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IMPERIAL GAZETTEER. 




BENGAL, 

* 

PATNA DIVISION. 



CnlrnitR: 

THK BENGAL BEOEETABIAT BBEBS. 
1907 




PATNA DIVISION 


CONTENTS. 


Patna Division ... ... 

Patna District 

Qonndariesj confignratioD, and bill and river system 
Geology ... 

Botany- 

Banna ... ... ... ... 

dimato and tcmperatnro .» ... 

History ... ... ... ... 

Archoialogy ... ... ... 

The people ••• ••• 

Tbeir castes and oconpations ... ... 

Christian Musions ««• ••• 

General agricnliiiral conditions ... 

Cluef agdealtnrsl stotiatics and princiyal crops 
Cattle «ff« ••• MS 

Irrigation ••• 

Arts and mannfaoturoe ... ... 

Commorco ••• ot* 

Bailways and roads ... ... 

Water cornmnnications ... 

Famine ••• ••• 

District sub-divisions and stall ... ... 

Civil and criminal jastice ... ... 

Dand rovonne ... ... ... 

Docal and municipal government ... 

Police and jails ••• 

••• ••• 

Afodical «•« ••• 

ITsccination ... ... ... 

Biiliograjphy ••• ••• *•« 

Banklpore Sub-division ... 

Dlnapore Sub-dlvislon ... ... 



OOKT£KIS. 


«• 

U 


Patna District— e«nc?ui?e<{. 




tAOB 

Bath Suh-dlvlsion 

•ot 

•a* 

•a* 

le 

Bihar Sah*dlvlalon 

«•« 

aaa 

•aa 

ih 

Bakhtlyarpur 


••• 

• aa 

• aa 

16 

Bankipore Town 



aaa 

aaa 

ih 

Baragaon 


• •• 

• at 

•a* 

ih 

Barh Town 


•u* 

aaa 

aaa 

17 

Bihar Town 



••• 

aaa 

ih 

Dlnapore Town 



**• 

•a* 

ih 

Fatwa ... 



aaa 

aaa 

18 

Gllrlak „. 

••• 


• as 

aaa 

ih 

EUlea 



aaa 


19 

Khagaul 


aaa 

aar 

aaa 

ih 

Manor 


• •a 

•a* 

aaa 

ih 

Mokameh 

••• 

«aa 

• aa 

aaa 

ih 

Patna City 

••• 

•aa 

•a* 

•a* 

ih 

£uly history 

••• 


aaa 

aaa 

20 

Mameipolity 



••• 

aaa 

23 

Pemapiul. 

• »* 

••a 

•aa 

aaa 

24. 

Phnlwari 


••a 

•aa 

•aa 

ih 

Bodglr ... 



aaa 

aaa 

a 

BUao ... 


• aa 

•aa 

••a 

SB 

Gaya District 

»• 

aa* 

• a* 

• *• 

ih 

Boundorios, configuration, and hill and 

rircr s> stems 

••• 

ih 

Geology ... 

• •• 

••• 

•a* 

•a* 

20 

Botany ... 

••• 

••• 

••• 

••• 

27 

Banna ... 

••• 

••a 

••• 

• la 

28 

CJhnato and temperatnro 


aaa 

• •• 

ih 

ffataral calamities 

• •• 

•#• 

• aa 

• aa 

ih 

History 

••• 

•aa 

aaa 

••• 

2'8 

'ArchBology 


aaa 

•aa 

• •• 

it 

Tho people 

••• 

••• 

aaa 

• aa 

si 

Their eastes and ocenpations 

••• 

aaa 

aaa 


Christian Missions 


•a# 

aaa 

•aa 

d 

General agricultural conditions 

••• 

•a* 


d 

Chiol agricultural statistics and priniapal crops 

•aa 

33 

Csttlo ... 

••• 

•aa 

• a* 

••• 

ih 

Irrigation 


••a 

•a* 

• aa 

3« 

Minerals 

• •• 


•aa 

•aa 

ih 

Arts and manufactures 

•aa 

»aa 


so 

Commerce 

••• 


aaa 

• aa 

ih 

Bsiltrays and roods 

••• 

••a 

a ■ 

•*• 

80 

Water ccnunttnicalions 


• aa 


ih 



CONTENTS. 


iii 


Gaya District — concluded. 

famine ••• ••• ••• aji 

District snli-diTisions and staff 
Civil and ciinunal jostice ... ... 

Landrevenne ... 

Ik)cb 1 and municipal goTemment ... 

Polioe and jails ... 

Education ... ... 

Medical a«« ••• 

V acmnation ... ... 

Sthliograjf%y ... ... ... 

Gaya Su]]>dlvialon ... ... 

ITawada Sub-dlvisloa ... 

Anrangabad Snb-divislon ... 

Jahanabad Sab-dlTislon 

Tekarl Bad ... ... ' ... 

Afsar «•« •«* 

Aurangabad Town ... ... 

Barabar Hills ... ... ... 

Buddh Gaya 

Daudnagar ... ... 

Deo ••• ••• 

Gaya Town ... ... ’ ... 

Hlsua ••• 

Jabanabad Town **• ••• 

Nawada Town ••• ••• ••• 

BajauU *•* fS* 

Sberghatl 
Tekarl Town 

Bhahabad Dlstrlot »»* tee 

Boundaries, oonfigurationi and bill and rirer system 
Geology ... ••• ttf 

Botany ... ... ... ... 

fauna ... ... ... ... 

I Climate end tompeiaturo ... ... 

ITatnral calamities ... «, ... 

Bistery 

Arohfflology ••• 

The people ••• #•« 

Their castes and oocupations fftt 

Christian Missions Mt tit 

General agricultural conditions ... 

Chief agricnUuial statistics and principal orops 


PAOB 

SS 

37 

t& 

ih 

59 
ih 
ih 
ih 
ih^ 
ih 
ih 

40 

ih 

41 

42 

43 
ih 

44 
40 
ih 
47 
49 
ih 
ih 
ih 
ih 

60 
ih 
ih 
SI 
ih 
ih 
ih 
ih 
62 
•b 

63 

64 
ih 
ih 
66 



CONTEKTS. 


iv 


Shababad District— 'emebtiM?. 


' 

, 

rxOE 

ImfroTements in ngrienlinral ptactico 

* ••• 

' ••■ 

. CS 

Oattio i..* 

a«* 

••* 


••i 

• 66 

Irrigation 

••• 

••• 


••• 

i ih 

AEincrals 

••• 


••• 


%b 

Arts and monnlactares 

•ft 

• •• 


1*6 

Commcrco 

• •• 

••• 

• *• 


«6 

Eailtrays and roads 


••• 

• »» 


67 

'Water commnnlcations 


• s» 

••• 

. i6 

ITamino ••• 


• •• 


#•• 

- : f6 

District sub'dirisions and stoiE 

••1 


• •• 

63 

Ciril and crinunal juatico 

••• 

•tl 

• •• 

t'6 

Land roTcnnc 

••• 




•5 

Local and mnnieipal goremment 

sit 

• I* 

69 

Police and jula 

•«* 

*•• 

••• 

•4« 

ih 

Pdneation 

••• 

• •• 

• •• 


ih 

Idedical ... 

••• 

■•• 

••• 

••• 

60 

Vacanation 


••* 

••• 

«•• 

ih 

Hkhliosrajihy 

•ts 

••• 

••• 

*•• 

ih 

Airab Sub-dlTlslon 

«•» 

••• 


a 

Bnxar Sab<dlvlsion 

••• 

••• 

• •• 

ib 

Saeamm Sub division 

••• 



ib 

Bhabua Sub>dlvlslon 

••• 

••• 

»»• 

111 

Dnmroon BoJ 

•ft 

••• 

• •• 

••• 

ib 

Airab. Town ' 


••• 

••• 

••• 

03 

Bhabna Torra 

••• 

• •t 

•ft 


6S 

Blblya ... 

-»• 



• •• 

1*6 

Busar Town 

••• 

••• 

• •• 

•f* 

64. 

Cholnpur 



••• 

••• 

{& 

Obausa ... 

••• 

••• 

«»■ 

••• 

ib 

Dsbrl 

••• 

••• 

• •• 


05 

Dumraon Town 

••• 

• •• 

••• 

••• 

ib' 

Jagdlspur 

••• 

••• 

••• 

••• 

ib 

Masar 

•M 

••• 

••• 

••• 

a' 

Mundeswarl 


••• 

• •• 

<•• 

d6‘ 

Bobtassarh 


••• 


••• 

. <b 

Sasaram Town 

•no 

• •• 


• •• 

6t 

Bhergarb 

••• 

••• 


••• 

ib 

Tllothn ... 

••• 

••• 


••• 

*6 

Saran District 

••• 

• •• 


••• 

68 

Bonndarics, conCgnration, and rircr system 

••• 


ib 

Geology 

••• 

••• 

• •• 

• •• 

09' 

Botany 

• •• 


••• 

• •« 

ib 



CX>KTSKTB, 


V 




crops 

••• 


Saran District— cone/nrf«f. 

Fanua ••• 

Climato and tcmpcratnra ... 

Flocids ••• 

Ilisfory ••• ••• ••• 

Tho people 

Tlicir castes and ccenpations ... 

Christian Missions 
General agricnlinral conditions ... 

Chief agricnltnrnl statistics and principal 
ZmproTomonts in agricnltural practico 
Cattlo ... ... ... 

Irrigation ••• *«• 

Minerals ••B ••• ••• 

Arts and mannfartarcs ... 

Commerce ... ... ... 

Bailn-ays and roads ... ... 

'Water communications ... 

Famine ... ... ... 

District snh-dirisions and staff ... 

CWil and CTiminal -jnstice ... 

Land rorenno ••t ••• 

Local and municipal gorernment 
Folico and jails ... 

Education ••• 

Medical ••• 

I'aceination •e* *»• 

Bihliography ... 

Obapra 6\ila.dlyIsIon ... 

Gopolganj Sub-dlvlBlon 
Slwan Sab-dlTlslon 
Hathwa BaJ ••• 

Gbapra Town ••• 

Gopalgaoj Vlllogo 
Mabamjganj • »* 

Mlrganj 

BovolganJ ••• ••• 

SIwan Town ••• ••• !*• 

^ Eonpur ••• 

O bamparan District ••• 

Donndarics, configuration, and hill and river syalcms 
Geology ••• ••• 

Botany ••e • «•» *■* 


• •• 

• •a 
B»* 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• tt 


• B« 


riLUB 

69 
il 
ib 
ib 

70 

71 
ib 
ib 

72 
ib 
ib 

73 
» 
ib 
ib 

74 
ib 
ib 
76 

ib 

76 
ib 
ib 

77 
ib 
ib 
ib 
ib 

78 
ib 
70 
ib 
SO 
ib 
ib 
ib 
ib 
81 
ib 
82 



VI 


CONTENTS. 


Ohamparan "Qisixldir-conelnicd. 



raoa 

Fauna ... ... 


t«a 

83 

Climato and tcmpcniinro 

lit 

•a* 

83 

Floods ... ... 

sas 


i6 

History and arcliffiology 

act 

a«a 

ib 

'The people ... ... 

• 4s 

aaa 

84 

Tlicir esatea and aacapatiana 

• • • 

*•» 

86 

Chiistian Muaiona ... 



a 

General agricnltural conditions 

• •• 

••• 

ib 

Cliief ogricolturat statistics and principal crops 


86 

Oattlo ... ... ... 

• •• 

aaa 

ib 

Irrigation ... ... 


aas 

ib 

Minerals ... ... ... 

S.. 

a*fl 

87 

Arts and manufactnres 


•a* 

ib 

Conunerco ... ... 


aaa 

88 

Bniliraja and roads - ... ... 


•a* 

ib 

Famino ... ... ... 


aaa 

ib 

District sub.dirisions and staC ... 

• •• 

aaa 

. 89 

Civil and cricninal juatico ... 


aa* 

ib 

Land roronuo ... ... 


••• 

ib 

Local and mnniaipal goromtnout 

• •• 

• la 

CO 

Police and jails ... ... 

• •• 

••a 

ib 

Education ... w. 

• •• 

aaa 

91 

IKIcdioal ... ... ... 

• •• 

aaa 

ib 

Yaccination ... 


•la 

a 

Jlillioyrajj/iy ... ... 


•1* 

ib 

Motlharl Sub.dlvlslon 



ib 

Bettiah Sub-dlvislon 


••• 

tb 

BoLLlab Haj ... ... 


••• 

02 

J^Tarod ... ... 

•at 

aaa 

03 

Bettlah To\7n 

••• 

«•! 

ib 

Kesarlya ... ... 

att 

• >a 

ib 

Laurlya Nandan^rb 

• •• 

aaa 

ib 

Motiharl Town 


• aa 

04 1 

Saga-oil 

• •• 


ib ' 

Muzaffarpur Dlstrlot ... 

• aa 

tta 

ib 

Boundaries, conSgorotion, and rirer system 

at* 

•aa 

ib 

Geology ... ... 


tri 

.OS 

Botany ... ... ... 

■ •a 

••• 

ib 

Fauna ... ... ... 


••• 

ib 

Climate ond temperature ... 

aaa 

aaa 

ib 

Katural calamities 


••• 

97 

History ... ... 

a«t 

•aa 

a 



OOHTISTB. 



•t 

vu 

Mnzafforpur District— rottc/ncfed 

} 

t 



FlOe 

ArcliEoolog; 

••• 



98 

TJio people . 1 . 

• a« 


• t* 

ib 

Tlieir caatos and occnpitions 


•as 

• •• 

99 

Chriatian Mtaaiona 

• •• 

aei 

• •• 

ib 

General agticaUnral conditions 


••• 

• e« 

ib 

CUcf agricultimt atntistica and principal crops 

taa 

100 

ImproTcmcnts in agricultnral practice 

til 

ssa 

101 

Cattio *** 

• •• 



ib 

Irrigation ... 



• »» 

ib 

Minerals ... ... 


att 


ib 

Arts and nannfaolnrcs 

• •• 

•an 


ib 

Commereo ... 


■ It 

• •• 

103 

Sailaraps and roads ... 


«»s 


103 

'Water cammiinicationB 


aas 

• •• 

101 

Famine ... ... 



ass 

ib 

District anb^risians and stniE 


• es 

••• 

105 

Cirli and criminal justice 


s»» 


ib 

Land rorenno ... 

• •• 

••• 

set 

ib 

Local and municipal gorernment 


• •a 

106 

FuUie worles ... 

• •• 



ib 

Police and jails 

••a 



107 

Fdneation ... 

••• 

ta« 

• »* 

tb 

Medical ... 

••• 



ib 

Pacemation ... 



••• 

ib 

’Billxography ... 

•t* 

«so 

»•« 

ib 

Muzatfarpur Sub-division 


•«e 

ass 

ib 

Sltamarbl Sub-dlvlsloa 

••• 


• aa 

103 

Hajlpor Sub-division 

••• 


aaa 

ib 

Balragnla ... 



• aaa 

ib 

Bosarb 

«*• 

• •• 

• a« 

109 

Hajipur Town 


•it 

aaa 

ib 

Iiolganj 

••• 

••• 

aaa 

110 

Muzafibrpuc Town 

•*» 

sea 

aaa 

ib 

Sltamarbl Town ... 



aft 

111 

Tlrbut 

• o» 


ao« 

113 

Darbbanga District ... 

••• 



ib 

DoundiricSj conCguration and river system 


»tf 

ib 

Geology ... 

*•« 


aaa 

lU 

Botany 

••• 


aal 

ib 

Fauna 


s*« 

fat 

ib 

Climate and tompomturc 


• ••• 

■ at 

ib 

History and arolimology 


sat 


115 



C0OTEKT6, 


Darbhansa District— 

The people ... ... 

Their onstes and ocoapaiions 
ChrisHan Missions ••• 

Gonoral agrionltaral conditions .n ... 

Chief agrionltaral statistics and prinoipai crops 
Improvements in agcicaltoral practioo ... 
Cattle ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Irrigation ••• ••• 

Minerals •** ••• •»» 

Arts and manufactnros ... 

Commerce 

Bailtva^s and roads ••• 

Water communications ... 

Famine t«4 ««4 •«* ••• 

District sub-divisions and statT ... ... 

Civil and criminal justice * ... ... 

Land rovenno ••• 

Local and municipal government ... 

Felice and jails ICC ICC 

Education ICC CCC ICC 

Medical ICC ICC 

Yaceination ... ... ... 

TJibliographS «•* ••• etc 

Darbhanga Sab-dlvlslon ... ... 

Madbubanl Sub-division 
Samastlpur Sub-division ... ... 

Darbhanga Baj .« 

Darbhanga Town ••• •«» 

*** • ICC 

Jhfvisjharpiir sac 

.Madbubanl Town 
Karabia ... 

Fusa ... 

Busera ... ... ... . 

Samastlpur Town «»c acc 

Sauratb •C« «aa Ilf 

Crott-reftrcucct (for Imperial Gaaoltcor oaljr) 


ICC 

CSC 

*•* 

lie 

ICC 

ecc 

•It 

Cl* 

ICC 

•sc 

tee 

c«» 

SCI 

•CC 

ftCC 

•sc 

ccc 

ICC 

ccc 

CC* 

CM 

••c 

ccc 

■ CC 
•ca 
esc 
• CC 

SSI 

ccc 

ICC 

•t* 

•CC 


raon 

116 

116 

117 
ti 
ib 

118 
ib 
ii 
ib 
ib 

119 

120 
ib 

121 

ib' 

t& 

122 

133 

ib 

m 

ib 

ib 

ib 

ib 

ib 

125 
ib 

126 
127 

ib 

ib 

ib- 

ib 

123 

ib 

ib 

120 



PATNA DIVISION. 


Patna Pivi^on. — A Division of Doncrol, lying botwcon 
SI® 17 ' and 27® 31' N., and 8a® 19' and 8G* 44' E. It la bonndod 
on tbo cast by tUo Sbilgalpur Division, and on tho west by tbo 
Dnited I'rovincos, and extends from NepSl on tbo nortb to tho 
Cbotfi ^Nfigpur plateau on tho eoutb. Tho head-quarters of tbo 
Oommissioncr, w'bo is assisted by nn Additional Commissionor, 
oro at DA 2 «KiroRi:. Tbo Division indludcs 7 DistrioLa with area, 
population and rovenuo as shown below: — 


DisTBicr. 


PBtna ... 


o»ra ... 


•«» 

«•« 

barmn «•« 

• •• 

Ch«miiiir»a ... 

• •• 

MnraCarpur ... 


D«rt1>xsffS ... 


Tout 

•*« 


Area tn 
cinim 
tnilca. 



PopnlttttoB In 
IfiOl. 

a 

Demuid for 
land rorenns and 
cctsM la 10034>4 
In tliontand* of 
rupees. 

l.CZ4,I>S5 

10.68 

a.O50,033 

10,64 

J,«:2,600 

S1,CS 

£.400,600 

10.32 

1.7P0.4C3 

0.80 

S.7M.70O 

13,04 

£,0JS,611 

i£,oa 

i5fil‘S.»S7 

r, 10.43 


thi Ttriurt of Ihn comnirf ItOI Ihoort-i e! SCran ««• itiown u *iu<m 
tnlle,,of Stauaerror •» talirr *114 riamn mllra. Tti* 

Zgvnn aUirs are l»Son Inra ili* rrevor fecuinimir llnrou*. 


Tlio population increased from 13,118,917 in 1872 to 18,001,403 
in 18S1 and to 15,811,001 in 1891, but in 1901 it Jliad fallon to 
15,514,087. Tliw docreaso was shared by all Iho Districts oxoopt 
MiizatTarpiir and Darbliang/l. In Clmmpiiron tho doclino is atln- 
butnblo to tho unli'-althino'S of tho Distrirf, which sulTcrod 

g 'ontly from malarial affections and sovero epidemics of^ cholera. 

Iscwlioro tbo docreaso is raain^* altributablo^ to tho diroot and 
indirect losses caused by tho ptoguo opidomio, a heavy 

mortality, tho flight of tho immigrant population, and in somo 

J iart/s “whoto tho eiiidcmio was ragiug at tho time of tho census, tho 
uiliiro of tho census staff to effect nn oxiiatistivo enumeration* 
J'li/or to 1901 tho opidomio had been roost virulent in Patna, 
whioBe iMjpulalion declined by 8*4 per cent, during tho dccado. 

I Tlio Dii’isiouo onUiins 063 xenons to tho square mile, a high 
proportion compared w'ilh Bengal os a whole. Tho pojiulalion 
' '» 














2 


BEKaAt.. 


exceeds that of any other Bivieion, and is, in fact, about the 
came os that of the whole of the Bombay Freddenoy excluding 
Sindj while it is nearly three times as numerous as that of Assam. 
In 1901 Hindus oonstituted 88‘4 per cent, of the inhabitants 
and Musalmans 11'5 per cent.; there were 7,350 Ohiistions (oli 
whom 3,140 were natives) and 999 Tains. ' t 

The Dividon is intersected from west to east by the Ganges,* 
North of the river it is a fiat, alluvial formation risiDg very, 
gradually towards the foot of the Biimilayas, and possessing 
many tracts of great natural fertility. On the other side of the 
river it oontains a strip of ollaviom along the bank of tlie Ganges, 
but further south the soil ohonges, and the surface becomes more 
undulating and gradually rises till the Chot& Nfigpnr plateau 
is reached. The north of the Division enjoys in ordinary years 
a comparatively oopions rainfall increasing towards the north, ' 
but is peculiarly liable to failure of crops in seasons of defidont 
rain. In the south a large area is protected by tire Son Cakau 
aystem, and elsewhere tire .undulating surface enables the people to 
construct small reservoirs from which to water their fiel&. The 
four north-Ganges Districts have recently been surveyed, and a 
rooord'of-rights has been prepared. This tract is the main seat 
of the indigo industry in Bengal, and its outturn in 1903-01 
amounted to 907 tons compared with only 476 tons from the 
rest of tho Frovinoo’. The competition of synthotio indigo and 
the consequent fall in prices hnvo struck a severe blow at the 
prosperity of tho industry, and for some years it has been s^dily 
on tho dodino. Experiments are being made with a view to 
increase tho outturn and to improve the quality of tho dye, while 
eovohd faotories ore now devoting thoir attention to tho cultivation 
of country crops, and attempts are being made at Ottur in tho 
Muzoffarpnr District and dsowhoro to rovivo tho old sugar 
industry. The Division contains 35 towns and 34,189 villages. 
The largest towns otoFatka (134,785), Gaxa (71,288), DAButiAnoA 
(06,244), Arbau (46,170), Chabra (45,901), Muzaffarbor 
(46,617), Bihar (45,063), Dinafore (33,699 inoluding tho canton- 
ment), Bettiah (24,696), Sasaram (23,644) and BAnruR (21,398). 
Owing to tho prov^onoo of pla^e at tho time of tho census 
(Marou 1901), these figures do not in eevoral cases reprewn,!; tho 
normol populations or &e towns ; a sabseqaent enumeration^ hdd 
in July showed thb population of Fatna dfy to ho 16{P,739. 
Patna is, after Calcutta and its suburb Howrah, tho largest ^own 
in Bcngri and is a very important oommordal oontro; a Irtrgo 
amount of traffio also passes ^ough BcvcUAnr, Hajipur \and 
Mokambh, while the head-quarters of tho Bengal ond No.Hh- 
Wesfem Bailway are at SAMAsnFUR. . • . ^ ‘ 

Tho Divition contains thqolde^ towns in the 'Province,' riind 
Patna, Gsyi ond Bih&r have a vciy ancient history. Patna t was 



TAXKA BISECT. 8 

tho Pataliputra of Qreek times and, like oontains many 

interesting antiquities. This neighkourhood was at' one time a 
Etrongkolu of Suddlusm, and many Buddlust remains ooour in tiie 
Patna, GkiyS, Ohamparan and Mozafforpur Districts, among the 
most important sites being Patna and Bubdh Gaya. Pour 
piUars mark the^route taken by Asoka through MuisafEarpur and 
Ohamparan on his way to what is now the Nepal tarai. Of these 
the pillar near NAnnAitGAnH is still almost perfect ; another stands 
near Basahh, which is probably the site of the capital of the old 
k in gdom of Vaisali. Interesting remains of the M’nbn.TrmriRda n 

f oriod are found in tiio town of Bihar, in the oity of Patna, and at 
osor^, RoHTAsaARH, SamiGAun and Maneb. Buzab was the 
scene of the defeat in 1764 of jUSr Pfisim in the battle which 
resulted in the civil authority of Bengal, BihSr and Orissa being 
confeped on the Past In^a Company. Several plaoes in the 
Division are associated with incidents in the Mutiny of 1857. 

After the outbreak of 3 regiments at Dinopore, Bhah&bad, from 
which the native army was largdy recruited, was for some time 
overran with the rebels, and the story of the defence of Abbah is 
well known. Qa^a was traversed by severol bands of mutineers, 
and on three occasions the jail was raoken open and the prisoners 
released. At Sagauli in Oluimparw Distnot Major PColmes was 
massacred by his troops. *■ 

Patna District. — ^District of the Patna Division, Bengal, Bonnd- 
Ij^ between 24“ 57' and 25“ 44' N., and 84“ 42' and 86“ 4'P., 

1 ° square miles. It is bounded on the and bin ’ 

north by the river Ganges which divides it from Saron, Muzaifar- «nd river 
p^ and Darbhangfi ; on the south by Ghiy& ; on the east by 
Monghyr ; and on the west by Shahabfid. 

With the exception of the Rfijgir hills in the south, the whole 
- District is quite flat. The land along the bank of the Ganges is 
slightly higher than that farther inland, and the line of drainage 
oonsequonuy runs from south-west to north-east. The Eftjgir hills, 
which enter the District from Gaya, consist of two paralld ranges ; 
they seldom exceed 1,000 feet in height and are for the most port 
rocky and covered with low jangle. The principal river is the 
Gakges, which flows for 93 mUes idong the northern boundary. 

The Son forms the western boundary of the District for 41 nulos, 
entering it near Mahabalipnr and flowing in a northerly direction 
tp its junction with the Ganges. A little above the junction it is 
Iwidged by fte East Indian Eailway at Koolwfir, from which point 
ijhe river divides into two streams wiu a fertile island in the middle. 

'^he Pilnpun river, which' rises in the south of the Gay& District, 
tlows through Patna in a north-easterly direction. At Naubatpur > 
it approaohes the Patna Canal, and ftom that point it turns to the 
vast, and falls into the- Ganges at Patwa. Some 9 miles above 
th's point it is joined by the Murhor. The Panoh&na . find the 

b‘2 



4 


BENOAl, 


Geology. 

Botany. 


Fanna. 

Climate 
ancl t(nn> 
perainro. 


Hiatory. 


Phalgo, though comparaKvely smtiU Btrenms, are of the greatest 
value for irrigation purposes ; the -whole of their -water is diverted 
into irrigation channels and reservoirs, and their main channels 
are dricd>up beds for the greater part of the year. The 
Sakri is another river which fails to reach the Ganges owing 
to the demands made upon it for irrigation purposes, and nearly 
all its -water is oorried away by 2 largo irrigation channels 
constructed on its left bank, 12 miles below Bihar town. 

The whole District is of alluvial origin except the ItajgTr 
hills, which consist of submetamorphio or transition rooks. 

!l^o Distriot contains no iorests. The level country near the 
Ganges has in the rice-fields the usual weeds of such localities. 
Kear villages there are often considerable groves of mango trees 
and palmyra {Bcranus flabtUiformit), some date-^alm (Phcpntx 
tt/heslris), and numerous examples of the tamarind and othor 
semi-spontaneous and more or less useful species. IGhirthor from 
the river the ooimtiy is more diversified, aud sometimes o dry 
scrub jungle is to bo met with, oontninuig various shrubs of the 
order of Euphorbiacm, thopn7a« (Butea fronaoBo) and other legumi- 
nous trees, and various kiads of Ficub, Schteichcra, Wenalanrlitr, 
and Omelina, The grasses that clothe the drier parts ore generally 
of a coarse character. 

Antdopo nie found near tho Son river, and^ wild hog in tho 
dtOraB of tho Ganges; boars ond leopards occasionally visit tho 
Bfijglr hills, and wolves also are sometimes seen. 

Owing to its distance from tho sen, Patna has greater extromos 
of climate than tho south and cast of Bengal. Tho mean tompor- 
aturo varies from 60° in January to 88° in May. Tho higliost 
a-veroge maximum is 101° in April. Owing to the dry westerly 
wimk -with increasing tomperaturo in March and April, tho 
humidity at that season ie very low and averngos 50 per cent. 
With tho approach of tho monsoon tho air gradually bccomos 
more oharged -with moisturo, and the humidity remains steady at 
about 86 per cent, ihrougliont July and August, falling to 71 per 
cent, in Novemhor. The nverogo annual rainfoll is 45 inohos, 
of which 7 inches fall in June, 12*2 in July, 11*3 in August nnd 
6*9 in September. Floods nro common, but they ordinarily do 
little damage aud arc seldom attended with loss of lifo. Hcavl/^ 
floods ooourred in 1843, 1861, 1870, nnd 1879; of lato years tliw 
principal floods were those of 1897 nnd 1901, whoa tho Son nntP. 
tho Ganges were in flood at tho same time. ^ _ ■ 

Tho Distriot possesses groat intoro'it for both tho historiar 
and tho orohroologist. It was comprised, with Uio country now* 
included in tho Dikricts of Gaya and Shohab&d, -n'ithin tho anoient' 
kingdom of Mogadha -whoso capital was at Rajoih; nnd its 
general history is outlined in tno articles on Maoadiia nnd* 
Bihar, in wluoh Mngadlm was m'ontnolly merged. Its early’’ 



XATKA OISXRICr. 


histoiy IB intimately interwoven with that of Patna city, which 
hos boon idontiflod with P&toliputra (the PoUbothra of Mega- 
sthones). It contains tho town of Bihfir, iho early Muhammadan 
oapital, from which the sub-province takes its name; and it was 
a famous seat of Buddhism, and many places in it woro visited 
and described by tho Chinese pilgrims, Fa ZCian and Hiuon 
Tsiang. 

In recent times two events of spemal interest to Englishmen 
stand prominently out and demand soparate notice. Tho one is 
known as tho Massacre of Patna (1763), and tho other is con- 
neoted with tho Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. Tho former occurrence, 
which, may bo said to havo sealed the fato of Muhammadan rule 
in Bengal, was the result of a quarrel between AHr IC&sim, at that 
tlmol^awfibof Murshidabiid, and tho English authorities. The 
Nawab, after much negotiation, had agreed to a convention 
which was also accepted by Mr. Yansittart, the governor, that a 
transit duty of only 9 per cent, shonld be paid by Englishmen, 
which was far below tho rate exacted from other traders. This 
convention, however, was repudiated by tho Gonnoil at Caloutto, 
and Mir X&sim, in retaliation, resolved to abandon all duties 
whatever on the transit of goods, and to throw tho trade of the 
country open to oil alike, — a mcasnro still less acoeptnhle to tho 
Company^ servants — and their relations with tho Naw&b became 
more strained than ever. In April 1763 a deputation, consist- 
ing of Messrs. Hay and Amyatt, was despatch^ from Calcutta 
to Monghyr, where tho Nawab^ had taken np his rosidenco ; but 
it was now too lato for negotiation. Numerous and fierce disputes 
had arisen between tl ie !ium6sM ttsj>i tho English and the Muham- 
madan ofiioers ; and an oocuixence whibh happened at Mongbyri 
while Messrs. Hay and Amyatt were there, hastened tho rupture. 
ATTr Kasim raized and detained some boat-loads of arms which 
were passing' up the Ganges to Patna, on the ground thot tho arms 
were destined to ho used against himself, Thereupon Mr. Ellis, 
the chief of tho factory at Patna, ordered bis sepoys to occupy 
Patna city, which was done the following momiug, Jime 26th. 
In revengo tho Nawab sent a force in pursuit of Mr. Amyatt, 
who hod been allowed to return to Calcutta, Mr. Hay having 
been detained ns a hostage. Mr. Amyatt was overtaken and 
murdered ncax.sO°?S?^‘‘®yi meantime the Company’s 

sepoys, who bad^eon "pundering JPatna oily, wore driven bsck 
tp the faotoiy, a large number of them being Mlled. The remain- 
c:er, less than a sixth of the origmal force of 2,000 men, of ter 
tioing besieged for two days and nights, fled in their' boats to 
tjho frontier of Oudh, whore they ultimatelv laid down their 
. They were brought back to Patna, to which place had been 
donveycdMr.Hny from Mongbyr, the entire staff of the Cossim- 
loozar factory, who had also been arrested at the first outbreak 



6 Bsii'GAl.. 

o{ liostilitite, and some oiiker prisoners. Ak soon as regdor 
warfare oommonoed, Mir Kasim’s snoccsses came to an end.^ He 
was defeated in two battles bj Major Adams, at Giri& on the 
2iid August, and at TTdbua NuUab on tlie fith September. These 
defeats roused the Nawab to exasperation, and on the 9th 
September be wrote to Major Adams: ‘If you aro resolved 
to proceed in this business, know for a certainty that I will 
out off the heads of Mr. Kllis and the rest of your chiefs, ^ 
and send them to you.’ This threat he carried out on the evening 
I of the 6th Ootorar with the help of a Swiss renegade named. 

I Walter Beinhardt, who -was known to the Muhammadans as 
Sumra. About 60 Englishmen were murdered, their bodies' 
being thrown into a well in the compound of the house in 
which they were confined, and about ISO more met their death 
in other parts of Bengal. This massaore was followed by an 
active campaign in whioh tbe Engli^ were everywhere suoressful, 
and in August 1765, after the decisive hatUo tof Buxar,.tho 
administration of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa was made over to 
the East India Oompany. An Engluh resident was then ap-> 
pointed at Patna ; hut the administration of Bih&r, whioh then 
comprised only the Patna and Gay& Districts, — Patna city itself 
being regarded as n separate chwgo,— remained in tho hands 
of natives. In 1769 English Supervisors wore appointed, ond in 
1770 a Gounoil for Bihar wos estoblished at Patna. In 1774 the 
Supervisors, who had meanwhile been designated Oollootors, and 
the Councsil for Bihur were abolished, and aBrovinoial Ooundl was 
ostohlished at Patna. This lasted tiil 1781, when Bihar was made 
a District under a OoUoctor and a Judge-Magistrate, lii 1865 
it was divided into the Patna and Gaya Districts, the Bihar 
sub-division being iaoludod in the former, and 19 estates wore 
transferred from Patna to Tirhut in 1869, thus establishing 
tho Dislriot of Patna os it now exists. 

Tho other important event in tho modem history of the District 
is tho mutiny of the sepoys stationed at Dinnpore, the military 
station attached to Patna rity. The three sepoy regiments at 
this place in 1857 wore the 7th, 8th, and 40th Native Infantry. 
General Lloyd, who commanded the station, wrote expressing 
his confidonoe in their loyalty, and they were accordingly ^ot 
disarmed ; hut os the exdtomont inoreased throughout Bihar, Und 
strongof measures seemed in the opinion of the CommissionW, 
Mr. Taylor, to ho neoesfaiy, tho Qenerol, while still apparon/ly 
relying on the trustworihinoss of tho men, mado a half-hearted 
attempt at disarming the sepoys. Tho result wos that tho three 
regiments revolted ond went off in a body, taking with thorn 
their arms aud accoutrements, but not their uniforms. Some 
took to the Ganges, where their boats wero fired into and ran 
down by a steamer whioh was present, and their oocupants shot dr 



TA13{A.DlSTSICr. 


•7 


droTmed. But iho loajorify were wiser, and hast^ed to the river 
Son, orossing whioh. they found themsdves safe in Bhfihfih&d. 

The story of what took place in Srahabad will he found in the 
article on. that District. When the news reached Bonkipoie that 
the rebels, headed by Eunwar (or Knar) Singh, had surrounded 
the Europeans at Arroh, an ill-fated attempt was mode to rescue 
them. A steamer, which was sent up the river on the 27tb 
July, stuck on a sand-bank. Another steamer was started on 
the 29th i but the expedition was grossly mismanaged. The 
troops were landed at 7 n.u., and fell into an ambuscade about 
midnight. When the morning dawned, a disastrons retreat had 
to he commenoed. -Oat of the 400 men who had left Dinapore 
fully half were left behind; and of the snrrivoTB only about 00 
xetmmed unwounded. Two volunteers, Mr. M’Donell and Mr. Boss 
Mangles, both of the Civil Sarvioe, besides doing esoellent serrice 
on the maroh, performed acts of eonspionoua danng. The former, 
though wounded, ms one of the last men to enter the boats, and 
subsequently stepped out of shelter, climbed on the roof of the 
boat, and rdeosed the rudder, which had been lasbed by the 
insurgents, amidst a storm of ballets ficom the contignous bank. 

Mr. Boss Mangles’ conduct was equally heroio. He oarriod.a 
wounded man for six miles till he reached the stream, and then 
swum with his helpless burden to a boat, in whioh he deposited 
him 'in safety. Both these gentiemen afterwords xeomved the 
YietoriaOross as a toward for their heroism. 

The ehief places of arohteologioal interest are Bajoib, Man^r, Arcbao- 
Patka city, Bihab andOiBiAK. The village of Bauaoaon 
been identified os the rite of the famoua N&landa monastery, \and 
with the neighbouring village of Begampur oontains mosses of 
ruins ; at Tetr&w&n and Ji^dlspur are eolossol siataes of Buddha, 
and at TelhaT& and Islfimpur the remains of Buddl^t mon- 
osteri^ Many other Buddhist remainB ate of more or less 
interest. 

The population inereased from' 1,669,617 in- 1872 to 1,766,196 tib 
in.l881 and to 1,773,410 In 1891, but dropped to’ 1,624,986 inP-op’*- 
1901. The apparent increase between 1872 and 1881 was largely 
owing to ' delootiye enumeration in tbS fonher year, wMe^ the ‘ 
.deoreaso recorded in 1001 is due mainly to the direot and ihdifeot 
'results of plague, whioh first broke out in January ,ld00 and was 
'raging in the District ot the time when the census w(U taken, 
musing many people to leave their homes end greatly increasing the 
mfficulties in the way of the odnsos staif. The loss of population 
was greatest in the thiokly populated nriian and somi-nAan 
^un^ along the banks of tne Canges, where' tho jtldguooj^idemio 
was most 'rifulont. ' The sonth of the Distrirt, whioh sufiDere^ least 
uom plague, almost bold its ground. Plo^e has ^inco bpporne 
jpractically an annual visitation and causes heavy mortality. 


8 


•SSKOAI,. 


r-ji-' 
!.> *• 


The edient fitatisfica of the census of 1001 arc reproduced' 
below; — 


firB^DiTinov. 

Am in 
fftnaie 

SttllCf, 

Kestsesor 

Poiinlallon. 

PopfiU* 

tIOD 

ivr 

Bqoaro 

mite. 

PcKmlago 
at rarla. 
tlos in 
populatloa 
liotircen 
rail Bad 

ICOI. 

Nombei’ 

ot 

pmoaa 
abla to 
Mndand 
vritc. 

Tovnt* 

VUtasn. 

Raakipora ... 
niaapon 

Blth 

BUiEr ... ... 

DlsnilCT lOTAl.-. 

SSI 

42A 

CSil 

701 

« 

1 

1 

m 

m 

1,075 

S.111 

S41,CS4 

515.527 

C02,007 

1,021 

745 

605 

765 

^16-fi 

-aO*! 

.10*5 

S7,778 

$1,155 

«»,5Q9 

92,633 


• 

r 


ifCMiSs; 

Tsa 

- 8«tf 



The ohief towns are Paina city, Bihas, Dinapoke, lIoKAstEH 
and Barh. The head-quarters are at Bakkiporb, a subrab of 
Pntno. The density is highest along the Oan^os and in the 
Bihar fhfina, and least in the Bilcram and hlssauThibazuig'^ tb&nas 
in the south-west and in the hills. There is a considerable 
ebb and flow of population noross boundary liao which 
dmdes Patna from the adjoining Districts, ond in addition to 
this, no leas than one-twentieth of its inhabitants have enuwnted 
to more distant plaoes. They ore epeoially numerous in Coloutta, 
whore more than 80,000 nativos of this District were onuniernted 
in 1901 } theso were for tho most part only temporary ahsentees. 
The veriiaouloT of the District is tho hlagahi dialect of Bih&ri 
BUndi. Hindus number 1,435,637 or 88'3 per cent, of tbo total 
population and Musalmans 186,411 or ll'fi per cent. 

Ti,»ir The most numerous Hindu castes ore Alurs and QoSlSs 
esitti sad (220,000), Eunnis (181,000), B&bhons (114.000), Dosfidhs 
Meaps- (96,000), Kihars (85,000), Koiris (80,000), Efijputs (64,000), 
iaemfirs (56,000) and Telis (52,000). Agriculture supports 62-S 
per cent, of the population, industries 17'1 per cent., oommeree 
1’2 per cent, and professions 2’4 per cent ^ 

Cnritttsn Ohriatians number 2,662, of whom 139 aro natives. The 
uiMioDi. prindpol missions orothe Dondon Baptist MrssionaiT ^Sodoty, 
tho London Baptist Zanfino Mission,, the 2^nina Bible and 
Medical Mission and the Bomon Catholic Mission. Tbo Zona^ 
Bible and Medical Mission possesses a wdl-oquipped hospital in 
Patna dty; tho Bomon Catholio Mission has a boys' school^ at 
Euijr and a girls’ boarding school and European and ^native 
orphanages ot Danldporo, wliflo each of the other nussions in 
audition to evongelistio work maintains ^somo Eohools. ' i 
Omeinl The ngrioidtuToI conditions ore fairly uniform throughout, 
•gncni- but tho Bih&r sub-diviaion is for tho most part lower than tho rot?t 
dltoT' District ond is better adapted for the oultiTOtion (ff 



patnA dtstrictp. 


9 


■ffMo theBfirli Bub-diviBion is '''‘5* 




the bonk of the Ganges, but the most valnablo of all « 
fertile high land in the vioinify of ^ages, wbero well 
tion can be pracHsed, and Togotables, poppy and other profatoDlo 

GrODS flXO fiOWll* ^ . -^3 

^he salient agrioultaral statiatics for 1903-04 aro reproduced chief 

below, areas being in square miles. 

— — — statiellc* 

Sm-amBlOK. 1 Total. Cultivated. Irrigated. 

j — cropa. 

Banhipore ... ... 334 24C 12 10 

Binapore ... ... 424 811 18 

nSrh ... ... 620 888 18 

BihSr ... ... 701 681 27 


It is estimated that 1 per cent, of iho cultivated area is twice 
cropped. Bice is the staple food crop, covering 338 squaro 
miles. It is sawn in Juno and reaped in December; inlow-ljing 
marsh lands sowing is commenced as early os April. Tho greater 
portion of it is transplanted, but on inferior lands it is sown 
broad-oast. Of other lood-orops, wheat t202 squaro miles), barloy 
(127 squaro miles), Joicdr (20 square miles), tmriia (97 squaro 
nulcs), maiso (189 squaro miles), gram (149 square miles) and other 
pulses (175 squaro miles) are widely grown. Mauso forms tbo 
principal food of tho lower dnssos, except in tho Bihnr sub- 
division wboro martia takes its place. Maize ond ra/iar aro 
frequently sown together, tbo moizo being harvested in September 
and tho raftar in March. Oilsocds oro grown on 74 squaro miles, 
w^o of roooial crops iho most important is poppy (27 squaro 
miles). Tho poppy oultivated is oxolusiToly tho white variety 
(Papaver 80 t?tm/€rum),aad. tho crop, which requires great attention, 
has to be grown on land whioh can ho highly manured and easily 
irrigated. Potatoes aro also grown oxtonsivdy and aro exported 
in largo quantities, tho Patna potato haiung acquired more than a 
local reputation. Ldttlo uso lias Loon macTo of tho provisions of 
tho ]>Land Improvement and Agriculturiets’ Loans Acts ; Its. 2,800 
WHS advanood under tho former Act during tho soarciiy of 1897, 

Jin addition to tho common country cattio, two varieties Cattle, 
are bred, ono a cross between tho Hnnsi and tlio local siooks, 
mA tho other with a strong Dnglish strain known as tho 
Bainkiporo breed. Tho former class ore largo massiro animals, 
antf. tho hullocdos do woU for carts or ploughs, though tho cows 
art) not very good milkers. Tho Bankiporo breed is tho 



10 


. BEKOAL. 


residue of an Englisb. fitook imported originally some 60 years' 
ago. The coBrs'ore escellent nulhors, but the bullocks are not, 
hoary or strong enoi^h for draught purposes. The breed has' 
fallen oS raatly of late years through in>bieeding and the want' 
of now blood, but the Distriot board has recently imported 
two Jersey bulls from Australia. Bullocks from Tirhut arc 
largely used for ploughing. Pasture grounds are Tory soaroo, 
and the cattle are usually fed with chopped straw or maise 
stalks with bh(tm (dhofi) and pulse, or with linscod cake when 
arailahlo. Forsons wishing to buy horses or oattlo usuoUy go 
to the Sonpur fair in Soron or the Barahpur^ fair in Shah&badj 
a fair at Biht& with an attendnnoe of 5,000 being the only oatUe 
fair held in Patna Distriot. Of other fairs, that held at Eajgu 
is hy for the most important. 

irrisation, The whole Distriot depends largely on irrigation. In the 
head-quortors and Dinapore sub'dirisions the Patna Canal, a 
hianoh of the Son Oaxmls system, irrigates an area of 70 
square miles, and supplies most of the needs of the people. 
The lenrth of the main canal (in the Distriot) is 42i nmes, 
that of the parallel channds 2d miles and that of the distributaries 
161 miles. In the Bih&r suh-dirision an extensiTe system of 
private irrigation works fed from the local rirers is maintained 
by the zamind&rs. Each zamindfir has rested rights in a oortoin 
quantity of river water, which ho carefully stores by means of 
omhonkmonts and dishihates through reservoirs and. ohannels to 
his ryots. In this subdivision it is estimated that the area thus 
irrigated is about 437 square miles out of a total oultivatod area 
of 584 square miles. The qrstem works admirably as long as the 
zirers wmoh feed the mrigation wqrks bring down their normal 
quantity of water, hut a seriaus drought, both locally and in the 
billB of Ghota Na^ur where these rivers rise, means an almost 
complete failure of crops. The absence of a proper system of 
managing the head of supply has caused inany old streams to 
silt up and zendoied useless some of tho distributing ohonncls, 
■Well irrigation is umversally used for vegetable and poppy 
cultivation, ond occasionally for irrigating the rabi crops; one 
w’cll will irrigate abont 2 acres of land. Irrigation from tanks 
is seldom practised. 

Attonna Carpets, brocades, embroidery, pottery, brass-work, (toys, 

mannfac. fireTvorks, lao ornaments, gold and silver wire and loaf, 
glass-ware, boots and shoes, ond cabinets are mode in Potna feity, 
carpets in Srdtfingnnj, Pirbahoi and Chank, and. embromery 
and brocado work in tho Chank and Ebwaja Kalan thft aas. 
Durable fnmituro and cabinets are made at Dinapore. 'Pbo 
manufactures of the Barb sub-division aro Jessamine oil 
crarso doth and brass and bcU-mctalutensils, and of the Bib&rimb- 
division soap, silk fabrics, tubes for hukkat, muslin, cotton doth {'and 



PA.TJIA DISmitT;. 


11' 


(jnS ondiAn'v&tOf ' -Aljart tom hand industries, certain m^oleSj 
such as stools and'taHes, aro made in the workshcys of the Bihar 
- school of eneaneering, and chests for pooling opium in the saw 
mills of tlieTatna opiiim' factory. Opium is manufnotured by 
Government at a faotoiy in iPatno <nty. ■ Some foundries are at 
xvork in Bonkipnre and Dinapore, and on ioo and aerated waters 
factory has been erected at Bonkipore. ‘ ' 

The principal imports are rice, poddy, salt, coal^ kerosene oil, 
European cotton piecc'goods and gunny bags ; and the principal 
exports wheat,' linseed, pulses, mustard seed, hides, sugar, tobacco 
and opium. A. large amount of trade is carried by the railway, 
hut the bulk of it is still transported, by river. Patna city, 
with its 7 or 8 miles of river frontage in the rains and 4 milpa 
in die dry season, is the great centre for all the river-borne trade. 
It is by far the'largest mart in the Bistiiot, and its commandmg 
pouiion for both rail and river -tratSo makes it one of the 
principal commercul centres of Bengal. Ctoods received by rail 
are there iransforfad to eouatiy bontsj huUook carts, oto,, to 
ha distributed throughout the neighbourhood, whioh in return 
sends its produce to be railed to Calcutta and elsewhere. The river 
tede ia earned by country boats end river steamers between 
ratna and Odoutta and other places on the Ganges and Nadia 
nver^ and ly country boats between. Patna and NopSl. Trade 

o^i^jg to the 

r^uc^fipejgM charged by railways on goods booked direct’ to 

O^ontta. Other important markets ate DinapohEjBihak. Bahh 

Mokameh, Isl&mmir. Patwa and Htri* » 


Comnerce. 


uiuswjr m me nanus or slut 

road ^0 is olmost monopolized by koalas and Knn^s 

The mom line of ^o East Indian Bailway runs thronirh f^n 
north ^ the Distnot for 84 miles from eart to^y mtn 
it at Dumra station and leaving it at the Son hridee ’ Thn® 

the temunuB of that rail wav at Sonmr a*v\j . ^®geB to 
Mokamehto btdkameh Ghat estahlisheR brai^ line from 


’-J ••MU 

Other 



Water 

eotnmnni' 

cationi.' 


Famine. 


IKitriet 
mb'diri' 
fiona and 
atnff. 


(HtU and 
Criminal 
jaatlco. 


lend 

rercnne. 


IS BENOATi. 

important roads oxo iliose from BanMpore to Palaman, from 
Bankipore to Qayfi, from Fatwa to Goyd and from Bakhtiyfirpor 
ihrougli Bihar to Hazfiribfigh. 

