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sUo the Rhine 



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naps, town - plans 
and illustrations. 



RBBMI 



UCSB LIBRARY 



\ Vinegrower "^ 

RUDESHEIM on the Rhine. 




Largest Estates at Riidesheim. 

Also possessing vineyards at Johannisberg and Assmannshausen. 

Specialities : The Vintages of the Rhine, Moselle and Saar. 



It 



The Moselle-Steamship-Compaiiy 

Coblence. 

Telephone 159. — Telegr. address: Moselagentur. 



The steamers which, during the winter, chiefly provide the 
tug service and carrying of goods, serve during the summer 
months, (May-October) in the first place to passenger-service. 

During the summer the steam-boats are running every 
Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday at 6.30 o'cl. in the 
morning from Coblence to Treves, spending the night at 
Traben-Trarbach and every Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and 
Saturday at 7 o'cl. in the morning from Treves to Coblence. 

During the winter months regular passages take place only 
twice weekly, on Monday and Thursday morning at 6.30 o'cl.. 
from Coblence and every Wednesday and Saturday morning 
at 6.30 o'cl. from Treves. 

Bridge stations are: Coblence, Cochem, Alf, Zell, Traben, 
Trarbach, Benicastel, Quint and Treves. 

Boat stations at: Giils, Winningen, Cobern, Niederfell, 
Lehmen, Oberfell, Aiken, Brodenbach, Hatzenport, Burgen, 
Moselkern, Treis, Clotten, Ernst, Bruttig, Beilstein, Briedern, 
Mesenich, Ediger, Neef, Merl, Briedel. Piinderich, Reil, Burg, 
Enkirch, Wolf, Crov, Kinheim, Losenich, Erden, Uerzig, Zel- 
tingen, Wehlen, Miilheim, Dusemond, Kesten, Geierslay, Min- 
heim, Reinsport, Miistert, Piesport, Neumagen, Trittenheim, 
Leiwen, Cliisserath, Thornich, Detzem, Mehring, Longuich, 
Schweich. 

For further particulars see the local Time-tables. 

Excellent cuisine and first class wines on 
board the steamers. 



A GUIDE TO THE RHINE 

describing a Summer Tour 

from Dusseldorf to Mainz, including visits to the 

Valleys of the Nahe, 

Lahn, Moselle, Ahr, the Siebengebirge, etc. 

by 

G. Holscher. 



With many interesting notes 

rrom legendary and historical sources, maps, four town-plans, 

and numerous illustrations. 



Translated by 

A. Mitchell, Edinburgh. 

3. Edition. 




Cologrne: Hoursch & Beehstedt, Publishei*s. 



IV 



Contents. 

Page Page 

The Rhine: its Shipping and The valley of the Ahr . . .82 

its Wine 1 Coblenz 40 

Dfisseldorf 7 On the Moselle 47 

Cologne 11 The Lahn Valley 49 

Journey from Cologne to The Nahe Valley 75 

Mainz 18 Wiesbaden 84 

Bonn 20 Frankfort 87 

The Seven mountains ... 23 Mainz 91 



Maps and Plans: 

Page Page 

Map of the Rhine. Map of the Nahe Valley . 75 

Map of the Siebengebirge . 24 Plan of Diisseldorf .... 9 

,, ,, „ Ahr Valley . . 33 ,, „ Cologne 13 

„ ,, ,, Moselle Valley .47 „ ,, Wiesbaden ... 85 

., ,, ,, Lahn Valley . . 49 ,, „ Frankfort 88 

Niederwald . .71 



Two Steamship Companies carry on the Passenger Traffic on 
the Rhine between Cologne and Mainz: 

TheKbln-DiJsseldorfer Dampfschiffahrts-Gesellschaft. —The Boats 
have either black funnels or funnels with black and white rings. 

Fare Cologne to Mainz: 

r- o • ,o 1 ^ \ { Single fare 12.— marks. 

Express Service (Saloon only) | ^J^^^ ^^^.^ ^^^^ ^^ 

Ordinary f Single fare 10. — marks (Saloon), 6. — marks (Steerage). 
Service \ Return fare 12.— „ „ 7.20 „ „ 

(Return Tickets are valid for the current year) 

and the Niederlandische Dampfschiff-Rhederei — Boats with funnels 

painted half black, half white. 



Preface. 



This book, on its first appearance in German, was received 
with such great approval by visitors to the Rhine, that the 
publishers decided to respond to the often -expressed wish for an 
English edition. It will be useful in the first place to those 
tourists, who desire in a comparatively short time to see the chief 
beauties of the Rhine, and for that purpose wish a small work 
combining the qualities of a practical guide and a descriptive 
handbook. With this view, different sizes of type have been used 
to distinguish the concise descriptions of the principal sights which 
meet the eye on the Rhine journey from the fuller and interesting 
information given of a historical, legendary, or economical nature. 
In particular, introductory sections to the Guide proper deal with 
the Rhine in general, its wine, its shipping, etc. 

In the drawing up of the book, care has also been taken that, 
notwithstanding its title, it shall be equally useful to those who 
travel in one day from Mainz to Cologne or Dusseldorf, and to 
those who take three weeks for the same journey. From the 
outset, therefore, an exact division of time in the text has been 
purposely avoided. On the other hand, the traveller will find, 
in the Index to Contents, sufficient information (including names 
of Hotels etc.) in regard to all places which are mentioned as 
convenient stopping places. If, indeed, some proposals are made 
as to how best to divide the time, it must be understood that 
they bind no one: it is left to the individual taste to choose 
between the city with its castles, churches and museums, on the 
one hand, and the little village surrounded by pleasant vineyards, 
on the other. 



VI 



Proposed Distribution of Time. 

For Eig-ht Days: 

i 5. Coblenz. 

6. Assmannshaus.-Riidesheim. 

7. Wiesbaden. 
! 8. Mainz. 

For U Days: 

8. Moselle Valley 
(for obtaining permission to 
visit Burg Eltz, see p. 48). 

9. Coblenz. 

10. Boppard. 

11. Bingen and Nahe Valley. 

12. Assmannsbaus.-Riidesheim. 

13. Wiesbaden. 

14. Mainz. 
For about Three Weeks : 

10.-12. Coblenz, Moselle Valley 
(for obtaining permission to 
visit Burg Eltz, see p. 48). 

13. Boppard. 

14 1 F. / S^- Groar, Oberwesel, 
^^•'^^- I Bacharach. 

16.-17. Bingen and Nahe Valley. 

ifi iQ J Assmannshausen. 
l».-iy. ^ j^tidesheim. 



1. Diisseldorf. 

2. Cologne. 

3. Bonn. 

4. Siebengebirge. 

1. Diisseldorf. 

2. Cologne. 

3. Bonn. 

4. Siebengebirge. 

5. Remagen (Ahr Valley). 

6. Andernach (Laacher See) 

7. Ems. 



1. Diisseldorf. 

2.-3. Cologne. 

4. Bonn. 

p. „ [ Siebengebirge. 

* I Remagen (Ahr Valley) 



8. Andernach (Laacher See). 

9. Ems. 



90 99 J Wiesbaden. 
'^"•"^'^- I Mainz. 



It is clear that no one can, with any great comfort, cover the 
whole of the ground above mentioned in eight days. Each one 
must therefore make the best arrangement he can, according to 
the time at his disposal. A necessary condition is, of course, 
favourable weather, and this we hope may be the good fortune 
of every one who uses this little volume. 




I'he I^hiiie: its ^hipping and its V/ine. 



The Rhine with its 730 miles is the longest river of Germany, 
and the largest and most beautiful part of its course is 
the 440 miles which are in German territory. The navigable 
part of the Rhine is usually divided into three sections. The 
part from Basel to Bingen is called the Upper Rhine ('Oberrhein'j; 
the Middle Rhine ('Mittelrhein') stretches from Bingen to Cologne 
and is 100 miles in length; at the 'holy city', the Lower Rhine 
('Niederrhein'j begins, and extends to the mouth of the river in 
the North Sea, a distance of 215 miles. 

The Rhenish 'Schiefergebirge', which the river breaks through 
from Bingen downwards, consists chiefly of greywacke schist, with 
islands of porphyry and trachyte. These rocks belong to the 
Palaeozoic Period and therefore contain no fossilised animal 
remains. To be more exact, they belong to the Devonian Age — 
the latest subdivision of the Palaeozoic Period. At Remagen- 
Honningen a volcanic zone intervenes, which shows itself in hot 
and mineral springs here, and also in the Ahr valley. 

The shipping trade of the Rhine is as old as our knowledge 
of the stream. When the Romans held sway on the banks of the 
Rhine, we know it was an important highway for commerce, and 
as early in the Middle Ages as the 1 0th century, the Rhine was 
the chief channel for interchange of goods between Germany and 
England. Cologne was of outstanding imjDortance as a place for 

1 



The Rhine: its Shipping and its Wine. 



the trans-shipment of goods, which were brought thus far by sea- 
going vessels, and then forwarded in river boats. The political 
importance, power and fame of Cologne sprang chiefly from the 
great development of its sea-trade. In London, the merchants of 
Cologne possessed as early as the 12th century a house of their 
own called the 'Gildhalle', and in the next century this house 
represented German merchants in general. 

The first steamboat which navigated the Rhine was an Enghsh 
one, bound from London to Frankfort. On the 8th of June 1816 
it left Rotterdam, and at midday on the 12th of June arrived in 
Cologne. This undertaking of the firm of Benitheversen & Bell 
of London was not eventually a success, and the regular navigation 
of the Rhine by steamboats did not become an accomplished fact 
until ten years later. It was the 'Niederlandische Dampfschiff- 
rhederei' in Rotterdam which first ran boats regularly as far as 
Cologne. The importance of the new means of transport did not 
escape the notice of two citizens of Cologne, Bernhard Boisseree 
and Heinrich Merkens. They induced the Cologne Chamber of 
Commerce to send them to Rotterdam, and, on hearing their 
report, the city of Cologne resolved to further the new undertaking. 
Under the guidance of Merkens, the Preussisch-rheinische Steam- 
ship Company originated. Its founding was sanctioned by an order 
of cabinet of the 11 th of June 1826, which at the same time 
removed the difficulties raised against it by the shippers' guilds 
of the lower and middle Rhine. On the 1st of May 1827 the 
Company, which had a capital of 485,000 marks, opened their 
service between Cologne and Mainz with the boat 'Concordia'. 
In 1832 the service was extended to Mannheim. Meanwhile, in 
1836, a Steamship Company for the lower and middle Rhine was 
founded in Diisseldorf. The ships ran at first between Diisseldorf 
and Mainz, and later between Rotterdam and Mannheim. 

In 18.")3, the Cologne and Diisseldorf Companies united in 
running a common service between Rotterdam and Mannheim. 
Today, however, each company is still independent — only the ships 
of their fleets must be built as like each other as possible. The 
companies have at present 13 fast double-decked steamers, each 
with accommodation for some 1500 passengers, 13 promenade- 
decked steamers, and 5 flush-decked steamers. With this fleet of 
boats they make yearly over 4000 passages — in 1902 they made 
4161 passages, and covered 916,400 kilometres, — carrying about 
1,600,000 passengers, and some 37,000 tons of goods. The number 
of passengers carried from the founding of the Company up to 
1903 amounted to about 68 millions. The two fast steamers, 
built in 1899, 'Kaiserin Augusta Viktoria', of the Diisseldorf 
Company and the 'Borussia', of the Cologne Company, are the 



The Rhine: its Shipping and its Wine. 



largest, fastest and finest saloon river steamers in Europe. The 
length of these boats is 270 feet, and their breadth across the 
paddle-boxes 55 feet. 

The happy traveller on one of the magnificent saloon steamers 
fills his glass with sparkling Rhine wine as he glides past the 
vine-covered hills, but little does he think of the anxious care of 
the vine-grower, who toils on in great uncertainty as to whether 
Heaven's blessing will crown his labours or not. Yet, assuredly, 
the unwearied toil of the vine-dresser must be combined with the 
blessing of favourable skies before there can be produced from 
the fruit of the vine a heart- rejoicing drop, repaying in some 
measure the toil expended. Not too often is the second of the 
two conditions fulfilled: it is said, only once in seven years A 




full 'herbst', as the vintage is called, is indeed rare. In most of 
the districts of the Rheingau, this full harrest occurred only once 
in the ten years from 1891 to 1900, namely in 1896. In that 
year 86,142 hectolitres were obtained, including 820 hectolitres of 
red wine, as compared with 6696 hectolitres, including 72 hecto- 
litres of red wine, in 1898 — the worst of these 10 years. Further, 
the vintage of 1896 has been the greatest since 1868. But it 
is in all cases arranged that the vinegrower shall not become 
unduly puffed up. For example, the 1896 vintage, although great 
in quantity, was not of very gool quality. In the Rheingau, each 
butt of 1200 litres of 1893 wine was valued at 7290 marks on 
the average, while, on the other hand, a butt of 1896 wine brought 
only 857 marks. Within a period of 24 years — 18()7 to 1890 — 
the price obtained at the auctions for Steinberger varied from 
20 marks 71 pfg. to 2788 marks 33 pfg. per hectolitre. Such 
differences are striking examples of the absolute dependence of the 
vinegrower on wind, weather and sunshine. 



The Rhine: its Shipping and its Wine. 



From 1682 to 1900, that is 219 years, it is calculated that 
there were really only 28 excellent years ^^~ 12.8*^/0, ^2 good 
years = 23.7 7o> "74 middling years —^ 33 87o> and 65 poor or 
bad years -^ 29.7 Vq. 

In March and April of every spring, the stems of the vines 
are pruned, and then tied up with straw to supports. Much 
trouble and anxiety are caused to the vinedresser by the animal 
and plant enemies of the vine. The vinewcevil, 'Schildiaus', 




Caul), Giitenfels and Pfalz. 



'Springwurm', etc., unite in destructive activity; but these pests 
are of little importance compared with the 'Traubenwickler' (a kind 
of moth) in its caterpillar forms, the 'Heuwurm' and 'Sauervvurm'. 
The former of these, which is the caterpillar in its first stage of 
development, gnaws the buds and blossoms on their appearing. 
The 'Sauerwurm', the caterpillar in its second stage, destroys 
the grapes by its sting. The latter pest practically destroyed com- 
pletely the vintage in the whole Rheitigau in 1898. A regularly 
planned campaign of destruction is now carried on against these 
creatures in May and July, when they are in the moth stage of 
development. In the Rheingau, many communities employ the 
school-children for the destruction of the moths, and the conduct 



The Rhine: its Shipping: and its Wine. 5 

of the campaign is usually in the hands of the burgomaster. 
The materials for the capture of the moths — sticky-fans and 
lime — are provided by the communities, who also reward those 
employed. In the year 1901, there were caught in the Rheingau 
3,60f),'>00 moths. In the Royal Domaine, lamps have also been 
used very successfully in capturing moths. The lamps are set up 
in the vineyards, and the mcths lured to the lights and destroyed. 
In the great Steinberg at Eberbach in 1902, 16,197 moths were 
caught with lamps, and 63,000 with sticky-fans. The expenses 
amounted to 7182 marks. 

On the eastern or south-eastern slopes, where the snow meKs 
quickly, is the best situation for a vineyard. But even the most 
celebrated wine localities have their two sides, like everything else 
in the world. Usually, in their ofF-shoots at least, they are shut 
in, so as to be less exposed to the sun in one direction. Thus, 
even amongst the vines on the same famous 'Weinberg', there 
may be a striking difference in the quality of the grapes obtained, 
apart from the higher or lower situation of the vines. So even 
the most famous wine districts have bad situations and bad wines. 
The nature of the soil, light or heavy, loamy, sandy, or stony, 
also influences the flavour of the wine. 

Before the vintage, the vineyards are closed by order of the 
authorities. There are really two 'closings' of the vineyards — a 
'small* one which forbids children and strangers to enter the 
vineyards and demands that the vinedresser should put the finishing 
touches to his work, and then there is a 'large closing', which 
begins usually between the middle and end of August, according 
to the advancement of the grapes. Then, entrance is stringently 
forbidden to all, except the possessors at law of the vineyard. 
All paths leading through the vineyards are closed until the vin- 
tage, with the exception of any very important lines of communi- 
cation, and watchers guard uninterruptedly the precious fields. 
At last the exact time for the commencement of the vintage is 
fixed for each separate district, by a meeting of the council of 
the village or town and the officers of the landward court, and 
made known by bell. 

Before however the grape yields pure wine, two stages have 
to be passed through. We get firstly, must, then new wine or 
'Federweisser'. 

In the 18th century and still more in the 16th and 17th cen- 
turies the sale of the must and new wine was systematically 
ordered by the Kahelungen and IVeinnidrlie in the Rheingau, 
Bacharach, etc. After the vintage — when the grapes had been 
pressed and the fermentation of the juice had ceased — the wines 



The Rhine: its Shipping and its Wine. 



were valued and taxed and also an estimate of the produce of 
the whole district taken. Then all the vessels received consecutive 
numbers. The best was marked No. 1, the second best No. 2, and 
so on, Then the best was lusamniengekahclt with the worst, the 
second best with the second worst, and so on. Both butts formed 
a lot which was offered for sale on the market. By these Kahelungen 
(arranging in lots) even the poorest wine was assured of a sale. 
Today we make the poor wine better by the addition of sugar 
which the law now permits. 





Diisselclorf — the Grardeii City of the Rhiiie.| 

On the Ulh of August 1288, Count Adolf V. of Berg raised the little 
village, Diisseldorpe, situated at the mouth of the rivulet called the Diissel, 
to the status of a town, his object being to gain a point of vantage against 
the Archbishop of Cologne. The Elector Johann Wilhelm or Jan Welleni 
(1690—1717), whose statue stands in the market place, was a prince noted 
for his love of splendour. He made himself remembered by the founding 
of the Neustadt, thus extending the city boundaries, but especially as the 
founder of Diisselclorf Art. He assembled artists round hira and resolved, 
after the example of the court at Paris, to make a great collection of pic- 
tures. Two years after his ascent of the throne, with the help of numerous 
agents, he began, with good taste, to purchase pictures of all kinds in the 
Netherlands and Germany, By his second marriage with Maria Anna 
Louise Aloisia de Medici, daughter of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, his 
gallery received a valuable addition of famous pictures and through his 
father-in-law he obtained permission to get plaster casts taken of antique 
sculptures in Italy. Fourteen of the most skilled of the workers in plaster 
were for seven years employed in taking copies of some hundreds of the 
most famous ancient statues^ groups, and reliefs. Then the Elector died. 
Under his successor, the precious moulds and perhaps also a part of the 
figures which had been cast, were used for filling up the hollow places in 
the Diisseldorf district! In 1758, under Karl Theodor, the remainder was 
brought to Mannheim, and one must now search for the famous picture 
gallery in the PinakotJiek at Munich. This is accounted for as follows : 

The successor of the childless Karl Theodor, Max Josef von Pfalz- 
Zweibriicken, was obliged at the Peace of Luneville in 1801 to surrender 
the Palatinate and Jiilich to his ally, France ; the gallery, however, he 
claimed as his own personal property, in order that it might not fall into 
the hands of the hated Prussians who were at war with France. All re- 
presentations of the people of Diisseldorf that the gallery was the back- 
bone of the School of Art, and so forth, were in vain. It wandered in 
1805 to Kirchheimbolanden, and from there France allowed it to be taken 
by her ally to Munich. One may easily understand that Diisseldorf has 
never been able to forget this irreparable loss. For a long time the town 
treated with Prussia for the restoration of the Gallery, and in 186rt a hope 
of this being obtained actually existed. Article 13 of the Berlin Treaty of 
Peace 22nd Aug. 1866, stated that the rival claims for the Diisseldorf Gallery 
should be settled by arbitration and that a German College of Judges 
should be chosen for this purpose. Bj' the Treat}' of the 23rd Nov. 1870 
between Prussia and Bavaria, the creation of Jan Wellem was lost to 
Diisseldorf forever. As compensation, 150,000 thalers were assigned by the 
state in 1874 for the construction of the Diisseldorf Kunsihalle (Art Hall.) 



Diisseldorf. 



Under the second of Jan Wellem's successors, the Elector Karl Theodor 
(1743—99), there arose in 1774 the ^faler-, Zeichen- und Baukunst-Ahademie 
(Academy of Painting, Architecture, etc.), a School of Law, the IJofgarten, 
and the Karlstadt. In the beginning of October 1794, the Austrians crossed 
the Rhine here, pursued by the French, and the shooting of a French 
officer gave a pretext f&r the bombardment of the city. In this bombard- 
ment, the castle, the Colestiner cloister, and many private houses were set 
on fire. At the same time the town was plundered h\ the mob. In 1802, 
the fortifications Avere razed. The Duchy of Berg, in 1806, passed over to 
Napoleon, and later on it was extended, and, as a Grand Duchy, it was 
given to his brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, who took up his residence in 
Diisseldorf. At the Berlin Congress of 1815, the Grand Duchy fell to 
Prussia. Prussia re-established the Academy in 1819 and called to the head 
of it Peter Cornelius, who was born in Diisseldorf on 23rd Sept. 1783, his 
father having been Electoral Academy Inspector. As Cornelius gravitated 
more towards Munich, where he was accustomed to spend the summer, it 
was not until 1837, when Wilhelm Schadow, the founder of the Ramantic 
School of Painting, was called to succeed him that the art of Diisseldorf 
came into prominence. Under the guidance of Schadow, the Academy be- 
came noted for the religious paintings of the Nazarener, Deger, Karl and 
Andreas Midler, and Ittenbach. Then there was the genre painting of 
Schrodter, Hasenclever, Jordan, Ritter, and a peasant-genre represented 
by Wilh. Becker. Lessing came forward as the romantic protector of the 
classic-idealistic landscape painting; and the two brothers Andreas and 
Oswald Achenhach made their influence felt. Battle painting is represented 
b^' Campliauscn. The genre painting reached its highest in Knaus, VatUier, 
Wilhelm Sohn, Munkacsy, and Hoff, and the Nazarener painting is best 
represented, especially from the Protestant standpoint, by the religious 
painting of Ed. von Gebhardt. 

In the 19th century, the Theatre and Music, as well as art, made great 
advancement in Diisseldorf. As representing the Theatre, Karl Leberecht 
Immermann (1840) attained a conspicuous position; and Music developed 
under such men as Burgmiiller, Spohr, Ries, Mendelssohn, Rietz, Schumann, 
Hiller, and Tausch. 

^A Visit to Diisseldorf. (Plan p. 9.) Since 1897 there has been 
in existence here a 'Verkehrsverein'. One of the objects of this 
society is to give information to travellers. It has an office at 91 
Graf-Adolph-Strasse, near the station. Turning to the right on 
coming out of the station, we follow the tramway line through 
Worringerstrasse, to the left through Kolnerstrasse, straight forward 
through Perapelforterstrasse, then to the left through Jacobigasse 
(passing on the right the Malkasten — Artists' Club), and reach (he 
Hofgarten, through which we can wander almost to the Rhine. 
On the right the Kunsl Palast is situated. 

This Art Palace was erected, for the Exhibition of 1902, according to 
the prize design of Architect A. Bender. The principal front is a beautiful 
baroque fa(^ade with a length of 430 feet, and it is crowned with a dome 
rising to a height of 130 feet. In the interior have been constructed an 
Ehrenhof (Hall of Honour) in the form of a cross, and a Siiulenhiille (pil- 
lared hall) in high renaissance form. 

Proceeding, we turn our steps to the Tijnnebridge. The two 
large spans have each a width of 590 feet and the total length 
is about 700 yards. A branch line going over the bridge unites 
Diisseldorf with Crefeld. 



Diisseklorf. 




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Z'2'2'£:.^=^f'H 



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2 RathiuS 8 Stac/t-Theater i4.H)St Museum 20Johsnnts-K 

5JustJ2iebai^de9Jpcllo-7heaterl5Kunst-6ew.M 21 FranciscanerJQ 
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Post 12 K^nsta.kadem.18 Petri Kirche 2^yerAe^rjBure<iU. 



Eisenbahr 



Diisseldorf. 



Turning back from the bridge we find on the right the ^4rt 
K^4cademy. This building was erected in 1879—81, and is open on 
Sundays 12 — 1, and Wednesdays 11 — 1 free; at other times the 
charge is 50 pfg. for each party of two persons. It contains 
plaster-casts, pictures of the old masters — among others the 
Ascent of the Virgin to Heaven (Rubens) — a collection of en- 
gravings, drawings, and photographs. 

From here, going back to the Rhine and turning to the left 
along the river, we pass the ancient Stiffs- or Lamhertus-Kirche. 
This Gothic Hallen-Kirche has three naves, and also a lovely 
Mausoleum in Italian high renaissance form. The Mausoleum was 
erected by the Architect Gerhard Scheben in 1595 out of coloured 
marble, and in the centre field the relief represents the Day of 
Judgment. The figure on the sarcophagus is that of Duke 
William (d. 1592). 

We next come to the Biirgplati^ and observe the Schlossturm. 
This tower is all that remains of the Electoral Palace, burnt in 
1872. Following the tramway line over the square, we pass the 
'^R^alhaus and reach the Market Place. The council chamber of 
the Rathaus has good wall paintings by A. Baur, C. Neuhaus, 
and Klein-Chevalier: open Sundays and Wednesdays 11 — 12.30 
free. On the Market Place is a bronze statue, covered with patina, 
erected in 1711 to Jan Wellem. The work, by Sculptor Grupello, 
was, contrary to the inscription, set up by the Elector himself 
(see the historical part). From here we turn into the Bolker- 
strasse. Heinrich Heine was born in No. b'i of this street, and 
on the left here is the Evangelische Kirche built in 1684. At the 
end of the Bolkerstrasse we turn to the left over the Hunds- 
riicken to the Andreaskirche, dating from the 17th century, with 
altar pictures by Deger, Hiibner and Schadow. Further on is 
Friedrichsplatz with the Geiverbe- Museum (Industrial Museum), 
which contains a rich collection of specimens of industrial art: 
open weekdays 10—4, Sundays and holidays 10—1, for 50 pfg. 
opposite, situated in the middle of the square is the Kiinsthalle, 
which contains the very interesting Diisseldorf picture gallery 
consisting chiefly of works by modern Diisseldorf painters (50 pfg.; 
Wednesdays, 1-6, free). In the Alleestrasse stands the Bismarck 
Monument by Sculptors A. Baur and J. Kottgen; on the pedestal. 
Arms and Industry are represented side by side. A little further 
along Alleestrasse we come to the 'Monument, by Sculptor Prof. 
Karl Janssen, of Kaiser PVilhelm L, accompanied by the genii of 
war and peace; and then the DvColtke Monument by Thiishaus and 
Hammerschmidt. Straight across from the Bismarck monument 
is the Town Theatre with the bronze statues of Mendelssohn and 
Immermann. Behind, in the Botanic Gardens, is the lovely 



Diisseldorf— Colotrne. 11 



Kriegerdenhmal (War Monument) in white marble, erected according 
to the design drawn by Prof. Hiiger of Charlotteuburg. Near at 
hand is the Cornelius-Platz with the Cornelius- Monument — the 
two figures on the pedestal representing Eeligion and Poetry. 
Not far distant is the Schadow-Platz with Schadow-Monument 
by Prof. Wittig. 

If we go along the left side of the lovely Konigsallee right to 
the end, we come to the ApoUotheater, which is the largest and 
most beautiful variety theatre in Germany accommodating 3000 
people. Going straight on along Talstrasse and to the right along 
Herzogstrasse, we reach the ProviniiaJstandehaus (House of the 
Rhenish Estates), a lovely building in Italian Renaissance style 
by Raschdorff. Before \i, is a bronze group representing the 
Rhine with its tributaries. 

From here, following the tramway line to the right through 
Haroldstrasse and Graf-Adolph-Strasse, then to the left through 
Oststrasse, we pass the Franciscan cloister and the lovely new 
Gothic church, (rectel by .\rchitect Becker of Mainz, called the 
Maria Empfangniskirche. Turning to the left we come to the 
Diisseldorf Tonballe, which has large halls and a garden (on 
Sunday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday evenings, there is a 
concert — admission 60 pfg.). 

From here we can travel with the tramway in 15 minutes to 
the Grafenberg in Diisseldorf forest. This is a favourite resort of 
local picnic parties. There are restaurants, lovely walks, and 
fine views. 



As the river scenery between Diisseldorf and Cologne is not 
very interesting, we strongly recommend the tourist to travel by rail. 



Coloaiie. 



Officially, indeed, Cologne is not the capital of the Rliine 
Province, but if we are to understand by this term the most 
important town of the said Province, then Cologne with its 425,000 
inhabitants (on 1st Jan. 1906) can truly lay claim to the honour. 
The city is the seat of an Archbishop (since 6th Nov. 1902, 
Fischer, who was made a Cardinal on 22nd June 1903). It is 
the central point of the industries of the Rhine, has a thriving 
commerce, and, as fortress, is the seat of a Governor. 



12 



Cologne. 



Even in Roman times the Colonia Agrippinensis was the most important 
l)lace on the Rhine. Hither, from the right bank of the Rliine, in :iH B.C., 
the Roman General Agrippa had transplanted the Ubii, a Teutonic tribe; 
and in oO AD., Agrippin;i, the grand-daughter of Agrippa, who became 
the wife of the Emperor Claudius, raised the settlement to the dignity of 
a Roman colony, thus conferring on the people the rights of Roman 
citizens. In this way Agrippina laid the foundation for the future great- 
ness of the settlement which bore her name. Charlemagne raised the 
bishopric to an archbishopric, and by no means the smallest aid to the 
material development of the town was the fact that to it wns entrusted in 
1164 the preservation of the remains of the Three Holy Kings (the Magi). 
This has caused pilgrims from all parts of the earth continually to be 
drawn to the city. For a long time Cologne was the leading member 
of the Hanseatic League, but in 1741 it was excluded. We have 




Cologne Harbour. 



already referred to its Gildhalle in London. A great extension of the 
city took place in the end of the 12th century, and the boundaries 
were then fixed by a great wall, which prevented further expansion up 
to our own time. Indeed, it was only in 1880 that this mighty rampart, of 
which parts are still existing, was taken down in order to render possible 
a still greater development of the town in conformity with modern re- 
quirements. 

Cologne had reached the culminating point in its history by the end 
of the 15th century; for the discovery of America gradually shifted the 
stream of the world's trade into other channels. Matters went so badly 
with the once mightj' city, that in 1794, when the French arrived, al- 
most a third of the population lived in dens unfit for human habitation, 
and were dependent on public charity for their subsistence. In 1798 an 
exact computation of the worth of the buildings was made, and according 
to it the whole of Cologne with its 150 churches, chapels, and cloisters, and 
7450 houses, could have been purchased for about 25 million francs. A 
number of the churches and cloisters were used by the French as stables 
and hospitals, and Cologne with its 44,500 inhabitants ranked simply as a 
provincial town in the Rurdepartement, the capital being Aix-la-Chapelle. 

The wonderful progress which Cologne made in the 19th century made 
necessary the extension of the city boundaries mentioned above. On the 
nth of June 1881, with great ceremony, the first breach was made in the 



Cologne. 



13 




1 4 • Cologne. 



city wall, and almost as if by magic a charming new girdle has been made 
round the old town - no longer hemming it within certain limits but 
beautifying it. This addition consisting of flower — bedecked suburban 
streets and lovely pleasure grounds, is as well worth a visit as the famed 
Ringstrassen (circular suburban streets) of Vienna. 

A visit to Cologne. (Plan p. 13.) A tour through Cologne 
would naturally begin at the Dom (Cathedral). 

