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TITS CITIZEN OF INDIA 



i* M. KINO irWAKb Vll , EJiPtROH or INDIA. 


THE 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


HY 

SIR WILLIAM LEE-WAPNER, K.C.S.I. 


FELLOW Oh I II h 1,‘NIVLKSII V Oh BOMBAY, AND hUKMl.Kl.Y ACUNC, DIKftL'TOk OK 
VCIU It I N S I Kl't. I ION i;» JU,KAK AM) BOMBAY, AND MEMBER Oh Til t 
rlll.allDS COMMISSION, 


/ n/noy 


MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED 
ST. MARTIN’S STREET, LONDON 


< 9 ° 7 



First Edition 1S97. 

Reprinted January , February, and May 1S99. 

January, March, and April, HHM). 

With corrections, 190J. Reprinted 1901*1905, 
Revised Edition 190*', It. piint«d 190ft, 1907 (thiicc). 


1,1 AM.OH : n**v !Mi AT TMH IMVihOI V I HFSS 
rv ROM t I MAv't Kliior AM) I. < >. HlJ. 



PREFACE. 


In February. 1882, Lord Kipon’s Government «tp- 
] >< »ii i < * a ( ’oimm^siun to report upon the position 
of education in India, and lo make rceommendations 
for its improvement. One of t !u k se recommendations, 
proposed l>y the Principal of tin* largest, and most 
successful of lli£ aided colleges in India on the Till 
<d March, 1882, and carried almost unanimously, 
suggested that, in every college, whether aided or 
( io\ eminent , a series of lectures should be delivered 
to each «»l* the classes in every session on the duties 
of a man and a citizen. It was expected that a 
direction of so w^ue a character might lead to a 
great variety in the choice of subjects and their 
treatment, jpid after the experience of a few years 
it was generally felt that the task of teachers would 
be made more easy if t,he\ and their pupils could use 
a text-book giving an outline of the system of ad- 
ministration and the part which the people of India 
might take in the a (fairs of their country. Accord- 
ingly, the first edition of this treatise was prepared 
and published in 1897, with the approval of the 
Government of India. In the several reprints which 
have followed the first issue from time to time the 



yj 


PREFACE 


figures have been corrected, and a few facts altered in 
accordances %vi I li the latest information, the original 
text being in other respects preserved. I>ut the use 
of the hook lias now extended beyond the colleges into 
the schools, and the language which might have been 
suitable for undergraduates has been found to be f too 
dilhcult for the less advanced pupils of schools. To 
meet, the wishes expiessed on the subject, the author 
has now n* wait ten the book, preserving «as far as 
possible the arrangement, of the subject, hut endeavour- 
ing to express himself in such simple language as 
Indian schoolboys may he expected to understand. 

A*wv/a/V/' r», 1 9o« r >. 



CONTENTS. 


CHARTER I 

CITIZENS AND THEIR RIGHTS. 

Rights and duties- Citizens —India- A land of peace - A land 
of freedom— Queen Victoria’s prorlamat ion, - pp. 1-b 

' ( -HARTER If. 

THE VII, CARE. 

Common interests - Elements of union in India- The village 
community -The past and the present -- Faults and benefits of 
the old system -The modern village*- Villages sham in the 
benelits of the empire— Personal duty, - - - pp. 9 -lM 

CHAPTER III 

TOWNS AND ITTTES. 

IT ban population — Modern towns- Advantages of tow ns - 
Municipal towns- Bocal hoards The eitie.s— ( 'aleiitta Bombay 
— Madras- Rangoon— Other capital cities, - - pp. 21-13 


CHARTER IV. 

PROVINCES. 

Provinces— British provinces Government of the provinces — 
Madras — Bombay- - Bengal The United Provinces of Agra arid 



m 


CONTENTS. 


Ottdh - The Punjab— Burma The ( ’entral Provinces and Berar 
- -Eastern Bengal arid Assam — The North-West Frontier 
Province — Ajmer-Mcrwara— Coot-g -British Baluchistan — The 
Andamans, pp. 44-59 


CHAPTER V. 

THE NATIVE STATES. 

Foreign territory A difficult task Policy of non-interference 
— Subsidiary alliances A return to the 44 Let aloi^” policy 
A general protectorate Misrule and annexation Adoptions 
allowed - Classes of states — Rajputann Central India Agency - 
Baluchistan — Kathiawar — Hyderabad Kashmir — Mysore - 

Baroda — Other suites - Advantages of native rule,- pp. 59-76 


CHAPTER VI. 

THE DISTRICT. 

Districts Districts parts of the province-- Area of the district 
- The distiict officers The executive The collector — Majesty 
of the law- Duties and lowers of the collector - The collector’s 
assistants t Hhep district officers Divisions and commissioners 
— Taluks or parts of tht> district, - pp. 77-91 


CHAPTER YU 

THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT. 

Government : central and local Why there should be supreme 
control Supreme rule difficult in former times The Viceroy— 
The Executive Council of the Viceroy— The Viceroy’s legisla- 
tive < ’omuil -The Secretariat— Headquarters of the Viceroy— 
Oovern men t in public imperial duties— Foreign Affaire- 
Military and marine force* Other work of the supreme 
government Provincial governments- The Secretary of State 
for India in Council, on. 91-113 



CONTENTS. ix 

CHAPTER Viri. 

LEGISLATION. 

The making of laws- The Council's Acts— Right of interpella- 
tion — Special ordinances, • pp. 113-119 

CHAPTER IX. 

RACES AND POPULATION OF INDI A 

What makes a country strong and prosperous ?— Famine less to 
be feared new than formerly — Position of India — Diversities of 
race— The population— Dangers which beset India, pp. 120434 

CHAPTER X. 

TRADES ANT) OCCUPATIONS OF INDIA. 

Division of Labour— Capital — Occupations— Mines Tea and 
coffee - Cotton — OfSier industries — Government service — Emi- 
gration and factory laws —The value of freedom, - pp. 135-152 

CHAPTER XT. 

THE PUBLIC PEACE. 

How the peace is kept at home and abroad — Past and present 
— Naval power — NavJl defence of India— The army — Armies of 
Native states — Civil police — The policeman’s finger— Additional 
police — The fffcople, - - - - - pp. 153-100 


CHAPTER XII 

THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 

Science — Ignorance — Hospitals - Lady Dufferi n — Prevention 
of disease — Vaccination — Water supply- - Conservancy and 
drainage — Sanitary boards — How government fights famine— 
W eather forecasts — I rrigation canals — Wells — Rail ways — 
Forests — Freedom of trade— Work and charity — Plague — Public 
markets, ------- pp. 106-186 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE. 

Taxes, and why wo pay them— Public Income— Budget Esti- 
mates and Accounts —Taxes and rates— Rules by which taxes 
are fixed -Total public income— Public expenditure — Gross 
expenditure— Net expenditure— Credit of India — Exchange, 

pp. 186-€12 


CHAPTER XIV. 

EDUCATION, JUSTICE AND PUBLIC WORKS. 

A choice of benefits — Educational agencies — Public justice — 
Public unrks— Railways —Irrigation works— Post office and 
telegraph— The Press and literature -Education — Government 
colleges and schools-- Private enterprise— Primary education— 
Numbers being educated, pp. 213-232 

CHAPTER XV. 

THE TRADE OF INDIA. 

Trade a proof of proHfwrity— Total Trade of India — Bills of 
Exchange lm|H>rts~ Exjxuts — Manufactures make a country 
rich, - - - pp. *232-241 

i 

CHAPTER XVI. 

The Queen’s Pkoclamation, 


- pp. 242-246 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 


I' A OK 

R.M. Kino Edward VII., Emperor op India, Frontispiece 

Native Indian Village, 10 

Ruined Temples, Vijayanagab, - - - - 26 

Calcutta, - 35 

Bombay from thf/top of the Clock Tower, - 39 

Madras, 41 

Lord Clive, 49 

Sir TnoMAS Roe, 50 

Lord Dufferjn, 55 

Lord Wellesley, - * 62 

A Raja of Rajputana, - - 69 

Nizam-ul-Mulk, 71 

Charles I. of England, 85 

Walter Hospital, 89 

Types of the British Army, 94 

Types of Indian Cavalry, 95 

Lord Minto, - - - 99 

Oxf. of the Viceroys Bodyguard, - • 107 

Houses of Parliament, London, - - - -111 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 


PAGE 


Xil 

A Naga Chief, 

A Rajput Warrior, - 

Gurkha Soldiers, 

Banjaras, 

Indian Ploughman (Madras), 

Cotton going to the Mill, - 

N klson, 

Officers and Men of the British Navy, 
A Calcutta Policeman, - 

Lord Lister, 

Lady Bufferin', - 

The Three Canals, Bezwada, 

Taj Mahal, * 

Railway Bridge across the Jumna, 
Madras Law Courts, .... 
Aqueduct, Ganges Canal, 

Postman, Bombay. 

Senate House, Madras, - - . * . 


126 

129 

133 

137 

141 

146 

155 

157 

164 

169 

172 

178 

189 

208 

220 

223 

225 

229 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


CHAPTER I. 

CITIZENS AND THEIR RIGHTS. 

1. Rights and duties. When we begin to talk 
of citizens or to read about them, we shall often 
hear of 1 rights’ and ‘duties/ Let us try to under- 
stand the meaning of these words. If I owe anybody 
money or* anything else it is my duty to pay it to 
him, and he has a riff lit to demand payment from me. 
As we grow up from childhood to manhood, at each 
stage of our lives we keep on finding out how much 
we owe to others, and fresh duties are constantly 
being added to our* list of debts. We learn at home 
our first lesson on duty — to honour and obey our 
parents — and we have a right to expect that they will 
support, educate, and love us, localise we are their 
own children. At school we are taught not merely to 
ol>ey our masters, but also to be kind and polite to 
the pupils who attend it. From the school or college 
we pass into the outside world, where we meet with 
persons who do not belong to our family and never 
attended our school. They are strangers to us, and 
yet we owe them duties. Some men may earn a 

M.C.I. a « 



s 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


livelihood by tilling the soil, others by keeping shops, 
and others again by various industries and occupa- 
tions. He who tills the soil, the cultivator, has the 
right to exjmct that his crops will not be injured 
by travellers or stolen by thieves, and that the supply 
of water which belongs to him will not he turned 
aside or wasted by others. Hut he ought to treat 
others as he expects them to treat him. It is his 
duty, therefore, to respect the rights of his neighbours 
in these matters. The shopkeeper buys and sells 
goods. When he buys, he looks for honest dealing and 
projHT weights, and it is his duty when he sells to 
deal fairly with others. And in whatever way we 
may earn a living, all of us find that peace and 
freedom are necessary for our happiinjps and prosperity. 

It is the duty of our government to secure these 
blessings for us. The roads which we use ought to 
l>e kept iu order and free from robbers; dispensaries 
and hospitals are needed for the sick; Courts of 
Jiistice "sEould he provided to punish wrong-doers 
and settle disputes ; and armed forces are required to 
keep off our enemies. Those wTiose business it is 
to spend time and money in these matters have the 
right to collect from the people the taxes and rates 
which are spent upon the public objects. At times 
also it may U) necessary that we ourselves should 
help in suppressing disorders. Thus we see how our 
rights and duties extend beyond our homes and 
villages. But besides duties to our fellow-countrymen, 
we have duties to our neighbours in foreign countries. 

There was a time when the tribesmen on the north 
western frontier of India often used to attack Indian 



CITIZENS AND THEIR RIGHTS 3 

villages and carry off not only the property, o! the 
people but also their women and children. In 
revenge, the Indian villagers attacked the trilmnien, 
and the border-land liocame so disturlanl that large 
tracts of good land were left waste. To prevent 
disorders of this kind, the Government placed 
agents in foreign territory, and entered into treaties 
and engagements with its rulers, It is rhe duty of 
every one who lives in India to carry out the agree- 
ments thus made, ami it is his right to expect that 
foreign rulers will perform their promises. Thus it 
appears that our rights and duties are not confined 
even to India itself. We owe something not only 
to our families, our fellow-countrymen, ami our 
government, hut also to neighbouring nations, because 
we live in India. 

2. Citizens. The first meaning of the word citizen 
is 'one who lives in a city/ When men began to live 
together in cities they soon understood the meaning of 
rights and duties and the need for keeping on good 
terms with their neighbours. So long as families or 
tribes of men lived # apart from other tribes, hiding in 
the dense forests, or wandering over the plains where 
they pleased, and moving from one place to another 
in search of fresh pasture for their flocks, or new 
fields to cultivate, they thought of no duties outside 
themselves or their tribes. In course of time some of 
them gave up their wandering life and settled down at 
one spot. They built themselves houses and formed 
villages, cultivating the lands near them. But when 
they had stored up their crops and increased their 
cattle, often other tribes attacked them and robbed 





CITIZEN OF INDIA 


them of their goods. The villagers were at first too 
few to protect themselves, and they therefore sought t 
shelter in larger villages or towns. The towns became 
the residences of nobles or chiefs, who adorned them 
with fine buildings and fortified them with walls and 
ditches ; they protected the inhabitants of the cities, 
and, in turn, the citizens were required to perform 
various duties and pay taxes. As cities grew in 
population they depended more and mor<^ upon the 
surrounding country to supply them with food, wood, 
clothing, and various other things. Villages and cities 
therefore united with the inhabitants of the country 
outside their walls, and thus formed districts, sharing 
their rights and duties with others. In this way 
the inhabitants of one country, uiyler one govern- 
ment, l»ecame citizens of *a state. 

So long as the government was able to protect 
them and treated the people fairly the country 
remained united, lmt in former times the different 
countries of India were under many rulers, and the 
chiefs and ruling families were constantly at war with 
one another. Districts and whole provinces often 
changed masters, so that the subjects of, many states 
could not get attached to their rulers or become as 
fond of their country as the dwellers in cities are of 
their own city. But now, for more than a century, 
the greater part of India, although its districts 
may have been attached to this or that province 
according to convenience, has enjoyed one and the 
same British Government. The people have been 
blessed with peace, and have learnt to think of 
justice and lilxirty as their rights. As men formerly 



CITIZENS AND THEIR RIGHTS 


5 


spoke of a citizen of Delhi or Lucknow, so now they 
speak of “ citizens of India/' meaning the residents 
of this vast country united hy one government, 
enjoying the same rights, and owing the same duties 
to their fellow- subjects and to the King Emperor 
who^ protects them all in their liberties. 

3. India. The country of which we an* citizens 
to-day is one of which we have good reason to be 
proud. It*s snow-clad mountains in the north are the 
most lofty in the world ; its rivers are famous tor 
their length and si/e : its lertile plains are covered 
with rich crop* ; and its forests contain valuable 
timber, which supplies the markets of the world. 
Anyone who travels by railway through India can see 
that the couritry # is well supplied with great rivers. 
There are in India forty-five railway bridges more 
than a quarter of a mile long, twenty-five more than 
half a mile, ten more than three-quarters of a mile, 
one more than a mile and a quarter, two more than a 
mile and a half each, and one more than one and 
three quarters of a mile in length. There are forty-four 
millions of acres watered by canals, tanks, and wells. 
There are splendid harbours on the coast, and metalled 
roads over all parts of the country. The area of 
India exceeds 1,706,000 square miles, and the people 
number 294 millions. Beneath the soil are hidden 
stores of gold, precious stones, iron, coal and other 
minerals, all ready to be used in the service of its 
citizens. 

Many races of men possessing different qualities and 
of different religions inhabit it. In past ages, there 
have lived here great poets, law-givers, warriors and 



6 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


heroes o f mighty fame, and kings whose palaces, 
tom h&, and public buildings still adorn the cities in 
which their builders lived. It is a free country, in 
which the people are allowed to write or say what 
they like, to meet together, and to live where they 
please, so long as they do not break the law. Trade 
and commerce llourish, and although famine and 
plague at times visit the land, its population and 
wealth are continually growing. 

4. A land of peace. India has passed through 
many trials and changes of government in the past. 
If von take any district that you please, you will see 
at once that without peace the citizens cannot increase 
in numbers, nor can they make full use of the advan- 
tages which they possess in their liable country. In 
the united provinces of Agra and Oudh there is a 
district named Bulandshahr which enjoyed much pros- 
|x?rity under the rule of Akbar and his successors. 
When the Moghal empire was broken up the peace of 
the district was destroyed : the fields ceased to he 
tilled Uxniuho no man could be sure that he would 
reap what he had sown ; and the villages were 
deserted Itemise the lives and property pf the people 
were not safe. The famine of 1783 reduced even the 
people of the towns to starvation, and many poor 
citizens' sold themselves or their families into slavery 
for the sake of a. few meals. 

At the beginning of hist century the district came 
under the rule of the East India Company, and order 
was restored. In 1848 a little more than a half of 
the whole area of Bulandshahr was being cultivated, 
and the inhabitants numbered 700,000. In 1871, 



CITIZENS AND THEIR RIGHTO 


7 


the cultivated area had risen to 64 per cent, of the 
area fit for tillage, and the population to 936,000 . 
In 1890, another addition of five per cent, was made 
to the land tinder culture, and the citizens numbered 
950,000. At the beginning of this century 73 
per cent, of the whole area was giving crops, and the 
people had increased to 1,138,100 sou la Then houses 
are built of better material, tbeir cattle have increased, 
and the quality of their food lias improved. The 
wages of artizans have risen, and mills for pressing 
and cleaning cotton have been introduced. The 
history of this distiict is that of many others in all 
parts of the country. Where peace and liberty are 
enjoyed, the citizens increase, fresh industries are 
started, and, as a consequence, the people enjoy more 
rights, and their flu ties grow with their rights. 

5. A land of freedom. Something else besides 
peace is needed so that the citizens of a great country 
may make the best use of the resources which they 
enjoy. There are many countries in which the 
citizens are not allowed to leave the villages in which 
they were born, noi* to seek elsewhere such employ- 
ment as they please. It was so once in India, and 
for ages Iiulian labourers, artizans, and tradesmen 
used to follow the trades of their fathers whether they 
liked to do so or not. Jn many countries of Europe 
men are to-day compelled to serve in the army for a 
short time in order that they may he able to fight for 
their country when their services are required. 

In India there used to he forced labour, and the 
roads or canals were repaired by compelling men in 
many cases to work upon them without wages. In 



a 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


tho matter of trade heavy taxes were put upon certain 
articles, so tliat people could not afford to buy what 
they wanted. Tolls were taken from those who used 
the roads and bridges, and transit duties were charged 
upon goods which passed l>etween the interior and the 
seaports. As people could not move about as they 
pleased or convey goods from one place to another*, the 
cost of living was much higher than it need have 
been, and the people were prevented from using their 
labour in such employments as they chose. In some 
places, and at some times, a special tax was put upon 
those who professed certain religions, as in the case of 
the jizia imposed upon the Hindus, which the Emperor 
Akbar removed and Aurangzib reimposed. Even now 
the rulers of many countries in the East try to prevent 
their citizens making use of the wdlidorful machines 
and discoveries which have been introduced into the 
western world, such as railways, the telegraph, the 
steam engine, and electricity. In all these matters 
India enjoys not only peace, but also liberty, freedom 
of person, freedom of action and speech, and freedom 
of movement and trade. * 

6. Queen Victorias proclamation. In the year 
1857 the government of our country passed from the 
hands of a numi ter of British merchants, known as the 
United East India rompanv, into those of the ruler of 
the United Kingdom. The Queen of Great Britain 
and Ireland lieeame the Queen of British India, and 
in the year 1S7(> she assumed the title of Queen- 
Empress of India. One of the first acts of the Queen 
of India was to send a royal message to her subjects 
in this country, which is printed in full at the end of 



CITIZENS AND THEIR RIGHTS 


9 


this book. She assured them that her strength would 
be in the prosperity of her Indian subjects, her 
security in their contentment, and that their gratitude 
would be regarded by Her Majesty as her best reward. 
She -gave them liberties, such as few other nations in 
the world enjoy, and when in 1901 our King- 
Enfperor Edward VII. ascended the throne, he 
repeated the promises so graciously given by his 
sovereign mother. 

The citizens of India are citizens of the British 
Empire, which extends to all parts of the earth, so 
that the sun never sets upon the whole of it. What- 
ever fame and honour belong to this Empire now 
belong to us as its citizens. We all share in the 
peace and freedom which God has granted to its 
subjects. East* and west, India and England, are 
joined together, and while it is the right of every 
citizen of India to enjoy the liberties of the British 
subject, it is also his duty to take his part in pre- 
serving those lil>erties and handing them on to his 
children. 


CHAPTER II. 

THE VILLAGE 

7. Common interests. The house is the home of 
the family, where the father, the son, and the brother 
learn and practise their duties towards one another. 
In the same way the village is the home of the 



10 CITIZEN OF INDIA 

* 

citizen. It is in tin 1 village that the greatest numbers 
of the {leople of India live. In it men of various 
families, races, and religions, engaged in different 
trades and occupations, feel that they must work for 
and with one another localise they live together in 
the same village. In other words, they find that 
they are united by a common interest. A similar 
lesson is taught in the town or city where the popular 



HATH K INDIAN Mll.t.lOK. 


tion is larger and the duties of the citizens more 
numerous. There are in the whole of India only 
2,150 towns, but there are more than 728,000 
villages, and in the latter 205 millions of persons 
live. It is in villages that iimat of the citizens of 
India enjoy their rights and jierforiu their duties to 
one another. 

The first lesson learned in these villages is that a 
man may belong to another caste or religion, and may 



THE VILLAGE 


11 


be engaged in a different trade from that followed by 
his neighbour, and yet be to him a good fellow-citizen. 
He may leave his fellows to obey their rules of 
caste or # the teachings of their* own religions, and yet 
take his share of the work of the village by their sides, 
and help them to preserve their liberties and rights. 

He second lesson learned there is that the more 
we know about our neighbours and the laws and 
rules of opr Government, the mere ready shall we be 
to keep on friendly terms, and to join with them in 
working for the common good. We ourselves must 
suffer if they should l>e afflicted with the plague, or if 
they should break the laws, or destroy the public 
property. We are all interested in the health, peace, 
and prosperity of our own village. 

We have, in fact, common interests ; and if any one 
should ask what is meant by common interests, he 
cannot do better than think of bis own body. The 
body consists of different parts, and if one part suffers 
pain all the members suffer with it. If, for instance, 
the finger of a man is hurt, we say that he has a 
pain in his finger. * So too in the case of a nation, or 
as it is eatyed ‘ a body politic * : if one village, or 
town, suffers from plague, famine, or other disaster, the 
whole province feels the pain in all its villages and 
towns ; and if the province suffers, the whole nation 
sufl’ers with it. The interests of one part are the 
interests of all, and we shall presently see that thero 
are many things which each of us desires to , see done, 
and which we can only get done by the action of 
several men working together. Thus, the canal which 
brings water to one or more villages can only be made 



12 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


at a heavy coat which all other villages must help to 
\mr ; and the roads and railways which many of us 
use are constructed by the united effort of the whole 
population* 

8. Elements of union in India. It is a common 
saying that ‘ unity is strength/ and the division^ of 
India into so large a numlter of small villages some- 
times makes it difficult to unite its scattered citizens. 
In Europe the feeling of patriotism is promoted by 
wars carried on against a national enemy, by the com- 
bination of many citizens for social or political purposes, 
by the large number and size of the towns and cities, 
by trade or commerce, and by travel and intercourse. 
Although there are some differences of religion and 
race amongst the inhabitants of European countries, 
yet the great majority of them are Christians, and the 
customs and habits of the various classes of society are 
very similar. In India these influences tending 
towards union are often wanting. But, on the other 
hand, the inhabitants have from the earliest times 
possessed certain traits of character and customs likely 
to draw them together, which western countries have 
lacked. Personal devotion to a chief, obedience to the 
father of a family, a strong sense of religion, and 
village communities have, in the past, laid iu India a 
foundation for useful citizenship. The people have 
long since felt in the family circle, in the religious 
sect, or in village life, the practical advantages of 
common action. To a large extent men have been 
accustomed to look beyond themselves, and to feel that 
they are uieinliers of a wider circle than that of their 
own separate families. 



