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Full text of "A history of infusoria, living and fossil; arranged according to "Die Infusionsthierchen" of C.G. Ehrenberg; containing coloured engravings illustrative of all the genera, and descriptions of all the species in that work, with several new ones. To which is appended an account of those recently discovered in the chalk formations"

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of the 

University of Toronto 

Man without learninge and re¬ 
membrance of things past falls into 
a beastlye sottishnesse and his life 
is no better to be accounted of than 
to be buried alive. 

Ex Libris 

W. D. Foster. M.D. Cantab. 

Mr. J. W. Ford, 

No. 9 , Ih. London Bridge, 1847 . 

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LI 1 S T O R Y 


II F U S 0 R I A, 










4"C. 4'C. XfC. 




P K E F A C E. 

In the spring of 1834 the Natural History of Animalcules 
was published. The design of that work may be seen in 
the following extract from its pages :— 

“ Where can you refer me to a description of Ani¬ 
malcules ? What magnifying powers are the best to 
view them with ? What are their comparative sizes ? 
I have found a very curious creature, of such and such 
a form, is it known ? Where can I obtain drawings 
of such as are known ? &c. &c. I have ventured to 
take a general survey of the subject, and the more wil¬ 
lingly, because at present no similar work exists, unless 
it be that of Adams, published in 1787? which con¬ 
tains only a very slight account of the external characters 
of such as were known in his time, without giving any 
admeasurement of their size, or sufficient figures to 
render it generally useful; while its price is such as to 
place it beyond the reach of many persons.” 

The Natural History of Animalcules is now out of 
print; a Second Edition would have appeared, but the 



favourable reception of the first has induced me to pre¬ 
pare the present manual, conceiving greater benefit would 
accrue to science by reconstructing it, and introducing 
the discoveries made since that time, than by a mere 

Dr. Ehrenberg’s magnificent and elaborate work, entitled 
Die Infusionsthierchen , having since appeared, and offering 
a better classification than Muller’s, it has been adopted 
here. I have only to regret that its distinguished Author, 
or some more competent Naturalist than myself, has not 
presented us with an epitome of it. 

In the description of the families, genera, and species, 
I have not adhered to Die Infusionsthierchen , but only 
condensed such portions as appeared desirable, inter¬ 
weaving them with other matter: hence it would be 
unjust to its Author to consider this manual an abstract 
of it. That work being intended to establish a new 
classification, and as a book of reference, a large portion 
of its ample GOO folio pages is occupied in giving the 
synonyms, in references, and in discussions; these I 
have omitted, but every species described in that work 
will be found here, together with many others since 

A new system of classification is seldom acceded to 



wholly at first: that by Dr. Ehrenberg has met with its 
share of opponents. The principal arguments respecting 
it wfill be found herein ; so that the student, having both 
sides of the question before him, will be able to arrive at a 
fair conclusion. 

The translation of Die Infusionsthierchen was made for 
me by Dr. Wiltshire; that excellent botanist has also 
compared my manuscript of Part II. with that work, 
so that the materials taken therefrom are, no doubt, 
correctly given. Since Dr. E.’s volume appeared, some 
discoveries in Fossil Infusoria have been made; these, 
and the Spermatozoa of plants, unknown in this coun¬ 
try, I have introduced. Information derived from other 
sources is duly acknowledged. 

A few words seem necessary regarding the drawings. 
Those for plate xii. were kindly furnished me by that 
venerable and distinguished botanist. Dr. Unger, of Grat.z, 
and the late eminent microscopic observer, Mr. F. Bauer. 
Every original drawing has the artistes name mentioned in 
the description of it, and the others, with few alterations, 
are from Die Infusionsthierchen. The labour and time 
occupied in selecting, reducing, arranging, and condensing 
these, was far greater than most persons would imagine, 
and has been augmented by the discovery, after some 



were finished, that the arrangement of Dr. E/s figures 
did not agree with his text: thus, even species arc some¬ 
times widely separated, and creatures figured under one 
name are described under another; so that, in some cases, 
the drawings had to be made three times. 

In conclusion, the labour and cost of this undertaking- 
lias far exceeded my anticipation ; but should it meet with 
patronage sufficient to repay the outlay, and my health 
permit, it is my intention to bring out, on another branch 
of Microscopic Science, a work of equal extent to the 
present, materials for which I have been for some time 

London, 162, Fleet-street; 

I S th March, 1841. 

Postscript. —Since the above was written, Dr. Ehren- 
berg’s work on Infusoria found in the Chalk Formations, 
published at Berlin, has appeared ; and, in order to bring 
the subject down to the present time, I have inserted an 
abstract of it in an Appendix. 

June, 184J, 


Captain Jones, M.P., Armagh. 

T. F. Bergin, Esq., M.R.I.A., Dublin. 

James Pirn, Esq., M.R.I.A., Dublin. 

G. F. Taylor, Esq. 

Mr. S. Barber. 

Thomas Eden, Esq. 

Rev. C. Pritchard, F.R.S. 

Frederick Smith, Esq. 

John Bindley, Esq., L.L.D., F.R.S., Prof. Bot. University of London. 
Mr. Weeden. 

Mr. Davis. 

J. G. Children, Esq., F.R.S. 

Mr. J. Holland. 

Mr. Caley. 

Mr. H. Browne, Lewes. 

C. C. Hammond, Esq., Ipswich. 

Mr. Giles, Ipswich. 

J. J. Plainer, Esq., Oxford. 

P. Rothwell, Esq , Bolton-le-Moors. 

Messrs. Hodges and Smith, Dublin (13 Copies). 

Mr. John Spencer, Liverpool. 

Mr. Henry Collins. 

-Hancock, Esq., Charing Cross Hospital. 

Edward Clark, Esq. 

Dr. Percy, Nottingham. 

T. 1L Robinson, D.D., Observatory, Armagh. 

C. N. Bancher, Esq., Philadelphia. 

Mr. J. Gowland. 

* Subscribers, who entered their names in the List at the price first announced, 
namely, 18 .?., will receive their copies at that price. 



Sir Henry March, Hart., M.11.1.A., M.D., Dublin. 

Captain Portlock, M.R.I.A., Royal Engineers, Ordnance Survey of 

Robert Ball, Esq., M R.I.A., Secretary to Royal Zoological Society of 

Edward Clibborne, Esq., Royal Irish Academy. 

John Hill, Esq., M.D., Dublin. 

Thomas Coulter, Esq., M.D., M.Ii.I.A., Trinity College, Dublin. 

Hans Irvvine, Esq., M.B., Trinity College, Dublin. 

Mr. Westley. 

Mr. Powell. 

Mr. Calrow. 

Mr. J. Rippingham. 

Robert Ransome, Esq., Ipswich. 

Mr. E. Speer. 

C. G. White, Esq. 

George Leach, Esq., M.ll.I. 

Henry Johnson, Esq., M.D., Shrewsbury. 

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Mr. John Rogers, Jun. 

Mr. Price, Jun. 

Miss Alexander, Dublin. 

John Cowie, Esq., Londonderry. 

Norfolk and Norwich Institution. 

Charles May, Esq., Ipswich. 

William Stark, Esq., F.G.S., Norwich. . 

Robert Saunders, Esq., Exeter. 

Messrs. Simpkin and Marshall (2 Copies) 

Mr. J. Wilkinson, Northumberland. 

John Gay, Esq., Royal Free Hospital. 

Charles Barker, Esq., Gosport. 

R. Caldwell, Esq., Dublin. 

Mr. James Robinson, Liverpool. 

Charles Rawlins, Esq., Lancashire. 

- Phillips, Esq., Liverpool. 

E. H. Finch, Esq. 

St. Peter’s Reading Association, Hereford 
Mr. Lealand. 

Mr. Ilagley, Oxford. 

F. Kiernan, Esq. 

PART 1. 




Among the arguments deducible from the natural world, 
in support of the existence and superintending Providence 
of an Almighty Intelligence, none can carry a stronger 
conviction home to a reasoning and philosophic mind, 
than those which are drawn from that portion of it which 
falls under consideration in the present treatise. Inter¬ 
spersed throughout this world of nature, designed and 
formed by a gracious and All-wise Creator—if, with no 
other intention, still, with that of yielding evidence indis¬ 
putable of His own Omnipotence—exists a world within 
a world, of beings so diminitive, as to have provoked man’s 
utmost ingenuity to bring them within the range of Ins 
perceptive powers. 




“ In the clearest waters, and also in the troubled, strongly 
acid, and salt fluids of the various zones of the earth; in 
springs, rivers, lakes, and seas; in the internal moisture of 
living plants and animal bodies, and, probably, at times, 
carried about in the vapour and dust of the whole atmo¬ 
sphere of the earth, exists a world, by the common senses 
of mankind unperceived, of very minute living beings, 
which have been called, for the last seventy years, 
Infusoria. In the ordinary pursuits of life, this myste¬ 
rious and infinite kingdom of living creatures is passed by 
without our knowledge of, or interest in, its wonders. 
But, to the quiet observer, how astonishing do these 
become, when he brings to his aid those optical powers by 
which his faculty of vision is so much strengthened. In 
every drop of dirty stagnant water, we are generally, if not 
always, able to perceive, by means of the microscope, 
moving bodies, of from 1-1150th to 1-25,000th of an inch 
in diameter; and which often live packed together so 
closely, that the space between each individual scarcely 
equals that of their diameter.” 

The wisdom and goodness of Providence have endowed 
these living creatures with all that can be needed for their 
happy existence. A reference to the drawings, generally, 
will afford some idea of their beautiful and varied forms. 
What, for instance, can be more admirable in structure 
than the Infusoria of the family Yolvocina ? (See Plate I. 
figs. 34 to 57*) I n what class of animals are its members 
so curiously and so symetrically associated together ? In 
the Volvocina, innumerable beings are colonized within a 
simple, delicate, crystal-like shell, whose form, sometimes 
spherical, at others quadrangular, presents us with 



examples of perfect harmony and proportion. Who can 
behold these hollow living globes, revolving and disporting 
themselves in their native element, with as much liberty 
and pleasure as the mightiest monster of the deep:—and, 
to carry our views a step further, to speak in detail of 
series of globes, one within another, alike inhabited, and 
their occupants alike participating in the same enjoyment 
—who can behold such evidences of creative wisdom, and 
not exclaim with the Psalmist, fC How wonderful are thy 
works, O Lord, sought out of all them that have pleasure 
therein !” 

Again, take an example from the most minute of living 
beings to which our knowledge at present extends, such 
as the Monas crepuseulum (see Part II.), and compute the 
number which could occupy the bulk of a single grain 
of mustard seed, the diameter of which does not exceed 
the tenth of an inch: it is hardly conceivable that within 
that narrow space eight millions of active living creatures 
can exist, all richly endowed with the organs and faculties 
(as hereinafter fully described) of animal life! Such, 
however, is the astonishing fact. Again, to take an 
example from those families of Infusoria, who posses the 
power of changing their forms at pleasure, and yet confine 
it to the drawings of the first plate (although the second 
would furnish protean phenomena of a more extraordinary 
character), take the figures of the family Astasieea ( t groups 
68 to 82), and you have creatures capable of assuming all 
the various forms there depicted, in the short interval of a 
few seconds, and that under the observer’s eye. In the 
beautiful little creatures of the genus Euglena, you may 
also perceive a distinct visual organ , by which they can 

b 2 



steer their course with unerring rectitude. Many of the 
Infusoria do not possess this organ. But, mark the 
all-wise dispensation of Providence in this respect!—those 
which have it live, for the most part, near the surface of 
the water, whilst those which have it not, as the Bacillaria, 
locate near the bottom. This circumstance in their 
economy has not hitherto been noticed. 

Lastly,—still restricting our observations to the drawings 
of the first plate, look at the graceful forms of the small 
family Closterina (fig. 63 to group 67), which have long 
rivetted the attention of the most eminent naturalists 
of modern times, and which have hitherto defied all their 
powers of investigation, aided by all the refined and 
searching means which human ingenuity can supply, to 
determine whether they are animals or plants ! No cha¬ 
racteristic, at present known, has been found sufficient to 
satisfy both the zoologist and botanist. 

In short, there is not one species, out of the seven 
hundred and thirty-two described in the second part of 
this work, but offers ample scope for the exercise of our 
deepest reflection, at the same time that it affords an 
admirable proof of the adaptation and design of Creative 

For the convenience of reference, it is proposed to 
divide this part into sections; and, although the subjects 
treated of may not, as respects some few of them, have 
received all that careful investigation which they deserve, 
yet it is presumed that sufficient has been done to lead 
the minds of the more curious inquirer to a further 
research. Previous to which, I present the reader with 
Dr. Ehrenberg’s summary of the subject:— 


1. All the Infusoria are organized, and the greater part 
of them (probably all) are highly organized bodies. 

2. The Infusoria constitute two very natural classes of 
animals, according to their structure, which classes admit 
of subdivision, upon the same principle. 

3. The existence of the Infusoria in the four quarters of 
the globe, and the sea, is proved; as also that of indi¬ 
viduals of the same species in the most opposite ends of 
the world. 

4. The geographical distribution of the Infusoria upon 
the earth follows the laws observed regulating that of other 
natural bodies. 

5. Most of the Infusoria are invisible to the naked eye; 
many are visible as moving points; and the size of the 
body does not exceed, in any case, the 1-12th of an inch. 

6. The minute invisible Infusoria, in consequence of 
their immense and swarming numbers, colour large tracts 
of water with very remarkable hues. 

7. They give rise to one kind of phosphorescence of the 
sea, though in themselves invisible. 

8. They compose (though singly invisible) a sort of 
mould, through living in dense and crowded masses. 

9. In a cubic inch of this mould, more than 41,000 
millions of single animals exist, and constitute, most 
likely, the chief proportion of living bodies upon the face 
of the earth. 

10. The Infusoria are the most reproductive of organised 

11. From one of the known propagative modes of the 
Infusoria—that is, of self-division—a continual destruction, 
beyond all idea, of the individual, and a similar inter- 



minable preservation and extension of it, in air and water, 
ensues, which, poetically, borders upon eternal life and 

12. The copulation of gemmae, which perhaps includes 
the hitherto unsolved poly-embryonate riddle of the seeds 
of all plants and vegetable formations, is solved in the 
family Closterina. 

13. The Infusoria, in consequence of their siliceous 
shells, form indestructible earths, stone, and rocky 

14. With lime and soda we can prepare glass, and 
swimming bricks, out of invisible animalcules; use them as 
flints; probably prepare iron from them; and use the 
mountain meal , composed of them, as food in hunger. 

15. The invisible Infusoria are sometimes hurtful, by 
causing the death of fish in ponds, deterioration of clear 

water, and boggy smells ; but not, as has been supposed, 


in giving rise to malaria, plague, and other maladies. 

16. The Infusoria appear to be (as far as is yet known) 

17. The Infusoria partly decompose (zerfliessen) by 
egg laying, and through that change passively, and mani¬ 
fold their form. 

18. The Infusoria form invisible intestinal worms in 
many animals and in man, even if the Spermatozoa are 
excluded from amongst them. 

19. The invisible Infusoria have also lice and intestinal 
worms themselves. 

20. The Infusoria possess a comparatively long life. 

21. As the pollen of the Pine falls yearly from the 
clouds, in the form of sulphur-rain, so do the much smaller 



animalcules appear (from being passively elevated with the 
watery vapour) floating in a live state in the atmosphere, 
and sometimes, perhaps, mixed with the dust. 

22. In general, the Infusoria maintain themselves pretty 
uniformly against all external influence, as do larger 
organized bodies. It is true that they sometimes consume 
strong poisons without immediate injury, but not without 
an after effect. 

23. The weight of the invisible Infusoria, light as it is, 
is yet calculable, and the most gentle current of air or 
draught can play with their bodies as with the vapour 
of water. 

24. The evident and great quickness of the motion 
of Infusoria, is reducible as follows: Hydatina senta, 
l-12th of an inch in four seconds; Monas punctum, 
1-12th in forty-eight seconds; Navicula gracilis, 1-12th in 
six minutes twenty-four seconds. 

25. Linneus said, omnis calx e vermibus :—either to 
maintain or deny omnis silex omne ferrume vermibus, 
would be, at the present moment, unjust. 

26. The direct observations as yet known upon the 
theory of generatio primitiva are wanting in necessary 
strictness. Those observers, who profess to have seen the 
sudden origin of the minutest Infusoria from elementary 
substances, have quite overlooked the compound structure 
of these organic bodies. 


28. The power of infusorial organization is instinctively 
shown by the strong chewing apparatus, with teeth, which 
they possess, and their evincement, likewise, of a complete 
mental activity. 



29. The study of the Infusoria has led to a more 
distinct and conclusive notion of animal organization 
generally, and the limits which circumscribe the animal 
form ; from which all plants and minerals, that want the 
animal organic system, are strongly and distinctly sepa¬ 

30. Finally,—it results from these inquiries, that expe¬ 
rience shows an unfathomableness of organic creations, 
when attention is directed to the smallest space, as it does 
of stars, when reverting to the most immense. 

Section I .—Localities and Appearance of Infusoria in 


In investigating most branches of practical science, 
especially those relating to Natural History, the subjects 
to which our observations are to be directed are generally 
difficult of attainment, and the inquiry cannot be pro¬ 
secuted without considerable inconvenience. This, how¬ 
ever, is not the case with respect to the Infusorial 
Animalcules. We can examine them in our chamber, at 
any leisure moment we like, and at any time or season; 
and we can procure them, at least the ordinary kinds, such 
as the Paramecium, Kolpoda, &c., with the utmost facility, 
—for they abound in most waters wherein the stalks of 
flowers have been a few days steeped—whilst many of 
the more beautiful kinds, such as the Volvocina, Astasieea, 
Hydatinsea, &c., are to be found in pools of clear standing 

Many remarkable species, and some of the most elegant 


I have ever examined, have been taken in meadow- 
trenches, in the slowly running water, after a summer 
shower, and especially about the period that the first crop of 
hay was mown. Among healthy water plants, such as the 
Chara, Cerotophyllum, Confervse, Lemna, &c., the various 
kinds of Vorticellina and Rotatorial animalcules may be 
sought for with success. The stems of aquatic plants, par¬ 
ticularly those of the description just mentioned, have often 
the appearance, to the naked eye, of being encased with 
mouldiness or mucor , which, on being examined under the 
microscope, proves to be an extensive colony of arborescent 
animalcules. Whenever this appearance is of a bluish- 
milky hue, the species will mostly be those of the Vorticella 
or Epistylis. (See the Engravings.) If you observe little 
dark bristle-like bodies standing out among the stems, you 
may expect them to be the Melicerta; and the little yellow 
gelatinous balls upon the Ceratophillum are, probably, the 
Megalatrocha. In clear shallow pools, the Volvox glo- 
bator (Jig. 55) may be met with in vast numbers in the 
spring of the year; and, when these are found amongst 
Lemna, by examining them under a deep magnifying power, 
you may often discover, within their hollow spheres, the 
Notomata parasita, like so many white specks. The dust¬ 
like stratum we frequently notice on the surface of 
stagnant ponds, is often composed almost entirely of 
species of the most beautiful colours, such as the Euglena, 
Chlorogonium, Pandorina, Gonium, and Bursaria. The 
thin shining film, which sometimes covers plants in pools 
of water, assuming the varied hues of red, brown, yellow, 
green, and blue, is made up also of infusorial animalcules. 
For example—those objects, which under water appear to 



be coated with a thick green matter, abound with the 
different species of the Euastra and Closterium, the Ar- 
throdesmus quadricaudatus and pectinatus, the Stentor 
polymorphus, and Yorticella chlorostigma ; and those 
objects which have a bright orange-coloured coating, 
derive it from the presence of the Stentor aureus. 

The abode of animalcules is not, however, confined to 
the clear fresh water of lakes, rivers, pools, springs, and 
trenches, but extends even to the briny ocean, to strong 
acids, tannin, and the fluids contained in the animal and 
vegetable creation. In moist earth, the species of Bacillaria 
and other shelled animalcules may also be found; and 
even the very air we breathe may teem with them and 
their germs, whilst the gentlest breeze will be sufficient to 
waft them in myriads over the distant waters, and to 
transport these living atoms throughout the face of 
Nature. So that, in short, whether we descend into the 
deepest mines, where darkness ever reigns, or climb the 
loftiest mountains, whose summits glow with almost per¬ 
petual sunshine, there shall we find them located alike. 

Although the colouring of water is sometimes derived 
from the oxides of iron and other mineral or earthv sub- 
stances over which it flows, or from the Oscillatoria and 
other minute algae which it contains, an intensity of 
colouring will also be given it by the presence of infusorial 
animalcules. Thus the Astasia imparts a blood-red 
colour, as also the Euglena ruber; the Gallionella, Navi- 
cula, and Gomphonema, impart an ochreous hue. Blue 
proceeds from the Stentor ceruleus. Masses of water 
assume an intense green from Monas bicolor, Uvella 
bodo, Glenomorum tingens, Phacelomonas pulvisculus, 



Cryptomonas glauca, Cryptoglena conica, Pandorina 
morum, Gonium pectorale, Chlamidomonas pulv., Yolvox 
glob.. Astasia and Euglena sang., when young; Euglena 
viridis, Chlorogonium enchylis, and Ophrydium versa¬ 
tile : yellow from the Astasia flavicans; a milky tint from 
the Polytoma uvella, and Ophryoglena atra, when they are 
numerous. A bright orange coating is given by Stentor 

The rapid and mysterious transition of colour which is 
observable in lakes, and which has often created an alarm 
in the timid minds of the superstitious inhabitants on 
their borders, the microscope has shewn to arise from 
certain changes in the condition of Infusoria. Thus, a 
lake of clear transparent water will assume a green colour 
in the course of a day; nay, more, it will become coloured 
and turbid in the middle of the day, when the sun brings 
these creatures to the surface, and rapidly develops them, 
or causes their dead bodies to ascend, whilst in the morn¬ 
ing and evening it will again be clear. 

The phosphorescence of the sea appears to be occa¬ 
sioned, in many instances, by the presence of animalcules, 
which, although individually imperceptible, often render 
luminous many miles of water by the immensity of their 

In the same manner, large arborescent figures, resem¬ 
bling Fuci and Algee, are formed by the Micromega; and 
masses of great extent by the Epistylis and Schizonema. 

The Bacillaria, or their shell-like coverings (Loricee) 
are often spread over many miles of the earth’s surface, 
descending also to a considerable thickness, the remains 
of which, when they become indurated and mixed with 



argillaceous and other earths, contract the forms of sili¬ 
ceous slate, porphoretic rocks, &c., present us with 
geological facts recorded by the Dmne truth, the investi¬ 
gation of which, by the aid of the microscope, unlike the 
records of human wisdom, biassed by prejudice or alloyed 
by error, leaves not the shadow of a doubt upon our mind 
of their prior existence in another condition. 

We should not omit to mention a very common mis¬ 
take with respect to seeking after Infusoria. Some persons 
imagine that if they procure a portion of fetid ditch water, 
or take a few flowers and immerse them in a flower glass 
full of water, they will be furnished in a few days with 
all the varieties they may desire; the fact, however, is 
very different from this. It is true, that in such cases, 
Infusoria will be found, but they will be only of the most 
ordinary kinds. Those of high interest, either as regards 
their structure, form, or colour, like all the other master- 
works of Nature and of Nature’s God, are not so easily 
attained. Some degree of skill must be exercised for the 
purpose. But as we shall fully explain this matter in the 
section on the method of procuring and selecting In¬ 
fusoria, we need not proceed further with the subject 



Section II.— General External Forms , Coverings , Organs , 

and Members of Infusoria. 

Before entering on the classification of infusorial ani¬ 
malcules, as determined by their internal structure, it will 
be well to make a few remarks upon their general appear¬ 
ance and extemial characters, as exhibited by the micro¬ 
scope. The forms and members of large animals may be 
said, in one respect, to differ but little from each other; 
the comparative anatomist being enabled to trace, by easy 
gradations, one common type throughout the whole, the 
varieties being occasioned by a greater development of 
certain parts, and the suppression of others. Such, how¬ 
ever, is not the case with Infusoria. The general forms of 
Infusoria will be best conceived by a reference to the 
drawings, inasmuch as words would be found insufficient 
to convey an idea of the vast varieties which they assume. 
Some are egg-shaped; others resemble spheres; others, 
again, different kinds of fruit, eels, serpents, and many 
classes of the invertebrated animals, funnels, tops, cylin¬ 
ders, pitchers, wheels, flasks, &c. &c. 

The covering, or outer tunic, of Infusoria, is of tivo kinds; 
the one soft and apparently membraneous, yielding to the 
slightest pressure, and accommodating itself to the state of 
repletion or otherwise of the animalcule, and thus resem¬ 
bling the tunic of the naked molusca and annelida, as 
slugs, leeches, &c.; the other, stiff, rigid, and hard, having 
the appearance of a shell, though, from its flexibility and 
transparent nature, it is more like horn. The creature 
identified with the former of these is termed the naked. 



sliell-less, or illoricated Infusoria, whilst the latter denotes 
the loricated. I shall, therefore, adopt the terms loriccited 
and illoricated in this work, because they appear to be the 
least objectionable ; for, although, in etymological strict¬ 
ness, lorica simply means a shell, yet, as we commonly 
attach the idea of a certain composition to the word shell, 
it may be as well to avoid the use of it, for the following 

The Lorica differs greatly as to its composition in 
different species. In some cases it is composed entirely of 
silica; in others, of lime, with a portion of the oxide of 
iron. In some, it is combustible; in others, not so. 
There is a difference also as to the proportion of envelope- 
ment of the creature within the lorica. Some Infusoria 
are entirely encased, as in a box or pitcher; whilst others 
are only so in part, having merely a shield or carapace over 
them. In the latter, the covering resembles that of the 
Chilonia or turtle tribe. 

As, in very minute genera, it is often difficult to ascer¬ 
tain, by a mere inspection, whether they are enclosed 
within a lorica or not, it will not be deemed uninteresting 
to point out the manner in which this may be determined. 
Having obtained some specimens of the Infusoria, we will 
suppose of the family Cryptomonas (Jigs. 21 to 33), place a 
drop of water containing them in an aquatic live-box, 
compressor, or crush-box, mixing a little colouring matter 
with the water, according to the directions given in the 
section “ On feeding Animalcules with coloured Mate¬ 
rialsf when, if loricated , a clear transparent ring will be 
observed, encircling the animalcules, and keeping them 
separate from the fluid in which they are immersed:— 



should this test, however, be deemed unsatisfactory, press 
down the cover of the aquatic live-box, so as to crush the 
specimens, when the coloured fluid will enter and surround 
their bodies, and by a proper management of the illumina¬ 
tion of your microscope, the broken edges of the lorica 
will be visible, as seen in fig. 33, which is a representation 
of the Trachelomonas volvocina similarly circumstanced. 

Until recently, many of the genera of the smaller kinds 
of animalcules were supposed to be devoid of any external 
organs whatever; but the feeding on coloured substances, 
and introduction of achromatic glasses, has proved the 
incorrectness of this conclusion, even as respects the 
Monads. The simplest external member, observable in 
the Infusoria, is a single, delicate, hair-like filament, situate 
near the oral orifice or mouth, and which has, conse¬ 
quently, been designated the proboscis. When this 
member is of an uniform appearance, it is said to be 
filaform , or thread-like; but, when it tapers toward the 
extremity, like an eye-lash, or cilium, it is denoted flagel- 
liform . This organ is used by the animalcule both for 
locomotive and purpeying purposes. When the creature 
is in rapid motion through the water, this instrument acts 
as an oar or paddle, in facilitating a progressive movement, 
whilst, at the same time, a current is created in the direc¬ 
tion of its mouth, for the procuration of food. This 
member is not easily seen, inasmuch as considerable skill 
in the use of the microscope is required to shew it, nor 
will even that, in all cases, succeed. The employment of 
finely-divided indigo or carmine affords the surest proof 
of its existence. When, by this means, its action has been 
detected, allow the water to evaporate, and you may notice 



a streak or mark, as it dries, left upon the glass, thus 
giving conclusive evidence of the presence of this organ. 
Sometimes the mouth is furnished with two of these 
probosces, or cilia, nearly of equal length with the body, as 
in the genera Chlorogonium. Other Infusoria have their 
oral orifices completely encircled with cilia, in which case 
they are usually shorter than when only one or two are 
perceptible, rarely exceeding one-fourth of the length of 
the body. Others, again, have their bodies wholly covered 
with cilia, which are often arranged in longitudinal rows, as 
with the Uroleptus. (See Drawing, &c.) 

When these cilia are disposed in clusters, as with some 
of the larger polygastric animalcules, their structure may 
be more correctly ascertained. In the family Oxytrichina 
(see Engraving), the different modifications of these fila- 
form organs constitute excellent characteristics of the 
genera ; as, however, they are not limited to that parti¬ 
cular family, I shall make a few general observations 
respecting them. 

Cilia may be described as hairs seated upon a bulb. 
They perform a rapid vibratory motion, the point of each 
describing a comparatively large circle, whilst the base 
merely turns round upon its articulating surface, or part of 
the bulb to which it is affixed. Dr. Ehrenberg is of 
opinion that there are two kinds of cilia, viz. Cilia 
continua, in which the bulb is a continuation, or merely 
enlarged termination of the cilium ; and Cilia articulata , 
in which there is a joint or articulation of the cilium to the 
bulb. Examples of the former may be observed in the 
Stylonchia mytillus; and of the latter in the Parame¬ 
cium aureli, (fig. 330.) 



It may be remarked here, that naturalists have been 
greatly divided in opinion with respect to the functions 
performed by the cilia, more especially those belonging to 
the Rotatoria. It has been contended by some, that these 
organs form the chief instrument for respiration; nor is it 
at all improbable that such is the case, as we find that 
similar ones are placed round the gills or beard of the 
oyster, muscle, &c., to produce currents in the water, and 
bring a fresh supply to the creatures. The disposition of 
the bundles or clusters of cilia in the Rotatoria, and their 
appearance when in motion, may be considered as one of 
the most interesting and curious spectacles in the animal 
creation. Their strong resemblance to toothed-wheels, 
and their continual revolution, have been most fertile 
subjects for the exercise of the imagination ; indeed, there 
are few, if any other, which can excite more astonishment 
in the beholder. Let the reader turn to the various plates 
representing the Rotatoria, and mark the great variety of 
design, and exquisite beauty of execution, there displayed 
in the forms and dispositions of these wheel-like organs, 
and his mind can hardly be restrained from reverting, in 
the profoundest admiration, to that Divine Intelligence by 
which such wonders could alone have been called into 

Setce, or bristles , are a kind of rigid hairs or cilia, used 
as organs for the support of the body, and for climbing, 
but without having the power of vibrating like real cilia. 
These organs are sometimes devoid of the thickened base 
or articulation, as with the genus Actinoplirys (fig. 266); 
whilst others possess a true articulation, as exemplified in 
the posterior three of the Stylonchia mytillus. Some are 




subulate; others have a knob at the extremity, and hence 
termed capitate. 

Styles are thick straight setre, usually seated on the 
under side of the body, posteriorly, and resembling the 
tail feathers of birds. These never vibrate; neither have 
they a bulbous base, nor are their extremities bent or 
hooked. They are used for the support of the body, and 
for climbing. 

Uncini are curved hook-like processes, like thick short 
hairs. They emanate from the under surface of the body, 
and resemble the feet of larger animals. These organs do 
not vibrate, have neither bulb nor articulation, but some¬ 
times possess considerable latitude of motion. 

Variable processes are another description of external 
members, which perform the function of locomotion in a 
very complete manner. In the family Amoebaea, the 
animalcule appears to have the power of protruding, at 
pleasure, any portion of its body, to form these processes ; 
a qualification which has not inaptly obtained for it the 
designation of protean. In the loricated family Arcellina, 
the variable processes are definite, the protrusion being 
restricted to those parts of the body which are situated 
near the opening in the shell, designed for that purpose. 
These processes, like the protean ones, are soft or mem¬ 
braneous, and resemble, though on a small scale, those of 
the Molusca, of which the horns of the common snail are 
a familiar example. The Infusoria, however, have a greater 
command than the snails, &c. have over these processes, 
and a more extended action, in proportion to their size. 

In the Infusoria of higher organization, such as the 
Rotatoria, there are definite processes, of a toe or claw-like 



description, which are mainly used as organs for prehen¬ 
sion. These are generally at the extremity of a certain 
prolongation of the body, which may be designated a foot¬ 
like member. To the inexperienced observer, this process 
has generally been supposed to be the tail; but, not being 
placed dorsally, with respect to the discharging orifice, it 
must be considered as occupying the position of the foot. 
In these creatures, there is a large development also of 
those parts of the body to which the rotatory organs 
are attached; and, in the case where two only of these 
organs are seen, a projection may be noticed on each side 
of the anterior portion of the animalcule, such as to 
have obtained for them the appellation of cars. For 
example, see fiy. 416. 

Section III.— Of the Eyes, or Visual Organs of Infusoria. 

Our knowledge of the existence of these organs is wholly 
attributable to the invention of the achromatic microscope. 
In F. O. Muller’s work, which contains drawings of the 
larger number of the animalcules, lately figured by 
Dr. Ehrenberg, and several of them made with much 
exactness, though on a very small scale, there is not one 
of the Polygastrica given as possessing the visual organ, 
and but one species of the Rotatoria, in which he consi¬ 
dered the existence of it as established. By referring to 
our engravings, however, it will be seen that nearly all the 
Rotatoria have eyes, and that many of the genera of the 
Polygastrica are also furnished with them. If no other 
proof than this could be obtained, therefore, of the 



existence of a nervous system in these animated atoms, 
this might still be taken as a sufficient evidence of the 

Commencing, then, with the smallest, and apparently the 
simplest, as to organization, of the Infusoria, in which the 
eye is perceived, the first genera is that of the Microglena, 
in which instance, as in the greater number of others, the 
colour or pigment of it is red. When we reflect that in a 
living creature, often less than the one-thousandth part of 
an inch in diameter, so beautiful an organ as this exists, 
the inference is almost certain that there must be systems 
also for the performance of various other functions, but 
which, by their very nature, we are necessarily precluded 
from discerning. 

By taking a glance at the tabular distribution of the 
genera of each family in this work—a part which is of the 
utmost value to the zoologist, and on which I have be¬ 
stowed great pains—the reader will notice, at once, that 
numbers of the genera of the Polygastrica are furnished 
with one eye; and, in some cases, which however are 
more rare, with two. 

In the Rotatoria, the number and position of these 
organs may be regarded as excellent characteristics of the 
genera. In the greater proportion of these, as before 
stated, the animalcules have two, and, in some instances, 
three eyes ; whilst, in one genus, the Theorus, as many as 
seven or eight have been distinctly recognized on each 
side of the head. When the eyes are situated in front of 
the oesophagal bulb, to which the teeth are attached, they 
are termed frontal eyes; and when behind this bulb, 
cervical eyes. They are sometimes disposed in a line. 



side by side, as in the Triophthalmus; and at others, 
arranged triangularly, as in the Eosphora. In the Cyclo- 
glena, they form a circle; and, in the Theorus, a cluster 
on each side. 

Section IV.— Distinction between the Infusoria and other 

Minute Animals , kc. 

In our present state of knowledge, with respect to 
organic bodies, there are many difficulties in the way of 
determining on such boundaries as may reduce them to 
well defined groups. Even the line of demarcation between 
animals and plants, which, at the first blush, might be 
supposed to be so very broad and distinct, upon a more 
minute consideration, is not easily settled. The plan of 
this work will comprehend a description of those creatures 
which are generally to be found in animal or vegetable 
infusions, and such as agree with them in their general 
structure and habits. 

In Die Infusionsthierschen , the author has occasionally 
introduced animals which have been classed under other 
divisions of the animal kingdom. As examples, we may 
take the family Dinobryonia, the members of which are 
classed as zoophites by other naturalists. Again, in the 
genus Bodo, some of the species are proper Entozoa, 
and, therefore, ought to be excluded. Having, however, 
taken that work as the basis of my arrangement, all the 
species described therein will be found here. 

With regard to the spermatozoa of animals, our knowledge 
of them is but scanty and confused, arising principally 



from their extreme minuteness, which, even with the 
assistance of our most perfect microscopes, places them at 
the very limit of our vision. The great importance of this 
subject, especially to the medical professor, has obtained 
for it, from several distinguished naturalists, long and 
laborious researches ; but, on the whole, the results have 
been so contradictory, as by no means to justify the intro¬ 
duction of them into this manual. It will be sufficient, 
therefore, to say, that since the time of their discovery 
(1676), up to the present period, all that we know of the 
true Spermatozoa of animals, is, that they are not distin¬ 
guishable from the Cercaria found in the liver of snails, 
the animal organization of which has been made out by 
Bauer, Wagner, and Ehrenberg. 

The recent discoveries of Dr. Unger on the spermatozoa 
of plants is a subject of such deep interest, and so little 
known in this country, that I have introduced a description 
of them under the genus Spirillum; while original draw¬ 
ings of them will be found in Plate XII. 

It has been said that the line of demarcation between many 
species of animals and plants—the transition from the 
one kingdom to the other—is not easily defined. Indeed, 
so close is the connection between them, that some mem¬ 
bers of the families Closterina, Vibrionia, and Bacillaria, 
which are considered by Ehrenberg to be animals, are, by 
many eminent botanists, set down as belonging to the 
vegetable kingdom, and classed with the minute aquatic 
algae of the genera Oscillatoria, Spyrogyra, &c. The true 
species of the two genera just named, it must be admitted, 
are not of animal structure; and Dr. Ehrenberg has given 
us the following reasons why they are not included with 



the Infusoria:—1. They have no oral aperture. 2. They 
never propagate by direct self-division, but by the mere 
dissolution of the gemmae. 3. They increase in size only 
by the growth of the gemmae. 4. They have both the 
external and internal rigidity of vegetable organization. 
5. The impregnation of the Spyrogyra resembles that 
of some of the species of Fungi. 6. They develope 
acicular crystals within themselves, like some well-known 
plants. 7* Their motion is not perceptibly voluntary. 
For further particulars, see remarks on the Closterium, 
Part II. 

Spontaneous Generation. — Many of my readers may 
expect to find some notice of this subject, as the Infusoria 
are considered to have a generatio primitiva , or, in other 
words, are produced by some fortuitous combination of 
circumstances from inorganic matter. That such a state¬ 
ment is untenable, most persons will be inclined to admit, 
who have perused the description contained in the Second 
Part of this work. All the observations that can be 
depended upon tend to show that infusions of vegetable or 
animal matters, whether natural or artificial, only offer 
food for the nourishment of these living atoms, whose 
germs are almost everywhere present, but are only de¬ 
veloped in situations congenial to their natures. It is now 
well ascertained that the old notions of certain vegetable 
infusions producing a definite species of Infusoria is an 
error ; that, in general, we have, in all artificial infusions, 
only common species, and that these invariably making 
their appearance, we may fairly presume their eggs are 
more generally dispersed and more readily developed. 
On the other hand, the Rotatoria, and more beautiful 



species of Polygastrica, are confined to localities more open 
to the fresh air. Ehrenberg, for many years, has experi¬ 
mented with simple spring water, with distilled water, and 
rain water, and these both boiled and cold, as also with 
and without vegetable matter; that in open vessels, after 
a longer or shorter time, depending upon temperature and 
other circumstances, he invariably found the Infusoria; 
while, in closed vessels, they were rarely to be met with; 
so that, I think, we may consider generatio cequivoca, even 
in Infusoria, as an unphilosophical hypothesis; and that 
the same fixed laws of Creative Wisdom, which regulates 
and governs the smallest satellite and the largest starry 
world through boundless space, has established the same 
law for the developement of a living atom, as is manifested 
to us in the largest animal that inhabits this planet. 

Section V.— On the Method of Capturing, Selecting , and 
Placing Infusoria for Examination under the Microscope. 

Having provided yourself with a number of clean glass 
wide-mouthed phials—those containing about four ounces 
a piece will be found most suitable—let them be fitted with 
proper corks, and not with glass stoppers. If it be required 
to have all the tackle neatly arranged, they maybe put into 
a small case, expressly constructed for the purpose, and each 
bottle separately marked. In place of phials, however, 
cylindrical glass vessels, from three to five inches long, 
may be substituted with advantage, as they will lay better 
in the case, which need not exceed the dimensions of a 
common sandwich-box. A good walking-stick, with a 



hook at the end of it, and a piece of twine, should always 
form part of the equipment. As the margin of small 
ponds is sometimes difficult of near approach, I have 
contrived a spring-hook, which is attached to a moveable 
ferule, and made to fasten to the end of the walking-stick. 
This lays hold of the neck of the phial, and enables you to 
charge it from the surface of the water, in the immediate 
vicinity of the stalks of water-plants, a situation generally 
abounding with Infusoria. Take with you, also, a pocket 
magnifier, of shallow power. This may be mounted in 
various ways; but the one I prefer is the triple, having 
the lenses arranged in the same plane; the convenience of 
which is, that you will have three different powers always 
ready for use, without the necessity of moving them ; and 
that, the mounting being flat, it will be very suitable for 
the waistcoat pocket. Sling this, with a piece of ribbon, 
about the neck, and there will be no danger of losing it. 
The magnifying powers usually selected are those from 
five to fifty diameters; the first, or largest, serving to 
distinguish the masses; the intermediate, to show the 


general movements, so as to determine pretty nearly 
whether the water you have collected is worth retaining or 
not; and the smallest, or most powerful, for examining the 
contents with more minuteness. This latter power will 
not so frequently be called into use abroad as at home; 
because, with a little practice, the middle and shallow 
powers will be found to answer every purpose. 

Having now mentioned all the needful apparatus, 
proceed to the nearest ponds of water in the neighbour¬ 
hood, and should there be healthy Lemme on their surface, 
or Confeme, or other aquatic plants, you will be almost 



certain to meet with animalcules. If there be any drains, 
however, communicating with them, the chances are that 
they contain only the common species, which will, by a 
little practice, be readily distinguished by their motion, 
general appearance, and colour. The indications of the 
presence of Infusoria are specks moving about in the water, 
or an apparent mouldiness around the stalks of the 
Lemnee, &c. Should these appearances not be discerned 
under the middle power of your magnifier, throw away the 
water, and repair to some more favoured pool. Be careful 
to take only a small portion of the vegetable matter in 
your vessel, as its decay, and consequent evolution of gas, 
may soon kill all your animalcules. This must be con¬ 
stantly borne in mind. Clear pools of water, in the spring 
of the year, are the favourite places of resort for the Volvox 
globator; clear water, slowly running in clay or chalky 
soils, for the Bacillaria and Arcellina. House gutters, and 
tubes placed to receive the rain water, often contain a rich 
supply. In the winter, you may search for them in water 
among dead leaves, reeds, &c., which may be taken out, 
and their contents shaken off into some clearwater ; while 
the species which attach themselves firmly to these objects 
may be examined without their being removed from them. 
Dr. Ehrenberg states that he has met with good success 
in the winter under bridges, around the piers and outworks, 
and even in frozen ditches beneath the ice. When you 
have filled your vessels, cork them carefully, so as to 
exclude the air, for the shaking of the carriage, when 
a quantity of air is left in the vessels, will often destroy 
them before you arrive at your place of destination. In 
this respect, my mode of proceeding differs from that of 



Dr. Ehrenberg, who always leaves a small proportion of 
air in the vessel; judging, therefore, from my own expe¬ 
rience, I should conclude that he is more careful than 
myself as to their conveyance. The only inconvenience I 
have experienced from keeping the vessels entirely filled 
with water, during the short time of transporting them 
home, has arisen from those creatures which appear to live 
on the surface, attaching themselves to the cork, and 
remaining so when required to be taken out. Remove the 
corks as soon as you get home, and place the vessels 
upright; for which a mahogany stand, furnished with a 
number of holes adapted for the vessels, will be very 
convenient. A gauze covering, fitted to the frame, will 
keep out the dust and blacks, without obstructing the free 
ingress of air. 

We now proceed to the mode of investigating these 
minute creatures under the microscope. If the kind to be 
examined are those which swim freely, and are visible to 
the naked eye, as the Yolvox, Bursaria, and other large 
Polygastrica, and also the free Rotatoria, take a small open 
glass tube, such as is described in the Microscopic Ca¬ 
binet, p. 236, and select the specimens with 
it in the manner there recommended. The 
figure of the tube I here insert from that 
work. The diameters of these tubes may 


from one-eighth to one-twelfth of an 

inch, and their length from four to six inches. 

It may be useful occasionally to draw out and 
slightly bend the extremities which are to be 
immersed in the water. 

When the creatures are more minute than & 



those above mentioned, pour a little water from the vessel 
containing them into a watch glass, and place it upon a 
piece of cardboard, rendered half black and half white. 
The white ground will make the dark specimens apparent, 
and vice versa; thus, the required specimens may be taken 
out singly with one of the tubes, and placed in the aquatic 
live-box for observation. The observer will derive much 
assistance in this operation from the use of the pocket- 
magnifier before mentioned, or from a watchmaker’s eye¬ 

When the Infusoria are extremely minute, they usually 
congregate at the edge of the water over the white portion 
of the cardboard, and may be removed from thence with 
the point of a quill, or of a small wedge-shaped pencil. 
If a quantity of the Chara, or other aquatic plants, be put 
into a glass jar with the Infusoria, in the course of a few 
days, more or less depending upon the temperature of the 
season, the surface will be covered with a thin pellicle, 
formed by the decomposition and extrication of gas, 
causing the small detached pieces of vegetable matter to float 
upon the water, and with them the Infusoria. Let a small 
portion of this film be taken from the surface, by means of 
the feeding pin, described in the Microscopic Cabinet , 
p. 235, and examined under the microscope, and you will 
hardly fail of being highly gratified. Among the most 
interesting genera collected from the surface of these infu¬ 
sions, in the manner just stated, are those belonging to the 
families Arcellina and Astasieea. After the film has 
remained some days upon the water, many of the above- 
mentioned genera disappear, and are succeeded by those of 
the family Yibrionia, especially the Bacterium. These, 



however, may be easily overlooked; for they merely 
resemble, even under a power of 250 diameters, scintilla¬ 
tions, or the vibrations of cilia, among the vegetable 
matter. But, when carefully examined under a deeper 
power, they will appear like so many small short rods, 
each rod, or chain, having a distinct movement of its 

Section VI .—Effects of Temperature on Infusoria, 

As vitality in these creatures is not destroyed by the 

ordinary cold of winter, most of the common Polygastrica 

may be found at that season in ponds under the ice. The 

Vorticella microstoma will live after being exposed to 

8° of Fah., and the ice gradually thawed; although the 

number in this case may not exceed one in a hundred. 

Below this temperature they will not survive. The same 

may be said of the Monas termo and spirillum, the 

Paramecium aurelium, Cyclidium glaucoma. Glaucoma 
scintillans, and Kolpoda cucullus. When Infusoria are 
destroyed by the cold, no rupture or injury will be appa¬ 
rent on their bodies, excepting with the Chilodon cucullus, 
and some few others, which, under these circumstances, 
will often become dissipated. The Stentor polymorphus 
and mulleri will not live many hours in a temperature 
of 9° Fah.; and arborescent Vorticella, when subjected to 
that degree of cold, fall from the stalks and die. 

The Rotatorial animalcules cannot endure so low a 
temperature as those above named. 

When a small quantity of water, having animalcules 



in it, becomes frozen, and is placed under a microscope, 
in a cold situation, Dr. Ehrenberg states that if the ice be 
clear, each animalcule or group will evidently be sur¬ 
rounded by an exceedingly small portion of water, which 
that naturalist supposes to be occasioned by the superior 
temperature or animal heat of the creatures preventing 
congelation; and he is of opinion, that in all cases where 
this portion of the water freezes, the animalcule neces¬ 
sarily dies. 

If the water containing polygastric Infusoria be gra¬ 
dually raised to a temperature of even 125° of Fah. these 
creatures will live; and Dr. E. observes, that some of the 
Chlamidomonas pulvisculus existed, on one occasion, in 
water at 200° of Fah. If the increase of temperature be 
sudden, the animalcules die at 140°, notwithstanding it 
be kept up for only half a minute. 

Section VII .—Effects of Air , Chemical Mixtures, and 

Poisons , on Infusoria . 

That animalcules, like every other part of the animal 
creation, continually require fresh supplies of atmospheric 
air for their support, may be deduced from a variety 
of experiments. If a thin pellicle of oil be spread 
over the surface of the water in which they are retained, 
they very soon die from exhaustion; and indeed, it must 
have often happened to those who are in the habit of 
collecting Infusoria, that when the cork has been left, by 
accident, too long in a phial full of water, they have ex¬ 
perienced this mishap. This is especially the case with 



respect to the large Rotatoria: whenever experiments 
have been made with these creatures under an exhausted 
receiver, the result has invariably been that vitality 
ceases soon after the air has been expelled. Dr. E. 
states, that they exist much longer in an atmosphere of 
nitrogen than in carbonic acid or hydrogen. The vapour 
of sulphur soon puts a period to their existence. 

Poisons, which only mix mechanically with water, do 
not appear to affect them materially, but those which are 
soluble, or combine chemically with it, speedily destroy 
their lives. Many of the Infusoria can accommodate 
themselves to different fluids, provided that the transition 
be not too sudden. Thus, similar species may be found 
in rivers, at their source, where the water is perfectly 
fresh, and at their very mouths or junction with the salt 
water of the ocean. Hydatinea have been fed upon 
powdered rhubarb without being sensibly affected by it; 
nor does calomel or corrosive sublimate kill them; at 
least they live some time after these have been mixed with 
the water. Strvchnia causes instant death. 

Section VIII. — Effects of Electricity , Galvanism , and 

Magnetism , on Infusoria. 

All the experiments on record, which have been made 
upon animalcules with these powerful agents, appear to 
me to have been conducted without a due regard having 
been paid to their diminutive size; and hence, as might 
be expected, the results have proved fatal to their exis¬ 
tence. We have, therefore, yet to learn what effects 



might be produced under proper modifications. To render 
this proposition more intelligible, suppose, for instance, 
that we wished to ascertain the temperature in which 
fish would live, we should not expect to arrive at the 
desired information by plunging them suddenly into 
boiling water. Dr. E. has remarked that a shock from 
a leaden jar, charged with twenty sparks from an Elec- 
trophorus, having a resinous plate seven and a half 
inches square, and a collector five and a half inches, 
suddenly killed the Volvox globator, Stentor niger and 
aureus, Ampileptus moniliger, Chalamidomonas and Eu- 
glena viridis. The bodies of the Ophryoglena atra and 
Stentor polymorphus were entirely dissipated by it, and 
also those of the Epistylis flavicans, after having been first 
thrown from their stalks. It generally required two such 
shocks to kill the Paramecium aurelia. When the elec¬ 
trical current passes near, and not through them, their 
movements appear to be unsteady, in the same manner as 
when the mental faculties in the larger animals are dis¬ 
turbed. Electricity, slowly produced, has a more powerful 
effect than when it is accompanied with rapid sparks. If 
water, containing animalcules, be placed between the poles 
of a galvanic battery, so as to be decomposed, of course, 
the creatures die ; and a like termination will be occasioned 
by magnetic currents. 

For a description of an apparatus for electrifying Infu¬ 
soria, see Tracts. 



Section IX .—On the Resuscitation of Infusoria. 

In almost all ages of the world there has been evinced a 
restless desire within us to pry into the nature or prin¬ 
ciple of life, and the precise conditions on which it is 
retained; and, notwithstanding that our bodies, its pre¬ 
sent abiding glace, are confessedly frail and perishable, the 
unravelling of an invisible and immaterial agent has been 
sought for by a reference to them. Hence, each suc¬ 
ceeding generation has occupied itself in proving the 
fallacy of preceding theories on this mysterious subject, 
and in forming new ones of their own. Even in modern 
times we have been told that dead matter, under certain 
circumstances, becomes spontaneously alive, such as 
horse-hair under water, &c. Too true it is, however, 
that, let our researches be what they may, unless our 
views are directed upwards to a higher principle than 
anything that we can argue upon, in what we see around 
us, our labours must end in nought but “ vanity and vex¬ 
ation of spirit.” 

What, perhaps, has tended to awaken our inquisi¬ 
tiveness on this subject, more than anything else, has 
been that death-like condition of sleep, or suspended 
animation, in which human beings and other animals have 
been known to remain for a great length of time, during 
which the body is motionless, and apparently unsustained 
by any nourishment whatever. In 1701, Leeiiwenhoek 
observed these appearances in the llotatorial Infusoria; 
and to such an extent did his observations proceed, that 




he declares they were capable of being removed from their 
native element, dried up, and preserved in this condition 
for months, and even years, and then resuscitated on being 
again moistened with water. That Rotatorial Infusoria 
will revive, after remaining a day or two, apparently in a 
dry state, I have particularly mentioned in the Natural 
History of Animalcules. The distinguished author of 
Die Infusionstflierchen , after many illustrations and com¬ 
parisons made with reference to this subject, affirms, 
that wherever these creatures are completely desiccated, 
and their natural heat is gone, life can never again be 
restored. In this respect, they exactly correspond with 
animals of a larger kind; like them, for a time, they may 
continue in a lethargic and motionless condition, but, as it 
is well known, there will be going on, within them, a 
consumption, or wasting away of the body, equivalent to 
so much outward nourishment as would be needed for the 
sustentation of life. 

Section X.— On the Supposed Method of Manufacturing 


Within the last few years an idea has been prevalent, 
and many persons have occupied themselves in endea¬ 
vouring to realize so extraordinary a discovery, that 
animal life may be produced by means of galvanism. 
The creatures said to have been thus brought into exis¬ 
tence, that have come under my observation, were neither 
the most minute, nor the most simple, in organization; 
and evidently belonged to the class Acari. That many 



scientific men should be more than sceptical upon this 
point, cannot be wondered at; and were it not that the 
notion originated with, and the experiments have been 
conducted by, one who holds a most honourable position 
amongst us, it would not have been entertained for a 
moment. That some mistake exists with respect to com¬ 
municating vitality to matter, by this means, there cannot 
be a doubt. 

It is not surprising that Linneus, with the imperfect 
microscopes of his day, should mistake Infusorial animal¬ 
cules for minute drops of oil in the w r ater; but that 
Dutrochet, so late as 1833, should publish to the world 
that all the globular and elliptical Infusoria were vesicles 
set in motion by streams of electricity, and therefore could 
be artificially produced, is but another exemplification of the 
fact, that men of the most distinguished talents in one 
department of science may form very erroneous notions 
on others, especially where long continued observations, 
and very accurate perceptions, are indispensable for arriv¬ 
ing at right conclusions respecting them. 

In 1834, Cagniard Latour made a public declaration, 
that he had manufactured animalcules by the aid of car- 
buretted hydrogen. This assertion led to an examination, 
subsequently, of the creatures, by M. Audouin, who 
ascertained them to be a species of the Entomostracea, 
and who did not hesitate to pronounce the method, by 
which they were said to have been produced, to be 

The most ingenious experiment on the imaginary pro¬ 
duction of Infusoria is that of Professor Bonsdorffs, 
which he communicated to the German Naturalists’ Asso¬ 
rt 2 



ciation in 1834. The following is Ehrenberg’s account 
of it:—“ If a solution of the chloride of aluminum be 
dropped into a solution of potassa, by the attenuate 
precipitation and solution of the aluminum in the excess 
of alkali, an appearance will be given to the drop of 
aluminated matter, by the chemical changes and re¬ 
actions which take place, as if the Amoeba diffluens (see 
description, Part II.) were actuallypresent, both as to 
its form and evolutions, and it will seem to be alive. 
Such appearance is considered, by its able discoverer, 
as bearing the same relationship to the real animalcule 
as a doll or a figure moved by mechanism does to a living 

Section XI.— On the Evolution of Light by Infusoria. 

Several small animals are known to emit light, appa¬ 
rently phosphorescent, as the female glow-worm, and 
some species of the Miriapoda, which I have frequently 
noticed in the gravel walks of a garden, on a dark autum¬ 
nal evening. This emission of light, whether in the 
above-named animals, or in Infusoria, is evidently the 
result of a vital process. In the latter class of creatures, 
it seems like a single spark, of a moment’s duration, but 
capable of being repeated at short intervals. That this 
light is electrical, analogy would lead us to infer; as 
experiments made upon larger creatures have proved it to 
be such with them. 

The phosphorescence of the sea is produced by Infu¬ 
soria, chiefly belonging to the family Cyclidina; and when 



we take into consideration the minuteness of these 
creatures, the largest not exceeding the 1-100th of an 
inch, whilst some of them are scarcely l-12th of that 
size, our ideas of computation are too limited to form any 
just notion of the number which sometimes illuminate 
many miles in extent of the ocean’s surface. 

Section XII.— On the Relative Number or Abundance of 

different Infusoria. 

It has been stated that some species of Infusorial 
animalcules are more commonly met with than others, 
and occur in greater numbers. In the List of Species, 
inserted at the end of this part, those marked with a 
single (*) thus, are common in vegetable infusions, while 
those with (* *) thus, are more abundant, and those with a 
greater number of stars attached to their respective names 
are still more universally found. 

The most numerous in animal infusions are those of 

the Monas crepusculum, Spirillum undula, Vibrio regula, 

Leucophrys carnium, and Polytoma uvella; in sea water, 

the Paramecium milium and the Stvlonvchia. 

* » 

Section XIII.— On the Method of Feeding Infusoria with 

Coloured Substances. 

Select for this purpose such coloured substances as are 
entirely free from metallic oxides, and not chemically 
soluble in water. They must, however, be capable of a 



very minute mechanical division. The bodies generally 
used are those of carmine, indigo, and sap-green, the first 
being preferable. This material should be as pure as 
possible. Take a piece or cake of it, and rub the corner 
once or twice on the stage-glass, or what perhaps is better, 
the lower plate of an aquatic live-box, having first moist¬ 
ened it with a drop of water. The colouring requisite 
for the purpose is very small—only just sufficient to 
render it appreciable to the naked eye—for if there be 
too much, the probability is, that the particles will be too 
large for the creatures to imbibe. Having thus prepared 
the coloured food, place a drop of it beside a drop of the 
water containing the animalcules, but not so that they 
may come into contact; then put on gently the cover of 
the live-box, and lower it sufficiently to flatten the two 
drops of fluid, but not to force them to unite. Now 
place the live-box under the microscope, and examine the 
animalcules as closely as you can, and especially so as to 
ascertain that their stomachs are colourless; then press 
down the cover until the drops of fluid intermix, which 
may be done under the microscope, and you will imme¬ 
diately perceive the creatures in great activity, and readily 
distinguish the cilia, proboscides, and other organs, of those 
which possess them, and in a few seconds their stomachs 
will be filled with the coloured substance. Some animal¬ 
cules, however, take a considerable time to effect this, but 
it is an exception to the general rule. 



Section XIV.— On the Mode of Drying and Preserving 


Although such exceedingly small creatures as animal¬ 
cules, when dead, lose many of their characteristic features, 
especially the soft-bodied ones, yet, for the verification of 
some parts of their structure, it is absolutely necessary 
to observe them in a quiescent state; and hence, a method 
of effectually drying and preserving them must be con¬ 
sidered essential. Bacellaria, in this condition, have often 
been preserved by botanists, in collections of minute 
Algae, and with very little management; but other families 
will require more care. Having selected the creature you 
wish to preserve, remove it with a fine pointed quill, and 
put it on a slip of glass, or other convenient receptacle. 
By this means there will be but a small portion of water 
surrounding it, which may be extracted by some pointed 
pieces of ragged blotting paper. When you have with¬ 
drawn as much of the water as possible from the speci¬ 
men, the remaining moisture may be readily evaporated, by 
placing the glass on the palm of the hand. The Hydatinea 
may be best preserved when destroyed with strychnia, 
and then rapidly dried. By what mode soever life may 
be taken away, it is absolutely expedient that they should 
be speedily and carefully dried, otherwise their bodies will 
be decomposed, gases evolved, and the object will fail. 

The best way of mounting for the microscope dried 
Infusoria will be on slips of plate glass, having a po¬ 
lished circular cavity, in which to deposit the creatures. 



These may be numbered, or otherwise marked, with a 
writing diamond, and a large collection of them arranged 
in a very compact case. 

Fossil Infusoria are best preserved in Canada balsam, 
under thin slips of glass. 

Infusoria, when simply dried, may be relaxed again by 
moisture, and some of them will bear this operation several 
times—the soft-bodied ones, however, only once. The 
general colour of Infusoria is retained for a considerable 
time after they have been dried, but the pigment of the 
eye is soon lost. It may be well to observe, that when the 
preserved specimens are intended to illustrate the nutritive 
system, they should be previously fed with colouring mat¬ 
ter ; but for observations on their muscular system this is 
not advisable. 

Section XV. — On Infusoria contained in Flints and 

Semi- Opals. 

It is hardly possible to take up and examine a dozen 
flints without discovering species of Infusoria inclosed 
within them. These may be best seen under the micro¬ 
scope, when very thin sections are made, like those of 
fossil woods, teeth, coal, &c.: when these are polished and 
cemented on glass sliders they are permanent objects. 
Small splinters of flint, broken off, may be used for 
investigation by the microscope, but such experiments 
are attended with very considerable danger to the object- 
glass of your instrument, by its being brought accidentally 
into contact with their sharp edges, which oftentimes cut 



and injure it without your being immediately aware of 
the fact. 

Section XVI .—On Microscopes for Examining Infusoria. 

A good microscope cannot be fully appreciated until it is 
brought to the examination of living Infusoria. It is true, 
that we may make use of the scales of insects and other 
similar objects as tests—we may see with wonder the 
different markings on the surface of these dust-like atoms, 
but our admiration will be carried still higher, by the 
development of those brilliant colours and delicate tints 
which are discoverable in many species of the minute 
Infusoria. The criterion of a good microscope, then, will 
be, that not only the forms of these little creatures, their 
curious structures, organization, and digestive apparatus, 
are exhibited with perfect clearness, but that there is also 
shewn the deep and brilliant colouring of their visual 
organs, and the delicate tints of their variable, retractile, 
and locomotive processes. These living points —for the 
space they individually occupy is hardly conceivable any 
more than, taking the other extreme, and carrying our 
views over the vast expanse of the starry heavens, we can 
scarcely appreciate their magnitudes; and hence our 
thoughts are alike directed upwards to a Being, whose com¬ 
prehensiveness knows no limitation or bounds. In this 
respect, the pursuit of the astronomer and the naturalist 
may be said to be the same, for both travel very far, but 
are ultimately lost in that infinity of purpose, to which 
the human intellect cannot attain. What can be more 



wonderful than the contemplation of these atoms, these 
limits of man’s perception, endued with living faculties 
and instincts, in all respects as perfect as those of any 
other created being. 

The various methods of managing the microscope, and 
the different apparatus subsidiary to it, have been so fully 
expatiated upon by the late Dr. Goring, my much es¬ 
teemed colleague, and myself, in our joint works. The 
Microscopic Illustrations, Cabinet,, Micrographia, fcc. f that 
it will only be necessary here to notice, briefly, a few par¬ 
ticulars, which more especially relate to the subject before 
us, and to refer the reader to those works for all further 
information. As the expense of instruments, in the com¬ 
mencement of our studies, is often an important consider¬ 
ation, a few words on this head may not be considered 
inappropriate, on this occasion. Dr. Ehrenberg informs 
us, that he began his observations with a common micro¬ 
scope, and, although by his superior talent and unwearied 
labour, thus aided, he was enabled to make some important 
discoveries, yet he delayed, for some years, the publication 
of them, until he could verify them with better instruments. 

At the period when our first publication was announced 
(1827) an interest in microscopic science had to be 
created, to which I may add, that the achromatic micro¬ 
scope was then in its infancy, Dr. Goring having only a 
short time previous (1824) discovered the conditions on 
which their efficacy depended, namely, large angular 
aperture free from aberration. That publication aroused 
the attention of scientific men to the subject, but instru¬ 
ments, even such as those then made, were very difficult 
to procure. To obviate this difficulty, Dr. Goring and 



myself determined on presenting the public with detailed 
methods of constructing and testing achromatic micro¬ 
scopes. I further directed the attention of my workmen to 
the subject, and gave them, from time to time, such infor¬ 
mation, as, with their skill and perseverance, might advance 
them in this branch of art, and I believe, up to the present 
time, the only successful artists in this country are those 
who have been in my employ. 

In cases where an achromatic microscope cannot be 
procured, recourse should be had to single lenses or 
doublets, for the ordinary compound, however well con¬ 
structed, cannot be depended upon. 

With respect to the cost of an effective microscope, 
with a moderate equipment of apparatus, such for example 
as the one described in the 6th chap, of the Microscopic 
Illustrations , which is of the best construction I have seen, 
the price would now be from 20 to 30 guineas. As there 
are a great many persons who require only a plain, sound 
instrument, of more moderate cost, I have deemed it ex¬ 
pedient to take this also into consideration, and, after 
much application and repeated experiments, have at length 
produced one, in every way suitable to the case. Such is 
my vertical tripod achromatic microscope. It may be 
stated that nine-tenths of the observations recorded in this 
work may be repeated and tested by this microscope. 
On comparing the above instruments with that used by 
Dr. Ehrenberg, there is no doubt that, in point of mecha¬ 
nical construction, they are greatly superior, whilst the 
optical part is equal to any with which his researches have 
been made. 

In adverting to this portion of my subject, I am 



necessarily obliged to speak of my own productions, and 
even to praise them, however objectionable it may seem, 
and repugnant to my own feelings; but I have done so, 
because firmly persuaded that it will be serviceable to 
many persons, and this, I am sure, will be received as a 
sufficient apology for intruding myself into this work. 
In order to draw a fair comparison between different in¬ 
struments, I have, at great cost, possessed myself of the 
best object glasses of all the foreign artists of note, and 
having most patiently and carefully made trial of their 
efficiency, no doubt rests upon my mind as to the re¬ 
lative qualities of each. Of the mechanical part of the 
continental microscopes I have elsewhere expressed an 

The magnifying powers of a complete microscope for 
perfectly examining all kinds of Infusoria should range 
from 50 to 1000 diameters; and as this cannot be obtained 
with first-rate glasses, without recourse being had to 
several sets, such an instrument would be necessarily 
expensive. The microscope first mentioned has two or 
three sets of glasses, varying from 35 to 500; and the 
second, one set, from 80 to 300 diameters; so that, as 
before stated, all the most interesting observations on 
Infusoria may be conducted with either of these instru¬ 
ments, whilst additional sets may be obtained as occasion 

It is important to notice, that in all cases where the 
magnifying powers of microscopes are spoken of, the 
standard of sight used in computing them should be 
known, otherwise very erroneous ideas will be formed. 
In all my publications, from 1827 up to the present time, 



reference has been had to a ten inch standard , and the 
enumeration of powers has been in diameters , or what are 
sometimes termed linear; thus, what I compute at 100 is 
often spoken of as 10,000, that being the superficial 
measurement; ample reasons for the adoption of linear 
measure , and for that standard, are given in my works on 
this subject. 

In demonstrating minute portions of the structures of 
Infusoria, a power of 800 diameters will sometimes be 
requisite, unless the sight be exceedingly good. I have 
invariably observed that aged persons require greater 
assistance, in this respect, than young ones. Noth with¬ 
standing this, it will be impossible to arrive at an accurate 
knowledge of the creature you may be studying, even 
with a power of 800, unless it has been previously 
examined under a lower one, so that the relations of 
its several parts may be first clearly understood. When¬ 
ever the object in view is merely that of instructive 
amusement, a power of 250 diameters will be amply 
sufficient; that power can be managed with ease, and 
does not fatigue the observer. The greater number of 
Dr. E/s discoveries were effected under a power of 380. 
I am not aware whether he has mentioned in any of his 
works the siderial focal length of his object-glasses, or 
the standard of sight. The set which Dr. E. speaks most 
in praise of is similar to one which I possess, and which 
h as a focus cfl-7th of an inch. He considers that with 
“ a good achromatic microscope and a lamp, our observa¬ 
tions may be carried on at night as well as in the day, 
which, by some, may • be esteemed as an additional 



Section XYII.— On Micrometers , and the Method of 

Measuring Infusoria . 

The late Dr. Goring, in the Micrographid, has de¬ 
scribed the method by which, in various ways, a correct 
admeasurement may be taken of these minute creatures, 
as also Mr. Bauer, in a paper in the same publication. 
I cannot do better than refer the reader to these autho¬ 
rities, for the fullest information attainable on this subject. 
A few words, however, may be said on the mode of pro¬ 
ceeding which I have myself adopted, and which, after 
much practice, has been productive of very accurate 
results. It is as follows:—Having set up the microscope 
and screwed in or adapted the glasses which are intended 
to be used, take a glass micrometer, and place it on the 
stage in the same manner as if it were an object to be 
viewed, then carefully adjust the focus of your instrument, 
so that the lines on the micrometer may appear quite 
sharp and distinct. Next, take a common ruler, or a slip 
of card-board with equal divisions of some known mea¬ 
surement drawn upon it, every tenth division being longer 
than the rest, and fix it 20 inches from the eye, whilst 
looking through the microscope; then, whilst one eye is 
directed to the rule or card-board, and the other to the 
lines of the micrometer, seen in the microscope, ascertain 
how many on the card are equal to a given number on the 
micrometer. If the divisions on the latter be 1-100th of 
an inch, and one of them be equal to ten on the card, it 
is clear that every division on the card will represent 



1-1000th of an inch. Thus, when the micrometer shall be 
removed, and an animalcule be put into its place, if the 
creature subtend five divisions on the card, its size in 
linear measure will be 5-1000th of an inch. Note—The 
glasses must not be changed during the experiment, nor 
their distances apart; neither must the distance between 
the card and the eye be in any way altered. 

Section XYIII.— On Glass Tubes , fyc.for taking Infusoria 
from the Water , and placing them in the Apparatus for 

As these useful little contrivances, which have been be¬ 
fore alluded to in this Part, were drawn and described 
in the Microscopic Cabinet more than ten years ago, it 
will be necessary merely to mention that little or no im¬ 
provement has been made upon them since that period, 
excepting perhaps that a finer description is found to 
answer the purpose better than when the larger ones are 
drawn out at their extremities in the manner there 

Section XIX.— On the Compressor, or Crush Box. 

The last remark is equally applicable to the Aquatic- 
live-boxes, which were described in the Illustrations, 
1828, and subsequently their different modifications. In 
order to form an idea of a compressor, or crush-box, you 
must suppose that the cover of the live-box is so adapted 



to its box by a screw, or some other convenient means, 
as that a small body placed under it may receive a certain 
degree of pressure without its parts being dislocated. In 
my original live-boxes, this was effected by a screw being 
attached to the cover; but, in the ordinary way, the cover 
is made to revolve. In some, a guide-piece has been sub¬ 
stituted for the screw, so that the pressure is obtained 
without the glass-plates sliding one upon the other. The 
German opticians attach the cover or upper plate to a 
jointed lever, at the longest end of which a screw is ap¬ 
plied, which brings the upper plate connected with the 
short-arm, in contact with the lower plate. The use of 
the crush-box is to protrude certain parts of the animal¬ 
cule for examination by pressing down upon the creature. 
In this manner, the teeth of the Rotatoria become dis¬ 
tinct. Other uses of tins apparatus arc given when speak¬ 
ing of the minute loricated Polygastrica. 

Section XX .—On Viewing Infusoria by Polarised Light. 

Having in the last edition of the Microscopic Illustra¬ 
tions given a full description of the Polarizing Microscope, 
and the apparatus necessary for using any microscope for 
polarising purposes, a very few remarks on the effects 
produced by viewing Infusoria under this light will be 
sufficient here. 

The siliceous covering of Infusoria is but slightly affected 
by polarised light: that the effect is only feeble, is attri¬ 
butable to the extreme tenuity of their shells, for could 
we but contrive the means of magnifying the effect, I feel 



convinced that some very important results would be ob¬ 
tained. The ribs or striae on the navicula assume a slight 
tinge of colouring when the polarizer and analyzer are 
parallel to each other; but when they are crossed, owing 
to the few rays which are transmitted, I was unable to 
perceive it. Isthmia are slightly influenced by polarized 
light. The larger Infusoria I have not examined, nor am 
I aware that any information is recorded on this subject. 

Section XXI .—On Viewing Infusoria by means of the 

Black Ground Illumination . 

The muscular fibres of the Rotatoria, and the markings 
on the lorica of the Bacillaria, &c. are brought out in a 
most remarkable manner by this mode of illumination. 
For an account of the method of examining objects in this 
way, see Microscopic Illustrations , p. 138. 

Section XXII .—Classification of Infusoria . 

Among the various arrangements proposed for the dis¬ 
tribution of animalcules by different naturalists—and we 
have not a few, as the minuteness of these creatures and 
the imperfections of our microscopes, until lately, allowed 
ample field for the imagination to run wild—two only 
appear to me to merit particular notice, and these, it is 
worthy of remark, are the productions of men who have 
laboured for years in making actual observations on them. 
The first is by O. F. Muller, whose posthumous work,entitled 




Animalcula Infusoria Fluviatilia et Marina , appeared in 
the year 1786. On this arrangement is founded my 
Natural History of Animalcules, prepared in 1S32; between 
these two periods the additions to this branch of natural 
history, from actual observation, was not very great; 
indeed, until the latter work appeared, this subject could 
not be said to have assumed a definite character, and was 
unknown to the English reader. 

The laborious and long-continued observations of Dr. 
Ehrenberg, in Germany, have enabled him, after several 
revisions and amendments, to present us with a classifica¬ 
tion which, in my opinion, will remain as long our 
standard, on this subject, as that of Midler’s has been. 
It is curious, however, to observe, that in all the publica¬ 
tions, up to the present day (in England at least), profess¬ 
ing to give an account of Dr. E.’s classification, they 
have taken it from his older and I may say abandoned 

Dr. Ehrenberg, in his great work entitled Die Infusions- 
thierchen , has not devoted much space in defining the term 
Infusoria, or in giving a general view of the subject; but 
he commences almost immediately with the class Poly- 
gastrica; hence the Second Part of this work will give the 
reader some idea of the general arrangement of that splen¬ 
did work; though the design of the two differing, namely, 
the latter being a work of reference, this a manual, many 
alterations, omissions and additions have been made; and 
hence it will be alike unjust to that distinguished natu¬ 
ralist, as to myself, to consider the one a mere abstract of 
the other. 

Should the reader possess a copy of the Natural History 



of Animalcules, and will make a general comparison be¬ 
tween the system adopted in that work and the present, 
he cannot fail to observe that, although the principles of 
the classification of Muller and Ehrenberg are widely dif¬ 
ferent, yet many of the groups of animalcules occupy, as a 
whole, similar positions, in the two systems. This analogy 
I was much struck with in the place of the Vibrio of 
Muller and the Bacillaria of Ehrenberg, while the com¬ 
mencing and concluding genera in each system are similar. 

Dr. E. divides the Infusoria into two grand classes; the 
animals belonging to the first are called Polygastrica , and 
are distinguished from the second class, named Rotatoria , 
by the function of digestion in the former being carried 
on by numerous globular vesicles, or stomachs, while the 
creatures belonging to the latter, like most large animals, 
have only one stomach for digestion. 

Polygastrica. —The microscopic observer, having pro¬ 
cured a number of animalcules, will not fail to observe 
within the interior of many a number of circular spots ; 
these are often very large in proportion to the size of the 
creature, and if the water is clear, they are more trans¬ 
parent than the other parts of the animalcule. These 
vesicles the reader may readily distinguish in many of the 
drawings contained in the first six plates, and part of the 
seventh, which represent animals of the class Polygastrica. 
Like any other- division of nature, some of the members 
composing it exhibit the essential characteristics of the 
class more prominent than others, and thus the genera 
Kolpoda and Paramecium contain the largest forms in 
which these vesicles exist. The reader will do well to 
refer to the drawings of these genera, which he can readily 



do by means of the List of Infusoria I have furnished at 
the end of this part. 

The older naturalists considered these vesicles as the 
ova; and Baron Gleichen made many experiments to 
endeavour to see their expulsion, but without success. 
This idea of the Baron’s respecting the nature of these 
bodies is the more remarkable, as it is to him we owe the 
original experiments of feeding animalcules with coloured 
food; and the fact of these parts becoming immediately 
coloured, while the surrounding portions remain trans¬ 
parent, could scarcely have escaped his notice. 

From the observations of Dr. E., these globular vesi¬ 
cles appear to be distinct stomachs, of which a single 
animalcule belonging to this class possesses many, as 
noticed in another place. When one of these stomach- 
cells, or sacs, has been filled with coloured food, and its 
situation carefully noted, in a short time the coloured spot 
will have changed its locality, and hence some naturalists 
will not admit of separate and distinct sacs or cavities, but 
maintain that the interior of the creature is one large 
digestive cavity, and that the globular mass of coloured 
particles has merely changed its position. To this objec¬ 
tion, Dr. E. remarks, that he has distinctly observed a 
sac to fill, and then the particles to pass singly into 
another, and so on, until the nutritive portions having 
been imbibed by each cell in succession, the refuse is 
expelled by the animalcule. That few observers have 
noticed this process is not remarkable, as it requires sted- 
fast and incessant observation of a particular animalcule 
for some time, while a contraction of them, or a turning 
upon their axis, may mislead, or even a slight pressure or 



other injury loosening these cells, may occasion a volun¬ 
tary change of place. Another objection to their being 
separate sacs or cells for the purpose of digestion is, that 
observers have not seen the canal or tube connecting them 
together; this Dr. E. admits is the case in many species, 
owing to its extreme tenuity. Also, that from its peculiar 
office, namely, the transmission of the food from one cell 
to another only, like the oesophagus in large animals, the 
tube possesses a contractile action, so that the difficulty 
of detection is augmented. Dr. E. affirms he has dis¬ 
tinctly seen their canals while the food has been passing 
from one stomach cell to another; and in all his works, 
except Die hifusionsthiei'chen, has presented us with draw¬ 
ings of them, and the manner in which they connect all 
the cells together. For observations of this kind, it will 
be advisable to select a large specimen of either of the 
following species :—Chilodon cucullulus, Trachelius ovum, 
Vorticella chlorostigma, or convallaria, Opercularia articu- 
lata, or Stylonychia mytilus. 

Again, the position of the discharging orifice has assisted 
in the erroneous supposition of the excluded substance 
being ova, for this orifice is not situated in any certain 
relation to the mouth; for sometimes one orifice is com¬ 
mon to both purposes, as in the fresh water Polype, and 
some other large creatures. In other Polygastrica, it is 
either situated anteriorly, posteriorly, or laterally, and this 
again may be either on the superior or inferior side. On 
this character, Dr. E. has founded the subdivision of the 
class into families, as given in Part II. of this work. 

Anxious to lay before the reader an impartial statement 
of this question, I shall, before proceeding with any 



general remarks on the Polygastrica, introduce here trans¬ 
lations of the observations of the most distinguished 
German botanist of the day, and likewise those of a 
celebrated French naturalist, while the observations of 
Professor Rymer Jones, the only Englishman that has 
given an opinion on this subject, will be found in his 
work, and those of naturalists relating to particular 
families, I have inserted under those divisions. 


By F. J. Meyen, M.D. 

“ All naturalists are aware that Gleichen, in 1781, tried 
to make certain Infusoria eat carmine, and observed next 
day that they had several large red granules in the interior 
of their bodies. He thence concluded that they had 
swallowed the colouring matter. He likewise noticed that 
these coloured granules afterwards made their escape by 
another opening. Gleichen has figured these red granules 
very accurately; each of them is in the centre of a particular 
circle, the nature of which he does not explain. At a 
later period, M. Ehrenberg made the same remark, and 
he thence concludes that the Infusoria have several 
stomachs, which, in one section, are destitute of an intes¬ 
tinal canal, while in others they not only possess canals, 
by which they communicate with each other, but lateral 
appendages, which besides terminate in a coecum. In 
consequence of these discoveries, these Infusoria were 
designated by the name of Polygastric animals. M. 



Ehrenberg believes that he has proved that their stomachs 
are filled one after another, and he has figured, more or 
less completely, the intestines which form the communi¬ 
cation between the different stomachs. 

" Many observers have already questioned these asser¬ 
tions of M. Ehrenberg (see the memoir of M. Dujardin, 
on this subject, in the 10th volume of the Annales des 
Sciences Naturelles). For my own part, I never admitted 
them, because, in the first place, I never could see the 
intestines which form the communication between the 
stomachs, and likewise because I have observed, many 
years since, that these supposed stomachs were moving in 
the interior of the body of many species with great 
rapidity, in the same manner as the granules which cir¬ 
culate in the joints of the chara. I have often seen 
vorticelles with nine or ten large globules of indigo in 
the belly, which always moved round a centre, and thus 
shewed, in the most evident manner, that they could not 
have a communicating canal between the stomachs, pro¬ 
vided with an oral orifice and an extremity directed to 
the mouth. 

“ But it will be asked, what are these vesicles and balls 
of the same diameter existing in the bodies of the Infu¬ 
soria, and which have been taken for stomachs ? This 
question I have continued to ask myself, till an attentive 
and long-continued investigation has enlightened me as to 
their origin. 

“ The true Infusoria are vesicular beings, whose interior 
are filled with a mucous substance ; the thickness of the 
membrane forming the vesicle can easily be ascertained 
in some of these animals; and in many species I have 



noticed in this membrane an obvious spiral structure, 
which establishes a complete analogy between it and 
cellular vegetables. In the large Infusoria, a cylindrical 
canal (the oesophagus) obliquely traverses the membrane 
which forms the animal. The lower extremity ot this 
canal dilates, more or less, when the animal has taken 
food, even till it attains the dimensions of the balls which 
are found in the interior of these same Infusoria. 

“ The inner surface of this part of the intestinal canal is 
provided with cilia, which turn round not only the 
alimentary substances, but also foreign bodies, till they 
have acquired a spherical form. During the formation of 
this ball, the stomach (for it is evident we must distin¬ 
guish this organ by that name) has a free communication 
with the oesophagus, and by means of the ciliary ap¬ 
paratus found at the exterior, new alimentary substances 
are introduced into this canal, and pushed as far as the 
stomach, but I could not satisfy myself whether the 
oesophagus was likewise beset with cilia in the part 
wdiich separates the stomach from the buccal orifice. 
When the ball has acquired the size of the stomach, it is 
expelled by its other extremity and pushed into the cavity 
of the animal. It then forms a new T ball, if any solid sub¬ 
stances exist in the surrounding liquid. This second ball 
is itself pushed into the interior of the cavity of the 
animal, and drives before it the first ball along with the 
mucosities between the two; the successive formation of 
similar balls, by the matter received into the animal, 
continues in the same manner, without interruption. It 
is the simultaneous existence of many of these balls that 
made M. Ehrenberg believe that these animals were 



polygastric. If solid substances do not exist in the 
surrounding liquid, then the balls are less solid, and they 
appear in the forms which they present in the Infusoria 
plunged in colourless liquids. In this case, the balls are 
composed of a small number of particles, and principally 
of a considerable mucous mass, which unites them. 
Sometimes two balls of this kind are so pressed against 
each other by the contractions of the animal, that they at 
last unite. 

“ If you wish to follow the formation of these balls, it is 
necessary to commence these observations at the moment 
when the Infusoria are plunged into the coloured liquid. 
The deglutition of the coloured particles takes place very 
quickly, often in about half a minute, and the coloured 
balls issue one after another from the stomach, and are 
pushed downwards along the internal wall of the cavity of 
the animal. In the genera Paramecium, Kerona, and 
Vorticella, the new ball pushes the preceding before it, 
along with the mucosities between them, in such a 
manner that the first rises along the opposite wall, returns 
to the other extremity of the cavity, and is pushed down¬ 
wards on the other side. The balls thus accumulate in 
succession till they are expelled one after the other by the 
anus. The number of these balls is often so consider¬ 
able, as to fill the whole cavity of the animals, and so 
close together, that they form a large mass, which turns 
slowly upon itself, as among the Vorticella. 

