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Library 
of the 

University of Toronto 


f 1 rvM ^^Wiv 





THE 

QUADRUPEDS AND REPTILES 
OF EUROPE. 



A GUIDE 


TO THE 


QUADRUPEDS AND REPTILES 
OF EUROPE; 

WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF ALL THE SPECIES. 

COMPILED FROM THE LATEST WRITERS. 


BY 

LORD CLERMONT. 



LONDON: 

JOHN VAN VOORST, PATERNOSTER ROW. 


MDCCCLIX. 


“ LO , THESE ARE PARTS OF HIS WAYS.” 

Book of Job. 


PREFACE. 


Excepting the Birds, where the Manuals of Tern* 
minck and Degland leave nothing to be desired, there 
is no work of portable size in the English or French 
language on any division of European Vertebrates. 

It was the want of some such guide which at first 
induced the Author to put together for his own 
information the descriptions of the Quadrupeds and 
Reptiles found in our own quarter of the globe, which 
form the present Work; and he trusts that the same 
want felt by others wishing to observe the animals 
of the countries which they visit in their Continental 
tours, will be found to justify its publication. The 
reader will kindly hear in mind that it is a mere 
compilation, intended to serve only until superseded 
by some more original work on the subject. 

No pains have been spared to select the clearest 
accounts of the several species, those of the Reptiles 
being almost all from the great work of Dumeril and 
Bibron. It is therefore hoped, that although, where 
the distinguishing characters are obscure, the traveller 
may not always be enabled to name his specimen at 


VI 


PREFACE. 


once, he will at least find his doubts reduced to 
narrow limits, and by an easy process of exhaustion 
will speedily arrive at its identification. 

The measurements, except where it is otherwise 
stated, are in English feet, inches, and lines, or 
twelfths of an inch. The letters F. M. denote old 
French measure, where 1 foot equals 1 foot 1 inch 
and 1J line English. 

The boundaries of Europe on its Asiatic frontier 
here adopted are the Ural Mountains, the Fiver 
Ural or Jaik, the Caspian Sea, and the Fivers Kouban 
and Terek, to the north of the Caucasus. 

C. 


London, May 1859. 


WORKS QUOTED OR CONSULTED. 


Europaische Fauna. Yon Dr. Heinrich Schinz. 2 vols. 
8 vo. Stuttgart, 1840. 

Quoted as Schinz, Europ. Faun. 

Die Wirbelthiere Europa’s. Yon A. Graf Keyserling und 
Professor J. H. Elasius. 1 vol. 8vo. Braunschweig, 
1840. 

Quoted as Keys. u. Bias. Wirbelth. Europ. 

Monographies de Mammalogie. Par C. J. Temminck. 2 
vols. 4to. Paris, 1827 (vol. 1) ; Leiden, 1835-1841 
(vol. 2), 

Quoted as Temm. Monog. 

Waterhouse’s Natural History of the Mammalia. Yol. 2. 
London, 1848, 

Etudes de Micromammalogie. Par Edm. De Selys-Long- 
champs. Paris, 1839. 1 vol. 8vo. 

Quoted as De Selys, Micromamm. 

Mammalogie. Par M. A. G. Desmarest. 1 vol. 4to. 
Paris, 1820. 

Quoted as Desm. Mammal. 

Fauna der Wirbelthiere Deutschlands. Yon J. H. Blasius. 
Erster Band, Saugethiere. Braunschweig, 1857. 8vo. 

Quoted as Blasius, Wirbelth. Deutschl. 

Erpetologie Generale. Par A. M. C. Dumeril et G. Bibron. 
Paris, 1834-54. 9 vols. 8vo. 

Quoted as Dum. et Bib. 


vm 


WORKS QUOTED OR CONSULTED. 


Iconografia della Fauna Italica. Di Carlo L. Principe 
Buonaparte. Boma, 1832-41. 3 vols. folio. 

Quoted as Buon. Faun. Ital. 

Zoographia Bosso-Asiatica. Auctore Petro Pallas. Petro- 
poli, 1831. 3 vols. 4to. 

Quoted as Zoo g. Boss. As. 

A Manual of British Yertebrate Animals. By the Bev. 
Leonard Jenyns. Cambridge, 1835. 1 vol. 8vo. 

A History of British Quadrupeds. By Thomas Bell. 
London, 1837. 1 vol. 8vo. 

Quoted as Bell, Brit. Quad. 

A History of British Beptiles. By Thomas Bell. London, 
1839. 1 vol. 8vo. 

Quoted as Bell, Brit. Bep. 

Faune Meridionale. Par J. Crespon. Nismes, 1844. 2 

vols. 8vo. 

Schlesien’s Wirbelthier-Fauna. Yon Dr. Constantin Lam- 
bert Gloger. Breslau, 1833. 1 vol. 8vo. 

Yerzeichniss der in der Schweiz vorkommenden Wir- 
belthiere. Yon Professor H. B. Schinz. Neuchatel, 
1837. 1 vol. 4to. ; forming part of e Fauna Hel- 

vetica.’ 

Fauna der Galizisch-bukowinischen Wirbelthiere. Yon 
Dr. Alexander Zawadski. Stuttgart, 1840. 1 vol. 8vo. 

Fauna der in Brain bekannten Saugethiere, Yogel, Bep- 
tihen, und Fische. Yon Heinrich Freyer. Laibach, 
1842. 1 vol. 8vo. 

Faune Beige. 1 Partie. Par Edm. De Selys-Longchamps. 
Liege, 1842. 1 vol. 8vo. 

The Naturalist’s Library. Edited by Sir William Jar dine. 
40 vols. 8vo. 

British Museum Catalogues. 


THE 


QUADRUPEDS AND REPTILES 

OF EUROPE. 


Class MAMMALIA. 

Vertebrate animals, with warm blood; viviparous, 
and suckling their young ; breathing by lungs ; the 
body generally covered with hair, and provided, except 
in the Cetacea, with four feet. 

Order QUADRUMANA. 

Teeth of three kinds ; both fore and hinder ex- 
tremities provided with a thumb ; teats pectoral. 

Genus MACACUS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, \ ; canines, ; molars, firf • 

First and second molars with two tubercles, the others 
with four, except the last in the lower jaw, which has 
five ; eyes approaching ; cheek-pouches ; callosities on the 
buttocks ; tail more or less developed, or replaced by a 
simple tubercle ; two pectoral teats. 


B 


2 


CHEIROPTERA. 


Macacus Inuus. 

Inuus sylvanus, Cuv. Reg. Anim. 

Macacus Inuus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 37. 

Barbary Ape. 

Description. — Head large ; nose very flat ; eyes small, 
deeply buried; hairs of the cheeks directed backwards, 
forming thick whiskers; ears naked, with hairs at the 
points ; neck short ; cheek-pouches very large ; thumbs of 
the feet large, those of the hands small. Fur on the top 
and sides of the head, on the cheeks and shoulders, rather 
bright golden-yellow, mixed with some black hairs, each 
hair dark grey at its base, the rest ringed with yellow and 
grey. The rest of the upper parts of the body of a much 
darker greyish yellow, with transverse blackish bands ; all 
the under parts greyish yellow ; face naked, of a livid flesh 
colour ; tail a simple tubercle. Females smaller than the 
males, with canine teeth scarcely longer than the incisors. 

Length of the body, 1 foot 7 inches 9 lines ; of the head, 
7 inches. 

This is the only species of the Monkey-tribe found in 
Europe, and the Rock of Gibraltar is its single European 
habitat. Is found in Egypt and Barbary. 

Order CHEIROPTERA. BATS. 

Provided with membranous wings; teats pectoral; 
teeth of three kinds. 

Genus DYSOPES. 

Teeth. — Incisors, \ ; canines, y^y- ; molars, yrf . 

Number of incisors varying according to the age, being 
greater in the young than the adult, viz. -J, , -f or -| 

(sometimes ^ in the very young). Head large; nose without 


DYSOPES RUPPELII. 


3 


follicles ; ears wide and short, beginning near the angle of 
the lips, projecting over the eyes ; tail long, projecting be- 
yond the membrane for a large portion of its length. 

The size of the head, and the wide muzzle, supposed to 
resemble that of a mastiff, have given rise to the name 
Molossus, adopted by some authors. 

Dysopes Ruppelii. 

Molossus Cestonii, Geoffroy. 

Dysopes Cestonii , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Dysopes Ruppelii, Temm. Monog. (figured). 

Description. — In size resembling Vesjpertilio murinus. Ears 
very large, overhanging the face, apparently wider than long, 
slightly margined on the outside, with seven or eight very 
small fleshy points on the inner part of the anterior margin, 
not united, hut arising from a common base on the fore- 
head ; tragus double, being in part outside and in front of 
the ear; tail as long as the body, thick, depressed, more 
than half its length projecting beyond the membrane ; toes 
covered with whitish silky hairs. Eur thick, fine, close, 
and smooth, a wide border of close hairs on each side of 
the wings, close to and along the body; snout covered with 
scattered black hairs; lips wide, pendent, and folded; 
upper parts of the body of a uniform mouse-colour through- 
out, lower parts a little lighter ; hairs on the fingers long ; 
wings very narrow, but of great extent ; the two upper 
incisors wide apart, the four or six lower ones crowded, 
with the two middle pressed forward ; in the upper jaw a 
very small tooth between the canine and first false molar. 

Entire length, 5 inches 2 to 6 lines, of which the tail 
alone occupies 2 inches ; fore -arm, 2 inches 2 lines ; extent 
of wing in the male, 14 inches 6 lines ; in the female, 13 
inches. — E. M. 

Lives in caves and old buildings. 

b 2 


4 


CHEIROPTERA. 


First discovered in Egypt by Riippel ; has been found 
in several parts of Italy, the Maremma of Sienna, Pisa, 
Rome, and in Sicily. The Prince of Musignano thinks that 
this Bat will be found to exist in most parts of the Italian 
peninsula. 

Genus BHINOLOPHUS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, \ ; canines, yny- ; molars, 

Nostrils with two follicles, the hinder one erect; ears 
free ; tragus wanting. 

Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum. 

Bhinolophus unihastatus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 184. 

Bhinolophus ferrum-equinum , Bell, Brit. Quad. ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 

(figured). 

Great Horseshoe Bat. 

Description. — Upper incisors very small, separated from 
each other ; lower incisors each with three lobes ; ears 
nearly as long as the head, somewhat triangular, broad at 
the base, ending in an acute point ; the external margin 
notched at the base, and forming an elevated round lobe, 
which guards the orifice, and appears to act the part of 
tragus, which is wanting ; nostrils placed at the bottom of 
a cavity, close to each other, surrounded by a naked mem- 
brane in the shape of a horseshoe arising from the upper 
lip ; anterior follicle rising vertically immediately behind 
the nostrils, of a somewhat pyramidal form, sinuous at the 
margins and apex, which last is obliquely truncated ; the 
posterior placed on the forehead, transversely to the an- 
terior, and more erect, lanceolate, expanding laterally at 
the base, in front of which are two small, cup -shaped 
cavities formed by a fold of the skin. Colour of the fur 
reddish ash, inclining to grey beneath ; membranes dusky ; 
ears within and without slightly hairy. 


RHINOLOPHUS BIHASTATUS. 


5 


Length of head and body, 2 inches 5 lines ; head, 1 1 \ lines ; 
tail, 1 inch lines ; ears, 9 lines ; breadth of the ears, 6 
lines ; length of thumb, lines; extent of wings, 13 inches. 

Rare in England, though it has been observed in several 
localities. Is met with in Erance, and is not uncommon 
in the south of that country. Occurs in Belgium in the 
quarries of Maestricht. In Italy, said by the Prince of 
Musignano to be very common in almost every cavern, old 
building, and rotten tree ; is found in St. Peter’s, Rome. 
Also in Carniola and Dalmatia, many parts of the chain of 
the Alps, and of Germany south of the Hartz. In Hungary 
and the South of Russia. 

Rhinolophus bihastatus. 

Rhinolophus bihastatus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 185. 

Rhinolophus Hipposideros, Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Rhinolophus Hippocrepis, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Lesser Horseshoe Bat. 

Description. — Principally distinguished from the last spe- 
cies by its very inferior size; the anterior appendage is 
less obliquely truncated at the apex, and the posterior one 
narrower at the base, and without the lateral expansions ; 
the ears more deeply notched, and the external margin more 
sinuous. Eur soft, rather long; pale rufous brown above, 
greyish ash beneath with a tinge of yellow. 

Length of head and body, 1 inch 4 lines ; head, 8 inches ; 
tail, 9 lines ; ears, 5 lines ; breadth of ears, 4-1- lines ; length 
of thumb, 2 lines ; extent of wings, 8 inches 4 lines. 

In England even rarer than the last ; sometimes found 
along with it. In Erance it is rare in the south (Crespon). 
De Selys gives it as occurring at Maestricht with the last 
species. 

Inhabits many parts of Germany, the Alps, Hungary, 
Dalmatia, Istria, and the South of Russia. 


6 


CHEIROPTERA. 


Rhinolophus Euryale, Blasius. 

Rhinolophus Euryale , Blasius, Wirbelth. Deutschlands. 

Die rundkammige Hufeisennase, Blasius, l. c. 

Description. — This species, discovered by Professor Blasius 
in Lombardy in 1847, very closely resembles the following- 
in general appearance, size, colour, and habits, as well as in 
its geographical distribution. The teeth are 32 in number, 
and are said to differ in several minute particulars from 
those of B. clivosus, but only in those specimens where 
they are not worn by use. The shape of the nasal follicle 
also differs ; but I am obliged to confess that the transla- 
tions from the article of that learned naturalist’s work 
which I have made myself and obtained from others, fail 
to convey a distinct idea on that point. His figure of the 
follicle of B. clivosus shows two small teeth in the centre 
of the outer margin of the horseshoe, which are wanting- 
in the figure of the present species. The ears are longer 
in proportion, reaching considerably beyond the snout when 
pressed to the head, whereas in B. clivosus they only just 
reach it. The tail is also longer. 

Entire length, 2 inches 7 lines ; tail, 1 inch ; extent of 
wing, 10i inches. 

The general colour of the fur is light whitish below, 
darker above, and shaded with a smoke-brown tinge. 

It is found only south of the Alps, occurring near Milan 
and the Lago di Garda, at Trieste, and Spolatro in Dalmatia. 

Rhinolophus clivosus. 

Rhinolophus clivosus , Temm. Monog. vol. ii. p. 33 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(head figured). 

Die spitzkammige Hufeisennase, Blasius, Wirbelth. Deutschlands. 

Description. — Tail one-third the length of the fore-arm, 
much longer than the tibia ; ears large, pointed, channeled 


RHINOLOPHUS CLIVOSUS. YESPERTILIO. 


7 


with five folds, inferior lobe very large, covered with hairs, 
completely closing the ears, and distinguishing the species 
from the two former; follicle simple, spear-shaped, but 
slightly elevated, and furnished with hairs, but with the 
base quite naked, grooved, rising from the centre of the 
horseshoe; a single wart on the edge of the lower lip. 
Fur long, very thick, covering the wing-membranes above 
and below ; hairs of the upper parts whitish at base, ashy 
at their tips, with a vinous tint ; lower parts whitish, with a 
slight tinge of vinous ; all the membranes blackish. Upper 
incisors very minute and far apart ; four lower incisors 
crowded, all three-lobed ; molars four above, five below on 
each side. 

Total length, 3 inches, of which the tail occupies 1 inch 
2 lines ; fore-arm, 1 inch 9 lines ; extent of wing, 10 inches 
in dried specimens, 11 or 12 inches in fresh ones. — F. M. 

Has been found in Dalmatia and in the Levant ; its prin- 
cipal abode is Africa, where it occurs both in Egypt and at 
the Cape of Good Hope. Professor Blasius, however, has 
met with it in Istria, Northern and Central Italy, and 
Sicily. 

Genus YESPERTILIO. 

Teeth. — Incisors, | ; canines, ; false molars varying 
in number; true molars always -|^|. 

Nostrils without follicles ; ears free, or united at their 
bases ; tragus always present. 

This genus has been subdivided as follows : — 

Subgenus 1. Vespertilio.— Grinders 4 to 6 above, and 
from 3 to 6 below, on each side ; ears moderately large, 
lateral, separate. 

Subgenus 2. Plecotus. — Grinders 5 above, 6 below, on 
each side; ears very large, much longer than the head, 
with their inner edges united at the base above the eyes. 


8 


CHEIROPTERA. 


Subgenus 3. Barbastelltts. — Grinders 4 above, 4 below, 
on each side ; ears moderate, united at the base above the 
eyes ; a flat naked space on the forehead, surrounded by a 
membranous edge. 

Subgenus 1. Yespertilio. 

Vespertilio Noctula. 

Vespertilio Noctula , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 204 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. ; Temm. 

Monog. vol. ii. p. 169 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Two false molars on each side, above and 
below. Head very broad ; muzzle short and thick in adults, 
somewhat elongated in the young ; nostrils tumid at the 
edges, slightly bilobate ; forehead very hairy, rest of the 
face almost naked ; ears shorter than the head, somewhat 
triangular, rounded at the extremity, the posterior margin 
folded back with a projecting ridge internally, and a small 
protuberance at the base, which extends round nearly to 
the corners of the mouth ; tragus very small, ending above 
in a broad round head. Fur rather short, but soft and 
thick, of a uniform reddish brown above and below ; mem- 
branes dusky, with a ridge of hair along the bones of the 
arm. Tail shorter than the fore-arm, reaching li line be- 
yond the membrane. 

Length of head and body, 2 inches 11 lines ; head, 10 
lines ; tail, 1 inch 8 lines ; ears, 7\ lines ; tragus, 2\ lines ; 
breadth of ears, 6 lines ; of tragus, 1-1- line ; length of the 
fore-arm, 2 inches; of the thumb, 2-1- lines; extent of wings, 
14 inches. 

Is found in almost every country of Europe. Bare in 
England and in France. More common in Germany. 
Pallas describes it as met with everywhere in Bussia, but 
in greatest plenty on the shores of the Caspian, where it 
feeds on the gnats which abound there : common in the 


VESPEETILIO MURINUS. — YESPERTILIO BECHSTEINII. 9 


Crimea and in Carniola. In Belgium, according to M. de 
Selys Longchamps, it is common everywhere. 

Vespertilio murinus. 

Vesper tilio murinus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 200 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Vespertilio myotis, Temm. Monog. vol. ii. p. 177 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

La Chauve Souris, Buffon. 

g g 

Description. — False molars 3113- Dace almost naked; 
forehead very hairy ; eyes rather large, with a few dusky 
hairs immediately above them ; ears inclining backwards, 
as long as the head, oval, naked, greyish-ash colour exter- 
nally, yellowish within; tragus falciform, about half the 
length of the auricle. Fur pale reddish brown above, be- 
neath dirty white, inclining to yellowish ; wings brownish. 

Length of head and body, 3 inches 5 lines ; head, 11 lines ; 
tail, 1 inch 8 lines ; ears, 111 lines ; tragus, 5 lines ; thumb, 
5 lines ; extent of wings, 15 inches. 

Flies very late in the evening. 

Is very rare in Britain, although it is one of the com- 
monest Bats in France and Germany ; is less abundant in 
Italy. In Russia, Pallas gives it as not uncommon in the 
more southern parts, especially in the country of the Cos- 
sacks of the Ural, and in the Crimea. It is probably dis- 
tributed over the whole, or nearly the whole of Europe. 

Vespertilio Bechsteinii. 

Vespertilio Bechsteinei, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 201 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. ; 
Temm. Monog. vol. ii. p. 184. 

Description. — Three false molars on each side. Allied to 
V. murinus , but distinguished by its smaller size, relatively 
longer ears, and very slender thumb. Face almost naked ; 
muzzle long and conical ; ears oval, somewhat longer than 

b 5 


10 


CHEIROPTERA. 


the head, rounded at the ends ; tragus lanceolate, pointed. 
Fur reddish grey on the upper parts, whitish on the under. 

Length of head and body, 2 inches 1 line ; head, 9 lines ; 
tail, 1 inch 3 lines ; ears, 10 lines ; tragus, 4 lines ; thumb, 
4 lines ; extent of wings, 11 inches. 

This Bat is said to live in hollow trees, and never to 
approach towns. 

Bare in England, a few specimens having occurred in 
the New Forest only : “ is found in parts of Germany, and 
is not uncommon in Thuringia.” Has been observed in 
France, in the Department of the Moselle, by Holandre. 
Is found in Denmark. Blasius has met with it in Hun- 
gary, Gallicia, and the Ukraine; often with V. Dauben - 
tonii and V. Nattereri. 

Vespertilio Nattereri. 

Vesjpertilio Nattereri , Desm. Mamm, Sp. 202 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. ; 

Temm. Monog. vol. ii. p. 185. 

3 3 

Description. — F alse molars 3 H 3 . Head rather small; 
snout attenuated ; nose a line in breadth at the end, slightly 
emarginated between the nostrils, convex above; all the 
face, except immediately above the nose, hairy; hairs thinly 
scattered about the eyes and chin, with a few bristly ones, 
longer than the others, intermixed ; gape extending as far 
as posterior angle of the eye ; a row of longish hairs on the 
upper lip forming a moustache; a prominent sebaceous 
gland on each side above the lip ; ears oblong-oval, as long 
as the head, rather more than half as broad as they are 
long ; the extreme inner margin reflexed, the outer margin 
scarcely notched, extending downwards and forwards to 
meet the inner margin at the base ; tragus two-thirds as 
long as the auricle, very narrow, lanceolate, thin, and 
naked; eyes very small; flying membrane naked, semi- 


VESPERTILIO SEROTINUS. 


11 


transparent, a spur or tendinous process running from the 
heel along the margin of the interfemoral membrane, and 
tending to stretch it; margin between spur and tail puck- 
ered and set with short bristly hairs ; free portion of tail 
very short; hinder claws very strong, with long hairs; 
thumb smaller than in V. Bechsteinii. Fur long and silky, 
light rufous brown approaching to reddish grey above, the 
tips of the hairs being of this colour, the roots dusky brown ; 
beneath, silvery grey at tips, black towards the roots ; ears 
yellowish grey, especially within, towards the base ; tragus 
yellowish ; interfemoral membrane paler than wings. Fe- 
male more reddish above than male. The general colour 
of this Bat is lighter than that of most others. 

Length of head and body, 1 inch 11 lines ; head, 8^- lines; 
tail, 1 inch 7 lines ; ears, 8-J- lines ; tragus, 5 lines ; breadth 
of ears, 3j- lines ; tragus at base, 1 line ; length of fore- 
arm, 1 inch 6 lines ; thumb, 2| lines ; extent of wings, 
10 inches 8 lines. 

Very local in England and Ireland. In Belgium, M. 
de Selys Longchamps has found it in the quarries of 
Maestricht and near Brussels. M. Holandre has obtained 
it near Metz in hollow trees. Professor Blasius, in se- 
veral parts of Germany, in Hungary, Gallicia, and Central 
Russia. 

Vespertilio serotinus. 

Vespertilio serotinus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 205 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. ; 

Temm. Monog. yoI. ii. p. 175 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — False molars Face almost naked ; 

muzzle very short, broad, and obtuse ; ears oval-triangular, 
shorter than the head, hairy outside at base, naked above ; 
tragus semicordate, somewhat elongated, pointed. Fur in 
the male, deep chestnut-brown above, passing beneath into 
yellowish grey ; in the female, much brighter ; hair long, 


12 


CHEIROPTERA. 


glossy, and soft. In the young the head is said to he 
rounder and thicker, the muzzle shorter and blunter ; lip 
very tumid, and the colour more obscure than in the adult. 

Length of head and body, 2 inches 7 lines ; head, 10 lines ; 
tail, 1 inch 10 lines ; ears, 8 lines ; tragus, 3 lines ; thumb, 
3 lines ; extent of wing, 12 inches 6 lines. 

Frequents trees ; is solitary in its habits ; appears late 
in spring. 

In England has been found near London only ; not un- 
common in France and Belgium. Is found in the stacks of 
firewood in Paris. Common in Germany and Holland, Den- 
mark, Gallicia, Silesia, and Carniola. Frequent near Borne, 
and in the gallery of Albano. In Bussia, Pallas has found 
it in caverns near Tarei-noor, and not uncommonly in the 
Crimea. It may therefore be said to extend over nearly 
the whole of the European Continent. 

Vespertilio Leisleri. 

Vesjper tilio Leisleri , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 206 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Vesperugo Leisleri, Blasius, Wirbelth. Deutschl. 

Description. — JNearly allied to V. Noctula . False molars 
HzJL ; muzzle rather more elongated than in V. Noctula ; 
nose depressed, naked ; region of the eyes also naked ; 
ears hairy inside, oval-triangular, shorter than the head, 
broad, the outer basal margin advancing to nearly the 
corners of the mouth ; tragus half the length of the ear, 
ending in a rounded head, which is slightly curved inwards, 
and produced on its outer margin, much resembling the 
same part in V. Noctula ; nostrils crescent-shaped ; a large 
sebaceous gland above the gape ; a band of short hair, 
about four lines in breadth, extends along the lower sur- 
face of the fore-arm to the wrist, where it is thickest and 
most extended. Fur long ; above, the hair is deep brown 


VESPERTILIO SCHREIBERSII. 


13 


at base, bright chestnut at the surface ; beneath, dusky 
at the base, dark greyish brown at the surface. Wings 
dusky, parts near the body very hairy above and below ; 
thumb short and feeble ; colour said to be much darker in 
the young. 

Length of head and body, 2 inches 2 lines ; head, 7 \ 
lines ; tail, 1 inch 8 lines ; ears, 5 lines ; tragus, 2 \ lines ; 
breadth of ears, 4 lines ; of tragus, 1-J- line ; length of the 
fore-arm, 1 inch 6-J lines ; thumb, I f line ; extent of 
wings, 11 inches. 

It is said to frequent hollow trees, congregating in vast 
numbers ; is fond of the neighbourhood of stagnant waters. 

In England only one specimen is known to have been 
taken, and the only other habitat given by Desmarest is 
Germany, near Willens, where it was discovered by Leisler ; 
but Blasius asserts that he has seen it in the east of Erance, 
in several places in South Germany, all along the Alpine 
chain, in Hungary, and Central Russia. 

Vespertilio Schreibersii. 

Vespertilio Schreibersii, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 207 ; Temm. Monog. vol. ii. 
p. 174. 

Vespertilio Ursinii, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Upper incisors very small, with a large 
space between the pairs, and another space between the 
incisors and canines ; second upper molar nearly as long 
and as sharp as the canines ; head small ; upper lip swollen, 
furnished with some silky hairs ; muzzle thick, 1 line in 
width ; gape not reaching as far as the ears, which are 
small, shorter than the head, triangular, rounded at the 
angles, with a velvety border internally ; tragus lanceolate, 
bent inwards towards the point. Fur ashy grey, paler 
above, and often mixed with yellowish white. 

Length of head and body, 2 inches 7 \ lines ; head 5 \ 


14 


CHEIROPTERA. 


lines ; tail, 1 inch 8| lines ; ears, 4} lines ; breadth of ears, 
4 lines ; length of tragus, 2 lines ; of thumb, 2J lines ; 
extent of wings, from 10 to 11 inches. — F. M. 

Discovered in caves in the Bannat of Hungary by 
Schreibers ; has been found in parts of Germany, and in 
the Bukovina, Istria, Dalmatia, and South Italy. In 
France, Crespon (Faune Meridionale) mentions it as occur- 
ring in the Department du Gard. 

Vespertilio discolor. 

Vespertilio discolor , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 208 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. ; Temm. 

Monog. vol. ii. p. 173. 

Description. — False molars 2—2 5 forehead broad and 
hairy ; muzzle long, and very broad ; nose thick and blunt, 
measuring l-J line across the end ; eyes very small ; ears 
shorter than the head, rounded, oval, bending outwards, 
and reaching almost to the corners of the mouth, with a 
projecting lobe near the base of the inner margin, clothed 
at base outside with thick woolly hair ; tragus short, of 
nearly equal breadth throughout ; tail reaching 3 lines 
beyond the membrane. Fur on the back reddish brown, 
with the extreme tips of the hairs white, causing a marbled 
appearance ; beneath, dirty white, with a large patch of 
somewhat darker tint covering the breast and abdomen ; 
throat pure white. 

Length of head and body, 2 inches 4 lines ; of head, 9 
lines ; tail, 1 inch 5 lines ; ears, 6-j lines ; tragus, 2\ lines ; 
thumb, 3 lines ; extent of wing, 10 inches 6 lines. 

Said to live only in buildings. 

Only one individual has been found in England. Dis- 
covered in South Germany by Natterer ; rare at Vienna ; 
not uncommon in Silesia, Denmark, and the Bukovina. 
In many parts of the Alpine chain, Dalmatia, Hungary, and 
the eastern parts of France. 


VESPERTILIO PIPISTRELLUS. 


15 


Vespertilio Pipistrellus. 

Vespertilio Pipistrellus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 209 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. ; 

Temm. Monog. vol. ii.p. 194. 

Common Bat of the British Islands. 

Description. — Much resembles V. Noctula, but smaller. 
False molars ’ 2—2 > ^ ea( ^ depressed in front, convex behind ; 
muzzle short in adults, somewhat longer in the young ; 
nose blunt, and slightly emarginate between the nostrils, 
a swelling upon the upper lip on each side ; eyes very 
small, above each a wart, with a few black hairs ; ears 
broad, oval-triangular, rather more than half as long as 
the head, with their outer margins deeply notched half- 
way down ; tragus half the length of the ear, nearly 
straight, oblong, with a rounded head ; tail as long as the 
fore- arm. Fur rather long and silky, yellowish red on the 
forehead and base of the ears ; upper parts reddish brown, 
with the lower half of each hair dusky ; under parts wholly 
dusky, except the tips of the hairs, which are like those of 
the upper parts, but rather paler : the young are brownish 
grey or black, without any tinge of red ; nose, ears, lips, 
and membranes dusky. 

Length of head and body, 1 inch 7 lines ; head, 6 lines ; 
tail, 1 inch 2 lines ; ears, 4 lines ; tragus, 2 hues ; breadth 
of ears, 3 lines ; of tragus, |-ths of a line ; length of fore- 
arm, 1 inch 2 lines ; thumb, 1-J line ; extent of wing, 8 
inches 4 lines. 

Collects in large numbers in old walls and under roofs ; 
is first seen in the beginning of March in England, where, 
as in the British Islands generally, it is the commonest 
species. Is also frequently met with in France and Bel- 
gium. Is not found in Italy, according to the Prince of 
Musignano, who says that it is represented there by the 
F. Vispistrellus, a very closely allied species. Desmarest, 


16 


CHEIROPTERA. 


not recognizing this distinction, says that the Pipistrelle 
is a native of Italy ; and Blasius, of Sicily. It is very 
common in Germany and Silesia. Pallas records it as 
abundant in the Ural Mountains, and in the Crimea. In 
Denmark, Gallicia, and Carniola. Is probably the most 
common species of Central Europe generally. 

Vespertilio Vispistrellus. 

Vespertilio Vispistrellus , Temm. Monog. vol. ii. p. 193; Buon. Faun. 

Ital. (figured). 

Vesperugo Kuhlii , Blasius, Wirbelth. Deutschl. 

Description. — Closely allied to V. Pipistrellus, but differing 
from it in size, being about one- sixth larger ; by the abs- 
ence of false molars in the upper jaw, and by a slight 
difference in the colour of the fur, which is somewhat red- 
dish. The space from the nose to the ear is one-fourth 
greater than that between the ears ; the nose blunt ; eyes 
near the ears, which are two -thirds of the length of the 
head, oval-triangular, rounded at the ends, and slightly 
margined near the middle ; tragus narrow, bent, and of 
the same width throughout ; space round the eyes and the 
end of the nose naked ; tail scarcely longer than the fore- 
arm, entirely within the membrane, which is ample, fur- 
nished with a small lobe on its outer edge near the feet, 
with a few scattered hairs upon its inner surface, and more 
or less edged with white. Eur long and silky ; hairs above 
brown at base, ashy red at their tips ; hairs on the forehead 
and at the base of the ears yellowish at their tips. Eur on 
the under parts of the body brownish, the hairs being 
bright red-brown at their tips. 

Length of head and body, 1 inch 9 lines ; tail, 1 inch 
6 lines ; fore-arm, 1 inch 3 lines ; extent of wing, 8 inches 
6 lines. — E. M. 

Inhabits the southern parts of Europe. Is the com- 


VESPERTILIO KUHLII. 17 

monest Bat in Tuscany and near Rome. Is found in 
Sicily. 

Vespertilio Kuhlii. 

Vesper tilio Kuhlii, Temm. Monog. vol. ii. p. 196 ; Desm. Mamm. Sp. 

212 . 

Description. — Incisors very unequal in size, those next 
the canines extremely small. Upper molars five in number, 
of which one false molar is scarcely visible, being hidden 
between the molars and canines, and falls out in adults. 
In size a little smaller than V. Pipistrellus, for which it 
may he easily mistaken. Head wide ; muzzle blunt ; a tuft 
of stiff hairs over the eyes; ears completely triangular, 
neither notched nor lobed on the outer margin, wide at 
base; tragus wide, rounded at the end, bending a little 
towards the head ; skin black ; wing-membranes and upper 
half of interfemoral hairy, the latter with a small lobe. 
Fur of two colours throughout ; more abundant and rather 
longer than in V. Pipistrellus, a wide belt of greyish hairs 
running along the flanks and over the lower part of the 
back. Fur above reddish brown, the base of the hairs being 
blackish ; on the under parts the fur is lighter than in the 
Pipistrelle; membranes very smooth, quite black; a few 
bristly hairs on the thumb and toes. Distinguished from 
the last-named species by the shape of the ear and tragus, 
the greyish belt of hair along the sides, and, above all, by 
the decidedly hairy character of the interfemoral mem- 
brane. 

Length of head and body, 1 inch 9 lines ; tail, 1 inch 

3 lines; fore-arm, 1 inch 3 lines; extent of wings, 8 inches 

4 to 8 lines in adults ; only 7 inches 6 lines in the young 
of the year. — F. M. 

Found in Dalmatia, Camiola, and the South of Italy. 
A few have been taken at Trieste by M. Natterer. 


18 


CHEIROPTERA. 


Vespertilio mystacinus. 

Vespertilio 'mystacinus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 211 ; Temm. Monog. vol. ii. 

p. 191 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. ; Blasius, Wirbelth. Deutsch- 
lands, p. 96. 

Vespertilio humeralis , Temm. Monog. yol. ii. p. 192. 

Whiskered Bat. 

t 

Description. — False molars Head small and flattish ; 
muzzle short j nose swollen, with a shallow cleft in the 
middle ; face hairy, and a few scattered hairs on the nose 
and chin longer than the rest ; a row of fine, soft, close- set 
hairs on the upper lip, forming a conspicuous moustache, 
a similar row crossing the forehead ; ears shorter than the 
head, moderately broad, oblong, rounded at the extremities, 
rather deeply notched on their outer margins ; tragus rather 
more than half the length of the ear, lanceolate, perfectly 
straight, narrowing regularly from the base to the tip, which 
is sharply pointed ; tail longer than the fore -arm, projecting 
1 line beyond the membrane. Fur very long, thick and 
woolly, dusky, approaching to black, except the extreme 
tips, which are reddish, brown on the upper parts, and ash- 
grey beneath ; interfemoral membrane sometimes marked 
on its inner surface with numerous white ciliated lines. 

Length of head and body, 1 inch 8 lines ; head, 7 \ fines ; 
tail, 1 inch 5 fines ; ears, 5T fines ; tragus, 3 lines ; breadth 
of ears, 3J- fines ; tragus at base, 1 fine ; length of fore -arm, 
1 inch 3 fines ; thumb, 2T fines ; extent of wing, 8 inches 
6 fines. 

Flies low and swiftly ; retires late in the season to trees, 
houses, or caverns ; frequents the neighbourhood of water. 

Very rare and local in England. In France occurs in 
the South-eastern Departments. Is common in almost 
every part of Belgium. In Germany, where it was dis- 
covered, is generally rare ; but is given in Gloger’s Cata- 


VESPERTILIO L1MNOPHILUS. 


19 


logue of Silesian Bats as of not infrequent occurrence in 
that province, in towns, and in outhouses in the country. 
Rare in the Bukovina and Silesia. Blasius finds it in the 
Alps, Hungary, and the central parts of Russia. Has been 
met with in Denmark. 

Vespertilio limnophilus. 

Vespertilio limnophilus, Temm. Monog. vol. ii. p. 176 ; Schinz, Europ. 

Faun. i. p. 12. 

Vespertilio dasycneme , Blasius, Wirbelth. Deutschl. 

Description. — False molars \ ; second upper false molar 
hardly visible. Muzzle very short, wide, and blunt, almost 
entirely hairy, each lip furnished with long diverging bristles 
or stiff hairs ; ears moderate, perfectly oval, without any 
lobe or prolongation in front ; tragus short, straight, wide, 
rounded at tip; tail short, the tip free; wing-membrane 
springing from the upper joint of the metatarsus, thus 
leaving the foot wholly free ; glands of the face large, bright 
yellow, placed over the eyes on each side of the forehead. 
Fur soft, silky, of medium length ; upper parts of the body 
and the greater part of the sides of the neck deep mouse- 
colour in the male, rather reddish in the female ; the hairs 
on the parts beneath, the chin, cheeks, and front of the 
neck, white at the tips, black for the rest of their length, 
the white tip more or less extended according to age ; ab- 
domen pure white ; at the insertion of the wings there is 
an ashy-brown tint. The young of the year are thinly 
clothed ; fur above dull brown, beneath bluish black, with 
the tips of the hairs grey ; abdomen whitish ; on several 
parts of the membranes there are stiff hairs of a pure white. 

Length of head and body, 2 inches 6 lines ; tail, 1 inch 
6 lines ; fore-arm, 1 inch 7 lines ; extent of wing, 11 inches 
in adult ; 9 inches in the young of the year. — F. M. 

Flies only late at night, and very swiftly. Frequents the 


20 


CHEIROPTERA. 


neighbourhood of water, flying low over its surface, and over 
reedy places and low woods. 

Is common in Holland, especially near Leyden. Has 
been found in Belgium by M. de Selys, near Maestricht, 
and at Faulx les Caves. Stated by Eversmann, in the 
‘ Bulletin Soc. Imp. des Naturalistes de Moscou,’ 1853, to 
occur on the Biver Ural, and on the Southern Volga. 
Blasius has ascertained its existence in Denmark, Bruns- 
wick, Oldenburg, Silesia, Hungary, and Italy. 

Vespertilio Daubentonii. 

Vespertilio Daubentonii , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 213 ; Temm. Monog. vol. ii. 

p. 156; Bell, Brit. Quad. ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — False molars -g-. Head rather small ; muzzle 
blunt, with numerous long stiffish hairs, and a moustache 
of soft and long hair on each side of the upper lip, which 
is tumid ; ears moderate, three-fourths of the length of the 
head, oval, bending a little outwards, the external margin 
very slightly notched, the inner margin with a fold near 
the base ; tragus somewhat lanceolate, narrow, rather blunt 
at the apex, turned a little inwards, half as long as the ear ; 
tail a little longer than the fore -arm, free for about 1 line. 
Hinder limbs robust ; feet strong, the outer toe very distinct 
from the rest ; interfemoral membrane ample, the trans- 
verse lines very numerous. Fur soft, plentiful, brownish 
black at the base ; near the surface above greyish red, be- 
neath ash-grey. Females and young rather darker ; mem- 
branes dusky, with a reddish tinge; interfemoral mem- 
brane whitish beneath. 

Length of head and body, 2 inches ; head, 7 lines ; tail, 
1 inch 6 lines ; ear, 6 lines ; breadth of ear, 3 \ lines ; 
length of tragus, 2-| lines ; fore-arm, 1 inch 4 lines ; extent 
of wings, 9 inches. 

Flies over the surface of water, in a swift irregular flight. 


VESPERTILIO CAPACCINI. 


21 


Is very rare in England. Has occurred in Denmark. 
Found in various parts of Germany, in Sweden, Finland, 
Dalmatia, Central Russia, Silesia, Gallicia, the Carpathians, 
Carniola, and Belgium. Is very common in Sicily, and 
has been observed in Sardinia; but, according to Prince 
Buonaparte, is not known in continental Italy. 

Vespertilio Capaccini. 

Vespertilio Capaccini, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) ; Temm. Monog. 
vol. ii. p. 187. 

Description. — Tragus more slender than in F. emargi- 
ncitus ; thumb large and strong ; feet robust ; head thick ; 
muzzle conical, blunt ; eyes about three times as near the 
ears as the end of the nostrils ; gape extending only to the 
outer edge of the eye; ears scarcely two-thirds of the 
length of the head, one and a half times longer than broad, 
oval-lanceolate, without any notch, but only a slight curve 
on the outside near the base ; tragus straight, pointed and 
filiform, not half as long as the auricle ; the end of the 
muzzle and the lips furnished with scattered hairs, which 
are more numerous on the forehead and between the eyes ; 
a large gland under the chin ; the interfemoral membrane 
is cut away obliquely from the tail ; the feet are entirely 
free both from that and the membranes of the wings, pro- 
jecting in an unusual degree ; the interfemoral membrane 
clothed for half its length from the base, both above and 
below, with long hairs ; similar hairs along the flanks on 
both sides of the wing ; toes furnished with white hairs 
and with long white nails; teeth very small. Fur soft, 
thick, of a bright cinnamon colour, the hairs of the upper 
parts grey at base ; under parts yellowish red, the hairs at 
base being chestnut-brown ; ears and membranes reddish 
brown ; wings, when applied to the body, reach a little 
beyond the nose. 


22 


CHEIROPTERA. 


Length of head and body, 1 inch 8 lines ; tail, 1 inch 
6 lines; fore-arm, 1 inch 6 lines; extent of wings, 10 inches. 
— F. M. 

This species is readily distinguished by the large size of 
the thumb, the robust character of the feet, and their exten- 
sion beyond the hairy and narrow interfemoral membrane. 

First described by the Prince of Musignano, who ob- 
tained it from Sicily. Professor Blasius possesses specimens 
from the Bannat in Hungary. 

Vespertilio megapodius. 

Vesper tilio megapodius , Temm. Monog. vol. ii. p. 189. 

Description. — False molars \ ; upper incisors strong and 
large. Very like V. Capaccini. Muzzle very short and blunt ; 
ears moderate, slightly notched ; tragus long, leaf-shaped ; 
interfemoral short, covered above and below with stiff scat- 
tered hairs ; point of tail free ; claws long, with a few stiff 
hairs. Fur short, smooth, of two colours, covering the flanks 
above and below ; upper parts greyish brown, the base of 
the hairs dark brown; lower parts dull white, with the 
base of the hairs blackish ; membranes brown. 

Length of head and body all but 2 inches ; of tail, 1 inch ; 
fore-arm, 1 inch 5 lines ; extent of wings in adults, 9 inches. 
Young of the year, blackish brown above, white below, 
with an extent of wing of 5 inches 6 lines ; length of fore- 
arm, 1 inch. — F. M. 

As in V. Capciccini, the feet are entirely free from above 
the heel, the membranes springing from the extremity of 
the tibia. Differs from that species in its muzzle being 
much shorter than the space between the ears, whereas in 
V. Capaccini the space between the ears is equal to the 
distance from the ears to the end of the nose, in having one 
false molar more, and in the skull being shorter. 

Obtained in Sardinia by Monsieur Cantraine. 


VESPERTILIO EMARGINATUS. 


23 


Vespertilio emarginatus. 

Vespertilio emarginatus, Desm. Manmi. Sp. 210 ; Temm. Monog. vol. ii. 

p. 190 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — False molars -g-. In shape and size very 
similar to V. mystacinus, for which it may easily he mis- 
taken ; distinguished from it, however, by the deep notch 
on the outer edge of the ear, and by the entire absence of 
the moustache on the upper lip, as well as by the generally 
reddish tint of the fur. Ears oblong, as long as the head, 
bending outward, with a small fold on the inner margin, 
and a deep notch, with a small lobe beneath it, on the outer 
margin; tragus subulate, bending outwards, rather more 
than half as long as the auricle ; tail not longer than the 
body, base of the ears very hairy. Fur on the head and 
upper parts of the body reddish brown, shaded with yel- 
lowish and brown tints, arising from the hairs being brown 
at the base, yellowish in the centre, and with reddish-brown 
tips ; all the lower parts ashy, with a slightly reddish tinge, 
which tinge prevails over the upper part of the humerus ; 
ears and membrane dull brown. 

Length of head and body from 2 inches to 2 inches 1 line ; 
tail, 1 inch 3 lines; humerus, 11 lines; fore -arm, 1 inch 
5 lines ; extent of wings from 9 inches to 9 inches 5 lines. 
— F. M. 

Flies rapidly over stagnant waters. Passes the winter 
in caves and cellars or ruinous buildings. 

Is supposed to have occurred a few times in England ; 
widely distributed in France. Has been found in the for- 
tifications of Charlemont. Rare in Italy ; sometimes about 
Rome ; occasionally in the northern provinces of Holland. 
In Belgium, M, de Selys Longchamps has found it near 
Maestricht and at Louvain. Said to exist in Picardy and 
near Metz. 


24 


CHEIROPTERA. 


Vespertilio Savii. 

Vespertilio Savii, Temm. Monog. yol. ii. p. 197 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Description. — Inner incisors two-pointed ; molars ^ ; no 
false molar above. The body is more robust than in V. 
Pipistrellus, but the extent of wing is less ; tail very long, 
free at the point ; muzzle wide and blunt ; ears very wide, 
with a fold in front, triangular, much rounded towards the 
tips, hairy for half their length ; tragus short, wide, blunt; 
the ends inclining towards the head ; skull depressed, fore- 
head wide ; gape reaching to the anterior margin of the eyes, 
which are small ; feet very small, very much enveloped by 
the membranes ; the interfemoral is ample, the margins 
curved outwards half-way between the tail and feet, that 
and the rump almost destitute of fur. Fur of two colours, 
varied as in V. discolor ; upper parts bright chestnut, with 
the points of the hairs bright brown on the head and neck, 
and ashy yellow on the back ; cheeks and chin brown ; 
rest of the body beneath blackish brown, with the points 
of the hairs yellowish white. 

Length of head and body, 1 inch 6 lines ; tail, 1 inch 6 
lines; fore-arm, 1 inch 3 lines ; extent of wings, 8 inches. — 
F. M. The above measurements are from Temminck ; the 
following from the Prince of Musignano’s ‘ Fauna Italica : ’ 
— Head and body, 1 inch 11 lines ; tail, 1 inch 3 lines ; 
fore-arm, 1 inch 3 lines ; extent of wings, 8 inches 2 lines. 

The conspicuous whitish colour of the abdomen distin- 
guishes this species at once from V. Pijoistrellus. 

Found in Dalmatia and elsewhere on the east coast of 
the Adriatic, and in Sardinia. A single specimen was 
obtained at Pisa, by Professor Savi; and one at Rome, 
by the Prince of Musignano, who also received it from 
Sicily. 


VESPERTILIO ALBOLIMBATUS. 


25 


Vespertilio albolimbatus. 

Vespertilio albolimbatus , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Vesperugo Kuhlii , Blasius, Wirbelth. Deutschl. 

Description. — Teeth 32 in number. The muzzle fur- 
nished with scattered, dark hairs, blackish, swollen, rather 
short, the space from the ears to the top of the nose is 
little greater than that between the ears, the nose, as it 
were, sunk between the swollen nostrils; ears three -fourths 
of the length of the head, oval-triangular, with rounded 
tips, not notched, but with a conspicuous fold on the out- 
side at base, expanded, with whitish hairs inside ; tragus 
as long as the feet, slender, long-oval ; wings very thin, 
when folded to the body reaching a little beyond the tip 
of the nose, furnished near the body with scattered whitish 
hairs ; general colour blackish, with white transverse veins, 
edged with white for the whole extent of the hinder mar- 
gin, which edging increases in size between the last finger 
and the foot, forming a whitish curved space inside the 
wing, about a quarter of an inch broad ; the interfemoral 
membrane is of a lighter colour than the wings, slightly 
curved on the margin, which is edged with white ; the feet 
free, claws white. Fur of the head and back dull cinna- 
mon-grey, becoming pale towards the tail, the bases of the 
hairs blackish ; body beneath ashy white with a yellowish 
tinge, lightest near the tail ; bases of the hairs always black 
for a large portion of their length; tail and membrane 
clothed with scattered yellowish hairs on both sides. 

Length (in a very young specimen) of head and body, 
1 inch 2 lines ; of the tail, 1 inch 5 lines ; of the fore -arm, 
1 inch 4 lines ; extent of wings, 7 inches 4 lines. 

Flight rapid ; appears late in the evening. 

Has been found only in the Island of Sardinia. Abun- 

c 


26 


CHEIROPTERA. 


dant near Cagliari along the coast. Frequents buildings, 
and is never met with in caves. 

Vespertilio Alcythoe. 

Vespertilio Alcythoe , Buon. Faun. Ital. ; Temm. Monog. vol. ii. p. 198 
(figured). 

Vesperugo Kuhlii, Blasius, Wirbelth. Deutschl. 

Description. — Upper incisors very unequal in size ; molars 
°f which one on each side below is false. Easily 
mistaken at first sight for the young of V. serotinus. Skull 
depressed as in that species, and the tragus of the same 
shape ; it can, however, be distinguished from it by its 
smaller size, the colour of its fur, and its sharper ears ; the 
space from the ears to the tip of the nose equals in length 
that between the ears ; the nose is depressed at the top, 
and slightly notched between the nostrils; the distance 
between the eyes equals that from the eye to the tip of the 
nose ; the region of the eyes is naked, the eyebrows long 
and silky ; ears small, slightly pointed, without notches, 
their width half as great as their length ; tragus half as 
long as the auricle, semicordate, and pointed; tail not 
reaching beyond the membrane ; the wings, when folded 
and pressed close to the body, reach to the nose. Fur long 
and thick ; on the muzzle and forehead Isabel-grey ; the 
hairs on the back blackish from the base for half their 
length, the upper halves grey, those on the belly blackish 
at their base, cinnamon-colour towards their points ; the 
membranes along the legs and thighs clothed with dark 
reddish hairs. In colour resembling V. Visjoistrellus, but 
differing from it in the shape of the ears and skull. 

Length of the head and body, 1 inch 8 lines; tail, 1 inch 
3 lines ; fore-arm, 1 inch 3 lines ; extent of wings, 8 inches 
2 lines. — F. M. 


VESPERTILIO LEUCIPPE. 27 

First observed by the Prince of Musignano, who obtained 
this and the two following species from Sicily. 

Vespertilio Leucippe. 

Vesper tilio Leucippe , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) ; Temm. Monog. 
vol. ii. p. 199. 

Description. — Teeth 32 ; molars ; one false molar in 
the lower jaw. This species is recognized by the bright 
silvery tinge which prevails over its lower parts, and the 
cinnamon colour of the parts above. The muzzle is thick, 
wide, depressed, and a good deal rounded, thus differing 
from the next species, in which it is very much pointed ; 
the outline of the snout is almost a semicircle ; the nose is 
slightly indented between the nostrils ; the gape extends 
to a point below the anterior margin of the eyes ; the ears 
are one-fifth shorter than the head, and one-third narrower 
than their length, a little rounded and slightly notched on 
the upper portion ; tragus less than one -third of the length 
of the auricle, and semiorbicular ; the wings, when folded 
against the body, scarcely reach to the angle of the mouth ; 
the interfemoral membrane is polygonal, without notches 
or lobes. Fur long, thick, of two colours ; above, the hairs 
are black at base, the tips bright cinnamon ; beneath, dark 
grey at base, silvery white at the tips ; membranes sooty ; 
lips, nose, and ears quite black, except at their extremities, 
which are light flesh-colour, at least in specimens preserved 
in spirits. 

Length of head and body, 1 inch 9 lines ; tail, 1 inch 
3 lines ; fore-arm, 1 inch 3 lines ; extent of wings, 8 inches 
10 lines. 

Received by the Prince of Musignano from Sicily. 


c 2 


28 


CHEIROPTERA. 


Vespertilio Aristippe. 

Vespertilio Aristippe , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) ; Temm. Monog. vol. ii. 

p. 200. 

Description. — Molars . Distinguished by its pointed 

muzzle from V. Leucippe, which it resembles in size and 
general appearance ; the ears also are notched nearer their 
base than in that species. The muzzle is straight, slightly 
angular, indented a little between the nostrils, which are 
small and narrow ; the gape scarcely reaches to below the 
outer margin of the eye ; ears small, their width two-thirds 
of their length, rounded at their tips ; tragus semi-elliptic, 
one-third of the length of the auricle ; interfemoral mem- 
brane with a small external lobe, the two last joints of the 
tail are free ; the wings, when folded against the body, reach 
a little beyond the nose. Fur long and thick ; on the upper 
parts dark chestnut at base, buff- colour at the points ; on the 
lower parts deep ash, except at the points, which are a dirty 
shining white ; membranes, nose, and ears quite black. 

Length of head and body, 1 inch 7 lines; tail, 1 inch 
3 lines ; fore-arm, 1 inch 3 lines ; extent of wings, 8 inches 
3 lines. — F. M. 

Temminck observes that this species is closely allied to, 
if not identical with, V. Kuhlii. 

Procured in Sicily by the Prince of Musignano. 

Vespertilio Krascheninikovii. 

Vespemgo Krascheninikovii , Eversmann, Bulletin de la Soc. Imp. 

des Naturalistes de Moscou, 1853, No. iv. p. 487 ; Annals 
and Magazine of Nat. Hist. February 1857. 
Description. — The two central incisors in the upper jaw 
bifid, the outer simple, minute ; grinders ; in all 34 
teeth. Ears shorter than the head, wide, subtriangular, 
rounded ; tragus uniform, not half as long as the ear. Fur 
black, with the tips of the hairs grey. 


YESPERTILIO NATHUSII. 


29 


No dimensions are given. 

A new species described by Eversmann. Said to be found 
in the Ural, and not uncommon in Orenburg; fuller in- 
formation is to be desired. 

Vespertilio Nathusii. 

Vespertilio Nathusii , Keyserling u. Blasius, Wirbelth. Europ. p. 47 ; 

Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. i. p. 427. 

Description. — The edges of the lower incisors are parallel 
to the jaw, so that these teeth touch at the sides only, and 
do not overlap each other. The first upper incisor is forked, 
nearly half as long as the canines, and scarcely higher than 
the second incisor, with its second division leaning outwards, 
and almost as long as the first division ; the canines are 
strong, the upper slightly longer than the lower, which 
latter are longer than the grinders ; the outer margin of 
the ear ends below and behind the angle of the gape ; the 
inner margin is as long as the breadth of the ear, giving it 
the appearance of an equilateral triangle; the space be- 
tween the ears is greater than that from the nose to the 
ear ; the snout is short and blunt, its outline nearly semi- 
circular ; the wings are rusty black, near, and along the 
hind legs, thickly clothed with hair on the upper surface. 
Fur on the upper parts of the body dull red-brown, on the 
parts beneath dull greyish yellow, approaching to rusty 
near the wings ; the hairs everywhere, for three-fourths of 
their length, are brownish black, with their extremities of 
lighter shades; from the shoulders, passing beneath the 
ear and along the lower jaw on each side, is a brown streak 
of a darker shade than the parts adjoining. 

Length of head and body, 1 inch 10 lines ; tail, 1 inch 
3 lines ; extent of wing, 8 inches 10 lines. 

This Bat has been observed at Berlin, Halle, in Bruns- 


30 


CHEIROPTERA. 


wick, on the Rhine, near Trieste in the Alps, and also 
in the Ukraine, hut nowhere in numbers. 

Vespertilio Nilssonii. 

Vespertilio Nilssonii , Keyserling u. Blasius, Wirbelth. Europ. p. 50 ; 

Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. i. p. 426 ; De Selys Long- 
champs, Micromm. p. 139. 

Description'. — Teeth 32 in number; four grinders in the 
upper jaw ; the two last joints of the tail free ; the flying 
membrane originates at the toes ; the outer margin of the 
ear ends on a line with the gape, about If line behind it ; 
the greatest width of the tragus is below the middle of the 
inner margin of the ear ; the fore- arm, when pressed against 
the side, reaches only to the gape ; the second joint of the 
fifth finger reaches far above the middle of the same joint 
of the fourth finger ; the membrane of the tail is thickly 
clothed, as far as its middle, with long hairs ; all the mem- 
branes have their under side adjoining the body thickly 
covered with brown hair ; the hair on the upper parts of 
the body are dark brown for two-thirds of their length, the 
tips being whitish brown, and forming a triangular space 
on the back; those on the parts beneath are also dark 
brown below, with light brown extremities ; under the ear 
is a light spot ; the first upper incisor is nearly as large as 
the second ; the lower incisors have their edges parallel to 
each other, but placed obliquely to the jaw, so that they 
partly overlap ; the first grinder of the lower jaw is almost 
as high and as strong as the second. 

Length of head and body, 2 inches 1 line ; tail, 1 inch 
9 lines ; extent of wing, 10 inches. 

Inhabits the Hartz Mountains in Germany, and the 
mountains of Sweden and Norway, probably extending 
nearly to the Polar Circle. Blasius informs us that it is 
very common in the North of Russia. 


VESPERTILIO NIGRICANS. VESPERTILIO MAURUS. 31 

Vespertilio nigricans. 

Vespertilio nigricans , Crespon, Faune Meridionale, vol. i. p. 24; 

P. GTervais, Zool. et Paleont. Franc. 

Description. — Grinding teeth including a false 

grinder on each side above and below, which is very small, 
almost hidden between the canine and first true grinder ; 
tragus blunted, short. Fur on the upper parts of the 
body dark tawny, that on the lower parts ash-grey; the 
hair on every part of the body black at the roots ; fore- 
head and sides of the neck clear chestnut; snout, cheeks, and 
ears black ; space between the ears and the comers of the 
mouth naked and blackish ; ears oval-triangular, as long as 
the head, margined and notched on the outer edge near 
the base ; all the membranes black ; tail free at the top for 
about 1 line. A pretty species, from the contrast presented 
by the three distinct colours of the neck, back, and belly. 

