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GUIDELINE FOR USE 
AT CONTAMINATED 
SITES IN ONTARIO 



REVISED FEBRUARY 1997 




Ontario 



Ministry of 
Environment 
and Energy 



ISBN 0-7778-6114-3 



GUTOELINE 

FOR USE AT CONTAMINATED SITES 

IN ONTARIO 



REVISED FEBRUARY 1997 



© 



Cette publication technique 
n'est disponible qu'en anglais. 



Copyright: Queen's Printer for Ontario, 1997 

This publication may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes 

with apDroDriate attribution. 



PIBS 3161E01 



Executive summary 



The Ministry of Environment and Energy (ministiy) has prepared a revised guideline for 
use when property owners are cleaning up and/or redeveloping contaminated property in 
Ontario The mimstry has also prepared three accompanying documents which provide 
property owners and consultants with additional detailed mformation on parts of the 
revised guideline. 

The Guideline for Use at Contammated Sites. June 1996, (guideline) replaces the 
Guidelines for the Decommissionmg and Clean-up of Sites m Ontario. February 1989 
and the Interim Guidelmes for the Assessment and Management of Petroleum 
Contammated Sites m Ontario. August 1993 issued by the Ministry of the Environment. 

The guidehne does not change the legislative powers or the regulatory mandate of the 
mimstry. The ministry has a mandate to deal with situations where there is an adverse 
effect, or the likelihood of an adverse effect, associated with the presence or discharge of 
a contaminant. This responsibihty stems primarily from administermg the Environmental 
Protection Act (R-S.O. 1990') and the Ontano Water Resources Act (TLSO. 1990). 

This guideline provides advice and information to property owners and consultants to use 
when assessing the environmental condition of a property, when determining whether or 
not restoration is required, and in determining the kind of restoration needed to allow 
contmued use or reuse of the site. The ministry has provided the guideline, along with the 
supportmg documentation, to assist landowners m making decisions on soil and/or 
groundwater quahty for proposed or existing property uses. 

Public communication is often an element in the site restoration process, particularly 
when a change in land use is involved. Public communication allows the proponent to 
receive pubhc mput and to address pubUc concerns. The method(s) of pubhc 
communication will depend on the complexity of the situation and the range of issues 
involved. Commumcation initiatives should be co-ordinated and integrated where 
possible to avoid duphcation. The guideline suggests different levels of communication 
for the range of site restoration approaches. 

Approaches to site restoration 

Three approaches for responding to site contammation are described. These approaches 
may be used when a decision has been made to remediate or restore a contaminated 
property. The approaches are; background, genenc and site specific risk assessment. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Executive summary 



Background approach 

The background approach involves use of soil quality criteria to restore the site to 
ambient or naturally occurring "background" conditions. These background criteria 
were developed from an Ontario-wide sampling program at rural and urban parks 
unaffected by local point sources of pollution. If necessary, a proponent may develop 
background criteria to reflect local conditions by completing a sampling program as 
outlined in the guideline. 

Generic approach 

The generic approach involves use of soil and groundwater quality criteria which have 
been developed to provide protection against the potential for adverse effects to himian 
health, ecological health and the natural environment. The criteria may be applied to 
agricultural, residential/parkland and industrial/commercial land uses. Criteria are also 
provided for potable and nonpotable groundwater use. The potable criteria ensure that 
groundwater may be used as a source of drinking water. The nonpotable criteria 
offers protection against vapours from groundwater and to aquatic life in receiving 
surface water. 

Generic soil criteria are provided for two depths of soil restoration and for two soil 
textures. Full depth restoration involves use of the same generic criteria to the full 
extent of contamination. When contamination extends deeper than 1.5 m from the 
surface a stratified restoration using different generic criteria below 1.5 m is an 
option. The texture of the subsurface material can influence the niunerical value of the 
criteria and criteria values are provided for coarse and fine textured materials for 
many of the parameters. 

Soil and groimdwater criteria are provided for an extensive list of parameters. 
Analysis for all the criteria may not be necessary in all instances. Likewise, soil and 
groundwater analysis may sometimes be required for parameters not listed in the 
guideline. The decisions involved in site investigation and parameters for sample 
analysis are always based on consideration of the specific factors at each property. 

The generic soil and groimdwater criteria may be modified to reflect particular site 
conditions. This is done through modification of relevant variables in the models and 
process used to develop the generic criteria. If appropriate, criteria from another 
jurisdiction may be proposed for use. or new generic criteria may be developed if 
criteria are not provided for a particular contaminant. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Executive summary 



Potentially sensitive sites 

There may be sites where the physical site characteristics, or the ecological 
characteristics (plants and animals) are very different from those considered in the 
development of the generic criteria. For example, a potentially sensitive site is one 
where there may be a rare or endangered species which was not considered in the 
development of the generic criteria, but which may be affected by site contamination. 
In such a case, the generic criteria are inappropriate for use and more protective 
criteria will be needed. 

There is a range of conditions/situations for which a site may be considered 
potentially sensitive and an ecological risk assessment may be used to establish 
protective criteria. In some cases consultation with other agencies such as the Ministry 
of Natural Resources or local conservation authority will be required in determining 
whether the site is a sensitive site. 

Site specific risk assessment approach 

Site specific risk assessment (SSRA) and risk management are approaches which may 
be used instead of the background or generic approaches. The SSRA approach does 
not involve use of existing soil or groimdwater quality criteria; rather this approach 
may be used to establish criteria for a site or a risk-based level of exposure 
protection. 

Risk assessment is a scientific technique which estimates the health risk posed to 
himians, plants, wildlife and the natural environment from exposure to a contaminant. 
The principles of risk assessment were used in developing the generic soil and 
groundwater criteria. Because site specific characteristics are incorporated in a risk 
assessment, there will be numerical differences between the generic criteria which 
may apply at a site and those developed through SSRA. The level of health protection 
provided, however, remains the same as that provided by the generic criteria. 

Risk management decisions may be made using the results of an SSRA. These 
decisions may lead to use of equipment or construction techniques to manage, control 
the movement of, or reduce the concentrations of contaminants over time, independent 
of or in conjunction with site reuse. 

When risk management decisions involve use of engineered measures to reduce the 
levels of risk at a site, the type of monitoring and maintenance required for the 
technique(s) used and the responsibility for ensuring that it/they continue(s) to operate 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Executive summary 



as designed must be outlined in a risk management plan. 

The investigation and restoration process 

A four-step process is outlined in the guideline. The activities undertaken at each step 
will depend on site specifics and may vary from one site to another. 

1 . Site assessment - involves the systematic gathering of information to identify 
actual or potential contamination at the property. 

2. Sampling and analysis - is intended to confirm and delineate the presence or 
absence of contamination at the site. 

3. Remedial work plan - involves the development and implementation of a plan 
to restore the site to the appropriate condition and verify that restoration has 
taken place as planned. 

4. Completion - involves summarizing the information gathered in the three 
previous steps, and may involve providing a record of site condition to the 
ministry when remedial work has been undertaken. 

The responsibility for ensuring that the site restoration work is completed in a manner 
consistent with the information provided in the guideline, and that the site is suitable 
for the intended use or reuse, remains with the property owner and those undertaking 
the work. The guideline does not eliminate the need for decision-making or the use of 
professional skills and judgment when site restoration is being undertaken. 

Administration and record keeping 

A form called the Record of Site Condition (RSC) provides a mechanism for the 
property owner and the consultant(s) who performed or supervised the site assessment 
or restoration work to indicate that work has been completed in keeping with 
guideline information. Receipt of the RSC will be acknowledged by the ministry. The 
ministry will review the RSC and, on an audit basis, conduct further reviews to 
ascertain whether the statements provided are reliable. The audit will provide the 
ministry with a mechanism to monitor use of the guideline and to identify 
modifications and improvements for future implementation. 

The RSC should be provided to ministry when the stratified approach or certain forms 
of risk management, as specified in the guideline, are used. Use of these approaches 



IV Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Executive summary 



creates a need for notification to be provided to those who may have a future interest 
in the restored property. A public notification mechanism which uses an order issued 
under Section 18 of the EPA is provided in the guideline. 

The order directs the property owner to register a certificate of prohibition (issued 
under Section 197 of the EPA) on the title of the property. The certificate of 
prohibition requires that information about the restored site be provided to persons 
who wish to acquire an interest in the site prior to having any dealings with the site. 
This allows persons who wish to acquire an interest in the property to become 
familiar with any possible conditions or restrictions on property use which they may 
face, before acquiring the restored property. 

Land use planning 

A planning application which proposes the reuse or redevelopment of a contaminated 
or potentially contaminated site may require approval through a number of different 
planning mechanisms as required by the Planning Act (R.S.O. 1990). The site 
assessment process and the application review process may be integrated so that 
concerns are identified and addressed at the appropriate time. Municipalities may use 
a number of planning mechanisms to provide direction to applicants. The 
opportunities and considerations for use of some of these mechanisms are outlined in 
the guideline. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Table of Contents 



Executive siimmary i 

List of figures vii 

List of tables viii 

List of appendices ix 

Glossary x 

Answers to frequent questions xvi 

Section 1: Introduction 1 

Section 2: Principles 6 

Section 3: Communication 7 

Section 4: Restoration approaches 10 

Section 5: Background approach 13 

Section 6: Generic approach 16 

Section 7: SSRA approach 45 

Section 8: Site assessment 53 

Section 9: Land use planning 77 

References 87 

Index 89 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Table of Contents 



List of figures 

Figure 6a: Decisions for selecting generic criteria 17 

Figure 6b: Overview of generic soil criteria selection process 36 

Figure 6c: Overview of groundwater criteria selection process 37 

Figure 8a: Overview of the site assessment process 53 

Figure 8b: Step 1 - Initial site assessment ; 55 

Figure 8c: Step 2 - Detailed site assessment 58 

Figure 8d: Step 3 - Remedial work plan 64 

Figure 8e: Step 4 - Completion and documentation 69 

Figure 8f: Registration on title to the land 71 

Figtire 9a: Integrating site assessment with land use planning 80 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Table of Contents 



List of tables 

Table 3a: Forms of public communication 9 

Table 6a: Generic criteria for full depth restoration 32 

Table 6b: Generic criteria for stratified depth restoration 32 

Table 6c: Considerations in the development of generic criteria for agricultural 
and residential/parkland soils 39 

Table 6d: Considerations in the development of generic criteria for 
industrial/commercial soils 41 

Table 6e: Considerations in the development of generic groundwater criteria 43 

Table 8a: Comparison of analysis to generic criteria 61 

Table 8b: Roles and responsibilities for different restoration approaches . 74 

Table 8c: Roles and responsibilities for different restoration approaches 75 

Table 8d: Roles and responsibilities for different restoration approaches . 76 

Table 9a: Land use planning mechanisms 84 



^1^1 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Table of Contents 



List of appendices 

Appendix 1: Approvals information A3 

Appendix 2: Soil, groundwater and sediment criteria A5 

Table A ^-7 

Table B ^^23 

Table C ^19 

Table D A25 

Table E A31 



Table F 



A37 



Appendix 3: Draft section 18 order A43 

Record of site condition A57 

Appendix 4: Map and listing of ministry 

district and regional offices A65 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Glossary of terms 



absorption 

ACM 
adverse effect 



approval 



background 
concentration 



coefficient of 
variation 



contaminant 



means the process by which a chemical enters the circulatory 
system following ingestion, inhalation or dermal exposure. 

asbestos containing material 

means one or more of, 

(a) impairment of the quality of the natural 
environment for any use that can be made of it, 

(b) injury or damage to property or to plant or animal life, 

(c) harm or material discomfort to any person, 

(d) an adverse effect on the health of any person, 

(e) impairment of the safety of any person, 

(f) rendering any property or plant or animal life unfit for 
human use, 

(g) loss of enjoyment of normal use of property, and 

(h) interference with the normal conduct of business. 

means a Certificate of Approval issued under the EPA or an 
approval issued under the OWRA. 

means the ambient concentration of a chemical in the soil, 
groimdwater, air or sediment in the local environment which 
is representative or typical of the conditions in urban or rural 
setting. 

means a statistical measure which permits a comparison of the 
amount of variation within sets of sample results which have 
different means. It is calculated by expressing the sample 
standard deviation as a percent of the sample mean. 

means any solid, liquid, gas, odour, heat, soimd, vibration, 
radiation or combination of any of them resulting directly or 
indirectly from human activities that may cause an adverse 
effect. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Glossary of Terms 



contamination refers to a chemical which is present in soil or other material 

to which this guideline applies, at a concentration greater than 
background, or which is not naturally occurring in the soil or 
other material to which this guideline applies. 

criteria are numerical values for the concentrations of chemical 

substances in soil, groundwater and sediments that relate to the 
suitability of a site, for specific uses and land-use categories. 

dermal absorption means the process by which a chemical enters the circulatory 
system following exposure to or contact with the skin. 

end point refers to an effect on a himian or ecological receptor that can 

be measured and described in some quantitative fashion. 

ecological receptor means a nonhiraian organism identified as potentially 

experiencing adverse impacts from exposure to a contaminant, 
either directly through contact or indirectly through food chain 
transfer. 

EPA Environmental Protection Act (R.S.O. 1990) 

ERA Ecological risk assessment 

ESA Environmental site assessment 

exposure means the contact between a contaminant and an individual or 

population. The exposure may occur through pathways such as 
ingestion, dermal absorption or inhalation. 

exposure means the route by which a receptor comes into contact with a 

pathway contaminant. 

full depth site means that neither the surface and subsurface soil quality 

condition exceeds the soil quality criteria specified in Tables A or B . 

generic criteria are the criteria for soil, groundwater and sediment quality, 

which are listed in Tables A to D. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Glossary of terms 



hazard 



land use approval 
authority 



leaching 

macronutrient 

MCCR 
MOEE 
municipality 



natural environment 



9(f percentile 



nonpotable 
criteria 



means the adverse impact on health or property which results 
from the presence of or exposure to a substance. In some 
instances the substance itself is also referred to as the hazard, 
rather than the adverse impact which the substance causes. 

means the government representative or body empowered 
by federal, provincial or municipal legislation to grant 
approval for the use of land, including activities, buildings, 
structures and associated infrastructure, within their respective 
jurisdictions. 

means the process by which contaminants in soil are dissolved 
and removed by water percolating through the soil. 

means a chemical element necessary for the growth of plants, 
usually at concentrations greater than 1 ppm in the plant. 

Ministry of Consumer and Commercial Relations 

Ministry of Environment and Energy 

means the corporation of a coimty, metropolitan area, regional 
area, district area, city, town, village, township improvement 
district, or the County of Oxford, and includes a local board 
thereof and a board, commission or other local authorit>' 
exercising any power with respect to municipal affairs or 
purposes, including school purposes, in an unorganized 
township or imsurveyed territory'. 

means the air, land and water, or any combination or part 
thereof, of the Province of Ontario. 

refers to the point in a population of analysis results which is 
greater in value than 90 percent of the population and is 
smaller in value than 10 percent of the population. 

are the soil and groimdwater criteria listed in Tables B and D. 



overburden 



means unconsolidated material that nearly everywhere forms 
the surface of the land in the absence of true soil and rests on 
bedrock. 



Xll 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Glossary of Terms 



OWRA Ontario Water Resources Act (R.S.O. 1990). 

person responsible means the owner, or the person in occupation or having the 
charge, management or control of a source of contaminant. 

pollutant means a contaminant other than heat, sound, vibration or 

radiation, and includes any substance from which a pollutant is 
derived. 

potable criteria are the soil and groundwater criteria listed in Tables A and C 

which establish when groundwater quality is suitable for 
human consimiption. 

proponent means any person or corporation that conducts or plans to 

conduct any site assessment or site restoration activity as 
outlined in this guideline. 

public consultation is the process of communication that promotes discussion 

between the proponent and the consulted party, and provides 
the consulted party with the opportunity to influence the 
decisions of the proponent. 

public notification is the process of communication that provides information to 
the notified group, but does not necessarily provide an 
opportunity for the notified group to influence a decision. 

receptor means the person or organism, including plants, subjected to 

chemical exposure. 

reference dose an estimate of a daily exposure (mg/kg/day) to the general 

human population, including sensitive sub-groups, that is 
likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects 
during a lifetime of exposure. 

remedial work means a plan to bring about the restoration of the site. 

plan 

restoration includes improving in the quality of, remediation, cleanup or 

other management of soil, groundwater or sediment so that the 
site will be suitable for the intended use. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Glossary of terms 



risk assessment is the scientific examination of the nature and magnitude of 

risk to define the effects on both human and other receptors of 
the exposure to contaminant(s). 

risk management is the implementation of a strategy or measures to control or 

reduce the level of risk estimated by the risk assessment. 



soil 



spill 



SSRA 

stratified site 
condition 



subsurface soil 



surface soil 



teratogenicity 



means the imconsolidated material on the immediate surface of 
the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth 
plants. 

when used with reference to a pollutant, means a discharge, 

(a) into the natural enviroiunent, 

(b) from or out of a structure, vehicle, or other container, 
and 

(c) that is abnormal in quality or quantity in light of all the 
circumstances of the discharge, 

and when used as a verb has a corresponding meaning. 

Site specific risk assessment 

means the surface soil quality at a site is not worse than 
the soil quality criteria specified in Tables A or B and the 
subsurface soil quality does not exceed the soil quality criteria 
specified in Tables C or D. 

means overburden which is more than 1.5 metres from the soil 
surface, excluding the thickness of any non-soil surface 
treatment such as asphalt, concrete or aggregate. 

means soil or overburden which is 1.5 m or less from the soil 
surface, excluding the thickness of any non-soil surface 
treatment such as asphalt, concrete or aggregate. 

means the abilitj' of a chemical to cause a change in the 
normal development process of an unborn organism, resulting 
in permanent alterations in the biochemical, physiological or 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Glossary of Terms 



anatomical functions of the organism. 

threshold means the concentration or dose of a chemical below which an 

adverse impact is not expected to occur. 

volatilization means the process by which a chemical converts from a liquid 

or solid phase into a gaseous phase and disperses into the air. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Srtes 



Answers to frequent questions 



The following section is a list of questions that will be frequently asked by users of 
this guideline. The information contained in the questions and answers listed below 
forms part of MOEE's policy interpretation of this guideline. 



I. I have already started remedial work at my site and have been using the 
1989 guideline and the Interim Position (1994). What are my options now 
that the 1996 guideline has been released? 

The site assessment and investigation process in both guidelines is similar and 
either may be adapted for your site. The Guideline for Use at Contaminated 
Sites (1996 guideline) provides more soil and groundwater criteria and more 
options for site restoration than the 1989 guideline did. If you want the MOEE 
to acknowledge receipt of your record of site condition, outlined in the 1996 
guideline, you should follow the process outlined in the 1996 guideline. 

If you received written MOEE concurrence with the remedial work plan for 
your site prior to the release of this guideline, you have the option of continuing 
to restore your site using the guidance provided in the 1989 guideline and 
Interim Position (1994) and receiving a sign-off lener on completion. This 
means using the soil criteria provided in the 1989 guideline and those available 
through the Interim Position (1994). Please note, a sign-off letter will only be 
provided if MOEE has concurred in writing with the remedial work plan prior 
to the date on this guideline. 

This guideline takes effect on July 1, 1996. 

n. Last year I cleaned up my site in full accordance with the Guidelines for the 
Decommi ssioning and Clean-up of Sites in Ontario (1989 guideline) and the 
Interim Guideline for the Assessment and Management of Petroleum 
Contaminated Sites in Ontario (1993 guideline). Should I investigate and clean 
up my site again? 

The revised guideline (1996 guideline) does not require property owners to 
investigate and clean up sites to the new criteria. 



XVI 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Answers to frequent questions 



III. What is the Ministry's position if changes to criteria concentration Umits are 
developed in the future? 

The contaminant concentrations listed in the guideline are protective of human 
health and the environment and as a result, we do not expect any changes to 
these values. In the event that changes or revisions are required in the future, 
they will be posted on the Environmental Registry and/or undergo independent 
consultation with stakeholders prior to being implemented. MOEE would take 
no action against individual property owners who have followed earlier versions 
of the guideline. If significant health or environmental problems were identified 
during the development of the amended criteria with sites that had already been 
cleaned up, longer term approaches would be developed in full consultation with 
property owners to ensure that they were environmentally protective and 
economically feasible. 

rv. How can I tell if conditions at my site are likely to cause an adverse effect? 

Adverse effect is a term defmed in the EPA and it forms the basis for how 
MOEE can legally get involved with site remediation. This guideline does not 
change the defmition of adverse effect; however, it does provide information 
which may be used to assist in determining whether site conditions are causing, 
or are likely to cause, an adverse effect. From a practical perspective, MOEE 
has not used the powers granted by this term frivolously. 

A site will have no environmental adverse effect when the generic criteria levels 
in Tables A to D or levels developed as part of a full site specific risk 
assessment (SSRA) clean up have been met. Physical hazards such as the 
potential for explosion may also have to be considered. There may be 
circumstances where concentration Iraiits at a site may exceed the guideline 
values and still not create an "adverse effect"; this can only be determined on a 
case-by-case basis. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Xvii 



Answers to frequent questions 



V. I own an operating gas station. Does this guideline change who I notify if 
there is petroleum-related contamination on my site? 

The installation and operation of product storage and dispensing equipment at a 
private or retail gasoline facility, or associated product outlet, is regulated by 
the Gasoline Handling Act administered by MCCR. This guideline does not 
change your obligation to provide notification to MCCR if there is a spill or 
leak at your site, as required by the Gasoline Handling Code (section 12.1). 
Notification of a spill must also be provided to the MOEE, as required by the 
EPA (section 92), and the need to provide notification to MOEE and MCCR is 
unchanged by this guideline. 

If the contaminant at your site is not from a spill, and is causing or likely to 
cause an adverse effect as defined in the EPA (section 1), then you must provide 
notification to the ministry as required by the EPA (section 15). 

The options for corrective action, which may be required at your operating site, 
are outlined in GH-13 of the Gasoline Handling Code. Information on collecting 
and analyzing soil and groimdwater samples is provided in Guidance on 
Sampling and Analvtical Methods for Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario 
(MOEE, 1996a) 

VI. I have permanently closed my gas station. Who do I notify if petroleum- 
related contamination is found during site closure and may I still use the 
1993 guideline? 

The requirements for equipment removal, site remediation and notification at a 
closed station are outlined in the Gasoline Handling Code (section 12.3). The 
code specifies that the MCCR, MOEE and municipality must be notified 30 
days prior to the discontinuance of use of the facility. 

Notification must be provided to the MOEE if the contamination at your site is 
causing, or is likely to cause, an adverse effect, or may impair the quality of 
groundwater or surface water. 

If site restoration is needed, the criteria provided in the 1996 guideline may be 
used to establish appropriate restoration levels. The 1996 guideline provides 
more options for site restoration, and more criteria for soil and groundwater 
quality than the 1989 guideline or 1993 guideline. The soil criteria provided for 
use with the decision tree in the 1993 guideline cannot be replaced with soil 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Answers to frequent questions 



criteria from the 1996 guideline. The 1993 guideline may only be used if the 
circumstances outlined in the answer to question 1 apply. 

VII. I am gomg to have an environmental site assessment done at my property. 
Does this guideline require that soil and groundwater samples be analyzed 
for all 117 chemical parameters listed in Appendix 2? 

No. The information provided in the 1996 guideline and companion documents 
allows you to assess sources of contamination at a site, and determine what kind 
of sample analysis will be required to evaluate the likely presence of 
contamination. Conversely, analysis might be required for compounds suspected 
or known to be present at a site, but which are not listed in the tables of criteria 
provided in Appendix 2. Guidance on developing or adopting criteria is 
provided in section 6 of the 1996 guideline. 

Vm. I am planning to use the site specific risk assessment approach (SSRA) at 
my site. Will this require more work than using the generic or background 
approach? 

Using the SSRA approach will require more site characterization information, 
more technical and scientific effort, and more administrative steps than using the 
background or generic approaches. 

When using the SSRA approach, you must: have a peer review of the risk 
assessment docimientation completed; submit reports to the ministry for review; 
complete the registration on title process if Level 2 risk management measures 
are used; monitor and maintain any Level 2 risk management measures as 
required and consult with the appropriate municipality regarding the use of 
SSRA and agreements on maintenance of Level 2 measures. The administrative 
requirements are described in section 7.2, while roles and responsibilities for an 
SSRA are summarized in Table 8d. 

IX. May I still use generic criteria from other jmisdictions and mider what 
circumstances? 

When criteria are not provided by this guideline, criteria from another 
jurisdiction may be proposed for use. The proposed criteria may be appropriate 
for use if the same human health and ecological protection components were 
considered in the development of that criteria, as were considered in the 
development of the generic criteria provided in this guideline. You will have to 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites XIX 



Answers to frequent questions 



provide background information for MOEE review and determination of 
whether or not the proposed criteria are appropriate for adoption. 

X. I am plamiing to do a site assessment and clean up my site. When should I 
contact the MOEE? 

You do not need to communicate your intention to do a site assessment to the 
MOEE prior to doing the site assessment. If, from the assessment, a site 
condition is found to be causing, or is likely to cause, an adverse effect, you 
must then notify the MOEE of the condition (section 15, EPA). During the 
remedial stage, the need to communicate with the MOEE will depend on the 
restoration approach you select. The background approach and generic approach 
may be carried to completion, and communication with the MOEE may be 
required only at the end of the process. The SSRA approach requires that you 
provide documentation to the MOEE for review as part of the process. 

XI. Will the MOEE still issue sign-off letters when a proponent completes the 
site restoration process? 

No. The MOEE will acknowledge receipt of the Record of Site Condition when 
it is provided by the proponent. 

XII. What is the purpose of the three accompanying documents to the guideline? 
Do I have to read them all? 

These docimients provide: 

• guidance on completing a site assessment including sampling, handling and 
analytical methods for soil, sediment, water and air; 

• guidance on completing a site specific risk assessment; 

• a detailed explanation on how the generic criteria were developed. 

These reference documents are made available to provide more detailed 
information than this guideline provides on a variety of topics. Users of the 
guideline should be familiar with the additional guidance provided in these 
documents to better understand things such as the process of developing the 
generic criteria, issues to be considered when planning to use risk assessment at 
a site, and to understand the benefits and limitations of different sampling 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Answers to frequent questions 



methods for various media. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites XXi 



SECTION 



Introduction 



1 



1.0 Guideline purpose 

This document provides guidance on the following: 

► a process which may be used in the assessment of contaminated or 
potentially contaminated sites; 

► three approaches which may be used for site restoration; 

► soil, groundwater and sediment criteria which may be used when restoring 
contaminated sites; 

► use of risk assessment and risk management strategies at contaminated 
sites. 

This guidance is provided to assist proponents when making decisions and 
responding to conditions encountered at contaminated sites, and to allow 
proponents to independently complete the site restoration process. Knowledge 
of the specific environmental conditions at a site must always be considered 
when making decisions about using the different approaches to site restoration 
described in this guideline. 

This guideline, with the companion documents, provides a consistent 
framework to proponents involved with activities at contaminated sites. These 
documents contain practices, procedures and approaches for dealing with 
contaminated sites which are recommended by the Ministry of Environment 
and Energy (ministry) for use in the assessment and restoration of 
contaminated sites. 

1.1 Use of the guideline 

This guideline is not a regulation and does not change the legislative powers or 
the regulatory role of the ministry. The role and powers of the ministry, when 
dealing with contaminated sites, are outlined primarily in the Environmental 
Protection Act (R.S.O. 1990), Ontario Water Resources Act (R.S.O. 1990) 
and the Pesticides Act (R.S.O. 1990). The Environmental Protection Act 
places an obligation on persons who cause or permit the discharge of a 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 1 



SECTION 



1 



Introduction 



contaminant into the natural environment to notify the ministry, when the 
contaminant is causing an adverse effect, or is likely to cause an adverse 
effect. 

