monosper'mous (Gr. govos, mon'os, 
single; awepga, sper'ma, a seed). 
Having a single seed. 

Monosyllabic (Gr. govos, mon'os, 
single; avAAafir), sul'labe, a syl¬ 
lable). Having one syllable only. 

Monothal'amous (Gr. govos, mon'os, 
single; 6a.Aa.gos, thal'amos, a cham¬ 
ber). Having one chamber only ; 
not divided by partitions. 

Monotre'matous (Gr. govos, mon'os, 
single; Tprjga, tre'ma, a hole or 
opening). Having only one external 
opening for the passage of excreted 
matter ; applied to a small class of 

Monsoon. A name given to a modi¬ 
fication of the course of the trade- 
winds in the eastern seas. 

Moraine. A name given to the longi¬ 
tudinal mounds of stony detritus 
found at the bases and along the 
edges of glaciers. 

Morbid (Lat. mor'bus, disease). Re¬ 
lating to disease ; diseased. 

Morbid Anatomy. The study of the 
alterations produced in the struc¬ 
ture of the body by disease. 

Morbific (Lat. morbus, disease; 
fac'io, I make). Causing disease. 

Morbil'li (Lat.). The measles. 

Mordant (Fr. biting; from Lat. 
mor'deo, I bite). Any substance 
employed in dyeing for the purpose 
of fixing the colours. 

Mofphia (Gr. M opipevs, Morpheus, 
the god of sleep). A vegetable 
alkaloid obtained from opium. 

Morpholog'ical (Gr. gopipri, morphe, 
form ; Aoyos, logos, description). 
Relating to modifications of form. 

MorphoTogy (Gr. gop<p-r], morphe, 
form ; A070S, logos, a description). 
The study of the forms which 
different organs or parts assume, 
and of the laws that regulate their 

Mortification (Lat. mors, death ; 
fac'io, I make). Loss of vitality 
or life in some part of a living body. 



Mortise. A cavity cut in a piece of 
wood or other material, to receive 
a corresponding projecting piece 
called a tenon. 

Mososau'rus ( Mo'sa, the river Meuse; 
Gr. aavpos, sauros, a lizard). A 
large fossil reptile found in the 
cretaceous formation. 

Motor (Lat. mov'eo, I move). Pro¬ 
ducing or regulating motion ; 
applied to certain nerves and 

Mouldings. A term applied to all 
the varieties of outline or contour 
given to the surfaces or edges of 
the various subordinate parts of 
buildings, whether projections or 

Mu'cilage (Lat. mu'cus). A kind of 
gum found in vegetables; a solu¬ 
tion of gum in water. 

Mucilaginous (Mu'cilage). Per¬ 
taining to or of the nature of 

Mucor (Lat.). Mouldiness. 

Mucous (Lat. mu'cus , slime). Pertain¬ 
ing to or of the nature of mucus ; 
secreting mucus. 

Mucous Membrane. A membrane 
secreting mucus, and lining in¬ 
ternal passages and other cavities 
which open on the surface of the 
body, as well as the cavities which 
open into these passages. 

Mu'cronate (Lat. mu'cro, the sharp 
point of a weapon). Ending in a 
stiff point. 

Mucus (Lat.). The slimy substance 
effused on the surface of the mem¬ 
branes covering the inner surface 
of the body, as the alimentary 
canal, nose, lungs, &c. 

Multi- (Lat. mul'tus, many or much). 
A prefix in compound words, signi¬ 
fying many. 

Multan'gular (Lat. mul'tus , many; 
an 1 gulus, an angle). Having many 

Multiartic'ulate (Lat. mul'tus , many; 
artic'ulus , a joint). Having many 

Multicus'pidate (Lat. mul'tus , many ; 
cus'jiis, the point of a weapon). 
Having seveixil points or tubercles; 
applied to the molar teeth. 

Multicostats (Lat. mul'tus, many ; 
cos'ta, a rib). Having many ribs. 

Mul'tifid (Lat. mul'tus, many; Jin'do, 
I cleave). Having many divisions; 
in botany, applied to leaves divided 
laterally about the middle be¬ 
tween the edge and the midrib 
into numerous divisions. 

Multiform (Lat. mid'tus, many; 
forma, shape). Having many 


Multilateral (Lat. mul'tus, many; 
latus, aside). Having many sides. 

Multilinear (Lat. mid'tus, many; 
li'nea, a line). Having many 


Multiloc'ular (Lat. mul'tus, many; 
loc'ulus, a little place). Having 
many cells or chambers. 

Multino'date (Lat. mul'tus, many; 
nodus, a knot). Having many 


Multino'mial (Lat. mid'tus, many; 
nomen, a name). Having many 

names or terms ; applied in algebra 
to quantities consisting of several 
names or terms. 

Multip'arous (Lat. mul'tus, many; 
par'io, I bring forth). Producing 
many young at a birth. 

Multipartite (Lat. mul'tus, many; 
par'tio, I divide). Divided into 
many parts ; applied in botany to 
leaves having numerous and deej 

Multiple (Lat. mul'tus, many; plic'o, 
I fold). Containing many times ; 
a common multiple of two or more 
numbers is a number which can 
be divided by each of them without 
leaving a remainder. 

Multiplicand (Lat. multip'lico, I 
multiply). The number which is 
to be multiplied. 

Multiplication (Lat. mul'tus, many; 
pUco, I fold). The process of 
repeating a quantity a certain 
number of times, as though it were 
repeatedly folded on itself. 

Multiplier {Multiply). That which 
multiplies ; an instrument for in¬ 
dicating the deflecting influence 
of a weak electric current: so 
called because the influence of 
the current is multiplied by being 



conducted several times round a 
magnetic needle. 

Multiply (Lat. multus, many; pli'co, 
I fold). To increase a quantity a 
given number of times. 

Multiplying- Glass. A kind of lens 
presenting a number of plane sur¬ 
faces, so that the rays of light from 
an object enter the eye in different 
directions, and make the object 
appear as if increased in number. 

Multispi'ral (Lat. multus, many; 
spira, a spire). Having many 
spiral turns. 

MuTtivalve (Lat. multus, many; 
valvce, folding doors). Having 
many valves. 

Multoc'ular (Lat. multus, many : oc'- 
ulus, an eye). Having many eyes. 

Multiun'gulate (Lat. multus, many ; 
un'gula, a hoof). Having the 
hoof divided into more than two 

Mural Circle (Lat. murus, a wall). 
An astronomical instrument, con¬ 
sisting of a large graduated metal 
circle, carried on an axis placed 
horizontally in the face of a stone 
wall or pier; it has a telescope 
fixed on it, and is so arranged that 
the whole instrument, including 
the telescope, moves on its axis in 
the plane of the meridian ; it is 
used to determine with precision 
the instant at which an object passes 
the meridian. 

Murex'ide (Lat. murex, a shell-fish 
yielding a purple dye). Purpurate 
of ammonia ; an organic compound, 
which forms a purple colour with 
solution of potash. 

Mu'riate (Lat. mu'via, salt water). A 
term formerly applied to chlorides, 
on the supposition that they were 
compounds of muriatic acid with a 

Muriatic (Lat. mu'via, salt water). 
Relating to brine or salt-water, an 
old name for hydrochloric. 

Mu'riform (Lat. murus, a wall; forma, 
shape). Like a wall ; arranged 
like bricks on a wall. 

Musch'elkalk (Germ, muschel „ a 
shell ; Jcalk, lime). Shell-lime¬ 
stone ; a series of the Triassic 

system in geology found in Ger¬ 
many, consisting of a compact 
greyish limestone, abounding in 
fossil remains. 

Mus'cites (Lat. muscus, moss). Fos¬ 
sil plants of the moss family. 

Muscle (Lat. mus 1 cuius, alittlemouse). 
An organ by which the active move¬ 
ments of the body are produced ; 
the name is derived probably from 
the shape of some of the muscles. 

Mus'cular (Lat. mus'cuius, a muscle). 
Relating to or performed by mus¬ 
cles ; provided with muscles. 

Muscular Tissue. The tissue which 
forms the substance of muscles. 

Mute (Lat. mutus, dumb). In gram¬ 
mar, applied to consonants which 
intercept the voice, as k, p, and t. 

Myal'gia (Gr. yvs, mus, a muscle ; 
aXyos, algos, pain). Pain in 

Myce'lia (Gr. yvKrjs, muJces, a fungus). 
The flocculent filaments of fungi. 

Mycol'ogy (Gr. yotais, mulces, a 
fungus ; Xoyos, logos, a discourse). 
A description of fungi. 

Myelenceph'ala (Gr. yveXos, mu'elos, 
marrow ; iyuecpaXov, enJceph!alon, 
brain). Animals possessing a brain 
and spinal chord ; vertebrate ani¬ 

Myeli'tis (Gr. yveXos, mu'elos, mar¬ 
row : itis, denoting inflammation), 
Inflammation of the spinal cord. 

My'lodon (Gr. yvXos, mulos, a mill ; 
oSous, odous, a tooth). An extinct 
animal ; so named from the flat 
grinding surfaces of its molar 

MyoPogy (Gr. yvs, mus, a muscle ; 
Aoyos, logos, a discourse). A de¬ 
scription of muscles. 

Myo'pia (Gr. yvu, mud, I shut ; da|/, 
ups, the eye). Near-sightedness. 

Myosi'tis (Gr. yvs, mus, a muscle ; 
itis, denoting inflammation). In¬ 
flammation of muscles. 

Myos'tici (Gr. yvs, mus, muscle; 
ocrreov, os'teon , bone) A name 
proposed to be given to diseases 
affecting bones and muscles. 

Myot'omy (Gr. yvs, mus, a muscle ; 
T€/, temno, I cut). The anatomy 
of the muscles. 




Myr'iagramme (Gr. gvpioi, mu'rioi, 
ten thousand ; Fr. gramme). A 
French weight of ten thousand 
grammes, or about twenty-two 
pounds avoirdupois. 

Myr'iametre (Gr. yvpioi, mu'rioi, ten 
thousand ; Fr. metre). A French 

measure of ten thousand metres, or 
6 - 21 English miles. 

Myr'iapods (Gr. gvpioi, mu'rioi, ten 
thousand ; ttovs, potos, a foot). A 
class of invertebrate animals, gener¬ 
ally resembling insects, but with 
numerous legs ; as the centipede. 


Na'creous (Fr. nacre, mother-of- 
pearl). Having a pearly lustre. 

Nadir (Arabic natara, to be like, or 
correspond). The point in the 
heavens of the opposite or invisible 
hemisphere, which would be reached 
by a perpendicular line drawn from 
an observer on the surface of the 
earth, and reaching at the other 
end a point in the visible hemi¬ 
sphere, called the zenith. 

Naevus (Lat.). A tumour consisting 
essentially in an excessive growth 
of the vascular tissue of a part. 

Na'piform (Lat. napus, a turnip; 
forma, shape). Shaped like a 

Narcot'ic (Gr. vapnow, nar'koo, I 
render torpid). Producing insen¬ 
sibility to pain and external im¬ 
pressions, with sleep. 

Nar'cotism (Gr. vapxow, nar'koo, I 
render torpid). The elfect of a 
narcotic medicine or poison. 

Na'res (Lat. naris , a nostril). The 

Na'sal (Lat. nasus, the nose). Belong¬ 
ing to the nose ; formed by the nose. 

Nascent (Lat. nascor, I am born). 
Beginning to exist: the nasceut 
state of a gas is the condition in 
which it is at the moment when it 
is liberated from combination. 

Nata'tion (Lat. nato, I swim). The 
act of swimming. 

Natato'res (Lat. nato, I swim). 
Swimmers ; an order of birds with 
feet provided with webs for swim¬ 
ming, as ducks, geese, swans, and 

Na'tatory (Lat. nato, I swim). 
Enabling or assisting to swim ; 
formed for swimming. 

Nat'ural History. The science which 
describes the natural products of 
the earth, animal, vegetable, and 
mineral; their characters, relations, 
arrangement, &c. 

Nat'ural Philos'ophy. The science 
which describes the material world, 
the bodies which compose it, and 
their qualities and properties. 

Nat'ural Sys'tem. The classification 
of animals or plants into orders, 
genera, and species, according to 
their alliances in points of struc¬ 
ture which are regarded as essen¬ 

Nau'sea (Gr. vavs, naus, a ship). A 
disgust for food, with inclination to 
vomit ; probably at first applied to 

Nau'tical (Gr. vavr-qs, nautcs, a 
sailor). Pertaining to seamen or. 

Nau'tilites (Lat. nau'tiius). Fossil 
shells apparently allied to the 

Navic'ular (Lat. navic'ula, a boat: 
from navis, a ship). Belonging to 
or like a boat ; applied to one of 
the bones of the wrist, from its 

Neb'ula (Lat., a mist). A little cloud 
or mist: in astronomy, an object 
resembling stars seen through a 
mist, or a cloudy speck, but found 
by the telescope to consist of a 
cluster of stars. 

Neb'ular (Lat. neb'ula, a mist). Re¬ 
lating to nebulas; the nebular 
hypothesis was a belief that the 
appearances called nebulae were the 
results of the aggregation of a sort 
of luminous fluid diffused through 
different parts of the universe. 



Neb'ulous (Lat. neb'ula, a mist). 
Misty ; having the appearance of a 

Necroph'agous (Gr. vexpos, nelc'ros, 
dead : (paya>, phag'b, I eat). Eat¬ 
ing dead bodies of animals. 

Necrop'olis (Gr. vexpos, nelc'ros, dead; 
ttoXls, pol'is, a city). A city of the 
dead ; a cemetery. 

Nec'ropsy (Gr. r expos, nelc'ros, dead ; 
o\f/is, opsis, sight). The examina¬ 
tion of a dead body. 

Necroscop'ic (Gr. vexpos, nelc'ros, 
dead; axoneco, slcop'eo, I view). 
Relating to the examination of 
bodies after death. 

Necro'sis (Gr. vexpocv, nelc'roo, I kill). 
A disease of bone terminating in 
its death ; a state analogous to 
mortification or gangrene in soft 

Nectariferous (Lat. nectar; fer'o, I 
produce). Having a honey-like 
secretion : in botany, applied to 
petals having furrows at their base 
yielding a sweet secretion. 

Nec'tary {Nectar). In botany, any 
abnormal part of a flower; but 
properly any organ secreting sweet 

Negative (Lat. nego, I deny). Im¬ 
plying denial or absence ; in phy¬ 
sical science, applied to one of the 
forms of electricity which a body is 
capable of assuming ; in algebra, 
applied to quantities which have 
the sign — {minus) prefixed. 

Ne'matoid (Gr. v-pga, nema, a thread; 
elSos, eidos, form). Like a thread; 
applied to a class of parasitic 

Nematoneu'ra (Gr. vryxa, nema, a 
thread : vevpov, neuron, a nerve). 
Having the nervous system arranged 
in filaments or threads. 

Nemoc'era (Gr. v-pga, nema, a thread; 
xepas, her'as, a horn). A section 
of dipterous insects with filiform or 
thread-like antennae, of six joints. 

Neoco'mian (Lat. Neocomum, Neuf- 
ch&tel). A term applied in geology 
to the green sand formation, which 
is especially developed in the vici¬ 
nity of Neufchatel. 

Neol'ogy (Gr. vzos, neos, new; \oyos, 

logos, discourse). The introduction 
of new words or doctrines. 

Neoter'ic (Gr. recvrepos, neoteros, 
younger). Recent in origin; 

Neozoic (Gr. veos, neos, new; (,woz/, 
zdon, an animal). Having new 
animals ; a term applied in geology 
to a division of the fossiiiferous 
strata, including the cainozoic and 
mesozoic of some geologists. 

Nephral'gia (Gr. vecppos, neph'ros, 
a kidney; aXyos, algos, pain). 
Pain in the kidney. 

Nephritic (Gr. recppos, neph'ros, a 
kidney). Relating to the kidneys. 

Nephri'tis (Gr. vecppos, neph'ros, a 
kidney; itis, denoting inflamma¬ 
tion). Inflammation of the kidneys. 

Neptu'nian {Neptune, the god of the 
sea). A term applied to stratified 
rocks, or those which have been 
deposited by water. 

Nep'tunisf {Neptune, the god of the 
sea). A name given to the geolo¬ 
gists of the school of Werner, who 
believed all old rocks to have been 
of aqueous origin. 

Nerve (Lat. nervus). A bundle of 
white fibres, forming an organ for 
the conveyance of impressions be¬ 
tween any part of the body and the 
brain or spinal cord. 

Nervine (Lat. nervus, a nerve). 
Acting on the nerves. 

Nervous System. The collection of 
organs, comprising the brain, spinal 
cord, and nerves, the office of which 
is to receive and convey impres¬ 

Ner'vures (Lat. nervus, a sinew). 
The frame-work of the wings of 
insects : also applied sometimes, in 
botany, to the frame-work of 

Neural (Gr. vevpov, neuron, a nerve). 
Belonging or having relation to tho 
nervous system. 

Neural'gia (Gr. revpov, neuron, a 
nerve ; aA .yos, algos, pain). Pain 
having its origin especially in the 

Neurapoph'ysis (Gr. vevpov, neuron, 
a nerve ; apoph'ysis). The part 
projecting from a vertebra which 

i 2 



aids in forming the canal that pro¬ 
tects the spinal cord. 

Neurilem'ma (Gr. vevpov, neuron, a 
nerve; Xeyya, lemma , a peel or 
skin). The sheath of a nerve. 

Neurine (Gr. vevpov, neuron, a 
nerve). Nervous substance. 

Neurol'ogy (Gr. vevpov, neuron, a 
nerve; Aoyos, logos, discourse). 
A description of the nerves. 

Neuro'ma (Gr. vevpov, neuron, a 
nerve). A swelling or tumour in 
the course of a nerve. 

Neurop'athy (Gr. vevpov, neuron, a 
nerve ; iraOos, path!os, suffering). 
Disease of a nerve. 

Neurop'tera (Gr. vevpov, neuron, 
a nerve ; ttt epov, ptedon, a wing). 
An order of insects with four mem¬ 
branous transparent wings, with a 
net-work of veins or nervures ; as 
the dragon-fly. 

Neuro'ses (Gr. vevpov, neuron, a 
nerve). A term appled to nervous 
affections or diseases. 

Neuroskel'eton (Gr. vevpov, neuron, 
a nerve ; aneXerov, shel'eton). The 
deep-seated bones of the vertebral 
skeleton which have relation to the 
nervous system and to locomotion. 

Neutral (Lat. ne, not ; uter, which 
of the two). In chemistry, applied 
to salts composed of an acid and 
a base in such proportions that they 
exactly destroy each other’s proper¬ 
ties ; in botany, applied to flowers 
having neither stamens nor pistils. 

Neutralisation (Lat. neuter, neither). 
In chemistry, the process by which 
an acid is combined with a base in 
such proportion as to render inert 
the properties of both. 

Neutralise (Lat. neuter, neither). 
To render neutral or inert; to de¬ 
stroy the properties of a body by 
combining with it another body of 
different properties. 

Nic'otin ( Nicotia'na, the tobacco 
plant), A principle obtained from 

Nictitate (Lat. nic'tito, I wink). To 

Nictitating Membrane. A fold of 
skin with which birds cover their 

Nidamental (Lat. niclamen'tum, the 
material of which birds make their 
nests). Relating to the protection 
of the egg and young; secreting 
material for constructing nests. 

Nilom'eter (Gr. NexAos, Neilos, the 
Nile ; yejpov, met'ron, a measure). 
An instrument for measui-ing the 
rise of the waters of the Nile. 

Nitrate (Nitric). A salt consisting 
of nitric acid with a base. 

Ni'tric (Nitre). Produced from nitre 
or saltpetre ; applied to an acid 
obtained from nitre or nitrate of 

Ni'trite. A salt consisting of nitrous 
acid and a base. 

Nitrogen (Nitre; Gr. yevvaoj, gen- 
na'b, I produce). An elementary 
gas, without coloui 1 , taste, or 
smell, forming the larger portion 
(79 in 100) of the atmospheric air. 

Nitrog'enised (Ni'trogen). Contain¬ 
ing nitrogen. 

Nitrog'enous (Nitrogen). Contain¬ 
ing nitrogen. 

Ni'trous (Nitre). Pertaining to nitre; 
applied to an acid containing less 
oxygen than nitric acid. 

Nodal (Lat. nodus, a knot). Relating 
to a knot; applied to the points 
and lines at which the vibrations 
of a body become arrested, and 
which assume various regular 

Node (Lat. nodus, a knot). A small 
oval figure made by the intersection 
of one branch of a curve with ano¬ 
ther ; in astronomy, the point at 
which the moon or a planet crosses 
the ecliptic ; in botany, the point 
in a stem from which a leaf-bud 

Nodo'se (Lat. nodus, a knot). Knotty. 

Nod'ule (Lat. noclus, a knot ; ule, 
denoting smallness). A little knot; 
an irregular concretion of rocky 
matter round a central nucleus. 

Nomad'ic (Gr. voyos, nom'os, a pas¬ 
ture). Wandering ; subsisting on 
cattle, and wandering for the sake 
of pasture. 

Nomenclature (Lat. nomen, a name; 
calo, from Gr. uaXeu, Jcaleu, I call). 
The collection of names peculiar to 



science in general, or to any branch 
of science. 

Nom'inative (Lat. nomen, a name). 
Naming ; applied to the first case 
of nouns, which denotes the name 
of the person or thing. 

Non-conductor. A substance which 
does not conduct heat, electricity, 

Normal (Lat. norma , a rule). Ac¬ 
cording to rule ; regular : a per¬ 
pendicular, especially to a curve at 
a given point. 

Nosog'raphy (Gr. voaos, nos'os, dis¬ 
ease ; ypacpoo, graph'd, I write). A 
description of diseases. 

Nosolog'ical (Gr. vooos, nos'os, dis¬ 
ease; A oyos, logos, discourse). Re¬ 
lating to a classification of diseases. 

Nosol'ogy (Gr. rocros, nos'os, dis¬ 
ease ; A070S, logos, discourse). The 
branch of medical science which 
distributes diseases into classes, 
orders, genera, and species, and 
distinguishes diseases by their pro¬ 
per names. 

Nostal'gia (Gr. voaros, nostos, re¬ 
turn ; a\yos, algos, pain). Home¬ 
sickness ; a desire to return to one’s 
country, amounting to disease. 

Notal (Gr. vwtos, ndtos, the back). 
Belonging to the back. 

Nota'tion (Lat. noto, I mark). The 
marking or reading anything by 
figures or other characters. 

No'tochord (Gr. vutos, ndtos, the 
back ; x°p5a, chorda, a cord). 
The fibro-cellular gelatinous column 
which forms the primary condition 
of the spine in vertebrate animals. 

Notorhi'zal (Gr. vcaros, ndtos, the 
back ; pi(a, rhiza, a root). Having 
the radicle in the embryonic plant 
on the back of the cotyledons. 

Nubec'ula (Lat. a little cloud). In 
astronomy, a name given to the 
Magellanic clouds, or two extensive 
nebulous patches of stars. 

Nu'chal (Lat. nucha, the back of the 
neck). Belonging to the neck. 

Nu'clear (Lat. nu'cleus .) Formed of 

Nu'cleated (Lat. nu'cleus, a kernel). 
Having a nucleus, or central par¬ 

Nu'cleolus {Nu'cleus). A little nu¬ 
cleus ; a small body sometimes ob¬ 
served within the nucleus of an 
animal or vegetable cell. 

Nu'cleus (Lat. a kernel). A body 
about which matter is collected ; a 
small compact body found in ani¬ 
mal and vegetable cells ; in as¬ 
tronomy, the bright central spot 
sometimes seen in the nebulous or 
misty matter forming the head of 
a comet. 

Nudibra'chiate (Lat. nudus, naked ; 
bra'chium, an arm). Having 
naked arms ; applied to polypi, the 
tentacles of which are not covered 
with cilia. 

Nudibran'chiate (Lat. nudus, naked ; 
Gr. Ppayxm, bran'chia, gills). 
Having exposed gills ; applied to 
an order of gasteropodous mollusca 
which have no shell, and have the 
gills exposed. 

Numera'tion (Lat. nu'merus, a num¬ 
ber). The art of reading or writing 

Numerator (Lat. nu'merits, a num¬ 
ber). The number in fractions 
which shows how many of the parts 
are to be taken. 

Numer'ical Method. The branch of 
science which treats of the right 
manner of deriving conclusions from 
the collected numerical statement 
of the results of certain forces or 

Numismat'ic (Lat. numis'ma ; from 
Gr. vopaaga, nomis'ma, money). 
Relating to coins or money. 

NumismatoTogy (Lat. numis'ma ; 
Gr. A oyos, logos, discourse). The 
science of describing coins and 

Num.'mutated (Lat. nummus, money). 
Having some resemblance to a coin. 

Num'mulite (Lat. nummus, money ; 
A lQos, lith'os, a stone). A fossil 
shell resembling a coin, found in 
the limestone in the tertiary strata. 

Nuta'tion (Lat. nuto, I nod). In 
astronomy, the alternate approach 
and departure of the pole of the 
equator to and from the pole of the 
ecliptic, combined with the alter¬ 
nate increase and decrease of its 



retrogressive motion ; in botany, 
applied to a property which some 
flowers have of following the appa¬ 
rent motion of the snn. 

Nutrient (Lat. nu'trio, I nourish). 

Nu'trimen t (Lat. nu'trio, I nourish). 
Food; the material supplied for 
repairing the waste or promoting 
the growth of living bodies. 

Nutrition (Lat. nu'trio, I nourish). 
The process by which animals or 
vegetables appropriate to their 
repair or growth material taken 
from external organic substances. 

Nyctalo'pia (Gr. mix, the night; 
aAaoycu, ala'omai, I grope about ; 
an//, ops, the eye). A defect of 
vision, in which the patient can see 
by day, but not by night. 

0 . 

Ob (Lat.) A preposition in compound 
words, signifying against, reversed, 
or contrary. 

Qbcompress'ed (Lat. ob ; comprimo, 
I press together). Flattened in 
front and behind. 

Obcor'date (Lat. ob, against; cor, the 
heart). Like a heart reversed ; 
applied in botany to leaves shaped 
like a heart, with the apex next 
the stem. 

Ob'elisk (Gr. o/3eAos, ob'elos, a spit). 
A four-sided column, of one stone, 
rising in the form of a pyramid, 
and having a smaller pyramid at 
the top. 

Obe'sity (Lat. obe'sus, fat), An ex¬ 
cessive fatness. 

Ob'ject (Lat. ob, against ; jac'io, I 
throw). That which is acted on 
by the senses, the mental faculties, 
or other agents. 

Object-glass. The lens in a telescope 
or microscope which first receives 
the rays of light coming from an 
object and collects them to a focus 
or central point, where they form 
an image which is viewed through 
the eye-piece. 

Objective (Lat. ob, against ; jac'io, 
1 throw). Belonging to an object; 
in medicine, applied to symptoms 
observed by the physician; in 
grammar, denoting the case which 
is acted on. 

Obla'te (Lat. ob, against; latus, 
borne or carried). Flattened at the 
poles ; applied to spherical bodies 
flattened at the poles or ends, like 
an orange. 

Obli'que (Lat. obli'quus, sideways) 
Neither perpendicular nor paral¬ 

Gb'olite Grit. In geology, the lower 
Silurian sandstones of Sweden and 
Russia, from the abundance of 
shells of the obolus, a brachiopod 

Obo'vate (Lat. ob ; ovate). Reversely 
ovate, the broad end of the egg 
being uppermost. 

Observa'tion (Lat. obser'vo, I observe). 
The art of observing ; one of the 
processes by which natural pheno¬ 
mena are to be investigated. 

Obser'vatory (Lat. obser'vo, I observe). 
A place or building constructed for 
astronomical observations. 

Obsid'ian (Lat. obsidia'num vitrum, 
a kind of thick glass). A glassy 
lava, much resembling artificial 
glass, but usually black and nearly 
opaque ; it consists of silica and 
alumina, with a little potash and 
oxide of iron. 

Obsoles'cence (Lat. obsoles'co, I grow 
out of use). The state of becoming 
disused ; in medicine , applied to 
the stage in diseased formations at 
which they cease to undergo further 

Ob'solete (Lat. obsoles'co, I grow out 
of use). In botany, imperfectly 
developed or abortive. 

Obstet'ric (Lat. obstet'rix, a midwife). 
Relating to midwifery. 

Obtec'ted (Lat. ob'tego, I cover over). 
Covered over ; applied to a form of 
metamorphosis in insects in which 
the wings and limbs are lodged in 



recesses in the integument of the 

Ob'turator (Lat. obturo, I stop up). 
That which stops up ; a name ap¬ 
plied to two muscles, which arise 
near an opening in the pelvis called 
the obturator or thyroid foramen. 

Obtusan'gular (Lat. obtu'sus, blunt; 
an'gulus , an angle). Having angles 
larger than right angles. 

Obtu'se (Lat. obtu'sus, blunt). In 
geometry, applied to angles which 
are larger than right angles. 

Ob 'verse (Lat. ob, opposite ; verto, I 
turn.) The side of a coin which 
has the face or head on it. 

Ob'volute (Lat. ob, against; volvo, I 
roll). Rolled into ; in botany, ap¬ 
plied to an anrangement of leaves 
in buds in which the margins of 
one leaf alternately overlap those 
of the leaf opposite to it. 

Occiden'tal (Lat. odcidens, the west; 
from ob, down; cado, I fall, in 
allusion to the setting of the sun). 
Relating to or produced in the 

Occipital (Lat. oc'ciput, the back of 
the head). Belonging to the back 
of the head. 

Oc'ciput (Lat. ob, opposite ; cap'ut, 
the head). The back part of the 

Occulta'tion (Lat. occul'to, I hide). 
A hiding ; the concealment from 
sight of a star or planet, by the 
interposition of another body. 

Ocellus (Lat. oc'ulus, an eye). A 
little eye ; one of the small eyes of 
which the compound organs of 
vision are formed in many inverte¬ 
brate animals. 

Ocble'sis (Gr. ox^os, cchlos, a multi¬ 
tude). A crowding together. 

Ochre (Gr. ccxpos, bchros, pale). A 
fine clay, coloured by more or less 
peroxide of iron. 

O'chrea or O'crea (Lat. a boot). In 
botany, the tube formed in some 
plants by the growing together of 
the stipules, through which the 
stem passes. 

Oct- or Octo- (Gr. oktcc, olctb , eight). 
A prefix in compound words imply¬ 
ing eight. 

Oc'tagon (Gr. oktcc, oiktb, eight; 
ywvia, gbnia, an angle). A figure 
having eight angles. 

Octagyn'ia (Gr. oktcc, olctb, eight; 
yvurj, gune, a female). An order 
of plants in the Linnean system, 
having eight pistils. 

Octahed'ron (Gr. oktcc, olctb, eight; 
e 8 pa, hed'ra, a base). A solid 
figure bounded by eight equal sides, 
each of which is an equilateral 

Octan'dria (Gr. oktcc, olctb, eight; 
avvp, aner, a man). A class of 
plants in the Linnean system having 
eight stamens. 

Octan'gular (Lat. octo, eight; an'gu¬ 
lus, an angle). Having eight an¬ 

Oc'tant (Lat. octo, eight). The 
eighth part of a circle ; the aspect 
of two planets in which they are 
distant from each other the eighth 
part of a circle, or forty-five de¬ 

Oc'tastyle (Gr. oktcc, olctd, eight; 

< ttvAos, stulos, a pillar). A build¬ 
ing having eight columns in front. 

Oc'tave (Lat. octa'vus, the eighth). 
In music, a collection of eight con¬ 
secutive notes, of which the eighth 
(or highest) is produced bv twice 
the number of vibrations which 
form the first or lowest. 

Oc'topod (Gr. oktcc, olctb, eight; nous, 
pous, a foot). An animal having 
eight feet or legs ; a tribe of cepha- 
lopods so called. 

Oc'ular (Lat. oc'ulus, an eye). Re¬ 
lating to the eyes. 

Oc'uliform (Lat. oc'ulus, an eye; 
forma, form). Having the form 
of an eye. 

Oc'ulist (Lat. oc'ulus, an eye). A 
person who treats disorders of the 

-Ode or -Odes (Gr. ccbys, odes). A 
termination generally denoting 
abundance of that substance which 
is implied by the previous part of 
the word. 

Ode'um (Gr. ccdaor, bdeion ; from 
coS77, ucle, a song). A small theatre 
for the recitation of musical com¬ 



Odom'eter (Gr. 08 os, hod'os, a w r ay ; 
Herpov, met'ron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the dis¬ 
tance travelled over by the wheels 
of a carriage. 

Qdontal'gia (Gr. odovs, od'ous, a 
tooth ; ctA70s, algos, pain). Tooth¬ 

Odon'tograph (Gr. obovs, od'ous, a 
tootu ; ypacpco, graph'b, I write). 
An instrument for measuring and 
designing the teeth of wheels. 

Odon'toid (Gr. 0800s, od'ous, a tooth ; 
eidos, eidos, shape). Like a tooth; 
applied in anatomy to a process of 
the second vertebra of the neck, 
also to ligaments connected with it. 

Odontol'ogy (Gr. 0800s, od'ous, a 
tooth; Aoyos, logos, discourse). A 
description of the teeth. 

Odorif'erous (Lat. odor, smell ; fer'o, 

I carry). Giving or carrying scent. 

-(Ecious (Gr. oIkos, oikos, a house or 
family). A termination used in 
botany, in reference to the arrange¬ 
ment of the stamens and pistils in 

CEde'ma (Gr. oi’8ew, oi'deb, I swell). 
A swelling ; in medicine, a minor 
form of dropsy, consisting in a 
puffiness of parts from a collection 
of fluid in the tissue beneath the 

(Edematous (Gr. oldeco, oi'deb, I 
swell). Having oedema. 

(Enan'thic (Gr. oivos, oinos, wine ; 
av 6 os, antlios, a flower). A term 
applied to a liquid or ether sup¬ 
posed to give its aroma to wine. 

(Esoph'agus (Gr. olw, oib , I carry; 
cpayu), phag'b, I eat). The gullet; 
the tube which conveys the food 
from the mouth tc the stomach. 

(Esophage'al ((Esoph'agus, the gul¬ 
let). Belonging to the oesophagus. 

CEsophagot'omy ( (Esoph'agus ; Gr. 
repvco, temnb, I cut). The opera¬ 
tion of cutting into the oesophagus. 

Offic'inal (Lat. ojjici'na, a work¬ 
shop). Kept in shops. 

Ogee. In architecture, a form of 
moulding consisting of two mem¬ 
bers, the one concave and the other 

-Oid (Gr. eidos, eidos, form). A ter¬ 

mination implying likeness or alli¬ 

Oinoma'nia (Gr. oivos , oinos, wine ; 
pavia, ma'nia, madness). An in¬ 
sane desire for wine or alcoholic 

Old Red Sandstone. See Sandstone. 

Oleaginous (Lat. o'leum, oil). Ha¬ 
ving the properties of or containing 

O'leate (Lat. o'leum, oil). A com¬ 
pound of oleic acid with a base. 

Olec'ranon (Gr. wAevy, blene, the 
elbow ; upavos, kranos, a helmet). 
The projecting part of the upper 
end of the ulna, forming the back 
of the elbow. 

Ole'fiant (Lat. o'leum, oil; fac'io, I 
make). Making oil; applied to a 
gas consisting of carbon and hydro¬ 
gen, from its forming an oily 
liquid when mixed with chlorine. 

Oleic (Lat. o'leum, oil). Belonging to 
oil : applied to an acid obtained 
from oil. 

Olein (Lat. o'leum, oil). The thin 
oily part of oils and fats. 

Qlfac'tory (Lat. olfac'io, I smell). 
Relating to the sense of smelling. 

Olfac'tory Nerves. The first pair of 
nerves proceeding directly from the 
brain, being the nerves of smelling. 

Oligas'mia (Gr. oAiyos, ol'igos, little; 
alpa, haima, blood). That state 
of the system in which there is a 
deficiency of blood. 

Oligan'drous (Gr. oAiyos, ol'igos, 
few ; avyp, antr, a male). Hav¬ 
ing fewer than twenty stamens. 

Ol'igo- (Gr. oAiyos, ol'igos, little). A 
prefix in compound words, signify¬ 
ing defect in quantity or number. 

Olivary (Lat. oli'va, an olive). Re¬ 
sembling an olive. 

Oma'sum. In comparative anatomy, 
the third stomach, or manyplies, of 
ruminant animals. 

Omen'tal (Omen'turn). Belonging to 
the omentum. 

Omen'turn (Lat.). The caul: a fold 
of the peritoneal membrane cover¬ 
ing the intestines in front. 

Omnivorous (Lat. omnis, all; voro, 
I devoui’.) Eating both animal and 
vegetable food. 



Omo- (Gr. apos, omos , the shoulder.) 
A prefix iu compound words, sig¬ 
nifying connection with the scapula 
or shoulder-blade. 

Omohyoid (Gr. upos, omos, the 
shoulder ; hyoid bone). A name 
given to a muscle attached to the 
hyoid bone and the shoulder. 

Onguic'ulate and On'gulate. See 
Unguic'ulate and On'gulate. 

Onom'atopoeia (Gr. ovoga, on'oma, a 
name ; iroieco, poi'eo , I make). A 
formation of words so as to pro¬ 
duce a real or fancied resemblance 
to the sounds which they are in¬ 
tended to describe. 

Ontological (Gr. wv, on, being; 
A070?, logos, discourse). Relat¬ 
ing to the science of beings or 
existing things. • 

Ontol'ogy (Gr. wv, bn, being ; \oyos, 
logos, discourse). The science of 
being ; that part of metaphysics 
which investigates and explains the 
nature of beings. 

Onychia (Gr. owl-, on'ux, a nail.) 
A whitlow. 

O'olite (Gr. uov, bon, an egg; At 60s, 
lith'os, a stone). Limestone com¬ 
posed of small rounded particles like 
the eggs or roe of a fish : the name 
in geology of a system of stratified 
rocks, characterised by the pre¬ 
sence of limestone of this descrip¬ 

Oolitic (Gr. ooov, bon , an egg ; A 160s, 
lith'os, a stone). Pertaining to the 

Opales'cence ( Opal ). A coloured shin¬ 
ing lustre reflected from a single 
spot in a mineral. 

Oper'cular (Lat. oper'culum, a lid). 
Having, or of the nature of, a lid 
or cover. 

Oper'culated (Lat. oper'culum, a lid). 
Provided with an operculum or 

Oper'culum (Lat. oper'io, I cover). A 
lid or cover. 

Ophidians (Gr. 6(pis, oph'is, a ser¬ 
pent). An order of reptiles, hav¬ 
ing the serpent as the type. 

Ophiol'ogy (Gr. ocpis, oph'is, a ser¬ 
pent ; Aoyos, logos, discourse). 
The description of serpents. 

Ophite (Gr. ocpis, oph'is, a serpent). 
The mineral called serpentine. 

Ophthalmia (Gr. bcpGaApos, ophthal'- 
mos, the eye). Inflammation of the 

Ophthal'mic (Gr. ocpGaApos, ophthal’- 
mos , the eye). Belonging to the 

Ophthalmol'ogy (Gr. ocpGaApos, oph - 
thal'mos, the eye ; Ao7or, logos, 
discourse). The part of anatomi¬ 
cal science which describes the eyes 
and whatever relates to them. 

Ophthalmom'eter (Gr. ocpGaApos, oph- 
thal'mos, the eye; perpov, met'ron, 
a measure). An instrument for 
measuring and comparing the 
powers of vision of the two eyes. 

Ophthal'moscope (Gr. ocpGaApos, oph- 
thal'mos, the eye ; (TKoneco, shop'eb, 
I view). An instrument for ex¬ 
amining the interior ot the eye. 

O'piate ( O'pium ). A medicine con¬ 
taining opium. 

Opisthocce'lian (Gr. bmaGev, opis- 
then, backwards ; koiAos, Jcoilos, 
hollow). Having the vertebrae 
hollow at the back part. 

Opisthot'onos (Gr. omaGev, opis'then, 
backwards; reivco, teino, I stretch). 
A form of tetanus in which the 
body is bent backwards. 

Opposition (Lat. ob, against; pdno, 
I place.) A standing over against; 
in astronomy, the position of a 
heavenly body, as seen from the 
earth, in the quarter directly oppo¬ 
site the sun, so that the earth lies 
in a direct line between it and the 

Opsiom'eter (Gr. b\pis, opsis, vision ; 
perpov, met'ron, a measure). A 
measurer of sight, or of the power 
of vision. 

Opta'tive (Lat. opto, I wish). Wish¬ 
ing : applied, in grammar, to that 
mode or form of the verb by which 
desire is expressed. 

Optic (Gr. birrogai, op'tomai, I see). 
Relating to sight, or to the laws of 

Optic Nerves. The second pair of 
nerves proceeding directly from the 
brain, being the nerves of sight. 

Optics (Gr. oiTTopai, op'tomai, I see). 



The branch of natural philosophy 
■which treats of the nature and pro¬ 
perties of light, the theory of colours, 
the changes produced on light by 
the substances with which it comes 
into contact, and the structure of 
the eye and of instruments for aid¬ 
ing vision. 

Optom'eter. See Opsiom'eter. 

Oral (Lat. os, the mouth). Belong¬ 
ing to or uttered by the mouth. 

Orbic'ular (Lat. orbic'ulus, a small 
round ball, from orbis, a round 
thing). Circular ; in anatomy, 
applied to the muscles which sur¬ 
round and close the eyelids and 

Orbit (Lat. orbis, a wheel). In as~ 
tronomy, the curved course in 
which any body, as the moon or a 
planet, moves in its revolution 
round a central body ; in anatomy, 
the cavity or socket in which the 
eye is situated. 

Or'bital {Orbit). Belonging to the 

Or'bito-sphenoid. A term applied to 
the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, 
which forms part of the orbit. 

Order (Lat. ordo). A group of genera, 
agreeing in more general characters, 
but differing in special conformation. 

Or'dinate (Lat. ordo, order). In 
conic sections, a straight line drawn 
from a point in the abscissa to ter¬ 
minate in the curve. 

Organ (Gr. opyavov, organon, an in¬ 
strument, from Spy a, ergo, I work). 
A natural instrument, by which 
some process or function is carried 

Organic (Gr. opyavov, or'ganon, an 
instrument). Consisting of or pos¬ 
sessing organs ; relating to bodies 
which have organs ; in geology, ap¬ 
plied to the accumulations or addi¬ 
tions made to the crust of the earth 
in various places by the agency of 
animals or vegetable matter, and 
to the fossil remains of animals and 
vegetables ; in medicine, applied to 
diseases in which the structure of 
an organ is- evidently altered. 

Or'ganism (Gr. opyavov, or'ganon, an 
instrument). The assemblage of 

living forces or instruments consti 
tuting a body. 

Or'ganize (Gr. opyavov, or'ganon, an 
instrument). To form with suitable 
organs, so that the whole may work 
together in a body. 

Organog'eny (Gr opyavov, or'ganon , 
an instrument; yevvaco, genna'd , 
I produce). The development of 

OrganogTaphy (Gr. opyavov, orga¬ 
non, an instrument ; ypacpco, 
graph'd, I write). A description 
of organs ; used especially with 
regard to plants. 

Organol'ogy (Gr. opyavov, or'ganon, 
an instrument; Aoyos, logos, dis¬ 
course). A description of organs, 
especially of the animal body. 

Orien'tal (Lat. o'riens, the east, from 
o'rior, I arise). Eastern : relating 
to the east. 

Grnithich'nites (Gr. opvis, ornis, a 
bird ; lx vos > iclmos , a footstep). 
Fossil footprints of birds. 

Qrni'tholites (Gr. opvis, ornis, a bird; 
AiOos, lith'os, a stone). The fossil 
remains of birds. 

Ornithologist (Gr. opvis, ornis, a 
bird ; Aoyos, logos, discourse). A 
person who is skilled in the know¬ 
ledge of birds. 

Qrnithol'ogy (Gr. opvis, ornis, a bird ; 
Aoyos, logos, discourse). The 
branch of zoology which describes 

Orol'ogy (Gr. opos, or'os, a mountain ; 
Aoyos, logos, discourse). The science 
which describes mountains. 

Or'rery. A machine to represent the 
motions and aspects of the planets 
in their orbits. 

Ortho- (Gr. opOos, orthos, staight). A 
prefix in compound words, signify¬ 
ing straight. 

Orthocer'atite (Gr. opOos, orthos, 
straight; uepas, her’as, a horn). 
A genus of straight horn-shaped 
fossil shells, with several chambers. 

Orthodrom'ics (Gr. opOos, orthos, 
straight ; bpoaos, drom'os, a course). 
The art of sailing in the arc of a 
great circle, being the shortest dis¬ 
tance between two points on the 
surface of the globe. 



Or'tlioepy (Gr. opOos, orthos, right ; 
iiros, epos, a word). The correct 
pronunciation of words. 

Ortliog'onal (Gr. opOos, orthos, 
straight ; ywvia, gonia, an angle). 
At right angles, or perpendicular. 