Length of head and body, 1^ inch ; tail, 1^ inch ; 
extent of wing, 7-^- inches. 

The female is a little larger than the male, with the 
fur beneath the body whitish grey. 

Discovered by M. Crespon at Nismes, in the South of 
France, where it is not uncommon in the old Roman ruins, 
and in the environs of that city. Has been taken in 
Corsica by M. Requien. 

Vespertilio maurus. 

Vesper ugo maurus , Blasius, Wirbelth. EurOp. p. 67. 

Description. — Teeth 34 in number ; the upper canine on 
each side is nearly half as long again as the second false 
molar, which it touches, the first false molar being almost 
hidden between them, and very small. The outer edge 
of the ear ends behind the angle of the gape, and under 
the hind comer of the eye ; the inner edge is rounded 


32 


CHEIROPTERA. 


off at the base; the tragus is widest at the middle, its 
point much sharpened, and inclining forwards and in- 
wards ; at the base of its outer margin is a small blunt 
tooth; the membrane of the wings reaches to the first 
joints of the toes ; the two last joints of the tail are free 
from the membrane, which is hairy above and below 
next the body ; beneath, the hairs extend to the fore-arm, 
the thighs, and more than half-way along the tail; the 
skin of the ears and wings is very dark brown-black, 
darker than in any other European species. The fur 
above is dark brown, lighter below ; the hairs are every- 
where of two colours ; on the upper parts they are dark 
brown beneath, with yellow or reddish-brown tips ; on the 
under parts of the body they are also dark beneath, with 
the tips a much lighter brown ; the bright brown of the 
upper parts distinguish this species from all others; the 
young ones are darker, with dirty white tips to the hairs. 

The entire length is 3 inches 2 lines ; tail, 1 inch 
3 lines ; extent of wing, 8 inches 6 lines. — F. M. 

First observed in 1847 by Professor Blasius, who states 
that it occurs only at high elevations, and who names it 
the Alpine Bat; sometimes it appears above the region 
where trees grow. It comes out soon after sunset, flies 
quickly and high, concealing itself in the daytime in the 
roofs of the chalets. 

Is found in suitable situations all along the range of 
the Alps. 


VESPERTILIO AURITUS. 


33 


Subgenus 2. Plecotus. 

Yespertilio auritus. 

Vespertilio auritus , Desm. Mamm. sp. 223 ; Temm. Monog. vol. ii. 

p. 181. 

Plecotus auritus , G-eoffroy, Bell, Brit. Quad. ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Long-eared Bat, Bell, l. c. 

Description. — False molars Head and face flattened ; 

muzzle somewhat swollen ; nostrils tumid, elongated back- 
wards into a sort of cul-de-sac ; ears very large, more than 
twice the length of the head, oblong, oval, thin, semi- 
transparent, with a broad longitudinal fold on their inner 
margin, near the base of which is a small projecting lobe, 
ciliated like the rest of the margin; tragus long oval- 
lanceolate, the outer margin somewhat sinuous, the inner 
straight; ears united over the head, extending round to 
the mouth ; tail free at top ; forehead and anterior sur- 
face of the membrane which connects the ears, hairy, 
under surface of the same naked. Fur long and silky, 
brownish grey on the upper parts, paler beneath the body ; 
the ears are generally curled outwards, but the animal, 
when at rest, conceals them beneath the fore-arm, the 
tragus alone remaining erect. 

Length of head and body, 1 inch 10 lines ; tail, 1 inch 
8 lines ; head, 8 lines ; fore-arm, 1 inch 5 lines ; ears, 
inch ; tragus, 7 lines ; breadth of the ears, 9 lines ; breadth 
of the tragus, lines; length of the thumb, 2-J lines; 
extent of wings, 10 inches 2 lines. 

Resorts generally to roofs of churches and houses ; 
rarely flies over water. 

One of the most common Bats in the British Islands. 
Is found throughout the warmer and temperate countries 
of Europe, and in the North of Africa. Yery common 

c 5 


34 


CHEIROPTERA. 


throughout France and Germany. Not very plentiful in 
Russia, and only met with in the more temperate parts of 
that country (Pallas). Common in Silesia, Gallicia, Car- 
niola, Italy, Sicily, Spain, Denmark, and Greece. 

Vespertilio brevimanus. 

Plecotus brevimanus , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Lesser Long-eared Bat, Jenyns, Brit. Yertebr. ; Bell, l.c. 

Description. — Like V. auritus in general appearance. 
Ears shorter with respect to the head, and rather nar- 
rower at the extremity; tragus much larger; tail the 
length of the fore-arm. The colour of the fur above much 
darker than on the under parts of the body, whereas in 
V. auritus there is but little difference in this respect. 
The hairs also are of the same colour throughout their entire 
length, not darker at their bases, as in the last species. 

The dimensions given by Jenyns are as follows : — head 
and body, 1 inch 6 lines; head, 7 lines; tail, 1 inch 2 
lines ; ears, 1 inch ; tragus, 5J lines ; breadth of the ears, 

5 lines ; of the tragus, 2 lines ; length of the fore-arm, 
1 inch 2 lines ; thumb, 3 lines ; extent of wings, 6 inches 

6 lines. 

An individual found in Sicily by the Prince of Musig- 
nano, was not smaller than V. auritus , as observed by that 
author, who gives the following dimensions in his ‘ Fauna 
Italica:’ — head and body, 1 inch 7 lines; head, 8 lines; 
tail, 1 inch 8 lines ; ears, 1 inch 5 lines ; fore-arm, 1 inch 
5 lines ; thumb, 3 lines ; extent of wings, 9 inches 6 lines. 

Found as yet only in England, where one was dis- 
covered in Cambridgeshire by the Rev. L. Jenyns in a 
willow, and in Sicily, as mentioned above. 

Its specific distinctness from the preceding appears ex- 
ceedingly doubtful. 


VESPERTILTO BARBASTELLUS. 


35 


Subgenus 3. Barbastellus. 

Vespertilio Barbastellus. 

Vespertilio Barbastellus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 224 ; Temm. Monog. vol. 
ii. p. 202. 

Barbastellus communis, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Barbastellus Baubentonii. The Barbastelle, Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Blecotus Barbastellus, Cuvier, Keg. Anim. ; La Barbastelle, Buffon. 

Description. — Teeth 34 in number ; molars |^| , of which 
two in each jaw are false. Muzzle truncated, a groove 
leads on each side upwards to the nostrils, which are 
placed in a hollow ; the muzzle is naked, extending back 
to the union of the ears ; cheeks rather tumid, covered 
with black hair, forming a sort of moustache ; ears about 
as long as the head, nearly as broad as long, irregularly 
four- sided, the inner edges turned back, forming a longi- 
tudinal groove within the margin ; the outer angle pro- 
minent, rounded, and turned back ; beneath this, on the 
outer margin, is rather a deep notch, from which five or 
six transverse folds extend about half-way across the ear ; 
the anterior and inner angles unite immediately behind 
the muzzle ; tragus more than half as long as the ear, 
irregularly lanceolate or semicordate, with a protuberance 
near the outer angle of its base ; apex rounded ; eyes very 
small, close to the auricle, almost concealed by the hair ; 
interfemoral ample, with about twelve transverse lines ; 
tail free for one line. Darker than any other British 
species, nearly black on the upper parts, with a few white 
hairs ; hinder parts reddish brown ; belly lighter than the 
back, the hairs being greyish at tip, black at the roots ; 
ears, muzzle, and membranes dusky black. 

Length of head and body, 2 inches ; head, 7 lines ; tail, 
1 inch 9 lines ; ears, 6 lines ; tragus, 1-J- line ; fore-arm, 
1 inch lines; extent of wings, 10 inches 5 lines. 


36 


INSECTIVORA. 


Frequents old buildings and cellars ; flies late in the 
evening. Is rare in every country where it has been 
found. 

Has occurred several times in England. Is found in 
France (in Picardy), in Germany, Gallicia, Silesia, Den- 
mark, Camiola ; very rarely in Belgium. In Italy, although 
uncommon, appears to exist in many localities. Blasius 
has found it in the Alps at considerable elevations ; in 
Central Russia, and Hungary. 


Order INSECTIVORA. 

The incisive teeth varying in number ; the summits 
of the molars with conical points ; the feet armed with 
strong claws, and the soles of the hinder feet applied 
to the ground in walking. 

Genus SOREX. 

Animals of diminutive size. Snout much prolonged, 
moveable; ears short, or scarcely apparent; eyes very 
small ; feet moderate, with five toes, furnished with nails, 
not adapted for burrowing ; tail as long as, or a little 
shorter than, the body. 

Subgenus 1 . Sorex. 

Teeth 30 or 32 in number, with their points more or 
less stained ; the two lower incisors with the edges den- 
ticulated, the two upper ones forked. Between the in- 
cisors and the three molars are five (rarely four) small 
intermediate teeth, diminishing in size gradually from the 
first to the last. Ears concealed by the fur, and much 


SOREX TETRAGONURUS. 


37 


shorter than it ; tail slightly squared in the adult, rounded 
and somewhat contracted at . the base ; in the young, 
covered with short equal hairs; toes almost naked, not 
fringed with stiff hairs. 

Sorex tetragonnrus. 

Sorex tetragonurus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 234 ; De Selys, Micromm. ; 

Jejnyns, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1838, 1841. 

Description - . — Upper parts of head and body blackish, or 
reddish brown, varying in different individuals. Body be- 
neath and throat whitish ash, extending high up on the sides ; 
at the point where this colour meets that of the back, there 
is a narrow line of reddish, thus causing the transition be- 
tween the two to be less abrupt than in S. leucodon, though 
it is much more so than in 8, araneus ; tail of equal length 
throughout, slightly angular, especially when old, more than 
half as long as the body, either clothed with very short 
equal hairs, or naked ; dark brown above, whitish beneath, 
generally ending with a small tuft ; snout nearly as much 
prolonged as in S.pygmceus, velvety ; feet flesh-coloured, 
almost naked, or with very short hairs of a whitish colour ; 
the claws are not covered by these hairs ; cutting teeth 
much denticulated, and deeply stained with dark brown in 
the young ; in the adult, a good deal worn, and the colour 
not so deep. 

Entire length, from 3 inches 3 lines to 4 inches lines ; 
body, from 2 inches 9 lines to 3 inches ; tail, from 1 inch 
5^- lines to 1 inch 6 lines. 

Frequents gardens and moist woods ; utters a shrill cry, 
like a grasshopper. 

Inhabits nearly all Europe, from Sweden and Russia 
to Italy and Spain. Is the most common species in 
England. 


38 


INSECTIVORA. 


Sorex rusticus. 

Sorex rusticus , Jenyns, Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. i. & vol. vii. ; De Selys 
Longchamps, Micromm. p. 40. 

This species has been separated from the preceding by the 
Rev. L. Jenyns by the following distinctive characters : — The 
1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th intermediate teeth (lateral incisors) 
diminish more gradually and regularly ; the 5th is larger 
in proportion to the others, and more visible externally ; 
the tail is thick, cylindrical throughout, well clothed with 
hairs, which, in the young animal, stand out entirely from 
the tail, and never become aapressed at any age ; the ex- 
tremity of the tail is not narrowed, but ends abruptly, and 
is longer than in Sorex tetragonurus, although the whole 
animal is smaller ; the feet are more slender and weaker ; 
the space between the eyes half as long as that between the 
eyes and the end of the snout, whereas in the preceding 
species it equals three -fourths of that space ; the body above 
is redder, and beneath with more of a yellowish tinge. 

Entire length, from 3 inches 4-i- lines to 4 inches ; body 
from 2 inches 1 line to 2 inches 6 lines ; tail, from 1 inch 
3J lines to 1 inch 6 lines. 

Its habits are probably identical with those of the last 
species. 

This is the commonest species of England next to S. 
tetragonurus , and is by far the most common species in 
Ireland. It does not appear to have been hitherto observed 
elsewhere than in Britain. 

Sorex pygmsens. 

Sorex pygmceus, De Selys, Micromm. ; Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. i. 
p. 27 ; Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. 

Description. — About half the size of S. araneus. Tail 
rather shorter than the body, covered with hair of equal 


SOREX ALPINUS. 


39 


length, forming at the tip a tuft of two lines long, constricted 
at the root, then thick and rounded; lower incisor den- 
ticulated ; snout very long, and velvety ; ears very short, 
hidden in the fur, but more easily seen than in S. tetrago- 
nurus. Upper parts of the head and body grey-brown, tinged 
more or less with tawny reddish ; all the lower parts ashy, 
except the throat and lips, which are whitish, tinged with 
red-brown ; feet whitish, more hairy on the claws than 
in S. tetragonurus. 

Weight, from 33 to 40 grains. Entire length, 3 inches 
3i lines ; body, 1 inch 10 lines ; tail, 1 inch 5-t lines. — 
F. M. Is the smallest quadruped next to S. Etruscus. 

Has been found in Belgium twice by M. de Selys Long- 
champs. Inhabits Bussia, Siberia, and Germany, as far 
west as Frankfort-on-the-Main. Is said by Gervais to 
have been found near Strasburg. Is not uncommon in 
Silesia, Gallicia, and the Bukovina. 

Sorex alpinus. 

Sorex alpinus, De Selys, Micromm. ; Schinz, Faun. Helv. 

Description. — In shape the same as S. ar emeus, but the tail 
is longer than the body, so as at once to distinguish it from 
that species. Ashy above, covered with long white hairs 
beneath. The dentition resembles that of S. tetragonurus. 
The lower incisors are toothed. The general colour of the 
fur is pure slate-grey above, passing insensibly to a, lighter 
shade beneath ; feet ashy ; whiskers very long, whitish. 

Entire length, 5 inches 2 lines ; body, 2 inches 6 lines ; 
tail, 2 inches 8 lines. — F. M. 

Discovered on the Mount St. Gothard, and first made 
known by Professor Schinz, in his ‘ Fauna Helvetica,’ as 
frequenting the banks of mountain torrents in that part of 
the Alps. 


40 


INSECTIYORA. 


Subgenus 2. Crossoptjs. 

Lower incisors not toothed ; upper incisors hooked. The 
two first intermediate teeth equal, the third a little smaller, 
the fourth rudimentary ; the points of all the teeth more or 
less brown ; their total number is 30. Ears velvety, 
much shorter than the fur ; tail more or less compressed 
for a portion of its length, clothed with short, equal hairs ; 
feet wide, fringed with stiff hairs, adapted for swimming. 
All the species are aquatic, swimming and diving with ease. 
Their fur is dense. 

Sorex fodiens. 

Sorex fodiens , De Selys, Micromm. ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

The Water Shrew. 

Description. — Stouter than S. araneus. The tail as long 
as, or slightly shorter than, the body, compressed for almost 
its whole length, blackish, composed of scaly rings, bordered 
beneath by a fringe of stiff whitish hairs. Eur velvet- 
black above, contrasting with the lower parts of the body, 
which are white or whitish, sometimes with a tinge of 
reddish or ash; the edges of the lips, and a very small 
spot behind the eye, are also whitish ; feet covered with 
very short, dark, ashy hairs, fringed with stiff, closely 
pressed, whitish hairs ; snout thick ; whiskers black. 

The above is the normal appearance of this species. 

Yar. A. Belly distinctly tinged with yellow, and the 
separation of the two colours less decided. In this state 
it approaches a similar variety of S. ciliatus ; but the ears 
are black, or dark, and the white spot behind the eye of 
S. fodiens is present. 

Yar. B. Without a white spot behind the eye. This 
variety is of rare occurrence. 

Entire length, 5 inches 5 lines ; body, 3 inches 2 lines ; 
tail, 2 inches 3 lines. Some individuals from the shores of 


SOEEX CILIATUS. 


41 


the Baltic, mentioned by M. de Selys Longchamps, measure 
7 inches 1 line in total length ; body, 3 inches 6 lines ; 
tail, 3 inches 7 lines. 

This Shrew inhabits the banks of brooks, rivers, and 
stagnant waters of almost the whole of Europe. Is not 
uncommon in parts of England, and has been found in 
Scotland, but not in Ireland. It is rare in the South of 
France, and in the centre and South of Italy. 

Sorex ciliatus. 

Sorex ciliatus , De Selys, Micromm. 

Sorex remifer, Bell, Brit. Quad. ; Desm. Mamm. Sp. 238 ; Schinz, 
Europ. Faun. vol. i. p. 28. 

Description. — Incisors toothed ; teeth coloured at their 
points ; upper parts of the body almost black ; parts be- 
neath ash-brown or red-brown, passing insensibly into 
these shades from the colour of the parts above ; throat 
clear ash ; a tuft of white hairs on the upper lobe of the 
ear ; feet covered with very short, ashy hairs, and fringed 
with stiff, adpressed, greyish hairs ; tail almost as long as 
the body, nearly black, compressed for nearly its entire 
length, composed of scaly rings, and displaying beneath a 
fringe of stiff ashy hairs, adapted to serve as a sort of oar 
in swimming ; snout thicker than in S. tetragonurus ; 
whiskers black. 

Entire length, 5 inches 3 lines ; body, 3 inches ; tail, 
2 inches 3 lines. 

This species, which nearly approaches the foregoing, is 
distinguished from it by the darker colour of the belly, 
the absence of a marked line of separation between the 
colours of the upper and lower parts of the body, by a 
white spot on the ear, and by wanting the small spot of 
that colour behind the eye. In rare instances, the belly 
is dirty white, and the white spot on the ear is wanting. 


42 


INSECTIVORA. 


Its habits are the same as those of S. fodiens. 

It is rare in England and Scotland, in which latter 
country it has occurred most frequently near Glasgow. 
In France, it has been found near Abbeville, Chartres, and 
in the Department of the Gard. In Belgium, near Liege, 
and in Germany, at Frankfort-on-the-Main, where, says De 
Selys Longchamps, it is more common than S. fodiens . 

On the whole, it seems doubtful whether or not these 
two (so-called) species are really distinct. 

Genus CROCIDURA. 

The two lower incisors not dentated, the two upper 
with a pointed heel ; the three or four intermediate teeth 
in the upper jaw becoming less from the first tooth ; all 
the teeth are white, 28 or 30 in number ; ears oval, well- 
developed, distinctly longer than the fur, nearly naked ; 
tail shorter than the body, rounded, diminishing in thick- 
ness from the root, which is very thick, furnished with 
long isolated hairs and scattered through many short ones ; 
feet almost bare, without stiff hairs. Fur resembling in its 
texture that of the Mouse. 

Crocidura Etrusca. 

Pachyura Etrusca Buon. Faun. Ital. 

Crocidura Etrusca, Buon. Faun. Ital. ; De Selys, Micromm. 

Description. — Teeth in number 30, four intermediate in 
the upper jaw. Tail shorter than the body, slightly 
squared, of almost a uniform thickness to the tip, where 
it ends in an abrupt point ; grey-brown above, whitish be- 
neath, covered with very short hairs, forming a tuft at the 
end ; from each joint springs a circle of very fine whitish 
hairs about two lines in length ; eyes very small ; upper 
parts of head and body ashy, with more or less of a 


CROCIDURA ARANEA. 


43 


reddish tinge ; all the lower parts clear ashy, running gra- 
dually into the shade of the upper parts ; whiskers nu- 
merous and very fine ; ears very large, distinctly longer 
than the fur, covered with very small whitish hairs. 

Entire length, 2 inches 6 lines to 2 inches 9 lines ; 
body, 1 inch 7 lines to 1 inch 10 lines ; tail, 11 lines. 

Is supposed to be the smallest known quadruped. 
Discovered in Tuscany by Professor Savi ; found also in 
the hills near Rome in dry situations. Crespon, in his 
4 Faune Meridionale,’ mentions that two were found near 
Nismes in the South of France. 

Crocidura aranea. 

Crocidura aranea , De Selys, Micromm. 

Sorex araneus , Schinz, Europ. Faun. ; Keys, und Blas. ; Desm. 

Mamm. Sp. 232. 

La Musaraigne, Buffon. 

Description. — Teeth in number 28, all white ; four inter- 
mediate teeth in the upper jaw. Fur mouse-grey above, 
passing gradually into whitish ash beneath; tail of the same 
colour, clothed with short hairs, with longer hairs scattered 
among them, shorter than the body ; feet light ashy ; ears 
well developed, disengaged from the fur, covered with very 
short hairs, ashy on the upper lobe, whitish on the lower ; 
toes and tip of snout flesh-coloured; albinos ^ and spotted 
varieties sometimes occur; and in some individuals the 
belly is white, and the general tinge of the fur more or 
less of a red-brown. 

Entire length, 4 inches to 4 inches 2 lines ; body, 
2 inches 8 lines to 2 inches 11 lines ; tail, 1 inch 4 lines. 
— F. M. 

Frequents gardens and the neighbourhood of houses. 
Inhabits the greater part of Europe, but is not known 
in Sweden or the British Islands. Is common in Russia, 


44 


INSECTIVORA. 


France, Italy, and Switzerland. Generally distributed 
through Germany, Poland, and Carniola. Is not uncom- 
mon in Belgium. 

Crocidura leucodon. 

Crocidura leucodon , De Selys, Micromm. 

Sorex leucodon , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 236. 

Description. — All the teeth are white. Fur more or less 
blackish above, white beneath and on the sides, the line of 
division of these colours distinct; the tail rather shorter 
than in C. aranea, dark above, whitish beneath, with long 
scattered white hairs ; the snout longer and darker than in 
that species, which in size and proportion it much re- 
sembles. 

Entire length, 3 inches 8 lines ; body, 2 inches 6| lines ; 
tail, 1 inch 1 \ line. — F. M. 

Found in the north-east of France, and in the west of 
Germany, more commonly than G. aranea. Bare in the 
South of France. Has been observed at Lyons, Metz, 
and Strasburg. In Belgium, near Tournay. The Prince of 
Musignano says that it is met with in the Alban Hills 
near Borne, and that it inhabits all Central and Southern 
Europe. 


Genus MYGALE. 

The two intermediate incisors of the upper jaw tri- 
angular, very strong, flattened ; lower incisors sometimes 
four, with the central ones smaller than those on the out- 
side, sometimes six, all nearly equal ; canines not to be 
distinguished from the lateral incisors and anterior grinders ; 
the four last grinders above, and the three last below on 
each side, with sharp tubercles ; snout prolonged, very 
flexible ; no outward ears ; eyes very small. 


MYGALE MUSCOVITICA. — MY GALE PYRENAICA. 45 


Mygale Muscovitica. 

My gale Muscovitica , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 243. 

Sorex Moschatus , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. vol. i. 

Myogale Moschata, Keys, und Blasius, Wirbelth. Enrop. p. 58. 
Myogalea Moscovitica , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. i. p. 96. 

Le Desman, Buffon. 

Description. — Incisors -| ; intermediate teeth ; molars 
=44. Tail shorter than the body, scaly, almost naked, 
constricted near the root, cylindrical and swollen in the 
middle, and compressed vertically at the extremity. Fur 
shining, composed of two kinds of hair, one long, the other 
close and downy like that of the beaver ; upper parts of 
the body brown, becoming darker on the sides ; belly silvery 
white ; some scales on the upper parts of the toes ; has a 
strong musky odour proceeding from glands beneath the 
tail ; some portion of the face white. 

Length of head and body, 8 inches ; tail, 6 inches 9 lines. 
— F. M. Weighs about six ounces. 

Swims with great facility, remaining long under water, 
with only the end of the snout, where the nostrils are 
placed, exposed; burrows in the banks of streams and 
pools ; feeds on insects, worms, and especially on leeches, 
sometimes eating the root of the water-lily. 

Is found in Southern Russia, where it is common in the 
Yolga and its tributaries, and in the Don. 

Mygale Pyrenaica. 

Mygale Pyrenaica, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 244 ; Cuv. Reg. Anim. 

Myogale Pyrenaica, Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. Eur. p. 59. 

Myogalea Pyrenaica, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. i. p. 26. 

Description. — Incisors §■ ; canines ^ ; molars =44. 

o 1 — 1 o — t> 

Tail longer than the body, diminishing gradually from the 
root to the tip, cylindrical for three-fourths of its length, 


46 


INSECTIVORA. 


compressed vertically towards the extremity, covered with 
short adpressed hairs ; claws as long again as in the last 
species, and the outer claw of the hind-feet much more 
free. Fur composed, like that of the M. Moscovitica, of two 
kinds ; all the upper parts of the body chestnut-brown ; the 
sides greyish brown, and the belly silvery grey ; no white 
on the face. 

Length of head and body, 4 inches ; tail, 4 inches 6 lines. 
— F. M. 

Found along streams in the valleys of the French Pyre- 
nees, and near Tarbes. 

Genus ERINACEUS. HEDGEHOG. 

Middle incisors very long, standing forward ; the upper 
ones cylindrical, apart ; molars . Body covered with 
spines ; tail very short. 

Erinaceus Europseus. 

Erinaceus Europceus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 229 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Common Hedgehog. 

Description. — Teeth 36 in number. Incisors above very 
far apart ; the true molars have strong acute tubercles ; 
the teeth, classed as canines by Desmarest and others, are 
regarded by F. Cuvier as false molars. The neck is short ; 
the whole body is covered above and at the sides with sharp, 
hard, round spines, attenuated at each end about 1 inch 
long, irregularly disposed in groups diverging in all direc- 
tions, of a dirty white, with a brown or blackish ring rather 
above the middle ; very low on its legs ; snout, forehead, 
sides of the head, sides and under part of the tail, throat, 
breast, and legs covered with hard, brittle, yellowish-white 
hair. 


ERINACEUS AURITUS. TALPA. 4 7 

Length of head and body, 9 inches 6 lines; head, 3 inches; 
tail, 9 lines ; ears, 1 inch. 

Coils itself into a compact hall on the approach of danger. 
Feeds on insects, sometimes on eggs and roots of plants ; 
is easily tamed ; passes the winter in a state of complete 
torpor, retiring to hollow trees and other sheltered situa- 
tions ; produces from two to four young at a birth, early 
in the summer. 

Inhabits the whole of Europe, excepting Norway and 
Lapland. Is common in the British Islands. 

Erinaceus auritus. 

Erinaceus auritus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 230 ; Pallas, Zoo g. Boss. As. 

Description. — Bather smaller than Erinaceus Eurojoceus. 
Muzzle short ; ears two -thirds of the length of the head ; 
spines not arranged in tufts, separate, leaning backwards 
when in repose ; nostrils toothed like a cock’s comb ; legs 
rather more slender and longer than in the common species ; 
tail shorter, conical, almost naked. Fur finer ; four rows 
of bristles on the snout ; spines white at the base, with a 
very narrow ring of blackish brown in the middle, and dull 
yellow at their points. 

Has two broods in the year, producing six or seven young 
at a birth. 

Inhabits the province of Astrachan, between the Yolga 
and Jaik (or Ural) rivers ; as well as Tartary, beyond Lake 
Baikal, and Egypt. 

Genus TALPA. MOLES. 

Teeth. — Incisors -§- ; canines y ; molars Body very 
thick ; fore-feet short and broad, formed for digging ; tail 
short ; no external ears. 


48 


INSECTIVORA. 


Talpa Europaea. 

Talpa Europcea, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 250. 

Talpa vulgaris , Bell, Brit. Quad. 

The Common Mole. 

Description. — Body thick, oblong, almost cylindrical ; snout 
sharp and slender. The teeth are sharp-pointed ; incisors 
very small; canines long and very sharp; false molars 
like the canines, hut much smaller ; the true molars 
broad, with several sharp tubercles ; eyes extremely small, 
concealed in the fur; feet very short; fore-feet largest, 
inclining sideways. Fur very soft and silky, black, in some 
light ashy grey : spotted, white, and yellow varieties are 
not uncommon. 

Length of head and body, 5 inches 3 lines ; head, 1 inch 
7 lines ; tail, 1 inch 2 lines. 

Lives underground, forming galleries and throwing up 
hillocks ; feeds on worms and insects ; breeds twice in the 
year, producing from four to six at a birth. 

Common in England and Scotland, hut unknown in Ire- 
land. Found in nearly all the countries of Europe, all 
over Eussia and France. In Italy it scarcely goes south of 
Lombardy, where it gives place to the next species. 

Talpa caeca . 

Talpa cceca , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) ; G-eoffroy, St. Hilaire. 

Description. — This Mole, which was first distinguished by 
Professor Savi, and is well described and figured by the 
Prince of Musignano in his ‘Iconografia della Fauna Italica,’ 
differs from the common species in having the eyes con- 
cealed beneath the skin, which, instead of opening by 
means of eyelids or otherwise, is spread continuously over 
the organs of sight ; its structure, however, is so thin, that 


URSUS ARCTOS. 


49 


the black of the eyeball can be seen through it, and 
the eye is doubtless able to receive a certain portion of 
light, although it is hardly possible that it can have the 
power of distinguishing objects, especially as the fur hangs 
thickly over all. The two species differ likewise in the size 
of the two anterior incisor teeth of the upper jaw, these 
being rather larger than the others in the Talpa caeca, 
whereas in the Talpa Europcea all the incisors are equal. 
In size, shape, colour, and in every other respect, they are 
identical. 

This species inhabits Tuscany and the rest of Central and 
Southern Italy, where it is the only one known. The Mole 
of the North of Italy is the Talpa Europcea. The Blind 
Mole has been found also in some parts of the South of 
France, in the North of Italy, Dalmatia, and Greece. 


Order CARNIVORA. 

With three kinds of teeth ; six incisors in each jaw, 
except in some species of Seals ; feet armed with claws. 

Division I. PLANTIGRADES, 
i. e. those which walk upon the entire sole of the foot. 

Genus URSUS. BEARS. 

Lower incisors set in the same line ; grinders varying 
in number, the three last large and tubercular. 

Ursus arctos. 

XJrsus arctos, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 254. 

The Brown Bear. 

Description. — Blackish brown ; forehead convex above the 
eyes ; snout suddenly tapering ; body entirely covered with 

n 


50 


CARNIVORA. • 


thick, shaggy hair, varying from chestnut-brown to black • 
soles of the fore-feet with their anterior half naked, those 
behind naked throughout; ears short and rounded; eyes 
small ; tail very short. 

Length of head and body,’ 3 feet 7 inches ; head, 1 foot ; 
fore-foot, 7 inches 7 lines ; hind-foot, 8 inches 10 lines. 

Feeds chiefly on nuts and roots ; is fond of fruit, seldom 
attacking animals unless pressed by hunger. 

Extinct in the British Islands for at least eight centuries ; 
is found in most of the high mountain ranges of Europe, 
viz. the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians, &c., as well as of the 
southern and temperate parts of Asia. In the Pyrenees it 
is now more common on the Spanish than on the French 
side. Said not to occur in any other part of Spain. Was 
found at a recent period in the Yosges Mountains, and now 
in the Jura and French Alps. In Switzerland Bears are 
rare, and chiefly confined to the Grisons ; five were seen 
together in the Engadine in 1852. In Sweden and Norway 
they are not uncommon from about the 58th degree of 
north latitude to the North Cape ; they are numerous in 
the northern and temperate regions of the whole of Russia 
where forests occur ; and in the Caucasus, grizzled, white, 
and small brown mountain varieties are met with. 

Ursus maritimus. 

Ursus maritimus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 257. 

Ursus marinus , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Polar Bear. 

Description. — Body and neck longer in proportion than in 
the Brown Bear ; the head lengthened and flattened ; ears 
and mouth comparatively small, the former rounded ; soles 
of the feet very large and clothed with fur ; snout large 
and black ; the whole coat dense and long, silvery white 
tinged with yellow ; claws black, rather short and stout, 


MELES TAXUS. 


51 


not much curved; behind each canine tooth is a small 
conical one, which is wanting in the Brown Bear. 

The entire length of a full-grown male is from 7 to 8 
feet, its weight from 1000 to 1200 pounds. It feeds almost 
exclusively on animal substances, seals and fish, alive or 
dead. 

The Polar Bear inhabits the North Polar regions and 
Spitzbergen. Is often carried on detached masses of ice to 
Iceland and Norway. Pallas says that it is frequently met 
with on the whole coast of the Arctic Sea. 

Genus MELES. 

Second incisor on each side in the lower jaw placed be- 
hind the others; grinders the first very small, the 

last tubercular ; body low on the legs ; a glandular pouch 
under the tail. 

Meles taxus. 

Meles vulgaris , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 266. 

Meles taxus, Bell, Brit. Quad. 

The Badger. 

Description. — Body thick ; hair rigid and long, grey on 
the upper parts, black on the throat, breast, belly, and legs ; 
head above white, with a longitudinal black spot on each 
side, beginning between the end of the nose and the eye, 
and ending behind the ears ; toes five on each foot ; claws 
long and bent ; eyes very small ; ears short and rounded, 
almost concealed in the hair. 

Length of head and body, 2 feet 6 inches ; head, 6 inches 
8 lines ; ears, 1 inch 4 lines ; tail, 7 inches. 

Burrows in the ground ; feeds on vegetables, roots, nuts, 
as well as on mice, frogs, and insects. 

The Badger is found throughout the British Islands, but 

d 2 


52 


CARNIVORA. 


is nowhere numerous. It inhabits probably every country 
of Continental Europe, and extends into Asia. According 
to Pallas, is especially common in Livonia. In France it is 
not uncommon in many districts. 

Genus GULO. 

Teeth. — Incisors, ^ ; canines, ; molars, or 

^£qr=36 or 38; the second incisor in the lower jaw a 
little behind the others ; the two or three first upper 
molars compressed, cutting ; the fourth larger, with two 
sharp points ; the fifth small and tubercled ; the four first 
lower molars simple, the fifth with two sharp points, the 
sixth tubercled ; body low on the legs, no pouch near the 
tail. 

Gulo arcticus. 

Meles Gulo, Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Gulo arcticus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 267. 

The Glutton. 

Description. — Snout black as far as the eyebrows ; eyes 
small and black ; space between eyebrows and ears white, 
mixed with brown ; ears covered with short hair ; lower jaw 
and inside of fore-feet spotted with white ; legs, tail, back, 
and belly black or brownish black ; sides, from the shoulders 
to the tail, bright chestnut ; a white spot on the navel ; 
fore -feet with a callosity under each claw, and five others 
on the sole, one of which is behind the others ; hind-feet 
without this last-named callosity, but having the others. 

Length about 2 feet 4 inches from nose to tail ; tail, in- 
cluding hair, 8 inches ; height at shoulder, 1 foot. 

Feeds on animal substances, attacking even large animals, 
such as Elks and Reindeer, springing upon them from trees. 

The Glutton is found in all the countries, both of Europe 
and Asia, which are washed by the North Sea ; common 


MUSTELA PUTORIUS. 


53 


all over the northern parts of Norway and Sweden. Pallas 
says that it is rare in Russia, except in the great forests of 
the North. 


Division II. DIGITIGRADES, 

i. e. those which do not walk on the entire sole, but chiefly 
on the toes. 


Genus MUSTELA. 

Teeth. — Incisors, ; canines, j~- ; molars, or 

; grinders cutting, except the last in each jaw, which 
is tubercled ; body very much elongated ; legs short ; ears 
short and rounded. 

Mustela Putorius. 

Mustela Putorius, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 271 ; Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. ; 

Bell, Brit. Quad. 

The Polecat. 

Description. — Four molars above, five below, on each side ; 
hair on the body of two kinds, the longer shining, of a 
dusky brown, the shorter more woolly, of a tawny or yellow- 
ish white, giving a general tint of brownish yellow ; legs 
and tail uniform dusky brown ; space round the mouth, and 
edge of ears, white. 

Length of head and body, 1 foot 6 inches ; head, 2 inches 
10 lines ; ears, 6 lines ; tail, 5 inches 6 lines. 

Burrows in the ground, coming out at night ; feeds both 
on animal and vegetable substances. 

Desmarest says that “ it is found in the temperate regions 
of Europe.” It is not common in England and Scotland. 
Is net rare in many parts of France. In Russia, according 
to Pallas, it occurs everywhere except in the extreme north, 
and is the most common of the smaller Ferae. It is in- 


54 


CARNIVORA. 


eluded by the Prince of Musignano among the animals of 
Italy. 

Mustela Furo. 

Mustela Furo , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 273 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

The Ferret. 

Description. — Teeth as in last species, smaller and more 
slender than the Polecat ; the snout longer in proportion. 
Fur bright yellow, here and there tinged with white, some- 
times a mixture of white, black, and tawny, with the tail 
black ; eyes red. 

Length of head and body, 1 foot 2 inches ; head, 2 inches 
6 lines ; ears, 6 lines ; tail, 5 inches 6 lines. 

A native of Africa, whence it has been introduced into 
Spain, and is very numerous in that country. In other 
parts of Europe it exists only in a half-domesticated state, 
being kept for hunting rabbits. Cook, in his ‘ Sketches in 
Spain/ doubts the existence of the Ferret in that country 
in a wild state. The question deserves the attention of 
future travellers. 

Mustela Sarmatica. 

Mustela Sarmatica, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 274 ; Pallas, Zoo g. Ross. As. ; 
Schreb. pi. 132. 

Putorius Sarmaticus, Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. vol. i. p. 68. 

Description. — In general form very like Mustela Putorius, 
the head narrower, body more elongate, the tail longer, 
and the fur shorter ; the head is triangular ; long whiskers 
on the upper lip ; ears short and rounded ; claws of fore- 
feet longer than those of the hinder feet ; tail furnished 
with long hairs ; hair of the body thick and not firm, about 
half an inch long, and without wool at the base. Fur 
shining ; round the mouth and ears, the top of the head and 
forehead, white ; the body brown, varied with small yellow 


MUSTELA VULGARIS. 


55 


spots, which become white in winter ; a white stripe ob- 
liquely over the eyes ; a yellow longitudinal one on each 
side of the head ; one of the same colour over each shoulder ; 
body black below, as well as the feet ; hairs of the tail 
near its root ashy at their base, black in the middle, and 
whitish at their points ; those at the extremity of the tail 
ashy at base and black at their points ; nose black ; nails 
whitish ; tongue rough above ; teats ventral, 6 in number. 

Length of body and head together, 13 inches 6 lines ; 
head, 2 inches 2 lines ; ears, 6 lines ; tail, 6 inches 6 lines. 

According to Desmarest, it is found in Poland, especially 
in Yolhinia. Pallas says that it is peculiar in Eussia to 
the region between the Don and Dniester. Pare in the 
Crimea. Has occurred in the Bukovina. 

Mustela vulgaris. 

Mustela vulgaris , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 275. 

Mustela Gale , Pallas, Zoog. Boss. As. 

The Weasel. 

Description. — Teeth : grinders 4 above, 5 below on each 
side. Upper part of the head, neck, and body, shoulders, 
exterior, and front of the fore -legs, and the whole of the 
hind-legs reddish brown, tinged with yellowish ; the under 
parts of entire body white ; a brown spot' below each 
corner of the mouth. In northern countries, the whole 
animal becomes pure white in winter. 

Length of head and body, 8 inches 3 lines ; head, 1 inch 
9 lines ; tail, 2 inches 4 lines ; ears, 4 lines. The female 
is about one inch shorter than the male. 

Inhabits all the northern parts of Europe ; is common in 
England, France, and all over Eussia and Siberia. The 
Prince of Musignano includes it among the quadrupeds of 
Italy. 


56 


CARNIVORA. 


Mustela boccamela. 

Mustela boccamela, Buon. Icon. Faun. Ital. vol. i. (figured) ; Bech- 
stein, Naturg. Deutschl. p. 819. 

Mustela Altaica, Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Description. — Body above, legs, and feet fine chestnut ; 
all the under parts white, with a slight sprinkling of reddish 
on the throat and breast ; head chestnut-brown above, with 
metallic reflexions ; whiskers long, whitish yellow ; fore- 
feet white beneath, dappled with chestnut ; tail furnished 
with stiff, long hairs, of the colour of the back ; head de- 
pressed, wide ; snout somewhat sharp, but the nose itself 
dilated ; eyes large, oval ; ears wide, rounded, open, folded 
on the outer margin ; the lower jaw has one false molar, 
on each side, less than in M. vulgaris, which species, as 
well as M. Erminea, it much resembles. 

Length of head and body, 8 inches 5 lines ; head, 1 inch 
11 lines ; ears, 7 lines ; tail, to the end of the hair, 3 inches 
11 lines. 

Feeds on mice, birds, and other small animals, and is 
extremely fond of honey, in search of which it enters bee- 
hives in gardens. Is easily tamed. 

This animal, in Europe at least, is peculiar to the Island 
of Sardinia, as stated by Prince Buonaparte. Pallas is in- 
clined to think that his Mustela Altaica, found in the 
Altai Mountains, is identical with it ; this, however, being 
far from probable, requires proof. 

Mustela Erminea. 

Mustela Erminea , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 277 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Mustela Ermineum, Pallas, Zoo g. Ross. As. 

The Stoat, or Ermine. 

Description. — Teeth as in the Weasel, larger than that 
species, to which it is closely allied. Upper part of the 


MUSTELA LUTREOLA. 


57 


head, neck, and back, and most of the tail, reddish brown ; 
under parts white, tinged with yellow; tail ending in a 
tuft of black hairs. In winter it becomes white, except 
the end of the tail, which continues black. 

Length of the head and body, 10 inches ; head, 2 inches ; 
ears, 6 lines ; tail, 5 inches. 

It is common in the British Islands, where it rarely be- 
comes white in winter, except in the alpine parts of Scot- 
land. Occurs in Trance, chiefly in the north, and is said 
to be rare in the south of that country. Is very common 
in Russia and Siberia, in Norway and Lapland, and may be 
said to inhabit the whole of Northern and temperate Europe, 
including the North of Italy. 

Mustela lutreola. 

Mustela lutreola , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 278. 

Viverra lutreola , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Description. — Teeth as in the Weasel ; toes of fore-feet 
united for half their length by a hairy membrane. Fur 
blackish brown, lighter roimd the ears ; upper lip and lower 
jaw white ; wool beneath the hair light brown ; long hairs 
black. 

Length from end of nose to root of tail, 11 inches 8 lines ; 
tail, 5 inches 4 lines. 

Lives on fish, frogs, cray-fish, &c. ; frequents rivers and 
brooks. 

It is found all through the North and East of Europe, 
from the Icy Sea to the Black Sea ; is common in Finland, 
and is not rare in Russia, from St. Petersburg to the river 
Kama. 


58 


CARNIVORA. 


Mustela Foina. 

Mustela Foina, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 281 ; Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 
Maries Foina, Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Common Martin. 

Description. — Teeth : grinders 5 above, 6 below on each 
side ; tongue smooth ; hair of two sorts, the shorter portion 
very fine and soft, pale ash- colour, the longer somewhat 
rigid, ashy at roots, dusky brown towards the ends, with a 
tinge of chestnut-red ; legs and tail dusky ; under parts 
somewhat paler than the upper ; neck beneath, and fore 
part of breast, white. 

Length of head and body, 18 inches ; head, 4 inches 3 
lines ; tail, 9 inches 6 lines. 

Feeds on rabbits, rats, birds, &c., and produces 3 to 7 
young at a time. 

INTot uncommon in the British Islands ; is found all over 
Western Europe ; occurs all through France, and in Italy ; 
inhabits nearly the whole of Russia, especially the temperate 
parts ; common in the Crimea and Caucasus. 

Mustela Martes. 

Mustela Martes, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 280 ; Pallas, Zoo g. Ross. As. 
Martes Abietum, Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Pine Martin. 

Description. — Teeth : grinders 5 above, 6 below on each 
side ; tongue smooth ; much resembles the M. Foina , from 
which it differs in having the throat, neck beneath, and 
fore- part of breast yellow; the head shorter; the hair 
rather darker, and the legs a little longer. Fur much more 
abundant, finer and softer, and of a much richer colour. It 
is said to produce fewer young at a time than the last 
species, and to frequent more retired places. 

Is found in Scotland, where it is rare ; in the mountains 
of the centre, south., and other parts of France, but not 


LUTRA VULGARIS. 


59 


commonly ; in Italy, in the pine forests of the Apennines, 
near Eavenna, about Ostia, at Castel Fusano, as well as 
in other parts of that peninsula. It is not uncommon in 
the forests of the temperate parts of Eussia, the Crimea, 
and Caucasus. Desmarest says that it exists over all the 
North of Europe. 


Genus LUTEA. 

Teeth. — Incisors, ; canines, yEy ; molars, or 

. Body long ; feet short ; toes five, webbed ; head de- 
pressed ; ears very short ; tongue shghtly rough ; tail flat- 
tened. Habits aquatic. 

Lutra vulgaris. 

Lutra vulgaris , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 289 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Viverra Lutra , Pallas, Zoog. Eoss. As. 

Common Otter. 

Description. — Head broad and flattened; muzzle blunt; 
upper lip very thick and muscular, projecting over the 
lower ; whiskers strong ; eyes small ; ears rounded, almost 
hid in the fur. Hair of body of two kinds, the shorter 
greyish white, the longer the same colour at the roots, deep 
brown at the ends, which last is the general Colour of the 
body ; sides of the head, throat, neck beneath, and breast 
ashy; feet reddish brown; tail dusky brown. 

Length of head and body, 2 feet 3 inches ; head, 5 inches ; 
tail, 16| inches. 

Feeds on fish. Lives on the banks of rivers and lakes. 
Swims very actively. Breeds in March, producing four or 
five at a birth. 

Common in the British Islands, and all over Europe and 
Siberia. 


60 


CARNIVORA. 


Genus CANIS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, ^ ; canines, y^y ; molars, ; the 
two last in each jaw tubercular. Tongue smooth ; claws not 
retractile, five on the fore-feet, four on the hinder feet. 
Subgenus 1. Canis. — Eyes with circular pupils. 

Subgenus 2. Vulpes. — Eyes with linear pupils; tail 
bushy. 

Subgenus 1. Cants. 

Canis Lupus. 

Cams Lupus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 293 ; Pallas, Schreber. 

The Wolf. 

Description. — The tail straight ; eyes oblique. Fur over 
the body tawny or yellowish grey, with a black streak on 
the fore-legs in adults ; hair white at root, then ringed 
with black, fulvous, white, and pointed with black ; ears 
erect ; muzzle black ; chin and upper lip white. 

Length of head and body, 3 feet 9 inches; head, 10 
inches 6 lines ; ears, 4 inches 9 lines ; tail, 1 foot 5 inches ; 
27 to 29 inches high at the shoulder. 

Extinct in the British Islands, the last killed there being 
in Scotland in 1680, in Ireland in 1710. The female goes 
sixty-three days with young, and produces from five to 
nine at a birth. The Wolf varies both in size and shade of 
colour in the different countries of Europe ; those of Russia 
and Scandinavia are said to be the largest ; those of France 
browner and smaller than in Germany. 

Found all over the Continent of Europe in extensive 
forests. Very numerous in many parts of France. 

Canis Lycaon. 

Canis Lycaon, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 294. 

The Black Wolf. 

Description. — In form resembles the common Wolf, except 


CANIS AUREUS. 


61 


that the eyes are smaller and farther apart, and the ears 
longer. It is black all over ; in size intermediate between 
the Wolf and Fox. 

Desmarest says that “it inhabits the cold and moun- 
tainous countries of Europe.” Pallas, ‘Zoog. Ross. As.,’ 
mentions a black variety of Wolf as very rare in Russia, 
but more common in parts of Silesia. In the ‘ Naturalist’s 
Library,’ vol. iv., the Canis Lycaon is said to be “ the 
Wolf of Spain and of Southern Europe.” Is found about 
Friuli and Cattaro. 

In some of the mountains of Spain a very large powerful 
brown variety of C. Lycaon occurs. In France it inhabits 
the Yosges, Alps, Cevennes and Pyrenees, and has been 
taken in the Departments of the Somme and Maine -et- Loire. 

Canis aureus. 

Canis aureus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 300. 

Sacalius aureus , Ham. Smith, Nat. Lib. vol. iv. 

The Jackal. 

Description. — Nose broad and dog-like ; head covered with 
rufous and ashy-grey hairs tipped with black ; ears rufous 
outside, white within ; neck and back yellowish grey, with 
some shades of dusky ; shoulders and thighs rufous red ; 
under parts and limbs pale reddish yellow; inner toe of 
fore -legs high on the joint ; tail straight, longer and more 
brushy than in the Wolf, its hairs 4 inches long, yellowish 
beneath, greyish above, and all tipped with black, which 
causes the ends to appear of that colour ; tongue bordered 
with a row of warts ; the four central incisors truncated. 

Total length of body, 2 feet 1 inch ; head, 6 inches ; ears, 
2 inches 9 lines ; tail, 7 inches. 

Associates in large companies. Burrows. Feeds on pu- 
trid flesh. 

Is found in Europe, in the most southern parts of Russia, 


62 


CARNIVORA. 


in parts of Turkey in Europe, such as the Pindus Moun- 
tains, in the Morea, and extends to the islands of Gnipona 
and Corzoca in the Adriatic. Yery common in Asia Minor, 
up to Scutari and Smyrna, and in the north of Persia. 


Subgenus 2. Vulpes. 

Canis Corsac. 

Canis Corsac, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 301 ; Pallas, Zoog. Boss. As. 

The Corsac Fox. 

Description. — Tail very long, reaching 3 inches beyond the 
feet ; that and the upper parts of the body of a uniform 
reddish grey ; limbs entirely reddish ; end of the tail black ; 
a small black spot 3 inches from the root of the tail above ; 
all the under parts of the body yellowish white. Its size 
is not greater than that of the Polecat. 

Length of body, 1 foot 8 inches ; head, 5 inches 2 lines ; 
ears, 2 inches 2 lines ; tail, 10 inches ; height at shoulder, 
1 foot.— F. M. 

Goes in large troops ; burrows in the ground ; feeds on 
birds and eggs, hiding what it does not eat ; emits a 
fetid odour. The fur on the body becomes lighter in 
winter. 

The Corsac is found, according to Pallas, not further west 
than the Volga, its head-quarters being the great deserts 
of Tartary. 

Canis Vulpes. 

Cams Vulpes, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 304. 

Vulpes vulgaris, Bell, Brit. Quad. 

The Fox. 

Description. — Muzzle sharp ; head rather large ; ears erect 
and pointed ; eyes oblique ; tail very thick and bushy. Fur 


CANIS VULPES. 


63 


thick and long ; body above reddish brown ; lips, lower 
jaw, fore part of the neck, abdomen, and inside of the 
thighs white ; back of the ears blackish brown ; a streak 
of the same colour from the corner of each eye to the nose ; 
tip of tail white. Varies sometimes in size and colour. 

Length of head and body, 2 feet 3 inches ; head, 6 inches ; 
ears, 4 inches ; tail, 1 foot 4 inches. 

Feeds on poultry, rabbits, and burrows in the ground. 
Brings forth three to six young at a birth. 

Common all over the British Islands, and throughout 
Northern, Western, and Central Europe. The Prince of 
Musignano implies that this species of Fox is not known 
to him in Italy further south than Piedmont and Lombardy. 
Foxes, probably of more than one species, says Cook, are 
in great numbers all over Spain. 

The var. A. Canis alopex of Schreber and Desmarest, 
Z. c., le Renard Charbonnier, has the fur thicker, and of a 
brighter red, than C. Vulpes ; the feet darker, and the tail 
black at the tip. Is found with the Common Fox, but 
seems to prefer mountain districts. This is the most 
common race of Bavaria and Switzerland. 

Var. B . — Canis crucigera, le Renard croise d’Europe, of 
Desmarest, Crossed Fox of Lloyd’s ‘ Scandinavian Adven- 
tures,’ has the fur darker than in the Common Fox, with a 
black or very dark line along the back, across the shoulders, 
and down the fore-legs. Is often met with in Sweden, 
where it is distinguished from the Common Fox by its 
larger size, greater breadth of skull, larger eyes, thicker 
legs, and more bushy tail. 

Var. C. ? — The Black Fox. It would seem from Lloyd’s 
account, Z. c., to be entirely black, and to be not uncommon 
in Scandinavia. Thought by Nilsson to be an accidental 
variety only of the C. Vulpes . 


64 


CARNIVORA. 


Canis melanogaster. 

Cards melanogaster , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) ; Ham. Smith, Nat. 

Lib. vol. v. 

The Black-bellied Fox. 

Description. — Differs from Canis Vulpes in having the 
throat, breast, belly, and inside of the thighs black, with 
a hoary appearance on the surface, arising from the cir- 
cumstance of the tips of many of the hairs on those parts 
being white ; the under part of the tail, which is very bushy 
and reaches to the ground, has a black streak throughout 
its entire length, and in mature individuals is white at the 
extreme tip, grisly at base, with ten or eleven blackish 
rings. All the parts of the body described as black become 
white in summer, a darkish shade, however, remaining on 
the breast; the fur on the head becomes much darker. 
The head is larger in proportion, equaling about one-third 
of the length of the body, that of the C. Vulpes being only 
equal to one-fourth ; the paws of the fore-feet smaller in 
proportion to those of the hind-feet than in that species, 
and the whole animal rather inferior to it in size. 

In its habits it resembles the Common Fox. 

Frequents the whole of Continental Italy (excepting 
Piedmont and Lombardy), Sicily, and Sardinia, in which last 
island it is smaller. Yery common about Home, where it is 
the only species. 

Canis Lagopus. 

Canis Lagopus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 305 ; Pallas, Zoo g. Ross. As. 

The Arctic Fox. Blue Fox. 

Description. — Fur very long, thick and soft, ashy grey or 
uniform light brown in summer, white in winter. Head 
short; muzzle prolonged; ears velvety; paws covered with 
long hair ; tail long and very bushy. Fur on the body about 
2 inches in length. Young animal sometimes of a very dark 


VIVERRA GENETTA. 


65 


grey, sometimes yellowish white, or with a brown line along 
the back and over the shoulders. The fur is valuable. 

Feeds on rats, hares, birds, &c. Burrows very deeply 
in the ground. Swims well. 

Length about 2 feet; stands about 1 foot to top of 
shoulder. 

Inhabits the shores of the Icy Sea, Iceland, and Spitz- 
bergen. It abounds in the more Alpine regions of Norway 
and Sweden, and is sometimes met with in the very south 
of the latter country. Is found in the North of Bussia. 

Genus VIVERRA. CIVET. 

Teeth. — Incisors, ; canines, ij — * ; molars, ; two 
tubercular grinders in the upper jaw, and one very large 
in the lower. Tongue rough ; claws five, semi-retractile ; 
nose dilated at its end ; head long ; body prolonged, low on 
the legs, provided with a pouch under the tail more or less 
deep, and in some species containing an odorous substance. 

Subgenus Genetta (Cuvier). Pouch rudimentary, being 
merely a hollow. 

Viverra Genetta. 

Viverra Genetta , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 314. 

La Genette de France, Buffon. 

Description. — Legs short ; the large glands under the tail 
secreting musky matter ; ears elliptic, with a small lobe on 
the outer side, as in dogs and cats. Fur grey, marked 
with small black spots, some round, others long ; tail with 
ten or eleven rings of a brown or black colour ; round the 
muzzle and behind the nostrils black ; end of the upper 
lip white ; a white spot below the eye ; inside of the ears 
whitish. Young animals have a violet tint on the body. 


66 


CARNIVORA. 


Length from tip of nose to root of tail, 1 foot 5 inches ; 
head, 3 inches. 

Frequents the neighbourhood of streams, ascends trees, 
feeds on rats, mice, &c. ; is easily tamed. 

Inhabits many parts of France, Poitou, the Department 
du Gard, and other districts of that country, as well as 
Spain and Barbary. 


Genus FELIS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, ; canines, ; molars, -|~3 or 

In the upper jaw the molars consist of two false 
molars of a conical form ; one large tooth called the car- 
nassial, and one small tubercular tooth, with its greatest 
length across the jaw. In some species this last is wanting. 
In the lower jaw are two compressed molars and a carnas- 
sial with two points ; no tubercular tooth. The canine teeth 
are very large. The tongue is covered with horny parts, 
directed backwards ; the claws are retractile. 

Felis Manul. 

Felis Manul , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. vol. i. p. 20 ; Keyserling u. 

Blasius, Wirbelth. Europ. p. 61 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun, 
vol. ii. p. 509 ; Desm. Mamm. Sp. 357. 

Description. — The tail is more than half as long as the 
body, cylindrical, hairy, with nine rings more or less di- 
stinctly marked, those nearest to the root tawny, those 
near the tip, and the tip itself, black. The general colour 
of the fur on the upper parts of the body pale, tawny, yel- 
lowish, with scattered dusky hairs, having black tips ; the 
top of the head and between the eyes thickly speckled 
with numerous black spots ; on each cheek are two parallel 
oblique black streaks ; whiskers in four rows, white, ex- 
cept two large black ones ; under parts of the body lighter 


FELIS CATUS. 


67 


in colour than the upper ; throat white, turning to ashy on 
the breast ; a few black streaks on the hind legs near the 
feet ; ears short, wide, rounded, without tufts, almost de- 
stitute of hairs on the inside ; two maxillary teeth on each 
side of the upper jaw, the posterior being the largest ; 
three in the lower jaw. 

Length of head and body, 1 foot 7 inches 3 lines ; tail, 
without the hair, 9 inches. 

“ Is nearly allied to the F. Catus, which it closely re- 
sembles in its habits, but differs from it in colour, size, 
the length of the tail, and in the number of its molar 
teeth.’ , 

Lives in caves and rocky holes (Pallas). 

Inhabits the southern slopes of the Ural Mountains, 
and is common also through Central Asia. 


N.B. — Pallas does not give the number of molars, but 
probably means to say that the F. Manul has only three 
upper molars, the F. Catus having four. 

Felis Catus. 

Felis Catus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 366 ; Pallas, Bell, Brit. Quad. 

The Wild Cat. 

Description. — Hair long and bushy, grey or brownish grey 
above, more or less tinged with yellow, beneath paler ; a 
black line down the middle of the back, with transverse 
parallel bars of the same colour over the flanks, thighs, 
and shoulders ; several narrow parallel black lines on top 
of the head between the ears ; lips black ; feet yellowish, 
the soles black ; tail ringed with black ; the tip black ; of 
equal thickness throughout its whole length, and, as it 
were, truncated at the end. 