Tho Ganges and the Son are the only rivois navigable through- ' 
out tho year. The former is navigable for stcnmors and daily 
services run bot\70on Digha and Goalnndo, Digha and Busnx, and 
DIgha and Borhaj, •with nn extended run every fourth day to 
Ajodhya. Pad^o steamers ply from Digha to Goolundo, but ' 
above BIghn there are shallows mid only stem- wheelers con be 
usecL The passenger tratlie connsts principally of labourers going 
to Eastern Bengal in search of work, while the goods tralfio is 
mostly in grain, sugar and its products and piece-goods. The Patna 
Canal is navigable, and a largo number ol bamboos are brought 
do-wnbyitto Pntaa. A bi-weekly service nms on it between 
Khagaul (Dinnpore railway station) and Mahabalipur in tho 
head-quarters sub-di'vision cia Bikram. Several ferrms cross tho 
Gaimcs, the most important being those from Bankiporo and Patna. 

The District is not ordinarily liable to famino, and oven in 
1896-97 01 ^ local scardty in tho Biirh and Bihar sub-di'visionB 
was felt Test works were opened, but were dosed almost at once. 
The total amount spent on relief was only Es. 3 1,000. 

Tho District is divided into 6 sub-divisions, BiKKiroiin, BlUAR, 
Bard, Patna city, and Dinatobr. The stall subordinate to the 
Didriot Magistrate-Collector at head-quarters consists of a Joint- 
Miigistrato, an Assistant Magistrate and 7 Deputy Magistrato-Col- 
lootors. Tho other sub-^visions aro each in charge of a European 
officer, in tho case ofBihfir a Deputy Magistrate-Collector, and in 
tho case of Bath, Patna city and _ Dinapore a member of the 
Indian Civil Service. Tho Biib-divisioiial officers of Barb and 
Bih&r are each assisted by a sab-dopnty magistiato-collector. 

Tho courts for tho disposal of_ civil work aro ihoso of the 
District Judge, who is also the Sessions Judgo, 8 Sub- Judges and 
3 Muu^b at Patna and one Alunsif at Bib&r, while the Canton- 
ment Magistrate at Dinapore is vested ■with tho powers of a Small 
Cause Court Judgo. CnmiDal courts inolude those of tho Sessions 
Jad<^, District Magistrate, and tho above mentioned Joint, 
AssStant, and Deputy Magistrates. The majority of tho cases 
which come before tho courts aro of a petty notero. Both burglary 
and robbery are however more common than in the other Di^trlots 
of tho Division. Riots ore also numerous ; they ni*o genornlly con- 
nect^ with land disput^ or with disputes arising out of cattlo 
trespass or questions of irrigation. 

Under tho Muhammadans tho District formed part of sfllah 
Bihar. After it passed under British rule tho principal feature of 
its land revenue history has been the remarkable extent to which 
the Euh-division of estates has gone on. In 1790 there were 1;230 
-separate estates on tho rolls hold by 1,280 registered proprietors 

I 



13 


PATNA DISTRICT. 


and copareeneiB, the total land revenue in ^ear amoimt^ 

ing to 4-33 lakhs. In 1865 the Bihar anh-divmon with 796 
estates 'Was added to the District, 4 years latOT 19 states 

were transferred from Patna to Tirhnt. TIm |»ongbt the 
J)Mciot pmoticaHy to its present dimensions. In X87D-7 J. tne 
number of estates yros 6,075, while the number of revered pw- 


uiuuDer ux uaMkttsd — , St no t t-v- 

prietoTB had inoMosed to 37,500 and tho revenue to 16*08 la£x^> 
In 1903-04 the number of estates bad still further increasra to 
12,923 and of propiietora to 107,381, whilo &o current land 
revenue demand was 14*97 lakbs. The sub-division of estates 
has added greatly to tho difficulty of collecting the revenue 
and of keeping the accounts connected therewith. The average 
area held by each lyot, as shewn in the lat^t settleinent' papers 
of certain Government estates, varies considerably in dii&Mnt 
parts of the District, ranging from 1*47 acres in tho BihSr 
to 4*76 acres in tho Bfirh sub-division for ordinary holdings, and 
between 7*30 acres in Dinaporo and 13*04 acres in the head- 
quarters Buh-divisiou for didta or river-side lands. Tho rents of 
homestead land are between Es. 6 and Es. 24 per aore. 
average rate for dayey soils is about Es. 5, while land in whioh 
sand predominates lets for about half that amount. ^Tbe best 


whore the soil consists oHefly of sand, as little as 12 annas.^ Tho 
rent of this class of land w higher than it would othorwiEO bo 
owing to the fact that in many cases tho tonant^^has^ no occupanoy 
right. About two-thirds of tho Bihar sub-division is hold under 
the hbaoli or produce rent system. Three forms of this system 
prevail, viz., dindbandi where tho value of the produce is 
estimated and tho equivalent of the landlord’s shore paid in 
cash or rice, batai where the actual produce is dividcd,_and 
a fixed payment of rice and ddl. The last is comparatively 
rare. In the oaso of dundhandi and baiai tho shaVos are sup- 

E osed to be equal, but actually tho landlord gets more than 
alf. A common proportion, is known os nine-seven, i.e.> oni 
of every 16 seers the landlord takes nine and the tenant seven. 
-The ryot olways gets the straw and other bye-products* The 
following table shows the collections of land tovenno and of total 
revenue, under the pTmoipal heads, in thousands of rupees 



1880-81. 

1890-91. 1 

19004)1. 1 

1003.04. 

Land ccvoduo ... 

14,83 

14.76 

14,01 

16.07 

Total ravonuD ... 

27,78 

28,03 

81^5 

32,08 


Outside the munidpalities of Patna, Barii, Bihar and IiocaI nna 
Dikavorr, local afEairs are managed by tho Distriot hoard, with municipal 
suhordinate local boards in each sub-division. Tho Distriot 






M 


bi:ngal. 


board has guaranteed 4 per cent, interest on the capital (8 IoIiIib) 
of the Bmar-Bakhtiyarpor light railway, hut it is entitled to 
receive hnll of any profits in excess of that amount. In 1003-04 
its incomo vraa Es. 2,86,000, of which Es. 2,09,000 was derived 
from rales, and the expenditure was Es. 2,47,000, iuolnding 
Es. 1,46,000 spent on civil works nnd Es. 44,000 on education. 
Poiieo nnd The Distriot contains 28 police stations and 31 ontposts, and the 
jails. force subordinate to the District Superintendent of Police consisted 
in 1903 of 6 inspeotors, 49 sub-inspectors, 88 head constables 
and 1,195 constables ; there was also a rural police force of 176 
dqfiaddrs and 3,240 ehauliiddra. The Distriot jail at Bankiporo has 
accommodation for 453 prisonors, and subsidiary jails at Bach and 
Bih&r for 28 nnd 25 rospootively. 

Ednca. 0 ^ population 6‘4 per cent (12‘3 males nnd 0’6 females) 
tioa. could read and UTito in IDOl. The total number of pupils under 
instruction increased from about 27,000 in 1883-84 to 43,941 in 
1890-91 ; it fell to 88,162 in 1900-01, but rose again in 1903-04 
when 41,033 boys and 1,089 girls wore at school, hein^ respeo- 
tivoly 34 4 and 1‘3 per cent, of the children of sohool-gomg nee. 
The number of oducniionalinstitutions, public nnd private, in that 
year was 1,829, including two Arts collogcs, 25 socondory sohools, 
1,255 primary schools and 547 other speoial schools. I'he 
oxpondiluto on education was 3'51 lakhs, of which 1‘45 lakhs was 
met from Provincial funds, Es. 44,000 from Distriot funds, 
Es. 7,000 from municipal funds and 1‘16 lakhs from foes. The 
chief educational institutionB are Iho Patna ooUego, tho Patna 
medical colics and the Bih&r school of Enginooring at Patna, 
tho Bih&r ]Kational oollego and the Pomalo High sohool nt 
Bakkifoku, and St. hfichaol’s college for Europeans end Eurasians 
at Kurji situated half way between Bankiporo and Dinaporo. 
There is a fine public library at Bankiporo. 
ilcdicaU 1393 tho District contained 15 dispensaries, of wbiob 5 

had accommodation for 163 in-door patients. Tho cases of 
142,000 out-patients nnd 2,600 in-patients were Iroatod, ond 
12,0u0 operations were performed. Tho expenditure w'os 
Es. 39,000, of which Es, 3,000 was met by Government conlri- 
butions, Es. 19,000 from loeol and Es, 14,000 from municipal 
funds, and Es. 3,000 from subscriptions. A lunatic asylum 
at Patna has accommodation for 206 males and 56 females. 

VneeiBs- Vaccination is compulsory only in municipal areas. During 
ticn. 1903-04 the number of petsons succcsfully vaccinated was 30,000, 
or 21‘7 per thousand of the population. 

[M. Alnrlin, Eastern India, 1838 ; JT. E. Hand, Earli/ English 
Administration of BihSr, Oalontta, 1894; and Sir IV. W. Iluntor, 
Slathtienl Account of Bengal, vol. xi, 1877.] 

Bankiporo Snh-division. — ^Head-quortois suh-disision of tho 
Patna Distriot, Bengal, lying between 26*’ 12' nnd 25® 40' N., and 



TATNA DISTRICT. 


.15 


84:° 42' and 86° 17' E., -with -'an area of 334_ square miles. 
Owing to plague mortality and defective enumeration consequent 
on the prevalenoe of that disease -at the time of the oensus of 
1901, file population recorded in that year -was only 341,064, 
compared mth 404,304 in 1891, the denmty being 1,021 persons 
to the square mile. The sub*diviBion is a fiat allnvial tract, 
-which is bounded 'on the north by the Ganges ; it contains 2 
towns, Patna (population 134,785) and Phulwabi (3,415), and 
976 ^'llngea. Its head-quart^ are at Bankitorr, -which is 
included witHn the municipol limits of Patna city. 

I)uia.poTe Sub-division. — Sub-division of the Patna District, 
Bengal, Ijdng between 25° 31' and 25* 44' N., and 84° 48' and 
85° a' E., with an area of 424 square miles. Owing to plogue its 
recorded population in 1901 was only 315,697, compared -with 
352,178 in 1891, the density being 746 persons to tbe square mile. 
The sub-division consists of a traot in the north-west of the district, 
bounded on the north by the Ganges and on the west by the 8on; 
the land is a dead level, and the soil is alluvial. It contains 2 
towns, Dikatore, its head-quarters^ (population 83,699), and 
Ehagavi. (8,126), and 791 -rillsgos. Dinapore is a military station 
in the Lucknow division of the Eastern Command ; its sepoy 
garrison was implicated in the Mutiny of 1857. Tbe dargah of 
Shah Daulat at Maner, completed in 1616, is a fine specimen 
of Mughal architecture. 

Barh Sub-division.— North-eastern sub-division of the Patna 
District, Bengal, lying between 26° 10' and 26° 85' N., and 
86° 11' and 86° 4' E.,' -with an area of 626 square miles. 
0-wing to plague its recorded population in 1901 was only 365,327, 
compared vrim 408,256 in 1891, the density being 695 persons to 
the square mile. Tbe sub-divimon oonsists of a long and somewbat 
narrow strip of country to tbe south of the Ganges, which 
forms a level plain interseoted tributaries of the Ganges. 
It contains 2 towns, Barh (population 12,164), its heod-quartoi-s, 
and Mokaheb (13,861) an important railway junotion, and 1,07 5 
-villages. 

Bihar Sub-division.— Southern sub-division of the Patna 
District, Bengal, lying between 24° 67' and 26° 26' N., and 86° 9' 
and 85° -44' B., with an area of -791 square miles. Owing to 
plague its population in 1901 was only 602,907, compared with 
608,672 in 1891, the denrity being 762 persons to the square 
mile. ■ The greater part of the sub-division is a low-lying alluvial 
plain, wbioh is faiosen to the 'south by the Raigir Hills It 
contains one town, Bihar (45,063), its head-querfeis, and 2,111 
v^ges. Bihar is supposed to have been the capital of the ancient 
fangdom of Magadha, but its early history is involved in obscurity 
Itoontoins interesting Buddhist remains, chiefly at Baragaon 
where numerous mojinds bury the ruins of Nalanda (a famous 



16 


BEKOAIt. 


seat of leamiog in tlie days of ilio Ffil kings), GiniAE ondBAJcin.' 
Pawapori contains 3 Jain temples. Hilsa near Patna station' 
on the East Indian Eoilway is an important market. 

Bathtiyarpur.— Villngo in thoBarh suh-division of the Patna 
District, Bengd. sitnated in 26° 27' N. and 85" 32' E. on tho 
East Indian Kailway. Popnlation (1901) 234. It is 22 miles 
from Patna and 81U miles from Gmcutta, and is the nearest 
station for Bihar town, with which it is connected by a light 
railway. 

Bankipore Town (BBnkip«r).--Hend-Qnarters of Patna 
District and Division, Bengal, situated in 25" 37' N. and 86° 8' 
E. on tho right hank of the Ganges. It forms port of the 
Patna municipality and is tho western Buhurh of that city in 
which most of the Europeans stationed there reside. Their houses 
and tho police lines, jndlcial courts and other public buildbgs 
extend along the river bank. Bankipore possesses a spacious 
tnaidfin and a race couiso. To the south of this Uos the railway 
station, which is 338 miles from Calcutta and is tho junction 
for the Patna-Gay& line and also for tho Diglia Gh&t branch line 
connecting tho East Indian with tho Bongm and North>Wcstem 
Bailwnys. At once the most prominent and tho most carious 
building in Bankipore is tho old Government granary or gols, a 
brick baBding in tho shape of a bee>hiTe, with two winding 
staircases on tho outside, which have been ascended on horso> 
back; it was erected in 16 years after the great fomino of 1769-70 
as a store house for graiu. Ihis store house has never beon 
filled, though during the scoroily of 1874 a good 'deal of 
grain was temporarily 'stored bore. In times of famine, pro- 
posals to fill it are still nmdo by tho native press, hut tho 
loss from damp, rats and insools rendors such a sohomo of 
storing grain wasteful and impraolicahlo. Tho jail, which is 
situated near tho railway station, has noconunodation for 453 
prisoners, chiotly employed in the preparation of mustard oil, 
carpets and road metal. Tho Bihar National collogo founded 
in 1883, teaches up to tho B. A. standard, and the Bankiporo 
Pomalo High school, founded in 1867, teaches up to tho Entranqo 
standard of tho Calontta Dnlrorsity. 

Baragaon. — Yillago in tho Bihfir suh-division of tho Patna 
District, Bengal, situated in 25° 8' N. and 85° 26' E. Population 
(1901) 597, With tho neighbouring villogo of Bogampur, Bara- 
gaon contains masses of ruins. It has been idontified with Yihrira- 
grim on tho ontskirts of which, more than n thousand years ago, 
flouTtshed tho N^onda monaster}', at that timo tho most magni- 
ficent and the most oclohrated scat of Buddhist' learning in tho 
worlA It was here that the Ghinose traveller Hhien Tsiang spdnt 
a'gicat portion of his pilgrimage in receiving religiouB instruction. 
[^Anhaologieal iSurrci/ JRej}ort$ of India, tol. i, pp, 16-34.3 



VJLTXA DKTftlCr. 


17 


Btlrh Town.— Hcad-qu&ricts of tho eub.^i^’uiOQ of flio eame 
mune in Patna Districif Bongal, Eitnnled in 25^ 29' N. and 85° 43 
B. on tlio Ganges. Population (1901) 12,164. P&rh is a station 
on the East Indian Bailway 299 niUos from Calontta, and has 
n considciablo tiodo in country produce. Jossamino oil {ehameli) 
of a roperior quality is manufactured. B&rL. was constituted a 
municipality in 1870. Tho arcrago incomo for tho dccado ending 
in 1901*02 was Be- 6,700 and tho espondituro Bs. 6,600. In 
1903-04 the incomo wna Bs. 10,400, maimy from n t«t on poxBona 
(or property tax), and tho expenditure was Bs. 9,500. Tho town 
contains tho usual stih-dinsionol offices, a sub-jail with accom- 
modation for 28 prisoners, and an English oomotory. 

BihSr Town. — Hoad-quorton of the sob-division of tho same 
name in Pntna Bistriot, Bcngol, situated in 26° 11' N. and 86° 
31' E. on tho Pnnch&na river. It is supposed to hnvo boon the 
capital of the onoioni kin^om of Mngadha, but itscarly history is 
involved in obscurity. • The remains of an old fort covering 312 
acres of ground Mntain a profusion of ruined Buddhist and 
Brabmnuicol buildingn, which prove tho rite to bo a very old one. 
Among these may lie nioiitioned tho romnins of tho groat PT'urrd 
or college of Bnddhisl learning from which the town hos derived 
its name. Many ancient Mohammnd-m mosques and tombs oio 
also found in tho city, the most important of which is the tomb 
of ShAb Sharlf-ud-dln Makhdiim. Tho population which waa 
44,295 in 1872 increased to 48,968 in 1881, but fell again to 
47,723 in 1891 and to 46,063 in 19ul ; of the Inst number 


29,892 were umdvs and 16,119 MundmAns. BihAr u conneoted 
by alight railway witUBakhtiyArpuron tho East Indian Bailway. 
It was constilntod a municipality in 18C9. Tho average iuoumo 
for tho decade ending in 1901-02 was Bs. 1^,000 and the expen- 
diture Bs. 22,000. In 1903-04 the incomo wos Bs. 82,000, 
induing Bs. 19,000 derived from a tax on pciEons (or 
property tax) and lie. 6,000 from a conHermniy rate, and the 
expenmturo was Bs. 31,00(1. BihAr contains tho usual publio 
buildings, the sub jail luiving oocommodation for 26 prisoners. 
[Ejnfjraph'Ka Indiea, Arch<rohgkal Stfrety of India, vol. ii, pp. 291- 
294 ; Journal of iht Atialie Soe/efy of JicnyaJ, vol. sxsni, p. 7, 
and toL xii. p. OOO.j 

Binaporo Town {Danapur). — Town in tho Patna Dlslriot, 
Bcnmil, situated in 25° 38' K. and 86° 3' E. 8} miles from 
tho pinnporo railway station. Population (1901) 33,099, including 
10,641 rrithin cantonment boundarica Of its inhabitants 24,675 
are Hindus, 8,1 05 MusalroAns and 1,019 Oliristinns. Tho mililory 
forco ordinarily quartered at DinapOro, which belongs to tlm 
Luofcaow division of tbo Eostom ooromond, consists of 4 oow- 
pnnics of British infantry, 6 companies of native " - 

K field battery, Tho lowm with tho Bub-djvjwou »s tinrtcr 



18 


SliNGAI.. 


8ub-diTiBlonal officer and tbe cantonment under a epoolal Oanton* 
ment Mogietrate. The road from Dinapore to Sanhipcre is lined 
with houses end cottages ; in fact Dinapore, Sanhipore and Patna 
maj he regarded as forming one oontinuons narrow oltpr hemmed 
m between the Qanges and the railwaj. The town is noted for 
its oabinotwaie; it also contains a foundr;^, and printing 
and oil presses.^ It was constituted a mnnioipauty in 1887. Tho 
average munieipal incomo for the decade onung in 1901-02 was 
Bs. 17,000 and the expenditure Bs. 14,000. In 1903-04 the 
income was Bs. 27,000, including Bs. 11,000 derived from 
a tax on houses and lands, and the expenditure was Bs. 20,000. 
The average annual receipts and expenditure of the cautonmout 
fund in the 10 years ending in 1001 wore Be. 21,600 and 
Bs. 21,700 respectively ; the income in 1803-04 was Bs. 28,000 
and the expenditure Es. 26,000. 

Tho Mutiny of 1857 in Patna District originoted ot Dinapoto. 
The three sepoy regiments stationed ther$ brohe into open revolt 
in July and went oil en mam, the majority offeoting their csodpo 
into Sh&habfid District, whore tiiey ehortly oftorwards besieged 
Armh. An expedition whioh was sent from Dinapore to relievo 
them failed dieostrously, but was marked by oots of individual 
heroism; au account of this attempt will die found in tho article 
on Patjja District. 

^ Patwa.— Village in the Bftrh sub-division of tho Patna Dis- 
^ct, Bengal, situated in 25° 30' N. and 85° 19' E. on tho 
East Indian Eailwny, 7 mOes from Patna at the junction of 
tho Piinpun with the Ganges. Population (1901) 857. Tatar 
oloth is mannfacturod, and table dotbs, towels ond handkerchiefs 
oro woven by Jolohfis. 

Giriat. — Village in the Dihhr sub-division of the Patna Dis- 
Wot, Bengal, situated in 25° 2' N. and 85° 82' E. on tho 
Panobana river, and connected with Bihfir by a motoUed rood. 
Populotion (1901) 243. South-west of tho viUugo, and on tho 
opposito side of tho river, stands tho peak at tho ond of tho 
double rougo^ of hills commencing neor Goyfi, which- General 
Cunningham identifies with Pa Hian’s solitary mountoin, suggest- 
ing at the smo time that its name is derived from Ekigri, or one 
hili, but his views have not mot with universal acceptance. Dr. 
Buohanan-Hamilton has described the ruins of Giriok, wbiob are 
full of orobmological intorest.|,Thoy were originally ascended from 
tho noith-oDst, and romaius stfll exist of o rood about 12 feet wide, 
paved with large blocks, and winding so os to procure a modcroto 
gradient. At tho west end of tho ridge, a steep brick slope lends 
up to a platform, on which are some gronito pillars, probably 
part of an ancient temple. East of the ridge is on area 45 foot 
square, colled the ehahutra of Jarfisandha, tho centre of which is 
occupied by a low square pedestal Eupporling n solid brick column 



PATNA DISTRICT. 


19 


68 feoi in oiroumferonoe and SB feefi in height. It is popularly 
believed that Krishna crossed the river at this point on his vmy 
to ohaUeuge Jarasandha to oombat, and a bathing fesitval is 
annually bold at the spot in the month of Kartik to oommomorate 
the event. [M. Martin, Eastern India, vol. i, pp. 78-80; and 
Archwotogieal Sitrcey of India Beports, vol i, pp. 16-34 and vol. viii.] 

Hilsa.. — Village in the Bihar sub-division of the Potna Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in 25® 19' N. and 86° 17' B. Population 
(1901) 2,478. It is 13 miles distant from the Patna station on 
the E^t Indian Bailway, with whioh it is connected by road. 
Hilsa is a largo market where a brisk trade in food grains and 
oilseeds is carried on with Patna, GlayS, Bbearibagh and P a1fiTnti. ii- 

Khagaol. — iTown in tho Dinaporo sub-division of the Patna 
Distrio^ Bengal, situated in. 25° 35' N. and 85° 3' B., a 
short distance to the south of Dinaporo. Population (1901) 8,126. 
The Dinaporo railway station is just outside tho town, winch has 
only grown into importance siuco the opening of tho railway. It 
is the hcad-quaitois of a company of East Indian BaUway 
volunteers. 

Hauer.— Village in the Dinaporo sub-division of tho Patna 
District, Bengal, situated in 26° 38' N. and 84° 63' E. a fow 
miles below the junction of tho Son with tho Qangos, 10 milos 
. from Dinaporo cantonment and 5 miles from Bihth station on 
tho Bast Indian Boil way. JPopulatios (1901). 2,766. Manor is 
a very old jilacc, being mentionod in the Ain-i-AkbarJ. Tho 
chief antiquities arc tho tombs of Mnkhdum Yahia Manor and 
of Mokhdam Shah Daulat. The latter, whioh was built in 
1616, is well known. It stands on a raised platform, and at oarii 
comer rises a slender pillor of graceful proportions and oxqnisLto 
beauty. It has a great dome, and the ceiling is covered with 
delicately carved tests from tho Korfin. Two annual fairs are 
hold at Manor. 

Mokameh (JUtiiidina ). — ^Town in tho Bfiih sub-division, of tho 
Patna Distriol, Bengal, situatedi n 26° 26' N. ond 85° 63' B. on 
the right bank of tho Ganges. Populotion (1901) 13,861. It is a 
station on tho Bast Indian Bailway 283 miles distant from 
Calcutta, and is a junction for passengers proceeding by tho 
Bengal ond North-"Weatom Boilivay. Tho toivu oontaius a. largo 
number of European and Eurasian railway employes, and Js an 
important contra of trade. 

Patna City (AtimSldd ). — Ohiof city of Patna District, ' 
Bonml, siiuatod in 25° 37' N. and 86° 10' B. on tho_ right bank 
of, the Ganges a fow miles below its junction with tho Scm. 
Included within the municipal limits is Bankiporo, the adminis- 
trative hcad-qunrtors of Patna District and Patna Division. The 
city is situated on tho East Indian Bnilway 332 .niilos from 
Cnloaita, and though its prosperity has somewhat diminishod of 

• 0 2 



20 


BEKOAL. 


Ifito yours, it siall possesses on important trade, ils^ commanding 
position for both rail and river trofBo maldsg it ono of tho 
principal commercial centres of Bengal, and it is still, after 
Calcutta, tho largest tonm in the Pronneo. Buchanan Hamilton 
estimated the population at 312,000, but his calculation rofcirod to 
an area of 20 equare miles, whereas the city, as now defined, 
extends over only 0 square miles. The popiuation returned in 
1872 was 158,900, hut the oecuraey of the eniunoration wos 
doubted, and it was thought that tho real number of inhabitants 
was conffiderably greater. It is thus probablo that the growth 
indicated by the census of 1881, wbioh showed a population of 
170,654, wofl fiotitiouB. There woa a falling off of 6,462 persons 
between 1881 and 1891, while the census of 1901 gave a populo* 
tion of only 134,785, which represents a further deorease of more 
than 18 per cent. This was due mainly to the plague, which was 
raging at the time of the census and not only killed a groat 
number hut drove many more away. A second enumeration token 
5 months lain disclosed a population of 153,739. Tho decrease on 
the figures of 1891, whioh still amounted to 7 per cent., may be 
asoribed, in addition to tho aotual loss by deaths from plague, to a 
deolinin^rosperiiy due to the gradual decay of tho rh'or.home 
trade. Tuo popmation at tho regular census of 1901 included 
99,381 Ifflndns, 34,622 Musalm&ns and 083 Ohristians. 

Patna has a voiy anoiont totoiy. It is to ho identified with 
tho F&taliputra of ancient India, tho Palihoihro of tho Ghreoks and 
the Susumapura of tho early Gupta emperors. Megosthenes 
describes the diy as situated on the south hank of tho Oonges at tho 
confluence of another lorge river £rannoboas (the Greek form of 
JRrawja^Vihu) or Son, which formerly joined tho Ganges imme- 
diately below the modem city of Patna. The tradition of this 

i 'unohon still lingers among tho viUagoxs to tho soulh-wost of 
Patna, where there is an old wannid called tho mara (or dead) Son. 

Begarding the origin of the city various legends exist. The 
most popular nserihes it to a prince Fntrako, who oreatod it ndth 
a stroke of his mngio staff ond named it in honour of his wife the 
princess Patali. This stoiy is found^ in the K<ith& Snril Sugar 
and in Hiuon Tsiong^^s travels. Diodorus attributes tho founda- 
tion of Pclibothra to Hcraklos, by whom perhaps ho may mean 
Balar&m, the brolher of jl&ishna. According to the Y&yu FuiSna 
and tho Sutapitakn, tho city of Kusumopum or Pat<^putra was 
founded by tho SisunSga king Udaya, who ruled in Magadha 
towards the end of the 5th century B.O., hut tho Buddhist 
accounts place its origin in tho reign of Udfiya's grandfather 
Ajatasatru. When Buddha crossed tho Ganges on his last 
journey from Bijagriha to Vnisali, the two ministers of 
Aj&tasaim, king of kiogadba, wore engaged in building a fort 
at tho village of I’atali ns a chick upon tho mvoges of the people 



PATNA DISTRICT. 


SI 


And ho pxedictod ih&iilio {ott ^ronld booomo a great dfy. 
Accordisg to this accouat P&talipntza was fonndod ia 477 S. 0. 
The NoDoas 'who OTcrthrow tho SisnnSg^ Temoved the cajatal of 
Hagadba to PAtoliputra £rom ItSiag^a, tho nodora B&jgiri in 
'tho EOuth'Oost of tho Patna Dietriot. Under Ghondra Gupto, tho 
Greek Sandrokoltos, who established tho ITnurya dynasty in 321 
B. 0., Patoliputia hecamo tho capital of northern India. It was 
daring tho reign of this king that in SOS B. G. or ft little later, 
JSdegasthoncs, whose ncoonnt of it bos been pros^od by Airian, 
risitcd tho city. He says that Faliboihra, which bo describes os 
tho capital city of India, is distant from tho Indus 10,000 stadia, 
f.c., 1,149 miles, or only 6 miles in excess of tho aotnal distanco. 
Ho adds that tho length of tho city 'was 80, and tho hroadth 16 
stadia; that it was surrounded by a ditch 30 cubits deep; and that 
tho walls woro odomed with 670 towers ond 64 gates. According 
to this account, tho circumfercnco of tho city would ho 100 stooia 
or 24 miles. Straho, Pliny and Arrian call the pooplo Pnisii, 
which has hcon ■variously interpreted ns ‘ castom ' (prae/iya) people, 
or tho men of Parfisa, a namo applied to Magadh^ derived from 
tho paMs tree (Jiulca /roiufota). 

A Eoka ascended tho throne in 272 B. 0., and was crownod nt 
Pntaliputra in 269 B. 0. During his roign of 40 years ho 
changed tho outward nppoarnneo of Pdtaliputia. Ho roplaocd or 
Eupplomcnted tho wooden walls by masonry rompnrts, and fiUod 
his capital 'with palaces, monasteries ond monuments, tho ntes of 
which haro not, ns was onco thought, been washed away by the 
ri'vcr, but stiU romain to bo properly oxca'vatcd and identified by 
arobosologiste. Dr. Waddell nos alroody shown that Bhiknapahto, 
nn aitifiinal hill of brick deM» over 40 foot high and about a milo 
in circuit, now orowned by tho residence of ono of tho Nowfibs 
of Pntnn, is identical with tno hormitogo hill built ly^ Aso^ for 
'his brother Slnhondra; a representation of the origmal u still 
kept nt tho north-oast base of tho hill, and is worshipped os tho 
Bhikna Kunw r. Tho site of Asoka’s now palace Dr. Wndnell 
plaoos at Sondalpur. South of this, near tho railway, in Bnlaud 
Bfigh is a curious big flat Btono,to which tho mnrvollous story still 
dings that it cannot bo taken nwoy but olwoys roturns to its plaoo. 
This, in Dr, Wadddl’s opinion, is tho actual and original stono 
bearing the footprint of Buddha whicih woa soon ond dcsoribcd by 
the Ghiucso pilgiiins Fn Hinu and Hiuon Taiang. Fragments of 
a polished column, tho outlino of monastic cells, carved stonos and 
other remains point to Kumrfihar ns tho site of tho old pnlnoo. 
In tho adjacent hamlet of Nayfttala is n soulpturod piUor of a 
pair of Mfitris, or divino motbors, in tho^ voxy' old stylo soon 
xn tho Bhfirhut soolpturcs and highly polisbod bard sandstono. 
In tho land to tho south, which is still called Asobhuhev Asolm s 
plot, are situated brick ruins kno'wn nsObotlipahSri andBaropahfin 


22 


•BEKOAL, 


Hanld- 

filHy- 


{probDbly tho hermUfl^ liiU 6t TJpn Gupfa tflio convfertod'AsokaJ, 
while In the Pdnchj^oil Dr. Wnddoll recognizes tho 6 volio 
stupas of ozcoptional grandeur which Asoko is said to liavo built. 
According to iraditienu, tho third Buddliist council at PataliputKa 
was hold in the 17th year of Afioko’s reign. WiHi tho death tf 
that mouaroh in 231 B. 0. tho, city disappears from history for 
&30 years, during which period tho first empire of Northern India 
was destroyed hy Qie Scythians and Andhros. But in 319 A. D. 
tho city, nou' under the name of Kusumnpnra, witnessed tho birth 
of a sooond empire, that of tho Gupta kings. Olinndra Gupta I 
maniod a Liohehavi prinocss of Fatalipn^. Tho date of his 
coronation, March 8, 319 A.D., marks tho beginning of a now 
m in Indian hisloiy. Though Enstanapma is undouhtodly 
identical with Fatahpntta or Patna, yot of this second line of 
emperors not a single trace remains extopt a broken pillar which 
stands among some Muhammadan graves near tho dargiih. 
Samudra Gnpto, the son and sncocssor of Ohandia , Gupta I, 
greatly enlarged tho ompiro and romovod tho capital fmm 
Patnliputra or Knsumaputa westwards, hut P&taliputra was still 
a sacrod place for the Buddhists. About 406, during tho reign of 
Chandra Gupta IT, Fa Hian, after visiting Upper India arrived 
at PMolipiitra, of wMdi ho gives n short description, and 
resided there for three years udiile learning to read tho Sanskrit 
books and to convorse in that langnogo. 

Tho next dcEoripiion of Patna is snppliod by Hiuen Tsiang, 
who ontorod tho oily after his return from Nopal, in G37, moro 
than n hundred years after the fall of tho Gupta empire. At 
that time tho Idngdomof Magadha was subject to Uarshavardhana, 
tiio great king of Eano^. Hiuen Tsiang informs us that 
the old city cmlcd originally Eusumapura had been deserted for 
a long time and was In ruins. Bo gives the circumforonoo at 
70 fi, or 11s miles, cioIusivB of the now town of Patolipntra, 

Little is known of tho mcditoval history of Patna. In tho 
early years of Muhammadan rule tho governor of tho province 
resided at tho city of Bifa&r. During Shor Shah’s revolt Patna 
beonmo an indopeudent capital, but it was reduced to subjection by 
Akbar. Aurangzob made his grandson Azim governor, and the 
city thus acquired tho name of Azimhb&d. .The two important 
ovonts in tho modem history of Patna city, nomely, thomnssaoro of 
1763, and the mutiny of tho troops at Dinnporo cantonments in 
1857, havo been described in 'the account "of Patka Disfnot. Tbo 
old walMcityofPotna estends nhoat 14 miles from east to w'cst 
and three quarters of a mile from north to south. It is to tins day 
very oloEclj’ built, mainly with mud honsefj but the , old fortifica- 
tions which surrounded the city hove'loBg sinco disappeared. 

Tbo city was constituted a municipality in 1864, The 
municipal limits include tho suburb of BanKiporc on the west. 



rATJTA DISTRICT. 


23 


The average iucome for the deoade ending in 1901-02 vros 2*18 
lakhs and the expenditure 1*91 lakhs. In 1903-04: the income 
iras 1*93 lakhs, inoluding Us. 83,000 from a tax on houses and 
lands, Es. 21,000 from a oonservanoy rate, Bs. 16,000 from tolls, 
Bs. 13,000 from a tax on v^iiales, and Bs. 35,000 as grants; 
the inoidenoe of taxation vras annas 14-5 per head of the 
population. In the same year the expenditure amounted to 1*74 
lakhs, the chief items heingBs. 5,000 spent on lightLDg.Bs. 10,000 
on _ dxunage, Bs. 48,000 on oonserToncy, Bs. 20,000 on medioal 
relief, Bs. 7,000 on a new homital building, Bs. 81,000 on roads 
and Bs. 6,000 on education. A drainage sweme was oarried out 
between 1893 and 1895 at a cost of 2‘68 lakhs, but was defective 
owing to its being unaooompanied by any flushing scheme. 
Two complementary schemes were oarried out in 1894 and 1900, 
by which 4^ square miles ont of the total area ore now flushed. 

Bor a^inistratiye purposes the city, excluding Bankipore, 
but inolnding a few outlying villages known as the rural area of 
the City subdivision, has been otmstitnted a sub-division under a 
Oity Ma§^irate, who holds h^ court at Ghilzarbagh in the heart 
of the city. The courts and jail are situated atBAUKiroBs. 
Patna is the head-quarters of the Commissioner and additional 
Commissioner, the jBihar Opium Agent, a Deputy luspector- 
Oeneml of Police, a Depu^ ISanitary Oommissioner, and the 
jBxeoutiye Engineer^ of the Eastern Son Division. The Patna 
college is a fine hriok building at the west end of the oity. 
Originally built by a native os a private residence, it was purchased 
by Oovemmeut and converted into law courts. In 1857 the courts 
were removed to the present boil^gs at BanHpore; and in 1862 
Che college was established there. It poBseasPS a chemical 
laboratory, and a law department and collegiate school are also 
attached to it. Close by is the Medical college, in front of which 
a. new, hospital has been erected. In this neighbourhood also 
stands the Oriental Library, founded by Maulvi Khuda .Bakhsh 
Khan Bahadur, c.i.n., the present librarian, who has ooUeoted 
a number of valuable Persian aud Arable manuscripts. This 
library is subsidised by the Bengal Government, by the 
NizSm of HyderabSd, and by private subscriptions. Further 
east at Aisalpur, on the ground formerly ocoupied by the Dutch 
Factory at Patna, have been erected some fine buildings for the 
Bih4r School of Engineering, which was opened m August 
1900, out of fnnds originally collected to commemorate the visit 
of the Prince of Wales to Patna in 1876. It has a ^ good 
workshop for practical work and the course of studies _ u 
the same as that of the apprentice department of the Civil 
Engineering' college, Sibpur. About 3 miles further east, in 
the qnnrter called Gulzarbagh, the Government manufacture of 
opium is carried on. Faina u one of the two places in British 



BEKOAt..' 


2i 

t&dlia vhere opium is xannufactared bj GoTernmeui.' Ths 
opium is made up into oalces weiglu^ about 4 lb. and containing 
about 3 lb. of standard opium, ^ese are packed in oliests 
(40 in each) and sent to Oaloutta ‘n’honoo most of them are exported 
to Ohino. The opium buildings are on the old river bank, and 
are separated from the oity by a high briek nrall. iieyond 
Gulzarbagh lies the city proper. The vrestem gate ie, acoording 
to^ its iuBoription, 6 miles from the gola, and 12 milos from 
Dinapoie. South of the city, in the quarter called Sadikpnri 
a market hu been made on the gronnd formeily occupied by 
the Wahabi rebels. Neatly opposite to tbe Bomon Oatholio. 
Church is the grave where the bodies of Mfr Hifisim’s viofiius 
were ultimately deposited. It is covered by a pillar, built jportly 
of stone and partly of brick, with an inlaid tablet and insonption. 
The chief Muiammadnn place of woiriiip is the monument of 
Sh&h Arzdni, who died hero in 1623, and whose shrine is 
frequented both by Muhammadans and Hindus. An annual 
fair is held on the qtot in the month of Zikad, lasting for 
throe days and attracting about 5,000 votaries. Adjaoont 
to the tomb is the Karbala, where 100,000 people attend during 
the Muhttiram fostival. Close by is a tank dng by tho soin^ 
•wbero once a year crowds of people assemble, and many of them 
bathe. The mosque of Sher 8h§n is probably tbe eldest building 
in Fatna and the madrasa of Saif Kh&n the handsomest. 
[L. A. Waddell, PStaliputt a, Oaloutta, 1892, and Heport on the 
etcaoetioni at Pdtahpufra, Calcutta, IdOS.) 

F&wapnri^ ^ApSpapuri, the sinloss town). — Village in tho 
Bib&r suD-division of the Patna Distriot, Bengal. Population 
(1901) 311. MahSma, the last of tho Jain patriarchs, is said to 
have been buried in the village, which possoEses 3 Jain temples 
and is a great place of pilgrimage for tbe Jains. 

Plmlwari. — Town in the head-quarters sub-division of tho 
Patna District, Bengal, situated in 25** 34' N. and 85° 5' H. 
Pop^tion (1001) 8,415. 

BAigIr. — Buins in the Bihar sub-division of the Patna District, 
Bengal, mtuated in 25° 2' N. ond 85® 26' E. Population (1901) 
1,575. It was identified by Dr. Budianan-Homilton mth Bllja> 
griha, the rcsidonoo of Buddha and capital of tho andient Hagadha ; 
and by General Cunningham with Ensa-nagarfi>pura (“the town of 
tho *«« grass ”), viaitod by Hauen Tsiang and culled by him Kiu- 
she-lo-pu-lo li&jagriha, wMch means “ tho royal ' residence," 
was also known os GiribTaj&, “the bill surrounds and under 
this name tho capital of Jar&sandho, king of Magodha, is men- 
tidned both in the B&mfiyana and tho Mah&bbfirata. It is also 
described by Ea Hum and Hincn Tsiang, the Chinese pilgrims, 
tho latter of whom gives on account of the hot springs found at 
this place. The five lulls sniround^g the city, mentioned in the 



□ATA CIBTBICt. 


25 


Mali&bbfiiata and in ihe.-P&li annnls, have been esamined by 
■General Ounningham. The first, Baibh&r, is identified with the 
WebhaTB monntaiu of the Pali annale, on the aide of whicih 'was 
the fiimoas Sattapanni Gave, 'where .the first Buddhist synod-'vnis 
held in 643 B.O. The second hill, Batnagiri, is that called by 
- Fa ESan “The Fig-tree Gave,” -where Buddha meditated after his 
meals, and is identical with the Bidugiri oi the Mah&bhaxata, 
and'the Pondao of the Pali annals. A paved zigzag rood leads 
io.a small temple on the summit of this moimtain, which is still 
used by Jains. - The third hill, Bipula, is clearly the Wepullo of 
the Pali ohronides and the Ghoit-yaka of the Mah&Dharata. 

' The other two hills have Jain temples. 

Traces of the outer wall around the ancient town of Bijagriha 
'may still be seen, about 4$ mfies in oiroumferenee. The new 
B&]gir is about two-thirds of a mile north of the old town, 
docording to Buddhist reoords, it was built by Brenika or 
Bimbasara, the father of Aj^tasahn, the contetmpoiaxy of Buddha. 

Br. Buehanan-Hamiltou stated that the town stood upon 
the north-west oomer of a fort, which is an irregular pentagon 
in form and apparently of great antiquity. At the south-west 
extremity are ^oes of a more modem fort, with stone walls, 
whioh ihight have been a kind of citadel. It occnipies a spaoe 
of about 600 yards. The eastern and northern faoes had no 
ditch, but there is a strong stone wall about 18 feet thick, 'with 
circular projections at intervals. 'Ihe eastern approach to 
B&jcgriha -was protected by a stone wall, 20 feet in widtb and 
running zigzag up the southern slopes of the hills. A watch- 
tower on the extreme eastern point of the range corresponded with 
a similar tower immediately over the oiiy. One tower still exists, 
and also the foundations of tlie second tower. South of the 
ancient dty of Bajngriha are fonnd insoripiaoDS on huge slabs of 
stone, which form a natural pavement. So far as is known the 
oharacters ha've never (been deciphered. [^ArchcBoIogical Surtey 
of /fldiisi.vol. i, pp. 16 —84, and vol. viii, pp. 86 — 100.] 

SQao. — ^Yil^ge in the Bihar sub-division of the Patnfi Distriot, 

Bengal, situated in 25° 5' N. and 85° 24' E. Popnlation (1901) 

IjSO'A It is large grain mart -where the best table rice in Patna 
is sold, and is also noted for its sweetmeats and parched rice sold 
to pilgrims an routs to Bajg^. 

- Gay& Bistriot. — Distnot in. the Patna Division of Bengal, Bound- 
lying between 24° 17' and-26° 19' N. -and 84° 0' and 86° 3' B. «>»■ 
■with an .area of -4,712 square miles. It is bounded '6n the 
north by the. Patna Distriot; on- the east -by Monghyr and and river 
-Eaz&ribajgb; on the south -by. Haz&ribagb and Polaman; and on 
the west by Shababad, from which it is squirated by the Son river. 

The Bonthem part of the District is elevated and ' occupies the 
declivity from the Chot& NSgpnr plateau, from which .numerous 



26 




ridges and spurs projoot into tbc plains. About ton niiles south of 
Gaya town tho simace bocomes more leroljhut somi'isolatcd rangcg 
stond out from the plains, and still further to tho north soparnto 
ridges and isolated peaks crop up here and there. The chief hills 
are : the Dorrasanshi and Mahabar hills in tho south <of the 
Nawada sub-division, wbioh rise to a height of 2,202 and 1,832 
feet above sea level, the former being the highest point in tho 
Distriot ; tho Maher (1,612 feet) and Hosra hms, the Ganjfis and 
Bhindas, and the Jethian range tanning from the neighbourhood 
of Buddh-Gay& to Rajgir and Giriok, ond the Pahra, Ohorki and 
Gaya hills in tho head-quarters sub-^visioh ; tho Pawai, Dugul ' 
and Fnohar hills in the AurangabSd sub-division ; and the Barker 
and Kowadol hills in the Johanabad sab-division. The general 
level foils somowhat rimidly towards the north, and numerous 
hill streams from tho high lands of Chota Kigpnr flow northwards 
across tho District in more or less paraUol oonrsos. The ohiof of 
these from east to west are tho Sakri, Dhanniji, Tilaya, DhadhSr, 
Paimar, Phalgu, Jamunfi, Morhnr, Dhawaj Madar, Adri and 
Punpiin, and the Sow, which forms tho wostora boundary of tho 
Dismet. Tho last named rivers are tho only two which reach 
tho Ganges. The^ water brought down by tho other streams is 
nearly au used up in tho network of pains or artificial irrigation 
ohnnnels ; the Dhaw& and Madar are fxibutaries of tho Punpun, 
and tho Morhar and Phalgu also ovontuolly join that river; 
while other streams, after bemg thus diverted for tho purposes of 
irrigation, cannot be traced or minglo in the rainy season 
in a huge j'/dl in the Barb sub-division (of Patna). The Phalgu, 
whioh is formed by the junction of the Lilajan and Mohana 
rivers obout two miles below Buddh-Gaya, flows past tho town 
of Ga^, and then northwards past tho foot of tho Barahai 
hills. river and the Punpun ore regarded by tho Hindns as 
saorod streams, and to bathe in them is the duty of every pilgrim 
who performs the Gay& /iri/ia or pilgrimage. Tho mostjimportant 
river is tho Son, its bed being nearly as broad as that of tho 
Ganges, though it becomes almost dry in the hot months. In 
the rains the current is very rapid and navigation ditfionlt, in 
consequence of whiifli the river is used only by small craft up to 
about twenty tons burthen for a few months in tho yeor. 
Between Barun on the Gaya bonk and Dohri on the Sbfil^bad 
side a stone causeway leads tho Grand Trunk Road across the 
bed. Just above this causeway is tho great anicut of tho Son 
Canals system, ond bdow tho causeway the river is qianned by 
one of the longest rnilwoy bridges in tho world comprising 98 
sp.'ins of 100 feet caob ; it is made of iron girdors laid on stone- 
built pillars. 

Qeoloey. A considerable part of the District is occupied by tho Gangouo 
alluvium, but older rocks rise above its level chiefly in tho south 



oAtA Disinicr. 


2 ? 


inid enet. TLbao aro composed for the most part of a foliated 
gnoisB, cormting of a great variety of ciystallino roolse foming 
parallel hands and known as Iho Bengal gneiss. If is n sub- 
^vision of the Aichnan ^stom wLioli contains tiio oldest rooks of 
the earth’s crust. Scattered at intervals amid the Bengal gneiss 
in the east of the Distriot nro soToroI out crops of another very 
ancient aeries, rcsemhling that described in southern India under 
(he name of Dharwfir sclists and constituting another sub-division 
of the Arehtenn system. Owing to the predominance of mossivo 
beds of quartzite, theso beds stand out as abrupt ridges and 
constitute all the most consmeuoue hills of iho iDisirict. Not 
only ore these rocks ovoiywhero altered by ‘regional mclnraor* 
•pbism,’ caused by the great pressuro that has tluown them into 
close-sot ETOclinal and .anticlinal folds ns oppressed by 
elongated skpe of the ridges and high dips of tho strata with Ibo 
inducement of slaty cleavage, but they havo further been aftected 
to a great extent by contact metamoipbism from the intrusion 
of great masses of granite and innumerable veins of coarSo granitio 
pejpnatite, bjr whi(h the slates bavo been further transformed 
mto cr 3 'Bf^no schists. In its more massive form tho tranilo 
18 relatiiuly fine-grained and very bomogeneoua, and it tt?allic«i 
mto great rounded hummock that have suggested tho name of 
dome-gneiss bjr which itis somclimos known. But it is tho 



they contain. 

Gangly 20 miles south-west by w° at of 

west by south of Imamganj, in the fed of ^ 

they occupy a smnU outebp entirX ronoundST"'^» 

Thm , outcrop' is of great interest os mdimS^ 

TOal-m^es may exist beneath So 
this port of the Gangotio plain.* ouuvjal formation in 

In the north tho rico fields barn , 
fcoahfies. Near villages there oro^n such Botoy 

_J§o Jrec3 and palmyras ° erovc.s of 


■ I' 


28 


BEKCAt. 


palms {Phmk aykeiim)^ and numerous moro isolated, examples 
of Tamarintfus and other somi-fpontaneoas and more or loss 
nseful epeoies. There are no Government forests, but tho hills 
on the south are completely covered vrith dense jnnglo; here 
tho fuel supply of tho Distriot is obtained and the lae industry 
is a oonsidorablo source of inoome to the landlords. The ptin* 
cipid trees are the pipal (Ficus religiosa), Mm {JUclia azadiraclita), 
banyan {Fieus indicn), sirfs {Albizsia odoralitsima), ntahvA {Bawa 
ialifolia), pnld» {Butea fiontloia), sissfl {Dalbcrgia tism), tamaiind 
{7'atnanndug tnifiba), Jdmun {Fugum jambohm), sdl {Shorta 
rciustii), babul {Aeaeia aralica), cotton tree {Bombax mnlabaricum), 
and ka/iiid {Teminalia nrjum). JFlowering shrubs and croepois 
grow luxuriantly in the hills after the mins, and during the cold 
weather wild plums and other smnll edible berries are oommou 
in these tracts and form part of the food supply of the porrer classes, 
Fauno. Tigers are found in tho hills in the sonth, and Iropnrds, 
panthers,^ hj'tonas, bears and wild hogs on most of the huls in 
tho Bistriot. Sdmhar {Cerviis unieolor), spotted deer {ct/rus aric, 
ravine dear {Gueelh bennetti), four-homed antelope [Tetraeerw 
quadricomit) and harking deer {Cemihtt muntjae) live in tho 
jungles in the south, hut thoir numbers are rapidly decreasing. 
The antelope [Anlelojx certieapra) is still oooasionally found. 
'Wolves and wild dogs are compaiativoly rare. A few iMgai 
(Boselaphtis tmgocmelas) still frequent tho hanks of tho Son. Pen 
fowl, jungle fowl (6?fl//i/g /s»rrKyweK»), hlaofc partridge (Fr/inro. 
linu» culgant) and grey (Francolitim Pondicerimut), and spur 
fowl {OaHopcriHx «/).} axe found in and along the stirts of the 
southern hills. 