The foundation stone of this sublime work of Gothic architecture (desig- 
ned by Gerhard von Riehl) was laid in 1248. The choir was consecrated 
in 1322, but the temporary wall with which they enclosed it in order to 
enable divine service to be conducted, remained standing till 1H63. In 1510 
the further construction of the building had to be given up. Only in 1824 
was the work again resumed, the brothers Boissert^e having enlisted the 
aid of the Crown Prince Frederick William, famed for his devotion to art. 
After this prince had ascended the throne and wlien the voices of Goethe, 
Gorres, Friedrich Schlegel, and the Boisserees had awakened a ge'neral 
enthusiasm, there arose under his patronage, on the 14th Feb. 1842, the 
Dombau-Verein (Society for Cathedral Building). On the 4th of Sept. 1842, 
the foundation stone of the new part of the Cologne Cathedral was laid, 
and on the loth Oct. 1880, with great pomp, in the presence of the Emperor 
William I and many other princes, the completion of the work was celebra- 
ted by setting up the Krcuxhlumen (final ornamentation). The total expen- 
diture from the re-commencement of the work in 1824 to the 1st of April 
1881 amounted to 16,624,253 marks. Seventeen collections for the building 
of the cathedral yielded an average of half a million each. The contribu- 
tion by the State was 5,700,000 marks, while the amount spent on the build- 
ing in" the Middle Ages is reckoned at 20 millions of marks. 

If we enter the Cathedral by the west portal we are impressed 
by its sublimity. Fine old glass windows in the N. aisle (left), 
and splendid new ones (1848) in the S. aisle, allow a subdued 
light to penetrate. The length of the interior of the central aisle 
is about 390 feet (measured from the wall behind the Dreikonige- 
Kapelle — Chapel of the Magi — it is about 450 feet) and its 
breadth is 150 feet. The lofty choir encloses a number of chapels, 
and the floor is laid with lovely mosaic work. (Entrance on the 
North side, left; cards, also admitting to a sight of the Cathedral 
treasures — 'Donischati, — are to be obtained from the doorkeeper 
for 1 mark 50 pfg.). In chapel No 6 (Michaelskapelle) is the 
world famed Dombild, the Adoration of the Magi, St. Ursula, 
St. Gereon, and their companions. The picture was painted in the 
first half of the 15th century by Stephan Lochner, probably at 
the request of the city. 

Among the Cathedral treasures is the shrine of the Magi, which 
is considered the finest example extant in Europe of the gold- 
smith's art in the Middle Ages. It is richly ornamented with 
figures, and dates from the end of the 17th centurj-. The silver 
shrine of Engelbert, similarly decorated with figures, dates from 
the 17th century and contains the bones of the canonised Arch- 
bishop Engelbert (murdered in 1125). The treasure chambers are 
full of many other precious objects worthy of inspection. (Open 



Cologne. 



15 



10—11, 11.30-2.30, and 3.30—7.30; Sundays and holidays from 
12—2.30 and from 4.45—6. Saturdays only to 2.30.) 

The cathedral towers rise to a height of about 520 feet above 
the threshold of the cathedral, and 10 feet more above the street. 
The south tower may be ascended on week days from 8 to 1 o'clock, 
and from 2.30 to 6.30: on Sundays from 8.30 to 2. It affords a 




Cologne Cathedi 



comprehensive view of the town and a wide extent of surrounding 
country. (Entrance by the small house situated to the left of the 
S. Portal; card and guide, 1 mark.) 

In the south tower is the famous Kaisergloelce (Gloriosa). This bell was 
cast in 1875, at a cost of 21,000 marks, by Andr. Hamm at Frankenthal, out 
of 22 cannon captured from the French and presented to the Cathedral by 
Kaiser Wilhelm I The height of the bell is 4.40 metres (C. 14^ ., feet) and 



16 Cologne. 



its greatest breadth 3.5 metres (c. 11 V. feet). It weighs, without the tongue, 

2.'i,000 kilograms and bears the inscrii)tion : 

Die Kaiserglocke heiss' ich, Des Kaisers Ehre preis' ich, 

Auf heil'ger Warte steh' ich, Dem Deutschen Reich erfleh' ich, 

Dass Fried und Weiir ihm Gott bescheer! 

From the cathedral we turn our steps to the right through 
the street Untertaschenmacher to the Rathausplatz, in which rises 
the magnificent Tiathhaus Portal. It was erected between l.'')69 and 
1571 according to the design of Wilhelm Vernickel and is in 
renaissance style. Admission to the Rathaus, .50 pfg. for 2 per- 
sons; if more than two, 40 pfg. each. It is closed from 1 to 3 
o'clock. 

On the neighbouring Altenmarkt stands the Jan van Werth 
Monument, in the form of a fountain, by the Cologne sculptor 
Albermann. 

The two reliefs on the east and west sides are representations of inci- 
dents in the Cologne Van Werth Legend. As the story goes, this general 
began his career in old Cologne as a servant (about 1652). Being despised 
bj' 'Grriet', the daughter of the house, he went off to the war, and returned 
home as a general. As he entered on horseback through the Severin 
gateway, Griet, now grown old, sat at the apple-booth, and was very busy 
over some roasted chestnuts. The general remarked, as he rode past, 
'Griet, who would have done it?' 'Jan', answered Griet, 'who could have 
known it?' On the other sides are representations of the Cologne emblem, 
viz, a peasant and a girl (larger than life size). 

Eastward from the Altenmarkt, we see rising the lofty tower 
of the church of St. Martin. This fine church is built in the tran- 
sition style of the 12th century. Proceeding past it, we reach 
the Rhine and the Stapelhaus (Restaurant; also a Natural History 
Museum, open from 9 to 5 for 50 pfg.: Sundays and Wednesdays 
free: closed on Mondays at 12). On the right is the SchifFbriicke 
(bridge of boats). Proceeding along Friedrich-Wilhelm-Strasse, 
just opposite the bridge, we come to the Heumarkt, in which is 
the ^Monument to Friedrich William III. by Prof. Blaser, It was 
erected to commemorate the incorporation of the Rhine Province 
with Prussia in 1815, and has a height of about 46 feet and a 
weight of 11,570 kilograms. Going through the Bolzengasse, 
behind the monument, we come to the widely famed Giirienich. 
(Admission for 2 persons costs 50 pfg.; for more than two, 40 pfg. 
each; cards in the Restaurant). The building was put in its pre- 
sent form in 1850. In the banqueting hall (about 185 ft. X 73 ft.) 
the famous Giirzenich concerts have been held every winter since 
1857 (on Tuesdays). 

The church of Maria im Kapitol is situated near. It owes its 
name to the tradition, of which, needless to say, there is no his- 
torical foundation, that the Roman Capitol once stood here. The 
oldest part of this very interesting church is said to date from 696. 



Cologne. 



17 



Ou the neighbouring Augustinerplatz is the "Bismarck Monument 
(by Fritz Schaper of Berlin), which was unveiled in 1879. In a 
northerly direction from here is the Hochslrasse, which is noted 
for its magnificent shops and throng of traffic. This street con- 
ducts us back to the cathedral. On our left we note Castans- 
Tanoptikum ; further along, if we turn to the right through Salomons- 
gasse, we come to the Laurenzplatz, with the monument to MoJike. 
Those who have time should travel with the Querbahn to the 
Neumarkt. With its 27,200 square metres, it is the largest square 




Cologne Railway Station. 



in Cologne. Here stands the beautiful, pure romanesque St. ^Jpostel- 
kirche, which, of all the churches in Cologne (excepting the Cathe- 
dral), produces perhaps the finest impression on the visitor. 

In the afternoon a journey with cab or car through the lovely 
^ingstrassen (boulevards encircling old Cologne) is to be recom- 
mended. The following tour leads quite round the town and 
passes through each of the boulevards mentioned. Starting from 
Chlodwigplatz on foot, we pass through Karolingerring and Sachsen- 
ring, then drive along the Salierring, Barbarossaplatz, Hohen- 
staufenring (on the left here is the Herz-Jesu-Kirche and on the 
right the Hohenstaufen baths), Habsburgerrina- (on the left of 



18 Cologne. 



which is the "N^i'ic Theatre, and on the right the Hahnentorburg 
with the Cologne Historical Museum — open daily 9 to 5, except 
Mondays 9 — 12 only, free on Sundays and Wednesdays, other 
days r>0 Pfg.), Hohenzollernring, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring (with the 
Emperor IVilliam Monument by the sculptor Anders of Berlin, 
and the Empress Frederick Monument in white marble by the 
sculptors Stockmanu and Dorrenbach and the Architect Kirsch), 
Hansaring (with Museum of Industrial ^rt — open free 9 to 5, 
except on Sundays when it is shut from 1 to 3 — and the 
Handelshochschule — Commercial High School); and lastly we 
travel along the Deutscher Ring, at the end of which is the ^Co- 
nument to Kaiser Friedrich IIL, by Prof Breuer of Berlin, From 
here a tramway line leads out to the Zoological and Botanical 
Gardens. 



Jourriey fponi Cologne to ]V[aiii^. 

Leaving Cologne by ship, we pass on the right, the buildings 
of the Zollhafen with the MalakoflF Tower, the 'Bayen Tower dating 
from the 13 th century, the 'Bismarck Column erected in 1903, the 
tower of the ^Itenhurg which resembles a windmill, the tower of 
the waterworks (on the left of this is Poll), the villa suburb of 
Chiariejihurg with the Marienburg Restaurant, and Rodenkirchen. 
The numbers on the bank show the distance in kilometres, mea- 
sured from Mainz downwards. On the left we notice the united 
villages of Westhofen and Ensen (with a high church), and further 
along also Por^, and Ziindorf. On the right, is the little village 
of Weiss, then Siirth with a great machine factory; on the left 
at a little distance from the river is Laniel. On the right hand, 
again, we notice Godorf with its tower, a chemical factory, and 
further along IVesseling wnth its double-towered church. 

About three and a half miles from the river lies the pleasant little 
town of Brukl, with a beautiful and widely famed castle. Brilhl is a fa- 
vourite resort of Cologne picnic parties, the castle was erected bj' the 
splendour-loving Elector of Cologne, Archbishop Clemens August I. of 
Bavaria, in imitation of Versailles, according to the plans of the Parisian 
architect De Cotte. It is in renaissance-rococo style, and such famed artists as 
Cuvillies and Neumann were employed in the decoration of it. The visitor 
should certainly see the well of the stair case, in white stucco. 

On the left we pass Liilsdorf, with an old and a new church, 
and further along Niederkassel. The lower Hohenzug, on the right 
hand between Briihl and Bonn, is the so-called Vorgehirge of the 
Eifel range. Niederkassel has a high church steeple and opposite 



Graurheindorf-Schwarzrheindorf . 1 P 

it we see Urfeld with a broad squat church. On the right is 
IViddig, and opposite extends the long stretch called the %heidt. 
This basin is united to the Rhine by a channel, navigable for 
larger vessels only at high water. On all sides we see the towers 
of old windmills/ The first island we pass is a long low stretch 
called the Herseler IVcrth, and behind it lies the village of Hersel. 
We now note in the distance the steeples of Bonn, and can also 
see the Siehengehirge distinctly, but, indeed, if the weather^ is 
very clear, we can make out these mountains soon after leaving 
Cologne. On the left Mondorf is situated, and then follows the 
broad but shallow mouth of the Sieg. One could not guess from 
the appearance of this river here that its waters had flowed through 
a lovely mountain valley. The beauty of the district watered by 
the Sieg begins to show itself when we have ascended as far as 
Hennef. (For further information, see Holschers ,,Fuhrer durch 
das Siegtal", 75 pfg.) Rising above the town of Sieghurg we see 
the Siegeberg and on it is a House of Correction. A Benedictine 
monastery formerly stood there. 

On the right, near to Bonn, rises the Kreuiherg, on which is a 
chapel, and immediately after on the right hand is Graurheindorf, 
which derives its name from a Cistercian nunnery. On the left 
follows Schwarirheindorf, which is well known oji account of its 
lofty double church, one of the most extensive monumental build- 
ings of Germany. 

The church was founded in 1149 by the Elector of Cologne, Arch- 
bishop Arnold II von Wied who also was interred in it; since then it has 
had a very eventful and even tragic history. In 1588 it was set on fire by 
Schenk von Nideggen, and into the 18th century it existed as a blackened 
ruin. The French closed it up in 1794, and in 1807 they made it into a military 
storehouse. Eight years later, it was used as a military stable by the 
Prussian government. In 1830 the community however, resolved to restore 
the church and the upper church was ready to be consecrated anew in 
1832, while the lower church, which is connected with the upper one by 
a hole in the roof, 10 feet in diameter, was still let as a barn. In the 
lower church, 20 remarkable wall paintings were discovered which had 
been whitewashed over; the restoration of this church was completed by 
Munsterbaumeister Ludwig Arntz in 1903. 

There existed here formerly a narrow channel called the Rheindarfer 
Kehle, and there still remains at Schwarzrheindorf as a relic of old times, 
a signal station which hoists signal flags to vessels, although this is not now 
very necessary. The red flag shows that a single ship is coming down, 
the'white shows that a steam tug with a craft in tow is in the way, and 
the red-white indicates that there is a timber-raft ahead. These signals 
are made only to steamers going up the river, as they necessarily must 
wait. Craft coming down the river do not need to observe these signals. 
A lantern is used for the night traffic. 

On the left is BeueJ, and on the right the Bonn Institution for 
the study of Gynecology; and now our boat glides under the fine 
bridge at Bonn. 

2* 



20 Bonn. 

The great central span of the Bonn Rhine Bridge has a width of about 
610 feet being the second largest span of any bridge in Europe — the 
largest is that of the bridge over the Danube Cernavoda, which has a 
span width of about 620 feet. Particular parts of the sculpture of the 
bridge are interesting, especially the humorous mannikins (Briicken- 
mannchen) over the Beuel gateway. These express, in a very grim manner, 
contempt for the close fisted conduct of the people of Bene! at the time of 
the construction of the bridge. 



Bonn. 



The time required for the visit to "Bonn here described would 
vary from 2 to 5 hours, according to the time spont in the 
museums, etc. The Minster, with five striking towers, is dedicated 
to St. Martin, and was formerly a church of the Cassius Foun- 
dation. 

The present building dates from the 12th and 13th centuries, and exhi- 
bits, alongside of some of the older parts still existing, both the romanesque 
and transition styles. The central tower is about 310 feet high. In front 
of the organ is a statue of St. Helena, the mother of the Roman Emperor 
Constantine. The statue was erected in the 18th century and is worthy 
of inspection. 

On the adjoining Munsterplatz stands a monumeut to Bonn's 
greatest son, Liuhuig van "Beethoven, who first saw the light here in 
1770, his father having been a tenor singer to the Elector. The 
bronze statue, modelled by Hahnel in Dresden, and cast by Burg- 
schmied in Niirnberg, was unveiled in 181"). We return to the 
Kaiserplatz, from which, looking through Poppelsdorfer Alice, we 
get a lovely view of the Kreuzberg, and turning to the left we 
reach the University. (If we turn to the right from the Kaiser- 
platz, we reach the Hofgarten — Court Garden — which contains 
a statue to the poet Prof Karl Simrock, by Prof. A. Kiippers.) 
The university building was originally an Electoral Schloss and 
it was described in 1730, soon after its erection, as 'one of the 
most magnificent palaces in Germany'. After a great conflagration 
in 1777, which destroyed the greater portion, it was only partly 
re-built. The Aula is worth a visit (entrance to the interior on 
the other side of the building 50 pfg.). The frescoes were painted 
in 1824 by Forster, Gotzenberger, and Hermann. In the neigh- 
bouring Koblenzerstrasse No. 9, is the Villa Obcrnier, which is 
used as the Town Museum and contains modern oil paintings and 
sculpture (from 8 till dusk, bO pfg., but free on Sundays, Wednes- 
days and holidays from 1 1 to 1 and from 2 to 4). 

At hand, on the Rhine, is the Alter ZoJl, widely famed for the 
lovely view it affords, and near it is the Arndl DlContinient, unveiled 



Bonn. 21 

in 186f), and the two cannon which were presented to Bonn by 
the Emperor William I. after the Franco-Prussian war. Going 
along the Rhine we come to the new bridge (see above), and from 
it we arrive at the interesting Mathet Place. In the Market Place 
is the Rathaus (Municipal Buildings), built in the 18th century, 
and the monumental fountain which the citizens of Bonn erected 
to the Elector of Cologne, Max Friedrich, Graf von Konigseck, 
to mark their appreciation of his kindnesses, e. g. his having 
founded the Academy in 1777. In the neighbouring Bonngasse 
(No. 20) may be visited the house in ichich Beethoven was horn. 
It contains a Beethoven collection (entrance 1 mark, but Sundays 
and Wednesdays 50 pfg.) 




The Rhine Bridge at Bonn. 

On the other side of the railway (Colmantstrasse No. 16) is 
the interesting %heinisches Proviniial-Muscuw, with its valuable 
antiquarian relics (or 'finds') and paintings. (Free on Sundays, 
Thursdays and holidays from 11 to 1 ; Tuesdays, Wednesdays, 
Fridays," and Saturdays from 9 to 1 , 50 pfg. In the afternoons, 
from 2 to 6, from Tuesday to Saturday, 75 pfg.) 

If the tourist can give a whole day to Bonn, he should visit 
Poppelsdorfer Schloss, and from there he may roach in three quarters 
of an hour the Restaurant of Kassehruh, famed for its view. The 
Lust-Schloss (pleasure seat), which was erected by Klemens Josef 
and Klemens August, Electors (>f Cologne, and completed in 1746, 
contains the Natural History Museum ifree on Sundays from 
11 to 1, and Wednesdays from 2 to 4; otherwise from 9 to 1 for 
30 pfg). From Kasselsruh we can walk comfortably in an hour 
and a half, past the Bismarck tower, noted for its wide prospect, 
to Goclesberg. 



22 Godesberg. 



After our departure from Bonn, we pass the so-called Alter /.oil 
(comp. above), and the Theological Seminary of the Archbishopric; 
further on, the earthenware factory ofMehlem; then, a little back 
from the river, we observe a villa with a cupola — this is the resi- 
dence of the Imperial Princes when they are studying at Bonn. Then 
follow, situated on the Rhine, the villa of the Oberburgomaster dis- 
tinguishable by its high gables, a grotto with mermaids, hippo- 
potami, etc., in stone, and, close by, the garden of the Villa 
Schaumburg. After the Bonn waterworks follows the Bonn Stadt- 
haJlc, near which is a railway-traject by which Right-Rhenish 
trains cross from Oberkassel into Bonn. The marks set up here on 
the shore indicate the space within which it is forbidden to 
cast anchor, as a cable lies under the water. Near the railway 
bridge is a Bismarck Column erected by Bonn. On the left arc the 
cement works of Oberkassel (the birth place of Gottfried Kinkel), 
and on the right is a fine estate, with a great arboretum and a 
mausoleum; then follows, on the right, Pliltersdorf, and behind 
this village, somewhat back from the Rhine, we see the tower- 
crowned Godesberg with the villa-town (8933 inhabitants) of the 
same name. 

Godesberg, a splendid villa-colony with alkaline muriatic ciialybeate 
springs, is the great summer residence of the inhabitants of the Rhineland 
who have been blessed with an abundant supply of the world's goods. 
Its springs are said to have been used even by the Romans for catarrhal 
affections, anaemia and scrofula : at least this has been inferred from the 
discovery on the Schlossberg, in the 16th century, of a Roman votive 
tablet dedicated to .Esculapius, The castle dates from tlie Uth century. 
It was destroj'ed in 1553 in the struggle between Gebhard Truchsess von 
Waldburg, Archbishop of Cologne, who had gone over to Protestantism 
and married, and the newly appointed Archbishop, Ernest of Bavaria. The 
complete destruction of the castle was, however, accomplished by the 
French in 1794. Onlj' a tower about 100 feet high, having withstood their 
destructive fury, remains to beautify the landscape. 

From Godesberg, we can cross by a ferry-boat to IsLieder- and 
Oberdollendorf, and from there a branch line goes inland to 
Heisterbach. 'K.iederdollendorf is also a starting point for a visit 
to the Petersberg and the Oelberg in the Siebengebirge. The 
mountains of the Siebengebirge which touch the Rhine are the 
Petersberg (with a hotel), and the Drachenfels, the view from 
which is perhaps the finest which the whole Rhineland affords. 
Below the ruin on the Drachenfels there is also a hotel. Soon 
the ship is moored in Konigsiuinter — the chief starting-point for 
a visit to the Siebengebirge. 




Das Siebengebirge. (The Seyeii Mountains.) 

This group derives its somewhat arbitrary name (which first 
appears in the 11th century) from the seven hills: Petersberg, 
Drachenfels, Wolkenburg, Lohrberg, Lowenburg, Oelberg and 
Nonnenstroraberg. They owe their origin to subterraneous volcanic 
action: that is, the force of the eruptions was not sufficient to 
completely break through the hardened crust of the earth, and 
the heated masses of rock remained in layers of tuff below the 
surface. By erosion (the action of water and weather), the upper 
layers have in the course of ages become worn away, and the 
summits, formed of the harder and more durable trachyte and 
basalt, ars now exposed. 

A visit to the principal points of the Siebengebirge, viz 
Drachenfels, Petersberg and Heisterbach, requires, from Konigs- 
winter, only half a day. Those who choose the comfortable one 
hour's walk to the Drachenfels in preference to the Zahnradhahn 
(rack and pinion railway) journey — 1 mark — should turn 
to the left on leaving the ship, afterwards to the right through 
the town and straight on across the railway through the idyllic 
Nachtigallental, later on passing the monument to Heinrich von 
Dechen, chief director of mines and first president of the Ver- 
schonerungsvercin fur das Siebengebirge. 

The name Drachenfels, (Dragon rock) was a favourite one for high moun- 
tain castles in the Middle Ages. According to the legend, the Nibelungen 
hero Siegfried, joiirnej'ing from his parental home in Xanten to Worms, 
visited here the old Frankish king Childerich in his vine-surrounded castle. 
He found him weak and deserted. His beautiful daughter Gunhild, Childe- 
rich was debarred from ever seeing, for a rejected lover, Duke Hunold, who 
is also a magician, has carried her away and keeps her in a cavern 
guarded by a horrible dragon. In vain has Childericli offered his throne 



24 



The Seven Mountains. 







lF^ 






Drachenfels. 



25 



as a reward to anyone who would release Gunhild. Thirty brave knights 
have already paid with their lives the penalty of venturing on the dan- 
gerous undertaking. Scarcely had Siegfried heard the story when he 
declared himself ready for battle with the monster. Early in the morning 
he sets out on the fateful expedition. The dragon swallows the spear 
which the hero thrusts into his jaws and now must encounter the famous 
sword Balmung. One stroke of the terrible blade lays him dead; the 
fetters of Gunhild are loosened in the same instant, and Hunold's soul is 




The Drachenfels near Konigswinter. 

taken to hell. Since Siegfried was on the point of winning Chriomhild for 
himsfelf, the legend unfortunately could not culminate in his marriage with 
Gunhild. The "Drachenloch" (Dragon's cavern) is still to be seen, however, 
on the rond from Konigswinter to Rhondorf. This story is a repetition and 
partial variation of the Siegfriedsage related of the' Drachenfels in the 
Bavarian Palatinate, south west of Diirkheira. 

Concerning the Drachenfels, another story goes that about the be- 
ginning of our era two heathen German princes, Horsrik and Rinbod (also 
referred to as Ottfried and Rambald) united in a pillaging campaign on 
the Rhine. On one occasion, thej- captured a beautiful Christian virgin, 
and each of them was anxious to have sole possession of this treasure. 
They came therefore to strife over the matter. The question was judiciously 



26 Drachenfels-Petersberg. 



settled, however, by a clever priest who suggested that the maiden should 
be sacrificed to the dragon who lived in the hill. They chain her to the 
rock, and when the dragon awakes, he creeps towards his victim. Just in 
the moment, however, wlien he is about to tear her in pieces with his 
greedy jaws, the virgin holds before his eyes the cross whicli she bore in 
her bosom and immediately the monster rolls himself together in a repul- 
sive heap and leaps into the Rhine. The land, however, becomes converted 
to the teaching of Jesus. 

Lord Byron, in his "Childe Harold'", charmingly extols the beauties 
of the Drachenfels, which he visited in his travels. To his love in a 
distant land, viz., his much calumniated elder half-sister Augusta, he sends 
as a greeting from here the following verses: 

The castled crag of Drachenfels 
Frowns o'er the wide and winding Rhine, 
Whose breast of waters broadly swells 
Between the banks which bear the vine. 
And hills all rich with blossom'd trees. 
And fields which promise corn and wine, 
And scatter'd cities crowning these. 
Whose far white walls along them shine, 
Have strew'd a scene which I should see 
With double joy wert thou with me. 

And peasant girls, with deep blue eyes. 

And baiids which offer early flowers, 

AValk smiling o'er tliis paradise; 

Above, the frequent feudal towers 

Through green leaves lift their walls of gray. 

And many a rock which steeply lowers. 

And noble arch in proud decay. 

Look o'er this vale of vintage bowers ; 

But one thing want these banks of Rhine, — 

Thy gentle hand to clasp in mine ! 

I send the lilies given to me ; 
Though long before thy hand they touch, 
I know that they must wither'd be. 
But yet reject them not as such; 
For I have cherish'd them as dear, 
Because they yet maj' meet thine ej-e, 
And guide thy soul to mine even here. 
When thou behold'st them drooping nigh. 
And knows't them gather'd by the Rhine, 
And offerd from my heart to thine! 

The river nobly foams and flows. 

The charm of this enchanted ground. 

And all its thousand turns disclose 

Some fresher beauty varying round : 

The haughtiest breast its' wish might bound 

Through life to dwell delighted here ; 

Nor could on earth a spot be found 

To nature and to me so dear, 

Could thy dear eyes in following mine 

Still sweeten more these banks of Rhine ! 

Canto III LV. 

The Gothic obelisk erected in 1857 in the neigbourhood of the hotel 
is in place of a similar erection set up on 18th Oct. 1814 to commemorate 
the battle of Leipzig (die Leipziger Volkerschlacht). 



Petersberg. 27 



The journey from Dracheufels to the Petersberg can be easily- 
accomplished on foot in an hour and a half ; but one may also 
take advantage of the rack-and-pinion railway to descend to 
Konigswiuter, and from thence to ascend the Petersberg. On 
foot, one follows the high road from the Drachenfels, turning to 
the right at the kilometre stone 1.8, and soon afterwards tothe 
left, towards a road which should be crossed to reach a footpath 
loading at first sharply to the left but after 3 minutes' walk turn- 
ing to the right to the highroad between Konigswiuter and 
Sophienhof, from which, by leaving in a left direction near the 
kilometre stone 1.6, one can reach the Petersberg (about 1020 feet 
high.) The views from the hotel are exceptionally fine. From the 
front of the hotel one can take a walk of fully half a mile round 
the plateau, passing four beautiful points of view which will 
well repay the time and trouble spent in visiting them. 




Konigswinter, Drachenfels and Drachenburg. 

Witli the cliapel behind the hotel is associated the legend of the faith- 
ful love of the knight Diether von Scluvarxemck, who lived on the Wolkenburg 
at the time wlien Bernard of Clairvaiix was stirring up the hearts of 
people on the Rhine to undertake another crusade. Diether also wished 
to take part in the struggle for the holy sepulchre in Jerusalem and 
mai'ched cheerfully up the Rhine. On the evening of the first day he 
knocked at the gate of the castle of Argenfels, where he was hospitably 
received. Before he departed he succeeded in winning the affections 
of Bertha, the younger daughter of the house. Inspired by this love, he 
covered himself with glory by his conspicuous bravery in the Holy Land 
and, when he saw the Rhine again on his retui-n, he gavie him- 
self no rest until he had arrived at Argenfels. But how did he find the 
castle now? Only ruins and desolate dungeons stared him in the face, 
and no human being was to be seen 1 When at last he encountered a 
shepherd who told him of the attack on the castle by Meno, and of the 
death of its lord, but as to the fate of the two daughters could say nothing, 
Diether exchanged his warrior's clothes for those of a hermit and decided 
to end his days in some wild mountain valley. On one occasion he reached 
the Stromberg, and there he observed in "front of a cell a virgin on her 
knees in praj-er. On his approach she turned her head and he recognised 
his long lost love Bertha. On the night of the fatal onslaught on their 
home, the father had despatched Bertha and her sister by an underground 



28 Heisterbach. 



passage, from which they had emerged, and after many adventures had 
settled here. While the two lovers, now happily re-united, spent many 
pleasant days on the Wolkenburg, Diether caused to be built on the 
Stromberg for the devout Mathilde, Bertha's sister, the little church and 
also a strong dwelling house. Her earthly remains were preserved in the 
chapel, which is dedicated to St. Peter. 

From the Petersberg, one gets in half an hour to the beautiful Rosenau 
(Hotel-Pension) The Rosenau is situated in the midst of the seven 
mountains, and one sees from there a beautiful panorama. 

Descending from ihe Petersberg, and leaving the highroad to 
the right at the kilometre stone 1,6, one can reach Heist crhach in 
25 minutes, by pretty paths through the woods. 

The monastery of Heisterbach dates from the end of the 12th century 
when the monks of Petersberg descended, to build for themselves here a 
more protected dwelling. Heistcr means 'a young beecli'. The best known 
legend concerning the Heisterbach is that of the monk, who, pondering 
over the question of eternity, listened for 300 years to the song of a bird, 
and returned as a stranger to the monastery. Another legend centres 
round the person of St. Bernard. When preaching a crusade on the lower 
Rhine, he spent one night in Heisterbach. But the nightingales disturbed 
his devotions, whereupon, in order that the piety of the monks might not 
be interfered with in a similar manner, he banished from the monastery 
the whole of these birds, which then took up their abode in the so called 
Nachtigallenivdldchen on the left of the road between Honnef and Rhondorf. 
The more recent history of the monasterj' since its dissolution in 1803 is 
less honourable. The Bavarian government which carried out the disso- 
lution did not hesitate in 1810 to sell for building material to the contractor 
for the fortress of Jiilich the magnificent church, elegantlj' built in the 
transition style. It was then demolished, with the exception of the ruins 
of the choir, which still exist. It was the burial place of the lords of 
Lowenburg and Drachenfels. Heisterbach belongs now to the Reichsgraf 
zu Lippe-Biesterfeld Here lived from 1190 the historian Citsarius von Heister- 
bach. A monument to him was erected in 1897, near the ruins of the choir, 
by the Berg Historical Society in recognition of his importance as regards 
the domestic history and knowledge of the life of the people of the time 
of the Hohenstaufens. It is constructed in imitation of the principal portal 
of the former Abbey church. His popular tales are most valuable for the 
history of the manners and customs of his time. It is also said that 
the English author Walter Map latinised form Mapcs (about 1209) lived 
here for a time. 

From Heisterbach one can return to Koni^swinler in •' \ hr , by 
a pleasant level road. Heisterbach is also connected by a small 
railway with Niederdollendorf, a !-tation on the Right Rhenish 
Railway. From the latter place one has an opportunity of crossing 
by boat to Godesberg, or of proceeding direct by train through 
Ober-Kassel and across the railway bridge over the Rhine to 
Bonn. 

If time allowed, one might also proceed from the T>rachi'nfeh 
to the Lowenburg (1^2 hr.), and from there (in another hour and 
a half) past the OeJberg and over the Rosenau to the "Petersberg. 
From the Lowenburg (H80 feet high), offering a romantic prospect 
of the neighbourhood, one can look from the scanty ruins of an 
old castle over a large stretch of the Rhine valley. 



Rolandseck. 29 



Half way up the Drachenfels rises the iraposiog Drachenhurg 
built by Baron von Sarter 1882 — 84. Over the river, we see the 
scattered villas of Mehlciu. As we proceed, we notice on our left, 
at the foot of the Drachenfels, 'BJwndorf, then a little back from 
the river is the largely extended town of Honncf (popn. 5539). 
Above the to^n is the Hohcnhonncf Institution for Lung Diseases, 
built in 1892. On our right hand rises the massive %odderhera, 
an extinct volcano, with restaurant and tower on the summit. 



Rolandseck and thelSeven Mountains. 

Gradually we see more distinctly the lower lying RolaiiJshogeii 
(Roland's arch), and also the small A'lssichtssteuipel (tower for view- 
ing landscape). 