This guideline, and the companion documents noted at the end of section 1.4, 
update, and replace the guidance and criteria provided in both the Guidelines 
for the Decommissioning and Cleanup of Sites in Ontario published by the 
Ministry of the Environment in 1989, and the Interim Guideline for the 
Assessment and Management of Petroleum Contaminated Sites in Ontario 
released by the ministry in August 1993. 

This guideline, and the companion documents, also replace the Proposed 
Guidelines for the Cleanup Of Contaminated Sites in Ontario (July 1994a) and 
the Interim Position on the Cleanup of Contaminated Sites in Ontario (July 
1994b). 

The ministry will use the information in this guideline when asked to provide 
comments or advice to proponents and other ministries or agencies on matters 
related to assessment and restoration of the environment. Agencies or 
individuals who are making use of this guideline may consult with the ministry 
when interpretation of the information provided in the guideline is required. 

Where this guideline uses mandatory language such as "must" or "shall" in 
relation to situations where a person who has authority to make decisions 
under statute, such as a ministry director, must exercise discretion, that 
language only indicates the usual course of events and is not intended to limit 
or fetter the decision maker's discretion. 

Directed by proponent 

A proponent may use this guideline to assess, or restore a site for a variety of 
self-directed or self- initiated purposes. The information provided in this 
guideline allows proponents to make decisions about the site assessment and 
restoration process which may be required at a site. Except where otherwise 
noted in this guideline, proponents may complete the restoration process 
independently. A proponent who is making use of this guideline may consult 



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Introduction 



1 



with the ministry when inteq)retation of the information provided in the 
guideline is required. 

Other agencies 

Provincial or municipal agencies may decide to make use of this guideline, or 
may direct a proponent to use this guideline. For example, use of the guideline 
criteria may be a condition of the granting of a municipal permit, a condition 
of the granting of an approval for a plan of subdivision, or as a condition of 
granting a rezoning or site-plan approval. 

The remediation of leaks and spills at operating petroleum hydrocarbon storage 
and distribution facilities is regulated by the Fuels Safety Program, Ministry of 
Consumer and Commercial Relations (MCCR) under the Gasoline Handling 
Act (R.S.O 1990) and the Energv Act (R.S.O. 1990). As such, any matters 
pertaining to spills and environmental remediation at such operating facilities 
(e.g. gasoline service stations, bulk plants, fuel storage tanks) will be guided 
by appropriate MCCR legislation and referenced guidelines. When a spill 
occurs, the Ministry of Environment and Energy must be notified and the 
relevant provisions of ministry legislation including Part X - Spills of the 
Environmental Protection Act must also be complied with. 

1 .2 When is site restoration necessary? 

Restoration is necessary if the contamination at a site is causing, or is likely to 
cause, an adverse effect. An adverse effect, or the likelihood of an adverse 
effect, associated with the presence of contamination in soil, groundwater or 
sedunents may warrant use of the site assessment process and criteria provided 
in this guideline. The specific environmental conditions at a site must always 
be considered when evaluating whether site contamination will, or is likely to, 
cause an adverse effect. 

Restoration of a site is often necessary when recent or historic site activities 
have resulted in the presence of a contaminant, and a change in the current 
land use is being considered. Restoration is usually imdertaken when the level 
of contamination is greater than the generic soil and groundwater criteria for 
the new land use. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 3 



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Introduction 



There may be situations where the ministry will require the restoration of a 
contaminated site. This may be done through legislative authority under the 
Environmental Protection Act (R.S.O. 1990), the Ontario Water Resources Act 
(R.S.O. 1990) or the Pesticides Act (R.S.O. 1990). 

1 .3 Limitations on the use of this guideline 

This guideline is not intended to relieve a proponent from meeting 
requirements of ministry legislation, orders, approvals or other legislation. 
Except to the extent this guideline is made applicable by ministry order or 
approval, this guideline is not intended to apply to: 

► closure of approved waste disposal sites and facilities; 

► facilities or sites with closure conditions specified in fiilfilment of the 
requirements of the Mining Act (R.S.O. 1990); 

► facilities or sites required to meet terms and conditions of an 
Environmental Assessment Act (R.S.O. 1990)exemption order or approval. 

The generic criteria provided in Appendix 2 (Tables A - D) have been 
developed to protect against adverse effects to human health, ecological health 
and the namral environment. These generic criteria do not address other 
concerns, such as the potential for explosive conditions, the potential for 
corrosive conditions, or the potential for creating an unstable condition for 
foundations. Use of the generic criteria may eliminate such conditions; 
however additional work may be required to ensure that corrosive, explosive 
or imstable conditions will be eliminated, or will not exist at a site in future. 

1 .4 Accompanying documentation 

The three companion documents to this guideline provide: 

► a detailed explanation of all the factors considered in the development of 
the generic soil, groundwater and sediment criteria provided with this 
guideline; 



Page 4 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



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Introduction 



1 



► a description of a range of sampling techniques for soil, groundwater, 
sediment and air samples, and a listing of analytical detection limits and 
methodologies for use when samples are analyzed; 

► guidance on the use of human and ecological health risk assessment, when 
risk assessment is being used at a contaminated site. 



Guidance on Sampling and Analytical Methods for Use at Contaminated 
Sites in Ontario (May 1996a) 

Guidance on Site Specific Risk Assessment for Use at Contaminated Sites 
in Ontario (May 1996b) 

Rationale for the Development and Application of Generic Soil. 
Groundwater, and Sediment Criteria for Use at Contaminated Sites 
(May 1996c) 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 5 



SECTION 



2 



Principles 



2.0 Guideline principles 

Five principles have been used in the development of this guideline to ensure 
that a consistent and equitable process is available to those involved with, and 
affected by, site restoration and site management activities. These principles 
are listed below. 



► This guideline is consistent with and should not conflict with any of 
the requirements of the Environmental Protection Act (R.S.O. 1990), 
Ontario Water Resources Act (R.S.O. 1990), Pesticides Act (R.S.O. 
1990), Environmental Assessment Act (R.S.O. 1990) or any other 
Ontario statute. 

► This guideline was developed to provide protection of human health, 
ecological health and the namral environment from potential adverse 
effects associated with existing or fumre exposure to contaminated 
soil, sediment, and groimdwater. 

► The public should be kept informed of the site restoration process. 

► Action by the ministry related to this guideline and/or the issuance of 
written statements acknowledging receipt of a record of site condition 
is not intended to release other persons or groups from liability under 
statutory or common law. 

► It is the responsibility of the owner, occupant of a property, or other 
person responsible to ensure all activities related to the site restoration 
comply with all relevant federal, provincial, and municipal 
legislation/policies . 



Page 6 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Communication 



3 



3.0 Public communication 

The ministry recommends that proponents consider the goals listed below 
when designing a public communication plan. These goals are provided as 
general guidance. The specific conditions and situation at each site must 
always be considered in determining the methods and the extent of 
communication required to meet these goals. 

► Providing a forum for receiving public input and information on potential 
sources of contamination at the site (neighbours and employees should be 
specifically consulted when gathering site history information). 

► Providing initial and ongoing information to the public as needed, on the 
nature and extent of site contamination and the activities proposed for site 
restoration. 

► Allowing public input to the parts of the remedial work plan, such as soil 
excavation, treatment and/ or transportation, which may generate noise, 
dust or other effects on air quality which may affect local residents. 

► Addressing public concerns before major site activity begins and 
maintaining a record of the communications program. 

Development of a public communications plan is best done with knowledge of 
specific site details, such as site size, adjacent land uses/designations, 
proximity of neighbours, nature of the planned corrective action and the nature 
of the contamination at the site. 

Lines of commimication with the interested and affected persons or groups 
may be established early in the site investigation process and should be 
maintained throughout the period of site activity. Public communication should 
be organized and timed to allow mumally satisfactory resolution of the 
concerns likely to be raised. The ministry recommends that at least 30 days 
notice of site activity be provided to the people or groups who will be affect 
by the activity. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 7 



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3 



Communication 



Proponents may consider use of one or more or the following methods of 
public communication when developing a communication plan: 

► posting a notice on the property as is done for some rezoning; 

► advertising in the local newspapers or commimity bulletins; 

► delivering flyers or newsletters door to door; 

► using dedicated telephone lines to provide or receive information; 

► placing material in local libraries, communitj' centres or establishing a 
temporary local office; 

► holding public meetings, information sessions or an open house; 

► establishing a public advisory or liaison committee. 

A summary of the different approaches to site restoration and the relationship 
of the approach to a suggested form of public communication is outlined in 
Table 3a. The suggested form of public communication for each approach is 
meant to serve as a guide to proponents. The restoration approaches are 
explained in sections 5,6, and 7 of this guideline. Even when not required by 
statute, a good communication plan may help to avoid problems which might 
arise later in the process. 

It is not necessary for ministry staff to be involved in the planning and 
implementation of the public commimication process. The recommendations 
provided in Table 3a may be considered the minimum public communication 
recommendations of the ministry for the respective restoration approach. 

3.1 Communication and land use planning 

The process of restoring contaminated sites is often one step in the larger 
process of land-use designation change, site alteration, or rezoning as governed 
by the Planning Act (R.S.O. 1990). In some instances, there may be more 
than one process involved, such as when an approval is also required under 
the Environmental Assessment Act (R.S.O. 1990). 

Changes in land use are regulated by the provincial or municipal governments. 
There are usually specified requirements for public consultation or notification 
when changes in land use are being proposed. These public communication 
requirements are based on the principle that the public should be notified. 



Page 8 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Communication 



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3 



consulted or panicipate in land-use planning matters. This guideline uses the 
term public communication to include both consultation and notification. 

Whenever possible, communication with the public on issues related to the 
restoration of contaminated sites should be included as pan of the broader 
public communication program, as required by the land-use planning or 
approval process to provide effective and efficient commimication. Proponents 
are advised to consult with the local land-use planning approval authority to 
determine the requirements for public conmiunication. Where there is a legal 
requirement for commimication under more than one statute, proponents 
should ensure that their notices reflect the rules of each legal requirement, to 
avoid having to provide notice separately for each requirement. 

Table 3a: Forms of public commimication ^ 



Approach 


Suggested form of communication 


• full depth restoration 

• potable groundwater restoration 


• notification to adjacent landowners 


• stratified site condition 

• nonpotable groundwater 
restoration 


• notification to adjacent landowners and 
municipality 


• site specific risk assessment with 
Level I risk management 


• consultation with adjacent landowners, 
extended neighbourhood and municipality 


• site specific risk assessment with 
Level 2 risk management 


• consultation with adjacent landowners and 
extended neighbourhood 

• consultation with municipality, for use of risk 
assessment and/or risk management (see 
section 7) 



best undertaken in conjunction with prescribed land-use planning consultation process 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Page 9 



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4 



Restoration approaches 



4.0 Approaches to site restoration 

This chapter outlines three approaches to site restoration which may be used 
by a proponent when dealing with a contaminated site. The selection of an 
approach, or combination of approaches, is a decision made by the proponent 
and may be based on a number of factors including the present and desired 
physical site conditions, the intended reuse, and the administrative processes 
which accompany each approach. Sections 5, 6 and 7 provide detailed 
descriptions of each approach and an explanation of how they may be used in 
the site restoration process. The three approaches are: 

► Background 

► Generic 

► Site specific risk assessment (SSRA) 

4.1 Background approach 

The backgroimd approach involves the restoration of a site to namrally 
occurring background conditions, or ambient soil concentrations. Use of this 
approach will lead to restoration of the site to pre-contamioation levels. 
Natural backgroimd concentrations or ambient levels of a chemical do not 
usually cause adverse effects. Restoration to background levels may proceed 
by making use of the background soil criteria included with this guideline 
(Appendix 2, Table F). If desired, a proponent may also develop background 
criteria for use in the restoration of a contaminated site. Section 5 provides 
additional information on the background approach. 

4.2 Generic approach 

The generic approach involves the use of generic soil and groundwater criteria 
which are based on the effect of a contaminant on human health and/or the 
environment. These criteria have been developed using environmental exposure 
models which rely on conservative or protective assumptions about exposure to 
contaminants. This is to ensure that the generic criteria are applicable for the 
restoration of most contaminated sites in Ontario. 



Page 10 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Restoration approaches 



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4 



The generic criteria may not always be appropriate for use at all sites. 
Potentially sensitive sites, because of unique physical site conditions, or 
because of the presence of unique site receptors, may require a higher level of 
protection than that provided through the modelling of contaminant movement 
and model assumptions used in the development of the generic criteria. 
Guidance on potentially sensitive sites is provided in section 6.1. Factors other 
than those listed in section 6.1 may apply in determining whether a site is 
potentially sensitive under the Planning Act and policies under that act. 

The generic approach offers options for site restoration which are designed to 
allow proponents to match certain site attributes to the appropriate generic 
criteria. These attributes are based on the following: 

i. land use (agricultural, residential/parkland, industrial/commercial); 

ii. restoration of groundwater quality (potable/nonpotable); 

iii. depth of soil restoration; 

iv. soil texmre. 

There are options within each of these site attributes which are used to guide a 
proponent in selecting the generic criteria appropriate for use. The options 
associated with the generic approach are described in section 6. 

4.3 Site specific risk assessment approach 

The site specific risk assessment approach (SSRA) provides a process and 
administrative mechanism to develop and use criteria based on environmental 
and human health at a specific site. Site specific criteria must be protective of 
human and ecological health and of the natural environment at the site in 
question. The risk assessment process incorporates the environmental and 
ecological characteristics of the site and the characteristics of its use. The risk 
assessment may involve modification of one or more of the components used 
in the development process for generic criteria to reflect site specific 
characteristics, or may involve a more comprehensive risk assessment and risk 
management process. 

The risk assessment process involves hazard assessment (hazard identification 
and toxicity assessment), exposure assessment and subsequent characterization 
of the identified risk. The risk assessment may incorporate risk management 

Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 1 1 



SECTION 



4 



Restoration approaches 



decisions, or the results of risk assessment may be applied through risk 
management techniques. In this guideline the term Level 1 risk management 
refers to situations when the risk assessment incorporates risk management 
decisions which do not change the level of risk in the assessment. When the 
risk assessment involves changing the level of risk, or the results of the risk 
assessment are applied through risk management measures or techniques, this 
is referred to as Level 2 risk management. 

Specific guidance on risk assessment, as used in the site restoration process, is 
provided in the docimient Guidance on Site Specific Risk Assessment for Use 
at Contaminated Sites in Ontario (May 1996b). That document provides 
information on both human health and ecological risk assessment and also 
contains a description of the risk management decision making process. 

The SSRA and the administrative process which accompanies this approach are 
further described in section 7. 



Page 12 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Background approach 



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5 



5.0 Using the background approach 

The background approach involves restoration of a site to ambient conditions 
as found in the natural environment, or to the levels which existed prior to site 
contamination. This approach may be used at any contaminated site. To 
facilitate the use of this approach the ministry has compiled and provided 
background soil criteria which may be used as surface soil criteria (Appendix 
2, Table F). These soil criteria are organized by two land-use types: 
agriculmral and all others. The category of all others includes parkland, 
residential, industrial and commercial land use. 

The background criteria may also be used when: 

► generic criteria for a particular land-use designation are not provided in 
Tables A - D (Appendix 2); 

► the site has been identified as a potentially sensitive site, which requires 
use of criteria more protective than the generic criteria, and a proponent 
does not wish to imdertake a site specific risk assessment (section 6.1). 

If a proponent wants to use the background approach, and the required 
backgroimd criteria are not listed in Table F, background criteria for use at a 
site may be developed as described in section 5.1. This information should be 
provided to the ministry for review. 

If a proponent determines that the background criteria provided in Table F are 
not appropriate for use at a site because of local or regional variation in 
geology etc., backgroimd criteria may be developed as described in section 
5.1. This information should be provided to the ministry for review. 

5.1 Background criteria 

Where background criteria are not provided in Appendix 2, or when the 
background criteria provided with this guideline are not appropriate for use, a 
proponent may develop the criteria by undertaking a soil sampling and analysis 
program. This sampling program must be consistent with the method used for 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 13 



SECTION 



5 



Background approach 



the development of the criteria provided in Table F of Appendix 2 and is 
outlined below. 

The ministry's Ontario Typical Range (OTR) sampling program may be 
modified to assist with the derivation of background criteria. The OTR 
program was initiated in 1991 to determine background concentrations for a 
variety of land uses and receptor categories. A full description of the OTR 
program is provided in Ontario Tvpical Range of Chemical Parameters in Soil. 
Vegetation. Moss Bags and Snow (MOEE, 1993). 

To establish local backgroimd conditions, a sampling program requiring 
sample collection from not less than 30 separate sampling sites from at least 10 
different geographical locations must be completed. A minimum of two 
replicate samples must be taken at each of the 30 (or more) sample sites. The 
sample sites must be in areas which have not been affected by local point 
sources of air or land pollution, by local roads or highways, or by other 
known sources of contamination. The sampling program should also avoid 
areas with unusually high natural levels of contamination. These locations may 
be in rural (agriculmral land use) or urban (all other land uses) settings in 
Ontario. Suitable sites include parks, school yards, cemeteries, forests, wood 
lots, or large imdeveloped areas. 

The sampling and analysis program is used to establish the 90* percentile of 
the analytical concentration of the chemical(s) present in the soil and this value 
becomes the local background criterion for that chemical. There are two 
differences between the method used to establish local background and the 
method used in the generating the background criteria for this guideline. These 
differences are: (1) the 98"' percentile is used for establishing provincial 
backgroimd criteria; and (2) two coefficients of variation are added to the 98"' 
percentile. 

The 90* percentile is used for establishing local background concentrations 
because a smaller number of sample sites and locations are used in sample 
collection. If the analytical results show large variability, increased replicate 
sampling (ie. more than two replicate samples) and averaging of the analytical 
results from the replicate samples may be used to establish the 90* percentile. 



Page 14 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Background approach 



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5 



Background criteria which are developed using this methodology cannot be 
used for site restoration if they exceed the criteria provided in Table A 
(Appendix 2) which are based on health effects. This upper concentration limit 
was also used in applying the coefficient of variation to the 98* percentile in 
the ministry's development of the background criteria provided in Table F 
(Appendix 2). 

In areas of known widespread soil contamination, where a sampling program 
is planned and it is not possible to avoid the influence of historical, industrial 
emissions on the soil surface, the sampling program must be designed to 
determine the change in contaminant concentration as it varies with depth from 
the surface. A sampling program which establishes the variation in 
contamination from the surface to the subsurface area will better reflect the 
soil conditions of the area. This will serve to establish restoration targets 
which are consistent with the change in contaminant concentrations as they 
vary with depth. 

The ministry's publication Ontario Tvpical Range of Chemical Parameters in 
Soil, Vegetation, Moss Bags and Snow (MOEE, 1993) provides additional 
guidance on sampling and analysis procediu-es for proponents to use when 
developing backgroimd criteria. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 15 



6 



Generic approach 



6.0 Using the generic approach 

This section provides an explanation of the generic approach and of the 
decisions required to use the options available within the generic approach. 
The criteria associated with the generic approach are listed in Tables A to D 
(Appendix 2). Section 6.7 provides an outline of the process used to develop 
the generic soil, groundwater and sediment criteria provided in this guideline. 



It should not be assumed that: analysis for all the criteria provided in 
Appendix 2 is necessary in any or all cases; analysis for the full suite of 
chemical parameters listed in Appendix 2 would constimte full 
characterization of a site; or, analysis for a suspected chemical may be 
ignored if the chemical is not listed in Appendix 2. 



There are four questions which serve to guide a proponent in selecting the 
appropriate generic criteria. The terminology associated with each of these 
questions is explained in the following sections. These questions must be 
answered to arrive at the appropriate set of criteria for either soil or 
groundwater restoration. In addition, criteria are provided for fme and coarse 
textured soils for some of the chemical parameters listed in Tables A to D. An 
explanation of the relationship between the criteria and soil texture is provided 
in Section 6.4 



1. Is this a potentiaUy sensitive site? (section 6.1) 

2. What is the intended land use? (section 6.2) 

3. What type of groimdwater restoration is required? (section 6.3) 

4. Which depth of soil restoration will be used? (section 6.4) 



Figure 6a provides a decision tree which illustrates how the answers to these 
questions lead to the appropriate generic soil and groundwater criteria. 



Page 16 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Generic approach 



SECTION 



6 



Figure 6a: Decisions for selecting generic criteria 



Assess / establish the relevant 
environmental site conditions / situation 




use Table F (background criteria) or conduct ecological risk assessment / site specific risk 
assessment when generic criteria caimot be used. 

Use of the generic criteria 

The soil and groundwater cleanup criteria presented in Tables A to D of 
Appendix 2 have been developed to provide protection against the potential for 
adverse effects to human health, ecological health and the natural environment 
in a variety of exposure scenarios associated with typical site and groundwater 
uses. The criteria levels have also been established so that there will not be a 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Page 17 



SECTION 



6 



Generic approach 



potential for adverse effects through contaminant transfer from soil to indoor 
air, from groundwater or surface water through release of volatile gasses, from 
leaching of contaminants in soil to groundwater, or from groundwater 
discharge to surface water. As such, when the generic criteria levels in Tables 
A-D and all conditions associated with their use at a site are met, adverse 
effects or the likelihood of adverse effects will have been ruled out. 

However, the generic criteria do not provide this level of protection when 
conditions indicate that a site is potentially sensitive and must be assessed 
differently (section 6.1), or when stratified depth conditions are violated 
(material at depth brought to the surface). 

Safety and structural concerns, such as the potential for explosive conditions, 
the potential for corrosive conditions, or the potential for creating an unstable 
condition for foundations also must be addressed when these conditions exist 
or may exist. Use of the generic criteria does not ensure that corrosive, 
explosive or unstable conditions will be eliminated, or may not exist at a site 
in future. 

The generic criteria may be used in two different ways, depending on the land 
use associated with the contaminated site. Contaminated sites may: 

► be subject to a change in use where the decision to change the land use has 
already been made; 

► continue in the present use when a change in the land use is not being 
considered, or is not desired. 

When a landowner has made the decision to undertake a change in land-use, 
and the site assessment process described in section 8 is being followed, the 
generic criteria represent conditions which, when achieved, will allow the site 
to be reused for the intended land-use without concern for adverse effects. 

When contamination is found at a site where a change in land-use is not 
planned, the generic criteria may be used to assist in making decisions about 
adverse effects and the need for restoration. This is somewhat different from 
the previously described situation where a decision to change the land-use has 



Page 18 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Generic approach 



6 



already been made and the level of restoration required to rule out the 
potential for adverse effects is established by the new land use. 

Decisions on the need to undertake restoration action when the generic criteria 
are exceeded, and where the land use is not changing, require an examination 
and consideration of factors such as: 

► the demonstrated presence or likelihood of an adverse effect (on and off 
property); 

► an understanding of the type of protection provided by the generic criteria 
gained through knowledge of the exposure pathways and receptors which 
were considered in the development of the generic criteria, and through 
understanding how that combination of pathways and receptors relate to 
those which could be found at the site; 

► an understanding of the quantitative relationship between dose and health 
response for sensitive receptors from all exposure pathways, including the 
safety and uncertainty factors which have been used in the development of 
the generic criteria; 

► an understanding of the environmental characteristics of the contaminant 
(i.e. environmental fate and mobility) and of the site conditions which 
could influence the migration of the contaminant and its exposure and 
response characteristics (e.g. soil type, proximity to water table, depth to 
bedrock, etc.). 

In each case, the decision to undertake or not undertake restorative action 
should entail an assessment and understanding of these and possibly other 
factors which can not be universally identified or quantified in this guideline. 

When the decision is made that restorative action is needed, the generic 
criteria can be used as restoration targets or goal values. The choice of using 
the background approach or site specific risk assessment approach also remains 
available for the proponent's consideration. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 19 



SECTION 



6 



Generic approach 



There may be site conditions and characteristics which are very different from 
the conditions and assumptions used in developing the generic soil and 
groundwater criteria. There may be xmique, highly sensitive receptors, at or in 
the vicinity of a site, which were not considered in the development of the 
generic criteria and therefore make those criteria inappropriate for use. Section 
6.1 provides information on dealing with potentially sensitive sites as 
considered in this guideline. 



Page 20 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Generic approach 



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6 



6.1 Is this a potentially sensitive site? 

For the purpose of this guideline, potentially sensitive sites are those which 
meet any of the following conditions, and includes the subject site and any 
affected site(s). 

i. The contaminated site includes, or there is a potential for it to have an 
adverse effect on, any one of the following: 

a) a provincial nature reserve established under the Provincial Parks Act 
(R.S.O. 1990) by Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR). 

b) an area identified in resource management plans or inventory reports 
and zoned as a nature reserve zone by MNR. 

c) a provincially or regionally significant area of natural or scientific 
interest (ANSI) designated by MNR. 

d) a local environmentally sensitive area identified by a municipalit)', a 
conservation authorit}' or other non-provincial body. 

e) a fish habitat identified by MNR, acting as Environment Canada's 
agent, under the Fisheries Act . (R.S.C. 1985, Chap F-14 as amended) 

f) a habitat of vulnerable, threatened or endangered species of birds, 
wildlife, fish or plants as listed by MNR. 

g) a wetland identified as being significant by any planning jurisdiction. 

h) a provincial park as designated by MNR imder the Provincial Parks 
Act . 

ii. Site conditions are such that there are less than two metres of overburden 
and soil overlying the bedrock in the contaminated areas of the site, or in 
the contaminant plume area hydraulically down gradient of the source of 
the contamination. This site condition will invalidate the assumptions used 
in the contaminant leaching models used to develop the generic criteria. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 21 



SECTION 



6 



Generic approach 



iii. Inorganic chemical parameters on the site exceed background 

concentrations (Table F) and soils have a pH (in 0.01 M CaCy less 
than five or greater than nine for surface soils or greater than 1 1 for 
subsurface soils. 

For potentially sensitive sites with attributes listed imder (i), consultation with 
the appropriate agency (e.g. local MNR office, conservation authority, or local 
mimicipality) should be undertaken to ensure that the generic criteria will 
provide adequate protection. If the consultation indicates that more protective 
ecological criteria are needed, or if the generic criteria for the chemical 
parameter of concern does not include an ecological component, then 
background criteria should be used, or the ecological component of the generic 
criteria should be adjusted or developed through an ecological risk assessment 
(ERA). 

Table F in Appendix 2 provides background criteria for certain chemical 
parameters. Proponents are referred to the Rationale for the Development and 
A pplication of Generic Soil, Groundwater, and Sediment Criteria for Use at 
Contaminated Sites (May 1996c) to determine if an ecological component was 
considered in the development of generic criteria for the chemical parameter(s) 
of concern. 

The purpose of requiring an ERA is: 

► to encourage restoration to healthy conditions, where the quality and 
integrity of ecosystems, including air, water, land and biota have been 
diminished; or 

► to ensure that restoration of the contaminated site does not create an 
adverse effect for the identified sensitive natural features on or near the 
site. 

If the site meets condition (ii) a modification of the soil and groundwater 
criteria would be required to adjust the leaching component which was 
developed with contaminant transport models and use of dilution factors which 
rely on the presence of a soil and overburden layer of at least two metres. 



Page 22 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Generic approach 



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6 



Condition (iii) is meant to address the potential for the increased effect of 
inorganic contaminants on terrestrial ecological receptors and on groundwater 
as solubility, availability and mobility increase with changes in pH. 

