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Vol. VIII. The glory of God if intelligence. No. § 

IMPROVEMENT 
ERA. 

Organ of Young Men's Mutual Improvement Associations. 

PUBLISHED BY THE GENERAL BOARD. 

Joseph F. Smith, ) n-rittnri! Heber J. Grant, j Business 

Edward H.Anderson \ CjUlwli >- Thomas Hull, j Managers. 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as Second-Class Matter. 

APRIL, 1905. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Altars at Copan Frontispiece 

Sunday in the New Testament Dr. Frederic Clift 401 

Ascent of Mauna Haleakala W. W.Cluff 414 

Development and Training of the Child — II Mosiah Hall, B. S. 422 

A Desert Flower — APoem J. L. Townsend 429 

The Yellow Peril as Seen in Japan Horace S. Ensign 431 

Faithful Boys Alice May Douglas 435 

Mound Builders and American Antiquities Dr. J. X. Allen 436 

Mediocrity Not Good Enough * 440 

A Mother's Letters to Her Missionary Son — III.... Susa Young Gates 441 

April— A Poem Ruth May Fox 446 

Monuments and Altars at Copan— (Illustrated) .... 447 

Speed the Message — A Poem Annie G. Lauritzen 449 

An Incident on the San Pedro Walter J. Sloan 451 

Topics of Moment 455 

Editor's Table— Temporal Affairs— Prest. Joseph F. Smith 460 

The Apostate Susa Young Gates 463 

Testimony of John W. Rigdon Fred J. & Sadie Grant Pack 465 

Questions and Answers— "Man Proposes".... 467 

Notes 469 

In Lighter Mood 471 

Events of the Month Joseph F. Smith, Jr. 473 



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Stephens' Central America. 

THREE SIDES OF ONE OF THE REMARKABLE ALTARS 
AT COPAN. (See Sketch, page 448.) 



IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Vol. VIII. APRIL, 1905. No. 6. 



SUNDAY IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 



JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN SABBATHS. 
BY FREDERIC CLIFT, M. D., OF THE BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY. 



[In a note to Dr. Clift, dated San Francisco, January 16, 1905, Elder 
Jos. E. Robinson, president of the California Mission of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, says: 

"I have read your article on Sunday in the New Testament which 
you submitted to me, with great satisfaction and interest, and think it 
will be of much worth to the missionaries, especially those who come in 
contact frequently with the 'Adventists,' who as you know, have chal- 
lenged the 'world' to show any authority for the observance of the Sun- 
day as a holy day, save the action and dictation of the Catholic church. 
In common with all protestants, they charge us, the Latter-day Saint?, 
with following the Pope of Rome in this matter, ignoring, of course, the 
revelation to the Prophet Joseph on this subject. I think your argu- 
ment a sufficient proof to the contrary, and a clear exposition of the fact 
that Sunday was the early Christian day of worship." — Editors.] 

Although in the Book of Revelation, 1: 10, it is written, "I 
was in the spirit on the Lord's day," yet it is denied by some that 
the Bible recognizes Sunday as a Sabbath. The Lord, however, 
does not leave those who seek him in spirit and in truth without 
ample witness to the facts which are necessary for their spiritual 
advancement: provided they endeavor to exercise their faculties, 



402 IMPRO VEMENT ERA . 

and search after truth and for the evidences which God provides 
in both ancient and modern revelation. 

In a previous article* it was shown that the authorized, or King 
James, translation of 1611, was the outcome of compromise; and that 
it oftentimes gives inaccurate renderings of the Greek text. In it, ref- 
erence was made to the fact that in Matthew 28:1, the Greek word 
Sabbatone, meaning "Sabbath," is used twice, being correctly trans- 
lated as "sabbath" in the first part of the verse, but incorrectly 
translated as "week" in the subsequent part of the same verse. This 
is the first direct intimation we have in the New Testament of the es- 
tablishment of a new Sabbath for Christians,but the fact is lost sight 
of because, in the words of the King James translators, "we have 
not tied ourselves to an uniformity of phrasing or an identity of 
words." This studied avoidance of uniformity in the rendering of 
the same words, even when occurring in the same context, is one of 
the chief blemishes of this version. We admit that this variety of 
rendering conduced to its happy terms of expression and musical 
cadences, but submit that it is inconsistent with the requirements 
of faithful translation. So, in this verse referred to, the euphon- 
ized term, "First day of the week," rightly understood, represents 
the exact time of the Apostolic Sabbath, but does not represent 
its Sabbatic character, and this, because of the translators studied 
avoidance of "uniformity of phrasing" and "identity of words." 

Before proceeding further, it may be helpful to state the fol- 
lowing propositions: 

1. Jesus rose from the dead on the morning of the first 
day of the week, which corresponds with our Sunday. 

2. The event is described by all four Evangelists. 

3. All four Evangelists call the day of Christ's resurrection, 
"Sabbaton." 

4. The Church of Christ has always kept the first day of the 
week as the Christian Sabbath. 

5. The earliest records state that such was the case. 

6. There is no record stating that they did not so keep it. 

7. The records show ;hat on several occasions Christ's fol- 
lowers met together on the first day of the week. 



Improvement Era, July, 1904. 



SUNDAY IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 403 

8. There is no record that they ever gathered together on 
the Jewish Sabbath. 

9. There are numerous instances in which the Lord's day, or 
first day of the week, is said to be a Sabbath. 

10. The Christian Sabbath, the Lord's day, began "very early 
in the morning." 

11. That although the Galileean fishermen and other writers 
of the Bible were inspired of God, yet there is no evidence that the 
King James translators were so inspired; on the contrary, they 
represented different and opposing religious sects. 

The question arises, what name was given by the Jews to the 
last day of the week, their seventh day Sabbath? The copy of the 
Old Testament used and quoted from by our Lord and his apostles 
was known as the Greek Septuagint in which Exodus, 20: 8, reads: 
Mneestheeti teen heemeran tone Sabbatone hagiazein auteen, "Remem- 
ber the day of the Sabbaths to hallow it." 

The Jews, therefore, knew their Sabbath as "the day of the 
Sabbaths," and when they became Christians, and the day of the 
resurrection and every recurring eighth day became their Sab- 
bath, they gave it a distinctive name, "The one of the Sabbaths,'' 
Mian Sabbatone. Mia is the Greek form of the cardinal number 
"one," and is so translated some sixty-nine times in the New Testa- 
ment. Here we have two distinct Sabbaths, the Jewish, which 
was just ending, the Christian, which was just dawning. The 
Maries had probably left their homes before light, to avoid attract- 
ing attention, and reached the sepulchre just as the sun was 
risen. 

Luke contrasts the two Sabbatical dispensations by using the 
two Greek conjunctions, men — de, thus marking a clear antithe- 
sis, saying: The women rested on the men Sabbatone, but tee de mia 
tone Sabbatone, "on the one of the Sabbaths," very early in the 
morning they came unto the sepulchre, -bringing the spices, etc., 
Luke 23: 56, and 24: 1. If these two days were not both Sab- 
baths, there could be no ground for Luke's antithesis, and if the 
two Sabbaths were alike in every respect, then neither the acts of 
the women nor the days could be set- in contrast. Luke has made 
men and Sabbatone inseparable; therefore, he spoke of two distinct 



404 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Sabbaths. On the one, the Jewish, or ante-resurrection Sabbath, 
rest was the one and only duty, and the women rested as com- 
manded. It began with the setting sun. The other, the Chris- 
tian or post-resurrection, "the one of Sabbaths" was a day of 
activity for doing good. It began with the rising sun. They 
came very early, to bring the spices they had prepared. It was a 
day for worship, seeing Christ they worship him. The phrase, 
Mian Sabbatone, "one of Sabbaths," became crystallized, and we find 
Paul, in I Cor. 16: 2, using the same words as the writers of the 
four gospels. 

Let us follow Paul to Antioch, Acts 13: 13-44. As his cus- 
tom was, he went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and the 
rulers, those in charge of the meeting, invited him to speak to the 
people. The Jews were not much impressed by his talk, but the 
Gentiles besought that these words might be preached to them the 
"Next Sabbath," Metaxu Sabbatone. Taming to the marginal ref- 
erence in King James translation, verse 42, we find an alternative 
reading for these two words, "In the Sabbath between." This is a 
correct and exact translation of the two Greek words. So, then, 
the Gentiles were aware that there was another Sabbath coming 
in between that day and the following Sabbath of the Jews. Not 
only does the word metaxu, "between," prove this, but verse 44 
agrees with the same idea, "And the next Sabbath day." The 
word translated "next" in this verse, is not metaxu, as in verse 42, 
but erchomeno, which properly means "coming," and well expresses 
the idea that the subsequent assembly was held on the day following 
the Jewish Sabbath; viz., the coming Lord's day, when almost the 
whole city came together to hear the word of God. This meeting 
was probably held out of doors in some large, open place, for the 
synagogue would not have been large enough to contain almost 
the whole city. Consider, the Gentiles had no respect for the 
Jews or their Sabbath, and had no control over their synagogue. 
Why should they ask Paul to preach to them in a building over 
which neither they nor Paul had any authority? Why should they 
wait a week? Paul was far too much in earnest to stand by, 
speechless, during seven whole davs, while the Gentiles were cry- 
ing out for the bread of life. Accordingly, it must be admitted 
that it was a meeting controlled by Christians, held by them on 



SUNDAY IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 405 

the first day of the week, the following day, the "between Sab- 
bath," and that Paul then and there preached to "almost the whole 
city." In order that there may be no misunderstanding, let us 
examine other passages in the New Testament in which this word 
metaxu occurs. They are nine in number; in six it is translated 
''between:" Matt. 18: 15; 23: 35; Luke 11: 51; 16: 26; Acts 12: 
6; 15: 9. Twice it is translated "meanwhile:" John 4: 31, and 
Romans 2: 15; but notice that in this last instance, it is rendered 
correctly in the margin as "between." Once, viz., in the text 
under consideration, it is translated "next," but with the marginal 
correction, "between." The Latins used the word "inter" when 
translating "metaxu." This word "inter" is used to express "two 
points of time between which anything occurs." To the candid 
mind, the original Greek, when thus examined, allows of no alter- 
native, there could be no room for such language, if there had not 
been another Sabbath day coming in between two Jewish Sabbaths. 

Another recorded occasion upon which the disciples came to- 
gether on the "one of the Sabbaths" was during Paul's stay at 
Troas, Acts 20: 6. It contains both positive and negative evi- 
dence. Paul, in company with seven other brethren, abode seven 
days at Troas. There is no record of any meeting being held on 
the last day of the week — the Jewish Sabbath— but we have the 
positive evidence that Paul allowed his ship to go ahead, indicat- 
ing that he had some urgent reason for staying behind, and beyond 
the day of the Jewish Sabbath. It was to break bread, to partake 
of the Lord's Supper with his followers, upon the "one of the Sab- 
baths," when the disciples came together. These words proclaim 
that it was a matter of course for them to assemble or come to- 
gether on that day to break bread. There is no statement or rec- 
ord in the New Testament of any similar Christian meeting being 
held on a Saturday. On the contrary, Paul, on this occasion, 
allowed his ship to sail and deliberately waited until after the Jew- 
ish Sabbath in order to meet with the Saints on the first day of 
the week, and he departed early on the Monday morning to over- 
take his ship. 

If Acts 16: 13, Tee te heemera tone Sabbatone, translated in- 
correctly "and on the Sabbath" instead of "and on the day of the 
Sabbaths," is quoted against this view, it will be remembered that 



406 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the apostolic mission was to the Jews first, and a reference to 17: 
2, shows that Paul's manner or habit was to visit the synagogues 
on every Jewish Sabbath day to reason with the Jews out of the 
scriptures. Common sense would lead him to go where he could 
address large bodies of Jews, who otherwise would not trouble 
themselves to come together to hear him preach the gospel. On 
this particular "day of the Sabbaths,"— Sunday— he went out of 
the city by the riverside where prayer was wont to be made. The 
Jewish Sabbath was the day for argument in the synagogues; the 
Christian Sabbath, the day for prayer, praise and baptism. Lydia, 
the seller of purple, was probably baptized in the river on this 
very Sabbath day. It being usual to baptize converts immediately 
on their believing, as instanced in the case of Phillip and the 
Eunuch. 

To those who have listened to arguments advocating Saturday 
the seventh day, and that day only, as the acceptable Sabbath of 
the Lord, it may be a surprise to be* told that Sunday, or the first 
day of the week, is called a Sabbath eight times in the New Testa- 
ment; and to those who look upon the King James Bible as an 
inspired translation, it may come as a shock to find that eight mis- 
takes have been made in this one subject alone. Other scholars 
just as competent as those selected by King James have been 
blessed with as good, if not better, facilities for translating the 
vari »us books of the Bible, and have not hesitated to correct or 
amend it. The New Testament was written in Greek, Latin being 
the chief contemporaneous language, and although the common 
use of both languages died out in the early Christian centuries, we 
have Latin copies of the Greek Testament which are extremely 
useful in proving the correctness of the meaning of disputed pas- 
sages. Thus, the Greek word baptizo is translated by the Latin 
word immergo, showing conclusively that immersion was the prac- 
tice of the early Christians. In considering or rendering these 
eight passages giving the Sabbatic character to the first day of the 
week, let us compare the Greek text, in corresponding English 
characters, with Latin, German, Swedish and English translations, 
the latter being of both recent and early date. It will be noticed 
that the King James and its associate versions are practically the 
only ones that translate Sabbatone by the words Sabbath in one 



SUNDAY IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 4U7 

place and week in another, and we may well stop and ask the 
question, why should the King James translators be looked upon 
as infallible? 

Taking these eight mistranslations in order, we find: 

(i) Matt: 28: 1. 

Green text: Opse de "Sabbatone" tee epiphoskousee eis mian 
"Sabbatone." 

Literal translation: Late but of "Sabbaths" the dawning 
into one of "Sabbaths." 

Latin translation: Vespere autem "Sabbatorum" lucescenti 
in unam "Sabbatorum." 

Tyndale's translation: (1530 A. D.) The "Sabboth" daye at 
even which dawneth the morrow after the "Sabbath." 

Cranmer's translation: (1539 A. D.) Upon an evening of 
the "Sabbathes" which dawneth the fyrst daye of the "Sabbathes." 

German translation: Am abend aber des "Sabbaths" welcher 
aubright am morgen des ersten feiertages der "Sabbathen" 

King James' translation: (1611. A. D.) In the end of the "Sab- 
bath" as it began to dawn toward the first day of the "week." 

But in the evening of the "Sabbath" which approached the 
morning of the first holy day of the Sabbaths." 

Swedish translation: Om "Sabbats" aftonen i gryningen pa 
forsta "Sabbaten." 

Danish translation: Men der "Ugen" var ude, da det lyste 
op til den f0rste [dag] i "Ugen." 

Icelandic translation: (1803 A. D.) At kvollde "Sabbaths 
dagsins" sa er hefst hinn fyrste heilagur dagur i "Sabbaths da- 
gum." 

The reader will note the similarity in each language of the 
quoted words, the only exception being in that of the King James. 

(2) Mark 16: 1. 

Greek text: Kai diagenomenou tou "Sabbatou." 

Latin translation: Et peracto Sabbatho. 

Tyndale's translation: When the Sabbath was past. 

King James' translation: And when the Sabbath was past. 

Swedish translation: Och di Sabbaten framgnngen var. 

The use of this Greek word, diagenomenou distinctly shows 



403 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

that che Jewish Sabbath had passed over or away. Dr. Young, in 
his Commentary, claims that this word indicates the passing away 
of the covenant and its Sabbath. 

Mark 16: 2. 

Greek text: Kai lian proi tees mias Sabbatone erchontai. 

Latin translation: Et valde mane una Sabbatorum veniunt. 

German translation: Und sei kamen zum grabe an Einem 
Sabbather. 

Tyndale's translation: And early in the morning, the first day 
of the Sabbaths, they came. 

King James' translation: And very early in the morning, 
the first day of the week, they came. 

Swedish translation: Och pa den ena Sabbaten. 

(3) Mark 16: 9. 

Greek text: Anastas de proi protee Sabbatone. 

Latin translation: Resurgens autem Jesus mane prima Sab- 
bati. 

German translation: Jesus aber da er auferstanden war fruhe 
am Ersten tage der Sabbather. 

King James' translation: Now, when Jesus was risen early 
the firat day of the week. 

Literal translation: Now when Jesus was risen early the very 
first of the Sabbaths. 

Swedish translation: Men nar Jesus uppst^nden var om mor- 
gonen, pa forsta Sabbatsdagen. 

The meaning of the Greek word protee is "first in dignity or 
importance," with a superlative meaning of "very first." 

Mark 12: 29. The scribe having asked— Which is the protee 
commandment of all? Jesus answered, The protee is, Thou shalt 
love the Lord thy God; this is the protee commandment. Was it 
accident that inspired Mark to use this word protee and to call the 
first day of the week the protee Sabbath? 

(4) Luke 24: 1. 

Greek text: Tee de mia tone Sabbatone. 

Literal translation: Bat in the one of the Sabbaths. 



SEND AY IX THE MAY TESTAMENT. 409 

Latin translation: At una Sabbatorum. 

King James' translation: Now upon the first day of the week. 

German translation: Aber an der Sabbather einem sehr furhe. 

Swedish translation: Pa den ena Sabbaten. 

We have already considered the antithesis which Luke sug- 
gests by his use of the Greek words, men, in the preceding verse, 
and de in this verse. 

(5) John 20: 1. 

Greek text: Tee de mia tone Sabbatone. 

Latin translation: At una Sabbatorum. 

German translation: An der Sabbather einen kommt. 

Tyndale's translation: The first day of the Sabbaths. 

King James' translation: The first day of the week. 

Swedish translation: P* den ena Sabbaten. 

(6) John 20: 19. 

Greek text: Ousees oun opsias tee hemera ekeinee tee mia 
tone Sabbatone. 

Tyndale's translation: The same day at night which was the 
first day of the Sabbaths. 

Latin translation: Existente ergo vespere die illo una Sab- 
batorum. 

King James' Translation: Then the same day at evening be- 
ing the first day of the week. 

German translation: Am abend aber desselbigen Sabbaths. 

Literal translation: In evening of the same Sabbath. 

Swedish translation: Men om aftonen p£ den samma Sab- 
baten. 

These two verse? are useful as proving that the events of the 
evening in question took place on the resurrection day, for John 
states it was the "same Sabbath." 

(7) Acts 20: 7. 

Greek text: En de tee mia tone Sabbatone. 

Latin translation: In autem una Sabbatorum. 

King James' translation: And upon the first day of the week. 

Emphatic Diaglott translation: In the first of the Sabbaths. 



410 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

German translation: Auf einem Sabbath. "Upon the one of 

Sabbaths." 

Swedish translation: P& en Sabbat. 

(8) I. Cor. 16: 2. 

Greek text: Kata mian Sabbatone. 

Latin translation: Per unam Sabbatorum. 

King James' translation: Upon the first day of the week. 

German translation:- Auf einem jeglichen Sabbather. 

Literal translation: Upon each one of the Sabbaths. (This 
shows a continuing habit of meeting on the Lord's day.) 

Swedish translation: Pa den ena Sabbaten.* 

In all these passages, except Mark 16: 9, Sabbaton is in its 
plural form. Now, either the singular or plural form would apply 
to the Lord's day Sabbath, but the plural form cannot be con- 
strued as meaning the first of the week. To say that they came 
to the sepulchre early the first of the weeks is to make nonsense. 
The word of the Lord is right, and it is but following an old rut 
of error, adopted by the King James from a contemporary Presby- 
terian version" known as the Genevan, 1557 A. D., when we render 
the same word Sabbatone, as a Sabbath of one day, in one part of a 
verse, and as a week of seven days, in another part of the same 
verse. 



