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Gift  of 
Mary  G.  Fyfe-Smith 


AND    SHRUBS:    A 

Handbook  for  Gardeners 

Digitized  by  tine  Internet  Arcinive 

in  2010  witii  funding  from 

University  of  Britisin  Columbia  Library 

Romneva  Coulteri. 


::      AND    SHRUBS       :: 




Printed  in  Great  Britain, 


In  the  following  pages  I  have  endeavoured  to  describe 
some  of  the  best  known  families  of  the  hardy  flowering 
shrubs,  which  are  attracting  so  much  attention  from 
gardeners  that  they  may  well  claim  to  be  the  most 
popular  of  all  branches  of  gardening  at  the  present 
time.  I  am  sorry  that  owing  to  space  I  have  had  to 
omit  many  beautiful  families,  in  particular  the  genera 
of  Spiraea,  Weigelia,  Rhus,  Philadelphus,  and  Lilac. 

It  is  not  surprising  that  the  flowering  shrub  section 
of  the  garden  should  have  this  popularity,  for  it  has 
the  great  advantage  of  being  economical  in  labour  and 
of  providing  an  interest  spread  over  the  greater  part 
of  the  year,  firstly  wdth  the  flowers,  later  on  with  the 
berries  and  fruit,  and  lastly  in  the  gorgeous  autumn 
colouring  of  the  foliage. 

In  order  that  amateurs  who  are  taking  up  this  branch 
of  horticulture  may  find  my  descriptions  and  notes 
helpful,  I  have  considered  the  needs  of  the  practical 
gardener  as  far  as  possible  and  have  avoided  the  use  of 
difficult  botanical  terms. 

In  all  cases  of  naming  I  have  followed  the  Kew  Hand 
List.  I  have  also  often  referred  for  guidance  to  Mr. 
W.  J.  Bean's  "  Trees  and  Shrubs,  hardy  in  the  British 
Isles,"  the  most  valuable  book  ever  written  on  this 
class  of  plants  and  one  which  has  done  much  to  en- 
courage the  culture  of  these  shrubs  and  trees. 


The  names  of  certain  shrubs  have  unfortunately  been 
much  confused,  the  same  plant  being  known  under  two 
or  more  names,  which  is  very  misleading  to  the  be- 
ginner. Take  for  example  the  common  Lilac- — Syringa 
vulgaris — this  is  often  ordered  by  the  uninitiated  with 
the  idea  of  receiving,  not  a  Lilac,  but  the  old  fashioned, 
sweet-scented  Syringa  (Philadelphus  coronaria).  I 
hope  this  book  will  help  to  prevent  disappointment 
due  to  such  mistakes. 

Considerable  space  is  devoted  to  the  description  and 
cultivation  of  plants  that  will  thrive  on  the  sea  coast. 
This  is  a  section  of  gardening  in  which  a  good  deal  of 
care  (and  experience)  is  necessary.  There  are  many 
shrubs  that  grow  and  flourish  inland  which  will  be 
found  entirely  unsuitable  for  a  seaside  garden  where 
they  are  exposed  to  strong  salt  winds  from  the  sea. 
However,  experience  has  shown  that  there  are  many 
beautiful  shrubs  that  will  resist  these  winds  and  indeed 
thrive  better  on  the  coast  than  further  inland,  where 
they  are  subjected  to  a  mild,  damp  air  during  summer 
and  autumn  and  far  sharper  frost  in  mid-winter  and 
spring.  This  is  largely  accounted  for  by  the  plants 
forming  hard,  short  growths  which  are  fully  ripened  by 
the  autumn  sunshine  thus  enabling  them  to  stand  the 
cold  of  winter  far  better  than  more  softly  grown  plants 
in  districts  inland. 

Nothing  is  more  disappointing  than  to  spend  time 
and  money  on  plants  only  to  find,  after  the  first  cold 
spring  and  when  a  whole  year  has  been  lost,  that  they 
are  quite  unsuitable  for  the  place  in  which  they  have 
been  planted. 


I  am  greatly  indebted  to  Mr.  Collingwood  Ingram 
for  his  chapter  on  Japanese  Cherries,  a  group  of  plants 
which  he  has  so  carefully  studied  and  cultivated.  He 
is  now  looked  to  as  the  best  authority  on  these  delight- 
ful spring-flowering  shrubs.  I  am  also  much  indebted 
to  Mr.  Osbom  of  Kew,  Mr.  Gould  of  Wisley,  and  to  my 
nursery  foreman,  Mr.  E.  Thatcher,  all  of  whom,  with 
their  long  practical  experience,  have  been  of  the 
greatest  help.  Lastly  I  am  deeply  grateful  to  the  late 
Mr.  W.  R.  Dykes,  whose  tragic  death  occurred  as  a 
result  of  a  motor  accident  just  as  we  were  completing 
the  last  few  pages.  I  shall  always  bear  a  debt  of 
gratitude  to  his  memory  as  without  his  help  I  should 
never  have  attempted  this  work. 



May,  1926. 



Chapter  I. 

Introduction     . 





,      III. 



,       IV. 






,       VI. 



,     VII. 

Cytisus  and  Genista     . 


,    VIII. 

Prunus  . 


,       IX. 

Flowering  Cherries     . 





,       XL 

Pyrus     .             .             .             . 


,     XII. 



,   XIII. 

Seaside  Plants 






















Romneya  Coulteri 

Berberis  polyantha 

Berberis  pniinosa 

Berberis  nibrostilla 

Buddleia  altemifolia 

Buddleia  variabilis  magnifica 

Ceanothus  papillosus 

Helianthemum  algarvense 

Cotoneaster  frigida — in  flower 

Cotoneaster  frigida — in  berry 

Spartium  junceum 

Pninus  cerasifera  Blireiana 

Prunus  persica,  var.  Clara  Meyer 

Prunus  serrulata  "  Ojochin,"  syn.  Senriko 

Prunus  spinosa,  var.  purpurea 

Prunus  subhirtella  autumnalis 

Pyrus  Eleyi — in  fruit     . 

Viburnum  Carlesii 

Viburnum  rhytidophyllum 

Viburnum  plicatum 

Abutilon  vitifolium 

Cupressus  macrocarpa : 

Tree  twenty  years  after  planting   . 

Hedge  three  seasons  after  planting 
Escallonia  Donard  seedling 
Senecio  Greyi     .... 


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Flowering  Shrubs 


Within  the  last  fifty  years  the  planting  of  our  gardens 
has  undergone  many  changes.  During  the  period  from 
1830  to  1880  the  gardener's  choice  of  shrubs  was 
limited  to  such  evergreens  as  Laurels,  Aucubas  and 
Holhes,  mostly  clipped  into  tight  balls  and  thus  losing 
all  their  natural  grace.  Conifers  were  also  very  popular 
and  these  with  neat  rows  of  scarlet  Geraniums,  yellow 
Calceolarias  and  blue  Lobelias  made  the  perfect  garden 
of  the  mid- Victorian  era. 

With  the  increase  of  gardening  periodicals  and  the 
publication  in  1883  of  W.  Robinson's  book,  "  The 
English  Flower  Garden,"  a  change  began.  The  first 
result  was  that  much  more  interest  was  taken  in  her- 
baceous plants,  and  roses  became  more  popular.  It 
became  fashionable  to  have  beds  of  roses,  each  of  one 
variety,  and  such  beds  became  more  and  more  usual 
at  the  expense  of  carpet  and  formal  bedding.  Towards 
the  end  of  the  nineteenth  century  and  at  the  beginning 
of  the  twentieth,  flowering  shrubs  also  began  to  gain  in 
popularity,  and  since  the  war  this  has  been  still  more 


marked.  It  may  be  explained  by  two  facts.  In  the 
first  place  they  are  both  beautiful  and  interesting  and 
secondly  they  are  easy  to  cultivate.  Once  shrubs  have 
been  properly  planted  the  cost  of  upkeep  is  small  com- 
pared with  that  of  plants  which  must  be  housed  in  the 
winter  in  heated  greenhouses.  In  fact,  a  garden  of 
flowering  shrubs  goes  a  long  way  towards  solving  the 
labour  difficulty.  Moreover  in  recent  years  there  has 
been  an  immense  increase  in  the  number  of  new  kinds 
of  flowering  shrubs  available  and  the  majority  of  them 
have  been  introduced  as  the  result  of  the  journeys  of 
E.  H.  Wilson,  George  Forrest,  and  the  late  Reginald 
Farrer.  These  collectors  have  penetrated  into  vast 
unknown  regions  in  China,  Japan  and  Tibet,  where  the 
winters  are  as  cold  as  our  own,  so  that  the  majority  of 
these  new  comers  have  quickly  adapted  themselves  to 
our  fickle  climate,  though  some  would  doubtless  flower 
better  than  they  do  if  our  summers  were  as  hot  as  those 
which  ripen  their  growth  in  their  native  homes. 

Some  of  these  recent  introductions  are  already  so 
well  known  that  it  is  difficult  to  realize  that  some 
fifteen  or  twenty  years  ago  the  beautiful  Viburnum 
Carlesii,  with  its  fragrant  white  blossom,  and  the 
majestic  purple  spikes  of  the  Buddleias  were  unknown. 
Perhaps  the  finest  of  all  are  the  members  of  the  new 
race  of  deciduous  Berberis,  gorgeous  with  their  brilliant 
autumn  foliage  and  sprays  of  coral-red  fruit.  In  the 
Royal  Horticultural  Society's  gardens  at  Wisley  they 
are  to  be  seen  growing  to  perfection  in  the  light,  sandy 
soil  and  the  masses  of  berries  provide  a  wealth  of  colour 
in  autumn,  unsurpassed  by  any  other  genus. 


Recent  years  have  also  seen  many  additions  to  the 
list  of  Brooms.  The  showy  Cytisus  Andreanus  was 
rarely  seen  before  1870  and  this  has  since  been  followed 
by  Cytisus  kewensis,  with  its  cascades  of  creamy  white 
flowers  and  still  more  recently  by  the  delightful  Cornish 
seedling,  known  as  Cornish  Cream. 

Fortunately  it  is  not  only  shrubs  that  flower  in 
spring  and  summer  that  have  been  introduced  recently 
to  our  gardens  but  such  good  things  as  Viburnum 
fragrans  with  its  sweet-scented  blossoms  in  mid-winter 
and  Prunus  subhirtella  autumnalis,  which  sends  forth 
its  little,  blush-white,  scented  flowers  in  profusion 
throughout  November  and  December. 

After  these  come  the  early  spring  flowering  shrubs 
such  as  the  double  pink  Cherries  of  Japan,  with  their 
bronzy  foliage  adding  to  the  delight  of  the  flowers  and 
the  form  of  Purple  Plum,  Prunus  Blirieana,  similar  in 
its  bronze  foliage  to  P.  cerasifera  var.  Pissardii,  which 
is  covered  in  spring  with  the  most  attractive  salmon- 
pink  blossoms.  Such  flowers  are  always  doubly  wel- 
come, coming  as  they  do  when  the  bleak,  dreary  days 
of  winter  are  past  and  when  there  is  a  promise  of  better 
days  to  come.  Among  the  Crab  Apples  (Pyrus)  there 
have  been  in  recent  years  many  acquisitions,  Pyrus 
Eleyi  being  the  most  striking  of  all,  for,  in  addition  to 
the  deep  red  flowers  and  dark  foliage,  the  red  Cherry- 
like  fruits  are  most  attractive  in  early  autumn. 

These  can  be  grown  in  bush  form,  but  are  most 
effective  as  standards.  These  Cherries  and  Crabs 
seldom  become  really  large  trees,  but,  if  grouped 
amongst  flowering  bushes,  or  grown  as  single  specimens 


they  are  seen  to  great  advantage,  especially  if  they  are 
so  planted  that  their  flowers  are  seen  against  a  dark 

Another  interesting  family  of  Chinese  plants  com- 
prises the  many  species  of  Cotoneaster,  which  deserve 
to  be  even  more  widely  planted  than  they  are.  Many 
are  brilliant  with  scarlet  berries  in  autumn  and,  if 
sprayed  with  quassia,  to  make  them  distasteful  to 
birds,  will  continue  to  give  a  blaze  of  colour  far  into 
the  winter. 

While  explorers  of  the  borders  of  China  and  Tibet 
have  been  busily  introducing  to  our  gardens  some  of 
the  seemingly  inexhaustible  botanical  treasure  of  that 
region,  hybridizers  have  not  been  idle.  Foremost 
among  them  we  must  place  Lemoine  of  Nancy,  who 
will  always  be  remembered  for  the  many  varieties  of 
Lilac,  Philadelphus  and  Weigelia,  which  he  has  intro- 
duced into  commerce.  All  are  hardy  and  the  majority 
of  them  are  easy  to  cultivate,  while  those  in  whose 
garden  the  soil  is  free  from  lime  have  also  at  their 
disposal  the  innumerable  Rhododendron  species  and 
hybrids,  which  have  been  either  introduced  from  China 
or  raised  from  crosses  made  in  this  country. 

Preparation  of  the  Ground  and  Planting. 

As  flowering  shrubs  should  be  permanent  when  once 
planted,  it  is  most  essential  that  the  ground  should  be 
properly  prepared  beforehand. 

Time  and  money  spent  in  proper  preparation  are 
true  economy  in  the  long  run.  The  shrubs  grow  more 
vigorously  and  the  colour  of  their  foliage  is  richer  when 


they  are  planted  on  deeply  cultivated  soil  than  when 
they  are  forced  into  small  holes  in  hard  ground.  It  is 
frequently  found  that  under  a  few  inches  of  top  culti- 
vated soil  there  exists  a  pan  or  hard  layer,  often  only 
a  few  inches  in  thickness,  but  occasionally  as  much  as 
a  foot  or  more.  Below  this  pan  the  ground  generally 
becomes  soft  again  but,  imtil  this  hard  layer  is  thor- 
oughly broken  up,  no  trees  will  grow  freely.  The  best 
possible  preparation  is  to  have  all  the  ground  intended 
for  planting  double-dug  to  the  depth  of  18  or  24  inches 
by  the  process  known  as  "  bastard  trenching."  This 
is  cheaper  in  labour  and  on  poor  land  often  preferable 
to  trenching.  Bastard  trenching  is  carried  out  in  the 
following  way.  The  piece  of  ground  is  first  divided 
lengthwise  into  two  and  a  trench  two  or  three  feet  wide 
and  one  spit  deep  is  opened  across  the  end  of  one  half. 
The  soil  removed  is  placed  at  the  end  of  the  other  half 
as  this  is  much  less  laborious  than  wheeling  it  away  to 
the  far  end  of  the  piece  of  ground.  The  bottom  of  the 
trench  is  then  thoroughly  dug  and  deeply  broken  up, 
after  which  it  is  covered  by  the  soil  thrown  out  of  the 
next  trench.  The  work  proceeds  up  one  side  of  the 
piece  of  ground  and  down  the  other  side  to  the  end  at 
which  it  started,  where  the  last  trench  is  filled  in  with 
the  soil  thrown  out  of  the  first. 

Each  trench  should  be  of  the  same  width  and  it  is 
best  to  mark  them  out  with  a  line  so  as  to  keep  the 
work  straight  and  regular.  If  the  ground  is  covered 
with  grass,  the  sods  should  be  skimmed  off  about  tw^o 
inches  thick  and  placed  upside  down  on  the  lower  spit 
in  each  trench  before  the  top  spit  is  thrown  upon  them. 


Ground  thus  treated  allows  surface  water  to  drain 
away  more  readily  and  at  the  same  time  retains  more 
moisture  in  dry  weather  than  hard  ground.  Plants 
are  thus  enabled  to  withstand  drought  far  better  than 
when  planted  in  unbroken  ground  or  in  soil  of  which 
only  the  top  few  inches  have  been  dug. 

In  dealing  with  poor,  or  perhaps  with  almost  any 
land  it  is  most  desirable  that  some  form  of  stable  or 
good  farmyard  manure  should  be  added,  and  well 
mixed  in  while  the  digging  is  in  progress.  This  is  cer- 
tainly the  best  time  for  manuring,  for,  although  manure 
can  be  dug  in  after  planting  with  good  results,  there  is 
never  quite  the  same  opportunity  as  during  the  process 
of  digging. 

Again,  this  manure  has  a  double  purpose  ;  it  forms 
a  store  of  food  and  nourishment  for  the  plant  and  also 
holds  a  store  of  moisture,  which  is  the  salvation  of 
many  freshly-planted  shrubs,  through  a  spell  of  drought 
in  the  early  summer. 

In  the  same  way  a  light  mulch  of  stable  manure  on 
the  surface  close  round  the  young  shrubs  is  an  immense 
help.  The  winter  rains  wash  in  the  goodness  of  the 
manure,  which  also  tends  to  prevent  severe  frost  from 
penetrating  down  to  the  roots,  and  to  keep  the  roots 
moist  during  a  dry  spell.  Unfortunately  in  these  days 
it  is  becoming  increasingly  difficult  to  obtain  good 
manure  at  a  reasonable  price. 

In  dealing  with  heavy  clay  land,  leaf  mould,  not  too 
much  decayed,  is  very  valuable.     It  is  also  an  admirable 
•  mulch — but  on  light,  dry  soil  nothing  realty  takes  the 
place  of  farmyard  manure. 


Chemical  manures  are  sometimes  recommended,  but 
they  should  be  applied  cautiously  when  dealing  with 
transplanted  shrubs  and  should  never  be  used  in  hot, 
dry  weather.  Bone  meal  or  flour  is  one  of  the  best 
forms  and  gives  good  results.  It  acts  slowly  but  the 
tree  feels  the  benefit  for  a  long  time. 

Deep  planting  should  be  avoided.  It  is  usually 
quite  easy  to  see  the  mark  on  the  stems  of  the  trees 
and  shrubs  which  shows  the  depth  at  which  they  have 
previously  been  planted  and  this  mark  should  be  at 
the  ground  level  when  the  trees  are  replanted.  When 
trees  are  planted  too  deeply,  with  the  mistaken  idea 
of  avoiding  the  trouble  of  staking,  the  obvious  effect 
is  that  the  roots  fail  to  get  the  requisite  air  and  warmth. 
They  remain  in  the  cold  subsoil  in  the  spring,  whereas, 
if  planted  at  the  right  depth,  they  get  a  certain  amount 
of  warmth  from  the  sun  which  encourages  good  root 

All  shrubs  should  be  firmly  planted,  the  ground  being 
well  trodden  down  round  the  stem.  If  the  plants  are 
tall  and  likely  to  blow  about  in  a  high  wind,  it  is  neces- 
sary to  stake  them.  In  staking,  always  tie  firmly  so 
that  the  shrub  and  stake  rock  together  without  chafing. 
In  many  cases  stakes  are  only  required  for  a  few  months. 
If  it  is  found  necessary  to  leave  them  longer,  the  string 
should  be  cut  and  re-tied,  at  least  once  a  year.  Soft 
tarred  cord,  about  as  thick  as  a  pencil,  is  the  best  tying 
material,  with  a  piece  of  sacking  wrapped  firmly  round 
the  stem  of  the  tree  so  as  to  avoid  cutting  into  the  bark. 
Nothing  is  worse  than  allowing  freshly  planted  trees  to 
sway  about  in  the  wind,  thus  forming  a  hoUow  in  the 


earth  around  the  stem,  which  prevents  the  plant  from 
forming  fresh  roots  as  quickly  as  it  otherwise  would. 
If  a  space  should  be  noticed  round  the  stem,  the  soil 
should  at  once  be  filled  in  and  made  firm. 

Time  for  Transplanting. 

Speaking  generally,  deciduous  trees  and  shrubs  may 
be  safely  moved  at  any  time  between  the  middle  of 
October  and  the  middle  of  March — preferably  during 
November  and  the  first  half  of  December.  In  average 
seasons  there  is  a  danger  of  severe  frost  and  snow  from 
Christmas  till  the  middle  of  February.  Trees  and 
shrubs  should  not  be  transplanted  when  the  ground  is 
excessively  wet  and  cold.  If  they  arrive  from  a  nursery 
when  the  ground  is  frozen,  the  bundles  should  not  be 
opened  so  as  to  expose  the  roots  to  the  frost.  The  best 
plan  is  to  lay  the  roots  in  soil  in  a  shed  or  in  some 
sheltered  place  until  the  ground  has  thawed  and 
planting  is  once  more  possible. 

In  the  case  of  Evergreens,  the  transplanting  season 
is  longer,  although  mid-winter  should  be  even  more 
strictly  avoided  than  in  the  case  of  deciduous  plants. 
The  period  from  the  beginning  of  October  to  the  middle 
of  November  is  an  excellent  time  for  the  work  and  so 
is  April  when  the  ground  is  warmer.  In  some  instances 
the  time  may  be  extended  to  the  middle  of  May. 

It  is  now  becoming  a  general  practice  in  most  nur- 
series to  keep  in  pots  many  plants  that  are  difficult  to 
transplant.  All  varieties  of  Ceanothus  and  Cistus, 
and  the  Brooms  should  always  be  obtained  in  this  way. 
In  dealing  with  pot  plants  it  is  most  essential  that  they 


should  not  be  dry  when  planted  out.  This  particu- 
larly applies  to  plants  that  have  been  received  from 
a  distance.  If  the  plants  are  dry  when  they  are 
received,  soak  them  in  a  pail  of  water  before  placing 
them  in  the  ground.  If  planted  with  the  roots  really 
dry,  no  amount  of  watering  afterwards  will  penetrate 
the  ball.  This  is  often  the  cause  of  failure,  and  the 
nurseryman  is  blamed,  though  the  fault  is  the  planter's. 


There  are  many  ways  of  planting  flowering  shrubs. 
Grouped  in  a  broad  border,  five  or  seven  being  placed 
together  and  with  a  fair  amount  of  room  left  for  de- 
velopment, they  display  themselves  well,  and  a  few 
flowering  standards  placed  singly  here  and  there  will 
produce  a  pleasing  effect.  This  massing  is  more  ad- 
vantageous than  the  old  way  of  using  single  plants, 
one  here  and  another  of  the  same  variety  a  little 
further  on.  Even  rows  should  also  be  avoided.  It  is 
a  difficult  matter  to  give  a  regular  distance  for  planting 
apart,  but  six  feet  is  a  fair  average,  while  the  small 
groups  in  the  front  should  not  be  more  than  four  feet 
from  plant  to  plant,  that  is,  when  dealing  with  the 
smaller  Berberis,  Brooms,  Cistus,  etc.  Again,  a  strong 
plant  like  a  Buddleia  will  soon  cover  an  area  8  or  lo 
feet  in  diameter.  When  shrubs  are  planted  to  form 
a  screen  it  is  always  well  to  use  a  fair  proportion  of 
evergreens,  though  the  result  will  be  less  dull  or 
monotonous  if  some  of  the  more  brilliant  deciduous 
species  are  placed  among  them. 

Many  plants  seem  to  thrive  best  when  planted  some- 


what  thickly,  but  they  require  watching,  and  thinning 
must  not  be  delayed  too  long.  It  is  an  excellent  plan 
when  arranging  plants  to  have  a  bundle  of  cheap  plants 
like  Oval  Leaf  Privet,  Berberis,  Cotoneaster  Simonsi, 
etc.,  which  may  be  used  as  nurses,  just  to  fill  up  the 
spaces  between  the  choicer  shrubs  and  to  be  cut  out 
when  the  choicer  specimens  require  more  room. 

Treatment  after  Planting. 

Once  the  shrubs  are  planted  and  staked,  where 
necessary,  the  after  cultivation  is  comparatively  simple. 
The  main  point  is  to  keep  the  land  stirred  and  free 
from  all  weeds  either  by  hoeing  or  by  occasional  light 
forking.  In  this  way  the  air  penetrates  into  the  soil 
and  enables  the  young  trees  to  withstand  drought  and 
greatly  encourages  growth. 

If  two  pieces  of  ground  were  planted  in  the  same  way, 
one  being  left  without  weeding  or  hoeing  and  the  other 
kept  clean  and  the  soil  stirred,  the  difference  in  growth 
at  the  end  of  two  years  would  be  astonishing. 

During  the  winter  the  land  occupied  by  shrubs 
should  be  carefully  forked  over  so  as  not  to  damage 
the  small  fibrous  roots  by  digging  too  closely  to  the 
stems.  This  is  all  that  is  necessary  until  the  surface 
begins  to  dry  in  the  spring,  when  the  hoe  must  again 
be  brought  into  use. 


This  is  a  vexed  question,  many  successful  cultivators 
of  shrubs  declaring  it  to  be  quite  unnecessary,  if  the 
ground  is  properly  cultivated.     However,  in  some  soils 


and  in  some  seasons  watering  is  sometimes  necessar^^ 
It  is  quite  true  that  once  shrubs  are  well  established 
watering  is  seldom  required.  With  freshly  planted 
shrubs  and  particularly  with  evergreens,  however,  a 
good  soaking  or  two  in  early  summer  often  saves  the 
life  of  a  valuable  plant.  In  late  spring  watering  is 
most  essential  if  the  weather  should  set  in  hot  and  dry, 
and  again  when  the  plants  have  been  turned  out  of 
pots,  an  occasional  watering  is  most  desirable. 

It  is  always  better  to  give  a  good  soaking  once  a 
week  than  a  little  water  each  day.  Make  a  slightly 
raised  ring  of  soil  about  a  foot  or  two  from  the  stem  of 
the  plant  so  as  to  form  a  basin  holding  several  gallons 
and  the  effect  of  the  watering  will  last  for  days,  es- 
pecially if  the  surface  of  the  soil  is  kept  loose  and  not 
allowed  to  form  a  hard  crust.  An  excellent  practice, 
particularly  with  evergreens,  is  to  syringe  or  sprinkle 
overhead  from  a  watering  pot  with  a  fine  rose  each 
afternoon  an  hour  or  two  before  sunset.  This  has  the 
effect  of  freshening  up  the  foliage  after  a  hot,  dry  day 
and  helps  to  encourage  growth.  Where  possible  rain 
water  which  has  stood  in  the  open  air  should  be  used 
in  preference  to  that  from  underground  mains,  which 
is  usually  much  colder  than  the  atmosphere. 


Some  shrubs  need  little  pruning  and  others  need 
practically  no  pruning  at  all  and  yet  sooner  or  later 
if  they  are  to  be  kept  within  bounds  and  if  they  are 
not  to  become  mere  tangles  of  dead  and  living  branches, 
the  time  will  come  when  some  pruning  has  to  be  done. 


An  understanding  of  the  principles  of  pruning  is 
therefore  a  necessity  if  a  collection  of  flowering  shrubs 
is  to  be  maintained  in  the  best  possible  condition. 

One  of  the  worst  offenders  against  all  the  rules  of 
pruning  is  probably  the  jobbing  gardener,  whose  one 
idea  is  to  take  a  pair  of  garden  shears  and  clip  all 
shrubs  back  indiscriminately  at  sometime  during  the 
winter  into  tight  spheres  or  square  blocks.  Imagine 
the  result  on  the  beautiful  Pyrus  (purpurea),  which 
flowers  from  spurs  on  the  old  wood  but  more  freely  all 
along  the  slender  branches  of  the  new  wood.  A  shear- 
ing in  winter  will  remove  practically  all  the  flowering 
wood  and  a  little  observation  and  thought  would  show 
that  this  tree  must  be  pruned  immediately  after  the 
flowers  fade,  so  that  it  has  time  during  the  rest  of  the 
year  to  produce  and  mature  new  growths  which  will 
flower  in  the  following  season. 

Successful  pruning  is,  in  fact,  largely  a  matter  of 
observation  and  common  sense.  It  will  be  found, 
however,  that  most  flowering  shrubs  fall  into  one  or 
other  of  the  three  following  classes  : — 

1.  Those  that  flower  early,  in  April  and  May,  on 
the  growths  formed  during  the  previous  year.  These 
should  be  pruned  hard  back  immediately  they  have 
finished  flowering  and  they  will  then  produce  and 
mature  flowering  branches  for  the  following  year. 
Examples  of  this  class  are  Ribes,  Cytisus,  some  Spiraeas, 
Berberis  stenophylla,  Ceanothus  dentatus,  C.  Veit- 
chianus,  C.  papillosus,  Pyrus  floribunda,  etc. 

2.  Those  that  flower  a  little  later  in  May  and  June 
on  the  growth  formed  during  the  previous  year.     If 


the  pruning  of  these  shrubs  is  postponed  till  the 
flowering  is  over,  it  will  probably  be  found  that  if  an 
attempt  is  made  to  cut  out  the  old  wood  much  young 
growth  will  be  removed  with  it.  If,  on  the  other  hand, 
these  shrubs  are  left  unpruned,  they  will  be  found  to 
make  more  growth  than  will  ripen  and  flower  to  ad- 
vantage and  the  best  treatment  is  therefore  to  cut  out 
the  oldest  shoots  from  the  base  in  early  spring.  Then 
strong  new  shoots  will  develop  and  bear  flowers  in  the 
following  year.  It  might  be  thought  that  the  priming 
of  shrubs  of  this  class  should  be  carried  out  by  re- 
moving all  the  oldest  shoots  immediately  they  have 
flowered.  Some  may,  with  advantage,  be  removed 
then,  but  if  the  pruning  is  very  drastic  and  dry,  hot 
weather  follows  little  new  growth  may  be  formed  for 
the  next  year.  It  is  better  therefore  to  leave  most 
of  the  pruning  until  the  spring.  Examples  of  this 
class  are  Deutzias,  Weigelias,  Philadelphus,  and  such 
Berberis  as  B.  Wilsonae,  B.  aggregata  and  others, 
which  are  specially  valuable  for  their  berries  in  the 

3.  Those  that  flower  in  summer  or  early  autumn, 
generally  at  the  tips  of  the  young  shoots  produced 
during  the  current  season.  These  should  be  pruned 
hard  back  during  March,  the  growths  of  the  previous 
season  being  cut  back  to  within  an  inch  or  two  of  the 
old  wood.  The  pruning  must  not  go  beyond  this  point, 
for  it  is  dangerous  to  the  life  of  the  shrub  to  cut  it 
back  into  the  old  hard  wood  unless  there  is  a  promising 
shoot  or  bud  below  the  cut.  To  this  class  belong  the 
Gloire  de  Versailles  group  of  Ceanothus,  Cytisus  nigri- 


cans,  Hydrangea  paniculata,  as  well  as  many  of  the 
Buddleias  and  Spiraeas. 

It  follows,  therefore,  that  the  greatest  care  must  be 
taken  to  ascertain  and  remember  which  shrubs  flower 
on  the  wood  of  the  previous  year  and  which  from  the 
tips  of  the  current  season's  growth.  It  must  be  re- 
membered too  that  all  the  species  of  a  genus  do  not 
necessarily  behave  in  the  same  way.  Thus  Tamarix 
hispida  flowers  in  August  and,  if  it  is  cut  back  hard  in 
March,  it  produces  fine  panicles  of  flowers  in  the 
summer.  Tamarix  tetrandra,  however,  flowers  during 
early  June  on  the  wood  of  the  previous  season  and 
should  therefore  be  pruned  according  to  the  directions 
given  for  dealing  with  shrubs  belonging  to  the  second 

Again,  Ceanothus  Veitchianus  and  its  allies  should 
be  pruned  immediately  after  flowering  at  the  end  of 
May,  whereas  C.  azureus  and  the  other  members  of  its 
group  which  flower  from  July  onwards  at  the  tips  of 
the  new  growths,  should  be  pruned  in  March. 

Young  standard  trees  need  careful  treatment  in  their 
early  years  but,  once  a  shapely  frame-work  has  been 
obtained,  little  pruning  will  be  required  except  to  cut 
away  any  thin,  weakly  branches  and  those  which 
crowd  the  centre  of  the  tree  by  growing  across  it. 


There  are  four  ways  of  propagating  shrubs,  by 
cuttings,  by  seeds,  by  layering,  and  by  grafting  or 
budding  ;  of  these  four  systems  the  first  two  are  by 
far  the  simplest. 


The  method  of  increasing  plants  by  cuttings  has 
been  practised  from  the  very  earhest  times.  The 
ancient  Greeks,  indeed,  seem  to  have  been  fully  alive 
to  this  method  of  increasing  plants,  for  the  following 
is  a  note  quoted  from  the  "  Legacy  of  Greece,"  the 
work  of  a  Greek  writer  about  380  B.C.  : 

"  As  regards  plants  generated  from  cuttings    .     .     . 

that  part  of  a  branch  where  it  was  cut  from  a  tree 

is  placed  in  the  earth  and  there  rootlets  are  sent 

out.     This  is  how  it  happens.     The  part  of  the 

plant  within  the  soil  draws  up  juices,  swells,  and 

developes  a  pneuma.     The  pneuma  and  the  juices 

concentrate  the  power  of  the  plant  below  so  that 

it  becomes  denser.     Then  the  lower  end  erupts 

and  gives  forth  tender  roots." 

Until  quite  recent   times  propagating  by  cuttings 

seems  to  have  gone  on  much  as  the  old  Greek  describes. 

Of  late  years,  however,  owing  to  the  very  careful  and 

thorough  work  at  the  Botanic  Gardens,   Edinburgh, 

many  new  ways  have  been  most  successfully  worked 


For  the  actual  striking  of  the  cuttings  the  most 
approved  method  is  in  a  frame  or  greenhouse  with 
slight  bottom  heat.  The  great  secret  of  successful 
propagation  is  a  close,  saturated  atmosphere  which 
prevents  excessive  loss  of  moisture  in  a  greenhouse, 
the  best  method  is  to  erect  inside  it  some  small  frames 
which  can  be  kept  closed. 

In  some  cases  it  will  be  found  that  a  swelling  or  callus 
forms  at  the  base  of  the  cutting  but  that  no  roots  are 
emitted.     It  was  found  at  Edinburgh  that,  if  the  callus 


was  pared  away  with  a  sharp  knife,  roots  then  began 
to  grow.  In  some  cases  it  was  even  necessar}^  to  pare 
away  the  callus  a  second  time  in  order  to  induce  the 
cutting  to  root. 

At  Edinburgh  cuttings  are  most  successfully  rooted 
in  a  practically  cold  frame  in  saturated  sand,  the 
cuttings  being  simply  pressed  into  the  sand  without 
even  the  use  of  a  dibber.  Once  rooted  they  must  be 
removed  to  a  light,  sandy  soil  and  no  harm  is  apparently 
done,  if  they  are  frequently  examined,  so  that  they  may 
be  potted  as  soon  as  roots  are  being  freely  formed.  The 
same  method  should  be  equally  successful  in  the  South, 
though  there  seems  to  be  something  in  the  northern 
climate  which  is  eminently  suitable  for  propagating. 

Preparing  the  Cuttings. 

Generally  speaking  small  cuttings  about  two  or  three 
inches  long  are  the  best.  In  the  majorit}^  of  cases 
these  should  be  made  of  the  young  shoots  of  the  current 
year.  Those  made  of  half-ripe  wood  from  mid-summer 
onwards  should  be  cut  off  immediately  below  a  leaf, 
or  pair  of  leaves,  so  that  the  leaf -joint  or  node  forms 
the  base  of  the  cutting,  avoiding  sappy  or  soft  growths. 
At  Edinburgh  cuttings  are  taken  under  a  joint  or  node 
(except  in  the  case  of  Clematis)  and  all  the  leaves  are 
left  on  the  shoot,  contrary  to  the  usual  wa}^  of  pulling 
off  the  first  two  pairs.  The  idea  which  underlies  this 
practice  is  that  the  plant  will  throw  off  the  leaves  at 
the  base  when  it  has  no  more  use  for  them,  and  that, 
imtil  it  is  ready  to  throw  them  off,  they  can  help  in  the 
life  of  the  plant. 


Another  excellent  plan  is  to  detach  the  cutting  from 
the  parent  plant  with  a  thin  layer  of  old  wood  forming 
the  base  or  heel.  This  particularty  applies  to  Brooms, 
Ceanothus,  and  hard  wooded  plants.  The  cuttings 
should  then  be  dibbled  into  the  frame  itself,  boxes  or 
pots.  They  root  quicker  when  placed  close  to  the 
edge  of  the  pots.  There  is  an  advantage  in  pots  as 
they  can  be  lifted  out  of  the  frame  immediately  the 
cuttings  are  rooted. 


The  soil  in  which  cuttings  are  to  be  struck  should  be 
light  and  should  contain  a  large  percentage  of  sharp 
sand  and  have  a  further  layer  of  sand  on  the  surface. 
In  the  case  of  many  of  the  hard  wooded  plants,  sand 
alone,  without  any  soil,  may  be  used  with  good  results. 

If  pots  are  used  fill  them  one-third  full  of  crocks,  then 
add  the  soil,  pressing  it  down  gently  but  not  too  hard. 

When  only  a  cloche  or  hand-light  is  available  the 
same  sandy  soil  is  desirable  and  it  is  astonishing  what 
can  be  rooted  in  this  simple  way.  They  should  be 
kept  absolutely  close — no  air  admitted— for  the  first 
month  or  two.  When  signs  of  growth  are  seen  admit 
air  gradually  until  the  cuttings  will  stand  it  without 
flagging.  They  wiU  soon  stand  without  any  covering 
and  after  a  time  can  be  potted  up  or  planted  out  in 
a  sheltered  bed. 


This  is  a  simple  way  of  propagating  that  rarely  fails, 
though  the  time  which  is  required  varies  a  good  deal — 
from  one  to  three  years. 


It  is  useful  where  only  a  small  number  of  plants  are 
wanted.  The  actual  layering  consists  in  fixing  a 
branch  firmly  in  the  ground  with  a  peg,  covering  the 
portion  of  the  stem  where  the  roots  are  wanted  with 
three  or  four  inches  of  soil.  It  is  important  that  the 
flow  of  sap  should  be  checked  in  the  branch  to  be 
layered.  This  ma}^  be  done  in  several  ways,  by  cutting 
a  slanting  cut  or  a  notch  on  the  underside  of  the  branch, 
by  twisting  the  stem  so  that  the  bark  splits,  or  by 
binding  a  piece  of  wire  tightly  round  it.  These  are 
all  methods  which  have  proved  satisfactory  and  it  is 
found  that  roots  tend  to  form  more  rapidly  at  the 
point  where  the  flow  of  the  sap  is  checked. 

It  is  advisable  to  use  some  light  soil  containing  sand 
or  grit  for  covering  the  layers  for  this  encourages  the 
emission  of  roots.  They  should  also  be  staked  so  as 
to  keep  them  firm  until  they  are  rooted.  This  is  all 
that  is  necessary  till  the  branch  begins  to  grow  when 
it  may  be  cut  off  from  the  parent  plant. 

Budding  and  Grafting. 

This  is  such  a  technical  process  that  it  is  not  proposed 
to  go  into  it  in  any  detail.  Nearly  all  flowering  shrubs 
are  far  better  when  they  can  be  obtained  and  grown 
on  their  own  roots. 

Grafting  is  carried  out  in  the  spring  while  budding 
must  be  done  in  the  summer.  The  latter  is  the  easier 
method  and  takes  less  time  than  the  former. 

Many  of  the  choice  Brooms,  which  do  not  come  true 
from  seed,  must  be  grafted  in  the  spring,  in  gentle  heat, 
using   either  common   Broom   or   Laburnum  for  the 


stock.  The  choicer  kinds  of  flowering  trees  and  shrubs, 
such  as  many  Cherries,  and  varieties  of  Pyrus  and 
Prunus  are  generally  either  grafted  or  budded.  The 
finer  varieties  of  Lilac  are  often  budded  on  the  common 
Lilac,  which  is  a  far  better  stock  than  the  Privet,  but 
even  then  a  careful  watch  must  be  kept  for  suckers. 


Raising  plants  from  seed  is  perhaps  the  most  satis- 
factory method  of  propagation.  A  great  advantage 
of  this  method  is  that  the  plants  are  generally  more 
vigorous.  It  has  also  been  the  method  by  which  many 
new  species  have  been  raised  in  this  country  from  seeds 
sent  home  from  China,  Tibet,  and  other  parts  of  Asia. 
Owing  to  the  length  of  the  journey  and  to  extreme 
climatic  changes  it  is  almost  impossible  to  import 
living  plants.  Even  if  this  were  possible,  seeds  are 
so  much  more  easily  transported  that  they  would  be 

Except  perhaps  in  dealing  with  important  seeds  of 
wild  species,  there  is  always  the  chance  that  in  raising 
seedlings  we  may  find  among  them  hybrids  or  unex- 
pected variations  and  herein  lies  one  of  the  fascinations 
of  seed  raising. 

When  sowing  seeds  of  shrubs  it  is  preferable  to  use 
pots,  pans,  or  boxes  rather  than  to  attempt  to  raise 
them  in  the  open.  The  early  spring  is  the  best  time 
for  sowing  seeds  of  shrubs  but  on  no  account  should 
they  be  kept  longer  than  is  necessary  before  sowing, 
and,  if  they  appear  ripe  in  early  autumn,  they  are  best 
in  the  ground. 


The  following  points  may  be  of  some  assistance  in 
obtaining  satisfactory  germination.  Seeds  can  be 
raised  more  quickly  with  slight  bottom  heat,  60°  F  to 
70°  F  being  a  suitable  temperature.  Secondly  they 
must  be  kept  moist — for  moisture  is  needed  by  the 
seed  in  one  of  the  first  processes  of  germination,  during 
which  the  absorption  of  water  by  the  seed  causes  it  to 
swell.  Then  activity  occurs  in  the  root  tip,  which  is 
the  first  part  of  the  seed  to  emerge  out  of  its  coat. 
Thirdly  the  soil  should  be  similar  to  that  recommended 
for  cuttings  but  with  not  quite  so  much  sand.  Good 
drainage  is  equally  necessary  and  the  pots  should  be 
filled  to  one  third  or  half  their  depth  with  crocks. 
Above  this  should  come  a  layer  of  fibrous  soil  and 
finally  finely  sifted  soil,  slightly  pressed  down  so  that 
it  is  fairly  firm.  Large  seeds  may  be  covered  to  their 
own  depth  with  sand  or  fine  soil,  but  smaller  seed  need 
a  thinner  covering  till  finally  with  the  smallest  of  all, 
such  as  Rhododendrons — it  is  best  to  sow  on  the 
surface.  Some  growers  find  it  better  to  sow  large 
seeds  in  rather  coarse  loose  soil  containing  a  good  pro- 
portion of  sifted  leaf  soil.  This  has  the  advantage 
that  the  soil  is  well  aerated — a  condition  which  tends 
to  assist  germination.  When  the  surface  is  covered 
with  very  fine  soil,  it  must  be  kept  constantly  moist  or 
it  will  soon  dry  into  a  hard  crust. 



Among  the  many  groups  of  hardy  shrubs  few  can  claim 
as  many  attractive  quahties  as  the  genus  Berberis. 
Few  genera  include,  as  does  that  of  the  Berberis,  both 
deciduous  and  evergreen  species,  valuable  in  spring 
for  their  flowers  and  in  autumn  for  their  tinted  foliage, 
and,  in  many  cases,  for  the  wealth  of  brilliant  fruits 
ranging  in  colour  from  the  bluish-white  of  B.  pruinosa 
through  all  the  shades  of  pink,  scarlet  and  crimson  to 
rich  purplish-black.  This  genus  includes  about  one 
hundred  and  fifty  species,  many  of  them  variable,  and 
a  great  number  of  extremely  beautiful  hybrids  which, 
while  bewildering  to  the  botanist,  cannot  fail  to  be  a 
source  of  pleasure  to  the  garden  lover. 

The  many  species  of  Berberis  in  cultivation  have 
come  to  us  from  Europe,  America,  N.  Africa,  and  Asia. 
Moreover,  seeds  recently  collected  in  China  have  fur- 
nished us  with  many  more  good  garden  plants,  which, 
although  as  yet  not  widely  grown,  are  rapidly  gaining 
a  well-merited  popularity. 

Botanically  the  Barberries  are  not  without  interest. 
They  are,  for  the  most  part,  spiny  shrubs  remarkable 
for  their  yellow  wood,  the  colouring  matter  of  which 
has  been  used  as  a  dye.  Their  flowers  are  yellow,  with 
their  parts  in  threes  and  consist  of  six  or  nine  sepals. 


six  petals,  each  of  which  usually  bears  two  small  glands 
at  the  base,  and  six  stamens.  The  small  greenish  ovary 
ripens  into  an  oval  or  rounded  berry  containing  one  or 
several  seeds.  The  stamens  possess  a  peculiar  irrita- 
bility. In  the  newly-opened  flower  they  lie  within  the 
concave  petals  ;  but  if  the  base  of  one  of  the  filaments 
be  touched  with  the  point  of  a  pin  the  stamen  moves 
forward  to  the  centre  of  the  flower,  striking  its  anther 
on  the  stigma.  It  is  probable  that  this  power  of  move- 
ment helps  to  ensure  cross-pollination,  for  an  insect 
visiting  the  honey-secreting  glands  at  the  base  of  the 
petals  can  hardly  attain  its  goal  without  disturbing 
the  stamens  which  close  inwards  and  leave  on  its  body 
pollen  to  be  carried  to  another  flower. 

The  spines  of  the  Barberry  are  modified  leaves,  as 
their  position  on  the  shoot  indicates  and  the  tufts  of 
leaves  borne  in  their  axils  are  in  reality  very  short 
lateral  branches,  on  which  the  flowers  are  borne. 

Several  species  formerly  included  in  the  genus 
Berberis  are  now  generally  considered  as  a  separate 
genus  Mahonia  and  are  characterised  by  their  spineless 
branches  and  large  compound  leaves,  which  may  carry 
as  many  as  twenty  leaflets.  The  best  known  of  these 
is  the  common  Mahonia,  B.  Aquifolium,  a  shrub  much 
in  demand  for  its  bronze-tinted  foliage. 


Barberries  grow  best  in  a  light  loam  but  they  are 
not  particular  and  succeed  in  most  soils  if  the  drainage 
is  adequate.  Most  of  the  species  will  also  thrive  well 
on  a  chalk  soil.     Berberis  Aquifolium,  B.  Thunhergii, 


B.  stenophylla,  and  B.  Darwinii  grow  well  in  a  dry, 
sandy  soil  and  will  stand  exposure  well.  Many  of  them 
will  stand  a  fair  amount  of  shade,  and  Berberis 
Aquifolium  is  a  most  valuable  plant  when  used  as  a 
"  carpet er  "  imder  large  trees. 

As  is  the  case  of  most  shrubs,  Berberis  lend  them- 
selves to  planting  in  groups  rather  than  as  single 
specimens,  and  a  bed  of  one  variety  is  always  most 
attractive.  Some  of  the  dwarf  varieties  form  good 
rock  plants,  and  are  also  useful  for  clothing  a  bank, 
while  some  are  valuable  as  hedge  plants.  B.  steno- 
fhylla  is  probably  the  best  for  this  purpose,  being 
evergreen,  of  rapid  growth,  and  armed  with  tiny 
thorns  which  make  it  impregnable.  In  addition  it  is 
particularly  charming  when  in  flower  in  April  and  May, 
so  that  few  shrubs  offer  so  many  attractions.  It  is, 
however,  most  essential  that  when  it  is  used  as  a  hedge 
it  should  be  clipped  immediately  the  bloom  is  over, 
since  it  flowers  on  the  young  growths  formed  during 
the  previous  season.  If  it  is  pruned  immediately  after 
flowering,  the  plant  has  time  to  make  new  wood  which 
will  bear  flowers  in  the  succeeding  spring  and  it  will 
not  become  bare  or  straggly. 

Berberis  Darwinii  is  slower  in  growth  but  forms  a 
delightful  low  hedge  and  does  not  require  such  severe 
clipping.  Moreover  it  often  gives  a  few  flowers  again 
in  early  autumn.  It  should  be  remembered  that  the 
various  species  of  Berberis  are  not  the  easiest  plants 
to  move  and  it  is  always  advisable  to  obtain  plants 
that  have  been  transplanted  within  at  most  two  years 
of  the  time  of  planting.     Small  plants  usually  move 


better  than  larger  specimens  and,  as  they  mostly  grow 
rapidly  little  time  is  lost  by  planting  young  plants  and 
they  are  certainly  less  likely  to  die  before  becoming 
re-established.  They  are  best  planted  early  in  the 
autumn  or  possibly  in  March,  but,  in  the  latter  case, 
they  must  not  be  allowed  to  suffer  from  drought  before 
they  become  re-established. 


Seed  is  the  best  means  of  propagating  Berberis  and 
fortunately  most  species  and  hybrids  are  good  seed 
producing  plants.  This  should  be  sown  as  soon  as 
ripe  either  in  pots  or  beds  in  the  open.  The  little 
plants  root  vigorously  and  should,  if  they  are  in  pots, 
be  potted  on  singly  or  planted  out  as  soon  as  large 
enough  to  handle  with  ease.  Care  should  be  taken 
that  they  are  not  allowed  to  stay  too  long  in  the  seed 
boxes  or  the  long  spines  make  them  difficult  to  handle. 

The  species  may  be  relied  upon  to  come  fairly  true 
from  seed  but,  where  many  are  grown,  intercrossing  is 
liable  to  occur.  The  hybrids  and  the  varieties  with 
coloured  foliage  do  not  come  true,  and  must  therefore 
be  propagated  by  other  means.  Cuttings  of  the  young 
shoots  may  be  taken  in  late  summer  and  if  potted  very 
firmly  in  soil  which  contains  a  fair  percentage  of  sharp 
sand  they  will  root  in  a  cold  frame.  Where  only  a 
few  plants  are  required,  layering  or  division  may  be 
adopted.  The  former  method  is  to  be  preferred  as  it 
does  not  disturb  the  parent  plant.  Shoots  of  the 
current  season's  growth  should  be  pegged  down  on  the 
surface  of  the  ground  so  that  a  few  inches  of  their 


length  may  be  covered  with  soil.  This  is  best  done 
during  late  autumn  and  the  layers  should  be  well  rooted 
and  ready  for  transplanting  twelve  months  later. 
Grafting  may  be  done  under  glass  in  late  summer  or 
early  spring  on  stocks  of  the  common  Barberry  (B. 
vulgaris).  It  is  not,  however,  to  be  recommended,  as 
suckers  arise  from  the  stock  and  are  liable  to  be  trouble- 


The  compact  growing  species  such  as  B.  verruculosa, 
B.  Thunhergii,  and  B.  Darwinii  should  not  be  cut  at 
all.  However,  where  necessary,  March  is  an  excellent 
time  for  pruning.  Many  of  the  stronger  growing 
species  are  apt  to  become  rather  unshapely  after  a  few 
years  and  in  this  case  their  outline  may,  in  many  cases, 
be  improved  by  cutting  away  some  of  the  older  shoots. 
This  treatment  is  also  of  use  in  inducing  the  formation 
of  strong  new  growths  from  the  base.  When  this  has 
matured  a  little  further  cutting  is  sometimes  necessary 
to  secure  the  maximum  crop  of  flowers  or  fruits.  These 
are  borne  on  shoots  of  the  previous  season's  growth, 
so  that,  where  new  growth  is  abundant,  the  shoots 
which  have  borne  fruits  may  be  cut  completely  out. 
The  time  at  which  this  is  done  will  depend  to  a  certain 
extent  on  the  duration  of  the  fruits,  some  of  which 
hang  on  the  plants  for  several  months  in  mild  winters. 


List  of  Berberis. 

The  following  is  a  selection  of  the  most  suitable 
Berberis  for  various  situations. 

Evergreen  varieties. 

B.  acuminata.  B.  Aquifolium. 

B.  Darwinii.  B.  Gagnepainii. 

B.  Hookeri.  B.  Sargentiana. 

B.  stenophylla.  B.  verruculosa. 

For  autumn  colouring  with  berries  and  foliage. 

B.  diaphana.  B.  dictyophylla. 

B.  polyantha.  B.  rubrostilla  and  Wisley 

B.  Thunbergii.  hybrids. 

B.  Wilsonae. 
Dwarf  kinds  for  Rockery. 

B.  buxifolia  var.  nana.         B.  candidula. 

B.  stenophylla  "  Brilliant."  B.  Tom  Thumb. 

For  hedges. 

B.  Darwinii.  B.  stenophylla. 

Berberis  acuminata. 

A  rather  loose  growing  evergreen  shrub  reaching  a 
height  of  5ft.  to  6ft.  The  young  stems  are  red-brown, 
armed  with  long,  stiff  spines. 

Leaves  sins,  to  5ins.  long,  varying  a  good  deal, 
narrow,  without  stalks,  dark  green  above,  paler  be- 
neath, with  spiny  margins.  They  are  borne  in  groups 
of  three  or  four. 

Flowers  bronze-yellow,  large,  each  carried  on  a  long 


stalk,  usually  four  or  five  together,  and  followed  by 
large,  oblong,  blue-black  fruits. 

A  native  of  China  and  one  of  the  best  of  the  black- 
fruited  species.  It  forms  a  handsome,  vigorous  shrub, 
growing  freely,  if  given  a  rather  moist  situation. 

Berberis  A  qui  folium. 

An  evergreen  shrub  3ft.  to  4ft.  in  height.  The  stems 
are  erect  and  usually  sparsely  branched,  the  lower  parts 
often  more  or  less  leafless. 

Leaves  large  and  compound,  consisting  of  seven  or 
nine  leaflets.  These  average  2ins.  to  sins,  in  length 
and  ijins.  to  2jins.  in  width,  the  terminal  leaflet  being 
rather  larger.  They  are  rather  stiff,  with  spiny-toothed 
margins,  dark  green  and  glossy,  the  older  ones  assuming 
a  bronze  or  reddish-purple  hue  on  the  approach  of 

Flowers  bright  yellow  in  bold  terminal  clusters  in 
early  spring,  though  a  few  may  often  be  found  soon 
after  Christmas.  The  fruits  are  produced  in  large 
numbers,  their  pendant,  violet-black  bunches  being 
very  attractive  from  September  onwards. 

This  fine  plant  spreads  rapidly  by  undergroimd 
suckers,  and  seems  to  grow  well  in  any  soil.  Moreover, 
it  will  succeed  in  shaded  positions  and  is  therefore  most 
useful  for  planting  beneath  deciduous  trees  and  for 
naturalizing  in  woodland. 

Berberis  aristata. 