On our right hand is the long shaped island of 'IsLonnenwerth, 
with a pension for girls conducted by nuns, and on our left is 
the broad island of Grafcnivcrth. Opposite Nonnenwerth there 
stretches along the bank of the Rhine the hotel colony of T^o- 
landscck. 

Legend associates with Rolandseck no less famous a person than Roland 
von Angers, nephew of Charlemagne, the hero of Arioslo's Orlando Furioso, 
and the most famous knight of the Charlemagne cj-ole of sagas. The hero 
came from Franconia to the Drachenfels, where Hildegunde the beautiful 
daughter of the kniglit Heribert lived with her parents. Roland won her 



30 Rolandseck. 



love, and their marriage was already arranged, when news of war came 
and the brave knight was summoned to join the army marching against 
the Huns who were threatening the southern German frontier. In the war, 
the knight accomplished wonders of bravery, and himself decided the last 
battle whicli i>ut the enemy to flight. Already in these ancient songs of the 
heroes could be heard the praise of the groat Paladin Roland, but he 
never returned to the castle of his beloved. Instead of that, Heribert 
learned from a travelling knight that in the last battle Roland had fallen 
dead beside liim. Then there arose great lamentation in the castle, and 
Hildegund, oppressed with grief, retired to the nunnery of Nonnenwerth 
on the Rhine island of the same name. By lier own request to the 
bishop the customary year of probation was omitted, and she immediately 
received the veil which separated her forever from the world. Then 
suddenly there appeared at the Drachenfelsburg the knight whom they 
believed to be dead. After tlie battle he had indeed been taken for dead, 
but with careful nursing the spark of life flamed up again. A squire who 
had been sent to the Drachenfels to contradict the false report met his 
death on the way, and so Ilildegunde was irretrievably lost to her lover. 
Roland caused a lonely castle to be built opposite the island, so that he 
could look down upon the cloister wliich contained his beloved. Once 
when Hildegunde was walking in the garden he called down to her by 
name. She heard him and waved a greeting back. But from that time 
she did not present herself again to view, and not long after a funeral 
bell sounded from the church of tlie cloister. Roland enquired concerning 
the name of the person who had died, and learned that the bell had 
tolled for Hildegunde. The very next day Roland was summoned by the 
Emperor to join the campaign against the fierce Saracens in Spain. Again 
he made the world ring with the fame of his deeds, until in the valley of 
Ronceval he met his tragic death. 

To return to facts, Rolandsbogen marks the site of a castle which was 
built in the 12tli century, and in the 15th century was partly destroyed: 
later on it was razed to the ground. The archway which alone remained 
standing, collapsed on the night of tlie 29th of December 1839. Freiligrath, 
who was spending Christmas in Soest, walked past the ruins on the day 
after their downfall. He was moved to issue a Roland's Album of inspiriting 
verses, in which he pleaded with his countrymen to make collections for 
the re-erection of the arch. His success was so great that it was rebuilt 
in the summer of 1840. 

On the left hand, immediately behind li^datulseck, we get a 
distant view of the valley of Men::;^cnherg where Simrock lived for 
a long time, and where a good red vine i.s produced. Also, at 
some distance from the Rhine lie the villages of Rheinbreitbach 
and Scheuern. Opposite the first named, on the right hand 
Oter winter appears 

At Oberwinter there is one of the Rhine ivinicr liarbours, of which, coun- 
ting as far as Emmerich, there are 23, including Schierstein, Riidesheim, 
Bingerbriick, Oberwesel, St Goarshausen, St. Goar, Oberlahnstein, Coblenz, 
Brohl, Oberwinter, Cologne, Miilheim, Neuss, and Diisseldorf. Except the 
harbours of Cologne, Neuss, and Diisseldorf, they have all been taken 
over, partly rebuilt, and are now supported by the state. 

On the left hand, close to the Rhine, follows Unkel, an anti- 
quated place with an old late-golhic Hallcnkirche. 

It was to Unkel that Ferd. Freiligrath came in the autunim of 1839 
after lie had given up his business position in Barmen. Here he fixed 
liis poetic retreat as close as possible to the Rliine, and here he was 



Remagen. 31 



visited by Simrock, Miiller von Konigswinter from Bonn, the gifted Referendar 
Matxenrath from Cologne, and indeed by the whole poetic world of the 
Rhine. In April 1840, Hackidnder, who had been voluntarily apprenticed 
to commerce in Elberfeld, passed Unkel on his journey to Stuttgart. Here 
also Freiligrath made the acquaintance of his future wife Ida, the highly 
cultured daughter of Professor Melos of Weimar. This lady was spending 
some time in Unkel on a visit and became engaged to the poet. In August 
1840 Freiligrath went to Darmstadt. On the house in Unkel in which he 
lived; the Bonn Sternschnuppen u. Faschingsrerein, i. e., a Carnival Club, 
erected a memorial tablet m 1896. On a house near, in which his bride 
was a visitor, a Freiligrathhecke, with a bust and marble tablet, was unveiled 
on the 24th Januarv 1904. 




Apollinaris Church at Remagen. 

Immediately behind Unkel, the Apollinaris Church at Remagen 
comes in sight. On the riglit hand, on a rock, is Schloss C\Caricu- 
eck. The precipitous projecting rock on the left hand is called the 
ErpeJer Ley. Above the beautiful church at "Rj.'magen (3.">34 inha- 
bitants) we see the Vihoria-Berg (with a restaurant). 

At the laying of the •foundation of the new church which stands on 
the site of a Roman fort, tliere was discovered in the year 1900, a brick, 
so well preserved as to show distinctly the letters RICOM. From this it 
is regarded as certainly proved that Ricomajus was the ancient name 
of the town. In the neighbourhood of the church beside the pardon's 
house a Roman archway is tu be seen tlie so-called R'imerlur. It has 
peculiar and still unexplained reliefs. 



32 The Valley of the Ahr. 

At the North end of the town rises the ApoJlinarisherg, on 
which is the ^poJIinaris-Chapel. On this site there stood in an- 
cient times a chapel dedicated to St. Martin, and to it in 1117 a 
Benedictine monastery was annexed. 

The Legend relates that as Reinald von Dassel, Archbishop of Cologne, 
was bringing the heads of the Magi and other relics by ship in 1164 to 
Cologne, the vessel remained fast in the river at Remagen until the remains 
of the saintly ApoUinaris were taken out and laid on the altar of St. Martins 
chapel. The relics remained in the possession of this church, which from 
this time was called the Apollinai-is-Kapelle. (This name we find in docu- 
ments as early as 1405). These relics had in later times many varying 
fortunes. No historical basis however for this legend can be found, for 
the remains of the holy ApoUinaris, Bishop of Ravenna, are not mentioned 
among the relics whicli Reinald von Dassel brought from Milan, and his 
bones were worshipped in Remagen before the time of Reinald. The pre- 
sent ApoUinaris Church was erected by Graf Egon von Fiirstenberg-Stamni- 
heim, who obtained possession of the old chapel in 1886. This nobleman 
procured the services of Dombaumeister Zwirner of Cologne, who erected 
the church (1839—53) in the form of a Greek cross, and it was beautifullj' 
painted (1849—51) by the Dusseldorf artists, Franz Ittenbach, Ernst Deger 
and Andreas and Karl Miiller. On the west of the church are lovely 
Grounds, and Chapels in stone mosaic in the style of those at Arenberg 
near Coblenz. We ascend by steps to the colossal statue of St. Francis 
and obtain a lovelj' view of the Rhine valley. 

The Ahr valley railway starts from Remagen. 



The Yalloy of the Ahr. 

Half a day will suffice to see the principal beauties of the 
Ahrtal, and to one who can spare the time the expedition can be 
warmly recommended, for the Ahrtal is one of the loveliest val- 
leys adjoining the Rhine and perhaps the most frequently visited 
of all. A good high road and a railway (as far as Di'nnpelfeld) 
lead through the valley, which is formed by hills of moderate 
height belonging to the range known as the Eifel or Eifelberge. 
Although the mining on the Ahr is of little account, the basalt 
produce from the almost inexhaustible strata of the so-called 
Unkeler Briiche (quarries) at Remagen has been very great. In use 
even at the time of the Romans, these quarries furnished the ma- 
terial for many castles of the Middle Ages, for the foundations 
of the 1)01)1 at Cologne, for the town walls of Cologne, Bonn, 
Andernach, Remagen, and other places, and enormous quantities 
of great blocks are sent to Holland for laying the foundations of 
the dykes and other water-buildings there: but still the great 
wealth of basalt is not yet exhausted. 



The Valley of the Ahr. 



83 



The level tract from the outlet of the Ahr to Bodendorf, on 
account of its great fertility, has been named the "goldene iSCeile' . 
The vine culture (almost exclusively red grapes) in this part has 
long been famous. At the present time this industry extends to 
Briick, a distance of about 15 miles. On the Ahr originated the 
first IViniervercin. The fishing on the Ahr, owing to the poaching 
(Raubfjscherei) which previously prevailed, is not now so good as 
formerly. 

The railway sweeps in a great curve round the Viktoriaherg 
into the valley, touches the village of Bodendorf, well known for 
its vines, and passing the foot of the basalt-formed summit of 




^.^ Dcrnarr 



Das Ahrtal 

\ 2~'5Kil 



the Landskrone (the station for this is Heimcrshcim) proceeds to 
the station for Neuenahr, a watering place lying on the other side 
of the Ahr. 

The Landskrone owes its name to the beautiful view which it offers. 
When the Hohenstaufen King Philip of Swabia, in the war against his 
rival king, the Gnelf Otto IV, was lying at Sinzig opposite the Cologne 
troops there encamped, he rode to the top of the hill, and, inspired by the 
sight, he exclaimed, "Das ist des Landes Krone." He decided to build a 
castle on the spot, which, however, before its completion, was seized by- 
Otto and completed by him. No trace of it now remains. 

On the high road between Heimersheim and Neuenahr lies the 
mineral "ApoUinarisqueUc", which was discovered in 1852 by 
George Kreuzberg, a wine merchant in Ahrweiler. 

When the discoverer died in 1873, his heirs formed a joint-stock com- 
pany under the name of the "ApoUinarisbrunnen". An English company, 
with an anglicised citizen of Mecklenburg, Steinkopf, at its head, acquired 
for a period extending well into the present century the sole right of 
selling the waters from these wells, which have an original temperature of 
from 18" to 20*^ C. ; and the arrangement is such that the Kreuzberg family 
has to supply the water at a fixed price in bottles and jars supplied by 

3 



34 The Valley of the Abr. 

the company. The sale in one year has reached a total of 18 million bottles. 
The joint-stock company "Apollinarisbrunnen, formerly Georg Kreuzberg," 
earned in the business year 1901—1902 profits amounting to 498,693 marks, 
with a capital of only 450,000 marks. Inspection of the business premises 
is not allowed. 

The world famed '^Bad Neuenahr, a rival of Karlsbad, has 
existed since 1859, and has, besides about 5500 passing visitors 
who stay there only a few days, a yearly list of 10 000 patients, 
of whom 10 per cent are usually foreigners. 

The springs were discovered by Prof. Bischof of Bonn. In 1856 a com- 
mittee raised stock and founded the bathing establishment, erecting the 
necessary buildings and laying out the grounds. The four thermal springs 
in use (Augusta 24°, "Victoria, cold, the equally cold "Klcine Sprudel", and the 
"Grosse Sprudel" 40° C.) are beneficial to those suffering from stomach 
complaints, diabetes, or pulmonary diseases. The "Grosse Sprudel", bored 
in 1861 to a depth of 295 feet, yields 24,000 litres per hour. In the year 1900, 
140,294 bottles from this spring were sent to other parts. 

South of Neuenahr is to be seen the Berg Neuenahr, 1110 
feet high. 

Continuing its course, the railway touches the ancient little 
walled town of AhrzueiJer, shortly after which it passes a projec- 
ting rock known as the hiinte Kiih (speckled cow), and reaches the 
picturesque village of fValporiheim, with its famous vineyards and 
the much sung JVirtshaus lum St. Peter (Inn of St. Peter). From 
the carriage window one can see to the right, in a little side valley, 
the ivy-covered ruins of the nunnery of Maricntal; and passing 
T)ernau, rejoicing in its vines, and the little village of %^ech, the 
train makes its way through a short tunnel under the hill on 
w^hich stand the ruins of Saffenburg {-^ Sophienburg), and arrives 
at Mayschoss. 

Here we alight in order to undertake the half-hour's walk to 
Altenahr, the point from which the whole valley can best be 
surveyed. 

Mayschoss is noteworthy for the formation here in 1868 of the first and 
still the largest Winxerverein, \;\i\ch. was followed by the formation of similar 
Unions in Ahrweiler, Walporzheim, Dernau, Neuenahr, Altenahr, Rech, 
Bodendorf, as well as Leutesdorf, Konigswinter, and other places on the 
Rhine. These Unions have as their objects to save for the deserving 
vinedressers themselves the great profits formerly reaped by middlemen, 
and to guarantee to the purchasers the purity of the wines sold. The 
cellars of the Mayschoss Verein contain 12,500 measures and can be in- 
spected on making request at the local restaurant. 

The traveller on foot passes, just before Altenahr, a tunnel, 
49 yards long, which, as the first work of the kind in Germany, 
was inaugurated in the presence of King Frederick William IV 
in 1834. One who is not afraid to climb a somewhat steep 
vineyard path is recommended to turn off the high road to the 
right just behind the kilometre-stone 25.5 to a point called Weisses 



Linz. 35 

Kreu^, commanding a magnificent view of the valley. From there 
one descends to Altenahr, which is quite near, passing on the way 
the small Aussichtstenipel (50 pfg ), from which one can look down 
on the meanderings of the little river as it works its way along 
between its rocky banks. Very interesting also is the romantic 
walk which can be had by following for an hour one of these 
bends of the river. For example, following the downward course 
of the river from Altenahr, one can turn into the carriage road 
to the right just before the tunnel, in about 20 minutes cross by 
a wooden bridge to the right side of the Ahr, and return again, 
after an idyllic walk, to Altenahr. 



On the left hand, over the river from Remagen, we find Erpel, 
with an old church tower. Next we pass the Erpeler Ley, Nieder- 
kasbach, Linzhausen, — on the height, hidden among trees, — • 
and the scanty remains of the Castle of Ockenfels. Behind lies the 
place which gives its name to this castle. 

The village of Kripp watches over the mouth of the Ahr. 
Opposite this, the town of Lin^ (3573 inhabitants) is compressed 
in a narrow valley. On the Rhine is the so called Rheintor. 
This tower is all that remains of one of the fortresses of the 
Middle Ages. 

Josef Keller, the engraver, was born at Linz on the 31st March 1811. He 
made himself famous especially by an engraving, completed in 1857, of 
Raphael's Disputa del Sacramento i. e. Fight for the Holy Communion. (The 
name is not very appropriate, as the fresco in the Vatican really repre- 
sents the triumph of religion). Keller's was the largest copper engraving 
which had ever been executed. It was destroyed at the burning of the 
Diisseldorf Academy in 1872. The hill to the south of the town is called 
the Kaiserberg, a name which it got from Friedrich III. There is a monas- 
tery, and a lovely view may be had. Linz is also famed for the basalt quarries 
in Its neighbourhood, and the most remarkable and most worth seeing are 
those on the Dattenberg and Minderberg. The uncommon height to which 
the pillars of the crystallised rock-masses rise gives them an imposing ap- 
pearance. The quarries belong to the Rhenish Basalt Company Ltd. 

Siniig (3046 inhabitants), situated on the right, a little back 
from the Rhine, with a lovely church in transition style, next 
greets us. Behind Sinzig is the broad summit of the Landskrone 
and also the Eifelberge. Gradually the valley becomes a litle 
narrower; on the left hand appears the church of Leuhsdorf, 
further is Ariendorf, and soon we notice, halfway up the hill, the 
lovely Schloss Arenfeh. This castle, the property of Graf Westerholt- 
Gysenburg was erected according to plans prepared by the Cologne 
cathedral-architect Zwirner. The castle has a window for each 
day of the year. The armoury, antiquarian collection, plate room, 
and hothouses are all worth a visit (Wednesdays). 

3* 



36 Rheinbrohl-Oberhammerstein. 



Opposite Honningen extends the pretty Niederhreisig ; soon 
thereafter the lovely Schloss 'RJjcineck appears on the left. This 
castle belongs to the family von Bethraann-Holhveg, and was 
erected in 1832 by Lasaulx in Norman style. At the foot of the 
castle hill the brook called the Vinxthach enters the Rhine, In 
Roman times this brook divided Upper from Lower Germania, 
and later, the Archbishopric of Treves from that of Cologne. 
Today it marks the boundary between the Upper and Lower 
Rhenish dialects. 

On the left, the hills retreat a little from the Rhine, and near 
them Bad Arienhellcr has grown up. It was here on Dreikonig's 
Day (6th January) 1897 that the Dreikonigsquelle was bored — 
an alkaline-muriatic well, rich in carbonic acid. On the level 
ground towards Honningen a considerable number of wells also 
rich in carbonic acid, have been bored since 1894. 

On the right, Schloss Rheineck looks down from a height, and 
a little further along on the left is '^heinbrohl, and then on the 
right ISrohl. Here the Brohl brook enters the Rhine — its course 
is over layers of volcanic tuff throughout. The narrow valley of 
the Brohl was opened up in 1900 by a railway which runs through 
Bad Tdfitiisstein as far as Kcmpenich in the Eifel, to the advantage 
of the carbonic acid, trass, and stone industries of the district. 

From the station at Tonnisstein we can go in rather less than 2 hours 
past ]\'asse7iach and the Lydia Tower (with lovelj' view), to the Laacliersee. 

At Rheinbrohl began the great wall (limes), built by the Romans for 
protection from the barbaric Teutonic tribes beyond. It ran past Ems, 
Langenschwalbach and over the Taunus Mountains as far as the neigh- 
bourhood of Kelheim on the Danube, a distance of about 345 miles. 

On the left, follow the villages of Nieder- and Oh erhammer stein, 
with the Hammerstein Werth; above Oberhammerstein rises a ruin 
which belongs to the Von Hammerstein family. 

According to legend, Burg Hammerstein was first erected in 1002 by Karl 
Martel, and with this castle legend also associates the love episode of 
Graf Otto. This knight had married a near relation named Irmingard, and, 
as the Catholic church then condemned such marriages more severely 
than the laws of states now do, this union was declared invalid both by 
the Archbishop and the Emperor. Otto not only disregarded their judgment 
but embittered the life of Archbishop Archi'mbald by feuds. Being ex- 
communicated by the Archbishop and outlawed by the Emperor he still 
ignored both. Then in 1020 Kaiser Heinrich II besieged the castle, and 
famine forced Otto to surrender He and his wife were treated with ignom- 
iny and sent off as beggars. Two years after, Otto surrendered to the 
Whitsuntide Synod at Mainz and vowed that he would reform. Irmingard 
did not give up the matter as quite hopeless, and delaj-ed carrying out 
the penance inflicted — probably to retire to a nunnery. She eventually 
obtained from Pope Benedict VIII permission to live with her husband, 
and now matters went badly indeed with her adversary Archbishop Aribo 
of Mainz. The Pope degraded him from his high position and sent an 
embassy to protect Irmingard from the Archbishop. Aribo had long opposed 



Naraedy — Andernach. 37 



the Pope, and now at last in 1031 he undertook a pilgrimage to Rome for 
pardon, dying on his return journey at Como. In the Tragedy, 'Der Graf 
von Hammerstein', A. Wilbrandt has changed the story of the legend. 
In 1105 Heinrich IV, when at feud with his son, retired to Burg Hammer- 
stein for a time. In 1688 the castle was destroyed by the French. 

On the right is a large estate, then come 'Burg Namedy' and 
the village of Namedy near which in 1903 a new mineral well 
was bored. 

Namedy was, up to the end of the 18th century, an important place in 
connection with the lumber trade of the Rhine. Here there was a large 
harbour in which the small timber rafts coming down the river were 
fastened together to form larger rafts. These might be 1000 feet 
long and 90 feet broad, and had as many as 500 rowers and labourers. 
The large oars called Streicfien used for the purpose of steering the raft 
were applied before and behind. Today almost all the rafts are hauled 
by small steamers, and so a great saving is effected in time and men. 
Every raft must send at least one looker-out ahead in a boat. He should 
keep about one hour in front to warn the shipping. His flag consists of 
8 red and black stripes. One of these rafts can easily seriously injure 
any craft it happens to collide with. 

Before passing what is called the 'Krumme Werth', the round 
tower of Andernach is already visible. 

Now, on the left hand, we note the antiquated Leutesdorf, with 
the pilgrimage church of the Holy Cross standing isolated, and 
soon land in the picturesque and interesting town of Andernach. 
The history of Andernach takes us back over a long period of 
time. As early as the end of the 5th century the Franco-Mero- 
vingian Kings used it as a royal seat. The beautiful parish 
church is a four-towered late romanesque pillared basilica from 
the beginning of the 13th century, the late-gothic Rathaus was 
built in 1564, while the beautiful octagonal JVachttumi (watch- 
tower), over 160 feet high, dates from the middle of the 15th 
century. The Ehine-Krahnen (= crane) dating from 1554 is also 
noteworthy for its beautiful picture of the tow^n (Stadtbild). The 
Rheintor is the oldest of the still existing double gateways. ^ It 
contains, within, a real part of the ancient fortifications which 
were erected immediately after the destruction of the city by fire 
in 1200. 

In the interior of the gateway are the two stout figures of 'The Baker 
Lads of Andernach' (Die Bdckerjungen von Andernach.) The legeyid runs as 
follows. In the autumn of 1602 the citizens of Linz were offended by the 
citizens of Andernach quarrying stones on the Dattenberg for their church, 
and thus a feud arose. Th'e daughter of the burgomaster of Andernach 
was in love with a poor baker lad called Georg, but the father would not 
hear of their marriage. During the wearisome siege of the town by the 
citizens of Linz, Georg was keeping the important watch by the Rhine 
gate, where the burgomaster had brought his bee-hives for protection. 
Here his Barbel disguised as a boy, visited Georg at night, in order to 
bring him some warm soup. On a stormy November night when the two 
lovers were together the besiegers climbed over the gate. In their 
distress the lovers threw the bee-hives on the assailants, who were 



38 Laachersee — Neuwied. 



terrified and scattered. It was the last attempt which the citizens of Linz 
made, for after this failure thej^ withdrew. Now of course there was a 
marriage, and a grateful town caused the two statues to be executed and 
set up in the gateway. 

In a northerly direction from Andernacb rises the Krahnenhcrg 
(about 770 feet) famed for its view: there are two restaurants on 
it. A hydraulic wirerope railway enables the tourist to reach the 
top without fatigue, and from there the Laachersee can be reached 
in 3 hours on foot, by a beautiful road. The journey to the 
Laachersee, may be however, substantially shortened by using the 
railway which starts from Andernach and runs at first through 
the Netie vaUey, then past the stations of Plaidt and Kruft to 
Niedervwndig. From Niedermendig, which is famed for its beer 
cellar cut out of the basalt lava rock, we can go by carriage or 
omnibus to the Laachersee. The journey on foot takes fully an hour. 

The Laachersee is interesting as the largest of the lakes in the Eifel 
district. It is 3,39 square kilometres in extent, and has been formed bj' 
the filling of the crater of an extinct volcano with water. The Laachersee 
was the central point of the more recently active volcanic region of the 
Eifel. The surrounding hills, towering above the lake to a height of some 
COO feet, were formed by the lava thrown out of the volcano. Kloster Laach. 
known to a wider circle through repeated visits of the Emperor, the last 
being in 1901, has an interesting six-towered romanesque pillared basilica. 
The monastery dates from the 12th century and has been inhabited since 
1892 by Beuroner Benedictines. In the "^church, which belongs to the 
public, Emjieror William II founded a magnificent high altar. Besides the 
cloister, the church, and a hotel, there are no other buildings on the lake. 
From here the foot-traveller can go by Wassmach (near which is the 
Lydia-toiver with a lovely prospect) in an hour and a half to Dad Tlinnis- 
stcin in the Brohl valley, and from there the Brohlvalley railway takes us 
back to the Rhine. 

At Andernach the so-called IsLeuwieder Becken begins, the 
mountains retire, and, from Coblenz down, the Rhine flows over 
a level stretch which probably in ancient times was the bed of 
an inland sea. One peculiarity of this district, besides great wealth 
in fruit, is the amount of pumice sand obtained aud this has 
given rise to an important industry, the so-called Schwemm- or 
Sandstone industry, carried on at Engers, Bendorf, Urmitz etc. 

The Rhenish Schwemmstein is a product of the Laach volcano which 
at one time covered over the Rhine valley here with pumice sand. This 
pumice sand, which it spread down the Rhine to Brohl, up the Rhine 
to Boppard, on the Moselle as far as Hatzenport, and over the heights of 
the Westerwald into the Marburg district, is formed out of melted trachyte, 
and contains 60 to 65 per cent of silicic acid. The important Schwemm- 
stein industry of the Neuwied basin is scarcely 50 years old, and owes its 
great development in so short a time, to the excellent properties of the 
stone. In the manufacturing, the pumice sand after being purified is 
mixed with Devonian schist, greywacke, or other volcanic products, stored 
in heaps in the open air, and mixed carefully with slaked lime so that 
the pumice sand is distributed throughout the mixture with perfect regu- 
larity. Then the mixture is beaten with iron implements into forms 
suitable for building walls, chimney flues, etc. The stones require to harden 



Neuwied — Weissenturm. 39 

for two weeks in the open air before they can be piled up, and after 
being piled, the hardening process must go on for 3 or 4 months before 
the stones are ready for sale. 

On the left hand Bender's Castle rises above us, and below it 
is the place called Jahr On the right is St. Thomas's Lunatic 
Asylum. We pass on the left the village of Mich with a fine 
highly-situated basilica, near which the Wied brook falls into the 
Rhine. On the right is the mouth of the Nette; opposite, near 
the town of Neuwied, lies the castle of the Fiirst von Wied. 
Neuwied, so-called to distinguish it from Altwied in the wildly 
romantic Wied valley, has a population of 11,000 inhabitants, is 
the seat of the Provincial Deaf and Dumb Institution, and was 
at one time the capital of the immediatised Grafschaft of Wied. 
The beautiful Residenzschloss has a collection of Roman antiquities, 
and beautiful grounds, open daily. The present castle dates from 
the 18th century. 

The Ducal Park was formerly a vineyard, and is said to have yielded 
100 Ohms of red-wine. The town was laid out hj Graf Friedrich III von 
Wied, and in 1662 endowed with certain privileges with the intention 'of 
founding a haven of refuge, equallj' for those of the Catholic religion and 
of other tolerated beliefs, so that a number at least of those industrious 
citizens who were then fleeing to the ^'etherlands, having lost their all in 
the Thirty Years' War, might be intercepted and induced to settle here, 
to the benefit of the land'. Even today, the industrious town of Neuwied 
is the seat of quite a number of religious confessions, especially Baptists 
and Moravians. Those who wish to visit the famed Schloss Mnnrepos and 
its lovely surroundings set out from Neuwied, 

The Neuwied Werth divides the Rhine into two navigable 
channels. On the left of the island lies the great Hermann and 
Germania Ironworks, and to the left of the island there extends 
along the Rhine the place called Weissenturm. It takes its name 
from the old tower at the foot of the Frauenberg, and above the 
town rises, in the form of an obelisk, the monument to the French 
General Hoche. 

This man, who rose during the French Revolution from a stable lad 
(1790j in the royal stables at Versailles to be a famous Marshall, was 
appointed Commander-in-Chief of the army of the Sambre and Meuse, 
80,U00 strong. On the 18th of April 1797 he crossed the Rhine at Weissen- 
turm, utilising the island, and pressed on as far as Wetzlar defeating the 
Austrians in three battles and five skirmishes. Here on the 18th of Sep- 
tember, an early death put an end to a career distinguished by high 
statesmanship and great ability as a strategist. 

We now pass on the left the Urmit^er Werth, on which is the 
village of Urmitz. Near the village there were discovered some 
years ago an extensive castle of the time of the lake-dwellers, 
graves belonging to the bronze period, a Roman camp, and an 
extraordinary number of prehistoric relics. On the height, a little 
back from the river are Miilheim, Karlich, and Kettig, with a 
brown coal mine. 



40 Engers — Bendorf— Coblenz. 



On the left follows the old place called Engers, from which a 
branch line into the pottery country leads to Hohr-Grenzhausen 
(see below). 

On the right hand follow KaJten- Engers and St. Sehastian-Engers, 
where again a watch-tower exhibits signal-flags. Between these 
two places the Saynbach, after flowing through a deep narrow 
valley, enters the Rhine. Here — between Sayn on the right 
bank and Miilheim on the left bank — the Neuwied Basin attains 
its greatest width of 4^/^ miles. 

The eastern part of Sayn lies in the mouth of the Brexbach valley, 
through whose romantic windings a railwy from Engers runs bj' means of 
many viaducts and tunnels into the Kanncnhdckerland (pottery country) as 
far as Grenxhausen and Hohr. (One can travel through this lovely valley to 
Grenzhausen on foot in 3 hours.) The fine clay found here has enjoyed 
for centuries a wide celebrity. The 50 earthenware factories of Hohr em- 
ploy over 500 workmen. Both places produce amongst other articles the 
beer jugs for Bavaria ; and Hillsclieid, a neighboui'ing place, sends yearly to 
Bad Ems about a million and a half jugs for the waters. If we go through 
Holler's Grounds in Sayn, we can ascend in a quarter of an hour to the 
Kaiser-Wilhelm-Hohe, a height which affords a fine view of the Avhole 
neighbourhood, including the Schloss of Fiivst Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, with 
the castle tower standing apart, the ruins of the old castle, the hilly 
Westerwald, and the Rhine basin. The modern castle, has a good picture 
and art collection; (Sundays and Thursdays 25 pfg.) 

The smelting furnaces situated at the mouth of the Saynbach 
in the neighbourhood of Miihlhofen belong to Krupp. A little 
further from the river, surrounded by fruit-trees, is the little town 
of "Bendorf (5600 inhabitants). Shortly after passing the point of 
the island called Graswerth, the island of Niederwerth begins. This 
island has interesting surroundings, and a village of the same 
name, with a church, stands on it. On the other side we see 
VaUendar spread out to our view (comp. Excursion No. 4, from 
Coblenz), and at the end of the island follows Urhar. (It has a 
high situation and a new church.) Our ship passes on the right 
Kesselheim, and at the end of the Niederwerth is WaUershcim and 
'K.eiiendorf. At the river bend Ehrenhreit stein appears on the left 
hand and w^e note the old Electoral Palace in Ehrenbreitstein. 
Passing the Rhine Province Kaiser Wilhelm Monument we land 
in Coblenz. 



Coblenz. 



Cohleni, the chief town of the Ehine Province and the most 
beautifully situated of all the larger towns on the Rhine, has a 
population of 45,500. Its name takes us back to the Roman 
colony, which on account of its situation at the junction of the 



Coblenz. 



41 



Rhine and Moselle was called Confluentes: this developed into 
Conbulautia and Coblenz. 

In Coblenz in 860 the cessation~o£ hostilities between the sons of Lud- 
wig the Pious was confirmed, in 1138 Conrad III was elected king in the 
Kastorkirche, and in this same church eight years later Bernhard von Clair- 
veaux preached the Second Crusade. In 1688 the French Marschall von 
Boufflers besieged the town from the 28th of October to the 14th of No- 
vember, but it was defended so splendidly by the commandant Graf von 
der Lippe of Treves that the French were obliged to raise the siege. 
After the siege scarcely 150 uninjured houses could be counted and the 




:^*;^-irri 



f'^^--^.. * 



Coblenz. 



town looked indeed like a "durchlocherte Laterne". The importance of 
Coblenz increased greatly when the Elector of Treves, Klemens Wenzeslaus, 
transferred his residence there on the completion of the Schloss in 1786. 
In 1794 the French took possession of the town, but in 1815, when the 
Rhineland became part of Prussia, Coblenz became again German. Before 
the incorporation of Alsace-Lorraine it was an important fortress, but since 
1890 it has been practicallj' neglected as such. 