* The Bible societies of England and America have translated the 
King James' version, with all its errors and imperfections, into most of 
the foreign languages of the world. Our missionaries are therefore 
cautioned to insist on translations from the original Bibles of the coun- 
try. Thus the Swedish Bible, from which the above extracts are taken, 
was published at Goteborg, in 1794, A. D., by Samuel Norberg. It is a 
copy of the original Swedish Bible, and not a translation from the King 
James' version, which, it may be added, are sold at almost nominal 
prices, and are therefore becoming generally used in foreign countries. 
Without multiplying references from other versions, it may be added that 
the old Danish Bible, printed by order of King Frederick, 1749, although it 
translates Sabbaton by the word Ugen, meaning "week," yet it is consist- 
ent, inasmuch as in Matt. 28: 1, it translates both Sabbatons as "week," 
thereby doing away with the Sabbatical character of both the Jewish 
last day of the week, and the Christian first day of the week. — F. C. 



SUNDAY IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 411 

There is another instance in which Sabbaton is mistranslated 
by the same translators. In Luke 18: 12, the Pharisee makes his 
boast and says: "I fast twice in the week." There was nothing 
to boast of in this; the Greek, however, states that he fasted twice 
each Sabbaton, which accords with the condition, for three meals a 
day was customary. 

It may be noted here that Calvin in his translation of the New 
Testament rejects the phrase, "The first day of the week," and 
renders it "One of the Sabbaths." Dr. Sutherland, in his testi- 
mony before the Senate Rest Bill Committee, in 1889, said, "The 
day on which he arose is called a Sabbath or one of the Sabbaths," 
and that the phrase, "the first day of the week," which we find 
in our English version, ought never to have been there. If any 
man will examine the original Greek text, he will see that there 
is nothing in the word about the first day of the week. (Senate 
Documents, page 53). 

The evidence is, therefore, conclusive that five of the New 
Testament writers refer to the first day of the week as a Sabbath, 
and John, in addition to his statements in his gospel, calls it the 
Lord's day. These writers were not only inspired, but were well 
able to express their thoughts in Greek, and knew that hebdomas 
was the proper word in which to express the idea of "week." That 
there is no mystery about the use of this word is proved from the 
fact that we get the hebdomadal division of time into seven days 
from this word hebdomas, "a week." The word Sabbiton is found 
some sixty-seven times in different forms, but in every instance 
the context proves that the word is used to mean a sacred day and 
nothing else. 

That this was the understanding of the early Christian fath- 
ers, from Ignatius, (who by tradition is said to have been the child 
that Jesus blessed) to Hilary, 360 A. D., is proved from their 
writings. Dr. Hessey, in his Bampton lectures, 1860, says: "The 
writers of the first two centuries from the death of Jonn treat the 
Lord's day as part and parcel of apostolic and scriptural Christian- 
ity. It was never defended, for it was never impugned, never con- 
founded with the "(Jewish) Sabbath, but carefully distinguished 
from it, not of severe sabbatical character, but of joy and cheer- 
fulness, a day of solemn feasting for the Eucharist, united prayer, 



412 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

instruction and alms-giving." He further says: "It was only 
after the third century, and even then only gradually, that the 
Christian and Jewish institutions were confused, and that tenden- 
cies toward Sabbatarianism began." 

The apostolic writers were regarded as unlearned and ignor- 
ant men, (Acts 4: 3) and we find Paul in II Cor. 10: 10, refers to 
his speech being described as "contemptible." As sectarians of 
today attack the literary ability of the Latter-day Saints, and en- 
deavor to throw ridicule upon the Book of Mormon, and the revela- 
tions of Joseph Smith, Wilford Woodruff, and others, so we find carp- 
ing critics misrepresenting and mistranslating the writings of the 
associates of our Blessed Lord. 

As early as A. D. 294, we find that Arnobius, in his defense of 
the writings of the early Christians, says: "This is a stronger 
reason for believing that they have not been adulterated by any 
false statements, but were put forth by men of simple mind, who 
knew not how to trick out their tales with ornaments. Truth never 
seeks deceitful polish, is not diminished if error is made in number, 
or case, preposition, participle or conjunction. We see you 
(Gentiles) using masculine as feminine, and those you call neuters, 
in this way and in that, without distinction; therefore, it is vain for 
you to say our works are disfigured with monstrous solecisms; you 
are involved in similar errors." (Adv. Gentis, B. I., sec. 58.) ' 

This, if it had been written subsequent to the publication of the 
King James translation, would have formed a strong indictment of 
those who, for the sake of peace, bartered away many precious truths 
when revising the work of Tyndale.the translator and publisher of the 
first English Bible from the original Greek. For, as already stated, 
the King James' version was the outcome of controversy between 
the Episcopalean and Presbyterian church systems. During the 
preceding reign of Elizabeth, Dr. Nicholas Bound, about 1595, took 
an active part in the discussion of the seventh day Sabbath 'ques- 
tion in which both the Episcopaleans and Puritans joined. Some 
ten years later, the revision of the Bible was ordered by King 
James; and although, as we have seen, Tyndale's translation of 
1530, as also the great Bible of Henry VIII, and several of the 
subsequent revisions, had rendered mia tone Sabbatone as the "first 
day of the Sabbaths," yet James, having appointed men from both 



SUNDAY IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 413 

religious parties, allowed them a free hand in settling their diffi- 
culties and in making such changes as would promote unity among 
his subjects, and conduce to the political welfare of his kingdom. 
The compromise, as facts suggest, did not hurt the Episcopaleans, 
because they relied, not so much on what the Bible said, as upon 
tradition t'nd custom as handed down to them by the Catholic 
church, —much as the Latter-day Saints of today rely on the reve- 
lation given to Joseph Smith, Sunday, August 7, 1831, in which 
the Sunday question is settled once for all, so far as his followers 
are concerned, (Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 59:9-12). On the other 
hand, the reading as found in King James was acceptable to the Puri- 
tans, or Presbyterians, inasmuch as it did not prevent those so dis- 
posed from arguing along the lines at that time, and now again, taken 
by latter-day sectarians. Consequently, both were content with a 
translation which, although fixing for those whose minds were 
rightly disposed, the time of the Christian Sabbath as the first day 
of the week, yet deprived that day of its Sabbatical character. 

For the purpose of argument, let it be admitted that the 
learned revisors of the New Testament were entitled to call the 
Christian Sabbath the first day of the week, just as it would be 
correct to call the Jewish Sabbath the last day of the week. This 
does not get rid of the fact that the resurrection day is in all 
Greek Testaments called "Sabbath." Why call the Jewish Sabbath, 
a Sabbath, and not call the resurrection day a Sabbath, when the 
same identical Greek word Sabbaton is applied to both, and used in 
the very same case and number? (Matt. 28: 1). 

Provo, Utah. 



ASCENT OF MAUNA HALEAKALA. 

MOUNTAIN OF THE "HOUSE OF THE SUN." 
BY W. W. CLUFF, MISSIONARY TO HAWAII IN 1854-58 AND IN 1864. 



This grand mountain is located on East Maui, the second 
largest island in the Hawaiian group. 

Haleakala is probably ten thousand feet above sea level, rising 
gradually, on three sides from the seashore, a distance of twenty 
to thirty miles. On the northwest side and extending from sea to 
sea, is the beautiful plain of Kahului. 

This valley, or plain, only fifty feet above sea level, is twelve 
to fifteen miles in width, and separates the high precipitous mount- 
ains of We3fc Maui from Haleakala on the east. This now fertile 
plain, for more than a thousand years past, has been the scene, per- 
haps, of a hundred bloody battles. Tne blood of tens of thousands 
of brave warriors has contributed to the enrichment of the soil. 

In this fertile valley, or plain, Mr. Glaus Spreckles, the "sugar 
king of the Sandwich Islands," owns and operates the largest 
sugar plantation in the world. 

In the top of Haleakala is the largest extinct volcano in the 
known world. The rim of the cauldron, or pit, being over twenty 
miles in circumference, and the pit itself more than two thousand 
feet deep. On the west side of this mountain, and well up its 
base, overlooking the beautiful plain and extensive cane fields 
below, is the native village of Kula. This town is renowned as 
being the place where, in 1851, Elder George Q. Cannon baptized 
the first native Hawaiian into the Church of Jesus Christ of Lat- 
ter-day Saints. 

In 1857, the writer, in company with two other elders and 
three native guides, arranged to go up to the top of this great 



A SCENT OF MA UNA HA LEA KALA. 415 

mountain and view the wonderful "palace of the sun"— the now 
slumbering, but once mighty volcano! 

Having secured good, sure-footed saddle horses, provisions, 
and a blanket each, to guard against the cold in that high and 
rare atmosphere, we started, in the early morning, on the long, 
tedious ascent. The bridle path, or trail, often leading through 
dense underbrush and creeping vines; over ancient flows of lava, 
deeply furrowed and broken and so rough and precipitous, in 
places, that, had our animals not been remarkably sure-footed, it 
might have cost us broken limbs, if not our lives. High ridges of 
this lava rock and deep rugged ravines, caused by melted lava 
flowing down from the great crater above centuries ago, had to 
be crossed. 

Wending our way slowly up and over these impediments — 
unmistakable evidences of the wonderful forces of nature, which 
had, during many ages, no doubt, built this stupendous pyramid, 
as compared with which, the greatest monuments ever erected by 
man— the "Pyramids of Egypt" and "Tower of Babel" — sank into 
comparative insignificance. 

The material used by the sublime forces of nature in the 
erection of this grand, majestic pyramid, which will stand while 
the earth continues to revolve upon its axis, were forced up from 
the bowels of the earth many miles below the bottom of the ocean, 
and which, by a chemical process known to the Master Builder, 
was dissolved to a liquid and laid, layer upon layer, until this huge 
pile had attained a height of probably ten thousand feet, and whose 
base is over one hundred miles in circumference. 

Thunder, lightning, wind and rain, have combined for ages — 
constantly bringing their united forces to bear upon its escarped 
top without any perceptible diminution. 

According to Hawaiian tradition, the great architect of this 
and similar monuments, varying, however, greatly in size, on these 
islands, was "Pele, the beautiful and powerful goddess of vol- 
canoes;" who, under the "great god Kane"' built, first, the island 
of Kauai, then Niihau, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and Maui where for 
centuries she had her "sacred abode in this great Haleakala." 

Finally, wishing still to improve on her wonderful past achieve- 
ments, she moved again to the southeast — her regular course — 



416 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

where she certainly did excel all her former work, by building the 
island of Hawaii, which is two- thirds as large as all the others 
combined. As a crowning effort she has erected on this island — 
Hawaii — three huge pyramidal monuments, either of which excel 
in height the "palace of the sun." 

In one of these she has her present abode, viz; in Kilauea, 
the largest constantly active volcano in the world. Here she now 
sits enthroned, the mightiest of all the goddesses! 

Here in the great living crater of Kilauea you may visit her 
in her new home, and where sometimes, as a very special favor, the 
goddess, it is said, will permit mortal eye to behold her royal per- 
son. 

Pele was the patron saintess of the great conqueror Ka- 
mehameha, through whose wonderful power and influence he is 
said to have gained many of hi? great victories during his wars of 
conquest and subjugation of all these islands — as one notable 
instance will prove. An army of four thousand warriors, led by an 
opposing chief, undertook to make a short cut off by an unfre- 
quented route through the mountaios, by which means he thought 
to be able to take the wary Kamehameha by surprise. Enroute, 
this army camped at the foot of the mountain of Kilauea and dur- 
ing the night a great eruption broke out, and through the flowing 
lava, and the deadening sulphur fumes, almost the entire army per- 
ished. Thus Pele vindicated the faith Kamehameha reposed in 
her. 

On the recommendation of one of the immediate descendants 
of that greatly favored warrior and king — the Hawaiian will -tell 
you — a white man, who it is well known is a true and tried friend 
of the Hawaiian people, has, on a few special occasions, been per- 
mitted to behold that wonderful goddess, arrayed in her brilliant 
queenly apparel, gorgeou.-ly bespangled with liquid fire, as she 
sometimes appears on the surface of the molten lake of Kilauea* 
at night! 

A near relative of the writer claims to have been one of those 
favored few! He describes the event and scene as follows: 

Standing on the rim of the great cauldron of Kilauea one 
beautiful star-light night, a thick vapory mist of burning sulphur 
almost, entirely hid from view the lake of seething, surging, molt- 



ASCENT OF MAUNA HALEAKALA. 417 

en lava. In bia disappointment In- appealed earnestly to her Maj- 
esty of the deep fiery pit) Bssnring bar highnnas that be bad spent 

many years, in his youth and mature manhood, among her beloved 
Hawaiian subjects, whom he had learned to sincerely love- devot- 
ing years of his life trying to do them good— that he had beheld 
with admiration her wonderful achievements, in forming and shap- 
ing those beautiful islands which he dearly loved; therefore, he 
trusted she would graciously grant him the inestimable pleasure of 
beholding her Majesty on that occasion— that he could not be 
wholly unworthy of such favor from her Majesty; he having ob- 
tained letters of recommendation from her Royal Highness, Prin- 
cess Ruth, the only surviving niece of the great Kamehameha! 

While thus imploring Pele, the sulphurous vapor slowly com- 
menced to rise, revealing the brilliant.molten lake, on whese white- 
heated, glowing surface, innumerable Nymph-like fairies went flit- 
ting and dancing along, sometimes suspended in air, then skipping 
and circling on its surface, seemingly highly delighted with their 
own fantastic movements and joyous sports. As he stood gazing 
at these gay and fairy-like dancers, he observed in the midst of 
them a commotion on the surface of the now placid lake; this 
slight disturbance sent numerous little ringlet waves which extend- 
ed out as far as the fairy group of dancers; in the centre of this 
commotion, great bubbles floated on the surface, and in the midst 
of them, a pillar of lava arose some feet in air, which, however, 
soon settled back, blending again with the liquid element; when 
lo! there stood Pele, suspended in air, a few feet above the sur- 
face, in all her regal glory; queenly in very deed! Her outer robes 
hanging in massive folds over her shoulders and down her sides to 
her feet, literally bespangled with liquid fire! Her inner garment 
being of thin white gauze, slightly tinged a lightish blue, through 
which could faintly be discerned the outlines of a most perfect 
female form, a veritable Cleopatra, as that renowned, queenly per- 
sonage appeared before Mark Antony! In her right hand she held 
a scroll. Only for a brief moment were mortal eyes permitted to 
gaze on the angelic form; the beautiful, mythical, divinity; the 
"Goddess of Volcanoes!" 

"The vapory sulphur cloud again settled down over the mol- 
ten lake, and shut out the entrancing scene!" 



418 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

The phenomena above described is produced from perfectly 
natural causes, and may frequently be seen when looking down on 
the molten lake of an active volcano, at night. The gas jets com- 
ing up through the liquid lava, from the bottom of the crater, will 
produce a disturbance and bubbling on the placid surface; accom- 
panying these gas jets is a sulphurous vapor, which, on coming in 
contact with the air, is curled and twisted into many fantastic 
shapes and forms. The glow of livid heat from the intensely 
heated lava is reflected on those vapory forms and unique im- 
ages, twisting and coloring them with all the gorgeous hues of the 
rainbow! 

What would be more natural to a mystic-minded Hawaiian 
than to imagine them spirits from the shadowy deep, — the abode 
of Pele? 

When about half way to the top of the mountain, our guide, 
pointing off to the left of our trail to a beautiful sylvan bower in 
a deep rugged ravine, said: "Down in that shady grove, according 
to ancient Hawaiian legend, the Goddess Pele was wont to come 
up out of her deep fiery abode in Haleakala, and clandestinely meet 
and woo a mortal prince of Maui, in that deep shadowy glen!" 
Because the profane lovers' clandestine meetings had become so fre- 
quent and notorious, the gods through envy and jealousy caused 
the profane and presumptuous lovers to turn to pillars of stone! 
"There," said the guide, "in that secluded spot, you can still see 
their stone statues, standing in the attitude of lovers!" "That 
winding path," said he, "will lead you down to the spot " 

Still toiling on and up, we reached the "caves" — a noted camp- 
ing place for tourists — about one mile from the top. just as the 
sun was sinking beneath the blue sea in the western horizon. It 
was a grand sight to witness the sun set from that great height. 
It was blood red, and apparently three times its normal size. 

We remained over night in the "caves." The air was light and 
rarified, and breathing was quite difficult; our blankets served us 
well that night. 

We were to start at daylight the next morning, hoping to 
reach the summit in time to see the sun rise, which is said to be 
a sight of sublime grandeur when viewed from the "palace of the 
sun"' — the mythical abode of the king of all the heavenly planets! 



ASCENT OF MAUNA 11 ALEAK ALA. 419 

Leaving our animals at the "caves," we proceeded on foot, 
the ascent being much more difficult the remaining distance. The 
writer being more eager, perhaps, than his companions, Started 
out as soon as the path wan visible, and, being I fleet walker, 
greatly out-distanced the rest of the party. 

When within half a mile of the top, on looking off on the 
ocean, I saw a dense cloud mass had formed, entirely shutting out 
a view of the sea. Looking down on this dense bank of foggy 
clouds, extending from the base of the mountain as far out over 
the sea as the eye could reach, the scene was, as I imagined, 
like the vast fields of ice and snow in the arctic regions. Looking 
off over this dreary, billowy plain, as it appeared to me from that 
great height, it did not require much strain on the imagination to 
fancy I could see the Eskimo with his dog-sled gliding over bil- 
lowy ice fields in pursuit of seals and the polar bear! While con- 
templating this dreary scene, I observed the whole cloud bank 
gradually raising and extending up the side of the mountain, 
shutting out entirely from view every object below the dense sur- 
face, thus forcing the apprehension that it might extend up to 
where I was, and shut out the entire landscape, making our long, 
tedious climbing in vain; so, I redoubled my efforts in the hope of 
reaching the summit first and getting a brief view, at least, of 
the great crater. Judge of my great disappointment, however, 
when within two or three hundred yards of the top, the dense mass 
overtook me, and I found myself completely enveloped in a great, 
thick cloud, about ten thousand feet above the world below. 

After resting a short time, I determined to grope my way 
forward and, if possible, reach the destined goal. It must be ad- 
mitted, however, that it was not without some fear, that if suc- 
cessful in reaching the top in that dense fog there was danger of 
falling over the precipice and down into that great abyss, two 
thousand feet below! The ground being faintly visible for a few 
feet around me, I decided to make the attempt, and did succeed in 
reaching the summit right at the spot where Vancouver, sixty-five 
years before, erected a rude stone monument, which was still 
standing. Kneeling at the foot of this monument, I earnestly 
implored the great Ruhr of the universe to cause the clouds to 
disperse, and permit me, his humble servant, if not unworthy, to 



420 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

behold the wonderful scene, now at my very feet, which had been 
so marvelously wrought, in ages past, through his immaculate 
laws! In the meantime the sun had arisen, though obscured by 
the fog. With the sun came a light breeze from the ocean up 
the side of the mountain; the two combined soon caused the mass 
of fog to break into great blocks, and these were wafted up the side 
of the mountain, and on reaching the crest were hurled down into 
the great chasm, where they were rolled, tumbled, and twisted by 
the currents of the air into all imaginable shapes and forms, pro- 
ducing one of the grandest, most sublime, yet most weird scenes 
that mortal eye ever beheld. 

Standing near the rude monument, and looking down into that 
vast cauldron, glimpses of which could now be seen through the 
rifts of those great blocks of rolling and tumbling clouds, my whole 
being was filled with awe-inspiring thought, wonder and amaze- 
ment. 

Hundreds of cone-shaped hills were interspersed over the 
bottom of the great crater, varying in height from three to five 
hundred feet. In the top of each of these is also a pit, or crater, 
extending well down to their base; thus they were, in fact, so 
many small craters within the greater. These numerous small 
volcanoes had evidently served as vent holes, thrown up after the 
internal forces had become so far spent that the great crater had 
ceased to overflow. 