Orthography (Gr. dpdos, . orthos, 
right; ypacpw, graph'd, 1 write). 
The art or practice of writing words 
with the proper letters : in archi¬ 
tecture, the elevation of a building, 
showing all the parts in their due 

Orthopnoe'a (Gr. opOos, orthos, upright; 
TTveu, pneo , I breath). A diseased 
state in which breathing can only 
be performed in the erect position. 

Orthop'tera (Gr. opOos, orthos, straight; 
irrepor, pter'on, a wing). An order 
of insects, which have the wings 
disposed, when at rest, in straight 
longitudinal folds; as the cricket 
and grasshopper. 

Orthot'ropous (Gr. opOos, orthos, 
right; rpenu, trep'o, I turn). 
Turned the right way ; applied in 
botany to the ovule where its parts 
undergo no change of position 
during growth. 

Oryctog'nosy (Gr. bpvuros, oruk'tos, 
fossil, or dug out ; yvcocns, gnosis, 
knowledge). The description and 
classification of minerals. 

Oryctol'ogy (Gr. bpvuros, orulc'tos, 
fossil ; Aoyos, logos, a discourse). 
The description of fossils. 

Oscilla'tion (Lat. oscil'lum, a swing). 
A swinging backwards and for¬ 
wards ; centre of oscillation is the 
point into which the whole moving 
force of a vibrating body is concen¬ 

Cs'cula (Lat. plural of os'culum, a 
little mouth). The larger orifices 
on the surface of a sponge. 

Gs'mazome (Gr. btryy, osme, odour; 
fayos, zdmos, juice or soup). The 
name given to the extractive matter 
of muscular fibre, which gives the 
smell to boiled meat. 

Os'mose (Gr. cvOeco, othed, I impel). 
The process by which fluids and 
gases pass through membranes. 

Os'seous (Lat. os, a bone). Formed 
of, or resembling bone. 

Os'sicle (Lat. ossic'ulum, from os, a 
bone; ulum, denoting smallness). 
A little bone. 

Qssif'erous (Lat. os, a bone; fer'o, I 
bear). Producing or containing 

Ossif'ic (Lat. os, a bone ; fadio, I 
make). Making bone. 

Ossifica'tion (Lat. os, a bone ; fadio, 
I make). A change into a bony 
substance ; the formation of bones. 

Os'sify (Lat. os, a bone; fadio, I 
make). To form bone ; to become 

Ossiv'orous (Lat. os, a bone \voro, I 
devour). Eating bones. 

Os'teal (Gr. bcrreov, os'teon, a bone). 
Belonging to bone. 

Os'teine (Gr. octtsov, os'teon, a bone). 
The tissue of bone. 

Ostei'tis (Gr. bareov, os'teon, a bone; 
itis, denoting inflammation). In¬ 
flammation of bone. 

Osteoden'tine (Gr. bareov, os'teon, a 
bone ; Lat. dens, a tooth). A 
structure formed in teeth, in part 
resembling bone. 

Osteog'eny (Gr. oareov, os'teon, a 
bone ; ysvvau, genna'd, I produce). 
The formation or growth of bone. 

Osteoid (Gr. bareov, os'teon, a bone ; 
didos, eidos, form). Resembling 

Osteol'ogy (Gr. bcrreov, os'teon, a 
bone ; Aoyos, logos, discourse). A 
description of the bones. 

Qsteomala'cia (Gr. bareov, os'teon, a 
bone; yaAauos, mal'alcos, soft). A 
diseased softening of the bones. 

Os'teophyte (Gr. bcneov, os'teon, a 
bone; (pvco, phuo, I grow). A 
bony tumour or projection. 

Os'teotrite (Gr. bcrreov, os'teon, a 
bone ; Lat. tero, I rub). An instru¬ 
ment for removing diseased bones. 

Qsteozoa'ria (Gr. bareov, os'teon, a 
bone’; C u>ov i zdon, an animal). A 
name for the vertebrate division of 
the animal kingdom, comprising 
those animals which possess bones. 

Ostra'cea ( Gr. barpeov, os'treon, an 
oyster). A family of bivalve mol¬ 
luscous invertebrate animals, of 
which the oyster is an example. 

Ostrap'oda (Gr. oarpeor, os'treon, an 



oyster ; n ovs, pous, a foot). An 
order of entomostracous Crustacea, 
which have the body enclosed in a 
bivalve shell. 

OtaVgia (Gr. ovs, ous, the ear ; aAyos, 
algos , pain). Pain in the ear. 

Otic (Gr. ovs, ous, the ear). Belong¬ 
ing to the ear. 

Oti'tis (Gr. ovs, ous, the ear ; itis, 
denoting inflammation). Inflam¬ 
mation of the ear. 

G'tocrane (Gr. ous, ovs, the ear ; upa- 
viov, Tcranion, the skull). The 
part of the skull which is modified 
for the reception of the organ of 

O'toliths (Gr. ovs, ous, the ear; A idos, 
lith'os, a stone). Ear-stones ; small 
masses of carbonate of lime con¬ 
tained in the membranous labyrinth 
of the internal ear. 

Otorrhe'a (Gr. ovs, ous, the ear; 
peco, rhed, I flow). A flow or dis¬ 
charge from the ear. 

O'toscope (Gr. ovs, ous, the ear; 
c TKonew, skop’eo, I view). An in¬ 
strument for listening to the sound 
passing through the tympanum in 
diseased states of the ear. 

Otos'teal (Gr. ovs, ous, the ear ; 
oareov, os’teon, a bone). The ear- 
bone in the skeleton of fishes. 

-Ons. In chemistry, a termination 
implying that the compound has a 
smaller quantity of oxygen than 
that whose name ends in -ic. 

Outcrop. In geology, the edge of an 
inclined stratum when it comes to 
the surface of the ground. 

Outlier. In geology, a patch or mass 
of a stratum detached from the 
main body of the formation to 
which it belongs. 

Ova (Lat. plural of ovum, an egg). 

Oval (Lat. ovum, an egg). Shaped 
like an egg. 

O'vary (Lat. ovum, an egg). The 

organ in animals in which eggs are 
formed and contained; in plants, 
the case containing the young seeds, 
and ultimately becoming the fruit. 

Ovate (Lat. ovum, an egg). In 
any, like an egg, with the lower 
d broadest. 

Overshot Wheel. A wheel which is 
moved by water which flows at its 
upper part into buckets placed 
round its circumference. 

Ovicap'sule (Lat. ovum, an egg; 
caps'ula, a capsule or casket). The 
sac which contains the egg. 

O'viduct (Lat. ovum, an egg; cluco, 

I lead). A passage which conveys 
eggs from the ovary. 

Ovig 'erous (Lat. ovum , an egg ; ger'o, 
I carry). Carrying eggs ; applied 
to receptacles in which, in some 
animals, eggs are received after 
being discharged from the ovary. 

O'viform (Lat. ovum, an egg ; forma, 
shape). Like an egg. 

Ovine (Lat. ovis, sheep). Pertaining 
to sheep. 

Ovip'arous (Lat. ovum,, an egg; par’io, 
I produce). Producing eggs; ap¬ 
plied to animals in which the egg 
is hatched after extrusion from the 

Oviposit (Lat. ovum, an egg; pono, 
I put). To lay eggs. 

Oviposit'ion (Lat. ovum, an egg ; 
pono, I put). The laying of eggs. 

Ovipositor (Lat. ovum, an egg ; pono, 
I put). The organ which transmits 
eggs to their proper place during 

Ovis (Lat., a sheep). The generic 
term for the animals of which the 
sheep is the type. 

O'visac (Lat. ovum, an egg ; sac). 
The cavity in the ovary which 
contains the ovum. 

O'volo. In architecture, a round 
moulding, generally the quarter of 
a circle. 

Ovovivip'arous (Lat. ovum, an egg; 
virus, alive ; par'io, I produce). 
Hatching young from eggs in the 
body of the parent, but not in an 
uterine cavity. 

Ov'ule (Lat. ovum, an egg). A little 
egg, or seed ; the small body in 
plants which becomes a seed. 

Ox'alate ( OxaVic ). A salt composed 
of oxalic acid and a base. 

Oxalic (Lat. ox’alis, sorrel). Per¬ 
taining to sorrel : applied to an 
acid, first obtained from the sorrel, 
but of very common occurrence. 



Ox'idate (Oxide). To convert into 
an oxide. 

Oxide ( Oxygen ). A body formed of 
oxygen with another elementary 

Ox'idizs (Ox'ygen). To charge or 
impregnate with oxygen. 

Oxy-. A prefix in compound words, 
signifying generally that oxygen 
enters into the composition of the 
substance ; sometimes also im¬ 
plying acuteness. 

Oxyg'enate (Ox'ygen, from Gr. o|os, 
oxus, acid; yevvaoe, genna'd, I 
produce). To unite or cause to 
combine with oxygen. 

Gxyg'enise. See Oxygenate. 

Oxyg'enous (Ox'ygen). Relating to 

Oxyhy'drogen Blowpipe. A kind 
of blowpipe in which oxygen and 
hydrogen gases are burned together, 
to produce intense heat. 

Oxyhy'drogen Mi'croscope. A mi¬ 
croscope illuminated by a cylinder 
of limestone exposed to the flame 
of the oxykydrogen blow-pipe. 

Ox'ysalt (Ox'ygen; salt). A salt 
into the composition of which 
oxygen enters. 

Oz'one (Gr. ofa, odd, I smell). A 
modification of oxygen, produced 
by electrical action, and emitting a 
peculiar odour. 


Pab'ulum (Lat. from pasco, I feed). 

Pacchio'nian Bodies (Pacchio'ni, an 
Italian anatomist). Small fleshy 
looking elevations formed on the 
external surface of the dura ma¬ 

Packyder'matous (Gr. iraxos, pack'us, 
thick; depya, derma, skin). Thick- 
skinned ; applied to an order of 
animals having hoofs, but not 
chewing the cud, of which the 
elephant, hippopotamus, horse, pig, 
and a large number of fossil animals, 
are examples. 

Pachi'ian Bodies ( Paci'ni , an Italian 
anatomist). Minute oval bodies, 
attached to the extremities of the 
nerves of the hand and foot, and 
some other parts. 

Palae'o- (Gr. iraAouos, palai'os, an¬ 
cient). A prefix in compound 
words, signifying ancient. 

Palaeog'raphy (Gr. iraKcuos, palai'os, 
ancient; ypcupw, graph'd, I write). 
The art of deciphering and reading 
ancient inscriptions. 

Palaeol'ogy (Gr. -n-o.Aaios, palai’os, 
ancient; Aoyos, logos, discourse). 
A discourse or treatise on ancient 

Palseontol'ogy (Gr. rraAatos, palai'os, 
ancient; uv, on, being; Aoyos, 

logos, discourse). The branch of 
science which describes the fossil 
animals and plants found in geolo¬ 
gical strata. 

False ophytol'ogy (Gr. -naAaios, pa¬ 
lai'os, ancient ; <pvrov, phuton , a 
plant ; Aoyos, logos, discourse). 
A term proposed for that branch of 
palaeontology which treats of fossil 
vegetable remains. 

Palaeosau'rus (Gr. naAaios, palai'os, 
ancient; aavpos, sauros, a lizard). 
Ancient lizard : a fossil reptile 
found in the magnesian limestone 
of the Permian system. 

Palaeothe'rium (Gr. -iraAaios, palai'os, 
ancient ; Br/piou, therion, wild 
beast). A fossil pachydermatous 
or thick-skinned animal, found in 
the tertiary strata. 

Palaeozo'ic (Gr. naAaios, palai'os, 
ancient; far], zde, life). A term 
applied to the lowest division of 
strata which contains fossil re¬ 
mains of animals. 

Palseozool'ogy (Gr. naAaios, pala'ios, 
ancient ; faov, zdon, an animal; 
Aoyos, logos, a discourse). A term 
proposed for that branch of palseon- 
tologv which describes fossil animal 

Pala'tal (Lat. pala'tum, the roof of 
the mouth). Relating to the pa- 



late : a letter formed by the aid of 
the palate. 

Pal'atine (Lat. paid!turn, the roof of 
the mouth). Belonging to the 

Palatine (Lat. pala'tium, a palace). 
Belonging to a palace : having i-oyal 
privileges : counties palatine, in 
England, were Chester, Durham, 
and Lancaster, over which the pro¬ 
prietors—the Earl of Chester, 
Bishop of Durham, and Duke of 
Lancaster — formerly possessed 
rights equal to those of the king. 

Pala'to-. In anatomy, a prefix in 
compound words, signifying connec¬ 
tion with the palate. 

Pa'lea (Lat. chaff). A name given 
to a part of the flowers of grasses ; 
also to the small scaly plates in 
the receptacle of some composite 

Palea'ceous (Lat. pa'lea , chaff). Re¬ 
sembling chaff; covered with small 
membraneous scales. 

Palim'psest (Gr. naKiv, pal'in, again; 
ipaco, psao, I rub). A sort of 
parchment from which anything 
written might be rubbed out, so 
that it might be again written on. 

Pal'lial (Lat. pal'Hum, a mantle). 
Belonging to the pallium or mantle. 

Palliobranchia'ta (Lat. pal'lium, a 
mantle ; Gr. / 3 pa'yx ia > bronchia, 
gills). A class of molluscous in¬ 
vertebrate animals, having the 
branchiae arranged on the inner 
surface of the mantle. 

Pal'lium (Lat. a mantle). In zoology, 
the fleshy covering lining the in¬ 
terior of the shells of bivalve 
mollusca, and covering the body of 
the animal. 

Pal'macites (Lat. palma, a palm- 
tree). Fossil remains which bear 
an analogy or resemblance to the 
existing palms. 

Pal'mar (Lat. palma, the palm of the 
hand). Belonging to the palm. 

Pal'mate (Lat. palma, the palm). 
Resembling a hand with the fingers 
spread ; in botany, applied to 
leaves divided into lobes to about 
the middle. 

Palmat'ifid (Lat. palma , the palm ; 

findo, I cleave). Divided so as to 
resemble a hand. 

Pal'miped (Lat. palma, a palm ; pcs, 
a foot). Web-footed ; applied to 
an order of birds having the toes 
connected by a membrane for the 
purpose of swimming, as the pen¬ 
guin, petrel, pelican, swan, goose, 
duck, &c. 

Palpa'tion (Lat. palpo, I feel). Feel¬ 
ing : examination by means of the 
sense of touch. 

Pal'pebra (Lat.). An eyelid. 

Pal'pebral (Lat. pal'pebra, an eye¬ 
lid). Belonging to the eyelids. 

Palpi (Lat. palpo, I feel). Feelers : 
jointed filaments attached to the 
heads of insects and some other 

Palu'dal (Lat. pains, a marsh). Be¬ 
longing to or caused by emanations 
from marshes. 

Pam'piniform (Lat. pam'pinus, a 
tendril; forma, shape). Li&e a 

Pan-, Pant-, or Panto- (Gr. nas, 
pas, all). A prefix in compound 
words, signifying all, or every 

Panace'a (Gr. irav, pan, all; aueoyai, 
aMeomai, I cure). A medicine 
supposed to cure all diseases. 

Pan'ary (Lat. panis, bread). Relat¬ 
ing to bread ; formerly applied to 
the fermentative process which 
takes place in the making of bread. 

Pan'creas (Gr. nav, pan, all ; upeas, * 
hreas, flesh). A narrow flat gland 
extending across the abdomen 
under the stomach, and secreting a 
fluid which aids in the digestion of 

Pancreatic ( Pan'creas ). Belonging 
to or produced by the pancreas. 

Pandemic (Gr. nav, pan, all; bryuos, 
demos, people). Attacking a whole 

Pan'duriform (Lat. pandura, a 
fiddle; forma, shape). Shaped 
like a fiddle ; applied, in botany , 
to leaves which are contracted iu 
the middle and broad at each end. 

Pan'icle (Lat. panic'ula, the down 
upon reeds). A form of inflores¬ 
cence, consisting of spikelets on 



long peduncles coming off in the 
manner of a raceme, as in grasses. 

Panic'ulate (Lat. panic'ula). Hav¬ 
ing flowers arranged in panicles. 

Panora'ma (Gr. irav, pan, all ; opaco, 
horao, I see). An entire view ; a 
form of picture in which all the 
objects that can be seen from a 
single point are represented on the 
inner surface of a round or cylin¬ 
drical wall. 

Pan'tograph (Gr. irav, pan, all ; 
7 pacpw, grapho, I write). An in¬ 
strument for copying drawings. 

Fantom'eter (Gr. irav, pan, all ; 
perpov, met'ran, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring all kinds 
of elevations, angles, and distances. 

Papaveraceous (Lat. papalver, a 

poppy). Belonging to the order of 
plants of which the poppy is the 

Papiliona'ceous (Lat. pupil'io, a 

butterfly). Resembling a butter¬ 
fly : applied to plants of the legu¬ 
minous order, as the pea, from the 
shape of the flowers. 

Papilla (Lat. a nipple). A small 
conical or cylindrical projection of 
the skin or mucous membrane, 
containing blood-vessels and nerves, 
and serving sometimes to extend 
the surface, and sometimes for re¬ 
ceiving impressions made on the 
extremities of the nerves. 

Papillary (Lat. papil'la). Consist¬ 
ing of or provided with papillae. 

Pap'illated or Papillose (Lat. pa¬ 
pil'la). Covered with small nipple¬ 
like prominences. 

Pappose (Lat. pappus, down). 

Pap'ulae (Lat. plural of pap'ula, a 
kind of pimple). Pimples. 

PapyraCeous (Lat. papyrus, paper). 
Papery : of the nature or consis¬ 
tence of paper. 

Par'a- (Gr. irapa, par'a). A Greek 
preposition used in compound words, 
signifying close to, side by side, 
beyond, passing through, or con¬ 

Parab'ola (Gr. irapa, par'a, beyond; 
/ 3 aAAa>, hallo, I cast ; probably 
from being the curve described in 

the motion of projectiles). The 
figure produced by cutting a cone 
by a plane parallel to one of its 

Parabolic ( Parab'ola ). Having the 
form of, or relating to, a parabola. 

Parab'oloid ( Parab'ola ; Gr. eiSos, 
eiclos, form). The solid body pro¬ 
duced by the revolution of a paro- 
bola about its axis. 

Paracente'sis (Gr. irapa, par'a, 
beyond ; Kevreoc, Jcen'teb, I pierce). 
The operation of perforating a part 
of the body to allow the escape of 

Paracen'tric (Gr. irapa, par'a, be¬ 
yond ; KevTpov, kentron, a centre). 
Deviating from the curve which 
would form a circle. 

Par'adox (Gr. irapa, par'a, beyond; 
So|a, doxa, opinion). Something 
that seems at first to be contrary 
to received opinion, or absurd. 

Par'affin (Lat. parum, little; affi'nis, 
allied to). A substance obtained 
from tar, remarkable for its insis¬ 
tence to sti’ong chemical agents, and 
for not being known to combine in 
a definite manner with any other 

Parago'ge' (Gr. irapa, par'a , be¬ 
yond ; aycv, ago, I draw). The 
addition of a letter or syllable to 
the end of a word. 

Parallac'tic (Gr. irapa, par'a, be¬ 
yond; uAAcnrcrco, alias'so, I change). 
Belonging to the parallax. Paral¬ 
lactic inequality in the moon’s 
course is the inequality dependent 
on the difference between the dis¬ 
turbing forces exercised by the sun 
in conjunction and opposition. 

Par'allax (Gr. irapa, par'a, beyond ; 
a\\aa<ru\ alias'so, I change). The 
apparent change in the position of 
an object, according to the point 
from which it is viewed. Diurnal 
parallax is the difference between 
the place of a celestial body as seen 
from the surface, and that in which 
it would appear if seen from the 
centre, of the earth. Horizontal 
parallax is the greatest amount of 
diurnal parallax, occurring when 
the object is in the horizon. An- 



nual parallax is the apparent dis¬ 
placement of a celestial body aris¬ 
ing from its being viewed from dif¬ 
ferent parts of the earth’s orbit. 

Par'allel (Gr. napa , 'par'a, opposite ; 
aAApAwv, alleldn, one another). 
Extending in the same direction 
and equally distant in every part. 

Parallel'ogram (Gr. napaAApAos, pa¬ 
rallels, parallel; ypcupw, graph'd, 
I write). A figure with four straight 
sides, having the opposite sides 
equal and parallel. 

Parallelopi'ped (Gr. napaAApAos, pa¬ 
rallels, parallel; imnedos, epip'e- 
dos, level). A solid figure bounded 
by six parallelograms, parallel to 
each other two and two, as in a 

Paral'ysis (Gr. -n-apa, par'a, from ; 
Avw, lad, I loosen). Palsy ; a loss 
of power of voluntary motion or 
sensation, or both, in any part of 
the body. 

Paralytic (Gr. napa, par'a, from ; 
\vcc, luo, I loosen). Affected with 

Paralyse (Gr. napa, par'a, from ; Ava >, 
lud, I loosen). To render incapable 
of motion or sensation. 

Paramagnetic (Gr. napa, par'a, by ; 
gayvps, magnes, a magnet). A term 
applied to bodies which are attracted 
by both poles of the magnet, and 
which then arranges itself parallel 
to the straight line joining the poles. 

Paraple'gia (Gr. napa, par'a, aci’oss ; 
nApaaw, plessd, I strike). Palsy 
of the lower half of the body, or 
of both lower limbs. 

Parapopli'ysis (Gr. napa, pad a, be¬ 
yond ; apoph'ysis). A name given 
to the transverse process of an ideal 
typical vertebra. 

Parasele'ne'(Gr. napa, par'a, beyond ; 
GeApvp, selene, the moon). A 
mock moon; a luminous ring sur¬ 
rounding the moon. 

Par'asite (Gr. napa, par'a, by; gitos, 
sitos, corn : applied originally to a 
class of public servants, who were 
maintained at the tables of the 
richer people). Any plant or ani¬ 
mal which lives and feeds on the 
body of another plant or animal. 

Parasit'ic (Parasite). Living on some 
other body, and deriving nutriment 
from it. 

Paratonnerre (Gr. 7rapa, par'a, from ; 
Fr. tonnerre, thunder). A light¬ 
ning conductor ; a pointed metallic 
rod erected over a building or 
other object to protect it from 

Paregoric (Gr. nappyopeco, paregored, 
I mitigate). Mitigating pain. 

Paren'chyma (Gr. napa, par'a, by ; 
iyxvga, en'chuma, a tissue). A 
term used to denote either the 
solid part of a gland, including all 
its tissues, or any substance lying 
between the ducts, vessels, and 

Parenchy'matous (Paren'chyma). 
Consisting of parenchyma ; or 
affecting parts formed of paren¬ 

Paren'thesis (Gr. napa, par'a, beyond ; 
iu, en, in : riOp/ju, tithemi, I place). 
An insertion of words in the body 
of a sentence, giving some explana¬ 
tion or comment, but not forming 
a part of its grammatical struc¬ 

Parhelion (Gr. napa, par'a, beyond ; 
t]A los, hellos, the sun). A mock 
sun; a meteor appearing as a bright 
light near the sun, sometimes 
tinged with colours like a rainbow. 

Pari'etal (Lat. par'ies, a Avail). Re¬ 
lating to or acting as a wall : in 
anatomy, applied to a large flat 
bone at each side of the head ; in 
botany, applied to any organ which 
grows from the sides or walls of 

Par'ietes (Lat. plural of par'ies, a 
wall). The enclosing walls of any 

Parisyllab'ic (Lat. par, equal ; Gr. 
avAXafig, sul'labe, a syllable). Hav¬ 
ing an equal number of syllables. 

Paronoma'sia (Gr. napa, par'a, near; 
ovo/aafa, onoma'zd, I name). A 
figure by which words nearly alike 
in sound, but of different meanings, 
are used in relation to each other 
in the same sentence. 

Parot'id (Gr. napa, par'a, near ; ovs, 
ous, the ear). Hear the ear ; ap- 



plied to one of the salivary glands 
from its situation. 

Paroti'tis (Lat. paro'tis, the parotid 
gland; itis, denoting inflammation). 
Mumps; inflammation of the parotid 

Par'oxysm (Gr. tt apa, par' a, beyond ; 
o£us, oxus, sharp). A fit of any 
disease, coming on after a period of 
intermission or suspension. 

Paroxys'mal (Paroxysm). Occur¬ 
ring in paroxysms or fits. 

Parthenogen'esis (Gr. irapdevos, par'- 
thenos, a virgin ; yevraw, geniia'd, 
I produce). The successive pro¬ 
duction of animals or vegetables 
from a single ovum. 

Par'ticle (Lat. pars, a part : cle, de¬ 
noting smallness). A minute part 
of a body. 

Parffite (Lat. par'tio, I divide) In 
botany, divided to near the base. 

Partu'rient (Lat. parlu'rio, I bring 
forth). Bringing forth young. 

Parturition (Lat. partvlrio, I bring 
forth). The act of bringing forth 

Pas'seres (Lat. passer , a sparrow). 
An order of birds, characterised 
by slender legs, feeble, straight or 
nearly straight bill, sufficiently 
large wings, and small or moder¬ 
ate size; including the sparrow, 
swallow, blackbird, and numerous 
other birds. 

Pas'serine (Lat. passer, a sparrow). 
Belonging to the order passeres, of 
which the sparrow is a type. 

PatelTa (Lat. a dish with a broad 
brim). The knee-pan. 

Pathogenetic (Gr. irados, path'os, 
suffering ; 7ermoi, genna'o, I pro¬ 
duce). Producing disease : relating 
to the production of disease. 

Pathog'eny (Gr. irados, path'os, suffer¬ 
ing ; 7 evuacc, genna'o, I produce). 
The study of the seats, nature, 
general forms, and varieties of 

Pathognomonic (Gr. irados, path'os, 
suffering; yivooaKco, ginosko, I 
know). Peculiar to any special 
disease, and distinguishing it from 
all others. 

Paihol'ogy Gr. -irados, path'os , suffer¬ 

ing ; \oyos, logos, discourse). The 
branch of medical science which 
treats of the nature and constitu¬ 
tion of disease. 

Pathological (Gr. -irados, path!os, suf¬ 
fering ; Ao-yos, logos, a discourse). 
Relating to the study of the nature 
of disease. 

Pat'ulous (Lat. pat'eo, I am open). 
Spreading open. 

Paucispi'ral (Lat. paucus, few; spira, 
a spire). Having few spiral turns. 

Pavement Epithelium. A form of 
epithelium in which the particles 
have the form of small angular 
masses or thin scales. 

Pe'cilopods. See Pce'cilopods. 

Pec'ora (Lat. pec'us, cattle). A name 
given by Linnaeus to the ruminat¬ 
ing mammals. 

Pectin (Gr. irrjKTOs, pektos, solid, 
congealed). The jelly of fruits. 

Pec'tinate (Lat. pecten, a comb). Re¬ 
sembling the teeth of a comb. 

Pectineal (Lat. pecten, a comb). In 
anatomy, applied to a line forming 
a sharp ridge on the pubic bone of 
the pelvis. 

Pectinibranchia'ta (Lat. pecten, a 
comb; Gr. ( 3 payxia,bran'chia, gills). 
An order of gasteropodous mollus¬ 
cous animals, which have the gills 
in a comb-like form, usually seated 
in a cavity behind the head. 

Pec'tiniform (Lat. pecten, a comb ; 
forma, shape). Resembling a comb. 

Pec'toral (Lat. pectus, the breast). 
Belonging to or situated on the 
region of the breast ; the pectoral 
fins in fishes are the anterior fins, 
which represent the fore limbs of 
the higher vertebrate animals. 

Pectoril'oquy(Lat. pectus, the breast; 
loquor, I speak). A direct truns- 
mission of the sound of the voice 
from the chest to the ear, heard on 
listening over the chest in certain 
diseased states. 

Pectus (Lat.) The breast. 

Pedate (Lat. pes, the foot). Having 
divisions like the toes. 

Ped'icle (Lat. pes, the foot). A sub¬ 
division of a peduncle or stem. 

Ped'iform (Lat. pes, a foot; forma , 
shape). Shaped like a foot. 




Pedig'erous (Lat. pes, a foot; gero, 
I bear). Carrying feet. 

Pedilu'vium (Lat. pes, a foot ; lavo, 
I wash). Afoot-bath. 

Ped'iment (Lat. pes, a foot). In ar¬ 
chitecture, the triangular surface 
formed by the vertical termination 
of a roof consisting of two sloping 
sides, and bounded by three cor¬ 

Pedipal'pi (Lat. pes, a foot ; palpi, 
feelers). A section of arachnida, 
remarkable for the large size of 
their palpi, which are furnished 
with claws or pincers, as the scor¬ 

Ped'uncle (Lat. pes, a foot ; cle, de¬ 
noting smallness). A stem. 

Pedun'culated ( Ped'uncle ). Growing 
or supported on a stem. 

Peg'matite (Gr. TTpyga, pegma, any¬ 
thing fastened together). A form 
of granite, being a fine-grained 
compound of feldspar and quartz, 
with minute scales of mica. 

Pelagic (Gr. TreXayos, pel'agos, the 
open sea). Belonging to the deep 

Pellag'ra (Lat. pellis cegra, diseased 
skin). Italian leprosy ; a disease 
of the skin common in the north of 

Pel'licle (Lat. pellis, a skin ; cle, 
denoting smallness). A thin skin 
or film ; in botany, the outer cover¬ 
ing of plants. 

Pellu'cid (Lat. per, through; lu'ci- 
dus, light). Clear ; transparent. 

Pel'tate (Lat. pelta, a target). Ha¬ 
ving the shape of a round shield or 
target; in botany, applied to leaves 
having the stem inserted at or near 
the middle of the under surface. 

Pelvic {Pelvis). Belonging to the 

Pelvis (Lat. a basin). In anatomy, 
the cavity or inelosure in the ani¬ 
mal body made up of the innomi¬ 
nate bones, the sacrum, and the 
coccyx, and supporting tbe lower 
organs of the abdomen on the in¬ 
side, and the lower limbs on the 

Pemphi'gus (Gr. ireyc})^, pemphix, a 
small blister). A disease of the 

skin, consisting in an eruption of 
blisters of various sizes, from the 
size of a sixpence to that of a half- 

Pencil of Rays. In optics, a collec¬ 
tion of rays of light radiating from 
or converging to a common point, 
and included within the surface of 
a cone or other regular limit. 

Pendant (Fr. hanging, from Lat. 
pen'deo, I hang). An ornament 
used in the vaults and ceilings of 
Gothic architecture. 

Pen'dulous (Lat. pen'deo, I hang). 

Pen'dulum (Lat. pen'deo, I hang). A 
body suspended so that it may 
vibrate about some fixed point by 
the action of gravity. 

Penicil'late (Lat. penicil'lus, a small 
brush). Having the form of a 
pencil or small brush. 

Penin'sula (Lat. pene , almost; in' - 
sula, an island). A portion of 
land nearly or in great part sur¬ 
rounded by water, and joined to 
the mainland by a part narrower 
than the tract itself. 

Pennate (Lat. penna, a feather). 

Pen'nifer (Lat. penna, a feather ; 
fer'o, I bear). Covered with fea¬ 

Pen'niform (Lat. penna, a feather ; 
forma, shape). Having the shape 
of a feather; in anatomy, applied 
to muscles of which the fibres pass 
out on each side from a central 

Pen'ninerved (Lat. penna, a feather ; 
nervus, a nerve). In botany, ap¬ 
plied to leaves which have the 
nerves or veins arranged like the 
parts of a feather. 

Pennule (Lat. penna, a feather ; xde, 
denoting smallness). A small fea¬ 
ther, or division of a feather. 

Penta- (Gr. 7re rre, pente, five). A 
prefix in compound words, signify¬ 
ing five. 

Pentac'rinites (Gr. nevre, pente, 
five ; Kpivov, Jcrinon, a lily). A 
tribe of echinoderms, mostly fossil, 
in which the animal consists of a 
jointed flexible column fixed at the 



base, and supporting a concave 
disc or body, with five jointed cy¬ 
lindrical arms. 

Pentadac'tyle (Gr. nerre, pente, 
five; baicr vAos, dah'tulos, a finger). 
Having five fingers or toes. 

Pentagon (Gr. irevre, pente, five; 
70 wia, gdnia, an angle). A figure 
having five angles. 

Pen'tagrapli. See Pantagraph. 

Pentagyn'ia (Gr. 7rerre, pente, five ; 
yvvT], gune, a female). A term 
applied in the Linnean system to 
those classes of plants which have 
five pistils. 

Pentahed'ral (Gr. nevTe, pente, five ; 
4 Spa, hed'ra, a base). Having 

five equal sides. 

Pentahed'ron (Gr. irevre, pente, five ; 
khpa, hed'ra, a base). A solid 

figure, having five equal sides. 

Pentam'era (Gr. nevTt, pente, five; 
gepos, mer'os, a part). Having five 
parts ; in zoology, a section of the 
coleoptera or beetle tribe, having 
the tarsi of all the feet five- 

Pentam'eter (Gr. nevre, pente, five ; 
perpov, met'ron, a measure). A 
verse of five feet. 

Pentan'dria (Gr. Trenre, pente, five ; 
avpp, aner, a man). A class of 
plants in the Linnasan system, 
having five distinct stamens. 

Pentan'gular (Gr. Trerre, pente, five; 
Lat. an'gulus, an angle). Having 
five angles. 

Pentaphyl'lous (Gr. ttcvtc, pente, 
five ; (pvAAov, phullon, a leaf). 
Having five leaves). 

Pentasper'mous (Gr. 7revre, pente, 
five ; airepga, sperma, a seed). 
Having five seeds. 

Pen'tastyle (Gr. nerre, pente, five ; 
arvAos, stidos, a pillar). A build¬ 
ing having five columns in front. 

Penul'timate (Lat. pene, almost ; 
ul'timus, last). Last but one. 

Penum'bra (Lat. pene, almost ; um¬ 
bra, a shadow). Partial shade or 
shadow ; in optics and astronomy, 
a space on each side of a perfect 
shadow or eclipse, from which the 
rays of light are partially cut off 
by the opaque body; in painting, 

the part where the shade and light 
blend with each other. 

Pepsine (Gr. Treirrw, peptd, I digest). 
The active principle of the gastric 
juice, which effects digestion. 

Pep'tic (Gr. 7r67rTco, peptd, I digest). 
Promoting digestion. 

Per- (Lat.) A preposition used in 
compound words, signifying through, 
thoroughly, very, in excess. 

Per Annum (Lat.) By the year. 

Per Capita (Lat ). By the head. 

Perception (Lat. per, by or through; 
cap'io, I take). The process by which 
the mind takes notice of external 

Perchlo'rate (Lat. per, through; 
chlorine). A salt consisting of per¬ 
chloric acid and a base. 

Perchlo'ric (Lat. per, very; chlorine). 
A term applied to an acid consist¬ 
ing of one equivalent of chlorine 
and seven of oxygen. 

Per'colate (Lat. per, through ; colo, 
I strain). To strain through. 

Percolation (Lat. per, through ; colo, 
I strain). The act of straining. 

Percur'rent (Lat. per, through ; 
curro, I run). Running through 
from top to bottom. 

Percus'sion (Lat. percut'io , I strike). 
A striking. 

Peren'nial (Lat. per, through ; an¬ 
nus, a year). Lasting through 
several or many years. 

Perennibran'chiate (Lat. peren'nis, 
lasting ; Gr. fipayx La i bran'chia, 
gills). Having lasting gills ; ap¬ 
plied to batrachian reptiles in 
which the gills remain throughout 

Perfoliate (Lat. per, through ; fo'- 
Hum, a leaf). Applied to leaves 
which have the lobes at the base 
united, so as to surround the stem, 
as if the stem ran through them. 

Perl- (Gr. 7repi, per'i, around). A 
preposition in compound words, 
signifying around. 

Perianth (Gr. 7repf, per'i, about; avOos, 
anthos, a flower). A term applied 
to the calyx and corolla of flowers ; 
especially when they cannot be 
easily distinguished from each 

k 2 



Pericar'dial ( Pericardium ). Belong¬ 
ing to or produced in the pericar¬ 

Pericardi'tis (Pertcar'diuni ; itis, 
denoting inflamation). Inflamma¬ 
tion of the pericardium or mem¬ 
brane covering the heart. 

Pericar'dium (Gr. irept, per'i, around; 
icapSta, kar'dia, the heart). The 
serous membrane covering the heart. 

Per'icarp (Gr. irepi, per'i, around ; 
Kapiros, karpos, fruit). The seed- 
vessel, or shell of the fruit of 

Perichon'drium (Gr. irept, per'i, 
around ; x oi/ ^P os i chondros, carti¬ 
lage). The membrane covering 

Pericra'nium (Gr. irept, per'i, around; 
Kpaviov , kra'nion, the skull). The 
membrane immediately covering 
the bones of the skull. 

Periderm (Gr. irept, per'i, about; 
Sepga, derma, skin). In botany, 
the outer layer of bark. 

Perigee (Gr. 7rept, per'i, about ; 777, 
ge, the earth). The point in the 
moon’s path which is nearest to 
the earth, and where it therefore 
appears largest. 

Per'igone (Gr. 7 rept, per'i, about ; 
7 ovri, gon'e , a pistil). A term for 
the floral envelopes : sometimes 
restricted to cases in which the flower 
bears pistils only. 

Perig'ynous (Gr. nepi, per'i, about; 
71U/77, gune, a female). Growing 
on some part that surrounds the 
ovary in a flower; applied to the 
corolla and stamens when they are 
attached to the calyx. 

Perihelion (Gr. irept, per'i, about; 
p\ios, helios, the sun). The point 
of its orbit in which a planet or 
comet is nearest to the sun. 

Perim'eter (Gr. irept, per'i, around ; 
gerpov, met!ron, a measure). The 
bounds or limits of a body : in a 
circle, the circumference. 

Pe'riod (Gr. 7r ept, per'i, about; 65 os, 
hodos, away). A circuit : a stated 
portion of time. 

Periodic or Periodical (Gr. irept, 

per'i, about; 65 oy, hodos, a way). 
Performed in a regular circuit in a 

given time ; occurring at regular 

Periodic (Lat. per, very ; i'odine). 
A term applied to an acid contain¬ 
ing an equivalent of iodine and 
seven of oxygen. 

Periodicity (Period). The disposi¬ 
tion of certain things, or circum¬ 
stances, to return at stated intervals. 

Periodon'tal (Gr. irtpi, per'i, about; 
oSovs, odous, a tooth). Surround¬ 
ing the teeth. 

Perioe'ci (Gr. irept, per'i, round a- 
bout; olKew, oi'keu, I dwell). The 
inhabitants of the earth who live 
in the same latitudes, but whose 
longitudes differ by 180 degrees, so 
that when it is noon with one it is 
midnight with the other. 

Periosti'tis (Periosteum: itis, denot¬ 
ing inflammation). Inflammation of 
the periosteum. 

Perms'teum (Gr. irept, per'i, around ; 
derreov, os'teon, a bone). The 
fibrous membrane which invests 
the bone. 

Perios'tracum (Gr. irept, per'i, 
around; bmpaxov, os'trakon, a 
shell). The membrane which covers 

Peripatetic (Gr. ireptirarecc, peri - 
pat'ed, I walk about). Walking 
about: a term applied to the philo¬ 
sophy of Aristotle, because taught 
during walking in the Lyceum at 

Periph'eral (Gr. irept, per'i, around ; 
c pepeo , phero, I bear). Belonging 
to the periphery or circumference. 

Periph'ery (Gr. irept, per'i, around ; 
•pepoo, pher'o, I bear). The circum¬ 

Periphrasis (Gr. irept, per'i, about; 
c ppafa , phrazb, I speak). Circum¬ 
locution : the use of more words 
than are necessary to express an 

Per'iplus (Gr. irept, per'i, around; 
ir\ecc, pled, I sail). A sailing 
round a certain sea or coast. 

Peripneumo'nia. See Pneumo'nia. 

Perisc'ii (Gr. irept, per'i, around ; anta, 
skia, a shadow). A name given 
to the inhabitants of the frigid zones 
whose shadows move round, and at 



certain times in the year describe 
a circle during the day. 

Periscope (Gr. tv epi, per'i, about; 
(tko new, slcop'eo, I look). A gene¬ 
ral view. 

Per'isperm (Gr. 7 vepi, per'i, about; 
cnveppa, sperma, seed). The albu¬ 
men or nourishing matter stored up 
with the embryo in a seed. 

Peris'sodactyle (Gr. tvepiaaos, peris'- 
sos, odd, or uneven ; SaurvAos, 
da.Jc'tulos, a finger). Having an 
uneven number of toes on the hind 

Peristaltic (Gr. ivepi, per'i, about; 
crTeAAco, stello, I send). Sending 
round : applied to a motion like 
that of a worm, such as takes place 
in the intestines and other internal 
muscular organs, by the contrac¬ 
tion of successive portions. 

Peristome (Gr. nepi, per'i, around ; 
aropa, stomla, a mouth). The 
ring of bristles situated close round 
the orifice of the seed-vessel in 

Peristyle (Gr. tv epi, per'i, around ; 
cvtvAos, stulos, a pillar). A range 
of columns surrounding any thing. 

Perit'omous (Gr. nepi, per'i, around; 
repvcc, temnu, I cut). In miner¬ 
alogy, cleaving in more directions 
than one parallel to the axis, the 
faces being all of one quality. 

Peritone'al ( Peritone'um ). Belong¬ 

ing to the peritoneum. 

Peritone'um (Gv. ivepi, per'i, about; 
Tfirw, teino, I stretch). The se¬ 
rous membrane which lines the 
cavity of the abdomen, and is re¬ 
flected over the organs contained 
therein, so as to hold them in their 
place, and at the same time allow 
free movement where required. 

Peritoni'tis ( Peritone'um ; itis, de¬ 
noting inflammation). Inflamma¬ 
tion of the peritoneum. 

Peritre'ma (Gr. tv epi, per'i, around ; 
rpripa, trema, a hole). The raised 
margin which surrounds the breath¬ 
ing holes of scorpions. 

Per'meable (Lat. per, through ; meo, 
I pass). Capable of being passed 
through without rupture or appa¬ 
rent displacement of parts. 

Per'meate (Lat. per, through; meo, 
I pass). To pass through without 
rupture or apparent displacement, 
as water through porous stones, or 
light through transparent bodies. 

Permuta'tion (Lat. per, through; 
muto, I change). An exchange; 
the different combination of any 
number of quantities, taking a cer¬ 
tain number at a time, with refer¬ 
ence to their order. 

Perone'al (Gr. Tvepovy, per’one, the 
fibula, or small bone of the leg). 
Belonging to, or lying near the 

Peroxide (Lat. per, very; oxide). 
The oxide of a substance which 
contains most oxygen, but has not 
acid characters. 

Perpendicular (Lat. perpendic'ulum, 
a plumb-line). Hanging in a 
straight line towards the centre of 
the earth or of gravity ; meeting 
another line at right angles. 

Persis'tent (Lat. persis'to, I con¬ 
tinue). In botany, applied to parts 
which remain attached to the axis. 

Per'sonate (Lat. perso'na, a mask). 
In botany, applied to an irregular 
corolla with the petals inverted, 
and having the lower lip projecting 
so as to close the opening between 
the lips. 

Perspective (Lat.^er, through; spec'- 
to, I look). The science which 
teaches the representation of an 
object or objects on a surface, so 
as to affect the eye in the same 
manner as the objects themselves. 

Perspira'tion (Lat. per, through ; 
spi'ro, I breathe). The exhalation 
of vapour or fluid through the 

Persul'phate (Lat. per, very ; sul¬ 
phate). A combination of sul¬ 
phuric acid with a peroxide. 

Perturba'tion (Lat. per; turbo, I 
disturb). A disturbing ; in astro¬ 
nomy, applied to the deviation, 
produced by the gravitation of a 
body external to the orbit, of a 
planet or other revolving body, 
from the path which it would follow 
if regulated solely by the attraction 
of a central body. 



Pertus'sis (Lat. per, very ; tussis, 
cough). Hooping-cough. 

Pestiferous (Lat. pestis, plague; fer'o, 
I bring). Injurious to health ; 
producing disease. 

Pestilen'tial (Lat. pestis, plague). 
Partaking of the nature of, or 
tending to produce, an infectious 

Pet al (Gr. ireraAov, pet'alon, a leaf). 
A flower-leaf, or part of the corolla, 
generally coloured. 

Pet'aloid (Gr. ireraAov, pet'alon, a 
leaf or petal ; elhos, eiclos, shape). 
Like a petal or leaf. 

Pete'chia. A small red spot like a 

Pete'chial ( Pete'chia). Belonging to 
petechite, or characterised by their 

Pet'iolate (Petiole). Having a stalk 
or petiole. 

Pet'iole (Lat. pet'iolus, the stalk of 
fruits ; probably diminutive of pes, 
a foot). The stem of a leaf. 

Petit'io Princip'ii (Lat. a demand of 
the principle). A species of faulty 
reasoning, which consists in taking 
the question in dispute as settled, 
and drawing conclusions from it. 