Olimsto Owing to its distance from tho son, Gaya has mater extremes 
Biid tsm- of climate than tho south and oast of Bengal. The mean tem- 
perstwe, pjature vories from 64° in January to 93' in Moy, and the 
highest average maximum is 106' in May. Owing to the hot and 
dry westerly winds which prevail in March and April, tho humi- 
dity at that season averages only 61 per cent. With tlie apjToaoh 
of the monsoon tho humidity increases, and then romnins elondy 
at from 84 to 87 per cent, thronghoui July and August. Tho 
average annual rainfall is 42 inches, of which 6 6 fall in Juno, 
12‘1 in July, 11*8 in August and 6’4 in September. The strength 
of tho monsoon during the month of September is of spcoiol 
importance to tho cultivator, os the winter lioe harvest is lorgely 
dependent on a good supply of rain at that season. 

Ffstnna Local floods are oocasionnlly oausod by the rivors broaching 
csUmJtief. jjjgjj tnnks otter abnormolly heavy rain in tho hills, or by a 
river leaving its bod and appropriating the channel of a pain or 
irrigation canal. A case of this nature ooonrred in 1896-97 when 
tho Sobri river changed its couisa and flooded tho lands of some 
mmisas in the Nawada sub-dirifiion, converting a considerable area 



QATA BIBXEICl'. 


29 


of fertile land into n sandj friusto. In SqAembei 1901 in oonse* 
qucnce of the Budden ^nltaneotis rise of the Son. and the 
Ganges, the formerriveitoppeditahnnknearAiwal and. flooded 
Badiahsd and other viUogos, many mnd-built houses foiling in, 

Tho modem District uub eomprised, with tho conntiy nowHUtoiy, 
inclnded in Patna and Sh&hahad, within tho ondent kingdom of 
Maoadha. Both Patna and GajK, which formed part of tho 
Muhammadan siitah of Bihar, passed into tho hands of tho English 
in 1765'l)eing at iifBtTidmilnstered from Patna. This arrangement 
lasted till 1781 when Bihar was mado into a District under & Gol« 
lector and a Judge-Magistrate. Bi 1814 tho sonth of the District 
was placed under the jurisdiction of a spcdol Joint Mag^lrate, 
stationed at SherghfitL ^ 1865 Gayti was separated from Patna 
and constitnlcd an independent CoHlectorato. 

Though Qaya wns not tho scone of fighting during tho Mutiny 
of 1857, yet an incident took place in tho District worthy of 
record. Tho sepoys in the cantonments at Dinaporo muti- 
nied in July nnd_ Reaped into Sh&hBbild. After tho first attook 
upon them hy it Bri&h force had resulted in disaster, orders woro 
issu^hy the Commissioner of Patna to all tho oiril ofilcoio 'within 
jurisdiction to withdraw their eslahlishmints and retire on 
Dmaporo. A small garrison of tho 64tli Rcgimonl, togothrr with 
a few ^ Sikhs, was then stationed at Gays toirn- In ^cdicnco to 
the wniton orders of the Commissioner the handful of soldieia 
md oivihans at Gaya started on the road to PalnOj Icaiiing 
hobmd about 7 lokhs in tho tronsuiy. But on tho way holder 
counsels prevailed. Mr. Monty, tho Magistroto of tho District, 
ono Mr. Ifollmgs, an uncovennnted official in the opium agency, 
oetermincd to return to GayS ond save whot they could from Iho 
general piUDgo that would ino'vitahly fellow upon tho nhnn- 
donment of tho town. Iho dolachmont of tho 64th itogimont 
was too eont bock. Tho torvn was found still at peace. By 
me time that ^lago had been ooUootod for tho treasure tho 
Patna road had bo^o unsafe, and tho only means of retreat 
WM by the ^nd Trunk Hood to Calcutta. As soon ns tho litllo 
^ wi? * Btoitcd a sooend time, they woro attaoked hy a mhed 
t '‘oi Cio fonnor jail-guards. They 

repul^ utta^, aud convoyed the trensuro safely to Coloutta. 

u fuU o£ plaocs of tho greatest nrohroologioal Arehiw. 
™ associations of tho anoiont >"BJ. 
nbpon of Buddha. As a place of Hindu pilgrimngo, tho town 

Bodhl GATA°e “oiora inlcrcit,% of Buddii (or 

f ho south aro romnins of great religious 
Buddhist imgesorotobe 
S Gav“ atPunfiwfin, iTmn” east 

hv D? Rfoi, I'lwu Punftwftn is Hasrahill, idontifiod 

by Dr, Stem with the Kukkutnpada-giri of Hiuou Tsiang. and ’ 



30 


SEKOAL. 


FaHian. There are many soattored remains of undoubted Buddhist 
origin in tho valley between the Sobhn&th hill and Hasrfi hill 
proper ; while in the neighbouring vBlage of Bishnupur TanvS 
are. some finely out Buddhist rmages. At Knrkih&r, 7 miles to 
the north-east, is a large mound, from which many Buddhist 
Boulpturos have been unearned. ^ About 11 miles to the north- 
east lies the village of Jethlan, identified with the Yashtivana 
of Hiuen Tsiang, in the neighbourhood of whidb Ihoro are 
several sites assooiated with the wanderings of Bud^o. At 
Eonoh is a oiuious btidk-built temple, and traces of Buddliist 
infiuenooare observable in soulptures round about. Seven mfios 
south-east of Gaya is the Dhongra hill, which is dearly identi- 
fiable with the Pragbodhi mountain of Hiuen Tsiang, and 
oontflins a cave in which Gautama is supposed to have rested 
before he went to Buddh-Gnya. At Guneri are many Buddhist 
images and remains marking tho site apparently of tho Sri Oima 
Chanta monastery. The above remains are oil in the head- 
quarters suh-divisioD, in the esfaremo north of which Bo tho 
Bababab niixs with their famous rook-out c^es. Not far 


from these hills to the west is tho isolated rooky peak of Xowadol, 
at the base of wbioh is a bngo stone imogo of Buddba; it 
probably marks the sito of the ancient Buddhist monastery of 
oilabhadra. 


In the Nawiida sub-division at Sittmnrhi about 7 miles south- 
west of Uisua is a cave hewn in a largo isolated boiildor of 
granite. Tradition relates that here Sito, tho wife of Eama, gdro 
butb to Lava whilo in exilo. Many legonds also olustor round 
Rajauli vnth its pioturesquo hills and pretty valleys. At Afsau 
oro EOToral remains, including a fine statue of tho Fara/ia or Boar 
incarnation of Vishnu. 

In tbo Jabanabad sab-division about 3 milos north of tho 
Bar&hnr hills stands Bharawat noar tho sito of another Buddhist 
monastory called Gunfimati. South of this on the slope of a 
low ridge of hills many Buddhist lomains have heen found. At 
Dfipthu, there aro somo finely oarved' images and ruins of 
temples ; and not far hero lying half buried in nn open 
field is a largo carved monolith of granite. At Jflru and Banwftria 
on tho oast side of tho Phklgu river oro tho ruins of what 
must have been a largo tomplo, and thoro aro other remains of 
interest at Kako, Ghon}aa and Nor. 

In tho Aurang&bad sub-division a fine steno tomplo stands at 
Di !0 and a similar ono at TJmga. Largo Buddhist images and 
many remains oro found at Mfindo, and atBhurha 2 miles further 
east aro somo finely carved chafijftK and inrages and also somo 
remains marking tho sito of a monosteiy. Bcokull,^ Choon and 
Faehar also contain remains of Brahinanical, Buddhist and Jain 


interest, 



tJAYA MS»ntCT. 


31 


The Tocoided population of the present orea rose £roni>nio 
1,947,824 in 1872 to 2,124,682 in 1881 and to 2,138,331 in 1891, pcoplo. 
but fell again to 2,059,933 in 1901. Tho population is not 
progressive, and much of tho inorease bohveon 1872 and 1881 must 
have boon due to better enumeration. The deoreoso at tiie oensuB 
of 1901 'vnis Inrgelj duo to the ravages of tho plague. Tho 
greatest loss took place in the central polioo ciroles vrhere plague 
was most prevalent, but a slight decadence for which plague was 
not to blame occurred in the 6oath*west, where the land is high and 
hanen and tho crops axe scanty and uncertain. The Naw&da sub- 
division in tho east and a H inirLll tract which honofiis by irrigation 
from the Son in the north-west added to their population; 
both these traots hod escaped tho ranges of tbo plague up to the 
timo of the census. .The salient statistics of tho oenius of 1901 are 
reproduced hdow : — 


Bni.iiiTiBioir. 

Arm In 

BmoEtt or 

Fapidatloa. 

ronQla 

tion 

jicr 

fqn&ro 

mile. 

Pcrcentaco 
of totIb. 
tion In 
popolatton 
bottrera 
1891 and 
IDOl. 

Kuinbcr 

or 

pontons 
able to 
mid and 

igtiaro 

mites* 

Tosnis* 

Tillages. 

0*SK . 

SawSOn , 

AtiSBiiB^Sd 

JfldiKiutbSd 

District TOris ••• 

1,S0S 

ms 

1.SM 

>»(i 

s 

2 

2 

1 

2.WD 

1,762 

8,013 

1,078 

761,866 

433,808 

407.075 

SS0.636 

395 

475 

575 

ess 

—07 

+s*a 

—VO 
— l-S 

SR.83S 

18.100 

10.095 

10.251 

-4,772 

S 

7,S77 

2,052,033 

427 

—3*7 

74,703 


. Of tho towns QatA} tho Distriot hoad-quartoxs, Tekarz and 
Daudnaoar aro municipalities. Tho other ohiol towns aro 
AuitANOAUAii, Kawada nud Jauakauax). The density of the 
population is greatest in tho north, rising to C66 persons to tho 
square mile in Johanahad thaua; along thc^ southern houndaiy, 
wliere a considerahle area belongs goographicoU^p to the Ohota 
Nfigpur plateau, it is very spaxae, and in Baraohati thann there aro. 
only 257 persons to the square nule. Goya sends out numerous 
omigrants to tho adjoining Districts of DCazarihagh and Palamau, 
but tho most marked featuro conncctod ivith migxotion is tho 
great number of natives of ,tho Distriot who com a livelihood in 
distant parts. ITo less than 58,952 or 2*8 per cent, of tho popula- 
tion were residing in Bengal proper at the time of tho census of 
1901, and of these 36,963^ were ommorated in ColoutW Thosd 
emigrants ore employed dhiofly as dtirtcSna, peons and, weavers in 
juto nuUe, and they reimt a largo portion of thoir oomings for tho 
support of thoir lamilios, whom thoy seldom tako with them. It 
was ostimatod in 1893 that os mu<m as Us. 8,40,000 was thus 
annually remitted to tho District. The vernacular of tho Distriot 

























32 


BEKOA.I.. 


Tbeir 
castes end 
oceopa* 
tiens. 


Christian 

Uissions. 


Oeaorai 
agrienh 
tarsi cen' 
dItiODS. 


is theMagaM dialeoi of Bihari; the Atvadhi dialect of costoin 
Hindi is spolcen by Mubammadans. Of the population 1,840,882 
persons (89'3 per cent.) aro Hindus and 219,124 (10'C4 per bent.) 
Muhammadans. 

The GbiaUs (306,000} are the most numerous Hindu caste, next 
to whom come Bdbhans (163,000) and Eioiris (145,000). There 
ore soTeral aboriginal or semi*Hinduised tribes, tbo principal bomg 
Bhuiyos (112,000), Dosadhs (108,1)00), Husabars (65,000) and 
Ztajwars (53,000). Tho most common higher castes are Brihmans 
(64,000), Baiputs (111,000) and Kdyasths (39,000). The 
Brahmans indude a number of persons who, (hough not regular 
or orthodox Brahmans, are allowed a kind of brevet rank; among 
these tho most remarkable ate the Gayawals (see Gata town) and 
the DhSmins. Many of the functional castes ore well represented, 
suoh as KohSrs (110,000), Chamars (81,000), Telis (58,000), 
Nurmis (41,000), Barhois (39,000), and Hajj&ms and PiisiB 
(38,000 each), ^on^ Muhammadans Jolahfis (74,000) are tho 
most numerous. Agriculture supports 65*1 per cent, of tho 
population , industries 14*0 per cent., commerce 0*6 per Cent, end 
the professions 1*9 per cent. 

Christians number (1901) 253 only, of whom 40 are natives; 
the missions at work are the London Baptist Missionary Sodely, 
the London Baptist Zandna Missionary Society and tho World’s 
Faith Missionary Association. 

The northern portion of the District, extending southwards to 
about 10 miles beyond Qayd town and constituting about two> 
thirds of the whole area, is fairly level and is mostly under oultiva< 
tiou. Further south tho rise towards tho hills of Chotd N&pur 
is more rapid, the country is intcrscoted with hills and ravines, 
the proportion of sand iu the soil is much larger, and a largo area 
ia composed of hill and scrub-covered jungle, which extends for 
several pules below the hills. Cultivation in this tract' is fat 
more soaiity, bnt in recent pars largo areas of wasto have been 
rodaimod, and the process will probably be accelerated with tho 
opening of now linos of railway and the general improvement of 
communications. Between the numerous rivers tho land is 
higher ; in tho south these doSix con only bo irrigatod with difficulty, 
and rabi and b/iadoi crops arc most grown. Further north, 
where tho surface is more level, most of them can bo watered 
by cihauncls from tho rivers and from dhars, and paddy is 
IttTgdy grown. In the west near the Son a ccmsidorablo area, 
wmoh was formerly sandy and infertile, is irrigatod from tbo 
Patna onnol and its distributaries. In tbo nortbom tract the 
soil is pcnorally alluvial, oonsisting chiefly of day with a smaU 
proporuou of sand. Iu tho south, however, sand generally pre- 
dominates. In Eomo ports tho soil is impregnated with carbonate 
of Goda. 



GATA DZSXIlICr. 


Clitef 

BgrlcDl- 

tniul 

■faUatics 

and ptia* 

dptu 

cxopa. 


* Thia coluimi reproaoiita tlio area irr-^ted from Governmont eanala. Stattatics 
ahoniog the area Irrigated from privaic channele, tanka, irella, etc., are not 
available, bnt it ia eatiinuted that in the whole IKatrict the area irrigated from alt 
Ojurcea ie 75 per cent, of the total cultivated area. 

The area ttrice cropped is estimated at 287 square miles. 

The most important staple is xlcer grown on 1,382 Square miles 
or ahout SI per cent, of the oaltiTaied area. Se<ddes this, a 
great variety of staples is rmsed, and it m not nnusual to find 4 
crops, Biioh as gram, wheat, sesamum and linseed, grown together 
in the same field ; to this feet and to the protection afforded by 
the Son oanela and the indigenous system of irrigation followed in 
the Distiiot may be ascribed the comparative immunity it enjoys 
from famine. Wheat covem about 249 square miles, and the 
other important cereals and pulses are gram, viarua, maize, barley, 
kh>•^&rit masfir, peas, urd and mQng, bvjt'a or joieSf ia culti- 
vated to a large extent on high lands. Oilseeds cover 329 square 
miles, the chief crop being liuseed, grown on 1(>0 square miles. 

Gayh is one of the chief opium-producing Disfrlots in Bengal, and 
75 square miles are devoted to the oultivatiou of the poppy. 
Sugarcane is widely grown, as also ore potatoes, yams and other 
vegetables, and pdn or oolel leaf. 

Xu the ton years ending in 1901-02, 2*88 lakhs was advanced 
under the Jjand Improvement Xjoans Act and Hs. 67,000 under 
the Agriculturists' Xioans Act ; the loans are ohiefly used for the 
improvement or extension of the means of irrigatioD. 

The local cattle an small but sturdy. Sxtenslve pastute lands Cattle, 
exist in the thinly cultivated tracts in the south, but elsewhere 
the cattle aref largely {fed on chopped straw. Sheep are reared 
extensively by the| Garexi caste, especially near the hills where 
grazing is plentiful, and their wool is used in the manufacture 
of carpets, rugs and blankets. Goats arc common, and hogs an 
kept by Shuiyas, Musahars, Dosadhs and Dorns. A veteri- 
nary dispensary is maintained at Gaya by the Distiiot board. 
Xfumerous religious gatherings are held st various plans in the 
Distiiot, especially in Gayfi town, which is a place or pilgrimage 

D 


33 


The salient agricultural statistios for 1903-04 are given below, 
areas being in square miles 


Snfi.stnsioir. 

Total. 

Cultivated, 

Cultarable 

wuate. 

Irrigated,* 

«■* 

J,«0^ 

1,049 

92 


Nawada 

S66 

498 

87 


AnraDgobad ... 

1,246 

6S7 

98 

S3 

Jab&nabad ' 

606 

COS 

20 

S3 

Totax. 

4,7ja 

a,7ia 

247 

as 




84 


SEirOAL. 


The! 

cuti 

otcu 

tioni 


Cfari 

Hill 


Gon 

■gri 

ton 

dlti< 


throughout the year ; to some of these cattle aud potties ■ are 
brought for sale, but no epeoial fair is’held for Qio sale of cattle. 

Inigfttion. Agiiculttural prosperity depends almost entirely on 

It is supplied in the -west by two hranohes of the Son Canals 
system. The Saatem Main Ganah which it was originolij 
intended to piss aoioss 6ay& to Monghyr, runs eastward for 
8 miles to the Punpiin river, and ttie Patna canal runs north* 
waida for 43 miles before entering the Patna District. One* 
fifth of the District is thus irrigated, the area actually supplied 
with water from these canals and their distributaries in 1908-04 
being 86 square miles. The remainder is out into parallel strips by 
a munber of rivers whioh flow from soutb to norih. Between odoh 

E air of rivers is necessarily a watershed, end in the slope leading 
:om it to the river reservoirs are constructed* These are filled 
either by the rain-water which comes down the slope, qrstem 
being known as genrabandi, or from a water channel (poin) whioh 
passes along the side, and takes off from the river at a higher 
level. As the rivers fall only six feet in the mile, the channels 
are sometimes carried to a oonsiderable distanoo, and Dr. Griorson 
writes of having seen one twenty miles long. Whenever n 
flood comes down, during the rainy season, it fills all iho reservoirs 
(Shan) attaohed to oaoh channel. Well irrigation is lorgely 
resorted to in the neighbourhood of villages, whoro loss ^enshro 
methods aro not praotioable. Though no aoonrato statistics are 
available, it is believed that about 166 square miles are irrigated by 
these means. 

Mlnmls, The principal mineral product is mica whioh is found ot 
Sapahl, mngar, Basron, Ohatknri and Belam in the NawSda 
sub-division, and in smaller quantities among the hflls in tho south 
on the border of HazaribSgh, Tho seame ore rcoohod by blasting, 
and the sheets of mica too then dug out, separated, clipped and 
sorted and packed according to sise, and despatched to Oaioutio for 
export to America and Europe. In 1903 the only mines worked 
logulorly were those at Sapani, Basron, Singnr and Belam. Tho 
average daily number of lobonrers employed in that year was 
464 ; they aro drown from the ordinary labouring dosses, and ore 
paid a wage varying from 2 to 6 annns, according to age, sox and 
ekiil. Tho output, whioh vorios acooiding to tho demaud in 
the market, amounted in 1003 to 122 toM. Iron oro is found 
in considerable quantities at Pacbombi in the AnwSda su^ 
division and Lodnwe in the heod-quorters suh-divieion, but is 
not now worked. It also exists in the BsrSbnt hills, where there 
were formeriy smelting works under Europe^ mni^omenlj it 
is now being worked again to a small «tent. Qromto, sj^nito 
and Jaferiio oro quarried in many of the hills fw building 
purposes nud rood metalling. The so-called woy^ black stone, 
of which ornamonls, bowls and figures ore carved, is quamed 



QXl'JL sisxnici. 


at Fathalkati in tlio Atn tli&na and worked chiefly by eione* 
carrers, who claim to be of Br&hman descent and to have come 
i^m Jaipur. Pottery clay exists in man^ places and nodules of 
limestone arc found in scatterod localities. Saltpetre is manu- 
factured, chiefly in the Jahanfih&d sub-division, from cifloresoonoes 
on tiio clay of villago sites. 

The manufactui^ include lao, sugar, tatar and cotton Arts and 
cloth, brass utensils, stone ware, gold and silver ornaments, “snotae- 
blankets, rugs and carpets. Paper was formerly made on a™*‘ 
largo scale at Arwol, but the industry has entirely died out. 

Bilk doth is woven to a cousiderahlo extent at hlfinpur near 
Gaya, and in a smaller degreo at Kadirganj in the HawAda 
euo^vision and Daudnagar. Cnrpots and mgs ore manufactured 
at Obra and Daudnagar. Brass utensilB ore also made in largo 
quantities at the latter town. Carving in wood was formerly 
an important industry, aud iho carvers had attained muck 
profideney,^ as is evident from some examples still existing in 
the balconies, doors and window's of old Gay&, but the art 
has almost died ouh Cano chairs aio mado in Gaya, but not to 
any great extent. Small statues of animals and figures of gods 
arc carved by a few artists in Gaya from black stone. Sugar 
refining is on the wane, bat raw sugar is lorgoly manufaolured for 
export. The lac insoot is cultivated, generally on the paHa troo 
{liutea frondusa) in the southern jungles; and the manufactured 
product, which is prepared in about forty factories, is exported 
chiefly to Ooloutta. Tho average outturn in a year is estimated 
at d0,0G0 maunds. 

Tho prindpol o.vports are food grains, cspocially rico, oil- Commoros. 
seeds, pepper, crado opium, raw sugar, mahui fruit, saltpetre, 
mica, lac, blankets, carpets, stone and brass ntonsils, hides, pre- 
pared tobaoco and pan loaves. Among tho imports oro salt, 
coal, coke, piece-goods and shaw'ls, kerosono oil, tea, cotton, 
timber, tobacco (unmsinufnotui'od dry leaves), iron, spiocs^ of ‘ 
all kinds, dried and fresh fmits, refined sugar, paper and various 
orlides of European manufacture. The hulk of tho txndo is -with 
Calcutta, hut unrefined sugar finds its v/ay in largo quantities 
to tho Central Provinces, li&jputana. Central India and BerSr. 

The chief centeos of trade aro Gaj'ii, Tokari, Gunifi, Banigani 
and Imamganj in tho hoad-quortoia sob-division, Bajnuli and 
Akbaipur in Nawada, Jahanabad and Arwol in Jnhunahad, and 
Daudnagar, Deo, ACahurajganj, Tarwfi, Khiriawan, Bafiganj 
and JamhoT in the Aurangnbad suh-divlsion. Owing to tho 
opening of now railways, which now top most of tbo^ trade 
routes in tho District, several oilier places arc rising in impor- 
tance, tho most nolicouhlo being Nawuda. Feeder roads have 
been constmoted ly tho District board and trado lends moro and 
more to convcige upon tho roilw'oy stotions. For tho oonveynnoe 

D 2 



36 


wafOAfc. 


Tlsir 
ctstca and 
QccniM* 
tSons. j 


Chriaiian 

Mlaiioni, 


Ogaatal 
agrieuU 
total COO' 
ditlona, 


IViibir 

comionni' 

ciitiona. 


employed, cspecinlly in the hilly ports, .The 
pnnmpal classes engaged in trade are the prions ttyS wte, 

lUiittoy, f cloths and sUk 

and road*. Gaya with the main line 

.f* ^ankipore, SdJ miles of it lying 
vf* recently been opened, 

m, the South BiiSr branch which rons east from Gaya to 
, jaarai j^ongh the Nawfida snh-diTision, 6b miles oi tie 
^0 fc^g wthm the District; the Mughal Soroi-Onya hnmoh 
ironi 6ay& through the Aurangabad snh-divislon to Mughal 
Barai, 51 miles of the line lying within GnyS ; and the 
idanm-Daltonganj branoh which leaves the latter line at Banin 
^ the Son and runs a distance of 23^ miles before it enters the 
Puemau District. A fifth line from Gaya to JratrasgaTb, of 
which 34 miles fall witbin > GayS District, has reconUy been 
eomple^, and with the Mughal Sarai-Gaya line, forms the 
Cnand Chord line to Oalcntta. 

^The Distnot is inteiseoted -by numerous escollont roads, of 
which 202 miles are metolled and 719 miles iinmetollcd, in 
addition to 628 miles of village tracks. The chief lines oxo 
The Grand Trunk Head with a length of SI miles maintained 
' Provincial funds; the Kharhat-Ewanli road nmniug from BibSr 
to Nawada and southwards ; the Gayfi-Sollmpur road wluoh is a 
portion of the Patno-Gayfi road running parallel to the Pobs" 
Gays Bailwaj, and the Gayd-Nawada road with several feeder 
roads leading from it to the stations on the South BihSr 
Builway. 

A small steamer plies weekly on the Patna ranol, but it carries 
veiy little merchandise. None of tho small rivers is navmablc. 
Most of them, where not bridged, oro provided with miries 
in the rainy season, but tie only Jerge ferry is that across 
tho Son from Daudnagar to Nasriganj in the Bhahahad District. 


FaminOa 



system 

oommunications which has taken place „ — — 

not seriously affected by famines. Tie whole of tho western 
border ie protected by the Son oauals and almost all tbo 
remainder of tho District by tbo local system of leservoiis and 
channels described above, A graot vanoty of. crops are grown, 
•and it rarely happens that famine obtains a mp of ony consider- 
able area. The feraine.of 1866 affected ^300 squ^ miles, but 
the bulk of the people were obJe to support fLomsalros, and the 
relief operations were on a compomtivcly scale, co^ng only 
Bs. 22.000, oi which -Es. J2,UDU ivas raised b^ M substtiplion 
In 1874 also the District was not smously involved ; the food 
•supply was augmclifed by private tiade, and the Government had 



OATA BISTBICX. 


ar 


only to eapi>1ement it by a Email amount of grain, and by the 
provision of relief works on the canals. The total expenditure 
on this occasion was 1*38 lakhs. Slight scaroities occurred in 
1888*89 and 1891-92, while in 1896-97, when severe famine was 
felt over a large part of Indio, prices rose very high, and the land- 
less labourers sunored much in consequence. No regular works 
were opened, but 50,000 persons were gratuitously relieved, most 
of them being travellers passing through the District in search 
of labour. The total expeuditure was omy about Us. 18,000, all 
of which was subscribed locally. 

For general administrative purposes the District is divided District 
into 4 sim-dirisipns with head-quarters at S&hibganj (Qata town), sat-divi- 
NAW’AnA, Jahanadad and Aubanoabad Ine District head-™””"^ 
quarters staff subordinate to the Magistrate-Collector consists of 
8 or 4 Drouty Magistrate- Gollootors, besides 2 epecial Deputy 
GoUootorsfor excise and partition work. A Joint Magistrate is 
usually deputed to Qaya for the cold weather months, and one 
or two sub-deputy collectors ond on Assistant Magistrate-Golleotor 
are also occasionally posted to the District. The Nawada, 
Jahonabad and Aurangabad sub-divisions are in charge of Deputy 
Magistrate-GoUcctors, and sometimes in the cose of the 2 sub- 
divis'ons first named, of Assistant Mogutrates. 

The civil courts ore those of the District end Sessions Judge, CivU and 
2 Sub-Judges and 4 Munsifs, one of w'hom sits at Aurangabad. 

The criminal courts include those of the District and Sessions 
Judge, the District Magistrate, and the above mentioned Joint, 
Assistant and Deputy Magistrates. A special magistrate is 
authorised under section 14 of tho Criminal Procedure Code 
to try cases connected with breaches of tho Irrigation laws. The 
district was formerly notorious for the prevalence of crime, 
especially in the soutn, which was in a lawless state, dacoities 
and highway robberies being very frequent. Now, though 
dacoities are occasionally committed, the commonest offences are. 
burglary, cattle-stealing and riots caused hy disputes about 
irriuation. 

Owing to changes in the jurisdiction of the District and Land 
the destruction of records nt tho time of the Mutiny, early 
statistios of tho land revenue are not available. The ourront 
demand has risen from 13*8 Inkhs in 1870-71 to 14*39 lakhs 
in 1903-04. Sub-division of estates has gone on rapidly, there 
being in tho latter year 7,876 estates, of whidh 7,8^8 with 
a demand of 13*40 lakhs were permanently settled, 15 with a 
demand of Bs. 47,000 temporarily settled, and tho remainder were 
held direct by Q-overnment. Among Epeoial tenures may be 
mentioned ahamghA grants or 'lands given in perpetuity as a 
reward for oonspicuous military service, ghalicah lands assigned 
for the maintenance of guards and patrols on roads and passes, and 



BENOAI.. 


mndaUm&zh lands granted to faronxitcs and others; About 70 por 
cent, of the ctdtivated land is held imder ^e sjetom of bhmb or 
prodnoe rents. There are two kinds, danalnndi whore the crop 
is nffproised while standing in the field, and batai or agot-batai 
whore tho crop is taken to the threshing floor and divided equally 
between tho landlord and tenant after the labourers engaged in 
cutting and carrying it have been given their share, Undor the 
dSnahandi system also the crop is supposed to ho divided equally, 
hut in practice the landlord's share is gonemlly -j^ihs and often 
even more. Xn the case of oash rents three kinds of tenure 
obtain, viz., tho ordinary nagdi, ahiktul and chakath. A shikml 
tenure in this District moons a tenure hold on a oash rent 
fixed for ever*. A chakath holding is one in which tho rent is 
fixed for a term of years; tho tenn is also often applied to 
settlements made for the reclamation of oulturable waste. 
Another local tenure is the paraa or paraupfien, undor whroh 
paddy land held on the hhaoU system and suited to the growth 
of sugar-cane or poppy is settled at a spooially high rate of rent 
in the years when these crops are grown. Tho following rates 
of rent per acre may be reganled as fairly general ; rice lands, 
if fit for only a single crop, H. 1-8-0 to Bs. 8, and those yielding 
a double crop Rs. 8 to Its. 10 ; lands, on whioh wheat, barley, 
gram, pulses and oilseeds are grown, Bs. 2 to Bs. 8 ; Bugnr-oone 
and poppy lands Bs. 3 to Bs. 16 ; lands growing bhSdoi crops such 
as moizo, mantel or jenvSr B. J -8-0 to Bs. B ; and lands growing 
potatoes Bs. 4 to Bs. 16. The Government estates in tho District 
and part of the Tokfiri estate with a total area of 082 square 
miles were cadastrally surveyed and settled between 1893 and 
1898. . The inoidonoo of land revenue was foimd to be B. O-IO-O 
per acre and the rent Bs. d-0-10, the land revenue demand , 
thus amounting to only 16 per cent, of the rent. Tho maximum 
ftncT minimum assessments per acre are about Bs. 16 and 8 
.onnos respectively, and the average assessment I?s. 6-12-0, 
The average holdhig of a ryot is obout 6 acres. Bcoontly 
the Deo a nd Maksudpur estates, with on area of 92 ana 
132 sqtiore Tnilaa rcapeotirely, have also come under survey and 

settlement „ 

The following table shows the colleotious or Imd rovonuo 
and of total revenue, under the principal heads, in thousands of 
rupees - 


lSdO-91. 



j 18SO-81, 

T.ftnd rer«Biio ... 

Total rorenbo ... 

14,36 

1 24,92 














6A.TfA DISTHICfE. 


39 


' Oniflidothemimioipalitiesof Gata, TekarI ond 
local a&ira are managed by the Distiicfc bowd Go^m* 

local boards in each sub-dirMon exoe]^ ’”*“*• 

division. In 1903-04 its income waB Be 3,26,000, ot wJuon 
Bs. 2,26,000 was derived from rates, and the expenditure was 
Es. 3,07,000, induding Es. 2,04,000 spent on oml worhs and 

Es. 46,000 on education. „ , 

In 1903 the Distriot contained 14 police stotaons md 22 out- John and 
posts, and the force subor^ate to the Disiriot Superintendent of 3 
Police consisted of 6 inspectors, 49 sub-inspectors, 66 head 
constables and 669 constables. The rural pohoe consisted of 
389 daffad&rs and 3,648 ehaukldan. The District jail at Gaya 
has aooomniodatioii for 542 pnsonorsy and subsidioxy jftilfl wt 
Nawada, Jahanabad and Aurangabad for 105. 

The District is backward in point of education, and oiUy Edncatton. 
8-6 per cent, of the population (7*2 males and 0-2 females) could 
read and write in 1901. The number of pupils in the schools 
increased from 19,118 in 1880-81 to 26,250 in 1892-93 and to 
26,849 in 1900-01, while 87,824 boys and 2,303 girls were at 
school in 1903-04, being respectively 24'9 and 1‘4 per cent, 
of the children of school-going ago. The number of educa- 
tional institutions, public and private, in that year was 1,698, 
including 19 secondary schools, 979 primary schools and 600 
other special schools. The expenditure on education _ was 
Es, 1,49,000, of which Es. 14,000 was met from Provmoial 
funds, Es. 45,000 from Distriot funds, Es. 3,000 from mnnioipal 
funds and Es. 61,000 from fees. The chief institutions are the 
Government school and 2 private sohools at Gay6, and a school 
maintained hy the Tek&ri B&j at Tekari, aE teaching Englirii up 
to the Entrance standard. 

In 1903 the Distriot'contained 16 dispensaries, of whidh lOMedlcoi. 
had accommodation for 182 in-door patients; the cases of 90,000 
out-patientci and 2,300 in-patients were treated, and 7,000 
operations were periormed. -The expenditure was Es. 67,Q00, 
m which Es. 8,000 was met by Government oontrihutions, 

Es. 22,000 from local and Es. 7,000 from mnnioipal funds 
and Es. 25,000 from subsoriptions. The chief institutions are the 
pEgrim and zanSna hospitals at Gaya. 

Yao(^tion is oompulsoty only in muniripal areas, hut the Vaceinii- 
maorice is steadily gaining ground and the people os a whole are 
beginning to realise its eSioaoy. During 1903-04 tbe number of 
persons sucoe^olly vacoinated was 58,000, oi* 29*6 per thousand. 

[M, Martin (Buohanan-Hamihion), Eastern India vol. i, 1838 ; 

G. A. Grierson, Notes on the District of Gaya, Calcutta, 1893 
D. B. B. O’Malley, District Gazetteer, Galoutta, 1906.] 

Gaya Sub-division. — Sead'^miarteis eub-division of Gaya 
Distnot, Bengal, lying between 24^ 17' and 25” 6' N., and 84” 17' 



Tlioir 
castes ai 
oceapa. 
tioaj. 


C/irlstini 

Uinioni 


OeoenI ' 
Dgrinil. . 
total eoc 
ditions. 


40 


•BKKOAL. 


S Si Sn wS P«P«la«on 

Tras 701,855 ml901, coapared with 832;442 in lfiOl. YplaeoB 

pidenuo loging at thelime of the censns of 1901,' not 

«!!! exodnp, but nlso miido 

the TOrk of onmn^faon exoephonoUy diffionlt. The mb-divuion 
torappes ttro tracts, that to the no.lh being a level plain doited 
ti'Hlaiiiing some long hill ranges, ihotfo 
UBdnlaljug ooniifiy containing sevend hills forming 
the nonh^ fnnge of the Cholfi Nagpur plateau. 5 he density 
of population for, the whole sub-division is only 895 peisons to the 
square nme, and the population along (he south is veiy sparse. 
It confaiuB 3 foTO^ (tata (population 71,28^) its hend-quaitcwi 
i BK*Bi (O,4or) the head-quaiteis of the Tekari family (jm artide 
IbSKAKr Hy), and Shbuohati (2,641). and ?, 999 villages. GojS 
town, wluoh possesses a very ancient history, is on important plaos 
of pilgrimage, and ot^ Bunna Uaya are remains of nnneaal reli- 
gions ond archaeological importancft The sub-division oonfoins 
numerous other remains of great interest, which Lave been refer- 
red to in the articles Gaya District and BAHanAH Mils. 

NftWSd&i Snb-djviBlon.— Eastern sub-^Tleion of the Qayi 
Disfiiot, Bengal, lyin^ between 24“ fSI' and 26" T N. and 
85“ 17' ond 86“ 3' E,, nith an area of 965 square miles. Its popu- 
lation was 468,868 in 1901, compared with 439,565 in 1891. 'J he 
nwth of the suh-i-irteion is an alluvial plain, while tho south is 
hilly and covered with jnnglo. 'J'he Jatitr traot which includes a 
portion of tho norfhoni' fringe of the Chofa Nagpur plnteon, 

16 very sparsely populoted; the donsify for the whole suh-dhision 
is 476 persons to the square milo. It contains 2 towns, Nawaha 
(population 5,908) its liead-qnnrlcra, and Hisua (6,704', Md 
1,752 'villages. At Afsau are somo imporfont aroluBoIngiral 
remains, including a very £ne statue 'of tho Voraha, or boar 
incarnation of Vmnn, and the ruins of a implo, ^ 

Aurang&bad Sub-division. — Western snb-diviefon of tho 
Gaya District, Bengal, - lying Wween z4“ 29' and 26" 7' N., 
and 84“ O' and 84“ 44' B., with an 'area of 1,S46 square miles. 

The north of the sub-division is a level aUavinl tnol, but tbo 
eouth is more undulating ond contains numerous hills, tho out- 
liers of the Chofa Nfigpnr plotcan. Its population was 4^,676 
in 1901, compared with 472,6o7 in' 18«J. The density is 376 
persons to tho square milo, being greatest in the north-wc^ where 
the soil is irrigated ly the Son CSnnls system. It contains 2 towns, 
Auhakcahad (popnlofion 4,686) its head-quarters, and Daud- 
KAam (9,744), and 2,042 rUloges. Dao, tho soot of the Doo 
family, contains a fine sfone-huilt temple; some other mimeslmg 
antiquities are refciwd to in the artido GAYA'Dirfriot. ■ 
JahSnfibSdfub-diviaion.— Nortbem snb-dinsion of tho Gays 
Di^'ct, Bengal, lying between 24“ 69' and 25“ 19' N.- and 84“ 



OiSK DMTMCI- 


41 




TfimaiOa UA muii«3w»vg 

‘^Teteri mj!-Estatfl in Gnyi Bistrict, Bengfl* Tho TAin 
BijU loundii by a «nall landfd propnrtor, named Dbir Bmgh, 
Xtho beginning of the 18th century. Hw eon, Bnndnr Singh, 
a Bibban, took advantage of the conf us on crentod by the lOTOsion 
of Nadir Shih in 1739 to lay bands on property wthtn bia 
reaob that bo was strong enough to keen. The title ofUdja was 
conferred on him by 

reward for tbo asrislnnco ho rendered to Alt Ynt^ Kto, SiiiffMfr 
ofBengol and Bihar, in tosisling an invasion of thoMnratbfts. UiB 
odoptS aonBnniad succeeded bun, but w.as iToaohoronaly dw^ri 
bv fcsira All in 1762 in revenge for bis nUegittneo to tbo Bnlisli. 
At lETBmrBnniid’B son, Mitrijit, who was only n few months 
old, was with difficulty saved from Kasim All's emissaries. 
After Tfssi'm AB’s defeat at the battle of Bnxar, Milnjit was 
TTiniin ovor by Dnlil Singh, Hs father’s (ilftAi, in whoso obargo 
the boy had been placed, to the British oommanding. officer. Ho 



and was nononrea wiin me mie or llabataja. lie died in 1840 
and the B&} was divided between bis two eons, tbo elder. Hit 
NsrUvan. eettinc a 9 annas ehoro, and the Touncor. Mod N&r&van. 


7 annas, 

Bive yeoM later Hit NarSynn was mado a Mnhfirlij& ; but 
being a man of reli^eus turn of mind, he Incamo an aseolio and 
left bis vast property in the hands of bis wife, M ab&tani Indriijit 
Konwsr, who with her bu'band’e consent adopted Mab&raift Bam 
Naxayan Krishna Smgb m her son, and on her death left llic 
property to lus widow Maharani ilajtup Knnwar. The latte. 
oppoinM as her snccossor hordnaghtor, Biidbcswoti Knnwnr, who 
diedmls86,leaviMominoTson, Mabanj KumSr Qopal Baran 
N&i&yan Singh. The 9 annsa share of tho 'Coksn estate was 
brought under the management ' of tbo Court of Wards on his 
behalf, and remained under its sbargo till 1004, Oaring Ibis 
period, muob has been done for tbo development of tbo Tesouroes 
of tbe_ property. As many as 18 irrigation- systems have been 
token in band, and have resulted in an increase to the rent-roll of 
over half a lakh rf rupees. Tbo two most important of those aro 
the Jam canal and Jamu- pai« in Chfikand mahoL Tho former 



42 


sexoAL; 


The" 

cut) 

OCCQ 

tloni 


Clirlii 

Uitsia 


Gonon 

■grlcu! 

tnral* 

ditiou 


me Efl^s’ooKSir^® wC”-’’ expenditure inouned ‘ 

Tree Kfl. 6,000 o^y , and by the improvement of the latter, at a 

^ increased by 

Es. 10,000 per amm. Thu portion of the estate was brought 
nnder eettlement beWeen the years 1893 and 1898, when it ™ 
found to contem 661 villages irith a total area of 809 square 
? 1 two-thirds of it is nnder cultivation and nearly 

1^£ of the cultivated area is irrigated ; the cUef crop is winter 
noe. Closely connected with the fact that irrigation is required 
large tracts and that the necessary works con only ho con* 
atmoted and maintained nt the landlord’s expense, is the 
movalence of the bfiao/i system of produce rents (see Gata 
Distriot), which alone can furnish the nocessaiy incentive to the 
landlord. About 70 per cent, of ^e cultivated lands* are held 
on tl^ ^tem; in the rest of the estate the average cash rent per 
acre is Es. 4-9 for ryots holding at fixed rotes, Es. 4-6 for ooou- 
Ijmoy ryots and Es. 2-8 for non-ooenpanoy ryots, the average 
size of the holdings of the three classes of te^nts being 4*1 acres, 
8*1 acres and 1.3 acres respectively. The current demand for 
land revenue and cesses in 1903-04 was 2 la^ and Es. 60,000 
respectively. The rent roll is about 7*34 lakhs, but it fluotuates 
greatly from year to year owing to so mudi of the amount 
oaing payable in kind. 

The / annas share of the estate which, as already stated, was 
held by Mod Narayan Singh, passed on his death to his 2 widows, 
who transferred the property, in 1870 to a nephew of their late 
husband, Efibu Earn Boh&dur Singh. The latter received the 
title of Efija in 1888, but died before being invested with the 
MiVai and was succeeded by a grand-daughter. On her death 
six years later, the estate devolved on her daughter, B&jkumiii 
Shubanesvar Eunwar, who is still (1906) in possession of it, though, 
being a minor, she is under the guardianship of her grand- 
mother. The 7 annas share contains 716 villages and comprises 
on area of 623 square miles j the rental is about 6 lakhs. 

[JSi'siory of tin TekSfi JRoji Oaloutto, 1880 ; 0. J. Stevensm- 
Mo^, Final report OH the Suroepand Setllement operaltont tnthe 
Tekari wards estate, Caloutta, 1899.J , 

Afiar iApheanr, also caUed Jafarpur).-^mzo « the 
NawSdasui^viaionof «*®Gay6 Distnot, Bengal situated m 
26® 4' N. and 86" 40' K Popnlofion (1901) 1,022. l^statue 
found here of the Fardka or boar incarnation of Yishn^ 
apparently of the Gfupta period, is of exquisite wor^onship and 
iT^neof the finest in India. A valnAk inscnption giving a 
long genealogy of the later Guptas, now.lost,^ wm iscovered 
at tiis place, W the most interesting object is the boned temple, 
the ruiM forming a mound slmiply coiucal and neorly l®®t 
high. This is one of the earliest Gupta temples, end besides its 



GATA piantitrc. 


43 


Dge, the disposition o£ its parts, its terraces on terraces, its quaint 
pUlars, pilasters and niches, and the obarming variety in its 
ornamentation, render it hy for the most interesting and unique 
temple in Bihfir. Arohaiologioally, it is of great interest ns a 
Hindu relic of o period of r^ch Br&hmanicnl remains are few. 
Arohiteotnrnlly, it is second in importance only to the Bnddh 
Gaya,templc. [JJP, Fleet, Interiptions of ihe Early Qupia kings 
and their successors, Galcn^, 1888. j . . . • 

Aumngahad Town. — Head-quarters town of the suh-division 
of the same name in the Gn 3 *a District, Bengal, situated in 
24® 45' N. and 84“ 23' E. on the Grand Trnnlt Hoad. Population 
(1901) 4,685. The town contains the usual publio ofiSocs; the 
Bah-jail has acoommodation for 15 prisoners. Tno trade consists 
chietly of food grains, oilseeds, leather and picco-goods. 

Bai^bar Hills.— Hills on tho northern boundary of the hcad- 
quarteiB sah-division of the Qaya Distriot, Bengal, lying between 
26“ 0' and 25“ 3' N., and 85® 4' and 85“ 6^ E., 15 to 8 miles 
east of tho Bela railway station on tho Fotna-Gn^'a branch of 
the East Indian Bnilway. The range contains many remarkable 
antiqyurian remains. Un the higho%t peak (Barabai) is an ancient 
tem^e sacred to Sidheswora, coDiaininga/tn«7a»)Baid tohavoboon 
placed there h^' Ban B&jB, tho Asur king of E&marupa, whose 
bloody wars with Krishna still live in the romombronoo of the 
people. A largo fair attended on an average by 15,00(i persons, 
ohinSy men, is held hero in the month of Bh&drn (Soptombor). 
Tho pUgiims begin to arrive at daj'brcak, and spend tho day on 
the hill; the night is devoted to tho worship of tho imago, ond in 
the morning the crowd begins to dispone. To tho south and near 
tho hose of this bill, tho path up which is freely adorned with 
images of all kinds, lies n small recess enclosed on two sides by the 
mountain, on the third by an artificial barrier of stone, and on tho 
fourth hy a long low ridgo of granite. Here in tho solid root 
have h&en cut the remarkable caves from which, it has beep hold, 
the glen derives its name of S&tgliar (seven houses). The four 
caves found in this part of the mountain average 32 foot by 14 
feet; three of them are obisellod to a wonderful polish, but tbq 
fourth was never finished. Inscriptions show that the oldest, was 
out in 252 B. G., and the others within tho next 36 years ; these aro 
on another spur of tho hill called Nagarjoni. Not lav oS is tlio 
sacred spring of Patalgangft, and at the base of the ragged peak 
of Kow&dol (crow’s rocking stone) is a a enormous figure of 
Buddha. The Kowudol po^ is identified as the site of an anoiont 
Buddhist monastery of Sil&hhadra visited by Hiuon Tsiong. 
Many other fiuuros and sculptures are found amoim these hiUiy 
wH(^ have been fully described by Bu6hnnan-l£imilton and 
General Ounningbam. In the Bengal Athia of hfojor Eonnoll, this, 
duster is called the Cuxram-shaw mils; this name is a oorruption 



44 B£XQji:i.. 

of Kamd-ehampar or “ Kama’s seat,” the name of an ancient 
min on the hill. - 

Buddli Gaya (Bodh — Yillngo in the head-quortorB 

snh-diidsion of the Gaya District, Bengal, situated in 24° 42' N. 
and 86° o' E. about 7 miles south of Gaya town, on the west 
bank of the Phalgu or Lflajan river. Population (1901) 602. 
The name signifies either the Gaya of Buddha or the Gay& 
of the bodhi (enlightenment'. The place is sometimes however 
called Mahahodhi, or the great enlightenment, a name which 
is olso given to the bodhi-drum-t or sacred plpal tree at Budh 
Gaya. 

It was under this treo that Sakytaftum, after many years of 
search after truth, conquered Mara and attained to Buddhahond. 
I.C., became freed from the cirdo of rebirths; and W'or^hip 
consequently centred around the tree from the earliest 

period of Buddhism. King Asoka (3rd century B. 0.) is sjiid 
to have erected a temple near this holy tree, ond oiio of the 
bas-reliefs of the Bhorhufc sl&jm (2nd century B. C.) gives a 
representntioa of the treor and its Kurroundings, ns they tlion 
were. It shows a plpal tree, with a vedi or stone platform in 
front, adorned with umbrellas and garlands, and surrounded by 
some building with arched windows resting on pillors ; while do«o 
to it stood a single pillar with a Persepoliton capital crowned with 
the figure of on depluint, When the stone pavement of the 
present temple was dug up during its restoration, foundations of 
an older bidlding wore disoovered beneath it, W’hioh, in the opinirin 
of General Gunniugham, represent the romnins of- the original 
temple hu'U by Aroka. Tuo ancient stone railing which now 
surrounds tho temple, certaii-ly belongs for the greater part to 
about the same time ns Asoka’s reign : and this roiling and tho 
bases of some oslumns which mark mo place w’horo Buddha used 
to take exercise, form the only remains now extant of so early a 
period.* The railing is adorned with various carvings, .among which 
the burger reliefs aoncTally ropicsent events in Buddha’s life 
or his former births. On one of these pillars, which has been 
removed from the temple previnots to tho math of the Mahant 
of Buddh Gaya, there is a figure of the Sun-god standing 
on his chariot drawn by fonr horses. The holy (roe stands west 
of the templo ; the present one is certainly not of very great ago, 
but it is ovidentlv an ofEsboet of an older tree; and General 
Gunningbnm even found portions of the trunk and roots d pipit 
treo very deep down below tho surface. Under its shadow is the 
andent Yajr&mua or adamantino throne of Buddha, which may 
belong to about the same time ns tbo railing, thougb it contains a 
mutilated inscriptina of some later date. Its outer faces are 
carved vritb Uralimini geese, alternating with tbo usual honcy- 
Euoklo ornament, and its upper surface a geometrical pattern 



OATA DISTRICT. 