As the fragmented clouds were being wafted through the 
great pit, on reaching these escarped pinnacles, or cone-hills, they 
would dart up their steep sides, and sweep down into their chasms, 
but were almost immediately forced up again by returning cur- 
rents. The sun's bright rays now began to penetrate the rifts in 
the now broken and torn clouds, tinting and gilding their tat- 
tered edges with silver, purple and gold; thus greatly intensifying 
the grandeur of the scene. As these gorgeously tinted clouds were 
carried by strong currents of air, they passed over and around 
these numerous small craters, — sometimes floating high and above 
their crested peaks, turning and curling into many fantastic shapes, 
some resembling huge birds of brilliant plumage. No description 
of "Aladdin's Cave" could excel the various picturesque views that 
were there kaleidoscoped in this great slumbering volcano of Hale- 



ASCENT OF MAUN A HALBAKALA. 421 

akala! The scene was indeed entrancing— a perfect "fairy land!" 

When all these clouds had dispersed or dissolved, how changed 
the scene! One could then look down into that wonderful crat«r, 
whose bottom covered an area of seven square miles, and which 
had every appearance of having but recently passed through the 
"fiery furnace." 

The sun, now unobstructed, poured his scorching rays down 
into the deep chasm, reflecting a shimmering on the darkened 
scoria, or volcanic ash, of which the whole interior is composed. 
The scene was one of desolation and death, not a living thing — 
animal or vegetable — to relieve the dreariness; solitude was su- 
preme; while grand, it was weird and awe-inspiring. 

In contemplating this now dead and slumbering, mighty vol- 
cano, whose fires had been extinct perhaps for ages, and calling 
up in the mind a time when it was active, and this great cauldron 
was a sea of liquid fire, the mind of man is incapable of conceiving 
the vastness of the wonderful forces which could produce such 
stupendous results! 

Death, with all its solemnity, now reigns supreme; fire did iU 
work effectually; every gas or other element that fed it was ex- 
hausted; hence it must have died out from natural causes. 

It is claimed, we believe, by astronomers, that our moon is a 
"dead planet;" if that be true, then it must have been consumed by 
fire; certainly no other destructive element could produce such a 
result! 

Death, in all its forms, is always sad and solemn. In looking 
upon the death scene in Haleakala, where the life went out centu- 
ries ago, even now, in contemplating the vast wastes of desolation, 
still lying silent and slumbering, the mind is tilled with com- 
miseration and the eye sheds a silent tear! solitude — thou art 
sublime! death — thou art solemn! Silence and sadness fill the 
human heart while gazing upon the mighty and dead volcano of 
Haleakala! 

Coalville, Utah. 



DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING OF THE 
CHILD.* 



BY MOSIAH HALL, b. s., d. b, ph. m., PROFESSOR OF EDUCATION, 
BRIGHAM YOUNG COLLEGE. 



II. 
PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

How to unite justice and love in the rearing of the child, is the 
problem confronting the parent. If sufficient freedom is granted the 
little one, many violations of law will inevitably occur; and these 
will offer an opportunity for teaching it sensible conduct. The 
toddling child must learn that fire burns, needles prick, and falls 
bruise. It must discover that stairways are dangerous places, and 
that the front steps must be descended with caution. As the 
child experiments and gains experience, many occasions will be 
afforded for sympathizing with it in its misfortunes. Every child 
has a pathetic faith in its mother's ability to kiss away a hurt, or 
to soothe a wound; but in this expression of affection, there 
should be no giving way to sentimentality or hysterics. Not every 
complaint of the child should be noticed; not every time it falls 
should it be lifted up; nor should every tear it sheds be wiped away. 
Let the parent remember that bumps and bruises and bloody noses 
are the price paid for courage and self-control. Everyone admires 
the brave child, able to take care of itself and to endure pain 
when necessary, but pities the petted child that is timid and 
afraid and unfit to be trusted anywhere. 

A good lady around the corner reared her little boy with great 
care, never permitting him to leave the yard, or to play with the 

* Copyright, 1905, by Mosiah Hall. 



DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING OF THE CHILD. 423 

"bad" children of the neighborhood. When be was five years of 
age, he was unable to take care of himself. The first time he got 
out of the yard, he fell into the ditch and was almost drowned. 
At another time he was bitten by a dog. < »ri" day a DOJ half as 
large as he, slapped him in the face. Ho was so timid that he 
could not be sent on an errand, and he was so afraid of the <<ther 
boys that he dared not go alone to the kindergarten or Sunday 
school. Imagine the torture this boy will endure when he first 
goes "swimming with the boys" and is compelled to "duck all 
over." 

Another parent, when his three-year-old child exhibited an 
unquenchable desire to investigate the water, in a canal near by, 
waited until the little one crawled to the middle of the plank that 
spanned the stream and dipped its hands into the water, and then 
gave the plank a twist, plunging the child into the stream. After 
letting it flounder and struggle along for a rod or two, the half- 
drowned youngster was rescued. Needless to say, the child from 
this time forth knew the danger of water and could be trusted 
near it. 

The child of a neighbor began holding its breath whenever it 
was hurt or was denied anything it wanted. This became so bad 
a habit that on the slightest provocation, it would scream, hold its 
breath, turn black in the face and almost suffocate. The poor parent 
dared not let the child go out of her sight, and the constant strain 
and worry drove her almost to distraction. After a year or two 
the child grew out of the habit, but a younger child began to hold 
its breath. The parent, fortunately, had learned how to treat this 
behavior, and on the first occurrence, the little one's head waa 
plunged into cold water. A day or two later it attempted to re- 
peat the performance; but as it was being carried to the tub. it 
quickly recovered its breath, and begged to be let down. So far 
as known, it breathed normally ever after. 

The activity of the child must have something with which to 
be employed. Many toys and simple objects must therefore be 
provided. Home-made toys and articles easily procured are, on 
the whole, the best. A large block of wood, a hammer, and a box 
of nails, will keep a boy employed for hours; and he will at the 
same time gain valuable experiences. A load of sand in the back 



424 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

yard is worth an armful of expensive toys. A place in the yard 
in which to build a doll-house for the little girls, is almost indis- 
pensable. The older children should be taught to make playthings 
for the younger ones, and to assist them in their games. For 
teaching the child games and systematic play, the value of the 
kindergarten cannot be too highly emphasized. Every child should 
have at least a year's training in this child's paradise. No other 
year of its life could possibly be so valuable to the child as the 
year spent in the kindergarten. Play is the child's work, and the 
more completely it lives its life of play, the better it will be pre- 
pared to do the work of life. In play, perception, fancy, imagi- 
nation, and action, all develop naturally; and until these are exer- 
cised, the higher powers of judgment, emotion and will, cannot ex- 
ist The child must play with the neighbor's children, good and 
bad — possibly not so much with the bad ones. They are children 
with whom it will associate. It will attend school with them, and, 
later, do business with them. It must, therefore, grow up with 
them; and it should learn how to appropriate the good in them, 
and how to reject the evil. Not by keeping temptation and evil 
entirely from the child, will it grow morally strong. So long as 
the child does not regard the bad boy as a hero to follow, but 
owing to right training and good example at home, looks upon him 
with pity or as one to be shunned, no harm can come from the 
association. Opposition is necessary to develop strength; and 
contact with a character opposite to its own may be the means 
needed by the child to stimulate growth in its own character. 

In the daily work of the home, many opportunities will be 
offered for teaching the lessons of justice. A little tot, full of 
curiosity, reaches up onto the table and gets the tooth-picks and 
scatters them over the floor. The mother, if she follows the usual 
custom, slaps the little one, and grumblingly picks up the tooth- 
picks herself. If, instead, she said quietly, "I'm so sorry! my little 
girl will have to work fast to pick them all up before dinner is 
ready," undoubtedly the child would gather them up. Thus, a val- 
uable lesson would be learned and a disagreeable scene be avoided. 

Two little girls take their dolls into the parlor, and in cutting 
and fitting the dolls' dresses, they make a litter all over the car- 
pet. Again, the custom is to box their ears and send them crying 



DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING OF TEE t'UIUh 425 

from the room while the patient (?) mother or house maid tidies 
the room. Now, if no scolding or punishing were done, but if the 
girls were required to restore the room to order, they would soon 
learn to be tidy and careful; they would respect the mother's 
judgment, and much future trouble would be BTOided 

A boy rushes onto the porch and into the kitchen and leaves 
his muddy tracks behind on the newly cleaned floors. The logical 
punishment is to have him get the mop and clean up the marks. 
Before going into the yard to play, a little girl is told to change 
her white apron; but she forgets, and before long comes in with 
the apron soiled. She should be required to wash and iron it; and 
if she cannot do this properly, when she wears it, it will be a con- 
stant reminder of her carlessness, and a lesson will be impressed 
upon her which she will never forget. A boy is careless and loses 
his new pocket knife; he should go without one until he earns 
money enough to purchase another. A child goes up town to 
spend some money, and buys the first thing that attracts her at- 
tention—a foolish jumping-jack. She returns in great glee, but 
the other children laugh at her for being so simple; and soon the 
toy is broken and worthless. This experience itself is sufficient 
punishment. In like manner much of the home training and disci- 
pline of children may be conducted. A boy may be taught that 
money foolishly spent must be re-supplied by himself, or he must 
go without, that recklessness in the use of liberty causes its with- 
drawal, that tardiness produces loss of opportunity and of pleasure, 
that dishonesty brings unrest, and that lying causes loss of respect. 
He may learn also that the reward of labor is peace and plenty, 
that unselfishness has many friends, that sympathy begets affec- 
tion, and that loving service brings happiness. 

The parent should allow the child to assist in the home in 
every way possible. A little girl may be taught to place her 
clothes away neatly and to be orderly with her playthings. She 
may soon learn to dust the chairs, brush up the crumbs, help set 
the table, wash and dress the younger children, and when she is 
older, she can sweep the rooms and make the beds. She will de- 
sire, at an early age, to knead bread and iron clothing, and she 
should be permitted to do so as soon as possible. Proffered help 
refused begets coldness and idleness, but service offered and re- 



426 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ceived begets confidence and affection. If the parent is wise, when 
the girl becomes a young woman, she will be useful instead of being 
merely ornamental. 

The father should also accept the help proffered by his little boy. 
There is much that the child can do on the farm or in the work- 
shop, and he will be proud of his ability to help his papa. He can 
run errands, carry tools, hold boards when they are to be sawed 
or nailed, pile the wood; put the yard in order, hold the horse, and 
feed the calf. If the father will praise his "little man" now and 
then, there will be nothing within reason which the child will not 
do for him. A boy reared in this way will become an industrious 
youth, who will not need to be whipped to do his chores. When 
the boy becomes older, he should have some share in the products 
of his labor and should be given some responsibility. A calf or 
colt might be given him to raise for himself. He might be allowed 
to cultivate an acre of ground to furnish his pocket money, or he 
might be given a share in some of his father's investments. At 
all events, he must be given some opportunity of earning his spend- 
ing money that he may avoid begging it from his father or cajol- 
ing it from his mother. This will tend to make the boy self de- 
pendent, teach him the value of money and labor, and help him to 
develop into a manly man. Most cases of theft of money by chil- 
dren arise from the fact that no way is provided for earning the 
money needed for purposes of spending. Usually the child is given 
a stingy sum in a grudging manner, or else is provided with too 
liberal a supply; and in either case, the outcome is lamentable. 
Above all he must be taught to work. Even though the parent is 
wealthy, the fact must be impressed upon the youth that labor is 
honorable, idleness dishonorable. The world owes no one a living, 
and nobody is too good to labor. Seldom should a child be paid 
money for performing some act of kindness or for running errands. 
The parent who buys the services of his child will awaken some 
day to discover that the affections of his little one are lost. Could 
a knife stab with a deeper wound than this remark from a big, 
overgrown boy, who when asked to do some simple errand, replies, 
"I won't, unless you give me a quarter." Equally pervertive of 
every good impulse in the child is the pernicious custom of giving 
a material reward for some moral or spiritual act. A little girl 



DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING OF Till-: CHILD. 427 

goes up town to spend her money, but meets a poor little ragged 
child and gives it the money. A little boy takes off his coat and 
wraps up his little sister, while h«> himself shivers with the cold. 
A little girl comes home from school with a fine orange which she 
has saved all day for mamma. This admirable conduct loses most 
of its value for character, if the parent, following the usual cus- 
tom, exclaims "You dear, unselfish child, here is a dime for your 
kindness!" How much more appropriate it would be, if in each 
case the child had been rewarded by a kiss or a caress, while the 
parent remarked: "How pleased I am with your conduct! I hope 
my child will always be so kind!" Think of the insult of offering 
a man five dollars for risking his life to stop a runaway,or to save 
a person from drowning! Yet so prevalent is the custom of esti- 
mating spiritual deeds in terms of money, that many people act as 
though the joys of heaven are for sale and can be purchased. The 
reward of effort is peace and contentment; the reward of doing 
good, joy and satisfaction; the reward of love is love — "Of such is 
the kingdom of heaven." 

The value of song and story in developing the feeling phase 
of consciousness must not be overlooked. Music has a powerful 
influence over sympathy and emotion. Happy is the home where 
music and song are found! where parents and children sing together, 
there a spirit of love will abide. Music is the great purifier of 
souls. It expels evil spirits when prayer is sometimes powerless. 
Next to the great Comforter, it is the greatest comfort we possess. 

And what shall be said of the story in developing the feeling 
and affection of the child? The child's being is set to rhythm. 
There is measure and swing in its heaving breast and in its beat- 
ing pulse. Its whole organism keeps time to the rhythm of the 
universe. The child, therefore, instinctively loves the lullaby and 
the nursery rhyme. When restless, the lullaby is the best medi- 
cine to soothe it to sleep; when awake, the nursery rhyme is a 
never failing joy. A little later, the story and the myth have for it 
a wonderful fascination. Who has not seen a rough, active boy 
leave his play to come to his mother's knee to listen to some 
wonderful tale? The world's classic stories should be in every 
household. Chief among these should be an illustrated book of 



428 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Bible stories. The tale of the Christ child especially appeals as 
nothing else does to the heart of the little one. 

Some of the best fairy stories such as Beauty and the Beast, 
Cinderella, The Three Bears, Little Red Riding Hood, The Diamonds 
and the Toads, King Midas and The Little Match Girl should be 
familiar to every child. The story is the natural, and often the 
most effective means of arousing sympathy and teaching morality. 
"Thou shalt not swear" may have little effect upon a careless boy, 
but the story of The Diamonds and the Toads may impress him so 
thoroughly that the desire to use choice language will never pass 
from him. Many Greek and Norse myths may be used also with 
excellent results. Following these, Greek and Roman heroic tales 
will furnish excellent material for the youth who is passing through 
the heroic age in his own development. Then tales of exploration 
and settlement in our own country may be appropriately used, to- 
gether with stories like Black Beauty, Robinson Crusoe and other 
stories of adventure. About this time, biography will be appre- 
ciated, and should be liberally supplied. The Autobiography of 
Franklin, the biographies of Washington, Lincoln and many 
others should be read. The study of biography gives an admirable 
preparation for the study of history which should be a source of 
delight and profit during the remainder of life. Paralleling this 
course in literature should be another on nature study and science, 
designed to awaken in the child a love for nature and an under- 
standing of her laws. Fortunately the school is an invaluable aid 
in awakening a love for good reading; but too often the school has 
this labor to perform alone, because the home is not provided with 
suitable books for children, and because the parent has never cul- 
tivated the art of story telling and of reading. The use of books 
is one of the greatest means that may be utilized in developing and 
educating the child. Books cultivate both the judgment and the 
sympathy, and may be relied upon to imbue the young with those 
ideals of life which are essential to success. 

This is a practical age, an age in which the knowing phase 
of consciousness has eclipsed the feeling — where the intellect has 
subdued the heart. But, unless sympathy and affection are culti- 
vated, nothing is beautiful or loveable, and life is not worth the 
living. The intellect is cold and colorless, and when developed 



A DESERT FLOWER. 429 

alone,it generates a frost which chills the soul; the will of itself is 
reckless and foolhardy and cannot be trusted; but when love unites 
the two, then there is strength and beauty, efficiency and har. 
mony, and love is allotted her rightful place— queen of the soul's 
household. 

The conclusion is therefore inevitable, that if intelligent, lov- 
ing parents rear their child so that harmony is maintained in 
his developing consciousness, and due regard is had for justice and 
love, the child cannot fail to become an intelligent, active, loving, 
person, an honor to his parents, to himself, and to his Creator. 



Logan, Utah. 



THE END. 



A DESERT FLOWER. 
(For the Improvement Era.) 



All life has language of its own 

When earnestly we seek; 
The inmost thoughts of life are known 

When heart to heart we speak! 

This little wild flower at my feet, 
With bright and fragrant cheer, 

One little spot has made more sweet 
By humbly growing here. 

Though modest and unknown to fame 

Here on its desert mould, 
The poet in his rambles came 

To learn its heart of gold. 

And heart to heart it whispered true, 

So well I understand 
What nature brings within my view 

And hearing in the land, — 



430 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

The little tale of simple worth 

That I have written here, 
That e'en the soul of humblest birth 

May gain from it some oheer: 

"For many a century my race 

Has looked up at the sky, 
To grow and bloom in beauty's grace, 

To cast its seed and die. 

"And with recurring seasons here, 

We face the golden sun, 
To never fail from year to year 

In duty ably done. 

"For my Creator gave me one — 

One only thing to do — 
And when his labor I have done 

My task in life is through. 

"I cannot be the butterfly 

That visits oft my bower, 
I cannot like the bee descry 

The nectar of the flower. 

"Yet I am what his hand made me, 

Contented here to stay: 
The good Lord can all things foresee, 

He planned for me my way!" 

Sweet flower, thy lesson I recall, 

To set my heart at rest: 
The good Lord ruleth over all, 

His way is always best! 

And though my lot in life is cast 

As humbly as thine own, 
'Tis well! Life's span will soon be passed, 
Its purpose fully known! 

J L. Townsend. 
Fayson, Utah. 



THE "YELLOW PERIL" AS SEEN IN JAPAN. 

BY HORACE S. ENSIGN, PRESIDENT OF THE JAPAN MISSION OF THE 
CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OP LATTER-DAY SAINTS. 



On May 16, 1904, a conference of the representatives of the 
various religious sects of Japan was held in Tolrio, the purpose of 
which is defined in the following: 

The war in which Japan is now engaged is one on the issue of which 
depends the welfare of the empire and the peace of the East. At such 
a time it is, therefore, our duty as a people not only to be one among 
ourselves, in the defense of our common rights, but also to be gov- 
erned by such principles as are worthy of an enlightened nation. Thus 
also shall we best further the purpose declared in the imperial rescript: 
"To promote the pacific progress of our empire in civilization; to 
strengthen the ties which bind it in friendship to other states; and to 
secure the permanent peace of the East." 

Since the outbreak of war, the resolute attitude of the nation and 
the success that has attended the operations of the navy, have called 
forth, in both Europe and America, many expressions of sympathy. But 
it is a matter of much regret to us that there are those abroad who are 
seeking to alienate from Japan the feelings of the West, by representing 
the war as simply one between races, and in some cases as a conflict in 
which Russia stands for Christianity and Japan for Buddhism. Equally, 
also, is it a cause of regret that instances are reported of an exhibition 
of an anti-foreign spirit on the part of narrow-minded men in 
Japan; and of a readiness to make use of what presents itself to 
them as an opportunity to advance, by means injurious to others, the 
interests of their own religious faith. These facts lay a special respon- 
sibility upon the representatives of men of all religions in the empire. 
While it is the duty of all such to guide the people in the matters of relig- 
ion and to inculcate love of country in a manner accordant with their own 



432 . IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

faiths and consciences, it is also the duty of all to cultivate the great 
principles of peace and love, not in the interest of any one creed or cult, 
but rather for the benefit of all men. More particularly they should 
endeavor to make it clear abroad that the war is not a conflict of race 
against race or religion against religion, but one entered into solely for 
the rightful interests of Japan; aiid at home, while every proper means 
to bind the-whole nation together as one man in its contest to secure an 
honorable peace, they should be forward in efforts to discountenance any 
spirit of extreme nationalism or of animosity between religions. 