A  deciduous  shrub,  8ft.  to  12ft.  high  and  as  much  in 
diameter.     The  older  branches  are  of  a  yellowish-brown 


colour,  angular,  armed  with  stiff  spines  most  of  which 
occur  singly  below  the  leaf  clusters. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long,  and  from  fin.  to  lin.  wide, 
sharply  pointed,  with  spiny  edges,  occasionally  entire  ; 
bright  green. 

Flowers  rich  yellow  in  short  stalked  sprays  of  ten 
to  twenty,  freely  produced  in  June,  followed  by  red 
berries  covered  with  a  grey -blue  bloom. 

A  native  of  the  Himalayas,  it  is  one  of  the  strongest 
and  best  of  this  group  and  makes  an  excellent  specimen 
shrub  on  a  lawn.     It  is  also  valuable  in  the  wild  garden. 

Berber  is  brevipaniculata. 

A  deciduous  shrub  reaching  a  height  of  4ft.  to  5ft. 
The  stems  are  thin  and  spreading,  of  a  pale  brownish- 
red.     Spines  in  threes,  slender,  about  fin.  long. 

■Leaves  varying  in  size,  the  largest  being  rather  more 
than  lin.  long,  oval,  with  rounded  apex,  and  small 
sharp  teeth  on  the  upper  half  of  each  margin,  or  some- 
times unarmed. 

Flowers  small,  pale  yellow,  in  bunches,  produced  in 
June  and  followed  by  the  clusters  of  brilliant  coral-red 
fruits  in  September. 

This  attractive  species,  which  was  introduced  from 
China  about  twenty  years  ago,  has  already  become  the 
parent  of  some  of  the  best  garden  hybrids. 

Berberis  buxifolia,  syn.  B.  dulcis. 

An  evergreen  shrub  5ft.  or  6ft.  high,  forming  a  close 
rounded  bush.  The  erect  stems  are  dark  brown, 
bearing  groups  of  short  spines  and  thickly  set  with  the 
tufts  of  leaves. 


Leaves  Jin.  to  lin.  long  and  half  as  wide,  thick  and 
leathery,  with  stalks  of  varying  length  ;  dark  green 
and  glossy.  The  leaf  margins  are  spineless,  although 
the  apex  is  usually  sharply  pointed. 

Flowers  deep  yellow,  borne  singly  on  long  stalks  and 
open  in  March.  The  rather  small,  purplish-black 
fruits  ripen  in  August. 

Berberis  huxifolia  var.  nana.  syn.  Berberis  dulcis  var. 
A  quaint,  dense  little  shrub.  Leaves  var5'^ing  slightly 
from  the  type  and  often  larger.  Somewhat  shy  in 
flowering,  its  slow  growth  and  neat,  compact  habit 
make  it  a  useful  rockery  shrub. 

Berberis  candidula. 

A  slow  growing,  evergreen  species  of  neat  dwarf 
habit,  reaching  eventually  a  height  of  2ft.  or  3ft. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  lin.  long,  narrow,  rich  glossy  green 
on  the  upper  surface,  silvery-grey  on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  rich  yellow,  produced  singly  on  thin,  short 
stalks.  It  is  sometimes  confused  with  B.  Hookeri,  but 
the  growth  is  slower  and  the  leaves  are  quite  distinct. 

A  native  of  China,  it  forms  a  valuable  rock  shrub  and 
one  well  worth  a  place  in  the  front  of  a  shrub  border. 

Berberis  Chitria. 

A  sub-evergreen  shrub  of  vigorous  growth  reaching 
a  height  of  loft.  to  12ft.  or  perhaps  more.  The  stems 
are  stout  and  erect,  light  brown  at  first,  assuming  later 
a  greyish  hue,  and  armed  with  rather  large  spines. 


Leaves  variable  in  size,  the  largest  reaching  a  length 
of  3ins.  and  a  breadth  of  ijins.,  borne  in  dense  tufts, 
from  the  centres  of  which  spring,  late  in  June,  the 
pendant  sprays  of  blossom. 

Flowers  bright,  pale  yellow,  flushed  externally  with 
red,  in  clusters  up  to  4ins.  long,  which  bear  numerous 
flowers.  The  fruits  are  freely  borne,  but  are  unat- 
tractive owing  to  their  dull  reddish  colour.  A  well- 
grown  specimen  laden  with  its  golden  blossoms  is  an 
object  of  great  charm,  especially  if  planted  against  a 
background  of  dark  foliaged  shrubs. 

Berber  is  concinna. 

A  neat,  deciduous  shrub  of  compact  growth  reaching 
a  height  of  about  3ft.  The  branches  are  bro\\Tiish, 
furrowed,  and  armed  with  short,  slender  spines  ar- 
ranged in  clusters  of  three. 

Leaves  thick,  shiny,  deep  green  above,  whitish 
beneath,  rounded,  with  very  shiny  margins,  and  lin. 
long,  including  a  distinct  short  stalk. 

Flowers  rich  yellow,  large,  borne  singly  on  rather  long, 
drooping  stalks  and  succeeded  by  large  red  berries. 

This  is  a  very  desirable  plant,  the  foliage  being 
effective  at  all  seasons.  The  white  undersides  of  the 
leaves  provide  a  pleasing  contrast  to  their  richly- 
coloured  upper  surface,  A  charming  garden  shrub 
especially  when  the  foliage  assumes  brilliant  tints  in 
autumn.     A  native  of  the  Himalayas. 

Berberis  Darwinii. 

An  evergreen  shrub  4ft.  to  8ft.  or  more  high,  forming 
a  compact  shrub  with  arching  branches.     The  young 


shoots  are  brown  and  downy  and  are  armed  with  short, 
stiff  spines  in  fives. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  lin.  long  and  Jin.  wide  ;  abruptly 
terminated  by  three  spiny  teeth,  and  sometimes  bearing 
one  or  more  spines  on  each  margin,  dark  green  and 
glossy  above,  light  green  beneath.  Arranged  in  flattish 
clusters  of  from  three  to  six,  from  the  centres  of  which 
spring  the  pendulous  clusters  of  flowers,  each  ten  to 
fifteen  flowered. 

Flowers  orange-yellow,  reddish  outside,  appearing  in 
great  profusion  during  April  and  May,  followed  by 
numerous  round,  dark  blue  fruits  in  July. 

This  species  was  discovered  by  Darwin  in  Chile, 
being  subsequently  introduced  into  this  country  by 
Messrs.  Veitch.  When  in  flower  it  is  one  of  the  most 
beautiful,  as  its  brilliant  flowers  are  borne  in  the 
greatest  abundance.  The  fruits  are  also  effective, 
although  of  an  inconspicuous  colour,  but  they  fall  as 
soon  as  thoroughly  ripe. 

One  of  the  best  of  all  garden  shrubs  with  its  cascades 
of  orange-coloured  flowers  in  the  spring  and  again  with 
a  few  stray  flowers  in  the  autumn.  It  makes  a  good, 
little  evergreen  shrub  for  a  small  garden  and  thrives  in 
almost  any  soil,  even  in  chalk.  It  is  not  quite  as  hardy 
as  its  well-known  hybrid,  B.  stenophylla,  and  should  be 
planted  where  it  gets  a  little  shelter  from  cold  winds. 

Berber  is  diaphana. 

A  vigorous  growing  deciduous  shrub  4ft.  to  8ft.  high. 
The  branches  greyish  and  angular  ;  the  spines  in  groups 
of  three  or  five  about  fin.  long  and  spreading. 


Leaves  lin.  to  2ins.  long  and  half  as  wide,  generally 
with  spiny-toothed  margins. 

Flowers  yellow,  large  (fin.  in  diameter),  solitary  or 
sometimes  a  few  together,  followed  by  oval  red  fruit. 

This  species  is  very  ornamental  when  in  flower,  and 
again  in  autumn  when  it  assumes  a  rich  colouring.  A 
native  of  North  Western  China. 

Berberis  dictyophylla. 

A  deciduous  shrub  often  6ft.  in  height,  with  long, 
slender,  arching  stems,  at  first  covered  with  a  white 
bloom,  gradually  becoming  reddish-brown  1  he  rather 
thick  spines  are  in  clusters  of  three. 

Leaves  lin.  long  and  Jin.  wide,  bright  green  above, 
white  beneath,  with  a  few  sharp  teeth  on  their  edges 
and  sharp  tips.  From  the  centre  of  each  fresh,  green 
rosette  of  leaves,  there  springs  in  May  a  solitary,  large, 
primrose-yellow  flower.  The  fruits  are  of  medium 
size,  red,  on  short  stalks. 

Although  an  effective  plant  when  in  flower,  yet  the 
charm  of  this  species  is  the  glorious  autumn  colouring, 
the  foliage  turning  to  a  rich  vermilion,  but  retaining 
a  few  grey  leaves  here  and  there.  It  holds  this  coloured 
foliage  well  into  November.  As  the  young  wood 
colours  best,  this  Berberis  should  be  cut  well  back  in 
the  spring  so  as  to  encourage  strong  shoots.  A  native 
of  China. 

Berberis  Fortunei. 

An  evergreen  species  belonging,  with  B.  Aquifolium 
and  B.  japonica,  to  the  Mahonia  section.  It  is  an 
upright,  sparsely-branched  shrub. 


Leaves  consisting  of  seven  narrow,  spiny,  leaflets 
about  3ins.  or  4ins.  in  length. 

Flowers  yellow,  borne  in  clusters  of  narrow  spikes  in 
October  or  November  ;   seldom  produces  fruit. 

A  distinct  species  first  found  by  Fortune  in  China. 
It  is  not  quite  hardy  and  should  only  be  planted  in  a 
sheltered  spot  in  partial  shade. 

Berberis  Gagnepainii. 

An  evergreen  shrub  reaching  a  height  of  6ft.  or  7ft., 
with  stiff,  erect  stems,  arching  at  the  top,  which,  when 
mature,  have  a  yellowish-grey  colour.  The  slender 
spines  are  Jin.  to  fin.  long,  arranged  in  clusters  of 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long,  narrow,  with  imdulating, 
slightly  recurved  edges,  the  upper  surface  dark,  dull 
green,  the  lower  side  somewhat  lighter  and  shiny.  The 
apex  of  the  leaf  is  sharply  pointed,  and  about  ten  very 
sharp  teeth  occur  on  each  leaf  margin. 

Flowers  bright  yellow  with  a  tint  of  green,  borne  in 
clusters  of  five  or  six,  in  June.  The  oval,  purplish- 
black  fruits,  on  stalks  fin.  long,  ripen  in  November. 

The  fruit  stalks,  together  with  the  older  leaves  often 
assume  a  reddish  tint  in  the  autumn,  which  with  the 
dark  coloured  fruit  makes  it  a  striking  garden  shrub. 
A  native  of  China,  easily  increased  by  seed. 

Berberis  Hookeri. 

A  round,  evergreen  bush  4ft.  to  5ft.  high  with  stout, 
angular  and  arching  branches  of  a  greyish  or  yellowish 
colour.     The  spines  are  fin.  long  and  very  stiff. 


Leaves  lin.  to  2jins.  long  and  Jin.  to  Jin.  wide,  dark  i 

green  and  glossy  above,  pale  whitish-green  beneath,  ! 
with  very  spiny,  somewhat  recurved  margins. 

Flowers  pale  yellow  borne  in  clusters  of  six  to  ten  \ 

opening  in  April  or  May,  to  be  followed  in  October  by  | 

rather  long,   purplish-black   fruits  on  slender  stalks,  \ 

which  often  do  not  fall  until  the  following  spring.  i 
This  species  is  at  its  best  when  covered  with  its  large, 
early    flowers.     Although    it    fruits    abundantly,    the 

berries  are  rather  hidden  by  the  drooping  habit  of  the  | 

branches.  \ 


Berberis  Hookeri  var.  latifolia.  \ 

Known  in  Nurseries  as  B.  Knightii,  it  differs  from 

the  type  in  having  larger  leaves,  green  beneath  and  in 

attaining  greater  height.     A  handsome  evergreen,  its       : 

dark,  glossy  foliage  appearing  at  its  best  during  winter.       ; 


Berberis  ilicifolia.  j 

This  rare  species  is  much  confused  in  Nurseries  with 
the  hybrid,  B.  Neubertii,  and  it  is  doubtful  whether  the       \ 
true  B.  ilicifolia  is  in  cultivation  in  England.     The 
species  is  a  very  beautiful  evergreen  shrub  with  dark 
green  holly-like  leaves  and  orange-yellow  flowers,  much       I 
the  same  colour  as  B.  Darwinii. 

A  native  of  Chile  and  probably  not  v^iy  hardy. 

Berberis  insignis. 

An  evergreen  shrub  reaching  a  height  of  4ft.  or  6ft. 
The  stems  are  erect,  light  brown,  and  almost  spineless. 


the  spaces  normally  occupied  by  spines  being  filled 
with  leaves. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  7ins.  long  and  lin.  to  ijins.  wide, 
solitary  or  in  pairs,  shortly  stalked,  shiny  on  both 
surfaces,  bright  green,  and  have  spiny  teeth  along  their 
edges.  Flowers  golden-yellow,  borne  in  bunches  of 
from  three  to  twenty,  each  on  a  stalk  Jin.  to  lin.  in 
length  in  May  and  succeeded  by  egg-shaped  black 

A  most  striking  plant,  easily  recognised  by  its  large, 
stiff  leaves  and  by  the  absence  of  spines  on  the  stems. 

This  handsome  Himalayan  species  forms  a  useful 
evergreen  but  is  not  one  of  the  hardiest. 

Berberis  Jamesiana. 

A  delightful  new  deciduous  species,  with  erect  stems, 
at  present  5ft.  to  6ft.  high,  which  when  young  are  of 
a  rosy-purple  shade,  and  covered  with  bloom,  later 
becoming  brown. 

Leaves  fin.  to  ijins.  long,  oval  or  roundish,  with 
sharply  pointed  tips  ;  on  the  stronger  shoots  the  leaf 
margins  are  often  entire,  but  on  others  they  carry 
numerous  sharp  teeth. 

Flowers  small,  opening  in  June  in  stalked  bunches 
of  ten  to  twelve,  followed  in  August  and  September 
by  round,  coral-red  fruit,  which  are  almost  transparent. 

This  rare  species  is  likely  to  become  popular  when 
better  known,  on  account  of  its  very  attractive 
colouring.  At  almost  any  season  the  foliage  is  more 
or  less  tinted  with  red  or  purple  shades,  which  harmonise 
with  its  shining  currant-like  fruits. 


Berberis  japonica,  syn.  Mahonia  japonica. 

An  evergreen  shrub  reaching  a  height  of  8ft.  or  loft. 
The  stems  are  stout  and  erect  and  rather  sparsely 


Leaves  I2ins.  to  isins.  in  length,  compound,  borne 
in  clusters.  The  leaflets  vary  in  number  between  nine 
and  fifteen,  each  being  from  sins,  to  5ins.  long,  leathery, 
glossy,  dark  green,  with  spiny  margins. 

Flowers  pale  yellow,  carried  on  long  sprays  which 
arise  in  clusters  of  half-a-dozen  or  more  from  the 
centres  of  the  rosettes  of  leaves.  The  sweetly-scented 
blossoms  commence  to  open  in  late  autumn  and  con- 
tinue for  two  or  three  months.  The  blue-black  fruits 
are  not  produced  very  freely  and  are  often  seedless.  ^ 

This  is  an  uncommon  species,  well  worth  growing 
for  its  handsome  fohage,  which  is  shghtly  tinted  in  the 
winter,  but  even  more  so  for  its  flowers,  whose  delicious 
scent,  resembling  that  of  the  Lily  of  the  Valley  is  very 
noticeable  on  mild  days.     This  species  thrives  best  in 
partial  shade  in  a  good  loamy  soil  where  it  will  not 
feel  the  effects  of  drought— it  should  be  allowed  plenty 
of  space  to  develop.     It  is  one  of  the  best  winter 
flowering  plants.     It  is  a  cultivated  plant  in  Japan 
and  was  probably  originally  introduced  to  that  country 
from   Formosa   or   from   the   Philippine   Islands,    or 
possibly  from  China. 

Berberis  japonica  var.  Bealei. 

A  very  handsome  robust  shrub,  with  even  longer 
leaves  and  having  more  pairs  of  broader  and  more 
rounded  leaflets  than  the  type.     The  flowers  are  also 







finer  and  have  the  same  wonderful  scent.  They  are 
held  stiffly  erect  on  short,  dense  spikes.  Quite  hardy, 
somewhat  difficult  to  transplant  and  may  be  con- 
sidered a  rare  shrub.  It  is  apparently  a  native  of 
China,  whence  it  was  introduced  by  Fortune  in  1845. 

Berberis  Julianae. 

An  evergreen  shrub  reaching  6ft.  in  height.  The 
young  branches  are  smooth,  yellowish-brown,  and 
somewhat  angular.  Spines  large,  stiff,  in  threes,  the 
centre  one  often  an  inch  long. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  in  clusters  of  five,  pointed, 
tapering  at  the  base  to  a  short  stalk.  Margins  sharply 
toothed,  dark  green  on  the  upper  surface,  lighter 

Flowers  pale  yellow,  flushed  with  red,  opening  early 
in  the  season,  produced  in  clusters  of  twelve  to  fifteen. 
The  fruits  are  black,  with  a  coating  of  bloom. 

A  robust  growing  Berberis  resembling  B.  Sargentiana. 

Berberis  Lycium. 

A  deciduous  shrub  of  vigorous  growth,  reaching  a 
height  of  about  7ft.  The  stems  are  downy,  but  become 
smooth  and  brown  when  older.  The  spines  are  in 
clusters  of  three,  fin.  long. 

Leaves  lin.  to  ijins.  long  and  |in.  as  wide,  the  upper 
surface  light  green,  the  undersides  greyish.  The  tip 
is  sharply  pointed,  and  the  edges  sometimes  carry  a 
few  sharp  teeth. 

Flowers  large  in  clusters  of  twenty  or  more,  bright 
yellow,  produced  in  May  or  June.     These  are  followed 


by  an  abundance  of  oblong,  purplish-red  berries  in 

In  habit  this  species  resembles  B.  vulgaris,  but  may 
be  distinguished  by  the  much  less  spiny  leaf-margins 
and  the  different  colour  of  the  fruit.  B.  Lycium  sup- 
plies the  drug  Lycium,  which  was  formerly  employed 
in  India  as  a  palliative  in  cases  of  inflammation  of  the 
eyes.     The  berries  are  edible. 

Berberis  Neubertii. 

An  evergreen  shrub  of  comparatively  little  garden 
value  but  interesting  botanically  as  being  a  hybrid 
between  B.  Aquifolium  and  B.  vulgaris.  The  foliage 
is  unlike  either  parent  but  many  forms  are  intermediate 
between  the  two. 

Leaves  lin.  to  2ins.  long  with  spiny  edges,  dark 
green,  holly-like.  It  is  doubtful  whether  it  has  ever 
flowered  or  produced  fruit. 

Berberis  polyantha. 

A  strong  growing  deciduous  shrub  6ft.  to  8ft.  high. 
The  stems  are  erect  with  arching  tips  of  a  bright 
brownish-red,  armed  with  spines  lin.  long  in  clusters 
of  three. 

Leaves  lin.  to  2ins.  long,  oval,  tapering  gradually  to 
the  base,  arranged  in  flat  tufts  of  six  or  more,  bright 
green  above,  paler  beneath. 

Flowers  pale  yellow,  small,  produced  in  July  in 
bunches,  usually  of  about  twenty,  but  on  the  strongest 
growths  sometimes  three  or  four  times  this  number. 
The  fruits  are  small  and  round,  at  first  pinkish-white, 
but  later  becoming  a  rich  vermilion. 





B.  polyantha  is  a  most  ornamental  plant,  rendered 
very  conspicuous  by  its  numerous  fruit  clusters  which 
resemble  miniature  bunches  of  grapes.  It  may  be 
most  effectively  grown  as  a  hedge,  the  long  growths 
being  trained  fan-wise  on  horizontal  wires.  This 
method  has  been  adopted  in  the  gardens  of  the  Royal 
Horticultural  Society  at  Wisley  and  proved  most 
successful.  The  masses  of  red  fruit  make  a  most 
brilliant  show  in  autumn. 

It  comes  from  Szechnan  in  Western  China. 

Berberis  Prattii. 

Another  deciduous  Berberis,  very  closely  resembling 
B.  polyantha  and  B.  brevipaniculata,  although  the  leaves 
of  B.  Prattii  are  not  so  grey  on  the  underside  as  in  the 
case  of  the  last  named.  So  alike  are  they  that  for 
garden  planting  they  may  be  considered  synonymous. 
The  same  description  practically  applies  to  each  of 
them  and  all  are  really  good  garden  plants. 

Berberis  pruinosa. 

An  evergreen  shrub  of  vigorous  habit  reaching  a 
height  of  6ft.  to  loft.  The  stems  are  stiff  and  erect, 
of  a  greyish-brown  colour  and  furnished  with  stout 
spines  |in.  to  fin.  long. 

Leaves  lin.  to  3ins.  long,  |in.  to  ijins.  wide,  thick 
and  tough,  light  glossy  green,  their  edges  carrying 
numerous  small,  sharp  spines.  Many  of  the  older 
leaves  turn  red  in  autumn. 

Flowers  lemon-yellow,  carried  in  dense  clusters  of 
from  ten  to  twenty,  appearing  in  May.     The  fruits, 


which  ripen  in  October  and  hang  on  the  twigs  until 
February,  are  borne  in  profusion  and  are  unusual  in 
being  covered  with  a  thick  bluish-white  bloom,  which 
makes  them  very  conspicuous,  and  which  suggested 
the  name  of  the  species.  It  was  introduced  from 
Yunnan  at  the  end  of  the  last  century  but  although  it 
is  one  of  the  most  striking  of  the  evergreen  Barberries, 
it  does  not  appear  to  be  nearly  so  much  planted  as  it 
deserves.     It  is  worth  a  place  in  every  garden. 

Berberis  replicata. 

A  rare  and  attractive  evergreen  shrub  at  present 
4ft.  high  but  it  will,  no  doubt,  eventually  grow  a  good 
deal  taller.  The  stems  are  slender,  pale  brownish-grey 
and  armed  with  short-thin  spines. 

Leaves  lin.  to  3ins.  in  length,  narrow,  sharply 
toothed,  with  recurved  margins,  deep  green  above, 
white  beneath.  The  older  leaves  assume  a  deep 
crimson  colour  on  the  approach  of  autumn. 

Flowers  lemon-yellow,  small,  globular,  produced  in 
clusters  over  the  entire  length  of  the  young  shoots  in 
February  and  March.  Fruits  black  elliptical,  on  long 
reddish  stalks. 

A  distinct  species  forming  a  compact  bush  which 
blossoms  freely  while  still  quite  young  and  not  more 
than  I2ins.  or  i8ins.  high  ;  it  is  also  one  of  the  first 
spring  Berberis  to  flower.  A  bunch  of  flowering  sprays 
might,  at  first  sight,  be  taken  for  Acacia  or  Mimosa. 

A  native  of  Western  China,  where  it  was  first  found 
by  Forrest,  and  is  described  as  growing  in  open  scrub, 
at  an  altitude  11,000  feet.    At  Wisley  it  is  seen  growing 



to  perfection  and  is  perhaps  the  most  charming  of  the 
early  flowering  Berberis.  It  can  readily  be  increased 
by  seed. 

Berberis  ruhrostilla. 

A  deciduous  shrub  at  present  about  4ft  high,  of 
graceful  habit.  The  stems  are  erect,  with  arching 
tips,  and  copiously  branched,  at  first  purplish,  be- 
coming grey  with  age.  The  spines  are  in  threes,  slender 
and  sharp,  |in.  in  length. 

Leaves  |in.  to  fin.  long  and  one-half  as  wide,  soft, 
bright  green  above,  whitish  beneath,  the  apex  rounded 
and  often  armed  with  a  sharp  point,  carried  in  dense 
clusters.  The  leaves  are  usually  entire  but  sometimes 
have  a  few  spiny  teeth. 

Flowers  pale,  in  clusters  from  two  to  five  in  June, 
followed  by  long  egg-shaped  fruit  |in.  in  length. 
These  are  at  first  green,  passing  through  white  and 
many  beautiful  shades  of  pink,  until  they  finally  reach 
a  rich  scarlet. 

This  most  desirable  plant  appeared  among  a  batch 
of  seedlings  raised  at  Wisley  and  was  the  only  specimen 
of  its  kind  to  be  obtained.  It  is  quite  one  of  the  finest 
of  the  deciduous  kinds,  most  attractive  when  seen 
carrying  a  crop  of  its  large  fruits  in  various  stages  of 
colouration.  Unfortunately  this  charming  Berberis 
does  not  come  true  from  seed  and  it  should  be  propa- 
gated from  cuttings. 

Owing  to  the  size  and  colour  of  the  fruit,  B.  ruhrostilla 
should  form  a  most  valuable  plant  for  hybridizing.  (See 
illustration) . 


Berberis  sanguinea. 

An  erect  growing,  evergreen  shrub,  6ft.  or  8ft.  high. 
The  stems  are  hght  in  colour  and  are  armed  with  long, 
thin  spines  in  clusters  of  three. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long,  Jin.  to  Jin,  wide,  dark 
green,  with  spiny  margins. 

Flowers  bright  yellow,  in  clusters,  their  stalks  being 
red  and  rather  long.  The  berries  are  black  and  the 
species  was  named  with  reference  to  its  red  flower 
stalks.     It  is  a  native  of  Western  China. 

Berberis  Sargentiana. 

A  robust  growing,  evergreen  shrub,  reaching  8ft. 
in  height.  The  stems  are  erect  and  stiff,  at  first  light 
brown,  passing  to  dark  grey,  armed  with  stout  spines 
which  are  stiff  and  sharp.  The  spines  are  slightly 
grooved  on  the  lower  sides  and  often  over  lin.  long. 

Leaves  lin.  to  4ins.  long,  broadly  lance-shaped, 
sharply  pointed,  tapering  gradually  to  a  narrow  base. 
The  upper  surface  dark,  lustrous  green,  paler  beneath, 
margins  saw-like  with  very  sharp  teeth. 

Flowers  pale  yellow,  in  clusters  of  twelve  or  more, 
open  in  April.  The  fruits  are  black,  oval,  and  remain 
on  the  plant  throughout  the  winter. 

This  is  one  of  the  hardiest  of  evergreen  shrubs,  con- 
spicuous on  account  of  its  rigid,  spiny  growths.  It  is 
a  native  of  China,  where  it  was  discovered  by  E.  H. 
Wilson  in  Hupeh. 

Berberis  Stapfiana. 

A  semi-deciduous  shrub  4ft.  to  5ft.  high,  with  long 
rigid  stems  which  branch  and  spread,  forming  a  grace- 


ful  plant.  The  yellowish-brown  spines,  in  groups  of 
three,  are  thin  and  very  sharp. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  ijins.  long  and  about  gin.  wide, 
arranged  in  clusters  of  four  to  six,  pale  green  above, 
whitish  beneath,  with  sharp  points  and  smooth  un- 
armed edges. 

Flowers  pale  yellow,  borne  in  small  clusters  of  four 
to  eight,  tightly  packed  in  the  centres  of  the  leaf- 
clusters,  followed  by  small,  oval,  crimson  berries. 

The  attraction  of  this  species  is  the  gorgeous  crimson 
foliage  in  late  autumn.  The  leaves  begin  to  turn  in 
October  and  often  remain  on  till  Christmas.  A  native 
of  North  Western  China. 

Berberis  stenophylla. 

An  evergreen  shrub  forming  a  dense,  shapely  bush, 
loft.  high.  The  stems  are  slender,  spreading  and 
arching  in  all  directions  and  set  with  many  small  spines. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  lin.  long,  narrow,  oblong,  with  sharply 
pointed  tips  and  recurved  margins,  dark  green  above, 
pale  beneath. 

Flowers  bright  yellow,  produced  in  April  and  May 
in  small  clusters  over  the  whole  length  of  the  young 
shoots.  The  round  blue-black  berries  ripen  in  August 
but,  like  those  of  B.  Darwinii,  soon  fall. 

This  fine  plant  is  a  hybrid  which  arose  from  a  cross 
between  B.  Darwinii  and  B.  empetrifolia.  It  appeared 
in  a  nursery  near  Sheffield  some  sixty  years  ago.  It 
does  not  closely  resemble  either  parent,  the  leaves  are 
much  the  same  shade  as  B.  Darwinii  but  the  flowers 
are  slightly  paler,  and  it  is  far  taller  and  more  graceful 
in  growth. 


B.  stenophylla  is,  when  in  flower,  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  shrubs,  a  well-grown  specimen  becoming  a 
dazzling  mass  of  golden  rain  in  the  spring.  It  is  an 
excellent  plant  for  sloping  banks  where  there  is  room 
for  it  to  develop  fully,  and  it  may  also  be  used  as  a 
hedge  plant.  Seedlings  of  this  hybrid  do  not  come 
true  but  produce  a  variety  of  forms,  many  with  a 
tendency  to  revert  to  the  spreading  habit  of  B.  empe- 
trifolia.  It  should  therfore  be  propagated  by  cuttings 
of  half  ripe  wood  which  root  freely  under  a  hand-light 
in  early  autumn.  There  are  a  number  of  seedling 
varieties,  some  of  them  being  dwarf  shrubs  of  neat 

Berberis  stenophylla  var.  "  Brilliant." 

A  fine  dwarf  or  drooping  form  with  flowers  of  richer 
colour  than  the  type.  It  is  best  planted  up  on  a 
rockery  where  it  becomes  a  cascade  of  bronzy-gold 
each  spring. 

Berberis  stenophylla  var.  gracilis. 

A  low  growing  variety,  smaller  and  more  compact 
than  the  type. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  fin.  long,  narrow,  entire. 

Flowers  bright  golden-yellow. 

There  are  numerous  garden  forms  of  this  variety. 

Berberis  stenophylla  var.  Irwinii. 

A  handsome,  low  shrub  resembling  Darwinii  but  the 
racemes  of  blossoms  are  lighter  in  colour.  Quite  one 
of  the  best  of  the  group. 


Berberis  Thunbergii. 

A  deciduous  species  forming  a  compact,  rounded 
bush,  4ft.  to  5ft.  in  height.  The  short,  stiff,  reddish- 
brown  branches  are  grooved,  spreading  horizontally 
and  drooping  at  their  tips.  The  spines  are  about  Jin. 
long,  borne  singly. 

Leaves  about  fin.  long,  very  numerous,  oval,  broadest 
near  the  apex  with  smooth  edges  and  spiny  tip  ;  of  a 
fresh,  pale  green  when  young. 

Flowers  pale  yellow,  flushed  with  red,  of  a  medium 
size,  borne  singly  among  the  clustered  foliage.  The 
fruits  are  pendant  on  long  stalks,  oblong,  bright  red, 
but  usually  hidden  until  the  leaves  fall. 

Although  its  berries  are  not  conspicuous,  the  plant 
is  handsome  in  early  autumn,  when  the  soft  green 
foliage  gives  place  to  shades  of  yellow  and  crimson. 

Berberis  Thunbergii  var.  minor,  which  seldom  exceeds 
2ft.  in  height  is  a  useful  small  shrub  for  the  Rock 

Berberis  verruculosa. 

A  vigorous  rounded  evergreen  bush,  4ft.  high,  of 
dense  growth.  The  branches  are  stiff  and  arching  and 
very  thickly  set  with  foliage.  The  surface  of  the  stem 
is  rough  and  brownish.  The  pale  coloured  spines  occur 
in  clusters  of  three  or  five. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  lin.  long,  Jin.  to  Jin.  wide,  thick, 
leathery,  with  sharply  toothed  margins.  Dark  glossy 
green  on  the  upper  surface,  grey,  downy,  beneath. 

Flowers  bright  yellow,  large,  generally  solitary, 
opening  in  May.  Handsome  black  fruit  covered  with 
rich  purple  bloom. 


One  of  the  most  beautiful  Berberis,  a  true  evergreen 
though,  during  the  winter,  it  generally  happens  that 
a  few  leaves  turn  to  a  bright  crimson.  It  is  not  quite 
so  free-flowering  as  some  species,  yet  its  compact 
growth  and  bright  foliage  make  it  an  eminently  de- 
sirable shrub.  A  native  of  China,  first  found  by 

Berberis  virescens. 

A  deciduous  shrub  8ft.  to  loft.  high.  The  stems 
are  erect,  conspicuous  by  the  shining  red  bark  in 
winter.  The  spines  are  long  and  thin,  in  clusters  of 

Leaves  lin.  to  ijins.  long,  uniform  in  size,  and  one- 
half  as  wide,  light  green,  with  spiny  margins. 

Flowers  pale  yellow,  produced  in  short  bunches  and 
followed  by  thin  reddish  berries. 

It  was  discovered  in  Sikkim  by  Hooker  and  there  is 
apparently  a  variety  with  black  fruits,  sometimes 
known  as  B.  virescens  var.  macrocarpa. 

Berberis  vulgaris. 

A  robust,  deciduous  shrub  often  8ft.  or  loft.  in 
height.  The  stems  are  grey  and  grooved,  usually  much 
branched  in  the  upper  parts,  spines  in  threes. 

Leaves  ijins.  to  2jins.  long  with  spiny  edges. 

Flowers  bright  yellow  in  pendant  clusters  3ins.  in 
length,  produced  in  great  profusion  during  June, 
followed  by  bunches  of  long,  scarlet  fruits  in  October. 

The  common  Barberry  is  found  wild  in  England  and 
many  parts  of  Europe  and  temperate  Asia.     It  is  a 


vigorous,  hardy  plant,  useful  for  planting  in  exposed 
places  ;  in  fact,  it  will  grow  almost  anywhere,  even 
when  planted  in  rough  grass.  It  is  therefore  most 
useful  where  a  screen  is  wanted. 

A  large  bush  in  full  fruit  makes  a  most  brilliant 
wealth  of  colour  in  the  autumn  with  its  pendant 
clusters  of  brightly  coloured  fruits. 

Berber  is  vulgaris  var,  purpurea. 

A  most  striking  foliage  shrub,  the  leaves  being  of  a 
rich  purplish  copper,  but  otherwise  similar  to  those  of 
the  type.  To  obtain  the  full  beauty  the  older  stems 
should  be  annually  cut  out,  thus  encouraging  the 
strong,  young  growths  which  are  always  the  most 
richly  coloured.  When  planted  close  to  or  under 
Laburnums,  or  near  a  mass  of  Spartium  junceum  it 
forms  a  most  attractive  combination  of  yellow  and 
bronze.  Propagation  should  be  by  cuttings  as  seed 
cannot  always  be  relied  upon  to  come  true.  There 
are  many  other  named  and  variegated  varieties  of 
B.  vulgaris  but  none  are  equal  to  the  variety  purpurea 
as  garden  plants. 

Berber  is  Wallichiana. 

An  erect  evergreen  species,  closely  allied,  if  not 
synonymous  with  B.  Hookeri.  The  shiny  grooved 
stems  eventually  reach  a  height  of  loft. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long,  narrow,  dark  lustrous 
green  above,  paler  beneath ;  margined  with  small, 
sharp  teeth. 

Flowers  pale  lemon-yellow,  borne  on  short  stalks  in 


drooping  clusters  and  followed  by  egg-shaped  black 

A  useful,  free-flowering  shrub,  a  native  of  China  and 

Berberis  Wilsonae. 

A  low-growing  deciduous  shrub  of  graceful  spreading 
habit,  seldom  more  than  3ft.  in  height.  The  branches 
are  slender,  angular,  slightly  downy  and  of  a  brownish 
colour,  armed  with  slender  spines  about  Jin.  long. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  lin.  long  and  half  as  wide,  some 
sharply  pointed  and  others  with  rounded  tips,  mostly 
without  spined  edges.  The  upper  surfaces  are  pale 
green,  the  undersides  whitish. 

Flowers  pale  yellow,  borne  in  clusters  of  five  or  six 
during  May  and  succeeded  by  abundant,  round,  coral- 
red  fruits  which  ripen  in  September. 

A  charming  autumn  species,  with  its  numerous 
bright  red  berries  and  reddish  leaves  which  remain  on 
the  plant  till  early  winter.  It  is  of  great  value  for 
covering  a  bank  and  on  the  rough  part  of  a  rockery. 
When  grouped  in  front  of  other  shrubs  it  forms  a 
useful  garden  plant. 

A  native  of  Western  China,  it  was  first  seen  in  1904. 

Berberis  yunnanensis. 

A  strong-growing,  deciduous  shrub  very  closely  allied 
to  B.  diaphana.  The  most  noticeable  differences  are 
in  the  greater  number  of  flowers  which  this  species 
bears  in  each  cluster  (sometimes  eight  together)  and  in 
the  much  less  spiny  leaves  which  surround  them. 


A  native  of  China,  it  assumes  beautiful  shades  of 
colour  in  the  autumn,  when  its  leaves  turn  crimson. 

Berberis  hybrids. 

In  addition  to  the  many  species  of  Berberis  there  are 
a  great  number  of  hybrids,  some  of  natural  or  acci- 
dental origin,  while  others  have  arisen  as  the  result  of 
careful  crossing.  The  beautiful  B.  rubrostilla  is  of 
hybrid  origin  and  seedlings  from  it  vary  considerably 
both  in  the  size  and  colour  of  the  fruit.  It  is  very 
curious  to  see  the  great  variation  in  forms  from  one 
bed  of  seedlings.  Many  beautiful  varieties  have  been 
most  successfully  raised  at  Wisley  where  they  make 
luxuriant  growth.  There  are  now  such  a  number  that 
it  is  impossible  to  describe  a  tenth  part  of  them. 

The  following  are  some  of  the  more  distinct  varieties 
recently  raised  : — 

Autumn  Beauty.  This  bears  berries  fin.  long,  rather 
flattened  at  both  ends  and  brightly  coloured.  This 
and  the  hybrid  Sparkler  show  strong  signs  in  fruit  and 
foliage  of  their  relationship  with  B.  rubrostilla. 

Autumn  Cheer.  A  polyantha  hybrid  bearing  dense 
clusters  of  roundish  scarlet  berries  on  pendant  branches. 

Carminea.  The  berries  are  of  rather  deeper  and 
bluer  shade  than  those  of  Sparkler,  the  habit  more 

Sparkler.  A  seedling  of  pendulous  habit,  bearing 
numerous  berries  of  a  bright  coral  colour. 

Tom  Thumb.  A  quaint  little  hybrid  deciduous 
shrub  gins,  to  I2ins.  in  height,  forming  a  small  prickly 
cushion,   covered  in  autumn  with  small  red  berries. 


Quite  the  dwarfest  of  the  Berberis,  it  is  a  good  rock 
plant.  It  is  of  very  slow  growth  and  a  specimen  some 
six  years  old  may  be  less  than  loins.  high.  It  is 
probably  a  cross  between  B.  Wilsonae  and  B.  aggregata. 



A  GROUP  of  strong  growing  shrubs  of  which  many 
species  have  been  found  in  China  during  recent  years. 
They  cannot  all  be  considered  hardy,  but  nearly  all 
the  variabilis  group  will  withstand  any  ordinary 
winter  and  form  handsome  shrubs,  with  a  wealth  of 
long,  purple  flowers  during  July  and  August.  Budd- 
leias  are  excellent  garden  plants  for  open,  sunny 
positions,  as  they  do  not  like  to  be  planted  in  the 
shadow  of  large  trees  or  in  a  place  where  they  are 
sheltered  from  the  air  and  sun.  In  addition  to  this 
they  are  most  valuable  seaside  shrubs,  where  their 
tough  leaves  and  cane-like  branches  bend  over  before 
a  harsh  sea  wind,  coming  up  again  none  the  worse. 
Buddleias  are  not  particular  as  to  soil,  but  warm,  light 
land  with  some  well  decayed  manure  suits  them  best, 
in  this  they  grow  very  fast,  often  making  six  or  eight 
feet  in  a  season.  The  varieties  flowering  on  the  young 
wood,  such  as  the  variabilis  section,  should  be  pruned 
hard  back  each  spring,  if  this  is  omitted  they  are  liable 
to  become  straggly  and  the  flower  spikes  small.  Most 
Buddleias  can  be  easily  increased  from  cuttings,  they 
should  be  cut  off  about  four  inches  long,  just  under  a 
joint,  and  dibbled  into  a  five-inch  pot.  Cuttings 
always  strike  best  round  the  edge  of  the  pot,  sandy 


soil  being  used.  The  pots  should  then  be  placed  in  a 
propagating  pit  or  under  a  bell-glass  in  a  greenhouse 
with  a  little  warmth  if  possible.  Late  summer  is  the 
best  time  to  take  cuttings.  The  following  is  a  selection 
of  the  most  useful  Buddleias,  also  those  which  thrive 
best  on  the  coast  : — 

Buddleia  alteynifolia. 

This  attractive  shrub  was  introduced  by  the  late 
Mr.  Reginald  Farrer,  who  first  found  it  on  his  Kan-Su 
journey  in  1914,  and  described  in  the  R,  H.  S.  Journal. 

"  It  prefers  a  steep  dry  bank,  and  an  open  warm 
place,  where  it  grows  like  a  fine  leaved  and  very 
graceful  weeping  willow,  either  as  a  bush  or  smaU 
trunked  tree,  until  its  pendulous  sprays  erupt  all  along 
into  tight  bundles  of  purple  blossom  at  the  end  of 
May,  when  the  whole  shrub  turns  into  cascades  of 

Seen  at  Wisley  last  summer  it  fully  bore  out  this 
description  and  should  be  widely  planted.  As  the 
flowers  are  produced  on  the  last  season's  wood  it  must 
not  be  cut  back  like  most  Buddleias  and  any  pruning 
which  may  be  necessary  should  be  done  immediately 
after  flowering.  It  has  so  far  proved  quite  hardy  in 
English  gardens  and  can  be  readily  increased  from 
cuttings  in  early  autumn. 

Buddleia  Colvilei. 

A  handsome  vigorous  growing  species,  but  distinctly 
tender  and  will  not  withstand  a  winter  except  on  the 
warmest  wall  or  in  the  south-west  near  the  sea. 



•  I— I 




Leaves  6ins.  to  gins,  long,  narrow,  pointed,  with 
evenly  toothed  edges  of  a  dark,  rich  green. 

Flowers  deep  red  in  drooping  clusters. 

A  native  of  the  Himalayas  and  one  of  the  finest 
Buddleias,  but  owing  to  the  soft  fleshy  growth  it  is 
very  susceptible  to  frost. 

Buddleia  Fallowiana. 

A  distinct  Chinese  shrub  of  vigorous  growth,  but  it 
is  doubtful  if  it  will  withstand  a  severe  winter. 

Leaves  5ins.  to  7ins.  long,  pointed,  grey-green  on  the 
upper  side,  and  the  flat  stalks  are  covered  with  thick 
white  felt. 

Flowers,  white  in  long  spikes  each  little  blossom  with 
an  orange  eye,  sweetly  scented.  Flowering  freely 
through  July  and  August,  it  will  become  a  good  shrub 
and  companion  plant  to  the  more  showy  purple 

There  is  also  a  form  with  lavender  flowers. 

Buddleia  Forrestii. 

An  attractive  low  growing  shrub  from  China. 

Leaves  5ins.  long,  silvery-grey  in  the  young  state, 
the  under  side  being  quite  white.  The  stems  are  also 
white  with  a  thick  felt  like  down,  so  thick  is  this  down 
that  it  comes  off  when  fingered. 

Flowers  produced  in  terminal  and  lateral  spikes  of 
a  pale  lavender  shade,  each  tiny  flower  having  an 
orange  centre,  very  sweetly  scented. 

In  Cornwall  and  in  sheltered  places  on  the  coast  it 
makes  a  fine  shrub  eight  feet  high.     In  the  colder 


districts  it  gets  badly  damaged  by  frost  and  cut  to  the 
ground,  but  shoots  up  again  the  next  spring  apparently 
little  the  worse.  It  should,  however,  be  given  the 
warmest  and  most  sheltered  position. 

Buddleia  globosa. 

A  very  robust  somewhat  loose  growing  shrub,  a 
native  of  Chile  and  Peru,  forming  a  large  bush  up  to 
twenty  feet.  It  may  be  considered  an  evergreen,  only 
losing  its  leaves  in  very  severe  winters  inland. 

Leaves  4ins.  to  7ins.  long,  tapering  to  a  fine  point, 
irregularly  notched  edges,  the  upper  surface  is  corru- 
gated and  of  a  rich  dark  green,  grey  beneath,  almost 
downy,  with  very  prominent  veining. 

Flowers  bright  orange,  in  globular  balls,  borne  on 
short  stalks,  springing  from  the  axils  of  the  leaves  in 
June  and  sweetly  scented. 

This  distinct  Buddleia  is  a  most  valuable  seaside 
evergreen  of  very  rapid  growth,  often  sending  out 
shoots  four  to  six  feet  in  length  in  a  season,  but  it 
must  not  be  considered  only  a  seaside  plant,  in  the 
warmer  counties  it  is  quite  safe  inland.  It  should  be 
given  a  warm  comer  and  is  best  in  light,  well  drained 

It  does  not  require  pruning  unless  it  becomes  strag- 
gly, when  it  may  be  cut  back  in  the  spring.  Like 
most  of  this  family,  it  may  be  increased  by  cuttings. 

Buddleia  variabilis. 

A  strong  growing  deciduous  Chinese  shrub,  keeping 
its  leaves  well  into  the  winter.  The  growth  varies, 
but  is  generally  low  and  spreading. 

Buddleia  variabilis  magniiica. 


Leaves  5ins.  to  7ins.  long,  pointed,  grey  on  the  under 

Flowers  produced  in  long  spikes  of  thickly  packed, 
lilac  coloured  small  blossoms  in  July. 

Buddleia  variabilis  var.  magnifica. 

A  strong  erect  growing  shrub,  loft.  to  12ft.  in  height 
and  requiring  to  be  cut  back  each  year. 

Long  spikes  of  purple  flowers,  the  throat  of  each 
blossom  being  orange.  Fragrant  with  honey-like  scent. 
Quite  the  best  of  the  varieties,  equally  good  for  coast 
or  inland  garden  and  one  of  the  most  effective  shrubs 
flowering  in  July  and  August.  Roots  easily  from 

Buddleia  variabilis  var.  Nanhoensis. 

A  distinct  and  small  growing  form  of  B.  variabilis 
found  in  China  by  the  late  Mr.  Reginald  Farrer. 

Leaves  somewhat  smaller  than  the  type  with  grace- 
fully arching  branches. 

Flowers  vary  much  as  to  colour,  the  darker  forms 
selected  at  Wisley  being  the  best.  So  far  the  plant  has 
not  reached  more  than  3ft.  to  4ft.  in  height.  It  will 
make  a  useful  plant  for  small  gardens,  where  B.  mag- 
nifica becomes  over-powering.  Flowering  in  July  it 
requires  much  the  same  treatment  as  the  tall  growing 

Buddleia  variabilis  var.  Pink  Pearl. 

A  distinct  variety  with  upright  habit  and  handsome 
spikes  of  pale  lavender-mauve,  each  tiny  flower  having 
a  straw-coloured  tube. 


Buddleia  variabilis  var.  rosea. 

Handsome  spikes  of  rosy-purple,  good  upright  habit. 

Buddleia  variabilis  var.  Veitchiana. 

A  more  upright  growing  shrub  and  sHghtly  deeper 
in  colour  than  the  type. 


A  VALUABLE  genus  of  shrubs  which  may  be  had  in 
bloom  over  a  long  period  of  time,  for  the  various 
species  will  flower  one  after  another  from  April  to  mid- 

The  various  species  of  Ceanothus  may  be  divided 
into  two  distinct  sections,  those  that  flower  on  the 
wood  of  the  previous  season,  such  as  C.  papillosus, 
C.  dentatus,  etc.,  and  the  Gloire  de  Versailles  type, 
which  flower  on  the  young  wood  of  the  current  year. 
The  colour  of  the  flowers  vary  from  blue  to  cream  and 
almost  pink,  but  those  with  blue  flowers  are  the  most 
valuable,  both  for  their  colour  and  for  the  freedom 
with  which  they  flower. 

All  are  natives  of  the  Pacific  Coast  of  North  America, 
some  being  hardy  enough  to  stand  in  the  open  through 
severe  winters,  while  others,  except  in  the  south-west, 
are  more  at  home  if  given  a  wall  where  they  grow  with 
extreme  rapidity,  their  small  shoots  and  leaves  quickly 
covering  the  space  allotted  to  them.  The  more 
rampant  growing  varieties  must  not  be  confined  too 
closely,  but  allowed  to  grow  out  a  foot  or  two  from  the 
wall.  C.  papillosus  grown  in  this  way  forms  a  beau- 
tiful mass  of  colour  about  the  third  week  in  May,  when 
it  is  so  crowded  with  blue  panicles  that  hardly  a  leaf 
is  visible. 



Ceanothus  are  plants  that  revel  in  sun  and  should 
always  be  allotted  the  warmest  position  possible, 
whether  in  the  open  or  against  a  wall. 

A  light  soil  suits  them  best,  and  they  will  not  succeed 
in  ground  which  is  inclined  to  be  wet  or  stagnant. 
Planted  in  warm  soil  they  soon  start  into  growth,  often 
making  two  or  three  feet  the  first  season.  On  the 
other  hand,  they  are  not  easy  to  transplant,  and 
should  be  planted  from  pots  into  their  permanent 
positions.  Always  avoid  planting  in  winter  when  the 
ground  is  cold,  early  autumn  or  late  spring  being  the 
most  satisfactory  times  to  plant.  Care  should  be  taken 
that  the  roots  are  moist  when  turned  out,  and  if  the 
plants  are  dry  when  they  are  received,  soak  them  in 
a  pail  of  water  before  placing  them  in  the  ground. 


The  spring  flowering  varieties  require  very  little 
pruning,  and  what  is  necessary  should  be  done  directly 
after  flowering,  and  then  only  shorten  the  young 
growths  ;  if  cut  hard  back  into  the  old  wood  they  often 
refuse  to  break  kindly.  The  Gloire  de  Versailles  type 
should  have  their  young  growths  cut  back  in  the  early 
autumn — or  in  the  spring,  bearing  in  mind  that  the 
winter  is  the  worst  possible  time  to  prune  this  class  of 
shrub.  The  young  season's  growth  may  be  safely 
shortened  back  to  within  an  eye  or  two  of  the  old  wood. 
This  pruning  is  particularly  necessary  when  grown  on 
a  wall,  otherwise  they  are  apt  to  project  too  far. 
WTien  treated  as  shrubs  in  the  open  they  merely  need 
trimming  in,  so  as  to  keep  them  in  shape. 



Ceanothus  are  not  easy  plants  to  propagate,  but 
with  a  little  care  they  can  be  struck  from  cuttings. 
These  root  best  at  the  end  of  the  summer — August 
and  September.  Small  cuttings  should  be  taken  off 
at  a  joint  and  inserted  round  the  edge  of  a  pot  in  pure, 
sharp  sand.  Fill  the  pot  one-third  with  crocks  and 
then  with  the  sand.  Do  not  press  the  sand  firm,  but 
saturate  it  with  water.  Keep  the  pots  close  under  a 
bell-glass,  or  in  a  frame  with  a  little  bottom  heat,  but 
this  is  not  really  necessary. 

When  they  are  rooted,  pot  them  off  singly  and  keep 
them  in  a  cold  frame.  When  a  foot  high  they  should 
be  planted  in  their  permanent  homes.  Large  plants 
that  have  rooted  over  the  pots,  seldom  start  into 
growth  so  well  as  those  of  a  small  or  medium  size. 


The  names  of  the  various  species  and  varieties  of 
Ceanothus  are  often  confused  and  the  same  variety  is 
found  under  several  names.  In  some  cases  the  only 
safe  way  of  distinguishing  them  is  by  the  veining  on 
the  under  side  of  the  leaf.  C.  Veitchianus,  for  in- 
stance, has  three  prominent  veins  springing  from  the 
base  of  the  leaf,  while  in  C.  dentatus  the  two  veins 
from  the  base  are  not  nearly  so  clearly  marked. 

Ceanothus  americanus. 

A  low  growing  shrub,  deciduous  and  quite  hardy, 
but  not  of  much  value  as  a  garden  plant. 

Leaves  large,  alternate,  2jins.  long  with  a  distinct 


saw-like  edge.  The  stems  of  the  young  wood  are  dark 
red  where  exposed  to  the  sun  and  rough  to  the  touch. 
Flowers  dull  pinkish-white,  borne  in  small  clusters 
on  the  young  wood.  Sometimes  known  as  "  New 
Jersey  Tea,"  for  the  leaves  are  said  to  have  been  used 
for  tea  at  one  time  in  the  United  States. 

Ceanothus  azureus. 

A  fast  growing,  deciduous  species  from  Mexico, 
flowering  on  the  young  wood  from  July  onwards.  It 
has  been  eclipsed  by  Gloire  de  Versailles,  of  which  it 
is  one  of  the  parents,  and  therefore  no  longer  has  much 
value  as  a  garden  plant. 

Leaves  large,  2jins.  to  3ins.  long. 

Flowers  pale  blue  in  small  heads  on  short,  red-brown 
stalks.  It  is  fairly  hardy  and  makes  a  good  shrub  in 
the  open,  but  is  safer  on  a  wall. 

Ceanothus  dentatus. 

A  good  evergreen  species  either  in  the  open  or 
against  a  wall. 

Leaves  small,  not  more  than  an  inch  in  length,  of 
a  glistening  dark  green,  with  curiously  notched  edges, 
paler  on  the  under  side,  with  the  veining  arranged  like 
a  herring  bone. 

Flowers  pale  grey-blue  in  small  bottle-brush-like 
clusters,  on  the  wood  of  the  previous  year,  produced 
in  great  profusion  at  the  end  of  May  and  early  in  June, 
sUghtly  later  than  C.  papillosus.  In  the  southern  and 
eastern  counties  in  light  soil,  C.  dentatus  flourishes  in 
the  open  and  withstands  all  but  the  most  severe  winter 
Further  north  it  is  best  planted  against  a  wall. 