“ This rotation is the result of the force with which 
the newly-formed ball is pushed from the stomach 
into the cavity, and moves along the under side of the 
preceding ball. In other cases, where there are not yet 



many balls, we likewise remark the circular rotation 
alluded to, but I cannot, in this instance, say what is the 
cause of it. 

“ Thus, in the true Infusoria, the substances which they 
absorb are introduced into the abdominal cavity in the 
form of balls, and from these the stomach extracts the 
nutritive substances. The residue remains in these same 
balls, the mucosities interposed are re-absorbed, and even 
in the interior of the stomach the particles of the ball are 
disintegrated, although this happens but seldom. 

“ What is the nature of those vesicular cavities, of such 
great numbers, and so variable in size, which appear in 
the interior of the Infusoria? They are not stomachs, 
they possess nothing in common with the balls of which 
we have spoken, although the latter may get into them 
singly, but this can only be considered as accidental. 

“ We may trace the formation of these cavities, and 
perceive their sudden and complete disappearance, with as 
much ease as the formation of the balls. Nay, more, it 
is sometimes possible to see how one of these cavities 
moulds itself over a ball, and speedily afterwards dis¬ 
appears. The microscope shows that these cavities are not 
lined with a particular membrane, but are mere exca¬ 
vations of the pulpy substance. They likewise often 
appear very near the inner surface of the membrane which 
forms the skin of the animal, and some of them increase 
to such a size that their diameter is equal to the third or 
the half of that of the entire cavity of the Infusoria. 
The slight refraction which the rays of light undergo at 
their circumference proves that these cavities are not filled 
with air, but by a liquid; and in the large Infusoria, it is 



easy to satisfy ourselves that they do not open on the 
exterior. Similar cavities are formed in the mucus of 
true cellular plants, particularly in certain aquatic 

u My botanical labours prevent me from carrying these 
researches farther, but enough has been said to induce the 
naturalist to pursue them. They require a great degree 
of perseverance, for it is not easy to establish these 
facts in all Infusoria, but they are of high importance, 
since the order Polygastrica has already been admitted 
into many modern treatises on Zoology.”— (Ed. Phil. J. 
vol. xxviii.) 


Desumd of “ Du Jardin sur les Inf us owes dans les Annales 

des Sciences Naturelles 

“ The Infusoria (leaving out of the question the 
Systolides or Rotateurs, which are much more elevated 
in the scale of animals, and the Bacillaria, which, along 
with the Closteria, are more nearly related to the vegetable 
kingdom) have their origin, for the most part, from un¬ 
known germs, in artificial and natural infusions, stagnant 
water, and rivers, or such portions as rest over vegetable 
remains—no other mode of propagation, except self¬ 
division, being well ascertained. The fleshy substance of 
their bodies is dilatable and contractile, like the muscular 
flesh of the superior animals, but present no absolute trace 
of fibres or membrane, appearing, on the contrary, 



homogeneous and diaphanous, save in the cases where the 
surface appears reticulated from contraction. 

‘‘The fleshy substance of the Infusoria, isolated by tearing, 
or by the death of the animalcule, appears in the liquid 
as lenticular discs or globules, which refract light but 
slightly, and are capable of forming spontaneously, in their 
substance, spherical cavities, analagous, in appearance, to 
the vesicles of the interior. The vesicles formed in the 
interior of the Infusoria are destitute of a proper mem¬ 
brane, and can contract even to so great an extent as to 
disappear, or many amalgate or incorporate, as it were, 
together. Some are produced at the base of a sort of 
mouth, and are destined to contain the water swallowed 
with the aliments; they run a long, a certain course, in 
the interior, and contract and leave nothing in the middle 
of the fleshy substance except those particles not digested, 
or they can evacuate their contents externally, by a for¬ 
tuitous opening, which may be reproduced several times, 
although not identical towards the same point, and which 
may lead to the belief of the presence of an anus. 

“ The vesicles containing the aliments are independent, 
and neither communicate with an intestine nor with each 
other, save in those cases where two vesicles incorporate 

“ The other vesicles, which contain nothing but water, 
are formed much nearer the surface, and appear to be 
able to receive and expel their contents through the 
meshes of the tegument, 

u W e may consider them, along with Spallanzani, as re¬ 
spiratory organs, or at least as intended to multiply the 
points of contact ol the interior substance and the sur¬ 
rounding fluids. 



“ The external organs of motion are flagelliform filaments, 
or vibratile cilii, or cirri-, more or less voluminous, or fleshy 
prolongations, which (except those which are more or less 
consistent) appeared formed of the same living substance, 
and are contractile themselves, throughout the whole of 
their extent. None are dermoid or corneaceous, nor 
secreted by a bulb, except some siliceous or horny capsule 
or shells, and the bundles of horny spiculi which invest 
the mouth of certain species. All portions of the Infusoria 
decompose almost immediately in water, after the death of 
the animal. 

“ The eggs of the Infusoria, their generative organs, their 
organs of sense, their nerves and vessels, cannot be exactly 
determined, and every thing inclines one to believe that 
these animalcules, although endowed with a degree of 
organization, in accordance with their mode of life, cannot 
possess the same systems of organs as do the superior 

Having presented the reader with the opponents’ own 
arguments to the classification I have adopted, I shall pro¬ 
ceed at once to take a general survey of this class, re¬ 
marking that whatever be the fate of the Polygastrica 
(and some portions are certainly objectionable), I am con¬ 
vinced an arrangement is yet to be discovered that will 
supersede it. 

The Polygastrica constitute a natural group of animals, 
and are as satisfactorily distinguished as any other class. 
Touching their dimensions, none exceed the 1-12th of 
an inch in length, and some of the smaller species (be¬ 
longing to the genera Monas, Bodo, Bacterium, and the 
single individuals of the Vibrio,) even when full grown, are 



but the 1-2000th part of that measure; indeed, so minute 
must be many of the young of these Infusoria, that they 
cannot be recognised by our microscopes. The genera 
Stentor and Spirostonum, on the other hand, contain spe¬ 
cies as large as the greater wheel animalcules (Rotatoria), 
and are easily to be distinguished by the naked eye. 
Again, others, individually so small as to be almost invi¬ 
sible, form, when aggregated, green, red, yellow, blue, 


brown, and black-coloured masses of great extent. Thus, 
the clusters of some species in the families Vorticella and 
Bacillaria increase to such an extent that they attain a 
size of several inches, resembling Polypi. The Micromega 
forms cartilaginous arborescent masses, which have been 
looked upon by some as Fuci, Algae, &c.; Gallionella and 
Setrizonema, as also Epystilis grandis, often form masses 
several feet in length. 

The greater number of animalcules belonging to this 
class are found in fresh water; numbers inhabit the salt 
water of the ocean ; and some live in astringent solutions, 
even those containing much tannin. They are found in 
fluids produced by animal secretions; moist earth, too, is 
another situation in which some members of this class are 
to be found. As an instance of the later habitat, there 
has been recently found some earth near Newcastle 
almost entirely composed of living species of the genus 
Bacillaria, and other loricated Infusoria. It is highly pro¬ 
bable that some kinds reside in the vapour of the atmo¬ 
sphere, in which, from their light weight, they may be 
raised in countless multitudes, and blown about by the 
wind in invisible cloud-like masses. 

It is remarkable, that one-half the families belonging to 


this class are loricated, and the other half illoricated. Of 
the former, the most curious discovery, of late, is that by 
M. Fischer, of the siliceous or glass-like covering of 
many species, who, although the creatures to which they 
belong may have been dead for thousands of years, yet 
these remains inform us of the local conditions of the soil 
at the time they existed. 

These shell-like coverings are often found in large 
masses, covering many miles of the earth’s surface, and 
occur, when indurated and mixed with argillaceous and 
other earths, in the form of siliceous slate-rocks, &c. 
These remains of the primeval inhabitants of our globe 
are records in the pages of history, penned by Infinite 
Truth, unbiassed by ignorance or prejudice, and form 
some of the first fruits of the effective application of 
achromatic glasses to our microscopes. 

Some of these shell-like coverings have been preserved 
without any admixture of other matters, and form masses 
of delicate white powder (Berg-Meld), with which the 
cupidity of man, in situations where it can be procured, as 
Lapland, has induced him to adulterate the material which 
is so trulv said to constitute the staff of life. 

The antiquarian has also brought the microscope to 
bear in his researches, and by the discovery of the exist¬ 
ence of these shelly remains in various ancient articles of 
pottery, and the remains of similar species in the clay in 
the vicinity in which they occur, has proved that they 
were made on the spot, and not imported from the higher 
civilized nations of that day, as had been previously 



Section XXIII .—Reproduction of Poly gastric a. 

Monas vivipara is the only species of this class that is 
viviparous, though some moving granules observed amongst 
the Bacillaria have been supposed to extend this condi¬ 
tion. With this exception, they may be termed oviparous, 
though besides the formation of eggs, which is a very fer¬ 
tile mode of increase, they also propagate, by means of a 
self-division of the body of the animalcule, into two or 
more individuals; also, by the growth of gemmules, or buds, 
upon the parent. These various modes of propagation 
account for their almost incomprehensible increase of 
number in a very short space of time, and which has 
often astonished observers. 

In the genus Closterium, the curious formation of double 
gems has been observed by Ehrenberg, and is figured in 
plate I .fig. 67- That observer remarks, that this accounts 
for “ the astonishing great fertility or capacity of increase of 
microscopic animals, according to which an imperceptible 
corpuscle can become, in four days, one hundred and seventy 
billions , or as many single individual animalcules as con¬ 
tained in two cubic feet of the stone from the polishing 
slate of Bilin. This increase takes place by voluntary 
division, and this is the character which separates animals 
from plants. It is true that the gemmation in plants, 
especially, in very simple cells, is at times very similar to 
the division in animals ; but this relates to the form, not 
the formation. A vegetable cell, apparently capable of 
self-division, always became one, or contemporaneously 



many exterior warts (gems), without any change in its 
interior. An animal, which is capable of division, first 
doubles the inner organs, and subsequently decreases exte¬ 
riorly in size. Self-division proceeds from the interior 
towards the exterior, from the centre to the periphery; 
gemmation, which also occurs in animals, proceeds from 
the exterior towards the interior, and forms first a wart, 
which then gradually becomes organized .”—(Annals Nat. 
Hist. v. ii.) 

Section XXIV.— Vascular System. 

In no creature of this class can a vascular system be 
satisfactorily demonstrated:—that thought to have been 
such in Paramecium aurelia was merely clusters of ova. 

Section XXV .—Organs of Sensation. 

Of these, the presence of eyes are all that are demon¬ 
strated, though there can be no doubt those of touch, sen¬ 
sation, &c., exist. 

In forty-eight species, included under the families 
Monadina, Cryptomonadina, Volvocina, Astasitea, Dino- 
bryina, Peridinaea, and Kolpodea, eyes are observable, 
and the colour of the pigment is red in all cases, except 
one (Ophryoglena), in which it is almost black. In con¬ 
nection with the visual organs of Amblyophis and Euglena, 
nervous ganglia have been seen, which constitute the only 
traces of the evidence of a nervous system. 



Section XXVI.— Digestive System of Polygastrica. 

The most remarkable feature in this class of beings is 
the reception of food. In most creatures it enters one 
common cavity, and therefore forms one mass. In the . 
Nais (see Notes on Natural History, plate 7), and some 
other animals, the alimentary canal is enlarged at intervals, 
so that it may be termed a percurrent digestive organ; 
but in the Polygastrica, it appears to be a very compound 
organ, sometimes consisting of upwards of two hundred 
cavities or sacs, as in the Paramecium, while the smallest 
number is four, and this occurs in the genus Monas. 

The manner in which these sacs are arranged is various, 
though all may be disposed under two grand divisions, 

Anentera , or those without a true alimentary canal, in 
which the refuse of the food is regurgitated, as in the 
Zoophites, of which the fresh water Polypi (Notes on 
Nat . Hist. pi. 6) may be taken as an example. It will 
appear, that the Infusoria belonging to the first twelve 
families include the Anentera; these possess but one 
orifice for the reception and expulsion of food; and 
although the mode in which the stomach cells are attached 
together is not satisfactorily determined (and this I infer 
from the omission of illustrative figures of structure in 
Die Infusionsthierchert) , yet observation leaves little doubt 
that no true alimentary canal exists. 

Enterodela , or those Polygastrica possessing a true 
alimentary canal, constitute the ten remaining families. In 
this division, the alimentary canal, during its course, sends 
forth, at intervals, short branches, each of which is termi- 



nated bv a digestive sac. In the families Vorticellina and 
Ophrydina, the two ends of the alimentary canal approach 
each other, and form but one external opening. In the 
Enchelia and Colepina, the orifices are at the opposite 
extremities of the body; in Trachelina, Ophryocercina, and 
Aspidiscina, they terminate obliquely with respect to each 
other; and the remaining families are distinguished from 
the preceding by both openings being situated on the 
under side of the animalcule. 

Section XXVII .—Geographical Distribution of Poly- 

gastric Infusoria. 

This is the most universal of the Animal Kingdom. It 
is known to extend over the whole of Europe, the 
north of Africa, the west and north of Asia, and species 
have also been observed in America. The largest and 
most generally-distributed family of this class is the 
Bacillaria, its species equalling one-fourth of the whole. 

Fossil states of this curious family are known in 
Europe, Africa, the Isle of Bourbon, the Isle of Lucan, 
amongst the Philippines, and America. These remains 
enter into some of the new sand-stone formations ; also 
into the layers of flints of the secondary formations, cer¬ 
tain porphyritic structures, &c. 

Some objections have been made by a few eminent 
naturalists to certain families of Dr. E.’s Infusoria. The 
most important of these I have inserted under their 
several heads in Part II. Those of Dr. Meyen, which are 
unknown to the English reader, contain many important 
remarks, and are worthy of special notice. 

f 2 



Section XXVIII.— Class Rotatoria. 

This tribe of beings possess so complete an organiza¬ 
tion, that in a correct arrangement of the animal kingdom, 
it would take its station far above many others, whose 
members are of much larger magnitude. 

The comparatively large size of the Rotatoria, the defi¬ 
nite situation of the ova, and the simplicity of their diges¬ 
tive system, has enabled the microscopic observer to 
ascertain with certainty, in many cases, every part of their 
internal structure. As a tribe, it appears to me more 
natural than that of the Polygastrica; at least there are no 
such doubtful families as we find in the latter, namely, 
the Closterina, Bacillaria, &c. Indeed, the only exception 
that I think can be taken is the genus Stephanoceros, 
which some naturalists class along with the zoophites. 

The Rotatoria mostly inhabit water ; but immersion in 
that element does not appear to be essential to their exist¬ 
ence. They often reside in damp or moist earth; and the 
Rotifer vulgaris, and some other species, are known to 
inhabit the cells of Mosses and Algae. 

Seection XXIX .—Muscular System. 

In this class of Infusoria, a muscular system subservient 
to the functions of locomotion, nutrition, &c., is well 
developed, and the integuments being transparent, render 
their structure and situation distinctly visible under the 
microscope, without dissection. The principal muscular 



member is a foot-like non-articulated process, situated at 
the ventral surface of the posterior part of the body. This 
member is usually called the tail; but being situated ante¬ 
rior to the discharging orifice, is not properly such. It 
has usually the faculty of being able to slide one part 
within another, and presents to the observer the same 
effect as the moving of the sliding tubes of an opera-glass, 
or telescope. The extremity is often formed in such a 
manner that the creature can cause itself to adhere to any 
substance, by forming an exhausted cavity within the 
disc-like extremity, as is the case with the leech and some 
parasitical acari found on beetles. Sometimes the termi¬ 
nation of this false foot has two or more toe-like pro¬ 
cesses. By the construction of this member, the creature 
is enabled to attach itself, while the anterior part is 
moving about in search of provender, and likewise to 
employ it as an instrument of progression, by alternately 
contracting and elongating it, and fixing itself by it and 
the mouth. Muscles for moving the body, and also the 
rotatory organs, are mostly visible; these are known by 
their thickening during contraction, and dilating when 

Section XXX .—Nutritive System , 

The alimentary canal is mostly simple in all the Rota- 
torial Infusoria. It is sometimes expanded near the 
middle, in which case it may be said to have a true 
stomach, the constricted commencement being an 
oesophagus, and the long narrow termination a rectum. 

The manducatory, or chewing apparatus, situated at the 



commencement of the oesophagus, consists of a hard 
bulb, somewhat resembling the gizzard of birds; it is 
composed of two parts, the inner surface of each being, 
in 48 genera, furnished with teeth, which, by pressure, 
can be detached. Their number and arrangement form 
excellent characters for the systematist, and therefore I have 
introduced figures of them, with the oesophagal bulb, to 
illustrate several of the genera possessing them. This 
bulb, it is worthy of notice, is the first part of the young 
that is visible within the egg. Beneath this bulb, and 
attached to the oesophagus, or upper part of the stomach, 
is a pair of glands, usually of an oval form, sometimes, 
though rarely, cylindrical, or forked ; these are considered as 
the pancreas. In some genera, gall ducts are also seen 
(Enteroplea). The stomach in some genera (Notommata) 
is furnished with biliary glands. 

Section XXXI.— The Reproductive System. 

This, in most respects, resembles that of birds, but both 
sexes are united in the same individual. They deposit 
only a few eggs at a time. The size of the egg is about 
1-36th that of the parent, and the young of those in which 
incubation is completed before expulsion is sometimes 

Although the Rotatorial Infusoria are not endowed with 
the various faculties of reproduction possessed by the 
Polygastrica, yet their vast increase by eggs only would 
astonish most persons who have not considered this 
subject. Dr. Ehrenberg informs us that he insulated a 



single specimen of Hydatina senta, and kept it in a sepa¬ 
rate vessel for eighteen days, that during this interval it 
laid four eggs per day, and that these young, at two days 
old, lay a like number, so that, when circumstances are 
favourable, one million individuals are obtained from one 
specimen in 10 days; that, on the eleventh day, this 
brood will amount to four millions, and on the 12th day 
to sixteen millions. Although the fecundity of this 
Rotatoria is the greatest that has been tested by direct 
experiment, yet in the large Polygastrica, as the Para¬ 
mecium aurelia, a single specimen in one day is ascertained 
to increase to eight, by simple transverse division of the 
body only; so that, if we take into this account the other 
modes of the increase of this creature, namely, by eggs, 
often in masses like the spawn of fish, and again by buds 
growing from the sides of the body, it is clear, in a very 
few days, all attempt at an expression of their number 
must fail. 

Section XXXII.— Vascular System. 

In several of the Rotatorial Infusoria are observed 
transverse vessels, which have the appearance of articula- 
lations. In others, these vessels resemble a net work (see 
pi. ix. fig. 419), .which is more or less distinct, below the 
edges of the mouth, and connected by free longitudinal 
ones to the interior ventral surface of the body. 

Oval tremulous little bodies are in some species observed 
attached to a free filament-like tube (Notommata, fig. 
416), generally disposed longitudinally within the body 
of the animalcules. Sometimes these little bodies are 



attached to the two sexual glands (Hydatina). Dr. Ehren- 
berg considers their function analagous to gills, and that 
the tremulous motion is occasioned by the laminae, or 
leaflets, which compose them. For the reception of water 
into the interior of the body, for these organs to act upon, 
there is an opening at the anterior part of the body, while 
some species effect this purpose by means of one or two 
spur-like processes or tubes, emanating from the neck (see 
fig. 487), and by which water for the purpose of respiration 
may be admitted or rejected. 

Section XXXIII.— Organs of Sensation and Nervous 


The Infusoria are not considered to possess a true 
nervous system, but in many of the species having eyes 
there appears one or two masses attached to them, which 
Dr. E. thinks are similar to nervous ganglia and nervous 
fibrillae. The eyes vary in number ; they are usually of a 
red colour; in some, they are placed upon a ganglion, and 
are freely moveable beneath the transparent superficial 
envelope of the body. 

Section XXXIV.— Geographical Distribution of Rota- 

torial Infusoria. 

So far as observation extends, they do not appear to be 
confined to any particular part of Europe, and they have 
been found in the north of Africa, the north and west of 
Asia, and in Carolina in America. 







The Number preceding the Name refers to that under which it is described; the Num¬ 
bers following refer to the Drawings of them in the Plates; and the stars (*) indicate 
those species most common in infusions. 



I. Monas Plate I. 

1 crepusculum (**), group 1 

2 termo (***) 

3 guttula (*) 

4 vivipara 

5 grandis 

6 bicolor 

7 ochracea 

8 erubescens 

9 vinosa 

10 kolpoda 

11 enchelys 

12 umbra 

13 hyalin a 

14 gliscens (*) 

15 ovalis 

16 mica 

17 punctum, group 2 

18 cylindrica 

19 Okenii 

20 deses 

21 socialis 

22 flavicans 

23 simplex 

24 inanis 

25 scintillans 

26 Dumalii 

II. Uvella Plate I. 

27 virescens 

28 chamaemorum 

29 uva 

30 atomus 

31 glaucoma (**), cluster 3, 

and Jig. 4, 5, G 

32 bodo 


33 uvella,^. 7,8, 9,10, 11 

IV. Microglena 

34 punctifera 

35 monadina, Jig. 12,13,14 

V. Phacelomonas 

36 pulvisculus 

VI. Glenomorum 

37 tingens, Jig. 15, 16, 17 

VII. Doxococcus 

38 globulus 

39 ruber, group /V 

40 pulvisculus 

41 inaequalis 





Plate I. 







paramecium (*), group 19 


saltans (*) 












socialis (**) 







Plate I. 

group 20 


X. Cryptomonas 

54 curvata 

55 ovata, fig. 21, 22, 23 

50 erosa 

57 cylindrica 

58 ? glauca 

59 ? fusca 

60 lenticularis 

XI. Ophidomonas 

61 jenensis 

XIT. Prorocentrum 

62 micans, fig. 24, 25 


XVI. Gyges 

70 granulum, fig. 34 

71 bipartitus 

72 sanguineus, \j)late xii. 

group 532] 

XVII. Pandorina 

73 morum, fig. 35, 36, 37 

74 ? hyalina 

XVIII. Gonium 

75 pectorale, fig. 38 to 42 

76 punctatum 

77 ? tranquillum, fig. 43 

78 ? hyalinum 

79 ? glaucum 

XIX. Syncrypta 

80 volvox, fig. 44, 45, 46 

XXVI. Bacterium 

89 triloculare (*), group 58 

90 ? enchelys 

91 ? punctum 

XXVII. Vibrio 

92 lineola (**) 

93 tremulans (*) 

94 subtilis 

95 rugula (***) 

96 prolifer 

97 bacillus (*), group 59 

XIII. Lagenella 


euchlora,y7g\ 26, 27, 28 

XIV. Cryptoglena 


conica, group 29 





XV. Trachelomonas 




volvocina, fig. 30 to 33 




XX. Synura 


uvella,//g\ 50, 51 

XXI. Uroglena 


volvox, fig. 53, 54 

XXII. Eudorina 


elegans, fig. 47 

XXIII. Chlamidomonas 


pulvisculus (**), group 52 

XXIV. Sphaerosira 


volvox, fig. 48, 49 

XXV. Volvox 


globator,/*#-. 55, 56, 57 






XXVIII. Spirochaeta 


plicatilis,/^. 00 

XXIX. Spirillum 




undula if*),fig. 61 


volutans (*) 


bryozoon, \plate xii.] fig. 

520 to 531 

XXX. Spirodiscus 


fulvus,^. 62 




XXXI. Clostekium Plate I. 

104 lunula 

105 moniliferum 

106 Dianae 

107 acerosum, fig. 63, 64,65 

108 trabecula 

109 digitus 

110 attenuatum 

111 cornu 


; Clostekium Plate I. 

112 ? cylindrus 

! 113 margaritaceum 

114 turgidum, f ig. 66 

115 lineatum 

116 striolatum 

117 setaceum, group 67 

118 rostratum 

119 ? inaequale 

XXXII. Astasia 



liaeniatodes, fig. 68 




pusilla, f ig. 69 


? viridis 


navalis, \gplate xii.] fig. 

XXXIII. Amblyopiiis 


viridis, fig. 70 

XXXIV. Euglena 


sanguinea, fig. 71,72, 











pyrum, group 74 





133 longicauda, fig. 75, 76 

134 triquetra, 77 

135 acus, group 7 8 

136 rostrata 

XXXY. Ciilorogonium 

137 euchlorum, group 79 

XXXYI. Colacium 

138 ? vesiculosum, group 80 

139 stentorinum 

XXXVII. Distigma Plate II. 

140 ? tenax 

141 proteus, group 81 

142 viride 

143 planaria 

144 dinobryina 


XXXVIII. Epipyxis Plate II. 

XXXIX. Dinobryon 


utriculus, group 82 



sertularia, fig. 83, 84 
? sociale 


XL. Amoeba 



princeps, fig. 85, 86, 87 






radiosa, fig. 88, 88' 



XLI. Difflugia 



proteiformis, fig. 89 to 91 


aculeata, fig. 92, 93, 94 








? hyalina 



XLII. Arcella 

XLIII. Cyphidium 




aureolum, fig. 95 to 98 


XLIV. Desmidium 









hexaceros, group 99 

XLV. Staurastrum 




dilatatum, fig. 100, 101 




paradoxum, fig. 102, 10 



XLYI. Pentasterias Plate II. 

169 margaritacea, Jig. 104 

XLVII. Tessakarthka 

170 moniliformis,105,106 

XLVIII. Spiiaerastrum 

171 pictum 

172 quadrijugum 

XLIX. Xanthidium 

173 hirsutum [plate xii.] fig. 


174 aculeatum, Jig. 109 

175 fasciculatum 

176 . furcatum, Jig. 110 

177 ? ramosum, fig. 511, 515 

178 ? difforme, fg. Ill, 513, 514 

179 crassipes 

180 tubiferum 

L. Arthrodesmus 

181 quadricaudatus 

182 pectinatus 

183 acutus 

184 convergens,^. 112,113 

185 octocornis 

186 truncatus 
LI. Odontella 

187 desmidium, fig. 108 

188 ? filiformis, fig. 107 

189 ? unidentata 
LII. Micrasterias 

190 tetras 

191 coronula 

192 Napoieonis (liexaetis), 

fig- 117,118 

193 heptactis, fig. 114 

194 Boryana,^. 115, 116 

195 angulosa 

196 rotula 

197 tricyclia 

198 elliptica 
LIII. Euastrum 

199 rota, fig. 121, 122, 123 

200 apiculatum 

201 crux melitensis, fig. 124 

202 pecten 

203 verrucosum, fig. 125 

204 ansa turn 

205 margaritiferum fig. 126 

206 botrytis 

207 integerrimum 
LIV. Microtheca 

208 octoceros, fig. 119, 120 
LV. Pyxidicula 

209 operculata, group 127 

210 globator, [ptlate xii.] fig. 

506 to 510. 

LVI. Gallionella Plate 111. 

211 lineata, fig. 128 

212 nummuloides 

213 varian s, group 131 

214 moniliformis 

215 aurichalcea 

216 ferruginea, [platen.] fig- 

129, 130 

217 distans 

218 sulcata, [pplate iii.] group 


LVII. Actinocycles 

219 senarius, group 132 

220 octonarius 

LYIII. Navicula Plate III. 

221 Phoenicenteron, group 139 

222 gracilis 

223 ? pellucida, group 140 

224 acus, group 147 

225 umbonata 

226 fulva 

227 amphisbaena, group 141 

228 platystoma, Jig. 142 

229 nodosa, fig. 143 

230 trochus 

231 follis 

232 trinodis 

233 cari 

234 ? quadricostata 

235 baltica, fig. 144 

236 hippocampus, group 145 

237 sigma, group 146 

238 scalpum 

239 curvula 

240 arcus 

241 sigmoidea, group 148 

242 viridis, fig. 133 to 136 

243 macilenta 

244 viridula 

245 inaequalis, group 154 

246 gibba 

247 ? crux 

248 ? glans 

249 capitata 

250 dicephala 

251 lanceolata 

252 ? librile, group 155 

253 ? splendida, fig. 150 to 152 

254 ? bifrons 

255 striatula, fig. 137, 138 

256 ? undulata, fig. 149 

257 ? constricta 

258 ? amphora, fig. 153 

259 ? lineolata 



LIX. Eunotia Plate III. 
2G0 turgida, fig. 150 to 161, 

except in group 157, 
those marked by a 


261 Westermanni, in group 

157, those figures 

marked by a cross 

262 zebra 

263 granulata, fig. 165 

264 ? faba 

265 arcus 

266 diodon 

267 triodon, group 164 

268 tetraodon 

269 pentodon 

270 diadema 

271 serra 

LX. Cocconeis 

272 scutellum,/« 7 .162, 163 

273 undulata 

274 placentula 

275 pediculus 

276 ? finnica 

277 ? clypeus [plate x ii.] fig. 

516 to 518 

LXI. Bacielaria 

278 paradoxa, fig. 166, 167 

279 vulgaris, fig. 168 

230 pectinalis 

281 elongata, fig. 169 

282 cuneata, fig. 170 

283 Cleopatrae 

284 ? tabellaris 

235 flocculosa 

286 seriata 

287 Ptolemaei 

LXII. Tessella 

288 catena, fig. 180 to 182 

289 arcuata 

290 interrupta 

LXIII. Fragtlaria 

291 grandis,/i<;. 171 

292 rhabdosoma, fig. 173,174 

293 turgidula, group 172 

294 multipunctata 

295 bipunctata, fig. 175 

296 angusta 

297 scalaris 

298 diopthalma 

299 pectinalis,^. 176 

LXIV. Meridion 

300 vernale, fig. 177 to 179 

301 ? panduriforme 

LXV. Isthmia Plate IV. 

302 obliquata 

303 enervis,^. 183 

LXVI. Synedra 

304 ulna, group 184 

305 capitata, group 185' 

306 gallionii 

307 fasciculata 

308 lunaris, group 185 

309 bilunaris 

LXYII. Podospiienia 

310 gracilis, fig. 186 

311 abbreviata 

312 cuneata 

313 ? nana 

LXVIII. Gomphonema 

314 truncatum,187 to 190 

315 capitatum 

316 gracile 

317 acuminatum 

318 minutissimum 

319 clavatum 

320 rotundatum 

321 discolor 

322 ? olivaceum 

LXIX. Echinella 

323 flabellata, fig. 191 to 193 

324 splendida 

325 ? paradoxa 

326 capitata 

327 ? abbreviata 

328 fulgens 


329 Boeckii 

330 lanceolatum, fig. 194,195 

331 cistula, fig. 196 to 198 

332 cymbiforme 

333 ? gibbum 

334 ? fusidium 

LXXI. Aciinanthes 

335 longipes 

336 brevipes, fig. 199 to 202 

337 subsessilis 

338 exilis 

339 minutissima 

340 ? inaequalis 

LXXII. Striatelea 

341 arcuata,y?#. 203, 204 

LXXIII. Frustulia 

342 appendiculata 

343 maritima 

344 salina 



LXXIV. Syncyclia Plate IV. 

345 salpa, group 206 

LXXY. Naunema 

346 simplex 

347 Dillwynii 

348 Hoffmanni 

349 arbuscula 

350 balticum, 207 

LXXVI. Gloeonema 

351 paracloxum 

LXXX. Cyclidium 

357 glaucoma,209 to 211 

358 margaritaceum 

359 ? planum 

360 ? lentiforme 

LXXXI. Pantotrichum 

361 enchelys,^. 212 


366 armata,^. 214, 215 

367 aspera 

368 ? pyritae 

LXXXIY. Chaetoglena 

369 volvocina, Jig. 216 to 218 

LXXXV. Peridinium 

370 cinctum 

371 pulvisculus 

372 fuscum 

373 ? pyrophorum 

LXXXVII. Stentor 

384 Mulleri 

385 Roeselii, fig. 233, 234 

386 caeruleus, [ plate v.] fig. 

235, 236 

387 polymorplius 

388 igneus 

389 niger 

LXXXVIII. Trichodina ? 

390 tentaculata, [plate iv.] 

fig. 227 

391 pediculus,/<V/. 228 to 230 

392 vorax 

393 grandinella (*) 

LXXXIX. Urocentrum 

394 turbo, fig. 23/, 232 

Plate IV. 

LXXVII. Schizonema 


? Agardhi,y?p. 208 

LXXVIII. Micromega 



LXXIX. Acineta 






mystacina,y?< 7 . 205 







LXXXII. Chaetomonas 


globulus, fig. 213 






? delitiense 






tripos, fig. 219, 220 


Michaelis,/?'^. 221 


fusus,/^. 222, 223 



LXXXVI. Glenodinium 






apiculatum, 224 to 226 

VO It I 








microstoma (**) 








patellina (*) 


convallaria, [plate v.^fig. 
237, 238, 239 



XCI. Carchesium 


polypinum, fig. 240 to 245 

XCII. Epistylis 







Epistylis Plate V. 

407 plicatilis 

408 grandis 

409 flavicans 

410 leucoa 

411 digitalis 

412 ? nutans, fig. 245, 246 

413 botrytis 

414 ? vegetans 

XCV. Ophrydium 

420 versatile,^. 249 to 254 

XCVI. Tintinnus 

421 inquilinus, group 255 

422 subulatus 

XCYII. Vagintcola 

423 crystallina 

XCTX. Enchelys 

429 pupa ,fig. 258, 259 

430 farcimen,^. 260 to 265 

431 infuscata 

432 nebulosa 

C. Disoma 

433 vacillans, 265' 

CT. Actinophrys 

434 sol 

435 viridis,266 

436 difformis 

CII. Trichodiscus 

437 &o\,fig. 267, 268 


438 fixa ,fig. 269, 270 

CIY. Triciioda 

439 pura (*) Jig. 27 \ to 273 

440 nasamonum 

441 ovata 

442 ? aethiopica 


CIX. Coleps 


liirtus (*) fig. 284 to 286 






CX. Traciielius 


anas, fig. 287, 287', 288, 







lamella (***) 




? trichophorus 

Epistylis Plate V. 

415 ? parasitica 

416 arabica 

XCIII. Opercularia 

417 articulata 


418 arbuscula,yu/. 247, 248 

419 niveum 

OP Hit YD IN A. 


424 tincta 

425 decumbens, group 256 

XCVIII. Cothurnia 

426 imberbis, group 257 

427 maritima 

428 havniensis 



443 asiatica 

444 pvrum 

CV. Lacrymaria 

445 proteus,^. 274, 275 

446 gutta 

447 rugosa 

CYI. Leucophrys 

448 patula,^. 276, 277 

449 spathula/q?. 278 

450 sanguinea,/q 7 . 279, 280 

451 pyriformis (**) 

452 carnium (**) 

453 ? anodontae 

CVII. Holophrya 

454 ovum,y?< 7 . 281 

455 discolor 

456 coleps 

CVIII. Prorodon 

457 niveus 

458 teres, Jig. 282, 283 



462 ampbacanthus 

463 incurvus 



470 ? globulifer 

471 ovum,^. 290 

CXI. Loxodes 

472 rostrum, fig. 291 to 293 

473 cithara 



Loxodes Plate VI. 

474 bursaria 

475 plicatus 

CXII. Bursaria 

476 truncatella 

477 vorticella, t /u/. 294 

478 vorax 

479 entozoon 

480 intestinalis 

481 ? corcliformis 

Spirostomum Plate VI. 

491 ambiguum,^. 297, 298 

CXIV. Phiauina 

492 vermicularis 

493 viridis, y%. 299 

CXV. Glaucoma 

494 scintillans (*) Jig. 300, 




CXVI. Chilodon 




cucullulus (***) fig . 303 


leucas,^. 295 

to 309 


pupa, fig. 296 












ran arum 

CXVII. Nassula 


? aurantiaca 


elegans,/*^. 310, 311 

CXIII. Spirostomum 




virens,/^. 296' 




CXVIII. Trachelocerca 



olor, fig. 317, 318, 








CXIX. Aspidisca 

Aspidisca Plate VII. 




denticulata,^. 321,322, 




CXX. Kolpoda 

Amphileptus Plate VI. 


cucullu s( * * *)fig .324 to 328 




? ren 


fasciola,^. 314,315, 316 


? cucullio 



CXXI. Paramecium 

510 aurelia(***),/?<b 329 to 332 

511 caudatum 

512 chrysalis (***) 

513 kolpoda (*) 

514 ? sinaiticum 

515 ? ovatum 

516 compressum 

517 milium (**) 

CXXII. Ampiiileptus 

518 anser ,Jig. 312, 313 









CXXIII. Uroleptus Plate VII. 

526 piscis 

527 musculus,,/?</. 333 

528 hospes 

529 ? lamella 

530 filum 

CXXIV. Ophryoglena 

531 atra 

532 acuminata, Jig. 334, 335 

533 flavicans 







pellionella (**) 








gibba ,fig. 336, 337 







CXXVI. Ceratidium 

cuneatum,^. 338, 339 

CXXVII. -Kerona 

polyporum,^. 340, 341 



CXXVIII. Urostyla Plate VII. 

544 grandis,y?gr. 342 

CXXIX. Stylonyciiia 

545 mytilus (*) 

546 pustulata (**) 

Stylonychia Plate VII. 

547 silurus 

548 appendiculata 

549 histrio 

550 lanceolata,^. 343, 344 

CXXX. Discocephalus , 

551 rotatorius,^. 345, 346 

CXXXI. Himantophorus 

552 eharon,^. 347, 348 

CXXXII. Chlamidodon 

553 mnemosyne, Jig. 349 

CXXXIII. Euplotes 

554 patella 



555 charon (**)fg. 350 to 353 

556 striatus 

557 appendicutalus 

558 truncatus 

559 monostylus 

560 aculeatus 

561 turritus 

562 cimex 






CXXXIV. Ptygura 

melicerta, fig. 354, 355 

podura (' *)fig . 356 

CXXXVI. Chaetonotus 


566 larus,/?#- 357, 358 

567 brevis 

CXXXVII. Glenophora 

568 trochus,/^. 359, 360 


CXXXVIII. Oecistes 
569 crystallinus,/igf. 361 to 364 

CXXXIX. Conochilus 
570 volvox, fig. 365 to 370 


CXL. Cyphonautes 

571 compressus, [plate viii.] 

fig. 373 

CXLI. Microcodon 

572 clavus,/igr. 371, 372 

Plate VIII. 

CXLII. Megalotrocha 
573 albo, flavicans, fig. 374, 

375, 376 

CXLIII. Tubicolaria 

574 najas,/igr. 379 to 382 

CXLIV. Stephanoceros 

575 Eichhornii, fig. 383, 383* 

CXLV. Limnias 

576 ceratophylli,/;gr. 388to392 


CXLYI. Lacinularia 

577 socialis 

CXLVII. Melicerta 

578 ringens,/^. 386, 387 

CXLYIII. Floscularia 

579 proboscidea 

580 ornata ,fig. 384, 385 

CXLIX. Enteroplea 

581 hydatina, fig. 393 

CL. Hydatina 

582 senta, fig. 394 

583 brachydactyla 

CLI. Pleurotrocha 

584 gibba Jig. 395, 396 

585 constricta 

586 leptura 




Plate IX. 

CLII. Furcularia 

587 gibha 

588 Reinliardti, fig. 397, 398 

589 forflcula 

590 gracilis 

CLIII. Monocerca 

591 rattus 

592 bicorniSj/d?. 399, 417 

593 ? valga 

CLIV. Notommata 

594 myrmeleOj/d/. 418 to 420 

595 syrinx 

596 hyptopus 

597 parasita 

598 granularis 

599 petromyzon 

600 lacinulata 

601 forcipata 

602 collaris 

603 Werneckii 

604 najas 

605 aurita 

606 gibba 

607 ansata 

608 decipiens 

609 ? felis 

610 ? tigris,//^. 421 

611 longiseta 

612 aequalis 

613 clavulata 

614 tuba 

615 brachionus 

616 tripus 

617 saccigera 

618 copeus,/« 7 . 416 

619 centrura 

620 brachy ota 

CLV. Synchaeta 

621 pectinata/d/. 422 

622 baltica 

623 oblonga 

624 tremula 

CLXVII. Lepadella 

652 ovalis (**) fig. 430 to 433 

653 emarginata 

654 ? salpina 

CLXYIII. Monostyla 

655 cornuta 

656 quadridentata, fig. 434 to 


657 ? lunaris 

Plate IX. 


625 longicaudum, fig. 423,424 


626 trigla,/q?. 400, 401,425 

627 platyp'tera/igf. 402 

CLYIII. Diglena? 

628 lacustris,/d/. 403 

929 grandis,/‘i^. 404, 405 

630 forcipata 

631 aurita 

632 catellina 

633 conura 

634 capitata 

635 caudata 

CLIX. Triarthra 

636 longiseta fig. 406 to 408 

637 mystacina 

CLX. Rattulus 

638 lunaris, group 409 

CLXI. Distemma 

639 forflcula, fig. 410, 411 

640 setigerum 

641 ? marinum 

642 ? forcipatum 

CLXII. Triophthalmus 

643 dorsualis ,fig. 412 to 414 

CLXIII. Eosphora 

644 najas, fig. 415 

645 digitata 

646 elongata 

CLXIV. Otoglena 

647 papillosa 

CLXV. Cyciloglena 

648 lupus, [ plate x.] fig. 425,* 

649 ? elegans 

CLXVI. Theorus 

650 vernalis/dz. 427 to 429 

651 uncinatus 


CLXIX. Mastigocerca 

658 carinata ,fig. 438 to 440 

CLXX. Euchlanis 

659 ? triquetra,/^. 441 tO 444 

660 ? Horngmanni 

661 luna 

662 macrura 

663 dilatata 

664 lynceus,//^. 445, 446 



CLXXI. Salpina Plate X. 


mucronata,/;^. 447 to 453 











CLXXII. Dinocharis 


pocillum,/«/. 454 to 456 





CLXXIII. Monura. 




dulcis,//^. 457 to 459 

CLXXIV. Colurus 


? uncinatus (**) 


CLXXVIII. Callidina 


elegans,/^. 470 to 473 

CLXXIX. Hydrias 


cornigera, [plate xi.]//^. 


CLXXX. Typhlina 


viridis, group 475 

CLXXXI. Rotifer 


vulgaris,/^. 476 to 480 


? citrinus 


? erythraeus 






CLXXXY. Noteus 


quadricorniSj/zg. 491 to 494 

CLXXXVI. Anuraea 


? quadridentata 


squamula,//g\ 495 to 497 
















stipitata,//# - . 498 









Colurus Plate X. 


? bicuspidatus 




deflexus,/i< 7 . 460 to 462 

CLXXY. Metopidia 


lepadella,//g\ 463 to 465 





CLXXVI. Stephanops 


lamellaris,/q 7 . 466, 467 


? muticus 



CLXXVII. Squamella 




oblonga,/ip. 468, 469 


Plate XI. 

CLXXXII. Actinurus 


Neptunius,/ig\ 481 to 484 

CLXXXIII. Monolabis 


conica//g. 485, 486 



CLXXXIV. Philodina 




Roseola,//^. 490 








aculeata, fig. 487 to 489 





CLXXXVII. Brachionus 
















polyacantlius,//^. 499 to 



CLXXXVIII. Pterobina 


patina, fig. 502 to 504 




clypeata,/^. 505 

G 2 

Since tlie preceding List went to press some new species have been 
discovered, and ten new genera established; these will be described in the 






Note .—Where the creature has been described previously by Muller, 
the founder of this subject, the letter (M.) in parentheses follows the English 
one. When the original name of Muller is changed, such precedes the 
letter (M.) within the parentheses.—The measurements are given in parts 
of an inch. 

This class of animalcules is denominated Polygastric 
from their possessing a digestive apparatus composed of 
many globular vesicles, which perform the functions of 
stomachs. They have no perceptible nervous cords or 
pulsation. They are hermaphrodite, and increase by a 
self-division of the creatures themselves, or by the growth 
of gemmules, or little buds, upon their bodies. Hence 
their external forms vary. Their locomotive organs con¬ 
sist of processes (often vibratory), but they are destitute 
of true articulated feet. 

Enteroclela, with an alimentary canal. Anentera, or without true alimentary canal. 



[ Polygastrica. 

The Polygastric animalcules comprehend twenty-two 
families, whose relations to each other may be seen in the 
following table:— 





illoricated or shell-less Monadina. 
loricated or shelled Cryptomonadina. 

of appendages. 
(No foot-like ' 

Form of 

formed in 


self-dividing on all 
sides (globular) 




. (filiform) 

illoricated Yibrionia. 

loricated Closterina. 

Form of 





Foot-like pro¬ 

| illoricated ... Amoebaea. 


f compound foot-like process from one ) Arcellina 
aperture . ‘ 

simple footlike process from one or 
, from each aperture. 


Hairy { iliorica ted 

v Epitricha 1 , . . , 

v (loricated 



/ One receiving 
and discharging 
orifice only for 



Two ditto ori¬ 
fices, one at 
each extremity. 







Orifices situated 
Allotr eta 





mouth furnished with proboscis, tail) „ . 

absent .....} Trachelma. 

mouth anterior, tail present. Opliryocercina. 








locomotive organs cilii .... 




Monadina. ] 




The animalcules of the family Monadina are the most 
minute living creatures which have been discovered by 
man. They are destitute of an alimentary canal; are 
illoricated or shell-less, and have an uniformity of body 
without any appendages issuing from it, cilia not being 
considered as such. They increase either by a simple and 
complete self-division of the body into two parts, or by 
other sections, into four or more individuals. The uni¬ 
formity or unvarying appearance in their external forms 
may be considered as one of the principal characteristics 
of this family; for no Monadina can voluntarily alter the 
shape of its body, whether into a filiform, knotty, or 
globular figure, nor can it extend any portion of it, and 
then contract it again. It is quite evident that they all 
possess organs of locomotion, nutrition, and propagation, 
which latter are of the hermaphrodite character. Some 
of them have a rudimentary eye, but it has never been 
discerned that they are furnished with a vascular or circu¬ 
lating system, which, however, is not surprising^ when we 
reflect that should they possess it (a supposition by no 
means to be rejected), the diameters of the tubes of this 
system would necessarily be of such extreme minuteness 
as hitherto to have defied investigation. 

The groups and figures in Plate I., numbered 1 to 20, 
convey a very fair idea of the appearance of the Monadina. 
None but microscopes of high magnifying powers can 
develope their structures; indeed, they cannot be ob¬ 
served accurately with a less amplification than 500 

88 description of [ Polygastrica. 

diameters, together with considerable penetration and a 
good definition. 

The family comprises forty-three species distributed 
among nine genera, as follow:— 














f I 


Eye wanting - 

Aggregate - 



Eye present 



/ Voluntarily 

During ) 
division j 

one or two 



\ Rolling 
Lips present ... 
Tail present . 










Germs I. Monas. The Monads .—The animalcules of 
this genus—the true Monads—are described (see the Table) 
as being deficient of the eye, projecting lip and tail, and 
always swimming in the direction of the longitudinal axis 
of the body, their mouth being situated at the anterior 
part. It is another distinguishing character of the true 
Monad that it is never seen to cluster with others of its 
genus, so as to form a berry-like mass, and hence it is 
designated single, in contradistinction to aggregate. At 
present, there are twenty-six species of this genus known— 
two green, two yellowish, three inclining to red, and the 
remainder colourless; but it should be mentioned, that 
although there be colour, it must not be regarded as a 
characteristic to be entirely relied upon. Monads may 
often be present in water, under inspection, without being 
seen, through the want of a competent magnifying power; 
you would seek for them in vain with a power less than 

Monad ina. ] 



300 diameters, and even this, in some cases, will be found 
insufficient. They are besides a difficult genus to be 
accurately determined, not only on account of their exceed¬ 
ing minuteness, but because the young of animalcules of 
other genera are so likely to be mistaken for them: for 
instance, the young of the Bacterium, Vibrio, Uvella, 
Polytoma, Pandorina, Gonium, &c., when they have 
separated from their clusters, or issued from their common 
envelopes. And this difficulty in discriminating them 
will be more likely to happen when they are not observed, 
whilst undergoing the process of self-division, or when 
seen in water containing but a small number of them; in 
which cases, however anxious we may be to ascertain 
their name, we must often rest contented with an approxi¬ 
mation to the truth. When the water swarms with the 
creatures, the decision will be far easier and more to be 
relied upon, as the characters are then more easily discover¬ 
able from the numerous vital relationships presented to us. 
The observer may, however, be guided to a certain 
extent by the following rule :—Suppose that in a drop of 
water containing species of the genus Vibrio, Bacterium, 
Uvella, or Polytoma (easily distinguished by their clustering 
forms), you were to observe separate Monad-like bodies; 
the probability is that they would be either single forms, 
or the young of these clustering animalcules, and if there 
were no great difference in the size of the separate 
individuals and those forming the clusters, this conclusion 
would be generally correct; and this rule applies equally 
to those green Monad-like creatures found amongst the 
Pandorina and Gonia. The young of the Chlamidomonas 
pulvisculus is very deceptive, and may often be mistaken 



[ Polygastrica. 

for an illoricated and eye-less green Monad. When 
Monads are assembled, however, in vast numbers, we 
may, with a little trouble, almost always arrive at some 
definite conclusion, but with only a single one, or upon 
a superficial and hasty examination, the genus cannot be 
accurately determined. 

The only locomotive organ which has been discovered in 
the Monad genus is the single filiform proboscis issuing 
from near the mouth. The numerous cilia sometimes 
apparent thereabouts are nothing more than this proboscis 
in a state of vibratory or rotatory motion. This organ, 
Ehrenberg observes, has a twofold office to perform, the 
one being locomotive and the other to provide the creature 
with food; hence I term it a purveying organ. 

The nutritive apparatus is readily seen in some of the 
species in its natural state (instance the M. guttala and 
vivipara), without the aid of coloured food; in others (M. 
termo, guttula and socialis), it may be demonstrated by 
this means. It consists of several distinct or separate 
cells (from eight to twenty) which are not all filled at 
the same time, and which are, for the most part, invisible 
when empty, but when distended with a limpid fluid, 
appear like so many lucid vesicles within the creatures. 

The propagative apparatus has been particularly noticed 
in the species guttula and vivipara. It consists of a vast 
number of granules formed into a net-like mass, and 
dispersed generally throughout the creature, and of a com¬ 
paratively large spherical glandular body, which separates 
by the process of self-division. 

Monads propagate also by another method, namely, by 
a self-division of the creature, either transversely, as with 

Monadina. ] 



the Monas guttula, hyalina, gliscens, Okenii, and socialis ; 
or longitudinally, as with the Monas punctum (see figure 2); 
both methods have been observed with the vivipara. The 
formation of gemmules has not been perceived in this genus. 

Ehrenberg supposes that they are endowed with the 
faculty of sensation, and that this is shewn by the vibration 
of the proboscis, and its alternate quiescence when the 
creature is in a place abundantly supplied with food. In 
some of the species an eye-like organ has been discerned, 
but as the species of each genus should be reduced to the 
rule of a special organ, characterizing a particular genus, 
these are not considered as true Monads, but form distinct 
genera, as Microglena, &c. 

As the Infusoria of this genus are chiefly curious on 
account of their extreme minuteness, and in no other 

respect, the species are not deemed of sufficient interest 
to be expatiated upon at any great length ; their leading 
characters and size, therefore, are only given. And we 
may remark, generally, that most of them are inhabitants 
of water in which any organic matter is undergoing 

The Monads are arranged under two divisions, according 
to their external forms. The first division contains all 
those which are of a globular or oval shape (globular 
Monads), and the second those of a lengthened form, 
more than twice as long as broad (elongated Monads). 

A.— Globular Monads. 

(a). True Globular or Sphero-Monad—colourless or whitish. 

1. Monas crepusculum. The twilight Monad. — The 
animalcules of this species are the smallest of all living- 
creatures. They are of a spheroidal form and hyaline, 



[ Polygastrica. 

although, when seen in masses with the naked eye, they 
appear of a whitish hue. They are active and carnivorous, 
feeding on animal as well as fungoid substances. They 
are found in water wherein animal matter is held in 
solution, but as the decomposition of the animal matter 
proceeds, the animalcules die, and their bodies may be 
seen rising to the surface of the water, and forming a 
thicka nd colourless gelatinous stratum. Gi'oup 1 in the 
engraving is magnified 800 diameters. They rarely attain 
to 1-12,000 of an inch in diameter, and never exceed it. 

2. Monas termo (M). The end or limit Monad , so 
named from its having been supposed to be the limit of 
animal organization. Active, herbiverous, found in stag¬ 
nant water, and increase rapidly where there is an abun¬ 
dance of vegetable matter undergoing decomposition. 
Size 1-600th, although some are not one half or even a 
third of that measurement. 

3. Monas guttula (M). The drop Monad. —Inactive. 
May be preserved by drying. Twelve stomach-cells may 
be seen by the aid of indigo or carmine. Surface appears 
granulated. Found in vessels of water containing plants 
or flowers. Size 1-2300th, or less. 

4. Monas vivipara. The viviparous Monad. —Inactive. 
Found in stagnant water (**), coloured. Size 1 -620th, 
or less. 

5. Monas grandis. The great Monad is of a greenish 
colour except near the mouth. Proboscis short, l-3rd or 
l-4th the length of the body. It is sluggish. Found in 
marsh water, very rare. Size l-430th. 

6. Monas bicolor. The Two-coloured Monad. —Colour¬ 
less, excepting one or two green spots within it, atte¬ 
nuated anteriorly. Motion vacillating. Size 1-1440th. 




7. Monas ochracea. The ochre-colour eel Monas .— 
Yellow-ochre colour. Found in water-courses. Size 
1-6000th at most. 

8. Monas erubescens. The pale-red Monad. —Rose- 
coloured, and with a slow but continual motion. Found 
in salt water. Size 1-1728th. 

9. Monas vinosa. The wine Monad. —Colour of red 
wine. Tremulous motion. Rejects coloured food. Found 
in vegetable infusions. Size from 1-12000th to 1-6000th. 

(b). Oval or Egg-shaped Monads—all colourless. 

10. Monas kolpoda. The mamma-shaped Monad. —Va¬ 
cillating motion. Discovered in water in the silver mines 
of Siberia. Size 1 - 7200 th. 

11. Monas enchelis. The flask-shaped Monad .— 
Continuous slow motion. Found in marsh water. Size 
1-1200th to l-960th. 

12. Monas umbra. The shadow Monad. —Rapid mo¬ 
tion. Found among fresh conferva. Size 1-2400th. 

13. Monas hyalina. The diaphanous Monad. —Active, 
and seems to leap or jump. Found in stale water in glass 
vessels. Size 1-6000th to l-2880th. 

14. Monas gliscens. The gliding Monad. — Gliding 
motion. Found in watery infusions of the stinging nettle. 
Size l-4500th. 

15. Monas ovalis. The little Egg-shaped Monad .— 
Tremulous motion. Found in water of the Anodonta 
Molusca. Size 1-9600th. 

16. Monas mica. The glittering Monad. Rotatory 
and vacillating motion. Inhabits clear fresh water. Size 
1-1440th to 1-1200th. 




17. Monas punctum. The point egg-shaped Monad .— 
Revolves on the longitudinal axis of its body. (See 
engraving, group 2 ; the lower figure exhibits one under¬ 
going longitudinal division.) Found in water with tannin. 
Size 1-1150th. 

B. —Elongated Monads. 

(«). True Elongated Monads. 

IS. Monas cylindrica. The cylinder-shaped Monad .— 
Solitary, colourless, revolves as it progresses. Found in 
saltwater. Size l-1150th. 

19. Monas Olcenii. Okens elongated Monad. —Red, 
revolving, vibratory motion, social. Found in running 
water. Size 1-2300th. 

(b). Conical. 

20. Monas deses. The lazy Monad. —Green, solitary. 
Found in water from hills. Size 1-1200th. 

21. Monas socialis. The social Monad. Colourless, 
social. Found in water-butts. Size 1 - 700 th. 

[c]. Top-shaped. 

22. Monas flavicans. The yellow Monad. — Social, 
gliding motion. Found in ditch-water. Size 1-1 720 th. 

( 1 d ). Spindle-shaped (*), colourless. 

23. Monas simplex. The simple spindle Monad .— 
Gliding and rotatory motion. Found in water of the Nile, 
and at Berlin. Size 1 - 1720 th. 

24. Monas inanis. The empty spindle Monad .— 
Vacillating motion. Found in stagnant and foul water. 
Size 1-3600th. 

25. Monas scintillans. The sparkling spindle Monad .— 
Very active. Vacillating motion. Found amongst fresh 
water conferva, &c. Size 1-6000th to l-4600th. 

Monadina. ] 



26. Monas Dumalii. —These animalcules, discovered by 

M. Joly, are of a deep red colour. They occur in vast 
numbers in the salt marshes of the Mediterranean, and 
give to those waters a deep blood colour. They are eaten 
by a small Entomostracean, the Artemia salina.—( Ann . 

N. H. xxxvii. 317.) 

Genus II. Uvella. The grape Monads. —The species of 
this genus are very well characterised by their aggregating 
together occasionally, so as to form a grape or mulberry¬ 
like mass, and by their generally possessing two (?) hair¬ 
like proboscides at the mouth. Like the Monas, they are 
deficient of the projecting lips, visual organ, and tail, and 
have the mouth situated at the anterior extremity. They 
progress also in the direction of the longest axis of their 
body, and are endowed with the capability of complete 
self-division. There are six species—two green, and the 
remainder colourless. 

27 . Uvella viriscens. The yellowish-green Uvella 
(Volvox uva, M.)—Body ovate, and of the colour that 
gives rise to its specific name. Found amongst conferva 
and lemna. Size 1-2000th; diameter of cluster 1-280th. 

28. Uvella chamaemoruni. The colourless bramble- 
berry Uvella .—Smaller than the preceding one. Found in 
water-butts. Size 1-2880th; diameter of cluster l-570th. 

29. Uvella uva. The grape Uvella .—Has indistinct 
ventricles, and is very small. Found in stagnant water. 
Size l-4800th; diameter of cluster 1-960th. 

30. Uvella atomus. The atom Uvella (Monas 
atomus, M. lens et Volvox socialis, M.)—Voracious, with 
large ventricles. Size l-6900th to l-3406th; diameter 
of cluster 1-1150tli. 



[ Poiygastrica. 

31 Uvella glaucoma. The glaucous Uvella {Volvox so¬ 
cialise M.)—Form oval, but inclining to conical, with the 
posterior extremity attenuated as it advances in age. Hya¬ 
line, with large ventricles, and evidently two filiform probos¬ 
cides. In 1831, Ehrenberg first observed a vibration at its 
anterior part, and its reception of coloured food. In 1835, 
he discovered within the body of this minute creature 
some green Monads which it had eaten, and by which it 
was proved to subsist by prey. When fed on indigo, as 
many as twelve stomachs were filled, and it has been some¬ 
times seen to void little blue particles, which seemed like 
undigested matter, from its mouth. With a power of 800 
diameters a great number of small colourless granules, 
having the appearance and form of eggs, may be discerned, 
lying between the nutritive sacs. It increases both by a 
transverse and longitudinal section. Engraving, group 3, 
represents a cluster of these creatures; figures 4 and 5, 
separate young ones; and 6, an old one. They are mag¬ 
nified about 350 diameters. The individuals, when full 
grown, are elongated, and their ova may be perceived with 
800 linear. Ehrenberg has seen them prey on the green 
Chlamidomonas. Found in water-butts. Size l-2300th to 
1-235Oth ; diameter of cluster 1-430th. 

32. Uvella hodo. The green Uvella. —Fore part of 
the body rounded, attenuated posteriorly. It is of a beau¬ 
tiful green colour; found in stagnant water. Size 1-4030th 
to l-3450th ; diameter of cluster 1-2350th. 

Genus III. Polytoma. The Partile Monads. — This 
genus is characterized by its possessing a truncated mouth, 
furnished with a double flagelliform or whip-shaped pro¬ 
boscis, situated, as with Monas and Uvella, at the 

Monadina. ] 



anterior extremity of the body. It is wanting of the eye 
and tail. As the young increase in size, the parent body 
assumes a decussated or wrinkled appearance, like a mul¬ 
berry, thus giving signs of its approaching self-division 
into many sections (as the name Polytoma denotes), or 
numerous individuals. Its internal organization bears the 
usual evidences of the Polygastric nutritive system. Its only 
organ of locomotion is the double proboscis just mentioned. 
A large contractile vesicle may sometimes be observed 
within the creature, which Ehrenberg conceives to be¬ 
long to the male propagative apparatus. This animalcule 
will not imbibe colouring matter. It increases by a spon¬ 
taneous self-division of its body, both transversely and 
longitudinally, thus dissolving, as it were, its berry-like 
cluster into many individuals. It was known to Muller 
and Wrisberg. One species has been recognized. 

33. Polytoma uvella. The grape Polytoma (.Monas 
uva, M.)—This creature is colourless, and has an oval or 
oblong form, equally obtuse at both extremities. It is often 
abundant in water, where animal matters are in solution, 
upon which it appears to be nourished. It is generally 
in company with species of Vibrio and Spirillum, and 
sometimes with Uvella uva and Uvella atomus, in water- 

Figures 8 and 9 represent two individuals ; figure 10, 
another about to divide longitudinally ; a cluster of eight is 
seen as fig. 7 ; and a matured one on the point of sepa¬ 
rating at figure 11. Figure 9 is magnified 800 diameters, 
shewing the double proboscis very distinctly; and its body 
seems enveloped in an outer tunic (probably induced by 
the peculiar contraction), which disappears when the 




division is completed. Size about 1-2000th to l-900th ; 
diameter of clusters, 1-380th. 

Genus IV. Microglena. The eye Monad .—This genus 
is essentially characterized by the species all having a minute 
red eye-like speck, situated within the creature, at the 
anterior part of the body. In other respects they resemble 
true Monads, by being deficient of the projecting lips and 
tail, and by their swimming in the direction of the long 
axis of the body. They possess a very delicate flagelliform 
proboscis, of simple structure. They multiply by a com¬ 
plete self-division of the body. Two species only are 
known, the one yellow, and the other green. 

We now approach to a description of living creatures, 
whose organization, on account of their magnitude, is 
rendered more apparent to us. The red eye-like speck, 
the distinguishing feature of this genus, may be assumed 
to be a rudimentary visual organ, notwithstanding nervous 
ganglia subservient to it have not been perceived, as with 
the still larger Infusoria, the Euglena, Rotatoria, and single- 
eyed genus of Entomostraceans, the Daphnia. This organ, 
together with the proboscis, its locomotive and purveying 
instrument, the beautiful green homogenous granules seen 
in M. monadina, which, by their shape and situation in the 
body, leave no reasonable doubt of their being ova, and 
the grey rolled band-like seminal gland, demonstrate that 
these living atoms are endowed with systems of orga¬ 
nization (a sensitive one too) as conformable to their par¬ 
ticular uses, and as well adapted to supply the wants of 
the creatures, as those even in the largest fish. Still are 
we left to conjecture with respect to their possessing a 
vascular system or not: it has never been perceived, and 




we can only argue, as we have done already, that if there 
be one, the vessels in beings so minute must necessarily 
be of such delicate structure, that we may not as yet have 
found out the means of making ourselves acquainted with 

34. Microglena punctifera [Fnchelys punctifera M.), 
The yellow Microglena. —Yellowish colour, form oval, or 
almost conical, and terminated acutely at the posterior 
extremity. Red eye, with a blackish central spot, as if a 
secondary visual appendage. Found among slimy water- 
plants. Size 1-620th. 

35. Microglena monadina. The green Microglena .— 
Beautiful green-colour; form ovate, rounded equally at both 
extremities; a distinct single red eye, proboscis nearly as 
long as its body, a vibrating rotatory motion on its long 
axis. Figures 12, 13, and 14, represent three animalcules 
magnified, the first 800 diameters, exhibiting all the internal 
organization noted above. Found among slimy water-plants 
(Hampstead and Finchley). Size 1-2300th to 1 -720th. 

Genus V. Phacelomonas. The fan Monad. —The dis¬ 
tinguishing characters of this genus are the numerous pro¬ 
boscides placed round the mouth of the creature, as it 
were a wreath of cilia, composed of from 8 to 10. In 
other respects it resembles the Microglena: it has the small 
red eye, the truncated mouth at the anterior extremity, and 
is deficient of the tail. It swims in the direction of the 
longitudinal axis, and its self-division is either simple and 
complete, or it never d ivides. Many stomach-cells have 
been observed within the body, but they have not been 
seen to admit artificial coloured food. This genus has not 
been illustrated by Elirenberg. 



[ Polygastrica. 

3G. Phacelomonas pulvisculus [Monaspulvisculus, M.) 
The green Phacelomonas. — 1 This creature is of an oblong 
or slightly conical form, attenuated posteriorly, and of a 
beautiful green colour. Just previous to self-dividing its 
body becomes cylindrical, and then contracts at the centre ; 
but when dying it changes to a globular shape. In swim¬ 
ming, it turns quickly upon its longitudinal axis, without 
any vibration. This animalcule demonstrates the fact, that 
proboscides and cilii are organs not materially different 
from each other. Found in green puddles. Size 1-1152nd. 

Genus YI. Glenomorum. The bride Monad. —This 
genus is especially indicated by its possessing a single red 
eye, a truncated mouth, and double filiform proboscides; by 
its being destitute of a tail, by the individuals moving on 
the long axis of the body, by their self-dividing simply and 
completely into two, or not dividing at all; and by their 
voluntarily clustering, as occasion may require, so as to 
give themselves the resemblance of a bunch of grapes. 

In this enumeration of the characters belonging to this 
genus, we are presented with an excellent illustration of 
the table (and one that exceedingly well explains its use), 
under which all the genera of the family Monadina are 
arranged, so as to exemplify in what respects they are alike, 
and in what they differ from each other. (For example, see 
Table, p. 88.) The Glenomorum closely resembles the 
Uvella, but differs from them by the superaddition of the 
red eye; it differs from Monas and Microglena through oc¬ 
casionally aggregating; from Chilomonas, in being deficient 
of the projecting lips; from Bodo, in not having the tail; 
from Phacelomonas, by the double proboscis; from Doxo- 
coccus, by swimming, instead of rolling over or revolving 




in the water; and from Folytoma, by never appearing in 
clusters whilst undergoing self-division. 

'/ 37* Glenomorum tingens . The green Glenomorum .— 

This creature has a fusiform body, which is of a beautiful 
green colour, and three or four times longer than it is 
broad. Its double proboscis is exceedingly delicate, and 
about half the length of its body; within it may be seen 
some small whitish vesicles, the stomach-cells, and also 
some minute granules, which give rise to the green colour, 
and may be considered as ova. About the centre of the 
body is a large transparent colourless organ, which Ehren- 
berg supposes to be of a male sexual nature. The beau¬ 
tiful red eye is fixed internally, about one-third from the 
anterior extremity of the body. These animalcules con¬ 
stitute a great portion of the green matter commonly seen 


on stagnant water, and discovered by Priestley. They 
appear to be nearly allied to the Cercaria viridis, differing 
from them only in magnitude, and in the unalterable form 
of their bodies. Figure 15 represents two clusters; 16, 
single ones, magnified 250 times; 17, another magnified 
about 450 diameters. Found plentiful at Hampstead. Size 
l-3600th to 1 - 1 700th. 

Genus VII. Doxococcus. The revolving Monad .—The 
individuals of this genus differ from those of the whole 
family Monadina by the singularity of their motion, which 
may be defined to be neither that of swimming nor of 
rotation, but a sort of rolling over and over. In other 
particulars they are like the Monads. They have the 
same unvarying form, and are destitute of the eye, pro¬ 
jecting lips, and tail. Their self-division is simple and 
complete, or they do not divide at all, in which case they 



[ Poly gas trica. 

increase by ova. These characters are sufficient to distin¬ 
guish them from all other Infusoria, and to justify their 
being placed in the family Monadina. Four species are 

38. Doxococcus globulus (Volvox globulus, M.) The 
globular Doxococcus. —Form subglobose or ovate; tran¬ 
sparent as water; easily known by its tedious roiling motion; 
mouth not discerned. Found in saltwater. Size l-860th. 

39. Doxococcus ruber . The red Doxococcus. —Form 
globular; colour brick red, opaque. Ehrenberg appears to 
doubt whether this animalcule holds its proper situation 
here, or whether it should be placed with the genus Tra- 
chelomonas, though its motion is very peculiar; and he has 
not been able to satisfy himself of the existence of a lorica, 
or shell, enveloping the creature. Group 18 represents 
three magnified individuals. Found amongst conferva, 
&c. Size 1 - 1 720th. 

40. Doxococcus pulvisculus. The Green Doxococcus .— 
Form perfectly (?) globular; colour green, but opaque. 
Found amongst conferva. Size not exceeding 1-1280th. 

41. Doxococcus inequalis. The irregular-shaped Doxo¬ 
coccus. — Form irregularly globular; transparent, and 
covered with green spots. Found amongst conferva. 
Size l-2400th. 

Genus VIII. Chilomonas. The lip-Monads constitute 
but a small genus. They are characterized by the oblique 
position of the mouth, with respect to the longitudinal axis 
of their bodies, which occasions an overhanging or pro¬ 
jecting form above the mouth, of a lip-like appearance. 
All the species propel themselves in the direction of the 
long axis of the body. Their form is invariable, and they 

Monad ina. ] 



are devoid both of the eye and tail. Whether the projecting 
lip is furnished with cilia, or with a double flagelliform 
proboscis, Ehrenberg has not satisfactorily determined. 
He states, however, that two proboscides are to be dis¬ 
tinctly seen on the C. paramecium, whilst on the C. des¬ 
truens there are a number of cilia, which are not quite so 
apparent. Their self-division is either simple and complete, 
or they do not divide. 

42. Chilomonas volvox. The rolling Chilomonas .— 
Form ovate; attenuated and truncated anteriorly; transpa¬ 
rent and colourless; projecting lip long; they will feed on 
indigo. Found in stagnant water. Size l-1440th. 

43. Chilomonas paramecium. The triangular Chilo¬ 
monas. —Form oblong, keeled longitudinally, colour resem¬ 
bling dirty water. This animalcule is easily distinguished 
by its shape and peculiar lip-like process. With a power of 
about 240, numerous digestive cells are visible; and with 
380, the two proboscides, which are half the length of the 
body, may be perceived. It moves in the direction of its 
long axis, but in a fluctuating or wavering manner. It 
sometimes clusters. Group 19 represents two of these 
creatures magnified 380 times, and six others less magnified. 
Three are clustered. Found in water wherein wheaten 
bread has been steeped. Size l-1020th. 

44. Chilomonas destruens. The destructive Chilomonas. 
—Form oblong, but variable, on account of its softness. 
Faint yellow, nearly colourless. Found in salt and fresh water, 
and in the bodies of dead Rotatoria (Anuroea foliacea 
and Monocerca rattus). Size 1-860th. 

Genus IX. Bodo. The tailed Monads. —The caudal 
appendage at the posterior extremity of these animalcules is a 



[Polygas frica. 

decisive character of the genus Bodo. In other respects, 
the species may be described as being eyeless, and having 
the terminal mouth furnished with a single (?) filiform pro¬ 
boscis, and as undergoing self-division, simply and com¬ 
pletely into two, or not dividing at all. These creatures 
never constitute true or perfect clusters, like some of the 
family Monadina, although, like the Uvellathey occasion¬ 
ally enter into social compact. In the species B. grandis, 
several digestive sacs have been observed, and (as also in 
the B. intestinalis) a simple (perhaps double?) proboscis, 
its organ of locomotion. The Bodo didymus has been 
known to divide transversely. Only one of the species of 
this genus having fallen under my own investigation, the 
• account of them here given is entirely abstracted from Die 
Infusionsthi erch en . 

45. Bodo intestinalis. The intestine Bodo. —Form 
almost conical; tail of equal length with the body; trans¬ 
parent and colourless. Found in severed living animals, 
such as frogs, toads &c. In the grey and edible frogs, 
amongst the watery mucus of the alimentary canal, Ehren- 
berg has observed great numbers of these creatures, and 
remarks that the Cercaria gyrinus of Muller (a different 
animalcule) might pass as a representation of this species, 
and that it was confounded by its discoverer with the 
spermatic animalcules. Group 20 represents them mag¬ 
nified about 300 diameters. Size 1 - 1720 th. 

46. Bodo ranarum. The frog Bodo. —Body turgid, 
ventricles indistinct. Found in live frogs, with the pro¬ 
ceeding species, and with the Bursaria ranarum. Size 

47- Bodo viridis. The green Bodo. —Form nearly glo- 

Monad ina.'] 



bular ; tail very short; colour green. Found amongst 
conferva. Size l-2400th. 

48. Bo do socialis. (Monas lens, M.) The social Bodo. 
—Form ovate or subglobose; tail often longer than the 
body; transparent and colourless. Clusters into a mul¬ 
berry shape. The single forms are sometimes observed 
hopping. Very common in stagnant water. Size l-2970th. 

49. Bodo vorticellaris. The bell-shaped Bodo. —Body 
three times as long as it is broad; tail very short. Found 
in fresh water. Size 1-1200th. 

50. Bodo didymus. The double-tailed Bodo. —Body 
generally constricted about midway, tail short. Size 

51. Bodo saltans. The leaping Bodo. —Very small; 
body with ample ventricles ; tail short. This creature, most 
probably from its small size, has been mistaken for Muller’s 
Monas termo, but its brisk leaping movement will suffi¬ 
ciently distinguish the one from the other. Size 1 -12000th, 

52. Bodo grandis. The great Bodo. —This creature has 
an oblong form, ample ventricles, and rigid setaceous tail, 
affixed to the abdomen. Found in stagnant water. Size 

53. Bodo oystea. The oyster Bodo. —Has a globular 
body; the anterior three-fourths occupied with vescicles, 
the rest hyaline; length of tail four times the diameter of 

body. This active creature I discovered in the liquor of an 
oyster, swimming freely among the ova (Sept. 1834). 
Diameter l*2000th. 



[ Polygastrica. 


The family Cryptomonadina exhibits all the charac¬ 
teristics (and no certain or definite ones of any other 
family) of the Monadina, together with a distinct gela¬ 
tinous, membraneous, or hard induvium, or shell-like sub¬ 
stance, termed a lorica, in which they are more or less 
enclosed. Considering them as a family, their organization 
has been determined as completely as that of the Mona- 
dina, or even the larger Polygastrica ; although, in all pro¬ 
bability, something more is yet to be learnt of the species 
individually. The lorica, or integument covering these crea¬ 
tures, is of different forms; sometimes it is of the form of an 
open shield (. scutellum ), at others of a closed box or a pitcher 
( urceolus ). Locomotive organs are clearly perceptible 
in all the genera, excepting, perhaps, the genus Lagenella, 
and even with this Dr. Warwick is of opinion that he has 
discerned them. They consist of two delicate, filiform, and 
generally retractile processes, issuing from the margin of 
the mouth; they are capable of being put into very 
powerful rotatory motion. We shall designate them, as 
with the Monads, proboscides. The nutritive apparatus of 
these creatures has not yet been demonstrated by the appli¬ 
cation of coloured artificial food ; but with six or seven 
species (nearly one-half the family) internal cells have been 
discovered. In two genera, a sensitive system may be 
presumed to exist, from a coloured spot or eye-like appear¬ 
ance being present in the interior of the fore part of the 
body. From the position of this organ of vision, the 
dorsal line may be readily conceived, so as to indicate a 

Cryptomonadina. ] 



right and left side of the creature. The individuals either 
self-divide simply and completely, or they do not divide at 
all. “ It is possible/* says Ehrenberg, “ that the fossil ani¬ 
malcules discovered in the flint of chalk and porphyritic 
formations, and named by me Pyxidicula (see plate xii. 
upper figures), belong to the genus Trachelomonas.” The 
genera hold the following relations :— 

Eye absent 1 

Lorica pointed anteriorly . Prorocentrum. 


/Lorica with a neck and narrow orifice . Lagenella. 

Lorica an open shield ) ~ , , 

(Scutellum) ] Cryptoglena. 

Lorica a closed box or ) m , , 

pitcher ( Urceolus) } Trachelomonas. 

The species of this family are readily recognized by the 
stillness or inflexibility they display while swimming, or 
when brought into contact with other bodies. The lorica 
of the Prorocentrum and Lagenella is at once perceived 
to be a distinct covering. When any doubt, however, exists 
upon this point, a slight degree of pressure in the aquatic 
live-box, or between two slips of polished glass, will easily 
determine it. The lorica of the Trachelomonas is of a 
siliceous quality, and indestructible by fire. 

Genus X. Cryptomonas. The loricated Monads .— 
This genus is essentially characterized (see the Table) by 
the species being destitute of the visual organ, and having 
a lorica obtuse, or not attenuated, towards the anterior. 
Body short, but not filiform; self-division, if any, longi¬ 


Lorica with the orifice 
without a neck 

Lorica obtuse 

'Form short, self-division 
longitudinal or wanting 

Form long and tortuous 
. Self-division transverse 

| Cryptomonas. 
j- Ophidomonas. 



[ Polygastrica. 

54. Cryptomonas curvata. The curved Cryptomonas. 
—Form compressed, slightly bent like the letter S, and 
twice as long as it is broad ; colour green. Found amongst 
conferva. Size 1-5 70 th. 

55. Cryptomonas ovata (Enchelys viridis , M.) The 
egg-shaped Cryptomonas. —Form depressed, oval, and twice 
as long as broad; colour green. Motion slow,vacillating, 
and rotating on the longitudinal axis ; but when obstructed, 
the creature is seen to leap. Lorica paper-like, not hard, 
and the numerous internal and transparent vesicles per¬ 
ceived amongst the green ova are the alimentary sacs. In 
the middle of the creature there are two or three egg- 
shaped bodies, supposed to be seminal glands, and at the 
posterior part a single variable vesicle of a sexual nature; 
self-division not observed. Figures 21 and 22 represent 
two full grown creatures (side and back view), magnified 
300 diameters; and figure 23, a young one. Found 
amongst conferva. Size l-570th. 

56. Cryptomonas erosa. The marginated Cryptomonas. 
—Body depressed, oval; colour green, anterior part 
hyaline. Found in clean water, among conferva. Size 

57. Cryptomonas cylindrica (Enchelys viridis, M.) 
The cylinder-shaped Cryptomonas. —Body elongated, sub- 
cylindrical, three times as long as broad. Found amongst 
conferva. Size almost 1-1000th. 

58. Cryptomonas (?) glauca. The blueish Crypto¬ 
monas. —Form oval, twice as long as broad; anterior portion 
truncated, double flagelliform proboscis. Body turgid, and 
of a blueish-green colour Found with the Chlamidomonas 
pulvisculus. Size 1-864th. 

Cryptomonadina .] tiie infusoria. 


59. Cryptomonas (?) fusca. The brown Crypjto- 
monas. —Oval, turgid, and of a brown-colour. Found 
amongst conferva. Size l-1500th. 

60. Cryptomonas lenticularis. The lens shaped Cryp¬ 
tomonas •—Form orbicular, resembling a lens; colour green; 
lorica thick. Size 1-1/20th. 

Genus XI. Ophidomonas. The serpent Monad .—The 
distinguishing characters of this genus are its filiform body, 
deficient of the eye, its smooth and obtuse lorica, and its 
transverse but complete mode of self-dividing. It was 
discovered by Ehrenberg in September, 1836. It is fur¬ 
nished with a filiform proboscis, as its organ of locomotion, 
which, together with the tubular lorica, and the numerous 
digestive sacs, form the whole of the organization that has 
hitherto been demonstrated. Its extremely small trans¬ 
verse diameter is the great impediment to a better acquaint¬ 
ance with this creature. Whether its brown-colour is 
derived or not from the ova within it has not been de¬ 
termined, nor has it been drawn. 

61. Ophidomonas Jenensis. The Jena Ophidomonas. 
—Form very thin, curved spirally, and equally obtuse at 
both extremities; colour olive-brown; motion brisk. Found 
only at Jena, in well water. Size l-570th. 

Genus XII. Prorocentrum. Th q pointed shell Moriad. 
—The animalcules of this genus are destitute of the eye, 
and have a smooth lorica, resembling a little box ( urceolus ), 
pointed at the anterior extremity. They have a filiform 
proboscis, for the uses previously described, and numerous 
large digestive cells in the interior of the body. Self-divi¬ 
sion has not been observed. It is worthy of remark/’ says 
Dr. Ehrenberg, “ that the only species of this genus with 



[ Polygastrica 

which we are acquainted belongs to the luminous crea¬ 
tures of the sea, which, perhaps from some peculiar organic 
relation or condition, yet unknown to us, are instrumental 

in producing that curious and certainly vital phenomenon 


usual termed a phosphorescent sea.” It may be further 
noticed, that all the luminous Infusoria of the sea, hitherto 
discovered, are characterized as being of the same yellowish 
waxy colour as the species of this genus; and it is pro¬ 
bable that this condition is immediately connected wdth the 
interesting phenomenon in question. 

62. Prorocentrum micans. The glistening Prorocen- 
trum. —Form oval and compressed, attenuated at the 
posterior part, but dilated and pointed anteriorly; colour 
of yellow-wax. Found in sea water. Figures 24 and 25 
exhibit two animalcules magnified 300 diameters ; the first 
is a side view, the latter a back view. The cilia proboscis 
in figure 24 indicates the position of the mouth. Size 

Genus XIII. Lagenella. The flask shaped Monad is 
distinguished from the other loricated Monads by its 
closed shell extended anteriorly, so as to give it a neck¬ 
shaped appearance, like that of a bottle or flask. This 
shell or lorica is perfectly distinct, and as clear as crystal. 
The only part of the organization of the creature at present 
known is the eye, or bright red speck, which is always to 
be seen in this genus, and the green granules within the 
body of the animalcule, which Dr. Ehrenberg supposes 
to be ova. 

63. Lagenella euchlora. The beautiful green Lage¬ 
nella. —Form oval, neck short and truncated ; lorica crys¬ 
talline: colour of the body or eggs green. Figures 26, 

Cryptoinonadina.~\ the infusoria. 


27 , and 28, are representations of this creature magnified. 
Found amongst conferva. Size l-1200th. 

Genus XIV. Cryptoglena. The loricated Monads , 
with an eye. —This genus is distinctly characterized by the 
species having an open lorica, of the form of a shield ( scu- 
tellum), but folded or rolled inwardly at the sides, and 
without the projecting neck. The eye is perfectly evident, 
and the small digestive cells appear to be covered with 
green egg-like granules. In the species C. conica, traces 
are seen in the centre of the body of a male generative 
structure, in the form of two oval glandular substances, of 
a greyish colour; in this species also a double filiform pro¬ 
boscis is seen. Self-division has not been observed in 
any of the genera, wdiich are all of a green colour. 

64. Cryptoglena conica. The cone-shaped Crypto¬ 
glena. —Form conical, dilated and truncated at the anterior, 
and furnished with two filiform proboscides, half the 
length of the body; they are acutely attenuated towards 
the posterior portion of the body. Colour a blueish-green. 
Group 29 is a magnified representation of three creatures. 
They are found in great numbers in butts of river water, 
in company with the Cryptomonas glauca, from which 
they are readily distinguished by their form, larger size, 
and red eye. They move briskly in the direction of the 
longitudinal axis of their bodies, but when obstructed, 
they spring or leap out of their course. Size 1-1100th. 

65. Cryptoglena pigra. The slothful Cryptoglena .— 
Form oval, approaching to globular, and emarginate at the 
anterior; colour a beautiful green; movement slow. Found 
in water, when covered with ice. Size l-3000th. 