For the accomplishment of these ends, and to afford the rep- 
resentatives of the several sects an opportunity to express them- 
selves, the meeting was held. The Rev. Mr. Seiram Ouchi (Buddhist), 
during his remarks, said: 

The "yellow peril" is applicable to the Mongols, and not to the Jap- 
anese. The Japanese,having assimilated Western civilization, are not a 
good representative of any "yellow peril,'' while the Russians, being the 
descendants of the ancient Mongols, should be feared by the powers. 

In connection with the above and with the numerous articles 
that have been written on the "yellow peril," the following, which 
is from the pen of Mr. Jehei Hashiguchi, a man of note and influ- 
fluence here, and which was recently published in the Taiyo (The 
Sun), the oldest and best magazine in Japan, published in the in- 
terest of international peace and prosperity, is very interesting: 

When a race is completely dominated by another, the former must 
necessarily suffer humiliation if they refuse to submit to the dictation 
of the latter. Thus the Poles, the Finns, and other small races, are un- 
der constant humiliation at the hand of the dominant Russians. Not 
that they are undergoing physical pains, but they are subject to mental 
tortures. The American Indians have not been on the whole physically 
maltreated. On the contrary, the Indians of today are provided for 
their tribal existence by the United States government. But, to be 
taken care of by the intruding races, while one's own fatherland is run 
by the intruders at one's expense, is a thing that no race of men of in- 
dependent spirit can endure. The Indians are not wholly devoid of this 
spirit of independence. So, occasionally, they make demonstrations of 
hostility against the dominant races. 

The talk of the yellow peril a few years ago, started by the Ger- 
man emperor, is now again revived by the association of ideas on ac- 
count of the war between Russia and Japan. It is revived by the Rus- 



THE "YELLOW PERIL" AS SEEN IN JAPAN. 

sians and the pro-Russian press, who jump at the conclusion that the Japa- 
nese victory will be a yellow peril for the European races, because the 
Japanese are yellow men. This broad, general conclusion is open to 
criticism. But it must be, nevertheless, admitted, that what the Rus- 
sians and the pro-Russian press vaguely apprehend, is not altogether 
without foundation. There will be peril for the Russians if the Japanese 
triumph, let the peril be yellow or white or any other color. History 
repeats itself; and the record the Mongolians have made in the thirteenth 
century, in spreading the yellow peril among the European races, is a 
sufficient reason for the latter to apprehend the recurrence of this yellow 
peril in the twentieth century. The manners and customs of a race 
change with time, but the inherent characteristics of the race will 
never do so. So, whereas the Mongolians of the thirteenth century 
terrorized the Europeans with barbarous methods, they, beaded by the 
Japanese, will repeat today those acts with civilized methods. 

This will be inevitable, because the struggle for existence is the 
law of nature. Besides, the prejudices between the Mongolian and Cau- 
casian races are very deeply rooted in the hearts of both parties, so that 
they are very much in the way of any mutual understanding. They are 
largely concealed; but, nevertheless, they exist. The sympathy of the 
Occidentals for the Orientals, vice versa, is a superficial thing. Both 
the races are masked on this point. But this mask will disappear just 
as soon as the serious consideration of the racial differences is brought 
home. For instance, the sympathy for the Japanese, no matter how loudly 
clamored, is not based on a ground other than that the Japs are small 
and plucky, while the Russians are big and strong. The American peo- 
ple are looking at the present life and death struggle of the Japanese 
against the Russians as if they were enjoying the show of a prize fight. 
The champion prize fighter does not receive so much sympathy and ap- 
plause from the audience as does the dark horse who suddenly springs 
upon the stage and defeats a recognized champion. But this new cham- 
pion must necessarily meet in due time the same fate as his predeces- 
sor. It is human nature to sympathize with the small and weak. But 
when this small and weak grows up to be big and strong, this sympathy 
will change to jealousy, then to hatred. And when the Japanese grow 
up to be so great and strong that they can defeat any one nation on the 
face of the globe, it is very likely that the American people, at least, 
will get tired of Japan and the Japanese, and even occasionally evince 
from their hearts hatred of their former loved ones. The hereditary 
racial differences will be brought home for consideration. The Ameri- 
can people will finally recover from the fascination of the wonderful 



434 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Japs. Then what shall the Japs do? Or what will they do? Will they 
renounce all their power and humiliate themselves for the sake of re- 
gaining the Americans' love? Most certainly not. No. On the con- 
trary, they will say to the Americans, "Go away and sit down, while I 
will show you how to juggle." 

The Western historians are apt to assert that the Asiatic races are 
at the mercy of the Europeans. This assertion is nothing but a bold state- 
ment. The history of the Asiatic races dates back farther than that of 
the European races. In it there were many a rise and fall of one race or 
another. The experiences of the forefathers who at one time or another 
thought they were the only dominant races of the world, are recorded 
in the characteristics of the present Asiatics. When Japan's victory in 
the present struggle becomes a certainty, it will inspire her sister na- 
tions to uprise against the psychological domination by the Europeans, 
to which they were so long subjected. The Chinese — the seemingly in- 
capable of progress — are nob wood nor stones, but men. When they 
awake from their long slumber, they will regain the prestige of their 
forefathers. The Koreans, the Siamese, the Hindoos, and the Fillipinos, 
who are at present considered to be ineligible quantities, when combined 
under the hegemony of the Japanese, will become formidable allies of the 
latter. Should all these rise and urge Japan to lead them against the 
European races, Japan cannot but satisfy their desire. 

The pitched battle between the Orient and the Occident will be un- 
avoidable, however highly it may be desired to avoid it. Compromise 
will be impossible, until one side or the other yield to the superior force. 
On this subject the Western observers are very likely to assert that the 
resources of the Orient can stand no comparison with that of the Occi- 
dent, and that the issue of the contest will be in favor of the latter. But 
unless the Orient is annihilated, at a given period in the near future, it 
is capable of improvement. As the Occident improved itself in an olden 
time, by the methods borrowed from the Orient, so the latter will to- 
day imitate its own imitator in improving itself. The Occident has al- 
ready played its role long enough. It is now the Orient's time to shine. 

This seems to be nothing but fair play. But the struggle for su- 
premacy is a thing that cannot be decided without the charge at the 
point of the bayonet. The civilized weapons upon which the Occidental 
races are reposing their reliance are only good when they are employed 
by the proper persons to use them. The elements of personal courage 
and of individual originality have so far proved to be of great import- 
ance on the part of the Oriental Japs. They wiW play a more important 
part in the future when the civilized weapons of the Occident are gener- 



THE "YELLOW PERIL" AS SEEN IN JAPAN. 

ally adopted by Japan's Oriental neighbors. The methods of producing 
these weapons have already been thoroughly learned by Japan. It only 
remains for her to develop what she has learned. The Orientals, when 
their sinews wax strong, under the careful nursing by Japan, will oblige 
Japan to lead them in invading the dominions of the Caucasian races, 
for the double purpose of military and civil conquests. For the military 
purpose, four million of troops can be raised out of China's four hundred 
millions. When trained by the Japanese officers, the four million 
Chinese troops will make an army sufficient by Itself to defeat the com- 
bined forces of the Europeans. For the civil purpose, the Japanese 
statesmen will be in respect all the better qualified to administer the 
state affairs of Europe, as well as those of Asia. The tyranny of the 
rulers under which the Poles, the Finns, and other small races in Europe 
are suffering will be a thing of the past. The political dishonesty to 
which the Western states are subjected will be wiped out, and the world 
will be brought nearer to a state of perfection for the benefit of all 
classes of people. 

Tokio, Japan. 



FAITHFUL BOYS. 



There is a greater demand for faithful boys than for smart boys. 
There is nothing that one more appreciates in one under him than faith- 
fulness. I once heard a gentleman say that he asked a friend why ha 
paid his secretary such a very large salary when he could secure one for 
a much smaller sum. He replied that he could secure one for a less 
amount, but not one who would do the work as did this one. "When 1 
am gone." said the friend, "everything goes on just as if I were here.'- 
Now if this secretary had been smart, rather than faithful, his employer 
might not have been able to say of him what he did. He might have 
been obliged to have said, "I can't leave him, for when I'm gone he tries 
to run matters to suit himself and to improve upon my methods, and it 
is not a partner that I want, but a secretary." 

Where one succeeds because of his smartness, ten succeed because 
of their faithfulness.— Alice May Douglas. 



MOUND BUILDERS AND AMERICAN 
ANTIQUITIES. 

BY DR. JAMES X. ALLEN. 



There are two subjects which necessarily attract the attention 
of investigators into American antiquity; namely, the architecture 
revealed, which differs so materially from that of modern times, 
and the numerous and very large artificial mounds that are found 
scattered over such a vast extent of country. The architecture is 
admitted by all writers on the subject to be archaic; that is, of an 
ancient and a lower order. • 

The first requisite in building is stability, which is strongly in 
evidence, not only in America, but very much so in both Egypt and 
Asia, in all old ruins. The second requisite is utility, and there is 
no doubt but the ancient American builders knew very well what 
their necessities were, and they planned accordingly. The third 
requisite, though not absolutely so, is beauty, which does not seem 
to have occupied the attention of the former builders to anything 
like the extent that is manifest in more modern times. Beauty 
does not seem to have been a prominent feature in the masonry of 
any of the extinct civilizations. 

The American ruins remind one, to some extent, of the feudal 
strongholds of Europe, before the days of gunpowder and cannon ; 
every castle and palace was a fort. They were built more for de- 
fense against an invading foe, than for the convenience and com- 
fort of family life. Another thing which strikes us moderns is the 
absence of the arch; that is, the semi-circle or a segment of a cir- 
cle. Of course, there are arches of a kind, but it is doubtful if 



MOUND BUILDERS AND AMERICAN ANTIQUITH 

one royal or Roman arch has been found upon this continent that 
was not erected by Europeans. 

In Bancroft's work (vol. 4, page 28) there is a description an«l 
a cut of a perfect arch in Nicaragua, which the American histo- 
rian seems to doubt the truthfulness of, and a foot note declares it 
to be a "pack of lies." The statement ia made there that the 
author of the account never saw the building; and th** further 
statement that he signed a fictitious name; so that the account is 
more than doubtful. Then, again, on page 451, there is an account, 
and a cut, of a building with a Roman arch, in Vera Cruz, which, 
Mr. Bancroft says, "has a very suspicious look." The building 
most likely was erected by the Spanish invaders. 

It, to us, seems strange that the builders of all extinct civil- 
izations should have ignored the beauty and convenience of the 
arch, of which the Romans made such abundant use. The Roman 
engineers availed themselves of the grace and beauty of the arch, 
and at the same time were provident of both- labor and materials in 
the construction of their highways and aqueducts. The highways, 
hundreds of miles in length, and the great water courses, built by 
the old inhabitants of the country, could have been built by the 
Romans, by constructing archways, with a considerable saving of 
material and labor. There was never a time when the very best 
samples of the arch were not present with mankind. The great 
Architect of the universe, always and at all times, has made use of 
it. There never was a man without a head, and never a head that 

was not arched. 

What would become of our brains and intellects, were our 
skulls shaped otherwise than as they are? Fractured skulls 
and concussions of the brain are common enough as it is, but no 
other shape could possibly be given to our heads which would give 
us the same immunity from disaster as the one with which God 
has blest us. Then, again, the arched ribs protect the most vital 
of our organs-the heart, lungs and liver. The doorways, not 
only in American antiquity, but also in all extinct world poWtTB, 
were pyramidal. There were stone door posts inclining towards 
each other, and capped with a large stone, or the sides of the 
doorway were constructed of overlapping stones converging to a 
point etc In most cases a lintel was placed for safety across 



438 IMPRO VEMENT ERA . 

these rude arches; of course, some doorways were rectangular. 
In Egypt, not one large stone arch, built by man, has been 
unearthed. True, rock tombs have been found with arches cut out 
of the solid rock, but none that were built. A few small brick 
arches have come to light, showing that the ancients were not ig- 
norant of the principle of the arch. The same state of things ob- 
tains in Asia; crude arches similar to those found in America; but 
no Roman arch, that I have read of. 

It is true that the word, arch, occurs frequently in Babylon- 
ish writings; but the word does not indicate the Roman arch. For 
instance: Rollin, (page 108) in the description of the temple of 
Bel: "In these different stories were many large rooms, with 
arched roofs supported by pillars." Evidently they were not seg- 
ments of a circle, or the pillars would have been superfluous. 
Again, from the same page: "On the top of the arches were first 
laid large flat stones, sixteen feet long, and four broad." A long 
flat stone would not be necessary as a lintel for the segment of a 
circle. 

Again, in the Americanized Encyclopedia Britannica, (page 465) 
"There was no arch in Assyria to span an opening too wide for a 
stone beam." It should be remembered that Assyria and Babylonia 
and Chaldea may all refer to the same location, as the name varied 
according to the location of the seat of government. 

I think that enough has been said to show the great similar- 
ity existing between the architecture in America and that of an- 
cient Babylonia. But it may be as well to use a quotation from the 
last named volume, (page 472). Mr. J. L. Stephens says: "Heard 
of and tracked out in the forests of Yucatan, the remains of a by- 
gone time, exhibited in sculptural and architectural monuments of 
a coarse character, affording a strange counterpart to those which 
Mr. Layard describes as having existed in and about the valleys of 
the Tigris and Euphrates." Speaking of Peru, the writer says : 
"The cromlechs are not covered merely by flat stone, but are rude- 
ly domed over by overlapping stones," the crude arch of the an- 
cients. The last page quoted speaks also of the artificial mounds 
on which the edifices are erected. 

I now wish to say a few words about these artificial mounds 
Quoting from the same work, (on page 457) and under the head of 



MOUND BUILDERS AND AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 439 

"Assyrian Architecture:" "The structures were built usually on 
artificial mounds and are approached, it is supposed, by great 
flights of steps." 

I do not know of any one who has made any positive state- 
ment as to the purpose of these mounds on our continent. It 
seems more than likely that they were used in great part as forti- 
fications against marauding bands or troublesome neighbors. It 
is certain that in hand to hand conflicts, the occupants of the 
mound would have some advantage over a foe on the plain. 

But from the fact of their being the foundation of all, or 
nearly so, of the temples and palaces in both America, and also 
in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates, one is led to the suspi- 
cion that they (the mounds) had some significant connection with 
religion, and I think that a passage which I shall quote from a lit- 
tle work by Robert E. Anderson, entitled Extinct Civilization, 
(page 32) shows this to be a fact: 

"A remarkable feature of the religion of the Chaldees has 
been used to explain the shape of their palaces and temples. They 
lifted their eyes to the hills on the northeast — the father of 
countries — and imagined it the abode of the gods, the future home 
of every great and good man. A land with a sky of silver, a soil 
producing crops without tilling. The mountain of Bel in the east, 
whose double head reaches into the skies, like a mighty buffalo at 
rest, whose double horn sparkles as a star, the type of the holy 
mountaiD, was, therefore, reproduced in every palace and temple, 
sometime by building it on an artificial mound with trees and plants 
watered from above." 

I cannot help thinking that this quotation throws some light, 
not only on the origin of the mound builders, but also on the arch- 
itecture of tre Jews, among whom the arch was not in evidence, 
and with whom the high places were much esteemed. Moses went 
into the mountain to pray, and he received the tables containing 
the ten commandments in the mountains. "Who toucheth the 
mountain shall be put to death." "And the glory of the Lord 
abode upon Mount Sinai." "Jacob offered sacrifices on the moun- 
tain." "Elijah fasted forty days and went to Horeb, the mount of 
God." "Joshua built an altar on Mount Elab." "Solomon built 
the temple on Mount Moriah." "His feet shall stand upon the 



440 IMPRO VEMENT ERA . 

Mount of Olives." "The transfiguration took place in the moun- 
tain." "The mountain of the Lord's house shall be established in 
the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; 
and all nations shall flow unto it," etc., etc. 

According to the Bible account, Abraham was reared in the 
valley of the Tigris. He dwelt there seventy-five years, and al- 
though converted from his idolatry, it seems more than likely that 
his future life would be, to some extent, influenced by the usages 
and customs of his native country. He left Babylonia 1900 years 
B.C. 

The Jaredites,according to the Book of Mormon, left Babylonia 
three hundred years before Abraham took his departure. The 
jaredites did not sojourn in Egypt, as did Abraham, but came di- 
rectly to the western continent, landing in Central America. 
Everything that they knew, socially and religiously, they learned 
in Babylon. Is it any wonder that they erected their dwellings 
after the pattern of the Babylonians? Is it to be wondered at that 
they built their temples on raised mounds, after the fashion of 
their native country? 

I do not assert that the similarity of architecture and the pres- 
ence of artificial mounds in Babylonia and America afford conclusive 
evidence for the Book of Mormon, but I regard them as strong cir- 
cumstantial evidence. 

Ogden, Utah. 



MEDIOCRITY IS NOT GOOD ENOUGH. 



We are largely the creatures of our environment and associations. 
Every person we come in contact with influences us for good or ill, and 
leaves an impression of his own character upon us. 

Beware of anything which lowers the ideals or makes you satisfied 
with anything less than your level best, — with anything but excel- 
lence,— or which tries to make you believe that mediocrity is good 
enough, or that ordinary will do. It is the mind which will be satisfied 
with nothing but the best, and which will have nothing to do with any- 
thing less than excellence, that achieves that which is worth while. 

— Success. 



A MOTHER'S LETTERS TO HER MISSIONARY 

SON. 

EDITED BY SUSA YOUNG GATES. 



III.— ON THE STEAMER. 

My Dear Son Daniel. — This letter will be handed to you by 
the steamship agent as you board the ship which is to carry you 
safely to the land of your forefathers. You will wonder at my dili- 
gence in writing so often, but your sisters know how anxious I am 
to tell you some necessary truths about this wonderful work you 
have set out to do, and so they have taken a double share of the 
sewing and mending, to give me the time to write. 

I am wondering how your general health is, for on that will 
largely depend the extent of your sea sickness. 

As soon as you get on deck and can keep on deck: it is the 
best, and perhaps the only, cure for the dreadful nausea and head- 
ache which assails nearly all while on shipboard. Be prudent in 
your diet. It is right that you should eat plenty of wholesome, 
nourishing food. Bread, butter, good beef, mutton, poultry or 
fish, a few potatoes and other good vegetables, with occasional 
simple desserts of pudding and plenty of fruit, are sufficient. Don't 
eat five times a day because others do; don't permit yourself to 
take tea, coffee, or whiskey, because somebody tells you they are 
good for seasickness. They may or may not be, but certain it is 
that hot water, with a lemon in it, is far better than any of them 
for seasickness, as any physician will tell you, and you must be 
especially careful about the example you set. More of this in 
another letter. 

After you feel better of your sickness the time will begin to 



442 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

hang a little heavy on your hands. If you go second cabin, as no 
doubt you will, your quarters will be confining, and your possibili- 
ties for amusement rather few; but you will need the quiet and 
rest, after your long railroad journey. 

I hope you will spend no time on novel-reading. You have 
had all your young life to read such books, and ymu have already 
read many of the world's best books. I do not object to good 
novels, read at proper times. But you are going on a special 
work, and you must be prepared for that work. What would you 
think of a general who was planning a great battle, if he spent 
all his spare time, while traveling to the scene of action, reading 
trashy novels? Would he not rather be studying the maps and 
contour of the country he was about to labor in, acquainting him- 
self as far as possible with every condition and circumstance of 
the people among whom his soldiers were to be quartered? So 
with you. Of first importance is the reading and study of the 
scriptures. Read your Bible and your Book of Mormon as often 
as you possibly can. You may weary soon, as you are young, and 
as yet not "in the harness." But do the best you can. Then, you 
will no doubt find some history of England in the ship's library. 
You are going to remain in England for several years, and it will 
be very interesting for you to know something of that beautiful 
and historic land. You have "studied" a little English history, but 
what you get in school is, after all, a suggestion, only a start as 
it were, in the real, actual study of any place, people, or country. 
You are, under the most favorable circumstances possible, to make 
a vivid and lasting impression on your mind as to historical Eng- 
land. Don't waste this glorious opportunity. Any history is good; 
read all you can. Macaulay's style is most exquisite; Greene deals 
with the people and their work, rather than with the royalty and 
their biographies. 