If conditions (i), (ii) or (iii) apply to the site, restoration to background levels 
may be imdertaken, or an SSRA may be used to modify the generic criteria. 
Additional guidance on this type of SSRA may be found in section 7, and in 
Guidance on Site Specific Risk Assessment for Use at Contaminated Sites in 
Ontario (May 1996b). The need for consultation with the municipality would 
not apply to this type of SSRA. However, a peer review of the report does 
have to be completed before it is submitted to the ministry for review. The 
local MOEE district office, in consultation with the Standards Development 
Branch, will provide additional guidance when needed, on how this criteria 
modification should be best undertaken. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 23 



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Generic approach 



6.2 What is the intended land use? 

Land use types are usually designated in an ofiBcial plan or zoned as agricultural, 
residential, parkland, industrial or commercial. The soil and groundwater criteria 
provided in this guideline have been organized to reflect the following groupings: 

- Agricultural (A) 

" Residential/Parkland (R/P) 

•■ Industrial/Commercial (I/C) 

Institutional uses such as schools, daycare centres and hospitals should be included 
in the R/P category. If any portion of an industrial or commercial site includes 
residential occupancy, a playground, open space/recreational area, or a daycare the 
site should be considered to be in the R/P category. This is consistent with the 
assumptions and the exposure scenarios considered in developing the criteria. 

Mothballing contaminated sites 

Ideally, contaminated sites which are being taken out of service and mothballed, 
such as a retail fuel outlet, should be restored to levels which correspond to the 
appropriate land-use category noted above, based on the proposed ofl5cial plan or 
management plan land-use designation or zoning. When a proponent chooses not 
to restore the site, measures should be put in place to restrict public access, and to 
ensure that environmental condition of the site will not cause, or is not likely to 
cause an adverse eflfect to human health, ecological health or the natural 
environment The person responsible may consider using one or more of the 
following to restrict access to the site; 

i. warning signs; 

ii. fencing, 

iii. maintaining security and/or surveillance. 

Landowners may also consider providing notification of the restricted site 
conditions to the municipality and/or local fire department. It is the responsibility 
of the owner, occupant of a property or other person responsible to ensure that 
site conditions comply with applicable statutes and regulations. 



Page 24 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Generic approach 



6 



6.3 What type of groundwater restoration is required? 

Criteria are provided for the restoration of impaired groundwater to potable 
and nonpotable conditions (Table A/Table B, Appendix 2). These criteria are 
to be used when groundwater quality has been degraded because of a spill, 
leak or other discharge of a contaminant, and remedial action is required. 

Restoration of groimdwater quality to either potable or nonpotable levels 
ensures the following: 

/ protection against exposure from vapours which may migrate to indoor air 
(basements) from volatile chemicals in groundwater; 

/ protection for aquatic receptors in surface waters which could be affected 
by the discharge of groundwater. 

In addition to the levels of protection noted above, restoration of groundwater 
to potable levels ensures: 

/ protection of groundwater as a soiu"ce of drinking water for human health 
criteria and for aesthetic guidelines. 

Further explanation of how these levels of protection have been developed is 
provided in Section 6.7. 

The following guidance must be used by proponents making decisions about 
the level of groundwater restoration required at a site. 



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SECTION 



6 



Generic approach 



Groundwater restoration to nonpotable levels may be considered only 
when all of the following conditions are met: 

i. area is already served by a communal or mimicipal drinking water 
supply which does not rely on the local groundwater; 

ii. present or future surface water or groundwater sources of drinking 
• water will not be adversely affected, including water for 
agricultural and aquaculture uses; 

iii. the proponent has notified the municipality of the proposal to use 
criteria which would restore groundwater to nonpotable levels. 



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The reason for condition (i) is to ensure that existing private water supphes 
will not be adversely affected if restoration does not take place to potable 
levels. 

The reason for condition (ii) is to ensure that the quality of existing or future 
potential communal or mimicipal water supplies will continue to meet the 
limits prescribed in the Ontario Drinking Water Objectives (MOEE, 1994c) if 
a potable level of restoration does not occur. Potential for degradation of water 
being used for irrigation, aquaculture or other uses more sensitive than 
drinking water must also be considered. 

The reason for condition (iii) is to ensure that the municipality is aware of the 
proposed groundwater restoration to nonpotable levels and has an opportimity 
to raise concerns, if any, with the proponent. 

The following reference is provided for those needing additional information 
on irrigation water quality as noted in condition (ii) above. 

Fact sheet: Water Quality for Greenhouse Crops . Ministry of Agriculmre and 
Food (1987), Blom, T., Straver, B., Brown, W., and Hughes, J., AGDEX 
290/15 

The ministry has recently updated its objectives for drinking water quality. 
These can be found in Ontario Drinking Water Objectives (MOEE 1994c). The 
chemical parameters provided in the provincial drinking water objectives are 
not all listed in Table A of this guideline. The levels of protection provided by 
the drinking water objectives may be different from those listed in Table A of 
this guideline for potable groundwater. 

In most cases the drinking water values are the lowest of the three values 
which make up the leaching component and thus become the potable 
groundwater criteria (see Figures 6b and 6c). In some instances, one of the 
other two values which make up the leaching component is lower than the 
drinking water value. In these instances potable groundwater criteria will be 
lower than the drinking water value. 

When establishing groundwater criteria it is necessary to consider protection 
against vapour movement from groundwater and to provide protection of 

Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 27 



SECTION 



6 



Generic approach 



surface water from the discharge of contaminated groundwater. When these 
scenarios are considered, the Table A criterion will be numerically lower than 
the Ontario Drinking Water Objective. Section 6.7 provides additional 
information on the different components considered in the development of the 
groimdwater criteria. 

Proponents are advised to refer to the drinking water quality objectives when 
guidance is required for chemical parameters not listed in Table A. Proponents 
are also advised to refer to the Rationale for the Development and Application 
of Generic Soil. Groundwater, and Sediment Criteria for Use at Contaminated 
Sites (May 1996c), for a detailed explanation of the rationale for the 
groundwater criteria presented in this document, including an explanation of 
the levels of protection provided by these criteria. 



Page 28 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Generic approach 



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6 



6.4 Which depth of soil restoration will be used? 

Proponents may generally select one of two options for the depth of soil 
restoration to take place at a site. When the vertical extent of the 
contamination extends more than 1.5 metres below the final site grade, the 
proponent may choose to do either a full depth restoration or a stratified 
restoration. Full depth restoration means that soil quality is restored for the 
full vertical and lateral extent to which contamination is found at the site. 

A stratified restoration involves use of two different sets of criteria at a site. 
For each chemical parameter of concern, one criterion is used for soil at and 
above 1.5 metres and another is used for soil below 1.5 metres. This condition 
is referred to as a stratified site condition. For a stratified site condition, the 
quality of the soils at and above 1.5 metres should not exceed the criteria 
provided in Table A or B, and the quality of the soils below 1.5 metres should 
not exceed the levels provided in Table C or D. When a stratified site 
condition exists at a site, the subsurface soils must remain at a depths greater 
than 1.5 metres. If subsurface soils are brought to and left at surface, or 
within 1.5 metres of the surface, further management of these soils will be 
required. 

The 1.5 metre mark, which establishes the depth above and below which 
different criteria may be used, is measured from the final grade elevation 
excluding the thickness of any non-soil surface treatment such as asphalt, 
concrete, aggregate, etc.. 

Three generic criteria components were examined when the surface soil 
criteria were developed. These are the soil ingestion/dermal contact 
component, the terrestrial ecological protection component and the soil vapour 
to indoor air component. Exposure scenarios for soil ingestion/dermal contact, 
which estimate the effect of the chemical on human health, have been adjusted 
to reflect the changes in frequency and intensity of exposure likely to be 
associated with different site uses (i.e. residential, commercial) and soil 
accessibility. The terrestrial ecological component and the soil vapour to 
indoor air component were not applied to subsurface soils. 

The generic criteria for surface and subsurface soil were developed to provide 
protection against the potential for vapour movement to indoor air (basement) 

Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 29 



SECTION 



6 



Generic approach 



if vapour is emanating from contaminated groundwater or contaminated soil in 
close proximity to a basement. Potential vapour movement from contaminated 
soil or groundwater will not adversely affect air quality when living space is 
located above or below the 1.5 metre level if the generic soil quality criteria 
are met. An additional 1.5 metre envelope of surface soil quality is not 
required below a basement floor. 

Soil texture 

Criteria for some of the organic and inorganic parameters listed in Tables A to 
D have different values for coarse and fme textured soil/overburden. Texmre 
influences the availability of, or the ease with which plants and animals will 
take in, contaminants which have adhered to soil particles. Contaminants 
which adhere to coarse material are usually more available for uptake than 
those which adhere to fme textured material. The numerical values of the 
criteria for coarse materials, therefore, tend to be smaller than those for fine 
materials. 

Coarse textured soil/overburden is defined as material having greater than 70 
percent (by dry weight) particles equal to or larger than 50/i diameter (sand). 
Materials with less than 70 percent sand-sized particles are medium/fine 
textured. 

The generic criteria for coarse textured material must be used if a laboratory 
texture analysis has not been completed, unless the texmre can be easily and 
clearly distinguished from a field examination. A sieve analysis is usually used 
to accurately determine the particle size fractions, and to allow selection of the 
appropriate criteria based on texmre. At some sites there may be significant 
lateral and vertical differences in the texture. Normally, when greater than 2/3 
of the soil/overburden (surface to bedrock) is of a particular type, the site will 
be composed of that type of material. However, consideration should be given 
to chosing the most permeable material at a site (even if less than 2/3) in 
situations where migration of contaminants from the site could be affected by 
the location of this material at the site. 

Soil pH 



Page 30 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Generic approach 



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6 



The generic criteria are meant to be used when surface soil pH falls between 
five and nine, and when the pH of overburden at depth (greater than 1.5 
metres) falls between five and 11. When the pH is beyond these ranges, 
contaminant mobility may be affected and will require further investigation. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 31 



SECTION 



6 



Generic approach 



6.5 Summary of generic criteria tables 

Tables 6a and 6b summarize the relationship between the guideline criteria 
tables presented in Appendix 2 and the variables of land use, type of 
groundwater restoration and depth of soil restoration discussed in the previous 
sections. 

Table 6a: Generic criteria for fiill depth restoration 





Soil and groundwater criteria by land use 
and existing or future groundwater use 


Full depth 
condition 


Ag 
soil 


ResVPar 
k 
soil 


IndNCom 
soil 


Potable 
groundwater 


Res\Park 
soil 


IndVCom 

soil 


Nonpo table 
groundwater 


from surface 
to depth of 

rnnraminatinn 


Table A 


Table B 



Table 6b: Generic criteria for stratified depth restoration 





Soil and groundwater criteria by land use 
and existing or future groundwater use 


Stratified 
condition 


Ag 
soil 


Res\Par 
ksoil 


Ind\Com 
soil 


Potable 
groundwater 


Res\Park 
soil 


IndVCom 
soil 


Nonpo table 
groundwater 


from surface 
to 1.5 m 
below surface 




Table A 




Table 


B 


below 
1.5 m to 
depth of 
contamination 


Table C 




Table D 





Page 32 



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Generic approach 



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6 



6.6 Development of the generic criteria 

This section provides an overview of the process used to develop the generic 
guideline criteria. An extensive set of generic criteria for 117 organic and 
inorganic chemical parameters is provided with this guideline for use when the 
generic approach is selected for use at a contaminated site. Section 6.7 
provides options for development of new criteria when the chemical of concern 
identified at a site is not listed in the criteria tables which accompany this 
guideline. 



It should not be assumed that: analysis for all the criteria provided in 
Appendix 2 is necessary in any or all cases; analysis for the full suite of 
chemical parameters listed in Appendix 2 would constimte full 
characterization of a site; or, analysis for a suspected chemical may be 
ignored if the chemical is not listed in Appendix 2. 



Generic criteria for soils and groundwater have been developed to protect 
human health, ecological health and the natural environment under a range of 
exposure scenarios related to three common land-use groupings, two 
groundwater uses, two contaminant depth scenarios and rwo soil texmres as 
described in Section 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4. The development of the numerical 
criteria was based in part on consideration of the following: 

► direct and indirect pathways of exposure to both human and ecological 
receptors (terrestrial and aquatic); 

► consideration of environmental fate and movement of the contamination; 

► assumptions about likely exposure pathways to sensitive receptors. 

Groundwater criteria were developed for restoration to both potable and 
nonpotable levels. The potable criteria protect groundwater as an existing or 
future drinking water source, protect against adverse effects from potential 
movement of vapours from the groundwater to indoor air, and protect against 
adverse effects to aquatic species from contaminants in groundwater being 
discharged to surface water bodies. 

Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 33 



SECTION 



6 



Generic approach 



The nonpotable criteria provide protection against potential adverse effects 
from vapour migrating to indoor air and protection against potential adverse 
effects to groimdwater discharging to surface water. This information is 
summarised in Table 6e. 

The generic criteria for soil have also been developed to ensure that ambient 
air quality and groundwater quality criteria will not be exceeded if there are 
contaminant vapours or if there is contaminant leaching from the soil. These 
criteria will also prevent the likelihood of indoor air contamination from soil 
vapour movement. Soil vapour to outdoor air, soil contamination to 
groundwater, soil vapour to indoor air, and groimdwater vapour to indoor air 
models were used to develop these levels of protection. 

A detailed description of the process used to develop the generic criteria is 
available in the Rationale For the Development and Application of Generic 
Soil, Groundwater, and Sediment Criteria for Use at Contaminated Sites in 
Ontario (May 1996c). 

Ceiling concentration limits 

The generic criteria concentrations, which were developed to be protective of 
human and ecological health and the natural environment, are restricted in 
value by established concentration limits. These are referred to as ceiling 
concentrations and are used to deal with the potential for odour/taste concerns 
and to place a limit on the maximum concentration value of the health-based 
criteria. This limit will minimize the potential for continued deterioration of 
soil and groundwater quality in Ontario, recognizing that once contaminated, it 
may not be possible or feasible to restore these media to ambient or 
backgroimd levels. It also provides a level of protection for routes of exposure 
which were not included in the generic criteria component process, such as 
direct ingestion from consimiing food grown in restored soil, inhalation of soil 
particles and bioaccumulation of contaminants in animals grazing on restored 
soil. 



Page 34 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Generic approach 



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Analytical detection limits 

The generic criteria concentrations were compared with analytical detection 
capabilities of laboratories and with provincial background soil quality levels. 
This was done to ensure that the generic criteria would not be set below 
analytical limits or background levels. The nimierical value for a chemical 
parameter may be adjusted upward because the human/ecological health value 
is numerically lower than the analytical detection limit or the background 
concentration. This amounts to a change from the hiraian/ecological health risk 
target level, or from the percentage of the total tolerable intake allocated to 
that receptor's exposure pathway used in the development of the generic 
criteria. 

The component process 

Figures 6b and 6c provide an overview of the process used in the development 
of the generic soil and groundwater criteria. The criteria components, the 
value selection process and the some of the risk management decisions are 
briefly described. Additional discussion of the risk management decisions is 
provided in section 7.1. The process outlined in these figures was used in the 
selection of criteria for each of the land use and groundwater use categories. 

Tables 6c, 6d, and 6e provide a more detailed list the receptors and routes of 
exposure (pathways) considered in the development of the majority of the soil 
and groundwater criteria. The process outlined in Figures 6b and 6c is used in 
conjunction with the marked components from Tables 6c, 6d and 6e for each 
scenario (land use, restoration depth, groundwater use). Table 6c provides 
information on the development of agricultural and residential/parkland soil 
criteria. Table 6d provides information on the development of 
industrial/commercial soil criteria and Table 6e provides information on the 
development of potable and nonpotable groimdwater criteria. 

The receptors and pathways considered in the development of the generic 
criteria have been divided into three component groups to illustrate the way in 
which the criteria were developed. At the top of tables 6c and 6d is a listing of 
the land use, the depth of restoration, the type of groundwater restoration, and 
the table of Appendix 2 where the actual criteria for that site condition are 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 35 



SECTION 



6 



Generic approach 



Figure 6b: Overview of generic soil criteria selection process 



/tiuman health effects > 










fi,iKi\MKM'nlm -- 


- 80i (ngesten viiua 

- ockxjr b*Md caUng vUie 









/teaching: soil to sroundwatsr 










MlactkMmvdus 


- (Mildng mter qupHy vtlue 

• ^Dundwitar to stffac* water viJua 








tmJl^^Aml^ u«i 



MJWUIVIAM 



/Migration: soil vapour to inaoor air 



- h«aKh based indoor air valu« 

- odour baaad caiBng vaJua 

- backgrouid mdoor air value 



Z' laladkMerof — 

haaltti or odotf 

vahje endcomparv 

tobackgrourxl 



aaieuuwui 
torlandUM. 

ractoration and aoil 
taxture category 



Terrsstrial ecological etfects 



■ phytotoxketogical value (MOEE) 
ecologkal value (Netheiiandi) 



wlecl MOEE value. 
or If cx> value, uae 
Nottteilandsvaiue 




Salact higher of 



Criteria 
components 



Value selection 
process 



RisK management 
decisions 



listed (Tables A, B, C or D). Table 6e lists the potable and nonpotable 
groundwater categories at the top. 

Tables 6c, 6d and 6e are read by establishing the appropriate category of 
interest at the top of the table (land use, restoration depth and groundwater 
restoration). By reading down the coliunn for the appropriate category one can 
see the exposure routes, exposure effects, or risk management variables which 
were included in the development of those criteria. These are marked with a 
• . 

Component group A is a listing of the direct and indirect pathways, receptors, 
and the risk-based effects considered in the generic criteria development. The 
human or ecological receptor is noted in parentheses. The SI, S2 and S3 
notations relate to soil categories used by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
and are part of an approach which has been adopted and modified for use in 



Page 36 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Generic approach 



SECTION 



6 



Figure 6c: Overview of groundwater criteria selection process 



/imniang water quaiify~ 



- omrto OMdng W«er Obledlves 

- haaBi baud tttiUng votsr vmlua 
• odouytaile value 



/'•elBclUWVOof --1 
loMrofheaRh 

bated or 
odotfAaate value 








select tow«r of 
•oluHIly or csung 



T^S" 



^Ifl r aumi. g t uu r v^jvaie r v d pou r to 
indoor air 



- huOh basad Indoor ttr value 

- odoif' recognttton value 

• badcgrDund mdoor atr vakM 



heaHh based or 
odour value and 

compare to 
background 



kM«i vakje of a. 

b.orc 

Nor^wtable: 

aelectkMeft 
value of b or c 



/Miyiutiuii. yiuUIKiWcltUI tU 

surface water 



- freshiwalBr apedet: acute toxictly value 

- frMhwater tpedes: chrrmlc toxldty value 



Criteria 
components 







•elect kwer of "^ 
value 

J 








ivJydcal 



Value selection 

process 



Risk management 
decisions 



Ontario. A complete explanation of these categories is provided in the 
Rationale for the Development and Application of Generic Soil. Groundwater 
and Sediment Criteria for Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario (MOEE 
1996c). 

Component group B is a listing of additional effects and/or ceiling 
concentrations considered in the development of the generic criteria which are 
not based on health risk, but which do provide protection against different 
types of effects. The boundaries established by these components serve as 
limits to a potential effect which is not health based. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



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Generic approach 



Component group C is a listing of Level 1 risk managentient variables 
considered in the development of the generic criteria. These are the variables 
which serve as limiting elements in the process. An explanation of how the 
decisions are made in selecting values from the different component groups is 
provided below. 

Use of this component process incorporates the flexibility required to provide 
criteria for the different land use, groundwater, and soil restoration options 
previously described. The only exceptions to the use of this component 
approach are cases where the component values had not been developed, or 
where additional research effort is required. These are noted in the ministry 
rationale document (May 1996c). 

The following is an explanation of how the component process is used in the 
selection of generic soil and groundwater criteria, and assists in understanding 
which exposure and receptor components influence the nimierical value of the 
criteria. This process is illustrated in Figures 6b and 6c. 

► the criteria are arrived at by selecting the lowest value from all of the 
marked components (/) in groups A and B. 

► if the selected value from groups A and B is greater than that for any 
marked component from group C, then the lowest value from groups A or 
B becomes the criterion. 

► if the selected value from groups A and B is less than any marked group C 
component, then the greater of the marked group C components becomes 
the criterion value. 

Table 6e shows that the only difference in the components considered for the 
potable and nonpotable criteria is that of human health effects (drinking water). 
All other group A, group B and group C components were considered in the 
development of the potable and nonpotable groundwater restoration criteria. 



Page 38 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Generic approach 



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Table 6c: Considerations in the development of generic criteria for 
agricultural and residential/parkland soils 



COMPONENTS USED 
IN THE 

DEVELOPMENT OF 
SOIL QUALITY 
CRITEIUA 


Land use => 


ar 


Residential/parkland 


Cleanup depth =» 


F 


F 


S 


SS 


Groundwater => 


P 


P 


N 
P 


P 


N 
P 


P 


N 
P 


Table A,B,C, or D =* 


A 


A 


B 


A 


B 


c 


D 


COMPONENT GROUP A 


Dermal contact/ingestion (human health) 
High exposure/accessible soils (SI) 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 






Deimal contact/ingestion (human health) 
Moderate exposure/accessible soils (S2) 












/ 


• 


Dermal contact/ingestion (human health) 
Limited exposure/restricted access (S3) 
















Ecological effects - direct contact (plants/microbes) 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


• 






Ecological effects (bioaccumulation/grazing animals) 


/ 














Leaching to gw - potable quality (human health) 


/ 


/ 




• 




/ 




Leaching to gw - vapour movement from gw to indoor 
air (human health) 


/ 


/ 


/ 


• 


/ 


• 


/ 


Leaching to gw - discharge to surface water (aquatic 
organisms) 


/ 


• 


/ 


• 


/ 


• 


/ 


Vapourizing to ambient air (human health) 


• 


/ 


• 


/ 


/ 






Vapour movement from soil to indoor air (human 
health) 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 







Ag = Agricultural 

S = Surface 

/ = was considered 



F = Full 

SS = Subsurface 



P = Potable (drinking) 
NT = Nonpotable 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Page 39 



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Generic approach 



Table 6c cont'd: Considerations in the development of generic criteria for 
agricultural and residential/parkland soils 



COMPONENTS USED 
IN THE 

DEVELOPMENT OF 
SOIL QUALITY 
CRITERU 


Land use => 


ar 


Residential/parkland 


Cleanup depth => 


F 


F 


S 


SS 


Groundwater => 


P 


P 


N 
P 


P 


N 
P 


P 


N 
P 


Table A3,C or D => 


A 


A 


B 


A 


B 


C 


D 


COMPONENT GROUP B 


SI Soil ceiling - odour based - low volatiles 


/ 


• 


• 


/ 


• 






82 Soil ceiling - odour based - high volatiles 












/ 


/ 


S2 Soil ceiling - odour based - moderate volatiles 












/ 


• 


S2 Soil ceiling - odour based - low volatiles 












• 


/ 


S3 Soil ceiling - odour based - high volatiles 
















S3 Soil ceiling - odour based - moderate volatiles 
















S3 Soil ceiling - odour based - low volatiles 
















COMPONENT GROUP C 


Rural background soil quality 


/ 














Urban background soil quality 




/ 


• 


• 


• 


/ 


/ 


Analytical capability (MDL/PQL) 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 



Ag = Agricultural 

S = Surface 

/ = was considered 



F = Full 

SS = Subsurface 



P = Potable (drinking) 
NP = Nonpotable 



Page 40 



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Generic approach 



SECTION 



6 



Table 6d: Considerations in the development of generic criteria for 
industrial/commercial soils 



COMPONENTS USED IN 
THE DEVELOPMENT OF 
SOIL QUALITY 
CRTTERU 


Land use => 


Industrial/commercial 


Cleanup depth =» 


F 


S 


SS 


Groundwater => 


P 


N 
P 


P 


N 
P 


P 


N 
P 


Table A,B,C or D => 


A 


B 


A 


B 


c 


D 


COMPONENT GROUP A 


Dermal contact/ingestion (human health) 
high exposure/accessible soils (SI) 














Dennal contact/ingestion (human health) 
moderate exposure/accessible soils (82) 


• 


/ 


/ 


/ 






Dennal contact/ingestion (human health) 
limited exposure/restricted access (S3) 










/ 


/ 


Ecological effects - direct contact (plants/microbes) 


/ 


/ 


• 


/ 






Ecological effects (bioaccumulation/grazing animals) 














Leaching to gw - potable qualitv' (human health) 


/ 




/ 




/ 




Leaching to gw - vapour movement from gw to indoor air 
(human health) 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


Leaching to gw - discharge to surface water (aquatic organisms) 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


Vapourizing to ambient air (human health) 


/ 


/ 


/ 


• 






Vapour movement from soil to indoor air (human health) 


/ 


• 


/ 


/ 







F = Full 
S = Surface 
SS = Subsurface 



P = Potable (drinking) 
NP = Nonpotable 
/ = was considered 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



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SECTION 



6 



Generic approach 



Table 6d cont'd: Considerations in the development of generic criteria for 
industrial/commercial soils 



COMPONENTS USED EM 
THE DEVELOPMENT OF 
SOIL QUALITY 
CRITERIA 


Land use ^ 


Industrial/commercial 


Cleanup depth => 


F 


S 


SS 


Groundwater => 


P 


N 
P 


P 


N 
P 


P 


N 
P 


Table A3,C or D =)■ 


A 


B 


A 


B 


c 


D 


COMPONENT GROUP B 


SI Soil ceiling - odour based - high volatiles 














SI Soil ceiling - odour based - moderate volatiles 














SI Soil ceiling - odour based - low volatiles 














S2 Soil ceiling - odour based - high volatiles 


/ 


• 


/ 


• 






S2 Soil ceiling - odour based - moderate volatiles 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 






S2 Soil ceiling - odour based - low volatiles 


/ 


• 


• 


/ 






S3 Soil ceiling - odour based - high volatiles 










/ 


/ 


S3 Soil ceiling - odour based - moderate volatiles 










/ 


/ 


S3 Soil ceiling - odour based - low volatiles 










/ 


/ 


COMPONENT GROUP C 


Rural background soil qualit>' 














Urban background soil qualit>' 


/ 


/ 


/ 


• 


/ 


/ 


Analytical «^abilit>' (MDL/PQL) 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 



F = Full 
S = Surface 
SS = Subsurface 



P = Potable (drinking) 
NP = Nonpotable 
• = was considered 



Page 42 



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Table 6e: Considerations in the development of generic groundwater 
criteria 



COMPONENTS USED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF 
GROUNDWATER QUALITY CRTTEIUA 


Potable 
Table A 


Non 
potable 

Table B 


COMPONENT GROUP A 


Drinking water quality (human health) 


/ 




Vapour movement from groundwater to indoor air (human health) 


/ 


/ 


Groundwater discharge to surface water (aquatic organisms) 


/ 


/ 


COMPONENT GROUP B 


Ceiling concentration in water (odour/taste) 


/ 


/ 


Vapour movement from gw to indoor air (50% odour recognition) 


• 


/ 


COMPONENT GROUP C 


Analytical capability (MDL/PQL) 


/ 


/ 


Vapour movement from groundwater to indoor air (indoor air background) 


• 


/ 


Ceiling concentration in water (50% of solubility) 


• 


/ 



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Generic approach 



6.7 Developing new generic criteria 

This guideline provides soil and groundwater criteria for a number of 
inorganic and organic chemical parameters. There may be situations where a 
chemical is identified during a site assessment but is not listed in Appendix 2. 
In this situation, a proponent may choose to develop individual generic criteria 
or to adopt criteria from another jurisdiction as needed. In all cases, human 
health, ecological health and protection of the natural environment must be 
considered. The process used, including reference information, must be fully 
documented and submitted to the MOEE for review. 

When the proponent decides to develop generic criteria, the methodology used 
in the development of Ontario's criteria for this guideline may be followed. 
Alternatively, the methodology described in the Canadian Council of Ministers 
of the Environment (CCME) document entitled A Protocol for the Derivation 
of Environmental and Human Health Soil Quality Guidelines (CCME, 1996) 
may be utilized. In some cases, no single protocol may be suitable for 
developing criteria for certain compounds, and alternate approaches, such as 
restoration to background levels, may have to be used. 