66. Cryptoglena coerulescens. The cerulian Cryp - 



[ Polygastrica. 

toglena .—Form depressed, elliptical and emarginate ante¬ 
riorly; colour blueish-green ; motion quick. Found amongst 
conferva. Size 1-6000th. 

Genus XV. Traciielomonas. The Monad with the 
trunk. — This genus comprehends those loricated ani¬ 
malcules of the family Cryptomonadina which are possessed 
of the visual organ, and of a closed lorica, of a box-like 
shape, elongated or spherical, but without the projecting 
neck. They are furnished with a long single filiform pro¬ 
boscis or seta, for the purposes heretofore described, and 
in two species, T. nigricans, and T. volvocina, very 
minute transparent vesicles have been discerned, which are 
most probably their digestive sacs. In the species T. 
cylindrica egg-like granules are visible. Two species are 
green, and one blackish-brown. It is most probable that 
those highly interesting animalcules which enter so abun¬ 
dantly into the silicified substances in certain chalk forma¬ 
tions belong to this genus. 

67. Traciielomonas nigricans. The blackish Trache- 
lomonas .—Form oval, approaching to globular; colour 
rarely green, mostly of a reddish or blackish-brown. Eye 
brown. Size 1 - 1700 th. 

68. Traciielomonas volvocina. The revolving Tra- 
chelomonas .—Form spherical; colour mostly green, some¬ 
times of a brownish hue, but easily distinguished by a red 
ring on the circumference of the body; vesicles maybe 
observed within it, which are most probably the digestive 
sacs, between which a very fine granulated substance is 
situated, which occasions the colour of the body. It is 
furnished with a delicate flagelliform proboscis for purvey¬ 
ing and locomotion. The red circle, so remarkable a feature 

Cryp to m onadina.] 



in this species, always appears to abide in the same horizontal 
position, how quickly soever the creature may be revolving 
on its longitudinal axis. Figure 30 represents this crea¬ 
ture with its proboscis extended ; figure 31, another with it 
retracted; figure 32 is a very young specimen ; and 33, a 
full grown one, that has been pressed between two plates of 
glass, so as to exhibit the lorica broken without destroying 
any other part, except the red circle above noticed. Found 
amongst conferva. Size 1-860tli. 

69. Trachelomonas cylindrica. The cylindrical Tra- 
chelomonas .—Form oblong, approaching to cylindrical; 
proboscis almost as long as the body. Colour a beautiful 
green; eye red; ring purple. Size 1-1000th. 




[ Polygastrica. 


This family derives its name from the rolling motion 
with which the extraordinary creatures belonging to it 
make their way through their natural element—the water. 
The mode in which they self-divide, whilst pent up within 
their loricated vestment, is a curious characteristic of the 
family, and such as would almost warrant the supposition 
that they hold some very near relationship to those re¬ 
markable creatures termed Zoophites. They resemble the 
Monads in most particulars relating to their organization. 
The body is unvarying and destitute of appendages ? They 
have several digestive sacs, but no true alimentary canal. 
Whilst propagation by self-division is proceeding, and the 
young are increasing in size, the surrounding induvium, 
which is a distinct lorica, is observed to expand in a cor¬ 
responding degree, but continues entire until they have 
come to maturity, when it is seen to burst, and set the 
numerous occupants at liberty. The animalcules thus set 
free multiply in the same manner, and also by means of 
ova—in which case the expansive property of the lorica 
comes equally into operation. 

All the genera (excepting, perhaps, the Gyges), are pro¬ 
vided with organs of locomotion, which consist, as with 
the Monads and Cryptomonads, of a single or double fla- 
gelliform proboscis, of very delicate texture; and hence it 
is that, when they are in clusters, the entire heap appears to 
be ciliated, or beset with hairs. Transparent digestive cells 
are visible in the Volvox globator and Gonium pectorale. 

Volvocina .] 



but in most of the species the green ova hide them from 
our sight. The propagative apparatus is evident in all the 
genera, with the exception of the Uroglena, under the form 
of ova grains, one or two round glands, and a contractile 

The family is disposed into ten genera : five are furnished 
with the visual organ, situated at the anterior part of the 
body, and five are not. In the former, a sensitive system 
is consequently presumed. 

The following is an analysis of the family, and arrange¬ 
ment of the genera :— 








proboscis absent J 


Tail , 
absent *] 

Lorica single- 



Lorica box-like - 

proboscis present 
clusters tabulated or in plates 

Lorica double 
V Tail present. 




Self-division both 
equal and perfect 
(no internal globes) 

tail present. 

tail absent... 

(proboscis single ... 

proboscis double... 

£ \ 


Self-division unequal ( Proboscis single.. 
(forming internal 

globes) I p ro ^ osc j s double 











Genus XVI. Gyges. The ring Animalcule is cha¬ 
racterized by the species being deficient of the eye, tail, 
and vibrating filiform proboscis. The lorica is of a simple 
box-like form ( urceolus ). We know but little of their 
organization, as not even the nutritive apparatus has been 
observed ; and were it not that some slight spontaneous 
motion of the body is perceptible, when it is surrounded 
with a coloured fluid, it would seem that they were wanting- 
in all the certain characteristics of an animal. Two species 




are mentioned by Ehrenberg, both of a green-colour, and 
enclosed in a transparent lorica. 

70. Gyges granulum (Volvox granulum, M.) The 
grain Gyges. —Form oval, approaching to globular. Body 
contains a heap of granules within it, of a darkish-green 
colour. Found amongst lemna and conferva. A magnified 
representation is given at fig. 34. Size l-1150th. 

71. Gyges bipartitus. The bipartite Gyges. —This 
species has a body of a crystalline gelatinous substance, and 
of nearly a spherical form ; the superficies being colourless, 
and its contents of a yellowish-green. Its body is some¬ 
times divided into two, and at others it is a simple sphere. 
The internal mass is composed of numerous homogenous 
granules, which, if the creature be an animal, may be con¬ 
sidered as the ova. Found amongst conferva. Size 

72. Ganges sanguineus. The blood-coloured Gyges .— 
Body oval, colour red, inclining to crimson, surrounded by 
a broad colourless margin. This is a new species, dis¬ 
covered by Mr. Shuttlew r orth in the red snow, which fell 
at the Grimsel, in August, 1839; its motion is lively. In 
plate xii., group 527 shews several highly magnified. 
Found with Astasia nivalis and Monas gliscens, among the 
globules of Protococcus nivalis. See Ed. Phil. Jour, v., xxix. 
Length, 1-1200 to 1-300th. 

Genus XVII. Pandorina. The berry-like globe Ani¬ 
malcules. —The characteristics of this genus are its being des¬ 
titute of the eye and tail, but provided with the box-like 
lorica, of a globular shape, and with the filiform proboscis. 
During the process of self-division, the internal develop¬ 
ment gives the creature the appearance of a mulberry. A 

I vivo etna. ] 



simple proboscis is present in all the species (at least the 
European) as the organ of locomotion &c., and transparent 
vesicles, seemingly the nutritive apparatus, may he observed. 
There are two species only, one green, and the other colour¬ 
less ; the latter, however, is a doubtful Pandorina. 

73. Pandorina morum ( Volvooc morion, M.) The green 
Pandorina. —Body simple, or multipartite, enclosed within 
a simple lorica. Colour green ; proboscis twice as long 
as the body. Figure 37 represents a cluster; 36, a single 
animalcule; and 35, one in which self-division has just 
commenced. Found in water with lemna and conferva. 
Size of individual, l-1150th; ditto cluster, l-120th. In¬ 
dividuals broken from the cluster by Ehrenberg have not 
been above one-third the former measurement. 

74. Pandorina ? hyaline. The crystalline Pandorina .— 
Form globular. Found in water of the Nile with conferva. 
Size 1-5760. 

Genus XVIII. Gonium. The tablet Animalcules. —The 
members of this genus are especially characterized by 
being deficient both of eye and tail, but having a simple 
lorica, and developing themselves in the process of self¬ 
division in clusters, whose form is that of a regular four- 
cornered tablet or plate. The lorica of each individual (as 
is noticed after separation) is nearly round, and resembling 
a mantle (lacerna), which the creature is empowered to 
cast off, and form anew. In one of the species (G. pectorale) 
two filiform and vibratory proboscides are placed at the 
mouth, as organs of locomotion, &c.; in the other species, 
these have not been observed. Vesicles are seen within 
G. pectorale, notwithstanding the creature abstains from 
coloured food ; and a red speck (produced probably by 



[ Polygastrica. 

inflected light) at the base of the proboscides has been per¬ 
ceived by Ehrenberg, which he conceives to be the mouth. 

75. Gonium pectorale (M). The breast-plate Gonium. 
—The form of this animalcule, or more correctly, cluster 
of animalcules, is shewn at figs. 38, 40, and 41. It consists 
of sixteen spherical bodies, enclosed within a transparent 
lorica or shell, and disposed regularly in a quadrangular 
form, like the jewels in the breast-plate of the Jewish 
High Priest. They are all arranged in the same plane. 
The four centre ones are generally larger than those which 
surround them, and the diameters of the three smaller 
balls are about equal to the two larger centre ones to 
which they arc attached; the external corners are con¬ 
sequently vacant. As these animalcules swim and revolve 
in the water, they occasionally present a side view to the 
observer, when the circumference of the larger central 
globules may be seen projecting beyond the others. 
Sometimes the cluster appears irregular; this happens 
when the larger animalcules have arrived at maturity, and 
some of them are separated from the cluster. When they 
are all of equal diameters, the group divides across the 
middle, both vertically and horizontally, and separates into 
four clusters, each consisting of four animalcules. As 
soon as a cluster has separated, the respective animalcules 
increase in size, and in a short time their surfaces appear 
decussated, and they severally begin to form into regular 
clusters, like the original one to which they belonged. 
They are of a beautiful transparent green colour, and in 
swimming, the globules often appear of an ellipsoidal 
figure (see fiy. 40); their forms, when viewed under the 
microscope in the usual way, are so simple, and so different 




from animated beings visible to ordinary vision, that it 
would be difficult to bring our reason to admit of their 
vitality, were not their spontaneous motion clearly 
ascertained; but when examined under a high magnify¬ 
ing power, with proper illumination and management, their 
structure becomes apparent. Figure 39 shews a single 
free animalcule, with its two proboscides, and figure 42 a 
highly magnified view of another, invested within the lorica. 
In this figure is seen the disposition of the six cords or 
tubes which connect it to the surrounding ones; also 
numerous corpuscles within the body. A combination of 
sixteen animalcules (never more, but sometimes less) 
generally forms the square tablet or plate. 

In order to observe the structure of this highly curious 
and beautiful creature, considerable adroitness is necessary 
in the management of the microscope, while a little indigo, 
conveyed into the water with the point of a camel’s hair 
pencil, will be required to see the whorls and currents set 
in motion around it. It is almost incredible what power, 
comparatively speaking, these minute beings possess, 
notwithstanding the speck they appear to occupy in the 
scale of creation. The currents are produced by the 
proboscides, two of which, as we have said, are situated at 
the mouth of each individual, so that in a tablet or plate, 
thirty-two, in all—twenty-four placed at the edges, and 
eight standing out from the centre—are brought into 

The single animalcules (fig. 39) swim like the Monads, 
in the direction of the longitudinal axis of their bodies, 
with the mouth foremost, but the plates have a variety of 
movement: sometimes they move quite horizontally, at 



[ Polygastrica. 

others vertically, and then again on their edges, like the 
rotation of a wheel. A magnifying power of 200 times is 
sufficient for general examination; but to exhibit all the 
structures shewn in the engravings, four times that power 
will be required. Found in clear water, salt and fresh, 
near the surface. Discovered by Muller, in clear water, 
at Copenhagen, 1773. Size of animalcule from 1-460th 
to 1-1150th; ditto of tablet, not exceeding l-280th. 

76. Gonium punctatum. The spotted Gonium .—Body 
composed of green corpuscles, spotted with black, and 
enclosed within a crystalline 1 orica. Found amongst 
conferva. Size of animalcule 1-4600th; a tablet of 16, 
1-5 70th in breadth. 

77- Gonium tranquillum. The tranquil Gonium .—Body 
composed of green corpuscles within a crystalline lorica, 
as shewn at figure 43. Size l-2880th; ditto tablet of 16, 
from 1-140th to l-220th in breadth. Tablet sometimes 
twice as broad as long. 

78. Gonium hyalum. The crystal Gonium .—Body 
composed of transparent corpuscles within a crystalline 
shell. Found in stagnant water. Size 1-300th ; ditto 
tablet of 20 to 25, 1 -6000th in breadth. 

79. Gonium glaucum. The blueish-coloured Gonium .— 
Body composed of blueish-green corpuscles within a 
crystalline shell. The tablets vary in the number of ani¬ 
malcules—namely, from four to sixty-four. Found in 
sea-water. Size l-5000th; ditto tablet, l-500th in 

Genus XIX. Syncrypta. The double loricated globe 
Animalcules .—This genus of the family Volvocina is mainly 
characterized by its secreting; or hiding: itself (as the name 

J O O \ 

Volvocina .] 



implies) within a second envelope or shell. The indi¬ 
viduals of the genus are each of them provided with a 
special lorica of their own, of the form of a little shield 
(scutellum ), but being of a social character, they have 
besides a common envelope or gelatinous mantle (lacerna) 
into which they retreat or aggregate, as occasion shall 
require. They are deficient of both the eye and tail, 
but they have a large filiform proboscis, which vibrates, for 
the purposes of locomotion, &c. When the animalcules 
are in a cluster, these proboscides give it an appearance of 
being surrounded with hairs. The digestive sacs have 
not yet been perceived. Self-division takes place in a 
longitudinal direction. 

80 . Syncrypta volvox. The rolling Syncrypta .— 
Body of an oval form and green colour, with whitish rays 
in the centre. Found generally in water drained from 
conferva. Size l-2S80th ; ditto of a clustered globule in 
its crystalline tunic, hardly exceeding l-570th. 

This berry-like cluster of animalcules, when rolling 
through the water, is a beautiful object for the microscope, 
and, with the aid of a little indigo, the numerous currents 
it creates are readily perceived. The usual appearance 
of the clusters, as viewed under the microscope, and 
amplified 260 diameters, is given at fig. 45. Fig. 44 repre¬ 
sents a cluster magnified 400 times, and fig. 46 a cluster 
as viewed by Ehrenberg, in its simplest state, when about 
to sever into four. 

Genus XX. Synura. The ray globe Animalcules are 
characterized by being destitute of the eye, but provided 
with a filiform tail, which is attached either to the base of 
its own lorica, or to the centre of the cluster to which it 



[Polygas trie a. 

belongs. The general envelope is a gelatinous substance 
of a spherical form, and fitted up into as many compart¬ 
ments, or cells, as there are individuals in its little 
community to inhabit. From out of these cells they can 
severally stretch themselves a considerable distance, whilst 
they continue fastened, in the manner before described, by 
the extremely delicate and extensible tail. 

81. Synura uvella. The grape Synura. —Body com¬ 
posed of oblong corpuscles, of a yellow colour, and 
capable of being stretched forth from their cells to three 
times their natural length, by means of the extensible 
tail. The cluster has the form of a mulberry, and its 
motion is a rolling one, like that of the Volvox globator. 
Figure 50 exhibits a cluster magnified, and figure 51 a 
portion of a cluster, to shew the manner in which the tails 
of the animalcules are inserted in the common envelope. 
This species, along with Syncrypta and Uroglena volvox, 
may often have been confounded with Uvella virescens. 
Length of body, exclusive of tail, 1-1700th; diameter of 
cluster, from l-190th to l-280th. 

Genus XXL Uroglena. The globe Animalcules , with 
ray and eye. —This is the first genus of the family Vol- 
vocina which is distinguished by the possession of both 
the eye and tail. It is also a sort of compound ani¬ 
malcule, living in clusters under a common covering or 
mantle ( lacerna ), which is apportioned into cells for the 
accommodation of the several individuals. The self¬ 
division takes place simply and equally in these individuals, 
whilst remaining in their clustering condition. Within 
the mantle they are placed at uniform distances from each 
other, with their tails radiating from the centre, and by 

Volvo cina. ] 



means of which each animalcule is fixed to the base of 
its own special envelope. Each one is furnished with a 
filiform proboscis, which gives the appearance as if the 
whole sphere were covered with hairs. When the creatures 
divide, the mantle, or lacerna, only enlarges, without 
becoming separated itself. The visual organ is a red 
speck in the fore part of the body, and the tail is filiform, 
resembling that of the Vorticella and Bodo. 

The internal structure of these compound animalcules 
can be verified only with instruments of superior quality, 
and require considerable skill in the management of 
them. This latter qualification is so indispensable, that 
notwithstanding many persons in this country possess 
better microscopes than those employed by Ehrenberg, 
the curious organization of these little creatures has 
hitherto eluded their observation. 

82. Uroglena volvooc . The I'olling Uroglena .—Body 
composed of yellow corpuscles of an oblong form. Tail 
extensible from three to six times the length of the body, 
and even more. Cluster mulberry-shaped. There is little 
doubt but that single animalcules of this genus, seen in 
company with the clusters, have often been taken for 
creatures of a different family. Ehrenberg states that he 
has observed individuals with two or three eyes, which he 
conceives to have been a symptom of approaching self¬ 
division. Fig. 54 gives a magnified representation of a 
globular cluster of these animalcules, and^/q/. 53 a single 
one, in which the red eye is distinctly visible. Found in 
turf water. Diameter of cluster l-90th. 

Genus XXII. Eudorina. The globe Animalcule with 
an eye .—The characteristics of this genus are its absence 
of tail, but possession of the eye, which may be distinctly 




seen, and a simple filiform vibratory proboscis, situated 
at the mouth, as its organ of locomotion, &c. Self¬ 
division is also undergone by the individuals simply and 
equally, whilst retaining their clustered position. These 
little creatures are endowed with the power of periodically 
casting off their globular lorica or mantle (lacerna) which 
envelopes the cluster, and exuding a new one, like certain 
animals of the class Annelides. To observe the eve a 


power of 300 diameters must be skilfully employed. 

83. Eudorina elegans. The elegant Eudorina .— 
Body composed of green corpuscles, of a globular shape, 
never protruding out of their cells from the common 
envelope. Eye sparkling red. The clusters, which are of 
an oval or globular form, contain generally from 30 to 50 
individuals, and never less than 15. Motion rotating. 
Figure 47 is a cluster magnified; it exhibits the proboscides 
extended, and the bodies of the animalcules within the 
lorica. Clusters of these beautiful animalcules are often 
seen in such amazing numbers, along with the Yolvox 
globator and Chlamidomonas pulvisculus, as to render the 
water (otherwise colourless) of a decided green colour, 
especially towards its edges. They are exceedingly delicate, 
so much so, that it is difficult to preserve them alive for 
more than a day or two : whenever it is attempted to retain 
them in large quantities, the second day will generally 
exhibit a thick mass of dead ones at the bottom of the 
vessels. When a few only remain alive, if the water be 
poured away, and the creatures removed into a vessel 
of clear water, they will live for weeks. Found at Hackney 
and Hampstead; most abundant in the spring of the year. 
Diameter of cluster 1-180th. 

Genus XXIII, Chlamidomonas. The cuiras Monad 

Volvocina. ] 



Animalcules are characterized by being deficient of the tail, 
but provided with a beautiful red eye, indicating a sensitive 
system, and a double flagelliform proboscis, for the purpose 
of locomotion, &c. The shell-like envelope, which bears the 
form of a little box (i urceolus ) encloses the creature up to 
the mouth, and when the young have attained to maturity 
and self-division is to be completed, it bursts, to set them at 
liberty. The lorica is with difficulty perceived upon the 
young ones. 

84. Ciu,AM\T>OMON pulvisculus (Monaspulvisculus, M.) 
The dust Monad. —Body composed of green corpuscles, 
of an oval form, and included within a box-like shell. 
Eye brilliant red, and proboscis double. The clusters are 
globular, and made up of only three or four, or at most 
eight ? Group 52 represents a single one; also a cluster 
about to separate into five, the latter enclosed in a common 

These creatures form the larger portion of the green 
matter which gives colouring to the water contained in 
water-butts, ponds, and puddles, in the summer and 
autumn, and especially after a storm. It could hardly fail 
to have been observed so soon as any of this green water 
was examined under the microscope. 

Wherever these creatures exist in great quantities, mul¬ 
titudes of them die; their bodies, and the envelopes cast 
off by the living ones, are decomposed, gaseous matter 
is generated, which, adhering, causes them to rise to the 
surface of the water, forming a green stratum upon it. 
Although the animalcules, and their coverings, when in 
this state, somewhat resemble Ulvaceae, yet are they easily 
distinguishable from them by the red speck or eye, which 
is retained for a considerable time after death, and the new 



[ Polygastrica. 

bodies may be seen connected together by means of an 
intervening membrane, formed of dead colourless Infusoria, 
and the remains of loricee. Size 1 -550th. 

Genus XXIV. Sphaerosira. The rudder Animal¬ 
cules. —The distinguishing features of this genus are its 
being deficient of the tail, but possessing the eye, and 
a simple filiform rudder-like proboscis. Its method of 
self-dividing is different from that of any of the preceding 
genera, inasmuch as it occurs unequally within the enve¬ 
lope, when young clusters are formed at once from the 
parent ones. This genus differs, then, from the Pandorina 
in having the eye ; from the Eudorina by its unequal mode 
of self-division; and from the Volvox by its simple 
proboscis. Self-division in these creatures takes place in 
the longitudinal direction, commencing in equal planes, so 
that lamina are produced as with the Gonium. 

85. Sphaerosira volvox. The revolving Sphaerosira .— 
Body composed of pale green corpuscles, of nearly a 
globular shape, enveloped in a lorica of the mantle form. 
Eye bright red. The cluster resembles a great ball of 
animalcules, containing small compressed clusters within 
it. Fig. 49 represents a portion of the tunic or lorica, 
highly magnified, so as to shew the different forms of the 
creatures located within it, namely, three single animal¬ 
cules, one mulberry-shaped cluster, and one oblong group 
may be observed within that portion of lorica. Figure 
48 represents a large spherical cluster. Found in con¬ 
siderable numbers in company with the Volvox globator, 
and often attains its size. Sometimes found by itself. 

Genus XXV. Volvox. The globe Animalcules. —The 
genus Volvox, which is the type of the family Volvocina, 
was instituted by Linneus, and promulgated to the world in 




1758, in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae. This 
genus, as first described by him, comprehended the entire 
race of Infusoria, excepting only eleven of the tribe Vor- 
ticella, which were separated from them, under the 
denomination of Hydra, the two species of V. globator 
and V. chaos containing all the rest. In his twelfth 
edition (1766) of the same work, he distributes the 
Infusoria into four genera, viz., the Vorticella, Volvox, 
Hydra, and Chaos. 

The Volvox is characterized by the members aggre¬ 
gating under a transparent shell-like lorica, of the form of 
a holloiv globe, the creatures being distributed over the 
internal surface of it. Each animalcule possesses the red 
eye and a double filiform proboscis, which latter protrudes 
beyond the surface of the lorica, so as to give it the 
appearance (where great numbers of these creatures are 
assembled to form the globe) of being covered with cilia. 
Their different modes of increasing by self-division are 
especially characteristic of the genus. 

Formerly the whole globular mass was regarded as a 
single warty or ciliated animalcule, and the bursting of the 
globe, whereby a few which had come to maturity and 
previously left their positions in the lorica, were liberated, 
was considered as the birth of the single animalcule. 
This theory Ehrenberg clearly proves to have been 
erroneous, and shews that a somewhat deeper research is 
necessary in order to determine the organic relations of 
the creature. The individual animalcules are the little 
green wart-like bodies or specks which are to be seen on 
the surface of the globe, and singly resemble Monads. 
They have the same relation to their globe as the indi- 



[ Polygastrica. 

viduals of the Gonium pectorale hold to their tabular 
clusters. Each sphere or globe is a hollow cluster, 
if we may so term it, of many hundreds or even thousands 
of these living occupants, and often contain within it other 
hollow spheres, similar in nature to the containing one. 

The individuals are protected by a gelatinous lorica 
or mantle ( lacerna ), of the form of a bell, which they 
are empowered to leave when they are full grown. They 
are connected with their neighbours by from three to six 
filiform cords or tubes. The mouth is situated at the base 
of the double proboscis, before mentioned, and indicated 
by a bright spot. The eye, which is placed near the 
mouth, implies the existence of a sensitive system. 

86. Volvox glohator (M). The globe Volvooc .—The 
creatures which form these clusters are extremely minute. 
A cluster is of nearly a spherical form, and will often con¬ 
tain within it younger clusters, of a green colour, and 
smooth or even surface. When blue or red colouring 
matter is mixed with the water, strong currents may be 
observed under the microscope around each globe, which, 
when in motion, always proceeds with the same part 

Fig. 55 represents a large globe with eight smaller ones 
(termed by Ehrenberg, sisters) within it; each of them has a 
bright spot, which is considered as an opening for the 
admission of water into the interior. 

Fig. 56 represents a section or piece of a globe, mag¬ 
nified 500 diameters; it exhibits five single animalcules and 
a small cluster of six young ones. They are attached to 
the lorica, and connected together by five thread-like bands. 
Each creature has a double proboscis and the red eye. 

Volvocina .J 



Fiy. 57 represents a single animalcule, separated from 
its lorica, and magnified 2000 diameters. Found in 
shallow pools of clear water, in spring and summer, at 

The largest globes measure l-30th of an inch in dia¬ 
meter; the smallest free swimming ones l-360th to 
1 -240th. Size of a single animalcule, l-3500th. 

87- Volvox aureus. The golden Volvox. —These 
animalcules are of a green colour, and nearly globular. 
The large clusters are in the form of a sphere, and the 
smaller ones within them of a golden colour, and smooth 
surface. Found in rain water standing on turf. Diameter 
of globe l-36th. 

88. Volvox stellatus . The starry Volvox. —These 
animalcules are small, of an angular form, and green 
colour. The clusters are subglobose, sometimes oblong, 
and contain other globes within them, of a green colour, 
and having their surfaces tuberculated or stellated. 
Diameter of globe l-30th. 




[ Polygastrica . 


The animalcules of this family are distinctly or appa¬ 
rently polygastric, but without a true alimentary canal. 
In shape they are filiform, and, like the Monadina, are 
incapable of changing the form of their body. They have 
neither appendages or shell-like covering. They are 
associated or linked together in thread-like chains, formed 
by their imperfect mode of self-dividing, which takes place 
in a transverse direction. Considering how much we 
know of the organization of the family Monadina, we are 
comparatively far behind in information respecting the 
Vibrionia, and were it not that the cause of our ignorance 
is manifestly attributable to the exceeding minuteness of 
the individual animalcules, we might be justified in 
imagining their structure to be more simple than in all 
probability it really is. Their filiform and very delicate 
bodies are not, as we have said, separate animalcules, but 
formed of chain-like clusters, whose almost imperceptible 
links are themselves (at first) single creatures. The 
reasons to be assigned for arriving at this conclusion are, 
that the clusters or chains have never any determinate 
length, or number of members forming them, and that 
they are sometimes so short as to be made up of not more 
than two or three individuals, and only distinguishable 
from the M. termo and crepusculum by their mode of 
union, and peculiar, though not easily characterized, 
movements. Hence all their organic relationships are to 
be sought for in these minute portions of the chain. To 

Vibrionia. ] 



discover these is a task not to be fully accomplished, 
even with the greatest assiduity, attended by the most 
effective optical means which we at present possess. The 
traces of organization in the members of this family are 
so few, and those so indefinite, that a question might arise 
whether or not they are to be considered as belonging to 
the animal portion of the creation. The answer to this is, 
that they possess a very powerful writhing, and evidently 
voluntary state of locomotion; and in one genus (Bac¬ 
terium), a single vibratory proboscis is present as the 
organ of motion. In it the individual forms are strung 
more slightly together, the filiform cluster not being able 
to exert the writhing movement seen in the true Vibrios, a 
direct movement in swimming being alone practicable. In 
Spirillum the constrictions or articulations are oblique, so 
that increase in length by division engenders a spiral chain. 

This family is distributed among five genera, as follows: 

Articulated threads (clusters). Inflexible . Bacterium. 

Straight, the divisions being 

rectangular and transverse Flexible, like a snake. Vibrio. 


Spiro choeta. 

Articulated threads spirally twisted 
(like a bell-spring or cork-screw) the - 
transverse divisions being oblique 

' with a cylindrically ' 
spiral form 

- Spirillum. 

Inflexible ' 

with a disc-like 
k compressed spiral 

• Spirodiscus. 

Genus XXVI. Bacterium. The joint ed-iv and Animal¬ 
cules are distinguished by being connected together in a 
thread-like chain, of an inflexible nature, and their propa¬ 
gating by a transverse mode of self-division. 

The three species known to us are colourless, and 

k 2 



[ Polygastrica. 

extremely minute. Ehrenberg remarks, “ that only one of 
the species has been satisfactorily determined, and that 
their organic relations are altogether so occult, that our 
judgment respecting them must unavoidably be left in a fluc¬ 
tuating state.” InB. triloculare, organization is discoverable 
to the extent of a vibratory proboscis, a granulated mass 
within the body of the creature, and its faculty of spon¬ 
taneous division. The only animal endowment common 
to all the species is an active and voluntary power of 

A magnifying power below 500 times linear will not 
exhibit the divisions or transverse lines where the indi¬ 
viduals or links of which the wand-like cluster is composed 
are united. I have generally met with them around decom¬ 
posed vegetable matter, on the surface of water containing 
chara, &c. 

89. Bacterium triloculare. The three-celled Bacterium. 
—Chain consists of from two to five animalcules, of an oval 
form, developed in short cylinders, generally about three 
times as long as their diameter, and marked with trans¬ 
verse lines. Ehrenberg has observed not more than five 
links together nor less than two, a single animalcule never 
having fallen under his notice. By throwing a little 
colouring matter into the water, an evident vibration may 
be perceived in it near the anterior portion of the animal¬ 
cule ; and upon a very close inspection, a simple filiform, 
though short proboscis, is seen, which, in the larger speci¬ 
mens, is one-third the length of the body, and in the 
smaller, one half. The motion of this creature is tremu¬ 
lous, or slowly revolving upon its longitudinal axis. 
Found in the water of bogs. Length of cluster, 1 -4800th 




tol-2304th; ditto of link, or single animalcule, l-11520th. 
Group 5S represents several figures of them; those two 
towards the right are magnified 1000 diameters, the 
others 290. 

90. Bacterium ? enchelys. The Monad-like Bacterium. 
—Chain composed of somewhat indistinct animalcules, of 
an oval form, developed in smaller cylinders than the pre¬ 
ceding, transverse lines faintly marked, colourless. Found 
in river water. Length of cluster, 1-2880th. 

91. Bacterium punctum. The point-like Bacterium .— 
Chain composed of indistinct animalcules, approaching to a 
globular form, much smaller than the preceding species, 
and developed in cylinders, transverse lines faintly marked, 
colourless. Found in water wherein bread has been 
steeped. Length of cluster, 1-4032nd. 

Genus XXVII. Vibrio. The trembling Animalcules .— 
This genus is characterised by the animalcules being con¬ 
nected together in filiform chains, of a flexible nature, 
resembling the body of a snake. These chains, as we 
have already remarked, are produced throught he creatures 
incomplete mode of self-dividing. The difficulty of ascer¬ 
taining the internal organization of this genus has not as 
yet been surmounted, although it is fair to presume that 
there is nothing of a tubular character, or intestinal canal, 
running along within their filiform bodies, similar to that 
of the vinegar eels, or it would most probably have been 
demonstrated before now, by the aid of coloured food; 
for a line is much more easily distinguished than a point . 
Ehrenberg supposes, that each link in the chain is a 
closed, round, Monad-like body, having a nutritive appa¬ 
ratus of a polygastric description. 




92. Vibrio lineola. The line Vibrio. —Cluster, a minute 
cylindrical and slightly flexible wand, rounded at both 
ends, and made up of bodies somewhat indistinct, but of 
nearly a globular form, and colourless. Commonly found 
in vegetable infusions, especially round the stalks of 
flowers in glasses. Length of wand, from 1-3600th to 
1-12000th. Thickness 1-36000th. 

93. Vibrio tremulans. The tremulous Vibrio. —Wand 
short; stouter, yet more flexible, than the preceding ; arti¬ 
culations of an oblong form, but not distinct. Found in 
water emitting a disagreeable odour. Length of wand, 
1-3 600th. 

94. Vibrio subtilis. The delicately-formed Vibrio .— 
Wand slender and elongated; colourless; articulations 
distinct; motion slightly vibrating, without varying the 
direct position of the articulations. Length 1-450th. 
Thickness 1-24000th. 

95. Vibrio rugula (Volvox lunula et Vibrio regula, M.) 
The wy'inkled Vibrio. —Wand elongated, and stouter than the 
preceding; articulations distinct, and colourless; motion 
brisk and serpentine; common in infusions. Length 
l-580th. Thickness 1-12000th. 

96. Vibrio prolifer. The prolific Vibrio. —Wand short, 
stout, and colourless ; articulations distinct. Motion slow 
and tortuous. Found in infusions where mildew is pre¬ 
sent. Length 1-1100th. 

97- Vibrio barillas, (M.) The wand-like Vibrio. — 
Wand stout, elongated and transparent; articulations 
sometimes distinct, at others only so when taken from 
the water and dried; motion serpentine, but straight 
when quiescent. Group 59, represents three wand-like 

Vibrionia .] 



clusters of these creatures. Found in vegetable infusions 
in fetid water. Length 1-200th. Thickness 1 - 1 7200th. 

Genus XXVIII. Spirochaeta. The hoisting Animal¬ 
cules .—This genus is characterized by its members being 
developed in filiform and flexible chains, of a spiral descrip¬ 
tion, which are elongated by the imperfect or incomplete 
mode of the creatures’ self-division. The details of their 
organization are at present unknown to us. 

98. Spirochaeta plicatilis (V. serpens, M.) The 
worm-like or writhing Spirochaeta .—Chain constituted of 
very delicate bodies, of nearly a globular shape, connected 
together in a long filiform spiral form, having numerous 
and closely arranged coils; colourless. Group 62 shews 
three clusters. Found at Tilbury Fort. Length of chain 
l-l70th to 1-440th. Thickness 1-12000th. 

Genus XXIX. Spirillum. The cylinder spiral Animal¬ 
cules. —This genus is characterized by its members deve¬ 
loping themselves in tortuous chains, or inflexible and 
cylindrical spirals. These are elongated in the same 
manner as before described, by the incomplete self-divi¬ 
sion of the creatures, which takes place in an oblique 
direction. Their brisk, energetic, and voluntary motion, 
and the increase of the chain by division, are the only 
animal properties which have been hitherto observed as 
characterizing the creature. 

99. Spirillum tenue. The slender Spirillum. —Spiral 
consists of three or four coils, constituted of very slender, 
slightly bent, and colourless fibres; articulations distinct. 
Found in vegetable infusions. Length about 1 -900th. 
Thickness 1-12000th. 

100. Spirillum undula (V. undula, M.) The wavy 



[ Polygastrica. 

Spirillum. —Spiral consists of one and half turns ; fibres 
short, stout, and much bent; articulations distinct; 
colourless; when dry, the articulations are more distinct. 
Ehrenberg remarks, that the form of this species is like 
a bow; and Muller, that it resembles the letter V. Fig. 61 
represents a group magnified 800 diameters ; that with 
dotted lines indicates the impression left on the eye 
when the creature is in motion. Found in stagnant water 
having a mildewy scent. Length about 1-1500th. Thick¬ 
ness 1-20000th. 

101. Spirillum volutans (Vibrio spirillum, M.) — The 
twirling Spirillum or screw Vibrio. —Consists of three, four, 
or more coils ; fibres very tortuous, long, and stout; arti¬ 
culations distinct; colourless, Found in vegetable infu¬ 
sions. Length of spiral 1-2200th to 1 500th. Thick¬ 
ness 1-14400th. 

This creature strongly resembles the minute Algae dis¬ 
covered by Mr. Thompson, as producing the various 
colours which the Ballydrian Lake assumes, and which he 
has described under the name of Anabaina spiralis , in 
vol. v. of the Ann. Nat. Hist .; his figures resemble 
groups 1. The genus is characterized as <f consisting of 
extremely minute moniliform thread, of a rich green 
colour, and regularly spiral, like a corkscrew; globules of 
equal size throughout.” In decomposing, it changes first 
to blue and then ferruginous; each globule appeared to 
consist of a number of granules enveloped in a hyaline 
membrane. Length of a single coil about 1-200th. 

102. Spirillum bryozoon. The moss Spirillum. —Coils 
consist of a thick body, with a delicate wavy hair-like 
proboscis. These creatures, found in the reproductive 

Vibrionia. ] 



organs of plants, are called by tbeir discoverer, Dr. Unger, 
of Gratz, spermatic animalcules. That distinguished 
botanist has described them in detail in the Regensburger 
Botan. Fictung. Flora, 1834 ; and also in the 18th vol. of 
the Nova Acta Naturee cur. Bonn , 1838. As a condensed 
view of this subject is given by Dr. Meyen in the Jahres- 
bericht (a work, the like of which England does not 
possess), for 1838, I shall here insert the translation T 
have had made, with the drawings Dr. Unger kindly sent 
me for this work :— 

ec The spermatic animalcules in sphagnum consist, 
according to the earlier observations of Unger, of a thick 
body, and a thin filiform tail; in motion, this tail being 
anterior, he holds it analogous to the proboscis of many of 
the Infusoria. No true active motion of the body itself 
has been observed by Unger ; but he distinguishes between 

the mere locomotive and rotatory movements of the whole 


animalcule. The simplest motion takes place in a spiral 
direction ; and, if the proboscis is contracted, the move¬ 
ment is simply rotatory. During locomotion of the crea¬ 
ture, which ensues in a spiral direction, Unger saw from 
one to three revolutions of the body in a second; and 
during rotation, he noticed the point of the proboscis to 
be in a continual state of tremor. Unger endeavours to 
shew that the spermatic animalcules of the mosses are 
analogous to the spermatic animalcules of animal organisms, 
although we find certain things in the former not seen in 
the latter, and which may somewhat embarrass their classi¬ 
fication, the chief of which are the steadiness of the 
spiral direction of the proboscis, and their manner of 
movement.' Lately, Unger has found spermatic animal- 

138 DESCRIPTION OF [ Polygastrica . 

cules in the antheridia of Polytrichum juniperinum, P. 
commune, P. urnigerum and P. alpestre, as well as in 
Funaria hygrometrica, Bryum cuspidatum, and B. punc- 
tatum, &c. &c. In Polytrichum commune, the animal¬ 
cules are found in very small hexeedral cells with rounded 
corners. Generally, whilst in the cells they are motionless; 
in some, however, a tremulous motion of the thin proboscis, 
and in others, again, a rotatory motion, interrupted at 
intervals, was seen. The diameter of the delicate pro¬ 
boscis is 0.004th of an inch. In a few animalcules, 
isolated from their cells, a trembling oscillating motion of 
the proboscis was seen/’ 

To these particulars, I may add a remark of Dr. Unger, 
quoted in the Ann. des Sciences Nat., which induced me 
to introduce the species :— 

“ The doubts,” says Unger, <( which remain concerning 
some of the organs of the animalcules of mosses further 
increase the incertitude as to their situation in the scale of 
beings. From all circumstances, I am inclined to place 
them in the genus Spirillum of Ehrenberg, and to describe 
them under the name of Spirillum bryozoon.” 

On mentioning these particulars to Mr. Varley, he 
referred me to his article on Chara, in the 50th vol. 
Trans. Soc. Arts, from which is extracted the following:— 

“ From these cells” (in the globule in the axile of the 
Chara) “ grow out numerous clusters of long vessels, 
possessing the most extraordinary features yet observed. 
When these are first protruded from the globule, if not 
quite mature enough, their appearance is like dense or 
strongly-marked ringed vessels, the divisions of which, or 
their contents, soon begin to appear irregular. * * * After 

Vibrionia .] 



a while, these curls within the divisions become agitated ; 
some shake, or vibrate about; others revolve in their con¬ 
fined places, and many come out, thus shewing that they are 
spirals of two or three curls ; these with an agitated motion 
swim about * * *. Now the field of view appears filled 
with life; great numbers of these spirals are seen agitated 
and moving in all directions; they all have a directile 
force, one end going foremost, and never the other; many 
stray a great way out of the field : these, by getting clear of 
each other, are the best to observe; they do not quite 
keep their form as a stiff spiral, but their foremost end 
seems to lash about, and to many are seen attached almost 
invisible but very long fibres. These fibres were in quick 
undulations, which ran in waves from the spiral to their 
farthest end. It appears that these fibres cause many of 
the spirals to entangle together, and thus bring them 
sooner to a state of rest; therefore, the separate ones were 
best to observe.” 

The most recent observations on these creatures, found 
in the anthers of the Chara vulgaris and hispida, are by 
M. Thuret, given in the Annal. des Sciences, a valuable 
translation of which will be found in the Annals of 
Natural History, vol. vii,, from which I extract the 

“The portion of their body most apparent appeared 
like a spirally-rolled thread, of three to five curves. They 
were slightly tinged with green, similar to the nuclei; and, 
like them, turned brown with iodine, their two extremities 
becoming more or less coloured (according to the quantity 
of iodine employed) than the rest of the body, thus 
indicating a difference of nature in these portions. At 



a little distance behind one extremity proceed two bristles, 
or tentacula, of excessive tenuity, which the animalcule 
incessantly agitates with great rapidity. These are pro¬ 
bably organs of locomotion, similar to the filiform prolon¬ 
gation, found in the Infusoria without cilia. Indeed, the 
part thus furnished with tentacula moves foremost, 
drawing after it the rest of the body, which turns about 
in the water, but always preserves its turriculate form. 
The incessant agitation of these tentacula, and their ex¬ 
treme tenuity, rendered it impossible to observe them in 
the living animal; recourse was therefore had to the 
evaporation of the water, or to the application of a slight 
tincture of iodine, when the animalcules ceased their 
motions, became contracted, and their spiral unrolled, when 
the tentacula were rendered very distinct, from their brown 
colour. These tentacula were frequently observed to be 
soldered together, from one-half to one-third of their 
length upwards, but others were also noticed to be 
entirely separated down to their bases. A swelling similar 
to that in the flexure of the body was perceived in their 

cc Ammonia arrested their motions, and contracted the 
body gradually into a small oval mass, but did not pro¬ 
duce the phenomenon of decomposition by solution 
(diffluence) , so remarkable in the Infusoria. A very weak 
solution of chlorhydric acid in water violently contracted 
them into a shapeless mass.” 

In plate xii.,^y. 519, 520, and 521, represent the sperma¬ 
tozoa found in Poly trichum commune, the first figure exhi¬ 
biting them enclosed in the cellules, and the others swim¬ 
ming freely. Figures 522 to 524, are taken from Marchantia 




polymorpha. Figure 525 is from Sphagnum capillifolium. 
All the above are represented magnified 1000 diameters. 
Figures 526 to 528 are from the Chara vulgaris, and 
figures 529 to 531 from Jungermannia pinguis, as figured 
in Meyeifis work, entitled Neues System der Fflantzen. 

Genus XXX. Spirodiscus. The disk-spiral Animalcules 
are characterized by developing themselves, through an 
imperfect self-division taking place in an oblique direction, 
in elongated chains, or into inflexible spirals, of a disc-like 
figure. Its organization is so little known that Ehren- 
berg considers the genus as by no means satisfactorily 

103. Spirodiscus fulvus. The yellowish-brown Spiro- 
discus. —A lenticular spiral, of a yellowish-brown colour. 
Articulation indistinct. Group 62 represents three spirals, 
magnified 200 diameters. Found amongst conferva. 
Breadth of spiral 1-1200th. 



[ Polygastrica. 


The animalcules of this family are polygastric, or to all 
appearances so, and destitute of an alimentary canal. 
Their bodies are unvarying in form, and without any 
appendages. Like the Cryptomonadina, they are enclosed 
within loricated envelopes, which, simultaneously with their 
bodies, undergo incomplete self-division, so as to form 
polypi-shaped clusters, of a wand, thread, or fusiform figure. 
Each individual is furnished with a papilla, or sort of 
nipple, which protrudes, but very slightly, through an 
aperture in the shell, and serves as an organ of loco¬ 

The envelope, or lorica, investing these creatures, is of the 
form of a little pitcher ( urceolus ), and either of a yellowish 
colour, or colourless. In many of the species it is open 
at both ends. The animalcule itself is a very delicate 
mucous body, clear as crystal, and often contains within 
it vesicles and green granules, which latter are most 
probably ova. The locomotive organs appear to be very 
short, slender, and conical-shaped papillae or nipples, of 
a transparent hue, placed just within the opening of the 
lorica, and but very slightly protruding from it. The 
small vesicles observable among the green ova are, in all 
probability, belonging to the polygastric apparatus. Groups 
63 to 67 illustrate this family. 

As several eminent botanists have considered the various 
species included in this family, and the family Bacillaria, 
as belonging to the vegetable and not to the animal 




kingdom, I have had a translation made of the remarks 
of Dr. Meyen on this interesting subject, which will be 
found prefaced to the latter family, and reserve to 
myself the opportunity of discussing the subject more 
fully there. 

It should be borne in mind, however, that in treating 
of this matter, the descriptive characters of them, and the 
illustrative drawings, will not be in the least reduced in 
value or interest, whether they are considered as forming a 
portion of the animal or vegetable creation. To the 
microscopist the members of this family possess much 
interest, arising from the circulation of the particles within, 
near the ends of the shell, and also along the sides. For 
these observations an amplifying power of 400 diameters, 
at least, is required; but even a single lens of that power 
will shew it. 

Ehrenberg gives the following reasons for placing the 
Closterina in the animal part of the creation :—First, they 
exert a voluntary motion, as shewn first by Corti. 
Secondly, they have apertures at their extremities, as 
noticed by himself. Thirdly, they have projecting organs 
near these apertures, perpetually in motion. Fourthly, 
they increase and multiply by a transverse self-division, 
as observed by Muller. These four endowments Ehrenberg 
considers as being abundantly sufficient to determine the 
real nature of the Closterina, inasmuch as, wherever 
voluntary motion, an aperture or mouth (feet), and spon¬ 
taneous division exist, you may conclude at once, without 
waiting to see the creature eat , that the supposed plant is 
indeed an animal. 

Since the above was written, some interesting obser- 



vations have appeared, in No. xxxiii. of the Annals of 
Natural History, by Mr. Dairymple, from which I select 
the following; my intention in this work being not to 
confine it to my own views, but also to record those of 
others, believing that, by so doing, I shall best serve the 
public, and advance this science. 

Mr. D. describes the Closterium as consisting of (C a 
green gelatinous and granular body, invested by a highly 
elastic and contractile membrane, which is attached by 
variable points to a hard siliceous shell. 5 ’ This lorica, 
Mr. C. Varley states, will resist even the action of boiling 
nitric acid. The form of Closterium is spindle-shaped 
or crescentic, the shell consisting of two horns, taper¬ 
ing off more or less to the extremities, and united 
at the central transverse line, constituting a perfectly 
symmetrical exterior. At the extremity of each horn is 
an opening in the shell, which, however, is closed within 
by the membranous envelope—wanting, however, in some 
specimens. Within the shell, and at the extremity of the 
green body, is a transparent chamber, containing a vari¬ 
able number of active molecules, measuring from the 
20,000th to the 40,000th of an inch; these molecules, 
or transparent spheroids, occasionally escape from this 
chamber, and circulate vaguely and irregularly between the 
periphery of the gelatinous body and the shell. Further, 
the parieties of this chamber have a contractile power. 
The author denied the existence of any papillae or probos¬ 
cides at this part, as well as the supposition of Ehrenberg, 
that these moving molecules constitute the bases of such 
papillae. He also denied the statement of the same dis¬ 
tinguished observer, that if colouring matter was mixed 

Closterina .] 



with the water in which the Closterium resides, any motion 
was communicated to the particles of such colouring mat¬ 
ter by the supposed papillae, or by the active molecules 
within the terminal cells. A circulation of the fluids 
within the shell was observed, independent of the vague 
movements of the active molecules; this was regular, 
passing in two opposite currents, one along the side of 
the shell, and the other along the periphery of the 
gelatinous body. When the shell and body of the Clos¬ 
terium was broken by pressure, the green gelatinous matter 
was forcibly ejected by the contraction of the membranous 

The action of iodine upon the specimens was very 
remarkable: 1st, it did not, as reported by Meyen, stain 
the green body violet or purple, but orange-brown: 2nd, 
it produced violent contraction of the investing mem¬ 
brane of the body, whereby the green matter was often 
forcibly expelled from the shell at the transverse division; 
it instantly annihilated the motion of the molecules in 
the terminal sacs, and the sacs themselves became so 
distended with fluid as to burst, and allow the molecules 
to escape.—The following are Mr. D.’s reasons for classing 
it with animals :— 

“ 1st. That while Closterium has a circulation of mole¬ 
cules greatly resembling that of plants, it has also a 
definite organ, unknown in the vegetable world, in which 
the active molecules appear to enjoy an independent 
motion, and the parietes of which appear capable of con¬ 
tracting upon its contents. 

“ 2ndly. That the green gelatinous body is contained in 
a membranous envelope, which, while it is elastic, con- 




[ Polygastrica. 

tracts also upon the action of certain re-agents, whose 
effects cannot be considered purely chemical. 

ee 3rdly. The comparison of the supposed ova with the 
cytoblasts and cells of plants precludes the possibility of 
our considering them as the latter, while the appearance 
of a vitelline nucleus, transparent but molecular fluid, 
a chorion or shell, determines them as animal ova. It 
was shown to be impossible that these eggs had been 
deposited in the empty shell by other infusoria, or that 
they were the produce of some entozoon. 

“ 4thly. That while it was impossible to determine 
whether the vague motions of Closterium were voluntary 
or not, yet the idea the author had formed of a suctorial 
apparatus forbad his classing them with plants. 

“ Lastly, in no instance had the action of iodine pro¬ 
duced its ordinary effects upon starch or vegetable matter, 
by colouring it violet or blue, although Meyen asserts it 
did in his trials.’ 5 

The author therefore concluded that Closterium must 
still be retained as an infusory animal, although it is 
more than doubtful whether it ought to rank with the 
polygastric families. 

Genus XXXI. Closterium. The spindle Animalcules .— 
This genus comprehends all the known members of the 
family; the characteristic features of the latter, therefore, 
answer for the genus. Twenty-seven species have been 
described, although but sixteen are clearly determined. 

104. Closterium lunula (Vibrio lunula, M.) The 
half-mo on-shaped Closterium. —Lorica smooth, crescent¬ 
shaped or straight, attenuated and rounded at the apices. 
Glandular substances scattered over the interior of the 

Closterina .] 


14 ? 

body, and the green granules arranged in fillets, about ten 
in number. Average length l-50th. 

105. Closterium moniliferum {Vibrio lunula , M.) 
The pearl or necklace-bearing Closterium .—Lorica smooth, 
crescent-shaped, never straight, attenuated and rounded 
at the apices. Pellucid glandular substances in the middle 
of the body arranged in a single series, like a string of 
pearls (Moniliferum), and several fillets of green granules, 
three in the centre more distinct than the rest. Length 

106. Closterium Dianae. The bow-shaped Closterium. 
—Lorica smooth, more gracefully crescented, greatly 
attenuated, and sharper at the extremities than the pre¬ 
ceding species; glands disposed in a single series along the 
middle of the body, with several green longitudinal rays, 
straight or curved, but somewhat obscure. Found in 
turf-water. Length 1-120th. 

107. Closterium acerosum (Vibrio lunula, M.) The 
needle-shaped Closterium .—Lorica smooth, straight, and 
spindle-shaped, gradually attenuated towards the obtuse 
extremities, green; glands arranged in a single series along 
the medium line, and rays numerous, but obscure. This 
species has been mistaken for C. lunula. The normal 
form of this animalcule is represented by fig. 65. Fig. 63 
is a representation after self-division has ensued, and 
fig. 64 is one cut asunder, so as to shew it in the act of 
separating from its shell or lorica. Found in brook-water. 
Length from 1-400th to l-50th. 

108. Closterium trabecula. The beam-shaped Clos¬ 
terium .—Lorica smooth, straight, cylindrical, constricted 
at the middle, and truncated at both extremities ; green ; 

l 2 



[ Polygastrica. 

glands dispersed, or placed in a number of series; rays 
obscure. Found among oscillatoria. Length 1-140th to 
1 -60th. 

109. Closterium digitus. The finger-shaped Clos- 
terium. —Lorica smooth, straight, ovato-cylindrical, four 
times as long as broad, and considerably rounded at the 
ends. Traces sometimes of a triple self-division, and 
longitudinal fillets undulating along the edges. Found 
amongst conferva. Length 1-240th to 1-120th. 

110. Closterium attenuatum. The slender-formed 
Closterium. —Lorica smooth, crescented, or slightly curved, 
and tapering considerably towards the extremities, which 
are obtuse; glands in a single series along the middle, 
with no central transverse rays. Length l-48th. 

111. Closterium cornu. The horn-shaped Closterium. 
—Lorica smooth, very slender, slightly curved, and ap¬ 
proaching to cylindrical, with the apices truncated. Fillets 
green, undulating. Found amongst conferva. Length 
1-900th to 1-120th. 

112. Closterium? cylindrus. The cylinder-shaped 
Closterium. —Lorica ovato-cylindrical; scarcely three times 
as long as broad, slightly constricted at the middle, and 
very obtuse at both extremities. Marked exteriorly with 
granulated radiations of the shell. Length l-430th. 

113. Closterium margaritaceum. The pearly Clos¬ 
terium. —Lorica straight, cylindrical, and elongated, eight 
or nine times as long as broad, and slightly constricted at 
the middle, rounded at both extremities, and marked 
exteriorly with strings of pearl-like granules; moveable 
points at some distance from the extremity. Length 
1-240th to 1-200th. 

Closterina. ] 



114. Closterium turgidum. The turgid Closterium .— 
Lorica stout, slightly curved, and approaching to cylin¬ 
drical, a little attenuated at both ends, apices of a reddish 
colour, and rounded; obscurely marked with smooth striae. 
This is one of the largest species of the genus, and was 
formerly mistaken by Ehrenberg for the C. ruficeps, on 
account of the red apex. The delicate streaks or markings 
of the lorica, which m ay be considered as the main charac¬ 
teristics of the species, had been overlooked. Fig. 66 
represents a living Closterium, having three animated (?) 
clusters of granules within it; the lorica is supposed to be 
opened, the mass of green matter being ova. Length 
1-140th to l-60th. 

115. Closterium lineatum. The lined Closterium .— 
Lorica of considerable length, often thirty times as long as 
broad, slender, and slightly curved; cylindrical and filiform 
at the middle, but greatly attenuated and truncated at both 
extremities. It is distinctly marked with smooth lines. 
Found amongst conferva. Length 1-200th to l-36th. 

116. Closterium striolatum. The striated Closterium. 

-—Lorica spindle-shaped and arcuated, ten to twelve times 
as long as broad ; slightly attenuated and truncated at both 
ends. It is obscurely marked with smooth strise. Found 
amongst oscillatoria. Length 1-120th. 

117. Closterium setaceum. The bristle-shaped Closte¬ 
rium. —Lorica spindle-shaped, straight, or very slightly 
arcuated, and almost insensibly striated, having setaceous 
horns, each horn being longer than the body. The empty 
shell-like projections, which Ehrenberg has designated 
setaceous horns, are rounded at the extremities, but so 
attenuated as not to allow of any openings being seen. 



[ Polygastrica. 

Ehrenberg states that he discovered this species in May, 
1832 ; and that in August, 1835, he observed the copula¬ 
tive process in operation, when some peculiarities were 
exhibited. On the issuing forth of the green matter, 
separation took place into four instead of two portions, 
and the green matter formed itself into a flat eight-cornered 
body, with a bright spot in its centre, and granulated con¬ 
tents. In group 67, the two slender figures on the left 
side shew their general form, the different positions of the 
moving points within, and the appearance of the horns. 
The figure on the right side exhibits the formation of 
double gemmae, a single creature being by this mode of 
self-division increased four-fold. Found amongst con¬ 
ferva. Length, including horns, 1-96th ; without the latter, 

118. Closterium rostratum. The beaked Closterium .— 
Lorica slender, spindle-shaped, slightly curved, and much 
attenuated at both extremities, striated, each horn, beak, or 
bristle-like extremity, barely as long as the body, often 
shorter. Length 1-120th to l-48th. 

119. Closterium? inequale. The unequal Closterium. 
—Lorica spindle-shaped and crescented, striated, and of a 
tawny colour; horns unequal, the one blunted, the other 
long, slender and sharp. Found amongst conferva. Length 

Astasiaea .] 




This family is characterized by its members being poly- 
gastric, and deficient of the true alimentary canal, appen¬ 
dages, or lorica. They are furnished with a single aperture 
to the body, and often a tail, and have the power of chang¬ 
ing their form at pleasure. They afford as beautiful living 
objects for the microscope as any that have ever fallen 
under my observation. The tail may be considered as an 
organ of locomotion, and the single proboscis of three of 
the genera, and the double proboscis of one other genus, 
are of the like description. It is probable that these latter 
organs exist also in the genus Colacium, although they 
have not been determined ; but in the Distigma there is 
hardly a doubt of their absence. The vesicular cells have 
been supposed to form a portion of the nutritive apparatus, 
although it is not satisfactorily demonstrated by the appli¬ 
cation of coloured food. Ehrenberg has, nevertheless, 
noticed some manifestations of an artificial action having 
been produced, as he observed green and red cells in the 
Euglena viridis. Three genera in this family exhibit 
signs of the hermaphrodite condition, whilst the other three, 
Astacia, Distigma and Colacium, have only one kind of 
structure, namely ova. In the Euglena there may be seen, in 
addition to the green ova and seminal glands, a contractile 
vesicle of a seminal description, and the large red visual 
point in five of the genera affords evident tokens of a 
system of sensation. What, however, may be deemed most 
worthy of remark in this family, is, that in the species. 



[ Polygastrica 

Euglena longicauda and amblyophis we have the first indi¬ 
cations of the presence of nervous matter that is to be 
found in the polygastric Infusoria : it appears in the form of 
a white glandular knot, situated below the eye. 

The following table is descriptive of the genera of this 
family :— 

Eye wanting 

Eyes present 

With one 

With two eyes 


. Astasia. 

with one f tail wantin S - Amblyophis. 
pioboscis ^ tail present ... Euglena. 

iWith two proboscides.. Clilorogonium. 

attached by a pedicle . Colacium. 


Genus XXXII. Astasia. The members of this genus 
are characterized by their being free (not attached by a 
pedicle), and being furnished with a long or short tail, but 
no eyes; Astasia pusilla is the only species in which diges¬ 
tive cells have been clearly seen. Ova are perceptible in 
Astasia haematodes, and probably exist in the three other 
species; a locomotive organ in the form of a thread-like 
proboscis exists in A. pusilla. 

The immense numbers in which these Infusoria are deve¬ 
loped in a few days, and the blood red-colour they assume, 
have not unfrequently been the cause of considerable alarm 
and anxiety to persons residing in the vicinity of the 
waters wherein they are found. 

120. Astasia haematodes . The blood-like Astasia .— 
Body fusiform, or spindle-shaped, when extended; tail very 
short, body green at first, afterwards of a blood-red colour. 
Group 68 represents one creature extended, and another 
contracted. (Hampstead). Length 1-380th. 

Astasiaea. J 



121. Astasia flavicans. The yellow Astasia. —Body 
extensible, cone-shaped, approaching cylindrical, and 
rounded at the foremost extremity. Tail very short and 
blunt; ovaria of a yellowish colour. Found in yellow 
ditch water. Length about 1-430th. 

122. Astasia pusilla. The dwarf Astasia. —Body 
extensible, cone-shaped, swelling out, and rounded at the 
foremost extremity; tail very short and pointed, colour¬ 
less. Group 69 represents two of them magnified. 

Ehrenberg remarks, they are often so abundant, that 
thousands, perhaps millions, of these creatures are some¬ 
times contained in the hollow of a watch-glass, and that 
they rise up and form a stratum on the surface of the 
water. They might have been mistaken for the young of 
the A. flavicans, but that the vesicles within them, which 
appeared to be digestive cells, were larger than those in 
that species, which is also without proboscis. As soon as 
a little colouring matter was thrown into the water, an 
evident current was observed near the fore part of the 
creature; and by this means,in 1833, the thread-like pro¬ 
boscis, which is about half the length of the body, was first 
perceived. Sometimes the entire creature appeared to 
glisten. Should this species, upon closer inspection, be 
found to be ciliated, it would be rightly placed in Peri- 
dinea. Length l-1440th to 1-840th. 

123. Astasia (?) viridis. The green Astasia. —Body 
extensible, and of an ovato-oblong form, distended a little 
at the middle; tail very short and pointed; green. Found 
amongst conferva. Length l-1200th to l-900th. 

124. Astasia nivalis. The snow Astasia. —Form oval, 
extremities rounded, rarely pear-shaped, colour deep 



[ Polygastrica. 

reddish-brown, motion rapid. (See 72.) Found with Pro¬ 
tococcus nebulosus in snow (Switzerland). Plate xii. 
group 526. Length 1-1500th. 

Genus XXXIII. Amblyophis. The tail-less eye Asta- 
siaea .—The characteristics of this genus are, that its 
member is free, possesses an eye and single thread-like 
proboscis, but is tail-less. This proboscis serves as an 
organ of locomotion, and is situated at the creature’s 
foremost extremity, which, says Ehrenberg, is cleft, so as to 
represent a two-lipped mouth ; the upper lip bearing the 
proboscis being very readily distinguished. The colour of 
the animalcule is derived from the closely compressed 
mass of green granules, which nearly fills the body, and 
may be regarded as ova. There may be seen also, near the 
middle of the creature, a large bright globular body, and 
five wand-like bodies, two of which are situated before, 
and three behind, the first mentioned one. The whole of 
these are supposed to be male generative organs. No con¬ 
tractile spermatic vesicle has been observed. Self-division is 
unknown in these creatures. The sensitive system is more 
beautifully and clearly developed in this genus than in any 
other of the polygastric Infusoria. Towards the anterior 
part of the body, and just behind the proboscis, where the 
mass of ova commences, there is a bright red and some¬ 
what lengthened spot (resembling, as to situation and 
colour, the eye of the wheel Animalcules and Entomas- 
tracea),beneath which, in the clear space below, is a quantity 
of matter of a very peculiar description, of a globular form, 
having the appearance of nervous ganglia, and being most 
probably connected with the organ of vision. 

125. Amblyophis viridis. The green Amblyophis .—- 




Body large, elongated, cylindrical, distended or compressed, 
and abruptly rounded at the posterior extremity; green; 
head colourless; eye large, bright red. The motion of this 
creature is dull and serpentine, and by its evolutions might 
easily be mistaken for the Euglena spirogyra, were that 
creature, like this, tail-less. Group 7 0 represents three 
specimens, one full grown, and the others young. Found 
among Euglena, chiefly in the spring. Length 1-210th to 

Genus XXXIV. Euglena. The eye Animalcule. —This 
beautiful genus of the family Astasiaea is characterized by 
its members being furnished with an eye, a single thread¬ 
like proboscis, and tail, and by their being free, that is, not 
attached by a pedicle. The locomotive proboscis belongs 
to nine species out of the eleven, and a double appearance 
of this organ has been observed in the Euglena sanguinea, 
ascribable, no doubt, to the preparatory condition of the 
animalcule for self-division. 

In E. hyalina, pleuronectes, and longicauda, nutritive 
cells are generally visible, but in the other species they 
are obscured by the masses of green ova, which give this 
colouring to their bodies. Certain internal appearances 
have been recognized, which Ehrenberg supposes to be of 
a generative nature, and to belong to the male kind. 
Longitudinal self-division has been observed in E. acus, 
and the preparation for it in E. sanguinea, as before men¬ 
tioned. The red visual point indicates the existence of the 
sensitive system in this genus, and a nervous ganglion is 
visible in E. longicauda, as in amblyophis. 

126. Euglena sanguinea ( Cercaria viridis , M.) The 
hlood-red Euglena .—Body extensible, of an oblong cylin- 



[ Polygastrica. 

drical or spindle-shaped form, with the head greatly 
rounded; the tail is short, conical, and somewhat pointed. 
Proboscis longer than the body in its extended condition. 
When young, they are green, but when full grown, are of 
a blood-red colour. The motion of this variform ani¬ 
malcule is generally slow, and it sometimes revolves upon 
its longitudinal axis in swimming. Its colour is not of a 
fixed character, some being green, others spotted red and 
green—a mixture of both. This arises, according to Ehren- 
berg, from the different condition of the ova at different 
times, and which cover numerous granular round bodies, 
supposed to be digestive cells. The thread-like proboscis, 
which is a prolongation of the upper lip, and rather longer 
than the body, is so delicate, as to require considerable 
care in investigating it, and being retractile, will often 
elude our observation. A little colouring matter in the 
water will exhibit this organ in active operation, and it 
may be distinctly seen in a single animalcule, in a dried 
state, upon a plate of clear glass. The double appearance 
of the organ in this species has been before noticed. 
Ehrenberg conjectures that the miracle in Egypt, 
recorded by the great lawgiver of the Jews, of turning 
the water into blood, might have been effected by the 
agency of these creatures, or by the Astasia hsematodes. 
Figures 71 > 72, and 73, represent the creature in different 
states. In the first, it appears elongated, and currents in 
the water are shewn near the mouth. In the others, the 
cilia-formed thread-like proboscis is seen. Found in 
stagnant water ; often in great abundance on the surface of 
ponds. Length 1-300th to 1-240th. 

127. Euglena hyalina . The crystal-like Euglena .— 



1 r hr 


Body extensible in a spindle-shaped manner, with the head 
attenuated, blunted at the extremity, and two-lipped; tail 
short, and somewhat pointed; colour transparent and 
whitish, rare. Length 1 -280th. 

128. Euglena deses (Enchelys deses, M.) The slothful 
Euglena. —Body extensible and cylinder shaped, abruptly 
rounded at the head, and slightly bi-lipped. Tail very 
short and pointed; colour green ; motion a winding and 
sluggish creeping, never swimming. Found amongst lemna. 
Length 1-240th to 1-760th. 

129. Euglena viridis (Cercaria viridis , M.) The yreen 
Euglena. —Body extensible in a spindle-shaped manner, 
with the head attenuated and short. Tail short, and cone- 
shaped, not cleft; colour green, excepting the two extre¬ 
mities, which are colourless. The double-pointed tail, 
supposed to have been seen by Leeuwenhoek, Ingenhousz 
Muller, Schrank, and Nitzsch, does not exist. The colour 
of the eye is often pale red, when the creature is young, so 
that it may be easily mistaken for the Astasia viridis or 
Monas deses. When dried on glass, the eye seldom 
retains its colour more than a week, but the proboscis may 
be well examined, and preserved in this state. Length 

130. Euglena spirogyra. The tortuous Euglena .— 
Body extensible and cylinder-shaped, very finely striated 
'and granulated. The head is a little truncated, and the 
hinder part attenuated into a short pointed tail; colour 
a brownish-green; motion like E. deses. Found amongst 
conferva and Bacillaria. Length 1-240th to 1-120th. 

131. Euglena pyrum. The year-shaped Euglena. — 
Body obliquely fluted; when distended oval or pear-shaped. 



[ Poly gas trie a. 

The tail is generally about the length of the body and 
pointed; colour green. Group 74 represents two of these 
creatures magnified 400 diameters. Rarely found with 
any other species. I have taken them at Hampstead, but 
not so frequently as the other species. Length l-1152nd 
to 1-864th. 

132. Euglena pleuronectes (Cercaria pleuronectes, M.) 
The plaice-shaped Euglena. —Body compressed, ovato-orbi- 
cular, or in the form of a leaf; striated longitudinally; 
colour green; tail pointed, one-third or one-fourth part 
the length of the body, and colourless. Found in stagnant 
water. Length 1-1152nd to 1-480th. 

133. Euglena longicauda. The long-tailed Euglena. 
—Body mostly stiff, compressed, illiptical and leaf-like ; 
colour green; tail the length of the body, awl-shaped, 
and colourless. Within this creature may often be seen 
a yellowish-green mass of granules or ova. The very 
delicate vibrating thread-like proboscis represented in the 
figs. 75 and 76 originates from the more projecting part of 
an indentation on the anterior edge of the body, and is 
about two-thirds its length. This creature has the power 
of twisting its body into a spiral form, as seen in fig. 75, 
but not of contracting it. It swims freely, and mostly 
with a vibratory motion, occasioned by the action of the 
proboscis. Found in fresh water, amongst conferva, and 
with the Bacillaria. Length 1-480th to 1-120th. 

134. Euglena triquetra. The three-sided Euglena .— 
Body leaf-shaped, three-sided, oval-keeled ; colour green ; 
tail shorter than the body, and colourless. See fig. 77- 
Found amongst lemna. Length 1-580th. 

135. Euglena acus (Vibrio acus, M.) The needle- 




shaped Euglena. — Body slender, spindle-shaped, and 
straightened in the form of a bodkin ; head attenuated, 
and a little truncated; tail very pointed; body green in 
the middle, and colourless at the extremities. This is one 
of the most beautiful animalcules I have seen under the 
microscope; its graceful form when swimming, its bright 
red eye, the curious forms it assumes when stationary, 
and its remarkable appearance when undergoing self¬ 
division, all combine to render it worthy of observa¬ 
tion. Group 78 shews the normal form of this creature; 
the figure to the right, the same bent and contracted; 
and the lower, another undergoing longitudinal self-divi¬ 
sion. Found both in fresh and brackish water. Length 
1-5 70th to 1-210th. 

136. Euglena rostrata. The beaked Euglena .—Body 
elongated and conical, with the hinder part gradually 
attenuated into the tail, which is verv short. Head 
slightly bent, like a beak ; colour green. Found amongst 
oscillatoria and Bacillaria. Length about l-500th. 

Genus XXXV. Chlorogonium. The Astasiaea with 
a double proboscis. —This genus comprises those members 
of the family Astasiaea which are provided with an eye, 
tail, and double thread-like proboscis ; their motion in 
swimming is free, the creature not being attached by 
means of a pedicle or foot-stalk. The only known species 
is of a very beautiful green colour, and has numerous 
transparent vesicles within it, which are apparently sub¬ 
servient to the purpose of nutrition, although this fact has 
not been determined by the application of coloured food. 
A faint, clear, glandular body, most probably belonging to 
the male generative system, is perceptible in the centre of 



[ Polygastrica. 

the animalcule, the female being apparent in the mass 
of green ova, which gives the colouring to the creature. 
The double proboscis is used as an organ of locomotion, 
and the bright red eye affords the usual evidence of the 
existence of a system of sensation. Self-division in the 
transverse direction, somewhat modified, has been ob¬ 
served to take place. 

137- Ciilorogonium euchlorum. The beautiful green 
Chlorogonium. —Body spindle-shaped, very pointed at both 
extremities; tail short; colour a sparkling green. The 
eye of this animalcule, although distinctly marked, is, 
nevertheless, so delicate, that it may be easily overlooked; 
but when the creature is dried upon a plate of very clear 
glass, both the eye and the double proboscis are readily 
seen, and may be well preserved as a permanent micro¬ 
scopic object. Group 79 represents six creatures in one 
cluster, each with its double proboscis; above them is one 
about to self-divide into three; and on the right of this 
are three young animalcules. Found in water-butts, &c.: 
on ponds it forms the green matter of Priestly. Length 
1-1150th to l-280th, exclusive of the tail. 

Genus XXXVI. Colacium. The friends? of the 
Water Flea. —This genus is characterized by the creatures 
belonging to it being endowed with a single eye, and 
attaching themselves to other bodies by means of a 
pedicle or foot-stalk, which is single, or ramified by the 
act of self-division. The usual locomotive proboscis has 
not been defined in this genus, although, as Ehrenberg 
remarks, there can be no doubt of its existence, by the 
currents which are visible in coloured water near the fore¬ 
part of the body. This motion of the water being rather 

Astasiaea. ] 



feeble, renders it probable that the organ is a single 
filiform proboscis. The red visual point is indicative of 
a system of sensation, and the numerous transparent 
vesicles within the body denote one of nutrition. The 
creatures are parasitical upon Entomostracis and Ro¬ 

138. Colacium(?) vesiculosum. The bladder-shaped 
Colacium. —Body of a spindle-shaped oval form, but vari¬ 
able, with the pedicle very short, and seldom ramified ; 
colour, a sparkling green, with distinct internal vesicles. 
Ehrenberg says, “ I have again sought in vain for the red 
eye (May 23, 1835), but cannot be satisfied of its non¬ 
existence, as it is undoubtedly present in the other species, 
and investigation is sometimes unproductive, on account 
of subordinate circumstances. I have likewise failed in 
seeing very satisfactorily the vibratory organ, notwith¬ 
standing its action is evident enough.” In plate ii., fig . 80 
represents a portion of the back shield of the Cyclops 
quadricornis (see Microscopic Cabinet , plate ix.), with six 
of these creatures attached to it; one appears double, 
longitudinal self-division having just taken place. Found 
upon Entomostraceans. Length 1-860th. 

139. Colacium stentorinum. The trumpet-shaped Cola¬ 
cium, .—Body expansible and variable, somewhat cylindrical 
in form, anterior expanded into a cone or funnel-shape; 
colour, a beautiful green ; vesicles indistinct, pedicle often 
ramified. Found upon Entomostraceans and Polyarthra 
trigla. Length 1-1150th. 

Genus XXXVII. Distigma. The double-eyed Astasiaea. 
—The characteristics of this genus are the creatures being- 
possessed of two eyes, and a freedom of motion. Loco¬ 
motive organs have not been hitherto discovered, and the 



[ Polygastrica. 

presumption is, that they do not exist externally, as none 
of the species either swim or produce currents which are 
perceptible in coloured water. They have a sort of creep¬ 
ing or crawling movement, much like eels, and can change 
their forms, after the manner of the Proteus; they ap¬ 
proximate the Amoeba in other relationships than in respect 
of their being deficient of the proboscis. At the fore part 
of the body may be seen two very delicate blackish- 
coloured spots, analagous to the eyes in the species of 
other tribes. They are sometimes confounded with the 
Proteus diffluens of Muller. All the species are exquisite 
objects for a deep powered microscope, namely, 460 times. 

140. Distigma ? tenax (Proteus , M.) The tenacious 
Distigma. —Body the largest of the genus, proteus-like, 
at times greatly distended, then as much constricted; eyes 
rather indistinct; colour transparent yellow. Found about 
lemna. Length 1 -240th. 

141. Distigma proteus (Proteus , M.) The colourless 
Distigma. —Body smaller than the preceding, proteus-like, 
sometimes greatly distended, at others constricted, blunted 
at both extremities; eyes distinct. Group 81 represents 
these creatures highly magnified. Found amongst conferva. 
Length 1-5 80th to 1-400th. 

142. Distigma viride. The green Distigma . —Body 
the least of the genus, proteus-like, sometimes greatly 
distended, at others constricted; filled with green granules ; 
eyes distinct. Length not exceeding l-570th. 

143. Distigma planaria. The eel-shaped Distigma.— 
Body small, linear, proteus-like, but less distended or con¬ 
stricted than the preceding, pointed at both extremities ; 
colourless; eyes distinct. Found by Ehrenberg amongst 
conferva in water of the Nile. Length 1-240th. 

Dinobryina. ] 




The animalcules of this family are distinctly, or to all 
appearances, of the polygastric description, and furnished 
with only one aperture to the body; hence it has no true 
alimentary canal. They are without any appendages, but 
possessed of a lorica or shell, and have the power at will 
of changing their forms. In one species of the genus 
Dinobryon a simple filiform proboscis is present; and in 
the same genus, a delicate red spot, at the anterior portion 
of the body, indicates the organ of vision. The nutritive 
apparatus is faint and undefined. The lorica is of the 
form of a little pitcher ( urceolus ), at the bottom of which 
the very contractile Euglena-like creature is attached. 
Two genera only are known. 

Genus XXXVIII. Epipyxis. The pedestal Animalcule. 
—The characteristics of this genus are mostly of the nega¬ 
tive kind, .namely, its lacking the eye and retaining the 
body in a sitting posture. The most evident animal cha¬ 
racter possessed by the species is the funnel-shaped orifice 
at its foremost extremity. The soft or pulpy body is seated 
within a delicate membranous (not siliceous) lorica, which 
is usually affixed by a pedicle, or foot, to a piece of conferva. 

145. Epipyxis utriculus. The bottle-shaped Epipyxis .— 
Body of a conical pitcher-like form, small, and filled with 
yellowish granules; attached by a pedicle. Group 82 
represents several of these creatures attached to a portion 
of conferva. Length 1-640th. 

Genus XXXIX. Dinobryon. —This genus is distin¬ 
guished from the preceding one by the species possessing 

m 2 



[ Polygastrica. 

an eye, and enjoying a freedom of motion. The lorica 
also is more free from the body of the creature than in 
the Epipyxis, and from the sprouting forth of buds, which 
do not separate from the parent; hence a shrubby, forked, 
and Monad-like cluster is produced. 

146. Dinobryon sertularia. The fruticose Dinobryon. 
—Body large, invested with a lorica, slightly excised, 
and dilated at the mouth, but constricted near the base. 
Developing in the form of a shrub. (See group 83 and 
fig. 84.) This animalcule is not readily seen, by reason 
of its crystalline lorica, and colourless body: by a patient 
investigation, however, the little shrubby colony may be 
perceived rolling along, and advancing in the field of 
view. Within each lorica a pale yellow animalcule may 
be noticed, in form somewhat resembling the young of 
the Chlorogonium or Euglena viridis. This creature has 
the power of stretching itself out in a spindle-shaped 
manner, so as not to protrude, however, beyond the 
mouth of the lorica, and also of contracting itself into a 
globular form. The red visual point is observable at the 
anterior part of the body, and a single thread-like pro¬ 
boscis is thrust forth from out the shell. Cluster 83 
represents a shrubby cluster, containing eight animalcules, 
and the shells of three which have died. The vibrating 
proboscides act like so many paddles in the water, and pro¬ 
pel the moving mass. Found in bog-water. Length of 
single animalcule 1-5 70th; ditto of cluster 1-120th. 

147. Dinobryon (?) sociale. The social Dinobryon .— 
Body small, enveloped in a shell of a simply conical shape, 
truncated at the mouth. Developed in the form of a 
shrub ; Found in fresh water. Length 1-860th; ditto of 
cluster 1-280th. 



Amoebaea .] 


The infusorial animalcules of this family are poly- 
gastric, with one aperture only to the body, and no 
alimentary canal or lorica. No other organs of motion 
are observable than certain appendages or ramifications, 
consisting of variable pediform processes, which they have 
the power of putting forth from every part of their 
gelatinous and contractile bodies, and by which they move 
from place to place. The organs of nutrition are com¬ 
posed of numerous digestive cells, which are visible in 
all the species, either in their natural state, or by the 
introduction of coloured substances into them. Self¬ 
division has been seen in Amoeba diffluens. No indica¬ 
tions of a sensitive system are discoverable in any species. 
As only one genus is known in this family, it is exempli¬ 
fied by the family characteristics. 

Genus XL. Amoeba. 

148. Amoeba princeps (Proteus diff. M.) The great 
Amoeba .—Body of a pale yellow colour, furnished with 
numerous variable processes, somewhat cylindrical in 
form, with the terminations thick and rounded. This 
curious creature, from its slow motion and yellowish 
colour, is a desirable object for the microscope; its sin¬ 
gular changes of form, and its internal organization, may 
be viewed with considerable pleasure, even under very 
high magnifying powers. Its normal shape, if such it can 
be said to possess, is globular, but it can relax any portion 
of its body, and contract the rest, so as to force the 
internal part down into this relaxed portion, in a manner 




resembling an hernial tumour; ten or twelve processes 
may sometimes be seen extended at one time. Figures 
85, 86, and 87, represent three animalcules highly mag¬ 
nified ; the first has only two processes extended ; in the 
last there are several. Found amongst Navicules. Size 
1-140th to l-70th. 

149. Amoeba verrucosa. The short-footed or warty 
Amoeba. — Body less than that of the last species, and 
colourless; processes very short and blunted, resembling 
warts; motion sluggish. Size never exceeding 1-240th. 

150. Amoeba diffiuens ( Volvooc sphoerula, M.) The dis¬ 
solving Amoeba or Proteus .—Body expansible and colour¬ 
less ; processes longer than the last, strong and more 
pointed. This species is a very interesting object for the 
microscopic observer; its body resembles sometimes a 
transparent, at other times a turbid lump of jelly, slowly 
expanding and stretching itself out, and here and there 
exhibiting its pointed processes, which again disappear as 
it advances. Its motions may be compared to those of a 
many-footed animal tied up in a sack. Found in Hackney 
Marsh, amongst lemna. Usual size about 1-300th. 

151. Amoeba radiosa. The radiant Amoeba. —Body 
colourless, and less than the preceding species ; its pro¬ 
cesses, which are numerous, are long and slender, pointed 
at the ends, and apparently radiating. This animalcule, 
when in a contracted state, is not distinguishable from the 
A. diffiuens, but when fully expanded may be likened to 
the porcupine. It readily imbibes colouring matter. Fig. 88 
resembles one of these creatures in a contracted state, 
and 88* the same with the processes thrust forth. Found 
in bog-water. Size 1-240th. 

A reel Una .] 




This family contains polygastric animalcules, who 
possess an alimentary canal, a single opening of the body, 
are provided with a lorica, and who can change their 
figure by means of the variable pediform processes with 
which they are furnished. The lorica, which is univalved, 
is pitcher or dish-shaped, and the possession of it is the 
chief feature distinguishing this from the family Amoeba. 
The body is soft and gelatinous, and in some cases ap¬ 
pears to flow as it were from the opening of the lorica. 
The organs of locomotion are soft variable processes, 
situated at the anterior part of the body; they are some¬ 
times withdrawn, at others protruded; sometimes they 
appear simple, at other times branched; they are 
neither feet nor antennse, but a peculiar locomotive appa¬ 
ratus. In five species, numerous digestive vesicles are 
seen. No traces of a sensitive system have been disco¬ 
vered. The reproductive system is unknown, neither has 
increase by self-division, the formation of gemmae, or 
otherwise, been recognized. 

The genera are related to each other as follows 

Changeable processes l Lorica spherical or tun-like. Difflugia. 

radiant, J 

generally numerous I Dish or shield-shaped . Arcella. 

Changeable processes broad and undivided. Cyphidium. 

Genus XLI. Difflugia. The diffluent Animalcules ,— 
This genus is characterized by the creatures having the 
variable processes, which issue only from the fore part of 



[ Polygastrica. 

the body, numerous, or each one cleft into several parts, 
so as to give it the appearance of being many. The body 
is enveloped in a pitcher-like lorica, sometimes globular, 
and at others oblong or spiral in form. The lorica of this 
genus being opaque, except that of D. enchelys, little of 
the internal organization of these creatures is known; in 
the D. enchelys numerous digestive cells have been seen. 
In the D. proteiformis and D. acuminata, the lorica is 
covered with grains of sand, similar to that of the caddis- 
worm. In D. oblonga and D. enchelys, the shell is 

152. Difflugia proteiformis. The varying Difflugia .— 
Lorica ovate and subglobose, as represented in figs. 89, 90, 
and 91 : it is roughly coated with minute grains of sand, 

and is either of a blackish or greenish colour. The trans- 


parent processes vary in number from one to ten. 
In fig. 89, six are protruded. M. Le Clerc mentions 
their having spiral corrugations on the lorica, which Ehren- 
berg does not appear to have seen. Found among oscil- 
latoria, &c. Size 1-240th. 