Petrifac'tion (Lat. petra, a stone or 
rock ; fac'io, I make). A changing 
into stone ; a process effected by 
the entrance of particles of stony 
matter in solution into the pores 
of an animal or vegetable body, 
taking the place of the organic 

Pet'rify (Lat. petra, a stone or rock ; 
fac'io, I make). To change into 

Petro'sal (Lat. petra, a stone or rock). 
A name given to the ossified por¬ 
tion in the fish, corresponding to 
the petrous portion of the temporal 
bone in the higher vertebrates. 

Pet'rous (Lat. petra, a stone or rock). 
Like stone ; applied to a portion of 
the temporal bone, from its hard¬ 

Phaenog'amous (Gr. <paivco, phaino, 
I show ; yapos, gam!os, marriage). 
Having conspicuous flowers. 

Phagedaena (Gr. (payer, phag'o, I eat). 
A rapidly spread ing malignant ulcer. 

Phagede'nic (Gr. (payer, phago, I eat). 
Of the nature of a spreading ulcer. 

Phalange'al (Gr. <paAay£, phalanx, a 
line of battle). Belonging to the 
phalanges, or small bones of the 
fingers and toes. 

Phalanx (Gr. <pa\ay |, phalanx, a 
line of battle). A name applied to 
the small bones forming the fingers 
and toes, which are arranged in 
three rows. 

Phanerog'amous (Gr. (pavepos, phan'- 
eros, manifest; yapos, gam'os, mar¬ 
riage). Having conspicuous flowers. 

Phantasm ago Tia (Gr. (pavraapa, 

phantas'ma , an appearance ; ayop- 
aopai, agora'omai, I meet). An 
optical instrument, consisting of a 
magic lantern which is made to 
to recede from or approach a screen, 
so as to magnify or diminish the 
appearance of objects, and give 
them an appearance of motion. 

Pharmaceu'tic (Gr. cpappaKov, phar'- 
maJcon, a drug). Relating to the 
art of preparing drugs. 

Pharmaceutist (Gr. (bappaKov, phar'- 
niakon , a drug). One who prepares 

Pharmacopoeia (Gr. (pappaKov, phar'- 
malcon , a drug ; noier, poi'eo, I 
make). A book which teaches the 
method of preparing drugs for use 
as medicines. 

Pliar'macy (Gr. <pappanov, phar'ma- 
Tcon, a drug). The art of collecting 
and preparing drugs for use as medi¬ 

Pharynge'al (Pharynx). Belonging 
to the pharynx. 

Pharyngot'omy (Gr. (papvyt, pha- 
runx, the pharynx ; reaver, temno, 
I cut). The operation of cutting 
open the pharynx. 

Pharynx (Gr. (papvy£, pharunx). The 
muscular organ or tube at the back 
part of the mouth, which leads into 
the oesophagus or gullet. 

Phase (Gr. cpaais, phasis, an appear¬ 
ance). An appearance ; in astro¬ 
nomy, applied to the different 
appearances which the moon or a 
planet presents, according to its 
position with respect to the sun and 
the earth. 



Phenomenon (Gr. cpaivogai, phai'no- 
mai, I appear). That which ap¬ 
pears ; whatever is presented to 
the senses by observation or experi¬ 
ment, or is discovered to exist. 

Philol'ogy (Gr. (piAos, pliiHos, a 
friend ; A oyos, logos, a word). The 
branch of literature which compre¬ 
hends a knowledge of the etymo¬ 
logy and structure of words ; the 
science of language. 

Philosophy (Gr. (piAos, phil'os, a 
friend ; croopia, soph'ia, wisdom). 
Love of wisdom ; but applied 
generally to an investigation of the 
causes of all phenomena, both of 
mind and of matter. 

Phlebi'tis (Gr. (pAexf /, phleps, a vein ; 
itis, denoting inflammation). In¬ 
flammation of a vein or of veins. 

Phleb'olites (Gr. (pAe\p, phleps, a vein; 
Aidos, lith'os, a stone). Small dense 
masses found in veins. 

Phlebot'omy (Gr. (pAeip, phleps, a 
vein ; t egvoo, temno, I cut). The 
act or practice of opening a vein to 
let blood. 

Phlegma'sia (Gr. (pAoyoo, plileg'd, I 
burn). Inflammation accompanied 
by fever. 

Phleg'mon (Gr. <pAeyw, plileg'd, I 
burn). An inflammatory swelling 
on the external surface. 

Phleg'monous (Gr. cpAeyw, plileg'd, I 
burn). Having the nature of 

Phlogis'tic ( Phlogis'ton ). Belonging 
or relating to phlogiston. 

Phlogis'ton (Gr. <pAoyi(w, phlogi'zo, 
I inflame). A name formerly given 
to what was supposed to be pure 
fire fixed in combustible bodies. 

Phlyctse'na (Gr. (pAvoo, pliluo, I boil 
up). A vesicle containing serous 

Phonet'ic (Gr. <pwvi 7, phone, sound). 
Belonging to sound; applied to 
written characters which represent 

Phon'ic (Gr. cpoorr], phone, sound). 
Belonging to sound. 

Phonocamp'tic (Gr (puvr /, phone, 
sound ; nap. tttoo, lcamptd, I bend). 
Having the power to turn sound 
from its direction. 

Phonog'raphy (Gr. (poovr, /, phone, 
sound ; ypcupw, graph'd, I write). 
A description of the sounds uttered 
by the organs of speech ; a system 
of writing, in which eveiy sound 
of the voice has its own character. 

Phon'olite (Gr. (poovr /, phone, sound ; 
Ai60s, lith'os, a stone). A species 
of basaltic greenstone, so called 
from its ringing sound when struck. 

Phon'otypy (Gr. (poovr}, plidne, sound ; 
tokos, tu'pos, a type). A proposed 
system of printing, in which each 
letter represents a single sound. 

-Phore (Gr. (pepoo, pher'd, I bear). A 
termination in compound words, 
signifying a bearer or supporter. 

Phos'gene (Gr. (poos, plids, light ; 
yevvaoo, genna'o, I produce). Pro¬ 
ducing light, or produced by light. 

Phosphate {Plios'phorus). A salt 
consisting of phosphoric acid com¬ 
bined with a base. 

Phos'phene (Gr. (poos, phds, light; 
(paivogai, phai'nomai, I appear). 
An appearance of light in the eye. 

Phos'phite ( Plios'phorus ). A salt 
consisting of phosphorous acid com¬ 
bined with a base. 

Phosphorescence (Gr. (poos, phds, 
light ; <pepeo, pher'd, I bear). A 
faint luminous appearance presented 
in the dark by certain bodies, not 
accompanied by sensible heat. 

Phosphores'cent. Shining with a 
faint light. 

Phosphoric ( Plios'phorus ). Belong¬ 
ing to phosphorus; applied to an 
acid containing one equivalent of 
phosphorus and five of oxygen. 

Phos'phorous ( Plios'phorus ). A term 
applied to an acid containing one 
equivalent of phosphorus and three 
of oxygen. 

Phos'phorus (Gr. (poos, phds, light; 
(pepco, pher'd, I bear). An element¬ 
ary non-metallic substance, having 
the property of burning at a low 
temperature, so as to produce a 
luminous appearance in the dark. 

Phos'phuretted ( Phos'phorus ). Com¬ 
bined with phosphorus. 

Photo- (Gr. (poos, phds, light). A 
prefix in compound words, denoting 
relation to or connection with light. 



Photogenic (Gr. $cos, phds, light; 
•yevvaco, genna'd, I produce). Pro¬ 
ducing light ; produced by light. 

Pho'tograph (Gr. (pus, p>hds, light; 
7 pacpco, graph'd, I write). A re¬ 
presentation of an object, produced 
by the action of light. 

Photog'raphy (Gr. <pcos, phds, light; 
7 pacpw, graph'd, I write). The pro¬ 
cess of producing representations 
of objects by the action of light on 
a surface coated with a preparation 
capable of being acted on by certain 
rays of the sun. 

PhotoTogy (Gr. (poos, phds, light ; 
A oyos, log'os, a discourse). The 
science which describes light. 

Photonxag'netism (Gr. (pus, phds, 
light; magnetism). The branch 
of science which describes the rela¬ 
tion of the phenomena of magnetism 
to those of light. 

Photom'eter (Gr. (pus, phds, light; 
gerpov, met'ron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the in¬ 
tensity of light. 

Photom'etry (Gr. (poos, phds, light ; 
gerpov, met'ron, a measure). The 
art of measuring the intensity of 
light by observation. 

Pliotopho'bia (Gr. (poos, phds . light; 
c po( 3 os, phob'os, fear). Dread of 

Phragma (Gr. (ppaaaco, phrasso, I 
divide). A transverse division or 
false dissepiment in fruits. 

Fhrag'mocone (Gr. (ppaaaco, phrassd, 
I divide ; kcouos, lednos, a cone). 
The chambered cone of the shell of 
the belemnite cephalopods. 

Phrenic (Gr. (ppnv, phren, the 
diaphragm). Of or belonging to 
the diaphragm. 

Phreni'tis (Gr. (ppgv, phren, the 
mind ; itis, denoting inflammation). 
Inflammation of the brain. 

Phrenol'ogy (Gr. <ppw, phren, the 
mind ; \oyos, log'os, discourse). 
Literally, the science of the human 
mind ; but applied especially to a 
doctrine of mental philosophy, 
founded on a presumed knowledge 
of the functions of different parts 
of the brain, obtained by compar¬ 
ing their apparent relative forms 

and magnitudes in different indivi¬ 
duals with the mental propensities 
and powers which these individuals 
are found to possess. 

Phthi'sic or Phthisical (Gr. <pQua, 
phthid, I consume). Belonging to 
or affected with phthisis or tuber¬ 
cular disease. 

Phthi'sis (Gr. (pdico, phthid, I con¬ 
sume). The disease commonly 
known as consumption, connected 
with a morbid deposit in the lungs, 
called tubercle. 

Phycol'ogy (Gr. (pvKos, phu'kos, sea¬ 
weed ; Xoyos, log'os, discourse). 
The study of algae or sea-weeds. 

Phyllo'dium (Gr. (pvXXov, phullon, a 
leaf; eidos, eidos, form). A leaf¬ 
stalk enlarged so as to resemble a 

Phyll'ogen (Gr. cpvXXou, phullon, a 
leaf; yevvaoo, genna'd, I produce). 
The terminal bud from which the 
leaves of palms grow. 

PhyU'oid (Gr. (pvXXov, phullon, a 
leaf; eidos, eidos, form). Like a 

Phylloplas'tic (Gr. (pvXXov, phullon, 
a leaf ; irXanaw, plas'sd, I form). 
Forming leaves. 

Phyllopto'sis (Gr. (pvXXov, phullon , 
a leaf; nrcoais, ptosis, a falling). 
The fall of the leaf. 

Phyllotax'is (Gr. (pvXXov, phullon, a 
leaf; raaaco, tasso, I arrange). 
The arrangement of leaves on the 
axis or stem. 

Physical (Gr (pvais, phu'sis, nature). 
Belonging to natural or material 
things, as opposed to moral or 
imaginary ; applied also to those 
properties of bodies which are 
directly perceptible to the senses, 
in opposition to those which are 
known as chemical or vital. 

Phys'ico-Mathematics. The branch 
of mathematical science which in¬ 
vestigates the laws and actions of 
bodies and their combinations, by 
means of data drawn from obser¬ 
vation and experiment. 

Phys'ics (Gr. (pvais, phu'sis, nature). 
In its literal sense, the science of 
nature and natural objects, imply¬ 
ing the study or knowledge of every- 



thing that exists. In modern 
acceptation, however, the word is 
limited to that department of 
science commonly known also as 
natural philosophy, which describes 
the general properties of bodies, 
their mutual action on each other, 
their causes, effects, phenomena, 
and laws. 

Physiogn'omy (Gr. (pvms, phu'sis, 
nature ; yrctiycov, gnomon , one who 
knows). The general appearance 
of an animal or vegetable being, 
without reference to special ana¬ 
tomical or botanical characters. 

Physiological (Gr. <pv<ns, phu'sis, 
nature ; A oyos, log'os, discourse). 
Relating to the science of the pro¬ 
perties and functions of living 

Physiol'ogy (Gr. <pv<ns, phu'sis , 
nature ; A oyos, log'os , discourse). 
Literally, a treatise on nature; 
but now applied to the science which 
investigates the functions of or¬ 
ganised beings and of their several 
parts, and their relations to each 
other and to external objects. 

Physiophilos'ophy (Gr. <pv<ris, phulsis, 
nature; <pi\oaocpia, philosoph'ia, 
philosophy). Natural philosophy. 

Phy'sograde (Gr. <pvaau, phusa'o, I 
blow ; Lat. gradus, a step). Moving 
in the water by air-bladders ; ap¬ 
plied to a tribe of acaleplne or sea- 

Phytiv'orous (Gr. (puroi>, phu'ton , a 
plant; Lat. vo'ro, I devour). Liv¬ 
ing on plants or herbage. 

Pliyto- (Gr. (pvTov, phu'ton, a plant). 
A prefix in compound words, signi¬ 
fying plant. 

Phytogen'esis (Gr. (pvrov, phv!ton, a 
plant; yemaoc, genna'o, I produce). 
The development of plants. 

Phytogeograph'ical (Gr. cpvTov, phu'¬ 
ton, a plant ; geography). Relat-' 
ing to the distribution of plants on 
the surface of the globe. 

Phytog'raphy (Gr. (pvrov, phu'ton, a 
plant ; ypcupoo, graph!o, I write). 
A description of plants. 

Phy'toid or Phytoi'dal (Gr. (pvrov, 
phu'ton, a plant; eiSos,eidos, form). 
Resembling plants. 

Phytol'ogy (Gr. (pvrov, phu'ton, a 
plant; A oyos, log'os, a discourse). 
A discourse or treatise on plants. 

Phytophagous (Gr. (pvrov, phu'ton, a 
plant; (pa.yv>, phag'o, I eat) Eating 
or living on plants. 

Phytophysiol'ogy (Gr. (pvrov,phu'ton, 
a plant ; physiology). The physio¬ 
logy of plants; the doctrine of 
their intimate structure and func¬ 

Phytot'omy (Gr. (pvrov, phu'ton, a 
plant; reyvcv, ternno, I cut). The 
dissection of plants. 

Phytozo'a (Gr. (pvrov,phu'ton, aplant; 
£wov, zdon, an animal). Moving 
filaments in the autheridia or 
analogues of flowers in cryptogamic 

Pia Mater. A name given to the 
membrane immediately investing 
the brain, and which consists chiefly 
of blood-vessels finely divided be¬ 
fore entering the substance of the 

Pigment (Lat. pin!go, I paint). In 
anatomy, applied to the material, 
contained in minute cells, which 
gives colour to various parts of the 
body, as the interior of the eye, 
the skin in coloured races, &c. 

Pi'leate (Lat. pi'leus, a cap). Having 
the form of a cap or cover for the 

Pi'leiform (Lat. pi'leus, a cap; forma, 
shape). Resembling a cap or hat. 

Pilifer (Lat. pi'lus, hair ; fer'o, I 
bear). Covered with hair. 

Pi'liform (Lat. pi'lus hair ; for'ma, 
shape). Resembling hairs. 

Pilose (Lat. pi'lus, hair). Provided 
with hairs. 

Pinacothe'ca (Gr. inva^, pin'ax, a 
picture ; d-yuy, theke, a repository). 
A picture gallery. 

Pi'neal (Lat. pi'nus, a pine). Be¬ 
longing to, or resembling the fruit 
of the pine. 

Pinen'chyma (Gr. 7rira(, pinax, a 
tablet; iyxvga, en'chuma, a type). 
A term applied to the cellular 
tissue of plants when arranged in a 
tabular form. 

Pi'nites (Lat. jn'rus, the fir-tree). A 
generic term for fossil remains of 



plants allied to the coniferous 

Pin'na (Lat. a fin or wing). In 
anatomy , the part of the external 
ear which projects beyond the 
head ; in botany , a division of a 
pinnate leaf. 

Pin'nate (Lat. pin'na, a feather). 
Like a feather ; in botany, applied 
to leaves which have a series of 
leaflets on each side of the petiole. 

Pinnat'ifid (Lat. 'pin'na, a feather ; 
fin'do, I cleave). In botany, ap¬ 
plied to leaves which are irregularly 
divided, to about the midrib, into 
segments or lobes. 

Pinnatipar'tite (Lat. pin'na, a feather; 
padtio, I divide). In botany, ap¬ 
plied to leaves cut into lateral 
segments nearly to the central rib. 

Pinnat'iped (Lat. pin'na, a feather; 
pes, a foot). Having the toes 
bordered by membranes. 

Pis'ces (Lat. pis'cis, a fish). Fishes : 
a class of oviparous vertebrate ani¬ 
mals, inhabiting the water, breath¬ 
ing by gills, having a heart with two 
cavities, and the body generally 
covered with scales. 

Pis'cine (Lat. pis'cis, a fish). Rela¬ 
ting to fish. 

Pisciv'orous (Lat. pis'cis, a fish ; 
vo'ro, I devour). Living on fishes. 

Pi'siform (Lat. pi'sum, a pea; for'ma, 
shape). Resembling a pea. 

Pi'solite(Lat. pi!sum, apea; Gr. Xidos, 
lith'os, a stone). A mineral called 
peastone, consisting of carbonate of 
lime with a little oxide of iron, 
occurring in small globular masses. 

Pis'til (Lat. pistil'lum, a pestle). In 
botany, the central organ of a 
flowering plant, consisting of the 
ovary, style, and stigma. 

Pistil'lary (Lat. pistil'lum, a pistil). 
Belonging to a pistil. 

Pistillate (Lat. pistil'lum, a pistil). 
Bearing pistils. 

Pistillid'ium (Lat. pistil'lum, a pis¬ 
til). An organ in cryptogamic or 
flowerless plants, supposed to be 
the analogue of the pistil. 

Pistillif erous (Lat. pist il'lum, a pistil; 
fer'o, I bear). Producing pistils. 

Pis'tcn (Lat. pin'so, I pound). A short 

cylinder fitting exactly into a tube, 
and used for the purpose of forcing 
air or fluid into or out of the latter. 

Pitch'stone. A rocky compound of 
silica and alumina, having a com¬ 
pact texture and a pitchy glassy 

Pituitary (Lat. pitui'ta, phlegm). 
Secreting phlegm or mucus; ap¬ 
plied especially to the membrane 
lining the nose : also to a small 
oval body at the base of the brain, 
formerly supposed to secrete the 
mucus of the nostrils. 

Pitu'itous (Lat. pitui'ta , phlegm or 
mucus). Consisting of, or resem¬ 
bling mucus. 

PityrPasis (Gr. mropov, pit'uron, 
bran). A disease of the skin, 
characterised by the appearance of 
patches of bran-like scales. 

Placen'ta (Gr. irXcucovs, plaJcous, a 
flat cake). In anatomy, the mass 
or cake, consisting principally of 
blood-vessels, by which a connection 
is maintained between the mother 
and the foetus; in botany, that 
part of a seed-vessel or fruit to 
which the ovules or seeds are 

Placen'tal (Placenta). Belonging to 
the placenta. 

Placenta'tion (Placenta). The func¬ 
tion and arrangement of the 

Placentif'erous (Lat. placenta; fer'o, 
I bear). Bearing a placenta. 

Placogan'oid (Gr. 7rAa|, plax, a flat 
thing ; 7 avos, gan'os, splendour ; 
eiSos, eidos, form). A suborder 

of fossil fishes, covered with large 
ganoid plates. 

Pla'coid (Gr. 7 rAa|, plax, a flat thing; 
ilSos, eidos, form). A term ap¬ 

plied to an order of fishes, having 
the body covered with irregular 
plates of enamel. 

Plag'iostome (Gr. TrXayios, plag'ios, 
oblique; aroga, stom'a, a mouth). 
Oblique-mouthed ; applied to cer¬ 
tain fossil obliquely compressed 
oval bivalve mollusca; also to an 
order of fishes. 

Plane (Lat. planus, flat). A level 
surface, such that a straight line, 



drawn between any two points on 
it, will altogether lie on the sur¬ 
face ; applied also to an imaginary 
flat surface supposed to pass through 
a body. 

Plane Geometry. The geometry of 
plane or flat surfaces, in opposition 
to that of solids. 

Plan'et (Gr. ir\avaoyai, plana' omai, 
I wander). A globe revolving 
round the sun in an elliptic orbit ; 
the name having been given by the 
ancients to such bodies on account 
of the apparent irregularity of their 

Plan'etary (Gr. n-Xavrirps, planetes, a 
planet). Consisting of, or relating 
to planets. 

Plan'etoid (Gr. nXaupT-ps, planetes, 
a planet; eiSos, eiclos, shape). A 
name given to the bodies found by 
astronomers in the space between 
Mars and Jupiter, where, on 
mathematical reasoning, a planet 
would be expected. 

Planim'etry (Lat. pla'nus, flat; 
juerpou, met'ron, a measure). The 
measuring of plane surfaces. 

Pla'no-con'cave (Lat. pla'nus , flat; 
con!cavus , hollowed out). Flat on 
one side and concave on the other. 

Pla'no-con/ical (Lat. pla'nus, flat; 
co'nus, a cone). Flat on one side 
and conical on the other. 

Pla'no-convex' (Lat. pla'nus , flat; 
convex'us, convex). Flat on one 
side and convex on the other. 

Plantar (Lat. plan'ta, the sole of the 
foot). Belonging to the sole. 

Plan'tigrade (Lat. plan'ta, the sole of 
the foot; grad'ior, I step). Walk¬ 
ing on the sole of the foot, as the 

Plas'ma(Gr. TrXacrcrw, plasso, I form). 
The colourless part of the blood, 
being the material from which the 
tissues are nourished. 

Plas'tic (Gr. irXaaacj, plasso, I form). 
Capable of being moulded into a 
form ; giving a definite form. 

Plas'tron. The floor, in tortoises and 
turtles, of the bony encasement of 
which the carapace forms the upper 

Plat'y- (Gr. irXaTvv, plat'us, flat). 

A prefix in compound words, signi¬ 
fying flat. 

Platycoe'lion (Gr. TrXarvs, plat'us , 
flat; kolXos, koi'los, hollow). A 
term applied to some fossil croco¬ 
dilian reptiles, in which one end of 
the body of a vertebra was flat 
and the other concave. 

Platys'ma (Gr. nXaTvvw, platu'nd, I 
widen). An expansion ; in anatomy, 
a broad thin muscular expansion 
lying under the skin at each side 
of the neck. 

Plectogna'thous (Gr. irXeKa, plek'd, 
I connect; yvados, gnatl/os, the 
jaw). Applied to an order of 
fishes which have the upper jaw 
firmly attached to the skull. 

Plei'ades (Gr. 7 tA€o>, pled, I sail). A 
cluster of seven stars in the neck of 
the constellation Taurus ; the rising 
of which, to the Greeks, indicated 
the time of safe navigation. 

Plei 'ocene (Gr. nXeiwv, plei'on, more; 
naivos, kai'nos, new). A term in 
geology for the upper tertiary group, 
containing more of recent than of 
extinct species. 

Pleistocene (Gr. 7 tA eiaros, pleis'tos, 
most ; kcuvos, kai'nos, new). A 
term applied in geology to the 
upper or post-tertiary group, im¬ 
plying that the organic remains 
almost entirely represent existing 

Ple'onasm (Gr. nXeovafa, pleona'zo, 

I am more than enough). The use 
of more words than are necessary to 
express an idea. 

Pleonas'tic (Gr. eova(w, pleona'zo, 

I am more than enough). Belong¬ 
ing to pleonasm ; redundant. 

Plesiomor'phism (Gr. nXpaios, pie- 
sios, near ; gopcpy, morphe, form). 
Close but not identical resem¬ 
blance in form ; applied to certain 

Plesiomor'phous (Gr.Tr Xricrios, plisios , 
near ; gopcpp, morphe, form). 
Nearly of the same form. 

Pleth'ora (Gr. TrXrjdu, plethd , I be¬ 
come full). Fulness; in medicine, 
fulness of blood; a full habit of 

Pletho'ric (Gr. nXpQu, plethd, I be- 



come full). Having a full liabit of 

Pleu'ra (Gr. irAevpa, pleu'ra, a rib). 
The serous membrane which lines 
the interior of the chest and covers 
the lungs. 

Pleural'gia (Gr. irAevpa, pleu'ra, a 
rib; aAyos, alg'os, pain). Pain in 
the side. 

Pleurapoph'ysis (Gr. irAevpa, pleu'ra, 
a rib; apoph'ysis). A name given 
to the bone projecting from the 
typical vertebra, which forms the 
first part of the haemal arch on 
each side ; a rib. 

Pleuren'chyma (Gr. irAevpa, pleu'ra, 
a rib ; eyxvga, en'chuma, a tissue). 
Woody tissue in plants. 

Pleu'risy (Pleura). Inflammation of 
the pleura or serous lining of the 

Pleuritic ( Pleuri'tis ). Belonging to 

or having pleurisy. 

Pleuri'tis ( Pleura; ills, denoting 
inflammation). Pleurisy. 

Pleu'rodont (Gr. irAevpa, pleu'ra , a 
lib or the side ; o 5 ou s, odous, a 
tooth). A term applied to saurian 
reptiles which have the teeth 
ancliylosed to the bottom of an 
alveolar groove, and supported by 
its side. 

Pleurorhi'zal (Gr. irAevpa, pleu'ra, a 
rib; pi(a, rhiza , a root). Having 
the radicle applied to the edges of 
the cotyledons. 

Plex'iform (Lat. plex'us, a network ; 
for'ma, shape). Having the form 
of a network. 

Plexus (Lat., a network). An inter¬ 
weaving or network ; in anatomy, 
a term applied to an arrangement 
of blood-vessels, absorbent vessels, 
or nerves in the form of a network. 

Pli'cate (Lat. pli'ca, a fold). Folded. 

Plinth (Gr. irAivdos, plinth'os, a brick 
or tile). In architecture, the flat 
square table under the moulding of 
the base and pedestal of a column, 
serving as the foundation. 

Pli 'ocene. See Plei'ocene. 

Plu'mose (Lat. plu'ma, a small feather, 
or down). Feathery ; resembling 

Plu'mule (Lat. plu'mula, a little 

feather). In botany, the growing 
point of the embryo in the seed, 
representing the future stem of the 

Plural (Lat. plus, more). Relating 
to more than one ; but, in the 
grammars of the Greek and some 
other languages, expressing more 
than two. 

Pluri- (Lat. joins, more). A prefix 
in compound words, signifying 

Plurilit'eral (Lat. plus, more; lit'era, 
a letter). Containing more than 
three letters. 

Plutonic (Lat. Pluto, the god of the 
lower regions). In geology, applied 
to rocks formed by the agency of 
fire at some depth below the surface 
of the land or sea. 

Plu'vial (Lat. pluvia, rain). Rainy; 
relating to rain. 

Pluviam'eter (Lat. plu'via, rain ; Gr. 
gerpov, met'ron, a measure). A 
rain-gauge ; an instrument for mea¬ 
suring the amount of rain which 

Pneumatic (Gr. iruevga, pneu'ma, 
air). Consisting of, or pertaining 
to air ; moved by means of air. 

Pneumatic Trough. A trough filled 
with water or mercury, and pro¬ 
vided with a perforated shelf for 
holding inverted jars or receivers, 
used in chemistry for collecting 

Pneumatics (Gr. irrevga, pneu'ma, 
air.) The branch of natural philo¬ 
sophy which describes the mechanical 
properties of air and gases, as well 
as those machines which act by 
application of these properties. 

Pneu'mato-(Gr irrevp.a, pneu'ma, air). 
A prefix in compound words, im¬ 
plying relation to, or connection with 
air or breath. 

Pneumatochem'ical (Gr. irvevpa, 
pneu'ma, air ; chem'ical). Relating 
to the chemistry of air or gases. 

Pneumatol'ogy (Gr. irvevga, pneu'ma, 
air ; Aoyos, log'os, discourse). A 
description of air or breath. 

Pneumatotho'rax or Pneumotho'rax 
(Gr. irrevpa, pneu'ma, air ; 6wpa£, 
thorax, the chest). Air in the 



chest, between the walls of the 
cavity anti its contents. 

Pneumatol'ogy (Gr. n vevpa, pneu'ma, 
air ; Aoyos, log'os, a discourse). 
The doctrine of the properties of 
airs or gases. 

Pneu'mo- (Gr. nvevpuv, pneumon, a 
lung). A prefix in compound words, 
implying connection with, or relation 
to lungs. 

Pneumogas'trie (Gr. nveopoov, pneu- 
mdn , the lungs ; yaarrjp, gaster, 
the stomach). Belonging to the 
lungs and stomach ; applied to a 
nerve which supplies these organs. 

Pneumonic (Gr. nvevpav, pneumon, 
a lung). Belonging to the lungs. 

Pneumo'nia (Gr. 7 Tuevpcou, pneumon, 
a lung). Inflammation of the 

Po'acites (Gr. 7r oa, poa, grass). In 
geology, the generic term for all 
fossil monocotyledonous leaves, 
having the veins parallel, simple, 
and equal, and not connected trans¬ 

Podag'ra (Gr. novs, pous, a foot; ay pa, 
agra, a seizing). The gout. 

Pod'ocarp (Gr. novs, pous, a foot; 
Kapnos, kar'pos, fruit). The stem 
supporting the fruit. 

Podophthalma'ria (Gr. novs, pous, a 
foot; cxpdaApos, ophthal'mos, an 
eye). A group of Crustacea, having 
the eyes placed on moveable 
peduncles or stalks. 

Pod'osperm (Gr. novs, pous, a foot; 
aneppa, sper'ma, a seed). In botany, 
the little bud connecting an ovule 
with its placenta. 

Pce'cilopods (Gr. noaaAos, poi'hilos, 
varied; novs, pous, afoot). Crusta- 
ceous animals having the fore-feet 
adapted either for swimming or 

Polar (hat. pol'us, a pole). Belonging 
to one of the poles of the earth ; or 
to the magnetic pole. 

Polar Circles. Two small circles of 
the earth, parallel to the equator, 
and surrounding the poles, north 
and south. 

Polar'iscope (Lat. pola'ris, belonging 
to a pole ; Gr. <r/co7rea>, sJcop'eb, I 
view). An optical instrument for 

observing the phenomena of the 
polarisation of light. 

Polar'ity (Lat. pol'us, a pole). The 
quality of a body in virtue of which, 
peculiar properties reside in certain 
points of it. 

Polariza'tion (Lat. pol'us, a pole). 
The act of giving polarity to a body. 

Polarization of Light. The process 
by which a ray of light acquires new 
properties when submitted, under 
peculiar conditions, to reflection or 

Pole (Gr. noAos, pol'os, an axis or 
pole). The extremity of the axis 
of a spherical body, or of a straight 
line passing through the centre of 
such a body. Each pole is 90 
degrees distant from any part of 
the equatorial circumference. Mag¬ 
netic poles are two poles in a load¬ 
stone corresponding to the poles of 
the earth. The poles of a Voltaic 
battery are the ends of the wires 
that connect its opposite ends. 

Polem'ic (Gr. noAepos, pol'emos , war). 
Controversial : disputative. 

Pollen (Lat. fine flour or dust). The 
fine dust on the anther of flowers. 

Pol y- (Gr. noAvs, pol'us, much). A 
prefix in compound words, signify¬ 
ing much or many. 

Polyadel'phia (Gr. noAvs, pol'us, 
many; a 5 eA <pos, adel'phos, a brother). 
A name given to a class of plants 
in the Linnjean system, in which 
the stamens are collected into several 

Polyan'dria (Gr. noAvs , poVus, many; 
av-rip, aner, a male). A name given 
to a class of plants in the Linnjean 
system, having more than twenty 
stamens, inserted below the ovary. 

Pol'ybasic (Gr. noAvs, pol'us, many ; 
fiaais, has'is, a base). A term 
applied to acids which require two 
or more equivalents of a base for 

Polycar'pous (Gr. noAvs, pol'us, 
many ; uapnos, kar'pos, fruit). 
Having many fruit. 

Polychromatic (Gr. noAvs, pol'us, 
many ; xpupa, chroma, colour). 
Having many colours ; showing a 
play of colours. 



Polycotyle'donous (Gr. 7ro\i/s, pol us, 
many ; kotv Xybwv, hotuledbn, a 
seed-lobe). Having more than two 
lobes to the seed. 

Polydac'tylous (Gr. tto\vs, pol'us, 
many ; SaurvXos, dak'tulos, a 
finger). Having many fingers. 

Polyem'bryony (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, 
many ; iyfipvov, em'bruon, an em¬ 
bryo). In botany, the presence of 
several embryos in the same ovule. 

Polygam'ia (Gr. noXvs, pol'us, many ; 
yo-yos, yam'os, marriage). A name 
applied to a class of plants in the 
Linnrean system, which have neutral 
flowers, with male or female flowers 
or both, not collected in the same 
calyx, but scattered on the same, 
or on two or three distinct indi¬ 

Polygas'tric (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, many ; 
yaorryp, gaster, a stomach). Hav¬ 
ing, or appearing to have, many 

Pol'yglot (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, many ; 
yXocTTo, glbtta, a tongue). Con¬ 
taining or written in many lan¬ 

Pol'ygon (Gr. 7roAus, pol'us, many ; 
ywvLa, gonia, an angle). A figure 
of more than four sides and angles. 

Polyg'onal (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, many; 
yoivio, gonia, an angle). Having, 
or capable of being arranged in, the 
form of a polygon. 

Polygyn'ia (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, many; 
ywy, gune, a female). A name 
given to an order of plants in the 
Linnsean system, which have more 
than twelve pistils or styles. 

Polyhed'ron (Gr. -jtoXvs, pol!us, many; 
eSpa, hed'ra, a base). A solid 
figure having many angles and 

Polymeric (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, many; 
yepos, mer’os, a part). Having 
many parts. 

Polvmor'phous (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, 
many; yopcpy, morphe, shape). 
Having many shapes. 

Polynesia (Gr. -koXvs, pol'us, many; 
vyaos, nesos, an island). A large 
collection of islands. 

Polynomial (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'its, many; 
duoua, on'oma, a name). In algebra , 

a quantity or expression which con¬ 
sists of several terms. 

Polynom'ic (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, many ; 
voyos, nonios, a region). In botany, 
applied to plants which are dis¬ 
tributed over several regions of the 

Pol'ypary ( Pol'ypus ). The organ of 
support, or coral, of a polype. 

Polypet'alous (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, 
many ; ireraXov, pet'alon, a petal). 
Having many petals. 

Polyphyl'lous (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, 
many; cpvXXov, phullon, a leaf). 
Having many leaves or leaflets. 

Polyp'idom {Pol'ypus ; Lat. do'mus, 
a house). The stony or coralline 
structure inhabited by polypes. 

Polypif'erous {Polypus; Lat. fer'o, 

I bear). Producing polypes. 

Pol'ypus (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, many; 

7 tovs, pous, a foot). A small soft- 
bodied water animal, generally 
having a cylindrical, oval, or oblong 
body, with an aperture at one end 
surrounded by radiating filaments 1 
or tentacles ; in surgery, a kind of 

Polysep'alous (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, 
many ; sep'al). Having the sepals 
distinct from each other. 

Polysper'mal or PolyspePmous (Gr. 
ttoXvs, pol'us, many ; airepya, 
sper'ma, a seed). Containing many 

Polyste'monous (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, 
many ; aTyyaiv, stemon, a stamen). 
Having many stamens. 

Polysyllabic (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, many; 
avXXafiy, sul'labe, a syllable). 
Having many syllables. 

Polytechnic (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, many; 
rexry, techne, art). Comprehend¬ 
ing many arts. 

Polythal'amous (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, 
many ; daXayos, thal'amos, a 
chamber). Having many cells or 

Polyzo'nal (Gr. ttoXvs, pol'us, many ; 
(eery, zone, a belt). Composed of 
many zones or belts. 

Pomol'og-y (Lat. po'mum, a fruit; 
Gr. Xoyos, log'os, a discourse). The 
branch of gardening which teaches 
the cultivation of fruit-trees. 



Pom'pholyx (Gr. tt oycpos, pomph'os, a 
bubble). A disease of the skin. 

Poplite'al (Lat. po'ples, the ham) be¬ 
longing to the ham. 

Pore (Gr. ivopos, por'os, a means of 
passing). In natural philosophy, 
an interstice or minute space be¬ 
tween the molecules of matter. 

Po rism (Gr. tvopifa, pori'zo, I bring 
about). In geometry , a proposition 
affirming the possibility of finding 
such conditions as will render a 
certain problem indeterminate or 
capable of innumerable solutions. 

Poros'ity (Gr. ivopos, por'os , a pore). 
The state of having pores : in na¬ 
tural philosophy , the quality of 
bodies in virtue of which their con¬ 
stituent atoms are separated by va¬ 
cant spaces or pores. 

Porous (Gr. ivopos, por'os, a pore). 
Having pores or interstices. 

Por'phyry (Gr. ivopcpvpa, por'phura, 
purple dye). Originally, a reddish- 
igneous rock : now used in geology 
to denote any rock containing im¬ 
bedded crystals distinct from the 
main mass. 

Por'tal (Lat. por'ta , a gate). In ana¬ 
tomy, belonging to the transverse 
fissure of the liver, called by old 
anatomists the porta or gate of the 

Posses'sive (Lat. possid'co, I possess). 
In grammar, the case of nouns which 
denotes possession, or some relation 
of one thing to another. 

Post- (Lat.) A Latin preposition used 
in the composition of many words, 
and signifying after or since. 

Postdilu'vian (Lat. post, after; di- 
lu'vium, a deluge). Living after 
the deluge. 

Posterior (Lat. later). Later : a pos¬ 
teriori, a phrase signifying “from 
what follows,” applied to an argu¬ 
ment used to infer a cause or 
antecedent from an effect or conse¬ 

Postfron'tal (Lat. post, after; frons, 
the forehead). Behind the frontal 

Postmeridian (Lat. post, after; me- 
ri'dies, midday). Belonging to the 

Post Mortem. (Lat.) After death. 

Postpositive (Lat. post, after; pono, 
I put). Placed after. 

Postulate (Lat. pos'tulo, I demand). 
A position or supposition con¬ 
sidered too plain to require illus¬ 
tration ; it differs from an axiom 
only in being put as a request in¬ 
stead of an assertion. 

Poten'tial (Lat. po'tens, able). Hav¬ 
ing the power to impress the ideas 
of certain qualities, though the 
ideas are not inherent in the thing ; 
existing in possibility ; in grammar, 
applied to the mood of verbs which 
denotes capability or power. 

Prae- orPre- (Lat. prce, before). A 
preposition used in compound words, 
signifying before or in front of. 

Praecor'dia (Lat. prce, before; cor, 
the heart). The region of the body 
in front of the heart. 

Praefiora'tion (Lat. prce, before ; flos, 
a flower). The arrangement of the 
parts of the flower in the flower-bud; 
the same as aestivation. 

Praefolia'tion (Lat. prce, before ; fo¬ 
lium, a leaf). The arrangement of 
the leaves in a leaf-bud ; the same 
as vernation. 

Praeno'men (Lat. prce, before ; no- 
men, a name). Among the Ro¬ 
mans, a name prefixed to the family 
name, answering to our Christian 

Pre- (Lat. prce, before). See Prce. 

Preces'sion (Lat. prce, before ; ce'do, 
I go). A going before. In astro¬ 
nomy, the precession of the equi¬ 
noxes is a slow retrograde motion 
wffiich they undergo in a direction 
contrary to the order of the signs, 
and which makes them succeed each 
other sooner than they otherwise 
would have done. 

Precipitant (Lat. prcdceps, headlong). 
In chemistry, a substance which, 
added to a solution of another, 
causes the latter to be thrown down 
to the bottom of the fluid. 

Precipitate (Lat. prce'ceps, headlong). 
To throw down a substance from 
its solution ; the substance thus 
thrown down. 

Precor'dial (Lat. prce , before ; cor, 



the heart). Belonging to the prse- 
cordia, or parts before the heart. 

Preda'ceous (Lat. prce'da, prey). 
Living on prey. 

Predicament (Lat. prce'dico, I affirm). 
In logic, a series or order of all the 
predicates or attributes contained 
under one genus. 

Pre'dicate (Lat. prce'dico, I affirm). 
In logic, that which is affirmed or 
denied of a subject. 

Predisposition (Lat. pres, before; 
dispo'no, I put in order). An incli¬ 
nation or propensity. 

Prefron'tal (Lat. pree, before ; frons, 
the forehead). In front of the 
frontal bone : applied to the middle 
part of the ethmoid bone. 

Prehen'sile (Lat. prehen'do, I take 
hold). Seizing or taking hold. 

Prelien'sion (Lat. prelien'do, I take 
hold). A taking hold of anything. 

Premonitory (Lat. pres, before; monl- 
eo, I advise). Giving previous 

Premor'se (Lat. proe, before ; mor'deo, 

I bite). In botany, applied to a 
root terminating abruptly, as if 
bitten off. 

Preposition (Lat. pree, before; pono, 

I put). A word put before another 
to express some relation to it. 

Prepositive (Lat. pree, before ; pono, 

I put). Placed before. 

Presbyopia (Gr. npea&vs, presb'us, 
old; uip, ops, the eye). A defect of 
vision common in old persons, in 
which, from a flattening of the 
cornea, near objects are seen less 
distinctly than those at a dis¬ 

Prefer (Lat. pree'ter, beyond). A 
Latin preposition used in compound 
words, signifying beyond. 

Pre'terite (Lat . predter, beyond; eo, 
I go). Past. 

Prever'tebral (Lat. pree, before; ver'- 
tebra, a bone of the spine). In 
front of the vertebrae or spinal bones. 

Pri'mae Vise (Lat. The first ways). A 
term applied to the stomach and 

Primary (Lat. pri'mus, first). First; 
original ; in astronomy, applied to 
those planets which revolve round 

the sun; in ornithology, applied to 
the feathers which arise from the 
ulnar side of the hand part of the 
wing of birds; in natural philosophy, 
to those properties of matter which 
are inseparable from it; in opitics, 
to colours into which a ray of light 
may be decomposed ; in geology, to 
crystalline rocks supposed to owe 
their structure to the agency of 

Prima'tes (Lat. pri'mus, first). The 
name given by Linnaeus to his first 
order of mammalia, including man, 
the apes, the lemurs and the bats. 

Pri'mine (Lat. pri'mus, first). In 
botany, the outer covering of the 

Primitive (Lat. pri'mus, first). See 

Primor'dial (Lat. pri'mus, first; or do, 
order). First in order ; appearing 

Prism (Gr. 7 rpurpa, pris'ma, a prism). 
A solid figure, the ends of which 
are similar, equal, and parallel 
plane figures, and the sides of 
which are parallelograms; they 
are triangular, square, pentagonal, 
&c., according to the number of 

Prismatic (Prism). Resembling, or 
formed like a prism. 

Prismen'chyma (Gr. npax^a, pris'ma, 
a prism; £yx v f ia , en'chuma, tissue). 
In botany, tissue formed of prismatic 

Problem (Gr. npo, pro, before ; /3aA- 
Xw, hallo, I cast). A question pro¬ 
posed ; a proposition in which some 
operation is required. 

Proboscidian (Gr. npo&oaKis, pro- 
bos'his, a trunk or snout). A 
family of pachydermatous or thick 
skinned animals, which have the 
nose elongated into a flexible trunk, 
as the elephant. 

Proboseid'iform (Gr. npoPoaicis, pro- 
bos'kis, a trunk or snout ; Lat. 
for'ma, shape). Resembling a 
trunk or snout. 

Probos'cis (Gr. npo, pro, before ; 
/Socr/cw, bosko, I feed). The snout 
or trunk of an elephant and analo¬ 
gous animals; the flexible appa- 



ratus which, some insects use in 
sucking ; the long tongue of cer¬ 
tain gasteropods, capable of being 
protruded to some distance. 

Proc'ess (Lat. proce'do, I move 
forward). A proceeding or opera¬ 
tion ; in anatomy and botany, a 
prominence or projecting part ; 
applied also to the parts of a 
vertebra which grow out from pre¬ 
viously ossified parts. 

Proclivity (Lat. proclivus, inclined). 
An inclination or disposition. 

Procne'mial (Gr. vpo, pro, before ; 
Kvriuri, Tcncme, the knee). In 
front of the knee. 

Procoe'lian (Gr. -n-po, pro, before; 
kolAos, Tcoilos, hollow). Having 
the vertebras concave in front. 

Procum'bent (Lat. procum'bo, I lie 
down). Lying on the ground. 

Prognosis (Gr. vpo, pro, before; 
yiyrcocTKco, gignds'ko, I know). 
The art of judging of the course 
and event of a disease by the 

Prognos tic (Gr. -n-po, pro, before; 
yiyvwGKw, gignos'kb, I know). 
Relating to foreknowledge ; applied 
to the symptoms from which the 
result of a disease is predicted. 

Progression (Lat. pro, forward; 
grad'ior, I step). A moving for¬ 
ward or advancing ; in arithmetic, 
a regular or proportional advance 
of numbers in a series, increasing 
or decreasing ; in astronomy, the 
change which occurs every month 
in the position of the moon’s apogee 
and perigee, in which these points 
appear to have moved forward, or 
from west to east. 