THE VILLAGE 


13 


The village and the caste system have thus intro- 
duced into the daily life of the country an idea of 
co-operation, and a feeling that, if one caste of 
labourers, supplies one want of the village or the 
nation, its wants should be supplied in turn by other 
castes. The spirit of mutual helpfulness* and the 
sense, shared by all classes, of dependent;, upon 
government and a higher provident e, arc influences 
which eve/i to-day tend to unite the people of India* 
On the other hand, the very system of family, caste, 
and creed which has fostered them, is sometimes apt 
to keep these influences to a narrow circle. The 
natives of India are famed for their charity, but their 
charity is more confined within the caste or the sect 
than is the case in Europe. The citizen ought to have 
a wider range of duties and privileges than any class 
or sect of the community can have. As the family is 
merged in the village, so the village is merged in the 
province, and the province in the empire, and by 
citizenship we mean the residents of a whole empire 
united untter one government, sharing liberties and 
rights in common, and owing duties not only to their 
own castemgn or fellow-villagers, but to the whole 
body of their fellow-countrymen. 

9. The village community. There are nearly 56 
million houses in Indian villages and towns. The 
number of villages in the whole of India, including 
the native states, is 728,600, and they may be divided 
into three different classes. In the' first place, new 
villages spring up every year as the population of the 
country increases, or as water is carried by canals into 
parts of the country which used to be desert. The 



14 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


pnxiess of making new villages has been going on 
continually for the last hundred years in many parts 
of the country, and for only a few years in other parts 
more recently annexed to British India. But there is 
one feature common to all these modern villages. 
Growing up in safet) and under the protection of 
British laws, they have not required either the outward 
defences or the local administration which villagers 
needed in the days of disturbance before the, establish- 
ment of order and peace. 

The older villages of the country may be divided 
into two classes according to the systems which have 
prevailed in them from former days, namely, the 
raiyatwari and the* joint- village system. It is easy to 
understand how the raiyatwari village came into 
existence. In the earliest times a family settled down 
in a particular spot and tilled the soil. The head of 
the family was the ruler of the. house, and, when his 
children married and built themselves houses, his 
authority extended over all. Gradually other families 
came to reside in the neighbourhood, and they built 
their houses near to the first comet's as a matter of 
safety and convenience. They soon foumj it necessary 
to employ servants for the benefit of the whole village, 
such as the barlter, the earjxmter, the blacksmith, the 
washerman, the potter, and in course of time the 
silver-smith and the copper-smith. The cultivators 
ploughed the land, gathered the crops, and, after paying 
the rent due to the ruler of the country, they supported 
the village priests and the temple servants, rewarding 
tins village artizans for their services by giving them a 
share of the produce according to custom. 



THE VILLAGE 


15 


Between the raiyats and the officers of Government 
there stood generally a descendant of the family which 
had first settled there, the village headman, and a 
village accountant, who were paid for their public 
duties by the grant of land rent free and by certain 
contributions given to them by the raiyats. The first 
thing which had to be thought about was the projection 
of the village against robbers. For this reason a wall, 
a stockade, or a fence of prickly j>ear was constructed 
round the village, and the gates were guarded at night 
by the village watchman. When disputes between the 
villagers had to be settled, the matter was referred to 
a pa/nchayat or local council. The officers of the 
Government took care that their share of the produce 
was paid, but foi*the rest they spent nothing upon the 
villagers, leaving even the roads and tanks to lie 
provided for by the people themselves. Villages on 
the raiyatwari system are found in most parts of the 
Dekhan and Southern India. 

In the Punjab and Northern India the joint- village 
system prevails. There the raivats who actually 
cultivate the soil do not separately pay their rents to* 
Government, • and a single village headman is not 
required. The lands belong to heads of families who 
have shares in the village and manage its affairs by a 
council. It is supposed that, in times past, the 
ancestors of these shareholders 'either drove the original 
settlers out of the village, or else took from them their 
lands and compelled them to labour for their new 
masters. In any case the new coiners required help to 
carry on the business of the village, and were obliged to 
employ artizans, village watchmen, and other servants. 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


16 

Thus in the old days of disorder the inhabitants 
alike of raiyatwari, and of other villages on the joint- 
village system, arranged amongst themselves for the 
conduct of their local affairs. Some tilled the soil, 
and others worked at trades, receiving from their 
neighbours a certain share of the produce, and tajdng 
the part given to them for protecting and carrying on 
the business of the village. 

10. The past and the present. J ust as the villages 
which have t>een founded in the last century differ 
from the older village communities, so also have 
changes taken place in those ancient communities 
themselves. Tins inhabitants of raiyatwari and other 
ancient villages have no need to-day for walls, stock - 
ades, or fences to protect them frojji attack at night. 
Even the great cities which had fortifications ami 
splendid gates, such as those of !>elhi and 
Ahtnedubad, have now thrown down their walls and 
ramparts, and spread out into the open country. The 
seat of government in Calcutta used to be known as 
Fort William, that in Madras as Fort St. George, and 
that in Bombay as the Castle. It is difficult now 
even to trace the ruins of the walls, which once 
surrounded them. The villages, as well as the towns 
and cities of India, are protected from attack by other 
means, and the walls which hindered the free move- 
ments of the people are not needed in a time of peace 
anti order. 

It is, moreover, good for the health of the inhabi- 
tants that the fresh air should have free entrance 
into their dwellings. An eminent doctor has lately 
expressed the opinion that the plague has been more 



THE VILLAGE 


17 


severe and its ravages more prolonged in those parts 
of the country where the villages are still to some 
extent confined by fences and walls. This was also 
the experience of England when in 1(;G5 the great 
plague, or the black death, devastated London and 
other parts of England. The narrow ill-ventilated 
streets, the want of drainage, and absence cf pure 
air from the houses of the inhabitants, encouraged the 
spread of .the disease, and the great Fire of I/)ndon 
was not without its advantages in removing ill-brill 
streets into which fresh ait and light could not find 
their way. 

The spirit which distinguishes the present from the 
past in India is that of freedom. The old walls of the 
villages have bqpn broken down in more senses than 
one. The raiyats and the artizans may go where they 
like and wlu*n they please. The roads are kept in 
order without forced labour, the prices at which food- 
stuff and other articles may be sold ore not fixed by 
law or regulation, and all classes and persons may 
bring theii* complaints before the courts of justice. 
The villager is not confined to his village, and his 
thoughts go # out to the district or province to which 
he belongs. He feels himself a citizen of a great 
country with rights and duties that extend far 
beyond the circle of the small community in which 
he was born. It is well to understand how this great 
change has come al>out in the lives of the people and 
what it means. Without a strong and just govern- 
ment at the head of affairs it would be impossible for 
the residents of nearly three quarters of a million of 
villages to arrange matters so that all might lie able 



18 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


to work together for the defence of their country and 
enjoy the fruits of peace and order. 

11. Faults and benefits of the old system We 

need not find fault with the villagers of old days 
because they shut themselves up behind walls and 
thought only of their own local interests. Mount- 
stuart Klphinstone, who was governor of Bombay in 
1 .820, remarked that the village communities were “ an 
excellent remedy for the imperfections of a bad form 
of government,” and that they “ prevented the bad 
effects of its negligences and weakness.” When the 
rulers of a province spent nothing upon its defences 
and its roads, it was wise on the part of the villages 
to protect themselves, and to gather within their 
walls the labourers and artizans required for their 
daily wants. Since no courts of law were provided, it 
was well that disputes should he settled by a 
chat/at. But when a foreign invader, such as Nadir 
Shah, came down to rob the inhabitants of the plains 
and cities of India it was soon found that villages, 
however well protected by their inhabitants, were 
quite unable to drive hack his powerful armies. 

8o too when the Bindaris and other gangs of 
robbers within India itself went forth to pillage and 
destroy their own country, each village perished as 
the hosts of thieves advanced. At times the residents 
of a large town, like Guntur, preferred to set fire 
to their houses and perish with their families in 
the flames rather than submit to the cruelties of such 
cut-throats. The villages endured these sufferings in 
times of war or disturbance, l*eeause they had not 
arranged with other villages for their common defence. 



THE VILLAGE 19 

Instead of combining to send forth an army to 
defeat the foe at a distance from their houses they 
waited at home until they were attacked and plun- 
dered, one after another. 

Such was the result of want of union in time of 
war*; but even in times of peace the whole country 
suffered other miseries, because each village lived for 
itself. When famine or pestilence visited the land, 
the government often took no action to save the lives 
and properties of the afflicted masses. It sometimes 
carried away what it could of the scanty crops, and 
left the villagers to starve. The cultivators were no 
longer able to pay the usual dues to the village 
servants, and man) of these helpless people died 
of starvation, waffle others sold themselves or their 
children as slaves to any one w r ho would feed them. 
If only the villagers in all parts of India had com- 
bined with one another, they might have arranged 
for those villages in which famine prevailed to draw 
their supplies of food from distant provinces, and 
paid for them in times of plenty and good crops. But 
so long as each village stood alone, it was as weak in 
times of distress as a single stick taken from a 
bundle, or a single strand torn from a strong rope. 

12. The modem village. The villages have lost 
nothing by the changes which have taken place in 
the government of India. Many of them still keep 
the names which they had in the distant past, and 
occupy the same sites. Traces still exist of their 
ancient constitution. In raiyatwari villages the 
headman, or patel, }>erfonns his public duties and 
exercises an authority in revenue and in police 



20 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


matters over the other residents. He has his col- 
league, the village accountant, known as the kulkarni, 
the patwari, or the karnam, who keeps the accounts 
and writes the returns required by government. 
Although the village-servants may go where they 
please, they frequently continue to perform t^eir 
usual duties, and prefer to remain where their fathers 
lived. 

Hut the events of their daily lives ought to remind 
the villagers that they are citizens of an empire 
whose rulers provide for their wants and safety, and 
expect them in turn to assist in making their country 
strong and pros|>erous. The postman brings to their 
doors letters from all parts of the country; the 
officers of the district and provincial f courts of justice 
are to he seen in their midst; the district engineer 
insjjects their roads; the educational inspectors 
examine their schools; and the collector of the 
district with his assistants visits their fields. A 
district police force arrests rohU>rs ami thieves and 
removes criminals from their midst. At times a 
military force passes through the country, and every 
one hears of expeditious undertaken against the wild 
trilves on the Indian frontier to punish them for raids 
upon Indian villages. Thus with the roads safe 
there is much coming and going, and freed from the 
necessity of defending their own villages the people 
live securely and reap the crops which they have 
grown. 

It is not necessary for the people to provide for 
their safety by leaving the country and dwelling in 
the large cities. In fact, the village population still 



THE VILLAGE 


21 


vastly exceeds in numbers the town population, for in 
calculating the latter it is usual to take a collection of 
houses in which 5000 or more people live as consti- 
tuting a town and not a village. Reckoning in this 
way, nine persons out of ten in the whole of India 
dwell in villages, and only one in ten lives in towns 
or "cities. But the village population varies in 
different provinces. In Bengal it is as high as 95 
per cent, and in Bomba)' as low as 81 per cent. The 
average number of souls in an Indian village also 
varies considerably. In Burma the population of the 
"villages averages 157, in Bengal 335, in Bombay 
508, and in Madras 623 souls. One half of all the 
villages in the empire contain less than 200 residents. 
Taking the whole country we find on an average a 
village in every two-and-a-half square miles, but in 
Bengal there is one to be found in every square mile, 
and in Sindh the average is one village in every twelve 
square miles. 

Thus it will 1)0 seen that India is still a land of 
villages ami its population rural. Although these 
inhabitants are scattered over the whole face of the 
empire in spiall communities, without the protection 
of walls or fences, they are perfectly safe, and dwell in 
peace. They are scattered, but a strong band unites 
them, and as a mighty river is fed by many streams 
and rivulets, so the villagers contribute to the 
strength of the whole country and receive in turn 
their share of the protection and public works which 
the government extends with equal care to all its 
subjects. Instead of relying upon themselves alone 
for their defence and local administration, the 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


inhabitants of each village look to all other villages 
and towns to provide for the common needs of society, 
and to government to use the resources of all of 
them for the common good. 

1 3. Villages share in the benefits of the empire. 
We often hear the complaint made that Indian 
villagers have on the one hand lost their old interest in 
the affairs of their own village, and on the other take 
no part in the larger concerns of the country of 
which they are citizens/ It is said that they readily 
felt the need of living for, and, if the necessity arose, 
of dying for their neighbours in the village, hut 
that they cannot understand how the interests of a 
village are hound up in those of other villages far 
from their dwellings, nor what share they have in 
the misfortunes or the prosperity of tfie empire. The 
daily experience of every citizen is enough to supply 
an answer to these complaints. Although the inhabi- 
tants of towns have, special rights and privileges 
which can only be enjoyed in places where the popu- 
lation is large, yet the residents of the smallest 
villages share erjually with the townsmen the rights 
of protection, freedom, law, and justice. 

In old days, as we have seen, the villages were 
constantly exposed to attack and unable to defend 
themselves. The raiyafc may now dwell secure under 
his own roof, cultivate Ins fields, and reap the produce. 
He may do what he likes so long as he does not break 
the law, and go where he pleases without asking leave 
from any one. The courts of law are open to him, 
and the officers of government dare not treat him 
unjustly. His produce is carried to market over 



THE VILLAGE 


23 


mighty rivers and through forests along roads which 
are maintained for his benefit as well as others. 
Although the rains may fail in an entire province, so 
that the crops wither and even the grass does not 
spring up, yet a supply of food will find its way to 
every village and the people will obtain work or 
relief from the government while the severe distress 
lasts. In short, if any villager opens his eve» to what 
he sees around him, he cannot doubt that the govern- 
ment cares for him and provides for his wants, just as 
much hr it cares for the citizens of the most, important 
towns in the empire. 

1*1. Personal duty. Since this is the case, it is the 
duty of every citizen to think of what is expected from 
him. The government, while it does not desire that 
each village should waste its mono) and labour upon 
keeping up its own defences, needs the help of all its 
subj<*ots to provide for the good of all. The diameter 
of the public servants depends to a large extent upon 
the behaviour of each private person. The human 
body cannot enjoy health if the several mcmliers do 
not work together for it. In the same way the 
government of a country cannot he carried on if the 
citizens do not take an active part in assisting it. ft 
is not at all necessary that a man should be in the 
service of the State in order to fulfil iiis duty to the 
SUite. We hear sometimes complaints of the corrup- 
tion of the police, of the miscarriage, of justice, or of 
the spread of disease which can l>e prevented But 
hrilies would not l>e taken if they were not offered, 
injustice would not Ik? done by courts of law if false 
evidence were not given, and disease would not spread 



u 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


if ifc were not first produced and diffused by neglect of 
pro] >er precautions. 

The country has a right to expect that each citizen 
will use his best endeavours to promote the causes of 
justice and public health. Within the village com- 
munity there used to 1 m? a spirit of mutual help and 
service for the common good. Although the circle 
of our duties is enlarged, there is no reason why 
the same idea should not animate the residents of a 
province or a country. In an address delivered in 
("alcuttn in Decern I M?r, 1896, the Honourable Mr. 
Justice Ranade, (' I.K., made these observations: “ The 
State after all exists only to make individual members 
composing it nobler, happier, richer, and more perfect 
in every attribute with which we are endowed: and 
this perfection of our being can never he insured 
by any outside arrangement, however excellent, unless 
the individual meml>er concerned is in himself prepared 
in his own private social sphere of duties to co-operate 
in his own well-being.” 


CHAPTER III. 

TOWNS AND C ITIES. 

lo. Urban population. The census report gives 
the numlw of people in India. It also show's the 
difference Uffvveen villages, towns, and cities. A 
number of ]»cople living together in one place make up 
a feira, if they amount to 5000 souls or more, and a 



TOWNS AND CITIES 


25 


village , if their number is less. If the population is 
100,000 or more, the town becomes a city, ami a 
capital city is the principal town of a province in 
which the chief offices of Government are placed. The 
population of both towns and cities is called urban 
from a Latin word urbs, which means a town, while 
that’of the villages is called rural from the Latm rit ; 
which means the country. 

The main difference l>e tween India and most 
European countries is that in the former the rural 
population is very much larger than the urban. In 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
which is only one-fifteenth of Ihe size of India, a third 
of the people lives in 39 cities ; in Germany a sixth 
of them lives in 33 cities; and in France a seventh 
resides in only ?5 cities. Tn England and Wales 
more than half of the whole nation lives in towns with 
more than 12 0,0 0 0 inhabitants, while in India not a 
twentieth part is found in such towns. 

In the great Indian empire there are only about 
250 towns in winch some 15 millions reside, while 
the number of towns containing 50,000 people is 83, 
several of them being of modern growth. There 
are besides 1300 smaller towns, each containing from 
5000 to 20,000 inhabitants, and, taking together the 
residents of all Indian towns, they only amount to 
10 per cent, of the whole population. The effect of 
continued peace is, however, shown in the continuous 
growth of trade and commerce, which is sure to draw 
persons from tire country to the towns. Owing to this 
cause the urban population is constantly increasing. 
Thus in the last ten year’s the number of cities with 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


M 

100,000 inhabitants has risen by eight, those with 
over 50,000 by twelve, and those with over 20,000 
by forty-five. 

10. Modern towns. In the town, as in the 
village, a change has taken place in the classes of 
people which live in it and the way in which 



Kt’INKO TKMI-I.K, V I.l \ V ANAi’Alt. 


they live. In the flays of old, large cities were 
either founded bv some pent chief or king, who 
lived there with his court and followers, or else 
they grew up round a famous shrine or temple, 
which was visited hv crowds of pilgrims. The 
celebrated traveller, Hornier, who visited India in 
1059 in the reign of the eii»j>eror Aurungzih, thus 
described what he saw: “A capital city, such as Delhi 


TOWNS AND CITIES 


ST 


or Agra, derives its chief support from the presence of 
the army, and the people have to follow the Moghal 
whenever lie takes a long journey. These cities may 
be compared to a camp. The king’s pay is the only 
means of support.” Whole cities were sometimes 
ordered to remove themselves to another place at the 
bidding of the emperor. The most famous am 1 cruel 
instance of this was the transfer of the capital by 
Mahomed Tnghlak from Delhi to Dauiatdiad in the 
fourteenth century, an attempt which brought ruin 
and death to many thousands of the citizens. 

Cities were, in fact, nothing more than camps, and 
the language spoken in and round the capital of the 
Moghuls came to be called (Tnhi, which means a camp. 
When one king made war upon another the blow fell 
heavily upon the cities, and thus Delhi was often 
plundered in former days. On the other hand, the 
urban population enjoyed the protection of the king’s 
soldiers, and the prolits of trade with them. Arms, 
armour, horses, ornaments, cloth of gold, illuminated 
manuscripts, jewels, and such articles as the court or 
the military officers required, were readily sold. A 
king of line pastes also encouraged learned men and 
poets to settle in his capital. Splendid tombs and 
palaces were built and maintained, giving labour 
and service to the inhabitants. It is true that much 
of the labour was got by force, and even skilled work- 
men were compelled to enter and to remain in the 
service of the chief and his nobles. Still, work and 
the means of living were found for many persons, and 
the taxes paid by the villagers and the cultivators 
of the soil were often spent for the benefit of the town. 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


In our day towns are built up in quite a different 
way. The rural population flocks to the towns to 
please itself, and to supply the wants not of a few 
favoured persons, but of the masses of the people. 
Trade, commerce, and manufactures are the objects 
which draw together workmen and shopkeepers. Ac- 
cordingly, some of the old cities which had the 
advantages of rivers or positions favourable to trade 
still flourish, such as* Delhi and Lucknow. Others — 
such as Patna, the capital of Chandragupta, more than 
two thousand years ago ; Bijapur, adorned by the 
Muhammadan kings of the Adil Shahi dynasty in the 
sixteenth century ; Vijayauagar, the splendid capital 
of the Hindu ruler who restored the kingdom of 
Cantata in Southern India; and A|odhya, the capital 
of Kama in the north — have decayed or are in 
ruins. 

The modern capital cities of India lie upon the 
coast or on mighty rivers, where the naval power of 
Great. Britain can protect them, and where goods 
carried by ships along the paths of the sea can reach 
them. Owing to these advantages Calcutta, Bombay, 
Rangoon, and Karachi enjoy a prosperity such as 
Delhi never reached in the day of its grandeur, and 
yot. their names were not even known to the Moghal 
emperors. The people of the surrounding country 
flow naturally into them and supply the wants of a 
vast population, receiving in return wages and the 
articles of dress and daily use which the villagers 
require. No large military force, no lavish expendi- 
ture of court or nobles create the market. The 
common }>euple themselves are both purchasers and 



TOWNS AND CITIES 


sellers, exchanging with one another the products of 
their labour and reaping the profits of it. 

17. Advantages of towns. The prosperity of the 
city now depends upon the prosperity of the village, 
and the citizen of each learns that the interests of the 
urban and rural population are the same. Stately 
buildings adorn many cities, and the inhabitants 
h eve reason to he proud of the noble tombs, palaces, 
and public buildings which were raised by former 
rulers of India. But the country which paid the 
taxes and bore the cost of these buildings gained little 
benefit from them. It is otherwise with railways and 
good roads, which connect the villages with the towns 
and the towns with the cities of a province. All 
classes reap the bgnelit of them. The, cultivators can 
by means of them carry and sell their foods tufts in the 
town, and the townspeople pay less for the produce 
of the villages if the expense of carrying it to town is 
reduced. In the same way canals are doubly useful, 
sup] dying the towns with good drinking water, and 
the villages with water for their crops. 

It has been mentioned in the iirst chapter that 
India is a land of peace and freedom, and it has been 
shown that many things can be done by the united 
effort of a number of citizens which cannot be under- 
taken by a few. Towns and cities give to the people 
an opportunity for gathering together in large groups, 
and so uniting to carry on large industries. Manu- 
factories for weaving cloth, working iron, and tanning 
leather are thus established in the larger cities, giving 
laWir to the villagers at times of the year or in 
seasons when work cannot be done in the fields. 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


SO 

Fuel, whether wood or coal, is needed in the cities 
not only for cooking purposes, hut also for driving the 
engines used at factories and lighting the streets at 
night. These wants in town can only he supplied by 
working the forests and mines of the country. Thus 
we see how the good of the village is promoted by the 
welfare of the town, and the citizens are taught by 
daily experience that oueli depends on the other. 

18. Municipal towns. The assembly of a large 
nuutlter of citizens in a town also enables government 
to entrust to some of the foremost and best educated 
of them a share i n the public business of the country. 
f/>eal affairs in which the townsmen an* specially inter- 
ested, such as the earo and lighting of their streets, 
the education of the children, t,he water-supply, 
drainage, and conservancy, the maintenance of hos- 
pitals or dispensaries, and so hath, are duties which 
the residents of towns or cities are well able to under- 
take for themselves. Excluding the four capital 
, cities of Calcutta, Madras, I»ombav, and Ihmgoon, 
which possess considerable revenues and powers of 
self-government, there were, in in British India 

joonie^al towns with a total population of about 
14 millions; of this number the presidency of Bombay 
had 1G6, Bengal 157, the Punjab 137, and the 
United Provinces 104, while in Madras there were 
CO municipalities, the remainder leing scattered over 
the other provinces. 

Municipal or local self-government does not mean 
that those towns which enjoy it cease to be under the 
general government of the country. They are bound 
to oljey and live by the laws which apply to all 



TOWNS AND CITIES 


31 


citizens of India, and to contribute their sham of the 
taxes, which are paid by ail inhabitants of the empire 
towards the cost of the public safety and the public 
good. Hut for a good man)’ other advantages which 
benefit their own town they arc allowed by law to 
levy rates (or local taxes) upon the population anti to 
spend the proceeds in the town. There is so much 
work to be done in a large country by the govern- 
inent and its officials that it is wise to secure the 
assistance of the townspeople in providing for thc ; r 
own wants. In the first place, the local residents are 
tatter able to understand what is required in their 
town than the officers of state who live elsewhere and 
have to attend to other duties. In the next place, 
those who exerej^e a local authority learn for them- 
selves what government means. They see how im- 
possible it is to find money to spend upon all the 
wants of their follow citizens. They gain what is 
called a political education, and are taught by experi- 
ence some of the difficulties of governing a country. 