153. Difflugia oblonga. The oblong Difflugia. —Shell 
oblong, with the back rounded, smooth, and of a brownish 
colour. The transparent processes fewer and stouter than 
those of the preceding species. Found among oscilla- 
toria, &c. Length 1-200th. 

154. Difflugia acuminata. The pointed Difflugia .— 
Shell oblong and rough, being covered with minute grains 
of sand, posterior pointed ; processes transparent. Length 
l- 70 th. 

155. D ifflugia enchelys. The flask-shaped Difflugia .— 
Shell oval; colourless; transparent and smooth, rounded 




on the back. Processes transparent, slender, and small. 
A lateral aperture is seen in this species, which is the 
smallest of the genus. Found in stagnant water A Size 

Genus XLIT. Arcella. The capsule Animalcules .— 
The characteristics of this genus are, its being possessed 
of numerous variable processes, or single processes, cleft 
into many, and spread abroad, and its being furnished with 
a flattened shield-like lorica. The structure of the lorica, 
as to details, is very different in the different species. 
For instance, in A. vulgaris it exhibits regular and delicate 
facets. In A. dentata, the facets are large and crystal¬ 
line. In A. aculeata, it is beset with spiculi; and in 
A. hyalina, it is homogeneous and clear. The organs of 
locomotion are evidently extensile and retractile processes, 
radiant and variable. The digestive cells are readily filled 
with coloured vegetable substances. In A. vulgaris, a con¬ 
tractile vesicle has been perceived. 

156. Arcella vulgaris. The common Arcella. —Lorica 
round and bell-shaped, with an hemispherical or turgid back ; 
smooth, and composed of rows of minute granules; colour 
yellow or reddish-brown. Found abundantly amongst 
lemna and aquatic plants. Size l-570th to l-240th. 

157. Arcella aculeata. The spinous Arcella. —Lorica 
hemispherical, though of ten mis-shapen and spinous at the 
margin. It is formed of short spiculi, and is of a yellowish 
colour. The spines sometimes issue from only one-half 
of the margin of the shell, or shield-like lorica; the shell 
is not readily destroyed by heat. Fig. 92 represents one 
of these creatures. The projecting spines^ and the large 
round opening in the lorica, are visible. Fig. 93 represents 



[ Polygastrica. ' 

another creature with three spines projecting from its 
lorica, and a single variable process issuing from the under 
side ; the digestive cells may also be seen. Fig. 94 shews 
an empty deformed lorica. Diameter of lorica 1-210th. 

158. Arcella dentata. The toothed Arcella .—Lorica 
membranous and homogeneous; of an hemispherical or 
polygonal form, having the margin dentated; colour 
yellowish or greenish. Found amongst conferva. Size 
1-570th to l-240th. 

159. Arcella? hyalina. The crystal Arcella .—Lorica 
membranous, smooth, and approaching to globular, smaller 
than the preceding; colourless. Found in matter preci¬ 
pitated from water, along with Cyphidium aureolum, &c. 
Size 1-1150th to l-570th. 

Genus XLIII. Cyphidium. This genus is distin¬ 
guished by the creatures having only one dilated variable 
process, and a lorica of the form of a pitcher, with protu¬ 
berances issuing from it. It forms a connecting group 
between Arcella and Bacillaria, by reason of the simple 
locomotive organ (like a snail’s foot), and approaches very 
closely to the group Desmidiacea. The lorica is some¬ 
thing like a little die or stamp, mounted upon a short 
stem. It is very irregularly formed, having protuberances 
so as to make it appear four-corned; it is combustible. 
The organ of locomotion is a broad, gelatinous, variable 
process, with smooth edges, resembling in appearance the 
body of Amoeba verrucosa. Neither digestive cells or 
apertures in the lorica have yet been observed, nor 
systems of sensation or propagation. 

160. Cyphidium aureolum. The gold-coloured Cyphi¬ 
dium .—Lorica of a cubical form, with protuberances; 

Arcellina .] 



process colourless. In March, 1835, says Ehrenberg, 
“ I first observed hundreds of these creatures in a glass 
of water, which had stood throughout the winter, in com¬ 
pany with some specimens of the Microsterias. Previ¬ 
ously to discovering these, the Amoeba verrucosa had 
been abundantly generated; and, after their discovery, 
Arcella hyalina. The creatures were inactive, although, 
with attentive observation, they might be seen to change 
their places.” Ehrenberg only once perceived the loco¬ 
motive organ of the animalcule, situated under one corner, 
upon which it appeared to rest, and that so firmly, that 
six out of the eight protuberances of the die-like lorica 
were visible at the same time. Fig. 95, 96, and 97, repre¬ 
sent these creatures in different positions. In the second, 
the gelatinous variable process is seen projecting from 
beneath the lorica; in the other two figures, the lorica 
only is visible. Fig. 98 is a young specimen. Size 
1-570th to 1-430th. 



[ Polygastrica. 


This family is very extensive. It is deeply interesting 
to the geologist, from the recent discovery of the remains 
of several genera in various portions of the earth’s struc¬ 
ture, either forming by themselves, or with argillaceous 
earths, strata of great extent; or, when imbedded in various 
stony formations, as flint, agate, semi-opal, &c., clearly de¬ 
monstrating their production subsequent to the existence 
of those interesting creatures. 

The first observers of this family considered its members 
as animals; but by far the greater number of modern 
naturalists regard them as plants, and place them among 
the minute Algae; hence it is we stand mainly indebted 
to the botanist for our knowledge of their forms and 

A few of the genera are considered by some philosophers 
as forming connecting links of the animal, vegetable, and 
mineral kingdoms. Ehrenberg (whose skill and practice 
in the use of the microscope has been very great) affirms 
they are decidedly animal, and characterizes the family as 
comprehending all animalcules, distinctly or apparently 
polygastric, destitute of alimentary canal, the body fur¬ 
nished with variable undivided processes, and covered by 
a lorica or shell. While undergoing self-division they 
appear connected together, as it were, by a percurrent 
thread, so that they form chain-like or tabulated groups. 
The lorica of each animalcule has one or more openings, 

Bacillaria .] 



and at the places where these creatures are connected 
together it is effected by means of soft processes pro¬ 
truding through these openings. Excepting the genera 
Navicula, and one or two others, they never separate 
spontaneously into single individuals, but always adhere, 
forming polypi-like masses of greater or less extent; hence 
it is that the term imperfect self-division has been applied 
to their mode of propagation. 

As this family is of such vast importance in a geological 
point of view, and naturalists are so divided as to the 
natural position of its members, it will be desirable to 
enter into a few general particulars respecting it, to which 
I shall append an abstract of Dr. Meyen’s views, they 
being unknown to the English reader. 

The composition of the lorica or shell of these creatures 
is various, and may be separated into two kinds; the first 
containing silica, either pure or in combination with the 
oxide of iron, forming a silicate of iron ; or secondly, those 
in which silica is entirely absent; the lorica has then a 
membranous or parchment-like (structure) texture. It is 
remarkable that in no case has lime been found to enter 
into their composition. In some genera the lorica is sur¬ 
rounded by a soft gelatinous variously-formed envelope 
or induvium. The shape of the lorica is various, but such 
as entirely to inclose the animalcule (hence it is termed 
urceolate ), except the parts where it is united with others. 
When such is the case, and it is surrounded on all sides, 
the lorica is composed of two or more shells, or pieces, 
termed valves, which are usually dish or cup-shaped, and 
often fluted or grooved. Those in which silica enters into 
the composition have usually a round or a prismatic four- 



[ Polygastrica , 

sided figure, while in the non-siliceous they are generally 
flat, with three to five sides. 

Of the internal organization of these creatures little is 
known, owing to their opacity, and the structure of the 
enveloping lorica. In many, however, large transparent 
variable vesicles are seen among the mass of coloured 
granules which occupy the greater part of the lorica. 
These vesicles are considered by Elirenberg to be diges¬ 
tive cells, and the coloured mass ova, while the latter is 
the Chloriphylle of botanists. In some species, as soon as 
the coloured ova is protruded the parent dies; in others, 
the ova form a Monad-like mass, and when matured the 
parent separates from it; hence, says Ehrenberg, has 
arisen the opinion of the transition of animals into plants. 
In Microsterias, Arthrodesmus, and one or two other 
genera, says Dr. Ehrenberg, male reproductive structures 
are visible, but no trace of a sensitive system has been 

From the clustering nature of this sluggish family, and 
the rigidity of their coverings, they resemble the confer*- 
void Algae, and other minute vegetable forms, and are hence 
confounded with them; but in their mode of propagation 
a distinction may be recognised. In the Bacillaria, the 
self-division is always longitudinal, so that the conferva¬ 
like forms are not composed of long slender and filiform 
bodies, like plants, but of short and broad filiform portions. 
Sometimes the self-division is from back to front, or from 
side to side; the single creatures are then band-like or 
half-moon- shaped. 

In Acinata, organs of locomotion are visible, as feelers ; 
but these creatures deviate so much from the Bacillaria in 




other characteristics, that it is more proper to separate 
them from this family. In Navicula alone has an undi¬ 
vided locomotive organ been seen. This organ possesses 
the power of moving in any direction, and accommodating 
itself to any form similar to that curious muscular organ, 
the tongue, in animals, or the foot-like process of snails. 

The shells of these creatures are often sculptured with 
deep ilutings; where this occurs, the inside of the shell is 
not always smooth, but follows the form of the exterior: 
thus the strength is greatly increased, while the quantity 
of solid material employed in their construction is not 
augmented. The flutings in the living specimens being 
filled with coloured matter, are discerned with difficulty, 
and hence they are almost unknown. In the fossil state, 
in which vast numbers of these are found, the shells are 
empty, and in this state the flutings and other indenta¬ 
tions become distinctly visible. I have, therefore, in the 
engravings illustrating this family, selected drawings of 
several in both states, so that the reader may form a clear 
conception of their true characters, while the interest 
attached to the family generally is so great, and we possess 
so few drawings of its various species, that I have been 
induced to extend the number of illustrations consider¬ 
ably. The order of their arrangement differs from that 
given in the plates of Die Infusionstlderchen ; in that work 
the species and genera are placed in plates indiscrimi¬ 
nately, and no regular arrangement is observed. As some 
fossil specimens have been discovered since Ehrenberg’s 
great work appeared, I have had drawings of the finest 
I could procure made for me ; some of them are the 
last productions of my friend, the late F. Bauer, Esq.; 



[ Polygastrica. 

so that the numerous illustrations of this family, whether 
the members be considered as animal or vegetable, will, 
I believe, be highly acceptable both to the botanist and 

In this family we are not only presented with the sim¬ 
plest forms of organic matter, but, from their numbers and 
the indestructibility of their shells, they have led to many 
important discoveries. The large masses of meteoric 
paper which fell in 1686 have recently been shewn to 
consist mainly of their coverings, while several hundred 
square feet of a flannel-like substance, lately found near 
Sabor, in Silesia, after an inundation, was composed of 
Fragillaria, Navicula, Cryptomonas, and Closterina, inter¬ 
woven with Conferva rivularis. 

As microscropic objects, the markings of the fossil 
species are highly interesting; and when mounted as 
opaque objects, a verification of the structure of their shell 
is clearly demonstrated. 

The English specific names are taken from the German. 
In the Natural History of Animalcules, I have taken them 
from the Latin; this will account for the non-agreement. 

The grand divisions of this family are into single and 
double-loricated animalcules ; the genera comprised in the 
first being separated into those which are attached to a 
pedicle or stalk, and those which are destitute of such 
appendage, or free. 

lorica double. lorica simple. 

Bacillaria .] 



The Bacillaria comprehend the following genera :— 

/ prism 

k five-sided . 

s One 
' valved. , 
( Desmi- ' 
diacea). ' 


smooth .... 
spinous .... 

clusters moniliform 
do. berry-like . 

V flat 

0> / 
<D / 

U \ 

* ] 

/ round 

plate or disc-like . 

spherical, simple . 

forming coral-like 

Two or 
valved. ( 
. ( Navicu- 
\ lacea). 

compressed or lying together 

united by serritures. 

I many in each plate or disc 

two ditto .. 

single and disc-like . 

( 1-celled,articulated filiform 
( many celled, concentrically 
r six openings to lorica ... 

four ditto . 

one ditto . 

self-division complete,. 
never band-like 



division incomplete, 
forming band-like 

jointed . 




plate-like . 

' bands straight 
bands spiral ... 

■■ $3 
<L> ^ 

'll > 
ll \ 






/ single individuals broader than long. 

formed as a wand (prism-shaped) . 

formed as a wedge ... 

j dichotomous by long, div 




2 >° \ 


\ ^ 



wedged-shaped . 

I whorledor radiatingby do. 

lance-shaped, attachment dh - ect... 

a central opening. 

no central opening. 


V. attachment oblique 

f Covered w’ith an amor¬ 
phous mass of gelatine ... 

Covered with membranous 
V or gelatinous tubes .... 

scattered ... 

connected in a ring-like manner. 

spiculi straight 

t ubes simply branched 

ditto aggregated, 

ditto crooked . 

slit like a bunch. 

branched like a tree 

Appended group .—Lorica simple, singly stalked, soft-valved, with many retractile 1 
(not vibratile) Tentaculae . . 








































[ Polygastrica . 

In order that the reader may form a correct judgment 
on this subject, I have had translated the following 
remarks on the family Bacillaria, by Dr. Meyen ( Tahres - 
bericlit , Berlin, 1839) :— 

a Dr. Ehrenberg has described and represented, in his 
great work upon the Infusoria, a very considerable 
number of organized bodies, looked upon by botanists as 
belonging to the vegetable kingdom. In these representa¬ 
tions, naturalists have been able to attain w r hat has been 
long desirable ; for, although in respect to the more highly 
developed and complete vegetable beings the truest deli¬ 
neations are indispensibly necessary at the present day, 
it is much more requisite that every one of these lower and 
microscopic organisms should be laid before us in the 
same tangible manner. To the systematist, it is of no 
import whether these beings are represented as plants or 
animals, for one thing is certain —they will always remain 
what they are . In this work, Ehrenberg has not only 
given systematic descriptions of these questionable animals 
or plants, but his own observations, coupled with those 
of his predecessors, upon the nature of these bodies, are 
found copiously detailed. This, however, is apparent; 
all the facts known upon the subject are interpreted in a 
manner as if these creations were undoubtedly animals, 
whilst the same facts would indicate quite a different 
signification if we proceeded upon the supposition that 
they were nothing but plants. It now becomes a ques¬ 
tion as to which view is right, or whether we are able to 
prove positively either one or the other. The subject, 
however, is one of high importance, and we shall say a 
few words upon it, bringing forward those genera as illus- 




trations of the subject, which, according to my own 
opinion, are decidedly composed of plants. The first 
little plant we find described and represented in Ehren- 
berg^s work is Gonium (?) tranquillum (E.) This I dis¬ 
covered in 1828 , gave a representation of it, and after¬ 
wards named it Merismopedia punctata. Ehrenberg him¬ 
self has observed nothing animal with respect to this 
plant, which belongs to the Ulvaceae, and distinguishes 
itself remarkably by its continual regular self-division. 
The members of the genus Closterium belong just as 
decidedly to the vegetable kingdom as does the Gonium ; 
but the following reasons are adduced by Ehrenberg as 
proofs of their animal organization. They possess volun¬ 
tary motion ; they have openings at the extremity; they 
possess continually-moving even protruding organs imme¬ 
diately behind the openings, and they are endowed with 
transverse self-division. But all plants, says Ehrenberg, 
which are endowed with voluntary motion, open orifices, 
feet, and self-division, we may look upon as animals, with¬ 
out waiting to see them eat. That this last resolution is 
correct, no doubt all botanists will accede to; but the 
following considerations are those which incline to the 
opinion of the vegetable nature of the Closterina. The 
structure of the Closterina is evidently that of the Con¬ 
ferva, as well as the formation of their spores or seeds, 
and the development of them. The existence of amylum 
within the Closterina is a striking proof of their vegetable 
nature. They are likewise destitute of feet, for what 
Ehrenberg took for these appendages are self-moveable 
molecules, as are seen in Closterium trabecula, to the 
number of 5 or GOO, or more, and filling a canal running 

n 2 



[ Polygash'ica. 

along the whole length of the plant. The function of 
these bodies is very difficult to determine ; but they are 
to be found in very many conferva, and are perhaps to be 
likened to the spermatic animalcules of plants. 

“ Under the great family BacillariaEhrenberg has brought 
thirty-five to thirty-six genera; but which may be more 
properly divided into two separate families—the family of 
the true Bacillaria, and that of the Desmidiacea. This last 
family has already been firmly settled by Menegheni, and 
includes those true Algae upon whose nature there can be 
no doubt. To the true Algae belong the following genera 
of Ehrenberg’s Bacillaria :—Desmidium, Ag.; Stauras- 
trum, Mey.; Pentasterias, Ehr.; Sphaerastrum, Mey.; 
Xanthidium, Ehr.; Scenedesmus, Mey.; Odontella, Ag.; 
Pediastrum, Mey. (Micrasterias, Ag.); and Euastrum, 
Ehr. In all these genera, nothing has yet been observed 
which can be adduced as evidences of their animal nature. 
Actual motion, arising from internal causes, I saw only in 
Sphaerastrum; and the slight movement, supposed to 
have been observed in some of the genera, is certainly of 
the same description as that of some conferva, which 
sometimes vegetate far below, at other times upon, the 
surface of water; but this elevation from the deep is 
generally connected with visible evolution of gaseous 
matter. The increase by self-division occurs in all these 
genera ; this process is looked upon by Ehrenberg as one 
of the strongest and most decisive characters of animal 
nature; but I have elsewhere proved, in the most satis¬ 
factory manner, that self-division is very common, both 
in the lowest plants as well as in the elementary organs 
of the more highly developed ones. The little vesicles 




endowed with molecular motion, seen in the genus 
Euastrum, are completely indentical with those observed 
in Closterium and the conferva, and I see no good reason 
why Closterium should not be placed near Euastrum. 
The green corpuscles observed within the cells of most 
of the Desmidiacea are similar to the green corpuscles 
found in the cells of the conferva ; and though Ehrenberg 
may consider them as ova, I have observed their develop¬ 
ment into spores, and in several genera have distinctly 
seen that they contained amylum, and sometimes that 
they were even entirely composed of it. 

“The second section of the Bacillaria includes the true 
Bacillaria, and are indicated by the term Naviculacea; 
here are to be found those numerous forms, which, from 
their occurrence in a fossil state, have lately given rise to 
such a great degree of interest, and which Ehrenberg, and 
many other naturalists, regard as undoubtedly belonging to 
the animal kingdom. 

“ The reasons adduced for such belief, however, are so 
weak, that the conclusions deduced from them are yet, for 
the most part, very doubtful. 

“ The movement of the Bacillaria, however free it may 
be, is by no means so free and active as that of the spores 
of the Algae and the spermatic animalcules, which are 
plants, or at least parts of plants, and the motion is no 
very positive ground for the belief of their animal condition. 
The common mode of propagation seen in Bacillaria is 
that of self-division, which is also proper to the cells of 
the higher plants; the increase by spores or ova ensues 
but rarely. The form, structure, and especially the 
habitus of the Bacillaria are evidently of that kind to lead 



[ Polygastrica. 

one to consider them as plants; but the following circum¬ 
stance, which is of very considerable interest, militates 
against it. In many Navicuke, it it observed that the 
molecules, such as of indigo or carmine, &c., in the same 
solution, that may come into contact with the surface of 
the body of the creature, are immediately set in motion, 
and often run along with considerable rapidity by the side 
of the body, and even turn and run in an opposite 
direction. This remarkable appearance has its cause, 
perhaps, in the existence of numerous delicate cilia, which 
are present over the surface of the creature, and giving 
rise to the motion. 

“ With our present instruments we cannot take cog¬ 
nizance of these organs; but when making use of a very 
high power, a sort of transparent narrow zone is observed 
around the bodies of the Bacillaria. 

‘ f Lastly, Ehrenberg adduces another observation as 
satisfactorily proving the animal nature of the Bacillaria. 
They sometimes receive colouring matter, which tills the 
vesicles looked upon by him as stomachs. This last state¬ 
ment appears at least very striking, but the way in which 
the case stands seems to be somewhat different. In the 
first place, I can see no stomach sacs in the Navicuke, and 
never observed in the living and moving Bacillaria the 
colouring matter received at one extremity and carried 
towards the centre, where these stomach sacs should lie, 
whilst in the Infusoria such observations are easv; on 
the other hand, it is not rarely found, especially with 
the larger living animalcules, that the molecules of the 
colouring matter employed lie upon the middle of the 
broad ventral surface, from which it appears as if the colour- 




ing material was really existing internally; but if a glass 
plate is placed upon it, and then properly removed, the 
globule of colouring matter may be taken away. The 
unprejudiced reader must then see that much observation 
is yet wanting ere we can hope satisfactorily to determine 
that the Bacillaria are truly animals; and how closely 
plants and animals border upon each other is recognizable 
in the spermatic animalcules of the lower plants, and the 
spermatic animalcules of animals.’ 5 

Section I.— Desmidiacea. 

Genus XLIV. Desmidium. The chain-wanded Animal¬ 
cules. —The lorica is of a simple triangular box-like form, 
with a single aperture in the centre; in texture it resem¬ 
bles parchment. The animalcules possess the power of 
slowly transporting themselves from one place to another, 
but no organ of locomotion has been detected. Green 
ova-like granules are observable in all the species, and 
among them in D. Swartzii, orbiculare, and aculeatum, 
colourless vesicles, probably digestive cells. It is doubt¬ 
ful, says Dr. Ehrenberg, whether they are developed singly 
or in pairs. 

161. Desmidium Swartzii. Swartz’s Desmidium has 
a triangular lorica, which, when viewed edgeways, appears 
quadrangular. They are attached together, forming a 
chain-like body, of a green colour. Diameter of a single 
animalcule l-2300th to 1-1100th. Found amongst 

162. Desmidium orbiculare. The disciform Desmidium. 



[ Polyyastrica. 

is smooth, three-sided, with the angles rounded. When 
two are united, they appear orbicular. Size l-570th. 
Found amongst conferva. 

163. Desmidium hexaceros. The six-hornedDesmidium 
is represented in plate ii., group 99; the figure to the left 
is a separate one viewed in front, the other an edge view 
of four. They are generally connected in pairs; hence it 
is usual to see six corners or horns. This species never 
forms a long chain-like body, four (as shewn in the 
engraving) being the greatest number attached. The 
body is green; but the lorica, when empty, is quite colour¬ 
less, and then exhibits a distinct central opening. Size 
1-5 70 th. 

164. Desmidium bifidum . The double-toothed Desmi¬ 
dium. —The three angles of the lorica of this creature are 
notched, hence each appears like a double tooth. Size 
1-57Oth. Found amongst conferva. 

165. Desmidium aculeatum resembles D. hexaceros; 
covered with spines. Size 1-5 76th. Found in turf- 

166. Desmidium apiculosum . The rough Desmidium 
has the three angles of its lorica rounded, and is rough. 
Size 1-860th. Found in peat-water. 

Genus XLV. Staurastrum. The cross-star Animal¬ 
cules are characterized by their being free, and pos¬ 
sessing a simple univalved four-sided lorica. They are 
sometimes, perhaps, developed in a filiform chain. No 
locomotion has been observed; indeed their only resem¬ 
blance to an animal, even as stated by Ehrenberg, is their 
increase by self-division, though he thinks the green 
matter within them ova. 

Bacillaria .] 



167. Staurastrum dilatatum. The broad Staurastrum 
has a membranous square uniformly-granulated lorica, with 
an opening in the centre, as shewn in fig. 101, which is 
an empty lorica, magnified 300 times; they are either 
single or attached in pairs, the latter is shown at Jig. 100. 
Size 1-570th. Found amongst conferva. 

168. Staurastrum The slender Stauras¬ 

trum is shewn at Jig. 102 and 103, one of which is a 
yellow, and the other a green, variety. They are either 
solitary or connected in pairs. Young observers are liable 
to mistake other forms of Bacillaria for this species; but 
its rough granulated surface is a special character. Size 
1-1200th to 1-570th. 

Genus XLVI. Pentasterias. The Jive-rayed Ani¬ 
malcules. —This genus contains only one species; it is 
distinguished by its possessing a simple univalved five¬ 
sided lorica, with a central aperture, and in being free; 
sometimes it is developed in chains. 

169. Pentasterias margaritacea. The pearl Pentas¬ 
terias has a granulated surface, and thick obtuse rays, 
as shewn at Jig. 104. Size 1-540th. Found amongst 

Genus XLVII. Tessararthra. The round-chain 
Animalcules comprehend only one species (T. filiformis 
being now considered an Odontella); it is distinguished 
by a simple univalved smooth and globular lorica. While 
undergoing self-division it becomes chain-like, consisting 
of four or more members. The species is free ; the inter¬ 
nal organization is unknown, owing to its minuteness, and 
jrreen matter within. 


170. Tessararthra moniliformis is green; two, three, 



[ Polygastrica. 

or four, are generally attached together in a line, as shewn 
in fig. 106. In fig. 105, two are seen, with two young ones 
growing between them. Size of each globe 1 - 1720 th. 
Found amongst conferva. 

Genus XLVIII. Sphaerastrum. The round-star Ani¬ 
malcules are characterized by their members being free, 
having a simple univalved smooth and turgid lorica, and 
by forming, during self-division, different shaped groups. 
A slight change of place or locomotion has been observed, 
but little or nothing of their organization is known, 
though Bory and Turpin have stated the existence of 
male seminal glands in S. quadrijuga. 

171. Sphaerastrum pictum. The globular Sphaeras¬ 
trum has oval green corpuscles, passing into spherical 
clusters, of the form of a mulberry. Size of berry 
l-480th; of single member l-1920th. Found with 

172 . Sphaerastrum quadrijugum. The four-rayed 
Sphaerastrum has oblong green corpuscles, four being 
united into cubical masses, perforated at the middle. Size 
of berry l-570th; of single member l-1200th. Found 
with the former species. 

Genus XLIX. Xanthidium. The double-bar Animal¬ 
cules. —The animalcules of this genus are characterized by 
being free (devoid of pedicle or stalk) and having a simple 
univalved lorica, of a globular form, surrounded with 
spines. They are found either single, in pairs, or groups 
of four. Ehrenberg thinks they may sometimes be de¬ 
veloped in the form of a chain. The lorica is clear, like 
glass or parchment, covered with simple or branched 
bristles, like spines. No aperture has been discovered 

Bacillaria. ] 



in the lorica, nor has any locomotive organ been seen. 
The green mass of grannies in the interior is considered as 
ova, and the glandular transparent globule observed in the 
centre of X. aculeatum as a testes. The only determinate 
and satisfactory character of the animal nature of this genus 
is its self-division. 

All the species have been found in a fossil state in 
flints. In some sections, which I cut in 1834, they were 
very abundant, but until Ehrenberg’s observations on 
them were known, they were not identified with recent 
species, and then considered as mere defects in the stone. 

173. Xanthidium hirsutum. The hairy Xanthidium is 
green, of a globose form, and covered with simple hairs. 
They are found either solitary, or in pairs. Size 1-430th. 
Found in peat-water. A fossil specimen is shewn in 
plate xii., fig. 512. 

174. Xanthidium aculeatum. The spinous Xanthidium 
only differs from the preceding in the lorica being covered 
with short-pointed spines, and occasionally as many as 
four being connected together. In the engraving ,plate ii., 
fig. 109, a pair is shown highly magnified. In the middle 
of each globe is one or more large clear spots; these, as 
well as the green coloured internal mass, prevent our 
seeing whether it is further organized. In the fossil speci¬ 
mens, so abundant in many flints of the chalk formations, 
the internal parts have disappeared; and hence the lorica, 
with its spines, is seen diaphanous. Size of the single 
sphere 1-430th to 1-288th. Found with X. hirsutum. 

175. Xanthidium fasciculatum. The clustered-spine 
Xanthidium has an oblong or globular green body, with 
long sharp spines, disposed in pairs or clusters. They are 



[ Polygastrica. 

found either solitary or in pairs. Size l-570th to l-280th. 
Found with the preceding; also fossil in flints. 

176. XANTii idium furcatum. The forked Xanthidium 
has a globular green spinous lorica, and occurs either 
singly or in pairs, or at most four are connected together. 
A figure with a large glandular body within each is shown 
at fig. 110, which will convey to the reader the best idea 
of their form. According to Ehrenberg, some of these 
animalcules possess only one forked spine, the others 
being short and broad. Size l-570th to 1-280th. The 
spines are usually half the length of the body. 

177- Xanthidium? ramosum. The branched Xanthi¬ 
dium has a globose lorica, covered with spines, trifid or 
branched at their extremities. The number of spines 
varies from six to twenty. They are found either single 
or in pairs. They are not figured by Dr. E. In gdate xii., 
Mr. Bauer has drawn them at fig. 511 and 515. This 
species is only known in a fossil state ; it occurs in the 
flints of most chalk formations. Dr. Ehrenberg thinks 
its true place is the genus Peridinium, as traces of a 
transverse groove have been observed. Size 1-1150th to 

178. Xanthidium ? difforme is shewn at fig. Ill, which 
represents a pair of these highly magnified ; they have 
a turgid lorica, of a green colour. Found with Micras- 
terias. Fossil specimens are shewn in plate xii., fig. 513 
and 514. Size l-430th. 

179. Xanthidium crassipes. The thick blunt-spined 
Xayithidium has a globose lorica, larger than the other 
species. There are two varieties : in one the thick blunt 
spines appear distinct; in the other, they often appear 

Bacillaria. ] 



together, resembling a fringe around the lorica. Found in 
flint. Size 1-280th. 

180. Xanthidium tubiferum. The tubular spined 
Xanthidium has long capitated spines. Found in flint. 
Size 1-400th. 

Genus L. Arthrodesmus. —The animalcules com¬ 
prised in this genus are distinguished by being free (no 
pedicle being present), and in having a simple univalved 
compressed lorica; they multiply by spontaneous self¬ 
division, in the form of tables, or compressed and articu¬ 
lated ribbons, each animalcule being contiguous to its 
neighbour. No locomotion or opening to the lorica has 
been seen. The chief animal character is self-division, and 
their close alliance, through Micrasterias and Euastrum, to 
Navicula, rather than to any known plant. The internal 
green colouring matter of their parchment-like lorica 
consists of minute homogeneous granules resembling ova, 
each cell-like lorica containing from one to three bright 
bodies, analogous to fecundating glands, which are often 
accompanied with crystalline vesicles, like polygastric 

181. Arthrodesmus quadricaudatus. The four-tailed 
Arthrodesmus has an oblong lorica; in consequence of 
incomplete self-division from four to eight are often con¬ 
nected together in a straight chain or polypi-like mass; 
when fully developed, the lorica at each end has two 
spines; these are wanting in young specimens. In some 
cases, though rarely, the central lorica has horns, and 
sometimes the terminal ones have a single horn protruding 
from their middle ; the length of the horns vary ; they are 
occasionally twice the length of the lorica. The green 



[ Polygastrica. 

matter can lie discharged from an opening in the end of 
each lorica. Found with slimy and decaying portions of 
water plants, &c. Size 1 -2180th to 1-1150th. Length of 
chain l-570th. 

182. Artiirodesmus pectinatus. The comb Arthrodesmus 
is green, fusiform, or oblong in shape; from four to eight 
are associated together, the exterior ones being seminulate. 
Size 1-1150th to l-860th. Found with Micrasterias. 

183. Artiirodesmus acutus. The changing Ar thro desmus 
is green and spindle-shaped, or oblong in form. In self¬ 
division, each adjoining one slips below the level of its 
neighbour, while the alternate ones remain. Size l-570th. 
Found with oscillatoria, especially in the month of July. 

184. Artiirodesmus convergens. The embracing Ar - 
throdesmus is connected in pairs, as in fig. 112, or in four, 
as in fig. 113. In the latter, the two middle ones are 
produced from gemmae. Colour green. Size l-570th. 

185. Artiirodesmus octocornis. The eight-horned 
Artiirodesmus is green, slightly compressed, and quadran¬ 
gular, each having four horns. Found with Navicula, &c. 
Size 1-1150th to l-1200th. 

186. Artiirodesmus truncatus is green, slightly 
compressed, companulate, and truncated. They occur in 
pairs, having the sides spinous. Found with Euglena 
sanguinea. Size, including spines, 1 -480th. 

Genus LI. Odontella. The tooth-chained Animal¬ 
cules comprised in this small genus are unattached and 
free, having a simple univalved compressed lorica, and 
multiply by an incomplete spontaneous self-division, in 
the form of flat articulated ribbons or chains; each link 
of such chain-like bodies is composed of a single pair 

Bacillar ia.'] 



united, which are connected with the next pair by two 
processes, a small space being left between them (see 
engraving fig. 108), and hence they differ from the genus 
Desmidium. The internal coloured granular matter is 
probably ova; and the three vesicles in O. filiformis, 
stomach cells and fecundating glands. In O. unidentata, the 
glandular body is very distinct from the digestive sacs. 

187. Odontella desmidium is shewn magnified at 
fig. 108; the space between the processes of each pair is 
distinct. Found amongst conferva. Size 1-1150th to 

188. Odontella? filiformis {Tessararthra filiformis). 
The filiform Odontella.—Figure 107 exhibits a chain-like 
group magnified ; the two slender processes connecting 
each pair leave a square space between them. Size of 
single member 1-2010th. 

189. Odontella? unidentata. The one-toothed Odon¬ 
tella has oval binary corpuscles, often irregular; they are 
connected by a single tooth or process in the middle. 
Size of member l-1440th. 

Genus LII. Micrasterias. The little star Animal¬ 
cules are characterized by their members being free, by 
their having a simple compressed lorica, composed of one 
piece, and grouping themselves together in definite num¬ 
bers, in the form of a flattened star. The latter generic 
character arises from incomplete self-division when they 
are young, like Gonium. Projecting organs of locomo¬ 
tion have not been observed, though slow change of place 
has been noticed. Numerous vesicles, analogous to poly- 
gastric digestive cells, are seen in several species ; ova-like 
green granules are abundant; and Ehrenberg states he 



[ Polygastrica. 

has seen glandular bodies which periodically increase in 
size, and are analogous to the seminal glands of other 
Infusoria. The dispersion of the ova has been seen by 
Turpin and Meyen, though it was regarded by them as 
that of the fecundating matter of plants. Dr. E. appends 
the following observations to the genus :— 

“ 1. The relations of number observed in Micrasterias 
appear to form a firm character of the species (as in 
Gonium pectorale). 

Cf 2. The relations of size are not always in a ratio with 
those of number; for we find small size with a large 
number, and great size with a small number of parts. 

ci 3. Forms exhibiting equal relations of number to size 
otherwise distinguish themselves in secondary and less 
important points, as in a slender or thicker form of cell, 
long or short horns, &c. &c.; conditions varying in almost 
every individual. 

“ 4. Of the numerous forms seen by me, all were 
two-pointed, none had one-pointed bodies. (No Pedias- 
trum simplex). 

“5. Regularity of form is the character of integrity 
from irregularity; no distinct species can be formed.” 

(a). Bodies 7'ay-like, in a circle , without a central cell. 

190. Micrasterias tetras. The four-rayed Micras¬ 
terias is a star-like cluster, composed of four creatures 
connected together. (The margin is slightly emarginate.) 
Diameter of clusters 1-1150th to l-2300th. Size of single 
body 1-2300th to 1-4600th. 




( b ). Bodies placed concentrically around one or two central 

cells (*), circle simple. 

191. Micrasterias coronula. The Jive-fold Micras- 
terias has quarternary bodies placed around a fifth, and 
having the margins variously excised; rare ; found with 
oscillatoria, &c. Diameter of star 1-860th to 1-570th. 

192. Micrasterias Napoleonis. Napoleon’s Micras¬ 
terias has six bodies, placed in a single series around two, 
and having their external edges variously notched (excised) 
or horned. This animalcule receives its name from Turpin, 
on account of its similarity of appearance to the star of 
the French legion of honour. This description agrees 
with T. 11, f. 3, from which I am induced to think there 
is some mistake in Ehrenberg’s plate. Figures 117 and 
118 represent two varieties. Size 1-1150th to 1-5 70 th. 

193. Micrasterias heptactis. The seven-rayed Micras¬ 
terias (shewn at fig, 114) has seven bodies, placed in a 
simple series, with one or two in the middle. The 
margin is variously excised. The middle body is either 
round, or four or six-cornered; in the larger star-like 
clusters it is double. Size 1-1150th to 1 -570th. 

(**) Circle double. 

194. Micrasterias Boryana. Bory’s Micrasterias has 
ten bodies in the external series, five in the internal, and 
one in the centre, as shewn in fig. 115 and 116. Each 
marginal body has an indentation, so that the star-like 
cluster appears like a toothed wheel; the teeth are short 
or long, but never truncated. In some specimens the 




[ Polygastrica. 

lorica is rough. Found, with other Bacillaria, in slime 
amongst conferva and oscillatoria. Size of star 1-1150th 
to 1-210th. 

195. Micrasterias angulosa has fifteen to sixteen 
bodies, arranged in a double series around a single one. 
The edges are truncated. Found with the preceding. 
Size 1-430th to l-280th. 

196. Micrasterias rotula. The wheel-like Micras¬ 
terias varies in its mode of arrangement; it has usually 
eleven in the outer series, five in the second series, and 
one in the centre; they are often elongated and rayed, 
and the margins variously excised. Colour a superb yel¬ 
lowish-green. Diameter of star 1-800th to 1-400th. 

(***) Cirlce triple. 

197. Micrasterias tricyclia has three series of bodies; 
fifteen are in the first or external one, eight or ten in the 
second, and four or five in the third or most internal one. 
The margins are variously excised. Found amongst 
floccose conferva. Diameter of star 1 -720th to 1-210th. 

(****) Circles more than three. 

198. Micrasterias elliptica. The elongated Micras¬ 
terias has four series of bodies, usually twenty-three in the 
outer one, and two in the middle. Found with the pre¬ 
ceding. Size of star l-280th to 1-210th. 

Genus LIII. Euastrum. The star-disked Animalcules 
are distinguished by their members being free, inclosed in 
a simple compressed lorica, composed of only one piece, 
and by their adhering in pairs, which are disposed in the 




form of a two-lobed disc or table. Whether a lobe can 
be regarded, separately from its companion, as a distinct 
organism, is not determined, but by cutting or destroying 
the one the other empties itself at the same time, although 
the lorica appears detached in the middle. No openings 
have been seen in the ends, as in Micrasterias, but it is 
probable such exist in the middle, where they are con¬ 
nected. The lorica is membranous, firm, colourless, and 
combustible; it contains the crystalline and contractile 
body of the animalcule, filled with green granules. Its 
propagation by self-division is peculiar and highly interest¬ 
ing. (See fig. 123.) The middle elongates, from which 
two new ones are formed, one uniting and forming the 
companion to one of the old ones, and the other producing 
the same with the remaining old one, when the newly- 
formed individuals separate, and two pair is the result. 
From this method of self-division, specimens, having 
unequal lobes, are produced, by some accidental rupture, 
before the new ones in the middle are fully developed. 
All the species are found among conferva. 

199. Euastrum rota . The wheelEuastrum has a binary 
body, lenticular and disc-like in shape, as shewn in the 
engraving, fig. 121 and 122 ; the first being a flat, and the 
other an edge view. Figure 123 shews the mode of 
increase. The surface is smooth, the margin dentated or 
spinous, the number of teeth varies from twenty-eight to 
fifty-four ; they are either obtuse or double-pointed; at 
the centre an opening appears to exist on each side, close 
to which, internally, are very minute moveable bodies, 
as in Closterium. The portions of the binary body are 
seldom symmetrical, one being larger than its companion. 

o 2 



[ Polygastrica. 

Both change of place, and a circulating or oscillating 
motion, have been noticed. Size of disc l-280th to 

200. Euastrum apiculatum. The spinous Euastrum is 
lenticular and spinous. Size 1-140th. 

201. Euastrum crux melitensis is lenticular and smooth, 
the margin is deeply indented, giving them the form of a 
Maltese cross, as seen at fig. 124. Their locomotion is 
periodical, and very difficult to be seen; old specimens 
have as many as forty marginal teeth, young ones only 
twelve. Size l-570th to 1-1150th. 

202. Euastrum pecten. The comb-like Euastrum some - 
what resembles the next species, but is smooth, and each 
plate has five obtuse and emarginate lobes. Size 1-150th. 

203. Euastrum verrucosum is shewn at fig. 125 : the 
surface is rough and tuberculated. Ehrenberg’s observa¬ 
tions were made on green specimens, but Corda represents 
the contents of the body as brown. Size l-280th. 

204. Euastrum ansatum. The pivot-like Euastrum , 
when young, is oval, but when full-grown the pair becomes 
somewhat fusiform; the surface is smooth. Size l-430th. 

205. Euastrum margaritiferum. The pearl Euastrum 
is curiously granulated. (See fig . 126.) Spontaneous 
motion has been observed. Size l-1440th to 1 280th. 

206. Euastrum botrytis. The berry-like Euastrum is 
figured as augulosum by Ehrenberg. It resembles E. 
ansatum, but the surface is granulated. Size 1-576th. 

207. Euastrum integerrimum is a binary elliptical body, 
with the surface and margin smooth. Size l-480th to 

Genus LIV. Microtheca. The spinous-disc Animal- 

Bacillar ia.^ 



cules contain only one species; it is characterized by 
being free, and possessing a simple square compressed 
lorica, composed of one piece. In its organization it 
approaches that of Gallionella and Achnanthes. 

208. Microtheca octoceros. The eight-horned Micro¬ 
theca has a square transparent lorica, with spines, as 
shewn at Jig. 119 and 120; the first being a front, and the 
latter a side view. It is of a golden colour, variegated; 
change of place has not been observed. “ I received,” says 
Ehrenberg, “ in September, 1832, phosphorescent sea¬ 
water from the harbour of Kiel. On the 23rd of October, 
I found therein this yellow creature, which appeared very 
similar to a specimen of Anursea, which, together with 
yellow phosphorescent species of Peridinea, were living in 
the same water; but no direct evolution of light was 
observed from M. octoceros.” Size 1 -280th without the 
spines; with the spines 1-210th. 

Section II.— Naviculacea. —( Shells siliceous.) 

Genus LV. Pyxidicula. The round-box Animalcules .— 
These Infusoria possess a simple bivalved siliceous lorica, 
of a globose form, which is marked by a furrow, where 
it easily separates into hemispheres. They are never 
gregarious, or cluster together. They are in organization 
closely allied to Gallionella. The ova is of a green yel¬ 
lowish colour. 

Ehrenberg states, that in August, 1836, he found, in the 
flints of the neighbourhood of Berlin, numerous spherical 
bodies, of pretty equal size, the difference in whose 



[ Polygastrica. 

diameter varied from l-240th 1-1150th of an inch. He 
considers it very probable that they belonged to the 
siliceous Infusoria, as siliceous spiculi belonging to the 
genera Spongilla, Xanthidium, and Pendinium, were met 
with in the same situation; whether they should be placed 
in the genus Pyxidicula is doubtful, as no furrow or 
division was observed on the shell. 

209. Pyxidicula operculata. The box-like Pyxidicula 
is shewn at group 127- The lorica is transparent and 
spherical; it contains yellowish-green ova-like matter. The 
upper figure is a view at right angles to that drawn on the 
left, shewing the furrow by which it separates; and the figure 
to the right is a hemisphere thus detached ; in the lower 
figure a transparent glandular body is observable. No 
locomotion has been seen. I have found them abundant 
in autumn, among Navicula, at Hampstead. Diameter 
1-1440th to l-570th. 

210. Pyxidicula globator. The ball Pyxidicula .—I 
insert under this name the globular bodies found in the 
flints, as mentioned in the concluding remarks on the 
genus. The section of pebble containing the specimens 
from which Mr. Bauer’s drawings in plate xii., fig. 506 to 
510 were taken, was found on the Brighton beach; they 
are represented magnified 100 diameters. 

Genus LVI. Gallionella. The box-chain Animal¬ 
cules are characterized as free, and possessing a simple 
bivalved siliceous lorica, of a cylindrical, globular, or discoid 
form. In consequence of an imperfect longitudinal self- 
division, they develope themselves in the form of a chain. 
The single members have one or two oblique furrows, with 
several openings in them. The lorica, when lying on its 




face, resembles a coin. It is fragile and incombustible; 
that of G. ferruginea appears to be silicate of iron. A 
coloured and divided mass of ova (clustered like grapes) 
is seen internally, as also colourless vesicles or stomach- 
cells. Change of place has not been seen. They appear 
to me closely to resemble minute Algae, and are so con¬ 
sidered by botanists. Nearly all the species are found in 
a fossil state and living; in the former they are exquisite 
objects for the microscope, under a deep power and proper 

211. Gal lion ell a lineata. The striped Gallionella is 
cylindrical, the ends connecting them together being com¬ 
pressed, as shewn in the engraving, fig. 128, which is part 
of a chain, consisting of four individuals, highly magnified. 
The parts forming the chain are striated longitudinally ; 
the ova are either yellow or green. It is found in sea¬ 
water, and a single chain sometimes measures three inches 
in length, and is composed of from 1200 to 4000 animal¬ 
cules. Length of single individual l-1400th to 1-430th. 

212. Gallionella nummuloides. The spherical Gal¬ 
lionella resembles the preceding species, but has its ends 
convex, so that a single animalcule is almost globular. 
They are smooth, and the ova is of a yellowish-green 
colour. Size l-l700thto l-860th. 

213. Gallionella varians. The changing Gallionella 
is cylindrical, with flat ends; when separate and short 
they rest upon the ends, and appear like a coin. In this 
position, under a good power, delicate radiating striae may 
be seen, as in fig. 131*; the ova are yellow or greenish. 
They are found both fossil and recent; the former are the 
principal part of the beds of white powder used for 



[ Polygastricci. 

polishing silver-plate. Found near the Upper Bann, 
Ireland. Size 1-2200th to l-480th. 

214. Gallionella moniliformis. The beacl-like Gal- 
lionella is cylindrical, short; ends truncated cones; when 
single and viewed from the back, they appear octagonal. 
The lorica is smooth, and the ova of a greenish colour. 
Found in sea-water, and often confounded with G. lineata. 
Size l-860th. 

215. Gallionella aurichalcea. The golden Gal¬ 
lionella is cylindrical, the length full twice the diameter. 
It has either a single or two perforated rays contiguous 
at the middle; the ova are green, but when dried become 
of a golden-yellow colour. Thickness of chain 1 -2300th 
to 1 - 1720 th. 

216. Gallionella ferruginea. The rust-like Gallio¬ 
nella has a slender oval lorica, convex at both ends; 
surface smooth. They are developed in the form of 
articulated threads, often agglutinated together, as if 
branched. In many, perhaps in all, chalybeate waters, 
and also in peat water, which contains a small proportion 
of iron, this curious little animalcule is to be found; it 
is of the colour of iron-rust, and in mineral springs in 
which it abounds is often taken for precipitated oxide of 
iron. It covers every thing under water, but forms so 
delicate and floccose a mass, that the least motion dissi¬ 
pates it. In the spring of the year, this mass is composed 
of very delicate pale yellow globules, which can be easily 
separated from each other. In their native abode they 
hang together in rows, like short chains, and produce an 
irregular gelatinous felt or floccose substance. About 
summer, or in autumn, they become developed into more 

Bacillaria .] 



evidently articulated and stiff threads, of a somewhat 
larger diameter, but still form a complicated mass or 
web, and either from adhering to each other, or to deli¬ 
cate conferva, appear branched. In the young condition, 
when examined under shallow magnifiers, they resemble 
gelatine ; but with a power of 300 diameters, the flexible 
granules are discoverable, and with dexterous manage¬ 
ment, the little chains forming the felt or floccose web can 
be made out. In summer, on the other hand, its struc¬ 
ture can be observed much more easily and distinctly. 
Early in spring, the colour is that of a pale yellow ochre; 
but in summer, it is of an intense rusty red. Plate ii., 
figures 129 and 130 exhibit chains of these creatures 
differently magnified. Found both recent and fossil. 
Diameter 1-12000th. 

217. Gallionella distans. The divided Gallionella 
has short cylindrical corpuscles, plane and truncated at 
both sides. Two perforated striae, or furrows, are pre¬ 
sent, which are distant from each other. Found both 
living and fossil. Size of corpuscle l-3456th. 

218. Gallionella sulcata. The obliquely'striped 
Gallionella has short cylindrical corpuscles, which are 
externally transversely sulcated, giving rise to a cellular 
appearance. See group 131, plate iii. Found only in a 
fossil state. Size 1-1150th to l-860th. 

Genus LVII. Actinocyclus. The rayed-box Animal¬ 
cules are free, possess a simple bivalved siliceous lorica, 
have a cylind rical form, and their interior divided by 
numerous ray-like divisions. The self-division is imper¬ 
fect, and they are developed in the form of chains. The 
genus contains two species, which are only met with 



[ Polygastrica. 

fossil. It is remarkable that of the whole of the fossil 
Infusoria, this genus is the only one which does not pre¬ 
sent living representatives. On reflection, we at once 
perceive that the central furrow of the sphere of Gal- 
lion ella, which is pierced with holes, leads to an interior, 
having a rayed structure, which here shews distinct walls 
of separation for each hole or opening. The structure 
of the single, flat, dish-like body, is minutely cellular, 
and differs in this respect from Gallionella, though an 
approach may be seen in G. sulcata. 

219. Actinocyclus senarius. The six-celled Actino- 
cyclus has a cellular lorica, which is discoid in shape, and 
has six internal partitions. “ The schistus of Oran,” says 
Ehrenberg, “ contains great quantities of little flat dishes 
of siliceous matter, which are very thin and (cellular) 
in structure; some are of greater size, and have larger 
cells than the others; it is doubtful whether these are or 
are not single bodies, each perfect in itself. If they are, 
the genus Arcella is their proper station. If two are seen 
connected together, so as to form a flat disc-like hollow 
box, the genus Gallionella is their situation, as G. sulcata 
presents the same structure. Along with these disc-like 
little plates others are seen, which are smaller in size, and 
whose mesh-like texture forms less regular spires, but in 
which, when under water, six walls or partitions, radiating 
from the centre, are seen, dividing the interior into six 
distinct chambers. The bodies evincing such formations 
are Actinocycli.” Group 132 represents different views of 
them. Diameter 1-1150th to l- 720 th. 

220. Actinocyclus octonarius. The eight-celled Acti¬ 
nocyclus has a cellulose loricu, discoid in shape, and pro- 

Bacillaria .] 



vided with eight internal partitions. Found fossil with the 
preceding; not so common. Size 1-576th. 

Genus LVIII. Navicula. The little ship Animalcules 
derived their generic name from the resemblance in form 
of the many species to a weaver’s shuttle: the English 
name here given is from the German. It comprehends 
those members of the family Bacillaria who are unattached 
by a pedicle (free), and have a simple bivalved or multi- 
valved siliceous lorica. They occur single, or in pairs, 
but are never united in the form of a chain. The lorica 
of the Navicula is a closed, mostly four-sided, hard, 
and glass-like little case (testula bivalvis ), which, in dry¬ 
ing, often separates; when lightly pressed, it breaks or 
divides either into two or four longitudinal parts; some¬ 
times the angles are provided with a short rib, distinctly 
furrowed, the lorica then separates into four equal parts; 
but in some cases the two rows of ribs are not visible, the 
two halves of the lorica being obliquely furrowed ; it then 
separates into two parts. By heating the body upon 
platina-leaf, the animal is consumed, and the siliceous 
lorica left clear and free. The gelatinous and diaphanous 
body of these animalcules occupies the whole of the 
interior of the lorica, and has, near the centre, a sharply 
circumscribed colourless bright spot. In N. fulva, an 
organ of locomotion has been seen by Ehrenberg, which 
he describes as a fleshy, undivided, sole-like foot, proceed¬ 
ing from the central opening, and similar in appearance 
to the locomotive organ of snails. The side of the body 
where this foot-like process emanates is called the ventral 
surface of the animalcule. This foot not only answers the 
purpose of allowing it to creep, but the animalcule, when 
at rest, can draw objects to it, and push things away by it. 



[ Polygastrica. 

Whether the two openings on the ventral surface are 
mouths, and the two on the back apertures for respiration, 
is undecided; but the opening on the back, opposite the 
central ventral opening, is supposed by Ehrenberg a 
sexual one. No direct demonstration of the nutritive 
apparatus has yet been effected by using coloured food, 
though numerous scattered and colourless vesicles are to 
be seen within the bodies of several species, which indi¬ 
cate polygastric structure ; but what Corda took for an 
alimentary canal (in Pharyngo glossa) was merely the 
dark central longitudinal furrow of the lorica. This genus 
is more complex in its structure than the two preceding; 
even the majority of botanists consider these beings as 
animals. The green, yellow, and brown colouring matter 
in their interior are supposed to be ova. It is in the 
form of broad plates or fillets, from two to four (8 ?) 
jointed together in the middle, occupy the interior of each 
lorica. These plates take the exact form of the interior 
of the shell, filling the cavities of the flutings, furrows, or 
striae. In many species, two or four round vesicles are 
seen, which, although they are not changeable in form, or 
contractile, yet are sometimes present and sometimes 
absent, and are probably analogous to small seminal 
glands. Many Navicula multiply by spontaneous self¬ 
division, in which case it is invariably longitudinal and 
dorsal, or lateral; the division taking place beneath the 
hard epidermis, as in Gallionella and Achnanthes, and the 
lorica separating afterwards. It is seldom in this genus 
that a second self-division commences before the first is 
complete and separates; indeed, species, whose indivi¬ 
duals separate into four, should be placed in Fragilaria. 

Fourteen of the living forms of Navicula have been 

Bacillaria .] 



found in the fossil condition ; and ten fossil species have 
no living representative. They are found only in the 
most recently-formed strata and tertiary formations ; 
none have been found in the chalk. 

(a). Lorica smooth within—ribless Naviculce. 

221. Navicula Phoenicenteron ( Cymbella , Agardh ,)— 
The reddish Navicula has a smooth siliceous lorica, of an 
elongated lanceolate form, as shewn in the engraving, 
plate iii., group 139 ; longitudinal striae are rare. The 
central opening is oblong, its greatest diameter being 

< transverse. It is very motile. Found in ponds at Hamp¬ 
stead; and fossil at Santa Fiora, in Tuscany. Length 
1-400th to 1-140th. 

222. Navicula gracilis (Vibrio tripunct, M.) The 
slender Navicula is smooth; the central opening round, 
and the ends truncated. It occurs abundantly with oscil- 
latoria, and is found fossil at Cassel, &c. Length 1-1500th 
to l-560th. 

223. Navicula ? pellucida. The furrowed Navicula has 
a slender lorica, as shewn at fig. 140, which represents a 
group of them ; and above is an outline section, taken 
across the middle, to show the position of the central 
furrow in each side; moveable. Found with the pre¬ 
ceding. Length 1-300th to 1-140th. 

224. Navicula acus. The needle-shaped Navicula , 
shewn at group 147, is smooth, straight, and pointed at 
both ends. The ova grains are in the middle, and of a 
yellow brown colour. This species resembles Closterium 
setaceum, and some of the Fragilaria or Synedra, when 
separated. Length 1 -430th to 1-280th. 

206 DESCRIPTION OF [ Polygcistrica . 

225. Navicula umbonata. The knot-bearing Navicula 
is straight and smooth; the side is constricted near the 
middle, and hence the ends appear enlarged, from which 
it derives its specific name. Found both in salt and fresh 
water; also fossil. Length l-430th to l-240th. 

226 . Navicula fulva. The yellow Navicula has a 
smooth, broad, lanceolate lorica; near the ends, the shell 
is slightly produced in the form of a rostrum. The ova 
are yellowish, brown, or green; the medial aperture 
round. Found with oscillatoria in turbid water; also 
young specimens, fossil, in Bohemia. Length 1-1150th to 

227. Navicula amphisbaena has a smooth lorica of the 
form shewn at group 141; the right hand figure is a side view. 
The central opening is round, and the ova are of a golden- 
yellow colour. Ehrenberg remarks, that the vibratile 
process seen by Bory St. Vincent was in fact the locomo¬ 
tive organ, the action of which is readily seen, though it 
protrudes but a very little beyond the lorica. In the 
specimens figured, transverse self-division of the ova has 
commenced, and two small gland-like spots are visible. 
Length l-l700th to 1-240th. 

228. Navicula platistoma. The broad-mouthed Navi¬ 
cula has a smooth lorica of the form shewn at fig. 142. 
The central opening is lengthened transversely. Found 
with oscillatoria. Length 1-1100th to l-240th. 

229. Navicula nodosa. The nodose Navicula is 
smooth, has a linear lorica, with three lateral undulations, 
or knots, at the middle, and the extremities constricted 
into the form of an obtuse beak, as seen at fig. 143 ; cen¬ 
tral opening round. Length 1-430th. 

Bacillar ia.~\ 



230. Navicula trochus. The fly-wheel Navicula is 
smooth; the lorica is enlarged at the centre and con¬ 
stricted at the ends. The central opening is round, and 
the lorica has several longitudinal striae. Found fossil, 
in Sweden. Length 1-860th. 

231. Navicula follis. The tube-like Navicula is 
smooth, and has a short depressed lorica, swelled at the 
middle, but no longitudinal striae. Found fossil, at Santa 
Fiora, in Tuscany. Size 1-2300th. 

232. Navicula? trinodis. The three-bellied Navicula 
is smooth, has a linear elongated lorica, having a slight 
turgidity at the middle of one side. Found fossil, at 
Degernfors, in Sweden, &c. Size l-860th to 1-480th. 

233. Navicula cari. The carus Navicula is smooth, 
and has a slender lanceolate lorica, acute at all sides. 
Found fossil, at Cassel. Size 1-1150th. 

234. Navicula ? quadricostata. The four-ribbed Navi¬ 
cula has a slender ovato-oblong lorica, with four longitu¬ 
dinal striae or ribs, and is truncated at both ends. Found 
in mineral water, at Carlsbad. Size 1 - 1 720th to l-860th. 

235. Navicula Baltica. The Baltic Navicula is smooth, 
and has a sigmoid-shaped lorica, straight and linear at the 
middle, and obtuse at the ends, as shewn at fig. 144. 
The interior is of a’yellow golden colour, and the central 
opening appears small and round; no motion has been 
seen. Found in phosphorescent sea-water. Length l-70th. 

236. Navicula hippocampus. The little sea-horse 
Navicula is smooth; lorica sigmoid, lanceolate. (See 
group 145.) Sometimes it has delicate longitudinal striae. 
Found in fresh and salt water. Size l-90th to l-70th. 

237* Navicula sigma is smooth, has a lanceolate sig- 



[ Polygastrica. 

moid-shaped lorica, devoid of striae; when viewed edge¬ 
ways, it is straight. (See group 146). It often contains 
motile granules. The ova are of a golden-yellow ; colour¬ 
less digestive cells are often visible. Found in fresh and 
salt water. Size 1-210th to 1-140th. 

238. Navicula scalpum. The knife Navicula resembles 
the preceding, but smaller. Found in sea-water ; and 
fossil in the Schistus of Berlin. Length l-430th to 1-290th. 

239. Navicula curvula. The crooked Navicula is 
moveable, and has a narrow linear sublanceolate sigmoid 
lorica, devoid of longitudinal striae or rays. Found 
amongst oscillatoria. Size 1-430th. 

240. Navicula arcus. The bow Navicula has a narrow, 
linear, curved, and smooth lorica, indexed and umbilicated 
at the centre. Found in mineral water. Length 1-6000th 
to 1-5 70 th. 

( b). Transversely striated—internally ribbed Naviculce. 


241. Navicula sigmoidea is striated. Group 148 shews 
to the left a specimen undergoing longitudinal self-division, 
and the figure on the right is a side view. The relation of 
the length to the number of stripes is as follows:—Those 
individuals which were 1 - 720 tli long had ten stripes; 
1-570th, fourteen; l-480th, fifteen; l-360th, twenty; 
l-280th, twenty-seven; 1-I40th, fifty-four; l-120th, 
sixty; 1 -70th, one hundred and eight; l-48th, one 
hundred and sixty; l-36th, two hundred and sixteen. 

242. Navicula viridis. The green Navicula is striated ; 
has a straight lorica, truncated at the ends. Fig. 133 and 
134 exhibit views of the shells empty, as found fossil; 

Bacillar iii. ] 



fig. 135 and 136, recent species, the arrows indicating the 
direction of the current produced. This species has fifteen 
striae ( cellules ) internally, in every hundredth part of a 
line of its length. In the interior, numerous changeable 
vesicles are seen, connected together by means of an 
irritable gelatinous matter, which is as clear as crystal, and 
from whose motion these stomach-cells often appear to 
tremble. Ehrenberg has noticed moveable dark spots 
near the extremity of some specimens, similar to what is 
seen in Closterium, &c. The progress of longitudinal self¬ 
division may often be observed beneath the siliceous lorica. 
The six openings of the lorica are easily seen, three being 
upon the upper surface and three on the lower. The 
lorica near the central opening being depressed, the 
aperture appears eccentric, in respect to the medial line. 
Found at Hampstead, and fossil in Bohemia, Sweden, &c. 
Length 1-1150th to l-70th. 

243. Navicula mcicilenta is striated, has a straight 
slender lorica, truncated on one side, and rounded on the 
other. Twenty-three transverse striae are seen in 1 - 100th 
of a line. Found fossil. Size l-140th. 

244. Navicula viridula. The greenish Navicula has a 
straight lanceolate lorica, slender and truncated at one 
side, and attenuated and obtuse on the other. Thirteen 
or fifteen striae are seen in l-100thof aline. Found living 
and fossil. Size 1-3000th to 1-280th. 

245. Navicula inequalis. The unequal Navicula is 
striated and unequally convex. (See group 154.) The 
clusters of ova are of a yellowish colour. In 1-100th of 
a line are ten or eleven striae. This species forms the 
passage to the genus Eunotia. Found, living, at Til- 



[ Polygastrica. 

bury Fort; fossil at Santa Fiora. Length 1-430th to 

246. Navicula gibba. The gibbous Navicula is striated, 
has a straight lorica, swelled at the middle, and gibbous. 
Nine striae in l-100th of a line. Found, living, in brackish 
water, at Gravesend, and fossil in the Isle of France. 
Length 1-430th to 1-120th. 

247. Navicula (?) crux. The cross-like Navicula is 
striated, has a short lorica, swelled very much laterally at 
the middle, so as to appear like a cross. Seventeen striae 
in 1-100th of a line. Rare: found only fossil. Length 

248. Navicula (?) ylans. The acorn-like Navicula is 
striated, has a short lorica, swelled at the centre in the 
form of an acorn. Two or three striae in 1-100th of aline. 
Found only fossil. Length 1-1150th to l-576th. 

249. Navicula capitata. The knobbed Navicula is 
striated, has a short ovato-lanceolate lorica, extremities 
constricted and obtuse. Ten transverse striae in l-100th 
of a line. Length 1-1150th to l-576th. 

250. Navicula dicepliala. The double-headed Navicula 
is striated, has a bright lorica, constricted and obtuse at 
both ends. Nineteen transverse striae in l-100th of a line. 
Found fossil at Degernfort, in Sweden. Length l-860th 
to 1-480th. 

251. Navicula lanceolata. The lancet-shaped Navicula 
is striated, has a lanceolate elongated lorica, gradually be¬ 
coming acute at the ends. Thirteen transverse striae in 
l-100th of a line. Length 1-1150th to l-280th. 

252. Navicula (?) librile . The balance Navicula is 
striated, has an elongated lorica, undulated at the sides, 

Bacillaria. ] 



the middle slightly constricted, and extremities sub-acute. 
(See group 155.) Eight transverse striae in 1-100th of a 
line. Found, living, at Gravesend, and fossil at Santa 
Fiora. Length l-860th to 1- 100th. 

253. Navicula (?) splendida. The golden Navicula .— 
This beautiful and scarce species is striated, and has an 
ovato-oblong lorica, as shewn in 150, 151, and 152; 
the first is an oblique view the second a side view, and 
the third a front (end) view of a dead specimen. Two 
transverse striae in l-100th of a line. “ In June, 1837/’ 
observes Ehrenberg, “ was the last time I saw this species. 
The specimens resembled Turpin’s Surirella striatella, 
found in the sea at Havre, but were, nevertheless, dis¬ 
tinguishable by their form and stripes. I saw them move 
very often. The plates of the ova clusters are toothed, 
and of a golden yellow colour/’ Length 1-210th to 

254. Navicula (?) bifrons. The two-beaked Navicula 
is striated, resembles the preceding, but both ends of the 
lateral surface are acute, and the ventral truncated. Three- 
and-half striae in l-100th of a line. Found amongst oscil- 
latoria, and fossil in the Isle of France. Length l-210t,h 
to 1-100th. 

255. Navicula (?) striatula. The striated Navicula is 
striated, and has an oval lorica, which is taper on its lateral 
surface, and elliptical, or cuneiform, on its ventral one, as 
seen in fig. 137 and 138. Thirteen striae in 1-lOOth of a 
line. This little creature was discovered by Dr. Suriray 
in August, 1826, and preserved alive for eighteen months. 
The body is very transparent and colourless, and the 
movement, which is slow, is only observed in those forms 

p 2 



[ Polygaslrica. 

which are stretched out, by the clusters of ova within 
them. Found at Havre, alive, and fossil in Bohemia. 
Length 1-3450th to l-60th. 

256. Navicula (?) undulata. The wave Navicula is 
striated, its lorica is elliptical on the lateral surface, linear 
and truncated on the belly, each surface having four 
flexures, as shewn in the oblique view, fig. 149. Found 
amongst oscillatoria. Length 1-210th. 

257. Navicula constricta. The constricted Navicula 
is striated, has an oblong lorica, slightly constricted at the 
middle of the ventral surface. The extremities are ob¬ 
tusely truncated. Three to four striae in 1-100th of a line. 
Found with N. splendida. Length l-210th. 

258. Navicula (?) amphora. The tun-like Navicula is 
striated, has an ovate unequal lorica, swelled at one side, 
and plane on the other. (See fig. 153.) There are nine 
delicate transverse striae in 1-100th of a line. This 
species is easily confounded with Cocconema cistula, when 
the latter is without a stalk; but the Nav. amphora is so 
delicately striated that Ehrenberg considered it for some 
time smooth, whilst Coc. cistula is very distinctly striated. 
Length 1-160th to 1-120th. 

259. Navicula lineolata. The lined Navicula resem¬ 
bles the preceding, but its delicate striae are longitudinal. 
It is compressed on the ventral surface, and convex on the 
back. Size 1-280th to 1-140th. 

Genus LIX. Eunotia. The beautiful little ship Ani¬ 
malcules are free (unattached by a pedicle), inclosed in a 
siliceous lorica, of the form of a prism, composed of one, 
two, or more pieces or valves. The lower or ventral side 
is flat, the other or dorsal side is convex, and often den- 




tated ; one of them has four openings, two at each end. 
Their mode of propagation is simple and complete; hence 
they never occur in chain-like clusters, but are always 
single or in pairs. Thirteen species are known—three 
living forms, and ten fossil. The first are closely allied 
to the genus Navicula, but they have no central opening, 
and from the peculiar shape of the lorica, like the Coccus, 
they can crawl about Algae, and indeed are parasitical 
upon them. 

260. Eunotia turgida. The swollen Ennotia has a 
semi-lanceolate lorica, truncated at the ends, and striated ; 
these striae are so close together that eight are contained 
in the space of the 1-100th part of a line. A longitudinal 
farrow runs along the middle of each side; these are 
care ely visible in living specimens, owing to the colour of 
the body. In group 157> three of them are shewn crawling 
upon a piece of Conferva rivularis. Fig. 158 is a speci¬ 
men undergoing longitudinal self-division, as seen under a 
magnifying power of 600 times. Fig. 160 is the lower or 
ventral valve of the lorica separated, and shewing the 
openings at the ends and striae; and fig. 159 a side view 
of it. Fig. 161 is an end view. Found upon vaucheria 
and conferva. Length 1-1150th to 1 -240th. 

261. Eunotia Westermanni. Westermann’s Eunotia is 
striated, and has a semi-lanceolate oval lorica, with ten 
striae in each 1-100th of a line. It is of a rich ochre 
colour. In group 157 those figures marked with a cross 
represent this species on a piece of conferva. Found 
with the preceding. Length 1-1150th to l-480th. 

262. Eunotia zebra. The zebra Eunotia is striated, 
and of a semi-lanceolate oblong form, with five transverse 



[ Polygastrica. 

striae in 1-100th of a line. In the living state the striae 
are seen with difficulty, but easily when the lorica is 
empty. Found, living, among oscillatoria ; fossil at Santa 
Fiora. Length 1-1840th to l-570th. 

263. Eunotia granulata. The granulated Eunoiia has 
only been observed in a fossil state; it is striated, and has 
a semi-lanceolate elongated lorica, granulated upon the 
surface, as seen at fig. 165. Striae five in 1-100th of a 
line. (Franzensbad.) Length l-240th to l-140th. 

264. Eunotia faha. The beam-like Eunotia is striated, 
and has a semi-oval-shaped lorica, of the form of a beam. 
Nine striae in 1-100th of a line. Found fossil in Sweden. 
Length 1-1150th to l-570th. 

265. Eunotia arcus. The bow-shaped Eunotia is 
striated, and has its lorica constricted, near the ends, in 
the form of a bow. Eleven striae in 1-100th of a line. 
Found fossil in Sweden. Length 1-480th to 1-280th. 

266. Eunotia diodon. The bidentated Eunotia is 
striated, plane on the ventral side, and obtusely biden- 
tated at the middle of the back. Found fossil in Sweden, 
&c. Length l-570th. 

This species and the five following closely resemble 
each other, the only difference being in the number of 
undulations or dentations on the dorsal surface, and the 
name is derived from the prominences or dentations thus 
produced; they are all fossil. Group 164 represents a 
side and under view of E. triodon. 

267- Eunotia triodon, three dentations. Length l-570th. 

268. Eunotia tetraodonfi our dentations. Length l-570th, 

Bacillar ia.] 



269. EuNOTiAjtfew/odoft, five dentations. Length l-570th. 
Fossil^ at Bergmehl. 

270. Eunotia diadema , six dentations. Length l-238th. 

271. Eunotia serra, twelve or thirteen dentations. 
Length 1-280th. (Sweden.) 

Genus LX. Cocconeis. — The shield little ship Animal¬ 
cules. —These Bacillaria are free, their siliceous lorica is 
bivalve and prismatical, or somewhat hemispherical in 
shape, with two apertures, one in the middle of each 
piece. They are never developed in the form of a chain, 
and their propagation by self-division, or gemmules, is 
doubtful. They never cluster, and are mostly striated; 
the transverse striae appear to be internal flutings like 
ribs. The lorica is composed of two lateral pieces, joined 
together at a central furrow, somewhat resembling the keel 
of a boat, the under surface being flat, the upper some¬ 
what arched. A foot-like process has been seen projecting 
out of the central opening, on the under surface. The 
internal matter, or ova, is green or yellow, and often 
appears to be formed in two plate-like masses. Though 
the actual motion has not been observed, change of place 
appears to ensue. 

272. Cocconeis scutellum The shield Cocconeis has a 
convex elliptical lorica, externally granulated, with trans¬ 
verse striae internally. They are found upon the sea-weed 
Ceramium diaphanum, a portion of which, with their 
Infusoria, is shewn at group 162, and a single specimen 
at fig, 163. Fossil in the Schist (Polirschiefer) of Cassel. 
Length 1-1150th to 1-240th. 

273. Cocconeis undulata . The wave Cocconeis has the 



[ Polygastrica. 

same locality as the preceding, and only differs from it in 
the markings of its lorica, which are very delicate concen¬ 
tric undulating lines. Length l-432nd. 

274. Cocconeis placentula. The cake Cocconeis has a 
smooth elliptical flat lorica, with an abrupt margin. Found 
upon vaucheria and lemna. Length 1-1440th. 

275. Cocconeis pediculus. The parasitical Cocconeis 
infests the Navicula; it has an oval, convex, and smooth 
lorica. Length 1-2200th. 

276. Cocconeis (?) finnica has an oval lorica, slightly 
convex, and smooth externally; internally it is striated. 
Found fossil in Finland. Length 1 -570th. 

27 7 -Cocconeis (?) clypeus. The round Cocconeis is 
slightly curved, externally it is smooth, but striated within. 
Found fossil, in siliceous paste (Kiesselguhr) in Franzensbad 
and Bohemia. Original drawings of this elegant fossil 
Infusoria are shewn in plate xii., fig. 516 to 518. It has 
recently been placed in a new genus, under the name 
Campilodiscus. Diameter of disc l-430th to l-240th. 

Genus LXI. Bacillaria. The zig-zag or true stick 
Animalcules are unattached to a pedicle, have a simple 
bivalved or multivalved siliceous lorica, in the form of 
a many-sided prism. In consequence of the perfect self¬ 
division of the lorica, but incomplete separation of the 
body, they form gaping or zig-zag chains, as shewn in 
fig. 166 to 170 ; even when thus connected together they 
are motile. “ The organs of locomotion,” says Ehrenberg, 

are soft peg-like processes, projecting from a longitudinal 
cleft. In B. tabellaris, transparent polygastric vesicles 
have been seen. Two openings are visible at the end 
of the lorica; hitherto the nutritive organs have not been 




demonstrated by artificial means. At one time it was 
supposed these animalcules had no mouth, but were 
nourished by absorption. The self-division is always 
longitudinal and dorsal, so that the surfaces which hano- 
together are those of the sides. A small deflection 
and locomotion of the chains is observable in the first 
water species, but is more remarkable in the marine 
varieties of B. paradoxa, which, when separated, move 
quickly, like Navicula. The name Bacillaria was first given 
to them by G. Malin, and from botanists take the names 
of Diatoma, Conferva, and Oscillatoria. They form part 
of the genus Vibrio of Muller.’ 5 

278. Bacillaria paradoxa {Vibrio paxillifer, M.) The 
paradoxical Bacillaria has a straight slender striated lorica, 
often fifteen times longer than it is broad. Nine striae 
occur in every 1- 100th of a line. They are of a yellow- 
ochre colour, and their locomotion is distinct. In con¬ 
sequence of incomplete self-division they adhere side by 
side, and the band-like clusters thus formed are either 
straight, wavy, or zig-zag, according as they slide one 
upon another. In the engraving, group 167 is a polypi-like 
cluster, and fig. 166 a front and side view of a single speci¬ 
men. Found upon sea-weed. Length 1-1150th to l-240th. 

279. Bacillaria vulgaris. The common Bacillaria , or 
the Diatoma floccidosum of botanists, has a straight lorica, 
three or four times longer than it is broad. It has thirteen 
transverse striae in every 1-100th of a line of its length. 
Fig. 168 is the dorsal view of part of a group of four 
specimens; viewed sideways, they resemble a spindle. 
Found both in fresh and salt water: in the Rhone, it 
covers over Conferva glomerata, in the form of a thick 



[ Polygastrica . 

felt. It is found in a fossil state in the Isle of France 
and Bilen. Length of single specimens 1-570th to 

280. Bacillaria pectanalis. The comb-like Bacillaria, or 
the Dicitoma tenue of Agardh’s' Algae, has a striated slender 
lorica, very often three to six times longer than it is broad; 
it is of a brownish-yellow colour. Nine striae in l-100th of 
a line. Found both in fresh and sea waters. Length of 
single rods 1-3240th to 1-430th. 

281. Bacillaria elongata. The elongated Bacillaria 
has a slender striated lorica, slightly attenuated in the 
middle, as seen in group 169. Twelve transverse striae in 
l-100th of a line. Length of single specimen 1-1150th to 

282. Bacillaria cuneata. The wedge-like Bacillaria 
is striated, and of the form shewn in the engraving, 
fig. 170. Found in fresh water. Length l-1150th to 

283. Bacillaria Cleopatrae. Cleopatra’s BacHlariahas 
an oblong lorica, destitute of striae. This species is of a 
golden-yellow colour, and was found by Ehrenberg near 
the ruins of the Baths of Cleopatra. Length l-570th to 

284. Bacillaria (?) tabellaris. Hie tablet Bacillaria has 
a narrow smooth lorica, slightly enlarged at the middle; 
when adhering together they form square plates of variable 
lengths; ova yellowish, and divided. Found upon Con¬ 
ferva glomerata. Length of single rod l-ll50th to l-960th. 

285. Bacillaria flocculosa . The floccose Bacillaria has 
a smooth lorica, almost square, and not enlarged at the 
middle. Length 1-1140th. 

Bacillar ia.] 



286. Bacillaria seriata. The spotted Bacillaria has a 
slender straight lorica, eight or nine times longer than it 
is broad ; the ova grains are divided into four or five 
masses. Found amongst conferva. Length 1-360th. 

287. Bacillaria Ptolemaei. Ptolemy’s Bacillaria is 
very small and smooth (?) length, twice or thrice its 
breadth. Colour pale. Found in Alexandria. Length 

Genus LXII. Tessella. The flat-chain Animalcules are 
free, for though often entangled together, they are never 
attached; they are covered with a simple bivalved or mul- 
tivalved siliceous lorica, prismatic in shape, and (dilated 
and compressed) into the form of a table. In consequence 
of perfect self-division of the lorica, and imperfect division 
of the body, they are developed in the form of gaping 
chains or zig-zag polypi clusters. The articulations are 
mobile, and in the form of a plate (not wand or rod-shaped). 
In organization they stand between Achnanthes and 
Bacillaria. No opening in the lorica has been distinctly 
seen ; longitudinal clefts are present, and essentially 
characterize this genus. The ova cluster has numerous 
lappets, and looks like a great number of roundish 
yellowish-green coloured spots, which are not the ova 
themselves, but the structure containing them. 

288. Tessella catena. The striated Tessella has a 
plate-like lorica, often broader than it is long; it has from 
four to twenty-four longitudinal series of transverse striae. 
(See fig . 180, 181, and 182.) Found amongst Ceramia 
and other sea-weeds. Length of table (that is, breadth of 
the bands) l~570th to l-240th. 

289. Tessella arevata. The smooth Tessella is nearly 



[ Polygastrica. 

square, and marked with continuous longitudinal lines, but 
not with transverse striae. Found upon Ceramium rubrum. 
Length 1-430th. 

290. Tessella interrupta is nearly square, with the 
longitudinal lines interrupted in the middle; striae none. 
Length of table 1-570th. 

Genus LXIII. Fragilaria. The fragile little wand 
Animalcules comprehend free Infusoria, inclosed in a 
simple bivalved or multivalved siliceous lorica, prismatic 
in form, resembling Navicula. Self-division, both of lorica 
and body, incomplete ; hence they are in the form of band¬ 
like chains, and are very fragile. In most species each end 
of the lorica has two openings ; these are in the same 
plane, so that the surfaces upon which the chain rests 
may be considered lateral, and the self-division will then 
be dorsal. The whole chain sometimes rises in the water 
and turns itself round, while simple specimens have a 
progressive movement. In F. grandis, turgidula, scalaris, 
diopthalma, and pectinalis, polygastric stomach-cells are 
seen. The ova clusters are green or yellowish, when 
young, but reddish-brown when old. The most evident 
manner of propagation is dorsal self-division. In many 
species the creature continues to grow both during and 
after self-division, but in F. striatula increase of size ceases 
after division. 

291. Fragilaria grandis. The great Fragilaria is 

striated, lanceolate in form, the ends obtuse laterally. 


As many as thirty often cluster in a single band. Fig. 171 
is a band of seven; in four of them the ova protrudes, 
a portion of the lorica being cut off. In 1-100th of a line 
there are eleven striae. Found in fresh water. Bands 




consist of two to thirty wands. Length of single wands, 
or rods, l-570th to 1-120th. 

292. Fragilaria rhabdosoma (Vibrio tripentatus, M.) 
The common Fragilaria is smooth, slender, and from five to 
twenty times longer than it is broad. The extremities of 
the lateral surface are needle-shaped. In some chains, the 
specimens are united together firmly; in others, the bands 
easily drop to pieces ; the portions afterwards creep in a 
live manner. They may easily be mistaken for Synedra 
and Navicula ; but the number and position of the open¬ 
ings are the distinguishing marks. Group 174 are sepa¬ 
rate specimens, and j^. 173 a band of them. Found, living, 
in fresh water, and fossil in the Polirschiefer of Cassel. 
Length l-570th to l-200th. 

293. Fragilaria turgulula. The broad Fragilaria is 
striated, and from two to three times longer than it is 
broad, as seen in group 172. In l-100th of a line, there 
are nine striae. Length 1-I720th to l-570th. 

294. Fragilaria multipunctata. The punctated Fragi¬ 
laria is smooth, has slender corpuscles, and is eight to 
sixteen times longer than broad; ova of a yellow golden 
colour, and multipartite. Found amongst conferva. 
Length l-570th to 1-280th. 

295. Fragilaria bipunctata is probably synonymous 
with rhabdosoma ; it is smooth, and four to five times 
longer than it is broad. The ova are of a golden-yellow 
colour, and contracted into the form of two rounded 
spots. Found near Mount Sinai. Length l-1200th to 

296. Fragilaria angusta. The narrow Fragilaria is 
smooth, and five to six times longer than broad; ova of 


[ Polygastrica. 


W md W 

a fallow or greenish hue. Breadth of band 1-480th to 
1-5 70 th. 

297. Fragilaria scalaris. The laclder-like Fragilaria 
is smooth, and seven to eight times longer than broad; 
ova of a fallow hue. Breadth of band 1-860th to l-570th. 

298. Fragilaria diopthalma. The two-eyed Fragilaria 
is smooth, and three or four times longer than broad ; 
ova of a yellow golden colour, disposed in two portions. 
Length 1-960th to 1-1150th. 

299. Fragilaria pectinalis. The comb-like Fragilaria 
is striated, and two to four times longer than broad. This 
species is swelled and lanceolate upon the lateral surface, 
and has eight striae in 1-100th of a line; ova of a yellow 
hue. In the living state, the striae are very indistinct. 
Group 176 exhibits a band of five specimens, with indica¬ 
tions of stomach-cells, and the side view of a single one. 
Found both recent and fossil; the latter in the Isle of 
France, and in Bergmehl, in Sweden. Length l-2200th 
to 1-43 Oth. 

Genus LXIV. Meridion. The fan little wand Animal¬ 
cules. —The characters of this small genus differ from 
the preceding only in the mode of aggregating during self¬ 
division, which is in the form of a volute or spiral, occa¬ 
sioned by one end being broader than the other. In 
organization, they are closely allied to Navicula, except 
that they have two openings at the broad end only. 
Ehrenberg says the ova cluster is four-leaved, and nume¬ 
rous stomach-cells are seen ; single wands of both these 
species are difficult to distinguish from species of Gompho- 
nema; but the latter, it should be remembered, have a 
middle opening, as well as two anteriorly. 

Bacillar ia .] 



.w w«_J 

300. Meridion verna/e (Enchinella , Greville). Jfte 
spring Meridion has a striated wedged-shaped lorica, 
truncated and dentated at the anterior extremity. Fig. 177 
is a spiral cluster; these sometimes appear circular. Fig. 178 
is a cluster separating, in which some are seen from the 
side. Length of single specimen, or wand, 1-1150th to 
1 -240th. 

301. Meridion? p andur if or me (Eorilaria, Berlin Trans.) 
The fiddle-like Meridion has a sinuous, wedge-shaped 
lorica, of the form of a violin. Length l-430th. 