Projec'tile (Lat. pro, forward; jac'io, 
I cast). A body impelled by force, 
especially through the air. 

Projection (Lat. pro, forward; 
jac'io, I cast). A throwing for¬ 
ward ; applied also in architecture 
to a plan or delineation. 

Prolate (Lat. pro, forward ; la'tus, 
borne). Extended beyond the line 
of an exact sphere. 

Prolegom'ena (Gr. vpo, pro, be¬ 
fore; Aeyu>, leg'o, I speak). Lite¬ 
rally, things said first; introduc¬ 

tory remarks prefixed to a book or 

Prolegs (Lat. pro, for ; legs). The 
tubercles representing legs on the 
hinder part of caterpillars. 

Proliferous (Rat. pro'les, offspring; 
fer'o, I bear). Fruitful ; produc¬ 
tive ; in botany, bearing abnormal 

Prolific (Lat. pro'les, offspring;/ac'm, 

I make). Fruitful; productive. 

Prolig'erous (Lat. pro'les, offspring ; 
ger'o, I bear). Bearing the rudi¬ 
ments of the embryo or offspring. 

Prona'tion (Lat. pro'nus, having the 
face downward). The position of 
the arm and hand in which the 
palm is turned downwards. 

Prona'tor (Lat. pro'nus, with the face 
downwards). A muscle which 
turns the arm so that the palm of 
the hand looks downwards. 

Prone (Lat. pro'nus). Bending for¬ 
ward ; having the face or anterior 
surface downwards. 

Prono'tum (Gr. vpo, p>ro, before ; 
vwtos, notos, the back). The 
upper half of the anterior division 
of the thorax in insects. 

Prop'erty (Lat. pro'prius, proper). 
A peculiar quality of anything; 
that which is inherent in, or natu¬ 
rally essential to, a substance. 

Prophylac'tic (Gr. vpo, before ; 
c puAaaau , p>hvlas' so, I guard). In 
medicine, preserving from disease. 

Prophylaxis (Gr. vpo, pro, before ; 

( pvAao-aco , phulas'so, I guard). The 
art of preventing or defending 
against diseases. 

Prop'olis (Gr. vpo, pro, before ; vohis, 
pol'is , a city). A thick substance 
formed by bees, and used as a 
kind of mortar or cement to their 

Proportion (Lat. pro, for ; por'tio, a 
share). The comparative relation 
of one thing to another ; in arith¬ 
metic, the identity or similitude of 
two or more ratios. 

Proposition (Lat. pro, forward ; 
pdno, I put). A thing proposed or 
put forward ; in logic, a sentence 
or statement in which something is 
affirmed or denied of a subject; in 




mathematics, a statement of a truth 
to be proved—theorem, or of an 
operation to be performed—pro¬ 

Pros-(Gr. irpos, pros, towards). A 
preposition in compound words, 
signifying towards or near. 

Prosec'tor (Lat. pro'seco, I cut off). 
An anatomist; one who dissects the 
body for a lecturer on anatomy. 

Prosencephal'ic (Gr. irpos, pros, 
near; iyuecpaXov, enJceph'alon, the 
brain). Seated before the brain. 

Prosen'chyma (Gr. irpos, pros, to¬ 
wards; iyxoua, en'chuma, a tissue). 
Vegetable tissue formed of spindle- 
shaped cells, generally applied 
closely together. 

Fros'ody (Gr. irpos, pros, to ; w 5 77, 
ode, an ode or singing). The part 
of grammar which treats of the 
quantity of syllables, and of the 
laws of versification. 

Proster'num (Gr. irpo, pro, before ; 
arepvou, ster'non, the breast). The 
lower half of the anterior division 
of the thorax in insects. 

Pros'thesis (Gr. irpos, pros, to; 
t lOp/AL, tithemi, I place). In gram¬ 
mar, the adding of one or more 
letters to the beginning of a word. 

Pro'tein (Gr. irpccros, protos, first). 
A substance consisting of oxygen, 
hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen, 
produced by the action of alkali 
or acetic acid on albumen, fibrin, 
and casein. 

Proth'esis (Gr. irpo, pro, before; 
t Ldrgu, tithemi, I place). See 

Protho'rax (Gr. irpo, pro, before; 
6 ccpa£, thorax, a breast-plate). 
The anterior segment of the thorax 
in insects, bearing the anterior 
pair of legs. 

Proticli'nites (Gr. irpccros, protos, 
first ; Ixvos, ichnos, a footstep). 
Imprints of the feet of early fossil 

Proto-(Gr. irpccros, protos, first). A. 
prefix used in compound words, 
signifying first; frequently em¬ 
ployed in chemical nomenclature. 

Pro'toplasm (Gr. irpccros, protos, 
first; irXacracc, plas'sd , I form). 

The material which appears to be 
concerned in the early formation of 
simply organised bodies. 

Protoxide (Gr. irpccros, protos, first; 
oxide). The degree of oxidation 
which possesses the most strongly 
marked basic properties. 

Protozo'a (Gr. irpccros, protos, first; 
Cocov, zdon, an animal). The 
lowest division of the animal king¬ 
dom, consisting of creatures of very 
low organisation, apparently occu¬ 
pying a neutral ground between 
animals and vegetables. 

Protozo'ic (Gr. irpccros, protos, first ; 
(ocov, zoon, an animal). In geology, 
applied to the strata containing the 
earliest traces of animal life. 

Protrac'tile (Lat. pro, forward; 
tra'lio, I draw). Having the power 
of lengthening or drawing out. 

Protu'berance (Lat. pro. before; 
tv!her, a bunch or knob). A pro¬ 

Proximate (Lat. prox'hnus, nearest). 
Nearest ; proximate principles are 
those compounds which exist ready 
formed in animals and vegetables, 
as albumen, casein, sugar, gum, 
starch, &c. 

Pruri'go (Lat. pru'rio, I itch). An 
eruptive disease of the skin, accom¬ 
panied by much itching. 

Prus'siate ( Prussic acid). A term 
formerly given to supposed com¬ 
pounds of prussic acid with bases, 
but now known as cyanides of 

Prus'sic. A name sometimes given 
to hydrocyanic acid. 

Pseud- or Pseudo- (Gr. ifeuSos, 
pseu'dos, a falsehood). A prefix in 
some compound words, signifying 
false or counterfeit. 

Pseudomor'phous (Gr. ij/ev 8 os, 
piseu'dos, a falsehood ; p.op<prj, 
morphe, form). Not having the 
true form; applied to minerals, 
the form of which has not been 
derived from true crystallisation. 

Pseudosper / mous(Gr. xf/eodos, pseu'dos, 
falsehood ; crireppa, sper'ma, seed). 
Having single-seeded fruits resem¬ 
bling seeds. 

Psoas (Gr. ij^oa, psoa, the loin). A 



name given to certain muscles in 
the region of the loins. 

Psoriasis. A disease of the skin con¬ 
sisting of irregular patches covered 
with white scales. 

Psy'cliical (Gr. \pvxv, psuche, the 
soul). Relating to the doctrine of 
the nature and properties of the 

Psychological (Gr. \]/vxv, psuche, 
the soul ; \oyos, log'os, discourse). 
Relating to the doctrine of the 
mind or soul. 

Psychology (Gr. if/uxv, psuche, the 
soul; Xoyos, log'os, discourse). 
The doctrine of the nature and 
properties of the soul ; generally 
applied with regard to the faculties 
of the mind. 

Psychop'athy (Gr. tpvxv, psuche, the 
soul; 7 raOos, path'os, suffering). 

Mental disease. 

Psychrom'eter (Gr. \pvxpos,psu'chros, 
cold or cool; yerpov, met'ron, a 
measure). A hygrometer, the in¬ 
dications of which depend on the 
depression of temperature procured 
by evaporation in an atmosphere 
not perfectly saturated with 

Pter-, -pter'a, or pter'o- (Gr. nrepov, 
pter'on, a wing). A prefix, or a 
termination, in compound words, 
signifying relation or likeness to a 

Pterocar'pous (Gr. irrepov, pter'on , a 
wing; Kapiros, Tcar'pos, fruit). 
Having winged fruits. 

Pterodac'tyle (Gr. 7 rrepou, pter'on, a 
wirig ; SaicTvXos, dak'tulos, a 
finger). A fossil flying reptile, 
with an elongated wing-finger. 

Pter'opods (Gr. irrepov, pter'on, a 
wing ; 7 tou?, pous, a foot). A 
class of molluscous animals, having 
a distinct head formed for floating 
and swimming by means of two 
fins, one being placed on each side 
of the neck. 

Pterosau'ria (Gr. nrepov, pter'on, a 
wing; aavpos, sau'ros, a lizard). 
An order of fossil reptiles, having the 
anterior limbs adapted for flying. 

Pter'ygoid (Gr. ttt epv£, pter'ux, a 
wing ; eiSos, ei'dos, shape). Like 

a wing; applied to a part of the 
sphenoid bone, having some re¬ 
semblance to a wing; also to 
muscles, vessels, nerves, &c., 
having connection with, or relation 
to, this part. 

Ptolema'ic (Gr. nroXe^cuo?, Ptole- 
mai'os, a Greek geographer and 
astronomer). According to Ptolemy; 
the Ptolemaic system in astronomy 
was that which supposed the earth 
to be fixed in the centre of the 
universe, and the other bodies to 
revolve round it. 

Pto' sis (Gr. iTTwais, pto'sis, a falling). 
A paralysis of the upper eyelid, so 
that it falls over the eye, and can¬ 
not be raised. 

Pty'alism (Gr. n-rvaXifa, ptuali'zo, I 
spit often). An excessive flow of 

Pu'berty (Lat. puber, ripe of age). 
The period at which childhood ends 
and adolescence begins. 

Pubes'cence (Lat. pu'bes, the down of 
plants). The downy substance, or 
short and soft hairs, on plants. 

Pubes'cent (Lat. pu'bes, down). In 
botany, applied to plants covered 
with soft, short, downy hairs. 

Pud'dling. In iron manufacture, the 
process by which the oxygen and 
carbon of cast iron are expelled ; 
the metal being reduced by heat to 
a pasty condition, and stirred so as 
to expose every part to the action 
of the air. 

Pug-mill. A machine for mixing and 
tempering clay, consisting of an 
ii’on cylinder, in which the clay is 
cut and kneaded by a series of 
knives revolving on an axis wfithin 
the cylinder. 

PuPmograde (Lat. pul'mo, a lung; 
gra'dior, I step). Moving by lungs ; 
applied to a tribe of invertebrate 
animals which sw r im by means of 
the disc on w r hich the respiratory 
apparatus is placed. 

Pulmonary (Lat. pul!mo, a lung). 
Relating to the lungs. 

Pulmon'ic (Lat. puUmo, a lung). Re¬ 
lating to the lungs. 

Pulmonif'erous (Lat. pul'mo, a lung ; 
fer'o, I bear). Provided with lungs. 

L A 



Pul'sate (Lat. pul'so, I beat). To 
beat oi' throb. 

Pulsa'tion (Lat. pull so, I beat). A 
beating; the act of beating or 
throbbing of the heart or an artery, 
in the process of the circulation of 
the blood. 

Pulse (Lat. pul'so, I beat). The phe¬ 
nomenon produced in an artery by 
its extension with each beat of the 
heart, and the resistance of the 
flow of blood to pressure. 

Pulta'ceous (Lat. puls, a kind of 
gruel). Softened ; nearly fluid. 

Pui'vcrize (Lat. pul'vis, powder). 
To reduce to powder. 

Pul'vinate (Lat. pulvi'nar, a pillow). 
Like a cushion or pillow. 

Pul'vinated (Lat. pulvi'nar, a pillow). 
In architecture, a term used to 
denote a swelling in any portion of 
an order. 

Pulvis (Lat.). A powder. 

Punc'tated (Lat. punc'tum, a point). 

Punctua'tion (Lat. punc'tum, a point). 
In grammar, the art of marking 
with points the divisions of a 
writing into sentences and members 
of sentences. 

Pu'pa (Lat. a puppet or baby). A 
term applied to the third or chry¬ 
salis state of an insect. 

Pupil (Lat. pupil'la). The round 
opening in the centre of the iris of 
the eye. 

Pupip'arous (Lat. pu'pa; par'io, I 
bring forth). Producing young in 
the pupa state. 

Purgative (Lat. pur'go, I cleanse). 
Having the power of cleansing ; 
especially applied to medicines 
which act on the intestines. 

Pur'pura (Lat. purple). A diseased 
state of the blood, allied to scurvy. 

Furpu'ric (Lat. pur'pura, purple). A 
name applied to an acid which 
forms deep red or purple compounds 
with most bases. 

Pu'rulent (Lat. pus). Of the nature 
of or containing pus. 

Pus (Lat.). A peculiar fluid, yielded 
from the blood in consequence of 
inflammation, containing minute 

Puta'men (Lat. the shell of a nut). 
The hard covering of some fruits. 

Putrefac'tion (Lat. pu'tris, putrid ; 
fadio, I make). A spontaneous 
change, to which complicated organic 
bodies are subject, consisting in 
changes occurring in the presence 
of moisture ; the effect being a 
transposition of the elements of the 
body so as to form new compounds. 

Putrefac'tive (Lat. pu'tris, putrid; 
fadio, I make). Belonging to, or 
promoting putrefaction. 

Pu trefy (Lat. pu'tris, putrid ; fio, 
I become). To dissolve and return 
to the original distinct elements, or 
to less complex compounds, as in 
animal and vegetable substances. 

Putres'cent (Lat. putres'co, I become 
putrid). Passing from an orga¬ 
nised state, having complex chemi¬ 
cal combinations, to mere consti¬ 
tuent elements, or comparatively 
simple combinations of these. 

Puzzola'na (Puzsuoli, in Italy). A 
volcanic ash, used in the manufac¬ 
ture of Roman cement. 

Pj^'mia (Gr. mos, pu'os, pus; 
aiga, hai'ma, blood). A dangerous 
disease occurring after injuries and 
wounds, consisting of a peculiar 
alteration of the blood, and attended 
by great depression of the powers 
of life and the formation of more 
or less numerous abscesses in various 
parts of the body. 

Pjrn'nodonts (Gr. ttvkuos, pule nos, 
thick ; o 5 tm?, oclous, a tooth). A 
family of fossil fishes, occurring 
mostly in the oolite formation, and 
characterised by blunt rounded 

Fyeli'tis (Gr. irveAos, pu'elos, a basin; 
itis, denoting inflammation). In¬ 
flammation of the pelvis, or ex¬ 
panded open space of the kidney. 

Pylor'ic ( Pylo'rus ). Belonging to, or 
connected with the pylorus. 

Pylo'rus (Gr. ttvAc epos, puliiros, a 
gate-keeper). The part of the 
stomach through which the food 
passes into the intestines. 

Pyogen'ic (Gr. irvos, pu'os, pus ; 
yevvacc, genualo, I produce). Form¬ 
ing ov yielding pus. 



Pyogen'esis (Gr. ttvos , pu'os, pus ; 
yeuea-LS, gene'sis, a production). 
The formation of pus. 

Pyohae'mia. See Pyaemia, 

Pyramid (Generally said to be from 
Gr. Trvp, pur, fire ; but uncertain). 
A solid body, having a plane base, 
with any number of sides and 
angles, the sides consisting of 
planes meeting in a vertex or point. 

Pyretol'ogy (Gr. Trvperos, pu'retos, a 
fever ; Aoyos, log'os, a discourse). 
A treatise on fevers, or the doctrine 
of fevers. 

Pyrex'ia (Gr. Trvp, pur, fire ; e|i?, 
hexis, a holding). A state of fevei\ 

Py'riform (Lat. py'rus, a pear ; for'- 
ma, shape). Shaped like a pear. 

Pyri'tes (Gr. nvp, pur, fire). Fire¬ 
stone ; a name given to the native 
sulphurets of copper and iron. 

Pyi’O- (Gr. Trvp, pur, fire). A prefix 
in compound words, signifying fire ; 
in chemistry, signifying that the 
substance named has been formed 
at a high temperature. 

Pyrog'enous (Gr. irvp, pur, fire; 
yevuaco, genna'd, I produce). Pro¬ 
duced by fire. 

Fyrolig'neous or Pyrolig'nous (Gr. 

Trvp, pur, fire ; Lat. lig'num, wood). 
Procured by the distillation of 
wood ; applied to the acid liquor 
which passes over with the tar 
when wood is subjected to destruc¬ 
tive distillation. 

Pyrolig'nite. A salt formed by the 
combination of pyroligneous acid 
with a base. 

Pyrol'ogy (Gr. irvp, pur, fire ; Aoyos, 
log'os, a discourse). A treatise on 

Pyroma'nia (Gr. irvp, pur, fire; 
yavia, ma'nia, madness). An in¬ 
sane desire for burning houses, &c. 

Pyrom'eter (Gr. irvp, pur, fire; yt- 
■rpov, met'ron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the ex¬ 
pansion of bodies by heat; or for 
measuring degrees of heat above 
those indicated by the mercurial 

Pyromor'phous (Gr. tt vp, pur, fire ; 
yopprj, morphe, form). Plaving the 
property of being crystallised by fire. 

Pyroph'orous (Gr. Trvp, pur, fire; 
(pepoo, plier'o, I bear). A substance 
which takes fire on exposure to the 
air, or which maintains or retains 

Pyrophos'phate. A compound of 
pyrophosphoric acid with a base. 

Pyrophosphor'ic (Gr. irvp, pur , fire ; 
phosphor'ic acid). An acid pro¬ 
cured by exposing phosphoric acid 
to heat, and differing from it in 
unitingwithtwo equivalents of base. 

Py'roseope(Gr. irvp, pur, fire; criconew, 
skop'co, I view). An instrument 
for measuring the intensity of heat 
radiating from a fire. 

Pyro'sis (Gr.7r vpuxris,puro'sis, aburn- 
ing). A diseased state of the stomach 
attended with severe pain and the 
ejection of a large quantity of watery 
fluid ; water-brash. 

Pyrotech'nic (Gr. tt vp, pur, fire ; 

techne, art). Relating to 
the art of making fireworks. 

Pyroxyl'ic (Gr. irvp, pur, fire; £ vAov, 
xulon, wood). A term applied to a 
spirit produced by the destructive 
distillation of wood. 

Pyrox'ylin (Gr. irvp, pur, fire ; £uAor, 
xulon, wood). Gun-cotton. 

Pyr rhonism ( Pyrrho, the founder of 
a sect). Scepticism: universal doubt. 

Pyxid'ium (Lat. pyx'is, a small box). 
In botany, a fruit, consisting of a 
capsule-with a lid. 


Quad'ra (Lat., a square). In archi¬ 
tecture, a square frame or border. 
Quad'r angle (Lat. quat'uor, four; 
an'gulus, an angle). A figure 
having four sides and four angles. 
Quad'rant (Lat. quaa'ro, I make 

square). A fourth part; the fourth 
part of the circumfeience of a circle, 
or 90 degrees ; also the space in¬ 
cluded between the arc and two 
radii drawn from its extremities to 
the centre of the circle; an instru- 



ment consisting of a graduated 
quarter circle, used for taking the 
altitude of the sun or stars. 

Quad'rate (Lat. quad'ra, a square). 
A square ; square. 

Quadratic (Lat. quad'ra, a square). 
Denoting, or pertaining to a square; 
quadratic equations are those 
which contain the square of the 
quantity, the value of which is to 
be found. 

Quadrature (Lat. quad'ra, a square). 
The reduction of a figure to a 
square ; in astronomy, the position 
of a planet when the lines from the 
earth to the sun and it form an 
angle of 90 degrees. 

Quadra'tus (Lat. quad'ra, a square). 
Square ; a name applied to several 
muscles of the body, from their 

Quadren'nial (Lat. quat'uor, four; 
an'nus, a year). Comprising four 
years ; occurring every four 

Quadri-(Lat. quat'uor, four). A pre¬ 
fix in compound words, signifying 

Quadrifa'rious (Lat. quadrifa'riam, 
in four ways). In four rows. 

Quad'rifid (Lat. quad'ra, four; Jindo, 

I cleave). Four-cleft. 

Quadriju'gate (Lat. quat!uor, four; 
ju'gum, a yoke). Having four pairs 
of leaflets. 

Quadrifur'cate (Lat. quat'uor, four ; 
fur'ca, a fork). Doubly forked. 

Quadrigeminal (Lat. quat'uor, four; 
gem'ini, twins). Fourfold; having 
four similar parts. 

Quadrilat'eral (Lat. quat'uor, four ; 
la'tus, a side). Having four 


Quadrilit'eral (Lat. quat'uor, four; 
lit'era, a letter). Consisting of 

four letters. 

Quadrilo'bate (Lat. quat'uor, four; 
lo'bus, a lobe). Having four 


Quadriloc'ular (Lat. quat'uor, four ; 
loc'ulus, a little space). Having 
four cells or chambers. 

Quadripartite (Lat. quat'uor, four; 
par'tio, I divide). Divided deeply 
into four parts. 

Quadriplicate (Lat. quat'uor , four ; 
plic'a, a fold). Having four plaits 
or folds. 

Quadru'mana (Lat. quat'uor, four ; 
man'us, a hand). An order of 
mammals, characterised by the 
presence of thumbs on all the four 
limbs, as the monkeys. 

Quad'ruped (Lat. quat'uor, four ; 
pes, a foot). Having four legs and 

Quadruplicate (Lat. quat'uor, four ; 
plic'o, I fold). Fourfold; four 
times repeated. 

Quaquaver'sal (Lat. quaqua, on every 
side ; versus, turned). Dipping on 
all sides ; applied in geology to 
strata that dip on all sides from a 
common centre. 

Quarantine (Italian quaranti'na, 
forty). Properly, a space of forty 
days; but now applied to any 
term, during which a ship on 
arriving at port, if suspected of 
being infected with contagious 
disease, is obliged to forbear all 
intercourse with the place. 

Quar'tan (Lat. quar'tus, fourth). Oc¬ 
curring every fourth day; applied 
especially to a form of ague. 

Quarta'tion (Lat. quar'tus, fourth). 
A process in chemistry by which 
the quantity of one thing is made 
equal to the fourth part of another. 

QuaFtite (Lat. quar'tus, fourth). In 
astronomy, an aspect of the planets 
when they are distant from each 
other a quarter of a circle. 

Quar'tine (Lat. quar'tus, fourth). In 
botany, the fourth coat of the 

Quartz. Crystallised silica; silica 
in its purest rock-form. 

Quasi (Lat. as if). A word used to 
express resemblance. 

Quaternary (Lat. quat'uor, four). 
Consisting of fours; in geology, 
applied to the accumulations above 
the true tertiary strata. 

Queen-post. In architecture, the 
suspending posts in the framed 
principal of a roof, where there are 
two such posts. 

Quies'cent (Lat. qui'es, rest). Being 
at rest; having no sound. 



Qui'nary (Lat. qui'ni, five by five). 
Composed of five parts ; arranged 
in fives. 

Quin'cunx (Lat. quin'que, five). An 
arrangement of five objects in a 
square, one at each corner, and 
one in tbe middle. 

Quindec'agon(Lat. quin'decim, fifteen; 
Gr. ycovia, gonia , an angle). A 
plane figure with fifteen sides and 
fifteen angles. 

Quinquan'gular (Lat. quinq'ue, five; 
an'gulus , an angle). Having five 

Quin'que (Lat. five). A prefix in 
compound words, signifying five. 

Quin'quefid (Lat. quin'que, five; 
fin'do, I cleave). Five-cleft. 

Quinquelo'bate (Lat. quin'que, five ; 
lo'bus, a lobe). Having five lobes. 

Quinqueloc'ular (Lat. quin'que, five ; 
loc'ulus, a little space). Having 
five cells or chambers. 

Rab'ies (Lat. fury). The disease 
known as hydrophobia. 

Rac'eme (Lat. race'mus, a cluster of 
grapes). In botany, a form of in¬ 
florescence, consisting of a common 
peduncle or stem, with short equal 
lateral pedicels, as in the hyacinth. 

Race'mose (Race'me). Bearing flow¬ 
ers in racemes. 

Rachis (Gr. pax's, rha'chis, the 
spine). In botany, a term applied 
to the stems of ferns, and the axis or 
stem of an inflorescence. 

Rachit'ic Gr. pax's, rha'chis, the 
spine). Pertaining to the back; 

Rachi'tis (Gr. payis, rha'chis, the 
spine ; itis, denoting inflammation). 
Literally, inflammation of the spine; 
but applied to the diseased state of 
the bones, called rickets. 

Ra'dial (Lat. ra'dius, a ray ; or one 
of the bones of the arm). Having 
the quality or appearance of a ray ; 
in anatomy, belonging or attached 
to the radius, or outer bone of the 

Quinquepar'tite (Lat. quin'que, five ; 
par'tio, I divide). Divided deeply 
into five parts. 

Quin'sy (Corrupted from Cynanche ; 
Gr. kvuiu, kubn, a dog ; dyx&, 
anclib, I strangle). Acute inflamma¬ 
tion of the tonsils; inflammatory 
sore throat. 

Quin'tile (Lat. quin'tus, fifth). The 
position of the planets when they 
are distant 72 degrees, or the fifth 
part of a circle from each other. 

Quin'tine (Lat quin'tus, fifth). In 
botany, the fifth coat of the ovule. 

Quintuple (Lat. quin'tus, the fifth ; 
pli'co, I fold). Five-fold. 

Quotid'ian (Lat. quo'tus, how many ; 
dies, a day). Occurring every day ; 
applied especially to a form of 

Quo'tient (Lat. quo'ties, how often). 
The number showing how often one 
number is contained in another. 

forearm ; in astronomy, applied, 
in the theory of variable orbits, to 
that component part of the dis¬ 
turbing force which acts in the 
direction of the radius vector. 

Ra'diant (Lat. ra'dius, a ray). Send¬ 
ing out rays, as from a centre. 

Radia'ta (Lat. ra'dius, a ray). A sub¬ 
division of invertebrate animals, 
characterised by having the parts of 
the body regularly disposed round 
a common centre ; as the star-fish. 

Ra'diated (Lat. ra'dius, a ray). Hav¬ 
ing rays or lines proceeding from a 

Ra diation (Lat. ra'dius, a ray). The 
shooting of anything, as light, from 
a centre ; the emission of light and 
heat, or sound, in all directions, 
like rays, from a body. 

Rad ical (Lat. ra'dix, a root). Be¬ 
longing to or arising from the root; 
in philology, a primitive or original 
word ; in chemistry, a compound 
body which enters into combination 
after the manner of a simple body ; 



in botany , applied to Lair-like pro¬ 
jections on young roots, and to leaves 
arising from the root ; radical sign 
in algebra , the sign V with a num¬ 
ber prefixed thus, %/, placed before 
any quantity to show what root is 
to be extracted. 

Rad'icle (Lat. radic'ula, a little root). 
The part of the embryo in plants 
which becomes the root ; the end 
of roots, absorbing nutriment. 

Ra'diolites (Lat. radius, a ray ; Gr. 
A idos, lith'os, a stone). In geology, 
a genus of bivalves in the chalk- 
formation, having a radiated struc¬ 
ture of the outer layer of the upper 

Radiom'eter (Lat. ra'dius, a ray: Gr. 
[AETpov, met'ron, a measure). An 
instrument formerly used for taking 
the altitude of celestial bodies. 

Ra'dius (Lat. a ray). In geometry, 
a straight line drawn from the 
centre to the circumference of a 
circle ; in anatomy , the outer bone 
of the foreai-m, reaching from the 
elbow to the wrist above the thumb. 

Ra'dius Vector (Lat. a carrying ra¬ 
dius). A straight line drawn to 
any body moving in a curvilinear 
path, from a fixed point considered 
as the centre of the motion. 

Radix (Lat. a root). In etymology, a 
primitive word from which other 
words spring; in arithmetic, a 
number which is arbitrarily made 
the base of any system of computa¬ 

Rain-gauge. An instrument for mea¬ 
suring the quantity of rain which 
falls at any place. 

Ea'mal (Lat. ra'mus, a branch). 
Belonging to branches. 

Ramen'ta (Lat. ramen'tum, a little 
scraping). Scrapings ; in botany , 
applied to thin brown leafy scales 
found on young shoots and other 

Ramification (Lat. ra'mus, a branch ; 
fac'io, I make). A branching : the 
manner in which a tree produces its 

Ram'ify (Lat. ra'mus, a branch ; fac'io, 
I make). To make branches, or 
shoot into branches. 

Ramollis'sement (French, from the 
Latin mollis, soft). Softening ; a 
diseased condition occurring in va¬ 
rious parts of the body, in which 
they become softer than is natural. 

Ra'mous (Lat. ra'mus, a branch). 
Having or belonging to branches. 

Ra'mus (Lat. a branch). In anatomy, 
applied to branches of arteries or 
other organs. 

Rani'dee (Lat. ra'na, a frog). The 
family of batrachian reptiles, having 
as its type the frog. 

Ra'nine (Lat. ra'na, a frog, or a 
swelling of the tongue). Belonging 
to a frog ; in anatomy, applied to 
an artery of the tongue. 

Ra'nula ^Lat. a little frog). A kind 
of swelling under the tongue. 

Ra'phe' (Gr. pacpy, rhaphe, a seam). 
A term applied to parts which look 
as if they had been sewn together. 

Raph'ides (Gr. pacpis, rhaph'is, a 
needle). Minute crystals, like 
needles, lying in the tissues of 

Rapto'res (Lat. rap'io, I snatch). An 
order of birds characterised by 
the strength of their claws and bill, 
aud the general strength of their 
bodies : the birds of prey; as the 
eagle, vulture, hawk, &c. 

Rarefac'tion (Lat. rarus, rare or thin; 
fac'io , I make). A making thin ; 
an increase of the intervals between 
the particles of matter, so that the 
same amount is made to occupy a 
larger space ; applied especially to 
airs and gases ; also the state of 
the lessened density. 

Ra'refy (Lat. rarus, thin ; fac'io, I 
make). To make or become thin. 

Raso'res (Lat. rado, I scratch). The 
order of birds, including pigeons 
and gallinaceous birds, which seek 
their food by scratching the ground. 

Ratchet." A piece of mechanism, one 
end of which abuts against a tooth 
of a wheel called a ratchet-wheel. 

Ratchet-wheel. A wheel with 
pointed teeth, on which a ratchet 

Ra'tio (Lat. reor, I think or suppose). 
The relation of two quantities ol 
the same kind to one another ; the 



rate in which one quantity exceeds 
or is less than another. 

Rat'ional(Lat. ra'tio, reason). Having 
the faculty of reason ; in algebra 
and arithmetic, applied to definite 
quantities, or to those of which an 
exact root can be found ; in che¬ 
mistry, applied to formulae which 
aim at describing the exact com¬ 
position of one equivalent or com¬ 
bining portion of a substance, by 
stating the absolute number of 
equivalents of each of its elements 
necessary to its formation. 

Ee- or Bed-. (Lat. back). A prepo¬ 
sition used in compound words, sig¬ 
nifying return or repetition. 

Eeac't (Lat. re; ag'o, I act). To 
return an impulse or impression. 

Reaction (Lat. re ; ag'o, I act). The 
resistance made by a body to the 
action or impulse of another body. 

Bea'gent (Lat. re ; ag'o, I act). In 
chemistry, a substance used to 
detect the presence of other bodies. 

Eecep'tacle (Lat. recip'io, I receive). 
That which receives or contains ; 
in botany, the shortened axis of a 
flower-stem, bearing numerous 

Recipient (Lat. recip'io, I receive). 
That which receives or takes. 

Reciprocal (Lat. recip'rocus, moving 
backwards and forwards). Acting 
alternately ; interchangeable ; in 
arithmetic, applied to the quotient 
of one or unity divided by any 
quantity, thus the reciprocal of 4 
is 5; and to quantities which 
when multiplied together produce 
unity ; applied also to a form of 
proportion in which the first term 
has to the second the same ratio as 
the fourth to the third, or as the 
reciprocal of the third has to the 
reciprocal of the fourth. 

Recip rocally (Lat. recip’rocus, mov¬ 
ing backwards and forwards). In¬ 
terchangeably ; applied to quan¬ 
tities which are so related, that 
when one increases the other dimi¬ 

Reciprocating' Motion. A form of 
action illustrated in the suspension 
of a rigid bar on an axis, so that 

the parts on each side of the axis 
take alternately the position of 
those on the other. 

Rec'linate (Lat. re, back ; clino, I 
lean). In botany, applied to 
leaves which are folded longitudi¬ 
nally from apex to base in the bud. 

Reclina tion (Lat. re : clino, I lean). 
A leaning; in surgery, an opera¬ 
tion for the cure of cataract, in 
which the crystalline lens is moved 
downwards from its place, and laid 

Rec'ondite (Lat. recon'do, I hide). 

Rec'tangle (Lat. rectus, right; an'- 
gulus, an angle). A four-sided 
figure, having all its angles right 

Rectan'gular (Lat. rectus, right; 
an'gulus, an angle). Having right 

Rectifica'tion (Lat. rectus, right; 
fac'io, I make). A correcting or 
making right; in chemistry, the 
purification of any substance by 
repeated distillation ; in geometry , 
the determination of a straight 
line, the length of which is equal 
to a portion of a curve. 

Rec'tify (Lat. rectus, right; fac'io, 
I make). To make right ; in che¬ 
mistry, to purify a substance by 
repeated distillation; in astronomy, 
to rectify the globe is to bring the 
sun’s place in the ecliptic to the 
brass meridian, or to adjust it for 
the solution of a problem. 

Reetilin'ear (Lat. rectus, straight; 
lin'ea, a line). Contained in or 
consisting of straight lines. 

Eectiros'tral (Lat. rectus, straight; 
rostrum, a beak). Having a 
straight beak. 

Rectise'rial (Lat. rectus, straight, 
se'ries, a row). Disposed in a rec¬ 
tilinear or straight series. 

Rectum (Lat. straight). The last 
part of the large intestines. 

Rectus (Lat. straight). A name 
given to several muscles of the 
body, on account of their direction. 

Recuna'bent (Lat. re, back ; cumbo, 
I lie down). Leaning or lying on 



Recurrent (Lat. re, back ; curro, I 
run). Returning; in anatomy, 
applied to a branch of the pueumo- 
gastric nerve, which is given off in 
the upper part of the chest and 
runs up along the trachea and 

Reeur'ring (Lat. re, back ; curro, I 
run). Returning ; in arithmetic, 
applied to decimals in which the 
figures are continually repeated in 
the same order. 

Recur'vate (Lat. re, back ; curvus, 
crooked). Bent backwards. 

Reduction (Lat. re, back ; cluco, I 
bring). In chemistry, the bring¬ 
ing back a metal to its simple state 
from a compound ; in surgery, the 
restoration to its place of a dislo¬ 
cated bone or other part. 

Redu'plicate (Lat. re, back ; duplex, 
double). In botany, applied to a 
form of aestivation in which the 
edges of the sepals or petals are 
turned downwards. 

Reflecting Goniom'eter. An instru¬ 
ment for measuring the angles of 
crystals by means of rays of light 
reflected from their surface. 

Reflection (Lat. re, back ; Jlecto, I 
bend). The act of throwing back; 
in natural philosophy, applied to 
the motion of light, heat, or sound, 
by which either of them rebounds 
from a body against which it has 
struck, making an equal angle 
with that at which it has fallen on 
the body. 

Reflector (Lat. re, back ; flecto, I 
bend). That which reflects or 
bends back ; a surface of polished 
metal or other suitable material 
for the purpose of throwing back 
rays of light, heat, or sound, in 
any required direction. 

Re'flex (Lat. re, hack', Jlecto, I bend). 
Bent back ; in physiology, applied 
to a class of actions in which an 
impression is carried by a nerve to 
the nervous centre, whence a nerve 
of motion conveys the impulse of 
motion to certain muscles, which 
thus act without the will of the 

Reflex' (Lat. re, back; Jlecto, I bend). 

In painting, the illumination of one 
body by light reflected from another 
body in the same piece. 

Re'flux (Lat. re, back :fu'o, I flow). 
A flowing back. 

Reffac'tion (Lat. re, back ; fran!go, 
I break). The change in direction 
which a moving body, especially 
light, undergoes in passing from 
any medium into one of different 

Refrac'tive (Lat. re, back ; fran'go, 
I break). Allowing or favouring 

Refractory (Lat. re, against; fran'go, 
I break). In chemistry, applied to 
substances which resist the action 
of heat or other agencies. 

Refrangibil'ity (Lat. re, back ; fran'go, 
I break). The disposition of rays 
of light to be turned from their 
direct course in passing from one 
medium to another ; especially the 
degree of that disposition possessed 
by the coloured rays. 

Refrig'erant (Lat. re, back ; fri'gus, 
cold). Abating heat; cooling. 

Refrigeration (Lat. re, back ; fri'gus, 
cold). Cooling; the removal of heat. 

Regeneration (Lat. re, again; gen'ero, 
I produce). In physiology, the re¬ 
newal of a portion of lost or removed 
tissue by the formation of a new 
portion of tissue of the same kind. 

Reg'imen (Lat. reg'o, I rule or 
govern). In medicine, regulation 
of diet and habit; in grammar, 
the regulation of the dependence of 
words on each other. 

Register Pyrom'eter. An instru¬ 
ment for measuring high tempera¬ 
tures by the linear expansion of 
bars of metal. 

Register Thermom'eter. A ther¬ 
mometer which records its own 

Regression (Lat. re, back ; grad'ior, 
I step). A moving backwards. 

Reg'ular (Lat. reg'ula, a rule). Ac¬ 
cording to rule ; in geometry, ap¬ 
plied to bodies the sides and angles 
of which are equal. 

Relaxa'tion (Lat. re, back ; lax!o, I 
loosen). A loosening, or letting 



Relief Valve. A valve in an air- 

pump, to prevent the momentary 
condensation of air in the receiver 
when the piston descends. 

Re'miges (Lat. re'mex, a rower). The 
large quills of the wings of birds. 

Remit'tent (Lat. re ; mitto, I send). 
Ceasing for a time; applied to 
diseases of which the symptoms 
alternately diminish and return, 
but without ever leaving the patient 
quite free. 

Renaissance (French, from renaitre, 
to be born again). The revival of 
anything which has long been in 
decay, or obsolete. 

Re'niform (Lat. ren, a kidney ; form!a, 
shape). Resembling a kidney. 

Reo-. For words with this beginning, 
see Rhe'o-. 

Repeat'er (Lat. rep'eto, I seek again, 
or repeat). That which repeats ; 
in arithmetic, a decimal in which 
the same figure continually recurs. 

Re'pent (Lat. re'po, I creep). In 
natural history, creeping. 

Rep'etend (Lat. rep'eto, I repeat). 
That part of a repeating decimal 
which recurs continually. 

Reproduction (Lat. re; prochi'co, 

I produce). The art or process 
of producing again. 

Reptiles or Reptilia (Lat. re'po, I 
creep). Cold-blooded vertebrate 
animals, breathing air incompletely 
from birth, and having the circu¬ 
lation so arranged that a portion of 
the venous blood mixes unchanged 
with the arterial; as the serpent, 
crocodile, and tortoise. 

RepuLsion (Lat. re ; pel'lo, I drive). 
A driving back ; the power or 
principle by which bodies, or the 
particles of bodies, under certain 
circumstances recede from each 

Resid'ual (Lat. resid'uus, that which 
is left). Remaining after a part is 

Resid'uum (Lat.). A remainder. 

Res'inous Electricity. A name given 
to negative electricity, from its 
being developed by the friction of 
resinous substances. 

Resolution (Lat. re; solvo, I loosen). 

The process of separating the parts 
which form a complex substance or 
idea ; in mathematics, the enume¬ 
ration of things to be done in order 
to obtain what is required in a 
problem ; in dynamics, the revo¬ 
lution of forces is the dividing of 
any single force or motion into two 
or more others which, acting in 
different directions, shall produce 
the same effect as the given motion 
or force. 

Respiration (Lat. re; spiro, I 
breathe). The act of breathing, 
or the process by which the blood 
is brought under the action of air 
for the purpose of purification. 

Res'tiform (Lat. restis, a cord; forma, 
shape). Like a cord. 

Resultant (Lat. resuVto, I leap back). 
In dynamics, the force which re¬ 
sults, or arises from, the composi¬ 
tion or putting together of two or 
more forces acting from different 
directions on the same point. 

Resuscitation (Lat. re; sus'cito, I 
raise). The act of raising from 
apparent death. 

Retardation (Lat. re; tardus, slow). 
A making slow. 

Rete Mirab'ile (Lat. a wonderful net). 
An arrangement of blood-vessels, 
in which an artery suddenly divides 
into small anastomosing branches 
which, in many cases, unite again 
to form a trunk. 

Rete Muco'sum (Lat. rete, a net; 
muco'sus, mucous). The mucous 
network : a name sometimes given 
to the soft under layer of the 
epidermis or scarf-skin. 

Retic'ular (Lat. retic'ulum, a small 
net). Having the form of a net¬ 

Reticulated (Lat. retic'ulum , a small 
net). Arranged like a network. 

Retic'ulum (Lat. a little net). The 
second, or honeycombed cavity in 
the compound stomach of ruminant 

Re'tiform (Lat. re'te, a net ; forma, 
shape). Having the form of a net. 

Ret'ina (Lat. re'te, a net). One of 
the coats of the eye, consisting of 
the expansion of the optic nerve in 



the form of a fine network ; it is 
the part of the nervous system 
which receives the first perception 
of the rays of light. 

Retinac'ulum (Lat. a band). In 
botany, the viscid matter by which 
the pollen-masses in orchids ad¬ 
here to a prolongation of the 

Retini'tis (Lat. ret'ina ; i'tis, denoting 
inflammation). Inflammation of 
the retina. 

Retor't (Lat. re; tor'queo, I twist or 
bend). In chemistry, a globular 
vessel with a long neck employed 
in distillations. 

Re'tro- (Lat. backwards). A prepo¬ 
sition used in compound words, 
signifying backward or back. 

Retroce'dent (Lat. re'tro, backwards; 
ce'clo, I go). In medicine, applied 
to diseases which move from one 
part of the body to another, as 

Retroces'sion (Lat. re'tro ; ce'do, I go). 
A moving backwards. 

Re'trofiex (Lat. re'tro, backwards; 
jiecto, I bend). Bent backwards ; 
in botany, bent this way and that. 

Re'trofract (Lat. retro, backwards ; 
fran'go, I break). Bent back¬ 
wards as if broken. 

Retrograde (Lat. re'tro, backwards ; 
grad'ior, I step). Moving back- 
wards; in astronomy, apparently 
moving in the contrary direction to 
the order of the signs of the zo¬ 
diac, in which the sun appears to 

Retrogression (Lat. re'tro, back¬ 
wards; grad'ior, I step). Amoving 
backwards ; in astronomy, the 
change of position undergone by 
the moon’s nodes, in a direction 
contrary to the motion of the sun. 

Retropul'sive (Lat. re'tro, backwards; 
pel'lo, I drive). Driving back. 

Re'trorse (Lat. re'tro, backwards; 
versus, turned). Turned backwards. 

Retrover'sion (Lat. re'tro, backwards ; 
ver'to, I turn). A turning back¬ 

Re'trovert (Lat. re'tro, backwards; 
ver'to, 1 turn). To turn back. 

Re'tuse (Lat. re; tundo , I bruise). 

Having a broad, blunt, and slightly 

depressed apex. 

Rever'berate (Lat. re; ver'bero , I 
beat). To beat back or return. 

Reverberation (Lat. re ; ver'bero, I 
beat). A beating back. 

Reverberatory (Lat. re; ver'bero, I 
beat). Applied to a furnace or 
oven, in which a crucible or other 
object is heated by flame or hot air 
reverberated or beaten back from 
the roof. 

Reviv'ification (Lat. re ; vi'vus, 
alive ; fac'io, I make). Restora¬ 
tion of life. 

Re'volute Lat. re; vol'vo, I roll). 
Rolled backwards. 

Revolution (Lat. re; vol'vo, I roll). 
Rotation ; the circular movement 
of a body round a centre. 

Rhachitis (Gr. pax is, rhach'is, the 
spine). See Rachitis. 

Rheom'eter (Gr. peos, rhe'os, a cur¬ 
rent ; gerpov, met'ron, a measure). 
An apparatus for measuring the 
intensity of a galvanic current. 

Rheom'etry (Gr. peos, rhe'os, a cur¬ 
rent ; gerpov, met'ron, a measure). 
The differential and integral cal¬ 
culus ; the method of determining 
the force of galvanic currents. 

Rheomotor (Gr. peos, rhe'os, a cur¬ 
rent ; Lat. 7 nov'eo, I move). Any 
apparatus by which an electrical or 
galvanic current is originated. 

Elie'oscope (Gr. peos, rhe'os, a cur¬ 
rent ; aKoirecc, skop'ed, I view). 
An apparatus for ascertaining the 
pressure of a galvanic current. 

Rhe'ostat (Gr. peos, odie'os, a current; 
hrrygi, hislemi, I make to stand). 
An apparatus for enabling a gal¬ 
vanic needle to be kept at the same 
point during an experiment. 

Rhe'otome (Gr. peos, odie'os, a cur¬ 
rent ; vegvw, tern'old, I cut). An 
instrument for periodically inter¬ 
rupting an electric current. 