In the male, the length of head and body is 27 inches 


68 


CARNIVORA. 


9 lines ; tail, 13 inches 6 lines. In the female, the head 
and body are 21 inches 3 lines ; tail, 12 inches 4 lines. 

It preys on birds, rabbits, &c. 

In the British Islands, is confined to the wilder parts of 
Scotland, and, possibly, of Ireland ; the last habitat, how- 
ever, is very doubtful. It is found in all the great forests 
of Europe, hut nowhere in numbers, according to Desma- 
rest. Pallas says that it is not met with in Russia Proper, 
though common in the Caucasus. Crespon gives it as not 
uncommon in the Department du Gard ; and it inhabits the 
forests of Prance generally. 

LYNXES. 

Felis cervaria. 

Felis cervaria , Temm. Monog. vol. i. p. 106 ; De Selys, Index des 
Mamm. d’Europe. 

Description. — Tail shorter than the head ; smaller at the 
tip than at the base ; black for a large portion of its length 
towards the top ; whiskers on the lips pure white ; ear- 
tufts very short, or wanting. Pur very long and tufted, 
particularly on the legs and soles of the feet, very fine and 
silky, covered, in the young, with brown and black spots, 
in the adult with large and smaller spots of true black; 
hairs on the back about 2 inches long, clear grey at base, 
bright reddish in the middle, and silver-grey at the points ; 
hail’s which form the spots reddish at base, the rest of 
their length black ; whiskers of the cheeks dull white, 
with a tuft of black hairs in the middle; a black semi- 
circular stripe runs from the posterior angle of the eye to 
the cheek, a black circle round the eye, and a black spot 
on the lachrymal region ; the spots on the sides closer to 
each other than those on the back, those on the outside of 
the legs still closer and round ; no spots on the inner sur- 


EELIS BOREALIS. 


69 


face of the legs nor on the tibiae ; a few transverse bars on 
the base of the tail. Fur on the front of the neck, chest, 
and belly very long and white ; on the outside of the ear 
a black angular stripe, from the extremity of which rises a 
very slender ear- tuft. 

In the young, when about half-grown, the fur is a dirty 
yellowish white, with spots longer than wide, of rather 
darker yellow, more or less distinctly marked, and sur- 
rounded with reddish brown ; on the outside of the legs are 
brown round spots ; during the transition from the young 
to the adult state, the brownish-black spots are more nu- 
merous, often indistinctly marked, and more or less running 
into each other ; the transverse lines of the tail are brown. 

In an adult, the length of head and body is from 2 feet 
9 inches to 3 feet ; tail, from 7 to 9 inches ; height at the 
shoulder, 2 feet 6 or 7 inches ; from the eye to the nose a 
little more than 2 inches. In the young, the total length, 
including the tail, is about 2 feet 4 inches, or 2 feet 6 
inches. — F. M. 

This Lynx, according to Temminck, is probably a native 
of the North of Kussia in Europe, but the skins which are 
sold at Moscow come from Siberia. 

Felis borealis. 

Felis borealis , Temm. Monog. vol. ii. p. 109 ; De Selys, Index des 
Mamm. 

Description. — Of smaller size than the last species ; tail 
shorter than the head, blunt, and, as it were, truncated at 
the end ; only the tip black ; bristles of the lips composed 
of black hairs, and of hairs black below and white above ; 
ear-tufts long ; very long whiskers on the cheeks ; muzzle 
blunt. Fur close, not as long as in F. cervaria , and 
coarser ; legs and soles of the feet extremely hairy ; fur 
without distinct spots ; the hairs on the back nearly 1| inch 


70 


CARNIVORA. 


in length, dark brown for three-fonrths of their length, 
ringed with brown and grey at their points ; hairs on the 
sides grey at their roots, reddish brown at their centres, 
and whitish at their points ; this arrangement produces a 
grey tinge over the body, varied with brown on the back, 
and with reddish white on the belly ; neither the old nor 
young animals have any distinct spots ; a black line more 
or less interrupted, formed by the meeting of the points of 
the hair, runs along the spine ; the tail, which is reddish 
white, has a waved appearance, but is without spots or 
bars; the ears are edged with black, and surmounted by 
tufts about 1-| inch long ; a large black spot on the 
whiskers; chest, belly, and legs inside, dull white; the 
waved markings on the fur vary in different individuals, 
being a mixture of tawny and ash, or brown and dull 
white. 

Length of head and body from 2 feet 2 inches to 2 feet 
9 inches ; tail, 5 inches ; from eye to point of nose, 1-| 
inch. — F. M. 

Inhabits the Polar regions of Europe and Asia ; is pretty 
common in Sweden and Norway, whence a number of their 
skins are exported. Lloyd, in his 4 Scandinavian Ad- 
ventures,’ says that the “ Northern Lynx” is the only 
species in those countries ; they are generally found in 
pairs, and commit great ravages on the flocks ; they chiefly 
frequent mountains and wooded districts. 

Felis Lynx. 

Felis Lynx , Temm. Monog. vol. i. p. 110; De Selys, Index des 
Mamm. 

The Lynx. 

Description. — Body stout, placed high on the legs, which 
are very robust ; head thick, round ; ears pointed, ear- 
tufts long ; tail as long as the head, quite black for nearly 


FELIS LYNX. 


71 


half its length towards the tip ; four or five waved bars on 
the cheeks ; bristles of the lips white, springing from four 
or five black streaks ; without small anterior molars or 
false molars. Fur in summer short, rather longer in 
winter, equally thick all over the body ; the soles of the 
feet naked ; the toes furnished with short fur ; the coat 
in general deep reddish brown, marked with small spots 
of red-brown, which are oblong on the sides, and round on 
the legs ; all the lower parts of the body and the inside of 
the legs white, with small indistinct blackish spots ; the 
ear-tufts and outside of the ears, except an angular space 
of an ashy colour, black ; a whitish circle round the eyes, 
above them, running to the forehead on each side, a lon- 
gitudinal white spot ; no black line on the spine ; the hairs 
of the fur are brown at base, with their points bright red- 
brown in summer, changing to whitish in winter. 

In the young the fur is longer and less sleek, the coat 
duller, and the bristles of the lips generally half black and 
half white. 

The skins of this species, which are exported from Russia, 
are of finer quality than those of the eastern parts of Europe. 

In the full-grown animal the length of the head and body 
is 2 feet 7 or 8 inches ; tail, 7| inches ; height at shoulder, 
1 foot 4-f inches ; from the eye to the tip of the nose, 1 inch 
9 lines. — E. M. Occasionally individuals are met with 
measuring two or three inches more than the above. 

This is the Common Lynx of Europe, over the greater 
part of which it was formerly distributed. It is still found 
in woody and mountainous districts of Germany, Russia, 
Poland and Hungary. Is scarce in Switzerland (Tschudi). 
Occurs in Naples and other parts of Italy, and is probably 
the Lynx of the North and Central mountain ranges of 
Spain (Cook). In France it is now very seldom met with ; 
chiefly in the Alps and Pyrenees. 


72 


CARNIVORA. 


Felis pardina. 

Felis pardina, Temm. Monog. yoI. i. p. 186 ; De Selys, Index des 
Mamm. 

Description. — Tail short, but longer in proportion to the 
size of the animal than in the F. Lynx', ear- tufts very 
distinct ; cheeks furnished with large whiskers ; the coat 
and the whole of the tail covered with black spots. The 
fur is short, the woolly and silky hair being of the same 
length. All the upper parts of the body, the outer surface 
of the legs, and the base of the tail bright glossy red- 
brown, nearly the colour of the Caracal. The spots on the 
body jet black, rather longer on the back than on the sides 
and legs ; on the base of the tail they are small and round ; 
the nape of the neck is streaked with narrow lines of black, 
which also spread over the tawny fur of the face ; the upper 
portions of the whiskers are a mixture of tawny and black, 
the lower portions pure white ; the lips, front of the neck, 
the middle of the belly, and inner surface of the legs pure 
white. 

In large well-grown individuals the length of the head 
and body is 2 feet 1^ inch ; tail, 5 inches 3 lines ; from the 
eye to the end of the nose, 1 inch 9 lines. — F. M. 

This species is readily distinguished from its congeners 
by its smaller size, long whiskers, the regularly black- 
spotted fur, pervaded by a reddish tinge, and by the black 
specks of the tail, which is without bars, and has not the 
black tip of the other species. 

It inhabits some of the warmest regions of Europe. Is 
found in Portugal in the mountains, and has been killed a 
few leagues from Lisbon. Temminck believes it to exist in 
Sardinia and Sicily, as well as in Turkey, and in a great 
part of the Levant. It is given by Cook in his ‘ Sketches 
of Spain’ as the Lynx of the Sierra Morena, in the south of 


PHOCA YITULINA. 


73 


that country, with the remark that, in the specimens taken 
there, “ the tail is very short,’’ and that its chief food is 
rabbits and partridges. 

Division III. AMPHIBIOUS CARNIVORA. 

Genus PHOCA. SEAL. 

Teeth. — Incisors, or canines, ; molars, 

with more than one root, a large point on the middle, 
with a smaller one in front, and two smaller ones behind ; 
external ears either wanting or inconspicuous ; feet formed 
for swimming, the hinder feet flattened and directed back- 
wards ; the toes enclosed within the skin. 

Phoca vitulina. 

Phoca canina, Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Phoca vitulina , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 375; Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Calocepkalus vitulinus , F. Cuvier. 

The Common Seal. 

Description. — Incisors 6 above, 4 below. The grinding 
teeth are placed obliquely, so that the hinder inner margin 
of one is in contact with the front outer margin of the next 
behind it. The body is elongated, diminishing from the 
chest to the tail ; neck very short ; head round ; upper lip 
furnished with strong undulated whiskers; outer ears marked 
only by a small tubercle ; eyes nearer to the ears than to 
the end of the nose ; the claws of the hind-feet are longer 
than those of the fore-feet, the first claw of the fore-foot is 
the longest. Hair stiff and shining, concealing a short, 
soft, woolly fur. General colour yellowish grey, with spots 
of brown and blackish ; belly pale. Produces one or two 
young at a birth. 

Length of head and body from 3 to 5 feet ; head about 
8 inches. 

E 


74 


CARNIVORA. 


Inhabits the coasts of the British Islands, Norway, Swe- 
den, Russia (both on the north coast and Black Sea), the 
Mediterranean occasionally, Holland, and France. Taken 
in great numbers in Greenland. 

A variety is found in the Caspian Sea, which is described 
by Pallas as showing the yellowish tinge in a greater degree, 
and the coat less spotted than in the ordinary breed. He 
relates that at one period 20,000 (!) of these animals were 
taken there annually, and that they were still very nu- 
merous. 

The Common Seal inhabits the salt Lake or Sea of Aral, 
and the freshwater Lake of Baikal in Siberia. It is most 
likely that a closer investigation will show that several 
species have been erroneously united under the same deno- 
mination. 

The Common Seal of the French coasts is said to differ 
either as a variety or species from that of Britain and the 
North of Europe. 


Phoca Greenlandica. 

Phoca Greenlandica, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 376; Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Phoca dorsata , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Phoca Oceanica , Lepeciiin. 

Harp Seal, Bell, l. c. 

Description. — Incisors 6 above, 4 below. The grinding 
teeth are arranged, not as in the last species, but in a 
straight series, with a small interval between them. The 
colour of the fur varies much with sex and age. In the 
first year it is nearly white, in the second year grey, then 
grey with darker spots, in which state the female appears 
to remain ; in the fifth year the male has acquired its per- 
fect clothing, which is greyish white, with a brown crescent- 
shaped mark across the back, the points of which are back- 
ward, and directed towards each other ; the second claw 


PHOCA ANNELLATA. 


75 


of the fore-foot is the longest ; the muzzle is very promi- 
nent ; the head depressed ; whiskers grey, slightly com- 
pressed and undulated. 

Length of head and body, 6 feet ; circumference, 4 feet ; 
length of cranium, 8 inches 3 lines. 

This Seal has been taken at least two or three times in 
England and Scotland. It is found in the White Sea, and 
on the coasts of Lapland and Spitzbergen, but chiefly in 
Greenland, where it appears in great herds. Its oil is held 
in high esteem. 

Phoca annellata. 

Phoca annellata , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. i. 

Phoca foetida, Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. 

Calocephalus discolor , E. Cuvier. 

Calocephalus foetidus, Gray, Catalogue of Brit.Mus., Kinged Seal do. 1. c. 
Marbled Seal of Hamilton, Nat. Lib. vol. vi. (figured). 

Description. — This Seal has been decided by Baron Cuvier 
and Professor Nilsson to be a distinct species from P. vitu- 
lina, with which it was originally identified. The upper 
part of the body is wholly blackish brown, marked with 
tortuous and irregular lines of whitish grey, which form 
detached marbled spots ; the under part is paler, and its 
greyish lines broader and yellower. In some individuals 
the whitish grey of the abdomen reaches up on the sides; 
in others, the markings on the back have a resemblance to 
the eye. The grinding teeth are three-pointed, and are 
arranged in the direction of the jaw, not obliquely as in 
P. vitulina. 

Inhabits the coasts of the Baltic and Arctic Seas, and Ice- 
land, and is supposed to have been in one instance captured 
on the French shore. 


76 


CARNIVORA. 


Phoca Mspida. 

Phoca fcetida, Desm. Ma-mm. Sp. 377. 

Phoca Mspida, Schinz, Europ. Faun. ; Hamilton, Nat. Lib. vol. vi. 
Calocephalus hispidus, F. Cuvier ; Gray, Cat. Brit. Mus. 

Description. — Incisors 6 above, 4 below. The head is 
short and round, the muzzle extending to about one-third 
of the whole head ; whiskers white, with a few black hairs, 
sharp, compressed, and a good deal curved at their extre- 
mities ; eyes small, pupil white, and the iris brown ; the 
body is almost elliptical and slender ; the back somewhat 
gibbous ; belly flat, especially near the fore-paws. The hair 
is thick-set, somewhat erect, rather long, soft, and fine, with 
curly wool at its root ; the colour on the back is brownish, 
intermixed with white spots, and on the abdomen white, 
with a few brownish spots. The young are almost without 
spots, with the back somewhat livid, and the belly white. 
The old males have a very strong and disgusting smell. 
The hairs of the coat, when dry, have a tendency to curve 
backwards. 

Its length seldom exceeds 4-|- feet, more commonly 4 feet, 
with a perpendicular height of 10 inches. 

It inhabits the North Sea, and more doubtfully the Baltic. 
In Greenland many thousands are taken annually for their 
oil and skins, which are exported to Europe. 

Phoca barbata. 

Phoca barbata, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 378 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. ; Sciiinz, 
Europ. Faun. ; Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. 
Calocephalus barbatus , F. Cuvier. 

The Great Seal, Bell, l. c. ; Pennant. 

Description. — Incisors 6 above, 4 below (Desmarest). The 
teeth are nearly similar to those of P. vitulina, but are not 
placed obliquely. The middle claw of the fore-foot is the 
longest, and the outer ones the smallest and shortest, an 


PHOCA LEPORINA. 


77 


arrangement peculiar to this species ; the cranium is very 
broad at the back part, the forehead remarkably arched ; 
muzzle broad ; lips loose and full ; whiskers with numerous 
bristles, strong hut flexible, horny, slightly compressed, 
smooth and transparent ; opening of the ears large ; eyes 
large, the pupil round, the iris brown ; body elongate, 
robust ; back rounded. The colour, when young, is smoke- 
grey above, lighter beneath, darkening as the animal grows 
older, until at last it is wholly black. 

The general length is about 10 feet, but some have been 
observed measuring 15 feet. It is the largest of European 
Seals. 

Inhabits the Earn Islands off the north-east coast of 
England, and has been taken on the Scotch coasts, and in 
the Orkneys ; on the west coast of Norway, and in Iceland ; 
but is uncommon in all those localities. Is also found in 
Greenland. 

Phoca Leporina. 

Phoca Leporina, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 374 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun. ; Ha- 
milton, Nat. Lib. vol. vi. 

Phoca albigena, Pallas, Zoog. Eoss. As. 

Description.— Incisors 4 in each jaw (Desmarest). The 
head is elongated ; the upper lip swollen and thick, like that 
of a calf ; the whiskers strong and thick, covering the whole 
front of the lip ; eyes blue, pupils black ; the fore-paws are 
short and feeble, ending abruptly; the membrane of the hind- 
feet is not curved, hut straight. The colour is a uniform 
dull white, with a tinge of yellow : it is never spotted ; the 
hair erect, interwoven and soft, like those of a Hare, espe- 
cially when the Seal is young ; the skin is very thick. 

Length, 6-±- feet. The dental formulary marks it as be- 
longing to this genus. The above description is from the 
‘ Naturalists’ Library,’ quoted from Lepechin. Desmarest, 


78 


CARNIVORA. 


in his ‘ Mammalogie,’ gives the number of incisor teeth as 
four in each jaw. 

The young of this species are said by Pallas to be as 
white as snow, and to shine like silver. 

It frequents the White Sea, ascending the rivers with 
the tide, and is very plentiful ; also Lapland, Spitzbergen, 
and the Northern Ocean to Behring’s Straits. 

N.B. — By Keyserling and Blasius, and by Gray in his 
‘ British Museum Catalogue,’ this Seal is made identical 
with Phoca barbata. 


Phoca Monachus. 

Phoca Monachus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 372 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun. 
Pelagius Monachus , F. Cuvier ; Keys u. Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. 
Phoca Monacha , Pallas, Zoog. Boss. As. 

Description. — Four incisors in each jaw, the outer ones 
the largest ; molars thick and conical, with only minute 
points before and behind ; the first claw of the fore-foot 
the largest ; upper lip thick ; bristles of the whiskers long 
and even ; pupils of the eyes triangular ; orifice of the 
ears very small, with no external appendage ; body smooth, 
rounded. Hair rather short, very dense, and lying close to 
the body. When wet, the colour of the back, head, tail, 
and upper part of the paws is black ; the belly, chest, under 
parts of the neck, tail and claws, muzzle, sides of the head, 
and over the eyes, greyish yellow ; when dry, the blacker 
parts become lighter, and the lighter parts more yellow ; 
above each eye are two bristly hairs ; nails of the hind-feet 
only rudimentary ; tail about 3 inches long, incapable of 
motion ; is very intelligent, and easily tamed. 

Length of head and body, 10 or 12 feet. 

The most common species of the Mediterranean, but does 
not appear to be anywhere numerous ; is occasionally taken 
on the south coast of France and Piedmont ; on the coasts 


PHOCA CRISTATA. 


79 


of Greece, Dalmatia, and various parts of Italy, Corsica, 
the Balearic Islands, Spain, and Barbary. Is also found in 
the Black Sea. 

Phoca cristata. 

Phoca cristata, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 371 ; Gervais, Zool. et Paleont. 

Franc, with figure, pi. 42. 

Cystophora cristata, Gray, Cat. Brit. Mus. 

Stemmatopus cristatus , F. Cuvier ; Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. 
Hooded, or Crested Seal. 

Description. — Incisors, ; canines, | ; molars, = 30 
in all (see Gervais, l. c., and Nat. Lib. ed. 6). [Desmarest, 
however, gives 4 incisors in each jaw, making the total 
number of teeth 32.] The middle incisors are very small, 
the grinding teeth have their cutting portions marked by 
three lobes, and many small indentations ; the back and 
all the upper surface of the head, body, tail, and feet bluish 
grey when dry, slate-brown when wet, contrasting con- 
spicuously with the yellowish white of the parts beneath. 
In the adult male the anterior part of the head is covered 
by a tuberculous body, like an inflated bladder, which is 
wanting in the females and young. The general colour 
becomes darker with age, in old individuals the upper 
parts being almost black, with grey spots ; the males have, 
in addition to the true nostrils, two spurious tubercular 
ones, single or double, according to their age; the first 
claw of the fore-foot is the longest. 

Length of full-grown animals, 10 to 12 feet. 

Inhabits the North Atlantic; has been taken once, in 
1843, on the Isle d’Oleron, west coast of France ; is very 
abundant in Greenland, whence large quantities of the 
skins are imported to Europe ; one was taken in the Orwell, 
at Ipswich, in 1847. 


80 


CARNIVORA. 


Phoca gryphus. 

Phoca gryphus, Schinz, Earop. Faun. vol. i. 

Halichcerus griseus, Nilsson, Skand. Faun. 

Halichcerus gryphus . Bell, Brit. Quad. ; Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. 

Europ. 

Description. — Incisors, ; grinders, ; those in the 
upper jaw simple, the first being very small and single- 
pointed, with the points slightly recurved ; the three fol- 
lowing of nearly the same form, but larger ; the fifth have 
a minute rudimentary tubercle at the back part ; in the 
lower jaw the first and third are similar to those in the 
upper jaw ; the second broad, with a rudimentary tubercle 
before and behind ; the fourth and fifth with the tubercles 
distinct ; in the fore-feet the first toe is the longest ; in 
the hind-feet, also, the first is the longest, then the fifth, 
the second, the fourth, and the middle one, which is the 
shortest ; the muzzle is very deep and obliquely truncated ; 
head very flat ; the face bears a larger proportion to the 
cranium than in the other species ; in the adult the hair is 
much recurved, and the animal, when dry, with the head 
turned towards the spectator, appears of a uniform silvery 
grey, whilst viewed in an opposite direction it appears al- 
together sooty brown, the spots or blotches being only 
visible on a side view. Yery young animals are dull yellowish 
white, with rather long hair, which, after about a month, 
falls off, giving place to a more shining coat, blotched with 
blackish grey ; as the animal advances in age, the blotches 
become less distinct on the upper parts, while on the breast 
and lower parts they sometimes show as distinctly as in the 
Leopard. 

Length, upwards of 7 feet. 

The shape of the head and characters of the teeth differ 
so much from the other species of this genus, that Professor 


TRICHECUS ROSMARUS. 


81 


Nilsson has placed this Seal in a genus of its own, in which 
he has been followed by Bell and others. 

It inhabits the North Sea and the Baltic ; has been taken 
a few times on the coast of England ; oftener on the south 
coast of Ireland. 


Genus TRICHECUS. WALRUS. 

Two incisors in the upper jaw only while young ; no in- 
cisors in the lower jaw; canines in the upper jaw only, 
very long, and directed downwards; grinders, or 

g~g -, obtuse and simple; the head round; muzzle much 
swollen ; no external ears ; the fore- and hind-feet in their 
general form like those of the Seals. 

Trichecus Rosmarus. 

Trichecus Rosmarus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 388 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Rosmarus arcticus, Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Walrus. 

Description. — The head is comparatively of moderate size, 
very obtuse, and tumid in front ; the bristles of the whiskers 
flattened, being nearly a line in breadth at their origin ; two 
canine teeth in the upper jaw of enormous dimensions, 
directed downwards, measuring from 8 inches to 14, and 
in very old males even exceeding 2 feet ; the incisors and 
a fifth molar in each jaw are early deciduous ; no external 
ears ; the orifices placed far back on the head ; the body is 
very thick about the chest, becoming partially smaller to- 
wards the tail, as in the true Seals, but its bulk is greater 
in proportion to its length than in those animals ; neck and 
tail very short ; the skin is smooth, very thick, blackish, 
with a few short, stiffish brown hairs, principally on the 
feet ; hind-feet very broad ; total length, about 11 feet. 


82 


RODENTIA. 


The female brings forth in winter, producing only one 
young at a birth, about the size of a pig of a year old. 

The Walrus has, in two instances at least, been taken on 
the Scotch coasts. It inhabits the northern frozen seas, is 
especially numerous at Spitzbergen ; is found in Iceland 
and Greenland, generally associating in herds. 


Order RODENTIA. 

Two large incisors in each jaw, remote from the 
molars ; no canines ; toes distinct, with conical claws of 
small size. 

Division I. RODENTS PROVIDED WITH PERFECT 
CLAVICLES. 

Genus CASTOR. BEAVER. 

Teeth. — Incisors, -|- ; molars compound, with flat sum- 
mits, Toes of the hind-feet palmated ; tail oval, de- 

pressed, and covered with scales. 

Castor fiber. 

Castor fiber, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 432. 

Common Beaver. 

Description. — Head short and thick, somewhat flattened 
at the top ; muzzle blunt ; eyes small and black ; ears short, 
rounded at the ends ; neck short ; body thick, very convex 
on the back ; tail depressed, broad, oval, the surface naked 
and scaly. Eur composed of two sorts of hairs, the one 
short, thick, fine and soft, the other long, rather stiff and 
elastic ; the general colour of the animal is deep chestnut- 
brown, smooth and glossy on the upper parts, duller be- 
neath. 


ARVICOLA AMPHIBIUS. 


83 


Length of head and body, 2 feet 6 lines ; head, 5 inches ; 
tail, 1 foot ; breadth of tail, 4 inches 2 lines ; some indivi- 
duals attain the length of 3 feet. 

Lives solitary or in pairs ; burrows in the ground on the 
banks of large rivers, differing in these respects from the 
American Beaver. 

It is still found, though in greatly reduced numbers, in 
several rivers of the northern and central countries of Eu- 
rope, such as the Danube, Bhine, and Rhone, on which last 
it is recorded (by Crespon) as occurring from Pont St. 
Esprit to the sea, especially among willow plantations, on 
which it sometimes inflicts serious injury. Is rather rare 
in Russia, except on the Dwina and Petschora ; is nume- 
rous in Siberia, Tartary, and the Caucasus (Pallas). 

Genus ARVICOLA. VOLES. 

Teeth. — Incisors, ; molars, =16 ; molars deeply 

o o 

sulcated outside, pressed so closely together that the divi- 
sions between them are not easily seen. Muzzle blunt ; 
toes separate ; tail round and hairy, shorter than the body ; 
no cheek-pouches ; fore-feet with four claws, having nails, 
and the thumb consisting of either a mere tubercle or a 
very small nail ; hind-feet with five toes armed with nails, 
the thumb very small ; eyes small or moderate. Burrows 
in the ground. 

Arvicola amphibius. 

Arvicola amphibius, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 435 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. ; De 
Selys, Micromm. 

Lemmus aquaticus, E. Cuvier. 

Water Vole, Water Rat. 

Description. — Tail blackish, lighter beneath, rather longer 
than half the body, with upwards of 110 scaly rings ; ribs, 
thirteen pairs. Eur dark brown, more or less rusty above, 


84 


RODENTIA. 


mixed with grey, becoming slightly reddish on the sides of 
the head and body, some longer blackish hairs on the back, 
especially on its lower portion ; parts beneath dark grey, 
with a tinge of red on the belly ; ears shorter than the fur, 
and hidden by it, naked, but edged with hairs at tip ; eyes 
very small and deeply set ; muzzle greyish ; the hairs of the 
upper lip dirty white ; feet very strong, scaly, clothed with 
short stiff hairs. In young animals the colour above is 
yellowish brown, and there is no reddish tinge below. 

The following varieties have been observed : — 

Yar. A. — White with red eyes (Albino). 

Yar. B. — Black, the A. ater of Macgillivray, found in 
Cambridgeshire, and in Scotland in Banff and Aberdeen - 
shire, as well as by Pallas in Siberia. 

Yar. C. — Smaller, darker above ; beneath tinged with 
chestnut and not with red ; the whole of the tail deep 
chestnut. According to M. de Selys Longchamps, this va- 
riety is the A. amphibius of Buonaparte, in his 4 Fauna 
Italica,’ and the A. amphibius, var. Italica of Savi. It is 
found in the marshes of Tuscany, and about Ostia and the 
banks of rivers near Borne. Is common in Italy. 

Yar. D. — Pale dirty yellow, a large irregular white spot 
over the shoulders, and often a line of the same colour on the 
breast. Observed by Pallas on the banks of the Obi, and 
may prove to be a distinct species, in which case it would 
not find a place in the European list. 

Length of head and body, 6 inches ; tail, 3 inches 4 lines ; 
ears, lines. — F. M. 

Frequents the edges of ponds and rivers, marshy fields 
and meadows. Breeds thrice in the year, producing six or 
eight young at a birth. 

The A. amphibius inhabits nearly the whole of Central 
and Northern Europe. It is found in England and Scot- 
land, but, like all the other species of Yoles, is unknown in 


ARVICOLA NIVALIS. 


85 


Ireland. In France it is not rare in the south, and is 
found in many rivers, lakes, and ponds throughout that 
country. Is unknown in the greater part of Switzerland, 
being replaced by the Arvicola terrestris. Very common in 
Russia, from the White Sea to the Caspian. In Italy the 
variety C. alone has been observed. Is found in Silesia. 

Arvicola nivalis. 

Arvicola nivalis , Blasius, Wirbelth. Deutschlands, p. 359. 

Arvicola Lebrunii, Crespon, Faun. Merid. vol. i. p. 77. 

Hypudaus alpinus , Wagn., Schreber, Saugth. Supplement, iii. 1843. 

Description. — Tail somewhat more than half the length of 
the body, greyish white, darker above, with brown scaly 
rings ; body above brown-grey, lighter on the sides, with 
numerous yellowish-white hairs intermixed, and nearly 
white beneath; sometimes they are bright yellow-grey above 
on the back, and the feet and tail are sometimes white ; the 
ground of the fur near the roots is everywhere dark, the 
varieties of shade depending upon the colours of the tips of 
the hairs; the hairs of the back are almost always ob- 
served, when exposed to sunshine, to have a metallic violet- 
blue hue ; the ears are almost half as long as the head, but 
scarcely rise above the fur; they are covered with fine 
whitish-grey hairs outside, and along their front edges are 
furnished with long hairs. Teeth sixteen in number. The 
fur is generally thick and fine. 

Total length, 7 inches 2 lines ; ear along the outer edge 
rather more than 6 fines ; tail, 2 inches 6 or 7 fines. — 
F. M. 

This is a truly Alpine species, being strictly confined to 
mountain ranges, and is never found in the Alps at a lower 
elevation than 3000 feet, seldom so low as 4000 feet, and 
thence upwards to the limits of perpetual snow, and even 
far above the snow-level on bare spots, where it stays all 


86 


RODENTIA. 


the year through, burrowing under the snow in search of 
stunted Alpine plants. It has been taken on the top of the 
Finsteraarhorn, 12,000 feet above the sea, and on other 
equally elevated spots. Is found commonly in the Central, 
Northern, and Southern Alps, and indeed belongs to the 
whole of that mountain chain. Is said to have been found 
in the Pyrenees on the Pic du Midi. 

If this species is identical with Crespon’s A. Lebrunii, as 
Blasius surmises, it must inhabit the plain country around 
Nismes ; those taken there by Crespon were found to re- 
semble the A. socialis, except in their larger size. I con- 
ceive, however, that this French habitat is very doubtful. 

Arvicola destructor. 

Arvicola destructor, De Selys, Micromm. 

Arvicola terrestris, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Tail brown, longer than half the body. Fur 
of the upper parts of the body yellowish brown, mixed with 
grey, a good deal like that of the back of the Norway Pat 
(iif. decumanus ) ; sides rather lighter ; throat and breast 
whitish ash; abdomen ashy, very slightly tinged with 
yellow ; end of the muzzle and of the upper lip the same 
colour as the back ; lower lip the colour of the throat ; 
snout swollen and blunt at its extremity ; ears and eyes as 
in A. amphibius ; the fur of the back is still more linear 
than in that species, and mixed with longer and darker 
hairs ; the tail is a little longer in proportion, containing 
about 185 rings, and covered with short stiff hairs, dark 
on the upper surface, light grey underneath. There is a 
marked difference in the shape of the skull between this 
species and all its congeners. 

Length of head and body, 6 inches ; head, 1 inch 6 lines ; 
tail, 3 inches 9 lines ; ears, 4 lines. — F. M. 

Has only been observed in Italy, where it occurs in the 


ARVICOLA TERRESTRIS. — ARVICOLA RATTICEPS. 87 

neighbourhood of Pavia and Milan. Is common near Rome 
and in Tuscany ; in the Maremme of the latter country it 
is very abundant. In the province of Piombino these Voles 
appeared in such numbers in the spring of 1837, and again 
in 1838, as seriously to injure the crops. 

Arvicola terrestris. 

Arvicola terrestris, De Selys, Micromm. 

A. argentoratensis, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 436. 

Campagnol Schermaus, De Selys, l. c. 

Description. — Has thirteen pairs of ribs. Pur yellowish 
brown, dark on the back, lighter on the sides of the head and 
body, on which parts the yellow tint becomes more decided, 
never passing into red as in A. amjohibius, of equal length, 
without long hairs on the back ; body beneath rather light 
ashy, very slightly tinged with pale yellow on the abdo- 
men ; tail a little more than one-third of the length of the 
body, covered with short hairs, brown above, lighter be- 
neath ; the feet are also covered with very short whitish 
hairs ; eyes very small, black ; ears as in A. amphibius, but 
the snout thicker and blunt ; it differs also from that species 
in the form of the skull. Its habits are the same. White 
and black varieties have been met with. 

Length of head and body, 5 inches ; head, 1 inch 2 lines ; 
tail, 2 inches ; ears, 3^ lines. — P. M. 

Has been found near Strasburg and in the East of Ger- 
many. In Switzerland, especially near Zurich ; it is there 
sometimes called “ the Wurtzelmaus.” 

Arvicola ratticeps. 

Arvicola ratticeps, Blasius, Wirbelth. Deutschlands, p. 365. 

Description. — Teeth 16 in number. Ears nearly half as 
long as the head, their upper portion on the outside covered 


88 


RODENTIA. 


with fine hairs of brown-grey, mixed with others of a rusty 
yellow shade ; the tail, which is more than one-third of 
the body in length, is not narrowed near the base ; it is 
clothed above with small dark brown hairs, beneath with 
white hairs tipped with grey. The fur of the body is dark 
rusty brown above, light grey with a yellowish tinge on 
the sides, and underneath a decided white, contrasting with 
the darker colour of the sides ; the tips of the hairs on the 
back have a metallic gloss. The young animals are duller 
in colour than the adults. The head is more lengthened 
than in the other species, being shaped like that of the 
Eat. 

Entire length, 6 inches 7 lines, exclusive of the tail, 
which is 1 inch 10 lines. — E. M. 

Pound by Professor Blasius in 1840 in the North of 
Eussia, on the Dwina ; has been obtained also from Nor- 
way, the Baltic Provinces of Eussia, and from Siberia, as 
well as from Southern Eussia. 

Arvicola Savii. 

Arvicola Savii, De Selys, Micromm. 

Arvicola incertus, De Selys, J 840 ; P. Gervais, Zool. et Paleontol. 

Franc. 

A. arvalis, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — With fourteen pairs of ribs, shaped like A. 
arvalis. Ears much shorter than the fur, which is of an 
earthy greyish-brown colour above, and ashy beneath ; in 
some individuals the head and back are obscurely red- 
brown ; the snout is thick and blunt ; eyes very small ; tail 
rather less than one-third of the length of the body, hairy, 
brown above, whitish below ; feet greyish white, with rather 
strong nails ; the thumb less rudimentary than in A. arvalis 
and the other nearly allied species. The teats are four in 
number, none of them pectoral. 


ARVICOLA SUBTERRANEUS. 


89 


Length of head and body, 3 inches 5 lines ; head, 1 inch ; 
tail, 10 lines ; ears, 2 lines. — F. M. 

In its habits it much resembles the A. arvalis, the com- 
mon Short- tailed Field-mouse of England and the North 
of Europe, and is equally numerous and destructive. The 
Prince of Musignano relates, that on one farm alone, in the 
neighbourhood of Rome, 11,000 were killed in a single 
season. 

It is the only species among the lesser Voles which 
has been observed in Italy. De Selys Longchamps, as 
quoted by Gervais, ‘Zool. et Paleontol. Francaise,’ says 
that the “ A. Savii, as A. incertus, is found in Provence 
(Var) and Languedoc, at Montpellier.” M. Crespon has 
found both A. Savii and A. incertus in the Gard, and 
considers them to be distinct species (see his ‘ Faune Me'- 
ridionale ’) ; the former is very abundant there in culti- 
vated plains. 

Arvicola subterraneus. 

Arvicola subterraneus , De Selys, Micromm. ; Blasius, Wirbelth. 

Deutsch. 

Lemmas pratensis, Baillon. 

Description. — Rather less than A. arvalis. Ears a little 
shorter, as long as the fur, almost naked, surrounded at 
base by long hairs, which, in the live animal, almost con- 
ceal them ; eyes very small, less than in A. arvalis ; tail 
rather less than one-third of the length of the body, covered 
with blackish hairs above, with white or whitish beneath. 
Fur almost entirely of different shades of greyish black, 
except on the throat, which is dark ash ; and on the belly, 
where they are ash tipped with white. In some speci- 
mens the hairs beneath the body are earthy brown at their 
tips, thus resembling some individuals of A. arvalis ; but 
they never, like the latter, have a tinge of yellow on the 


90 


RODENTIA. 


sides ; the feet are dark ash ; snout thick, blunt ; four 
teats, none of them pectoral. The fur of A. subterraneus 
above is of the colour of the Common Mouse (M. musculus ), 
while that of A. arvalis is more like the Brown Bat (if. 
clecumanus). The very young are black all over, with a 
slight blue tint, and the skin of the ears is white. 

Length of head and body, 3 inches 4 lines ; head, 11^ 
lines ; ears, 4 lines ; tail, 1 inch. — E. M. 

Inhabits Belgium, Erench Elanders, and the neighbour- 
hood of Paris ; and has not yet been found in any other 
country (De Selys, 1839). 

Arvicola arvalis. 

Arvicola arvalis, De Selys, Micromm. 

Arvicola vulgaris , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 439. 

Arvicola agrestis , Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Mus agrestis , Linnaeus. 

Short-tailed Field-mouse, Bell, l. c. 

Le Camjpagnol, Buffon. 

Description. — Tail about one-third of the length of the 
body, sparingly covered with hairs of a dirty yellow colour ; 
ears just appearing above the fur, clothed with short yel- 
lowish hairs ; head large ; muzzle very obtuse ; body thick 
and full ; the thumb of the fore -feet rudimentary, without 
a claw ; feet covered with short stiff hairs ; teats 8 in 
number, of which 4 are pectoral. Colour of the fur on 
the upper parts reddish brown mixed with grey, of the 
under parts ash- colour. Varieties occur of white, yellowish 
white, speckled, and black. 

Length of head and body, 4 inches 1 line ; head, 1 inch 
2 lines ; ears, 5 lines ; tail, 1 inch 3^ lines. 

Is extremely prolific, and when in numbers inflicts 
serious damage on grain, seeds, and roots. 

Very common in England, all over France, Belgium, 


ARVICOLA SOCIALIS. ARYICOLA RUBIDUS. 


91 


and Russia, in all grassy districts ; and is found over nearly 
the whole of Europe, excepting Italy. It is the Mus 
agrestis of Linnaeus, which he records as a native of Sweden, 
where it is rather darker in colour, and the tail of a deeper 
shade above than below (see Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. vii. 1841, 
p. 270 (Jenyns) ; De Selys, ‘ Micrommalogie,’ p. 104). 

Arvicola socialis. 

Arvicola socialis, Desm, Mamm. Sp. 447. 

Mus socialis, Pallas. 

Description. — Tail rather less than one-fourth of the 
body, whitish, very hairy; ears rather large, as long as 
the fur, almost naked ; feet white. Eur on the upper 
parts very soft, even, more than five lines in length, of a 
pale grey, becoming lighter on the sides, pure white be- 
neath ; light tawny on the muzzle, which is obtuse ; 
whiskers white. The head is rather smaller than in A. 
arvalis. Feeds on roots and bulbs. 

Length of head and body, 3 inches 5 lines ; head, 1 inch 
1 line ; ears, 44 lines ; tail, 10^ lines. — F. M. 

Inhabits the deserts between the Volga and Jaik near 
the Caspian Sea. 

Arvicola rubidus. 

Arvicola rubidus , De Selys, Micromm. 

Arvicola pratensis, Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Arvicola glareolus, Blasius, Wirbelth. Deutsch. 

Bank Vole, Bell, l. c. 

Description. — Tail rather more than half the length of 
the body, covered with short hairs, blackish above, yel- 
lowish white beneath, concealing the scaly rings, which 
are about ninety in number ; ears rather large, slightly 
oval, longer than the fur, furnished with small reddish 
hairs; eyes prominent, but less so than in A. arvalis ; 


92 


RODENTIA. 


feet dirty white. Fur on the upper parts of the body 
rusty red, ash-grey on the sides, more or less bright accord- 
ing to the season, the hair being tipped with blackish ; under 
parts whitish, tinged with bright red-brown when in a 
perfect state. In young animals this red colour appears 
strongly only on the top of the head and on the middle of 
the back, the rest of the upper part of the body being 
largely mingled with dark ash ; has thirteen pairs of ribs. 

Length of head and body, 3 inches 2 lines ; head, 1 
inch ; ears, 5 lines ; tail, 1 inch 11 lines. — F. M. 

Has been found in a few places in England; in the 
North and centre of France near Lyons. In Belgium it 
is spread nearly all over the country, in damp woods near 
streams ; also throughout the greater part of Germany, 
Hungary, Denmark, Croatia, and Southern Russia to the 
XJral Mountains, as well as in Moldavia. 

Arvicola incertus. 

Arvicola incertus, De Selys, Revue Zool. 1843 ; Crespon, Faun. 

Merid. 1844 ; P. Gervais, Zool. et Paleon. Franc. 1852. 

Description. — Fur on the upper parts reddish brown, in- 
clining to yellowish ; cheeks and flanks of the same colour ; 
all the lower parts and the legs dark ash-colour; toes 
furnished with small whitish hairs ; nails reddish ; tail 
brown above, lighter beneath, with a small tuft of hairs 
at its extremity ; ears velvety on the outside, hidden by 
the fur ; muzzle blunt, very hairy ; whiskers of medium 
length, whitish ; eyes small, black. The fur of the body 
is soft to the touch ; the hairs are slate-colour from the 
base to two-thirds of the entire length. 

The head and body measure 9 centimetres; the tail 
4 centimetres (Crespon). 

M. de Selys Longchamps inclines to consider this animal 
as a variety of A. Savii, but M. Crespon and M. Gervais 


LEMMUS NORVEGICUS. 


93 


arc of opinion that the two species are distinct. Both it 
and A. Savii are found in the Department du Gard, where 
the former zealous naturalist has had many opportunities of 
comparing them. It is not nearly so abundant, however, 
as the latter. In general aspect, the A. incertus differs 
from A. Savii in being thicker and shorter ; it frequents 
marshy places, whereas the latter prefers the fields of 
Lucerne. 


Genus LEMMUS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, |; molars, |^|-=16 ; upper incisors 
convex in front, and without furrows ; lower ones pointed ; 
molars composite, without tubercles even at top ; ears very 
short, rounded ; eyes very small ; fore-feet with four or 
five toes armed with claws, and formed for burrowing; 
hind-feet with five toes; tail very short, covered with 
hair. This genus is closely allied to Arvicola, differing 
from it chiefly by the position of the fore -feet, and by the 
shortness of the tail. 

Lenmms Norvegicus. 

Lemmus Norvegicus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 450. 

Mus Lemmus , Linnaeus. 

My odes Lemmus , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

The Norway Lemming. 

Description. — Fur tawny, red-brown, varied with black 
and brown ; front feet with five claws ; head short, thick, 
oval ; muzzle very blunt ; eyes very small ; ears small, 
hidden by the fur, rounded ; claws very short, especially 
those of the fore-feet. Fur of the body very soft, nine 
lines in length ; end of nose whitish ; top of head deep 
black; a black streak extends from the eye to the ear. 
In old animals there is a crescent of yellowish and dirty 
white on the back of the head ; a long black streak from 


94 


RODENTIA. 


the neck to the middle of the back, the rest of the back 
is dark tawny or yellowish; sides of the head, throat, 
and lower parts of the body white ; sides light yellow, 
passing to whitish towards the belly ; hairs of the tail 
long and thick, of a whitish-grey colour ; feet of the same 
colour ; claws of the fore -feet very much flattened at the 
sides, the four outer ones hooked, that of the thumb very 
thick, and truncated obliquely. 

Length of head and body, 5 inches 3 lines ; head, 1 inch 
lines ; ears, 4 lines ; tail, 7 lines. — P. M. 

Yery prolific. These animals collect in vast numbers 
at uncertain periods, and migrate from the mountains to 
the plains, destroying every vegetable substance that lies 
in their path. They burrow in the ground, but do not 
become torpid in winter. The Norway Lemming inhabits 
the mountains of Norway and Lapland, especially those 
parts where dwarf-birch and willow abound ; and visits 
parts of Sweden in its migrations. 

Yar. A. of Desmarest, Mammal, from Pallas, Nov. Spec. 
Glir. tab. 12 B, Lemming de Lapjponie. Smaller by one- 
fourth than the preceding. A brown stripe or hand, be- 
ginning at the muzzle, surrounds the eye and runs to- 
wards the ear ; a similar stripe on the top of the head ; 
throat white ; hack covered with tawny hair, with scat- 
tered blackish hairs intermixed; the hack of the head or 
neck is slightly brown, some yellowish on the sides, and 
dull white on the belly. 

Pound only in Russian Lapland. Desmarest considers 
it as a distinct species, but has followed Pallas in placing 
it as a variety of L. Norvegicus. 


LEMMUS TORQUATUS. LEMMUS MIGRATORIUS. 95 


Lemmus torquatus. 

Lemmus torquatus , Desm. Mamm.'Sp. 454; De Selys, Index des 
Mamm. 

Myodes torquatus , Pall. Zoog. Boss. As. 

Description. — Fur rusty brown, with a black dorsal line 
and a white collar, interrupted beneath ; five toes on the 
fore-feet ; claws moderately strong, simple ; the claw of 
the thumb short and rounded ; resembles a good deal in its 
general form the L. Norvegicus ; feet rather short and 
strong, especially the fore-feet ; tail very short and hairy, 
brown, except at its extremity, which is white ; the end 
of the nose divided by a very narrow furrow. The fur, 
which is very fine and soft, is varied with rusty brown, or 
greyish yellow, and brownish above ; the belly, and all the 
parts beneath, dirty white ; feet white mixed with brown ; 
nose velvety and black, which colour runs up the centre of 
the face to the forehead ; cheeks whitish, with black mou- 
staches as long as the head ; behind each ear is a patch of 
chestnut-brown, and beyond this one of dull white. 

Length of head and body, 3 inches 1 line ; head 1 inch ; 
tail, including the hair, 7 lines. — F. M. 

Found within the Arctic Circle, and in the most northern 
parts of Siberia, and (according to De Selys Longchamps) 
on the shores of the White Sea. 

Lemmus migratorius. 

Lemmus Obensis, Brandt. 

Arvicola Obensis, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 509. 

Myodes Obensis , Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. No. 35, p. 32. 

Mus Lemmus , var. Sibirica, Lapponica, Obensis, Pallas, Nov. Spec. 
Glir. 

Description. — No distinctly marked dorsal line. Fur on 
the upper parts of the body a uniform brownish-yellow 
colour, with black hairs interspersed ; sides light yellowish ; 


96 


RODENTIA. 


parts beneath, and legs pale rust-colour ; throat white ; 
feet and toes whitish. 

Inhabits Russia, within the Polar Circle. 

N.B.— This may prove to be identical with the L. 
Norvegicus, var. A., or Lemming de Lapjoonie of Desmarest, 
described in this Manual. 

Lemmus lagurus. 

Lemmus lagurus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 455 ; De Selys, Micromm. 
Myodes lagurus , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Description. — Fur ash-grey, with a black dorsal line ; no 
collar ; five toes on the fore -feet ; claws rather weak ; 
the thumb a horny tubercle ; muzzle very blunt ; lips 
rather swollen ; ears apparent, rounded ; eyes moderate ; 
legs rather slender ; tail very short, hairy, and truncated. 
Fur fine and soft, about five lines in length on the upper 
parts, which are pale ash-colour, mixed with some brown 
hairs ; the dorsal line begins between the eyes, and runs to 
the root of the tail, and is rather wider in the centre than 
at the extremities ; the feet and the under parts of the 
body are dull ashy and whitish ; whiskers whitish, shorter 
than the head, arranged in five rows. In young animals 
the general colour is lighter than in adults. 

Length of head and body, 3 inches 7-J lines ; head, 1 inch ; 
ears, 3 lines ; tail (including the hair) in the male 6 lines, 
in the female 4-i- lines. — F. M. 

Migrates, like the Norway Lemming, in vast multitudes, 
feeding chiefly on bulbs ; but also eats flesh, and even de- 
vours its own species (Pallas). 

De Selys Longchamps, ‘ Index des Mammif. d’Europe,’ 
gives Eastern Russia and Russian Lapland, as well as the 
River Jaik, as its habitats; Pallas says that it is found 
from the Jaik to the Irtisk; Desmarest, that it is very 
common in the deserts of Tartary. 


MUS DECUMANUS. 


97 


Genus MGS. 

Upper incisors rather short, wedge-shaped ; lower ones 
long, compressed, curved, and very sharp ; molars simple, 
with tubercular summits, their length and breadth nearly 
equal ; muzzle elongated ; ears oblong or rounded, often 
naked ; eyes prominent ; front feet with four claws and a 
thumb, which is very small, and little more than a tuber- 
cle ; hind-feet with five claws ; tail, almost in every case, 
either as long as, or longer than the body, rounded, com- 
posed of numerous scaly rings, with short stiff hairs be- 
tween them. Most of the species are vegetable feeders, 
but some feed also on animal substances. 

Mus decumanus. 

Mus decumanus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 473 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Norway Rat. Brown Rat. 

Description. — Tail shorter than the body, with rather 
more than 200 rings; colour of the upper parts greyish 
brown, with a tawny tint, resulting from each hair being 
dusky grey at the roots, and yellowish brown at the tip ; 
a few stiffish blacker hairs are scattered among the others ; 
under parts dirty white. The fur is generally rough, 
i. e. not lying smoothly close to the body ; ears as broad as 
long, rounded at the extremities, almost naked, one-third 
of the length of the head. 

Length of head and body, 11 inches ; head, 2 inches 
4^ lines ; ears, 8^- lines ; tail, 8 inches 4 lines. 

Breeds several times in the course of the year, pro- 
ducing ten, twelve, or even fourteen young at a birth ; its 
voracious habits are well known, there being scarcely any 
animal or vegetable substance which it will not devour. 

Was first observed in Europe, in the South of Russia, 
about the year 1727, having come from the neighbour- 

F 


98 


RODENTIA. 


ing part of Asia by Astrachan ; first introduced to Eng- 
land and Erance about 1730, since which period it has 
spread not only over the European continent, but has 
reached America and almost every part of the world fre- 
quented by European shipping. Pallas, who travelled in 
Siberia in the year 1770, says, that it had not at that time 
reached that country ; Cetti, that it is still unknown in 
the Island of Sardinia. 

A Black Bat, with the toes white and an elongate white 
spot beginning between the fore-legs, and extending back- 
wards for nearly two inches, which has been several times 
captured in the North of Ireland, will probably prove to 
be a variety of Mus decumanus. The dimensions taken 
from a stuffed specimen, procured by the late Mr. Thompson 
of Belfast, and now in the Museum of the Natural History 
Society of that town, are as follows : — Head and body, 131- 
inches ; from the tip of the nose to the base of the ear, 2 
inches ; tail, 7y inches; tarsus, from the joint to the tip 
of toe, 1-| inch ; length of white space between fore-legs, 
2 inches. Of two specimens in that collection, one is very 
dark sooty brown, the other quite black. Mr. Thompson, 
who first obtained this rat, was disposed to consider it a 
distinct species. 


Mus Rattus. 

Mus Rattus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 476 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Le Rat, Buffon. 

Black Bat. 

Description - . — Tail a little longer than the body, almost 
naked, with about 250 rings ; ears rounded, oval, half the 
length of the head, which is longer than in the M. decu- 
manus, and the muzzle more taper; the upper jaw pro- 
jects far beyond the lower, which is remarkably short ; the 
soles of all the feet are tuberculated ; upper parts greyish 


MUS ALEXANDRINUS. 


99 


black, lower dark ash-colour ; feet and tail dusky. Va- 
rieties occur in white, brown, and black, with white 
spots. 

Length of head and body, 7 inches 4 lines ; head, 1 inch 
10 lines ; ears, 11 lines ; tail, 7 inches 11 lines. 

It has become very rare in the British Islands, and un- 
common in most parts of Europe, having been expelled by 
the Brown Bat. Said, by De Selys Longchamps, to be 
unknown in Tuscany and South Italy, where it is re- 
placed by the Mus Aleocandrinus. Is still to be found on some 
of the small islands on the North-west coast of France. 

Mus Alexandrinus. 

Mus Alexandrinus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 475 ; De Selys, Micromm. 
Mus tectorum , Savi, Buon. Faun. Ital. 

Rat d' Alexandrie, De Selys, l. c. 

Description. — Tail longer than the body by nearly one- 
fourth, with from 220 to 240 clearly defined rings, and 
furnished with short stiff hairs far apart ; head somewhat 
elongate ; muzzle rather sharp, flat above ; lower jaw much 
shorter than the upper ; ears very large, almost oval, broad ; 
the long hairs of the back are stiff, almost of a uniform 
thickness throughout their length ; feet almost naked, 
flesh-coloured. In colour resembles the M. decumanus ; 
in size, shape, and habits, it is closely allied to M. Rattus, 
from which it appears to be chiefly distinguished by the 
colour of the fur and by the length of its tail. White, 
cream-coloured, and black varieties are not uncommon. 

Length of head and body, 6 inches ; tail, 8§- inches. 

Inhabits Tuscany, the Papal States, and Southern Italy, 
and is the only rat of the Island of Sardinia. In France, 
it is given by M. Crespon, ‘ Faune Meridionale,’ as com- 
mon near Nismes, and in Provence by Gervais. Was 
first observed by M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire in Egypt, whence 

f 2 


100 


RODENTIA. 


it was no doubt introduced into Italy with merchandise, 
and has driven away the M. Rattus from the south of that 
country ; it occurs, however, along with the Brown Rat. 
Is often found in numbers in vessels from Egypt when 
discharging their cargoes of corn in British ports, but does 
not appear to spread in those towns, being probably kept 
down by the common species. 

Mus musculus. 

Mus musculus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 478 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Common Mouse. 

Description. — Tail almost as long as the body, dark grey, 
with scaly rings, and slightly furnished with short hairs ; 
ears about half as long as the head, shaped like those of 
M. Rattus , which in its proportions it much resembles, 
though in miniature ; head taper ; muzzle rather acute ; 
the ears and eyes are smaller than in M. sylvaticus, the 
former rounded, but shorter and narrower than in that 
species, clothed with fine, soft, short hair. Eur greyish 
brown above, grey beneath. White, buff, and spotted 
varieties occur. 

Length of head and body, 3 inches 2 lines; head, 11 
lines ; ears, 5 lines ; tail, 2 inches 11 lines. 

The Mouse seems to have followed man wherever he 
has penetrated, and is to be found all over the world in 
every climate. It is very prolific, breeding several times 
in the year, and producing five or six young at a birth. 
The Prince of Musignano mentions a variety with the 
belly red-brown, as very common in Italy, and in par- 
ticular at Florence. 

Mus Islandicus. 

Mus Islandicus, Thienemann ; De Selys, Micromm. 

Description. — Size of M. musculus. Tail as long as the 
body, nearly naked, scales ash-brown above, white be- 


MUS SYLVATICUS. 


101 


neath ; ears larger and wider than in M. musculus, partly 
hidden by the fur ; upper parts of the body dark ash-brown ; 
the sides with a mixture of many white and brown hairs ; 
parts beneath white, or ash-white ; feet dirty white, longer 
than in M. musculus , but not as long as in M. sylvaticus, 
between which two species it appears to be intermediate ; 
the head is thicker than in the first ; nose blunt. Fur very 
dense, as long as in M. sylvaticus ; fore-feet furnished near 
the toes with a few very short white hairs, their thumbs 
very short, but with the nails distinct. 

Length of head and body, 3 inches 6 lines ; head, 1 inch ; 
ears, 7 lines ; tail, same length as the body. — F. M. 

Has hitherto been observed only in Iceland (1838), where 
it frequents houses, like the Common Mouse of Europe. 

Mus sylvaticus. 

Mus sylvaticus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 477 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Long-tailed Field-mouse. 

Description. — Tail as long, or nearly as long, as the body, 
slender and tapering, velvety, blackish above, white be- 
neath ; head long ; muzzle tapering ; the whiskers very long ; 
eyes large and prominent ; ears large, oval, oblong, with 
the margin turned in at the base, and a lobe within the 
ear, near the base of the hinder margin, blackish at their 
tips; legs long. The upper part and sides of the head, 
neck, and body, and the outer surface of the legs yellowish, 
mixed with blackish (or of a yellowish brown), darker on 
the back, each hair being grey or ash at the base, then 
yellow, and sometimes black at the tip ; under parts whitish, 
with a yellowish-grey patch on the breast. Varieties occur 
of white, brown, and dull yellow, the belly, however, being 
always white. 

Length of head and body, 3 inches 8 lines ; head, 1 inch 


102 


RODENTIA. 


1 line ; ears, 7 lines ; tail, 3 inches 6 lines. These dimen- 
sions vary considerably in different localities. 

It is very prolific, breeding more than once in the year, 
producing from seven to ten young at a birth. Feeds en- 
tirely on roots and other vegetables, and sometimes commits 
great ravages on the crops. 

Is common all over the temperate regions of Europe. 
In Eussia it frequents the woods and plains of the tem- 
perate parts, as well as the West of Siberia. Is very abun- 
dant in the British Islands and in France. 

Mus agrarius. 

Mus agrarius , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 480 ; Pallas, Zoog. Eoss. As. ; De 
Selys, Micromm. 

Sitric of the Eussians. 