A visit to Cohleni. Starting from the landing stage on the 
Rhine, we cross the fine quay, which affords a lovely view over 
the river to the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein, the Asterstein, and 
other more distant heights, and soon reach the famous Rhine 
province Monument to Kaiser Wilhdm, on the Deutsches Eck (the 
strip of land between the Rhine and Moselle). 



42 



CobleDz. 



This monument was erected according to prize designs prepared by 
Architect Professor Bruno Schmitz and the Sculptor Professor Hundrieser, 
both of Berlin. The monument was unveiled in the presence of the Em- 
peror William II and many other princes, on the 31st of August 1897. The 
equestrian statue is borne aloft on a platform supported by 20 separate 
pillars of Black Forest granite, each 33 feet high. The statue which is 
4(i feet high represents the Emperor — in general's uniform, over which 
is a flowing mantle — accompanied by a winged genius. The group of 
figures was cast in copper by Rinkleben, the present representative of 
the firm of Howaldt in Brunswick. A Pergola 124 feet long encloses the 
monument behind. On the front of the monument, engraved on the frieze, 
are the concluding verses of Max von Schenkendorf's poem "Friihlings- 
gruss an's Vaterland." — "Nimmer wird das Reich zerstoret, wenn ihr 
einig seid und treu" (Never shall the Empire be destroyed if j'ou re- 



t 



^im 




Monument to Emperor William 



main faithful and united). The total cost, which was defrayed by the 
surplus profits of the Rhine Province Landesbank, amounted to "about 
1,900,000 marks. 

Let US now proceed past the Deutsches Ordeiishaus (Teutonic 
Lodge), which is now used for preserving archives, to the Kasior- 
hirche, situated near. This church is in the form of a very fine 
romanesque basilica, and dates from the end of the 12th Century. 

The church gets its name from a hermit of the 4th century who lived 
at Garden on the Moselle, and a part of whose remains were committed in 
836 to Hetti, Archbishop of Treves. The Archbishop placed the relics in 
the Collegiate Church which he had just built at Coblenz, and since then 
this church has born the name of the saint. In the left aisle is the mo- 
nument erected in 1725 to the saintly Rizza, a relation of Ludwig the Pious. 
She lived in Ehrenbreitstein, and went every morning dry footed over the 
Rhine to the Kastorkirche. In the choir is tlie Gothic tomb of the Elector 
Kuno von Falkenstein (d. 1388), and over it is to be found a picture of old 
Cologne, possibly by Meister Wilhelm. 



Coblenz. 43 



On the square before the church stands the Kastor-Bnmnen — 
a lofty fountain which is interesting historically. It was erected 
in 1812, on the entry of the French into Moscow, by the French 
Prefect of Coblenz, Jules Doazan, with the inscription 'Memorable 
par la campague contre les Russes'. When the Eussian General 
von Priest came to Coblenz after the downfall of the French army, 
be placed under the inscription. *Vu et approuve par nous com- 
mandant russe de la ville de Coblence le 1. janv. 1814.* 

Going through the Kastorpfaffengasse, and to the right along 
Rheinstrasse, we reach the Gobenplatz, on which is the monument 
(by Fr. Schaper) erected to the memory of General von Goben, 
who died at Coblenz in 1880. Proceeding through Firmungstrasse 
to the Jesuiteuplatz, we see the monument (by J. Uphues), unveiled 
in 1899, to the physiologist Johannes Midler, who was born in 
Coblenz in 1801. (The house is in the neighbouring Jesuitengasse 
and is marked with a tablet). Going on through Firmungstrasse, 
Kornpforte on the right, and Danne on the left, we reach the 
fruit market with the (protcstant) Florinskirche dating from the 
121h Century. Here also is the so-called Kaufhaus (now a ReaJ- 
^J7««rt5- /»/// = commercial higher grade school.) The Kaufhaus was 
erected as a townhall and exhibits the device characteristic of 
Coblenz, consisting of the figure of a man under a clock, who 
shows with his tongue every quarter of an hour how he despises 
the world. In Burgstrasse is the Burg, which was once the resi- 
dence of the Elector. It dates from 1276 and is the oldest non- 
ecclesiastical building in the town. It was put in its present form 
in 1900, having been in a ruined condition since its destruction 
in 1688. The collection of pictures in the upper storey has only 
a local interest, as in the main only Coblenz painters are repre- 
sented (25 pfg.) The best view of the Burg with its lofty towers 
is from the vicinity of the Moselle Bridge. This bridge dates 
from the middle of the 14th Century and was widened in 1884. 
From this standpoint we also get a lovely view of the Moselle, 
the Rhine, and Liitzel-Coblenz, which extends along the left bank 
of the Moselle. 

Passing through the street called 'Altengraben', then to the 
right along Lohrstrasse, and to the left along Schlossstrasse, we 
come to the Schloss. This Palace was built by the last Elector 
of Treves, Clemens Wenzeslaus, according to the designs of the 
French architects Ixnard and Peyre. It has a fine Ionic portico, 
and the whole building is distinguished by its beauty and sim- 
plicity. The 'Oberprasident' of the province of the Rhine resides 
at present in the Palace. The royal apartments may be seen 
from 10 to 6 o'cl., and on Sundays from 11 to 6 o'cl., for 25 pfg. 
Admission is free from 1 1 to 1 o'cl. on Sundays and Wednesdays 



44 



Coblenz. 



(Entrance on the left). Just at hand, on the Clemeusplatz (on 
which also is the Theatre), is an Obelisk, 62 feet high, erected to 
commemorate the finishing of an aqueduct in 1791. At the 
Mainzer Tor, on the opposite side of the Platz from the Schloss, 
the magnificent Stddtische Festhalle is to be seen. It was erected 
according to the plans of the architects Miiller (of Coblenz) and 
L. von Fisener (of Gelsenkirchen), and shows a happy union of 
old forms of architecture with modern adornments. This Banqueting 
Hall is worth a visit (cards for 20 pfg. in the Restaurant). 

Behind the Festhalle, we cometoiheKaiseriii-Augusta- 

Anla^en, laid out under ^^^^^^^^ the auspices of the queen 




Monument to Empress Augusta. 



of William T. These famous pleasure grounds extend for more than a 
mile along the Rhine, and we may mention the Trinhhalle (pump-room) 
and two monuments — one was erected to the poet Max von Schen- 
kendorf, who died in Coblenz in 1817, and the other to the Empress 
Augusta, who for 10 years stayed regularly some weeks in Coblenz. 
The monument to the Empress is almost at the end of the 
grounds, and the figure was designed by K. J. Moest of Karlsruhe. 

From the end of the pleasure grounds we may travel by the 
electric railway to Bad Laubbach (See excursion 1 . below). 

Excursions from Coblenz. (See also the small map of the Lahn 
Valley). 

1. Those who can allow only one whole day for 'doing' Coblenz 
should not omit to visit the Stadlwald, as wonderful views are to 
be obtained from different points in the woods. (Small maps 
showing the different pathways are to be got from the book- 
sellers for 30 pfg.). 



Coblenz. 



45 



Along with this can be combined a visit to Stolzenfels, the 
whole requiring from 4 to 5 hours. The electric railway to 
Schiitzenhof, which starts from the landing place at the quay and 
passes the Festhalle, takes us as far as 'Bad LauUmch. From this 
place a pleasant walk of a quarter of an hour takes us up to 
one spot famed for its view, Ritterstiiri (with a Restaurant), 
From Rittersturz we can in ^/^ of an hour reach the highest 
point of the hill called Kiihkopf and have a lovely view of the 
Rhine, Moselle, and Eifel. From here we can descend in an hour 
either to GiiJs on the Moselle (this is a station on the Moselle 
Railway) or to CapeUen over the Stolzenfels. Another way from 
the Rittersturz is to go over the T>ommelsherg (with Aiissichtsturm 
i. e. tower for viewing landscape). This requires 20 minutes; and 
in 20 minutes more we may reach the celebrated Aussichtspunkt 
Hasenberg. As a point of view, only the Drachenfels on the whole 
of the Rhine can be compared with Hasenberg. Straight before 
us is the Lahn valley, in which rises the massive white church 
called AUerheiJigeiikirc/je (All Saints' Church). At our feet, as we 
look up the Rhine, Lahneck and the mighty Marksburg, with 
Oberlahnstein and Braubach, show themselves. Further away, 



we see Rhense and 
Niederspay. Looking 
down the Rhine, 
we note many lo- 
vely spots such 
as Niederlahn- 
stein , Horch- 
-heim, Pfaffen- 
dorf, and Eh- 
renbreitstein, 
which seem to 
ornament the 
green hills with 



,i 






\ 



Stolzenfels. 



their white houses. The 
two great Rhine bridges 
^v, increase the beauty 
\ of the lovely 
landscape. If we 
take the way 
downwards to 
CapeUen, which 
leads (ascen- 
ding) over the 
Augustahohe, 
we pass Schloss 
StoJicnfels. 



The castle of Stolxenfelx arose in 1242—59 at the instance of one of the 
Electors of Treves, Arnold von Isenburg, as a place for the collection of 
dues, and was destroyed by the French in 1689. In 1833 Coblenz presented 
the ruin to the Crown Prince afterwards King Frederick William IV, who 
caused the place to be rebuilt (according to designs bj' Schinkel) at a cost 
of a million marks. Within are lovely frescoes, pictures, furniture, wea- 
pons, etc. (Entrance 10 to 12 o'cl. and 2 to 7 o'cl. for 25 pfg.) View from 
tower in Schlosshof is fine. 

On Stolzenfels, according to the legend, not only the owner, Archbishop 
Kuno, pursued the vain study of alchemy, but also his Kammermeister 
Kurt, who had the administration of the products of the tithes. Once Kurt 
got an Italian of the name of Manso to join him in his pursuits. This 
cunning individual, under pretence of helping hira to create unheard of 
treasures with the aid of alchemy, induced the credulous Kurt not only 
to do away with his own possessions, but to appropriate secretly part of 



46 



Stolzenfela. 



his master's goods. Manso wished also to destroy Kurt's beautiful daughter 
Elizabeth. One day the Elector entered the Castle with a great following, 
and the guilt of the father would soon have been revealed. Then Eliza- 
beth pled with the Italian to come to the rescue. He cunningly confided 
to her that only the self-destruction of a pure virgin could save her father. 
By such a sacrifice, however, untold of happiness would fall to Kurt. The 
girl consented to kill herself on the following night with the flame of a 
piece of wood from Lebanon which Manso gave her. But she was observed 
by a knight, Reinhard von Westerburg, who at the last moment prevented 
the accomplishment of this frightful act. Elizabeth confessed all to the 
knight, and he declared his love for her. The noble knight replaced the 
sura lost, and so the matter came to a happy ending. But not for Manso, 
who preferred to drown himself rather than"^fall into the knight's hands. 

2. To Ehrenhreit stein, with lovely view; 20 minutes for ascent 
required (from 1st of April to 15th of November, 50 pfg.) 




Ehrenbreitstein. 



3. A journey of 20 minutes by the CoMeni-Ehrenhreitstein elec- 
tric railway to the much visited and interesting grounds of Pfarrer 
Kraus at Arenberg. There is a church, chapels, etc., which are 
all ornamented with mosaic work formed with small stones. From 
Arenberg we can travel on foot to Ems in half an hour. 

4. A journey with the local boat or the electric railway to 
Vallendar. (The electric railway starts from the Festhalle, goes 
over the old railway bridge, and past Ehrenbreitstein). From 
Vallendar one can reach two wonderfully beautiful Aussichtspiinkte 
(points of view). One of these, V\Conte Casino, may be reached by 
going from the terminus of the electric railway through Markt- 
strasse and to the left through Heerstrasse (12 minutes required: 
restaurant). The other Aussichtspunkt, Humholdthohe, may be 
reached by going from the terminus of the electric railway through 
Rheinstrasse, then taking the first street to the right over the 
Lohrbach, and thence ascending the steep footpath behind the 



On the Moselle. 



47 



.Elircnlnx'Ust 







DaslVloselta! 



^sk,^ 



Nassauer Hof (12 minutes re- 
quired : Restaurant). From 
here in 10 minutes we can 
reach the Kaiser -Friedrich- 
turm, a tower which conmiands 
a comprehensive view of the 
landscape. 



On the Moselle. 

Every one should try to 
arrange at least one day for 
the Moselle alone. The journey 
by ship through the rich wine- 
producing valley is to be 
preferred to that by rail, but 
it requires considerable time 
and is often interrupted by 
the shallowness of the water. 
We confine ourselves therefore 
to the railway journey. 

The third station from 
Coblenz, IViuningen, is known 
for the vineyards around; the 
fourth station, Kobern-Gondorf, 
is the starting point for the 
beautifully situated Mathias- 
kapelle — famed for its won- 
derful acoustic properties and 
described as one of the pearls 
of romanesque architecture. 
(The key to the chapel is to 
be got from Simonis, the 
Restaurant-Keeper in Kobern). 
The Stations-Weg conducts us 
upwards in ^4 l^r. past the 
ruins of Niederburg and Ober- 
burg. On returning we should 
pay a short visit to the old 
romantic Gondorf, with the 
ruins of an old burg, the 
original seat of the Princes 
von der Ley en. 



48 On the Moaelle. 



On the opposite side of the river from Gondorf is Niederfell. 
Proceeding with train from Gondorf, we pass Lehmen and Kattenes 
(over the river is Oberfell and tiien Aiken) and Loef. Loef is the 
nearest station to the ruins of Ehrenhurg. Opposite Loef lies 
Brodcnhach, from which one can travel in ^/^ hour through the 
romantic Ehrbach valley to the stronghold of Ehrenburg. It was 
erected in the 12th century and was widely famed in the Middle 
Ages. (Fine view from the tower.) 

After Loef the railway passes Hatienport (from which station 
D\iii}istcnnaifdd can be reached in 2 hours — Burg Elti is half an 
hour's journey further on). Across the river is Burgen. From 
Hatzenport the train proceeds to D^/Coselkern, from which tourists 
usually set out for Burg EJti. (To see the interior the visitor 
must obtain a card from the owner, Graf zu Eltz, in Eltville. 
Permission is given free of charge to any one making written 
application. The castle is closed however on Sundays and Fridays. 
Entrance to the courtyard of the castle is allowed at all times.) 

A lovely footpath up the side of the Eitzbach conducts us in half an 
hour to the Eltzburg, perhaps the only completely preserved Ritterburg 
(feudal castle) of the Middle Ages. The whole forms a picturesque collec- 
tion of buildings varying in date from the 13th to the 17th century. The 
visit is interesting, as the place is arranged as nearly as possible as it was 
in the Middle Ages. 

Keeping to the railway, we pass Miiden (from which a very 
easily followed path leads to Burg Eltz), Garden (over the river is 
Treis), Pommern, Klotten, and reach Cochem, the end of our tour, 
from which we get a lovely view of the lower Moselle valley. 

Cochem, the capital of the district, has a population of 3586. 
Rising above the town is the Reichsburg, mentioned as early as 
the 10th century. A possessor of the ruin, the late Geh. Kom- 
merzienrat Ravene, had the castle restored (1860 — 72), with the 
aid of ancient views, etc. On the outside of the tower, a figure 
in mosaic representing St. Christopher (by Salviati) is very con- 
spicuous. The interior, which is worth a visit, is sumptuously 
furnished to supply all modern comforts. (Entrance for 1 to 3 
persons, 1 mark.) From the castle we can easily in half an hour 
reach the Lescher Linde, famed for its view. Below is the famous 
Kaiser- Wilhelm-Tunnel — more than 27, miles long — the second 
longest in Germany. 

From Kochem to Piesport, the vineyards cover as much as 12,800 acres, 
which yield a yearly average of 9000 Fuder (of 975 litres each) or more 
than half of the total production of the Middle and Lower Moselle (Treves 
to Coblenz). The highest prices for Moselle wine were realised in 1896 for 
2 Fuder of 1893 Maximiner Griinhauser Herrenberger (from the neighbour- 
hood of the mouth of the Ruwer at Treves), viz., 11,010 and 12,750 marks 
or about 11 to 13 marks per litre. 



Ems. 



49 



Lufxel ' 





^hi'cterbq- 



ir<?n^erff 









The Lahn Valley. 

Those who can afford another half day to the idyllic Lahn 
river should set out from Niederlahnstein or Coblenz for Ems — 
the lovely watering place situated in this narrow valley. The rail- 
way journey lasts from half to three quarters of an hour. Yearly, 
over 10,000 visitors take the waters here, and the newly restored 
Royal Curhaus (Pump Room) with the lovely Kolonnadcn and the 
famous warm mineral springs is worth a visit. The Kesselhrunnen 
has a temperature of 47° C., Krahnchcn SG*^, Furslenhrunnen 40'' 
and the Kaiscrhriinncn 28.5°. The chief constituents of these waters 
— used even by the Romans — are bi-carbonate of soda, chlo- 
ride of sodium, and bi-carbonate of ammonia which gives them 
their characteristic and very unpleasant smell. The diseases treated 
here are those of the respiratory organs, the digestive organs and 
the liver. The amount sent away is reckoned at 3' , millions of 
jars and bottles. In the lovely Ciirgartcn stands the Ciirsaal (pump- 
room), in which the concerts are held, and behind is the Wandd- 
hahn (covered promenade) with a statue of the Emperor William I. 
who often spent some time in Eras. 

Here, on the evening of the 13th of July 1870, the King received the 
despatch from von Werther, the Prussian ambassador in Paris, demanding 
a guarantee that no prince of the House of Hohenzollern would ever 
accept the Spanish throne. It is well known that this demand led soon to 
the Franco-Prussian war. When the king received the despatch from Geh. 
Legationsrat Abeken he remarked, "This is the most important despatch 
I have ever received". "Next morning" as General-lieutenant von Chappius 
relates in his memoirs "the King met Prince Albrecht on the promenade. 

4 



50 



Ems, 



The two were walking together when the French ambassador Count Bene- 
detti met us on the Lahn, close by the Curhaus. The ambassador went 
up to the King and spoke to him. ' Tlie King spoke excitedly with Bene- 
detti but soon, saluting, left him and hurried to his residence. Benedetti 
liad placed again before the King the demand which Werther's despatch 
of the previous evening contained. In the course of the forenoon the 
ambassador again announced himself to the King, but was informed by 
Fliigeladjutant Prince Radziwill, that if he wished an opportunity to speak 
further with the king over the same subject, the latter had nothing further 
to say to him, and that he should apply to the Minister of Foreign Affairs". 
A marble slab at the upper end of the Pleasure Grounds (Kuranlagen) com- 
memorates the conversation. 




Steamer of the Koln-Diisseldorfer Co. 



The Gitterbriicke brings us to the ncues Badehaus on the left 
bank of the Lahn, where the warm "neue" Quelle, 58°, has been 
opened. A wire-rope railway, starting from the neighbourhood of 
the Kaiscrh ruche, takes us up the Lahn to the Malherg, which 
affords a lovely view (single journey -=^ 80 pfg,, return 1 mark). 
There are several pleasant footpaths to the top of the Malberg. 
On the right bank of the Lahn, on the top of the Bdderlei rock, 
is the Concordia Tower, which also affords a fine view (ascent from 
Grabenstrasse, an hour and a quarter). 

Those who have time should also visit Isiassau, which is beauti- 
fully situated and is a fine centre for excursions. It is the birth- 
place of Minister Freiherr von Stein (1757 — 1831), to whom a 
beautiful marble monument was erected in 1871. The monument, 



Oberlahnstein-Niederlahnstein. 51 



owing to its high position, is visible from the railway carriage, on 
the right. Another place worth visiting is Limhurg, with its 
interesting and picturesque cathedral built on the top of a rocky 
eminence. The cathedral dates from the first half of the 13th 
century, and the valuable cathedral treasures are now shown in 
Bischofs (Barfusger)-Kirche — the parish church. 



After leaving KohJenT^, we have on the right, behind the 
Schiflfbriicke, the former electoral palace. On the other side of 
the beautiful old railway bridge extend the Rhine pleasure grounds, 
and on the left we see the houses of Pfaffendorf, nestling on the 
side of the hill. Then follows Horchheim, where the elegant bridge 
(built in 1870) conveys the trains to 'N^iederlahnstein. On the right, 
with its impressive background, is the magnificent castle of Stol^en- 
fels (see p. 45) and the beautifully situated place Kapellen. The 
old town of Oherlahnstein (popn. 8000) is connected with Niederlahn- 
stein (popn. 4200) by a bridge across the Lahn, which here debouches 
on the Khine near the solitary and ancient Church of St. John, and 
close by the former place is the Castle of Lahiieck, which has recently 
been restored and is at times inhabited. The massive white church 
which strikes the eye on the hill is the new Jll Saints' Church. 

Before we reach the little town of Rhens, on the right hand 
side, with its fortifications dating from the 14th century, we pass 
on the same side the Rhois Konigs-stuhl (King's Chair), which, in 
its present form, dates from 1843, but is an exact reproduction 
of that destroyed by the French in 1794. With this Chair are 
associated many stories connected with the Emperors. 

From this spot, the herald's call could be heard in four separate Elec- 
torates : Rhens belonged to Cologne, Kapellen to Treves, OberJahnstein to 
Mainz, Braubach and the Marksburg to the Palatinate. The Chair was 
originally set up by the order of the Emperor Karl IV in 1876 in the form 
of an octagon resting on 9 pillars, with a diameter of about 26 feet and a 
height of about 17 feet. It is surrounded by an embankment on which 
are the seats of the seven Electors by whose choice the King was appointed. 
But long before the erection of this' King's chair, the elections took place 
here. At the election of Heinrich VII in 1308, it was referred to in terms 
pointing to its antiquity. Thirty years later, there was founded here the 
first Elector's Union (unio electorum Rhensensis), by which the Electors 
bound themselves to arrange any mutual disputes either by compromise 
or by the decision of the majority. At the same time they declared the 
validity of the Imperial elections to be independent of the confirmation 
of the Pope. On the 20th of Aug. 1400, King Wenzel was here declared 
deposed and on the following day Ruprecht of the Palatinate was chosen 
as his successor. 

Close by the Konigsstuhl is located the %Jjens fnineral spring, 
which lay originally in the bed of the Rhine but is now through 
the shifting of the bank situated on dry land. On the other bank 
are the Minerva and Victoria springs. 

4* 



52 



Braubach. 



Looking to the right we see the village of Brey, a good fruit 
producing place, and near by, on the left, appears the huge 
0\Carkshurg, at the foot of which has grown up the little town of 
"Braubach (popn. 2721). 

The Marksburg dates from the 13th century and is the only fortress 
on the Rhine which has not been more or less destroyed. After its 
acquisition by the Society for the Preservation of German Castles, it was 
carefully restored (admission, 25 pfg.)- The Marcus Chapel, after which 
the castle receives its name, has been newly adorned by ten pictures, by 
the painters Birkle and Thomar of Berlin, illustrating the history of St. 
Mark. In the castle itself, the paintings of Otto Berner of Charlottenburg 
are of special interest, including various interiors of the Wartburg, among 
them the chamber of St. Elizabeth ornamented with mosaic by the Emperor. 




Vierseenplatz" at Boppard. 



Lower situated is the ancient chapel of St. Martin, which was 
dedicated as early as the first half of the 13th century. 

On the road between Braubach and Oberlahnstein stands the Lichfrauen- 
or Wenxelskapelle. In August 1400, the Electors of Mainz, Treves, and 
the Palatinate had summoned King Wenzel to Oberlahnstein to justify 
himself, but he did not appear. Thereupon, on the 20th Aug., in the 
Liebfrauenkapelle, they sat in judgment upon Wenzel, "uff cyme Stule da- 
selbes zu eyme Richtstule erhoben''. They declared him to have forfeited 
the crown, 'and the throne to be vacant. On the following day, on the 
King's Chair at Rhens, they chose Ruprecht of the Palatinate to be head 
of the Empire. The Wenzelkapelle was ultimately demolished but was 
afterwards re-erected in the same neighbourhood. 

From Braubach a very interesting railway journey can be made. The 
Nassau branch line starts from here and makes its way through a very 
interesting country into the hills; thence through a romantic valley to 
Zollgrund, from which the train goes along the other side of the valley 
past Dachsenliausen, Winterwerb, etc., to Nastdtten. From there it proceeds 
through the Hasenbach valley and passes Castle Reichenberg (a stopping place), 
reaching St. Goarshausen. 



Boppard. 53 



To the right, we see 'H^ieder- and Oher-spay, revelhng in their 
rich fruit-tree plantations. Just opposite is the mouth of the 
Dinkholderbaeh, into which about half a mile up, pour the 
waters of a fine mineral spring. The next place to come in view 
(on the left) is a beautiful spot called Osterspay, behind which can 
be seen the Castle of Licheiicc'k, belonging to and inhabited by 
Baron von Preuscheu. 

The Rhine now makes here a sharp turn and immediately 
beyond the curve the town of Boppard (popn. 5800) meets the eye. 
With its church towers, its high lying hydropathic establishment 
of Marienberg, the old tower on the Rhine, and the beautiful 
avenue extending for more than a mile along the river, it presents 
a grand prospect. The parish church is a fine building, with two 
towers, dating from the beginning of the r2th and 13th centuries. 
It is built in the late romanesque style. The interior has been 
recently restored. The former Electoral Palace with its tower, on 
the Rhine, is now an inconsiderable building and is used only as 
the official Court of Justice. In the neighbourhood are preserved 
the remains of the Roman fortification. At the six poplars there 
lies on the Rhine, near the castle of Schwalbach, the stately 
Royal Seminary for Teachers. 

The name of Boppard, formerly Boudobriga, signifies Hill of Victory 
(the ending 'pard' being the High German variation of the earlier 'bert' = 
'bret', which has the same meaning as Berg, a derivative of the Gallic 
,briga'). Until 1312, Boppard was a free city of the Empire, and the Em- 
perors often passed some time within its walls, but at that date the Em- 
peror Heinrich VII pledged it along with Oberwesel to his brother Arch- 
bishop Baldwin of Treves. The people of Boppard were naturally un- 
willing to be thus bargained away, but in those days might was greater 
than right, and in 1327 they were compelled to do homage to their new 
lord, the Elector of Treves. The modern hydropathic of Marienberg was 
formerly a famous Benedictine convent. The Park belonging to this estab- 
lishment is open to visitors. 

This place, where no less than six valleys converge, is a good centre 
for some fine excursions. The best known is that to the Viersecnplatx, 
lying in a northwesterly direction and reached by the road through the 
Miihlbach valley in an hour and a quarter. A more direct but difficult 
way is to start at the entrance to the valley and pass bj' the Aussichts- 
tempel situated on the old Burgberg f ^ hr.). At this point, through open- 
ings in the hills, the Rhine can be seen in four different places, and in each 
has the appearance of a lake — hence the name, Viersecnplatx. Krenxberg, 
with its beautiful surroundings, can be reached either by coach or hj a 
pleasant footroad leaving the highway and leading through the Fraubach 
valley (time required about ^4 hr.K The return journey takes us through 
Josefine and Brudermichel valleys. Opposite Boppard is the village of 
Filsen, above which (at the Aussichtstempel Filserberg) the most beautiful 
prospect of the town unfolds itself. 

At Boppard the Rhine makes the sharpest turn in its course, 
and reminds one here of its most important tributary, the Moselle, 
from which it is separated as the crow flies only about b^j^ miles. 
Indeed, one can walk over the hill from Boppard to Brodoihach 
on the Moselle comfortably in 2^/., hours. 



54 



Bornhofen, 



On our left lies a part called Camp, which has a considerable 
output of cherries, and behind it we soon descry on the same 
side of the river the D\(ouastcry of Bornhofen with the picturesque 
feindliche Briider, the two ruins of Liebenstein and Sterrenberg, 
separated by a stout defensive wall. 

Of tlie "feindliche Briider", Liebenstein and Sterrenberg, the oldest 
form of the legend relates that two brothers had driven their blind sister 
from the castle in order that her heritage might become tlieirs. The 
maiden, however, found her waj- to the Rhine, and, in gratitude for her 




Bornhofen and the "hostile brothers' 



preservation so far, erected at the foot of the castle rock a chapel which 
soon became a favourite resort of pilgrims. The brothers strove over the 
division of the property and lived in future, in a constant state of conflict 
each in his own castle and with a high wall between them. One day, made 
curious by the commotion caused in the valley on an Annunciation Feast, 
the owner of the Sterrenberg made his way by a rocky path down through 
the vineyard, while the lord of Liebenstein, excited by the same cause, 
descended by another way. Both arrived at the sacred building at the 
same time but at opposite sides. One angry glance at each other and the 
swords flew from their scabbards. A stern fight took place in which both 
brothers received their deatli. Two corpses were borne from the church 
thus violated; and, in expiation, the sister, now a rich heiress, caused the 
place to be built anew in an even better style than before. 

The double-naved Gothic church dating from the 1 5th century 
belonged to the former Capuchin cloister of Tionihofen, and is 



_^ Salzig. 55 

even to day, especially in August and September, a much frequented 
resort of pilgrims. The cloister was dissolved in 1873. 

Not so tragical is another version of the legend in regard to the 
"feindliche Briider", which relates that Konrad and Heinrich, sons of the 
knight Dietrich von Liebenstein, both fell in love with a young ward who 
had been brought up in the castle. Minna finally preferred the j'ounger 
Heinrich, who was of a lighter turn of mind, and Konrad tried in conse- 
quence to suppress his love. A new castle for Heinrich was just in course 
of building when he decided, on hearing the preaching of Bernard of 
Clairvaux (1146), to join the crusade to the Holy Land. Konrad, on this 
account, denied himself, and stayed at home so as not to leave his father 
defenceless. After two years had passed, Heinrich returned, accompanied 
by a beautiful Greek girl, whom, forgetful of his plighted troth, he had taken 
to wife. Enraged at such faithlessness, Konrad caused a thick wall to be 
constructed between the two castles in token of the fact that their ways 
must in future be separated. Heinrich was quite satisfied to live thus, but 
his wife betrayed him and finally escaped from her husband. This brought 
him to his senses and he acknowledged his unworthy behaviour. In his 
repentance, he begged Konrad and Minna, who had lived together as 
brother and sister, for their forgiveness. Both swore to remain unmarried, 
and Minna ended her days in the lonelj' cell of a convent. 

On the right, surrounded by a forest of cherry trees, is Sa^ig, 
whose high-lying Pump Koom is partially visible. 

Salxig (popn. 1500), the Roman Salisso, is a market town well known 
for its plentiful production of fruit. It owes its name to a salt spring, 
whose richness was only fully discovered in 1901 by a new boring made 
at the instance of Capt. Ad. Hoffmann. This boring extends to a depth 
of about 920 feet, and is nearly 1000 yards from Salzig station. It has re- 
sulted in a daily yield of 40,000 litres or about 1660 litres an hour. The 
water of this spring ("Salzborn"), which issues from the earth at a tem- 
perature of 18° C. but below reaches as high as 31° C, belongs to the al- 
kaline, muriatic, chalj'beate springs with sulphuric alkalis. It enters into 
rivalry with Ems, Carlsbad, and Marienbad, and is used for disorders of 
the blood, the lungs, the digestive organs, and the kidneys. On account 
of the lithia it contains, it is also recommended for the warding off of 
gout, diabetes, and excess of uric acid. The spring lies in a pretty shelt- 
ered valley, in the middle of a park in which, as the nucleus of a watering 
place have been erected the buildings transferred from the Diisseldorf 
Trade and Industrial Exhibition of 1902. The Pump Room is erected above 
the church on a height which offers a magnificent prospect. 

Directly over against 'Ni.icderkestert, which lies on our left, is 
Hirieuach, formerly the seat of an ecclesiastical jurisdiction. After 
passing the Werlau mine on the right, we come on the other 
side, to the little \\\\Q.gQ o^ Ehre nth al, whose inhabitants find their 
occupation in the lead mines which lie at a little distance from 
the river. 