Rhe'otrope (Gr. peos, rhe'os, a cur¬ 
rent ; Tpeira), trep'o, I turn). An 
instrument for reversing the direc¬ 
tion of a voltaic current. 

Rhet'oric (Gr. peco, rhe'u, I flow). 
The art of speaking with propriety, 
elegance, and force. 



Rheumatic (Gr. fievpa., rheu'ma, 
watery fluid). Belonging to or 
having rheumatism. 

Rheu'matism (Gr. pevpa, rlieu'ma, 
watery fluid). A painful disease 
affecting the muscles and joints. 

Rhipip'tera (Gr. pity, rhips, a mat- 
work or fan ; mepov, pter'on, a 
wing). An order of insects having 
only two wings, folded longitudi¬ 
nally like a fan. 

Rhinenceph'alic (Gr. piv, rhin, the 
nose ; iyuetyaKou, enkeph' alon, the 
brain). Belonging to the nose and 
brain : applied to the prolongation 
of brain-substance which forms the 
so-called olfactory nerves. 

Rhi'zanths (Gr. pi(a, rlii'za, a root; 
avdos, anthos, a flower). A class 
of plants occupying a position be¬ 
tween the flowering and the non- 
flowering species. 

Rhi'zogen (Gr. pi(a, rhi'za, a root ; 
yevvaw, genna'b, I produce). Pro¬ 
ducing roots. 

Rhizocar'pous (Gr. pi(a, rhi'za, a root; 
Kapnos, Jcar'pos, fruit). In botany, 
applied to plants whose root lasts 
many years, but whose stem pe¬ 
rishes annuallv. 

Rhi' zome (Gr. pifapa, rhi'zoma, a 
root). In botany , a thick stem 
running along and partly under the 
ground, sending forth shoots above 
and roots below. 

Rhi'zopods (Gr. pi(a, rhi'za, a root; 
irovs,pous, afoot). A class of simple 
organic beings, consisting of minute 
gelatinous masses, generally covered 
by a shell, and often provided with 
long, slender, contractile filaments. 

Rkizotax'is (Gr. pi(a, rhi'za, a root; 
Taturai, tasso, I arrange). The ar¬ 
rangement of roots. 

Rhomb (Gr. popPco, rhorn' bo, I whirl 
round). A four-sided figure, with 
the sides equal, and the opposite 
sides parallel, but with unequal 

Rhombigan'oid (Gr. poppos, rhom'bos, 
a rhomb ; 7 avos, gan'os, splendour ; 
et’Soy, ei'dos, shape). Having ga¬ 
noid or shining scales of a lozenge 

Rhombohed'ral (Gr. popPos, rhom'bos, 

a rhomb ; eSgct, hed'ra, a base). 
Of the nature of a rhombohedron. 

Rhombohed'ron (Gr. popPos, rhom'bos, 
a rhomb ; iSpa, hed'ra, a base). 
A solid figure, bounded by six 
planes in the form of rhombs. 

Rhom'boid (Gr. poppos, rhom'bos, a 
rhomb ; elSos, ei'dos, form). A 
four-sided figure, having neither 
equal sides nor equal angles. 

Rhon'chus (Gr. poyxos, rhon'chos). A 
rattling or wheezing sound; in 
medicine, applied to any unnatural 
sound produced in the air-passages, 
by obstructions to the passage of 
the breath. 

Rliyn'cholites (Gr. pvyxos, rhun'chos, 
a beak; Ai 60s, litlios, a stone). 
Fossil remains of the beaks of cer¬ 
tain ceplialopods. 

Rhythm (Gr. pvGpos, rhuth'mos, 
measured motion, proportion). The 
agreement of measure and time in 
poetry, prose, music, and motion. 

Rhyth'mical (Gr. pvQpos, rhuth'mos, 
measured motion, proportion). Hav¬ 
ing one sound proportioned to 
another ; regulated by cadences, 
accents, and quantities. 

Rhythmom'eter (Gr. pvdpos, rhuth'¬ 
mos, measured motion ; perpov, 
met'ron, a measure). An instru¬ 
ment for marking time to move¬ 
ments in music. 

Rickets (Gr. rhach'is, the 

spine). A diseased state of the 
bones in infancy and childhood, 
consisting in a deficiency of earthy 
and other essential matters, and 
leading to distortion. 

Rig'id (Lat. rig'id us, stiff). Stiff ; 
applied to bodies which have be¬ 
come so from a naturally flexible 

Rigid'ity (Lat. rig'idus , stiff). Stiff¬ 
ness arising in bodies that are natu¬ 
rally flexible. 

Rin'gent (Lat. rin'go, I grin). In 
botany, applied to forms of labiate 
corolla, where the upper lip is much 
arched, and the lips are separated 
by a distinct gap. 

Ring-Mountains. In astronomy, cir¬ 
cular formations on the surface of 
the moon, of the same nature as 



bulwark plains, but smaller and 
more regular in outline. 

Ri'sus Sardon'icus (Lat. Sardonic 
laugh). A kind of convulsive grin 
observed in some diseases : so called 
because supposed to be produced 
by a species of ranunculus growing 
in Sardinia. 

Ro'dent (Lat. ro'do, I gnaw). Gnaw¬ 
ing ; applied to an order of mam¬ 
mals which nibble and gnaw 
their food, as the squirrel, rat, 
hare, &c. 

Root. In arithmetic , the root of any 
quantity is that which, if multi¬ 
plied into itself a certain given 
number of times, will exactly pro¬ 
duce the quantity. 

Rosa'ceous (Lat. rosa, a rose). Be¬ 
longing to the rose tribe of plants ; 
like a rose. 

Rostel'lum (Lat. a little beak, from 
ros'trum, a beak). A beak-shaped 

Ros'tral (Lat. ros'trum, a beak). Be¬ 
longing to a beak. 

Ros'trate (Lat. ros'trum, a beak). 
Having a beak, or process resem¬ 
bling a beak. 

Ros'trum (Lat. a beak). A beak ; 
anything projecting or shaped like 
a beak. 

Rota'tion (Lat. ro'ta, a wheel). The 
movement of a body on its axis ; 
in agriculture, the mode in which 
different kinds of crops are made 
to succeed each other in the same 

Rcta'tor (Lat. ro'ta, a wheel). That 
which gives a circular or rolling 
motion ; applied to certain muscles 
of the body. 

Ro'tatory (Lat. ro'ta, a wheel). Turn¬ 
ing on an axis ; moving in succes¬ 

Rcitheln (Germ.). A form of eruptive 
febrile disease, partaking of the 
characters of both measles and 
scarlet fever. 

Rotif'era (Lat. ro'ta, a wheel ; fer'o, 
I bear). Wheel-bearers ; a class of 
animalcules, -which have circles of 
cilia, appearing under the micro¬ 
scope like wheels in motion. 

Rotund (Lat. rotun'dus, round). 

Round; bounded by a curve without, 

Rouleaux (Fr.). Rolls. 

Rubefa'cient (Lat. ruber, red ; fac'io, 

I make). Making red ; an appli¬ 
cation which produces redness of 
the skin, not followed by a blister. 

Rube'ola (Lat. ruber, red). A term 
often used for measles, but now 
applied to the eruptive disease 
called rotheln, which presents the 
characters of both measles and 
scarlet fever. 

Rubes'cent (Lat. rubes'co, I become 
red). Becoming red ; tending to a 
red colour. 

Ru'diment (Lat. rudimen'tum). A 
first principle or element; the 
original of anything in its first or 
most simple form. 

Rudimen'tary (Lat. rudimen'tum, a 
first principle). Belonging to or 
consisting in first principles ; in an 
original or simple state ; arrested 
in development. 

Rugee (Lat. plaits or folds). The 
folds into which the mucous mem¬ 
brane of some organs is thrown, 
when they are not distended, by 
contraction of the external coats. 

Ru'gate (Lat. ruga, a wrinkle). 

Ru'gose (Lat, ruga, a wrinkle). 
Full of wrinkles. 

Ru'minant (Lat. rumen, the cud). 
Chewing the cud; applied to an 
order of herb-eating animals, of 
which the camel, cow, and sheep, 
are examples. 

Ru'minate. In botany, applied to 
the albumen of the seed when it 
presents a mottled appearance, as 
in the nutmeg. 

Run'cinate (Lat. runci'na, a large 
saw). In botany , applied to pin- 
natifid leaves with more or less 
triangular divisions, pointed down¬ 
wards towards the base, as the 

Ru'nic (Icelandic run a, a furrow or 
line). A term applied to the alpha¬ 
bet of the ancient Scandinavians, 
consisting of letters of peculiar 
shape, principally formed of straight 
lines cut on wood or stone. 




Sab'ulous (Lat. sattulum, sand). 

Sac (Lat. saccus, a bag). A bag. 

Sac'cate (Lat. saccus, a bag). Hav¬ 
ing a bag, or formed into a bag. 

Sac'charic (Lat. sac'charum, sugar). 
Belonging to sugar; applied to an 
acid formed from sugar. 

Saccbarif'erous (Lat. sac'charum, 
sugar; fer'o, I bear). Producing 

Sac'charine (Lat. sac'charum, sugar). 
Belonging to, or having the pro¬ 
perties of sugar. 

Sac'charoid (Lat. sac'charum , sugar ; 
Gr. elSos, eiclos, shape). Re¬ 
sembling loaf-sugar in texture. 

Saccharom'eter (Lat. sac'charum, 
sugar ; Gr. yerpor, met'ron, a mea¬ 
sure). An instrument for measur¬ 
ing the specific gravity of brewers’ 
and distillers’ worts, and thus de¬ 
termining the amount of sugar 
contained in them. 

Saccholac'tic (Lat. sadcharum , sugar; 
lac, milk). A term applied to an 
acid obtained from the sugar of 

Sac'ciform (Lat. saccus, a bag; forma, 
shape). Resembling a sac or bag. 

Sac'cular (Lat. sac'culus, a little bag). 
Belonging to, or formed of little 
sacs or bags. 

Sa'cral ( Sa'crum ). Belonging to the 
os sacrum. 

Sa'crum (Lat. sacer, sacred; because 
originally offered in sacrifices). The 
largest piece of the vertebral column, 
placed at the upper and back part 
of the pelvis. 

Safety Lamp. A lamp surrounded 
by fine wire-gauze, invented by Sir 
H. Davy, to indicate danger in 
mines from explosion of firedamp. 

Safety Valve. A contrivance for pre¬ 
venting or diminishing the risk of 
explosion in steam-boilers, ‘formed 
on the principle of applying such a 
force as will yield to the pressure 
from within before the latter reaches 
the point of danger. 

Saga. An heroic tale, among the 
northern nations. 

Sagit'tal (Lat. sagit'ta, an arrow). 
Like an arrow; in anatomy, applied 
to the suture which unites the 
parietal bones of the head, its direc¬ 
tion being on the centre of the skull 
from before backwards. 

Sagit'tate (Lat. sagit'ta, an arrow). 
Shaped like the head of an arrow ; 
in botany, applied to leaves having 
two long sharp lobes projecting 
backwards from the insertion of 
the petiole into the leaf. 

Salient (Lat. sal'io, I leap). Leap¬ 
ing ; beating ; springing up or out ; 
in geometry, applied to projecting 

Saliferous (Lat. sal, salt; fer'o, I 
bear). Producing salt. 

Salifi'able (Lat. sal, salt; fi'o, I 
become). Capable of forming a 
salt by combining with an acid. 

Saline (Lat. sal, salt). Containing 
or having the properties of salt. 

Salinom'eter (Lat. sali'nus, saline; 
Gr. yerpov, met'ron, a measure). 
An apparatus for indicating the 
density of brine in the boilers of 
marine steam-engines, so as to show 
when they should be cleaned. 

Salivary (Lat. sali'va). Belonging 
to or conveying saliva. 

Salivary Glands. The glands which 
secrete the saliva; being the parotid, 
sublingual, and submaxillary. 

Salivate (Lat. sali'va). To produce 
an excessive flow of saliva. 

Saliva'tion (Lat. sali'va). The pro¬ 
cess of producing an excessive flow 
of saliva. 

Salpingo- (Gr. <ra\my£, salpinx, a 
tube). In anatomy, a prefix in 
some compound words, denoting 
connection with a tube, generally 
the Eustachian tube. 

Salt (Lat. sal, common salt). In 
popular language, chloride of so¬ 
dium ; in chemistry, any substance 
resulting from the combination of 
two oxides or analogous bodies, of 



which one is highly basic and the 
other highly acid. 

Salt-rad'ical. In chemistry, an ele¬ 
ment, such as chlorine or iodine, 
which forms a salt by combination 
with a metal. 

Sal'tant(Lat. salto, I leap). Leaping. 

Salta'tion (Lat. salto, I leap). The 
act of leaping or jumping. 

Saltato'rious (Lat. salto, I leap). 
Having the power of, or formed for, 

Sal'tigrade (Lat. salto, I leap; grad'- 
us, a step). Formed for leaping ; 
advancing by leaping. 

Sal Volat'iie (Lat. volatile salt). The 
popular name for carbonate of 

San'atory (Lat. sano, Iheal). Healing. 

Sand. In geology, an aggregation of 
water-worn particles derived from 
pre-existing rocks and other mine¬ 
ral substances. 

Sandstone. In geology, sand of 
which the particles have been con¬ 
solidated together by pressure. 

Sanguiferous (Lat. san'guis, blood ; 
fer'o, I carry). Conveying blood. 

San'guification (Lat. san'guis, blood; 
fac'io, I make). The making of 
blood ; the process by which blood 
is formed from chyle. 

Sanguig'enous (Lat. san'guis, blood ; 
gig'no, I produce). Forming blood. 

Sanguin'eous (Lat. san'guis, blood). 
Belonging to, or abounding in, 
blood ; constituting blood. 

Sanguiniv'orous (Lat. san'guis, 
blood ; voro, I devour). Eating 

Sanguin'olent (Lat. san'guis, blood). 

Sa'nies (Lat.). A thin reddish dis¬ 
charge from wounds or sores. 

Sa'nious (Sa'nies). Having the pro¬ 
perties of, or pouring out, sanies. 

San'itary (Lat. san'itas, health). Re¬ 
lating or conducing to the preser¬ 
vation of health. 

Saphe'nous (Gr aacpgvris, saphcnes, 
open, manifest). A name given to 
the superficial vessels and nerves of 
the thigh and leg. 

Sap'id (Lat. sap'io, I taste). Capable 
of exciting the sense of taste. 

Sapcna'ceous (Lat. sa'po, soap). 
Soapy ; resembling soap. 

Saponifi'able (Lat. sa'po, soap ; fi'o, I 
become). Capable of being con¬ 
verted into soap. 

Sapon'ification (Lat. sapo, soap ; 
fac'io, I make). The change which 
fats undergo in contact with alka¬ 
line solutions at high temperatures ; 
the formation of soap. 

Sapon'ify (Lat. sa'po, soap ; fac'io, 
I make). To convert into soap. 

Saporif'ic (Lat. sap'or, taste ; fac'io, 
I make). Producing taste. 

Sarco- (Gr. cap |, sarx , flesh). A 
prefix in compound words, denoting 
relation or similarity to flesh. 

Sar'cccarp (Gr. <rap£, sarx, flesh ; 
Kapiros, har'pos, fruit). The fleshy 
part of fruits, lying between the 
epicarp and the endocarp ; a fleshy 
succulent mesocarp. 

Sar'code (Gr. <rap£, sarx, flesh). The 
simple gelatinous structure of which 
some of the lowest organic beings 
are formed. 

Sar'coderni (Gr. <rap£, sarx, flesh ; 
Sepga, der'ma, skin). The middle 
covering of a seed when it becomes 
succulent or juicy. 

Sarcolem'ma (Gr. <rap£, sarx, flesh ; 
A eg/ua, lem'ma, a husk or peel). 
The proper tubular sheath of mus¬ 
cular fibre. 

Sarcol'ogy (Gr. crap!;, sarx, flesh; 
A070S, log'os, a discourse). The 
part of anatomy which describes 
the soft parts of the body. 

Sarco'ma (Gr. <rap£, sarx, flesh). A 
fleshy tumour. 

Sarcoph'agous (Gr. <rap£. sarx, flesh ; 
cpayu, phag'o, I eat.) Eating flesh. 

Sarco'sis (Gr. crap£, sarx, flesh). The 
production of flesh. 

Sar'cosperm (Gr. o-«p|, sarx, flesh : 
cnrepya, sper'ma, a seed). The 
mesosperm or middle covering of a 
seed, when it becomes fleshy. 

Sarcot'ic (Gr. crap£, sarx, flesh). 
Inducing the growth of flesh. 

Sarmen'tous (Lat. sarmen'tum, a 
twig). In botany, applied to a 
stem which is long and almost 
destitute of leaves and buds. 

Sarmen'tum (Lat. a twig). A run- 



uing stem giving off leaves or roots 
at intervals, as the strawberry ; 
sometimes also a twining stem sup¬ 
porting itself by means of others. 

Sarto'rius (Lat. sar'tor, a tailor). 
In anatomy, a name applied to a 
muscle of the thigh, which turns 
the leg obliquely inwards and over 
the other. 

Satellite (Lat. satcVles, an attendant). 
A secondary planet or moon revolv¬ 
ing round a primary planet : in 
anatomy , applied to the veins 
which accompany the arteries in 
the limbs. 

Sat'urate (Lat. sa'tur, full). To 
supply until no more can be re¬ 
ceived : to neutralise ; thus an acid 
is saturated by an alkali, or vice 
versa, when no portion of either is 
left uncombined. 

Saturation (Lat. sa'tur, full). A 
supplying to fulness ; in chemistry, 
the solution of one body in another 
until no more can be contained in 
union by the receiving body. 

Satur'nian System. In astronomy, 
the system composed of the planet 
Saturn, together with its rings and 

Sau'rian(Gr. aavpos, sau'ros, a lizard). 
The term designating the family of 

Sau'roid (Gr. aavpos, sau'ros, a lizard ; 
eiSos, ei'dos, form). Like a lizard : 
applied to fishes which approach in 
structure to lizards, as the sturgeon. 

Sauroidich'nites (Gr. aavpos, sau'ros, 
a lizard; eiSos, ei'dos, form ; t^pos, 
ich'nos, a footstep). Fossil foot¬ 
prints of reptiles. 

Sca'brous(Lat. sca'ber, rough). Rough; 
having small elevations. 

Scagl'iola (Italian scagl'ia, a scale or 
chip). In architecture, a composi¬ 
tion in imitation of marble, laid on 
bricks in the manner of stucco 

Scala'riform (Lat. sca'la, a ladder; 
form!a, shape). Having bars like 

a ladder. 

Scale'ne (Gr. (TKa\r\vos, skalenos, un¬ 
even). Unequal : applied to 
triangles, of which the three sides 
are unequal ; in anatomy, applied 
to certain muscles, from their shape. 

Scan'dent (Lat. scan'do, I climb). 

Scanso'res (Lat. scan'do, I climb). 
Climbers ; an order of birds having 
the power of turning one of the 
front toes backwards, so as to be 
able to lay hold of and climbing 
trees : as the parrot, woodpecker, 
and cuckoo. 

Scanso'rial (Lat. scan'do, I climb). 
Climbing, or fitted for climbing. 

Scape (Lat. sea'pus, an upright stalk 
or stem). In botany, a naked 
flower-stalk bearing one or more 
flowers arising from a short axis, as 
the primrose. 

Scaph'ite (Gr. Guaty-p, slcaph'e, a skiff 
or boat). In geology, a chambered 
fossil shell, so called from its boat¬ 
like appearance. 

Scaph'oid (Gr. auaepy], slcaph'e, a skiff 
or boat; elbos, ei'dos, shape). Re¬ 
sembling a boat. 

Scap'ula (Probably allied to Gr. 
c TKairavy ;, skap'ane, a spade, from 
its shape). The shoulder-blade. 

Scap'ular (Lat. scap'ula, the shoulder- 
blade). Belonging to the scapula 
or shoulder-blade. 

Scapula'riae (Lat. belonging to the 
shoulder-blade ; scil. pennee, 
feathers). The feathers which lie 
over the humerus in the wings of 

Scarification (Lat. scarif'ico, I make 
an incision). The operation of 
making several incisions or punc¬ 
tures in any part of the body, to 
let out blood or fluid. 

Scarificator (Lat. scarif'ico, I make 
incision). An instrument for 
making several incisions in any part 
of the body. 

Sca'rious (Scar). Like a dry scale; 
membranous, dry, and shrivelled. 

Scarlatina or Scarlet Fever. An 
infectious or contagious febrile 
disease, characterised by a scarlet 

Schindyle'sis (Gr., a slit or fissure). 
In anatomy, a form of articulation 
in which a ridge in one bone is 
received into a groove in another. 

Schist (Gr. <rxi£«, schi'zd, I split). 
In geology, properly applied to rocks 




which have a leafy structure and 
split up in thin irregular plates. 

Schist'ose (Schist). Fissile ; having 
a slaty texture, 

Schneide'rian Membrane. The mu¬ 
cous membrane lining the nose. 

Scholiast (Gr. axoXmv, schol'ion, an 
interpretation). A commentator; 
one who writes note 3 upon the 
works of another. 

Scholium (Gr. crxoAioi/, schol'ion). 
An explanatory observation or re¬ 

Sciatic (Gr. iffx iov t is'chion, the hip). 
Belonging to the hip. 

Sciatica (Gr. lax iov , is'chion, the 
hip). A painful rheumatio affec¬ 
tion of the hip. 

Sci'ence (Lat. sci'o, I know). Know¬ 
ledge ; in philosophy, a collection of 
the general principles or leading 
truths relating to any object ; any 
branch of knowledge which is made 
the subject of investigation with a 
view to discover and apply first 

Scin'tillate (Lat. scintil'la, a spark). 
To emit sparks ; to sparkle. 

Scintillation (Lat. scintil'la , a spark). 
A sparkling ; the twinkling or 
tremulous motion of the light of the 
larger fixed stars. 

Sciog'raphy (Gr. crKia , slcia, a sha¬ 
dow ; ypeapw, graph'd, I write). 
The art of casting and delineating 
shadows correctly. 

Sciop'tic (Gr. tr/aa, ski'a, a shadow ; 
onTopai, op'tomai, I see). Relating 
to the camera obscura, or to the 
art of viewing images through a 
hole in a darkened room. 

Scirrhos'ity (Gr. enuppos, skir'rhos, 
gypsum). A hardness. 

Scir'rhous (Gr. amppos, skir'rhos, 
gypsum). Hard ; of the nature of 

Scir'rhus (Gr. a/appos, skir'rhos, gyp¬ 
sum). A hard tumour ; a kind of 

Scis'sile (Lat. scin'do, I cleave). 
Capable of being divided by a sharp 

Scle'ro- (Gr. oxX-ppos, skle'ros, hard). 
A prefix in compound words, im¬ 
plying hardness. 

Scle'roderm (Gr. anX-ppos, skle'ros, 
hard ; Seppa, derma, a skin). A 
name given to a family of fishes 
having the skin covered with hard 

Scle'rogen (Gr. (TuX-ppo s-, skle'ros, 
hard ; yevuaco, genna'o, I produce). 
The thickening or hardening mat¬ 
ter of the cells of vegetables. 

Sclero'sis (Gr. aKXppos, skle'ros, hard). 
A hardening, or hard tumour. 

Scleroskel'eton (Gr. aKXppos, skle'ros, 
hard ; aneXerov, skel'eton). The 
portion of the skeleton which con¬ 
sists of bones developed in tendons, 
ligaments, and membranous expan¬ 

Sclero'tal ( Sclerot'ic ). An ossified por¬ 
tion of the capsule of the eye in 

Sclerot'ic (Gr. aKXppos, skle'ros , hard). 
Hard ; a name given to the thick 
white outer coat of the eye. 

Scleroti'tis ( Sclerot'ic ; itis, denoting 
inflammationb Inflammation of 
the sclerotic coat of the eye. 

ScoTuform (Lat. scols, filings or saw¬ 
dust ; for'ma, shape). Like filings 
or fine sawdust. 

Scolio'sis(Gr.o-/coA(o«r.sX , or?'os,crooked). 
A term for distortion of the spine. 

Scorbu'tic (Lat. scorlu'tus , scurvy). 
Having or liable to scurvy; per¬ 
taining to scurvy. 

Sco'ria (Gr. oKwp, skor, refuse mat¬ 
ter). The dross thrown off by 
metals in fusion; in plural, scor'ice, 
the cinders of volcanic eruptions. 

Scoria'ceous (Scoria). Like dross or 

Scorpioi'dal (Gr. aKop-mos, skor'pios, 
a scorpion ; et’Sos, ei'dos, shape). 
Like the tail of a scorpion; applied 
to a peculiar twisted form of in¬ 

Sco'riform (Sco'ria ; forma, shape). 
Resembling scoria or dross. 

Scrobic'ulate (Lat. scrobic'ulus, a 
little ditch). Furrowed; pitted: 
having small depressions. 

Scrobic'ulus Cordis. (Lat. the little 
ditch or furrow of the heart). A name 
sometimes given to the epigastric 
region ; the pit of the stomach. 

Scrofula (Lat.). A peculiar diseased 



state, characterised by the deposi¬ 
tion of tubercle in the organs of the 
body, and a tendency to swellings 
of the lymphatic glands and un¬ 
healthy ulceration. 

Sculpture (Lat. scul'po, I carve). 
The art of carving or cutting wood 
or stone into images of men, ani¬ 
mals, &c. 

Scurvy (Lat. scorbu'tus). A diseased 
state, characterised by an altered 
state of the blood, and its effusion 
either in livid patches under the 
skin or in the form of haemorrhages 
from the mucous membranes; which, 
especially in the mouth, become 

Scu'tellated (Lat. scutel'la , a dish). 
Formed like a pan : divided into 
small surfaces. 

Scutel'lum (Lat. scu'tum, a shield). 
A little shield. 

Scutibran'chiate (Lat. scu'tum , a 
buckler ; Grr. Ppayxia, bran'chia, 
gills). Having the gills covered 
with a shell in the form of a shield ; 
applied to an order of gasteropods. 

Scu'tiform (Lat. - scu'tum , a buckler; 
forma , shape). Shaped like a 

Scu'tiped (Lat. scu'tum , a buckler ; 
pes, a foot). Having the anterior 
part of the legs covered with seg¬ 
ments of horny rings. 

Sebac'eous (Lat. se'bum, tallow or 
suet). Made of tallow ; resembling 
suet ; secreting a suet-like matter. 

Sebac'ic (Lat. se'bum, tallow). Be¬ 
longing to or obtained from fat. 

Se'cant (Lat. sec'o, I cut). Cutting; 
in geometry, a line which divides 
another into two parts ; in trigo¬ 
nometry, a right line drawn from 
the centre of a circle, and produced 
until it meets a tangent to the same 

Secer'nent (Lat. secer'no, I separate). 
Pi-oducing secretion. 

Secre'te (Lat. secer'no, I separate). 
In physiology, to separate some 
peculiar fluid or substance from the 
blood or nutritive fluid. 

Secre'tion (Lat. secer'no, I separate). 
In physiology, the separation of 
some peculiar fluid or substance 

from the blood or nutritive fluid ; 
the substance so separated. 

Secre'tory (Lat. secer'no, I separate). 
Having the function of secreting 
or separating some peculiar fluid or 

Sec'tile (Lat. se'co, I cut). Capable 
of being cut. 

Sec'tion (Lat. se'co, I cut). A cutting; 
in geology, the plane which cuts 
through any portion of the earth’s 
crust so as to show its internal 

Sec'tor (Lat. se'co, I cut). A part 
of a circle lying between two radii 
and an arc of the circle : a mathe¬ 
matical instrument, formed of two 
graduated rulers as radii, turning 
in a joint which forms the centre 
of a circle ; in astronomy, an in¬ 
strument for measuring the zenith 
distances of stars. 

Sector of a Sphere. The solid generated 
by the revolution of the sector of 
a circle round one of the radii, which 
remains fixed. 

Sec'ular Inequalities. In astronomy, 
the inequalities in the motions of 
planets produced by the continual 
accumulation of the residual pheno¬ 
mena other than the variation in 
their relative positions ; remaining 
uncompensated after the disturbed 
and disturbing bodies have passed 
through all their stages of configu¬ 

Secunda'rise (Lat. secondary — i.e. 
pennce, feathers). The feathers 
attached to the forearm in birds. 

Sec'undine (Lat. secun'dus, second). 
In botany, the outer but one of the 
coats of the ovule. 

Sed'iment (Lat. sccl'eo, I settle down). 
Matter settled down from suspen¬ 
sion in water. 

Seed-leaf. A primary leaf; applied 
to the expanded cotyledons or seed- 

Seed-lobe. A cotyledon ; one of the 
parts into which a seed, as the 
common pea, splits. 

Segment (Lat. scc'o, I cut). A part 
cut off: in geometry, generally 
applied to a part cut off from a 
circle or sphere. 





Segmentation (Lat. segmen'tum , a 
piece cut off). A dividing or split¬ 
ting into segments. 

Se'gregate (Lat. se, denoting separa¬ 
tion ; grex, a flock). To set apart; 
select: in botany, separated from 
each other. 

Sele'niate. A compound of selenic 
acid with a base. 

Selenic (, Sele'nium). Belonging to 

selenium ; applied to an acid com¬ 
posed of one equivalent of selenium 
with three of oxygen. 

Sele'nious. A term applied to an 
acid consisting of one equivalent of 
selenium and two of oxygen. 

Sele'niuret ( Sele'nium ). A compound 
of selenium with a metal or other 
elementary substance. 

Selenog'raphy (Gr. aeXyvr], selene, 
the moon ; 7 pa<pw, graph'd, I 

write). A description of the 

SellaTur'cica (Lat. a Turkish saddle). 
A portion of the sphenoid bone 
in the skull, so named from its 

Sem'aphore (Gr. a-ryua, se'ma, a sign ; 
c pspu, pher'd, I bear). A telegraph ; 
a means of communicating by sig¬ 

Semeiolog'ical (Gr. (rrigeiov, semei'on, 
a sign ; A070S, log'os, a discourse). 
Relating to the doctrine of the 
signs or symptoms of disease. 

Semeiol'ogy (Gr. crgyeior, semei'on, a 
sign ; Xoyos, log'os, a discourse). 
The part of medicine which de¬ 
scribes the signs and symptoms of 

Semeiot'ic (Gr. (Tryieiov, semei'on, a 
sign). Relating to the signs or 
symptoms of disease. 

Sem'i- (Lat. sem'i, half). A prefix in 
compound words signifying half. 

Semicir'cular (Lat. sem'i, half; cir'- 
culus, a circle). Having the form 
of a half circle. 

Semicylin'dricar (Lat. sem'i, half ; 
cylinder). Like a cylinder divided 
evenly in two from end to end. 

Sem'iformed (Lat. sem'i, half; form'a, 
form). Half formed ; imperfectly 

Semilig'neous (Lat. sem'i, half; 

lig'num, wood). Woody below and 
herbaceous at the top. 

Semilunar (Lat. sem'i, half; lu'na, 
a moon). Resembling a half-moon. 

Semimem'branous (Lat. sem'i, half; 
membra' na, membrane). Half 
membranous ; applied to one of the 
muscles of the thigh. 

Seminal (Lat. se'men, a seed). Be¬ 
longing to seed; in botany, applied 
to the cotyledons or seed-leaves. 

Sem'ination (Lat. se'men , seed). The 
act of sowing : in botany, the 
natural dispersion of seeds. 

Sem'inude (Lat. sem'i, half; nu'dus, 
naked). In botany, applied to 
seeds of which the seed-vessel opens 
early, as in the mignonette. 

Semipal'mate (Lat. sem'i, half; pal'- 
ma, a palm). Having the toes 
connected by a web, extending 
along the half nearest to the foot. 

Semipen'nifonn (Lat. sem'i, half; 
pen'na, a feather ; for'ma, shape). 
Penniform on one side only; ap¬ 
plied, in anatomy , to some muscles. 

Semiten'dinous (Lat. sem'i, half; 
ten'do, a tendon). Half tendinous ; 
a name given to a muscle of the 
thigh, which bends the leg. 

Semitic ( Shem, the son of Noah). A 
name given to one of the great 
families of languages, comprehend¬ 
ing the Assyrian, Babylonian, Sy¬ 
riac, Phoenician, Hebrew, and Ara¬ 
bic languages, with their dialects. 

Sensa'tion (Lat. sen'sus, sense). The 
faculty by which an animal becomes 
conscious of impressions made on 
the extremities of the nerves either 
by some external body, or by some 
change or operation within the 

Sense (Lat. sen'tio, I perceive). The 
faculty by which a living being re¬ 
ceives the impression of external 
objects, so that they may be con¬ 
veyed to the sensorium or brain. 

Sensibility (Lat. sen'tio, I perceive). 
The faculty by which an impression 
made by an external body on the 
parts or textures of the body is 

Senso'rium (Lat. sen'tio, I perceive). 
The seat of sensation ; the orsza 



■which receives the impressions 
made on the senses. 

Sen'tient (Lat. seti'tio, I perceive). 
Capable of receiving impressions so 
as to be perceived. 

Se'pal (Lat. sepes, an inclosure). A 
division of a calyx. 

Sep'aloid (Sepal; Gr. eldos, ei'dos, 
form). Like a sepal. 

Sep'arate (Lat. se'paro, I divide). In 
botany, applied when the stamens 
and pistils are in the same plant, 
but in different flowers. 

Sep'tate (Lat. septum, a partition). 
Divided by septa or partitions. 

Sep'tangular (Lat. septem, seven; 
angulus, an angle). Having seven 

Sep'temfid (Lat. septem, seven; findo, 
I cleave). In botany, applied to 
leaves which are divided part way 
through into seven lobes. 

Septenary (Lat. septe'ni, series of 
seven). Consisting of sevens. 

Septe'nate (Lat. septe'ni, series of 
seven). Arranged in sevens : ap¬ 
plied to compound leaves with seven 
leaflets coming off from a point. 

Septen'nial (Lat. septem, seven ; an¬ 
nus, a year). Containing seven 
years : happening every seven years. 

Septentrional (Lat. septem!trio, the 
northern constellation called the 
Great Bear). Belonging to the 

Sep'tic (Gr. ayirco, sepo, I putrefy). 
Promoting putrefaction, 
eptici'dal (Lat. septum, a partition; 
cced.o, I cut). In botany, applied 
to fruits or seed vessels which open 
by dividing through the partitions 
of the ovary; i.e., through the 
septa or edges of the carpels. 

Septif'erous (Lat. septum, a partition; 
fedo, I bear). Having partitions. 

Sep'tiform (Lat. septum, a partition ; 
forma, shape). Resembling a sep¬ 
tum or partition. 

Septiffragal (Lat. septum, a partition; 
frango, I break). A form of divi¬ 
sion of a fruit in which the parti¬ 
tions adhere to the axis, and the 
valves covering the fruit are sepa¬ 
rated ; the dehiscence taking place 
through the backs of the cells. 

Septilat'eral (Lat. septem, seven ; 
latus, a side). Having seven sides. 

Septil'lion (Lat. septem, seven; mil¬ 
lion). A million multiplied seven 
times into itself. 

Sep'tuagint (Lat. septuagin'ta, 
seventy). A Greek translation of 
the Old Testament, supposed to 
have been the work of seventy or 
seventy-two interpreters. 

Sep'tulate (Lat. septum, a partition). 
In botany, applied to fruits having 
spurious transverse dissepiments or 

Sep'tum (Lat. sdpio, I inclose or 
hedge in). A partition ; in botany, 
a division in an ovary or seed vessel 
formed by the sides of the carpels, 
applied in anatomy to the partitions 
between organs in various parts. 

Seque'la (Lat. seq'uor, I follow). That 
which follows; in medicine, applied 
to a diseased state following on an 
attack of some other disease. 

Seques'trum (Lat). In surgery, a 
dead portion of bone. 

Se'rial (Lat. se'ries, an order). Fol¬ 
lowing in a determinate order or in 
distinct rows. 

Seric'eous (Lat. se'ricum, silk). Silky ; 
covered with fine closely pressed 

Se'ries (Lat. an order). A continued 
succession or order ; in arithmetic 
and algebra, a number of quantities 
succeeding each other in regular in¬ 
creasing or diminishing order, either 
by a common difference or a com¬ 
mon multiplier. 

Seros'ity (Lat. serum , whey). The 
serum of the blood, or the whey of 

Se'rous (Lat. serum, whey). Like 
serum or whey ; secreting serum. 

Se'rous Membrane. A closed mem¬ 
braneous bag, having its internal 
surface moistened with serum, and 
lining some cavity of the body which 
has no outlet. 

Serpentine (Lat. ser'pens, a serpent). 
Like a serpent; coiled or twisted : 
in geology, a rock of flint and mag¬ 
nesia, of mottled colour, like the 
skin of a serpent. 

SerYate (Lat. serra, a saw). Notched 



like a saw; having sharp processes 
like the teeth of a saw. 

SerYatures (Lat. serra, a saw). 
Pointed projections at the edge like 
the teeth of a saw. 

Serrulate (Lat. ser'rula, a little saw). 
Having very fine notches. 

Se'rum (Lat. whey). The yellowish 
fluid which is left in coagulation of 
the blood, consisting of the liquor 
sanguinis, or blood-fluid, deprived 
of fibrin. 

Ses'amoid (Gr. agaagou, sesamon, a 
kind of small grain ; eldos, ei'clos, 
shape). Like a sesame ; applied 
to small bones at the joints of the 
great toes and thumbs, and to small 
bodies in the valves of the aorta and 
pulmonary artery. 

Ses'qui- (Lat. one and a half). A pre¬ 
fix in compound words signifying 
one and a half, or in the proportion 
of three to two. 

Sesquial'teral (Lat. sesqui, one and 
a half; alter , the other). In arith¬ 
metic and geometry, applied to a 
quantity which contains one and a 
half of another. 

Sesquiba'sic (Lat. sesqui, one and a 
half; basis, a base). Applied to 
salts containing one and a half times 
as much base in proportion to the 
acid as the neutral salt. 

Sesquicar'bonate (Lat. sesqui, one and 
a half; carbonate). A salt con¬ 
sisting of three equivalents of car¬ 
bonic acid with two of base. 

Sesquichlo'ride (Lat. sesqui, one and 
a half; chloride). A compound of 
three equivalents of chlorine with 
two of another element. 

Sesquidu'plicate (Lat. sesqui, one and 
a half ; duplex, double). Having 
the ratio of two and a half to one. 

Sesqui'odide (Lat. sesqui, one and a 
half; iodide). A compound of 
three equivalents of iodine with 
two of another element. 

Sesqui'oxide (Lat. sesqui, one and a 
half; oxide). A compound of three 
equivalents of oxygen with two of 
another element. 

Sesquip'licate (Lat. sesqui, one and a 
half; plic'o, I fold). In the ratio 
of one and a half to one. 

Sesquisul'phate (Lat. sesqui, one and 
a half; sulphate). A sulphate 
containing three equivalents of sul¬ 
phuric acid and two of base. 

Sesquisul'phide (Lat. sesqui, one and 
a half; sulphide). A compound 
of three equivalents of sulphur with 
two of another element. 

Sesquiter'tian (Lat. sesqui, one and a 
half ; tertia'nus, tertian). Having 
the ratio of one and one-third. 

Ses'sile (Lat. sed'eo, I sit). Sitting; 
having no stem or stalk. 

Seta'ceous (Lat. seta, a bristle). 
Bristly, or resembling bristles. 

Se'tiform (Lat. seta, a bristle ; forma, 
form). Resembling a bristle. 

Setig'erous (Lat. s°ta, a bristle ; ger'o, 
I bear). Bearing setae or sharp 

Se'tose or Se'tous (Lat. seta, a bristle). 
Bristly; covered with setae or sLarp 

Sex- (Lat. six). A prefix in compound 
words signifying six. 

Sex'angular (Lat. sex, six; an'gulus, 
an angle). Having six angles. 

Sexen'nial (Lat. sex, six ; annus, a 
year). Lasting six years; happen¬ 
ing once in six years. 

Sexfid (Lat. sex, six ; findo, I 
cleave). Cleft into six. 

Sexloc'ular (Lat. sex, six ; loc'ulus, 
a cell). Having six cells. 

Sex'tant (Lat. sex!tans, a sixth). 
The sixth part of a circle ; an in¬ 
strument for measuring the angula r 
distances of objects, having a limb 
of sixty degrees, or the sixth part 
of a circle. 

Sextil'lion (Lat. sex, six; million). 
The sixth power of a million. 

Sex'tuple (Lat. sex, six; plic'o, I 
fold). Six-fold. 

Sex'ual (Lat. sexus, sex). Denoting 
the sexes ; in botany, applied to a 
system of classification founded on 
the number and arrangement of 
the stamens and pistils. 

Sex'ual System. In botany, the 
classification founded by Linnaeus 
on the number, position, &c., of 
the stamens and pistils. 

Shaft. In architecture, the body of 
a column between the trunk and 



the capital ; in mechanics, an 
axle of large size. 

Shale (Germ, scha'len , to peel off). 
In geology, applied to all argilla¬ 
ceous or clayey strata which split 
up or peel off in thin laminae. 

Shemit'ic. See Semitic. 

Shingle. In geology, loose imper¬ 
fectly rounded stones and pebbles. 

Sial'agogue (Gr. <xia\ov, si'alon, 
saliva; ayu, ag'd, I lead). Pro¬ 
moting a flow of saliva. 

Sib'ilant (Lat. sib'ilo, I hiss). Making 
a hissing sound. 

Sidera'tion (Lat. sidus, a star). A 
blasting or blast in plants; a 
sudden deprivation of sense. 

Side'real (Lat. sidus, a star). Rela¬ 
ting to, or containing stars ; a 
sidereal day is the period between 
the moment at which a star is in 
the meridian of a place, and that 
at which it arrives at the meridian 
again ; a sidereal year is the period 
in which the fixed stars apparently 
complete a revolution; sidereal 
period is the time which a planet 
takes to make a complete revolu¬ 
tion round the sun. 

Siderography (Gr. aiSvpov, sideron, 
iron; ypcupw, graph'd, I write). 
The art of engraving on steel. 

Sigilla'ria (Lat. sigil'lum, a seal). In 
geology, a large genus of fluted 
tree-stems having seal-like punc¬ 
tures on the ridges. 

Sig'moid (C, the old form of the 
Greek letter, aiyga, sigma ; elSos, 
ei'dos, form). Like the Greek 
letter C, or sigma; applied in 
anatomy to several structures in 
the body. 

Sign (Lat. signum, a mark). In 
astronomy, the twelfth part of the 
ecliptic ; in algebra, a character 
indicating the relation between 
quantities ; in medicine, anything 
by which the presence of disease is 
made known ; physical signs are 
phenomena taking place in the 
body in accordance with physical 
laws, and capable of being per¬ 
ceived by the senses of the ob¬ 

Sil'ica (Lat. silex , flint). The com¬ 

pound of silicon with oxygen, form¬ 
ing pure flint or rock-crystal. 

Silicate (Lat. silex, flint). A com¬ 
pound of silicic acid with a base. 

Silic'eous (Lat. silex, flint). Belong¬ 
ing to or containing silex or flint; 
having a flinty texture. 

Silicic (Lat. silex, flint). Belonging 
to flint; silicic acid, a name 
applied to silica, or a compound 
of silicon and oxygen having 
certain of the properties of an 

Siliciferous (Lat. silex, flint ; fer'o, 
I bear). Producing silex or flint. 

Silicifica'tion (Lat. silex, flint; 
fac'io, I make). Petrifaction; 
the conversion of any substance 
into a flinty mass. 

Sili'cified (Lat. silex, flint ; fac'io, 
I make). Converted into flinty 

Silic'ula (Lat. a little pod). A fruit 
resembling a siliqua, but broader 
and shorter. 

Silic'ulose (Lat. silic'ula, a little pod). 
Bearing siliculse or silicles. 

Siliqua (Lat. a pod). A form of 
fruit consisting of two long cells, 
divided by a partition, having 
seeds attached on each side, as in 
the cabbage and turnip. 

Sillquose (Lat. sil'iqua, a pod), 
bearing a siliqua. 

Silt. In geology, properly the fine 
mud which collects in lakes and 
estuaries, but generally used to 
designate all calm and gradual 
deposits of mud, clay, or sand. 

Silu'iian (Lat. Silu'res, the ancient 
inhabitants of South Wales), Ap¬ 
plied in geology to a system of 
slaty, gritty, and calcareous beds, 
containing occasional fossils, and 
largely developed in South Wales. 

Sin'apism (Gr. aivam, sina'pi, mus¬ 
tard). A mustard poultice. 

Sin'ciput (Lat.) The fore part of the 

Sine (Lat. sinus). In trigonometry, 
the straight line drawn from one 
extremity of the arc of a circle, 
perpendicular to the diameter 
passing through the other ex¬ 



Sin'ical (Lat. sinus, a sine). Be¬ 
longing to a sine. 

Sinis'tral (Lat. sinister, left). 
Having spiral turns towardsthe left. 