It is impossible, of course, to give unlimited powers 
to municipal 1 todies. Such large concerns as the 
maintenance *>f the army or the police forces must he 
left to the central authorities, who only can ensure 
efficiency and economy. Again, even in the matters 
of local administration, control and supervision are 
necessary. The levy of new taxes, the raising of 
loans, and expenditure on very large schemes, require 
the sanction of government under the Municipal 
Acts. Nevertheless, municipalities enjoy very real 
powers and administer considerable revenues through 
their boards or committees. It is clearly impossible 



32 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


for every townsman to take a personal share in the 
administration, and accordingly a few of them are 
formed into hoards or committees which undertake 
the duties for the rest. Nearly 10,200 members of 
hoards, more than half of them being elected by the 
ratepayers, conducted in 1 9 0 2 - “> the affairs of the 
four capital cities and the other municipalities in 
British India; of them 7880 held no public office 
under government, being called non-official members. 
While the Kuropean members numbered 1840 no less 
than 8860 Indians held municipal office. It is thus 
(dear that non-officials and natives of India conduct 
the main part of urban administration, and, ever since 
ISTiO, their powers have been growing. 

The year 188.“) was specially ^narked in their 
history ns the date from which the election of town 
councillors took the place of the former system of 
nomination by government. Some idea may be 
formed of the importance of urban self-government 
from the fact that, in the year mentioned above, the 
expenditure of the 760 hoards exceeded 867 lakhs 
of rupees. This sum, amounting to three rupees for 
each resident, represented a revenue fieri head of the 
municipal population larger even than the average 
contribution paid to the government by each citizen of 
India. Thus the towns] ample enjoy not only their 
share of the taxes paid for preserving the peace and 
improving the public works of India, but also the 
proceeds of municipal rates and Dues which are spent 
for their sjH*cml fnmetit by their own hoards. 

19. Local boards. Wo may briefly mention here 
a further attempt made by the British Government to 



TOWNS AND CITIES 


33 

give the citizens an interest and a share in their 
own government. Its success varies much in the 
different provinces, but nowhere has ii been possible 
to give the rural population the same measure of self- 
government as that conferred upon municipalities. 
In the country, as well as in the town, it was thought 
that committees or hoards might lie formed t look 
after primal y education, district r«»;.ds, nm disj»eu- 
banes. Accordingly, mere than a thousand local 
boards have been created with 1 0,000 members, of 
whom 5400 are elected. In Madras where the 
attempt has succeeded better than elsewhere, unions 
of villages represented by their headmen, with certain 
other members nominated by government, have 
been formed and have reached the number of 3 80 
unions. l»ut whereas in a town the municipal 
members live generally close to each other and are 
w'ell known to many of their neighbours, the repre- 
sentatives of districts, talukas, or unions are usually 
strangers to each other, and less inclined to meet and 
work logetiter. An ollicial chairman is therefore 
required to direct their proceedings, and rural boards 
are not likely to prove so successful forms of self- 
government as municipalities have already become. 

For, in the first place, the citizens of a taluka or a 
district live scattered in many villages apart from each 
other, and arc busily engaged in the cultivation of 
their fields or the small tradf‘8 of their village. They 
have neither the time nor the interest in the affairs of 
a large tract of country which the dwellers in a town 
or city have in its affairs. In the second place, the 
wend tors of the local boards are not only strangers to 

M.C.I. c 



H 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


each other, but they find ib difficult to understand the 
wishes of the people with whose business they are 
entrusted. 

But unless members of boards feel that they are 
entrusted by others with power to carry out what is 
a common interest, they cannot learn the lesson of 
political education which self-government is meant to 
teach. That lesson is one which many Governor- 
G one nils and Governors of Provinces have tried to 
teach the people. Amongst those who * have done 
most in this direction the names of Lord Mayo and 
the Marquis of Ilipon stand foremost. The total 
income of these local boards exceeds 380 lakhs of 
rupees a year. 

20. The cities. As a town grows in size the wealth 
and authority of its municipal hoard also increase. 
Accordingly it is in the capital cities of the provinces, 
rather than in the towns, that we, iind the citizens 
taking the largest- part in governing themselves, and 
see how peace and commerce are the surest founda- 
tions upon which prosperity can be built. Since 
everyone ought to know the leading facts concerning 
the origin and growth of the capital cities of British 
India, a short account will now be given of the 
four great cities which are included in the 76.0 
municipal towns mentioned above. They are Calcutta, 
the chief city of British India, capital of Bengal ; 
Madras ami Bombay, the capitals of the two presi- 
dencies bearing their names; and Rangoon, the 
capital of Burma. A short notice of the other 
capital cities of provinces will then complete the 
subject of this chapter. 



TOWNS AND CITIES 


85 


21. Calcutta. When Ibrahim Khan was Governor 
of Bengal in 1690 he invited Job Charnoek, chief of 
the commercial business established by the British 
Company in that province, to settle on the banks 
ot the Hugli in a small village. Charnoek accordingly 
bought Calcutta and two neighbouring villages, and 
in 1696 proceeded to fortify his factory against 



CAIA/IJTTA. 


attack by land and river. In twenty years this petty 
village counted about 10,000 inhabitants. But it 
rapidly grew, and in 1750 had over 100,000. In 
100 years more, t>. by 1850, it had 400,000. The 
census of 1872 shewed 638,000, and now it has 
about 850,000. This is without its suburbs, which 
are really a part of the city. If these be included, 
Calcutta contains 1,106,000 inhabitants, and is one 
of the 12 largest cities in the world. A hundred 
years ago London, now the largest city in the world, 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


3 $ 

with a population of over millions, or including 
its suburbs, of about 7 millions, was smaller than 
Calcutta now is. 

Quito two-thirds of the inhabitants of Calcutta are 
not natives of the city, but come up to it for a time 
from the surrounding country to earn a livelihood, 
chiefly hy working in the mills, or at some trade or 
industry. The prosperity of Calcutta has been due 
not only to the maintenance of public peace, but also 
to the triumph of skill and science over natural 
obstacles. The city is situated on the river Hugh, 
and is distant 80 miles from the sea. Ocean steamers 
have to come up this river, and about 50 years ago 
it was found that the silt or mud brought down 
by the Ganges from the hills \va* gradually filling 
up the channel of tin* river and making it shal- 
lower. Great alarm was felt, as it was feared that 
Calcutta would be quite cut off from the sea, and 
share the fate of many once flourishing seaport towns. 
But skilful engineers set to work. The silt is now 
dredged up from the bed of the rivet*, and the channel 
is kept clean ahd open for the passage of steamers, 
and Calcutta still holds its own as ths largest and 
most important port in India, with trade amounting 
to nearly 85 crores of rupees annually. 

When the city had grown in numbers and in 
wealth, owing to trade and the preservation of peace, 
the British government offered, in 1840, to give over 
to the ratepayers the collection and management of 
the rates, if two-thirds of them, in any of the four 
quarters or districts into which the city was divided, 
would ask for it. But they did not care to do 



TOWNS ANT) CITIES 


37 


this. For several years different plans of making 
the city govern itself were tried and several public 
improvements were carried out. 

In 1896 a corporation or council was formed with 
a chairman, vice-chairman and 75 commissioners, of 
whom two-thirds wore elected bv the ratepayers. A 
good deal of business was done, but it was found that 
there were too many members to do the v: jrk 
properly, for much tune was wasted by them in 
talking. In 1899, the number of commissioners 
was fixed at 50, of whom half are elected by the 
ratepayers, ten are chosen by public bodies such 
as the * hamber of Commerce, the trades associa- 
tion and the Port Commissioners, and fifteen 
nominated* by government. The chairman is paid a 
salary and is appointed by government, and may tna 
removed on the request of not less than two-thirds 
of the commissioners. The ratepayers of the city 
do not even now hike sufficient interest in self- 
government, as very few of them who are qualified 
to vote do so. This is to be regretted, because the 
income of the corporation is very large, amounting, 
in 1902-3, to more than 82 lakhs of rupees a year. 

22. Bombay was given to the East India Company 
in 1668. Its revenue was then about IJs. 50,000, and 
its population consisted of about 10,000 “rogues and 
vagabonds.” , Fifty years later, in 3 816, the resi- 
dents were al>out 160,000. In less than 60 years 
from that date, in 1872, they had risen to 640,000, 
and despite heavy losses by plague they now num- 
l>er 982,000. its growth from a collection of 
fishermeu’s huts, lying upon a sandy waste and 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


38 

unhealthy swamp, to a stately city with splendid 
buildings and beautiful gardens, is marvellous. When 
the British first occupied it the air was so pestilential 
that seven governors died in 30 years, and no Euro- 
pean child could live in it. Apart from the plague 
which has lately broken out, it is now a healthy city. 
The wonderful change which has taken place is due 
entirely to British protection. The ships which visited 
the western coast of India in times past were afraid 
to anchor in the splendid harbour of Bombay because 
of the pirates which infested the seas close by. Their 
forts and places of refuge were, however, completely 
destroyed in J 7 of). 

In 1804 the Duke of Wellington, then Sir Arthur 
Wellesley, described the city as a place of refuge 
for the oppressed. “ This island,* he wrote, “ has 
now Income the only place of security in this 
part of India for property and for those who are 
objects of the Beshwa’s enmity and vengeance, thus 
affording the strongest proof of the confidence which 
the natives repose in the justice and wisdom of 
our policy and our laws.” The Peshwa, Baji rao, 
himself fled to Bombay when attacked by the great 
Maratha chief Uolkur. The city was enlarged and 
the waters of the sea shut out by the construction of 
an embankment known as the Vellard in 1771. By 
these means Bombay, protected by sea and land, 
advanced rapidly in imputation and trade. During 
the wars in the Deccan and Guzerat, while the 
Maratha chiefs were fighting one another, a con- 
tinuous stream of settlers sought protection under the 
British flag. Trade flourished in a harbour which 



TOWNS AND CITIES 


39 




40 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


gave splendid anchorage to ships, and was pro- 
tected by the naval power of England. In 1802 
the annual trade was less than a crore and a half of 
rupees. It is now worth GG crores. The first cotton 
mill was erected in 1 854, and to-day 400 factories, 
including cotton mills arc to be found in the city and 
presidency of Bombay. 

In 1872, a town council and corporation were 
appointed and a system of election introduced. In 
1888 certain changes were made, and there is now 
a corporation of 72 members called Commissioners, 
of whom 3 G are elected by the ratepayers, 1G by 
the Justices of the Peace, 2 by the University and 
2 by the Chamber of Commerce, and 1G are nomi- 
nated by government. Any ratepayer may vote who 
pays rates amounting to Us. 80 per annum. From 
among the members of the corporation a smaller 
body called the Town Council of 12 members are 
chosen, of whom 8 are elected by the other com- 
missioners and 4 ate nominated by government. The 
total income of the corporation was in 1902-08) more 
than 3G4 lakhs of rupees. 

23. Madras has no harbour like thi\l of Bombay, 
although in rmmt times stone piers have been run 
out into the sea so as to break the force of the waves 
and inclose smooth water within them, and thus form 
a port in which ships may lie at anchor, and land 
cargoes and passengers easily. In 1639 Mr. Francis 
Day, an officer of the East India Company who was 
looking about for a place on the east coast suitable for 
trade, succeeded in getting a small piece of land 
five miles along the coast by one mile in width inland, 



TOWNS AND CITIES 


41 


on payment of a small rental Here he built a fort, 
and invited traders of all kinds to come and settle 
close to it, to buy goods and to weave and sell cloth 
to the English merchants. During the wars between 
the English and French in India the fort was again and 
again besieged, and once taken by the French. 



Since the year 1758, however, it has enjoyed the 
priceless blessings of peace and safety. During 
troublous times, while the armies of Hyder devas- 
tated the Carnatic, rich bankers and wealthy traders 
came to live in Madras, to be safe under the guns of 
the fort, and the population and wealth of the town 
rapidly increased. The number of its inhabitants, 



A2 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


which was about 400,000 in 1872, had risen to 
450,000 in 1802, and is now a little over 500,000. 
Madras is a very healthy city to live in, as it is not 
nearly so crowded as Bombay and Calcutta. There 
are 29 persons jmr acre to 57 in Bombay and 68 in 
Calcutta. Fully two-thirds of the population are 
natives of the city. The system of election was 
applied to the municipal government in 1878. 
Various changes were made from time to time, as 
they were found to bo necessary. In 1884 an Act 
was made by which 24 commissioners are elected by 
the ratepayers, and 1 0 nominated by government. Any 
ratepayer paying rates amounting to Bs. 25 per annum 
may vote for the election of a commissioner. The 
income of the municipality is about 24 lakhs. 

24. Rangoon. This city, the capital of Burma, is 
situated upon a noble river, the lira wadi, and was 
captured by the British on the 14th of April, 1852. 
The (Jovernor-Cieneral, Lord Dnlhousie, who retook 
the city and finally annexed it, predicted that it 
would Income one of the greatest centres of trade 
in India, and used strong measures to suppress the 
pirates and robbers who infested the r.’ver and its 
banks. Ah soon as peace was established a peaceful 
population flocked to it, and in 1880 it was made 
a city, with largo powero of self-government. The 
municipal area now contains 221,160 residents, and 
its affairs are managed by a board of 25 members, 
of whom only 3 are officials. Europeans, 13 in 
number, take an active part in its administration, 
and its income far exceeds that of Madras, amounting 
to sixty-five lakhs a year. 



TOWNS AND CITIES 


25. Other capital cities. The four cities just 
described are fortunate in l>eing situated upon or near 
the open sea, to which ships carrying goods from and 
to foreign lands ha\e easy access so long as peace 
is preserved by the armed forces of the King- Emperor. 
There is another great city, Karachi, capital of the 
province of Sindh, in the presidency of Bomba* , which 
is also on the coast, and enjoys a trade as great as 
that of Madras. It has a population ot 116,060 
souls, and as it is the port, of India nearest to Europe, 
it is sure to grow in wealth and importance. The 
city of Lucknow, the capital of Oudh, has 264,050 
inhabitants; Dihore, the capital of the Punjab, has 
20;*;000 ; and Allahabad, the capital of the United 
Provinces of Agra and Oudh, has more than 172,000. 
The last-men tii fned province lias several other great 
cities, including Benares, Uawnporo, Agra, and Meerut; 
while Nagpur, with 127,700 inhabitants, is the 
capital of the (Vulval Provinces. Dacca, the new 
capital of the province of Eastern Bengal and 
Assam, has a smaller population of 91,000, but it 
is certain to attract a larger number of residents 
when its position is established. In all these, and 
many other smaller cities, municipal institutions exist, 
and the inhabitants of them enjoy not only security 
and peace, but the privileges of taking a part in their 
own government. 



44 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


»' 


CHAPTER IV. 

PROVINCES. 

26. Provinces. Nine-tenths of the 294 millions 
who inhabit India live in villages and the remaining 
tenth in. towns. Tiie division of the population of the 
country into rural and urban, corresponds generally 
with their occupations, those who cultivate the land 
living in villages, and those who trade or work for 
manufacturers and merchants living in the towns. 
But for purposes of government or administration, 
some other division of the ansa and population is 
needed. The first step is to divide British India, 
which is directly ruled by the King-Emperor and his 
officials, from the Native States, which are under the 
administration of their own princes. British India is 
divided into 14 Provinces, which, as we shall see later 
on, are subdivided into districts, each of which includes 
a mnuter of towns ami villages. The names of villages 
and towns, as a rule, remain the same for ages, though 
changing rulers may alter the names and the extent of 
the provinces into which they divide countries. The 
fourteen provinces into which British India is now 
divided, are comparatively modern. In ancient times 
India included a great many kingdoms, each under 
its own ruler. Once in an age perhaps a powerful 
king like Anoka would conquer many countries, each 
or which would then be a province of his empire 
and be ruled by a governor under him. But sooner 
or later, after he had passed away, most, if not all of 



PROVINCES 


45 


these provinces would each of them become an in- 
dependent kingdom under a ruler of its own. When 
the firm rule of Akbar had united all northern India 
into one great empire, provinces or sulpha were formed, 
and each of them was again subdivided into sarkors or 
districts. Abul Fazl, one of the ministers of Akbar, 
tells us in the Ain-i-Akbari that the Moghrd empire 
(about the year 1504) consisted of 105 sarkars and 
2737 townships. The sarkars were, grouped into 12 
suhahs, each of which was named after the ancient 
kingdom which it included or by its capital city, These 
sii balls were Allahabad, Agra, Ornlh, Ajmer, Ahme- 
duhnd, fielmr, Bengal Delhi, Kabul, Lahore. Multan, 
ami Malwa. The nunibor of subalis was afterwards 
raised to 15, wljpn Berar, Khamlesli and Ahmednagar 
were conquered. Each sarkur was subdivided into 
rnahals. 

27. British provinces. The 14 provinces of British 
India are called Madras, Bombay, Bengal, the United 
Provinces of Agra and Oudh, Punjab, the Central Pro- 
vinces, to which is attached Berar, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam, Burma, Ajmer, Coorg, the North-West Frontier 
Province, British Baluchistan, and the Andamans One 
can see at a glance that Akhar’s India, which included 
Kabul, embracing Kashmir arid Kandahar, extended 
further on the north-west. On the other hand, British 
India stretches far away to the east, right up to the 
river Mekong, embracing the whole of Burma, which 
was never subject to Akbar. It also includes nearly 
the whole of Southern India, which never owned 
Akbar’s sway. And a great difference 1 >etween Ak bar's 
provinces and those of British India is that the latter, 



46 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


with the exception of Berar which is held under 
a perpetual lease to the Government of India, do 
not include the native states. These were treated as 
a part of the Moghal empire while under A k bar’s rule. 
Three-eighths of India are native states under native 
riders, in alliance with the Supreme power. 

2 8. Government of the provinces. 1 1 is very prob- 
able that from time to time the limits and size of some 
of the British Provinces may be altered. At present 
the provinces vary much in extent, three of them 
being under .1,200 square miles in area, while Bengal 
includes 110,054, and Burma 210,000 square miles. 
In population the difference between the provinces 
is still more striking. Each of them is under a 
ruler whose title varies from governor to lieutenant- 
governor or chief commissioner. Two of them, Madras 
and Bombay, are still calk'd presidencies, and are under 
governors appointed in England, and aided hy councils, 
over whom they preside. Five — Bengal, the United 
Provinces, Eastern Bengal and Assam, Punjab, and 
Burma— are under lieutenant-governors appointed by 
the Viceroy. In these seven provinces there are 
legislative councils, which will l>e described later 
on, for making laws and regulations. Each of them 
is allowed to keep for its own expenditure a large 
share of the money raised by taxation within its 
limits, called Provincial funds, the remainder being 
sent to the Supreme government to be spent on 
certain objects for the good of the whole of British 
India, and known as Imperial fluids. Of the seven 
remaining provinces, the Central Provinces and Berar, 
which together make up an area of 100,196 square 



PROVINCES 


47 


miles, constitute one government larger in area, but 
less populous, than the Punjab, and are under a 
Chief Commissioner. The Andamans and N icobars 
are a small civil administration which is important 
because these islands are a settlement to which 
convicts from India are sent. These three provinces, 
for Berar is a province although under th ' same 
Government as the Central Provinces, an* under the 
direct charge of the Government of India in the Horne 
Department; while the four provinces known as the 
North-West Frontier province, Baluchistan, Ajmer, 
and Coorg, arc administered hv high political officers, 
also called Chief Commissioners, who are under the 
orders of the Government of India in the Political 
or Foreign Department. 

29. Madras. * The Madras Presidency is the oldest 
of the provinces. The first trading station in this pro- 
vince was established in 1611 at Masulipatara, which 
was abandoned in 16 J8 in favour of Armagon, on the 
Coromandel coast; but the merchants returned to 
Masulipatara in 1622 by permission of the King of 
Golkomla. Francis Day was the founder of the Fort 
of St. George, built at a place called * Chinapatam or 
Maderaspatam/ which was purchased from a raja of 
the country in 1639, and to this the Company's 
servants, or factors as they were called, at once 
removed their business. In 1653 Fort St. George 
was raised to the dignity of a Presidency, the head of 
the administration being called President. 

Here the English merchants traded peaceably for a 
hundred years. In 1744 war broke out between the 
English and French, and the French leader, Dupleix, 



48 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


attempted to drive the English traders out of Southern 
India so that the French might have all the trade to 
themselves. The French took Madras, but when the 
news reached England, English soldiers and an English 
fleet came out, retook their own town and went on to 
capture Pondicherry, the chief French trading station. 
A few years afterwards, in 1760, they took Masulipatam 
and the Northern Barkans, a strip of country on the east 
coast, north of Madras, which at that time belonged to 
the French. The Emperor of Delhi, Shah Alam, then 
the Overlord of the country, made a grant of the 
northern Barkars to Colonel Clive, the English leader, 
in 1764. This strip of country, with the town of 
Madras, was the beginning of the Madras Presidency. 

How Hyder Ali, a soldier of fortune, took Mysore 
from the ancient Hindu dynasty, which had ruled the 
country fur centuries, how he attacked the allies of the 
English, and how war arose* between the English and 
Hyder and his son Tippu Sultan, may he learnt from 
Indian history. In the end the English were victorious, 
and in 1793 Malabar, on the western coast, and the 
districts in the Carnatic, now called Salem, were ceded 
to Lord Cornwallis by Tippu; while in 1799 three 
other districts were, on the defeat and death of Tippu, 
added to British territory, ami Mysore was restored 
to its ancient Hindu rule. About the same time, 
in 1 i 99, Be Bury and Cuddapa were ceded by the 
Nizam of Hyderabad. In 1801 the Nawab of 
the Carnatic, who had conspired against the English 
with whom lie was in alliance, to help Tippu, died, 
leaving no son, ami the rest of the Carnatic lapsed 
to the Company. In 1838 the small district of 



PROVINCES 


49 






LORD OLIVE, 

From an engraving by Bartolozzi, after the picture by Nathaniel Dance. 


M.C.I. 


D 






50 CITIZEN OF INDIA 

Kurnool was annexed. Thus it will be seen that in 
about 50 years the small trading station of Madras 
grew into a great province. It has now an area of 
about 142,000 square miles and 28 millions of people. 

20. Bombay. Only 26 years before British traders 
bought Madras from the Hindu raja, a British factory 
had IwMm established on the western coast at Surat 

under a grant from 
Jehangir, emperor of 
Delhi, to Sir Thomas 
Boe, an ambassador to 
the Mughal court from 
dames I., king of Eng- 
land. The next year, 
1614, the Emperor 
issued orders allowing j 
the merchants of King j 
Janies the privileges of 
free trade throughout 
his empire. In 3 668 
Bombay with its fine 
harbour was acquired 
not from any native <hief, but by its transfer to the 
East. India Company on a small payment from the King 
of England, to whom the Portuguese had ceiled it in 
1661, as part of the dowry of the Spanish Princess, 
who married ( harles 11. The headquarters of the Gom- 
I^uiy's trade on the west coast of India were moved from 
Surat to that island, and in 1708 the settlement was 
made a Presidency. Here the English merchants traded 
in immco for the next 60 years. In 1775 Eaghunalh rao, 
better known as Kaghuba, the Peshwa of the Marathas, 



PROVINCES 


51 


who was opposed by the other Maratha chiefs, asked 
the Bombay government to help him, and gave them 
the two islands of Salsette and Bassein , which are close 
to Bombay, as the price of their help. A war followed, 
and in the end peace was made, and by the Treaty of 
Salbai in 1782 the other Maratha chiefs agreed that 
the Company should keep these islands. Twenty years 
later Baji rao, the son cf Uaghnta, who then 
Peshwa, was attacked by Holkar, a powerful Maratha 
chief, and fled to Bombay to save his life, By this 
time the British had become the greatest power in the 
country, and Lord Wellesley, who was then Governor- 
General, saw that the only way in which peace could 
l>e secured throughout the vast continent of India was 
to establish onq, strong central government, which 
should he acknowledged by all other kings and rulers; 
keep them from fighting with one another; and 
make them rule their own territories properly. Baji 
rao agreed to this by the treaty of Bar; win in 1802. 
To pay for the cost of the war, which had to l>e 
waged with the other Maratha chiefs who refused 
to agree, he ceded to the Company some of the districts 
which now fown part of the Presidency. After the battle 
of Kirkee in 1817 the Deccan (excluding Hyderabad) 
and the Konkan were added to the Presidency in 1817. 
Sindh was annexed in 1848 and included in it. The 
Bombay Presidency has enjoyed peace for the last 85 
years. Its population is now about 18 J millions, and 
its area about 123,000 square miles. 