Then, too, read carefully the two English guide books sister 
gave you; they will prepare you to enjoy the beauties you are 
about to behold. And, best of all, try and get the English people 
about you to describe the part of the country they came from. 
Encourage any English person to tell you about his or her native 
land, and listen carefully to all the little stories you can persuade 
them to tell. You will be disappointed many times when you try 



A MOTHER'S LETTERS TO HER MISSIONARY SON. 443 

this, to find how few people there are who have ever observed; 
and there are fewer still who can describe what they have seen. 
Some can relate incidents, but the art of description is a rare one. 
Ask skilful questions about the manners and customs of those 
born in other lands, and you will glean much valuable information. 
I can hear you say, how, mother? for that is your constant ques- 
tion. And as ever, mother is glad to answer. Questions about 
marriage customs, burials, birth ceremonials, baptisms, church 
ordinances and beliefs, holiday observances, methods of work for 
farmers, tradesmen and professional men, the foods eaten and how 
prepared, the condition and status of women, of children, the laws 
both criminal and civil, and how administered; the amusements of 
the people and their politics; all these form the life and habit of a 
nation. 

Remember, dear son, that asking questions is a very delicate 
matter. Well bred people never show any curiosity about the peo- 
ple they meet as individuals. But interest about customs and con- 
ditions is always allowable, and generally agreeable. Preface your 
questions with some pleasant interchange of general conversation, 
and frankly state your interest in the country about which you are 
talking. Then go on with your interrogations; never, under any 
circumstances ask a personal question, for that is the height of 
rudeness. What information your companion may offer about him- 
self or his history and life, listen to with generous and friendly 
interest. On no account, ask about a possible scar or blemish 
about your companion, for this indeed passes the bounds of endur- 
ance. Again, learn to be a good listener. A good talker is some- 
times welcomed in society; I say sometimes, but a tactful, gracious 
listener is always the most delightful of companions. To be able 
to ask skilful questions, and then to listen patiently and with ap- 
parent vivid interest to the answers, no matter whether they be 
long or short, this is the highest art; and such a person will com- 
mand attention and friends wherever he may go. Look the per- 
son you are talking with, especially if it be a man, directly in the 
eyes. The power of the eye is a well- known fact, don't you remem- 
ber how father's glance used to make "the shivers run down your 
back," when he was reproving you. Men can and should always 
look frankly and sincerely at those with whom they converse, and 



444 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 



you will thus acquire a wonderful power and advantage in all your 
dealings with men. 

Before leaving the subject of your conversations with others, 
let me add two important hints; if you are talking to a stranger, 
and he has told you some story of the wonders and marvels of his 
native land, don't try to out-do his story by telling of a more 
wonderful sight in your own country. Give your friend the unal- 
loyed pleasure of showing up all the beauties his land can boast, 
for your wonders will not impress him unless he has seen them, 
and even then, you are after information, and are not trying to 
startle him with your eloquence or your country's splendors. Never 
interrupt a speaker, nor try to supply a missing word, much less 
correct any blunder he may have made. Learn to listen attent- 
ively to a story you may have heard before, and if you want to be 
a gentleman indeed, exert your will-power to refrain from telling 
the story-teller that you have heard that tale before. 

Avoid the women who may be on the boat. If they seek your 
society, be your own dear gentlemanly self; but put on your most 
dignified reserve, and be as coldly civil as your generous nature 
will permit. If you were like some young men I know, I should 
talk to you in quite an opposite strain. But you have been raised to 
admire good girls and good women, and like all good men, you are 
naturally attracted to their society; just now, however, your inter- 
est in all women must be entirely impersonal. No man ever really 
converted a woman by courting or "sparking" her; and the woman 
who is thus brought into the Church is a grave danger to the man 
who has so converted (?) her, as well as a poor sort of convert at 
the best. You are a minister of the gospel, and as such you must 
conduct yourself. I know you will be civil and kind to all women, 
and I am sure you will be grieved with any of your companion 
missionaries, if they should be rude or try to act smart with any 
woman, even the stewardess. But be charitable, for sometimes 
our young men forget or do not know how to behave; but a little 
teaching, a few words of advice helps them wonderfully for they 
are honest and pure, and they offend through ignorance rather 
than intent. 

Speaking of the stewardess reminds me that you will here 
get your first introduction to the tipping system so prevalent in 



A MOTHER'S LETTERS TO HER MISSIONARY SON. 445 

all European countries. I mean by this, that wherever you go in 
Europe you will find all those who do any service for you will ex- 
pect a small fee besides their regular pay. It is certainly an 
abominable system, but we can't change it, you and I. All we can 
do is to accept conditions as they are and make the best of them. 
The steward who waits on you at table will expect something from 
you as you are leaving the boat. If you were going first-class, this 
amount would be increased enormously, as there are deck stewards, 
a stewardess and steward, head steward and others. I have paid 
$15 in tips on one voyage in a fine steamer, and then did not 
give half what most of the passengers did. If your money has 
held out pretty well give your steward a dollar; if not, fifty cents 
will do. Even twenty-five cents with a cheerful word such as, "I 
wish I could give you more," will be gladly accepted by your stew- 
ard. If you feel you cannot give anything, at least tell the man 
you are pleased with his services, and you would give him some- 
thing if you had it. These things are expected and you must con- 
form to them, or be thought a boor and a charlatan. From the 
time you reach the ship till you return to America, you will have 
this thing to face, so do it cheerfully and with a good grace. 

Let me again urge you to be careful in all your behavior, es- 
pecially at table. If any one tries to bully or "jolly" the stew- 
ard; be sure you do not join in, even with a smile, but act at table 
as if it were the queen's table, no matter what others may do. 
Fruit is generally placed on the table before you sit down, but do 
not touch it till the last course. We have always permitted you 
growing, hungry boys to have two helpings at our own table, but 
this is not allowable in the world. There will usually be plenty 
served to satisfy your appetite before the meal is through, you 
may sometimes go hungry, for nearly all food is served in one 
dish, and passed by the waiter or steward to each guest in turn: 
and others will sometimes do what you will not; that is, they will 
heap their plates while they have a chance. But you will prefer 
your good manners to much food, and there will generally be 
enough. You have been taught to eat with your fork, to handle 
your dishes and knife and fork with care and quiet; likewise, you 
know better than to make any noise while eating, and your napkin 
will rest across your knees, and not be tucked under your chin. 



446 1MPR0 VEMENT ERA . 

Take your bread with your fingers, do not spread it, but break off 
a piece, and butter it as you eat it. Watch your neighbor, and be 
ready to offer any little service; do not be too intent on your food, 
but remember you are eating, not feeding. Try to introduce some 
instructive and pleasant conversation, but avoid noise and loud 
laughter or talk as you would the plague. Do be careful to mod- 
ulate your voice; we westerners are such outrageously loud talk- 
ers, our loud tones and great guffaws of laughter startle and an- 
noy the stranger or European, and. prejudice them at once against 
us. Talk quietly and without gesticulation, and keep your jokes 
and fun for the privacy of your own rooms. 

I must close this letter for the mail-carrier is at the door. 

Always your loving 

Mother. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 



APRIL. 



{For the Improvement Era.) 

A bright, winsome maiden came tripping along, 

So gay was her laughter, so joyous her song, 

That the forest and rills took up the refrain, 

And the trees bent to listen, again and again: 

And the birds warbled sweetly the branches among,— 

"0 bonny, sweet lassie we're glad you have come." 

Then, all in an instant, her eyes filled with tears, 
And the wood-nymphs and elves were saddened with fears: 
"0 beautiful fairy, say, why dost thou weep? 
So young and so tender, your. secret we'll keep; 
You may rest in our counsels, full many our years;" 
She laughed in their faces, and burst into cheers! 
A fickle, fair maid! but the flow'rs love her so; 
Whene'er she approaches, they spring from below, 
To weave her a mantle of emerald and gold, 
With lilies and violets her brow to enfold; 
One wave of her hand, and the soft breezes blow, 
And earth, like an Eden, with beauty doth glow! 
<s«it r w ^* tt 4 ^ RuTH May Fox. 

bait Lake City, Utah. '■ 



MONUMENTS AND ALTARS AT COPAN. 



Among the curious ruins of Central America is the circus, or 
palace of Copan — "that valley of romance and wonder, where the 
genii who attended on King Solomon seem to have been the artists." 
"It lies in the district of country now known as the State of Hon- 
duras, one of the most fertile valleys in Central America." "The 
ruins are on the left bank of the Copan river, which empties into 
the Montagua, and so passes into the Bay of Honduras near Omoa, 
distant perhaps three hundred miles from the sea." The extent 
along the river, as ascertained by monuments still found, is more 
than two miles. "There are no remains of palaces or private 
buildings, and the principal part is that which stands on the bank 
of the river, and may, perhaps, with propriety, be called the tem- 
ple." Says Stephens, who visited there in 1840: 

This temple is an oblong enclosure. The front or river wall ex- 
tends on a right line north and south six hundred and twenty-four feet, 
and it is from sixty to ninety feet in height. It is made of cut stones ' 
from three to six feet in length, and a foot and a half in breadth. In 
many places the stones have been thrown down by bushes growing out 
of the crevices, and in one place there is a small opening, from which 
the ruins are sometimes called by the Indians Las Ventanas, or the win- 
dows. The other three sides consist of ranges of steps and pyramidal 
structures, rising from thirty to one hundred and forty feet in height on 
the slope. The whole line of survey is two thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-six feet, which, though gigantic and extraordinary for a ruined 
structure of the aborigines, that the reader's imagination may not mis- 
lead him, I consider it necessary to say, is not so large as the base of 
the great Pyramid of Ghizeh. 

The plan was complicated, and, the whole ground being overgrown 
with trees, difficult to make out. There was no entire pvramid, but, at 



448 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

most, two or three pyramidal sides, and these joined on to terraces, or 
other structures of the same kind. Beyond the wall of enclosure were 
walls, terraces, and pyramidal elevations running off into the forest, 
which sometimes confused us. Probably the whole was not erected at 
the same time, but additions were made and statues erected by different 
kings, or, perhaps, in commemoration of important events in the history 
of the city. 

Along the whole line were ranges of steps with pyramidal elevations, 
probably crowned on the top with buildings or altars now ruined. All 
these steps and the pyramidal sides were painted, and the reader may 
imagine the effect when the whole country was clear of forest, and 
priest and people were ascending from the outside to the terraces, and 
thence to the holy places within to pay their adoration in the temple. 

Within this enclosure are two rectangular courtyards, having 
ranges of steps ascending to terraces. The area of each is about forty 
feet above the river. Of the larger and most distant from the river 
the steps have all fallen, and constitute mere mounds. On one side, at 
the foot of the pyramidal wall, is a monument or "idol," of which the 
engraving represents the front. It is about the same height with the 
others, (13 ft. high, 4 ft. in front, and 3 deep), but differs in shape, be- 
ing larger at the top than below. Its appearance and character are 
tasteful and pleasing, but the sculpture is in much lower relief; the ex- 
pression of the hands is good, though somewhat formal. The figure of 
a man shows the relative height. The back and sides are covered with 
hieroglyphics. 

Near this is a remarkable altar, which perhaps presents as curious 
a subject of speculation as any monument in Copan. The altars, like 
the idols, are all of a single block of stone. In general they are not so 
richly ornamented, and are more faded and worn, or covered with moss; 
some were completely buried, and of others, it was difficult to make out 
more than the form. All differed in fashion, and doubtless had some 
distinct and general reference to the idols before which they stood. 
This (see frontispiece) stands on four globes cut out of the same stone; 
the sculpture is in bas relief, and it is the only specimen of that kind of 
sculpture found at Copan, all the rest being in bold alto-rilievo. It is 
six feet square and four feet high, and the top is divided into thirty-six 
tablets of hieroglyphics, which beyond doubt record some event in the 
history of the mysterious people who once inhabited the city. The lines 
are still distinctly visible. 

The engravings (see frontispiece) exhibit the three sides of this altar. 
Each side represents four individuals. On the west side are the two 



■ 

■ 



! * 











Stephens' Central America. 

ONE OF A SERIES OF STONE MONUMENTS, COLUMNS, OR "IDOLS. ' GIVING 
PECULIAR CHARACTER TO THE RUINS OF COPAN. 




gg^^fSjggjjg^&agM 



s tephens\Central America. 

STONE MONUMENT AT COPAN-13 FEET HIGH, 4 FEET IN FRONT, 3 

DEEP SCULPTURED ON ALL FOUR SIDES. A RICH 

AND ELABORATE SPECIMEN. 



MONUMENTS AND ALTARS AT COP AN. 449 

principal personages, chiefs or warriors, with their faces opposite each 
other, and apparently engaged in argument or negotiation. The other 
fourteen are divided into two equal parties, and seem to be following 
their leaders. Each of the two principal figures is seated cross-legged, 
in the oriental fashion, office or character, and on three of which the 
serpent forms part. Between the two principal personages is a re- 
markable cartouche, which reminded us strongly of the Egyptian method 
of giving the names of the kings or heroes in whose honor monuments 
were erected. The headdresses are remarkable for their curious and 
complicated form; the figures have all breastplates, and one of the 
two principal characters holds in his hand an instrument, which may, 
perhaps, be considered a sceptre; each of the others holds an object 
which can be only a subject for speculation and conjecture. It may be 
a weapon of war, and, if so, it is the only thing of the kind found rep- 
resented at Copan. In other countries, battle-scenes, warriors, and wea- 
pons of war are among the most prominent subjects of sculpture; and 
from the entire absence of them here, there is reason to believe that 

the people were not warlike, but peaceable, and easily subdued. 
******** 

In regard to the age of this desolate city, (Copan), I shall not offer 
at present any conjecture. * Nor in regard to the 

people who built it, or to the time when or the means by which it was 
depopulated, and became a desolation and ruin; whether it fell by the 
sword, or famine, or pestilence. * One thing I believe, 

that its history is graven on its monuments. No Champollion has yet 
brought to them the energies of his enquiring mind. Who shall read 
them? 



SPEED THE MESSAGE. 



(For the Improvement Era.) 

Go, speed the message 'round the globe. 
Ye valiant messengers of peace; 

Ye brave and fearless men of God, 
Bid carnage, hate and war to cease. 



450 IMPRO VEMENT ERA . 

Ye heralds true of life and love, 

Oh, may ye firm, united stand; 
To bear Christ's message from above, — 

A faithful missionary band. 

Go tell the world of better ways, — 
The ways of God and Christ his Son; 

Go spread the glorious gospel rays, 
'Till o'er the earth his will be done. 

Go tell the people of his love; 

Aye, sound the tidings loud and long, 
'Ere awful vengeance from above 

Shall put an end to hate and wrong. 

Let men prepare to worship him; 

Let them forget the god of strife; 
Bid them forsake the ways of sin, 

And worship Christ, the God of life. 

Go tell them of the God of love, 

Whom they must learn to know and fear, — 

That Christ, his Son, in clouds above, 
To reign on earth will soon appear. 

He cometh to establish peace, 
And joy, and love, in every breast; 

Then war and wickedness shall cease, 

And earth be crowned with glorious rest. 

Annie G. Lauritken. 

Richfield, Utah. 



AN INCIDENT ON THE SAN PEDRO. 

BY WALTER J. SLOAN. 



Let us not love in word, neither in tongue; but in deed and in 
ruth.— IJohn3: 18. 

Train No. 72, on "The Salt Lake route" for Juab, Milf ord, Cal- 
ente and intermediate points, left Salt Lake on time, one bitterly 
cold night in February last. Travel was light, neither of the five 
coaches being more than half full. Near the rear end of the 
fourth coach sat a woman and child; the latter was a girl of about 
eight or nine years. The dress of the woman was poor, and a 
glance at her face showed a care-worn expression, as though she 
had suffered much, and was still suffering. The child leaned her 
head against the window with her eyes closed. Her face was pale, 
and seemed paler still, as viewed with its frame of dark tresses. 
That the child was sick needed but a moment's glance, while a min- 
ute of watching the woman's tender care would only strengthen 
such opinion. None of the passengers appeared to have noticed 
the mother and child as they entered the car, nor the mother's 
care in trying to make the child comfortable. Each passenger 
was busy with his or her own affairs, and the two were left to 
whatever care and trouble they had. In the smoker, facing each 
other, sat four knights of the grip, each represented a different 
line of trade, each was bound for Caliente, Goldfield and other new 
camps and towns, which had sprung into existence through the 
coming of the iron-horse, with the hopes of selling a big bill of 
goods. They had all met before, and at once proceeded to renew 
old friendship. Cigars were produced, and as they were about to 
be lighted one of the four arose with the remark: "Go ahead, 



452 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

boys, I'll join you in a minute, I just want to take a run through 
the train and see if there is anyone on that I know. I'll be back 
in a minute or two." The other three lit their cigars and pro- 
ceeded to chat. 

As number four passed through the fourth coach, he noticed 
the mother and child. He did not stop, but passed on to the last 
coach,where he nodded to an acquaintance or two,and then started 
to return. Between the two cars he stopped for a moment and 
said to himself: "That woman in there appears to be in trouble, 
and the kid looks as though it was sick. It isn't any of my busi- 
ness, but I am going to stop and speak to her." 

When he reached the seat where the mother and child sat, he 
stopped, raised his hat and said, "Pardon me, madam, is the little 
girl sick?" 

"Yes, sir; she has been sick for a long time;" and then, in a 
whisper, that the child might not hear, "and I am afraid that she 
will never get any better." 

"Oh, don't say that. I think that she will be better in a few 
days, you must never give up hope, you know." 

"Yes, sir, I know that, and I try to hope, but I am afraid that 
it is no use." 

The man turned the seat over and sat down opposite the 
mother. 

"How long has she been sick?" 

"Over a year, now. She took sick two months before her 
father died, and I have tried so hard to have her get well; you see, 
she is the only child I have now, I had two, but the other died four 
years ago. The doctors where we live could do nothing more for 
her, and they advised me to bring her to Salt Lake and see the 
doctors there. I came up yesterday morning, I have seen three of 
the doctors, who are said to be the best in the city in troubles 
such as she has. But none of them gave me any hope. Perhaps 
it was cruel of them, and I know that two of them didn't want to 
tell me, but they all told me the same; she cannot recover, and 
will live but a short time." The latter part of the statement was 
made in a low tone of voice, as though the speaker knew sorrow 
and the meaning thereof. Down her thin cheeks the tears coursed 
and fell to the floor. 



AN INCIDENT ON THE SAN PEDRO. 453 

The man turned his head for a minute. "And where are you 
going now?" 

"We are going back home; there is nothing else to do." 

At the word home, the child opened her eyes and asked, "Are 
we home now, mamma?" 

"Not yet, dear, but we will be in a little while." 

"Oh, I'm so tired, I do wish we were home." 

"I know you are tired, but we will be home in a little while." 

The child leaned her head against the window and closed her 
eyes. The man asked the mother where she lived and upon being 
informed said, "Excuse me, I will be back in a few minutes." 

He looked neither to the right nor to the left, as he hurried 
through the train to the smoker. Going to his friends he said, "Boys, 
there'd a sick child back here in the fourth coach, she's leaning 
her tired little head against the window pane when she ought to 
be in bed. We can make something that will do for a bed, until 
the mother reaches the station where they get off. I want each 
of your overcoats so that I can fix up something to make her com- 
fortable." 