Sinis'trorse (Lat. sinister, left; 
versus, towards). Turned towards 
the left. 

Sin'uate (Lat. sinus, a bay or inden¬ 
tation). Having large curved 
breaks in the margin. 

Sinuos'ity (Lat. sinus, an indenta¬ 
tion). A winding in and out. 

Sin'uous (Lat. sinus, an indentation). 
Winding; crooked; having a wavy 
or flexuous margin. 

Sinus (Lat. a bay or indentation). 
In anatomy, a cavity in a bone, 
widest at the bottom ; a dilated 
form of vein, mostly found in the 
head ; in surgery, an elongated 
cavity containing pus. 

Si'phon (Gr. aapuv, siphon, a reed). 
A bent tube with legs of unequal 
length, used for drawing liquid 
from a vessel. 

Siphon Barometer. A barometer in 
which the lower end of the tube is 
bent upwards in the form of a 

Siphon Gauge. A glass siphon partly 
filled with mercury, used for indi¬ 
cating the degree of rarefaction, 
which has been produced in the 
receiver of an air-pump. 

Sipho'nal (Gr. aapwv, siphon, a si¬ 
phon or reed). Of the nature of a 

Siphuncle (Gr. (ricpuv, siphon, a reed ; 
cle, denoting smallness). A small 

Siphonibran'chiate (Gr. cncpccu, 
si'phon, a tube; ^payx ia i bran'cMa, 
gills). Having a siphon or tube, 
by which water is carried to the 

Siphonos'tomous (Gr. aicpccv, siphon, 
a reed; crropa, stoma, a mouth). 
Having a mouth in the shape of a 
siphon or tube. 

Siren. In acoustics, an instrument 
for determining the number of vi¬ 
brations produced by musical sounds 
of different pitch. 

Siroc'co (Italian). An oppressive re¬ 
laxing wind coming from North 

Africa over the Mediterranean to 
Sicily, Italy, &c. 

Skel'eton (Gr. aut AAcr, slcel'lo, I dry). 
The bones of an animal, dried, and 
retained in their natural positions. 

Slate. In geology, properly applied 
to argillaceous or clayey rocks, the 
lamination or arrangement in plates 
of which is not due to stratification 
but to cleavage. 

Snow-line. The elevation at which 
mountains are covered with per¬ 
petual snow. 

Soap (Lat. sapo). In chemistry, a 
compound of a fatty substance or 
an oil-acicl wfith a base. 

Soapstone. A soft variety of magne¬ 
sian rock having a soapy feel. 

Soholes (Lat. a shoot or young branch). 
A creeping underground stem. 

Solana'ceous (Lat. sola'num, the 
nightshade). Belonging to the 

order of plants which includes the 
nightshade aDd potato. 

Solar (Lat. sol, the sun). Belonging 
to the sun ; measured by the pro¬ 
gress of the sun. 

Solar System. In astronomy, the 

sun, with the assemblage of globes 
or primary planets revolving round 
it, and secondary planets or satel¬ 
lites revolving round the primary. 

Sol'ecism. Impropriety in language, 
consisting in the use of words or 
expressions which do not agree with 
the existing rules of grammatical 

Solen- (Gr. aooXpv, solen, a channel or 
canal). A prefix in some compound 
words, implying the presence of a 
canal or pipe. 

Sol'id (Lat. sol'idus). Having the 
component parts so firmly adherent 
that the figure is maintained unless 
submitted to more or less violent 
external action. 

Solidun'gulous (Lat. sol'idus, solid ; 
un'gula, a hoof). Having the hoof 
entire or not cloven. 

Sol'iped (Lat. solus ,alone ; pes, afoot). 
Having only one apparent toe and 
a single hoof to each foot, as the 

Sol'stices (Lat. sol, the sun ; sto, I 
stand). In astronomy, the periods 



in winter and summer at which the 
centre of the disc of the sun passes 
through the solstitial points, or the 
points in the ecliptic, midway 
between the equatorial points, and 
most distant from the celestial 

Solstitial (Lat. sol , the sun ; sto, I 
stand). Belonging to the solstice. 

Solubility (Lat. solvo, I melt). The 
property of being dissolved or 
melted in fluid. 

Sol'uble (Lat. solvo, I melt). Capable 
of being dissolved or melted in a 

Solu'tion (Lat. solvo , I melt). The 
act of separating the parts of any 
body ; in chemistry, the melting of 
one substance in another in such 
way that the latter is not rendered 
opaque thereby ; in mathematics, 
the finding an answer to any ques¬ 
tion, or the answer found. 

Sol'vent (Lat. solvo, I melt). Any 
fluid or substance which renders 
other bodies liquid. 

Somatic (Gr. auga, sdma, the body). 
Belonging to the body. 

Somatol'ogy (Gr. awya, soma, a body; 
A oyos, logos, description). The 
doctrine of bodies or material sub¬ 

Somnam'bulism (Lat. som'nus, sleep ; 
am'bulo, I walk). A walking in 

Somnif'erous (Lat. som'nus, sleep ; 
fer'o, I bring). Producing sleep. 

Somnific (Lat. som'nus, sleep ; fac'io, 
I make). Causing sleep. 

Som'nolence (Lat. som'nus , sleep). 

Som'nolent (Lat. som'nus, sleep). 

Soniferous (Lat. sonus, sound ; fer'o, 
I bear). Conveying sound. 

Sonom'eter (Lat. sonus, sound ; Gr. 
yer pov, met'r on, measure). An 
instrument for measuring sounds or 
the intervals of sounds ; an appa¬ 
ratus for illustrating the pheno¬ 
mena exhibited by sonorous bodies. 

Sonorific (Lat. sonor, a loud sound ; 
fac'io, I make). Producing sound. 

Sono'rous (Lat. sonus, sound). Giving 
sound : sonorous figures, the figures 

which are formed by nodal lines, as 
when a disc of glass or metal 
covered with fine sand is thrown 
into musical vibrations. 

Sophism (Gr. aocpiaya, sophis'ma, a 
cunning contrivance). An argu¬ 
ment in which the conclusion is not 
justly deduced from the premises. 

Soporif'erous (Lat. so'por, sound 
sleep ; fer'o, I produce). Pro¬ 
ducing sleep. 

Soporific (Lat. so'por, sleep; fac'io, 
I make). Causing sleep. 

Sorbefac ient (Lat. sor'beo, I sup up ; 
fac'io, I make). Producing ab¬ 

Sori'tes (Gr. <ru>pos, sbros, a heap). 
In logic, an abridged form of a 
series of syllogisms ; or a series 
of propositions linked, so that 
the predicate of each one becomes 
the next subject, the conclusion 
being formed by joining the first 
subject and the last predicate. 

Soro'sis (Gr. awpos, sb'ros, a heap). 
A kind of fleshy fruit formed by 
the consolidation together of many 
flowers, seed-vessels, and recepta¬ 
cles ; as the pine-apple. 

Spa'dix (Lat.). In botany, a form of 
infloi’escence in which the flowers 
are closely arranged round a thick 
fleshy axis, and the whole wrapped 
in a large leaf called a spathe ; as 
in the arum or wake-robin. 

Spar. In geology, a term applied to 
crystals or minerals which break 
up into regularly shaped forms with 
smooth clearage-faces. 

Spasm (Gr. airaw, spa'b, I draw). An 
abnormal involuntary contraction 
of one or more muscles or muscular 

Spasmodic (Gr. cnraayos, spas'mos, 
spasm; ei’Sos, ei'dos, form). Resem¬ 
bling spasm ; consisting in spasm. 

Spas'tie (Gr. airaco, spa'o, I draw). 
Having the power of drawing to or 
from; applied to muscular con¬ 
tractions in disease. 

Spatha'ceous (Spathe). Having the 
appearance and consistence of a 

Spathe (Gr. (Tnadr), spathe, a broad 
blade). A large membranous bract 



or kind of leaf, attached at the 
base of a spadix and enveloping it 
in a sheath. 

Spathic (Gr. ana6r), spathe, a broad 
blade). In leaves or plates. 

Spath'iform (Germ. spath, spar; Lat. 
forma , shape). Resembling spar 
in form. 

Spa'those (Gr. arcaOr,, spathe, a broad 
blade). In botany, relating to or 
like a spathe ; in mineralogy, of 
the nature of spar. 

Spat'ulate (Lat. spat'ula, a broad 
slice). Like a spatula or battle- 
door ; in botany, applied to leaves 
narrow at the base, and gradually 
widening towards a broad-crowned 
or straight top. 

Spe'cies. In zoology and botany, a 
collection of individuals resembling 
each other so closely that they are 
considered to have originated from 
a common parent, and having, the 
power of uniform and permanent 
continuance by propagation. 

Specific (Lat. spe'cies, form or figure; 
fac'io, I make). Denoting a species; 
designating the peculiar property 
or pi’operties which distinguish one 
species from another ; in medicine, 
supposed to possess a peculiar effi¬ 
cacy in a disease. 

Specific Gravity. The weight of a 
body, as compared with the weight 
of an equal bulk or volume of some 
other body (as water) taken as the 

Specific Volume. In chemistry, 
the atomic volume, or the num¬ 
ber representing the volume in 
which a body combines. 

Specifica'tion (Lat. spe'cies, form ; 
fac'io, I make). The act of de¬ 
termining by a mark ; a statement 
of particulars, describing a work 
to be undertaken or an invention. 

Spec'trum (Lat. spec'to, I behold). 
In optics, the coloured image formed 
on a white surface by rays of light 
passing through a hole, and sepa¬ 
rated by a glass prism. 

Spec'ulum (Lat. spec'to, I behold). In 
medicine, an instrument for examin¬ 
ing internal parts by means of light. 

fpel'ter. Native impure zinc, con¬ 

taining lead, copper, iron, arsenic, 
manganese, and plumbago. 

Sperlnoderm (Gr. airepya, spedma, 
seed ; bepya, der'ma, skin). The 
covering of a seed. 

Sphac'elate(Gr. acpai<e\os, sphaldelos, 
mortification). To mortify. 

Sphac'elus (Gr. acpaiceAos, sphaldelos, 
gangrene). Death of a part of a 
living animal. 

Sphaeren'chyma (Gr. acpaipa, sphai'ra, 
a sphere ; iyxvya, en'chuma, tis¬ 
sue). Vegetable tissue composed of 
spherical cells. 

Sphe'no- (Gr. acpyv, sphen, a wedge). 
In anatomy, a prefix in compound 
words, implying connection with, 
or relation to the sphenoid bone. 

Sphe'noid (Gr. acp-qv, splien, a wedge; 
eiSos, eidos, shape). Like a wedge; 
applied to a bone of the skull, which 
is wedged in among the other bones. 

Sphe'no-maxil'lary. Belonging to the 
sphenoid and jaw-bones. 

Sphe'no-pari'etal. Belonging to the 
sphenoid and parietal bones. 

Sphe'no-tem'poral. Belonging to the 
sphenoid and temporal bones. 

Sphere (Gr. acpaipa, sphaira, a ball). 
A round body like a ball ; in 
geometry, the solid figure formed 
by the rotation of a semicircle 
about its diameter, and having a 
single surface, every part of which 
is equally distant from the centre ; 
in astronomy, the concave expanse 
of the heavens, having the appear¬ 
ance of the interior of a hollow 
sphere ; a right sphere being that 
aspect in which the circles of 
motion of the heavenly bodies 
appear at right angles with the 
horizon, as at the equator; a 
parallel sphere, that in which the 
same motions appear parallel with 
the horizon, as at the poles ; and 
an oblique sphere, that in which 
these motions appear oblique to 
the horizon, as at any point be¬ 
tween the equator and each pole. 

Spherical (Gr. acpaipa, sphaira, a 
sphere). Like a sphere ; globular ; 
relating to a sphere. 

Sphericity (Gr. acpaipa, sphaira , a 
sphere). Roundness. 



Spher'oid (Gr. crQaipa, spkaira, a 
"ball ; etSos, eidus, form). Re¬ 
sembling a sphere; a body ap¬ 
proaching a sphere in form, but 
not perfectly globular ; the result 
of the revolution of an ellipse 
about one of its axes. 

SpRerom'eter (Gr. acpaipa, sphaira, a 
sphere; perpov, met'ron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the di¬ 
mensions of a sphere. 

Spher'ule (Gr. atpaipa, sphaira, a 
ball ; ule, denoting smallness). A 
little sphere or globular body. 

SpRinc'ter (Gr. acjnyya, sphingo, I 
bind). A name given to circular 
muscles surrounding the orifices of 
' organs or parts of the body. 

Spliygmom'eter (Gr. acpvypos, sphug- 
mos, the pulse ; pzrpov, met'ron, 
a measure). An instrument for 
counting the pulsations of an artery 
by rendering the action of the 
pulse visible, and measuring its 

Spica (Lat. an ear of corn). In 
surgery, a kind of bandage, so 
called from its turns being thought 
to resemble the arrangement of the 
ears of corn on the stem. 

Spic'ular (Lat. spic'ulum, a dart). 
Resembling a dart; having sharp 

Spic'ula (Lat. spic'ulum, a dart). In 
botany, a spikelet. 

Spic'ulum (Lat. a dart). In surgery, 
a small pointed piece of bone or 
other hard matter. 

Spike (Lat. spica, an ear of corn). 
In botany, a form of inflorescence 
in which sessile flowers are placed 
on a simple peduncle or stem, as 
in the wheat and lavender. 

Spikelet. In botany, a small spike, 
or cluster of flowers, as in grasses. 

Spina Bif'ida (Lat. cleft spine). A 
diseased state in which part of the 
bones of the spine are deficient, so 
that the membranes of the choi’d 
project in the form of a tumour. 

Spinal (Lat. spina , the spine). Be¬ 
longing to the spine or back-bone. 

Spinal Chord or Marrow. The part 
c f the nervous system contained in 
the canal of the vertebral column. 

Spinal System of Nerves. The 

nerves which convey impressions 
to and from the spinal cord espe¬ 

Spine (Lat. spina, a thorn). A 
thorn ; an abortive branch with a 
hard sharp point; in anatomy, the 
vertebral column or back-bone ; in 
zoology, a thin pointed spike. 

Spines'cent (Lat. spina, a thorn). 
Becoming thorny ; bearing spines. 

Spinif'erous (Lat. spina, a thorn ; 
fer'o, I bear). Producing spines or 
thorns. • 

Spi'niform (Lat. spina, a thorn ; 
forma, shape). Like a spine or 

Spin'neret (Sax. spinnan, to make 
yarn). The pointed tubes with 
which spiders weave their webs. 

Spi'nous (Lat. spina, a spine or 
thorn). Having spines ; in ana¬ 
tomy, projecting like a spine. 

Spi'racle (Lat. spiro, I breathe). A 
breathing hole; applied to the 
• external openings of the air-tubes 
of insects. 

Spiral (Gr. o-neipa, speira, anything 
wound round). Winding round a 
fixed point, and at the same time 
constantly receding, as the main¬ 
spring of a watch ; winding round 
a cylinder, and at the same time 
advancing; in architecture, a curve 
winding round a cone or spire. 

Spiral Vessels. In botany, fine 
transparent membranous tubes, 
with one or more spiral fibres 
coiled up in their interior. 

Spirit Level. An instrument for de¬ 
termining a plane parallel to the 
horizon, consisting of a tube of 
glass nearly filled with spirits of 
wine or distilled water, and her¬ 
metically sealed, so that, wdien it 
is placed in a horizontal position, 
the bubble of air in the liquid 
stands exactly in the centre of the 

Spirom'eter (Lat. spiro, I breathe ; 
Gr. perpou, met'ron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
quantity of air exhaled from the 
lungs, and thereby determining the 
capacity of the chest. 


1 *79 

■i 4 

Spiroi'dal (Gr. aneipa, speira, any¬ 
thing wound round ; eidos, eidos, 
shape). Like a spiral or cork¬ 

Spis'situde (Lat. spissus, thick). 
Thickness ; applied to substances, 
&c., neither perfectly liquid nor 
perfectly solid. 

Splanchnic (Gr. ankayxvov > splanch¬ 
non, bowels). Belonging to the 
viscera or intestines. 

Splanchno- (Gr. ankayxvov,splanch¬ 
non, bowels). In anatomy and 
medicine, a prefix in compound 
words, implying relation to viscera. 

Splanchnog'raphy (Gr. airkayxrov, 
splanchnon, bowels ; ypatpto, 
graph'd, I write). An anatomical 
description of the viscera. 

Splanchnol'ogy (Gr. ayxror, 
splanchnon, bowels ; koyos, log 1 os, 
discourse). A description of the 

Splan'chno-Skel'eton (Gr. cnrkayxror, 
splanchnon, bowels; auekeTov, 
skel'eton). The bony or cartilagin¬ 
ous pieces which support the viscera 
and organs of sense in animals. 

Sple'nial (Lat. sple'nium, a splint). 
Applied to a bone in the head of 
fishes, because applied in the 
manner of a splint. 

Spleniza'tion (Gr. ank-qv, splen, the 
spleen). A change produced in the 
lungs by inflammation, so that they 
resemble the substance of the 

Spondee (Gr. airordr], sponde, a 
drink offering; because solemn 
melodies were used on such occa¬ 
sions). A foot in Greek and Latin 
verse consisting of two long syllables. 

Spongelets, See Spongioles. 

Spongia'ria (Gr. cnvoyyos, spongos, 
sponge). The class of beings in¬ 
cluding sponges. 

Spon'giform (Gr. 0-7107705, spongos, 
a sponge; Lat. forma, shape). 
Like a sponge. 

Spon'gioles (Gr. (rnoyyos, spongos, a 
sponge; ole, denoting smallness). 
In botany, the ultimate extremities 
of roots, composed of loose spongy 
cellular tissue, through which 
nourishment is absorbed. 

Spontaneous (Lat. sponte, of one’s 
own accord). Occurring or aidsing 
apparently of itself, without any 
obvious cause. 

Sporad'ic (Gr. cnropas, spor'as, scat¬ 
tered). Separate ; scattered : ap¬ 
plied to diseases which occur in 
single and scattered cases. 

Sporan'gium (Gr. cnropa, spor'a, a 
seed ; ayy clou, angei'on, a vessel). 
The case which contains the sporules 
or reproductive germs of some cryp- 
togamic plants. 

Spore (Gr. anopa, spor'a, a seed). 
See Sporules. 

Spor'ophore (Spore; Gr. (pepcc, pher'o, 
I bear). A stalk supporting a 

Sporozo'id ( Spore; Gr. (ooor, zdon, 
an animal ; eidos, eidos, shape). 
A spore furnished with ciliary or 
vibratile processes. 

Spor'ules (Gr. cnropa, spor'a, a seed ; 
ide, denoting smallness). The mi¬ 
nute organs in flowerless plants 
which are the analogues of seeds in 
flowering plants. 

Spu'riae (Lat. spurious ; sc. pennce, 
feathers). The feathers attached to 
the short outer digit in the wings 
of birds. 

Sputum (Lat. spuo, I spit). Spittle ; 
in medicine, that which is dis¬ 
charged from the mouth in disorders 
of the breathing organs. 

Squama (Lat. a scale). A scale; a 
part arranged like a scale. 

Squa'mifer (Lat. squama, a scale; 
fer'o, I bear). Covered with scales. 

Squa'miform (Lat. squama, a scale ; 
forma, shape). Like a scale. 

Squamig'erous (Lat. squama, a scale; 
ger'o, I bear). Bearing or having 

Squa'mous (Lat. squama, a scale). 
Scaly ; arranged in scales or like 
scales ; squamous suture, in an¬ 
atomy, the suture between the 
parietal and temporal bone, the 
former overlapping the latter like a 

Square (Lat. quadra). Having four 
equal sides and four equal angles : 
in arithmetic, applied to the pro¬ 
duct of a number multiplied into 



itself, the number thus mul¬ 
tiplied being the square root of the 

Stalac'tite (Gr. aTa\a(co, stala'zo, I 
drop). A concretion of carbonate 
of lime hanging from the roof of a 
cave, produced by the filtration of 
water containing limy particles and 
its subsequent evaporation. 

Stalag'mite (Gr. maAa(w,, stala'zo, 

I drop). A concretion of carbonate 
of lime found on the floors of caverns, 
produced from the dropping and 
evaporation of water containing 

Stamen (Lat. sto, I stand). In a 
general sense, that which gives sup¬ 
port to a body : in botany, the male 
organ in flowering plants. 

Stam'inal (Lat. stamen). In botany, 
having stamens only. 

Stamin'eous (Stamen). Consisting of, 
or having stamens. 

Staminif'erous (Lat. stamen; fer'o, I 
bear). Having stamens without a 

Stan'nary (Lat. stannum, tin). Re¬ 
lating to tin-works. 

Stannic (Lat. stannum, tin). Pro¬ 
cured from tin. 

Stannif'erous (Lat. stannum, tin; 
fer'o, I bear). Containing tin. 

Staphylo'ma (Gr. aracpvAr], staph'ule, 
a grape). A disease of the eye in 
which the cornea loses its trans¬ 
parency and forms a pearl-coloured 
projection, sometimes smooth and 
sometimes uneven. 

Staphylor'aphy (Gr. <rra<pvAp, staph'¬ 
ule, a bunch of grapes, or the ton¬ 
sils ; pairru, rhaptb, I sow). A 
surgical operation for uniting the 
edges of a divided palate. 

Sta'sis (Gr iarppi, histemi, I make to 
stand). A standing or settling in 
one place : as of the blood. 

Static (Gr. larppi, histemi, I make 
to stand). Having the power of 
keeping in a stationary condition. 

Statics (Gr. larppi, histemi, I cause 
to stand). The branch of me¬ 
chanics which considers the action 
on bodies of forces at equilibrium, 
or producing equilibrium. 

Statistics. The science of collecting 

and arranging all the numerical 
facts relating to any subject. 

Steam Hammer. A form of forge 
hammer consisting of a steam cy¬ 
linder and piston placed vertically 
over the anvil. 

Ste'arate (Gr. areap, ste'ar, suet). A 
salt consisting of stearic acid and a 

Stearic (Gr. areap, ste'ar , suet). An 
acid which is derived from certain 

Ste'arin (Gr. (neap, ste'ar, suet). The 
chief ingredient of suet and tallow. 

Ste'atite (Gr. areap, ste'ar, suet). 
Soap-stone : a soft unctuous mineral, 
consisting of a silicate of magnesia 
and alumina. 

Steato'ma (Gr. areap, ste'ar, suet). A 
tumour containing a substance re¬ 
sembling fat. 

Steato'matous ( Steato'ma). Of the 

nature of a steatoma or fatty tu¬ 

Stellar (Lat. stella, a star). Belong¬ 
ing to or containing stars. 

Stellate or SteTliform (Lat. stella, a 
star). Resembling a star ; radiated. 

Stemmata (Gr. areppa, stem'ma, a 
chaplet). The simple minute eyes 
of worms, and those which are 
added to the large compound eyes. 

Stenography (Gr. arevos, sten'os, 
narrow ; ypaepw, graph! 0, I write). 
The art of writing in short hand 
by using abbreviations or characters 
for whole words. 

Sterelmin'tha (Gr. arepeos, ster'eos, 
solid ; eA pivs, hel'mins, a worm). 
Pai'asitic worms, having no true 
abdominal cavity. 

Stereographic (Gr. arepeos, ster'eos, 
solid; ypeupev, graph'0, I write). 
Delineated on a plane ; stereographic 
proj ection is the proj ection of a sphere 
delineated on the plane of one of 
its great circles, the eye being at 
the pole of the circle. 

StereogTaphy (Gr. errepeos, ster'eos, 
solid; ypcapu), graph'd, I write). 
The art of delineating the forms of 
solid bodies on a plane. 

Stereom'eter (Gr. arepeos, ster'eos, 
solid ; perpov, met'ron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 



specific gravities of various sub¬ 
stances, solid as well as liquid. 

Stereom'etry (Gr. crrepeos, ster'eos, 
solid ; |U€T pov, met'ron, a measure). 
The art of measuring solid bodies 
and finding their solid contents. 

Ster'eoscope (Gr. arepeos, ster'eos, 
solid ; cnco7rea>, skop'eo, I view). 
An optical instrument by which we 
look on two pictures taken under a 
small difference of angular view, 
each eye looking on one picture 
only; so that, as in ordinary vision, 
two images are conveyed to the 
brain and unite in one impression. 

Stereot'omy (Gr. crrepeos, ster'eos, 
solid ; t epvu, tew!no, I cut). The 
art of cutting solids into certain 
figures or sections. 

Stereotype (Gr. crrepeos, ster'eos, 
solid ; ruTTos, tu'pos, type). A 
fixed metal type ; a plate of the 
size of a page, cast from a mould in 
which an exact representation of 
the types set in order by a printer 
has been produced. 

Ster'nal (Lat. ster'num, the breast¬ 
bone). Belonging to the breast-bone. 

Ster'no- (Lat. ster'num, the breast¬ 
bone). A prefix in compound 
words, signifying relation to the 
sternum or breast-bone. 

Ster'num (Lat.) The breast-bone 
to which the ribs are jointed in 

Stern'utatory (Lat. stern'uo, I sneeze). 
Producing sneezing. 

Stethom'eter (Gr. <tt7}0os, ste'thos, 
the chest ; psrpou, met'ron, a mea¬ 
sure). An instrument for mea¬ 
suring the movements of the chest 
on the outside. 

Steth'oscope (Gr. arriOos, ste'thos, 
the chest; (TKoneu>, slcop'eo, I view). 
A cylindrical instrument of light 
wood or gutta percha, generally 
hollow, for listening to the sounds 
produced in the chest or other part 
of the body. 

-Stich'ous (Gr. anxos, stick'os, a row). 
A termination in compound words 
implying rows. 

Sthen'ic (Gi'.o'flej'os, sthen'os, strength). 
Attended with a morbid increase of 
vital action. 

Stig'ma (Gr. <rn£a>., sti'zo, I prick or 
stick). In botany, the upper ex¬ 
tremity of the pistil, or that part 
which receives the pollen; in the 
plural, stig'mata, it denotes the 
apertures in the body of insects 
communicating with the tracheae or 

Stigmat'ic (Stigma). Belonging to 
the stigma. 

Stim'ulant (Lat. stim'ulus, a goad). 
In medicine, an article which pro¬ 
duces a rapid and transient increase 
of vital energy. 

Stim'ulus (Lat. a goad). In medi¬ 
cine, that which produces a rapid 
and transient increase of vital 
energy ; in botany, a stinging hair. 

Stipe (Lat. sti'pes, a stalk). In bo¬ 
tany, applied to the stem of palms 
and ferns, and the stalk of agarics. 

Stip'itate (Lat. sti'pes, a stalk). Sup¬ 
ported on a stalk. 

Stip'ular ( Stip'ule ). Resembling or 

consisting of stipules. 

Stip'ulate (Stip ule). Having stipules. 

Stip'ule (Lat. stip'vla, a stem). In 
botany, a small leaf-like appendage 
to the leaf, commonly at the base 
of its stem. 

Sto'lon (Lat. sto'lo, a sucker). In 
botany, a sucker, at first growing 
on the surface of the ground, then 
turning downwards and rooting. 

Stolonif'erous (Lat. sto'lo, a sucker ; 
fer'o , I produce). Producing suckers. 

Stomap'oda (Gr. aropa, stom'a, a 
mouth ; irovs, pous, a foot). An 
order of Crustacea, deriving its 
name from the manner in which 
the feet approach the mouth. 

Stom'ata or Stom'ates (Gr. aropa, 
stom'a, a mouth). Opening between 
the cells of the epidermis of plants 
in parts exposed to the air. 

Strabis'mus (Lat. strab'o, one who 
squints). Squinting; a want of 
coincidence in the axes of the eyes. 

Strangulated (Lat. stran'gulo, I 
choke). Choked ; in surgery, 
having the circulation stopped in 
any part. 

Stratification (Lat. stra'tum, a layer ; 
fac'io, I make). The process by 
which substances are formed into 



strata or layers; an arrangement 
in layers. 

Stra'tiform (Lat. stra'tum, a layer; 
for'ma, shape). In the form of 
strata or layers. 

Strat'ify (Lat. stra'tum, a layer; 
fac'io, I make). To arrange in 

Stra'tum (Lat. ster'no, I spread). A 
layer; in geology, applied to the 
layers in which rocks lie one above 

Strepsip'tera (Gr. arpe<pw, streph'o, I 
turn ; irrepou, pter'on, a wing). An 
order of insects in which the first 
pair of wings is represented by 
twisted rudiments. 

Stri'ae (Plural of Lat. stri'a, a streak). 
Fine thread-like lines or streaks. 

Stri'ated (Lat. stri'a, a streak). 
Marked with striae or streaks, run¬ 
ning parallel to one another. 

Stri'dor (Lat.). A harsh creaking 
noise ; a grinding. 

Strigo'se (Lat. strigo'sics, lank, thin). 
Covered with rough, strong hairs, 
pressed together. 

Strob'ile (Lat. slroVilus, an arti¬ 
choke). In botany, a large catkin, 
with scaly carpels hearing naked 
seeds, as the cone or fruit of the 

Strob'ilites ( Strob'ile ; Gr. Aidos, 
lith'os, a stone). Fossil remains of 
cone-like fr.uit. 

Stro'phioles (Lat. stroph'iolum, a 
little garland). Small tumours or 
cellular bodies produced at various 
points on the coverings of seeds. 

Stropb'ulus (Lat.). A papular erup¬ 
tion of various species and forms, 
occurring in infants 

Stru'ma. A diseased state, charac¬ 
terised by a tendency to the de¬ 
position of tubercle or of swelling 
of glands in various parts of the 
body ; in botany, a cellular swelling 
where the leaf joins the midrib. 

Stu'pose (Lat. stu'pa, tow). Having 
a tuft of hairs. 

Style (Gr. arvAos, stu'los, a column). 
In botany, the part of the pistil 
consisting of the column proceeding 
upwards from the ovary and sup¬ 
porting the stigma. 

Styliform (Lat. sfy'lus, a pen or hod- 
kin ; forma, form). Resembling 
a style or j>en ; pointed. 

Stylo- (Gr. arvAos, stu'los, a style or 
pen). In anatomy, a prefix in 
some compound words, denoting 
attachment to the styloid process of 
the temporal bone. 

Sty'lobate (Gr. arvAos, stu'los, a 
pillar; / 3 a<n s, ba'sis, a base). In 
architecture, genei'ally, any base¬ 
ment on which columns are raised 
above the level of the ground ; but 
especially applied to a continuous 
pedestal on which several columns 
are raised. 

Stylohy'al (Gr. arvAos, stu'los, a 
style or pen ; hyoid bone). A bone 
in the head of fishes, corresponding 
to the junction between the styloid 
process and hyoid bone. 

Styloid (Gr. arvAos, stu'los, a style 
or pen ; elSos, eidos, shape). Like 
a style or pen : applied in anatomy 
to a process of the temporal bone. 

Styp'tic (Gr. arvcpco, stu'plid, I con¬ 
tract). Astringent: having the 
property of restraining bleeding. 

Sub- (Lat. under). A preposition 
used in compound words, sometimes 
implying a lower position, some¬ 
times a less or inferior degree. 

Subac'id (Lat. sub, under; acid). 
Moderately acid. 

Subal'tern (Lat. sub, under; alter'- 
nus, alternating). In logic, applied 
to propositions which agree in 
quality but not in quantity. 

Suba'queous (Lat. sub, under ; aq'ua, 
water). Under water. 

Subaracb'noid (Lat. sub, under; 
arach'noid). Lying beneath the 
arachnoid membrane. 

Subaxillary(Lat. sub, under ; axil'la, 
an arm-pit). Placed under the 
axil or angle formed by a branch 
with the stem or by a leaf with the 

Subcar'bonafe (Lat. sub, under; car¬ 
bonate). A salt containing less 
carbonic acid than a carbonate. 

Subcar'buretted (Lat. sub, under; 
carbon). Containing less carbon 
than a carburet. 

Sub'class (Lat. sub, under ; class). A 



subordinate class, consisting of 
orders allied to a certain extent. 

Subcla'vian (Lat. sub, nnder ; clavis, 
a key). Lying nnder tbe clavicle 
or collar-bone. 

Subeon'trary (Lat. sub, under ; con- 
tra'rius, contrary). Contrary in an 
inferior degree : in geometry, ap¬ 
plied to similar triangles which 
have a common angle at the vertex, 
while the bases do not coincide ; in 
logic, applied to propositions which 
agree in quantity but differ in 

Subcor'date (Lat. sub, under ; cor, a 
heart). Somewhat like a heart in 

Subcos'tal (Lat. sub, under ; cos'ta, a 
rib). Under or within the rib. 

Subcuta'neous (Lat. sub, under; 
cu'tis, the skin). Under the skin. 

Subcutic'ular (Lat. sub, under ; cu- 
tic'ula, the cuticle). Under the 
cuticle or scarf-skin. 

Subcylin'drical (Lat. sub, under; 
cylindrical). Not perfectly cylin¬ 

Subdu'plicate (Lat. sub, under ; 
du'plex, double). Having the ratio 
of the square roots : in mathe¬ 
matics, applied to the ratio which 
the square roots of two quantities 
have to each other. 

Su'berate (Lat. su'ber, cork). A com¬ 
pound of suberic acid with a base. 

Su'beric (Lat. su'ber, cork). Belong¬ 
ing to cork : applied to an acid 
produced by the action of nitric 
acid on cork and fatty bodies. 

Sub'erose (Lat. sub, under ; erddo, I 
gnaw). Appearing as if a little 

Sub'genus (Lat. sub, under ; gen'us). 
A subordinate genus, consisting of 
species allied to a certain extent. 

Subglob'ular (Lat. sub, under; 
glob'ular). Having a form approach¬ 
ing to globular. 

Subgran'ular (Lat. sub, under; 
gran'ular). Somewhat granular. 

Subja'cent (Lat. sub, under ; jac'eo, 
I lie). Lying under or in a lower 

Subject (Lat. subjic'io, I place before). 
In grammar and logic, that regard¬ 

ing which anything is affirmed or 
denied ; in intellectual philosophy, 
the personality of the thinker. 

Subjec'tive (Subject). Relating to the 
subject; applied in philosophy to the 
manner in which an object is con¬ 
ceived of by an individual subject; 
in medicine, to symptoms observed 
by the patient himself. 

Subjunc'tive (Lat. sub, under; jungo, 
I join). Subjoined or added to 
something else ; in grammar, ap¬ 
plied to a form of the verb express¬ 
ing condition or supposition. 

Sublimate (Lat. subli'mis, exalted). 
To bring a solid substance by heat 
into the state of vapour, which 
condenses on cooling; the substance 
produced by this process. 

Sublima'tion (Lat. subli'mo, I raise 
up). The process of bringing solid 
substances by heat into the state 
of vapour which is condensed in 

Sublime. See Sublimate. 

Sublin'gual (Lat sub, under; lin'gua, 
the tongue). Under the tongue. 

Subluxa'tion (Lat. sub, under ; lux¬ 
ation). An incomplete luxation 
or dislocation. 

Submarine (Lat. sub, under ; ma're, 
the sea). Formed or lying beneath 
the sea. 

Submaxil'lary (Lat. sub, under; max- 
il'la, the jaw). Lying beneath the 

Submen'tal (Lat. srib, under ; men- 
tum, the chin). Under the chin. 

Submucous (Lat. sub, under ; mu¬ 
cous). Lying beneath the mucous 

Submul'tiple(Lat. sub, under; multi¬ 
ple). A quantity which is contained 
in another an exact number of 

Subnas'cent (Lat. sub, under; nas'cor, 
I am born). Growing underneath. 

Subnormal (Lat. sub, under ; norma, 
a rule). In conic sections, the 
portion of a diameter intercepted 
between the ordinate and the 

Suboccip'ital (Lat. sub, under ; oc'ci- 
put. the back of the head). Under 
or beneath the occiput. 



Suboesophage'al (Lat. sub, under; 

cesoph'agus.) Beneath the oesopha¬ 
gus or gullet. 

Suborbic'ular (Lat. sub, under; orbic'- 
ular). Almost orbicular. 

Subor'bital (Lat. sub, under; or'bita, 
the orbit). Applied to bones de¬ 
veloped in the integument about 
the lower part of the orbit in 

Sub'order (Lat. sub, under ; order). 
A subdivision of an order, consist¬ 
ing of a number of allied genera. 

Subordinate (Lat. sub, under ; ordo, 
an order). In geology, inferior in 
the order of superposition. 

Subo'val (Lat. sub, under; oval). 
Somewhat oval. 

Subo'vate (Lat. sub, under; drum, 
an egg). Nearly in the shape of 
an egg. 

Subox'ide (Lat. sub, under; ox'ide). 
An oxide containing a smaller pro¬ 
portion of oxygen than that in 
which the basic characters are most 

Subperitone'al (Lat. sub, under; peri- 
tondum). Lying beneath the peri¬ 
toneal membrane. 

Sub'plinth(Lat. sub, under; plinth.) 
A plinth placed under the principal 

Subro'tund (Lat. sub, under; rotuv!• 
dus, round). Nearly round. 

Subsalt (Lat. sub, under ; salt). A 
salt having an excess of the base. 

Subscap'ular (Lat. sub, under; scap'- 
ula, the shoulder-blade). Lying 
under the shoulder-blade, between 
it and the chest. 

Subse'rous (Lat. sub, under ; serous). 
Lying beneath a serous membrane. 

Sub'soil (Lat. sub, under ; soil). The 
bed or layer of earth which lies 
under the surface-soil, and on the 
base of rocks on which the whole 

Subspe'cies (Lat. smJ, under; spe'cies). 

■ A subordinate species. 

Substra'tum (Lat. sub, under ; stra¬ 
tum). A stratum or layer lying 
under another. 

Subsul'phate (Lat. sub, under ; sul¬ 
phate). A sulphate with excess of 
the base. 

Subsul'tus (Lat. sub, under ; saltus, a 
leaping). A twitching or convul¬ 
sive motion. 

Subtan'gent (Lat. sub, under ; tan¬ 
gent). The segment of a produced 
or lengthened diameter or axis, in¬ 
tercepted between an ordinate and 
a tangent drawn from the same 
point in the curve. 

Subtend' (Lat. sub, under ; tr.ndo, I 
stretch). To extend under or op¬ 
posite to. 

Subtrip'licate (Lat. sub, under ; trip¬ 
lex, three-fold). In the ratio of 
the cube roots; in mathematics, 
the subtriplicate ratio of two quan¬ 
tities is the ratio which their cube 
roots have to each other. 

Su'bulate (Lat. su'bula , an awl). 
Shaped like an awl. 

Succinate (Lat. suc'cinum, amber). 
A compound of succinic acid with 
a base. 

Succin'ic (Lat. suc'cinum, amber). 
Belonging to amber ; applied to an 
acid obtained from amber. 

Suc'culent (Lat. succiis, juice). Full 
of juice ; applied to plants which 
have a juicy and soft stem or leaves. 

Succus (Lat.) Juice. 

Suc'tion (Lat. sugo , I suck). The 
act of sucking or drawing in fluid 
substances by removing the pressure 
of the air. 

Sucto'rial (Lat. sugo, I suck). Fitted 
for sucking. 

Sudorif'erous (Lat. su'dor, sweat; 
fer'o, I bear). Conducting per¬ 

Sudorific (Lat .su'dor, sweat ; fac'io, 
I make). Causing sweat or per¬ 

Sudorip'arous (Lat. su'dor, sweat; 
par'io, I produce). Producing or 
secreting perspiration. 

Suffru'ticose (Lat. sub, under; frvltex, 
a shrub). Partly shrubby : per¬ 
manent or woody at the base, but 
decaying yearly above. 

Sugil'lation (Lat. sugil'lo, I make 
black and blue). The mark left by 
a leech or cupping-glass ; applied 
also to livid spots noticed on dead 

Sul'cate (Lat. sul'cus , a furrow). 




Furrowed ; deeply marked with 
longitudinal lines. 

Sul'phate (Sulphur). A compound 
of sulphuric acid with a base. 

Sulphide (Sul'phur). A compound of 
sulphur with another elementary 
substance, towards which it stands 
in the same relations as oxygen, so 
as to form a sulphur-acid or a 

Sul'phite (Sulphur). A com¬ 
pound of sulphurous acid with a 

Sulphocyan'ic (Sulphur and Cyano¬ 
gen). A name applied to an acid 
composed of sulphur, cyanogen, 
and hydrogen, found in the seeds 
and blossoms of cruciferous plants, 
and in human saliva. 

Sulpliovi'nic (Sulphur ; Lat. vi'num, 
wine). A term applied to an acid 
produced by the action of sulphuric 
acid on alcohol. 

Sulphur-acid. An acid in which the 
oxygen is represented by sulphur. 

Sulphur-base. A base in which 
oxygen is represented by sulphur. 

Sr.l'phuret (Sulphur). A compound 
of sulphur with hydrogen or a 
metal, or other electro-positive 

Sulph'uretted (Sulphur). Combined 
with sulphur. 

Sulphuric (Sul'phur). Belonging to 
sulphur : applied to an acid con¬ 
taining one equivalent of sulphur 
with three of oxygen commonly 
known as oil of vitriol. 

Subphurous (Sulphur). Containing 
sulphur; applied to an acid con¬ 
taining one equivalent of sulphur 
and two of oxygen. 

Sulphur-salt. A salt arising from 
the combination of a sulphur acid 
with a sulphur base, in each of 
which sulphur takes the place of 

^ oxygen. 

Super- (Lat. above). A preposition 
used in compound words, signifying 
above or in excess. 

Superciliary (Lat. su'per, above; 
ci'lium, the eyebrow). Above the 

Superficial (Lat. su'per , above; 
fac'ies , a face). On the face or 

outer surface; superficial measui-e 
is the extent of any surface. 

Superficies (Lat. su'per , on ; fac'ies, 
a face). The surface of a body, 
capable of measurement in length 
and breadth. 

Superimpose (Lat. su'per , above ; 
impo'no, I lay on). To lay on 
something else. 

Superincumbent (Lat. su'per , above; 
incum'bo, I lie on). Resting or 
lying on something. 

Supelior (Lat. above). In botany, 
applied to the ovary when it is not 
adherent to the calyx, and to the 
calyx when it is adherent to the 
ovary ; also to the part of a flower 
nearest the axis or growing point. 

Superja'cent (Lat. su'per, above; 
ja'ceo, I lie). Lying above. 

Superna'tant (Lat. su'per, above; 
no!to, I swim). Floating or swim- 
ing on the surface. 

Superposition (Lat. su'per, above; 
po'no, I place). A placing above ; 
in geology, the order in which rocks 
are placed over each other. 

Su'persalt (Lat. su'per, above; salt). 
A salt with a greater number of 
equivalents of acid than of base. 

Supersaturate (Lat. su'per, above ; 
sa'tur, full). To add beyond satu¬ 

Superstratum (Lat. su'per, above ; 
straltum, a layer). A layer above 

SupsrsuFphate (Lat. su'per, above ; 
sulphate). A sulphate containing 
more equivalents of acid than of 

Supertem'poral (Lat. su'per, over; 
temporal-bone). Applied to bones 
sometimes overarching the temporal 
fossae in fishes. 

Supervolu'te (Lat. su'per, above ; 
volvo, I roll). In botany, applied 
to leaves rolled on themselves in the 

Supina'tion (Lat. supi'nus, lying on 
the back). The act of turning the 
face or anterior part upwards. 

Supina'tor (Lat. supi'nus, lying on 
the back). A name given to those 
muscles which turn the palm of 
the hand forwards or upwards. 



Supplement (Lat. stib, under ; pleo, 
I till). That which fills up the 
defects of any thing ; in geometry, 
the quantity by which an arc or 
angle falls short of 180 degrees or 
a semicircle. 

Suppura'tion (Lat. suppu'ro, I turn 
into pus). The process of the 
formation of pus as a result of 

Su'pra- (Lat. su'pra, over). A pre¬ 
position used in compound words, 
signifying over. 

Supra-acro'mial (Lat. su'pra, above ; 
acro'mion ). Lying above the 
acromion process of the scapula. 

Supracreta'ceous (Lat. su'pra, over ; 
cre'ta, chalk). Applied to deposits 
lying over the chalk formation. 

Supradecom'pound (Lat. su'pra, 
above ; decovi'pound). In botany, 
applied to minutely divided or very 
compound leaves. 

Suprafolia'ceous (Lat. su'pra, over ; 
f 0 ' Hum, a leaf). Inserted above a 
leaf or petiole. 

Supracesophage'al (Lat. su'pra, over; 
cesopha'gus). Above the oesophagus. 

Supraoccip'ital (Lat. su’pra, above ; 
oc'ciput, the back of the head). A 
bone in the head of fishes, cor¬ 
responding to the upper part of the 
occipital bone. 

Supraor'bital (Lat. su'pra, over; 
or'bit). Above the orbit or eye- 

Suprare'nal (Lat. su'pra, over ; ren, 
a kidney). Above the kidneys. 

Suprascap'ular (Lat. su'pra, over; 
scap'ida, the shoulder-blade). 
Above the shoulder-blade. 