31. Bengal. The grow th of Bengal was due to the 
same causes which led to that of Madras and 
Bombay, but it was more marked and more rapid. 



52 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


The Emperor Shah Jehan permitted the East India 
Company to set up a factory at Hugli, near the mouth 
of the Ganges, in 1640, the year after they got 
Madras. In 1681 Bengal was separated from Madras, 
and a governor, Mr. Hedges, was appointed to take 
charge of the various factories at Patna, Balasor, 
Dacca, and other places in that part of India. But 
the Moghal governor of Bengal treated the British 
merchants with great severity, and Job Charnock 
retired from Hugli in 1686 to Chatanati. This 
village and two others called Govindpur and Kalikata, 
were purchased from Prince Azim Ushan in 1698, 
ami, on the site of the last, Fort William was built. 
Kalikata, or Calcutta, became a Presidency in 1707, 
and for the next lifty years the Company carried on 
their trade in peace. But on the 20th of June, 1756, 
Siraj-ad-daula attacked Fort William and thrust its 
occupants, 146 Englishmen, into the Black Hole , where 
all save 23 died in a single night. War followed, 
and in 1765 the Moghal Emperor, Shah Alam, con- 
ferred upon the Company the diwani of Bengal, Behar, 
and Orissa. In 1803, Orissa was taken from the 
Marathas, who had seized upon it, and the whole 
province of Bengal, which then included part of the 
present United Provinces, was placed under a governor. 
In 1834 the governor of Bengal was made Governor- 
General of India. He continued to govern the province 
of Bengal, without a Council, till 1854, in which year 
the first Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal was appointed. 
In the meantime, in 1836, the Upper Provinces had 
been detached, and included in what were then called 
the North-West Provinces. In 1874 it was found 



PROVINCES 


53 


that Bengal was too large for one province, and Assam 
was made into a separate government. Again, in 
1905, the size of Bengal was reduced by transferring 
three divisions, Dacca, Chittagong, and Kajshahi, with 
the district of Malda, to a new province which in* 
eluded Assam; but Bengal still counts a population 
of 50,72*1,000 and an area of 110,054 square miles. 

32. The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. 
This province was, until 1002, known as the North* 
West Province, because, when it was so called, it formed 
the north-west limit of British India. When Bengal 
was ceded to the British, its population grew rapidly 
rich and prosperous under their rule. But in the 
country beyond there were civil wars and anarchy. 
The Afghans and Marathas ravaged it in turn. The 
English Company had given all the help it could to 
Sbuja daula, nawab of Oudh, in the hope that as a 
strong and friendly power, he w’ould prove a good 
neighbour and protect his ovrn and their territory from 
attack. But this he failed to do. During the wars 
with the Marathas, the territory of the Doab which 
lies between the Jumna and Ganges, was given up to the 
British by tjie Maratha chief Sindhia, after his defeats 
at Assaye and Laswaree in 1805. This formed the 
province of Agra. British authority was extended up 
to the Sutlej in 1808, and the Sagar and Narbada 
territories, afterwards incorporated in the Central 
Provinces, were ceded by the raja of Nagpur in 1811. 
The hill tracts of Kainaon and Garhwal and Dehra- 
dun were added after the Gurkha war in 1816. 

The kingdom of Oudh, in which tyranny, oppression 
and misgovernment had been carried to their utmost 



54 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


limit, was taken from the Nawab after repeated 
warnings in 1856, and in 1877 united with the 
North-West Provinces. On the formation of a new 
North West Frontier province, on the north-west of 
the Punjab in 1001, tin? name wjih changed to that 
of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. The 
Lieutenant-Governor has his headquarters at Alla- 
habad. The population is 47 h millions, and the area 
•about 107,000 square miles. 

33. The Punjab. The province of Punjab, watered 
by the five rivers — the Sutlej. Peas, Ravi, Ohenab and 
dhelum -was created almost at a single step like that 
of Bengal. It was not slowly lmilt up, like the 
United Provinres, after many wars, hut the whole 
of it fell into the hands of the British owing to 
causes which are easily explained. f 

The Fast India Company wanted to leave the 
country lieyuud the Sutlej outside! their dominion, 
and therefore in 1800 made a treaty with ltanjit 
Singh which gave him leave to assert his own 
authority over the province. This In* did by suppress- 
ing all the native slates and keeping up a powerful 
army. On his death, in 18.41), his successors failed 
to keep the soldiers in order, and the army, number- 
ing <2,000 men, with .481 guns, created disturbances. 
British territory was invaded, and the authorities, 
forced to protect their north- western province, defeated 
tJie Sikh army, and look ijo&seamon of a part of the 
Lahore state, halving the remaining districts to l>e 
administered for the future Maharaja, then a child. 
Ibis act of self-denial was not understood, and when, 
in 1848, two British officers were murdered at 



PROVINCES 


55 


Multan, the Sikh army again came to blows with 
the Briiish. After suffering four defeats they laid 
down their arms, and Lord Dalhousie saw no other 
course but to annex the Lahore state and provide 
a pension for the Maharaja and his family. The 
province was first governed by a board of three 
members, and then, in 1853, by a chief commissioner. 
In 1859 it was placed 
under a Lieutenant- 
Governor. Its chief 
city is Lahore, am! the 
population is now over 
20 millions. The area 
is about 97,000 square 
miles. 

34. Burma. This 
province began with 
the conquest, in 1820, 
of Aracan, Tavoy, and 
Tenasserim from the 
king of Burma, who 
had attacked British 
India. There was a 
second war in 1852, 
which ended in the an- 
nexation of Pegu by 
Lord Dalhousie, and in 1885 a third war resulted 
in the conquest of Upper Burma, when Ixird 

Duflferin was Viceroy. In 1802 the lower pro- 
vinces had been placed under a Chief Commissioner, 
and in 1897 both Upper and Lower Burma 
were united under a Lieutenant-Governor, whose 



m CITIZEN OF INDIA 

headquarters are at Rangoon. The area o! the pro- 
vince, which is the largest in India, is 236,700 
square miles. It includes 36 districts with a popula- 
tion of 104 millions. As the country was filled with 
disorder which desolated the villages and reduced the 
population during the rule of the Avan kings, it is 
certain that now that there are peace and order and 
good government, its population will greatly increase. 
In the 10 years from 1802 to 1902 it had risen 
from 71 to 1 0 A millions. The port of Rangoon, 
protected by the British navy, has become one of 
the largest centres of trade and commerce in the 
empire. 

35. The Central Provinces and Berar. These pro- 
vinces include territories conquered fyun Sindhia and 
the Raja of Nagpur in 1 81 8, and the rest of the native 
state of Nagpur, which was annexed in 1 853, when the 
raja died without an heir. In 1 862, Sambalpur and 
some other districts were taken out of the Province of 
Bengal, and at a later date, in consequence of various 
exchanges of territory between the British govern- 
ment and certain native states, Nimar was also 
added. In this way one united province^ called the 
Central Provinces, was formed and placed under a 
Chief Commissioner in 1861. The Province has lately 
restored the greater part of Sambalpur to Bengal, but 
it still retains a population of nearly 12 millions, 
and an area, including Berar, of 100,396 square miles. 
The capital town is Nagpur. Quite lately the country 
of Berar, with a population of 2f millions and an 
area of close on 18,000 square miles, which Wongs 
to the Nizam of Hyderabad, and was, in 1854, 



PROVINCES 


57 


assigned to the Company for the payment of a 
military force, has been put linger the government 
of the Central Provinces, being leased to the British 
government under an arrangement concluded by Lord 
Curzon. Berar, which ranks as a province, is thus 
a portion of the native state of Hyderabad, but since 
the lease of it is perpetual, its administration rests 
entirely with the Government of India, and is 
similar in all important respects to that of the 
Central Provinces. 

36. Eastern Bengal and Assam. Assam was 
made a province in 1874, by separating from Bengal 
two districts, Sylhet and Goal para, which had formed 
part of it when it was ceded to the British as a 
part of Bengal by the Emperor of Delhi in 1 765. 
To them were added other districts, including that of 
Assam, from which the province took its first name, 
which were conquered from the Burmese in 1826. 
Other portions of the hill districts were added 
from time to time, as they were annexed to punish 
the wild and lawless hill tribes which inhabited 
them when they attacked villages within British 
territory. In* 1905 the increasing amount of busi- 
ness devolving upon the Lieutenant-Governor of 
Bengal led to the detachment of nine districts from 
Eastern Bengal and eight more from Northern Bengal, 
which were added to the thirteen districts of Assam 
and placed under a Lieutenant-Governor with his 
capital at Dacca. The province of Eastern Bengal 
and Assam now includes 101.147 square miles with 
a population of 30 f millions of whom eighteen 
millions are Muhammadans. 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


m 


37. The North-West Frontier Province, with an 
area of 16,400 square miles and a population of over 
two millions, has been very recently formed to the 
north-west of the Punjab. It includes the districts 
of the Punjab to the west of the Indus, with its 
capital at Peshawar. The head of the province is 
Styled Agent to the Governor-General. 

38. Ajmer-Merwara. This province is in Kajpu- 
tana. Ajmer was received from Sindhia, in 1818, 
in exchange for certain territories which had been 
acquired from the Peshwa. Merwura fell to the 
Company as its share of u district rescued from 
gangs of plunderers by a British force sent to assist 
the Rajput states of Mewar and Marwar. The 
Resident in Rajputana is also (’kief Commissioner 
of the province which measures 2700 square miles 
and has a population of nearly half a million. 

39. 0oorg is a small province in the Western 
Ghats on the west of Mysore. Its area, is about 
1000 square miles and its population 181,000. 
It* raja, Vim Rujoudra Wodiar, treated the people 
so cruelly that numbers of them tied to British 
territory for protection. As the rajft refused to 
listen to advice »»r amend his ways, he was in 1884 
deposed hy a British force. The headmen of Coorg 
then held a darhar, and requested that the British 
would annex the country, which was dona The 
capital of Coorg is Mereura and the Resident in 
Mysore is the Chief Commissioner. 

40. British Baluchistan, with an area of al>out 
46,000 square miles and n population of 308,000, 
is a part of the empire on the south of Afghanistan, 



THE NATIVE STATES 


59 


and is governed by a Chief Commissioner whose 
headquarters are at Quetta. The district of Quetta 
came under British rule in 1879, the Bori valley in 
1884 and the Zhob district in 3 8K9. 

41. The Andamans, with Port Blair as their capital, 
were made the penal settlement foi Indian convicts in 
1858. They form a chain of four principal and 
several smaller islands in the Indian Ocean, distant 
450 miles from Bangoon. The Nicobar Islands 
are close to them, and the total area of all of them 
is 3000 square miles, and the population about 
25,000. 


* CHAPTER V. 

THE NATIVE STATES. 

42. Foreign territory. If you look at a map of 
India, you will see that there are large tracts of 
country not included in the 14 provinces of British 
India that have been deseiihed. They are called 
Native State*. All of them taken together make up 
an area more than half as large as British India. 
There are altogether nearly 700 of these states, 
some of them very large and others including only 
a few villages. But in one point they are all alike. 
Although they are all parts of the continent of India 
and of the British empire in India, yet they are 
not parts of the territory under British law and 
known as British India. "They are not ruled by 
officers of the King-Emperor, although they are 



60 


CITIZEN OP INDIA 


protected by his Majesty, who ks their Overlord. 
They have their own laws and their own courts of 
justice. The people who live in them are directly 
subjects of their chiefs, and, in short, the states are 
not British but foreign territory. 

But although these states are not directly under 
our government, yet they are situated in India, 
of which they form a part, and it makes a great 
difference to us whether they are well or ill governed. 
If civil war should break out in one of the larger 
states, or if the? government should be overturned and 
the country overrun by bands of robbers, it would 
be very hard to keep them out of British territory. 

This is just what caused the Pindari war, as we 

know from history. If a native <*\nny should refuse 
to obey the ruler of the state or its own officers, 

as the armies of Gwalior and of the Punjab once 

did, our own country might l>e invaded, as it then 
was, and a cruel and costly war would be the result. 
Or if a powerful ruler were to make a treaty with 
our enemies, as Tippu Sultan once did with the 
French, we might have to tight both by land and 
sea. The native ruler and his state might be ruined, 
and we should be put to great loss and many of 
our soldier's killed. And if the chiefs who rule in 
the smaller states should shelter gangs of robbers 
or encourage evil customs like suttee or infanticide, 
which are forbidden in the neighbouring British 
villages, the people who live in the latter might be 
tempted to follow their bad example, and the 
difficulty of putting a stop to evil practices would 
be increased. It is therefore for the good of the 



THE NATIVE STATES 


61 


inhabitants of British India and of the native states 
themselves that they should be well governed. 

43. A difficult task. It was no easy matter to pre- 
serve so many states in the Indian Empire, and success 
was not attained without some failures and several 
changes of policy. Before British rule, all the weaker 
states were sooner or later annexed by a stronger 
power as by the Moghai Emperor of Delhi or Banjit 
Singh of the Punjab. But except, perhaps, the great 
Akbar and his immediate successors, there never lias 
been, in times within our knowledge, any power so 
much stronger than all the rest as to take the place 
of Overlord or Supreme Sovereign of India, maintain 
peace and order throughout the country, and at the 
same time preserv^ the weaker and smaller states. The 
best way of doing this was only found out after a 
long time, after repeated trials and experiments. In 
the old days it seemed to British rulers as if the 
only way to preserve a weak state from ruin was to 
annex it. Even after the success of the wars which 
the East India Company had been compelled to 
wage in defence of its own factories, and after the 
Company had become the strongest of the great 
powers of India, the difficulty of making the princes 
and chiefs of neighbouring states into friends and 
allies was so great as to seem a hopeless task. 

44. Policy of non-interference. At first it was 
thought that if the rulers of the states were left alone, 
and no alliances made with them, they in turn might 
leave the British merchants to pursue their trade in 
peace and quiet. The East India Company, which 
had obtained leave from the Moghai Emperor to trade 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


62 


and had then proceeded, peaceably and lawfully, to 
establish their factories on the sea-shore, had no 
wish to rule over extensive territories. Their object 
was to engage in profitable commerce, not to take 
fiart in wars and intrigues. When their traders and 

servants had to defend 
themselves, and to 
only way 
to escape from being 
driven into the sea, 
and when, as a 
sequence of the wars 
thus forced upon them, 
tho Company began to 
obtain countries by 
conquest or treaty, 
the Hritish Parliament 
did all it could to 
keep them from ac- 
quiring fresh dominion. 
Accordingly, in the 
reign of Uoorgo III., 
an Act qf Parliament 
was passed in 1793 
which said, “ To pursue schemes of conquest and ex- 
tension of dominion are measures repugnant to the 



U>R1» WKt.l.K.St.KY. 


wish, tho honour, and the policy of this nation/’ 
The merchants in England tried to carry out this 
view, and in their letters, which have been care- 
fully kept and may even now be read, they again 
and again forbade their officers in India to enter 
into any engagements with native states that could 


THE NATIVE STATES 


6S 

be avoided, or meddle with any native prince. They 
said that they wished that each great power as it 
then stood should remain as it was, and not get any 
stronger or any weaker. This policy or plan of letting 
things alone was known as the “ non-intervention ” 
or “ let alone ’ policy. But the consequence wits that 
outside the British territories there were wars all 
over India. Many states in ( 'mitral India and liajj u- 
tana were becoming deserts. The country w\ta going 
fast to ruin. I>is<mler prevailed everywhere. 

45. Subsidiary alliances. The first British states- 
man to perceive what ought to be done to preserve 
peace throughout India was Lord Wellesley. When 
he came out to India in 1798, he found that Tippu 
Sultan of Mysore had been writing to the French, 
then the deadly 4oes of the British, asking them to 
help him to drive them out of India, and lie knew 
other native powers were in league with him. At 
the same time the Nizam of Hyderabad, whom the 
British government was bound by treaty to assist, 
was attacked by powerful enemies and was in great 
danger. It was clear to Lord Wellesley that matters 
would get worse and worse, and that wars would 
never cease "if the native princes were allowed to 
do as they pleased, and that in the end the British 
would have to fight to defend themselves or make 
up their minds to leave the country altogether. 
He determined to make the British, who were at 
that time the strongest and the most civilised of the 
great powers of India, the supreme ruler of India, 
on wdioin would rest the responsibility of protecting 
the whole country from foreign invasion, of defending 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


64 

each of the smaller states from its enemies, and of 
maintaining }>eace and order everywhere. 

It would be necessary that each of these states 
should contribute a share, smaller or larger accord- 
ing to its size, to the cost of the great standing 
army which protected it. As this contribution was 
called a subsidy, and the force which protected 
each of the larger states a subsidiary force, Lord 
Wellesley’s system is known as the subsidiary system. 
That this system should succeed, it was needful that 
each and every state should agree to it, and if any 
state would not agree, it was needful to use force 
to make it do so. Tippu refused, and was crushed. 
The Nizam agreed gladly, for to him it meant safety 
and peace. His successor, the firm friend and ally 
of the British, still rules Hyderabad, the greatest 
Muhammadan state in India. The Onekwar also 
agreed, and one of his descendants still rules Baroda 
as an ally of the British. Of the other great 
powers some agreed at first, hut they afterwards 
changed their minds, and made war. 

40. A return to the “ Let alone ” policy. Lord 
Wellesley did not stay long enough in India to 
complete his work. And the East India Company 
found that the wars which he had made cost a 
great thud of money, and took away all the profits 
of trade. The British Parliament and many great 
men in England did not approve of what he had done. 
They had never l>een in India, and had not seen 
for themselves the state of affairs there, as Lord 
Wellesley had. If they had supported him and 
carried out his policy fully, there would speedily have 



THE NATIVE STATES 


65 


been peace everywhere, and the enormous increase 
of trade and of cultivation tiiat would have followed, 
besides the cessation of expenditure on war, would have 
soon raised the profits of the merchants beyond any 
point they had reached before. There was, no doubt, 
a great increase of expenditure necessary at first, and 
this was all they looked at. They did not allow time 
for the effect of the subsidiary system to be seen. 
Accordingly Lord Cornwallis, who had previously 
served as Governor-General and avoided as far as 
possible making any alliances with the states, returned 
to Calcutta, with orders to go back to the “ let 
alone” policy and to meddle no more with any 
Indian prince. 

47. A general protectorate. This policy of leaving 
the chiefs of native territories without the protec- 
tion and control of the British power was followed 
for the next ten years, and the effect of it was by 
that time clearly seen. All Central Imh'u was again 
filled with disorder. Armies of robbers, called Pin- 
daris, roamed all over the country. The Jiujput chiefs, 
who had been in alliance with the British and de- 
pended on thtfrn for help and protection, were attacked 
by their enemies. The Gurkhas invaded British India 
on the north. The great Maratha chiefs, headed by 
the Peshwa, attacked the British troops in their 
country. The Marquis of Hastings, who had cotne 
out as Governor- General in 1 8 1 M , saw how matters 
stood, and informed the British government and the 
Company at home that the only way to save the 
country was to return to Lord Wellesleys policy, and 
this he was allowed to do. After five years of 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


m 

constant warfare he succeeded in bringing all India, 
except the Punjab, under British protection. His 
purpose was to manage for the native chiefs all 
matters that concerned their relations and dealings 
with other powers and chiefs, leaving them to govern 
their own subjects inside their dominions as they 
might please. 

48. Misrule and annexation. Wars had now 
ceased between the native princes and between them 
and the British, There was peace throughout India, 
and this in itself was a priceless boon to the people. 
But the work of securing to the subjects of native 
states comfort, safety and good government was only 
half done. Indeed, a state of things might arise 
which would leave some of them in an even worse 
condition than Indore. in the old days, when a 
native prince, particularly if lie was of a different 
race and religion, oppressed his subjects beyond en- 
durance, they would rise in rebellion and depose 
him. But now such rebellion would l>e hopeless, for 
civil war was sure to spread outside the state in 
which it might begin, and then it must l>e put down 
by the great power of the British government. And 
there were eases in which native princes did mis- 
govern their countries grievously. This hap|>ened in 
Tanjore and Coorg and Ondh and elsewhere. What 
then was to Ix^ done by the Supreme Power, which 
hail undertaken to have no concern with the adminis- 
tration of the protected chiefs, and at the same time 
was tiound to maintain order and put down disturb- 
ances in the Indian Empire ? 

The only effective remedy that at that time 



THE NATIVE STATES 


67 


suggested itself to the Supreme Power was to 
annex any state if the inhabitants desired it or if 
its ruler utterly misgoverned it. The people of 
Coorg in this way asked that they might become the 
subjects of the Queen-Empress Victoria, and then 
wish was granted. In other cases states were 
annexed when their rulers died leaving no direct 
male heir, and when according to rule they could 
not adopt a successor without first obtaining the 
permission of the overlord, the British government. 
In private life, when a rich man dies without heirs 
his property ‘ lapses ’ to the Crown, that is to say, it 
is taken over by the government, and if no heir ever 
appears, it is used for the general good of the people. 
In the same way, it was at that time thought that 
the best arrangement would be that the state should 
l>e taken over and ruled by the British government 
to which it was said to have ‘lapsed.’ In the time 
of Lord Dalhousie several Hindu states, such as 
Satara, Jaitpur, Jhansi, and Nagpur, were thus 
annexed, liberal allowances being granted to the 
families of the last chief and the right of adoption 
l>eing refused. This policy, however, was very un- 
popular, and instead of annexing a state as a cure 
for misrule, it was thought better to prevent misrule 
by interfering, when the need arose, in the interests 
of its oppressed subjects. 

49, Adoptions allowed. Accordingly, after the 
retirement of Lord Dalhousie, the right of adoption 
was conferred upon all important rulers of native states, 
and, as a consequence, steps were taken to interfere 
promptly whenever a chief followed oppressive and 



68 


CITIZEN OP INDIA 


bail courses of government. This new policy was 
introduced in 1858, when the government of India 
was transferred to the Crown and Queen Victoria 
became the Ruler of India. Her Majesty's proclama- 
tion to the Indian people, including the princes of 
the native states, is given in full in the last chapter 
of this hook. It is justly regarded as the ‘Magna 
Charta’ of India, the great charter or document which 
secures for ever to the people of India, their rights 
and liberties. The chiefs are assured that as long 
as they are loyal to lie* Crown and faithful to their 
engagements they will he protected and their states 
perpetuated. So long as they act so, they need fear 
no annexation to British dominion. 

Sue.h advice, as may )>e needed is given to a ruling 
chief by an experienced British oflieer, styled a Resi- 
dent, or political ollieer of lower rank, who resides at 
his capital to help him. If any chief is proved to he 
unfit to rule, he may he deposed, hut the state is not 
annexed. Another chid’, usually his nearest qualified 
relative, is appointed chief in his stead. And a prince 
who has no heir is allowed to adopt one, so that his 
state cannot, lapse. In order that young* princes may 
be qualified to ude, when their turn comes, they are 
very carefully educated, either by a private tutor or 
at a * chiefs college/ where the education is the best 
that can l»e secured, and where the young princes 
are not only given such knowledge as can l>e acquired 
from books, but are instructed in manly exercises, 
such as cricket, jhiIo, shooting, and fencing. 

50. Glasses Of states. The states protected by 
the government of India may be divided into three 



THE NATIVE STATES 


69 


classes : firstly, those which lie close to one another 
and form large blocks of territory subject to native 
rule ; secondly, states of large area each of which is 
surrounded by British territory ; anti thiidly, small 
scattered principalities which lie ins: le Ihitish dis- 
tricts or provinces. Of the first class, the Rajputana 
Agency, the Oentral India Agency, RalucbisCm and 

eluded some hundreds 

trict to a small groin) 

~ 1 A It A.IA nK HAJI’I'l ANA. 

of villages. 