Ceanothus  Papillosus. 


Ceanothus  divaricatus. 

A  very  scarce  species  closely  resembling  C.  thyrsi- 
flonis,  but  with  paler  flowers,  and  not  so  valuable  as 
a  garden  plant. 

Ceanothus  Fendleri. 

A  small,  compact,  woody  shrub,  3ft.  to  4ft.  in  height. 

Leaves  very  small,  of  a  greyish  green,  flowers 
mauvish- white. 

This  species  can  hardly  be  called  showy  and,  though 
quite  hardy,  is  of  comparatively  little  value  as  a 
garden  plant. 

Ceanothus  papillosus. 

A  good  wall  shrub,  and  a  very  distinct  species, 
flowering  on  the  wood  of  the  previous  season  about 
the  middle  of  May. 

Leaves  alternate,  narrow,  about  2ins.  long,  with 
conspicuous  warty  excrescences  on  the  upper  side,  the 
imder  surface  being  downy  with  a  prominent  mid-rib. 

Flowers  bright  azure-blue,  in  five  or  six  little  ter- 
minal heads  at  the  end  of  each  branch.  This  species 
flowers  so  profusely  that  it  is  one  whole  mass  of  pale 
blue  and  there  are  but  few  shrubs  to  equal  it  when  at 
its  best.  It  is  a  true  evergreen  and,  although  fairly 
hardy,  should  be  given  a  position  at  the  foot  of  a 
south  wall  where  it  can  have  a  certain  amount  of  room 
and  be  allowed  to  grow  freely.  It  requires  light 
pruning  immediately  after  flowering. 

Ceanothus  rigidus. 

A  stiff  upright-growing  evergreen  shrub,  almost 
prickly  to  the  touch. 


Leaves  small,  opposite,  often  only  Jin.  long,  of  a 
bright  shining  green  thickly  crowded  on  hard  woody 

Flowers  violet-blue  in  small  dense  heads.  One  of 
the  first  species  of  Ceanothus  to  bloom,  early  in  May 
or  even  in  April.  To  be  a  success  it  needs  a  wall  and 
then  it  will  stand  a  hard  winter  unharmed.  There 
are  one  or  two  varieties  of  C.  rigidus  which  differ 
slightly  in  colour. 

Ceanothus  thyrsiflorus. 

The  tallest  and  most  robust  growing  species  of  this 
family.  In  the  open  it  forms  a  dense  shrub  loft.  to 
2oft.  in  height,  and  is  quite  hardy  even  through  a 
severe  winter.  The  fine  specimens  growing  at  Kew 
are  ample  proof  of  its  hardiness.  In  winter  it  is 
valuable  for  its  small,  neat,  evergreen  foliage,  while 
towards  the  end  of  May  each  shrub  becomes  one  mass 
of  small  azure  clusters.  There  are  few  flowering 
shrubs  to  equal  it,  though  in  its  early  years  it  does  not 
flower  as  freely  as  some  of  the  other  species. 

Leaves  alternate,  of  medium  size,  lin.  to  ijins.  long, 
and  half  this  in  width,  of  a  dark  glistening  green,  very 
distinctly  three  nerved. 

Flowers  pale  azure-blue,  in  short  rounded  heads, 
produced  from  the  growths  of  the  previous  year. 

Ceanothus  thyrsiflorus  var.  griseus. 

A  strong  growing  evergreen,  nearly  allied  to  C. 
th37Tsiflorus.  The  leaves  however  are  much  larger, 
and  it  is  not  nearly  so  hardy,  but  requires  the  shelter 
of  a  warm  wall. 


The  flowers  are  greyish-white,  and  although  it  is  a 
very  distinct  species,  it  is  not  so  useful  a  garden  plant 
as  C.  thyrsiflorus. 

Ceanothus  Veitchianus. 

An  excellent  wall  shrub  of  very  fast  growth,  often 
covering  a  yard  or  more  in  one  season,  flowering  just 
after  C.  papillosus. 

Leaves  broad,  fin.  to  lin.  in  length,  of  a  bright, 
shining  dark  green. 

Flowers  greyish-blue,  in  dense  terminal  masses,  each 
raceme  being  2jins.  to  3ins.  long. 

Few  climbing  plants  can  equal  C.  Veitchianus  for 
covering  a  west  or  south  wall.  It  requires  pruning 
immediately  after  flowering  so  that  it  has  time  to 
make  fresh  growth,  which  will  form  flowering  shoots 
for  the  next  season. 

Ceanothus  Gloire  de  Versailles. 

This  is  probably  the  most  valuable  of  all  the  hybrid 
Ceanothus.  Planted  against  a  wall,  it  quickty  covers 
a  large  space  and  in  the  warmer  counties  it  may  be 
grown  as  a  bush  in  the  open. 

The  leaves  are  much  larger  than  those  of  C.  azureus, 
one  of  its  parents,  being  3ins.  to  3jins.  long  and  half 
this  in  width,  of  a  rich  glossy  green,  paler  on  the  reverse 
side  and  with  prominent  veins. 

Flowers  deep  azure-blue,  individually  ver}^  minute, 
but  produced  in  such  masses  as  to  form  large  axillary 
panicles  or  clusters.  The  inflorescence  is  often  Sins. 
in  length.  It  begins  to  blossom  in  early  July  on  the 
young  wood  of  the  current  season  and  continues  to 


give  a  wealth  of  brilliant  blue  heads  until  well  into 
October.  It  is  advisable  to  shorten  back  the  young 
growths  and  this  pruning  should  be  done  in  the  early 
spring.  It  will  then  form  the  young  growths  on  which 
it  flowers  in  the  summer.  At  present  none  of  the 
many  hybrids  equal  Gloire  de  Versailles,  but  the 
following  are  the  most  useful. 

Ceanothus  Albert  Pittet. 

Pinkish-mauve,  with  deep  pink  stalks  to  the  flowers. 
An  effective  shrub  in  a  sheltered  situation. 

Ceanothus  Ceres. 

A  strong-growing  hybrid,  having  large  leaves  with 
very  conspicuously  toothed  edges. 

Flowers  pinkish-mauve  on  strong  stalks. 

Ceanothus  alba  flore  pleno. 

The  nearest  approach  to  a  white  Ceanothus.  Round 
clusters  of  pinkish  buds  which  open  a  blush-white. 
An  attractive  plant. 

Ceanothus  Indigo. 

A  beautiful  variety  with  clusters  of  dark  blue  flowers, 
the  darkest  shade  of  blue  in  the  Ceanothus.  Unfor- 
tunately it  is  not  hardy  and  will  not  do  except  on  a 
warm  wall. 

Ceanothus  Leon  Simon. 

Grey-blue,  large  masses  of  flowers. 



These  two  botanical  genera  form  a  charming  family 
of  low-growing  flowering  shrubs,  so  closely  allied  with 
one  another  that  they  are  placed  under  the  same 
heading.  They  are  much  confused  in  many  lists,  and 
the  same  plant  is  found  under  both  cistus  and  helian- 
themums.  In  fact,  there  is,  botanically,  only  a  very 
small  difference  between  them,  which  is  to  be  found 
in  the  formation  of  the  seed  vessel  and  in  the  number 
of  the  seeds.  Most  of  the  true  cistuses  grow  to  a 
larger  size  than  the  helianthemums,  and  have  flowers 
of  various  shades  from  pure  white  to  deep  purplish- 
red,  whilst  the  helianthemums  include  beautiful  yellow 
varieties,  which  are  never  found  among  the  cistuses. 
In  a  wild  state  both  are  found  growing  in  profusion  in 
Spain,  Portugal,  and  Southern  France,  and  also  along 
the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean,  where  they  revel  in 
the  fuUest  sunshine.  Unfortunately  many  are  not 
quite  hardy  enough  to  stand  an  English  winter,  par- 
ticularly inland,  and  on  cold  soil.  On  the  coast  and 
in  southern  and  western  countries  they  are  perfectly 
easy  to  grow,  producing  masses  of  many  coloured 
flowers,   which  fall  every  afternoon,   only  to  be  re- 


plenished  with  another  wealth  of  bloom  with  the  next 
morning's  sunshine. 

Cistuses  are  evergreen,  and  some  varieties  have  a 
pleasant  pungent  smell  when  the  foliage  is  lightly 
touched,  more  especially  in  the  early  spring,  and  a 
sticky  gumminess  which  gives  them  the  name  of  Gum 
Cistus.  They  are  evidently  plants  that  were  much 
prized  in  our  gardens  a  hundred  years  ago.  Sweet's 
"  Cistineae,"  published  in  1825-30,  with  many  beau- 
tiful, accurately  coloured  plates,  still  holds  its  place  as 
being  the  best  book  on  Cistuses  and  Sun  Roses 
although  many  varieties  mentioned  by  Sweet  are  now 
lost  to  cultivation.  The  popular  name  of  Rock-rose 
generally  applies  to  Cistus  while  the  dwarf  Helian- 
themum  is  known  by  the  old  English  name  of  Sun-rose. 

When  planted  in  large  groups  on  a  dry,  sunny  bank 
or  border,  particularly  if  the  soil  is  light,  few  plants 
succeed  better,  or  give  more  flower  with  so  little 
attention,  than  the  Cistus.  Some  of  the  smaller 
helianthemums  are  more  suited  for  a  warm  comer  of 
a  rockery  and  for  positions  which  are  too  dry  for  most 
plants  to  be  able  to  thrive. 


Cistuses  do  not  transplant  well  when  once  estab- 
lished and  it  is  therefore  always  advisable  to  start  with 
small  plants  which  grow  away  freely.  In  most  Nur- 
series they  are  grown  in  pots  and  the  pots  plunged  in 
the  open  ground  and,  if  these  small  plants  are  kept 
watered,  they  generally  respond  by  quickly  establishing 
themselves.  When  they  are  planted  in  the  orthodox 
way  in  November  and  December,   and  a  cold,   wet 


January  follows,  even  if  the  plants  are  not  actually 
killed,  the}^  do  not  thrive  so  vigorously  as  those  planted 
in  the  spring.  Warm,  well-drained  soil,  and  full  sun- 
shine are  demanded  by  all  Cistus  and  Helianthemums 
if  they  are  to  flourish,  while  the  smaller  species  are 
quite  at  home  in  the  crevices  of  a  dry  wall  or  on  the 
higher  parts  of  a  rocker}^  The  stronger  growing 
Cistus,  such  as  C.  cyprius,  C.  laurifolius,  and  C.  villosus 
are  better  for  a  slight  pruning  immediately  after 
flowering,  but  care  must  be  taken  not  to  cut  back  into 
the  old  wood,  imless  there  are  some  indications  of 
shoots  below  the  point  to  which  it  is  proposed  to  cut 
it  back.  With  the  smaller  growing  kinds  pruning  is 
unnecessary.  The  Cistus  is,  as  a  rule,  not  a  long  lived 
shrub,  and  it  is  always  well  to  keep  a  supply  of  young 
plants  in  reserve.  Old  plants  often  become  shabby 
and  straggly  after  some  ten  or  twelve  years. 


Seeds  are  produced  by  some  kinds,  particularly  by 
C.  laurifolius,  which  indeed  seeds  so  freely  that  the 
surrounding  ground  is  frequently  covered  with  young, 
self-sown  seedlings.  The  usual  method  of  propagating 
is  by  cuttings  which  strike  readily  when  they  consist 
of  half-ripened  wood  taken  towards  the  end  of  the 
summer.  They  can  be  rooted  under  a  hand-light  or 
in  gentle  heat  and  it  is  also  quite  possible  to  get  the 
cuttings  to  strike  freely  out  of  doors  in  a  sheltered 
place.  Small  cuttings,  two  to  three  inches  long, 
cleanly  cut  immediately  beneath  a  joint  are  the  best 
and  most  easily  rooted. 

The  hardiness  of  these  shrubs  is  curiously  variable. 


It  seems  to  depend,  to  a  large  extent,  on  the  age  of  the 
plant.  An  old  bush  is  often  much  damaged  by  a 
severe  winter,  while  young  plants  withstand  it  im- 

List  of  the  hardiest  Cistus 


Strong-growing  varieties. 

Cistus  corbariensis. 
Silver  Pink, 

Low-growing  varieties  one  to  two  feet  high. 

Cistus  Clusii.  % 

,,       florentinus. 

Helianthemum  algarvense. 

„  formosum. 

„  formosum  var.  unicolor. 

„  lunulatum. 

Cistus  albidus. 

A  strong,  bushy  shrub,  easily  distinguished  by  its 
thick  flannel-like  leaves,  2jins.  in  length,  without 
stalks,  of  a  pale  silver-grey.  The  young  foliage  has 
a  distinct  white  edge. 



Flowers  pale  rosy-mauve,  with  a  yellow  stain  at  the 
base  of  each  petal. 

Like  C,  villosus  it  is  very  easily  grown  from  seed  and 
thus  there  are  many  types  with  slight  variations.  An 
attractive  garden  plant,  both  for  the  bright  flowers  in 
July  and  for  the  grey  foliage  in  winter.  It  is  fairly 
hardy,  it  requires  no  pruning  and  cuttings  root  easily. 

Recently  a  very  beautiful  form  with  white  flowers  has 
been  collected  in  the  south  of  France  by  Sir  Oscar  E. 
Warburg  and  was  shown  at  the  R.H.S.  for  the  first 
time  in  June,  1924.  The  pure  white  flowers  har- 
monizing with  the  grey  foliage,  while  the  growth  and 
habit  is  identical  with  the  pink  form. 

Cistus  candidissimus. 

A  strong,  quick-growing  plant  from  the  Canary  Isles. 

Leaves  long,  of  rather  a  pale  green. 

Flowers  large,  2|ins.  to  3ins.  across,  of  a  mauve- 
pink,  petals  slightly  twisted  at  the  edges  and  forming 
a  loosely  made  flower. 

This  would  be  a  fine  species  if  it  were  hardy  but 
owing  to  its  tenderness  it  is  useless  as  a  garden  plant, 
except  in  the  south-west. 

Cistus  Clusii. 

A  spreading  low-growing  plant,  seldom  more  than 
I2ins.  in  height. 

Leaves  small  and  tough,  of  a  shining  dark  green. 

Flowers  white  and  cup-shaped,  with  a  small  yellow 

Very  free  flowering,  and  one  of  the  earliest  Cistus, 
often  in  full  bloom  by  the  middle  of  May,  hardy. 


A  good  rock  plant  and  groimd  coverer,  in  any  warm 
sandy  soil. 

Cistus  corbariensis. 

A  hybrid  between  C.  populifolius  and  C.  salvifolius, 
forming  a  thick  low-spreading  bush,  upwards  of  4ft, 
in  height  and  more  in  diameter. 

Leaves  lin.  to  2ins.  long,  bluntly  pointed,  square  at 
the  base,  the  upper  surface  is  wrinkled  and  harsh  to 
the  touch,  curiously  curled  edges,  with  tiny  teeth,  of 
a  dark  green. 

Flowers  white,  slightly  cup-shaped,  with  small  yellow 
eye,  very  freely  produced  towards  the  end  of  June. 

A  native  of  Southern  Europe,  this  delightful  little 
evergreen  is  one  of  the  hardiest  of  all  the  Cistus.  Its 
compact  habit  makes  it  invaluable  for  clothing  a  hot, 
dry  bank  or  for  planting  in  the  front  of  a  shrub  border. 
It  requires  little  or  no  pruning  and  does  not  become 
straggly.  In  early  summer  it  is  a  cloud  of  blossom, 
while  during  winter  it  is  not  unattractive  with  its  dark 
green  foliage  and  red  wood.  Small  cuttings  root  freely 
in  a  frame  or  hand-light  in  early  autumn. 

Cistus  crispus. 

A  sturdy,  close-growing,  little  shrub,  3ft.  to  4ft.  in 

Leaves  rough,  broad  and  bluntly  pointed,  liins.  to 
2ins.  long,  with  red  shading  at  the  base  of  the  young 
lateral  shoots. 

Flowers  bright  rose-red,  with  a  suspicion  of  mauve, 
the  petals  being  prettily  crimped  and  about  2ins.  in 


Blossoming  in  great  profusion  in  July  and  continues 
at  intervals  till  October.  A  variety  easily  recognised 
by  its  small,  bract-like  leaves,  which  grow  close  up  to 
the  base  of  the  flowers.  A  dehghtful  little  shrub,  one 
of  the  best  and  hardiest  of  the  coloured  Cistuses. 

Cistus  cyprius. 

A  strong-growing,  evergreen  shrub,  sometimes  reach- 
ing 6ft.  to  8ft.  in  height. 

Leaves  long  and  narrow,  of  a  sage-green,  with  a  fresh 
pungent  smell,  particularly  in  the  spring. 

The  flowers,  which  are  3ins.  in  diameter,  are  white 
with  a  rich  crimson  blotch  at  the  base  of  each  petal 
and  are  freely  produced  in  clusters  in  June  and  July. 

One  of  the  hardiest  Cistus,  which  will  stand  un- 
harmed any  ordinary  English  winter.  Even  at  Kew 
this  variety  came  safely  through  the  severe  winter  of 
1917.  C.  cyprius  is  often  confused  in'  Nurseries  with 
C.  ladaniferus,  from  which  it  is  quite  distinct,  the 
flowers  being  slightly  smaller  and  produced  in  clusters, 
while  in  C.  ladaniferus  the  flowers  are  always  solitary. 
It  is  probably  a  hybrid  between  C.  ladaniferis  and 
C.  laurifolius,  and  seldom,  if  ever,  produces  seed. 

Cistus  florentinus. 

A  compact  growing  shrub,  rarely  more  than  3ft. 

Leaves  long,  narrow,  pointed,  2ins.  to  2jins.,  dull 

Flowers  white,  slightly  cup-shaped,  very  freely  pro- 
duced in   early   July.     The  flowers  closely  resemble 


those  of  C.  corbariensis,  but  it  is  distinguished  by  the 
long,  narrow  leaves. 

A  good  plant  for  the  higher  or  rougher  parts  of  a 
rockery.  Not  quite  so  hardy  as  some,  but  comes 
safely  through  an  ordinary  winter. 

Cistus  hirsutus. 

A  low  branching  shrub,  very  like  C.  platysepalus, 
but  without  the  bronzy  leaves,  so  characteristic  of  that 

Leaves  long,  narrow,  2|ins.  in  length,  pale  green, 
stalkless.  The  stems  are  covered  with  stiff  white 

Flowers  in  clusters,  white,  flat,  with  a  heart-shaped 

A  hardy  plant,  but  not  equal  to  C.  platysepalus. 

Cistus  hybridus. 

Under  this  rather  vague  name  is  known  a  free- 
growing,  bushy  Cistus,  much  like  C.  corbariensis  in  the 
shape  and  size  of  the  flowers. 

Leaves  dull  green,  pointed,  about  2ins.  to  2jins.  long. 

Flowers  white,  raised  on  stalks  well  above  the 
foliage,  and  with  very  distinct  rose-coloured  buds. 

A  hardy,  easily  grown  plant,  which  will  thrive  in 
any  warm,  poor  soil. 

Cistus  ladaniferus. 

The  most  handsome  of  all  the  Cistus,  but  unfor- 
tunately not  one  of  the  hardiest  after  the  first  few 
years,  though  when  quite  young,  it  withstands  severe 


Leaves  long,  narrow,  pointed,  deep  green  in  colour, 
not  blue-green  like  those  of  C.  cryprius.  The  young 
growths  are  glossy  green  and  very  sticky. 

Flowers  3ins.  to  4ins.  across,  white,  with  a  rich 
crimson  blotch,  the  petals  curiously  crimped. 

A  good  garden  shrub  for  a  warm  situation.  It  re- 
quires slight  pruning  just  after  flowering  and  is  pro- 
pagated by  seed  or  cuttings. 

Cistus  ladaniferus  var.  immaculatus. 

A  beautiful  flowering  shrub  with  large  pure-white 
flowers  closely  resembling  the  type  in  growth  and  habit. 
This  old  but  valuable  variety  figured  by  Sweet  under 
the  name  of  C.  ladaniferus  var.  albiflorus.  It  was 
brought  into  prominence  by  Sir.  Wm.  Lawrence  who 
exhibited  it  at  the  R.H.S.  in  June,  1925,  and  gained 
an  Award  of  Merit. 

Unlike  many  Cistuses  the  blossoms  when  cut  remain 
fresh  in  water  for  some  days  and  are  most  attractive 
when  used  in  this  way. 

Cistus  laurifolius. 

A  robust  evergreen,  forming  a  dense  shrub,  often 
7ft.  in  height. 

Leaves  broad  and  often  slightly  curled,  of  a  dark 

Flowers  white,  2ins.  to  2jins.  across.  Petals  tinged 
with  yellow  towards  the  base. 

One  of  the  hardiest  and  best  shrubs  for  an  exposed 
position  on  the  coast  or  inland.  It  seems  to  thrive 
equally  well  in  any  well-drained  soil  and  can  be  easily 
raised  from  seed  or  cuttings. 


Cistus  Loretii. 

A  low  evergreen  plant  of  dwarf  habit. 

Leaves  long,  narrow,  of  a  deep  green. 

Flowers  white,  with  a  fine  crimson  blotch  at  the  base 
of  the  petals,  closely  resembling  those  of  C.  C3^prius 
but  smaller. 

A  really  good  plant  in  places  where  it  thrives,  but 
it  appears  to  require  a  much  better  soil  than  most 

Cistus  monspeliensis. 

A  branching,  evergreen  shrub,  4ft.  to  5ft.  in  height 
and  as  much  in  diameter. 

Leaves  deep  green,  long  and  narrow,  2jins.  long  and 
only  Jin.  to  Jin.  in  width,  with  three  nerves  or  ribs, 
and  often  curiousl}^  twisted,  which  makes  the  plant 
easy  to  distinguish  from  other  Cistus. 

Flowers  white,  very  freely  produced  on  short  stalks, 
singly  and  in  clusters  during  July. 

Hardy  only  in  sheltered  places.  Roots  readily  from 

Cistus  platysepalus. 

A  small,  branching  shrub,  rarely  more  than  3ft.  high. 
Leaves  long  and  narrow,  2ins.  to  2jins.,  with  a  very 
prominent  mid-rib. 

Flowers  white  with  a  yellow  centre,  the  half-open 
buds  of  a  distinctly  pink  shade. 

A  native  of  Crete,  closely  related  to  C.  hirsutus  and 
fairly  hardy.  The  whole  plant  assumes  a  bronzy  shade 
during  autumn  and  winter,  a  change  which  adds  to  its 
value  as  a  garden  plant. 


Cistus  populifolius. 

A  strong-growing,  spreading  shrub. 

Leaves  broad  and  slightly  twisted,  dark  green  and 
distinctly  resembling  those  of  a  poplar,  the  centre  vein 
being  often  red. 

Flowers  white,  2ins.  to  2jins.  in  diameter,  with  a 
yellow  stain  at  the  base  of  the  petals,  the  buds  being 
of  an  attractive  red  shade. 

A  good  garden  plant  and  fairly  hardy. 

Cistus  purpureus. 

The  largest  flowered  of  the  coloured  Cistus,  forming 
a  compact  bush,  often  4ft.  high  and  as  much  in 

Leaves  long,  rounded  at  the  end,  of  a  dull,  deep 
green,  paler  on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  light  purple,  with  a  conspicuous  deep  purple 
blotch  at  the  base  of  each  petal,  resembling  those  of 
C.  cyprius  except  in  colour. 

Unfortunately  it  is  not  one  of  the  most  hardy,  and, 
though  it  comes  safely  through  most  winters  as  a  young 
plant,  it  becomes  more  tender  with  age.  When  planted 
on  a  warm,  sunny  border,  it  forms  a  striking  plant 
during  July  with  its  large  handsome  flowers,  and  is 
easily  increased  by  cuttings. 

Cistus  salvifolius. 

A  low,  compact,  much-branched  shrub  from  Southern 
Europe,  and  particularly  the  Mediterranean  Coast. 

Leaves  small,  rounded,  on  short  stalks. 

Flowers  white,  tinged  with  yellow  at  the  base  of  the 
petals,  usually  produced  singly  on  short  stalks. 


Not  one  of  the  hardiest,  nor  as  good  a  plant  as 
several  other  white-flowered  Cistuses. 

Cistus  Silver  Pink. 

A  most  attractive  pink  Cistus  raised  in  Messrs. 
Hillier's  nursery,  and  probably  a  seedling  from  C. 
villosus.     Forms  a  compact  shrub. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  2jins.  long,  and  lin.  in  width,  three 
nerv^ed,  of  a  sage  green,  downy  on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  clear  pink  without  a  trace  of  mauve,  quite 
a  distinct  shade  from  those  of  any  other  Cistus.  The 
blossoms  are  slightly  cup-shaped,  on  short,  upright 
stalks  and  remain  open  well  into  the  afternoon. 

One  of  the  hardiest  varieties  which  will  become  a 
very  popular  garden  plant. 

Cistus  villosus. 

One  of  the  strongest-growing  Cistuses  with  coloured 
flowers,  but  apt  to  become  straggly  with  age. 

Leaves  greyish-green,  pointed,  2ins.  to  2jins.  in 
length,  tapering  towards  the  stalk,  stems  very  downy. 

Flowers  rose-purple,  with  crimped  petals. 

This  Cistus  comes  so  readily  from  seed  that  there  are 
many  varieties,  differing  slightly  both  in  colour  and 
growth.  Very  free-flowering  and  should  be  slightly 
pruned  after  flowering.     Cuttings  root  readily. 


Helianthemum  algarvense,  syn.  ocymoides. 

A  most  charming  yellow-flowered  Helianthemum, 
from  Southern  Europe,  forming  a  low  shrub  of  upright 
growth,  seldom  more  than  2ft.  in  height. 

Helianthemum  algarvense. 


Leaves  small,  narrow,  pointed  at  each  end,  of  a 
greyish-green,  while  the  young  growth  is  quite  silvery. 

Flowers  bright  canary-yellow,  with  a  deep  chocolate 
blotch  at  the  base  of  each  petal,  borne  in  loose  panicles 
on  thin,  wiry  stalks.  The  pointed  buds  are  bronze- 
coloured  which  adds  greatly  to  the  charm  of  the  plant. 

Planted  in  a  warm  border  or  in  a  sunny  comer  of  a 
rockery  it  produces  clouds  of  yellow  flowers  each 
morning  throughout  July,  and  more  sparingly  through 
August  and  September.  Fairly  hardy  and  propagated 
by  cuttings. 

The  illustration  gives  a  fair  representation  of  the 
flowers  and  growth,  but  the  brilliant  colouring  enters 
so  much  into  the  charm  of  these  plants  that  it  is  hard 
to  do  them  justice  in  a  photograph. 

Helianthemum  alyssoides. 

A  low,  compact  little  shrub,  with  canary-yellow 
flowers  without  any  blotch,  and  of  doubtful  hardiness. 
As  a  garden  plant  it  is  less  robust  than  many  other 
yellow-flowered  species. 

Helianthemum  candidum. 

A  fine,  erect-growing  plant  2ft.  to  3ft.  high. 

Leaves  somewhat  larger  than  those  of  H.  algar- 
vense,  and  of  a  greyish  shade. 

Flowers  bright  yellow,  with  a  broad,  dark  chocolate 
eye.  The  flowers  are  held  well  above  the  foliage  and 
are  produced  at  intervals  from  Midsummer  until  the 

A  fairly  hardy  shrub,  one  of  the  best  of  this  colour 
and,  in  the  middle  of  July,  one  of  the  most  showy. 


Helianthemum  formosum. 

A  low  shrub  with  curious  flat  or  horizontal  growth. 
Leaves  lin.  to  ijins.  in  length  with  prominent  main 
rib  of  grey-green,  silvery  and  downy  on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  bright  canary-yellow,  with  a  brilliant  choco- 
late blotch  on  each  petal.  Blossoms  single  or  in 
clusters  on  short  stems. 

This  is  the  most  showy  of  the  yellow  sun  roses,  the 
flowers  being  larger  than  those  of  H.  algarvense,  while 
the  blotches  are  distinct  on  each  petal  instead  of 
forming  a  continuous  band.  It  is  one  of  the  best 
garden  Helianthemums  and  a  group  of  three  or  four 
makes  a  bright  patch  of  colour  on  a  warm  border  or 
bank  facing  south  in  June  and  July.  Fairly  hardy, 
cuttings  root  freely.  In  Nurseries  it  is  often  known 
as  Cistus  formosus. 

Helianthemum  formosum  var.  unicolor. 

A  pure  yellow  form  without  the  blotch  ;  flowers 
slightly  smaller  with  a  distinct  primrose  scent. 

Helianthemum  halimifolium. 

A  tall  growing,  slender  species,  sometimes  as  much 
as  5ft.  in  height  or  more  when  grown  against  a  south 

Leaves  narrow,  lin.  to  ijins.  in  length,  the  young 
foliage  being  pale  silvery-grey,  turning  to  a  dull  green 
as  autumn  advances. 

Flowers  bright  canary-yellow,  ijins.  to  2ins.  across, 
with  a  small  chocolate  blotch  at  the  base  of  each  petal, 
this    blotch   gradually   becomes   less   marked   as   the 


season  advances,  until  in  the  late  blooms  it  is  quite 
absent.  The  flowers  are  in  loose  panicles,  on  long, 
upright,  stiff  stalks,  sometimes  a  foot  in  length,  and 
of  a  deep  green,  contrasting  with  the  young  grey 

Not  one  of  the  hardiest,  it  withstands  most  winters, 
but  is  apt  to  die  back  when  the  plants  are  of  any  age. 
Not  so  showy  as  the  dwarf  H.  algarvense. 

Helianthemum  Lihanotis. 

A  dainty,  dwarf,  erect-growing  shrub,  about  I2ins. 
to  I  Sins,  in  height. 

Leaves  small  and  narrow,  of  a  dark  glistening  green. 

Flowers  clear  canary-yellow,  produced  singly  or  in 
pairs  at  the  end  of  the  shoots. 

Requires  a  warm,  sheltered  place  on  a  rockery  and 
needs  to  be  well  protected  from  frost.  A  native  of 

Helianthemum  lunulatum. 

A  dense,  much-branched  little  shrub,  forming  a 
compact  cushion-like  growth,  gins.  high. 

Leaves  small,  grey-green,  stalkless,  not  more  than 
Jin.  to  Jin.  in  length,  and  closely  packed  on  the  small 
woody  stems. 

Flowers  clear  yellow,  small,  with  a  little  orange  spot 
at  the  base  of  each  petal.  The  blossoms  appear  singly 
each  day  from  a  terminal  cluster  of  buds. 

A  charming,  hardy,  little  rockery  shrub,  producing 
masses  of  small  yellow  flowers  throughout  July  and 
occasionally  on  into  the  autumn. 


Helianthemum  umhellatum. 

A  choice,  erect,  evergreen  plant,  I2ins.  to  i8ins.  high. 

Leaves  small,  narrow,  pointed,  of  dark  shining  green, 
paler  and  downy  on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  white,  cup-shaped,  with  yellow  centre,  borne 
in  clusters  on  slender,  upright  stalks. 

The  charm  of  the  plant  lies  in  the  bright-red  young 
growths,  quite  as  much  as  in  the  flowers.  This  de- 
lightful little  Helianthemum  is  not  the  most  hardy 
and  should  be  given  the  warmest  place  at  the  foot  of  a 
south  wall  or  on  a  rockery.  The  yellow  H.  Libanotis 
forms  a  good  companion  plant. 

Helianthemum  vineale. 

A  trailing  little  evergreen  plant,  only  a  few  inches 
in  height. 

Leaves  dark  glossy  green,  paler  on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  small,  yellow,  in  terminal  clusters  in  June 
and  July. 

A  hardy  shrub,  increased  by  cuttings  or  seeds.  Only 
useful  as  a  rock  or  wall  plant. 

Helianthemum  vulgare,  Common  Sun  Rose. 

A  dwarf,  evergreen  shrub,  only  a  few  inches  high, 
common  on  gravelly  and  chalky  loam. 

Leaves  about  lin.  to  ijins.  long,  narrow,  with  a 
prominent  mid-rib,  dark  green  above,  silvery  on  the 
under  side.  The  size  and  colour  of  the  leaves  vary 

Flowers  bright  yellow  on  short  stalks.  If  the 
stamens  are  gently  touched,  they  have  a  curious  habit 
of  falling  back  on  the  petals. 


From  a  garden  point  of  view  H.  vulgare  is  only  in- 
teresting as  having  been  the  parent  of  numerous  beau- 
tiful sun  roses.  Sweet  describes  many  which  now 
appear  to  be  lost  to  cultivation.  However,  new  and 
brilliantly  coloured  varieties  are  now  constantly  being 
introduced.  The  very  useful  trial  of  these  plants  at 
Wisley,  during  1924 — 1925,  will  doubtless  bring  forth 
many  charming  forms,  with  large  flowers  of  most 
delicate  colouring. 

As  ground  carpeters  for  planting  on  dry  banks,  in 
the  crevices  of  a  dry  wall,  or  in  fact  in  any  place  where 
they  are  exposed  to  full  sunshine  sun  roses  will  thrive 
and  give  a  most  brilliant  display  of  blossom  in  June 
and  July.  Though  seldom  exceeding  one  foot  in 
height,  they  cover  many  square  yards  of  ground  where 
space  is  available.  Like  their  first  cousins  the  Cistus, 
they  are  not  easy  to  transplant  and  are  safest  planted 
from  small  pots.  Sun  roses  are  hardy,  but  dislike 
excessive  wet,  particularly  as  the  plant  ages.  Cuttings 
root  freely  under  a  hand-light  in  earl}^  autumn.  Seeds 
also  germinate  readih^  and  often  give  new  shades  of 
colour.  Among  the  most  useful  garden  forms  are  H. 
Fireball,  brilliant  flame-coloured,  one  of  the  most 
showy,  and  H.  chamaecistus,  deep  wine  colour. 


The  various  species  of  Cotoneaster  form  a  delightful 
group  of  shrubs  and  small  trees,  of  which  the  majority 
are  well  adapted  for  use  as  decorative  garden  plants. 
Effective  when  in  blossom  in  early  summer,  they  are 
doubly  so  in  the  early  autumn  when  wreathed  with 
scarlet  berries  which,  if  they  escape  the  birds,  last  well 
into  the  new  year. 

No  plants  give  a  better  return  than  Cotoneasters, 
the  evergreen  species,  C.  Henryana,  C.  salicifolia,  and 
its  varieties,  and  C.  thymaefolia,  with  dark  handsome 
foliage  throughout  the  winter,  being  among  the  best, 
on  the  other  hand,  some  of  the  deciduous  kinds  assume 
brilliant  shades  of  red  and  crimson  before  the  leaves 
fall,  C.  horizontalis  and  C.  bullata  being  typical  ex- 
amples. Cotoneasters,  therefore,  give  us  first  blossom 
and  later  berries  and  rich  autumn  colouring  in  the  case 
of  the  deciduous  species  or  evergreen  foliage  throughout 
the  winter. 

A  large  number  of  them  have  been  brought  from  the 
temperate  regions  of  Northern  Asia  and  the  Himalayas. 
A  few  are  natives  of  Europe  and  one  only  of  Great 
Britain.  During  the  last  few  years  a  very  considerable 
number  of  new  species  have  been  imported  into  the 


country,  all  of  which  have  some  distinct  botanical 
interest  while  the  greater  number  are  in  the  first  rank 
of  garden  shrubs. 

They  vary  so  widely  in  habit  and  growth  that  they 
lend  themselves  to  planting  in  many  ways.  C.  frigida 
makes  the  best  standard  tree  planted  as  a  single 
specimen  on  grass,  or  standing  above  other  shrubs 
where  it  is  equally  handsome.  C.  Henryana  and 
varieties  of  C.  salicifolia,  C.  Franchetii,  and  C.  pannosa 
are  well  adapted  for  grouping  in  a  belt  or  shrub  border 
where  they  have  room  to  develop  into  fairly  large 
bushes,  while  the  well-known  C.  Simonsii  is  equally 
good  for  grouping  in  a  wild  garden  or  planting  in  a 
game  covert.  C.  amoena  and  C.  rotundifolia  are  useful 
for  planting  at  the  front  of  a  shrubbery. 

To  see  Cotoneasters  at  their  best  when  in  fruit  plant 
them  where  the  sun  lights  up  the  scarlet  berries  in  the 
afternoon — in  a  good  fruit  year  they  become  a  dazzling 
wealth  of  colour. 

Cotoneasters  are  most  satisfactory  as  wall  coverers, 
they  do  not  seem  to  mind  which  way  the  wall  faces 
and  thrive  quite  well  when  looking  north  or  east. 
Treated  in  this  way  they  attain  a  good  height  without 
requiring  much  nailing  and  retain  their  berries  for 
many  months.  For  a  low,  warm  wall  under  a  window 
where  there  are  only  a  few  feet  to  be  covered  or  on  a 
terrace  of  dry  wall  C.  horizontalis  is  the  ideal  plant. 

84                    FLOWERING  SHRUBS  i 

The  following  are  the  best  in  the  i 

VARIOUS  sections  : —  j 

Strong- growing  shrubs.  I 

C.  Dielsiana.  j 

C.  Franchetii.  I 

C.  frigida.  i 

C.  Henry  ana.  , 

C.  multiflora.  j 
C.  salicifolia  var.  fioccosa. 

C.  salicifolia  var.  rugosa.  ; 


Spreading  species  only  a  few  feet  in  height,  evergreen  or         '■ 

sub-evergreen.  ■ 

C.  amoena.  | 

C.  horizontalis.  j 

C.  microphylla.  ' 
C.  rotundifolia. 

Dwarf  section  for  rock-work. 

C.  adpressa. 
C.  congesta. 
C.  humifusa. 
C.  thymaefolia. 

As  wall  plants. 

C.  Franchetii. 

C.  Henry  ana. 

C.  horizontalis. 

C.  microphylla. 

C.  salicifolia  var.  rugosa. 



Cotoneasters  require  no  special  treatment  and  are 
among  the  easiest  of  shrubs  to  grow.  They  are  not 
particular  as  to  soil  and  are  quite  happy  in  any  well- 
drained  garden  ground,  but  resent  heavy  clay  and 
water-logged  land.  Provided  that  it  is  well  drained 
they  will  grow  in  quite  poor  land,  though  a  light  loam 
is  the  ideal  soil.  They  are  not  perhaps  the  best  of 
plants  to  transplant.  Small  plants  that  have  been 
transplanted  within  the  last  year  or  two  give  the  best 
results  and,  once  planted,  they  ask  for  nothing  more 
than  to  be  kept  free  from  weeds  and  given  ordinary 
garden  cultivation.  Little  or  no  pruning  is  necessary, 
except  that  the  stronger  species  should  have  their 
branches  slightly  thinned  out  and  any  straggly  shoots 
shortened  back. 

All  Cotoneasters  are  hard}^.  In  severe  winters  they 
naturally  lose  their  leaves  earlier  but  are  rarely  injured 
by  frost. 


Cotoneasters  are  easily  propagated  both  by  cuttings 
and  from  seeds.  Cuttings  of  half-ripe  wood  will  root 
fairly  readily  under  a  hand-light  or  preferably  with  a 
little  heat,  while  seeds  should  be  sown  as  soon  as  they 
are  ripe  for  otherwise  they  are  slow  to  germinate. 

Fortunately  grafting  is  seldom  practised  with  Coto- 
neasters. Where  suitable  plants  are  available  layering 
is  a  quick  and  easy  method. 

Cotoneaster  acuminata. 

A  tall  deciduous  shrub  of  upright  habit,  loft.  to  12ft. 


Leaves  lin.  to  2ins.  long,  half  as  wide,  pointed,  rich 
green  on  the  upper  side,  the  under  side  a  much  lighter 

Flowers  pinkish-white  during  June  in  small  clusters  ; 
followed  by  handsome  scarlet  fruits. 

This  native  of  the  Himalayas  is  somewhat  closely 
related  to  C.  Simonsii  but  has  larger  and  more  tapering 
leaves.     It  is  a  good  garden  shrub. 

Cotoneaster  acutifolia. 

A  wide-spreading  deciduous  shrub  of  graceful  habit 
sometimes  8ft.  to  12ft.  high  with  drooping  branchlets. 

Leaves  oval,  lin.  to  2ins.  long,  of  a  full  green. 

Flowers  white,  small,  in  clusters  of  three  or  four  open- 
ing in  June  ;   fruits  red,  turning  black  when  fully  ripe. 

This  native  of  Chinese  Mongolia  resembles  C.  lucida, 
but  the  leaves  of  C.  acutifolia  are  not  such  a  bright 

Cotoneaster  adpressa. 

A  dwarf  stiffly  branched,  deciduous  bush  of  very 
spreading  habit,  eventually  I5ins.  to  i8ins.  high. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  Jin.  long. 

Flowers  small,  pinkish-white,  half-open,  followed  by 
small,  spherical,  bright  red  fruits. 

A  native  of  China,  this  species  is  allied  to  C.  horizon- 
talis  though  they  are  easy  to  distinguish.  It  is  a 
fascinating  rock  garden  plant  of  prostrate  habit,  the 
branches  rooting  freely  wherever  they  touch  the  ground. 

Cotoneaster  affinis. 

A  deciduous  shrub  8ft.  to  loft.  in  height. 
Leaves  2ins.  to  sins,  long,  oval. 


Flowers  pinkish-white  in  June,  followed  by  dark 
plum-purple  fruits. 

A  native  of  the  Himalayas,  it  has  a  distinct  short- 
branched,  stiff  habit. 

Cotoneaster  ambigua. 

A  deciduous  species  allied  to  C.  acutifolia,  4ft.  to 
6ft.  high. 

Leaves  elliptic,  ovate,  lin.  to  2ins.  long,  Jin.  to  lin. 
wide,  densely  woolly  beneath. 

Flowers  5  to  10  in  corymbs,  fruits  black,  globose. 

A  native  of  Western  Szechuan,  China. 

Cotoneaster  amoena. 

A  compact,  evergreen  bush  found  by  Wilson  in 
China  ;   seldom  more  than  5ft,  or  6ft.  in  height. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  lin.  long,  oval,  pointed,  shining  green 
on  the  upper  side,  grey  and  downy  beneath. 

Flowers  white  produced  in  clusters  during  June,  and 
later  rich  red,  round  fruits. 

A  good  garden  shrub,  and  quite  easy  to  grow. 

Cotoneaster  hacillaris. 

A  tall,  deciduous  species  15ft.  to  20ft.  high  and  often 
as  much  in  diameter. 

Leaves  oval,  2ins.  to  3ins.  long. 

Flowers  white,  freely  produced  in  clusters  during 
May  and  June  and  followed  by  a  profusion  of  purplish- 
black  fruits. 

It  is  found  high  up  in  the  Himalayas,  where  the  wood 
is  greatly  prized  by  the  natives  for  its  toughness  and 
suppleness.     A  very  useful  species  of  graceful  growth, 


thriving  in  a  damp  situation  and  valuable  for  planting 
near  water  where  its  drooping  branches  are  seen  to 

Cotoneaster  hullata.  (syn.  C.  moupinensis  ySiT.  floribunda) . 

A  distinct  deciduous  bush,  loft.  high. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long,  pointed,  of  a  dark  glossy 

Flowers  pinkish-white  in  June  but  not  showy,  the 
charm  of  the  plant  lying  in  its  brilliant  red  fruit  in 

One  of  the  best  deciduous  species.  The  variety 
macrophylla  has  very  large  leaves  and  beautiful 
clusters  of  fruit. 

Cotoneaster  huxifolia. 

This  native  of  Southern  India,  where  it  is  found  in 
the  Nilgiri  Hills  is  a  vigorous  evergreen  shrub  some- 
times loft.  in  height,  but  more  often  an  irregular  bush 
5ft.  or  6ft.  high. 

Leaves  fin.  in  length,  rich  green  on  the  upper  side, 
much  paler  on  the  underneath. 

Flowers  white  in  small  clusters  during  June,  fol- 
lowed by  large  red  berries. 

A  useful  garden  plant,  whether  grouped  in  a  shrub 
border  or  planted  singly,  and  one  that  will  succeed  in 
any  well-drained  soil. 

Cotoneaster  congesta  (syn.  C.  macrophylla  var.  glacialis 
and  C.  pyrenaica) . 
A  delightful  little  dwarf  evergreen  plant  found  at  a 
high  altitude  in  the  Himalayas. 


Leaves  very  small,  Jin.  to  |in.  long,  rich  green,  paler 
on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  blush-white,  very  small,  produced  in  June  ; 
fruits  red. 

A  very  useful  low,  rock  shrub  seldom  more  than  one 
foot  high,  it  is  seen  to  perfection  when  creeping  over 
a  rock,  its  dense  twiggy  little  branches  sparkling  with 
tiny  blossoms  in  summer,  or  in  the  autumn  with  bright 
vermilion  berries.  It  is  also  a  good  plant  for  covering 
a  bank.  Though  sometimes  confused  with  C.  micro- 
phylla,  it  is  easily  distinguished  by  the  short  branches, 
the  leaves  being  also  of  a  much  lighter  shade  of  green. 

Cotoneaster  Dielsiana.  (syn.  C.  applanata). 

A  vigorous  growing,  deciduous  shrub,  reaching  loft. 
in  height  and  as  much  in  diameter,  with  long  arching, 
graceful  branches. 

Leaves  fin.  to  ijins.  long,  ovate,  grey  and  downy 
on  the  under  side  when  young,  with  prominent  veins. 

Flowers  white,  borne  in  small  clusters  in  June  ;  the 
fruits  bright  red  in  early  autumn. 

One  of  the  most  striking  of  the  deciduous  species 
and  an  attractive  garden  shrub.  A  native  of  China, 
it  was  first  sent  out  as  C.  applanata,  but  it  was  found 
that  it  had  been  previously  named  C.  Dielsiana. 

Cotoneaster  divaricata. 

A  deciduous  bush  of  wide-spreading  habit,  some- 
times growing  to  a  height  of  5ft.  or  6ft. 

Leaves  ovate,  Jin.  to  lin.  long,  half  as  wide. 

Flowers  pinkish-white,  singly  or  in  threes  ;  fruits 
rich  red. 


A  native  of  China,  introduced  by  Wilson.  When  in 
fruit  this  species  forms  a  very  attractive  bush. 

Cotoneaster  foveolata. 

A  deciduous  species  of  free  growth,  ultimately 
reaching  20ft.  in  height. 

Leaves  oval,  lin.  to  3ins.  long,  of  a  full  green. 

Flowers  pink  tinted  ;    fruits  red  at  first,  then  black. 

A  native  of  Western  Hupeh  and  a  most  beautiful 
species  in  the  autumn  when  the  leaves  change  to 
brilliant  shades  of  red  and  orange. 

Cotoneaster  Franchetii. 

An  attractive  Chinese,  evergreen  shrub,  sometimes 
I  oft.  in  height. 

Leaves  lin.  to  ijins.  long,  pointed,  of  a  deep  rich 
green,  the  under  side  being  silvery  and  downy. 

Flowers  white  with  a  tinge  of  pink,  produced  in 
clusters  of  six  to  twelve  blossoms  in  May  and  June. 
Later  the  fruit  is  very  showy  in  clusters  of  curious  egg- 
shaped  berries,  flattened  at  the  top,  of  a  bright 

A  very  attractive  garden  plant  either  for  a  shrub- 
bery border  or  as  a  climber  on  an  east  or  north  wall 
where  its  brilliant  berries  are  retained  till  March. 

Cotoneaster  frigida. 

A  vigorous  growing  deciduous  shrub,  which  can  also 
be  grown  as  a  standard  tree  15ft.  or  more  in  height, 
with  a  thick,  dense  head,  it  is  the  strongest  growing 
and  one  of  the  most  beautiful  species  of  the  genus. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  5ins.  long,  narrow,  tapering  at  each 









end,  of  a  full  green,  very  woolly  when  first  unfolded 
in  the  spring,  afterwards  smooth.  There  is  a  promi- 
nent mid-rib  on  the  under  side  of  the  leaf  which  turns 
red  in  autumn. 

Flowers  white,  very  freely  produced  in  corymbs  or 
clusters  along  the  almost  horizontal  branches.  The 
fruits  are  bright  red,  the  size  of  holly  berries  and  pro- 
duced in  loose  bunches. 

Brought  from  the  Himalayas  one  hundred  years 
ago,  this  beautiful  berried  shrub  has  not,  until  quite 
recently,  been  planted  nearly  so  freely  as  it  deserves 
to  be.  It  is  a  most  attractive  shrub  when  in  full 
blossom  in  June  and  even  more  so  when  thickly  hung 
with  a  wealth  of  scarlet  berries  which  last  until  Feb- 
ruary if  the  birds  do  not  attack  them.  These  berries 
are  surprisingly  heavy  and  were  borne  in  such  masses 
in  1924  that  many  branches  on  young  trees  were 
broken  down  by  the  weight.  A  most  charming  garden 
shrub,  it  thrives  in  a  light  loamy  soil,  but  is  not  fas- 
tidious. It  also  makes  a  good  town  plant.  Two 
illustrations  are  given  of  this  plant,  one  showing  a 
spray  in  flower  in  early  summer,  another  of  a  branch 
in  October,  when  it  is  in  full  fruit. 

Cotoneaster  frigida  var.  Vicarii. 

A  vigorous  growing  variety,  raised  at  Aldenham — 
of  stronger  growth  than  the  type,  it  promises  to  become 
a  valuable  garden  plant.  The  leaves  are  much  larger 
than  the  common  C.  frigida  and  in  mild  winters  it  is 
practically  an  evergreen.  The  fruit  is  also  larger  and 
in  brilliantly  coloured  clusters. 


Cotoneaster  glaucophylla. 

An  evergreen  species  of  spreading  growth. 

Leaves  oval,  3ins.  long,  dull  green  above,  paler 

Flowers  white,  freely  borne  in  lax  corymbs  in  July  ; 
fruits  dull  red. 

A  native  of  China.  This  species  is  closely  allied  to 
C.  serotina  but  has  longer,  more  drooping  branches 
and  larger  leaves. 

Cotoneaster  Harroviana. 

An  evergreen  bush  of  graceful  habit  6ft.  to  8ft.  in 
height ;   a  native  of  Yunnan. 

Leaves  oval,  of  somewhat  leathery  texture,  lin.  to 
2jins.  long,  half  as  wide. 

Flowers  white  with  reddish  anthers,  freely  produced 
in  June,  borne  in  close  corymbs  ;   fruits  rich  red. 

A  good  evergreen  flowering  shrub,  showy  in  fruit, 
and  allied  to  C.  pannosa,  but  with  larger  leaves  which 
are  of  a  richer  green  colour. 

The  corymbs  of  flowers  and  the  fruit  are  also  larger 
than  those  of  C.  pannosa. 

Cotoneaster  hehephylla. 

A  free  growing  deciduous  shrub  from  China,  loft. 
in  height  and  wide  in  proportion. 

Leaves  roundish,  up  to  ijins.  long  and  lin.  wide. 

Flowers  small,  white,  in  corymbs  of  six  to  twelve  or 
more  in  May  ;   fruits  red. 

A  rare  species,  first  found  by  Forrest  in  Yunnan. 










Cotoneaster  Henry  ana  (syn.  C.  rugosa  var.  Henry  ana). 

A  vigorous  growing  evergreen  species  with  long 
arching,  sparsely  branched  stems,  loft.  in  height  when 
fully  grown. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  5ins.  long,  narrow,  pointed,  rough, 
leathery,  of  a  rich  green,  often  with  a  bronzy  hue  in 
winter,  much  paler  on  the  under  side,  which  has 
prominent  veins.  The  young  wood  assumes  a  dark 
brown  shade  in  autumn. 

Flowers  white,  produced  during  June  in  corymbs 
2ins.  in  diameter.  The  crimson  fruit  is  most  effective 
in  autumn. 

Quite  one  of  the  best  of  the  stronger  growing  Coto- 
neasters,  forming  a  useful  plant  for  a  shrub  border  or 
as  a  climber  for  covering  walls  or  fences.  A  native  of 
China  and  first  found  by  Wilson. 

Cotoneaster  horizontalis. 

A  charming,  low,  deciduous  shrub,  growing  in  the 
open  it  forms  a  rounded  bush  3ft.  to  4ft.  in  height  but 
spreading  over  the  ground  to  a  good  deal  more. 

Leaves  fin.  to  fin.  long,  broad,  of  a  lustrous  green — 
many  remaining  until  Christmas. 

Flowers  round  rose  coloured  buds,  changing  to 
pinkish  white  when  open,  later  on  small,  round,  deep 
red  fruit. 

Sparkling  with  tiny  blossoms  in  May,  it  is  most 
beautiful  and  again  in  October  when  the  foliage  takes 
a  brilliant  autumn  tint,  with  the  red  fruit  appearing 
amongst  the  leaves.  It  is  seen  at  its  best  when  planted 
against  a  low  wall,   which  it  covers  with  horizontal 


branches,  in  such  a  position  it  requires  httle  fastening. 
It  can  be  rooted  from  cuttings.    Seed  also  germinates 
readily  and  self  sown  seedlings  are  often  to  be  found 
round  an  old  plant. 

Cotoneaster  horizontalis  var.  perpusilla. 

A  rare  species  from  Hupeh,  a  province  of  China,  said 
to  have  smaller  leaves  and  to  be  dwarfer  than  the  type. 
Cotoneaster  horizontalis  var.  variegata. 

A  neat  silver  variegated  form,  smaller  and  slower 
growing  than  the  type.  It  makes  a  dainty  little 
rockery  shrub. 

Cotoneaster  humifusa  (syn.  C.  Dammeri). 

A  distinct,  creeping  evergreen  species  from  Central 
China,  with  slender  trailing  branches. 

Leaves  lin.  to  i|ins.  long,  oval,  of  a  dull  deep  green, 
paler  on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  white,  singly  or  in  pairs,  followed  by  cherry- 
red  berries. 

A  valuable  plant  for  covering  banks  or  trailing  over 
rocks,  for  it  never  grows  more  than  a  few  inches  from 
the  ground.  The  bright  fruit  in  the  autumn  makes  it 
most  attractive  at  that  time. 

Cotoneaster  hupehensis. 