6.8 Updates to criteria 

As part of its mandate to ensure environmental protection, the ministry is 
involved in the ongoing review of standards for quality of air, land and water. 
The criteria provided in this guideline are based on the best information 
available to the ministry at the time of publication of this guideline. 

Guideline criteria may be subject to adjustment as research advances and 
knowledge of health effects and the environmental fate of chemicals in soil, 
groundwater and sediment improves. Modifications to the generic criteria are 
subject to the public notification provisions outlined in the Environmental Bill 
of Rights (EBR) and/or to independent consultation. In all cases, the EBR 
Registry will be used to provide notification of changes to all ministry 
standards and criteria. 



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7.0 The site specific risk assessment approach 

The site specific risk assessment (SSRA) approach allows the incorporation of 
considerations which are specific to the site in the development of soil and 
groundwater criteria. This approach includes both risk assessment and risk 
management. 

Risk assessment is the technical, scientific examination of the nature and 
magnitude of risk and uses a factual base to defme the health effects of 
exposure of individuals or hiunan and ecological populations to contaminants 
in different exposure situations. Risk assessment involves estimating the 
likelihood of an event and providing an expression of what that event might 
be. Protection of himian and ecological health and of the natural environment 
must be considered when the site specific risk assessment approach is selected 
for use. 

The SSRA approach may be used to: 

► modify the human health or ecological components of a generic criterion 
through consideration of site specific exposure pathways and receptor 
characteristics; 

► develop all human health or ecological components of a site specific 
criterion. 

The human health and ecological components considered in the development of 
the generic criteria are listed in Tables 6c and 6d under the heading 
Component Group A. 

Some of the variables which may be modified to reflect site conditions are: 

► the models which estimate contaminant movement through soil, 
groundwater or to air; 

► the soil/groundwater/hydrogeological characteristics used in the models; 

► the groundwater dilution and attenuation factors used in the development of 
the generic criteria. 

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SSRA approach 



Human health risk assessment 

When using risk assessment in the site restoration process, all non-cancer as 
well as cancer endpoints must be considered in a himian health risk 
assessment. Use of risk assessment requires knowledge and expertise from a 
wide range of specialists. Expert judgements and decisions are required 
throughout the process and must be fully documented to aid in the review of 
the assessment. 

In a risk assessment, when only selected human health components of the 
generic criterion are being modified to reflect factors specific to the site, the 
remaining generic components (human and ecological) cannot be disregarded 
in the process of modifying the criteria (see Tables 6c. 6d and 6e). When 
modification of the components has been completed, all modified and 
unmodified components (human and ecological) must be compared. The site- 
specific criterion is determined by the most sensitive (lowest) component. 

Where a component in the generic criterion development is missing, the 
possible effects of the proposed modification on the receptors relevant to the 
missing component/pathway should be evaluated. For example, modification of 
the direct contact component (human health) for a volatile chemical which does 
not also have the soil vapour to indoor air component (human health) or 
ecological component will involve an evaluation to rule out possible effects due 
to the soil vapour to indoor air pathway or on ecological receptors, 
respectively. This evaluation can be conducted through the use of site specific 
data, reference to scientific literature, and/or modelling. 

At potentially sensitive sites, as described in section 6.1, the use of human 
health risk assessment may also be necessary to address site-specific situations 
where the movement of contaminants to groundwater caimot be adequately 
characterized by the assumptions made in the soil-to-groundwater contaminant 
movement model used in the development of the generic criterion. 

The four elements of a human health risk assessment are: 

► Hazard identification/problem formulation 

► Toxicity assessment 

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► Exposure assessment 

► Risk characterization 

Additional information on these elements of a himian health risk assessment 
are provided in Guidance on Site Specific Risk Assessment for Use at 
Contaminated Sites in Ontario (1996b). 

Ecological risk assessment 

Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is the technical and scientific assessment of 
the nature and magnitude of the risk attributable to the presence of a 
contaminant when considering the natural environment and its nonhuman 
components. 

In an ERA, when the terrestrial and/or aquatic ecological components of a 
generic criterion are being modified to reflect site specific factors, the 
remaining components (human and ecological) stay fixed and cannot be 
disregarded in the criteria modification process (see Tables 6c, 6d and 6e). 

At potentially sensitive sites, as described in Section 6.1, an ERA may be 
required to modify the components of the generic criteria to account for 
sensitive receptors or site conditions not considered in the process of 
developing the generic criteria. 

The CCME (Gaudet et al., 1994) has established three levels of investigation 
for consideration when conducting an ERA. These are: 

► Screening level assessment; 

► Preliminary quantitative risk assessment; 

► Detailed quantitative risk assessment. 

Each level builds upon the existing data, knowledge, and decisions from the 
preceding level. If the initial level or tier of assessment does not adequately 
characterize the risk, then it will be necessary to use the next level of 



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SSRA approach 



investigation. When the level of an ERA is adequate for ecological risk 
management decisions to be made, the process should stop at that level. 

The four elements of an ecological risk assessment are: 

► Receptor characterization; 

► Exposure assessment; 

► Hazard assessment; 

► Risk characterization. 

Additional information on the details associated with these elements of an 
ecological risk assessment are provided in Guidance on Site Specific Risk 
Assessment for Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario (May 1996b). 

In addition to its use in the SSRA approach, ERA may be used in development 
of, or in adjusting, criteria for use at potentially sensitive sites. Both ERA and 
human health risk assessment should be used in the development of generic 
criteria when generic criteria are not available. 

7.1 Risk management 

Risk management refers to the development and implementation of a decision, 
strategy or technique to limit or manage the level of risk estimated by the risk 
assessment process. In some cases, the decisions are a part of and directly 
affect the scientific risk assessment process, while in other cases they are made 
in consideration of factors other than scientific factors. Depending on the 
nature of the risk management measures, further risk assessment may be 
necessary to assist in the evaluation of residual risks resulting from the use of 
these strategies or techniques. 

This guideline distinguishes between two basic types of risk management 
decisions, termed Level 1 and Level 2 risk management. 



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Level 1 risk management 

A number of risk management decisions have been made by the ministry in the 
development of the generic criteria provided in this guideline. When 
proponents use the SSRA approach, these decisions must be incorporated and 
are simmiarized below. 

► use of ceiling concentrations in development of soil and groimdwater 
criteria. 

► development of site specific criteria would not require the same ceiling 
concentrations used in the development of the generic criteria. 
However, use of an upper conce;itration limit (UCL) is a part of the 
SSRA approach. A full description is provided in the companion 
document Guidance on Site Specific Risk Assessment for Use at 
Contaminated Sites in Ontario (MOEE, 1996b) 

► use of 50 percent water solubility limits. 

► use of backgroimd soil concentrations as a lower concentration limit to 
ensure that criteria are not set below backgroimd levels. 

► use of analytical detection limits as a lower concentration limit to ensure 
that criteria are not set below analytical capabilities. 

► allocating 20 percent of the reference dose for each exposure pathway. 

► the 20 percent allocation for each pathway may be increased or reduced 
(Level 1 risk management decision). Any deviation from the 20 
percent allocation level must be supported with a multimedia exposure 
assessment to reflect the site exposure conditions. 

► use of an excess lifetime cancer risk of one in one million (10"*) for each 
exposure pathway for non-threshold parameters (carcinogens). 

► changing this risk level is considered a Level 2 risk management 
decision. 



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SSRA approach 



Level 2 risk management 

These types of decisions involve use of mechanisms or techniques for 
reducing, eliminating or blocking exposure pathways. Limiting the way in 
which a site is used, or limiting access from certain receptors, modifying the 
level of risk based on socio-economic or technical feasibility considerations, or 
using other mitigative measures designed to minimize the movement or uptake 
of contaminants by receptors are considered Level 2 risk management 
decisions. 

Level 2 risk management plan 

Level 2 risk management decisions should be summarized in a risk 
management plan. The risk management plan must provide for, but need not 
be restricted to, the following: 

► the source and namre of the adverse effect or potential for the adverse 
effect; 

► the control measure(s) used to eliminate or reduce the adverse effect or 
potential adverse effect to acceptable levels; 

► the exact nature of the monitoring and maintenance required, and a 
schedule for the monitoring and maintenance of the risk management 
measure(s); 

► the person(s) responsible for, and financial arrangements for, ongoing 
monitoring and maintenance of the risk management measure(s); 

► the person(s) to be notified, and the person(s) responsible for ensuring 
appropriate corrective action is imdertaken, as required, to maintain the 
effective operation(s) of the risk management measure(s); 

► the action(s) required should the responsible person(s) be unable to 
complete any of the above; 



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► the source(s) and amount(s) of funding available to undertake corrective 
action(s) as required; 

► the contingency provision(s) included in the design of the risk management 
measure(s); 

► the instimtional or administrative control(s) or agreement(s) which, if 
required, ensure that the risk management measure(s) is/are not subject to 
alteration without prior notification to the municipal or other local land-use 
authority. The ministry will not be a party to these agreements. 

7.2 Administrative requirements 

The administrative requirements for use of the SSRA approach are outlined in 
this section. Section 8.7 provides additional information on the use of the 
Certificate of Prohibition mentioned below. 

Risk management may involve the use of strategies, controls or techniques to 
limit the movement of contaminants, and/or limit the potential for receptors to 
be exposed to contaminants. A proposal for a land-use change may incorporate 
risk management. A municipal approval or permit may be required for the 
construction and installation of a risk management control or technique. 

The ministry will complete the technical review of risk assessments and/or risk 
management plans and provide comments when the SSRA approach is used. 

The administrative requirements when using the SSRA approach are listed 
below. 

► A community-based public communication program should be developed 
and implemented to provide the public with an opportunit>' to participate in 
the risk assessment process and in the development of the remedial plan 
(section 3). 

► The proponent must confum that use of the SSRA approach has been 
discussed with the municipality (cit>' or other local public authorit>'). 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 51 



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SSRA approach 



► A qualified, independent peer reviewer, one with no previous involvement 
with the site must review the documentation, including scientific 
references, scientific judgment and any identified areas of uncertainty 
associated with the risk assessment. Concerns identified through the peer 
review must be documented and resolved before the documentation is 
submitted for ministry review. 

In addition to the requirements listed above, when Level 2 risk management 
measures are proposed, the risk management plan must also provide for the 
following: 

► Municipal controls may need to be established when Level 2 risk 
management (site management) includes provisions to limit receptor access 
or to block or mitigate exposure pathways. These controls are required to 
ensure that the site does not change in a way which would reduce the 
effectiveness of the control measures, or create pathways for receptors 
which were not considered in the risk assessment; 

► After the ministry reviews and concurs with the fmdings of the risk 
assessment, and with implementation of the recommendations of the risk 
management plan, the registration of a Certificate of Prohibition on title to 
the land must be completed, if an order is issued requiring it to be 
registered; 

► Procedures for ongoing monitoring and maintenance of any control 
measures; 

►■ Procedures for ensuring corrective action will be taken in future, if and 
when it is required. Corrective action may include repair, replacement, or 
removal of the control measure, or of the substance posing the adverse 
effect if control measures fail to achieve the desired reduction/elimination 
of exposure levels. 



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Site assessment 



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8 



8.0 The site assessment process 

This section provides four conceptual steps which outline the site assessment 
and restoration process. The four steps are illustrated in Figure 8a. This 
outline is not meant to be a comprehensive or exhaustive description of 
activities. The types and sequence of activities required at each step will 
necessarily vary with each site, its conditions, and the goals of the assessment, 
investigation or remedial exercise. 



Figure 8a: Overview of the site assessment process 




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Site assessment 



8.1 Step 1 - Initial site assessment 

The first step in the site assessment process usually involves the systematic 
gathering of information to identify actual or potential contamination, or 
sources of contamination. This is referred to as a Phase 1 environmental site 
assessment (ESA). Figure 8b provides an outline of the elements of a Phase 1 
ESA as described below. 

Phase 1 environmental site assessment (ESA) 

A reference list of published guidance manuals on Phase 1 ESA, with a brief 
overview of each of these documents is provided in Guidance on Sampling and 
Analytical Methods for Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario (1996a). 
Proponents are referred to this simimary for more detailed guidance on 
conducting a Phase 1 ESA. 

A Phase 1 ESA may include, but is not limited to the following activities: 

► reviews of property histories through the use of air photographs, insurance 
maps, land title searches, municipal or provincial archives, regulatory 
agency records, previous ESA reports, company records, topographic 
maps. 

► interviews with present and past site occupants, government officials 
(federal, provincial and municipal), present and past neighbours. 

► site visits to inspect material handling, waste management and storage 
practices, to investigate for presence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), or 
asbestos-containing materials (ACM), or to examine building heating and 
cooling systems and fuel storage locations at operating facilities. 

► site visits to verify any of the fmdings or discrepancies noted in the review 
of historical information or interview process. 

► geomagnetic or geophysical surveys to gather information for directing 
subsequent sampling programs. 



Page 54 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



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Figure 8b: Step 1 - Initial site assessment 



Gather and review 
historical information 



Personnel Inteiviews 



Site visit and 
visual observations 




i^aluaE"nee3Tbr 
' public 

, communication 



Proceed to Step 2 

- Detailed site 

assessment 




ument 

initial 

assessment 

~*\ findings and 

conclusions 



The result of a Phase 1 ESA determines the need for further site investigation. 
Since soil and groundwater samples are not normally collected in a Phase 1 
ESA, the importance of accurate and comprehensive gathering of historical site 
information is critical. This historical information will normally direct the need 
for any further investigative activities at the site. 

A Phase 1 ESA will provide an indication of the need for, and the type of, 
sampling and analysis required, or it may indicate that the site (soil, sediment, 
ground/ surface water) and/or building(s) are free of contamination and that 
further investigation is not necessary. If there is evidence of, or reason to 
suspect, presence of contamination on the property, the fmdings of the Phase 1 
ESA should provide the required direction for determining which chemical 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



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Site assessment 



parameters from soil, groundwater or sediment samples should be selected for 
analysis in Step 2. 

At this time it may be appropriate to think about future public commimication 
needs. Once the outcome of the Phase 1 ESA is known, and a decision to 
proceed to Step 2 has been made, the details of a plan may be developed. If 
from the outset, it is known that a detailed site investigation will be needed, 
then a public communication plan should be developed as part of the Step 1 
activity. The proponent should have regard for other public commimication 
needs which may apply, such as those required in a land-use planning process. 
A carefully developed communication plan may integrate and collectively 
address different statutory requirements for public consultation. 

Conclusions 

At the end of this step, the proponent will have gathered information which 
should allow a decision to be made on the need to proceed to step two of this 
process. The information gathered may also allow the proponent to determine 
whether conditions or events at the site are causing or are likely to cause an 
adverse effect and require notification to the ministry. 

Documentation 

The method, scope of work completed and findings of the Phase 1 ESA should 
be clearly documented in a report which should be retained by the property 
owner. One possible report format is provided in Non-Profit Housing 
Environmental Site Assessment Content and Format Guideline produced by the 
Ontario Ministry of Housing (1993, revised). Provision of this reference 
should not imply that all reports must follow this format. 



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8.2 Step 2 - Detailed site assessment 

The second step in the site assessment process is to confirm and describe 
contamination at the site. This is known as a Phase 2 environmental site 
assessment (ESA). When there are buildings on site, there may be a need for 
an inspection of and a sampling program for the structure. This guideline does 
not provide information on the sampling of building materials. 

Information on collection and analysis of soil, groimdwater, sediment and air 
samples is provided in the accompanying Guidance on Sampling and Analytical 
Methods for Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario (May 1996a). Laboratory 
method detection limits (MDL) and information on quality assurance/quality 
control protocols for sample gathering and laboratory analysis are also 
provided in that guidance document. Figure 8c outlines some of the elements 
of a detailed site assessment. 

Phase 2 environmental site assessment (ESA) 

A Phase 2 ESA should confirm and identify the type, nature and extent of 
contamination at a site, or should confirm that the suspected contaminant is not 
present. 

Some of the activities in a Phase 2 ESA include, but are not limited to. the 
following: 

► surface and subsurface soil sampling, groimdwater and surface water 
sampling, soil vapour sampling (in conjunction with laboratory analysis), 
sediment sampling, collection of plant or aquatic species samples. 

► above/underground storage tank content and tighmess testing, ACM 
sampling, PCB sampling and identification, geomagnetic or geophysical 
surveys. 

► testing of building materials for pesticide residues. 



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Site assessment 



Figure 8c: Step 2 - Detailed site assessment 




A Phase 2 ESA may include a planning stage, a sample gathering and analysis 
stage, and a data interpretation and evaluation stage. It is important that 
information from each stage feed back into the site assessment process to allow 
program changes as the results of site investigation become available. The 
chemical parameters initially selected for sample analysis may need to be 



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8 



modified during the Phase 2 ESA, based on the findings during the site 
assessment. 

The type, number, and location of sampling and testing activities are site 
specific considerations and caimot be generically listed. Sampling or surveys 
must be undertaken in areas where the Phase 1 ESA has identified the potential 
for contamination. 

There may be an opportunity for, or a benefit to, public commimication prior 
to site investigation and sample collection. This will depend on such things as 
the size of the site, relationship to the neighbourhood, type of investigation to 
be undertaken, duration of the investigation, etc., and may be effective in 
addressing public concerns early in the process. Early public communication 
may also serve to assist with the consultation required as part of another 
process, such as the land-use approval process, by providing early information 
to the commimity. This form of communication may not be a substitute for the 
consultation required by statute; however, it can provide a mechanism to assist 
in achieving the goals of the required consultation. 

To assist in determining the presence and extent of contamination, a 
particularly useful reference containing descriptions of a range of subsurface 
testing methods is the Subsurface Assessment Handbook for Contaminated 
Sites (CCME, March 1994) produced by the Waterloo Centre for Groundwater 
Research, for the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Enviroiunent. 

Comparing site data to generic criteria 

For generic full depth or stratified, potable or nonpotable groundwater 
restoration, the site data collected from the Phase 2 ESA should be compared 
to criteria for soil, sediment, and groimdwater in the appropriate table of 
Appendix 2. This comparison of site data to generic criteria will provide an 
initial indication of whether there is contamination at the site and the extent of 
restoration which might be required. 

The information provided in Section 6.0 on the use of the generic criteria 
should also be considered when making these comparisons and when making 
decisions about the extent of site restoration required. 



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Site assessment 



Table 8a provides a list of conditions under which soil, groundwater, sediment 
surface water and air samples are considered to have failed in a comparison to 
the generic criteria. It should not be inferred that testing of all of the listed 
media is required at all sites. 

The criteria and guidance on sediment samples is provided for use in situations 
where the movement of contaminants from a site has affected sediment quality 
in adjacent or nearby surface water bodies. Sediment sampling may be 
required to confirm the extent and nature of the effects of the contaminant 
movement. 

Similarly, the guidance on dealing with the results of surface water sampling is 
provided for use when a surface water body is suspected of being affected by 
an adjacent or nearby contaminated site, and sampling of the surface water 
body is necessary to coirftrm whether there is contamination. 

Air quality monitoring is required at sites where it is anticipated that dust or 
volatile contaminants may be released during the site restoration process. 
Monitoring will indicate whether the vapour or dust control measures used at 
the site are sufficient, so that applicable air quality standards are not 
surpassed. 



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Table 8a: Comparison of analysis to generic criteria 



Media 


Samples fail the generic criteria if 


Soil 


the result from a single sample or, if replicate samples are taken, 
the mean of replicate samples is numerically greater than the 
criterion for a particular chemical parameter. 

• The soil between the sample site that failed and the next sample site 
which passes the guideline criterion is considered as having failed the 
criterion for that chemical parameter. 

• Additional sampling between these sampling sites will better define the 
area of contamination. 


Groundwater 


the result from a single sample or, if replicate samples are taken, 
the mean of replicate samples is niunerically greater than the 
guideline criterion for a panicular chemical parameter. 
• This applies only when groundwater quality at the site is of poorer 

quality than the groundwater quality up gradient of the site for the 

chemical parameter(s) of concern. 


Surface 
water 


a comparison of upstream and downstream water quality shows a 
degradation of water quality not attributable to the cimiulative 
effects of sampling and analytical variation. The difference must be 
investigated, a cause identified, and a remediation plan developed. 
• This guidance does not apply to simations where the Provincial Water 
Quality Objectives are being met. 


Sediment 


when sediment quality criteria are provided, the result from any 
single sample or, if replicate samples are taken, the mean of 
replicate samples is greater than the lowest effect level. This will 
require an investigation for the source of the contaminant. If the 
contaminant source is on site, a remediation plan must be 
developed. 
• When sediment qualit>' criteria are not provided, and a comparison of 
upstream and downstream sediment qualit>' shows a degradation in 
quality' not attributable to the cumulative effects of sampling and 
analytical variation, the cause for the difference must be investigated, 
identified and a remediation plan developed. 


Air 


if air quality monitoring results are worse than air quality 
standards, guidelines or applicable criteria. There must be an 
immediate response to reduce or eliminate the source of the 
contaminant. 



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Site assessment 



Conclusions 

At the end of this step, the proponent will have gathered site information 
which will assist in determining the need for a remedial work plan, and in 
formulating that remedial plan if necessary. The site information gathered may 
also allow the proponent to determine whether conditions or events at the site 
are causing or are likely to cause an adverse effect and will require notification 
to the ministry. 

If the findings of the Phase 2 ESA allow the proponent to conclude that the 
site conditions are appropriate for the intended use and that a remedial work 
plan is not required, further site investigation is not required (Figures 8a, 8c). 

A useful reference which contains information on evaluation of analytical data 
and analytical methods is Guidance Manual on Sampling. Analvsis. and Data 
Management for Contaminated Sites. Volume I: Main Report. Volume II: 
Analytical Method Summaries (CCME 1993). 

Documentation 

The types of site investigations undertaken, the results, conclusions and 
recommendations of the Phase 2 ESA investigations should be clearly 
documented in a report. Reports produced from the Phase 2 ESA should be 
provided to and retained by the property owner, and should be passed on to 
fumre owners. An example format for a Phase 2 ESA report is provided in the 
Non-Profit Housing Environmental Site Assessment Review Handbook 
produced by the Ministry of Housing (1993 revised). The provision of this 
reference should not imply that all reports must follow this format. 



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8.3 Step 3 - Site restoration 

The third step in this sequence involves the development and implementation 
of a plan to remove, treat or otherwise manage the contamination found on the 
site. There may be components of the plan, such as those which involve 
treatment or processing of the contaminated material, which require a 
Certificate of Approval from the ministry. Approval requirements are 
discussed in this section. A table which provides a summary of some of the 
types of approval required for some of the activities at contaminated sites is 
provided in Appendix 1 . Figure 8d provides an outline of some of the elements 
of Step 3. 

The remedial work plan 

The remedial work plan (RWP) for the contaminated site may include, but is 
not necessarily limited to: 

► a decision on the site restoration approach to be used; 

► assessment of options for removal, storage, and/or treatment of 
contaminated material; 

► treatability smdies/assessment of technologies; 

► detailed design and implementation; 

► acquiring Certificates of Approval or permits; 

► monitoring and verification sampling. 

In developing a remedial plan, the following must be observed: 

► Wastes must be managed in accordance with Part V of the EPA and Reg. 
347 (General - Waste Management). 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 63 



SECTION 



8 



Site assessment 



Figure 8d: 


Step 3 - Remedial work 


plan 














^Oocument^X 
^medial work \ 
plan activities \ 






bvaiuate and select restoration 
option(s) 






T 






Evaluate need for regulatory approval 






1 






Implement public communication plan 












Implementation plan 






T 






Obtain regulatory approval if required 






^ i 










T 






Implement remedial work plan 




N 


Ddes verification \^ 
° y show required \^^Yes 
— < site condition has > 


/ 








^\ been achieved? /^ 'X 


verification / 
V findings / 


T 








^ 






Step 4- 
Completion 





► If measurable pesticide residues are present in building materials, the reuse 
of those materials must comply with the requirements of the Pesticides Act 
(R.S.O. 1990). 



► All reasonable and practicable attempts should be made to remove all solid 
waste products and phase-separated liquid waste products. 



Page 64 



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8 



► It is recognized that incidental mixing of soils will occur during some 
restoration activities. The intentional mixing of on site contaminated soils 
with clean soils to meet restoration objectives is not recommended or 
endorsed, except: 

i. when a beneficial effect to plant growth can be demonstrated (fertility 
effect for essential macro and micro nutrients). Nutrients which are 
essential for higher plants include N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, Fe, B, CI, 
Cu, Co, Mn, Mo, and Zn. Proponents considering mixing of soils to 
satisfy nutrient requirements are advised to discuss use of this option 
with the ministry (Standards Development Branch); 

ii. when mixing occurs as part of a remedial activity such as 
bioremediation or soil washing; 

iii. in limited cases where site management proposals meet the general 
requirements for Level 2 risk management as outlined in section 7.2. 

► The ongoing, imcontroUed release of volatile compounds to the air as part 
of a remedial action is not acceptable. Every effort should be made to 
recover volatile contaminants and prevent release to the atmosphere. 

► A site which is undergoing restoration may receive soils of a quality 
consistent with the criteria used for restoration at that site provided it is 
done in accordance with the remedial work plan for the site. The proponent 
must ensure that any approvals required for the treatment, transfer or 
receipt of such soil have been obtained. 

► Soil that has been treated by an approved process may be reused at another 
site undergoing a restoration provided that this is carried out in accordance 
with the remedial work plan established for the site receiving this soil, and 
the approval allows for such use of the soil. 

Approval from MOEE is required for activities related to site restoration 
which involve regulated discharges to the natural environment. Applications 
for approvals should be made as early as possible in the site assessment 
process. Proponents are advised to contact the district or regional ministry 
office, or the Approvals Branch for current information on approval 

Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 65 



SECTION 



8 



Site assessment 



requirements for use of specific technologies and for guides to the approval 
application. 

The ministry may require that proponents undertake consultation with 
mimicipal government and site neighbours prior to issuing an approval. 
Proponents are advised to discuss the requirements for supporting 
documentation for approval applications with the district office. 

Verification 

The final part of this step involves the verification of the remedial activities 
undertaken in Step 3. The necessary samples should be collected and analyzed 
to provide verification that the RWP has dealt with the contamination 
identified at the site. Where soils have been removed from the site, this may 
simply involve resampling in the defined area or zone of contamination and 
ensuring that soil and groundwater conditions are below the selected criteria. 

Where Level 2 risk management measures have been used, the installation, 
operation and effectiveness of the measures or controls must be verified as 
appropriate. When proponents have completed their verification sampling and 
analysis, or are using Level 2 risk management measures and have completed 
the installation of such meastires, there are administrative steps which must be 
completed. These are outlined in Section 8.4. 

Conclusions 

At the end of this step, the proponent will have restored the site conditions 
(soil, groundwater and/ or sediment) so that it is suitable for the intended use. 
This is done through use of verification sampling, or ensuring that the risk 
management measures are performing effectively. There may be ongoing 
monitoring of certain site conditions, and any such monitoring programs 
should be operational at the end of this step. 

Documentation 

The type of restoration undertaken at the site, the results of any verification 
sampling, or proposed monitoring of risk management measures or site 



Page 66 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Site assessment 



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8 



conditions, should be clearly documented in a report. Reports pertaining to the 
remedial work undertaken should be provided to and retained by the property 
owner, and should also be provided to future owners. The report format will 
depend on the nature of the remedial option(s) used at the site. However, they 
should clearly summarize the activities undertaken, the results obtained, and 
identify any future actions (monitoring etc.) which may be required. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 67 



SECTION 



8 



Site assessment 



8.4 Step 4 - Completion 

The final step of this sequence is documentation of the entire process followed 
and establishing a record of the final site conditions. This documentation 
should outline what the goals of the restoration were, the approach used, the 
remedial work plan implemented to achieve these goals, and should clearly 
state whether the restoration was successful in achieving the goals. The 
documents should be retained by the property owner, so that they may be 
provided to those interested upon request. 