"But say, Jack, tell us who it is and what about it." 

"No time to talk now, this is a time to act," replied Jack, as 
he gathered up the four overcoats and started down the aisle. 
Stopping at the door, he turned back and said, "Boys, any one of 
you would do what I am doing now, and I'll tell you all about it 
after awhile. It's one of those cases in which what's done has to 
be done at once. Dan, you know the conductor pretty well, ask him 
to stop long enough at Provo for you to run over to that little 
restaurant on the south side of the track and get a warm drink 
and a sandwich or two, bring it into the fourth coach." 
"But what about the cup and saucer?" 
"Oh, hang it, buy the cup and saucer. Ed., you come with 
me and help me fix up a bed. Joe, you stay and watch our things 
until one of us returns." 

As the two men with the four overcoats went through the 
train, the situation was hurriedly explained to Ed. Reaching the 
seat occupied by the mother and child, the man to whom she had 
told her story said: "Madam, if you will permit us, we will fix this 
seat so that it will be more comfortable to the little girl." 



454 IMPROVEMENT rRA. 

With a look the tired mother thanked them and arose from 
her seat. 

"Now, Ed., you fix the seats while I hold the child." 

Tenderly he lifted the child from her place by the window. 
She opened her tired eyes, and looking at her mother said, "Are 
we home, mamma?" 

As one of experience, who knew how to make things as com- 
fortable as possible on a railroad train, Ed. fixed the seat. The 
back was taken from one seat and placed between the others; 
three of the overcoats were spread upon the improvised bed, with 
the fourth for a pillow. When the man who had held the child 
attempted to lay her down, she whispered, "Are we home, mamma?" 

As the train left Provo, the man addressed as Dan entered the 
car with a warm drink and something wrapped in paper which 
was handed to the first man, who passed it to the mother. The 
three men who saw the look on her face were repaid for all that 
they had done. Two of them left the coach, while the other re. 
mained. Two h >urs later, the train stopped at a little station, be- 
side which stood a horse and wagon, in charge of a man whose 
form was bent with age. As the man, who had remained with the 
mother and child, lifted the latter from the train, he heard the 
woman say, "My father, sir." He passed the sleeping form to the 
gray-haired grandfather, and swung aboard the train as it pulled 
out. 

Entering the smoking car, he joined his friends, and told to 
them the woman's story, finishing with these words, "I have a wife 
and a little girl just about the age of that one; we had two girls, 
but one died about four years ago. I thought of my wife and little 
one. We never know!" 

The light of the cigars had died out; the new stories which 
each had intended to tell were forgotten, as the four men sought 
the sleeper in silence. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 



TOPICS OF MOMENT. 



Decision of the North Sea Commission. 

The North Sea Commission rendered its decision in Paris, 
February 25, against the Russians who, under Admiral Rozhdest- 
vensky, fired upon the British fishing fleet off the Dogger banks, 
in the North Sea, October 22, 1904. It will be remembered that 
at the time the English people were greatly excited over the inci- 
dent, and a conflict was apparently averted by submitting the ques- 
tion to the decision of an international commission. The facts 
found by the Commission are practically those set forth by the 
press at the time. 

The Russian Baltic fleet left the port of Libau in northwest- 
ern Russia, ostensibly to relieve Port Arthur, actually to put on a 
bold front in order to save, if possible, the Muscovite's face. 
When the fleet reached the North Sea, off Hull, it ran into a traw- 
ling fleet that was fishing by night out in the deep sea. Without 
any warning whatever to the trawlers, the Russians opened fire 
upon them, sank one vessel, killed two men, wounded a number of 
others, and then moved out without offering any assistance to the 
drowning men, after the mistake had been discovered. The excuse 
for such an uncalled-for attack, and such inhuman disregard of 
life, was that the Russians were attacked by a torpedo boat. 

In order to avert an open conflict between two great powers, 
one of which already had a war on its hands, they agreed to leave 
the question to the Commission of whether or not a torpedo boat 
was among the fishing fleet, and whether it made any attack on 
the Russians. The Commission called to try the case was com- 
posed of admirals from different nationalities and held its sessions 
in Paris. 



456 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

It finds that "the act of firing on the fishing fleet when no 
torpedo boats were present was, in the opinion of the majority of 
the Commission, unjustifiable." Continuing, the report says : 
"The Russian commissioner dissents from the opinion, and holds 
that the action of unknown vessels was responsible for what hap- 
pened. The majority find that the firing, even accepting the Rus- 
sian version, was unduly prolonged. The fishing fleet was in no 
way guilty of hostile action." They also think that Admiral 
Rozhdestvensky had good reason for continuing his voyage with- 
out rendering aid, but that he should have signaled some friendly 
neighboring vessels, and informed them that the fishermen were 
in need of assistance. The Commission thinks it was probably 
the arrival of a belated Russian ship that caused the firing, and 
that the cessation was finally caused by the Donskoi which signaled 
her approach. 

Then follows the curious part of the report, to the effect that 
there was nothing which occurred to reflect upon the martial quali- 
ties or sentiments of humanity of Admiral Rozhdestvensky. 
Martial qualities! In other words, the "bravery" of the admiral 
is not to be put in question! There the Commission stultifies itself. 
The probable cause was the culpable negligence of one of the 
fleet's own ships which failed to give proper notice of its ap- 
proach. 

Again, the men on the trawlers were left to take care of 
themselves, and no one was even asked to go to their aid. The 
Commission finds that there was nothing inhuman in that. It was 
evidently a sop of comfort which the Commission— strongly pro- 
Russian — intended to throw to a discredited admiral. The Com- 
mission says Rozhdestvensky had "good reasons" for proceeding 
on his journey without offering the unfortunate fishermen, whose 
lives he had imperiled, any help. It does not say what those 
"reasons" were. Perhaps it thought best not to explain. 

Again, Russia has been discredited in the eyes of all the 
world. And the question is, Will Rozhdestvensky be disciplined, 
or will Russia treat the matter with autocratic indifference? She 
is willing to pay the damages; and must, of course, pay the ex- 
penses of the Commission, which, it is estimated, will reach $150,- 
000. The damages, $325,000, was paid on March 9, by Count 



TOPICS OF MOMENT. 467 

Benkerdorff, the Russian ambassador to Great Britain, to Foreign 
Secretary Landsdowne, and the incident is, to all appearances, 
closed. 

Opening of the Twin Falls Canal. 

One of the momentous events in Western irrigation took place 
on March 1st, when one of the greatest engineering feats of 
modern times was completed at Millner, near the Shoshone Falls of 
Snake river, Idaho. A great dam has been built across the Snake, 
and on that day, the iron gates of the dam were successfully 
lowered, causing the thunders of the falls to be hushed for nearly 
twenty-four hours while the waters of the mighty river were 
backed for from nine to fifteen miles up the stream, until the 
water was forced back into the opening of the canal, forty-eight 
feet above the level of the river. The occasion marks an epoch 
in the history of southern Idaho. By this enterprise many thou- 
sands of acres of arid land will be reclaimed, and prepared for 
thriving settlements. 

The Twin Falls irrigation scheme represents an initial ex- 
penditure of $2,500,000. The great dam raises the river forty- 
eight feet to the canal, which is eighty feet wide at the bottom, 
and one hundred and twenty feet wide at the top. The water at 
full flow in the canal will be ten feet deep and one hundred and 
twelve feet wide, at the surface. The dam is one thousand nine 
hundred feet long, seventy-nine feet high, four hundred feet 
through at the base; it is built of loose lava rock, with a wood 
and concrete core, the upper side being filled with puddled earth, 
the down side being left without such filling to allow the seepage 
water to run away freely without washing out the dam. The main 
canal, now completed, is twenty-six miles long; at the end of th<* 
twenty-sixth mile, it is divided in the "high-line" and "low-line" 
canals, which continue nearly fifty miles further westward. In 
the completed system, there will be about one thousand miles of 
main canals and laterals, making the largest irrigated tract on the 
western hemisphere, under one canal. The lands are rapidly filed 
upon, and many people are settling in the neighborhood. Two 
thousand people witnessed the dam opening. Twin Falls, which 
six months ago had only about twenty residents, had a population 



458 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

in early March of over one thousand. The deserts of sage will 
soon be transformed into fruitful fields and gardens. 

Condition of the Jews in Morocco. 

The ninth volume of the Jewish Encyclopedia, which has just 
issued from the press, contains the following account of the con- 
dition of the Jew in Morocco: 

From the cradle to the grave he is despised and vituperated, an apol- 
ogy being necessary for an allusion to him in polite society. Every pos- 
sible indignity is heaped upon him, and he enjoys neither social nor civil 
equality with his neighbors; they tolerate him only because he renders 
himself indispensable, and knows how, under the most unfavorable cir- 
cumstances, to amass wealth, which he is always ready to put out at 
exhorbitant interest, and of which he may be ultimately despoiled by 
powerful officials. He is known as a "dhimmi" (plural, "dhimmiyyab") or 
tributary, since he is only tolerated on that basis, and special contribu- 
tions are wrung from him on every possible occasion. 

In most of the towns of Morocco the Jews are forced to congregate 
in the "Mellah" — in which they are confined at night by gates beyond 
which many of the women never pass. Those Jews who do so must 
needs walk barefoot, even riding being forbidden to them within the 
walls, certain streets approaching mosques and shrines are interdicted 
altogether. Outside the walls Jews may ride any animals but horses, 
which are considered far too noble for such despised individuals. In 
order that they may never be mistaken for their betters, a dark colored 
gabardine, with black skull cap and slippers, is compulsory for the men. 
The women, however, may dress as they like, which in some cities means, 
in the streets, placing a sheet over their heads to hide their faces in the 
Moorish fashion, and in others following closely the style adopted by 
their neighbors when indoors. 

In the Atlas district, if a village has not a Jewish quarter, there 
is generally a companion village at a stone's throw, and devoted to the 
"tributaries," who are the peddlers, the craftsmen, and the muleteers, 
if not the farriers, of the district. The condition of the Jews in such 
villages is even worse than of those in the towns; for it lies be- 
tween that of serfs and that of slaves. Some are under the binding 
protection of the local sheik, others pertain to private individuals, who 
have practically the right to sell them. They may not marry or remove 
their families till they have received permission from their so-called 
protectors; and without this protection they would not be safe for a 



TOPICS OF MOMENT. 45& 

day. * Centuries of this oppression have naturally- 

had a very deleterious effect upon the characters of the victims, who are 
cringing, cowardly creatures, never daring to answer back, and seldom 
standing erect, a people demanding the utmost pity. 

The iLorals of this people, save in the matter of drunkenness, are 
certainly above those of their Mohammedan neighbors, and in conse- 
quence they are remarkably free from the diseases which their neigh- 
bors bring upon themselves. This is to some extent accounted for by 
the almost equally prejudicial system of child marriages, which prevails 
in the interior, where they usually take place at the age of six to eight. 
The little bride comes home to the house of her husband's parents, and 
her changed condition is made known by the kerchief with which 
henceforth her hair must be hidden. At twelve she may become a 
mother; but her husband, usually her senior by a few years, may by this 
time have become tired of her, and, if he can afford it, may. put her 
away and take another. Bigamy is not common; and the descendants of 
the families expelled from Spain permit it only wftien the first wife con- 
sents. 

The efforts of France to bring Morocco within the sphere of 
its influence may do much to alleviate the condition of the Jews 
there. The Mohammedans of Morocco are Arabs, and much more 
severe on the Jews than the Turks, who are a different race. The 
Jews have always found a large measure of freedom in Constanti- 
nople. The Polish Jews and those from Spain are much more in- 
tolerant toward each other than the Turks are toward either class. 

Capture nf Mukden. 

The greatest battle of the world's history, has been fought at 
Mukden, the capital of Manchuria, from February 20, to March 
10, under Generals Oyama, and Kuropatkin. The Japs under the 
former were victorious, and succeeded in completely routing the 
Russians, who sustained a loss of 155,000 men and 500 guns with 
all the great stores of ammunition, food and horses. The Rus- 
sians fled to-Tie Ling followed by the Japs with disastrous loss to 
the former. It is said that the Japs had at least 400,000 men in 
the field, and that the Russians numbered over 327,000. 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



TEMPORAL AFFAIRS. 



When President Brigham Young founded Utah, he and his 
associates devised plans to aid the people in temporal affairs, in 
addition to giving them the spiritual instructions needed. His 
actions were not altogether new to the Saints, for they had al- 
ready learned, in Kirtland, in Missouri, Nauvoo and Winter Quar- 
ters, that there could be little spiritual advancement without pro- 
viding some temporal comfort. They had learned by hard experi- 
ence that in this world the temporal and spiritual go hand in hand, 
and that faith and works are close and inseperable partners in 
practical life. So, from the beginning, the Latter- day Saints have 
been a practical, working people. They have been builders of cit- 
ies, pioneers, found ers of settlements, colonizers and redeemers of 
deserts. And as President Brigham Young taught them temporal 
as well as spiritual salvation, so has each of his authorized suc- 
cessors, who has held the sacred trust of leader of this people, in 
this regard, followed in his footsteps. As he taught co-operation 
in mercantile affairs, in irrigation, farming, manufacturing, so 
have the authorities who have succeeded him, and, while remem- 
bering their spiritual, at no time have they lost sight of the tem- 
poral salvation of the Saints. In fact, from the first organization 
of the Church, its leaders have sought to provide labor for the 
people, by initiating enterprises of various kinds, and by establish- 
ing public works. The methods have necessarily differed as con- 
ditions have varied, but the idea has remained the same. 

Just now much is being said about the wrongfulness of the 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 461 

Church authorities interfering, or even taking part, in temporal 
affairs. Whereas, formerly it was pronounced a great blessing to 
the people, when they were poor and stood in need of assistance, 
of credit and financial aid, such action is now cried down by our 
enemies, as ruinous to progress — the commercialization of a sa- 
cred organization! The Latter-day Saints with their leaders have 
often been commended for their thrift and industry in building 
cities and inaugurating enterprises; for improving their temporal 
surroundings and their financial situation, providing labor for the 
unemployed, and for leading out in the establishment of -indus- 
tries. 

Men have praised us for our practical qualities. But a 
new cry seems just now to have arisen against this idea, and, 
strange to say, the chief objector to the authorities of the Church 
mixing in the affairs of the world, is one who only a few years ago 
was the chief promoter in saddling upon them financial bur- 
dens which were so placed, at that time, for the benefit of the 
people. For some reason, personal it may be, he was anxious to 
have them placed back of some of the leading enterprises of the 
State — the great power plant in Ogden, Saltair, a railroad thereto, 
the first sugar company. Largely through the instrumentality of 
this same strenuous objector, they were involved in great debt, 
and the authorities, notably President Woodruff, were made to 
sweat blood to meet the bonds placed upon him. The legacy has 
been transmitted. Some of them died with its heavy weight still 
bending them down, and the burden is by no means yet lifted. 

But it was thought a blessing in those days to help the peo- 
ple, by reviving business, providing work, opening markets for 
farm products, creating new enterprises, and establishing indus- 
tries And so it was to many. In truth, the people of the state 
are still reaping great benefits from the establishment of these 
industries. Even to this day, but for the willingness of the au- 
thorities to bear the responsibility of failure, some of these valued 
industries would never have been established. Countless thou- 
sands of dollars have been returned to the farmer because of the 
sugar industry, in the increased value of land and farm products. 

It can be truthfully said that every financial plan undertaken by 
the Church authorities has been inaugurated for the sole purpose 



462 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

of helping the people, and if they had not led out in these things, 
undertaken them, and stood back of them, these enterprises either 
never would have been begun, or would have failed because of the 
faithlessness of capital. The credit and prestige of the Church 
•authorities saved them; and generally, when an enterprise has been 
well founded, the Church authorities have withdrawn, retaining only 
a small interest in each, giving men with capital and business ca- 
pacity a chance to carry on the work. There is not a concern in 
which they have been interested whose stocks cannot be bought in 
the open market by any person having money and inclination to 
buy. 

Furthermore,competition has not been stifled. Capital followed 
where success was pointed out by the credit and effort of the Church 
people. There is competition in every industry which the Church 
authorities have pioneered or initiated, and in which they have 
become, in a measure, interested — in the generation of power and 
light, in the manufacture of sugar, in banking, in mercantile and 
manufacturing business, in the drama, in printing, in the publica- 
tion of papers and magazines, in mining, in amusements, — no man 
can truthfully assert that competing institutions are being stifled 
by their action. If anything, their initiative and credit have been an 
impetus to commercial enterprise, and, as a result, business of all 
branches is flourishing in our favored state. And none will suc- 
cessfully deny that in a moral way— in personal virtue, in busi- 
ness integrity, honesty, freedom from labor troubles, in equality 
in the distribution of wealth— the Latter-day Saints are one whit 
behind the people of any other state of the Union. I deny that 
there is any power, open or occult, in the Church which denies to 
any member of the Church, or to any person not a member of the 
Church, the privilege and right 'of competing with any organiza- 
tion in any line of business. The statement that certain of the 
authorities of the Church have threatened to crush, or in any other 
way interfere with, any competing business, is false. Such a denial 
would be unnecessary, only as far as it is needed to en- 
lighten people not familiar with conditions here; every resident 
of the state must understand it. 

I desire to say this much to the young men, and the Saints 
generally who,from the false statements set afloat by unprincipled 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 463 

men, might be led to believe that the Church authorities have be- 
come corrupt in business affairs, and that they are conducting the 
Church as a vast corporation for the personal aggrandizement of 
one man, or one set of men, and they the officers of the Church. 
Nothing could be further from the truth; whatever enterprises the 
Church authorities are interested in, with the credit or influence of 
the Church,they have become so for the peoples' interests, and not 
for that of any one man nor class of men; and furthermore, the 
Church is not organized for the sake of making money. Where it 
has supported enterprises,it has temporarily done so with its credit, 
for the advancement, assistance, and welfare of the community. 

This talk about the Church or its authorities ever having 
threatened, in any way, to crush any business, is founded in per- 
sonal acrimony and falsehood. It is on a par with the declaration 
that free speech, and thought, and action, is suppressed by the 
President and authorities of the Church; one only needs to hear 
the speech, read the thought, and observe the actions of certain 
men, as a refutation, and to know that such declaration is false io 
the extreme, and very ridiculous. 

Joseph F. Smith. 



THE APOSTATE. 



There's the apostate, now. He's a queer creature. Very 
queer! He has some remarkable notions. And no matter who he 
is, or when he apostatized, he is all alike in some things. For in- 
stance, he always feels very much abused. No matter what has 
been done, or what left undone; your apostate, if he is the genu- 
ine article, feels that any number of people have been in league 
against him. Of course, there are those who simply drift out of 
the Church through indifference or general neglect. And indiffer- 
ent and neglectful they generally remain. Again, there are those 
who leave other churches. But someway, such people never 
manifest the real apostate spirit. For they fail to manifest the 



464 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

infallible signs. Diagnose these cases, and the true symptoms 
will be found absent. One apostatizes only from truth, not error. 
But to return to our simon-pure apostate; for he generally turns 
on us. He not only feels he is abused, but in the abandonment of 
his self-piety he pictures whole cohorts of persons who hare been 
conspiring for his overthrow. Symptom number one. 

The next stage of his malady is exhibited when he begins to 
think he is twenty years ahead of the Church. The Church, ac- 
cording to him, is a good, old, doddering idiot, who has been a 
pretty fair specimen at one time, but now has lagged miles, leagues, 
eons behind your anxious apostate. If this — and but that — and 
perhaps in the days to come, if the Church can only be persuaded 
to get a hurry on itself — well, you know, it might be possible, in 
some dim and distant future for the poor old Church to catch the 
apostate and its own breath at the same time, and proudly linking 
arms with the soulful and condescending whilom apostate, together 
they might travel the comfortable broad way that leads to, you 
know where! Oh yes, and how graciously will your kingly apos- 
tate then forgive his long-time delinquent brethren, and how mu- 
nificent will be his gifts, and self -applied donations; and how mag- 
niloquently will he pour out his healing eloquence to soothe all the 
wicked leaders who will then have repented and come bending and 
crawling to him. The picture of all this makes him weep in the 
night. And he weeps! Symptom number two! 