45 


earriil upon it. Erccpt for Uitfo cnrlicr romalns, nil tlio Buddhint 
etnlptunw, which have hccn found in proai* nninhors nronnd 
tho temple, h'louR to the latcft pha<o of Puddliinn in India 
(SOO to laoO A, !>,) nnd nffonl n (triking illiulrft'ion of what 
that religion bnd bocomo before its final orerthrow by tho 
Muiianuniidan^. Tho jnesent Ictnplo was rodotod in 18^1 by 
the Uengal Qovemmonl, and in its main features TcpTosenla tho 
ctruchiio M it niti->t haro exiiiiod as forty ns Oiyi A. D., when 
tie ChinteO pQgrira, Iliucn Tsinng, saw it. It conjista of a 
main town rising to the height of ISO feet in tho form of a 
slender pi mmtd, avhicli springs from aeiutro plntform on tho 
fctir corncra of which ere similnr towers of rmnll-r s to. Tho 
Ottisido Walls h&vo niches for the reception of ftnluos, nnd ncccss 
to the temple is obtained throngh nn o irlern gate supported by 
pillacf, which opens on to nn anteroom in front of tho sanctum. 
At the westf-rn trail of the fanetum is a re // or altar tipsn wMch 
is placed the principal image, a largo ntc<lin)\td Maine reprcfont- 
ing Unddha seated under tho Uo’lhi treo svilh a'nriotis other 
image* on each ride. Tho main figuro hns hem gilded orcr nnd 
tho Hindu curioilinus of the ehrino have marked its fcrelicad 
^th tljo scftarinn mark of tho Ynislumvns, in order to rcjirosent 
jI as tho Bnddha incarnation^ of Vishnu. Tho worship i.f this 
imago by Hindus is e <mparativfly ncent, and apparently dews 
not date further back tlmn tho T'-rtoration of the temple in leSl. 

'Hic gronnd floor is about 20 feet Iw-low tbo modern surfaco 
level. Scarcely more than on" quarter of iho old sito has boon 
escasnttd; but, as far as can ho judged from the prc'cnt slato of 
tho rums, iho entiro area of tho main endo-urct of tho tcmplo 
has Iwen laid open. It was filled with nn mormons nmoiiiit of 
(’Caller elirinc*, chatlt/a*, rolivo ttOjm and llio like, tho fouml* 
hfionn of ■which arc still ixtant. South of tho tmiplo in an old 
tank, culled JIutIdJtpokItar ; itnd north-weri, at a place now call^ 
Amur RingU’fl fort, romoins of Uio nneient moniistcry o^lluddh 
Gny4 havo.becn dheovered. Very liltlo of Ihofo remains can, 
however, bo seen at present, nnd hero ns in other plneoa fuxtbor 
fXonvotion on n sy&tcniatio ecalo may yield valuublo ro^nlln. 

Apart from tho tempio and ita surroundings, tho rernoina 
near Buddli Guyi nro scanty. There ore none to bo found at 
tho spot whero, according to tradition, Buddha was shc-ltcrod by 
tho lorpont-king hfuchilinsn and where Iliiien Tsinjig saw n 
statue ri'pnsontiog tho reeno; but, nt Bakrnur, whore somo of 
tho nillata of tho Buddli GnyA railing have boon placed insido n 
rmoll Hindu math, nro tho xemnius of a attipo whiih marked iho 
rite wlioro Buddha unco appeared in tho ahapo of nii elephant 
'1 ho so-called J^rOi/Lodfii oavo, whoro Buddhn spent somo fiiuo 
before ho wont down to UruvilvR, the present Buddk Qayi, is 
filunlcd on Iho wcaUrn elope of tho Mora Hills midway botwoon 



46 


3E1CGAI.. ' 


Budah Gaya and Gaya town; and the brick fonndatioiio of 
andent etopas may bo obsCTved on the hills from the oave. 

Buddh Gaya is now a place of Hindu ns well ns of 
Buddhist worship ; and the Hindu pilgrims ' who ofior pindaa 
to their nnoestora^at the holy shrines of Gaya, Tisit it on the 
fourth day of thenr pilgrimage and perform the usual propi- 
tiatory ceremonies, tne principal vedi being' another pipaftroo 
north of the temple. It cannot now be determined to what 
age ^tbis adoption by the Btindus of a Budd^t site goes back, 
but it is certainly eercrel centuries old; and it is not improbable 
that Hindu worship at the place began before the dual over- 
throw of Buddhism, during tho syncretistio period which pre- 
ceded that event. 

[Ii. S. S. O’llnlley, Didriel Qaceiteer of Gaya, Celontta, 1906 ; 
Ommingham, 1892; Hr. Bajondrolala Mitm, BuddAa 

Gaps, Oaloaita, 1878.] 

Baudnagar. — ^Town in the Aurangabad sub-division of tho 
Gaya Distriot, Bengal, situated in 26“ S' N. and 84“ 24' B. 
on the right honk of &o river Son and tho left hank of the 
Patna canal. Popnlation (1901) 9;744. It is said to have been 
founded by Dsnd Ehan, a Bisaldar of Aurangzeb, and its obief 
building is a tarai or rest-house built by bim. It is surrounded by 
a moat, and formerly had gates wbiob used to bo regularly 
shut every night. Its trade was once very oonsidorahle, and taiar 
doth woa manufactured in lorge quantities. Its prosperity is 
on tho wane, water co'mmunioation having brought tho area 
it used to tap into olo^ prozinuty to tho two main centres 
Patna and Gaya, but it has still some trodo in fasar doth, 
bross utensils, blankets, carpets, sesamum, linseed and molasses. 
It has also a sugar refinery. It contains the offices of tho 
Assistant Bngmeer and the Girole Officer of tho Irrigation 
department. Daudnagar was constituted a municipality in 1885. 
The average income for the decade ending in 1991*02 was 
Bs. 4,400 and the espendifnre Bs 4,200. In 1908-04 the income 
wos Be. 4,600, mainly from atos on persons (or property tax), 
and the eimenditure wos Bs. 4,500, ^ _ * 

Beo. — village in the Auraugab&d sub efivisiou of tho Gay& 
District, Bongal, sitaated in 24“ 89' N. and 84“ 20' B. It is the 
scat of the Deo Bajas, ond of the most andent families of 
BihSr, who trace their descent from the BSnas of Udaipur. 
In the struggle between Warren Hostings and tho E&ja of 
Benares, tho Deo Baja, although too old to take the fidd in 
person, sent his forces to the tud of tho British. His successor 
mustorod a loyal contingent against the mutineers at Surgujii, 
and his gran^on rendered good servioe in quelling the Bol 
insurrection. The Riji stood boldly foru’ord for theBrilish during 
tho hlutiny of 1857. The present B4]& is a minor, and his 




48 


■ BEKOAL. 


Aooording to the Bhagavat Parana, Gaya 'n’as the name of a 
king who dwelt in the town in the Tnti-Tuga, The more 
generally accented legend, howfver, is that contained in the Yayu 
Parana, accor£ag to which Gaya was the name of an Aiur, or 
demon, of giant size, who hy long and austere penani o and devo- 
tion ohtainod the qualit}' of holiness to such an extent that all 
who sew or touched him were admitted to heaven. Yama, the 
lord of hell, grew jealous and, pleading that his post was becom- 
ing a sineoure, appealed to the Gods, who after conferring in 
council, visited Gaya and persuaded the demon to grant his 
pure and holy body as a place of saoriilcB. To this Gaya assented 
and ^ down with his head resting where the old city of Gaya now 
is. Yama then placed a sacred rook {dhamato'a) on his head, 
but this was not sufiSoiont to keep him quiet until Vishnu promised 
the rock should be the holiest spot on earth, that the detas should 
rest there, that the locality hhoidd be known as Gco.yii-kg1ieltra, and 
that whoever offered funeral cakes and performed the funeral 
ceremoiiies there should be translated with their ancestors to the 
heaven of Brahm&. This legend, purporting to explain (the 
reason for the peculiar sanctity of a spot wbiw is an object of 
pilgrimage to every member of the Hindu religion, contains, 
m the opinion of the late Dr. (Baja) Bfijondralila Mitm, an 
allegory of the final victory of Brahmanism over Buddhism, 
which had fiourished so strongly in nud around Gaya for so 
many centuries. The pilgrimage to Gaya is undertaken by 
thousands of Hindus from ^ every part of India. There are 45 
places at which the pilgrims should offer pindig or funeral 
cakes in the Quya-hglielfra, on area extending from 5 mUes 
nortli-west of Gaya to 7 miles south. The whole 46 are rnrelr 
visited now, the majority of pilgrims oontonting themselves wilh 
seven and often with throe only. The Yishnupada, a temple built 
over the foot-print of Yishnu on the solid rook that crops up on 
the west bank of the Phalgu river, and round which the old town 
of Gaya proper was buil^ may be regorded ns the centre of this 
pilgrimage, and is the largest and most important temple in 
Gaya. It faces east, tho facade being very striking. It is an 
ugly octagonal building about 100 feet high, with many very 
clumsy mouldings. The threshold is guarded by high folding 
doors plated with silver. ‘ In tho centre is an octagonal badn 
plated with silver, which surrounds the impress on tho rook of tho 
god’s foot about 16 inches in length. _ Pilgrims to the temple stand . 
round the bnsin and throw iu their offerings of rice and water. 
To tho south of tho temple, nlmost touching it, is a handsome 
pillared h«ll or porch, where tho bore rook shows itsoU ; in fact 
tho pillars are lot into the solid rook for a foundation. This 
temple is said to have been erected in the 18th oontuiy by Ahat. 
yh Bai, the wife of Holknr of Indore, on tho site of o more ancient 



OAVA DliTHICT. 


49 


templo. The Gayaw&k are the hereditary oQioiatii]^ priests, 
possessing^ the exclnsiro privilege to grant to the pilgrims the 
olessing without which thoir visit would bo ineffectual, an.d they 
take oaTftutage of thoir position to obtain from the pilgrims such 
gifts as they are able to afford. Tho poorest pilgrim con rarely 
got (hrougu tho functions required of him under five rupees, 
while certain prinocs are reputed to havo spent moro than a fakh. 

t hL Martin (Bucbonan-Hamilton), Eastern India, vol. i, 1838; 
i. S. _S. O’Malley, District Qezeiicer of Qaya, Caloutta,.190G.3 
Histffl.— Town in the Nawfida sub-division of the Gaya Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in 24** 80' N. and 85° 26' E. on tho 
right hank of tho river Tilay& on tho Qaya and Nawada road, 9 
mites from Nawada and 27 miles from Qay& town. Population 
(1901) G,704. Hisua is a station (Tilaya) on the South Bihfir 
Railway. Tho town is noted for its pottery. 

Jahanahad Town. — ^Head-quarters town of tlio sub-division of 
tho same name in &o Ghiya District, Bengal, situated in 25° 
13' N. and 85° U' E., at the confliionco of the Morhar (or 
Dardh&) and Jamunfi rivers, on the Patna-Qay& road and on too 
Patna-GayS. branch of the East Indian Railway.^ Population 
(1901) 7,018- It w'os once famous for its weaving industry, and 
in 17G0 it formed one of tho eight minor branches connected with 
tho central cloth factory of the East India Company at Patna. 
In tho early years of tho last century tho town contained about 
700 bouses, a cloth factory and a native agency for tho manu- 
facture of saltpetre. Tho mnnufactuio of cotton cloth has now 
been displaced by Monclicster goods, but largo numbers of the 
Jolahfi or Muhammadan weaver class still livo in the neighbour- 
hood. Tho trade consists chiofly of food grains, oilseeds, piece- 
goods and fancy articles of European man^acturo. Tho town 
contains tho tuual public ofBces ; tho sub-jail bos accommodation 
for 70 prisoners. 

Nawada Town. — nond-qaartors town of tho sub-division of 
tho same name in tho Gayil District, Bengal, Iring in 24° 63' N. 
and 85° 33' E. on both sides of tho river JUhnri. Population 
(1901) 6,908. Sinco tho opening of tho South Bih&r Railway on 
which it is a station, Nawida is growing into an important trade 
centre. Tho town contains tbo usual public ofBces; tho sub-jail 
has acoommodation for 20 prisoners. 

RajaalL — Village in tho Nawfida sub-division of Qayfi Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in 24° 39' N. and 85° 80' E. on tho loft 
bank of tho Dhanatji river. Population (1901) 1,609. Raj'nuU is 
a largo mart and is connected with tho town of Nawfida and 
Bihfir by a metalled road. 

Shorghati.— Town in tho hcad-quartors sub-division of tho 
Ghiv'a Dutrict, Bengal, situated m 24° 33' N. and 84° 48' E., 21 
miles south of Ghiyfi town on tbo right bank of the river Morhar at 

K 



CO 


1)2^0AL« 


Bonnd- 

nrles, 

con6gUTii 

tSon, and 

h<U and 

riTor 

(yitem. 


the point -where it is crossed by the Grand Trunk Eond. Popula- 
tion (1901)’ 2,641. Owing to its position on Iho Grand IV nnV 
Bond, Shcrghiiti was formerly a place of great importance, and it 
was the head-queiters of a sub-division which was broken up in 
1871. It hes since somewhat declined. There are still to bo 
found hero the descendants of skilled artisans, workers in brass, 
wood and iron. An. interesting fort, said to have been built by 
the Bol Rajas, contains nnmerens pillars of polished granito, whiou 
are probably ooovnl with the later Barabar caves. 

Tekari Town. — Town in the head-qnarteis sab-division of the 
Gay& District, Bengal, situated in 24° S6' N. and 84° CO' E.'on 
the left bank of the river Morhor, about 16 miles north-west of 
Gaya town. The population foil from 12,533 in 1891 to 6,437 in 
1001, owing to a f^ous outbreak of plague at the time of the 
census and we oonsequent general exodus of the inhabitants. Tho 
town is noted as containing the seat of the Tukari Baj. It was 
constituted a munidpnlity m 1885. Tho avorago income for the 
decade ending in 1901-02 vma Bs. 8,800 and the exponditnro 
Bs. 7,700, In 1903-04 tho inoome was Bs. 6,700, mainly from a 
tax on houEos and lands, and the expendituro was Bs. 6,100, 

Shahabad. — District of the Patna Division of Bengal, lying 
between 24° 31' and 25° 46' N., and 83° 19' and 8# 61' E , 
' with an area of 4,373 square miles. It is bounded on tho north 
by the Districts of GhSzijpur and Ballia in tho United Provinces 
and by the Bengal District of 8aran; on the cost by tho 
Paina and Gaya Districts; on tho south by Fal&mau; and on 
the west by the Districts of MirzSpur and Bouarcs in the 
United Frovinocs. Tho Koramnasa forms part of tho western 
boundary. 

Shahabud consists of two distinct tracts differing in climate, 
Eooneiy and productions. Tho northern portion, comprising 
about throe-fourths of the whole oien, presents tho ordinary Oat 
appearance coinmon to the valley of the Gongos in the sub- 
province of Bihar ; but it has a haror aspect than tho ixanr- 
Gangetie Districts of Saran, DorbhnngS, and Muznffarpur. This 
tract is entirely under cultivation, and is dotted over with clumps 
of trees. The south of tho District is occupied by Ibo Kaimur 
hills, a brauoh of tho great Yindhyan range. The Son and tho 
Ganges may bo called tho chief rivers of Shahfibfid, although 
nrathor' of them anywbero crosses the boundary, Tho Distiiot 
lies in the onglo formed by the junction of those two rivers, and 
is watered by ecvcral minor streams, all of whidi rise among 
tho Baimur bills ond flow northwards towards iho Ganges. Tho 
most notoworihy of those is tho Bammnasa, the accursed stream 
of ]^dn mythology, which rises on the southom ridge of tho 
Kainiur plateau, and flows north-west^ crossing into Mirzapur 
District near Kvilaha. After a course of 15 miles in that 



fflAHASJLD SIsmCT, 


ei 


Bistriet, it seoin tonohes ShSliSibiid, whidi it eepuat^ front 
Benotoo; fistllj', it foils into tiio Ganges nest Chonsl. The Dhohii 
or Ejso rises on Gte piston, and ilovdng north, forms a 6no troter* 
foil and enters the plains at the Tatiamiiindi Foss, 2 miles sooth* 
east of Soaaritm. aero it bifnrcates— one In^h, thoKadro, 
taming to the treat and uitimafelT joining the Dnrgantl; trhile 
the other, preseriin^ the name of !^o, flows north end falls into 
tto Ganges near Goighit. The Dn^nt! rises on the sonthem 
ridge of the platoon and, after flowing north for 9 milos, rashes 
over a prcoipiM 300 feet high, into the deep glen of lindhor Sho ; 
erentojuly it jmos tho IDaamniisii. It contoine water all the year 
TOimd, and doting the rains boats of Ij tons boitbon eon soil 
up-stnsam SO or GO miles from its monto. Its chief tiibntoiies 
ore the Snri, Kori, Gonhod and Kndra. 

The northern portion is corored by oUnrinm. Tho IfahnorOeelegr- 
hills in tho senth are formed of lunostone^ shales and red sand* 
stones belongiw to tho Tindhyan system. 

Neor the tho rioo-fioMs haro tho osnal weeds of snob Botuy. 
localities. Near 'Stages there ore often coneidombte groves of 
nongo-trecs end the palmyra (Ztornann fiabsBiformU), some date 
palms {Phicnix ij/lcalru), and namorona mora isolate examples 
of Ihsioniidns aim similar more or less nsofnl spooiea. Farther 
from the river tho oonntry is more diveieifled and sometimes a dry 
somh jongle is met with, the oonsistont speoios of whioh ere sfarnu 
of tho ardor of Euphorbiaeta, Butm mi other legominous trees, 
spedes of JFbnt, Sehiticbera, Wtndhnilia, end Omtim. The grasses 
that dotho the drier potto ore goneiolly of a cosise oharaotor. 

There are no Govomment forest*, but the noithom face of toe 
Eumni lulls is ovoigiown withe stunted jungle of vsiious ^cies, 
wlule thoir eonthem slopes are covered wito bamboos. 

Xioigo gome obonn^ in too Eiaimar bills. Tigers, beers, and hau. 
leopards ore common ; five or sis vorioties of deer arc found ; and 
among other animols wild boar, jackal, bymna and fox ate olso 
mot with. 

Owing to its dietonoo from the sea, Sbllh&btd has greater Ciinttg 
extremes of dimoto than tho south and east of Bengal. The 
mean tonipemtnte varies from 62° in January to 90° in Uajy, the 
averego nmximnm ridng to 102° in the lotto month. Owing to 
tho hot and diy westody winds whioh provoil in Msrdi and April, 
the hnmiihty at this season is only 62 per oent. With toe 
approach of the monsoon too humidity stoadUy incrooses; it 
xemiuns steady at 88 tkoughont Jaly and August, and toon falls 
to 79 in Hovomher. The overage annual rainfall is 43 inches, 
d which 6'5 fall in June, 117 m July, 12'3 in August and G‘8 
in Septemher. 

Floods aro occasionally censod by too river Son ovorflowing }i>Unl 
its bonks. In locont times tho highest oconired in tho years 1876 oiamitin. 

®2 



BEKGAI., 


Hiitoiy. 


Aicloo* 

logy. 


bs 

and 1901 ; in the latter year the water icise 1*2 feet ahero any 
pienonsly recorded level, and it is stated that the river Bon was 
at one point 17 niies wide. Owin^ to the cutting of on omhanh> 
ment at Dorara hj some villagers, the flood found its way into 
Arrah town end caused considerable damage to house property. 

Shahahad was comprised within the ancient tingdom of 
Magadha, whose capital was at Bajgir in the Faina District, and 
its general history is outlined in the artioles on Maoauma and 
Bibau, in which Magadha was eventually merged. It may 
he added that when the country relapsed into anarchy on the 
decline of the Chipta dynasty, ShaMhad came rmder the sway 
of a number of petty aboriginal chiefs and had a very small 
Aryan population. The ruling tribe at this period was the Chero, 
and the District was till a comparatively recent period in a great 
degree owned by the Oheros and governed by their ohioftaius. 
They were subsequently conquered by Eajput immigrants and 
few of them are newfound in Shahahad, though they snll nnmhcr 
Ueverol thousands in the adjoining District of Falamau. 
the Muhammadans Sh&hihsd formed part of the sSiah of BihSr, 
and in the 16th century was the scene of mrt of the struggles 
which made Sher Shah emperor of Delhi. Sher Shiih, after 
establishing himself at Chun&r in the United Frovincos, wos 
engaged on the conquest of Bengal. In 1C37 HurnKyiln 
advanced against him, and after a siege of 6 months rednood Ms 
fortress of OhunSr and marohed into Bengol. Sher Sh&h then 
shat himself np in Bohtasgarh, which he had captured h}* a 
stratagem, and made no effort to oppose his advance. Hum&yiin 
spent 6 months in dissipation in Bengal, hut then, finding that 
SW Sh&h had out off his oommunications and that his brother 
at Delhi would not come to his assistance, he retraced his steps 
and was defeated at Obansa near Busor, Buxar is olso famous 
os the scene of the defeat in 1764 by Sir Hector Mhnro of Mir 
Eosim, tho lost independent Hawab of MuishidabM, in the 
battle wbioh finally won tho Lower Frovincos of Bengal for the 
Britisb. Since then the only event of historical interest is the 
dMence of the Judge's bouse at Anmur in tho Mutiny of 1867. 

Among Hindu remains may be mentioned the temple on the 
Mukduswari Hiu dating from the sixth or seventh oentuiy. The 
short reign of Sher Shiib is still homo witness to by one of the 
finest specimens of Muhammadou sepulchral arclutectare, ius 
own tomb at Samuam, which ho oricinnily held os hm jagfr. 
His father’s tomb in the same town and tho tomb of Bakhtpr&r 
Shin, neat Ohainpur, in tho Bhaha& sub-division, are similar 
bat less imposing. The small bill fort of Snr.iiaARii, 26 miles 
south-west of Basaram, dates from Shot Shah's time, hut at 
Boetaboauii itself few traces of this period remain; tliopolace 
at this place is attrihaiod to Man Singh, Ahbar’s famous general 



SIIAUABAD DISrniCT. C3 

Other places of interest in Sh&hahad are the OHAiKPTm fort 
-with several interesting monnments and tombs ; IKfimgarh with a 
fort, and Damuti and iiaidjanfith irith ruins attributed to the 
Savers or Soirs ; Mabab, tho Mo>ho-so-Io of Hiuen Tsiang ; 
Chaosa, tho scene of tho defeat of Humfiyiln in 1539 by Sher 
Sh§h ; IhLOTHTT, near 'which aro a fino vratcrfail and a very ancient 
Chero image; PatanS, onco the capital of a Hindu P&ja of tho 
Soar tribe ; and Deo-Bamn&rk and IDco-Marhandeya viUages, 
'which contain several old temples and other remains, including 
an elaborately carved monolith at tho former place. Tho sacred 
cave of Guptes'n''ar lies in a 'volley in tho Kaimur hills, 8 miles 
from Shergarh. 

Tho population increased from 1,710,471 in 1872 to 1,940,900 , 

in 1881 and to 2,000,679 in 1891, hut foil again to 1,962,(>96 
1901. Tho incroaso in tho ilr^ two doendos was largely due 
(o the ertension of cultivation owing to tho opening of the irriga- 
tion canals. The climate of tho northern part of tho District is 
Eaid to ho steadily dotcriorating. Tho sarfaco is so flat and low 
that tbero is no oiitlot for tho water which accumulates, while 
the introduction of tho canals is said to have raised tho water- 
dovel and made tho drainogo oven worse than boforo. Pover 
bopan to roako its ravages felt in 1879, and from that time 
tho opidomio grow steadily worse until 1886, wlion tho Distriot was 
stigmatized as tho woret in Bengal in respect of fover mortality. 

At tho census of 1891 n decrease was averted only by a largo 
gain from migration. Prom 1892-1900 tbo vital stafislics showed 
on excess of deaths over births amounting to 25,099, and in 1894 
tbo dentli-rato oxccedod 03 per millo. After fover tho principal 
diseases nro dysentery, diarrhoea, cholera and smnll-pox. Blind- 
ness is VGi^' common. I'lnguc broko oat in tho lioad-quarters 
station just bcloro tho census of 1901. Tho number of deaths 
reported was small, but tho alarm which tho opidomio created 
eulliccd to drivo to thoir homos most of tho temporary settlers 
from other Districts. 

Tbo jnrincipal statistics of tho census of 1901 are reproduced 
below : — 


6aii.piviBioa. 

Am in 

iMinaT* 

■tillm. 

KcvBBR or 

Popnlathin 

ropula- 
(Ion per 
■nuam 
mllo. 

FereentBgo 

of 

Tarlntlnn In 
populatfon 
biilween 
1S91 and 
IVOl. 

Nnnsber 
of nenenv 
ablo to 
read and 
Tmte* 

Towsf. 

Viltagw. 

Armh .. 

Uuior 

PAasrStn 

IlbAlitiS ... 

Djetiiict ... 

TOTAI. 

DIS 

rrp 

l.'JOl 

2 

S 

1 

1 

037 

1,WW 

4l0p7Ot 

exifCSs 

8O0,4Ol 

707 

023 

sn2 

- c-o 

- 0*0 
+ 1*3 
-IVS 

80*258 

10*809 

lf..8lS 

0.183 

4,S73 

0 

bfits 



- 4-7 

03.003 




.BrSOAl. 


Si 


Tie principal towns ate Arbah, tie isad-quarters, Sasamam, 
DtiMRAON and BnxAR. With tie solitary exception of SasarSm, 
all tie towns seem to io decadent. Tie popnlation is densest in 
the north and east of tie Bistriot, on tie bonl^of the Ganges and 
Son, and decreases tepidly towards tie south and south-east, 
where the Ehimur Erlls nfiord hut small q)aco for cultiTation, 
Tie Biaiuo. thana, with 181 petaons to tie s^ato mile, has 
scantiest population of any tract in South Bii&r. Tie natim' 
of this District me in demand all orer Bengal as zamindSrs' 
peons and club men ; they are especially numerous in Furuca, 
North Bengal, Dacca, and in and near Calcutta,^ and a large 
number find their way to Assam. Hany olso emigrate to tie 
colonies. The vernacular is the Bhojputi dialect of Oih&ri, 
W the Kuhammadans and Kaynsths mostly speak Awadhi Hindi. 
In 1901 Hindus numbered 1,819,641 or no less than 92*7 pot 
cent, of the total population, and Musolmana 142,213, or 7'3 per 
cent. ; there were 449 Jains and 375 Christinns. 

Their The most numerous castes are Ahirs or GoSlfis (26G,00D), 
eartM and BrShmans and Eaiputs each numboiing 207,000, Koiris 
u“r (155,000), Ohamars (121,000), Dosadhs (87,000), B&bhans 
(82,000), Kahars (70,000), Eurmis (06,000), ESndns (03,000) 
. and IVlis (51,000), and, among Muhammadans, Jolahas (53,000). 
Agriculture supports 64'8 per cent, of the population, industries 
17*7 per oont., commerce 0*5 and the profosaons I'O per cent, 
Chriytian The only Christian mission is a branch of tbe German 
MirsionB, Erongclicol Lutheran Mission, whose head-quarters ore ot Ktoohi. 

The number of nalit'O Christians in 1901 was 72. 

Ccncral _ Olay is the picdominating soil, but in parts it is moro or less 
^rlcui- mixed with sand. ^ The oloy soils, knoma as /inraiY, keicdl, mafUjSr 
coirfi- *^“*1 ore suitablo for nil kinds of grains, and the level of 

tioM.' the land and the possibility of irrigalion are hero the main factors 
in determining what crop shall bo cultivated, Dorn is n rich 
loam containing both clay and sand, and is suited for sngnroane, 
poppy, mustard and linseed. Sandy soil is knorm ns halmai, and 
when it is of very loose texture ns rf/if)s. The nllurial tract in the 
north is extensively irrigated by canals and is entirely under 
cultivation. Tho low-lying land in tbo neighbourhood of the 
Gauge.", locally known as hadai, is annually immdated so that rice 
cannot be grown, but it produces fine cold weather crops. Along 
the west bank of tho Son within about 3 miles from tho river Iho 
soil is sandy and requires continuous irrigation to produce good 
crops. To iho ovest of this the provolont soil south of tho Grand 
Trunk Bond is doran, wluch is annually flooded and fertilized by 
tho hill streams. In the Sasarom sub-division karoil soil is mon 
common and grows excellent rain crops. Tho undulating plateau 
of Iho Knimnr Hills in tbe south is unprotected by irrigation and 
yields poor and precarious crops. 



EnAUAXiAD sisxnicr. 


55 


oreos 


The snliont agriculturol Btntistics for 1903-04 nro given beloTv, Chlof 
15 being in Equnxo miles : — 


SCB.BITXBIOX. 

Tolala 

Cult&r&tcd. 

Ixrigated. 

BBS 

013 

cor 

212 

Boxn 

C63 

40S 

167 

Baa SS# 

1.490 

4S0 

224 

«Ba aaa 

1.501 

SOS 

20 

Tox«.a 

4.373 

2,000 

623 


statistics 

and 

principal 

crops. 


There ore altogether abont 311 equaro nules of oalturable 
vrasto, Etatistics for each. enb-diviEion not being available, and it 
is estimated that 112 sqaaro miles nro tvrico cropped. 

The staple food crop of the District is rioc, grovm on 1,307 
equaro miles, oE which 1,112 square miles ore under aghani or 
winter rice. This crop is transplanted in Juno and July (except 
in very low lands, where it is somotimes sown broad cast),_and tuo 
water is retained in the rioo fields by ridges till the middle of 
September, when it is allowed to drain oil. The fields ere allowed 
to dry for 12 to 14 days, after wbicb the crop again requires water, 
for which it depends on the hathxyH min, or failmg this, on 
irrimtiou. These late mins are Iho most important in the year, 
as they are required not only to bring the winter crop to maturity, 
but also to provide moisturo for the sowring of the rahi crops. 
lioro, or sptmg rice, is groivn in river beds imd on tbe edge of 
marshes ; it is sown in Jnnuai^' nnd February, transplanted after 
a month, and cat in April and blay. Of the other crops of tbo 
rainy season, the principal are Indian com or tnalai, marnS, joKir^ 
and biijra ; tbeso ore grown on well drained high lands. The rabi 
crops cofisist of cereals and pulses. Tbo chief cereals aro wheat 
(Iba Equaro miles), barley (81 square miles) and oats. They are 
sown ia October and November and harvested between tbo last 
week of Fobmaiy and the middle of April. Tbo pulses inedudo 
peas, gram ond linseed ; gram nnd linseed are grown ns a second 
crop and nro sown in the standing aghani rice about a fortnight 
boloro it is cut. Other iirportnnt crops nro poppy (25 squoro 
miles) nnd sugar-cane (54 square miles). . 

The opening of the Bon Canals has resnltcd in a consider- Impwye. 
able increase in the cnltivatcd area. An experimental farm is 
maintained at Dumraon, liut even in the adjoining villages' tbo tuml^ ■ 
cultivators nro slow to profit by its lessons. Dittlo advantage has pmcttco. 
been taken of tbo Land Improvomont nnd Agrloulturists’ Jjoans 
Acts except in tbo famine years 189G-08, when Ks. 75,000 was 
advanced under the latter Act. 




C6 


. BEKOAI... 


CaltK - ■ The cattle are for Ihe moat part poor^ but good tullsaiB kepi 

in the Busoi Central jail, and their ofiapring find a ready eoIc. 
Fastoro is .scarce except in the Eaimur HiHa, uhere nnuicroos 
herds ore sent to graze dnriDg the rains. A large cattle fair is held 
at Barahpui at \ 7 hi 0 h ogricnltural stock and produce are oshiUtcd 
for prizes. 

Irrigatioo. The District is serred by the Son Canals system and reccires 
about 80 per cent, of the total quantity of \rater supplied Iqr it. 
Wells and Shart, or reservoirs^ are also maintained all over the 
District for the purposes of irrigation. In 1901 it vnis estimated 
that 489 square miles \vere irrigated bom the canals, Equate 
miles from trells and 937 square miles from ahars. The extent 
to \ 7 hi 0 h an artificial vrater^supply is used depends on the 
variations in the rainfall ; in 1903>04 the area irrigated from the 
Government canals Teas (^3 square miles. 

Mineisli. Bed sandstone from the Koimurh ills is extensively used for 
building purposes, for which it is admirably adapted. Limestone, 
whioh IS obtained from the same locality, is commonly dark grey 
or blackish, and bums into a vcaiy good white lime. Kaiikar or 
nodular Hmestono is found in almost all parts of the plains, and 
espeoially in the beds of rivers and along the banks or the Son ; 
it IB used for metalling roads.ond is also burnt to make lime. A 
small quantity of alum was formerly manufaoturod in the area 
north of BohtSsgorh from slates belonging to the Kaimur gnntp 
of the 'Vindhyan series. Copperas or iron sulphate is found in 
the aamo region. 

Arts and Sugar is manufactured throughout Iho District, the principal 
til® industry being at Nfisrigni)] ard Jngdispur. Iron 
sugOT'Cane mills aro manuiactnred at Bibiya ana are now in 
general use over a great part of Northern India. Carpels ami 
pottery aro made at Sosaram; the speciality of the pottery consists 
in its being painted with lao and overlaid with mercury and gilt. 
Blankets and coarse olotb are woven throughout the District, A 
small quantity of hand'mado paper is produced at llariliarganj. 
Stiltpotre is manufactured in small quantities, tho outturn in 
1903-04 being 6,000 mnunds. 

Com- Tho prineiptd unpcffts ore rice, gram and other food-groins 

jBorce. jjjQ neighbouring Districts, European cotton picee-goods 

and kerosene oil from Calcutta, and coal and coke from HazftribSgh 
and Falamau. The exports indndo wheat, gram, pulses, and 
oilso^, chiefly to Calcutta, and raw sugar and g«r to the Untied 
Frovinces and clsowhore. The chief centres of trade are Arrnh, 
Dumioon, Buxar and ChausA on the East Indian Baiiway, 
Sasaram and Dchr! on the Gaya-Mughal Sarai branch and 
Nasriganj on the Son. Tho mainlines of communication are 
the rauwajs, the Ganges and Son rivora and the Son Canols, 
to which goods aro brought by bullock carls and pack bullocks. 



6UA1IA.BAD mSTBICT. 


67 


The Tnnin line of the East Indian Railway nas for 60 miles Railwiijl 
from east to west through the north of the Distriot, and thoao'J 
Mughal Sarai-Gaya section opened in 1900 tiaveises the south. 

In addition to 08 miles of the Grand Trunk Road from Calcutta 
to Benares, which posses through Behri-on-Son, Sasar&m and 
Jah&nabad and is maintained from Frorindnl funds, the Bislrict 
contains 186 miles of metalled and 532 miles of unmetalled roads 
under the control of the District hoard; there are also 1,218 
miles of village tracks. The prineipol local roads are those which 
connect Axrah with Busar and Sosaram. Feeder roads connect 
the main roads with the stations on the railway and rhe principal 
places on the rivers. 

The Gonges is navigable throughont the year, and a tri-weekly Water 
steamer service for passengers and goods Iraffio plies oa for as comiunni- 
Benmes, touching at Busar and Ghausa in the Shanahad District. 
Navigation on the Son is intermittent and of little oommoroiol 
importonoo. In the dry season the small depth of water prevents 
boats of more than 20 mauuds proceeding up-stream, while in 
the loinB the violent floods greatly impede navigation, though 
boats of 600 or 600 mannds oeoasionolly sail up. Of tte other 
rivers the Caranmasa, the Dhoba or Kao, the Dnrgauti and the 
Sura are mrigaUe only during the rainy season. The main 
canals of the Son (Janals system are navigable ; a hi-wooWjr som'oo 
of steamers runs from Dehri to Arrah. But here, os elsewhere, 
most of the water-borne trnflSo is carried in country hoate. 
rome of which have a capacity of as much as 1,000 mauuds. 
lie cand-borne traffic used to be considerable, but has suffered 

“’"Biol Sarai-Gaya Bruudb 

S ^ only fomes of any importance 

are those across the Ganges. ^ ^ 

nf The famine Famine, 

of 1866, preceded as it was by two years of bad harvests, caused 

great distress. _ The Government relief mensuros wore supple- 

but 3,161 deaths from BtarvSn 

three-fourths of the rice crop was 
destroyed by very heavy floods and the suhsequont eolriSe 
absence of ram; the loss would have been even uroS had 
not the Son water been turned into thn i ® , 

freely distributed. Rehef Ssin the nW 
were opened in December, and a sum of MsKs 
wages, lu additiou to Rs SO 000 T.n;j < *ai£HB were spent in 

Es. 1,600 advanced to oultivatora’for t^o purdiMrXer«a““^ 

In the •fn.TTnno nf icncnn. .. . piutanse 01 Eced grains. 


In the famiM of 1896 97 4V d-f ^ 
whole of tKhLl an? th?lou^^^^^^^ 
sub-division. Relief works were started 



£8 


BEKOAL, 


660,031 ^jb’ TTOges were paid to adnlt mules employed on 
pieoa "work, ond 176,106 to those on a daily wage, the ocsreffate 
payments amounting to Es. 74,000. Grntnitons relief by mrans 
of gram doles was also given, ond poor-houses and kitohena 
wore opened. Tbo total cost of gratuitous relief was rather 
loss than 2 lakhs, and the total cost of the famine operations was 
3-36 lakhs, of which Be. 30,000 was paid from District and 
the balance from Promoial nmds. 

District For general administrative purposes the District is divided into 
Bub-diTi- 4 Bub-diviaions with head-quarters at AnBAW, Busak, Sasabam 
stai! *” Bhaboa. Subordinate to the Di^iot Magisbate-OoUeotor at 
Anah, the District head-quarters, is a staff consist!^ of an 
Assistant Magistrate-GoUector, 6 Drauty Magistrate-Colleotofs 
and 2 8ub-d6puty_ collectors, The sub-divisions of Sasniam nad 
Bnxor are each in the charge of an Assistant GoUoolot aided 
by a sub-deputy collector, and the Bhabua sab-division is under 
a Deputy M^istrate-Oolleetor. The Executive Engineer of tlio 
Arran Division is stationed at Airah ; an Assistant Engineer 
resides at -KoSth and the Executive Engineer of the Buxor 
Division at Buxar. 


Civil end The permanent avil iudioial staff consists of a Distriot Judge, 
«rimin»i who is alao SessionB Judge, 2 Subordinate Judges and 8 Mnmifs 
justice, Airah, one Munsif at Sasordm and another at Buxar. Eor 
tho disposal of cDriminal work, there ore tlio ooints of the Sessions 
Judge, Distriot Magistrate and the above mentioned Assislant, 
Deputy and sub-deputy magistrates. The district was formerly 
notorious for tho number of its daooits and for tho boldness of 
their depredations ; but this oiime is no longer common.^ The 
Climes now most prevalent are burglniy, oottlo-tbeft and noting, 
the last being due to disputes about land and irrigation. 

Iiahj Daring the reign of Aibar, Shahfibad formed o part of 

wrenue. iarkSr lEohtas lying for the most part between tho rivow Son 
and EaramnSsa. Half of it, comprising tho samindfin of 
JBhojpur, was subsequently' formed into a separate sarkar aJlcd 
Shaliabad. The land revenue demand of theso two Bariirs, which 
was fixed at 10'22 lakhs by TodarMal inl6S2, bod risen to 
i3'66 lakhs at the time of the settlement under All Tardi Ehto 
in 1750, but it had again fallen to 10'38 laths at tho lime of the 
deecnniM settlement whiah was concluded in 1790, and dodarod 
to be pormanent in 1793. Tho demand gradually rose to 13‘fl6 
IflWiv m 1843 ond 16-72 lakhs in 1862, tho increase being 
due to tho revenue survey which took place in 1846. Li 1003-01 
it was 17’27 lakhs payable by 10,147 estates, of which 
with a demand of 14*98 lakhs wore permanently seWled, C44 
with a demand of 1-38 lakhs wore temporarily settled, whilo 
the remainder were hold direct by GoTommont. Tho inoidonco 
of land revenue is U. 0-13-9 per cultivated aero, being 



SUAirAnAP THETBICr. 


5D 


about per coni, of ibo cslimnied rcntol. 

tie Eoil.and for Tory good W ^Unblo for 

much as Il«> 30 p«r nrre is occn^ionnllj’ pwl. Jiont is f^ncniiij 
paid in k£d. csp^inlly in tho Bhnbna nml 

The average liolding of a ryol la c-Mitnaicd at tn norcs. A he only 

tmusuttl tenure is tho ywsw.'Atf. wh«oli «>nno*« n®*- 

to hold at a fised rate in pcrpoluilj hut a liorcditary and 

nhle interest in the land. Tlio troo puttstha 

mainly to Bhojimr parpaiia, and tho term >s 

to inicato tho existence of oeouponcy nghte. Hio following 
table shows the collcetiona of land revotmo and of total revenne, 
under tho principal heads, in thonsantls of mpoos t 



Outsido the munieipalitios of AnnAir, dAOinspun, Tivx.Ktt, ry^f»t •n.l 
Dumhaox, BitAnvA and Sa^auam local nlTairs are matinged by tautiUh*! 
tho I}is(rict hoard with subnnlinaio local boards in cneh r>nb- 
dn'i*>ion, Xn 1003*0"l its ineonro was Its, 2,GJl,0U0, of which 
2ls. 2,03,000 WO.S derived from rates, and the cx|>oi*.ditnro was 
Its. 2,80,000, tho chief item biing Bs. 2,13,000 expendc.1 on civil 
avorhs. 

In 1903 the DUtrict contained 11 police stations and lfircli«v»ml 
Outposts. The force fulwrdinnlo to the District {Stiperintcndcnt 1*'*** 
of Police in that ycor con?i«tc-d of d inrpoctors, *53 ruWi^^^pectors, 

46 hcod-constables and S2G comtablc**; there wna ol»o a rural 


police force of 301 rf-j/Tir'/rtra and •1,23'i cfiauli'itirt. In addition 
to the District jail at Annh with necomraodation for 278 prifonnn*, 
there is a Central jail at Biirar with accommodation for 1,391, 
while subsidiary’ jails ct Gasorum, Bnxar and Bhnburi can hold 
69, Tho prisoners in tho Central jail aro chiefly eniployod in 
weaving and tent making. 

Of tho popnlnlion in 1901, 4*3 per conf. -(S'O male? and O'S r«!atft«r«. 
females) could road and write. Tho total number of pupils under 
inslmction ntprimary rchoola fell from 20,983 in 1583-6 1 to 10,022 
in 1892-93, but increased again to 23,032 in 1000-01, while 20,218 
hoys and 4-lG girls woro at Foliool in 1903-01, being respectively 
18’C and 0’28 per cent, of tho cbildron of sohool-going ago. 

The number of educational institution", jiublio and private, in 
that year was 1,001, including 23 Foromlary schools, 0:i3 tiriinnry 
schools and 358 other sohools. Two small sohools for nborigincR 
aromaintainod at Bohol and Dahfir. Tho expendituro on cdntntion 
■was 1-3G lakhs, of which Be. 17,000 was paid from IVovineinl 









60 


BEXOAL. 


Ifcdlcal. 


Ynccinn- 

tioo. 


la 1903 tie District oonteinad 12 disponeorios. of which 7 
had accommodation for 115 ia-door patients. The Ss of 
81,000 ouf-pabents and 2,300 fn-patienta were trested, end 
performed. The expenditure was Ea, 35.00-', 
Rfl Governmont contributions, 

^ compulsory only in munieipnl orees. Daring 
the number of persons suooessfully vaoeinated was 48.000 
or 2o‘8 per tnonsand. 

■»r 5^' District Oasetfeor, Calcutta, 1906; M, 

Marfm (Buehanan-Hamilton), £astertt Indio, rol. i, 1838.1 
Arran Snk.,]itnaAr< - i i. ir _ 


Ine BUD-divjflionie a low-lying ollnvial flat bounded on the 
north by the Ganges and on the east by tho river Son. Its 
population wm 699,966 in 1901, compered with 743,682 in 1891, 
the density bein|f 767 persons to the square mUe. It contains 2 
towns, Abkah, its Lead-quarters (population 46,170), and Jaodis- 
POR (11,461), and 1,846 villoges, one of which, BiniVA, on tho 
East Indian Bailway is an important trndo centre. Arroh is 
famous on account of the gallant defence of tho Judge’s house by 
a hant^l of Europeans and Sikhs against on overwhelming force 
of mutineers in 1857. 


Bnxar Sab-divisioa. — North-western eub-dn-ision of tlio 
Shfihabad District, Bengal, lying between 26® 16' and 25® 43' hi,, 
ond 83° 46' and 84® 22’ B., with an area of 66.9 square miles. 
The sub- division cousists of a level plain entirely under cultivation 
and extensively Jmgafed by canals; a sirip of land to the north 
along the Gauges is liable to inundation from the overflow of that 
river. Its population was 416,704 in 1901, compared with 438,73!i 
in 1891, tho density being 623 persons to the square milo. It 
contains 2 towns Uuxab, its head-quorteis (population 13,945), 
and Dumbaon (17,236), and 937 villages, Buxnr is famous ns tho 
scene of tho defeat by Sir Hector hfiinro of Mir Easim in 1764, 
while at Chausa, near by,- Humayun was defeated by Sher 
Shall in 1639, 

Sasaram Sub-division.— South-eostem .mb-diriaon of SUahs- 
bad District, Bengal, lying between 24® 31' and 25® 22' N*, and 
83® 30' and 84° 27' E,, wiui an area of 1,490 square miles. Its 
population was 630,635 in 1901, compared with 633,356in 1691, 
tho density being 362 persons to the square mile. Tho sub-divifion 
comprises two dStinot frocts, that to tho north being on alluvial 
flat extensively itrlgnled by cnufils^ while the Multiem portion 



siiaiiahaq district. 


G1 


is occupied by the Kaimur lulls, au undulating plateau covered 
with jungle. These hills afford little space for cultivation, 
and this part of the sub-division suffered severely in the famine 
-of 1896-97. The sub-division contains one town Sasaram, 
its head-quarters (population 23,Gdd), and 1,90G vuUagea. 
The head-woi'hs of the Son Conahi system aro at IJsiirt. There 
are old forts at Shbroaru and Hohtasoarii, and 8a&ar&m 
and TicoTiiu also contain antiquities of interest 

Bhahua Sub-diTision — Western sub-diiision of Sh&h&b&d 


District, BenMl, Ijing between 24° 3'i' and 26“ 25‘ N., and 
83° 19' and 8^ 34' E , with an area of 1,801 square mfles. Tho 
eub-divition oonsista of two sharply defint d portions. To tho north 
there is a Gat alluvial plain, and to tho south is tho Kaimur range, a 
tract of hills and jungle, sparaely oultivatedand thinly populated. 
Its population was 806,401 in 1901, compared with 844,902 in 
1891, the denaty being 286 persons to tho squaro mile. Tho 
Kaimur hills afford little space for cultivation, and the Bhabud 
thdna with 181 persons to tho square mile has the scauticst 
population of any, tract in South Bihar. The whole of tho 
sub-division ia very unhealthy, and it also suffered severely in 
the famine of 1896-97. It contains one town Beabua, its head- 
quarters (pmulation 5,660), and 1,427 viUnges. An old Hindu 
temple rtan^ on Mundeswari Hill, and Ohainpur also contains 
aunquities of some interest. 

Dumraon Estate covering an area of about 758 smiaro 
District, Bengal. Tho fomily o? the 
pe^^e hack to Baja Yikramftjit, from 
whom tho Samvat oia of tho Hindus is reckoned Of tlmJ," 
auoestra 69 were the rulers of Hjjain in MalwS The foimd^ 
of tho fuimly in tho Shahabad Dislriot waa Il&iil 

*«> «ii loh.™ „ta.a in S 

D^g the war Sher Shah and fium&yun (1634.S 

and Dalpat Sh^i.two rival princes of tho family 
lom^ opposmg aides, and Qajan Bhahi received 
^ahabad and ftie title of Raja from Shor Shah. Rfija Narayan 

removed his residence to now Bhoipur Tho’lMn^ BUOModod jam, 
family were moved to Domroon in^l746, Sr 

raja Maheawar Baksh Singh, who oamo 
was made a K.O.S.I. for hte lnvnlf^^n,S^® poraession m 1844, 

son, Radha Prasad Singh, who had XnnL 1881 hy^ only 
of Raja for his serv^ during iRn , reooived tho titio 

was granted the title of Maho^^Bahal^and®^ 1878-74. Ho 

made a K.C.I.E. m la^ Ho aieff suhscquoutly 



C2 


BEXGAL. 


iho estate for Lis only dangLter iLe souior LraL&r&tii of Eow'ah. 
The estate is permanently settled; in 1903-04 tLo current demand 
for land rovenuo and cesses payablo to Govornment was 4*8 lakLs. 
The Biij maintains an experimental form nt Dumraon, and 
2 important fairs are hold at Barahpur in PLiIgnn (FoLruary — 
Marw) and Unisakh (April — ^May) attended respectively by about 
120,000 tmd 160,000 persons; at the former agrioiilturnl produce 
and stock are exhibited for prizes. ^ A grant of 1,600 aorra in the 
Toungoo District of Upper Burma is also held by the Eani. 