51 . Rajputana. The Rajputana Agency covers an 
area of about ll!N,000 stpiare miles and is therefore 
larger than the whole of Horn hay and Sind. It has a 
population of nearly 10 millions. It includes twenty 
states, of which Took is Muhammadan, Eharatpur 
and Dholpur are Jat, and the rest Rajput. In the 
extensive deserts of Rajputana the Rajputs, driven 
out of Hindustan hy the Muhammadans, found a 


refuge for hundreds of years, and thus their chiefs 
of Mewar or Udaipur, Marwar or Jodhpur, and Jaipur 



70 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


rank as the oldest princely families in India. Among 
the other states may lie mentioned Bikaner, Bundi, 
Karauli, Bharafcput*, Alwar, Kota, and Banswara. They 
had suffered in turn from the exactions of the Delhi 
emperors, from the incursions of the Pindaris ana 
the attacks and invasions of the Marathas, when in 
1818 they were brought under the protection of the 
British. The chief political officer resides at Abu and 
is styled Agent to the Governor-General. 

52. Central India Agency. This Agency includes 
148 states, ten of them ruled by chiefs who are 
entitled to the honour of salutes, which make up 
a solid block of nearly 79,000 square miles in the 
very heart of India, with a population of nearly 9 
millions. Both in size and in tl^c number of its 
inhabitants it somewhat resembles the British province 
known as the Central Provinces. Gwalior, a Maratha 
state, containing an area of 25.000 square miles and 
8,000,000 inhabitants, ruled by the Sindhia family, 
Bhopal governed by a Muhammadan family of Afghan 
descent, and Indore, ruled by the Holkars, are the 
chief states, while Rewa, Oreha, Datia, and Dhar 
come next. The chief political officer resides at 
Indore, from which centre he exercises control over 
the whole Agency. 

53. Baluchistan. Baluchistan lies beyond the 
plains of the Indus, on the western frontier of India, 
and guards the approaches into Hindustan from Persia 
and Afghanistan. It consists of the territories of the 
Khan of Kelafc, with an area of 72,000 square miles, 
and the dam of Ijis Hoyle. Together with the British 
province of QUetta, or British Baluchistan, it is under. 



THE NATIVE STATES 


71 


the political control of an officer of the government 
of India who icsides at Quetta. The country in- 
cludes a large tract of desert with a population of 
less than half a million, excluding the residents in 
|Kharan and Makran, which are under British 
administration. 

54. Kathiawar. The only other large bleok of 
chiefsfiips which needs notice is thnl of Kathiawar, 
a peninsula contain- 
ing 20,560 square 
miles with several 
fair ports on the 
west of India and 
included in the pre- 
sidency of Bombay. 

It is a good instance 
of the efforts made 
by the British gov- 
ernment to save 
native states from 
annexation. Under 
its treaty with the 
Peshwa the East In- 
dia Company might 
have made Kathiawar a British province, hut it pre- 
ferred to take the chiefs under its protection rather 
than under its direct rule. To the numerous chiefs the 
British government has given jurisdiction and authority 
in various degrees or classes, and cases, whether civil 
or criminal, which lie beyond the jurisdiction of any 
petty chief are decided for him by political officers 
under an agent at Bajkote. 



NJZAM-l! l.-MVLH. 




n 


CTTCZEN OF INDIA 


55. Hyderabad. Hyderabad, with an area of about 

83.000 square miles and a population of about 11 
millions, is nearly as large as the Agra portion of 
the United Provinces. Its founder, the first Nizam, 
was a servant of the emperor of Delhi, who about 
two hundred years ago shook off the authority of his 
master when the Muhammadan power began to decline. 
His successors have received several large additions of 
territory from the British government as a reward for 
their services. 

5(5. Kashmir. Kashmir, with an area of about 

81.000 square miles and a population of close on 3 
millions including Jammu, is about as large as Hyder- 
abad. It was created bv the British after defeat of the 
Sikh army at the battle of Sobraon in 1846. The 
hill country between the rivers Indfls and Ravi, then 
acquired by conquest, was conferred upon Gulab 
Singh, raja of Jammu, by the treaty of Amritsar. 

57. Mysore. Mysore, a large state in South India, 
covering nearly 30,000 square miles, with a population 
of 51 millions, rich in gold and fertile in soil, also 
owes its existence to the British, hv whom it was 
restored, in 1799, to the Hindu dynasty from whom 
it had been taken by II viler. Some years afterwards, 
the people of Mysore rose against the oppressions 
and exactions of their Maharaja, and the British 
government were obliged to depose him and administer 
the government for a time. At first they decided 
to annex the state as its last ruler had no son of 
his own, but in the end they allowed him to adopt 
a son, who was educated by an English tutor and 
granted ruling powers in 1881. The government 



THE NATIVE STATES 


73 


was thus restored to native rule after it had been 
conducted by British officers for fifty years. The 
young Maharaja, who ruled his country well, died 
after a short reign and was succeeded by his son, 
the present Maharaja, in 1894. lie was then, how- 
ever, a minor, and the government was conducted 
by his mother as Maharani Regent, with the help of 
a Diwan, till 1902, when the young chief wa^ placed 
in power. He too has been very carefully educated, 
and the country is well governed and prosperous. 

58. Baroda. Baroda is a small hut very rich state 
with an area of 8000 square miles and a population of 
about 2 millions. It stands by itself in the fertile 
division of Guzerat in Western India. A Maratha 
chief named Damaji founded the line of Gaekwars who 
still rule this state, which was preserved by the 
British from absorption in the Beshwa’s dominion, and 
protected from other encroachments while the British 
factories at Surat and Bombay were themselves in 
difficulties. More recently, on the deposition, for mis- 
conduct, of its ruler in 1875, the British government 
allowed the widow of a former Gaekwar to adopt a 
member of the ruling family who had l>oen selected 
by the government of India as a suitable person to 
rule the country. 

59. Other states. Besides the four states just 
described Nepal, with an area of 54,000 square 
miles, has a British Resident who is directly under 
the government of India, which also controls the 
agents in Rajputana, Central India, and Baluchistan. 
Under the government of Madras there are five, 
under Bombay 354, under the United Provinces 



74 


CITTZKN OF INI>U 

two, and under Itengal and Burma 34 and 5 3 
states respectively. The chief commissioner of the 
Central Provinces and the Lieutenant Governor of 
Eastern Bengal and Assam deal with a few petty 
states in their neighbourhood. Many of these 
states are small, and some are little more than 
estates. In the Bombay province petty states are 
mixed up with British districts, so that the main 
roads pass in and out of British and foreign terri- 
tory. The honour* of a salute, which varies from 
twenty-one guns to nine, shows in a general way the 
rank held by a native chief. To the rulers of the 
three states of Baroda, Hyderabad, and Mysore the 
highest salute is given, and to the eight states of 
Bhopal, Gwalior, Indore, Kashmir, Kelat, Kolhapur, 
Mewnr, and Travancore salutes of nineteen guns are 
given. Thirteen chiefs are entitled to seventeen 
guns, and seventeen receive a salute of fifteen guns. 
Besides these, there are sixty-five other chiefs who are 
honoured with salutes. Judged, then, by this standard, 
there are in India one hundred and six rulers of 
states who stand in the front rank. These figures, 
however, include several of the states which are 
massed together in groups, like the Ihijput and Central 
India states, as well us those which lie apart from 
others. 

Amongst the chief estates which rank as native 
states may l»e mentioned the .Tagirs of Satara and the 
Southern Maratha country, the chiefships of the 
Central Provinces and those of Orissa. It is not 
necessary to give a list of them, but any one who 
looks at the map of India will see at a glance that 



75 


TSE NATIVE STATES 

,, ,f 

if these states should prove bad neighbours, or unable 
to maintain peace And order, they would cause very 
great trouble and ahxiety to the government of the 
province in which they are situated, and to the 
officers of the British districts close to them. A 
weak central government would long ago have given 
up as hopeless the task of controlling so many thief- 
ships without the aid of British law and British 
courts* Their preservation is honourable both to the 
chiefs themselves and to the British government. It 
shows that the Supreme government is strong enough 
to protect the riglits of the weak, ami it also shows 
the good sense of those chiefs who accept advice 
and work by the side of the Britirh officer for the 
good of the people. 

60 . Advantages of native rule. The British 
government gains several advantages by the con- 
tinuance of native rule. Each state is a standing 
proof of the faithfulness with which the govern- 
ment of India keeps the promises made in the 
Queen’s proclamation. The native states also enable 
the people of India to compare the Jesuits of various 
systems of government. Those who wish to find out 
whether population, education, commerce and industry 
increase more rapidly, and whether a country prosper 
better under one form of government than under 
another, may answer this question by observing the 
results in British India and in the native states. 
And if any one living in British India thinks that 
native rule is better than British, he may go over 
to a native state and live there, if be likes. The 
rulers of the states relieve the British authorities of 



76 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


tfie task of governing a large part of the empire, 
and their loyalty and goodwill are of high value to 
the protecting power. On the other hand, the 
British government probably gives more to the states 
than they contribute to the welfare of the empire. 
The cost of the navy and army which defend the 
empire, the upkeep of the ports and dockyards, the 
greater part of the expenditure on railroads, and 
the expense of the postal and telegraph and other 
imperial departments which benefit the whole of 
India, are borne almost entirely by the British pro- 
vinces. But, at the same time, the princes and 
chiefs relieve the British government of heavy re- 
sponsibilities and some expense, and to a certain extent 
their subjects indirectly pay duties on articles brought 
into British ports. All observers say that under 
British advice great improvements have been made in 
the mode of government of the states, and all friends 
of India trust that the rulers of the native states 
and of the countries in British India will try to do 
their best, and endeavour to make the people under 
their government prosperous and happy. It is to 
lie hoped that the methods and rules of civilised 
government, which the British have brought to India 
from Europe, will he taken up and adapted by 
native rulers to the customs and the feelings of 
their own subjects. 



THE DISTRICT 


77 


CHAPTER VI. 

TEE DISTRICT. 

61. Districts. Although the native states are part 
of the Indian empire and their inhabitants owe allegi- 
ance to the King-Emperor and muse beep me peace, 
yet there are many duties and privileges of a citizen 
which only concern the people of British India. We 
must therefore go back to the provinces and learn 
some more details about them. British India is 
divided into provinces, as we have seen, and these 
provinces are, for purposes of government, again 
divided into distijets, of which there arc altogether 
259, including those of Berar which are held under 
a perpetual lease to the government of India. The 
names of many of these districts are the same now 
as they were ages ago, although their size and 
boundaries may have been altered, just as the 
names of most Indian villages have remained un- 
changed for thousands of years. In the old times 
many of the modern districts were known as countries, 
ruled each by its own raja or nawab. Under Akbar 
the subahs or provinces w T ere divided into Baikal's or 
zillas, to which the districts of our time more or less 
correspond. A province is a group of districts, and 
each district is complete in itself. The government 
of one district is very much like that of another — 
that is to say, it has very much the same set of 
government officers, who follow the same rules and 
are guided by the same laws, so that if we know 



78 


CITIZEN OP INDIA 


all about the administration or government of one 
district we have a very fair acquaintance with that 
of all the rest. If we were to go to a district in 
the north of India we would see the very same 
officials at work that we see in the south, and the 
way in which they do their work would be very 
much the same. 

As citizens of the empire we ought to study 
very carefully the administration of a district. By 
doing this we learn how the whole empire is governed, 
for the empire is merely a collection of native states 
governed under one system, and 259 districts 
administered under another according to British 
laws. If any one of these districts is well governed, 
then wo may conclude that the wlyde empire is well 
governed. For, as the administration of all the dis- 
tricts is very much the same, if it should be found 
that the present system of governing one district 
works well, then we mav believe that on the whole 
the administration of the empire works well. At the 
same time there are as many and as great differences 
in the character and social customs of the people 
as there are in the nature of the soil, the climate, 
and the rainfall of the various provinces, and these 
require different treatment. Accordingly districts 
vary much in size and population, and there are 
even sj>ecinl and local laws which apply to one 
class of the people or to one tract of country and 
not to another. But the general principles and plan 
of British government are the same everywhere, and 
it is fairly correct to say that each district is a 
tost of the government of the empire, a standard 



THE DISTRICT 


79 


by which we may judge of the government of 
British India. 

62. Districts parts of the province. A district* 
being one part of a large province cannot 1>© considered 
by the ruler of the province without thought of the 
rest of the country under his charge. The father of » 
large family cannot think only of one child. He m\st 
do his best for all his childien, If ofte child he weak 
and sickly, he may have, to spend a great deal more 
upon it than upon the other children who are strong 
and healthy. The ruler of a province must, do what 
is best for the province as a whole. If one of his 
districts is poor, barren and 1 Kick ward, or if in another 
there should he some natural calamity, such as a 
famine or flood, htf may have to spend more money on 
it in irrigation or railways <>r famine relief or in other 
ways than on other districts which are rich and fertile 
and have more natural advantages. The money raised 
by taxation in the poor dist rict may he much less than 
that collected in rich districts, but the latter ought 
not to complain if the ruler of the province should 
spend a part of the money raised in them on the 
former. It is important for citizens to remember 
this, because it is natural for us to think first of 
ourselves and to claim as much as we can of the 
revenues of the state. Our rulers, however, must 
take a wider view of their responsibilities. 

63. Area of the district. In dividing a country 
into counties or districts, a good ruler wall try to give 
to each district officer more or less equal work to do. 
The Indian districts, however, vary much in size and 
population in the different provinces. Taking all the 



80 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


259 districts together, and excluding the four capital 
cities of Calcutta, Bombay, Madras and Rangoon, their 
average size is about 4000 square miles, and their 
average population about 900,000. But in some 
provinces the districts are much larger and in 
others smaller. Thus the average size of a district 
in Madras is nearly GO 00, in Bengal a little over 
3000, and in the United Provinces a little over 
2000 square miles. The smallest district in India 
is Simla, with au area of 101 square miles, and the 
largest Upper-Uhindwin, in Upper Burma, with an 
area of 19,000 square miles. If we look at the 
population we find that an average district in Madras 
has about 1 J millions of inhabitants, in Bengal also 
about 1J millions, and in the (United Provinces 
alwmt a million. 

How is it that some districts are so much larger 
than others, and why do some contain a much greater 
imputation than others ? The answer is that the work 
is much heavier in some of the smaller districts. And 
although the work of the ruler or collector of a dis- 
trict mainly depends upon the size of his district 
and upon its population, it is also affected by other 
things. He cannot manage a district of more than 
a certain size, lor he has not only to do work at 
his headquarters, but to go over the whole district, 
to see for himself the state of the people, and to 
make sure that all the officers under him are doing 
their duties projierly. Again, even in a small district 
ho cannot do his work properly if the population 
\m excessive. In Oudh there are 522 inhabitants 
to a square mile, in Bengal 471, while in the Punjab 



THE DISTRICT 


81 


there are only 188, in Siiulh only GO, and in Burma 
only 35. 

Much also depends upon the diameter of the 
people in the district, upon their neighbours, and 
upon the laws and conditions on which land is 
held, for these differ very greatly in different parts 
of the empire. If the people are lawless and turbu- 
lent, or if their neigh hours belong to some native 
state which is not well- governed, or if they are 
savage tribes, then mud) of the time of the ruler 
must be spent in restraining disorder, and much of 
his attention must be given to the affairs of the 
neighbouring state. He has to give more cave and 
more time to his police arrangements than would 
he needed in an^orderly, peaceful district with good 
neighbours. So, too, the turn* and attention he has 
to give to his revenue duties depend largely upon 
whether he lias to collect revenue from a few large 
landlords or zamindars, as in Bengal, or from a large 
number of raivats, as in Madras. Considering the 
work that has to Ik* done, the administration of 
each of the 259 districts requires, on the whole, 
about the same amount of care and attention from 
the ollicer in charge of it. If it should he found, 
after a time, that the work in any one district has, 
from any cause, *v/. a rapid increase in population, 
increased largely and heroine too heavy for one 
officer to manage, a new district is formed hy taking 
away parts of the larger and more populous districts. 

64. The district officers. To administer, that is, to 
govern each district, and to manage its affairs, there 
is a staff of officers, each of whom has his special 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


m 

work, and all of whom but one — the civil judge — are 
under the orders of the head of the district, who is 
called the collector. The district officers are, in addition 
to the collector and judge, the assistant-collector and 
deputy-collector, the superintendent of police, the 
executive engineer, the civil surgeon, the superinten- 
dent of the jail, and the forest officer. They are all 
district officers, hut as the collector is the chief of 
thorn, he is sometimes called the district officer. 
Besides these, there are officers whose work lie in more 
than one district, and who move over three or four 
districts, which make up their circles or divisions. 
These are the inspectors of schools and salt or abkari 
revenue, and in some places the survey officers. 

65. The executive. These distqct officers are the 
most important of the executive officers of government, 
who are so called because they e,mu(e the orders of 
the central government, and carry out the decisions 
arid sentences of the judges who administer the laws 
of the country. Above them, there are higher officials 
who overlook their work, issue orders and transfer them, 
as there is need, from one district to another. The 
district officers are well known to all the villages and 
towns in the district which they visit on their fre- 
quent tours. Upon them, dejiends the success of the 
government. If they are active, honest, and clever 
the district will l>e well governed, for however ex- 
cellent the orders may !>e which are issued by the 
central government, who make laws and rules at the 
capital of the province, the government of the district 
cannot lie good unless these orders and rules are 
obeyed and carried into effect. To see that this 



THE DISTRICT 


83 


is done is the duty of the district or executive 
officers. 

66. The collector. The term collector came into 
use a long time ago under the East India Company, 
when the chief duty of this officer was to collect the 
revenue. The w r ord ‘ governor ’ would at the present 
time describe far better the rank that ho holds and 
the duties which he has to perform. He is, however, 
still called collector in hen gal, Horn bay, Madras and 
Agra, while in the Punjab, Oudh. the Central Pro- 
vinces Burma and the smaller provinces he is 
known as the deputy commissioner. People cannot 
feel any strong attachment to a mere term such as 
‘ government/ but a living governor, in their midst, 
they can regard with feelings of personal affection or 
respect. The collector has, and it is right that he 
should have, very great power and authority, for he 
is to the people in his district their ltuler whom 
they can see, and hear, and obey. The affection that 
has often been felt and expressed by simple Indian 
villagers for a just, wise, and kind collector is w r ell 
known. In the large district of Khandesh in the 
Bombay presidency the collector, Mr. Propert, was 
always called by the people Kaja Propert, and before 
his time Sir James Outram had even to a greater 
degree won the affections of its inhabitants. 

67. Majesty of the law. The collector and his staff 
of officers do not make laws, or rules, or regulations. 
That work is done by the governor of the province 
and his council. Their duty is to execute these rules, 
to see that they are carried out and obeyed. Neither 
have the collector and his assistants the power of 



84 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


judging in civil cases. That work is done by the 
civil judges and the officers under them. When the 
British began to rule the country and took charge of 
the districts from the native rulers who were there 
before them, they found that there had never been 
any distinction made between the duties of a judge 
and those of an executive officer. There were no 
written codes of law, such as we now have, in British 
India, laying down the way in which taxes are to be 
collected, or providing for courts of law, or the work- 
ing of municipalities. In the old days the native 
kings and chiefs were despotic rulers. They issued 
their commands, and those commands were the law. 

In Asiatic countries it has always been thought 
that the king is not bound by any Jaw. In his own 
kingdom lie is above all law. He kills whom he wills, 
and whom he wills he keeps alive. Everything in 
his kingdom belongs to him, even the lives and the 
property of his subjects. No doubt there have been 
a great many good rulers in India, and if the rulers 
were good, and just, and kind, like Anoka or Akbar, 
then the orders which they issued would he good, 
and the people would l>e happy and contented, and 
the country prosperous. But, on the other hand, 
a good ruler was often succeeded by a bad, or lazy, 
or weak ruler, and then the people were badly off. 
And even under great and good kings the district 
officers ruled without much control, one reason being 
the difficulty, in former times, of communication. 
They did pretty well what they liked. They executed 
their chief's commands, and at the same time they were 
the judges in all disputes among the people. There 



THE DISTRICT 


could be no appeal from them except to the chief 

himself. If the chief 

oppressed his sub- 
jects, they could not 
call him before any 
court of law or com- 
plain of his treatment 
to anyone. 

Even now, in many 
of the native states 
of 1 ndia there are no 
laws except those 
made by the chief, 
and there are no 
judges distinct from 
the executive officers. 

These officers cannot ! 
he culled before any 
court of law to de- 
fend their action as 
officers of the govern- 
ment. In some of 
the larger and better 
governed states, such 
as Mysore and Bar- 
oda, the I British sys- 
tem is followed, for 
this was introduced 
when British officers 

CHARLKri L OF ENGLAND, EXECUTED 1649. 

had charge of the 

government for a time and in many others there is a 
gradual change Diking place in imitation of the plan 



86 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


followed in British India. The British government were 
the first to introduce into India the rule that all officers 
of government, even the Governor-General himself, 
the Governors, and all subordinate to them must obey 
the law, and to entrust the making of the laws, and 
as far as possible the interpretation or the applica- 
tion of them, to jjersons who are not themselves 
charged with the duties of enforcing the laws. There 
aw not many countries in the world where the 
'law is held in such honour and esteem as it is in 
Britain, where even the king must obey its commands. 
More than once in British history a king who broke 
the laws of the country was dethroned : and one king 
of Britain was tried, found guilty, and executed for 
breaking the laws while Shall Jehan was reigning 
in India. « 

68. Duties and powers of the collector. As soon 
as the districts taken by the British had settled down 
to peace and order, and civil government was firmly 
established, a collector and a judge were appointed, 
the collector being the chief executive officer and the 
judge the chief judicial officer. All officers but* the 
judge are under the orders of the collector, who is the 
head of the district. He lias in the first place to 
collect the revenue and the taxes according to the 
laws, and so far as this }>art of his duties is concerned 
he has what is called revenue jurisdiction, sometimes 
deciding what taxes are due and at other times 
hearing appeals against the decisions of his assistants. 
He is also the district magistrate hearing appeals 
from the magistrates subordinate to him, and arranging 
for Jhe disposal of their criminal business. Should 



THE DISTRICT 


87 


he, however, mi illegally by imposing a tax contrary 
to law, or by passing an unjust sentence in a 
criminal case, bis actions can be referred to a 
higher authority. He controls the work of the 
police, and if necessary he calls in the aid of soldiers 
to keep the peace in his district He has to care for 
the comfort and welldoing of the people to help the 
engineers with his advice as to what roads, canals, 
bridges, and public buildings, such as schools and 
hospitals and offices, are wanted ; he has to assist the 
civil surgeon with his opinion us to the steps that 
should Ik* taken to prevent sickness, and to advise the 
inspector of schools in many matters connected with 
education. He has to report to the Governor of the 
province as to when self-government should be given 
to those towns which are without it. Often he has to 
look over buildings in which manufactures of various 
kinds are carried on, to see that the workpeople are 
properly treated and die machinery in proper order. 
If the rains should fail and there should be any signs 
of famine, it is the duty of the collector to keep the 
officers at the head of t lie government fully informed 
of the state of his district. 

The proper working of every part of the govern- 
ment. of the district depends upon him. If any- 
thing goes wrong, it is his duty to put it right if 
he can, and if not, to report it at the headquarters 
of the government to some one above him who is 
able to do so. He has to spend a good deal of time 
in touring over the country in order that he may 
know as much as possible about it. He is in this 
way able to see how the officers under him do their 



88 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


work, and to listen, in person, to any complaints 
or suggestions which the people may wish to make. 
Whether the work of all the other officials in the 
district is done properly or not depends very much 
upon the energy and personal character of the collector, 
for they are very likely to follow his example. 