Description. — Size of M. sylvaticus, but the ears much 
shorter, rounded, velvety inside . Tail rather longer th an half 
the body, slender, hairy, blackish above, whitish beneath, 
with about ninety scaly rings ; muzzle more pointed ; head 
more oblong, and whiskers blackish and less numerous than 
in M. musculus ; upper parts yellowish rufous, mixed with 
brown on the head, a narrow, black, dorsal line reaching 
from the head to near the root of the tail ; imder parts of 
the body, and feet white, the latter very slender, all the 
hairs slate-colour at the roots. The colour of the fur in 
general resembles that of the M. sylvaticus, except the black 
line on the back. 

Length of head and body, 3 inches 8 lines ; head, 1 inch ; 
ears, 4 lines. — F. AT. 

Is very prolific. Lives among crops of grain and roots, 
on which it feeds. Is said to emit a strong disagreeable 
odour. 

Inhabits European Eussia, where it is very plentiful ; 


MUS MINUTUS. 


103 


and Siberia, as far as the river Jenissei ; also Hungary and 
near Berlin, and has been taken near Frankfort-on-the- 
Maine, which would appear to be its western limit (1838, 
De Selys). Hot uncommon in Hanover, Brunswick, and 
Thuringia, and has been found in Lombardy. 

Mus minutus. 

Mus minutus, De Selys, Micromm. ; Desm. Mamm. Sp. 485. 

Mus messorius, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 479 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Mus campestris, F. Cuvier. 

Mus pendulinus, Hermann. 

The Harvest Mouse. 

Description". — The general form is rather more elongated 
and slender than that of most of the genus. Tail generally 
rather shorter than the body, but variable in length, being 
often as long as the body, especially in old individuals, 
sometimes shorter by one-third ; ears rounded, about one- 
third of the length of the head ; eyes less prominent than 
in M. sylvaticus. Fur on the upper parts reddish brown, 
rather brighter than that of the Dormouse ; the hairs are 
dusky at the base, red towards the point ; the under parts 
pure white. The two colours are abruptly separated. 

Length of head and body, 2 inches 6 lines; head, 10 
lines ; ears, 3 lines ; tail, 2 inches 5 lines. 

Is found in corn-fields. Feeds on grain, and is easily 
tamed and very gentle. Makes a nest of grass and straw, 
suspended at a small height from the ground.' 

Has been found in various parts of England, but is not 
common there. Is more frequent in Belgium and in parts 
of France. Has been found in Alsace, near Paris, on the 
Loire, and near Nismes. Occurs all over Germany, Sweden, 
and Finland. Professor Blasius has found it in North Italy, 
although Prince Buonaparte does not include it in his list 
of Italian animals. 


104 


RODENTIA. 


Mus Nordmanni. 

Mus Nordmanni , Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. p. 37 ; Schinz, 
Europaischen Fauna, Supp. to vol. ii. 

Desceiption. — Tail three-fourths of the length of the body, 
with 140 rings ; ears rather less than half the length of the 
head ; soles of the feet hairy for one- third of their length. 
Upper parts of the body red-brown, which colour passes by 
degrees on the sides into the yellowish red-grey of the under 
parts. The hinder division of the last grinder in the lower 
jaw is scarcely half as broad as the anterior division. 

About equal in size to the common House Mouse. 

A new species, discovered in the Crimea by Nordmann, 
before 1840. 

Genus SMINTHUS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, ; grinders, -|zr|r ; without divisions. 
Upper lip not divided, thickly clothed with hair ; tail almost 
as long as the body, hairy. 

Sminthus Nordmanni. 

Sminthus Nordmanni , Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. No. 56, p.38 ; 

Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. Supp. 

Mus vagus , Pallas. 

Mus betulinus, Pallas. 

Descbiption. — Ears half as long as the head, reaching to 
the eyes when pressed down ; whiskers rather shorter than 
the head, arranged in a double row ; tail rather shorter than 
the body, thickly clothed with hairs which divide into two 
rows, containing 140 scaly rings. A distinct tubercular 
thumb with a conical nail ; fore-feet clothed with white 
adpressed hairs ; hind-feet fringed with hairs which are 
directed downwards, and turned over on the soles ; upper 
parts of the body greyish yellow, with a black stripe along 


CRICETUS VULGARIS. 


105 


the back, beginning behind the shoulders ; between this 
stripe and the flanks on each side is a long streak of light 
grey. The body beneath is yellowish white. 

The dimensions are not given. 

This species, the only one of its genus as yet known, was 
discovered in the Crimea by Nordmann before the year 
1840. Said by Professor Blasius, in his 4 Wirbelth. Deutsch- 
lands,’ to occur, but not commonly, in Hungary, Finland, 
Sweden, and Russia. 

Genus CRICETUS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, J; molars, 16 ; molars with 

smooth tubercles, the anterior molar being the largest. The 
cheeks furnished with pouches for carrying their food ; the 
body compact ; legs rather short ; head thick ; ears oval or 
round ; fore-feet with four toes, and a tubercle as thumb ; 
hind-feet with five toes, all armed with strong claws; tail 
moderate or short. Burrows in the ground, and feeds on 
roots and seeds. 

Cricetus vulgaris. 

Crieetus vulgaris , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 499. 

Cricetus frumentarius, Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

The Common Hamster. 

Description. — Greyish red (or tawny red mixed with grey) 
above; lower parts of the legs and belly black, on each 
side three large yellowish spots ; feet white ; a white mark 
below the throat, and another on the breast. The hairs on 
the upper parts are generally dull tawny, inclining to ash 
for the greater part of their length, then with a ring of 
tawny and tipped with blackish, some hairs being entirely 
of this last colour ; below the eyes and on the temporal 
region, the sides of the neck, the lower part of the sides of 

f 5 


106 


RODENTIA. 


the body, outside of the thighs and the rump red-brown, or 
reddish ; the tip of the snout, cheeks, and outside of the 
fore-legs whitish ; portions of the neck, breast, and belly 
are a very dark blackish brown ; tail near the root clothed 
with reddish hairs, the rest naked and black. The males 
are somewhat larger than the females. There is a variety 
entirely black, except a little white round the mouth, on 
the nose and borders of the ears, the under parts of the 
feet, and tip of the tail. 

Constructs with much art a burrow divided into several 
chambers, where it lays up a store of roots, grass, and corn 
on which to subsist in the winter ; this store sometimes has 
been found to weigh 100 lbs. ! The Hamster passes the 
cold season in its nest of straw, having first carefully closed 
the entrance. It becomes torpid in extreme cold. Some- 
times attacks and eats small birds and mice. Is pugnaci- 
ous, and when two of these animals are engaged in a fight, 
with their cheek-pouches puffed out, their appearance is 
very singular. The female goes with young four weeks, 
producing from three to nine, or even more, at a birth, in 
a burrow apart from the males, and breeds several times 
in the year. 

Length of head and body, 8 inches ; head, 1 inch 10 lines ; 
ears, 6 lines ; tail, 1 inch 6 fines. — F. M. 

Inhabits the central and northern countries of Europe 
and Siberia. Is common in the fertile plains of Poland and 
Russia, and in Livonia. Is found in Germany, where it is 
common. In Silesia. In Belgium it occurs in small num- 
bers near Liege, between Herne and Limburg, also near 
Aix-la-Chapelle. In France, only in Alsace. It is not 
found in Switzerland. 


CRICETUS MIGRATORIUS. — CRICETUS PH^US. 107 


Cricetus migratorius. 

Cricetus migratorius , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 500. 

Cricetus accedula , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Description. — Muzzle thick, fleshy, blunt; incisors long; 
ears naked, oval, rounded at the end, somewhat sloped or 
lobed on the outer border. Body thick and short ; tail 
cylindrical, hut scantily furnished with hair ; upper parts 
of the body ash-grey, darker on the dorsal line ; under 
parts and the extremities white. 

Length of head and body, 3 inches 11 lines ; head, 1 inch 
3 lines; ears, 5 lines; tail, 8 lines. — F. M. 

Habits the same as those of the preceding species, except- 
ing that it occasionally migrates. Inhabits sandy marshes 
in the district of Orenberg, between the Yolga and Jaik, 
where it is rather rare (Pallas). 

Cricetus phseus. 

Cricetus phaus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 502. 

Description. — Pur brownish ash on the hack, lighter on 
the sides, and quite white beneath, on the throat, belly, 
and inside of the legs ; on the back are numerous black 
hairs, longer than the rest ; forehead and muzzle grey ; 
round the mouth the fur is white ; tail velvety, brown 
above and white beneath, and on the sides, muzzle, and 
neck very short ; nose naked ; ears very wide, not lobed or 
cut in, almost naked; whiskers longer than the head, 
whitish at their roots, and black for the remainder of their 
length. 

Length of head and body, 3 inches 5 lines ; head, 1 inch 
2 lines; ears, 6^ lines; tail, with the hairs, 9 lines. 

— F. M. 

Feeds principally on grain; resorts in winter to barns 
and store-houses, where it is very mischievous. Pallas is 


108 


RODENTIA. 


of opinion, that it does not become torpid, and that it is 
solitary in its habits. In Europe it was found by him only 
in desert places near the Yolga and Astrachan, and on the 
Caspian Sea ; it also inhabits Persia and Tartary. 

Genus DIPUS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, -| ; molars, -|^ or =16 or 18 ; 
lower incisors awl-shaped and very sharp ; grinders simple, 
tuberculated ; head very wide ; eyes large ; ears long and 
pointed ; fore-feet short, with four toes, the thumb re- 
presented by a wart, surmounted by a nail; hind-feet 
five or six times as long as the fore-feet, with three or 
five toes; tail very long, cylindrical, covered with short 
hairs, ending in a tuft of long hairs. Peeds on fruits and 
roots ; burrows in the ground, becoming torpid in winter : 
the long hind-legs of these animals enable them to leap 
with great power and swiftness. 

Dipus Gerboa. 

Dipus Gerboa , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 509. 

Mus jaculus, Linn. 

Dipus sagitta, Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

The Jerboa. 

Desceiption, — H ead very thick, and wide in proportion to 
the body ; ears generally shorter than the head ; hind-feet 
with three toes ; the two upper incisors vertical, grooved 
in the middle; eyes large, prominent, lateral, about an 
inch and a half apart. Eur long, very soft and silky on the 
upper parts of the body and on the sides ; the hairs are 
ashy for the greater portion of their length, then rufous, 
and at the tips blackish, whence results a general rufous 
tinge, varied with blackish ; the under parts of the body, 
the inside of the hind-legs, and a crescent-shaped mark on 
each side behind quite white ; fore -feet very short, white, 


DIPUS JACULUS. 


109 


with five toes, of which the interior one is very short, with 
a long, robust claw, the other claws are hooked ; hind-legs 
very long, with long rufous hairs on the outside ; hind-feet 
with three toes, of which that in the middle is much the 
longest, armed with short, wide, blunt claws, and covered 
with short greyish hairs ; there is also a very small spur 
on hack toe, with a claw ; the tail is very long, squared, 
hardly thicker than a goose-quill, covered with short hairs, 
darker above than below, and ending in a tuft of black hairs 
with white tips ; the ears thin, broad, rounded. The 
enormous length of its hind-legs enables it to take very 
long and rapid leaps. Burrows in the earth, and feeds 
chiefly on roots. 

Length of head and body, 5 inches 11 lines ; head, 1 
inch 9 lines ; ears, 8 lines ; tail, with the hair, 6 inches 
5 lines. — F. M. 

Inhabits Southern Bussia, between the Don and the 
Volga, but was not known to Pallas as occurring in the 
Crimea ; also Syria, Egypt, and Arabia. 

Dipus jaculus. 

Dipus jaculus, Pallas, Zoog. Koss. As.; Desm. Mamm. Sp. 510. 

Desceiptiox. — Teeth, 18 in number ; grinders, ; head 
oblong ; muzzle thick and blunt ; nose flesh-coloured, heart- 
shaped, the nostrils in the form of crescents ; upper lip 
two-lobed ; ears longer than the head, semi-cylindrical, 
folded, transparent, covered with a yellowish down ; neck 
very short ; tail longer than the body. Fur very light 
rufous above, varied with greyish brown, caused by the 
brown tips of the longer hairs ; white beneath, a crescent 
of white on the hind- quarters on each side ; hind-feet with 
five toes, the lateral ones very small, and that in the centre 
the longest ; the tuft at the extremity of the tail is formed 


110 


RODENTIA. 


by a double row of hairs, which are black for a great portion 
of their length, white at their ends ; this white part of the 
tuft appears to encroach upon the black in an angular form ; 
the fur is very soft and sleek. 

Length of head and body, 6 inches 9 lines ; head, 1 inch 
10-J- lines ; tail, without the hair, 10 inches 1 line. — E. M. 

Burrows in the earth ; passes the winter in a state of 
torpor. Eeeds principally on grass, roots, and fruits ; but 
at times attacks young birds, insects, and even animals of 
its own species. The female breeds several times in the 
year. Its speed is said to equal that of a fleet horse, and 
is attained by a rapid succession of extraordinarily long 
leaps. It uses its tail as an additional support when 
sitting. 

Inhabits Southern Russia, from the Danube and Don to 
the Jaik, and is not uncommon in the Crimea. Is found 
also in Tartary. 

Dipus Acontion. 

Dipus Acontion , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Dipus minutus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 512. 

Description. — Hind-feet with five toes ; ears longer than 
the head ; much resembling the D. jaculus in general pro- 
portions, but smaller. Upper parts of the body pale 
yellowish grey, mixed with brown, which last colour be- 
comes more prevalent towards the rump ; parts beneath, and 
the crescents on the hind quarters, white ; the muzzle is of 
the same colour as the body above, not white at the tip, 
as in the last species. 

Length of head and body, 4 inches 3 lines ; head, 1 inch 
3 lines ; tail, without the hairs, 5 inches 1 line. — E. M. 

Inhabits the same countries and places as the Dipus 
jaculus. 


GERBILLUS MERIDIANUS. SPALAX. 


Ill 


Genus GERBILLUS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, -| ; molars, > the first molar in 
each jaw with three tubercles, the second with two, and 
the third with one ; ears moderately long, rounded at the 
extremities ; fore -feet short, with four toes, and a rudi- 
mentary thumb ; hind-feet long, or very long, with five 
toes ; tail long, covered with hair. 

Gerbillus meridianus. 

Gerbillus meridianus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 514. 

Dipus meridianus , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Description. — Body rather large behind ; head oblong ; 
muzzle somewhat long ; ears large, oval, downy ; whiskers 
very long ; incisor teeth yellow, the upper ones with a 
longitudinal furrow ; hind-feet prolonged, large, suited for 
leaping ; tail about as long as the body, strong, cylindrical, 
covered with hair, tufted at the tip. Fur above dirty 
rufous, mixed with grey ; beneath pure white, except a 
longitudinal line of red-brown on the belly. 

Length of head and body, 4 inches 2 lines ; head, 1 inch 
lines ; ears, 6-^ lines ; tail, without the hairs, 3 inches 
1 line. — F. M. 

Burrows in the earth ; feeds on nuts and seeds. 

Inhabits the sandy deserts near the Caspian Sea, between 
the Yolga and Jaik, and, according to Pallas, is peculiar 
to that region. 


Genus SPALAX. 

Teeth. — Incisors, |- ; molars, Body prolonged, 

cylindrical ; eyes very minute, or (in one species) wanting 
(according to Pallas, but said by Desmarest to exist beneath 
the skin). 


112 


RODENTIA. 


Spalax typhlus. 

Spalax typhlus, Keys. u. Blas. Sp. 31 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. i. 

p. 65 ; Pallas, Zoo g. Ross. As. 

Aspalax typhlus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 518. 

Podolian Marmot, Pennant. 

Description. — No eyes visible, but they exist beneath the 
skin, and are very minute, not being larger than a grain of 
turnip-seed, and can have no power of vision, the skin and 
fur over them being as thick as on the rest of the face ; 
about the size of the Common Rat ; body cylindrical ; head 
thick and angular ; a ridge extends from the nostrils to the 
ear on each side ; mouth small, higher than wide ; lower 
incisors twice as long as the upper, wedge-shaped, not 
covered by the lip, which is shorter than the upper one ; 
external ears almost none, but the internal organs of 
hearing much developed ; tail none ; feet short, with five 
toes; two inguinal teats. Fur composed of short hairs, 
which are blackish ash at the base, reddish at the tips, 
giving to the animal a general grey colour, varied with 
reddish ; the front of the head and the body beneath are 
blackish. 

Length of the head and body, 7 inches 7 ^ lines ; head, 
1 inch 9 lines ; vertical height of the head, 1 inch 6 lines ; 
width of ditto, 2 inches 1 line.— F. M. 

Lives beneath the ground, in societies, burrowing like 
the Mole, and seldom coming to the surface, but remaining 
in its subterranean tunnels, along which it moves backwards 
and forwards with almost equal facility ; prefers the plains 
to hilly regions ; feeds on the roots of grass and other 
plants. 

Is found through Southern Russia, from the borders of 
Poland to the Volga and the Caucasus, and especially in the 
Ukraine ; in Hungary, Moldavia, jtnd Bessarabia. Blasius 


SPALAX MURINUS. — ARCTOMYS BOBAC. 


113 


includes Greece among the countries which this animal 
inhabits. 


Spalax murinus. 

Spalax murinus , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Mus talpinus , Schreber, Mamrn. iv. p. 711. tab. 203; Pallas, Not. 
Spec. Glir. p. 176. tab. 11. 

Description-. — Pallas, in the ‘ Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica,’ 
gives only the following : — “ S. caudatus, dentibus primo- 
ribus exsertis, unguiculis palmarum minusculis.” Burrows 
like the Mole, and feeds on bulbous roots. 

Common in the more temperate parts of Russia and 
Western Siberia, but is not found in Eastern Siberia, nor 
further north than the 55th degree of latitude. 


Genus ARCTOMYS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, -| ; molars, ~~ =22 ; upper incisors 
very strong, rounded in front ; lower ones somewhat com- 
pressed ; grinders simple, tubercled. Body compact ; head 
wide, flat above ; eyes large ; ears short, and rounded ; 
front feet with four toes and a rudimentary thumb ; hind- 
feet with five toes ; tail moderate or short, velvety. 

Arctomys Bobac. 

Arctomys Bobac , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 522. 

Arctomys BaibaJc , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Description". — Fur greyish black on the top of the head, 
somewhat reddish about the whiskers, and decidedly so on 
the throat, as well as on all the parts beneath, and on 
the inside of the legs. Fur of the upper parts of the body 
grey, with longer hairs interspersed of a brown or black 
colour, with greyish tips ; tail red-brown above near the 


114 


RODENTIA. 


root, yellowish to the middle, and blackish from thence to 
near the tip, which is deep black. 

Length of head and body, 1 foot 4 inches; head, 4 
inches ; ears, 7 lines ; tail, without the fur, 4 inches 4 
lines. — P. M. 

Prefers the less elevated to the higher mountain chains ; 
burrows in a dry soil, choosing a southern exposure ; lives 
in societies of about twenty ; lays up a quantity of dried 
grass for its winter store, on which it feeds when not in a 
torpid state. Utters a whistling note on the approach of 
danger. 

Inhabits the southern parts of Poland and Russia ; is 
very plentiful on the Ural Mountains towards the south. 
In the Ukraine, Pallas says that a variety entirely black 
is not uncommon. The Bobak is to be met with in the 
Bukovina, and is found throughout Great Tartary and the 
South of Siberia, seldom north of the 55th degree of lati- 
tude, and extending, it is said, to Kamtschatka. 

Arctoxnys Marmotta. 

Arctomys Marmotta , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 523. 

Mus Marmotta , Linn. 

The Marmot. 

Description. — Head flat at top; muzzle thick and short; 
eyes large, black ; ears very short, truncated ; whiskers 
stiff. Pur on the body, head, and sides grey-black of 
various shades ; top of the head blackish ; cheeks and ears 
grey ; hairs on the back stiff and coarse, those on the parts 
beneath softer, of a grey colour slightly tinged with red- 
dish; tail furnished with long, tufted, black, and red- 
brown hairs ; claws robust, sharp, and black. 

Length of head and body, 1 foot 3 to 6 inches; head, 
3 inches 8 lines. — P. M. 

Inhabits the highest mountain regions among perpetual 


ARCTOMYS CITILLUS. 


115 


snows, in companies of from six to fifteen individuals ; 
burrowing in the ground, generally on spots sloping to the 
sun, where it lays up large quantities of grass and moss 
both for warmth and food. The Marmots pass the greater 
part of the winter in a state of profound torpor, coming 
out of their holes in spring ; their cry is well known in 
the Alps. The female breeds once a year, producing from 
four to six young at a birth. 

Is found in the Alps of Switzerland, chiefly in the Can- 
tons of Uri, Glarus, and the Grisons, but is not uncommon 
in the Tessin, Vallais, and Bernese Oberland (Tschudi). 
In several parts of the French Alps ; in Savoy and Pied- 
mont, and in the mountains of the South of Germany. It 
is not known in the Pyrenees nor in Spain. 

Subgenus Speemophilus. 

Arctomys citillus. 

Arctomys citillus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 524 ; Pallas, Zoog. Eoss. As. 
Spermopkilus citellus, F. Cuvier. 

Desceiption.— Head less depressed than in the preceding 
species ; eyes large, prominent ; ears very short, almost 
obsolete ; whiskers shorter than the head, black ; on each 
cheek is a pouch reaching to the neck; body elongate, 
cylindrical. Fur soft and short, brown or reddish grey 
above, thickly strewn with small white spots more or less 
distinct ; parts beneath white or yellowish white ; tail 
slender, covered with hairs of the same colour as the rest 
of the fur, and sometimes distichous. 

Length (in the male) of head and body, 9 inches 9 lines ; 
head, 2 inches 5 lines ; ears, 1-1 line ; tail, without the 
hairs, 2 inches 10 lines. — F. M. 

Found singly or in pairs ; burrows in the earth on the 
sloping sides of mountains. Lays up for the winter a 


116 


RODENTIA. 


store of com and other grains, which it conveys in its 
eheek-ponches ; passes that season for the most part in a 
torpid state. 

Inhabits Austria, Bohemia, Poland, and “ Southern 
Russia, from the frontier of Poland to Kamtschatka is 
“ less abundant in the Crimea.” In Silesia it is very com- 
mon in sandy hills, but is not found in many parts of 
Germany. 

Genus SCIURTJS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, -| ; molars, ; the fifth upper 
grinder is found only in young animals, the adults having 
only four, above and below, their summits tubercled ; body 
long, slim ; head small ; eyes large ; ears erect, moderate ; 
fore-feet with four long, separate toes with compressed, 
hooked claws ; thumb small, with a blunt claw ; hind-feet 
very large, with five very long toes with hooked claws ; 
tail long, frequently with hairs arranged in rows on each 
side. 

Sciurus vulgaris. 

Sciurus vulgaris , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 527 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Common Squirrel. 

Description-. — The head is thick, rounded behind, flat- 
tened at the sides and on the forehead ; eyes prominent, 
high on the head ; ears straight, large, with a tuft of long 
hairs at the tips ; the back is arched ; tail long and very 
bushy, the hairs being distichous. Pur on the upper 
parts reddish, or bright chestnut-brown, the red tint being 
deepest on the sides of the head and neck, shoulders and 
outside of legs ; the animal is said to be of a brighter red 
in Britain than elsewhere ; the lower parts are white ; tail 
the colour of the back. Grey, ash- coloured, and black 
varieties are not uncommon. 


SCIURUS ALPINUS. SCIURUS STRIATUS. 


117 


Length of head and body, 9 inches ; head, 2 inches 1 
line ; ears, 9| lines ; tail, without the hair, 6 inches 
6 lines. 

Lives chiefly on trees, which it climbs with great agility. 
Feeds on nuts, acorns, and young shoots ; sits erect, using 
its fore-feet as hands. Produces three or four young at a 
birth, in a nest made of moss, and placed in a fork or hollow 
of a tree. 

Common over nearly the whole of Europe in suitable 
situations. Is generally dispersed over England and Scot- 
land, but is rare in Ireland. Is common in France, and 
all over Russia, except the Crimea, where it is not found 
(Pallas). In northern climates, and sometimes so far 
south as in France, it becomes more or less white in winter. 

Sciurus alpinus, 

Sciurus alpinus, F. Cuvier ; Desm. Mamm. Sp. 846, Supplement. 

Description. — Fur dark brown, speckled with yellowish 
white on the back ; lower parts pure white ; feet rufous ; 
between the white on the neck and the brown on the back 
is a rufous band ; the inside of the legs grey ; margin of 
the lips white ; whiskers black ; the brown parts are 
darker in summer than at other times, in winter they 
become mixed with grey. 

First classed as a distinct species by F. Cuvier. 

Its habits are the same as those of the Common Squirrel. 
It is found in the Pyrenees and in the Alps (De Selys). 

Sciurus striatus. 

Sciurus striatus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 547 ; Schreber. 

Tamia striata, Less. 

Ground Squirrel. 

Description. — This Squirrel belongs to the subgenus Tamm, 
which is characterized by possessing cheek-pouches, and 


118 


RODENTIA. 


by its habit of burrowing in the ground. The ground- 
colour of the upper parts of the body is tawny brown ; 
along the back are five longitudinal black bands ; the space 
between that on the dorsal line, and the first band on each 
side, is light yellow, that which divides this band from the 
outer one being dirty white ; on the head there are four 
streaks, two of them whitish, the others rusty brown ; the 
tail is blackish above, until near the tip, where it becomes 
quite black, the tip itself being white. 

Body, 5 ^ inches ; head, 1^ inch ; tail, 4 inches. — E. M. 

The Ground Squirrel makes its burrow with an entrance 
at each end, and with several side chambers, where it lays 
up its winter stores of various sorts of grain. 

It is found all through Siberia, and extends into that 
comer of Europe which lies between the rivers Kama and 
Dwina and the Ural Mountains. 

A species, said to differ from the above only in some of 
its markings, inhabits a great part of North America. 

Genus PTEROMYS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, ; molars in the young, ; in the 
adult, ; the anterior molar in each upper jaw falls 
out when the animal becomes old ; ears rounded ; eyes 
large ; fore-feet with four long toes, armed with sharp 
claws ; thumb rudimentary, with a blunt claw ; hind-feet 
formed for climbing, with four widely divided toes. The 
skin of the sides is very much extended between the fore- 
and hind-legs, so as to sustain the animal in the air when 
taking its long leaps. The feet are provided with a bony 
appendage, intended to support this membranous extension ; 
tail long, velvety, sometimes with distichous hairs. 


PTEROMYS SIBERICUS. MYOXUS. 


119 


Pteromys Sibericus. 

Pteromys Sibericus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 553. 

Sciurus volans, Linn. 

The Flying Squirrel. 

Description. — Head rounded ; muzzle short and blunt ; 
eyes large, prominent; ears short, rounded; whiskers 
black, stiff, as long as the head; the membrane of the 
sides slightly lobed behind the fore-foot. Fur whitish 
grey on the upper parts of the body, on the lower parts 
pure white ; the base of the hairs and the wool next the 
body brown ; along the inner portion of the membrane 
runs a streak of greyish brown ; the extremities of the 
feet are white ; the tail, which is more than half as long 
as the body, is covered with long ashy grey hairs. 

Length of head and body, 6 inches 4 lines ; head, 1 inch 
8 lines ; tail, without the fur, 3 inches 10 lines. 

Its habits are solitary ; it forms a nest in a hollow tree, 
where it remains generally during the day, coming out at 
night to feed on the young shoots, especially of the birch 
and fir. Climbs with facility, and leaps from tree to tree, 
assisted by the extension of its skin. The female produces 
from two to four young in the month of May. 

Inhabits the forests of Lithuania, Livonia, Lapland, and 
Finland, and is nowhere so common as in Siberia. In 
Eussia proper, according to Pallas, it is very rare ; less so 
in the pine and birch forests of the Ural Mountains. 

Genus MYOXUS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, | ; molars, 1, simple, the summits 
marked with transverse ridges of enamel, thus resembling 
the Eat rather than the Squirrel family. Tail long, some- 
what bushy, the hairs sometimes distichous ; fore -feet with 
four toes and a rudimentary thumb; hind-feet with five toes. 


120 


RODENTIA. 


Myoxus glis. 

Myoxus glis, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 463 ; Pallas, Zoog. Eoss. As. 

Sciurus glis, Linnaeus. 

Le Loir, Buffon. 

Description. — Ears large, oval, almost naked; eyes very 
prominent, edged with black ; upper parts of the body, tail, 
and exterior of the limbs grey mixed with black, and having 
a silvery appearance, the hairs on those parts being ash- 
colour at their roots and for half their length, then either 
grey, or grey and black ; lower parts white, slightly tinged 
in some places with rufous ; tail well furnished throughout 
its entire length with hairs arranged like those of the 
Squirrel, grey above, white beneath. 

Length of head and body, 5 inches 10 lines ; head, 1 inch 
7 lines ; ears, 6 lines ; tail without the hair, 4 inches 
9 lines. 

Lives in woods and forests, climbing the trees and leap- 
ing from branch to branch with great agility; builds a 
nest of moss in hollows of trees or rocks ; feeds on nuts of 
different kinds, and sometimes eats birds’ eggs, or even the 
young birds ; passes the winter in a state of torpor, which 
is said to be less complete when the cold is more than 
usually intense. The female produces in the spring four 
or five young at a birth. 

It is found in Spain, in the South of Erance, and in the 
Department of the Moselle ; in Switzerland, Italy, Ger- 
many, Silesia, Greece, and Russia, near the middle and 
lower course of the Volga, and in the Caucasus. 


MYOXUS NITELA. 


121 


Myoxus nitela. 

Myoxus nitela , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 464. 

Myoxus nitedulee, Pallas, Zoo g. Ross. As. 

Myoxus guercinus, Blasius, Wirbelth. Deutschl. 

Le Lerot, Buffon. 

Description. — Body and head shorter than in M. glis, ears 
longer ; front of the head yellowish rufous ; all the upper 
parts and the outside of the legs grey-rufous, lighter on the 
sides, the lower portion of the legs blackish grey ; lower 
part of the cheeks, chin, and all the lower portion of the 
body, and the inner surface of the legs dirty white ; a black, 
or nearly black patch surrounds the eye, and reaches to 
beneath and behind the ear; a small spot of yellowish 
white in front of the ears, which are covered with very 
short rufous-grey hairs. The hairs of the upper part of 
the body are dark grey for three-fourths of their length, 
chestnut at the extremities ; tail black, with close hairs, 
tip white, ending in a tuft of long hairs. 

Length of head and body, 4 inches 5 lines ; head, 1 inch 
5 lines ; ears, 9 lines ; tail (without the fur), 4 inches. 

Lives generally in gardens and outhouses ; makes its 
nest in holes of walls or trees, feeding on apples, peaches, 
and other pulpy fruits, as well as on nuts and pulse, &c., of 
which dry food it lays up a store for winter, although it 
passes a great part of that season in torpor, about five or 
six individuals inhabiting the same retreat. 'Produces in 
spring five or six young. 

Is found in all the temperate parts of the European Con- 
tinent, as far north as Poland and Prussia. In Russia, 
Pallas notices it as living in hazel woods on the banks of 
the Volga, and near Astrachan. The Prince of Musignano 
records it as very common in Sicily. Crespon finds it in 
the South of France, and De Selys Longchamps all over 
Belgium. 

G 


122 


RODENTIA. 


Myoxus dryas. 

Myoxus dryas , Schreber, tab. 225 B. ; Desm. Mamm. Sp. 465. 

Description - . — Colour of the upper parts of the body and of 
the tail rusty brown, lower parts yellowish white; eye 
placed in the centre of a black patch, as in the M. nitela, 
but this patch reaches only as far as the base of the ear, 
not extending to the shoulder or behind the ear ; tail rather 
short, bushy for the whole of its length, as in the M. glis, 
the hair being distichous. 

Length of head and body, 4 inches ; tail, 3 inches. — F. M. 
Said to inhabit woods in Eussia and Georgia (Desmarest). 
N.B. — This species requires confirmation. Pallas does 
not mention it in his ‘ Zoographia.’ 

Myoxus avellanarius. 

Myoxus avellanarius , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 466 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Myoxus muscardinus, Schreber. 

Common Dormouse. 

Description. — Pur on the upper parts light tawny or 
rufous, parts beneath paler and yellowish. Tail flattened, 
furnished with rather long distichous hairs, dull rufous ; 
whiskers about 1^ inch in length ; the ears are rather more 
than one- third of the length of the head ; the body rounded 
and full ; eyes black, large and prominent. 

It builds a nest of moss in low bushes ; several of which 
are sometimes seen near each other. In winter it coils 
itse’f into a ball, and falls into complete torpor. Feeds on 
corn, haws, acorns, and young hazel-nuts. 

It is found throughout the greater part of Europe. Is 
common in England. In the South of Prance less so than 
the M. glis or nitela (Crespon). Not uncommon in Swit- 
zerland, in the less mountainous parts. Inhabits Germany ; 
is rare in Silesia. Pallas does not include it among Eussian 


HYSTRIX CRISTATA. 


123 


animals in his ‘ Zoo g. Ross. As/ It is found in Italy from 
north to south. To these countries Desmarest adds Spain 
and Sweden. 

Division II. RODENTS IN WHICH THE CLAVICLES ARE 
EITHER IMPERFECT OR WANTING. 

Genus HYSTRIX. 

Teeth. — Incisors, ; molars, ; upper incisors very 
strong, smooth in front, their edges shaped like a chisel ; 
lower incisors strong and slightly compressed ; molars com- 
posite, their summits flat, hut presenting three or four 
spaces surrounded by enamel. Tongue covered with prickly 
scales ; front-feet with four toes and a rudimentary thumb ; 
hind-feet with five toes, all with strong claws except the 
thumb, where the claw is small and blunt. A great part 
of the body covered with quills, or with spines of various 
length, sometimes with hair intermixed ; tail of various 
lengths, sometimes prehensile. 

Hystrix cristata. 

Hystrix cristata , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 555; Waterhouse, Rodentia, 
p. 448. 

Common Porcupine, Waterhouse, l. c. 

Description. — -Head long, flattened at the sides ; muzzle 
very thick, resembling that of the Hare ; eyes small ; ears 
wide, short, margined. The quills of the upper parts of the 
body are very long, especially those on the lower part of the 
back, which are 12 inches in length, striated longitudinally, 
coloured in alternate wide rings of yellow, white, and 
black; on the crown of the head, and extending a short 
distance along the back, is a crest composed of very long 
bristles, curved gently backward ; the shoulders, limbs, and 
under parts of the body are covered with spines ; the tail is 

o 2 


124 


UODENTIA. 


clothed with stout quills, and from its tip spring about 
twenty hollow quills, most of them trimcated and open at 
the end, supported upon a very slender stalk ; the feet are 
covered with long, nearly black, coarse hairs ; the whiskers 
7 or 8 inches long. General colour of the animal brown- 
black ; a white hand crosses the fore part of the neck, and 
extends about half-way up the sides, becoming gradually 
narrower from the middle. 

Length of head and body, 28 inches ; tail without the 
quills, 6 inches ; one of the quills at the end of the tail, 
2 \ inches. 

It burrows in the ground or lives in holes of rocks, feed- 
ing on vegetable substances ; its flesh is well-flavoured. 

The Porcupine inhabits Europe, Greece, Italy in the 
Apennines, and near Pome, and Spain. Some suppose that 
it is truly indigenous only in North Africa, and that it has 
been introduced into Europe. 

Genus LEPUS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, molars, or -|^| . The grinders 
have flat summits, the plates of enamel transverse ; incisors 
grooved, four in the upper jaw, viz. two in front and two 
smaller immediately behind them. Ears very long ; tail 
short, turned up ; fore-feet with five toes, hind-feet with 
four ; hind-legs much longer and more muscular than the 
fore-legs. 

Lepus timidus. 

Lepus timidus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 559 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Eesceiptiox. — E ars longer than the head, which is thick 
and large ; inside of the cheeks hairy ; eyes lateral, large, 
and prominent ; soles of the feet hairy. Eur a fine down, 
with longer hairs intermixed, of a tawny- grey or rusty- 


LEPUS MEDITERRANEUS. 


125 


brown colour, the red tint prevailing more in some parts 
than in others, each hair grey at the roots, black in the 
middle, and tawny at the tips ; under parts of the body, 
inside of the thighs, and a transverse patch beneath the 
lower jaw white ; the neck and chest in front light reddish, 
as are the sides of the body and the legs outside ; ears 
yellowish grey on the anterior part of the outer surface, 
whitish behind, and the tips black ; the tail is black above 
and white beneath. 

Length of head and body, 1 foot 9 inches 8 lines ; head, 
3 inches 10 lines ; ears, 4 inches 10 lines ; tail, 3 inches 
8 lines. 

Feeds entirely on grass and other vegetables. Breeds 
several times in the year, producing from one to five young 
at a birth, after a gestation of thirty days. The young are 
born with the eyes open and clothed with fur. Weighs 
from 8 to 12 pounds. 

This Hare is found in almost every part of Europe ex- 
cepting the most northern. It is the Common Hare of 
England, but is not found in Ireland. Is common in Spain, 
France, Switzerland, Germany, Italy, Greece, Turkey, and 
Poland. In Russia, according to Pallas, it is the only 
species south of the 55th degree of latitude, but does not 
occur further north, and is unknown in Sweden and Nor- 
way. Its range extends into Persia. 

Lepus Mediterraneus. 

Lepus Mediterraneus , Schreber, Saugth. Supp. vol. iv. p. 77 ; Water- 
house, Hist. Rodent, p. 43. 

Description. — Only 5 grinders in the upper jaw on each 
side ; ears longer than the head, nearly naked in the middle, 
and black at the tips ; the legs and back of the neck deli- 
cate yellowish rufous ; hairs on the back near the extre- 
mities almost cream- colour, the extremities themselves 


126 


RODENTIA. 


being distinctly black ; feet mottled with whitish ; fore 
part of the tibia pure white ; a large rufons patch in front 
of the thigh ; tail black above, white beneath ; under parts 
of the body white, tinted with yellow. Resembles the 
L. timidus in many respects, but is one-third smaller, the 
ears longer in proportion, and its general colour much 
paler. 

Length of head and body, 15 inches 5 lines; head, 3 
inches ; ears, 4 inches 3 lines. 

Inhabits the Island of Sardinia, where it is the common 
species, and is thought to occur also at Gibraltar. 

Lepus hybridus. 

Lepus hybridus , Desm. Mamm. note to Sp. 561 ; Pallas, Zoog. Ross. 

As. ; Waterhouse, Rodentia, p. 45. 

Lepus medius, Nilsson, Scandin. Fauna, i. p. 224. 

The Russak Hare, Waterhouse, l. c. 

Description. — Ears rather longer than the head, with a 
black patch at the apex, which is much extended on the 
outer surface. Fur long and silky, much mottled on the 
back with black and pale yellow ; the hairs are pure white 
at the root, then with a ring of black about the middle, 
succeeded by a broader ring of delicate yellow, and the 
tip black ; sides white, tinged with yellow ; cheeks white, 
a yellowish patch on the sides of the muzzle ; fore-legs in 
front and the tarsi tinged with very pale rusty yellow ; 
tail black above, white beneath ; under parts pure white, 
as are the throat and chest. 

Length of head and body, 26 inches ; from tip of nose to 
ear, 4 inches 4 lines; ears, 5 inches ; tail, including hair, 
6 inches. 

Inhabits Russia, generally between 55th and 63rd degrees 
of latitude ; and if it is really identical with the L. medius 
of Nilsson, is also met with in Zealand. 


LEPUS VARIABILIS. 


127 


Lepus variabilis. 

Lepus variabilis , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 561 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. ; Water- 
house, Rodentia, p. 51. 

Blue Hare of Scotland. Irish Hare. 

Description. — Ears shorter than the head, or sometimes 
about equaling it in length, with a small distinct black 
patch at the tips ; tail shorter than in the L. timidus, and 
without the distinct black patch on the upper surface. 
The general hue of the fur on the upper parts is brown, 
obscurely tinted with rufous, finely penciled with black 
and rufous-yellow ; throat and under parts white ; tail 
white, with more or less dark on the upper surface. This 
is the summer attire ; but in winter, in most of the countries 
where it is found, it becomes pure white, excepting the 
tips of the ears, which always remain black, and very fre- 
quently their lower parts and the top of the head retain 
their summer hue. The Irish variety, being the only Hare 
found in that island, is of a richer and more rufous colour 
on the upper parts, the exposed ends of the hairs being 
either black or rufous, and the downy fur has also a redder 
tinge ; the chin is greyish white ; the chest and throat 
grey ; the inside of the legs and parts beneath white ; 
hind-legs mottled with white and rufous. 

The length of head and body varies from 20 inches to 
25 inches ; from tip of nose to root of ears, from 3 inches 
9 lines to 4 inches 3 lines ; ears from 3 inches 5 lines to 
4 inches 3 lines. 

The Varying Hare inhabits Scotland, Cumberland, and 
Ireland, the whole of Norway and Sweden, the north and 
centre of Russia, and all Siberia to Kamtschatka. In Livonia 
it does not become white on the upper parts of the body. 
In Ireland, although not uncommon, with the greater part 
of the body, or even with the entire body white, yet this 


128 


RODENTIA. 


change does not seem to depend upon the season, and 
the white fur is thought to he permanent when it has been 
once assumed. It is found in the Alps of Switzerland, 
Italy, and France, extending to Saltzburg, and is said to 
inhabit parts of Bavaria. With these exceptions, it is 
generally absent in the centre of Europe. According to 
P. Gervais, ‘ Zool. et Paleontol. Frangaise ’ (vol. i. p. 29), 
“ The Varying Hare inhabits some parts of the Pyrenees.” 

Lepns canescens. 

Lepus canescens , Nilsson ; Waterhouse, Rodentia, p. 57. 

The Ashy-grey Hare, Waterhouse, l. c. 

Description. — The following is from Waterhouse’s work, 
taken from a specimen in winter fur : — Fur long and soft, 
of a pale ashy-grey hue on the upper parts of the body ; 
that on the back is composed of hairs which are ashy white 
at the roots, very pale rufous-brown beyond, followed by a 
broad grey-white ring and a dusky point ; sides and limbs 
chiefly ashy white ; feet white, but in parts suffused with 
rufous, the fore-feet most distinctly so ; the whole of the 
under parts, including the chest, are white, as is the tail, 
but this latter is slightly tinted with grey on its upper 
surface; the crown of the head is faintly suffused with 
rufous ; the nose rufous-yellow above ; ears about equal 
to the head in length, with the apex black, and a black 
fringe extending about half-way along the hinder margin. 

Length of head and body, 21 inches ; from nose to ear, 
4 inches 3 lines ; ears, 4 inches. 

This species appears to be confined to the southern parts 
of Scandinavia, where it is found throughout Gothland, ex- 
tending northward to Jaemtland. 


LEPUS CUNICULUS. LAGOMYS. 


129 


Lepus cuniculus. 

Lepus cuniculus , Desm. Mamm. Sp.'560; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

The Rabbit. 

Description. — Fur of a greyish-brown colour; neck red- 
dish ; throat and belly white ; ears about as long as the 
head, brownish grey throughout their whole length ; tail 
brown above, white beneath. The general form is fuller 
and rounder than that of the Hare, and the flanks are less 
contracted ; the head, ears, and hind-legs much shorter. 

Length of head and body, 16 inches 6 lines ; head, 3 
inches 6 lines ; ears, 3 inches 8 lines ; tail, 3 inches 2 lines. 

Breeds several times in the year, producing seven or 
eight at a litter ; burrows in the ground. Every attempt 
to produce a breed between the Rabbit and Hare has 
hitherto failed. 

Is very numerous in almost every part of the British 
Islands ; found in some parts of Germany ; common in 
France, but is nowhere wild in Switzerland (Schinz). In 
Spain it is especially abundant ; is only met with in some 
localities in Italy ; is not found wild in Silesia, Gallicia, or 
the Bukovina ; nor does Pallas include it among Russian 
animals. It occurs in North Africa. 

Genus LAGOMYS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, ^ ; molars, ; ears short, and 
rounded ; hind-legs short ; the upper incisors consist of 
two large teeth in front, and two much smaller imme- 
diately behind these, as in the Hares ; there is one molar 
less in the upper jaw than in that genus. 


130 


PACHYDERMATA. 


Lagomys pusillus. 

Lagomys pusillus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 568 ; Cuvier, Reg. Ann. ; 
Waterhouse, Rodentia, p. 19. 

Lepus pusillus, Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. ; Schreber, Saiigethiere, iv. 
p. 906. pi. 237. 

Description. — General tint of the fur brown, the fur rather 
strongly penciled with black and yellow-brown ; the ears 
are short and rounded, with a broad white margin, and a 
distinct submarginal black band on the inner surface ; ex- 
ternally, the ears are black in front and grey on the hinder 
part, where the hairs are very long ; the hairs on the upper 
parts are blackish grey at their roots, tinged with brownish 
yellow towards the points, which are black; feet nearly 
white above, slightly tinted with yellow ; the thick fur on 
their soles dusky brown ; the tail is not visible. 

Length of head and body, 7 inches ; ears, 8^ inches. 

Burrows in the ground, sometimes taking shelter among 
loose stones ; feeds for the most part at night ; collects a 
large quantity of dried grass or other herbs into small stacks 
for its winter food ; utters a chirping noise, compared by 
Pallas to that of the Quail. 

Inhabits the southern districts of the Ural Mountains, 
and as far west as the Volga, sometimes occurring on the 
right banks of that river ; is found in Siberia as far as 
the Obi. 


Order PACHYDERMATA. 

Some families furnished with three kinds of teeth, 
others with two kinds only. No clavicles. Feet pro- 
vided with hoofs. Do not ruminate. 

Genus SUS. 

Teeth. — Incisors, | or ; canines, ; molars, 


SUS SCROFA. 


131 


=42 or 44 ; the lower incisors directed obliquely for- 
wards, the upper incisors conical ; the canines powerful, 
reaching beyond the mouth ; ' the grinders are simple, the 
anterior ones small and narrow, the hinder ones oblong, 
with the crowns tubercled ; snout elongated, cartilaginous, 
truncated at the extremity ; eyes small, pupil round ; ears 
long, pointed ; feet with four toes, the two centre ones 
large, and resting on the ground ; two others smaller, not 
reaching to the ground, all four hoofed. 

Sus scrofa. 

Sus scrofa, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 615 ; Jenyns, Man. Brit, Yert. 

The Wild Boar. 

Description. — The canines or tusks powerful, triangular; 
the head elongated ; the neck short ; body thick and mus- 
cular ; mouth large, with the upper lip pushed up by the 
tusks ; the body covered with long, stiff, bristly hairs, 
intermixed at the roots with soft woolly fur, the longest 
hairs are on the back ; the general colour dusky grey. 
The young has the body marked with longitudinal stripes 
of a rufous colour. The female (Sow) is smaller than the 
male, and with smaller tusks. 

Goes with young rather more than four months, pro- 
ducing from three to nine at a birth. Deeds chiefly on 
roots and nuts, but also on young animals. This species 
is without doubt the original from which our domestic 
breeds are derived. 

Formerly abundant in the woods in England. Existed 
about London in the time of Henry the Second, if not 
later. Inhabits the temperate regions of Europe and 
Asia ; does not occur north of the Baltic Sea. In France 
it is common in the woodland districts of many depart- 
ments, as well as in Corsica. In Spain it inhabits Cas- 
tille, Estremadura, and the Sierra Morena. Is found in 


132 


RUMINANTIA. 


many parts of Germany, Poland, and Italy ; in the tempe- 
rate parts of Russia, in forests and reedy swamps, and is 
very numerous in the Caucasus. Supposed to appear only 
occasionally in Switzerland from the neighbouring coun- 
tries, sometimes crossing the Rhine from France, but no 
longer breeds there (Schinz). 


Order RUMINANTIA. 

Grinding teeth with their crowns marked with two 
double crescent-shaped ridges of enamel ; the upper 
jaw without cutting teeth, of which there are eight in 
the lower jaw, except in the Camels, which have six 
only; two hoofed toes on each foot, behind these are 
two small spurs representing the lateral toes ; frontal 
bones generally furnished with horns in one or both 
sexes. 

Genus CERVUS. DEER. 

Grinding teeth six on each side in each jaw ; no ca- 
nines, except in the males of some species ; two branched, 
or palmated, deciduous horns, generally confined to the 
males. Feeds on vegetable substances. 

Cervus Alces. 

Cervus Alces, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 662 ; Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Elk or Moose Deer. 

Description. — The horns are palmated, at first dagger- 
shaped, afterwards divided into narrow slips ; and when 
perfect, at the age of five years, they assume the form of 
triangular blades, with tooth-like projections on their outer 
edges ; these latter increase in size with the age of the 
individual ; the head is long, narrow before the eyes, 


CERVUS TARANDUS. 


133 


swollen towards the muzzle, which resembles that of the 
Horse ; upper lip very long and thick ; eyes small, placed 
near the horns ; ears very long ; neck short ; under the 
throat is a tuft of long hair like a beard, and in the male 
a protuberance on the throat ; tail very short ; hair on 
the top of the neck and shoulders very long, forming a 
mane ; the colour of the top of the head, back, and rump 
is tawny brown, neck, shoulders, flanks, and thighs darker 
brown. 

Length of head and body, 6 feet 10 inches ; head, 1 foot 
11 inches ; ears, 10 inches ; horns, about 3 feet ; tail, 
1 foot 6 inches ; height at shoulders, 5 feet 2 inches. 

Feeds on grass and leaves of trees. From the short- 
ness of its neck, it cannot graze without spreading apart the 
fore-legs. Produces one or two, rarely three young at a 
birth. 

The Elk inhabits woods and moist places in Poland, 
especially Lithuania, Livonia, Finland, and all Bussia, 
from the White Sea to the Caucasus, and in Siberia 
(Pallas). “ It is tolerably common in parts of Scandinavia, 
and, being now protected there by law, is increasing, espe- 
cially in Wermeland and Dalecarlia ; it seldom passes the 
limits of 58° and 64° north latitude” (Lloyd). Is supposed 
to he extinct in Silesia and Gallicia, hut is occasionally 
found in parts of East Prussia. 

Cervus Tarandus. 

Cervus Tarandus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 663 ; Pallas, Zoog. Eoss. As. 
Cervus rangifer, Brisson. 

The Eeindeer. 

Description. — The horns, which are carried both by the 
male and female, are much developed ; the shaft is long, 
slender, compressed ; the antlers palmated, and branch- 
ing into several irregular terminal points ; the lachrymal 


134 


RUMINANTIA. 


furrow is distinct ; the ears large ; the tail short ; the 
hoofs rounded and very wide, the spurs are of considerable 
size ; the coat is composed of two kinds of hair, the one 
woolly, the other silky, like that of the Stag, and very 
brittle, longer under the neck than elsewhere. The colour 
of the fur varies with the season and the age of the 
animal ; in the adult it is dark brown in the spring, pass- 
ing by degrees to greyish brown and greyish white, and 
becoming almost white in the middle of summer. The 
lower part of the legs is darker than the upper parts, 
and above the hoof is a narrow white ring. The Fawn is 
brown on the upper parts of the body, with the lower 
parts and legs reddish. 

Length of head and body, 5 feet 6 inches ; tail, 3 inches ; 
height at shoulders, 3 feet 4 inches ; length of the horn, 
3 feet. 

The Reindeer feeds on grass in summer, and on lichens, 
especially the Lichen rangiferinus, in winter. The female 
goes with young eight months, producing two at a birth. 

Great numbers of these animals are domesticated and 
kept by the Laplanders and other tribes of the North, for 
the sake of their milk, flesh, and skins, as well as for the 
purpose of drawing their sledges. They are found wild 
along the Arctic Ocean, and in the northern parts of 
Norway, Sweden, and Russia, occasionally visiting the 
South of Scandinavia as far as Dalecarlia. They are very 
numerous in the Dovre Mountains. 

Cervus elaphus. 

Cervus elaphus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 666 ; Pallas, Zoo g. Ross. As. ; 

Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Red Deer. 

Description. — The male is provided with canine teeth, 
and with horns, which are rounded, with numerous antlers, 


CERVUS DAMA. 


135 


three of them being turned forward ; the lachrymal furrow 
is distinct ; the eyes are large and full. A fine Stag stands 
about 4 feet or more ; the Hind is usually smaller. The 
colour of the fur in summer is reddish brown, the rump 
paler, in winter brownish grey. The Hind goes with young 
eight months and a few days, seldom producing more than 
one, which is spotted on the back and sides. 

Length of head and body, 6 feet 4 inches ; tail, 6 inches. 

Bare in England and Ireland ; more numerous in Scot- 
land, where large tracts of moorland are devoted to its 
maintenance for the sake of the sport of stalking these 
animals. It exists in several of the forests of Erance in a 
wild state. In Sweden it is almost confined to certain 
parts of the province of Scania, and in Norway to a few 
islands along the coast : there are said to be considerable 
numbers on the Island of Hittem (Lloyd). It is not 
found in Eussia in Europe, but occurs in the Caucasus, 
and a great part of Siberia (Pallas). Inhabits most of the 
forests of Germany ; occurs sparingly in Silesia, Gallicia, 
and the Bukovina. Almost, if not quite, extinct in 
Switzerland (Schinz). Is said still to exist in Spain in the 
Asturias. In Italy it is confined to some parts of the 
Alpine range on the northern frontier. 

The variety Cervus Corsicanus (Desm. 1. c.) is found in 
Corsica ; it differs from the more usual form, in being 
smaller and more compact, with the legs shorter ; there 
are also differences in the branching of the horns, and in 
the shade of the fur. 

Cervus Dama. 

Cervus Dama , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 672 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Fallow Deer. 

Description. — The male is furnished with horns, which 
are divergent, the upper part flattened and palmate, the 


136 


RUMINANTIA. 


beam round, with two antlers standing forwards ; has no 
canine teeth; the lachrymal furrows are distinct. The 
colour in those animals confined in parks varies, being 
sometimes reddish brown mottled with white ; sometimes 
yellowish white, mottled with darker spots ; frequently a 
uniform dark-brown, or almost black ; the latter variety 
was introduced to English parks from Norway in the time 
of James the First, as being more hardy than the lighter 
varieties; and, for the same reason, into several parts of 
France about the year 1760. 

Length of head and body, 5 feet; height at shoulder, 
nearly 3 feet ; tail, 7 inches. 

In a wild state, the Fallow Deer exists at present only in 
Spain, Barbary, and in the Island of Sardinia, where it is 
very common. The description and figure of an individual 
from the last-named locality, given by the Prince of Mu- 
signano in his ‘ Fauna Italica,’ resemble closely the com- 
mon mottled race of our parks. That author is inclined to 
look upon the Fallow Deer of Spain as of a different 
species from the Sardinian animal. 

Cervus capreolus. 

Cervus capreolus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 674 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Roe-buck. Roe-deer. 

Description. — The horns rise perpendicularly from the 
head, are very rough and furrowed, with two antlers ; the 
first about one -third from the base, directed forwards ; the 
second higher up, directed backwards. The female is with- 
out horns. The colour varies considerably, being some- 
times reddish brown, in some brownish grey, and in others 
dusky ; the under parts and inside of thighs greyish white ; 
the part round the tail pure white. The tail is very short, 
concealed within the hair ; no lachrymal furrows. 

The female goes with young five months and a half, 


CERYUS PYGARGUS. 137 

producing two at a birth, always male and female (Des- 
marest). 

Length of head and body,. 3 feet 9 inches; horns, 8-1- 
inches ; tail, 1 inch ; height at shoulder, 2 feet 3 inches. 

Is rarely met with in England, and is not found in Ire- 
land, but is numerous in parts of Scotland. Inhabits ele- 
vated forests nearly all over the temperate countries of 
Europe. Is frequent in Russia in woods and hilly districts ; 
also in Poland and Siberia. In Scandinavia it is said to 
be confined to the South of Sweden, and to be rather com- 
mon in parts of Scania (Lloyd). In Spain it is found 
everywhere in suitable situations, and abounds in the Sierra 
de Segura (Widdrington). In Erance it is common in many 
Departments. Is now rare in Switzerland, though for- 
merly common in the less mountainous districts of that 
country. Buonaparte mentions it as one of the principal 
beasts of chase in Italy. It is well known in the German 
forests, and in the Carpathian Mountains. 

Cervus Pygargus. 

Cervus Pygargus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 675 ; Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 
Description. — Horns moderate, rounded, very rugged, with 
one antler directed forwards, originating far above the 
burr of the horn, and another directed backwards near the 
top of the horn. Closely resembles the Cervus capreolus, 
differing principally in the absence of a tail, which is alto- 
gether wanting ; it is also larger than that species, as are 
its horns. The colour of the fur, which is long and close, 
is the same ; the legs and under parts of the body are yel- 
lowish ; inside of the ears and end of the lower lip white ; 
blackish round the nose ; the white space on the buttocks 
is much larger than in the C. capreolus. Blasius, however 
(see 4 Wirbelth. Deutschl.’), does not admit this as a distinct 
species. 


138 


RUMINANTIA. 


It inhabits the mountainous thickets of Russian Tartary 
near the Volga and Ural rivers. 

Genus ANTILOPE. 

Grinding teeth six on each side in each jaw. Horns 
persistent, growing on a bony core, rounded; ears large 
and pointed ; tail short or moderate. 

Antilope Saiga. 

Antilope Saiga , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 691 ; Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Description. — Horns, in the male only, yellow, transparent, 
with from sixteen to eighteen perfect rings, smooth near 
the points, as long as the head ; sometimes there is a third 
horn, or only one (Desmarest) ; nose thick, swollen, com- 
pressed laterally, furrowed or wrinkled transversely; the 
nostrils very open, velvety at their edges ; ears moderate. 
Fur in summer smooth, of a greyish-yellow colour; in 
winter the hairs are longer, and the colour greyish white. 
In size about equaling the Fallow Deer, hut less elegantly 
formed, being rather thick and short. 

Length of head and body upwards of 4 feet ; tail, 3 J 
inches. 