A  large,  wide-spreading,  deciduous  shrub,  up  to  8ft. 
high,  and  more  in  diameter,  with  slender,  arching 

Leaves  ovate,  lin.  to  ijins.  long,  Jin.  to  fin.  wide. 

Flowers  white,  very  abundant,  produced  in  "June  ; 
fruits  bright  red. 


A  native  of  China  and  first  introduced  by  Wilson. 
As  a  flowering  bush,  this  species  rivals  C.  multiflora, 
for,  although  the  individual  blossoms  are  not  quite  so 
large,  they  are  less  covered  by  the  smaller  leaves. 
When  covered  with  flowers  it  suggests  a  Spiraea  bush 
more  than  a  Cotoneaster. 

Cotoneaster  integerrima  (syn.  C.  vulgaris). 

A  spreading,  deciduous,  low  bush  in  the  wild  state, 
growing  much  taller  in  cultivation. 

Leaves  fin.  to  ijins.  long,  roundish  and  cottony  on 
the  under  side. 

Flowers  pinkish  white,  produced  in  May  ;   fruits  red. 

Of  no  value  as  a  garden  plant,  but  interesting  bo- 
tanically  as  the  only  species  found  wild  in  Britain. 

It  has  been  found  growing  on  the  Great  Orme's  Head 
in  N.  Wales,  but  is  now  rare. 

Cotoneaster  lactea. 

An  evergreen  shrub  of  free  growth,  6ft.  to  loft.  high. 

Leaves  oval,  lin.  to  2|ins.  long. 

Flowers  creamy-white,  freely  borne  in  loose  panicles  ; 
fruits  red,  small,  but  very  numerous,  hanging  on  the 
branches  well  into  the  new  year.  Introduced  by 
Forrest  from  China. 

Cotoneaster  Lindleyi  (syn.  C.  Arborescens  and  C.  num- 
mularia) . 

A  robust,  deciduous  shrub  from  the  Himalayas,  loft. 
to  15ft.  in  height,  of  a  loose  branching  habit. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  sins,  long  and  half  as  broad,  rounded, 


of  a  deep  green  on  the  upper  side,  paler  and  woolly 

Flowers  white,  in  clusters  of  six  to  twelve  turning 
into  black  fruit  in  autumn. 

A  strong  and  almost  coarse-growing  species,  but 
not  by  any  means  the  most  showy.  A  good  bush  for 
a  wild  garden  or  rough  woodland,  and  also  for  planting 
near  water. 

Cotoneaster  microphylla. 

An  evergreen  shrub  spreading  close  to  the  ground 
and  seldom  more  than  3ft.  to  4ft.  high  in  the  open, 
but  much  more  when  trained  against  a  wall. 

Leaves  very  small,  Jin.  to  Jin.  long  of  a  dark  shining 

Flowers  white,  generally  produced  singly,  but  some- 
times growing  two  or  three  together.  The  fruit  are 
small  and  red,  rather  apt  to  be  buried  in  the  foliage. 

A  most  useful  garden  shrub  for  planting  in  the 
rougher  parts  of  a  rock  garden  to  cover  banks,  or  it 
may  be  trained  on  a  north  wall.  In  fact,  it  may  be 
grown  in  Any  position  and  in  any  well-drained  soil. 

Cotoneaster  multiflora. 

Leaves  ijins.  to  2ins.  long,  rounded,  downy  on  the 
under  side. 

Flowers  white,  very  freely  produced  in  spreading 
clusters,  followed  by  masses  of  brilliant  scarlet, 
elongated  fruit. 

A  native  of  China,  whence  it  was  introduced  nearly 
a  century  ago.  It  flowers  in  May  or  early  June  and 
it  is  perhaps  the  most  showy,  with  cascades  of  blossom 


clothing  each   arching  branch.     An   excellent   border 
or  shrubbery  plant. 

Cotoneaster  pannosa. 

An  evergreen  species  from  China,  forming  a  hand- 
some, free-growing,  shrub  with  graceful  drooping 
branches  up  to  8ft.  or  loft.  in  length. 

Leaves  fin.  to  ijins.  long,  oval,  sharply  pointed,  of  a 
medium  green,  almost  a  sage-green  on  the  upper  side  and 
quite  soft  to  the  touch,  the  under  side  grey  and  woolly. 

Flowers  white  with  violet  stamens,  freely  produced 
in  close  corymbs.     The  fruits  are  small  and  of  a  dull  red. 

It  was  first  confused  with  C.  Franchetii,  but  it  is 
easily  distinguished  by  the  dull  green  of  the  leaves  and 
the  small  fruits.  This  species  promises  to  become  a 
good  garden  plant. 

Cotoneaster  rotiindifolia. 

An  evergreen  or  sub-evergreen  species  retaining  a 
good  proportion  of  its  leaves  well  into  the  following 
spring,  except  in  severe  winters. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  Jin.  long,  rounded,  of  a  dark  shining 

Flowers  white,  with  a  touch  of  pink,  freely  produced 
in  early  summer  on  the  tiny  branchlets  singly  or  in  pairs. 

A  native  of  the  Himalayas,  this  delightful  Coto- 
neaster is  easily  distinguished  by  its  large,  deep  red, 
globular  fruits,  which  are  generally  produced  singly, 
and  which  remain  on  the  plants  until  early  spring. 

It  forms  a  stiff-branching  low  shrub,  5ft.  in  height 
and  quite  one  of  the  best.  It  will  grow  almost  any- 


Cotoneaster  rubens. 

A  prostrate,  nearly  evergreen,  shrub  of  fairly  rapid 
growth.  Branches  stiff  and  rather  stout,  covered 
when  young  with  a  fine  silky  down. 

Leaves  ovate,  acute,  Jin.  long,  and  half  as  wide, 
shortly  stalked,  deep  glossy  green,  downy  beneath. 

Flowers  produced  in  June  on  short  lateral  leafy 
shoots,  in  flatfish  clusters  of  six  to  ten,  white,  spreading, 
not  unlike  those  of  C.  microphylla,  Jin.  across.  Fruits 
ripe  in  September,  Jin.  diameter,  roundish,  but  flat- 
tened at  the  top,  rich  deep  red,  skin  dull.  The  berries 
last  until  Christmas. 

This  species  was  seen  to  perfection  near  the  lake  in 
the  R.H.S.  garden  at  Wisley,  where  it  was  brilliant 
with  a  wealth  of  crimson  fruit.  It  promises  to  become 
a  most  attractive,  dwarf  shrub,  well  worthy  of  a  place 
in  any  garden. 

Cotoneaster  salicifolia. 

It  is  extremely  doubtful  whether  the  true  species  is 
to  be  found  in  English  gardens.  It  was  first  collected 
by  the  Abbe  David  in  China  and  the  following  varieties 
were  introduced  later  by  Wilson. 

Cotoneaster  salicifolia  var.  floccosa. 

A  vigorous  evergreen  shrub  or  small  tree,  reaching 
15ft.  in  height,  with  long,  thin,  arching  branches. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  sins,  long,  narrow,  pointed,  dark 
lustrous  green  on  the  upper  surface,  almost  rough  to 
the  touch,  grey  and  woolly  on  the  under  side  with 
prominent  red  veins  in  autumn,  arranged  in  fish-bone 


fashion.  The  young  wood  is  particularly  handsome, 
assuming  a  reddish-brown  shade  as  if  it  had  been 

Flowers  white  in  corymbs  of  ten  or  more  blossoms, 
freely  produced  in  July,  a  full  month  later  than  most 
Cotoneasters.  In  autumn  the  gorgeous  red  fruits  form 
a  mass  of  colour  which  lasts  well  into  the  winter. 

A  native  of  China,  it  only  found  its  way  to  this 
country  in  1908,  and  when  better  known  this  charming 
species  is  sure  to  be  widely  planted.  It  can  be  run  up 
as  a  standard  or  grown  as  a  bush. 

Cotoneaster  salicifolia  var.  rugosa. 

A  strong,  vigorous  growing  variety.  The  leaves  are 
slightly  larger  and  more  wrinkled  than  in  fioccosa. 
A  charming  shrub  when  in  fruit  and  a  really  good 
garden  plant. 

Cotoneaster  serotina. 

A  new  and  rare  semi-evergreen  shrub  at  present  5ft. 
to  6ft.  high  at  Wisley,  which  may  eventually  reach  a 
height  of  I  oft.  The  habit  is  graceful ;  the  branches 
slender  and  slightly  drooping,  covered  when  young 
with  appressed  white  hairs,  later  becoming  smooth  and 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long  and  half  this  in  width, 
egg-shaped,  or  oval,  shortly  stalked  with  wedge-shaped 
bases  and  acute  tips,  rich  green  above,  greyish  beneath, 
the  under  side  covered  with  soft  short  hairs. 

Flowers  white,  in  flatfish  clusters  2ins.  to  2jins. 
across,    produced    in    July    on    short    lateral    shoots. 


Fruits  small,  globosa,  "  sealing-wax "  red,  ripe  in 
November  and  in  mild  seasons  lasting  until  the  end  of 

A  native  of  Western  China. 

Cotoneaster  Simonsii. 

A  strong,  upright  growing  species  from  the  Khasia 
Hills  in  Assam.  It  forms  a  large  branching  bush, 
generally  considered  deciduous,  though  it  retains  its 
leaves  and  berries  well  into  the  winter. 

Leaves  |in.  to  lin.  long,  broad,  pointed,  of  a  shining 
deep  green  on  the  upper  side,  much  paler  beneath. 
The  young  wood  is  covered  with  brown  down. 

Flowers  white,  in  small  clusters  in  early  summer. 
The  bright  vermilion  fruits  in  autumn  form  the  great 
attraction  of  the  plant. 

Growing  in  almost  any  position,  it  is  a  valuable  plant 
for  grouping  in  a  shrub  border  or  wild  garden,  and  for 
planting  amongst  choice  shrubs  as  a  nurse  plant.  It 
can  also  be  used  with  advantage  in  game  coverts. 

Cotoneaster  thymaefolia. 

A  quaint,  little,  low-growing  evergreen  shrub,  found 
high  up  in  the  Himalayas. 

Leaves  very  small,  not  more  than  Jin.  to  Jin.  at  most, 
narrow,  square  at  the  tips,  of  a  lustrous  dark  green  on 
the  upper  side,  grey  and  downy  underneath. 

Flowers  white,  tinted-pink,  generally  produced  singly 
in  June.     Fruits  small,  round,  of  a  rich  crimson-red. 

An  excellent  dwarf  rock-work  shrub,  forming  a  dense 
mass  of  stiff,  little  branches.     It  is  considered  by  some 


botanists  to  be  only  a  variety  of  C.  microphylla,  but 
is  decidedly  smaller  in  growth  and  the  foliage  is  brighter. 

Cotoneaster  turhinata. 

A  vigorous,  evergreen  shrub  of  upright  growth,  loft. 
to  12ft.  in  height. 

Leaves  lin.  to  2ins.  long,  narrow,  oval,  pointed,  of 
a  deep  green  on  the  upper  side,  covered  on  the  under 
side  with  white  down. 

Flowers  white  with  rosy  anthers  borne  in  corymbs 
some  3ins.  across  in  July  and  August.  Fruit  globular, 
rich  red  in  the  autumn. 

A  native  of  China,  it  is  a  valuable  evergreen  and, 
being  the  latest  Cotoneaster  to  flower,  it  makes  a  good 
garden  plant. 

Cotoneaster  Zabelii. 

A  deciduous  shrub,  5ft.  to  8ft.  high,  allied  to  C. 

Leaves  oval,  lin.  to  i|ins.  long,  about  half  as  wide, 
dull  green  above,  with  brownish  grey  felt  beneath. 

Flowers  small,  rosy-pink,  in  clusters  of  four  to  eight 
or  ten  ;  fruits  crimson-red  in  nodding  or  drooping 

It  was  introduced  by  E.  H.  Wilson  from  China,  where 
he  found  it  growing  very  abundantly  in  Hupeh. 


In  this  group  are  included  various  species  of  both 
Cytisus  and  Genista,  the  botanical  difference  between 
them  being  so  small  that  it  need  not  be  considered 
from  the  horticultural  point  of  view.  Amongst  them 
are  to  be  found  many  of  the  most  charming  flowering 
shrubs,  including  the  common  yellow  Broom  of  our 
heaths  and  commons,  which  is  the  parent  of  many  of 
the  most  showy  varieties  of  the  Andreanus  group,  to 
which  belong  Daisy  Hill  and  the  delicate  cream- 
coloured  Moonlight.  The  flowering  season  begins  in 
spring  and  continues  throughout  the  summer  and  early 
autumn,  indeed  one  species.  Genista  ovata,  may  carry 
it  on  well  into  October. 

Brooms  may  be  used  in  various  ways  in  a  garden 
scheme.  The  most  effective  of  all  is,  perhaps  a  bed  of 
one  variety,  or  a  group  in  front  of  evergreens  where 
they  will  provide  a  fine  mass  of  colour.  Dwarf  bushes 
planted  in  groups  of  ten  or  twelve  with  a  few  standards 
of  the  same  kind  rising  above  them,  so  as  to  break  the 
level  outline,  form  an  attractive  feature  in  any  garden. 

The  stronger  Brooms  are  well  adapted  for  planting 
in  a  wild  garden.  First  comes  the  early  praecox,  then 
the  white  Portugal,  Cytisus  scoparius  and  its  many 
forms,  followed  by  the  late  Spanish  [Spartium  junceum) 


which  with  its  large  yellow  flowers  is  quite  one  of  the 
most  telling.  C.  kewensis  is  typical  of  the  varieties  of 
moderate  growth,  and  looks  well  when  grown  on  some 
low  rock-work  where  it  forms  great  masses  covered 
with  creamy- white  blossom. 

Varieties  of  this  type  may  be  used  with  advantage 
along  the  sides  of  a  path  leading  up  to  a  rockery.  Such 
as,  for  instance,  C.  Dallimorei  with  red  flowers,  and 
earlier  in  the  spring  C.  Osborni  with  bronze  buds  and 
primrose  flowers.  Later  in  the  summer  comes  Genista 
cinerea  with  silky-yellow  flowers  and  Cytisus  nigricans 
with  upright  yellow  spikes  of  blossom,  which  carries 
on  the  season  into  August. 

All  these  are  of  moderate  growth,  seldom  exceeding 
3ft.  or  4ft.  in  height,  though  Genista  cinerea  will  in  time 
grow  taller  than  the  others. 

Some  of  the  dwarfer  growing  brooms  are  excellent 
as  rock  shrubs.  C.  Beanii  is  a  charming  little  plant 
with  glistening  yellow  flowers  ;  C.  Ardoinii,  C.  pilosa 
and  G.  horrida  are  all  well  worth  cultivating,  the  last 
named  forming  a  delightful  grey  cushion.  Genista 
hispanica  is  a  valuable  plant  for  covering  the  ground 
on  banks,  or  in  any  warm  border.  When  not  in  flower 
it  forms  a  close-growing  dwarf  evergreen  bush,  while 
in  full  blossom  it  is  entirely  covered  with  one  mass  of 
small  gorse-like  golden-yellow  flowers. 


The  cultivation  of  the  various  varieties  of  Cytisus 
and  Genista,  like  that  of  many  of  our  flowering  shrubs, 
is  quite  simple.     It  must,  however,  always  be  remem- 


bered  that,  except  in  the  young  state,  they  do  not 
transplant  easily.  It  is  best,  therefore,  to  begin  with 
small  plants,  which  may  be  planted  out  from  pots 
without  much  disturbance  of  the  roots.  A  plant  gins, 
to  I2ins.  high  in  a  4in.  or  5 -inch  pot  may  generally  be 
planted  with  safety.  Larger  specimens,  even  if  they 
do  not  die,  are  quickly  outgrown  by  younger  plants. 
Brooms  dislike  a  wet,  cold  clay,  but  otherwise  they 
will  grow  in  any  garden  soil.  On  a  clay  soil  they 
should  be  planted  on  a  bank  or  raised  bed  so  they  are 
well  drained  and  then  if  the  clay  is  improved  by  the 
addition  of  leaf-mould  or  light  soil,  they  can  be  grown 
with  success.  A  light  loam  or  sandy  soil  is  however 
that  which  gives  the  best  results,  and  the  plants  should 
be  fully  exposed  to  the  sun  and  air.  Early  autumn  or 
spring  are  the  safest  times  at  which  to  plant. 

Many  members  of  the  Broom  family  are  apt  to 
become  straggly  and  shabby  as  they  get  old.  To  avoid 
this,  it  is  well  to  prune  them  back  immediately  after 
flowering,  but  care  should  be  taken  not  to  cut  into  the 
old  hard  wood,  as  they  do  not  always  respond  kindly 
to  this  treatment.  C.  nigricans  and  others  that  bloom 
late  should  be  pruned  in  the  spring,  just  before  the 
growth  begins  again. 

Some  brooms  will  stand  gentle  forcing  and  form 
most  effective  house  plants.  Standards  are  the  most 
useful  for  this  purpose  but  to  get  really  good  results 
both  standards  and  bushes  must  be  grown  in  pots  for 
the  previous  year. 



The  seeds  of  all  kinds  of  Cytisus  and  Genista  ger- 
minate readily  and  this  is  the  best  method  of  raising 
plants.  The  wild  species,  such  as  the  common  Brooms 
and  Spartium  junceum,  come  true  from  seeds,  while 
seeds  of  hybrids,  such  as  the  Andreanus  group  give  a 
number  of  differently  coloured  forms.  Some  varieties, 
particularly  the  small,  low-growing  kinds  can  be  easily 
rooted  from  cuttings  of  half-ripe  wood,  kept  close  in 
damp  sand.  In  nurseries  the  more  usual  way  of  pro- 
pagating the  choicer  sorts  is  to  graft  them  in  the  early 
months  of  the  year  on  small  stocks  of  the  common 
broom,  after  grafting  they  should  be  kept  close  for  a 
time  in  gentle  heat.  Standards  must  always  be  grafted 
on  Laburnum  and  require  a  good  deal  of  care.  The 
stocks  should  be  about  four  feet  in  height. 

A  selection  of  twelve  of  the  stronger  -  growing 
Brooms  : — 

C.  albus. 

C.  Cornish  Cream. 
C.  monspessulanus. 
C.  nigricans. 
C.  Osbomii. 
C.  praecox. 
C.  sessilifolius. 

C.  scoparius  var.  Andreanus  "  Firefly." 
C.  scoparius  var.  sulphureus. 
Genista  cinerea. 
Spartium  junceum. 


A  selection  of  twelve  of  the  best  low  -  growing 
Brooms  : — 

C.  Ardoinii. 

C.  Andreanus  var.  prostratus. 

C.  Beanii. 

C.  Dallimorei. 

C.  decumbens. 

C.  kewensis. 

C.  purgans. 

C.  purpureus. 

Genista  germanica. 

„         hispanica. 

,,         sagittalis. 

,,         tinctoria. 

Cytisus  albus.     White  Spanish  Broom. 

A  graceful,  fast-growing  shnib,  reaching  6ft.  to  8ft. 
in  height. 

Leaves  very  small  and  inconspicuous  on  the  slender 
wiry  stalks. 

Flowers  small,  pure  white,  produced  along  each  stalk 
in  such  profusion  that  the  whole  bush  is  a  mass  of 

A  group  of  this  broom  is  very  attractive  when  seen 
in  full  flower  about  the  middle  of  May.  It  wiU  thrive 
in  any  well-drained  soil,  and  should  be  cut  back  im- 
mediately after  flowering,  since  it  flowers  on  the  growth 
formed  during  the  summer. 

Cytisus  albus  var.  roseus. 

A  very  attractive  white  variety,  not  of  such  robust 
growth   as   C.    albus.     The   long,    slender   stems   are 


covered  in  May  with  pink  or  perhaps  purple  buds, 
which  open  pure  white,  except  for  a  shade  of  pink  on 
the  standards.  This  is  a  pretty  variety,  the  pink  buds 
intermingling  with  the  fully  expanded  white  flowers. 
It  is  free-growing,  but  never  so  large  as  the  common 
white  broom,  and  is  considered  a  good  garden  plant. 

Cytisus  Ardoinii. 

A  charming  dwarf  Broom,  seldom  more  than  6ins. 
in  height.     A  native  of  the  Maritime  Alps. 

Leaves  trifoliate,  hairy,  each  on  its  own  little  stalk. 

Flowers  golden-yellow  in  terminal  clusters  in  spring. 

Seeds  germinate  freely,  but  do  not  always  come  true, 
owing  to  the  fact  that  this  species  hybridizes  readily 
with  other  species.  One  of  the  best  rock  plants  of  this 
family,  it  grows  freely  in  any  well-drained  soil. 

Cytisus  Beanii. 

A  seedling  from  Ardoinii,  but  taller,  and  a  much 
choicer  plant  than  the  parent. 

Leaves  small,  narrow. 

Flowers  golden  yellow,  produced  in  sprays  on  the 
last  year's  wood.  The  whole  plant  is  enveloped  in 
blossom  during  May,  making  it  a  delightful  little  shrub. 

Of  the  many  dwarf  yellow  Brooms,  this  is  one  of  the 
most  beautiful  of  the  smaller  growing  kinds  and  is  an 
excellent  plant  for  a  sunny  comer  of  the  rock  garden. 

Cytisus  Cornish  Cream. 

This  beautiful  variety  was  raised  in  Mr.  P.  D. 
Williams'  garden  in  Cornwall  from  seed  of  C.  Dallimorei. 


A  plant  of  robust  growth,  producing  masses  of  blossom 
in  May. 

Buds  cream  coloured,  developing  into  flowers  with 
almost  white  standards  and  clear  canary-yellow  wings. 

A  delightful  garden  plant  which,  when  better  known, 
will  be  more  largely  planted. 

In  addition  to  gaining  the  Award  of  Merit  of  the 
R.H.S.,  it  received  a  special  award  as  the  best  new 
plant  of  the  year.  Quite  easy  to  cultivate,  it  forms  a 
good  specimen  as  a  dwarf  or  as  a  standard,  and  seeds 
freely,  but  it  is  doubtful  whether  seedlings  will  come 
true.  Cuttings  or  grafts  are  the  safest  means  of 
propagating  it. 

Cytisus  Dallimorei. 

A  beautiful  hybrid,  raised  at  Kew  from  a  cross 
between  C.  Andreanus  and  the  common  white  Broom. 

Leaves  very  small,  deep  green,  stems  flattened, 
almost  four-sided. 

Flowers  mauve-pink,  the  keel  shading  into  deep 

A  very  distinct  and  free-flowering  variety,  but  not 
of  the  most  robust  constitution  and  is  somewhat 
difficult  to  start  into  growth.  It  is  best  planted  in  a 
warm,  well-drained  soil,  in  full  sun. 

Cytisus  decumbens. 

An  ideal  rock-work  shrub  of  prostrate  growth 
creeping  over  the  rocks,  while  in  May  it  is  a  mass  of 
bright  yellow  blossom,  produced  on  the  last  year's 


Leaves  very  small,  about  -Jin.  long,  simple,  with  very 
little  or  no  stalk. 

It  revels  in  full  sun  and  grows  best  when  planted  in 
light  soil.  Although  introduced  to  this  country  more 
than  one  hundred  years  ago,  it  has  never  become  a 
common  shrub,  and  is  still  one  of  the  best  dwarf 
Brooms.  It  is  quite  hardy  and  can  be  increased  by 

Cytisus  kewensis. 

This  is  quite  in  the  front  rank  amongst  Brooms. 
Leaves  small.  The  flowers  open  a  pale  lemon  changing 
to  creamy-white  and  are  produced  freely  on  the 
previous  season's  wood.  Drooping  or  almost  prostrate 
in  growth.  It  is  usually  at  its  best  in  the  first  week  in 
May  and  makes  a  good  standard,  when  grafted  on 

Cytisus  leucanthus  (syn.  C.  schipkaensis) . 

A  deciduous,  low-growing  shrub,  but  not  as  useful  as 
a  garden  plant  as  many  of  the  more  showy  varieties. 

Leaves  trifoliolate,  of  a  yellowish-green,  with  a  paler 

Flowers  creamy-white,  twelve  or  more  in  a  terminal 

This  species  is  valuable  for  its  habit  of  making  young 
shoots  round  the  flower  head,  and  frequently  flowering 
again  on  this  young  wood.  The  flowering  period  is 
thus  considerably  prolonged  and  extends  sometimes 
into  October. 


Cytisus  monspessulanus  (syn.  Genista  candicans). 

A  robust-growing  evergreen  or  sub-evergreen  shrub, 
as  much  as  6ft.  in  height  and  with  more  fohage  than 
most  of  the  Brooms. 

Leaves  trifoUolate  and  downy  on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  small,  bright  canary-yellow,  produced  in 
clusters  varying  from  three  to  seven. 

Considered  at  one  time  to  be  tender,  but  it  withstood 
the  winter  1923-24  unharmed.  Seed  germinates  freely. 
A  native  of  the  Mediterranean  district,  it  thrives  in  a 
warm,  dry  soil. 

Cytisus  nigricans. 

A  desirable,  late-flowering,  deciduous  Broom,  reaching 
3jft.  in  height.  Flowering  on  the  young  wood  of  the 
season,  with  long,  stiff,  upright  racemes  of  bright 
yellow  blossoms  in  July  and  August.  The  leaves 
trifoliolate,  deep  green  in  colour.  One  of  the  most 
useful  garden  shrubs,  blossoming  at  a  time  when  most 
flowering  shrubs  are  past.  Compact  in  growth,  it 
forms  a  neat  plant  for  growing  in  front  of  a  border  or 
shrubber}^  It  should  be  well  pruned  back  each  spring, 
and  is  propagated  by  seeds  or  cuttings.  The  flowers 
have  a  curious  pungent  smell. 

Cytisus  nigricans  var.  Carlieri. 

This  is  practically  S3monymous  with  C.  nigricans,  pos- 
sibly the  flower  species  are  larger  and  the  colour  richer. 

Cytisus  praecox. 

One  of  the  earliest  to  flower,  being  generally  at  its 
best  by  the  end  of  April  or  early  in  May,  and  forming 
a  thick,  low,  drooping  bush. 


Leaves  small,  on  hard,  wir^^  stems,  and  not  appearing 
till  after  the  flowers  are  over. 

Flowers  lemon-yellow,  so  freely  produced  as  to 
envelop  the  whole  plant. 

One  of  the  best  garden  Brooms  for  covering  a  dry 
bank  or  for  a  position  high  up  on  the  rockery.  Its 
one  drawback  is  the  unpleasant  smell  of  the  flowers 
and  for  this  reason  it  should  not  be  planted  near  the 

This  species  can  be  increased  by  cuttings  more 
readily  than  most  brooms.  The  cuttings,  about  2ins. 
to  3ins.  long,  should  be  taken  in  late  summer  ;  if  they 
can  be  got  with  a  heal,  so  much  the  better,  and  inserted 
in  sharp  sand.  They  should  be  kept  quite  close  in 
propagating  pits  until  rooted. 

Cytisus  praecox  var.  alba. 

A  pure  white  form,  with  smaller  flowers  and  not  such 
robust  habit  as  the  type.  It  is,  however,  quite  a  good 
plant  for  a  hot,  dry  bank,  and  blossoms  before  C.  albus. 

Cytisus  Oshornii. 

This  charming  Broom  was  raised  at  Kew  and  is  quite 
the  best  of  the  cream-coloured  section,  of  mediimi 
growth.  Its  chief  attraction  is  the  bronze  buds  which 
are  freely  produced  on  the  previous  summer's  wood. 

Flowers  pale  cream,  with  buff  standards,  the  wings 
on  each  side  of  the  keel  being  a  rich  creamy-yellow. 

It  has  none  of  the  unpleasant  smell  of  C.  praecox. 
An  excellent  garden  broom  of  medium  growth  and 
good  habit. 


Cytisus  purgans. 

A  sturdy,  upright-growing,  little  plant,  with  round 
hard  stems,  having  parallel  ridges  in  the  bark. 

Leaves  small,  narrow,  stalkless. 

Flowers  golden-yellow  on  short  stalks,  generally  pro- 
duced singly  in  May. 

A  useful  rock  shrub. 

Cytisus  purpureus. 

A  spreading,  deciduous,  little  shrub  of  prostrate 
growth.     Trifoliolate  leaves  on  short  stalks. 

Flowers  pinkish-mauve,  produced  in  pairs  and  almost 

An  attractive  plant  when  covered  with  its  mauve 
flowers  in  May,  and  for  its  deep  green  foliage  late  in 
the  summer.     Quite  easy  to  grow. 

Cytisus  ratisbonensis  (syn.  C.  hiftorus). 

A  distinct  species  of  robust  growth,  sometimes  7ft. 
in  height,  the  branches  inclined  to  be  woody. 

Leaves  deciduous,  trifoliolate,  large. 

Flowers  buff-yellow,  standards  bronzy,  but  varying 
a  good  deal,  thickly  crowded  on  long  stalks  in  twos 
and  fours,  in  early  June. 

This  free-growing  species  is  a  native  of  Eastern 
Europe,  but  is  not  one  of  the  most  showy  as  a  garden 
plant  and  can  be  easily  raised  from  seed. 

Cytisus  scoparius. 

The  common  Broom  of  our  heaths  and  commons 
and  one  of  the  most  beautiful  of  our  native  flowering 


Leaves  small,  trifoliolate,  and,  although  the  plant  is 
deciduous,  the  hard,  ribbed  stems  always  give  it  the 
appearance  of  an  evergreen. 

Flowers  large,  golden  yellow,  singly  or  in  twos  in 
May  and  June. 

A  good  plant  for  naturalizing  in  any  poor,  waste 
land,  or  in  the  wild  garden.  It  can  be  easily  grown 
from  seed  sown  in  the  spring.  The  seedlings  should 
be  transplanted  when  a  few  inches  high,  after  this  they 
soon  become  coarse  and  are  then  difficult  to  move.  A 
light  soil  suits  it  best,  where  it  often  reaches  ten  feet 
in  height.  The  common  Broom  is  interesting  as  being 
the  parent  of  many  of  the  new  and  brilliant  garden 
forms  of  the  Andreanus  class. 

In  olden  days  it  had  many  uses,  the  seeds  being 
roasted,  ground,  and  used  as  coffee.  It  is  also  said  to 
have  been  made  into  string. 

Like  Rosemary,  the  common  Broom  enters  largely 
into  the  old  folk-lore  of  flowers.  In  Scotland,  when 
the  Broom  was  full  of  blossom  it  was  said  to  indicate 
a  good  harvest  was  to  follow. 

Cytisus  scoparius  var.  Andreanus. 

A  showy  form  with  large  flowers,  similar  to  the 
typical  species. 

Flowers  with  a  bright  golden-yellow  standard,  the 
lower  petals  being  deep  bronzy-crimson. 

When  first  planted  it  is  sometimes  slow  to  start  into 
growth,  but,  once  well  established,  it  forms  a  beautiful 
shrub,  sometimes  seven  feet  high. 

Seedlings  of  this  variety  do  not  come  true,  however. 


they  give  some  pleasing  variations,  but  propagation 
must  be  by  grafting  to  obtain  the  true  plant. 

There  are  now  almost  too  many  varieties,  in  some 
cases  there  is  very  little  difference.  The  following  are 
some  of  the  best  known. 

Cytisus  scoparius  var.  Andreanus  "  Butterfly." 

A  strong-growing  form  of  Andreanus.  The  keel 
more  shaded  and  not  so  rich  in  colour. 

Cytisus  scoparius  var    Andreanus  "  Daisy  Hill." 

A  very  attractive  variety,  raised  in  Mr.  T.  Smith's 
nursery  at  Newry.  The  standards  are  buff,  shaded 
with  pink,  and  the  lower  petals  a  rich  madder-crimson. 
It  flowers  most  profusely  and  is  really  a  good  garden 
variety  of  medium  growth  and  forms  a  compact  bush. 

Cytisus  scoparius  var.  Andreanus  "  Daisy  Hill  splen- 
Said  to  be  a  great  improvement  on  the  last  named, 
the  flowers  are  of  similar  colour  but  richer  and  larger. 
It  is  more  vigorous  in  growth  and  when  it  has  had  a 
longer  trial  will  become  a  very  popular  variety. 

Cytisus  scoparius  var.  Andreanus  "  Donard  Seedling." 
A  beautiful  new  Broom,  pale  pink  standard,  shading 
into  terra-cotta  on  the  reverse  side.  Rich  terra-cotta 
keel.  Raised  by  the  Donard  Nursery  Company  in 
Ireland.     C.  Dallimorei  being  one  of  the  parents. 

Cytisus  scoparius  var.  Andreanus  "  Dragonfly." 

The  best  of  the  Andreanus  section.  Large  yellow 
standard,   the  lower  petals  being  a  brilliant  bronze- 


crimson  with  yellow  edges.     One  of  the  most  showy 
of  the  Brooms. 

A  good  garden  plant,  forming  a  shapely  bush,  5ft. 
to  6ft.  in  height.  It  is  also  one  of  the  best  varieties 
for  growing  as  a  standard. 

Cytisus  scoparius  var.  Andreanus  "  Firefly." 

Another  showy  seedling  very  similar  to  "  Dragonfly." 

Cytisus  scoparius  var.  Andreanus  "  fid  gens." 

A  distinct  novelty  of  the  Andreanus  section  with 
large  flowers.  Bronzy-amber  standard,  rich  chocolate- 
crimson  keel.  This  fine  variety  was  also  raised  at 
Newry.  Robust  in  habit,  it  promises  to  become  a 
useful  Broom. 

Cytisus  scoparius  var.  Andreanus  "  prostratus." 

A  dwarf,  spreading  form  of  Andreanus,  exceUent  for 
creeping  over  rocks.  When  grown  as  a  standard  it 
forms  a  good  drooping  head.  The  flowers  are  identical 
with  the  type.  Owing  to  its  horizontal  growth  it  is  a 
valuable  plant  for  a  dry  bank. 

Cytisus  scoparius  var.  sulphureus  "  Moonlight." 

A  beautiful  and  robust-growing  form  of  the  common 
Broom  with  large  lemon-yellow  flowers.  It  makes  a 
good-sized  shrub  and  is  quite  one  of  the  best  garden 

Cytisus  scoparius  var.  prostrata. 

A  curious  prostrate  form  of  the  cormnon  Broom,  with 
the  same  large  yellow  flowers.  It  is  seen  at  its  best 
when  planted  on  a  high  part  of  a  rockery  where  it  can 


creep  over  a  rock.     It  also  makes  a  good  standard  with 
a  compact  drooping  head. 

Cytisus  sessilifolius. 

A  graceful  deciduous  species. 

Leaves  trifoliolate,  generally  stalkless,  deep  green. 

Flowers  borne  in  slender  racemes  on  the  new  wood 
in  groups  of  from  five  to  ten.  Clear  canary-yellow, 
each  on  a  thread-like  stalk. 

An  old  plant  but  one  that  deserves  to  be  more  grown 
than  it  is,  coming  into  bloom  as  it  does  in  June  after 
the  majority  of  early  Brooms  are  over.  Grown  as  a 
standard  it  is  a  great  favourite. 

A  native  of  Southern  Europe,  it  has  been  cultivated 
in  our  gardens  since  the  days  of  Parkinson  and  was 
included  in  the  Botanical  Magazine  in  1794. 

Cytisus  supinus  (syn.  capitatus). 

An  upright-growing,  deciduous  plant,  flowering  on 
the  young  wood  in  June  and  July. 

Leaves  trifoliolate,  downy,  on  short  stalks. 

Flowers  deep  yellow  in  terminal  clusters. 

Except  in  the  colour  of  the  flowers,  this  closely  re- 
sembles C.  leucanthus,  but  cannot  be  classed  with  the 
more  showy  varieties  as  a  garden  plant. 

Cytisus  supranubius. 

A  rare  and  distinct  Broom,  but  it  is  doubtful  whether 
it  is  hardy  enough  for  inland  districts.  Grey-green, 
rush-like  growths  with  but  little  foliage.  The  stems 
are  covered  with  small  white  blossoms  which  appear 
from  the  joints  of  the  previous  year's  wood  in  May. 


The  species  derives  its  name  from  the  fact  that  it  is 
common  on  the  Peak  of  Teneriffe. 

Cytisus  versicolor. 

A  small,  deciduous  shrub,  probably  a  hybrid  from 
C.  purpureus. 

Leaves  trifoliolate,  on  short  stalks. 

Flowers  varying  in  colour  from  yellow  to  pinkish- 

Not  such  a  favourite  garden  plant  as  the  more 
brilliant  varieties. 

Genista  aetnensis. 

The  Etna  Broom.  A  tall,  slender,  rather  straggly- 
growing  shrub,  practically  devoid  of  foliage.  Valuable 
for  the  fact  that  it  flowers  late  in  July  or  early  in 
August.  Flowers  yellow,  produced  somewhat  thinly 
along  thin  rush-like  stems  of  the  current  season's 

A  very  attractive  species,  if  planted  amongst  other 
shrubs  where  its  leggy  branches  are  partially  hidden. 
The  bright  yellow  blossoms  form  a  welcome  mass  of 
colour  in  the  dullest  siunmer  month. 

Genista  anglica. 

A  low,  stiff-growing,  native  shrub. 

Leaves  smooth,  small,  pointed. 

Flowers  deep  yellow,  with  a  long,  open  keel,  pro- 
duced at  the  ends  of  the  shoots  and  turning  green  as 
they  wither. 

A  quaint  little  shrub  for  the  rockery  or  rough  border. 
The  older  wood  is  very  thorny. 


Genista  anxantica. 

A  low-growing  species,  often  confused  with  Cytisus 

Leaves  small,  simple,  the  whole  plant  having  a  rush- 
like growth. 

Flowers  bright  yellow  in  early  May  on  the  season's 
wood,  and  sweet  scented. 

A  rockery  shrub  of  compact  growth.  A  native  of 
the  country  round  Naples,  where  it  forms  beautiful 
yellow  patches. 

Genista  cinerea. 

A  charming  late  Broom,  flowering  early  in  July  and 
making  a  neat,  upright  shrub,  7ft.  or  more  in  height, 
with  long,  slender,  silky  branches. 

Flowers  fragrant,  bright  yellow,  produced  on  the 
previous  summer's  wood  all  along  the  branches,  gener- 
ally in  threes  on  thin  stalks. 

Leaves  very  small,  without  stalks,  of  a  greyish-green, 
the  under  side  covered  with  silvery  down. 

This  beautiful  plant  should  be  much  more  widely 
planted  in  English  gardens.  A  magnificent  specimen 
may  be  seen  growing  in  the  Cambridge  Botanic  Gardens, 
where  it  is  in  perfection  in  the  last  week  in  June  ; 
reaching  some  ten  feet  in  height  and  as  much  through, 
it  forms  a  wonderful  shimmering  cloud  of  yellow. 

This  handsome  Broom  was  first  introduced  from 
south-western  Europe. 

Genista  dalmatica. 

Quite  one  of  the  best  of  the  dwarf  Brooms. 

Leaves  small,  narrow,  deciduous,  on  thin,  angular 
stalks,  very  hairy. 


Flowers  golden-yellow,  in  terminal  clusters. 

Thriving  well  in  partial  shade,  it  is  an  excellent  rock 
plant,  and  useful  where  a  neat,  dwarf  plant  can  be 
used.  When  at  its  best,  it  forms  thick  masses  about 
one  foot  high  covered  with  its  yellow  flowers  in  May. 

Genista  germanica. 

This  is  rather  taller  than  G.  dalmatica,  and  a  useful 
garden  plant  owing  to  the  fact  that  it  is  a  late-flowering 
variety.  It  is  often  seen  in  full  bloom  in  July.  A  hot, 
dry  place  suits  it  best  in  light,  sandy  soil. 

Genista  hispanica  (Spanish  Gorse) . 

A  very  useful  dwarf  shrub,  forming  thick  masses  of 
much  branched,  spiky,  dull  green.  Never  more  than 
two  feet  in  height.  Covered  in  May  and  early  June 
with  terminal  clusters  of  rich  yellow  flowers.  It  is 
quite  hardy  and  grows  well  in  any  light  soil.  A  dwarf 
shrub  for  the  rougher  part  of  a  rockery,  for  banks,  or 
for  the  wild  garden. 

Genista  horrida. 

A  dwarf  mountain  species  from  Southern  Europe. 
Although  not  so  free-flowering  as  many  Brooms,  it  is 
never  the  less  a  very  effective  plant,  forming  a  dense, 
very  spiny,  cushion-like  mass,  of  a  delightful  silvery- 

Leaves  very  small,  opposite,  which  is  unusual  with 
Brooms,  the  only  other  variety  with  leaves  arranged 
in  this  way  being  G.  radiata. 

Flowers  deep  yellow  in  terminal  clusters  in  June. 
If  it  is  to  do  well  this  species  must  be  planted  in  a 
warm,  sunn}/  corner  of  a  rockery. 


Genista  monosperma. 

Of  curious  rush-like  growth,  almost  without  leaves. 

Flowers  creamy-white,  produced  in  small  racemes, 
growing  from  slender  stems.  The  blooms  are  very- 
sweet-scented  but  unfortunately  this  species  is  too 
tender  for  most  English  gardens. 

Genista  ovata. 

A  rare  species,  nearly  allied  to  G.  tinctoria,  and  re- 
sembling its  variety,  mantica. 

Leaves  dark  glossy  green,  lin.  to  i|ins.  long,  slightly 
pointed  at  each  end. 

Flowers  yellow  in  terminal  racemes  on  the  young 

The  whole  charm  of  the  plant  is  the  lateness  of 
flowering,  for  it  often  continues  well  into  October,  long 
after  most  Brooms  have  ceased  to  flower.  It  is  not 
much  known  in  gardens,  and  is  of  rather  doubtful 
hardiness,  but  should  become  a  useful  plant  in  the 
milder  parts  of  the  country. 

Genista  pilosa. 

A  low-growing  native  Broom,  with  twisted  woody 
stems,  forming  a  close,  compact  mass. 

Leaves  small  and  narrow,  almost  entirely  confined 
to  the  young  shoots. 

Flowers  golden-yellow,  which  completely  cover  the 
plant  in  May. 

A  good  rockery  plant  and  excellent  for  coveringTa 
dry  bank.  It  is  found  growing  in  profusion  in  parts 
of  North  Africa. 


Genista  radiata. 

A  curious  and  distinct  plant  with  thin,  httle  branches 
which  grow  horizontally  from  the  main  stems.  Seldom 
more  than  two  feet  in  height. 

Leaves  thin,  narrow,  spiky,  opposite.  The  bark  of 
the  old  wood  has  a  yellowish  colour. 

Flowers  yellow  in  small  terminal  clusters  about  the 
middle  of  June. 

Genista  sagittalis. 

An  attractive  little  Broom,  which  is  evergreen  and 
forms  large  spreading  masses,  seldom  more  than  I2ins. 
in  height,  with  curious  flat,  angular-winged  stems 
almost  devoid  of  leaves. 

Flowers  produced  in  June,  deep  yellow,  in  terminal 

Quite  hardy  and  grows  in  any  soil,  increased  by 
cuttings  or  seed.  A  useful  plant  for  covering  the 
ground  in  front  of  a  border  or  shrubbery. 

Genista  tinctoria  (Dyers'  Greenweed). 

A  quaint  little  native  species,  seldom  more  than  ift. 
or  ijft.  in  height. 

Leaves  small,  pointed,  dark  green. 

Flowers  yellow,  produced  in  July  in  terminal  racemes 
on  the  young  wood. 

Easily  propagated  by  seeds  or  cuttings  in  late 
summer.  A  good  plant  for  the  edge  of  a  dry  border 
or  rockery.  This  plant  was  in  olden  times  used  as  a 
yellow  dye. 

There  is  a  showy  double  variety  with  yellow  flowers, 
thickly  packed  in  racemes  3ins.  to  4ins.  in  length. 


Genista  tindoria  var.  mantica. 

A  much  more  robustly -growing  plant  than  G. 
tinctoria,  reaching  4ft.  to  6ft. 

Leaves  simple,  pointed,  alternate,  the  stems  ribbed. 

Flowers  deep  yellow  with  a  greenish  shade,  in  closely- 
packed  terminal  racemes  on  the  current  season's  wood, 
the  shoots  being  sometimes  as  much  as  i8ins.  in  length, 
the  last  nine  inches  being  clothed  in  blossom  in  July. 

The  lateness  of  flowering  adds  to  its  value  as  a 
garden  plant,  but  it  is  not  so  showy  as  many  varieties. 

Genista  virgata. 

A  fine,  late  Broom,  very  closely  allied  with  G.  cinerea, 
but  more  woody  in  growth  as  the  plant  gets  older. 

Leaves  small,  pointed,  simple,  grey-green,  silvery  on 
the  under  side. 

Flowers  clear  yellow,  in  short  racemes  springing  from 
the  previous  season's  growths,  often  extending  for  a 
foot  or  more  along  the  slender  stalks  in  early  June. 

The  flowers  are  slightly  fragrant.  A  fortnight  Jater 
than  G.  cinerea,  it  makes  a  good  garden  shrub,  and  is 
seen  at  its  best  at  Kew,  where  it  is  twelve  feet  in  height. 
It  grows  and  seeds  freely.     It  is  a  native  of  Madeira. 

Spartium  junceum  (syn.  Genista  juncea),  (Spanish 
Broom) . 

A  fine,  late  Broom  attaining  15ft.  in  height,  with 
long,  spiky,  rush-like  growth,  but  apt  to  become 
straggly  with  age. 

Leaves  dark  green,  simple  and  not  very  noticeable. 

Flowers  very  large,  the  standard  being  lin.  high  and 
equally  broad  ;   brilliant  3^ellow  in  colour  and  produced 



on  long,  smooth  shoots  of  the  young  wood  and  arranged 
singly  on  short  stalks  ;  fragrant,  with  a  laburnum- 
like  scent. 

This  Broom  is  absolutely  hardy  and  can  be  easily 
raised  from  seed.  It  grows  equally  well  on  almost 
any  soil.  It  generally  begins  to  flower  early  in  July 
and  continues  for  a  long  period.  To  be  seen  at  its 
best,  it  should  be  planted  where  there  is  a  dark  back- 
ground of  evergreens.  Owing  to  its  loose  growth  it  is 
well  to  cut  back  the  stems  immediately  the  flowers  are 

Since  this  Broom  flowers  at  a  time  when  most 
flowering  shrubs  are  over,  it  is  difficult  to  overrate  it 
as  a  plant  either  for  the  border  or  for  the  wild  garden. 

A  native  of  Spain  and  Southern  Europe,  it  has  been 
in  our  gardens  far  more  than  a  century. 

Erinacea  pungens  (Hedgehog  Broom). 

A  beautiful  and  rare  little  shrub,  of  low,  spiny  growth. 

The  leaves  are  few  in  number  and  hardly  noticeable. 

Flowers  deep  lavender-blue,  borne  in  small  clusters 
two  and  three  together,  towards  the  end  of  May  or 
early  June.  The  blossoms  are  a  most  delicate  shade 
and  it  is  the  nearest  approach  to  a  blue  broom. 

A  native  of  Spain  and  North  Africa,  it  was  figured 
in  the  "  Botanical  Magazine  "  as  long  ago  as  1803, 
but  has  never  become  common  in  our  gardens.  It  is 
by  no  means  easy  to  grow,  but  is  best  when  planted  in 
a  warm  comer  in  well-drained  soil.  It  can  sometimes 
be  increased  by  cuttings,  but  in  nurseries  it  is  generally 



A  LARGE  group  of  spring-flowering  shrubs  and  small 
trees,  to  which  have  now  been  added,  in  addition  to 
what  were  previously  known  as  flowering  Plums,  all 
the  flowering  Cherries,  Almonds,  and  Peaches.  These 
in  conjunction  with  Pyrus  (Apples)  include  in  their 
ranks  the  best  spring-flowering  shrubs,  beautiful  not 
only  for  their  flowers  but  also  in  many  cases  for  their 
foliage.  In  some,  the  young  growths,  are  richly 
tinted,  while  others  assume  brilliant  autumn  colouring. 
Prunus,  with  their  cousins  the  Pyrus,  are  amongst 
the  most  effective  standard  trees  for  grouping  on  a 
lawn,  particularly  if  a  dark  evergreen  background  can 
be  arranged  for  them.  In  bush  form  they  are  ex- 
cellent in  a  shrub  border.  Perhaps  the  most  useful 
are  the  forms  of  P.  cerasifera,  more  generally  known  as 
the  Pissardii  group,  with  their  bronze  or  purple  foliage 
and  clouds  of  small  white  flowers  in  early  April.  There 
is  also  the  newer  form  P.  cerasifera  var.  Blireiana  which, 
in  addition  to  the  bronze-coloured  leaves,  has  charming 
semi-double,  pink  flowers.  Both  these  are  excellent 
for  small  gardens,  they  never  become  really  large  trees, 
giving  the  effect  of  a  copper  Beech  but  estabUshing 
themselves  far  more  quickly,  they  also  stand  a  fair 

PRUNUS  125 

amount  of  exposure.  The  double-flowered  Peach, 
P.  persica  var.  Clara  Meyer,  is  one  of  the  most  beau- 
tiful of  all  the  flowering  shrubs.  It  requires  a  sheltered 
place  and  will  not  stand  exposed  situations  where 
P.  cerasifera  var.  Pissardii  will  be  found  to  flourish. 

The  cultivation  is  easy,  Prunus  thriving  in  any 
ordinary  garden  soil,  though  a  deep  loam  suits  it  best. 
Propagation  is  usually  by  grafting  or  budding  the 
same  as  with  the  flowering  Cherries,  but  some  species, 
P.  triloba  and  P.  japonica  in  particular,  are  far  better 
on  their  own  roots  and  should  be  increased  by  layers 
or  cuttings. 

Sprays  of  Prunus  are  also  very  good  for  using  with 
cut  flowers  and  last  well  in  water  if  not  cut  too  young. 

The  following  is  a  selection  of  the  best  and  most 
showy.  The  flowering  Cherries  are  dealt  with  sepa- 

Prunus  Amygdalus,  syn.  Amygdalus  communis  (Almond). 

A  highly  attractive  spring-flowering  shrub,  or  tree, 
sometimes  as  much  as  25ft.  in  height.  It  has  been 
popular  in  our  gardens  for  many  centuries  on  account 
of  its  early  flowers,  often  being  in  fuU  bloom  by  the 
middle  of  March. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  narrow,  pointed,  with 
slightly  serrated  edges,  closely  resembling  those  of  its 
near  relative  the  Peach. 

Flowers  deep  pink,  produced  on  the  previous  season's 
wood,  generally  in  pairs. 

The  fruit  is  about  2ins.  in  length,  covered  with  woolly 
down,  enclosing  the  nut. 


Almonds  are  among  the  most  useful  early  flowering 
trees  and  as  they  blossom  long  before  the  leaves  appear 
they  should  be  given  a  dark  background. 

UnUke  many  spring  flowering  trees,  they  withstand 
frost  and  cold  winds  unharmed,  when  in  full  bloom. 
They  will  flourish  in  most  soils  but  prefer  warm,  sandy 
ground  where  they  can  root  deeply  and  will  withstand 
any  drought.  It  is  not  necessary  to  give  them  rich 
soil,  and  they  can  also  be  grown  on  chalk.  They  are 
not  good  seaside  plants  but  are  invaluable  for  planting 
in  large  towns  and  will  stand  a  smoky  atmosphere. 
Almonds  are  considered  to  be  natives  of  Northern 
Africa,  but  have  been  so  much  naturalised  in  Southern 
Europe  since  the  time  of  Pliny  that  it  is  difficult  to  say 
with  certainty. 

In  Folk-lore  the  Almond  was  long  considered  an 
emblem  of  hope.  As  cut  flowers  it  lasts  fresh  a  long 
time  in  water  if  the  branch  is  cut  in  bud  stage. 

Almonds  can  be  planted  either  as  standards  or 
bushes.  Perhaps  the  ideal  group  is  a  few  standards 
with  bushes  planted  among  them. 

In  nurseries  they  are  propagated  by  budding  on 
plum-stocks  and  are  one  of  the  few  plants  which  grow 
better  this  way  than  on  their  own  roots. 

There  are  several  varieties  which  only  differ  slightly 
from  the  type.  Var.  macrocarpa  is  one  of  the  most 
distinct  with  larger  pale  pink  blossoms  and  foliage,  but 
it  is  doubtful  whether  it  is  quite  so  free  flowering. 

Prunus  Aniygdalus  var.  praecox. 

A  charming,  early  flowering  variety,  quite  three 
weeks  earlier  than  the  common  Almond.     This  rare 


1— H 


PRUNUS  127 

shrub  was  shown  in  perfect  condition  from  Kew  on 
the  loth  February,  1925,  when  it  gained  a  First  Class 
Certificate  of  the  R.H.S.,  which  is  the  highest  award 
a  plant  can  get. 

The  flowers  are  lin.  to  ijin.  across  and  vary  from 
rose  to  blush-white,  each  on  its  own  stalk. 

Prunus  cerasifera  (Cherry  Plum). 

A  species  which  is  much  used  in  Nurseries  for  stocks 
and  hedging.  It  is  not  so  valuable  as  a  garden  plant 
as  its  bronze  varieties. 

Prunus  cerasifera  var.  Blireiana. 

In  growth  and  foliage  this  is  very  like  P.  Pissardii 
but  the  flowers  are  semi-double  and  of  a  delicate  peach- 
pink,  in  little  rosettes  on  the  last  season's  wood.  The 
young  growths  are  also  of  a  brighter  copper,  w^hich 
blend  with  the  pink  blossoms  delightfully. 

A  most  desirable  garden  tree  or  shrub,  it  is  also  ex- 
cellent for  a  small  avenue,  having  the  great  advantage 
of  bronze  foliage,  which  is  so  effective,  the  whole  of 
the  summer,  in  addition  to  the  flowers  in  the  spring. 
Grown  as  a  standard  it  perhaps  shows  to  the  best 
advantage — failing  standards  bush  plants  will  make  a 
striking  group.  They  require  little  pruning  beyond 
removing  any  cross-growths  or  shortening  strong 
shoots  so  as  to  keep  the  tree  shapely. 