Section III.— Attached. — Echinellea. 

Genus LXV. Istiimia. —The Infusoria belonging to 
this genus are attached by one of their extremities to 
sea-weed, &c.; they are developed in the form of a chain, 
have a simple siliceous lorica, broader than it is long, 
articulated to each other by a short neck-like process— 
hence their name, Isthmia : this part is sometimes called 
the foot, and near which a single opening in the lorica 
is observable; the lorica is not destroyed by heat or 
acids. In the interior is a floccose substance, analogous 
to ova. Self-division ensues along the short axis of the 
body: hence it is properly longitudinal, though it appears 

302. Isthmia obliquata (Fiatoma obliquetum , Lyngbye). 
The ribbed Isthmia is nearly square, with cellular, middle, 
and transverse striated ends. Found in sea Algae. Size 
of single animalcule l-90th. 

303. Isthmia enervis. The smooth Isthmia resembles 



[ Polygastriea. 

in form the preceding, but it is elongated. Its trapezoid 
form and reticulation, in place of striae, are seen in 
plate iv., fig. 183; they are represented attached to sea¬ 
weed (Callithaminum), to which they mostly attach them¬ 
selves. As opaque objects, they exhibit great beauty 
under the microscope; the different portions, which appear 
like reticulations, are in this way shewn in relief. Size 

Genus LXVI. Synedra. The yard or ell-measure Ani¬ 
malcules. —The members of this genus, when young, are 
attached by one of their extremities; but at a later period 
are often free. They are longer than they are broad; are 
destitute of a distinct foot or neck-like process, or which, 
at most, is rudimentary. Their lorica is simple (smooth 
or striated), siliceous, and in the form of a wand or rod ; 
(prism-shaped) openings exist at their ends, but none in 
the middle ; the cluster of ova is sometimes divided into 
from two to four leaf-like plates, or into purses or lappets; 
digestive cells have not been observed. 

304. Synedra ulna (Vibrio bipunctatus, M.) The com¬ 
mon Synedra is striated, truncated laterally; as age ad¬ 
vances the lateral ends become dilated; upon the broad 
side of the dilated end are seen three obtuse teeth, and 
two openings between them. These creatures often occur 
in vast numbers, appearing as a white incrustation, 
covering the stones on the banks of rivers in summer. 
Dr. Lancaster has noticed this in the Annan, Dumfries¬ 
shire : wherever a mass of gravel was exposed to the air, 
the surface of the stones appeared thus covered. With a 
pocket magnifier, they resembled acicular crystals; using 
a deeper power, and examining the wet stones on the edge 

Bacillar ia.\ 


O or: 

+J W 

of the water, they were mostly arranged in a stellate form, 
resting upon filaments of conferva. Size 1-100th long, 
1-2000th broad. Dr. L. says, the lorica of those from the 
Annan is not striated, nor are their ends dilated.— ( Proc . 
Lin. Soc.) Sometimes they attach themselves to Vorti- 
cella, as shewn in fig. 184, which represents several of 
them thus situated; that marked bv a cross is itself 
infected by the growth of Podosphenia upon it; so that 
we have here an example of one parasite growing upon 
another. Found both in fresh and brackish water. Size 
1-280th to 1-100th. 

305. Synedra capitata. The broad-headed Synedra is 
striated, straight, and of the form shewn at group 185*, 
which exhibits a front and side view ; ova yellowish-green. 
Found both living and fossil. Length 1-120th. 

306. Synedra Gallionii (Diatoma fasci, Agardh).— Gal- 
lions Synedra is smooth, wand-like, and attenuated late¬ 
rally. The ova are in round clusters, arranged along the 
lorica. It inhabits the sea. Length 1-120th. 

307. Synedra fasciculata. The bundle-like Synedra is 
smooth, attenuated near the extremities, and slightly 
acute on all sides. Found attached to conferva. Length 

308. Synedra lunaris. The sickle-shaped Synedra is 
smooth, curved, and associated together upon conferva, 
as shewn in group 185. Length 1-432nd. 

309. Synedra bilunaris. The doubly-bent Synedra is 
smooth, and resembles two lunate or crescent-shaped 
bodies attached end to end. Found upon conferva. 
Length 1 -570th. 

Genus LXVII. Podosphenia. The ivedge little plate 




[ Polygastrica. 

Animalcules. —Infusoria with a simple, siliceous, wedge- 
shaped (cuneiform) lorica, attached, when young, (by a 
little pedicle, or none,) but often becoming free at a later 
period; longer than broad. The bivalved lorica has two 
openings at its broad anterior end; ova yellowish-green. 
When young, they are scattered, but united into one or 
two masses (often star-shaped) when old. According to 
Ehrenberg, spontaneous longitudinal self-division is 
common. Fragments of Meridion and Echinella are 
liable to be mistaken for this genus. 

310. Podosphenia gracilis. The slender Podosphenia 
has a smooth wedge-shaped lorica, as shewn at fig. 186, 
which is a group of them attached to a thread-like fila¬ 
ment, from which they are often mistaken for Echinella; 
but in this case the filament is not part of the creature, 
but merely the substance to which it has adhered. In 
this way it often covers Algae, Vorticella, Sertularia, &c. 
At the lower part of the group, towards the right side, is 
represented a side view of one laying across two others, 
shewn in front view; in the latter, delicate longitudinal 
striae are visible, and in the former the upper part of the 
lorica is rounded. Length l-250th to l-110th. 

311. Podosphenia abbreviata ( Licmophora , Agardh). 
The rhomboidal Podosphenia is smooth, broader and 
shorter than the preceding. Found upon Ceramium 
diaphonum. Length 1 -240th. 

312. Podosphenia cuneata (Frustulia , Agardh). The 
broad Podosphenia is striated, laterally ; it is rhomboidal, 
club-shaped, and slightly pointed. Found in salt water. 
Length 1-140th. 

313 . Podosphenia? nana. The dwarf Podosphenia is 

Bacillaria. ] 



smooth. Found, fossil, in the Schistus of Bilen. Leno-th 
1-2300th to 1-1720th. 

Genus LXVIII Gomphonema. The wedge little tree 

Animalcules .—These Infusoria have a simple siliceous 

lorica, are fixed upon a distinct filiform pedicle, and 

develope themselves, by spontaneous self-division, in the 

form of a dichotomous little tree. The lorica is wed we¬ 

shaped, composed of from two to four pieces. At the 
broad anterior end are two openings, and one in the 
centre of the dorsal and ventral surfaces. The stalk is 
an excreted, immovable, horny substance ; at its attach¬ 
ment to the lorica there is no opening in the latter ; the 
animalcule can detach itself, creep about independently, 
and probably form another stalk. In some instances the 
lorica appears to be transversely striated internally. 

314. Gomphonema truncatum ( Vorticella pyraria, M.) 
The truncated Gomphonema is striated. In the engraving , 
group 187; and Jigs. 188 to 190, represent various views 
of this creature, both separate and attached; these will 
convey a far better idea of their form, and the mode of 
attachment of the genus, than any verbal description. 
Separated animalcules move distinctly. Found free in 
water and upon lemna, &c. Fossil in Franzenbad and 
Santi Fiora. Length 1 - 1 720th to 1-280th. 

315. Gomphonema capitatum . The round-headed Gom¬ 
phonema is striated, has an elongated cuneiform-shaped 
lorica, laterally constricted near the rounded end. Length 
1 - 1720 th to 1-280th. 

310. Gomphonema gracile. The slender Gomphonema 
is smooth ? the lorica elongated and wedge-shaped. This 
species, and the preceding, form a brownish-yellow slime 

Q 2 



[ Polygaslrica. 

upon live water plants, especially in spring. Length of 
wand l-1150tli to 1-860th. 

317- Gomphonema acuminatum. The pointed Gompho- 
nema is striated, and has elongated wedge-shaped corpus¬ 
cles. The head-like anterior portion of the lorica ter¬ 
minates in a sharp crest or point; within the body, 
numerous digestive cells are visible. Found living and 
fossil. Length 1-860th ; sometimes from 1 - 1 720th to 

318. Gomphonema minutissimum (GreviWe). The curved 
Gomphonema is smooth (?) wedge-shaped, and curved; 
club-shaped laterally. Length, without stalk, 1-860th; 
seldom 1-430th : cluster l-72nd. 

319. Gomphonema clavatum. The club-shaped Gom¬ 
phonema is smooth, short, and cuneiform. Found living 
and fossil. Length 1- 720th : cluster 1-120th 

320. Gomphonema rotundatum. The rounded Gompho¬ 
nema is smooth (?) short and obovate laterally. Found 
upon the roots of lemna. Length of body 1-240th. 

321. Gomphonema discolor. The colourless Gompho¬ 
nema is smooth (?) slightly excised at the truncated end. 
Length 1-600th. 

322. Gomphonema (?) olivaceum. The olive-brown 
Gomphonema is smooth (?) oval on the lateral surface, and 
having dense crystalline short pedicles, and forming a 
gelatinous-like mass. Found upon Potamogeton. Length 

Genus LX IX. Ecu in ell a. The palm Animalcules 
are Bacillaria with simple siliceous lorica, attached to a 
pedicle. The body is longer than it is broad, wedge- 
shaped, and developed, by longitudinal self-division, in 

Bacillar ia.~\ 



the form of a fan, or cluster-like. The chief character of 
the genus, however, consists in the fact of the self-division 
not influencing the division of the stalk, for the body 
often divides again without the stalk taking part in the 
division. During the division of the body, that of the 
stalk often rests quiet, either periodically, or for ever. 
Young forms of Echinella are with difficulty distinguished 
trom species of Gomphonema, and stalkless ones from 
those of Synedra, to which latter their organization closely 

323. Echinella flabellata (.Exilaria , Greville). The 
fan-shaped Echinella is smooth and shrub-like; the lorica 
is in the form of a truncated wedge, obtusely tridentated, 
and longitudinally striated. They are attached by the 
smaller ends to a stalk, and disposed in a fan-like group. 
This pretty animalcule covers various marine plants or 
Algae, as shewn (of the real size) in fig. 191 ; they appear 
of a golden colour. The thick tender gelatinous branched 
stalks resemble those of the Vorticella. (See the tree¬ 
like group 192.) The stem is an excretion produced by 
the animalcule, probably like the shells of the Molusca, 
and, like them, is devoid of organic or vital power, and if 
the fan-shaped bodies separate from it, does not evolve 
new bodies in the form of gemmae, but disappears. 
Group 193 shews a dorsal and lateral view of a single 
animalcule. Length, without stalk, 1-120th; height of 
tree, l-12thto l-6th. 

324. Echinella splendida. The beautiful Echinella is 
smooth, and branched; the lorica is rather straight or 
club-shaped, with rounded ends; they are dispersed 
or arranged in fan-like clusters, at the swollen extre- 



[ Polygastrica. 

mities of branches. Length l-570th; height of tree, 

325. Echinella (?) paradoxa (Styllaria , Bory). The 
heart-shaped Echinella is smooth and branched ; the lorica 
is wedge-shaped, or heart-shaped, and is tridentated and 
truncated. They are solitary, or in fan-like clusters; 
stalks slender. Found in salt-water. Length l-570th. 

326. Echinella capitata is smooth, the pedicle branch¬ 
less; lorica linear, never wedge-shaped, developed in fan-like 
clusters, attached to Hottonia palustris. Length 1-1150th 
to 1-5 70 th; height of cluster l-280th. 

327. Echinella (?) abbreviata. The short-footed 
Echinella is smooth, the pedicle short and branchless ; 
lorica wedge-shaped, obtusely tridentated, developed in 
fan-like clusters. Found in spring-water. Length 1-1150th 
to 1-860th. 

328. Echinella fulgens . The glittering Echinella is 
striated, and has a short branchless pedicle; lorica linear, 


truncated at both ends, not cuneiform. Found in salt¬ 
water. Length l-70th. 

Genus LXX. Cocconema. The stilt-grain Animalcules 
are Bacillaria which have a simple siliceous lorica, composed 
of two or more pieces, longer than it is broad, and attached 
by one of its extremities to a pedicle, in the direction of 
its axis; the lorica is smooth externally, and transversely 
furrowed internally ; it has two central and four terminal 
openings ; hence it is closely allied to Navicula, and might 
be named pedicled Navicula , but the two sides are not 
symmetrical, as in the latter, though they approach by 
N. inequalis. The ova cluster is a brownish or greenish 
mass, divided into four parts; in some one or two bright 




spots, the seminal glands of Ehrenberg, are seen. The 
self-division is longitudinal and ventral, the parts dividing 
themselves before the restoration of the original form, 
which, in some specimens, is never restored, the portions 
remaining like bows, or semi-lunar-shaped pieces. After 
division both the halves gape, and take an apparently 
oblique position in regard to the stalk; those bodies which 
are separated from their stalks have a free movement. 

329. Cocconema Boeckii. Beech's Cocconemu has a 
large lanceolate lorica, acute at the extremities, striated, 
and attached to a branched pedicle. Ehrenberg states he 
has not seen a central opening, but that there is a ventral 
one near each end. Found in sea-water. Striae twenty-six 
to l-100th of a line. Length 1-430th to 1-210th. 

330. Cocconema lanceolatum. —Lorica semi-lariceolate, 
striated; ends obtuse, attached to a branched pedicle, in 
which they differ from Eunotia turgida (260), and also in 
the presence of a central opening in the lorica, as shewn 
in group 195. The first figure is a dorsal, the other a 
lateral view; 194 is a remorse group, moderately mag¬ 
nified, Found in fresh water. Length 1-210th to 

331. Cocconema cistula. The casket Cocconema .— 
Lorica small, semi-ovate, striated; pedicle branched, cen¬ 
tral openings distinct, terminal ones obscure. Free spe¬ 
cimens resemble Eunotia faba (264); the young are semi- 
luniform. Figures 196, 197, and 198, represent three 
specimens of this species. Found, living, on aquatic 
plants, and fossil at Cassel, Santi Fiora, and Jastraba, in 
Hungary. Length l-430th to 1-1150th. 

332. Cocconema cymbiforme (Frustulia , Kiitzing). The 


w» ) w 

boat-shaped Cocconema. —Lorica lanceolate, extremities 
acute. Found with the preceding. Length l-500th to 

333. Cocconema (?) gibbum (Cymbella , Agardh). The 
gibbous Cocconema. — Lorica semi-oval, striated, and 
slightly constricted at the ends; branches spreading. 
Found with the preceding. Length l-2300th to 1-480th. 

334. Cocconema (?) fusidium. The spindle-shaped 
Cocconema. —Lorica lanceolate, attenuated, nearly acute at 
the ends, and smooth. Found, only fossil, with the pre¬ 
ceding. Length 1-1150th to l-620th. 

Genus LXXI. Achnantiies. The standard Animal¬ 
cules. —Lorica siliceous, simple, composed of two or more 
pieces, form prismatic, longer than broad, and having a 
central opening. In A brevipes colourless stomach-cells 
are visible; the pedicle is simple, and its attachment 
oblique and ventral. They are developed in the form of 
simple pedicled chains (tablets or bands), which look like 
little standards, longitudinal self-division commencing 
beneath the glassy lorica. The members of this genus, 
whether considered as animals or plants, present us with 
the simplest examples of organic matter. They are para¬ 
sitical on Algae, &c. 

335. Achnantiies longipes . The long-stalked Achnan- 
thes. —Lorica striated, bent in the middle, dorsal and ventral 
surfaces rounded, pedicle thick, and from two to live times 
the length of the lorica. Found in sea-water. Length 
(that is, breadth of band) 1-5 70 th to l-120th. 

336. Achnantiies brevipes. The short Achnantiies 
resembles the preceding species, but the pedicle is much 
shorter than the body, as shewn in fig. 199, 200, and 201, 

Bacillaria .] 



which represent three groups, or banners, attached to old 


Vaucheria. The clusters are sometimes many inches in 
length. Fig. 202 is more magnified. Single specimens, 
when laying on the ventral side, appear spindle-shaped, and 
shew the oral opening in the middle. Found in salt¬ 
water. Length l-860th to l-180th. 

337. Achnanthes subsessilis. The narrow Achnantlies. 
—Lorica small, slender, slightly bent, and striated; 
pedicle short and thick. Found in fresh and sea-water. 
Length 1-1150th to 1 -430th. 

338. Achnanthes exilis. The delicate Achnanthes .— 
Lorica smooth (?) slender, and of a pale colour; pedicle 
slender, often longer than body. Found on Conferva 
rivularis. Length 1-1150th to 1-570th 

339. Achnanthes minutissima. The dwarf Achnan¬ 
thes. —Lorica small, slender, and smooth; pedicle length 
of body. Found upon zygmena. Length 1-1200th to 

340. Achnanthes inequalis. The unequal Achnanthes. 
—Lorica unequally bent, and smooth. Found, fossil, in 

Genus LXXII. Striatella. The zig-zag little standard 
Animalcules have a simple siliceous lorica, square, or mostly 
longer than it is broad, and without a central opening. 
They are attached obliquely, by one extremity, to a short 
pedicle, or foot-stalk, and are developed in the form of 
little banners, one end of which often separates (gaping). 
(See fig. 203.) The ova is at first dispersed in small masses, 
which afterwards unite. 

341. Striatella arcuata (Diatoma j'igidum, D.C.) The 
curved Striatella. —Lorica tabular, nearly square, having 



[ Polygastrica. 

from three to seven internal longitudinal lines, transversely 
striated. The clusters of banners form curved ribbons; 
ova greenish-yellow, at first, but becomes reddish or violet. 
Fig. 203 represents two-and-a-half tablets, with dispersed 
ova, and fig. 204 an old one, with them united ; they are 
both attached to sea-weed (Callithamnium). Length of 
single lorica l-570th to 1-200th. 

Section IV .—Lorica Invested or Double .— 


Genus LXXIIX. Frustulia. The gelatinous little ship 
Animalcules are characterized by a double envelope, the 
siliceous lorica being enveloped in, and scattered or 
grouped together among, an indefinitely-formed gelatinous 
mantle, or lacerna. The true lorica has six openings, two 
at each end, and two in the middle. The ova cluster is 
divided into from two to four leaf-like portions ; digestive 
cells and bright glandular organs are often visible. They 
are closely allied to Navicula. No figure of this genus is 
given in Die Infusionsthierchen. 

342. Frustulia appendiculata (Cymbella, Ag.) The 
brownish Frustulia. — Lorica straight, lanceolate, and 
smooth (?) ends obtuse; they are scattered through an 
amorphous gelatine. This species is like Navicula gracilis, 
but rounded upon the dorsal and ventral surfaces, and 
more parallel on the lateral ones. The central opening is 
broad transversely; the end ones are round. Ehrenberg 
has often observed self-division. Found upon the damp 
walls of the mineral springs of Carlsbad. Length l-8000th 
to 1-1150th. 

Bacillar ia .] 



343. Frustulia maritima. The sea Frustulia. —Lorica 
smooth (?) ends rounded, multiplying in groups, in sepa¬ 
rate, though contiguous, gelatinous cellules. Found, in salt¬ 
water, at Swansea. Length l-1200th to 1-1150. 

344. Frustulia salina. The salt Frustulia. —Lorica 
striated, very straight and acute, developed in a contiguous 
gelatinous mass. Found in saline solutions. Length of 
wands l-2300th to 1-860th. 

Genus LXXIV. Syncyclia. The ring little ship Ani¬ 
malcules. —Characters : a double envelope ; inner one, or 
lorica, siliceous, Navicula-shaped ; external one indefinitely 
formed, and gelatinous. The lorica is developed, by decus¬ 
sating self-division, in clusters, within the gelatinous 
mass, Ehrenberg states there are two openings near the 
middle, on one side, but they are indistinct. 

345. Syncyclia salpa. The tube little ship Animalcules. 
—Lorica semi-ovate, and smooth; they are often jointed 
together, so as to form six ring-like tubes ; the ova are 
bright green. In the engraving, jig. 206 represents five 
groups, imbedded in their gelatinous envelope, which resem¬ 
bles slime upon sea-weed. The upper figure to the right 
is a single creature; the lower figure is an end view of a 
cluster of six; the other figures are side views. Length 
1 -2300th to 1-5 70th. 

Genus LXXV. Naunema. —Characters : a double enve¬ 
lope ; inner one, or lorica, siliceous, and Navicula-shaped; 
external one, or mantle, gelatinous, and tubular. From the 
self-division of the lorica and body being perfect, and that 
of the mantle imperfect, they are developed in separated 
filiform tubes, often branched, presenting a conferva-like 
appearance. The lorica is incombustible, but the mantle 


[ Polygastrica. 


is not. Two openings only are seen : these are central. 
In some a canal seems to run from one end to the other. 
Ova cluster yellow-green. 

346. Naunema simplex (Shizomema, Ag.) The simple 
Naunema. —Lorica oblong, rounded at the ends, and 
smooth, resembling N. arbuscula. They are disposed in 
a simple series within flexible filiform tubes. Found 
upon Ceramium hyalinum, and other sea-weed. Length 
1-1150th to 1-570th. 

347. Naunema Dillwynii (Monema , Grev.)—Lorica 
oblong, Navicula-shaped, small, rounded upon the dorsal 
and ventral surfaces, and densely arranged in many series, 
within simple branched tubes. This species is always 
firmly attached. Found in salt-water. Length 1-2300th 
to 1-1150th. 

348. Naunema Hoffmanni. —Lorica small, Navicula- 
shaped, and smooth ; numerous and dense within branched 
tubes. Found in brackish water. Length 1-1150th. 

340. Naunema arbuscula. The tree-like Naunema .— 
Lorica robust, striated, and Navicula-shaped; numerous 
and dense within erect fruticose tubes. Length 1-860th. 

350. Naunema Balticum. — Lorica long, narrow, 
striated, Navicula-shaped. Fig. 207 represents a portion 
of a gelatinous tube surrounding several. They are 
numerous and dense within flexible branched tubes, which 
are tufted. Found in salt-water. Length l-860th. 

Genus LXXVI. Gloconema. The tube grain Animal¬ 
cules contain only one species, which is not figured by 
Ehrenberg. It has a double envelope, the inner one, or 
true lorica, curved and siliceous; outer one combustible, 
tubular, often branched, and containing many individuals; 

Bacillaria. ] 



two ova plates, two globular glands, and self-division, are 
observed. In organization it approaches Cocconema. 

351. Gloconema paradoocum (Glojonema , Ag.) The 
wonderful Gloconema has a semi-ovate, curved, striated 
lorica, inclosed in hyaline tubes, which are simple, or rarely 
branched. Ehrenberg remarks, “ I found this species very- 
abundantly amongst Mytilus polymorphus, upon Conferva 
rivularis, and saw both simple and branched threads; the 
little bodies, or corpuscles, being seldom arranged in two 
rows, but mostly in one. It is a very remarkable circum¬ 
stance that I very often found two different sorts of these 
Navicula-like bodies in the same tube ; one was a very 
delicate and straight kind, evidently a Naunema; the other 
was the large curved kind. Even to the present moment, 
I cannot explain this phenomenon, for both sorts were in 
considerable quantities, and quite free, and therefore it 
is difficult to suppose one a parasite.” Size 1-2300th to 

Genus LXXVII. Schizonema. The rayed little ship 
Animalcules have a double envelope; inner one siliceous, 
Navicula-shaped; the external gelatinous, resembling 
Naunema, but the tubes are connected together in a 
bundle-like manner, not branched, though they appear so 
when spread out. 

352. Schizonema (?) Ayardhi. Agardh's Schizonema .— 
Lorica very narrow, acute at both ends, placed in a single 
series; the enveloping tubes are filiform, and enlarged in 
those places where the siliceous lorica are lodged, as seen 
in fig. 208, which represents a bundle of these tubes 
magnified 300 diameters. Found on Acus, in the North 
Sea. Length of lorica 1 - 720 tli. 



[ Poly gas trica. 

Genus LXXVII1. Micromega. The tube little tree 
Animalcules. —Envelope double or triple, lorica siliceous, 
mantle gelatinous and tubular, the siliceous one prismatic, 
similar in appearance to Navicula gracilis; no openings or 
transverse striae are seen, but two plates of yellowish ova, 
and longitudinal self-division, have been observed. The 
Navicula-shaped bodies are connected together by gelatine 
in bundles, developed in the form of stiff little tree-like 

353. Micromega corniculatum. The pronged Micromega 
has a common cartilaginous trunk, very much branched, 
cylindrical, and more than the twelfth of an inch thick; 
the branches are divaricated and short, and the Navicula 
narrow and lanceolate. Found in the Adriatic. Size of 
Navicula, 1-1150th. 

Appended Tribe of Bacillaria. 

Genus LXXIX. Acineta. The rayed little tree Ani¬ 
malcules. —The genus Acineta is a neighbouring tribe of 
the family Bacillaria, the members of which are distin¬ 
guished by being pedicled, having a simple membranous 
lorica, and numerous radiating, retractile, but not vibrating 
tentaculae. In A. Lyngbyi and mystacina stomach-cells 
have been observed, and in A. tuberosa and mystacina a 
seminal gland. Self-division not observed. 

354. Acineta Lyngbyi. Lyngby’s Acineta. —Lorica sphe¬ 
rical, tentacules in front, the pedicle thick; it resembles 
a stalked Actinophrys, while the round, radiating, pale 
yellow-coloured head, with its thick crystal-like stalk, is 
similar to a retracted Vorticella. Found upon Sertularia 




geniculata. Length, including stalk, 1-lOOth to 170th. 
Size of ova, below 1-240th. 

355. Acineta tuberosa (Vorticella tuberosa , M.) The 
horned Acineta has a triangular compressed lorica, dilated 
and truncated anteriorly, and having from two to three 
obtuse knobs or horns, the lateral ones tentaculated, the 
pedicle simple and slender. Size 1-210th to 1-100th. 

356. Acineta mystacina ( Vorticella , Shrank). The long- 
bearded Acineta is subglobose, obtusely horned, with two 
elongated fasciculi of tentacules, and a slender pedicle, as 
seen in fig. 205. Found upon Oedogonium. Length of 
whole body 1-860th to 1-120th. 



[ Polyyastrica. 

Family XI.—CYCL1DINA. 

The Infusoria of this small family are polvgastric, devoid 
of true alimentary canal, and have but one opening to the 
body. They have no lorica, their bodies are furnished 
with cilia or bristles, which perform the function of loco¬ 
motion, and the various groupings and relations of these 
afford characters for the discrimination of the genera; a 
distinct proboscis has been seen. The system of nutri¬ 
tion has been distinctly observed in two species of the 
Cyclidium ; ova has only been seen in Pantotrichum 
enchelvs. No visual organs have been observed. 

The genera are distributed as follows:— 

( Body compresed—cilii arranged in a ) „ 

single circle b j Cyclidium. 

Body round—cilii scattered all over Pantotrichum. 

Body furnished with bristles . Chaetomonas. 

Genus LXXX. Cyclidium. The disc Animalcules 
have a compressed body, provided with cilia, placed in a 
simple circular row. In C. glaucoma, the polygastric 
apparatus (stomach-cells) is distinct. The mouth is a 
roundish opening, situated upon the under surface of the 
body, either close at the anterior extremity, or towards the 
centre. The organs of locomotion are neither probos¬ 
cides nor mouth cilii, but are, as in Kerona and Stylony- 
chia, a number of cilii-like feet, situated on the margin of 
the abdomen. Lately it has been thought that longi¬ 
tudinal lines, produced by rows of very delicate cilii, 
were present; if so, and an anal opening be discovered, 

Cyclidina. ] 



C. glaucoma would rank under Oxytrichina. Transverse 
self-division is very common, but longitudinal has not yet 
been observed. The female sexual apparatus is unknown, 
but a large round gland is seen in C. glaucoma and 
C. lentiforme. 

357. Cyclidium glaucoma (M.) The blueish Cyclidii 
have an oblongo-elliptical body; the abdomen is margi- 
nated with cilia, and delicate longitudinal striae are ob¬ 
served upon the back. In swimming, they resemble 
Gyrinus, or Notonecta, a well-known little black water- 
beetle (see Microscopic Cabinet , plate iv.), which swims 
in flocks, glancing like silver upon the surface of the water 
of shady ditches. Sometimes the movement is very quick ; 
at other times the animalcules remain stationary, and then 
spring with a curvetting motion to another spot. Formerly 
this species was confounded with G. scintillans; but the 
latter is much larger. Fig. 209 ( plate iv.) is a side-view, 
shewing the cilii; fig. 211 a dorsal view ; and fig. 210 a 
specimen undergoing transverse self-division. They are 
represented as fed with indigo. Abundant in vegetable 
infusions in the spring. Length 1-2880th to 1-1150th. 

358. Cyclidium margaritaceum. The pearl Cyclidium. 
—Body orbicular, elliptical, the posterior end slightly 
excised ; the dorsal surface has distinct longitudinal lines, 
the cilii are not distinct. Length 1-1500th to 1-1000th. 

359. Cyclidium (?) planum. The flat Cyclidium. —Body 
oblongo-elliptical, smooth ; cilii but little marked. Size 

360. Cyclidium (?) lentiforme. The lenticular Cycli¬ 
dium is smaller than the preceding, and has no distinct 
striae or cilii. Size 1-3180th. 




[ Polygastrica . 

Genus LXXXI. Pantotrichum. The muff Animal¬ 
cules .—Body turgid, covered with moveable cilii. In 
P. enchelys stomach-cells are distinctly visible. Ova are not 
satisfactorily seen, though the green colour of P. volvox, 
and the yellow-coloured matter of the other species, pro¬ 
bably indicate its presence. Ehrenberg says, “ the ab¬ 
sence of a double opening is not yet proved, nor, on the 
other hand, is its existence.” 

361. Pantotrichum enchelys, The elongated Panto¬ 
trichum has a cylindrical oblong body, rounded at both 
ends. It is of a pale yellow colour, but hyaline at the 
two extremities, and turbid at the centre. Fig, 212 is 
a cluster of animalcules; those to the left, are more 
highly magnified than the others. In swimming they 
revolve and glide along in the direction of the longer 
axis of the body. Found in infusions of raw flesh. Length 

362. Pantotrichum volvox (Leucophra viridis , M.) 
The rolling Pantotrichum has an ovate spherical body, of 
a green colour. Found in brackish water. Size 1-860th. 

363. Pantotrichum lagenula. The flask Pantotri¬ 
chum has an ovate body, equally rounded at the ends, and 
having the anterior ciliated portion produced in the form 
of a neck or beak. Found amongst conferva. Size 
l-l080th to 1-570th. 

Genus LXXXII. Chaetomonas. The bristle Monad 
Animalcules, —Characters : oral cilii vibratory; motion 
slow, and leaping by means of the bristles on the body; 
these are not vibratile. Very little is known of their 
organization. They are parasites, living on the dead 
bodies of other Infusoria, and in infusions of flesh or 




animal matter. Whether the delicate vibration seen at 
the mouth is produced by a proboscis or by cilii is 
uncertain. In Ch. constricta, transverse self-division is 
thought to have been seen. 

364. Chaetomonas globulus. The globular Chaeto- 
monas is almost spherical, of an ash colour, and possessing 
setae, or bristles. This animalcule has often the figure of 
Monas guttula, though the latter is smaller; sometimes 
two cluster together. Found in bad smelling infusions 
of animal matter along with Pantotrichum enchelys, 
Monas termo, &c.; also in the dead bodies of Closterium 
acerosum, as shewn at figure 113, which represents part 
of the latter, with several animalcules around it. Size 

365. Chaetomonas constricta. The constricted Chaeto¬ 
monas is transparent, oblong, slightly constricted at the 
middle, and having two setae, or bristles. Found in dead 
Hydatina senta. Size 1-5760th. 

r 2 




[ Polygastrica. 


Comprehends vibrating animalcules, distinctly or appa¬ 
rently polygastric, devoid of an alimentary canal, covered 
with a shell, or lorica, upon which, or upon the body, are 
cilia or setae: these are often arranged in the form of a 
girdle or crown—hence the name is derived. The lorica 
has only one opening. In three out of the four genera 
an organ of locomotion is present, in the form of a delicate 
proboscis, independent of the wreath of cilii around the 
middle of the body, or scattered cilii, or bristles. In 
Peridinium pulvisculus and cinctum only has artificial 
means succeeded in demonstrating the nutritive appa¬ 
ratus ; for it is mostly covered by clusters of ova. In 
Peridinium tripos the seminal glands are evident. In 
four species, a system of sensation is indicated by the 
presence of a red-coloured visual point. 

The genera are disposed as follows :— 

Lorica having stiff bristles or short spines— 
no transverse furrowed zone 

' no eye. 

eye present .. 

Lorica smooth or rough—a ciliated transverse 
zone present 

no eye. 

eye present.... 





Some of the species have been found only in a fossil 
state ; these are obtained from the chalk formations in 
flint, but are not figured in Die Infusionsthierchen. 

Genus LXXXIII. Chaetotyphla. The bur Animal¬ 
cules have a siliceous lorica, hispid or spinous, destitute 
of a transverse furrow or zone, and visual organ. The 




surface is covered with little spines and bristles, which 
appear stronger at the posterior portion of the body. By 
pressing the animalcule between the plates of an aquatic 
live-box, the lorica bursts, and sets the little creature in 
the interior of it at liberty. In swimming it revolves 
upon the longitudinal axis ; this is probably produced by 
a delicate filiform proboscis or cilii, at its mouth; but 
though this motion is evident, the organs producing it 
have not been discovered. Of the nutritive, sensitive sys¬ 
tems, &c., nothing positive is known. One species has 
been discovered in flint, which so closely resembles 
Zanthidium, that it is often mistaken for it. 

366. Chaetotyphla armata. The spinous Chaeto- 
typhla is of a brown colour, ellipsoidal form, with rounded 
ends; the posterior is covered with short spines, and has 
a circlet of black spots, as shewn in the end view, fig. 215. 
The anterior cilii, or fine bristles, are sometimes very 
indistinct. Figure 214 is a variety in which they are 
strongly marked. Found in clear water, amongst conferva. 
Length l-620th. 

367. Chaetotyphla aspera. The rough Chaetotyphla 
is brown, has an oblong body, rounded at both ends, and 
rough, with short bristles; the little spines are scattered 
without order at the posterior end. Found with the pre¬ 
ceding. Length l-570th. 

368. Chaetotyphla (?) pyritae . The flint Chaetotyphla 
has an oblong cylindrical body, rounded at both ends, and 
provided with delicate elongated bristles, but destitute 
of spines. Found, fossil, in flint, near Delitzsch. Size 

Genus LXXXIV. Chaetoglena. The bristled and 



[ Polygastrica. 

eyed Animalcules have a siliceous lorica, striped or co¬ 
vered with spines or stiff hairs, and an eye; they are 
destitute of a transverse zone or furrow. The organ of 
locomotion is a simple flabilliform proboscis. The interior 
has scattered transparent vesicles, probably stomach-cells. 
The ova cluster is a brownish green granular mass; a large 
bright spot or spermatic gland is also visible. Self-division 
has not been observed. 

369. Chaetoglena w/rociM. The rolling Chaetoylena 
has an ovate body, with brownish-green ova, and a red 
eye; between the lorica and the soft body a beautiful red 
ring is visible in the live specimens. (See fig . 216, 217, 
and 218.) Found, amongst conferva, at Hampstead and 
Hackney. Length 1-1150th. 

Genus LXXXY. Peridinium. The wreath Animal¬ 
cules .—Characters : membranous lorica, with a transverse 
cilated zone; no eye. The locomotive organs are a filiform 
proboscis, and the zone or wreath of cilii. In P. pulvisculus 
and cinctum the digestive apparatus can be demonstrated, 
by employing indigo and carmine as food; but in 
P. acuminatum, fulvum, and cornutum, it is visible, with¬ 
out having recourse to artificial means. The oral aperture 
is found in a hollow near the centre, as in Bursaria. The 
ova cluster is generally of a brown or yellowish-brown 
colour, though sometimes it is green, or even almost 
colourless. In P. tripos and fusus an oval seminal gland 
is visible. The self-division is longitudinal in P. pulvis¬ 
culus and fuscum; and, according to some observers, trans¬ 
verse in P. fusus and tripos. 



24 7 

(«). Wreath Animalcules , without horns. —Peridinium. 

370. Peridinium cinctum (Vorticella cincta, M.) The 
green Peridinium is nearly globular, or slightly three-lobed 
and smooth, with a zone of cilii; it is not luminous at 
night. It swims slowly, with a vacillating and rolling 
motion. Found amongst conferva. Size l-5/0th. 

371. Peridinium pulvisculus. The dust-like Peridinium 
is small, of a brown colour, and not luminous at night; 
the lorica is almost spherical, or slightly three-lobed, and a 
delicate proboscis may be observed, as well as nume¬ 
rous stomach-cells, by feeding it on indigo. Found 
with Chlamidomonas pulvisculus. Length l-2300th to 

372. Peridinium fuscum. The yellowish-hr own Peri¬ 
dinium is not luminous at night; the lorica is oval, slightly 
compressed, and pointed anteriorly. Length 1-430th to 

( b ). Wreath Animalcules , with horns. — Ceratium. 

373. Peridinium Q) pyrophorum. The flint Peridinium 
has an ovate spherical lorica, having two little points at its 
anterior extremity. It is very delicately urceolated and 
granulated. Found fossil in the flints of the chalk forma¬ 
tion at Berlin. Size l-570th to 1-480th. 

374. Peridinium (?) Delitiense. The DelitzschPeridinium 
has an ovate spherical lorica, and laterally a little stiff 
noint near the middle. Found fossil in the flints of 


Delitzsch. Size 1-430th to 1-280th. 

375. Peridinium acuminatum. The pointed Peridinium 
is of a brownish-yellow colour, has an ovate spherical 



[ Polygastrica. 

lorica, slightly three-lobed, and having a little process at 
the posterior end. “ I observed this species,” says Ehren- 
berg, “ in phosphorescent sea-water from Kiel, and it is 
very probable that the light proceeded from this animal¬ 
cule. It is the smallest phosphorescent sea animalcule 
that is known. Length l-600th to l-570th. 

376. Peridinium cornutum (Bursaria hirudinella, M.) 
The horned Peridinium is of a greenish colour, not lumi¬ 
nous ; its rhomboidal rough lorica has one, two, or three 
straight horn-like processes in front, and a single one 
(often curved) posteriorly. Length 1-280th to 1-140th. 

377. Peridinium tripos (Cercaria tripos, M.) The 
three-horned Peridinium is of a yellow colour, and very 
brilliant in the night (phosphorescent). The lorica is 
urceolate, broadly concave, smooth, and three-horned; 
the two frontal horns being very long and recurved, the 
third, or posterior one, straight. Ehrenberg says, c ‘ The 
power of this creature to evolve light is placed beyond 
all doubt, as I took up a phosphorescent point nine times, 
one after the other, from the water, and I saw nothing else 
in each drop than a single animalcule of this species.” It 
is rigid, and swims with a vacillating rolling motion upon 
the longitudinal axis. The length of the horns is not 
constant, sometimes being scarcely as long as the body; 
at other times much longer. Figures 219 and 220 repre¬ 
sent an under and side view. Found in the sea, near 
Copenhagen and Kiel. Length 1-140th; without the 
horns, 1-430th. 

378. Peridinium Michaelis was discovered by Dr. Mi- 
chaelis ; it is of a yellow colour, and intensely phospho¬ 
rescent. The lorica is ovate, spherical, and smooth, with 

Peridinaea .] 



three short, straight, horn-like processes, as shewn in 
fig. 221. A proboscis is not visible. Found in phospho¬ 
rescent sea-water. Length l-570th. 

379. Peridinium fusus. The spindle-shaped Peridi- 
nium is of a yellow colour, intensely phosphorescent, and 
brilliant at night. The lorica is ovate, oblong, and smooth. 
The two horns are straight and opposed, giving the 
creature the form of a spindle, as shewn at figures 222 
and 223; in the latter the proboscis is in the usual 
vibrating state. Ehrenberg states that he has seen the 
cilii of the furrowed zone, and the proboscis single and at 
rest; also an opening or mouth in the lorica, near the 
insertion of the proboscis. Length, with horns, 1-120th 
to l-90th. 

380. Peridinium furca. The forked Peridinium is of 
a yellow colour, and very phosphorescent; the lorica is 
urceolate, with three horns; two in front short, and in the 
form of a fork; the posterior is longer. Found in phos¬ 
phorescent water, at Kiel. Length 1-120th. 

Genus LXXXVI. Glenodinium. The wreath Animal¬ 
cules, with eyes. —Peridinea with mobile cilii, placed in a 
transverse furrow, or zone, and provided with an eye. 
The organization is much the same, in other respects, 
as those of the preceding genus. In G. cinctum only 
is a filiform proboscis seen; this emanates from the 
middle, and, like the wreath of cilii, vibrates. This organ, 
though hitherto unobserved, is probably present in the 
other species. The lorica is combustible. The stomach- 
cells and minutely-granulated ova are visible in all the 
species, but the former are very distinct in G. apicula- 
tum. The red eye is in the form of an elongated or 



[ Polygastrica 

horse-shoe shaped spot, and forms an essential character 
of the genus. Longitudinal self-division has been ob¬ 
served onlv in G. cinctum. 

381. Glenodinium cinctum. The yellow Glenodinium. 
—Lorica oval, or nearly spherical, and smooth ; eye large, 
semi-lunar, and transverse. Found in fresh water, amongst 
oscillatoria. Size 1-5 70 th. 

382. Glenodinium tabulatum. The tabulated Glenodi¬ 
nium is oval, of a yellowish green colour; the lorica 
is granulated and reticulated with elevated lines, but 
not spinous; truncated and denticulated posteriorly, 
and bidentate anteriorly ; eye oblong. Size l-570th to 

383. Glenodinium apiculatum. The spinous Glenodi¬ 
nium is oval, of a yellowish green colour; the lorica is 
smooth, but tabulated at the margin with hispid furrows, 
as shewn in figures 224, 225, and 226. The eye is ob¬ 
long, and extremities obtuse. Found amongst conferva, 
where chara grows. Size l-570th to l-430th. 





These polygastric animalcules are provided with an 
alimentary canal, the extremities of which are distinct, 
though they approximate, in consequence of its curvature 
(anopisthia). They have no lorica; when free, they are 
solitary, but when attached to a pedicle they are social, 
often assuming elegant remorse forms, like little trees, an 
animalcule surmounting and terminating each branch or 
pedicle. These clusters are produced by their imperfect 
mode of self-division. 

The animal organization of this family is very distinct, 
with the exception of vessels and nerves. All the species 
possess numerous cilii; those of Stentor are covered with 
them ; others have them at the mouth; they are mostly 
disposed in the form of a wreath. By the vibratile action 
of these, locomotion is effected. In some genera, as in 
Vorticella, Carchesium, and Opercularia, longitudinal and 
transverse muscles are seen. The polygastric nutritive 
apparatus may be observed in all the genera, by feeding 
them upon artificial colouring food. The course of the 
alimentary canal has been observed in all the genera except 
Trichodina and Urocentrum ; the mouth and discharging 
opening, both lying in the same lateral cavity, have also been 
demonstrated in all. The sexual system is hermaphrodite, 
and self-division is known in all except Zoothamnium, 
which is rare. In four genera the latter mode of propa¬ 
gation is imperfect; hence they form beautiful little tree¬ 
like clusters. Another mode of propagation is observable, 



[ Polygastrica. 

namely, the growth of gemmae on the side of the animal¬ 
cules, or their pedicles. Although a system of sensation 
is not indicated by the presence of eyes, we may presume 
the existence of them, by their great irritability when 

The genera are distributed as follows :— 

Body without stalk. 

Tail absent 

k Tail present 

Body periodically 
branched like a tree 

iform of stalked 
bodies similar 

v c 

Bodies with 
different forms 

^ Body covered with cilii. Stentor. 


( Body smooth, cilii anterior. Trichodina. 

. Urocentrum. 

( Stalk flexible, f Sim P le Vorticella. 

deflection spiral ] t, , , „ . . „ 

-j V Branched Carchesmm. 

I Stalk inflexible. Epistylis. 

I Stalk inflexible. Opercularia. 

( Stalk flexible, deflection spiral.... Zoothamnium. 

The following curious particulars relating to metamor¬ 
phosis are appended to this family by Ehrenberg :— 

“ The Vorticella developes, a pedicle divides (casts its 
exuvia), developes posterior cilii, loosens itself from the 
pedicle, rambles about, draws in (after shedding a second 
exuvia) the posterior cilii, sheds them, and firmly attaches 
itself, in order to put forth another stalk and build a 
trunk. This cycle of phenomena is repeated again and 
again, and possesses high physiological interest; it is a 
returning circle of transformations, a return to an early 
condition, similar to that of a butterfly, if it suddenly 
lost its wings and antennae, and again became a caterpillar, 
in order once more to return to the state of pupa and 
butterfly, or as an old man becoming a child, in order to 
run again his course of life anew.” 

Genus LXXXVII. Stentor. The trumpet Animal¬ 
cules comprehend ciliated tail-less Vorticellina, who have 




no pedicle or stalk, are free, but can attach themselves by 
the posterior extremity of their bodies, which, assuming at 
pleasure, the form of a cone, enables them to adhere to 
various substances, like leeches. The body is entirely 
covered with cilii, and a wreath of larger ones surmount 
the fore part. The function of locomotion is performed 
by their cilii, while their anterior wreath are likewise 
special organs for purveyance. Ehrenberg considers the 
longitudinal striae along the body, and the circular ones 
at the anterior part, muscular fibres. The anterior wreath 
of cilii are coiled up in a spiral form, near the mouth, 
and in some species a row of long ones proceed from the 
mouth, in a fringe-like manner, to the middle of the body. 
The nutritive apparatus consists of numerous berry-like 
stomach-cells, connected together, and presenting a moni- 
liform or necklace-like alimentary canal, which proceeds 
from the mouth along the body, and returns, uniting with 
it in a spiral-shaped cavity. Oscillatoria, Rotatoria, 
and Monads, are often found abundantly in the stomach- 
cells. They increase by self-division, either longitudi¬ 
nal or oblique; also from ova; these form a net-like 
granular mass, cover the stomach-cells, and vary in 
colour in different species ; they have also a gland-like 
sexual body, resembling the soft roe of fish, whose 
shape is band-like, moniliform, or round, and a contractile 

All the species are visible to unassisted vision, and are 
best examined between the plates of a large live-box, a 
portion of the decayed stem or leaf on which they are 
found being put in with them. 

384. Stentor Millleri. Muller’s Stentor .— This is the 

254 DESCRIPTION of [Polyyastrica. 

white funnel-like polypi discovered by Trembly; it is 
large, the crown or wreath of cilii is interrupted, and the 
lateral crest of fringe is indistinct. When swimming, the 
animalcule is usually contracted in the form of an egg, 
but when attached, it stretches itself out, like a trumpet. 
When several are swimming in a glass vessel, they will 
gradually congregate, and select some particular spot, and 
then attach themselves, evincing, as it were, not only a 
degree of sociality, but, says Ehrenberg, a mental activity. 
These animalcules feed upon coloured food very readily; 
the ova are white, the spermatic gland moniliform. When 
kept a long time in cylindrical glass vessels they fasten 
themselves to the sides, form a slimy covering around 
them, and die. Found upon lemna and other water- 
plants, even under ice. Size, stretched out, 1 -20th ; con¬ 
tracted, 1-120th. 

385. Stentor Roeselii. RoeseVs Stentor .—In form, size, 
and crest, this resembles the preceding species, as shewn, 
elongated, at fig. 233; and contracted, as it swims, at 
fig. 234; the latter representation is rather more magnified. 
The seminal gland is long, non-articulated, ribbon¬ 
shaped, as seen in the engraving. Above the gland are 
seen two of the stomach-cells, and the crest or fringe; 
at (*) is the contractile vesicle. In colour this species is 
more of a yellowish-white than the preceding. Found 
upon flocky decaying reeds, leaves &c. Common, in 
summer, in standing water on stones. Length l-140th; 
extended, l-24th. 

386. Stentor caeruleus. The blue Stentor , or funnel- 
shaped Polypi, resembles, exteriorly, the two preceding spe¬ 
cies, but the ova are blue; the gland is articulated and chain- 

Vorticeliuia .] 



like, as seen in the engraving,/^. 235 and 236 (plate v.); the 
lateral crest and frontal wreath, or crown of cilii, are con¬ 
tinuous. When kept in glass vessels they often fix them¬ 
selves to the sides in clusters. Self-division has not yet 
been observed. They are best examined under a micro¬ 
scope, when placed in a large live-box. A magnifying 
power of 100 diameters is sufficient. Found amongst 
vaucheria. Length 1-480th. 

387. Stentor polymorphus. The green Stentor resem¬ 
bles the preceding in form. The ova are of a beautiful 
green-colour, the gland articulated and chain-like, the 
lateral crest indistinct, and the frontal wreath of cilii 
interrupted. This species will not receive indigo readily. 
Transverse self-divison has been observed. Found upon 
stones, decayed sticks, and leaves, in standing water. 
Length 1-120th to l-24th. 

388. Stentor igneus. The fire-coloured Stentor is less 
than the preceding, the ova is of a yellowish-green colour, 
the skin bright yellow or vermillion, the gland is spherical, 
lateral plume or crest absent, and the frontal wreath of cilii 
interrupted. Found by Ehrenberg upon the water violet 
(Hottonia palustris). Length l-72nd. 

389. Stentor niger (Vorticella nigra , M.) The 
brownish-black Stentor is small, of a dark brownish- 
yellow or blackish colour, the ova olive coloured, the 
gland is spherical, the lateral crest absent, and the frontal 
wreath of cilii continuous. This species is often so abun¬ 
dant that it colours large pools, in turfy hollows, of a dark 
black, resembling an infusion of coffee. The swimming 
movement of this species is readily seen (as in the others) 
with the naked eye. Size l-96th. 



[ Polygastrica. 

Genus LXXXVIII. Trichodina. The urn Animal¬ 
cules .—Vorticellina destitute both of tail and pedicle. 
They are distinguished from the preceding genus by the 
surface of the body being destitute of cilii; they possess a 
vibrating fasciculus or wreath of cilii,, situated anteriorly ; 
the oral opening is simple, and not spiral. They are 
mostly disc-shaped, or conical. Three species have a 
wreath of cilii around the anterior part, and on one side of 
the margin is a simple oral opening. T. pediculus has the 
posterior end abruptly truncated, like the front, and is 
surrounded with a wreath of curved setae, which it em¬ 
ploys as feet. In T. tentaculata there is a kind of pro¬ 
boscis. The polygastric structure can be demonstrated in 
T. pediculus and grandinella by coloured food; in the 
other species it may be observed without artificial aid. 
In all, the ova are clear and limpid as water. A kidney¬ 
shaped gland is seen in T. pediculus. 

390. Trichodina tentaculata. The tentaculated Tricho¬ 
dina has a discoid-shaped body, as shewn at fig. 227 
(plate iv.) ; it is destitute of the wreath of cilii, but it has 
a fasciculus of vibratile cilii, and a styliform proboscis, as 
seen in the engraving. Size 1-280th. 

391. Trichodina pediculus (Cyclidium pediculus , (M.) 
The parasitical Trichodina has a depressed bodv,of an urceo- 
late and discoid shape, as shewn at fig . 228, 229, and 230; 
a wreath of vibratile cilii anteriorly, and another of short 
moveable uncinated cilii, or hooked setae, upon the back. 
Ehrenberg remarks, “ I have fed this species many times 
with indigo, and have seen numerous stomachs filled with 
the blue matter; it always runs upon the back, where 
there is a wreath of twenty-four to twenty-eight mobile 

Vorticellina .] 



hooks (or uncinate cilii), having the mouth and vibrating 
wreath of cilii (of forty-eight to sixty-four) directed 
upwards.” It appears to feed upon the little granules of 
the body of the fresh water polypi, drawn in plate vii. of 
the Microscopic Cabinet. Fig. 228 and 229 are side views, 
attached to a portion of a polypi; fig. 230 is a top view. 
Size l-5 70 th to 1-280th. 

392. Trichodina vorax . The voracious Trichodina has 
an oblong, cylindrical, slightly conical body; anterior part 
convex, and crowned with cilii, the back rather attenuated 
and smooth. Size l-570th. 

393. Trichodina grandinella (M.) The hail Tricho¬ 
dina is nearly spherical, the back sharply attenuated ; a 
wreath of cilii surrounds the truncated fore part. This 
species is liable to be mistaken, by an inexperienced 
observer, for a free Vorticella; its true character appears 
to be in its open wreath of cilii. Size 1-1500th to 

Genus LXXXIX. Urocentrum. The top Animalcules 
are free, have a tail-like style, but destitute of pedicle and 
cilii, except a wreath anteriorly; mouth aperture simple. 
The internal organization, as far as it is known, is similar to 
the preceding genera. Perfect transverse self-division has 
been observed. Ehrenberg thinks the eyes, supposed to 
have been seen by Muller, were most probably the vestigia 
of some of the cilii, none of which he appears to have seen. 

394. Urocentrum turbo (Cercaria turbo, M.) Muller’s 
Urocentrum is hyaline, and has an ovate, trilateral body, 
with a style, or setaceous tail, one third of its length. 
Ehrenberg says, “ The little tail is not a separable Vorti- 
cella-stalk, but an articulated style on the back—perhaps a 


258 description of [ Polygastrica. 

foot. Found amongst lemna and conferva. Figure 232 
is a dorsal view, and 231 a side view. Size 1-430th to 

Genus XC. Vorticella. The bell-shaped Animalcules 
are crowned with cilii anteriorly, and have a pedicle or 
stalk, when young, but which, at a later period, and also 
after the first self-division, is wanting. Their shape, when 
pediculated, is similar ; the pedicle can be suddenly de¬ 
flected spirally by means of the long muscle within it, 
but it is never branched. The wreath of cilii, and the 
long muscle, with the hollow pedicle, are organs of loco¬ 
motion. At certain periods a second wreath of cilii is 
said to be produced at the posterior part of the body. Not 
only can numerous stomach-cells be seen, but likewise, 
according to Ehrenberg, the gradual passage of the food 
onwards, in a twining sort of intestinal canal, though he 
says the latter is not easily observed, on account of the 
periodical deflection of the pedicle. On this account it is 
more satisfactorily seen in the genera Epistylis and Oper- 
cularia. The mouth and discharging orifice are separate, 
but lie in the same hollow, at the anterior margin. The pro¬ 
pagative structures are variously coloured; clusters of ova, 
an elongated gland, and a round contractile bladder, exist; 
in fine, the animalcules are androgynous. The supposed 
increase by the growth of young animalcules out of the 
pedicle, like flowers on the stem of a plant, has arisen 
from erroneous observation. When the animalcule loosens 
itself from its pedicle or stalk, a circumstance which, says 
Ehrenberg, “ takes place at certain periods, the stalks die, 
or disappear; just like the shells of crabs, or as nail and 
hair.” The muscular fibre within the stem requires stops. 

Vorticellina .] 



or an achromatic condenser, under the stage, to render it 

395. Vorticella nebulifera ( V . nebulifera et conv al¬ 
laria, M.) The nebulous Vorticella. —The body of this 
creature is in the form of a bell, that part answering to 
the mouth of the bell being expanded, and the margin 
fringed with cilii; the pedicle or stalk, which is about five 
times the length of the body, is attached to the convex 
apex, which is rather conical, when the creature is in 
health, but hemispherical when otherwise. The mouth 
is situated near the margin, in which place the wreath of 
cilii is interrupted. These creatures usually congregate 
together, though each is independent of its neighbour; for 
on the approach of any foreign body to one, it withdraws, 
by coiling up its pedicle, while the others remain stretched 
out in search of food. By this action the pedicle is not 
contracted, but merely deflected, by means of the long 
muscle within it, so that it can form as many as ten coils, 
like the spring of a bell. The body of the animalcule 
does not contract or become wrinkled, but the margin of 
cilii appears sometimes bent inwards. In colour, when 
seen in masses about the roots of lemna, they appear 
white. An amplification of 300 diameters is necessary to 
exhibit the cilii. Longitudinal self division may often be 
observed, during which the body becomes broader. 
Gemmae, or buds, shoot out from the sides of the other 
species, but have not been noticed in this. Found 
abundantly on the stalks of lemma and water-plants, even 
in winter under ice. Length of body l-570th to l-280th. 

396. Vorticella citrina (M.) The yellow Vorticella. 
—The body is more hemispherical than the preceding, and 

200 description of [Polygastrica. 

the frontal margin more expanded. Found upon lemna, 
rarely, with the former species. Length of body 1-430th to 
l-210th; stalk three to four times that length. 

397. Vorticella microstoma. The small-mouthed 
Vorticella has an ovate body, attenuated at both ends, and 
having the frontal margin narrow, not expanded. The 
body, during contraction, is annulated; its colour whitish- 
grey. The mouth, stomach, reception of coloured food, 
male glands, ova, and long muscle of the stalk, have all 
been observed in this species, as also spontaneous lon¬ 
gitudinal and transverse self-division, and the growth of 
gemmae. Ehrenberg counted from twenty to twenty-four 
cilii in the frontal wreath. Found in stagnant w r ater. 
Length of body l-2300th to l-240th; length of stalk 
six times that of the body. 

398. Vorticella campanula (Vorticella lunaris , M.) 
The great Vorticella has an hemispherical bell-shaped 
body, with the frontal margin broad and truncated; not 
expanded. Colour whitish-brown; (ring, none). This 
species forms a thick blueish matter upon water-plants, 
and the single animalcules are discoverable with the naked 
eye. Size 1-120th ; stalk seven times longer than the body. 

399. Vorticella hamata. The fish-hook Vorticella 
has a small ovate hyaline body, attenuated at both ends; 
the pedicle is obliquely attached to the body, so as to form 
something of a fish-hook appearance. Length of body 
1-5 70 th. 

400. Vorticella chlorostigma (Vorticella fisciculata, M.) 
The green Vorticella has a green, ovate, conical and cam- 
pan ulate body, which is annulated (wrinkled). The frontal 
margin is expanded ; the cilii, contractile bladder, and green 




ova, are to be seen, but the seminal gland, self-division, and 
growth of gemmae, have not been observed. In water this 
creature often covers grasses and rushes with a beautiful 
green layer. Length 1-240th ; stalk five times the length 
of the body. 

401. Vorticella putellinci (M.) The disk-shaped Vorti- 
cella has an hemispherical body, campanulate, the frontal 
portion very much dilated, and the margin of it expanding 
greatly, and often reflexed. Length 1-480th; stalk about 
seven times the length of the body. 

402. Vorticella convalaria (V. cralerformis , citrina, 
gemella, globularia , hiciris, nasuta et truncatella : Enchelys 
fritillus , Trichoda gyrinas, M.) has an ovate, conical, 
campanulate body, the frontal portion dilated, and its 
margin slightly expanded. It is annulated, and of a 
hyaline or whitish hue. This appears to have been the 
first infusorial animalcule discovered. Leeuwenhoek, the 
discoverer, found it in stagnant rain-water, at Delft, in 
April, 1675. It is found in considerable abundance, upon 
the surface of vegetable infusions, with V. microstoma, 
from which it is distinguished by its broad front, which 
gives to it a bell-shaped or campanulate appearance. 
Carus, in 1823, represented it as arising from sponta¬ 
neous generation (generatio spontanea) in oil. The 
medium was an accidental mixture of oil colour and spring 
water. Ehrenberg remarks, the appearance arose in a 
very natural way. It has been described under various 
names by different naturalists. Ehrenberg gives 38 re¬ 
ferences to different works treating on it. Figure 23 7 
(plate v.) is a group of three, with the pedicle of another, 
to shew the manner in which it deflects it spirally. 

262 DESCRIPTION OF [ Polygastrica . 

Figures 238 and 239 are two stalkless creatures; from 
their different appearances in the latter state, Muller has 
described them not only as different species, but under 
different genera. In Die Infusionsthierchen , there are 
eighteen names under which that author has described 
them. Length 1-430th to l-24th; stalk six times its 

ic This entertaining and well-known animalcule is usually 
found attached to any extraneous body, as the leaves of 
duck-weed, small aquatic shells, clusters of ova, and the 
larvae of insects; an example of the latter is shewn in the 
Microscopic Illustrations , jig, 30, where it may be consi¬ 
dered as a parasite , or rather an epiphytes. As they are, 
when fully developed, attached mostly to some stationary 
object, they afford many facilities to the microscopist for 
his observation; they form a good object also for ascer¬ 
taining the defining power of his instrument, and his 
expertness in its management, as much of the effect will 
depend on the manner in which he directs the illumina¬ 
tion. If this be not attended to, and the instrument has 
not sufficient power and penetration, it will only exhibit 
two cilii instead of a circular row; indeed, this animalcule 
is described and drawn in this manner, in the old authors, 
an error which recent improvements in the microscope 
have demonstrated. 

“ When in search of prey they stretch out the stem, and 
by means of a vibratory motion communicated to the cilii 
they agitate the water, and occasion a current towards 
them ; this brings along with it the small particles of 
matter on which they feed. Should any circumstance 
disturb the water, or a large animal approach them, they 

Vorticellina .] 



instantly retract, bending the stem into a number of coils ; 
this operation is performed so quickly, that the eye cannot 
detect it; in a few seconds, the creature may be observed 
slowly uncoiling the stem. These curious animalcules are 
endowed with several methods of propagation, the observa¬ 
tion of which has thrown much light upon this interesting 
subject, and enlarged our views of the operations of 
Nature in her minute productions : many creatures which 
we formerly considered as belonging to distinct genera 
are now ascertained to be the same in different conditions. 
One method of increase is probably from ova ; but of 
this we have no direct evidence. Dr. E. considers that 
the spawn is ejected, as with the Kolpoda, and that it does 
not proceed from buds, or germs from the roots; their 
first appearance is like several little specks, rather darker 
than the surrounding mass, and possessing a tremulous 
motion ; they are then not more than the 1-12000th of an 
inch in diameter, and are clustered about the roots or stems 
of the old ones ; they do not change their situation, and are 
probably connected to the parent group by invisible 
filaments; they soon increase in size, when delicate stems 
may be perceived, as may also a current in the water towards 
the bell, indicating the presence of cilii. At this stage of 
their growth, they have been considered as a distinct 
species by Schrank, under the title of V. monadica, be¬ 
cause at this period the stems do not contract spirally, as 
in the old ones. From some of the specimens observed 
by Muller, it is evident that they are also produced by 

“ The next method of propagation is by a division of the 
parent. When this is to be effected longitudinally, the 



[ Polygastrica. 

bell increases in breadth ; a separation then commences, 
and doable circles of cilii are formed; the body of the 
animal then divides, and other cilii grow around the dome 
of the bell; by constantly whirling, one or both of the 
bells separate from the stem, and swim about, in which 
condition they have been classed as a distinct genus, under 
the name Urceolaria. Should it happen that both the 
bells are twisted off, the stem remains stationary, and 
does not contract afterwards, or produce a new bell. The 
most striking peculiarity which presents itself next is, that 
the end formerly attached to the stem swims foremost, 
and from the other extremity proceeds the new stem ; 
before, however, this is effected, it changes its form, and 
sometimes buds out, or separates; the latter is the genus 
Eclissa of Schrank, and the former, with the small protu¬ 
berance, Rinella of Bory St. Vincent. If the creature 
retain its bell shape, be not inverted, and exhibits the lower 
cilii, it forms the genus Kerobalina of the latter naturalist, 
and when all the cilii are invisible, then he calls it the 
genus Craterina. Again, it constitutes the genus Urceo¬ 
laria when the anterior cilii are alone observed. Besides 
those already mentioned, there are many other changes in 
its form; sometimes it stretches itself out in length, and 
becomes cylindrical, so that it is readily mistaken for a 
species of the genus Enchelys; in this condition, one 
or both ends bend themselves, while it is swimming 
past a hard body; finally it separates transversely in 

u The next method of propagation is by the bud forma¬ 
tion, which is not confined either to the animalcules with 
or without a stem. During this process, it passes through 




a variety of shapes, moves briskly in the water, and forms 
the genus Ophrydia of Bory St. Vincent. Ehrenberg has 
divided this species into two varieties, founded on the 
shape of the bell; when they are nearly globular, he calls 
them campanulata; when pointed, pyriformis” 

403. Vorticella picta. The dotted Vorticella has an 
ovate, conical, campanulate body, the frontal portion 
dilated, and its margin slightly expanded. The pedicle is 
very slender, and curiously marked throughout its length 
with red dots. Length l-1150th to l-570th ; stalk four 
to five times as long. 

Genus XCI. Carchesium. The tree and trumpet 
Animalcules are closely allied to the preceding genus, from 
which they are distinguished by having their spirally flexible 
pedicle branched, in consequence of imperfect self-division. 
The bodies upon the pedicle are all of the same form. 
The organization of this genus is not so well known as 
Vorticella and Epistylis. A simple wreath of cilii, which 
during quick vibration appears double, is observable; and 
another, at certain periods, at the posterior part of the 
body: within the pedicle, a transversely-folded thread¬ 
like muscle is observed during contraction; the mouth 
(which is lateral) and polygastric alimentary canal are dis¬ 
tinct. Of the propagative system, whitish ova, granules, 
and a contractile bladder, are seen; but a spermatic gland 
is not very distinct. Imperfect longitudinal self-division 
is a very marked character; the growth of gemmae has 
been observed, and the periodical separation of the body 
from the stalk gives rise to free animalcules, as in Vorticella. 

404. Carchesium polypinum ( V. polypina , M.) The 
bell-like Animalcule of Leeuwenhoek has a conical, cam- 

2 66 


[. Polygaslrica. 

panulate body, the frontal portion broad, truncated, and 
the margin expanded. The colour is white, the pedicle is 
branched, the division being subumbellate. The stomach- 
cells are easily discerned, when indigo is mixed with the 
water, and the mouth is thus indicated by the particles 
becoming approximate near it. The reception of coloured 
food into the oesophagus is observable ; but its passage 
from one digestive sac to the other is so quick, that the 
alimentary canal has not been seen and traced as a con¬ 
tinuous tube ; it is similar to the act of swallowing in large 
animals, the food not remaining for any length of time 
in the oesophagus before it passes into the stomach. 
Figures 240 to 245 represent tree-like clusters, except 
fig. 244, which is a single free animalcule. Figures 240 
and 241 are only slightly magnified, the latter is con¬ 
tracted. In figures 242 and 245, as also the free pedicle, 
fig. 243, the muscle is very distinct. This muscle was 
first observed by Mr. Varley. Size l-570th to l-430th ; 
ova granules 1-24000th. 

Genus XCII. Epistylis. The pillar Animalcules .— 
Vorticellina with a rigid pedicle, either simple or branched, 
and having all the corpuscles of the same figure ; or, in other 
words, they are Yorticella or Carchesei with a rigid pedicle, 
without its internal muscle. The pedicle, or stalk, appears 
to be a hollow tube. Their polygastric structure, and the 
situation of the united mouth and anal opening, are easily 
demonstrated by the employment of coloured food. In 
E. plicatilis, the whole course of the alimentary canal can 
be seen. The granular ova, says Ehrenberg, have been 
measured in several species ; a contractile bladder, and a 
short band-like male gland, are observable in many; the 

Vorticellina. ] 



latter, however, is spherical in E. nutans. Self-division 
has been seen in E. anastatica, galea, plicatilis, flavicans, 
leucoa, digitalis, and nutans ; and it is probable that the 
free forms possess transverse division. In E. nutans and 
plicatilis, gemmae have been seen; but these are never 
produced by the stalk. 

405. Epistylis galea. The helmet Epistylis is large, 
has a conical body, contractile by transverse folds ; mouth 
lateral and projecting, pedicle thick, branched, and arti¬ 
culated. Found upon Ceratophyllum. Size of body 

406. Epistylis anastatica (V. anastatica , crataegaria et 
ring ms , M.) The rose of Jericho Epistylis has an oval body, 
without folds, the frontal margin dilated and projecting, 
and the pedicle dichotomous, smooth, or squamulous, with 
foreign particles. Stomach-cells and a united mouth are 
to be observed, but the alimentary canal has not yet been 
seen. The granules of ova are white by reflected light, 
and yellowish by transmitted. The clear bladder-like 
gland is often to be seen, but not its contraction. Growth 
of gemmae unknown; self-division longitudinal. Found 
upon Ceratophyllum, and also upon small-shelled water 
Molusca. Size l-280th; height of little tree l-140th; 
ova 1-12000th; cyclus of development l-12000th to 

407. Epistylis plicatilis (V. anularis etpyraria, M.) The 
folded Epistylis. —Body conical and elongated, contractile in 
folds, frontal margin dilated, truncated, and slightly project¬ 
ing. Pedicle dichotomous; smooth, or, when foreign bodies 
adhere, having a scaly appearance. They are often corym¬ 
bose. This species is white to the naked eye, but some- 



[ Polyyastrica . 

what yellow beneath the microscope; it is very much 
like the preceding, is often found with it, but is distin¬ 
guished by being larger, by its ring-like folds when con¬ 
tracted, and by the tasselled or tufted appearance of the 
cluster. Size 1 -280th to 1-210th. 

408. Epistylis grandis. The great Epistylis. —Body 
broadly campanulate, stalk decumbent, slender, smooth, 
the branches flexible and without articulations, but much 
tufted. This is not only the largest fresh water species of 
Epistylis, but it also forms the greatest masses. Its proper 
colour is a blueish- white, but it often appears of a yellow 
or greenish hue, from the colour of its food. Found upon 
Ceratophylla and Nymphaea, often in masses several feet 
long, and two to three inches thick; it appears like a 
blueish-white slime, which is easily broken up. Size 
1-140th to l-120th. 

409. Epistylis flavicans (V. acinosa et belts , M.) 
The yellowish Epistylis. —Body large, broadly campanu¬ 
late, pedicle smooth, and the branches coarctate. The 
branches are dilated at the axillae, and the ova are of a 
yellow colour. In this species, the alimentary canal is 
very evident. Size (stretched out) 1-190th ; tree l-9th 

410. Epistylis leucoa (Volvox sphaerula , M.)— The 
white granulated Epistylis has the body large, broadly 
campanulate, pedicle erect, smooth, and articulated; the 
branches are capitate, or collected in a head; the ova 
white. These animalcules are convex anteriorly, have 
distinct ova granules, a simple wreath of cilii, and a round 
mouth at the margin. The seminal gland is bent in the 
form of the letterS. Size l-120th; tree l-24th; ova 




1-5760th to 1-6000th; cyclus of development, consequently, 
1-6000th to 1-120th. 

411. Epistylis digitalis (V. digitalis , ringens et incli- 
nans , M.) The thimble Epistylis. —Body small, cylin¬ 
drical, campanulate, dichotomous, and finely annulated. 
This well-marked form infests the Cyclops quadricornis, 
drawn and described in the Microscopic Cabinet. It 
sometimes completely envelopes it. Ehrenberg says 
it does not appear to be deadly to it; but I consider it a 
disease. In its beautiful little tree, the Notommata petro- 
myzon nestles just like a bird in a bush, and fastens its 
eggs to its branches ; coloured food is readily taken in by 
this animalcule, and fifteen large stomach-cells have been 
counted. Size l-430th; tree l-20th. 

412. Epistylis (?) nutans. The nodding Epistylis .— 
Body ovate, attenuated at both ends ; mouth distinctly 
two-lipped and prominent. The pedicle is branched and 
annulated. (See Jig. 245 and 246.) This animalcule, says 
Ehrenberg, “ can push forth a bladder between its lips, like 
(si parva licet componere magnis) a camel can its palate 
veil (gaumen segel) ?' 5 Size 1-430th; tree l-24th. 

413. Epistylis botritis. The botritis Epistylis has a 
very small ovate body, crowned with cilii. They resemble 
grapes upon a simple hyaline pedicle. Size l-2400th; 
tree 1-240th. 

414. Epistylis vegetans (Volvotc vegetans , M.) The 
plant-like Epistylis has a very small ovate body, crowned 
with cilii (?) they are disposed in clusters, like the pre¬ 
ceding, upon a branched pedicle, of a yellow colour. When 
the water containing this species is coloured with indigo, 
strong currents are seen at the front or head of each 




animalcule, and a vibratile organ is observable at each 
little head ; but whether it is a wreath of cilii, or a simple 
proboscis, is undetermined; if the latter, this creature 
would belong to the Monads, where it would form the 
type of a new genus. Found in river water. Size 
1-3450th ; tree l-140th. 

415. Epistylis parasitica. The parasitical Epistylis 
has a small body, conical, campanulate, and solitary ; 
pedicle simple and smooth. Found upon Zoobotryon 
pellucidus. Length l-570th; with pedicle, l-120th to 

416. Epistylis Arahica. The Arabian Epistylis has a 
small oval campanulate body ; pedicle but little branched, 
smooth, and hyaline. Found in the Red Sea. Size of 
tree, l-140th. 

Genus XC1II. Opercularia. The parasol little bell 
Animalcules have a stiff rigid pedicle, branched, from im¬ 
perfect spontaneous division. The pediculated corpus¬ 
cles are of different forms; they have two lips—the supe- 
perior one, supported by a muscle, is somewhat like a 
parasol. They may be called Epistylis with dissimilar 
corpuscles. The organs of locomotion consist of a wreath 
of cilii, and a long muscle within the body; this rises or 
depresses the frontal surface, in the form of an upper lip. 
At the large, lateral, somewhat anterior mouth, to and 
from which the alimentary canal is seen running, the dis¬ 
charge of matter also takes place. They are hermaphro¬ 
ditic ; self-division, and free separation of the body from 
the stalk, have been observed. It is very remarkable that 
below its proper bodies, more especially in the axillae of 
the branches, there are seen large single bodies, and even 




larger egg-shaped ones, having hairs at their point, and only 
a little round, but not vibratile, opening. The latter ones are 
most probably parasitical bodies, the others are not. This 
genus is not figured by Ehrenberg. 

417. Opercularia articulata (V. Opercularia, M.) 
The articulated Opercularia is in the form of a little 
shrub, l-6th to l-4th high, white and dichotomous. This 
animalcule readily takes in carmine and indigo; and 
Ehrenberg states, he saw as many as forty-four stomach- 
cells filled, resembling a girdle in the middle of the body. 
The stalk is very delicately striated in a longitudinal 
direction, and shews, at its divarications, a transverse line, 
or joint. Found upon Dyticus marginatus. Size 1-430th. 

Genus XCIV. Zoothamnium. The double-shaped little 
hell Animalcules comprehend Vorticellina with a flexible 
spiral pedicle, having an internal muscle, and becoming 
branched, from imperfect spontaneous division. The 
stalked corpuscles are of different shapes, and have a 
simple lateral mouth opening. In one species, a wreath 
of cilii, placed around the frontal region, constitutes the 
locomotive apparatus; and a special muscle or fibre runs 
along the branches and stem. Artificial means are able 
to demonstrate numerous round stomach-cells. No re¬ 
productive organs have been detected; but simple and 
compound self-division has been observed. 

418. Zoothamnium arbuscula ( Vorticella racemosa , M.) 
The tree-like Zoothamnium has the branches of the little 
tree in racemes or umbels; the corpuscles being white, 
and the pedicle very thick. (S eefiy. 247, which is more 
highly magnified than 248). These beautiful little trees 
resemble plumes of feathers, at once distinguishing them- 



[ Polygastrica 

selves by their strong branches, but having the charac¬ 
ters of Carchesium and Opercularia, as respects the pre¬ 
sence of globular bodies in the axillae of the branches. 
When full grown, all the animalcules free themselves from 
the pedicle, which afterwards withers and disappears. 
Found upon Ceratophyllum. Size l-430th; tree l-4th; 
stalk l-4th the thickness of the body. 

419. Zoothamnium uiveum. The Abyssinian Zootham- 
nium .—Branches short, alternate, and almost verticillate; 
bodies oblong, white, clustered at the ends of the branches; 
some are round and attached to the trunk; the branches 
are filiform, the lower ones often deserted, while the upper 
bear clusters of club-shaped little bodies, rounded ante¬ 
riorly. Size 1-21 Oth. 





Comprehends loricated polygastric animalcules, solitary 
or aggregate, possessing a distinct alimentary canal, a 
separate mouth and discharging orifice, which approximate 
and terminate in the same cavity. In organization it re¬ 
sembles the family Vorticella; in fact, says Ehrenberg, they 
are true Vorticella or Stentores inclosed in a gelatinous or a 
membranous combustible little box (shell). The loco¬ 
motive apparatus consists of a frontal wreath of cilii; the 
genus Ophrydium has a second wreath placed posteriorly, 
and Tintinnus an elastic muscular stalk or tail. Although 
the polygastric organs of nutrition can be demonstrated in 
all the tribe by using coloured food, only in Ophrydium 
has an alimentary canal been distinctly seen by Ehrenberg. 
In Vaginicola and Cothurnia longitudinal division of the 
body without the lorica has been observed. In Ophrydium 
transverse division without the lorica is known. 

The genera are disposed as follows :— 

Forming Monad clusters, though incomplete self-division of the lorica .... Ophrydium. 

body furnished with an elastic pedicle attached 
to lorica 


Single anamalcules, no 
self-division of the lorica 

body stalkless 



lorica stalkless 
lorica stalked. 



Genus XCV. Ophrydium. The gelatinous little bell 
Animalcules are characterized by their possessing a gela¬ 
tinous lorica, and are clustered (resembling gelatinous balls), 
in consequence of perfect self-division of the body, but im¬ 
perfect of the lorica. This division gives rise to very 
peculiar external appearances, for each body very frequently 





divides itself, the two portions separating entirely; the 
gelatinous lorica forms only a separating wall. In this 
manner thousands and millions of connected animal cells 
are quickly formed, appearing as gelatinous masses. They 
resemble minute Algae of the genus Nostoc, and have been 
placed with ulva, fucus, conferva, &c., by different 

420. Ophrydium versatile (Trichoda inguillanus et 
Vorticella versatilis , M.) The green Ophrydium has elongated 
corpuscles, attenuated at both ends, vividly green, and as¬ 
sociated in smooth and globular polypi clusters or masses, 
which vary in size from that of apeatothatof aball five inches 
in diameter; they are either free or attached. Ehrenberg 
states that in May, 1837, he saw hundreds of clusters as large 
as the fist, which, by the evolution of gas, were at intervals 
elevated to the surface and driven by the wind to the edge 
of the water. Longitudinal self-division has been seen by 
the same observer, and he is inclined to believe that 
Schrank’s representation of transverse division is erroneous. 
In the engraving, figures 249, 250, represent quarters of 
small globular masses of clustered animalcules not mag¬ 
nified. Figures 251 and 252 represent parts of such a mass 
magnified. Figures 253 and 254 single animalcules, the 
former stretched out. Found in sea-water. Length of 
single animalcule, stretched out, 1-120th. 

Genus XCVI. Tintinnus. The clapper little hell 
Animalcules. —Ophrydina which possess divisibility of the 
body, but not of the urceolate lorica; the body is attached 
to the interior of the lorica by a flexible pedicle (somewhat 
similar to the clapper of a bell). The organs of locomotion 
are a wreath of cilii and the elastic pedicle ; the mouth 




serves both as a receiving and discharging orifice; the 
stomach-cells, as well as traces of a yellowish ova cluster, 
are more or less visible ; self-division was known to Muller. 

421. Tintinnus inquilinus. The cylindrical Tintinnus 
has an hyaline or yellowish coloured body, with a cylindrical 
glass-like, bell-shaped lorica. (See group 255.) Length of 
body, without the stalk, l-570th; with, l-240th. 

422. Tintinnus subulatus (Voriicellu vaginata, M.) 
The pointed Tintinnus has an hyaline conical lorica, with a 
posterior subulate elongation. Ehrenberg observes that if 
this elongation or pointing of the lorica should be called a 
stalk, we should require a new generic name for the animal. 
Length of lorica l-90th. 

Genus XCVII. Vaginicola. The Sheathed little 
bell Animalcules comprehend Ophrydina distinguished 
by divisibility of the body, but not the lorica, and neither 
of them pediculated ; a wreath of cilii surrounds the trun¬ 
cated frontal portion, within which, at the margin, is the 
orifice or mouth. The polygastric apparatus, the passage 
of the food onwards, its return, and the exit of the refuse 
near the mouth, have been seen by Ehrenberg. One species 
(V. crystallina) has coloured ova granules. No other re¬ 
productive organs have been observed satisfactorily. 
Increase by longitudinal self-division has been seen in all 
the species. 

423. Vaginicola crystallina (Vorticella stentorea et 
Trichoda ingenita , M.) The crystalline Vaginicola .— 
Lorica crystalline, straight, pitcher-shaped, slightly con¬ 
tracted near the open end; ova green. Found upon 
lemna, &c. Length of lorica 1-210th. 

424. Vaginicola tincta. The brown Vaginicola .— 

t 2 



[ Polygastrica. 

Lorica brownish-yellow, urceolate, and nearly cylindrical; 
body hyaline. Found upon Zygnema decimum. Size of 
lorica l-280th. 

425. Vaginicola decumbens . The decumbent Vagini- 
cola .—Lorica brownish-yellow, oval and compressed, as 
shewn in the engraving, group 256. The lorica is decum¬ 
bent, the body hyaline. Lives with the preceding. 
Length of lorica l-280th. 

Genus XCVIII. Cotiiurnia. The stilt little bell 
Animalcules possess divisibility of the body, but not of 
the lorica, which is urceolate in shape, and erected on a 
rigid buckskin-like pedicle. A wreath of cilii is placed 
upon the flat frontal region, and the mouth, joined with 
the anal opening, lies sideway within it. The body is 
elastic, and can withdraw itself within the stiff lorica: 
polygastric apparatus and longitudinal self-division have 
been observed in two species. The sexual structures are 
not satisfactorily seen. 

426. Cothurnia imberbis ( Vorticella folliculata , M.) 
The beardless Cothurnia has the pedicle much shorter than 
the lorica, the body of a yellowish colour. Ehrenberg 
remarks, “This animalcule had often swallowed green 
Monads, and yet accepted indigo. Trichodina vorax is the 
enemy of this species.” Found upon Cyclops quadricornis. 
( Mic. Cab., plate viii. group 257.) Length of lorica 1-280th. 

427. Cothurnia maritima. The sea Cothurnia has 
a pedicle much shorter than the hyaline lorica; the body 
is hyaline and whitish. Length of lorica l-570th. 

428. Cothurnia Havniensis. The Copenhagen Co¬ 
thurnia has a pedicle much longer than the hyaline lorica; 
the body is whitish. Size, without the stalk, 1-280th. 

Enc-he /?"«.] 




We now arrive at Infusoria which possess a much 
higher organization than those hitherto described, and 
Avhich have a distinct alimentary canal, with the mouth and 
discharging opening at opposite extremities of the body. 
These animalcules are destitute of lorica; organs of loco¬ 
motion have been observed in all the genera, and in all the 
species except two, but in no case do they consist of 
simple vibrating proboscides, but generally of numerous 
vibratile cilii. In the genera Actinophrys, Trichodiscus, 
and Podophrya, locomotion is performed by slow-moving 
feelers. In seven genera the organs of nutrition have 
been satisfactorily demonstrated, by the employment of 
coloured food, but only in one has the entire course of an 
alimentary canal been traced, though in most its course is 
indicated by the discharge at the end of the body 
Elirenberg states the polygastric structure is to be seen in 
all except the Arabian Disoma. A double condition, as 
regards the sexual apparatus, is seen in Enchelys, 
Leucophrys, and Prorodon. Complete self-division, both 
longitudinal and transverse, has been observed; but 
neither gemma or polypi clusters. The members of this 
family appear to me to resemble each other less than any 
membranous one that has preceded. The most curious 
animalcules among them are the double-bodied Disoma 
and the teeth-bearing Prorodon. 



[. Polygastrica. 