Supraspina'tus (Lat. su'pra, above ; 
spina, a spine). Above the spine : 
a name given to a muscle lying 
above the spine of the shoulder- 

Su'ral (Lat. su'ra, the calf of the 
leg). Belonging to the calf of the 

Surd (Lat. sur'dus, deaf). In arith¬ 
metic and algebra, a root which 
cannot be expressed in integral or 
rational numbers. 

Suspension (Lat. suspen'do, I hang 
up). In chemistry, the state in 

which bodies are held, but not in 
solution, in a fluid, so that they 
may be separated from it by filtra¬ 

Suspen'sor (Lat. suspend'o, I hang). 
In botany, the cord which suspends 
the embryo, and is attached to the 
young radicle. 

Sutu'ral (Lat. sutu'ra, a suture). 
Belonging to sutures ; in botany, 
applied to that form of dehiscence 
or separation of fruits which takes 
place at the sutures. 

Su'ture (Lat. suo, I sew). A sewing : 
in surgery, the drawing together of 
a wound by sewing ; in anatomy, a 
seam or joint uniting the bones of 
the skull ; in botany, the part 
where separate organs unite, or 
where the edges of a folded organ 
adhere: the dental suture of the 
ovary is that next the centre, formed 
by the edges of the carpels : the 
dorsal suture is at the back, cor¬ 
responding to the midribs. 

Syco'sis (Gr. avicor, su'kon, a fig). A 
form of eruptive disease, affecting 
the skin of the chiu, lower jaw, or 
upper lip, characterised by the for¬ 
mation of patches of tubercles. 

Syllable (Gr. avAAafiri, sul'labe, a 
syllable). In grammar, applied to 
the augment in the past tense of 
Greek verbs, which is formed by 
the addition of the vowel e, so as 
to produce a new syllable. 

Syllable (Gr. aw, sun, together; 
Aay./ 3 av(t>, lam'banu, I take). A 
letter or combination of letters that 
can be uttered by a single effort of 
the voice. 

Syllogism (Gr. aw, sun, with ; Aoyi- 
(oyai, logi'zomai, I think). In logic, 
an argument consisting of three 
terms, of which the first two are 
premises, and the last the conclusion. 

Syllogis'tic (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 
Aoyi^ogai, logi'zomai, I thiuk). 
Belonging to or in the form of 

Symbleph'aron (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 
/8A eepapor, blepli'aron, an eyelid). 
A growing of the eyelids to the 

Sym'bol (Gr. avyfiaAAw, sumbal'lb, I 

n 2 



compare). A visible object or 
character representing something. 

Sym'metry (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 
gerpou, met'ron, a measure). The 
due proportion of one thing, as part, 
to another with respect to the 
whole pin botany , applied in refer¬ 
ence to the parts being of the same 
number, or multiples of each other. 

Sympathetic (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 
irados, path! os, suffering). Having 
common feeling ; in anatomy, 
applied to a system of nerves which 
are specially supplied to the viscera, 
and blood-vessels. 

Sym'pathy (Gr. aw, sun, with; 
tv ados, path'os, suffering). Fellow- 
feeling : in medicine, applied to 
the production of a modified or 
diseased condition in an organ or 
part through action or a disease of 
some other organ or part. 

Sym'phony (Gr. aw, sun, with; 
< pcourj, phone, voice). A consonance 
or harmony of sounds : a musical 
composition for a full band of in¬ 

Sym'physis (Gr. aw, sun, together; 
(pvca, phu'd, I grow). In anatomy, 
the union of bones by means of an 
intervening cartilage, so as to form 
an immovable joint; applied also 
to the junction of the two halves 
of the lower jaw. 

Sympesiom'eter (Gr. avumefa, sum- 
pie'zd, I press together; gerpou, 
met'ron, a measure). An instru¬ 
ment for measuring the weight of 
the atmosphere by the compression 
of a column of gas. 

Symp'tom (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 
ttltttcc, pip'to, I fall). Something 
that happens concurrently with 
another ; in medicine, a disordered 
function, or assemblage of dis¬ 
ordered functions, becoming ob¬ 
vious in the course of a disease. 

Symptomatic (Symptom) . Belonging 
or according to symptoms ; pro¬ 
duced from some apparent prior 
disorder or injury. 

Symptomatology (Gr. avgnTwga, 
sump'toma, a symptom; \oyos, 
log'os, a discourse). The part of 
medicine which treats of symptoms. 

Syn- or Sym- (Gr. aw, sun, with). 
A prefix in compound words signi¬ 
fying with. 

Synae'resis (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 
aipeec, haired, I take). A com¬ 
bination of two vowels into one. 

Synaloe'pha (Gr. aw, sun, with; 
aAenpw, alei'phd, I oil or anoint). 
In prosody, the process by which, 
when one word ends and the next 
begins with a vowel, the vowel of 
the first word is cut off, or absorbed 
in that of the second. 

Synan'therous (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 
anther ). Having the anthers 
widest in a tube round the style ; 
applied to some composite plants. 

Synarthro'sis (Gr. aw, sun, together; 
apdpou, arthron, a joint). An 
immovable joint. 

Syncar'pous (Gr. aw, sun, with; 
uapnos, karpos, fruit). Having the 
carpels of a compound fruit com¬ 
pletely united. 

Synchondro'sis (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 
XovSpos, chon'dros, a cartilage). 
An articulation by cartilage ; ap¬ 
plied especially to tbe joint formed 
by the sacrum with the ilium on 
each side. 

Synchronic (Gr. aw, sun, with; 
Xpovos, chron'os, time). ‘Happening 
at the same time; performed in the 
same time. 

Synchronous. See Synchronic. 

Syncli'nal (Gr. aw, sun, with; kXivu, 
Mind, I lean). In geology, applied 
to strata that dip from opposite 
directions downwards, or which 
incline to a common centre. 

Syn'cope' (Gr. aw, sun, with; kotttw, 
kop'td, I cut). A cutting off; in 
medicine, fainting ; interruption of 
the action of the heart. 

Syndesmol'ogy (Gr. aw'ceayos, sun- 
des'mos, a ligament; Xoyos, log'os, 
discourse). A treatise on ligaments. 

Syndesmo'sis (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 
deap.os, des'mos, a binding). The 
union of bones by ligaments. 

Synec'doche (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 
eudexogai, ekdech'omai, I take out). 
A figure in speech by which the 
whole is put for a part, or a part 
for the whole. 



Syne'chia (Gr. aw, sun, with ; e’xw, 
ech'b, I hold). In surgery, an ad¬ 
hesion of the iris of the eye to the 
cornea or to the capsule of the 
crystalline lens. 

Syngene'sia (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 
yeveais, gen'esis, production). 'A 
term applied to a class of plants in 
the Linnaean system, in which the 
anthers are united, the filaments 
being mostly separate. 

Syn'ocha (Gr. awox°s, sun'ochos, 
holding together). A name for¬ 
merly given to inflammatory fever. 

Syno'chreate (Gr. aw, sun, together; 
Lat o'chrea , a boot). In botany, 
applied to stipules which unite 
round the stem, on the opposite 
side from the leaf. 

Syn'ochus (Gr. awoxos, sicn'ochos, 
holding together). A name for¬ 
merly given to a mixed fonn of 
fever, intermediate between syno- 
chus and typhus. 

Synodic (Gr. aw, sun, with ; o 5 os, 
hod!os, a way). In astronomy, 
applied to the common lunar 
month, or the period of time which 
the moon takes in returning to any 
given phase ; also to the motion of 
a planet considered merely in rela¬ 
tion to that of the earth, without 
reference to its actual position in 
its orbit. 

Syn'onym (Gr. aw, sun, with ; ovoga, 
on'oma, a name). A word having 
the same signification as another. 

Synop'sis (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 6 \pis, 
opsis, sight). A general view. 

Synop'tic (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 
opsis, sight). Taking in at one 

Syno'via (Gr. aw, sun, with ; Lat. 
o'vum, an egg). A fluid resembling 
the white of egg, secreted in the 
cavity of joints for the purpose of I 

Tabes (Lat.) A wasting. 

Tab'ular (Lat. tab'ula, a table). In 
the form of a table; arranged in 
laminae or plates. 

moistening them and facilitating 

Synovi'tis ( Syno'via; itis, denoting 
inflammation). Inflammation of a 
synovial membrane. 

Syn'tax (Gr. aw, sun, together; 
Taaacc, tasso, I arrange). A con¬ 
nected system or order ; in gram¬ 
mar, the part which teaches the 
arrangement and connection of 

Syn'thesis (Gr. aw, sun, together; 
t lOtj/ul, tithemi, I place). A put¬ 
ting together ; the uniting of sepa¬ 
rate elements or constituents into a 

Synthetic (Gr. aw, sun, together ; 
Ti0rjui, tithemi, I place). Relating 
to synthesis or composition. 

Syn'tonin (Gr. awrovos, sun'tonos, 
stretched). Fibrin of muscle or 

Sys'tem (Gr. aw, sun, together ; 
lary/ju, histemi, I place). A com¬ 
bination of things taken together ; 
a classification, real or theoretical, 
of parts or objects. 

Systematic (System). Formed ac¬ 
cording to a regular connection. 

System'ic (System). Belonging to a 
system ; in physiology, relating to 
the system, or assemblage of organs 
of the body in general. 

Sys'tole (Gr. avaaeWw, sustel'lo, I 
contract). In grammar, the short¬ 
ening of a long syllable ; in physio¬ 
logy, the contraction of the heart 
for carrying on the circulation. 

Syz'ygy (Gr. aw, sun, with ; (vyou, 
zu'gon, a yoke). A conjunction or 
coupling ; in astronomy, the line 
of syzvgies is the diameter of the 
moon’s orbit which is directed to 
the sun, its extremes being the 
points of conjunction and of oppo¬ 

Tac'tile (Lat. tactus, touch). Relating 
to, or employed for, touch. 

Tae'nia (Gr. raima, tainia, a ribbon). 
The tape-worm. 



Taenioid (Gr. Tcuvia, tainia, a 
ribbon ; eiSos, eidos, a form). 
Shaped like a ribbon, as the tape¬ 

Talc. A mineral consisting of mag¬ 
nesia, potash, and silica, closely 
resembling mica, arranged in broad, 
flat, smooth plates, translucent 
and often transparent. 

Taliaco'tian Operation. In surgery, 
the operation of forming a new 
nose from the skin of the forehead 
or other part of the face. 

Talipes (Lat. talus, an ankle ; pes, 
a foot). A deformity known as 

Tan'gent (Lat. tango, I touch). In 
geometry, a straight line which 
touches a circle or curve in one 
point, and which, being produced, 
does not cut it. 

Tan'nic {Tan). Applied to an acid 
existing in oak-bark, and in which 
depends its elficacy in tanning. 

Tape'tum (Lat. a carpet). The 
coloured layer of the choroid coat 
of the eye. 

Taphren'chyma (Gr. roappos, taph'ros, 
a ditch ; iyxvya, en'chuma, tissue). 
A name for pitted vessels in vege¬ 

Tar'digrade (Lat. tar'dus, slow; 
grad'ior, I step). Advancing 

Tarsal {Tarsus). Belonging to the 
instep, or to the cartilage of the 

Tar'sus (Gr. rapcros, tarsos, a flat 
surface). The instep; the carti¬ 
lage supporting each eyelid ; also 
the last segment of the legs of 

Tartaric (Tartar, a deposit from 
wines). Applied to an organic acid 
which exists in tartar, and which is 
found in the juice of grapes and 
other fruits. 

Tartari'sed {Tartar). Impregnated 
with tartar. 

Tar'trate {Tartar). A neutral com¬ 
pound of tartaric acid with a base. 

Tau'rine (Lat. taurus, a bull). Re¬ 
lating to a bull. 

Taxider'my (Gr. raatrco, tasso , I put 
in order; Sepya, derma, skin). 

The art of preparing and preserving 
the skins of animals in their natural 

Taxis (Gr. t acraoo, tasso, I put in 
order). In surgery, a process by 
which parts that have left their 
proper situation are replaced by the 
hand without the aid of instill¬ 

Taxon'omy (Gr. t a|ts, taxis, order ; 
poyos, 7 iom'os, law). The depart¬ 
ment of natural history which 
treats of the laws and principles of 

Technical (Gr. t e%M7, techne, art). 
Relating or belonging to a science 
or art. 

Technoi'ogy (Gr. rex^V, techne, art; 
Xoyos, log'os, discourse). A des¬ 
cription of arts or of the terms 
used in arts. 

Tectibran'chiate (Lat. tectus, covered; 
Gr. fipayxia, branchia , gills). 
Having covered gills ; applied to 
mollusca in which the gills are 
covered by the mantle. 

Teg'men (Lat. teg'o, I cover). See 

Tegmen'tum (Lat. teg'o, I cover). 
The scaly coat covering the leaf- 
buds of deciduous trees. 

Teg'ument (Lat. teg'o, I cover). A 
covering ; in anatomy, the skin ; 
in botany, see Tegmentum ; in 
entomology, the covering of the 
wings of the orthoptera, or straight¬ 
winged insects. 

Tegumen'tary {Tegument). Belonging 
to or consisting of teguments or 

Telangiec'tasis (Gr. rz\os, tel'os, an 
end ; ayyeiop, angei'on, a vessel ; 
iureLPu, eldeinld, I stretch out). 
Distension of the vessels. 

Tel'egram (Gr. rrj\€, tele, at a dis¬ 
tance ; ypeupev, graph'd, I write). 
A message communicated by a 

TeTegraph. (Gr. tele, at a dis¬ 
tance ; ypacpco, graph'd, I write). 
An instrument for communicating 
messages or news from a distance 
by means of signals representing 
letters or words : to transmit by 
means of a telegraph. 



Telegraphic ( Tel'egraph ). Belonging 
to, or communicated by, a tele¬ 

Teleii'giscope (Gr. r-pXe, tele, far off; 
eyyvs, en'gus, near; cricoirece, shop'to, 
I look). An instrument combin¬ 
ing the powers of the telescope and 

Tel'escope (Gr. rrjAe, tele, at a dis¬ 
tance ; cTKOTreco, skop'eo, I view). 
An optical instrument for viewing 
objects at a distance. 

Telescop 'ie ( Telescope). Belonging to 
or seen by a telescope. 

Tellu'ric (Lat. tellus, the earth). Be¬ 
longing to or proceeding from the 

Tellu'ric ( Tellu'rium , a kind of 

metal). Belonging to tellurium ; 
applied to an acid consisting of 
tellurium and oxygen. 

Tem'perament (Lat. tem'pero, I mix). 
Constitution ; in physiology, a term 
applied to peculiar characters of the 
human body in health, each of 
which is specially liable to certain 
forms of disease. 

Tem'perature (Lat. tem'pero, I mix 
or moderate). The state of a body 
with regard to heat and cold, es¬ 
pecially as compared with another 

Tem'poral(Lat. tem'pora, the temples). 
In anatomy, belonging to the tem¬ 

Tem'poral (Lat. tempus, time). In 
grammar, applied to a form of 
augment in the past tense of verbs, 
by which a short vowel is changed 
into a long one. 

Tenacity (Lat tenax, holding). The 
property which makes bodies ad¬ 
here ; in physics, the property by 
which a body resists the separation 
of its parts by extension in the 
direction of its length. 

Tenac'ulum (Lat. ten'eo, I hold). 
An instrument used in surgery for 
laying hold of arteries or other 
parts in operating. 

Ten'don (Gr. t evwv, ten'on). The 
dense fibrous structure in which a 
muscle ends, and by which it is 
attached to bone. 

Ten'on (Fr. from Lat. ten'eo, I hold). 

In architecture, the end of a piece 
of wood cut into a rectangular- 
prism, and received into a cavity 
in another piece called a mortise. 

Tenot'omy (Gr. revcov, tenon, a ten¬ 
don ; Teyvw, temnd, I cut). The 
operation of dividing a tendon. 

Ten'sion (Lat. tendo, I stretch). The 
art of stretching, or the state of 
being stretched or strained. 

Ten'tacle or Tentac'ulum (Lat. ten'to, 
I feel or try). A feeler : a thread¬ 
like organ, simple or branched, 
seated about the mouth or other- 
part of the body of many inverte¬ 
brate animals. 

Tentaculif'erous (Lat. tentac'ulum, a 
feeler; fer'o, I bear). Producing 
or having tentacles. 

Tentative (Lat. ten'to, I try). Ex¬ 

TentoTium (Lat. ten'do, I stretch). 
In anatomy, a projecting of the 
dura mater, separating the cere¬ 
brum from the cerebellum. 

Tenuiros'tral (Lat. ten'uis, thin; 
ros'trum, a beak). Having a 
slender beak, as the humming¬ 
bird, &c. 

Tenu'ity (Lat. ten'ids, thin.) Thin¬ 

Tepida'rium (Lat. tcp'eo, I am hot). 
The part of the ancient bath in 
which the garments were removed, 
before the sweating process com¬ 

Teratol'ogy (Gr. repas, ter'as, a 
monster : A oyos, log'os, discourse). 
The study of monstrosities, or de¬ 
partures from the normal forms of 

Ter 'cine (Lat. ter'tins, third). In 
botany, the innermost coat of an 

Terebin'thinate (Gr. repel3iv6os, tere- 
binthos, turpentine). Belonging 
to or having the properties of tur¬ 

Ter'es (Lat. round). In anatomy, ap¬ 
plied to certain muscles, from their 

Te'rete (Lat. te'res, round). Cylin¬ 
drical and tapering. 

Ter 'gal (Lat. ter'gum, the back). 
Belonging to the back. 



Tergem'inal (Lat. ter, three times ; 
gem'inus, double). Thrice double. 

Tergif'erous (Lat. ter'gum, the back ; 
fer'd, I bear). Bearing on the 
back ; applied to plants which bear 
their seeds on the back of the 
leaves, as ferns. 

Terminal (Lat. ter'minus, a limit). 
Belonging to or placed at the end 
of an object. 

Terminol'ogy (Lat. ter'minus, a term; 
Gr. Xoyos, log'os, a discourse). 
The branch of a science or art 
which defines and explains the 
woi ds and phrases used therein. 

Ter'nary (Lat. ter'ni, three and three). 
Arranged in threes. 

Ter'nate (Lat. ter'ni, three and 
three). In botany, applied to 
leaves having three leaflets on one 

Ter'ra (Lat.) The earth ; an earth, 
or earthy substance. 

Terra'queous (Lat. terra, earth ; 
aq'ua, water). Consisting of land 
and water. 

TerTeous (Lat. ter'ra, earth). Earthy. 

Ter'tian (Lat. ter'tius, third) Oc¬ 
curring every third day. 

Tertiary (Lat. ter'tius, third). Of 
the third order: in geology, a 
term applied to the formations 
above the chalk. 

Tes'selated (Lat. tes'sela, a cube, or 
die). Formed in little squares, 
like a chess-board. 

Test (Lat. tes'tis, a witness). In 
chemistry, a substance employed to 
detect the presence of any ingre¬ 
dient in a compound. 

Tes'ta (Lat.) A shell; in botany, 
the outer covering of the seed ; 
sometimes applied to the coverings 
taken together. 

Testa'ceous (Lafc. tes'ta, a shell). Be¬ 
longing to or having shells. 

Testu'dinate (Lat. testu'do, a tor¬ 
toise). Arched; like the back of 
a tortoise. 

Tetan'ic ( Tet'anus ). Belonging to or 
denoting tetanus. 

Tet'anoid ( Tetanus ; Gr. elhos, ei'clos, 
shape). Resembling tetanus. 

Tet'anus (Gr. Tet vw, tei'nb, I stretch). 
A disease characterised by violent 

and continued contraction of the 

Tet'ra- (Gr. reraapes, tes'sares, or 
rerrapes, tet!tares, four). A pre¬ 
fix in compound words, signifying 

Tetrabran'chiate (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, 
four; fipayxut", bran'chia, gills). 
Having four gills ; applied to an 
order of cephalopods. 

Tetracan'thous (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, 
four; auavOa, alcan'tha, a spine). 
Having four spines or thorns. 

Tetrachot'omous(Gr. rerpax^s, tetra¬ 
dios, fourfold ; reyvw, tem'no, I 
cut). Branching in fours. 

Tetradac'tylous (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, 
four ; 5 anrvXos, daJdtulos, a finger, 
or toe). Having four toes. 

Tetradynam'ia (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, 
four; bvvapus, clu'namis, strength). 
A class of plants in the Linnjean 
system, having six stamens, of 
which four are longer than the 
other two. 

Tetragon (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, four; 
year La, gb'nia, an angle). A figure 
having four angles; especially a 

Tetrag'onal (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, four ; 
ycvvia, gb'nia, an angle). Belonging 
to a tetragon ; in botany, having 
four angles, the faces being con¬ 

Tetragyn'ia (Gr. rerpa, tet’ra, four; 
ywT), gune, a female). An order of 
plants in the Linnman system, 
having four pistils. 

Tetrahed'ron (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, four ; 
eSpa, hed'ra, a base). A figure 
bounded by four equilateral and 
equal triangles ; a triangular pyra¬ 
mid, with four equal and equi¬ 
lateral faces. 

Tetrahexahed'ron (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, 
four; e£, hex, six ; ebpa, hed'ra, 

a base). A solid bounded by 
twenty-four equal frees. 

Tetram'erous (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, four ; 
yepos, mer'os, a part). Consisting 
of four parts. 

Tetran'dia (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, four; 
av-rip, aner, a male). A class of 
plants in the Linnsean system, 
having four stamens. 



Tetrapet'alous (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, 
four ; neraAov, pet'alon, a petal). 
Having four petals. 

Tetraphyl'lous (Gr. tet pa, tet'ra, 
four; cpvWou, phullon, a leaf). 
Having four leaves. 

Tetrap'odous (Gr. rerpa, tet’ra , four ; 
7 rovs y pous, a foot). Having four 

Tetrap'terous (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, four ; 
7 rrepov, pter'on, a wing). Having 
four wings. 

Tetrap'tote (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, four; 
-TTTcvais, ptosis, case). In grammar, 
a noun having four cases. 

Tetraquet'rous (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, 
four ; Lat quad!ra, a square). 
Iu botany, having four angles, the 
faces being concave. 

Tetrasep'alous (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, 
four; sepal). Having four sepals. 

Tetrasper'mous (Gr. rerpa, tet’ra, 
four; o-nepya, sper'ma, seed). 
Having four seeds. 

Tetrasyllable (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, 
four; crvWa&ri, sul'labe, a syllable). 
Having four syllables. 

Tetrathe'cal (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, four; 
07 ?/c 77 , theke, a case). Having four 
thecae, or locularnents. 

Tet'rodon (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, four; 
odovs, od’ous, a tooth). A genus of 
fishes having four large teeth. 

Textile (Lat. texo, I weave). Woven, 
or capable of being woven. 

Texture (Lat. texo, I weave). In 
anatomy, a name applied to the 
solid constituents of the body. 

Thalamiflo'ral (Gr. OaAayos, thal'a- 
mos, a bed : Lat. flos, a flower). 
A subclass of exogenous plants, in 
which the parts of the flower are 
inserted separately into the thala¬ 
mus or receptacle. 

Thal'amus (Gr. QaAayos, thal'amos, 
a bed). In anatomy, a name given 
to a part of the brain from which 
the optic nerve is partly derived ; 
in botany, the receptacle of the 
flower, or part of the stem from 
which the flower grows. 

Thal'logen ( Thallus ; Gr. y, 
genna'o, I produce). Producing a 

Thallopliyte ( Thallus; Gr. <pvrov , 

phu'ton, a plant). A plant pro¬ 
ducing a thallus. 

Thallus (Gr. Oo.AAos, thal'lus, a 
bough). In botany, the cellular 
expansion in cryptogamic plants 
bearing the analogues of fruit. 

Thaulnatrope (Gr. davya, thauma , 
a wonder ; rpeircn, trep'd, I turn). 
An optical toy, consisting of a disc 
having on successive divisions of its 
circumference pictures representing 
figures in a succession of different 
positions in performing some action, 
so that, when the disc is caiised to 
revolve, the impressions made by 
figures on the eye remain and are 
combined, and the figure appears 
to pirouette before the eye. 

The'ca (Gr. Oyicr], theke, a sheath 
or case). In botany, the case con¬ 
taining the reproductive matter in 
some flowerless plants : in anatomy, 
a strong fibrous sheath, enclosing 
certain soft parts, as the spinal 

The'caphore (Gr. Otik-t], theke, a 
sheath ; epepa, pher'd, I bear). The 
roundish stalk on which the ovary 
of some plants is elevated. 

Thecas'porous (Gr. #77/07, theke, a 
sheath; enropa, spor'a, a seed). 
Applied to fungi which have the 
spores in thecae or cases. 

The'codonts (Gr. Oyny, theke, a 
sheath ; odous, od'ous, a tooth). A 
tribe of extinct lizard-like reptiles 
having the teeth implanted in 

Theod'olite (Perhaps Gr. Qeaoyai, 
thea'omai, I view; SoAos, dol'os, 
stratagem). A surveying instru¬ 
ment for measuring horizontal an¬ 
gles, or the angular distance be¬ 
tween objects projected on the plane 
of the horizon. 

Theog'ony (Gr. 0eov, Theos, God; 
yivoyai, gin'omai, I am born). The 
part of mythology which treats of 
the genealogy of heathen deities. 

Theol'ogy (Gr. &eos, The'os, God ; 
A oqos, log'os, a discourse). Divi¬ 
nity ; the science of God and divine 

The'orem (Gr. 6ecopeui, theoreo, I see). 
In mathematics, a proposition to 



be proved by a chain of reason¬ 
ing, the conclusion being stated ; 
in arithmetic and algebra, some¬ 
times used to denote a rule. 

Theoretical ( The'ory ). Pertaining to, 
or depending on, theory or specula¬ 
tion ; not practical. 

The'orize (The'ory). To form a 
theory ; to speculate. 

The'ory (Gr. Oeccpea, thebred, I see). 
An exposition of the general prin¬ 
ciples of a science, and the rules 
derived therefrom, as distinguished 
from an art: in physical science , 
an explanation of natural pheno¬ 
mena, founded on facts known to 
be true from evidence independent 
of those phenomena : as distin¬ 
guished from hypothesis, it means 
an explanation of phenomena 
founded on principles established 
on independent evidence, while an 
hypothesis is a proposition assumed 
to account for certain phenomena, 
and having no other evidence of 
truth than in giving a satisfactory 
explanation of the phenomena. 

Therapeutic (Gr. depanevw, thera- 
peu'b , I heal). Healing; pertain¬ 
ing to the art of healing. 

Therapeutics (Gr. depairevw, thera- 
peu'd, I heal). The part of medical 
science which describes the proper¬ 
ties of medicines and their modes of 

Thermal (Gr. dspaos, thermos, warm). 
Belonging to heat ; warm ; applied 
to springs of which the temperature 
is above 60 ° Fahr. 

Thermo - electricity (Gr. Ospyv, 
therrne, heat ; electricity). Elec¬ 
tricity developed by heat. 

Ther’mo-electrom'eter. An instru¬ 
ment for ascertaining the defla¬ 
grating or heating power of an 
electric current. 

Thermom'eter (Gr. Oepyp, therrne, 
heat; yerpov, metron , a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
heat or temperature of- bodies, by 
the regular expansion of mercury 
or some other substance. The 
thermometers usually employed are 
Fahrenheit’s, the Centigrade, and 
Reaumur’s. In Fahrenheit’s ther¬ 

mometer, the space between the 
freezing and boiling points of water 
is divided into 180 degrees, the 
freezing point being marked as 32 
degrees, and the boiling as 212. 
In the Centigrade thermometer the 
space is divided into 100 degrees ; 
and in Reaumur’s into 80 . Hence 
5 degrees of the Centigrade, or 
4 of Reaumur’s thermometer, are 
equal to 9 of Fahrenheit. 

Thermomet'ric ( Thermometer ). Be¬ 
longing to the thermometer. 

Tker'mo-murtiplier. A thermo-elec¬ 
tric pile, used for detecting changes 
of temperature. 

Ther'mophone (Gr. 6epyy, therrne, 
heat ; <pcovr] , phone , sound). An 
apparatus for producing sound from 
heated bodies. 

Ther'moscope (Gr. Oepyy, therrne, 
heat; crno-ireo), skopeb, I view). 
An instrument for measuring mi¬ 
nute differences of heat and cold. 

Ther'mostat (Gr. 6epyy, therrne, 
heat; iarriyi, histemi, I make to 
stand). An apparatus for regu¬ 
lating temperature in distilleries, 
baths, furnaces, &c. 

Thermot'ics (Gr. depyy, therrne, heat; 
The science of heat. 

The'sis (Gr. nOyyi, tithe!mi, I place). 
A proposition to be maintained by 

Tkorac'ic (Thorax). Belonging to 
or contained in the chest. 

Thorac'ic Duct. The vessel which 
conveys the chyle into the subcla¬ 
vian vein. 

Thorax (Gr. 6wpa^, thorax, a breast¬ 
plate). The chest, or the part of the 
body between the neck and the ab¬ 
domen ; in entomology, the second 
segment of insects, or the part be¬ 
tween the head and the abdomen. 

Thrombus (Gr. dpoyfros, throm'bos, 
a clot of blood). A small tumour 
of clotted blood that has escaped 
under the skin. 

Thymus. A temporary organ, which 
exists at the lower part of the neck 
in children, disappearing gradually 
after the second year. 

Thy'ro- or Thy'reo - (Gr. dupeos, thu'reos, 
a shield). In anatomy, a prefix in 



compound -words, implying connec¬ 
tion with the thyroid cartilage. 

Thy'roid (Gr. dupeos, thu'reos, a 
shield ; eiSos, eidos, form). Like 
a shield; in anatomy, applied to 
one of the cartilages of the larynx 
from its shape ; also to a glandular 
body lying in front of this cartilage ; 
and to arteries supplying this part. 

Thyrsus (Gr. dvpaos, thur'sos, a 
light straight shaft). In botany, 
a kind of inflorescence resembling 
a bunch of grapes. 

Thysanou'ra (Gr. Qucravos, thu'sanos, 
a tassel; ovpa, oar a, a tail). A 
family of wingless insects with 
fringed tails. 

Tib'ia (Lat. a pipe or flute). The 
largest bone of the leg ; so called 
from its supposed resemblance to ail 
ancient flute. 

Tib'ial {Tib'ia). Belonging to, or 
situated neai-, the tibia or large 
bone of the leg. 

Timbre (French). An acoustic pro¬ 
perty, not yet explained, by which 
sounds of the same note and loud¬ 
ness are distinguished from each 

Tinc'ture (Lat. tin'go, I tinge). In 
medicine , a solution, generally in 
spirit, of the active principles of 
any substance. 

Tinni'tus Au'rium (Lat.). A ringing 
in the ears. 

Tissue (French, tissu, woven). In 
anatomy and botany, the minute 
elementary structures of which 
organs are composed. 

Titholiic (Gr. T iQuvos, Titho'nus). 
Pertaining to those rays of light 
which produce chemical effects. 

Tme'sis (Gr. r egucn, temnb , I cut). 
In grammar, the division of a com¬ 
pound word into two parts, a word 
or words being inserted between 

Tomen'tose (Lat. tomen'tum, down). 
Downy ; covered with a down-like 

Tomen'tum (Lat. down). In anatomy, 
a term applied to the minutely 
divided vessels on the surface of 
the brain ; in botany, a species of 
longish, soft, entangled hairs. 

Ton'ic (Gr. rovos, ton'os, that which 
tightens, or may be tightened). 
In medicine, increasing strength ; 
applied also to spasmodic con¬ 
tractions which last steadily for a 
comparatively long time. 

Tonic'ity (Gr. tows, ton'os, that 
which tightens). The property of 
muscles, by which they remain in 
a state of contraction, being at the 
same time counterbalanced by other 
muscles in a similar state. 

Ton'sil (Lat. tonsil'lce). An oblong 
gland situated on each side of the 

Tonsilli'tis (Lat. ton'sillce, the tonsils; 
itis, denoting inflammation). In¬ 
flammation of the tonsils ; a form 
of sore throat. 

Topha'ceous (Lat. toph'us, a sand or 
gravel stone). Consisting of depo¬ 
sited calcareous matter. 

Toph'us (Lat. a sand or gravel stone). 
A deposit of porous calcareous 
matter ; in medicine, a chalky 
deposit on the joints from gout. 

Topographical ( Topog'rapky ). De¬ 
scriptive of a place or country. 

Topo'graphy (Gr. tottos, top'os, a 
place ; ypcupw, graph'b, I write). 
A description of a particular place, 
giving a notion of everything con¬ 
nected therewith. 

To'rmina (Lat. tor'queo, I twist). 
Griping pains. 

Torna'do (Spanish, tornar', to turn). 
A hurricane; especially applied to 
the whirlwind hurricanes prevalent 
in some tropical regions. 

Tor'ose (Lat. torus, a protuberance). 
Swelling in protuberances or knobs. 

Torrefac'tion (Lat. torrefac'io, I 
roast). The operation of drying or 

Torricellian Yac'uum {Torricelli, 
the inventor of the mercurial 
barometer). The space left in the 
upper part of a long tube closed at 
one end and filled with mercury, 
when it is inverted in this fluid, 
which still remains in the tube to 
the height of thirty inches. 

TorYid (Lat. tor'reo, I roast). Dried 
with heat; extremely hot. 

Tor'sion (Lat. tor'pueo, I twist). A 



twisting : force of torsion, a term 
employed to denote the effort made 
by a thread which has been twisted 
to untwist itself. 

Torticollis (Lat. tor'queo, I twist; 
collum, the neck). Wry-neck. 

Tor'tuous (Lat. tor'queo, I twist). 
Twisted ; winding. 

Tor'ulose (Lat. toru'lus, a kind of 
ringlet). In botany, having suc¬ 
cessive rounded swellings, as the 
pods of some cruciferous plants. 

Tor'us (Lat. a rope; also a bed). In 
architecture, a large moulding, 
with a semicircular section, used 
in the bases of columns; in botany ,' 
the receptacle or part of the flower 
on which the carpels are seated. 

Tour'niquet (French). An instrument 
used in surgery for producing 
pressure on a blood-vessel so as to 
restrain haemorrhage. 

Toxae'mia (Gr. to^ikov, tox'icon, a 
poison; alga, haima, blood). A 
poisoned state of the blood. 

Toxical (Gr. to^lkov, tox'icon, a 
poison). Poisonous. 

Toxicohae'mia (Gr. to^lkov, tox'icon, 
a poison; alga, hai'ma, blood). 
See Toxaemia. 

Toxicological (Toxicol' ogy). Relating 
to the branch of medicine which 
describes poisons. 

Toxicol'ogy (Gr. to^ikov, tox'icon , a 
poison; \oyos, log'os, discourse). 
The branch of medical science 
which describes poisons, their 
effects, and antidotes. 

Tox'odon (Gr. ro^ou, toxfon, a bow; 
oSoiw, od'ous, a tooth). An extinct 
genus of pachydermatous or thick- 
skinned animals, having teeth bent 
like a bow. 

Tra'chea (Gr. r paxvs, trachus, 
rough; aprrjpia rpaveia, arte’ria 
trachei'a, the rough artery or air- 
tube). The windpipe, a cartilagi¬ 
nous and membranous tube, which 
conveys the air into and out of the 

Tracheae (Plural of Tra'chea). In 
botany, the spiral vessels of plants ; 
in entomology, the vessels by which 
air is carried to every part of the 
body in insects. 

Tra'cheal (Trachea). Belonging to 
the windpipe. 

Trachea'ria (Trachea). An order 
of arachnidan invertebrata, whose 
organs of breathing consist of 

Tracheitis (Trachea ; itis, denoting 
inflammation). Inflammation of 
the trachea ; croup. 

Trachelip'odous(Gr. rpaxv^os, trache- 
los, a neck ; ttovs, pous, a foot). 
Having the feet united to the head. 

Trachen'chyma (Trachea; Gr. e’ 7 - 
Xuga, en'chuma, a tissue). Vege¬ 
table tissue consisting of spiral 

Tracheot'omy (Gr. rpaxeia, trachei'a , 
the windpipe ; regrco, temnu, I 
cut). The operation of making an 
opening into the windpipe. 

Tra'chyte (Gr. rpaxvs, tracings, 
rough). A rock of volcanic origin, 
consisting of felspar, and having a 
harsh feel. 

Trac'tile (Lat. traho, I draw). Capa¬ 
ble of being drawn out in length. 

Trac'tion (Lat. traho, I draw). Draw¬ 
ing ; the act of being drawn ; in 
mechanics, the act of drawing a 
body along a plane. 

Trader (Lat. traho, I draw). That 
which draws. 

Trade-winds (Trade and wind; be¬ 
cause favourable to navigation and 
trade). The constant winds which 
occur in the open seas to the dis¬ 
tance of about thirty degrees north 
and south of the equator ; those 
on the north of the equator being 
from the north-east, and those on 
the south from the south-east. 

Tra'gus (Gr. t pay os, tr algos, a goat). 
In anatomy, a conical prominence 
projecting backwards from the 
front of the ear. 

Trajec'tory (Lat. trans, across; jadio, 
I cast). The path of a moving 
body which is acted on by given 

Transcendental (Lat. trans, beyond ; 
scando, 1 climb). Surpassing; in 
philosophy, relating to that which 
goes beyond the limits of actual 

Tran'sept (Lat. trans, across; sep- 



turn, a partition). The transverse 
portion of a church built in the 
form of a cross. 

Transfu'se(Lat. trans, across; fun'do, 
I pour). To pour, as from one 
vessel into another. 

Transfu'sion ( Transfuse) . A pouring 
from one vessel into another ; in 
medicine, the introduction of the 
blood of one person or animal into 
the vessels of another. 

Transit (Lat. tram, across ; e'o, I 
go). In astronomy, the passage of 
a planet between the earth and 
the sun, so that it appears as a 
black round spot on the surface of 
the sun’s disc ; the passage of a 
celestial body across the meridian. 

Transit Circle. An appai'atus for 
making astronomical observations, 
combining the functions of the 
mural circle and the transit in¬ 

Transit Instrument. An instru¬ 
ment for determining the time at 
which an object passes the meri¬ 
dian, consisting of a telescope so 
arranged as to be capable of being 
directed to all points of the 

Transition (Lat. trans, across ; e'o, 
I go). A passage from one state to 
another ; in geology, a term applied 
to strata between the primary and 
secondary, containing remains of 
the lower invertebrate animals. 

Transitive (Lat. trans, across ; e'o, 
I go). Passing ; in grammar, ap¬ 
plied to verbs of which the action 
passes to an object. 

Translu'cence (Lat. trans, through; 
lax, light). The property of trans¬ 
mitting light, but not the images 
of objects. 

Translu'cent (Lat. trans, through; 
lux, light). Transmitting light, 
but not in such a way as to render 
objects distinct. 

Transmutation (Lat. trans, across ; 
mu'to, I change). The change of 
one substance or form into another. 

Transpatency (Lat. trans, through ; 
par'eo, I appear). The property 
of allowing light to pass so that 
objects can be distinctly seen. 

Transparent (Lat. trans, through ; 
par'eo, I appear). Allowing the 
passage of light, so as to form dis¬ 
tinct images of objects. 

Transpiration ( Transpire ). The act 
of passing off in vapour from the 
surfaces of animals, or vegetables. 

Transpire (Lat. trans, over ; spi'ro, 
I breathe). To pass off in vapour 
from the surfaces of animals or 

Transpose (Lat. trans, across ; po'no, 
I put). To change the order by 
putting one thing in the place of 
another; in algebra , to bring a 
term of an equation to the other 

Transudation (Lat. trans, across; 
suclo, I sweat). An oozing of fluid 
through membranes. 

Transver'sal ( Transverse ). Lying 
across several lines so as to cut 
them all. 

Transver'se (Lat. trans, across; 
verto, I turn). Lying across ; in 
geometry, applied to the diagonals 
of a square or parallelogram. 

Trap (Swedish trappa, a stair). In 
geology, originally applied to ba¬ 
saltic and greenstone rocks rising 
in masses like stairs ; but now 
denoting all granitic rocks which 
are not igneous or strictly volcanic. 

Trape'zium (Gr. rpane^a, trapezia, a 
table). In geometry, a plane four¬ 
sided figure, with none of the sides 
parallel ; in anatomy, one of the 
small bones of the wrist. 

Trape'zius (Gr. Tpcare(a, trapezia, a 
table). A somewhat square muscle 
attached to the shoulder and the 
spine in the neck. 

Trap'ezoid (Gr. rpa ire fa, trapez'a, a 
table ; e!8os, eidos, shape). In 
geometry, a plane four-sided figure 
having two of the opposite sides 
parallel: in anatomy, one of the 
bones of the wrist, somewhat re¬ 
sembling but smaller than the 

Traumat'ic (Gr. rpavga, trauma, a 
wound). Relating to, or arising 
from, wounds. 

Tra'vertin (Italian, traverti'no). A 
whitish limestone deposited from 



the waters of springs holding lime 
in solution. 

Trem'atode (Gr. Tprjpa, tre'mct, a 
pore). An order of parasitic 
animals having suctorial pores. 

Trepa'n (Gr. rpvnarov, tru’panon, a 
wimble). A circular saw for re¬ 
moving a portion of the skull. 

Trephi'ne (Gr. rpenoj, trep'o, I turn). 
A surgical instrument used for the 
same purpose as the trepan, of 
which it is a modification. 

Tri-(Lat. ires, or Gr. rpms, treis, three). 
A prefix in compound words, signi¬ 
fying three. 

Triadel'phous (Gr. rpeis, treis , three ; 
aSe\(pos, adel'phos, a brother). Hav- 
ing t the stamens united in three 

Trian'dria (Gr. rpeis, treis, three; 
avrip, aner, a male). A class of 
plants in the Linnsean system 
having three stamens. 

Trian'gle (Lat. tres, three; an'gidus, 
an angle). A plane figure, having 
three sides and three angles. 

Trian'gular {Triangle). Having the 
form of a triangle; relating to a 
triangle; applied to a series of 
numbers, such as 1 , 3 , 6, 10 , 15 , 
21 , &c., because the number of 
points expressed by any one may be 
arranged in an equilateral triangle; 
in botany, having three angles, the 
faces being flat. 

Trias'sic (Gr. rpias, trias, a triad). 
In geology, a name given to the 
upper new red sandstone, from its 
consisting of three divisions in 
Germany, whence the term was in¬ 

Triba'sic (Gr. rpeis, treis, three; 
fiacns, ba'sis, a base). In chemis¬ 
try, applied to a class of salts which 
contain three atoms of base to one 
of acid. 

Tribe (Lat. tri'bus). A division or 
class of people, sometimes origina¬ 
ting from one forefather ; a num¬ 
ber of animals or vegetables having 
certain characters in common. 

Tri'brach. (Gr. rpety, treis, three; 
Ppaxvs, brack'us, short). A foot 
in verse, consisting of three short 

Tricap'sular (Lat. tres, three ; cap'- 
sula, a little chest). Having three 

Tri'ceps (Lat. tres, three; cap'ut, a 
head). Having three heads ; ap¬ 
plied to muscles which arise by 
three heads. 

Trichi'asis (Gr. 6 pi£, thrix, hair). A 
turning inwards of the eyelashes, so 
that they irritate the ball of the 

Trichop'terous (Gr. 0 pi|, thrix, hair ; 
7 TTepou, pter'on, a wing). An order 
of insects having hairy membranous 

Trichot'omous (Gr. -rp^a, trick'a, 
thrice ; re/avco, temnd, I cut). Di¬ 
vided into three parts. 

Tri'chroism (Gr. rpeis, treis, three; 
Xpoa, chroa, colour). An appear¬ 
ance which some bodies present of 
having three different colours, ac¬ 
cording to the way in which the 
rays of light traverse them. 

Tricoc'cous (Gr. rpe;s, treis, three; 
Ko/c/coy, kok'kos, a berry). Applied 
to a fruit consisting of a capsule 
with three cells, each containing 
one seed. 

Tricos'tate (Lat. tres, three ; costa, a 
rib). Three-ribbed. 

Tricus'pid ^Lat. tres, three; cus'pis, a 
point). Having three points : ap¬ 
plied to a valve situated between 
the right auricle and ventricle of 
the heart. 

Tricus'pidate (Lat. tres, three ; cus'¬ 
pis, a point). In botany, having 
three long points. 

Tridac'tylous (Gr. r pets, treis, three; 
baKTvXos, dak'tulos, a finger, or 
toe). Having three fingers or toes. 

Triden'tate (Lat. tres, three; dens, a 
tooth). Having three teeth. 

Trien'nial (Lat. tres, three; an'nus, 
a year). Containing three years ; 
happening every three years. 

Trifa'cial (Lat. tres, three ; fac'ies, a 
face). A term applied to one of 
the cranial nerves, from its division 
into three large branches, and dis¬ 
tribution to the face and adjoining 

Trifa'rious (Lat. trifa'riam, in three 
ways). In three rows. 



Tri'fid (Lat. tres, three; jindo, I 
cleave). Cleft into three : in bo¬ 
tany, divided half way into three 

Triflo'rous (Lat. tres, three; jios, a 
flower). Having three flowers. 

Trifoliate (Lat. tres, three ; fo'lium, 
a leaf). Having three leaves. 