09. The collector’s assistants. It need scarcely 
be said that it would he very ditlicult, if not quite im- 
possible, for the collector to do all bis work himself, 
without any help. He has assistant collectors and 
deputy collectors to assist him. If the district be 
very large, it has one or more subdivisions each of 
which is in charge of one of these assistants, who 
is called the suhdivisional oflicer, and does the same 
kind of work us the collector, under his orders. One 
of them is, as a rule, in charge of t}x> Treasury at the 
headquarters of the district. In those provinces which 
have deputy commissioners, the assistants are called 
assistant commissioners. 

70. Other district officers. The civil surgeon has 
under him the large hospital at the chief town in the 
district and the smaller hospitals or dispensaries in 
other places, which altogether mnnlier 2500 institu- 
tions giving treatment to 28 million cases in British 
India in a year. I he eivil surgeons are chosen by 
competitive examination, and some of them, as well 
as the majority of the medical officers in charge of 
dispensaries, are natives of India educated in the 
medical colleges. The. British government pays great 
attention to the health of the people, but this was 
thought to 1x5 a matter of no concern by the former 
rulers of India. It is, however, beginning to receive 



THE DISTRICT 


89 


attention in the native states. The executive engineer 
has under him a large number of assistants who have 
been trained to their work in government colleges. 
In every part of the country the roads an* now many 
more in number and very much better than at any 
former time in the history of the country. All the 



WALTER HOSPITAL. 


large rivers are spanned by magnificent iron bridges. 
The roads in British India are equal to those in any 
country of Europe and far superior to those in any 
other country in Asia. Nothing has done more for 
the prosperity of the country and the comfort of its 
inhabitants than the network of roads that over- 
spreads the country. 

71. Divisions and commissioners. In all the larger 
provinces, except Madras, three, four, five, or more 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


w 

districts form a group called a division, which is in 
charge of a commissioner. There are, altogether, 53 
divisions in British India. The commissioner is placed 
over the collectors, and has to overlook the work 
of the district officers in his division. He has no 
executive work himself. All letters and reports from 
the district officers to the central -government officers 
at headquarters pass through his hands, and he gives 
his opinion on every important matter. In some 
provinces there is also a Board of revenue which 
relieves the government of much work, and in 
Madras the Board, consisting of four selected col 
lectors, also takes the place of the commissioners, 
all letters on revenue matters to the local govern- 
ment passing from the districts through their hands. 

72. Taluks or parts of the district. The pro- 
vinces are, as we have seen, divided into districts, of 
which there are 259 in British India. In* the same 
way, each district is, except, in Bengal and Burma, 
sub-divided into smaller parts which are called tahsils, 
taluks, or talukas. These divisions into tahsils were 
originally made chiefly with the object of collecting 
the revenue. In Bengal, where there is a * permanent 
settlement ’ of the revenue, t he districts are divided 
for police purposes into thanas, under thanadars. 
In Burma, the tract under a mvo-ok or township 
corresponds to the tuhsil, but it is again subdivided 
into revenue circles under a thngvi, each circle includ- 
ing several villages. There are five or six, and some- 
times more, taluks in a district Each of them is in 
charge of a native officer called a tahsildar, and in 
some parts of the country a mamlatdar and in Sindh a 



THE DISTRICT 


91 


mukhtiarkar. He is to his taluk what the collector 
is to the whole district, the ruler and chief executive 
officer, and his duties are as many and as v&rioiiB 
as those of his chief. The tahsildors are chosen with 
great care, and arc most important and able servants 
of goverment. The proper working of the rules of 
government in the taluk, the protection of the villagers 
from hardships and oppression, and their general well- 
being depend very greatly upon the zeal, the honesty, 
and the ability of the tahsildars. They are now almost 
entirely natives of India, and generally they have 
obtained degrees at some university. l T ntil such 
men were available these posts were largely idled 
by Europeans, often promoted from the offices of 
the collector; but as the supply of native graduates 
increased, the administration of the parts of British 
districts rapidly passed into their hands. Those 
who aspire to be collectors must enter the civil 
service bv passing the competitive examinations open 
to all British subjects throughout the world, and 
held in the capital of the British empire at London. 


CHAPTER VII. 

THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT. 

73. Government — central &nd local. We have 
seen that all the towns and villages in British India 
are grouped into 259 districts and that each district 
is complete in itself, being ruled by its collector 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


ami his officers, who act as they think right and 
according to law, or else execute or carry out the 
orders of the central government, and are therefore 
called the executive. The districts again are grouped 
into provinces. At the head of each province there 
is a Governor in Council or a Lieutenant-governor or 
a Chief Commissioner. The Governor, assisted in 
the presidencies by two members of council, and in 
the other provinces exercising sole authority under 
the title of a Lieutenant-governor or a Chief Com- 
missioner, but in all cases working through secretaries 
at the head of each department of the government, 
is known as the local government or administration. 
Just as the collector administers the district and 
gives effect to the orders of l lie local government, 
so the local government administer# the province and 
gives effect to the orders of the supreme government. 
The provincial go\ernnrs are aided by legislative 
councils in the larger provinces when laws have to 
be made, but otherwise upon them alone rests the 
whole responsibility of governing their provinces. 
In some matters they have only to execute the orders 
of higher authority, namely, the government of India, 
in all other respects they themselves issue orders 
and make rules for every matter which concerns 
their provinces or any portion of them. If, then, 
we gain a clear idea of the part Liken by the 
supreme government, we can understand the duties 
of the local governments. For, whatever the supreme 
government does not. order or arrange, that the local 
government has to do. 

The system of divided authority is extended still 



THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT 


93 


further within the province. It has already been 
shown that in large towns municipal boards or 
councils manage the government of their towns in 
such matters as concern those towns alone. And in 
each district, and in many of the taluks o~ tahsils, 
there are also local boards to which are entrusted the 
management of such matters as affect their own 
district or taluk alone. Even thw villages — each 
village for itself, or a group of small villages- -have 
sometimes their own panchayats and govern themselves 
in matters which concern themselves alone. 

Thus the village in some matters rules itself 
and in others is ruled by the tahsildar or nmm- 
latdar of the taluk, who executes the orders of the 
collector. The taluk, through its local hoard, in 
some matters governs itself and in others it is 
governed by the collector of the district through 
the tahsildar. And in the same manner the 
district in some things rules itself through its local 
board, and in others it is ruled by the collector who 
executes the orders of the provincial government. 
Thus in the village, the taluk, and the district, there 
are two kinds of authority side by sicle, the one 
being exercised on the spot and applied to local 
affairs, and the other introduced from above and 
carried out by officers, acting as agents of a distant 
and higher governing power. 

74. Why there should be supreme control. Our 
first step towards understanding the plan of govern- 
ment is to see what part the supreme authority in 
India must itself take in the affairs of the provinces. 
In each province there are matters which are local. 



n 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


that is to say, matters which concern it alone and 
have nothing directly concerning other provinces. 
The province of the Punjab, for example, has nothing 
to do with the roads, the tanks, the schools, the 
canals, the hospitals, or the methods of field cultiva- 
tion in Madras. But there are other matters which 



TYI'E* <>t ritl* linniSH ARMY. 


equally concern !»ol h provinces. Letters are sent in 
large nurnliers from the Punjab to Madras and from 
Madras to tin* Punjab, and from one town to another 
and one village to another, all over India, at a very 
low charge. A letter or a post-card may be sent for 
three pies for a thousand miles. It goes quite safely 
and very fast over this enormous distance; and, in 
this way, millions of letters are sent. 

In order to prevent mistakes, and to correct a 



THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT 


95 


mistake, as soon as possible, very great care is wanted, 
and all the arrangements must be made by one 
central office which gives its orders to the smaller 
post-offices all over India. If the ruler of the Punjab ? 
made his arrangements to suit his own province alone, 
they might not work well with those made in Madras. 



TV PUN OK INDIAN CAVALRY. 


Lord Dalhousie therefore decided that all postal 
arrangements both in the Punjab and in Mwlras, 
as well as in every part of India, should he under 
the direction and control, not of the ruler of any 
one province, hut of the ruler of the whole of 
India. The same thing is true of the telegraph 
department and of the great state railways. It was 
chiefly the fact that there was no strong supreme 
ruler over all India that made travelling and the 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


sending of letters or money from one part of India 
to another so difficult in former days. Rich men 
travelled in the disguise of poor men, or took with 
them a strong guard, for they were afraid of being 
robbed or made to pay heavy tolls or give large bribes 
as they went from one petty kingdom to another, 
or even from one large city to another. This we 
know from many accounts written by early travellers 
in India. 

Again, the army, which protects India and keeps 
the peace all over the continent and watches every 
point at which a foreign foe might break through to 
invade the country; and the licet of war-ships which 
keeps the coasts safe both from the attacks of enemies 
and from sea-robbers, must, also he under the orders of 
the supreme ruler of India, hi every province troops 
are stationed, they are paid for by taxes levied in 
every part of the country, and they would be sent to 
defend any part, which might he attacked. The sea- 
port cities on every part, of the coast are kept safe 
by our navy from invasion by sea, and savage and 
cruel enemies who might break over the border and 
overflow the whole country are kept at bay and forced 
back by the soldiers and line of forts in the north- 
west of India. An enemy who might invade the 
Punjab would Iks met, not by soldiers under the ruler 
of the Punjab only, hut by soldiers who would be 
rapidly sent up from every part of India. This could 
only be done by one supreme ruler of India. 

It is also necessary that treaties should he made by 
the supreme government. A long time ago, liefore the 
Regulating Act was pissed in 1773, each presidency 



THE^ SUPREME GOVERNMENT 


97 


was independent. There was no < Govern or- General of 
India before Lord Clive in 1765. The consequence 
was that the ruler of one presidency made a treaty 
with the ruler of a native state who was an open 
enemy of the ruler of another presidency, and much 
mischief followed, if the fourteen provinces were 
now to be, in the same way, independent <n one 
another, and under no supreme control, the same 
thing might happen again. Moreover, now that the 
whole of British India is subject to one King-Emperor, 
Edward VII., there (Might to be some one to act in 
his name when treaties of any kind are lo be made 
with another country or a native state. Only the 
ruler of the whole country can do this. A treaty 
made by a provincial governor might be disputed by 
his neighbours. 

The ruler of each province very properly docs all 
that lie can for it. Sometimes it may happen that what 
may he very good for one province may not be quite 
so good for another, or may even harm it. A province 
situated on the coast, with good harbours, visited by 
numbers of trading ships, might, if it were left to 
do what it liked, try to enrich itself by taxing goods 
which had to pass through it in order to reach other 
provinces inland. Or one province may frequently 
sutter from famine because of a failure of the rains, 
and its revenue may consequently be small, while 
another may always have good crops and its revenue 
lie very high. It may be necessary to help the 
poor province by giving it some of the revenue of 
the rich province, and this can liest lie done by a 
central government, which has no preference for one 



CITIZEN OF INDIA f 


province more than another and can act for the good 
of the empire as a whole. 

Again, although each province has its own rules and 
regulations in all matters that concern itself alone, yet 
it is right and proper that in all provinces in British 
India the same general rules, the same laws, and the 
same general policy and system of work should be 
followed. 

For all these reasons it is necessary that, in all 
matters which concern the whole empire, and may 
therefore be called imperial instead of provincial, 
there should he no confusion or risk of contrary orders 
being given by different rulers, and each local or pro- 
vincial government should he under the orders of 
one supreme ruler. At the same time, in order that 
this ruler of the empire may he able to give his 
whole time and at Unit ion to t hose matters alone 
and not he distracted hv having to attend to other 
things, it is equally necessary that he should allow 
each provincial governor to rule his own province, 
with the aid of his councillors or his subordinates, 
and give orders and make rules in all those matters 
which have to do solely with the province. 

7 ik Supreme rule difficult in former times. The 
great Moghul emperor Akhar and his successors 
attempted to rule their empire in the same way, hut 
they had not the advantages we now have of good 
roads and railways and telegraphs. Orders could not 
then be sent to any part of India as they now can 
in an hour or two. The suhadars or governors of 
provinces were left Loo much to themselves. They 
obeyed the emperor only when they chose to do so, 



THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT 


w 

ami he often had to Bend an army against a rebellious 
governor to force him to olxjy. When Aurangzeb 
died and the next emperors proved weak and in- 
capable, several powerful subadais threw off the 
control of the emperor and founded kingdoms of their 
own in Oudh, Hyderabad, Bengal, and elsewhere. 
These subadars had 
been given too much 
power, and had been 
left too long in charge 
of their provinces. No 
English governor or 
general in the British 
service lias ever l wen 
known to try or wish 
to found a kingdom of 
his own in India. The 
British governor come* 
out to India, stays for 
a fixed period, and then 
returns to his own 
country. 

76 . The Viceroy. 

The supreme authority 
in India itself is the 
government of India, a body consisting of 8 persons, 
at the head of which is the Governor-General, who, 
since the transfer of India to the Crown, has also 
l>een called the Viceroy; and he represents His Majesty 
King Edward VII., the Emperor of India, in all public 
ceremonies and acts. If a treaty has to be made with 
a foreign state binding the King- Emperor it is signed 



100 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


by the Viceroy, or if a foreign prince, or a member 
of the royal family visits India, the Viceroy receives 
him in the place of the king. Again, in times of 
great danger the Govern or- General may pass an 
ordinance or law without the aid of his council for 
making laws, and in certain cases, fixed by the law 
of Parliament, he may act alone in opposition to 
his Executive Council. But these powers are excep- 
tional, and the Governor-General is not intended to 
use them unless grave necessity arises ; and even 
then his powers depend upon the law and are 
exercised in accordance with the law. As a general 
rule, the government is carried on by the Governor- 
General and his members of council acting together. 
The Governor-General usually remains in office for 
five years, being appointed by the Crown, that is, 
the king of Britain. Although he is a statesman of 
high rank and reputation, he could not alone do all 
the work connected with the government of India. 
1 his would be beyond the power of any one man, 
however strong and able he might lx\ To help him 
he has two councils, one called the Executive 
Council, which conducts and manages the affairs of 
government, and another called the Legislative 
Council, which makes laws for the whole of India. 
The \ ieeroy and his Executive Council make up 
the body of men known as the Government of 
India, or the Supreme or Imperial Government. 

7 7 . The Executive Council of the Viceroy. There 
are six ordinary memWs of council, who, like the 
Viceroy himself, usually hold office for five years and 
are appointed by the ( Town. The commander-in-chief 



THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT 101 

of the army of India is usually an ‘ extraordinary * 
member. If the Governor-General should intend 
to be absent from his council on tour an Act 
may be passed conferring upon him alone some of 
the powers of the government of India and leaving 
others to his councillors. On the oilier hand, if the 
Governor-General in council should moot for business 
in Bombay or Madras, the governor of that presidency 
would attend the council as a member. This occurred 
when Lord Northbrook proceeded to Bombay to pre- 
pare for the visit of the present King- Emperor, who 
was then Prince of Wales. Two of the ordinary 
members are usually senior oflirers of the Indian 
Civil Service. One is it military officer of high 
rank. One is an experienced lawyer, who is usually 
sent out from England, and another is specially 
charged with the advancement of trade and com- 
merce. The sixth member must be skilled in finance 
or accounts, lie ma\ be an Indian civilian, or ho 
may he sent out from England. 

78. The Viceroy’s Legislative Council. The work 
of this Council is to make laws and regulations for 
the whole of India, it includes the Executive Council 
and some other members, called the additional 
members. In 1902 the Legislative Council contained 
twelve additional members, of whom three were official 
and nine non-official. Before anv law is made, it is 
fully discussed in the Council. Any non-oflicial 
mendter may give his opinion on it. The financial 
statement for the coming year, which gives a full 
account of the income which is expected from taxes 
and other sources, and the expenditure, or the various 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


102 

ways in which it is intended to spend the income, is 
also placed Indore the Legislative Council, and any 
member may ask any question he pleases regarding 
this statement, and give his opinion upon it or upon 
any part of it. 

79. The Secretariat. All the work which has to 
be done by the government of India is divided under 
seven heads, corresponding with the Viceroy and his 
six or seven councillors, which are called * depart- 
ments * or parts of government. Although the orders 
finally issued are the orders of the whole government, 
yet it is convenient for each member of council to 
have charge of one of the departments of state, and 
in that branch he transacts his business, with the 
secretary to government, who in turn is helped by 
a numlxjr of assistants and a large office. All the 
secretaries together make u j > what is called the 
Secretariat. Those departments are (1 ) the home, (2) 
revenue and agriculture, (.’») legislative, (4) finance, 
(5) military, (0) foreign. (7) public works and trade 
and commerce. The division of the military work 
of the government of India into two departments, of 
which one would he under the commander-in-chief as 
extraordinary member of rounc.il, is a subject now 
engaging consideration. The Viceroy himself takes 
the foreign ; another meml»er the home, revenue and 
agriculture ; the legal memUu\ the legislative ; the 
financial memlKsr, tinaneo; and the commander-in- 
chief and the military menders deal with the 
military departments. 

80. Headquarters of the Viceroy. The Viceroy 
and his Council have their headquarters at Calcutta or 



THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT 


10 $ 


Fort- William from November to April, but between 
April and October they reside at. Simla in the Punjab. 
A provincial government could not do its work out of 
its own province, nor a district government out of its 
own district ; but the Viceroy, who rules not only one 
province, but all India, is at liberty to reside in any 
part of India winch be finds to be most suitable and 
convenient for himself and his Council. The Viceroy 
and the members of his executive council occasionally 
make short tours and visit different parts of the 
country to see for themselves hov, work is being done. 

8 1 . Government in public. One point in which the 
present government of India differs from every other 
government that has gone before it is that it makes 
known to the people all that it does. All the laws, 
the acts, the rules, the proceedings of government, 
whether of the supremo, the provincial, or any local 
government or local hoard, arc published in the 
different government gazettes. All laws and important 
rules that government proposes or intends to make 
are published in draft form long before they are 
actually made., and every newspaper in the country 
gives its opinion upon them, so that government knows 
what the people think of them. If there is any way 
in which they can be improved or any want supplied, 
this can he done taforo the law is passed. Even the 
resolutions of district boards and those of the humblest 
taluk boards are published, both in English and the 
vernacular. All the accounts of the empire, full 
details of every way in which the money of the people 
is spent, are published for their information. Every- 
one who can read knows exactly what is l«ing done. 



104 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


All is open and above-board. Nothing of this kind 
was ever known in former days. It would have been 
regarded as a crime to find fault with government or 
even to pass an opinion on its actions. One of our 
chief authorities for the events of Aurangzeb’s reign 
was a writer who assumes the name of Khafi khan, 
“ Sir Secret,” and his hook was not published till the 
mighty emperor had passed away. Alml Fazl, it is 
true, in his work the Ain-AMmri , gives us an 
account of the empire in the days of the great and 
good Akbar, but it is what we should now call a 
gazetteer, written once for all, and very different from 
the regular annual, monthly, and even in some cases 
weekly, reports and gazettes of our present govern- 
ment, which give the people at large every detail of 
what lias been done. 

82. Imperial duties. The government of India is 
the supreme power in India, standing in the place of 
the King. As in the old times and under native 
rule any one who was oppressed might complain to 
the king, so at the present- day any person or body 
of persons, who think that they have been treated 
unfairly or unjustly by any of the provincial or 
local governments, may ‘appeal* or complain to the 
supreme government. Sueh appeals must be made 
by means of petitions. There are rules which show 
how these petitions should }*) written, and in what 
way they should l>e stmt- up to government. Con- 
sidering jK'titions of this kind and passing orders 
upon them is a large part of the work of the supreme 
government. As this work has to do with 'appeals, 
it may l>e called * appellate 1 work. 



THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT 105 

But besides dealing with appeals which relate to 
work which has already teen done in the various 
provinces, there is a great deal of business which has 
to be done entirely, and from the beginning, by the 
supreme government, and which, as it is first or 
originally done by them, and not merely referred to 
them by other governments, may be called ‘ original 
work.’ As we saw tefor<\ it is business which concerns 
all provinces equally, that is to say the whole erf 
India; part of it relating to the Native States and 
part of it to British India. It may be divided under 
the following heads: 

i. Foreign affairs, including the declaring of war, 

♦he making of treaties and arrangements, and 
the appointment and supervision of political 
agents or consuls in foreign parts or native 
states : 

ii. The military, naval, and marine forces ; 

iii. (General legislation, or t ho making of laws; 

iv. (ieneral taxation ; 

v. Currency, or the making of money, and the 

public debt ; 

vi. The post-office, telegraph and railroads ; 

vii. Emigration : 

viii. Mines and minerals. 

83 . Foreign affairs. Some parts of India touch 
countries that are ruled by great European powers. 
On the north-west there is Russia, on the north-east 
there is France. Their territories in Central Asia and 
in Siam come right up to India, The empires of 
Persia and China, and Afghanistan are also close neigh- 
bours. When two countries touch one another there 



106 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


is always a good deal of communication and trade 
between the natives, and to prevent quarrels between 
them it is necessary to have fixed rules which both 
nations will agree to keep. These rules are put into 
agreements and treaties which are made between the 
rulers of the two countries. If they should be 
broken there is always the risk of war. To make 
these agreements between India and its neighbours, to 
see that they are kept and to write letters about them 
in such a way as not to offend the riders of the 
countries to which they are sent, requires very great 
care, knowledge, and experience. It is clear that 
important business of this sort, can only he entrusted 
to the highest authority, for foreign rulers expect 
to correspond with none but those who have power 
to bind their countries. Therefore the supreme 
government, with the Viceroy at its head, undertakes 
the direction of foreign matters, and even in India 
itself deals with the most important of the native 
states, appointing and controlling tin* political officers. 
Again, in the case of the native states under the 
local governments, great questions, especially those 
involving new engagements or interference, must be 
settled by the (Jovernor (ieneral and his council. 

84. Military and marine forces. It is equally 
necessary that the government which makes treaties 
should lx* strong enough to make other powers keep 
them, and to have under its orders an army and fleet 
with winch to make war, if war should 1 x 3 necessary. 
Again, wo must rememtar that any enemy of India 
is also an enemy of Britain, Both countries are very 
closely connected and are under one King. The whole 



THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT 


107 


power of Britain is behind India, and would be put 
forth, if necessary, to defend India. If the govern- 
ment of India declares war, war is really declared by 
the King of Britain, 
and in such matters 
as war and peace 
the Governor-! Jen- 
eral can ah me take 
action under the 
authority of the 
British government 
at home. Many 
years ago, before 
the telegraph lines 
connected India, 
with Tendon, the 
Indian government 
sent a mission to 
Persia and then 
prevented a mission 
sent out from Eng- 
land from going 
there, acting in each 
ease without the 
]>ermissiou of the 
authorities at home. 

So too in India the 
government of Bombay entered into agreements with 
the native states of which the Governor-! General dis- 
approved. To prevent such mistakes the supreme 
government keeps in its own hands complete control 
over tlie armed forces, and the Viceroy is responsible 



ONE or I'll h V l( EltoV H ftODYUUAKU, 


108 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


to the Secretary of State in London for his actions. 
In the last century there were three armies in India, 
and in the presidencies of Madras and 1 >0111 bay there 
were local commanders- in -chief. Such a division of 
authority only weakened the armed strength of 
government, and it is now recognised that an army 
or a naval force should not only be directed by 
one central authority, but that the same authority 
should in times of peace organise and prepare it 
for war. 

85. Other work of the supreme government. 

The Council of the Governor-General makes all 
laws which apply to the whole of India and those 
regarding the general taxes and accounts of the 
whole country. It also makes all laws for the 
smaller provinces which have no law-making councils 
of their own. Since no part of government can 
be carried on without money, the supreme govern- 
ment raises what money is wanted by fixing the 
rates at which taxes are to be paid, ami making such 
laws as may be necessary to enable each province 
to levy these taxes. It also fixes the share which 
each province may keep, for its own expenditure, 
out of the taxes it levies, and the share which must 
be given to the supreme government for the main- 
tenance of the army and the performance of the 
various duties which devolve upon the government 
of India. It prepares the ‘budget’ or statement 
of accounts, including the estimate of money which 
it expects to get, and the expenditure already made 
on various objects. It carefully notes the state of 
the accounts from month to month so as to lessen 



THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT 109 

expenditure if need l>e, and thus make sure that only 
so much money is spent as is actually available* It also 
has under its care the making of coins in the mints and 
the issuing of paper-money or currency notes. And if 
any provincial government wishes to borrow money, 
it must first get leave to do so from the supreme 
government. 