Prunus  cerasifera  var.  Moseri. 

Another  bronze-leaved  variety  but  not  so  rich  in 
colour   as   the   others.     The  flowers   are   pink,   semi- 


double,   but  not   of   such   a   taking    shade   as   in    P. 

P.  cerasifera  var.  nigra. 

A  new  variety  with  foHage  several  shades  darker 
than  P.  Pissardii.  The  leaves  are  slightly  smaller  and 
of  a  lustrous  warm  bronze.  The  flowers  are  much  the 
same  size  as  in  P.  Pissardii  but  are  flushed  with  pink. 
Owing  to  its  neat,  upright  habit,  this  shrub  will  be 
largely  planted  when  better  known. 

P.  cerasifera  var.  Pissardii. 

A  fast-growing  shrub  or  small  tree  with  a  good, 
upright  habit,  more  generally  known  in  nurseries  as 
P.  Pissardii. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  2jins.  long,  oval,  the  edges  being 
finely  toothed,  of  a  rich  bronze-purple  on  both  sides. 

Flowers  white,  small,  produced  in  great  profusion 
in  March  and  April.  It  occasionally  produces  red 
cherry -like  fruit. 

Owing  to  its  bronze  foliage  it  is  in  great  demand  as 
a  garden  shrub.  Though  not  particular  as  to  soil, 
they  are  best  planted  in  loamy  ground  but  are  also 
quite  happy  when  growing  in  chalky  land. 

Prunus  Davidiana. 

A  very  early-flowering  Chinese  shrub.  It  is  inclined 
to  be  tender  and  as  the  blossoms  open  in  February  it 
should  be  given  a  warm,  sheltered  situation. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  pointed,  slightly  toothed. 

Flowers  pure  white,  each  on  a  short  stalk. 

There  is  also  a  pretty  pink  form. 

PRUNUS  129 

Prunus  japonica,  syn.  P.  sinensis. 

A  compact,  low  bush  from  China  and  Japan.  As 
garden  shrubs  the  double  varieties  are  far  and  away 
the  most  desirable  and  are  more  often  known  in  Nur- 
series as  P.  sinensis  fl.  pi. 

Prunus  japonica  var,  flore  roseo  pleno. 

A  very  pretty  early-flowering  shrub,  the  blossoms 
opening  in  March  or  early  April.  To  be  seen  to  per- 
fection it  should  be  grown  against  a  wall. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  4ins,  long,  narrow,  pointed,  with 
serrate  edges,  pale  green  in  colour.  The  young  wood 
becomes  dark  red  as  the  season  advances. 

Flowers  shell-pink,  produced  abundantly  in  little 
rosette-like  clusters.  After  flowering,  this  species  grows 
vigorously  but  the  branches  have  a  habit  of  dying  back 
here  and  there  without  any  apparent  cause.  This  is 
now  attributed  to  the  effect  of  late  spring  frosts.  Any 
required  pruning  should  be  done  immediately  after 
flowering,  the  thinning  out  of  the  old  wood  encourages 
good  growth  for  another  season's  blossom. 

There  is  also  a  pretty  double  white  form  known  as 
flore  alho  pleno.  Both  the  varieties  are  good  for 
forcing  and  form  most  decorative  plants  when  grown 
in  pots  and  brought  into  a  cool  or  slightty  heated 
greenhouse  early  in  January.  In  nurseries  it  is  gener- 
ally budded  on  plum-stock  which  is  apt  to  throw  out 
suckers.  Where  possible  it  should  be  propagated  from 
cuttings  or  layers. 

Prunus  Mume. 

A  dainty  shrub  or  small  tree  belonging  to  the  Apricot 


section.  A  native  of  Japan,  it  has  so  far  been  very 
little  cultivated  in  our  gardens. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  4ins.  long,  broad,  rounded,  plum- 
like, dark  glossy  green  above. 

Flowers  blush-pink,  generally  in  pairs,  freely  pro- 
duced in  March  on  the  wood  of  the  previous  year.  The 
blossoms  are  slightly  scented. 

This  species  would  become  a  good  garden  plant  but 
it  is  apt  to  be  slightly  damaged,  though  rarely  killed, 
by  a  severe  frost.  It  should,  for  this  reason,  be  planted 
in  a  sheltered  position.  There  are  also  some  very 
attractive  double  forms. 

Prunus  nana,  syn.  Amygdalus  nana  (Dwarf  Almond). 

A  delightful  little  dwarf  shrub  seldom  more  than  2ft. 
to  3ft.  in  height  and  forming  a  low-branching  bush. 
It  is  an  old  favourite  of  our  gardens  and  appears  in  the 
"  Botanical  Magazine  "  as  long  ago  as  1791. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long,  narrow,  tapering  at  each 
end,  slightly  toothed  edges,  of  bright  shining  green. 

Flowers  rosy-pink,  somewhat  deeper  in  the  bud  stage, 
and  borne  on  the  previous  season's  wood.  It  seldom 
produces  fruit,  which  are  downy  little  almonds. 

A  native  of  South  Russia  and  a  useful  little  shrub 
for  the  rougher  parts  of  a  rock  garden,  or  planted  in 
front  of  other  shrubs,  where  it  will  flower  freely  in 
April  with  small  pink  blossoms. 

As  it  sends  out  under-ground  growths  freely  it  can  be 
readily  increased  by  dividing  the  suckers.  In  nurseries 
it  is  often  budded  or  grafted,  but  plants  on  their 
roots  are  far  preferable.     It  flourishes  in  well-drained 

PRUNUS  131 

soil,  in  fact,  it  will  thrive  in  the  driest  situation  but  is 
not  happy  in  cold  clay. 

P.  nana  var.  Gessleriana, 

A  very  handsome  form  with  larger  flowers  than  the 

Prunus  Padus  (Bird  Cherry). 

A  vigorous,  deciduous  tree  found  in  the  wild  state 
in  parts  of  Britain  and  Northern  Europe. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  4ins.  long,  egg-shaped,  toothed 
edges,  dark  green  above,  of  a  leathery  texture. 

Flowers  creamy-white,  borne  in  long,  close  racemes, 
not  unlike  the  flowers  of  a  Portugal  Laurel,  and  slightly 

The  Bird  Cherry  is  a  very  useful  tree  for  the  rougher 
shrubberies  or  wild  garden.  Flowering  from  the,  end 
of  May  into  June  after  most  of  the  Cherries  and  Crabs 
are  over,  it  is  welcome  with  its  showy  spikes  of  blossom. 
It  will  thrive  in  almost  any  soil. 

P.  Padus  var.  grandiflora. 

A  handsome  variety,  a  great  advance  on  the  type. 
The  leaves  are  glaucous  on  the  under  side  and  the 
flowers  are  in  long  racemes,  quite  double  the  length^of 
the  common  form. 

Prunus  Persica,  syn.  Persica  vulgaris  ("  Peach.") 

The  common  Peach  has  now  been  cultivated  in  this 
country  for  many  centuries  and  is  probably  a  native 
of  China.  As  garden  flowering  shrubs  the  double 
varieties  are  the  most  telling.  There  are  many  forms 
of  these  but  the  following  are  among  the  best. 


P.  Persica  var.  Clara  Meyer. 

Leaves  3ms.  to  5ins.  long,  narrow,  pointed,  the  edges 
very  finely  toothed,  of  a  bright  green. 

Flowers  bright  rosy-pink  borne  right  along  the  last 
season's  wood. 

This  is  one  of  the  most  delightful  of  the  spring- 
flowering  shrubs  or  small  trees,  sometimes  15ft.  to  20ft. 
high.  It  is  a  most  telling  shrub  when  a  mass  of  its 
double,  pink  blossoms  catch  the  light  in  front  of  some 
dark  evergreens.  Peaches  should  be  given  a  warm, 
sheltered  position  and  fairly  good  soil,  they  like  lime 
and  so  will  thrive  on  chalk. 

P.  Persica  var.  camelliaeflora. 

A  beautiful  double,  crimson  form,  except  in  colour, 
the  flowers  are  ver^^  much  like  those  of  P.  Clara  Meyer, 
but  it  has  not  quite  such  vigorous  habit  of  growth,  nor 
is  it  so  free-flowering.  However,  the  rich  colour  of  the 
blossoms  make  it  one  of  the  most  attractive  of  spring- 
flowering  shrubs. 

P.  Persica  var.  flore  alho  pleno. 

A  charming  white  variety,  with  large  semi-double 
flowers,  distinctly  larger  than  those  of  P.  Clara  Meyer. 
It  is  at  present  little  known  in  our  gardens,  but  its 
robust  habit  of  growth  promises  to  make  it  an  attrac- 
tive variety. 

Prunus  serotina. 

A  very  little  known  deciduous  tree  from  North 
America  which  might  well  be  more  generally  planted 
in  our  gardens. 


Prunus  persica,  var.  Clara  Meyer. 

PRUNUS  133 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  tapering  to  a  fine  point, 
the  edges  finely  and  regularly  toothed,  rich  dark  green 
above,  more  like  a  Portugal  laurel  in  shape  than  a 
plum.  If  a  leaf  is  held  up  to  the  light  it  shows  a  most 
beautiful  veining. 

Flowers  white  in  loose  clusters,  more  often  towards 
the  ends  of  the  branches.  These  are  followed  by  fruits 
the  size  of  large  peas,  red  at  first  but  black  when  fully 

A  handsome,  upright  growing  tree,  most  attractive 
when  in  flower  or  in  fruit  and  perfectly  hardy. 

Prunus  spinosa  (Blackthorn). 

A  native  shrub  of  our  hedges  and  waste  lands.  It 
is  well  worth  growing  for  its  wealth  of  small  white 
flowers,  which  appear  in  March  before  the  leaves.  The 
bronze-leaved  form  is  a  most  desirable  garden  plant. 

Prunus  spinosa  var.  purpurea. 

This  forms  a  close-growing,  neat  deciduous  shrub. 

Leaves  lin.  to  ijins.  long,  pointed,  toothed  at  the 
edges  of  a  rich  copper-purple. 

Flowers  white,  similar  to  the  type  and  equally  freely 
borne  in  early  spring. 

This  shrub  deserves  to  be  more  planted  than  it  is, 
it  has  closer  and  more  compact  growth  than  the 
Pissardii  group.  Cut  sprays  are  excellent  for  arranging 
with  flowers.     {See  illustration). 

Prunus  spinosa  flore  pleno  is  the  most  effective  of 
this  trio  when  in  flower.  An  old  specimen  will  look  as 
though  laden  with  snow  in  favourable  seasons. 


Prunus  triloba  var.  fl.  pi. 

A  delightful  early-flowering  Chinese  shrub.  It  never 
becomes  very  large  and  like  P.  japonica,  stands  forcing 

Leaves  2ins.  to  4ins.  long,  abruptly  tapering  to  a 
long  point,  the  edges  are  deeply  toothed  and  the 
veining  is  very  prominent  on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  salmon-pink,  an  inch  or  more  in  diameter 
and  produced  all  the  way  up  the  stems  of  the  previous 
season's  growth. 

This  species  makes  a  most  excellent  wall  shrub  and 
soon  covers  a  space  ten  feet  square,  giving  a  profusion 
of  dainty  blossom  in  early  April.  It  is  a  distinctly 
better  plant  than  P.  japonica  but  has  the  same  habit 
of  a  branch  here  and  there  occasionally  dying  back  in 
the  spring  without  any  apparent  cause,  however,  it 
grows  so  quickly  that  it  soon  makes  up  for  the  loss. 

It  should  be  propagated  from  cuttings  or  layered,  as 
worked  plants  produce  suckers  of  the  plum-stock  that 
may  become  a  nuisance  when  they  grow  up  through 
other  plants. 



This  group  includes  some  of  the  most  delightful  of  aU 
flowering  trees  and  shrubs,  beautiful  in  spring  with 
masses  of  white,  pink,  and  cream  blossoms  and  delicate 
bronzy  foliage,  and  again  in  October  when  they  assume 
brilliant  autumn  colouring. 

Unfortunately  the  names  of  the  different  varieties 
are  in  hopeless  confusion.  Even  in  our  Botanical 
Gardens  the  nomenclature  must  not  always  be  relied 
upon  as  being  correct.  The  majority  of  the  species 
and  varieties  are  of  Japanese  origin  and  have  reached 
this  country  identified  by  their  Japanese  names,  which 
have  satisfied  neither  the  botanists  nor  the  nursery- 
men, both  of  whom  have  bestowed  their  own  names 
with  the  result  that  Cherries  are  known  under  at  least 
three  names,  the  Japanese,  the  botanical,  and  the 
trade  name. 

In  the  following  chapters  the  author  is  much  indebted 
to  Mr.  Collingwood  Ingram,  who,  with  his  knowledge 
of  Japanese  Cherries,  has  devoted  years  of  careful  study 
to  their  classification  and  is  now  most  successfully  un- 
ravelling many  knotty  points.  It  is  therefore  only 
proposed  to  give  here  a  few  notes  on  cultivation  and 
to  mention  some  of  the  best  known  garden  varieties. 


giving,  as  far  as  possible,  the  names  under  which  they 
are  most  generally  known. 

Cherries,  like  many  of  the  species  of  Prunus  and 
Pyrus  are  seen  at  their  best  when  grown  as  standard 
trees  planted  in  grass  and  if  possible  with  a  dark  back- 
ground of  evergreen  shrubs.  P.s.  Hizakura,  as  it  is 
generally  called,  though  Kanzan  is  now  the  correct 
Japanese  name,  is  a  handsome,  upright -growing  variety 
with  lovely  double,  pink  flowers  and  bronze  foliage. 
P.  avium  fl.  pi.  with  double,  white  flowers  forms  a  good 
companion,  blossoming  about  the  same  time.  A  fort- 
night later  comes  P.s.  J.  H.  Veitch  of  the  same  shade 
as  P.s.  Hizakura  but  not  of  such  vigorous,  upright 
growth,  for  it  becomes  a  flat -headed  tree  with  age. 
P.  Rhexii  fl.  pi.  the  double  Morello,  is  a  good  late, 
white  variety,  flowering  at  much  the  same  time  as  P.s. 
J.  H.  Veitch.  One  of  the  earliest  to  flower  is  P.  Sar- 
gentii  with  large  double  flowers,  it  is  also  the  most 
delightful  of  all  in  the  autumn  when  the  foliage  turns 
a  gorgeous  crimson.  This  variety  is  quickly  followed 
by  P.  serrulata  fl.  pi.,  a  very  free-flowering,  robust- 
growing  variety.  Among  those  with  single  flowers 
P.  Ojochin  is  one  of  the  most  showy  with  its  large 
blush-pink  flowers. 

Propagation  and  Treatment  of  Young  Trees. 

In  a  few  cases  Flowering  Cherries  can  be  rooted  from  . 
cuttings  but  this  is  a  slow  process  and  the  usual  method 
is  by  grafting  or  budding.     In  spite  of  much  difference 
of  opinion  as  to  stocks,  Prunus  Avium,  the  common 
Gean,  gives  the  best  results.    It  is  a  strong,  free-rooting 


Prunus  serriilata  "  Ojochin."  syn.  Senriko. 


plant  and  varieties  grafted  or  budded  on  it  quickly 
develop  into  healthy  young  trees  when  planted  in 
suitable  ground.  To  form  standard  trees  the  best 
practice  is  to  bud  or  graft  on  stems  of  the  common 
stock  at  the  height  it  is  desired  to  form  the  head.  This 
method  will  tend  to  give  clean  stems  which  are  less 
likely  to  gum  than  if  the  trees  are  worked  close  to  the 
ground-level  and  grown  up.  It  is  important  in  the 
first  summer  after  the  budding  or  grafting  not  to  clean 
the  new  growth  from  the  stem  of  the  stock  until  late 
in  the  season.  In  the  first  instance  take  away  about 
one-half  the  new  growth  entirely  and  keep  the  other 
pinched  back  as  the  plant  begins  to  make  woody 
growth.  This  will  prevent  the  stem  gumming  and  by 
the  autumn  the  head  of  the  new  variety  should  have 
grown  sufficiently  to  take  the  rising  sap,  and  the  stem 
may  be  cleared  in  time  for  the  cuts  to  heal  over  before 
the  winter. 

When  trees  have  been  recently  planted,  it  is  very 
necessary  to  be  on  the  look  out  early  in  May  and  June 
for  the  Black  Fly  which,  if  neglected,  will  spread  so 
rapidly  that  the  new  leaves  quickly  become  curled  and 
crippled  and  the  growth  be  spoilt  for  the  season.  As 
soon  as  the  leaves  show  signs  of  curling,  spray  at  once 
with  a  strong  nicotine  wash,  forcing  it  well  into  the 
under  side  of  the  leaves.  A  second  spraying  is  essential 
a  week  later,  if  the  attack  is  very  severe  in  order  to 
eradicate  entirely  this  troublesome  pest.  Should  it  get 
the  upper  hand,  prune  back  in  autumn  any  wood  that 
is  curled  and  twisted  in  growth.  If  this  is  neglected 
the  future  shape  of  the  tree  may  be  spoilt. 



Cherries  thrive  best  in  a  deep,  well-drained  loam 
overlying  clay,  and  yet  not  so  stiff  that  the  roots  cannot 
penetrate  freely.  Such  a  soil  is  found  largely  in  Kent, 
where  the  fruiting  Cherries  are  so  successfully  grown, 
making  large  spreading  specimens.  Trees  grown  in 
heavy  land  form  stronger  and  more  vigorous  growth, 
the  foliage  is  also  richer  in  colour  than  when  they  are 
planted  on  light,  sandy  soil. 

It  must  not,  however,  be  assumed  that  it  is  useless 
to  plant  them  on  light  land.  Any  fair  garden  soil  will 
grow  flowering  Cherries.  If  it  is  very  light,  it  is  wise 
to  select  the  stronger  and  more  vigorous  kinds.  Some 
form  of  lime  should  be  added  and,  if  possible,  well 
decayed  manure. 

When  once  established  Cherries  very  much  resent 
having  their  roots  in  any  way  disturbed  or  damaged. 
The  ground  should  only  be  lightly  forked  over.  If  a 
spade  is  used  and  the  roots  get  cut  and  bruised,  the 
result  is  usually  gumming  which  is  one  of  the  most 
difficult  problems  with  which  the  cultivator  of  these 
plants  has  to  deal. 

List  of  the  best  Garden  Flowering  Cherries. 

Prunus  serrulata  Hizakura,  syn.  P.  Kanzan.  Large 
double  rose-pink  flowers — mid  season. 

Prunus  serrulata  Ojochin,  syn.  Senriko.  Very  large 
single  flowers. 

Prunus  serrulata  rosea  pleno.     Double  pink — early. 

Prunus  serrulata  James  H.  Veitch,  syn.  P.  Fugenzo. 
Double  pink  flowers^ — late. 


Prunus  spinosa,  var.  purpurea. 


Prunus  serrulata  pendula  fl.  pi.  Oriental  Weeping 
Cherry.     Double  pink  flowers,  weeping  habit. 

Prunus  serrulata  Ukon,  syn.  P.  grandiflora.  Creamy 
white,  or  sulphur-coloured  flowers. 

Prunus  avium,  fl.  pi.     Double  white — early. 

Prunus  Rhexii,  fl.  pi.  syn.  Double  Morello.  Double 
white — late. 

Prunus  Sargentii.     Double  pink — early. 



In  Japan  the  cult  of  the  flowering  Cherries  dates 
back  to  a  very  remote  period,  and  there  are  old  docu- 
ments existing  to  shew  that  some  of  the  double  forms 
have  been  in  cultivation  for  at  least  a  thousand 
years.  It  is  not  very  surprising,  therefore,  to  find  that 
there  are  now  over  130  more  or  less  distinct  native 
varieties  known  to  the  horticulturists  of  that  country. 
Among  these  may  certainly  be  numbered  some  of  the 
most  beautiful  trees  of  the  temperate  zone,  and  to  have 
visited  Japan  in  the  spring  months,  when  these  cherries 
are  in  their  full  glory,  is  to  have  seen  one  of  the  floral 
wonders  of  the  world. 

In  and  around  their  capital  the  Japanese  have 
planted  no  fewer  than  50,000  of  one  kind  alone — the 
Yoshino  Cherry.  When  these  are  in  full  flower  and 
their  leafless  branches  are  wreathed  in  pale  pink  bloom, 
the  Mikado  annually  proclaims  a  public  holiday  and 
high  and  low  alike  throng  in  their  thousands  to  see  the 
wonderful    display.     To    plant    them    thus — in    long 


avenues — as  at  Koganei,  or  in  groves  and  thickets,  as 
at  Arishiyama,  is  to  produce  a  very  fairyland  of  beauty. 
The  Americans  were  quick  to  appreciate  the  possibih- 
ties  of  massing  these  cherries  and  already  the  Potomac 
Avenue  at  Washington  has  become  famous  throughout 
the  Continent  :  and  there  is  no  real  reason  why  we  in 
England  should  not  enjoy  similar  scenes  of  enchanting 
beauty.  All  but  a  few  of  the  southernmost  forms  will 
thrive  in  this  climate  and  will  flower  quite  as  freely 
and  as  well  as  in  their  native  country.  W^hy  then,  are 
they  so  often  neglected  in  our  English  parks  and 
gardens  ?  There  can  be  only  one  explanation  for  this 
apparent  indifference — it  is,  I  think,  the  almost  hope- 
less confusion  that  still  exists  with  regard  to  their 
nomenclature.  It  is  certainly  discouraging  to  receive 
the  same  plant,  as  I  have  done,  under  half-a-dozen 
different  names,  and  none  of  them  the  correct  one  ! 

The  cause  of  all  the  trouble  may  be  traced  to  the 
Japanese  themselves.  During  the  last  thirty  or  forty 
years,  numerous  collections  of  flowering  cherries  have 
been  imported  from  Japan,  and  it  seems  that  the 
labelling  of  these  plants  has  always  been  more  fanciful 
than  accurate.     Hence,  of  course,  the  confusion. 

In  1916  Prof.  Miyoshi,  of  Tokyo,  and  Mr.  E.  H. 
Wilson,  of  the  Arnold  Arboretum,  each  published  an 
important  work  on  these  cherries  and  for  the  first  time 
it  has  become  possible  to  stabilize  their  names.  For 
various  reasons,  I  have  deemed  it  advisable  to  base 
my  identification  of  these  cherries  on  the  descriptions 
given  in  Prof.  Miyoshi's  elaborate  monograph  entitled 
"  Die  Japanischen  Bergkirschen  "■ — a  fully  and  beau- 


tifully  illustrated  work  antedating  that  of  Wilson  by 
several  weeks.  Of  the  133  varieties  referred  to  by 
this  author,  probably  not  half  the  number  are  now 
growing  in  England,  and  of  these  only  a  very  few  are 
in  commerce.  Happity,  some  of  the  best  forms  are 
already  obtainable  and  it  is  probably  only  a  question 
of  time  before  our  nurserymen  turn  their  attention  to 
the  other  equally  beautiful  varieties. 

The  cultivation  of  these  Cherries  presents  no  diffi- 
culties. A  rich,  open  soil  and  a  sunny  aspect  is,  of 
course,  preferable,  but  given  perfect  drainage  and 
ample  moisture  at  root  they  will  grow  almost  anywhere. 
In  view  of  the  fact  that  their  native  country  has  an 
average  rainfall  nearly  double  that  of  England,  this 
question  of  moisture  is  of  no  little  importance,  and 
small,  stunted  specimens  are  sure  to  result  if  this  is 
denied  them. 

The  use  of  our  native  Prunus  Avium  as  a  stock  for 
these  Japanese  Cherries  has,  I  think,  been  unjustly 
condemned  by  Wilson.  In  my  opinion,  the  Gean  is 
not  only  a  satisfactory  stock,  but  actually  forms  the 
best  root-system  for  the  majority  of  these  trees  in  our 
Enghsh  soil  and  climate.  Most  of  the  varieties  will 
unite  very  freely  with  it,  either  by  budding  or  grafting, 
and  in  the  end  make  stronger  and  more  vigorous  trees 
than  when  worked  on  imported  Japanese  stock. 
Nearly  all  the  spring  Cherries  {P.  subhirtella  group)  are 
quite  easy  to  propagate  from  cuttings,  and  Wilson 
declares  that  some  of  the  P.  serrulata  Cherries  may 
also  be  increased  by  this  means.  In  a  few  of  the 
varieties,  Ukon  for  example,  the  boughs  are  sometimes 


inclined  to  be  a  little  stiff  and  ungainly  which  is  really 
the  only  fault  that  can  be  found  with  these  truly  de- 
lightful trees.  This  is  due  to  the  formation  of  very 
few  lateral  branches  in  the  early  and  vigorous  years  of 
growth.  In  order  to  make  a  well-furnished  and  shapely 
tree,  I  recommend  the  nipping  back  of  the  extreme 
tips  of  the  strongest  shoots  in  late  June  or  July.  The 
use  of  the  knife  for  severe  winter  pruning  is  to  be  dis- 
couraged, as  all  forms  of  P.  serrulata  are  very  intolerant 
of  such  treatment. 

The  genealogy  of  most  of  the  Japanese  Fancy 
Cherries  is,  and  will  always  be,  a  matter  of  discussion. 
Wilson  has  attempted  to  classify  them  according  to 
their  supposed  affinity  to  one  or  the  other  of  the  wild 
species,  but  this  arrangement  is,  after  all,  only  an 
arbitrary  one,  and  I  prefer  Miyoshi's  plan  of  placing 
the  cultivated  varieties  together  under  the  one  heading 
— P.  serrulata.  It  is  true  that  some  are  quite  obviously 
near  descendants  of  P.  speciosa,  while  others  just  as 
clearly  show  affinity  to  P.  mutabilis,  or  perhaps  P. 
sachalinensis  ;  but  there  are  also  many  intermediate 
forms  which  one  cannot  allocate  confidently  to  any 
one  of  these  wild  species.  It  is  admitted  therefore 
that  this  division  between  the  cultivated  and  wild 
cherries  of  Japan  is  essentially  an  artificial  one,  but  at 
present,  this  classification  seems  unavoidable. 

All  the  varieties  enumerated  in  the  following  list 
have  been  grown  in  this  country  for  some  years  and 
are  therefore  of  proved  hardiness. 

While  some  are  naturally  more  showy  or  attractive 
thctn  their  fellows,  all  are  worthy  of  a  place  in  our 


gardens  and  it  would  be  an  inviduous  task  to  make  a 
selection.  I  would  like  to  say,  however,  a  few  words, 
in  praise  of  some  of  the  single  forms  which  have  hitherto 
been  almost  wholly  neglected  in  this  country  for  their 
better  known,  double  counterparts.  Nothing  could 
be  more  lovely  than  a  tree  of  P.  sachalinensis,  when  its 
soft,  rosy-pink  blossom  is  seen  in  clusters  amidst  the 
vivid  copper-red  of  the  young  foliage  ;  or  the  intense 
snowy  whiteness  of  the  fragrant  flowers  of  Jonioi. 
Yoshino  too,  is  a  very  vigorous  and  beautiful  Cherry, 
extremely  popular  with  the  Japanese,  while  the  best 
of  the  P.  subhirtella  group,  on  account  of  their  earliness 
and  floriferousness  are  also  very  valuable  plants. 

Although  the  Eastern  varieties  are  undoubtedly  the 
elite  of  the  genus,  no  chapter  on  the  ornamental 
cherries  would  be  complete  without  reference  to  our 
European  species.  A  few  of  the  more  striking  forms 
are  therefore  included.  The  minor  varieties,  both  of 
the  Japanese  and  European  cherries,  and  those  of  no 
horticultural  interest  have  been  omitted  from  the  list, 
as  also  have  all  the  members  of  the  subgenus  Padus. 

Prunus  serrulata — Lindley.     Oriental  Cherry. 

This  double-flowered  white  Cherry,  which  was  prob- 
ably the  first  to  be  introduced  into  this  country  from 
the  Orient,  is  almost  certainly  of  Chinese  and  not  of 
Japanese  origin.  Indeed,  it  is  doubtful  whether  it  has 
even  the  same  parentage  as  some  of  the  Japanese 
forms  now  bearing  its  name. 

The  smooth,  rather  polished  appearance  of  its  mature 
ovate    leaves    and    its    low-spreading,    rigid    boughs 


characterise  this  Cherry.     The  distinctly  double,  white 
flowers  are  not  very  large. 

Prunus  serrulata  affinis — Miyoshi.     Jonioi. 

This  Cherry  might  be  described  as  an  improved  form 
of  Oshima-zakura.  The  white  flowers,  although  not 
large,  are  bigger  and  rather  more  fragrant  than  in  the 
wild  variety.  They  are  borne  in  great  profusion  and 
for  this  reason,  also  for  the  tree's  rapid  growth,  it  is 
well  worthy  of  cultivation. 

Its  Japanese  name  denotes  "  Supreme  fragrance,"  a 
cognomen  bestowed  upon  it  on  account  of  its  pleasantly 
perfumed  bloom. 

Tora-no-o  is  another  white  variety  akin  to  the 
Oshima  Cherry.  It  is  characterised  by  the  distinctly 
reddish-brown  colour  of  the  cupula  and  sepals  which 
form  a  pleasing  setting  to  the  white  blossom. 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  alho  rosea — Wilson.     Shiro-fugen. 

This  Cherry  is  one  of  the  latest,  its  flowers  usually 
appearing  in  the  form  of  long-stalked,  drooping 
corymbs,  when  the  foliage  is  already  well  advanced. 
Although  pink  in  the  bud  the  large  and  distinctly 
double  flowers,  become  pure  white  with  maturity,  but 
turn  again  to  a  pinkish  tint  before  the  petals  fall. 

In  Shiro-fugen  the  young  unfolding  leaves  are  of  a 
reddish-bronze  colour,  the  earliest  to  appear  being 
frequently  of  a  somewhat  rounded  form.  These  char- 
acters, as  also  its  darker  branches,  distinguish  it  from 
Oku-Miyako,  another  late  white-flowered  variety  of 
great  beauty. 


Shiro-fugen  is  of  vigorous  habit,  with  wide-spreading 
flattened  branches. 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  daikoku — Ingram.     Daikoku. 

This  Cherry  was  found  in  a  collection  of  plants  im- 
ported from  Japan  over  twenty  years  ago.  It  is  note- 
worthy for  the  large  size  of  its  purplish-pink  flowers, 
which  are  densely  double  and  centred  with  a  cluster 
of  small  leafy  carpels.  These  appear  in  the  form  of  a 
loose,  drooping  corymb,  the  peduncle  being  noticeably 
thickened  and  very  long. 

Daikoku  is  a  very  interesting  variety  with  individual 
flowers  often  measuring  well  over  two  inches  in 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  erecta — Miyoshi.  Ama-no-gawa. 
This  beautiful  variety  is  characterised  by  its  pro- 
nounced fastigiate  growth.  It  is  a  very  floriferous 
form,  bearing  dense  bouquets  of  pale  pink,  slightly 
fragrant  blossom.     The  flowers  are  usually  single. 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  Fudan  Zakura. 

A  rare  early-flowering  Cherry  which  is  one  of  the 
serrulata  group.  It  was  first  flowered  in  this  country 
in  the  spring  of  1925.  The  flowers  are  pure  white, 
produced  in  clusters  from  the  bare  stems  and  are  most 
attractive.  If  sprays  are  cut  in  the  bud  stage  and 
brought  into  the  house  they  quickly  develop. 

This  species  should  have  a  great  future  as  a  forcing 
plant.  The  native  name  denotes  "  Continuous  Cherry," 
and  evidently  refers  to  the  long  flowering  period. 


Prunus  serrulata  var.  Fugenzo  (Makino).  Prunus  ser- 
rulata  Veitchiana — Bean.     Fugenzo. 

As  one  of  the  earliest  introductions  into  this  country 
Fugenzo  is  still  one  of  the  best  known  varieties  in 
English  gardens.  Veitch's  Cherry — as  it  was  formerly 
called — is  a  deservedly  popular  form,  for  its  large,  rose- 
pink  flowers  are  very  beautiful.  These  open  rather 
late  in  the  season — ^normally  about  the  beginning  of 
May — and  the  long  stalked,  drooping  corymbs  are  then 
often  half  hidden  by  the  young  coppery  foliage. 

In  this  form,  two  leafy  carpels  are  nearly  always  a 
conspicuous  feature  of  its  double  flowers  ;  but  this 
character  is  by  no  means  peculiar  to  Fugenzo.  The 
aristate  teeth  on  the  leaves,  deeply  laciniated  stipules 
and  intercrossing  boughs  distinguish  Fugenzo  at  a 
glance  from  the  equally  pink-flowered  Kanzan. 

This  Cherry  does  not  grow  into  a  large  tree. 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  Gioiko — Koidzumi.     Gioiko. 

This  Cherry  is  still  very  rare  in  English  gardens,  a 
circumstance  no  doubt  explained  by  the  fact  that  it 
is  certainly  more  interesting  than  beautiful.  Its 
creamy-white  flowers  are  streaked  and  blurred  with 
greenish  marks,  while  the  tips  of  some  of  the  petals  are 
occasionally  tinged  with  a  pinkish  stain.  It  has  been 
found  that  in  young  plants  a  large  proportion  of  the 
buds  never  develop  into  normal  flowers,  but  remain  as 
mere  clusters  of  green  sepals. 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  Grandiflora — A.  Wagner.     Ukon. 

Several  forms  of  the  Japanese  Cherries  have  their 

flowers  suffused  with  a  pale  sulphury-yellow  tinge,  and 


of  these  Ukon  (sometimes  known  as  Cerasus  luteo- 
virens)  has  the  largest  flowers  and  is  certainly  the  best 
known.  Its  semi-erect  boughs  are  inclined  to  be  a 
little  stiff  and  gaunt,  but  apart  from  this,  it  is  a  very 
beautifully  Cherry,  for  its  fine  yellowish-white  flowers 
are  borne  in  great  profusion  and,  when  they  are  seen 
in  contrast  with  the  brown-bronze  of  the  unfolding 
leaves,  they  are  extremely  effective.  There  is  a  very 
closely  related  sub-form  of  this  Cherry  known  by  the 
Japanese  as  Asagi  {P.s.  luteoides). 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  Hokiisai — Ingram.  Cerastis  roseo- 
pleno  of  the  Trade.     Hokusai. 

This  Cherry  is  familiar  to  every  lover  of  trees  and 
shrubs.  It  has  been  propagated  in  Europe  for  at  least 
half-a-century  and  is  certainly  one  of  the  best  of  the 
pink-flowered  forms  in  general  cultivation.  It  is  of 
better  constitution  and  more  vigorous  than  either 
Fugenzo  or  Siebold's  Cherry — ^which  are  also  well 
known,  and  well-tried,  favourites  in  English  gardens. 
Given  a  suitable  site,  Hokusai,  will  make  a  shapely  tree 
with  a  broad,  flattened  crown  sometimes  measuring 
35  or  40  feet  across. 

The  light  pink  flowers,  which  are  very  freely  pro- 
duced on  mature  trees,  are  large  and  semi-double, 
usually  having  from  seven  to  twelve  petals. 

There  are  several  other  semi-double  pink-flowered 
varieties  very  closely  related  to  this  form.  The  Yedo 
Cherry  (P.s.  nohilis)  is  one  of  these,  but  it  may  be  dis- 
tinguished by  its  deeper  pink  blossom,  shorter  in- 
florescence and  greater  number  of  petals. 


Prunus  serrulata  var.  Kirin — Koidzumi.     Kirin. 

This  Cherry  very  closely  resembles  Kanzan,  but 
ultimately  grows  into  a  smaller  and  broader-crowned 
tree.  It  is  a  little  earlier  in  opening  its  flowers,  these 
being  borne  in  more  compact  and  shorter-stemmed 
corymbs.  A  very  beautiful  form,  quite  as  fine  in  both 
flowers  and  foliage  as  the  preceding  variety.  Kirin  is 
sometimes  offered  under  the  name  of  Choskin.  Flower- 
ing period  mid-season. 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  Kojima — Ingram.     Kojima. 

Kojima  is  perhaps  the  most  striking  and  beautiful 
of  all  the  white  varieties.  The  somewhat  companulate 
flowers  are  plentiful  and  hang  in  long  and  graceful 
corymbs  among  the  green  foliage  ;  they  are  large, 
usually  semi-double  and  of  the  purest  snowy  whiteness. 
The  number  of  petals  seems  to  vary  and  the  flowers 
are  sometimes  single,  but  they  usually  have  an  inner 
ring  of  petaloid  stamens.  The  earliest  leaves  are  fur- 
nished with  exceptionally  long  aristate  teeth,  which 
gives  them  a  somewhat  singular  appearance.  This 
Cherry  has,  I  believe,  been  imported  under  the  name 
"  Mount-Fuji,"  but  this  appellation  has  been  so  fre- 
quently applied  to  other  varieties,  that  it  is  of  no 
distinctive  value. 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  Longipes — Miyoshi.  Oku-Miyako. 
This  Cherry  derives  its  varietal  name  from  its  re- 
markably long  stalked,  drooping  corymbs,  which  some- 
times measure  over  six  inches  in  length.  Pale  pink  in 
the  bud,  the  large  double  flowers  are  pure  white  when 


open.  The  distinctly  frayed  margin  of  the  petals,  pale 
brownish-grey  branches,  and  long  aristate  teeth  on  the 
leaves,  immediately  distinguish  this  Cherry  from  Shiro- 
fugen,  with  which  it  is  often  confused. 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  Moutan  —  Miyoshi.  Botan  - 
The  Japanese  name  for  this  variety  signifies  "  Paeony 
Cherry,"  apparently  given  on  account  of  the  very  large 
size  of  the  flowers,  which  sometimes  measure,  in  young 
and  vigorous  plants,  over  two  inches  in  diameter. 
Although  pink  in  the  bud,  these  fade  to  white  when 
fully  open.  In  many  respects  this  Cherry  resembles 
Ariake,  another  white  variety,  remarkable  for  the  large 
size  of  its  flowers,  but  usually  blossoms  several  days 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  Purpurea — Miyoshi.  Yae  Mura- 
Although  a  very  effective  variety  when  its  boughs 
are  densely  crowded  with  purplish-pink  blossom,  this 
Cherry  is  still  virtually  unknown  in  English  gardens. 
The  flowers  are  only  semi-double,  having  usually  about 
seven  or  eight  petals.  They  are  borne  in  great  pro- 
fusion, being  at  their  best  a  little  before  mid-season. 
In  colour,  shape  and  smoothness  of  its  foliage,  this 
Cherry  somewhat  resembles  Kanzan,  but  it  has  not 
the  same  vigorous  habit  and  only  makes  a  small-sized 
tree.  The  buds  before  opening  in  the  spring  become 
a  vivid  red  colour  and  are  then  very  striking  and 
effective.  It  derives  its  Japanese  and  specific  names 
from  the  purplish  tone  of  its  rosy-pink  flowers. 


Prunus    serrulata    var.    Rosea — Wilson.      (Sometimes 

called  Cheal's  Weeping  or  Lidara  Nova.)     Oriental 

Weeping  Cherry. 

This    is    a    very    beautiful    variety    of    pronounced 

weeping  habit.     The  flowers  are  densely  double,  and 

of  a  deep  pink  colour.     Although  not  large,  they  are 

borne  very  freely  and  produce  a  charming  effect.     This 

Cherry  is  sometimes  confused  with  the  Weeping  Spring 

Cherry,  Prunus  suhhirtella  pendula,  a  single-flowered 

plant  belonging  to  a  distinct  species. 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  Sekiyama — Koidzumi.  Hizakura 
of  Commerce.     Kanzan. 

This  Cherry  is  certainly  one  of  the  best  forms,  for 
not  only  is  it  very  hardy,  and  of  extremely  vigorous 
habit,  but  it  is  also  among  the  most  beautiful.  Its 
double  flowers  are  large  and  richly  coloured,  being 
deep  carmine  in  the  bud,  and  bright  rosy-pink  when 
open.  Kanzan  belongs  to  a  group  in  which  the  young 
leaves  are  of  a  lovely  copper-red  hue  when  they  first 
unfold  in  the  spring,  and  in  the  opinion  of  the  writer 
it  would  be  almost  worth  growing  for  this  vernal 
foliage  alone. 

It  is  unfortunate  that  the  name  Hizakura,  which 
rightly  belongs  to  another  Cherry,  should  have  been  so 
persistently  applied  to  this  variet}^.  Ohnanden  and 
Horinji,  as  formerly  used  at  Kew,  also  appear  to  be 
synonyms  for  the  plant  under  notice. 

The  boughs  of  Kanzan  are  more  or  less  ascending 
and  the  tree  does  not  exhibit  the  tendency  to  form  a 
flattened  crown  so  noticeable  in  many  varieties.     The 


leaves  are  large,  smooth  and  have  relatively  short- 
toothed  serrations  ;  their  under  surface  becomes 
whiteish  or  glaucescent  with  maturity. 

The  flowering  period  is  a  little  past  mid-season. 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  Sieholdii — Wittmack. 

(Often  called  Waterer's  Cherry.)     Siebold's  Cherry 

(Takasago) . 
This  is  a  very  beautiful  plant  when  in  flower,  but 
never  makes  a  large  tree.  The  pink  blossom  is  borne 
in  great  profusion — even  on  young  specimens.  The 
flowers  are  semi-double  and  fairly  large.  They  are 
characterised  by  a  broader-shaped  cupula  which  has, 
like  the  young  foliage,  a  close  covering  of  fine  hairs. 
Several  sub-forms  of  this  Cherry  are  known. 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  Temari — Koidzumi.     Temari. 

This  is  a  very  beautiful  and  floriferous  variety 
bearing  dense  clusters  of  large  apple-like  blossom  of  a 
rich  pink  colour,  which  are  mostly,  though  not  in- 
variably, single.  The  compact,  short-stalked  form  of 
the  corymb  appears  to  be  characteristic  of  this  fine 
variety,  which  should  be  represented  in  every  collection. 

Prunus  serrulata  var.  versicolor  ■ —  Miyoshi.  Yae- 
This  is  a  very  handsome  Cherry  with  large,  semi- 
double  rosy-pink  flowers.  There  is  a  tendency  for  the 
colour  to  be  more  intense  towards  the  edge  of  the 
petals — ^hence,  apparently,  the  varietal  name  "  versi- 
color." This  variety,  although  introduced  many  years 
ago,   is  still  unaccountably  rare  in  English  gardens. 


Shujaku  is  another  charming  Cherry  of  somewhat 
similar  appearance,  but  has  rather  smaller  flowers  of 
slightly  campanulate  form. 

Prunus  avium  flore  pleno.     Double  Gean. 

This,  the  double  form  of  our  native  wild  Cherry,  is 
perhaps  the  finest  of  all  European  varieties.  It  forms 
a  handsome  upstanding  tree  and  in  the  spring  is 
strikingly  effective,  especially  when  grouped  against  a 
background  of  dark  pines.  Its  double  flowers,  of 
dazzling  whiteness,  are  more  persistent  than  those  of 
any  of  the  single  forms. 

Prunus  conradinae. 

A  pink-flowered  Chinese  species  of  great  beauty  and 
one  that  should  be  included  in  every  collection. 

Prunus  cerasus  flore  pleno,  syn.  P.  Cerasus  Rhexii. 
Double  Morello. 
Although  this  does  not  make  such  a  stately  tree  as 
the  double  gean,  yet  when  its  rounded  crown  of  twiggy 
boughs  is  covered  with  densely  double  white  flowers, 
it  is  scarcely  less  beautiful.  The  All  Saints'  Cherry 
(P.  acida  semperflorens)  is  a  remarkable  variety  charac- 
terised by  its  successive  crops  of  flowers.  Towards  the 
end  of  the  season  it  is  a  common  occurrence  to  see  it  in 
fruit  and  flower  at  the  same  time. 

Prunus  mahaleh — Linnaeus.     St.  Lucie  Cherry. 
ll^This  native  of  south  and  central  Europe  has  relatively 
insignificant  flowers,   but   the  racemes  are  borne  on 
mature  trees  in  such  profusion  that  the  quantity  more 
than  compensates  for  the  lack  of  size.     Several  varie- 


ties  of  the  St.  Lucie  Cherry  are  known  and  of  these  the 
weeping  form,  var.  pendula,  is  perhaps  the  best. 

Prunus  mutabilis  var.  Stricta — Miyoshi.  Hupeh  Cherry. 
This  Cherry  was  introduced  into  this  country  from 
seeds  collected  by  Wilson  as  long  ago  as  1900.  Despite 
its  beauty  it  still  remains  very  rare  in  English  gardens. 
In  the  bright  copper-red  colour  of  its  young  leaves  and 
the  delicate  rose-pink  hue  of  its  flowers,  this  Cherry 
resembles  P.  sachalinensis,  but  differs  in  the  narrower 
form  of  its  leaves  and  peduncled  inflorescence. 

Prunus  pilosiusculus  var.  Media.     Bearded  Cherry. 

This  Chinese  Cherry  with  its  little  star-like,  pink- 
streaked  flowers  and  bristling  stamens,  is  a  very  at- 
tractive and  distinct  variety.  The  form  P.  p.  var. 
barbata  is  a  pleasing  plant,  but  of  less  interest. 

Prunus  sachalinensis — Fr.  Schmitt.  syn.  P.  Sargentii. 
Sargent's  Cherry. 

No  horticultural  variety  is  more  lovely  than  this 
wildling  from  Northern  Japan.  Indeed  it  would  be 
difficult  to  imagine  anything  more  beautiful  than  one 
of  these  trees  covered  with  delicate  rose-pink  blossom 
intermingled  with  the  vivid  copper-red  of  the  young 
foliage.  In  its  native  country  it  is  said  to  grow  into 
a  fine  timber  tree,  60  feet  or  70  feet  high,  but  it  is 
doubtful  if  it  will  ever  attain  this  stature  in  England. 

Its  rich  autumn  colouring  is  a  further  recommenda- 
tion. This  Cherry  is  perfectly  hardy,  but  will  not 
thrive  in  a  dry,  sandy  soil. 


Prunus  speciosa — Koidzumi.  P.  Lannesiana  albida — 
Wilson.  Oshima-Zakura. 
This  is  apparently  the  parent  of  many  of  the  fancy 
white  varieties.  The  selected  forms  are,  of  course, 
more  ornamental,  but  none  of  these  are  quite  so 
vigorous,  or  make  such  rapid  growth  as  the  typical 
Oshima  Cherry.  The  flowers  are  white  and  faintly 
fragrant  and,  although  not  individually  large,  make  a 
fine  show  when  crowded  on  the  boughs  of  a  mature  tree. 
In  young  specimens  it  does  not  flower  very  freely. 

Prunus  suhhirtella. 

An  attractive  group  of  diminutive  trees  of  which 
there  are  at  least  five  more  or  less  distinct  varieties. 
Of  these  the  autumn  flowering  form,  Prunus  s.  autumn- 
alis,  is  perhaps  the  most  interesting  for  it  blooms  in 
late  autumn  or  early  winter  as  well  as  in  the  spring, 
but  the  most  beautiful  are  undoubtedly  Beni-Higan 
(P.  s.  rosea)  and  Shiro-Shidare,  usually  called  the 
weeping  rosebud  Cherry  (P.  s.  pendula).  Both  of  these 
have  abundant  pale  pink  blossom  in  the  early  spring. 
Usi-beni-higan  (P.  s.  albo-rubescens)  is  a  more  bushy 
plant,  but  is  remarkably  free  with  its  dainty  white 

The  Pigmy  Cherry  (Prunus  incisa)  is  another  small- 
flowered  Japanese  species  of  great  charm.  It  is  un- 
fortunate that  it  is  still  so  rare  in  collections,  for  it  is 
very  hardy  and  an  altogether  delightful  plant. 

Prunus  yedoensis — Matsumara.     Yoshino. 

Among  the  Japanese  this  is  apparently  the  most 
popular  of  all  the  Cherries.     Vast  numbers  have  been 


Primus  subhirtella  Autumnalis. 


planted  in  and  around  Tokyo  where  it  is  very  exten- 
sively used  for  avenues.  Indeed,  it  would  be  difficult 
to  conceive  a  more  beautiful  tree  for  this  purpose  and 
it  is  truly  amazing  that  it  should  hitherto  have  been 
almost  entirely  neglected  in  this  country.  It  has  many 
virtues,  being  of  rapid  and  vigorous  growth,  perfectly 
hardy,  and  an  altogether  delightful  object  when  every 
branch  is  decked  in  pale-pink  blossom.  This  Cherry 
is  probably  of  hybrid  origin,  its  general  appearance 
suggesting  P.  speciosa  and  P.  subhirtella  var.  rosea  as 
possible  parents.  The  single  flowers  are  of  a  delicate 
pink  hue  when  they  first  open,  but  before  the  petals 
fall  the  centres,  including  the  filaments,  become  stained 
with  a  darker  purplish-pink,  which  gives  the  blossom 
an  added  beauty.  Yoshino  is  an  early  and  very 
floriferous  variety. 



The  Pyracanthas  form  a  small  but  interesting  group 
of  shrubs  closely  allied  to  the  Crataegus,  of  which  the 
Hawthorn  is  the  most  common  species.  They  are  all 
evergreen  and  spiny,  beautiful  in  early  summer  when 
laden  with  their  snowy-white  blossoms,  but  still  more 
attractive  in  late  autumn  and  winter  when  every 
branch  is  thickly  set  with  innumerable  yellow,  orange, 
or  scarlet  berries.  Four  or  five  species  and  several 
varieties  are  now  in  cultivation,  most  of  these  being  of 
comparatively  recent  introduction  to  this  country. 
P.  coccinea,  sometimes  known  as  Crataegus  Pyracantha 
or  Firethorn,  and  its  beautiful  variety  Lalandiiare  the 
best  known  garden  plants.  P.  Gibbsii  and  P.  Roger- 
siana  are  the  most  interesting  of  the  newer  varieties. 
They  are  equally  handsome  when  grown  as  shrubs  in 
the  open  or  trained  against  a  wall.  In  the  northern 
and  colder  districts  it  is  more  usual  to  give  them  some 
shelter  but  in  the  south  they  seem  quite  hardy  in  the 
open  and  are  seen  at  their  best  in  a  shrub  border. 


Propagation  is  easily  effected  by  means  of  seeds  and 
the  time  of  sowing  is  immaterial.  A  convenient  method 
is  to  sow  the  seeds  in  pots  in  the  autumn  or  during  the 


early  months  of  the  year,  and  grow  the  seedHngs  under 
glass  until  they  are  large  enough  to  plant  out.  The 
young  plants  grow  freely  and  should  be  put  into  their 
permanent  quarters  while  still  small.  Old  plants  do 
not,  as  a  rule,  transplant  well.  It  is  safest  therefore, 
to  keep  the  young  plants  plunged  in  pots  until  they 
can  be  finally  planted  out. 

Seedlings  of  some  species  show  variation  in  the  shape 
of  the  leaves  and  in  the  colour  and  size  of  the  fruits, 
but  if  it  is  desired  to  increase  the  stock  of  any  par- 
ticular form,  this  may  easily  be  done  by  layering  the 
growths,  or  by  taking  cuttings  of  partly  ripened  shoots 
at  the  end  of  the  summer. 

Some  of  the  Pyracanthas  are  liable  to  be  attacked 
by  the  fungus  Fusicladium,  which  causes  a  disfigure- 
ment of  the  leaves  and  berries  similar  in  appearance  to 
the  common  scab  of  Apples.  The  disease  may  be 
checked  by  spraying  with  Bordeaux  Mixture  in  early 
spring  as  the  buds  burst,  and  again  soon  after  flowering. 
All  fallen  leaves  should  be  swept  up  in  the  autumn  and 

Pyracantha  angustifolia,  syn.  Cotoneaster  angustifolia. 

A  beautiful  evergreen  shrub  nearly  allied  to  the 

The  leaves  vary  considerably  in  size,  those  on  the 
stronger  shoots  being  2ins.  long,  and  on  the  small  lateral 
growths  barely  half-inch,  of  a  rich  green  on  the  upper 
side,  pale  grey  and  downy  on  the  under  side.  Most 
of  the  branchlets  terminate  in  a  sharp  spine. 

Flowers  white,  in  clusters  along  the  stems  in  June, 


but  not  so  conspicuous  as  in  some  species,  followed  by 
rich  yellow  berries,  which  remain  on  the  plant  till  the 
following  spring. 

A  native  of  Western  China,  it  is  quite  one  of  the  best 
of  all  the  berried  shrubs.  It  seems  perfectly  hardy  in 
the  East  of  England  but  requires  protection  in  the 
colder  districts  and  thrives  in  almost  any  soil. 

Pyracantha  coccinea,  syn.  Crataegus  Pyracantha. 

A  close-growing  evergreen  shrub  reaching  a  height 
of  about  loft.  when  planted  in  the  open  border,  but 
capable  of  making  a  much  larger  plant  when  it  is 
grown  against  a  wall.  When  established  it  grows 
vigorously,  sending  out  in  all  directions  young  downy 
shoots,  well  furnished  with  foliage  and  small  thorns. 

The  leaves  are  2ins.  long  on  the  strongest  shoots  but 
considerably  less  on  the  flowering  shoots.  The  upper 
surface  is  a  dark  glossy  green,  the  lower  of  a  paler  shade. 
The  leaf -margins  are  bluntly  toothed. 

Flowers  white,  small,  borne  in  flatfish  clusters  at 
the  ends  of  leafy  lateral  twigs  an  inch  or  two  in  length. 
The  berries  are  small,  and  being  of  a  bright  coral-red 
colour,  are  very  conspicuous.  Unfortunately  they  are 
soon  taken  by  birds  unless  the  bushes  are  protected. 
P.  coccinea  is  a  native  of  Southern  Europe,  and  has 
been  in  cultivation  in  this  country  for  some  three 
hundred  years. 

Pyracantha  coccinea  var.  Lalandii. 

A  handsome  variety  with  larger  berries,  produced 
much  more  freely  than  is  the  case  with  the  type.     It 


has  a  good,  upright  habit  and  is  quite  one  of  the  best 
of  the  berried  garden  chmbers,  it  also  forms  a  most 
attractive  shrub  when  planted  in  the  open. 

There  is  also  a  rather  rare  white-fruited  variety  but 
it  is  not  of  much  value  as  a  garden  plant. 