The Saigas collect in autumn into vast herds, containing 
several thousand individuals ; they then migrate into milder 
regions for the winter. They are fond of aromatic or bitter 
plants, are easily fatigued in the chase, and the great pro- 
minence of the nose or snout is said to oblige them to walk 
backwards, or to grasp the herbage sideways when grazing : 
they are easily tamed. The female produces but one at a 
birth, about the month of May. 

This species inhabits parts of Poland and Little Russia, 
Wallachia, and Moldavia, and the other countries bordering 
on the Black Sea, but is nowhere common west of the Volga. 


ANTILOPE RUPICAPRA. 


139 


Most abundant between that river and the Irtish, seldom 
passing north of the 55th degree of latitude. 

Antilope rupicapra. 

Antilope rupicapra , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 731 ; Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 
Capella rupicapra , Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. p. 28. 

The Chamois of the Alps. The Izard of the Pyrenees. 

Description. — Horns in both sexes, those of the male the 
larger, black, rounded, smooth, perpendicular to the head, 
and abruptly hooked backwards near their points ; the two 
central cutting teeth longer than the others ; no tear- 
furrows ; a cavity in the skin at the base of each horn on 
the inside ; a black streak runs along the spine. Fur long 
and thick, dark brown on the body in winter, becoming 
somewhat grey in the spring and tawny brown in summer ; 
the hairs are grey at their base at all times ; head pale yellow, 
excepting a band of dark brown which begins near the nose, 
surrounds the eye, and ends near the base of the horn and 
ear ; the tail is black, a space on each side of it white ; 
hoofs concave beneath, with the edge, especially on the 
outer side, projecting. The females are smaller than the 
males. 

Length of head and body, 3 feet 4 inches ; head to root 
of horns, 6^ inches ; ears, 4^- inches ; tail, without the hair, 
3j inches ; height at the shoulder rather more than 2 feet. 

The female goes with young between seven and eight 
months, and produces one at a birth. The Chamois fre- 
quents the highest Alpine regions, living in small herds of 
from three to six. 

It is found in the Alps of Switzerland, France, Piedmont, 
the Tyrol, Bavaria, and Saltzburg ; in the Apennines and 
Carpathians, and, according to Desmarest and Blasius, in 
Greece, and some of the islands of the Archipelago ; also 
in the Pyrenees, where the animal undergoes some varia- 


140 


RUMINANTIA. 


tion in form and colour, though not sufficient to constitute 
a distinct species. Schinz, in his ‘ Europaische Eauna,’ 
vol. i. p. 86, states the differences thus : — “ In the Pyrenean 
animal the horns are shorter, smaller, more slender, and 
incline rather more outwards. The limbs are finer, and 
the entire animal somewhat more delicately shaped. The 
black dorsal streak altogether disappears in summer, and 
the hair is then redder. The winter coat is not nearly as 
long, and is of a grey-red colour ; and the band surrounding 
the eye is at all seasons rather less conspicuous.” Ac- 
cording to Widdrington, the Izard is found in great abun- 
dance on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees. 

Genus CAPRA. 

Grinding teeth six on each side in each jaw. Horns 
generally present in both sexes, directed upwards and back- 
wards, persistent, hollow, rough, and angular. No tear- 
furrows ; tongue smooth ; tail short ; chin bearded. 

Capra Ibex. 

Capra Ibex , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 735 ; Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. ?; Schinz, 
Europ. Eaun. vol. i. p. 86. 

Le Bouquetin, Buffon ; Der SteinbocJe der Centralalpen, Schinz, 
Europ. Faun. 

The Ibex. 

Description. — The horns of the male are curved in the 
form of a crescent, subquadrangular, very strong and thick, 
wrinkled transversely, flattened and knotty in front, directed 
obliquely backwards and outwards. In the female, smaller, 
compressed, and but slightly nodose. The beard is short 
and very open, and in summer wanting. The fur at that 
season is short, lying close to the body, without any under- 
coat, of an ashy-grey colour above ; in winter, on the same 


CAPRA PYRENAICA. 


141 


parts, it becomes longer, reddish brown, with a thick under- 
fur ; a dark line runs along the back ; the under parts 
are dull white, separated from the darker tints of the 
back and sides by a brown line ; on each side of the tail is 
a whitish space. 

Length of head and body, 4 feet 10 inches ; horns, mea- 
sured along the curve, 2 feet 8 inches; tail, 6^- inches; 
height at shoulder, 2 feet 8 inches. 

The Ibex goes in small herds, frequenting the loftiest 
mountains. The female produces one or two young at a 
birth, after about six months’ gestation. 

It is found, though now but very rarely, in the Alps, 
where, according to Yon Tschudi, it is confined to the 
mountains between the Yallais and Piedmont, the Monte 
Rosa, and parts of Savoy. In Zawadsky’s ‘ Pauna of Gal- 
licia and the Bukovina,’ it is said still (1840) to exist in 
the Central Carpathians, but to have been almost extirpated 
by poachers. It is doubtful if the Ibex of Siberia (Pallas) 
be the same species. 


Capra Pyrenaica. 

Capra Pyrenaica , Sciiinz, Europ. Faun. vol. i. p. 86. 

Ibex Pyrenaica , G-ervais, Zool. et Paleon. Franc. 

Mgoceros Pyrenaica , Gray, Brit. Mus. Catalogue, Mamm. part 3. 

Per SteinbocJc der Pyrenaen , Schinz, l. c. 

The Pyrenean Ibex. Pyrenean Tur. 

Description. — The horns in the male are keeled behind, 
rounded in front, with numerous sharp knots along their 
whole length; they are compressed and twisted, at first 
ascending, then inclining outwards with a pear-shaped 
section. In the female they are smaller, flattened before 
and behind, but slightly ribbed, and running in a simple 
curve to the tips, not twisted. The beard is short, but 
strong and directed backwards ; the head in front, back, 


142 


RUMINANTIA. 


and sides are brownish ash-grey; the sides of the head, 
neck, outer surface of the legs, and sides of the belly black ; 
belly, hinder portion of the fore-legs, and a spot on the 
hind-feet pure white ; a line along the back and the tail 
blackish ; ears yellow-brown. 

The following dimensions of the two species, as well as the 
foregoing description, are from Sehinz’s 4 Enrop. Fauna’ : — 


O. Ibex. 

Head and body . . 3 ft. 5 to 7 in. 

Tail 0 „ 4-i- in. 

Height at the shoulder 
Horns along the curve 


C. Pyrenaica. 

5 ft. 1 in. 

0 „ 8 „ 5 lin. 
2 8 „ 

2 „ 6 „ 


The most obvious distinction between this and the last 
species would appear to consist in the difference of size, the 
shape of the horns, and in the beard. Blasius, notwith- 
standing, considers the C. Pyrenaica to be merely a variety 
of the Swiss Ibex. It is not known what change, if any, 
in the colour of the fur occurs during the year. 

The Pyrenean Ibex inhabits, as its name imports, the 
Pyrenean range, but now only on the Spanish side, and 
there but in small numbers (Widclrington). The Ibex of 
the Sierra Nevada, and of the mountains near Eonda, is 
probably of this species ; that of the Island of Crete is more 
likely to differ ; both these points, however, remain to be 
cleared up, and deserve the attention of travellers. 


Genus OVIS. SHEEP. 

Six grinding teeth in each jaw on each side ; incisors 
equal ; horns hollow, persistent, rough, and angular, more 
or less spirally twisted; chin without a beard; an open 
sac or fossa at the base of the toes on each foot. 


OYIS MUSMON. 


143 


Ovis Musmon. 

Ovis Aries, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 741. 

Ovis Musmon, Keyserling und Blasius, Wirbelth. Europ. 

Ovis Musimon, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. i. p. 88. 

Capra Musmon , Buon. Faun. Ital. 

Muffione of Sardinia, Muffoli of Corsica. 

The Wild Sheep, or Musmon. 

Description. — Homs very large and strong, wrinkled prin- 
cipally at their base, arching backwards, and curled round, 
of a greyish-yellow colour ; ears moderate, straight, pointed, 
only a trace of tear-furrow ; body compact, muscular, 
rounded ; tail very short, naked beneath ; under-fur woolly, 
fine, grey, and twisted like a corkscrew ; the upper fur is 
silky, but short and rather stiff; general colour of the 
upper parts and outside of legs dull rufous, mixed with 
some black hairs ; a line along the back of a darker 
colour ; the under part of the neck to the chest, the lower 
part of the fore-legs in front, and the tail, as well as the 
front and sides of the face, blackish ; a line of the same 
colour extends from one corner of the mouth to the other, 
passing below the eye ; a space beneath the eyes, the belly, 
a patch on each side of the tail, and the edges of the tail 
are white ; on the middle of each flank is a large spot of 
very pale rufous ; the inside of the mouth, the tongue, and 
the nostrils are black. In winter the fur becomes darker 
and more dense. The female differs from the male by the 
smaller size of her horns, or more commonly by their en- 
tire absence ; and is altogether smaller than the other sex. 

Length of head and body (male), 3 feet 4 inches ; tail, 
3J inches ; horns, 1 foot 11 inches ; height at the most 
elevated part of the back, 2 feet 3 to 5 inches. 

The Musmon inhabits the highest and least accessible 
mountains, but always in temperate climates ; it lives in 
herds, which are sometimes composed of one hundred in- 


144 


RUMINANTIA. 


dividuals. The males are polygamous. The female goes 
with young five months, producing two at a birth. 

Is found in the most elevated parts of the Islands of Sar- 
dinia and Corsica, in the province of Murcia in Spain, and 
in some of the Greek islands, including Cyprus, accord- 
ing to Desmarest. 

Genus BOS. 

Six grinding teeth in each jaw on each side. Horns per- 
sistent, hollow, growing on a bony core ; body thick and 
heavy ; tail long, terminated by a tuft of hair ; no tear- 
furrows ; teats four in number. 

Bos Urus. 

Bos Urus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 747 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. i. p. 89 ; 

Keyserling und Blasius, Wirbelth. Europ. 

The Aurochs. 

Description. — Horns short, thick, polished, inclining out- 
wards ; forehead arched, broader than it is high ; the occi- 
pital crest projecting behind the base of the horns ; teats 
arranged in a square, not in a single line, as in the Buffalo 
and Yak ; the neck is thick and short, a hump or boss on 
the shoulders, which, with the head and breast, are co- 
vered with long curled hair ; beneath the throat is a long 
pendent beard ; tail long, but shorter than in the domestic 
breeds, with a tuft of hair at its extremity. General 
colour of the body dark brown, or almost black. 

Length of head and body, 10 feet 3 inches ; height at 
shoulders, 6 feet ; length of horns, 1 foot ; tail, without the 
hairs, 2 feet. 

The Aurochs is not now known to exist in any other 
part of Europe than Lithuania, where it is very strictly 
protected by the Government. In 1846 several herds in- 
habited the great forest of Bielowiza in the government 


BOS SCOTICUS. 


145 


of Grodno, whence a pair was sent by the Emperor of 
Russia to the Zoological Society of London in that year. 
It is found also in the Caucasus. 

Bos Scoticus. 

Bos Scoticus, Urus Scoticus, Bell, Brit. Quad. 

TJrus Scoticus, Hamilton Smith. 

The Chillingham Wild Ox. 

Description. — This species is preserved in a few parks in 
the North of England and South of Scotland, of which the 
two principal are that of Chillingham in Northumberland, 
and Hamilton in Lanarkshire. In the former locality the 
colour is invariably white over the body ; the muzzle black ; 
the whole of the inside of the ear, and about one -third of 
the outside, from the tip downwards, red; the horns are 
very fine, long, and white, with black tips ; the head and 
legs slender and elegant. The weight varies from fifty to 
sixty stone. 

The Hamilton breed is larger and more robust, and 
differs also in colour and markings ; the body being dun- 
white, the inside of the ears, muzzle, and hoofs black, and 
the fore-part of the leg, from the knee downwards, mottled 
with black. The cows are seldom horned. Their bodies 
are thick and short, their limbs stouter, and their heads 
much rounder than in the Chillingham cattle ; the roof of 
the mouth is black, or spotted with black ; The tongue 
tipped with black. 

There seems no reason to doubt that this species is de- 
scended from the wild race of cattle which existed in the 
woods of Britain at the arrival of the Romans. 


H 


146 


CETACEA. 


Order CETACEA. 

Form of the body fish-like ; anterior extremities in 
the form, and with the uses, of fins ; hinder extremities 
wanting ; tail horizontal ; teeth various, sometimes 
entirely absent. 

Genus DELPHINUS. 

Both jaws furnished with numerous simple teeth ; snout 
produced into a beak, separated from the forehead by a 
depression ; a dorsal fin. 

Subgenus 1. Delphinus. 

Delphinus Delphis. 

Delphinus Delphis, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 758; Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Common Dolphin. 

Description. — The teeth vary in number according to age, 
from thirty-two to forty-seven on each side in each jaw ; 
they are sharp, slightly incurved, and lock with the teeth 
of the opposite jaw ; the orifice of the ear is scarcely larger 
than a pin-hole ; the blow-hole is crescent-shaped ; the 
jaws are nearly of equal length, moderately produced ; the 
colour is blackish on the back, greyish on the sides, and 
glittering white beneath ; the female produces a single 
young one at a birth ; while suckling, the mammary glands 
are much enlarged, and the teats crested. 

Length, from 6 to 8, rarely 10 feet. 

It is common on the coasts of the British Islands, and is 
found in all the European seas, Mediterranean, Baltic, &c. 


DELPHINUS TURSIO. DELPHINUS ROSTRATUS. 14/ 


Delphinus Tursio. 

Delphinus Tursio , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 761; Bell, Brit. Quad.; 

F. Cuvier. 

Bottled-nosed Dolphin. 

Description. — Teeth from twenty to twenty-four on each 
side in each jaw, conical, sharp, and slightly bent backwards ; 
dorsal and pectoral fins of equal length, and shorter in pro- 
portion than in most species ; the blow-hole is single, of a 
half-oval form, the convex part being turned forward ; the 
colour is black above, whitish beneath ; the separation of 
the two colours is not abrupt. 

Usual length, about 11 feet, sometimes much less. 

This rare Dolphin inhabits the North Sea ; has been 
taken a very few times on the coast of England and Ireland ; 
and in the Mediterranean, on the Erench coast, occa- 
sionally (Crespon). 

Subgenus 2. Delphinorhynchus. 

Delphinus rostratus. 

Delphinus rostratus , F. Cuvier, Cetacea. 

Delphinorhynchus Bredanensis, Hamilton, Nat. Lib. vol. vii. 

Steno ? rostratus, Gray, Cat. Brit. Mus. Cetacea, 1850. 

The Beaked Dolphin. 

Description. — Teeth from twenty-one to twenty-three on 
each side in each jaw, rather large ; dorsal fin elevated, 
placed near the middle of the body; pectorals scythe- 
shaped ; the tail crescent-shaped, and curved in the middle ; 
the profile of the head insensibly loses itself in that of the 
snout; all the upper parts of the body sooty black, the 
lower rosy white : the junction of the two colours is quite 
irregular. 

Length of a specimen stranded at Brest, about 8 feet. 

h 2 


148 


CETACEA. 


It is said to inhabit the North Sea, and to have been 
taken on the coast of Holland. Yery little is known of 
this species. 

Delphinus leucopleurus. 

Delphinus leucopleurus, Nilsson, Skand. Faun. 

LagenorTiynchus leucopleurus , Gray, Cat. Brit. Mas. Cetacea, 1850. 
White-sided Bottle-nosed Dolphin. 

Description - . — Head gradually sloping into the hack, which 
is very short, depressed, and tapering ; lower jaw rather 
the longer ; body largest at the fins, tapering behind ; 
pectorals rather far hack and elongate, slightly falcate ; 
dorsal high, falcate, rather behind the middle of the back ; 
on the hack near the tail, is a low, rounded, fin-like ridge ; 
lobes of the tail rather narrow, elongate ; teeth 28 on each 
side in the upper jaw, 25 on each side in the lower jaw, 
small, sharp, curved. Colour of the upper parts bluish 
black, beneath white, with a large, oblique, grey, or white 
longitudinal streak on the hinder part of each side. 

The following are the measurements of a female from the 
Orkneys, May 1835, as given by Gray : — Length from snout 
to centre of tail, 6 feet 5J inches ; free portion of pectoral 
fin, 10 inches ; tail, from tip to tip, 14 inches ; from snout 
to angle of mouth, 9 inches ; length of cranium, 15 inches ; 
of spinal column, 55-i- inches ; vertebrae, 81 ; cervical, 7 ; 
dorsal, 15; posterior, 59. Teeth, | q . The external 
opening of the nostrils near the top of the head was cres- 
cent shaped, and placed transversely ; weight, 14 stone. 

This species inhabits the North Sea and the coasts of 
Greenland, and has been taken off the Orkneys, and in the 
Gulf of Christiania in Norway. 


DELPHINUS ALBIROSTRIS. PHOCLENA COMMUNIS. 149 


Delphinus albirostris. 

Delphinus albirostris, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846. 
Delphinus Ibsenii , Nilsson, Skand. Faun. i. 600. 

Lagenorhynchus albirostris , Gray, Cat. Brit. Mus. Cetacea, 1850. 
White-beaked Bottle-nose. 

Description. — Appears closely to resemble the last species 
in general form and proportions. The beak is rather 
longer; teeth, > small, curved; jaws moderately 

elongate ; blow-holes horseshoe -shaped, convex towards 
the head; upper parts and sides very rich deep velvet 
black ; nose a well-defined line above the upper jaw ; the 
whole under jaw and belly cream-colour, and varied with 
chalky white ; fins and tail black ; external cuticle soft and 
silky, so delicate as to be easily rubbed off. 

The following are the measurements of a specimen from 
Yarmouth : — Entire length not given ; mouth, 9 inches 
6 lines ; nose to eye, 13 inches ; length to pectorals, 20 
inches ; of pectoral, 15 inches ; to dorsal, 41 inches ; dorsal, 
11| inches ; height of dorsal, 10 inches ; width of tail, 
22 inches. 

Inhabits the North Sea, and has been taken on the 
coast of Norfolk. 

Genus PHOC^NA. POEPOISE. 

Both jaws furnished with numerous simple and equal 
teeth ; head blunt, not beaked ; a dorsal fin. 

Subgenus Phooena. 

Phocsena communis. 

Delphinus Phoccena, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 770. 

Phoccena communis , F. Cuvier ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Common Porpoise. 

Description. — Teeth twenty-two to twenty-five on each 
side in each jaw, straight, compressed, and rounded at their 


150 


CETACEA. 


summits ; snout short, rather obtuse at the tip ; under 
jaw rather longer than the upper ; eyes small, almost on a 
line with the mouth ; pectoral fins placed low down, oval, 
and somewhat pointed ; dorsal rather beyond the middle of 
the body ; skin smooth, dusky on the back, whitish on the 
belly, the colours meeting on the sides. 

Length from 4 to 5T feet. 

Common in the British Seas, the Baltic, and in the ad- 
joining parts of the Atlantic Ocean. Inhabits the Medi- 
terranean and Black Seas, and the Sea of Azoph. 

Phocsena Orca. 

Thoccena Orca , F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Cet. ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Delphinus Grampus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 774. 

The Grampus. 

Description. — Much larger than the last species ; snout 
very short and obtuse ; upper jaw somewhat longer than 
the lower, which, however, is broader than the upper ; 
teeth varying in number with the age of the animal, 
generally twenty-two in each jaw, unequal, conical, a little 
bent at the summits ; eyes almost in the same line with 
the mouth; dorsal fin nearly in the middle, very much 
elevated, pointed at the extremity ; pectorals very broad, 
oval ; tail crescent-shaped ; skin smooth, glossy black above, 
white beneath. The two colours separated by a well-defined 
line on the sides ; an oval white spot behind each eye. 

Length, from 20 to 25 feet. 

The Grampus goes in large herds, is frequently seen oft' 
the northern parts of the British Islands, and occasionally 
in the more southern regions. Is very numerous in the 
North Seas. Sometimes visits the French coasts of the 
Bay of Biscay. One taken near Cette, in the Mediter- 
ranean, is mentioned by Gervais, ‘Zoologie et Paleon- 
tologie Frangaise,’ vol. i. p. 148. 


PHOC-iENA MELAS. 


151 


Phocaena melas. 

Phoccena melas, Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Phoccena globiceps, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Cet. 

Delpkinus globiceps, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 777. 

Delphinus deductor, Scoresby. 

Round-headed Porpoise or Caaing Whale. 

Description . — The head is short and round, with the fore- 
head remarkably convex and prominent ; upper jaw pro- 
jecting a little beyond the lower ; teeth conical, sharp, a 
little bent, varying in number with the age of the animal, 
generally from eighteen to twenty- six in each jaw ; eyes 
very small ; the blow-hole single, placed in a hollow to- 
wards the back of the head, crescent -shaped, the horns 
directed forwards. The dorsal fin is 4 feet long, and 15 
inches high, placed about the middle of the body; pec- 
torals narrow and elongated, more than in any other 
known cetaceous animal, being upwards of 5 feet in length, 
and only 1 foot 6 inches broad; caudal fin about 5 feet broad, 
deeply divided in the middle. The general form of the 
body is rather elongated, tapering towards the tail. The 
colour of the whole animal rich deep black, except a white 
band extending from the throat to the vent. Skin very 
smooth, shining like oiled silk. 

Length, from 16 to 24 feet. 

Goes in herds of from 100 to more than 1000 indi- 
viduals, the whole of which are sometimes captured when 
one of them happens to be cast ashore, from their habit of 
following each other. Their favourite food appears to be 
the cuttle-fish. 

Is common around the Orkneys and other Scotch Islands, 
the North of Ireland, Iceland, and the North Sea in 
general. Is sometimes taken on the north coast of France. 
Said by Risso to visit the Mediterranean and the shores of 
Nice yearly in summer. 


152 


CETACEA. 


Phocsena grisea. 

Phoccena grisea. Lesson, Nat. Lib. vol. yii. (figured). 

Belphinus griseus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 775 ; F. Cuvier, Cetacea. 
Grampus Cuvieri, Gray, Cat. Brit. Mus. Cet. 1850. 

Description. — Head large, obtuse, somewhat rounded ; 
the upper jaw several inches longer than the lower ; the 
teeth of the upper jaw fall out while it is still young, as 
do many of those of the lower jaw. The most usual dental 
formulary is said to be The dorsal fin commences 

about the middle of the back, is elevated and pointed, but 
is lower and placed further back than in P. Orca ; pec- 
torals very much developed; the tail large. Colours, 
bluish black above, dull white beneath, merging into each 
other on the sides. 

Total length, 10 or 11 feet. In an individual of 10 
feet long (see Gray’s Catalogue), the length of the pec- 
torals is 3 feet ; height of dorsal, 1 foot 2 inches ; entire 
length of skull, 17^ inches. 

Resembles the Phoccena melas somewhat in appearance 
and habit, but is much smaller, and its dorsal fin is much 
more elevated. 

Inhabits the North Sea ; has been taken in a few in- 
stances on the north coast of France, once at Brest, then 
at Aiguillon in La Vendee, in 1822 ; and one on the Isle 
of Wight in 1845. 


Phocaena Rissoana. 

Phoccena Bissoana, Lesson. 

Delphinus Bissoanus, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 778. 

Gram/pus Bissoanus, Gray, Cat. Brit. Mus. Cet. 

Description. — Teeth conical, early deciduous, especially 
those of the upper jaw. In the individual here described, 
taken at Nice, there were in all only ten teeth, viz. five on 


BELUGA LEUCAS. 


153 


each side towards the front of the lower jaw. The head 
blunt and somewhat rounded ; dorsal fin rather elevated, 
placed nearer to the tip of the tail than to the end of 
the nose; pectorals large, pointed, set on low. Colour 
blackish above, . with many irregular lines of a lighter 
colour, white beneath; at the base of the pectorals is a 
kind of oval mark of the same shade with the above men- 
tioned lines on the back. One of the Nice specimens has 
the dorsal, pectorals, tail, and hinder part of the body 
below, varied with black. The females are said to be of 
a uniform brown colour, with irregular lines, as in the 
males. 

Entire length, 9 feet ; head, 18| inches ; height of dorsal, 
9 inches. 

Does not appear to be known anywhere except in the 
Mediterranean, off the coasts of Piedmont. 

Genus BELUGA. 

The genus Beluga differs from Phoccena only in the 
absence of a dorsal fin (Cuvier, Peg. Ann.). 

Beluga leucas. 

Beluga leucas , Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Delphinus leucas , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 779. 

Delphinapterus leucas , Gerard. 

Delphinapterus albicans , Jenyns, Man. Brit. Vert. 

Description. — Head broad and blunt ; teeth eight or nine 
on each side, above and below, short and blunt ; the gape 
is narrow ; the upper jaw a little overhangs the lower ; 
old individuals are found without any teeth in the upper 
jaw ; pectoral fins short, thick, oval ; caudal fin very broad 
and powerful ; no dorsal fin. The colour of the young 
animal is bluish grey, changing to white with age ; the 
adult is quite white. 

h 5 


154 


CETACEA. 


Length over all in a straight line, 13 feet 4 inches 
length following the curve of the hack, 14 feet 5 inches ; 
length of pectoral, 2 feet ; breadth of tail, 3 feet. 

The flesh is eaten by the inhabitants of the most northern 
coasts. 

The Beluga is confined to northern latitudes ; is common 
and gregarious on all the coasts of the Arctic Ocean, espe- 
cially near the mouths of rivers, which it ascends for many 
miles. It is a very rare visitor to the British Seas ; one 
was taken in the Frith of Forth in the summer of 1815. 

Genus HYPEROODON. 

Snout produced and depressed ; the forehead much ele- 
vated ; the teeth only two in number, in the anterior part 
of the lower jaw ; a dorsal fin. 

Hyperoodon Butzkopf. 

Hyperoodon Butzkopf, Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Delphinus hyperoodon, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 784. 

Hyperoodon bidens, Jenyns, Brit. Vert. 

Heterodon diodon. Keys, und Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. 

The Bottle-head. 

Description. — Two teeth only in the fore part of the lower 
jaw ; the body elongated, its greatest circumference in the 
region of the pectoral fin ; forehead high, very convex, 
rising suddenly from the snout, which is short and de- 
pressed, terminating in a kind of beak, somewhat like that 
of the true Dolphins ; lower jaw rather longer and larger 
than the upper ; teeth conical and pointed, sometimes 
wanting, or not appearing above the gums ; palate studded 
with little horny eminences, considered by Cuvier as rudi- 
ments of whalebone ; eyes large, a little above the line of 
the lips ; blow-hole crescent-shaped, with the horns directed 
towards the tail ; dorsal fin placed considerably beyond the 


HYPEROODON DESMARESTII. 


155 


middle of the body, but little elevated, lanceolate, pointed, 
directed backwards; pectorals small, oval, in the same 
horizontal line with that of the month ; skin smooth and 
glossy ; blackish lead colour above, whitish beneath, the 
two colours intermixing on the sides. 

Entire length, from 20 to 25 feet. 

Two individuals of this species were taken near Honlleur, 
in France, in 1788. Two more have been stranded near 
Caen, one of them in 1842, the skeletons of which are in 
the Paris and Caen museums. One was taken on the 
Dutch coast in July 1846. The Bottle-head has been 
taken a few times on the east coast of England, and more 
frequently on the north-east coast of Ireland. In the 
‘Illustrated London News’ of February 17, 1855, is an 
account of an individual taken a short time previously in 
Solway Erith, which measured 25 feet in length, with a 
girth of 16 feet. 


Hyperoodon Desmarestii 

Delphinus Sowerbyi, Desm. Mamm. Sp. 785. 

Hyperoodon Desmarestii, Gray, Cat. Brit. Mus. Cetacea, p. 69. 
Delphinus Desmarestii , Risso, F. Cuvier. 

Ziphius cavirostris , Gervais, Zool. et Paleont. Franc, vol. i. p. 154. 
Diodon Sowerbcei , Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Description. — The two teeth of the lower jaw large and 
conical, nicked near the tip ; head not swollen, ending in 
a long nose ; upper jaw shorter, toothless ; lower much 
longer, and bent up ; eyes small, oval ; blowers large, 
semilunar; pectoral fins short, dorsal rather beyond the 
middle of the back, nearly above the vent ; caudal fin 
broad, festooned. 

Length, nearly 16 feet. 

“ Differs from the last species in the forehead not being 
swollen, and in the lower jaw being produced and bent up, 


156 


CETACEA. 


in the pectorals being pointed, the dorsal more obtuse, and 
the body streaked with white ; the colour of the upper 
parts is steel- grey, with numerous irregular white streaks ; 
white beneath ; tail slender, long, keeled, rounded on the 
belly.” [The foregoing account is from Gray’s Brit. Mus. 
Cat., quoted from Bisso.] 

It is said by Gray to be common near Nice in March 
and September. One was stranded on the Trench coast, 
in the Department of the Herault, in 1850, recorded by 
Gervais, who looks upon this species as identical with the 
Hyperoodon Doumetii of the coast of Corsica. 

N.B. — It would appear to be the same with the Del- 
phinus Sowerbyi of Desmarest, or the Diodon Sowerbcei of 
Bell. 

Genus MONODON. 

Teeth two in number, one generally remaining unde- 
veloped in the jaw, the other stretching forwards in a 
line with the body, long, straight, spirally twisted; no 
dorsal fin. 

Monodon monoceros. 

Monodon monoceros , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 787 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. ; 

Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. i. p. 94. 

Ceratodon monodon , Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. p. 74. 

The Narwhal, or Sea Unicorn. 

Description. — One tooth only developed, of great length, 
sometimes exceeding 6 feet, with a few instances where 
it has reached even 10 feet, spirally twisted, quite straight, 
tapering to a blunt point, composed of very hard and white 
ivory; the outline of the head varies in different indi- 
viduals, according to the amount of fat on the forehead ; 
the first half of the body is nearly cylindrical, the rest 
conical ; in this latter portion there is a low dorsal and ven- 
tral ridge, and less distinctly marked lateral ridges, giving 


PHYSETER MACROCEPHALUS. 


157 


it a subquadrangular form ; the pectoral fins are very 
small, and there is no dorsal fin, so that the tail forms the 
only effective means of progression ; the general colour is 
yellowish white, with numerous blackish spots of various 
sizes and figures ; in the young the spots are less distinct, 
or confluent, and the ground colour is blackish grey. 

The length of the body, without the tooth, of a middle- 
sized adult individual, is 15 feet ; of the tooth, 5 feet 6 
inches ; length of the pectoral fin, 13 inches ; breadth of 
the tail, 3 feet 1 inch. 

The Narwhal is a very powerful and active creature, 
swimming with great swiftness ; feeds on molluscous and 
other soft animals ; appears in herds of about six together. 
The blubber is often half a ton in weight, and yields a large 
proportion of fine oil. 

It inhabits the Northern Seas, seldom coming so far 
south as even the northern islands of Scotland. It has 
been observed on the British coasts only three or four 
times. 


Genus PHYSETER. 

Head enormously large, truncated in front ; perfect teeth 
in the lower jaw only; in the upper jaw either wanting or 
few, and rudimentary. 

Physeter macrocephalus. 

Physeter macrocephalus , Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. p. 74 ; 

Schinz, Europ. Eaun. vol. i. p. 95 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 
Spermaceti Whale. Common Cachalot. 

Description. — The head is of enormous size, forming about 
half the entire bulk, the body tapering from it to the tail ; 
the back is smooth, with one or two low protuberances ; 
the upper jaw, which overhangs the lower by four or five 
feet, is without visible teeth, but there are a few concealed 


158 


CETACEA. 


within the gnms ; the lower jaw is very narrow, the two 
branches being in contact throughout the greater part of its 
length, with from twenty to twenty-five small conical teeth 
on each side, according to the age of the animal ; the eye 
is small ; the eyelids are furnished with a few stiff hairs ; 
the pectoral fins are small, and slightly grooved longi- 
tudinally ; the caudal fin very broad, divided at the middle 
into two equal lobes ; the general colour is greyish black 
above, lighter beneath. 

The entire length of this huge animal sometimes reaches 
70 feet. 

Inhabits the Northern Seas, where it is extensively fished 
for ; has occurred a few times on the British coasts, and 
occasionally finds its way into the Mediterranean. 

Professor Bell, in his e History of British Quadrupeds,’ 
states, that from repeated reported instances of Spermaceti 
Whales having been seen with a very high narrow dorsal fin, 
he is of opinion that a second species of Physeter exists, to 
which he applies the name Physeter Tursio, or High-finned 
Cachalot. 

Genus BAXJENA, 

The head very large. Palate furnished with baleen or 
whalebone. No teeth ; no dorsal fin. These are the true 
WTiales. 

Balaena mysticetus. 

Balcena mysticetus , Desm. Mamm. Sp. 798 ; Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. 

Europ. p. 75 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Common or Greenland Whale. 

Description. — The head, though large, is smaller in pro- 
portion than in Physeter ; the upper jaw, which is very 
narrow, is furnished, in the place of teeth, with numerous 
horny laminae, the whalebone of commerce, descending 
perpendicularly from the palate. This apparatus serves as 


BAUENA MYSTICETUS. — BAL.ENOPTERA. 


159 


a strainer for the food, which consists of molluscous, radiate, 
or crustaceous animals, with which the ocean in some 
parts abounds, and which are taken in by the Whale 
with open mouth, the water accompanying them being 
discharged through the plates of whalebone. The body 
is bulky forwards, largest about the middle, and taper 
rather suddenly towards the tail. The head is narrow 
above, very broad, flat, and rounded beneath ; it occupies 
one- third of the entire length. The line of meeting of the 
upper and lower lips appears in front in the form of the 
letter U. The eyes are remarkably small. The external 
opening of the ears is scarcely perceptible. Pectorals of 
moderate size, placed about two feet behind the angle of the 
lips. The tail is of great breadth, semilunate on its ante- 
rior margin, deeply divided in the middle. The anterior 
part of the body is nearly cylindrical, the hinder portion 
rhomboid. General colour blackish grey ; the front of the 
lower jaw and part of the throat and belly white. 

The usual length is from 50 to 65 feet, and the greatest 
girth from 30 to 40 feet. 

Abounds in the Northern Seas, where great numbers are 
taken every year for the sake of their oil and whalebone, 
one animal sometimes yielding twenty tons of oil, and 
whalebone twelve feet long. 

Is not of very uncommon occurrence on the British and 
other coasts of Northern and Western Europe, and of the 
Mediterranean Sea. 

Genus B ALiEN OPTERA, 

Head somewhat depressed, rather slender; palate fur- 
nished with short plates of whalebone ; no teeth ; a dorsal 
fin ; longitudinal folds on the throat and belly. 


160 


CETACEA. 


Balaenoptera Boops. 

Balcenoptera Boops, Keys. u. Blas. Wirbelth. Europ. p. 75 ; Bell, 
Brit. Quad. 

Balana rostrata, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. i. p. 96. 

Northern Rorqual, or Fin-fish. 

Description. — The Rorqual differs from the true Balaena in 
the general form of the body, which is more elongated ; 
the head in particular is more slender and attenuated at the 
muzzle ; the presence of a dorsal fin is also a distinguishing 
mark. From the lower lip to the abdomen run a number 
of longitudinal folds of skin, which are said to have given 
the animal its name of Rorqual, signifying, in the Nor- 
wegian language, a Whale with folds. The whalebone is 
comparatively short, and the yield of oil less plentiful than 
in the other Whales. 

It is the largest of the family, and consequently of all 
living animals, sometimes reaching the enormous length of 
80 or 100 feet. 

It feeds not only upon mollusca and small Crustacea, but 
also upon fish of considerable size. Is of not unfrequent 
occurrence on the British coasts, being often seen off the 
Orkneys and Shetland, and is very common in the Northern 
Seas. 


TESTUDO MARGINATA. 


161 


Class REPTILIA. REPTILES. 

Vertebrate animals, with cold blood ; the heart with 
one or two auricles, and one ventricle; oviparous; 
breathing by lungs, or by lungs and gills ; the body 
covered with shelly plates, or with scales, or with a 
soft, naked skin. 

Order TESTUDINATA. (TORTOISES.) 

The body is enclosed in a double shield, the head, 
neck, limbs, and tail alone being free ; the upper shield, 
or carapace, is formed by the union of the ribs and dorsal 
vertebrae ; the lower one, or plastron, by the pieces of 
the sternum. The jaws are horny, without true teeth. 
The feet four in number. 

Genus TESTUDO. LAND TORTOISES. 

Carapace bulged, supported by a solid, bony frame-work, 
and soldered by the greater portion of its lateral edges to 
the plastron (or under shell). Legs truncated ; toes very 
short, united almost to the nails, of which there are five to 
the fore-feet and four to the hinder feet, all thick and 
conical. 

Testudo marginata. 

Testudo marginata , Dum. et Bib. yol. ii. p. 57. 

Ckersus marginatus, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Carapace oblong, oval, much arched or 
vaulted, with the hinder portion of its margin, in adults, 


162 


TESTUDINATA. 


very broad, and almost horizontal ; provided with a neck- 
plate ; the caudal plate is simple, the plastron moveable 
behind. In the young the carapace is not dilated behind ; 
the plates of the disk, and the front half of those of the 
margin, are blackish brown, with the centre of the former 
and the hinder portion of the latter yellow ; the body be- 
neath is of the same colour, with a large triangular black 
spot on six or eight of the plates ; the tail is thick, short, 
conical, scarcely reaching beyond the carapace ; the head, 
upper part of the neck and tail, and the outside of the 
hind-feet are deep black ; the caudal region beneath, thighs, 
and neck below pale orange, clouded with dark brown. 

It is the largest of the three European Tortoises, but 
seldom exceeds one foot in total length. 

The extended hind margin of the carapace is the chief 
mark of distinction between this and the allied species. 

This Tortoise is found in Greece, where it is at least 
equally common with the T. Grazed. It is said by Schinz 
to occur also in Candia. In Egypt and Barbary less common 
than T. Mauritania. 

Testudo Mauritania. 

Testudo Mauritanica , Dum. et Bib. vol. ii. p. 44. 

Testudo ibera , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 

Description. — Carapace oval, vaulted, one-third longer than 
its breadth in full-grown individuals, provided with a neck- 
plate ; the caudal plate simple ; the plates of the margin 
inclined backwards ; on each thigh is a large conical tu- 
bercle ; these and the shorter tail are sufficient to distin- 
guish it from T. Grazed. The plastron is moveable be- 
hind ; the tail is short, and without a nail at its tip ; the 
homy gums are quite without dentations in the adult ; the 
young, however, has three small ones in the lower jaw, 
which disappear with its growth. The carapace is olive, 


TESTUDO GRiECA. 


163 


with a black band along the front and sides of each plate 
of the disk, on the surface of which are several black spots, 
and a black space in the centre of each plate ; sometimes, 
however, the black band is wanting ; on each plate of the 
plastron is a large black spot on an olive ground ; the in- 
side of the fore-feet, upper parts of the hind-feet, and 
of the neck, the tail, and parts adjoining are grey-brown, 
becoming lighter on the thighs and neck; the jaws are 
black. 

The Testudo Mauritanica, which is very common in Bar- 
bary and Algeria, is found in Europe only on the shores of 
the Caspian, and in the valleys of the South of the Crimea. 
Many are sent from Africa to Paris, where they are kept 
in gardens, feeding on roots and leaves, preferring those of 
the lettuce. 

Testudo Graeca. 

Testudo Gr<eca, Dum. et Bib. vol. ii. p. 49 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 

Description. — The carapace is vaulted, oval, entire, rather 
larger behind than before, with a neck-plate ; the caudal 
plate is double, much inclined, and sometimes curved in 
towards the tail, which latter is long, and ends in a nail ; 
the plastron is not moveable behind ; the scaly tubercles 
on the front of the fore -legs are not nearly so strong as in 
the two preceding species, and there is no large conical 
tubercle behind the thighs. The marginal plates of the 
carapace have triangular spaces of a deep black, the central 
plates are spotted in their centres with the same colour, 
and a black band runs along three of their sides, the hinder 
edge remaining always yellow ; the sides and central line 
of the plastron is yellowish green, the rest black. The 
general colour of the body is greenish ; the markings vary 
in form and arrangement in different individuals, and also 
with the age of the animal. 


164 


TESTUDINATA. 


Entire length about 1 foot. 

Feeds on vegetables, and seems to prefer sandy situations. 
The Greek Tortoise appears to be confined to a portion of 
Southern Europe, viz. Greece, Italy, and the principal 
islands of the Mediterranean and the South of France. Yery 
common in Sicily and around Home. Pallas records it as 
inhabiting the neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea. 

Genus EMYS. FRESHWATER TORTOISES. 

The animals of this genus are distinguished from those 
of the preceding chiefly by the greater separation of the 
toes, which are terminated by longer nails, and have their 
intervals filled up by membranes. There are five nails to 
the fore-feet, and four to the hinder. Their form is gene- 
rally flatter than in the Land Tortoises, and they feed on 
insects and small fish. 


Emys lutaria. 

Cistudo Europcsa, Dum. et Bib. vol. ii. p. 220. 

Emys lutaria , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Carapace wide, oval, more or less depressed ; 
black, marked with yellow spots varying in distance from 
each other, but arranged like rays, extending from the 
centres of the plates to their circumferences; the neck- 
plate is small ; the plastron is attached to the carapace by 
a cartilage, and is moveable before and behind ; the tail is 
rather long, rounded, and ending in a point ; it is always 
shorter and thicker at its base in the males than in the 
females. 

Entire length, from 9 to 11 inches. 

Lives in lakes and marshes, remaining generally buried 
in the mud ; as winter approaches, it comes to land and 
passes that season in a state of torpor, hidden in some hole. 


EMYS CASPICA. 


165 


The female lays her eggs in a dry place, but close to the 
water ; they are white, marbled with ash-grey. This Tor- 
toise is widely spread over Europe, being found in Greece, 
Italy and its islands, the South of Erance, Hungary, Ger- 
many as far north as Prussia, the Crimea, and shores of the 
Caspian Sea. In most of these countries its flesh is eaten, 
though not much esteemed, by the natives. 

Emys Caspica. 

Emys Caspica, Dum. et Bib. vol. ii. p. 235. 

Terrapene Caspica, Buon. Eaun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — The carapace is oval and smooth in the adult, 
but in the young animal with three ridges ; the neck-plate 
is short, wide, four-sided, narrower in front than behind ; 
the sternum does not, at either end, reach to the corre- 
sponding extremity of the carapace ; the limbs, especially 
the thighs, are granulated ; the latter have also a number 
of sharp tubercles scattered over their surfaces, as has the 
basal portion of the tail above and beneath ; the tail is vari- 
able in length, but generally about half as long as the 
sternum ; its base is thick and its tip slender. The general 
colour of the carapace is olive ; over its surface is a net- 
work of winding, confluent, yellow lines ; these, although 
conspicuous in the living animal, become indistinct in spe- 
cimens preserved in spirits ; the plates of the disk are sur- 
rounded by a black border, which is wanting in the very 
young; the plates of the sternum are at first, and for a 
long period, black, with the exception of a small oblong 
yellow spot on their outer margin ; as the animal grows 
older, this spot enlarges in an irregular manner. 

Entire length about 15 inches. 

This Tortoise is found in the neighbourhood of the Cas- 
pian Sea, where, as well as in the Morea, it is common in 


166 


TESTUD1NATA. 


shallow waters. It has been found also in Dalmatia, near 
Ragusa. 

Emys Sigriz. 

Emys Sigriz, Dum. et Bib. yol. ii. p. 240. 

Terrapene Sigriz , Buon. Faun. Ital. 

Description. — This species closely resembles the preceding. 
Its carapace, however, is never tri-carinated, but exhibits 
along its centre a single raised line, much more elevated 
in its hinder than in its anterior portion ; this gradually 
disappears with advancing age : the surface, moreover, 
above the eyes, instead of being flat or slightly hollowed, 
is somewhat convex. The markings of the carapace differ 
considerably in the two species. In the present one, the 
yellow network is altogether wanting, while in the centre 
of each plate of the disk is an orange spot surrounded with 
black, and on its other parts two or three of a less regular 
form; the plates of the margin are also spotted with 
yellow, varying in extent and brightness of hue in dif- 
ferent individuals. The head is uniform olive-green, with- 
out a trace of yellow lines. The longitudinal lines on the 
neck, instead of being yellow, edged with black, as in the 
E. Caspica, are orange, and without a black border. The 
sternum is brown, with a broad, waved, pale yellow line 
along the margin, extending sometimes over the centre, 
and following the sutures of the plates. In animals of 
every age, a deep black, longitudinal band is observed on 
each lateral prolongation of the plastron. 

Its size is less than that of the foregoing species ; the 
total length of a small specimen given in the ‘ Erpetologie 
Generate,’ being 16 centimetres, about 61 inches. 

It is found in Europe, in Spain only, but is common on 
the opposite coast of Africa, and has been obtained at 
Algiers. 


CHELONIA CAOUANA. 


167 


Genus CHELONIA. 

Legs adapted for swimming, forming a sort of paddle or 
fins ; the body enclosed in a horny case ; the jaws are 
horny, forming a beak like that of a bird of prey, hooked 
above and below, sometimes serrated on the edges. 

Seldom leaving the sea except at the breeding-season, 
when the female deposits a large number of eggs in the 
sand above high-water mark, leaving them to he hatched 
by the heat of the sun. The eggs are very numerous and 
perfectly round, and the young are produced within about 
twenty days. 

The food of the Turtle consists, for the most part, of 
marine plants, hut also of Mollusca and Crustaceans. The 
tail is very short in all the species. 

Chelonia Caouana. 

Chelonia Caouana, Dum. et Bib. vol. ii. p. 552. 

Chelonia caretta, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Carapace nearly heart-shaped, its length 
greater by one-third than its breadth at the middle ; the 
plates of which it is composed are not imbricated; they 
are fifteen in number on the disk, and twenty-five on the 
margin; the neck-plate is three times longer than wide. 
In the adult the carapace is even, but in the v young and 
middle-aged there is a distinct dorsal ridge. The two 
first toes of each claw are furnished with nails, that of the 
first toe being the strongest, and slightly hooked ; the eye- 
lids are covered with tubercles. The colour of the cara- 
pace is dark chestnut-brown ; the limbs of the same, edged 
with yellow ; the head is bright chestnut ; all the under 
parts of the body are yellow of various shades. 

The entire length is upwards of 4 feet. 

This Turtle is not uncommon in the Mediterranean, 


TESTUDINATA. 


16 $ 

especially in the more eastern parts, and has been taken in 
the Adriatic and on the coasts of Languedoc. It inhabits 
the Atlantic Ocean. 


Genus SPHABGIS. 

Only the following species known. Distinguished from 
other Turtles by the leathery covering, which takes the 
place of the horny case that characterizes the latter ; the 
claws are without nails. Food and habits but little known, 
probably similar to those of the preceding genus. 

Sphargis coriacea. 

Sphargis coriacea , Dum. et Bib. vol. ii. p. 560 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 

(figured). 

The Leathery Turtle. 

Descbiptiox. — T he carapace is heart-shaped, the hinder ex- 
tremity much pointed ; an elevated ridge follows the dorsal 
line from end to end; and on either side of this central 
ridge are three parallel ones, equidistant from each other ; 
between these ridges the surface is quite smooth ; the 
sternum is also smooth ; the head is without plates ; the 
jaws are very strong ; the lower jaw turns upwards at its 
extremity, forming a hook, which is received into a cor- 
responding channel in the upper jaw. In the young, the 
lines on the carapace are formed by a succession of tuber- 
cles in rows, and the entire surface, both of it and of the 
plastron, is warty. The eyelids are divided almost ver- 
tically ; the fore -feet or fins are as long again as the hinder, 
the latter, however, being the wider ; there is no trace of 
nails to the toes ; the tail is as long as the point at the 
hinder extremity of the carapace. The general colour is 
brown, with numerous pale yellow spots on the upper sur- 
face ; the legs and tail are black. 


CHAMA3LE0. 


169 


The entire length sometimes exceeds 6 feet. 

The Leathery Turtle is nowhere common. A few ex- 
amples have occurred in the Mediterranean and in the 
Atlantic, on the coasts of France and England. It is sup- 
posed to he a tropical species. 

Order IT. SAURIA. 

The skin is covered with scales or scaly granules; 
the body and tail are elongated ; the majority have four 
feet, but a few have only a single pair. The jaws are 
always armed with teeth, and the toes with nails, with 
very few exceptions. 

Family CHAMiELEONIDiE. CHAMELEONS. 

The body is compressed, the entire surface chagrined 
with small granular scales ; the tail rounded and prehen- 
sile ; there are five toes on each foot, arranged in two 
groups, three in one, and two in another ; the toes of 
each group are united together as far as the claws ; the 
tongue is fleshy, cylindrical, extensile, and of great length. 

Genus CHAMiELEO. 

This being the only known genus of the family, most 
of its characters have been already given. The head is 
angular, and the occiput rises in a pyramidal form; the 
teeth are three-lobed ; each eye has the power of move- 
ment independently of the other. Chameleons are insecti- 
vorous reptiles, remarkable for their slow and awkward 
movements, their extraordinary form, and, above all, for 
the changes which occur in the colour of their skin. This 


i 


SAURIA. 


170 

phenomenon, the cause of which has long been a subject of 
difference among naturalists, has nothing to do with the 
hue of the objects by which they are surrounded, but 
bears relation to the degree of light or darkness to which 
they are exposed, and to the state of their own feelings 
of fear or anger. 

Chamaeleo vulgaris. 

Chamceleo vulgaris , Dum. et Bib. yoI. iii. p. 204. 

Chamceleo Africanus, G-uerin. 

Description. — The occipital crest or hood is pointed, and 
raised into a ridge in front ; there is a ridge along the 
back, which is toothed in its anterior portion ; and beneath 
the body, from the chin to the tail, runs another ridge, 
toothed in like manner. In the female the hood is smaller, 
and the dentations of the ridge less strongly marked. The 
round or ovate granules with which the body is covered 
are closely pressed together when the animal is not swelled 
up, but when it thus extends its skin, they appear to be 
arranged in groups of five or six. Its colour changes from 
almost white to nearly black ; sometimes these shades are 
so arranged as to give it a striped appearance ; some- 
times the skin is grey or yellow, with spots or marks of 
orange. 

The female is generally rather larger than the male ; a 
large individual of the former sex measuring about 14 inches 
in its entire length. 

The Chameleon lives habitually in bushes or trees, grasp- 
ing the branches firmly with its claws and tail. The female 
lays about thirty eggs in a hollow in the ground, and covers 
them over with loose earth. 

In Europe it is found only in the South of Spain, and 
is common around the Bay of Cadiz. Its geographical 
range extends along the entire of the African shores of the 


PLATYDACTYLUS MUEALIS. 171 

Mediterranean, but is confined to the northern portion 
of that continent. 

Family GECKOTIDiE. 

The body and head are flattened, especially the latter ; 
the belly is near the ground, enlarged in the middle ; the 
claws are short, of nearly equal length, separate, robust, 
generally enlarged for a greater or less extent, and with 
regular folds of the skin beneath, enabling them to climb 
walls, and even to creep along a ceiling. There are no 
teeth on the palate ; the tongue is short, fleshy, not ex- 
tensile ; the tail is marked by circular folds,, never very 
long ; the skin above is chagrined with very small gra- 
nular scales, with large tubercles often dispersed among 
them; beneath, the scales are flattened and imbricated; 
the eyes are very large ; the eyelids very short and with- 
drawn entirely between the eye and the orbit, giving the 
animal a peculiar appearance. 

Genus PLATYDACTYLUS. 

The toes are widened throughout their length, and fur- 
nished beneath with transverse, imbricated scales. 

Platydactylus muralis. 

Platydactylus muralis , Dum. et Bib. vol. iii. p. 319. 

Ascalabotes Mauritanicus , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 10 Buon. 

Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Gecko des murailles, Cuvier. 

Description. — The toes of the fore -feet are nearly equal 
in length, only the third and fourth toes of all the feet 

i 2 


172 


SAURIA. 


furnished with nails ; the upper part of the body exhibits 
transverse lines of oval, keeled tubercles ; the head, though 
depressed, is rather deep behind ; the neck is distinct, its 
skin folded transversely. In the males there is a row of 
spines at the base of the tail on each side ; and there are 
spines along the whole of its upper surface ; the tail is often 
broken off. These reptiles vary in colouring ; sometimes 
the upper surface is dusty ash-grey, with the under parts 
dirty white; sometimes very dark brown above, with 
greyish bands, and beneath almost clear white. 

Entire length, about 6 inches. 

Frequents old walls, and often comes into houses ; feeds 
much on spiders and flies, but also on other insects. 

It inhabits Spain, Italy, Greece, the South of France, 
especially Provence, Sicily, and the coasts of Egypt and 
Barbary, and is the only European species of the genus. 

Genus HEMIDACTYLTJS. 

The base of the toes furnished with an oval disk formed 
beneath by a double row of scales, from the centre of which 
disk springs the second joint of the toe. 

Hemidactylus verruculatus. 

Hemidactylus verruculatus , Dum. et Bib. vol. iii. p. 359; Bory et 
Bibron, Exped. en Moree. 

Hemidactylus triedrus, Scuinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 11; Buon. 
Eaun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — The toes on each foot are furnished with 
nails, their extremities beyond the disk are slender, and 
they are free for their whole length ; the digital disks are 
narrow; the upper surface along the back is furnished 
with numerous tubercles of an indistinctly triangular form ; 
the tail is rather more than half as long as the body, 


PHYLLODACTYLUS EUROP^EUS. 


173 


rather depressed at base, and rounded in the rest of its 
length; on its upper surface are rows of spiny scales. 
In the males, near the root of the tail beneath, are seven, 
eight, or ten pores, each in the centre of a lozenge-shaped 
scale. The upper parts of the body are generally grey, 
more or less clear, sometimes red-brown marbled with 
brown ; in some individuals the colouring is very dark 
above. The under parts are white, or whitish ; between 
the eye and nostril is generally a black line. 

Entire length, nearly 5 inches. 

Inhabits nearly all the countries on the Mediterranean, 
all Central and Lower Italy, Dalmatia, South of France, 
Sicily, and Greece ; it has been received from Trebizonde 
and the Senegal. 

Genus PHYLLODACTYLUS. 

All the toes furnished with nails, and dilated at their 
extremities into a subtriangular disk, the sole of which 
is smooth, either flat or convex, and always with a furrow 
along its centre, at the bottom of which the nail appears, 
as it were, buried. There are no pores on the thighs; 
the opening of the pupil of the eye is vertical ; the lower 
margin of the eyelid withdrawn to the orbit ; the nostrils 
placed on each side at the extremity of the nose ; the neck 
is scarcely to be distinguished from the body. 

Phyllodactylus Europseus. 

Phyllodactylus Europceus, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 11 ; Buon. 

Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — The head is oval, somewhat swollen behind 
the eyes, depressed ; the eyes are large, round, very close 
to the cheeks, rather nearer to the ear than to the end of 
the nose ; the neck is more distinct than is usual in this 


174 


SAURIA. 


genus ; the head and body are covered with very numerous 
small, hexagonal tubercles, arranged without order, in- 
creasing in size from the head to the tail ; the under parts 
of the head and body are also covered with tubercles, which 
are larger than those above, and imbricated ; the tail is 
thick and broad, constricted near the root, and fusiform to 
its tip, which is sharp, rather flat beneath ; at its junction 
with the body are two large reniform glands ; the legs are 
short and strong, the fore-legs, when applied to the neck, 
reach to the eye, the hind-legs half-way along the belly. 
The upper surface of the animal is pale fleshy, clouded or 
spotted with darker tints ; the lower parts are dull white 
or yellowish. 

Entire length, not quite 3 inches ; tail, 5 lines. 

This reptile is peculiar to the Island of Sardinia, and it 
is remarkable that all the other species of the genus, as re- 
corded by MM. Dumeril and Bibron in the ‘ Erpetologie 
Generate/ are Australian or South American, except one, 
which has been found at the Cape of Good Hope and in 
Madagascar. The P. Europceus was discovered by Prof. 
Gene in Sardinia, where it is usually found under the bark 
of trees, but occasionally under stones. It has been figured 
and described at length by Prince Buonaparte in his 
‘ Fauna Italica.’ 

Genus STENODACTYLUS. 

The toes rounded, without disks, ending in a sharp 
point, furnished beneath with small granular scales, and 
dentated on their edges ; no femoral pores ; the tail much 
dilated near the base in the males, very slender for the 
rest of its length. There are no folds of skin along the 
sides of the body. The following is the only species 
hitherto known. 


STENODACTYLUS GUTTATUS. 


175 


Stenodactylus guttatus. 

Stenodactylus guttatus , Dum. et Bib. yoI. iii. p. 434 ; Sciiinz, Europ. 

Eaun. yol. ii. p. 11. 

Description.— The head is much flattened; the eyes are 
very large, the pupil elliptic, and the eyelid withdrawn to 
the orbit below ; the neck is scarcely narrower than the 
head ; the sides of the body are swollen ; the legs slender, 
the thighs not being thicker than the lower parts ; the toes 
are rounded, ending in long pointed nails ; the fifth toe is 
very short, inserted on the tarsus, much behind the others ; 
the tail is about half the length of the body, covered above 
and below with small, flat, polygonal scales ; in the male, 
its swollen base has twelve or fifteen spiny tubercles on 
each side ; the upper parts are grey, sprinkled with white 
spots, the lower parts all white ; on the tail are several 
black transverse stripes ; the nostrils and edges of the 
eyelids are white. 

Entire length, scarcely 5 inches. 

This species was found in Greece by the members of the 
French Scientific Expedition to the Morea, MM. Bory and 
Bibron, near Argos and Modon, in the Morea. In the 
‘ Erpetologie Generate ’ of MM. Dumeril and Bibron, 
Egypt is the only habitat recorded. 

Family IGUANIDiE. 