Departments like the post a no telegraph and 
railway, which carry on their work in every part 
of India, aie also under its direct management, for this 
work can he done by it better and more cheaply than 
by any local government-. Lastly, the supreme govern- 
ment does work for each province in all cases where it 
is necessary to collect information throughout the 
empire, for local governments could not easily get 
(his information from district oflioers who are not 
under their orders. Therefore the supreme govern- 
ment obtains the accounts of the trade which is carried 
on everywhere, showing what things are exported and 
imported, and their value: and it collects from 
places inside and outside of India information about 
the wind, the tide and the rainfall. It also fixes 
the terms upon which persons may look for metals 
and minerals anywhere, and the tax which those 
who own mines must pay to government for work- 
ing them. In short, the government of India is 
conducted in the same way as a large bank or firm of 
merchants is worked. Its business is done partly 
at headquarters and partly at branches in various 
parts of the country. All general rules are made 
by the head office, which keeps the accounts of 
the whole business, while each branch is left at 



110 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


liberty to make its own rules for its own special 
local work. 

86. Provincial governments. We have seen that 
the supreme government of India does a part of the 
work of government itself, and divides the work to be 
done between various classes or departments of the 
Secretariat. The local governments follow the same 
rule, although it may be necessary with them for one 
secretary to take charge of two or more departments. 
These departments are, as it were, channels which 
carry the same class of business from all the villages 
or towns of India, through the district, and the pro- 
vince, and so on, if necessary, to the same department 
at the headquarters of the neutral government. The 
provincial or local governments perform their duties 
in the same way as the (lovornor-Ceneral in Council, 
and once it is understood that certain matters must 
Ihj settled by the central authority it follows that 
all other matters must bo decided and arranged by 
the local, government. The latter in its turn transfers 
to its agents part of its authority, and even the 
municipal and loeal hoards possess no powers which 
are not derived from the government. One and all 
from the central government to the village headman 
are responsible to the law and the King for the 
discharge of those duties which are entrusted to 
them. 

87. The Secretary of State for India in Council. 

In 1868 the Parliament of the United Kingdom 
transferred the government of India from the Com- 
pany to the Crown, and replaced the court of 
directors, and the hoard of control which used to 



THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT 111 

supervise their proceedings, by a Secretary of State 
for India aided by a council. All the revenues of 
India and the property of the directors were tmna- 
. lerred to the Crown or the IJhuvn of tlio United 
Kingdom in trust for the welfa.ro of India, and these 
revenues cannot be spent without the sanction of 



UOtJHKS OF PARL1AMKNT, LONDON. 


the Secretary of State and a majority of his council, 
which consists usually of twelve members, most of 
them selected for their experience of Indian adminis- 
tration. The Secretary of State is responsible to 
Parliament for what he does He is a member of 
the ' Cabinet,' which includes the Prime Minister 
and those members of Parliament who directly 



112 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


conduct the government of Great Britain. The Secre- 
tary of State in Council conducts all business 
which is done in Great Britain in connection with 
India. He presents to Parliament every year a 
‘ Financial Statement ’ showing the income and ex- 
penditure in India under various heads, and also a 
‘ Statement of the moral and material progress and 
condition of India/ His sanction is recpiired to 
declare war, and he must inform Parliament when he 
gives this sanction, and, except to actually repel an 
enemy or prevent the invasion of any part of India, 
no money can he spent, out of Indian revenues, on 
any war outside of India, without the consent of 
Parliament. Every law passed by the Legislative 
Council of India must he reported to the Secretary of 
State, who has power to leave it alone, or advise the 
King-Emperor to disallow it. He may give orders 
to any officer in India, including the Governor- 
General, and he may dismiss any officer from the 
service of government. He also advises the King- 
Emperor on the appointment of a Governor-General, a 
Governor of Madras or Bombay, a judge of a High 
Court, members of council, and certain other high 
officers of government. But just us the local govern- 
ments govern the provinces, notwithstanding the 
powers of the supreme government, so the Governor- 
General in Council governs India whether he acts on 
his own authority, or executes orders received from 
London. In India itself lie is the supreme ruler, or, 
as his name indicates, governor in chief, Held in cheek 
by the law and by the Parliament of the British 
nutiou, which, by its votes, may upset cabinets and 



THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT 


113 


secretaries of state. India thus shares indirectly all 
the benefits of the free British constitution. The 
chain of authority may l>e a long one, but its links 
are unbroken and stretch from Westminster to every 
Indian village. 


CHAPTER VIII. 

LEGISLATION. 

88. The making’ of laws. It has already been 
shown that one of the chief differences between the 
two systems of government, in native states and in 
British India, lies in the fact, that laws in the former 
are made in private by the executive government, and 
in the latter by bodies which, being in one respect 
independent of the executive authority, discuss their 
business in public. This freedom and the publicity 
of the law-making authority are important matters, 
and so contrary to the spirit and customs of Eastern 
countries that they were only gradually introduced 
into British India. In 1600, Queen Elizabeth of 
England gave a charter to the East India Company 
by which it might make laws for its own servants. 
Sixty years later. King Charles II. authorised the 
Governor and Council ‘ to judge all persons belonging 
to the said Governor and Company, or that should 
live under them, in all causes, whether civil or 
criminal, according to the laws of the kingdom.’ 



114 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


Thus English law was introduced into India within 
certain narrow limits. In 1765 the Company became 
the rulers of Bengal, and in 1772 Warren Hastings 
made a code of laws called liegulations for Bengal. 
The next year, in 1773, the British Parliament 
passed the Regulating Act, which founded a Supreme 
Court in Calcutta, and gave power to the Governor- 
General and liis Council to make regulations for the 
good order of Fort St. William and phiees subordinate 
thereto. In 1793 it was decided that all laws should 
bo printed and published, that they should be trans- 
lated into the vernacular languages, and that the 
grounds or reasons for each law should he clearly 
stated and prefixed to it, and that all laws should 
1 k 3 formed into a code. This revised code was com- 
menced in 1793 for the regulations of the supreme 
government, and in 1802 and 1827 for Madras and 
Bombay res \ >eot i v ( dy. 

In 1833, on iho renewal of the Company’s charter, 
the Governor-General was empowered bv Parliament 
to make laws for the whole of India, for all persons, 
British or native, within the Company's territories, 
and for all servants within the native states, thus 
depriving the presidencies of Madras and Bombay of 
their legislative powers, hut leaving their governors 
the right of proposing laws for their own provinces. 
A fourth mem tier was added to the supreme council, 
to assist the executive members in preparing and 
making laws, but he was only permitted to sit and 
vote when the council met to p*iss laws; he took 
no part in the executive business of the government. 
The laws passed since 1833 are known as Acta* 



LEGISLATION 115 

Each Act is now referred to by its number and the 
year in which it was passed. In the same year, 
1833, a law commission, of which Lord Macaulay 
was the leading member, was appointed to make 
recommendations, and after some delay its labours 
led to the enactment of the great penal code of 
India. But before that happened Lord Puihovsie 
had, in 1854, introduced great < hunges into the 
legislative business of India. He enlarged the legis- 
lative council of India, bringing to it mem! >ers from 
the presidencies and judges from the high court at 
Calcutta. Its discussions were printed in neat volumes, 
similar to those which recorded the proceedings of 
Parliament, and its deliberations were conducted 
with great ceremony, so as to increase the dignity 
and independence of its members. After the mutiny, 
an Act of Parliament was passed, in 1861, which 
gave back to the pn sidencies tin* power of making 
local laws taken from them in 1 83 3, and introduced 
additional members, both official and non-official, into 
the councils. The whole course of proceedings was 
then carefully laid down so as to secure the fullest 
discussion and enable the opinions of the public to 
l*e taken upon schemes of legislation. legislative 
councils have under the law and its amendments 
been given not only to Bombay and Madras, but also 
to Bengal in 1862, to the United Provinces in 1886, 
to Punjab and Burma in 1897, and to Eastern 
Bengal and Assam in 1905. 

89. The Council s Acts. The Act passed in 1861 
was amended at various times in 1871, 1874, and 
1892, so that, as education and intelligence spread in 



116 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


India, larger powers might be given to British subjects 
in the matter of helping the Government to make and 
improve the laws. Thus in 1861 the Governor-General 
was allowed to add to his executive members of Coun- 
cil, not less than six, or more than twelve additional 
members, ‘ for the better exercise of the power of 
making laws vested in the Governor-General in 
Council.* These members were to be nominated by 
the Governor-General, half of them being non- 
olfieials, that is, persons who are not in the civil 
or military service of the Crown in India. In 1892 
the number of additional members of the Council of 
India was raised to a minimum of ten and a maxi- 
mum of sixteen, those of the presidency Councils being 
made not less than eight or more than twenty, and the 
maximum for the United Province's being fixed at 
fifteen. The same limit is laid down for the new 
province of has tern Bengal and Assam, the number 
of official members being not more than seven. But 
a more important change was made in the selection 
of some of these additional members. The nomina- 
tion still rests with the Governor-General , or, in 
the ease of the local councils, with the Governors; 
hut the public are invited to select- suitable persons for 
nomination, with the object, as the Secretary of State 
wrote, ‘ of bringing the legislatures into closer relation 
with the l>cst representatives of public opinion in 
India, and of multiplying the opportunities for an 
interchange of views and information l*etween the 
governments and their councils.’ 

Under the rules formed with this object five of the 
seats on the Council of the Governor-General are made 



LEGISLATION 


117 


on the recommendations of the non-official additional 
members of the councils of Madras, Boiuliay, Bengal 
and the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh respec- 
tively, and of the Calcutta Chamber >f Commerce. In 
the various provinces other systems of election are 
followed, so as to give municipalities and local hoards, 
or large societies of landowners, or merchant* 4 , repre- 
sentation ; and to secure full opportunity for discussion, 
great imj)ortance is attached to publicity and ensuring 
a correct report of the proceedings. For this purpose 
Bills proposed Acts are carefully drafted by a special 
ollicial and then published. When all governments or 
public bodies interested in the Bill have been con- 
sulted, and its clauses have been translated into the 
vernaculars, it is considered by a committee of the 
Council, who report upon it. If it is altered by 
them it is again translated and published in the 
official Gazettes, afte v which process it is discussed 
and amended in the Council; and finally, after open 
debate, it is passed or rejected. Then it receives the 
sanction of the Governor-General, or, if a local Act, 
also that of the Go\ernor. Finally it is reported to 
the Secretary of State foi India, as will he explained 
presently. In the main the system is the same for 
local legislatures, although the number of additional 
memt>ers and the mode of choosing them varies. 

But there are limits to the laws which the local 
legislatures may pass, and also to those which the 
Council of the Governor-General may pass. The 
latter may not pass laws which affect the authority 
of Parliament or the British or Indian constitution, 
and the former cannot, without express sanction, even 



118 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


consider laws affecting the public debt or the imperial 
taxes, currency, post of lice, the penal code, the discipline 
of the armed forces, the relations of government with 
foreign states, or the religion of any classes of His 
Majesty's subjects in India. The mum principle is 
that the provincial legislatures should deal with pro- 
vincial matters, although in some cases where a new 
principle is sought to be applied to one province only, 
even that law is discussed in the Council of India. 

90. Right of interpellation. Two other changes 
have been introduced into the law of 1861 which 
deserve notice. One concerns the discussion of the 
financial statement, and the other deals with questions 
put to the government regarding public affairs. We 
shall learn more in a later chapter about the income 
and expenditure of the government. Every year the 
authorities calculate what they expect to receive from 
taxes, and how they mean to spend what they get. 
As the year advances, they correct their estimates by 
the state of the public purse or treasury, and when 
the year is over they still lurtlier correct their revised 
estimate bv the light of facts, and in a statement 
show the actual budget, or receipts and expenditure 
of the past year, and the probable income and expendi- 
ture of the current year. This statement is explained 
every year in the < ouneil of India, and any member 
may then offer any remarks upon it that he pleases 
to make. If he criticises any part of it, the member of 
the Executive Council in charge of the finances makes 
his reply; and tints t he public, who read the discussion, 
have an opportunity of learning all alsmt the revenue, 
and how it is spent. 



LEGISLATION 


m 


In the provincial Council* a similar opportunity 
is given to their memliers. But the law goes further 
than this. It allows members of the various Councils 
to ask questions of which previous notice is given. 
Such questions must be framed so as really to elicit in- 
formation, and would not be answered if the president 
of the Council thought that- public interests would bo 
injured by giving the information asked for. For 
instance, it would be dangerous to discuss foreign 
affairs, or to give to the public information that might 
lead to war, or weaken the defence of the empire, 
The questions and the answers given are recorded in 
the proceedings of the legislatures, and thus become 
known to everyone. 

91. Special ordinances. AVe have seen how the 
laws of India, called Acts, are passed by assemblies after 
open discussion, and with intervals of time between 
the debates intended to secure full deliberation. But 
if grave disorders should occur, there might l>e no time 
for such debates, and it might even be dangerous to 
allow discussion. Every government is hound, in case 
of grave danger or emergency, to take extreme steps 
to maintain peace and order. Accordingly, in such 
exceptional cases the ( lovernor-General may publish 
ordinances which have the effect of law for six months 
unless the King-Emperor refuses to allow them. It* is 
only necessary to add that all acts, regulations, or 
ordinances, however passed, must Ire reported to the 
Secretary of State for India, who, if he thinks fit, can 
advise the King-Emperor either to leave them in 
force or to refuse his assent to them. 



120 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


CHAPTER IX. 

RACES AND POPULATION OF INDIA. 

92 . What makes a country strong and pros- 
perous ? The strength and prosperity of a country 
depend partly upon its position, partly upon the 
qualities of the people who inhabit it, and partly upon 
its natural capabilities and resources, such as great 
rivers, fertile soil, rich mines, large lakes and exten- 
sive forests. A country can never be rich if it be 
a rainless desert, and even if it be fertile and have 
lakes, rivers, forests and mines, it never can be 
wealthy and prosperous so long as it is inhabited 
solely by savage tribes often at war among themselves 
or fighting with their neighbours. The most pros- 
perous nations are those which are most highly 
civilised, where full use is made of the natural 
wealth of the country by its inhabitants. 

So vast is the extent, of India, stretching as it does 
over thirty degrees of latitude, and so varied is its 
surface, including lofty mountains, deep rivers, high 
hills and wide plains, elevated table-lands and fertile 
valleys, that we find in it more variety of climate and 
soil than in any country in Europe. And, with these 
varieties of climate, there is a rich abundance of the 
products of the earth, including nearly all those of mild, 
temperate countries as well as those of hot tropical 
climates. India ought, therefore, to l>e one of the 
richest countries in the world, for it has very great 
natural advantages. 



RACES AND POPULATION OF INDIA 


121 


In past times the people of the country were not 
able, from various causes, to make the most of them. 
One reason was that the nations of India used to 
be shut out from the rest of the civilised world, 
and therefore unable to benefit by the inventions of 
modern times. Another was that wars constantly 
raged in many parts of the country. 'Vuiitless 
numbers of the people were killed, and ln-mea and 
villages laid waste, so that the natives of the 
country were not able to make much progress in 
studying the eliaractei ami cxient of their possessions, 
and turning to account the natural powers of the 
soil, or the riches buried below its surface which 
were waiting to be used by nan. Only when 
there is perfect peace at home and absolute safety 
from attack from abroad can arts and manu- 
factures, commerce and trade flourish. It- is not 
until quite recent, times that proper advantage 
has been taken of the resources of India, either of 
its mineral wealth-- coal, iron and gold — or of 
its vegetable products, many of which grow in few 
other countiies — indigo, tea, cot'iee, cotton, opium, 
tobacco, and rice. The present is the most favour- 
able period that has ever been known in the history 
of India for the development of its resources. 

9;b Famine less to be feared now than formerly. 
It is true that the rains do not always fall at the 
proper season ; and, when this is the case, crops cannot 
be grown, and there is famine. Such is the vast 
extent of India, however, that if there be famine in 
one part plenty of food is produced in other parts. 
In former times India was divided into a great many 



in CITIZEN OF INDIA 

kingdoms, and when famine prevailed in one of them 
no help was given to it by others, and the people 
died by millions. Hut the whole country is now under 
one rule, and all parts of it are equally cared for, 
so that scarcity or famine in any one of its 259 
districts is met from the full crops of other dis- 
tricts, and food and money poured into it. 

And India, being a land of lofty mountains, is 
also a land of mighty rivers. In the north, the 
valley of the Ganges, which is fed not so much by 
rain as by the melting of the Himalayan snows 
which never fail, and in the south, the valley of the 
Caveri, are among the most fertile valleys in the 
world. Vast quantities of grain are grown in these 
well- watered regions. And besides the old rivers 
there are now over 4 0,000 miles of canals which 
run like new rivers over wide tracts of country and 
water millions of acres. Kven now vast quantities 
of water rush down to the sea and are lost. If all 
this water could he kept hack and made to run 
over the face of the earth, millions of additional 
fields could Ikj watered. 

The canals which have been already made are 
every year being added to, and in time we may hope 
to see a network of them all over the country. 
But there must always he some limit to the extension 
of works of irrigation, because they cost a great deal 
to make and to keep in proper order, and the cost 
of them may Iks so great that the money received 
from the sale of the water may not suffice even to 
pay a small interest upon the outlay. Some works 
in fact do not even pay for the expense of their 



RACES AND POPULATION OF INDIA 1 28 

annual upkeep. In addition to canals many tanks 
have been excavated or repaired, and thousands of 
new wells are dug every year by the help of govern- 
ment. Quite lately successful attempts have been 
made, by boring deep into the earth, to bring to the 
surface, through narrow pipes, stores of water that lie 
far below. These artesian wells may i>e frame in 
many places where no water eome& into ordinary 
wells. 

94. Position of India. A country lying m*xt to 
powerful states, villi no strong barrier lietween them, 
is always in a dangerous position, for it may easily be 
attacked. Great Britain is much more safely situated 
than most countries, for it is an island, and to attack 
it the invader must cross the sea. France and Germany 
touch each other, and often has Fiance invaded Ger- 
many and Germany France. Only years ago the 
armies of Germany overran France and took its chief 
city Paris. If we look on India as one great continent 
we shall see that it is to a large extent, protected by 
nature from attack by a foreign enemy. On three 
Rides there is the ocean. The British navy, which 
is by far the strongest in the world, would prevent 
any hostile force from being landed on the, eastern, 
the western, or the southern coast. From the rest 
of Asia, India is out off by the great mountain 
ranges cf the Himalayas, which, like mighty walls, 
stretch across the north for more than a thousand 
miles. 

It is true that on the north-west and on the north- 
east there are passes through which, in bye-gone days, 
invading armies have again and again poured down into 



124 CITIZEN OE INDIA 

the plains of northern India. On the north-west 
Aryans, Greeks, Tartars, Scythians, Afghans, Persians 
and Moghals have at different times burst into India 
through these passes and overflowed all 4 northern 
Hindustan ; while through the openings in the hills , 
on the north-east, by the Brahmaputra valley, the 
Mongoloid tribes of Central Asia have again and 
again come down into the rich countries around the 
delta of the Ganges, where their descendants now 
live, It would bo a task of much difficulty to invade 
India now, so long as the military forces are properly 
maintained. The passes are carefully guarded by 
strong forts ami a powerful army. British soldiers, 
with their native comrades. Sikhs, Bajputs, Pathans, 
Punjabis and Gurkhas, would be ready at once to 
resist any invaders, who might seek to cross the land 
frontiers of the empire for purposes of attack* ' 

9o. Diversities of race. We learn from history that 
different races of mankind have special qualities. Some 
are by nature good soldiers, others make good sailors, 
some excel in agriculture, and others in trade and com- 
merce, some are good miners, others good artizans. The 
most prosperous nat ions are those in which all these and 
many more classes of men are found. Such nations 
contain, in themselves, all the classes and castes of men 
that are needed to supply the wants of the whole com- 
munity. They do not need to send to other countries 
for them. 

If wo search the whole world through we shall find 
no braver or better soldiers and sailors, no more active 
traders and manufacturers, no more wealthy or enter- 
prizing merchant#, no more skilful farmers, no cleverer 



RACB8 AND POPULATION OF INDIA 


m 


engineers, doctors, and men of science generally than 
are to be found, at* the present day, in India. They 
are drawn largely from the native races of the country, 
and tilie/ include as well many of the ablest represen- 
tatives of the strength, the skill ami the science of 
Great Britain. 

96. The population The population of India is 
vast and varied. It is made up of runny different races 
of men who have come into the country at various times 
and made it their home. There were by the census of 
1901, in round numbers, 294 millions, of which total 
232 millions inhabited British India and 62 millions 
the native states. Classified by religion, they included : 

Hindus, - 207 millions. 

Mulbanmiadans, - 621 millions. 

Buddhists, - - - 91 millions. 

Christians, - - 3 millions. 

Sikhs, - 2 millions. 

Jains, - 1 J millions. 

Parsis, - 94 thousand. 

Animistic (aboriginal tribes), 81 millions. 

The Ahorif/ittm are the descendants of the first 
inhabitants of India. At first they probably lived in 
the plains, on the hanks of the rivers. But as other 
and stronger races came down into the country, they 
fled to the hills, where they are now found. There are 
nearly 9 millions of them, and t hey speak many differ- 
ent languages. The chief of these tribes are the Bhils, 
the Kandhs and the Kolis. As they differ so much 
from one another in colour, features and apj>earance, 
as well as in languages and customs, it is clear that 
they must be of different races ; hut where they 



126 CITIZEN OE INDIA 

came from, and when, and to which of the great 
families of mankind they belong, it ifc hard now to 
telL They are wild and poor, and have very little 
to do with the other people of India. They are strong 



A ft.i'iA < ‘HliCf . 


and hardy, and have very good sight and hearing. 
As time goes on, and they become civilised, they 
will, no doubt, take their places in the great Hindu 


RACES Ikl> POPULATION OP INDIA 127 

community and work for the common good of the 
country. 

The Hindus number al >out two-thirds of the total 
population. They, too, include numerous races and 
castes, which differ in colour and features, in the shape 
of their skulls, and in height and Apjiearance, and speak 
many different languages. At the top of thus* num- 
erous races are the Brahmans and higher castes, which 
claim deficient from the Aryans, who six thousand years 
ago slowly drove their flocks and herds through the 
rocky gorges cut out hy •the Indus and its tributaries 
into the Punjab. They brought with ilipm civilisation 
and introduced a settled government into India- After 
dwelling for a long time in the Punjab, they gradually 
spread over the whole country and subdued the num- 
erous tribes whom they found there, mixed with them 
so as to form one people, and introduced their own 
language and civilisation. As the ages rolled on, 
other races — Greeks, Scythians, and prilwbly many 
others of whom we have no record — followed, settled 
down among the Hindus, adopted their language, cus- 
toms and religions, and took their places among the 
natives of the country. To the Aryans and their Hindu 
followers the continent of India owes its first lessons in 
civilisation and agriculture. They changed the wild 
races of hunters, who were the only inhabitants in 
former times, into a society of orderly citizens, and 
made the country rich, populous and civilised. 