Record of site condition 

This guideline contains a form called the Record of Site Condition (RSC), 
which may be completed by the proponent, to serve as a summary of 
information about the site. Information concerning the type of site condition 
achieved through restoration, a listing of the available reports and a summary 
of risk management measures, if any, are recorded on the form. There are 
statements to be signed by the property owner and the consultant. 

The RSC may be submitted to the ministry for acknowledgement. A 
Certificate of Status, a certified copy of the most recent deed/transfer for the 
property and a plan view of the site showing the locations of samples taken for 
analysis should be attached to the RSC if this acknowledgement is required. 
Consultant reports should not be included with the RSC. 

A copy of the RSC is provided in Appendix 3. When the completed, signed 
form is submitted to the ministry, different administrative processes are 
followed for completion. The process used will depend on the type of 
restoration imdertaken at the site and on the final site condition. The 
administrative elements vary, depending on the level of contamination 
remaining at the site. 

When die proponent concludes, after a Phase 1 or Phase 2 ESA, that further 
remedial action is not necessary, there are no further administrative 
requirements. The administrative requirements when full depth or stratified 
conditions are attained, or when risk assessment/risk management measures 
are used, are described below. 



Page 68 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Site assessment 



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Figure 8e: Step 4 - Completion and documentation 



Document the completed process and final site 
conditions. 




Submit Record of 

Site Condition to 

Ministry district 

office. 



The Record of Site Condition should be submitted when: 

► there is a stratified site condition; 

► the risk assessment/risk management (Level 2) approach is used; 

► the proponent wants the ministry to acknowledge receipt of the Record of 
Site Condition. 

When received by the ministry, the Record of Site Condition: 

► makes the ministry aware of sites where restoration has taken place; 

► indicates to the ministry that the proponent has confirmed that the level of 
restoration is suitable for the intended use of the site. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Page 69 



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8 



Site assessment 



► establishes that the property owiier(s) and consultant(s) have indicated that 
restoration has been completed in accordance with the information provided 
in the guideline; 

► provides the ministry with a mechanism to evaluate whether the guideline 
is providing appropriate and adequate guidance to proponents. 

The ministry will review the information provided on the Record of Site 
Condition, acknowledge receipt of the document, and return a copy to the 
proponent. 

There are two situations when a process different from that outlined above 
may be followed. These simations are: 

► when a stratified site condition is achieved through remedial work, or 
where a stratified site condition already exists, without remedial work 
taking place; 

► when the SSRA approach as outlined in Section 7 is followed and Level 2 
risk management measures are used at the site. 

The information provided on the Record of Site Condition will be reviewed, 
and the steps outlined in Figure 8f will be used to complete the registration of 
a Certificate of Prohibition on title. The ministry will acknowledge receipt of 
the Record of Site Condition once the process of registration on title is 
completed. 



Page 70 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Site assessment 



SECTION 



8 



Figure 8f: Registration on title to the land 



Proponent submits Record of 

Site Condition to Ministry 

district office 




Ministry issues section 18 order and section 197 Certificate of 
Prohibition to proponent 



Proponent registers Certificate of Protiibition on title to land 



Proponent submits confirmation of registration to Ministry 



h 



Ministry acknowledges receipt of Record of Site Condition 



8.5 Section 1 8 order (EPA) 

When the stratified approach or site specific risk assessment approach (Level 2 
risk management) is used, a Director's Order (EPA, section 18) may be issued 
to the property owner as outlined in Figure 8f. A draft order, similar to that 
which may be issued, is set out in Appendix 3. 

This order states that a Record of Site Condition has been provided by the 
proponent which reports that site assessment or restoration has taken place and 
that the site is suitable for the intended (re)use. The order notes that changes 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Page 71 



SECTION 



8 



Site assessment 



to the site, such as, for example, the excavation and placement of subsurface 
soil at the surface, may result in an adverse effect, or the likelihood of an 
adverse effect, associated with a discharge, as noted in Section 18 of the EPA. 
The order requires that subsurface soils, when brought to the surface, be 
further managed to avoid an adverse effect. 

8.6 Certificate of Prohibition 

If a Director's Order is issued to the property owner it may require that the 
owner register a Certificate of Prohibition against the title to the land, 
according to section 197 of the EPA. Subsection 197(1) provides that: 

"a person who has authority under the EPA to make an order or 
decision affecting the real property also has authority to prohibit any 
person with an interest in the property from dealing with the property in 
any way without first giving a copy of the order of decision to each 
person acquiring an interest in the property as a result of the dealing. " 

The effect of the order will be to require that any person acquiring an interest 
in the property be provided with a copy of the order prior to acquiring an 
interest in the property. A stamped duplicate copy of the registered Certificate 
of Prohibition must be returned to the ministry confuming that registration has 
taken place. The ministry will then acknowledge receipt of the Record of Site 
Condition. 

Certificate of Withdrawal of Prohibition 

Subsection 197 (5) (EPA) contains provisions for a Certificate of Withdrawal 
of Prohibition. If site conditions are further restored so that both surface and 
subsurface soils meet the full depth or background criteria, the director may 
decide to issue a Certificate of Withdrawal of Prohibition, which may then be 
registered on title to the property. This may apply where soil is treated or 
removed at a later date so that the site then meets full depth generic criteria. 



Page 72 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



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8 



Summary 

Tables 8b, 8c, and 8d provide a summary of the roles of the proponent, the 
ministry and the municipality, and of the administrative requirements 
associated with the restoration approaches discussed in sections 5, 6 and 7 of 
this guideline. The guideline text in each of these sections should be referenced 
for supplementary information on the details provided in these tables. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 73 



SECTION 



8 



Site assessment 



Table 8b: Roles and responsibilities for different restoration approaches 



Consideration 


Approach selected by proponent ' 




Background approach 
(soil) 


Generic approach 
Potable option 
(groundwater) 


Role of proponent ^' 
(private or public) 


/ provide Record of Site 

Condition (RSC) to MOEE only 
if remedial work was 
undertaken 


/ provide Record of Site 
Condition (RSC) to MOEE 
only if remedial work was 
undertaken 


Role of municipality 


• land-use permits and planning 
a££rovals if required 


/ land-use permits and planning 
a££rovals if required 


RoleofMOEE' 


/ provide interpretation of 
guideline as required 


/ provide interpretation of 
guideline as required 


Administrative measures 






Record keeping ^ 


/ proponent provides RSC and 

retains reports 
/ MOEE receives RSC 


/ proponent provides RSC and 

retains reports 
• MOEE receives RSC 


Registration on title 


not required for background 
condition 


• not required for potable 
restoration 


Reporting to MOEE^^ 


/ at Step 4 of guideline process 


/ at Step 4 of guideline process 


Technical review 






MOEE review ^ 


not normalh required 


• not normally reg;uired 


Peer review 


not required 


• not required 



Other approaches are listed on Tables 8c and 8d. 

MOEE must be notified forthwith if site contamination is causing, or is likely to cause, an adverse 

environmental effect Reports may be requested by MOEE. 

The Record of Site Condition is not required if site restoration (remedial work) was not undertaken. 



Page 74 



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Table 8c: Roles and responsibilities for different restoration approaches 



Consideration 


Approach selected by proponent ' 




Generic approach 

Full depth option 

(soil) 


Generic approach 

Stratified option 

(soil) 


Role of proponent^'' 
(private or public) 


• provide Record of Site 

Condition (RSC) to MOEE only 
if remedial work was 
undertaken 


• provide RSC to MOEE on 
completion of process 


Role of municipality 


/ land-use permits and planning 
approvals if required 


/ land-use permits and planning 
a££rovals if required 


RoleofMOEE' 


/ provide interpretation of 
guideline as required 


/ provide interpretation of 
guideline as required 

/ issue S. 1 8 order and provide 
Certificate of Prohibition 


Administrative measures 






Record keeping ■* 


• proponent provides RSC and 
retains reports 

• MOEE receives RSC 


• proponent provides RSC and 

retains reports 
/ MOEE receives RSC 


Registration on title 


• not required for full depth 
condition 


/ proponent registers Certificate 
of Prohibition on title to land 

• confirmation provided to 
MOEE 


Reporting to MOEE^^ 


• at Step 4 of guideline process 


/ at Step 4 of guideline process 


Technical review 






MOEE review ^ 


not normalhr" required 


not normallv' reguired 


Peer review 


• not required 


• not required 



Other approaches are listed on Tables 8b and 8d. 

MOEE must be notified forthwith if site contamination is causing, or is likely to cause, an adverse 

environmental effect Reports may be requested by MOEE. 

The Record of Site Condition is not required if site restoration (remedial work) was not undertaken. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Page 75 



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Site assessment 



Table 8d: Roles and responsibilities for different restoration approaches 



Consideration 


Approach selected b> proponent ' 




Generic approach 

Nonpotable option 

(groundwater) 


Risk Assm't'M'gmt approach 
(soil and'or groundwater) 


Role of proponent-^ 
(private or public) 


/ notifj municipality of intention 
to use nonpotable approach 

/ provide Record of Site 
Condition (RSC) to MOEE 


/ consults with municipalitv- on 

use of SSRA approach 
/ documentation of peer review 
/ provides documentation for 
MOEE review after peer 
review 


Role of municipaJit>' 


• land-use permits and planning 
approvals if required 


/ may enter into an agreement 
with proponent, depending on 
specifics of level 2 RM 


RoleofMOEE' 


/ provide interpretation of 
guideline as required 


/ preconsultation advice as 

required 
/ review and comment following 

peer review 
/ issues. 18 Order and 

Certificate of Prohibition 


Administrative measures 






Record keeping ' 


/ proponent provides RSC and 

retains reports 
• MOEE receives RSC 


/ proponent provides RSC to 
MOEE and retains reports 

/ MOEE receives RSC and any 
reports_provided 


Registration on title 


• not required for nonpotable 
condition 


/ proponent registers Cert, of 
Prohibition against land title 

/ confirmation provided to 
MOEE 


Reporting to MOEE"^ 


/ at Step 4 of guideline process 


/ afler peer review and 

resolution of issues raised 
/ on completion of process 


Technical review 






MOEE review - 


• not normalK required 


• afler_£eer revievs 


Peer re\iew 


• not required 


required before MOEE review 



Other approaches are listed on Tables 8b and 8c. 

MOEE must be notified if site contamination is causing, or is likely 

effect Reports may be requested by MOEE. 

The Record of Site Condition is not required if site restoration was 



to cause, an adverse environmental 
not undertaken. 



Page 76 



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Land use planning 



SECTION 



9 



9.0 Approving the land use or change of land use 

The Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing, or the appropriate approval 
authority has a responsibility under to the Planning Act (R.S.O. 1990) to have 
regard for matters of provincial interest, including public health and safety and 
the protection of the natural environment, when making decisions on land- use 
planning matters. This guideline does not, in any way, modify or affect those 
statutory responsibilities. Local municipalities also have an interest in 
protecting public health and safety and the natural environment when making 
decisions regarding land-use planning matters. 

A planning application which proposes the reuse or redevelopment of a 
contaminated or potentially contaminated site may require approval through a 
number of different planning mechanisms under to the Planning Act such as: 
an official plan amendment; zoning bylaw amendment; plan of subdivision; 
site plan agreement or minor variance. During the process of granting planning 
approvals, the need to restore a contaminated site to a level suitable for the 
proposed use should be recognized by the approval authority, the municipality 
and the proponent. 

9.1 Municipal mechanisms for land-use control 

There are various mechanisms under the Planning Act which may be used to 
both identify contaminated and potentially contaminated sites and to 
guide/control the use of such lands. These mechanisms include the official 
plan, secondary plans, amendments to the official plan, community 
improvement areas, zoning bylaws and amendments, zoning bylaw holding 
provisions, interim control bylaws, density bonusing, subdivision control, site 
plan control, and conditions to minor variance and consent approval. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 77 



SECTION 



9 



Land use planning 



The official plan is the principal mechanism available to a municipality when 
considering the reuse of potentially contaminated sites. The Planning Act 
defines an official plan as: 

a document approved by the Minister of Municipal Affairs and 
Housing, containing objectives and policies established primarily 
to provide guidance for the physical development of a 
municipality or a part thereof or an area that is without 
municipal organization, while having regard to relevant social, 
economic and environmental matters. 

All decisions made by a municipal council regarding land-use planning 
applications must conform to the municipality's official plan. Consequently, a 
municipality's policy objectives for efficient reuse of contaminated sites, while 
ensuring the safety of present and fumre residents, can be specified in the 
official plan. 

Municipalities are encouraged to develop and adopt official plans which 
identify known or suspected areas of soil or groundwater contamination on the 
land-use schedule or other official plan map, and to develop policies that 
outline the conditions which must be satisfied before development may proceed 
in areas where soil contamination is known or suspected. The document 
Historical Land Use: A Guide for Ontario Municipalities (in press) may be a 
useful reference for municipalities wishing to identify such suspected areas of 
contamination. This document has been produced by the Canadian Urban 
Institute and the Environmental Protection Office of the Department of Public 
Health, City of Toronto. 

In general, a municipal official plan may include policies to identify general 
conditions which would indicate the potential for soil contamination to have 
occurred, to require information to be compiled by a landowner prior to 
approval of development on lands where contamination may have occurred, 
and to require verification that a site has been restored and made suitable for 
the use proposed. 

If appropriate provisions are set out in the municipality's official plan, the 
municipality may more effectively apply other land-use control mechanisms 
available under the Planning Act . Table 9. 1 identifies various mechanisms for 

Page 78 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Land use planning 



9 



land-use planning and the opportunities and limitations when considering the 
redevelopment of contaminated sites. 

9.2 Site assessment and land-use approvals 

When site reuse or redevelopment is proposed, the land-use approval authority 
may request that the proponent confirm that the environmental condition of the 
site is suitable for the proposed use. A site which is contaminated, or may be 
potentially contaminated, should be assessed and, if necessary, conditions 
and/or agreements outlining the requirements for restoration should be in place 
before approval for the reuse or redevelopment of the site is granted. 

Municipalities may consider whether completion of a Phase 1 ESA is to be 
requested prior to the planning application being received by the local 
municipality. A municipality's official plan may identify this as a general 
requirement for those sites which are potentially contaminated. If further 
investigation is not required after an initial site assessment is completed the 
planning application and supporting documentation on site conditions may then 
be submitted to the local municipality for consideration. A report with the 
fmdings and conclusions of the Phase 1 ESA should be submitted with the 
planning application. The official plan may contain a policy that a report on 
the initial site assessment (section 8.1) must be provided by the proponent, or 
the consultant for the proponent. 

If the Phase 1 ESA indicates that a Phase 2 ESA is necessary, the municipality 
may request that the proponent complete the Phase 2 ESA prior to the 
planning application being received by the local municipality. If the results of 
the Phase 2 ESA indicate that a remedial work plan is not required, the 
planning application and supporting documentation regarding site conditions 
(i.e. the Phase 2 ESA report) may then be submitted to the local municipality 
for consideration. The official plan may provide a policy that a report on the 
detailed site assessment (section 8.2) must be provided by the proponent or the 
consultant for the proponent. One way of integrating the site assessment and 
restoration process and the land-use planning process is shown in Figure 9a. 
The process outlined in Figure 9a is not meant to be the only method of 
integrating these processes, nor the prescribed method. However, it does 
reflect the discussion provided in this section. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 79 



SECTION 



9 



Land use planning 



Figure 9a: Integrating site assessment with land-use planning 



I Kreconsunanon Detween proponem ana muniapainy, Detore 
planning application is submitted, to discuss environmental site 
infonnation needed with application 



I Public 

' communication if 
' needed 




(PnjponBiwcDnsnftanmnoeriaKHS" 
Phase 1 and/or Phase 2 ESA 



Public 

communication 

as needed 




Proponent 

submits 

application to 

municipality 



■ Proponent/consultant 
undertakes remedial wor1( plan 
and verification sampling 



The ministry recommends that the guideline criteria be used as triggers for 
further investigation when the criteria are exceeded, and as the restoration 
level for the fumre land-use where a change in land use is to be made. 

The property owner should maintain a copy of the Phase 1 and/or Phase 2 
report(s). The report(s) may be provided to those who may have an interest in 



Page 80 



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9 



the property in future, and who wish to understand the environmental 
condition of the property. 

9.3 Remedial work plans and land-use approvals 

When the results of the Phase 2 ESA indicate that a remedial work plan and 
site restoration is required, mimicipalities may consider whether the design of 
the remedial work plan (section 8.3) should be completed prior to a fmal 
favorable decision on a planning application. The official plan may provide a 
policy that a report on the design of the remedial work plan must be submitted 
by the proponent or the consultant for the proponent prior to a fmal decision 
being provided. 

It is recommended that the proponent commimicate with the municipality when 
selecting the restoration approach, or combination of approaches, before 
fmishing the detailed design of the remedial work plan. Specifically, the 
proponent should notify the municipality when the nonpotable groundwater 
restoration approach or risk management (Level 2) is to be used. In keeping 
with the current planning approval process, the municipality will have to select 
and make use of the appropriate planning mechanism to ensure that site 
remediation as proposed by the proponent is implemented and completed in 
conjunction with its planning approval process. 

The planning mechanism selected for use will depend on the type of planning 
application being made. The official plan should contain clear policies that 
stipulate approval of development proposals shall be conditional on appropriate 
measures to ensure proposed remedial works are carried out. These may 
include conditions for subdivision and consent approvals, development control 
agreements and the use of zoning bylaw holding provisions. It is recommended 
that the municipality make final approval of planning applications conditional 
on the verification of final site conditions. 

There may be a need for ongoing land use restrictions, for example, where 
nonpotable groundwater criteria has been used for site restoration. There may 
be a need to restrict the type of land use or the potential for fumre site 
alteration when a stratified site condition exists, or when risk management 
(Level 2) has been used. Land-use restrictions may be established through 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 81 



SECTION 



9 



Land use planning 



official plan designations, official plan policy statements and/or zoning. Such 
designations and/or zoning categories should clearly identify the nature of the 
restriction associated with the land use. 

The proponent or municipality may consult with the ministry at any time 
during the Phase 1 or Phase 2 assessment, or prior to development of the 
remedial work plan, for clarification, or further interpretation of the 
information provided in this guideline. The ministry may also be consulted on 
specific technical matters of interest to the municipality, where assistance is 
needed in the municipal decision-making process. 

Information provided by the proponent, or consultant, in support of the 
planning application should be used by the municipality in coming to a 
decision on the granting of the land -use approval. The proponent and 
consultant to the proponent remain responsible for ensuring that accurate 
information is provided to the land-use approval authority and that the restored 
or existing site condition is suitable for the intended site use. 

9.4 Agreements between municipalities and proponents 

When the SSRA approach (risk management, level 2) is being considered for 
use at a site, there is the potential for long term risk management measures to 
remain in place and/or be monitored and maintained for a long or indefinite 
period of time. The responsibility for operating, maintaining and monitoring 
such risk management measures may be set out in an agreement between the 
proponent and municipality. The ministry will not be party to such 
agreements. 

When a municipality does enter into such an agreement, the remedial measures 
used and subsequent condition and use of the site will influence the specific 
type of land-use control which may be needed, and the namre of the agreement 
which the municipality and proponent may enter into. Table 9.1, at the end of 
this section, provides examples of land-use planning mechanisms which may 
be used to secure land-use controls and agreements. 

The municipality may wish to consider obtaining indemnification and financial 
assurance from the property owner, of a namre suitable to address any 



Page 82 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Land use planning 



SECTION 



9 



problems which may arise in future, as part of the agreement with the 
proponent. In the event that the risk management measure fails to function, 
and this failure results in an adverse effect, or the likelihood of an adverse 
effect, notification must be provided to the ministry. 

9.5 Public consultation in land-use planning 

Most municipal land-use pl annin g processes require one or more public 
meetings before a fmal decision is rendered. The Planning Act (R.S.O. 1990) 
provides minimal legislative public consultation requirements for official plans, 
plans of subdivision, consents, zoning bylaws and minor variances. Where site 
restoration is required and the planning process provides opportunities for 
public consultation, it is recommended that notification of and/or consultation 
on the findings of the initial site assessment, detailed site assessment or 
remedial work plan be included within these other formal consultation 
processes as appropriate. Sections 3 and 8 of this guideline provide additional 
information on public commimication and the site assessment process 
respectively. 

9.6 Role of ministry in the SSRA process 

The ministry will undertake a technical review of the risk assessment and risk 
management documentation prepared by the proponent in support of an 
application for a land-use change, when it is provided by the municipality. 
Section 7 of this guideline provides an outline of the type of information which 
should be in the risk assessment and risk management documents. Additional 
information on the use of risk assessment is contained in Guidance on Site 
Specific Risk Assessment for Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario (May 
1996b). 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 83 



SECTION 



9 



Land use planning 



Table 9a: Land use planning mechanisms 



Planning 
mechanism 


Opportimities 


Considerations 


Official plan 


Allows the municipality to outline 
objectives and policies with respect to 
identification, assessment, and 
restoration requirements for potentially 
contaminated lands, on a municipality- 
wide basis. 


Policies need to balance the flexibilit>' 
of official plan policy while providing 
sufficient direction on how and when 
site contamination will be addressed 
through the municipal development 
approval process. 


Secondaiy plan 
(official plan 
amendment) 


Allows the municipality to outline 
objectives and policies as with an 
official plan, but applies to a specifically 
identified portion of the municipality. 

Development of a secondary plan 
usually follows or requires detailed 
studies of the subject area, and 
consequently, policies and objectives 
contained within a secondary plan may 
be tailored to apply to known, or 
potentially contaminated sites within the 
relevant area 


Detailed policies and objectives only 
apply to the area included within the 
secondary plan area. 


Site specific 
official 
plan 
amendment 


Allows the municipality to clearly 
enunciate objectives for development of 
a specific site, including details 
regarding identification, assessment, 
restoration and verification sampling 
requirements. 

Development of site specific policy can 
follow submission of detailed site 
information by development proponent 


Requires inclusion of site specific 
policy and objectives that tend to be 
considered exceptions to the otherwise 
general rules of the official plan. 


Zoning bylaws 

and 

amendments 


Allows the municipality to prohibit the 
use of land for, or except for, that set out 
in the bylaw. 

Prior to the enactment of a zoning bylaw 
permitting a specific type of use, a 
municipality may require a development 
proponent to undertake studies to 
demonstrate that the subject lands are 
suitable for the use proposed. 


Used later in the land-use plaruiing 
process. Considerable investment by a 
proponent may have already been made 
by the time zoning amendment 
application is made, thereby limiting 
the use of this land-use control 
mechanism. 

Amendment to the zoning bylaw may 
not be necessary where the zoning in 
place alreadv permits the proposed use. 



Page 84 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Land use planning 



SECTION 



9 



Planning 
mechanism 


Opportunities 


Considerations 


Holding 
provisions, 
zoning bylaws 


May be used to grant approval of a 
proposed zoning amendment conditional 
upon municipal satisfaction that certain 
matters as set out in the bylaw have been 
addressed (e. g. detailed assessment of 
on-site soil quality, preparation of an 
acceptable remedial work plan, 
verification plan). 


Used later in the land-use planning 
process. Official plan must contain 
provisions relating to the use of holding 
bylaws. 


Density 
bonusing 


May be used to offer proponent 
development rights greater than what is 
otherwise permitted in return for 
completion of site assessment and 
restoration. 

Provides for the use of an agreement 
between municipality and developer to 
require completion of the site assessment 
and restoration by the developer. 


Used later in land-use plaiming process. 
Official plan must contain provisions 
relating to the use of density bonusing. 


Site plan 
approval 


Allows municipality to set out 
conditions of approval and agreements 
between municipalit>' and developer 
which require the developer to provide 
certain facilities, works, or other matters. 


Is generally regarded to apply to 
matters relating to safety/convenience 
of the development as determined by 
physical characteristics of site layout. 
May be useful when used in 
conjunction with other mechanism e.g. 
bylaws. Official plan must contain 
provisions relating to the use of site 
plan control. 


Subdivision, 
condominium 


Provides for the use of agreements 
between the municipality and proponent 
to require that site restoration and 
monitoring/maintenance is carried out. 


Existing built-up industrial areas are not 
fi-equently developed by plan of 
subdivision. 


Minor variance 


Allows municipality to apply conditions 
to the approval of minor variances to the 
zoning bylaw. Minor variances must 
comply with the general intent of the 
official plan. 


Generally, only applied to authorize 
minor variance (extensions, 
enlargements, similar use) from 
performance standards of the zoning 
b\iaw. 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Page 85 



Acknowledgements 



The creation of this guideline has required the efforts of many ministry staff. There have 
been valuable contributions made by staff of other provincial agencies and ministries, and by 
consultants and members of the pubUc who provided comments during the public 
consultation process which was completed in October 1994. It is difiBcult to mdividually 
identify all of those who have provided advice, comments, and suggestions which helped to 
shape and refine the content of this document. The contributions of all who have participated 
in this process are acknowledged. 

The three accompanying documents to the guideline have also demanded the dedicated 
efforts of a team from the Standards Development Branch who, under the leadership of Ron 
Pearson, have made important individual contributions in the preparation of those 
documents. Theu" patience and commitment is recognized and gratefully acknowledged. 

The process has also rehed on the leadership of Bob Breeze, David Crump, George Rocoski, 
Helle Tosine and Ivy Wile at different points m time Their vision and advice m the 
production of this guideline is acknowledged. 

The members of the steering committee at the time of finalization of this document are listed 
below. Committee membership has changed over time and the members acknowledge the 
work and contributions of those who participated m the past. 

Envu-onmental Planning and Analysis Branch Ina Wygodny 

Legal Services Branch Cynthia Brandon 

Operations Division (Approvals Branch) John Gasbarri 

Operations Division (Central Region) Catherine Grant 

Operations DivisionAVaste Reduction Branch Ronald Lall 

Operations Division (Security Account) Partick Leung 

Operations Division (West Central Region) Sean Capstick 

Standards Development Branch Lee Hofinann 

Standards Development Branch Allen Kuja 

Standards Development Branch Manus Marsh 

Standards Development Branch Ron Pearson 

Waste Reduction Branch Ted Bright 

Waste Reduction Branch Ed Rodngues 

On behalf of the members of the Steering Committee, 

Ronald A. Lall 

Committee Chairperson 
Giudehne Editor 



Page 86 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



References 



Canadian Urban Institute/City of Toronto Public Health Department, (in 
press). Historical Land Use: A Guide for Ontario Municipalities . 

CCME, 1993. Guidance Manual on Sampling, Analysis, and Data 
Management for Contaminated Sites. Volume I: Main Report. Volume II: 
Analytical Method Simmiaries . Canadian Council of Ministers of the 
Enyironment, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CCME-EPC-NCS62E and CCME-EPC- 
NCS66E, December 1993. 

CCME, 1994. Subsurface Assessment Handbook for Contaminated Sites . 
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Enyironment, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 
CCME EPC-NCSRP-48E, March 1994. 

CCME, 1996. A Protocol for the Deriyation of Environmental and Human 
Health Soil Quality Guidelines . Subconmiitee of the CCME on 
Enyironmental Quality Criteria for Contaminated Sites, Canadian Coimcil of 
Ministers of the Environment, Wiimipeg, Manitoba, CCME-EPC-IOIE, 
March 1996. 