Arrah Town (Ara). — Head-quarters of Bnfibabad District, 
Bengal, situated in 25“ 34' N. and 84“ 40' B. on the East Indian 
Railway, 308 miles from Golontta, The population increased from 
39,386 in 1872 to 42,998 in 1881 and to 46,906 in 1891, but fell to 
46,170 in 1901, the decline being probably dn'6 to the plagne. 
Of the population in tliat year 32,903 woro Hindus and 12,797 
Musalmans, while among tho remainder were 433 Jains. The 
town of Arrah is invested with a special historical interest os 
being the scene of a stirring episode in tho Mutiny of 1857. A 
body of rebels, oonsisting of about 2,000 sepoys from Dlnapore 
and four times as many armed %'illager8 under Buar Singh, 
marohod in tho end of July on Arrah. They reached tho town 
on the 27th of that month, and forthwith released all the pri- 
soners in tho jail, and plundered tho treasury. Tho European 
women and mldron had already been sent away, but there 
remained in the town about a dozen Englishmen and ^roe 
or four other Christians of different races. Tho Commissioner 
of Patna, Mr, Tayler, had supplied a garrison of 50 Sikhs. 
At this time tho East Indian Railway was in course of con- 
stmotion, under tho local supermtendonoe of Mr. ’Vicars Boyle, 
who fortunately had some knowledge of fortification. He 
occupied two houses, now known ns tho Judge’s houses, the 
emallcr of which, a two-storoyed building about 20 yards from the 
main house, was forthwith fortifled and provisioned. The lower 
windows, oto., woro built up, and sand-bags ranged on tho roof. 
"When the nows came that the mutineers wore advancing along 
the Arrah road, tho Europeans and Sikhs retired to tho smollor 
houso. Tho rohols, after pillaging the town, mado straight for 
Mr. Boyle’s littlo fortress. A voUoy dispersed them, and forced 
them to seek tho shelter of the larger house, only a fow yards off, 
whenoo thoy carried on aa almost continuous fire. They attempted 
to bum or smoko out tho littlo garrison, and tried various other 
safe modes of attack, but thoy had no guns. Huar Singh, how- 
oTor, produced two small cannon which ho had dug up, and 
artillery missiles woro improvised out of tho house furniture. In 
tho small houso thoro was no thought of surroudor. Mr. Horwald 
Woko, tho Magistrate, put himself in command of the Sikhs, who, 
though sorely tempted by thedr countrymen among tho mutineers, 



SHAHABAD DISTBICT. 


63 


sM K 'I 

Lid nudaiglit sally resulted in the capture of 4 sheep, and -mta 
was obtain^ hy digging a wll 18 feet deep We ^ 

ytiiiiB of the enemy was met by conniemu^g. On ^e 2nd 
Aucnet, the besieged party observed an nnusud ra<atoment in tto 
neinhbonrhood. The fire of the enemy had dackened imd but 
few" of them were visible. The sound of n distant cannonade was 
beard. Before sunset the eight days siege was at an end, and on 
the following morning the gallant garrison welcomed theur 
deliverers— Major Vincent Eyre with 160 men of the 5th. EnHliers, 
a few mounted volunteers, and 8 guns with 84 artillerymen. 
Major Eyre had dispersed Euar Singh’s forces on his way to 
.Arrah, and they never rallied. 

Anah was constituted a mnnidpnlity in 1866. The average 
' income for the decade ending in 190l>02 was Bs. 62,000 and the 
expenditure Bs. 47,000. In 1903-04 the income was Bs. 66,000, 
including Es. 21,000 derived from a tax on persons (or property 
tax), Bs. 11,000 from a water-rate, Es. 6,UO0 from a tax on 
vehicles, Bs. 4,000'from a munidpal market and Bs. 6,000 as 
special grants from Proviuoial and local funds for medical purposes. 
The incidence of taxation was B. 0-14-3 per head of the popula- 
tion. In the same year the ea^miditare amounted to Bs. 48,000, 
the chief items being Bs. 10,000 on conservanoy, Bs'. 6,000 on 
water-supply, Es. 8,000 on medical relief, and Bs. 6,000 on 
roads. The town is supplied with filtered water from the Son; 
the works, which cost upwards of 4 lakhs, were opened in 1894. 
The town contains the nsuol public buildings, and is tbe head- 
quarters of Bbahfibad. The Eistriot jail has accommodation for 
278 prisoners, who are employed chiefly on ofl-pressing thread 
twisting and carpet making. , . ^ . 

Bhahna_ Town.--Head-quaTters of the sub-division of the 
same name m the Shahahsd District, Bengal, situated in 25° 3' tJ 

It SecSdVroS 

Sarai-Gaya seotito of 
In Eoilway. Bhabua was constituted a municipality 

in The average inoome for the decade end ing in IQOI no 
TO.IU. m> .ad^th. expaiait™ E.. 

™ ft, E.rt Mu. 382 „dl„ 



C4 


DEXOAL. 


(1901) 7C4. BiLiya m best knovm for tbe manufacture of iron 
sug;ar>aane mills, wliiob are now in general uso tltrous’hout 
Northern India. 

Bazar Town (Bnl-sar).— Heod-quartors of the sub-division of 
the same name in the Shahab&d District, Bengal, situated in 25° 84' 
N. and 83° 68' E. on the south bank of the Ganges. Population 
(1901) 13,945. Buzaris a station on tho East Indian Hallway 
411 mites from Cnloutta and is a considorollo centre of trade. 
It is famous as the scene of the defeat in 1764 by Sir Hector 
Munro of hlir Kksim, tho last independent Nawab of Murshidabad, 
in the battle which finally won tho Lower Provinces of Bengal 
for the British. It is a place of great sanctity and is said to have 
been originolly called Veddgarlha, tho womb of the Vedas, as 
many of the inspired writers of the Vedio hymns lived hero, 
Buxar was oonstituted a municipality in 1869, Tho average 
income for the decade ending in 1901-02 was Hs. 8,400 and tuo* 
expenditure Rs. 7,700, In 1903-04 the income was Rs. 9,600, 
moinly derived from a tax on persons (or property tax), and 
the expenditure was Rs, 12,000, Buxar contains the usual 
public buddings, and a Central jail with accommodation for 1,891 
prisoners is also situated here. Tho chief industry carried on 
18 the manufacture of tents, of which 2,70<i wore supplied 
to Government departments in 1903. Cloth weaving ond the 
manufacture of prison clothing and uniforms for the police and 
chauklddrt, as well as for the Opium and Jail depaitmonts, ate also 
eztondvely carried on. A subsidiary jail bos aocommodatiun for 
61 prisoners. 

Chainpnr.— Village in the Bhabuk sub-division of the Shah- 
abfid District, Bengal, atuoted in 25° 2' N. and 83° 31' E. 7 
miles west of Bhobua town. Population (1901) 2,870. Tho place 
was formerly the reodenoe of tho Ohainpur H^as who wore 
expelled by the I'athans obout 250 years ago. The old fort of 
Ohainpur is surrounded by a ditch and defended by a etono 
rampart flanked with bastions ; it has a large gate in the 
northern and a smollor one in the southern ourtain. The space 
within is covered with buildings, partly of brick and partly of 
stone, with several large wells. A mosque built as a tomb over ■ 
Fateh Ehan, who married a daughter of tho emperor Sher Shah, 
is still in good condition. ^ 

Chansa. — Village in the Buxar sub-division of the Shahabad 
District, Bengal, sitaated in 25° 31' N. and 83° 54' E. on tho 
East Indian Roilrvay close to the oast bank of tho Karamnasa 
river, 4 miles west of Buxar town. Population (1901) 1,108. It is 
noted as tho scene of tho defeat of the emperor Hnmayun by tho 
Afghan Sher Shah in Juno 1539. Tho emperor with a few 
friends just managed to escape by crossing the Ganges, but 8,000 
Mughal troops perished in attempting to follow him. 



SHAnABAS DISTRICT. 


65 


2)ehrl< — Village iu the Sasarfim Bab-division of the 6h&hab&d 
Distriot, Bengal, situated in 24° 55' N. and 84° 11' B. on the 
west bank of the Son, where it is crossed by the Ch:and Tnmk 
Hoad and the Mnghal Sarai-Oayfi seotioii of the East Ijndian 
Bailway. Population (1901) 4,296. It is important as the site 
of the headword of the Son Canals system. 

Bnmraon Town. — Town in the Buxar sub-diiision of the 
Shahabad Distriot, Bengal, situated in 25° 30' N. and 84° 9' E, 
on the East Indian Bailway, 400 miles from Calcutta. Population 
(1901) 17,236. It is best ^own in connection with the Dnmraon 
Baj, to which family it has given its name. The principal buildings 
ate the palace and pavilion of the BSj ; and it also contains an 
experimental farm, maintained by the latter. Dumraon was 
constituted a municipality in 1869. The average income for the 
decade ending in 1901>U2 was Hs. 7,500 and the expenditure 
Its. 6,600. ^ 19u3-04 the income was Bs. 9,600, mainly 
derived from a tax on persons (or properly tax), and the expen- 
diture was Bs. 8,000. 

JagdiSpur. — Town in Iho head-quarters sub-division of the 
8hrihabad District, Bengal, situated in 26° 28' N. and 84° 26' E. 
Population (1901) 11,451. The town is a centre of the sugar 
industry. Jagdispur was constituted a municipality in 1869. 
'X'ho average income for tho dccado ending in 1901-02 . was 
Bs. 4,600 and the expenditure Bs. 4,400. In 1908-04 the income 
was Bs. 6,600, mainly from a tax on persons (or property tax)/ 
and tho oi^ondiiuie was Bs. 7,009. 

masEr. — Villago in the head-quarters sub-division of the 
Sbabnbad Distriot, Bengal, situated in 26° 33' N., and 84° 35* E., 
a little to tho south of tbo East Indian Bailway about 6 
miles west of Arrab. Population (1001) 8,073. hlasar has been 
idoutified with tho h£o-ho-so-lo of the Chinese pilgrim Hiuon 
Tsiang, and from his account must then have stood close to the 
Ganges. The river now flows 9 miles to tho north, but traces of 
tbo high banks of its old ubannol still roma n. The old name of 
hfasSr, as proved by 7 inscriptions in tbo Jain tompleof Parosnatb, 
was hlnhasara; but the original name is said to have been 
Sonitpur, famous as tho residence of 13&n B&j&, whoso daughter 
Dsha was morridd to a grandson of Erishna.* There is a Jain 
temple hero with soToral Brahmanioal images and an insorrotion 
dated 1886. Dr. Buohannn-Hamilton discovered some Buddhist 
idols in a heap of mud and brioks to tbo west of the village, 
whioh lio assigned to tho Chcros. Tho town contains 14 fine 
old wells and numerous tanks. ?ho populaiion of the old town 
has been ostimatod at about 20,000. At present, it is only a 


* Terpar {n Aavim ibo thims ind to h*TO boon oallsd SonKpur and to hars boon tbo 
capital of tbit 



C6 DENOAI.. 

Btraggling village. A colossal imago foiiad at Mnsor was in 1832 
romoTod to Anab, and the irngments boing pieced logotbor, 
it was set tip in tho publio' garden at that place ; il appears to 
be of the Gtupla period. Among oilier local stnlnos, tboso of 
Mahiimnya and Bbairab aro notowortby. 

Mnndeswarr. — ^Hill in the Bbabua sub-division of ibo Sliabfi- 
biSd District, Bengal, sitnoted in 25° 2' N. and 851’ 85' E. It is 
the site of an interesting Dinda temple, dating from the sixtli or 
Eoventb oentiiry, ivbicb is said to bnvo ocen built by Manda Diiiiya, 
probnbl 3 ' a Chero cbiof. [M. Maitin (Biiobanan-Hnmillon), 
JEasfeni vol, i, 1888,3 

Biohtasgarb.— IBll fort in tbo Sasaram snb-ditision of the 
Shabnbad Disiriot, llctigal, situated in 24“ 37' N. and 83“ 55' 13. 
about 30 miles souib of Sasaram town, overlooking the junctiou of 
tbo Koel with the Son rivor. Bopulntion (1001) 1,899. If derives 
its name from the young princo Itobitfiswa, son of Ilnris CJiandrn, 
king of the Solar race. Little or nothing is knoam concoiniug tbo 
persons who hold the fori from tho time of Haris Chandra up to 
1100, when it is supposed to have belonged to rraiaji Dbawala, 
father of the last Uindn king. Shor Smih captiucd Uohtdsgnrb 
in 1530, and immodiotol 3 ’ began to stmigthcn tbo fortiiicaiinns; 
but tbo wort bad not progressed very far, when bo soleclcd a 
more favouxablo site in tbo neighbourhood at tbo ploco still 
known ns Sborgnrh. M&n Singh, on boing appointed viceroy 
of Bengal and Bibilr, sclcotcd Itobti'is ns bis sbongbold; and, 
according to two inscriptions in Sanskrit and Persian, _ orocicd 
many of the buildings now existing. When ho died, the 
fortress was attached to the olHoo of Wnslr of the emperor, by 
whom tho governors were appointed. Tho governor of tho 
pluoo in 1622-24 protected Sbiih Johan’s family when tliat princo 
was in rebellion ngiiinst bis father, itohtas was suiTendorcd to 
the English soon after tbo battle of Buxor in 1704. Tiio 
remains of tho fortress now occupy a part of tbo tnblo-lnnd, 
about 4 miles from east to west, and 6 miles from north to 
eouth,'witb a ciccumforcnco of nearly 28 miles. On tbo soutb-enst 
corner of tbo plateau is an old lompio called Rohlasan, where an 
imago of Bobitaswa was worebippod imlil destroyed bj' Aurniigzcb. 
It is situated on a steep peak and is approached b 3 ' a great rtono 
staircase orranged in groups of steps with succo'sivo landings. 
Gloso by is tbo tcmplo of Ilnris Ohundra, a graceful building 
consisting of a small pillared ball covered by' five domes. Within 
tbo gate at Riij Ghat thoro must havo been a very considcrablo 
building, which is (bought to have formed (ho private residenoo 
of tbo commandant. Other remains, some of wbioli date back to 
tho time of Sber Sbilb, aro rcaltercd over tbo plo(eau._ The most 
interesting of tbe.so is tho palaoo orllnbfilfnrni, which is nltribntcd 
^^^^n Singb. It is irregularly built without any nrcbitooturnl 



SIIAUABAD DISTBICT. 


67 


pretonsiooB, {Iio most striking building being tbs mein gateway, a 
massivo structmo consisting of a largo Qotbio arch, with the figure 
of im elephant on each side. Tho palace is however of great 
interest as being the only speoimen of Mughal oiril arehiteotoro 
in Bengal and as giving an insight into the conditions of military 
life nndcr that empire, 

Sasaram Town (Sahsardm.) — Head-quarters of the suh- 
division of the same name in tho Bh&hahad District, Bengal, 
situated in 24° 57' N. and 84° 1' E. on the Mughal Sarai-Gaya 
section of the East Indian Railway, 406 miles from Golontta. 
Population (1901) 23,614, of whom 13,647 wero Hindns and 
9,994 Musobmans. The name Sasnram signifies one thousand 
toys: a certain Asor or infidel is said to have lived here who had 
a uiousand arms, each holding a separate plaything. The town is 
noted ns containing tho tomb of the Afgh&n Sher Shah, who con- 

f uered Humaj un, and subscqnently became emperor of Delhi. 

lis mauEolcnm is at the west eniT of tho town, within a largo tank, 
tho csEivatcd earth of which has been thrown into unshapely 
hanks some distance off. The tomb itself consists of an octagonal 
hall suiTOutided hy an arcade, which forms a galleiy ; and the 
roof is supported by four Gotbio nrohes. Tho tomb of Sher 
Shuh’s fothcr, Boson Shah Suri, is similar but less imposing. 
To tho oast of tho town, near the minunit of a spur of tho 
Kaimur range on which the tomb of Hazeat Ghondan Shahid 
j)ir is now vonoroted, there is nn important Asokn inscription. 
Sasoram was constituted a municipality in 1869. The average 
income for tho dcoado ending in 1901-02 was Bs. 16,000 and 
.the espendituro Bs. 15,000. In 1003-04 (ho income was 
Bs, 17,000, mainly derived from a tax onporsons (or property tax) 
and the receipts from a largo municipal market, and the expen- 
diture was Es. 10,000. [M. Mortin (Buohanan-Hamilton), 

Hailern India, voL i, 1633, pp. 423— 43U *, Arclmijhf)\eal Survey 
Meporls, vol. ix, pp. 132 — 130.] 

Shergarh.— Euinod fori in the Snsoram sub-division of tho 
Shahahad Distriot, Bengal, situated in 24° 00' tT. and 83° 44' E. 
20 miles south-west of Sasaram town. 'The spot was Bolcctedby 
Sher Shah as tho site of a fortress soon after ho had begun 
strongtiiening Eohtnsgnrh, which he abandoned on discovering the 
Btyonor advantages of Sbergarb, The top of tho rock is crowned 
willr a rampaii strcngthcnca by numerous bastrens and bulwarks 
with a grand ascent to tho principal gate on tho north. The fort 
itself contains several subtorranoau halls. About 7 miles from 
Shergath is a cave called the G upteswav cave. One of the numcrons 
stalactites is worshipped as tho god Mahhdeo. Tho care has never 
boon thoroughly explored. 

Tilotim. — ^village in tho Sasariim siih-divlsion of Sh-ahahad 
District, Bengal, situated in 21° 40' N. and 84° 6' E. 



GS 


nENOAt. 


noun 

<laric9. 


river 


of the gorge by which the Tutrahi, a branch of the Kudra riwr 
loaves ho hms. Population (1901) 2,592. This spot is sacred to’ 

hoise-shoe preoipico from 180 to 250 feet high, down 
ihioh the iivor falls The rock at first recedes at an angle of 100’ 
ooc-third of tho height ; but above tliat it overhangs 
Tlie chiof object of interest is 5n 
imnoO, boa ling the date 1.182, which is said to have been placed 
litre oy the Oheioa It represents a many-nrmod female killinc 
a man as he spimga from tho neck of a buffalo. A fair is held 

^ ‘j’ 

darica i ■ District. — ^District in the Patna Division, Bengal, 

confignra. betwcon 2.5° 39' and 2G’ 89' N., and 83° 54' and 85° 12' JJ., 
J . of 2,074' square miles, Tho name is said to bo 

aenyed f lym the Sanskrit Sarmia, moaning “ refuge,” and there 
18 a legend that somo demons converted there by Buddbo sought 
of tbo Buddhist triad, Buddha, Dharma and Sanglrn. 
iJie JJistriot IS a wedge of alluvial soil, between the Ganges and 
nie Gan^k r^ors, with its apex pointing soiith-eastw'ards townids 
i. atna citj^ The Gandak separates it on tho oast from Jtuzalfor- 
pur and Champaran, and on tho south the Ganges forms Iho 
boundary dividing Satan from tho Patna and ShRhrlbud Dhtiiofs. 
1110 western boundnty marohes ivith (he United Prorinces. Tho 
Wogrn, running parallel with tho Gnndak, meets tho Gonges 
opposite (ho hend-qiiartcrs station of Oilipra and forms tho 
Bouth-wost boimdnry between Saran and tho Bollia Disfriot, while 
an iwogular base-line drawTi north-east from tho Gogra to the 
vrairoak constitutes tlio western boundary with Gorakhpur. 

bijran is a beautifully wooded plain, highly ciiltirntcd and 
densely populated, without a hill and hardly any elevations raoopt 
tuoso which mark the dto of some old fortress or dosorled 
village ; it is very fertile and is intersected by numerous w.iter 
Mannels which flour in a south-c.nstorly dir.clion. Tho Ganou*!, 
and ^ Gogra _ are described olEowhoro. Tho Dflha or 
oandi, Qandafci, Dhanni and Ghangri woro originally spill-cliannels 
from tho Gnndak, with which, however, their ooimeotion has been 
severed by tho Gnndak embankment ; they fom tho system known 
canals. Similar streams nro tho Kh-mun, Jhornhi 
and Khatsn, which ulGmatolr fall into the Gogra or Ganacs. Tho 
channels of tho Gimges,Gnndnk and Glogra nro pcijiotunlly oscnllat- 
mg, and sand banks form in tlio bed of tho nvor one year, only 
to 1)8 swept away tho next, so that frequent changes in jiirisdiolion 
are necessary. 


lUOm {rom Hint biwh in tlio leot rcniiu miart (2.CSG 
gnoTo niilc)^, la ji,a{ mrcrlnuied in ttie recent inrrey (ipcralioni. 



■SAR.IH MSTIllCr. 


69 


Tbo soil consists of alluvial deposits, tbe basis of wbiob belongs Qealogy. 
to an older alluvial formation composed of massive crgillaceons 
bed«, disseminated throughout which occur hiiilar and pisolitio 
fomiginous rancretions. These clay soils, locallj known as 6/iit, 
am exposed in marshy depressions called o/iaitrs, which are scattered 
over the District. Elsewhere they are overlaid with more recent 
eondy deposits known as bditija>\ 

Though the District contains no forests, it is well, timbered, Botany, 
the most conspicuous trees being smU {DUkrgia stssoo), red 
cotton tree {Bombax malabarimm), and tamarind.' The village 
sites are embedded in groves of tbe palmyra palm {Borassai 
fiabdlifoima), the dote palm {Phasniz &ijlte6tris) and other semi- 
epontaneous and more or less useful species The groves of mango 
trees planted in beautifully regular lines are a marked feature 
of the landscape. The surface is highly cultivated, but tbo banks 
of streams and patches of waste land ore covered by a dry somb 
jungle of sbmbs of tbe order of Euphorliucea, Butea and other 
leguminous trees, ond species of hens, Sthhicheru, Wendlandia 
and Omclina. 

Eitgai and wild hog are common in the low scrub jungle which Punn*. 
is met with on the alluvial islands and are very destructive to 
crops. "Wolves and jackals carry off a considerable number of 
infauts, snakes ore very numerous, and crocodiles infest the 
largo rivers. 

The winter months are delightfully cool, but the dry heat ciimato 
is intonso in ATay and June. Tho mean temperature varies from “>>d 
62® in January to S9° m May, and the maximum from 73® 
in January to 100° in Apiii on l Alay, while the moan minimum 
ranges from 50° in January to 79® in Jime to August. SSran is 
one of the driest Districts in Bengal, the average annual rainfall 
being only 45 inches The monsoon commences in Juno, when 
6'9 inohes fall, and the maximum monthly fall of 12T inches is 
reached in July. The average fall for August is 11 inches and 
for September 7'6 inohes. Humidity ranges from 57 per cent, in 
April to 88 per cent, in August. The rainfall is enprioious, and 
during the decade ending in 1901 it varied from 24 inohes 
in 1806-97 (the lowest on record) to 65 inches in 1899-1900. 

The District has always boon liable to floods, whioh ooour piooJi 
•when the waters of the smallor rivers are bonked up by high 
floods in the great rivers into which they flow. An embankment 
constructed along tho right bunk of tbo Qandak for a distanoe of 
99 miles now protects the north-east of the Uistriot, but the 
Eonth-wcst and south are bUU exposed to inundation from tho 
Gogra and Ganges. 

At tho dawn of history SSran formed the eastern limit ofHtstflry. 
tho ancient kingdom of the Kosalas, whoso head-quarters wore 
in Oudh and who wore separated -by the Qandak river from 



70 


BiaCOAL. 


TIio 

jicople. 


the eastern kiugdoiu of Mithila. Yery little is known of it, 
and the nhsonoo of ony reference in the early Ycdio literature 
and the paucity of Buddhiet remains render it prohablo that it 
momtnined its ohnractor as a vast jimglo for n much longer 

S oiiod than eitiior of the adjoining Districts of Muraffiiipti^ot 
hampSran. Indeed, tho earliest authentic relio wiiioh lias been 
found in S&i'an is an inscadbed ooi)poT-i>l(ilo prcson'cd in tbo 
village of DightrS DubouTin, about 34 miles north-cast of Ohapra, 
whion Dr. Bajcudrolala Mitra declares to bo a ccimtcipnrt of 
a similar plato found by Colonel Staoj' near Benares and which 
deals with the grant of a villago by Baja BbogS Dcra, para- 
mount sovereign of Gwalior about 876 A. D. Tbo mt^itoTnl 
history of the District is connected with tho fortunes of tbo 
Haxhwa famil 3 '’, whose hoad-quortera wore nt Dusepm. Siwan 
and Manjhi were fortitiod seats of turbulent Mnsaluian free- 
hooters, w'hile hlanjhn, ParsS, AGrzapur, Paterha and Olicrand 
were during the same period the head-quarters of powerful Dinda 
ohieftains. 

The recorded population increased from 2,076,640 in 1872 
to 2,295,207 in 1881 and to 2,465,007 in 1891, but foil to 
2,409,509 in 1901. The incronsos of lOJt per cent, between 1872 
and 1881 and of 7*4 per cent, during tbe next dooado are portly 
attributed to improved enumeration. Several causes conlnbiitod 
towards the dooreose of 2*2 per cent, during the Inst deendo. Tho 
Distiict already oontainod a larger popiiLation than it can support 
and the volume of omigration sensibly increased. Tho famine of 
J 897 told sororoly on tho people, and though it caused no imme- 
diate mortality, reduced thoir vitality and lowered tho birlh- 
rato. Plague also assumed opidomio proportions dining tho 
winter of 1900-01. 

Tho principal statistics of tho census of 1001 arc rcptodiicod 
below : — 


1 

1 

Area fn 
FqUAro 
snlles. 

1 KvMorB ov 

rwnla- 

tloru 

I’opiiln 

I Porreplniro 

Numlier 

of 

1 sm-amsios'. 


Villnret. 

(Eoii p«*i 

mile. 

7in 

1 brlTTCCii 

[isot luiis um. 

nblP ta 
reufl nntl 

CliSIrn 

GnpulsanJ ••• 
Btvrjkn »•- 

7SR 

^3 

2 

1 

1 

2.113 
J.5«!S 1 

J»72,T13 

S0Jp74f 

njH 

Mr 

^0 1 

43,47^ 

SI,7tJ 

DlSTKIOr TOTU 


4 

1 


XfJ 

-2 jr 

syjsj 


Tho four towns are CiiArUA, Siwas, aim -uiuganj. 

?he villages are smaU, and their average population m only S9, as 
ompared with 002 in Noith BihSr as a whole, Tho density of 




SAHAS IMSTIUCT. 


71 


populntion is surj'n»!M\l in only llirco of llio Beii^nl Diotiicts. 

Ii is very evenly (lislrilnUod {hrouplioul the District, niul only 
one ihutm hn« less lUnu'800 persons to tho squnro inilo. Baran 
sends onl a groflter proportion of emi{rranl9 tUnn tiny other 
District in Dcnpal ouL<uU‘ Ckut& Niigpur, niul in 1001 more than 
n tenth of Iho Di-trict-hnni i*opnlation wero cimmorntcd nwny 
from homo; nhont ouisfifth of the nh<cntces were fotiud in 
contiguous Distriols, hut tho rcnwintler had gone further nflcld 
ond were cnurntwlc*! in large numhciB in llntippnr, ('rdcuttn and 
y-l-l’niganns. Owing to thL« oniigratioii. tho proportion of females 
to nirilcs (G to 5) is llie largest in I'engal. Tufant marriage is much 
less common than in other parts of Irihrir, and there has hocn ii 
marhetl falUngoft during tho last two dccndi s in Iho propcrlion 
of married j cople, and nl'o in the number of children broupht 
into tho world, which prints to tho growth of ptovenlivo cliLcha 
on tho growth of paiiiilation. Tho language spoken is tho 
Blinjpuri dialect ol Hind!, hut ^luhammadaus and IvayiLstls 
goufrally speak Awiidhi. Soven-oighths of tlio ]>opiilatibn are 
llindus t2,l‘dd,Gll) and iimclicalh’ all the re.-! are iVluhamniadanB 

Tlie^ ,(Vi 3 ‘nn castes ore strongly rcpre«cnl«l, ns S&tnn lay in Tteir 
their lino of march eastwards. BnTihmims number 184,000, »"d 
B/ijptits 253,000, Ballmns 100,000, Kitya'ths 43,000, and Ahir? 

230,000, more than a third of tho population holonging to Ihcso 
five castof. Tho^o excellent hnelKindmen, tho Koiris and ICurmis, 
are numerous ns arc also Clmmfirs (leather dreE-'er.s), Kftndtis 
(grain parchers), Kuni.ls (saltpefro mnnufnrturrrs), Docjidli.s, and 
tuo common Bihar functional c.'istes. ^ Among tho Muhammadan 
castes 18,000 ]’ntli5ns and G,000 Saryids nro prohahl}’ doscondants 
of foreigners, hut tho nnoeslora of* 07,001) Jolrdifin and 63,000 
Shaikhs wero iiroh.ably local converts to Isllm. Of _ every 100 
nmomi 81 nro agriculturists, 9 arc engaged in industry, 1 
uelongs to the professional cla«*c®, 4 are general Inhonreis, and tho 
remnirrder follow other occupations. Tho prr])ortion of ngrioul- 
turi.st# is tlio largest in Bihtir. 

Tho German Kvnngclical Lutheran M ission has been at work ciirinttnn 
at Ciiaiim sinco 1810, but iocs than 500 persons haro hcon Mniiani. 
hapti.wcl, and most of theso wero jirohably nnclaimwl children or 
orjihaus. A Itomaii Catholio Mihiou has recently been Flnrled 
at Clifipra and a brnnoh of iho“ltcgions Beyond" Jti'sionnry 
Union nt Siwan. Tho number of imlivo 01iri(>lian.s in 1901 
was 78. 

Tiio hard clay in tho low mvnnips (rAau'sJ produces only a a,ntnt 
Fomowhnt precarious croji of winter rice, and homg dojicndoiit on »cTieui- 
tho minfall, is (ho first t/i suffer from drought. Ou^ tho light randy , 

njilands an autumn rico cro]» is ohlnlnerl, which is generally fol- 
lowed by a fpririg crop of popj'y, imligo, Imrloy, wheat, sugarenno, 



72 


UBNflAli. 


Cliiof 

ogrienl- 

tunil 

(Utiatiei 

end 

principal 

cropa. 


when ram IS urgently needed is the last fortnight of September 
and djtting the /iat&ti,a osterism at the beginning^ of OotoLr A 
drought dnrmg thm period not only ruins the winto rS but 
epmg OTop?. moisture necessary for the subsequent 

The salient ngrieultural statistios for 1903-04 are reproduced 
below, areas being in square miles:— ^reproaucea 


SOB-DITISIOX. 

1 Total. 

Cultiratcd. 

Cultanble 

traite. 

Cbipcs 

1,04S 

780 

no 

Oopilganj ... 

788 

622 

6S 

Siwuit ••• ,,, 

8S8 

661 

91 

Torn ... 

S,674 

sfisa 

2S9 


Iiiiproye< 
menta in 
ogrica]- 
tnral 
pructtcC' 

Cattle, 


Bice is the most important orop and covers an area of 016 
square miles, or a quarter of the oultivated area ; 16 por cent, of it 
is harvested in the antumn and the remainder in the winter. 
Barley and maize cover 19 and 15 por cent, respoctivoly of tbe 
cultivated area. KheUri pulse is so%Tn extensively ns a entoh-orop 
in winter rioe lands and may be called tho poor man’s food. Tiio 
most extensively grown non-food crops aro oilseeds, linseed occupy- 
ing 124 square miles, ond rape and mustard 17 equam miles. 
Sugar is being largely substitatw for indigo and ocenpies 8 por 
cent, of the cultivated area. Indigo in 1903-04 covered only 
19,300 acres, or loss than half the area boto 5 years before. 
Saron is the premier opium Bistriot in Bengal, and the outturn 
in the same year was 282 tons. . , ,, 

OultiTation has long ago reached its utmost limit, ond there is 
no room for expansion. Liftlo advantage is taken of Govern- 
ment loans, ond the only consideroble advances made were in tJio 
fomine year 1897, when 2J1 lakhs were lent under tho Agnml- 

tuiists’ xjoans Act, i x 

The cattle are generally poor; the best TOmo fr^ north 
MuzalFornur' and Darbhanga and from tho United Irovinoes, 
PastmaK insutBoient, ond m the wld weothef weat he^ aro 
grazed m Ohamparon. The HathwS Eaj b“s fecontly ostahlished 
E cattle breeding farm at Siipur. Most of tho horses and pomes 





.74 


BEKGAL. 


emjployed dsotrhoro, wLo moJke latge remitlaacea for tile support of 
thw families. The principal imports are rice, pa4dy and otlier 
food grams from MuzoiTarpur, Darblmnga and Bhagalpnr, cotton 
piece-goods, salt and kerosene oil from Cnloutta and coni from 
Buidwan and Dhota Hfigpnr. Tlio exports are opium, sugar, 
indigo, saltpetre, dieUao, molasses, linseed, mustard seed, gram, 

g edses and other food grams. Most of tho exports go to 
alcutta, hut the sugar finas a market in the TJnilcd Provinces, 
The hulk of the traffic now goes by railway, end the principal 
marts are Cir.vrHA, Revemakj, Biwax, Mahabajoanj, Mieoasj, 
DighwSra, Sokpur and Mnini'5, t, •, 

BnUvays Tto tniiiu litto of Bongal and l\orlh-uosiorn Bailffay 
andmds. tjaversos tho District from Sonpnr at tho south-east corner to 
Moirwfi on the western boundary. A branch lino connects 
Ohapra tta Rerelganj with MSUihi, where tho Qogra is eroded by 
a steam ferry. A fine bridge spans the Grondak helwecn oonjinr 
in Saran and Hfijipnr in Mnznffarpur, and effects. a pmction 
with tho Tirhut State Railway system, now worked by the Bengal 

. «« <nT. _l ntirl rt/t KArlh/iP Wltll iJlB 



Water 

OfimoiQQt 

cations 


F^inlnei 


ilUAuUvXSA 

RonMl and North-'Wostem Railway 

Indian Railway by a steam-ferry from PaldezU Ghat, near Sonpnr, 
to Diirha Gbit on the opposite bank. Tho chief 

Indto Geni^ ^ 

“«• steamer service on onnnm toAjodliyfi in Oudh. 

'• .the PataaDistriot^ nearly oppontoS^y^.^j^ Goalundo lino 

These steamers conn^ at going to or 

and aro ofto Numerous important femes 

SSth?<3anS«> SmSn?tl"'neighhoj»}ng District^. 



SABAN UISTItlCr. 


75 


in 17G9, 1783, 1866, 1874 trnd 1897. Little is known of-tlie first 
two calamities. In 1866, the year of tho Orissa famine, the 
winter rice foiled and the spring crops were extremely poor; the 
relief alfoidcd was inadeqaate, and over 8,000 persons died of 
starvation and disease. In 1874 famine was caused hj the failure 
of nine-tenths of tho winter rice crop. Belief on this occamon was 
given on an extravagant scale, and no deaths ocoarred from 
starvation ; tho number on relief works exceeded a quarter of a 
million in Juno 1874. No less than 40,000 tons of grain were 
imported by Government, and the expenditure was 24 lakhs. 
In 1806 the rainfall was very deficient, amounting to only 
23 inches, and tho autumn crop yielded less than half and tho 
winter rice only one-sixteonth of the normal outturn. In spite 
of this, the famine was much less severe than in tho neighbouring 
Districts, and the maximum number on rdief works was 24,000 in 
May 1897. Tho oost of relief was 9 lakhs. 


For genial adndnistotive purposes the District is divided into 

3 sub-divisions, with head-quarters at Chaira, Siwan and 
GopAnoANr. The staff at head-quarters consists of the Magistrate- 
Collector, an Assistant Mogistrate and 5 Deputy Magistrates, 
besides oflSoers employed specially on partition and excise work ; 
emh of the outlying sub-divisions is in charge of a sub-divisional 
officer assisted by a sub-deputy eolleotor. 

Subortoato to tho District Judge are 2 Sub-Judges and4 Mun- Civil and 
sus ^ OMpra, ono Munsif at Siwfin and another at GopSlganj. odniinni 
i ho Bub-Judges hear appeals from the Ohamparan civil courts also. 
bmoe tho oomplotiou of tho surrey and reoord-of-rights the number 
of rent suits has greatly inoreasod. Oriminol jnsliee is adminis- 
tored by the Sossiona Judge, an Assistant SesaionB Judge, the 
Distnet Mamstinto and the above mentioned stipendiary 
Burglary and petty theft ore oommom and riots Jo 
frQqu6nt, but tliers i6 very little heinouB oriniB# 

4 ifvr, 1^82 Sfaon was assessed at jjani 

4 lakhs, the area ineasured being 415 square miles. In 1685 rovenno. 
Uie revenue was raised to 8 lakhs, and inl750 to 9^ lakhs, of 
wluA half a lakh was remitted. In 1773. eight yoarl after the 
1793^Sm adminiBtxation,th 0 revenue woe 9-36 
S’ A permanent settlement was condndedfor 

J estates hold free of revenue undm 

wi?f2-eKh?™® ^ 1903-04 

“Stales- Almost the entiro 
Distriol IS peraanently settled, but 78 estates paying Es 15 OW 

28 estates wiSi a revmue of 
managed direct by GovernmeTif If 
worthy that whereas tho allownnce fixed for the zamindara S 
the permanent settlement was ono-tonlh of the assets tha 
landlords now retain no less than 78 



.76 


DQiOAL. 

aouintd Fodu^of Ss b^en 

prepared between 1893 and IWI m? “ was 

tefrj?n5HS 

=SfiM=.tfett2 

BlF ocenpanoy ryats 

S-O-G-nnd nndcr-TOt, 
lie. 5.2-8. LoTrer rents rule in the north than in tbo south, tAoto 

ldroS“nfft IS greatest and oullmlion more 

advanced. Of the oeoupied hrea 90 par cmt. is held by ryots, and 
prachcally of them have a right of bDoupaaoy, only 15,(iD0 
flOTfis bezuff zteld by nou-ocoupanoy ryots. 

The following tableshows thecolleoHonflof landreTenaoand of 
total revenue, under the principal heads, in thousands of rupees ;— 


- 

' 


1880-81. 

1893-91. 

1900.01. 

1903-01. 

Land rcrenno 

Total tcTonuo 


••• 

1S,C5 

20,22 

12,49 

22,21 

12,70 

25,17 

15,67 

25,21 


Local and Outside the municipoimes of OuavaA, Siwan’ and ItmuoASH 
municipal looal oSairs ore managed hy the District hoard with subor- 
. govern- dinate local hoards at Siwan and Q-op&lganj. As many ns 19 
““t- Europeans, piineipally indigo planters, Wo scats npou the hoard. 
In 1903-0i its income .was Rs. 2,44,000, of which Es. 1,54,000 
was derived from rates, and the expenditure was Bs. 2,43,000, 
including Bs. 1,27,000 spent on oivil works and Its. 42,000 on 
education. The income is derived mainly from the road ccss, 
pi- H The District contains' 10 police stations and 16 out-posts, and 
jaiil? “ the force ot the disposal ci the District Superintendent of Police in 
1903 numbered 4 inspootors, 40 suh-inspoetors, 37 hcad-oonsiablcs 
and 308 constables} the roral poUce wnsistod of 340 rff^A/tfrs and 
3 971 eimkidsri. An inspeotor with a speouu guard is in oharge 
of the BotUements of the rainrinal tribs known as tha AB^aJuya 
Dorns, who in 1901 numbered 1,048. The Distnpt jail at Chanm 
has accommodation for 300 prisoners, and subsidiary jails nt the 

Bdacaaoe. “%“uSSo^\andoriy 3'6 per cent of Uie popdation 
(7-S males and 0-2 females) worobterate m 1901. ff 

Dunila instruction rose from about 18,000 m 1883-24 to 
24,088 in 1892-93 and 23,683 in 1900*01, whUo 23,643 Iwys and 




SABAK DISTBICI. 


77 


1,326 girls -weie <it Bohool in 1903-04, being respectively 16'9 and 
0’69 per cent, of the children of ecliod-going age. The niimher ' 
of educational institutions, public and private, in that year -was 
949, incLuding 20 secondary schools, 087 primary schools and 242 
other special schools. The expenditure un education rTas 
Hb. 1,19,000, d£ -whioh Be. 12,000 was derived from Provincial 
funds, Bs. 41,000 from District fmds, Bs. 3,o00 from municipal 
funds and Rs. 40,000 from fees. 'Ihe schools include 12 night 
schools for lonH fide ugrionlturists and Uay-labourers, and 3 schools 
for Dorns, Ghamais and other depressed castes. 

In 1903 the District contained 12 dispen'arios, of which sreg-c-i 
4 had accommodation lor 135 in-door p.itients; the cases ^ ' 
of 145,000 out-patients and 1,356 in-patients were treated 
and 6,646 operati^ were praformed. The expenditure was 
Bs. 1,54,000, of 'which Bs. 1,000 was met by Government oontribu'- 
tions, Bs. '6,000 each from local and from municipal funds and 
Hs. 1,37,000 from subsoriptionB; these figures include a sum of 
Bs. 1,33,000 Buhsoribed for the Hathwa Victoria Hospital, of 
which Es. 1,24,000 was spent on the huildings. 

Vaeanation is compulsory only in the mu^oipnl towns, out- 

^ l'J03-04 tie nutlet of persons Si 
d S representing 23*2 per thousand 

1877®^^ ?• of Bengal, vol. xi, 

Settlment Beport, Coloutti, 1904.] 

Bul-division of the 

prau Dutriot, Bengal, oodfepying its south-east extremity and 
I^ug betrveen 25'' 39' and 26'^ 14' N., and 84“ 23' and 85“ 12' 

t2 /iteBuh-diviBiouis n fertilo 

tract of noh alluvral soil, enclosed by the Got»ra and GondaW 

l Oag’eaJ 972,718 i/l901, ns%ompared S 

i,wa,t)39 m 1891; the decrease being largely due to eorc™ 

1901. The d® nsity of popuS 
is to the square mile. There are 2 towns flnfiin* i T 
quarters (46,901), end Bevrpoakj (V66), ' 

division consists of 71076° aZvS The sub- 

the river Gandak Its TinTininf bounded on tb© enst by 

vfiih. 634,680 in 1891^ S© 

Dietrich aid siipporTsidySp^st® to 

18 one town, MirgAbj, with 9 898 inlmV+o < 

the head-quarters are at GoViauANj. villages ; 



?8 


BENGAIi. 


Siwan Sub-division.— Central sub division of the Saran Dis- 
triot, Bengal, lying lielwcon 20" 5G' and 26® 22' N., and 8i® 0’ 
and 84® 47' E., nilli an area of 688 square miles. Tlio sub- 
division is an olluvial traof intersected by numerous rivers and 
wnter-ohannels. ’Its population was 801,744 in 1001 as compared 
vvitb 800,738 in 1891. 'Bhis is tbe most densely populated part of 
the Distiiot, and supports 957 persons to tlio square mile. There 
is one town, Siwas, tho bead-quarters (population 16,756;, and 
1,528 viUoges. 

Hatbwa Raj. — ^Estate, situated for the most part in a compact 
block in tho north-west of the Saran District, Bengal, but also 
comprising property in tbo Obauipuran, Muzalfarpur, SbSliabSd, 
Patna and DaTjocmig Districts of Bengal, and in Gorakbpiwin 
tbe United Piovinoes. It has an area of 6G1 square miles, of 
wbiob 491 square nulcs aro cultivated. Tho population in 1901 
was 684,905. Tbo rent roll (including cesses) amounted m 
1903-04 to 11‘51 lakhs, and tbo lend revenue and cesses to 
2'56 lakhs. 

The Hntbwa Raj famil 3 r is regained as ono of tbe oldest of 
tbo aristocratio houses in Bihar and is said to liavo been solllcd in 
Saran for more than a hundred generations. Tbo family is of the 
caste of Ga atamn Bsbhnns or Bhuinb ar, to wbiob the MnbBifijfis 
of Benares, ’’Bottiati, nnd Tekfin belong. Tho authonlio history 
of Daj Iluscpur or Ilatbwa commences with tbo time of 
MabBiaja Fntob Sabi, When tho East India Company obfaiuod 
tbe of Bengal, BibBr nnd Orissa in 17C6, Fntcb SBbi not 
only refused to pay revenue but resished the Company’s troops who' 
were sent against him, and was with dillicnlty c:q>ollcd from 
Hueepur. Ho retired to a largo tract of forest between Gorakh- 
pur nnd Saron, wbeneo bo frequently invaded tho British loiri- 
tories, and gave constant trouble until 1770, For some years tlio 
estate remamed under the direct management of Government, but 
in 1791 Lord Cornwallis restored it to Chhntnrdhari S.ihi, a ginnd- 
nophew of Fntob tjalii. Tbo title of “Jlahuruja Bahadur’^ wn.s 
confeiTed on h^ in 1837, Fateh Sahi having died in tho ititeiim. 
During tbo Mutiny tbo Maharaja diqjlnycd conspicuous loj'altj' and 
was reworded by the gift of some confiscated villngas in Kliababfid 
District which yielded a gross rental of Bs. 20,000 per nTmura. 
MohSrBja Chhalnrdlinri Sfilii liahiidur died in 1858 nnd ■was 
succeeded his great grandson, Maharaja Esjondra Pratfip Sslii, 
who held tho estate until his death in 1896, when tho Court of 
"Wards took possession on behalf of his ininor son. In 1868 the 
Privy Council hold that tho estate is an impartible Ilfy' dcseend- 
ing to the eldest sou. At Hathwa, 12 miles north of Siwitu, 
etan^b tho Maharaja’s palace, a splendid modern building ■with 
ono of tbo most magnificent dariar balls in India. Tho Mshttraul 
has recently built n handsome hospital, named the "Victoria 



sAii.v>' PisrniRr. 


79 


IIospM.” A model nsricwlluial and caltle-lrcwling fnnn has 

To^.— of S-'™" Bengal. 

fimaU’d in 21“ -17' IT. and S1‘' 44' K. on tbo nortli w left bank 
of the liror Gogm, close to its junction vrilb tijc Gangw. In 
IPOl tlic ropulntion uw 45,901, cr ncnr]3* 12,000 le.-s tlmu in 
1631, the deercafo being nininlj’ due to n temporary' cxodu« of Ibe 
population wbich took pluco in consequence of on oulbn’ak of 
pl/iguc just before Ibc ccnsiiE. Of tbo poi>ulntiou ill,9{»2 ate 
Hindus ond 10.934 ifitKilm&ns. Tlio Gogra formerly flon-e^l clo-o 
by tbo town, but it bus sliifted its conrro a inilo to tbo foiith; tbo 
river uinudated tbo town in 1871 and ogam in 1890. 

At tbo end of ibe ISlh century tbo French, Btilcb, Por- 
lugucfo and Englieb liod fatdoiico at Cbtpni. but n fevtTO blow 
was dealt to the comnioroiol prosperity of the place when it w'lu? 
deserted, first ly tbo Gauges mid later by tbo Gogra ; tbo milwnj' 
liowcvcr now nflordB now facilities for Irndo, 'Iho ]irinoip.'il 
imports are rice, kerosene oil, gunny bags. Indian and KnrojHMii 
cotton piece-goods and twist and salt, and tbo exports fidtpetre, 
opium, lin$c<3, ffiir (mola'^ws) and sbellno. Cbfipra is ibc lu-ad- - 
quorlcrs of a troop of tbo Bilmr Ligbt IJorse and of a detacbment 
of the Bengid and Norlb-Wc-tcni llailway Vcbmlccrs. 

'llio town ban in recent years sulTcrcd severely from plague, 
wbicbmado its first appearance iu March 19U9. It di^npjveniiMl 
at the end of May, but again broke out in epidemic fonn later in 
tbo year, and daring tbo months of Oolober 1900 to Iklnreb 1901 
1,5184 deatbs were repmttd. A serious panio ensued, trade was 
dislocated, mid tbousmids of people Iclt the town. In 1002 a less 
serious outbreak oocurrcsl, and ngam during tbo winter of 1902 03 
there was another x'cry novorc cnidonuo, 2,138 Ueutbs being 
recorded belwocn 'November and 3*''ebiunry’. 

Cbupra was constiluled a municipality in IROl. The average 
income for the decade ending in 1001.02 was Ba, 44,000, and the 
expendituro 11s. 41,000. In 1903-04 its incomo wtw Us. 59,000, 
including Its. 30,000 derived from a lax on lioupcs and lauds, and 
the expenditure was Its. 50,000. The main drains are lUnlii'd and 
some of tbo public tanks tilled by the Hood water of the Gogra, 
which is admitted through tbo S."ibibgan j sluice. A lino s-irai is 
under tbo management ol the municipal commisbionors, wlio aUo 
own two municjjial maikelH and a dispensarj-. Tbo District jail 
has aeoommodalmn for 305 prisoners, and a largo buildiu" is 
occupied by the Oovemmont Englisb sobool ; there are al°o 2 
private liigb soliools. Ubnpra is ibo liend-quarto« of tbo Qormnn 
Evangelical Lutheran Mis-ion, and a Homan OallioUc mission has 
recently been started. 

. Gopalganj yillage.--IIcad-quuricrB of ibo sub-division of Ibii 
tamo name in the baraii District, Bengal, situated in 29^ 28' N. 



25U 


S£KdAL, 


and 84® 27' B. Population {1901) 1,614. The station oontaina 
the usual puhlio offices; the suh-jail has acconunodation for 18 
prisonei'S.^ 

Maharajganj.— Village in the SiivSn snh-division of Sarau 
District, Bengol, situated in 26® 7' N. and 84® 30' E. Population 
(1901) 3,300. It is an important trade centre with a large 
export of grain, sngar and spices and an import of salt and 
English piece-goods. 

— Town in the Qopalganj shb-division of Sflran 
Dishdot, Bengal, situated in 26“ 25' N. and 84® 20' E. Popula- 
tion (1901) 9,698. It is a largo trading centre. 