Pyracantha  crenulata. 

A  Himalayan  plant  closely  related  to  the  European 
P.  coccinea.  It  forms  a  large  thorny  bush  with  leaves 
similar  to  those  of  P.  coccinea,  and  smaller  berries  of 
a  yellowish  colour,  but  it  is  much  more  tender  and  of 
little  use  as  a  garden  plant. 

Pyracantha  Gibhsii. 

An  evergreen  shrub  of  erect  vigorous  growth,  soon 
reaching  a  height  of  about  loft.  The  smooth  greyish- 
brown  branches  are  wide  spreading.  The  young  shoots 
are  almost  spineless. 

The  leaves  are  larger  than  those  of  P.  coccinea, 
rather  broadly  oblanceolate,  tapering  at  the  base  to  a 
very  short  stalk.  The  margins  are  toothed  in  the 
upper  half.  This  species  flowers  and  fruits  with  the 
greatest  freedom,  the  berries  ripening  in  October  and 
lasting  until  January.  Seedlings  show  much  varia- 
tion in  the  shape  of  foliage,  in  the  colour  of  the  berries, 
and  also  in  the  time  at  which  the  berries  ripen.  Good 
forms  are  among  the  most  ornamental  of  berried 

This  handsome  shrub  is  a  native  of  China  and  is  of 
the  easiest  possible  cultivation  and  thrives  best  in  a 
light,  loamy  soil.  To  obtain  the  best  effect  the  branches 
should  be  thinned  out  in  the  early  spring. 


Pyracantha  Gibbsii  var.  yunnanensis. 

A  vigorous  growing  variety  closely  resembling  P. 
Gibbsii.  The  branches,  however,  appear  to  be  more 
horizontal  and  it  is  of  somewhat  stronger  habit.  It 
flowers  profusely  in  June  and  is  one  of  the  most  at- 
tractive autumn  shrubs  when  each  branch  is  thickly 
lined  with  brilliant  berries. 

Pyracantha  Roger siana,  syn.  P.  crenulata  var.  Roger- 

This  delightful  berried  shrub  forms  a  shapely  bush 
with  spreading,  spiny  branches.  The  growths  are 
downy  in  the  young  state,  becoming  smooth  later  and 
often  assuming  a  yellowish-brown  tint. 

Leaves  lin.  to  ijins.  in  length,  dark  shining  green 
on  the  upper  side  and  dull  beneath,  with  irregularly 
toothed  margins. 

Flowers  white,  produced  in  showy  clusters  along 
each  branch  in  early  summer.  These  are  followed  by 
a  profusion  of  orange-scarlet  berries. 

This  is  one  of  the  most  effective  of  the  group  and 
forms  a  beautiful  garden  shrub.  Its  special  merit  is 
that  it  begins  to  fruit  while  quite  small. 

Pyracantha  Rogersiana  var.  forma  aurantiaca. 
A  yellow-fruited  form. 


These  and  the  large  group  of  Prunus  include  many  of 
the  most  charming  of  spring  trees.  They  have  not 
quite  the  same  variations  of  foliage  as  the  Plums  but 
have  one  great  advantage,  they  are  not  only  beautiful 
when  in  blossom  but  many  carry  most  ornamental  and 
richly-coloured  fruit  in  the  autumn  which  is  of  course 
absent  with  the  flowering  Cherries  and  most  Prunus. 

Most  of  the  Crab  family  form  graceful  garden  trees 
of  medium  size,  some  having  an  upright  growth,  others 
quite  a  pendulous  habit.  Unfortunately  some  species 
are  badly  affected  by  scab,  particularly  when  growing 
near  the  coast.  The  majorit}/  are  quite  hardy  and 
require  no  particular  cultivation,  thriving  best  in  a 
good  loam  and  full  sunshine.  The}/  are  inclined  to 
become  stunted  when  planted  in  dry,  sandy  soil. 

Prunus  and  Pyrus  are  both  liable  to  be  attacked  by 
Green  Fly,  particularly  in  early  summer.  Directly 
there  is  any  indication  of  these  insects  the  trees  should 
be  sprayed  with  Kattakilla  or  any  good  insecticide. 
If  this  is  neglected  the  whole  of  the  season's  young 
growths  may  be  crippled  and  the  flowers  for  the 
following  season  injured. 

In  nurseries  the  Pyrus  are  generally  propagated  by 
budding  and  grafting  on  stocks  that  do  not  as  a  rule 


cause  trouble  by  suckers.     Some  species  can  be  easily 
grown  from  seed,  but  they  seldom  come  true. 

The  following  descriptions  deal  with  the  Crab  section 
of  Pyrus  and  only  include  those  which  have  proved 
really  good  garden  plants. 

Pyrus  aldenhamensis ,  syn.  P.  Malus  var.  aldenhamensis. 

A  handsome  dark-leaved  variety,  raised  at  Aldenham 
House,  closely  resembling  P.  Eleyi  but  ten  days  later 
in  flowering.  The  foliage  is  not  so  bright  a  bronze 
and  the  flowers  are  a  slightly  darker  shade,  the  fruits, 
which  are  the  colour  and  size  of  ripe  Morello  Cherries, 
also  lack  the  brillianc}^  of  P.  Eleyi. 

It  is,  however,  ver}/"  robust  in  growth  and  its  lateness 
in  flowering  makes  it  a  valuable  garden  plant. 

Pyrus  arnoldiana,  syn.  P.  Malus  arnoldiana. 

Another  most  effective  Crab  of  garden  origin,  the 
result  of  a  cross  between  P.  floribunda  and  P.  baccata. 
It  is  not  one  of  the  strongest  growers  but  forms  a 
graceful  branching  tree  or  shrub. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  narrow,  pointed,  with 
evenly  toothed-edges,  of  a  dark  full  green,  the  young 
wood  turning  red  in  late  summer. 

Flowers,  deep  rose-pink  buds,  opening  into  pale 
pink  blossoms  in  clusters  of  four  to  six  with  red  stalks 
and  calyx,  slightly  fragrant. 

The  fruits  are  yellow,  flushed  with  red  on  the  sunny 
side,  and  of  a  curious  barrel  shape,  small,  Jin.  to  fin. 
in  length,  with  a  scab  at  the  eye. 

Like  many  of  the  Crabs  it  is  most  beautiful  in  the 
early  stages  of  flowering  before  the  blossoms  are  fully 


Pvnis  Elevi,  in  fruit. 

PYRUS  163 

open,  the  dark  buds  contrasting  with  the  expanded 
blooms.  It  is  free-flowering,  easy  to  grow  and  deserves 
to  be  widely  planted — mid-season  to  late. 

Pyrus  haccata.     Siberian  Crab. 

This  handsome  species  has  been  long  cultivated  in 
this  country  and  it  forms  a  larger  tree  than  most  of  the 
group.  It  is  a  beautiful  object  when  covered  with 
masses  of  white  blossom  in  the  spring,  or  crowded  with 
brilliant  scarlet  fruit  in  the  autumn  and  early  winter. 

In  the  wild  state  it  is  widely  distributed,  being  found 
in  Siberia,  China,  Japan,  and  in  the  Himalayas. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  4ins.  long,  finely  toothed,  pointed  at 
the  tips,  each  leaf  is  borne  on  a  long  thin  stalk. 

Flowers  white,  pink  in  the  bud,  in  clusters,  each 
bloom  being  ijins.  across.  Beautiful  in  blossom,  the 
real  charm  of  the  Siberian  Crab  is  the  bright  red  and 
yellow  fruit  in  the  autumn.  Each  little  apple  is  the 
size  of  a  good  cherry  and  is  borne  on  a  thin  stalk  lin. 
to  iJins.  long. 

This  species  is  nearly  related  to  P.  prunifolia  but  is 
easily  distinguished  by  the  flat  top  to  the  fruit  and  the 
deeply  recessed  eye  forming  a  cavity.  In  the  case  of 
P.  prunifolia  the  eye  is  protruding.  The  fruit  of  the 
Siberian  Crab  is  excellent  for  jelly. 

Pyrus  Eleyi. 

This  is  quite  the  finest  of  aU  the  Crabs.  Raised  by 
Mr.  Charles  Eley  in  his  garden  at  East  Bergholt, 
Suffolk,  from  a  cross  between  P.  Niedzwetzkyana  (seed 
bearer)  and  P.  spectabilis,  and  as  a  garden  plant  it  is 
far  superior  to  either  parent. 


Leaves  2|ins.  to  4ins.  long  and  half  as  much  in  width, 
oval,  pointed,  toothed  at  the  edges.  The  young  foliage 
in  the  spring  is  first  a  brilliant  copper,  turning  to  a 
deep  purplish-green  as  the  summer  advances.  The 
prominent  mid-rib  and  leaf-stalk  are  crimson-red, 
giving  the  under  side  of  the  leaves  a  purple  hue  when 
blown  by  the  wind. 

Flowers  wine-red,  in  clusters,  borne  in  great  pro- 
fusion in  April  and  May.  These  are  followed  in  autumn 
with  rich,  red  cherry-like  fruits,  which  hang  in  clusters 
along  the  branches  and  are  equally  beautiful  as  the 
flowers  in  spring. 

Pj^rus  Eleyi  received  the  Award  of  Merit  from  the 
R.H.S.  when  in  flower  in  May  and  the  F.C.C.  when  in 
fruit  in  the  autumn.  This  alone  speaks  volumes  for 
a  new  hybrid.  Growing  in  Mr.  Eley's  garden  it  forms 
a  graceful,  compact  tree  of  medium  size  which  is  a 
picture  in  the  spring  with  a  wealth  of  large  red  blossoms. 

Pyrus  fioribunda,  syn.  -P.  malus  floribunda. 

One  of  the  best  known  of  the  spring-flowering  Pyrus, 
forming  a  large,  low,  branching  tree  or  bush.  It 
blossoms  most  profusely  so  that  it  is  a  perfect  cloud 
of  flowers  in  April. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  4ins.  long,  rounded  at  the  base, 
pointed  at  the  tips,  evenly  serrated  edge,  a  dark  rich 
green  above,  paler  beneath,  occasionally  leaves  are 
found  with  three  lobes. 

Flowers  deep  rose  in  the  bud  stage,  expanding  to 
almost  white,  and,  like  many  others  of  this  group,  they 
are  most  charming  before  all  the  blossoms  are  fully 

PYRUS  165 

open  when  red  buds  and  blush-white  flowers  are  inter- 
mingled. The  fruits  are  small,  bright  yellow,  the  size 
of  a  large  garden  pea,  inclined  to  be  conical,  borne  on 
thread-like  stalks. 

A  native  of  Japan,  it  is  said  to  be  a  hybrid  between 
P.  Toringo  and  P.  baccata.  Its  freedom  in  flowering 
places  it  amongst  the  best  garden  plants. 

Pyrus  floribunda  var.  atro  sanguine  a. 

A  delightful  variety  of  a  distinct  pendulous  habit. 

The  leaves  are  larger  than  in  P.  floribunda  and  are 
generalty  three-lobed,  of  a  rich  lustrous  green. 

The  flowers  are  much  richer  in  colour  both  in  the 
bud  and  when  fully  expanded.  For  planting  near  the 
entrance  to  a  rock  garden,  or  on  grass  it  is  most  de- 
sirable and  seldom  fails  to  produce  a  wealth  of  blossom 
each  spring. 

Pyrus  Halliana,  syn.  P.  Parkmanii. 

A  delightful  Crab  said  to  be  from  Western  China,  in 
growth  it  forms  a  small  graceful  tree,  seldom  more 
than  15ft.  high. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  sins,  long,  rounded  at  the  base,  and 
tapering  to  a  fine  point,  with  toothed  edges,  bright 
green  on  the  upper  surface,  paler  beneath  with  redish 
veins.  The  young  foliage  is  often  a  bronzy  shade  par- 
ticularly on  the  later  shoots. 

Flowers  salmon-pink  without  a  trace  of  blue  so  often 
apparent  in  this  section.  The  fruit  is  small,  round,  of 
a  bright  yellow,  flushed  with  red  and  very  showy. 
This  very  attractive  Pyrus  is  an  excellent  plant  for  a 


small  garden  where,  given  full  sunshine,  it  will  flower 
freely  but  is  later  than  the  majority  in  coming  into 

In  spring,  when  crowded  with  soft,  pink  blossoms 
it  is  one  of  the  most  distinct  of  this  group. 

A  good  loamy  soil  suits  it  best  but  any  fair  garden 
ground  will  grow  it  quite  well. 

Pyrus  ioensis. 

A  handsome  species  from  the  United  States,  at 
present  little  planted  in  this  country.  It  is  the  latest 
Crab  to  flower  and  is  generally  at  its  best  the  last  week 
in  May  or  early  June. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  5ins.  long,  narrow,  the  margin  deeply 
and  irregularly  toothed.  Rich  green  above,  downy  on 
the  under  side. 

Flowers  shell-pink,  globular  buds  in  clusters  of  three 
or  four,  turning  to  blush-pink  when  fully  expanded, 
each  blossom  being  2ins.  across,  with  a  distinct  violet 
scent.  The  fruits  are  yellowish-green,  round,  with 
white  spots,  about  one  inch  in  diameter,  borne  on  stiff 

Unfortunately  this  species  is  not  one  of  the  easiest 
to' grow  and  lacks  the  robust  constitution  of  P.  Eleyi, 
and  the  more  vigorous  varieties.  It  requires  rich, 
loamy  soil  and  a  warm,  sheltered  position.  However, 
P.  ioensis  well  repays  for  any  special  attention  as  it  is 
one  of  the  most  distinct  and  attractive  of  all  the  crabs. 

P.  ioensis  fl.  pi. 

Is  a  beautiful  semi-double  form  and  equally  fragrant. 

PYRUS  167 

Pyrus  Niedzwetzkyana  syn.  P.  Malus  Niedzwetzkyana. 

A^ vigorous-growing  Crab  the  first  of  those  with  dark- 
coloured  flowers  and  leaves  to  be  brought  to  this 
country.  It  is  more  interesting  as  being  the  parent 
of  many  of  the  most  beautiful  kinds,  and  is  now  sur- 
passed both  in  freedom  of  flowering  and  fruit  by  such 
sorts  as  P.  Eleyi  and  P.  purpurea. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  tapering  to  a  fine  point, 
toothed  margins,  dark  purplish-green  with  red  veins 
on  the  under  side. 

It  is  not  free-flowering  and  therefore  is  not  of  much 
value  as  a  garden  plant. 

Pyrus  prunifolia. 

This  and  P.  baccata  were  two  of  the  first  Crabs  in- 
troduced into  this  country  about  the  middle  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  It  is  a  species  well  worth  growing 
both  for  the  blossom  and  handsome  fruit. 

Leaves  2jins.  to  sjins.  long,  ovate,  irregular  serrate 
edges,  a  full,  rich  green  on  the  upper  side,  slightly 
downy  on  the  under  side.  The  young  growths  are 
distinctly  woolly. 

Flowers  blush-white,  in  clusters  during  April  and  May, 
followed  by  bunches  of  bright  yellow  and  red  fruit. 

A  native  of  Siberia  and  China.  The  variety  known 
as  coccinea  has  brilliant-red  little  apples  and  is  more 
showy  as  a  garden  tree. 

Pyrus  purpurea,  syn.  P.  Malus  vdjo.florihunda  purpurea. 

An  attractive  spring-flowering  small  tree  with  a 
graceful,  slightly  drooping  habit. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long,  pointed,  of  dark  shining 


green.  The  young  growths  are  a  distinct  bronze  shade, 
deep  rose  tinged  with  purple  in  the  spring. 

Flowers  in  clusters  along  each  branch,  produced  in 
such  profusion  that  the  whole  is  a  cloud  of  blossom. 
This  is  succeeded  in  the  autumn  by  masses  of  small 
deep-red  fruit. 

Either  in  the  spring  when  in  full  blossom  or  loaded 
with  berries  in  October  it  is  equally  delightful  as  a 
garden  plant.     Flowering  a  week  before  P.  Eleyi. 

Pyrus  Ringo. 

A  fairly  strong-growing  Crab,  first  introduced  from 
Japan  some  sixty  years  ago.  It  is  doubtful  whether 
it  is  the  true  wild  species,  and  is  more  likely  to  be  a 
hybrid,  of  which  P.  spectabilis  was  one  of  the  parents. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long,  oval,  pointed,  full  green 
above,  paler  beneath,  with  finely-toothed  edges.  The 
young  growths  are  woolly,  becoming  more  or  less 
glabrous  as  they  age. 

Flowers  blush-white  when  fully  expanded,  the  un- 
opened buds  are  deep  rose. 

This  Pyrus  is  most  attractive  when  laden  with  bright 
yellow,  egg-shaped  fruit,  which  are  very  freely  pro- 
duced. It  is  not  a  variety  that  has  been  largely  planted 
in  our  gardens  and  is  not  so  showy  as  many  of  the 
newer  Pyrus,  but  few  are  more  delightful  in  the  early 
autumn,  when  heavily  laden  with  little  golden  apples. 

Pyrus  Sargentii. 

A  very  dainty  and  charming  species,  a  native  of 
Japan,  which  forms  a  small,  neat  tree.  It  is  most 
telling  when  grown  as  a  short  standard. 

PYRUS  169 

Leaves  2ins.  to  2jins.  long  with  three  deeply-cut 
lobes,  each  tapering  to  a  point,  dark  green  on  the  upper 
surface,  paler  beneath. 

Flowers  pure  white  in  clusters  along  somewhat 
horizontal  branches.  It  is  perhaps  at  its  best  just 
before  the  blossoms  open,  when  each  branch  is  clothed 
with  clusters  of  dainty  little  pink  buds  which  open 
white.  It  is  later  in  flowering  than  the  floribunda 
section,  often  lasting  until  the  third  week  in  May.  The 
flowers  are  followed  in  September  by  fascinating 
brilliant  crimson  fruit  about  the  size  of  a  garden  pea, 
fiat  tops.  Each  dainty  fruit  is  borne  on  a  slender  red 
stalk  an  inch  in  length  in  clusters  of  three  to  eight. 
The  foliage  turns  a  rich  golden-brown  before  falling. 

This  species  should  be  more  generally  planted,  its 
foliage  and  bright  fruits  are  distinct  from  the  better- 
known  Crabs. 

Pyrus  Scheideckeri,  syn.  P.  Malus  var.  Scheideckeri. 

An  attractive,  profuse  flowering  Crab,  forming,  with 
age,  a  very  handsome  tree,  which,  during  April  and 
early  May,  is  a  wealth  of  blossom.  It  is  a  hybrid 
between  P.  prunifolia  and  P.  floribunda. 

Leaves  2jins.  to  3jins.  long,  broad,  finely  pointed  at 
the  top,  the  edges  coarsely  toothed,  rich  shining  green. 
The  young  growths  are  distinctly  downy. 

Flowers,  deep  rose-coloured  buds,  blush-pink  when 
fully  open.  The  fruit  is  5/ellow,  round,  about  the  size 
of  a  cherry. 

It  is  not  a  good  grower  in  the  young  state  and  re- 
quires good  soil  but  once  established  it  grows  away 


freely.  The  abundance  of  blossom  makes  it  an  ex- 
cellent garden  specimen.  It  is  seen  to  perfection  at 
Kew  in  April,  where  there  are  some  well-grown  trees. 

Pyrus  spectdbilis. 

A  strong  growing,  handsome  species,  forming  quite 
a  good-sized  tree.  It  seems  to  be  one  of  the  oldest 
Crabs  in  cultivation,  and  is  figured  in  the  "  Botanical 
Magazine  "  as  far  back  as  1794  and  was  known  as  the 
Chinese  Apple.  It  is  also  a  parent  of  many  of  the  most 
beautiful  of  the  newer  varieties. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  4ins.  long,  finely  pointed,  of  a  leathery 
texture  and  dark  full-green  on  the  upper  side. 

Flowers  semi-double,  pale  pink,  with  large  deep- 
rose  globular  buds.  The  fruit  are  round,  yellow, 
slightly  red  on  the  sunny  side,  but  not  so  abundantly 
produced  as  is  the  case  in  some  species. 

This  old  favourite  is  still  one  of  our  handsomest 
spring-flowering  trees.  Quite  hardy,  it  forms  a  good 
specimen  tree.  Its  worst  enemy  is  scab  and  if  any 
signs  of  this  are  seen  the  tree  should  be  sprayed  during 
the  winter  with  Bordeaux  mixture. 

Pyrus  spectabilis  var.  Kaido. 

A  promising  variety  with  large  parti-coloured  flowers 
and  good  habit,  when  more  generaUy  known  it  wiU 
become  very  popular. 

PYRUS  171 

List  of  the  ten  best  garden,  spring-flowering  Pyrus  :— 
P.  aldenhamensis. 
P.  amoldiana. 
P.  Eleyi. 
P.  floribunda. 

P.  floribunda  var.  atrosanguinea. 
P.  Halliana. 
P.  prunifolia. 
P.  purpurea. 
P.  Sargentii. 
P.  spectabilis. 


The  Viburnums  include  a  number  of  deciduous  and 
evergreen  species  differing  widely  in  size  and  habit  of 
growth,  the  two  extremes  being  represented  by  the 
Black  Haw,  V.  prunifolium,  a  small  tree,  and  the  dwarf 
Guelder  Rose,  V.  opulus  var.  nanum  which  rarely 
exceeds  eighteen  inches  in  height.  Most  of  the  species 
will  be  found  in  full  bloom  in  the  early  summer,  but 
V.  Tinus  and  V.  fragrans  flower  from  October  to  April. 
In  addition  to  the  attraction  of  the  flowers  many  of 
the  species  assume  brilliant  autumn  colouring,  the 
common  Guelder  Rose,  V.  opulus  being  one  of  the  best. 
Amongst  the  Viburnums  will  be  found  some  of  the 
most  beautiful  flowering  shrubs,  e.g.  the  sweetly-scented 
V.  Carlesii  and  V.  tomentosum  var.  plicatum,  the 
Japanese  Guelder  Rose  with  its  large  white  rosettes. 

Botanically  the  Viburnums  are  interesting  as  pos- 
sessing two  distinct  types  of  flowers,  the  one  sterile 
and  showy  for  the  attraction  of  insects  and  the  other 
fully  fertile  and  often  inconspicuous.  In  recent  years 
many  new  varieties  have  been  received  into  this 
country  from  China,  Japan,  and  Northern  India. 

The  fruit  or  berries  of  many  species  are  brightly 
coloured,    but   turning  almost  black  when  quite  ripe. 


V.  Davidii  is  an  exception  for  it  bears  blue  berries  as 
bright  as  a  turquoise. 

Viburnums  are  among  the  easiest  shrubs  to  grow, 
most  of  them  enjoy  moist  ground  and  some  require 
partial  shade.  They  are  not  fastidious  as  to  soil,  but 
will  thrive  in  almost  any  garden  ground,  although  a 
deep,  rich  loam  well  broken  up  and  manured  is  the 
ideal  soil  for  them.  It  is  quite  true  that  V.  Carlesii, 
V.  propinquum  and  V.  Tinus  are  quite  at  home  in  light, 
sandy  ground  but  in  their  native  countries  collectors 
often  speak  of  finding  them  growing  near  streams  or 
or  in  swamp3^  woodlands,  evidence  which  tends  to  show 
that  they  are  moisture-loving  plants. 

Most  Guelder  Roses  are  especially  good  plants  for  a 
chalk  soil  and  nowhere  is  the  common  Wayfaring  Tree, 
V.  Lantana,  happier  than  in  the  chalky  hedgerows  of 
Surrey  and  Kent.  Nearly  all  the  Viburnums  are 
useful  garden  shrubs,  the  majority  being  quite  hard}/, 
though  some  of  the  evergreen  kinds,  with  their  hand- 
some leaves  are  best  if  planted  where  they  are  to  some 
extent  sheltered  from  the  full  force  of  the  wind  and 
severe  frost.  Most  are  compact  in  growth  and  can  be 
effectively  used  as  single  specimens  in  grass,  or  several 
together  in  a  bed.  They  are  excellent  for  interming- 
ling with  plants  in  front  of  a  shrubbery  or  in  a  border 
devoted  to  flowering  shrubs,  three  or  five  planted 
together  giving  the  best  results.  Several  kinds  are 
now  to  be  had  as  low  standards,  particularly  the 
Snowball  Tree  (V.  Opulus  var.  sterile),  which  makes 
an  attractive  little  tree. 

The  best  times  for  transplanting  Viburnums  are  the 


same  as  those  for  most  shrubs,  that  is,  for  the  evergreen 
species  early  autumn  or  spring,  and  for  the  deciduous 
species  November  and  December,  and,  faihng  these 
months,  the  Spring.  Mid-winter  should  be  avoided  in 
both  cases,  but  particularly  in  dealing  with  evergreens. 

There  are  many  ways  of  propagating  Viburnums. 
They  are  easily  increased  b}^  cuttings  and  this  is  perhaps 
the  best  way,  but  layering  is  also  a  simple  plan.  Cut- 
tings made  of  half-ripe  wood  in  July  and  August  root 
freely  under  a  hand-light  or  cloche.  The  dainty 
V.  Carlesii  is  slow  to  make  much  growth,  and  is  often 
grafted  on  to  a  free-growing  stock  like  V.  Lantana,  so 
that  in  dealing  with  grafted  specimens,  a  careful  watch 
must  be  kept  for  suckers. 

Seeds  sown  in  a  cold  frame  or  greenhouse  in  spring 
germinate  readily,  but  it  is  some  years  before  the  seed- 
lings grow  into  good  flowering  specimens.  However, 
plants  raised  from  seed  make  good  shrubs  in  the  long 

There  is  a  vast  number  of  species  of  Viburnums,  but 
the  following  are  perhaps  the  best  known  and  the  most 
useful  garden  kinds. 

Viburnum  alni folium. 

This  North  American  species  does  not  take  kindly 
to  our  climate.  It  should  be  given  shade  and  moisture  ; 
even  then  it  does  not  always  thrive.  A  tall  deciduous 
bush  up  to  loft.  high,  with  large  rounded  leaves,  white 
flowers  in  early  June,  and  red,  finally  purple-black 
fruit.  It  is  rare  in  gardens,  but  is  well  worth  a  trial 
for  the  rich  crimson-red  of  the  autumn  foliage. 


Viburnum  hetulifoUum. 

One  of  Wilson's  introductions  from  China,  forming 
a  large,  free-growing  bush,  often  loft.  in  height. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  pointed,  coarsely  toothed, 
quite  smooth  on  both  sides,  bright  glossy  green  on  the 
upper  surface,  paler  beneath,  with  prominent  veins. 
As  its  name  implies  the  leaves  closely  resemble  the 
common  Birch. 

The  large  corymbs  of  white  blossom  in  June  are 
followed  by  shining  red  fruits. 

A  good  garden  shrub  and  especially  effective  in 

Viburnum  bitchuiense. 

A  vigorous-growing,  deciduous  species  from  Japan. 
In  many  ways  it  resembles  V.  Carlesii  and  was  much 
confused  with  that  variety  when  it  was  first  sent  over. 
This  species  is,  however,  quite  distinct,  being  more 
rapid  in  growth  and  of  much  more  upright  habit.  The 
flowers,  which  are  pale  pink  to  white,  are  in  smaller, 
more  loosely  arranged  corymbs,  and  not  so  fragrant. 
Although  not  as  good  as  V.  Carlesii,  it  will  become  a 
good  garden  shrub  and  is  well  worth  a  place  for  its 
pink  blossom  in  x\pril  and  May. 

It  roots  easily  from  cuttings,  of  half-ripe  wood  in 
early  autumn. 

Viburnum  buddleifolium. 

A  free-growing  shrub  6ft.  to  8ft.  high.  It  was  first 
found  by  Wilson  in  China  about  1900,  and  belongs  to 
the  Lantana  section. 


Leaves  4ins.  to  6ins.  long,  narrow,  pointed,  of  a  rich 
deep  green,  downy  and  quite  soft  to  the  touch  on  the 
upper  side,  silvery-grey  beneath. 

Flowers  white,  in  branching  cymes,  produced  in  May 
and  June.     The  fruit  is  quite  black. 

An  interesting  species  rather  by  reason  of  its  beau- 
tiful foliage  than  for  its  flowers. 

Viburnum  burejaeticum. 

A  rare  species  found  in  China,  growing  about  6ft. 
high  with  large  leaves  and  white  flowers  produced 
towards  the  end  of  May  in  small  cymes  2ins.  in  diameter 
and  followed  by  black  fruit. 

Viburnum  Carlesii. 

A  delightful,  spring  -  flowering,  deciduous  shrub, 
forming  in  time  a  rounded  bush  4ft.  or  5ft.  in  height, 
and  as  much  in  diameter.  Growing  at  the  foot  of  a 
low  wall  it  flowers  freely,  forming  a  most  effective 

Round  leaves  2ins.  to  4ins.  long,  with  toothed  edges, 
of  a  full  green,  but  paler  on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  white,  in  clusters  of  wax-like  blossoms  inter- 
mingled before  they  are  fully  developed  with  dainty 
pink  buds,  changing  to  white  as  they  open.  Perhaps 
the  charm  of  the  plant  is  the  wonderful  scent  which 
resembles  carnations  and  is  noticeable  for  a  consider- 
able distance  on  a  fine  April  evening.  The  blossoms 
are  produced  at  the  ends  of  the  previous  season's 
growth,  and  as  in  many  other  species  of  this  genus, 
the  flower  buds  are  formed  the  previous  autumn, 
remaining  comparatively  dormant  through  the  winter 


\'iburnum  Carlesii. 


so  that  the  ardent  gardener  can  tell  in  November  what 
bloom  he  may  expect  the  followmg  spring.  It  is  cer- 
tainly the  most  beautiful  of  the  Viburnums  and  should 
be  grown  in  every  garden.  Thriving  in  full  sunshine 
in  a  light  or  mixed  soil,  not  too  dry,  it  requires  little 
or  no  pruning  and  is  perfectty  hardy  when  once  es- 
tablished. In  nurseries  it  is  often  grafted  on  V.  Lantana 
and  a  careful  watch  must  be  kept  for  suckers,  which 
are  sometimes  troublesome  in  the  young  state,  and 
quickly  outgrow  the  true  plant.  Cuttings  can  be 
rooted  in  early  autumn  under  a  hand-light,  and  these 
give  the  best  results. 

First  found  in  Corea,  it  was  flowered  in  this  country 
some  twenty  years  ago. 

It  can  also  be  propagated  from  single  leaves  inserted 
in  sandy  soil  under  a  hand-light  in  June  and  onwards. 

Viburnum  cassinoides. 

A  native  of  the  United  States,  it  revels  in  a  moist 
situation,  but  is  rarely  seen  in  English  gardens. 

Leaves  thick  and  dark  green  in  colour. 

Flowers  pale  creamy-yellow  in  large  clusters  in  June. 

The  fruit  is  blue-black  when  fully  ripe.  It  is  known 
in  America  as  the  "  Witherod." 

Viburnum  cinnamomaefolium. 

A  new  and  still  rare  Chinese  species  found  by  Wilson 
on  Mount  Omi,  and  described  as  a  vigorous  evergreen 
shrub,  or  small  tree. 

Leaves  2jins.  to  sjins.  long,  tapering,  pointed, 
slightly  toothed,  bright  shining  green  on  the  upper 
side,  paler  on  the  under  side  with  silvery  scales  and 


three  prominent  veins  springing  from  the  base  of  the 
leaf.  Tlie  young  wood  becomes  red  as  the  season 
advances.  It  resembles  V.  Davidii  though  it  is  much 

Flowers  creamy- white  in  July  and  August. 

This  species  promises  to  become  a  useful  garden 
shrub  and  so  far  has  proved  to  be  hardy. 

Viburnum  coriaceum,  syn.  V .  cylindricum. 

An  interesting,  but  little  known,  evergreen  species 
from  China  and  the  Himalayas,  growing  into  a  large 
tree  in  the  wild  state. 

Leaves  4ins.  to  6ins.  long,  narrow,  pointed,  with 
wavy  edges.  Dull  green  on  the  upper  side,  of  which 
the  surface  is  slightly  sticky,  and,  when  rubbed,  turns 
grey.  The  under  side  is  paler  with  a  prominent  mid- 
rib. The  leaf-stalk  and  young  wood,  which  turns  red 
in  the  autumn,  are  rough  to  the  touch  and  covered 
with  small  brown  lenticels. 

Flowers  white  with  mauve  stamens  in  wide  cymes 
from  July  onwards.  Fairly  hardy,  and  will  become  a 
popular  garden  plant  when  better  known. 

Viburnum  dasyanthum. 

A  new  Chinese  deciduous  species  forming  a  free- 
growing  bush  up  to  I  oft.  in  height. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  4ins.  long  of  a  dark  lustrous  green. 

Flowers  white,  in  corymbs  3ins.  in  width,  in  July. 

A  showy  garden  plant  when  in  blossom  and  again 
when  bearing  its  berries  in  autumn.  It  seems  to  be 
related  to  V.  betulifolium. 


Viburnum  Davidii. 

A  low-growing,  evergreen  shrub  from  China,  which 
in  favourable  conditions  of  moisture  and  slight  shade, 
spreads  over  the  ground  and  forms  a  thick  mass  of 
foHage  never  more  than  2ft.  in  height. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  5ins.  long  and  half  as  wide,  oval, 
pointed,  of  a  dull,  deep  green,  with  three  prominent 
nerves,  quite  smooth  on  both  sides.  The  leaf-stalks 
become  a  rich  red  in  autumn. 

Flowers  white  and  uninteresting,  produced  in  early 

This  species  is  particularly  valuable  for  its  clusters 
of  bright,  blue  berries  in  the  autumn.  It  does  not 
appear  to  fruit  very  freely,  possibly  because  it  may  be 
partly  self-sterile.  If  so,  a  group  of  several  indi- 
viduals would  probably  fruit  freely. 

Viburnum  dentatum. 

A  vigorous  deciduous  shrub  from  North  America, 
often  12ft.  high. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long,  coarsely  toothed. 

Flowers  white,  in  clusters,  followed  by  small  blue- 
black  fruits. 

Viburnum  dilatatum. 

A  somewhat  rare  Japanese  deciduous  shrub,  8ft. 
high  when  fully  grown. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  nearly  as  much  in  width, 
pointed,  narrow,  toothed,  hairy,  and  bright  green. 

Flowers  creamy  white,  borne  in  flat  heads  in  early 
June  ;  in  early  autumn  it  is  most  attractive  with  bril- 
liant red  fruit. 


Viburnum  foetidum. 

An  upright-growing,  evergreen  shrub,  a  native  of 
China.  At  present  it  is  very  rare  and  seems  difficult 
to  flower  satisfactorily  in  this  country. 

Leaves  2ins.  long  of  a  deep  green,  white  on  the  under 

Flowers  white,  the  sterile  blossoms  being  on  the 

An  interesting  species  but  it  is  doubtful  whether  it 
will  become  a  useful  garden  plant. 

Viburnum  fragrans. 

A  deciduous,  winter-flowering  shrub  of  stiff,  up- 
right growth. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  5ins.  long,  pointed,  toothed  at  the 
edges,  of  a  bright  green,  prominently  veined  on  the 
under  side  in  fish-bone  fashion.  The  young  wood 
turns  a  reddish-brown  in  autumn. 

Flowers  blush-white  when  fully  expanded,  the  buds 
being  deep  pink  and  borne  in  clusters,  followed  in  late 
summer  by  scarlet  fruits,  that  turn  black  when  fully 

Introduced  from  China  by  the  late  Reginald  Farrer 
in  1914,  he  describes  it  fully  in  the  Journal  of  the  R.H.S. 
He  teUs  how  at  5,000  to  6,000  feet  on  April  i6th,  the 
flower  was  passing  over,  but  still  lingered  on  in  the 
small  villages  enabling  him  to  realize  fully  the  glory 
of  its  capacious  thyrses  of  blossom  like  snow-white  or 
rose-pink  Lilac,  freely  borne  on  the  graceful  stately 
boughs  and  sprays  of  6ft.  to  loft.,  and  exhaling  the 
most  entrancing  scent  of  heliotrope. 


The  flower  is  prepared  in  tight  buds  at  the  end  of 
each  spray  by  December  ;  it  opens  at  any  time  accord- 
ing to  the  season,  from  then  till  April,  and  is  succeeded 
by  the  foliage  amid  which  in  August  hang  clusters  of 
glowing,  oblong  berries  of  crimson-scarlet,  hardly  less 
beautiful  in  their  way  than  the  blossom.  The  Chinese 
eat  these  berries,  but  this  is  dangerous  as  the  cloven 
stones  or  seed  are  poisonous. 

In  this  country  it  seems  rather  erratic  as  to  the  time 
of  flowering,  for  blossoms  may  be  seen  at  almost  any 
time  from  October  until  the  end  of  March.  In  Mr. 
E.  A.  Bowles'  garden  it  was  a  wealth  of  fragrant 
clusters  of  blossom  in  early  February,  1922.  In  1924 
it  was  flowering  on  Christmas  Day,  while  many  plants 
were  blooming  in  November.  Thriving  in  damp, 
loamy  soil,  in  full  sun,  so  that  the  wood  ripens,  there 
is  no  difficulty  in  its  cultivation.  Cuttings  of  half -ripe 
wood  root  readily  in  a  little  heat  in  early  autumn.  So 
far  as  can  be  gathered  it  requires  little  or  no  pruning. 
When  better  known  this  Viburnum  will  be  in  the  front 
rank  of  winter-flowering  plants.  Even  last  Christmas 
Day  (1925)  in  spite  of  a  month's  intermittent  frost  and 
snow  it  was  quite  possible  to  gather  a  bunch  of  fragrant 

Viburnum  Harryanum. 

A  small,  compact  evergreen  shrub  from  Western 
China,  where  it  was  found  by  Wilson  at  a  high  altitude. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  fin.  long,  but  varying  a  good  deal  in 
size,  rounded,  of  a  dark,  dull  green,  with  small  red  leaf 


Flowers  white,  in  terminal  umbels  in  June  and  July. 

This  neat,  little  plant  is  useful  in  the  front  of  a  shrub 
border,  but  is  not  so  interesting  as  many  of  the  family. 
Its  name  commemorates  Sir  Harry  Veitch,  the  head 
of  the  famous  firm  which  sent  collectors  to  Western 
China  and  introduced  to  this  country  so  many  good 
garden  plants. 

Viburnum  Henryi. 

An  attractive  evergreen  shrub  of  erect  habit,  8ft. 
to  I  oft.  in  height. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  narrow,  of  a  dark,  shining, 
leathery  green. 

Flowers  white,  borne  in  stiff  branching  panicles  in 
June,  but  the  greatest  beauty  of  the  plant  is  in  autumn 
when  it  is  covered  with  large  bunches  of  red  fruits, 
which  eventually  turn  black.  Perfectly  hardy  but 
suffers  when  exposed  to  the  full  force  of  the  wind  in 

Viburnum  hupehense. 

One  of  Wilson's  introductions  from  the  province  of 
Hupeh  in  China  and  particularly  attractive  by  reason 
of  its  brilliant  autumn  colouring.  A  deciduous  shrub 
6ft.  to  8ft.  in  height. 

Leaves  sjins.  to  4|ins.  long,  toothed,  rounded,  of  a 
somewhat  pale  green  with  a  prominent  vein  on  the 
under  side. 

Flowers  white,  freely  borne  in  June.  When  the 
bushes  are  showy  with  red  fruits  in  autumn  the  foliage 
assumes  shades  of  bronzy-red  and  green. 


Viburnum  japonicum  [syn.  macrophyllum) . 

A  low  evergreen  shrub,  much  confused  in  nurseries 
with  V.  Sieboldii  which  is  a  distinct  and  deciduous 
species.  The  true  plant  is  an  evergreen  shrub  with 
leaves  2ins.  to  5ins.  long  and  varying  in  shape,  not  so 
long  and  pointed  as  in  V.  odoratissimum,  but  of  a 
similar  brilliant,  shining  green  though  paler  on  the 
under  side,  which  is  covered  with  tiny  dark  spikes. 

Flowers  white,  in  cymes  often  several  inches  across, 
in  May  and  June — sweet  scented. 

This  attractive  shrub  is  not  hardy,  and  to  see  its 
full  beauty  it  should  be  given  a  warm  situation  and 
does  well  against  a  walk 

Viburnum  Lantana.     Wayfaring  Tree. 

A  strong-growing,  native  shrub,  plentiful  in  chalky 

Leaves  sins,  to  5ins.  in  length,  rounded,  coarsely 
veined,  with  finely-toothed  edges,  of  a  dark  rich  green. 

Flowers  white,  in  terminal  cymes  during  May  and 
June,  followed  by  clusters  of  brilhant  red  fruits  which 
turn  black  when  fully  ripe. 

This  species  is  largely  used  as  a  stock  on  which  to 
graft  the  choicer  kinds.  There  are  several  variegated 
sorts  which  are  hardly  worth  cultivating. 

Viburnum  Lentago. 

A  vigorous-growing  shrub  sometimes  20ft.  high.  A 
native  of  North  America  where  it  is  known  as  the 
"  Sheepberry." 

Leaves  3ins.  to  5ins.  long,  toothed  edges  and  of  a 
rich  green. 


Flowers  creamy-white,  borne  in  broad,  flat  clusters 
during  early  summer,  sweet  scented.  The  fruit  is  red, 
turning  to  blue-black  when  fully  ripe,  but  unfortunately 
it  is  very  seldom  seen  except  in  very  hot,  dry  seasons. 

This  Viburnum  is  well  worth  growing  and  makes  a 
good  wall  plant. 

Viburnum  macrocephalum. 

An  interesting  more  or  less  evergreen  species  which 
becomes  eventually  a  fair-sized  shrub. 

The  form  of  this  species,  which  was  introduced  by 
Fortune  from  China  some  eighty  years  ago,  was  ob- 
viously a  cultivated  one,  for  the  flowers  are  all  entirely 
sterile.  The  wild  form  has  been  introduced  recently 
into  cultivation. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  5ins.  long,  slightly  pointed,  with 
notched  edges  and  of  a  full  green.  Stems  coated  with 
a  coarse  down. 

Flowers  white,  in  large  globular  heads,  freely  pro- 
duced in  Ma}/  and  early  June. 

Trained  against  a  wall  and  covered  with  huge 
Hydrangea-like  heads  of  blossom  it  forms  one  of  the 
most  striking  garden  plants  in  early  summer  and  is 
perfectly  easy  to  grow.  Hard}/  except  in  the  most 
severe  winters. 

Viburnum  molle. 

A  strong-growing  North  American  deciduous  shrub. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  4ins.  long,  coarsely  toothed. 

Flowers  white,  small,  produced  in  early  summer  and 
occasionally  followed  by  small  blue  fruits  which  mature 
in  the  autumn. 


The  true  variety  is  seldom  found  in  our  gardens, 
but  it  has  a  curious  peeling  bark  on  the  older  stems 
which  distinguishes  it  from  the  other  species  which 
have  blue  berries. 

Viburnum  nudum. 

A  native  of  the  United  States,  closely  resembling 
V.  cassinoides. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  5ins.  long,  of  a  dark  glossy  green, 

Flowers  creamy-white,  in  large  heads  in  June,  fol- 
lowed by  almost  black  fruit. 

A  vigorous,  deciduous  shrub  but  of  little  value  as  a 
garden  plant  when  compared  with  the  more  showy 

Viburnum  odoratissimum,  syn.  V.  Awafuki. 

A  showy  evergreen  shrub  found  in  China  and  Japan. 

Leaves  5ins.  to  7ins.  long,  pointed  at  each  end,  edges 
bluntly  toothed,  quite  smooth  of  brilliant,  deep, 
lustrous  green. 

Flowers  white,  produced  in  large  pyramidal  panicles 
in  June,  sweet-scented,  followed  by  red  fruit  in  the 

This  most  attractive  species  is  not  really  hardy, 
except  in  the  south-west.  In  other  parts  of.'  the 
country  it  should  be  given  a  warm,  sheltered  position 
where  it  is  well  worth  growing. 

Viburnum  Opulus.     Guelder  Rose. 

A  native  deciduous  bush  or  small  tree  of  strong, 
upright  growth. 


Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.,  but  varying  a  good  deal  in 
size,  toothed  like  those  of  a  currant,  of  a  rich  green. 

Flowers  white,  in  flat  cymes  as  much  as  4ins.  in 
diameter,  in  early  summer.  Later  in  the  year  it  pro- 
duces abundant  clusters  of  brilliant  red  fruit,  which, 
with  the  charming  autumn  colouring  of  the  foliage, 
makes  it  a  most  attractive  bush. 

It  may  be  increased  by  cuttings  which  root  readily. 

Viburnum  Opulus  var.  nanum. 

A  quaint  little  dwarf  form,  rarely  more  than  2ft. 
high.  As  it  seldom,  if  ever,  flowers,  it  is  of  little  value 
as  a  garden  plant. 

Viburnum  Opulus  var.  sterile.     Snowball  Tree. 

A  most  interesting  and  showy  variety  producing 
large,  round  heads  of  sterile  flowers  closely  packed 
together.  The  growth  and  form  is  the  same  as  V. 
Opulus,  but  as  all  the  flowers  are  sterile  it  is  entirely 
without  the  beautiful  fruit.  Standing  alone  or  grouped 
with  other  shrubs,  it  is  a  striking  bush  in  June  when 
crowded  with  its  white,  snowball-like  blooms.  Quite 
hardy,  and  will  flourish  in  any  garden  soil,  though  at 
its  best  in  a  damp,  swampy  ground. 

Viburnum  propinquum. 

A  compact,  somewhat  dense,  evergreen  shrub  from 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.,  narrow,  pointed,  of  a  shining 
rich  green.  The  young  wood  and  leaf -stalks  taking 
a  crimson  colour  in  the  autumn.  It  is  distinguished 
by  its  leaves  with  three  prominent  nerves  which  are 


Mburnum  rhytidophyllum. 


only  found  in  two  other  species  of  Viburnum- — V. 
Davidii  and  V.  cinnamomaefolium. 

Flowers  whitish,  produced  in  early  summer  ;  fruit 

This  useful  evergreen  will  become  an  attractive 
winter  plant  when  better  known.  It  is  fairly  hardy 
and  can  easily  be  increased  by  cuttings. 

Viburnum  prunifolium. 

This  American  species  is  one  of  the  largest  of  the 
Viburnums,  capable  of  becoming  quite  a  fair-sized  tree 
as  much  as  25ft.  in  height. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long,  roundish,  smooth. 

Flowers  white,  produced  in  clusters  in  early  summer 
and  followed  in  autumn  by  deep  blue,  edible  fruit. 

Planted  in  a  moist  situation  on  the  bank  of  a  stream 
or  in  a  wild  garden  it  forms  an  attractive  branching  tree. 

Viburnum  rhytidophyllum. 

A  distinct  and  conspicuous  evergreen  shrub  8ft.  to 
12ft.  in  height.  It  was  first  found  by  Wilson  in  one 
of  his  early  journeys  to  China. 

Leaves  6ins.  to  8ins.  long,  narrow,  of  a  lustrous  dark 
green,  the  upper  surface  being  rough  and  indented, 
the  under  side  is  covered  with  white  flanneUy  felt  with 
a  prominent  mid- vein. 

Flowers  buff-white  in  large  flat  heads  in  early  June 
followed  first  by  red  fruit,  but  these  turn  black  as  the 
autumn  advances.  Some  plants  fruit  better  than 
others,  possibly  because  some  are  almost  wholly  self- 
sterile.  In  any  case  it  is  well  to  group  several  together 
to  insure  obtaining  fruit. 


Although  perfectly  hardy,  this  shrub  should  be 
planted  where  it  is  sheltered  by  other  shrubs  in  order 
to  obtain  the  full  beauty  of  the  bold  foliage  in  winter, 
which  is  the  chief  attraction  of  this  species. 

Viburnum  Sargentii. 

A  Chinese  species  very  closely  resembling  the 
European  V.  Opulus  but  of  somewhat  stronger  growth 
and  apt  to  be  injured  by  the  late  spring  frosts.  As  a 
garden  plant,  it  is  not  of  much  value. 

Viburnum  Sieboldii,  syn.  V .  reticulatum. 

A  robust-growing,  deciduous  species  from  Japan 
forming  a  broad-spreading  shrub. 

Leaves  large,  pointed,  and  toothed,  with  very  promi- 
nent veining. 

Flowers  white  to  cream,  in  flat  clusters.  The  fruit 
is  pinkish-red  changing  to  blue-black  when  fully  ripe. 

This  is  the  variety  so  often  confused  with  the  ever- 
green V.  japonicum,  a  much  commoner  plant. 

Viburnum  theiferum. 

A  compact-growing  deciduous  bush  from  Central 

Leaves  3ins.  to  5ins.  long,  pointed,  margined  with 
distinct  red  teeth,  dull  green  on  the  upper  side,  greyish 

Flowers  white  in  June  with  two  leaves  just  over  the 
cluster.  The  fruits  are  oval  and  flat,  borne  on  red 
stalks  I  in.  to  2  ins.  long. 

This  is  quite  an  interesting  shrub  but  so  far  has  not 
been  grown  to  any  extent  in  our  gardens. 


Viburnum  Tinus.     Laurustinus. 

A  well-known  dense-growing  evergreen  originally 
introduced  from  Southern  Europe  and  forming  a  large 
round  bush  8ft.  to  12ft.  in  height  and  as  much  in 

Leaves  2ins.  to  4ins.  long,  pointed,  leathery,  of  a 
dull  green,  and  quite  smooth,  with  red  petioles  (leaf- 
stalks) and  flower  stalks. 

Flowers  white  with  pinkish  buds  borne  in  Cannes, 
and,  during  a  mild  winter,  occasionally  producing  blue- 
black  fruit  in  warm  seasons. 

One  of  the  kindest  of  evergreens,  blossoming  best  in 
a  sunny  position,  yet  capable  of  flowering  also  in 
partial  shade  or  near  the  sea.  A  light,  warm  soil  suits 
it  best  but  it  will  thrive  in  most  gardens.  Hardy 
except  in  the  coldest  districts.  It  can  be  used  with 
success  as  a  hedging  plant,  although  it  must  sometimes 
be  clipped  at  the  expense  of  the  blossoms.  Cuttings 
in  September  root  freely  under  a  hand-Hght,  and  it  is 
also  readily  layered. 

Viburnum  Tinus  var.  lucidum. 

A  fine,  somewhat  more  loosely-growing  shrub.  Both 
the  leaves  and  flowers  are  larger  than  the  common 
Laurustinus.  Unfortunately^  it  is  not  so  hardy  and 
is  apt  to  be  damaged  in  severe  winters,  though  seldom 

Viburnum  Tinus  var.  variegatum. 

The  leaves  splashed  with  yellow,  but  a  poor  garden 
plant  and  not  worth  growing. 


Viburnum^  tomentosum. 

A  flat-growing,  deciduous  bush  7ft.  in  height.  A 
native  of  China  and  Japan. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  rounded  at  the  base  and 
pointed  at  the  tips,  of  a  full  green  with  slightly  notched 
edges  and  prominent  veins. 

Flowers  white,  in  flat  heads,  comprising  two  types, 
the  small,  perfect  flowers  in  the  centre  surrounded  by 
the  larger  sterile  blossoms,  produced  in  June. 

Not  so  hardy  as  some  Viburnums,  and  somewhat 
eclipsed  by  the  two  following  varieties. 

Viburnum  tomentosum  var.  Mariesii. 

A  great  improvement  on  the  type,  the  flowers  being 
larger  and  borne  in  flat  clusters.  Blooming  rather  late, 
it  is  a  valuable  garden  shrub.  A  well-grown  plant 
forms  a  compact  rounded  bush.  It  is  apt  to  be 
slightly  damaged  by  severe  frost  and  is  therefore  best 
grown  in  a  sheltered  spot.     It  resents  being  very  dry. 

Viburnum  tomentosum  var.  plicatum  or  Viburnum 

One  of  the  best  of  all  the  Viburnums.  First  intro- 
duced by  Fortune  from  China  and  Japan,  where  it  had 
been  prized  for  many  years. 

The  flowers  are  borne  all  along  the  stiff  horizontal 
branches  in  close  rosettes  of  white,  sterile  blossoms. 
The  foliage  turns  a  most  gorgeous  colour  in  autumn. 
A  most  attractive  garden  shrub  rarely  more  than  6ft. 
in  height  and  once  established  it  is  perfectly  hardy. 
Covered  with  blossoms  in  early  June,  it  forms  a  rounded 
shrub  and  should  be  in  every  garden.    Thriving  best  in 





a  good,  rich  loam,  it  can  be  grown  in  almost  any  soil ; 
it  also  grows  freely  on  chalk.  Cuttings  strike  fairly 
well  but  take  sometime  to  make  good  plants. 

Viburnum  utile. 

A  graceful,  erect,  evergreen  shrub  of  Chinese  origin. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  in  length,  pointed,  of  a  lustrous 
deep  green  on  the  upper  side  and  whitish-grey  under- 
neath.    The  stems  are  coated  with  rough  down. 

Flowers  white,  in  rounded  clusters  in  May,  followed 
by  blue- black  fruit. 

Hardy,  but  prefers  a  warm,  sheltered  place  or  the 
protection  of  a  wall. 

Viburnum  Veitchii. 

A  robust-growing,  deciduous  shrub  first  found  by 
Wilson  in  Central  China. 

Leaves  /[ins.  to  6ins.  long,  pointed,  toothed  at  the 
edges  and  downy  on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  white,  in  large  heads  4ins.  to  5ins.  across, 
produced  in  June- — July,  and  followed  by  red  berries 
which  turn  black  when  fully  ripe 

It  is  closely  related  to  V.  Lantana,  and  when  better 
known  will  become  a  popular  garden  shrub. 


No  section  of  gardening  presents  so  many  difficulties 
or  requires  such  intimate  knowledge  of  the  adapta- 
bility of  the  plants  as  seaside  planting,  and  yet,  when 
suitable  ones  are  chosen  and  are  planted  at  the  right 
time,  quick  results  can  be  obtained  with  a  little  care 
and  attention,  even  on  the  dry  wind-swept  cliffs  of  the 
east  coast. 