Gaudet, C, 1994. A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment at 
contaminated Sites in Canada: Review and Recommendations . (EVS 
Consultants and Environmental and Social Systems Analysts) Scientific Series 
#199, Environment Canada. 1994 

MOE, 1989 Guidelines for the Deconmiissioning and Clean-up of Sites in 
Qntario . Ministry of the Environment, Waste Management Branch. 
February 1989, PIBS 141E. 

MQE, 1993. Interim Guideline for the Assessment and Management of 
Petroleimi Contaminated Sites in Ontario . Ontario Ministry of the 
Environment, Hazardous Contaminants Branch. August 1993. 

MQEE, 1993. Qntario Typical Range of Chemical Parameters in Soil. 
Vegetation. Moss Bags and Snow . Qntario Ministry of Environment and 
Energy, Standards Development Branch. December 1993. 

MQEE, 1994. Proposed Guideline for the Cleanup of Contaminated Sites in 
Ontario . Qntario Ministry of Environment and Energy. July 1994, PIBS 
3161. (July 1994a) 



Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 87 



References 



MOEE, 1994. Interim Position on the Cleanup of Contaminated Sites in 
Ontario . Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy. July 1994. (July 
1994b) 

MOEE, 1994. Ontario Drinking Water Objective s. Ontario Ministry of 
Environment and Energy. 1994, PffiS 2889E (1994c) 

MOEE, 1996. Guidance on Sampling and Analytical Methods for Use at 
Contaminated Sites in Ontario . (Marsh. M., R. Lall, S. Capstick, A. Lewis, 
E. Pastorek, and A. Kuja) Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, 
Standards Development Branch. May 1996. (1996a) 

MOEE, 1996. Guidance on Site Specific Risk Assessment for Use at 
Contaminated Sites in Ontario . (Marsh. M., R. Pearson, A. Li-MuUer, S. 
Fleming) Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, Standards 
Development Branch. May 1996. (1996b) 

MOEE, 1996. Rationale for the Development and Application of Generic Soil. 
Groundwater, and Sediment Criteria for Use at Contaminated Sites in 
Ontario (Kuja, A. and R. Pearson) Ontario Ministry of Environment and 
Energy, Standards Development Branch. May 1996. (1996c) 

MOH, 1993. Non-Profit Housing Environmental Site Assessment Content and 
Format Guideline . Ontario Ministry of Housing, Housing Policy Branch. 
November 1993 revised. 



Page 88 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



Index 



ceiling concentration 32, 41 

certificate of prohibition v, 49, 50, 68, 70, 73, 74 

certificate of withdrawal of prohibition 70 

completion iv, vii, xvi, xviii, 66, 67, 73, 74, 77, 83 

component process 32, 33, 36 

conclusions 54, 60, 64, 77 

corrosive 4, 18 

dermal absorption xi 

detection limits 5, 33, 47, 55 

documentation . . i, vii, xvii, xviii, 4, 49, 50, 54, 60, 64, 66, 67, 74, 77, 81 

dose xiii, xiv, 19, 47 

EBR 42 

ecological risk assessment iii, xi, 12, 17, 22, 45, 46, 86 

explosive xv, 4, 18 

exposure assessment 11, 44, 46, 47 

full depth restoration ii, viii, 9, 28, 30 

geomagnetic 52, 55 

geophysical 52, 55 

human health risk assessment 44-46 

land-use planning vii, 9, 54, 75-78, 80, 81, 83 

leaching xii, 18, 21, 22, 27, 32, 37, 39 

level 1 risk management 9, 12, 36, 47 

level 2 risk management xvii, 9, 12, 46-48, 50, 63, 64, 68, 69 

mothballing 24 

multimedia exposure assessment 47 

municipal controls 50 

nonpotable ii, xii, xvii, 9, 11, 25, 26, 30-34, 36, 57, 74, 79 

official plan 24, 75-77, 79, 80, 82-84 

PCB 52, 55 

pH 22, 29 

phase 1 environmental site assessment 52 

phase 2 environmental site assessment 55 

planning mechanism 79, 82 

potable ii, xiii, 9, 11, 25-27, 30, 31, 33, 34, 36-41, 57, 72 

potentially sensitive site iii, 13, 16, 21 

principles iii, vi, 6 

public communication i, viii, 7-9, 49, 54, 57, 81 

public consultation xiii, 8, 54, 81, 85 

public meetings 8, 81 

public notification iv, xiii, 42 

receptor xi, xiii, 14, 33, 34, 36, 43, 46, 50 

record keeping iv, 72-74 

Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites Page 89 



Index 



record of site condition iv, ix, xv, xviii, 6, 66-70, 72-74 

reference dose xiii, 47 

remedial work plan iv, vii, xv, xvi, 7, 60-63, 66, 67, 77, 79-81, 83 

section 18 order ix, 69 

site plan 75, 83 

soil texture 11, 16, 29 

solubility limits 47 

subsurface soil xi, xiv, 28, 55, 70 

surface soil xiv, 13, 28, 29 

zoning bylaw 75, 79, 83, 84 



Page 90 Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites 



APPENDIX 1 

Summary of 
approvals information 



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en 



Footnotes for Table Al 



1 Section 9 air approval required for any activity discharging airborne contaminants to the 
natural environment. 

2 O.Reg 362 Approval required for management of PCB wastes. 

3 EAA applies to all provincial waste facilities unless specifically exempt; municipal waste 
facilities or activities as required by the municipal regulation made under the EAA (any site 
with a mandatory hearing under Part V is also subject to the EAA); private sector waste 
proposals designated by the Minister; any proposal designated by the Minister. 

4 Mandatory hearing if waste to be landfilled is equivalent to the waste of 1,500 persons or 
more; discretionary hearing if waste is less than 1,500 person equivalent. 

5 EPA hearings under S. 32 

6 EPA hearings under S. 32 not required. 

7 EAA approval will lead to EPA Part V approval. 

8 Permit to Take Water is required if pumping greater than 50,000 litres/day. Discharge point 
will dictate if ODWO, PWQO or sewer use bylaw are to be met. 

9 This refers to 200 tonnes per day (TPD) of waste residual, not TPD of material processed 

10 Includes land farming facilities. 

1 1 Applies only to the system (hauler) used to move the waste, not to the treatment system if 
nonmobile. 



A4 





APPENDIX 2 




Summary of soil, groundwater 
and sediment criteria 


Table A: 


Surface soil and groundwater criteria for a potable ground 
water condition 


Table B: 


Surface soil and groundwater criteria for a nonpotable 
ground water condition 


Table C: 


Subsurface soil criteria for a potable groundwater condition 


Table D: 


Subsurface soil criteria for a nonpotable ground water 
condition 


Table E: 


Sediment quality criteria 


Table F: 


Ontario Typical Range background soil concentrations 



A5 



A6 



Table A 

Surface soil and groundwater criteria for agricultural, 

residential/parkland, industrial/commercial land use for a 

potable groundwater condition 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) A7 



Table A: Surface soil and groundwater remediation criteria for three land uses (agricultural, 
residential/parkland and industrial/conunercial) in a potable groundwater situation. 



Soil Crileiu for Inorganics in this T«ble apply only whtrt Surfact Soil pH is 5.0 to 9.0 and for Full Dtpli Ust, the Subsurface Soil pH is 5.0 lo 11.0 


Table A: 


SoU remediation criteria 

(ug/g) 


Potable 

groundwaur 

criteria 

(ugrt) 


Chemical compound 


Agricultural 
Und use 


Residential/ 
parkland 
land use 


Industrial/ 

commercial 

Und use 


AU 
Und use 
categories 


ACENAPHTHENE 


15 


15 


15 


20 


ACENAPHTHYLENE 


100 


100 


130 


310 


ACETONE 


3.5 


35 


35 


3000 


ALDRIN 


005 


0.05 


0,05 


0,01 


ANTHRACENE 


28 


28 


28 


12 


ANTIMONY 


13 


13 


(44) 40 


60 


ARSENIC 


(25) 20 


(25) 20 


(50) 40 


25 


BARIUM 


(1000) 750 


(1000) 750 


(2000) 1500 


1000 


BENZENE 


024 


0.24 


0,24 


50 


BENZO(a)ANTHRACENE 


6.6 


66 


66 


02 


BENZO(a)PYRENE 


1.2 


1,2 


1 9 


001 


BENZO(b)FLUORANTHENE 


12 


12 


18 


02 


BENZO(g.h,i)PERYLENE 


40 


40 


40 


0,2 


BENZO(k)FLUORANTHENE 


12 


12 


18 


0,2 


BERYLLIUM 


1.2 


1,2 


1,2 


40 


BIPHENYL. I.l- 


0.89 


0.89 


0.89 


350 


BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL)ETHER 


066 


0.66 


066 


44 


BIS(2-CHLOROISOPROPYL)ETHER 


0.66 


0.66 


066 


2,2 


BISa-ETHYLHEXYDPHTHALATE 


100 


100 


100 


6,0 


BORON (AVAILABLE) 


1.5- 


1.5- 


2,0- 


5000 


BROMODICHLOROMETHANE 


0.12 


0.12 


0.12 


50 


BROMOFORM 


Oil 


0.11 


0.11 


5 


BROMOMETHANE 


(0.38) 0,061 


(0.38) 0,061 


(0,38) O061 


(10) 3-7 


CADMIUM 


(4.0) 3.0 


12 


12 


5,0 


CARBON TETRACHLORIDE 


(0.64) 10 


(0,64) 0.10 


(0 64) 0,10 


50 



A8 



Dated Febmary 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



Soil Churii for Inorxanics in this Ttbit ipply only whcir Surface SoU pH is S.O lo 9.0 and for Foil Dtpth Ust. the Sobsorfmct Soil pH is S.O to 1 1.0 


Table A: 


Soil i^medtalion criteria 

(ug/g) 


PoUble 

groundwater 

criteria 

(ug/ll 


Chemical compound 


Agricultural 
land use 


Residential/ 
parkland 
Und use 


Industrial/ 

commercial 

land use 


All 
land use 
categories 


CHLORDANE 


0,29 


0.29 


29 


0.O4 


CHLOROANILINE. p- 


1.3 


1.3 


1,3 


28 


CHLOROBENZENE 


2.4 


24 


2,4 


30 


CHLOROFORM 


0.13 


013 


013 


50 


CHLOROPHENOL. 2- 


0.1 


1 


0,1 


03 


CHROMIUM aOTAL) 


(1000) 750 


(1000) 750 


(1000) 750 


50 


CHROMIUM (Vn 


(10) 8,0 


(10) 80 


(10) 8,0 


50 


CHRYSENE 


12 


12 


17 


05 


COBALT 


(50) 40 


(50) 40 


(100) 80 


100 


COPPER 


(200) 150 


(300) 225 


(300) 225 


23 


CYANIDE (FREE) 


100 


100 


100 


52 


DIBENZO(a.h)ANTHRACENE 


12 


1 2 


1,9 


o: 


DBROMOCHLOROMETHANE 


009 


0.09 


009 


50 


DICHLOROBENZENE. 1.2- (o-DCB) 


0.88 


0.88 


OSS 


30 


DICHLOROBENZENE, 1.3- (m-DCB) 


30 


30 


30 


650 


DICHLOROBENZENE. 1.4- (p-DCB) 


0.32 


0.32 


32 


1 


DICHLOROBENZIDINE. 3.3'- 


1.3 


1.3 


1,3 


83 


DDD 


2.2 


2.2 


3,5 


6.0 


DDE 


I 6 


16 


2.4 


20 


DDT 


1.6 


1 6 


2.0 


05 


DICHLOROETHANE. I.l- 


3.0 


3,0 


30 


"0 


DICHLOROETHANE. 1.2- 


(O05) 022 


(005) 0.022 


(0 05> 022 


5.0 


DICHLOROETHYLENE. 1.1- 


(0.015^ 00024 


(0 015) 0024 


(0 015) 0024 


(4.1) 0.66 


DICHLOROETHYLENE. CIS-1.2- 


2.3 


2 3 


2.3 


-0 


DICHLOROETHYLENE. TRANS- 1.2- 


4 I 


4 1 


4.1 


100 


DICHLOROPHENOL. 2.4- 


03 


0.3 


03 


3 


DICHLOROPROP.ANE. 1.2- 


(0.12) 0.019 


(012) 0019 


(0.12) 0019 


50 



Dated Februar>' 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



A9 



Soil Crilcrii for Inortuiics in this Table appl; only wbere Sarfacc Soil pH is S.O to 9.0 and for Foil Depth Use, the Subsorface Soil pH is S.O to 11.0 


Table A: 


Soil remediation criteria 

(ug/g) 


PoUble 

groundwater 

criteria 

(ug/I) 


Chemical compound 


Agricultural 
land use 


Residential/ 
parkland 
Und use 


Industrial/ 

commercial 

land use 


All 
land use 
categories 


DICHLOROPROPENE, 1.3- 


(0.04) 0.0066 


(0.04) 0,0066 


(0,04) 0,0066 


1,4 


DELDRIN 


0.05 


0.05 


0,05 


0,02 


DIETHYL PHTHALATE 


071 


0,71 


71 


30 


DIMETHYL PHTHALATE 


0.7 


0,7 


0,7 


30 


DIMETHYLPHENOL. 2.4- 


094 


0,94 


0,94 


140 


DINITROPHENOL. 2.4- 


0.2 


0,2 


0,2 


42 


DINITROTOLUENE. 2,4- 


66 


0.66 


0.66 


0,5 


DIOXIN/FURAN (ng TEQ/g soil) 


0.01 


10 


1,0 


0000015 


ENDOSULFAN 


0.18 


0.18 


0,18 


0,35 


ENDRIN 


005 


0.05 


005 


0,05 


ETHYLBENZENE 


0.28 


0.28 


0,28 


2,4 


ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE 


(ODD 0056 


(0.01) 0056 


(0 012) 0056 


1,0 


FLUORANTHENE 


40 


40 


40 


130 


FLUORENE 


340 


340 


340 


280 


HEPTACHLOR 


(0.12) 084 


(0 12) 084 


(0.15) 084 


0,04 


HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE 


0.06 


006 


0,09 


3,0 


HEXACHLOROBENZENE 


046 


046 


0,76 


(1,0) 062 


HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE 


(2.2) 0.3S 


(2.2) 0.38 


(2,2) 038 


0,45 


HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE. 
Gamma 


0.41 


041 


0,49 


0,8 


HEXACHLOROETHANE 


(6.3) 3-8 


(63) 3.8 


(8,5) 3,8 


25 


INDENO(I.2.3-cd)PYRENE 


12 


i: 


19 


0.2 


LEAD 


200 


200 


1000 


10 


MERCURY 


10 


10 


10 


0.12 


METHOXYCHLOR 


4.0 


4,0 


4.0 


0? 


METHYL ETHYL KETONE 


0.27 


0,27 


0,27 


350 


METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE 


0,48 


048 


0,48 


350 



AlO 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



Soil Criuru for iDortuiia in this Table apply only when Sorface Soil pH is 5.0 to 9.0 and for Fall DepUi Use, Uie Sobsorfaee Soil pH is 5.0 to 11.0 


Table A: 


Soil remediation criteria 
(ot/g) 


Potable 

groundwater 

criteria 

(ug/1. 


Chemical compound 


Agricultural 
land use 


Residential/ 
parkland 
land use 


Industrial/ 

commercial 

bnd use 


All 
land use 
categories 


METHYL MERCURY 


6,8- 


6,8" 


10- 


012 


METHYL TERT BUTYL ETHER 


57 


5,7 


5,7 


700 


METHYLENE CHLORIDE 


1,1 


11 


I.l 


50 


METHYLNAPHTHALENE, 2-('l-) 


1,2 


12 


1,2 


10 


MOLYBDENUM 


50 


40 


40 


7300 


NAPHTHALENE 


46 


46 


4,6 


21 


NICKEL 


(200) 150 


(200) 150 


(200) 150 


100 


PENTACHLOROPHENOL 


50 


50 


5,0 


30 


PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS 

(gas/diesel) 


100 


100 


100 


1000 


PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS (heavy 
oils) 


1000 


1000 


1000 


lOOO 


PHENANTHRENE 


40 


40 


40 


63 


PHENOL 


40 


40 


40 


4 ICO 


POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS 


05 


50 


25 


o; 


PYRENE 


250 


250 


250 


40 


SELENIUM 


20 


10 


10 


10 


SILVER 


(25) 20 


(25)20 


(50)40 


12 


STYRENE 


(1,7) 1,2 


(1,7) 1,2 


(17) 1,2 


100 


TETRACHLOROETH.ANE, L 1.1.2- 


(0,12) 0.019 


(0,12) 0,019 


(0,12) 0,019 


5,0 


TETRACHLOROETHANE. 1.1.2,2- 


0.01 


001 


001 


1 


TETRACHLOROETHYLENE 


045 


45 


45 


; 


THALLIUM 


4 1 


4 1 


:,: 


: 


TOLUENE 


: 1 


2 1 


: 1 


24 


TRICHLOROBENZENE, 1.2,4- 


30 


30 


30 


-0 


TRICHLOROETHANE. 1.1.1- 


(34) 26 


(34) 26 


(34) 26 


200 


TRICHLOROETHANE, 1.1.2- 


0,28 


28 


0.28 


50 


TRICHLOROETHYLENE 


(3,9) 1,1 


.,3 9) 1,1 


(3,9) 1 1 


50 



Dated Februan' 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



All 



Sou Criuria for laortanics in this Tiblc apply ool; irbcn Sarfact Soil pH is 5.0 to 9.0 and ror FnU Drptti Use, Ihc Subsurface SoU pH is 5.0 to 11.0 


Table A; 


SoU remediation criteria 

(ug/gl 


Potable 

groundwater 

criteiia 

(ug/I) 


Chemical compound 


Agricultural 
land use 


Residential/ 
parkland 
land use 


Industrial/ 

commercial 

land use 


All 
land use 
categories 


TRICHLOROPHENOL. 2,4.5- 


3,: 


3.2 


3.2 


200 


TRICHLOROPHENOL 2,4.6- 


0,66 


0.66 


0,66 


2,0 


VANADIUM 


(2501 200 


(250) 200 


(250) 200 


200 


VINYL CHLORTOE 


(0,0075) 0,003 


(0.0075) 0003 


(00075) 0.003 


(1.3) 0.5 


XYLE.NES 


25 


25 


25 


300 


ZINC 


(800)600 


(800)600 


(800)600 


1100 


ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVrrY (mS/cm) 


0.70 


0.70 


1.4 


N/A 


CHLORIDE 


N/\' 


NA' 


NA/ 


250000 


NITRATE 


NA- 


NA' 


NA' 


10000 


NrrRTTE 


NA' 


NA' 


NA' 


1000 


SODIUM ADSORPTION RATIO (SAR) 


50 


50 


12 


N/A 


SODILTvl 


NA' 


NA- 


NA' 


200000 



( ) CriterioD value in brackets applies to mediuin and fine textured soils. 

+ Boron soil cnterion based on Hot Water Extract 
N/A = Not applicable, N/V = No Value. 

++ Analysis for methyl mercury is only required when the total mercury criterion is exceeded. 

(*1-) 2-mechyl naphthalene soil criterion is applicable to I-methyl naphthalene with the provision that if both are delected in the soil, Che sum of the two 
concentiaiions cannot exceed the soil criterion 



A12 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



Table B 

Surface soil and groundwater criteria for residential/parkland, 
industrial/commercial land use for a nonpotable groundwater 

condition 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) A13 



Table B: Surface soil and groundwater remediation criteria for two land uses (residential/parkland and 
industrial/conunercial) in a nonpotable groundwater situation. 



Soil CriterM for Inorjanics in Ibis T«blt apply only wheix Surface Soil pH is 5.0 to 9.0 and for Full Depth Use, the Subsurface Soil pH is S.O to 11.0 


Table B: 


Soil remediation criteria 

(ug/g) 


Nonpouble 

groundwater 

criteina 

(ug/l) 


Chemical compound 


Residential/ 
parkland 
land use 


Industrial/ 

commercial 

land use 


Both 
land use 
categories 


ACENAPHTHENE 


1000 


1300 


1700 


ACENAPHTHYLENE 


100 


840 


2000 


ACETONE 


3,8 


38 


3300 


ALDRIN 


005 


0.05 


(1,3) 0.2 


ANTHRACENE 


28 


28 


12 


ANTIMONY 


13 


(44) 40 


16000 


ARSENIC 


(25) 20 


(50) 40 


480 


BARIUM 


(1000) 750 


(2000) 1500 


23000 


BENZENE 


(25) 5.3 


(25) 53 


(12000) 1900 


BENZO(a)ANTHRACENE 


40 


40 


5,0 


BENZ0(a)PYRENE 


1.: 


L9 


19 


BENZO(b)FLUORANTHENE 


12 


19 


70 


BENZO(g,h.i)PERYLENE 


40 


40 


0,2 


BENZO(k)FLUORANTHENE 


12 


19 


04 


BERYLLIUM 


L2 


1,2 


53 


BIPHENYL. 1.1- 


4.3 


4.3 


1700 


BIS(2-CHL0R0ETHYL)ETHER 


066 


0.66 


(710) 110 


BIS(2-CHLOROISOPROPYL)ETHER 


(1.9) 82 


(2.6) 0.82 


(2700) 430 



A14 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



Soil Crilcria for Inortanics in thii Tabit apply only wbcrc Sarfan Soil pH is 5.0 to 9.0 and for Full Depth Use, Uic Sobsorfacc Soil pH is 5.0 to II.O 


Table B: 


Soil remediation criteria 
(ug/g) 


Nonpotable 

groundwater 

criteria 

lug/1) 


Chemical compound 


Residential/ 
parkland 
land use 


Industrial/ 

commercial 

land use 


Both 
land use 
categories 


BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE 


130 


330 


30 


BORON (AVAILABLE) 


1.5- 


2.0- 


50000 


BROMODICHLOROMETHANE 


14 


25 


50000 


BROMOFORM 


(14) 2.3 


(14) 2.3 


(5200) 840 


BROMOMETHANE 


(0.38) 0.061 


(0.38) 0.061 


(16) 3.7 


CADMRJM 


12 


12 


11 


CARBON TETRACHLORIDE 


(0 64) 0.10 


(0 64) 10 


(100) 17 


CHLORDANE 


0.29 


0.29 


OOl 


CHLOROANILINE, p- 


1.3 


1.3 


100 


CHLOROBENZENE 


(30) 8.0 


(30) 8.0 


500 


CHLOROFORM 


(4,9) 0.79 


(4,9) 79 


(2700> 430 


CHLOROPHENOL. 2- 


10 


10 


44000 


CHROMIUM (TOTAL) 


(1000) 750 


(1000)750 


2000 


CHROMIUM (VI) 


(10) 8.0 


(10) 8.0 


110 


CHRYSENE 


12 


19 


3.0 


COBALT 


(50) 40 


(100) 80 


100 


COPPER 


(300) 225 


(300) 225 


23 


CYANIDE (FREE) 


100 


100 


52 


DIBENZO(a.h)ANTHRACENE 


1.2 


1.9 


25 


DIBROMCXHLOROMETHANE 


10 


18 


50000 


DICHLOROBENZENE, L2- (o-DCB) 


30 


30 


7600 


DICHLOROBENZENE, L3- (m-DCB) 


30 


30 


7600 


DICHLOROBENZENE. L4- (p-DCB) 


30 


30 


7600 


DICHLOROBENZIDINE. 3.3'- 


13 


13 


1600 


DDD 


2,2 


3.5 


pO 


DDE 


16 


2,4 


:o 


DDT 


1.6 


2,0 


0' 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



A15 



Soil Criuria for Inorsanics in this Table apply only wbere Surface Soil pH is 5.0 to 9.0 and for Foil Depth Use. the Sobsarface Soil pH b 5.0 to 11.0 



Chemical compound 



Soil remediation criteiia 

(ug/g) 



Residential/ 
parkland 
land use 



Nonpotable 

groundwater 

criteria 

(ug^) 



Both 
land use 
categories 



DICHLOROETHANE, 1.1- 



DICHLOROETHA.NE. 1.2 



(0.14) 0.02; 



DICHLOROETHYLENE, 1.1- 



(0015,1 0002-1 



DICHLOROETHYLENE. CIS- 1.2- 



DICHLOROETHYLENE. TRANS- 1.2- 



DICHLOROPHENOL. 2.-t- 



DICHLOROPROPANE. 1.: 



(0.12) 0.019 



DICHLOROPROPENE. 1.3- 



DEETH'iX PHTHALATE 



DIMETHYL PHTHALATE 



DIMETm-LPHENOL. 2.4- 



DINn"ROPHENOL. 2.J 



DINrrROTOLUENE, 2,4- 



DIOXIN/FURAN (ng TEQ/g soil) 



ENDOSLT-FAN 



ETHYLBENZENE 



ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE 



FLUORANTHENE 



HEPTACHLOR 



HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE 



HEXACHLOROBENZENE 



HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE 



HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE. GAMMA 



HEXACHLOROETHANE 



A16 



Dated Februar)- 1997 (includes all revisions niade December 3 1996) 



Soil Criteru for Inorcinics in this Tabic appljr onl; when Surface Soil pH is 5.0 10 9.0 and for Full Depth Use, the Subsurface Soil pH is 5.0 to 11. 


Table B: 


Soil remediation criteria 
(ug/g) 


Nonpolable 

groundwater 

criteria 

(ug/l) 


Chemical compound 


Residential/ 
parkland 
land use 


Industrial/ 

commercial 

Und use 


Both 
land use 
categories 


INDENO( 1 .Z3-cd)PYRENE 


12 


19 


0.27 


LEAD 


200 


1000 


32 


MERCURY 


10 


10 


0.12 


METHOXYCHLOR 


40 


40 


03 


METHYL ETHYL KETONE 


38 


38 


50000 


METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE 


(69) 58 


(69) 58 


50000 


METHYL MERCURY 


6S- 


10- 


0,12 


METHYL TERT BUTYL ETHER 


100 


(410) 120 


50000 


METHYLENE CHLORIDE 


120 


(200) 140 


50000 


METHYLNAPHTHALENE, 2-CI-) 


(1000) 280 


(1600) 280 


13000 


MOLYBDENUM 


40 


40 


7300 


NAPHTHALENE 


40 


40 


(6200) 5900 


NICKEL 


(200) 150 


(200) 150 


1600 


PENTACHLOROPHENOL 


5,0 


50 


130 


PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS(gas/diesel) 


1000 


(2000) 1000 


N/V 


PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONSOieavy oils) 


1000 


5000 


N/V 


PHENANTHRENE 


40 


40 


63 


PHENOL 


40 


40 


26000 


POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS 


5.0 


25 


02 


PYRENE 


250 


250 


40 


SELENIUM 


10 


10 


50 


SILVER 


(25) 20 


(50)40 


12 


STYRENE 


(7.7) 1.2 


a.7) 1.2 


(5900) 940 


TETRACHLOROETHANE, L 1.1,2- 


(0.12) 0.019 


(0 121 0019 


(38) 60 


TETRACHLOROETHANE. 1.1.2.2- 


(0.23) 0.037 


(0.23) 0.037 


(1401 22 


TETRACHLOROETHYLENE 


45* 


045' 


5 0' 


THALLIUM 


4 1 


3; 


400 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



A17 



Soil Criteru for Inorganics in this Table apply only wbert Sorfacc Soil pH is 5.0 to 9.0 and for Foil Depth Use. the Subsurface Soil pH is 5.0 to 11.0 


Table B: 


Soil remediation criteria 

(og/g) 


Nonpotable 

groundwater 

criteria 

(ug/1) 


Chemical compound 


Residential/ 
parkland 
land use 


Industrial/ 

commerrial 

Und use 


Both 
land use 
categories 


TOLUENE 


(150) 34 


(150) 34 


(37000) 5900 


TRICHLOROBENZENE, 1.2.4- 


30 


30 


500 


TRICHLOROETHANE. 1,1.1- 


(34)' 26- 


(34)' 26' 


200- 


TRICHLOROETHANE. 1.1.2- 


2.3 


3 1 


(50000) 15000 


TRICHLOROETHYLENE 


9)' 1.1' 


(3.9)' 1.1* 


50* 


TRICHLOROPHENOL. 2.4.5- 


10 


10 


630 


TRICHLOROPHENOL 2.4,^ 


10 


10 


9700 


VANADIUM 


(250) 200 


(250) 200 


200 


VINYL CHLORIDE 


(0 0075) 0.003 


(0.0075) 0.003 


(1.3) 0.5 


XYLENES 


(210) 34 


(210) 34 


(35000) 5600 


ZINC 


(800) 600 


(800)600 


1100 


ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY <mS/cm) 


0.70 


14 


N/A 


CHLORIDE 


N/V 


N/V 


N/V 


NITRATE 


NA' 


N/V 


NA' 


NirRITE 


NA' 


N/V 


2000 


SODIUM ADSORPTION RATIO (SAR) 


5.0 


12 


N/A 


SODIUM 


N/V 


NA' 


N/V 



( ) Cnterion value in brackets applies to medium and fme textured soils. 
+ Boron soil criterion based on hot water extract. 
N/A = Not applicable. NA' = No value. 