In this family the general form, the lengthened tail, the 
free and unequal toes resemble the true lizards so well 
known in Europe, and hereafter to be described. The eyes, 
ears, and most of the other characters, are also similar ; but 
the tongue is thick, fleshy, not extensile, and instead of 
being terminated by two filaments, is merely notched at 
the extremity. The greater number of the genera have a 


176 


SAURIA. 


crest or raised line along the back. They are for the most 
part natives of America or Asia ; twelve species are given 
by Dumeril and Bibron as inhabiting Africa, and one only 
is European. 

Genus STELLIO. 

There are no teeth on the palate ; on each side of the 
back is a fold of skin ; the femoral pores are wanting ; the 
scales on the back are much larger than those on the 
flanks ; the third and fourth toes of the front feet are equal ; 
the tail is sub conical, surrounded by rings of spiny scales ; 
the head is flattened, triangular, and slightly bulged on the 
sides. 

Stellio vulgaris. 

Stellio vulgaris , Dum. et Bib. vol. iv. p. 528 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun, 
vol. ii. p. 30. 

Description. — There is no crest on the back, or only feeble 
traces of one near the shoulders ; thirty-two teeth in each 
jaw ; the sides of the head, of the neck and body, are fur- 
nished with spiny scales ; the tail, which is rather less than 
two-thirds of the length of the animal, is perfectly conical 
throughout, except at the root, where it is slightly flattened, 
surrounded by large scales, arranged in rings, and bearing 
spines ; the upper parts of the body are greenish yellow, 
clouded with black ; many individuals have a black line 
extending across the shoulders ; all the under parts are 
olive ; tail spotted with black. 

The entire length is about 1 foot. 

It feeds on insects of various kinds, and frequents stony 
places and old walls. 

Is very common in Greece, but has not been found in 
any other part of Europe ; is extensively distributed through 
the Levant, Egypt, Syria, &c. 


TROPIDOSAURA ALGIRA. 


177 


Family LACERTINIDiE. 

The body is prolonged, with four feet, haying four or 
five claws, all provided with nails ; the tail long, conical, 
often twice as long as the body ; the head protected by 
homy, many-sided plates ; the belly covered with large 
scales ; the tongue free, extensile, divided into two filaments 
towards the top ; 'the eyelids are moveable. 

This family is distributed over the Old and New Worlds, 
but only four species are given in the ‘ Erpetologie Ge- 
nerale ’ as belonging to Asia, and none have been found in 
Australia. 

Genus TROPIDOSAURA. 

Tongue not sheathed at base, moderately long, divided 
at tip, with scaly imbricated warts ; palate with or with- 
out teeth ; intermaxillary teeth conical, maxillary teeth 
slightly compressed, those in front simple, the others tri- 
cuspid; nostrils opening each in the naso-rostral plate. 
There is a small fold of the skin in front of each shoulder, 
but no scaly collar beneath the neck, as in the genus Lacerta, 
and the scales of the upper surface of the body are much 
larger than in that genus. Beneath each thigh is a series 
of pores ; the toes are five in number on each foot, and are 
slightly compressed ; the eyelids, of which the upper is scanty 
and the lower ample, are covered with small angular scales. 

Tropidosaura Algira. 

Tropidosaura Algira , Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 168 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Lacerta Algira , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 26. 

Description. — The head pyramidal, somewhat depressed, 
as long again as its width behind ; the naso-frenal plate 

i 5 


178 


SAURIA. 


simple ; the rostral-plate is five sided ; the two upper 
sides rather large, forming an obtuse angle ; the laterals 
short and perpendicular, the lower side much extended ; 
the fore-legs, when placed along the neck, do not quite 
reach to the end of the nose ; the hind-legs, laid along the 
sides, reach to the origin of the fore-legs ; there is a single 
plate under the chin, and four pairs of plates under the 
lower jaw, increasing gradually in size from the first pair 
to the last ; the whole of the upper surface of the body 
and tail is covered with angular scales, much imbricated, 
pointed behind, and distinctly keeled ; from one side of the 
belly to the other, over the back, are about twenty-five 
longitudinal rows of scales ; all the lower parts are pro- 
tected by angular, smooth, flat scales, more or less rounded 
at their free edges ; on the belly these are arranged in six 
longitudinal rows ; the tail is one-and-a-half times longer 
than the rest of the body; the femoral pores are from fifteen 
to eighteen on each side, each surrounded by three scales, one 
of which is smaller than the other two ; the pre-anal region 
is nearly covered by a large pentagonal smooth plate ; the 
upper parts of the body are coppery, or tawny brown, with 
green or gold reflexions, often very brilliant in the adult ; a 
gilded streak of whitish yellow extends on each side, from 
the crown of the head to the side of the tail, and another 
like streak from the angle of the mouth to the groin; 
these streaks are sometimes spotted with black ; on each 
temple is a line of golden yellow ; behind the shoulders are 
generally several blue and black specks ; the parts beneath 
the body are whitish, with gold and green reflexions. 

Entire length, about 10 inches. 

This Lizard inhabits most of the European and African 
coasts of the Mediterranean, Italy, Spain, and the South of 
France. It is rare, however, in the Pyrenees and Provence ; 
is found also in the Island of Sardinia. 


LACERTA NIGROPUNCTATA. 


179 


Genus LACERTA. 

The generic characters of these Reptiles are almost iden- 
tical with those of Tropidosaura, the only important dif- 
ference being the presence of a collar formed of large 
scales under the neck, and in the arrangement and shape 
of the plates of the belly, which in Lacerta are flat, smooth, 
quadrilateral, and disposed in the form of a quincunx. In 
general appearance they are the same. 

The great majority of the species are European. In the 
‘ Erpetologie Generale ’ they are divided into three groups, 
according to the form and arrangement of their scales, as 
follows : — 

FIRST GROUP. Dorsal scales large, rhomboid, heeled, 
and very distinctly tiled. 

Lacerta nigropunctata. 

Lacerta nigropunctata, Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 190; Sciiinz, Europ. 

Faun. vol. ii. p. 16. 

Notop kolis nigropunctata, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — On each temple is a large plate, surrounded 
by polygonal scales of different sizes ; the large scales 
which form the collar are tiled from the outside to the 
centre ; they are nine in number, slightly rounded on their 
free edges ; the eyelids are covered with small scales ; the 
fore-feet scarcely reach beyond the anterior edge of the 
orbit ; the hind-legs reach a little beyond the shoulder ; 
the dorsal scales are arranged in twelve longitudinal rows, 
and are distinctly keeled in an oblique direction ; the scales 
of the flanks are very much smaller, forming seven or eight 
rows on each side ; above the fore -leg are three or four 
large hexagonal scales, much dilated sideways, and ob- 
liquely tiled; the triangle of the thorax is composed of 


180 


SAURIA. 


twenty irregularly rhomboid scales ; the plates of the belly 
are quadrilateral, in twenty transverse, and six longitudinal 
rows; the femoral pores are tubular, from fifteen to seventeen 
on each thigh ; caudal scales rectangular, keeled. All the 
upper parts of the body are olive-green irregularly spotted 
with black ; the under parts are white, with a tinge of blue 
or olive ; the soles of the feet are yellowish. 

Entire length, inches, of which the tail is 4^ inches. 

This species is peculiar to Corfu, where it has been found 
in a few rare instances. 

Lacerta Moreotica. 

Lacerta Moreotica , Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 192 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun, 
vol. ii. p. 16 . 

Notopholis Moreotica, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) (not described). 

Description. — The scales of the back, upper part of the 
neck, and sides of the body are all nearly of the same size, 
rhomboid, and strongly keeled ; from the base of one side to 
that of the other, counting across the centre of the back, 
are twenty-two scales ; ventral plates in six rows, of which 
the two outer and the two central are narrower than the 
remaining two ; the triangle of the thorax contains seven 
or eight scales ; on each side of the hinder margin of the 
pre-anal plate are about twelve very small scales. There 
are no teeth on the palate, at least in those specimens de- 
scribed in the ‘ Erpetologie Generale;’ the fore-feet will 
reach to the anterior margin of the eye, the hind-feet not 
quite to the shoulders of the fore -feet; the scales of the 
tail are oblong, each with a blunt point behind, formed by 
the prolongation of the keel. All the upper parts are of a 
uniform olive tint ; a yellow streak, beginning beneath the 
ear, passes along the sides of the neck and of the back, 
ending behind the thigh ; the sides of the neck and body 


LACERTA FITZINGERI. 


181 


are black, with white spots ; some black spots on the lips ; 
all the lower parts of the body are whitish. 

Entire length, 4-b inches ; tail, inches. 

Discovered in the Morea, in 1828, by the members of 
the French Scientific Expedition, and would seem to be 
peculiar to that country. 

Lacerta Fitzingeri. 

Lacerta Fitzingeri , Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 194; Schinz, Europ. Faun, 
vol. ii. p. 26. 

Notopholis Fitzingeri, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description". — This species, which closely resembles the 
preceding, is distinguished from it at once by its more 
slender shape ; the temples above and behind are covered 
by plates of unequal size, in front and below they are coated 
with granules ; the fore-feet reach to the eye ; the hind- 
feet do not reach to the shoulders of the fore-feet by a space 
equal to the width of the back ; the tail is much longer 
than the whole of the rest of the animal ; it is slightly 
squared, and of equal thickness for half its length ; it then 
becomes round, and diminishes gradually in size. The form 
and arrangement of the dorsal and lateral scales are the 
same as in the L. Moreotica, but there are only sixteen in 
place of twenty-two in the line drawn from side to side of 
the belly across the middle of the back ; the ventral plates 
are quadrilateral, and arranged in six longitudinal lines, of 
which the two inner and the two outer are narrower than 
the remaining two ; the small scales on each side of the pre- 
anal plate are but one or two instead of twelve, as in the 
above-named species. The colour is a uniform olive over 
the whole of the upper surface, while the under parts are 
white tinged with green, excepting the tail beneath, which 
is of the same colour as the back. 


182 


SAURIA. 


The entire length is about 41 inches ; tail, nearly 3 
inches. 

It is found only in the Island of Sardinia, and is con- 
fined to certain districts in the north and centre of the 
country. 

SECOND GBOUP. Dorsal scales more or less oblong, 
narrow, hexagonal, tectiform, not tiled as decidedly 
as in the First Group. 

Lacerta stirpium. 

Lacerta stirpium, Dum. et Bib. vol. y. p. 196 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun, 
vol. ii. p. 17. 

Lacerta agilis, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) ; Bell, Hist. Brit. Quad, 
(figured). 

Lacerta Europcea, Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. vol. iii. p. 29. 

Sandy Lizard, Bell. 

Description. — Two naso-frenal plates, the upper one rest- 
ing in part on the lower, and in part on the post-naso-frenal 
plate ; the temples are clothed with small, unequal, irre- 
gularly polygonal plates, of which that in the middle is 
rather the largest; palatal teeth present to the number 
generally of seven or eight on each side ; they are small, 
strong, simple, and conical ; the collar is well-defined by 
nine quadrangular scales; the sides of the neck beneath 
are covered with granules, higher up, with round flat scales ; 
the scales of the back are oblong, subhexagonal, tectiform, 
slightly keeled, arranged in transverse rows, which contain, 
near the neck, from three to seven, and on the centre of 
the hack seven scales each ; the scales of the upper part of 
the sides are more distinctly hexagonal than those last 
mentioned; the ventral plates are in six rows, without 
counting a marginal row on each side containing twenty-four 
to twenty-six plates, each of very small size; of the six rows, 


LACERTA VIVIPARA. 


183 


the two central and the two outer are smaller than the re- 
maining two ; the pre-anal plate is large, four- or five -sided, 
and bordered by a row of from seven to nine plates, which 
are tiled upon the central plate ; the fore-legs scarcely 
reach to the front of the eyes ; the hind-legs, laid along 
the sides, do not extend much beyond half of their length ; 
femoral pores eight to fifteen on each side, in flat triangular 
scales. The colour of the back is brown or brickdust, 
sometimes spotted with black; the sides greenish in the 
male, tawny brown in the female ; belly white, or white 
spotted with black, but many variations of colour will be 
met with. 

Entire length of a large specimen, S| inches ; tail, 5 
inches. 

The Sandy Lizard is found over nearly the whole of 
Europe, if we except the extreme North. It is rare in 
Belgium. Is found only in the Northern parts of Italy, 
and in certain districts of the South of England. Is not 
common in the Southern Provinces of Erance, according to 
Crespon, but abounds in Germany, Switzerland, Poland, 
Northern Eussia, and in Siberia, and generally throughout 
Central Europe ; everywhere, however, avoiding mountains, 
in which respect its habits are the reverse of the L. vivipara. 

Lacerta vivipara. 

Lacerta vivipara, Dum. et Bib. yoL v. p. 204. 

Lacerta pyrr hog aster, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 19. 

Zootoca vivipara, Bell, Hist. Brit. Quad. 

Description. — Smaller than L. stirpium ; the tail longer 
in proportion and of a different shape, retaining the same 
thickness for the first half of its length, and then diminish- 
ing gradually to its extremity ; the palate is without teeth ; 
there is only one naso-frenal plate ; the temples are covered 


184 


SAURIA. 


with small polygonal or subpolygonal plates, with a large 
angular one in the centre; the dorsal scales are long, 
narrow, hexagonal, and less distinctly keeled than in the 
foregoing species ; the head more depressed and the nose 
sharper ; the plates of the belly are in six rows, with two 
small marginal rows, as in that species ; the pre-anal plate 
is bordered by two rows of scales ; the fore -legs reach to 
the eye, the hind-legs extend along two-thirds of the sides ; 
femoral pores from nine to twelve on each thigh ; the back 
is brown, olive, or reddish, with a black band on each side 
from the head to the tail ; a second dark band runs along 
the side, and is edged with white. The general colour of 
the upper surface of the animal is that of the back ; the 
parts beneath are spotted with black upon a whitish ground, 
often with a blue or green tinge. 

Remarkable as being ovoviviparous, the membrane in 
which the young are enclosed bursting immediately upon 
their expulsion from the mother. 

The entire length is usually from 5^ to 6§- inches. 

This Lizard is never found in low or flat countries, but 
frequents mountain districts in the greater part of North 
and Central Europe, and is common in Switzerland, Ger- 
many, Poland, Eranee, England, Scotland, and Ireland. In 
Italy it is only found in the Alpine regions of the North. 
Inhabits also the hilly parts of Belgium and Russia. 

Lacerta viridis. 

Lacerta viridis , Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 210 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun, 
vol. ii. p. 15 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Two small naso-frenal plates, one above the 
other ; temples covered with polygonal plates, having that 
in the centre the largest ; one small occipital plate, gene- 
rally of a triangular form, truncated in front ; the length 
of the head is as long again as its height, and its height is 


LACERTA VIRIDIS. 


185 


rather less than its width ; the fore -feet extend to the 
nostrils, the hind-feet to the commencement of the fore- 
feet, or to within a short distance of that point in some 
specimens ; the tail comprises about two-thirds of the length 
of the body ; there are about twelve small conical teeth on 
either side of the palate ; the scales on the upper part of 
the neck and beginning of the back are oval and tectiform, 
becoming by degrees more hexagonal as they advance to- 
wards the tail; the scales on the sides are oval, with a 
slight longitudinal elevation along their centres, except- 
ing in the three or four rows next to the ventral plates, 
which are quite flat ; in a line drawn over the centre of 
the back from one edge of the ventral region to the other, 
fifty scales may be counted; these are decidedly smaller 
than in L. stirpium ; the ventral plates are in eight rows, 
the outer ones being short and composed of small plates ; 
of the six complete rows the two central are the narrowest ; 
the femoral pores are from twelve to twenty in number 
on each thigh. The colouring of the Green Lizard is 
very various, the colour of the upper surface of the body 
being sometimes of a uniform green, sometimes green with 
yellow spots, or brown with green or white markings ; 
sometimes brown, with from two to five longitudinal white 
streaks edged with black; the lower parts are generally 
yellow. 

The entire length, in the greater part of the countries in 
which it is found, seldom exceeds 15 inches ; but in the 
Morea individuals occur measuring 18 inches. 

Frequents hedges, bushes, and grassy places, and is 
found in the Alps to the height of 10,000 feet above the 
sea. 

The Green Lizard inhabits the greater part of Central 
and Southern Europe, including France as far North as 
Paris. It is very common in the South of that country, all 


186 


SAURIA. 


over Italy and the South of Switzerland. Is found in Sicily, 
Greece, Poland, Austria, the Crimea, and Barbary. 

THIRD GROUP. Dorsal scales distinctly granular, very 
close to each other. 

Lacerta ocellata. 

Lacerta ocellata , Dum. et Bib. yol. ii. p. 218; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Lacerta margaritata , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 14. 

The Great Green Lizard. 

Description. — This species is the largest of its genus, and 
in its general form closely resembles the L. viridis ; the 
fore-legs do not quite reach to the nostrils, and the hind- 
legs almost always extend to the shoulders ; the head is 
one-fourth of the length, measured from the tip of the nose 
to the root of the tail ; the tail is more than two-thirds of 
the entire length of the animal; the lower eyelid is scaly; 
on each side of the palate are twelve small conical teeth. 
There are two naso-frenal plates, one over the other ; the 
occipital plate is triangular, as broad, or broader than the 
frontal plate ; the temples are paved with small, nearly 
equal, polygonal plates, the central one very rarely a little 
larger than the others, thus differing from the three pre- 
ceding species. The scales on the upper parts of the body 
are smaller than in the L. viridis ; those on the neck are 
round, on the hack slightly oval, and somewhat tectiform. 
A line drawn across the hack, from one margin of the 
belly to the other, contains sixty-six scales ; the collar is 
composed of eleven scales; the ventral plates are in ten 
rows, the two outer very small, with about twenty plates 
in each, the other rows with twenty-five or twenty- six 
plates in each ; the pre-anal plate is large, with a double 
or triple border of angular plates in front ; femoral pores 


LACERTA TAUR1CA. 


187 


from twelve to eighteen. on each side; the scales of the 
tail are long, narrow, keeled, and arranged in rings. The 
colouring varies much with the age of the animal. In the 
young all the under parts of the body and limbs are whitish 
green, the upper parts pure green, with twelve or thirteen 
irregularly transverse black bands, upon which are placed 
four or five round yellow spots ; on the upper eyelid is a 
large black spot ; on the flanks are also black bands with 
blue spots. As the animal grows older the yellow spots 
become green, and the blue of a deeper shade. In the 
adult the spots can hardly be distinguished from the 
green of the back, but the blue spots on the flanks are 
more distinct than in the young ; the back has become a 
network of black and green zigzag lines ; the under parts 
of the body are often bluish green. 

Entire length, 17 j inches ; tail, 10-t inches. 

This Lizard is very common in Spain and the South of 
France. In Italy, Prince Buonaparte limits its range to 
“ the Eastern Riviera of Liguria.” It has been also 
found in Algeria. 


Lacerta Taurica. 

Laeerta Taurica , Dum. et Bib. yoI. v. p. 225 ; Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. 
Lacerta Peloponesiaca, Bibron et Bory, Exped. Scien. Moree. 
Podarcis Taurica , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — In general form less slender than the L. 
muralis, but more so than the L. stirjpium. The length of 
the head measures one-fourth of the distance from the tip 
of the nose to the root of the tail ; the fore-legs reach to 
the anterior border of the eye ; the hind-legs do not ex- 
tend to the shoulders; on the palate are several small 
teeth; the occipital plate is less by one-half than the 
frontal plate ; there is only one naso-frenal plate ; the 
temples are clothed with small hexagonal, or subhex- 


188 


SAURIA. 


agonal plates, with a central one rather larger than the 
rest ; on the neck is a well-defined furrow ; the collar is 
composed of from nine to twelve plates ; the neck above, 
and on its sides and the back, are furnished with small 
round, convex scales, closely pressed to each other ; those 
on the sides of the body are four-sided, with the angles 
rounded ; a line drawn across the back, from edge to edge 
of the belly, contains from fifty-six to sixty scales ; the 
ventral plates are in eight rows, the two outer being 
shorter than the others ; pores from fourteen to twenty on 
each thigh ; the caudal scales are long, narrow, and keeled ; 
the tail is as long again as the rest of the body. The 
upper parts of the body are olive, parts beneath whitish, 
with a blue or green tinge ; the inside of the limbs and 
the under part of the tail are reddish. In the male, on 
the sides of the neck and body are confluent black zigzag 
spots. In the females are two whitish or yellowish streaks 
on each side of the back, with a number of black specks 
between them ; the lower eyelid is scaly. 

Entire length, 8f- inches ; tail, 5-1- inches. 

Very common in the South of the Crimea, according to 
Pallas, and in the Morea. Has been received from Corfu, 
and the authors of the ‘ Erpetologie Generate’ foimd it in 
Sicily, where its habits appeared to resemble those of the 
L. muralis. 


Lacerta muralis. 

Lacerta muralis , Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 228 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun, 
vol. ii. p. 20. 

Podarcis muralis , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Only one naso-frenal plate; the occipital 
plate very small ; the length of the head is contained four 
times in the space between the tip of the nose and the root 
of the tail ; the palate generally is without teeth, but they 


LACERTA MURALIS. 


189 


are present in rare instances. In the centre of the temporal 
region is a large circular plate, along the upper margin of 
which are four or five small obscurely four-sided plates ; the 
rest of the temple with granular, oval, or subhexagonal 
plates; the length of the legs in proportion to that of the head 
or body varies in different individuals ; the tail is as long 
again as the rest of the animal ; the lower eyelid is scaly ; 
the collar is composed of from nine to eleven plates, the 
edges of which are straight, and not notched as in L. stir- 
pium, viridis, and ocellata ; the neck and back are covered 
with granular, convex, round scales ; those on the sides 
are similar, but perhaps rather less convex ; a line drawn 
across the back, from edge to edge of the belly, contains 
sixty scales ; the ventral plates are in six rows ; pores 
from fifteen to twenty on each thigh; the scales of the 
tail are long, narrow, and with a small blunt point behind. 
The colouring of this Lizard is so variable, that it has been 
found necessary by the authors of the ‘ Erpetologie Ge- 
nerate’ to make the following divisions : — 

Yar. 1. — The upper parts olive-grey, sometimes waved 
with a lighter tint, a streak of which latter colour runs 
from the head to the thigh on each side ; the upper part of 
the sides is marked with whitish spots on a brown ground ; 
parts beneath yellowish white. Found in Sicily. 

Yar. 2. — Head above olive ; back greyish green, some- 
times gilt, with a white streak on each side between two 
rows of black spots ; sides gilt, or with a copper tinge, 
sometimes with a white line with black points on each 
side of it ; the upper parts of legs and tail the same colour 
as the back, or nearly so ; all the under parts either white 
or tinged with reddish. Found in the kingdom of Naples, 
Dalmatia, and Teneriffe. 

Yar. 3. — The upper part of the head irregularly spotted 
with black on a tawny olive ground ; back grey or reddish 


190 


SAURIA. 


brown, with a black streak on each side from the eye to 
the tail ; on this band are seen two white streaks in the 
same direction ; the legs are dotted with white spots on a 
ground of the colour of the back; all the parts beneath 
pure white. Pound in France, Italy, and Corsica. 

Yar. 4. — Differs from the last in having on the back, 
close to each other, black spots in transverse waved lines ; 
the black bands on the sides are sometimes notched at 
their edges, and the sides of the body are occasionally 
marked with blue. Found in France, Spain, and at Tre- 
bizond. 

Yar. 5. — All the upper parts, except the tail, dotted 
with black on a tawny grey ground ; from behind the eye 
to the thigh is a pale brown band; the under parts are 
whitish yellow. Found in Spain. 

Yar. 6. — On a grey, olive, or greenish ground, are three 
rows of irregular blackish spots, one along the line of the 
back, and one on each side of it; each of these spots 
is surrounded with whitish. Found in France, Italy, and 
Corsica. 

Yar. 7. — Top and sides of the head, neck, back, and 
legs a fine green ; on the flanks a number of irregular 
black or brown spots ; tail olive, lower parts white, tinged 
sometimes with green. Found in Sicily and near Rome. 

Yar. 8. — Upper parts grey, with a brown or black band, 
like a chain, from head to tail ; the sides of the neck and 
body marbled with black ; parts beneath white. Inhabits 
Italy and Sicily. 

Yar. 9. — All the upper parts marbled with black, on a 
grey, olive, or greenish ground ; parts beneath white. 
Found in Naples, Sicily, and Corsica. 

Yar. 10. — All the upper parts deep marbled black ; parts 
beneath white, but much spotted with black, sometimes 
nearly all black. Found near Rome, Naples, and in Sicily. 


LACERTA OXYCEPHALA. 


191 


Entire length, 9 inches ; tail, 6 inches. 

This Lizard, according to the ‘ Erpetologie Generate,’ is 
spread over nearly all Europe and the Western regions of 
Asia. All over Italy, Sicily, and the South of Erance, as 
well as most other parts of that country. Common in 
Switzerland and Belgium, where it is more numerous than 
any other species. In the Faunas, however, of Silesia, 
Carniola, Gallicia, and the Bukovina, there is no mention 
made of it. 


Lacerta oxycephala. 

Lacerta oxycephala, Dum. et Bib. vol. y. p. 235 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun, 
vol. ii. p. 17 . 

Podarcis oxycephala, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — This Lizard, which is closely allied to the 
preceding species, differs from it by the greater depression 
of the head, the greater length and sharpness of the snout, 
and by the distinctly smaller size of the scales of its collar ; 
the plates below the eyes also, which in the L. muralis 
are sharply angular in front, are here of a regularly oval 
form. In this species the central plate of the temple is 
very small, scarcely as large again as the others of that 
region, which are convex and nearly round; the naso- 
frenal plate is sometimes divided lengthwise ; the occipital 
is narrower than the frontal ; the palate is without teeth ; 
the dorsal scales are oval and slightly convex ; ventral 
plates in six rows ; the upper parts are tinged with red- 
brown, olive-green, or blue; a kind of brown network 
with rounded interstices covers the neck, hack, and flanks ; 
the top of the head, sides of the belly, chest, and legs are 
sometimes speckled with black ; all the lower parts of the 
body are greenish white. In the young animal the net- 
work of the hack is indistinct. 

Entire length, nearly 8 inches ; tail, 4-1- inches. 


192 


SAURIA. 


This Lizard has been obtained in Dalmatia and Corsica, 
where it is found among rocks on the mountains, never in 
the plains. Prince Buonaparte is of opinion that the Po- 
clarcis hieroglyphica of Constantinople is identical with 
this species. 


Genus PSAMMODROMUS. 

The tongue and teeth are as in the genus Lacerta, as is 
the disposition of the plates of the head. There is scarcely 
a trace of a collar, merely a very slight fold of the skin 
being visible, with the scales upon it of the same size as 
those adjoining. In front of each shoulder is a slight 
curved fold ; ventral plates four- sided, and so arranged as 
to form both transverse and longitudinal rows ; the toes 
are keeled above, not toothed on their edges. 

Psammodromus Edwardsii. 

Psammodromus Edwardsii, Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 253. 
Psammodromus Edwardsianus, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Lacerta Edwardsiana, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 27. 

Description. — The legs are slender; the belly rather 
swollen ; the fore -legs will reach to the nostrils, the hind- 
legs to the shoulders, or a little further ; the tail is two- 
thirds of the entire length of the animal; the granular 
plates over the eye are in general very small; there is 
only one naso-frenal plate, of a subtriangular shape ; the 
temples are covered with hexagonal scales of nearly equal 
size, those near the upper edge being keeled ; the eyelids 
are clothed with very small granular scales ; the scales 
of the throat, and neck beneath, are much tiled, flat, 
smooth, subhexagonal, not separated from the scales of 
the chest by a space covered with minute plates, as in the 


PSAMMODROMUS EDWARDSII. 


193 


genus Lacerta ; on the back, and all the upper parts of the 
body and flanks, the scales are very large, rhomboid, keeled, 
and tiled ; the scales of the tail are also keeled and tiled, 
and are disposed in rings ; ventral plates in eight rows, 
rhomboid, except in the two central rows, which are nar- 
rower than the others; they form from twenty- eight to 
thirty transverse rows ; the pre-anal plate is lozenge- 
shaped, with a small scale on either side ; on each thigh 
are from twelve to fifteen tubular pores ; the lower parts 
of the body are whitish, with changeable reflexions ; the 
upper parts bluish or reddish grey ; the head, as it were, 
powdered with dark brown, especially near the margins of 
the plates ; the upper eyelids black ; along each side of 
the back are three parallel streaks of a yellowish hue, 
interrupted at intervals by spots of white or yellow ; on 
either side of these spots is a large black or brown dot ; 
the tail is grey ; on the upper part of the legs are round, 
whitish spots edged with brown, forming on each thigh 
two or three transverse rows. In some light -coloured 
specimens there is on each temple a white spot, and a 
bright bluish-green spot over the shoulder. The young 
are generally tinged with blue ; when the animal is old, 
it becomes reddish, with the scales larger and rougher. 
Two varieties may be distinguished, according to the pre- 
dominance of the pale streaks before named, or of the 
spots by which they are interrupted. 

Entire length, about 6 inches ; tail, 4 inches. 

Very abundant in Spain ; not uncommon in the South 
of France ; rare near Nismes, but common at Aigues-mortes 
and Montpellier, both in hilly places and near the stagnant 
waters along the coast. In Italy, Prince Buonaparte re- 
stricts it to the western frontier. 


x 


194 


SAURIA. 


Psammodromus cinerens. 

Psammodromus cinereus , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Lacerta cinerea, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 28. 

Description. — This is distinguished from the last, by Prince 
Buonaparte, by the head being smaller, the feet and tail 
shorter, the scales of the temples larger and more un- 
equal, the parietal plates smaller, and the gular furrow 
deeper and uninterrupted, covered with scales somewhat 
larger than the rest, so as almost to give an appearance of 
a collar ; the fore-feet also hardly reach beyond the eyes ; 
the femoral pores are scarcely visible. 

The colour, instead of being varied, as in the P. Eel- 
war dsianus, is of a uniform ashy hue. Its habits and 
proportions are the same as in the allied species, and they 
are found together on both sides of the Yar, on the frontier 
of France and Piedmont, and near Marseilles. 

Not mentioned in the 4 Erpetologie Generate.’ 

Genus ACANTHODACTYLUS. 

No teeth on the palate ; a single naso-rostral plate, be- 
tween which and the first labial, and naso-frenal plates, 
the nostrils are situated. Beneath the neck is a collar of 
scales larger than the rest ; there is no occipital plate ; the 
temples are clothed with small equal scales; the ventral 
plates are smooth, quadrilateral, arranged in rows, some- 
times rectilinear, often oblique, smaller, and more nume- 
rous than in the genus Lacerta ; pores along the thighs ; 
feet with five toes slightly compressed, keeled beneath, and 
toothed on the side ; tongue and teeth as in Psammo- 
dromus. 


ACANTHODACTYLUS VULGARIS. 


195 


Acanthodactylus vulgaris. 

Acanthodactylus vulgaris , Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 268. 
Acanthodactylus boskianus, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Lacerta velox , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 23. 

Description. — The two palpebral plates form a suboval 
disk furnished with granular plates on the outside, behind, 
and in front ; naso-frenal, and first upper labial, flat ; the 
lower margin of the subocular plate forming a very open 
angle, locked between the two last upper labials ; lower 
eyelid scaly, granular. The collar consists of from nine to 
eleven scales, of which that in the middle is more dilated 
than the rest ; the scales in the first row on the breast 
are oblong, quadrilateral, the others lozenge-shaped ; ven- 
tral plates in ten rows, those of the two outer on each 
side very small, and distinctly rhomboid, in the other 
rows large, wide, and less distinctly rhomboid; the toes 
are but slightly toothed on their sides, but their plates 
beneath are strongly and doubly keeled ; the scales of the 
back are small, equal, angular ; the plate under the chin 
is much developed, and is followed by five pairs of plates, 
which are parallel up to the third pair, and afterwards 
divergent in the shape of a Y ; the upper part of the 
temple is clothed with very fine circular granules ; the an- 
terior margin of the ear is granulated ; the upper part of 
the head and of the tail is a more or less bright brown, 
all the other upper parts of the body being either black or 
very dark brown ; the paws are spotted with white ; along 
each side of the neck, and along the flanks are four white 
streaks, one of which is interrupted by the shoulder ; 
another streak of the same colour runs along the middle of 
the neck ; all the lower parts white, but the tail and hinder 
part of the thighs are often tinged with rose-red : some- 
times the white streaks are much interrupted, so as to 

k 2 


196 


SAURIA. 


become rather rows of white spots, between which rows 
are lines of smaller black and white spots. 

Entire length, 11| inches ; tail, 6^ inches. 

Pound in Spain and the South of Erance, where, in the 
Gard and Herault, Crespon regards it as of rare occurrence. 
In Italy, Prince Buonaparte says it is confined to the 
Erench frontier near the Yar. 

Acanthodactylus Savignyi. 

Acanthodactylus Savignyi, Dum. et Bib. vol. y. p. 273 ; Buon. Faun. 

Ital. 

Lacerta Savignii, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 23. 

Description. — hTo occipital plate, but sometimes in its 
place there is a small granular scale; the two palpebral 
plates form a subcircular disk, with granules on its outer, 
hinder, and anterior margins ; the subocular plate descends 
in a very open angle between the two last labial plates ; 
the lower eyelid is scaly; the front margin of the ear 
slightly toothed ; the collar is composed of from eleven to 
thirteen almost equal scales, differing from A. vulgaris in 
having its central scales of the same shape and size as 
those of the breast, which last encroach somewhat on the 
ventral plates, so that they begin further back than in the 
last species, and are rhomboid, in twelve or fourteen rows, 
the two outer on each side being much shorter than the 
others ; the scales of the back are equal, rhomboid, slightly 
swollen lengthwise ; femoral pores from twenty to twenty- 
two on each side; the plates under the toes are very 
strongly keeled, and the toes are toothed as in the other 
species; the fore-paws will not reach to the nostrils, 
the hind-paws extend to just beyond the shoulder ; the 
neck above, back, and outside of legs, are covered with a 
sort of network, with circular intervals, and of a brown 
colour upon a ground of whitish, greenish, or grey ; the 


EREMIAS VARIABILIS. 


197 


skull is tawny, waved with brown ; the whole of the tail 
is greenish grey ; sometimes there is a broad band along 
the side, of a tawny or dull white colour ; all the lower 
parts are white ; some individuals have six whitish lines 
running along the back and sides longitudinally, and the 
tail is speckled with black; others are spotted all over 
with black, and have a dull white band on each side of the 
body, from the ear to the groin. 

Entire length, about 7 inches. 

Inhabits the Crimea, Egypt, and Barbary. 

Genus EREMIAS. 

The tongue and teeth as in the genus Lacerta. The 
muzzle is swollen on each side in a conspicuous manner 
into an excrescence, on the top of which is placed the 
nostril ; the swollen portion is confined to the naso -rostral 
and the two naso-frenal plates. A scaly collar under the 
throat ; ventral plates quadrilateral, smooth, in straight or 
slightly oblique longitudinal rows; pores on the thighs; 
toes, five on each foot, unequal, slightly compressed, keeled 
beneath, but not toothed on the sides ; the tail somewhat 
squared at its base, the rest of it round ; the two palpebral 
plates on each side form, as in Acanthodactylus, a disk 
surrounded wholly or in part by granules ; the temples are 
always covered with very small scales, generally granular. 

Eremias variabilis. 

Eremias variabilis , Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 293. 

Lacerta variabilis , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. vol. iii. p. 31. 

Description. — No occipital plate; palatal teeth eight, or 
sometimes only six, in number ; disk over the eye nearly 
round, composed of two equal plates, and with a large tri- 
angular space in front covered with granules ; front margin 


198 


SAURIA. 


of the ear edged with granules, which give it the appear- 
ance of being toothed ; collar transverse, straight, quite 
free, with from nine to fifteen almost square scales ; ven- 
tral plates nearly equal, not much larger than those of the 
breast, squared, from fourteen to sixteen in number on 
each side of the central line of the belly, and forming 
twenty-five or twenty-six transverse rows; about fifty 
small scales on the pre-anal region, among them, one close 
to the vent larger than the rest ; from eight to ten femoral 
pores ; tail short, very large at its base, becoming sud- 
denly smaller, and ending in a very sharp point. All the 
upper parts of the body ashy or olive-grey, sometimes 
slaty ; neck, back, and tail irregularly spotted with black 
ocelli, with a central white spot ; lower region whitish or 
yellowish : sometimes the ocelli are united by transverse 
bands, with occasionally white spots. 

Entire length, 7 inches ; tail, 3| inches. 

This species is thicker in its proportions, and more com- 
pact, than any other of the genus. 

Inhabits the Crimea, and, according to Pallas, the De- 
serts of Tartary, from the Caspian Sea to the Oby. 

Eremias caeruleo-ocellata. 

Eremias cceruleo-ocellata, Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 295. 

Lacerta velox, Eversmann, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. tom. iii. 
p. 353. tab. 30. fig. 3. 

Lacerta velox , var. /3, Pallas, Zoog. Boss. As. vol. iii. p. 31. 

Description. — This species differs from the preceding as 
follows : — the head is more elongated ; the tail is much 
longer, and not nearly so thick at its root ; the inter- 
parietal plate of the head more developed ; the femoral 
pores more numerous (being from thirteen to fifteen in 
number), and not so far apart ; no teeth on the palate ; 
caudal scales keeled, and the scales inside the legs hexagonal 


PSEUDOPUS. 


199 


and very broad. The upper parts are tawny brown, with 
small black spots on the neck and back, and along each 
flank a range of bine spots encircled with black ; the upper 
surface of the hind-paws are reticulated with blackish 
brown ; the lower regions are white. 

It is by no means certain that this is the Lacertq velox 
of Pallas as above quoted, but M. Eversmann is of opinion 
that they are identical. 

It inhabits the Crimea. 

Family CHALCIDES. 

Body generally cylindrical, much prolonged, or serpent- 
shaped ; feet either slightly developed or entirely absent ; 
trunk almost always undivided from the head and tail, 
bearing traces of circular rings, and in most cases with a 
longitudinal furrow or fold of skin between the belly and 
the flanks ; head covered with many-sided plates or shields ; 
teeth not inserted in the jaw-bone, but, as it were, applied 
to its inner margin ; tongue free, scarcely extensile, wide, 
furnished with tubercles, notched at its tip, and not 
sheathed. 

Genus PSEUDOPUS. 

Tongue arrow-shaped, with granular tubercles on the 
first third of its surface, while those on the other portions 
are filiform ; teeth on the palate ; intermaxillary teeth 
conical and simple ; maxillary teeth subcylindrieal or tu- 
bercular ; nostrils lateral, each opening in a single plate ; 
the opening of the ear very small ; eyelids present ; plates 
of the head numerous ; body shaped like that of a serpent ; 
no front feet ; hinder limbs represented by a small, scaly 
appendage, either simple or slightly bifid, on each side of 


200 


SAURIA. 


the vent, not pierced with pores ; two deep furrows along 
the sides ; no trace of fold or collar under the neck. The 
following is the only known species. 

Pseudopus Pallasii. 

Pseudopus Pallasii, Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 417. 

Pseudopus serpentinus, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 35 ; Buon. 

Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Lacerta apoda, Pallas, Zoo g. Boss. As. vol. iii. p. 33. 

Description. — The principal characters have already been 
given in describing the genus. The head is contained 
seven times in the length of the trunk ; the scales of the 
temples are imbricated, and differ but little from those of 
the neck; the ear-opening is small and oval, placed di- 
rectly behind the angle of the gape; the scales on the 
sides of the neck are small, smooth, rounded behind, and 
much imbricated ; the lateral furrows are deep, clothed 
with small lozenge- shaped scales. Across the body, 
from the head to the origin of the tail, are 100 bands 
of scales, forming sixteen longitudinal rows, the two outer 
of which on each side are concealed by the lateral fold ; 
beneath the body, from the throat to the vent, are 115 
transverse rows, forming ten longitudinal rows of scales ; 
round the tail are 240 rings of scales ; all the scales of the 
upper parts become bony with age ; their shape on the 
neck, back, and sides is subrhomboid, beneath it is hex- 
agonal ; they are wider than long, and slightly notched on 
their hinder edges ; the scales of the tail are keeled at 
every age, as are those of the whole body (except the 
throat) in the young. In the adult animal, the head and 
fore-part of the neck is greenish ash ; the upper surface 
of the body in general is reddish chestnut, each scale being 
dotted with black, parts beneath yellowish brown. 

The colouring of the young is very different, being 


AMPHISBiENA CINEREA. 


201 


greyish brown above and greyish white beneath ; on the 
back are transverse brown spots, and brown streaks on the 
bead and neck. 

Entire length, about 3 feet 4 inches, the tail occupying 
much more than half ; the rudimentary bind-legs are 
scarcely long enough to touch the ground. 

The Pseudopus Pallasii inhabits Dalmatia, Istria, the 
Morea, North of Africa, and Southern Silesia. Pallas 
states that it is not uncommon in the Crimea and Cau- 
casus, in gardens and grassy valleys. 

Genus AMPHISBiENA. 

Teeth conical, somewhat curved, simple, pointed, un- 
equal, distinctly separated, and applied to the inner margin 
of the jaw; the intermaxillary teeth always of an uneven 
number, with the central tooth from one to three times as 
large as the others ; nostrils small, lateral, each in a single 
plate ; fore- and hind-legs entirely wanting ; pores situated 
in front of the vent. 

Amphisbsena cinerea. 

Amphisbcena cinerea , Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 500; Schinz, Europ. 

Faun. vol. ii. p. 36. 

Description. — The head is depressed, the 'muzzle short 
and roimded, the eyes distinct; there are seven inter- 
maxillary teeth and fourteen mandibulars ; the rostral 
plate is quadrilateral, contracted in its upper portion, 
where it is united to the frontal plate, this last occupying 
the whole anterior surface of the head; there are two 
naso-rostral plates, of medium size, quadrilateral, not sol- 
dered together, descending to the edge of the upper lip, on 
which there are only two labial plates ; the hinder portion 
of the head, and the temples are divided into small square 

x 5 


202 


SAURIA. 


compartments; the tail is conical, and forms more than 
one-tenth of the entire length of the animal ; before the 
vent are six small pores, each in a small scale ; the com- 
partments into which the skin is divided are square on 
the neck above, four-sided and very narrow on the back, 
flanks, and tail ; on the under surface they are scarcely 
longer than wide ; round the body, from the head to the 
vent, are 125 rings, round the tail eighteen ; the head is 
dull white ; the compartments of the skin above are bluish 
ash or brown, with more or less of a chestnut or reddish 
tinge, with whitish intervals ; the sutures or furrows which 
run along the hack and each side of the body are also 
whitish, and are marked by a succession of impressions 
like the letter X. 

Entire length, 10 inches. 

Inhabits Portugal, and has been found in Spain, near 
Cadiz ; occurs also in Barbary. 

Family SCINCOID^]. 

Head above covered by horny, thin, angular plates, with 
distinct, regular sutures ; neck of the same thickness with 
the breast ; the rest of the body and the limbs everywhere 
clothed with imbricated scales, generally with their free 
margins slightly rounded, arranged in the form of a quin- 
cunx ; back rounded, without crests or spines ; belly cylin- 
drical; no furrow along the sides; tongue free, not 
sheathed, slightly notched at its tip, covered with papilli 
wholly or in part. 

Genus SCINCUS. 

Tongue notched, scaly ; teeth conical, simple, blunt ; 
palate with a longitudinal furrow, furnished with teeth ; 


SCINCUS OFFICINALIS. 


203 


nose wedge-shaped, truncated ; four paws, each with five 
toes, of nearly equal length, flattened and serrated on their 
edges ; the sides of the body angular below ; tail conical, 
pointed ; eyelids moveable. Only one species known. 

Scincus officinalis. 

Scincus officinalis , Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 564 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun, 
vol. ii. p. 31. 

Description. — Nostrils small, distinctly lateral ; the head 
contracted towards the muzzle, the edges of which are 
sharp, with the angle rounded ; there is no occipital plate ; 
the total size is about that of the Common Green Lizard, 
but the body is much thicker and fusiform; the limbs 
short and stout ; the tail short, being scarcely longer than 
the body, very thick at its origin, small, pointed, and 
slightly compressed towards the tip ; the ear-openings 
are oblique, small, placed near the corners of the mouth, 
notched or toothed on their anterior border ; upper eyelid 
very short, lower much developed, with a row of three or 
four scales, beneath which is an irregular pavement of very 
minute scales ; the fore -paws reach as far as the anterior 
angle of the eye. The upper surface of the body and tail 
is tawny, yellowish, or brown, sometimes silvery grey ; 
there are often five or six broad white bands across the 
back; the lower parts of the body and tail are always 
silvery white, more or less pure. 

This reptile has long been considered by the natives of 
the countries where it is found, as well as in other parts of 
Europe, to have valuable medicinal qualities, principally 
efficacious in restoring to the body its lost vigour. 

Entire length, 11 inches. 

The authors of the ‘ Erpetologie Generale ’ do not record 
any European habitat ; Schinz, however, says that it has 
been found in Greece, where he thinks it may have been 


204 


SAURIA. 


introduced. M. de Quatrefages, in his 1 Souvenirs d’nn 
Naturaliste,’ narrates that he found specimens of a Scincus 
in Sicily, near Segeste. It is common in Egypt, Abyssinia, 
and Northern Africa generally, and has been brought from 
Senegal. It is not uncommon in Syria. 

Genus GONGYLUS. 

Nostrils placed partly in the nasal plate, partly in the 
rostral ; palate without teeth ; tongue notched, scaly ; teeth 
conical, simple ; four feet, each with five toes, all provided 
with nails of unequal length, and without teeth on their 
margins ; flanks rounded ; tail conical, or somewhat flat- 
tened laterally, pointed. 

Gongylus ocellatus. 

Gongylus ocellatus , Dum. et Bib. yoI. v. p. 616 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Scincus ocellatus , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 31. 

Description. — The general appearance of this species is 
massive and compressed ; the fore-paws, when placed 
along the neck, do not reach beyond the angle of the 
mouth ; there is a slight longitudinal depression behind 
the fore-legs, which receives those members when the 
animal is in repose ; the length of the hind-legs equals 
that of the space between the shoulder and the eye ; the 
tail is not as long as the body; the nose is blunt and 
rounded, reaching a little beyond the lower jaw; the 
nostrils are round, directed slightly backwards ; the eyes 
are small, the upper eyelid very short, the lower much de- 
veloped ; the ear-openings are triangular, their edges 
smooth, and are placed near the angle of the mouth, which 
extends to behind the ears ; the teeth are small, uniform, 
close to each other, from twenty-two to twenty-six in 
number above and below ; the temple is covered by three 


GONGYLUS OCELLATUS. SEPS. 


205 


large lozenge-shaped scales, two of which are side by side, 
with the third above them ; the scales of the hack and of 
the upper parts in general are of middle size, equal, hexa- 
gonal, much enlarged, generally smooth, hut sometimes 
slightly striated longitudinally ; the scales on the parts 
beneath are larger, flatter, and smoother ; round the entire 
body are thirty rows of scales ; on the toes are a number 
of small imbricated scales, and on the soles of the feet 
several sharp conical tubercles. The upper parts of the 
body are brown or tawny, with a bronzed appearance, 
having a number of black spots, more or less united to each 
other, and with a white speck in their centres ; these vary 
much in number and arrangement, as well as in the pro- 
portions which the white and black bear to each other ; the 
spots are generally less numerous on the tail and legs than 
on the other parts ; the lower parts are in general yellowish 
white, but in some varieties they are deep black. 

Entire length, about 10^ inches. 

Lives among stones and sand, in dry places. This species 
is spread over many parts of the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, but especially Sicily, Sardinia, Malta, and Cyprus. 
Buonaparte says that it does not occur in Continental Italy. 
It is said, but not positively, to inhabit the South of France. 
Is found in Egypt and Barbary. 

Genus SEPS. 

Nostrils lateral, opening between the nasal and rostral 
plates ; tongue flat, scaly, arrow-shaped, notched at tip ; 
teeth conical, simple ; palate without teeth, deeply grooved 
for half its length ; four legs, each with three unequal 
toes, having nails, and not dentated at their edges ; flanks 
rounded ; tail conical and pointed ; scales smooth. Only 
one species known. 


206 


SAURIA. 


Seps chalcides. 

Seps chalcides, Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 768 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) ; 

Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 33. 

Description. — The shape of the animal, excluding the short 
legs, closely resembles that of the Anguis fragilis. The 
fore-legs are scarcely so long as the muzzle ; the hind-legs 
are about as long as the portion of the head behind the 
ears ; on the fore-feet, the middle toe is the longest, then 
the inner, the shortest being the outer toe ; on the hind- 
feet the first toe is the shortest, the other two being equal ; 
the scales of the body are for the most part hexagonal, a 
little widened and rounded at their free edges, forming 
twenty-four longitudinal rows on the body, and fourteen 
on the tail. The upper parts of the body are coppery, or 
bronzed grey ; along each side of the back are two streaks, 
sometimes white with black spots, sometimes black ; some 
specimens exhibit sixteen or eighteen streaks on the back, 
alternately black and dull white ; others appear all over 
the upper surface of a uniform olive-brown, the streaks 
being very indistinctly marked ; the lower parts are always 
grey or dull white. 

Entire length, about 16 inches. 

Brings forth its young alive, and feeds on insects. 

Inhabits the South of France, where it is not rare. 
Buonaparte records it as very common all over Italy. Is 
found in Spain, in all the Islands of the Mediterranean 
Sea, and on the coast of Barbary. 

Genus ANGUIS. 

Nostrils lateral, each opening in a single plate, the nasal ; 
tongue arrow-shaped, divided at its tip into two points, its 
surface in part granular, the rest velvety ; no palatal teeth ; 
palate with a wide longitudinal groove ; teeth long, sharp, 


ANGUIS FRAGILIS. 


207 


inclining backwards ; ear-openings very small ; no legs ; 
body like that of a snake ; scales smooth. Contains only 
one known species. 

Anguis fragilis. 

Anguis fragilis, Dum. et Bib. yol. v. p. 792 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun. 

vol. ii. p. 34 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) ; Bell, Brit. 
Reptiles. 

The Blind-worm, or Slow-worm. 

Description - . — This animal possesses the outward appear- 
ance of a true snake ; it must, however, notwithstanding, 
be classed with Saurian Reptiles in consequence of the 
structure of the head, the consolidation of the bones of the 
cranium and jaws, and the narrow and confined gape. The 
body is cylindrical, decreasing very slowly in diameter to- 
wards the tail, which last ends rather abruptly and bluntly, 
and, when perfect, equals the body in length ; the plates 
of the head are more numerous than in other Scincoid 
Reptiles; the lower eyelid is scaly and imbricated; the 
body is covered with small, nearly equal, rounded scales, 
not keeled. The general colour is brownish grey above, 
with a silvery glance ; there are generally several parallel 
longitudinal rows of little dark spots along the sides, and 
one along the middle of the back ; sometimes the spots and 
lines are wholly wanting ; the lower parts are bluish black, 
with whitish network. 

The young are very light yellowish grey above, the sides 
and belly quite black ; they are born alive, generally from 
seven to twelve at a birth. 

The Blind- worm casts its skin like the Serpent tribe. 

The entire length is from 10 to 14 inches. 

It inhabits the whole of Europe, excepting the most 
northern regions; it is, however, unknown in Ireland, 
although common in England and Scotland. Schinz states 
that it is not found at a high elevation on the Alps. 


208 


SAURIA. 


Genus OPHIOMORUS. 

Closely resembling the genus Anguis, but distinguished 
from it by several points of difference. The nostrils are 
lateral, opening between two plates, the nasal and upper 
nasal ; tongue flat, arrow-shaped, scaly, not velvety, feebly 
notched at tip ; teeth conical, blunt, upright ; no teeth on 
the palate, which has a longitudinal groove ; ear-openings 
very small ; no legs ; tail long, rounded and pointed ; scales 
smooth. Only one species known. 

Ophiomorus miliaris. 

Ophiomorus miliaris , Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 799. 

Anguis miliaris , Pallas, Zoog. Boss. As. vol. iii. p. 54. 

Anguis punctatissimus, Bib. et Bory, Exped. Scien. Moree ; Hist. Nat. 

Bep. p. 71. plate 11. fig. 5. 

Description-. — The head is conical ; muzzle narrow, rounded 
at the end, a little longer than the lower jaw ; the ear- 
opening is placed beneath the fourth or fifth scale of the 
row which follows the upper labial plates ; the lower eyelid 
is transparent ; the rostral plate large and triangular ; all 
the scales are nearly equal in shape and size ; they are hexa- 
gonal, but little enlarged, and arched behind, forming 
eighteen longitudinal rows round the body. The upper parts 
are tawny, the flanks grey, and the parts beneath dull white ; 
along each longitudinal row of scales, all round the body, 
is a series of very small black specks. 

Entire length, 6 inches ; tail, 3^ inches. 

Found in the Morea and in Southern Bussia, and also in 
Algeria. 

Genus ABLEPHARUS. 

Only a rudiment of eyelid ; nostrils lateral, each opening 
in a single plate, the nasal; tongue flat, arrow-shaped, 
scaly, notched at its tip ; teeth simple, conical ; no teeth on 


ABLEPHARUS KITAIBELII. 


209 


the palate, and its groove is triangular and not deep ; four 
feet, each with five unequal toes, which are provided with 
nails ; scales smooth ; no femoral or pre-anal pores. 

Ablepharus Kitaibelii. 

Ablepharus Kitaibelii , Dum. et Bib. vol. v. p. 809. 

Ablepharus Pannonicus, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 32. 

Description. — The body is more snake-like, and the legs 
shorter than in the other species ; the fore-legs are scarcely 
longer than the neck, and the hind-legs are as long as the 
neck and head ; the toes of the fore-feet increase in length 
from the first to the third ; the fourth is shorter than the 
third, and the fifth a little shorter than the second ; on the 
hind-legs the length of the toes increases from the first to 
the fourth, while the fifth is shorter than the second ; the 
tail, which tapers very gradually, is not more than half the 
entire length of the animal ; the head is short and blunt ; 
the only vestige of an eyelid is found towards the hinder 
part of the eye, it is covered with a double row of small 
scales ; the head has two fronto-parietal plates ; ear-open- 
ings very small, placed among four plates just behind and 
a little above the gape; there are two very large pre- 
anal scales ; the scales of the body are quite smooth, hexa- 
gonal, much widened, arranged in twenty longitudinal rows. 
The upper parts of the body are coppery green ; a band of 
chestnut runs along each side from the nostril to behind 
the thigh, and is bordered above and below by a very 
narrow line of white ; lower parts yellowish white. Feeds 
on small insects. 

Entire length, about 4 inches. 

Has been found in Hungary, and by the French Scien- 
tific Expedition in the Morea, in both which countries it 
would seem to be very rare. M. Eversmann observed it in 
Bokhara; and the authors of the ‘ Erpetologie Generale’ 


210 


OPHIDIA. 


state that specimens have been received in Paris from New 
Holland : this, however, requires confirmation. 


Order III. OPHIDIA. 

The body is very long and flexible, without legs; 
mouth dilatable; all the facial bones moveable, except 
in the Typhlopidse ; no external ears ; eyes not provided 
with lids ; skin covered with scales, which are generally 
larger on the belly, serving as a means of progression ; 
over all is spread an epidermis, which is changed 
periodically. 


Family TYPHLOPIDiE. 

Serpents with worm-like bodies of small size, with 
polished scales, all of the same kind; the mouth very 
small; no teeth in the lower jaw; upper jaw projecting 
far beyond the lower ; eyes small ; generally covered by a 
thin, transparent homy plate. 

Genus TYPHLOPS. 

Head depressed, furnished with plates; snout rounded 
at its extremity ; rostral plate folded back over the muzzle, 
extending more or less over the front of the head ; pupils 
of the eyes round, more or less distinct ; nostrils lateral, 
semicircular. 

Typhlops vermicularis. 

Typhlops vermicularis , Dum. et Bib. vol. ri. p. 303 ; Schinz, Europ. 
Faun. vol. ii. p. 37. 

Descbiptiox. — T ail conical, blunt, slightly bent, about one- 
fourth longer than the transverse diameter of the head ; 


ERYX JACULUS. 


211 


the sides of the head, the front, and lower part of the 
muzzle very convex, the upper portion being quite flat ; 
the upper jaw is much longer and broader than the lower ; 
the eyes distinctly visible through the plates which cover 
them; scales hexagonal on the anterior portion of the 
body, on the hinder half four-sided ; along the body are 
twenty- one rows, and on the tail twelve transverse rows of 
scales. The upper surface is tawny, sometimes mottled 
with bright brown ; the lower regions dull white. 

Entire length, 10 inches ; tail, about ^ inch. 

Feeds on worms and small insects. 

Obtained by the French Scientific Expedition in the 
Morea and the Islands of the Greek Archipelago. Ob- 
served at Tiflis, in Georgia, and in the Peninsula of Sinai, 
in Arabia. 

Genus ERYX. 

Nostrils lateral, situated between the internasal and the 
nasal plates ; head covered with scales, excepting on the 
muzzle, where there are one or two pairs of plates ; scales 
of the hack more or less distinctly tectiform or keeled ; 
subcaudal plates entire ; tail short and thick ; muzzle a 
sort of snout, narrowed and wedge-shaped, adapted for 
penetrating sandy soils. In general appearance resembling 
the Boas. Lives under stones and dead leaves, feeding on 
worms, slugs, lizards, and other small animals. 

Eryx jaculus. 

Eryx jaculus, Dum. et Bib. vol. vi. p. 463. 

Eryx turcica , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 38. 

Description. — The end of the muzzle is wedge-shaped, 
encased in the rostral plate as in a sheath ; tail subconical, 
not angular, as in some other species, very blunt at its 
extremity, which is encased in a large scale ; the scales of 


212 


OPHIDIA. 


the body are in from 37 to 51 longitudinal rows, and form 
from 238 to 298 transverse rows ; on the tail the scales 
are in 23 to 31 longitudinal, and in 23 to 33 transverse 
rows. The upper parts are dull yellow, with numerous 
brown spots of various shades and forms, being sometimes 
round or oval, but generally angular ; in some cases much 
larger than in others, and in many specimens replaced by 
transverse bars, or zigzag lines ; beneath, the colour is yel- 
lowish white, either uniform or with numerous black specks 
or small spots, especially along the sides of the belly; from 
the gape to behind the eye is a dark brown band. 