The vessel now passes the village of IVellmich with the Gothic 
church in which Kuno von Falkenstein, Archbishop of Treves, 
found his last resting place in 1388. He was the builder of the 
castle of Maus which overlooks the place. Its real name was 
Deurenherg ; but it received the nickname of Maus from the Count 
of Katzeuelnbogen in contrast to the Katz (see below). The ruin 



56 St. Goar. 



which remains after the ravages of the French in 1689 offers a 
beautiful outlook. It belongs to a gentleman in Cologne. 

Soon after this we have, on the right and left respectively, 
St. Goar and St. Goarshansen. The latter is conspicuous by its 
restored castle of Kat^, belonging to the local Landrat von Berg, 
the former by the ruins of the castle of 'I^Jjeiufgh. At St. Goars- 
hausen, there existed at an earlier date an important salmon 
fishery, which, about a 100 years ago yielded as much as 8,000 
pounds of fish annually. 

The Katx, or more properly the fortress of Neu-Katzenelnbogen, which 
along with St. Goarshausen, belonged to the Grafschaft of Katzenelnbogen 
until 1479 when the family died out, was built towards the end of the 14th 
century, demolished by the French in 1806, and a few years afterwards 
rebuilt for residential purposes. Just below the Katz is the outlet of the 
pretty valley of the Schweixer, from which one can most easilj' reach the 
summit of the Lorelei (1 hour). At the station of St. Goarshausert com- 
mences the ralley of the Hasenbach, along which by the beautifully wooded 
Luise path (or by branch railway : see below) one can reach in ','4 hour 
the castle of Rdchenbcrg, dating from the end of the 13th century. It is sur- 
mounted by a tall belfry and is picturesquely situated. With its oriental 
style, no roof but onlj' arched-over walls, it presents an unusual ap- 
pearance: particularly worthy of notice is the knight's hall. The uni- 
queness of the architecture maj' be ascribed to the hands of Saracen build- 
ers, whom a Count of Katzenelnbogen is said to have brought with him 
from the East. 

From St. Goarshausen, one can undertake an interesting railway jour- 
ney into the hilly country near by. The Nassau brancli railway starts 
from here through the beautiful Hasenbach valley, passing Reichenberg (a stop- 
ping place) and Bogel. with a steep ascent to NastaUen; from tliere tlie 
journey continues past Miehlen, Marienfels, Ehr, Winierwerb etc., into a 
romantic valley, ending, along with the railway, at Braubach. 

St. Goar (popn. 1630), the chief town of the district, lying on the left 
side of the Rhine, owes its name to the oldest Christian missionary of the 
Middle Rhine, whose history, although adorned Avith many a legend, still 
contains a kernel of truth. According to the story, St. Goar, in the reign 
of the Frankish king Childerich I (511 558), had come to the Rhine from 
Aquitaine, had built himself here a cell and a little church, and not only 
preached the word of God but by the practice of a liberal hospitality made 
himself much beloved. This last quality aroused the suspicion of Bishop 
Rustikus of Treves, and he sent two priests to learn the position of 
matters and to bring the holy man before him. There St. Goar was most 
ungraciously received : the Bishop never once asked him to lay off his 
mantle: but St. Goar nevertheless did this unbidden and hung it without 
a moment's hesitation on a — sunbeam. At the same moment there was 
brought to the Bishop a foundling child which had been discovered in the 
church. Rustikus now asked the saint to name the parents of the unknown 
infant, whereupon the three days old child forthwith began to speak and 
declared his parents to be the Bishop Rustikus and a certain Afflaia or 
Flavia. Terrified at this, Rustikus fell down before St. Goar, and King 
Siegbert, who at that time ruled over Austrasia, wished now to instal the 
man of God in the see of Treves. Goar preferred, however, to continue 
his former activities. He is said to have died on 6th July 575. On the 
site of his cell there arose later a considerable monastery, which, however, 
was dissolved at the time of the Reformation. In the Evangelical Church 
there are fine tomb-stones of the Landgraf Philipp of Hesse and his wife, 



St. Goar. 57 



and in the Catholic church a statue of St. Goar with the year 611 men- 
tioned as tlie year of liis death. 

In St. Goar from May 1842 until the summer of 1844 Ferd. Freiligrath 
lived in the house of the Landrat Karl Heuberger; and Emanuel Geibel and 
Levin Schiiking occasionally stayed with him here in passing. Auerbach, 
Kerner, Andersen, Hoffmann von Fallersleben, Kinkel, M. Carriere, Saphir, 
Ferd. Hiller, Zedlitz, and many others also visited the poet's home at this 
place. Freiligrath came to St. Goar from Darmstadt. By the death (on 
9th Feb. 1842), of I. D. Gries, poet and translator, a pension was set free 
of 300 Thalers and King Frederick William IV. honoured Freiligrath by con- 
ferring it upon him — a circumstance which may have been contributed 
to by his much quoted verse 

Der Dichter steht auf einer hohern Warte 
Als auf den Zinnen der Partei. 

(The poet is above depending on any particular party). But the attacks 
of the newl3' formed school of patriotic poets — Dingelstedt, Rob. Frutz, 
Ludw. Seeger, — and particularly George Herwegh's venomous attacks on 
the state pensioner, caused him, who had never In his life written courtly 
poetry, to renounce the pension in 1844. 

Guten Morgen denn ! — Frei werd' ich stehen 
Fiir das Volk und mit ihm in der Zeit! 
Mit dem Volke soil der Dichter gehen — 

(Away with you then ! free shall I stand 
For and with the people of my time ! 
With the people, should the poet go — ) 

— so he sang then! As the King thus was disappointed in the hopes 
which he had placed in him, the poet excited more and more opposition, 
and in May 1844, he gathered together all his patriotic and passionate 
poetry in the little book entitled "Glaubensbekenntnis" (Confession of 
Faith), a work which caused him to be eagerly sought for by the police. 
He succeeded in escaping, however, and he next found an asylum in 
Brussels, then in France and Switzerland, and finally in 1846 in London. 
Two years later he returned to the Rhine, taking up his abode at 
Dusseldorf, where he published his new poem "Die Toten an die Leben- 
digen" (The Dead to the Living), in consequence of which, on 19th Aug., 
he was arrested and accused of high treason. On 3rd Oct., however, to 
the great joy of the people he was acquitted by a jury. He next settled 
down at (Cologne as editor of the "Rheinische Zeitung", and he co-ope- 
rated with the Social Democrats, Marx, Engels, Dronke, and Wolff. But, 
when in May 1849, this paper was suppressed, he went after a short stay 
in Diisseldorf, to London (May 1851), being again subject to arrest in Ger- 
many on account of his latest publication. In London, he was fortunate 
in the course of the year to secure the position of director of the local 
branch of the bank of Geneva, but he was again in need in 1867 when 
the bank failed. It was then, almost solely through the agency of Emil 
Rittershaus, who addressed an appeal in the "Gartenlaube" "to all Ger- 
mans at home and abroad", that in a single year nearly 60,000 thalers were 
collected. A "Freiligrath-Album" also brought in a considerable sum. In 
June, 1868, he again returned to Germany, and his journey on tlie Rhine 
resembled a triumphal procession. He died in Cannstadt on i8th March 1876. 

Just above St. Goar rises the great fortress of %]]einfcls, perhaps 
the most magnificent ruin on the Rhine. It was built in 1255 by 
Count Dieter I of Katzenelnbogen, and destroyed in 1797 by the 
French, who sold the ruins in 1812 for 2 500 francs. From various 



58 



St. Goar. 



parts of the building fine views can be had, while from the 
tower one enjoys a comprehensive prospect of the surrounding 
country. 

As many as 60 Rhine cities combined in vain in 1255 to lay siege to 
this fortress, the siege lasting a year and 14 weeks. In December 1692, 
also, the French General Tallard, with 17,000 men, made an equally fruitless 
attempt to take the castle. After four weeks of fierce attacks and bloodj' 
encounters he was driven off, with a loss of 4000 men, defeated by the 
commander, General von Gorz, a native of Hesse-Cassel. On the '2;}rd Nov. 
1702, the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel took the castle by storm and in 1758 



f,i^ssi^^A 


^ 




j^&k. ' '^'^HHH^yHEi 


H 


Bp^^'aP iM"^'^'^'^"^ <«<lwB^MB 




im 


^S 


j^l1fTl[^+¥t^^l^ 


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Rheinfels near St. Goar. 



it was by treachery delivered into the hands of the French commander, 
the Marquis de Castries, almost without a blow being struck. In 1794, on 
the approach of the French, this strong fortress was cowardly deserted by 
its Hessian commander. Three years later it was destroyed by the French, 
and in 1817 sold as a ruin. 

Soon after leaving St. Goarshausen we come in sight of the 
renowned Lurhi, also situated on the left side. It is a great mass 
of basalt rock, some 430 feet high, projecting itself into the 
stream. Above, there sits, according to Heine, the fairest of 
maidens, who by her song lures the foolish traveller to his destruc- 
tion. She has not been able, however, to prevent a railway tunnel, 
about 400 yards long, being bored through the mountain. In early 
times, when nothing was yet known of the golden-haired maid, 



Lorelei rock. 59 



ihe Lorelei mountain had gathered round it material to form the 
legend, for a minstrel of the middle ages, Conrad Marner, who 
lived in the 13th century, knew that the Niebelungen treasure 
was shut up in the Lorelei rock. Renowned also from of old is 
the echo, which from a position below the rock, can be heard to 
resound some 12 times; and this echo itself, in an age when the 
real cause of such things was unknown, was enough to lend to the 
rock an air of mystery. To the echo also it owes its name; 
J or en means to bluster or rage, and hi in the Rhineland is a 
rock — the roofing slate is still so named here. LurJei or Lorlei 
would therefore mean the blustering rock, a description which 
the echo has given rise to. According to other authorities lore 
comes from Jiiren, to listen, evidently also referring to the echo. 
In the 18th century the Rhine formed here a whirlpool, or rather 
rapids 200 yards long — named the Bank or Werh, and from 
this circumstance the Lorelei legend has probably arisen. 

The Lorelei legend is, as Cardauns has shown in his "Marchen Bi'en- 
tanos", originally a free invention of Clemens Brentano, resting on no other 
ground than the name Lur/ei. In its first setting, it appeared as a ballad 
in the novel Godwi completed in 1801, beginning as follows: 

Zu Bacharach am Rhein Wohnt' eine Zauberin, 
Die war so schon nnd feine Und riss viel Herzen hin. 
Und machte viel zu Schanden Der Manner rings umher, 
Aus ihren Liebesbanden War keine Rettung mehr ! 

The power of the enchantress lay only in her eyes : she is "nur ein 
ungliickliches Menschenkind" ("only an unhappy human being"), and bj' 
no means a nixy. But her eyes befooled men, and thus she was condemned 
by the church for using enchantment and ordered to be shut iip in a cloister. 
Accompanied hj a knight she was riding up the Rhine and had crossed 
the river at St. Goar. When thej' had reached the high rock, she begged 
to be allowed to ascend in order to view once more the castle of her beloved. 
Standing on the rock she suddenly caught sight of a ship bearing the 
colours of her knight. Then she recognised the returning one on the deck; 
in her joy she made a false step and fell headlong from the precipitous 
rock into the Rhine. The ship was driven by a gust of wind against a 
cliff and upset. Thus the two lovers were united in death. 

In his Marchen, Brentano has considerably extended the story of the 
legend. Of Frau Lureley, the enchantress, he relates in "Miiller Radlauf" 
that she dwells as a water-fairy with Widerhall her father in a magnificent 
palace on the Rhine, and keeps guard over the sunken Xiebelungen treasure. 
Along with the fairy, were Echo, Accord, and Rhj-me, the other offspring 
of Widerhall, and her own seven daughters. 

At last in Brentano's "Marchen vom Hause Staarenberg", the Lorelei 
becomes the real Rhine nixy with human features, as she is introduced to 
us by Heine. The similarity of the two settings is so great that some 
borrowing must have taken place. Whether Heine was aided in his creation 
by the manuscript of Brentano, or the latter has changed his setting in 
imitation of Heine's well-known poem, "Ich weiss nicht, was soil es be- 
deuten", which in the meantime appeared, — no one can say. 

Friedrich Silcher adapted a melody to the text of Heine's poem. This 
melody first appeared in 1839. It is by no means original, however, as a 
very similar tune had already in 1746 been set to the song, "Die unzu- 
frieclene Sylvia", hy Adolf Karl Kunzen. We find a similar melody in 



60 



Lorelei rock. 



quite a number of other sonfjs of the 18th century, and in the Rondeau for 
the piano which Beetliovcn wrote at fourteen tlie same melody is again 
unmistakably present. 

At the Lorelei, where the Middle Rhine has its greatest depth 
of about 1') feet, is now ahnost the only point where salmon are 
caught on the river, and even here the fishing is practically of no 
value. Most of the salmon consumed on the steamers (the famed 
Rhine salmon) are got from Holland, which carries on an extensive 
salmon poaching trade when the fish come up from the sea in 







fc^^l^ 




^=skammmSSmi 


■■■■1Mhb»— ' 




-'■'■■" ---^ 



The Lorelei. 



the month May. The fish frequent deep creeks with a sandy or rocky 
bottom, and protected places along the bank. When the salmon 
come up from the sea in May, the few which the Dutch, much 
against their will, have allowed to pass, take up their abode almost 
certainly near the Lorelei, as here they find conditions favourable 
to their mode of existence. 

Immediately behind the Lorelei rock, we can see, when the river 
is low, seven rocks rising above its surface, They are the Seven 
Maidens of Schonburg turned into stone. According to legend 
they had become too fickle, had deceived their wooers, and at the 
curse of the Lorelei were chanired to stone. 



Oberwesel . 



Soon we arrive at the town of Oberwesel (popn. 2600). With 
its lovely surroundings, remains of its ancient fortifications, and 
watchtowers, the town has a fine picturesque appearance. 

The large St. Marlinskirche, situated on an elevated position, on which 
once stood an old fortified tower, contains a beautiful Gothic tabernacle, 
a copy of Rubens "Descent from the Cross", and some remarkable wood 
carving representing the Birth of Christ. In the Frauen or Stiftskirche, 
built of red stone and situated at the south end of the town opposite the 
railwaj' station, there is a remarkable rood loft dating from the lith century, 
worth seeing. The high altar with gilded wood carving, the tombs of the 
Counts of Schonburg, the choir stalls, and the paintings should also be 
seen by the tourist. 

The Gothic Wernerskirchlein, on the Rhine, stands partly on 
the town wall. Of the towers, the restored Rote or Eseh-turm 
and the round Ochsentiirm standing at the north end are the most 
remarkable, The Cologne toiver is also characteristic. 

The Wernerskirche is the earliest monument on the Rhine of the Anti- 
Semitic feeling. In the choir there is a Gothic relief, with an inscription, 
(restored in 1727), relating to an old incident of whicli we have little more 
than legendary accounts. In the year 1287 there lived at Bacharach a pious 
man named Conrad von Wammenraidt whose son was one day kidnapped 
by an old woman and sold to the Jews. The Jews, who were then hated 
and persecuted, sought on their side to do as much injury to their perse- 
cutors as possible. They crucified the boj- in a vault on the Rhine, drained 
his blood and threw the body into the river. On the following morning a 
boatman noticed in the middle of the river a hand stretched forth out of 
the water. He and others rowed to the spot, and the hand pointed to the 
bank. Among other people, the old woman who had kidnapped the boy 
stood there, and to her the hand was directed. Suddenly the body came 
out of the water and threw itself at the old woman's feet. She confessed 
her crime, but the Jews denied steadfastly. Then the body was placed 
on a bier in the church and the Jewish community was made to march 
past it. Every one was compelled to touch it. When those who had taken 
part in the murder touched, the wounds bled, and so the guilty were 
recognised. They were punished with death. Werner was regarded as a 
martyr and placed among the saints, and to his honour a church arose 
here and at Bacharach. 

Lying very near Oberwesel, on the left, appears the high castle 
of Schonburg, which belongs to Herr von Osterroth, and near it 
is the picturesque ruin of the old castle of the same name. As 
we come opposite Schonburg we get a view into a lovely narrow 
valley, in which is produced the famous EngehoU wine, Engeholl 
being only about a mile from the Rhine. 

The little town of Kaub stretches for some distance along the 
right bank of the Rhine and is the chief seat of the slate industry 
on the Rhine. Its name has become widely known by the land- 
slips (especially 1876) caused by the neighbouring slate quarries. 
Vine culture, and also, the shipping employ many of the 2,200 
inhabitants. On the bank of the Rhine a large statue of Bliicher 
(by J. Schaper) erected in 1894, commemorates the crossing of 
the river here. 



62 The Pfalz. 



Burg Gutenfeh which has been rebuilt in recent years by the 
owner, G. Walter, rises above Kaub. It owes its name to Guta 
or Jutta, the beautiful daughter of Philipp von Falkenstein, who 
subsequently became the wife of Richard of Cornwall. 

For some time, the many towered Pfn^i has been in sight. 
This picturesque castle built on a rock looks indeed like a watcher 
of the Rhine. It was once upon a time used for warlike purposes, 
but Ludwig of Bavaria caused it to be used in the 14th century 
for the more prosaic purpose of collecting customs, and up to 
1805 it was devoted to this object, Now it serves chiefly to 
beautify the lovely Rhine landscape. Here, on New Year's night, 
1814, Bliicher with the Prussian and Russian armies crossed the 
Steege valley on to the Hunsriick. 

This castle is falsely named the Pfalx, as it never has been at any 
time a royal residence. The name Pfalz takes us back to the time of the 
Roman kings. When the empire extended wider and wider 
they found it inconvenient always to reside at the ancient 
seat of the early Roman kings on Mons Palatinus, on the 
"Palatium", — the central of the seven hills of Rome, and 
they resolved to have residences in the provinces also. 
These royal residences erected at Milan, Tre- 
ves, Cologne, Paris, and other places, were 
called Pfalzen, or palaces. This system of 
having various royal seats was carried out 
on a large scale by the Prankish kings, whose 
numerous journeys made it necessary for 
them to have a great number of "Pfalzen". 
An essential part of these palaces was a hall 
for the holding of Imperial assemblies. 

Behind the Kaub Werth we come 
to the JVildcs Gefdhr. As at the Binger 
Loch, great labour was expended, 
especially about 1890, in deepening the 
river in order to obtain two clear water- 
ways. It was only in exceptional cases that dynamite could be 
used, as it had little effect on the bank of rocks. The greater 
part of the work was done by means of a heavy (10 ton) steam 
chisel, the so-called FeJsenstampfer, For the stretch between 
Bingen and St. Goar, it cost the large sum of 57,, million marks. 

On the right hand, just behind the island of the same name, 
is the romantic town of Bacharach (popn. 1900). It possesses the 
Peterskirche, a romanesque pillared basilica worth seeing. This 
church dates from the r2th century and is now beautifully restored. 
On the northern side of it is a Fachwerkhaus recently renewed, 
which attracts much attention. The ruin of the Wernershrche, 
already referred to, was renovated at the cost of the Province in 
1900 and 1901: it belongs to the east choir of this church, which 




Bacharach. 



63 



was completed iu 1426 in the noblest Gothic form. It was 
destroyed in the Thirty Years' War. With its fine situation on 
the little hill above the old town, this ruin forms one of the most 
picturesque architectural sights of the Rhine. The same incident is 
said to have led to the erection of the Wernerskirche here and 
at Oberwesel (comp. p. 61). The Burg Stahleck was destroyed in 
1689 by the French under Melac, In this castle the marriage of 
Henry of Brunswick, son of Henry the Lion, with Agnes von 
Hohenstaufen took place, a marriage which brought about the 
reconciliation of the Guelphs and the Ghibellines. 

In earlier times, according to the popular verse, Bacharach wine held 
a first rank. 

Zu Klingenberg am Main, 
Zu Wiirzburg an dem Stein, 
Zii Bacharach am Rhein 
Hab' ich in meinen Tagen 
Gar oftmals horen sagen, 
Soll'n sein die besten Wein'. 

From Wittmann we learn that this saying was known in 1623. 

That the wine of Bacharacli in earlier times really was very famous is 
proved by the fact that Aneas Silvius, when he was Pope Pius II., arranged 
that a butt of Bacharach wine should be sent to him yearly in Rome. The 
following legendary story of Kaiser Wenzel shows at least how much 
Bacharach wine was loved and how expensive it was. The town of Niirn- 
berg in discharge of its obligation offered the sum of 20,000 gulden. 
Wenzel laughed aloud and demanded from the ambassador \ Fuder of 
Bacharach wine, and it was sent to him. It is also possible that Bacharach 
owes its high reputation for wine to the fact that before entering the 
Binger Loch, especially at Bacharach, the Co- 
logne ships were obliged to trans-ship their 
cargoes. So Bacharach became an important 
place for trans-shipping and storing wine. At 
the present day, also, there are large cellars 
there. When the water in the Rhine is very 
low, there is an old stone visible 
at Bacharach, which is reputed to 
be the Roman are Bacchi. At all 
events, the derivation of Bacharach 
from Bacchi ara is decidedly fan- 
tastic. The name is Bacariocum von 
Bacarius. 

From the neighbouring Voigts- 
berg, which according to an old 
belief contains a great quantity of 
coal and petroleum, the famous 
Muskatcller wine is obtained. 

The Steeg or Blucher valley 

ends at Bacharach, and in 20 

minutes we can reach Steeg, 

a village with widely scattered houses, famed for its wine, with 

the ruin of the Stahlherg near. The valley gets its name of 




l>i liuuse at Bacharacl 



64 Lorchhausen. 



Bliicher from the fact of the great commander marching up this 
valley after crossing the Rhine. 

The willow plantations between Bacharach and Rheindiebach on 
the left side of the Rhine stand on land which has been arti- 
ficially reclaimed from the bed of the Rhine by the construction 
of Krihben. Kribben or Buhnen is the name given to the slanting 
stone dams which have been built into the river. When the 
water in the river is low almost their whole length is visible, 
and the object of their construction is to deepen and regulate the 
river bed by narrowing it. 

The chief Buhnengruppe is between Bacharach and Rheindiebach. When 
the river is full enough to overflow the Buhnen and the parallel construc- 
tions uniting their ends, there is considerable danger to shipping, and 
on this account the ends of these walls are marked by black and red 
floating buoys. In 1890, a uniform and systematic demarcation by buoys, 
etc., of the navigable channel of the Rliino from Bingen to tlie Dutch 
frontier was introduced, and tliis naturally had to be done most carefully 
again between Bingen and Kaub. When the water is low the buoys move 
from the walls more in towards the stream, and ships must keep at a 
distance of about 16 yards from the Buhnen and 9 yards from the buoys 
floating in the stream. 

At this point we maj' refer to the Regulations for Shipping. Ships meeting 
each other must give way to the right. If the depth of water in the river 
makes it preferable to go to the left, a blue flag is shown on the bridge. 
The other vessel must repeat the signal. The little blue flag on the fore- 
mast indicates that the other steamer must slacken speed, and the little 
white flag conveys to tlie boat station the information that there are 
passengers on board who wish to disembark. Two sucli flags indicate 
that two boats will be required to take off the passengers. 

Beyond Lorchhausen, which is situated at the mouth of the 
Retzbach valley, we enter the T(J)eingau. 

The district called the Rfieingau was originally a roj'al domain, but 
under the Ottos it came into the possession of the Electors of Mainz, 
and was by them enclosed by the so-called Landgebiick. This was a kind 
of hedge, 50 yards broad, and it was produced in the following manner: 
Trees were cut down, at some considerable height above the root, and 
were allowed to sprout anew. The branches were bent down towards the 
earth and allowed to intertwine as much as possible, and thus a perfectly 
impenetrable hedge was produced. This rampart was strengthened by 16 
fortified towers, of which remains still exist. The land thus safeguarded 
extended to about 84 square miles and it is said that, in lo25. 1500 people 
had settled in 24 different places. The Heingericht watched over the preser- 
vation of the GebiicI:, and the cutting of the smallest twig was punished 
with a fine of 10 golden gulden. This hedge ran upwards from Nieder- 
walluf on the Waldaffe flanked by trenches and bastions, to Neudorf. 
Between the Cloister of Tiefenthal and Schlangenbad it reached "die 
Klinge", a pass leading to the hinterland, and guarded by towers and 
bastions. It then went to the neighbourhood of the village of Hansen in 
Katzenelnbogen and past Mappen to the white Tower (now the forester's 
house at Pressberg), und from there in a southerly direction along the 
Wisper to the Rhine at Lorch. Lorchhausen was outside of the enclosure. 
Bernhard von Weimar first broke through this rampart in 1631. 



Lorch. 65 



After passing LorchJiausen we have Rheindiehach on the right, 
and Lorch on the left. At the former, near the mouth of a stream, 
stand the ruins of Burg Furstcnherg; on the stream referred to 
lies Maniihach, a place noted for its wine. 

The castle of Filrstenherg is the scene of several legendary tales. One 
of its owners, Franz von Fiirst had married the beautiful Kunigunde of 
Florsheim, and lived happily with her. At length Amina, an orphan 
daughter of a neighbouring nobleman, whom his wife had brought up, 
stole the knight's heart. After Kunigunde had given birth to a boy she 
was found one morning dead in her bed : she had been poisoned. Franz 
married the wanton, and the little boy was neglected by his evil step- 
mother and in the end handed over to a sour old woman who lived in a 
remote part of the castle. One night the latter awoke and saw the white 
form of the mother of the child approach the cradle, nurse the child, and 
then vanish. In terror, the old woman related her experience, and Amina 
on the following night took watch by the child. She believed that it was 
no ghost who had appeared, but Kunigunde herself, whom people errone- 
ously thought to be dead. When the ghost appeared again, she struck 
at it with a dagger but without effect, so that now there could be no 
doubt that the apparition was no being of flesh and blood. On the follow- 
ing morning, Franz found a note from Amina stating that she had gone 
to a cloister in order to do penance for her sins, and that she advised him 
to do the same. Biit Franz now came to himself, left the castle, and lived 
as a pious hermit to the end of bis days. 

The lovely town of Lorch (popn. 2220), — with the ruin of Nollich, 
— is noted for its wines, and possesses in St. Martinskirche the best 
chime of bells and the most artistic Gothic altar-piece (with 
wings) in the Middle Rhine valley. The Hilcheiibaus, in renaissance 
style and dating from the 16 th century, is worthy of note. Here 
the Wisper valley enters the Ehine. The cold winds of this 
valley are feared on account of the destruction they cause among 
the vines. On the other hand, the romantic beauty of the place 
has gained for it the name of Rhenish Switzerland. 

The legend of Lorch tells of a certain inhospitable knight and his con- 
version. The surly Sibo dwelt there in his castle and was shunned by 
every travelling knight^ for the mean hospitality given was known in all 
the land. Once he had harshly refused admittance to a dwarf, who retal- 
iated by kidnapping Sibo's beautiful little girl, Garlinde. The knight was 
made miserable by this loss and left his castle and land to look for the 
girl. Then, the child appeared on the top of an inaccessible rock on the 
neighbouring mount Kadrich. Scaling the rock was not to be thought of, 
and, when workmen attempted to hew steps in it, such a shower of stones 
came down that none dared to proceed. Four years had passed since the 
dwarf had stolen the maiden, when the knight Ruthelm, knocked at the gate 
of Sibo's castle. It was immediately opened to him, as, taught by his ex- 
perience, Sibo had now become very hospitable. Ruthelm, who had heard 
much of the beauty of Garlinde, wished to set her free, but he also found 
it impossible to climb the rock. While he was making an attempt, he 
encountered a gnome (Weiblein), who had compassion on him and gave 
him a little silver bell. With this bell he was to go into the Wisper valley 
to a certain cave where the brother of the Weibchen dwelt. When he 
sounded the bell, the gnome appeared and promised his aid. The little 
man whistled, and a number of other gnomes collected, with saws, axes, 
and hammers, and immediately began felling trees and working with an 



66 Sooneck— Falkenburg. 



activity it was a pleasure to watch. When Ruthehn came to the rock next 
morning, a strong high ladder stood there, which, enabled him, tho' with 
difficulty, to scale the giddy height. Above, he found himself in a grove 
of wondrous beauty, inhabited by singing birds. After he had wandered 
about for a time admiring tlie loveliness of the place, he suddenly caught 
sight of the charming Garlinde on a bank of muss. Unwillingly, the 
dwarfs allowed the maid to go. She returned to her father's castle and 
gave her hand to the brave Ruthelm. Today, the rock at Kadrich is still 
called the Devil's Ladder, although the devil had nothing to do with the 
matter. 

Opposite an island on the left, Isiicderheimhach stretches along 
the river, and here also on a high situation is the beautiful Schloss 
Hoheneck or Heimhurg. Then follows on the same side the magni- 
ficent restored castle of Sooneck. It was a stronghold of the robber 
knights of the Middle Ages. 

With Sooneck, legend associates the story of the blind marksman. The 
lord of the castle was bragging at a carousal that he had overcome the 
Schiitz von Fiirsteneck, the best archer far and near, who, blindfolded, 
was languishing in the dungeon, but even thus was able to hit a given 
mark with a cross-bow bolt. The company doubted this, and the lord 
commanded the prisoner to be brought forth and ordered him to shoot at 
a goblet, guided by the sound. 

Und sieh, zum Boden klinget 
Ein Becher: Schiess jetzund! 
Der Burgherr spricht's, da dringet 
Ein Pfeil ihm in den Mund. 

sings Wolfgang Miiller von Konigswinter - not only the goblet fell to 
the ground in fragments, but when the lord spoke an arrow pierced 
his mouth. 

On the left we soon come to the mouth of the Boden valley, 
and on the right appears the village of Trechtingshausen. Straight 
across, the rock of Teufclskddrich touches the river. On the other 
side is Morgenbach valley whose picturesque waterfalls and rocks 
resemble mountain torrents. At its mouth stands Falkenburg, 
once a stronghold of robber knights, recently rebuilt by the 
present owner, Kosidowski. 

On the Falkenburg , according to legend there lived once a pious widow 
with her beautiful daughter Lisa. This maiden loved the knight Guntram, 
who, just before the marriage should have taken place, set out for the court 
of the Elector Palatine to receive a fief. By his lord he was sent on an 
embassj' to the Duke of Burgundy. On the return journey, Guntram got 
separated from his companions in a wood and lost his way. At last, to- 
wards evening, lie saw a light which led him to a lonely castle. Here lie 
was hospitably received, but scarcelj' was he in his sleeping chamber when 
the song of a maiden in a neighbouring chamber allured him. He found 
there a lovely maiden, who, when he addressed her, pointed to a marble 
tablet on which could be read: "I am compelled to silence; being bound, 
only my true love can release me." Then he seized her hand and 
pressed a kiss on her lips. She gave him a ring and fled. Returning to 
his chamber, he read as inscription on the ring "Thou art mine." Next 
morning, after a hearty farewell, he hastened from the old man. Shepherds 
then told him of the grey knight and his beautiful daughter, Erlinde, who 



Rheinstein. 67 



had exacted from her lovers the most unheard of deeds and thus had 
wrought their destruction. The mother of one of her victims had called 
her the murderess of her son and pronounced on lier a curse, soon after 
which Erlinde died. Her ghost now wandered about in the castle tempting 
strangers by its pleasing form. She could be released only by the man 
who withstood her temptation, but those who yielded to her allurement 
died in three times nine days. Guntram rode in terror from the place and 
soon thereafter arrived at the Falkenburg. Immediately after his return 
his marriage with Liba was arranged, but at the altar when the knight 
stretched out his right hand, the Jungfrau of the Waldburg stepped before 
him, and laid her ice-cold hand on his. Then Guntram sank down in a 
swoon before the altar. Liba nursed the sick man in the Falkenburg, and 
when he came to himself again he related his dreadful experience to his 
betrothed. She pardoned him, and in accordance with his desire she allow- 
ed a priest to be brought, and the pair were married. Guntram then 
folded his wife in his arms and expired. Not long after, the wretched 
Liba also departed this life. Her mother had, however, a vision of the 
lovers happily reunited. 

In the immediate neighbourliood of the Falkenburg- follows on 
the same bank, the KlemenskapeUc, with beautiful choir-seating in 
the interior. On this spot Kaiser Rudolf von Habsburg caused 
the captured robber knights and highwaymcD to be hanged. 