• Soil or groundwater criterion adopted from Table A (potable groundwater situation) to account for degradation to vinyl chloride. 
■n- Analysis for methyl mercury is only required when the total mercury criterion is exceeded. 

(*1-) 2-methyl naphthalene soil criterion is applicable to 1 -methyl naphthalene with the provision that if both are detected in the soil, the 
sum of the two concentrations cannot exceed the soil criterion 



A18 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



Table C 

Subsurface soil criteria for residential/parkland, 
industrial/commercial land use for a potable groundwater 

condition 



Dated Februarv' 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) A19 



Table C: Subsurface soil remediation criteria for two land uses (residential/parkland and 
industrial/commercial) in a potable groundwater situation. 



Soil criteria for inorganics in this table apply only where soil pH is 5.0 To 1 1.0 


TaUeC: 


Soil remediation ciileria |l 


Chemical compound 


Residential/ 
paikland 
land use 


Industrial/ 

commercial 

land use 


ACENAPHTHENE 


15' 


15' 


ACENAPHTHYLENE 


130 


130' 


ACETONE 


3.5" 


3 5* 


ALDRIN 


05' 


oos 


ANTHRACENE 


28* 


28« 


ANTIMONY 


44 


44 


ARSENIC 


(50) 40 


N/N' 


BARaiM 


2500 


4100 


BENZENE 


24- 


0,24' 


BENZO(a)A.NTHRACENE 


6.6' 


6.6* 


BENZ0(a)PYRENE 


1 9 


7.2 


BENZO(b)FLUORANTHENE 


IS 


IS* 


BENZO(g.h.i)PERYLENE 


53 


53 


BENZO(k)FLUORANTHENE 


18 


18' 


BERYLLIUM 


1.2' 


3.1 


BIPHENYL, 1.1- 


0.89' 


0,89- 


BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL)ETHER 


0.56' 


0.66' 


B1S(2-CHL0R0IS0PR0PYL)ETHER 


066* 


066- 


BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE 


100* 


100- 



A20 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



Soil cnteria for inorganics in this table apply only where soil pH is 5.0 To 11.0 


Table C: 


Soil remediation crileria 

(ug/g) 


Chemical compound 


Residential/ 
paiidand 
land use 


Industrial/ 

commeicial 

land use 


BORON (AVAILABLE) 


2 0- 


N/V 


BROMODICHLOROMETHANE 


0.12* 


0.12* 


BROMOFORM 


on* 


0.11* 


BROMOMETHANE 


(12) 4.5 


(12) 4.5 


CADMIUM 


41 


41 


CARBON TETRACHLORIDE 


10 


10 


CHLORDANE 


0.29» 


0.29* 


CHLOROANILINE. p- 


1.3' 


1.3* 


CHLOROBENZENE 


2.4« 


2.4* 


CHLOROFORM 


0.13« 


0.13* 


CHLOROPHENOL. 2- 


01* 


0,1* 


CHROMIUM aOTAL) 


2500 


5000 


CHROMIUM (VI) 


600 


1100 


CHRYSENE 


17 


17* 


COBALT 


2500 


3400 


COPPER 


2500 


2500 


CYANIDE (FREE) 


100* 


390 


DIBENZO(a.h)ANTHRACENE 


1.9 


7.2 


DIBROMOCHLOROMETHANE 


009* 


009* 


DICHLOROBENZENE, 1.2- (o-DCB) 


088* 


0.88* 


DICHLOROBENZENE. 1,3- (m-DCB) 


190 


190 


DICHLOROBENZENE. 1.4- (p-DCB) 


0,32* 


032* 


DICHLOROBENZIDINE. 3,3'- 


1.3* 


2.7 


DDD 


3 5 


13 


DDE 


24 


S,9 


DDT 


20 


2 0' 


DICHLOROETHANE. 1.1- 


3.0* 


3 0* 


DICHLOROETHANE, 1.2- 


COS" 


05"* 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



A21 



Soil criteria for inorganics in this table apply only where soil pH is 5.0 To 11.0 


Table C: 


Soil remediation criteria 
(ug/g) 


Chemical compound 


Residential/ 
paridand 
land use 


Industrial/ 

conune trial 

land use 


DICHLOROETHYLENE. !.l- 


(0.42) 0.07 


(0.42) 0.07 


DICHLOROETHYLENE. CIS- 1.2- 


2.3' 


2.3' 


DICHLOROETHYLENE. TRANS- 1.2- 


4.1' 


4,1' 


DICHLOROPHENOL. 2.4- 


0.3' 


03* 


DICHLOROPROPANE. 1,2- 


013 


013 


DICHLOROPROPENE. 1.3- 


0.04" 


004" 


DELDRIN 


005' 


0.05* 


DIETHYL PHTHALATE 


071' 


0.71' 


DIMETHYL PHTHALATE 


7- 


07* 


DIMETHYLPHENOL. 2,4- 


094' 


0.94- 


DINITROPHENOL. 2,4- 


0.2' 


02* 


DINITROTOLUENE. 2.4- 


066* 


066- 


DIOXIN/FURAN (ng TEQ/g soil) 


1 0- 


N/V 


ENDOSULFAN 


018' 


0.18* 


ENDRIN 


05- 


0.05' 


ETHYLBENZENE 


0.28' 


028- 


ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE 


O0I2 


0012" 


FLUORANTHENE 


840 


840 


FLUORENE 


340* 


340' 


HEPTACHLOR 


0.15 


015" 


HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE 


009 


033 


HEXACHLOROBENZENE 


0,76 


2.8 


HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE 


2.2" 


2.2" 


HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE. GAMMA 


049 


049' 


HEXACHLOROETHANE 


8.5 


8.5" 


INDENO(l,2.3-cd)PYRENE 


19 


53 


LEAD 


1000 


NA' 


MERCURY 


57 


57 



A22 



Dated Februaiy 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



Soil critena for inorganics in this table apply only where soil pH is 5.0 To 11.0 


Table C: 


Soil remediation criteria 

(ug/gl 


ChemicaJ compound 


Reside ntiaJ/ 
paiUand 
land ice 


Industrial/ 

cotiunerrrial 

land use 


METHOXYCHLOR 


■to* 


40* 


METHYL ETHYL KETONE 


or- 


2^' 


METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE 


4S' 


4S' 


METHYL MERCURY 


is- 


is- 


METHYL TERT BUTYL ETHER 


5 7* 


5 7- 


METHYLENE CHLORIDE 


1.1' 


ll* 


METHYLNAPHTHALENE. 2-CI-) 


1.2' 


1.2' 


MOLYBDENUM 


550 


550 


NAPHTHALENE 


46' 


4 6- 


WCKEL 


710 


710 


PENTACHLOROPHENOL 


12 


43 


PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS(£as/diesel) 


lOO* 


!00' 


PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONSOieavy oiU) 


1000* 


1000' 


PHENANTHREN-E 


150 


150 


PHENOL 


64 


64 


POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS 


25 


NA' 


PYRENE 


250' 


250" 


SELENIUM 


2500 


2500 


SE.VER 


240 


240 


STYRENE 


17" 


1 -•• 


IhlkACHLOROETHANE, LL1.2- 


039 


039 


TETRACHLOROETHANE. 1.1.2.2- 


o.oi- 


001- 


TETRACHLOROETHYLENE 


45' 


45' 


THALLIUM 


3; 


;50 


TOLUEN-E 


2 1' 


li- 


TRICHLOROBENZENE. 1.2.4- 


no 


no 


TRICHLOROETHANE. 1.1.1- 


y-i" 


34" 


TRICHLOROETHANE. 1.1.2- 


2S' 


o:s. 



Daied Febmars' 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



A23 



Soil criteria for inorganics in this table apply on]y where soil pH is 5 To 11.0 


Table C: 


Soil remediation criteiia 

(ug/g) 


Chemical compound 


Residential/ 
paikland 
land use 


IndustiiaL' 

commeiciai 

land use 


TRICHLOROETHYLENE 


3.9" 


3 9" 


TRICHLOROPHENOU 2.4.5- 


3.2* 


3.2- 


TRICHLOROPHENOL 2.4.6- 


066* 


0.66* 


VANADIUM 


910 


910 


VINYL CHLORIDE 


(0.25) 0.094 


(0 25) 094 


XYLENES 


25' 


25- 


ZINC 


2500 


5000 


ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY (mS/cm) 


N/A 


N/A 


CHLORIDE 


NA' 


NA- 


NITRATE 


NA- 


NA- 


NITRITE 


NA- 


N.^N- 


SODIL'M ADSORPTION RATIO (SARl 


N/A 


N/A 


SODIUM 


NA' 


NA' 



( ) Criterion value in brackets applies to medium and fine textured soils. 

* Criterion value is the same as the corresponding criterion in Table A. 

" Criterion value is the same as the corresponding medium/fine textured soil criterion in Table A. 

+ Boron soil cnterion based on hot water extract 

-M- Analysis for methyl mercury is only required when the total mercury cnterion is exceeded. 

('!-) 2-methyl naphthalene soil criterion is appUcable to 1 -methyl naphthalene with the provision that if both are present in the soil, the sum 

of the two concentrations cannot exceed the soil critenon. 

N7A = Not applicable, NA' = No Value. 



A24 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



Table D 

Subsurface soil criteria for residential/parkland, 
industrial/commercial land use for a nonpotable groundwater 

condition 



Dated Febman' 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) A25 



Table D: Subsurface soil remediation criteria for two land uses (residential/parkland and 
industrial/commercial) in a nonpotable groundwater situation. 



Soil criteria for inorganics in this table apply only where soil pH is 5 To 1 1.0 


Table D: 


Soil remediation criteria H 
lug/g) 1 


Chemical compound 


Residential/ 
parkland 
land use 


Industrial/ 
land use 


ACENAPHTHENE 


1300 


1300- 


ACENAPHTHYLENE 


840 


840' 


ACETONE 


3 8' 


3.8- 


ALDRIN 


0.05' 


15 


ANTHRACENE 


2i- 


28' 


ANTIMON'Y 


44 


44" 


ARSENIC 


(50) 40 


N/\' 


BARIL'M 


2500 


4100 


BENZENE 


63 


(230) 89 


BENZO(a)ANTHRACENE 


170 


170 


BENZO{a)PYRENE 


1.9 


7.2 


BENZOrt»FLUORANTHENE 


19 


72 


BENZO(iJi.i)PERYLENE 


53 


53 


BENZOflOFLUORANTHENE 


19 


37 


BERYLLIUM 


1.2' 


3 1 


BIPHENYL. 1.1- 


4.3' 


4.3' 


BIS(2-CHL0R0ETHYL)ETHER 


0.66* 


066' 


BIS(2-CHL0R01S0PR0PYL)ETHER 


2.6 


i9 3) 4 7 


B1S(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE 


330 


500 


BORON (AVAILABLE) 


2.0* 


NW 



A26 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



Soil criteria for inorganics in this table apply only where soil pH is 5.0 To 110 


Table D: 


Soil remediation criteria 

(ug/g) 


Chemical compound 


Residential/ 
parkland 
Und use 


Industrial/ 

commercial 

land use 


BROMODICHLOROMETHANE 


25 


90 


BROMOFORM 


(120) 19 


(120) 19 


BROMOMETHANE 


(20) 4.5 


(20) 4.5 


CADMIUM 


41 


41 


CARBON TETRACHLORIDE 


(12) 3.3 


(20) 3.3 


CHLORDANE 


0.29' 


0.29' 


CHLOROANILINE. p- 


1.3« 


13- 


CHLOROBENZENE 


40 


40 


CHLOROFORM 


(71) 11 


(71) 11 


CHLOROPHENOL, 2- 


240 


800 


CHROMIUM (TOTAL)) 


2500 


5000 


CHROMIUM (VI) 


600 


1100 


CHRYSENE 


19 


72 


COBALT 


2500 


3400 


COPPER 


2500 


2500 


CYANIDE (FREE) 


100* 


390 


DIBENZO(a,h)ANTHRACENE 


19 


7.2 


DIBROMOCHLOROMETHANE 


18 


67 


DICHLOROBENZENE. 1,2- (o-DCB) 


500 


500 


DICHLOROBENZENE. 1.3- (tn-DCB) 


500 


500 


DICHLOROBENZENE, 1,4- (p-DCB) 


63 


230 


DICHLOROBENZIDINE, 3.3'- 


1,3' 


2.7 


DDD 


3 5 


1? 


DDE 


24 


89 


DDT 


20 


2,0' 


DICHLOROETHANE. 1.1- 


(500) 390 


(500) 390 


DICHLOROETHANE. 1,2- 


(10) 016 


(1.0) 016 


DICHLOROETHYLENE, 1.1- 


(042) 0.07 


(0.42) 0.07 


DICHLOROETHYLENE. CIS-1,2- 


2.3- 


2.3" 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



All 



Soil criteria for inorganics in this table apply only where soil pH is 5.0 To 11.0 


Table D: 


Soil remediation criteria 

(ug/g) 


Chemical compound 


Residential/ 
parkland 
Und use 


Industrial 
land use 


DICHLOROETHYLENE. TRANS-1,2- 


41'* 


4.I" 


DICHLOROPHENOL, 2.4- 


94 


94 


DICHLOROPROPANE. 1.2- 


115) 2? 


(1.5) 0.23 


DICHLOROPROPENE, 1.3- 


(0.62) 0.10 


(0.62) 0.10 


DELDRIN 


005* 


0.05' 


DIETHYL PHTHALATE 


0.71' 


0.71' 


DIMETHYL PHTHALATE 


0.7* 


07' 


DIMETHYLPHENOL. 2,4- 


140' 


140' 


DINITROPHENOL, Z4- 


4.1' 


4.1' 


DINrrROTOLUENE. 2.4- 


1.8 


6.6 


DIOXIN/FURAN (ng TEQ/g soil) 


10- 


NA- 


ENDOSULFAN 


0.29' 


0.29' 


ENDRIN 


005* 


005' 


ETHYLBENZENE 


1000 


2500 


ETHYLENE DBROMIDE 


002 


(0066) 0038 


FLUORANTHENE 


840 


840 


FLUORENE 


350* 


350' 


HEPTACHLOR 


015 


015" 


HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE 


009 


0.33 


HEXACHLOROBENZENE 


076 


28 


HEXACHLOROBUTADENE 


(11) 43 


(27) 4.3 


HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE. GAMMA 


49 


49* 


HEXACHLOROETHANE 


13 


(47) 42 


INr)ENO(1.2.3.cd)PYRENE 


19 


70 


LEAD 


1000 


N/\ 


MERCURY 


57 


57 


METHOXYCHLOR 


4 0' 


4 0' 


METHYL ETHYL KETONE 


3S' 


38* 


METHYL ISOBLTYL KETONE 


69" 


69" 



A28 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



Soil criteria for inorganics in this table apply only where soil pH is 5.0 To 1 1 


Table D: 


Soil remediation criteria 

(ug/gl 


Chemical compound 


Residential/ 
parkland 
land use 


Industrial/ 

commercial 

land use 


METHYL MERCURY 


18- 


IS" 


METHYL TERT BUTYL ETHER 


410 


410" 


METHYLENE CHLORIDE 


200 


740 


METHYLNAPHTHALENE, 2-C1-) 


1600 


1600" 


MOLYBDENUM 


550 


550 


NAPHTHALENE 


(1400) 1300 


(1400) 1300 


NICKEL 


710 


"10 


PENTACHLOROPHENOL 


12 


43 


PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS(gas/diesel) 


5000 


(10000) 5000 


PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS(hea\-y oils) 


5000 


(10000) 5000* 


PHENANTHRENE 


150 


150 


PHENOL 


?90 


39'j 


POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS 


25 


NV 


PYRENE 


250* 


250- 


SELENRJM 


2500 


2500 


SILVER 


240 


240 


STYRENE 


(2S1 16 


i99i 16 


TETRACHLOROETRANE. 1.1.1.2- 


(2.9) 046 


(2.9) 046 


TETRACHLOROETHANE. 1.1.2.2- 


(0.64) 0.22 


(14) 0.22 


TETRACHLOROETHYLENE 


045" 


45- 


THALLIUM 


3: 


150 


TOLUENE 


(1000) 510 


(2500) 510 


TRICHLOROBENZENE. 1.2,4- 


770 


770 


TRICHLOROETHANE. 1.1,1- 


J4'.. 


34'.. 


TRICHLOROETR^NT. 1,1.2- 


■ 1 


12 


TRICHLOROETHYLENE 


39... 


30... 


TRICHLOROPHENOU 2.4,5- 


lO- 


10- 


TRICHLOROPHENOL 2.4,6- 


59 


220 


VANADIUM 


910 


910 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



A29 



Soil criteria for inorganics in this table apply only where soil pH is 5.0 To 11.0 


Table D: 


Soil remediation criteria 

(ug/g) 


Chemical compound 


Residential/ 
parkland 
land use 


Industrial/ 

commercial 

land use 


VINYL CHLORIDE 


(0.25) 0,094 


(0.25) 0.094 


XYLENES 


(1000) 460 


(2500) 460 


ZINC 


2500 


5000 


ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY (mS/cm) 


N/A 


N/A 


CHLORIDE 


NW 


N/V 


NITRATE 


n/v 


N/V 


NITRITE 


N/V 


N/V 


SODIUM ADSORPTION RATIO (SAR) 


N/A 


N/A 


SODIUM 


N/V 


N/V 



( ) Criterion value in brackets applies to medium and fine textured soils. 
* Criterion value is the same as the corresponding criterion in Table B. 

•* Criterion value is the same as the corresponding medium/fine textured soil criterion in Table B. 
+ Boron soil criterion based on hot water extract 

a Soil criterion adopted from Table C (potable groundwater situation) to account for degradation to vinyl chloride. 
++ Analysis for methyl mercury is only required when the total mercury criterion is exceeded. 

(•1-) 2-methyl naphthalene soil criterion is applicable to 1 -methyl naphthalene with the provision that if both are present in the soil, the 
sum of the two concentrations cannot exceed the soil criterion. 
N/A = Not applicable; NA' = No value. 



A30 



Dated February 1997 (includes all revisions made December 3 1996) 



Table E 
Sediment quality criteria 



Dated February 1997 A31 



Table E: Sediment quality criteria 



Table E: 


Lowest effect leveP 
(ug/g dry wU 


Chemical compound 


AU land use 
categories 


ACENAPHTHENE 


. 


ACENAPHTHYLENE 




ACETONE 


. 


ALDRIN 


0002 


ANTHRACENE 


0.22 


ANTIMONY 


. 


ARSENIC 


60 


BARIUM 


. 


BENZENE 


. 


BENZD(a)ANTHRACENE 


0.32 


BENZO(a)PYRENE 


0.37 


BENZO(b)FLUORANTHENE 


. 


BENZO(g,h,i)PERYLENE 


0.17 


BENZO{k)Fl.UORANTHENE 


0-24 


BERYLLIUM 


. 


BIPHENYL. 1.1- 




BIS(2-CHL0R0ETHYL)ETHER 


. 


BIS(2-CHL0R0IS0PR0PYL)ETHER 


. 


B!S(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE 


. 


BORON 


. 


BROMODICHLOROMETH.ANE 


. 


BROMOFORM 


. 


BROMOMETHANE 


. 


CADMIUM 


06 


CARBON TETRACHLORIDE 


. 


CHLORDANE 


0007 


CHLOROANILINE. p- 


• 


CHLOROBENZENE 


. 


CHLOROFORM 


. 


CHLOROPHENOL. 2- 


•1 



A32 



Dated February 1997 



Table E: 


Lowest effect leveP 
(ug/g dr> wL) 


Chemical compound 


All Und use 
categories 


CHROMIUM aOTAL) 


26 


CHROMIUM (VI) 


• 


CHRYSENE 


0.34 


COBALT 


50" 


COPPER 


16 


CYANIDE (FREE) 


0,1' 


DIBENZO(a.h)Am-HRACENE 


0.06 


DIBROMOCHLOROMETHA>fE 




DICHLOROBENZENE. 1.2- (o-DCB) 




DICHLOROBENZENE. 1,3- (m-DCB) 




DICHLOROBENZENE, 1,4- (p-DCB) 




DICHLOROBENZIDINE. 3,3- 




DDD 


COOS 


DDE 


0.005 


DDT 


0.007 


DICHLOROETHANE. 1.1- 




DICHLOROETHANE. 1,2- 




DICHLOROETHYLENE, 1,1- 




DICHLOROETHYLENE. CIS- 1.2- 




DICHLOROETHYLENE, TRANS- 1,2- 




DICHLOROPHENOL, 2.4- 




DICHLOROPROPANE. 1,2- 




DICHLOROPROPENE, 1.3- 




DELDRIN 


ooo: 


DIETHYL PHTHALATE 




DIMETHYL PHTHALATE 




DIMETHYLPHENOL. 2.4- 




DINITROPHENOL. 2.4- 




DINITROTOLUENE. 2.4- 




DIOXIN/FURAN (ng TEQ'g sedjmenti 




ENDOSULFAN 





Dated Februao 1997 



A33 



Table E: 


Lowest efTecl level" 

(ug/g dry wL) 


Chemical compound 


All land use 
categories 


ENDRIN 


0.003 


ETHYLBENZENE 


. 


ETHYLENE DmROMIDE 




FLUORANTHENE 


75 


FLUORENE 


0,19 


HEPTACHLOR 


. 


HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE 


0.005' 


HEXACHLOROBENZENE 


0,02 


HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE 


. 


HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE, GAMMA 


. 


HEXACHLOROETHANE 


. 


INDENOd .2.3-cd)PYRENE 


0,2 


LEAD 


31 


MERCURY 


0.2 


METHOXYCHLOR 


. 


METHYL ETHYL KETONE 


. 


METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE 


. 


METHYL MERCURY 


. 


METHYL TERT BUTYL ETHER 


. 


METHYLENE CHLORIDE 


. 


METHYLNAPHTHALENE. 2-(l-) 


. 


MOLYBDENUM 


. 


NAPHTHALENE 


. 


NICKEL 


16 


PENTACHLOROPHENOL 


. 


PHENANTHRENE 


056 


PHENOL 


. 


POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS 


07 


PYRENE 


0,49 


SELENIUM 


. 


SILVER 


0.5' 



A34 



Dated February 1997 



Table E: 


Lowest efTect level" 
(ug/g dry wL) 


Chemical compound 


All land use 
categories 


STYRENE 






TETRACHLOROETHANE. 1.1.1.2- 






TETRACHLOROETHANE. 1.1.2,2- 






TETRACHLOROETHYLENE 






THALLRIM 






TOLUENE 






TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS (gaydiesel) 






TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS (heavy oils) 






TRICHLOROBENZENE. 1.2.4- 






TRICHLOROETHANE. 1,1.1- 






TRICHLOROETHANE. 1.1.2- 






TRICHLOROETHYLENE 






TRICHLOROPHENOL, 2,4.5- 






TRICHLOROPHENOL 2,4.6- 






VANADIUM 






VINYL CHLORIDE 






XYLENES 






ZINC 


120 


ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVrTY (mS/cm) 


N/A 


CHLORIDE 




NITRrrE/NITRATE 


. 


SODIUM ADSORPTION RATIO (SARl 


n;a 


SODIUM 





' Lowest effects levels are based on the 5th percentile of the screening level concentration (SLC) 

" Parameter was carried over from the Open Water Disposal guidelines and is to be treated as a lowest effects level. 

' - 10% SLC. 

* No value derived 

N/A = Not applicable. 

Note: 

Criteria for the chemical compounds in the above table were taken from the MOEE Guidelines for the Protection and Management of 
Aquatic Sediment Quality in Ontario (August, 1993). In the event of a discrepancy, sediment quality values found in the most recent version 
of the MOEE Guidelines for the Protection and Management of Aquatic Sediment Quality in Ontario should be deemed correct. 



Dated February 1997 



A35 



A36 



Dated February 1997 



Table F 

Ontario Typical Range soil concentrations 
(background) 



Dated Febniary 1997 A3 7 



TABLE F: Ontario background soil concentrations 



TABLE F: 


Soil Background CoDcentration 

(ug/g) 


Chemical Compound 


Agricultural Land Use 


All Other Land Uses 


ACENAPHTHENE 


0.05 


0,07 


ACENAPHTHYLENE 


0.08 


0.08 


ACETONE 


. 


. 


ALDRIN 


005 


0.05 


ANTHRACENE 


0.05 


016 


ANTIMONY 


1.0 


1.0 


ARSENIC 


14 


17 


BARIUM 


190 


210 


BENZENE 


0.002 


0.002 


BENZO(a)ANTHRACENE 


0.10 


0.74 


BENZO(a)PYRENE 


0.10 


0.49 


BENZO(b)FLUORANTHENE 


0.30 


0.47 


BENZO(g.h,i)PERYLENE 


0.20 


0.68 


BENZO(k)FLUORANTHENE 


0.05 


0.48 


BERYLLIUM 


1.2 


1.2 


BIPHENYL. 1,1- 


. 


. 


BIS(2-CHL0R0ETHYL)ETHER 


* 


* 


BIS(2-CHLOROISOPROPYL)ETHER 


• 


. 


BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE 


- 


. 


BROMODICHLOROMETHANE 


. 


. 


BROMOFORM 


0.002 


0.002 


BROMOMETHANE 


0.003 


003 


CADMIUM 


1.0 


1.0 


CARBON TETRACHLORIDE 


0.002 


0.002 


CHLORDANE 


0.05 


0.05 



A38 



Dated February 1997 



TABLE F: 


Soil Background Concentration 
(ug/g) 


Chemical Compound 


Agricultural Land Use 


All Other Land Uses 


CHLOROANILINE. p- 


. 


. 


CHLOROBENZENE 


0.002 


0002 


CHLOROFORM 


0.006 


0.006 


CHLOROPHENOL, 2- 


1 


0.1 


CHROMIUM (TOTAL) 


67 


71 


CHROMIUM (VI) 


2.5 


2.5 


CHRYSENE 


0.18 


0.69 


COBALT 


19 


21 


COPPER 


56 


85 


CYANIDE (FREE) 


0.12 


0.12 


DIBENZO(a,h)ANTHRACENE 


0.15 


0.16 


DIBROMOCHLOROMETHANE 


0.003 


0.003 


DICHLOROBENZENE, 1,2- (o-DCB) 


0.002 


0.002 


DICHLOROBENZENE. 1.3- (m-DCB) 


0.002 


0.002 


DICHLOROBENZENE, 1.4- (p-DCB) 


0.002 


0.002 


DICHLOROBENZIDINE. 3.3'- 


. 


. 


DDD 


. 


. 


DDE 


* 


. 