Most  of  the  writer's  experience  has  been  gathered 
from  some  thirty  years  of  planting  on  the  east  coast 
from  the  mouth  of  the  Thames  to  the  Wash.  The 
greatest  difficulty  is  the  dry,  parching  wind  generally 
experienced  in  spring  and  early  summer,  though  prob- 
ably the  actual  force  of  the  wind  is  not  so  great  as  on 
the  west  coast,  where  the  climate  is  warmer  and 
damper.  Much  is  often  attributed  to  cold  which  is 
really  due  to  the  sheer  force  of  the  wind,  which  is  often 
saturated  with  salt.  A  striking  instance  of  this  oc- 
curred in  July,  1922,  when  a  long  spell  of  drought 
broke  up  with  a  strong  southerly  gale.  Two  days  later 
every  hedge  and  tree  on  the  exposed  side  was  scorched 
and  as  brown  as  in  mid-November,  simply  from  the 
force  of  the  salt  wind.  Near  the  sea  there  are  seldom 
very  severe  frosts  and  it  is  surprising  how  many  half- 
hardy  plants  or  those  which  require  a  cool  greenhouse 


in  districts  further  inland,  flourish  and  flower  freely  on 
the  coast.  Coronilla  glauca  flowers  so  freely  that  it  is 
often  a  mass  of  yellow  blossom  from  February  to  July, 
while  inland  it  is  apt  to  get  straggly  and  to  be  severely 
damaged  by  frost.  Many  of  the  Veronicas  thrive  well 
on  the  coast,  continuing  in  flower  through  the  autumn 
and  often  until  Christmas,  while  inland  they  would  be 
cut  down  in  any  but  the  mildest  winters. 

A  chapter  on  seaside  planting  would  not  be  complete 
without  mentioning  some  of  the  Conifers,  particularly 
the  fast -growing  Cupressus  macrocarpa,  which  thrives 
far  better  near  the  sea  than  inland.  Also,  among  the 
Pines  there  are  to  be  found  some  of  the  best  shelter 
trees.  Pinus  Pinaster  and  the  Black  Austrian  are  two 
excellent  fast-growing  trees  for  planting  as  a  wind 
break,  that  will  grow  in  almost  any  well-drained  soil. 

Large-growing  deciduous  trees  which  provide  a 
welcome  shade  are  always  a  problem  on  the  sea  coast, 
and  although  they  hardly  come  under  the  title  of  this 
book,  should  not  be  altogether  omitted.  It  is  difficult 
to  induce  standard  trees  to  start  growing  freely.  The 
best  of  all  is  the  Cornish  Elm  (Ulmus  stricta)  with  its 
strong,  upright  growth  and  small,  tough  leaves,  this  is 
also  an  ideal  tree  for  planting  in  streets. 

The  Lombardy  Poplar  (Populus  fastigiata)  is  another 
good  tree  for  seaside  planting.  The  Silver  Poplar 
(Populus  alba)  grows  rapidly  but  is  untidy  and  apt  to 
be  broken  by  high  winds  in  summer,  but  its  upright 
form  P.  Bolleana  should  do  well.  The  Canadian  Poplar 
(Populus  canadensis)  is  another  fast  growing  spreading 
tree  with  pale  green,  rustling  leaves.     The  common 


Sycamore  (Acer  pseudo  platanus)  is  also  quite  a  good 
tree.  It  is  of  great  importance  that  the  trees  should 
have  been  recently  transplanted,  and  small  rather  than 
large  specimens  are  always  preferable,  starting  into 
growth  quicker  and  more  vigorously.  As  they  in- 
variably have  to  stand  against  strong  wind  careful 
staking  is  most  essential. 

However,  the  main  feature  of  a  seaside  garden  must 
be  shrubs.  They  quickly  give  shelter,  remain  in  good 
condition  over  a  long  period  and  flower  abundantly. 
Last  Christmas  (1925)  Veronicas  were  much  damaged 
by  early  frosts  inland,  while  on  the  coast  V.  Andersonii 
Purple  Queen  was  still  producing  its  handsome  purple 
spikes.  Again  in  the  spring  few  plants  equal  Ribes 
sanguineum  and  its  varieties,  which  give  a  wealth  of 
deep  pink  blossom  in  spite  of  the  coldest  winds.  Broom, 
Tamarix,  Cistus,  Buddleia,  etc.,  follow  on  in  turn. 
Many  coast  shrubs  have  grey  foliage  and  a  bold  group 
of  these  is  most  telling.  Sea  Buckthorn,  Atriplex 
Halimus,  Eleagnus  macrophylla,  Senecio  Greyi,  etc., 
may  all  be  used. 

The  Shrubs  described  hereafter  are  divided  into  three 
groups  : — 
I  St.  Those  that  will  grow  in  positions  fully  exposed  to 

salt  winds. 
2nd.  Those  shrubs  that  thrive  in  exposed  places  slightly 
further  back  from  the  sea  and  so  do  not  feel 
the  full  force  of  the  wind. 
3rd.  Those  shrubs  suitable  for  planting  in  warm  sea- 
side situations  where  they  are  sheltered  by 
cliffs,  or  at  the  foot  of  a  warm  wall. 


These  various  groups  naturally  overlap  in  some  in- 
stances, the  second  list  being  the  largest,  but  they  will 
be  of  some  assistance  in  selecting  plants. 

Planting  and  Grouping. 

Successful  seaside  planting  depends  largely  on  the 
time  selected.  As  a  general  rule  deciduous  shrubs 
move  well  in  the  autumn,  and,  wherever  it  is  possible, 
all  planting  should  be  finished  by  the  middle  or  end  of 
November.  No  planting  should  be  done  in  mid-winter. 
Evergreens  are  often  moved  with  success  in  the  autumn, 
but,  on  the  whole,  in  exposed  situations,  spring,  i.e. 
April  or  early  May,  is  by  far  the  best  time.  If  the 
weather  is  dry,  a  good  soaking  with  water  should  be 
given  immediately  after  planting. 

The  preparation  of  the  ground  near  the  sea  is  the 
same  as  that  recommended  in  the  notes  on  general 
planting  but  it  is  doubly  important  that  land  to  be 
planted  should  be  thoroughly  broken  up,  so  as  to  give 
the  roots  of  the  freshly  moved  shrubs  every  chance. 

In  arranging  groups  or  belts  near  the  coast  it  is 
necessary  to  plant  thicker  than  inland,  and  what  are 
termed  "  fiU  ups  "  or  "  nurses  "■ — cheap  plants  such  as 
Privet,  Berberis  Aquifolium,  Sea  Buckthorn,  Ribes, 
etc.,  will  be  found  useful  to  fill  up  and  shelter,  to  some 
extent,  the  better  shrubs.  Later  on,  in  the  course  of 
a  few  years,  these  can  be  cut  out  as  the  space  is  required 
by  the  choicer  specimens. 

In  seaside  planting  it  is  essential  that  aU  shrubs  and 
small  trees  of  any  height  should  be  securely  staked  for 
the  first  few  years. 



Shelter  in  any  form  is  of  the  greatest  possible  im- 
portance, and  may  be  provided  by  using  wattle  hurdles, 
hurdles  stuffed  with  gorse,  or  anything  to  break  the 
force  of  the  wind  for  the  first  few  years  until  the  shrubs 
are  well  established.  If  these  shelters  are  unsightly, 
they  can,  of  course,  be  removed  during  the  summer 
months,  but  wattle  hurdles  are  not  objectionable  and 
can  be  bought  at  moderate  cost  from  any  basket  maker. 
A  useful  size  is  4ft.  by  6ft.  and  the  cost  is  about  4s. 

Reeds,  where  they  can  be  obtained,  make  a  good 
shelter  fence,  quite  impervious  to  all  wind,  but  these 
are  more  permanent  and  less  easily  moved  than  the 
hurdles.  The  reed  fences  are  not  at  all  unsightly,  and 
are  preferable  to  the  ordinary  close-boarded  fence  and 
last  generally  about  seven  to  ten  years  if  well  put  up. 
As  the  shrubs  grow,  they  will  shelter  each  other,  par- 
ticularly if  Austrian  Pines,  or  Evergreen  Oaks  are 
planted  on  the  exposed  side. 

List  of  shrubs  for  planting  in  the  most   exposed 
situations  on  the  coast,  liable  to  salt  winds  : — 
Atriplex  Halimus. 
Bupleurum  fruticosum. 
Cistus  laurifolius. 
Euonymus  japonicus. 

„  „  var.  aureus. 

„  „  var.  flavescens. 

Hippophae  rhamnoides  (Sea  Buckthorn). 
Lupin  us  arboreus. 



Lycium  chinense  (syn.  L.  barbarum). 

Pinus  montana. 

Quercus  Ilex.     Holm  Oak.     Evergreen  Oak. 

Sambucus  nigra  var.  foliis  aureis.     Golden  Elder. 

Tamarix  anglica  (Common  Tamarix). 

,,         tetrandra. 
Ulex  europaeus  (Common  Gorse). 

var.  flore  pleno. 
Veronica  Blue  Gem. 

List   of  shrubs  for  planting  in  exposed  situations 
slightly  back  from  the  sea  : — 

Baccharis  patagonica  (Groundsel  Tree). 
Buddleia  globosa. 

var.  magnifica. 
var.  Nanhoensis. 
var.  Pink  Pearl, 
var.  rosea. 
var.  Veitchiana. 
Cistus  corbariensis. 
,,      crispus. 
„      cyprius. 
„       Silver  Pink. 
,,      villosus. 
Cupressus  macrocarpa  (Monterey  Cypress) . 

,,  ,,         var.  lutea. 

Cytisus  albus. 
,,       nigricans. 
,,       praecox 
,,       scoparius  (Common  Broom). 


Cytisus  scoparius  var.  Audreanus. 

„      "Daisy  Hill." 

„  ,,  „      sulphureus  "  Moonlight.'" 

Elseagnus  angustifolia. 

„  macrophylla. 

„  multiflora. 

„  pungens. 

„  ,,  var.  aureo-variegata.  | 

Escallonia  Donard  Seedling.  j| 

„  exoniensis.  j! 

Ingramii.  h 

„  Langleyensis.  l 

,,  macrantha.  ;[ 

rubra.  ij 

Eucalyptus  coccifera.  3 

,,  Gunnii. 

Euonymus  radicans. 
Fuchsia  Riccartonii. 
Griselinia  littoralis. 

,,         macrophylla. 
Helianthemum  vulgare. 
Lavandula  Spica  (Common  Lavender). 
Lonicera  nitida. 
Olearia  Haastii. 
,,       macrodonta. 
,,       myrsinoides. 

„       Gunniana  (syn.  O.  stellulata). 
stellulata  macrophylla. 
Phlomis  fruticosa. 
Pinus  Laricio  nigricans. 
Pittosporum  tenuifolium. 


Pittosporum  tenuifolium  var.  Silver  Queen. 

„  Tobira. 

Rosmarinus  officinalis. 
Senecio  Greyi. 

Spartium  junceum  (late  Spanish  Broom). 
Tamarix  pentandra  (syn.  T.  hispida  aestivalis), 

,,         plumosa  (syn.  T.  Juniperina). 
Veronica  Autumn  Glory. 

„         supressoides. 

„         salicifolia. 

„         Traversii. 

Listjof  shrubs  for  warm  seaside  situations  where 
shelter  is  given  by  cliffs  or  at  the  foot  of  a  wall : — 
Abutilon  vitifolium. 
Buddleia  alternifolia. 
„        Colvilei. 
„        Fallowiana. 
„        Forrestii. 
Coronilla  glauca. 
Eleagnus  argentea. 
Escallonia  floribunda. 

„  montevidensis. 

,,  Philippiana. 

Eucalyptus  Globulus  (Blue  Gum). 
Helianthemum  algarvense. 
„  formosum. 

,,  ,,         var.  unicolor. 

Lippia  citriodora  (syn.  Aloysia  citriodora). 
Romneya  Coulteri  (Calif omian  Poppy). 

,,  hybrida. 

Veronica  Andersonii  var.  Purple  Queen. 


Hedges  for  Seaside  Gardens. 

Hedges  play  a  prominent  part  in  all  gardens  but  more 
particularly  in  those  near  the  coast  where  anything  to 
break  the  flatness  and  give  any  form  of  shelter  are  most 
welcome.  The  following  list  of  hedge  plants  may  be 
found  useful  : — 

Quick  or  Whitethorn,  suitable  for  loam  or  heavy  land. 

Myrobella,  Cherry  Plum.  A  fast-growing  hedge,  pre- 
ferably on  light  land. 

Ligustrum  ovalifolium.  The  best  form  of  evergreen 

Euonymus  japonicus.     See  page  215. 

Euonymus  japonicus  var.  pictus.     See  page  215. 

Cupressus  macrocarpa.     See  page  204. 

Cupressus  macrocarpa  lutea.     See  page  205. 

Lycium  chinense.  Rough  loose  hedge  for  exposed 
situation.     See  p.  221. 

Fuchsia  Riccartonii.  Hardy  Fuchsia,  forms  a  low 
hedge.     See  page  216. 

Lavender.     Border  or  low  hedge. 

Rosmarinus  officinalis.  Common  Rosemary.  See  page 

Tamarix  anglica.  Loose  hedge  in  exposed  places.  See 
page  236. 

Hippophae  rhamnoides.  Sea  Buckthorn.  Too  loose 
in  growth  to  make  a  compact  fence  but  stands  ex- 

Quercus  Ilex.     See  page  227. 

Griselinia  littoralis.  A  typical  evergreen  coast  shrub. 
See  page  217. 


Abutilon  vitifoliiim. 


Berberis  stenophylla.  An  excellent  fence  plant  but 
will  not  stand  full  exposure.     See  page  43. 

Lonicera  nitida.     A  neat  evergreen  hedge  plant. 

Escallonia  macrantha.  Excellent  for  a  warm  coast 

Atriplex  Halimus.  Grey  foliage,  will  not  stand  much 


Ahutilon  vitifolium. 

A  fast-growing  shrub,  unfortunately  it  cannot  be 
considered  hardy.  To  be  grown  successfully  it  should 
be  planted  in  a  warm  corner  against  a  wall.  If  given 
this  it  flourishes  on  the  coast  as  well  as  inland  in  the 
milder  districts. 

Leaves  4ins.  to  Sins,  long,  alternate,  with  three 
points,  and  very  prominent  veins  on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  lavender-mauve,  in  large,  open  beUs  some- 
what the  shape  of  a  mallow,  borne  in  clusters  of  two 
or  three  blossoms  together  on  long  woolly  stems. 

A  beautiful  shrub  in  early  June  with  its  large  lavender 
blossoms  amongst  the  luxurious  foliage  that  is  well 
worth  a  sheltered  comer. 

A  native  of  Chile,  easily  raised  from  seed.  There  is 
also  a  white-flowered  form. 

Atriplex  Halimus.     Tree  Purslane. 

A  strong-growing  evergreen  or  sub-evergreen  shrub, 
often  8ft.  in  height. 

Leaves  rounded,  silvery-grey,  with  a  white  down  on 
the  under  side. 


Flowers  very  small,  whitish  green,  and  quite  insig- 

With  its  silvery-grey  foliage,  this  shrub  is  valuable 
for  massing,  especially  in  view  of  the  fact  that  it  can 
be  planted  in  positions  fully  exposed  to  salt  spray  and 
wind.  In  some  places  it  is  denuded  of  leaves  in  the 
winter  by  sparrows  which  are  very  fond  of  it,  in  other 
districts  it  is  untouched.  If  birds  are  troublesome,  a 
few  strands  of  black  cotton  wound  between  the  tips 
of  the  shoots  will  generally  stop  them.  It  grows  freely 
in  any  well-drained  soil.  It  may  be  increased  by 
cuttings  in  late  summer. 


Baccharis  patagonica.     Grounsel  Tree. 

A  stiff,  low-growing,  evergreen  shrub. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  fin.  long,  toothed,  of  a  dark  glossy 
green,  very  thickly  packed  on  the  stems. 

Flowers  yellow,  and  of  no  great  interest. 

A  useful  evergreen  on  the  coast,  with  its  masses  of 
minute,  thick,  leaves  and  crowded  branches.  So  dense 
is  the  growth  that  it  is  quite  impervious  even  to  a 
searching  east  wind,  which  would  be  fatal  to  so  many 
plants.  It  is  not  particular  as  to  soil  and  cuttings  root 


Bupleurum  fruticosum.     Hare's  Ear. 

One  of  the  most  valuable  evergreen  shrubs  for  gardens 
near  the  sea,  forming  a  dense  bush  4ft.  to  7ft.  in  height. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  narrow,  pointed,  rich  green 
with  distinct  mid-rib  of  a  lighter  shade,  paler  on  the 


under  side.  The  young  wood  assumes  a  brownish-red 

Flowers  yellow,  small,  in  large,  flat  umbels  borne  at 
the  ends  of  the  stems. 

Flowering  freely  during  August  or  September,  just 
at  the  time  when  flowering  shrubs  are  most  wanted. 
It  is  strange  that  this  attractive  evergreen  is  so  seldom 
seen  in  our  seaside  gardens.  It  revels  in  a  salt  wind 
and  will  grow  in  any  soil,  and  is  quite  happy  in  chalk. 
The  leaves,  when  crushed,  have  a  pungent  smell.  It 
may  be  propagated  by  cuttings. 


Coronilla  glauca. 

A  much  branched,  low  shrub  not  generally  con- 
sidered hardy,  but  in  a  sheltered  spot  near  the  sea,  or 
at  the  foot  of  a  warm  wall,  it  comes  safely  through  a 
severe  winter. 

Leaves  glaucous  grey,  fleshy,  pinnate. 

Flowers  bright  yellow,  pea-shaped,  produced  in 
umbels,  very  fragrant  during  the  day  but  after  sunset 
are  almost  devoid  of  scent. 

This  delightful  old-fashioned  shrub  was  described  in 
the  "  Botanical  Magazine  "  as  long  ago  as  1787,  when 
it  was  much  prized  as  a  cool  greenhouse  plant.  How- 
ever, it  is  far  more  useful  grown  out  of  doors  in  a  warm 
comer  where  it  is  a  cloud  of  yellow  blossom  from  March 
to  June. 

A  native  of  Southern  Europe.  A  warm,  light  soil 
suits  it  best,  it  is  not  easy  to  transplant  and  where 
possible  should  be  planted  from  pots  in  the  spring. 
Small  cuttings  root  easily  in  a  little  heat. 



Cupressus  macrocarpa.     Monterey  Cypress. 

A  fast-growing  conifer  from  Monterey  on  the  coast 
of  California.  In  severe  winters  inland  it  is  often 
badly  damaged  by  frost,  particularly  when  planted  in 
clay  soil.  In  light,  sandy  soil,  or  on  the  coast,  it  stands 
exposure  well,  since  cold  winds  do  not  harm  it  as  much 
as  low  temperatures  inland. 

The  leaves  are  very  smaU,  wiry,  of  a  rich  dark  green. 

The  growths  are  upright  in  the  young  state,  becoming 
flatter  and  more  spreading  in  older  trees.  Extremely 
rapid  in  growth,  it  forms  an  excellent  hedge,  often 
growing  as  much  as  3ft.  or  4ft.  in  a  single  season.  In 
fact  it  is  best  used  as  a  fence,  for,  when  isolated  speci- 
mens are  planted,  unless  they  are  very  carefully  staked, 
they  grow  so  fast  that  they  are  apt  to  be  blown  over 
by  high  winds.  In  setting  out  a  hedge  small  plants, 
from  pots,  I2ins.  to  i8ins.  high,  give  the  best  results. 
They  should  be  put  in  i8ins.  to  24ins.  apart,  the  end 
of  April  or  early  in  May  being  the  best  time,  and  care 
should  be  taken  to  see  that  the  roots  are  thoroughly 
moist  when  turned  out.  They  will  look  very  small  at 
first  but  will  grow  quickly  and  soon  form  a  hedge.  No 
cutting  is  necessary  till  after  the  second  winter  (assum- 
ing planting  was  carried  out  in  the  spring).  By  this 
time  they  will  be  somewhat  irregular  in  height  and  the 
taller  plant  should  be  cut  back  hy  a  foot  or  more, 
others  will  require  only  the  tips  taken  out,  the  sides 
may  also  be  slightly  trimmed  so  as  to  bring  into  neat 
hedge  form.     They  will  now  grow  very  fast  and  will 









want  to  be  clipped  each  spring  about  the  end  of  April, 
and  if  they  grow  strongly,  again  in  August,  in  the  same 
way  as  a  Yew  fence.  A  good  plan  is  to  cut  the  hedge 
slightly  tapering  towards  the  top,  this  encourages  a 
fine  glossy  growth. 

It  should  never  be  cut  in  late  autumn  or  winter. 

As  C.  macrocarpa  is  generally  raised  from  seed,  there 
is  a  good  deal  of  variation,  but  the  closer  growing  forms 
are  preferable  and  may  be  termed  the  Yew  of  the 

The  illustration  gives  some  idea  of  how  quickly  a 
hedge  may  be  formed.  Planted  in  spring,  1923,  quite 
close  to  the  sea  and  fully  exposed  to  the  north-east 
winds,  small  plants  were  used  and  were  sheltered  by 
low  wattle  hurdles.  At  the  end  of  the  third  summer 
the  hedge  is  5ft.  high  and  i8ins.  thick.  Another  illus- 
tration represents  a  single  specimen  equally  exposed  to 
salt  wind,  some  twenty  years  old.  This  shows  how 
different  the  growth  becomes  with  age. 

Cupressus  macrocarpa  var.  lutea. 

A  bright  golden  variety  which  is  generally  grafted 
on  the  common  form.  The  grafted  trees  seem  to  grow 
more  steadily  and  less  rapidly  than  seedlings  and  this 
variety  is  therefore  less  affected  by  wind.  It  forms  a 
handsome  golden  shrub  or  may  be  used  as  a  hedge. 


A  family  containing  some  valuable  coast  shrubs, 
both  evergreen  and  deciduous,  aU  of  which  are  more 
valued  for  their  foliage  than  their  flowers,  which  are 
insignificant  but  often  sweet  scented.     They  require 


no  special  cultivation,  but  are  perhaps  best  in  not  too 
rich  a  soil,  and  in  situations  not  too  exposed.  The 
strongest  growing  species  will  make  large  rounded 
shrubs.  Some  of  the  variegated  kinds  are  very  showy 
with  shining  golden  foliage.  Eleagnus  thrive  best  in 
full  sunshine. 

They  are  not  easy  to  propagate,  seeds,  where  they 
can  be  procured,  being  the  best  method,  but  cuttings 
in  early  autumn  placed  in  sand  under  a  hand-light  or 
in  a  little  warmth  can  often  be  rooted. 

Eleagnus  angustifolia. 

A  robust,  fast-growing  shrub.  The  young  wood  is 
covered  with  silvery  enamel,  and  the  foliage  also  is 
silvery  in  the  young  state,  changing  to  green  later  in 
the  season. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  narrow,  the  under  side 
being  covered  with  silvery  scales. 

The  small,  tubular,  sweet-scented  flowers  are  of  a 
greyish  colour  and  are  produced  in  early  summer. 

A  very  telling  deciduous  shrub,  quite  hardy  on  the 
the  sea  coast  and  not  requiring  a  rich  soil. 

Eleagnus  argentea.     Silver  Berry. 

A  most  attractive  grey-foliaged  shrub,  upright  in 
growth,  but  not  so  vigorous  as  most  of  the  family. 

Leaves  2ins.  long,  of  a  glossy,  silvery-grey. 

Flowers  yellow,  very  small,  produced  in  early 
summer,  and  sweet  scented. 

Though  this  shrub  is  quite  hardy,  the  leaves  fall  with 
the  slightest  frost. 


Eleagnus  macrophylla. 

A  strong-growing  shrub,  5ft.  to  6ft.  high,  and  as 
much  in  diameter. 

Leaves  3ins.  long  and  nearly  as  broad,  rounded, 
bright,  glossy  green  above,  with  silvery  scales.  The 
under  side  is  aluminium-grey.  It  is  this  grey  under 
side  that  makes  it  such  an  effective  shrub,  when  in  the 
wind  the  whole  plant  has  a  grey  shimmer. 

Flowers  dull  white,  in  small,  drooping  clusters  in 
November,  and  are  deliciously  scented. 

Eleagnus  muUiflora,  syn.  E.  longipes. 

Another  strong-growing  coast  plant.  When  fully 
grown  forms  a  large,  rounded  bush  loft.  to  15ft.  in 
height  and  nearly  as  much  through.  An  excellent 
plant  for  an  exposed  sunny  place  in  light-sandy  soil. 

Leaves  small,  dark  green,  bronzy-brown  on  the 
reverse  side. 

Flowers  insignificant  but  pretty,  with  brown  fruit 
later  in  the  summer. 

Eleagnus  pungens. 

A  useful  evergreen  of  vigorous  branching  growth, 
occasionally  reaching  loft.  in  height. 

Leaves  sins,  to  4ins.  long,  pointed,  with  slightly 
curled  edges,  tough  in  texture,  dark  shining  green  on 
the  upper  side,  the  under  side  being  silvery  with  a  very 
prominent  mid-rib,  of  a  bronze  colour.  The  young 
wood  is  also  covered  with  rough  bronze  scales,  which 
makes  it  a  most  pleasing  shrub. 

Flowers  white,  very  small,  and  sweet  scented,  pro- 
duced in  autumn. 


Eleagnus  pungens  var.  aureo-variegata. 

A  handsome  variegated  form,  the  dark  green  leaves 
being  splashed  with  yellow.  This  shrub  produces  a 
very  decorative  effect  in  winter. 


A  most  valuable  race  of  seaside  shrubs  and  climbers, 
the  majority  of  which  are  evergreen.  Many  of  them 
are  barely  hardy  enough  to  stand  a  severe  winter 
inland,  without  the  shelter  of  a  wall.  It  is  on  the  coast 
that  they  flourish  and  can  be  used  as  hedge  plants,  for 
growing  on  banks  and  on  the  slopes  of  cliffs,  or  as  wall 
plants.  Their  thick  evergreen  leaves  double  up  in  the 
high  winds  and  salt  spray,  only  to  relax  again  the  next 
morning  quite  unharmed.  Escallonias  are  not  par- 
ticular as  to  soil,  but  no  manure  should  be  used. 
Cuttings  of  half-ripe  wood  root  freely  either  in  a  little 
heat  or  under  a  hand-light,  towards  the  end  of  the 
summer.  They  should  be  cut  clean  in  the  usual  way, 
just  below  a  joint,  small  cuttings  2ins.  to  3ins.  long 
root  more  readily  than  larger  sprays. 

Escallonia  "  Donard  Seedling." 

A  robust-growing,  upright  evergreen  shrub,  a  hybrid 
between  E.  Philippiana  and  E.  Langleyensis. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  lin.  long,  rounded,  tapering  to  the  base, 
regularly  toothed  but  smooth  towards  the  stalk,  rich 
glossy  green  on  the  upper  side,  paler  on  the  under  side. 

Flowers  blush-white  with  deep  pink  buds,  the  back 
of  the  flowers  are  stained  pink,  borne  in  short  clusters 
at  the  end  of  the  lateral  growths  of  the  current  season. 


Escallonia  Donard  seedling. 


This  charming  evergreen  will,  in  sheltered  places, 
form  a  compact  shrub  8ft.  to  loft.  in  height,  the 
branches  being  thickly  packed  with  dark  green,  little 
leaves  and  clusters  of  delicate  slightly  fragrant  blos- 
soms which  appear  in  July  and  continue  off  and  on 
until  November.  Like  most  Escallonias  it  can  be 
increased  by  cuttings. 

The  accompanying  illustration  gives  a  good  idea  of 
the  growth. 

Escallonia  exoniensis. 

Fast  growing,  branching,  evergreen,  often  attaining 
the  height  of  12ft.  or  more. 

Leaves  2ins.  long,  often  curled,  tapering  towards  the 
base,  bright  shining  green,  paler  on  the  under  side, 
edges  finely  toothed.  The  bark  of  the  young  wood  is 
light  brown. 

Flowers  white  to  blush-pink,  borne  in  terminal 
clusters  and  blossoming  continuously  through  the 
summer,  but  not  generally  very  profusely. 

A  hybrid  from  E.  rubra  and  not  one  of  the  hardiest 
of  the  family.  The  plant  gives  off  a  curious  scent  like 
chemical  manure,  though  it  is  not  so  pronounced  as  to 
be  offensive. 

Escallonia  florihunda. 

An  attractive  and  vigorous  evergreen  climber  or  wall 
shrub  often  reaching  20ft.  in  height. 

The  leaves  vary  in  size  from  ijins.  to  3ins.  long, 
quite  smooth.  The  young  wood  is  often  red  towards 
the  autumn. 


Flowers  pure  white,  in  terminal  clusters,  with  the 
individual  flowers  much  larger  than  those  of  most  of 
the  species.  On  a  warm  wall  in  August  or  September, 
covered  with  a  wealth  of  white  blossom,  there  are  few 
plants  to  equal  it.  The  flowers  are  slightly  fragrant, 
the  scent  resembling  that  of  May. 

Roots  easily  from  cuttings.  E.  montevidensis  is 
generally  considered  a  variety  of  the  same  species  with 
larger  flower  spikes. 

Escallonia  Ingramii. 

A  vigorous  evergreen  shrub  of  garden  origin,  prob- 
ably E.  macrantha  is  one  of  the  parents. 

Leaves  ijins.  to  2ins.  long,  dark  glossy  green,  deeply 
and  regularly  toothed  edges  toward  the  upper  part  of 
the  leaf.     The  stalks  are  quite  bristly. 

Flowers  rose-pink,  in  characteristic  terminal  clusters. 
Blossoming  in  July  and  often  on  till  November  in  mild 

It  is  like  E.  macrantha  but  the  leaves  are  a  good  deal 
smaller,  the  growth  is  more  upright,  the  flowers  are 
paler  and  slightly  smaller.  An  excellent  seaside  shrub 
or  may  be  used  as  a  hedge  inland,  but  it  is  best  planted 
at  the  foot  of  a  wall. 

Escallonia  langleyensis. 

A  delightful  hybrid,  and  one  of  the  most  charming 
of  flowering  shrubs. 

Leaves  small,  Jin.  to  fins,  in  length,  rounded,  with 
toothed  edges,  of  a  rich,  glossy  green  with  three  stipules 
or  tiny  leaves  at  the  base  of  each  leaf-stalk.  The  stems 
of  the  young  wood  are  brownish  and  rough  to  the  touch. 


Flowers  cherry-red,  in  small  terminal  clusters. 

When  this  evergreen  shrub  is  in  fuU  bloom  towards 
the  end  of  June  there  are  few  plants  so  effective.  It  is 
fairly  hardy,  and  does  equally  weU  inland  and  on  the 

Escallonia  macrantha. 

An  invaluable  evergreen  shrub  for  seaside  planting, 
and  a  most  useful  wall  plant  inland. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  2jins.  long,  broad,  with  deeply- 
toothed  edges  of  a  particularly  glossy  dark  green,  as  if 
the  leaf  had  been  varnished.  Both  the  leaves  and 
stalks  are  sticky,  and  the  young  wood  is  covered  with 
a  rough  down. 

Flowers  cherry-red,  in  terminal  clusters  of  little, 
tubular  blossoms,  with  a  pleasant  pungent  scent.  It 
is  at  its  best  in  June,  but  flowers  off  and  on  tiU  October. 

One  of  the  best  seaside  evergreens,  standing  ex- 
posure well.     Propagated  by  cuttings. 

Escallonia  Philippiana. 

A  charming  deciduous  species  with  neat  spreading 

Leaves  very  small,  bright  green. 

Flowers  pure  white,  produced  in  great  abundance 
along  the  branches.  Planted  against  a  wail  or  in  the 
open,  it  forms  a  cloud  of  tiny  white  blossom  from 
Midsummer  onwards.     Quite  one  of  the  hardiest. 

Escallonia  rubra. 

A  hardy,  vigorous  evergreen  shrub,  and  one  of  the 
best  for  inland  gardens.  In  the  most  severe  winters 
it  gets  only  slightly  cut. 


Leaves  small,  lin.  to  ijins.,  with  toothed  edges,  bur 
without  the  gloss  and  deep  colour  of  E.  macrantha. 

Flowers  deep  red,  borne  on  thread-like  stalks,  and 
continuing  to  blossom  from  early  July  till  October. 

A  native  of  Chile  and  a  mosr  useful  plant  for  the 
front  of  a  shrub  border  or  low  wall. 

Eucalyptus.     Gum  Tree. 

A  large  family  of  stately  trees  growing  to  a  great 
height  in  their  native  countries.  Here  they  seldom 
become  really  large  trees  except  in  Devonshire  and 
Cornwall  where  fine  specimens  are  found.  As  seaside 
plants  they  are  invaluable  and  even  if  they  only  survive 
a  few  winters,  they  are  well  worth  growing.  With  the 
exception  of  E.  Gunnii  and  perhaps  E.  coccifera,  few 
are  really  hardy.  E  globulus  is  the  fastest  growing 
and  makes  a  good  temporary  plant. 

Eucalyptus  coccifera. 

A  graceful  evergreen  shrub  from  Tasmania  with 
silvery-blue  foliage.  It  stands  our  winters  well  on  the 
coast,  though  it  is  not  quite  so  hardy  as  E.  Gunnii. 

Leaves  in  the  young  state  are  lin.  to  ijins.  long, 
rounded,  cordate,  with  a  tiny  spine  at  the  apex.  As 
the  tree  gets  older,  the  leaves  become  much  longer  and 
often  alternate. 

Flowers  yellowish-buff,  produced  in  terminal  heads, 
the  time  of  flowering  varying  a  good  deal  but  generally 
occurring  in  the  autumn. 

The  stems  are  very  warty,  the  young  wood  being 
almost  bristly.     Propagated  by  seed. 


Eucalyptus  globulus.     Blue  Gum. 

A  handsome  evergreen  species  with  wonderful  glau- 
cous blue  foliage,  and  of  extremely  fast  growth.  A 
young  established  plant  will  often  put  on  6ft.  or  8ft. 
in  a  single  season.  Planted  on  the  sheltered  cliffs  at 
Felixstowe,  four  or  five-year-old  trees  are  now  some 
20ft.  in  height.  Unfortunately  this  species  is  not  hardy, 
except  in  the  most  favoured  situations  and  it  remains 
to  be  seen  what  severe  weather  will  do,  but  even  if 
killed  outright,  they  will  have  played  their  part  in 
quickly  furnishing  a  new  garden  in  a  way  that  no  other 
plant  can  do  in  the  time. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  5ins.  long,  stalkless,  square  at  the 
base,  pointed  at  the  apex,  blue-green  on  the  upper 
surface,  silvery  beneath,  and  of  a  leathery  texture. 
The  stems  on  the  young  wood  are  square.  The  new 
foliage  has  a  distinct  blue  shade  when  ruffled  by  the 
wind,  and  a  pleasant  pungent  odour  when  crushed. 
It  is  easily  raised  from  seed  but  flowers  are  rarely 
produced  in  this  country  out  of  doors. 

Eucalyptus  Gunnii. 

This  is  the  hardiest  Eucalyptus  of  all.  It  does  not, 
however,  grow  nearly  so  fast  as  E.  globulus  and, 
although  glaucous,  it  has  not  the  striking  blue-grey 
foliage.  On  young  plants  the  leaves  are  rounded  with 
a  distinct  notch  at  the  apex.  Their  size  is  very  variable 
and  as  in  many  species  of  Eucalyptus,  the  leaves 
become  longer  and  narrower  as  the  tree  becomes  more 

Flowers  are  produced  in  small  tufts  in  the  axils  of 


the  leaves  in  late  autumn  but  the  tree  must  attain  a 
good  size  before  it  blossoms.     Propagation  is  by  seed 
which  germinates  readily  in  a  little  heat. 
A  native  of  Tasmania. 

EuoNYMUS.     Spindle  Tree. 

This  is  undoubtedly  the  best  evergreen  shrub  for 
coast  planting.  It  is  also  a  valuable  town  plant  and 
will  flourish  in  shade  or  under  large  trees.  Inland  it 
is  apt  to  be  cut  by  severe  frost,  but  even  so  is  rarely 
killed.  On  the  other  hand,  where  exposed  to  the 
influence  of  the  sea,  it  is  perfectly  hardy. 

Owing  to  its  good  qualities  as  a  coast  shrub  it  has 
been  planted  to  such  an  extent  in  public  seaside  gardens 
and  in  such  monotonous  rows  that  it  becomes  weari- 
some to  the  visitor.  While  with  a  little  knowledge  and 
forethought  many  other  shrubs  may  be  introduced 
which  add  variety  and  interest. 

Of  the  easiest  possible  cultivation,  it  thrives  in 
almost  any  soil,  not  necessarily  very  rich.  In  exposed 
places,  April,  or  even  May,  is  the  best  time  for  planting. 
For  a  seaside  hedge  Euonymus  is  unequalled,  a  little 
slow  to  start  into  growth  at  first,  but  once  established 
it  soon  forms  a  compact  hedge  4ft.  or  5ft.  high  and 
some  2ft.  through.  For  this  purpose  it  should  be 
planted  i8ins.  apart,  using  plants  ijft.  to  2ft.  in  height. 

Euonymus  is  easily  propagated  from  small  cuttings 
of  half-ripe  wood  in  early  autumn.  They  wiU  be  found 
to  strike  readily  under  a  hand-light  or  even  in  the  open 
in  a  sheltered,  shady  border.  Of  late  years  a  particular 
mi]  (lew  has  been  troublesome  on  the  young  growths 


towards  the  end  of  the  summer.  In  the  case  of  hedges 
it  can  usually  be  clipped  off,  but  if  badly  attacked  it  is 
necessar}^  to  spray  with  a  fungicide.  There  are  many 
varieties,  among  which  the  following  have  proved  the 
most  satisfactory. 

Euonymus  japonicus. 

A  compact,  dense  evergreen,  sometimes  12ft.  in 
height  or  more  against  a  wall. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  sins,  long,  lin.  to  ijins.  broad, 
bluntly  rounded,  regularly  notched  at  the  edges,  of  a 
glistening,  shining,  rich  green  above,  paler  and  duU 
on  the  under  side. 

Of  the  many  varieties  this  is  perhaps  the  most  useful 
for  seaside  planting.  It  is  generally  known  in  nur- 
series as  the  broad-leaved  green. 

Euonymus  japonicus  var.  aureus. 

A  handsome  variegated  form  with  bright  golden 
foliage.     Somewhat  slower  in  growth  than  the  type. 

Euonymus  japonicus  va.r.flavescens. 

A  compact  growing  shrub,  with  smaller  leaves  than 
the  true  E.  japonicus.  The  young  growths  and  foliage 
are  a  brilliant  golden-yellow  during  the  early  summer 
months  and  change  to  a  yellowish-green  in  the  autumn. 

A  group  in  an  exposed  position  in  a  seaside  garden 
gives  a  striking  piece  of  colour. 

Amongst  other  varieties  is  a  form  known  in  nurseries 
as  E.  pictus,  this  is  probably  merely  a  variety  of  E. 
japonicus.  It  is,  however,  a  most  useful  shrub  for 
planting  under  trees  in  our  towns,  or  as  a  coast  plant. 


The  leaves  are  narrower  and  more  pointed  than  E. 
japonica.  There  is  also  a  showy  variegated  form  with 
bright  golden  leaves  margined  with  green.  This  is  apt 
to  revert  to  the  green  form. 

Small  cuttings,  about  2ins.  to  3ins.  long,  strike  with 
ease  in  a  frame  or  under  a  hand-light  during  September 
and  October. 

Euonymus  radicans. 

A  low,  spreading  evergreen  of  slower  growth  than 
E.  iaponicus. 

Leaves  i|ins.  to  2ins.  long,  rounded.  The  young 
foliage  is  a  distinct  pale  golden-green,  changing  to  a 
dull  dark  green  as  the  summer  advances. 

The  many  variegated  forms  of  this  species  are  the 
most  attractive,  some  having  show}^  silver-margined 
leaves,  while  in  others  the  foliage  is  of  a  distinctly  pink 

Planted  against  a  wall,  it  will  run  up  a  considerable 
height  and  forms  a  handsome  creeper.  It  is  also 
useful  for  planting  on  banks  or  the  edge  of  a  border, 
in  fact,  in  any  place  where  a  low  shrub  is  required. 

It  is  a  native  of  Japan  and  is  easil};^  increased  by 
cuttings  or  division.  Quite  hardy  and  will  stand  a 
fair  amount  of  shade. 

Fuchsia  Riccartonii. 

One  of  the  most  delightful  of  our  old-fashioned 
shrubs  and  much  hardier  than  is  generally  supposed. 
On  the  coast  it  is  seldom  damaged  by  frost  while  inland 
where  the  growth  is  soft  in  the  autumn  it  is  often  badly 


cut  back.  However,  it  generally  shoots  up  again  from 
the  roots  and  is  better  than  ever  by  midsummer. 

Leaves  lins.  to  ijins.  long,  pointed,  coarsely  toothed, 
of  a  very  dark  green.  The  new  wood  is  red  towards 
the  autumn. 

Flowers  purple  with  brilliant  crimson-red  calyx,  the 
pendant  blossoms  being  borne  on  dainty  red  stalks. 
Continuing  to  bloom  through  August  and  well  on  into 
the  autumn  at  a  time  when  flowers  are  often  scarce, 
it  is  one  of  the  most  decorative  garden  shrubs.  This 
species  forms  a  charming  hedge  and  stands  exposure 
well.  When  grown  as  a  hedge,  it  should  be  slightly 
trimmed  back  each  spring.  It  thrives  in  any  well- 
drained  soil  and  is  easily  increased  by  cuttings  which 
root  freely  in  a  little  heat. 

Griselinia  littoralis. 

A  vigorous,  compact  growing  evergreen  shrub,  8ft. 
to  loft.  in  height.  A  native  of  New  Zealand,  it  cannot 
be  called  hardy  except  on  the  coast,  where  it  seems  to 
revel  in  a  salt  wind. 

Leaves  ijins.  to  2ins.  long,  rounded,  thick,  leathery, 
smooth,  of  a  lustrous  yellowish-green  on  the  upper 
surface,  paler  beneath.  The  young  wood  and  leaf- 
stalks are  straw  coloured. 

Flowers  yellowish,  insignificant,  in  May,  but  of  no 
particular  beauty. 

A  useful  seaside  shrub,  making  a  welcome  change 
from  the  almost  universal  Euonymus  which  is  so  much 
planted  near  the  sea.     It  will  succeed  in  almost  any 


soil  and  can  be  used  as  a  hedge.     Easily  increased  by 
cuttings  in  early  autumn. 

G.  tutor alis  variegata. 

An  effective  variegated  form  in  which  the  leaves 
have  golden  edges. 

Griselinia  lucida  var.  macrophylla. 

A  handsome  plant  with  much  larger  leaves  than 
G.  littoralis  but  of  doubtful  hardiness. 


Hippophae  rhamnoides.     Sea  Buckthorn. 

A  loose-growing  deciduous  shrub  or  small  tree,  which 
deserves  to  be  more  widely  planted. 

Leaves  small  and  narrow,  flowers  insignificant.  The 
bark  on  the  upper  side  of  the  stems  has  the  appearance 
of  being  painted  with  silver  enamel.  In  autumn  there 
is  no  more  beautiful  plant  when  the  stems  are  thickly 
covered  with  orange  berries,  which  blend  with  the  grey 

As  the  plant  is  unisexual,  care  should  be  taken  both 
sexes  are  included  in  planting  a  group  for  no  berries 
will  form  on  the  female  plants  unless  their  flowers  are 
fertilized  by  pollen  from  a  male  plant.  It  is,  however, 
only  necessar}/  to  include  one  male  plant  in  a  group 
of  half-a-dozen  female  plants.  One  of  the  best  seaside 
shrubs,  for  it  will  stand  salt  spray  unharmed,  and  it 
thrives  equally  well  in  an  inland  garden.  Increased 
by  seed  or  sometimes  by  suckers. 



Lavandula  Spica.     Common  Lavender. 

This  old-fashioned  favourite  is  so  well  known  that 
it  needs  little  description. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  sins,  long,  narrow,  of  silvery  grey, 
particularly  in  the  young  state. 

Flowers  deep  lavender,  in  close  heads  at  the  end  of 
stiff  stalks,  during  July  and  August,  deliciously 

Lavender  flourishes  in  light,  well-drained  soil,  either 
on  the  coast  or  inland  and  may  be  used  as  a  low  hedge 
or  planted  in  blocks.  It  requires  clipping  each  spring 
if  it  is  not  to  get  straggly.  It  is  easily  propagated  from 
cuttings  in  early  autumn  or  in  spring.  L.  vera  is 
closely  allied  to  L.  Spica  and  is  said  to  be  more  strongly 


Lippia  citriodora,  syn.  Aloysia  citriodora.  Lemon- 
scented  Verbena. 

An  old  favourite  of  our  gardens  with  leaves  which 
are  delightfully  fragrant  when  crushed.  To  grow 
successfully  near  the  sea  it  requires  the  shelter  of  a 
warm  wall  where  it  soon  forms  a  deciduous  shrub  loft. 
to  20ft.  in  height. 

Leaves  sjins.  to  4|ins.  long,  narrow,  tapering, 
pointed,  produced  in  threes,  or  sometimes  in  fours,  of 
a  pale  green.     The  stems  are  usually  ribbed. 

Flowers  pale  lilac,  in  terminal,  loose  panicles  in 
August,  of  no  particular  beauty. 


Although  a  native  of  Chile,  it  is  seldom  killed  out- 
right by  severe  weather  and  shoots  up  strongly  from 
the  roots  each  spring,  attaining  a  height  of  4ft.  or  5ft. 
by  the  autumn.  Where  possible  it  should  be  protected 
during  very  severe  weather.  It  flourishes  in  any  warm 
soil  and  is  quickly  increased  by  cuttings. 


Lonicera  nitida. 

An  evergreen  Chinese  shrub  of  spreading  leafy 
growth,  which  stands  exposure  to  the  sea  well. 

Leaves  small,  rounded,  about  Jin.  long,  bright,  glossy 
green  and  of  leathery  texture.  The  young  wood  has 
a  distinctly  purplish  shade. 

Flowers  small,  white,  with  a  yellow  tinge  and  sweet 
scented.     July. 

This  Chinese  honeysuckle  has  already  proved  its 
value  as  a  garden  plant  both  inland  and  near  the  sea, 
and  it  may  also  be  used  to  form  a  neat  dwarf  evergreen 
hedge.  It  does  not  appear  to  be  exacting  as  to  soil 
and  it  is  easily  propagated  by  cuttings  in  the  early 


Lupinus  arbor eus.     Tree  Lupin. 

A  low,  spreading  bush  which  should  not  be  allowed 
to  grow  too  rampantly  or  the  long  branches  will  be 
torn  from  the  main  stem  in  heavy  wind.  A  native  of 
California  and  the  Pacific  Coast.  Tree  Lupins  are  of 
exceptional  value  for  planting  on  light,  sandy  or  poor 
soil  near  the  sea,  producing  masses  of  flower  during 


May  and  June  and  continuing  though  less  abundantly 
tiU  August. 

Leaves  compound,  with  usually  nine  leaflets  of  a 
sage  green. 

Flowers  pale  yellow,  in  upright  racemes,  often  7ins. 
in  length,  and  very  sweet  scented. 

One  of  the  easiest  plants  to  propagate,  either  from 
cuttings  which  root  readily  in  September  or  from  seed. 
Seedlings  will  generally  flower  the  second  year.  Tree 
Lupins  are  not  easy  to  transplant  and  should  be  planted 
out  when  a  few  inches  high  or  kept  plunged  in  pots. 

There  are  many  varieties  in  cultivation,  Snow  Queen 
being  one  of  the  best  white-flowered  varieties. 


Lycium  chinense,  syn.  L.  barb  arum.     Box  Thorn. 

A  loose-growing,  straggly  shrub  which  has  now  so 
completely  naturalized  itself  in  many  maritime  dis- 
tricts that  it  is  locally  considered  to  be  indigenous. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  4ins.  long,  narrow,  pointed  at  each 
end,  alternate,  of  a  dull  green. 

Flowers  rosy-purple,  produced  singly  or  in  twos  or 
threes  from  the  axil  of  the  leaves,  during  July  and 
August  and  followed  by  red  berries  in  warm  seasons 
or  when  the  plant  is  grown  on  a  wall. 

A  useful  hardy  plant  for  any  dry,  exposed  situation 
near  the  sea  or  for  a  rough  hedge.  It  resembles  the 
common  Privet,  but  is  more  drooping  in  habit.  Cut- 
tings root  readily.  It  is  sometimes  known  as  the  Tea 


Olearia.  Daisy  Shrub. 
A  large  family  of  low,  evergreen,  flowering  shrubs 
from  New  Zealand  and  Tasmania.  Many  are  excellent 
coast  plants,  but  are  too  tender  for  most  inland  gardens, 
with  the  exception  of  O.  Haastii.  Planted  near  the 
sea  in  full  sunshine  with  little  shelter  they  form  most 
attractive  shrubs.  Only  the  hardiest  species  will  be 
described  here. 

Olearia  Haastii. 

A  compact  evergreen  shrub  and  the  hardiest  of  all 
the  Olearias.  The  most  accommodating  of  all  flowering 
shrubs,  it  seems  to  grow  equally  well  in  a  town  garden 
or  in  a  wind-swept  garden  close  by  the  sea.  Few 
shrubs  give  so  much  return  for  so  little  attention. 

Leaves  lin.  to  ijins.  long,  rounded,  thick,  leathery, 
and  like  most  Olearias,  grey  on  the  reverse  side. 

Flowers  white,  produced  in  upright  clusters  of  daisy- 
like blossoms  in  great  profusion  during  July  and  on- 
wards, slightly  scented.  Some  gardeners  dislike  it  on 
account  of  the  untidy  appearance  of  the  seed  vessels 
which  remain  on  it  well  into  the  winter.  These,  how- 
ever, can  easily  be  pulled  off  if  considered  unsightly. 

Olearia  Haastii  will  thrive  in  any  well-drained  soil 
and  little  pruning  is  required,  but,  if  the  plants  become 
straggly,  they  may  be  cut  hard  back  and  they  will 
shoot  up  again  in  the  kindest  way.  It  can  be  in- 
creased by  cuttings. 

Olearia  macrodonta. 

A  somewhat  loose-growing  holly-like  shrub,  reaching, 


in  a  favoured  district,  as  much  as  15ft.  in  height,  and 
attractive  by  reason  of  its  ornamental  foHage. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  with  toothed  margins,  con- 
cave from  edge  to  edge  and  grey  when  quite  young, 
afterwards  becoming  a  glossy  olive-green,  silvery  on 
the  under  side.  They  are  arranged  alternately  on 
purple-brown  stalks. 

Flowers  in  terminal  heads,  of  grey-white  daisy-like 
blossoms,  produced  early  in  July. 

A  charming  evergreen  shrub  for  seaside  gardens^ 
and  also  for  warm,  sheltered  positions  inland. 

Olearia  myrsinoides. 

A  vigorous,  branching,  evergreen  shrub,  6ft.  to  8ft. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  sins,  long,  pointed,  stalkless,  dark 
shining  green,  silvery  on  the  under  side  when  young, 
afterwards  of  a  brownish  hue. 

Flowers  in  terminal  heads  of  white  daisy-like  blos- 
soms in  June. 

Although  this  shrub  has  been  cultivated  for  many 
years,  it  has  never  become  common,  probably  owing 
to  the  fact  that  inland  it  is  badly  cut  in  severe  winter, 
even  in  sheltered  positions.  On  the  coast  it  seems 
quite  hardy  and  grows  freely.  Propagated  by  cuttings 
in  early  autumn. 

Olearia  stellulata,  syn.  0.  Gunniana. 

A  charming  little  shrub,  covered  in  April  with  a 
cloud  of  daisy-like  flowers. 

Leaves  Jin.  to  lin.  long,  small,  narrow,  rough,  dull 


green,  but  quite  white  on  the  reverse  side.  The  stems 
of  the  young  wood  are  also  white. 

Flowers  composed  of  white  ray-florets  surrounding 
a  tiny  yellow  centre,  and  produced  in  great  profusion 
on  the  wood  of  the  previous  season.  When  rubbed, 
the  plant  has  a  herb-like  scent. 

An  attractive  spring-flowering  shrub  on  the  coast, 
but  barely  hardy  inland,  except  in  a  warm,  sunny 
corner.  It  prefers  a  light  soil,  in  which  it  grows 
freely.  Any  pruning  required  should  be  done  imme- 
diately after  flowering.  It  can  be  increased  by 

A  strong-growing  form  of  this  species  is  sometimes 
grown  under  the  name  of  O.  macrophylla.  The  leaves 
are  larger  and  of  a  more  glossy  green.  The  flowers 
also  are  larger.  This  should  become  a  useful  plant 
when  better  known,  but  is  not  hardy  inland. 


Phlomis  fruticosa.     Jerusalem  Sage. 

A  robust,  low-growing  shrub,  and  one  of  the  easiest 
of  plants  in  dry,  sandy  soil  near  the  coast  where  it  is 
quite  hardy. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long,  soft  and  flannel-like,  of  a 
grey-green  colour,  the  under  side  being  white,  netted 
with  veins.     The  young  wood  is  also  white. 

Flowers  bright  yellow,  in  clusters  at  the  ends  of  the 
shoots  in  late  summer. 

A  useful  front-row  shrub,  for  a  warm,  sunny  bank 
or  border,  with  a  faint  sagey  scent.  It  is  propagated 
in  the  autumn  by  cuttings  which  strike  readily. 



Pinus  Laricio  var.  nigricans. 

Better  known  as  the  Austrian  Pine,  is  one  of  the  best 
shelter  trees,  though  hardly  standing  so  much  exposure 
as  P.  montana  and  P.  Pinaster.  It  is  a  cheap  tree  and 
transplants  better  than  some.  Like  all  pines  it  should 
always  be  planted  small — ijft.  to  2ft.  is  a  good  size. 

Pinus  montana.     Mountain  Pine. 