Iwvel^ilj (or Oodna ). — ^Town in the head-quarters suh-diri- 
sion of the tiaran District, Bengal, situated in 25° 47' N. and 
84° 39' B. on the loft hank of the Gogfa river. Population ' 
(1901) 9,765. The town is named after Mr. Povell, who was 
Oollootor of Government Onstoms in 1788. It was fomerl^ a 
very important trade centre, hut the railway has rohhed it of 
much of its business. Eevelganj -vvas constituted a municipality 
in 1876. The average income and expenditure for the decade 
in 1901-02 was Es. 9,000 each. In 1903-04 the income 
was Its. 11,000, derived mainly from tolls and a tax on houses 
and lands, and the expenditure was Es. 8,000. 

Siwan Town (or Aliganj «Sfe»fd«).-Head-qunTtor8 of Iho 
snh-division of tho same name in the SSran Distiiot, Bengal, 
situated in 26° 13' N. and 84® 21' E. Population (1901) 15,756. 
Superior pottery is manufactured here. Siwan was conshtaited a 
municipality in 1869. The average income foriho decade ending 
in 1901-02 was Es. 0,60o, and tho expenditure Es. 8,500. in 
1903-04 the income was Es. 11,000, mainly denved from a 
tax on persons (or property tax;, and the expenditure amomtod 
to the same sum. Tho town oontains the usual puhlio offices; 
tho suWail has ocoommodation for 32 pruonora. 

Sonunr ^Village in the head-quarters suh-dinsion of Baron 

Dislriel Bengal, -eiluoted in 25® 42' E. and 85 12 ™ 

richt hani of tho Gandok, dose to its confluence wilh the 
G^nJes PoOTlation (1901) 3,855. It is an important station 
^^^e'semml and North-Western Enilway, whioh^sscs the 
Gandnk bv a fine bridge connecting Sonpur with Hajipur on 
the left ^uk. I'hero are roilway wwkdiops which 

^dia. It w® s 1 alligator, and it wws hero that • 

tho dephimt Tanaknur to win Site, built a temple 

Japta. i toWl. tJr . teWgW. b«‘ » •> ■« Wk to 



onAMTAnAS msTmcT. 


81 


2 dajB 'bcfora and after tlio ftdl moon, n'hon Hindus bntbo in 
Ganges and thns nequiro except tonal merit. Ihnncnso numbers 
assemble, and goods and nnunnis. cspcciollj clophanfs, borscs 
and cattle, iiro exposed for s-slc. A catllo sbotr is held at the fair, 
n’hich is the lftrgc.«t elephant market in India. In days gono by 
tho Sonpar toco meeting was one of tho most famous on tliis 
side of Indin, but many causes bavo combined to rob Uio meeting 
of its former glories. It is still, howoror, ono of tho plctisantcst 
picnic galLcrings in India for Europeans, who meet and down 
in camp under tho shade of a mnguifleent mango groro and 
nmnso tiicms-lvcs uith races, dances, polo, tennis ond virits to tho 
fair, wliieh presents Lidinu life under many interesting aspects. 

Champiiran Ifihitmpnk-arani/a, tho forest of ehnmpnk or MiefitUa ^tound- 
ehampaen ). — District of Ibo Palnn Dirision, Bengal, oeonpj'ing tbo 
north-west comer of Btliftr, Ijdng between 20® 10' and 27" 81' N., tion.^nnd" 
and 88® 50' and 85® 18' E.. with an area of 3,531 sqnaro miles. *nd 
'llie District extends along tho left bank of tho Gaxdak for'*”' 

100 miles, haring a breadth of 20 miles nt tho northern, and 
40 miles nt tho sonthoin, extremity. Tho nortliorn boundary 
marclics with NopSl; on the west tho Gamink siqiarntos it from 
the Goroklipur Dlstriot in tho United rrovinecs, and from tho 
Bengal District of Siir.an ; whflo on tho cast and south it is 
bounded by Muratlatpur, from which it is diiuded on the east by 
tho Bftgbmnti river. Tho Kep.’ll frontier, where not natmmlly 
fomic-d by rivers, is marked by ditches and masoui^' pillars, and 
for n cousidcinhle disiaiico mns olong the crc't of ilio Someswar 
range. At ono point tho DL«tricl eros’cs tho Gnndnk and includes 
n largo tract ol alluvial land which tho river has thrown up on 
its right hank. 

Outliers of tho ninidkyns oxtend for 15 miles into tho 
nllnvial plain which occupies tho rest of tho District. Tho 
Sumeswar range, which ciilmiuntes in n hill of tho same namo 
2,884 feet nboYo seadcvol, in generally clotliod iritb lino trees, 
though in places it rises in boro and inaoeessihlo crags. At 
its cOfitom o.vlrcnuty tho Kudi river iiiorecs it and forms tlio 
pass leading into Deoglifd in Nep.M, flirough which a British 
force successfully marched in 1815. Tho ascent of Someswar 
hill lies up Iho bod of tho Jiiri Pan! river amid romantic 
scenery. Tho snmniit overlooks tho hrnurl volloy in Hopfil, 
and commands nn unequalled view of Everest, and of tho groat 
snow peaks of Dliaulfigiri, Gosainnlliftn and Uniapumil, A Dun- 
galow has been built near the top of tbo hill. Tho othor principal 
pas-es aro iho Somoswnr, Knnan, and Hnrliii. South of tlio 
nom''swnr miigo tlio Diin hilU stroloh ncro'H tho District. To 
tho nmlh ertond forests, in which iho flnest limber has long 
been cut, and greot expanses of well-watered grass prairio, whioli 
afford pasturage to enormous herds of oattlo. 

Q 



82 


DiaiOAL. 


Geology. 


Botany, 


Fauna, 


The District is divided by the Burh! (old) Gtindak into two 
tracts of difioicnt chniactoiisticB. To the north is old alluvium, 
whore the soil is mainly hard day suitable for winter rice. The 
EOilthom tract is recent oUavium, deposited during the oscillations 
of the Gandnk, a lighter soil which grows millots, pulses, cereals 
and oUsoeds. The Bnrhi Oandak, vonoudy known ns riio Hsihfi, 
the Sikrana, and the lldasan, rises in the western extremity of the 
Someswar range, and is navigable ns far ns Sngauli by bonis of 7 
to ID tons bui'don, though it is fordahlo during the dry weather, 
like the Gandak, the Burhi Gandak beoomes a torent in tlie rains. 
The Bhghmati is navigable by boats of 15 to 18 tons burden, and 
has a very rapid ouiront. In the rains it rises rapidly and over* 
flows its banks, somotimes causing great devastation. This river 
bos often changed its course, and the soil is very light andirinhlo 
oloug its hanks. Through the centre of the Distriot runs a obain 
of 48 lakes, which evidently marks an old bed of the Groat Gandak. 

The surface is for the most part covered by alluvium, hut 
the Sumeswar and Dun hills possess the charaotoristio features 
of tho lower Himfilayan slopes. They consist of gneiss of the well 
foliated type, passing into mica sch^t, whilo suumotamoiphio or 
transition rooks, and sandstonos, conglomerates and days, rofor- 
ablo to tho upper tertiary period, are largely ropresoutod. 

The belt of forest along tho northern boruor of tho District 
contoins s8l {Shorm robiisla), smii [Dalbergia sissoo) and t8n 
(Cedrela ioona) ; tho cotton fareo {fiombax mikbaiimn), Imum 
(Belikic/iera trljugi) and khnir (Acacia ca(ecbu) nte also common. 
Bamboos thrivo in the moist (arai tract; sabai grass (Isclmnum 
angustifolmn) and tho narkat reed (Amjihadomx fatcala) nro also 
valuable produots, and oxionsivo thiokots of tamarisk lino tho 
Gandak livor. In tho south oultivation is olosci, and tho mops 
leave room for little besides weeds, grasses and sedges, ehiefly 
species of Panicum and Oypevus, though on patches of wosto 
land thickets of sissfi very rapidly appear. The sluggish streams 
and lakes are filled with water WG(^e, tho sides being often hinged 
by reedy grasses, bulrushes and tamarisk. Near villages, small 
BUiuhb^es may bo found containing mango, sissfl, Eugenia, jambo- 
laiia, various species of Ficus, an occasional tamarind, and n few 
other semi-spontaneous and more or less useful species. Both tho 
palmyra (Borassus Jlabell{formh) and date-palm (Pkanit sykestris) 
occur planted and at times self-sown, but neither in groat 
abundance. 

Tigers and leopards ore found in the jungle to tho extreme 
north, and bears oro oocasionnlly mot with among tho lower 
hill ranges in tho same traot. Filjai (Boschphus tragocamelui) 
oro fairly distributed over tho whole District, while sSmbar 
(Cercus ttnkohr), spotted door (Oet cus axts), barldug door (Ccrvulus 
munijac) and antelope (Anlcloiv cercicapro) arc found in the hills 



OHAUFARAK DISTttlCH. 


as 


and jungle to the north, and hog deer (Oervta poKintis) in the 
diSraa of the Gandak. Wild hog are common thronghout the 
District. * • 

The mean temperature for the year is 76° ; the mean maxi- Glim&ta 
mnm rises to 97° in April and May, and the mea? minimnni ™4tore." 
drops te 47° in Decemher and January. The mean humidity 
for the year is 83 per cent., and ranges mm 68 in April to 92 per 
cent, in January. Bainfall is henry in the submontane tract. 

The arerage annual fall is 55 indhes, including 2‘7 inches 
in May, 10*2 in June, 13*8 in July, 18*2 in August, 9*6 in 
Septenmer, and 8*3 in October; less than one inch falls in 
each of the other months. Owing to the progress made in 
clearing the fores^, and the extension of enltivation in the north 
of the District, the rainfall is decreasing, while the extremes of 
temperature are becoming more marked, and the mean tempera- 
ture is rising-^ 

The Dis&ict, .which was formerly subject to destructiye Spods Fioodi. 
from the Gandak and Baghmati, has been protected from the 
former rirei' by a Goremment embankment ; only a small area near 
the Burhi Gandak and Bfighmati rivers is now liable to inundation. 

Xiocal traditions, archisological remains, and the mins of old- Hiatoiy. 
world cities point to a prehrstcrio, post. Ohamp&ran was, in 
early Hindu times, a dense primeval forest, in whose solitudes 
Br&bman hermits stodied the Aranyahta, which, os their name 
implies,^ were to be read in ^Ivan retreats. Thus the sage 
Yslmlki, in whose herinitage Sita is said to have taken refuge, 
is alleged to have iresidpd near the village of Sangrampur, so 
named from the famo^ fight which took place there between 
B^a and his EonB,~Lava and Kusa, and the names of the tappas 
or revenue sub-divisions are, with few exceptions, connected with 
^indu sages. The District was included in the kingdom of 
Mithila, which may have been a neat seat of Sanskrit learning 
as early'as lOOO B.O. To this period General Cunningham assigns 
the three rows of huge conical mounds at Laurita ILuinANaARH, 
and there are interesting ruins at Araraj and Besasita, while 
a fine specimen of an Asoka pillar stands ‘ at Lauriyfi, and 
another Asoka pillar lies prone at Pipariyfi. After the decay 
of Buddhism a powerful Hindu dynasty seems to have ruled 
from 1097 to 1822, at Bimracm, in Nep&l, where extensive 
remains still exist. It waFfounSed by Nftnya Deva, who was 
followed by six of his line; the last was conquered by Haii Singh 
Deo, who had been driven out of Ajodbya by the Muhammadans. 

His dynasty preserved its independence for more than a century 
later than South Bih&r, which was conquered by Muhammod-i- 
Bakhtyar Ehilji in 1197. ■ 

In 1766 the District passed, with the rest of Bengal, under 
the administration of the East India 'Company. ‘ It was treated 

o 2 



84 


bekoai,. 


The 

people. 


03 port of the neigWbotiring Distriot of Saran until 1860, In 
recent times the only event of importance was the 3J!utiny of the 
small garrison at Sagattli in 1857. 

The recorded population of the present area increased from 
1,440,815 in 1872 to 1,721,008 in 1881 ond to 1,859,405 in 
1891, hut fell to 1,790,403 in 1901. Tho first 7 yflara of 
the last decade wore lean years, and they oulminatod in the 
famine^ of 1897 ; no deaths ooourred from, starvation, hut the 
feonndiiy of the people Tvas diminished. Outhreaks of cholora 
were frequent during the decade, and fever was also very pro- 
valent. Immigration received a sovoro cheek, and not only did’ 
new settlers cease to arrive, hut many of the old immigrants 
returned to their homes. The climate of Ghamparon is the worst 
in Sih&r, especially in the submontane tract of the Bagaha and 
Shikmpur thanas, ^ In the whole Sistriot malarial fevers and 
cholera are the principal diseases. Goitre is prevalent in tho 
neighbourhood ot the Ghanchawat and Dhanauti rivers; and 
the proportion of deaf-mutes (2*75 per millo among moles) 
esceeds mat of ony other Bengal Bistrict. 

The prinripal statistics of the census of 1901 are reproduced 
below ; — 



Area In 
square 
miles. 

WijMBBB or 

Popnlatlen. 

Popular 
tfon per 

ftquuro 

ni\«4 

Perc0ntfu;r0< 
of v&rHtlou 
In popnia- 
tion biHirren 
1691 and 
mi. 

Xnmbcr 
of |i«t. 
sons sbltl 
to md 
and 
write. 

^Totrns. 

VJI- 

lascs. 

XIotlliSri ... ... 

ilettiah ... 

niersicrr totax 

i.0za 

2,018 

1 

1 

l.SM 

I,3in 

l,otn,«iD 

74II.8C1 

cso 

573 

-3-4 

—1-3 

S0.3J5 

13,931 

s,Bsr 

2 

2,ei3 

1,790,403 

B07 

—3-/ j 40,400 1 


The population is sparse in comparison with tho nGighbouring 
Bistriofs, tho density being only 607 persons to tho sQuai*o milo as 
oompaxed with 901 in S&ron and 908 in Mnzaifarpur. Tho most 
thickly populated th&nas are Madlmban (810), Bhfiko ( 771 ) and 
AdSpur (749) in tho east of the District, where the conditions nro 
shnilm to those in Muzafifarpur, but in tho nortli-westom thSnns of 
Bhikarpur and Bagahd, whore cultivation is yet rindcveloped and 
malaria is very prevalent, there arc only 270 and 301 persons 
respectively to tho square milo. Tho pojTnlalion is almost 
mitoely niral, tho only towns being Bettxah (24,696) and 
MorinAni, tho head-quarters. Immigration to tlm half-rcclaimod 
country in the north of tho District formerly took place on a largo 
scale from Gorakhpur, Saran and iTuralTaipur, and from JNonfil, 
Tho language spoken is the IBhojpuri dialoot of Bili&ri, but 
Muhammadans and Kajasths mostly talk Awadhi, and the Th&nis 
have a dihleot of their own, .which is a mixluro of Maithili and 




ClIAMrABAN DISTRICT. 


86 


Bliojpnrl known ns^Madeai. Tho ckaracter officially and general^ 
nscd isKaithi. Hindus number 1,623,949, or 85 per cent, of tbo 
population,, and Tdubammudana 264,086 or nearly 15 per cent. ; 
the latter aro considerably more numerous in Gbamporan than 
in any otbor Bibfir District orcept Pnrneo. 

Tho most numerous castes are Abirs or herdsmen (189,000) ^tcir. 
and Cbnmars or leatber-drcssora (125,000). There are 85,000 
Brahmans, many of them imported by (ho Bottiah Baj, T'OjOOO tioni*' 
Bajputs and 52,000 Bilbhana. Koiris (84,000) and Bhrmis 
(99,000) are tho best cultiTatoTa,B^Syasths (29,000) ore the literaiy 
~casto, and hToniss (55 000;, the hereditary manufacturers of 
aaltpotrc, make the best labourers. Among tho aboriginal popula- 
tion aro inclndcd tho TliRrus (27,000), who ore almost entirely 
confined to tho two frontier thfinos of ShikRrpur and BagahS. 

These people live in scaltorcd soitlemcnts in the malarious tnrni 
along tho foot of the IlimRlnyas, from tho Kosi riTcr in Purnoa 
almost as far ns tho Ganges. Originally of nomadio habits, they 
appear to have settled down as honest and industrious oulti- 
rators, utilizing tho vrator of tho hill stroa^ to inigato their 
scanty patches of rice cnltiration. Their religion is a veneer 
of Hinduism over Animism. A gipsj' branch of the Magahiya 
Eub-costo of Doms has ncqniiod an reputation in OhampR- 
ran, ns they are InvetoTuto thieves nnd uottso-brcakcis, using 
knives and clubs to defend ibomsolvos wbon interfered with. 

Since 1882 attempts have been mode to reclaim them, nnd they 
have boon collected' in two Boltlomcnts where they have boon 
provided with land for cultivation. Among llio hluhammadons, 
tho JolfihRs (74,000) and Shaihlis (72,000) ore tbo most numerous 
communities. Of 205 Europans most arc engaged in tho indigo 
industry. Of tho populntinn SO per cent, ate dependent upon 
agriculture, and 0 per cent, on industrial avocations ; 8 per cent, 
aro dossed as general labourers, while loss than one per cent, 
ore engaged in commerce. 

Christians number 2,417, including 2,180 native converts ; Chriiiiw 
they ore nearly oU Roman Catholics and are to bo found in the 
Bettiab sub-division, where two Boman Gatbolio missions orb 
at work, ono of them being a lineal descendant of tbo old LbRsa 
mission, w'hioh, when cjcctod from Tibet, rolxcated first to Nepal 
and afterwards to this District. A Protestant mission, staled 
“ Tho Bogions Beyond hEi&sion”, has been opened nt Motihari. 

North of tho Burhi Gandok hard day soils, locally called OmenU 
bSngar, picdominato these are partioulnrly suitable for rice oulli- 
vatiou, but they require irrigation ; where autumn rice is ^own, it oSiliiioni. 
is followed by spring crops of oilseeds nnd pulses, but if winter 
rice is grorni, there is no second crop. In soiuo parts of this 
northern tract a thin loom is also found, which will not crow rice, 
but bears crops of maize, barley, gram, pubes nnd oilseeds, and m 



86 


BENO/X, 


Chiofaeri* 

cnitaral 

■tiitlatica 

and 

princital 

crops. 


othars, a sandy soil fit only for moize and inferior millets. Sonlh 
of the Bui-hl Qnhdak uplands predominate, except in HiSnn.) 
Kesnriya and Gotindganj, where lioa is grown in the marshes. 
The soil in the uplands is genomll 3 ' a light loam, and bears 
millets, pulses, wheat and harlej', oilseeds and indigo. 

The salient agriculture statistics for 1903-04 are reproduced 
Below, areas being in square miles:— 


SOB-DiriBIOS. 

Total. 

Calttvated. 

CalturaUe 

vraste. 

Irrigatcil. 

lloittiari 

1.5X6 

1,184 

180 

O 

«• 

Bettiab 

2,013 

1,041 

. . «o 

III 

Touz 

a’lBsi ' 

2^5 

6S6 

3 


A oonimioaouB feature is the htrge area of oultnrablo waste 
land, chiefly in the two north-western thanas of Cagohfi and 
Shikhrpuz ; its reolomation is proceeding rapidly, in ^ito of the 
prewalenoe of malaria, which saps the energy of the cultivators. 

Owing to the comparatively sparse population, food crops 
occupy only 83 per cent, of the omtivaM area. Bice is mote 
generally grown than in Mnza&rpnr or SSran, and extends over 
more than half the oulrivated area ’of the Distnot; two-thirds of 
this 'area is oobupied by the winter crop, and the rest by early 
xioe. The extensive cultivation of tho Idtter is remorhablo, 
and in Adapur it actually exceeds the area under winter rice. 
Barley is tho nest food-grain of importanoei and it 'is followed by 
maize, wheat and pulses. The nou-food crops are indigo, oilseeds, 
thatching gross, ^ppy and sugarcane. Indigo is losing grorind 
owing to tho competition of the synthetic dye. As in other ports 
of Bmar, poppy is cultivntod under a s^tom of Govommont 
advances. The total area in 1903-04 was about 60,000 acres and 
the outturn 800 tons. Cowdung and indigo refuse ore used as 
manure 'for speoiarcrops, snob as sugarcane, tobaeob, p^y and 
indiuo. Intuo advantage has been taken of the Jjand Improve- 
ments Act, but in the famirio of 1807 a sum of 2*2 lakhs was 
advohoed under the A^obliurists’ Loans Act otT * j 

• Thero is abundance of pasture in Bsgaha and Shikfirpur, 
wHoh attracts great herds of oo'ttlo from tliosouthem thunos oud 
from adjoining Distriots. Each family owns on the aventgo threo 
hood of cattle. Goats are ' olso numoroM, and there are a few 

Bbeop, horses and pobios, mules and donkeys. Largo cattio fours 

are annually held at Mbdhuban dndBettioh. ... 

Irrigation. Only 2 poT Cent, of tho oult^i-atfri area IS urigated. The 
hill stoams m the north afford focihhes for imgahon ; the 
water is ouried along channels dug parallel with their hods, and 


Cattle. 




CIIAMPARAK DISTRICT. 


87 


in dry years iveirs are tbroRrn across ihem. A oliaunel iros 
(lug in tho fomino of 1S97 along wliidi fho water of the Masfin 
stream is conducted for 20 miles ; it is managed by tho District 
oilicinls. Tho !Madbubnn Canal, wbicb tabes oil from a perma- 
nent dam in the riror Tiar, is a proteoiivo canal 6'2 miles in 
length ; it was constmotud by the Madhiiban zamindar and has 
been bought by Government, but it is not yet fully utilised. 

Tho TriiieaY Ga^al is under construction, and n small canal 
is also being made to carry tho water of tho Lalbcghia river to 
tho south of Db&kn thana. In years of drought theso stroams aro 
often dammod by tho Nopaloso before tboy reach tho District. 

In tbo south iirigation wells ore occasionally dug, but thore is 
a jircjudioo against thorn, as it is supposed that loam soils once 
irrigated loso the capacity to rotam moisture. 

Gold is sometimes washed in minuto quantities from tlio Minernts. 
Qandat river and from tho Ffinohnad, ttoiho, Bhahsa and 
Son aha hill streams in tho north of tho District. Bods of latikai', 
or nodular limostono, arc found in workoblo quontitios ot Araraj, 
and near Lauriyfi, and along tho banks of tho Harbii river in 
Bngab&tbana; it is used lor road motal and for burning into 
lime. Saliferous earth is found in all parts of tho District, and a 
fecial costo, tho Nunius, oom a scanty livolihood by detracting 
saltpotro. Songrfimpnr is tho head-quarters of tho industry. Tho 
outturn in 190a-04 was 30,000 maunds. 

Tho indigenous manufooturos aro confined to tho weaving of Arts and 
conrso cotton cloth, blnnkots and mgs, nnd ijottcry work. _ Sugar- 
refining, which was introduced from tbo neighbouring District of " 
Gorakhpur, ohicQ}’ flourishes in tbo Bottiah sub-division ; it bos 
roccntly boon started nt Siraba factory on a largo scale with 
modem maoliinory. Indigo is tbo most important manufacture 
in tbo Distriot. Colonel Hickey, tho pioneer of indigo onlliva- 
tion in Ohamp5mn, built a inctory at Barn in 1K13. Tho 
liilpur nnd Torkolin concerns were started by Messrs. Moron 
and Company, and in 1840 Colonel Taylor built Sirfiha. Sugp, 
however, was tbo prominent industry until about 1850. A pcominr 
feature of tbo indigo industry in Cbamp&ran is tbo pormonont 
hold which tho Ranters havo on tho land. In 1876 tho 
Bottiah H&j was deeply involvod in debt, and a storling loan 
of nearly 95 lakhs was floated on tbo soourity of pormanrat 
leases of villages which were granted by tbo estate to indira 
planters. Tho result is that, although a boro 6 per cent, of the 
ouUivatcd area is octnolly sown with indigo, tho planters nro in 
tho position of landlords of vo^ nearly half tho District, l^oro 
aro 20 head faotorios with W out-works. liidigo is oithor 
cultivated by tho phmtor through his servants under tho eiVd< 
or homo-farm ^tom, or clso by tenants uudor what is known 
• ns tho system ((tsdwi means n tenant); in oithor ooso 



8S 


BEKaAI.., 


Com- 

asorcd. 


the plant is out nna carted by Ibe planter. -When tie crop is 
gromi by tenants, the planter supplies ithe seed and oeiasionally 
also gives advances to ibe lenant, which ore adjusted at the end 
of the year. The plant when out is fonnonted in masonry 
vats, and oxidised either by heating or by omrents of stoain. 
Tho dye thus precipitated is boiled and dried into cakes. In 
1894, whioh was a bumper season, tho outturn was 19,040 mrts. 
valued at 66*46 lakhs; and in 1903-04 it was 10,300 cute, valued 
at 20'20 lakhs. Not loss than 33,000 labourers are employed 
doily during Ihe manufactunng season. 

Champaran exports indigo, oilseeds, grain and o little sugar, 
and imports salt, piece-goods, kerosene oil, ooal, grain ond tobacco. 
The indigo and oilseeds go to Calontta for shipment oyersoas, and 
the grain is exported to flie nelghhouring BihSr Districts, and to 
the United Provinces. The imports eomo from Calcutta, except 
the groin, which is grofrn in the United Provinces. Tho mate 
trade route to Nopfil lies through Ohomp5ran, and trnffio is 
registered on the frontier. The hulk of the trade passes uirough 
Boxaul, the terminns of the SagauH-Eoxaul hianeh 
Tho railways ora the main arteries of commerce, hut the (rondak 
and tho Bnrhi Gnndnk also carry mnoh trofBc, the mncinnl 
river marts being Qohindganj, Barharwa. MSmut and oopM. 
The other trade centres are Bettiah, MotihSn, OMmpatja, onap- 
kahia, Ramgarwa, EesoriyS end Modhuban. Tho trodors ate 
JTarwaris, Kalwiis and Agraharis, and to a small extent 

Muhammadans, , , i *• 

The Tirhut State Railway was opened to Bolti^ m ^gust 
anciniKb. 1883. It is now known as the Bettiah brmoh of Jmo Bengal 

...d Ediw*v»i Ss 


KnUicaya 



Funima* 


STSirs^xrmrtened^ 

most important aro those wMoh lead fr^ g^trifboShos not 
rflilwAT flud to tho Qondoh nveof. i ^ wkymir ‘BHrlr'cs 
sufficionV funds to fa considorablo. 

are fow m nnmbor, and the ^ suffered severely in 



me V.-.-- population or Jiongm. "iipf afforded being 
District ’xas s^Uly 2g total of 60,Oo5 

insnfficiont, tho m^ahty reach distes was most 

flouls. iihf^urand Adapur, Boliof 

noutelyfolt in U^h scale; nearly ten Infcbs 

operations wore underiakon on imported. 

t4s spent in tho District end 28,000 tens or ^ 

There was on this occasion no mortal y 



cnAMTAHAK BlfrTUlCT. 


89 


IS97 occurred tlio greatest famine of the century, brought about 
by dciicicut and unfaroaiably distributed rainftill in 1891; and 
18:*6, and intensified by cxbraordinnrily liigh prices, consequent 
OU' similar causes operating over n great part of India. The 
onttum of early rice in 1896 \ra 3 very poor and Ihcro \rns an 
almost total failnro of the nrinti» rico orop. Tho most seriously 
affected parts rvero tbo tlinnos of Itiimnagar and Sbik&rpur, 
where both crops failed complotolj'. Belief worls wore started 
in November 1896. Tho Government oxpondilurc amounted to 
nearly 25 lakhs, of which over one-half was spout in wages and a 
quarter in grafuitons reUef, while 3 lalchs was advanced ns 
loans. Tho numl)cr of individuals employed, reckoned in forms 
of ono day, was 18 million or rather moro than in 187-J. 

For adminiitrativQ purposes, tho Distiici is divided into twoDliirifi 
mh-divisions, with head-quarters at Motiiiari and BirrriAH. Tlio «»b-«iivi- 
rovenuo work atllotihari is carried on by tho Collector, assbclc^ 
bv^ 3 Assistant and Deputy Collcciois, and at Bettinh by tbo sub- ' " 
divlsionnl ofliocr and a sub-deputy collector. 

Tbo Disti'iet imd Sos-ions Judge, who is also Jndgo of Muzaf- *"'1 
farpur, is assisted in the disposal of cUil work £ 3 ' 2 Sfunsifs 
stationed at ilotihari. Tbo orinitnnl courts inoludo those of tbo 
Sessions Judge, tho District Mngl«lrato and the Deputy and 
Assistant Magistrates at Mot5h&ri and Bctliah. Bnrglnrv’ and 
rutUo thoflB aro common ; dneoits from Nepal ooensionally make 
raids into tlie Dialriot. 

The earliest settlement was made in 1582 by Todnr hfal, 

Akbar’s finance minister, but (ho area measured was onh' H 8 
tqiiaro miles, as compared with 8,200 square inilc.s now assessed, 
and the revenue fixwl aas only 1’38 InkliB It is notewortlH', 
hon-over, that Todar Mai’s rovenno rate wob ns high ns E. 1-0-0 
per aero, or four times what it is now. Tlio rovenno was altered 
jn 168^ and again in 1760, with tho result that when tho East 
India Company obtained possession of tho District in 1765 it 
Elighlly esceeded 21aklis. Tho rovenno dwindled year by year 
until 1773, avhon it was only 1*39 lakhs, hut in 1791 tho decennial 
sottiement raised it to 3'01 loklis, and two 3 'caT 3 later the Distriot 
was permanently seltlod for 3'8G laklis. Tho Bubsoquont inorcaso 
to 5' 15 laktm was duo to tho resumption, hetwcon 1834 and 1841 
of lands held without payment of revenuo under invalid titlosi 
Tho curront demand in 1903-04 was 5*10 lakljs paj-nblo by 1,247 
estates. Tills gives an incidenco of B. 0-6-G only por cultivated 
acre, and noprcsonls 17 per cent, of tho gross rental oi tho District, 
and only 1-4 por cent, of tho esUmatod value of tho gross agricul- 
tural produce. Tho BnrTiAn Eaj, tho Btimnngnr lUj and tho 
Madhnhan Bsbu owi between them nearly the whole District. 

With tho oxor-ption of 7 estates pajing Its. 810, tho whole Distriot 
u permanently settled, 



90 


BESGAt. 



^ 1 . ®’^®™0“?^y/«ngaieii'ed the position of tho cdtivator, 
and haa done mucL to . protect Jiim in llie pcnoefnl oocupnlion' 
Ills nolding, and from OppreSsivo onhancemont of Ine rent, 
Ihe average sizoof n ^ot’s folding is filO noros, tho largest 
Aol^gs boiM found \n the spaTsely populated tiaols in the 
north-west. Owing to the ahundanoo of waste land, rents are low, 
and the average irate per acre is* only Ks. 2-0-6. Eyots at fired 
Tj 1 average E. 1-2-8, settiod and occupancy ryots 

E. Eld-l, and non'-occupimoy ryots E. 1-12-10. Produce routs 
wr only 4% per cent, 'of the area hdd hy ocoupanoy 
tyotfl, but of the area leased to non-oconpancy and iiedar-TTOla 
22 and 66 per cent, respectively are so held. No fewer tlion 
86 per cent, of tho ryots have a right of occupancy in their 
lands, and they hoW 83 per cent, of fte onltivafed .area. It has 
been held 1^ the civil courts that a ryot in Ohanvp&ran cannot 
transfer his oooopanoy right in a holding without tho conscut 
of tho landlord, rat in point of fact an unusually large number 
of transfers are taking place, and nearly holf the pnrehosors arc 
money-lenders. 

The following table showB the ooUeotione of land rovonno 
nnd'of total revenue, under the principal heads, in thousands of 
rupees:— 


Land tevetine 
Total Torenue 


18S0-81. 

1890.91. 

JDOO-Ol. 

im-oi. 

15,13 

6,80 

6.14 
10,31 ’ 

6,17 

10,84 

6,16 
U(M ; 


lioetJ and Outside the Motihabi and BerruB municipalities .local niTaira 
municipal managed by a Bistriefc board; tbe incomo oi which in 1903-04 
uiMit™' 1;66,000, including Es, 86,000 ’derived from ratos, while 

tho ospondituro was Es. 1,34;000, of winch Es. TliOOO was spool 
on oivu -works and Es. 32,000 on oduoation. 

Police ond The District contains 9 police stations and 14 outposts, and tho 
iaila, force subordinate to the District Supoiinlendcnt of Police in 
lODS-comprisod 2 inspectors, 35 sub-inspectors, 24 hoad-consfablcs, 
323 constables ond 48 town eioiiklddra ; Uio rural poltco oonsisied 
of 136 'daffttdera ond 2,406 chauMddn. 'A small number of chatiku 
dart are organized into a ^eriol frontier patrol with .tho objed 
of provonting tho inroads of bands of robbers from Nopal, Tho 
District jaa at Motihari has accommodation for 356 prisoners, and 
a Bubsi^oiy jaH at Bettiah for 20, 




ciiAMPARAK nisrnicr. 


81- 


Edncfliion is tackwTird in C]iamp&raii, and only 2'3 pfrEanei- 
cent of tlio popnlation {4*5 males and 0‘1 femnlos) could read 
and nrito in 1801. Tho nnmW of pnpils under instruction was 
21,803 in 1892-93 and 19,785 in 1900-01, wliilo 18,C27 boys 
and 807 girls were at scbool in 1903-01, being respectively 14*0 
and 0-5 per cent, of tbo obildrcn of bbool-going a"c. Tbo 
number of educational instilnUoas, piiblio and private, in tl)nt year 
^va3 799, including 11 secondary schools, 693 primarj' schools and 
95 other qiccial schools, 'fbo expenditnro on oducation was 
Bs. 86,000, of Tvliich Rs. 10,000 n-as met from PrOT-incinl innila, 

Rs. 31,000 from Ristiict funds, Rs. 1,800 from municipal funds 
and Rs. 25,000 from fees. Tho odncntionnl institutions inclndo 
a tliird grade ^MrO-irainiug school whoro teacbers nro trained, 
and 10 lower primary sebods for tbo education of aboriginal or 
depressed castes or tribes, 3 being for Mngabiyfi Dorns and tho 
remainder for tho benefit of ‘tbo Tb&rus. 

In 1903 tbo District contained 7 disponisarics, of which 3 McJIriI, 
had accommodation for 68 in-door patients; tho cases of 74,000 
out-patients and 1,028 in-patients wore treated, and 3,662 opera- 
tions Tvero performed. Tho expenditure was Rs. 24,000 and tho 
incomo Its.^ 31,000, of rvhidi Its. 700 was dcrivofl from Govern- 
ment contributions, Rs. 4,000 each from local and from municipal 
funds, and Rs. 17,000 from subscriptions. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in tbo 2 municipal lorms ; VMcinv 
dsowhoro it is very backward, and in 1903-01 only 50,000 
persons or 28*0 per thousand of tho population were successfully 
vaccinated. 


tSirW. W. Hunter, Staliatical Account of Jicngnl^ vol. xiii, 
1877 ; 0, J. Bter-enrou-Mooro, Setllemmt Itcjport, Calcutta, 1000.1 
HotihaTi Sub-division — ^Head-quarters sub-diviBion of Oliam- 
piran District, Bongal, sitonied between 26’ 16' and 27'’ 1' N 
arid 81“ 30' and 85« 18' E., with nn area of 1,518 sounro milos! 
Tho Eub-division consisis of nn alluvial tract travcirod by tho 
Sikrtna river, in -wbioh tho land is lor-ol, fertile and highly 

1,040,589 in 1901, ns compared 
^th 1,099,600 m 180E Tho slight dccrcaso was duo to tho 
farmno of 1807, wliiob sUmnlalcd cmipiution and diminished 
the fecundity of tlio people. There nro G«G perEons to tho snuato 
^ 0 , or liooxly twice M many ns in tlio Reltiah sub-division. 

JLllCiO IS onb tmm. AinmtTAtrT. flm /» 


tho Econo of hn oulbrotik in tho Mutiny. 

Bettiab Subiaiyisioni—Horthom sub-division of Champarou 

“’J 2,013 square miles. 

Tho EOutliem portion of tho Buh-division is n level alluvial 



hekoal. 


plain, tut towards tlio north-west the sarface is more undulating. 
Here a range of low hills extends for about 20 miles, and behvom 
this and tlie Somoswor range, which extends along the whole of the 
northern frontier, lies the uDn valley. Its population wos 740,664: 
in 1901, compart with 759,865 in 1891 ; the slight decrease was 
duo to unhealthiness and a series of lean years oiumiunting in the 
famine of 1897. The density is only 373 persons to the square 
mile, as compared with 507 in the w'hole District. The head- 
quarters ore at Bextiah (population 24,696), and there are 
1,319 villages. Roman Gatholio missions are at work at Bottiah 
and at Chuhari. The latter owes its origin to some missionaries 
who left Italy, in 1707, for Tibet and founded a mission 
at Lhasa. Compdled to leave Tibet in 1713, they settled in 
Nepill under the Newar kings, but when the Gurkhas came 
into power, they had to fly and take refuge at Chnhfiri, where 
some land was granted to them. ^ Many of the present Hook 
are descendants of the original fugitives from Nopal. Interesting 
nrohseologioal remains are found at Laujiiya Nakdakoabh and 
Pipariya The bulk of the sub-division is included in the 
Bettiah Eaj estate, much of wliieh is held by European 
indigo planters on permanent lenses. E&mnngnr, a village 18 
miles north-west of Bettiah, is the residence of the o* 
Eimnngar, whose title was conferred by Aurangzeb in 1676 
and confiimed by the British Government in 1860, Ho owns 
extensivo foiests, which are leosed to a European copitolist. llio 
Tumeki Oanai,, which is under construction, will do much to 
protect this Bub-division from famine, to wbidi it buB alwaya 

heen acutely liable, . • 

Bettiah Eaj.— A great estate of 1,824 Equnro 
the sub-division of the same name, in the Champaron Ditoot, 
Bengal. The property was originnlly acquired in the midto o4 
the ITth centuiy by o successful military ndvraturer, Eoj& Dpa 
Sen Singh, a Babhan or Bbuinlifir. In 1765 Eajfi 1“?“^ 

Sineb who was then in possession of the estate, fell mto onrears 
S rfveMe and reboUed against the British ^vorament. Ho wm 
js t 4 - ^ oTisi flin pfdiftte was taten und® tbo direct monegemont 

to collect the revon-ue failed, and 

il ?771 he wa^’ Sed Cretin, and received the seltlomrat o 
in 1771 3 Simmon, the remnmdor of the Dislnot 

“ftrooSn rdfoming the Shiuhar Eaj. In 1791 

MWomon" of the Sfajhfiwa and Simraou pargatm 
tho dec^ EettleiMn^oi 

fl^Betfa'Sh of Hbhfiraja Bahadur woa 

constitute the Betfaah It | Kishor, in 1830. Tbo estate 

confeired ^ona^emont of tbo Court of Words since 

ffiflr^^^ThXSrevenM an^ cesses duo from tho estate aiuount to 

•! t.nt «d to l.U». 



ClIAJITAHAS BISTRICT. 


93 


A. great portion o£ tlio estate is held on permanent looses by 

European indigo planters. 

ATfl.r5,v .villogo in tho head-qnarlers sub-division of CJnam> 

pfiran' DiEtxiot, Bengal, atnatod in 2G“ 34' N. and 84® 40' E. 
Population (1901) 1,107. About a mile south-wosl of the villogo 
stands a lofty stone pillar, inaoribed with Asoko’s edicts, Jn clear 
and well-preserved letters. Tho pillar is fashioned from a singlo 
block of polished sandstone, and stands 36‘5 feet high with a 
diameter at tho base of 41’8 inches and of 37’ 6 inohcs at 
tho top. _ _ , 

B.gfctialuiTosnt.'— Head-quarters of tho suh-division of tho 
same name, in tho Dibirict of Glmmp&rnti, Bongnl, situated 
in 2G° 4S' N. and 84“ 30' B. on an old bed of tho Hnrha river. 
Population (1901) 24,696, of whom 16,793 wore Iltndiis, 7,690 
Musalmans and 1,302 Christians. Bcttiah wos constituted n 
municipality in 1800. Tho nvorogo income and o.Tpcndituro 
for tho dccado endiug in 1901-02 was Es. 10,000. In 1908-04 
tho iucomo was Be. 23,000, mainly dorivod from a lax on persons 

i or property tax), and the expondituro was Rs. 16,000. A Roman, 
latliolio mission was established about 1740 by Father Joseph 
llar^, an Italian missionary of tho Gapuchiu ordor, who was 
nassmg near Bcttiah on his way to Noprd, wlien hd was summonod 
by RfijA Ehruva Sbnh to attend his daughter, who was dangor- 
ously Ho suocccdod in oaring her, and tho gmtofiil R&jh 
invited him to stay at Bcttiah and garo him n house and somo 
90 acres of land. Bcttiah is tlio licad-quartors of tho BuTriAJi 
Raj, and tho MahfirdjA’s palnco is the most notow'orthy building. 
TLo town contains tho usual public ofliccs ; n Buhsidiary jail has 
accommodation for 26 prisoners. 

Kesatiya.— "Villogo in tho head-quarters suh-divialon of 
Chompiiran District, Bengal, aituated in 26“ 21' N. and 
84“ 63' E. Population (1001) 4,400. Resnriya contains a lofty 
brick mound, 1,400 feet in ciicumfcrcnco, supporting a solid 
tou'cr or tlOjja o£ tho same mnteriol, 02 icot high and 68 foot in 
diameter, which was supposed by Oenernl Cunningham to havo 
been oroctod to commomomto ono of tho acla of Buddha. Tho 
brick tower is eaid to dolo from 200—700 A. D., hut tho 
mound is of an onrlior period, being nsBooiated with tho name 
of Rnja Bon Ohnkraharlb, a traditional emperor of Indio. 

Lanriya Nandangarh.— Village in tlio Bottiah suh-division 
of Chnmporon District, Bengal, situated in 20“ 6'J' N. and 
^ 25' E. Population (190J) 2,062. The village contains 

three rows of lingo conical raoniids, wliioh Gonornl Ounniugham 
beUovcs to bo tho tornbs of early kings, belonging to a period 
antecedent to the rieo of Buddhism, somowhero hotwoen 1500 
and 1600 B. G. Near these mounds stands a lion pillar inseribod 
with Iho edicts of Asoka; it is a singlo block of polished 



94 


bi:koai.. 


Eondstono, 32 foot 9 inolies Mgh, tlio diameter tapering from 86‘5 
inches at the base to 26*2 inohcs at the top. The oapital supports 
a statue of a lion facing the north ; the circular aboous is 
ornamented "with a row of BrShmini geese. The pillar is now 
worshipped as a phallus, and is commonly ]^own us Bhim Singh’s 
/StA or mab. 

Motiiiari Town.— Head-quarters of Ohamp^n District, 
Bengal, situated in 26° 40' N. and 84° 66' ‘ Fopidation 

(1901) 13,780. Motih&ri was constituted a mnnieipolify in 18G0| 
The average income for the decade ending in 1901-02 was 
Rs. 16,000, and the expenditure Bs. 14,000. In 1903-04 the 
income wos Rs 22,000, of which Es 8^000 was derived from a tax 
on houses and lands, nndEs. 3,000 from a municipal market, while 
the expenditure was Es. 17,000. The town is pleasantly situated 
on the east bank of a lake, and contoins the usual public offices, 
a jail and a school. The jail has accommodation' for 360 
prisoners, and the ohief industries carried on are oil pressing! 
efaii weaving, not moking and the manufacture of string 
money-bags. Motihfiri is the head-quarters of a troop of the 
Bihfir Ligut Horse. 

Saganli. — ^Village in the head-quarters sub-division of Oliam- 
pStan District, Bengal, situated in 26° 47' N. and 84° 46' E. 
on the road to Nepal. Population (1901) 6,611. In the Mutiny 
of 1867, the 12& ^ Regiment of Hre^dnr Horse, whioh was 
stationed here, mutinied and massacred the Commandant', Major 
Holmes, his wife and children, and all the Europeans in the 
cantonment. 

Bound- Muzaffarpnr Disfeict.— District in the Patna Division, 
orios Bengal, lying between 25° 29' and 26° 65' N., and 84° 63' and 
S5° 60' E., with an area of 3,035* square miles. It is bounded 
riwr”” on the north by the independent State of Nopfil ; bn the cast by 
•yitoni. ^e Darbhangft District ; on the south by the Ganges, whioh divjdcs 
it from Patna; and on the west by Ohamparan and the river 
Gandak, which separates it from SSran. 

Tho District is an alluvial plain intersected with streams and 
for the most part well watered. It is divided by the Bagh- 
mati and Burhi or Little Ghradak rivers into three distinct tracts. 
Tho country south of the latter is relatively high, but there arc 
slight depressions in places, ospeoially towards tho south-east, 
where there are somo lakes, the largest of which is tho Tal 
Barailil. Tho doaA between tho Little Gandak and tho Bnghmati 
is the lowest portion of tho District, and is liable to frequent 
inundations. Hero too the continual shifting of tho rivers has 
left a largo number of somi-oiroular lakes. I'ho area north of 


• Tho awa chom In tho con*iHi report of 1901 U 3,001 squaro milo*. Tho figuros ;n 
Iho text aro those aiccrtoinod la the recoat surrry oj*oral]oos. 



MUZAFFAnrUR DISTRICT. 


95 


the Bfighmati ruimiiig up to the borders oE Nepal is a low-lj-ing 
marshy plaiu, traversed at intervals by ridges of higher groimd. 
Of the two boundary streams, the G-angrs requires no remark. 
The other, the Great Gakdak, which joins the Ganges opposite 
Patna, has no tributaries in this part of its course ; in fact, the 
drainage sots an-ay from it, and tho country is protected from 
inundation, by artificial embankments. Tho lowest disohargo of 
water into the Ghmgos towards tho end of March amounts to 
10,391 cubic foot per second; tho highest recorded flood volume 
is 266,000 cubic feet per second. Tho rivor is nowhero lordablo; 
it is full of rapids and whirlpools, and is navi^blo with diffioulty. 
Tho principal rivers which intersect tho District nro tho Little 
Gandak, tho Baghmati, tho Lakhandai and tho Baya. Tho 
Little Gandak (also known as Harhn, Bikrann, Burlii Gandak 
or tho M.uzairorpur river), crosses tho boundapr from Champoran 
20 miles north-west of Muzatfarpur and flows in a south-easterly 
direction till it leaves tho District near Pusa, 20 miles to tho 
south-east ; it ultimately falls into tho Gangcs'opposito Monghyr. 
Tho Baghmati, which rises near Elatmandu in NepM, ontors tho 
District 2 miles north of Mnniari Ghat, and ofter flowing'in a 
more or loss irregular southerly course for some 30 miles, strikes 
off in a south-easterly direction olmost parallel to tho Littlo 
Gandak, and cro.°sing tho District, leaves it near Hatha 20 miles 
east of Musaffaipur ; it ultimately joins tho Littlo Gandak abovo 
Buscra in tho Darbhanga District. Being a hill stream and 
flowing on a ridge, it rises very quickly after heavy roins 
and sometimes causes much damage by over-flowing its banks. 
A portion of tho country north of Muzaffarpur is protected 
by tho Turin embankment. In tho drj' senson tho Bfighmati 
is fordable and in some places is not moro than kneo doop. Its 
tributaries nro numerous : — tho Adhwara or liltlo Baghmati, Lai 
Bakya, Bhurongi, Lakhandai, Dbans and Jhim. Both tho 
Baghmati and Littlo Gandak aro very linblo to change their 
courses. Tho liskliandai enters tho District from Nopal near 
Ithnrwa (18 miles north of Bitamnrhi). It is a small stream 
■until it is joined by tho Sautan and Bastad, when it becomes 
important. Flo>ving south it paBse.s through Sitamnrhi, whoro 
it is crossed by a fino bridge, and then continuing in a soutli- 
castcrly direction, joins tho Baghmati 7 or 8 miles south of tho 
Dnrbhnngn-Muzaffarpur rood, which is carried over it by an 
iron-girder bridge. Tho stream rises and falls very quiokli' and 
its jmrront is rapU. Tho Baya issues, out of tho Gnndak'noar 
Bahibgnn] (34 miles north-west of Muzaffnniur) and flows in 
a Eouth-cDricrly direction, leaving tho Dhlriet at Baiitpur 30 
mdes south of MuzatTnritur. Tho head of tho stream is apt to 
Blit up, but IS at present open. Tho Baya is largely fed bv 
dramngo from the ninrsho.? and attains its groalost height when 



BSKOAL. 


Geology. 


Botany. 


Fansa. 


Climate 
anil (oia> 
|>ctalnr<!. 


£!G 

the Gaudak and ilia Ganges are Tiotli in flood; it joins the 
Intteof river, a few miles aoutli of Dolsingh Saroi in Darihanei 
Jjistriot, . - 

Tlio most important of tho minor streams arc the Parana 
Dar Baghmnii {an old bed of the Baghmiiii slrotoliin" fiom 
Mallahi on iho frontior to Bolaupur Gbat, wlioro it joins tho 
-present stream) and the Adhwara. These flow southwards from 
Nepal and arc invalunblo for irrigation in years of drought, when 
numei'oiia dams are thrown across thomj The largest sheet of 
water in the District is the Tal Baraila in the south; its area is 
ahont 110 square miles, and it is the haunt of innumotahlo wild 
duck and other water fowL 

The soil of tho District is old ollurium; beds of kanhar 
or nodular limestone of an inferior quality are occasionally 
found. 