DDT 


0.12 


1.4 


DICHLOROETHANE, 1,1- 


0.002 


0002 


DICHLOROETHANE, 1,2- 


0.002 


0.002 


DICHLOROETHYLENE, 1,1- 


0.002 


0.002 


DICHLOROETHYLENE, CIS-1,2- 


. 




DICHLOROETHYLENE, TRANS- 1.2- 


0.003 


0.00? 


DICHLOROPHENOL. 2,4- 


0.1 


0.1 


DICHLOROPROPANE, 1,2- 


0.002 


002 


DICHLOROPROPENE. 1,3- 


0.003 


0003 


DIELDRIN 


005 


0> 


DIETHYL PHTHALATE 


. 


• 



Dated. Febniaiy 1997 



A39 



TABLE F: 


Soil Background CoDceDtration 

(ug/g) 


Chemical Compound 


Agricultural Land Use 


All Other Land Uses 


DIMETHYL PHTHALATE 


. 


. 


DIMETHYLPHENOL, 2,4- 


0.2 


0.2 


DINITROPHENOL. 2.4- 


0.2 


0.2 


DINITROTOLUENE, 2.4- 


. 


. 


DIOXIN/FURAN (ng TEQ/g soil) 


0.007 


0007 


ENDOSULFAN 


• 


. 


ENDRIN 


0.05 


0.05 


ETHYLBENZENE 


0.002 


0002 


ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE 


0.004 


0.004 


FLUORANTHENE 


0.24 


1.1 


FLUORENE 


0.05 


12 


HEPTACHLOR 


005 


0.05 


HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE 


005 


0.05 


HEXACHLOROBENZENE 




« 


HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE 




. 


HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE, GAMMA 




. 


HEXACHLOROETHANE 




. 


INDENO( 1 ,2.3-cd)PYRENE 


0.11 


0.38 


LEAD 


55 


120 


MERCURY 


0.16 


0.23 


METHOXYCHLOR 


0.05 


0.05 


METHYL ETHYL KETONE 


• 


. 


METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE 


. 


. 


METHYL MERCURY 


. 


. 


METHYL TERT BUTYL ETHER 


• 


. 


METHYLENE CHLORIDE 


0.003 


0.003 


METHYLNAPHTHALENE. 1- 


0.05 


0,26 


METHYLNAPHTHALENE, 2- 


0.05 


0.29 


MOLYBDENUM 


2.5 


2.5 



A4Q 



Dated February 1997 



TABLE F: 


Soil Background Concentration 
(ug/gl 


Chemical Compound 


Agricultural Land Use 


All Other Land Uses 


NAPHTHALENE 


005 


0.09 


NICKEL 


43 


43 


PENTACHLOROPHENOL 


1 


0,1 


PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS(gas/diesel) 


. 


- 


PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS(heavy oils) 


. 


. 


PHENANTHRENE 


19 


069 


PHENOL 


0.1 


1 


POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS 


03 


03 


PYRENE 


0.19 


1.0 


SELENIUM 


1.4 


1.9 


SILVER 


0.35 


42 


STYRENE 


0.002 


0002 


TETRACHLOROETHANE, 1.1.1.2- 


. 


. 


TETRACHLOROETHANE. 1.1.2.2- 


0.004 


0.004 


TETRACHLOROETHYLENE 


0.002 


0.002 


THALLIUM 


2.5 


2.5 


TOLUENE 


0.002 


0.002 


TRICHLOROBENZENE. 1.2.4- 


• 


. 


TRICHLOROETHANE, l.I.I- 


0.008 


0.009 


TRICHLOROETHANE. 1,1,2- 


0.002 


0.002 


TRICHLOROETHYLENE 


0.OO4 


0.004 


TRICHLOROPHENOL, 2,4.5- 


0.1 


1 


TRICHLOROPHENOL 2.4.6- 


01 


0.1 


VANADIUM 


91 


91 


VINYL CHLORIDE 


0.003 


0.003 


XYLENES 


0.002 


0.002 


ZINC 


150 


160 


ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY (mS/cm) 


047 


5" 


CHLORIDE 


58 


330 



Dated Febniai>' 1997 



A41 



TABLE F: 


Soil Background Concentration 
(ug/g) 


Chemical Compound 


Agricultural Land Use 


All Other Land Uses 


NITROGEN (TOTAL %) 


0.7 


0.7 


NITRITE/NITRATE 


40 


61 


SODIUM ADSORPTION RATIO (SAR) 


I.O 


2.4 



^ote: • No value denved. 



A42. 



Dated Febmary 1997 



APPENDIX 3 

Draft Section 18 orders 

for 

stratified site condition and 

site specific risk assessment/risk management 

and 

Schedule A: 

Record of Site Condition 



A43 



A44 



Environmental Protection Act, sections 18 and 197 



ORDER 

[for stratified site condition] 



TO: [Owner of the Property] 



PART 1 LEGAL AUTHORITY AND REASONS 

1 Pursuant to subsection 1(1) of the Environmental Protection Act, R.S.O. 1990, c.E. 19, as 
amended (EPA), "contaminant" means any sohd, hquid, gas, odour, heat, sound, vibration, 
radiation or combination of any of them resulting directly or indirectly from human activities 
that may cause an adverse effect. 

2 Subsection 18(1) of the EPA provides that the Director may, by order, require a person who 
owns or owned or who has or had management or control of an undertaking or property to do 
any one or more of the following: 

1. To have available at all times, or during such periods of time as are specified in the 
order, the equipment, material and personnel specified in the order at the locations 
specified in the order. 

2. To obtain, construct and install or modify the devices, equipment and facilities 
specified in the order at the locations and in the manner specified in the order. 

3. To implement procedures specified in the order. 

4. To take all steps necessary so that procedures specified in the order will be 
implemented in the event that a contaminant is discharged into the natural 
environment from the undertaking or property. 

5. To monitor and record the discharge into the natural environment of a contaminant 
specified in the order and to report thereon to the Director. 

6. To study and to report to the Director upon, 

i. measures to control the discharge into the natural environment of a 
contaminant specified in the order, 

ii. the effects of the discharge into the natural environment of a contaminant specified 
in the order, 

iii. the natural environment into which a contaminant specified in the order is 
likely to be discharged. 

3 Subsection 18(2) of the EPA provides that the Director may make an order under 

subsection 18(1) where the Director is of the opinion, based on reasonable and probable grounds. 

A45 



(a) that the nature of the undertaking or of anything on or in the property is such that if a 
contaminant is discharged into the natural environment from the undertaking or from or on 
the property, the contaminant will result or is likely to result in an effect mentioned in the 
definition of "contaminant" in subsection 1(1); and 

(b) that the requirements specified in the order are necessar>' or advisable so as. 

(i) to prevent or reduce the risk of the discharge of the contaminant into the natural 
environment from the undertaking or from or on the property, or 

(ii) to prevent, decrease or eliminate an effect mentioned in the definition of 

"contaminant" in subsection 1(1) that will result or that is likely to resuh from the 
discharge of the contaminant into the natural environment from the undertaking or 
from or on the property. 

Subsection 197(1) of the EPA provides that a person who has authority under the EPA to make 
an order or decision affecting real property also has authority to prohibit any person with an 
interest in the property from dealing with the property in any way without first giving a copy of 
the order or decision to each person acquiring an interest in the property as a result of the 
dealing. 

Subsection 197(2) of the EPA provides that a certificate setting out such prohibition may be 
registered in the proper land registr)' office on the title of the real property to which the 
prohibition relates, if the certificate is in the prescribed form, is signed by the Director and is 
accompanied by a registrable description of the property. 

In this order, 

(a) "Guideline" means the Ministr>' of Environment and Energy "Guideline for Use at 
Contaminated Sites in Ontario", June 1996 and all subsequent revisions. 

(b) "Surface soil" means soil or overburden which is 1.5 m or less from the soil surface, 
excluding the thickness of any non-soil surface treatment such as asphalt, concrete or 
aggregate. 

(c) "Sub-surface soil" means soil or overburden which is greater than 1.5 m below the soil 
surface, excluding the thickness of any non-soil surface treatment such as asphalt, concrete 
or aggregate. 

(d) "Stratified site condition" means that sub-surface soil at the property contains a 
contaminant at levels which exceed the soil criteria specified in Tables A or B of the 
Guideline but which do not exceed the soil criteria specified in Tables C or D of the 
Guideline, and that the surface soil may contain a contaminant which does not exceed the 
soil criteria specified in Tables A or B of the Guidehne. 

(e) "Record of Site Condition" means the document as contained in the Guideline, which is 
provided to the Ministn, of Environment and Energy (Ministry) by the property owner at 
the completion of remediation activities undertaken in accordance with the Guideline, and 
which sets out the restored conditions of the property ("RSC"). 



A46 



is the registered owner of the following parcel of land. 



(Property): [legal description of property] 



8 The owner [name] has submitted a RSC to the Ministry- attached hereto as Schedule "A". 

9 The RSC states that there is a stratified site condition at the Property and that sub-surface soil at 
the Property contains a contaminant including [name of contaminant(s)] at levels which exceed 
the soil criteria specified in Tables A or B of the Guideline but which does not exceed the soil 
criteria specified in Tables C or D of the Guideline. 

10 The Guideline provides that where there is a stratified site condition at a site, the sub-surface 
soil should always remain at depth and that if at some future date the sub-surface soil is brought 
to and left within 1.5 meters of the surface, further management of the soil will be required. 

11 1 am of the opinion, based on reasonable and probable grounds, that if the sub-surface soil is 
brought to and left within 1.5 meters of the surface the contaminant(s) will result in or [is/are] 
Ukely to result in an adverse effect including the impairment of the quality of the natural 
environment for any use that can be made of it. 

12 I am of the opinion, based on reasonable and probable grounds, that the requirements set out in 
this Order are necessary- or advisable so as to prevent or reduce the risk of the discharge of the 
contaminant into the natural environment from the undertaking or from or on the property or to 
prevent, decrease or eliminate an adverse effect that will result or that is likely- to result from the 
discharge of the contaminant into the natural environment from the undertaking or from or on 
the property. 



A47 



PART 2 WORK ORDERED 

Pursuant to section 18 of the Environmental Protection Act, I hereby order you both jointly & 
severally, to take all steps necessary to do the following and do the following: 

1 Where any activity causes sub-surface soil at the Property to be disturbed with the result that 
sub-surface soil is brought to within 1 .5 meters of the surface, [the Owner] shall manage the 
sub-surface soil which does not meet the criteria in Table A or B of the Guideline, and which 
has been disturbed, to ensure that none of this soil is left within 1.5 metres of the surface. 

2 Retain a copy of the Report entitled [name and date of report(s)] and within 5 days of the 
Director making a request for it, provide a copy of it to the Director. 

REGISTRATION ON TITLE 

3 Pursuant to subsection 197(1) of the EPA, I prohibit any dealing with the Property in any way 
without first giving a copy of this order to each person acquiring an interest in the Property. 

4 Within 1 5 days of the date this order was issued, register the Certificate of Prohibition 
accompanying this order on title to the Property in the appropriate Land Registry Office. 

5 Immediately after registration of the Certificate of Prohibition provide a duplicate copy of the 
certificate with registration particulars to the Director. 



PART 3 GENERAL 

1 The requirements of this order are severable. If any requirement of this order or the application 
of any requirement to any circumstance or person is held invalid, the application of such 
requirement to other circumstances or persons and the remainder of the order shall not be 
affected thereby. 

2 Any request to change a requirement in this order shall be made in writing to the Director with 
reasons for the request, at least 14 days prior to any compliance date for that requirement. 

3 The requirements of this order are minimum requirements only and do not relieve you from: 

(a) complying with any other applicable order, statute, regulation, municipal, provincial or 
federal law; and 

(b) obtaining any approvals or consents not specified in this order. 



Notwithstanding the issuance of this order, further or other orders may be issued in accordance 
with the legislation as circumstances require. 

Subsection 19(1) of the EPA provides that an order of the Director is binding upon the successor 
or assignee of the person to whom it is directed. 



A48 



6 Subsection 186(2) of the EPA provides that non-compliance with the requirements of this order 
constitutes an offence. 



PART 4 HEARING BEFORE THE ENVIRONMENTAL APPEAL BOARD 

[this section to be filled out if there is an appeal] 



A49 



A50 



Environmental Protection Act, sections 18 and 197 



ORDER 

[for Level 2 risk management] 



TO: [Owner of the Property] 

PART 1 LEGAL AUTHORITY AND REASONS 

1 Pursuant to subsection 1(1) of the Environmental Protection Act, R.S.O. 1990, c.E. 19, as 
amended (EPA), "contaminant" means any solid, liquid, gas, odour, heat, sound, vibration, 
radiation or combination of any of them resulting directly or indirectly from human activities 
that may cause an adverse effect. 

2 Subsection 18(1) of the EPA provides that the Director may, by order, require a person who 
owns or owned or who has or had management or control of an undertaking or property to do 
any one or more of the following: 

1. To have available at all times, or during such periods of time as are specified in the 
order, the equipment, material and personnel specified in the order at the locations 
specified in the order. 

2. To obtain, construct and install or modify the devices, equipment and facilities 
specified in the order at the locations and in the manner specified in the order. 

3. To implement procedures specified in the order. 

4. To take all steps necessary so that procedures specified in the order will be 
implemented in the event that a contaminant is discharged into the natural 
environment from the undertaking or property. 

5. To monitor and record the discharge into the natural environment of a contaminant 
specified in the order and to report thereon to the Director. 

6. To study and to report to the Director upon, 

i. measures to control the discharge into the natural environment of a 
contaminant specified in the order, 

ii. the effects of the discharge into the natural environment of a contaminant specified 
in the order, 

iii. the natural environment into which a contaminant specified in the order is 
likely to be discharged. 

3 Subsection 1 8(2) of the EPA provides that the Director may make an order under 

subsection 18(1) where the Director is of the opinion, based on reasonable and probable grounds. 



A5I 



(a) that the nature of the undertaking or of anything on or in the property is such that if a 
contaminant is discharged into the natural environment from the undertaking or from or on 
the property, the contaminant will result or is hkely to result in an effect mentioned in the 
definition of "contaminant" in subsection 1(1); and 

(b) that the requirements specified in the order are necessan.' or advisable so as, 

(i) to prevent or reduce the risk of the discharge of the contaminant into the natural 
environment from the undertaking or from or on the property, or 

(ii) to prevent, decrease or ehminate an effect mentioned in the definition of 

"contaminant" in subsection 1(1) that will result or that is likely to result from the 
discharge of the contaminant into the natural environment from the undertaking or 
from or on the property. 

Subsection 197(1) of the EPA provides that a person who has authority under the EPA to make 
an order or decision affecting real property also has authority to prohibit any person with an 
interest in the property from dealing with the property in any way without first giving a copy of 
the order or decision to each person acquiring an interest in the property as a result of the 
dealing. 

Subsection 197(2) of the EPA provides that a certificate setting out such prohibition may be 
registered in the proper land registry office on the title of the real property to which the 
prohibition relates, if the certificate is in the prescribed form, is signed by the Director and is 
accompanied by a registrable description of the property. 

In this order, 

(a) "GuideHne" means the Ministry of Environment and Energy "Guidehne for Use at 
Contaminated Sites in Ontario", June 1996 and all subsequent revisions. 

(b) "Site specific risk assessment" means a technical, scientific assessment of the nature and 
magnitude of the human health or environmental risk as outlined in the GuideHne, 
associated with the presence of the contaminant(s) (SSRA). 

(c) "risk management measures" means physical site controls or mitigative measures which are 
designed and implemented to prevent an adverse effect or the likelihood of an adverse 
effect by hmiting or ehminating the presence of. or exposure to, the contaminant(s) found 
at the site, and to eliminate the discharge of the contaminant(s) into the natural 
environment. 

(d) "receptor characteristics" are the identified human and/or ecological components which 
may experience adverse effects including the routes of exposure to the contaminant(s) of 
interest. 

(e) "Record of Site Condition" means the document as contained in the Guideline, which is 
provided to the Ministry- of Environment and Energy (Ministrv) by the property owner at 
the completion of remediation activities undertaken in accordance with the Guidehne, and 
which sets out the restored conditions of the property ("RSC"). 



Ml 



is the registered owner of the following parcel of land. 



(Property): [legal description of property] 



8 The owner [name] has submitted a RSC to the Ministry attached hereto as Schedule "A". 

9 The RSC states that [the owner] has undertaken a SSRA in accordance with the Guideline and 
that the soil and/or ground water at the Property contains a contaminant including [name of 
contaminant(s)]. 

10 The SSRA is described in the report entitled [insert title and date of report(s)] ("Report"), 
incorporates site specific data including physical site conditions and receptor characteristics and 
identifies risk management measures which must be maintained to prevent, decrease or eliminate 
the adverse effect that will result or is likely to result from the discharge of the contaminant into 
the natural environment. 

1 1 I am of the opinion, based on reasonable and probable grounds, that the failure to maintain the 
risk management measures and receptor characteristics described in the Report [and/or] the 
failure to maintain and operate appropriate risk management measures may result in the 
discharge of a contaminant including [name of contaminant(s)] which would or [is/are] likely to 
result in an adverse effect. 

12 I am of the opinion, based on reasonable and probable grounds, that the requirements set out in 
this Order are necessary or advisable so as to prevent or reduce the risk of the discharge of the 
contaminant into the natural environment from the undertaking or from or on the property or to 
prevent, decrease or eliminate an adverse effect that will result or that is likely to result from ihe 
discharge of the contaminant into the natural environment from the undertaking or from or on 
the property. 



A53 



PART 2. WORK ORDERED 

Pursuant to section 18 of the Environmental Protection Act, I hereby order you both jointly & 
severally, to take all steps necessary to do the following and do the following: 

1 Implement, maintain and operate any risk management measures set out in the Report as are 
necessary to prevent an adverse effect, or the likelihood of an adverse effect. 

2 In the event of a change in the physical site conditions or receptor characteristics at the site, 
implement, maintain and operate any risk management measures as are necessary to prevent, 
decrease or eliminate the adverse effect that will result or is likely to result from the discharge of 
the contaminant into the natural environment. 



REGISTRATION ON TITLE 

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) of the EPA, I prohibit any dealing with the Property in any way 
without first giving a copy of this order to each person acquiring an interest in the Property. 

Within 15 days of the date this order was issued, register the Certificate of Prohibition 
accompanying this order on title to the Property in the appropriate Land Registry Office. 

Immediately after registration of the Certificate of Prohibition provide a duphcate copy of the 
certificate with registration particulars to the Director. 



PART 3 GENERAL 

1 The requirements of this order are severable. If any requirement of this order or the application 
of any requirement to any circumstance or person is held invalid, the application of such 
requirement to other circumstances or persons and the remainder of the order shall not be 
affected thereby. 

2 Any request to change a requirement in this order shall be made in writing to the Director with 
reasons for the request, at least 14 days prior to any compliance date for that requirement. 

3 The requirements of this order are minimum requirements only and do not relieve you from: 

(a) complying with any other applicable order, statute, regulation, municipal, provincial or 
federal law; and 

(b) obtaining any approvals or consents not specified in this order. 

4 Notwithstanding the issuance of this order, further or other orders may be issued in accordance 
with the legislation as circumstances require. 

5 Subsection 19(1) of the EPA provides that an order of the Director is binding upon the successor 
or assignee of the person to whom it is directed. 



A54 



6 Subsection 186(2) of the EPA provides that non-compliance with the requirements of this order 
constitutes an offence. 



PART 4 HEARING BEFORE THE ENVIRONMENTAL APPEAL BOARD 

[this section to be filled out if there is an appeal] 



A55 



A56 



Schedule A 

Record of Site Condition 

Part 1 Property ownership 

Part 2 List of reports 

Part 3 Summary of site conditions 

Part 4 . Summary of risk management measures 

Part 5 Final site profile 

Part 6 Affidavit of consultant 

Part 7 Statement of property owner 

Part 8 MOEE acknowledgement of receipt 



A57 



A58 



Schedule A - Record of Site Condition 

for the "Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario". June 1996 and all subsequent revisions (Guideline) 



Part 1: Property ownership 

Section 167 of the Environmental Protection Act (R.S.O. 1990) states: "No person shall hinder or obstruct a 
provincial officer in the lawful performance of his or her duties or furnish a provincial officer with false 
information or refuse to furnish the provincial officer with information requu'ed for the purposes of this Act and 
the regulations." 

To: 

insert name of Provincial Officer 
insert name of District Office 



From; 



insert address of local MOEE office 



Name of property owner ' 



Insert municipal address 



Legal description of property 



including plot plan number 



assessment roll number, etc. 

A Certificate of Status and a certified cop> of the most recent deed/transfer for the propertj- must accompany this Record of Site 
Condition 

Part 2: List of reports 

This is to certify that information pertaining to the noted propert\'. as outlined in the following reports, has been 
prepared and/or reviewed by a consultant retained by the owner. 



Report Tm.E 


Report althor(s> 


COV.?.\.SY 


D.ATE 



























Is there an additional list of consultant reports attached to this Record of Site Condition!' (Do not include reports! 
□ Yes D No 



A59 



Schedule A - Record of Site Condition 

for ihc "Guideline for Use at Contaminaicd Silcs in Oouno". June 1996 and ail subscqu 



Part 3: Summaiy of site conditions 

Is this a potentially sensitive site? 

Has there been any restoration of the site? 



D Yes 
D Yes 



D No 
D No 



Approach used: 
D Background 



D Full depth 
D Stratified 



D Site specific risk assessment 
(complete Part 4) 



The site consists of material which is: 



D Level 1 
D Level 2 



D coarse textured D fine textured 

The site is suitable for the following use(s) as outlined in this guideline: 

Land: D Agricultural Groundwater: D Potable 

D Nonpotable 



D Agricultural 

D Residential/Parkland 

D Industrial/Commercial 

D Sensitive use 



Was the municipality 
notified? 



D Yes 

D No 



Part 4: Summary of risk management measures 

Provide a summary of any risk management measures and/or engineered controls which have been designed and 
implemented to allow reuse of the site. 

Was public consultation undertaken as part of the risk assessment/risk management process? 

D Yes D No 

Is an agreement outlining respective responsibilities of the proponent and municipality required? 

D Yes D No 



Is there additional information on the risk management measures used attached to this Record of Site Condition? 
(Do not include reports) 

D Yes D No 



A5§ 



Schedule A - Record of Site Condition 

for the "Guideline for Use at Coniaminated Sites in Ontario", June 1996 and all subsequent revisions CGuideline) 



Part 5: Final site profile ' 


Chemical name 


Maximum 
concentration found 
on site " 


Guideline limit or 
upper^ concentration 
limit ■•■ 


Sample location with 
bore hole number: 
sample depth 


Surface soil 




















' 






























Subsurface soil 


















































Groundwater (indicate screened interval) 



















































' attach plan view of the site showing locations of bore holes, sample sites and risk management measures. 
" soil concentrations should be reported in ^ig/g and groundwater concentrations should be reported in |ig/L. 
' upper concentration limit to be listed if the site specific risk assessment approach was used, oiheruise the 
guideline limit should be listed for the applicable chemicals. 

Are additional pages of the final site profile attached to this Record of Site Condition? 
(Do not include reports) 

D Yes D No 



A61 



Schedule A - Record of Site Condition 

for the "Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontano". June 1996 and all subsequent revisions (Guideline) 

Part 6: ARldavit of consultant 

I [Name of consultant] ^Of the Municipality- of . 



in the . M.\KE OATH AND SAY AS FOLLOWS: 



1 . I am the (position/title) of (firm/company) 



and have personal knowledge of the matters set out below. 



2. I (or name of firm/company') was retained or 

employed as the principal consultant to undertake or supervise the assessment and. if necessary, the 
restoration of fproperty addressl ("property"). 

3. I am/am not (delete that which does not apph) employed or retained by the owner of the property or 
compan)' operating on the property in any other capacity. 

4. I had the expertise required to perform these services. The details of my expertise and the expertise of those 
subcontractors who performed services at the property are set out in the report(s) noted in Part 2 of the 
Record of Site Condition. 

5. All subcontractors employed in the assessment and restoration of the propert\' (strike out and initial if no 
restoration was undertaken at the property) warranted to me that they possessed the expertise required to 
perform the services for which they were employed and carried out. 

6. The assessment activities and restoration activities (strike out and initial if no restoration was urudertaken at 
the propem) at the property requinng the application of scientific principles have been undertaken or 
supervised by a natural scientist qualified to perform such services. 

7. The assessment activities and restoration activities (strike out and initial if no restoration was undertaken at 
the property') at the propeny requiring the application of engineenng pnnciples have been undertaken or 
supervised by an engineer qualified to perform such ser%'ices. 

8. The assessment activities and f estoration activities (strike out and initial if no restoration was undertaken at 
the property) at the property has been completed in accordance with the MOEE "Guideline for Use at 
Contaminated Sites". May 1996. for the uses set out in Part 3 of the Record of Site Condition and the 
Property meets the critena set out in the Guideline for that use. 

9. I have prepared and/or reviewed the report(s") identified in Part 2 of the Record of Site Condition and am not 
aware of any soil, ground water or sediment contamination on or within the property which would interfere 
with its safe use for the categories set out in Part 3 in the Record of Site Condition. 

10. The site specific risk assessment (SSRA) was reviewed by an independent consultant who warranted to me 
that they possessed the expertise required to perform such review, (strike out and initial if no SSRA was 
undertaken at the property) 

11 . I acknowledge that public authonties and future owners, occupants and others may rely on this statement. 

SWORN BEFORE ME at the of 

in the . this day of 

A Commissioner, etc. 



A62 



Schedule A - Record of Site Condition 

for the "Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario". June 1996 and all subsequent revisions (Guideline) 

Part 7: Statement of property owner 

This is 10 certify that as the owner of the Property (and on behalf of the owner if different), (I have)/(or the 

owner has) hired 

as the principal consultant ("principal consultant") to undertake or supervise the assessment and if necessary the 
restoration of the property to make it suitable for the use(s) set out in Part 3 in accordance with the guideline. 
This is to confirm that the consultant retained by the owner has certified that the assessment and/or restoration 
activities has been completed in accordance with the guideline. I {or the owner) agree to disclose this information 
and any reports prepared by or for the Principal Consultant and its subcontractors to all parties acquiring or 
intending to acquire an interest in this property. I am not aware of any environmental conditions affecting the 
property which would interfere with its safe use for the categories set out in Part 3. I acknowledge that public 
authorities and future owners, occupants, and others may rely on this Record of Site Condition. 



Name (please pnnti Signature Date 



Part 8: MOEE acknowledgement of receipt 

The MOEE acknowledges receipt of this Record of Site Condition. The MOEE has not reviewed, considered or 
commented on the content of the report(s) cited in Part 2 of this Record of Site Condition except where a site 
specific risk assessment has been submitted for review. The MOEE has not supervised the assessment and/or 
restoration work undertaken at the property and does not assume any responsibility or liability for the assessment, 
restoration or environmental conditions of the property, or for notifying future owners or present or future 
occupants of the property of the assessment, restoration or environmental condition of the property. 

Proof of the quality of the property and of the effectiveness of the assessment or restoration undertaken at the 
property are the responsibility of the owner of the property and subsequent owners. Any persons intending to 
purchase or occupy the property must assess for themselves the environmental condition of the property, and the 
extent of responsibility and liability that may arise from taking ownership or from occupying the property. 

Where the guideline provides that a Certificate of Prohibition must be registered on title pursuant to a director's 
order, acknowledgement of receipt of this Record of Site Condition will not be issued until such time as the 
director is provided with a duplicate copy of the Certificate of Prohibition and evidence that the Certificate of 
Prohibition has been registered on title. 



Acknowledgement of Receipt Date 

(signature of Provincial Officer) 



A63 



/m 



APPENDIX 4 
Listing of Ministry offices - addresses and phone numbers 



A65 



A66 





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