Entire length, 21 inches ; tail, 1 inch. 

Brings forth its young alive. Eeeds on lizards and other 
small animals. In Egypt this snake is often exhibited as 
a Cerastes by persons who imitate the horns by inserting a 
bird’s claw over each of its eyes. 

Inhabits Greece, Turkey, the Islands of Naxos and 
Tenos, but chiefly Egypt, and other parts of Northern 
Africa ; also Tartary. 

Family COLUBRIDiE. 

Non-venomous Snakes. Teeth without tubes, and but 
seldom grooved; the head covered by broad plates; the 
scales on the under side of the tail divided into pairs along 
its whole length. 


Genus COLUBER. 

Head covered by plates of different sizes ; mouth with 
three rows of teeth which are curved backwards, namely, 
two rows on the jaws and one on the palate. 


COLUBER SCALARIS. 


213 


Coluber scalaris. 

Rkinechis scalaris, Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 227 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Coluber scalaris, Schinz, Europ. Faun. yol. ii. p. 42. 

Description. — The head is distinct from the body, conical, 
wide at its base ; muzzle ending in a point formed by the 
projection of the rostral plate ; the body is cylindrical, the 
angles of the belly not being prominent ; the tail is short and 
conical; the scales of the back smooth; the scales on the body 
are arranged in twenty-seven to twenty-nine longitudinal 
rows, those on the tail in from six to eight rows ; the plates 
on the throat are two or three in number, those on the belly 
from 206 to 216 ; two anal plates, and from forty-eight to 
sixty- two subcaudal divided ones ; the maxillary teeth are 
15 above, 17 below; palatines, 10; pterygoid, 8. The gene- 
ral colour of the adult is tawny red-brown ; all along the 
back and tail are two black lines, united at nearly equal 
distances by broad black bands, from whence the specific 
name has been derived ; these bands are less distinct on 
the anterior portion of the animal, and in many instances, 
generally in male animals, are altogether wanting, in which 
state it has been mistaken for a new species, under the 
epithet of “ bitceniatus on the sides are small, united 
black spots, forming oblique bars, alternate in general with 
the marks on the back; belly dull white, spotted with 
greyish black. 

In the young the general colour is light grey ; the black 
lateral lines on the back do not exist, so that the spots on 
the median line are not united. The dark spots on the 
belly are much closer than in the adult. 

The entire length sometimes exceeds 4 feet. 

It is found commonly in Spain, the South of France, and 
the Morea. In Italy, according to Prince Buonaparte, it 


214 


OPHIDIA. 


is rare, and confined to the neighbourhood of the French 
frontiers. The authors of the ‘ Erpetologie Generate,’ how- 
ever, say that it occurs all over Italy and its islands. 

Coluber Dione. 

Elaphis Dione , Dum. et Bib. yoI. vii. p. 248. 

Coluber Dione, Pallas, Zoog. Boss. As. vol. iii. p. 40. 

Description. — Two anal plates ; the body slim, cylindrical, 
smaller near the origin of the tail than in the middle of the 
body ; head small, squared ; snout very slightly compressed 
at its extremity ; in front of the eye is a sort of furrow 
formed by the concave surfaces of the two pre-ocular plates ; 
twenty-five rows of scales along the body, eight along the 
tail ; five gular plates, 198 ventral, two anal (or one divided), 
sixty-two or sixty- three subcaudal divided plates. Maxil- 
lary teeth, 18 above, 17 below ; palatines, 9 ; pterygoid, 12. 

The colouring, according to Pallas, is as follows : — 

Yar. A. With three lighter longitudinal bands on the 
general ash-grey tint of the upper surface ; between these 
bands are round alternate spaces covered with a black net- 
work, and arranged in two series ; along each flank to the 
tail is another less distinct light line ; the abdomen is 
white, with small black marks and red points ; the head 
is reticulated with black lines, which run especially along 
the sutures of the plates. 

Yar. B. Found near the River Cuma. Without light 
bands ; on the head a round dark spot edged with black ; 
before the eyes a long, linear brown space ; two longitu- 
dinal spots edged with brown run down from the nape of 
the neck, and are good characteristics of the variety. M. 
Eichwald describes the colour of the belly as distinctly 
flesh-colour, with four or more regularly- disposed black 
spots on each plate, and the upper surface of the tail with 
transverse black bands. It is supposed that the three light 


COLUBER SAUROMATES. 


215 


bands above mentioned are distinct only in mature age, 
being very obscure in the young, which have a number of 
reticulations on the back. 

Entire length, about 3 feet. 

This Serpent inhabits the environs of the Caspian Sea, 
in dry and sandy places ; near the Cuma, Ural, or Jaik, and 
the Volga. 

Coluber Sauromates. 

Elapkis Sauromates, Dum. et Bib. vol. yii. p. 288. 

Coluber Sauromates, Pallas, Zoog. Boss. As. vol. iii. p. 42 ; Schinz, 
Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 51. 

Description - . — This species is very closely allied to the fore- 
going, the chief difference apparently consisting in the 
colouring. The anal plate, as in that species, is double, 
and there are two pre-ocular plates ; the snout is somewhat 
prolonged, blunt, and rounded at its extremity, with a slight 
hollow before the eyes ; the body is thin, not fleshy, pro- 
longed, fusiform; the back is convex, and the sides are 
somewhat angular, because of the extension upon them of 
the ventral plates ; scales on the centre of the back keeled, 
those towards the head and tail being smooth ; the scales of 
the body form twenty-three or twenty-five longitudinal 
rows ; ventral plates, 204 to 220 ; subcaudal plates num- 
bering sixty-three or sixty-four divided. Nothing is known 
of the number or arrangement of the teeth. Each dorsal 
scale is brownish in the middle, with a circumference of 
dull yellow, causing an appearance of brown streaks ; across 
the back are brown spots irregularly disposed and mixed 
with yellow spots ; the scales on the flanks are lighter, each 
with a brownish centre, forming longitudinal lines along 
the sides; the belly is uniform light yellow, sometimes 
with angular and round spots distributed along the line of 
junction of the belly and sides ; sometimes these are absent, 


216 


OPHIDIA. 


and are found along the under surface of the tail ; the upper 
part of the head is brown, except near the crown, which is 
nearly black ; a black oblong line runs from the eye to the 
angle of the mouth. 

Entire length, from 3 feet 6 inches to 5 feet. 

Pound by Pallas in great numbers near Perekop, and on 
the plains of the Crimea in ditches ; and not uncommonly 
near the Dnieper. 

Coluber Elaphis. 

Elaphis quater-radiatus, Dum. et Bib. vol vii. p. 254. 

Coluber Elaphis, Sciiinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 41. 

Natrix Elaphis, Buon. Faun. Ital. 

Description. — The anal plate is double ; there are two pre- 
ocular plates ; the head is slightly enlarged near the temples; 
snout not very prominent ; tail more slender than in the 
last species ; in front of the eye is a furrow formed by the 
concavity of the pre-ocular plates ; the scales of the body 
are generally oval-lozenge-shaped ; on the front and middle 
of the hack, however, they are rather lanceolate, all very 
distinctly keeled, the scales on the tail less so ; the scales 
on the sides are larger than those above named, and are 
without keels ; on the lower surface of the scale which 
forms the extremity of the tail is an indistinct channel or 
furrow ; on the body are twenty-three or twenty-five lon- 
gitudinal rows ; on the tail, eight rows of scales ; the gular 
plates are three ; ventral, 200 to 207 ; according to Metaxa 
and Miller, they are sometimes 224 ; caudal plates, sixty- 
five to seventy-seven pairs ; maxillary teeth, 19 or 17 above, 
21 below ; palatine, 10 ; pterygoid, 12 or 14. The general 
colour is brownish yellow, more or less dark, lighter below, 
with some grey spots. The most remarkable characteristics 
are two very dark lines running along each side from the 
head to the origin of the tail, about one-third of an inch 


COLUBER tESCULAPII. 


217 


apart, losing themselves, as it were, in the tail, which is 
coloured otherwise like the trunk ; the head is brown, with 
two black lines from the eye to the angle of the mouth. 

In the young animal there are three rows of brown spots’ 
on the back ; spots of the same colour on the sides ; belly 
dark steel-grey marbled with white. 

The tail is about one-fifth of the entire length, which 
frequently exceeds 5 feet. 

It is the largest of European Serpents, and the most 
easily tamed. Is said to prefer hilly districts. 

Inhabits many parts of Southern Europe, the whole of 
Central and Southern Italy, where it is very common, but 
is not found in Lombardy, although met with again in 
Austria and other parts of Germany. Prince Buonaparte 
found it common on the hills around Rome. Is not common 
in the South of Erance. Has been found, but very rarely, 
in the Department of the Maine-et-Loire. Occurs in Spain 
(in Arragon and Catalonia), Dalmatia, several parts of 
Hungary, especially the Bannat, and about Mehadia ; also 
in Greece, being found near Athens. 

Coluber JEsculapii. 

Elaphis Msculapii, Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 278. 

Coluber flavescens, Sciiinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 44 ; Buon. Faun. 

Ital. (figured). 

Coluber Msculapii, Cuvier, Reg. Anim. 

Description. — The head is unusually narrow at the temples; 
muzzle not very prominent; the anal plate divided; one 
pre- ocular plate ; the body is prolonged, not very distinct 
from the head; the dorsal scales are keeled only on the 
hinder half of the body, and nowhere distinctly ; the ter- 
minal scale of the tail is often channeled on the upper sur- 
face; the scales of the trunk form from twenty- one to 
twenty-five longitudinal rows, those on the tail from six to 

L 


218 


OPHIDIA. 


eight rows ; maxillary teeth 18 above, 25 below ; palatine, 
10; pterygoid, 12. The general colour is uniform olive 
above, and light green-yellow beneath ; some of the scales of 
the sides, especially those near the belly, display a white 
spot on either the upper or lower margin, or on both ; these 
spots are less conspicuous towards the tail than towards 
the head ; the head is of the same colour as the hack, and 
without any black streaks, hut behind the gape on each 
side of the neck is a bright yellow spot ; behind the eye, 
and on the labial plates on each side, is an irregular dark 
grey mark. 

In the young animal the hack is grey-brown, with four 
rows of spots of a much darker shade. 

The entire length often exceeds 4 feet. 

This Snake is a native of many, if not of most, of the 
warmer countries of Europe. It is common in several parts 
of Germany, especially at Schlangenbad in ISTassau. Pound 
all over Italy, most commonly in Lombardy, the Agro 
Romano, and Calabria. Prince Buonaparte says that 
those found in parts of the Duchy of Spoleto have a yel- 
low tinge ; and in Sicily, where it is frequent, are distin- 
guished by a dark red-brown line along each side of 
the body. Is not abundant in the South of Eranee. In- 
habits the Carpathian Mountains, Hungary, and Carniola. 
In Switzerland, Schinz records it as of rare occurrence, 
and only in the Cantons of Ticino and Yallais. 

Coluber quadrilineatus. 

Ablates quadrilineatus, Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 319. 

Coluber quadrilineatus , Pallas, Zoo g. Ross. As. vol. iii. p. 40. 

Coluber Leopardinus, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii, p. 47 ; Buon. Faun. 

Ital. (figured). 

Description. — The head is short, scarcely divided from the 
body, which is cylindrical; scales smooth, without any 


COLUBER QUADRILINEATUS. 


219 


trace of keel, narrower on the back than on the sides; 
ventral plates much pressed back against the lower edge of 
the flanks, but without producing distinct angles, number- 
ing from 222 to 250 ; two gular plates, and from seventy- 
five to eighty-six subcaudal, divided; anal plate also divided. 
Maxillary teeth 20 above, 25 beneath ; palatine, 12 ; ptery- 
goid, 15. There are two varieties of this Snake, distin- 
guished from each other by differences of colouring. 

Yar. A. The general colour of the upper surface is ash- 
grey ; along the spine from head to tail runs a white band, 
narrowed at intervals by the encroachments of the lateral 
lines, which are of a brown tint, edged on each side with 
black; on each flank is a series of small oblique black 
bands, directed backwards ; beneath this series is an in- 
distinct appearance of a second lateral line ; the lower sur- 
face is nearly white in its anterior portion, where it is 
sprinkled with brown and blue spots ; further hack the 
plates of the abdomen are dark greyish brown. M. Nord- 
mann relates, that a short time after death these spots are 
brightly metallic with a rosy tint ; a black mark runs from 
one eye to the other, passing immediately before the ante- 
rior edges of the frontal and ocular plates ; two black lines 
begin on the frontal plate, one of which passes behind each 
eye, and ends in front of the gape; between the lower 
margin of the orbit and the lower lip is a black mark. 

In the young there is a distinct white band down the 
middle of the hack, with a red-brown streak on each side 
of it, and outside this a short white stripe. 

Yar. B. The markings of this variety justify the deno- 
mination of C. Leopardinus, adopted by Fitzinger, Buona- 
parte, &c. On the middle region of the hack are a number 
of red, or red-brown spots, not unlike those of the Leopard, 
of irregular shape, edged with black, and some of them, as 
it were, divided into two parts, separated from each other 

l 2 


220 


OPHIDIA. 


by whitish intervals, having the appearance, when taken 
together, of an interrupted whitish band ; sometimes along 
the tail the spots touch each other ; beneath, and on either 
side, is a row of black marks, much less extended than the 
dorsal spots, placed on a ground which is darker than the 
general grey-brown of the back, and which is not inter- 
rupted between the marks, forming consequently a second 
brown band; the abdomen is yellowish in front, with blue- 
black spots, which latter colours occupy the whole of the 
remaining part of the under surface of the animal; the 
black lines of the head are the same in both varieties. 

In the young the dorsal spots do not appear as if divided 
into two, and the dorsal lines are not distinct, those on the 
sides, however, are well developed. 

Entire length, about 4 feet. 

Inhabits the Southern Provinces of Russia. Is rare in 
the Crimea (where M. de Nordmann found it most com- 
monly near Laspi, on the hills of the south coast), in Dal- 
matia, and especially in the small island of Lissa, in caves, 
the Morea, and Crete. Has been found on a few occasions 
in the Terra d’ Otranto in Italy. At Catania, in Sicily, it 
is said to frequent the houses, and not to occur in the 
neighbouring country districts. 

Coluber Natrix. 

Coluber Natrix , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 38. 

Tropidonotus Natrix , Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 555. 

Natrix torquata, Bell, Hist. Brit. Quad. 

The Ringed Snake. 

Description. — Head distinct from the body, wide behind, 
especially in old individuals; one pre-ocular and three 
post-ocular plates; seven labial plates, divided by black 
marks ; the gape is as long as the head ; tongue bifid to 
one-third of its length; tail very tapering, moderately 


COLUBER VIPERINUS. 


221 


pointed ; scales of the back oval, distinctly keeled, those 
of the sides broader, with the keel less marked, or nearly 
wanting; ventral plates about 170; subcaudal from fifty- 
six to sixty-five pairs. The upper parts of the body and 
head are light brownish grey with a green tinge, sometimes 
approaching to dull pale olive ; behind the head is a broad 
collar, or two crescents of bright yellow, with deep black 
borders on their hinder edges ; sometimes these are con- 
fluent: down the back are two rows of small, alternate 
black spots ; along the sides are large black spots, varying 
in size and in the distance between them ; under surface 
dull bluish or lead colour, sometimes marbled with black. 
The female, as in Serpents generally, is much larger than 
the male. 

Entire length, up to 4 feet. 

Lays from nine to fifteen eggs, which are joined together 
by a glutinous substance. Frequents chiefly moist situa- 
tions, swims well, and is fond of the water. Feeds on 
frogs, mice, and other small animals. 

Is the most common Snake of Europe, in every country 
of which it is found, from Sicily to Sweden, excepting Ire- 
land, and the extreme North of Eussia. M. Crespon says 
that in the South of France it is eaten by the peasants. 

Coluber Viperinus. 

Tropidonotus Viperinus, Dum. et Bib.voI. vii. p. 560. 

Coluber Viperinus, j g CHINZj Europ. Faun. vol. ii. pp. 39, 40. 

Coluber tessellatus, J 

Natrix Viperina, , . _ , _ . 

Natrix tessellata f -^ U0N * Faun. Ital. (two articles, and figures). 

Description. — Head not very distinct from the body; muzzle 
thick ; one or two pre-ocular, always two post-ocular 
plates; seven pairs of plates on the upper lip, the third 
and fourth of which touch the margin of the eye ; the scales 


222 


OPHIDIA. 


are keeled, but not prominently, arranged in nineteen lon- 
gitudinal rows; ventral plates, 151 to 154; subcaudal, 
fifty-three to fifty-five pairs ; anal plate double. 

Entire length, up to 3 feet. 

This Snake so closely resembles the Common Yiper as to 
be easily mistaken for it ; it is by the wide plates and large 
central shield of the head and forehead that it may be most 
readily recognized. Like all others of the genus, however, 
it is perfectly free from venomous qualities. The general 
colour is greenish grey or dull yellow ; along the middle of 
the back is a row of brown or black spots, either near toge- 
ther or touching each other, sometimes so much united as 
to form a zigzag line, as in the Yiper ; between these spots 
are generally several black markings; on the sides are 
many transverse black spots, grey or greenish at their 
centres; the belly is more or less covered with bluish 
black spots; in most individuals there are oblique lines 
running from the eye to the nape of the neck on each 
side, forming by their junction there a figure like the 
letter Y. 

MM. Dumeril and Bibron describe the “ Natrix chersoicles 
et ocellata” of Wagler, which is probably the Coluber Vi- 
per inus of Schinz, and Natrix Viperina of Buonaparte, as a 
variety of the C. Viperinus of their great work. Its colours 
are thus given : — 

Yar. A. Along the back are two wide, parallel, pale 
yellow streaks, separated by a black band ; general colour 
of the upper parts greenish brown ; belly and flanks marked 
most variably and irregularly bluish black. 

The Coluber Viperinus is found very commonly in the 
South of France in ditches and streams (Crespon), in Spain 
and Sardinia. This Snake occurs abundantly in Italy, in 
stagnant waters ; in France, Spain, Hungary, and Ger- 
many. In the Canton of Ticino, in Switzerland, and in the 


COLUBER HYDRUS. 


223 


Vallais it is not rare. Freyer includes it among the Reptiles 
of Carniola. 

This species appears to require further investigation, as 
to whether or not it includes two or even more. 

Coluber hydras. 

Tropidonotus hydrus, Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 564. 

Coluber hydrus , Pallas, Zoog. Ross. As. vol. iii. p. 36. 

Description. — Three pre-ocular and four post-ocular plates; 
tongue very long and black ; the hones of the palate are 
furnished with about thirty teeth on each side, these are 
much hooked and very thin ; the dorsal scales are keeled, 
slightly forked at their free ends, in nineteen longitudinal 
rows, those next to the abdomen are without keels ; ventral 
plates, 167 to 180 ; suhcaudal, sixty-two to sixty-five pairs ; 
anal plate double. Closely resembling in shape the C. 
Natrioo and C. Viperinus , and with similar habits. The 
upper parts of the body are olive-brown, generally with 
regularly arranged black spots, which are disposed in quin- 
cunx; these spots are sometimes wanting, when present 
they are good distinctive marks ; the lower parts are dull 
yellow, with black, or sometimes, but less commonly, blood- 
red spots. It is supposed that there are several variations 
in the colouring, dependent upon climate and age, which 
have not been accurately defined. 

Entire length, about 3 feet ; tail, about 6 inches. 

Pallas found this Snake frequent around the Caspian, in 
the Sea itself, as well as in the rivers and salt-marshes 
adjoining. It is said by M. Nordmann to he very common 
all through Southern Russia, and at Odessa to have been 
observed in pursuit of fish, generally a species of Gobius. 


224 


OPHIDIA. 


Coluber Austriacus. 

Coronella lesvis seu Austriaca, Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 610. 

Coluber Austriacus , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Coluber Icevis, Schinz, vol. ii. p. 45. 

Description. — Never attains to a very large size. The 
head hut slightly distinct from the body ; tail short, strong 
at its base; eyes small; the rostral plate presses much 
upon the muzzle, is of a triangular form, with its top 
pointed ; there are seven labial plates on the upper lip on 
each side, of which the third and fourth touch upon the 
eye; scales of the body smooth, rhomboid, in nineteen 
longitudinal rows; ventral plates, 160 to 164; subcaudal, 
sixty to sixty-four pairs ; one anal plate divided ; the 
upper maxillary teeth are on the same line with the others, 
and longer ; the upper parts are greenish brown, with two 
parallel rows of black markings along the back, more 
distinct towards the head than in the hinder portion ; 
sometimes the spots on the back are small, and few in 
number ; the lower parts have a lighter ground colour, but 
are often much darkened by black marblings. 

Entire length, about 2 feet. 

Inhabits Central and Southern Europe ; various parts of 
France, but is not very common in the South of that 
country. Sicily, the whole of Italy, and its islands, but is 
more frequent in the north than in the south of that 
peninsula. Is included in the Eaima of Gallicia and the 
Bukovina, Silesia, and Carniola. In Switzerland, is com- 
mon near Zurich. Fare in Belgium, where it has been 
met with near Louvain, and on the right bank of the Mo- 
selle. Schinz states that it is found as far North as Sweden, 
and is everywhere less common than C. Natrix. 


COLUBER GIRUNDICUS.— COL. MONSPESSULANUS. 225 


Coluber Girundicus. 

Coluber Girundicus , Cuvier, Reg. Ann. 

Coronella Girundica , Dum. et Bib. voi. vii. p. 612. 

Coluber Eiccioli ?, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured?). 

La Bordelaise , Daudin. 

Description. — Resembles the C. Austriacus, but may be 
distinguished from it — 1st, by having eight labial plates ; 
2nd, by the form of its rostral plate, which comes up but 
little upon the muzzle, where it ends in a very obtuse 
angle ; 3rd, by its colouring, having but one row of black 
transverse spots along the back ; 4th, because in most 
of the ventral and subcaudal plates one-half is black, and 
they are either alternate or opposite. Teeth, same as in 
the preceding species ; the scales are smooth, hexagonal, 
or rhomboid, imbricated, in twenty-one longitudinal lines ; 
ventral plates, 174 to 190 ; subcaudal, sixty-two to sixty- 
four pairs ; the tail ends in a horny point. General colour 
of the upper parts ash-grey ; belly yellowish, with four- 
sided black spots. 

Entire length, under 2 feet. 

Is said to be easily tamed, and to frequent vineyards and 
hilly places more than plains. 

Inhabits the South of France, where M. Crespon relates 
that it is not uncommon in the Department du Gard. 

Coluber Monspessulanus. 

Coluber Monspessulanus, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 49 ; Buon. 
Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Head long, much compressed, concave to- 
wards the forehead ; the muzzle is blunt, and projects a 
good deal beyond the lower jaw ; the opening of the mouth 
extends back far behind the eyes, which are placed over 
its centre ; they are large, and overhung by the plates of 
the head; occipital plate longer than wide, truncated at 

l 5 


226 


OPHIDIA. 


top ; there is one very large pre-ocular plate, two post- 
ocular, no subocular, eight labial plates on the upper lip, 
ten on the lower ; temples covered with scales ; the dorsal 
scales are smooth, hollowed in the middle, lanceolate, 
those on the flanks much larger, sub triangular, forming in 
all nineteen longitudinal rows ; ventral plates, 168 to 182 ; 
subcaudal, seventy-five to ninety pairs ; the head and upper 
parts of the body are olive, with a red-brown tinge ; each 
plate of the head is edged by a narrow dusky brown line, 
over each eye is a small round spot of the same colour ; 
down the back are numerous oblong irregular black spots ; 
along the side run two parallel black streaks, the lower of 
which appears as if interrupted, from the circumstance of 
the scales on which it runs being of a lighter hue at 
their centres than at their extremities ; the upper lateral 
streak is wider, and is really interrupted, passing over, as 
it were, two or three scales in succession ; it occupies the 
fourth row, counting from the margin of the ventral 
plates ; many of the dorsal scales have very narrow brown 
edges and black tips ; the belly is dull yellow, along it 
run six or eight dark parallel streaks, not well-defined, 
but sufficiently so to give the surface a ruled appearance ; 
the under part of the tail is ashy, marbled with lighter 
tints, and sprinkled with dusky specks ; the colours of the 
species are very bright for a short time subsequent to the 
change of skin, the back being a fine green colour, with 
jet-black spots ; the sides azure ; the belly clear yellow, 
with black or bright blue marks. 

The variety described by Buonaparte as C. Neumayeri , 
is uniform dusky olive on the upper parts of the head and 
body ; the stripes along the sides of the back are wanting, 
but the scales on those parts have a streaked appearance, 
resulting from their margins being of a much lighter tint 
than the centres ; the scales in general are each dusky at 


COLUBER HIPPOCREPIS. 


227 


the tip, with a black spot at the base contiguous to the tip 
of the preceding scale ; the plates of the belly are much 
more occupied by dark streaks than in the typical animal, 
and along each side of the tail runs a wavy line of light 
ash. 

Entire length, from 3 to 4 or even 5 feet. 

M. Crespon, in his ‘ Faune Meridionale,’ records an in- 
stance where one of these snakes was taken when swal- 
lowing a young rabbit. 

It is not rare in the Department du Gard, and occurs 
elsewhere in the South of France. Inhabits Dalmatia, 
the Ionian Islands, Istria, and Spain. In Italy, has oc- 
curred near Nice, and in Sicily. Said to be a native also 
of North Africa. 

It is not mentioned in the ‘ Erpetologie Generate.’ 

Coluber hippocrepis. 

Periods hippocrepis, Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 675 . 

Coluber hippocrepis , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 51 ; Buon. Faun. 

Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Head wide behind, prolonged, distinct from 
the body ; the labial plates do not touch upon the eye ; a 
series of subocular plates intervening between them ; the 
labial plates are nine in number on each side; on the 
temple are sixteen small scales; the frontal plates are 
wide, pressed down on the muzzle, which inclines di- 
stinctly downwards ; the scales of the back are long, very 
oblique, imbricated with blunt points, not keeled, forming 
twenty-seven longitudinal rows ; ventral plates, 246 ; sub- 
caudal, ninety-eight pairs ; anal double ; the ventral plates 
rise somewhat on the flanks ; the tail is stout, not long, 
and, like the belly, flat beneath. The colouring varies con- 
siderably, but the ground is generally dull yellow or red- 
brown, with dark spots on the back and sides, those on 


228 


OPHIDIA. 


the latter squared ; the top of the head is marked with 
transverse lines, conspicuous especially in the young ; there 
is often on the head a curved streak like a horseshoe, 
which, though far from constant, has given the name to 
the species ; in the adult, the belly is much marked with 
black ; frequently on the back is a row of angular brown 
marks, with yellow margins ; a black mark extends from 
eye to eye. 

Entire length, upwards of 3 feet. 

Is common in Spain and Sardinia, and, according to 
MM. Dumeril and Bibron, in Italy, but Prince Buonaparte 
states that it is unknown there. Is found in Greece, Bar- 
bary, and Egypt. 


Coluber viridiflavus. 

Zamenis viridiflavus , Bum. et Bib. yoI. vii. p. 686. 

Coluber atrovirens, Schinz, Europ. Faun. yol. ii. p. 45. 

Coluber viridiflavus , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Head oblong, squared, the plates above the 
eyes projecting over the orbits ; central plate of the fore- 
head narrow ; on each side are eight labial plates, of which 
the fourth and fifth touch the eye ; there are two pre- 
ocular, and as many post-ocular plates ; nostrils quite 
lateral, placed between two plates ; the scales are not 
keeled, they are very long, larger towards the sides, those 
on the centre forming nineteen rows ; ventral plates, 198 
to 202; subcaudal, 110 to 112 pairs; anal double. One of 
the handsomest European Snakes. The back and sides are 
dark green, the centre of each scale being generally spotted 
with yellow ; the head is also marked with yellow, which 
forms a sort of pattern ; the yellow spots on the anterior 
part of the body are united, and collected into small trans- 
verse irregular bands ; this appearance ceases behind the 
first third of the back, after which they are replaced by 


COLUBER TRABALIS. 


229 


yellow longitudinal lines, interrupted at first, but towards 
the tail continuous ; the lower parts are yellow, with a 
black or red-brown mark and line on the extremities of 
each plate. The young may always be known by the 
yellow patterns on the head, but they are without the 
yellow marks on the rest of the body, and sometimes 
have small, indistinct, transverse bands of a brown tinge. 
Deep brown and perfectly black varieties have been met 
with in Sicily and Egypt. Lives in woods in cultivated 
districts. 

Entire length, up to 4 feet, oftener 3 feet 6 inches. 

One of the most common species of the South of Europe. 
Inhabits the South of France, especially near the Py- 
renees, Burgundy, the Department of the Moselle, on the 
banks of the Orne, and near Dinant ; and, according to 
MM. Dumeril and Bibron, the province of Brittany. Very 
common near Borne, where it is the most abundant 
species ; and is found in many other parts of Italy, and 
in the Morea. In Switzeland, only in the Cantons of Ti- 
cino and Vallais, where it is rare. Appears in the list of 
reptiles found in the Bukovina. 

Coluber trabalis. 

Zamenis trabalis, Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 689. 

Coluber trabalis, Pallas, Zoog. Boss. As. vol. iii. p. 42. 

Sheltopus of the Russians. 

Description. — On the palate are two ridges furnished with 
teeth ; one row of simple teeth on the jaw, projecting but 
slightly above the gums ; the tongue is black, and very 
long ; the rostral plate vaulted ; the upper pre-ocular plate 
much larger than the lower one ; there are two post- 
ocular plates ; on the upper lip, on each side, are eight 
labial plates, of which the fourth and fifth touch the eye ; 
dorsal scales oblong, somewhat convex, not keeled, those 


230 


OPHIDIA. 


on the sides oval, a little larger than the former ; ventral 
plates from 199 to 210 ; subcaudal, fifty-two to seventy- 
four pairs ; anal plate double ; scales of the body in nine- 
teen longitudinal rows ; the head above is ash-grey ; the 
margin of the jaws pale or yellow, with brown on the 
sutures ; on the neck and under eyes, are dark brown 
spots ; the upper part of the body is ash-grey, with a small 
line of pale yellow along the scales, giving them a streaked 
appearance ; sometimes there are three yellow lines ; the 
belly is always pale yellow, sometimes with scattered livid 
spots or brown lines. 

The entire length sometimes considerably exceeds 4 feet, 
it being one of the largest European species. 

Is recorded by Pallas as frequenting arid districts in 
Southern Russia, between the Dnieper and Jaik. In the 
Crimea, and on the shores of the Caspian. 

Coluber Dahlii. 

Zamenis Dahlii , Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 692. 

Coluber Dahlii , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 48. 

Tyria Dahlii , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — The rostral plate is fiat, not vaulted or pro- 
jecting, hardly higher than its width ; two pre-ocular 
plates, the lower of which is smaller by one -half than the 
upper ; two post-oculars, eight labials, of which the fourth 
and fifth touch the eye ; plates above the eye projecting 
considerably over it ; scales on the temples differing little 
from those of the body, which are not keeled, and are 
disposed in nineteen longitudinal rows ; ventral plates, 214 
to 216 ; subcaudal, 124 to 126 pairs ; anal double. The 
body of this Snake is very long in proportion to its thick- 
ness, slightly angular at the sides of the belly, narrowed 
a good deal towards the head, but more towards the tail, 
which is very long. The colour of the upper parts is dark 


COLUBER RICCIOLI. 


231 


greenish grey, sometimes with a red-brown tinge ; on the 
anterior portion of the back and sides are rounded brown 
spots, edged with pale yellow, forming one of the distinctive 
characters of the species; around the eye is an inter- 
rupted border of light yellow, arising from the pre-ocular 
and post-ocular plates being of that colour. 

Entire length, about 3 feet 6 inches. 

Inhabits Dalmatia, and was obtained in Greece by the 
French Scientific Expedition. Said to be a native also 
of Persia. 

Coluber Kiccioli. 

Coluber Riccioli, Sciiinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 43 ; Buon. Faun, 
Ital. (figured). 

Coluber rubens, Gachet, Bullet. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, iii. p. 255. 

Description. — Head distinct from the body ; nostrils situ- 
ated at the junction of the nasal plates ; two post-ocular 
plates, those above the eyes projecting considerably over 
and in front of them ; the scales of the body are polished, 
obscurely hexagonal, and without any trace of a keel; 
there is a faint appearance of a ridge along the back ; ventral 
plates, 184 ; subcaudal, sixty-four pairs ; these numbers 
are more constant than is usual ; the back is grey or 
olive, with a reddish tinge, with two contiguous rows of 
alternate dusky spots edged with black, often confluent ; 
along the side runs an indistinct dusky line, beginning at 
a long curved black spot on the side of the neck ; above 
and below this line a reddish tint prevails, caused by 
numerous rose-coloured specks upon the scales of that 
region, some of which are edged with white ; the lower 
portions of the flanks are lighter than the upper ; the belly 
is clear, canary-yellow, with two wide, longitudinal groups 
of black angular spots, some contiguous, others separate ; 
another similar group runs between these from the throat 


232 


OPHIDIA. 


for a short distance ; the markings vary much in intensity 
in different individuals, some being much brighter than 
those here described, others very much more obscure and 
indistinct. 

The entire length of a very large specimen, mentioned 
by Prince Buonaparte, was 2 feet 4 inches, of which the 
tail was 6 inches ; these dimensions, however, are much 
above the average. 

Said to be easily tamed, and not to bite. 

This Snake was discovered not many years ago near 
Rome by Signor Riccioli. Prince Buonaparte, who has 
figured and described it, says that it is not uncommon 
there, he having found it on Monte Mario, and near the 
Anio, on hills to the right of the Yia Salaria, also on the 
mountains near Ronciglione. It is said to have occurred 
near Bordeaux, on the Garonne ; but has not been observed 
between those two localities, so far apart from each other. 

Tarbophis vivax. 

Tar bop his vivax, Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 913. 

Coluber fallax, Sciiinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 48. 

Ailurophis vivax, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Desceiptiox. — The rostral plate, resting vertically upon the 
extremity of the muzzle, has a semicircular notch in its 
lower part ; it exhibits seven unequal facets, six of which 
correspond with the six adjoining plates, while the seventh 
gives passage to the tongue ; the frontal plate is oblong, 
and forms an isosceles triangle ; the pre- ocular has four 
facets ; the two post-oculars are five-sided, and nearly 
equal ; temples clothed with about twenty scales, one of 
which is much smaller than the rest ; eight labial plates 
on the upper lip, of which the fourth and part of the fifth 
are immediately under the eye. The scales of the body 
are smooth, lozenge-shaped, rather larger at the base of 


PELIAS. 


233 


the flanks than elsewhere, disposed in nineteen longitudinal 
rows, those of the tail in four or six rows ; ventral plates 
from 191 to 210 ; subcaudal from fifty- eight to sixty 
pairs ; Prince Buonaparte, however, says that the former 
reach sometimes to 250, while the latter are occasionally 
only forty pairs. The total number of teeth about seventy ; 
the width of the head between the temples is three times 
the space between the nostrils and the top of the nose. 
The colouring of the upper parts is dull olive, or light or 
dark grey, sprinkled thickly with minute black spots, 
scarcely visible without a lens ; the plates of the head are 
speckled with chestnut, with a patch of that colour from 
the eye to the mouth ; on the nape is a large spot of dark 
chestnut, and down the back a series of large rounded spots 
of the same colour, flanked on either side by another row 
of smaller ones; the parts beneath are white or dull 
yellow, with numerous patches of minute black specks, and 
with black marks on the margins of the ventral plates. 

Entire length, about 2 feet 4 inches, of which the tail 
occupies the sixth or seventh part ; sometimes a much 
greater length is attained. 

The young are produced alive. 

Inhabits Dalmatia, the environs of Trieste, Istria, Al- 
bania, the Morea, and other parts of Eastern Europe ; also 
Bakou, on the Caspian, and Egypt. 

Family VIPERIDiE. 

Venomous Snakes of moderate size ; the upper maxillary 
bones armed with generally two isolated poison-fangs. 

Genus PELIAS. 

Anterior portion only of the head covered with flat or 
slightly concave shields, of which the central one is the 


234 


OPHIDIA. 


largest ; nostrils lateral, no pit between them and the 
eyes ; snbcandal plates double. 

Pelias Berus. 

Pelias Berus , Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 1395 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 

(figured) ; Bell, Hist. Brit. Eep. 

Bellas chersea, Buon. Faun. Ital. 

Vi'pera Berus , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 53. 

The Viper, or Adder. 

Description. — The head is somewhat depressed, almost 
oval, slightly widening behind the eyes ; gape as long as 
the head, ascending behind ; no teeth in the upper max- 
illary bones except the poison-fangs ; a row of small teeth 
on the palatine bone on each side; neck rather smaller 
than the back of the head ; body increasing to near the 
middle, scarcely diminishing to the vent; tail becoming 
almost abruptly smaller, tapering, pointed at tip, not more 
than one-eighth of the entire length of the animal ; head 
covered with small scaly plates, regular in some specimens, 
but often irregularly disposed ; the central and two occi- 
pital plates are the largest ; scales of the back and sides 
suboval, imbricated, and distinctly keeled, forming eighteen 
longitudinal rows ; ventral plates, 140 to 150 ; subcaudal, 
about thirty-five pairs ; the ground colour varies con- 
siderably, sometimes being olive, sometimes deep brown, 
or dull yellow, or pale grey ; along the back, from the 
neck to the tail, is a waved wide line of dark brown or 
black ; sometimes, instead of this line, there ' is a row of 
irregular angular spots, having their greatest length across 
the animal ; these spots again, in some specimens, are 
joined by a narrow line ; on either side of this dorsal line 
of spots there is frequently a series of dark grey or black 
marks, alternating with those on the back; and below these, 
near the junction of the ventral plates with the scales of 


VIPERA. 


235 


the sides, is a row of dirty white spots ; on the head are 
several patches of black, a large one on the central plate, 
which occupies the crown of the head, and afterwards 
branches right and left, forming a Yon the hack of the 
head, the branches rather curving outwards. The colouring 
varies very greatly, a red-brown tinge sometimes pervading 
the surface, constituting the P. chersea of Prince Buona- 
parte’s work ; the belly is dark, often blue-black. This 
species cannot always be distinguished by its markings 
alone from the genus Vijoera, the only constant differences 
being the narrowness of the muzzle, the plates on the 
head, and the slighter constriction at the junction of the 
head and spine. Individuals entirely black, except under 
the jaws and throat, occasionally occur. 

The young are produced alive, to the number of from 
twelve to twenty, or even more at a birth. If the Yiper 
be roused from its winter torpor and made to bite, no injury 
ensues, the poison being at that season inert. It frequents 
dry, sandy, and waste places. 

Entire length, about 2 feet. 

Is found all over Central Europe, as far North as Sweden, 
in Erance, England, Scotland, Belgium, Germany, Switzer- 
land, to the height of 6000 feet above the sea ; in North 
Italy, and Siberia. In the ‘ Iconographia della Eauna 
Italica,’ we are informed that the variety “ Chersea” 
alone is found in South Italy, where it has occurred in the 
Abruzzi, near the Province of Ascoli. 

Genus VIPERA. 

Head depressed, widened behind, entirely covered . by 
small scales, not by plates ; nostrils wide, lateral ; sub- 
caudal plates in pairs throughout the whole length of the 
tail. 


236 


OPHIDIA. 


Vipera aspis. 

Viper a aspis et pr ester, Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 1406. 

Vipera aspis , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Vipera Redii, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 54. 

Description. — Head depressed, heart-shaped, covered with 
small scales, very distinct from the body ; muzzle blunt, 
thin, covered with small plates ; scales with six faces, 
oblong, imbricated and keeled, at least on the hinder portion 
of the body, which is much thicker than the anterior part ; 
the two poison-fangs in the upper jaw are less than three 
lines in length, the other teeth are small ; scales in twenty- 
one rows, counted longitudinally; ventral plates, 140 to 
165 ; subcaudal sometimes up to forty-six pairs in the male, 
sometimes not more than thirty-three pairs in the female ; 
tail distinct from the body, ending in a sharp horny point, 
occupying, in the male, one-seventh or one-eighth part of 
the entire length, but in the female not more than a ninth 
or tenth. 

This species may be most readily distinguished from the 
following by the bluntness of the muzzle, which in the 
latter is prolonged into a sort of snout. The colouring 
varies extremely in different individuals ; in general the 
ground colour of the body is ash-grey or nearly black, with 
a black waved stripe along the back, sometimes continuous, 
but often broken up into contiguous, distinct, angular or 
rounded spots, the lower parts being steel-grey or reddish, 
with irregular white or light marks ; beneath each eye is 
a black spot, running obliquely to the corner of the mouth ; 
sometimes a large dark mark occupies the centre of the 
head. 

The variety V. ocellata is grey, with reddish tinge 
above, and three rows of rounded spots edged with black ; 
belly black, marbled with dull yellow. V. Redii is marked 


VIPERA AMMODYTES. 


23 7 


on the body with short transverse lines, forming four longi- 
tudinal series, the dorsal line being formed by the junction 
of the two central rows ; in some individuals there is no 
dorsal line, the general colour being rusty brown, with 
black spots ; sometimes the dark lines on the head diverge 
so as to form the letter Y. There are many other 
variations observable, too numerous and uncertain to be 
described. 

Entire length of the full-grown animal, from 18 inches 
to 2 feet. 

This Viper inhabits desert, stony, and hilly districts 
throughout nearly the whole of Europe. Near Paris it is not 
uncommon ; is found in many parts of Erance, but is not 
included by Crespon in his 4 Eaune Meridionale all over 
Italy and its Islands, Greece, Dalmatia, Istria, the South 
of Switzerland; in the Cantons of Geneva, Vaud, Vallais, 
and Ticino ; has been met with in Belgium, in the Province 
of Luxemburg, in Prussia, and other parts of Germany, 
Poland, and as far North as Sweden, Norway, and Silesia. 
Is unknown in the British Islands. 

Vipera ammodytes. 

Vipera ammodytes , Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 1414 ; Schinz, Europ. 

Eaun. vol. ii. p. 54 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — This species is easily distinguished from the 
V. aspis by its prolonged muzzle, which ends in a soft 
point, and is covered with small scales ; in other respects 
it closely resembles the latter ; in the size and position of 
its poison-fangs, as well as in the effects of its bite, and in 
the variations of colour and markings, it is not to be di- 
stinguished from it. The ventral plates are from 152 to 
161 ; the subcaudal from twenty-eight to thirty-five pairs ; 
the tail is about a ninth of the entire length in the male, 
and about a tenth in the female. 


238 


OPHIDIA. 


Total length, 17 inches to 2 feet. 

Prefers hilly and dry places exposed to the rays of the 
sun ; feeds on mice, frogs, and other small animals, and is 
itself often devoured by birds of prey. The varieties of 
colour are as numerous, and of the same kind, as in V. 
aspis ; the tip of the tail, however, is said to be always of 
a red iron-brown tinge. 

Inhabits Austria, near Yienna, and elsewhere, Hungary, 
Carniola, Istria, Dalmatia, and the North of Italy, especially 
near Ferrara ; is found in Greece, and was the only Yiper 
obtained in the Morea by the French Scientific Expedition . 

Genus TBXGQNOCEPHALUS. 

Provided with spurious nostrils, or nasal pits between 
the eye and the true nostril ; tail with a sharp point ; top 
of the head always covered with plates, of which the central 
is largest ; the scales of the head and back keeled. Be- 
sembles the Battlesnakes in general appearance. 

Trigonocephalus Halys. 

Trigonocephalies Halys , Dum. et Bib. vol. vii. p. 1495. 

Coluber Halys , Pallas, Zoog. Boss. As. vol. iii. p. 49. 

Desckiptiox. — P lates on the head nine in number, the two 
first very small, rounded in front, resting on the two 
frontals ; the central plate uneven, surciliary plates wide, 
parietals long, narrowed behind ; ventral plates, from 162 
to 170 ; subcaudal, about forty pairs. Upper parts pale 
grey, with transverse marks of olive-brown; sometimes 
the spots on the back are united to each other ; on the neck 
is a mark in the shape of a horseshoe, prolonged, open 
behind, preceded by two other elongated marks beginning 
upon the parietal plates. In some specimens the colour of 
the back is greenish, with crossed and transverse white lines. 


RANA. 


239 


Frequents hilly and rocky places exposed to the rays of 
the sun. The bite, though venomous, is said to be cured 
by immediate washing of the wound in water. 

Entire length, according to Pallas, about 2 feet, of which 
the tail is about 3 inches. 

Was found by Pallas near Astrachan, and by Eversmann 
in Tartary. 


Orderly. BATRACHIA. 

Body depressed and short, or rounded and prolonged, 
with or without a tail ; skin soft, naked ; generally with 
four feet, without claws ; neck not distinct from the 
head and body; generally provided with eyelids; no 
outward ear ; oviparous ; breathing by lungs and gills ; 
the eggs are impregnated after exclusion, and the young 
undergo a metamorphosis. 

Family RANIDiE. FROGS AND TOADS. 

Gills present only in the tadpole state; feet four in 
number ; four toes on the fore-feet, the hind-feet with five 
toes, and sometimes with a rudiment of a sixth ; no tail in 
the perfect animal. 

Genus RANA, 

Skin smooth ; hind-feet very long, adapted for leaping, 
more or less palmated; upper jaw with a row of fine teeth, 
and a transverse interrupted row of the same on the middle 
of the palate. 


240 


BATRACHIA. 


Rana esculenta. 

Rana viridis , Dum. et Bib. vol. viii. p. 343. 

Rana esculenta , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 67 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Description'. — Toes cylindrical, slightly swollen at the tips, 
tubercles under the joints large ; webs of the toes free at 
their margin, slightly notched, not reaching quite to the 
extremity of the toe ; fourth toe on the hind-foot one-third 
longer than the third and fifth, the two last each with a 
tubercle at their root ; nostrils half-way between the comer 
of the eye and the tip of the muzzle ; head triangular, as 
wide as long ; upper eyelids wrinkled transversely on their 
hinder portions ; tympanum circular, as large as the open- 
ing for the eye ; teeth on the palate in a line exactly be- 
tween the nasal openings, but not touching them, whereas 
in the R. temporaria they are a little behind those open- 
ings ; tongue broad, spongy, covered with very small round 
granules, divided posteriorly into two lobes; the upper 
surface of the body with a number of scattered warts, or 
with small longitudinal folds, a glandular swelling on each 
side of the back running along the sides ; the orifice which 
gives vent to the vocal bladder of the male is longitudinal, 
and placed exactly at the angle of the gape ; in a full- 
grown individual, this bladder, when swollen, is as large as 
a small cherry ; the skin On the belly is smooth throughout. 

The length of the head and body is above 3 inches ; of 
the fore-legs, 1| inch; of the hind-legs, 4| inches. 

The colouring varies considerably, and seems to depend 
upon the country which the individual inhabits, although 
the first variety is found everywhere. 

Yar. A. Upper parts of the body a fine green, irregularly 
marked with brown or black spots ; along the back are three 
lines of bright gold -yellow ; a black streak runs from the 


RANA TEMPORARIA. 


241 


comer of the eye, passing over the nostrils to the end of 
the nose, where it meets a similar streak on the other side ; 
on the front of the arm, near the shoulder, is a black streak, 
which is found in all the varieties of the animal ; the lower 
extremity of the back is marbled with black, white, or 
yellow; sometimes the colour of the back is grey or brown. 

Yar. B. Differs from the foregoing by the absence of the 
yellow gold lines on the back. 

Yar. C. Common in Italy, Sicily, Provence, and Spain. 
Has all the upper surface chestnut-red, with brown marks, 
more or less apparent, and is probably the “ Bana mari - 
tima ” of Bisso. 

It passes most of its time in the water, and is found in 
vast numbers in many marshes and ponds. Its loud croak 
is known to all European travellers. In many parts of the 
Continent, such as France, Italy, and Germany, its flesh is 
considered peculiarly wholesome and delicate food. The 
spawn is usually attached to plants at the bottom of the 
water, and is seldom seen on the surface. 

This Frog is found all over Europe, except in the British 
Islands; throughout the North of Asia to Japan, and in 
Egypt. 

Rana temporaria. 

Bana temporaria , Dum. et Bib. yoI. viii. p. 358 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun. 

vol. ii. p. 67 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) ; Bell, Brit. Rep. 
The Common Frog. 

Description. — Head nearly triangular; teeth minute, form- 
ing a single row in the upper jaw, none in the lower, also 
an interrupted row across the palate ; tongue fleshy, soft, 
lobed at the tip, folded back on itself when not in use ; in 
the fore -feet the third toe is longest, the second shortest, 
the first and fourth nearly equal ; hind-legs more than half 
as long again as the body ; toes on their feet webbed, the 


242 


BATRACHIA. 


fourth exceeding the third and fifth by one-third, whereas 
in the R. esculenta it exceeds those toes only by one-fourth ; 
the skin is everywhere smooth except between the thighs, 
where it is a little wrinkled. The upper parts are brown, 
yellowish, or reddish, sometimes almost black, more or less 
spotted with black ; on the legs the spots are transverse ; 
the most constant mark is an elongated patch of brown or 
black on the temples, which is wanting in the preceding 
species, and has given its name “ temporaria” to the pre- 
sent one ; there is generally an indistinct whitish line down 
each side of the back, the space between the lines being 
paler than the adjoining parts ; there are no vocal bladders. 

Length from snout to vent, 2-J inches, often more. 

Spawns about the middle of March in shallow pools ; 
during the greater part of the year frequents grassy places, 
often a long way from water. 

Found in Europe from the South to the extreme North, 
specimens having been received from the North Cape, and 
generally very common ; in Italy, however, it is not nearly 
so abundant as the R. esculenta. It is the common Frog 
of the British Islands. 

Genus DISCOGLOSSUS. 

Tongue nearly circular, but slightly three-sided, not 
notched or lobed, free at its hinder margin ; a transverse 
row of teeth on the palate, placed behind the inner orifice 
of the nostrils ; some traces of glandular swellings on the 
sides of the neck and shoulders ; toes of the fore-feet com- 
pletely free ; no vocal bladder in the males ; outline of the 
body inclined to an oval form. 


DISCOGLOSSUS PICTUS. 


243 


Discoglossus pictus. 

Discoglossus pictus , Dum. et Bib. vol. yiii. p. 425 ; Schinz, Eufop. 

Faun. vol. ii. p. 70 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Body much depressed, more so than in any 
other species of the European Ranidce, its outline nearly 
oval ; the end of the muzzle sometimes pointed, sometimes 
obtuse, the latter form constituting a variety described by 
Prince Buonaparte and M. Tschudi as a distinct species, 
under the name of I). Sardus ; the upper surface is either 
smooth, or with small scattered tubercles varying in number 
and size ; the hinder portion of the upper eyelid wrinkled 
transversely ; a row of glands runs from the eye to the 
shoulder ; in the males, during the breeding season, not only 
the thumbs, but also a considerable portion of the chin and 
belly are covered with small, thickly-set, rough, black 
points ; the fore-legs (which are stouter in the males than 
in the females), when stretched along the sides, reach half- 
way down the thighs ; the hind-legs, placed in the same 
way, extend beyond the nose by the entire length of the 
foot ; the palpi of the fore-foot has two tubercles ; the range 
of palatal teeth is slightly undulating, in some individuals 
as long as the palate is wide, and always, though very 
slightly, interrupted ; the lower parts are thinly sprinkled 
with very fine granules ; these become larger between the 
gape and shoulder and under the jaws. 

Length of the body, about 2 ^ inches. 

There are many variations in its colouring. The body is 
marbled with grey, brown, or reddish. 

Var. A. All the upper surface marbled with large brown 
or black spots, rounded or oblong, often confluent ; on the 
hind-legs are transverse bands of the same colour ; on the 
crown of the head is a triangular mark, sometimes divided 
into two parts, and on the tympanum usually a long dark 
spot. 


244 


BATRACHIA. 


Yar. B. Ground colour yellowish green ; along the back 
and frequently on each side a white stripe ; sometimes a 
similar one on the forehead meets that on the back. 

Yar. C. Spots on the back few or none, those elsewhere 
much smaller. 

In all these varieties the belly is white or yellowish. 

Lives in small streams and in fresh- or salt-water marshes 
in Greece, Sicily, Sardinia, and North of Africa, often in 
company with the jRana viridis. According to Prince 
Buonaparte, his D. Sardus is peculiar to Sardinia. 

Genus PELODYTES. 

Tongue almost circular, scarcely notched, free behind ; 
a group of palatine teeth at the anterior inner angle of each 
nostril ; tympanum distinct ; fore-feet with four toes, not 
webbed ; hind- toes depressed, their webs either very short 
or much developed ; eustachian tubes moderate ; males with 
a vocal bladder. Only one species known. 

Pelodytes punctatus. 

Pelodytes jpunctatus, Dum. et Bib. yoI. viii. p. 463; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Alytes jpunctatus , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 77. 

Description. — Head depressed, triangular ; space between 
the nostrils equal to half of that between the eyes ; a long 
narrow gland above the ear, and a small one at the corner 
of the mouth ; the body elongated and very slender behind ; 
the upper parts with numerous small warts of different 
sizes ; in the males these form two longitudinal rows on 
each side, one running near the top of the back, the other 
along the flank, which a fold of skin divides from the belly. 
In the breeding season the males on several parts acquire 
a roughness of the skin, to render more secure their hold 
on the back of the females ; this may be observed on the 


ALYTES OBSTETRICANS. 


245 


breast, under the fore-legs, and on the first and second toes 
of the fore-feet. 

Length of the body, about 1|- inch. 

The ground colour of the upper parts is tawny mixed 
with ash, agreeably spotted with light green ; below, white 
or flesh- colour, often with orange specks on the sides. The 
rough places described above in the males are during life 
of a bright violet tint, but become almost black when the 
animal is dead, the green of the upper parts also turning 
in like manner. 

Frequents pools and other pieces of water in the spring 
and summer ; in the autumn is found in shrubby places. 

Hitherto this species has not been met with out of 
France, in which country it has been observed by M. 
Baillon in Picardy ; by M. Dumeril at Sceaux-Penthievre, 
near Paris ; in the Department du Gard, not uncommonly, 
by M. Crespon, in vineyards ; and is a native of the neigh- 
bourhood of Montpellier and other parts of the South. 
Prince Buonaparte thinks that it is to be found on the 
Italian side of the Yar. 

Genus ALYTES. 

Tongue round, thick, entire, adhering on all sides, fur- 
rowed lengthwise ; palatine teeth in a long transverse row 
behind the nostrils, interrupted in the middle ; tympanum 
distinct ; eustachian tubes very small ; fore-toes free ; hind- 
toes webbed by a thick membrane ; no vocal bladder. Only 
one species. 

Alytes obstetricans. 

Alytes obstetricans , Dum. et Bib. vol. viii. p. 467 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun, 
vol. ii. p. 76 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — The head is depressed, with its sides nearly 
vertical, flat behind and between the eyes, which are pro- 


246 


BATRACHIA. 


minent ; muzzle very convex ; mouth forming a semicircle, 
following the outline of the jaws ; nostrils terminal, as far 
apart as the eyes ; the fore-legs, when placed along the 
body, extend to the origin of the thighs; the hind-legs 
reach beyond the nose by the length of their fourth toe ; 
above the ear is an oblong gland pierced by very minute 
pores ; below the throat is a fold of skin of unusual deve- 
lopment ; all the upper parts are sprinkled with very small 
warts, and the lower regions with still smaller ones. 

Length of the body, under 1-J- inch. 

Upper parts sometimes inclining to grey, sometimes 
olive, feebly and irregularly spotted with brown, red-brown, 
or brick- coloured marks of small size ; beneath white, finely 
speckled with black on the throat, the sides of the abdo- 
men, and under each of the legs. 

The female produces in March from fifty to sixty eggs, 
about as large as a grain of millet, joined together in a sort 
of chain by the glutinous substance with which they are 
surrounded. While these eggs are leaving the body of the 
female, the male, who is always in attendance, places them 
around his thighs, to which they adhere, and where they 
remain until the young tadpole is ready to come forth ; this 
interval is spent in a hole two or three feet under ground. 
As the moment for the bursting of the eggs approaches, the 
animal takes to the water, which assists him to get rid of 
his burden. This curious species is further remarkable for 
its shrill croak or note, which is compared to the sound of 
a glass bell. 

It inhabits most of the temperate parts of Europe, pre- 
ferring the central to the southern countries. Is very com- 
mon in France, especially near Paris. Occurs in Picardy. 
M. Crespon records it as not rare in the Department du 
Gard. Very rare in Belgium. Inhabits Switzerland, the 
Rhine districts, and other parts of Germany, Podolia, and 


PELOBATES FUSCUS. 247 

the Bukovina. Is unknown in Southern and Central Italy, 
but is supposed to occur in the North. 

Genus PELOBATES. 

Head protected by a bony shield, covered with small 
asperities ; tongue circular, free, and slightly notched on its 
posterior margin ; palatal teeth in a transverse row, inter- 
rupted in the centre for a considerable space, placed on a line 
with the anterior edge of the nostrils ; ears quite invisible on 
the outside ; the fore -feet with four toes, and no rudiment 
of a fifth ; hind-feet strongly webbed throughout, almost to 
the extremities of the toes, and each with a horny tubercle 
beneath the fifth toe, forming a sort of spur ; no vocal 
bladder ; on the upper surface of the fore-leg in the male 
is a large oval gland, pierced by a number of small holes ; 
no glandular line along the sides of the back, and no parotid 
glands. Only two species. 

Pelobates fuscus. 

Pelobates fuscus , Dum. et Bib. vol. viii. p. 477 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Bufo fuscus, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 75. 