The legend regarding the original building of the KlemenskapeUc runs 
as follows. In the Sauer valley, which is on the right side of the Rhine, 
near Lorch, a lovely and virtuous maiden lived. She was an orphan, and, 
as she had refused the hand of Hugo von Rheinstein, this knight resolved 
to carry her off by force. He suddenly seized the castle and dragged the 
damsel away. When the company were crossing the Rhine in a bark, a 
violent storm ac'ompanied with thunder suddenly arose, so that the ship 
threatened to capsize. In her despair the maiden prayed to St. Clement 
and made the vow that she would erect a chapel to him if he should de- 
liver her from her distress. But behold the saint appeared in heavenly 
splendour, offered her his hand and conducted her over the water. The 
robbers were drowned in the Rhine. Near the place of her deliverance, 
she erected the promised chapel. 

Further along we see ri.siug into prominence the picturesquely 
situated Burg Rheinstein, which is so well known from the numer- 
ous engravings of it. 

Till 1825 the ruin of the Burg Voigtsberg stood here. This castle was 
once a residence of King Rudolf of Habsburg. In 1^25 the ruin came into 
the possession of Prince Frederick of Prussia, who by 1829 had it restored 
and then arranged in it a collection of weapons and relics belonging to 
the Middle Ages. Prince Frederick, who died in 1S68, and his son George 
who died in 1902, are buried in the chapel. At present the castle belongs 
to Prince Henry of Prussia (entrance 1 mark: for several persons, 50 pfg. 
each). 

With Rheinsfein is associated the legend of a false wooing. The knight 
Siegfried von Rheinstein had brought back to his castle from one 
of his predatory excui'sions a beautiful maiden, Jutta by name. She ob- 
tained such an influence over the rough knight that he renounced his 
pillaging and also his carousing and married the fair Jutta. The birth of 
a little girl cost the mother her life, but Gerda grew up to such a pitch of 
loveliness that far and near wooers sought her hand in marriage. The 
chosen one was a neighbour Kuno von Reichenstein ; and, as the two lovers 
were agreed, Kuno, in conformity with a custom of the time, entrusted his 
uncle, Kurt von Ehrenfels, with the conduct of his suit. Kurt, however. 



68 



Assmannshausen. 



was unfaithful to liis trust: instead of wooing for his nephew, lie ingra- 
tiated liimself with Gerda's father, and after the hitter liad once given liis 
consent he would not hear of any other lover for his child, as Kurt had 
great possessions while the nephew's wealth was of very moderate amount. 
No entreaties, no attempt at elopement, was of any avail. The wedding 
day dawned, and the festal procession was nearing the Klemenskapelle 

when a swarm of 
gadflies rose out 
of the bushes. 
One of them 
stung Gerda's 
silver-grey pal- 
frey, which rear- 
ed and dashed 
out of the proces- 
sion. Spurred by 
Gerda, the steed 
flew with her to 

Reichenstein. 
Kurt was over- 
thrown in the 
pursuit and died 
a few minutes 
after. Gerda's 
father, who also 
had been injured 
while attempting 
to stop the runa- 
way horse, now 
came to himself 

and gave the 
lovers his bless- 
ing. 



Opposite 

Castle Rhein- 

steiu lies the 

watering - place 

called 'Bad Ass- 

niaiuishausen, 

which has 

arisen round a 

Rheinstein. hot lithia 

spring. Immedi- 
ately after, follows the village of Assmannshausen (in the Inn 
**Zur Krone" is the "poets' chamber", in which Karl Simrock, 
Freiligrath, Hoffmann von Fallersleben, Emil Rittershaus, and 
others, used to assemble, — a fact which is commemorated by 
the photographs, autographs, Gedenkblatter etc., with which the 
room is decorated). 




It was here, in the "Krone", that Ferdinand Freiligrath wx-ote the 
concluding verses of his remarkable poems, published under the name of 
"Glaubensbekenntnis" (Confession of Faith), a book which admirably ex- 
presses the spirit of the time. 



Assmannshausen. 69 



Zu Assmannshausen in der Kron', 

Wo mancher Durst'ge schon gezeeht, 

Da macht' ich gegen eine Kron' 

Dies Biichlein fiir den Druck ziirecht ; 

Ich sehrieb es ab bei Rebenschein, 

Weinlaub ums Haus und saft'ge Reiser. 

Drum, wollt ihr rechte Taufer sein, 

Nennt's : ■44er Assmannshauser. 
The fiftietli anniversary of the completion of Freiligrath's book was 
celebrated here on the 19th of May 1894, when a marble bust (with com- 
memorative tablet) of the poet, over life size, and visible from our ship, 
on the gable of the old inn, was unveiled. Many poets and authors were 
present and Emil Rittershaus delivered the address. 

The Assmannshausen red wines are famous and are equalled in their pecu- 
liar qualities by no other German red wine. In the Rheingau, Lorchliausen 
is the only other place which cultivates red wine to any extent (only about 
2'/., hecto-ares as compared with 2S hecto-ares in Assmannshausen). The 
whole vine growing district of the Rheingau, 2308i o hecto-ares in the year 
1900, represented about i ro of. the whole land under vine culture in Ger- 
many, Of the 1904^4 hecto-ares under cultivation, I8741/4 were planted with 
vines for producing white wines and 30' o with vines for red wines. The 
value of the wine land of the whole Rheingau has been estimated at some 
32 million marks. 

From Assmannshausen, starting near the church, a rack and 
pinion railway (I Mark) runs to the Jagclschloss (with hotel), 
from which the tourist visits the National Monument in the 
Niederwald. Going by the Tempel road, the Monument can be 
reached in 20 minutes. The roundabout way by the ZauherhohJe 
and Rossel (lying to the south from the Jagdschloss) is well worth 
the extra time required. The cave with this romantic name 
(Magic Cavern) is a small house in the forest into which the 
visitor is conducted by a dark pathway. On three sides the 
window shutters are thrown open, and looking through openings 
in the forest we see in the background enchanting views of 
Klemenskapelle, Castle Rheinstein, and the Schweizerhaus. 

On the way to the neighbouring Rossel, an artistic ruin, we 
come upon a bypath which leads past the Aussichtspunkt Klippe. 

The name Rossel denotes a place where a heap of stones has been 
collected. In order to remove the difficulties which the rocks in the vine- 
yard districts offer to the cultivator, the stone masses are blasted and the 
pieces collected in a heap in certain places which are called rossels. So 
also this rossel has arisen. 

Below us is the double -towered ruin of Ehrenfels and on the 
Rhine Island rises the Mauseturm (comp. p. 73). A number of 
lovely spots here charm the enraptured eye: down the Rhine are 
visible Burg Rheinstein, Schweizerhaus, the Klemenskapelle, the 
Falkenburg, and the village of Trechtingshausen. From the 
Rossel a path skirting the forest conducts us in 20 minutes to 
the ^ationaJdcnkmal, passing on the way the Hermitage constructed 
of tree stems and bark. From the latter place a view can be had 
into the Nahe Vallev. 



70 



National-Monument. 



The Xatiotial Monument was erected "to cdinmeniorate the victorious and 
unanimous rising: of the German people and the restoration of the German 
Emjjire in 1S70 1871". It rises to a height of nearly 120 feet and was de- 
signed by the sculptor Johann Schilling of Dresden. The construction 
lasted from 1874 to 1883, and on 28th Sept. of the last named year it was 
unveiled in tlie presence of the Emperor Wilhelm I and other princes. 
On the substructure, which is over 80 feet higli, there is a figure repi-e- 
senting the Emperor, and around it are over 200 figures of his contem- 




National Monument. 



poraries, of whom some 150 can easily be recognised: on the right is tlii^ 
King of Bavaria and on the left the King of Saxony. On the two sides of 
the substructure the departure and the return of the soldiers are repre- 
sented by reliefs. The figure of Germania measures about 30 feet high ; 
the hip measurement, the length of the sword, and also the height of the 
figures representing Peace and War are each about 23 feet. The labourer 
who screwed the parts together in the interior crept out through the joint 
of the hand. Tlie total weight of the Germania is about 604 cwts. and the 
cost of the monument amounted to 1,190,813 marks, of which 400,000 marks 
were contributed by the Empire and the remainder was made up by 
collections. 



Niederwald. 



71 




72 Binger Loch. 



The view here is extremely fine, comprising the whole of the 
Kheingau with its picturesque villages. We notice Castle Klopp 
rising from amongst the houses of Bingen: the Rochusberg, with 
its famous chapel (comp. p. 74) forms a background. The Nahe 
which looks in the distance like a silver band, separates the 
compact mass of Bingen from the scattered houses of Bingerbriick 
climbing up the hill to the right. Distant ranges of mountains 
complete the magnificent landscape. 

From the monument, a rack and pinion railway (50 pfg.) 
takes us down to Riidesheim (.see p. 76). But if the day is not 
too hot, the short half-hour's walk through the vineyards or over 
the Kuhweg is to be commended. 

By this journey over the Niederwald we have parted from the 
Rhine at a most interesting part. The traveller going by ship 
from Assmannshausen to Riidesheim not only passes the Mause- 
turm and Bingen but also the so-called Bingerloch, This is the 
best known of the rapids on the Rhine and formerly gave great 
trouble to navigation; and manv centuries have laboured to 
facilitate the navigation of this part. 

It was the Archbishop in the 9th und 10th centuries wlio attended to 
this matter, and, in tlie 11th, the Counts of the Rhine. The present prin- 
cipal passage on the right side has existed since the 13th century, and 
then ships were obliged to stop and pay dues at the newlj' erected Burg 
Ehrenfels. In the 17th century some rich merchants in Frankfort widened 
the narrow channel in order tliat their timber rafts might get easily past. 
Then from 1830 to 1832 the Prussian Wasserbaumeister J. van den Bergh 
carried on extensive blasting operations, and there is a small obelisk erect- 
ed on the left bank, made out of a piece of blasted rock, to commemorate 
this work. But even then there remained onlj- one difficult and narrow 
navigable channel, and it was not until 1^90 that, after further extensive 
blasting operations, this channel was changed into two clear waterwaj'S 
running alongside of each other. The wild whirling of the waters in the 
Bingerloch led to a belief, which has lasted for many centuries, that part 
of the waters of the Rhine sink underground here and reappear again 
at the Lorelei rock. 

After the passage of the Binger Loch, we notice on the left the 
ruin of Ehrenfels on the Riidesheimer Berg, and then before us is 
the Miiuseturm, built on an island in the Rhine. 

Over the origin of the name MduHehirm there has been indeed a learned 
strife. Some, with most right perhaps, derive the word from muserie i. e. 
ordnance tower, since as recently as the end of the 18th century the tower 
was used as a depot of the Mainz artillerj-. Others maintain that the 
word comes from musen, i. e. to spy, referring to the use of the Miiuseturm 
as a signal station. Others again derive it from maut -= customs. 

With the Miiuseturm is associated a legend which asserts that Arch- 
bishop Hatto II (891-913) or Hatto II (968—70) of Mainz, in a time of 
famine, once induced a number of starving people to enter a barn, pre- 
tending to provide them with nourishment. Instead of that, he ordered 
the barn to be locked up and set on fire, and he compared the cries of 
the unhappy people to the squeaking of mice. From that time the arch- 
bishop had no rest, never being able to escape from certain mice which 



Bingen. 



73 



fallowed him. In order to rid himself of these pests, he ordered the tower 
in the Rhine to be built, and here at last he was devoured by the still 
pursuing mice. Clemens Brentano relates a similar legend in his Tale of 
Miiller Radlauf. The legend however is associated with other towers: for 
example, with the tower at the little town of Kruschwitz at the northern 
end of the Goplosee in the district of Strelno in Posen. The legend in 
this case relates how a magician, a certain Polish prince Popiel, was devoured 
by mice. Denmark also has its mouse-tower story. The mice doubtless re- 
present the souls of the poor wretches who died of starvation. The souls 
escaped from the bodies in the form of mice and pursued the person alleg- 
ed to be guilty like the ancient furies. 




The Miiuseturm. 



That the Mauseturm has nothing whatever to do with Archbishop Hatto 
seems proved by the fact that in all probability it was first built in the 
beginning of the 13th century. In reality it was and is a Sigtial Station, and 
indeed one of the most important on the Rhine. The watchmen, who re- 
main there constantly, inform passing vessels regarding the condition of 
the whirlpool at Bacharach, and regarding other places on the Rhine, 
particularly if the passage of the Binger Loch is clear. The information 
is conveyed by the taking in or hanging out of differently coloured 
flags. The tower has of course been modernised since its erection. A 
picture of the tower, dating from the first half of the 18th century, repre- 
sents it as much lower and with a prettj' flat roof. A hundred j'ears later 
it had no roof at all and was virtiiallv a ruin. It was built in its present 
form in 1856. 

Now, on the right, we have the mouth of the Nahe and the 
town of Bingen with Burg Klopp. 

Bitigen, the chief town in one of the of divisions Hesseland, has a popu- 
lation of 10000; it was of note even in Roman times, and a bridge over 
the Nahe here is said to have been been built by Drusus (13 B. C). At all 
events Burg Klopp, which is picturesquely situated on a knoll in the centre 



74 Bingen. 

of the town, was erected on the enclosing walls of a Ronian fort. In Burg 
Klopp, Heniy IV. was kept a prisoner by his son in 1105. When the 
French invaded the Rhineland in 1689 they razed the castle and laid the 
town in ashes. Besides the castle and the lovely view to he got from it, 
we may mention as worth seeing, the ancient Rathaiis, before which stands 
the Winzerbrunnen (fountain), the Parish Church in late-gothic stj'le and 
ilating from the r)th century (it has romanesque crypts from the 11th cen- 
tury), and the so-called Drususbriicke — a bridge of seven arclies. 

At Dretxinheim, in the neighbourhood of Bingen, the monastery of Fulda 
bought a vineyard on the 18th of January 7o2. The document'drawn up 
on this occasion is the first existing proof of vine-culture on the soil of the 
present Rhenish Hesseland. Numerous documents, dating from the 9th 
century, concerning the purchase of vineyards for the monasteries of Fulda 
and Lorsch are still extant, so that the existence of vineyards as early as 
that time in some 30 places in Rlienish Hesseland is bej'ond doubt. Bingen 
is also an important centre of the wine trade, and, like Mainx and Nicr- 
stcin, is a centre for the auctions of Hessian wines. At the auctions here, 
in the spring of 1903, some 800 butts of white and red wine were sold for 
about 729,520 marks. The district of which Bingen is the centre has a vine 
planted area of about 3,384 hecto-ares. 

A journey of about half an hour along a clearly marked way 
leads us from Bingen past the hotel on the Rochusberg to the 
Rochuskapelle, from which we get a lovely view of the Rhine. 

The first Chapel dedicated to St. Roche on the Hasselberg, as the 
mountain was called on account of the hazel bushes growing on it, was 
erected at the instance of the town of Bingen in 1666, on the breaking out 
of the devastating plague. After the chapel had been occupied by the 
French in 1795, the Germans as far as Riideslieim gave contributions, and 
the new chapel was finished in 1814. Goethe was present at the fii-st 
Rochus festival on the 16th of August of that year. The chapel was 
seriously damaged by lightning on the r2th Julj^ 1889, whereupon, from 
1890 to 1895, the present late-gothic building, with the choir to the north, 
was erected by Meckel. The greater part stands on the foundation of tlie 
old chapol. In the interior may be mentioned, the restored altar of the 
Suffering Mother of God by Mengelberg of Utrecht it was brought from 
the pilgrimage place Broichhausen, near Unkel on the Rhine, — and the 
small altar dedicated at tlie time of tlie j)lague. Both works date from the 
16th century. The crucifixion group which ornaments the altar of the 
outer choir is an imitation of the work in the cathedral churchyard at 
Frankfort, executed in the beginning of the 16th century by Hans Back- 
ofen, a sculptor of Mainz. The Rochus festival takes place yearly on 
the first Sunday after the 15th of August. 

From the Rochus hotel, we can reach in 10 minutes 'the 
shimmering red' Scharlachkopf. ( Aussichtsturm on the Scharlach- 
kopfj the name given to the highest point of the Rochusberg; on 
the southern slope of which, on a stretch of some 11 V2 hectoares 
in extent, is produced the costly Scharlachberger wine. The people 
of the Nahe claim with right that this is a Nahe wine. 



The Nahe Valley. 



75 



DenRn 




The Nahe Valley. 

A railway was constructed 
in 1860 from Bingerbriick into 
the "^ahe Valley, and whoever 
has half a day to spare should 
travel as far as Bad Kreuznach 
or to Miinster am Stein. 

Kreuxtiach — the town of roses 
and nightingales — has 23,000 
inhabitants, salt baths, and a fine 
Curhaus. Visitors to the number 
of 8000, yearly take the waters. 
Rising above' the town is the 
Schlossberg, oOO feet high, from 
which a grand view of the valley 
with its rich vineyards may be ob- 
tained. On the Eierinarkt there is 
a monument (unveiled in 1902) to a 
young butcher of Kreuznach Michel 
Mort. It commemorates the fact 
that this youth sacrificed his life 
at the battle of Sprendlingen in 
12('9 in order to save that of his 
master, knight John of Spanheim. 
His master^ was at that time at 
M-ar with Werner Archbishop ot 
Mainz for the possession of the 
Bergschloss Bockelheim. A bust 
of the poet of the Nahe valley, 
Umtav Ffarrius, stands in the 
Pleasure Grounds. Some old houses 
give a quaint appearance to one 
of the bridges of the town, on 
whose pillars their foundations 
rest. 

Following at first, for a 
short time, the right bank of 
the Nahe. one reaches the salt 
works of Karlshalle and Theo- 
dorshalle (with the evaporating 
sheds near). Passing the Cur- 
haus and Kestaurant at Theo- 
dorshalle, we soon reach the 
beautifully situated watering- 
place C\Ciinstcr am Stein. Oppo- 
site, on the right hand side of 
the Nahe, can be seen the 
picturesque Rheingrafenstein 
(built, according to the legend, 
by the help of the devil). From 



76 The Nahe Valley. 



Miinster am Stein or from the village Ebernburg, we can 
ascend in half an hour to the Ebernburg, near which is the Hiitten- 
Sichingen Monument, erected in 1889 by Karl Laiier, a native of 
Kreuznach. 

Franx von Sickingen was born at Ebernburg in 1481. It was said of him 
that he made Ebernburg (and also liis stronghold Landstuhl) into a 
"Shelter for Righteousness", because he made it a place of refuge for 
Ulrich von Hutten, Martin Bucer Oecolampadius, and other persecuted 
champions of the Reformation. Along witli Hutten, who stayed almost 
constantly with him after lr)20, lie fought in vain for the abolition of the 
power of spiritual princes. In 1522— 15'23 he was defeated by the Arch- 
Bishop of Treves and his allies, and died in the last named year as the 
result of a wound. The Ebernburg was then destroyed by the conquerors, 
was rebuilt by the French in 1689, and in 1G98 once more razed to the 
ground. 

There is a magnificent view from the restaurant down into the valley. 
The panorama includes the murmuring Nahe, with its great bends, numer- 
ous vineyards, Rheingrafenstein and the interesting and precipitous 
Rotenfels which extends along the side of the Xahe. We must also re- 
mark that on this same "Schlossberg" the vines produce the best of wine. 
Indeed, the Kreuznach district is one of the most famous in Germany for 
vine-culture. The town itself cultivates 850 hectoares. White wine here 
largelj' predominates-only Riidesheim, Kirn and some Hessian districts pro- 
ducing red wine. Kreuznach is the chief centre for the trade in Nahe- 
wines, and important wine auctions are held regularly. Kauzenberger, 
which is considered the finest Nahe wine, is produced near Kreuznach. 
Half a butt of the 1893 vintage of this wine 600 litres — brought as 
high as 2,200 marks. Important "Sparkling Wine" factories have also been 
established in Kreuznach. 

Those who can spare a whole day for the Nahe siiould pro- 
ceed next to Oberstein, from which the best view of the now 
narrow valley is to be got. This place has been famed for nearly 
400 years for its agate cutting and polishing works. Two castles 
and a church which has been built in the rock, rise above the 
town, and the latter affords a fine prospect. A quarter of an hour 
with the electric-railway takes us to Idar, with many agate-polishing 
works and a large Gewerbehalle (industrial hall), in which the 
products of the jewel industry are exposed for sale. 



Soon after leaving Bingen our ship passes the island of Rauh 
Aue and we arrive at the lovely little town of Ti^iideshehu, one of 
the best known places on the Rhine. It is the chief town of a 
district and has a population of over 4,800 inhabitants. Viewed 
from the Rhine the town has a picturesque appearance: in the 
foreground, we notice inviting hotels and restaurants, surrounded 
with shady seats, and in the background rise the hills with their 
vineyards. From the earliest times we hear of the fame of these 
vineyards. Charlemagne, as the story goes, observed from his 
palace at Ingelheim how quickly the snow melted on the Riidesheim- 
Berg and ordered Trarain vines to be planted there. In history we 



Riidesheim. 77 



hear of Riideslieini as early as 864. The inhabitants have had the 
happy idea of forming terraces in front of tlieir houses wherever 
it was at all possible. There one can sit of an evening, and 
watch the stars begin to twinkle in the heavens and the silver 
moon rise, enjoying in some measure the earthly blessings which 
have been bestowed on the inhabitants of this lovely spot — not 
to mention a very possible glass of the famous Riidesheimer. 
Above the station of the Niederwald rack-and-pinion railway is 
the interesting "Altdeutsche Weinstube". This tavern is worth 
seeing for the beautiful large mural paintings executed on glass, 
representing various Rhine legends. 

On going through the town we come to the marketplace in 
which stands the Gothic St. Jakobskirche, and the remains of a 
tower of the so-called Vorderburg, about 33 feet high. Near the 
station rises the Bromscrburg or "X^iedcrhiirg, which is so con- 
spicuous in the Rhine panorama at Riidesheira. 

Hans Bromser, the last of his race, lived in the Bromserburg at the 
time of Conrad III. He took part in the crusade preached on the Rhine 
by St. Bernard in 1146, and was taken prisoner by the Saracens. In his 
distress he made the very selfish vow, that if he obtained his liberty he 
would send his little girrOisela, an only child, into a cloister. Some days 
after, the Christians captured the castle in wliich he was a prisoner, and 
he was set free. Hans, faithful to his vow, went home in order to place 
Gisela in a nunnery. But Gisela would by no means agree to this, as she 
had meanwhile fallen in love with a young knight of the Falkenstein fam- 
ily. Her entreaties would have been of no avail, but one stormy night 
slie fell from the castle-wall into the Rhine and was drowned. Bromser 
was now seized with remorse of consciencf^, and vowed that for the peace 
of his daughter's soul he would build a chapel on a certain remote hill. 
Other interests led him to forget his new vow, and one day one of his 
servants came to him with an image of the virgin which an ox while 
ploughing had scraped out of the earth. The servant declared that he 
had heard three times the Not Gottes. Now Bromser proceeded to fulfil 
liis vow, and a little church was erected which was called Not Gottes. 

The, tower, shaped like an obelisk, standing behind the Bromserburg, 
is all that remains of the Oher or Boosenburg : and with this Castle is asso- 
ciated the story of a drinking feast which Gustav Pfarrius has put into verse: 

Da droben sassen sie allzumal 
Und zechten im alten Rittersaal ; 
Die Fackeln glanzten herab vom Stein 
Und schimmerten weit in dieXacht hinein. 
Es sprach der Rheingraf: ,,Ein Kurier 
Liess jungst mir diesen Stiefel hier, 
Wer ihn mit einem Zug will leeren, 
Dem soil Dorf Hiiffelsheim gehoren." 

Der Boos von Waldeck rief von fern : 
,,Xur her das Schliickchen ! Zura Wohl, ihr Herrn !" 
Und schwenkte den Stiefel und trank ihn leer 
Und warf sich zuriick in den Sessel schwer 
Und sprach: ,,IIerr Rheingraf! liess der Kurier 
Nicht audi seinen andern Stiefel hier ? 
Wasmassen in einer zweiten Wette 
Audi Roxheim gern verdient mir battel" 



78 Rudesheim. 



For a wa^'or a knifiht emptied a boot filled witli wine, at one 
draught, obtaining thus Huffelsheim, and after quaffing this "little drop" 
he offered to empty the other boot for the possession of Roxheim. 

The castle called Boosenburg was the seat of the defunct race 
of the knights Boos von Riidesheim, and is still intimately asso- 
ciated with wine. Today there dwells in it the Riidesheim wine-king, 
Joh. Bapt. Sturm, who can boast not only of the largest private 
possessions in vineyards here, but also that, by buying up the 
wine of the smaller vinegrowers, he has at his disposal about a 
quarter of the total produce of the Riidesheim vineyards. 

For many centuries the uinn of Riidesheim has been highly vAhied. Herr 
Sturm has afso at his disposal the famous wines, produced in the dukedom 
of Nassau from 1706 to 1868. Two wonderful wine presses are shown, eacii 
capable of receiving 5,000 litres of grai)es, and in the cellar is a butt 
containing 24,000 litres of wine. The town council of Bremen built a wine 
cellar in the 14th century with vhe praise-worthy object of protecting the 
citizens from having their wines adulterated, and since the end of the 
Ifith century the council have bought almost exclusively Riidesheim wine. 
The famous Rose wine is almost all from Riidesheim. The chief centres of 
the wine trade were Frankfort and Mainz, and thither the council of Bremen 
sent a 'wine man' with passports, letters of introduction, recommendations, 
and a good supply of bills of exchange. The transport of wine in these 
times from the Rhine to Bremen was attended with great difficulties. The 
dues on the Rhine gave rise to such troubles, that in the end, the wine 
was sent bj' land, and in this way the cost of transport amounted to 
half the price of the wine. 

A visit to the places of interest in the Niederiuald can be 
made just as comfortably from Riidesheim as from Assmanns- 
hausen. The rack-and-pinion railway to the National Monument 
starts from the neighbourhood of the Adlerturm (This is a tower 
dating from the Middle Ages, standing on the Rhine: it is covered 
with tin on the top). The railway journey to the Monument costs 

1 mark. A private conveyance may be hired at 6 to 9 marks for 

2 persons, in which we may proceed to the Monument, and then 
past the Jagdschloss (hunting-seat), down to Assmaunshausen. The 
footpath through the vineyards, or over the Kuhweg, requires 
three quarters of an hour, and can also be strongly recommended 
if the day is not too hot. From the Monument (see p. 70), we 
can either walk direct in 20 minutes to the Jagdschloss or we 
may go by the path skirting the forest, past the Hermitage and 
the Rossei. From the Jagdschloss a rack-and-pinion railway 
conducts us to Assmannshausen for .'■)0 pfg. 

Leaving Riidesheim, we pa.ss two islands, and then on our left 
is the pretty little town of Geisenheim (popn. 3.800). The most 
conspicuous object is the late-gothic church, with its two high 
towers. Here there i.s a much lauded Royal Institution for the 
.study of Horticulture and Fruit and Vine culture. We may 
mention as worth a visit the gardens of the General Consul von 



Geisenheim. 79 



Lade, which contain a famous rosarium, a model collection of fruit 
trees and a collection of all varieties of vines. The important 
engineering works of Johannisberg vcyi Klein, successor to Forst 
and Bohn, employ about 500 workmen, and produce yearly over 
200 large book printing-presses. In the house of Graf von 
Schonborn, the preliminaries of the Peace of Westphalia were 
drawn up. 

In the background, an extensive building crowns a moderately 
high but very famous hill. The Johannisherg can be reached easily 
in 74 bour either from Geisenheim or Winkel. 

On the Johannisberg, formerly called Bischofsberg, stood a monastery 
founded in 1106 by Bishop Ruthard of Mainz Of the monks who inliabitcd 
it, and enjoyed the excellent wine of the vineyards, the poet writes : 

Und wenn sie starben, klagten sie, 
Dass diese Welt so toll war, 
Und dass sie scheiden mussten, ach : 
Vom Keller, der noch voU war I 

After the precious Berg had come into the possession of the princely 
Abbot of Fulda, the present castle was erected on it, 1757—59, and this 
pleasant seat is now the property of tlie Prince von Metternich. The mon- 
astery fell a sacrifice to the secular movement in 1802, and the estate 
passed to Prince William of Orange. Four years later Xapoleon presented 
the castle and berg to his Marshall, Kellermann, who sold both to a C'->ni- 
mercial house for 32,000 gulden. In 1814 the hill fell to the Emperor of 
Austria, who gave it to Prince Metternich. The latter completed the castle 
The area covered by the vines is about 25 hectoares, and tiie produce is 
on the average 30 butts of wine (about 1200 litres) yearly. From this, the 
happy possessor has a clear gain of about 160,000 marks yearly. Visitors 
are allowed on the castle terrace in the absence of the Prince's family, 
and here a bottle of good wine may be had for 4 m. 50 pfg. : the finer 
qualities up to 18 marks per bottle. 

After we pass the Fulda Au, the place called Winkel presents 
itself on the left side. On the right, the mountains retire. Just 
at the beginning of this level stretch stands the country house of 
the Brentano family, in which Goethe lived as a guest for several 
weeks in 1814. While staying there, he visited the vine surrounded 
castle VoUrads, which is about half an hour's journey distant, 
and which was the seat of the electors of the Greifenklau race. 
From the country house referred to, Bettina von Arnim, sister 
of Clemens Brentano, wrote her letters to Goethe at Weimar in 
1807 (Goethe's "Correspondence with a Child'': she was at that 
time 21). 

In the churchyard at Winkel, Karoline von Gninclerodc is buried. She was 
born on the 11th Febr. 1780 at Kirlsruhe, being the daughter of Herr von 
Griinderode, a Kammerherr and Hofrat at the court of Baden, and she 
committed suicide on the 2f;th July 1806 by stabbing herself in the heart 
with a dagger, and at the same instant hurling herself into the river. 
She composed poetry under the name of Tian, and killed herself because 
the philologist Creuzer did not respond to her impassioned addresses to 
him. On a sandstone tablet over the grave is a verse bv Herder: 



80 Ingelheim. 



Erde, Du meine Mutter, und Du mein Ernalirer, der Lufthaiich! 
Heiliges Feuer, niir Freund, und Du, o Bruder, der Bergstrom, 
Und mein Vater, der Atlier, ich sage euch alien niit Elirfurcht 
Freundlichen Dank ; niit eu^h hab' ich hienieden gelebt und ich gehe 
Zur andern Welt, euch gerne verlassend. Lebt wohl denn, 
Bruder und Freund, Vater und Mutter, lebt wohl ! 

Next follows the village of Mittelheim (popn. 500) which is 
joined to Winkel, and after that Oestrich (popn. 2,700). 

On the right hand side, a little back from the river, are the 
places known as ^ieder-Ingelbeim and Oher-Ingclhcivi, which are 
famed for the excellent red wine they produce. 

In Nieder-Ingelheim, there are still standing some ruins of 
the magnificent palace which Charlemagne built here. It was 
ornamented with 100 marble pillars, and with sculptures and 
mosaics brought from Italy. The palace was the scene of the 
dethronement of Heinrich IV by the bishops of Worms, Mainz 
and Cologne, on the last day of the year 1105. 

higelhcim disputes with Aachen the honour of being the birthplace of 
Charlemagne, and indeed its claims are equally as well su])ported by early 
authors as those of the latter city. It is with Ingelheim that legend asso- 
ciates the Slory of Emma and Einhnrd: Emma, an illegitimate daughter of 
the great Emperor, had fallen deeply in love with her tutor, the excellent 
and learned Einhard, whom the monastery of Fulda had sent to the court. 
The lovers met each other by night, in an honourable manner, in Emma's 
chamber. One morning when' Einhard wished to cross the courtyard from 
the ladies' apartments, snow had fallen, and this would have betrayed his 
late visit if he had walked across. Emma, however, was equal to the occasion. 
She took her lover upon her back and thus carried him to his own abode. 
The Emperor, troubled by some affairs of state, had passed a sleepless 
night and was early astir. Looking out of a window, he was astounded to 
see this remarkable procedure. That morning, Charlemagne summoned a 
council, and asked wiiat should be the punishment for this wanton conduct. 
But the members of the council were favourable to Einhard and pleaded for 
pardon. Thereupon, the two lovers were allowed to depart. After they had 
crossed the Rhine, they wandered on till they came to the valley of the Main. 
There they were married and settled down to live a quiet life. Some years 
after, the Emperor while hunting, came to their abode, and entered the 
neat cottage where he found the pair, and along with them a bright boy. 
Now Charlemagne pardoned the lovers, blessed their union, and took them 
back with him to Ingelheim. At the place where he found them, he ordered 
a monastery to be built which he named Seligcnstadt. This story is recorded 
in the annals of the monastery of Lorsch, but so far as it contains an 
historical truth, it must refer to Bertha, the daughter of Charlemagne, who 
while living at her father's court was secretly married to the learned poet 
Angilbert, and bore him two sons. Emma, the wife of Einhard, was not 
a daughter of the Emperor, but a sister of Bishop Bernhard of Worms. 