Tho District contains no forests, end except for a few very 
small patches of jnnglo, of which the chief oonslituonis are the red 
cotton tree (Bombai makbarimn), khair {Acacia caforfm) and sit>U 
{Dalbergia simo), with an undergrowth of ouphorhiaceous and 
nrticaceons shichs and tree weeds, and occasional large sirotchca 
of grass land mtorspersed with smaller spots of fiser land, tho 
ground is under doso cultivation, and berides the crops carries only 
a few field weeds. Near villngos small slirubberics may bo found 
oontoiniug mango, desit, JSiigenia Jambolana, various species of 
Ficui, an occasional tamarind, and a few other somi-spontaneons 
and moro or less useful species. The numerous and oslensive 
mango groves form one of the most striking features of the 
Distnot. Both tho ptdmyra {Bora$mJlibclli/oimin) and the date 
palm {Pliceiiu; iglrcBtrk) occur planted and at times solf-sown, 
but neither in great abundance. Tho field and roadside weeds 
indndo various grosses ond sedges, chiefly species of Pamum 
and Cyperm; in waste comers and on railway embankments 
thiokots of siMff, derived both from seeds and rootsuckora, vwy 
rapidly appear, Tho dugghh streams and ponds ore filled with 
water woods, tho rides being often fringed by reedy grosses 
and bulrushes with occasionally tamarisk hudios intermixed. 

The advance of civilization has driven book tho larger onimols 
into tho jungles of NepSl, ond tho District now contains no 
wild beasts except hogs and a few wolves and tilfgai. CrooodilM 
infest Eomo of tho rivers. Snakes abound, the most common 
being the cobra, karait {PiingoniB cai'ulfut) and gohmmn {Fitia 
iripiiiiiant). 

Dry westerly winds are esperionccil in tho hot season, hut Iho 
temperature is not excessive. The mean maximum ranges from 
73“ m January to 97“ in April and May and foils to 74“ in 
December, the tcmpcratuie falling rapidly in November and 
December. The mean minimum varies from 49“ in January to 



innAFfAitFtrR sibibict. 


97 


79“ in. June^ July and An^t. Tho aroraga annual rainfall 
is 46 inches, of which 7*4 inohea fall in Juno, 12*4 in July, 

11*8 in August and 7*6 in Sopiomher ; oyolonio storms nro opt to 
moTo northwards into tho District in tho two last-nnmod months. 
Humi^ty^ at hfuzailarpur is on annvorago G7 por cent, in March, 

66 in April and 76 in May, and rarios from 84 to 91 per cent, 
in other months. 

One of tho marked peouliaiitics of tho rivers and stroams of 
this part of the country is that they flow on lidgos roiecd abovo 
tho suiTotmding country by tho silt which they have brought 
down. MuzafFaipnr District is thus subjeot to sovero and wide* 
spread inundations from their overflow. In 1788 a disastrous 
flood occurred which, it was estimated, damaged ono-flfth of tho 
area sown with winter crops, whilo so many cattlo died of diEcaso 
that tho cultivation of tho remainder was seriously hampoted. 

Tho Great Gandnk, which Vos formerly quite unfettered towards 
tho oast, u.«Gd rogularly to flood tho country along its banks and 
not infrequently su'opt clean across tho snntbcrn half of tho Dis- 
trict. From tho boginning of tho 10th century attompta wen 
mado to ruiso an embankment strong enough to protect the 
country from inundation, but without sucwss, until in tho famine 
of lb74 tho existing embankment was raised, strongihoned and 
extondod, thus effectually checking tho incursions of tho river. 

Tho tract on tho south of tho Bftghniati is also partially 
protected by an embankment first raised in 1810, but tho doib 
between tho Bftglunati and tho Littlo Ghindok is still liablo to 
inundation. Heavy floods occurred in 1796, 1807, 1871, 1883 
and 1898. Another Fcvcro flood visited tho nor'b of tho Dis- 
trict in Angu»t 1902. Tho town of Sltfimnrhi and the doab 
between the Littlo Oandtde and Ibo BAghmnti suffered severely, 
and it was reported that 60 lives were lost, 14,009 houses 
damaged or destrojed, whUo a lorpo numher of c-ittlo wore 
dron-nod. In Bitfimarhi itself 700 houses wore damaged and 
12,000 maunds of grain destroyed, and it was estimated that half 
of tlio maize croii and almost half of tho mariiS crop wore lost. 
Muzaffarpur town, whioh formerly suffered sovoroly from thoso 
flocds, is now protected by nn embankment. Ono of tho most 
disastroos floods 101011 x 1 in tho history of tho Distriot oeourred in 
1906, whoa tho area inundated oomprised a quarter of tho whole 
district, j>.i 760 equoro mflos and over 1,009 villages. Groat 
distress ensued among tho ouUivators, ond relief monsutes wore 
necessitated. 

In onrient times tho north of tho District formed part of^t'ioty. 
tho old Idngdom of hliritiu, wliilo the south eorrespoudod to 
Vaisau, tho capital of which woa prohohly ot BASAnn in thfina 
LMganj, Mitlula passed sueoossively imdor tho Pld ond the 
Ben dynasties and was conquered by Muhammad-x-Bnkhtyat 

H 



08 


fiBKOAZ» 


Arcbieo> 

*ogy. 

*rhe 

p«q|i1e. 


Khil}! in 1203. 'From the middle of the 14th century it ttos 
ruled by a line of Sr&hman hinga until it ’vroe incoi^orated in 
the Mughal empire in 1650. Under the Mughale Hajipur nnd 
Tirhut were eeparate savA'dra, and the town of HAJipun, whidi 
was than a place of strategical importonco owing to its position 
at the confluenoo of tho Ganges and the Gandok, roso to cona * , 
derable prominence and - was tho scene of soverol reholHons. 
j&fter the arauiHition by the Sritish of the diirdni of Bengal, 
Bihar and Orissa in 17<)S> sQbah Bihar was rotained os on 
independent revenae division, and in 1782 Tirhut (including 
Msjipnrl was made into a separate coUeotorate. This was split 
np in 1875 into the two em^ing Uistriots of Muzaffaxpur ond 
DarbhBng&. Baring the Mutiny of 1857 a small number of native 
troops at Miizaffarpur town rose, plundered tho Collector’s house 
and attacked the treasury ond jail, hut were driven off hy tho 
police and decamped towards SiwaxT in Sfiran Disti ict without 
oausing any further disturbance. 

Arohseolooioal interest centres round BASAnn, wbioh has been 
identiEed os mo capital of tho aucient kingdom of Yaisali. 

The population of tho present area inorcnsed from 2,248,752 
in 1872 to 2,683,4(»4 in 1881, to 2,712,857 in 1891 and to 
2,754,790 in 1901. 'I'hG recorded grow'fh between 1872 and 
1881 was due in part to the defects in the census of 1872. 
Tho Distriot is very healthy, except perhaps in the country to tlte 
north of tho Baghmati, w'hich is more marshy than that to tho 
couth of it. Deaf-muiism is prevalent along the course of tho 
Burhl Ghindak and Bfighmati rivors. The salient statistics of 
tho census of 1901 are reproduced below : — 


ErB-x>maio:r. 

Area In 
((inEre 
miles. 

XemsB or 

Popula* 

tlOD, 

Ponul»« 

tioa 

per 

square 

lalte. 

PfiTent- 
ef;o of 
Tarlation 
in papula* 
tleo be* 
tvreen 1891 
and 1001 . 

Kumber 
at ponau 
ablo to 
nad and 
write. 

1 

To Will. 

vniairee. 

BlnrniTarpDr , 

hitSm&rlif 

Hffjlpnr 

J>I5T&1CT 30T1X . 

1,231 

l,ni« 

793 

1 

1 

o 

1,713 

010 

l.-tis 

1,090.P27 

P56,CSS 

718,181 

880 

071 

000 

—s.s 

-f6«7 

48,871 

31,703 

S,03S 

4 

4.1S0 

2,754.790 

too 

*1'5 

t07,BeS 


Tho four towns are MuZAFFAurim, tho head-quarters, Uajipur, 
HiAX^AKJ and SiTAMAnut. MuzaiTa^ur is more densely populated 
than imy other Bistrict in Bengali Tho inhabitants aro very 
ovenly cUstrlbutcd ; in only a small tract to the west docs (ho 
average number per square mile fall b(dow 900, n'liUe in no 
part of the Bistrict does it exceed 1,000. Bvciy tbftna in the 




MOZAFFASTVn DISTMCI. 


99 


^at rico growing tract nortli of tb« BugLmati showed an 
inorcaso of population at tlio last oonsns, whilo OTcr; tliana south 
of that river, except Hfiiipnr on tho cxlromo south, showed 
a decrease. In tho former tract population has been growing 
fte.adil3' since the first census in 1872, and it attracts settlers 
both from Nopal and from tho soutli of tho District. Tho 
progress has liecn greatest in tho Bitilmarhi and Shcohur thilnoa 
which march uith tho Nepal frontier. A dcclino in tho hlnzaffar- 
pur thauu is nttrihuted to its haring suiTcred most from 
cholera epidemics and to tho fact that this Inict supplies tho 
mnfaiit3* of tho persons w'ho cmigrato to Lower Bengal in soaroh 
of work. Tho District ns a whole loses Inrgelj' hy migration, 
especially- to tho metropolitan DislTicis, rumea and North 
Bengal. Tho mnjorit}’ of llicso emigrants arc emplo}-od ns earth* 
workers and ^la/li-hcarers, whilo others are sliopkecpors, domeslio 
servants, constahles, peons, cto. Tho veruneulnr of tho District 
is tho Ifaithili dialect of Bihfiri. Mnsalrafins speak n form of 
Awndhi Hindi known as Shobhoi or Musnlmani. In 1901 Hindus 
numbered 2,4 It*,-} 15 or 87*71 percent, of tho total population, 
and MusnlrnSns 357,611 or 12*26 per cent. 

The most numerous Hindn castes aro Altirs or Goalfis (83-5,00 '), Their 
B5bh.ans (200,000), DosiSdhs (187,>'00), Ilfljpnts (176,000), ICoiris «•!<'* »n4 
(147,000), Chamtirs (130,000) and Kurmis (1*26,000), whilo Briih* 
mans, Dhfinuks, K&ndus, Mall&h«, Nimitis, Tunfls and Tclis 
nil number between 50,000 and 100,0t>0. Of tho Muhammadans 
127,000 nro Shaikhs and 85,000 .Tolftlifts, while Dhunids and 
KunjtAs nro alf>o numerous. Agriculturo supporLs 76*4 per cent, 
of tho population, industries 6*2 per cent., commerce 0-5 per cent, 
and tho prof cs'ions 0*7 percent. 

Christians numher 719, of whom 341 nro natives. Four Chriitian 
Christian missions nro at work in Mnraffarpnr town, tho German Mii»loi.«. 
Evangelical Lutheran ^ficsion, founded in 1840, which maintains 
a primary school for dc'lituto orphans, tho American Methodist 
EpiscoiKil Mis‘'ioiiat3’ Society*, which pos'osses two schools, a 
branch of the Bettiah Itonmii Cntholio Mission and an indopend- 
enl lady inissionary’ ongageil in znnftnri work. 

Tlio tract (mith of tho Intllo Gondak is tho most fertile and aen«r.ii 
richest portion of tlio DIsIrict. Tho low-lying rfodft botween »R'>e"l* 
Littlo unmlnk and tho Baghmati is mainly* prodnotivo 
paddy, though rnii and Ihatloi harvests nro also reaped. Tho 
tract 'to tho north of tho Dughninli coiilnins excellent paddy land, 
and tho staplo crop is winter rice, though good rabi and b/iadoi 
crops arc olso raised in part.s. Tn difforonf parts of tho Distriot 
dilTcrcnt names nro given to tho soil, according to tho proportions 
of sand, elny, iron and ralino matter it contains, llllimatoly all 
con he grouped under four heads— lahundar (randy loam) i^tiijdri 
(clayey soil); linear (lighter than maligdri and containing an 

n2 



Chief 

aericnU 

tnxal 

Btattstin 

and 

principal 

crops. 


300 BCNOAI.. 

admixture of sand); and lastly patches of Haar (containing the Baline 
efiSorescence known as re/i) found scattered over the District. 
To the south of the^Xiittle Qandak balsundar predomuiBtcB, ia tbe 
dodb the soil is chiefly mafiffdri, while nortn of the B&ghmati 
hangar predominates to the east of the Trfil-Tiimdni river and 
niatiySri to the west. Paddy is ohiefiy grown on matiy&ri soil, tut 
it also does well in low-lying hangar lands and the finer vorietUs 
of rice thrive on such lands. Good rabi crops, viz , wheat, harley, 
oats, rahar, pulses, oilseeds and edible roots grow luxuriantly ia 
balsuncCar soil, and to this reason is ascribed the superior forlility 
of the south ot the District. 'JBhadoi orops, espetnally Indian corn 
whioh cannot stand too much moisture, also prosper in ba/ttmdar 
which quiekly absorbs the sux^us water. Indigo does best in 
balsundar, hut bdngar ia also suitable. 

The salient agrioultural statistioa for 1003-0d are given bolon, 
areas being in square miles: — 


Sra-niviBiatr. 

Total. 

CnltirBted. 

Cnltimblo rmaie. 

Mnzatfarpur ... ... 

1.321 

1,026 

70 

Sittiinarm ... ... 

1,016 

897 

4S 

Hajlpor ... 

998 

010 

40 

Torxz 

o.oas 

S,6St 

170 


Xt is estimated (hat l,07d square miles, or 42 per cent, of 
the net cultivated area, are twice cropped. 

The prinoipal food crops ore rice grown on 1,200 square miles, 
of whioh winter rioo covers 1,029 square miles. The greater port 
of the rice is transplanted. Other food grains, including pulses, 
hheadri, china, rahar, kodon^ peas, oafs, matxtri, sdicdtt, kauni, urd, 
tnOngy Janera (Blolem aorghwn\y kurthi {Dolichoa bfflorut,) and other 
minor products, cover 804 square miles. Barley oocupies 403 
square miles, a larger area than m any other Bengal District, makai 
or Indian com, another very important crop, 256 square miles, 
tnarud 129 square miles, wheat 114 squaxo miles and gram 68 
sqiiare miles and miscoUaneons food crops, including alud or 
yams, atiihui and potatoes, are gronm on 122 square nulos. Oil- 
seeds, principally linsoed, aro raised on 86 squaro miles. Other 
important crops are indigo, sugarcane, poppy, tobacoo and thatch- 
ing gross. Muzalfarpur is, mtor Ohampfimn, tho ohiof indigo 
District in Bengal, hut its cultivation hero, ns olsowhoro, is losing 
ground owing to tho competition of tho synthetic dyo. European 
indigo planters^ hare of Into been turning their attention to other 
crops, in particular sugarcane and rfica. Poppy is cultivated, 
as in other parts of Bihar, on, a system of Govorumont advances; 
the total area nnder the crop in 1903-04 was 12,400 acres ond 




KUZArFAncuR DiaiBicr. 


10 L 

the otit(urn 35 tons o£ opium. Gowdung and indigo tofuio are 
used ns manure for special crops, such os sugarcane, tobacco, 
opium and indigo., 

■ Cultinttion is for moro ndraaced in the south than in tho Improve. 
noriL of tho Z>Ist>ict, but up to tho present there appears to bo no “'"** 1 *" 
indication of arty progress or improTcmont in the method of tumi” ' 
ciiltiTnlion except in tho neighbourhood of indigo factories. Orer praetteo. 
2 liikhs of rupees was advanced under tho Agrioniturisis’ Loans 
Act on tho occasion of tho lost famine, but otbenriso this Act ‘ 
nnd tbo Land Improvcmt'nt Loans Act bavo boon mado little 
use of. 

Tlio District bns always bomo a high reputation for its cattle, 
nnd the East India Company used to got draught hullooks for 
the Ordnniico departmont hero; largo numbers^ of animals nro 
export* d every 3 'ear from tbo Sit&marhi sub-division to all parts of 
North Bihar. It is said that tho breed is deteriorating. In tho 
north, floods militato against success in breeding, and in the District 
as a ^^huIo, though thoro is never an absolute lack of food 
for cnttlo oven in tho driest season, tho waut^f good pastnro 
grounds compels tho cnltivafor to feed his cattlo vary largely 
in his bathan, A largo cattlo fair is hold at Sltdmarhi ovory 
ApriL 

U'ho total area irrigated is 47 square miles, of which 35 irrigstten. 
cqnaro miles ore irrigate from wells, 2 square miles from prirato 
canals, G squoro miles from tanks or Shar$,^ and 9 miles 

from other sources, mainly by damming rivers. Thoro ore no 
Qovemment canals. In tbo north thcro is a considcrablo opening 
for tho pnin nnd Ahar f^stem of irrigation so prevalent in GayS, 
but tho want of on artifidnl wotcr supplj’ is not great enough to 
induco tho people to provide themselves with it. 

Kankar, a nodular limestone of au inferior quality, is found nud iGnmli. 
is used for mol dling roods. Tho Dislriot is rich in saliferous 
earth, nnd u special caste, the Nuniiis, earn a scanty livelihood by 
extracting saltpotrc ; 98,000 maunds of saltpctro wore produced 
in 1903-U4, tho solt educed during tho mnnufocluro being 6,000 
maunds. 

Ooarso cloth, enroots, pottery and mats aro locally mnnnfao* /rt< snd 
tured ; pAlkis, cartwheels and other articles of general nso are jnsnurao. 
mado by caipontcFs in tho south, and rough mflory is made™”’' 
at LHwirpur. But by far tho most imporiont industry is the 
manufacture of indigo. Indigo was a product _of North _Bih&r 
long boforo tho odvont of uio British, but its oultivation by 
European motbods appears to have boon started by Mr. Grand, 
Collector of Tirhnt, in 1782. In 1788 thoro wore 6 Europeana 
in possession of indigo works. In 1703 tho number of factories 
in the District had inoroasod to 9, situated at Daudnur, Sarnhik 
Dholi, Athanh&hpur, Kantai, Idotipur, Doorin and Bhaw&ro. 



102 


BKNOAl, 


Com* 

SMre«. 


In 1860 the Revehne SnrreyoT found 86 factories in 'Tirhut, 
several of which were thfn used for the mnnufaolure of sugar 
and were subsequently converted into indigo onncerns. In 1897 
the Settlement Officer enumerated 23 head factories, with' on 
average of three oufcworlts under each, belonging to the Bihar 
Indigo Planters’ Associotion, besides 9 independent factories. The 
area under indigo bad till then been steadily on the increase, 
reaching in that year 87,258 acres, while that industry was estim* 
ted to employ a daily average of 3.5,000 labourers throughout 
the year. Since then, owing to the oompoiition of arlifioial dye, 
the price of natural indigo has fallen and the area under ouliiTa* 
tion Las rapidly diminished, being estimated in 1003-04 at 48,090 
acres. Though only about 8 per cent, of tbo oultivated area is 
aotually sown with indigo, the planters arain the position of land- 
lords over more than a sixth of the District. They are nltempting 
to meet the fall in prices hy more soientifio methods of onlrivatioa 
and manafaatare, and many ooncerns now combine iho cultivation 
of other crops with iudigo. Indigo is cither f-nltivatcd by . the 
planter through his servants under the or home-farm, s^'stom, 

or else by tenants under what is Icnoim as tbo asSmiieai' system 
(isttwi means a tenant), under the direelion of the factory ser- 
vants ; in either case tiie plant is cut and carted by the planter. 
Under tholatter system, the planter supplies the seed and oeoa- 
sionally also mves advances to fho tenant, which arc ndjnst^ 
at the end of the year. _ The plant, when cut, is ferraonfed in 
masonry vats, and oxidized either by beating or by ouiTcnts of 
steam. The dye thus precipitated is boiled and dried into cakes. 
In 1908-04 tho outturn of mdigo was 11,405 maunds valued at 
16-97 lakhs. 

Tho recent foil in prices has resulted in tho revirol of the 
manufacline of auger. A oompany acquired in 1900-01 (ho well 
known indigo estates of Ottur (Athnr) and Agrial in JlnzatTorpur 
and Siriba in Champaron for the purpose of onUivalinc sugar- 
cane. Cane crushing mills and sugar refining plant of the neat 
modem trae were erected at those pkoes and also at BnrlK^a in 
Sftran. These factories are oopnblo of crusliing 75,000 tons of cane 
in 100 working dap and of refining about 14,000 tons of sugar 
during the remainder of the year. Twelve kuropcans and 600 
to 600 natives a day are employed in the faolones during the 
cone crushing season, and 10 E^peans and many' thousands of 
natives throughoni tho year on the cultivation of tho estates and 
the manufaotme of sugar ; besides -this, the neighbouring plnntem 
contract to grow sugarcane and sell it to tho company. It is 
claimed that tho sugar turned out is of the best quimty ; wd a 
ready sole for it has been found in tbo towns of Nor^em India. . 

The principal exports orb indigo, sngar, oilseeds, saltpoiio, 
hides, ffh}, tobacco, opium ;ond fruit ond vegetables. The main 



MUZAFFAHPUJl SIBTBICT. 


lOS 


imporis are salt, Enropeoa and Indian cotton piece-goods and' 
haidvrare, coal and coke, kerosene oil, cereals, sucLl cs maize, 
millets, eta., rice and other food grains, end indigo seed. Most of 
the esporfs find their Tvay to Calcutta.' The hulk of the traffic 
is now carried by the lailrray, and the old rivor-marts now show 
a tendency to decline, imless they happen to ho sitnated on the line 
of railway, like Me^ar, Bhagwanpur and BAinrGiaA, -which 
are steadily growing in importance. Nepal exports to Muzaffaipur 
food groins, oilse^, tmher, skins of sheep, goats and oattle, * 
and saltpetre, and receives in return sugar, salt, tea, utensils, 
kerosene oil, spices and piece-goods. A consideiahle cart tiaffio 
thus goes on from and to Nepal and between Saron and the north 
of the District. The chief centres of trade ore Muzaffarpnr on 
the Little Gandok (navigable uo. the rains for boats of about 37 
tons^ up to MnzaSarpnr), Hajipur (a railway centre), Lalganj 
(a river wrt on the Great Gandak), Sit&marhi ^ great rice 
mart), Bairagmi and Sarsand (groin morte for the NepSl trade), 

Mehnfir, Saliibganj, Sonbam4. BeI&,.Ma]organ5, Mahuw& and 
Xantoi. The^ trade of the I'istriot is in the hands of Marwaris 
and local Baniya castes. 

The District is served by four distinct branches of the Bengal Raiimya 
and North-Western Railw^. The first, which conneots Simaiia “* ”***• 
Ghat on the Ganges with Bettiah in the Ghampfiran DisGiot, runs 
in a south-easterly direction thror^h Muzaffarpnr District passing 
through the head-quarters town. The second hranch enters the 
Distil at the 6onpnr bridge over the Great Oandak, ^aBses 
through Hajipur, and runs eastwards toXatiharin PumeaDutriot, 
where it joins the Bastem Bengal State Bailway ; it intorseots the 
first hranoh at Banini junction in the Monghyr District. The 
third runs from Hajipur to Muzaffaipur town thus connecting 
the first two branches. The fourth, which leaves the finst mentioned 
hranoh line at Samastipur in Darbhanga District, enters Muzaffarpnr 
Distriot near Xamtaul and passing tmcough Sitlmorhi town has its 
terminus at Bairagnia. Communication with that place is, how- 
ever, at present kept open only during the dry weather months 
by a temporary bridge over the Baghmati about 8 miles away, 
hut the constriiction of a permanent structure is contemplated. 

The District is well provided with roads and especially with 
feeder roads to the railways. Induding SiZ miles of village 
tracks, it contains (1903-04) in all 76 miles of metalled and 1,689 
miles of unmetalled roads, all of which are maintained by the 
Distriot boarA The most important road is that from EE&npur 
through Mnzaffarpur and Sitamarhi towns to SonharsS, a large 
mart on the Nepal frontier. Important roads also connect 
Muzaffarpur town with Darbhanga, Motih&ri and SSran, 11 main 
roads in all radiating from Muzaffarpur. The suh-divisionnl 
head-quartors of Hfijipur and Bittmam are also connected by 



BEMOAL. 


Water 
communt* 
ratione. 


famine. 


lQ.i 

good roads with their polioe th&oas and outposts.. Most of 
the minor rivers are bridged by masonry sfenotures, while the 
larger ones are generally orossw by ferries, of whi^ there ore 
67 in the Distriot. The little Gandok dose to Muzafiaipor 
on the Sitimarhi road is oiossod by a pontoon bridge 660 feet in 
leng& _ 

During the rtuny season when the rivers ore high, a conrider* 
able quantity of traffic is still oairied in country boats along the 
Gandok, Little Gandok and B&gbmati rivers. <63/ (SAorea robutfaj ' 
timber from Nepal is floated down the two latter, and idsoa 
large quantity of oamboos. The Ganges on the south is navigable 
tbroughont the year, and a daily service of steamers plies to and 
from Goalnndo. 

The terrible famine of 1760-70 is suOTosed to have carried 
off a third of the entire population of Bihar. Another great 
famine ooourred in 1866, in which it was estimated that 

200.000 people died throughout Bih&r; this was espedally 
severely felt in the extreme north of the Distriot. Mnzaflarpur - 
again suffered severely in the famine of 1874, whon deGoienoy 
of rain in September 18^ and its oomplote cessation in Octo- 
ber led to a- serioua shortness in the wmter rioo crop. . Belief 
works were opened about the bopiming of 1874. No less than 
one- seventh or the total population was in receipt of relief. 
There was some soaroity in 1876, when no relief aas actually 
required, in 1889, when &e rice crop again foiled end relief was 
given to about 30,000 persons, end in 1891-92, when on tho 
average 5,000 persons daily were' relioved for a period of 19 
weeks. Then came tho famine of 1896-97, the groatost famine 
of tho 19ih oentuiy. On this occasion, owing to bettor com* 
munioations and their improved nmtorial oondition, the pcoplo 
showed unexpected powers of resistance. Throe test works started 
m tho Sltamnrhi sub-divisiou in November 1896 failed to attract 
labour, and it was not till the end of January that distress 
heoame in any sense aoute. Tho number of persons in receipt' 
of relief then rose rapidly till tho end of loay, whon 69, OHO 
persons with 4,000 dependents were on relief works, and 69,000 
more were in receipt of grotuitone relief. Tho number thus 
aided inoroasod to 72,000 in July, hut the number of relief 
workers had meanwhile dedinod, and the famine was over by the 
end of September. Tho total expenditure on relief works was 
6*04 lakhs and on gratuitous relief 4*91 lakhs, in addition to which 
large advances were made under the Agricdtnrlsts’ Loans Act. 
Tho import of rice into tho Distriot during the famine was nearly 

93.000 tons, chiefly Burma rice from Oalontta. Tho whole of tho 
Distriot suiTered severely except the south of thoHajipur sub-divi- 
sion, but tho brunt of the distress was homo by tho Sii&maihi 
sob-division. 



Mur^rrAitPuR oiiTnin'. 


m 


For general adminjalrafiTc purposes tlio District is divided Dwtflet 
into 3 suo'diviEious with hend-qnnrtcrs nt MvzsFFAKrun, Haiifuii rab- 
and SiTAMAinn. The fitnii sub'*rdinate fo tlio District Mngislrato- 
Collector at head-quarters eonsista of a Toint Magistrate, Assistant 
Magistrate and 0 Deputy Magistmte-Colloclors, while the Uniipur 
and Sit&ninrhi mb-dirisions ate each in cliatgo of an Afsistnnt 
MagiEtrate-Coilcctor asristed by n anb deputy collector. The 
Superintending Enjrincer and the lixeculivo Engineer of ibo 
Gandak Division are stationed nt Miutnflarpnr. 

The civQ courts ate those of tlio District and Sessions Judge cwiiatiJ 
(who is also Judge of cbnmpiran), 3 Sub-Judg's and 2 M unci fa 
at MuzalTarpur, and I Munsiff cncli at Slffimarhi and Il'ijipur. 
Criminal courta include those of tho District and Se.^ions ilitdgo 
and District iingistrate, and fhenljovo monlionod Joint, Assistant 
and Depiily Magistrates. When the 1 Hstricl first nn«scd under 
British rule, it was in a rciy lawlc-a state, overrun uy hordes of 
h-mditti and infested hy bands of robbers. This stato of nilairs 
has long ecasod. The pcoplo are, ns a rule, pcncofnl and law- 
abiding, and heinous offoncos end crimes of violence are compara- 
tively rare. 

At tho timo of the decennial settlement in 1700 the total L*»ii 
area of the estates nrscii’-i to land revenuo in Tirbnt was 2, 4"G 
Equnro miles, or 40 per cent, only of its area of (5,313 sqimro 
mile*, and (bo total land revonuo 0’R4 lakhs, wliicb gives an 
incidence of 9 annas per aero; tho demmd for the estates iu 
(he Mnzafiiiirpnr District alone was d’ac lakhs. In 1^22 opera- 
tions were undertaken for tho returaplion of invalid revenne-freo 
grants, the rc*oU of which wa.s to ndd G'77 Inkbs to the rcvcnuc- 
roll of Tirlmt, of which 3’18 lakhs fell to MiizaiTarpur. Owing 
to partitions and resumptions, tho number of C8lntr.s in Tirbnt 
incTcae«l from 1,331 in 1790, of whieb 79J were in Mi.r.affarpur, 
to 6,180 in 1850. Since that date advantage Ims been taken of the 
provisions of the partition lawa to n most remarkable extent, and in 
J9U3.04 tho total number of revenue paying estates had risen to 
no loss than 20,951. a larger number than In any Di«triol in Bengal. 

Of these 20,803, all but 51 wiih a demand of Jls. 18,000 wore 
pormanonlly settled. The total land rovomio domand in tho same 
year wm 978 lakhs. Owing to tho backward state of tho District 
at tho time of tlio permanent settlement tho incidoneo of rovonuo 
is only It, O-iJ-H per oultivated aoro. 

A survey and propnrnfion of recorfl-of-riglits for tho Muzaf- - 
farpur and Ohampftran Disiricta wn,s commenced in 1890-91 and 
sucowsfully completed in 1899-1900, and is imporlant n.9 being 
tbo firrt oporatioD of tho land which wna nndortakon in Bengal for 
entire Distriots which camo under tho permanent noKlomonl, Tho 
nvoiago sico of ryota' holdings m Muzaffarpur was found to 
be L’07 acres, and 82 por oonl, of them troro hold by ooouponoy 



306 


bckoal. 


out one-nftli of the non-ooonpancy lyotBinnd thwe-fifths of tho 
^dor-ryofa pay produce rente. ‘ ' These ere of 3 Idndfl, JaMf 
m the fii-st ease the aotnal produce i) 
proporUons, between the tenant 
and the landlord ; in the second the crop is appraised in the fidd 
tod the hndlord s share paid in cash orlgram, while in the thiri 
me tenant agrees to pay so many maunds of grain per blah, 

classes of lyots is 

Its. 4-0-11. Eyofs holding at fixed rates pay Es. 2-11-11, occu- 
pancy ryots Es 3-12-3, non-oceupancy ryots Bs. 4-9-0, and 
toder-ryofa Es. 4-5-8 per acre. The rent, however, varies not 
only with the oharaoter and situation of the land, hut also aeeord- 
ing to the oaste and position of tho cultivator, a tenant of a 
high caste paying less than one of lower social ranli. Eents are 
higher in the south than in tho north, where the demand for 
land has developed at a comparnfivly recent date. Tho highest 
rents of all ore paid in tho neighbourhood of Hfijipur, where 
P^PPyj tobncoo, potatoes, &o., are grown on land which is never 
lauow and often produces four crops a year. 

The following table shows the oolleotions of land revenue 
tod of total revenue, under the principal heads, in thousand of 
mpeoB 


tend rerenoe 
Totol Tcvenue 


Iioc.ll end Outade the municipalities of MuzarPAUPUn, HAJirun, L.vt,- 
mnnicipal oANj and SiiamaRui, Jooal affairs ore managod by the District 
niout™' board with suhordiuate local hoards in eaoh sub-division. In 
1903-04 its income was Es. 3,31,000, of wbioh Es. 1,83,000 was 
derivod from rates and the espondituro was Es. 3,60,000, tho 
chief item being Es 2,69,000 expended on civil worts. 

PttMic Tho most important puhlio works are the I’irhut embankment 
iroil;>- on the left bank of the groat Gnndak and tho Turk! embankmont 
" on tho -south bank of tho Hfiglunafi. Thfl Ganrlak embankment, 
which runs for 62 miles from the bead of tho Baya river to tho 
coufiaeuce of tho Gandak and Ganges and protects 1,250 square 
miles of country, is maintained by contract. On tho expiry of 
the first contract in 1903 a now contract for its mointenanoo for a 
period of 20 years at a cost of 2 08 lakhs was sanclionod by Gov- 
ernment. I ho Turk! ombankmont, or^inally built in 1810 by tho 
Kantni Indigo Faotory to protect tho lands of .that concern, was 
acquired by Govemmeot aoont 1870. Jt extends from tho 


1BS0.81. 

1890-91 

190D-0]. 

1909-01. 

o.rs 

P,87 

9,77 

9,77 

17,69 

16, M 

21,91 

1 

22,17 




MDZAPrABrUB mSTRlCr. 


107 


Turk! weir 26 miles along the south bank of the Baghmati and 
protects 90 squaie miles of the doSb hotwcon that river and 
the little Gnndak. In 1903-04 Bs. 2,200 was spent on its 
maintenanco. 

The District contains 22 police-stations and 14 outposts, and 
the force subordinate to the District Superintendent of Police 
censists of 3 inspectors, 28 sub-inspectors, 47 head-constables 
and 432 constables ; a rural police force is composed of 233 da flit- 
den and 4,735 chauk}d6rs. A District jail at Muzaffaipur has 
accommodation for 465 prisoners, and subsidiary jails at Ilajipur 
and Sitamarhi for 38. 

The standard of literacy, though higher than elsewhere in Edneation. 
North Bihar, is considerably Mow tho average for Bengal, only 
3‘9 per cent, of the population (7-8 males and 0*3 females) being 
able to rend and nTito in 1901. Tho number of pupils under in- 
- struction, which was 24,000 in 1880-81, fell to 23,378 in 1892-93, 
but increased to 29,759 in 1900-bi, while in 1903-04, 35,084 
boys and 1,843 girls were at school, being respeotivcly 17*7 and 
0*85 per cent, of tho children of school-going a^. The number of 
educational institutions, public and private, in that year was 1,520, 
including one Arts coUego, 20 secondary schools, 1,013 primary 
schools ond 486 other sohools, Tho expenditure on education was 
1*55 lokhs, of which Bs. 11,000 was mot from Provincial funds, 

Bs. 53,0{>0 from District funds, Bs. 3,000 from municipal funds 
and Bs. 57,000 from fees. Tho most important institutions aro 
the Bhuinhiir Brahman college and the Oovoruincnt Distriot 
school at hluziilarpur. 

In 1903 tho District contained 5 dispensaries, of which 8 Helical, 
had accommodation for 62 in-door jiatit-nts. Tho cases of 72,000 
out-patients and 800 in-patients wore} treated, and 4,000 opera, 
tions wore performed. Tho expenditure was Its. 13,000, of which 
Bs. 900 was met by Government contributions, Bs. 5,000 from 
local and Bs. 4,000 from municipal funds, ond Bs. 3,000 from 
sabscriptions. Besidos these, 2 private IldisponsaricB arc main- 
tained, one at Boghi in tho bead-quorters sub-division and tho 
other at Parihar in tho SitamarhiAsnh-division by tho Darhhangd 

Vaccination is compulsory only in municipal nrons. During Vnedn*. 
1903-04 tho number of persons successfully vaccinated was 87 000 
representing 32*6 per thousand of the population, or rather 
less then the general ratio for Bengol. 

'[L. S. 8. O'Malley, Diitriet Gazetteer, Calcutta, 1907 * 0. J 
Stevenson-lfooro, Settlement Report, Coloutta, 1900.] ’ 

MuzafiFarpM Sub-division.— Head-quarters Bub-division of tho 

Muzoffarpur District, Bengal, lying between 25® 54' and 26° 28' N 
“d84® S3'and8{?45' K vrith an orca of 1,221 sqnaro miles! 
iho Bub-diviBxon is on alluvial trpot bounded on tho 'wost by 



108 


BENGAL. 


the Great Qandat and interseoled by the Bfighmnti and laUU 
Gandalt flowing in a eouth-eosterly direction. Its popdation was 
1,050,027 in laOl, oampared with 1,074,382 in 1891, the density 
being 860 persons to the square mile. The slight decline in the 
population is partly duo to the Muzaffarpur thSno haTing 
Bulfered from cholera epidemics, and partly to Ihe fact that it 
supplies a large number of emigrant labourers to Lower nongal. 
Moreover the deah between the Baghmati and the Little Gandak 
is liable to frequent inundations. The suh-division coiitnins ono 
town, Mdzaffabfur, its head-quarters (population d5|(iI7V and 
1,712 villages. ^ . ■ 

Sitamarhi Sub-division.— Northern sub-division of tho Muzaf- 
farour Uistriot, Bengal, lying between 26° 16' and 20° S.l' N., and. 
85‘^H' and 85° 60' IS., with an area of 1,016 square miles. Tho 
sub-division is a low-lying alluvial plain, traversed ot intervals by 
ridges of dgher ground. Its population rose from 924,396 in 1891 
to 986,682 in J90J, when there wore 971 persons to the sqnnro . 
mile. In spite of the fact that it is partioularly liable to crop 
failures and bore the brunt of the famine of 1896-97, this is tho 
most progressive part of the iJistiiot and has been growing steadily 
since the first census in 1872 ; it nttracls settlors bolh from Nopal 
and from the south of tho f )iBtriot. The sub-division contains one 
town, SrTAMAKHi, its hood- quarters (population 9,688), and- 996 
villages. Bairagkia, the terminus of a branch of the Bengal 
and North-Western Hailway, is an importont market for tho 
frontier trade with Nepal. The sub-division is noted for its breed 
of cattle, end on important fair is held annually ot Sitamarhi in 


Maroh-April. , „ , 

Hs.jlpur Sub-divisioii.— Southern sub-dinsion of Iho Muzaf- 
farpnr Ilistriot, Bengal, lying between 26° 29' and 26° 1' N., nnd 
85'^4' and 85° 39' E., with an area |of .798 square miles. The 
suh-division is an alluvial tract, fertae and M’ghly oullivated, 
oontaining a number of ewampy depressions in the sontlMast. Its 
population rose from 714,079 in 1891, to 718,181 m 1901, when 
aere were 900 persons to the square pde. It contains 2 towns, 
Hajipor, its head-quarters (population 21,^8), and Laioaw 
01,602), and 1,412 villages. The chief tadmg centres am 
H&iipur at the confluence of tho Gandnk wiih the and 

SgLj on the Gandak. Ba^Rnjs of inteesUs thoprotoblo 
of ttio mpital of the ancient kingdom 

fiW conspicuously in the history of botwoon 

.fiibar «mdtharshelIion8^hSngovemonof^Bcngd. 

BairagniS.— "Village S^e grtsmaAl -j " 1 oto onf v. 





MUZASFASPUB DISTIlICr. 


100 


trrain and oasced depot of groimg importanw wlioro the dealers 
of the plains meet the billmon and the Nopal trade clianges 

Vaittgo in the n&jlpar sub-division of Muznffarpur 
District, Bengal, ntnotcd in 86^ 59' N. and 85 b' I’opu- 
Intion (1901) 3,527. Basarh is idenliOcd wtU the eapilal of 
the ancient Hngdom of Vaisili. In tbo sncth century B, 0. a 
eonfedoraqy of the Lichebavia ttbs predominant boro and wss 
nblo to prevent tbo ^gdom of Magndha from expanding on 
tbo north bank of the Ganges. Ynbfdl -was n grlnt stronghold 
of Buddhism, and Gautama visited it tbree limes during bis 
life. Here was bdd tbo second Buddhbl coupoil which bad so 
great an effect in splitting up tbo Buddhists into tbo nortbem 
and Eoutbom sects. The town was visited by Fn Uinn and 
Hiuon Tsiang ; the latter found tbo town in mlus. The princi))nl 
antiquarian lc.*itnto of tbo plocc is a largo brick»covoroii mound 
measuring 1,680 feet ^ 760 and representing tlio remains of n 
vast fort or palace. In the nciglibourbood is a lingo stone pillar 
surmounted with tbo figure of a lion. This monolith, thuugb 
locally known ns Bhim Singh’s MA, appears clearly to bo ono of 
tbo pillars erected by Asoka to mark tbo stages of the jounioy to 
Nepfil which be undertook in order (o visit somo of tbo holy silos 
of Buddhism. It bean no inscription, but can bo idciilifitd nith 
onu of (ho As' ka pillars montioned by liiuen IViimg'nt tbo sito of 
ancient TnisJII. [AreA/tvUpittrf Stircei/ RtperU, vol. s>'i, pp. 89-93 ; 
and Rfportt of ihe Arehtologkat Swrrrvor, Rmpiil Vircle, for 
1901-02 and 191)3-04,] 

Hdjtpor Town. — Ucad-quartera of Ibo sub-division of tbo 
Esmo name, Muzatfarpur District, Bengal, situated in 25’ 4 i' N. 
and 86° 12' E., on tbo right bank of the uandnk, n short di«tnnco 
above its confiucnco irilb tho Ganges opposito Prtiiii Popnlation 
(1901) 21,39'<. It is said to have been founded nliout OliO years 
ago by Ilfijl Uy&B, tho supposed ramparts of wlio«o foil enclos- 
ing an area of somo 3G0 6tgAM are still visible. Tl\o old town is 
said to iiavo renohed ns far 03 Mcbn&r tbiina 20 miles to tho east, 
and to o village called Gadaunrai on tho nurlb. Ilftjlimr figured 
conspicuously in tbo history of tbo struggles between Akbnr and 
his robclliooB Afgb&n governors of llongnl, being twieo besieged 
and captured by tbo imperial troops in 1672 and again in 157*1. 
Its Oommond of water trofiio in tbreo directions makes lljo town a 
place of considerablo commercial importanoo. Moreover, it lies on 
tbo main lino of tbo Bengal and Korlb-Wcslom llailwny, wbioli 
nins west from Eatihftr, and is also connected by a direct brnncli 
with Muzaffarpur town. Hfijipur was eonslituted n mviufeipnlity 
in 1809. The area w'ithiii municipal limits is lo square miles, 
rho nverago ineomo for tbo docudo ending in 1901-02 wan 
Its. 11,000 and the expouditnro Bs. 8,900, In 1903.04 tbo income 



no 


BEKOAL. 


•was Hs. 13,000, mainly from a tax oa houses and lands, and (ho 
expenditure tob Bs. 16,000. The town contains the usual puhlio 
ofiuces ; the sub-jnil has npoommodntion for 12 prisoners, within 
the area of the old fort is a small stono mosque, very plain hut of 
peculiar archileoture, ottiibuled to Haji Ilyas. Its top consists of 
three rounded domes, the cenlre one being the largest. They are 
built of horizontally placed rows of stones, each row being a oirdo 
and each circle bdn^ more contracted than the ono immediately 
below it, until the "kSy stone is reacbed, whidi is ciroulnr. Two 
other mosques and a small Hindu temple are in the town or its 
immediate Tioinity. A Buddhist temple, surrounded by a eairti or 
rest-house, was built for tbo late Sir Jang Bahadur on the occasion 
of hie risits from Nopal. 

Lalganj. — Town in the Hajipnr sub-division of Muzaffarpnr 
Diehiol, Bengal, situated in 25“ 62' N. and 85“ 10' E, on the 
east hank of the Gandok, 12 miles north-Mcst of HajipuT town, 
‘ IPopulalion (1901) 11,502. Lalganj is an important river miut^ 
the principal oxporta being hides, oilseeds and saltpetro, and the 
imports food-grains (ohieily rice), salt and piece-goods. The 
bazar lies on tbo low land adjoining tbs river, but is protected 
inundation by the Gandok embankments. The shipping 
lies a mile to the south of tbo town, which is couneotod 
by road with Sfihibganj, Muzallarpur and Hfijipnr. Lslgonj 
was constituted a municipality in 1809. Tbo averogo iucomo 
for the decade ending in 1901-02 was Bs. 6,600 and the expondi- 
tui-e Bs. 4,700. In 1903-04 the income was Es. 6,600, mainly 
from a tax on houses. and lands, and the expenditure was 
Es. 6,000. 

BLuzaffarpur Town. — Head-quarters of lEuzaffarpur Dislriot, 
Bengal, situated in 26“ 7' N., and 86“ 24' B. on Iho right hank of 
the Little Gandnk. The population which was 38,241 in 1872 
increased to 42,400 in 1881 and to 49,102 in 1801, but fell in 
1901 to 45,617, of whom 81,629 were Hindus and 13,492 
Muhammadans. The decrease of 9 per cent, at tbo last census la 
to a great extent only apparent, and hut for tbo exclusion of one 
of the old words from tho municipal limits and the temporary 
absence of a largo number of people in connection with marringo 
ceremonies, tbo town would probably have relumed at least ns 
many inhabitants ns in 1891. Bonds radiate from tho town in 
nil directions. A considranblo trade is corned by tho Little 
Gandok, which, if slightly improved, would carry boots of 20 
tons buribm nil the yeor round. Muzaffarpur was conslitulod 
a municipality in’ 1804, The average income for the decade 
ending in 1901-02 was Bs. 70,000 and tbo expenditure Bs. 62,000. 
In 1003-01 tho income was Bs. 83,000 including H.«. 30,000 
derived from a tax on houses and lands, Es. 16,000 from a 
conseivanoy rate, Es. 3,000 from b tax on vehicles, ond 



JinjZASFABEUH DiaTRlCE. 


Ill 


Es. 18,000 from tolls. The iacidence of tasation vraa B. 1-6-1 
per head of the population. In the same year the expenditure 
oIbo amounted to Es. 83,000, the chief items being Bs. 3,000 
spent on lifting, Ba. 3,000 on drainage, Es. 20,000 on 
consorvanoy, Es. 6,000 on medical rcUef, Es. 11,000 on roads, 
Bs. 17,000 on buildingB, and Bs. 1,400 on education. The town 
is clean and the streets in many cases ore broad and well kept. 
It contains, in addition to fho usual pubEo buildings, a largo new 
hospital, dispensary and serorol schools, some of tho best of 
■which ate supported by tho Bihiir Scientific Society and tho 
Bharmaeamaj. In 1899 a college, teaching up to the B. A. 
standard, was established in kluzadorpur through tho generosity 
of a local gftmi ndnr . The building is largo, and tho college^ is 
in a flourishing condition. The Bistiict jail has accommodation 
for 465 prisoners, who ore employed chiefly on the manufooturo 
of mustard oil, castor oil, darts, carpets, matting, aloe Abro^ 
coarse doth and dusters. Near tho court buildings is a lake 
formed from an old bed of the river. To prevout tho river from 
reaching it, ■ an embankment has been thxo'wu across tho lake 
towards Daudpnr, hut in spite of this the river has out very 
deeply into tho high bank near tho circuit-house, and unless 
it changes its course, it will probably in time break through (ho 
strip of land which at present soporatos it from the lako. 
Muzaffaipur to'wn is tho head-quarters of tho Bih&r Ligiit Horse 
Tolnntecr corps. At tho timo of the Mutiny of 1857 a small 
number of native troops who were stationed hero rose, plnndorcd 
the Collector’s house, oud attacked the treasury and jail, but 
ware driven off by the police and^ najibs ond decamped 
towards Aliganj Sowfin in o5ian District without causing any 
further disturbance. 

Sitamarhi Town.— Head-quarters of (bo sub-division of 
tbo same name, MuzatTarpur District, Bengal, situated in 26° 85' 
N. and _85° 29' E. on the west bank of the I^al^andai river. 
Population (1901) 9,538. A largo fair lasting a fortnight is hold 
hero about tho ond of March and is nt ended by people from very 
great distances. Giwan pottery, spices, brass nten^ and cotton 
oloth. form the staple artirlcs of commoroo ; hut tho fair is oqieelally 
noted for the largo quantity of bullocks brought to it, tho Sitamarhi 
cattle being a noted breed. Tindition relates that the lovely 
Janoki or Sita hero sprang to lilo out of an earthen pot into 
which Baja Janaka had driven his pJoughsharo. Sitamarhi is 
situated on a branch of tho Bengal and North-'Westem Eailway 
and is also connected by road ■witli tho Nepal frontier, Darhhonga 
and Muzaffarpur. TIio lAkhondai river is spniinod by a flno 
brick bridge. Tho town has a largo trade in rice, eaMwa wood, 
oilseeds, hides and Nopal produce. Tho chief manufactures ore 
saltpetre, and the janeo or sacred thread worn by the tn ice-born 



'112 


BEKQAI.. 


obbIbs. SitSmarhi ' was oonstitutBd a municipality in 1882. 
The ‘ average income for the deonde ending in 1901>02 was ‘ 
Es, 9,900 and the expenditure Es, 7,800. In 1903-04 the inoomo 
was Es. 12,000, half of whioh was derived from a tax on poisons 
(or property tax), and the expenditure was Be. 8,000. The town 
contains the usual public offices; the sub- jail has aooommoda. 
tion for 26 prisoners. 

Tirhut.— Formerly a Distriot of Bengal, feparatod in 1876 
into the two Districts of Mozatfaupur and Dabdhahoa. Tbs 
name is stiU loosely applied to Muzaffoipur. 

Bouada. Darbhanga District — North-eastern District of ihe Patna 
Division, Bengal, lying between 26® 28' and 26® 40' N., 
SSf.an”' 31' and 86® 44' B., with an area of 3,348* square 

river miles. It is hounded on the north by Nepal ; on the ecst by 

•jetoio. Bhfigalpur Distriot ; on the south by the Ganges and ^e Distriot 

of Monghyr ; and on the west by Mnzaffarpur. 