Description. — Head shorter by one-fourth than the width 
of its hinder portion ; rough only on the forehead and 
crown; muzzle short, obtuse, rounded at its extremity; 
the centre of the head, from between the eyes to the crown, 
swollen into a large longitudinal protuberance ; on some 
of the other parts of the head the skin is thin and tight, 
so that the granulations on the bone can be distinctly felt 
through it ; the fore-legs are as long as the body, the hind- 
legs twice that length ; the length of the spur equals the 
space between the eyes ; palatine teeth ten in number, five 
on each side, with a blank space in the middle ; skin of the 


248 


BATRACHIA. 


back with or without tubercles ; upper eyelid wrinkled or 
smooth. 

Length of the body, about 2| inches. 

Upper surface grey or reddish, with or without dark 
marblings; a yellow streak runs along the back; the flanks, 
shoulders, and upper part of the thighs often speckled with 
red ; lower parts white, or else with black spots, or flexuous 
black lines ; the spur yellowish or brown, never black, as 
in the next species. 

Its croak resembles that of the R. viridis or esculenta. 
If the thigh be pressed, the frog utters a cry, and gives out 
an odour of garlic, sometimes so strong and pungent as to 
affect the eyes. Lays long chains of eggs in March and 
April, held together by a glutinous matter; the tadpoles 
remain long in the water as such, their growth being slower 
than that of most frogs. 

It is found in France near Paris, in ponds between 
Pontin and Bondy; in Alsace, and other places in the 
north of that country. In Belgium, it has occurred at 
Antwerp near Fort Carnot. Occurs, but not commonly, 
in Gallicia, the Bukovina, Silesia, and Carniola, and pro- 
bably in the North of Italy. 

Pelobates cultripes. 

Pelobates cultripes, Dum. et Bib. vol. viii. p. 483 ; Crespon, Faun. 

Merid. vol. ii. 

Cultripes provincialis, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 70. 

Description. — Differs from the preceding in having the 
whole of the upper part and sides of the head rough, ex- 
cept the top of the nose and the eyelids, and in the flat- 
ness of the top of the head ; the spurs are rather more 
robust, and always of a deep black colour, never brown or 
yellow. 

Length of the body, about inches. 


BOMBINATOR IGNEUS. 


249 


The upper parts are marked with large brown spots, 
either separate or compact, on a greyish ground ; on the 
sides the spots are of the same colour, but smaller ; under 
parts white ; the spur and tips of the toes black. 

Appears to have been observed only in Spain and the 
South of France. Said by M. Crespon to be rare in the 
Department du Gard. 

Genus BOMBINATOR. 

Tongue circular, entire, very slender, spongy, and ad- 
hering to the bottom of the mouth ; palate with a small 
interrupted row of teeth between the posterior edge of the 
inner nostrils ; no outward appearance of a tympanum ; 
fore-legs with four short unequal toes, with a rudiment of 
a fifth. Only one species. 

Bombinator igneus. 

Bombinator igneus , Dum. et Bib. vol. viii. p. 487 ; Schinz, Europ 
Faun. vol. ii. p. 77 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 
Bombinator pachgpus, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — In shape, less compact than the Toads, but 
not as slim as the true Frogs ; body and head depressed ; 
muzzle much rounded, eyes projecting ; nostrils placed far 
apart, and at the spot where the upper jaw turns down- 
wards to the lower ; the forehead and crown flat ; all the 
upper surface of the body covered with warts of different 
sizes, and sometimes with minute spines ; the fore-legs, 
stretched along the body, reach to the origin of the hind- 
legs ; these last will extend beyond the mouth by the 
length of their toes ; the third toe of the fore-foot is the 
longest, then the second, and the first is the shortest ; the 
webs of the hind-feet reach almost to the ends of the toes. 

m 5 


250 


BATRACHIA. 


In Italy, in the mountains especially, the feet are much 
thicker than elsewhere, so as to have a swollen appearance ; 
it is upon this fact that Prince Buonaparte is inclined to 
look upon the Italian animal as specifically distinct, under 
the name of B. pachyypus. 

Length of the body scarcely more than 1 inch. 

The under surface is sometimes smooth, sometimes with 
a few small glandular warts. The colour of the upper 
parts is a dull olive-brown, sometimes paler; there are 
small black spots on the edge of the upper jaw and along 
the toes ; all the lower parts are a fine orange or rose- 
colour, marbled, or spotted with blue or bluish black. 

It passes most of its time in the water ; spawns in May 
and Tune ; prefers ditches and ponds where the water is 
brackish ; when frightened, and unable to escape, it raises 
its legs towards its head, throwing the latter back in a 
ridiculous manner, and squirting from the vent a frothy, 
acrid fluid. 

Found nearly all over the temperate regions of Europe ; 
all over France, Germany, Switzerland, and Russia. In 
Italy, chiefly in the Apennines, never in the plains. Is 
very common in pools among the wooded hills and heaths 
of the Ardennes ; also in Silesia. Not rare in GalHcia, the 
Bukovina, and Carniola. 

Genus HYLA. 

Readily distinguished from the rest of the European 
Baniclce by the enlargement of the extremities of the toes, 
which are provided each with a disk or cushion, enabling 
the animal to adhere to leaves of trees and other smooth 
substances. The abdomen is covered with numerous small 
tubercles. There is in the males of nearly all the species 
a vocal bladder under the throat, or on each side of the 


HYLA VIRIDIS. 


251 


neck ; tongue entire, or very slightly notched, nearly cir- 
cular. Thirty-two species known, of which the following 
only is European. 


Hyla viridis. 

Hyla viridis, Dum. et Bib. vol. viii. p. 581 ; Boon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Hyla arbor ea, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 71. 

Common Tree Frog. 

Description. — Head short, thick, the sides of the muzzle 
approaching each other at an obtuse angle ; palatal teeth 
in a short interrupted row between the hinder edges of 
the inner nostrils ; on each side of the palate is a shallow 
longitudinal furrow. The males possess the power of in- 
flating the bladder beneath their throat until it becomes as 
large as their head ; the fore-legs are as long as the body ; 
the hind-legs reach beyond the nose by the length of the 
foot ; the toes of the fore-feet are fringed by a membrane ; 
the hind-feet are deeply webbed between the third and 
fourth, and fourth and fifth toes, but slightly between the 
others ; the skin is folded above the tympanum and across 
the breast ; on the upper surface it is smooth. 

Length of the body, about 1^ inch. 

The general colour is light green above, with a rosy 
tinge on the toes, beneath white ; sometimes the green is 
spotted with tawny or black, sometimes it is replaced by a 
blue shade, or by a uniform brown or dirty white, or 
violet, with darker markings; a black line edged with 
white runs from behind the eye to the thighs along the 
sides. 

This species feeds on insects, upon which it darts some- 
times from the distance of a foot. Except in the spawn- 
ing season, from April to June, it chiefly lives upon trees ; 
during that period it takes to the water. Its croak, when 


252 


BATRACHIA. 


there are many together, may he heard for two miles or 
more around. 

It inhabits nearly the whole of Europe, except the 
British Islands. Is common in France, Germany, Italy 
and its islands ; Poland, Switzerland, and all the East of 
Europe. Not uncommon in the South of Bussia, the 
Crimea, and Caucasus. In Belgium it is but rarely found. 

Genus BUFO. 

The body has a swollen appearance, the skin is warty ; 
a porous protuberance behind the ear ; there are no teeth 
in the jaws, and the hind-feet are of moderate length. 

Bufo vulgaris. 

Bufo vulgaris, Dum. et Bib. vol. viii. p. 671 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun. 

vol. ii. p. 72 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) ; Bell, Hist. 
Brit. Eep. 

The Toad. 

Description. — The body is broad, thick, very much swol- 
len ; the head large, with the crown much flattened ; 
muzzle obtuse and rounded ; gape very wide ; no teeth 
either on the jaws or the palate ; the tongue entire, not 
notched; over each eye a slight porous protuberance, a 
larger one on each side behind the ears ; on the fore -feet 
the third toe is the longest ; the first and second are equal, 
and longer than the fourth ; the hind-legs scarcely longer 
than the body, with five toes, and the rudiment of a sixth, 
webbed for half their length, the fourth much the longest, 
the third a little longer than the fifth ; the skin both above 
and below is covered with warts and pimples of various 
sizes ; these are largest on the back, but more crowded on 
the belly; tympanum more or less visible in different 
individuals. 


BUFO VIRIDIS. 


253 


Length of the body about 3| inches, but often very 
much larger in the Morea and Sicily. Specimens from the 
former country are said to measure 10 inches. 

The general colour is a brownish grey, the tubercles 
being reddish brown ; sometimes the upper parts incline 
to olive or black; the under parts are yellowish white, 
either plain, or irregularly spotted with black ; a brown or 
black band is always present along the outer margin of the 
parotid protuberances. Specimens brought from Japan differ 
from those of Europe only in being a good deal darker. 

The Toad crawls or runs, but does not leap like the 
Frog ; frequents moist places, but may often be met with 
on dusty roads. Spawns in the water in April or the end 
of March, the eggs forming long chains. The Tadpoles are 
smaller and blacker than those of the Frog. It changes 
its entire skin periodically. The glands on the back and 
sides secrete a foetid acrid matter. Feeds on insects, slugs, 
and earth-worms. 

Is found commonly all over Europe, from Sweden and 
Eussia, to Greece and Italy. In England and Scotland, 
but not in Ireland. 

Bufo viridis. 

Bufo viridis , Dum. et Bib. vol. viii. p. 681 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Bufo variabilis, Schinz, Europ. Eaun. vol. ii. p. 74. 

Bufo calamita , Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) ; Bell, Hist. Brit. Eep. 
The Natter- Jack Toad. 

Description. — The general form is similar to the Common 
Toad, but the body is less swollen ; the eyes are more 
projecting, with the eyelids very much elevated above the 
crown ; the porous protuberance behind the ears not nearly 
so large as in the last species ; the toes on the fore-feet 
are more nearly equal ; the third, however, is still a little 


254 


BATRACHIA. 


longer than the others, the first and second not shorter 
than the fourth ; hind-legs not as long as the body, their 
toes much less webbed than in B. vulgaris ; the tubercle 
there representing the sixth toe either absent, or very 
small ; the skin covered with warts and pimples ; on each 
hind-leg is a large gland ; the male is provided with a 
vocal bladder, but it is altogether internal ; the warts of 
the body vary much in size and number in different indi- 
viduals ; in some the upper surface is almost free from 
them. 

Length of the body, 2 1 inches. 

Prom the variations in colour which occur, some Na- 
turalists suppose that two distinct species exist, but the 
authors of the ‘ Erpetologie Generate ’ have decided that 
the B. calamita and B. viridis are specifically the same. 
The prevailing tint of the upper parts is dirty green, 
with a mixture of brown, olive, tawny, or yellowish. 
In many individuals, more particularly those found in 
England, and the North, East, and West of France, a 
bright yellow line runs down the middle of the back ; 
the warts and pimples are often reddish ; parts beneath 
whitish, often spotted with black ; legs marked with trans- 
verse black bands. 

Frequents dry situations as well as moist, and resorts 
to the water for the spawning and breeding season ; when 
excited, emits from the skin a strong sulphury odour. 
Its croak is like that of the Tree Frog (Hyla viridis). 

Found over nearly the whole of Europe, the West of 
Asia, and North of Africa. In England, on heaths near 
London, and in some other parts of the country. Occurs 
in a few localities in the South-west of Ireland. Com- 
mon in many parts of Germany, Poland, South of France, 
the plains of Switzerland, and Southern Russia. Is not 
often met with in Belgium, but is abundant in Italy; 


SALAMANDRA MACULOSA. 


255 


and in Sardinia is said to be the only species known. 
Was observed by the French. Expedition to the Morea near 
Modon. 

Family SALAMANDRIDiE. SALAMANDERS 
AND NEWTS. 

Gills present only in the Tadpole state ; body elongated ; 
legs four in number ; fore-feet with four toes ; hind-feet 
generally with five ; tail present in the adult as well as 
in the Tadpole. 


Genus SALAMANDRA. 

The tongue almost circular, but slightly oval, free at its 
edges ; palatal teeth more or less hooked, placed in two 
longitudinal rows ; generally with glandular swellings on 
each side of the head ; four toes on the fore-feet, five on 
the hinder ; tail rounded, conical. 

Salamandra maculosa. 

Salamandra maculosa, Dum. et Bib. vol. ix. p. 52 ; Sciiinz, Europ. 

Faun. vol. ii. p. 58 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Body black, with large yellow marks irre- 
gularly disposed on the head, back, and sides, as well as 
on the legs and tail ; these marks vary much in size, num- 
ber, and brightness of colour ; the outline of the snout is 
much rounded ; nostrils near the tip, and very small ; the 
skin in general is warty; along the centre of the back 
runs a shallow furrow, in which each vertebra may be 
distinguished ; on each side of the back are pores in pairs, 
and placed with some regularity; along each flank is a row 
of twelve porous warts ; the warts on the body are also 
porous, and emit, when the animal is pressed by the hand, 


256 


BATRACHIA. 


or apprehensive of danger, a white viscous fluid, in some 
degree poisonous. On the throat, in most instances, there 
is a rough fold of skin forming a kind of collar, running 
hack on each side to the glandular swellings on the head, 
which are always, or nearly so, yellow, and much deve- 
loped; eyelids very moveable; the feet are short and 
feeble ; tail not quite as long as the body ; the belly is 
black. 

Entire length, about 6 inches. The females in general 
are larger than the males. 

The Salamander produces its young alive, betaking itself 
for that purpose to the water, but at other times is alto- 
gether terrestrial in its habits, preferring, however, situa- 
tions where it can imbibe moisture through its numerous 
pores. The breeding season is from March to June. 
Feeds on insects, slugs, and earth-worms. The belief 
formerly prevalent that the Salamander was able to resist 
the action of fire is quite unfounded. 

Inhabits the greater part of Central and Southern 
Europe. In France, has been found near Paris, in old 
aqueducts at Plessis-Piquet ; is very abundant near Rouen, 
and at Yannes in Brittany. In the Southern Departments 
is confined to the more elevated districts. Is common 
throughout the whole range of the Carpathian mountains, 
and in mountain regions in Italy, Switzerland, Spain, 
Turkey, Hungary, and Bohemia ; very common near Vienna, 
but not abundant in Silesia. In Belgium occurs in ca- 
verns, especially on the right bank of the Meuse. 

Salamandra Corsica. 

Salamandra Corsica, Dum. et Bib. vol. ix. p. 61 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Description. — Closely resembles the last species, but must 
be regarded as specifically distinct, on account of the dif- 


SALAMANDRA ATRA. SALAMANDR1NA. 


257 


ferent arrangement of its palatal teeth. Those in the 
S. maculosa are in two curved rows, enclosing an oval con- 
cave space, with their hinder ends turned outwards ; while 
in the species before us the rows of teeth are parallel for 
more than two-thirds of their length, separating a little 
towards the front, where they have a rounded space be- 
tween them, and turning abruptly across the palate at 
their hinder ends. 

Entire length, about 7 inches. 

Has been observed only in the Island of Sardinia and 
in Algeria. 

Salamandra atra. 

Salamandra atra, Dum. et Bib. vol. ix. p. 62 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun, 
vol. ii. p. 57 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — Body black all over, without any spots ; the 
glandular swellings on the sides of the head much de- 
veloped ; along the sides are twelve or thirteen oval porous 
warts, with a transverse impression between each pair ; 
the tail marked with about twenty-seven transverse folds ; 
a distinct fold under the throat, forming a collar, and 
dividing the head from the body. In form and appearance, 
except as to colour, identical with S. maculosa. 

This species inhabits the higher mountain ranges of 
Switzerland, Savoy, Tyrol, the neighbourhood of Saltzburg, 
Camiola, and the Bukovina; is found up to the height 
where perpetual snow begins, and never on the plains; 
has not been met with in the Italian Peninsula, but 
doubtless occurs on the northern frontier of that country ; 
is common in suitable situations in Austria, Carinthia, and 
Camiola. 

Genus SALAMANDRINA. 

Tongue oblong, entire, rounded in front, widened and 
squared behind ; the hinder portion free ; palatal teeth in 


258 


BATRACHIA. 


two longitudinal lines ; no projecting parotid glands ; four 
toes on the fore- and hind-feet. Only one species known. 

Salamandrina perspicillata. 

Salamandrina perspicillata, Dum. et Bib. yol. ix. p. 69 ; Buon. Faun. 

Ital. (figured). 

Salamandra perspicillata, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 59. 

Description. — Body very long for its width ; head distinct 
from the trunk ; all the feet with four toes each ; palatal 
teeth in two ranges, which are parallel at first, and then 
divergent, forming the letter Y ; tail long and rounded, 
with a slight ridge along the top. The whole of the upper 
parts are black, with the exception of a curved orange 
mark, shaped like a horseshoe, on the head, with the con- 
vex side towards the back of the animal, and the extremities, 
which are widened, towards the eyes ; the belly is dull 
white, with black spots ; the under part of the tail and the 
soles of the feet are blood-red. No dimensions given. 

Inhabits all the Tuscan Apennines, and probably the 
whole of that range of mountains ; found by Prince Buona- 
parte near Ascoli, and on the shores of the Lago di Alban o, 
and has been taken on Vesuvius. M. Savi obtained speci- 
mens from Sardinia. 

Genus PLEURODELES. 

Tongue small, warty, free behind and on the sides, ad- 
hering in front ; palatine teeth in two longitudinal rows, 
nearly parallel, and nowhere divergent ; the extremities of 
the ribs piercing the skin, and visible on the surface ; tail 
long, compressed. Only one species. 


PLEURODELES WALTLI. GEOTRITON. 


259 


Pleurodeles Waltli. 

Pleurodeles Watlii, Dum. et Bib. vol. ix. p. 72 ; Schinz, Earop. Faun, 
vol. ii. p. 64 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured only). 

Description. — The body much resembles that of the genus 
Triton in general appearance ; the ribs, in from ten to 
fourteen pairs, are directed backwards, and their extremities 
protrude through the skin in a very remarkable manner, 
having the appearance of small bony spines ; the eyes are 
prominent, with very distinct eyelids ; the skin is some- 
what granular on almost every part except the belly, very 
smooth on the edges of the jaws ; a fold under the neck 
and behind the gape ; all the toes are free to their roots ; 
the general colour above is brown, or blackish grey, with 
yellowish marblings ; the belly covered with numerous 
small black spots, with some yellow spots interspersed. 
No dimensions given. The habits of this species are as yet 
unknown. 

First discovered by M. AValtl at Chiclana in Spain, and 
probably confined to the more southern parts of that 
country and of Portugal. Schinz states that it is very 
common in Andalusia, in tanks and cisterns of water. 

N.B. — The Braclybates ventricosus of Tschudi is probably 
the young of the Pleurodeles. 

Genus GEOTRITON. 

Tongue a disk, free all round, supported in the centre 
by a thin protractile stem received into a cavity in the 
bottom of the mouth ; palatine teeth in one row, across 
the roof, behind the internal orifices of the nostrils ; behind 
these are two other rows of teeth ; eyes prominent ; no 
apparent parotid glands ; all the toes somewhat webbed at 
the base ; skin smooth. Only one species. 


260 


BATRACHIA. 


Geotriton fuscns. 

Geotriton fuscus, Dum. et Bib. vol. ix. p. 112; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Triton fuscus, Sciiinz, Europ. Faun. yol. ii. p. 62. 

Description. — Tail rather shorter than the body, thick, 
and rounded at the base, ending in a sharp point ; toes of 
the fore-feet short, depressed, with small webs between 
them, those of the hind-feet webbed to half their length ; 
the legs are all of the same length, and the space between 
the fore- and hind-legs equals one-third of the length of 
the body. Colour of the upper parts brown, marked with 
obscure reddish spots ; beneath ashy, with white specks ; 
the legs are paler than the body ; head convex above, very 
flat beneath, somewhat wider than the body ; the space 
between the tip of the snout and the anterior margin of the 
eye equal to one and one-half the diameter of the eye ; the 
body is nearly cylindrical, rather flat on the belly, narrow- 
ing towards the neck, and conical near the tail. 

Entire length, 3|- inches. 

This animal, of whose habits but little appears to be 
known, is said to take to the water but rarely, probably 
only in the breeding season. It has been found in Italy 
in caves, and under stones, in the mountains of the Genoese 
territory, near Serravezza, and, according to Prince Buona- 
parte, in several parts of the Apennines, especially near 
Ascoli and Sambuca, as well as in the Island of Sardinia. 

Genus TRITON. 

Tongue fleshy, warty, rounded or oval, free at the edges 
only, or at the edges and on the posterior margin ; palatine 
teeth in two longitudinal and almost parallel rows ; nume- 
rous small teeth in the jaws; without very prominent 
parotids ; head smaller than the middle of the belly ; tail 
compressed, furnished with vertical membranes like fins 


TRITON CRISTATUS. 


261 


during the period when the animals keep in the water, 
especially in the breeding season. 

Triton cristatus. 

Triton cristatus , Dum. et Bib. vol. ix. p. 131 ; Schinz, Europ. Faun. 

vol. ii. p. 59 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured) ; Bell, Hist, 
Brit. Rep. 

The Warty Newt. 

Description. — Head depressed ; snout obtuse and rounded ; 
gape extending a little beyond the eyes ; a collar beneath 
the neck, formed by a loose fold of the skin ; fore -feet ex- 
tending a little beyond the snout ; hind-feet placed along 
the side, reaching to the base of the toes of the fore-feet ; 
tail very much compressed, its edges sharp above and below, 
lanceolate, gradually tapering to a blunt point ; skin warty, 
uniformly covered with scattered pores ; a row of pores on 
each side of the head, and also along each side of the body, 
forming a line between the fore- and hind-legs ; in the male 
the abdomen is rather shorter, compared with the entire 
length, than in the female ; the back, in spring, has a high 
membranous crest, running from between the eyes to near 
the tail, which last has also a crest like the dorsal ; both 
are serrated and jagged, the latter the most so. The upper 
parts are blackish brown, with round spots of a darker 
tint ; breast and belly bright orange, or orange-yellow, 
with conspicuous round black spots, sometimes confluent, 
and forming interrupted transverse bands; sides dotted 
with white ; often a silvery white band along the sides of 
the tail; the membranes are dusky, tinged with violet. 
Remains almost continually in the water. 

Entire length, 5 or 6 inches. 

This is probably the most common European species ; is 
found all over the Continent, from Italy to Sweden ; in 
England is less frequent than T. punctatus ; very common 


262 


BATRACHIA. 


all through Italy and Switzerland, in Gallicia and the 
Bukovina; not uncommon in the South of France, Bel- 
gium, and Carniola. 

Triton marmoratus. 

Triton marmoratus , Dual et Bib. vol. ix. p. 135 ; Schinz, Europ. 

Faun. vol. ii. p. 60 ; Buon. Eaun. Ital. (figured). (Tide 
article T. Alpestris of that work.) 

Description. — The body is more or less covered with 
wrinkles and warts, and is rather thick and short ; the 
male in spring is adorned by a very ample crest, running 
along the back and tail ; its colour at that season is dark 
green, marbled with black angular spots, sometimes con- 
fluent, and placed without regularity ; very often the crest 
is black, with a number of equidistant white spots ; in the 
female the green is less bright, and the marblings have a 
red-brown tinge ; the crest is absent, and along the back 
runs a line of yellow, more or less clear ; the body beneath 
is black, with scattered white specks ; the centre of the 
flat portion of the tail is milky- white ; in the female the 
tail beneath is pale yellow or orange ; upper lip straight, 
not drooping over the jaw as in T. cristatus; at other 
seasons of the year the colours become much less bright, 
and the crest of the male disappears. 

Entire length, 6 or 7 inches. 

A variety has been occasionally met with, once in the 
cellars of the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes in Paris, 
with a bright vermilion line along the back and tail ; all 
the under parts of the body vinous brown, with numerous 
white specks. 

The T. Carnifex and T. Nycthemerus of authors are pro- 
bably merely further varieties of this very changeable 
species, depending upon the age or sex of the individual, 
or upon the situation in which it lives. The former appears 


TRITON PYRENiEUS. 


263 


to approach nearly to the brightly- coloured variety just 
described, and is said by Prince Buonaparte to occur in 
Italy, near Borne, Ostia, Castel-Fusano, in the Bolognese 
territory, and Pisa ; also in Spain, Prance, Germany, and 
Switzerland. 

T. marmoratus inhabits many of the warmer parts of 
Europe, such as Spain and Prance, more particularly the 
Southern Departments ; it has, however, been found near 
Paris, and in Switzerland, near Berne. Is very common 
about Bordeaux. 

Triton Pyrenaeus. 

Triton Pyrenceus, Dum. et Bib. vol. ix. p. 139. 

Description. — Body covered with warts and pointed tu- 
bercles ; these latter are generally distinct from each other, 
but over the eyes are crowded together and smaller than 
elsewhere ; on the sides the skin contracts into transverse 
folds, and the warts on those parts are, as* it were, cut into 
facets and arranged in lines ; all along the back and tail is 
a line, which, in spirits, is dull yellow, but in the living 
animal is doubtless much brighter ; upon its surface are 
several projecting black spots, and its borders are irregu- 
larly notched with the brown which pervades the sides ; the 
eyes very prominent ; the tail much compressed ; all the 
imder parts and the tips of the fore-toes are reddish yellow, 
these last being covered with large tubercles'; the lower 
half of the tail is also reddish yellow : the unusually rough 
and rugged skin makes this small species very remarkable. 

The length, as given in the 4 Erpetologie Generate,’ from 
a specimen in spirits, is 9 centimetres, equal to about 3 \ 
English inches. The author of that work supposes the 
T. cinereus of Tschudi, T. Bibroni of Bell, as well as the 
T. rugosus and T. rejoandus of Duges, to be merely varieties 
of the present species. 


264 


BATRACHIA. 


It appears to be of very rare occurrence, having been 
found but a few times, and only in the Pyrenees. 

Triton punctatus. 

Triton 'punctatus , Dum. et Bib. vol. ix. p. 141 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Triton palmatus, Sciiinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p, 61. 

Lissotriton punctatus, Bell, Hist. Brit. Rep. 

Common Smooth Newt. 

Description. — The whole of the skin is quite smooth, 
without any tubercles ; on the top of the head are two rows 
of pores ; occasionally there are a few distant pores on the 
sides, forming an indistinct lateral line ; the collar beneath 
the throat very inconspicuous; the male in the breeding 
season furnished with a crest, which runs continuously from 
the top of the head along the tail, and is regularly fes- 
tooned on its edge. Upper parts light brownish grey in-* 
clining to olive ; beneath yellowish, becoming bright orange 
in spring, marked all over with round, black, unequal 
spots ; on the head the spots form about five longitudinal 
streaks ; under the eyes is a yellowish streak ; the female 
is much less spotted than the male, the spots being smaller 
and often very obscure, and the under parts are often quite 
plain. Passes a great deal of its time on land, when the 
skin loses its softness and sometimes becomes wrinkled; 
the toes, from being flat, become round ; the membranes 
of the back and tail entirely disappear, and all the colours 
become more dull. 

Entire length, from 3J to 4 inches. 

Is found over a large part of Europe, and is the most 
plentiful species in the British Islands. Is very common in 
Switzerland, Belgium, Gallicia, and the Bukovina. “ Un- 
commonly numerous in Silesia,” and very abundant in 
Italy, especially near Rome. Inhabits many parts of France, 
and is found in Camiola. 


TRITON ALPESTRIS. TRITON PALMATUS. 


265 


Triton alpestris. 

Triton alpestris, Dum. et Bib. vol. ix. p. 146 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Tritone Apuano, Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Triton Wurfbainii, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 60. 

Description. — The body above nearly black; the throat, 
belly, and edges of the vent reddish yellow ; the lower half 
of the tail is brighter yellow, with regular brown spots ; 
all their under parts are quite smooth, but the upper parts 
are somewhat rugged ; on the sides, where the colours of 
the back and belly join, are rows of numerous black specks ; 
the tail is wide, compressed, almost transparent, especially 
on its lower part, which is spotted with black ; the fore- 
feet are pale beneath, and, as well as the hind-feet, have 
the toes ringed with black. The best figure of this species 
is that in Prince Buonaparte’s * Iconografia della Fauna 
Italica,’ with the name of Tritone Apuano, as coming from 
Genoa. 

Length, about A\ inches. 

Often found in company with T. cristatus. Very common 
in Switzerland, particularly near Zurich. Universally dis- 
tributed in Belgium, where it abounds in the Ardennes and 
near Coudroy. Common in Austria. In Italy, inhabits 
mountains near Terracina and Garfagnana. Wot rare in 
the South of France. Is included in lists of the Reptiles 
of Gallicia and the Bukovina, the Carpathian Mountains, 
and Carniola. 

Triton palmatus. 

Triton palmatus, Dum. et Bib. vol. ix. p. 148. 

Triton exiguus , Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 62; Buon. Faun. Ital. 
(figured). 

Lissotriton palmipes, Bell, Hist. Brit. Rep.? 

Description. — The skin is nearly smooth, the body an- 
gular, the back flat, with a prominent line along each side, 

N 


266 


BATRACHIA. 


originating on the muzzle and reaching to the hind-legs, as 
in some Frogs. In the spring the hind-toes of the male 
are palmated nearly to their extremities, and the tail is lan- 
ceolate, with thin edges above and below, ending in a 
thread-like point. In the female this part is nearly round 
at all seasons, and becomes so in the male after the breed- 
ing is over. The colour of the upper parts of the body in 
that sex is olive-brown or greenish with dark spots ; on 
the side of the tail is a wide hand of yellowish white edged 
with round black specks ; the belly is yellow, with a few 
scattered dark specks. The general colour of the female is 
lighter and less bright. 

Entire length, inches. 

The sexes differ so much in the spring as to have led to 
the supposition that they were of distinct species, and the 
female has been described as T. abdominalis. When squeezed, 
emits a disagreeable musky odour. 

Said to be the most common Newt around Paris. Occurs 
in many parts of Germany, near Vienna and elsewhere. 
Is common in the South of France, but rare in Switzerland. 
In Italy, has been found near Pome with T. Carnifex, and 
about Pisa. If it is the T. palmipes of Bell, it is rare, and 
local in England, and possibly is the variety mentioned by 
W. Thompson as occurring in parts of the West of Ireland. 

Triton Rusconii. 

Euproctus Busconii, Dum. et Bib. yoI. is. p. 158; Schinz, Europ. Faun, 
vol. ii. p. 65 ; Buon. Faun. Ital. (figured). 

Description. — This species has been separated from the 
genus Triton by several authors, chiefly because its tongue 
is free behind as well as on its edges, instead of on these 
only. M. Dumeril, however, does not attach much value 
to this distinction. The head, according to Prince Buona- 
parte, is as long as half the body, rounded in front, de- 


TRITON RUSCONII. 


267 


pressed ; eyes small, not prominent, contained twice in the 
space between them and the tip of the snout ; tongue wide, 
filling the whole mouth, closely adherent in front ; a shallow 
furrow runs down the back ; no dorsal crest ; tail longer 
than the body, rounded at its base, then compressed, with 
sharp edges above and below ; the fore-feet do not reach 
to the tip of the snout ; their inner and outer toes are the 
shortest, the third a little longer than the second ; the 
hind-feet, placed along the body, reach half-way along the 
sides ; their thumb is the shortest toe, the centre one the 
longest, the others about equal, all rounded, short, and 
quite free. In both sexes the anal region is much swollen 
and enlarged into a conical projection, thinner in the male 
than in the female. Upper parts dark olive, often in- 
clining to dusky or black, with indistinct rusty spots ^ 
beneath reddish ash, with black spots, sometimes confluent, 
sometimes few in number and widely separated. The 
female is rather larger than the male, and may be recog- 
nized by an enlargement or fold at the back of the hind- 
leg, near the foot, forming a projecting heel. 

Entire length, 5 or 6 inches. 

Peculiar to hilly districts, in the neighbourhood of stag- 
nant water, in which it fives during the summer. 

Is not uncommon in Sardinia and Corsica, especially in 
the latter. In Sardinia it is more abundant in the north 
than in the south of the island. Has been found, though 
rarely, in the Pyrenees and in Spain. 

Family SIRENIDiE. 

Gills permanent, continuing during the whole of the 
fife of the animal ; lungs acquired in addition when adult ; 
legs feebly developed, sometimes only one pair present ; 
body very much elongated. 

n 2 


268 


BATRACHIA. 


Genus PROTEUS. 

Body long, slender, rounded, without warts or tubercles, 
the sides slightly furrowed transversely ; head prolonged, 
depressed in front ; snout truncated ; eyes not visible ; 
nostrils apparent on the outside, but not communicating 
with the interior of the mouth ; teeth in both jaws, and 
two long rows on the palate ; body almost twice as long 
as the tail, which is compressed, very thin near the ex- 
tremity, its edges consisting of a membrane ; legs slender, 
four in number ; fore- and hind-legs very far apart, the 
former with four toes, the latter with only two, and these 
merely rudimentary. Only one species known. 

Proteus anguinus. 

Proteus anguinus , Dum. et Bib. vol. ix. p. 186. 

HyypocJiton anguinus, Schinz, Europ. Faun. vol. ii. p. 57. 

Per Olm, Germany. 

Description. — This singular animal is described as re- 
sembling an Eel with legs, so much is its body elongated ; 
the muzzle is long and depressed, both jaws are furnished 
with teeth ; the tongue is free in front ; the eyes extremely 
small, and covered by the skin, through which they are 
with difficulty discerned as round black spots ; the powers 
of sight must be very feeble, if they exist at all. Besides 
the internal lungs, there are three feathered gills on each 
side of the posterior portion of the head of a bright red, 
when the animal has been for some time in the dark. The 
skin is smooth, either whitish or flesh-coloured. 

Entire length, from 10 inches to 1 foot. The diameter 
seldom exceeds 1 inch. 

Lives altogether in w'ater, but comes to the surface 
from time to time to breathe. Those kept by M. Du- 
meril for three or four years, were fed entirely upon earth- 


PROTEUS ANGUINUS. 


269 


worms. When taken from the water and placed on the 
ground, they drag themselves along with difficulty, the 
feet being too weak to raise the long body from the sur- 
face, and they soon die unless restored to their favourite 
element. A healthy specimen was exhibited in the Aqua- 
rium of the Zoological Society of London, in May 1858. 

Found in Lake Sittich in the Duchy of Carniola, and in 
caverns communicating with it. Also in the celebrated 
Grotto of Adelsberg in Carinthia, on the road from Vienna 
to Trieste. 



INDEX, 


The names of the Genera are printed in Small Capitals ; those of 
the Species in Roman characters; the Synonyms and Varieties in 
Italics. 


Ablabes , 218. 

quadrilineatus , 218. 
Ablepharus, 208. 
Kitaibelii, 209. 
Pannonicus, 209. 
Acanthodactylus, 194. 
boskianus, 195. 
Savignyi, 196. 
vulgaris, 195. 
Mgoceros , 141. 

Pyrenaica, 141. 
Airulophis, 232. 

vivax, 232. 

Alytes, 245. 

obstetricans, 245. 
punctatus, 244. 
AmphisbjEna, 201. 

cinerea, 201. 

Anguis, 206. 
fragilis, 207. 
miliaris, 208. 
punctatissimus, 208. 
Antilope, 138. 

rupicapra, 139. 
Saiga, 138. 
Arctomys, 113. 

Baibak, 113. 

Bobac, 113. 
citillus, 115. 
Marmotta, 114. 
Arvicola, 83. 
agrestis, 90. 


Arvicola. 

amphibius, 83. 
argentoratensis , 87. 
arvalis, 88. 
arvalis, 90. 
ater , 84. 
destructor, 86. 
glareolus, 91. 
incertus, 88. 
incertus, 92. 

Italica , 84. 
Lebrunii, 85. 
nivalis, 85. 

Obensis, 95. 
pratensis, 91. 
ratticeps, 87. 
rubidus, 91. 

Savii, 88. 
socialis, 91. 
subterraneus, 89. 
terrestris, 86. 
terrestris, 87. 
vulgaris , 90. 

Ascalabotes, 171. 

Mauritanicus, 171. 

Aspalax, 112. 
typhlus, 112. 

BaljEna, 158. 

mysticetus, 158. 
rostrata , 160. 

Balanoptera, 159. 

Boops, 160. 


INDEX. 


27 2 


Barbastettus, 35. 
communis , 35. 
Daubentonii, 35. 
Beluga, 153. 

leucas, 153. 
Bombinator, 249. 
igneus, 249. 
pachypus, 249. 
Bos, 144. 

Scoticus, 145. 
liras, 144. 
Bradybates, 259. 

ventricosus , 259. 
Bupo, 252. 

calamita, 253. 
fuscus, 247. 
variabilis, 253. 
viridis, 253. 
vulgaris, 252. 
Calocephalus, 73. 
barbatus , 76. 
discolor , 75. 
foetidus, 75. 
hispidus, 76. 
vitulinus , 73. 
Canis, 60. 

alopex, 63. 
aureus, 6] . 
Corsac, 62. 
crucigera, 63. 
Lagopus, 64. 
Lupus, 60. 
Lycaon, 60. 
melanogaster, 64. 
Vulpes, 62. 
Capella, 139. 

rupicapra, 139. 
Capra, 140. 

Ibex, 140. 
Musmon, 143. 
Pyrenaica, 141. 
Castor, 82. 

fiber, 82. 
Ceratodon, 156. 

monodon , 156. 
Ceevus, 132. 

Alces, 132. 
capreolus, 136. 
Corsicanus, 135. 
Dama, 135. 
elaphus, 134. 


Cervus. 

Pygargus, 137. 
rangifer , 133. 
Tarandus, 133. 
Chamaeleo, 169. 
Africanus, 170. 
vulgaris, 170. 
Chelonia, 167. 

Caouana, 167. 
caretta , 167. 

Ckersus, 161. 

marginatuSy 161. 
Cistudo, 164. 

Europe a, 164. 
Coluber, 212. 

iEsculapii, 217. 
atrovirens, 228. 
Austriacus, 224. 
Dahlii, 230. 

Dione, 214. 

Elaphis, 216. 
fallax, 232. 
flavescens, 217. 
Girundicus, 225. 
Halys, 238. 
hippocrepis, 227. 
hydras, 223. 
lesvis, 224. 
Leopardinus, 218. 
Monspessulanus, 225. 
Natrix, 220. 
Neumayeriy 226. 
quadriiineatus, 218. 
Biccioli, 225. 

Riccioli, 231. 
rubens, 231. 
Sauromates, 215. 
scalaris, 213. 
Viperinus, 221. 
viridiflavus, 228. 
tessellatus, 221. 
trabalis, 229. 
Coronella, 224. 

Girundicciy 225. 

Icevis, 224. 

Cricetus, 105. 
accedula , 107. 
frumentarius, 105. 
migratorius, 107. 
phseus, 107. 
vulgaris, 105. 


INDEX. 


273 


Crocidura, 42. 
aranea, 43. 

Etrusca, 42. 
leucodon, 44. 
Crossopus, 40. 

Cultripes, 248. 

provincial is, 248. 
Cystopkora, 79. 

cristata , 79. 
Delphinapterus, 153. 
albicans, 153. 
leacas, 153. 

Delphinorhynchus, 147. 

Bredanensis, 147. 
Delphinus, 146. 
albirostris, 149. 
deductor, 151. 
Delphis, 146. 
JDesmarestii, 155. 
globiceps, 151. 
Grampus, 150. 
griseus, 152. 
hyperoodon, 154. 
Ibsenii , 149. 
leucas, 153. 
leucopleurus, 148. 
Phoccena, 149. 
Bissoanus , 152. 
rostratus, 147. 
Sovjerbyi, 155. 
Tursio, 147. 

JDiodon, 155. 

Sowerbai, 155. 
Dipus, 108. 

Acontion, 110. 
G-erboa, 108. 
jaculus, 109. 
meridianus, 111. 
minutus , 110. 
sagitta, 108. 
Discoglossus, 242. 
pictus, 243. 

Sardus, 243. 
Dysopes, 2. 

Cestonii, 3. 

Riippelii, 3. 

Elaphis, 214. 

Msculapii , 217. 
Dione, 214. 
quater-radiatus, 216. 
Sauromates, 215. 


Emys, 164. 

Caspica, 165. 
lutaria, 164. 

Sigriz, 166. 

Eremias, 197. 

casruleo-ocellata, 198. 
variabilis, 197. 
Erinaceus, 46. 
auritus, 47. 
Europgeus, 46. 

Eryx, 211. 

jaculus, 211. 
turcica, 211. 
Euproctus, 266. 

Busconii, 266. 

Felis, 66. 

borealis, 69. 

Catus, 67. 
cervaria, 68. 

Lynx, 70. 

Manul, 66. 

Pardina, 72. 

Genetta, 65. 

Geotriton, 259. 

fuscus, 260. 
Gerbillus, 111. 

meridianus, 111. 
Gongylus, 204. 

ocellatus, 204. 
Grampus, 152. 

Cuvieri, 152. 
Bissoanus, 152. 
Gulo, 52. 

arcticus, 52. 
Halichoerus , 80. 
griseus, 80. 
gryphus, 80. 
Hemidactylus, 172. 
triedrus, 172. 
verruculatus, 172. 
Heterodon, 154. 

diodon, 154. 

Hyla, 250. 

arbor ea, 251. 
viridis, 251. 
Hyperoodon, 154. 
bidens, 154. 
Butzkopf, 154. 
Desmarestii, 155. 
Hypochton, 268. 
anguinus, .268. 


INDEX, 


274 

Hypudaus, 85. 

alpinus, 85. 

Hystrix, 123. 

eristata, 123. 

Ibex , 141. 

Pyrenaica , 141. 
Inuus, 2. 

sylvanus , 2. 
Lacerta, 179. 
agilis , 182. 

Algira, 177. 
apoda, 200. 
cinerea , 194. 
Edwardsiana, 192. 
Europcea , 182. 
Fitzingeri, 181. 
margaritata, 186. 
Moreotica, 180. 
muralis, 188. 
nigropunetata, 179. 
ocellata, 186. 
oxycephala, 191. 
Peloponesiaca, 187. 
pyrrhog aster, 183. 
Savignii, 196. 
stirpium, 182. 
Taurica, 187. 
variabilis, 197. 
velox, 195. 
viridis, 184. 
vivipara, 183. 
Lagenorhynchus, 148. 
albirostris, 149. 
leucopleurus, 148. 
LAgomys, 129. 

pusillus, 130. 
Lemmus, 93. 

aquaticus, 83. 
lagurus, 96. 
migratorius, 95. 
Norvegicus, 93. 
Obensis, 95. 
pratensis, 89. 
torquatus, 95. 
Lepus, 124. 

canescens, 128. 
cuniculus, 129. 
hybridus, 126. 
Mediterraneus, 125. 
medius, 126. 
pusillus, 130. 


Lepus. 

timidns, 124. 
variabilis, 127. 
Lissotriton, 264. 
palmipes, 265. 
punctatus, 264. 
Lutra, 59. 

vulgaris, 59. 
Macacus, 1. 

Inuus, 2. 

Maries, 58. 

Abietum, 58. 
Foina, 58. 

Meles, 51. 

Gtulo, 52. 
taxus, 51. 
vulgaris, 51. 
Molossus, 3. 

Cestonii, 3. 
Monodon, 156. 

monoceros, 156. 
Mus, 97. 

agrarius, 102. 
agrestis, 90. 
Alexandrinus, 99. 
betulinus , 104. 
campestris, 103. 
decumanus, 97. 
Islandicus, 100. 
jaculus, 108. 
Lemmus, 93. 
Marmotta, 114. 
messorius, 103. 
minutus, 103. 
musculus, 100. 
Nordmanni, 104. 
pendulinus, 103. 
Eattus, 98. 
socialis , 91. 
sylvaticus, 101. 
talpinus, 113. 
tectorum, 99. 
vagus, 104. 
Mustela, 53. 

Altaica, 56. 
boccamela, 56. 
Erminea, 56. 
Ermineum, 56. 
Foina, 58. 

Furo, 54. 

Gale, 55. 


INDEX 


275 


Mustela. 

lutreola, 57. 
Martes, 58. 
Putorius, 53. 
Sarmatica, 54. 
vulgaris, 55. 
Mygale, 44, 

Muscovitica, 45. 
Pyrenaica, 45. 
Myodes, 93. 
lagurus, 96. 
Lemmus, 93. 
Obensis, 95. 
torquatus, 95. 
Myogale, 45. 

Moschata, 45. 
Pyrenaica , 45. 
Myogalea, 45, 

Moscovitica, 45, 
Pyrenaica, 45. 
Myoxus, 119. 

avellanarius, 122. 
dryas, 122. 
glis, 120. 

muscardinus, 122. 
nitedulce, 121. 
nitela, 121. 
quercinus, 121, 
Natrix, 216. 

ckersoides , 222. 
Elapkis, 216. 
ocellata, 222. 
tessellata, 221. 
torquata, 220. 
Viperina, 221. 
Notopholis, 179. 

Fit zing eri, 181. 
Moreotica , 180. 
nigropunctata, 179, 
Ophiomorus, 208. 

miliaris, 208. 

Ovis, 142. 

Aries, 143. 
Musimon, 143. 
Musmon, 143. 
Pachyura, 42. 

Etrusca , 42. 
Pelagius, 78. 

Monachus, 78. 
Pelias, 233. 

Berus, 234. 


Pelias. 

chersea, 234, 
Pelobates, 247. 
cultripes, 248. 
fuscus, 247. 
Pelodytes, 244. 

punctatus, 244, 
Periops, 227. 

hippocrepis, 227. 
Phoca, 73. 

albigena, 77. 
anneliata, 75. 
barbata, 76. 
canina, 73. 
cristata, 79. 
dorsata, 74. 
fcetida, 75, 76. 
Greenlandica, 74. 
gryphus, 80. 
bispida, 76. 
Leporina, 77. 
Monacha, 78. 
Monachus, 78. 
Oceanica, 74. 
vitulina, 73. 
Phoc^ena, 149. 

communis, 149. 
globiceps, 151. 
grisea, 152. 
melas, 151. 

Orca, 150. 

Pissoana, 152. 
Phyllodactylus, 173. 

Europseus, 173. 
Physeter, 157. 

macrocephalus, 157. 
Platydactylus, 171. 

muralis, 171. 
Plecotus, 33. 
auritus, 33. 
Barbastellus, 35. 
brevimanus, 34. 
Pleurodeles, 258. 

Waltli, 259. 
Podarcis, 187. 
muralis, 188. 
oxycephala , 191. 
Taurica, 187. 
Proteus, 268. 

anguinus, 268. 
PSAMMODROMUS, 192. 


INDEX. 


2 76 

PSAMMODROMUS. 

cinereus, 194. 
Edwardsianus, 192. 
Edwardsii, 192. 
Pseudopus, 199. 
Pallasii, 200. 
serpentinus , 200. 
Pteromys, 118. 

Sibericus, 119. 
Putorius, 54. 

Sarmaticus, 54. 
Rana, 239. 

esculenta, 240. 
maritima, 241. 
temporaria, 241, 
viridis, 240. 
Bhinechis , 213. 

scalaris, 213. 
Rhinolophus, 4. 
bihastatus, 5. 
clivosus, 6. 

Euryale, 6. 
ferrum-equinum, 4. 
Hippocrepis, 5. 
Hipposideros, 5. 
unihastatus, 4. 
Bosmarus, 81. 

arcticus, 81. 
Sacalius, 61. 

aureus, 61. 
Salamandra, 255. 
atra, 257. 

Corsica, 256. 
maculosa, 255. 
perspicillata, 258. 
Salamandrina, 257. 

perspicillata, 258. 
Scincus, 202. 

ocettatus, 204. 
officinalis, 203. 
Sciurus, 116. 
alpinus, 117. 
glis, 120. 
striatus, 117. 
volans, 119. 
vulgaris, 116. 

Seps, 205. 

chalcides, 206. 
Sminthus, 104. 

Nordmanni, 104. 
Sorex, 36. 


Sorex. 

alpinus, 39. 
araneus, 43. 
ciliatus, 41. 
fodiens, 40. 
leucodon, 44. 
Moschatus, 45. 
pygmagus, 38. 
remifer, 41. 
rusticus, 38. 
tetragonurus, 37. 
Spalax, 111. 

murinus, 113. 
typhlus, 112. 
Spermophilus, 115. 

citellus, 115. 
Sphargis, 168. 

coriacea, 168. 
Stellio, 176. 

vulgaris, 176. 
Stemmatopus, 79. 

cristatus, 79. 
Steno, 147. 

rostratus , 147. 
Stenodactylus, 174. 

guttatus, 175. 

Sus, 130. 

scrofa, 131. 

Talpa, 47. 
casca, 48. 
Europaea, 48. 
vulgaris, 48. 
Tamia, 117. 

striata, 117. 
Tarbophis, 232. 

vivax, 232. 
Terrapene, 165. 
Caspica, 165. 
Sigriz, 166. 
Testudo, 161. 

G-rseca, 163. 
ibera, 162. 
marginata, 161. 
Mauritanica, 162. 
Trichecus, 81. 

Rosmarus, 81. 
Trigonocephalus, 238. 
Halys, 238. 

I Triton, 260. 

alpestris, 265. 
Bibroni, 263. 


INDEX. 


2 77 


Triton. 

Carnifex, 262. 
cinereus, 263, 
cristatus, 261. 
exiguus, 265. 
fuscus, 260. 
marmoratus, 262. 
Nyctkemerus, 262. 
palmatus, 264. 
palmatus, 265. 
punctatus, 264. 
Pyrenaeus, 263. 
repandus, 263. 
rugosus, 263. 
Rusconii, 266. 
Wurfbainii , 265. 
Tritone , 265. 

Apuano, 265. 
Tropidonotus, 220. 
hydrus, 223. 
Natrix, 220. 
Viperinus, 221. 
Tropidosaura, 177. 

Algira, 177. 

Typhlops, 210. 

vermicularis, 210. 
Tyria, 230. 

Dahlii, 230. 
TJrsus, 49. 
arctos, 49. 
marinus, 50. 
maritimus, 50. 
Urus, 145. 

Scoticus, 145. 
Vespertilio, 7. 

albolimbatus, 25. 
Alcythoe, 26. 
Aristippe, 28. 
auritus, 33. 
Barbastellus, 35. 
Bechsteinii, 9. 
brevimanus, 34. 
Capaccini, 21. 
dasycneme, 19. 
Daubentonii, 20. 
discolor, 14. 
emarginatus, 23. 
humeralis , 18. 


Vespertilio. 

Krascheninikovii, 28. 
Kuhlii, 17. 

Leisleri, 12. 
Leucippe, 27. 
limnophilus, 19. 
maurus, 31. 
megapodius, 22. 
murinus, 9. 
myotis , 9. 
mystacinus, 18. 
Nathusii, 29. 
JVattereri, 10. 
nigricans, 31. 
Nilssonii, 30. 

Noctula, 8. 
Pipistrellus, 15. 

Savii, 24. 

Schreibersii, 13. 
serotinus, 11. 

Ursinii, 13. 
Vipistrellus, 16. 
Vesperugo, 12, 25. 

Krascheninikovii, 28. 
Kuhlii, 16, 25, 26. 
Leisleri, 12. 
maurus, 31. 

Vipera, 235. 

ammodytes, 237. 
aspis, 236. 

Berus, 234. 
ocellata, 236. 
prester, 236. 

Redii, 236. 

Viyerra, 65. 

G-enetta, 65. 

Lutra, 59. 
lutreola , 57. 

Vulpes, 62. 

vulgaris, 62. 

Zamenis , 228. 

Dahlii, 230. 
trabalis , 229. 
viridiflavus, 228. 
Ziphius, 155. 

cavirostris, 155. 
Zootoca, 183. 

vivipara , 183. 


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Elementary Course of Geology, Mineralogy, and Physical 

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8 


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11 


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12 


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BOOKS PUBLISHED BY MR. VAN VOORST. 13 


ARCHITECTURE AHD THE FIHE ARTS, &c. 

Instrumenta Ecclesiastica ; a Series of Working Designs, 
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14 


BOOKS PUBLISHED BY MR. VAN VOORST. 


Manual of Gothic Moldings. A Practical Treatise on their 
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15 


NATURAL HISTORY OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 


This Series of Works is Illustrated, hy many Hundred Engravings ; 
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INDEX. 


Page 


Adams & Baikie’s Manual of Nat. Hist. 10 

Adams’s Genera of Mollusca 4 

Aikin’s Arts and Manufactures 12 

Anatomical Manipulation 9 

Ansted’s Ancient World 7 

Elementary Course of Geology 7 

Geologist’s Text- Book 7 

Gold- Seeker’s Manual 7 

Scenery, Science, and Art 12 

Babington’s Manual of British Bctany. . 5 

Baptismal Fonts 13 

Beale on Sperm Whale 1 

Bell’s British Quadrupeds 1 

British Reptiles 2 

British Stalk-eyed Crustacea 4 

Bloomfield's Farmer’s Boy 14 

Boccius on Production of Fish 2 

Bonaparte’s List of Birds 2 

Brightwell’s Life of Linnseus 12 

Burton’s Falconry on the Indus 1 

Clark’s Testaceous Mollusca 3 

Cocks’s Sea-Weed Collector’s Guide. ... 6 

Couch’s Illustrations of Instinct 10 

Cumming’s Isle of Man 1 1 

Currency 14 

Dallas’s Elements of Entomology 4 

Dalyell’s Powers of the Creator 10 

Rare Animals of Scotland 10 

Dawson’s Geodephaga Britannica 5 

Domestic Scenes in Greenland & Iceland 12 

Douglas’s World of Insects 4 

Dowden’s Walks after Wild Flowers . . 7 

Drew’s Practical Meteorology 9 

Drummond’s First Steps to Anatomy . . 7 

Economy of Human Life 14 

Elements of Practical Knowledge 12 

England before the Norman Conquest. . 12 

Entomologist’s Annual 4 

Companion 5 

Evening Thoughts 12 

Every-day Wonders 12 

Fly Fishing in Salt and Fresh Water . . 3 

Forbes’s British Star-fishes 3 

Malacologia Monensis 3 

■ and Hanley’s British Mollusca 3 

and Spratt’s Travels in Lycia .... 1 1 

Garner’s Nat. Hist, of Staffordshire. ... H 

Gosse’s Aquarium 11 

Birds of Jamaica 2 

Canadian Naturalist 1 1 

Handbook to Marine Aquarium . . 1 1 

Manual of Marine Zoology 1 1 

Naturalist’s Rambles on Dev. Coast 1 1 

Omphalos 8 

Tenby 1 1 

Gray’s Bard and Elegy 14 

Greg and Lettsom’s British Mineralogy 8 
Griffith & Henfrey’s Micrographic Diet. 9 

Harvey’s British Marine Algse 6 

Nereis Boreali-Americana 6 

Sea-side Book 11 

Henfrey’s Botanical Diagrams 6 

Elementary Course of Botany .... 5 

Rudiments of Botany 6 

Translation of Mohl 5 

Vegetation of Europe 5 

& Griffith’s Micrographic Diet. . . 9 

Hewitson’s Birds’ Eggs 1 

Exotic Butterflies 5 

Ibbetson’s Geology of Isle of Wight 12 


Page 

Instrumenta Ecclesiastica 13 

Jenyns’s Observations in Meteorology. . 9 

Observations in Nat. History 9 

Jesse’s Angler’s Rambles 3 

Johnston’s British Zoophytes 4 

Introduction to Conchology 3 

Terra Lindisfarnensis 6 

Jones’s Aquarian Naturalist 8 

Animal Kingdom 9 

Natural History of Animals 9 

Knox’s (A. E.) Rambles in Sussex 1 

Knox (Dr.), Great Artists & Great Anat. 9 

Latham’s Descriptive Ethnology 10 

Ethnology of British Colonies 10 

Ethnology of British Islands 10 

Ethnology of Europe 10 

Man and his Migrations 10 

Varieties of Man 10 

Leach’s Synopsis of British Mollusca . . 3 

Letters of Rusticus 10 

Lowe’s Faunae et Florae Maderse 6 

Manual Flora of Madeira 0 

Malan’s Catalogue of Eggs l 

Martin’s Cat. of Privately Printed Books. 14 

Memoirs of Hugh E. Strickland 8 

Micrographic Dictionary 9 

Mohl on the Vegetable Cell 5 

Moule’s Heraldry of Fish 2 

Newman’s British Ferns 7 

History of Insects 4 

Letters of Rusticus 10 

Northcote & Church’s Chem. Analysis . 7 

Owen’s British Fossil Mammals 8 

on Skeleton of Extinct Sloth 8 

Paley’s Gothic Moldings 14 

Manual of Gothic Architecture 13 

Poor Artist 12 

Prescott on Tobacco 12 

Prestwich’s Geological Inquiry 8 

Ground beneath us 7 

Samuelson’s Humble Creatures 8 

Sclater’s Tanagers 1 

Selby’s British Forest Trees 6 

Shakspeare’s Seven Ages of Man 13 

Sharpe’s Decorated Windows 13 

Shield’s Hints on Moths and Butterflies 4 

Siebold on True Parthenogenesis 4 

Smith’s British Diatomaceae 7 

Sowerby’s Thesaurus Conchyliorum 3 

Spratt’s (and Forbes’s) Travels in Lycia 11 

Stainton’s Butterflies and Moths 5 

- — - History of the Tineina 5 

Strickland’s Ornithological Synonyms. . 2 

and Melville on the Dodo 2 

Sunday-Boolc for the Young 12 

Tugwell’s Sea -Anemones 4 

Vicar of Wakefield, Illustr. by Mulready 14 

Watts’s Songs, Illustrated by Cope 14 

Ward (Dr.) on Healthy Respiration 11 

Ward (N. B.) on the Growth of Plants. . 6 

White’s Selborne 11 

Wilkinson’s Weeds and Wild Flowers. . 5 

Williams’s Chemical Manipulation 7 

Wollaston’s Insecta Maderer ' a $ 

on Variation of Species 10 

Woodward on Polarized Light 9 

Yarrell’s British Birds 

British Fishes 2 

on the Salmon ft