Passing the castle of lieichardshausen on the left bank, we 
reach Hattenheim (popn, 1200 — including the 250 inmates of the 
Eberbach prison), Northw stwards, on a stream which enters the 
Rhine here, lies the village of Hallgarten (popn, 1500), famed for 
its wine. At one time it belonged to the monks of Eberbach, 
Above the village, on the Hallgarten Zauge, is a tower for viewing 
the landscape. 



Monastery of Eberbach. 81 

At Hallgarten the vines are growing to a height of nearly 1000 feet above 
sea-level. Usually the highest vines are found at a height of some 800 feet. 
Among the well known districts we may note that the vines of the Rauental 
Berg grow at a height of from 500 to 800 feet, on the Grafenberg from 550 to 
850 feet, on the Steinberg from 475 to 850 feet, on the Johannisberg from 400 to 
550 feet, at Assmannshausen (red-wine) from 300 to 720 feet, on the Riidesheim 
Berg from 250 to 980 feet, while Marcobrunner grows up to 450 feet. In the 
Hallgarten churchyard one of the heroes of 1848, Adam von Itxstein. after being 
a fugitive in foreign countries for a long period, has found a resting-place — 
"wearied in the struggle for German freedom" as the tombstone records. 

All the streams of the Rheingau flow in a N.W., to S.E, 
direction to meet Father Rhine, and thus a stream enters the 
Rhine at Erbach, whose famous vineyards lie directly north from 
Hattenheim. In the valley of the Kisselbach, nearly 2 miles from 
Hattenheim, rises the well-known Steinberg, which belonged to the 
Monastery of Eberbach at the time when the Cistercian monks 
tended the people of the district. Now the Steinberg belongs to 
the state. Like the Rauenthal Berg and RiidesheimBerg it is 
formed of quartzite and schist. A fine large district of some hectoares, 
is here devoted to the growth of the vine, but indeed the produce 
of this district can be enjoyed by the ordinary crowd of mortals 
only on rare occasions, as, in good years a bottle of Steinberger 
is not to be had under 20 marks. 

In early times, wherever monks settled, they immediately laid out vine- 
yards if it were at all possible, in order to obtain wine for the mass: in those 
days the defective means of communication made it <iifficult to obtain wine 
from the South. But the monks carried the cultivation of the heart-rejoicing 
vine far beyond what was necessary for religious purposes. Eberbach, the 
oldest German Cistei'cian monastery, was founded by Adalbert, Archbishop 
of Mainz, in 1131, and the monks threw themselves' into the culture of the 
vine with such energy, that 30 years after the founding, they possessed a 
large storehouse (cellarium) for export purposes in Cologne. The ships of 
Cologne brought tlie wares of foreign countries up the Rhine, and went down 
laden with excellent wine. Thus, in the 12th century, Cologne became the 
emporium for the trade in the wines of the Rheingau, and this it remained 
till the 14tli century. As early as the beginning of the 14th century, we 
find on the Rhine ships belonging to the monastery of Eberbach. In 1213, 
Kaiser Friedrich II granted to the monastery exemption from the Rhine 
dues, and Cologne granted it a Rhine-gateway for its winetrade, = the 
"Sante cervays porte", so called from the Servatius chapel situated in the 
neighbourhood. (The Ehrbach Hof stood on the site of the sugar factory 
of Langen and Sons in Johannisstrasse in Cologne). In 1291 it received the 
name of the Erbachpforte. The monastery maintained its premises there 
for 400 years (till 1596) after which the wine trade drifted into another channel. 
Then Frankfort, already famed for its fairs and convenientlj^ situated for 
;he inhabitants of the Rheingau, became a great centre for wine. Dordrecht 
also became a new wine emporium. The price of wine varied in the 13th 
and 14th centuries from 20 to 45 gulden for a fuder. The most famous 
vineyard of the monastery was the Steinberg, which sloped towards the south- 
west. Round the extensive grounds which covered more than 100 acres, 
the monastery erected a wall which is still well preserved It failed, however, 
to hinder the rebels in the Insurrection of the Feasants (1525) from helping 
themselves liberally to the choicest treasures of the monks. It is asserted 
that the drunken peasants consumed from the cellars of the monastery in 
14 days, not less than 80 butts of wine containing about 100,000 litres. Then 

6 



82 Erbach-Eltville. 



General Frobeniiis, sent by the Swabian Bund, appeared upon the scene, 
and the glorious festival was over. The monastery contained in the year 
1215 about 200 monks, and in the course of the centuries they acoomi)lislie(l 
much for spiritual and social culture on the Middle Rhine. A magnificent 
library, filling sixteen heavy carts, was carried off in the Thirty Years' war. 
The church, consecrated in 1185, was the ancestral burial "place of the 
Counts of Katzeiielnbogen, and also of some of the electors of Mainz. 

But Eberbach's sun is not yet set. Here every year tlie most famous 
wine-auctions in Germany are lield. On certain days in May one may see 
in large letters over the entrance to the venerable chapter-room, the 
inscription, "Probesaal" (Samjjle Room). In this room, many fabulous prices 
have been obtained. For examjile, a half butt (600 litres) of 189.S wine brought 
the enormous sum of 17,000 marks. The treasury has therefore derived 
much profit from the harvests of the cloister vineyards. The Treasury 
Vineyards comprised in the end of 1900 altogether some 91.4 hectoares, of 
which 6.7 were in the Hochheim district near Mainz, and 84.7 in the Rhein- 
gau. The amount obtained on the average per annum (from 1891 to 1900) 
was 126,427 marks. The best year was 1875, which yielded 216,949 marks: 
while the following year was the worst, yielding only .39,613 marks. 

About midway between Hattenhehn and Erhach, situated below 
its vineyards and right on the highway is the wellknown Marco- 
hrunnen (four fluted pillars form a semicircle round the spring). 
The fine wines produced in the neighbourhood have made the 
name famous. 

The Marcohrunnen derives its name from the word "mark" meaning 
boundary. Some maintain that the name is derived from St. Mark. In the 
beginning of 1870 the well was the occasion of a humorous incident caused 
by neighbourly jealousy. When the people of Erbach renovated the Marco- 
brunnen, they set up the inscription, "Marcobriinnen, Gemeinde Erbach"; 
Whereupon the people of Hattenheim framed the opposing inscription: 
So ist es recht und so soil es sein : 
Fiir Erbach das Wasser, fiir Hattenlieim den Wein ! 

Next follows on the left, behind an island, Erhach, with the 
castle of '^beinbardtshausen, the property of Prince Albert of Prussia. 
The population of Erbach is 2200, which includes some 660 in- 
mates of the Eichberg Lunatic Asylum, an institution belonging 
to the Civil Administration. Opposite the fruitful Eltville Au, on 
which is a lovely house, stands Eltville, the capital of the Rhein- 
gau, with an interesting church tower, and a lovely alley of plane 
trees along the Rhine. 

The pretty little town of Eltville has today a population of nearly 4000. 
In the 15th century, the Archbishops of Mainz had a summer residence 
here. Of the palace, nothing now remains except the beautiful turreted 
belfry, which is still well preserved. In Eltville the Zentralverkaufsgcnossen- 
schaft Rheingmier ]]'inxerrereine haa its seat, and here the association possesses 
a large storehouse formed of three wine cellars, one over the other, and 
affording a storage area of about 1260 square metres each. The Winzer- 
vereine are vine growers' associations of undoubted trustworthiness, and 
they exist for the object of collecting the grapes belonging to the members 
to a central wine-press, and thus obtaining purer wine. The wines are 
uniformly treated and placed to advantage before the purchasers. The 
members are bound to sell and deliver to the society a certain proportion 
of their grapes, straight from the vines, and of course the grapes must be 
grown within the district of the association. Grapes from similar situations 



Eltville— Niederwalluf- Oberwalluf. 83 

are brought together in order to obtain wines of similar qualities. The 
value of the grapes is fixed by the class to which they belong, and this 
is determined by the nature of the situation of the vineyard, the kind of 
vines (Oesterreich, Riesling, mixed sorts, etc.), and also by the weight of 
the must obtained. In the year 1900^01, the 14 associations with 601 members 
obtained 58,444 marks. The associations which belong to the Zentralverkaufs- 
genossenschaft are obliged to place their wines for sale with this Central 
Union. In a recent year .S?!6,969 litres, valued at 330,988 marks were 
handed over for sale by 12 associations. How greatly the amount yielded 
by the vineyards varies in different years may be seen from the following 
data: 14 associations in the year 1899 handed oVer 180 butts (some 1200 
litres), while 15 associations handed over in 1900 385^ „ butts The wine pro- 
duction of the Rheingau district in the year 189S was indeed only Vis of 
that of 1890. In the first named year the vintage yielded 6690 litres and 
in the last named year 86,142 litres. The prices obtained for the same district, 
on the average, were 1138 marks per butt in 1899, and 1347 marks in 1900. 
The prices per butt of 1897 wine and 1898 wine were only 808 marks and 
726 marks respectively. 

At the .50 wine-auctions held in the spring of 1903 in the Rheingau, 
some 950 butts and -28,310 bottles of red and white wine were offered for 
sale. In all 1,236,100 marks were obtained at these sales, while in 1902 at 
30 auctions 1,277,350 marks were obtained. The total sum paid for wines 
in 1903 at all the auctions of the Middle Rhine was 3,221,520 marks as com- 
pared with 2,943,000 marks in the previous year. 

Eltville is also noted for the sparkling-wine factory of Matheus Miiller. 
At Eltville the Kiedrichbach enters the Rhine, and (about 2^ o miles) up the 
valley the round tower of the ruin of Scharfenstein, surrounded by famous 
vineyards, looks down from the top of the Grdfenberg. 

A railway runs from Eltville to Schlangenhad aod passes 
Ranenthal, a place which, though at a considerable elevation, pro- 
duces fine wine. 

Soon we reach "Miederwalhif (popn. 1,200), where the Wald- 
affe brook enters the Ehine and where the %heingaii ends. 

The Waldaffe was also the boundary of the ancient Rheingau, the 
pagus Rhinensis, which, moreover, corresponded pretty closely with the 
present political and ecclesiastical division. The district belonged to 
Mainz and therefore remained catholic. Kaub in the lower part, and 
Schierstein and Mosbach-Biebrich in the upper part of the Rheingau, are 
proteatant, or mixed. 

On the Waldaffe, about a mile from the Rhine lies Oberwalluf 
(popn. 450). The valley there produces an excellent and most expensive 
wine, which indeed does all honour to the wine famed Rheingau. 

The district has now become flatter, and behind the alluvial 
land on the left is Schierstein. Schierstein is well known for the 
effervescent-wine factory of Sohnlein and Co. It also contains a 
bronze monument erected on the 17 th of November 1901 to the 
Boer general Christian de JVet. Voluntary contributions were sent 
in by some 500 Germans of the name of Christian — a great wine 
merchant having originated the idea. The monument was designed 
by the Berlin sculptor Professor Pfretzschner. To the bust of the 
General rising from a socle, a young German is presenting a 
laurel wreath. 



84 Biebrich — Wiesbaden. 



Passing the %ptthergsaii, our ship arrives at "Biebrich (popn. 
15000), with the barracks of the school for noncommissioued 
officers, and an ancient residenzschloss belonging to a vanished 
time. 

This long extended baroque-building dates from tlie first half of the 
i:Uh century and was built by the Duke of Nassau-Usingen, but at present 
belongs to the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (formerly Duke of Nassau). 
Behind the palace, which for a century was the residence of the Regents 
of Nassau, extenils a large Park, with an artificial castle. One can pass a 
pleasant time on the terrace of the Nassauer Hof or the Krone. 

The beautiful sti'etch of the Rhine from Bingen to Biebrich lias given 
no end of worry to the worthy authorities who regulate the river channel. 
In earlier times the river spread out in certain places to a breadth varying 
in some cases from 900 to 1100 yards. Thus the shipping experienced the 
greatest difficulty from sandbanks. Still the people along the Rhine would 
not listen to any proposals to narrow the channel. They maintained 
that the broad surface of water acted like a glass in reflecting the sun's 
rays, and thus aided in improving the quality of their wines. Further the 
different states along the banks were jealous of each other and would not 
come to an understanding. So it went on till the beginning of the year 
1880, when an agreement for the regulation of the riverbed was drawn up 
between the Hessian and Prussian states. The jealousy of the rulers once 
led to rather an amusing incident. Hesse-Darmstadt on the left bank, 
quaiTelled with Nassau on the right bank, concerning the damming of the 
navigable channel. On the evening of the 1st March 1841 some GO ships 
laden with stones came down the Rhine and unloaded at Biebrich. A verse 
of Heine's refers to this incident: 

Zu Biebrich hab' ich Steine verschluckt, 
Wahrhaftig, sie schmeckten nicht lecker I 
Doch schwerer liegen im Magen mir 
Die Verse von — Nikolaus Becker! 

Now there was a great lawsuit between the governments, of which the 
end was that Hesse-Darmstadt was obliged to remove the stones out of 
the river. The regulation of the Rhine has so far done no appreciable 
harm, but has on the other hand been rather an expensive business. For 
the improvement of the navigable channel, regulation of tlie stream, and 
protection of the banks, the Rhine states have expended altogether more 
than 234, .549,000 marks between 18:U and 1890. The depth of the navigable 
channel for the stretch below Cologne, was fixed with Holland, at 3 metres 
below the average lowest depth of the water in the river, (i. e. 1.50 metres 
over the zero of the Cologne water-gauge) ; while the stretch from Cologne 
to St. Goar was fixed at a depth of 2.5 metres, and from St. Goar to 
Bingen at 2 metres. 



Wiesbaden. 

An electric railway unites Biebrich with Wiesbaden; but the 
journey on foot, (about 2'/., miles) along the shady road, can be 
highly recommended. 

Wiesbaden, to which the Duke of Nassau transferred his residence 
from Biebrich in 1840 has in recent decades developed at an extraordinary 
rate. It numbers today over 101,000 inhabitants (comi)ared with 25,900 in 
1865), among whom there are said to be 170 millionaires (marks). The 



Wiesbaden. 



85 










*^ .ss 



,^9 






■a Q. B a 






86 Wiesbaden. 

climate here, owin«r to the Avarmtli of the air and the natural lieat of the 
jrround is ahiiost more tlian comfortable. Tn the valley with its surround- 
ing hills, the invalid is i)rotected in all directions from inclement winds. 
Wiesbaden combines the freshness of the country with the artistic and 
musical enjoyments of the town, and is peculiarly adapted for curing all 
the evils, imaginary or real, which flesli is heir to. Can we wonder, 
then, that in this Pensionopolis so many people are to be found who wish 
to enjoy in ([uiet retirement the fruits of their more or less busy but 
successful lives, or that such an El Dorado is yearly visited by i;}0,000 
foreigners, who, either from curiosity or necessity take advantage of the 
waters which the earth here so kindly yields at such a remarkable temp- 
erature V The Rhenish poet Wolfgang Miiller of Konigswinter was inspired 
to sing of Wiesbaden thus: 

Hier seht ilir jedes Volk und jedes Land, 
Verschieden in Gewohnheit, Sprache, Sitte, 
Ob ihm die Ziigel halt Tyrannenhand, 
Ob ihm der Freiheit helle Rechte blinken, 
Hier herrscht Natur niit sinnigem Verstand, 
Und ohne IJnterschied gibt sie zu trinken. 

A Visit to Wiesbaden. (Plan p. 85.) The station buildings in 
Wiesbaden lie at the corner of Kheinstrasse and Wilhelmstrasse, 
the finest streets of the town. If we follow the latter thoroughfare 
in a northerly direction, we soon pass on the right, quite near, 
the "Bismarck Moniinient by Herter; immediately thereafter on the 
left we come to the Museum, with picture galleries antiquarian 
and natural history collections (open, except Saturday and Sunday, 
from 11 to 1 and from 3 to a). Digression: Turning to the 
left, at the back of the Museum, through Museumstrasse, we reach 
the Marketplace, with the Rathaiis, built in 1884-88 in the 
German renaissance style, according to plans by the Munich 
architect Hauberrisser, and containing in the comfortable Council 
Chamber some interesting frescoes and inspiriting wall mottoes. 
On the right of the Rathaus is the Evangelical Church and the 
'lioyal Palace (built 1837—40, seen from 10 to 6 o'clock, and contains 
frescoes and Schwanthaler statues: 25 pfg.)- Follow'ing the car 
line we reach Lang-gasse, on the right of which near Schiitzenhof- 
strasse is a Post-Oftice. The first street to the left leads to the 
Heidenmaiier (Pagan wall), built by the Romans about the year 
300 A. D. in the reign of the EmperorDiocletian. This was a 
generation after the conquest of the Limesgebirge by the ancient 
Germans and the object was the protection of the Roman Wies- 
baden. The wall extended originally to a length of about 550 
yards. It has since been pierced by CoUinstrasse, which is spanned 
by the %oman Gate, erected in keeping with Roman ideas by 
Architect Genzmer of Charlottenburg. Returning by the same way, 
to the right of Wilhelmstrasse are the grounds surrounding the 
hot pond, aud behind the pond is the Kaiser JVilhelm Monument 
of 1894, by Schilling. Next, we come to the Royal Court TJ)eatre, 
built in 1892—1894 by Fellner and Hellmer, the interior of which 



Wiesbaden — Frankfort. 87 

is worth seeing, and in which, every May, take place the so-called 
Musterauffilhrungen (Model Performances). In front of the Theatre 
and the new Colonnade extend the grounds of the Curhaiis. This 
striking building, with a portico supported by six Ionic pillars, 
and dating from the beginning of last century, is soon to be 
replaced by a new one. Behind is the magnificent Curgarten. 
Coming back to Wilhelmstrasse, we see to the left the Friedrich III. 
Monument by Uphues, (1897), and on the right the ^ust of 'Bodenstedt 
by Barwald. We then pass into Taunus-strasse, on the left of 
which is the most important spring in Wiesbaden, the alkaline 
Kochhrnnnen. This spring yields every minute, at a temperature 
of nearly 69° C, about 300 litres of water, which is very rich in 
chlorate. It brings up daily not less than 91 cwts. of common 
salt: that is, it extracts from the earth every year over a million 
and a half kilograrams of salt, making for the 2,000 years during 
which we know it to have existed 65 million cwts. Behind the 
Kochbrunnen, in Kranzplatz with the Hygeia Group by Hoffmann, 
there was excavated, in March 1903, a huge beautifully preserved 
%_oman hath, dating from the second century A. D. Continuing, 
Taunus-strasse and Elisabeth-strasse lead us through the Nerotal. 
Cars also run along these streets. On our left is the Beausite 
Restaurant, in the neighbourhood of which a wirerope railway 
starts for the 'JSieroherg (fare 25 pfg.; return 30 pfg.), where there 
is a hotel, and where a beautiful view can be had from a tower. 
Near this is the Graeco-Roman Chapel erected in 1848 — 55 by 
Duke Adolf as a memorial to his wife Elizabeth, who died in 1845. 
The interior is worth seeing, 1 mark; (if more than one person, 
50 pfg. for each). 



Frankfort. 

As the tourist usually sets out from Wiesbaden or Mainz to 
visit Frankfort, we may here insert a short description of the 
town. Frankfort is one of the most important commercial towns 
in Germany and is the seat of an influential Borse, an Academy 
for the study of Social and Commercial subjects, and also a 
Commercial High School. The population is 337,500. 

On the position of the present Saalhof on the Main, stood the royal 
palace (Pfalz), erected by Charlemagne at the 'Frankenfurt'. This place, 
which in Roman times was a low-lying morass, is first mentioned in 793. 
It was surrounded by walls in 838 by Ludwig the Pious. According to the 
Treaty of Verdun, Frankfurt became in 843 the capital of the East Pran- 
kish kingdom (i. e. Germany), and, as such it acquired great importance. 
From the time of Kaiser Friedrich I (1152), the election of the German 
Emperors took place here, and a golden bull of Karl IV (1356) made Frank- 
fort permanently the official town for such elections Already, in 1245, 



88 



Frankfort. 




Frankfort. 89 



Frankfort had become a free city of the Empire, and the rights of the 
town were again confirmed at the close of the Thirty Years War by the 
Peace of "Westphalia in 1648. The Easter and Autumn Fairs became of 
great importance to Frankfort. They began in the Uth century under the 
protection of the Empire. From 1562 the coronation of the Emperor took 
place at Frankfort. In the end of the 18th century the French several 
times took possession of the town and demanded heavy contributions. By 
the founding of the Rheinbund in 1806 Frankfort lost its immediatised pos- 
ition, but the Vienna Congress again declared it a free town of the Ger- 
man Bund. The National Assembly met here in the Paulskirche from the 
18th May 1848 to the 31st May 1849. There were 568 members, including 
several famous men, and they set themselves to draw up a new constitution 
for the state. The assembly came to rather a sorry end. In the war of 
1866 between Austria and Prussia Frankfort took the side of the former, 
and at the end of the wax-, by a royal patent of the 18th October 1866, it 
lost its independence and became incorporated in the Prussian State. On 
the 10th May 1871 the Peace of Frankfort which ended the Franco-German 
war was signed here in the Gasthof zum Schwan bj' the Imperial Chancel- 
lor Bismarck and the French minister Jules Favre. 

A Visit to Frankfort. (Plan page 88). We may conveniently 
start from the railway station — a tine building and as practical 
as imposing. It was opened to traffic in 1888, being constructed 
according to the design of Landesbauinspector Eggert. Before 
us is the beautiful Kaiserstrasse, and passing a small ancient 
tower (on the right is the new theatre), and going over the 
Kaiserplatz with the Kaiserfountain (with basin of granite), a 
gift of Baron Erlanger, we reach the Rossmarkt, in which is 
the Gutenberg Monument (Gutenberg, Fust and Schoffer). The 
monument is by F. von der Launitz and was erected in 1858. 
Turning a little to the right we come to the Goetheplatz, with 
a bronze statue of the poet erected by Schwanthaler in 1844. Be- 
hind is the Borse (Exchange) open from 12 to 2. From the 
Goetheplatz, turn to the left through the Bockenheimerslrasse, 
and then straight on to the Opernplatz. On the right is the 
Opera House, erected in 1873—80, according to the designs of 
Professor R. Lucan of Berlin at a cost of 5' ., million marks 
(the total cost including interior fittings etc. amounted to 10 
millions). On the left, in the grounds, is a monument to Kaiser 
Wilhelm I., and behind, a monument to Guiolett, a Frankfort 
citizen who laid out the town promenades. If we proceed with 
the tramway along the Bockenheimer Landstrasse it takes us to 
the beautiful Pahnengarten (1 mark); but if from the Opernplatz 
we go back through the Bockenheimertor and immediately turn 
to the left through the Hochstrasse it takes us to the antique 
Tower of the Eschenheimgateway. Here is the valuable Senckenberg 
Scientific Museum (free on Sundays, Fridays 11 — 1, Wednesdays 
2—4, at other times for a Trinkgeld of 50 to 75 pfg). A little 
further along is a monument to Sommering, the inventor of 
telegraphy, and near in the Bockenheim Grounds, the Borne 



90 Frankfort. 



monument. Going through Grosse Eschenheimer Strasse we come 
to the Schillerplati in which is a monument to the poet erected 
in 1863 by Joh. Dielmann, and also the Guardhouse a building 
which dates from 1729. Turning to the left, the tramway line 
leads us over the Zeil, the chief business street of Frankfort to 
the Fahrgasse (on the right). On the left of the Zeil is the 
Central Post Office, a fine building. If we follow the Zeil straight 
on we come to the Neue Zeil, which takes us to the Zoological 
Gardens (1 mark). 

From the Fahrgasse we may proceed to the Betliman7i Museum: we make 
a detour here thro' Grosse Friedbergerstrasse, to the riglit along Vilbeler- 
strasse (with tramway), and thro' the Friedberger gateway. Before the Mus- 
eum is the Hessimi Monument. Near it, on the IGtli December 1792, the Hess- 
sian and Prussian troops pressed into the town which was held by the French 
under Custine. At the same time the citizens of Frankfort, al the Fried- 
bergor Gate, attacked the French from within. Friedricli Wilhelm II was 
himself a witness of the brave selfsacrifice of tlie Hessians, and in 17.93 lie 
erected the monument in memorj' of the 200 men who fell. In the Bethmann 
Museum is the Ariadne Sculpture by Dannecker, dating from 1814, and 
bought by Bethmann for 20,000 gulden. The work represents the daughter 
of King Minos of Crete, who was left by Theseus on the island ofNaxosas 
the brido of Dionysius, riding on a panther. (Weekdays 10 1, and ^^—')^, 
Sunday and in Winter 11 1; Trinkgeld r>Q to 75 pfg). Not far distant in 
the Upper Main grounds is the beautiful monument to Schopenhauer. 

We next proceed through the Fahrgasse to the 'Dom (closed 
11,30 to 2 ocl.). 

This Gothic cathedral was originallj' erected in 874 by Ludwig the 
German in the form of a cross, but in the course of the centuries it was 
rebuilt and changed. On the night of the 1.5th of August 1867 the greater 
part of it was destroyed by fire, and it was finally restored in 1877 by 
Denzinger from the original plan (the length is 360 feet and the breadth 
•J18 feet). Then the tower which is about 310 feet high was for the first 
lime completed to its full height. Among other objects in the interior we 
may mention, near the high altar, the tomb of King Giinther von Schwarz- 
burg (died 1349), and near the tomb (on the side) is the Election Chapel. 
In the transept where the Emperors were crowned are representations from 
the history of Frankfort executed by Steinle. 

From the Domplatz we go over the Markt straight to the 
Romerberg. In the Market-place is a stone house, No. 44, dating 
from 1464, and also a monument to the Frankfort poet Friedrich 
Stolze who wrote in his native dialect. Passing the Justitia- 
brunuen, behind which is the Nicolaikirche, and going through 
the Wedelgasse, we come to the Paulplatz, in which are the 
Romer, and the Paulskirche built in 1833. Between the Paulskirche 
and the Rathaus is the Einheitsdenkmal which was unveiled on the 
18 th of October 1903 and cost 120,000 marks. 

The Einheitsdenkmal — Monument of National Unity -- is a three-sided 
obelisk of Kelheim limestone, ornamented with reliefs, and with a figure 
of Clio on the top. The lower part of the construction is by the Architects 
Hessemer and Schmidt of Munich, and the bronze part by the sculptor 



Frankfort— Mainz. 91 



Hugo Kaufmanii of Munich. Round the upper surface of the base runs 
the inscription 'To the Champions of German Unity in the time of pre- 
paration 1815-63 — the town of Frankfort on the Main'. 

Beside the Roiiier, and spanning Bethmannstrasse is the Rath- 
haus (Municipal Buildings), containing a banqueting hall, 88 feet 
by 46 feet. The building was erected by Hoven & Neher and was 
opened in the presence of the Emperor, on the occasion of the 
musical competition on the 4 th June 1903. 

The Romer was originally constructed as a Rathaus out of several ad- 
joining houses in 1405—18, and was enlarged by the inclusion of several 
other houses, ll'.U 32. It was used as the Rathaus up to 1903. The fagade 
was constructed in its present form in 1898. Tiie Kaisersaal on the first 
story was the hall in which tlie banquets were held at the coronation 
festivals. Its walls are ornamented with portraits of the 52 German Em- 
perors from Charlemagne to Francis II. (1"9-— l^^OG). The portraits were 
executed by the painters Lessing, Veit, Steinle etc , and are larger than 
life-size (8-7 for 50 pfg : Monda'ys and Wednesdays 10—1 free.) Along- 
side of the Kaisersaal is the Wahlzimmer in which the Electors met to take 
council concerning the election of the new emperor. 

From the Romer we go along the large Kornmarkt, then to 
the left thro' the Weissadlergasse, and arrive at the Grosser 
Hirschgraben, in which is the Godhehaus (No. 28, on the right). 

In this house, Johann Wolfgang Goethe was born on the 28th August 1749. 
It has been restored, as nearly as possible to what Goethe in his 'Dichtung 
und Wahrheit' pictures it to have been in 1755. There is in it the Goethe 
museum and the Goethe library (open weekdays 8—1, 3 6. Sundays 
10—1, for 1 mark). The house belongs to the Freier deutsche Hochstift, a 
society founded in 1859 to preserve remembrances of Goethe, Schiller, and 
their contemporaries. 

Going to the end of Grosser Hirschgraben, we follow the 
tramway line through the Weissfrauenstrasse, and to the left 
along Mainzerstrasse to the Main, (to the right along the bank of 
the Main is the Nizza Promenade). Going over the Main bridge, 
and turning to the right along the Schaumainkai, we come to the 
Stiidelsche Institut. 

The Siddelsche Kunstinstiiut contains a rich collection of ancient and mod- 
ern pictures, and other art treasures. A Frankfort banker, named Stiidel, 
who died in 1816, bequeathed to the city some two million gulden for the 
purpose of founding this institute. The renaissance building by O. Sommor 
was completed in 1878 (Mondays closed; open free Sundays 11 — 1, Wednes- 
davs 11 4 and on other davs 10 - 1 : at other times 1 mark). 



Mainz. 



Golden Mainz! In the 14th century when It had attained the height 
of its prosperity the present capital of tl»e province of Rhenish Hesseland 
could justly lay claim to this description. Mainz can trace its origin to 
Drusus (38 B. C). It was on the initiative of a citizen of Main Arnold 
Walpod that the League of the Rhenish towns came into existence in 



92 



Mainz, 



1234, and at the head of this leajjue Walpod placed his native city. By 
this league the peace of the land, threatened by the Princes, in' their 
exercise of Fausirecht (the law of the strong arm), was assured. In a 
short time the influence of Mainz extended from Basel to Cologne, and 
trade and commerce steadily prospered. Diether von Isenburg had been 
dethroned by the Pope an(i Emperor in U61, and in the struggle which 
arose about the new Elector Archbishop Adolf of Nassau conquered 
Mainz in 1402, and plundered and destroyed it. Mainz lost its privileges as 
a free citj' of the empire and became subject to the Archbishop, and 
since then it has never again risen to such a flourishing condition. How- 
ever, towards the end of the 19th century, the decay of the lines of 
circumvallation has allowed a new town to spring up around the old, and 
once again Mainz has risen to considerable importance The population 
which was 40,000 in 1660 is today 91,000, 



...^F*^^ ..i' 


i. t . ,, 


uiL 




MF--C.... ,"" "^' .... 


■'■■■■ *' A - 




m 



Mainz. 



From Mainz the discover^' of the art of printing was disseminated. 
One of her sons Johann Gutenberg succeeded in putting the tj'ijes together 
for the first printing-press, and sent forth the first printed book. 

The town is the seat of the district and provincial government, and 
also of a Bishop (since 30th Nov, 1903 Georg Kirstein), We maj' also men- 
tion its commercial (Handel) school, trade (Geiccrbe) school, and its Poly- 
technic School (Kunstgeiverbeschulc). The whole province of Rhenish Hesse, 
boiinded on the east and north by the Rhine, on the west by the Nahe, 
and on the soutli by the Bavarian Palatinate, is one great vineyard. 