The genera are distributed as follows:— 

surface of 
body desti¬ 
tute of vi- ' 
bratile cilii 

(no lip) 

vibratile fbody simple . 
cilii at the<J 

mouth (.body double ? 





tentaculi I 
not vibra¬ 



' the body covered 1 
with rays J 

. rays at the edge .. 

no neck 

truncated J" 1 
mouth i 
(with up) lwith neck 

surfaceof robUqu 
body with J 
vibratile Idi 

e truncated mouth, with lip 
direct truncated mouth, no lip . . 










Teeth present 


Genus XCIX. Enchelys. The cylinder Animalcules . 
—Characteristics: Enchelia with body single, no vibratile 
cilii upon its surface; mouth truncated (direct, not oblique), 
devoid of teeth. A wreath of cilii is distinctly to be ob¬ 
served around the mouth in three species ; in one it is 
indistinct. In E. pupa the form of the alimentary canal 
is accurately seen ; the polygastric cells, mouth, and dis¬ 
charging orifice, are recognized in all. In E. pupa and 
nebulosa, very delicate ova granules are observable, and 
in E. farcimen a contractile bladder. The self-division is 
transverse and complete. 

429. Enchelys pupa (M.) The doll Enchelys has 
a turgid club-shaped body, attenuated anteriorly. The 
granulated ova are of a pale yellowish-green colour, and 
disposed around the stomach-cells; neither glands nor 
seminal bladder are visible. Figures 258 and 259 repre¬ 
sent two specimens: in the first the currents produced by 
the cilii around the mouth are distinct; they are both re¬ 
presented as fed on coloured substances. It is remarkable 
that this is the only species of Polygastrica of which 

Enchelia .] 



Dr. Ehrenberg has figured, in his large work, the form of 
the nutritive system separately. Common in stagnant 
bog water. Length l-140th. 

430. Enciielys farcimen ( E . farcimen et Vibrio 
intestinum, M.) The sausage-shaped Enciielys is smaller, 
more cylindrical and slender than the preceding species; 
the ova are whitish. These creatures prey on other 
animalcules nearly as large as themselves, which they 
devour entire; this will account for the variety of forms 
which they assume, and require an observer to be very 
watchful and cautious before he can pronounce on the 
identity of a species. Dr. Ehrenberg, by patient observa¬ 
tion, saw one individual undergo a great variety of forms 
when it had swallowed a young Kolpoda cucullus. To 
explain this effect, fig. 260 shews a young specimen with 
open mouth, about to devour an animalcule; this it ac¬ 
complishes by the motion of the fringe of cilii producing 
a current in the water; the prey by this means is brought 
into contact with the mouth aperture, which gradually 
dilates till the animalcule is entirely inclosed. During 
this operation it swims about, and a casual observer would 
imagine the form shewn at Jig. 261 as the normal shape of 
another animalcule, while, in fact, it is occasioned by its 
food; as the digestion proceeds the lower part dilates, and 
the anterior contracts into its former shape; the animalcule 
then assumes an egg shape (figures 262 to 265), and 
finally returns to its true form. Found in stagnant water. 
Length 1-430th. 

431. Enciielys infuscata. The brown-mouthed Enchelys 
has an oval or spherical whitish body; the mouth encircled 
by a brownish ring, and not prominent. When fed with 




indigo numerous digestive cells become filled. Found in 
bog water. Size 1-280th to 1-240th. 

432. Enchelys nebulosa (M.) The nebulous Enchelys 
has an ovate hyaline body, with a projecting mouth. 
This species receives carmine and indigo very readily. 
Ehrenberg has counted as many as nineteen digestive cells 
filled with the coloured food. Size l-230th to 1-570th. 

Genus C. Disoma (?) The double-bodied Animalcules .— 
This curious genus is characterized by the presence of a 
double body, destitute of cilia; that part at which the 
mouth is situated is truncated (direct). The mouth is 
ciliated, but devoid of teeth. Within the bodies numerous 
little vesicular cells (stomachs) are observed, and the dis¬ 
charge of excrement may be seen to take place at the 
posterior extremity of each body. 

433. Disoma vacillans . The vacillating Disoma has 
binary corpuscles, filiform and slenderly club-shaped; 
it is hyaline and attenuated at the anterior extremity. 
Ehrenberg remarks, “Both bodies frequently swam parallel 
beside each other, so that they turned on their long axis 
and moved onwards quickly, though vacillating; some¬ 
times both bodies gaped widely apart from each other, but 
never so widely as to form a straight line. (See Jig. 265*.) 
Found on Mount Sinai. Size 1-380th. 

Genus Cl. Actinophrys. The sun Animalcules .— 
Enchelian Infusoria, of a globular shape, covered with 
setaceous tentacula, but without vibratile cilii. The part 
at which the mouth is situated is truncated (direct). 
The progress of the discovery of the organization of this 
genus is as follows:—In 1773 the mouth was indistinctly 
observed; in 1783 both the mouth and reception of 

Enchelia .] 



coloured food were distinctly seen by Eickhorn; in 1777 
Eickhorn noticed the erection and depression of the 
tentacules or rays, and locomotion produced thereby; in 
1830 Ehrenberg saw the poly gastric structure, and the 
discharging orifice opposed to the mouth; also a short 
proboscis in Ac. sol. Granular matter, probably repre¬ 
senting ova, is seen in all the species. Miiller saw around 
gland, and Eickhorn self-division. 

434. Actinophrys sol (Trichoda sol , M.) The whitish 
Actinophrys .—Body spherical, of a whitish colour, rays 
few, and about the length of the diameter of the body. 
Ehrenberg says, “The rays or tentacules serve to feel, to 
move, and to catch. 95 Meyen states he has seen the rays, 
or tentacules, when cut off, twist themselves, but Dr. 
Ehrenberg considers that eminent botanist to have mis¬ 
taken them for Vibrio bacillus, which is mostly present 
with this species. The mouth is large and round, and has 
a proboscis ; Eickhorn appears to have seen much larger 
forms, so that they could be seen with the naked eye, and 
found within them whole (!) forms of small Entomostracis ! 
Found in the dust-like matter upon the surface of in¬ 
fusions. Size 1-1200th to l-430th. 

435. Actinophrys viridis. The green Actinophrys .— 
Body spherical, greenish, rays numerous and shorter than 
the diameter of the body, as shewn in Jig. 266. Found 
amongst conferva. Diameter of the body, exclusive of 
rays, 1-620th to 1-280 th. 

436. Actinophrys difformis. The gibbous Actinophrys . 
—Body irregular, lobed, and hyaline; rays variable in length, 
some longer than the diameter of the body. Diameter, 
without the rays, 1-570th to 1-280th. 




Genus ClI. Trichodiscus. The rayed-disc Animal¬ 
cules. —Body depressed, marginated Avith a single row of 
setaceous tentacules; vibratile cilii and teeth absent; no 
pedicle : the mouth truncated (direct). 

The flat disciform shape of these Infusoria resembles 
those of the genus Arcella, but, unlike the latter, these are 
soft and shell-less, Avith the rays stiff, like bristles. A 
central opening, and probably a large lateral gland, have 
been recorded by Ehrenberg, who likewise states that he 
lias seen, though indistinctly, numerous digestive cells, 
but that reception of coloured food was not observed, nor 
the situation of the anal orifice. 

437. Trichodiscus sol. The sun Trichodiscus .— 
Figures 267 and 268 have a depressed almost flat body, 
hyaline or yelloAvish, Avith variable rays. The motion of 
this species is very sluggish; it often remains for a long¬ 
time inert. Found amongst conferva. Diameter, without 
the rays, l-430th to 1-210th. 

Genus CIII. Podophrya. The pedicled and rayed 
Animalcules. —Enchelia devoid of vibrating cilii and teeth; 
their bodies are spherical, pedicellated (free), and covered 
Avith setaceous tentacules. The mouth truncated (direct). 


In organization they are similar to Actinophrys, with a 
stiff stalk. 

438. Podophrya Jixa (Trichoda jixa, M.) The fresh¬ 
water Podophrya has a spherical, turbid, Avhitish body, with 
a glass-like pedicle, slightly excised at the extremity. The 
rays or setae have their extremities capitate, and equal the 
diameter of the body in length, as represented at figures 
269, 270 : the latter exhibits it with tAVo animalcules it has 
seized. Dr. Ehrenberg states the seizing or catching power 




of this animalcule is very interesting to observe. As soon 
as a specimen of the quick vibrating Tricliodina grandinella 
approaches to and comes in contact with its tentacules it 
is immediately taken prisoner, ceases to vibrate, and 
stretches out its cilii backwards (Opisthotonus). On the 
whole, this species resembles the Acineta, from which it is 
separated by Dr. Ehrenberg, who supposes it to possess a 
discharging orifice, though its situation is unknown. 
Found among dust-like matter upon the surface of pond 
water, and perhaps, says Dr. Ehrenberg, in the sea 
(Copenhagen). Diameter l-430th. 

Genus CIV. Trichoda. The hair Animalcules .— 
Body devoid of hairs or cilii; mouth truncated (oblique), 
destitute of teeth, but provided with vibratile cilii, and 
having a lip, but no neck. The polygastric apparatus is 
satisfactorily proved by the employment of coloured food, 
and the posterior anal spot is also known. The oblique 
surface of the mouth forms a very characteristic upper 
lip-like projection. In T. pyrum only has self-division 
been observed. All the species are colourless. 

439. Trichoda pur a (Kolpoda pyrum , M.) The clear 
Trichoda , represented at figures 271, 2, 3, has an oblong 
club-shaped body, with small vesicles. The anterior part 
is attenuated, and the mouth lateral. Common in vegetable 
infusions, usually with Cyclidium glaucoma. Size l-720th. 

440. Trichoda Nasamonum. The Lybian Trichoda .— 
Body cylindrical, extremities equally obtuse, the mouth 
large and elongated laterally. Size 1-288th. 

441. Trichoda ovata. The egg-shaped Trichoda .— 
Body ovate, turgid, attenuated anteriorly; mouth small 
and lateral. Size l-480th. 




442. Trichoda (?) JEthiopica. The ^Ethiopian Trichoda. 
—Body oblong, attenuated posteriorly, and the under side 
flat; mouth large. Size 1-600th. 

443. Trichoda Asiatica. The Asiatic Trichoda. —Body 
oval, oblong, cylindrical, rounded at both ends; mouth 
small. Size 1-860th. 

444. Trichoda pyrum (Kolpoda pyrum , M.) The 
peat-shaped Trichoda. —Body ovate, turgid, acute an¬ 
teriorly. Found amongst conferva and infusion of celery. 
Size 1-1200th. 

Genus CV. Lacrymaria. The tear Animalcules .— 
Body furnished with a long narrow neck, slightly enlarged 
near the termination, where the ciliated and lateral (lipped) 
mouth, destitute of teeth, is situated. The body is not 
ciliated. Locomotion is performed by means of the neck, 
the distensible body, and the cilii at the mouth. The 
proboscis-like lip is very short, sometimes distinctly articu¬ 
lated, and projects but little beyond the oral orifice. Its 
poly gastric structure can be demonstrated by employing 
coloured food, and its discharge at the end recognized in 
one species ; in another green (ova) granules are present. 

445. Lacry t maria proteus (Trichoda proteus , M.) 
The changeable Lacrymaria. —This creature has an 
oblong turgid body, with delicate transverse folds. The 
neck is capable of considerable extension, as seen in the 
engraving ( plate vi.), figures 274, 5; in the former it is ex¬ 
tended, in the latter contracted. It resembles Trachelocerca 
olor, but its posterior extremity is rounded, at the centre 
of which is the discharging orifice. Reproductive organs 
are unknown. Found amongst lemna. Size, stretched 
out, 1-140th. 




446. Lacrymaria gutta. The drop-like Lacrymaria 
has a smooth and nearly spherical body, with a very long- 
neck. Found with conferva. Size 1-1150th; including 
neck, 1-210th. 

447. Lacrymaria rugosa. The wrinkled Lacrymaria .— 
The body of this animalcule is nearly globular, and 
wrinkled ; the neck is of a medium length, and the ova 
green. In swimming it often revolves on its longitudinal 
axis; neither cilia nor an enlargement is observable near the 
mouth. Size l-570th; including neck, l-288th. 

Genus CVI. Leucophrys. 

This interesting genus is characterized by having vibratile 
cilii upon the whole surface of their body, and a mouth 
obliquely terminal, without teeth. From the oblique 
position of the mouth the upper part appears like a lip. 
The cilii, which cover the body, are short and disposed in 
rows ; those around the mouth are longer, and produce 
very powerful currents. In swimming all the species re¬ 
volve upon the longer axis. A serpentine alimentary canal 
(with numerous grape-like stomach-cells, more than fifty), 
terminating at the opposite extremity to the mouth, is 
present. In three species, numerous ova granules are ob¬ 
served, and in some, one or two globular glands and simple 
contractile bladders. Transverse and longitudinal self¬ 
division has been observed. 

448. Leucophrys patula (Trichoda patula , M.) The 
gaping-mouthed Leucophrys. —This creature has an oval, 
campanulate, turgid body, as shewn in figures 276, 7. It 
is sometimes quite pellucid, at others of a whitish colour. 
The mouth is ample and gaping. The stomach-cells are 
very large, and fill themselves in an irregular manner; when 



[ Polygastrica. 

the animalcule is quiet, the passage of the food onwards is 
seen (during eating) in the serpentine canal to which the 
stomachs are attached, like berries; even, says Dr. 
Ehrenberg, the stalk or short tube connecting them is 
visible when they receive or discharge coloured food. 
The longitudinal rows of cilii are very numerous in full- 
grown specimens. The ova are white by incident light, 
brownish by transmitted; in the middle of the body is a 
small globular male gland. Found both in fresh and sea 
water. Size l-280th to l-96th. 

449. Leucophrys spathula ( E. Spathula , M.)—This 
creature has a lanceolate, compressed, whitish body, mem¬ 
brane-like at its anterior extremity, where it is obliquely 
truncated, and a narrow mouth situated. Found amongst 
lemna. Length l-140th. 

450. Leucophrys sanguined (Trichoda striata, M.) The 
red Leucophrys. —This beautiful-coloured creature, shewn 
at Jig. 279, has a cylindrical body, rounded at both extremi¬ 
ties, and of the colour of blood. Ehrenberg remarks that 
within it are two bright contractile round bladders, and 
when the creature undergoes self-division, as shewn in 
Jig. 280, there is always one in each part. Length 1-144th; 
ova granules 1-12000th. 

451. Leucophrys pyriformis (Kolpoda pyrum , M.) The 
pear-shaped Leucophrys has an ovate whitish body, rather 
more acute anteriorly, ventricles large. Size l-570th to 

452. Leucophrys carniurn (Kolpoda pyrum, M.)—Has 
an oval oblong body, acute anteriorly, and of a whitish 
colour, ventricles narrow. Found in putrescent animal 
water, and draining of manure. Size 1-1440th to l-430th. 

Enchelia .] 



453. Leucophrys (?) anodontae (Leucophrajlinda, M.) 
The muscle Leucophrys has an oval, turgid, and transpa¬ 
rent body, rounded at both extremities. Found in Siberia 
and Copenhagen. Size l-430th. 

Genus CYII. Holophrya. The wool Animalcules 
comprehend Enchelia covered with vibratile cilii; the 
mouth anterior, directly truncated, and without lip or 
teeth. They might be termed ciliated Enchelyses. The 
digestive cells have been seen in all the species, and in 
two the mouth and discharging orifice. The cilii are dis¬ 
posed in longitudinal rows. In H. ovum, organs of pro¬ 
pagation (green granules and a posterior contractile blad¬ 
der) are observable; self-division appears to be transverse 
in H. discolor. 

454. Holophrya ovum (Ijeucophra hursata , M.) The 
egg-shaped Holophrya. —Body ovate, somewhat cylindrical, 
extremities sub-truncated. (See Jig. 281.) The ova are 
green. Found amongst lemna and conferva. Size 1-570th 
to 1-210 th. 

455. Holophrya discolor (Trichoda horricla, M.) The 
conical Holophrya. —Body white, ovate, conical, sub-acute 
at the posterior extremity; the cilii long and scattered. 
Found amongst conferva. Size 1-240th. 

456. Holophrya coleps (Leucophra globulifera, M.) 
The cylindrical Holophrya has an oblong, cylindrical body, 
rounded at both extremities. It is of a white hue. Size 
l-430th to l-280th. 

Genus CVIII. Prorodon. The toothed-cylinder Ani¬ 
malcules. —This remarkable genus is distinguished by its 
directly truncated mouth, furnished with a circlet of in¬ 
ternal teeth. The body is covered with vibratile cilii. A 



[ Poli/gastnca. 

polygastric system of nutrition (with the anterior and pos¬ 
terior orifices of the alimentary canal) has been observed, 
by feeding on colouring matter. A long band-like gland 
and contractile bladder, with a granulated mass, are seen 
in P. niveus. 

457. Prorodon niveus . The white Prorodon .—Body 
large, elliptical, and compressed; colour white; circlet of 
teeth compressed, as shewn separate at Jig. 283. Found 
amongst conferva in turf pools. Length 1-7 2nd ; ova 
granules 1 -2400th. 

458. Prorodon teres. The cylindrical Prorodon .— 
Body ovato-cylindrical, as represented at Jig. 282; it is of 
a white colour, circlet of teeth cylindrical. Ehrenberg 
counted twenty teeth; when broken up, forty-five. In 
swimming it revolves upon the long axis of the body. Size 
1-140 th. 





The animalcules of this small family are loricated, and pos¬ 
sess apolygastric alimentary canal, whose orifices are placed 
at the opposite extremities of the body. The lorica is in the 
form of a small cask, composed either of minute plates, 
placed in a row, or of little rings, betw r een which cilii are 
situated. Anteriorly the lorica is truncated, smooth, or 
toothed, the mouth ciliated posteriorly, the shell terminates 
in from three to five little points. The digestive cells in 
these creatures are readily filled with coloured food, and 
its remains ejected posteriorly. The ova granules are 
coloured in C. viridis; in the other species they are colour¬ 
less; complete transverse self-division has been observed 
in one species. 

Genus CIX. Coleps. The little box Animalcules. —This 
being the only genus, its characteristics are identical with 
those of its family. 

452. Coleps hirtus (Cercaria hirta , M.) 7he hairy 

Coleps. —This brisk little creature has an oval white body. 
Its lorica is composed of small plates, and between them, 
both transversely and longitudinally, are rows of cilii. 
The tablets terminate anteriorly in nineteen pointed pro¬ 
cesses, and posteriorly in three, as shewn in the engraving, 
Jig. 284. The mouth is furnished with cilii, as seen in 
figure 285; figure 286 is an end view of the lorica. 

In my work on Animalcules, I have stated the difficulty 
there was in examining it, from its restless habits; and 
Ehrenberg makes a similar statement, and says, in swim¬ 
ming it is difficult to perceive its lorica, but when dried, or 



\_Polygastric a 


pressed between glasses, tlie little shields composing it are 
rendered visible. Found amongst conferva. They are 
rather scarce. Length l-570th to 1-430th. 

460. Coleps viridis. The green Coleps. —Body oval 
and ciliated, lorica composed of plates terminating in three 
points. Found amongst conferva. Size l-960th to 1-570th. 

461. Coleps elongatus. The long Coleps has a cylin¬ 
drical elongated body, lorica tabulated, white, and termi¬ 
nating in three points; transverse self-division has been 
observed. Size l-570th to l-430th. 

462. Coleps amphacanthus. The crowned Coleps has 
an ovate body; lorica is composed of rings, and the ante¬ 
rior part crowned with unequal teeth, the posterior having 
three strong spines. Found in the body of Spirostomum 
vireus. Size 1-280th. 

463. Coleps incurvus. The curved Coleps. —Body ob¬ 
long, nearly cylindrical, and slightly curved; lorica tabu¬ 
lated and terminating in five points. Found amongst con¬ 
ferva. Size l-430th. 





This extensive family includes those polygastric animal¬ 
cules which have an alimentary canal with two distinct ori¬ 
fices, the receiving one' lateral, the discharging one termi¬ 
nal. They have no lorica. The bodies of all the genera, 
except Phialina, are covered with vibrating cilii; these are 
generally disposed in longitudinal rows, and those near 
the mouth are longest. The cilii serve as organs of locomo¬ 
tion. Trachelius has no neck, but the frontal portion of 
the body is prolonged in the form of a long proboscis-like 
lip; in Loxodes and Chilodon it is like a hatchet-shaped 
broad lip. In Glaucoma there is a tremulous flap to the 
mouth; and in Chilodon and Nassula the teeth sometimes 
project before the mouth. The genera Bursaria and 
Nassula have a thick frontal protuberance, caused by the 
alimentary canal being curved anteriorly; numerous sto¬ 
mach-cells are observable, and their reception and dis¬ 
charge of coloured matter can be seen in all the genera. 
The teeth in Chilodon and Nassula, and the violet-coloured 
bile (gall) of the latter genus, are worthy of notice. In 
Spirostomum the mouth is of a spiral shape; reproductive 
organs are of a double kind in all the genera. Complete 
transverse and longitudinal self-division is frequent, but 
neither the formation of gemmae nor clusters are 



[. Polygastrica . 

The genera are disposed as follows 











continuous / 
with the 

with a flip long, proboscis-like.. Tracheliu3. 

‘5 / upper lip tjip broad, hatchet-shaped Loxodes. 

o l^brow-like prominent back .. Bursaria. 

^ Mouth spiral .Spirostomum. 


Brow discontinued in a peg-like njanner .Phialina. 

Mouth having a tremulous flap ...Glaucoma. 

.c c f A brow-like prominent upper lip 

& <U | 

H ^ [_A brow-like prominent back .. 



Genus CX. Trachelius. The neck Animalcules are 
characterized by having their bodies ciliated, a simple 
mouth destitute of teeth, and the upper lip very much 
elongated in the form of a proboscis. This latter organ, 
along with the cilii, serves for the purpose of locomotion; 
in three species, however, no cilii are to be seen. The 
mouth is seated at the base of the proboscis in four species. 
In four species, also, the polygastric structure of the ali¬ 
mentary canal has been demonstrated by coloured food, and 
in three the discharging orifice: but, from the rounding off 
of the extremities of the others, the latter has only been 
presumed. In T. meleagris the gall is of a pale red colour. 
The propagating apparatus of two species is hermaphro¬ 
ditic; in the others it is only partially demonstrable. In 
T. ovum, and T. meleagris the expulsion of ova granules has 
been seen. Two species increase by transverse self-division. 

464. Trachelius anas (Trichoda anas et index, M.) 
The goose-like Trachelius .—Body white, clavate, and cylin¬ 
drical; proboscis thick, obtuse, and shorter than half the 
body; mouth situated close to the base of the proboscis. 
Fig. 287, 287*, exhibit two full-grown Infusoria; the for¬ 
mer exhibits the currents it produces to bring the food 

T racket inci.^\ 



within its reach; Jig. 288 is a specimen undergoing trans¬ 
verse self-division; and Jig. 289 a young one. Found in 
exposed infusions, and amongst conferva. Size l-280th 
to 1-120th. 

465. Trachelius vorax . The voracious Trachelius 
has a clavate ovate body, turgid white colour, and thick 
obtuse proboscis, shorter than half the body; the mouth is 
situated near the middle of the body, and not at the base 
of the proboscis. Found amongst conferva. Size 1-120th. 

466. Trachelius meleagris. The pearl Trachelius has 
a compressed lanceolate body, often curved in the form of 
the letter S, with a thick obtuse proboscis, shorter than 
half the body; it has along the back a series of vesicles, 
like a string of pearls. Size 1 -96th to l-72nd. 

467. Trachelius lamella (Kolpoda lamella, M.) The 
Jlat Trachelius has a depressed laminated body, of a linear 
lanceolate shape, often truncated anteriorly, and rounded 
at the end. Size l-900th to l-280th. 

468. Trachelius anaticula. The little goose-like 
Trachelius. —Body white, small, ovate, pyriform, attenuated 
and diaphanous anteriorly. Found amongst conferva. 
Size l-570th to l-280th. 

469. Trachelius (?) tricophorus (Vibrio strictus, M.) 
The whip-shaped Trachelius has a cylindrical changeable 
body, often clavate; the proboscis capitate, and in the 
form of a very delicate whip. Size l-1200th to l-430th. 

470. Trachelius (?) globulij'er. The spherical Tra¬ 
chelius has a spherical hyaline body, with a very delicate 
whip-like acute proboscis. Found amongst conferva. 
Size 1-200th. 

471. Trachelius ovum. The egg-shaped Trachelius. — 



[ Polygastrica. 

This creature, which is represented in the engraving, Jig. 
290, has an ample ovate boc^y, broadly open, in a campa- 
nulate form anteriorly; proboscis short, in the form of a 
beak. The colour is white. In no infusorial animalcule 
is the alimentary canal so easily seen as in this, as also the 
large mouth and contractile vesicle laying over the lower 
part of the alimentary canal; numerous small digestive 
cells and ova granules appear in every part. Found in 
stagnant bog water. Size l-72nd. 

Genus CXI. Loxodes. The lipped Animalcules have their 
bodies covered with cilii, a simple mouth devoid of teeth, 
upper lip continuous and broad, hatchet-shaped; the 
organs of locomotion are the rows of cilii and the long ones 
near the mouth. Coloured food has demonstrated the 
polygastric structure of three species, and in one its ex¬ 
pulsion has been observed. In L. bursaria propagating 
apparatus of a double kind, viz. ova granules, an oval gland, 
and two contractile globular vesicles, have been seen, and 
in two others the granules only ; self-division transverse. 

472. Loxodes rostrum (Kolpoda rostrum , M.) The 
beaked Loxodes .—Body white, lanceolate, slightly curved 
in the form of an S, in consequence of the lip being a little 
uncinated. Ehrenberg states that he has very often seen 
large Naviculse and Synedras within this creature, but that 
it would not feed on coloured food. The cilii are very 
delicate. Fig. 291 represents an animalcule which has fed 
upon Bacillaria; jig. 292, another creeping along conferva; 
and jig. 293 a specimen undergoing transverse self-division. 
Found amongst conferva. Size 1-144th to l-60th; ova 
granules less than 1-24000th. 

473. Loxodes cithara ( T/ichoda aurantiu , M.) The 




harp-shaped, Loxodes. —Body triangular and compressed, 
anteriorly it is dilated and obliquely truncated, but pointed 
at the posterior extremity. Colour white. Size l-430th 
to 1-210th. 

474. Loxodes bursaria . The green Loxodes. —Body 
oblong, anteriorly it is obliquely truncated and depressed, 
posteriorly hemispherical. Found in bogs. Size 1-280th. 

475. Loxodes plicatas. The wrinkled Loxodes. —This 
small creature has an elliptical depressed body, convex on 
the back, and slightly plicated; the lip is uncinate. Found 
on conferva. Size l-430th. 

Genus CXII. Bursaria. The purse Animalcules .— 
This interesting genus is composed of creatures covered 
with cilii, the anterior part convex, their mouth not ter¬ 
minal, though simple, toothless, and devoid of tremulous 
flap. The cilii serve as organs of locomotion, and are dis¬ 
tinctly seen in coloured water; they are generally disposed 
in rows, those around the mouth are longer than the others. 
The nutritive system consists of an alimentary canal, curved 
forwards; it is furnished with digestive cells resembling 
little purses, which are attached to it by short stalks. The 
mouth is large, not situated, as in Leucophrys, obliquely at 
the anterior extremity of the body, but laterally, so that, 
as it were, a brow either projects over it or else forms the 
end. The bile is white or reddish, the propagative appa¬ 
ratus hermaphrodite in three species, and in five but partly 
know n. Self-division, longitudinal or transverse, has been 
observed in five species. 

(#.) Sub-genus Bursaria. — The inferior (not anterior) lip 
reaching to the frontal margin. 

476. Bursaria truncatella (M.) The truncated Bur- 




saria has a large, white, ovate, turgid body, truncated and 
broadly excavated in the front, which has a simple row of 
cilii. In some specimens, Ehrenberg saw half-digested 
Rotiferae, and large quantities of vegetable matter, in the 
nutritive cells, and was able to see the canal fill itself with 
carmine, but could not follow the whole course of it. In 
each cell the food is surrounded by a clear fluid, which 
Ehrenberg calls bile. A large bright bladder is seen be¬ 
low the mouth, and somewhat to the left of it, on which 
side is a large curved but not articulated gland, reaching 
to the brow or front. Found in ditches, in woods, amongst 
rotten beech leaves. Size l-48th to l-36th. 

477. Bursaria vorticella. The bell-shaped Bur saria. 
—Body white, large, nearly spherical, and turgid; the 
anterior truncated, and widely excavated, having a double 
row of cilii. Found with Chlamidomonas pulvisculus and 
Gonium pectorale, some of which are seen within it in 
fw. 294. Size 1-108th. 

478. Bursaria vorax. The voracious Bursaria. —Body 
large, oblong, rounded at the ends; mouth alnple, being 
one third the length of the body, and touching the summit 
of the frontal region. This species has great resemblance 
to Urostyla grandis and Stylonychia lanceolata, when their 
claws and styles are withdrawn. Found, in summer, in 
muddy water. Size 1-140th to 1-108th. 

479. Bursaria entozoou. The worm Bursaria has a 
large cylindrical, turgid body, nearly equally rounded at the 
extremities; small mouth, situated under the frontal apex. 
Found, with the following, in the rectum of Rana tempo- 
raria, in summer and winter. 

480. Bursaria intestiuaUs (Vibrio vermicuius, M.) 

Trachelina .] 



The intestinal Bursaria has a slender cylindrical body, at¬ 
tenuated posteriorly; mouth small, below the frontal apex. 
In this species, as well as in others, Ehrenberg has seen 
transverse self-division. Size 1-240th to l-120th. 

481. Bursaria (?) cordiformis. The heart-shaped Bur¬ 
saria. —Body reniform, front depressed, mouth slightly 
curved in a spiral manner; colour white. Size 1-210th. 

482. Bursaria lateritia (Trichoda ignita, M) The 
brick-red coloured Bursaria. —Body compressed, ovato- 
triangular, with the front sharply crestated. Found with 
lemna, conferva, &c. Size 1-430th to 1-144th. 

(/;.) Frontonia. —Anterior part of the body [brow) projects 
beyond the mouth , and is convex. 

483. Bursaria vernalis [feucophra virescens, M.) The 
spring Bursaria has an oval turgid body, rounded at the 
ends, and attenuated posteriorly. The mouth has a wreath 
of stiff short bristles, resembling teeth ; numerous stomach 
vesicles are often filled with large Oscillatoriae, Naviculae, 
&c., and contain a reddish bile. The process of digesting 
the Oscillatoriae is interesting to follow :—they are at first 
elastic and rigid, and of a beautiful blue green colour, then 
distinctly lax, flexible, and bright green, becoming after¬ 
wards yellowish-green, and falling into separate articu¬ 
lations, which at length turn yellow. Found amongst 
oscillatoria in spring. Length 1-144th to 1-120th. 

484. Bursaria leucas. The white Bursaria. —Body 
oblong, cylindrical extremities nearly equi-convex, bile 
colourless (see fg. 295). This creature has a contractile 
bladder, with a curious jagged margin near the long open 
mouth. Found with oscillatoria, and on the surface of 
water. Size 1-144 th. 



[ Polygastrica. 

485. Bursaria pupa. The doll-like Bursaria. —Body 
white, ovato-oblong, rather acute posteriorly, mouth 
aperture inferior, and near the frontal apex (see Jig, 296). 
Found in chalybeate water in Germany. Size 1-280th. 

486. Bursaria flava. The pale yellow Bursaria .— 
Body ovato-oblong, often acute at the posterior extremity; 
the mouth appears as a flat cavity immediately behind 
the round brow. Found in bog water. Size 1-140th to 

487. Bursaria nucleus. The almond-shaped Bursaria 
has a small white ovate body, attenuated anteriorly; ex¬ 
tremities convex. Found in Rana temporaria and esculenta. 
Size l-240th. 

488. Bursaria ranarum. The frog Bursaria. —Body 
ovate, lenticular, and compressed, sub-acute anteriorly ; 
the back and belly carinated, and often truncated poste¬ 
riorly ; mouth inferior, situated near the frontal apex. Size 
1-210th to l-72nd 

489. Bursaria (?) aurantiaca. The orange-coloured 
Bursaria. —Body ovato-oblong, anterior obtuse, posterior 
acute; it has an ash-coloured spot near the mouth. Found 
amongst oscillatoria. Size 1-280th. 

Genus CXIII. Spirostomum. The snail Animalcules 
have their bodies ciliated, the frontal region continuous, 
mouth spirally shaped, devoid of teeth, but with a tremu¬ 
lous flap. The cilii, which are disposed in rows, serve as 
organs of locomotion ; those at the oblique frontal ridge 
are longer, and form, as in Stentor, a spiral wreath around 
the mouth; in S. ambiguum the brow and wreath are 
remarkably long. Digestive cells, to the number of ninety, 
have been demonstrated by coloured food, and its discharge 

Trachelina .] 



observed. They are hermaphrodite. A band-like thick 
gland is seen in S. virens, and a bead-like one in other 
species ; the former likewise possess a large contractile 
bladder and green ova granules ; but in S. ambiguum the 
latter are white. Self-division has not been observed, but 
Ehrenberg presumes a transverse mode exists. 

490. Spirostomum virens. The green Spirostomum. 
—Body egg-shaped, depressed, truncated anteriorly, and 
rounded posteriorly. The back is arched, and the under 
side flat. The green ova granules are sometimes absent. 
{Fig. 296*.) Size l-120th; ova 1-6000th. 

491. Spirostomum ambiguum (Leucophrys, Trichoda 
ambigua , M.) The worm-shaped Spirostomum. —Body 
white, cylindrical, filiform, and pliant, obtuse anteriorly, 
and truncated posteriorly; the body extends very much 
beyond the mouth, forming an elongated frontal region or 
brow. The long vibrating cilii in front often appear like 
a proboscis, and were mistaken for such by Miiller. The 
structure of this creature, especially the mouth, is remark¬ 
able, the latter being only one-fifth from the tail; thus the 
front or brow is very long, and the alimentary canal, first 
inflected forwards, returns along the body; from the 
mouth to the anterior or top of the brow runs a long 
ciliated furrow. Figures 297 and 298 represent this crea¬ 
ture. In swimming they extend themselves, and are thus 
readily perceived by the naked eye. Found in ditches, 
among decaying oak leaves and rotten wood. Length 
1-12th ; ova 1-12000. 

Genus CXIV. Phialina. The bottle Animalcules are 
characterized by having the frontal ciliated portion sepa¬ 
rated from the body by a constriction, forming a sort of 



[Polygcisti ica. 

neck, body destitute of cilii, mouth lateral, and devoid of 
teeth. The motion of these creatures is produced by the 
vibration of this powerful wreath of cilii over the mouth. 
Ehrenberg says cilii may be present upon the surface of 
the body, as Muller saw them in Trichoda mellitea. The 
propagative organs are green or white ova granules, and a 
contractile bladder (perhaps two), situated posteriorly. 
Self-division probably transverse. 

492. Phialina vermicularis (Trichoda vermicularis , 
M.) The white Phialina. —Body egg-shaped, attenuated 
anteriorly, neck very short. The white colour of this 
animalcule is caused by its ova. Found with lemna. Size 

493. Phialina viridis. The green Phialina .—Body 
bottled-shaped, anterior part acute, the posterior gradually 
attenuated, neck very short. (Fig. 299.) Length 1-280th. 

Genus CXV. Glaucoma. The pearl Animalcules are 
characterized by having the body covered with cilii, and a 
mouth provided with a tremulous flap, but no teeth. The 
reception and discharge of food, and the presence of diges¬ 
tive cells, indicate, according to Ehrenberg, the existence of 
an alimentary canal. The mouth, with its vibratory valve, 
is situated on the inferior side, near the middle. The 
reproductive organs are a large ovate gland, a star-like 
contractile bladder, and ova granules. Self division trans¬ 
verse or longitudinal. 

494. Glaucoma scintillans (Cyclidium bulla , M.) The 
tremulous Glaucoma. —Body elliptical or ovate, slightly 
depressed; ventricles large. The vibrating flap appears 
to be a semi-oval proboscis, with stiff margin. The cilii are 
seen by employing colour, or by pressing or drying them. 




Figures 300,301, and 302, represent different views of this 
creature; the latter shows it while undergoing transverse 
self-division. Found with Monads Size 1-280th. 

Genus CXVI. Chilodon. The lateral beaked Animal¬ 
cules. —Body ciliated, frontal region produced in the form 
of a broad membranaceous lip, expanded on one side, 
resembling a beak ; the mouth, situated at its base, is fur¬ 
nished with a tabular fascicle of teeth. Tn one species a 
straight alimentary canal, with digestive cells attached to 
it, is seen; ova granules, and a contractile vesicle, are 
visible in three species, an oval gland in all; in one 
only has transverse and longitudinal self-division been 
observed, and in this the parts separated are so small that 
they may be considered as gemma or buds. 

495. Chilodon cucullus (Kolpoda cucullus , M.) The 
helmet-like Chilodon .—This creature, represented in figs. 
303 to 307, has a depressed oblong body, rounded at the 
ends, the frontal region advancing on the right side, 
Ehrenberg states he has often seen the straight alimentary 
canal, with its grape-like cells, filled with large Naviculae. 
Three contractile vesicles and a large oval gland near the 
middle have been observed. The circlet of teeth ( figures 
308 and 309) consists of little hard wand-like bodies; these 
the creature can separate so as to admit into its mouth 
large living bodies, after which it contracts or closes them. 
(See the engravings.) In swimming, or creeping upon the 
surface of conferva, the mouth is turned under or below. 
Its motion is gliding, and it does not revolve in swimming. 
When the water is coloured, the cilii may be easily per¬ 
ceived, and their disposition when it is dried. Figs. 305 and 
306 exhibit it while undergoing longitudinal, and 307 trans- 



[Poh/gasli ica. 

verse, self-division. Found both in fresh and salt water. 
Size 1-1150th to 1-140tli. 

496. Chilodon uncinatus. The hook Chilodon has a 
depressed oblong body, rounded at the ends. The'right 
side of the anterior part is produced, so as to appear like 
a hook or beak. Found in vegetable infusions. Size 

497. Chilodon aureus. The gold-coloured Chilodon 
has an ovate, conical, turgid body, of a golden yellow 
colour, dilated and obtusely rostrated anteriorly, attenuated 
posteriorly. Size 1-140th. 

498. Chilodon ornatus . The adorned Chilodon has 
an ovate sub-cylindrical body, of a golden yellow colour, 
equally rounded at both ends, slightly beaked; it has a 
bright violet spot. Size 1-180th. 

Genus CVII. Nassula. The wheel Animalcule. —Body 
covered with cilii, turgid and prominent in front, but 
without the expansion or beak on one side; mouth provided 
with a circlet of teeth, in the form of a wheel (Nassa). 
Numerous polygastric cells are seen, and in two species the 
discharging orifice. Ehrenberg states that the existence of 
a new system of organs subservient to digestion becomes 
evident in this genus : these are of a violet colour, and pro¬ 
bably biliary glands; one is present in Chilodon ornatus 
and chlamidodon, Bursaria vernalis, Trachelius meleagris, 
Amphileptus margaritifer, meleagris, and longicollis; they 
resemble the vesicular glands around the stomachs of the 
Rotatoria. The propagative system is double; two species 
have the ova granules, and all possess a large oval or 
spherical gland, and one or more contractile vesicles. 
Transverse self-division only has been observed. 

Trachelina. ] 



499. Nassula elegans. The elegant Nassula. —Body 
cylindrical or oval, slightly attenuated in front, extremities 
very obtuse. It is white or greenish, spotted with violet 
vesicles ; digestive cells, containing Chlamidomonas, or 
other food, may often be observed; from fifteen to twenty 
rows of cilii may be seen at one view. The animalcule 
swims backward and forward, turning upon its longitudinal 
axis. The mouth is easily perceived by the currents, when 
indigo is mixed with the water: it has a circlet containing 
twenty-six little wands or teeth, which can voluntarily 
diverge or converge anteriorly. When self-division ensues 
the large central gland is divided. Figures 310 and 311 
represent this creature; the latter is a young one. Found 
with lemna and conferva. Length 1-140th to 1-120th. 

500. Nassula ornata. The adorned Nassula. —Body 
ovate or globular, depressed, of a brownish-green colour, 
variegated with numerous violet vesicles. The posterior 
part of the body has a small excavation. Ehrenberg says 
there are from six to eight groups of vesicles, forming a 
wide circle round the mouth; these are filled with a violet 
coloured juice, which is discharged with the excrement, and 
appears like drops of oil, but soon mixes with and colours 
the water. Found amongst swimming clusters of oscilla- 
toria by Ehrenberg. Size to l-96th ; ova 1-4800th. 

501. Nassula aurea. The golden-coloured Nassula .— 
Body ovato-oblong, nearly cylindrical, very obtuse at the 
extremities. The special organs for digestive juice not 
distinct. Size 1-120th. 


f Puli/gust/ tea. 



The animalcules of this small family have no lorica; they 
possess an alimentary canal, with two distinct orifices, the 
anal one only being terminal. Although their motion is 
rapid, vibratile organs are only perceived near the mouth, 
but their long neck probably assists them in swimming, 
and indeed is alone sufficient for that purpose. Perhaps, 
remarks Ehrenberg, the body is covered with delicate 
cilii. Ova granules are seen in all the species, and a con¬ 
tractile vesicle in T. biceps. Neither self-division nor a 
development in clusters has been observed. 

Genus CXVIII. Trachelocerca. Sivan-like ani¬ 

502. Trachelocerca o/or (Vibrio proteus cygnus, et 
olor, M.) The icliite Trachelocerca. — Body spindle- 
shaped, neck simple, very long and flexible, dilated and 
ciliated at the mouth. This creature (see figures 317, 
318, 319,) creeps at the bottom of the vessel containing it, 
and twines itself gracefully about conferva, or the roots of 
lemna, but swims awkwardly. It elongates and contracts 
its neck at pleasure, and is altogether an interesting sub¬ 
ject for the microscope. Greatest length, l-36th; length 
of body, 1 -280th. 

503. Trachelocerca viridis. The green Trachelocerca. 
—Body spindle-shaped, neck simple, very mobile, long, 
and dilated at the mouth, which has a ciliated lip. Found 
amongst lemna. Length 1-120th; contracted, l-380th. 

504. Trachelocerca biceps. The double-headed 
Trichelocerca, —Body spindle-shaped, white; neck long, 
forked, and having separated mouths. Length, 1-190th. 

Aspidiscina. j 




The animalcules included in this family are distinguished 
from those in the preceding one by the presence of ashell, 
or lorica; they have a distinct alimentary canal with two 
orifices, the discharging one only being terminal; the 
lorica is a firm, very transparent, combustible little shield, 
somewhat resembling the shell which covers the back of a 
tortoise; it projects anteriorly a little before the body; 
long flexible bristle-like organs attached to the abdomen 
enable the animalcule to climb, while its delicate cilii near 
the mouth serve as swimming and purveying organs. 
Numerous stomach-cells have been filled with coloured 
food by Ehrenberg, who has also seen the discharge of 
matter posteriorly. In one species ova and an oval gland 
are seen; in both a contractile vesicle. Muller observed 
self-division, but mistook it for copulation. They are not 
developed in large masses. 

Genus CXIX. Aspidisca. The shield Animalcules. 

505. Aspidisca lynceus (Trichoda lynceus , M.) The 
beaked Aspidisca .—Lorica nearly circular, truncated at the 
posterior end, and formed into a hook or beak in front. 
This animalcule generally swims or creeps with its back 
underwards. The mouth has very delicate cilii; the body 
five or six bristles (styles) posteriorly, and from five to 
eight hooks anteriorly, resembling in this respect Euplotes 
or Stylonychia. A contractile vesicle near the mouth, and 
twenty digestive cells, have been seen. When burnt upon 
platina no traces remain. Found amongst duck-weed and 
conferva. Size 1-1000th to 1-576th. 




I Poly gas trica. 

506. Aspidisca denticulata. The denticulated Aspi - 
disca .—Lorica nearly circular, ends rounded, left side 
truncated and denticulated ; the back is arched, the abdo¬ 
men flat, and its hooked bristles are only visible when 
climbing. Plate vii., Jig. 321, is an under view; and 
figures 322 and 323 side views. Size 1-576th. 

Kolpodea .] 




Animalcules whose polygastric digestive apparatus is 
furnished with an alimentary canal, the orifices of which 
are not at opposite extremities of the body. They have no 
shell or lorica; they are furnished with cilii, disposed in 
longitudinal series, which are subservient to locomotion 
and purveyance. In all of them numerous digestive cells 
have been demonstrated by means of coloured food, as 
likewise both orifices of the alimentary canal; the digestive 
juice (bile) is colourless. The ova are scattered and 
numerous; in the genus Kolpoda expulsion of the ova has 
been seen. The male generative structure is of a double 
kind, and complete self-division is frequent, but no forma¬ 
tion of clusters or gemmae is seen. A sensitive system is 
indicated in one genus (Ophryoglena) by the presence of a 
visual point. 

The genera are disposed as follows:— 

Short protruding tongue.—Cilii 

Eye absent. ( 

No tongue 

Eye present 


absent on the back.Kolpoda. 

present every where .... Paramecium, 
with tail and proboscis .. Amphileptus. 
with tail, no proboscis .. Uroleptus. 
. Ophryoglena. 

Genus CXX. Kolpoda. The bosom Animalcules are 
provided with a little tongue-like member, have their 
under surface furnished with cilii (none on the back), but 
have no eye. Their motion is not active, the cilii being 
few. The mouth, termination of the alimentary canal, and 
numerous polygastric cells, may be demonstrated in one 

x 2 



[Polygas trica. 

species by coloured food. The mouth aud discharging 
orifice are both on the ventral surface, the former having 
a protruding tongue-like member. The propagative organs 
are delicate strings of ova, formed in a net-like manner, 
whose exclusion has been seen in one species; a bright 
contractile round vesicle is observable in two species, and 
in another species two vesicles or sexual bladders are pre¬ 
sent. A large round or oval gland in the centre of the 
body has been seen in two species. Transverse and longi¬ 
tudinal self-division has been noticed by several observers, 
and in K. cucullus a skin or envelope. 

507. Kolpoda cucullus (M.) The cap-like Kolpoda .— 
Body turgid, slightly compressed; its form that of a kid¬ 
ney, often attenuated anteriorly. Ehrenberg states the 
mouth is closed by a little fleshy tongue; this is most 
distinctly seen in Paramecium aurelia- When the ova are 
deposited, a collapse of the body ensues, and hence a change 
of form. When very young they are difficult to distin¬ 
guish from the Monads. Plate vii., fig. 324, represents 
the normal form of this species. Fig. 325 represents the 
animalcule depositing its ova in a net-like mass, and figures 
326, 327, and 328, are three young animalcules, which 
resemble Trichoda pyriformis. Common in vegetable 
infusions. Size 1-1800th to 1-280th. 

508. Kolpoda (?) ren. The kidney-shaped Kolpoda has 
an ovato-cylindrical body, kidney-shaped, and rounded at 
the ends. Found in river water. Size l-288th. 

509. Kolpoda ( })cucullio (M.) The elliptical Kolpoda. 
-—Body compressed, plane, elliptical, slightly sinuated an¬ 
teriorly. Ehrenberg remarks neither cilii or tongue-like 
member was observable by him: hence its generic situation 
is uncertain. Size 1-900th. 

Kolpodea .] 



Genus CXXI. Paramecium. The long Animalcules 
are ciliated on all sides, possess a (wart-like) tongue-like 
process, but have no visual point. The cilii are disposed 
in longitudinal series, those near the mouth are sometimes 
longer than the others, and are alone subservient to loco¬ 
motion, except in two doubtful species. In P. chrysalis 
the long oral cilii are remarkable. The digestive cells are 
numerous, amounting to more than a hundred; they are 
berry dike, and arranged along the alimentary canal, which 
is curved: in five species they have been demonstrated by 
artificial means, in a sixth by its usual green food. The 
ova in two species are seen as a granular mass. In all, 
except one species, male organs are visible. The curious 
star-like contractile vesicle in the larger species is highly 
interesting, when physiologically considered, as are also 
the little black bodies seen in P. aurelia. In four species 
complete self-division, transverse and longitudinal, has been 
observed alternately. 

510. Paramecium aurelia (M.) The slipper Animal¬ 
cule has a club-shaped cylindrical body, slightly attenuated 
anteriorly. An oblique longitudinal fold borders upon the 
very receding mouth. Ehrenberg states that he has seen 
small dark crystalline bodies abundant in the frontal 
region, which he conceives are indications of the presence 
of nervous matter, as such crystalline bodies often accom¬ 
pany it. These creatures appear to have the sense ol taste ; 
and among the same group some individuals prefer one 
kind of food, and others another. This interesting fact 
may be observed by mixing blue and red colours together, 
when some will feed upon the former, others upon the 
latter, as indicated by the colour of the digestive cells; in 




some the cells have a violet hue. These animalcules, feci 
with colour, may be dried upon glass or mica, and thus 
rendered permanent. The rays of the star-like vesicle 
Ehrenberg considers as a ductus spermatid , which is long, 
and enters the ovarium at many points. The expulsion of 
ova has frequently been observed. The colour of these 
animalcules, when bearing ova, is white by reflected light, 
and yellow by transmitted, hence the names “ gold and 
silver little fishes,” so often applied to them by Joblot and 
others; those devoid of ova are colourless. The cilii are 
best seen when the water is coloured; there are from 
twenty-six to fifty-two longitudinal rows along each side 
of the body; in some rows Ehrenberg counted from sixty 
to seventy cilii, which gives 3640 organs of locomotion; 
each cilium is placed upon a sort of little knot. Fig. 329 
represents an animalcule dried from clear water; Jig. 330 
is a view of a creature feeding upon indigo, which latter 
indicates the currents produced by its cilia; Jig. 332 is an 
ideal view, to shew the structure of the nutritive organs, as 
stated by Ehrenberg; Jig. 331 is a young specimen of the 
normal shape, hence not produced by self-division. This 
species is abundant in vegetable infusions, and increases 
so rapidly in stagnant waters, both by ova and self-division, 
that some persons have thought they were produced spon¬ 
taneously from elementary primal matter. Size 1-120th 
to 1-96th. 

511. Paramecium caw(/afww. The tailed Paramecium. 
—Body spindle-shaped, obtuse anteriorly, but attenuated 
posteriorly. Not found in infusions, but in ponds amongst 
decayed sedge leaves and conferva. Size 1-120th. 

512. Paramecium chrysalis (M.) The chrysalis Pa- 

Kolpodea .] 



ramecium. —Body oblong and cylindrical, equally rounded 
at both ends, cilii about the mouth very long. This spe¬ 
cies, like P. aurelia, is often developed in such vast myriads 
that the water has a milk-like hue, the animalcules swarm¬ 
ing like gnats, the masses ascending or descending in the 
fluid: this appearance may be produced by slightly shaking 
the water. Found in infusions and in salt water. Size 
1 -240th to 1-190th. 

513. Paramecium kolpoda (Kolpoda ren , M.) The 
bosom Paramecium .—Body ovate, slightly compressed, 
ends obtuse, the anterior attenuated and slightly bent like 
a hook. Found especially in infusions of Urtica droica. 
Size 1-240tli. 

514. Paramecium (?) Sinaiticum. The Paramecium of 
Sinai. —Body elliptical, compressed, the back and under 
side carinated; frontal cilii indistinct. Found, amongst 
conferva, in a brook at Mount Sinai. Size 1-288th. 

515. Paramecium (?) ovatum. The egg-shaped Para¬ 
mecium. —Body ovate, turgid, anterior attenuated and 
rounded. Found in stagnant river water. Size 1-288th. 

516. Paramecium compressum (Paramecium aurelia , 
M.) The flat Paramecium. —Body elliptical or reniform, 
compressed. It has an oblique wreath of long cilii reach¬ 
ing to the middle, where the mouth, with its slight tongue¬ 
like process, is situated. Found in the river muscle (Mya). 
Size 1-240th to 1-210th. 

517. Paramecium milium (Cyclidium milium , M.) 
The millet Paramecium. —Body small, oblong, trilateral, 
rounded equally at the ends. In coloured water the body 
is seen vibrating. Size 1-1150th. 

Genus CXXII. Amthileptus. The double-necked 



[ Polygastrica 

Animalcules have neither tongue-like process or eye, but 
are provided with a proboscis and tail. In three species 
the organs of locomotion are numerous cilii disposed in 
longitudinal series; in one, cilii are not visible, but in this 
the flexible attenuated extremities of the body serve the 
office. In some, the tail (foot) and proboscis (brow) are ru¬ 
dimentary. In five species numerous digestive cells, filled 
with food, may be seen; in seven the mouth is distinct; 
and in five of them a discharging opening. All have a 
colourless digestive juice, except A. margaritifer, in which 
it is pale rose-red. Ova granules are observable in seven 
species, which in one are green, in the others whitish. In 
four species a contractile vesicle is seen; in three sexual 
glands, which in two are globular, double, and monili- 
form; in the third self-division has been observed in one 
species, both as transverse and longitudinal, and in another 
as transverse only. The figures of this genus were en¬ 
graved before I discovered Dr. Ehrenberg had not arranged 
his illustrations according to the classification. 

518. Amphileptus anser (Vibrio anser et cygnus , M.) 
The ivhite Amphileptus. —Body turgid, spindle-shaped, 
proboscis obtuse, same length as body, tail short and acute. 
The neck-like proboscis is truly a brow or upper lip, the 
mouth being at the base. Ehrenberg thinks he has seen 
the anal opening upon the dorsal surface, near the tail. 
The motion of the body is slow, but that of the proboscis 
more active. Figures 312, 313, represent two views of 
this creature. Found amongst dead sedge leaves, &c. 
Size 1-120th. 

519. Amphileptus margaritifer. The pearl Amphi¬ 
leptus.— Body white, slender, spindle shaped; proboscis 

Kolpodea .] 



length of the body, acute like the tail, which is short. 
The most striking features are the swollen margin of the 
mouth, and necklace-like series of vesicles disposed along 
the body. It feeds upon green Monads, like the preceding 
species. Cilii are absent in Dr. Ehrenberg’s figures. 
Found amongst colonies of Vorticella, &c. Size l-72nd. 

520. Amphileptus moniliger. The chain Amphileptus. 
—Body turgid, ample, white; proboscis and tail short; it 
has a necklace-like gland. Found amongst duck-weed. 
Size l-96th to l-72nd. 

521. Amphileptus rWs. The green Amphileptus .— 
Body turgid, spindle-shaped, and of a green colour; pro¬ 
boscis and tail short and transparent. Found amongst 
Lemna minor. Size 1-120th to i-96th. 

522. Amphileptus fasciola (Vibrio anas fasciola et 
intermedins. Paramecium fasciola, M.) The filet Amphi¬ 
leptus. —Body white, depressed, linear, lanceolate, convex 
above, flat beneath. When viewed from above, from ten 
to twelve longitudinal series of delicate cilii may be seen, 
and in the middle of the body two round glands, posterior 
to which is a sexual vesicle, and ova granules between 
the digestive cells. Figures 314, 315, 3J6 represent three 
views of this creature. Found in infusions. Size 
1-720th to l-144th. 

523. Amphileptus meleagris (Kolpoda, M.) The 
spotted Amphileptus. —Body large, compressed, mem¬ 
branous, broadly lanceolate in shape, with the crest of the 
back denticulated. The colour of this interesting animal¬ 
cule is white. On the under side there is, more or less 
distinct, a row of eight to ten bright colourless spots (juice 
bladders). Found with lemna. Size l-72d. 




524. Amphileptus longicollis (Kolpoda ochrea, Trichoda 
fells , M.) The long-necked Amphileptus. —Body dilated, 
and turgid posteriorly, attenuated and elongated anteriorly, 
like a sword. Found amongst lemna. Size J-120th 
to 1 -96th. 

525. Amphileptus (?) papillosus. The fringed Amphi¬ 
leptus. —-Body depressed, lanceolate, fringed with papillae, 
tail and proboscis smooth. Found amongst conferva. 
Size 1-600th to 1-430th. 

Genus CXXIIX. Uroleptus. The train Animalcules 
have neither eye, tongue-like process, nor proboscis, but are 
provided with a tail. Locomotion is effected by cilii; in 
three species these are disposed in rows. The polygastric 
apparatus has been demonstrated by coloured food in two 
species, the mouth observed in all of them, but the dis¬ 
charging orifice has not been satisfactorily determined. 
Green coloured ova granules are evident in two species, 
but no male organs. 

526. Uroleptus piscis (Trichoda piscis, M.) The 
little fish Uroleptus. —Body like an elongated top, the 
posterior part gradually attenuated, forming a thick tail; 
ova greenish. The body is covered with cilii, those at the 
mouth being largest. Found, in February and March, 
amongst the floccose brown coat upon dead sedge leaves, 
along with Chlamidomonas and Cryptomonas. (Hamp¬ 
stead ponds.) Size l-288th to l-44th. 

527. Uroleptus musculus (Trichoda musculus, M.) 
The water-mouse Uroleptus. —Body white, cylindrical, 
pear-shaped, incrassated towards the posterior, where it 
abruptly terminates in a tail, as seen in the engraving, 
figure 333, plate vii. The movement is rolling. It is in- 

Kolpodeci .] 



active and (stiff). In swimming the body revolves. Found 
with oscillatoria. Size l-220th. 

528. Uroleptus hospes. The stranger or guest Uro - 
leptus. —Body greenish, ovato-oblong, and turbinate in 
shape, anterior obliquely truncated and excavated; the 
posterior terminated by a styliform acute tail. Found in 
the cells of frog and snail spawn. Size 1 -240th. 

529. Uroleptus (?) lamella .—Body transparent, linear, 
lanceolate, depressed, flat, very thin. Found in infusions. 
Size 1-220th. 

530. Uroleptus Jilum (Enchelys caudata , M.) The 
thread Uroleptus. —Body white, filiform, cylindrical, 
rounded anteriorly, attenuated posteriorly, forming a 
straight long tail. Found in stagnant spring water, &c. 
Size l-48th. 

Genus CXX1V. Ophryoglena derives its name from 
the animalcules possessing an eye anteriorly, and having a 
ciliated body. Locomotion is effected by numerous longi¬ 
tudinal series of cilii. Their numerous digestive cells are 
often filled with Naviculae, and in one species this structure 
has been demonstrated by indigo. The mouth is situated 
in a cavity beneath the brow, and the discharging orifice 
upon the dorsal surface, at the base of their little tail. The 
ova granules are brown in one species, black in another, 
and yellow in the third. A large central gland exists in 
one species, and contractile sexual vesicles in the others ; 
transverse and longitudinal self-division has been observed 
in one species. A system of sensation is indicated by the 
presence of a large red or black visual organ, always present 
on the frontal region. 




531. Ophryoglena atra (Leucophra mami/la, M.) 
The black Ophryoglena. —Body blackish, compressed, acute 
posteriorly. The cilii are white, the eye black, and situated 
near the frontal dorsal margin. The mouth aperture forms 
a funnel-shaped cavity, commencing immediately beneath 
the brow; within this cavity Ehrenberg thinks he has 
lately seen an oval bright gland. The white cilii appear 
like silver fringe, especially those anterior. Found in turf 
hollows. Size 1-180th. 

532. Ophryoglena acuminata. The tailed Ophryo¬ 
glena. —Body brown-coloured, ovate, and compressed, 
tail short and acute, eye red. The brow projects 
beyond the mouth about the length of the body, or, in 
other words, is situated about the middle. Figures 334, 
335, are two views of the same animalcule. Found in 
turf hollows. Size l-180th. 

533. Ophryoglena Jiavicans. The yellow Ophryoglena. 
—Body yellow, turgid, ovate, attenuated and rounded 
posteriorly, eye red ; the cilii near the mouth longer than 
in the preceding species; Ehrenberg counted from twelve 
to sixteen rows at one view. Found in turf hollows. 
Size 1-144th. 

Oxy trichina.] 




This family contains all polygastric animalcules which 
possess an alimentary canal with two separate orifices, 
neither of them situated at the extremities—which have no 
lorica, but are provided with setae, vibratile cilii, and non- 
vibratile styles or uncini. These locomotive organs are 
variously situated, and render the creature active. The 
polygastric cells, disposed upon an alimentary tube, have 
been demonstrated by Ehrenberg, and in Ceratidium only 
are indistinct. The mouth and discharging orifice, ova¬ 
like granules (at certain periods), and male organs (glands 
and vesicles), are each seen in four genera. Complete 
transverse and longitudinal self-division is observed in 
three genera, but no gemmae or buds. Eyes have not 
been detected. 

f brow without horns .Oxytrieha. 

Cilii and setae—no styles or uncini-' 

L brow with horns .Ceratidium. 

r with uncini—no styles.Kerona. 

Styles, or uncini, or both.( with styles—no uncini.Urostyla. 

I with styles and uncini.. Stylonychia. 

Genus CXXV. Oxytricha. The hatchet Animalcules axe 
destitute of styles and uncini, and unprovided with horns. 
The locomotive organs are cilii and setae, though the 
latter resemble rigid hairs; their movements are forwards 
and backwards, often by impulses, creeping, swimming, 
and climbing; all locomotion is effected by the vibration of 
the former. In all the species polygastric cells are evident, 
in five ova-like granules, in four male glands, and in five 
round sexual vesicles. Transverse and longitudinal di- 



[Polygastric a. 

vision is observed in O. lepus and pelionella ; longitudinal 
only in O. cicada, and perhaps O. pullaster. 

534. Oxytricha rubra [Trichoda piscis et patens, M.) 
The red Oxytricha. —Body of a brick-red colour, linear in 
shape, plane on the under side, and equally rounded at the 
ends. Found in sea water. Size 1-140th. 

535. Oxytricha pellionella (Trichoda pellionella , M.) 
The furred Oxytricha .—Body white, smooth, slightly de¬ 
pressed, equally rounded at both ends, often broader in the 
middle, head not separate, mouth ciliated, and the tail 
provided with setae. Each animalcule has two oval male 
glands, and between them a single round sexual vesicle. 
When self-division commences four glands are developed, 
and then the vesicle divides. Ehrenberg counted ten 
cilii anteriorly, and four or five setae posteriorly; the dis¬ 
charge is at the base of the setae. Found in infusions. 
Size 1-720th to 1-280th. 

536. Oxytricha caudata. The tailed Oxytricha is 
smooth, white, linear, lanceolate in shape, rounded an¬ 
teriorly, the posterior attenuated in the form of a tail, 
which is provided with setae. Found in fresh water and 
seawater. Size l-576th to 1-120th. 

537. Oxytricha platystoma. The broad-mouthed Oxy¬ 
tricha. —Body white, ovato-oblong, under side flat, pro¬ 
vided with setae upon the margin, the mouth large and 
ciliated. It swims with a revolving and vacillating motion, 
also often upon the back. It creeps upon water plants. 
Found in standing bog water. Size 1-240th. 

538. Oxytricha gibba (Trichoda gibba et fceta, M.) 
The gibbous Oxytricha. —Body white, lanceolate, ends 
obtuse, middle enlarged, under side flat and furnished with 

Oxy trick ina. ] 



two series of setae, and a large round mouth. This species 
resembles O. pelionella, but is distinguished by the setae, 
the two or three contractile vesicles, and sexual glands. 
This creature is active, and runs nimbly along aquatic 
plants in fresh and brackish water. Figure 336 is an under 
view, 337 a side view. Size l-240th. 

539. Oxytricha pulluster (Trichoda pullaster, Kerona 
pullaster, M.) The water-hen Oxytricha .—Body whitish, 
lanceolate, ends obtuse ; ventral surface naked at the 
middle; the head, indicated by a constriction, is hairy, like 
the tail. The mouth is a narrow fossa. Found in water 
vessels and infusions. Size 1-430th. 

540. Oxytricha cicada (Trichoda cicada , M.) The 
water-cricket Oxytricha. —Body ovate or almost hemis¬ 
pherical, back furrowed and notched, under surface flat. 
Found upon the surface of stagnant water. Size 1- 1440th 
to 1-860th. 

541. Oxytricha lepus. The water-hare Oxytricha .— 
Body whitish, elliptical, smooth, flat, ciliated anteriorly, 
and provided with setae posteriorly; the mouth and dis¬ 
charging orifices not distinct; Ehrenberg has not seen the 
male generative apparatus. Found in standing water. 
Size l-54Qth to l-96th. 

Genus CXXVI. Ceratidium. The horned Animal¬ 
cules have cilii, horns on the frontal region, but no styles 
or uncini. But little of their organization is known, and 
therefore the situation of the species is uncertain. It 
requires a power not less than 350 to exhibit it. 

542. Ceratidium cuneatum. The wedge-shaped Cera¬ 
tidium. —Body triangular, front truncated, as also the two 
horns, upper side smooth. Ehrenberg found this whitish 




animalcule in 1820 amongst conferva, but has not lately 
seen it. It vibrates, runs, and climbs quickly. Figs. 338, 
339, represent two views of this animalcule. Size 1-430tli. 

Genus CXXVII. Kerona. The claw Animalcules 
are provided with cilii and uncini, but not with styles. 
The body is ciliated, besides which, upon the under sur¬ 
face, there are claws, and perhaps setae. Numerous digestive 
cells indicate the poly gastric structure; the mouth, and 
probably the anal spot, are upon the ventral surface. The 
propagative system is double, consisting of ova glands, 
and a contractile vesicle. Self-division has not been 

543. Kerona polyporum. The oval polypi Kerona .— 
Body whitish, depressed, elliptical, and reniform; it has 
a series of cilii around the frontal region, produced from 
below the mouth; Ehrenberg counted above forty diges¬ 
tive cells, many of them filled with brownish (half-digested 
green) Monads. Between the cells are ova granules. 
Fig. 340 is a back view, and 341 a side view, climbing. 
Parasitic on Hydra vulgaris and polypi. (See Microscopic 
Cabinet , plate vii.) The latter die when infested with them. 
Size 1-144 th. 

Genus CXXVIII. Urostyla. The style Animalcules 
are provided with cilii and styles, but destitute of uncini; 
the cilii are thickly disposed in numerous series, those near 
the mouth being longest. On the ventral surface, at the 
posterior end, is a small cleft, provided with non-vibratile 
setae. The numerous digestive cells receive colour and 
large bodies; a gland, a contractile sexual vesicle, and 
delicate granulated ova, represent the propagative system. 
Transverse self-division also has been observed. 

Oxytrichina .] 



544. Urostyla grandis. The great Uro&tyla. —Body 
white^ semi-cylindrical, rounded at the ends, anterior 
slightly enlarged; hence it appears club-shaped; styles 
short, mouth cleft, large, l-4th to l-3rd the length of the 
body; it has long cilii on both sides; the discharging orifice 
has from five to eight little styles on the left side only; the 
stomach juice is colourless. The young animalcules are 
flatter than the old ones. Fig. 342 represents an under 
view with glands, vesicle, and the cells filled with 
Bacillaria and coloured matter. Currents produced by the 
vibration of the cilii about the mouth are also indicated in 
the drawing. Found on slimy dead sedge leaves. Size 
1-144th to l-96th. 

Genus CXXIX. Stylonychia. The armed Animal¬ 
cules are ciliated, and armed with styles and uncini. These 
organs of locomotion are variously disposed. In one 
species the course of the alimentary canal, with its nume¬ 
rous digestive cells, has been seen ; in the others coloured 
food is received in the cells; a thick granulated ova cluster 
exists in all the species, in two of them two glands, 
and in four, contractile vesicles. Transverse and longitu¬ 
dinal self-division in two species, transverse only in a 
third, and in S. pustulata, the formation of gemmae, is 

545. Stylonychia mytilus (Trichoda mytilus , Kerona 
mytilus , M.) The muscle Animalcule. —Body white, flat, 
oblong, slightly constricted in the middle, obliquely dilated 
anteriorly in the form of a muscle. The extremities are 
so transparent that they give it the appearance of being 
covered with a shield, but they are soft, flexible, and fur¬ 
nished with cilii. The stomach juice is colourless, the 



[ Poh/gast) tea. 

middle of the body is sometimes filled with delicate white 
granules (ova). This animalcule generally has a peculiar 
thrusting forward and back movement, but can climb, run, 
and swim nimbly, usually with the back undermost. Dr. 
Ehrenberg found a single animalcule lived nine days: 
during the first twenty-four hours it formed, by transverse 
self-division, into three animals; these in twenty-four hours 
more formed two, in the same manner; so that, by self-di¬ 
vision only (without ova), they increase three or four-fold 
in twenty-four hours, and thus a million may be produced 
from a single animalcule in ten days. An abundant sup¬ 
ply of food favours self-division. Found in infusions and 
amongst oscillatoria. Size 1-240th to l-96th. 

546. Stylonychia pustulata (Trichoda acarus , M.) 
The flounder Animalcule has a white body, which is turbid, 
elliptical in shape, attenuated at both ends, and having a 
band of uncini at the middle of the belly. Ehrenberg has 
seen transverse and longitudinal division, and the growth 
of gemmae. Found in infusions. Size 1-144th ; ova gra¬ 
nules 1-24000th. 

547. Stylonychia silurus (Trichoda silurus, Kerona 
silurus, Hymentopus lava , fyc., M.) Body small, white, in 
the form of a muscle, cilii and uncini rather long. Found 
in fresh water. Size 1-280th. 

548. Stylonychia appendiculata. The spur Animalcule. 
-—Body elliptical, white, small, and flat; cilii and styles 
long, the setae disposed obliquely in fascicles. Found in 
fresh water. Size 1-280th. 

549. Stylonychia histrio (Paramecium histrio, Ke¬ 
rona histrio , M.) The ynask Stylonychia. —Body elliptical, 
white, middle slightly turgid, anterior finished with a 

Oxy trichin a ] 



cluster of uncini; no setae. Dr. Ehrenberg states the 
absence of the three posterior setae in this and the follow¬ 
ing species is remarkable, as the others possess them. 
Found amongst conferva. Size 1-280th. 

550. Stylonychia lanceolata. The lancet Stylonychia. 
—Body pale greenish, lanceolate in shape, extremities 
equally obtuse, under side flat; it has uncini in a cluster 
near the mouth, but no styles. Ehrenberg saw in one 
specimen a simple contractile vesicle on the left side, below 
the mouth, and near it a large oval gland. Green Monads 
and Bacillaria may be seen in this voracious animal, 
surrounded with colourless stomach juice. Fig . 343 
represents an under view, and Jig. 344 the side view of 
another. Found amongst conferva. Size 1-144th to 



[ Pol-ygastrica. 


Comprehends polygastric animalcules having a lorica 
and alimentary canal, with two separate orifices, neither of 
which are terminal. They possess powerful organs of 
locomotion, similar to those of the preceding family. 

This family resembles in many respects the genus 
Asellus of the Entomostracia, whose organization is so 
highly developed: hence this family very properly closes 
the grand division Polygastrica. Organs subservient to 
nutrition are distinctly elicited in three genera—one is 
marked by having a cylinder of wand-like teeth, and a 
beautiful rose-coloured digestive juice, like the genus 
Nassula. The propagative apparatus is double in three 
genera, ova granules are found in two, male glands in 
two, a contractile vesicle in three; self-division, transverse 
and longitudinal, is observed in one, but gemmae are not 
produced. One form is green, the others are colourless 
and whitish. 

This family comprises the following genera: — 

With cilii—no 


teeth absent 

teeth present 
With cilii, claws, and styles 

f head distinguished from the body .... Discocephalus. 
(.head not distinguished from the body . Himantophorus. 



Genus CXXX. Discocephalus. The disc-headed 
Animalcules have neither styles nor teeth, but possess 
uncini, and have the head distinguished from the body 
(capitate). The organization is unknown, only the non- 
vibratile uncinated locomotive organs having been specially 




551. Discocephalus rotatorius. The vibrating Disco- 
cephalus. —Body transparent, flat, head smaller than the 
body, both rounded. Fig. 345 is an under, and 346 a side 
view. Found in the Red Sea. Size l-380th. 

Genus CXXXI. Himantophorus. The whip-footed 
Animalcules are distinguished by the absence of styles and 
teeth, by having numerous uncini, and not having the head 
distinct from the body. The long bent hooks, generally 
in pairs, appear like a broad band upon the under side, 
serving as organs of locomotion; near them is a row of 
cilii, extending from the mouth to the middle. The mouth, 
discharging orifice, and numerous digestive cells, are 
distinct. At the posterior margin is a large contractile 
vesicle; between the row of cilii and margin on the right 
is a series of glandular spots. Self-division has not been 

^552. Himantophorus charon (M.) —Body transparent, 
flat, elliptical, anterior slightly truncated obliquely, cilii 
short, uncini long and slender. The mouth commences 
anteriorly at the lower angle of the triangular bright spot, 
but the true oesophagal opening appears to be at the end 
of the row of cilii within the curved lorica; the posterior 
alimentary opening is nearly at the base of the last cluster 
of four to six comb-like uncini, which supply the place 
of styles. Fig. 347 is a side, and 348 an under view. 
Found in water vessels that have stood some time. Size 

Genus CXXXII. Chlamidodon. The toothed Ani¬ 
malcules possess cilii and teeth at the mouth, but no styles 
or uncini; an oval transparent lorica or shield covers the 
back, and projects around it; a margin of cilii surrounds the 




body, these are longer near the brow; short climbing setae 
probably exist posteriorly, between the cilii. Polygastric 
cells are distinct, as also vesicles containing a beautiful 
rose-coloured digestive fluid; the mouth has a hollow 
cylinder of wand-like teeth, Minute green ova granules (?) 
and a large oval bright central gland represent the propa¬ 
gative organs. Self-division unknown. 

553. Chlamidodon mnemosyne. The rose Chlamido- 
don .—Body flat, elliptical, sometimes dilated anteriorly, as 
shewn at jig. 349. It is of a clear green or hyaline hue, 
with brilliant rose-coloured vesicles; delicate longitudinal 
lines are seen upon the surface of the animalcule, and 
appear to be on the lorica. Ehrenberg counted sixteen 
wand-like teeth disposed cylindrically. The movement is 
cpiick and powerful, like Euplotes. Found with Zostera 
and Scytosipyon. Size 1-570th. 

Genus CXXXIII. Euplotes. The skiff-like or boat 
Animalcules possess cilii, styles, and uncini, w r hich are 
powerful locomotive instruments, but no teeth. Polygas- 
tric cells have been filled in four species with coloured 
food; in the others bright vesicles evidence them; the 
termination of the alimentary canal is indicated in one 
species by the discharge, in the rest by the projecting 
little shield ; the digestive juice is colourless ; the propa¬ 
gative organs are probably double in seven species, in one 
completely so. Ova, which are white, are seen in four 
species; oval or round simple glands exist in three; a single 
contractile vesicle in five ; and in a sixth two vesicles are 
observed. Self-division, transverse and longitudinal, has 
been observed in one species, and transverse only in two 
or four others. 




554. Euplotes patella. The dish-like Euplotes. —Lorica 
large^ nearly circular, slightly truncated anteriorly, the 
margin transparent, broad, the back elevated, gibbous, and 
covered with a few delicate smooth striae. The mouth is 
ciliated on each side, the oesophagus is near the side, lower 
than the middle, the discharging orifice behind the basis 
of the styles. Found with lemna. Size 1-280th. 

555. Euplotes charon (Trichoda charon, M.) The 
pearled Euplotes , or the little Charon. —Lorica small, ovato- 
elliptical, slightly truncated anteriorly, and having granu¬ 
lated striae on the back ; twenty to forty cilii were counted 
by Ehrenberg, but no setae; white ova, propagative glands, 
and a contractile vesicle, have been seen. Figures 350 to 
353 represent different views. Found in standing water 
and infusions. Size 1-1150th to l-280th. 

556. Euplotes striatus'. The striated Euplotes .— 
Lorica oblong, elliptical, slightly truncated anteriorly, un- 
cini only upon the posterior part of the body; there are 
four smooth striae upon the back. Found in sea water. 
Size l-240th. 

557. Euplotes appendiculatus. The spurred Euplotes . 
_Lorica ovato-oblong, ends rounded, provided with ob¬ 
lique styles, and four straight setae upon the posterior part 
of the body. Found in sea water. Size 1-240th. 

558. Euplotes truncatus . The truncated Euplotes .— 
Lorica oblong, with smooth strife, unequally truncated, 
and notched anteriorly. It has setae and numerous un- 
cini. The styles are straight. Found in sea water. Size 

559. Euplotes monostylus. The tailed Euplotes .— 
Lorica elliptical, ends rounded, no striae. It has a single 



[. Polygastrica . 

style, like a tail, but no uncini. Found in sea water. 
Size 1-400th. 

560. Euplotes aculeatus. The spinous Euplotes .— 
Lorica oblong, nearly square, ends rounded; it has two 
crests upon the back, one bearing a little spine in the 

middle. Found in sea water. Size l-430th. 

561. Euplotes turritus. The Chinese cap Euplotes .— 

Lorica smooth, nearly circular; it has a long erect spine 
on the centre of the back. Size l-600th to l-430th. 

562. Euplotes cimex [Trichoda cimex, M.) The smooth 
Euplotes. —Lorica oblong, elliptical, and smooth. This 
creature is provided with cilii, styles, and uncini. Found 
in sea water. Size 1-430th. 




Those infusorial animalcules which are included under 
the great division Rotatoria are distinguished by their 
being destitute of a true nervous system and of vascular 
pulsation; by their possessing a simple tubular alimentary 
canal, a definite form of body (that is, not alterable by the 
formation of gemmae, or spontaneous division, as in the 
Polygastrica), being androgynous, or hermaphrodite, pro¬ 
vided with rotatory organs, and, though destitute of true 
articulated feet, often have a single false foot, or pediform 

The magnifying power most useful for the examination 
of the Rotatoria is 250; and with a power of 400 times, all 
that has been discovered in their internal organization 
(except in one or two cases) may be seen. 

The following table represents the analysis of the class 
Rotatoria into families:— 

With a simple 
continuous wreath / 
of cilii. \ 


margin of cilii-wreath 

margin of cilii-wreath 
lobed or notched. 


j' illorieated. 
floricated . 

{ illorieated 
loricated . 





With a compound 
or divided wreath 
of cilii. 


with the cilii-wreath f illorieated 

divided into several series, s 

Polytrocha. 1. loricated . 


with the cilii-wreath 
divided into two series. 

V- Zygotrocha. 

{ illorieated 
loricated . 







[ Rotatoria. 


Contains all those rotatory animalcules which possess a 
single continuous rotatory organ, not cut or lobed at the 
margin. They are destitute of lorica or shell. In Ptygura 
and Glenophora their wheel-like organ is in the form of a 
circle, and serves for the purposes of locomotion; in the 
other genera it is band-like, long, elliptical, and upon the 
ventral surface. A forked foot-like process is met with in 
Chaetonotus and Ichthydium, and a simple one in the 
others. A simple conical alimentary canal, with a long- 
thin oesophagus,without teeth (?), is seen in Ichthydium and 
Chaetonotus; Glenophora has a short oesophagal portion, 
and two single teeth, and Ptygura an elongated stomach 
and three teeth. Pancreatic glands are seen only in Chae¬ 
tonotus and Ptygura; neither coecum nor gall-ducts are 
visible in any of the genera. The male reproductive 
organs have not been observed in any form, and the female 
ones consist, in two genera, of a large ovarium, with a few 
large ova. The two red frontal eyes, seen in Glenophora, 
are indications of the existence of a nervous system, and 
the bristly hairiness of the back of Chaetonotus is worthy 
of remembrance. 

This family comprises the following genera:— 

Eyes absent \ 

hair absent 

with a simple truncated tail-like 
foot ( Pseudopodium) . 

with a forked tail-like foot 
hair (bristle-like) present . 

Eyes present (two frontal) 





Genus CXXXIV. Ptygura. The wrinkled-tail Ani¬ 
malcules are destitute of eyes and hair, but have a simple, 

Ichthydina .] 



truncated^ cylindrical, false foot. The rotatory organ is 
also simple, and nearly circular. Numerous teeth-like 
bodies, adhering to the bulb of the oesophagus, two pan¬ 
creatic glands, a small narrow oesophagus, an elongated 
stomach, and a globular-like rectum, are the apparatus of 
nutrition. An ovarium and a contractile vesicle have been 
observed, but neither longitudinal muscles nor visual or¬ 
gans, although carefully sought for. 

563. Ptygura melicerta. The wrinkled-tail Ptygura .— 
Transparent, body cylindrical, club-shaped, turgid ante¬ 
riorly, with two little curved horns at the mouth, and a 
single short tube at the neck (?). The tail-like foot always 
remains transversely folded (wrinkled), as seen in Jig. 354, 
plate vii., which represents the under side. When swim¬ 
ming, a ring-like simple vibratile organ is thrust out with 
a lateral notch. The two jaw-like parts of the oesophagal 
bulb have numerous teeth, as represented at Jig. 355. 
Size 1-140th. 

Genus CXXXV. Ichthydium. The ciliatedJish Animal 
cules have a cleft or forked foot-like tail, no eyes or hair; 
currents at the mouth, and along the ventral side, indicate 
the existence of a vibratile organ, which not only serves for 
swimming, but likewise for creeping. A long oesophagus, 
a thick simple conical alimentary canal, and sometimes a 
large single ovum, comprise our knowledge of their organi¬ 
zation. It is probable that a cylinder of little wand-like 
teeth exists. 

564. Ichthydium podura {Cercaria podura, M.) The 
ciliated Ichthydium .—Body straight, oblong, often slightly 
constricted anteriorly, which is turgid, and sometimes three- 
lobed. It is colourless or whitish, but during repletion 




sometimes appears yellowish; the ventral surface is flat 
and ciliated, the dorsal arched and smooth. The large 
dark ovum has been seen by Ehrenberg. It seldom swims, 
but mostly creeps. Fig. 356 exhibits a full-grown animal¬ 
cule (ventral side). Found among conferva and oscillatoria. 
Length 1-440th to 1-140th. 

Genus CXXXVI. Chaetonotus. The brushed Jish- 
Animalcules have hairs upon their dorsal surface, possess a 
forked tail, but no eyes. Locomotion is performed by a 
double row of cilii upon the ventral surface, which forms 
a band-like rotatory organ. The nutritive organs consist 
of a tubular mouth, probably provided with a cylinder of 
teeth, a long thin oesophagus, and a long conical stomach 
(Trachelogastricum), upon whose upper thick end (in the 
large species), two semi-globular glands are seen; at certain 
periods from one to three large single ova are formed pos¬ 
teriorly, but the ovarium in which they are developed has 
not been directly observed; male reproductive organs un¬ 
known. They are sluggish in their movements, except in 
creeping; they rarely swim. 

565. Chaetonotus maximus. The large Chaetonotus .— 
Body elongated, slightly constricted anteriorly, turgid and 
obtusely three-lobed ; the hairs upon the back are short and 
equal. From the latest observations, Ehrenberg states the 
mouth to possess teeth, of which he has counted more 
than eight; he once saw the exclusion of ova immediately 
over the hinder foot-like tail. It creeps but slowly. Size 
1-216th to 1-120th. 

566. Chaetonotus larus (Trichoda acarus, anas et 
tarns , M.) The gull Chaetonotus. — Body elongated, 
slightly constricted anteriorly, where it is turgid and ob- 

]clithydina ] 



tusely triangular; the posterior hair on the dorsal surface is 
longest. Ehrenberg has seen only one large ovum; he 
states that the bodies of those bearing ova were thick pos¬ 
teriorly, though, under other circumstances, the head is 
broadest. It appears to have eight teeth. Pancreatic 
glands are unknown; the dorsal hairs, which are arranged 
in longitudinal rows, destroy the transparency of the body. 
Fig . 357 is a dorsal, and Jig. 358 a side view. Ova l-3rd the 
length of the body. Found in muddy water. Size 1-720th. 