Trifur'cate (Lat. tres , three ; furca, 
a fork). Having three forks. 

Trig'amous (Gr. rpeis, three ; yagos, 
gam'os, marriage). Having male, 
female, and neutral flowers in one 

Trigemini (Lat. tres, three ; gem!ini, 
double). Three-double ; a name 
given to the fifth pair of cranial 
nerves, which are divided into 
three branches; otherwise called 

Tri'glyph (Gr. rpeis, treis, three; 
yKocpy, glu'phe, sculpture). In 
architecture, an ornament repeated 
at intervals in the Doric frieze, 
consisting of two gutters or chan¬ 
nels cut to a right angle, and sepa¬ 
rated by their interstices from each 
other, and from half-channels at 
the sides. 

Tri'gon (Gr. rpeis, treis, three ; yoona, 
gb'nia, an angle). A triangle. 

Tri'gonal (Gr. rpiycov, trigon, a tri¬ 
angle). Belonging to a trigon or 

Trigonometrical (Trigonometry ). 

Relating to, or performed accord¬ 
ing to the rules of, trigonometry. 

Trigonom'etry (Gr. rpiycor, trigon, a 
triangle ; gerpov, met'ron, a mea¬ 
sure). Literally, the art of mea¬ 
suring triangles ; but now including 
all theorems and formulae relating 
to angles and circular arcs, and the 
lines connected with them. 

Tri'gonous (Gr. t pets, treis, three ; 
7 ocvia, go'nia, an angle.) In botany, 
having three angles, the faces being 

Trigyn'ia (Gr. rpeis, treis, three; 
7 vvr], gune, a female). An order 
of plants in the Linnsean system, 
having three pistils. 

Triked'ral (Gr. rpeis, treis, three; 
e5pa, lied'r a, a base). Having 
three equal sides. 

Tri'jugate (Lat. tres, three ; jugum, 
a yoke) In botany, having three 
pairs of leaflets. 

Trilateral (Lat. tres, three ; la'tus, a 
side). Having three sides. 

Trilingual (Lat. tres, three ; lin'gua, 
a tongue). Written in three lan¬ 

Trilit'eral (Lat. tres, three; lit'era, a 
letter). Having three letters. 

Trilobate (Gr. rpeis, treis, three; 
Aofios, lob'os, a lobe). Having 
three lobes. 

Trilobites (Gr. rpeis, treis, three; 
AojSos, lob'os, a lobe). A genus of 
fossil crustaceous animals, having 
the upper surface of the body di¬ 
vided into three lobes. 

Triloc'ular (Lat. tres, three; loc'ulus, 
a little place). Having three cells. 

Trim'erous (Gr. rpeis, treis, three; 
gepos, mer'os, a part.) Having 
three parts; applied to flowers 
which have three parts in the 
calyx, three in the corolla, and 
three stamens. 

Trim'eter (Gr. rpeis, treis, three; 
gerpov, met'ron, a measure). A 
verse consisting of three measures. 

TrineiVate (Lat. tres, three ; nervus, 
a nerve). In botany, applied to 
leaves having three unbranched 
nerves extending from the base to 
the point. 

Trino'mial (Lat. tres, three; no'men, 
a name). In algebra, a quantity 
consisting of three terms. 

Trioe'eia (Gr. rpeis, treis, three; 
olxos, oi'kos, a house). An order 
of plants in the Linncean system, 
having male, female, and bi¬ 
sexual flowers on three separate 

Tripartite (Lat. tres, three; par’tio, 
I divide). Divided into three 
parts ; applied to leaves divided 
into three parts down to the base. 

Tripet'alous (Gr. rpeis, treis, three; 
-reraXov, pet'alon, a petal). Having 
three petals. 

Triphthong (Gr. rpeis, treis , three ; 
(pdoyyy, pkthon'gc, sound). A 
combination of three vowels in one 

Triphyl'lous (Gr. rpeis, treis, three ; 



t pvWov, phul'lon, a leaf). Having 
three leaves. 

Tripin'nate (Lat. tres , three; pin'na, 
a feather). In botany, applied to 
leaves in which there are three 
series of pinnation ; bipinnate 
leaves being again divided down to 
the base of each division. 

Triplicate (Lat. tres , three; plic'o, I 
fold). Three-fold : applied to the 
ratio which the cubes of two 
quantities bear to each other as 
compared with the ratio which 
the two numbers bear to each 

Triplicos'tate (Lat. triplex, three¬ 
fold ; cos'ta, a rib). In botany, 
applied to leaves which have three 
ribs proceeding from above the 

Trip'tote (Gr. rpeis, treis, three; 
7ttcc(t is, ptb'sis, case). A noun 
having three cases only. 

Triquet'rous (Lat. triquet'ra, a tri¬ 
angle). Having three sides ; in 
botany, having three angles, the 
faces being concave. 

Trira'diate (Lat. tres, three ; raf- 
dius , a ray). Having three rays. 

Trisect' (Lat. tres, three ; sec'o, I 
cut). To divide into three equal 

Trisec'tion {Trisect). Division into 
three parts. 

Trisep'alous (Lat. tres, three; sep'al). 
Having three sepals. 

Tris'mus (Gr. rpi(w, trilzd, I gnash). 
Lock-jaw ; a kind of tetanus affect¬ 
ing the muscles of the jaw. 

TrisoctahedTon (Gr. rpis, tris, three 
times ; oktw, olc'to, eight : 45 pa, 
lied!ra, a base). A figure having 
twenty-four equal faces. 

Trisper'mous (Gr. rptis, treis, three ; 
anepya, sptr'ma, seed). Having 
three seeds. 

Tris'tichous (Gr. rpeis, treis, three ; 
<tt ix°s> stick 1 os, a row). In three 

Trisul'cate (Lat. tres, three; sulcus, 
a furrow). Having three forrows. 

Trisyllabic (Gr. rpeis, treis , three; 
avAAaPy, sul'labe, a syllable). 
Having three syllables. 

Tri'syllable (Gr. rpeis, treis, three ; 

avAAaPy, sul'labe, a syllable). A 
word of three syllables. 

Tritern'ate (Lat. tres, three; tern ate). 
Divided three times in a ternate 

Tritox'ide (Gr. rpiros, tri’tos, third ; 
oxide). The third degree of oxida¬ 
tion of a body. 

Trit'urate (Lat. tritu'ra, a threshing 
or grinding). To rub or grind to a 
very fine powder. 

Tritura'tion {Trit'urate). The act of 
reducing to a very fine powder. 

Trival'vular (Lat. tres, three; valvce, 
folding-doors). Having three valves. 

Triv'ial (Lat. triv'ium, a highway). 
Common ; trifling; in botany, ap¬ 
plied to the name of the species, 
which, added to the generic name, 
forms the name of the plant. 

Tro'car (Fr. trois quart, three- 
quarters, from its triangular point). 
A surgical instrument used in 

Trochaic {Troch'ee). Consisting of 

Trochan'ter (Gr. rpoxafa, trocka'zb, 
I run along). In anatomy, a name 
given to two prominences at the 
upper part of the thigh-bone, in 
which are inserted several of the 
muscles used in motion. 

Tro'che'(Gr. rpoxy, iroch'e, awheel)). 
A form of medicine in a circular 
cake for dissolving in the mouth. 

Tro'chee (Gr. rpex 00 , trech'o, I run). 
A foot in verse consisting of two 
syllables, the first long, the next 

Tro'chiform (Gr. rpoxos, trock'os, a 
wheel; for'ma, shape). Resem¬ 
bling a wheel. 

Trochlea (Gr. rpex&, trech'o, I run). 
A pulley ; applied in anatomy, to 
projections of bones over which 
parts turn as over pulleys. 

Troch'oid (Gr. rpoxos, trock'os, a 
wheel; eibos, ei'dos, shape). In 
geometry, a curve produced by the 
motion of a wheel. 

Trochom'eter (Gr. rpoxos, trock'os, 
a wheel; yerpov, mtt'ron, a mea¬ 
sure). An instrument for com¬ 
puting the revolutions of a wheel. 

Trope (Gr. rpenu, trep'b, I turn). In 



rhetoric, a change in the significa¬ 
tion of a word from a primary to a 
derived sense. 

Troph'i(Gr. rpecpco, treph'o, Inourish). 
The parts of the mouth in insects 
employed in acquiring and pre¬ 
paring food. 

Troph'osperm (Gr. rpoipos, troph'os, 
one who feeds; o-n-epya, sper'ma , a 
seed). In botany, the part of the 
ovary from which the ovules arise. 

Trop'ic (Gr. rpeirco, trep'b, I turn). 
A name applied to each of the two 
circles lying parallel to the equator 
at the distance of 234 degrees north 
and south. 

Tropdeal (Trop'ic). Belonging to the 

Trun'cate (Lat. trun'eo, I cut off). 
To cut or lop off. 

Trun'cated ( Trun'cate ). Cut off; 

applied to figures the angles or 
edges of which have been cut off. 

Tu'her (Lat. a mushroom or bunch). 
In botany , a thick underground 
stem, as the potato; in anatomy, 
a rounded projection of a bone. 

Tu'bercle (Lat. tuber'culum, a little 
swelling). A little knob; in medi¬ 
cine, a peculiar diseased deposit 
in the lungs and various parts of 
the body, frequently attended by 
the symptoms known as those of 

Tuber'cula Quadrigem'ina (Lat. Four- 
double tubercles). A name given 
to four rounded pi'ojections at the 
base of the brain. 

Tuber'cular or Tuber'culous (Lat. 
tuber'culum, a little knob). Having 
knobs or tubercles. 

Tuberculosis (Lat. tuber' culum, 

tubercle). In medicine, the name 
appliedto the condition under which 
tubercle is deposited in the organs 
of the body. 

Tuberiferous (Lat. tu'ber, a knob; 
fei J o, I bear). Bearing tubers, as 
the potato. 

Tu'berose (Lat. tu'ber, a knob.) Hav¬ 
ing knobs or tubers. 

Tuberos'ity (Lat. tu'ber, a knob). In 
anatomy, a kind of projection or 

Tu'berous (Lat. tu'ber, a knob). 

Knobbed ; consisting of tubers con¬ 
nected together. 

Tubic'ola (Lat. tu'bus, a tube ; coho, 
I inhabit). An inhabitant of a 

* tube; applied to an order of 
animals which live in calcareous 

Tu'bifer (Lat. tu'bus, a tube ; fer'o, 
I bear). Bearing tubes. 

Tu'biform (Lat. tu'bus, atube ;for'ma, 
shape). Like a tube in shape. 

Tu'bular (Lat. tu'bus, a tube). 
Having the form of a tube ; con¬ 
sisting^ a tube or pipe. 

Tu'bulated (Lat. tu'bus, a tube). In 
the form of a small tube ; fur¬ 
nished with a small tube. 

Tu'bule (Lat. tu'bus, a tube). A 
small tube. 

Tu'bulibran'chiate (Lat. tu'bulus, a 
little tube ; Gr. fipayxia, bran'cilia, 
gills). Having the shell, which con¬ 
tains the branchiae, in the form of a 
more or less regularly spiral tube. 

Tufa (Italian, tufo). In geology, any 
porous vesicular compound. 

Tumefac'tion (Lat. tu’meo, I swell; 
fac'io, I make). In medicine, a 
temporary swelling or enlarge¬ 

Tu'mour (Lat. tu'mor, a swelling). 
In medicine, a permanent swelling 
or enlargement. 

Tu'mulus (Lat.). An artificial 
mound of earth. 

Tung'state (Tung'sten). A com¬ 
pound of tungstic acid with a base. 

Tu'nica (Lat.). A coat or covering. 

Tu'nicated (Lat. tu'nica, a kind of 
garment). In botany, applied to 
a bulb covered by thin scales, as 
the onion ; in geology, to a class of 
mollusca, enveloped in an elastic 
tunic not covered by a shell. 

Tur'binated (Lat. tur'bo, a top). 
Shaped like a top ; in concliology 
and botany, conically spiral, large 
at one end and narrow at the 

Turges'cent (Lat. turgesco, I swell). 
Growing large; swelling. 

Tu'rio (Lat. a tendril). A young 
shoot covered with scales sent up 
from an underground stem ; as the 




Tympanic ( Tym'panum ). Belonging 
to the tympanum or drum of the ear. 

Tym'panxim (Gr. Tvpiravov, turn'- 
panon, a drum). In anatomy, the 
middle cavity of the ear ; in archi¬ 
tecture, the space in a pediment 
between the cornice of the inclined 
sides and the fillet of the corona ; 
also the die of a pedestal and the 
panel of a door. 

Tympani'tes (Gr. Tvyiravov, tum’- 
panon, a drum). A distension of 
the abdomen by gas. 

Type (Gr. tvttos, tu'pos, a figure or 
model). The perfect normal repre¬ 
sentation or idea of anything. 

Ty'phoid (Typhus ; Gr. eidos, eidos, 
shape). In medicine, a term ap¬ 
plied to an asthenic or low form 
of fever : a fever characterised by 
general depression, and by an 
eruption of the skin with dis¬ 
turbance and morbid changes in the 
intestinal canal. 

Typlioma'nia ( Typhus; Gr. yavia, 
ma'nia, madness). The low mut¬ 
tering delirium which accompanies 
typhoid fevex*. 

Typh'oon (Gr. rvcpwr, tu'phon, a 
storm). A furious whistling wind 
or hurricane. 

Ty'phous {Typhus). Relating to 

Ty'phus (Gr. Tvcpos, tu'phos, smoke 
or stupor). In medicine, a form of 
fever characterised by much de¬ 
pression, and by the appearance of 
an eruption on the skin. 

Typical (Gr. tvttos, tu'pos, a type). 
Having the characters of a type ; 

Typographic (Gr. tvttos, tu'pos, a 
type ; ypacpw, graph'd, I write). 
Relating to printing. 

Typography (Gr. tvttos, tu'pos, a 
type; ypcupco, graph'd, I write). 
The art of printing. 

Udom'eter (Gr. vdwp, hudor, water ; 
peTpov, met'ron, a measure). A 

Ul'cer (Gr. eA kos, hellcos, a sore). A 
loss of substance on the surface of 
parts, produced by some action 
going on in the part itself, or 
by the application of destructive 

Ul'cerate {Ul'cer). To form an ul¬ 
cer ; to become ulcerous. 

Ul'na (Gr. u\tvr), d'lene, the elbow). 
The inner bone of the forearm, 
which forms part of the elbow joint. 

Ul'nar {Ulna). Belonging to or 
situated near the ulna. 

Umbel (Lat. umbella, a little fan). 
In botany, a form of inflorescence 
in which numerous stalked flowers 
ai’ise from one point, as in the car¬ 
rot and hemlock. 

Umbelliferous {Um'bel; Lat. fer’o, I 
bear). Pi-oducing umbels ; applied 
to an order of plants characterised 
by having the flowers arranged in 

Umbel'lule {Um'bel; Lat. ule, deno¬ 
ting smallness). A small or par¬ 
tial umbel. 

Umbilicus (Lat.) The navel; in 
botany, the part of the seed by 
which it is attached to the pei’icarp. 

Um'bonate (Lat. um'bo, the boss of a 
shield). Round, with a projecting 
point in the centre. 

Um'bra (Lat. a shadow). In astro¬ 
nomy, the shadow of the earth or 
moon in an eclipse, or the dark 
cone projected from a planet or 
satellite on the side opposite to the 

Uncial. A term applied to a form 
of letters used in ancient manu¬ 

Un'ciform (Lat. un'cus, a hook; for'- 
ma, shape). Resembling a hook. 

Un'cinate (Lat. un'cus, a hook). Ha¬ 
ving a hooked process. 

Unc'tuous (Lat. un'go, I anoint). 
Oily ; having an oily feel. 

Un'dulate (Lat. uncla, a wave). To 
vibrate or move like a wave. 



Un'dulated (Lat. un'da, a wave). 
Wavy ; in botany, applied to leaves 
with wavy or crisp margins. 

TJndula'tion (Lat. un'da, a wave). A 
waving motion, or formation of 
waves ; in physics, the vibration of 
a substance in the manner of waves. 

Un'dulatory (Lat. un'da, a wave). 
Moving like waves. 

Un'dulatory Theory. In optics, the 
theory which supposes light to be 
produced by the undulation of a 
subtle fluid, as sound is produced 
by undulations of the air. 

Unguic'ulate (Lat. urlguis, a nail or 

■ claw). Having claws. 

Un'guiform. (Lat un'guis, a nail or 
claw; for'ma, shape). Like a claw. 

Unguis (Lat). A nail or claw ; in 
anatomy, the name of a small bone 
of the face ; in botany, the lower 
part of a petal. 

Un'gula (Lat). A hoof; in geometry, 
a part cut off from a cylinder, 
cone, &c., by a plane passing ob¬ 
liquely through the base and part 
of the curved surface. 

Un'gulate (Lat. un'gula, a hoof). 
Hoof-shaped ; having hoofs. 

Uni- (Lat. u'nus, one). A prefix in 
compound words, signifying one. 

Uniax'ial (Lat. u'nus, one; axis). 
Having but one axis. 

Unicellular (Lat. u'nus, one; cel'- 
lula, a cell). Composed of one cell. 

Unicos'tate (Lat. u'nus, one ; cos'ta, 
a rib). Having one rib. 

Unifa'cial (Lat. u'nus, one; fac'ies, 
a face). Having but one front sur¬ 

Uniflo'rous (Lat. u'nus, one ; flos, a 
flower). Having but one flower. 

Unig'enous (Lat. u'nus, one; genius, 
a kind). Of one kind. 

Unij'ugate (Lat. u'nus, one; ju'go, I 
yoke). In botany, applied to a 
penninerved compound leaf, with 
only one pair of leaflets. 

Unila'biate (Lat. u'nus, one; la'bium, 
a lip.) Having one lip only. 

Unilateral (Lat. u'nus, one; la'tus, 
a side). Being on one side only; 
having one side. 

Unilit'eral (Lat. u'nus, one ; lit’era, 
a letter). Having one letter only. 

Uniloc'ular (Lat. u'nus, one; loc'ulus, 
a little place). Having one cavity. 

Unip'arous (Lat. u'nus, one; par'io, 
I bring forth). Bringing forth 
only one. 

Uniper'sonal (Lat. u'nus, one; per- 
so'na, a pjerson). Having only one 

Unipet'alous (Lat .u'nus, one; pet'ul). 
Having one petal only. 

Unisex'ual (Lat. u'nus, one ; sex'us, 
a sex). Having one sex only ; ap¬ 
plied to plants having separate 
male and female flowers. 

U'nison (Lat. u'nus, one; so'nus, a 
sound). A coincidence in sounds 
arising from an equality in the 
number of vibrations. 

U'nivalve (Lat. u'nus, one; valve). 
Having one valve only. 

U'niverse (Lat. u'nus, one ; ver'sus, 
turned). The collective term for 
all the bodies which are the objects 
of astronomical observation. 

Univ'ocal (Lat. u'nus, one ; vox, 
voice). Having only one meaning. 

Unstrat'ified ( Un, implying not; Lat. 
straltum, a layer ; fac'io, I make). 
Not stratified; in geology, applied 
to rocks which do not occur in 
strata or layers, but in shapeless 

Uranog'raphy (Gr. ovpavos, ou'ranos, 
heaven ; ypapw, graph'd, I write). 
A definition of a heavenly body, as 
of a planet. 

U'rate {Uric). A compound of uric 
acid with a base. 

Ur'ceolate (Lat. urceola, a pitcher). 
Shaped like a pitcher. 

Ure'a. An organic compound formed 
in the animal body. 

U'tricle (Lat. utric'ulus, a little bag). 
A little bag or cell; in botany, a 
thin-walled cell, or a bladder-like 

Utric'ular {U'tricle). Containing utri¬ 
cles or vessels like small bags. 

U'vea (Lat. viva, a grape). The co¬ 
vering of dark pigment which lines 
the posterior surface of the iris in 
the eye. 

U'vula (Lat. viva, a grape). The 
small fleshy part which hangs down 
at the back of the soft palate. 




Vac'cinate (Lat. vacca, a cow). To 
introduce the cowpox into the hu¬ 
man being, as a preventive of 

Vac'uum (Lat. vacuus , empty). Space 
devoid of all matter or substance. 

Vagi'na (Lat. a sheath). In botany, 
the sheath formed by a petiole 
round a stem, as in grasses. 

Vagi'nate (Vagina). Sheathed. 

Vaginipen'nous (Lat. vagina, a 
sheath ; penna, a wing). Having 
the wings enclosed in a sheath. 

Vallec'ula (Lat. val'lis , a valley; u'la, 
denoting smallness). In botany, 
the interval between the ribs in 
the fruit of umbelliferous plants. 

Val'vate (Lat. val'vce , folding doors). 
Having valves; opening by valves : 
applied to aestivation and verna¬ 
tion, when the leaves in the flower- 
hud or leaf-bud are applied to each 
other by their margins only. 

Valve (Lat. val'vce, folding doors). 
In anatomy, a fold of membrane in 
a tube or vessel preventing the 
backward flow of fluids. 

Val'vule (Valve). A little valve. 

Vanishing Point. In perspective, 
the point at which an imaginary 
line, passing through the eye of 
the observer parallel to any original 
line, cuts the horizon. 

Vaporiza'tion (Va'por). The rapid 
conversion of a fluid into a vapour 
by heat. 

Variable (Lat. va'rius, changing). In 
the differential calculus, applied 
to quantities which are subject to 
continual increase or diminution. 

Va'riable Elements. In astronomy, 
a method of viewing the effects of 
; disturbing forces acting on a body 
moving in an elliptic orbit, which is 
supposed from time to time to 
change its position, form and mag¬ 
nitude in a minute degree. 

Variation (Lat. va'rius, changing). 
An alteration or partial changes; in 
arithmetic and algebra , applied to 

the different arrangements that can 
be made of any number of things, 
a certain number being taken to¬ 
gether ; in astronomy, the inequality 
in the moon’s apparent motion, 
which is greatest at conjunction and 
opposition, and least at the quad¬ 

Varicella. The chicken-pox. 

Varicose (Lat. va'rix, a swollen vein). 
Enlarged; applied to the veins 
when they are distended and pre¬ 
sent a knotty appearance. 

Vari'ety (Lat. va'rius, changing). In 
natural history, a plant or animal 
differing from the rest of its species 
in some accidental circumstances, 
which are not permanent or con¬ 
stant, and are produced by the ope¬ 
ration of such causes as climate, 
food, cultivation, &c. 

Vari'ola (Lat. va'rius, spotted). The 

Vari'olous (Vari'ola). Relating to 
the small-pox. 

Varix (Lat.). An uneven dilatation 
of a vein. 

Vas'cular (Lat. vas'cidum, a little 
vessel). Belonging to vessels ; con¬ 
sisting of, or containing vessels. 

Vas'cular System. The collective 
name for the blood-vessels. 

Vasculif'erous (Lat. vas'culum, a 
little vessel; fer'o, I bear). In 
botany, applied to plants which have 
the seed-vessels divided into cells. 

Va'siform (Lat. vas, a vessel; forma, 
shape). Resembling vessels; ap¬ 
plied to a vegetable tissue called 
dotted vessels. 

Vegetable (Lat. veg'eo, I grow). A 
body having life, but without sen¬ 
sation or voluntary motion. 

Veg'etate (Lat. veg'eo, I flourish). 
To grow, like plants. 

Vegeta'tion (Veg'etate). The process 
of growing like plants. 

Veg'etative ( Veg'etate). Having the 
power of growing, or of producing 
growth in plants. 



Vein (Lat. vena). In anatomy, a 
vessel which carries the blood to¬ 
wards the heart; in botany, ap¬ 
plied to the midrib and its branches 
in a leaf; in geology, a fissure or 
rent filled with mineral or metallic 
matter, differing from the rock in 
which it occurs. 

Velocity (Lat. velox, swift). Swift¬ 
ness ; in physics, the measure of 
the rate at which a body moves. 

Ve'na (Lat.). A vein. 

Ve'na Portae (Lat. the vein of the 
gate). The large vein which con¬ 
veys the blood from the intestines 
into the liver. 

Ve 'nse Ca'vae (Lat. the hollow veins). 
The large veins which pour the 
blood collected from the body into 
the heart. 

Vena'tion (Lat. vena, a vein). In 
botany, the arrangement of the 
veins in leaves. 

Venesec'tion (Lat. vena, a vein; sec'o, 

I cut). The operation of letting 
blood by opening a vein. 

Ve'nous (Lat. vena, a vein). Belong¬ 
ing to, or contained in the veins. 

Venous System. In anatomy, the 
collective name for the veins. 

Ventral (Lat. venter, the belly). Be¬ 
longing to the belly; in botany, 
applied to that part of the carpel 
which is nearest the axis, or in 

Ven'tricle (Lat. venter, the belly). A 
small cavity in an animal body; 
applied to two cavities of the heart, 
which propel the blood into the 
arteries, also to certain cavities in 
the brain. 

Ven'tricose (Lat. venter, a belly). 
Distended; swelling out in the 
middle or unequally on one side. 

Ve'nules (Lat. ve'nula, a little vein). 
In botany, the last branchings of 
the veins of a leaf. 

Verbal (Lat. verbum, a word or 
verb). In grammar, derived from 
a verb. 

Vermes (Lat. ver'mis, a worm). 
Worms ; applied by Linnaeus to 
all animals which could not be 
ranged under the heads of verte¬ 
brates and insects; but now re¬ 

stricted to the annelids and entozoa, 
or parasitic worms. 

Vermic'ular (Lat. ver'mis, a worm). 
Pertaining to a worm ; resembling 
the motion of a worm ; shaped like 
a worm. 

Vermicula'tion (Lat .ver'mis, a worm). 
The act of moving like a worm. 

Ver'miform (Lat. ver'mis, a worm ; 
for'ma, shape). Shaped like a 

Ver'mifuge (Lat. ver'mis, a worm ; 
fu'go, I put to flight). Destroying 
or expelling worms. 

Vermiv'orous (Lat. ver'mis, a worm ; 
vo'ro, I devour). Eating worms. 

Vernacular (Lat. ver'na, a bond- 
slave). Native ; belonging to the 
country where one is born. 

Vebnal (Lat. ver, the spring). Be¬ 
longing to the spring. 

Verna'tion (Lat. verno, I bud or 
spring out). The arrangement of 
tbe young leaves within the bud. 

Ver'nier. A small portable scale, 
running parallel with the fixed 
scale of a graduated instrument, 
for the purpose of subdividing the 
divisions of the instrument into 
more minute parts. 

Verru'ca (Lat.). A wart. 

Verru'cose (Lat. verru'ca, a wart). 
Warty; full of warts; having ele¬ 
vations resembling warts. 

Versatile (Lat. verso, I turn). In 
botany, applied to anthers which 
are attached to the filament by a 
point at the back. 

Ver'tebra (Lat. ver to, I turn). A 
division or separate bone of the 
spinal column. 

Ver'tebral ( Ver'tebra ). Belonging to 
a vertebra, or to the vertebrae; 
consisting of vertebrae. 

Ver'tebrate ( Ver'tebra ). Having a 
vertebral column, or spine com¬ 
posed of a number of bones jointed 

Ver'tebra'ta (Vertebra). Animals 
with a spine ; including mammals, 
birds, reptiles, and fishes. 

Vertex (Lat. verto, I turn). The top 
or summit. 

Ver'tical (Lat. vertex, a top). Per¬ 
pendicularly over-head, or to the 



plane of the horizon ; standing up¬ 
right ; in geometry, applied to the 
opposite angles made by the inter¬ 
section of two straight lines ; in 
astronomy, to a circle passing 
through the zenith and the nadir, 
at right angles to the meridian. 

Vei'ticil (Lat. verticil lus, a pin or 
peg). In botany, a whorl, or form 
of inflorescence, in which the 
flowers surround the stem in a 
kind of ring, on the same plane. 

Verticil'late ( Ver'ticil ). Having parts 
arranged in a whorl, or verticil. 

Vertiginous ( Verti'go). Turning 
round ; giddy. 

Verti'go (Lat. verto, I turn). Giddi¬ 

Vesicant (Lat. vesi'ca, a bladder). 
Producing a blister. 

Vesicate (Lat. vesi'ca , a bladder). 
To produce a blister. 

Vesicatory (Lat. vesi'ca, a bladder). 
Having the property of raising 

Vesicle (Lat. vesic'ula, a small blad¬ 
der). A small blister ; any small 
membranous cavity in plants or 

Vesic'ular (Lat. vesic'ula, a little 
bladder). Belonging to or having 
vesicles or little bladders. 

Vessel (Lat. vas). In anatomy, any 
tube in which the blood or other 
fluid is formed or conveyed; in 
botany, a tube with closed ends. 

Vexil'lary (Lat .vexil'lum, a standard). 
In botany, a form of aestivation in 
which the vexillum, or upper 
petal, is folded over the other. 

Vexillum (Lat. a standard). In 
botany, the upper petal of a papi¬ 
lionaceous flower. 

Via Lac'tea (Lat. the milky way). In 
astronomy, the galaxy or Milky 
Way, a region of the heavens pre¬ 
senting a whitish nebulous light, 
but consisting of innumerable stars 
crowded together. 

Vi'able (Fr. vie, life ; from Lat. vivo, 

I live). Capable of living. 

Vi'aduct (Lat. via, a way; duco, I 
lead). An extensive bridge or series 
of arches for the purpose of con¬ 
ducting a road above the level of a 

ground in crossing a valley, or 
wherever it may be necessary to 
raise the road above the natural 
surface of the ground. 

Viatec'ture (Lat. via, a way; Gr. 
tsktwv, tekton, a builder). The 
art of constructing roads, &c.; 
civil engineering. 

Vi'brate (Lat. vi'bro, I brandish). To 
swing or move to and fro. 

Vi'bratile (vi'brate). Used for the 
motion of swinging to and fro. 

Vibra'tion (Lat. vi'bro, I brandish). 
The act of moving to and fro 
quickly; in mechanics , the regular 
swinging motion of a suspended 
body, as a pendulum ; in physics, 
the tremulous motion produced in 
a body when it is struck or dis¬ 
turbed by any impulse, by which 
waves or undulations are pro¬ 

Vi'bratory {Vibrate). Having a vi¬ 
bratory motion. 

Vib'rio (Lat. vibro, I shake). A name 
given to certain minute thread-like 
animalcules sometimes found in 

Vibris'sse. The stiff hairs which grow 
within the nostrils. 

Villi (Lat. villus, wool or hair). In 
anatomy, minute projections from 
the surface of a mucous membrane, 
giving the appearance of the nap of 
cloth; in botany, long, straight, 
soft hairs on the surface of a plant. 

Villos'ity (Lat. villus, wool or hair). 
The condition of being covered with 

Villous (Lat. villus, wool or hair). 
Having a covering resembling hair 
or wool, or the nap of velvet or 

Vina'ceous (Lat. vinum, wine). Per¬ 
taining to wine or grapes. 

Vin'culum (Lat. from vin'cio, I 
bind). A bond or tie; in algebra, 
a line drawn over an expression 
consisting of several terms, to show 
that they are to be taken together. 

Vi'nous (Lat. vi'num, wine). Be¬ 
longing to, or having the quality of 
wine; applied to the process of 
fermentation which produces al¬ 



Vir'gate (Lat. vir'ga, a rod). Shaped 
like a rod. 

Virtual (Lat. vir’tus, power or force). 
Being or acting in effect, not in 
fact; in optics, applied to the 
focus from which rays, that have 
been rendered divergent, appear to 
issue ; in mechanics, to the velocity 
which a body in equilibrium would 
acquire in the first instant of its 
motion, if the equilibrium were dis¬ 

Vir'ulent (Lat. virus, a poison). 
Very poisonous. 

Vi'rus (Lat.). A poison ; in medi¬ 
cine, applied to the essential mat¬ 
ter of a disease, which is capable of 
communicating the disease from one 
person to another. 

Vis a Fronte. A force acting from 
the front or in advance. 

Vis Iner'tiae (Lat. the force of in¬ 
action). A term used to denote 
the power by which matter resists 
changes endeavoured to be made in 
its state. 

Vis a Tergo (Lat. force from the 
back). A moving power acting 
from behind. 

Vis In'sita (Lat. inherent force). The 
property by which a muscle, when 
irritated, contracts independently 
of the will of the animal, and with¬ 
out sensation. 

Vis Medica'trix Natu'rae (Lat. the 
healing power of nature). A term 
applied to denote the power by 
wliich a living body is able to 
throw off disease or recover from 

Vis Nervo'sa (Lat. nervous force). 
The property of nerves by which 
they convey stimuli to muscles. 

Vis Plas'tica (Lat. plastic force). 
The formative power of plants and 

Vis Vi'tae (Lat. force of life). Vital 
power or energy. 

Vi s'cera (Plural of Lat. vis'cus, an 
entrail). The organs contained in 
any of the great cavities of the 
body, especially the chest and ab¬ 

Vis'ceral ( Viscera ). Belonging to the 
viscera or internal organs. 

Vis'cid or Vis'cous (Lat. vis'cum, 
bird-lime). Glutinous ; sticky. 

Vis'cus (Lat.). An entrail, or organ 
contained in one of the great cavi¬ 
ties of the body. 

Vis'ible (Lat. vid'eo , I see). In optics, 
emitting or reflecting a sufficient 
number of rays of light to produce 
an impression on the eye. 

Vis'ual (Lat. vid'eo, I see). Relating 
to sight. 

Vi'tal (Lat. vita, life). Pertaining or 
contributing to life. 

Vital'ity {Vital). The principle of 
life : the act of living, 

Vitel'lary (Lat. vitellus, a yolk). Be¬ 
longing to the yolk of an egg. 

Vit'reous (Lat. vit'rum, glass). Be¬ 
longing to, or consisting of glass : 
resembling glass. 

Vit'reous Body. A large globular 
transparent structure occupying the 
centre of the eyeball, being the 
largest of the transparent media of 
the eye. 

Vit'reous Electricity. A name some¬ 
times given to positive electricity, 
because developed by rubbing glass. 

Vitreous Humour. See Vitreous 

Vitres'cence (Lat. vit'rum, glass). 
Glassiness; capability of being 
formed into glass. 

Vitrifac'tion (Lat. vi'trum, glass; 
fac'io, I make). The process of 
converting into glass by heat. 

Vitrifi'able (Lat. vit'rum, glass ; fa¬ 
cia, I make). Capable of being 
converted into glass by heat. 

Vil'rify (Lat. vit'rum, glass ; fac'io, 
I make). To convert or be con¬ 
verted into glass by heat. 

Vit'riol (Lat. vitfrum, glass). A 
name given to sulphuric acid and 
several of its compounds, probably 
from the glassy appearance of the 
crystals : oil of vitriol is sulphuric 
acid: blue vitriol, sulphate of cop¬ 
per : green vitriol, green sulphate 
of iron : red vitriol, red sulphate of 
iron : white vitriol, sulphate of zinc. 

VitrioPic ( Vit'riol). Belonging to or 
containing vitriol. 

Vitt'a (Lat. a fillet or head-band). In 
architecture, the ornament of a 



capital, &c.; in botany, (plural 
vittce,) the receptacles of oil in the 
fruits of umbelliferous plants, as 
anise, carraway, fennel, &c. 

Vit'tate (Lat. vitta, a band). In 
botany , applied to leaves which are 

Vivip arous (Lat. virus, alive; par'io, 
I bring forth). Bringing forth 

young alive ; in botany, applied to 
stems that produce leaf buds or 
bulbs in place of fruit. 

Vocab'ulary (Lat. vocab'ulum , a 

word). A list of the words of a 

Vo'cative (Lat. vo'co, I call). Calling. 

Vol'atile (Lat. volo, I fly). Having 
the power of flying; capable of easily 
passing into an aeriform state. 

Volatility ( Vol'atile ). Capability of 
rising in an aeriform state. 

Volatilize ( Vol'atile ). To cause to 

pass off in vapour, or in an aeriform 

Volcanic ( Yolca'no ). Belonging to 

or produced by volcanoes ; thrown 
out by volcanic eruptions. 

Volca'no (Italian, from Latin Vul- 
ca'nus, the god of fire). An open¬ 
ing in the surface of the globe, 
generally in a mountainous eleva¬ 
tion, giving issue from time to time 
to eruptions of melted matter. 

Volition (Lat. volo, I will). The act 
of willing. 

Voltaic {Volta). Relating to vol- 

Voltaic Battery. An apparatus con¬ 
sisting of a series of pairs of plates of 
different metals—as zinc and copper 
—immersed in fluid, and con¬ 
nected by wires, for the develop¬ 
ment of voltaic electricity. 

Voltaic Electricity. The form of 
electrical action discovered by Gal- 
vani, but first correctly described 

Wacke. In geology, a German term 
for a soft earthy variety of trap-rock. 

Weald-clay. In geology, the blue 
clay which forms part of the Weal- 
den group. 

Wealden (Sax. wold). In geology , 

by Volta, in which, any two con¬ 
ductors of electricity being brought 
into contact, an electxlc action is 
set up. 

Vol'taism ( Volta). A term for gal¬ 
vanism as produced by Volta’s 

Voltam'eter {Volta; Gr. yerpov, met'- 
ron, a measure). An instrument 
for measuring the amount of a cur¬ 
rent of voltaic electricity by means 
of the quantity of water decomposed 
in a given time. 

Volume (Lat. volvo, I roll). Origin¬ 
ally something rolled ; as much as 
is included in a roll; dimension ; 
in chemistry, the relative or com¬ 
parative measure of the combining 
atoms of gases. 

Voluntary (Lat. volun'tas, will). In 
physiology, acting under the direc¬ 
tion of the will; produced by the will. 

Volu'te (Lat. vol'vo, I roll). In ar¬ 
chitecture, a kind of spiral scroll 
used in capitals. 

Vo'mer (Lat. a ploughshare). In 
anatomy, the small flat bone which 
separates the nostrils from each 

Vortex (Lat. from verto, I turn). A 

Vulcanist (Lat. Vulca'nus, the god of 
fire). In geology, a term applied 
to the supporters of an hypothesis 
which supposed that the older 
rock formations were of volcanic or 
igneous origin. 

Vulcanization. A process of prepar¬ 
ing india-rubber by impregnating it 
with sulphur. 

Vulnerary (Lat. vulnus, a wound). 
Useful in healing wounds. 

Vulsellum (Lat. vello, I pull or 
pluck). A surgical instrument for 
seizing parts and drawing them into 
a convenient position for operation. 

a deposit prevailing in Kent and 
Sussex, consisting chiefly of clays 
and shales, with beds of indurated 
sand, sandstone, and shelly lime¬ 

Weight (Sax. wiht). The pressure 



which a body exerts vertically 
downwards in consequence of the 
action of gravity. 

Weld (Germ, wellen, to join). To 
unite two or more pieces, generally 
of iron, by hammering them to¬ 
gether when heated. 

Whirlpool ( Whirl and pool). A 
body of water running round in 'a 

Whirlwind ( Whirl and wind). A 

Xan'thic (Gr. £ avQos, xan'thos, yel¬ 
low). Of, or belonging to yellow : 
yellowish; having yellow as the 

Xan'thogen (Gr. £ avQos , xan'thos, 
yellow; yevvaoc, genna’d, I pro¬ 
duce). Yellow colouring matter in 

Xan'thophylle (Gr. £avQos, xan'thos, 
yellow; <$>vWov, phullon, a leaf). 
Yellow colouring matter in plants. 

Xanthous (Gr. £ai'0os, xan'thos, yel¬ 
low). A term applied by Dr. 
Prichard to the variety of mankind 
including individuals with brown, 
yellow, or red hair. 

Xiphoid (Gr. £i(pos, xiph'os, a sword; 

body of air moving in a circular or 
spiral form, as if round an axis, 
at the same time having a pro¬ 
gressive motion. 

Woulfe’s Apparatus. In chemistry, 
a bottle with two or more openings, 
used for generating gases. 

Wormian Bones. The small trian¬ 
gular pieces of bone sometimes 
found lying between the other bones 
of the skull. 


elSos, eidos, shape). Shaped like 
a sword. 

Xiphosu'ra (Gr. £«)m, xiph’os, a 
sword ; ovpa, ou'ra, a tail). A 
family of crustaceous animals with 
sword-shaped tails. 

Xylo- (Gr. £uAoi/, xidon, wood). A 
prefix in compound words, denoting 
relation to wood, or that wood 
enters into the composition. 

Xylocafipous (Gr. £uAoj/, xidon, 
wood; napiros, Icarpos, fruit). 
Bearing fruit which becomes hard 
and woody. 

Xylog'raphy (Gr. £uA ov, xulon, wood ; 
ypa(pcL), graph'd , I write). Engrav¬ 
ing on wood. 


Zen'ith. The point in the arch of 
the heavens which is vertically 
above the head of the spectator. 

Zen'ith Distance. The distance of a 
heavenly body from the zenith, 
measured on the vertical circle 
passing through the zenith and the 

Zen'ith Sector. An instrument for 
measuring the zenith distances of 
stars which pass near the zenith. 

Zenograph'ic (Gr. Zrivos, Zenos, a 
genitive case of Zeus, Zens, Jupi¬ 
ter; ypacpu, graph'd, I write). Re¬ 
lating to a description of the planet 
Jupiter, or characteristic of the 
appearance of this planet. 

Ze'olite (Gr. (ew, I boil : A iQos, 
lith'os, a stone). A term applied 
in chemistry to certain compounds, 
from their frothing when heated 
before the blow-pipe. 

Zero (Italian, notliing). The point 
of a thermometer from which it is 
graduated : in the Centigrade and 
Reaumur’s, it is the freezing point 
of water; in Fahrenheit’s, thirty- 
two degrees below the freezing- 

Zeug'ma (Gi\ (evywgi, zeugnu'mi, 
I join). In grammar, a figure by 
which an adjective or verb that 
agrees with a neai’er word, is also 
referred to another more remote. 



Zinciferous (Zinc; Lat .fer'o, I bear). 
Producing ziuc. 

Zinc'ous (Zinc). Relating to zinc ; 
applied to the positive pole of a 
galvanic battery. 

Zo diac (Gr. (cediou, zddion, a little 
animal). The zone of the heavens 
included 'within a space of the 
celestial sphere extending a few 
degrees north and south of the 
ecliptic, and within which tbe ap¬ 
parent motions of the planets are 

Zodi'acal (Zo'diac). Belonging to 
the zodiac. 

Zon'ule [Zone). A small zone or 

Zoo- (Gr. faoi>, zd'on, an animal). A 
prefix in compound words, implying 
relation to animals. 

Zoochem'ical (Gr. fyov, zd'on , an 
animal ; chem'ical). Relating to 
the chemistry of animal bodies. 

Zo'oid (Gr. (coov, zd'on , an animal; 
eidos, ei'dos, form). Resembling 
an animal. 

Zo'olite (Gr. (ceov, zd'on , an animal ; 
Xi6os, lith'os, a stone). A petrified 
or fossil animal substance. 

Zoological (Zool'ogy). Belonging to 
zoology, or the classification of 

Zool'ogist (Zoology). One wbo is 
skilled in the natural history of 

Zoology (Gr. (ceor, zoon, an animal : 
Xoyos, logos, a discourse). The 
science or natural history of the 
animal kingdom ; the description 
of the structure, habits, &c., of all 

Zooph'agous (Gr. (ooov, zd'on, an 
animal ; (payee, phay'o, I eat). 
Eating animals. 

Zoophor'ic (Gr. C wov , zd'on, an animal; 
(pepce, pher'o, .1. bear). Supporting 
the figure of an animal. 

Zo'ophyte (Gr. (ceou, zd'on, an animal; 
c purou, phuton, a plant). In natural 
history, a name given to bodies 
resembling both animals and vege¬ 
tables, and once supposed to par¬ 
take of the nature of both. 

Zo'ospore (Gr. (a>ov, zd'on, an animal; 
spore). A moving spore, provided 
with cilia or vibratile organs. 

Zoof omist (Zootomy). One who dis¬ 
sects animals. 

Zoot'omy (Gr. (ceov, zd'on, an animal; 
T€y.vw, temno, I cut). Anatomy of 
the lower animals. 

Zoster (Gr. (wo-rrjp, zoster, a girdle). 
An eruptive disease which extends 
round the waist like a girdle ; com¬ 
monly called shingles. 

Zygodac'tylous (Gr. (vyov, zugon, a 
yoke ; SanroXos, dak'tulos, a finger 
or toe). Having the toes formed 
as if yoked together. 

Zygo'ma (Gr. (vyow, zugo'o, I yoke 
together). A bony arch at the 
upper part of the side of the face, 
formed by the union of a process 
from the temporal with one from 
the malar bone. 

Zygomat'ic (Zygo'ma). Belonging to 
the zygoma. 

Zymo'sis (Gr. (vyow, zumo’d, I leaven). 
In medicine, applied to diseases 
which are epidemic, endemic, and 
contagious, including fever, small¬ 
pox, cholera, &c., which are be¬ 
lieved to be produced by the action 
of certain specific poisons. 

Zymot'ic (Gr. (vyow, zumo'd, I leaven). 
Arising from zymosis or fermenta¬ 





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Lardner on the Microscope. (From “ The Museum of 

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A Guide to the 

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Stars for every Night in the Year. In 

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