Then this self-righteous individual, we are discussing, has an- 
other profound conviction: this usually is in the last stages of the 
complaint, and occurs about the time the oflicers have had to 
quarantine him; he resents being told of his affliction. It hurts 
his sensitive feelings to be told that he is an apostate. He is 
nothing of the kind! Don't you dare . The story of the In- 
dian here comes to mind, "Me no lost," grunts the wandering Lo, 
"me no lost, wickiup lost!" And that's the case with our impatient 
patient; he hasn't apostatized, not he! It's the Church that's 
apostatized! He has fought and bled all his life for the same 
things for which he is fighting and bleeding now, so to speak! He, 
the great, the good, the only, he apostatized? Perish the thought, 
and with it the four hundred and fifty thousand people who think 
the thought! And most of all, perish the local, stake or general 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 465 

authorities who are in the direct line of our apostate's vision. 
Down with the priesthood! Up with unbridled license! And thus 
ends symptom number three. 

If the patient then gets the rabies, and goes out clothed with 
indignation and with flames bursting from his mouth, he is in the 
last stages of decomposition, and everybody should get out of the 
way. Keep out of the chamber of death and despair, unless duty 
calls you within. Then hang up all the disinfectants you can pro- 
cure; be exceedingly careful of contagion, for the disease is 
said to be very catching for relatives and friends; cover up the 
mal- odorous remains of what was once a friend and brother, and 
depart as quickly as may be. Let us consign the rest to oblivion. 
Dost like the picture? Then avoid the disease! 

Susa Young Gates. 



TESTIMONY OF JOHN W. RIGDON. 



The Era has received the following interesting statement from 
New York City, under date of March 12, 1905: 

Today, at a meeting of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints, held at 151 W. 125th Street, John W. Rigdon, son of 
Sidney Rigdon, made some remarks of which the following is an 
abstract: 

I was baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints when I was a boy of nine years, by Hyrum Smith, but was 
never confirmed a member. The baptism was witnessed by my 
father and Joseph Smith. I am now nearly seventy-five years old. 

My father and family were in Pittsburg when Joseph was 
killed. On hearing of it, my father went immediately to Nauvoo, 
claiming that he should be the leader of the Church, but the apos- 
tles did not think so, and Brigham Young was appointed to take 
the lead. My father was very much hurt, and felt that his labors 
had not been appreciated. 

In the early sixties, [he gave the year] I went to Idaho and 
thence to Salt Lake City. Eliza R. Snow and others tried to in- 
duce me to join the Church, but I did not, and came home to the 



466 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

east rather poorly impressed with the Utah people. I determined 
to ascertain from my father whether he knew anything in regard 
to the origin of the Book of Mormon other than had been made 
public, and if such were unfavorable to the Church I should make 
it known. My father was then in his last years, and I found him 
as firm as ever in declaring that he himself had nothing whatever 
to do in writing the book, and that Joseph Smith received it from 
an angel. Oil his dying bed he made the same declaration to a 
Methodist minister. 

myself well remember when Parley P. Pratt brought the 
book to my father's house, and presented it to him, and I also 
know that this was the first time that my father ever saw it. My 
sister, soma nine years older than I, testified to me a few months 
ago that she also remembers when the book was first seen by our 
father. My mother has also told me that father had nothing what- 
ever to do with the writing of the book, and that she positively 
knew that he had never seen it until Parley P. Pratt came to our 
home with it. These testimonies have clung to me ever since, and 
I could not forget them. 

About five years ago, I corresponded with Joseph Smith, pres- 
ident of the Reorganized Church, and was well impressed with him. 
I knew him as a boy, and loved him. But I do know that he was 
not ordained to the presidency of the Church while his father was 
in Liberty jail, for I made the visit with him, and we did not leave 
each other during our stay there. The men who did ordain him 
later did not have the authority to do so. Men cannot confer what 
they themselves do not possess. 

Something like five years ago, I again went to Salt Lake City. 
One day, as I was sitting in a bank and looking up at the statue of 
the angel Moroni, the conviction came to me that the builders of 
this temple are the people of God. Again and again, with increas- 
ing conviction, this testimony came to me as I looked upon the fig- 
ure of the angel. I wrote to Joseph Smith of the Reorganized 
Church and asked what I should do, and desired that he should 
enjuire of the Lord concerning it. He promised to do so, but I 
have not learned of the result. I read a sermon of his, a few 
months later, in which he declared that Brigham Young was the 
instigator of polygamy. This I knew to be false, from things I had 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 467 

seen before Joseph's martyrdom. This falsehood turned me against 
the Reorganized Church. Elder John M. McFarlane baptized me 
into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints last summer, 
in the Hudson River, and I now bear testimony to the world that 
Joseph Smith was a prophet of God, and that Brigham Young was 
his true successor. 

We declare that the above is a true report. 

Fred J. Pack, 
Sadie Grant Pack. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 



Further Explanation of Luke 22: 35-38. 

Elder Carl A. Krantz, writing from Copenhagen, Denmark, 
says: 

In the answer, in the late January number, given to the scrip- 
ture in Luke 22: 35-3S, it seems tome that a great opportunity is 
missed. I mean the opportunity to forcibly bring out a principle 
that is of immeasurable importance in our Church. The Lord has 
at times chosen to try the faith, obedience and courage of his ser- 
vants, and that he has done in a very forcible manner by appar- 
ently contradicting himself. The Lord's command to Abraham 
about the sacrificing of his only son, after that son was given him 
in fulfilment of the promise that through him the seed of Abraham 
should be multiplied indefinitely, is certainly a climax, or an extreme 
point of trial, that only a true servant of the Lord could withstand. 
And so in the case referred to above. After having been taught 
to "love their enemies," and to turn the other cheek, when as- 
sailed, it must certainly have been a terrible shock to hear that 
they should provide themselves with swords. But in neither of 
these cases did the Lord intend that his servants should use the 
murderous implements; it was only a supreme trial of their faith. 
And it was no doubt a character- building ordeal that the Lord 
knew would be of immense value to them in after life. Now in 
our days we have had the "Zion's camp" movement, which I claim 
was an undertaking exactly on a par with that peculiar command 



468 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

of Jesus. Just imagine an armed expedition, consisting of repre- 
sentatives of the meek and lowly Jesus, under leadership of the 
Lord's prophet, marching out to use force against their fellow- men I 
That was certainly a paradox that would try the faith of any man. 
But those who went through it used no force, and became experi- 
enced and qualified for greater labors in the Lord's service. But 
the greatest value, in a correct explanation of that saying of 
Jesus, lies, I think, in the help it gives us to understand the meaning 
and purport of other tests, or extreme points of trial, sometimes 
seemingly entirely out of keeping with the spirit of the gospel, 
administered to the Saints in other ways, to impress the solemnity of 
the covenants which they have entered into. Their proper com- 
parison to these similar cases out of the Bible is, in my estimation 
of incalculable value, especially for the young people to under- 
stand. 

Confer, Ordain, Set Apart. 

A boy who is a deacon, is to be ordained a priest. In the ordina- 
tion, is it proper to say, We set you apart as a priest? Should not the 
words, We ordain you, be used? 

Yes; ordain should be used. In this connection it is well 
to remember that in the matter of the bestowal of the priest- 
hood, there is no set or prescribed form; but it is proper and fit- 
ting to confer the priesthood; so also, to ordain to one of the 
offices of the priesthood; and to set apart, in appointing or assign- 
ing a person to fill a temporary place or position; as, for in- 
stance, to be a home or foreign missionary, to be a president or 
counselor of an auxiliary organization, etc. In other words, 
confer the priesthood, ordain to an office in the priesthood, and 
set apart to a temporary position in the Church. 



'MAN PROPOSES." 



Replying to the request to give the moral of the story bear- 
ing the above title, in the March Era, a large number of young 



NOTES. ' 469 

men have forwarded their answers. Out of the number, we have 
selected the following, which are samples of the best received: 

As the stars differ from each other in size and brilliancy, so differ 
people from each other in temperament, fancies and tastes. All people 
cannot be taught and led in the same way. Some are strong willed, 
others mild. In governing them, we must deal accordingly. — Syl- 

VANUS IVERSON. 

Solve your own problems, rather than copy entirely from the slate 
of your neighbor.— Edmund W. Carbine. 

Some girls have to have their minds made up for them; some don't. 
—Erin Quist. 



NOTES. 



Let no man talk of freedom until he is sure he can govern himself. 
— Goethe. 

Every kindness done to others in our daily walk, every attempt to 
make others happy, every prejudice overcome, is a step nearer the life 
of Christ.— Dean Stanley. 

There is no duty so much underrated as the duty of being happy. By 
being happy we sow anonymous benefits upon the world, which remain 
unknown even to ourselves, or, when they are disclosed, surprise nobody 
so much as the benefactor. 

The giraffe once had a short neck, — that was all he had expressed 
of himself, — but his pasture ran short and he began to reach up for the 
pakn leaves. He reached and looked, and reached again. This exercise 
stretched his neck, until it is now long enough to reach the palm tops, so 
it has ceased to grow longer. As long as he kept reaching out, his neck 
kept growing. 

As long as we aspire, look up and not down, as long as we keep 
stretching our minds over great problems, we shall continue to grow. 

Some guilty people might be taken for innocent, if they were not, 
like the Scotchman, too anxious to have people believe a lie. It is told 
of a certain prominent Englishman, that while, on one occasion, he was 



470 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

writing a letter in a restaurant, he noticed a Scotchman reading it over 
his shoulder. The letter concluded as follows: "I would write more if it 
were not for a inquisitive Scotchman, who is looking over my shoul- 
der and reading every word I write." 

"It's a Ke, sir," shouted the Scotchman, "I haven't seen a word." 

The great prizes of life do not fall to the most brilliant, to the 
cleverest, to the shrewdest, to the most long-headed, or to the best edu- 
cated, but to the most level-headed men, to the men of soundest judg- 
ment. When a man is wanted for a responsible position, his shrewdness 
is not considered so important as his sound judgment. Reliability is 
what is wanted. Can a man stand without being tripped; and, if he is 
thrown, can he land upon his feet? Can he be depended upon, relied 
upon under all circumstances to do the right thing, the sensible thing? 
Has the man a level head? Has he good horse sense? Is he liable to 
fly off on a tangent or to "go off half-cocked?" Is he "faddy?" Has he 
"wheels in his head?" Does he lose his temper easily, or can he control 
himself? If he can keep a level head under all circumstances, if he can 
not be thrown off his balance, and is honest, he is the man wanted. — 
Success. 

The most effectual way to avoid the temptation to wrong-doing is 
to fill the mind, the heart, and the life full of right-doing. The inculca- 
tion of good manners and good morals will be the inevitable result of 
this thorough development of the whole nature of the child to be realized 
in the school of the future. 

And for the part that horticulture will take in the work of the 
school of the future and the moral lesson it will teach the child, let us 
listen to these words of Henry Ward Beecher: 

"The sun does not shine for a few trees and flowers only, but for the 
wide world's joy. The lonely pine on the mountain top waves its dark 
boughs and cries, 'Thou art my sun!' The grain in the field calls out> 
'Thou art my sun!' 

"God sits glorious in heaven, not for a favored few, but for all- 
and there is no creature so poor or so low that he may not look up with 
child-like trust and say, 'My Father, Thou art mine!' " — Maxwell's Talis- 
man. 



IN LIGHTER MOOD. 



Friend: "Did you get the appointment?" 
Office-seeker: "Nah! I got the disappointment!" 

"The evening wore on," continued the man who was telling the 
story. 

"Excuse me," interrupted the would-be wit; "but can you tell us 
what the evening wore on that occasion?" 

"I don't know that it is important," replied the story-teller. "But 
if you must know, I believe that it was the close of a summer day." — 
Commercial Tribune. 

One day Senator Hoar was joined in the corridor of the Capitol by 
a former colleague, and as they approached the entrance to the Senate 
Chamber, Mr. Hoar motioned his companion to pass in first. 

"After you," said the ex-senator, drawing back. 

"No, indeed" retorted Senator Hoar; "the X's always go before the 
wise." 

"When I hear a man boast that he is conservative," said Thomas 
Taggart, chairman of the National Democratic Committee, "I am re- 
minded of a story told of William Travers, the stuttering joker, once 
famous in New York. 

"Travers went to the halt in which the Siamese Twins were first ex- 
hibited in this country. He gazed at them for a time as they sat with 
the bond of flesh that united them exposed to view. Then Travers, 
with his face as serious as an owl, remarked, 'B-b-b-brothers, I p-p-pre- 
sume?'" 

You must not be sure you have a bov's heart because you have his 
ear. A teacher recently required an unusually obstreperous boy to 
remain after school, so that she could have a heart-to-heart talk with 
him. She kept him for a time, and gave him such counsel as seemed to 
move his heart. He looked at her straight and attentively, until she 
felt she had succeeded. She only realized the futility of her effort when, 
after she had concluded, he said calmly to her: "Teacher, it's your lower 
jaw that moves when you talk, ain't it?" 



472 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

The Denver Republican gives this incident as an illustration of the 
current saying, "As broad as it is long." It also shows that there are 
other places besides southern Utah where the country is dry: 

A man who drove across the country last summer to a little town 
in western Kansas met a farmer hauling a wagon-load of water. 

"Where do you get water?" he asked. 

"Up the road about seven miles," the farmer replied. 

"And you haul water seven miles for your family and stock?" 

"Yep." 

"Whv in the world don't you dig a well?" asked the traveler,excitedly. 

"Because, stranger," the farmer said, calmly, "it's just as fur one 
way as the other." 

This is a good one with which to meet the ward bishops. It has 
probably never before suggested itself to men in these parts who evade 
giving their share of money for meetinghouse expenses. It is told by 
Harper's Weekly that in a suburb of New York City a priest of one of 
the churches announced that a collection would be taken up to defray 
the cost of coal for heating the church. Nearly everyone in the parish 
contributed except one Muldoon. 

A day or two thereafter, the priest, happening to meet Muldoon,said: 

"Dennis, why didn't you give something towards the coal bill?" 

Whereupon Dennis gave his reverence a sly wink. 

"Come, come, father," he said. "The idea of your thrying to make 
us believe the money is wanted to buy coal for the church, whin I as well 
as your riverence knows that it's heated by steam!" 

William T. Dantz, who was with President Roosevelt while he was 
a western rancher, relates in Harper's Weekly an incident illustrative of 
the president's temper — although, he says, it is the only time he ever 
knew it to get away from him. It was during the last round-up of cat- 
tle, and Roosevelt and Dantz were saddle comrades and bedmates. It 
was a stormy night, and they went to bed — which consisted of tarpaulin- 
covered-blankets on the wet ground— tired and hungry, the rain having 
drowned the cook's fire. "Hardly had we turned in," says Mr. Dantz, 
"when a night rider slashed a wet lariate across our bed, calling out, 
'All hands out; cattle breaking away!' With a groan I slipped out side- 
ways, and gripped in the darkness for my pony's picket-line. Suddenly 
I heard a burst of picturesque language, the gist of which was a general 
malediction on tne country, the man who made it, the men who lived in 
it, and the blankety-blank fool that would leave God's country for such a 
blankety-blank wilderness' — but there are certain situations too sacred 
to be described." 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH 

BY JOSEPH F. SMITH, JR. 



Local— February, 1905. 

Died. — Thursday, 2nd, in Pleasant Grove, Thomas C. Beck, born in 
Buckinghamshire, England, March 23, 1840, came to Utah with his par- 
ents in 1848. — Wednesday, 8th, in Fairview, Emmeline P. Miner, born 
Dec. 6, 1844, in Hancock county, Illinois, crossed the plains in 1853, and 
settled in Springville. — Sunday, 12th, in Hyde Park, George Seamour, a 
pioneer of Cache county, who crossed the plains in 1853. He was a 
member of the 17th quorum of Seventy and was born in Feb., 1838, in 
Suffolk, England. — Monday, 13th, in Bountiful, Newton Tuttle, born in 
North Haven, Connecticut, in 1835, joined the Church and crossed the 
plains in 1854. — Tuesday, 14th, in Provo, Julia D. Strong, born Sept. 28. 
1832, in Gloucestershire, England, emigrated in 1852. — Tuesday, 14th, in 
Newton, Cache county, Ann D. Jenkins, aged 85 years, born in Wales, 
and a resident of Utah since 1861. — On the same day, in West Weber, 
Samuel F. Walker, born Jan. 2, 1836, in Yorkshire, England, emigrated in 
1861. — Wednesday, 15th, in Sugar, Salt Lake county, James Briggs, vet- 
eran of the Blackhawk War, born in Manchester, England, Jan. 4, 1845, 
came to Utah in 1856. — Friday, 17th, in Provo, Mrs. Ann Jones, born 
March 16, 1816, in Brymbo, Wales, emigrated in 1856. — In Ogden, 18th, 
Catherine M. Rolapp, mother of Judge Henry H. Rolapp, born July 20, 
1830, in Germany, and a resident of Utah since 1891. — Monday ,20th, in 
Beaver, John X. Smith, a pioneer of southern Utah, born Northampton, 
England, Sept. 9, 1828, came to Utah in 1851. For many years he was 
Bishop of Beaver ward. — Tuesday, 21st, in Salt Lake City, William 
Pinney, superintendent of city school building construction of Salt Lake 
City, born London, July 10, 1843, and emigrated to Utah in 1866. — 
Wednesday, 22nd, in North Ogden, Wesley Rose, one of the oldest resi- 
dents of that place. He was born March 23, 1821, on Lake Erie, was 
baptized in 1838, and came to Utah in 1850.— Tuesday, 23rd, W. A. 



474 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Nelden, wholesale druggist of Salt Lake City, formerly member of the 
Board of Education, committed suicide at his residence. — Saturday, 25th r 
in Baker City, Oregon, Mary K. Stoker, born in Abbyfale, County Lim- 
erick, Ireland, May 6, 1841, came to Utah with her parents in 1852. — 
In Provo, Sunday, 26th, John G. Coultrin, son of Zebedee and Mary M. 
Coultrin, born in Nauvoo 62 years ago, came to Utah in 1852. 

The Smelter Smoke Trobble.— On Thursday, 23rd, the Salt Lake 
county Board of Health served notice on the smelter companies in Salt 
Lake county notifying them that at a meeting of the county board of 
health of Salt Lake county, Utah, held Feb. 16, 1905, the smoke and 
fumes arising from their smelters were declared to be a public nuisance, 
and the same was ordered abated immediately. 

The companies on which this notice was served are: United Smelt- 
ing company, Utah Consolidated Mining company, Bingham Copper & 
Gold Mining company, and Bingham Consolidated Mining company. 

Elder L. John Nuttall dead. — Thursday, 24th, Leonard John 
Nuttall, a widely known citizen of the State died unexpectedly, at 
his home in Salt Lake City. He was the son of William and Mary Lang- 
horn Nuttall, and was born in Liverpool, England, July 6, 1834. In the 
year 1852, he emigrated, and made his home in Provo where he took an 
active part in Church work and in the suppression of Indian outbreaks 
in that section. He was ordained a teacher, February 22, 1857, a 
seventy, May 19, of that same year; and in 1867, he became a High 
councilor in the Utah stake. In 1874-75 he filled a mission in Great 
Britain, and in August, 1875, just after his return home, was ordained a 
bishop and set apart to preside over the Kanab ward and the six adjoin- 
ing settlements. This position he held until April 17, 1877, when he was 
called to preside over the Kanab Stake of Zion. In June, 1879, he 
became private secretary to President John Taylor, and held this posi- 
tion until President Taylor's death. Elder Nuttall was also private sec- 
retary to President Wilford Woodruff, until 1892, when he was given 
work that took him more into the open air, because of his failing health. 
Since that time he has been constantly employed in the interest of the 
Relief societies, looking after the real estate matters of the wards and 
stakes, and also the legal interests of that society. At the time of his 
death he was an active member of the Deseret Sunday School Union, and 
the board of Religion Classes of the Church. From 1881 to 1887, he 
served as Territorial Superintendent of District Schools. The funeral 
was under the direction of the Deseret Sunday School Union, and inter- 
ment took place in the Provo cemetery. Elder Nuttall was a useful 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 475 

man, possessed of sterling characteristics and active in good works all 
his days. 