567. Chaetonotus brevis. The short Chaetonotus .— 
Body ovato-oblong, slightly constricted near the turgid 
front, dorsal hairs few, the posterior ones longest, ova 
small. Size 1-430th. 

Genus CXXXVII. Glenophora. The eye Animal¬ 
cule is characterized (as its name imports) by the presence 
of two eyes, placed anteriorly; it has a frontal circular ro¬ 
tatory organ, and a truncated bifid tail, or false foot. The 
alimentary canal is short, thick, and conical; it sometimes 
contains green matter. The two protruding forcep-like 
bodies, in the middle of the rotatory organ, may, says Dr. 
Ehrenberg, be considered teeth; pancreatic glands are in¬ 
dicated by knot-like turbid bodies. The eyes are sharply 
circumscribed, and situated at the frontal region; a respi¬ 
ratory tube is unknown. 

568. Glenophora trochus . The top Glenophora .— 
Body ovato-conical, truncated, and turgid anteriorly, at¬ 
tenuated posteriorly into a false foot; the eyes are blackish. 
It swims quickly, like a Trichodina or free Vorticella. The 
genera Monolabis and Microcodon have similar forms. 
Figures 359,360, represent two animalcules, the latter hav¬ 
ing the stomach filled with a green substance. Size l-570th. 



[ Rotatoria. 


Comprise infusory animalcules which have a single rota¬ 
tory organ entire at the margin, and whose bodies have an 
envelope, or lorica. This family contains only two species; 
they possess an organization more developed than any \ve 
have yet described. Locomotive organs, with internal 
muscles, says Dr. Ehrenberg, and a tail-foot, not pincer- 
like, nutritive organs, with a chewing apparatus, consisting 
of teeth in rows, two pancreatic glands, as well as the de¬ 
velopment and expulsion of ova, are observed in both. 
Male organs, unknown vessels, two filiform tremulous or¬ 
gans (gills), and nervous fibrillae, along with ganglia, are 
elicited in Conochilus, and red visual points in both ge¬ 
nera. They are thus tabulated: — 


and distinct to each single animalcule 

j special 

(conglomerate, or common to many single animalcules 



Genus CXXXVII1. Oecistes. The sheathed little fish 
Animalcules are characterized by each animalcule having a 
separate lorica. They have two eyes, situated anteriorly, 
which it is curious to notice become effaced as age advances. 
A simple wreath of cilii is observed in the frontal region of 
the body; the long tail-like foot has internal longitudinal 
muscles. A simple tubular contracted alimentary canal, 
with an elongated stomach, teeth in rows, attached to 
two jaws, situated at the head or bulb of the oesophagus? 
and two pancreatic glands, compose the apparatus of nu¬ 
trition. The visual organs are red when the animalcule 




is young, and colourless in old age. The ovarium has only 
a single ova. The lorica is a viscid, gelatinous, cylindrical 
box ( urceolus ), into which the animalcule can entirely 
withdraw itself, or leave, when a new one is desirable. 
The attachment to the bottom of the lorica is by the under 
surface of the end of the foot-like tail. 

569. Oecistes crystallinus . The crystalline Oecistes .— 
Lorica hyaline, viscid, floccose ; body crystalline. The 
structure of this creature is difficult to see. Each jaw 
has three distinct teeth. The development of the young 
from the egg is interesting to observe: Dr. Ehrenberg saw 
within the shell two dark points (eyes) near the already- 
developed jaws, and on giving the egg a gentle pressure 
it burst, and the free young animalcule came forth. 
Fig . 361 represents a full-grown animalcule in the act of 
unfolding itself; Jig. 362 is another with its rotatory organ 
expanded. Their shells are incrusted, and within may be 
seen a number of eggs; Jigures 363, 364, represent them 
attached to the pectinated leaves of the water violet, as 
they appear under a shallow pocket magnifier. Length, 
with tail, l-36th; without, 1-140th: lorica 1-70th. 

Genus CXXXIX. Conochilus. The lipped-top 
Animalcules are social, having conglomerate and con¬ 
tiguous lorica; each animalcule has two permanent eyes. 
Only one species is known; its description, therefore, will 
include that of the genus. 

570: Conochilus volvox. The rolling Conochilus .— 
The corpuscles are white, their gelatinous lorica is hyaline, 
within w hich from ten to forty animalcules unite, and form 
a radiating sphere, that revolves in swimming. The brow, 



[. Rotatoria . 

or frontal region of the animalcule, is broad, truncated, 
and surrounded with a wreath of cilii, interrupted at the 
mouth, which is lateral. On the frontal plane arise four 
thick conical papillae, often furnished with an articulated 
bristle, especially the two anterior, as seen in figures 365, 
366, and 368. The oesophagus is short and narrow, its 
head, or bulb, has jaws, with teeth, and four muscles; it 
lies immediately within the mouth. The stomach and 
rectum are oval (Gasterodela). Two spherical, pancreatic, 
or salivary glands, are observed near the oesophagus, and 
posteriorly an ovarium, often containing a large ovum, 
which is expelled near the base of the tail. The ovate or 
shortly-cylindrical body terminates in a long, thin, and 
strong cylindrical foot-like tail, the end having a suction 
disc. The gelatinous nucleus, or lorica, is only perceptible 
in coloured water, except when infested with green para¬ 
sitical Monads; within it the animalcules can completely 
withdraw themselves, their tails becoming thickened and 
bent. (In the group , figures 365 to 368, the lorica is not 
shewn.) There are no anterior muscles, but three pair of 
posterior ones, which disappear near the rotatory organ ; 
there is also a back pair and two lateral pairs. Several 
transverse vessels appear connected with two anterior, 
lateral, longitudinal vessels, which, Dr. Ehrenberg states, 
must arise from a vascular network near the head, as in 
Hydatina. He has also seen two spiral bands (gills),situated 
posteriorly. Two beautiful red visual organs lie immediately 
beneath the wreath of cilii, and behind them little oval 
nervous ganglia. In the foot-like tail are two large wedge- 
shaped glands, probably male organs. These creatures 




will feed upon carmine and indigo, but are mostly filled 
with a golden-coloured food. Fig. 370 represents a cluster 
of animalcules magnified about ten diameters, of which 
figs. 365 to 368 represent a portion, highly magnified; the 
first is an under view, the two next dorsal views, and the 
last a side view. Fig. 369 shews the jaws, teeth, and part 
of the oesophagus-bulb separate. Size l-60th; sphere l-9th. 




| Rotatoria. 


Have no envelope or lorica, but possess a simple rota¬ 
tory organ, incised or flexuose at the margin; this consti¬ 
tutes the purveying aud locomotive apparatus. Distinct 
muscular bands are seen, which can change the shape of 
the body. In Megalotrocha, the alimentary canal is pro¬ 
vided with two jaws, a stomach, two coeca, and two pan¬ 
creatic glands. In the other genera, it is a simple canal, 
without stomach and coeca; Microcodon has two single¬ 
toothed jaws, but no pancreatic glands; and Cyplionantes 
is toothless. The ovarium in all the genera developes a 
few large ova. In Megalotrocha, the ovum is attached to 
a thread; vessels and tremulous gills are observed in that 
genus; organs of sensation are indicated by the red eyes 
in two genera; in the other, a ganglion is seen in their 
place. In Megalotrocha radiating nervous ganglia, similar 
to a brain, and four dark glandular spheres, in the neigh¬ 
bourhood of the mouth, are seen. 

The genera are thus related :— 

Eyes absent...... Cyphonautes. 

C one eye . Microcodon. 

Eyes present < 

L two eyes.Megalotrocha. 

Genus CXL. Cyphonautes. The hump-backed Ani¬ 
malcules are destitute of eyes. Locomotion is performed 
bv the continuous but notched cilii wreath and an internal 
band-like muscle. The nutritive apparatus consists of a 
toothless oesophagus, an alimentary canal, with probably 
a pancreatic gland; an ovarium, with a single large ovum. 

Megalot roc haea .] 



is visible; vessels and tremulous gills unknown ; a nervous 
system is indicated by a round glandular knot at the 

571. Cypiionautes compressus. The three-lobed 
Cyphonautes is white, the body compressed, obtusely 
triangular, truncated anteriorly, and sub-acutely gibbous 
upon the back; near the oesophagal head is a spherical 
gland, probably a brain ; no eye with coloured pigment is 
present; on each side a band-like muscle proceeds to the 
end of the back, which terminates in a changeable wart 
(perhaps suction disc). It swims with a vacillating motion. 
Fig. 373, plate viii., represents a full-grown animalcule. 
Found in sea water. Size 1-100th. 

Genus CXLI. Microcodon. The hell little Jish Ani¬ 
malcules possess a single eye, the simple wreath of cilii 
bent in the middle resembles the figure 8 lying transversely; 
the alimentary canal is thick and straight, without a 
stomach ; it has no oesophagus tube, but has a sort of 
oesophagal bulb and a couple of single-toothed jaws ; also 
a turbid ovarium. Immediately behind the rotatory appa¬ 
ratus is a small red visual organ, and at the frontal region 
beside it is a reddish knot, whose function is unknown. 

572. Microcodon clavus. The hell Microcodon. —Body 
campanulate, pedicled, the styliform foot-like tail as long 
as the body; in the middle of the brow are two bundles of 
stiff bristles, and two pincer-like points, evidently teeth, 
project out of the middle of the rotatory organ, and are in 
connexion with the reddish jaws. Fig. 371 is a back, and 
372 a left side view. Size l-280th. 

Genus CXLII. Megalotrociia. The parasol or great 

wheeled Animalcules possess two eyes, which sometimes 

z 2 



[. Rotatoria. 

become effaced by age. The rotatory organ has two lap¬ 
pets ; the nutritive system consists of a stomach, coecum, 
rectum, an oesophagal head, having two jaws, with teeth, 
and two pancreatic glands; reproductive organs, a short 
knotted ovarium, with a few ova; muscles, three pair 
anterior, two pair posterior longitudinal, two contractile 
muscles for the rotatory organ, and four oesophagal. The 
eyes are frontal, of a red colour when young; two many- 
partite radiant nervous masses are distributed in the disc 
of the rotatory organ; these represent the nervous struc¬ 
tures and organs of sensation, and four circular transverse- 
lying vessels are also seen. The nature of the four opaque 
white spherical bodies at the base of the rotatory organ is 

573. Megalotrocha albo-Jiavicans (Vorticella socia - 
Us, M.) The yellowish-white Megalotrocha is white and 
free, when young, yellowish and attached in radiating 
clusters when old. Ehrenberg states he has often per¬ 
ceived the red eyes in the closed ovum, and the jaws, as if 
in the act of chewing, move laterally and horizontally against 
each other. Two ova are rarely produced at one time; the 
ovum, when expelled from the body, remains attached to it 
by a thread, and the parent has often four or five thus 
attached, which are thus further developed. Ehrenberg’s 
observations on the embryo are highly interesting: he says, 
cc In the ovum, whilst within the ovarium, a bright germ 
makes its appearance as a round bright spot; within this a 
turbid nucleus developes itself, which at first is surrounded 
with a bright broad margin of fluidity; within the nucleus 
a central bright vesicle, like a yolk, is gradually developed; 
the ovum is then expelled. The embryo is now quickly 

Megalotrochaea .] 



developed within the vesicle of the nucleus or yolk, and 
becomes visible when this latter is consumed; a turbid 
central spot then appears, which becomes the oesophagal 
bulb and teeth ; a blackish granular oval body is also seen 
posteriorly, the eyes gradually become red, and a motion 
of the cilii is visible : after some hours the whole foetus, 
which is folded up, turns itself round, the shell bursts, 
and the young animalcule creeps out; it then fixes itself be¬ 
tween the older ones, but in a little time the young creature 
detaches itself and swims about as a rolling sphere, but, at 
the expiration of a certain period, attaches itself to some 
firm body.” Figures 374 to 376 represent different speci¬ 
mens; figure 377 is merely the teeth and jaws separate. 
Found upon water plants. Size of single animalcule 
l-36th ; of the spheres l-6th. 



j Rotatoria. 


Comprehends Rotatorial Animalcules enveloped in a 
case, and provided with a single rotatory organ, flexuose 
at the margin, and lobed or divided with from two to six 
clefts; when the latter number, it appears compound. The 
cilii of this organ in some genera are quiescent, and only 
vibratile occasionally. The alimentary canal has toothed 
jaws, and generally a stomach ; the genus Lacinularia only 
has coecal appendages to the latter, but in all of them oval 
or semi-spherical pancreatic glands are seen. The repro¬ 
ductive organs are, a short ovarium, in which only a few 
ova are developed at a time, and in Lacinularia, Melicerta, 
and perhaps in Floscularia and Stephanoceros, male glands; 
in Lacinularia four transverse circular vessels, and a strong 
vascular network at the base of the rotatory organ, are 
seen; internal tremulous gill-like organs in Lacinularia 
and Stephanoceros only; eyes are distinct in all, except 
Tubicolaria. In Lacinularia, Limnias, and Melicerta, brain 
and masses of nervous matter are seen. Touching their 
muscular structure, two pair of muscles seemingly contract 
the body posteriorly; the rotatory organs of Lacinularia 
and Melicerta have especial ones. The evolution of young 
in the ovum takes place as in Hydatina. 

The family is disposed in genera, thus:— 

Eyes absent .Tubicolaria. 

One eye present (when young) .Stephanoceros. 

envelope of the single animal- 1 
cules distinct or separated j 1 

Two eyes 
present j 
(when 'i 

rotatory organ two-parted 

wlun full-grown envelope of the single animal-1 T . . . 

\ ... ^ Lacinularia. 

cules conglomerated J 

rotatory organ four-parted when full-grown .Melicerta. 

rotatory organ live to six-parted when full-grown .Floscularia. 

Flosculariu .] 



Genus CXLIII. Tubicolaria. The encased wheel 
Animalcules are destitute of eyes at all ages (?) have a four- 
lobed rotatory organ, and a gelatinous case ( urceolus ). 
Their internal structure comprises four posterior longitudi¬ 
nal muscles, an alimentary canal, with a long stomach, 
devoid of coecal appendages; a short rectum, an oesophagal 
head with four muscles, two jaws with teeth, two semi- 
spherical pancreatic glands, and an ovarium, with a single 
ovum. xVnteriorly, upon the ventral surface, are two res¬ 
piratory tubes. 

574. Tubicolaria najas. The mantle Tubicolaria .— 
The jaws have four teeth, and the respiratory tubes are 
hairy anteriorly. It is described fully in the account of 
the genus, and figures 379 to 382 will illustrate it; 381 
represents those of the natural size, as found attached to 
the roots of Lemna polyrrhiza, with those of the following 
genus ; 379 represents an animalcule within its case, the 
rotatory organ withdrawn ; 380, another animalcule ex¬ 
tended, and without its lorica. Fig. 382 shews the oeso¬ 
phagus, with the jaws and teeth separate. Length 1-36th. 

Genus CXLIV. Stephanoceros. The crown-wheel 
Animalcules have one eye, and a rotatory organ, deeply 
divided into lobes, and furnished with verticellate cilii: 
this organ performs the office of locomotion. Their nu¬ 
tritive apparatus consists of a simple alimentary canal, 
with a stomach, and small rectum ; the oesophagal head 
has jaws, with free teeth, four in number; before it is a 
large crop-like structure, and two glands at the stomach; 
the ovarium only developes a few ova at a time; perhaps 
two male glands exist at the commencement of the row of 
tremulous gills ; a red visual point, with a row of nervous 



[. Rotatoria . 

ganglia, in pairs, are visible at the base of the rotatory 
organ; young animalcules possess a small glandular dark 
body internally. 

575. Stephanoceros Eickhornii. Eickhorn’s Stepha- 
noceros, —The case of this creature is transparent, like 
glass; its rotatory organ has five lobes or arms, each fur¬ 
nished with fifteen verticellate cilii; these arms it employs 
as a prehensile instrument occasionally, and spreads them 
out, as shewn in the engraving, Jig . 383, which represents 
a full-grown animalcule, with four ova within it; two have 
the young developed, which are only expelled when in this 
state: hence, Dr. Ehrenberg considers this creature vivi¬ 
parous. In this figure the eye and gills are visible, and 
over the latter the ganglia. The case is difficult to be dis¬ 
cerned under the microscope, from its very transparent 
nature, unless indigo is mixed with the water. Length 

Genus CXLV. Limnias. —These animalcules have two 
eyes, a solitary little case ( urceolus ), and a rotatory organ, 
two-lobed when full-grown, being then constricted in the 
middle ; the apparatus of nutrition consists of a simple 
alimentary canal, terminating at the base of the tail, a 
stomach, two jaws with teeth, and two pancreatic glands; 
the ova are deposited within the case, and then developed; 
neither male organs, gills, or vessels, have been discovered; 
two visual organs indicate a system of sensation; these, in 
the young animalcules, are red, and are even visible within 
the ovum, but in old age the colour disappears, and hence 
they are not seen; in the middle of the rotatory organ, 
when expanded, are seen four large balls, which Dr. 
Ehrenberg considers nervous ganglia, or brain. 

Floscularia .] 



576. Limnias ceratophilli. The kormvort Limnias.— 
Case white at first, afterwards brown, or blackish; it is 
smooth, but, being viscid, is often covered with extraneous 
particles, its connexion with the animalcule is a voluntary- 
act of the latter; the two red eyes and the jaws may be ob¬ 
served in the ova, when developed, and by giving them a 
gentle pressure the shell bursts. Fig . 389 exhibits an 
animalcule just emerged from the egg, 392. Fig. 391 is a 
young specimen, with the rotatory organ nearly circular; it 
also shews the two eyes. Fig. 390 is a full-grown specimen, 
without its case, fed on indigo, the jaws (each of which 
has three strong teeth), the ova, and traces of two (four?) 
longitudinal muscles, are seen: the wheel is folded up. 
Fig. 388 is another within its case, having the lobed rota¬ 
tory organ expanded. Found upon horn wort (Ceratopliyl- 
lum), and other aquatic plants. Length about l-20th; 
case l-40th. 

Genus CXLYI. Lacinularia. The horse-shoe Ani¬ 
malcules have two eyes (in the young state), the cases 
(urceoli) conglomerate, or grown together, and the rota¬ 
tory organ two-lobed, when full grown, but circular when 
young; this organ is the chief instrument of locomotion: 
band-like longitudinal muscles run within the body. The 
nutritive apparatus consists of a large cesophagal head, 
having two jaws, with teeth in rows, a short narrow 
oesophagus, an elongated stomach, but with no coeca-like 
appendages; two ovate pancreatic glands, and a short 
globose rectum. The ovarium is situate about the middle 
of the body, and contains but a few large ova; four fecun¬ 
dating glands appear below the discharging orifice, which 
latter is common to the ovarium, and alimentary canal; 



[Rotatoi ia. 

transverse circular canals, vascular network at the base 
of the rotatory organs, and tremulous gill-like bodies, are 
observable. The system of sensation is indicated by the 
visual organs, which rest on ganglia; they are red in the 
developed ovum and young animalcule, but become blackish 
or disappear with age. Near the oesophagus is situated a 
nervous mass (analogous to brain), divided into four to 
six lobes, also (as in Megalotrocha) two ring-like radiant 
processes with a row of ganglia, these lie beneath the 
muscles of the cilii wreath; the longest lobes (ganglia) are 
seen from the ventral surface. 

577. Lacinularia socialis {Vorticella socialis etjioscu- 
losa , M.) The social Lacinularia. —Lorica gelatinous, of a 
yellowish colour, and conglomerate, several (from ten to 
sixty) uniting to form a spherical mass. Each animalcule 
is fixed by its tail to a separate cell, within which it can 
entirely withdraw itself. It has a large horseshoe-shaped 
rotatory organ; seven or eight eggs are deposited, free, 
within each cell; the young, when hatched, form a new 
cluster, swim away, and form loricae; when only one is born, 
it attaches itself at the side of the parent. Fig. 378 is an 
animalcule separated from the mass; it is highly magni¬ 
fied, and exhibits the organization described under its 
genus. Found on chara and other aquatic plants. Length 
J -3 6 th. 

Genus CXLVII. Melicerta. The four-leaved Ani¬ 
malcules have two eyes (at least when young), solitary 
cases, and a single rotatory organ, with four lobes, when 
expanded. It has free longitudinal muscles for the con¬ 
traction of the body; the alimentary canal is broad and 
simple, with a stomach-like division; its oesophagal head 

Flosculctria.] THE INFUSORIA. 347 

has four muscles, two jaws, with teeth in rows, and two 
pancreatic glands; the mouth is situated under the large 
leaves or lobes of the rotatory organ ; the discharging 
orifice is at the base of the prehensile tail: the propagative 
system resembles the preceding genus, but the male por¬ 
tion is not satisfactorily known. A vascular system has 
not been observed, but the two tubular processes beneath 
the mouth are probably subservient to respiration; the 
two frontal eyes in the ova and young animalcules, together 
with the curved glandular band of nervous matter in each 
leaflet of the vibratile organ, represent the system of sen¬ 
sation ; the chewing movement of the mouth has been 
often mistaken for the action of a heart. 

578. Melicerta rir/gens . The ring-tailed Melicerta 
has a conical granulated case, resembling a honey-comb, of 
a brownish-red colour; it is composed of small lenticular 
bodies, expressly deposited by the animalcule from the 
posterior alimentary opening (and not foreign matter, like 
the habitations of the larvae of the Phryganea); these are 
agglutinized by a peculiar viscid matter, also exuded, and 
afterwards hardened in the water. Into this tube the soft 
crystalline or whitish* animalcule can withdraw itself; 
when its flower-like wheelwork is expanded, the vibratile 
cilii appear to run along the margin of this organ, but, in 
fact, each single cilia only turns itself upon its base, and 
the aggregate motion causes a little whirlpool in the water, 
directed towards the mouth, situated in the middle of the 
two large leaflets of this organ; the eyes are placed near 
the two other bent leaflets, which, according to Dr. Ehren- 
berg, are analagous to a cleft upper lip of the dorsal 
surface; the discharging orifice is on the same side, and 



[. Rotatoria. 

therefore the dorsal tail-like portion becomes a ventral 
member, or foot. Fig. 386 exhibits an animalcule within 
its case, and having the rotatory organ contracted: Jig. 
387 is another, with the latter fully expanded; in this 
drawing, an outline only of the case is given, in order to 
shew the internal structure. Two of the ova exhibit the 
eyes and teeth, the latter are formed first. Found upon 
lemna and other aquatic plants. Length l-12th; case 
1 -24th; egg 1-150th. 

Genus CXLVIII. Fl.oscul.aria. The jlower wheel 
Animalcules possess (when young at least) two eyes, and a 
rotatory organ, four or five (?) or more lobed. These elegant 
animalcules have each a distinct gelatinous case, the ends 
of which are attached to water plants. They are often so 
very diaphanous as to escape observation, unless the water 
is rendered turbid with colour; the rotatory organ is 
so very peculiar in structure that some observers do not 
consider it as such. The alimentary canal is simple and 
conical (Coelogastrica), but is remarkable as possessing a 
second oesophagal bulb or head, the lower one only having 
jaws and teeth; two pancreatic glands are present anteriorly. 
The propagative system resembled Lacinularia. The ova 
are deposited in the case; vessels unknown. The redeyes 
indicate sensation. They resemble in appearance some¬ 
what Acineta. 

579. Floscularia proboscidea. The proboscis Floscu- 
laria is large, has a cylindrical hyaline gelatinous case, and a 
six-lobed rotatory organ, with short cilii, surrounding a cili¬ 
ated flexible proboscis, which has apparently an opening at 
its end. The body is ovate, and has a long sty liform contractile 
foot-like tail attached to the base of its case; when extended, 




the body and part of this foot are protruded. Found upon 
the leaves of Hottonia palustris. Length, when extended, 
l-18th; case l-36th. 

580. Floscularia ornata (Cerearia, M.) The adorned 
Floscularia is small, case hyaline, rotatory organ six-lobed, 
no proboscis. This animalcule is sluggish and unfolds 
itself slowly, but often contracts quickly within its case. 
The end of each lobe of the rotatory organ is thickened, 
and has from five to eight very long cilii, generally stretched 
stiffly out. They are very fond of Chlamidomonas, and 
when they swallow large bodies, as Naviculae, contract the 
whole body. Ehrenberg has numbered as many as five 
ova in the case at one time : some were generally quite 
developed, shewing the movement of the young, with the 
two red eyes. Under a slight pressure the shell burst, and 
the young animalcule crawled out, slightly vibrating. The 
cilii w r ere short and not very distinct, but the cesophagal 
head was in action. When old, the foot-tail is truncated, 
and during contraction has transverse folds; rotatory organ 
extended, with five lobes. Found upon Ceratophyllum. 
Size of body l-108th. 


[ Rotatoria. 


Family XXVII.— Hydatinaea. 

The members of this highly-organized and extensive 
family of rotatory animalcules are destitute of lorica ; they 
possess a wheel-like apparatus, or vibratile organ, divided 
into several distinct series or parts, always more than two 
in number. The compound state of this organ is best ex¬ 
pressed by saying that it is not a mere circular or semi¬ 
circular row of cilii, but several rows or groups, completely 
separate from each other. They are situated on the an¬ 
terior part of these soft-bodied animalcules. All the 
genera, Polyarthra excepted, have a tail-like foot, or a 
styliform or pincer-formed process, on the abdomen—hence 
not properly a tail, that member being always a pro¬ 
longation of the dorsal surface. In several of the genera, 
the muscles for altering the form of the body are distinct. 
The nutritive system is completely elicited in all; it con¬ 
sists mostly of a simple conical tube for the alimentary 
canal, without a stomach-like division (Coelogastrica); 
but Diglena catellina, Polyarthra, and Triarthra longiseta, 
have true constricted stomachs. Enteroplea, Notommata 
myrmeleo, syrinx, clavulata, the Synch aetae, and Diglena 
lacustris, have a long oesophagus or stomach, and a 
suddenly-attenuated discharging canal (Gasterodela). 
Enteroplea alone has radiant vessels at the oesophagus. 
Notommata clavulata and Diglena lacustris have special 
coeca at the stomach. Enteroplea is the only genus 
destitute of teeth, though doubtful in Rattulus. Pancreatic 
glands, under different modifications, are present in all the 

Hydatinaea .] 



genera. The propagative system is distinctly hermaphroditic 
in fifteen genera. The ovarium, which only evolves a few 
large ova at a time, is mostly ovate: in Notommata 
myrmeleo, clavulata, and in Diglena lacustris, it is very 
long. It communicates, by a short oviduct, with the 
alimentary canal near its termination. None of the species 
are viviparous. The male organs, when present, consist 
of two filiform, extended, wedge-shaped glands, and a con¬ 
tractile vesicle. The egg is worthy of notice, having 
sometimes a smooth soft shell, at others a hard spinous 
one; the latter is termed the winter ovum, and considered 
by M. Turpin as constituting the genera Bursella and Eri- 
thrinella(?) of plants. In eleven genera, a vascular system, 
composed of transverse and longitudinal vessels, a cervical 
net-work and free tremulous organs, like gills, with respi¬ 
ratory tubes or openings in the neck, is observed. The 
system of sensation is indicated by the presence of eyes, 
mostly red, with a ganglion beneath them ; these organs 
being anterior upon the edge of the upper surface of the 
body, or in the neck opposite to the mouth, indicate the 
back or dorsal surface of the animalcule; also nerve-like 
fibrillae exist in several species of Notommata, Diglena, 
Enteroplea, Triarthra, and especially in Hydatina. Some 
species of Syncliaeta evolve light and give rise to the 
phosphorescence of the sea. Hydatina senta, Diglena 
catellina, and Triarthra, are sometimes so numerous as to 
render the pools of water in which they reside milky and 



[ Rotatoria. 

The genera are related as follow:— 

f teeth absent .Enteroplea. 

jaw many-toothed.. Hydatina. 

jaw single-toothed...Pleurotrocha. 


foot styliform .... Monocerca. 

absent \ 

teeth present 


cervical ( 


[~ frontal cilii, no uncini or styles Notommata. 

\ frontal cilii and styles .Synchaeta. 

L frontal cilii and uncini . Scaridium. 

Eyes / 

no foot, but a many partile beard, or fins Polyarthra. 
foot furcated ...Diglena. 

frontal { 



beard .Triarthra. 

styliform ^ nobeard .Rattulus. 

cervical; foot furcated .Distemma. 


f cervical . Triophthalmus. 

three ( 

pedicelled 1 „ . , „ 

V. two frontal, one cervical . Eosphora. 

two pedicelled frontal eyes, one non-pedicelled cervical l 
eye ./ Otoglena. 

with many simply conglomerate eyes, more than three.Cycloglena. 

with many doubly-conglomerate eyes, more than three. Theorus. 

Genus CXLIX. Enteroplea. These rotatory animal¬ 
cules have neither eyes nor teeth, but possess a fork-like 
foot; the cilii of the vibratile organ are disposed in bundles, 
based in semi-globular muscles. Several longitudinal 
muscles move the body, others the foot-like pincers. The 
nutritive organs are a long oesophagus, with a bulb or head, 
surrounded bya'radiant (vascular?) wreath. The alimentary 
canal is conical; it has, anteriorly, two ear-like pancreatic 
glands, is suddenly diminished posteriorly, and terminates 
where the muscles of the foot commence. The propagative 
structures are an extended ovarium, two thin wedge-shaped 

tlydatinuea .] 

the infusoria 


glands, and a contractile vesicle. The vascular system is 
indicated by many parallel transverse circular canals, and 
a large tremulous organ, similar to a gill, near the con¬ 
tractile vesicle. A brain-like knot, situated near the 
oesophagus, sends off a thick tortuous thread along the 
dorsal surface to the second transverse vessel, where the 
respiratory opening probably exists. Posteriorly, near the 
alimentary canal, is a dark granular organ, whose function 
is unknown. 

581. Enteroplea hydatina . The crystalline Enteroplea. 
—Body conical, transparent, with a little forked foot. 
Anteriorly, four longitudinal muscles reach to the middle 
of the body, and one dorsal, one ventral, and two opposed 
lateral ones, are also seen. Two internal short wedge- 
shaped muscles move the pincer-like foot. Ehrenberg 
counted ten or eleven circular canals in the vascular system. 
This animalcule is always smaller than Hydatina senta, 
which it greatly resembles. Fig. 393 represents this ani¬ 
malcule, in which the internal parts, named in the generic 
description, are shewn. Length 1-120th. 

Genus CL. Hydatina. The crystal Animalcules are 
destitute of eyes, but have tw T o many-toothed jaw r s 
{fig- 383*) and a fork-like foot; locomotion is effected by 
the compound wheel organ, the pincer-like foot, and in¬ 
ternal muscles; the latter are most numerous in H. senta. 
The alimentary canal has a globose oesophagal head, with four 
muscles and jaw r s, and w ith two to five teeth. In H. senta 
the jaw 7 s are connected by a short oesophagus to a simple 
conical alimentary canal; in the other species, to a con¬ 
stricted one; the large anterior extremity has two spherical 
glands. The ovarium is globular. Two thin w r edge-shaped 

2 A 




glands open into a contractile vesicle for fructification. 
The vascular system and gills are observed in H. senta. 
In both species the central ganglia, with its cervical 
thread or loop, is visible. 

582. Hydatina senta (Vorticella senta , M.) The large 
Hydatina .—Body conical, hyaline ; margin of the rotatory 
organ ciliated; foot truncated and robust. The vibratile 
organ, when extended, is always in motion; it consists of a 
simple external wreath of cilii, somewhat interrupted at 
the mouth, and eleven internal bundles of cilii, each en¬ 
veloped in a muscular sheath. The body has nine 
muscular bands thus situated; one upper or anterior dorsal 
muscle (no under or posterior one), two anterior ventral, 
and two posterior ones closing thereon; one right, and one 
left anterior lateral, with posterior ones in continuation. The 
five anterior muscles arise between the muscular bundles 
of the rotatory organ, mostly at the margin; the dorsal 
ones arise from the centre, near the central ganglion, and 
are collectively attached to the internal skin of the abdomen, 
between the fourth and fifth transverse vessels, their in¬ 
serted extremities being enlarged. Here the four posterior 
muscles arise, and are inserted where the pincer-like foot 
projects ; two longitudinally-striated muscular sheaths en¬ 
case the inner root of the divided foot; and there is a 
sphincter to the anal opening. The fibrous structure of 
the band-like longitudinal muscles, as sometimes also 
transverse corrugations of the fibres, are as distinct as in 
the larger animals. During the contraction of the body, 
they become shorter and broader, by which they are easily 
distinguished from the other band-like and filiform organs, 
which only become curved during contraction of the body 



(maintaining themselves passive). The alimentary canal 
has no true stomach, the posterior diminishes, and the in¬ 
ternal surface is provided with delicate vibratile cilii; it 
sometimes appears grape-like, from having semi-lunar 
valves, which form little lateral pockets or stomachs: the 
ova often occupy a large portion of the body. In most 
cases, the creature fixes itself to a spot by its foot, and lays 
several eggs upon the same place, one after another, by a 
sudden contraction ; sometimes, when it is going to lay 
more eggs, it returns to the original spot. In eleven hours 
after the eggs were laid vibration of the anterior cilii was 
observed, by Ehrenberg, within them ; and in twenty-four 
hours the young escaped from the shell. Many of the ova 
have a double shell, and leave a bright space between each 
at one of the extremities, and such ova are found in other 
rotatory animalcules, having different shapes. In these, 
the young are slowly developed. Ehrenberg names them, 
“ lasting eggs, or winter eggs. 5 ' Some eggs are covered 
with Hygrocrocis, and appear quite hairy; these have 
been regarded as the normal state of other ciliated animal¬ 
cules. Two kinds of diseases destroy the Hydatina, and 
most of the Rotatoria: 1 st, the formation of vesicles, or 
little bladders, which give rise to the appearance of small 
rings all over the creature : 2nd, the formation of granules, 
from which all the internal organs appear as if composed 
of delicate granules and shagreened; a third disease 
may be the overgrowth of algae upon their bodies. Foul 
water likewise kills them. Fig. 394 represents a vibrat¬ 
ing animalcule completely unfolded, seen from the ventral 
surface. The arrows in the alimentary canal indicate a 
decussating, or circulating movement of its contents, 

9 A 2 




produced by delicate internal cilii, and must not be mis¬ 
taken for the motion of Monads. 

583. Hydatina brachydactyla. The little Hydatina .— 
Body cylindrical, truncated anteriorly, and suddenly at¬ 
tenuated at the base of the foot; claws short. Found on 
Hottonia, &c. Length l-144th. 

Genus CLI. Pleurotrocha. The awl-shaped tooth 

Rotatoria have no eyes, but possess a single tooth in each 
jaw, and a furcated foot. The rotatory organ consists, not 

of a simple wreath of cilii, but of cilii distributed in 
bundles near each other, the bundles being placed in mus¬ 
cular cases. In P. gibba there are two muscles for 
moving the foot, and in all the species the cesophagal head 
has four. This head is globular, it has two single-toothed 
jaws (Jig. 396); these, and the short oesophagus, the simple 
conical alimentary canal, having anteriorly two spherical 
pancreatic glands, constitute the nutritive apparatus. The 
posterior opening of the canal is at the base of the foot, 
upon the dorsal surface. The propagative system consists 
of a globular ovarium. In P. leptura a contractile vesicle 
is seen. Organs of sensation are not satisfactorily known, 
and the nervous loop in the neck of the Hydatina appears 
wanting in this genus. 

584. Pleurotrocha gibba. The thickened Pleurotro¬ 
cha. —Body truncated anteriorly, enlarging from the front 
towards the base of the foot, where it is suddenly attenu¬ 
ated, the toes, or clav r s, short and turgid; near the mouth 
is a beak-like projection, forming an under lip. Fig. 395 
is a right side view, and Jig. 396 the teeth and oesophagal 
head dissected out. Found with Hydatina brachydactyla. 
Length 1-216th. 

II)/d at i?uiea.'\ 



585. Pleurotrocha constricta. The robber Pleuro¬ 
trocha. —Body elongated, conical, and separated from the 
head by a stricture; front oblique, toes straight and 
slender. This animalcule is very active and powerful; it 
seems to be predaceous. Found upon Ceratophyllum. 
Length 1-144th. 

586. Pleurotrocha leptura. The thin-footed Pleurotro¬ 
cha. —Body turgid in the centre, front oblique, foot slender, 
toes thin and slightly curved. Found amongst conferva. 
Length 1-144th. 

Genus CLII. Furcularia. The forked fish Rotatoria 
have a single frontal eye, and a forked foot resembling a 
tail; the vibratile organ is compound. Longitudinal mus¬ 
cles exist in F. gibba, and foot muscles in three species. 
The oesophagus is very short, its head has two jaws, each 
with a single tooth ( monogomphia ), in two species, but 
not in the others; a simple conical alimentary canal 
( coelogastrica ), with two ear-like glands, exists in all the 
species, and ovarium is distinct; but in F. gibba only a 
contractile vesicle. Vessels, respiratory tubes, gills, &c., 
are not recognizable ; the organs of sensation are a red 
visual point on the frontal region, and in F. Reinhardti a 
sort of brain-like mass is seen. 

587. Furcularia gibba. The hump-backed Furcularia. 
—Body oblong, slightly compressed, under side flat, back 
convex, toes forked, long (styliform), equal to half the 
body; the eye is placed upon a nervous ganglion over the 
mouth, clearly indicating the dorsal surface; the ovarium 
has, generally, one large and ripe ovum ; the movement of 
this animalcule is somewhat slow. Found in green water, 
and amongst conferva. Length 1-96’th. 




588. Furcularia Reinhardti. Reinhardt’s Furcula¬ 
ria. —Body fusiform, truncated in front, foot elongated, 
cylindrical, and shortly furcated at the end; a slight 
stricture divides the body and head. Plate ix., fig . 397, 
represents this animalcule extended, and Jig. 398, another, 
contracted; the former is a side (right), the latter a back, 
view. Found as a parasite upon Monopyxis (Sertularia) 
geniculata, in sea water. Length 1-120th. 

589. Furcularia forficula. The ear-wig Furcularia. 
—Body cylindrical, obtusely pointed in front, the toes 
very long, rounded, and dentated at the base, on the upper 
side; the rotatory organ appears to have two frontal clus¬ 
ters of cilii near the eye, and a wheel-like bundle on each 
side. Length LI44th. 

590. Furcularia gracilis. The slender Furcularia .— 
Body slender, cylindrical, suddenly attenuated at the base 
of the furcated foot; toes straight, long, and shorter than 
half the body. The rotatory organ appears disposed in 
six muscular cases, between, and superior to which, is a 
longish central ganglion, with a red eye. Found in green 
water. Length 1-180th. 

Genus CLIII. Monocerca. The filiform-tailed Rota¬ 
toria have a single eye, situate in the neck, and a simple 
styliform foot, resembling a tail. In two species the vibra- 
tile cilii are distributed into about six bundles, their band¬ 
like longitudinal muscles, and those of the foot, producing 
locomotion ; the sides of the cesophagal head are unequal, 
as also the two jaws, which have one or two teeth; the 
cesophagal tube is curved and long, and the simple alimen¬ 
tary canal is conical, with two ear-like pancreatic glands 
anteriorly. An ovarium and contractile vesicles evidence 

Hydatinaea .] 



hermaphroditism. In two species a projecting respiratory 
tube at the frontal region indicates the existence of the 
vascular system; the red eye, upon a nervous ganglion, 
indicates the presence of a system of sensation in all the 

591. Monocerca rattus (Trichoda rattus, M.) The 
rat Monocerca. —Body ovate, oblong, truncated anteriorly, 
and unarmed; foot styliform, the length of the body. This 
creature swims slowly, in a stiff manner; when stationary, 
it throws the styliform foot backwards and forwards. The 
ovarium has a reddish colour; behind it lies a roundish 
contractile vesicle. The foot has a short base, with a 
cordate internal muscle, and four unequal bristles. Found 
amongst conferva, &c. Length 1-120th. 

592. Monocerca bicornis. The two-horned Monocerca. 
—Body ovate, oblong, truncated in front, armed with two 
spines; foot styliform, a little shorter than the body; the 
oblique oesophagal head exhibits delicate transverse cor¬ 
rugations ; it has a bent and straight jaw, with probably 
three teeth in each. Fig. 399 represents an animalcule 
(right side); Jig. 417 another, contracted, and having its 
rat-like tail bent. Length 1-72nd. 

593. Monocerca (?) valga (Vorticella valga , M.) The 
little Monocerca. —Body small, almost cubical, with dis¬ 
tinct head, an elevation on the back, and a conical foot, 
unequally forked; the rotatory organ, during contraction, 
shews four muscular sheaths, and the distinct red eye is 
placed upon a less distinct ganglion ; the oesophagal head 
is not evident. Length 1-288th. 

Genus CLIV. Notommata. The neck-eyed Rotatoria 
have a single eye upon the neck, a bisidcated foot, resem- 



[ Rotatoria. 

bling a forked tail, and a rotatory organ, simply ciliated, 
and disposed in bundles on the frontal region ; eight of the 
larger species have numerous muscles; eighteen or nine¬ 
teen have two jaws, each furnished with a single tooth; in 
eight the jaws have many teeth; the oesophagus is mostly 
short, with a simple wide conical alimentary canal ( coelo - 
gastrica) ; in N. tuba only is there a stomach-like division, 
with a constriction ( gasterodela , «), and in N. myrmeleo, 
syrinx, and clavulata, there is also a stomach-like enlarged 
place, but no constriction ( gasterodela , (3) ; coecal appen¬ 
dages are observed only in N. clavulata. The two earlike 
anterior appendages of the alimentary canal, regarded 
as pancreatic glands, exist in twenty-four species. The 
propagative system evidently is hermaphroditic in sixteen 
species ; in the others the ovarium only is seen ; none are 
viviparous : N. syrinx alone was observed by Ehrenberg 
to contain fully developed ova. The vascular system is 
represented, in ten species, by delicate tubes, with flexible 
and tremulous gills; only three of the smaller species 
have gills: in N. myrmeleo and syrinx, a broad vascular 
network is distinct about the head: a prominent respira¬ 
tory (?) tube in the neck is present in four or five species ; 
in some others an opening alone is seen. The visual point 
is red, except in N. felis, where it is colourless; a ganglion 
is placed beneath the eye in twenty-six species. In N. 
copeus and centrura, the brain is three-lobed, and placed 
upon the head of the oesophagus; in the rest it consists of 
one or more nervous ganglia, situated amongst the vibra- 
tile cilii-muscles of the frontal region; free nervous threads 
and ganglia are also observed in different members. This 
genus is especially remarkable for the parasitical habits of 

Hydalinaea .] 



the animalcules. They live upon other Rotatoria, upon 
the polygastric infusoria, and even in the globular masses 
of Volvox globator; but, says Ehrenberg, “not like a 
cuckoo’s egg in a hedge-sparrow’s nest, but like the bear 
and the bee-hive, or a bird’s nest in a w r asp’s nest.” 

(a). Sub-genus Labidodon. —One tooth in each jaw. 

594. Notommata myrmeleo. The bell Notommata .— 
Body large, bell-shaped; foot short, lateral; teeth curved 
in a circular forceps-like manner. (See Jig. 420.) There 
are two varieties: in the one (var. a) a long thin oesopha¬ 
gus, a globular thick stomach, and a long empty rectum, 
compose the alimentary organs. Ehrenberg, by pressure, 
made an animalcule, whose dark stomach nearly filled the 
body, disgorge two large specimens of Lynceus minutus 
(described and figured in the Microscopic Cabinet) ; the 
animalcule afterwards vibrated away in a lively manner. 
No respiratory tubes exist, but five transverse vessels and 
four longitudinal ones (a pair uniting to each of the first 
two transverse ones,) represent a vascular system in this 
variety. In the other (var. /3) a distinct vascular net¬ 
work is seen at the head, but only four transverse vessels, 
and two longitudinal ones, going to the first. The red eye 
is much larger in this variety. Fig. 418 represents a side 
view of the variety /3, in which the various parts of its 
organization, as heretofore described, is clearly seen, as 
also a small crustacean, within its stomach. Fig. 420 
shews the structure of the manducatory organs separated. 
Fig. 419 is the upper part of an animalcule (var. «), shew¬ 
ing the smaller eye, rotatory organs, teeth, and network. 
Found in clear water, in turf hollows. Length 1 -40th. 


[. Rotatoria . 

595. Notommata syrinx .—Body large, bell-shaped; 
lateral foot scarcely visible, teeth curved and bifid at the 
points. This species is very similar to the former, and 
only distinguished from it by its small foot and the spaces 
within the cilii cluster (mouth) being convex, not concave. 
Found in a turf pool. Length l-40th. 

596. Notommata hyptopns. The belly-footed No¬ 
tommata .—Body bell-shaped, nearly globular, rather large; 
foot slightly prominent at the middle of the belly, teeth 
small; vibratile organ composed of four or five muscular 
bundles ; oesophagus very short. Length l-72nd. 

597. Notommata parasita. The parasitic Notommata. 
—Body small, oval; foot short, and teeth small; three or 
four bundles compose the rotatory apparatus; oesophagal 
head globose, tube short; alimentary canal stout, simple, 
usually filled with green matter. This curious animalcule 
lives in the globular clusters of Volvox globator, where it 
deposits its eggs, which are therein hatched. When of 
proper age, the creatures eat their way out through the 
hollow sphere. Length l-40th. 

598. Notommata granularis. The cuckoo Notommata. 
—Body short, cylindrical, truncated at both ends; foot 
slender. The body has always a few dark granular bodies 
within it. Dr. E. discovered it in 1831. In 1835 he 
observed eggs of two sizes on the dorsal surface of N. 
brachionus; the smaller ones were distinguished by dark 
granules within them, and produced N. granularis. From 
other observations he concludes these eggs of N. granu¬ 
laris are deposited by the parent upon N. brachionus, like 
the cuckoo, who lays her eggs in the nests of other birds. 
Length 1-280th. 




599. Notommata petromyzon. The lamprey Notom- 
mat a. —Body elongated, attenuated at both ends; mouth 
and rotatory organ lateral. Ehrenberg says, in May, 
1835, he found one in a Volvox globator, whose gem¬ 
miferous masses it eats like N. parasitica. The eggs 
are often deposited on Epistylis. Length l-180th to 

600. Notommata lacinulata (Vorticella auriculata et 
arcinulata , M.) The double-pointed Notommata .—Body 
small, conical, truncated, and slightly lobed in front; 
teeth extended, often bicuspidate. This species is very 
active. Found with Chlamidomonas pulvisculus in clear 
water; also in water-tubs. Length 1-280th. 

601. Notommata forcipata. The scissor Notommata .—- 
Body small, elongated ; toes long, and often crossed ; eye 
very large. The vibratile organ appears sometimes of a 
simple wreath. Found amongst lemna. Length 1-180th. 

602. Notommata collaris. The thick-necked Notom¬ 
mata. —Body elongated, large, gradually attenuated at 
both ends; neck turgid; toes short. It swims slowly, 
the vibratile organ being small in comparison with the 
body. Length l-48th. 

603. Notommata Werneckii. Werneck’s Notommata . 
—Body elongated, gradually attenuated at both ends; toes 
short. It has two setae near the mouth. This animalcule 
resembles N. collaris, but is smaller, and lives in the club¬ 
like excrescences of Vaucheria as an entophytic animal. 
Length l-90th. 

604. Notommata najas. —Body conical, cylindrical, 
stout, truncated in front; no auricles. It resembles Hy- 
datina senta and Eosphora najas; it is distinguished from 



[ Rotatoria. 

the first by its cervical eye, from the latter by want of 
frontal eyes. Found amongst lemna. Length 1-120th. 

605. Notommata aurita (Vorticella aurita, M.) The 
double-eared Notommata. —Back swollen near the tail, 
and thus gibbous ; the corners at the front project like 
ears. Beneath the eye is an obscure white globular purse¬ 
shaped organ. Found amongst conferva, &c.; also beneath 
ice. Length l-200th. 

606. Notommata gibba. The arched Notommata.— 
Back swollen, front truncated, not auricled, no cerebral 
sacculi below the eye; toes short; the vibratile organs 
compound. Found in old exposed infusions. Length 

607. Notommata ansata ( Vorticella aurita , M.) The 
handle Notommata. — Body turgid in the middle, suddenly 
truncated at both ends ; the front auricled, no cerebral 
sacculi below the eye; toes thick. Found in bog water 
amongst conferva. Length 1-120th. 

608. Notommata decipiens. The slender Notommata. 
—Body cylindrical, not auricled; toes short; the ovarium 
often contains four large eggs. Length 1-180th. 

609. Notommata (l)felis. The cat Notommata. —Body 
small, slender; one horn in front ; eye colourless; back 
attenuated posteriorly, and forked. Length 1-240th. 

610. Notommata (?) tigris , (Trichoda tigris, M.) The 
tiger Notommata. —Body cylindrical, curved, foot half the 
length of body, toes very long, and curved downwards; it 
has a little horn in front; the eye is large and red. Found 
amongst oscillatoria. Length l-72nd. 

611. Notommata iotigiseta (Vorticella longiseta , M.) 
The long-forked Notommata. — Body cylindrical, truncated 




anteriorly; toes styliform, unequal, and two to four times 
longer than the body; it is active, and frequently leaps, 
being assisted by its long claws, which resemble tails. 
Fig. 421 is a full-grown specimen. Entire length 1 -60th. 

612. Notommata (Vorticella longiseta, M.) The 

stilt-tailed Notommata. —Body cylindrical, obtuse in front; 
toes styliform, equal the length of the body. Length 

( b ). Suh-genus Clenodon. — Jaws many-toothed. 

613. Notommata clavulata. The club-bearing Notom¬ 
mata. —Body bell-shaped, foot conical, very short; pan¬ 
creatic glands of a club-shape. This creature presents 
great facility for observing its internal structure, but the 
limits to which I am restricted preclude my entering 
into its interesting details. Length l-96th. 

614. Notommata tuba. The trumpet Notommata .— 
Body conical, trumpet-shaped, dilated anteriorly; foot 
furcated and acute. It resembles, in form, Stentor Miilleri, 
but is more active. Length 1-120th. 

615. Notommata brachionus. The stipiliform Notom¬ 
mata. —Body dilated, nearly square, depressed, foot slen¬ 
der; eggs pendulous. This creature appears to have a 
shell, but Dr. E. says it has not: N. granularis, as before 
remarked, lays its eggs upon it. Length l-96th. 

616. Notommata tripus. The three-footed Notommata. 
—Body oval, sub-truncated, and slightly auricled in front; 
it has a short styliform true tail, and forked foot. Length 

617. Notommata saccigera. The purse Notommata .— 


[ Rotatoria. 

Body elongated, cylindrical, attenuated posteriorly; fork 
short. It has a curious internal pouch beneath the 
eye; vibratile organ lateral, as in Pleurotrocha. Length 

618. Notommata copeus. The telegraph Notommata . 
—Body large, attenuated at both ends; tail small, and 
indurated. This curious creature has a long bristle on 
each side of its body, and on each side of the head a stout 
branch, called, by Dr. Ehrenberg, an auricle; these have 
vibratile cilii around their ends, and, like the setae, stand 
out, so that it appears like a cross: a thick gelatinous 
substance covers the body; the back terminates in a 
somewhat hard point, which is a true tail, between which, 
and the foot, the discharging opening is situated. When 
creeping, the large vibratile arms are withdrawn, but it 
vibrates with the frontal cilii and proboscis. Fig. 416 
represents the creature extended. Length l-36th. 

619. Notommata centrura. The spined-tailed Notom¬ 
mata. —Body large, attenuated at both ends; tail small, 
indurated ; auricles small, and no lateral setae present; 
this is often enveloped in a thick slime, in which articu¬ 
lated threads of Hygrocrocis vegetate, giving the animal¬ 
cule a hairy appearance. It swims awkwardly. Length 

620. Notommata brachyota. The short-eared Notom¬ 
mata. —Body small, slightly attenuated towards the ends ; 
no tail, auricles very small; it has two dark spots near the 
eye; foot forked. Length 1- 120th. 

Genus CLV. Synciiaeta. The bristle-headed Rota¬ 
toria have a single cervical eye; rotatory organs compound, 
the clusters six to ten, and armed with from two to four 

Hydat i?iaea.] 



styles ; the foot furcated. The strong styles, or bristles, 
are situated between the clusters of cilii, and, probably, 
act as teeth ; the body is very short, and broad anteriorly, 
tapering to a point posteriorly, so that it resembles a cone. 
Internal longitudinal muscles exist in all the species; 
those of the foot are seen in three species: the cesophagal 
head is large, with single-toothed jaws, and exists in all 
the species ; but in two only is the whole chewing appa¬ 
ratus distinctly seen. The thin cesophagal tube is long in 
two species, short in the rest; it leads to a simple, wide, 
conical, alimentary canal, which has two roundish, or, in 
one species, conical pancreatic glands. The ovarium is 
rolled up like a ball; male contractile vesicles exist in 
three, and sexual glands in two species; transverse vessels 
(four to ten) are visible in two species; and a respiratory 
tube, probably, in S. pectinata and tremula, a tremulous gill 
being also present in the former. The principal nervous 
matter is a knotty mass surrounding the head of the oeso¬ 
phagus, and in the middle of it is a large, roundish, red 
eye. In S. pectinata three pair of ganglia and strong- 
nerves are also seen. 

621. Synchaeta pectinata. The comb-bearing Syn- 
chaeta .—Body short, conical, with two styles, and two 
crest-like horns anteriorly. “ Are these horns, 33 asks 
Ehrenberg, 66 respiratory tubes, as in Polyarthra, and in 
Anuraea?” The liveliness and uniform transparency of 
this animalcule render it difficult to distinguish its 
various organs. The styles arise from the muscle of the 
cesophagal head, and appear as if belonging to simple¬ 
toothed jaws. Fig. 422 represents a view of this creature 
(dorsal side) ; in it the organization, described under the 



[ Rotatoria. 

genus, are seen. Found amongst conferva. Length 

622. Synchaeta Baltica. The Baltic Synchaeta *— 
Body ovate, rotatory clusters and styles four each; crest 
single, sessile. This creature is supposed to occasion a 
luminous phosphorescent appearance in the ocean. In 
two samples of water received by Dr. Ehrenberg at Berlin, 
from Kiel, the luminous property existed, but this species, 
though present, did not evolve any light. Dr. Michaelis, 
however, has noticed the production of light from this 
Synchaeta, and Dr. Ehrenberg thinks it only takes place 
when developing ova. Length 1-100th. 

623. Synchaeta ob/onga. —Body oblong, with six ro¬ 
tatory clusters, and four styles ; crest sessile and single. 
Distinguished from the following by the form of the 
pancreatic glands. Found amongst conferva, in spring. 
Length about 1-100th. 

624. Synchaeta tremula (Vorticella tremula , M.) The 
tremulous Synchaeta. —Body truly conical, with six rota¬ 
tory clusters, four styles; crest none. Length about 


Genus CLVI. Scaridium. The Springer has a single, 
flat, lenticular eye at the neck, the compound rotatory 
organ, armed in front with an uncinus, or hooked bristle, 
the foot forked, very long, and adapted for leaping or 
springing—hence the name. An oblique oesophagal head, 
with unequal double-pointed (single) teeth to the jaws ; a 
short, narrow oesophagus, opening into a simple, wide, 
conical, alimentary canal, with two spherical pancreatic 
glands, constitute the nutritive system. Posteriorly, at 
the intestine, are a ball-like ovarium and a contractile 

11yda.tina.ea. ] 



vesicle; the foot has two club-shaped muscles; a central 
ganglion exists between the rotatory clusters ; the appa¬ 
rent articulations of the foot are very remarkable. 

625. Sc aridium longicaudum (Trichoda longicauda, 
M.)—Foot-tail twice as long as the body, toes half as long 
as the foot; it springs or leaps quickly, by a rapid move¬ 
ment of the foot; it does not appear to have a lorica, and 
is remarkable from all other rotatory animalcules by the 
length and bending in of the foot, which, as also the body, 
is covered with a stiff skin. Behind the eye is a transverse 
fold in the neck, where the head draws itself into the 
body; the foot has also a transverse fold when it bends. 
Fig . 423 represents the animalcule extended (right side) : 
Jig. 424 is the oesophagal head, with unequal jaws, 
&c., extended by pressure. Found amongst oscillatoria. 
Entire length of the body l-72nd; without the foot, 

Genus CLVII. Polyarthra. The many-jinned Ro- 
tatoria have a single cervical eye, no foot, but are provided 
with cirri, or pectoral fins; the rotatory organ consists of 
four bundles of cilii, inserted in as many muscular sheaths; 
they sometimes appear like the double rotatory organ of a 
Brachionus, and the form of the body resembles Anuraea; 
but it is, however, soft, and the rotatory organ double : 
laterally, two longitudinal dorsal muscles are known ; the 
frontal region has little horns, provided with bristles, and 
upon the breast six strong styles, or beards, forming two 
clusters, which move in a fin-like manner. The system of 
nutrition consists of an oesophagal head, having two sin¬ 
gle-toothed jaws, a short oesophagus, an alimentary canal, 
with a stomach-like division, produced by a constriction, 




[. Rotatoria . 

and two pancreatic glands. An ovarium exists in both 
species, and in one of them a contractile vesicle; nothing 
is known of the vascular system, unless the two soft horns 
at the brow are respiratory tubes ; a large frontal ganglion, 
and a round red eye, indicate the system of sensation. 

626. Polyarthra trigla. The narrow-fingered Poly- 
arthra .—Body oval, almost square, having six setaceous 
pinnae. It swims quickly, and often leaps, like the water 
flea; this last motion is produced by the fins, or finnae, the 
former by the vibratile organs. Fig. 425 represents an 
under side view, w'hile the animalcule is swimming, with 
the finnae depressed ; fig. 400 is a dorsal view, while leap¬ 
ing, or springing; and fig. 401 is a side view (right). This 
creature is infested with Colacium. Found amongst con¬ 
ferva. Length 1-140 th. 

627. Polyarthra platyptera . The broad-fingered 
Polyarthra. —Body oval, almost square, with six seriated 
broad sword-shaped pinnae. It is represented at fig. 402. 
Found amongst Chlamidomonas. Length 1-190th. 

Genus CLVIII. Diglena (?). The two-eyed Rotatoria 
have two frontal eyes, and a forked foot. Excepting the 
foot, and rotatory organ, they have no external prominent 
organ, though some protrude the teeth in a pincer-like 
manner. The nutritive apparatus is indicated by a mus¬ 
cular oesopliagal head, having single-toothed jaws; an 
oesophagal tube, very short, except in D. lacustris; a simple 
conical alimentary canal in six species; and a constricted 
one, or stomach, in two species. In all, two pancreatic 
glands are present, which, in D. lacustris, are long, cylin¬ 
drical, and two-horned; in the rest they are spherical. The 
ovarium, in D. lacustris, is band-like; in the others, like 

Hydatinaea. ] 



a ball; male contractile vesicles are observed in four 
species ; sexual glands in three. No species is viviparous ; 
none carry their egg hanging to them: transverse vessels 
are seen in three species, and in one a vascular net-work 
at the head; tremulous gills are found in three species, in 
tw 7 o of which they are evidently attached to the sexual 
glands. The nervous system is more especially developed 
in D. lacustris, but indicated in all the species by the 
coloured eyes. 

628. Diglena lacustris. The lake Digleua. —Body 
stout, oval, crystalline; the front straightly truncated ; 
foot suddenly attenuated, in length one-fourth of the 
body; the toes one-third the length of the foot. The 
transparency of this animalcule is often a great hindrance 
to the discrimination of its internal organs, though they 
are very large ; the superficial skin is delicately shagreened. 
Fig. 403 represents a side view (left) of this interesting 
animalcule, with a Lynceus (see Microscopic Cabinet , 
plate vii.) in its stomach ; its curious internal organization 
is clearly depicted. Often found in green-coloured water. 
Length l-70th. 

629. Diglena grandis. The elegant Diglena.— Body 
long, slender, and cylindrical, obliquely truncated ante¬ 
riorly ; toes straight, longer than the stout foot. The 
forked central sacculi, between the two ocular ganglia, is 
remarkable. Fig. 404 represents a side view (right) of an 
extended animalcule; fig. 405 another, contracted, with 
the jaw 7 s pushed out. Length 1-120th to l-72nd. 

630. Diglena forcipata (Vorticella vermicular is, Cer- 
caria forcipata et vermicu/aris , M.) The bent-fingered 
Diglena. —Body cylindrical, slender, obliquely truncated 

2b 2 



[ Rotatoria. 

anteriorly; toes decurved, and longer than the stout foot. 
Length 1-110th. 

631. Diglena (?) aurita ( Vorticelici canicula , M.) The 
Jong-eared Diglena. — Body cylindrical, slender ; front 
straightly truncated, auricled; foot suddenly constricted, 
toes small. The tremulous organ (heart) observed by 
Corti was merely the vibratile lining membrane of the 
anterior portion of the alimentary canal. Found amongst 
conferva. Length 1-160th. 

632. Diglena catellina (Cercaria catellina , Vorticella 
larva , M.) The little dog Diglena. —Body oblong, short, 
ends truncated; foot short, and inferior. The small size 
of this animalcule is unfavourable for observing its internal 
organization. It is found at all seasons of the year in 
open water and infusions, covered with a green pellicle, 
which is often filled with its eggs; these, when rapidly 
developed by genial weather, cause a milky turbidity in 
the water. Length l-360th. 

633. Diglena The long-cone Diglena. — Body 

ovato-oblong, straightly truncated in front, and gradually 
attenuated to a conical foot. Found amongst oscillatoria. 
Length 1-144 th. 

634. Diglena capitata. The great-headed Diglena .— 
Body oblong, conical, obliquely truncated, and dilated in 
front; toes long, without apparent base, or foot. This 
animalcule feeds upon Chlamidomonas and Naviculae. 
Length 1-300th. 

635. Diglena caudata (Vorticella fareata, M.) The 
long-tailed Diglena. —Body elongated, conical, obliquely 
truncated anteriorly, but not dilated ; foot distinct, short : 
toes long. Found in green water. Length 1-200th. 

Hydatinaea .] 



Genus CLIX. Triarthra. The three-bearded Rota¬ 
toria possess two frontal eyes; a simple styliform foot, 
and beard, or breast fins. Beside the vibratile organs, 
internal band-like muscles are observed, and two bristles, 
or fins, which assist in leaping; these remind us of Poly- 
arthra. The nutritive apparatus consists of an oesophagal 
head, having four muscles, and two double-toothed jaws, 
as in Rotifer; an oesophagal tube, long in one species, 
short in the other; and a simple, conical, or constricted 
alimentary canal, with two spherical glands. Both ova¬ 
rium and contractile vesicles are seen ; the eggs, when 
expelled, remain attached by threads. A vascular system 
is unknown—the nervous is indicated by the two red eyes, 
placed upon ganglia. Both species often produce a 
milky turbid appearance in the water, when developed in 

636. Triarthra longiseta (Trichoda , M.) The long- 
bearded Triarthra. —Eyes distant, the cirri, or beards, and 
the foot, are nearly three times the length of the body. 
This species is distinguished from the following one by the 
greater length of cirri, by larger eyes, which are further 
removed from each other; by a distinct stomach, with a 
constriction separating it from the long portion of the 
alimentary canal; and, lastly, by its long oesophagal tube. 
It is readily distinguished by its leaping movement whilst 
swimming. Fig. 408 represents one of these creatures 
emerging from the egg, the cirri or styles being, as yet, 
soft: Jig. 407 is a back view of a young specimen ; it shews 
the great separation of the eyes and the styles, in the posi¬ 
tion they take when the animalcule is swimming; and Jig. 
406 is a side (right) view of a full-grown specimen; the 



[. Rotatoria . 

styles are advanced, which is the case when preparing to 
leap. Found with Hydatina senta and Brachionus urceo- 
laris. Length, without cirri, 1-140th. 

637. Triarthra mystacina (Brachionus passus , M.) 
The short-hearcled Triarthra. —Eyes close together; two 
anterior cirri, or bristles, and foot, nearly double the 
length of the body; jaws very soft. Found in water-tubs. 
Length 1-216th. 

Genus CLX. Rattulus. The rat Rotatoria have two 
frontal eyes, and a simple styliform foot, but no cirri, or 
beard. Several undefined rotatory muscles, an cesophagal 
head, without distinct teeth or oesophagal tube, a simple 
conical alimentary canal, with two round glands, an 
ovarium, and eyes, comprise the organization at present 

638. Rattulus lunaris (Trichoda lunaris , M.) The 
sickle-shaped Rattulus .—Body small; eyes remote from the 
frontal margin ; foot decurved, lunate. No teeth are seen. 
Group 409 represents two of these animalcules. Found 
in turfy pools. Length 1-288th. 

Genus CLXI. Distemma. The double-star Rotatoria 
have two cervical eyes and a forked foot; the vibratile 
organ is compound. The nutritive apparatus consists of 
an cesophagal head, which in three species has jaws, with 
two teeth each; in one species more than two, a short 
oesophagal tube, and a simple conical alimentary canal, with 
two spherical glands. The reproductive organs are an 
ovarium, and in D. (?) marinum sexual glands and a con¬ 
tractile vesicle. No satisfactory details of a vascular system 
are ascertained, but that of sensation is illustrated bv the 
presence of eyes, which are red, except in one species, in 

Hydatinaea .] 



which they are colourless. In all the species, except 
D. marinum, the eyes are situated behind the head of the 
oesophagus, but in that they are anterior, but below the 
rotatory organ. The eggs are never attached to the parent, 
nor are they developed in large masses. 

639. Distemma forjicula. The pincer-foot Distemma. 
—Body cylindrico-conical; eyes red ; toes thick, recurved, 
and dentated at the base. The eyes are placed at the end 
of a long cylindrical nervous ganglion, and the rotatory 
organ consists of four parts. Fig. 411 is a side (left) view, 
and Jig. 410 shews the jaws extended for seizing its prey. 
Length 1-1‘20th. 

640. Distemma setigerum. The bristle-footed Dis¬ 
temma. —Body ovato-oblong; eyes red; toes setaceous and 
decurved. Length 1-216th. 

641. Distemma (?) marinum. The sea Distemma .— 
Body ovato-conical; eyes red, close together; foot long; 
toes thick, the length of the foot; jaws many-toothed. 
Found in sea water. Length 1-144th. 

642. Distemma ( ?) Jorcipatum. The colourless Dis¬ 
temma. —Body ovato-oblong; eyes colourless; foot short, 
with stout toes. If the two colourless vesicles are not eyes it 
must be placed in the genus Pleurotrocha. Length 1-288th. 

Genus CLXII. Triopthalmus. The row-eyed Rota¬ 
tory Animalcule has three cervical eyes, which are sessile, 
and are all arranged in a row, and a forked foot. The 
rotatory organ is compound. It has a large oesophagal 
head, with two (single toothed?) jaws, a long thin oeso¬ 
phagus, a globose stomach-like protuberance, with two 
oval glands, and thin posterior alimentary canal; two 
muscles move the foot. 




643. Trioptiialmus dorsualis. —Body crystalline, tur¬ 
gid; foot suddenly attenuated, its length half the body. This 
species, in form, resembles Notommata ansata, but in size 
N. myrmeleo. Fig, 412 represents (dorsal side) an animal¬ 
cule extended as it appears when swimming and vibrating; 
Jig. 413, another in the act of unfolding itself; and Jig. 414, 
another specimen, contracted. Length l-40th. 

Genus CLXIII. Eosphora. The three-eyed Rotatoria 
have three sessile eyes, two frontal, the one cervical, and 
possess a forked foot. The rotatory organ is composed of 
numerous muscular portions, and distinctly-striated longi¬ 
tudinal muscles are seen in all. An oesophagal head, pro- 
vided with two single toothed jaws, a short oesophagus, 
a simple conical alimentary canal, with two ovate glands 
anteriorly, an ovarium, somewhat extended, sexual glands, 
and a contractile vesicle, are also to be found. Transverse 
vessels are observable in two species, in the third gills. 
No respiratory tube has been discovered. Beside the 
three red coloured eyes a cerebral ganglion is seen. 

644. Eosphora najas. The aurora Eosphora. —Body 
conical, transparent, not auricled ; toes much shorter than 
the foot. The name Aurora is derived from the red colour 
of the eye. Fig. 415 represents an animalcule fed upon 
indigo. Found amongst conferva. Length 1-120th. 

645. Eosphora digitata. The long-Jingered Eosphora. 
-—Body conical, hyaline, not auricled ; toes a third the 
length of the foot. Found amongst conferva. Length 

646. Eosphora elongata. The slender Eosphora .— 
Body elongated, almost fusiform, not auricled, front trun¬ 
cated; toes short. Length l-72nd. 

Hydatinaea .] 


3 1** r* 

/ i 

Genus CLXIV. Otoglena. The pedicle-eyed Rota- 
tonf Animalcule is characterized by having three eyes,, 
one being sessile and cervical, the others pedicled and 
frontal; it possesses a furcated foot. This large animal¬ 
cule has considerable resemblance to Notommata myrmeleo 
or clavulata, but is very distinct. As regards the detail of 
its organization, it may be stated that four lateral longi¬ 
tudinal muscles, six vibratile muscles, and two muscles of 
the foot, are present; a toothless, and apparently jawless, 
cesophagal canal, leads to a somewhat thickened stomach, 
having a very thin posterior alimentary canal. Ova¬ 
rium, contractile vesicles, and two sexual a-lands exist. 
In the middle of the back appears to be a respiratory open¬ 
ing; this, with a vascular network at the neck, and four 
transverse circular canals, represent a vascular system. 
An oval cerebral ganglion, with two dark appendages, a 
red eye, a long nervous loop on the neck, that runs back 
to a second ganglion in the brow, and a forked ventral 
nerve (?), together with two little horn-like or auricular 
frontal protuberances, bearing two visual points, represent 
the sensitive system. This genus has not been figured. 

<j 647. Otoglena papillosa. The warty Otoglena .— 
Body bell-shaped, turgid, scabrous through papillae. 
Found with Volvox globator and Notommata myrmeleo. 
Length 1-9 6 th. 

Genus CLXV. Cycloglena. The ring-eyed Rotatoria 
have numerous eyes (more than three), simply conglomerate 
at the neck, and the foot furcated. The vibratile organ is 
compound; this organ, with the internal muscles of the 
foot, compose the locomotive structure. They have an 
oesophagal head, with two single-toothed (perhaps three- 



[. Rotatoria . 

toothed) jaws, a very short oesophagus, and a simple conical 
alimentary canal, with two roundish glands. Both ova¬ 
rium and two sexual glands, with a contractile vesicle, are 
found. Transverse circular vessels, and six pair of tre¬ 
mulous organs, attached to the seminal glands, constitute 
the vascular system. A purse-shaped dark (colourless) 
body in the neck, connected by a narrow process to a 
large frontal ganglion, containing from six to twelve red 
points, of which the anterior one is most marked, indicate 
a sensitive system. 

648. Cycloglen a lupus (Cercaria lupus , M.) The 
water-wolf Cycloglena. —Body ovato-oblong, or conical, 
not auricled; foot terminal, and short. Plate x.,Jig. 425*, 
represents a back view, and fig. 426 a side view. Length 

649. Cycloglena (?) elegans. The elegant Cycloglena. 
-—Body ovate, not auricled; foot inferior; toes long. 
Length 1-190th. 

Genus CLXYI. Theorus. The many-eyed llydatinaea 
have numerous eyes (more than three), disposed in two 
groups at the neck; the foot is furcated. A compound 
rotatory organ, together with two muscles of the foot, an 
oesophagal head, with two one-toothed jaw 7 s, a short oeso¬ 
phagus, a simple conical alimentary canal, with tw 7 o glands, 
a ball-like ovarium, with two male sexual glands, and a 
double group of colourless cervical eyes, are the details of 
organization at present known. The frontal uncinus, or 
hook, is perhaps a respiratory tube. 

650. Theorus vernalis. The spring Theorus .—Toes 
small; no frontal uncinus. The movement of this crea¬ 
ture is active and vehement, like that of an animal of 

Hydatinaea .] 



prey. Fig . 427 represents a back view of this animalcule 
extended, with six colourless eyes in each group ; Jig. 428 
is another specimen with four eyes; and Jig. 429 an animal¬ 
cule with body contracted; but jaws extended. Found 
amongst oscillatoria. Length 1-140th. 

651. Theorus uncinatus. The hook-lipped Theorus .— 
Toes long, a frontal uncinus or hook present. Six visual 
points have been seen by Ehrenberg. Found amongst 
oscillatoria. Length l-2-10th. 



[, Rotatoria . 


Comprehends Rotatoria whose rotatory organ is com¬ 
pound, being divided into several parts, always more than 
two, and which, moreover, possess a lorica. This shell-like 
covering, says Dr. E., resembles either that of tortoises or 
crabs ; the former when open only at the ends (testa tes- 
tu/a), the latter when open also on the under side, or back, 
forming a little shield (scut ell um ). As appendages, we 
find setae in Euchlanis and Stephanops; uncini in Colurus; 
little horns in Dinocharis; spurs, or respiratory tubes, in 
Euchlanis and Salpina; and a hood in Stephanops. They 
all possess a foot, mostly furcated, very few being simple 
and styliform. Of the whole, only three species are desti¬ 
tute of eyes. Separated muscles for moving the rotatory 
organs exist in all the genera, and internal free ones in 
three species of the genus Euchlanis; muscles for moving 
the foot are also to be seen. The nutritive apparatus con¬ 
sists of a muscular cesophagal head, with two jaws pro¬ 
vided with teeth; these are free ( gynwogomphia) in 
all the species examined. They have a very short oeso¬ 
phagus. Eight genera have either a simple conical sto¬ 
mach ( coelogastrica ) to their alimentary canal, or else one 
produced by a constriction ( gasterodela ). Two round or 
ovate intestinal glands are also seen. The discharging 
opening is at the base of the foot, upon the dorsal surface, 
which latter is clearly indicated by the situation of the 
eyes, when present. The ovarium developes but few large 
ova at a time; two sexual glands and a contractile vesicle 
exist in the genera Euchlanis, Monostyla, Stephanops, 




and Squamella—the latter organ only in Metopidia, Lepa 
della, and Mastigocerca. They do not carry their ova 
externally. Traces of a vascular system are seen in two 
species of Euchlanis, and perhaps also the gills in Dino- 
charis, and the respiratory tube in Salpina and Euchlanis 
must be included. The nervous system is indicated in 
ten genera by the presence of red visual points, whose 
situation and number are useful to establish generic cha¬ 
racters ; an evident cerebral ganglion (as a nervous layer to 
the eyes) is found in Euchlanis, Monostyla, Mastigocerca, 
and Salpina. The genus Lepadella developes itself oc¬ 
casionally in such myriads, in stagnant water, as to give 
a whitish turbidity to it. 

The genera are disposed as follow: — 

No eyes, foot furcated ...Lepadella. 


one eye 

lorica depressed ...Monostyla. 

foot j 

styliform i or | ca prismatic.Mastigocerca. 

Eyes / 
present. \ 



lorica gaping 

) lorica closed f 
beneath. ^ 

two eyes / 
(frontal.) ^ 

beneath . Euchlanis. 

lorica horned.Salpina. 

without horns .... Dinocharis. 

foot styliform .Monura. 

[lorica compressed laterally or cylindrical Colurus. 

foot / r head not hooded . . Metopidia. 

furcated \ lorica depressed J 1 

[_ or P rismatic f head hooded.Steplianops, 

four eyes, foot furcated.Squamella. 

Genus CLXVII. Lepadella. The scaled Rotatoria 
are devoid of eyes, but possess a furcated foot. Several 
rotatory muscles are seen, and foot ones in two species. 
The jaws of the oesophagal head are single-toothed in 
L. ovalis and emarginata; in salpina, triple-toothed. The 



j Rotatoria. 

tube of the oesophagus is very short in all. The ali¬ 
mentary canal is constricted, except in Salpina, which is 
simple. The ovarium is globular in all, and a male sexual 
vesicle is present in Salpina, in which species, probably, 
a cerebral ganglion (no eye). L. ovalis is sometimes deve¬ 
loped in myriads in stagnant water. 

652. Lepadella ovalis (Brachionus ovalis , M.) The 
egg-shaped Lepadella. —Lorica depressed, oval, attenuated 
anteriorly, the ends truncated: it is not emarginate. The 
alimentary canal of this animalcule is generally filled with 
a yellowish substance, except when it feeds upon colour¬ 
less Monads. Fig . 430 represents a back view; Jig. 431 
a side (right) view of a young specimen; Jig. 432 the 
lorica ;Jig. 433 the oesophagal head. Length 1-240th. 

653. Lepadella emarginata (Brachionus spatella et 
ovalis, M.) The emarginate Lepadella. —Lorica depressed, 
oval, broad anteriorly, extremities emarginate. Found 
amongst conferva. Length, without foot, 1-576th. 

654. Lepadella)?) salpina. The stockfish Lepadella .— 
Lorica oblong, prismatic, obtusely triangular, back crested, 
anterior denticulated. Found amongst conferva. Length 
of lorica 1-200th. 

Genus CLXVII1. Monostyla. The spinous-footed 
Rotatoria possess a single cervical eye, a simple styliform 
foot, and a depressed lorica ( testula ). Numerous rotatory 
muscles are seen in two species, and also an oesophagal 
head, having four muscles; in one species the jaws are 
single-toothed, in the other two-toothed. They have a 
very short oesophagus, and a constricted stomach (gaste- 
rodela), with two glands. The ovarium is globular; an 
ovum, with the vesicle of the germ within it, is seen in two 

EuchLanidota .] 



species. No male organs, vessels, nor respiratory tubes, 
are seen. Owing to the almost constant vibration of the 
foot-like tail, it is difficult to observe the true form of its 
termination, the motion producing an optical deception; 
hence it appears double, though in reality it is single. 

655. Monostyla coniuta (Trichoda cornuta, M.) 
The smooth Monostyla. —Lorica hyaline, unarmed, and 
truncated anteriorly. Found amongst chara and conferva. 
Length 1-250th. 

656. Monostyla quadridentata. The four-horned 
Monostyla. —Lorica yellowish, the anterior deeply dentated, 
resembling four horns. It is generally of a yellow leather 
colour, but Ehrenberg has seen it colourless. Figs. 434 
and 435 represent ventral views of this animalcule; the 
latter is extended beyond its lorica, which happens when 
the rotatory cilii are in motion. Fig. 436 is a side view, 
and jig. 437 the jaws and teeth separate. Found in 
floccose matter about conferva and the leaves of water- 
plants. Length l-120th. 

657. Monostyla (?) lunaris. ' The moon-shaped Mo¬ 
nostyla. —Lorica hyaline, the anterior crescent-shaped. 
Length l-144th. 

Genus CLXIX. Mastigocerca. The whip-tailed 
Rotatory Animalcule is characterized by its having a single 
cervical eye, a simple styliform foot, the lorica prismatic 
and crested on the back. It has a four-partile rotatory 
organ, a small muscle to move the foot, an oblique oeso- 
phagal head, with unequal jaws, two-toothed; a short 
oesophagus, simple intestine, with two spherical glands, a 
globular ovarium, a contractile vesicle, and a long 




658. Mastigocerca carinata (Trichoda rati us, M.) 
The Jlesh-coloured Mastigocerca.- —Lorica anteriorly crested 
on the back; foot the same length as body; it swims 
slowly, and resembles Monocerca rattus. Figs. 438, 
439, are side views, showing the delicate ridge of the lorica 
projecting on the back, and Jig. 440 a dorsal view. Found 
amongst Ceratophyllum. Length 1-72nd. 

Genus CLXX. Euchlanis. The mantle Rotatoria 
have a single cervical eye, a furcated foot, and the lorica 
longitudinally gaping upon the ventral surface. Com¬ 
pound vibratile muscles, with their cilii, compose the 
rotatory organ: the other muscles are those for moving 
the foot, for manducation, and fibrous longitudinal ones, 
the latter presenting transverse corrugations. An oeso- 
phagal head, with one or many-toothed jaws (perhaps 
four jaws in E. macrura), (gtjmnogomphia) ; a very short 
oesophagus, an alimentary canal (simple in five species, 
constricted in one), having two glands, compose the nutri¬ 
tive apparatus; an ovarium is observed in five species, and 
two small glands, with a contractile vesicle, in two of the 
larger species. As parts of a vascular system, two species 
have perhaps transverse vessels, and in the larger forms 
tremulous gills are observed, attached to the sexual glands ; 
a respiratory tube is seen in E. lynceus only. As organs 
of sensation, all the species have a red-coloured cervical 
eye, which, in five species, is connected with a large 
ganglion. They do not carry about their eggs externally, 
nor are they developed in large numbers. 

659. Euchlanis (?) triquetra. The three-edged Eu¬ 
chlanis. — Lorica very large, trilateral from a dorsal crest, 
foot setae none. This species is very diaphanous, and 

Euchlan idota .j 



“ therefore/’ remarks Ehrenberg, “ I was never able to see 
the line of division on the ventral surface of thelorica; the 
relationship of the fibres of the lateral muscles is physio¬ 
logically and anatomically interesting: they form three 
bundles upon each side, and show as distinct corrugations, 
as do the muscles of larger animals.” Fig. 443 represents 
a fore-shortened view. Fig. 442 is a left side view, shew¬ 
ing the dorsal crest of the lorica. At the base of the foot 
an external empty fold of the skin is visible. Fig. 441 
represents the ventral surface, and exhibits an opening for 
the foot, but no visible division of the lorica is seen. 
Fig. 444 shows the teeth and jaws separate. Found in 
turf pools. Length l-48th; ovum, l-192nd. 

660. Euchlanis (?) Hornemarmi. Hornernann s Eu- 
chlanis. —Lorica thin, short, cup-shaped, truncated in 
front, the anterior part of the body soft (pliant) and elon¬ 
gated. This creature appears able to draw within the 
lorica both foot and head. Sometimes longitudinal mus¬ 
cles are apparent, and Ehrenberg has seen three delicate 
parallel transverse lines, which he states to be vessels. 
Length L432nd to 1 -240th. 

661. Euchlanis luna (Cercaria luna, M.) The moon- 
shaped Euchlanis. —Lorica cup-shaped, the front excised in 
a lunate manner, toes with claws. The single-toothed jaw, 
the constriction of the alimentary canal, and the claws, 
distinguish it from the other species. Found amongst 
Ceratophyllum and conferva. Length 1-144th. 

662. Euchlanis macrura. The long-footed Euchlanis. 
—Lorica large, ovate, depressed; bristles at the base of the 
foot; toes long, styliform. This species is distinguished 
from the following one by its stronger and longer toes. 

2 c 




“ Lately/’ says Ehrenberg, “ 1 saw the division of the 
lorica along the ventral surface.” Each jaw has five teeth, 
and there are two soft maxillary appendages, each with 
two teeth. Found amongst conferva, in clear water. 
Length, without foot, 1-96th. 

663. Euciilanis dilatata ( Brachiomis, M.) The broad 
Euchlanis .—Lorica broad, depressed, folded on the under 
side; foot without setae, toes long. This animalcule, 
when it emerges from the egg, has a very soft lorica, and 
resembles Notommata. Length of lorica l-96th. 

664. Euchlanis lynceus. The lynceus-like Eu¬ 
chlanis .—Lorica ovate, turgid, deeply fluted ; two little 
horns project anteriorly. Fig. 445 represents a back 
view, and 446 a side view; the lorica is open along the 
middle of the under side. Length of lorica 1-216th. 