A  dwarf,  spreading  species  from  Central  Europe, 
seldom  growing  more  than  8ft.  or  loft.  in  height.  It 
has  no  definite  leader  but  spreads  along  the  ground 
forming  many  shoots.  Easier  to  transplant  than 
most  pines,  it  will  thrive  in  quite  poor,  sandy  soil. 
Extremely  hardy  and  can  be  successfully  used  in 
exposed  situations  inland  or  near  the  sea.  This 
species  might  well  be  planted  more  than  it  generall}^ 
is  on  banks,  cliffs  and  almost  any  rough  ground. 

Pinus  Pinaster,  syn.  P.  maritima.     Cluster  Pine. 

An  excellent  coast  Pine,  with  somewhat  coarse 
needles  or  leaves,  of  the  darkest  possible  green.  Owing 
to  its  fast  growth  it  is  apt  to  get  coarse  rooted  and 
difficult  to  transplant.  It  is  essential  that  only  small 
plants  should  be  used  and,  where  possible,  they  should 
be  had  in  pots  or  from  beds  where  they  have  been 
recently  transplanted. 

A  native  of  Southern  Europe  it  flourishes  in  the 
poorest,  sandy  soil.  On  the  whole  spring  is  the  best 
time  for  planting.     It  is  easily  raised  from  seed. 


Pinus  radiata,  syn.  P.  insignis.     Monterey  Pine. 

A  handsome,  fast-growing  species  with  bright  green, 
soft  leaves  of  a  paler  tint  than  most  pines.  A  won- 
derful seaside  tree  where  it  can  be  given  a  sheltered 
position.  If  on  cold,  wet  ground  or  full}/  exposed  it 
has  a  tendency  to  turn  yellow.  It  is  not  easy  to 
transplant  owing  to  its  fast  growth.  It  soon  becomes 
coarse  rooted  and  small,  recently  moved  plants  should 
always  be  selected. 


A  group  of  shrubs  all  of  which  are  natives  of  New 
Zealand  with  the  exception  of  P.  Tobira  which  belongs 
to  China.  Not  hardy  enough  to  stand  a  severe  winter 
but  much  more  hardy  than  generally  supposed,  when 
planted  in  a  sheltered  place  on  the  coast.  There  are 
many  species,  but  the  following  are  useful  garden 

Pittosporum  tenuifolium,  syn.  P.  Mayi. 

A  beautiful,  compact  growing  evergreen,  sometimes 
2oft.  to  30ft.  high,  and  the  hardiest  of  the  group. 

Leaves  lin.  to  2ins.  long,  produced  in  clusters,  of  a 
glossy  grey-green  with  waved  edges. 

Flowers  very  small,  purple  and  fragrant.  The  charm 
of  the  plant  is  the  greyish  foliage  and  jet-black  stems 
which  form  a  striking  contrast. 

This  most  attractive  garden  shrub  may  be  safely 
planted  inland  and  on  the  coast  where  it  can  be  given 
slight  shelter.  Like  other  species,  it  is  increased  by 
cuttings,  which,  however,  owing  to  the  hardness  of 
the  wood,  do  not  root  easily. 


P.  tenuifolium,  var.  Silver  Queen. 

A  variegated  variety  with  silvery  foliage  with  a 
white  edge,  which  is  not  infrequently  flushed  with  pink. 

Pittospontm  Tohira. 

An  evergreen  of  compact  growth  and  with  a  stiff 
branching  habit  which  never  grows  to  the  size  of 
P.  tenuifolium. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long,  of  a  shining  green,  bluntly 
rounded,  of  leathery  texture,  with  a  deep-seated 

Flowers  creamy-white,  borne  in  terminal  panicles 
and  somewhat  hidden  by  the  foliage  but  with  a  scent 
equal  to  that  of  any  hot-house  plant. 

This  interesting  shrub  is  easily  grown  in  any  good 
garden  soil,  it  does  best  in  a  warm  and  not  too  dry 
situation.  In  the  more  favoured  districts  it  may  be 
used  with  success  as  a  hedge  plant.  It  can  be  propa- 
gated by  cuttings  in  early  autumn,  with  slight  bottom 

There  is  a  showy  variegated  form  with  leaves  some- 
what larger  than  those  of  the  type,  edged  and  splashed 
with  white. 


Quercus  Ilex.     Holm  Oak.     Evergreen  Oak. 

A  majestic  evergreen  tree  or  large  shrub,  sometimes 
growing  to  an  immense  size.  For  a  shelter  tree  on  the 
coast  it  is  unequalled,  the  dense  mass  of  small  leaves 
giving  remarkable  protection  against  cold  winds. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  4ins.  long,  narrow,  pointed,  but 
varying  a  good  deal  both  in  shape  and  size,  of  a  dark 


gloss}^  green,  paler  beneath,  with  a  prominent  mid- 
vein,  and  of  a  particularly  hard,  tough  texture.  The 
acorns  are  small,  smooth,  about  |in.  in  length,  with 
short,  downy  stalks  and  cups. 

Perhaps  Evergreen  Oaks  should  not  be  included  in 
a  book  on  flowering  shrubs,  but  it  cannot  be  over-rated 
for  coast  planting. 

A  native  of  Southern  Europe,  it  flourishes  in  light 
or  sandy  soil.  Slow  to  start  into  growth  at  first,  but, 
after  a  few  years,  it  grows  much  more  vigorously.  For 
instance  in  a  dry,  exposed  position  on  the  east  coast, 
in  the  poorest  stony  soil,  where  Pines  and  other  shrubs 
had  completely  failed,  it  was  decided  to  give  Evergreen 
Oaks  a  trial.  Planted  in  a  double  row  some  fifteen 
years  ago,  they  are  to-day  large  bushes  12ft.  to  15ft. 
high  and  nearly  as  much  through,  forming  an  excellent 
wind  screen. 

A  tree  of  great  antiquity,  it  was  much  prized  by  the 
Romans.  Parkinson  (1640)  speaks  of  a  tree  growing 
in  a  garden  in  Whitehall,  while  Evelyn  recommends  it 
for  planting. 

It  is  one  of  the  most  accommodating  of  trees  and 
can  be  allowed  to  develop  into  a  specimen  or  kept  cut 
back  as  a  low  bush.  Seeds  form  the  only  practical 
method  of  propagating.  The  acorns  should  be  sown 
in  drills  and  the  young  plants  must  be  transplanted, 
or  better,  potted  up  when  only  a  few  inches  high,  for, 
if  left  in  the  seed  beds,  they  soon  become  coarse  rooted 
and  will  not  transplant. 

The  pots  should  be  plunged  till  the  young  trees  are 
planted  out  in  their  permanent  positions.     May  is  the 


best  time  for  the  final  planting,  and,  if  the  weather  is 
dry,  the  young  plants  should  be  watered  in.  When 
once  started,  they  will  withstand  drought. 

They  have  one  drawback,  namely  that  they  shed 
their  leaves  in  May  and  June,  to  the  great  annoyance 
of  the  gardener. 

RiBES.     Flowering  Currant. 

A  large  family  of  spring-flowering  shrubs  closely 
allied  to  our  fruiting  currants  and  gooseberries.  The 
majority  are  deciduous,  vigorous  in  growth,  and  may 
be  classed  as  one  of  the  kindest  of  shrubs,  flourishing 
in  most  exposed  places  near  the  coast  and  are  found 
growing  in  the  smoke  of  our  large  towns.  Ribes  form 
good-sized  bushes,  but  not  often  more  than  ten  feet 
in  height,  indeed  they  are  at  their  best  when  kept  down 
to  five  or  six  feet. 

They  will  flourish  in  almost  any  soil,  a  good  loam 
suiting  them  best.  Cuttings  strike  readily  in  the  open 
during  the  autumn,  in  much  the  same  way  as  the 
fruiting  Currants. 

Ribes  americanum. 

A  robust-growing  North  American  shrub,  very  like 
common  black  currant.  The  flowers  and  fruit  make 
it  of  little  value  as  a  garden  plant.  However,  it  is  well 
worth  growing  for  the  brilliant  autumn  colour,  the 
foliage  changing  rich  shades  of  red  and  gold  in  early 

Rihes  aureum. 

A  distinct  variety  from  America,  5ft.  to  7ft.  high. 


Leaves  ijins.  to  ajins.  long,  pale  green,  deeply 
toothed,  smaller  than  R.  sanguineum. 

Flowers  bright  yellow,  with  a  little  red  centre,  and  a 
strong  spicy  or  clove  smell.  It  turns  a  brilliant  yellow 
in  autumn. 

Ribes  sanguineum. 

This  with  its  many  varieties  is  one  of  the  most 
satisfactory  of  the  early  flowering  shrubs. 

Leaves  2ins.  to  3ins.  long  and  the  same  in  width, 
with  three  lobes  or  sometimes  five,  rich  green  on  the 
upper  side,  downy  beneath.  The  leaf  in  size  and  shape 
is  very  like  the  fruiting  currant. 

Flowers  rosy-pink,  in  arch  racemes  on  slender  stalks 
about  3ins.  long.  Few  shrubs  are  more  effective  in 
April,  when  a  mass  of  pink  flowers  and  just  a  suspicion 
of  young  foliage     It  also  takes  a  good  autumn  colouring. 

This  species  was  first  found  on  the  north-west  coast 
of  America  by  Menzies,  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury. To  be  seen  at  their  best  they  may  be  planted 
singly  or  in  groups  of  three  or  five  amongst  other 
shrubs,  and  can  be  well  knifed  in  if  inclined  to  become 

R.  sanguineum  var.  alhidum. 

Small  racemes  of  whitish  flowers,  not  nearly  such  an 
effective  shrub  as  the  coloured  varieties,  and  hardly 
worth  giving  space  to  in  a  garden. 

R.  sanguineum  var.  splendens. 

Large  racemes  of  dark  red  flowers  with  paler  centre. 
The  young  foliage  of  a  distinctly  dark  green  inclining 
to  bronze.     A  good  garden  plant. 


R.  sanguineum  var.  atrosanguineum. 

A  handsome  form  with  large,  deep-coloured  flowers. 

Rihes  speciosum. 

A  handsome  species  first  found  in  California  by 
Menzies  a  century  ago,  and  forms  a  branching  bush 
about  5ft.  high.  It  is  interesting  in  being  one  of  the 
first  shrubs  to  break  into  growth  and  generall}^  forms 
fresh,  partly  developed  foliage  the  end  of  January. 

Leaves  lin.  to  2ins.  long,  three  lobed,  and  irregularly 
cut  or  notched,  of  a  bright  shining  green.  At  the  base 
of  each  leaf  are  three  sharp,  red  spines,  the  yoimg 
growths  are  very  bristly. 

Flowers  red,  generally  in  clusters  of  three,  fuchsia- 
like blossoms  during  April. 

This  fine  Ribes  is  quite  hardy  and  easy  to  grow  but 
will  not  stand  fuU  exposure  to  salt  wind  as  R.  san- 
guineum. It  can  be  propagated  by  cuttings  but  does 
not  root  readily,  and  layers  are  most  satisfactory. 


Romneya  Coulteri.     Califomian  Poppy. 

A  vigorous  growing  plant  or  shrub,  reaching  in  a 
single  season  6ft.  or  7ft.  in  height.  Introduced  from 
California  as  long  ago  as  the  middle  of  the  last  century, 
it  is  only  during  the  last  twenty-five  years  that  this 
most  beautiful  plant  has  reaUy  been  appreciated  in 
our  gardens. 

Leaves  4ins.  to  6ins.  long,  very  deeply  cut,  varying 
a  good  deal  in  size,  glaucous  green,  quite  smooth  on 
both  sides.  The  leaf-stalks  are  covered  with  tiny 
brown  thorn-like  hairs. 


Flowers  5ins.  in  diameter  with  a  mass  of  golden 
stamens  in  the  centre  surrounded  by  five  crimped 
pure  white  petals.  The  young  flowers  have  a  delicious 
primrose  scent  when  they  first  open.  The  first  and 
largest  blooms  are  produced  singly.  Later  in  the 
season  they  appear  in  pairs  on  lateral  shoots. 

This  Romneya  delights  in  a  warm  soil  and  full  sun- 
shine, and,  when  once  established,  it  will  stand  the 
most  severe  droughts.  At  first  it  was  considered  tender 
but  has  now  proved  to  be  hardy  in  the  Southern  and 
Eastern  counties.  Further  north,  it  is  safer  planted 
at  the  foot  of  a  south  wall.  Each  spring  the  old  stems 
should  be  cut  to  the  ground  and  a  mass  of  young 
growths  from  the  roots  will  soon  take  their  place. 

It  is  exceedingly  difficult  to  transplant  a  mature  plant 
and  young  plants  should  always  be  kept  in  pots  in 
sand  or  ashes  till  they  can  be  placed  in  their  permanent 
position.  This  is  best  done  in  the  spring.  Neither  is 
propagation  easy.  Stem  cuttings  refuse  to  root,  and 
seed,  if  produced,  seldom  germinate.  The  most  satis- 
factory method  is  to  take  root  cuttings  in  spring  and 
to  place  them  in  a  little  heat. 

A  good  seaside  shrub  where  it  can  have  a  little 
shelter,  but,  as  the  young  growths  are  brittle,  it  is  wise 
to  stake  the  plant  in  the  early  stages  to  prevent  damage 
by  strong  winds. 

Romneya  hybrida.     R.  Coulteri  x  R.  trichocalyx. 

A  useful  variety  possessing  many  of  the  good  points 
of  each  parent,  having  the  robust  habit  of  R.  Coulteri 
with  the  hairy  calyx  of  R.  trichocalyx. 


The  flowers  are  practically  the  same,  the  stamens 
being  perhaps  paler  in  colour  than  in  R.  Coulteri.  So 
far  it  has  proved  to  be  quite  hardy  and  should  become 
very  popular  in  our  gardens. 

Romneya  trichocalyx. 

A  species  very  closely  allied  to  R.  Coulteri  but  not 
so  upright  nor  so  strong  in  growth,  with  a  more  spread- 
ing habit.  The  two  species  are  easily  distinguished  by 
the  fact  that  in  R.  trichocalyx  the  calyx  is  covered 
with  stiff  hairs  or  bristles,  while  in  R.  Coulteri  it  is 
quite  smooth. 

R.  trichocalyx  is  said  to  be  hardier  but  is  not  such 
a  good  all  round  garden  plant. 

Rosmarinus  officinalis.     Common  Rosemary. 

A  great  favourite  of  our  old-fashioned  gardens  where 
it  has  been  cultivated  for  centuries,  forming  a  thick 
evergreen  bush  5ft.  or  6ft.  high. 

Leaves  lin.  to  ijins.  long,  very  narrow,  curving  over 
at  the  edges,  dark  green  on  the  upper  side,  grey  and 
downy  on  the  under  side,  with  a  strong  and  pleasant 
scent  when  brushed. 

Flowers  lavender-blue,  produced  at  the  axils  of  the 
leaves  in  May,  but  appreciated  more  for  its  close, 
fragrant,  evergreen  foliage  than  for  its  flowers. 

Rosemary  is  an  excellent  seaside  plant  and  thrives 
in  any  light,  warm  soil.  It  also  forms  a  good  hedge 
and  stands  clipping  quite  well.  For  this  purpose  the 
most  upright  growing  plants  should  be  selected  and 
planted  i8ins.  apart. 


It  is  quite  hardy  on  the  coast  but  inland  and  further 
north  it  is  sometimes  injured  in  severe  winters.  Cut- 
tings root  freely  under  a  hand-light  in  early  autumn. 

Rosemary  figured  largely  in  the  flower  lore  of  the 
sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries  as  a  sign  of  re- 
membrance. It  was  used  chiefly  at  weddings  and 
funerals  ;  when  used  at  a  wedding  it  was  always  dipped 
in  scented  water,  whereas  for  a  funeral  it  was  dipped 
in  ordinary  water  and  placed  in  the  coffin.  It  was  the 
custom  for  each  mourner  to  carry  a  sprig.  In  the  time 
of  the  plague  it  became  so  scarce  around  London  and 
was  in  such  demand  for  funerals  that  the  price  rose 
from  "  a  few  pence  an  armful  to  several  shillings 
a  handful."  Rosemary  was  also  supposed  to  be 
an  effective  charm  against  witchcraft.  Another  old 
saying  about  this  plant  is  that  "  Where  the  Rosemary 
flourishes  the  Mistress  rules." 


Sambucus  nigra  var.  foliis  aureis.     Golden  Elder. 

A  strong-growing  deciduous  shrub,  valuable  for  its 
bright  golden  foliage,  particularly  when  growing  in 
poor  soil,  in  an  exposed  sunny  position,  near  the  sea. 
Inland  in  good  ground  its  foliage  is  inclined  to  turn  the 
dull  green  of  the  common  Elder.  It  is  useful  as  a 
nurse  plant,  to  be  cut  out  when  the  better  plants  are 

Leaves  large  pinnate,  often  loins.  long. 

Flowers  dull  white  in  June,  borne  in  flat  corymbs, 
and  of  no  special  interest.  Since  the  young  growths 
produce  brighter  and  more  striking  foliage,  the  plant 




ought  occasionally  to  be  cut  down  to  the  ground.     It 
may  be  increased  by  cuttings. 

Senecio  Greyi. 

A  low,  spreading  shrub  from  New  Zealand,  3ft.  to 
to  4ft.  high,  and  often  half  as  much  again  in  width. 

Leaves  alternate,  about  2ins.  long  on  short  stalks, 
glossy  green,  with  a  distinct  grey  edge.  The  under 
side  white  and  felt-like,  the  stems  also  being  covered 
with  white  felt.  The  whole  of  the  young  growth  is  of 
a  silvery  grey. 

Flowers  yellow,  daisy-like  in  loose  panicles,  con- 
tinuing in  flower  through  the  summer. 

Few  plants  are  better  adapted  for  a  dry  border  with 
plenty  of  sun,  particularly  where  a  grey  effect  is  re- 
quired.    Hardy  by  the  sea.     Cuttings  root  easily. 

Tamarix.    Tamarisk. 

A  group  of  maritime  shrubs,  or  even  small  trees, 
reaching  20ft.  in  height  on  the  coast.  The  common 
Tamarix  is  one  of  the  best  seaside  plants,  for  which  no 
position  is  too  exposed.  On  the  edge  of  a  wind-swept 
cliff  or  just  above  high -water  mark  it  seems  to  thrive 
equally  well.  Some  of  the  choicer  species  require  a 
little  shelter  but  are  well  worth  growing  both  for  their 
flowers  and  for  the  graceful  wiry  sprays  of  foliage, 
which  double  up  before  a  strong  wind,  and  remain 
quite  unharmed.  The  Tamarix  is  of  the  easiest  cul- 
tivation on  the  coast,  it  thrives  in  any  soil,  from  the 
poorest  sand  to  a  stiff  clay.     The  plants  seem  to  have 


the  power  of  absorbing  moisture  from  the  salt  winds, 
while,  when  planted  inland,  they  require  more  moisture 
and  better  soil.  T.  pentandra  and  T.  tetrandra  form 
handsome  garden  plants  whether  on  the  coast  or 
inland.  The  Tamarix  roots  freely  from  cuttings  of 
ripe  wood  taken  off  a  few  inches  long  and  inserted  in 
sandy  soil  in  early  autumn.  It  derives  its  name  from 
the  Spanish  river  Tambra. 

Tamarix  anglica.     Common  Tamarix. 

A  strong-growing,  wiry  shrub  with  erect  slender 
branches  and  reddish  bark.  This  species  is  much 
confused  with  T.  gallica  and  there  is  only  a  slight 
botanical  difference  between  them. 

The  leaves  are  very  smaU,  scale-like,  closely  packed 
on  slender  stems. 

Flowers  pink,  in  small  knobs  produced  in  July 

In  the  eastern  counties  it  is  largely  used  on  the  cliffs 
and  on  the  walls  of  salt  water  estuaries,  for  holding  up 
the  banks.  It  also  forms  a  good  hedge  and  for  this 
purpose  it  should  be  planted  a  foot  apart  and  kept 
clipped  annually.  As  a  creeper  on  an  exposed  wall 
it  will  quickly  run  up  25  feet  or  more  and  will  cover  all 
the  available  space  with  its  feathery,  green  branches. 

Tamarix  pentandra,  syn.  T.  hispida  var.  aestivalis. 

A  delightful  deciduous  species  with  silvery-grey 
foliage,  seldom  more  than  6ft.  to  8ft.  in  height,  which 
can,  however,  be  kept  down  to  3ft.  by  careful  pruning. 

The  leaves  are  minute,  thickly  packed  on  the  young 
shoots  in  the  way  that  is  characteristic  of  this  genus. 


Flowers  rosy-pink,  in  erect  plume-like  heads.  Un- 
like most  of  the  species  these  are  produced  on  the  young 
wood  of  the  same  year. 

As  a  garden  plant  it  is  perhaps  the  most  beautiful 
Tamarix,  and  the  fact  that  it  flowers  in  August  at  a 
time  when  few  shrubs  are  in  blossom  adds  to  its  value. 
It  is  seen  to  the  best  advantage  when  planted  in  groups 
in  front  of  taller  shrubs,  and  to  procure  the  best  results 
with  large  flower-heads  it  is  essential  that  it  should  be 
pruned  hard  back  in  the  early  spring. 

Tamarix  plumosa,  syn.  T.  juniperina. 

A  beautiful  species,  forming  masses  of  plume-like 
foliage,  suggesting  an  asparagus  fern.  In  some  cases 
it  attains  the  height  of  a  small  tree  with  a  stem  5ins. 
in  diameter,  but  generally  dies  back  in  the  smaller 

Not  nearly  so  hardy  nor  so  vigorous  as  the  common 

Tamarix  tetrandra. 

A  graceful  shrub  often  12ft.  in  height.  The  earliest 
to  blossom  with  masses  of  small  cylindrical  pink 
racemes  of  tiny  flowers  produced  on  the  old  wood. 
Seen  against  a  dark  background  when  in  full  flower,  it 
forms  one  of  the  most  attractive  shrubs  and  deserves 
to  be  more  widely  planted.  Cultivation  presents  no 
difficulties  and  it  thrives  equally  well  on  the  coast  or 



Ulex  europaeus.     Common  Gorse.  ^ 

A  dense,  spiny  evergreen  shrub,  which  grows  in  vast 
masses  on  our  commons  and  waste  lands  where  it 
produces  gorgeous  yellow  blossoms  during  the  spring 
months.  It  is  not  of  much  value  as  a  garden  plant 
except  on  poor,  sandy  soil  near  the  sea,  where  it  can 
be  used  as  a  "  wind  break." 

Gorse  is  almost  impossible  to  transplant  when  it  has 
attained  any  size.  It  should  be  grown  from  seed 
where  it  is  to  remain,  or  be  planted  out  when  only  an 
inch  or  two  high. 

Ulex  europaeus  var.  flore  pleno. 

A  handsome  double  variety  with  brilliant  golden- 
yellow  flowers,  making  a  great  mass  of  colour  during 
May.     It  flourishes  on  any  dry-sandy  bank  in  fuU  sun. 

As  it  does  not  set  seed,  it  must  be  propagated  by 
cuttings  in  early  autumn.  Small  growths  taken  off 
with  a  heel,  will  root  in  sandy  soil.  Owing  to  the 
difficulty  in  transplantation,  the  rooted  cuttings  should 
be  kept  in  pots  until  they  are  planted  out  in  their 
permanent  positions. 

Veronicas.     Speedwell. 

A  large  family  of  evergreen  shrubs,  nearly  all  of 
which  come  from  New  Zealand.  The  majority  are  not 
quite  hardy  inland,  but  as  coast  plants  they  are  in- 

They  have  hybridized  so  readily  with  one  another 
that  it  is  difficult  to  trace  parentage,  and  it  is  these 


hybrids  that  are  most  useful  as  seaside  shrubs.  One  of 
the  best  collections  is  in  Edinburgh  Botanic  Gardens, 
where  the  dwarfer  species  are  most  effectively  planted 
in  beds  of  one  kind. 

The  following  selection  have  been  found  most  suc- 
cessful on  the  east  coast. 

Veronica  Andersonii  var.  Purple  Queen. 

A  fast-growing,  vigorous,  evergreen  shrub,  but  not 
so  hardy  as  Blue  Gem.  Even  on  the  coast,  it  is  some- 
times cut  by  severe  frost,  though  rarely  killed.  The 
fine  specimens  on  the  cliffs  at  Felixstowe  have  been 
planted  some  twenty  years  and  are  now  some  loft. 
high  and  the  same  in  diameter. 

Leaves  3ins.  to  4ins.  long,  and  lin.  broad,  of  a  deep 
green,  the  stems  fiat  or  oval. 

Flowers  rich  purple  in  long  spikes  from  the  leaf  axils. 
It  begins  to  flower  in  August  and  often  continues  until 
Christmas  in  a  mild  season. 

A  most  valuable  maritime  shrub  planted  where  it 
can  have  a  little  shelter  and  full  sunshine. 

Veronica  Autumn  Glory. 

A  hybrid  variety  of  low  growth,  seldom  more  than 
2ft.  to  3ft.  in  height,  a  valuable  shrub  for  seaside  or 
inland,  one  of  the  hardiest  of  the  family. 

Leaves  lin.  to  ijins.  long,  rounded,  and  stalkless,  of 
a  dark  green.  The  new  wood  has  a  reddish-brown 

Flowers  rich  purple  in  small  erect  spikes.  During 
the  late  summer  months  and  well  into  the  autumn  the 


purple  heads  are  freely  produced.     Like  most  Veronicas 
it  roots  freely  from  cuttings. 

Veronica  Blue  Gem. 

A  dense,  compact-growing  shrub,  quite  unequalled 
for  standing  exposure  on  the  coast,  growing  happily 
almost  into  the  shingle  a  few  yards  above  high-water 
mark,  even  where  it  is  fully  exposed  to  every  wind.  It 
attains  a  height  of  3ft.  to  5ft.  and  even  more  in  diameter. 

Leaves  ijins.  to  2jins.  long,  rounded,  of  a  pale  green, 
stalkless,  and  of  a  thick,  leathery  texture. 

Flowers  blue  to  mauve  produced  from  the  axils  of 
the  leaves  in  cylindrical  spikes  or  racemes.  It  begins 
to  bloom  in  July  and  continues  well  into  the  autumn, 
growing  in  any  soil,  it  is  best  planted  in  the  spring. 
Cuttings  strike  readily  in  the  late  summer. 

Veronica  cupressoides. 

A  distinct,  upright  shrub,  a  spray  of  which  might 
at  first  sight  easily  be  taken  for  that  of  Cupressus 
macrocarpa,  but  of  a  much  brighter  and  paler  green. 

Flowers  mauve-blue,  but  the  charm  of  the  plant  is 
its  foliage.  It  requires  a  little  more  shelter  than  most 
Veronicas,  but  it  is  quite  at  home  at  the  foot  of  a  warm 
wall  near  the  sea. 

Veronica  salicifolia. 

A  vigorous  growing  shrub  attaining  a  height  of  6ft. 
or  8ft.  in  a  sheltered  position. 

Leaves  varying  in  length,  3ins.  to  4ins.  or  more, 
narrow,  pointed,  of  a  particular  pale  green. 


Flowers  blush-white  to  mauve,  very  freely  produced 
and  often  arranged  in  groups. 

An  attractive  plant  when  in  full  flower,  early  in  July. 
Not  one  of  the  hardiest,  but  seldom  killed  outright. 
Cuttings  root  readily. 

Veronica  Traversii. 

A  dense  growing  evergreen  shrub,  forming  a  compact 
rounded  mass  reaching  loft.  in  height,  and  as  far 
through.     It  will  thrive  in  any  soil. 

Leaves  very  small,  rounded  and  closely  packed  on 
the  stalks. 

Flowers  in  small  spikes  of  the  usual  Veronica  shape, 
white  with  a  tinge  of  purple,  produced  in  great  pro- 
fusion in  June. 

A  good,  all-round  shrub  whether  in  an  inland  garden 
or  on  the  coast.  It  is  easily  rooted  from  cuttings  in 
early  autumn. 



The  most  important  page  reference  is  placed  first. 

Abutilon  vitifolium  201,  199. 
Acer  pseudo  platanus  194. 
Almonds  125. 
Almonds,  dwarf  130. 
Aloysia  citriodora  219,  199. 
Amygdalus  communis  125. 
Amygdalus  nana  130. 
Atriplex  halimus  201,  196. 

Baccharis  patagonica  202,  197. 

Barberry  21. 

Barberry,  common  46. 

Bastard  Trenching  5. 

Berberis  21,  2,  9,  ro ;  acuminata  26; 
aquifolium  27,  22,  26  ;  aristata  27 ; 
Autumn  Beauty  49  ;  Autumn  Cheer  49  ; 
Autumn  colouring  26  ;  brevipaniculata 
28  ;  buxifolia  2S  ;  buxifolia  nana  29, 
26  ;  candidula  29,  26  ;  carminea  49  ; 
chitria  29  ;  concinna  30 ;  cultivation 
22  ;  Danvinii  30,  23,  26,  34,  43  ;  Dar- 
winii,  pruning  25  ;  description  of  21  ; 
diaphana  31,  26;  dictyophylla  32,  26; 
dulcis  nana  29  ;  dwarf  kinds  for  Rockery 
26  ;  empetrifolia  44,  43  ;  evergreen  26  ; 
Fortunei  33  ;  Gagnepainii  33,  26 ; 
grafting  25  ;  hedges  26  ;  Hookeri  33, 
26,  47  ;  Hookeri  latifolia  34  ;  hybrids 
49  ;  ilicifolia  34  ;  insignis  34  ;  Jame- 
siana  35  ;   japonica  36  ;   japonica  Bealei 

36  ;  JuHanae  37  ;  Knightii  34  ;  List  of 
26  ;  Lycium  37  ;  Neubertii  38,  34  ; 
polyantha  38,  26,  39  ;  Prattii  39  ;  pro- 
pagation 24  ;  pruning  25  ;  pruinosa  39, 
21  ;  replicata  40 ;  rubrostilla  41,  26, 
49  ;   sanguinea  42  ;   Sargentiana  42,  26, 

37  ;  Sparkler  49  ;  stapfiana  42  ;  steno- 
phylla  43,  23,  26,  31,  44,  201  ;  steno- 
phylla  Brilliant  44,  26 ;  stenophylla 
gracilis  44  ;  stenophylla  Ir%vinii  44  ; 
stenophylla,  pruning  12  ;  Thimbergii 
45,  22,  26 ;  Thunbergii  minor  45  ; 
Thunbergii,  pruning  25  ;  Tom  Thumb 
49,  26  ;  verruculosa  45,  26  ;  verrucu- 
losa,  pruning  25  ;  virescens  46  ;  vires- 
cens  macrocarpa  46 ;  vulgaris  46  ; 
vulgaris  purpurea  47  ;  Wallichiana  47  ; 
Wilsonae  48,  26, ;  Wilsonae,  pruning  13  ; 
Wisley  hybrids  26  ;  yunnanensis  48. 

Bird  Cherry  131. 
Black  Haw  172. 
Blackthorn  133. 

Blue  Gum  213,  199. 

Bone  Meal  7. 

Box  Thorn  221. 

Brooms  102,  3,  8,  9. 

Broom,  common  112,  197;  Etna  117; 
grafting  18  ;  Hedgehog  123  ;  low 
growing  106  ;  propagating  17  ;  Spanish 
122 ;  strong  growing  105 ;  White 
Spanish  106. 

Budding  18. 

Buddleias  51,  2,  9. 

Buddleia  altemifolia  52,  199  ;  Colvilei  52, 
199  ;  Fallowiana  53,  199  ;  Forrestii  53, 
199  ;  globosa  54,  197  ;  pruning  14  ; 
variabilis  54,  197  ;  variabiUs  magnifica 
55,  197  _;  variabilis  Nanhoensis  55,  197  ; 
variabiUs  Pink  Pearl  55,  197  ;  variabilis 
rosea  56,  197  ;  variabilis  Veitchiana  56, 

Bupleurum  fruticosum  202,  196. 

CaUfornian  Poppy  231,  199. 

Ceanothus  57,  S';  alba  flore  pleno  64; 
Albert  Pittet  64 ;  americanus  59 ; 
azureus  60,  63  ;  azureus,  pruning  14 ; 
Ceres  64  ;  cultivation  58  ;  dentatus  60, 
57,  59  ;  dentatus,  pruning  12  ;  divari- 
catus  61  ;  Fendleri  61  ;  Gloire  de  Ver- 
sailles 63,  57,  60  ;  Gloire  de  Versailles, 
pruning  13  ;  Indigo  64  ;  Leon  Simon 
64  ;  nomenclature  59  ;  papillosus  61, 
57,  60,  63  ;  papiUosus,  pruning  12 ; 
propagation  59,  17;  pruning  58;  ri- 
gidus  61  ;  thyrsiflorus  62  ;  thyrsiflorus 
griseus  62  ;  Veitchianus  63,  59  ;  Veitch- 
ianus,  pruning  12. 

Cerasus  luteovirens  147  ;   roseo  pleno  147. 

Cherries,  cultivation  141  ;  flowering  139, 
135  ;  List  of,  138  ;  of  Japan  3  ;  propa- 
gation 136  ;  soil  138  ;  Treatment  of  136. 

Cherry,  All  Saints  152  ;  Double  MoreUo 
152',  139  ;  Hupeh  153  ;  Oriental  143  ; 
Oriental  weeping  150,  139  ;  Plum  200; 
Sargent's  153  ;  Siebolds  151  ;  St.  Lucie 
152  ;  The  Pigmy  154  ;  Waterer's  151  ; 
weeping  rosebud  154  ;   Yedo  147. 

Chinese  Apple  170. 

Cistus  65,  8,  9  ;  albidus  68  ;  candidissi- 
mus  69  ;  Clusii  69,  68  ;  corbariensis  70, 
68,  72,  197  ;  crispus  70,  68,  197  ;  culti- 
vation 66  ;  cyprius  71,  67,  68,  73,  197  ; 
florentinus  71,  68  ;    Gum  66  ;    hirsutus 



Cistus — continued. 

72,  74  ;  hybridus  72,  68  ;  ladaniferus 
72,  71  ;  ladaniferus  var.  albiflorus  73  ; 
ladaniferus  var.  immaculatus  73  ;  lauri- 
folius  73,  67,  68,  196  ;  Loreti  74  ;  low 
growing  68  ;  monspeliensis  74  ;  platy- 
sepalus  74,  68,  72  ;  populifolius  75,  68  ; 
propagation  67  ;  purpureus  75,  68  ; 
salvifolius  75  ;  Silver  Pink  76,  68,  197  ; 
strong  growing  68  ;  Sweet  66  ;  villosus 
76,  67,  68,  69,  197. 

Clay  Land  6. 

Cluster  Pine  225. 

Cornish  Elm  193. 

Coronilla  glauca  203,  193,  199. 

Cotoneasters  82,  4. 

Cotoneaster  acuminata  85  ;  acutifolia  86  ; 
adpressa  86,  84  ;  affinis  86  ;  ambigua 
87 ;  amoena  87,  83,  84  ;  angustifolia 
157  ;  applanata  89  ;  arborescens  95  ; 
bacillaris  87  ;  buUata  88,  82  ;  bullata 
macrophylla  88  ;  buxifolia  88  ;  con- 
gesta  88,  84  ;   cultivation  85  ;   Dammeri 

94  ;  Dielsiana  89,  84  ;  divaricata  89  ; 
evergreen  or  subevergreen  84  ;  for  rock- 
work  84  ;  for  walls  84  ;  foveolata  90  ; 
Franchetii  90,  83,  84  ;  frigida  90,  83, 
84 ;  frigida  Vicarii  91  ;  glaucophylla 
92  ;  Harroviana  92  ;  hebephylla  92  ; 
Henryana  93,  82,  83,  84  ;  horizontalis 
93,  82,  83,  84,  86  ;  horizontalis  perpu- 
silla  94  ;  horizontalis  variegata  94  ; 
humifusa  94,  84  ;  hupehensis  94  ;  in- 
tegerrima  95,  loi  ;  lactea  95  ;  Lindleyi 

95  ;  macrophylla  glacialis  88  ;  micro- 
phylla  96,  84,  89  ;  moupinensis  flori- 
bunda  88  ;  multiflora  96,  84,  95  ;  num- 
mularia  95  ;  pannosa  97,  83,  92  ;  propa- 
gation 85  ;  pyrenaica  88  ;  rotundifolia 
97,  83,  84  ;  rubens  98  ;  rugosa  Henry- 
ana  93  ;  salicifolia  98,  82,  83  ; ,  salicif olia 
floccosa  98,  84  ;  salicifolia  rugosa  99, 
84  ;  serotina  99,  92  ;  Simonsii  100,  10, 
83  ;  turbinata  loi  ;  thymaefolia  100, 
82,  84  ;    vulgaris  95  ;    Zabelii  loi. 

Crab  Apples  3. 

Crataegus  (Firethorn)  156 ;  Pyracantha 
158,  156. 

Cupressus  macrocarpa  204,  193,  197,  200; 
lutea  205,  197,  200. 

Cuttings,  preparation  of  16. 

Cytisus  102  ;  albus  106,  105,  197 ;  albus 
roseus  106 ;  Andreanus  102,  3,  105  ; 
Andreanus  prostratus  106  ;  Ardonii 
107,  103,  106  ;  Beanii  107,  103,  106  ; 
biflorus  112;  capitatus  116;  Cornish 
Cream  107,  3,  105  ;  cultivation  103  ; 
Dallimorei  108,  103,  106  ;  decum- 
bens  108,  106  ;  kewensis  109,  3,  103, 
106  ;  leucanthus  109  ;  low  growing 
106;  monspessulanus  no,  105;  nigri- 
cans no,  103,  104,  105,  197;  nigricans 
Carlieri  no;  nigricans,  pruning  13; 
Osbomii  in,  103,  105;  pilosa  103; 
praecox  no,  102,  105,  197;  praecox 
alba   in  ;    propagation   105  ;    pruning 

Cytisus — continued. 

12;    purgans  112,  106;    purpureus  112, 
106;    ratisbonensis   112;     schipkaensis 

109;  scoparius  112,  102,  197;*  scopa- 
rius  prostrata  115  ;  scoparius  sul- 
phureus  105  ;  scoparius  sulphureus 
"  MoonUght  "  115,  198;  scoparius  An- 
dreanus ''~    '""  •    •""  ^-^ 

iriuuiiusu L  '■^D,  lyj  ,  scoparius  An- 
dreanus 113,  198  ;  scoparius  Andreanus 
"  Butterfly  "  114  ;  scoparius  Andreanus 
"  Daisy  Hill  "  114,  19S  ;  scoparius  An- 
dreanus "Daisy  Hill  splendens  "  114; 
scoparius  Andreanus  "  Donard  Seedling" 
114  ;  scoparius  Andreanus  "  Dragonfly" 

114  ;  scoparius  Andreanus  "Firefly"  115, 
105  ;    scoparius  Andreanus  "  fulgens  " 

115  ;  scoparius  Andreanus  prostratus 
115  ;  Sessilifolius  116,  105  ;  strong 
growing  105;  supinus  116;  supranu- 
bius  116;   versicolor  117. 

Cj'^press,  Monterey  204,  200,  197. 

Daisy  Shrub  222. 
Deutzias,  pruning  13. 
Double  Digging  5. 
Dyers,  Greenweed  121. 

Eleagnus  205 ;  angustifolia  206,  198 ; 
argentea  206,  199  ;  longipes  207  ;  mac- 
rophylla 207,  198  ;  multiflora  207,  198  ; 
pungens  207,  198 ;  pungens  aureo- 
variegata  208,  198. 

Erinacea  pungens  123. 

Escallonias  208. 

Escallonia  Donard  Seedling  208,  198 ; 
exoniensis  209,  198 ;  floribunda  209, 
199 ;  Ingramii  210,  198  ;  langleyensis 
210,  198  ;  macrantha  211,  198,  201  ; 
montevidensis2io,  199;  Philippianaan, 
199  ;    rubra  211,  198. 

Eucalyptus  212 ;  coccifera  212,  198 ; 
globulus  213,  199;  Gunnii  213,  198. 

Euonymus  214  ;  japonicus  215,  196,  200  ; 
japonicus  aureus  215,  196  ;  japonicus 
flavescens  215,  196;  japonicus  pictus 
215,  200  ;   radicans  216,  198. 

Evergreen  Oak,  227,  197. 

Evergreens,  transplanting  8. 

Flowering  Crabs  161. 

,,  Currant  229. 

„  Shrubs,  popularity  i. 

Fuchsia  Riccartonii  216,  198,  200. 

Genista  102  ;  aetnensis  117  ;  anglica  117  ; 
anxantica  n8  ;  candicans  no  ;  cinerea 
118,  103,  105,  122;  dalmatica  118; 
germanica  119,  106;  hispanica  119, 
103,  106;  horrida  119,  103;  juncea 
122  ;  low  growing  106 ;  monosperma 
120 ;  ovata  120,  102  ;  pilosa  120 ; 
radiata  121,  119;  sagittalis  121,  106; 
strong  growing  105  ;  tinctoria  121,  106  ; 
tinctoria  mantica  122  ;   virgata  122,  105. 

Golden  Elder  234,  197. 

Gorse,  common  238,  197  ;   Spanish  119. 

Grafting  18. 



Griselinia  littoralis  217, 198,  200  ;  littoralis 
variegata  218,  198  ;  lucida  macrophylla 
218,  198. 

Groundsel  Tree  202,  197. 

Grouping  9. 

Guelder  Rose  185,  172. 

Gum  Tree  212. 

Hare's  Ear  202. 

HeUanthemum  76,  65  ;  algarvense  76,  68, 
199  ;  alyssoides  77  ;  candidum  77  ; 
chamaecistus  81  ;  Fireball  81  ;  for- 
mosum  78,  68,  199  ;  fonaosum  unicolor 
78,  68,  199  ;  halimifolium  78  ;  Liba- 
notis  79,  80 ;  lunulatum  79,  68  ;  ocy- 
moides  76 ;  strong  growing  68  ;  um- 
bellatum  80  ;  vineale  80  ;  vulgare  80, 

Hippophae  rhamnoides  218,  196,  200. 

Holm  Oak  227,  197. 

Hydrangea  paniculata,  pruning  14. 

Japanese  Guelder  Rose  172. 
Jerusalem  Sage  224. 

Laburnum  47. 
Laurestinus  189. 

Lavandula  spica  219,  198  ;    Vera  219. 
Lavender,  common  219,  200. 
Layering  17. 

Lemon  Scented  Verbena  219. 
Lilacs  4. 

Ligustrum  ovalifolium  200. 
Lippia  citriodora  219,  199. 
Lonicera  nitida  220,  201,  198. 
Lupin,  tree  220. 
Lupinus  arboreus  220,  196. 
Lycium    barbarum    221,    197 ;     chinense 
221,  200,  197. 

Mahonia  22  ;  aquifolium  27  ;  japonica  36. 
Manures,  chemical  7. 
Manuring  6. 
Moimtain  Pine  225. 
Myrobella  200. 

Nurse  Plants  10. 

Olearia  Gunniana  223,  198  ;  Haastii  222, 
198  ;  macrodonta  222,  198  ;  myrsi- 
noides  223,  198  ;  stellulata  223,  198  ; 
stellulata  macrophylla  224,  198. 

Oval  Leaf  Privet  10. 

Peaches  124. 
Persica  vulgaris  131. 
Philadelphus  4  ;   pruning  of  13. 
Phlomis  fruticosa  224,  198. 
Pinus,  Black  Austrian  193  ;   insignis  226  ; 
Laricio  nigricans  225,    198  ;    maritima 

225  ;     montana    225,    197 ;     Monterey 

226  ;   Pinaster  225,  193  ;  radiata  226. 
Pittosporum  Mayi  226  ;    tenuifolium  226, 

198  ;    tenuifolium  "  Silver  Queen  "  227, 

199  ;   Tobira  227,  199. 

Planting,  depth  of  7  ;  general  i  ;  Prepara- 
tion of  groimd  and  4  ;  treatment  after 

Plants,  raising  from  seeds  20. 

Plums  124. 

Populus  alba  193  ;  Canadian  193  ;  cana- 
densis 193  ;  fastigiata  193  ;  Lombardy 
193  ;    Silver  193. 

Propagation  14. 

Propagation  at  Botanic  Gardens,  Edin- 
burgh 15. 

Pruning  11. 

Pnmus  124 ;  acida  semperflorens  152  ; 
Amygdalus  125  ;  Amygdalus  macro- 
carpa  126  ;  Amygdalus  praecox  126  ; 
a%'ium  136,  141  ;  avium,  fi.  pi.  152,  136, 
139  ;  Conradinae  152  ;  cerasifera  127, 
124  ;  cerasifera  BUreiana  127,  3,  124  ; 
cerasifera  flore  pleno  152 ;  cerasifera 
Moseri  127  ;  cerasifera  nigra  128  ; 
cerasifera  Pissardii  128,  3  ;    Davidiana 

128  ;  Double  Gean  152  ;  incisa  154  ; 
japonica  129,  134  ;  japonica  flore  alba 
pleno  129  ;    japonica  flore  roseo  pleno 

129  ;  Lannesiana  albida  154  ;  mahaleb 
152  ;  mahaleb  pendula  153  ;  Mimae 
129  ;  mutabilis  stricta  153  ;  nana  130  ; 
nana  Gessleriana  131  ;  Oshimia-Zakura 
154;  Padus  131;  Padus  grandiflora 
131  ;  persica  131  ;  persica  cameUiae- 
flora  132  ;  persica  Clara  Meyer  132,  125  ; 
persica  flore  albo  pleno  132  ;  pilosius- 
culus  barbata  153  ;  pilosiusculus  media 
153;  Rhexii  fl.  pi.  152,  136,  139; 
Sachalinensis  153,  143  ;  Sargentii  153, 
136,  139  ;  serotina  132  ;  serrulata  143, 
142  ;  serrulata  affinis  144 ;  serrulata 
albo  rosea  144  ;  serrulata  Ama-no-gawa 
145  ;  serrulata  Beni-Higan  154  ;  ser- 
rulata Botan-Zakura  149  ;  serrulata 
Cheal's  Weeping  150  ;  serrulata  Daikoku 
145  ;  serrulata  erecta  145  ;  serrulata 
Fudan  Zakura  145  ;  serrulata  Fugenzo 
146,  138  ;  serrulata  fl.  pi.  136  ;  serru- 
lata Gioiko  146 ;  serrulata  grandiflora 
r46,  139  ;    serrulata  Hizakura  150,  136, 

138  ;  serrulata  Hokusai  147  ;  serrulata 
Horinji  150  ;  serrulata  j.  H.  Veitch 
136,  138  ;  serrulata  Jonioi  144  ;  ser- 
rulata Kanzan  150,  138  ;  serrulata 
Kirin  148  ;  serrulata  Kojima  148  ; 
serrulata  Lidara  nova  150 ;  serrulata 
Longipes  148  ;  serrulata  luteoides  147  ; 
serrulata  Moutan  149  ;  serrulata  nobilis 
147  ;  serrulata  Ohnanden  150  ;  serru- 
lata Ojochin  136,  138  ;  serrulata  Oku- 
Miyako  148,  144 ;  serrulata  Oshima- 
zakura   144  ;    serrulata  pendula  fl.   pi. 

139  ;  serrulata  purpurea  149  ;  serrulata 
rosea  150  ;  serrulata  rosea  pleno  138  ; 
serrulata  Sekij-ama  150 ;  serrulata 
Senriko  138  ;  serrulata  Shiro-fugen  144  ; 
serrulata  Shiro-Shidare  154  ;  serrulata 
Shujaku  152  ;  serrulata  Sieboldii  151  ; 
serrulata  Takasago  151  ;  serrulata 
Temari  151;    serrulata  Tora-no-o  144; 



Prunus — continued. 

serrulata  Ukon  146,  139  ;  serrulata  Usi- 
beni-higan  154 ;  serrulata  Veitchiana 
146;  serrulata  versicolor  151;  serru- 
lata Yae-Akebono  151  ;  serrulata  Yae 
Murasaki-Zakura  149  ;  sinensis  129  ; 
speciosa  154  ;  spinosa  133  ;  spinosa 
purpurea  133  ;  subhirtella  154 ;  sub- 
hirtella  autumnalis  154,  3  ;  subhirtella 
rosea  154  ;  subhirtella  pendula  154  ; 
subhirtella  albo-rubescens  154  ;  triloba 
fl.  pi.  134  ;  yedoensis  154  ;  Yoshino  154. 

Purple  Plum  3. 

PjTacantha  156  ;  angustifolia  157  ;  coc- 
cinea  158,  156  ;  coccinea  Lalandii  158, 
156  ;  crenulata  159  ;  crenulata  Roger- 
siana  160 ;  fungus  Fusicladium  157 ; 
Gibbsii  159,  156  ;  Gibbsii  yunnanensis 
160 ;  propagation  156  ;  Rogersiana 
160,  156  ;  Rogersiana  forma  aurantiaca 

Pyxus  i5i  ;  aldenhamensis  162,  171  ; 
arnoldiana  162,  171  ;  baccata  163  ; 
Eleji  if3,  3,  162,  171  ;  floribunda  164, 
171  ;  floribunda  atrosanguinea  165, 
171  ;  floribunda,  pruning  12  ;  Halliana 
165,  171;  ioensis  166;  ioensis  fl.  pi. 
166 ;  malus  floribunda  164 ;  malus 
floribunda  purpurea  167  ;  malus  Nied- 
wetzkyana  167  ;  Parkmanii  165  ;  pro- 
pagation 161  ;  prunifolia  167,  163,  171  ; 
purpurea  167,  171  ;  purpurea,  pruning 
12  ;  Ringo  168  ;  Sargentii  168,  171  ; 
Scheideckeri  169  ;  spectabilis  170,  171  ; 
spectabilis  Kaido  170. 

Quercus  Ilex  227,  197,  200. 
Quick  200. 

Rhododendrons  4. 

Ribes  americanum  229 ;  aureum  229 ; 
pruning  12  ;  sanguineum  230,  194  ; 
sanguineum  albidum  230  ;  sanguineum 
atrosanguineum  231  ;  sanguineum 
splendens  230  ;   speciosum  231. 

Rock  Rose  65. 

Romneya  Coulteri  231,  199  ;  hybrida  232, 
199  ;    trichocalyx  233. 

Rosmarinus  officinalis  233,  199,  200. 

Rosemary',  common  233. 

R.  H.  S.  Gardens,  Wisley  2. 

Sambucus  nigra  foliis  aiureis  234,  197. 

Sea  Buckthorn  218,  196. 

Sea-side  Gardens,  Hedges  200. 

Seaside  Planting  192  ;  List  of  shrubs  for 
196  ;  Preparation  of  ground  195  ;  Reed 
Fences  196 ;  Shelter  196 ;  Wattle 
Hurdles  196 ;  Seaside  Shrubs  201  ; 
Nurse  plants  195  ;  Planting  and  Group- 
ing 195- 

Seeds  19. 

Senecio  Greyi  235,  199. 

Siberian  Crab  163. 

Silver  Berry  206. 

Snowball  Tree  186,  173. 

Soil  17. 

Spanish  Broom,  late  199. 

Spartium  junceum,  122,  47,  102,  105,  199. 

Speedwell  238. 

Spindle  Tree  214. 

Spiraeas  14  ;   pruning  12. 

Staking  7. 

Sun  Rose  65. 

Sun  Rose,  common  80. 

Sycamore,  common  194. 

Tamarisk  235. 

Tamarix  anglica  236,  197,  200  ;  common 
236,  197  ;  gallica  236  ;  hispida  aesti- 
valis 236,  199  ;  hispida,  pruning  14  ; 
juniperina  237,  199 ;  pentandra  236, 
199  ;  plumosa  237,  199  ;  tetrandra  237, 
197  ;    tetrandra,  pruning  14. 

Tea  Plant  221. 

Transplanting,  time  for  8. 

Treatment  after  planting  10. 

Tree  Purslane  201. 

Ulex  europaeus  238,  197. 

Ulex  europaeus  flore  pleno  238,  197. 

Ulmus  stricta  193. 

Veronicas  193. 

Veronica  Andersonii  Purple  Queen  239, 
194,  199 ;  Autumn  Glory  239,  199 ; 
Blue  Gem  240,  197  ;  cupressoides  240, 
199 ;  sahcifolia  240,  199 ;  Traversii 
241,  199. 

Viburnum  172  ;  alnifoUum  174  ;  Awafuki 
185  ;  betulifolium  175  ;  bitchuiense 
175  ;  buddleifolium  175  ;  burejaeticum 
176 ;  Carlesii  176,  2,  172,  173,  174 ; 
cassinoides  177 ;  cinnamomaefolium 
177;  coriaceum  178  ;  cylindricum  178  ; 
dasyanthmn  178 ;  Davidii  179,  173 ; 
dentatum  179 ;  dilatatum  179 ;  foe- 
tidum  180 ;  fragrans  180,  3,  172  ; 
Harryanum  181  ;  Henryii  182  ;  hupe- 
hense  182  ;  japonicum  183  ;  Lantana 
183,  173,  174 ;  Lentago  183  ;  macro- 
cephalum  184  ;  macrophyllum  183 ; 
molle  184  ;  nudum  185  ;  odoratissimimi 
185  ;  opulus  185,  172  ;  opulus  nanum 
186,  172  ;  opulus  sterile  186,  173  ;  pro- 
pin  quum  186,  173  ;  prunifolium  187, 
172  ;  reticulatum  188  ;  rhytidophyllum 
187  ;  Sargentii  188  ;  Sieboldii  188  ; 
theiferum  188;  Tinus  189,  172,  173; 
Tinus  lucidum  189  ;  Tinus  variegatum 
189  ;  plicatum  190  ;  tomentosum  190  ; 
tomentosum  Mariesii  190;  tomentosum 
plicatum  190,  172  ;  utile  191  ;  Veitchii 

Watering  10. 
Wayfaring  Tree  183,  173. 
Weigehas  4  ;   pruning  13. 
Whitethorn  200. 

Printed  at  The  Wessex  Press,  Taunton. 

University  of  British  Columbia  Library 



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