Alfred B. Lambson, Pioneer of 1847, dead.— In Salt Lake City, 
Sunday, 26th, Alfred B. Lambson, son of Boaz and Polly Walworth Lamb- 
son, a pioneer of 1847, died. Elder Lambson was born in Royalton, 
Niagara county, New York, Aug. 27, 1820; joined the Church in Nauvoo, 
April 4, 1844, was ordained a seventy April 13, 1844, and filled a mis- 
sion in Virginia that same year, being called home to Nauvoo on account 
of the martyrdom. He married Melissa Jane Bigler, November 25, 1845, 
and was endowed in the Nauvoo Temple. He crossed the plains in Daniel 
Spencer's company, in 1847, arriving in Salt Lake valley September 25, 
1847. He was a mechanic of great ability, and forged all the mill irons 
used in the first seven mills in Utah, excepting those brought over the 
plains, and used in the miH of Isaac Chase. He also forged all the dies, 
punches, etc., pertaining to the Deseret Mint, excepting the drop-ham- 
mer forged by Martin Peck. Elder Lambson's house, which is still stand- 
ing, was the first house plastered in Salt Lake City. From 1852 to 1854, 
he filled a mission in the West Indies and passed through many trying 
scenes during pioneer days. 

Senator Kearns' Speech. — The presenting of a joint resolution 
providing for a constitutional amendment prohibiting polygamy, by 
Senator Dubois, of Idaho, Monday, 27th, in the United States Senate, 
gave to Senator Kearns the opportunity, on the 28th, to read an abusive, 
malignant speech — doubtless prepared for him for the occasion— against 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and its officers. He 
falsely accused the authorities of the Church with controlling the State of 
Utah, politically, in business, and in various other ways, to the detriment 
of the people of the state; of using the tithing of the Latter-day Saints 
for private purposes, and of placing burdens upon the Saints that they 
were not able to bear. The speech was received with poor grace, many 
of the Senators looking upon the effort as being founded in the disap- 
pointment on the part of Mr. Kearns in not being able to control the 
authorities of the Church or get their support to further his political 
ambitions. 

Winter of 1904-5. — Early in the month of February the tempera- 
ture in Utah began to fall, due to a cold wave which passed over the 
State. On the 12th, the thermometer in Salt Lake City registered 4. 2 
degrees below zero, being the coldest day of the season. It then rapidly 
rose, and at noon, 19th, registered 50 degrees. Since that time, spring 



476 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

weather has prevailed. The winter of 1904-05, in Utah, has been one 
of the mildest in the history of the State. 

Local.— March, 1905. 

Utah Land District Bill. — On the 3rd, the president of the United 
States signed the Smoot bill dividing Utah into two land districts. The 
bill passed the Senate on the 28th of February. The Uintah reservation 
will be included in the new land district, while the new land office will 
likely be located in Vernal. The plats of the reservation are being held 
for filing in the new office. 

Terrikle Accident at Granger.— One of the worst accidents in 
the history of the Church occurred in the Granger ward meetinghouse, 
Tuesday evening, March 7, during the services of the Mutual Improve- 
ment Associations of that ward. It was caused by the explosion of an 
acetylene gas tank, in the basement of the building, during the prelim- 
inary program, and just before the separation of the young people for 
class work. Nellie Mackay, daughter of Elder David Mackay, was killed, 
and about twenty-six others were painfully injured. The walls of the 
building were wrenched, parts having been carried entirely away, while 
the roof was raised from the building by the concussion. Miss Mackay 
was singing a sacred solo; the organ by which she stood was nearly di- 
rectly over the gas tank, in a position to receive almost the full force of 
the explosion. The meeting house was shaken to its foundation, and 
when lights were brought to the darkened room, it was evident that the 
pulpit had been blown to the ceiling, carrying with it the organ, which 
fell upon Miss Mackay and killed her. The pulpit was splintered into bits 
of wood as small as a lead pencil. The building was completely ruined. 
The organist, a daughter of Commissioner W. J, Home, miraculously es- 
caped without serious injury, being caA-ied the entire length of the 
house, landing on one of the men at the opposite end of the hall. It is 
marvelous that there were no other fatalities, and clearly a miracle that 
all were not killed. The gas plant has been used in the building for 
several years, and the reason for the calamitous occurrence has not been 
discovered. 

Died.— In Logan, Wednesday 1st, Benjamin Williams, a native of 
Wales, born in 1824, embraced the Gospel in 1853, coming soon there- 
after to Utah, where he has always been an active Church worker. The 

same day, in Levan, John W. Shepherd, born at Charlotts Place, South- 
ampton, England, March 27, 1831; baptized May 29, 1849, and a resident 
of Utah since 1866. — Thursday, 2nd, in pleasant Grove, Thomas C. Beck 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 477 

born in Wolverhampton, England, March 23, 1840, and came to Utah in 
1848. — In Payson, Monday, 6th, Lucinda Windward, born in Grassfield, Can- 
ada, September 24, 1837,received the Gospel in Nauvoo,and came to Utah 
in 1855. — In Lehi, the same day, Alexander Loveridge, a pioneer of that 
place, born April 14, 1828, in Ontario county, N. Y. — The same day, in 
Provo, Mrs. Ann Bolton Smith, widow of Alma Smith, and a pioneer of 
1847, born in New York, 64 years ago. She was the daughter of Curtis 
E. and Rebecca Bolton. — Wednesday, 8th, in Riverdale, Weber county, 
Eliza Clough, aged 80 years. — In Ogden, Wednesday, 8th, Sarah M. 
Tharp, born May 12, 1811, at Zanesville, Ohio. — Sunday, 12, in Dewey- 
ville, Matilda Evans, of Lehi, widow of Israel Evans who served in the 
Mormon Battalion. She was one of Utah's early pioneers. — On the same 
day in Ogden, the funeral of Lucy Seager, a pioneer of Weber county, 
was held. 

Domestic. — February, 1905. 
The Statehood Bill. — On the 27th, the Senate of the United 
States passed the Statehood bill, after amending it so as to admit Okla- 
homa and Indian Territory as one state, and New Mexico as another, 
leaving Arizona a territory. The original bill, as it passed the House, 
in April, 1904, provided for the admission of Oklahoma and Indian Ter- 
ritory as one state, and New Mexico and Arizona as another. The ac- 
tion of the Senate was displeasing to the members of the House, many of 
whom declared that they would not vote for the bill in its present form. 

Death op General Lew Wallace. — On Wednesday, 15th, General 
Lew Wallace, author, soldier and diplomat, died at his home in Craw- 
fordville, Indiana. He was born in Brookville, Franklin county, Indi- 
ana, in 1827, and fought through the Civil war, in the Eleventh Indiana 
Volunteers. He served in West Virginia, first as an adjutant-general, 
and then as brigadie*r-general, commanding a division at Donelson; and 
in 1862 he was made major-general. General Wallace passed through 
many notable engagements of the war, including Shiloh, the defense of 
Cincinnati, and the battle of Monocacy. He was also a member of the 
court that tried the assassins of President Lincoln, and president of the 
court that tried and convicted Henry Wirz, the commandant of Ander. 
sonville prison. From 1878 to 1881, he was Governor of New Mexico, 
from 1881 to 1885, Minister to Turkey. Among his writings are Ben 
Hur, which appeared in 1880, one of the most popular novels ever writ- 
ten; The Life of General Harrison, 1888; The Fair God, 1873; The Boy- 
hood of Christ, 1888; The Prince of India, 1893; and The Wooing of 
Malkatoon, 1898. 



478 IMPRO VEMENT ERA . 

Fatal Mine Explosion in Alabama. — In a coal mine at Virginia, 
Alabama, on the 20th, 116 men were imprisoned by an explosion which 
closed the entrance of the mine. The workmen near the entrance were 
killed by the explosion and the others suffocated before aid could reach 
them. Nearly one hundred families, and about three hundred children 
are left destitute through the terrible accident. 

Acquittal of Judge Swaynb. — The United States Senate, on the 
27th, acquitted Judge Charles Swayne, of Florida, of all the charges 
entered against him in the impeachment trial which has been pending 
before the Senate for some time. 

Domestic. — March, 1905. 

President Roosevelt and Cabinet. — The inauguration of Pres- 
dent Theodore Roosevelt as president of the United States, and Charles 
W. Fairbanks as vice-president, took place in Washington, on the 4th, 
attended with elaborate ceremonies. The oath of office was administered 
by Chief Justice Fuller. On the 6th, the president sent to the Senate for 
confirmation the names of the members of the cabinet. They were con- 
firmed, and are as follows: John Hay, District of Columbia, Secretary 
of State; Leslie M. Shaw, Iowa, Secretary of the Treasury; William H. 
Taf t, Ohio, Secretary of War; William H. Moody, Massachusetts, Attorney- 
General; George B. Cortelyou, New York, Postmaster-General; Paul 
Morton, Illinois, Secretary of the Navy; Ethan A. Hitchkock, Missouri, 
Secretary of the Interior; James Wilson, Iowa, Secretary of Agricul- 
ture; Victor H. Metcalf, California, Secretary of Commerce and Labor. 

Deaths of Notable Persons, — Mrs. Jane Stanford, widow of Sen- 
ator Leland Stanford, of California, died in Honolulu, on the 1st. She 
had largely endowed the Leland Stanford University, and was one of the 
most benevolent women of the United States. — Ex-Senator Edward 0. 
Wolcott, of Colorado, died on the same day in Monte Carlo, France, 
where he had gone to benefit his heabh. He was a Republican in politics, 
and served two terms in the United States Senate, from 1889 to 1901. — 
Judp;e John H. Regan, the sole survivor of the Confederate Cabinet, died 
at Palestine, Texas, on the 6th, aged 86 years. — On the 9th, Senator Wil- 
liam B. Bate, of Tennessee, twice governor of that State, Congressman for 
over eighteen years, and a veteran of the Mexican and Civil wars, died 
suddenly in Washington. He was 78 years of age. 

Foreign.— February, 1905. 

The Simplon Tunnel.— The piercing of the Simplon tunnel through 
the Alps, connecting Switzerland with Italy, was completed Friday morn- 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 479 

ing, February 24, at 7:20 o'clock. This work was commenced in 1898, 
and during its progress many difficult problems had to be solved, and 
many unexpected obstacles were encountered. The work of preparing 
the tunnel for a permanent railway will be pushed as rapidly as possible. 
The piercing of the tunnel is regarded as one of the greatest engineer- 
ing achievements of the age. Its length from Brigue, Switzerland, to 
Iselle, Italy, is about twelve miles. 

Affairs in Russia. — On the 8th another strike began in Russia, 
owing to the failure of employers to concede to the demands of the 
workmen. Further outbreaks occurred in Poland, on the 9th, and the 
following day troops fired on the strikers at Sosonovice and at Lodz, 
many were killed and wounded. About the 23rd, the workmen in all the 
factories in the Czarinakawsa district, the chief manufacturing district 
of Warsaw, struck. On the 20th, the students, professors and directors 
of the University of St. Petersburg held a meeting and voted to close 
the institution till fall, and adopted resolutions boldly demanding liberty 
throughout the empire. Most of the railroads at the close of the month 
were under martial law. The country between the Black and Caspian 
seas was in revolt, and the situation throughout the country appeared to 
be growing worse. 

Berlin Cathedral Dedicated. — On February 27, the consecra 
tion of the New Lutheran Cathedral, in Berlin, took place, and is one of 
the events of international importance in the religious world. It is in- 
tended that the Berlin "Dome'' as it is called shall be a universal cathe- 
dral for all Protestants, as St. Peters at Rome, is for all Catholics. The 
German Emperor has said: "I should like Protestants everywhere to 
feel that they have an interest in this building, have a pride in it, and 
feel welcome here of right." The following gives an idea of the size, 
uses and cost of the magnificent structure, one of the great buildings of 
the world: 

The new Cathedral, or Dome, of Berlin was projected by the late 
Emperor Frederick and his Empress as a kind of Westminster Abbey of 
Germany, and has been fourteen years in building. In the immense 
crypts already lie the bones of eighty-seven Hohenzollerns, and in future, 
besides the sovereigns, the great German dead will be placed there. 

The building is 341 feet long, as against the 500 feet of St. Paul's, 
London. The cupola, with the lantern, rises to a height of 325 feet 
from the pavement, while that of St. Paul's is 365 feet high. The two 
bell towers at the west end are 211 feet high. 

The corner-stone of the cathedral was laid in 1894. The Prussian 



480 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Diet contributed $2,500,000 to its erection, but this sufficed only for 
the actual building. The very elaborate decoration and mosaic work is 
as yet hardly begun. The organ, with 7,000 tubes, is the largest in the 
world, except that at Riga. The church is built of yellow sandstone, 
though vari-colored marble has been employed for pillars. The archi- 
tect is Professor Raschdorff, the style a mingling of Byzantine and 
Romanesque. 

Foreign. — March, 1905. 

Russia's Trouble.— On the 1st, the governor-general of Poland, 
proclaimed a partial state of siege in the governments of Kalisz, Lublin, 
Kielce, and Lomza. The strike on the Vistula railway was subdued, and 
train service was resumed. On the 3rd, the Czar called on the people to 
rally around the throne and defend the country from internal enemies, 
during the times of trouble in the far East. In the afternoon of the 
same day, he published a rescript granting the people's demands for a 
popular assembly, but stoutly declared for "the absolute immutability of 
the fundamental laws of the empire." The first was prepared by the 
Holy Synod, the second by his Ministers, hence the apparent contradic- 
tion, showing his vacillation. 

Fall of Mukden and Kuropatkin.— At 10 o'clock on the morn- 
ing of Friday, 10th,Field-Marshal Oyama captured Mukden, the headquar- 
ters of the Russian army, after a determined and continuous struggle, 
lasting since the latter part ©f February. The extent of the disaster to 
the Russian forces has not been fully determined, but they lost heavily 
on the field of battle, in prisoners and in supplies. It is estimated that 
between 40,000 and 60,000 prisoners were taken by the Japanese. Gen- 
eral Kuropatkin, with his demoralized forces, is retreating towards Tie 
Pass, pursued by the Japs. Kuropatkin was dismissed with disgrace, on 
the 17th, and General Linevitch succeeded as commander-in chief of the 
Manchurian army. An army of 450,000 new soldiers will immediately 
be mobilized and sent to the front, so it is declared; though this is gen- 
erally considered bravado, intended to secure an offer of acceptable 
peace terms from Japan. 



WH H-M M ■ : ■■ ! ■ H-H - M 11 1 " ! H 1 



FREE OFFER 



For 30 days 



Will place a Piano or Organ 
in your home, free of charge, 
for 30 days trial on your ask- 
ing. 

Remember we sell a good 
Piano for $250 00. $10.00 cash 
down, balance $8.00 per month. 

Write us for full informa- 
tion. 



t Everything Known in Music. 

Carstensen & 
| Anson Co., inc. 

TEMPLE OF MUSIC. 

X 74 Main Street, - Salt Lake City. 



• H - H - M I I I I I 1 1 1 > 



f The "1900" WASHEHi! 

Saves Women's Lives. 



i .. 




The Only 

PERFECT 
WASHING 
MACHINE. 



too ii use : : 

II UTAH ' ' 



Washes Lace Curtains without . ■ 
breaking a thread and Carpets || 
with perfect ease. 

Price $12.00 

Money refunded in 30 r'aya if not J j 
satisfactory. 

JL Jos. F. Hanson Furniture Co , Gen. Agents, 
Brlgham City, Utah. 

Barnes-Hardy Co , Local Agt«,Salt Lake City 

Write for Particulars & Testimonials 



4 | . | .. 1 ,. | .. H-H " | " 1 " M » M " H " 1 " 1 " I .. 1 .- I » 1 - I » H . - H-I -I M -I-- I -- I - 1 I-I- I - I - I -I- ^ - I - I - I - I - I - I - I - I -*- 



"THAT 
GOOD 
COflLt." 

A Comfort Insurance 
Policy. 



161 JWeighn St. 



Successor to 
PLEASANT VALLEY 
COAL CO. 



, 



I DR. J. THOMAS, I 



DENTIST. 



26 S. Main St., 



Salt Lake City. -► 



♦ 

X 

4444444 ++4+++-H-M +444+ 444+ 



i 




THE RIO GWDE WESTEflji 

. . . AND . . . 

THEDEjMERfllWfllOGflAjWE 

Best Local Train Service Id Utah. 

From ten to forty minutes the fastest line 
between Ogden, Salt Lake City, Lehi, Ameri- 
can Fork, Provo, Mammoth, Eureka and all 
points in Sanpete, Sevier and south. 

3 FAST TRAINS DAILY 

to all Eastern points, with through sleeping 
and [dining cars to Denver, Omaha, 
Kansas. City, St. Louis and Chicago. 
MAGNIFICENT[SCENERY EN ROUTE. J* J J* 

For'Rates, etc., enquire of Local Agent or 

write "-^^— ^ 

I. A. BENTON, 

General Agent, Salt Lake City 



Ore^oi? Sfyort Cipe Railroad 

Operating 1262 Miles of Railroad through 
the thriving Stales of 

UTAH, IDAHO, WYOMING, OREGON and MONTANA. 




THE ONLY ROMD 



To BUTTE, HELENA, PORTLAND, and the NORTH PACIFIC COAST. 



FIVE DAILY TRAINS BETWEEN SALT LAKE CITY AND OGDEN 



The Fastest Service to all Points East. 



BUY YOUR TICKETS VIA THE SHORT LINE," UTAH'S 
FAVORITE RAILROAD. 

gty SkKet Office, |fo. 201 (T\aii) Street, Salt Cal^e Qty. 

I. M. SCHUMACHER, Traffic Mgr. D. E. BURLEY, Gen. P. & T A. 

W. H. BANCROFT, Vice-Preht. and Gen. Mgr. 

(When writing to Advertisers, please mention the Era.) 



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..CARPENTERS' TOOLS.. 

An Important Branch of 
Hardcuare. 

We can supply any number of full Kits of the best tools man- 
ufactured. Many tools are necessary articles in every family, 
occasions to use them being of almost daily occurrence. 

The superior quality of our tools is universally recognized. 
Carpenters and joiners are unanimous in praising them. All our 
hardware is spoken of in a similar strain. We make a point of 
carrying nothing but the best goods in every line, and our prices 
are the lowest at which the best goods can be sold. 



^7 C* 1\ZT I Utah ' s Greatest 



Department Store 



8SSS8SSSSS8SSSSSSS3SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS8SSS8SSSSSSSS8SSSSSSSSSS 



R.K.TH0PS DRY GOODS GO. 



Do you like to buy where you can feel at home, where 
the light is the best, where the store is warm in winter 
and cool in summer, where the salespeople are ready, 
attentive and anxious to wait on you, where the manage- 
ment uses its long experience in placing before you de- 
sirable merchandise at the lowest prices? Where, if you 
have twenty-five cents to epend you can save your car 
fare, and if you have a dollar to spend you can save a 
quarter. We offer all this to you. Our regular custo- 
mers know this; you try us too, and n ake your purchas- 
ing a pleasure. When you leave your dollars at our store, 
you'll be as pleased with our goods as we are in having 
your patronage. Where else can you find such mutual 
satisfaction ? 

H. K- THOMAS DRY GOODS GO. 

67-69-71 Main St. 

(When writing to Advertisers, please mention the Bra.)