Genus CLXXI. Salpina. The stork-fish Rotatoria 
possess a single cervical eye, a furcated foot, a lorica 
closed below, and terminated by spine-like processes or 
teeth. “ The lorica,” says Dr. Ehrenberg, “ resembles a 
three-sided little casket, with arched sides, flat below, and 
having anteriorly and posteriorly, at the truncated extre¬ 
mities, little points.” The animalcule can entirely with¬ 
draw itself within the lorica. All the species have an 
elevated ridge upon the back, which in two species appear 
to be double. (Ehrenberg is somewhat inclined to think 
the lorica is open its whole length upon the dorsal surface.) 
A compound rotatory organ, two short anterior lateral 
muscles, and two foot muscles, in S. mucronata, are seen, 
as locomotive agents. An oesophagal head, with three or 
four toothed jaws, a short oesophagus, and a simple conical 
alimentary canal, exist in all the species ; in five species 




the latter has two spherical glands; an ovarium is seen, 
but no male structures; a respiratory spur or tube is 
observed at the neck in three species ; the red eye in con¬ 
nexion with a cerebral ganglion is always present. They 
do not increase in large masses. 

665. Salpina mucronata (Brachionus rnucronatus , M.) 
The short-spirted Salpina. —Lorica very minutely scabrous, 
anteriorly four and posteriorly three-horned; these are 
generally straight, and of equal length. The lorica, when 
the creature is young, is soft and bent, but soon hardens, 
and has horns. The spur, or respiratory tube, in the neck, 
terminates in a little bristle, as seen in fig. 450. In some 
specimens, Ehrenberg says, the lorica appears as if punc¬ 
tated or stippled. Figs . 447, 448, represent full-grown 
specimens, with the head withdrawn ; the latter figure is a 
back view, the former an under one. Fig. 449 is a side 
view, head extended. Fig. 451 is an egg, just deposited 
on lemna; fig. 452 another egg, with the young vibrating; 
and fig. 450 another just escaped from the shell; fig. 453 
represents the teeth separately. Length of lorica 1-144th. 

666. Salpina spinigera. The thorny Salpina. —Lo¬ 
rica horned, four frontal, three posterior; the posterior dor¬ 
sal horn longest, and a little recurved. Glands on the 
alimentary canal not observed. Found amongst Cerato- 
phyllum. Length of lorica 1-140th. 

667. Salpina ventralis. The long-spined Salpina. — 
Lorica stippled, horns two in front, three posterior, the 
dorsal one short and decurved. Found amongst conferva, 
&c. Length 1-120 th. 

668. Salpina redunca. The uncinated Salpina. —Lo¬ 
rica smooth, horns two in front, three behind, two of the 

9 c 2 

-w V/ 




latter (the under ones) hooked, the dorsal crest bifid 
and gaping; it has four teeth to each jaw. Found amongst 
conferva. Length 1-200th. 

669. Salpina brevispina. The short-horned Salpina .— 
Lorica scabrous, horns two (small) in front, and three be¬ 
hind, short dorsal crest not gaping; lorica milky and 
turbid, but appearing bright; respiratory tube unknown. 
Found amongst Ceratophyllum. Length l-144th. 

670. Salpina hicarinata. The double-combed Salpina .— 
Lorica smooth, horns four in front, three posterior, short; 
neither lateral muscles nor respiratory tubes known. 
Length 1-216th. 

Genus CLXXIL Dinocharis. The goblet Rotatoria 
are provided with a single cervical eye, a furcated foot, and 
a lorica closed below, and unarmed at both ends. The 
compound rotatory organ has five or six muscles, and the 
foot two in two species. An cesophagal head with single¬ 
toothed jaws is found, except in D. tetractis, which Dr. E. 
thinks has four teeth; oesophagus very short, alimentary 
canal constricted, except in D. pocillum ( gasteroclela ), which 
is constricted: two oval glands exist in D. pocillum and 
tetractis. Glandular portions of ovarium are seen in all, 
and a contractile vesicle at the base of the foot in D. po¬ 
cillum . Traces of a vascular system are perhaps to be seen 
in D. pocillum, though even here it is doubtful, for the 
apparent tremulous organ just behind the oesophagus may 
be only a tremulous condition of an internal fold of the 
stomach. The only evidences of a nervous system are the 
eye and the long ganglion which supports it. 

671. Dinocharis pocillum (Trichoda pocillum , M.) 
The Jive-pointed Dinocharis. —Lorica nearly cylindrical; 

Euchlanidota .] 



two long spines at the base of the foot; toes three: it has 
a slight dorsal ridge. Figs. 454, 455, represent this crea¬ 
ture in different positions; and Jig . 456 the cesophagal head. 
Found amongst Ceratophyllum, &c. Length l-120th. 

672. Dinocharis tetractis. The four-pointed Dino- 
charis .—Lorica acute, triangular; horns two, at the base of 
the foot; toes two. This species has longer toes than the 
others, and the body is comparatively shorter. Found in 
lemna and Ceratophyllum. Length 1-120th. 

673. Dinocharis paupera. The simple Dinocharis .— 
Lorica acute, triangular; horns two, at the base of the foot, 
scarcely perceptible, toes two, short. Length 1-120th. 

Genus CLXXIII. Monura. The styliform-footed l\o- 
tatoria have two frontal eyes, and a simple styliform foot. 
The lorica is somewhat compressed and open upon the ven¬ 
tral surface : anteriorly is a hook-like process, which can be 
withdrawn. In one species the vibratile organ has four 
to six muscular bulbs; in both an oesophagal head, with 
two jaws toothed, a very short oesophagus, and a simple 
alimentary canal, with two spherical glands, are observed; 
also, an ovarium, with single large ova, and in one species 
the vesicle of the germ has been observed. The eyes are 
red, moveable, and seated upon nervous masses. The 
species are not only difficult to distinguish from each other, 
but also from the genus Colurus; the toes of the latter ap¬ 
pearing single until pressure is used. 

674. Monura coluris. The obtuse Monura. —Lorica 
oval, obtuse, obliquely truncated posteriorly, eyes near to 
each other. Length of lorica 1-280th. Siberian specimens, 

1-400 th. 

675. Monura dulcis. The pointed Monura. —Lorica 



[ Rotatoria . 

ovate, anterior acute, posterior obliquely truncated; eyes 
distant from each other; the alimentary canal is often filled 
with green matter. They increase rapidly in glass vessels. 
Figures 457 to 459 represent three views of this animal¬ 
cule. Found amongst conferva. Length of lorica 1-288th. 

Genus CLXXIY. Colurus. The pincer-footecL Rota¬ 
toria have two frontal eyes, a furcated foot, and a com¬ 
pressed or cylindrical lorica. The lorica is open upon the 
under side (scutellum) ; this is distinctly seen in four spe¬ 
cies: a compound rotatory organ is present in all, over it 
projects a retractile frontal hook (respiratory tube); an 
cesophagal head with two jaws, these in two species have 
two or three teeth; oesophagus very short; two species have 
a constricted stomach ( gasterode/a ), the others have a sim¬ 
ple alimentary canal ( coelogastrica ), with glands to all. 
The red frontal eyes are delicate; in C. uncinatus and bi- 
cuspidatus they have escaped observation ; all have pecu¬ 
liar vesicles at the back. They resemble Monura. 

676. Colurus (?) uncinatus (Brachionus uncinatus, M.) 
The little-horned Colurus. —Lorica ovate, compressed, pos¬ 
terior and bi-pointed toes, very short; at the middle of the 
back is generally a circlet of vesicles, which at one time 
Ehrenberg considered eyes, but now he regards them as 
vesicles of oil, as they are seen in all the species, and abun¬ 
dantly in the Cyclopides. Found both in fresh and sea 
water. Length 1-430th to 1-288th. 

677. Colurus (?) bicuspidatus. The large Colurus .-— 
Lorica ovate, compressed, the two points posteriorly strong, 
toes short. Length 1-288tli. 

678. Colurus caudatus. The long-fingered Colurus. — 
Lorica ovate, compressed, posterior points distinct; toes 

Euchlanidota .] 



longer than the foot. The shell resembles C. uncinatus, 
but the toes are much longer. Found both in fresh and 
sea water. Length of lorica l-288th. 

679. Colurus defiexus. The winged Colurus .—Lorica 
ovate, compressed; the shell is more rounded and very 
transparent. Figures 460 to 462 represent back, under, 
and side views; the former shews the vesicles. Found in 
the clear water of a peaty moor. Length 1 -240th. 

Genus CLXXY. Metopidia. The frontal eyed Ro¬ 
tatoria have two eyes in front, a furcated foot, and a de¬ 
pressed or prismatic lorica, the frontal portion of the body 
being naked or uncinate (not provided with a hood); indeed 
they may be termed Lepadella, with two red frontal eyes; 
the lorica appears to be closed on the under side ( testula ). 
In two species the rotatory organ has from three to four 
muscles, and in one species two foot muscles are observed. 
Two species have a frontal hook (respiratory tube), like 
Colurus. The cesophagal head in one species has two, in 
another four, but in the third no distinct teeth; a short 
oesophagus, and two spherical glands, are present in all. 
Two species have a distinct constricted stomach ( gastero - 
dela). An ovarium is present, and M. triptera has a con¬ 
tractile vesicle. 

680. Metopidia lepadella . The fat Metopidia .— 
Lorica depressed, nearly flat, broadly ovate, excised in a 
lunate manner in front, rounded posteriorly; toes some¬ 
what longer than foot. This species resembles in form 
Lepadella ovalis {fig. 207) and Squamella bractea, but is 
distinguished from the former, which has two-toothed jaws 
and no eyes; from the latter, which has four eyes and in¬ 
distinctly-toothed jaws. Figures 463 to 465 represent 



[. Rotatoria . 

different views of this animalcule—viz., back, under, and 
side, the first and last having the rotatory organs extended 
and in motion. Length 1-140th. 

681. Metopidia acuminata. The 'pointed Metopidia .— 
Lorica depressed, nearly flat, oval in shape, anterior slightly 
excised, posterior pointed. This species resembles Colurus, 
but, in the latter genus, the eyes are very close together, 
and the lorica open beneath. Found amongst oscillatoria. 
Length 1-240th. 

682. Metopidia triptera. The three-sided Metopidia .— 
Lorica oval, triangular, back crested: a section would re¬ 
semble Jig. 443. Found amongst conferva. Length 1-200th. 

Genus CLXXVI. Stephanops. The diadem or coronet 
Rotatoria have two eyes in front, the foot furcated, the 
lorica depressed or prismatic, and the front provided with 
a hood or diadem. The lorica, in two species, has thorn - 
like processes posteriorly. In one species a longitudinal 
muscle is observed on each side (anteriorly), two muscles 
for moving the foot, and from three to five belonging to 
the compound rotatory organ. They have an oesophagal 
head, with single-toothed jaws, and a short oesophagus. 
One species has a two-partite alimentary canal, the others 
a simple one ; two species have glands; an ovarium exists 
in all; a contractile vesicle in two. The red eyes are 
situated on each side, near the frontal edge in two species; 
in one they are yet unknown. The hood remains extended, 
even when the creature withdraws within its shell. 

683. Stephanops lamellaris (Brachionus lamellaris, M.) 
—The tri-pointed Stephanops has a lorica with three spines 
posteriorly. The rapid movement and transparency of 
‘fhis animalcule renders its organization difficult to observe. 

Euchlamdota .] 



Figures 466,467, represent different views of this creature, 
with its crystalline hood or diadem. Found amongst con¬ 
ferva. Length of lorica about 1-300th. 

684. Stephanops (?) muticus. The thornless Stepha- 
nops .—Lorica unarmed posteriorly, entire. Ehrenberg 
remarks it is active, and that he has not seen the eyes 
satisfactorily. Length 1-144th. 

685. Stephanops cirratus (Brachionus cirratus , M.) 
The tico-pointed Stephanops. —Lorica with tw r o spines pos¬ 
teriorly. This species has a contractile vesicle. Length 

Genus CLXXVII. Squamella. The four-eyed Eu- 
chlanidota have four frontal eyes, and a furcated foot. The 
lorica is closed ( testula ), and the rotatory organ consists of 
five or six muscular bulbs. In one species the cesophagal 
head has jaws, with two or three teeth each. The oesopha- 
gal tube in one is short, in the other long, and bent like the 
letter S. Both have a two-partite intestine ( gasterodela ), 
with small glands, also an ovarium and contractile vesicle. 
The eyes are disposed in pairs on each side the brow. 

686. Squamella bractea (Brachionus bractea, M.) The 
crystal Squamella. —Lorica depressed, broadly ovate. It is 
very transparent; the toes thick and short, not evident. 
Length of lorica 1-144th. 

687. Squamella oblonga. The elongated Squamella 
lias a depressed lorica, either elliptical or ovato-oblong, 
hyaline, toes long and slender; the eyes are larger than in 
the foregoing species. Figures 468, 469, represent back 
and side views of this animalcule. Found in green-coloured 
water, with Chlamidomonas pulvisculus. Length of lorica 
1 -280th. 



| Rotatoria. 


This family comprehends Rotatorial Animalcules devoid 
of lorica, but possessing two simple rotatory organs, re¬ 
sembling wheels. The body of most species is worm-like, 
or spindle-shaped (fusiform). Portions of the body can be 
thrust in and out, like the tubes of a telescope slide, within 
each other; this is produced by a sort of false joint, caused 
by a peculiar insertion of the muscles. In all the species 
the foot is furcated, and in Callidina, Rotifer, Actinurus, 
and Philodina, it is provided with soft processes, resembling, 
in shape, horns, near the false joints, as in the genus 
Dinocharis (Jig . 45b ). Muscles are seen in the genera 
just named. The nutritive apparatus consists of an oeso¬ 
ph agal head, with two jaws; in three genera they are 
double-toothed ( zygogomphia) ; in two the teeth are in 
rows ( lochogomphia ). In the four principal genera the 
alimentary canal is filiform; it is furnished with a bladder¬ 
like expansion at its commencement ( trachelocystea ), and 
surrounded by a turbid cellular or glandular mass. In one 
genus the alimentary canal is conical ( coelogastrica ), and, 
in the two African genera, is unknown. In four genera the 
intestine has glands; in a like number the propagative 
system is hermaphroditic, an ovarium, male glands, and con¬ 
tractile vesicle being present; the latter only, however, in 
Rotifer and Philodina, which, together with Actinurus, are 
sometimes viviparous. In Rotifer and Philodina portions 
of a vascular system are visible, in the form of from nine 
to twelve transverse vessels; these, as also Actinurus and 
Monolabis, have spur like respiratory tubes. In thirteen 

P/iilodmaea ] 



species red eyes are present, and beneath these organs only 
is nervous matter apparent. 

The genera are disposed as follow: — 

Eyes absent. 

proboscis and foot processes present . 

, | rotatory organ pedicled 

no proboscis or J 

horn like processes b rotatory organ not pedicled 

I two frontal 
Eyes present. ( 

foot having horn-like J 
processes | 

toes two .... 
toes three . . 

foot without horn-like processes, 
toes two 








two cervical 


Genus CLXXVIII. Callidina. The beautiful Rota- 
torial Animalcule is characterized by wanting visual organs, 
and by possessing a proboscis, and a foot, furnished with 
processes resembling horns. The vibratile, or rotatory 
organ, is double, but not pedicled; anteriorly is a thickly - 
ciliated proboscis. The furcated foot has two elongated 
toes, four little horns or processes, and six points. Two 
muscles for moving the foot are also visible. The ceso- 
phagal head has two jaws, with numerous delicate teeth. 
The filiform alimentary canal has a bladder-like expan¬ 
sion posteriorly, but is not provided with glands; it is 
surrounded by a granular and cellular mass, whose func¬ 
tion is unknown: Ehrenberg thinks it is connected with 
reproduction ; an ovarium, with single large ova, is seen ; a 
little spur-like process, projecting from the neck, may be 
a respiratory tube; no indication of a nervous system is 

688. Callidina elegans. The graceful Callidina .— 
Body spindle-shaped, crystalline; rotatory organs, or 
wheels, small. Figs. 470 to 472 represent this animalcule 




in different states of extension or contraction. Fig. 473 
shews the eggs. Found in bog water and infusions of oak 
bark. Length l-72nd. 

Genus CLXXIX. Hydrias. The Water-turner is 
African, and characterized by its being devoid of eyes, 
proboscis, and little horn-like processes at the foot; the 
two small rotatory organs, or wheels, being supported on 
pedicles or arms. An oesophagal head, and an ovarium, 
with a large ovum, has been seen by Ehrenberg. The 
form is like a naked Pterodina. 

689. Hydrias cornigera. The Lybian Hydrias .— 
Body ovate, hyaline; foot attenuated, resembling a furcate 
tail. Fig. 474 represents an animalcule extended. Found 
with oscillatoria, in standing water, from a small spring by 
Siwa, in the Oasis of Jupiter Ammon. Length i -190th. 

Genus CLXXX. Typiilina. The blind Vibrator , 
like the last, has an African locality ; it is characterized by 
absence of eyes, proboscis, and horn-like processes at the 
base of the foot; its little wheels are sessile. It resembles 
a very small Rotifer, without frontal proboscis or eyes. 

690. Typiilina viridis. The green Typhlina .—Body 
oblongo-conical, small: it is represented at group 475. 
Found by Drs. Hemprich and Ehrenberg in a pool near 
Cairo in Egypt, in such numbers as to colour the water 
green. Length l-720th. 

Genus CLXXXI. Rotifer. The proboscised Rotatoria 
have two eyes, placed upon the frontal proboscis ; the foot 
provided with little horn-like processes, and the two toes 
bisulcated at their apices. A double rotatory organ (con¬ 
sidered by Cuvier, and others, as a respiratory apparatus), 
furnished with muscles, is seen in all the species ; also 

Philo dinae a.] 



longitudinal and foot muscles in three of them ; a furcated 
foot and horn-like processes in four species; in R. citrinus, 
the pincer-like portions of the foot appear to be tri-pointed; 
in R. erythraeus, they were seen to be drawn in. In four 
species a muscular cesophagal head, with jaws, each two¬ 
toothed, is seen ; in three species the alimentary canal is 
filiform, with a vesicular expansion at the extremity ; it 
has no cesophagal tube, but is surrounded by a cellular 
glandulose turbid mass ; one species has a conical, tubu¬ 
lar, alimentary canal, without the surrounding mass or ex¬ 
pansion at the end ; the four European species have two 
spherical alimentary glands, and an ovarium, with a few 
large ova; occasionally these species are viviparous. In 
three of them a contractile vesicle is present. In R. 
macrurus, near the alimentary canal, are two sexual 
glands. In three species from nine to twelve parallel 
transverse vessels have been observed by Ehrenberg; and 
besides these, in the four European species, styliform 
respiratory tubes, emanating from the neck, which in one 
species are ciliated anteriorly. The indications of a nervous 
system are two red frontal eyes, in the four European 
forms; and beneath them, in R. vulgaris, are two ganglia. 

691. Rotifer vulgaris (Vorticella Rotatoria , M.) The 
common ivheel Animalcule. —This creature, which was dis¬ 
covered by Leeuwenhoek, has a fusiform white body, gra¬ 
dually attenuated towards the foot, the eyes round. “This 
animalcule was described and illustrated in the Micros¬ 
copic Cabinet some years ago, and prior to the appearance 
of Ehrenberg’s observations on them; it has the power of 
contracting or extending the length of the body in the fol¬ 
lowing remarkable manner:—When the creature is about to 



[ Rotatoria. 

shorten itself, transverse folds or joints are observable, 
which do not appear to be confined in number or situation; 
the integuments, when a joint is produced, are drawn 
within the parts above, and slide out like the tubes of a 
telescope, when the joints disappear. It is this power that 
enables it to assume the form of a sphere, the head and 
tail being drawn within the body.” Anteriorly it has a 
proboscis-like process, with a ciliated extremity, and a soft 
hook; near its end are two dark red points. The body 
terminates in a moderately-long tail-like foot, having six 
processes,disposed in pairs; two wreaths of cilii (the wheels), 
voluntarily moveable, are placed upon short thick arms 
(pedicled), which can be drawn in and out at pleasure ; 
these wreaths serve for swimming and purveying, the food 
approaching it by the currents produced in the water by 
the cilii. On the dorsal surface is a styliform horn {Spe¬ 
culum colare , M.) destitute of cilii at its end. During 
vibration the neck has a circular fold, appearing like lateral 
styles. Four muscles, two anterior and two posterior, 
longitudinal, are seen; laterally, also, two club-shaped, for 
moving the foot, and two belonging to the rotatory organ. 
Sometimes, says Dr. Ehrenberg, four anteriorly longitu¬ 
dinal muscles, and a dorsal and ventral one, appear to be 
present. It has two kinds of locomotion, one by alternately 
attaching the mouth and foot, and, as it were, stepping 
along; the other by swimming, from the action of the rota¬ 
tory apparatus. If the creature attaches itself by the foot, 
and the rotatory apparatus is in motion, a strong current 
or vortex is produced on each side the wheels, resembling- 
two spirals in the w r ater, which bring the nutritive particles 
to the mouth, from w hich some are chosen, and the rest 

Philodinaea .] 



flow away. For observing this action with effect, finely 
divided carmine or indigo must be mixed in the water. 
The nutritive apparatus commences with a ciliated mouth, 
opening anteriorly, just beneath the hook-like proboscis : 
the cavity of the mouth is a long extensible tube, having 
posteriorly an cesophagal head, with four muscles, and two 
striated jaws with double teeth ( zygogomphia ). The oeso¬ 
phagus communicates with a filiform alimentary canal, 
which runs along the body, and has posteriorly an oval 
expansion near its opening, at the basis of the tail-like 
foot. A thick glandular cellulose mass, often yellowish or 
greenish, surrounds the alimentary canal; its use is un¬ 
known : Dr. Ehrenberg thinks it may be a ccecal append¬ 
age, or sexual glands : anteriorly are two biliary glands. 
The propagative system is very interesting: the ovarium 
is a globose glandular mass; in it four or five ova some¬ 
times so completely develope themselves, that the young- 
creep out of their envelopes, extend themselves, and put 
their wheels in motion while in it. They sometimes occupy 
two-thirds the length of the parent. In the ovum the 
young are disposed in a spiral bent manner : a sexual vesicle 
exists. The vascular system comprise eleven or twelve 
parallel transverse vessels, and the respiratory tube at 
the neck. The latter was formerly considered a sexual 
organ. The two red frontal eyes, with ganglion beneath 
them, are indications of a nervous system. These eyes 
are cells, filled with a granular pigment, which sometimes 
separate abnormally into several; so that Dr. Ehrenberg 
thinks no crystalline lens exists, but, it may be, they are 
compound, like the e}^es of insects, to determine which 
will require a microscope possessing enormous penetrating 




power; a quality discovered by Dr. Goring, and amply 
explained and illustrated in chapters xvi. and xvii. of the 
Microscopic Cabinet. Fig. 476 represents a full-grown 
animalcule extended, with the wheels vibrating, and shews 
the currents when indigo is put in the water; it is sup¬ 
posed to be attached to a fixed body. Fig. 477 is an under 
view of the same, with the wheels withdrawn, and the 
body contracted ; fig. 478 is another, extended, but wheels 
withdrawn; this creature, as also figures 479 and 480, 
which represent the upper portions more highly magnified, 
have been submitted to different degrees of pressure 
between the plates of an aquatic crush-box. In figures 
476 to 478 ova are seen, some are developed, and their 
eyes and cesophagal bulb visible. The respiratory trans¬ 
verse vessels and tube, projecting from the neck, are seen 
in the engravings. 

The following interesting observations of Dr. Morren are 
extracted from the Annals of Natural History , vol. vi.:— 

“ The labours of Rceper show that the cells of Sphag¬ 
num are sometimes furnished with openings, which place 
their interior cavity in communication with the air, or 
water, in which they are immersed. This skilful observer 
satisfied himself that, when circumstances are favourable, 
the Rotifer vulgaris exists in the cells of the Sphagnum ob- 
tusifolium. This grew in the air, in the middle of a turf pit, 
but Roeper observed its leaves in water; he does not men¬ 
tion whether the infusorial animalcule came from thence, 
or whether it was previously contained in the cavities of 
the cells. The general purport of the paper seems to im¬ 
ply that these Rotiferi exist in the cells of that part of the 
plant which was exposed to the air, and, in this case, the 

Philodinaea .] 



presence of an animal so complicated, living as a parasite 
in the cells of an utricular aerial tissue, is a phenomenon 
of the most curious kind in the physiology of plants, and 
the more so as this animal is an aquatic one. 

ce I recollected that the last year of my residence in Flan¬ 
ders, I found, near Ghent, the Yaucheria clavata, in which 
I observed something similar. M. Unger had already 
published the following details respecting this plant in 
1828 :— 4 Beneath the emptied tubercles, and at several 
points of the principal stalk, at different angles, rather 
narrower branches are produced; these branches are gene¬ 
rally very long, and greatly exceed the principal stalk in 
length. At the end of ten or twelve days after their 
development, there are seen, towards one or the other of 
their extremities, here and there, at different distances 
from the summit, protuberances of a clavate form, more or 
less regular, straight, or slightly bent back ; and others on 
the sides of the stalk, which have the form of a capsule, or 
vesicle. These vesicles are, at first, of a uniform bright green 
colour, and without increase of size, which exceeds several 
times that of the branches ; they always become of a 
blackish-green colour, darker towards the base, and then 
one or two globules, of a reddish-brown, may be clearly 
distinguished there, often surrounded by smaller granules, 
evidently destitute of motion, whilst the great ones move 
spontaneously and slowly, here and there, in the interior 
of the capsule, by unequal contractions and dilatations, 
whence arise remarkable changes of form. I saw these 
globules at the end of eight or ten days after their appear¬ 
ance, still inclosed in the capsule, moving more and more 
slowly, receiving no very decided increase, whilst the base 




of tlie capsule became move transparent; at last I observed 
that, instead of their expulsion, which I was watching for, 
the extremity of the capsule, at the end of some days, took 
an angular form, and subsequently gave birth to two 
expansions, in the form of horns; it remained in this state, 
and became more and more pale, whilst the animalcule 
became darker, and died, and afterwards it ended by 
perishing at the same time as the other parts of the 

“ Subsequent researches have not succeeded in informing 
us what this animal might be of which Unger spoke. As 
this author drew so much attention to the spontaneous 
movement of the propagula of the Vaucheriae, and as he 
admitted the passage from vegetable life, characterized, 
according to him, by immobility, to animal life, the prin¬ 
cipal criterion of which was motion, his animalcule was 
confounded with the propagula; and no one, so far as I 
know, has returned to this very interesting subject. 

“When, therefore, 1 found the Vaucheria clavata at 
Everghem, I was as much surprised as pleased to see the 
mobile body, noticed by Unger, better than he did: with 
the aid of a higher magnifying power, I found it easy to 
ascertain the true nature of the animal, for it is was not a 
propagulum, but a real animal, the Rotifer vulgaris, with 
its cilia, wheels, tail, &c. 

“ The first protuberances, or vesicles, which I saw, con¬ 
taining this animal, inclosed but one of them; afterwards 
they laid eggs, and multiplied; but it seems that then they 
descend the tubes of the Vaucheria, and lodge themselves 
in new protuberances, whose development they may pos¬ 
sibly stimulate, as the galls and oak-apples arc organic 

Philoiinaea. ] 



transformations, attributable to the influence of parasitic 

“ The Rotifer vulgaris travels quite at his ease in these 
protuberances ; he traverses the partitions, displaces the 
chromule, and pushes it to the two extremities of the 
vesicle, so that this appears darker at these parts. One 
day I opened a protuberance gently; I waited to see the 
Rotifer spring out, and enjoy the liberty so dear to all 
creatures, even to infusorial animals, but no—he preferred 
to bury himself in his prison, descending into the tubes of 
the plant, and to nestle himself in the middle of a mass of 
green matter, rather than swim about freely in the neigh¬ 
bourhood of his dwelling. 

“ Some of these protuberances had greenish threads ap¬ 
pended to their free end, and others had none ; I thought 
at first that these threads were some mucus from within, 
escaped through some opening which might have served 
the Rotifer as an entrance, but an attentive and lengthened 
observation convinced me that in this there was no solution 
of continuity, and that the arrival of the Rotiferi in the 
Vaucheriae was not at all to be explained in this way. 
How are these parasitic animalcules generated within them ? 
This is what further research has some day to show. 
Meanwhile I have thought that it should be made known 
that the animalcules found in the Vaucheriae, by Unger, 
was the Rotifer vulgaris of zoologists.” 

Found both in fresh and sea water, in infusions, on the 
floccy matters of water plants, &c. Length 1 -50th to l-24th. 

692. Rotifer (?) cilrinus. The citron-coloured Rotifer . 
—Body fusiform, lower part gradually attenuated into 
a foot; its horn-like processes elongated, eyes round, 

2d 2 



[ Rot at oria. 

respiratory tube toothed. The extremities arc transparent, 
the middle of the body of a citron colour; it often exhibits 
longitudinal folds, and is then less transparent. Found 
amongst oscillatoria. Length l-24th. 

693. Rotifer (?) erythraeus. The Arabian Iloiifer. 
—Body small, oblong, suddenly attenuated into a long 
foot. Length l-240th. 

694. Rotifer macrurus (Vorticella macrura, M.) The 
long-footed Rotifer . — Body transparent, ovato-ohlong, 
suddenly attenuated into a long foot; this is distinguished 
from Actinurus by its small toes, horn-like processes, and 
suddenly-attenuated body. The style, or respiratory tube, 
is ciliated in a star-like manner. The wheels are promi¬ 
nent, and it is altogether a choice subject for the microscope. 
Found in boggy water. Length l-350th. 

685. Rotifer tardus. The idle Rotifer. —Body hyaline, 
fusiform, gradually attenuated to a foot, and having deep 
strictures in the form of square false articulations or joints; 
eyes oblong. It resembles internally R. vulgaris. Length 
1 -80th. 

Genus CLXXXII. Actinurus. The three-toed Rota¬ 
toria are provided with two frontal eyes, and a foot, 
furnished with two little horn-like processes, and three 
toes. In other respects the organization resembles Rotifer 

696. Actinurus Neptunius (Vorticella Rotatoria , M.) 
77/e elongated Actinurus. —Body white, fusiform, gradually 
attenuated into a long foot, having three equal toes exceed¬ 
ing the horn-like processes in length. The chewing action 
of the jaws in the cesopliagal head is often distinctly seen. 
Fig. 481 represents this animalcule extended, with the 

Philodinaea. ] 



wheels withdrawn, which is the case when crawling; the 
respiratory tube is then seen, terminated by a single deli¬ 
cate hair-like point; Jig 482 shews one contracted, but the 
head partially withdrawn; Jig. 484 represents the upper 
part, when the wheels are extended and in action ; Jig. 483 
is the oesophagus and jaws, separated and extended under 
the pressure. Length l-36th to 1-18th. 

Genus CLXXXIII. Monolabis. These Philodinean 
Rotatoria have two frontal red eyes, and a foot with two 
toes, but no horn-like processes. They are provided with 
muscles for moving the double rotatory apparatus, two for 
moving the foot, and four belong to the cesophagal head 
and jaws, which latter are furnished with double teeth, or 
teeth in rows. A very short cesophagal tube, and a simple 
conical alimentary canal, are seen in both species, one of 
them has two spherical biliary glands ; an ovarium is seen 
in both, but in neither has fully-developed ova or male 
organs been observed. In one species a respiratory tube 
is present. 

697. Monolabis conica. The stout Monolabis .—Body 
stout, provided with a respiratory tube, or spur, and three 
teeth in each jaw. Between the rotatory organs the brow 
can project and resemble a proboscis. Figures 485, 486, 
represent different views from the under side. Length 

698. Monolabis gracilis. The slender Monalabis has a 
more slender body than the last, and two teeth in each 
jaw, but no respiratory tube or spur. Length about 


Genus CLXXXIV. Piiilodina. The necked Rota¬ 
toria have two cervical eyes, and horn-like processes to the 



f Rotatoria 

foot. All the species possess two vibratile or wheel organs 
upon the breast, and five of them have a frontal ciliated 
proboscis. Longitudinal muscles are distinct in one spe¬ 
cies, and two for moving the foot in six. The oesophagal 
head has four muscles, its jaws are two-toothed in four 
species, three-toothed in two species, but in one species 
the oesophagal head has not been satisfactorily seen. The 
alimentary canal is filiform, with posterior enlargement in 
six species; in one it appears to have pouches or pockets. 
The glandular or cellular mass surrounding the filiform 
part of the canal sometimes becomes distinctly coloured 
when the creature eats coloured food, and therefore seems 
connected with the nutritive system, and is probably a 
convolution of coecal appendages. Biliary glands are 
found in six species. The ovarium developes eggs, but 
very seldom living young, hence they are only occasionally 
viviparous; three species possess a contractile vesicle, one 
sexual glands. A respiratory tube at the neck is always 
present, in some cases it is ciliated. Transverse vessels 
are seen only in P. erythropthalma. Eyes arc found 
in all the species, and nervous ganglia connected with 
them in P. erythropthalma; sometimes the eyes are very 
pale, hence a single specimen may be mistaken for 

699. Philodina erythropthalma . The slender Philo - 
din a is white and smooth, the eyes round, horn-like 
processes of the foot short, and the jaws two-toothed. 
This species is common, and found abundantly during 
the spring and summer in water tubs, and amongst con¬ 
ferva. In glass vessels it increases rapidly, and if supplied 
occasionally with two or three stems of hay the breed may 

Philodinaeu ] 



be preserved for years. It is often met with in vegetable 
infusions of different kinds; in these, however, it never 
originates, but only increases in number Length 1-120th 
to l-48th. 

700. Philodina roseola. The rose or flesh-coloured 
Philodina .—Body smooth, eyes oval, horn-like processes 
of the foot short. 44 I have observed,” says Ehrenberg, 
44 that this animalcule, when kept in glasses, deposits its 
eggs in heaps, and the parent remains a long time with the 
young ones produced from them, forming a sort of family 
or colony, and which we are not to be hindered from 
ascribing to a sense of company or family, though the pride 
of man may laugh at it.” Fig. 490 represents one with 
the wheels extended. Length l-72nd to l-48th. 

701. Philodina collaris. The collar Philodina is hya¬ 
line, or white, body smooth, eyes round, a prominent 
annulus or collar is round the neck. It is especially 
characterized by the breadth of the alimentary canal, and 
coecal appendages attached to it, so that, when the ani¬ 
malcule is fed upon indigo, it appears like a polygastric 
animalcule. Length 1-120th. 

702. Philodina nmcrostyla. The long-horned Philo¬ 
dina is white and smooth, with oblong eyes; it has three 
teeth in each jaw, and the horn-like processes of the base 
of the foot are long. Found amongst oscillatoria. Length 

703. Philodina citrina. Theyellow Philodina .—Body 
smooth, citron coloured in the middle, extremities white, 
eyes variable in form, horn-like processes slightly elongated. 
Found amongst oscillatoria. Length l-70th. 

704. Philodina aculeata. The spinous Philodina .— 



[. Rotatoria . 

Body white, provided with soft spines, eyes round. The 
respiratory tube is thickened anteriorly in a globose man¬ 
ner, the javrs have each three teeth. Figures 487, 488, 
represent this animalcule, and fig . 489, the jaws and teeth 
separate. Length l-70th. 

705. Philodina megalotrocha. The great-wheel Philo- 
dina is white, the body smooth and short, the wheels large, 
the proboscis between them long, the eyes oval, and the 
jaws two-toothed. Length 1-216th to 1-108th. 





The concluding family of the Rotatoria, Brachionaea, is 
distinguished by its members being provided with two 
rotatory organs, and in possessing a lorica. 

The lorica is a testula , and not a scutellum. The ro¬ 
tatory apparatus is often apparently composed of five parts, 
three central and two lateral. The latter alone constitute 
the rotatory organs, the others are only ciliated frontal 
portions, which, during the vibration of the rotatory 
organs, remain stiffly extended as feelers. Some (perhaps 
all) have two setae at the rotatory apparatus, as in Syn- 
chaeta. The genera Noteus and Brachionus have a forked 
foot, Anuraea is destitute of foot, and Pterodina has a 
sucking disc at the end of the foot, but no toes. All the 
genera have jaws, with teeth, attached to an oesophagal 
head, having four muscles. In Pterodina the jaws are 
partly two-toothed and row-toothed (zygogomphia locho- 
gomphia ), in the other genera they are many-toothed 
(polygomphia ). In Noteus and Pterodina the alimentary 
canal is constricted, forming stomachs ( gasterodela ); in 
the rest it is partly simple ( coelogastrica ), partly with sto¬ 
machs. Biliary glands have been observed in all the 
genera, as also an ovarium, male glands, and contractile 
vesicle. Many species of Anuraea, Brachionus, and Noteus, 
carry their eggs attached to them, after expulsion. In all 
the genera, except Pterodina, internal tremulous gill-like 
organs, attached to the male glands, have been observed, 
and respiratory tubes exist in some species of the genera 



[ Rotatoria . 

Anuraea, Brachionus, and Noteus. A nervous system is 
indicated by the presence of red visual points in all, except 
Noteus, which, however, possesses a cerebral ganglion. 

Some of the Brachionaea are so numerous, as to render 
the water milky and turbid. 

The genera are disposed as follow:— 

Eyes absent, with a furcated foot ........Noteus. 

( C no foot... . ,.. . Anuraea. 

I one (cervical) eye ^ 

Eyes present ( foot furcated .Brachionus. 

1 two frontal eyes, foot styliform.Pterodina. 

Genus CLXXXV. Noteus. The egg-carrying Brachio¬ 
naea are destitute of visual organs, but provided with a 
furcated foot (Brachioni wanting eyes). The two-wheeled 
vibratory organ has between its portions a three-lobed ciliated 
brow, but has no long feeler bristles; it possesses, (as also the 
furcate foot,) distinct muscles. The lorica has spines both 
anteriorly and posteriorly; an oesophagal head, with 
jaws, having many teeth ( polygomphia ), a constricted ali¬ 
mentary canal or stomach ( gasterodela ), with two large 
glands; an ovarium, two sexual glands, and a contractile 
vesicle, are to be recognized. There is also a trace of tre¬ 
mulous gills, a short and thick respiratory tube, and a large 
central ganglion, lying between the muscles of the vibratory 

706. Noteus quadricornis. The four-horned Noteus 
has a suborbicular lorica, depressed, rough (scabrous), and 
urceolated; it has anteriorly four horns, posteriorly two 
spines. This animalcule is large, very transparent, and of 
a whitish colour. Figs. 491 to 493 represent dorsal, 
ventral, and side views; and fg. 494 the jaws separate, and 




under pressure. Found amongst decayed sedge-leaves and 
oscillatoria. Length 1-120th to l-72nd. 

Genus CLXXXVI. Anuraea includes Brachionaea 
which have a single cervical eye, but no foot (Brachioni with¬ 
out feet.) In seven species the lorica has facetta upon the 
back, in four longitudinal striae: in three it is smooth, in 
thirteen species it is spinous anteriorly, and in seven pos¬ 
teriorly also. A. biremis has a moveable spine on each 
side: one species is found as an empty shell only; in the 
rest the rotatory organs, with their cilii, as also often their 
muscles, are seen, but no longitudinal ones have been ob¬ 
served in any of the species. Jaws and teeth are seen in 
nine species. A constricted alimentary canal ( gasterodela ) 
in four, and a simple conical one ( coelogastrica ) in nine. 
They have two biliary glands at the commencement of the 
alimentary canal; an ovarium is seen in twelve species, 
but sexual glands and a contractile vesicle only in one of 
the larger and smooth species, in which also four tremu¬ 
lous gill-like organs are found. In three species respi¬ 
ratory tubes emanate from the neck. The eye, which is 
always present, indicates the existence of a nervous sys¬ 
tem. In A. squamula, curvicornis, biremis, striata, and 
foliacea, nervous matter is seen below it. Eight species 
have their eggs attached to them after they are expelled* 
They swim freely, though not very quick. 

(a).—Species posteriorly devoid of spines and pedicle. 

707. Anuraea (?) quadridentata. The four-homed Anu¬ 
raea. —Lorica oblong, with four horns anteriorly, the pos¬ 
terior end obtuse, back tcssclated. Length 1-216th, with¬ 
out the horns. 




708. Anuraea squamula (Brachionus squamula , M.) 
The Jish-scale Anuraea is smooth, obtusely square, with 
six horns in front, obtuse behind. Figs. 495 to 497 re¬ 
present different views of this animalcule, the two latter 
have an egg attached. Length 1-240th. 

709. Anuraea falculata. The sickle Anuraea is oblong, 
has six teeth anteriorly, the two central ones curved 
outwards, like sickles. The surface of the lorica is not 
ridged, but rough, the posterior extremity obtuse. Length 

710. Anuraea curvicornis . The crooked-horned Anu¬ 
raea is nearly square, with six frontal horns, the two 
middle ones being larger, and curved outwards and down¬ 
wards. The dorsal surface is tesselated; its large red 
round eye is seated upon a large nervous ganglion; the 
cesophagal head has three-toothed jaws. This animalcule 
also carries the eggs attached. Length 1-216th. 

711. Anuraea hiremis. The two-ruddered Anuraea is 
linear and elongated, with four horns anteriorly; the back 
very smooth, and having two lateral spines, like oars. The 
oesophagal head has three-toothed jaws. Found in phos¬ 
phorescent sea water. Length 1-144th. 

712. Anuraea striata (Brachionus striata , M.) The 
striated Anuraea is linear and elongated, with six horns in 
front, the back having twelve longitudinal flutings or rays, 
and being obtuse at the end. This species is very change¬ 
able in form, owing to the membranous lorica yielding to 
the contraction of the body, hence it is sometimes long, at 
others short, sometimes urn-shaped, bell-shaped, and even 
almost disc-shaped; the first, however, seems to be the nor¬ 
mal form. Found in fresh and salt water. Length 1-130th. 

Brachionaea .] TI1E infusoria. 413 

(/>.)— Spinous , or attenuated in pedicle-like manner 


713. Anuraea inermis. The unarmed Anuraea has an 
oblong lorica, attenuated and truncated posteriorly; no 
spines anteriorly, back furnished with faint longitudinal 
rays. Found in peat water. Length, when extended, 
1 -144th. 

714. Anuraea acuminata. The pointed Anuraea has 
an oblong lorica, attenuated and truncated at the posterior 
extremity, having anteriorly six sharp-pointed horns or 
spines, and twelve longitudinal rays on the back. Found 
amongst conferva. Length about 1-120th. 

715. Anuraea foliacea. The foliaceous Anuraea has 
an oblong lorica, six teeth anteriorly, posterior terminating 
in a spinous manner, like a pedicle, the dorsal and ventral 
surfaces longitudinally striated, and the frontal region 
rough. It has four-toothed jaws, and a central ganglion 
below the eye. Length 1-180th. 

716. Anuraea stipitata ( Brachionus ). The shovel- 
shaped Anuraea. —Lorica nearly square, or triangular, the 
anterior having six teeth, or spines; posterior single, 
pointed like a pedicle, the back tesselated. Fig. 498 
represents a dorsal view, w ith the wheels extended. Length 
about l-200th. 

717. Anuraea testudo. The tortoise Anuraea. —Lorica 
square, having anteriorly six straight spines, all nearly the 
same length, and posteriorly a short one at each corner. 
The upper and under surfaces are rough, and the former 
tesselated like Noteus. Length about 1-200th. 

718. Anuraea serrulata. The rough Anuraea has an 
ovate square lorica, with six unequal spines anteriorly, the 




two middle ones long and curved; it has two short spines 
at the posterior angles, which are sometimes scarcely 
apparent. The surfaces are rough, and the dorsal also 
tesselated, like the preceding species. Independent of 
the two wheels, the brow has three cylindrical ciliated pro¬ 
cesses, truncated at their extremities. Length 1-216th. 

719. Anuraea aculeata (Brachionus quadrat us , M.) 
The spinous Anuraea has a square lorica, with six spines 
anteriorly, the two middle longest; at the posterior angles 
are two long and equal spines ; the back is rough and 
tesselated, the under side smooth. At the brow, between 
the two wheels, is a single ciliated frontal process; a little 
respiratory tube is situated in front of the eye. Length 
1-144th ; including the spines, l-96th. 

720. Anuraea valga. The hobbling Anuraea.-— Lorica 
nearly square, with six spines anteriorly, the two middle 
ones longest; at the two posterior angles is a spine of un¬ 
equal length; the dorsal and ventral surfaces are rough, 
the former tesselated. The jaws are five-toothed, the red 
eye oval, its longer axis being tranverse. Length, without 
the spines, 1-210th. 

Genus CLXXXVII. Brachionus. Brachionaea which 
have a single cervical eye and a furcated foot. In all the 
species the lorica is a closed shell, with two openings like 
a tortoise-shell (testula), the margin of whose anterior 
opening is toothed, as also, sometimes, that of the poste¬ 
rior. In B. bakeri and militaris, the lorica is rough, and in 
the former tesselated; in all the other species it is smooth; 
within its lorica the animalcule can completely withdraw 
itself. The locomotive organs consist of a double rotatory 
apparatus and a wrinkled and very flexible furcated foot. 




Between the rotatory organs are from one to three frontal 
processes, which are provided with long cilii, or feeler-like 
hairs ; between these processes, in six species, are from 
two to four long styles or bristles. The rotatory organs, 
when not completely extended, sometimes appear as if 
two or three-lobed. In all the species, from two to eight 
internal muscles, for moving the vibratory organs, are 
observed ; also two foot muscles; and in six species from 
two to eight internal longitudinal ones. The digestive 
system comprises a large muscular oesophagal head, with 
two many-toothed jaws (mostly five, in B. polyacanthus 
four toothed) ; a short oesophagus, and a constricted ali¬ 
mentary canal ( gasterodela ); except in B. militaris, which 
is simple and conical ( coelogastrica ) ; two biliary glands, 
variously modified in form, are present in all. Seven species 
are hermaphrodite, male glands, a contractile vesicle, and 
an ovarium being seen; in the others, their roughness pre¬ 
cludes their being satisfactorily perceived. No species is 
viviparous. All of them carry their eggs attached, often 
as many as eight or ten at a time. B. pala allows the eggs 
of another creature to be attached to its back, which it 
carries about until the young creep out. Traces of a 
vascular system are indicated in all by the presence of a 
respiratory tube in the neck; in B. pala are transverse 
vessels, and in four species, from six to eight tremulous 
gill-like organs are attached to the sexual glands. Of the 
nervous system, the chief ganglion, that beneath the 
red eye, is distinct in all. In four, the pigment of the eye 
is inclosed in a sharply four-cornered cell, as in Cyclops, 
and appears to be two cells connected together late¬ 
rally. In the cell, the pigment is variously distributed, 



[. Rotatoria . 

so that, in a physiological sense, there is no lens or 
cornea. B. pala, urceolaris, and rubens, sometimes increase 
in such quantities as to render the water milky and turbid. 
Several species are infested with Vorticellae, Epistylis, and 
other parasites, which attach themselves to their shells. 

721. Brachionus pala. The four-horned Brachionus 
has a smooth lorica, with four teeth or spines in front, and 
two obtuse ones near the opening for the foot. This 
creature swims in a perpendicular position, the brow being 
directed upwards. Each jaw' has five teeth; the alimentary 
canal, being restricted, forms a stomach. Length l-3Gth; 
lorica only l-48th. 

722. Brachionus amphiceros. The double four-toothed 
Brachionus has a smooth lorica, with four spines, both in 
front, and posteriorly. This species may be distinguished 
from the preceding by its size, want of frontal setae, and 
by the four sharp posterior teeth. Length l-72nd. 

723. Brachionus urceolaris (Brachionus urceolaris , M.) 
The urn-shaped Brachionus is whitish, has a smooth lorica, 
six very short spines in front, the posterior extremities 
rounded. The points of the lorica are shorter and less 
sharp than in the following species; its lorica is slighty 
granulated; delicate longitudinal ridges proceed from the 
spines; the jaws have each five teeth. Both sexual glands 
and contractile vesicle, as well as an ovarium, are seen. 
Found in fresh and brackish water. Length l-96th to 

724. Brachionus rubens (Brachionus urceolaris , M.) 
The reddish Brachionus has a smooth lorica, with six sharp 
spines in front, and posterior rounded; the body is red. 
Length l-50th. 


Brachionaea .] THE INFUSORIA. 417 

725. Brachionus Mulleri. Muller's Brachionus has a 
smooth lorica, with six obtuse spines in front, and termi¬ 
nated by two short ones, resembling papillae. This species 
is somewhat larger than B. urceolaris, and has peculiarly- 
shaped frontal spines. The margin of the chin (brow) is 
smoothly truncated, having three faint indentations. The 
lorica is very transparent. Length 1 -60th. 

726. Brachionus brevispinus. The short-spined Bra¬ 
chionus has a smooth lorica, having six acute unequal 
spines in front, and four stout spines posteriorly, the two 
inner ones short; two sexual glands and a contractile vesicle 
are present. Found in slow running clear water, with 
conferva. Length l-65th. 

727. Brachionus Bakeri (M.) Baker’s Brachionus 
has a rough lorica, the middle of which is tesselated on its 
dorsal surface; six unequal acute teeth anteriorly, two 
elongated (lateral and dorsal) spines posterior, and short 
ones at the sheath of the foot. The lorica is covered with 
delicate granules; those upon the middle of the ventral 
surface are arranged in parallel but somewhat curved lines. 
Length 1-120th to l-6‘0th. 

728. Brachionus polyacanthus (M.) The many-spined 
Brachionus has a smooth lorica, having anteriorly four long 
dorsal teeth or spines, six short ones at the margin of the 
chin (ventral), and, posteriorly, five dorsal spines, the two 
external, or lateral ones, very long. Figures 499 to 501 
represent dorsal, side, and under views of this animalcule; 
the former having the wheels extended, and the side view 
shewing the respiratory tube and an ovum attached. 
Length, without spines, 1-110th. 

729. Brachionus militaris. 

2 E 

The armed Brachionus 




has a rough (scabrous) lorica, with twelve long and nearly 
equal spines anteriorly, and four posterior ones ; the two 
middle ones unequal, and shorter than those of the pre¬ 
ceding species. Length, without spines, 1-120th. 

Genus CLXXXVIII. Pterodina. The winged Rota¬ 
toria include Brachionaea which have two frontal eyes and 
a simple styliform foot. All the species have a smooth, 
flat, and soft lorica, like a tortoise-shell ( testula ); they 
are curved at the margin. A double rotatory apparatus, 
and a simple conical foot, having a suction disc at the end, 
and sometimes cilii, are common to all. P. elliptica alone 
has a hairy frontal process between the wheels. Transverse 
or longitudinal muscles exist in all the species. The four¬ 
muscled oesophagal head has jaws, with teeth in rows in 
two species ( locogomphia ), and double-toothed ( zygogom - 
phid) in P. elliptica; the alimentary canal is constricted 
(gasterodeJa ), and possesses, anteriorly, two glands; an 
ovarium is also seen in all the species. Sexual glands and 
a contractile vesicle are present in P. patina. No evidences 
of a vascular system have been discovered, and two red 
frontal points (probably eyes) are the only indications of 
a system of sensation. 

730. Pterodina patina (Brachionus patina , M.) The 
dish-like Pterodina has a membranaceous lorica, orbicular 
and crystalline, slightly scabrous near the broad margin, and 
excised anteriorly between the wheels. This species is very 
delicate and transparent. Fig. 502 represents a side view 
of this animalcule, and figures 503 and 504 under views ; 
the latter having the wheels extended, the former having 
them withdrawn, and the anterior margin bent in, so 
that the eyes appear near the middle of the lorica. Found, 

Brachionaea .] 



in summer, among lemna and Ceratophyllum. Length 
about 1-120th. 

731. Pterodina elliptica. The elliptical Pterodina has 
a membranaceous elliptical lorica, with a narrow, smooth 
margin, the front entire (not excised). The two wheels 
are united by a brow furnished with setae. The eyes 
are distant. Found amongst conferva. Length l-120th 
to l-108th. 

732. Pterodina clypeata (Brachionus clypeatns, M.) 
The shield-like Pterodina has a membranaceous oblong 
lorica, narrow, and smooth at the margin; it has a frontal 
portion, or brow, connecting the two wheels, but destitute 
of setae. The eyes are approximate. Fig. 505 is a dorsal 
view, with the wheels extended. Found in sea water. 
Length 1-120th; the shell, 1-144th. 







The author states in 1837 he communicated to the 
Berlin Academy the discovery of Synedra ulna, &c. in 
the polishing slate (Poler Schiefer) of Oran; and in 
December, 1838, that five or six species of Infusoria 
existed in some of the chalk formations, which were so 
similar to existing species that they afforded no tangible 
marks of difference, and, therefore, did not authorize the 
adoption of new names. Since then he has prosecuted 
the investigation, the result of which is given hereinafter. 

In the introduction Dr. E. states that one of the most 
remarkable facts elicited in the course of his examination 
of the sea water, whilst in a state of phosphorescence, was, 
the presence of several species of two genera, the members 
of which have siliceous loricae, which are abundant, not 
only in the chalk marls of Caltanisetta, Sicily, Oran, Zante, 
and Greece, but are those forms which, from the incalcu¬ 
lable number of their very minute loricae, compose the 
chief portion of the marls which depend for their origin 
on the remains of species of Infusoria; and further, that 
they belong to genera, species of which had not then been 
seen in the living state. Subsequently the greater number 
were taken in a live condition to Berlin, by Dr. Ehrenberg, 
who has come to the conclusion that, from amongst these, 
Actinocyclus senarius, Coscinodiscus patina, and Gallio- 



nella sulcata, may be shewn as the chief forms met with in 
examining the chalk marls of Sicily, and also that the 
species of the chalk formations are yet to be found as 
crowds of living creatures in the waters of our seas. 

(a). Climatorial Relationships. —Europe, Africa, Asia, 
America, and the Isle of Bourbon, exhibit the same crea¬ 
tures, partly in a fossil condition, and partly alive, in 
various relationships, as has been already shewn, but 
which knowledge has lately been most materially extended, 
as also that concerning the general distribution of the 
same species, both in fresh water and the sea. So general, 
in fact, is such distribution, that the forms of the Siberian 
Alps, the Altai Mountains (high lands of upper Asia), and 
those of the waters near Berlin, and of the Nile, at Don- 
gola, are so similar, that, to a certain extent, when brought 
together and compared, no differences, agreeing with the 
principles of natural history, could be discerned. 

(b.) Self-division .—The importance of this power, so 
forcibly exhibited in the various tribes of animalcules, is 
well shewn by the fact that a creature, invisible to the 
naked eye, can, in the space of four days, give origin 
to no less than 140 billions of beings; and as, from the 
size, &c. of the bodies, we can easily calculate that 
40,000 millions of individuals exist in a cubic inch of the 
polishing slate of Bilin, so 70 billions must be necessary 
to form a cubic foot of the same structure. 

Genus Amphitetras belongs to the family Bacillaria, 
and must be ranged under section Naviculaceae. Its 
members are characterized by being unattached, and hav¬ 
ing a simple bi- or multi-valved siliceous lorica, which is 
square, and has four openings, situated at the angles of 
its opposed lateral faces. The self-division is imperfect, 
but the chain-like masses which the individuals form are 
not gaping, like some other genera. 

733. Amphitetras antedilaviana . — Each shell-like 



lorica is of a cubical form and cellulose, the lateral surfaces 
being radiated, the angles assuming various conditions. In 
this creature the angles of the lorica are sometimes very 
obtuse, and the sides of it straight; in others they are 
elongated, in the form of little horns, and the sides very 
much sloped out. The lateral surfaces are very similar to 
the head-piece of a Bothriocephalus. Found living in 
the waters of the Cattegat, and in a fossil state in the 
chalk marl of Oran and Greece. Diameter 1-860th to 

A few days before Dr. Ehrenberg sent part of his work 
to the press, he discovered a second species of this genus 
in the chalk marl of Greece, which he states should be 
named (734) A . parallela, as the lateral surfaces of the 
lorica are marked by parallel rows of cells. 

Genus Ceratoneis belongs to the tribe Bacillaria, 
section Naviculaceae. Its members are free, and possess 
a simple prismatic bivalved siliceous lorica, with two 
central opposed openings, whose solid edge is bounded by 
two diverging longitudinal furrows, which appear to pass 
through the horns of the lorica. In consequence of self¬ 
division being complete, no chain-like masses are formed 
by the members of this family, though they may be found 
in pairs, or solitary. 

735. Ceratoneis closterium .—Setaceous and lunate in 
form, having two very long horns, twice the length of the 
body. The form of this creature is like that of Closterium 
setaceum. The ova are of a brownish-green colour, but 
the long delicate horns are colourless. The lorica is 
smooth, and the motion is easily seen, as it is very lively. 
Found abundantly, along with Closterium setaceum, in 
the sea near Cuxhaven and Wismar. Length 1-290th to 
1-220th; body, without the horns, 1-1150th. 

736. Ceratoneis fasciola. —Linear, lanceolate, and 
shaped like the letter S, the horns being shorter than the 



body, and curved in opposite directions. The body, with¬ 
out horns, is like Navicula gracilis. Sexual glands, as also 
locomotion, are visible. Found alive in sea water, near 
Cuxhaven. Length l-430th. 

Genus Dinopiiysis belongs to the family Peridinaea, its 
members being characterized by having a membranaceous 
lorica, with a transverse ciliated furrow, and furnished 
with a plaited crest. No visual organs are apparent, and 
the animalcules are free. This genus was considered at 
first to belong to the family Ophrydina. 

737. Dinopiiysis acuta .—Lorica ovate, urceolate and 
granulated, the frontal portion as if operculate, plane; the 
posterior sub-acute. Within the body brown vesicles were 
seen ; these are considered as stomachs filled with food, the 
transparent colourless ones as empty digestive sacs. This 
species lives along with the phosphorescent Peridinaea, 
and exceeds them in the quickness of its motion. Living, 
in sea water, at Kiel. Diameter 1-580th. 

738. Dinophysis Michaelis .—Lorica ovate, urceolate 
and granulated ; the frontal portion as if operculate, plane, 
and very broad; the posterior rounded. This species is 
very similar to the preceding, being only distinguished 
by its broad front and rounded back. Found alive, in sea 
water, at Kiel. Length 1-580th. 

Genus Eucampia belongs to the family Bacillaria, 
section Desmidiaceae. The lorica is univalved, w r edge- 
shaped, and flat, excised in the middle of its lateral sur¬ 
faces. The self-division being imperfect, the creatures are 
clustered in the form of plane articulated chains, having 
roundish holes ( [lacunosas ) in them; the chains being curved 
gradually become circular ; cluster unattached. 

739. Eucampia Zodiacus .—Lorica crystalline, smooth* 
a little longer than it is broad; ova of a light yellow colour. 
Locomotion not perceptible. Found alive, in sea water, at 
Cuxhaven. Diameter 1-1150th. 



Genus Grammatophora belongs to the Bacillaria, 
section Navieulaceae. The members have a simple bivalved 
prismatic siliceous lorica, and are unattached. Self¬ 
division is imperfect, and the cluster curved, the joints 
gaping at one of the angles. Within are generally seen 
two undulated folds, dividing the body into three longi¬ 
tudinal portions. 

740. Grammatopiiora Africana— Wands,when viewed 
dorsally, square or oblong; from the side, ! Navicula-like (boat- 
shaped), and obtuse. Internal folds three, and undulated. 
Found, fossil, in the chalk marl of Oran, and alive, in sea 
water, at Tjbrn. The live creature has brownish, or golden- 
yellow-coloured ova, filling the whole of the interior, and 
only leaving a bright transverse band empty just where 
the transverse tube goes through the body. Length 
l-2300th to 1-480th. 

741. Grammatopiiora angulosa. — Wands, when 
viewed dorsally, square or oblong ; from the side, Navicula- 
like, and obtuse; internal fold having many acute angles. 
It is not very certain whether this species is only a 
variety of the preceding. Found fossil in the chalk 
marl of Oran, and alive, in sea water, at Tjorn. The crea¬ 
ture is colourless. Length of fossil 1-910th; the living, 

742. Grammatophora Mexicana . — Wands, when 
viewed dorsally, quadrangular; from the side, linear, obtuse, 
the ends being suddenly constricted. Internal folds straight 
in the middle, uncinate at the extremity. Found alive, in 
sea water, at Vera Cruz. Length 1-960th, and little more 
than twice its breadth. 

743. Grammatophora oceanica. —Wands, viewed dor¬ 
sally, quadrangular ; from the side, navicular, or linear, 
obtuse, but the ends gradually attenuated; internal folds 
straight in the middle, uncinate towards the ends. Found 
fossil in the chalk marl of Oran, alive in the waters of the 



Cattegat, &c. This creature forms long zigzag bands, 
which are fixed by mucus to algae and sertulariae. 
Dr. Ehrenberg saw wands which were fourteen times 
longer than they were broad, and some which were nearly 
square. The ova appear yellow or reddish-brown. Length 
of fossil 1-720th ; living, l-2300th to l-360th. 

744. Gramm atophora unduluta _Wands, when viewed 

dorsally, quadrangular; from the side, linear, and several 
times undulated; internal folds undulated. Found fossil 
in the chalk marl of Greece, alive in sea water at Vera 
Cruz. The live creatures are colourless. Greatest length 
from two to three times its breadth ; the former 1-860th. 

Genus Lithodesmium belongs to the Bacillaria, section 
Desmidiaceae. The lorica is simple, univalved, siliceous, 
and triangular in shape. Self-division imperfect, the 
creatures being clustered in the form of straight and rigid 
triangular-shaped wands; cluster unattached. 

745. Lithodesmium undulatum .—Corpuscles large, 
smooth, and pellucid ; the angles obtuse. Two of the sides 
are undulated, the others doubly excised; openings and 
motion are not perceptible. The corpuscles are somewhat 
longer than they are broad. Found alive, in sea water, at 
Cuxhaven. Greatest length of corpuscle, 1-480th. 

Genus Podosira belongs to the Bacillaria, section 
Echinaceae. Its members are fixed, the lorica beino- 
pedicellate, bivalved, sub-rotund in form, and siliceous. 
Self-division imperfect, and giving rise to moniliform chains. 

746. Podosira nummuloides. — Corpuscles globose, 
slightly compressed laterally (discretis); body minutely 
punctated. The pedicle is shorter than the diameter of the 
body. The largest chains contained seven corpuscles. 
The pedicle is colourless, the corpuscles green. Found 
alive on a Polysiphonia in Peru. Size of corpuscle 1-860th. 

Genus Triceratium belongs to the Bacillaria, section 
Naviculaceae. The members are free, and have a bivalved 



triangular siliceous lorica, tridentate, or corniculate, at 
each lateral surface. They are multiplied under the ex¬ 
ternal covering by longitudinal self-division. 

747. Triceratium favus. —Shell-like lorica triquetrous 
laterally, plane or slightly convex, having the angles 
obtuse; the surface is marked with large hexagonal cells, 
but on the back is a smooth central zone. Found fossil 
in the chalk marl of Greece, and alive, in sea water, at 
Cuxhaven. Diameter l-240th. 

748. Triceratium striolatum.—- Shell-like lorica trique¬ 
trous laterally, convex, the angles being subacute ; surface 
minutely punctated, back with a smooth central zone. 
Found living, in sea water, at Cuxhaven. Size 1-290th. 

Genus Tripodiscus belongs to the Bacillaria, section 
Naviculaceae. Its members are free, and possess a round 
bivalved siliceous lorica, having three appendiculated 
processes, and dividing by longitudinal self-division. 

749. Tripodiscus Germanicus ( Argus .)—Lorica large, 
orbicular, and compressed, with the valves slightly convex ; 
the margin of the cells, which are disposed in radiating 
series, being sometimes roughly punctated at intervals; 
the lateral processes are short and hyaline. Colour green. 
Found alive, in sea water, at Cuxhaven. Diameter l-220th. 

Genus Zygoceros belongs to the Bacillaria, section 
Naviculaceae. Its members are characterized by being 
free, and having a compressed, Navicula-shaped, bivalved 
lorica, each end provided with two perforated horns. 
Self-division longitudinal and complete. 

750. Zygoceros rhombus. —Large, lorica turgid; viewed 
laterally rhomboidal, and having rounded angles ; surface 
marked with very delicate striae, the back having a 
smooth central zone. Found alive, in sea water, at 
Cuxhaven. In the l-96th of a line there are 24-26 striae. 
Diameter 1-290th. 

751. Zygoceros surirella .—Small, lorica compressed; 



viewed from the lateral surface lanceolate, with the extremi¬ 
ties constricted and obtuse, surface marked with large 
and distinct granular lines, becoming obliterated in the 
middle of the body. Found living, in sea water, at 
Cuxhaven. Size l-720th ; striae to l-96th of a line. 

752. Achnanthes pachypus .—Wands striated, twice as 
broad as long, or ovate, each'slightly bent in the middle ; 
back and apex rounded; pedicle thick and short. Breadth 
of wand l-1730th. This species was discovered by Dr. 
Montague, upon some conferva obtained at Callao (Peru), 
which he named Confervae allantoides. Young specimens 
of Achnanthes subsessilis are very similar to the present 
species, which has seldom more than three, never more 
than four joints; Dr. Montague gives only two. 

753. Actinocyclus biternarius .—Partitions not present, 
disc having six minutely punctated rays. This species is 
found in the fossil condition in the chalk marl of Oran and 
Caltanisetta, in Sicily, and alive, in sea water, near the 
island of Tjorn. The fossil state is that in which it was 
first discovered, and it created considerable surprise when 
it was found soon after in the ooze of the sea. Locomotion, 
or organs for affecting it, have not been seen. From 
A. senarius it is distinguished by the absence of the in¬ 
ternal partitions. Diameter 1-1000th to 1-580th. 

754. Actinocyclus senarius . (1838.)—Found fossil, 

very abundantly, in the chalk marl of Oran, Caltanisetta, 
and Greece ; alive at Cuxhaven, Christiana, and Tjorn. 
Diameter 1-1150th to l-430th. 

755. Actinocyclus septennarius .—Partitions absent, 
disc having seven finely punctated rays. Found fossil in 
the chalk maid of Oran, Caltanisetta, and Zante ; living, in 
the Cattegat. Diameter 1-1060th to 1-430th. 

756. Actinocyclus octonarius .—Found fossil in the 
chalk marl of Caltanisetta and Oran; living, in the 


429 , 

757. Actinocyclus nonarius .—Partitions not present, 
disc having nine finely punctated rays. This species is 
found, both fossil and alive, in the same situation. The 
single discs of the fossil forms are generally without mar¬ 
gin : they are sometimes quite perfect, but often in 
broken pieces. In the living creatures, the ova are 
yellow; locomotion not observable. Diameter 1-720th 
to l-650th. 

758. Actinocyclus denarius. (1838.)—Found fossil 
in the chalk marl of Oran; and living, in the waters of the 

759. Actinocyclus undenarius .—Partitions not present, 
disc having eleven finely punctated rays. This species is 
found, both alive and in the fossil state, where the pre¬ 
ceding one is seen. The discs of the fossil forms are 
destitute of margin, and are single, whilst those of the 
live creatures have a broad edge and are double. In 
those specimens in which the margin is absent there exists 
as many round openings as there are punctated rays. 
The mass of ova is divided into several portions. Diameter 
of the discs 1-560th to 1-480th. 

760. Actinocyclus bisenarius .—Partitions not present, 
disc having twelve finely punctated rays. Found fossil 
in the chalk marl of Oran, and alive in the water of the 
Cattegat. The twelve rayed discs of the fossil forms are 
sometimes smaller than those of the living, but, in most 
cases, about equal. In the live condition, the ova are 
visible, as twenty-two greenish masses placed around the 
colourless spot in the centre of the body. Neither marginal 
openings or locomotion have been satisfactorily seen. 
Diameter of the fossil, as low as l-860th; of the living, as 
high as 1-580th. 

761. Actinocyclus duodenarius .—Disc divided inter¬ 
nally, by partitions, into twelve cells, and having twelve 
finely punctated rays; six dark and six bright triangular 



divisions are seen, in each of whose centre runs a narrow 
line, terminating at the margin in a little opening. The 
internal partitions appear to lie between every two of these 
narrow lines, so that as many as twenty-four rays may be 
counted, but there are only twelve openings to be seen. 
Diameter 1-560th to l-480th. 

762. Actinocyclus quindenarius ,—Partitions not pre¬ 
sent, disc having fifteen finely punctated rays. Found fossil 
in the chalk marl of Oran, and alive in the waters of the 
Cattegat. The discs of this species are more arched than 
those of any other of the preceding ones. The fifteen 
rays terminate in fifteen marginal openings. The ova 
are distributed into forty-eight round, yellowish-brown- 
coloured masses, placed around the bright central spot of 
the body, or else appear united as one ball. Locomotion 
was not perceptible. Diameter of fossil forms, l-560th; 
of the living, l-560th to l-480th. 

763. Actinocyclus sedenarius .—Disc divided, by in¬ 
ternal partitions, into sixteen cells, and having sixteen finely 
punctated rays. The ova, which are of a green colour, 
form, in some, separate concentric masses; in others, a 
single ball-like mass, placed in the middle of the body. 
Locomotion not perceptible. Found alive near Cuxhaven. 
Diameter of the shells l-290th. 

764. Actinocyclus octodencirius .—Disc divided by in¬ 
ternal partitions into eighteen cells, and having eighteen 
finely punctated rays. This species is very similar to the 
preceding, being only a little larger, and having eighteen 
alternately dark and bright divisions, as many internal 
septae, and marginal openings. The ova, in one specimen, 
consisted of seven large yellowish green masses, placed 
concentrically around the bright central spot of the body, 
but which did not appear to be strictly confined to the 
divisions or cells, which, most probably, arises from some 
optical deception. It was remarkable that, in this 



specimen, the openings were situated at the margin, in the 
centre of each division. The play of colours of these 
divisions depends upon some optical phenomena yet to be 
developed. In the centre of the disc of those species 
provided with these divisions is a broad, bright, and 
polished umbilicus-like spot, which is invisible in those 
not possessing internal partitions. This species was 
found in sea water, along with the preceding. Diameter 

765. Biddulphia pulcheila. —Shell-likeloricaquadran¬ 
gular, compressed, and having three to five small obtuse 
lateral processes. Found, living, in the sea, near Cuba, 
&c., and fossil in the chalk marl of Greece. Diameter 

766. Cocconeis oceaiiica .—Shell-like lorica elliptical, 
sub-orbicular, the back slightly convex, externally marked 
by simple, curved, and concentric lines. This species is 
not undulated, nor transversely striated. Found, with 
Grammatophora oceanica, in sea water, near Callao. 
Length 1-1150 th. 

767. Coscinodiscus argus (1838.)—Shell-like lorica 
cellulose, the cells being large at the centre, and smaller at 
the circumference, the order of the rays being often inter¬ 
rupted. This is probably only a variety of Coscinodiscus 
radiatus. Found fossil in the chalk marl of Caltanisetta 
and Oran, and living, in sea water, near Cuxhaven. The 
cells of the discs from Oran vary very much in size. The 
ova are of a greenish colour in the living forms, which are 
very rare. Diameter of fossil 1-860th to 1-290th; living, 

768. Coscinodiscus eccentricus. — Shell-like lorica 
marked by small cells, which are disposed in eccentric 
curved lines. It is found in the fossil state in the chalk 
marl of Oran, in which condition, however, it is rare ; but 
in the live state it is met with abundantly in sea water. 



near Cuxhaven and Vera Cruz. Locomotion is not yet 


satisfactorily observed. Diameter l-860th to l-430th. 

769. Cosci nodiscus lineatus. —Shell-like lorica marked 
by small cells, disposed in a series of parallel and 
transverse lines. Found fossil in the chalk marl of 
Caltanisetta, and in the live condition near Cuxhaven. 
The cells in this species form parallel lines in whatever 
direction they may be viewed. In large and well-preserved 
fossil specimens as many as twenty-five openings were 
seen near the circumference. Within the live forms 
sometimes numerous yellow vesicles are seen, as in Gallio- 
nella. Diameter of fossil 1-1150th to 1-480th; living, 
1-1150th to 1-860th. 

770. Coscinodiscus minor .—Shell-like lorica with 
small scattered cells, and the whole creature small in size. 
Found fossil in the chalk marl of Caltanisetta, Oran, and 
Zante; and alive in sea water, near Cuxhaven. Diameter 


771. Coscinodiscus ocnlus-iridis. —Shell-like lorica 
marked with rather large radiant cells, except near the 
centre and circumference, where they are smaller. Some of 
the larger cells at the centre form a sort of star. Found 
fossil in the chalk marl of Greece, and alive in sea water 
near Cuxhaven. This large species is curiously marked, 
whilst under the microscope, with coloured rings, which 
are apparently caused by the peculiar arrangement of the 
cells. There are generally from five to nine large cells at 
the centre. Diameter 1-240th. 

772. Coscinodiscus patena .—The large shell-like lorica 
marked with moderately-sized cells, disposed in concentric 
circles. The cells decrease in size towards the circum¬ 
ference. Found fossil in the chalk marl of Zante, and 
alive in sea water at Cuxhaven. The young and vigorous 
specimens of live individuals are completely filled with 
yellow granules, whilst the older ones have an irregular 



yellow granulated mass within them. Diameter 1-860th 
to l-240th. 

773. Cosei nod iscus radiatus. —Shell-like lorica large, 
marked with moderately sized cells, disposed in lines, radiat¬ 
ing from the centre ; towards the margin the cells become 
smaller in size. Found in the fossil condition, very abun¬ 
dantly, in the chalk marl of Oran, and alive, in sea water, 
near Wismar and Cuxhaven. Diameter 1-860th to 1-240th. 

774. Dictyocha aculeata .—Cells arranged by sixes, in 
the form of a ring, each cell being spiny within. Spines six 
in number, long, but unequal in length, and radiating 
from the circumference. Found fossil in the chalk marl 
of Oran, Caltanisetta, Zante, and Greece; alive in the 
waters of the Cattegat, near Tjorn. Diameter of the fossil 
forms l-2304th to 1-1150th; of the living, l-1440th to 
1-1150th, without reckoning the horns. 

775. Dictyocha fibula. — Cells arranged in fours, 
in a concave rhomboid, or square form, having connected 
spiny angles. Found fossil in the chalk marl of Oran and 
Caltanisetta, and alive in sea water near Christiana. Loco¬ 
motion not observed. Diameter 1-1150th to l-560th. 

776. Dictyocha pentasterias .—Cells not present, centre 
solid and concave. Five siliceous rays are present, forming 
a sort of star. Found fossil in the chalk marl of Greece, 
and alive in sea water at Christiana. This species is 
devoid of colour, and locomotion was not seen. It resem¬ 
bles Arcella. Diameter 1-1150th. 

777. Dictyocha sirius .—Cells not present, centre solid. 
The six siliceous rays are broad or winged at the base, but 
acute at the extremity. This species is not known in the 
fossil condition, but is found alive in sea water near 
Christiana. Diameter 1-1150th. 

778. Dictyocha speculum .—Cells arranged by sixes in 
the form of a ring, spines six, long, but unequal in size, 
radiating from the circumference, cells not spiny within. 
Found fossil in the chalk marl of Caltanisetta, Oran, and 

2 F 




Greece, and alive at Kiel and Cuxhaven. In the living- 
forms the cells were filled with a soft greenish matter, 
in which vesicles and very minute granules were seen. 
Locomotion was perceptible after long observation. 
Diameter 1-860th. 

218. sulcata. — Found fossil in the 
chalk marl of Caltanisetta, Oran, Zante, and Greece; and 
living, in sea water, at Cuxhaven. 

779. Halliomma (?) radians .—External joints not 
separating, shape globose, sub-ovate; the siliceous lorica 
having holes in it, and on all sides cells radiating from the 
obscure central nucleus. Found fossil in the chalk marl of 
Greece, and alive in sea water at Cuxhaven. Locomotion 
not observable; creature crystalline. Diameter 1-560th. 

780. Navicula didymus. —Shell-like lorica striated; 
viewed from the side linear, truncated at both ends, and 
whole; viewed dorsally, constricted in the middle; both 
ends sub-orbicular, thus appearing as if formed of two discs 
joined together. In 1-100th of a line there are twenty- 
three striae. Found fossil in the chalk marl of Caltanisetta, 
and living, in sea water, at Cuxhaven, Wismar, &c. This 
species was first observed in the live condition, afterwards 
fossil, in Sicily. Similar forms are very numerous in the 
chalk marl of Greece. It is distinguished from the 
two following (N. entomon and N. gemma) by the want 
of the constriction when viewed on the lateral surface; 
on the ventral surface two green ova plates are seen, 
divided by a broad central colourless stripe. Length 
1-1150th to 1-480th. 

781. Navicula entomon. —Shell-like lorica striated when 
viewed from either surface, constricted in the centre, striae 
very broad. Found fossil in the chalk marl of Greece, 
and alive, in sea water, at Christiana. In the 1-100th of a 
line are eighteen striae; the two halves of this species ap¬ 
pear more of a long figure than a round one. Length of 
the fossil forms 1 -432nd; of the living, l-290th. 



782. Navicula folium* —Shell-like lorica ovate, turgid 
and obtuse, slightly compressed, central aperture not pre¬ 
sent, striae narrow, twenty-four being in the l-96th of a 
line. Length 1-540th. 

783. Navicula gemma. —Shell-like lorica ovato-oblong, 
large, turgid; central aperture not present; striae slender, 
sixteen being in the l-96th of a line. Found alive at the 
mouth of the Elbe. Length l-290th to 1-220th. 

784. Navicula Norwegia. — Shell-like lorica, viewed 
laterally, linear, narrow and truncated at both ends ; from 
the back, broadly ovate, and acute at the extremities; cir¬ 
cumference with a narrowly striated margin, area smooth. 
The l-96th of a line contains thirty striae. The N. prae- 
texta of the Greek chalk marl is very similar to this 
species. Found alive, in sea water, at Christiana. Length 

785. Navicula quadrifasciata.— Shell-like lorica, viewed 
laterally, narrow, linear, and truncated from the back, broad 
and acute at both ends; margin broad. “ The central fur¬ 
rows of the mouth and dorsal surface divides the central 
striated longitudinal bands into two portions, from which, 
along with the two lateral bands, four striated bands ap¬ 
pear, the two central ones being interrupted by the mouth.” 
In the l-96th of a line there are twenty stride. Found 
fossil in the chalk marl of Greece, and alive in sea water 
at Christiana; ova greenish, or rusty yellow, in the live 
creatures. Length l-430th. 

786. Peridinium pyrophorum .—Found fossil in chalk 
flints at Gravesend. Length l-560th. 

On the Locomotive Organs in some Navicula?. 

In the small pools left by the ebb of the tide near Cuxhaven, 
Dr. Ehrenberg remarked numerous little bodies, apparently 
similar to Navicula, Surinella elegans, and S. striatula, 
but which, from their comparatively very great size and 
structure of lorica, were easily distinguishable from the 

2 f 2 



latter, upon closer examination. One of these ribbed oval 
glass-like creatures, which belonged to the genus Navicula, 
was, besides its size, remarkable for its great mobility, and 
Dr. E. was enabled to investigate its system of locomotion 
much more satisfactorily than he had hitherto done in 
any of the genus. This organ he states was very dif¬ 
ferent, both in form and size, to what he had before 
noticed in that genus. Instead of a snail-like expanding 
foot, long delicate threads projected where the ribs or 
transverse marks of the shell join the lateral portion of the 
ribless lorica, and which the creature voluntarily drew in or 
extended. An animalcule 1- 18 th of a line long had twenty- 
four for every two plates, or ninety-six in the total; and 
anteriorly, at its broad frontal portion, four were visible. 
The openings for the purposes of nutrition appeared to 
be at the extremity. Whether these organs were super¬ 
numerary, and existed along with cirri, &c., and the flat 
snail-like foot, which the rest of the Navicula possess, could 
not be determined. Longitudinal clefts at the broad side 
of the shell were not present, but as many as ninety-six 
lateral openings for the exit of the cirri were perfectly 
distinct. It is probable this creature may form the type 
of a special group of the Bacillaria. Of one thing Dr. E. 
is convinced, that the Naviculae in general are very dif¬ 
ferently constituted individually; thus, in some cases, the 
six round openings in the little shell are distinctly visible, 
whilst in others clefts, which in some cases gape, and are 
unprovided with circular openings, are all that can be 
made out. 




Achnanthes . 


. 232, 428 



• • • 




. 201, 


Coiepina , 


• • • 


Coleps . 


• • • 




• • • 




• • • 



Amoebaea . 

• • • 



Amphileptus . 

• • • 




• * • 




• • • 




• • • 




• • • 


Cyclidium . 


• • • 




• • • 


Cyphidium . 


• • • 


Cyphonantes . 

Astasia . 

• • • 


Desmidium . 

Astasiaea . 

• • • 




• • • 


Difflugia . 

Bucillaria . 

• • • 


Diglena . 


• » • 




• • • 




• 0 0 




• * • 


Dinophysis . 


• • • 




• • • 




• • • 




• • • 


Distigma . 


• • • 


Doxococcus . 

Ceratoneis . 

• • • 


Echinella . 

Chaetoglena . 

• • • 




• * « 


Enchelys . 

Chaetonotus . 

• • • 




• « • 


Eosphora . 


• • • 




• • • 


Epistylis . 

Chlamidodon . 

• • « 



Chlamidomonas . 

• * • 


Eucampia . 


• • • 


Euchlunidota . 

Closterina . 

• • • 


Eucblanis . 


• • • 



Cocconeis . 


, 413 

Euglena . 
























Eunotia . 



Navicula . 

203, 434 




N oteus . 

. 410 

Euplotes . 




. . 359 





. 190 





. . 334 

Fragilaria . 





. ib. 





. . 270 





. 109 





, 434 


. . 273 

Glaucoma . 




. ib. 

Glenodinium . 




. . 304 




Ophryoglena . 

. 315 

Glenophora . 



Otoglena . 

. . 377 





. 317 




Oxy trichina 

. . ib. 





. 116 





. . 242 




Paramecium . 

. 309 





. . 185 

Himantophorus . 




. . 244 





246, 435 

Hydatina . 




. . 99 

Hydatinaea . 




. 299 




Philodina . 

. . 405 




Philodinaea . 

. 394 

Icthydium . 




. . 356 





. 282 




Podosira . 

. . 426 

Kolpoda . 



Podosphenia . 

. 225 

Kolpodea . 




. . 369 






Lacrymaria . 




. . 109 

Lagenella . 




. 287 




Pterodina . 

. . 418 




Ptygura . 

. 330 




Pyxidicula . 

. . 197 

Lithodesmium . 




. 374 

Loxodes . 




. . 396 




Salpina . 

. 386 





. . 368 

Megalotrochaea . 



Scbizonema . 

. 237 





. . 141 

Meridion . 



Spirostomum . 

• 298 





. . 186 






. 126 

Microcodon . 



Spirillum . 

. . 135 





. ib. 




Squamella . 

. . 393 




Staurastrum . 

. 184 

Monadina . 




. . 252 





. 392 






. . 343 





. 233 






. . 321 







. 366 

Nassula . 




Syncrypta . 


. . 120 

Naunema . 







. 235 




. 224 

Tubicularia . 





. 121 




. 185 

Urocentrum . 



. 219 




. 378 




. 274 



Trachelina . 

. 291 




. 292 




. 304 

Vibrio . 



. 112 




. 373 



Triceratium . 

. 426 




. 283 



Trichodina . 

. 256 

Vorticellina . 



. 282 

Xanthidium . 



. 375 



Tripodiscus . 

. 427 





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