* The Distriot is cue laige alluvial plain with a general slope 
from north to south, varied by a depression in the centre. It 
oontnina no hills, hut is divided by its river system into three well 
dedned physical divisions. The first of those starting from the 
south is tne tract beyond the Bphi Gandnk river in me oxireme 
south-west of the District, comprising the th&nas of Dalsingh Sand 
and Sam&stipur ; it is a large hloos of upland with a fow chaun 
or marshes here ond there. The second division corresponds 
roughly mth W&dmag&T thSna, and consists of a small doSi 
between the Bughmati and Diirhl Gandak rivers; it is the lowest 
part of the District and is liable to inundation from tho former 
river. The rest of the Distriot, oompriring the head-quarters and 
Madhuban! sub-diA'isions, is a low-lying plain iutersootod by 
numerous streams ond marsbes, but traversed also in parts by 
ridges of uplands. Tho south-eastern porlicn corresponding 
roughly with the thanaa of Boheia and Eusora is, in tho rainy 
season, mainly a vast ohain of tomporoiy lakes, joined together by 
the numerouB beds of the hill streams whioh pass throimh tho 
Madhubani sub-d.vision on their way from Nopal to tho Ganges. 
Large portions of this area do not dry up till well on in tho cold 
weather, and in some places communications are open for only 
three or four months of the rear. In tho h^bubani sub division 
the land is generally higW, emooinlly in tho three western 
thinos and in the south of Phuiparhs, whioh contains sirotohes 
of highland. 

Tuo Disfriet conlaioB three main river systems, tho Ganges, 
tho Little Gandak, and tho EomlS-Tiljugfi. Tho Ganges, however, 
skirts it for only 20 miles, and tho only stream of any importance 


» Tlie ««» *01™ in th» eeniin report of IBM rtiu S,335<qaoro JilllM ; Ui« Bros 
quoted la tho tert it Ihti doterointd la Uia nweat tamy sod (tttlencat operoUooi. 



DAXBaiJtQA DISTRICT. 


113 


whioh joins it dfreot and not by way of the otiur rirer 
eyatoms is the Bay&, an overflow of the Great Qnndak, whiob flows 
for a abort distance aoross the extreme eontb-east comer of ^tbe 
Biatriot. The Burbl or Little Gandak is an important river 
throughout its course in Obam^ran, Muzoffaipur, Dorbbanga and 
Noxtb Mongbyi. In all theae.DiBtriots it marks a clearly ^ defined 
division of the oonntry. It enters the Dorbhanga District near 
Pusa and, after flowing past Samastipnr, leaves^ it just below 
-Bnsera. Though its importanoe has been diminidied by the 
r^way, it is still a valnable trade highway, and there are 
many large bazars and marts on its banka It is. navigable, praoti' 
cally all the year round, for country boats of fair sme. Its 
oflsboots, the JTamwSri and the Boi&n, leave it near Pusa, md 
after flowing through the south-west of the Sam&stipur sttb-(b‘vi- 
sion, rejoin the parent stream in Mongbyr, before it flows into 
. the Ganges at Khagaria. AH the rivers in the head-quarters 
and Uadhubani sub-divisions belong to the Eamla-Tiljug& 
group, so called because they converge at Tilakeswar in the 
Bonth east corner ol IluserS th&ua, and are thenoefo^ard known 
indisoriminately by either name while proceeding through 
Monghyr and Bhagaipnr to join the Ganges and the Xosi 
by vations tortnous courses. The first of the group, the 
BigWati, rises in Nepal, and during its course through Dar- 
hhanga purDUes an easterly direction parallel to the Bnrht 
Gandcdi: ; it formerly joined this river near BuserS, but has witiiin 
the past 30 years cut out a new bed for itself, and now oute into 
the Komi and joins the TiljugS at Tilakeswar. The Earai prior 
' to its jniiction with the Baghmati is an unimportant stream. The 
LitUe Baghmati, on which the town of Darobonga stands, also 
finds its way to the Tiljuga by the bed of the Earai. Its chief 
tributary is the Dhans, which runs through the north-west of 
Beiapati thana. The Idttle Baghmati was formerly joined near 
Eamtnnl by the Eamla, a river whose old beds are found aU over 
' the north of Madhubani sub-division. It used to flow 10 miles 
east of Madbuhanl town, but now passes 10 miles to the west 
of it, its main ohannel mnning about 4 miles east of Bar- 
bhanga town past Bahera, Singia and Himi to Tilakeswar. It is 
a fairly large river in the rains and liable to heavy floods. Still 
further east is the Little Bal&n, a deep and narrow river with a 
well defined bed, whiob runs south through the eastern part of 
]^ajauli and -Madbubon! thanas, and joins the Tilj'uga near 
Bnsera. The Balan proper, also known as the Bhati Balau, is 
a river with a wide shifting sandy bed liable to heavy floods, but 
prariioally dry during a groat part of the year. Its old beds are 
found all over Ibo north of Phulparas^tbana, Lat comes the 
Tiljuga which rises in Nepal and bkirts the entire eastern boun- 
dary of the District, though ppts of it He in the Bbagnlpur 



114 


BElroAL. 


Oeologj. 

Botanj. 


FaoDt- 

Cllmata 
ud teia> 
peratan. 


District,- _ The mers in the M&dbuhanl and head-qastlert 
sub-diTisioDB ore liable to overflow their banks during heaT 7 ilo(i&, 
but they rapidly cbain off intone W-lying oonntiy in the bouQi- 
east of the Distriot, on which all the lines of drainage north o!. 
the Burba Gandok converge. 

The Distriot is covered by the older allurinm. Eaithr or 
nodular limestone of an inferior quality ooonrs in places. • 

The Distriot contains no forests, and, except for a few very 
small patches of jungle, of which the chief constituents era the tm 
cotton tree {Bombas malabarictm), khair (Acacia ealeeiu) andwtli 
(Dalbergia eissoo), with an undergrowth- of euphorbiaceous and 
urtioaceouB ehrubs and tree weeds, and oooasional Jorge stretohesei 
grass land inierepersed with smaller spots of isar land, Uie gronnd' 
is under dose cultivation, and besides the crops oairios only a fsn 
field weeds. Near villages small ^ubberies may be found con* 
teining mango, aissC, Eugtmajamlolana, various spsoios of -Fiieiii, 
on ocoadounl tamarind and a few other Bemi*spontimeous and mots 
or leas useful speoies. Both the palmyra {Boramit flabtllifemii) 
and the khajir or date-palm (Pkisnh sghesiris) ooour planted and 
at times self-sown. The field and road-side weeds include voiiou 
grasses and sedges, obiefiy species of Patiieum and Ggperm, and in 
waste comers and on railway embankments thickets of s/asO,dGiiTsd 
both from seeds and root-suokeis, voiy rapidly appear. The 
sluggish streams and ponds ore filled with water woods, tire sides 
being often fringed by reedy grosses and bulrushes, someiimea 
with tamorisk bnmes intermixod. 

Wild bogs nro very common ; a stray tiger orleopnrd oooasion- 
ally wonders down olong a river bank from Nepal, and a few 
wolves are also found. Crocodiles infest the rivers, and several 
kinds of dangerous snakes abound, the most common being the 
ooW, iarait (Buagariis caruleus) and goUuman (Noia tripiidiaiii). 

Dry westerly winds are experienced in the not season, but fho 
temporaturo ' is not so excessive as in South Bihar, tho highest 
on record at Darbhanga being 107° in 1894, The mean maximum 
tamperoture ranges from 73° in Jnnuoiy to 96° in April and Moy, 
and fnlla to 76° in Dooembor, deoroasing rapidly in AOTembor and 
Decomber. The mean minimum temperatura vonos from 62° in 
January to 80° in July; the lowest over recorded is36'3° in 
January 1878. Bainfoll is heovy in the sub'montane tract portly 
owing to tho heovy sbovrerB which occur . when oyolonio storms 
break up on reaching tho lulls, and portly beoatiso tho monsoon 
current is stronger towards tho west along the foot of the lulls. 
Tho arewgo onnu^ faE for tho Distriot is 60 inches, of whioh 
7‘4 inches fall in Juno, 12’6 in July, J2‘9 in -August and 9'9 
in September. Parts of Uio District, ospcoiBlly tho extromo south 
and the doSb between tho B&ghmnii and tho Idttlo Gandok, arc 
liable to inundations, but these usually cause Httlo damogo 



DASCUAKOA SIBTRlCr. 


116 


Heavy floods ho-nroTcr occurred in 1898, ^ 1002, and 1906 causiDg 
some loss of life and catilo, catrpng avraj honscs and damaging 
tho roads. Tho floods of lOOG xrcro pniticulnrlj sovoro, cauiting 
great disiross and, in somo tracts, scarcity, and nocossitating 
famtno relief measures. 

In (uicicnt times Uio Blsiiicl formed part of tlio old kingdom Bbteij 
of MitliilA. It passed succosardy under tko Pfil and Son dynos- 
ties ; and was conquered by Mnhammad-i>BnlditySr SHuljlin 1203. 

From tho middle of tho I4th centuury it was nndor a lino of 
Brahman kin^ until it wes merged in tho Hughal ompiroin 1656. 
THonsiuetllig tuo present position of tho Darbhanglt District ns tho 
head-quarters of 3[ithil& Br&hmnnism, singularly littio is known of 
its cany hutory prior to tho Muhammadan period. Tho Rfimfi* 
vana contains a few rcferonccs to localities which loc-ol patriotism 
identifies with some existing villages in Bcnlpatl tbana, chiof 
among them being AhiAri, whicli is said to have been tho nbodo 
of ijuiiyA, tho wife of Qnutama Itiahi, who was turned into stono 
by her husband’s jealous haislmcss and restored to life by B&ma. 

But no refereneo is found to any placo in tho Distriot in tbo 
moro nnthcntic records of Btiddliism, and it scorns to havo been 
left unvisiled by tho Buddhist pilgrims, who traversed a largo 
part of Bilior in tho fifth and seventh centuries of tho Christian era. 

C*or is it po.ssiblo to draw, from the history of tho P&l and Son 
dynastic^ ovon such scanty information a.s is obtainablo in regard 
to Muzauaipur and S'tran. There enn bo littio doubt that up to 
tho 12lh or 13th century DathhangH was relatively a hac^-ard 
tract, and that its development bos coincided with tho rise of 
BrAhmnnism. The oIdo.<;t icoown document relating to tbo District 
is a grant dated 14U0 D., convoying the villago of Bisfim 

Bcnlpatl tbftnn to tbo poet Yiclyilpoti, who flourished in tho reign 
of Siva Singh and mndo tbo latter tho best known of nil tho 
Hindu lUjAs of ASithilA. Probably tho oldest family in tho 
District is that of tho Rftjft of Dharau r. which fiuurishod long 
before the Engll-h occupation, but is n^' in very reduced ciroum-j 
Ftanecs. At tho proiont day, tlio only landholder of any historio 
imtWTlanco is tho M aliArajA of Dnrblinngfi (we pAi i miA XoA Raj). 

"When DorbhnngA pas«od info Uio haiiils of tlio liritisli'^in I70u iC 
WM inclufletl in sfi&rA Bilifir and foniicd with tlio greater part of 
tlio MnsotTnrpur District tho aarkir of Tirhut. Tims BiliAr was 
retained as nn independent rovoiiuo division, and in 1782 Tirhut 
(including HAjlpur) was mado into n collootorafo. In 1876 Tirhut 
was divided into the two oxisling Districts of Muzaffarpur and 
DarhhaiigA. Tho ruins of old forts nro found at JAVNAnsn, 
Borautpur, BbawAra, Balorajpur and hfnngal. 

Tho population of tho present area ineroosod from 2,130,898 ***•, 
in lb72 to 2,030,490 in 1881, to 2,801,056 in 18‘Jl and to'®*’*” 
2,912,611 in 1001, Tho Incronso in 1881 was hrgoly duo to 

I 2 



116 


S£KGA.X/. 


defeobive enumeration in 1872.- During the last of the decennial 
periods, the progress of the Distriot tvos impeded by scaroity in' 
1891 and by famine in 1896-97 ; the decade moreover was not ‘a 
healthy one, and tixe recorded deaths outnumbered the bicthB in 3 
out of the 10 years. Fever onuses tiro highest mortality, \7hil0 
cholera occssionolly^ appears in on epidemic form. Plague 
oppeared in the Distixrt at the end of 1900. Deof-mutism is 
prevalent along the conrse of the BurhT Oandak and Bfighmali 
rivers. The eclient statistics of the census of 1901 are given 
below 


fiOB-BiTzaioir. 

Area 

in 

sqoaTe 

mlles« 

NvMBEit or 

Popolattou. 

Popnla* 

tloa 

por 

■qutro 

mUe. 

FereantaEa 
of ratla* 
Uon in 
popatntton 
betirren 
>801 

and 1001. 

Tfomber 

of 

pt'rs tms 
able 
to md 
aoil 
write. 

Tomis. 

Villsgea. 

DarShansB 

2.534 

fl 

1,306 

iloes.tos 

671 

+1-0 

3s.n» 

Sfndhnbanl ••• 

1.516 

1 

l,li8« 

2.&94.S70 

SIS 

+7*8 

SM.890 

BamKitlpui 

778 

1 

813 

76t,taj 

087 

' +V9 

40.170 

niBTBtCT TOXAl ... 

a,sda 

d 


a,9is,eu 

370 

+3-0 

ios.sfs 


The towns are DAUBKancA, the head-guorters, MABtiuBANi, 
P.'nsBBA and Bamabtibub. Dorbbanga snppnrts a larger popu- 
lation to the square mile than any Dismet in Bongol o.vcoft 
Musaffarour, Saian and tbo 24-Parganas (excluding the Sundar- 
bans). The density of the population is greatest in Samastipur, 
where the rich uplands produce valuable c^ps. There ia still some 
room for expausiou iu Madhubani, but in tJio other sub-^visious 
the pressure of the agricultural population on iho soil is already 
so great that further e^onsion under present conditions is not 
to be expected or desired. A considerable number oE males of the 
class of landless labourers seek a iivdihood in other paria ; they 
go by preference to tho neighbourhood of Calcutta or to Dacca 
and l^orth Bengal. The vernacular of tbo Distriot ia tbo Idnitbill 
dialect of Bihkxi ; Musalmons speak a form of UfaithilT witli an 
admixture of Persian and Aiabio words, known as Jol&lvi 6oA'. 
In 1901 Hindus numbered 2,559,128 or b7’9 per cent, of tbo 
total population and hlusalmans 352,691 or 12'1 per cent. 

Tbcir Among the Hindus the most numerous castes are tbo Ahlrs or 

«»{«■ nna Ooaias (384,000), Dosadhs (208,000), Brfibmans (198,000), 
Babbans (164,000), Dhfinuks (152,000), Koiris (146,000), Mallfibs ^ 
(117,000) and Chamars (106,000), while Elewats, Khatwea, Kur- 
nuB, Musahars, Bajputs, Tautis and Telia all number between 
50,000 and 100,000, Two small castes Deohnrs (inoculators) and 
Dhimnrs (grain rnrchois, jHi/X-l-boarers, etc.) are poouliar to tho 
District. Among Musolmfins Shaikhs (153,000), JolAhfis (58,000), 
DbaulAs ^40,000) and HunirSs (39,000) arc tho host represented. 




DAABllAKOA. -DISTniCT. 


117 


A^ealivxo stipports 78*6 por cent, of tho poptilation, indufi- 
tnes 10*2 per cent., conuncrco 0*4 per cent, and tho professions 1*1 
per cent. 

Thcro oro sovoral Emoll Ohrisfian commnnitioa of different 
denominations bnt no missions of any importance, and of 710 
Christians in the District in 1901 only 20G wero natives; th^^ is 
a small Boman Catholio mission at Sam&stipTir, a Methodic mission 
and a Zanfina Bible and Medical mission. 

Tho olerated land south-xrcst of tho Bnrh! Gandoh is tho richest 
and most fertilo part oi tho District and produces nil the most 
Toluahlo raii and lAadoi er^s. In tho low-lying tfodi between the 
Bfighmati and tho Xiittlo Gandok rivora tho main crop nused is 
winter rico, thongb in jnany parts good rabi crops oro also raised 
on the lands enriched by inundation. In Babora and Rueor& 
thfinas, in tho south-east of tho plain which constitutes the rest of 
tho District, tho only crop of any importance is tho winter rice, 
which when not submerged by floods at too early a date is very 
prolific. Tho higher land in tho MadhuhanT sub-dirision is suit- 
able for tho groT^g of tho moro valuablo rabi crops, but tho stnplo 
ertm is winter rico and tbo produce of Al&pur, Jabdi and Bnobaur 
is famous all over Bih&r. The only classification of land undor- 
slood by tho ordinary oulliTator is tbat_ into rfiianAar and AAifA* 
tbo former being the low lands on which rico is grown, and 
tho latter tho nplonds growing ccrcnta or crops of any kind other 
than rico. 

Tho Eoliont agricultural statistics for 1903-04 ofo reproduced 
below, areas being in sqnoro miles 


SeX.VlTlKOV. 

Total. 

Cnltirated. 

Cultumbla rraita. 

tlatlilianeS 



1,22^1 

DS3 

182 

SfBdhnhanl 



1,340 

1,000 

189 

SunZttipar 

• •• 


778 

687 

69 


Totax. 


0,349 

SfilO 

060 


It is ostimaied that 44 per cent, of tho not onltiTatcd area was 
twice cropped. ^ i - 

Tbo most important feature of agriculturo of tbo District is 
its dopondonco on tbo aghani (or w'lntor) harvest, no lees than 
08 por cent, of tbo cultivotcd area being under orops of this kmd, 
obiclly winter rico, which in 1003-04 covered 1,400 sipiaro miles. 
Marui is another fovourilo crop ond is grown over an area of 831 
square miles ; wheat covers 100 square miles, bnrloy 103, maizo 
102, gram 83, ond miBcollancous food groins 60 square milos ; 
these last consist chiefly of kbrsdri, rabart masi/rl, kodonf c/tMot 


Chrfstlan 

Miulon*. 


Oener»t 
aprical- 
tntnl con. 
ditloni. 


Chief 
B^col* 
tural ita- 
tiilfci and 
principal 
cropi. 



118 besqAi,. 

jdwSn, urd, muag, jawri and oats. Miscellaneous food drops, 
oonsistitig mainly of potatoes, yams and tuihnii {Dioicorea fml 
eulata) are estonsiroly grown in the Sam&stipur, stth-diTOion. 
The piineipal non-fooi crops me oilseeds (princapsUy-linsced) 
oovering 849 square miles; they are very largely grown 'as oakh 
crops in winter rice lands, but their .value is compniatiTely small. 
Tol )acoo is oultivated on 48 square miles, chiefly in the GsmSstipar 
Buh-diviaion. Tndigo with'63 square miles covets a latgei ares 
than in any other Bengal Distriot except Champaran sad 
M^ofiarpnr, but the area u steadfly deoreasiag. Sugarcane and 
opium are grown, but to a comparatively Bmall extent. Of tha 
other non-food drops kharhaul or thatohing grass is the most 
valuable. 

Imprare- The area under oultiTation has nearly donbled within the 
mentato last 100. years, but the greater part of the extension took placs 
tmai"** ^ 1^^” century and little further expansion 

pnetica. praoticable. Experiments with improved seeds have been 

made in tha Nathan Ward’s Estate but without muoh success. 
Several Europeans are now cultirating sugorcans, and experiments 
in the growth of rhra and tho preparation of rhea fibre are 
being made at Ealsingh Sarai. The Government estate at Pus\ 
hae recently been made over to the Government of India as the 
site for an Imperial egrioultural college and researoh institute, 
and portions of tho estoto are being nmizod os a farm for exptni* 
mental cultivation land oattle breeding. Government advanced 
JRs 33,000 os loans after the soaroify of 1891-92, and Rs. 20,000 
in the famine of 1897. 

CattlB. Tie local cattle are weak and small. This is due partly to 
careless breeding and partly to the wont of adequate postorago. 
irrieitioB. There are no Government irrigation works, but on aroo of 171 
square miles, or 6^ per cent, of the oultiTated area, is irrigated 
from other souroes, (diiefly in tho Madhuhanl sub-division, whore 
the numerous rivers and streams ore veiy largely token advantage 
of to bring wafer to the winter rice. In the BenlpaU thnna in 
this sub-droeion a very complete system of dhars and pam has 
been ' constructed, and a large area is oko irngated from tanra. 
Ls the Samastipur sub-division extensive irngotion u not prooti- 
oable,nor is it required for the crops mainly grown, -but tho valu- 
able poppy .and tobacco crops ore watered irooi wtms. 

Uinmb. Beds of kankar or nodular limestone oE an infenor quality are 
met with in several places. SalifcKSus earth^is found m patches 
all over tho Eistiiof,' and a special casto, thoNumfis, cams a sranty 
livelihood by extiaoting saltpetre. The amount produced m 
1903-04 was 51,000 maunds, . . - , . 

Art. u>d Coarse doth, pottery and mots, ere manufactured, and brass 
mannfae* utensils mode at Jbanjh&rpur have a local reputation, Xno mann- 
tares. ftwhiio ' of iodigo in tho District by European agonoy dates back 



DARBHAKaA DISTRICT. 


119 


to the time of the permanent settlement, the present conoerne of 
Dalsingh Sarai, Jitwarpur, Tiw&ia and Kamtaal having been 
all founded before the year 1800. During the' lOthcentuiy 
the cultivation of indigo spread into every th&na of the District, 
but it vns always more prevalent in the south than in the north, 
where the prevailing soil is less suitable for it. In 1874 the 
District contained the largest concern in India and probably in 
the world: this was Pandaul, which with its outworks comprised 
an area of 300 square miles. It was subsequently split up, the 
northern outworha being purchased by the present MabkTa5& of 
Darbhango. He abandoned the oultivatinn of indigo about 
three years ago, and the fall in the price of the dye, dne 
to the competition of artifirial substitutes, has caused many other 
factories to abandon or contract very greatly the area under 
indigo. The Settlement officer in 1903 enumerated 28 factories 
with 86 outwork in the District. In 1908-04 the area under 
indigo had fallen to 34,000 nores, of whioh the greater part lay 
witlun the Samastipur sub-division ; and in 1904 the number of 
factories had decreased to 24 with 27 outworks. The chief feature 
of the industry in t.bia District, os compared with the other indigo 
.growing tracts in North Bihkr, is the large area cultivated direct 
■ 0 ^ the factories themselves, amounting in the SamkstipnT sub- 
division to no less than 94 per cent, of the total area under indigo. 

The plant, when out, is fermented in masonry vats and oxidized 
either by heating or by ouirents of steam. The dye thus preci- 
pitated is boiled and &[ed into oakes. In 1903-U4 the outturn of 
indigo was 7,0 IS maunds valued at 9*12 lakhs. Of late years, 
owing to the fall in the value of indigo, the factories have taken 
to the growing of ordinary crops, and this tendency is particu- 
larly marked in Dalsingh Sara! th&na, where the results have 
been highly Bucoessful. The sugar industry is important in the 
Madhuboni sub-division, where outtnin of 80 factories was valued 
at 2'7i lakhs in 1904. 

The principal exports are rice, indigo, gram, pffises, lin- Commerce, 
seed, mustard seed, saltpetre, tobacco, hides, ght and timber, and 
the imports are rice and other food grains, salt, kerosene oil, gimny 
bags, coal and coke, European cotton piece-goods and raw cotton. 

Oram, pulses and oilseeds are chiefly sent to Calcutta, and rice 
and other food grains to Saran and Musaffarpur. The imports 
of food-groins come for the most part from Bh&golpnr and Nep&l, 
coal and coke from Buidwan, kerosene oil from the 24-Farganas, 
and salt and piece-goods from Calcutta. The principal marts are 
Daubhakga, OAMABTiFVB, Madhobaki, Epseba, Fusa, Eamtaul, 
Dalsingh Sarai, Nahahia (for the Nepalese grain traffi^ and 
Jhanjharfpb. , The chief tradi^ castes ore Agarw&ls, Barna- 
w&rs, Kasarw&nis, Kathbanisa, Bhattria and Sindim&s.^ Afost'of 
the trade with Goloutta and the neighbouring Districts is carried 



120 


BEMGAL, 


traflSo withNepSUs onrried in carts and' oa 
pnuooks and oocnaonally by coolios. Some timber is floated 
tne nvers. ' ' 

Thefnmine of 1W4 gave a great impetus to the oonstniction 
or railways, and the District is on Ibo whole well ofE in the matter 
X oonmnnioations. Its south-west comer is traversed 

wr_29 miles by the main line of the Bengal and North-Western 
Eauway and also by 25 miles of tho new chord- lino from 
■HSjipur to Badhwira, which runs parallel to tiie Ganges emhant- 
oast to west. From Samastipur a line runs to 
DarbhangS and there branches off in two directions, the first 
north-west to Sitamarbi through Knmtaul and Jogifim, and the 
el*" ^*1® Blnnwa Ghiit on the Kosi. The total length 
™ ^® ^thin the Distriot is 146 roiles. Most of the earth- 
work for a line from Snkiito Jaynagar on the Nepal frontier 
was completed as a relief work during the famine of 1897, and 
the line, which has now been opened, should tap a large grain 
anjiply from NepSl. Iheluding 769 miles of villngo trnoks, tho 
Distriot contains J,949 miles of roads, of which 47 miles are 
metalled. The most important is tho main road running eastwards 
from MuzuFarpur through Darbhang& town and Noxahiii to 
Fumen. Eoads radiate from Dnrbhanga town and tbo sub-divi* 
“°®^head.qunrterB to the most important plnoes in tho interior, 
end from Drabhanga town and Safcri, Jhanjhftipur and NirmSU 
roilway stations w the Nepal frontier. Mast of tho roads wore 
oonstmoted as relief works in the famine of 1874 and others 
by the road cess oommittee which was established in 1876, and by 
ifa suooessor, the Distriot board. Tho total mfloage is now about 
three tmes what it was 30 years ago. Many of me roads in tho 
low-lying tract in the central and souli-onstora part of tho 
Distriot are impassehle daring tie reins ; their high embankments 
ora frequently breached in time of flood, and to avoid this, an 
enormous amount of bridging would be neoessniy. Much has 
boon done in this direction in recent years ; five pontoon bridges 
have been erected at different points on tho Gnndak and tho 
Bfiglraati ; and the road from Dorbhanga to Jaynagar on tho 
frontier, which crosses all the rivers in tho west of the Madhubau! 
sub-division, has been bridged throughout at tho cost of Iho 
Darbhonga Esj. In Sam&stipur, whoro tho country is high, and 
comparatively little embanking or bridging is required, most of tho 
roads are in good order and can bo used at oil soasons of tho 
year. 

Watw The Gonges is navigable for steamers throughout tho year, and 

SoUmi. ® Eorvice, which plies up tho river from Goalundo, enUs at 
Hordfispur in the extreme south-west comer of. tho SamSstipur 
sub-division. The Dorhi Gandak rivor is navigahlo for boats of 
l,00o mounds burden at all seasons, but its boat trultic bos much 




IIARI'MASCA niSTRlCT. 


ISl 


dccTCSsod sinco tto opcninc oC tht huIvtrjt • ^ Bosits of "lOO or oOO 
siAusds can pass up tlic uaghnuiti except in n Tcry dpr Fcafon. 

The other rivers in the District are navigable in the rainy^p'ason 
only, and are not much used even then owing to tlicir liabDilv 
to floods. The prindnal Icarics aro Ihojo on tho DurM Gandac 
and B&ghniati rivers, tno most important b«ing at MSgiualihi UhSt 
(at Samfistipur) and Singi& GiiAt (at Bustr^) on the Burhl Gandnk 
and nt Kaly& Ghfit and ilni& Gh&t on tltc lliighmati. 

Whenever tho normal nunfnil falls short of the nrcnigo cr u l‘sntr*, 
badly disliibnted, tho crons suQer: the hoik of tho ciilttr&tod area 
ia under rrinler rice, and the most foious results m«oo from o pro- 
maturo ee.ssation of the monsoon. Tho first sovore famine of which 
thcToiaany rcliahlo record is tliat of 11574. The mins of 187.1 rom- 
mennd late, ware insnfliciont to bring even th" bUdoi crops to full 
maturity, and ceased in September with n dcricicncr in rome j»srta 
of no less tlmn 28 inches. Tha rico crop was vr-ty short every- 
where, and in tho hMd-qnarfcrs Eub-dirinon it was alroesl wjioVly 
destroy^. Belief operations on a lavish scale were nndcrtak'n in 
' ample time, and serious loss of life was provcnlal. Pevf-te local 
scarcilics again occurred in 1875-iC, 1885-S9 and In 

1895 the harvest was again a short one, and IliLs was followed by 
tho great crop fulnw of 1896, wliieh nfrected the whole Di*(rifl 
pxccpttwo of tho fhreo thinns of the S.imWipnr suludiririoa • 
in the third, Wfirisnagnr, tlio di«trc*.i WM lew acute th.m in tho 
rest of the District, while it wni greatest in Urn wot of Uin 


PiMilfflMllimil 


promptly^givea, nnd (ho total espendllaro atnounlMl (o nearly Wi 
in recript of relief ro^o to 23.0000 nt (ho end 
^2J“l’i807, ofwhoin l-ir,000 icrtons vvith 10,000 doicndeall 
^ engaged ^ relief works and 79,000 were in rwipt of 
^taitous relief. The imports of grain into the Diririct diirinir 
the fammo nmounted to more than 41,000 tons. I’ho total nnScr 
of persons rcLovcd, rtx^on^ in terms of one day, was 40 011 oOO 

Diririct, 1 ml the d“ th-rato Sa 
imnsnaJIy lowing tho giealcr part of tho distress and (ba 

recovery of tho Dislncl after the famino was rapid. ' “ 

S.y.,nr.„. 

uagistmtc-CoI lector at head-quaTters consicta of «« A. •*1^ iswr* 
hlagistrato-ColIcctor and 5 Denutv IfnrnutntfA r* n “^**'*ont 
thcilhdhuhanl and Saniftstinur JnfcivLSi iJo^S 

, cirii .w. . «rt.5 



122 


BEKOAL. 


Iisnd 

xerenne. 


two Subordinote Judges at MuzafiEarpur. Tho oriminal couris 
include those of the Sessions Judge and District ^gistrate 
and of the Joint, d^istant and Deputy Magistrates! refornd to 
ab07e. There is little heinous erime, the commonest offences 
being theft and burglsTy. ) 

At the time of Todsr Mol’s assessment Dsrbhangfi fomed 
le. a portion of aarMr Tlrhut, which bdonged to the northern 
division of the siltaA or province of Bih&r. Tho 42 pargam, lor 
whioh figures are available, returned a productive area of^ 320 
eqaare mues. The revenue assessed on them was 2‘31 lakhs, giving 
an inoidenoe of B. 1-2 per cultivated acre, as compared vri& K. 1-7 
in Tirhut as a whole, &. 1-8 in Ssian and B. 1-6-3 in Ohamparan. 
The inference is that Dorbhanga was then in a more backward 
agiicnltural condition thon the rest of North BihSr, and it is 
probable that the more remote parts were practically unsubdued and 
in the hands of refractory and independent samindars. The snbse- 
fluent development of the District may bo gouged *om the fact 
ftot it now contains a oultivatod urea of 2,610 square miles, so 
that cultivation has inoreosed eight-fold in the lost 3 centoes. 
The present revenue is 7'97 lakhs or more thin three times what il 
was in Athar’s reign, but fte inoidenoa per oultirated aero w 
under 8 annas or les thon half what it was at Toto Mnls 
’assessment. At the decennial settlement winch was 

made pennanent in 1793, Uttle more than a quarter of the total ma 

oovored by the present Disfriot - was dealt with and nearly t^ 

thirds of the present oultivatcd area escaped ossessment, toe 

SiSue demand being 6'48 lokha on on woa of 892 square 

Prooeedings were afterwards instituted 

wvenuo-frfe under illegal or invalid titles, 

hnd thus been odded to the land revenue. In 1903-04 of tho toioi 

Lrrent demand 7-86 Inkhs were 

'^i j n-n/l 7?s 10 BOO bv hold direot by Govom- 

o-is t. tto 

baSwS state of the Distriot at the time of i^opermnmnt 
oa^watu w . .. £ revenue per acre la only B. 0-o-iv. 

Bettlemont, t features in the revenue administration 

One of the number of permanently settled estates owing 

is “*5nS0donIy8,267 in 1879-80, while at the 

to ’ oorot settlement there w^ only 632. 

time of the pemoB -e-entiy (1896-1903) been Burvoyotl and a 
The Distriot hw rweo was found that settled and ooou- 
repord-of-nghte prep • j, ^jjg f^fal oeouniod area and 
panqy ryots hold 83 oew by them; 

these poy “«^'”^®^^.®2irundoi^iyots pay produce rents for 
while non-occupancy gj-'fjja ^^as held by them. 

7. and 63 per o"**’ Jdnda, W “"I 

Produce rents ore is^'vided between the landlord 

in the first case the actual crop w 



DASBHAKOA DISTRICT. 


123 


•and the rjot; in' the second the value oi the crop ie appiaieod 
on the ground ehortlj before the harvest and a shnTO is pajd by 
the rjot to the landlord oitW in cash or kind: while in 
the third case the ryot pays a certain quantity of the outturn 
irrespeodve of the amount of the produce. Very high rents 
are charged for land growing valu^le crops such os tobacco, 
poppy and chillies, and it is not unusual to find tobacco lands 
assessed at Bs. IS to Bs. 20 per acre. The average rates for 
good rice lands are from Bs. 4 to Bs. 6 per acre and for 
lands producing both on autumn and a spring harvest from Bs. 5 
to Bs. 6. On the whole the highest rents are found in Samastipur 
and the lowest in hladbabani. 

The only peculiar tenure in the District is that known aa 
/flWadi, which proves in the low lands of Bnher&thiina. As this 
tract is extremely liable to inundation, the ryot pays rent not on 
his whole holding but only on such p^ of it ns actually produces 
a OTop, the cropped area being measured for thie purpose just 
More the Imrvest and a rate prerioudy agreed upon nppUed to it. 
rat the whole Distriot ryots at fixed rents pay B. 1-12-0* 
per acre, settled and oooupanoy ryote Be. 8-12-6 and non- 
occupanoy ryots Bs 4-7-10 per aore, the avorogo for the 

Bs.4.83pera|e ■ ^ ’^^dfr-iyote pay 

Mowiig table shows tho coUeolions of bad rorenno 

“thonsands of 


IjBtid reveaM 
Total meane 


1880-81. 

1890-91. 

IDOO-Ol. 

■ 

1903-01. 

8,09 

1«,30 

w 

18,18 

7,61 

J9,B9 

7,99 

20,47 


derived from rat^^^i A. o ’ Be. 2,'80.000 wm®*"‘- 

"• ''•“H 



m 


Edncotian, 


"EJfOAl, 



J^cdJeal, 


Vaeclaa' 

tion. 


pge < The' number of schookoing 

in that year was 1692 inning' pnblio and pmale, 

pmumpr^choorjfls^^^^ 1.161 

education was Es. 121000 ospenditars on 

WbufioM^f 29 ^ 0 ^’ T (Semmentcon. 

tZtS '■“» — *•' 

i»oJsf£ip?Ss£i?4"^,.r. % 

aS'S pa: ttopap^a rf ttpjppdptta, M»iwS 

tiion the g^eral ratio for fieng'al, 

qf Anffif, vol. xii!, 

-nofifo '^’ SeUlement report, Calcutta, 1004.] 

T»n s Snb-iviaion.-— fload-guarters sub-dirmon of tho , 

D^bbangi Diataat, Beng^ ljmg between 25® 38' and 26® 26' N.,l 
and 85 41 and 86 44' E,, mth an area of 1,224 sguare miles. ^ 
Ifa population rose from 1,048,806 in 1891 to 1065,5k in 1901, 

when then were 8fl persons to tho square mile. The greater part 
of the suo-divxBion is a low-lying plain intorsocted by numerous 
streams and marshy ; and tho ohier crop is winter rice, wluoh, when 
not submerged at too early a date by Eoods, yields an abundantoul- 
turn. The sub-division contains 2 towns, PAmuiAifGA, its head-quar- 
ters (population 66,244), end Euseba (10,245), and 1,306 viUeges. 

, fflLadhnbani Sub-division,— JToi-thcni sub-division of tho liar- 
bhangfi District, Bengal, lying between 26® 2' and 26® 40' N., and 
86* 45' and 86® 44' E., wiflian area of 1,846 square miles. Its 
population rose from 1,014,700 in 1891 to 1,094,379 in IflOJ, when 
there were 813 persons to the ^ sgnare milo. It is less densely 
inhabited than the rest of the District, and is the only sub-diviaou 
where there is much room for farther e:imanBion. Jt oonsisis of a 
rioh alluvial plain traversed by ridges or uplands suitable for rahi 
onltivalion, but the staple crop is winter rice, and the produce of 
Al&pur, Jabdi and Bawiaur is famous all over Bibsr. St contains 
one town, MADHUBAwr its head-quarters (population 17,802), and-^ 

1,084 rUlages. Nakahia is on important eontie of tho.Nepoleso 



dabbbakga pisxnicT. 


186 


erain traffic, at Jhakjhakttih on. the rajl\ray brass utei^s of a 
superior quality ate manufactured, and at Sheath _ an 
annuol mala or religious festiyol m bold. Sugar ifl 
manufactured tbrougbout tbo sub-divosion. Jatnagar is tno mte 

of a mud fort. , ^ x,. 

SamSfitiPur Snb-division.— Southern sub-dinsion of the i>a^ 
bbanga District, Bengal, lying between 25 28 and 26 6 N., and 
85° 31' and 86“ V E., with on area of 778 square milea its 
population rose from 738,449 in 1891 to 752,687 m 1901,^ ’when 
there were 967 persona to the square mile or more than in ony 
other part of tbo-Diatriqt. With the exception of part of the doah 
between the Baghmnti and Burhl &andat rivers, &o suh-diviBion 
consists of a largo block of upland interspersed witih a few chaurs 
or ttiiitiiTibh. It is the ridiest and most fertile port of the Dirfrict, 
produoing all the most valuable ro5» and bhadoi crops, and it is the 
centre of the indigo industry in the Darhhanga District. It con- 
iams one town, Samasttpue, its head-quarters (population 9,101), 
and 843 villages. Samastipur town is an important railway 
jnnctioa and contains workshops of the Bengal arid North- 
western Hallway. The Government estate at Buba has recently 
Wn made over to the Govsmment of India as the site for 


an Imperial agrioultural college and research laboratory, and 
poitiona of the estate are bring utilized as an experimental farm 
for oultivation and cattle breeding form. 

Darbhang^ HSij. — ^Estate in Bengal. The Dathhengfi family 
traces- its origin to one Mahes Thakur, who is said to have 
oome from Jubhulporo about the beginning of the 16th century. 
He took service as a priest -with the descendants of 
Siva Singh , who still exercised a nominal supremacy in Tiihut, 
W when they co^psed before 'the advanemg Muhammadan 
power, Mahes' Thakur induced Akhar to grant him what are 
now the Darhhanga HAj Estates. He and his descendants 
gradually consolidated the power of the family both in agrarian 
and in social matters, and though, owing to reousanoy at the 
'pennanent settlement, the Haja of .that period was for some time 
deprived of a portion of his property, the British Government 
oventui^y recognised him. During the first half of the 19th 
oentuiy, owing to miancanagement and litigation, the estate fell 
into considerable difficulties. But the litigation had the effeot of 
deciding that the estate was impartible and that the inheritance 
to it was regulated by primogeniture, and owing to a long 
minority of over 20 years from 1860 onwards, during whiem 
the estate was under the Court of Wards, it is now in a very 
fiouiishing condition. Darhhanga has been the head-quarters of 
the iamily only since 1762, prior to which date it resided at 
Madhnhani. The present Ms^Araja, Hameswar Singh, suooeeded 
on the death of his brother in 1898. 



m 


fi&NOAL. 


The e^tes at ptesent oomprifie lands fiitUBted in tb 
Dubnota of^DMbhangfi, Mwaffarpur, Gaya, Monghyr, Pnmca and 
^Mgalpur, vnth an aiea of more than 2,410 square miles. Iho 
l^arfija ia also the owner of house property in the towns of 
Daxhhanga, Mnzofiarpur, Patna, Benares, Cdoutto, AMibSd, 
Darjeeling and Simla, and of the indigo concerns of Barahia and 
Baohaur in the Muzaffi^ur District, Pandaul in Datbhangil and 
. Gondwa];a in Pumea. ^e rent roll esceeds 32 lakhs and the Gor* 
emment revenue, including cesses, is 7i lakhs. The present ^em 
of management was introduoed when the estate was under the 
Court of Wards and is very oompleto. estate is divided into 
circles of from fifty to two hundred villages each; eaoh circle is in 
charge of a suh-manager, who is re^onsiUe to the h&hardjaforits 
efficient working, ana under eaoh sub-manager there are usually 
several tahsilddra in charge of groups of villages or rent collectors. 
The average rent payable by the ocoupanoy ryots of the Bdj is 
believed to be aWt Ps. 4. 


Barbhanga Town. — ^Head-quarters of DarbhnngS District, 
Bengal, sSuatedin 26° lO'lf. and 85° 54' E. on the loft bank 
of the Little Baghmati river. It probably takes its name from 
one Batbhangl Khan, a Muhammadan freebootox *, the traditional 
derivation irom dar~i~Bangal or gate of Bengal seoms to bo 
etymologically impossible. The population of the town increased 
from 63,744 in 1872 to 66,956 in 1881 and to 78,601 in 1891, 
but fell again to 66,244 in 1901. This deorease, however, is to 
a great extent GotitiouB : the population was abnormally largo 
in 1891 on account of the presence of somo 6,000 Bidhumus 
who had come to partake of a feast given by the MaharajS, while 
in 1901 the census was token on on auspicious day for weddings 
in connection with which a large number of persons was tempo* 
rarily absent. In 1901 the inhabitants included 47,948 Hindus, 
18,122 Muhammadans and 171 Christians. Oonunmuoatious bv 
road are good in all directions. It is connected with the north 
Ganges railway system by a line from Samostipur on the souths 
which branches off at Dnrohangfi in two directions, the first north-* 
werfto Somastipur ond the second norfh-oost to Khnnwa Gh&t on 
the Eiosi. A considorahle trode is carried ou, the principal exports 
being oilseeds, ff/ti and timber and the imports, food-gmns, 
salt, gunny cloth, piece-goods, lime and iron, Darbbanga was 
constituted a munirapality in 1864. The avorago income for the 
decade ending in 1901-02 was Es, 42,000 and the expondittm 
Es. 36 000. In 1903-04 the income was Es. 65,000, of which 
Es! 23 000 ^derived from a tax on persons (or property tax), 
and Es 11,000 from a tax on houses and lands, while the oxpen- . 
diture was Es, 38,000, A largo market ploeo has been con- 
structed between the hospital and the Mahfirfijfi’s garden. The 
whole country around the town becomes a swamp dunng Iho 



SABBIIANaA BISTBICr. . 


127 


rains, teing subject to inundations from the Kauil& imd Little 
Bagbmati, and tte oivil station and public of&ccs -ffero therefore 
moved in 1884 to the suburb of Lnhori& Sarai at the extromo 
south of the toim. The IHstriol jail ‘•has aeoommodation for 355 
prisoners, v:ho are employed on oiUpressing, rveaving, the inanu» 
faoture of n«irar, -ropes and matting, eto. 

Jaynagar. — Village in the' Mndhubani sub-division of the 
Darbhanga District, Bengal, situated in 26° 36' N. and 8G° 9' B. a 
few miles south of the NepJd frontier, and a little east of the river 
Komis. Population (1901) 3,551. The village contains a mud 
fort ottributed to AlS-ud-dln, king of Bengal (1403 — 1618) and 
said to hare been oonstrnoted to resist the inonxsions of tho hill 
tribes. Near the fort is an encampment made by tho Englirii 
during tho Nepal war. 

Jhanjharpor.— Village in tho Madhubani sub-division of the 
Darbhanga District, Bengal, siiuatod in 26° 16' N. and 86“ 17' E. 
on the Bengal North-western Kailway. Population (1901) 
6,639. Its brass ntonsils, particularly tbo pdnbnUn or bos for 
holding betel leaf and the gangSjah or water-pot, hare a local 
reputation. . 

Hadhnbani Town. — Head quarters of the sub-division of the 
same name, Darbhanga District, Bengal, situated in 26° 21' Nt 
and 86“ 6' E. about 18 mUos north-east of Darbhangfi. town. 
Population (1901) 17,802. Madhubani is an important trading 
centre on the rood from Bnkri on tho Bengal and North-Western 
Hailway to tho Nopiil frontier. It was constituted a municipality 
in 1869. The arorago income for tho decade ending in 1 901-02 
was Ks. 16,000 and tho expenditure Rs. 12,000. In 1903-04 
the income was Ks. 18,000, mainly derived from a tax on persons 
(or property tax) and tho receipts from municipal markets, and 
the expenfdturo was Ks. 16,000. Tho town contains the usual 
pubhc offices ; the sub-jail has accommodation for 14 prisoners. 

Narahia. — ^Village in the Mndhubani sab-division of Dar- 
bhanga District, Bengal, situated in 26° 22' N. and 86“ 32' E. 
Population (1901) 5,069. Narahia is oonnooted by a rood with 
the Bengal and North-Western Railway and is an important centre 
for tho Nemlpso grain traffio. 

Pusa.— ^iUnge in 'the Samostipur sub-division, Darbhanga 
Disliiot, Bengal, situated in 25* 69' N. and 86“ 40' B. near the 
right hank of thoBurhl Gaudak and neor the boundary' of Muznfiar- 
pur District. Populotion (1901) 4,670. Tho villago was acquired 
by Government m 1796, and other waste lands appertaining to 
Bakhtiyarpur, a villago on tbo other side of the river with a 
population of 1,384 in 1901, wore assigned to Government in 1798 
without any additional rent. Pusa wos long used as a stud dopdt, 
but all stud operations -were closed in 1874 ; and in 1875 a model 
farm was established, tho soil bemg of the first quality, tho 



128 


Tench. !“ within easy 

European firm, who continued the estate fa, I 

of previouB experiments tiU 1897 “ fonfinuation 

not ronewsd. [„ igZi ^Jr/j 2 “ '««? Mpindmd to 

™ mde oror to the (CLSiJ. W™ Mra, 

Xinpenol nffriouItuKil enllana C Xndia os the site foi an 

pultivation fann and catti?£eed4Tw‘^°n?i!®'^’ esporimonfal 
lags are bein? oonstraofov? An»l tu^ orm. The necessary bnild* 
hrefng fanniarbSSZ^ e^erimenfnl form and catlle' 

iTS ‘:ifi 

iQoQft/,*!. • expenditure Be- 4 000 °Tn ' 

(or p«nSrs''i:“^ "te oo'Aoi; 

Bs. 6,0^ ®3 Be. 6,600, and the expenditure was 

Sama^pnr Town, - Head-quarters of the sub-dfrisino nf 
N!'SV^''Eo^^ib^^ Bengal, situated in 25“ 62' 

^pSu (ITO 

the Bengal and North- Western BaWay, nndTtwVTi “ 
woriebops which employ 1,000 hands. It ie also a Jaj^ SS? 

income for the five years ending m 1901-02 was Bs. 8,000 andt&i 
expen<iitnro Re, 7,600, In 1903-04 the income was Bs 9 600 
of which Be. 4,000 was denVed from a tax 
property ta,x) and the expenditure was Be. 8,600. The 
contains the usual public offices, etc.; the sub-jail hag aem^ 
znodation for 2d pzisocors, 

Sanrath.— Village in. the hfadhubam sub-dirision- of Dar- 
bhangfi District, Bengal, sitnafod in 26° 24' N. and 86° 3' H 
Popmation (1901) 2,062. It is famous for the loige »m a froligious 
fair) which tates place annually in Juno or July, when fnrire 
numbers of Brfihmans assemble to settle their children’s mamagos 
A fine temple to Mahadeo was built in 1845 by the Varblmugi 
Baj. 



TATK/V nivisiojr. 


129 


C 7 r«! rtfertncn (for Imporiol Gazetteer only). 

Aligftpj Sowan.—Town in S&mn District, Bengal. Ste 
SnvAN. 

BaxSr.— SaVriiTlsion and toim in Sh&bsbiid District, Bcngol. 
Sft Botcar. 

Beehca.— ViUago in ShSliftbild Distnot, Bengal. Sts Bijiita. 
Behar.— Sub-dmrion and town in Fatna District, Bengal. 


Stt BmAK. 

Bhairagnia — YiUngo in Mnz.atbirpnr District, Bengal. Srt 
Bairaonia. 

Bodb Gaya.“~Vfllago in Gaya District, Bengal. Set Bnontt 
Qata. 

Cbapra. — Sab-disTsion and town in S&ran District, Bengal. 
S»e CiiArRA. 

Blnapnr— Sub-divLeion and town in Fntna District, Bengal. 
Stt Dikapore. 

Bnrbbanga.— District, salHlivision, town and estate in Bengal. 
Set DAiimiAXOA. * 

Godi^,— 'Town in Sfiron District Bengal. See Hrveloanj. 
Bbsna. — ^Town in Gaya District, Bengal. Ste IIisua. 
Ebagal. — ^Town in Patna District, Bengal. See IDMOAnr.. 
Laberia Sarai.-'Snburb of Dnrbbangn Town, DarbbnngS 
District, Bengal. Gee DAnwiAKOA Tosvn. 

brozatraTpoTe.—Districl, sub'dlririon and town in Bongnl, 
See MtjZATrAiii'Oii. 

STnkaina. — ^Town In Patno Dfetricl, Bongnl. Ste Mokasikk. 
Bajagriba.— Ttitins in Fatna Dwlrict, Boogal. See Baioir. 
Bosera.— Town in Dnrbbanga Distriol Bengal. See Bvsera. 
SSran Sab-division. — Snlvdirision of S&ran District, Bengal. 
See OirArKA, 

Sasscratn.— Sub-division and town in Sb&b&bad District, 
Bengal. See Sasaeau, 

Segowlie. — Village in Oharaptiran District, Bengal. See 
Saoavij. 

Sewan. — .Sub-division and town in Sfiran District, Bengal. 
S^e Biwah.^ 

Somastipnr.^ — Sub-division and town in Darbhangll Distriot, 
Bengal. See Basiastifur. 

Tikari. — ^Town ond estate in Qny& District, Bengal. Ste 
Trkari 


Tirhoot. — Old District in Bengal. See Tmtiwr.