Mainz is the entrance to the whole of the Rheingau, and is also the 
chief centre for the wine-trade of the Middle Rhine. Almost the whole 
town is honeycombed with cellars, and tiiere are some hundreds of wine 
businesses. The sparkling-wine industry here, alone yields about a sixth 
of the total German production. The town is also the chief auction-mart 
for the wines of the Middle Rhine. In the spring of 1903 twentj'-two 
auctions were held at which in all 1050 butts of white and red wine were 
offered for sale, and 674,400 marks were obtained. 

kA visit to Maini. Starting from the railway station and 
following the tramway-lines straight forward for some distance 



Mainz. 93 



through the Kaiserstrasse — a fine street 65 yards broad, — 
we reach the square in front of the Christuskirche. In the right 
hand corner is the Imperial Bank. Turning here to the right we 
come to the Schlossplatz, in the SE. corner of which is the 
Peterskirche. This church was built between 1748 and 1756, has 
two towers, and is ornamented with frescoes, the work of Appiani, 
a Milanese. Here also stands the Schloss — built 1627-77 — 
once a residence of the Elector and now in the possession of the 
town. In this palace may be mentioned, as well worth seeing, 
the collections in the antiquarian, the scientific and the Gutenberg 
museums, the picture gallery and the town library (open April 
to October: free on Monday, Thursday, Friday, 2 — 5, Sunday 
and Wednesday 10 to 1 and 2 to 5 o'cl.; at other times from 
10 to 5 for 50 pfg. ; the Gutenberg museum is open on Sunday 
from 10 to 1 and Wednesday from 2 to 4 — on other days ad- 
mission to it may be obtained free between 10 and 6 o'cl. by 
making application in the library). 

The lovely %Jnm Promenade stretches along the river from the 
bridge over the harbour to the Ingelheimer Au, a distance of 
about 4\/o miles. From the east side of the palace, the Rhine 
promenade conducts us to the bridge which leads over the Rhine 
to Kastel. This bridge is 640 yards long and 15 yards wide. 
On the Promenade, not far from the bridge, is the StadthaUe (Town- 
hall), built in Italian renaissance style, containing a restaurant 
and also a great banqueting-hall, 174 ft by 92 ft. If we now 
follow the Rheinstrasse in a southerly direction (on the left is das 
Eiserne Tor — iron gate) and turn along Fischtorstrasse, we 
reach the picturesque Cathedral, with its numerous towers. This 
is one of the existing works of Archbishop Willigis and dates 
from 978 to 1009, but from fires, demolitions, and rebuildinga 
very little of the original remains. The imposing central tower, 
finished in 1875, aspires in pure romanesque form towards heaven. 
The transept and choirs represent the transition style (from Ro- 
manesque to Gothic). On the West Choir there is an equestrian 
statue representing St. Martin sharing his mantle with -a beggar. 

Before we enter the cathedral we should examine the Fountain 
(Brunnen) dating from 1526, which stands in the market place, 
the centre of old Mainz. 

The cathedral is open from 8 to 9, and from 9.30 to 12 a. m. and from 
2 to 6 p. m. If visitors wish to see the W. choir, the cloisters, crypts etc. they 
should enquire for the verger, who lives on the south side (In the Leich- 
hof). The dome of the W. choir, and the central nave have been adorned 
with paintings of Old and New Testament. subjects, The decoration was 
de^^igned by Phil. Yeit. Specially worthy of inspection are the sepulchral 
monuments by the pillars (there are over 40 of Archbishops of Mainz 
alone). Among these may be mentioned the renaissance monument of 
Archbishop Albrecht von Brandenburg by pillar 1 (in the north aisle) and 



94 Mainz. 



Archbishop Sebastian von Heusenstamm by pillar 2, and at pillar 9, the 
Cfothic monument to Archbisliop Konrad von Daun. Tlie beautiful side 
chapels sliould also l)e seen. In tlie nave, almost all the tombs are of 
extraordinary beauty. The soutli aisle also contains a monumental tablet 
to Fastrada the third wife of Charlemafrne. In the cloisters there is a 
marble monument to lieinricli Frauenlob [d. 1318) which the ladies of 
Mainz erected in 1S42 to this minnesanufer, and here also may be seen 
fine renaissance choir stalls. 

Coming back to the Market Place we turn our steps to the 
left and soon come to the Gutenberg-Platz with its i\[omtment to 
the inventor of the art oj printing (by Thorwaldsen, erected 1837). 
Opposite, is the theatre. Proceeding, the Tramway line leads us 
through Ludwigstrasse, and from it we go to the left through 
Prasenzgasse, across Ballplatz, and turn to the right to Stephans- 
kirche in Stephansstrasse. This is a remarkable Gothic church 
completed in the beginning of the 14 th century. The tower, 
rising to a height of 170 feet, affords a lovely view and may be 
ascended. (Bell on the flying buttress to the right of doorway of 
north tower). Going through Adlergasse and Breidenbacherstrasse 
we reach Emmerich Josefstra.sse, running at right angles to the 
latter, and, turning to the left, this street conducts us to the 
i\Cat]}ildenstrassc, which commands a lovely prospect of the town. 
Going back through Emmerich Josefstrasse we reach Schillerplatz, 
in which is a Monument to Schiller, erected in 1862 (by J. B. Scholl). 




Index. 



The first numbers after the hotel-addresses signify the prices for bed-room 
and breakfast, the second those for dinner. 



Ahr- Valley 32 
Ahrweiler 34 

Stern 2.50-3.50; 2.50. | 

Deutscher H. 2.25-2.n0; 

1.50; Kaiserhof 2.50-3.25 ; 

1.50-2. Stadt Koblenz 2; 

1.20. 4 Winde 2; 1-1.50. 

Bahnhof2.50; 1.50. Wwe. 

Schmitz2.50; 1.20. Kreuz- 

berg 2; 1.20. 

Aiken 48 

Sonntag. 
Altenahr 34 

Caspar! 2-4; 1.. 50-3.50. 

Rhein.H. (Winkler) 2.80; 

2-3. Weisses Kreuz 2.50; 

1.50-2.50. Assemacher 

1.75-2; 1. Zentr.-Winzer- 

verein 2; 1.20. 

Alter Zoll 20 
Altwied 39 
Andernach 37 

Schiifer 2.75-3; 2-2.50. 
Rhein. H. 2.75; 1.50. 
Hackenbruch 3-3.50; 2.25 
—3. Anker 2.70-3.20; 
1.50. Dahmen 2.25-2.50; 
1.20-2. Laachersee 2-2 25 ; 
0.80-1.50. Glocke 2.50; 
1.50. 

Apollinaris chapel 31 
Arenberg 46 

Refer Hahn 1.50-2.50; 1. 
Arenfels 3.o 
Ariendorf 3.5 
Arienheller 36 
Assmannshausen 68 

Krone 3-4; 2-3. Jung z. 

Anker 2.80-3; 1.50-2.50. 

Rheinhot. 2.50-3; 1.50-3. 

Eulberg 2.50-3; 1.50-3. 

Reutershan 2.25—3.25 ; 

1.50—2.50. G. Quelle R 

1.50-2.50; 1.20-2. Ger- 

mania 2; 1-1.50. Hotel 

Zahnradbahn 1.75 - 2.50. 

Winzerverein. 



Bacharach 63 

Herbrecht 2.75-4; 2 50-3. 

Bluchertal, Weber. 
Beethoven 20 
Bendorf 40 

Rhein. H.2..50-3. Nass. H. 
Beuel 19 

Schippers 2.10-2.60; 1-2. 
Biebrich 84 

Bellevue 2.50-3.50; 1.50-3. 

Nass. H. a. Krone 2.30- 

3.80; 2. Kaiserhof 3.50-6; 

1.50-2.50. Eintrachtl. 75; 1. 
Bingen 73 

Vik-toria 3.20-7.20; 3. 

Starkenburger H. 3-7; 

1.50-2.50. bistel 2.50-3.30; 

2. Deutsch.H. 2.50-3.70; 

1.50-2. Gobel 2.50-3.35; 

1.50-2.50. Germania2.25- 

3.25. Pflug 1.75-2.50; 

1.50-2. Hilsdorf 3.20-5.50. 

Adler, Karpfen. 
Bingerbriick 72 

Mohrmann2..30-3..50; 1.50 
— 3. Amerik. H. 
Bingerloch 72 
Bismarck-column, 

Bonn 22 
Bismarck-column, 

Cologne 18 
Bodendorf 33 
Post 3; 1.50. 

Bonn 20 

Royal 4.80-8 ; 4. Rheineck 
3-5; 2-3. Continental 3.50 
—9. Stern 3..50-9; 2.50. 
Schwan 2.75-3.75. Drugies 
2-3 ; 1.20. Westfalischer 
Hof 1.50-2; 1. Kronprinz, 
Hamburger Hof, Storch 
2.25; 1.20. Rote Kanne 
2 10-3.60; 1. Continental 
and Nolden 2.50-3.50. 
Boppard 53 

Bellevue and Rheinhotel 
3-5; 2-50. Spiegel 3-5.50; 



2.50-3. Hirsch 3-4.50:2.50. 
Ackermann 3-4; 1.50-2. 
Lange, Muhlbad 3.25 — 
4.25; 2. 
Born hof en 54 
Marienberg2.25-2.75; 1 .75. 

Braubach 52 

Kaiserhof 2.70-5. Rh. H. 

2.50; 1..50. 
Bretzenheim 74 
Brey 52 
Brodenbach 48 

Post 2-3; 1.50-2. 
Brohl 36 

Mittler 2-2.50; 1.50. 

Bromserburg 77 
Briihl 18 

Deutsch. Kaiser 2,50. Bel- 
vedere, Pavilion. 
Byron 26 

Camp 54 
Anker, Kauth. 

Coblence 40 

Bellevue 3.20-30 ; 3.50. 
Riesen-Fxirstenh. 3.70-30. 
Anker 3.20-ll;2.50.Traube 
3-5; 2. Viktoria3-5; 1.50. 
Monopol-Metropol 3.50- 
7; 3. Wild. Schwein 2.50- 
4; 1.50-3. Park-Palast-H. 
3-4..50; 1.25-3. Central 3- 
4.50 ; 2.50. Kolner H. 2.50- 
4; 2.50. Springer 2.50- 
3.50; 1.20-2. Miinch.Kindl 
1.50-2.50; 1.25. Europ. H. 
2.50; 1.50. Luxemb. H. 
2.50; 1.50-2. Trierer H. 
2.50-3; 1.25. DeutschesH. 
2-3.75; 1. Bristol 3-5; 
1.50-2 Hansa 3-6; 1.50-3. 
Bahnhof H. 2.50-3; 1.25- 
1.75. 

Cochem 48 

Union 2.50-3.50; 2.60 
Stadt Koln 1.50-2; 2. Ger- 
mania2-3; 1.25-2. Kloster- 
brau 1.50-2.50; 1-1.20. 



96 



Index. 



Fellenz 1.75; 1.50-2. Toni 
Miiller 2; 1. Noss 2.50; 
1.20. 

Cologne 1 1 

Domhotel 4.25-7.25; 5. 
Du Nord 4.50; 4. Disch 
R 3; 4. Monopol 4.25-9; 
2-5. Westminster 3 50-13 ; 
1.50-3. Berliner H. 3-4; 
1.25-2.50. Ewige Lampe 
(Antonettv) 3.50-5; 2.50. 
KolnerH. 3.70-7.20; 2.50. 
Mittelhauser 3.50-4 ; 2.50. 
Belg. Hof 4-7; 1.50-2.50. 
Vanderstein-Bellen 2.75; 
2.25 (incl. vine). 

C see also K. 



Dinkholder Bach .03 

Drachenburg 29 

Drachenfels 23 

Diisseldorf 7 

Breitenbacher H.4 75-13; 
3-4. Parkhotel 5.25; 3-4. 
Heck 4.25-6.25; 3. Mo- 
nopol 3. .50-5; 1.50-2. Ger- 
mania 3..50-8..50; 1..50-2. 
Bristol 3-6; Rom. Kaiser 
3.50; 1.50. Artushof2.75 
—4; 1.25-2. Diisseld. H. 
2.50; 1.50. Bahnhofhotel 
3.50-6; 1.50-3. Europ. H. 
2.50-7. 

Eberbach 81 
Ebernburg 76 
Ehrenbreitstein 46 

Kurfxirst 2.50; 1.25. 

Ehrenburg 48 
Ehrenfels 72 
Ehrental bb 
Eltville 82 

Burg Crass 2.70-4.20; 

2-3. Rheinblick 2-2.50; 

1.10. Reisenbach 3-4; 1.50 

—2.50. Mainzer H. 
Eltz 48 
Ems 49 

Bella Riva 4.30; 3.50. 

Darmst. H. 3.80-5. 30; 3.50. 

Engl. H. 4.40; 3.50-5. 

Quttenberg 4.30; 3..50. 

Jahreszeiten a. Europ. H. 



3.75-6.25 ; 3.50. Lowe 3-4 

2. Weilburg.H.2.30-3 30 

1.30-2. Weisses Ross 3 

2.50. 
EngehoU 61 
Engers 40 

Romerbrucke 2.25; 1.50. 

Schunkert. 
Ensen 18 
Erbach 82 

Engel,Walfisch, Nass. H. 
Erpel 31 

Weinberg 2; 1.20-1.50. 

Faikenburg 66 

Frankfurt 87 
Engl. H. 5.50; 4. National 
3.70-6.20. Royal 3-4 ; 
1.50-3. Kolner H. 2.80; 
1.50. Stadt Koblenz 2.90 
—3.40; )..50. Fiirstenhof 
6.50; 5. Imperial 5; 4. 
Frankf. H.4.50; 4. West- 
minster 3.75-8.25; 1.75 
2.50. Schwan 4.25-7.25. 
Pariser H. 4.25-8.25; 3-4. 
D. Kaiser 3..50-6; 2.50. 

Freiligrath 30 
Fiirstenberg 65 

Geisenheim 78 

Frankf. H. 2.30-3.50. Ger- 
mania, Deutsches H. 
St. Goar 56 

Rheinfels 3-6; 2.50. Lilie 
2.70-4 50; 3. Schneider 
3; 2.50. Lowe 2.55-3.20; 
1.75-2. Rose 1.50-3. 

St. Goarshausen 56 

Adler 2.50-3.50; 2.50. 
Nassauer H. 2.20-2.70; 
I. ,50. HohenzoUer 2.20; 
Krone. 
Godesberg 22 

Blinzler a. Royal 4.25- 
7.25; 3.50. Adler 4-7; 2. 
Huttenrauch 2.50-fi; 2 
Dreesen 4-11; 2..50-3. 
Godesb. H. 3.50-4.50; 3. 
Schaumb. H.3; 2.50. 

Godorf 18 
Goethe 91 
Gondorf 47 

Haupt R 1.50-2. 



Grafenwerth 29 
Graurheindorf 19 
Gutenfels 62 

Hallgarten 81 
Hammerstein 36 
Hasenberg 45 
Hattenheim 80 

Ress 2.30-2 80; 1. 

Hatzenport 48 
Heidger 2. Kranz. 

Heimburg 66 

Heimersheim 33 
Landskrone 2-3. 

Hei.^terbach 28 

Hersel 19 

Hirzenach 55. 
Traube. 

Hocbe, General 39 

Hohr 40 
Anker, Deutsches Haus, 
Lotschcrt, Miillenbach , 
Post. 

Honuef 29 
Kurhaus 4-5 ; 2.50. Webel 
3-4; 2..O0. Dell 4-5; 1.50- 
2.50. Rheinlust 3-4; 1.50. 

Honnineren 36 

Arenfels'_2-2.50; 1.50-2. 
Horchheim 51 

Holler. 
Humboldthohe 46 
Hutten 76 

Ingelheim 80 
Nieder-I. : Hirsch, Krone 
2-2.50. Ober-L: Lamm. 

Irlich 39 
Rest. Universum. 

Jobannisbcrg 79 

Kaltcuengers 40 
Kamp 54 

Anker, Kauth. 

Kapellen 51 

Bellevue and Stolzenfels 

3-4.50; 3. Lahneck R 1.-50- 
3; 1.50. 



Index. 



97 



Karden 48 

Brauer2.30; 1.80. Weins. 
Kasselsruh 21 

Kessel Mittag 1.50. j 

Katz 56 I 

Kaub 61 

Qriiner Wald 2-2.50. 

Turm 2 - 2.50 ; 1-2. 

Deutscher H. 
Keller, Jos. 35 
Kempenich 36 
Kesselheim 40 
Klemens Chapel 67 
Klippe 69 
Klopp, Castle 73 
Klotten 48 

KoUmann 2 ; 1.25. Loosen 

2; 1. 
Kobern 47 

Siinonis. 

Konigstuhlb. Rhens 51 
Konigs winter 23 

Diisseldorfer H. 3-5; 2- 

3.50. Mattern 4.25-16; 4. 

Berliner H. 4-6; 3. Union 

2.80-3. >i0;l. 50-3. KolnerH. 

2.50-3.50; 1.20-2.25. Kaiser 

2-2.75; 1-1.50. Kaiserhof 

2.25-3.75; 1.50. Siebengeb. 

2; 1-1.50. Viktoria 1.50-3; 

1-1. .50. Westf.H. 2.50-3; 

1-2. .50. Winzer-Ver. 2.25 ; 

1-1.50. Traube. 
Krahnenberg 38 
Kreuzberg n. Bonn 19 
Kreuznach 75 

Oranienhof 3.75-8.75; 3. 

Royal a. Engl. H. 3-16; 

3. Adler 3.50; 2.50. Bahn- 

hofsh. 2.50-3.50; 2. Berl. 

H. 2..50; 1.30. 
Kripp 35 
Kiihkopf 45 



Laachersee 38 
Lahneck 51 
Lahntal 49 
Landskrone 33 
Lanzel 18 
Laubbach 45 



Legends of: 

Andernach 37 
Apollinarisberg 3 
Bornhofen 54 
Bromserburg 77 
Drachenfcls 23 
Falkenburg 66 
Feindl. Briider 54 
Fiirstenberg 65 
St. Goar 56 
Hammerstein 36 
Heisterbach 28 
Ingelheim 80 
Jan van Werth 16 
Kadrich 65 
Klemens Chapel 67 
Lorch 65 
Liirlei 59 
Mauseturm 72 
Rheiustein 67 
Roland seek 29 
Riidesheim 77 
Sooneck 66 
Stolzeufels 45 

Leubsdorf 35 

Leutesdorf 37 

Lowenburg 3-5 ; 2-3. 

Ley. 
Liebeneck 53 
Liebfrauenkapelle 52 
Limburg 51 

Preuss. H.,Nass. H. 2.70; 

2. Alte Post 2. .SO; 1.40. 

Deutsch. Haus. 

Linz 35 
Weinstock 3.30-6.80; 2 
—10. Europ. H. 2.50-3; 
1.50—2. 

Lohrberg 23 
Lorch 65 

Krone 2-2.20; 1.50-3. 

Schmidt, Bahnhofhotel. 
Lorchhausen 64 
Lorelei 59 

Inn upon the mountain. 
Lowenburg 28 
Lulsdorf 18 



Mainz 91 

Holl. H. 4.25-7.50; 3.50. 

Rhein. H. 3.75; 3.50. 

Engl. H.3.75; 3. Kaipfen 

3-7; 2.50. Germania 

2.30-3.80; 1..50. JVlainzer 

H.3..50; 1.50. Pfeil3-4; 

1.20. Taunus3-1; 1.50. 

Rheing. H. 2.30; 1..50-2. 

Krone 3-8; 1.50. 
Malberg b. Ems 50 
Marcobrunnen 82 
Maria Laach 38 

Hotel 2-3; 3. 
Marienburg 18 
Marieneck 31 
Marksburg 52 
Martinskapelle 52 
Mathiaskapelle 47 
Maus 55 
Mauseturm 72 
.Mayschoss 34 

Winzerverein 2-2.50. 

Mehlem 29 

Parkhotel 2.75-4.25. 

Drachenfels 2.30-2.70. 

Rheinbliite. 
Menzenberg 30 
Mittelheim 80 
Mondorf 19 
Monte Casino 46 
Moselle 47 
Moselkern 48 

Burg Eltz 2.25-2.50. 

Mttden 48 

Hofer. 
Miinster am Stein 75 

Kurhaushotel 3.20-6.20 ; 
3. Baum 3.20-7.20; 3. 
Low 2.70-9; 3. Bubet 
2.70-11; 3. Zipp 2.80; 
2. Engl. H. 2.80-3.80. 
Schwan 2.80; 2. 
Miinstermaileld 48 

Nachtigallental 23 
Nahetal 75 
Namedy 37 
Nassau 50 

Bellevue 2-3; 1.20-2.50. 
Krone 2.25-2.75. Nass. H. 

7 



98 



Index. 



National-^fonument70 
Neroberg 87 
Nette-valley 3H 
Neuenahr 34 

Kurhotel 4.20-5.70. Vik- 
toria 3; 3. Concordia 
3.50-5 ; 2.50. Germania 
3-5; 3. Stern Z. 2-2.50; 
1-1.50. Reichsadler 2.50 ; 
1.20-2. Pflug 2.80; 1.50 
—2.50. Bonn z. Krone 
3-6; 2.50. H. v. Holland 
3.50-4; 3. Kaiserhof 3-4; 
2.50. Traube 3.50-5; 3. 
Rhein.H. 3.50-6; 3. Flora 
3.50-4..'.0; 3.50 

Neuendorf 40 
Neuwied 39 

Wilder Mann 3; 2.50. 

Moravian 2-2.50; 2.50. 

Anker 3 ; 2.50. 

Neuwieder Becken 3H 
Niederbreisig 3b 

Bender, Weisses Ross. 
Niederdollendorf 22 
Niederhanimerstein 36 
Niederheimbach 66 

Pfalzer Hof. 

Niederiugelheim 80 

Hirsch. 

Niederkassel 18 
Niederkestert 55 

Stern. 
Niederlahnstein 51 

Douque a. Sartor! 2-2.50 i 

Wochner. I 

Niedermendig 38 

Post 2; 1.50. Erholung 

2.50; 1.50. Kreutz 2; 

1.20. DeutschesHausJoh. 

Weilerje2; 1. M. Weiler 

2; 1.50. 
Niederspay 53 

Anker. 
Niederwald 69 
Niederwalluf 83 

Schwan 3-5 ; 2.50. Schone 

Aussicht. 
Niederwerth 40 
Nollich 65 
Nounenstromberg 23 
Nonnenwerth 29 



Oberdollendorf 22 
Oberhanimerstein 36 
Oberingclheim 80 

Lamm. 
Oberkas.sel 22 

Post, Stadt Bonn. 
Oberlahnstein 51 

Weiler 3-4.50; 2. Einhorn. 

Oberspay 53 

Anker. 
Oberstein 76 

Post2.25-2.75; 1.75. Stark. 

Oberwalluf 83 
Oberwesel 61 

Rhein.H.2.50; t. 50-2.50. 
Pfropfenzieher 2.50 - 3 ; 
1.50-3 Deutsches Haus 
2.25; 1.50. Rose, Diedert, 
Hunsriicken. 

Oberwinter 30 

Rheinhotel, Loosen. 
Ockeufels 35 
01 berg 28 
Osterspay 53 

Miiller, Anker. 
Oestrich 80 

Schwan Z. 2.20-3 ; 1.30-3. 
Winkel. 

Petersberg 27 
Pfaffeudorf 51 
Pfalz 62 

Pisport 48 [ 

Plittersdorf 22 j 

Poppelsdorfer JSchloss | 
21 I 

Porz 18 I 

Rauental 83 ! 

Rhcingauer H., Krone, i 
Tiefeiithal ! 

Reichardtshausen 80 j 
Reinhardtshausen 82 j 
Remagen 31 j 

Fiirstenberg, R 2.50-7 ; 4. j 
Hof von Holland 2.50; 
1.75. Rheinhotel 3-4 ; 2.50 
—3. Viktoriaberg 2-3.50; 
1.50. Kaiser 2.50-3; 1.75. j 
Fassbendcr 2 ; 1. Westf. i 



H. 2.50; 1. Berg. H. 2;1. 
Jager2; 1.20. Anker 2.50- 
3.00; 2, Horsen 2.50-3; 
1.50. 

Rheidt 19 
Rheinbrohl 36 

Weinberg 2.25-3; L25. 

Traube 2. 
Rheindiebach 65 
Rheiiieck 36 
Rheinfels 57 
Rheingau 64 
Rheinstein 67 
Rhens 51 

Konigsstuhl 2.50; 1.50. 

Rhondorf 29 
Bellevue 3 ; 2. Wolken- 
burg 2.50; 1.50. Drachen- 
fels 2-2.60, 1-1.50. 

Rittersturz 45 

Rochusberg 74 

Hotel 2.50-3 50; 1.50-2.50. 

Rochuskapelle 74 

Rodderberg 29 

Rolandsbogeu 29 

Rolandseck 29 
Kolner H. 2.50-3; 2. 
Decker 2.50-4; 1.50— 
2.50. Groyen 3.40-5 ; 3. 
Bellevue 3- G; 2.50 -3. 
Diisseld. H. 2. .50; 1.50. 
Anker 2. .'iO. Roland 2.25; 
2.50. Viktoria 2.80-4.30; 
1.50. Bahnhofhot. Mitt. 2. 

Rosenau 28 

Rossel 69 

Rottbergsau 84 

Riidesheim 76 
Jung a. Darmst. H. 3-6; 
3. Beiderlindens H. Rhein- 
stein 3-7.50 ; 2. .50. Belle- 
vue 2.50-3.50; 1.50-2.50. 
Weil 2.50-4; 1.50. Krass 
3-4; 3. F.hrhardt 3-4.50; 2. 
Lill 2.20-3; 1-2. Faulhaber 
2.20-3.20; 1.20. Traube. 



Salzig 55 

Romertal 2.25-2.75;! 1.50. 

Sayn 40 

Holler2-2.50; 1.50-2. Frie- 
drichsberg 2-2.50; 1.50. 



Index. 



99 



8charlachkopf 71 
Schierstein 83 
Seipel. 8 Kronen 2-2.50. 

Schlangenbad 83 

Kurhauser a. Nass. H. 

3.20-19; 3. Viktoria 3-11. 

Russ. Kaiser R 3; 2.50. 

Waldf rieden R 2-5 ; 2.50. 
Schonburg 61 
Schwarzrheindorf 19 
Schweizerhaus 69 

Hotel 3. 
^?chweaimstein 38 
Sebastian-Engers 40 
Seven IMountains 23 
Siebengebirge 23 
Siegburg 19 

FelderR2.50; 1.50. Stern 

2.50-3; 2. 
Simmern 

Vollrath. Lamm. Post. 
Simrock 20 
Sinzig 3.") 

Deutsches Haus 2.50-3.30; 

1.25-2. Jagerhof 2.20; 1.20. 

Kaiserhof 2; 1. Biintgen 

1.60; 1. 
Sooneck 66 
Stahlberg 63 
Stahleck 63 
Steeg 63 
Steinberg 81 
Stolzenfels 45 



Teufelskadrich 66 
Tonnisstein 36 

Kurhaus a. Schweizerhaus 
2.50-3.50; 3.50. 

Trechtingshausen 66 
W-^eisses Ross 2. 

Treis 48 

Wildbure 2-10; 1.50. 



Unkel 30 
Schulz R 2-2.50 ; 1.50. 

Urbar 40 
Urfeld 19 
Urmitz 39 



Vallendar 46 
Anker 2.50; 2. 

Viktoriaberg 31 

Waldburg 2. .50; A 1.50. 
Vinxtbach 36 
Vollrads 79 
Vorgebirge 18 



Waldaffe 83 
Wallersheim 40 
Walporzheim 34 

St. Peter R 2.50. Winzer- 

verein 2; 1.50. 



Wassenach 38 

Laachersee 1.60; 1.50. 

Weiss 18 
Weissenthurm 39 
VVellmich 55 
Wernerskirchen 61,63 
Wesseling 18 
Westhoven 18 
Widdig 19 
Wiesbaden 84 

Nass. H. 4.50-11.50; 4. 
Adler a Krone 3..n0-7 ; 
2.50. Wilhelma 4.50; 4. 
Promenadehotel 3-7 ; 2. 
Taunush. ;J ; 3. Weins 
2.70. Schweinsberg 2.50-3. 
Vogel, Braubach. 

Winkel 79 
Rheing.-H., Doring 

Winningen 47 
Schwan, Adler 2.20-2.70; 
1.20-1.50. Moselschlossch. 

Winzerverein 82 
Wispertal 65 
Wolkenburg 23 



Zauberhohle 69 
Zons 

Rothenburg 2.50; 1.50-2. 

Ziindorf 18 



100 

iBraiibach Hotel Rheinischer Hof. I 

Ji on the Rhine. Proprietor: Hugo Becher. ij 

^ Beautiful Garden. cgD 2 minutes from Railway Station. l^ 

46 Hotel Porte moots all tlio trains. V> 

^ Famed for good Cooking. 4" Pure Wines. ■+" Wine Business. ij 

^ Rooms from 2 marks. Dinners from 1.25 marks. ^ 

-J, Beautifully t'uniishcti Public Kooins. <^ c§d <5^ Cheaiiest Pension Prices. ^ 



Assmannshaiisen on the Rhine. 

"Rotel 2ur Krone" 

Famous, historic^ and genuine Rhenish Bouse. 

A much visited haunt of artists and poets 
Lovely view. — Beautiful terraces. 

Pension 5 to 6 marks per day according to room. 
Table d*h6te 1 o*cl. 

Inspection of the Freilig rath-room and also of the largo wino-ceilar 
in tho rock willingly permitted. 

Jos, Hufnagel. 



(^rfvf^-j\-f.'-f\y.f).f,j^.cf4f^^f^f^^^^^^^^ 



i THE GERMAN RHINE I 

^ 30 picturesque views of the Rhine including ij 

§ Heidelberg, Wiesbaden and Frankfort. § 

g With interestiiiii descriptions. g 

« Cologne, Hoursch & Bechstedt, Publishers, g 



Piew of the Kolner Bof. 



^. tM ^k 



s^ 



Rolandseck — the pearl of the Rhine. 

Not far beloxx^ Remagen the Rhine traveller is greeted by the 
Hotel-colonv of Rolandseck, situated in a* green paradise on the 
left bank. Broad meadows extend here and offer lovely walks along 
the open river, und wide uninterrupted views. Over the river rise 
the Siebengebirge (Seven Mountains), and beautiful small motor-boats 
conduct us to the historic and nicely wooded island of Nonnenwerth, 
while if we ascend the mountain to Rolandsbogen, a panorama is 
before us, which according to Alexander von Humboldt is one of the 
most beautiful in the world. One of the first houses of Rolandseck 
and standing in an open situation is the well kown 

Botel Kolner BoL 

It is situated close to the Rhine, was rebuilt in 1900 and fitted 
with all the most modern conveniences. There are 22 Bedrooms, large 
Public Rooms and a covered Verandah. The hotel, being in a situa- 
tion free from dust, and commanding a large open view of the Rhine 
induces the traveller to prolong his stay. 

In the large shady gardens Military Concerts are given. 

Cuisine and Wines-excellent 

Bedroom with Breakfast from 2.50 to 3 marks. 

Pension from 5 to 6 marks. 

Telephone No. 8. Stabling. 

Proprietor: Joh. Steinborn. 



fp 



<1^- 



=^ 



102 



W einhaus H utwohl 

Steeg. 

I ' , km from Railway- and Steamer-Station Bacharach. 
Proprietor : 

Jacob Hiitwohl. 

Wine-Grower and Wholesale-Wine-Merchant. 

Purveyor by special appointment to H. R. H. the 
Grand Duke of Oldenburg. 

Purveyor to the North German Lloyd, Bremen and 
the German Dining Car Company. 



Prizes for excellence of quality awarded 
at 15 exhibitions from 1862 to J 905. 



Manager: Philipp Hell. 



Telephone No. 6, Post -Office Bacharach. 



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