The Muka m m adans. But the richer a country is, 
the future tempting it becomes to Invaders. When 
the Aryans had, in the course Of ages, spread over 
Hindustan, cut down the ancient forests, brought 



128 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


large tracts of country under cultivation, bui^t large, 
cities, and introduced order and civilisation everywhere, 
they lost the strength and vigour which had m^jde them 
able to subdue the aborigines. The Brahmans had 
ceased altogether to handle the sword and the spear, 
and had become a caste of scholars, priests and law- 
givers, The great masses of the population, the mixed 
castes of the Sudras, had wholly given themselves to the 
arts of peace, to agriculture and trade. The Rajas 
and their fighting men, the Kshatriyas, and in after 
times the Rajputs, were still, irt> doubt, well able to keep 
the peace in their own countries, and were the bravest 
warriors of their time within the limits of Hindustan. 
Hut they were as unable to contend with the big white 
men who lived in the countries to the north-west of 
Hindustan and passed their lives in fighting, as the 
dark-skinned inhabitants of ancient India had been to 
contend with their own fuir-complexioned Aryan fore- 
fathers thousands of years Indore. Fresh sets of in- 
vaders from Central Asia, Persia and Afghanistan — 
Arabs, Turks and Moghuls — all fierce Muhammadans, 
filled with zeal for their faith, and eager for plunder 
and spoil, swarmed down one after another into Hin- 
dustan and gradually took into their hands the govern- 
ment of nearly the whole country. They supplied 
fresh fighting blood to the nations in the north of 
India, and so active were they in spreading their faith 
that at this day there are alxuit 63 millions of 
Muhammadans in India, more than a fifth of the 
whole imputation? f 

After living, however, for generations in Jthe hot 
plains of Hindustan, the once hardy Muhammadans, 



129 


% 

HACKS AND POPULATION OF INDIA 


the Pa^hans and Moghals, shared the fate of the 
Hindus. They, too, lost their old strength and skill 



A KAJi J UT WAJUUOtt. 


* » • 
in anus. When Nadir Shah, the Persian, invaded 

the Moghal empire in 1 7-‘>9, it was found that 
Hindus and Muhammadans were alike powerless to 



1 CITIZEN OF INDIA 


m 

contend with him. Twenty years later, when the 
Marathas had become the’ strongest native power 
in Hindustan, Ahmed Shah, the Afghan, led an army 
of hardy soldiers down into North India. The great 
Maratha chiefs assembled in their hosts to drive him 
back, but their efforts were in vain. Their might 
was shattered on the field of Panipat, their leaders 
killed and few left alive to tell the tide. 

The Parsis number only 94,000 but they make 
up one of the most important communities in 
the country. Over a thousand years ago when the 
Arabs conquered Persia, and compelled the in- 
habitants of the country to become Muhammadans, 
some of the Persians fled from their native country 
and took refuge on the western coast of India. 
The Parsis are their descendants. Hindus have for 
ages t>een unwilling to cross the ocean to trade largely 
with foreign countries, and, although the Muham- 
madans in the West of India carry on trade with 
Africa and Arabia, yet, as a general rule, both Muham- 
madans and Hindus confine themselves to the internal 
trade. Put the most important part of a country's 
commerce is that with other foreign nations, and in 
this the Parsis have always taken the lead. They 
are one of the wealthiest and best educated of the 
peoples of India, and, small as their numbers are, 
one of their community sits in the British Parlia- 
ment as the representative of a London division or 
constituency. These native merchants of India bene- 
fit artisans and manufacturers by selling their goods 
for them. They are also manufacturers themselves. 
Some of the largest cotton mills in Bombay belong 



RACES AND POPULATION OF INDIA 131 

to them* And they are as generous as they are 
rich. A benevolent Parsi gentleman quite lately 
gave 30 lakhs of rupees to found an art college for 
the benefit of his fellow-citizens. 

Europeans . There are only about 170,000 Euro- 
peans in India, men, women, and children, of whom 
70,000 belong to the army which defends India. 

97* Dangers which beset India. We learn from 
history very clearly that there were three great 
dangers to which the lives and property of tb<3 
people of India were • exposed before British rule 
began.* These were that the coasts of India were 
open to attack by sea, that the country was exposed 
to invasion by the passes in the North-West, and that 
trie fighting classes, whose duty it was to defend the 
country, had become unable to do so by long residence 
in it. It may be added that all classes lost many 
advantages, which civilised nations in modern tunes 
enjoy, by being cut otV mote or less from the rest of 
the civilised world. 

Each one of these dangers and disadvantages has 
been removed by the coining of the English into the 
country. The sea-coast is protected by the English 
navy. The North-West frontier is guarded by English 
and native troops, well-armed and disciplined, and 
supported by all the aid which modern science 
can give. The British soldiers come from their 
native cold country in the North of Europe, and do 
not stay long in India. After three or four yearn 
of service in India they are sent back to Britain, 
and their places taken by fresh soldiers. AH the 
numerous comforts and conveniences of modern Europe 



in 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


are now brought to India in British ships, for every- 
thing that has been discovered or invented in modern 
times is to be found in Britain, from whence it 
comes to India. There are very few Britons in 
India, but most of them, even those who are not in 
the army, do not spend all their lives in the country. 
They often go to and fro from Britain to India, 
and when they finally leave, their pjaces are taken 
by fresh Britons who have all the strength and 
vigour of their race, and bring out with them the 
latest knowledge from the ool leges and schools and 
workshops of their country. 

In the days in which we live, the fate of a battle is 
decided far less by personal strength and valour than 
by skill, discipline and the use of the best weapons. 
No doubt if both parties in a war had equally good 
weapons, the braver and stronger would win in the 
end. But the strongest and bravest men, if ill -armed, 
would have no chance against trained soldiers armed 
with the best modern rifles and artillery. Certain 
raees and castes in India have always been known 
as martial <»r lighting castes. They are as a rule 
those who live in t lie cooler portions of the continent 
especially in the hilly tracts. Such are the Sikhs, 
the llnjputs, the (iurkhus and the Mam thus among 
Hindus, and the Punjabi Muhammadans and Pathans. 
In South India then* arc the Coorgs and Mappilas. 
To render them efficient against a foreign foe, how- 
ever, they need to he well disciplined, well armed and 
well officered. It may l>e added that they should be 
well housed and well paid, so that they need not be 
anxious that their families will come to want while 



RACES AND POPULATION OF INDIA 


133 



OUftKHA HOLDIER8. 


they are away cm military duty. When they grow 
too old to fight, they should lo given pensions so that 
their last days may be passed in comfort. In most of 



1*4 CITIZEN OF INDIA 

these points the soldiers of former days in India were 
not provided for. The Marathas were not soldiers 
by profession. A part of the year they spent at home 
cultivating their fields. When the heavy monsoon rains 
were over, they set out on an expedition at the call of 
their leaders and returned to their homes when it was 
over. The Rajputs did the same. And the soldiers 
of Akbar and Aurangzeb were not paid and pensioned 
as the soldiers of the Indian Army are at the present 
day. Even such pay as they were promised was 
often months or years in arrears. If soldiers are 
to fight properly they must he constantly trained 
in the art of war, well led by intelligent officers, 
and punctually paid their proper wages. 

The native soldiers who now defend India are 
all trained men, soldiers by profession. Their lives 
are sj>ent in making themselves fit for war. They 
fight when it is necessary to do so, shoulder to 
shoulder, with their English comrades, who come from 
over the seas where the climate is cool and bracing. 
They are led hv well-trained English officers. They 
are well housed and clothed and cared for in every 
way, and are armed with the liest weapons that 
can be made in Eurojie. They are employed by a 
government which they can trust and which pays 
them regularly. For 150 years no foreign enemy 
has invaded India, and there can be no doubt that 
any enemy, who should venture to come, would be 
resisted by soldiers determined to preserve their 
liberties and privileges as citizens of India. 



TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS OF INDIA 135 


CHAPTER X. 

TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS OF INDIA 

98 . Division of Labour. The manses of the people 
in all countries support themselves and their families 
by work of some kind, and out of the money which 
they earn they give a part, called a tax, to Govern- 
ment, in order that thejr rulers may by this means 
provide them with justice and other public needs, 
including the soldiers and police necessary for their 
protection. Nothing, therefore, is of greater conse- 
quence to the people and to the Government than 
a steady supply of work. Such work 3hould be 
of as many kinds as possible, and everybody ought 
to he free to choose that form of work which he 
likes best, or that by which he can, from time to 
time, earn most money. If, for instance, Indian 
workmen did nothing hut till the soil, their hands 
would he idle whenever it pleased God to with- 
hold the rains, or if the crops should be destroyed 
by locusts, or floods, or in any other way. It is, 
therefore, very important that Indian workmen should 
have other ways of earning a living than by ploughing 
and sowing. 

Again, if one kind of work can no longer be 
done, or no longer gives any profit, then the men 
who used to do it ought to be able and willing to 
turn their hands to other kinds of work. To take 
one instance, the trade of the Banjaras, or carriers of 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


136 

goods on pack saddles, came to an end when roads 
were made and carts introduced. There was a still 
greater change when canals and railways were made. 
People who want to fetch goods from a distance or to 
send them to market will not pay heavy charges for 
a slow and costly way of carrying them when they 
can save both money and time by using carts or 
canals or rail wavs. These means of moving from 
place to place and of conveying goods from one part 
of the country to another are of great use to all 
classes of people, and, therefore, it is only right and 
proj>er that they should have them although Hie Ban- 
jaras lost their means of living thereby. But even 
the carriers themselves were not long in finding some 
new way of earning a livelihood. In every pros- 
perous community there will always be improvements 
in the manner of doing work or carrying on trade, 
so that workmen and merchants must alter their 
methods or change their trades. It is, therefore, 
most desirable that there should be ready for all 
as many different kinds of work as possible. 

And it has been found that it is not wise for 
Government to make laws or rules which prevent men 
from engaging in any work which they prefer, or in 
any trade which suits them, or from doing such work 
in any way they like. No douht Government ought 
to see that those who employ workmen take proper 
care to protect their lives and bodies from serious 
injury or disease. It is one of the duties of Govern- 
ment to hike care of the lives of the people and 
protect them from harm. This is why j>eople pay 
taxes. But having done this, government need not 



UASJAHA.i. 


interfere any further l>etween workmen and their 
employers, or attempt to fix f lie rate of wages paid for 
any kind of work, or the price which may he put upon 




198 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


goods of any kind by those who sell them. If one 
trade decays and another thrives, the people themselves 
aw the first to find out and to feel the change, and as 
each mam knows for himself, far better than govern- 
ment, the sort of work which best suits him, he should 
be left free to do whatever work he likes. 

99. Capital. There is, however, something which 
a government can do in order to help people to find 
labour. In any large trade or manufacture two things 
are equally needed — namely, capital and labour, in 
other words, money and men. r Government can, by 
maintaining peace and justice, encourage those who 
have money — capitalists — to begin a manufacture and 
employ artisans and labourers. For countless ages 
there has been a considerable quantity of gold lying 
deep in the earth in the Kolar district of Mysore 
State in South India. In old times the people of 
Mysore collected gold from the surface of the fields or 
dug it up from a few feet below. They carried the 
gold which they picked up straight to the goldsmiths 
or traders, who paid them on the spot for their labour. 
But a time came when the native miners could dig no 
deeper, and for hundreds of years the work stopped. 
There the gold lay, deep in the earth, and there it 
would still l>e lying if English capitalists had not 
provided the money for bringing out from England 
skilled engineers to teach the native miners how to 
work, and machines for getting up the gold ore and 
for Diking the gold out of it. Hundreds of thousands 
of native workmen have l>eeii given work which is 
well paid, and they, their wives and their children, 
numbering many hundreds of thousands more, have 



TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS OF INDIA 139 


been fed by this new industry, while millions of rupees’ 
worth of gold, lying idle and unable to be turned 
into money for the payment of wages, have been won 
from the earth for the use and l*enefit of man. 

This one instance shows how capital which came 
from England has benefited the people of India* 
The capitalist runs some risk of losing his money 
altogether when he starts a new industry of this 
kind, or of not making any profit on his capital. 
In fact he frequently fails owing to difficulties which 
were not foreseen when ho began ■ to spend his 
capital on the enterprise, and if lie fails, the loss 
falls upon him alone. But whether he fails or 
succeeds, he benefits the people whom he employs 
by paying them for their work. .And he sets an 
example which, is of the greatest use to Indian 
capitalists, for although they may he afraid to risk 
their money in a new and untried industry, they 
can find they will gladly follow where others show 
them the way, and imitate a successful enterprise. 

There are many other home-industries in cotton, 
tea, coffee, cinchona, jute, indigo, iron, coal, paper and 
silk which have in this way been opened to Indian 
workmen by the aid of capital from Britain. Nearly 
all the railways in the country have been built in 
the same way. A country may have large natural 
resources, there may he untold wealth lying in the 
soil or 1 Kilo w the surface, hut without capital its inhabi- 
tants cannot make use of them, and they are as badly 
off as a country which has none. For this reason 
the Bombay Presidency Association, in preparing 
an address to the Queen-Empress Victoria on the 



140 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


completion of sixty years of her reign, pointed ont that 
one of the greatest benefits that India has received 
has been the fiow of British capital into the country. 
They wrote as follows: 

“ In all these various ways the peace and prosperity 
of the country have been promoted, with the result 
that during the past sixty years the population has 
multiplied nearly 100 per cent., cultivation has 
extended so as to keep pace with this growth, and 
trade and commerce have flourished heyond all 
previous measure, ami been beneficial both to England 
and India. India has become the chief customer of 
British manufacture and trade, and it affords a safo 
investment for the employment of nearly 500 millions 
of British capital in the development of Indian agri- 
culture, manufacture and trade. The bonds which 
unite the two countries have thus become indissoluble, 
and under British protection the various races of 
India, speaking different languages and professing 
different creeds, have learnt to feel for the first time 
that the connection between the two countries is a 
providential arrangement intended to weld them 
altogether into a great Indian nation, owning common 
allegiance to the same sovereign, and having common 
interests in the promotion of peace and goodwill 
throughout the land.” 

100. Occupations. According to the last census, 
out of 294 millions nearly 192 millions were supported 
by agriculture, and if we add to the cultivation of the 
soil some twenty-five occupations which are closely 
connected with it, nine persons out of ten in India 
are so supported* More than 11 millions of people, 



TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS OF INDIA 


HI 


including their families, were engaged in spinning, 
weaving and cloth making, and nearly 4 millions in 
working up metals aud stones. On the other baud, 
the persons, including all the member s of their families, 
who were supported by the public service or employed 



INDIAN PUjI'UI! MAN (MADIIA8). 


in the service of self-government boards and of native 
states numbered only 5 millions. Thus it appears 
that agriculture supports the vast majority of the 
people of India. In reality it supported a far larger 
number than 192 milliors, because those employed 
in the care of cattle, of whom there were 4 millions, 
the preparation of food-stuffs (1GJ millions), and the 
construction of carts, also live on the cultivation of 
the soil, although they do not actually plough and sow. 




CITIZEN OF INDIA 


142 

The great difference between India and Great 
Britain lies in this, that the mass of the people of 
Tndia depend upon the crops of the country, and 
therefore on the seasons, while the British not only 
import their food, but also the raw material of their 
industries, and work it up for the market. India 
sends cotton, indigo and timber to other countries, 
where skilled artizans manufacture them into various 
articles for the use of mankind. Since the monsoon 
rains may fail in many parts of India, and crops 
may be attacked by locusts or ruined by floods, the 
British government has always done all that it can 
to open out to its labouring population new ways of 
earning a livelihood and of obtaining wealth. This 
is done so that too many of them may not depend 
upon the cultivation of the soil, and that some of the 
working classes may )>e able to support themselves by 
work, which will not Rtop even if the rains do not fall 
at the proper time. The requirements of government 
are very small as compared with those of private 
persons, but, so far as it can, government helps Indian 
manufacturers by buying from them, whenever they 
can produce goods as cheap as those made in Britain 
or other countries. Nearly all the paper now used in 
government public offices is made in Indian mills, and 
Indian coal is chiefly used on state railways. 

101. Mines. We may mention a few of the 
ways in which new employments have been created. 
Beneath the soil of India lie many of those metals 
and minerals which have made England and other 
countries rich and industrious. But !>efore the 
establishment of British rule there was no one in 



TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS OF INDIA 143 

India venturesome enough to try to get them, nor 
would anyone give money to he used for this pur- 
pose, neither were there skilled engineers who would 
do the work. Although the coal-fields of India, 
as far as they have l>een explored, cover rn area of 
35,000 square miles and contain 20,000 million tons 
of coal, yet until quite lately, all the coal wanted 
for the railways, steamers and factories in India 
was imported from England or Australia or Japan. 
But India now gets from the Bengal and Singarem 
and other coal mines *7 A millions of tons annually, 
and about 100,000 workmen are employed in this 
work, which does not depend upon the rainfall. To 
these 100,000 must be added the families they sup- 
port, and, besides, there are a great many others who 
earn a living by carrying coal to other places, and by 
trading in it. 

Coal will in future be a source of great wealth to 
India, for there is enough not only to supply all 
that the country wants at present, but all that it is 
ever likely to want, and, in addition, the wants of 
other countries. Coal can be sold at a large profit 
in other countries of Asia. In 1902, over 500,000 
tons of coal, worth 38 lakhs of rupees, were exported 
from India. Ten years l>efore this, in 1892, 640,000 
tons of coal were imported into India, but in 1902 
only 230,000 tons were imported. Indian rail- 
ways now use Indian coal almost everywhere, only 
1 per cent, being imported coal Coal has l>een found 
in every part of India except Bombay, Mysore, and 
Sindh. 

India has also plenty of iron, whole hills and 



144 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


ranges being full of ore of the purest varieties, and 
with cheap coal it may be able to produce steel and 
iron for its railways, its factories, and its buildings. 
The gold mines of Mysore have shown what capital 
and European skill can do for the country. They 
are now giving annually 650,000 ounces of pure 
gold taken from mines which Indian workmen, left 
to themselves, were obliged to abandon. The Mysore 
government does not spend a rupee upon the works, 
but is paid by the companies of capitalists 17 lakhs 
of rupees a year for leave to* work the mines. This 
i» called a royalty, and is much the same as a tax. 
Besides, the Mysore government gets a large revenue 
in other ways from these mines, while an army of 
native workmen, paid by the British companies, are 
supported in comfort with their families. 

102. Tea and coffee. Without capital and labour 
no country can get rich, for without men to work and 
money to pay Diem, it could not be made to produce 
anything. But something else is also wanted. Just 
as necessary as these are skill and experience to 
find out what new products can he grown, what 
articles can l>e made in it, and to introduce 
industries from other countries. When the first 
English settlers arrived in Bombay, they found it a 
sandy waste. Within a few years they had brought 
the Persian rose and other shrubs and flowers from 
neight>ouring countries, and laid adorned the settle- 
ment with the beautiful plants and flowers for which 
it Jiiih since I»een famed amongst the cities of the East. 
Their example has t>een followed by their successors. 
In 1820, some European planters settled in Mysore 



TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS OF INDIA 


145 


anti in the Wyna&d, and they set to work to convert 
these hilly jtmgle-traots into coffee gardens. About 
the year 1830, in the time of Lord William Bentiuck, 
government begun the attempt to introduce into 
India the cultivation of tea. Men were brought 
from China to show Indians how to grow the plant 
and prepare tiie leaf. For many years they wore not 
successful, but government kept on Lying, and at last 
succeeded. Having shown others how to do the work, 
government then left it to private capitalists. This 
is how the great tea Industries of India and Ceylon 
began* They now supply nearly the* whole of the tea 
drunk in Great Britain. Just us the people of India 
buy one third of the total of the cloth goods exported 
from Lancashire in the year, so the British consumer 
buys from India four out of every lives pounds of tea 
which arc annually exported from it. Every English- 
man, young or old, consumes on an average six pounds 
of tea in the couise of the year, and his wants in 
this respect, which used formerly to he supplied by 
China, are now met by several hundreds of thousands 
of Indians engaged in the plantations of Assam and 
other provinces of India. Tims we see how each 
nation assists the other by its industries. The 
Lancashire operative, living in a cold, inclement 
country, clothes the people of India by his industry, 
while the native of India, able to work in the field, 
provides the British workman with corn, tea, rice 
and other products suitable to the soil and climate 
of India. There are other articles, such as tobacco 
and sugar, which would Ik? more freely knight by 
Englishmen if the Indians were more careful in their 



146 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


methods of preparing them for the market. It should 
t)e noticed with regard to tea and coffee* that employ- 
ment is given not only to the local residents of the 
districts in which they are grown, but also to a large 
number of labourers imported from Bengal and other 



COTTON OOINU TO THK MILL. 


parts of the country where the population is excessive 
and work difficult to tint!, 

103. Cotton. But the most striking of all the 
benefits which British capital and British experience 
have conferred upon the workmen of India is the 
establishment of the cotton industry. For many years 
the only cotton mills in the British empire were those 
in England. Englishmen then opened cotton mills in 
India. The example they set was soon followed, and 



TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS OF INDIA 147 


for some time past both Parsi and Hindu capitalists 
have worked mills of their own in Bombay and other 
cities. At the beginning of the nineteenth century 
there were few tilings made in India which were valued 
in other countries, except Dacca muslins, dyes, and 
pottery. But India has now, of late years, token rank 
as a manufacturing country. It can boast of about 
200 cotton nfills worked by steam, which employ 
179,000 hands, ho rapidly has this single industry 
grown since the first mill was introduced by the 
British in 187)4. These mills supply the country 
largely with cotton clothing and also export piece 
goods to Japan, China, and other Asiatic countries. 

104. Other industries. India supplies the world 
with jute. From it are made the ‘gunny’ hags in 
which corn and other grains are carried from country to 
country. In 1902-4, the value of jute exported from 
India was 2 crores of rupees. Formerly raw jute was 
sent to England and there made up into bags, but now 
the jute mills of Bengal are as important as t he cotton 
mills of Bombay. They make up into hags nearly 
half the jute grown in the country. Large quantities 
of jute bags are needed in India itself for carrying 
grain. These are all now made in Bengal instead of 
being imported as formerly. Ovei 2J millions of 
acres are cultivated with jute, and alwmt 118 
thousand persons are employed in the *36 jute mills 
of Bengal. 

Besides cotton and jute mills there are many other 
mills classed under some £9 different heads, among 
them being bone-crushing mills, cement works, 
chemical works, lac factories, oil mills, lotteries, tile* 



148 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


factories, sugar works, tanneries, rice and flour mills, 
paper factories, saw mills, and indigo factories. 

The silk industry is being taken up, and in many 
other ways skilful and experienced British capitalists, 
who do not mind risk, are trying to introduce fresh 
manufactures and trades into India, so as to give 
work to natives of the country. The ‘ trade returns,' 
or accounts published by government, which give 
details of the trade and commerce of the country, 
and the figures in the census reports, where the 
occupations of the different classes of the population 
are given, show plainly what great changes are being 
made in the lives of workmen. They are earning 
money in many different ways which their fore- 
fathers never even heard of. It is not only the 
working classes who benefit. The wealthy classes, 
instead of burying their money in the ground, or 
buying jewels which yield no return, now invest 
their money in manufactures or trades which give 
them largo profits. It was owing to the importance 
of trade and industry to India that Lord Curzon 
created a new department in charge of a member 
of council whose time might be given to the 
improvement of this branch of the administration. 
The chief centres of Indian industries are the sea- 
ports, the provincial capitals, and the railway centres. 
In Howrah, a suburb of Calcutta, 10 per cent, of 
the people depend on jute mills and presses, while 
in Bombay and Ahmedabad cotton mills, and in 
Kan goon rice mills, support reaj>eetively 15 and 11 
per cent of the population. 

105. Government service. In talking of the 



TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS OF INDIA 149 


occupations and careers open to the j>eople of India 
we must not forget appointments in the government 
service. But these are much fewer in number and 
less in value than those ottered by the great professions 
and industries, which not only employ far larger numbers - 
of men, but also pay them salaries and profits much 
larger than public salaries. Government appointments 
do not increase in number and valun as fast as those 
connected with business and commerce. It is true 
that as population increases and trade extends, mor > 
courts and more public offices are needed. But, on 
the other hand, the government of the State is giving 
more and more power to municipal and local boards, 
and these hoards appoint their own servants. 

It often happens that some of the highest appoint- 
ments which government can bestow, as, lor instance, 
a Judgeship of the High Court, are declined by success- 
ful barristers, to whom they are ottered, because they 
find that they can make a much larger income by 
practice at the bar than they would get from the 
salary of a judge. A good private doctor would not 
be content with the pay of a district surgeon. Much 
more money can be made in the larger banks, in mills, 
and by buying and selling shares on the Stock 
Exchange, than the income from pay in the service 
of the State. In the old times in India, as at the 
present day in Persia, China and other countries 
close to India, public servants were allowed to trade 
and receive large presents liesides their pay. They 
also had very large powers over their fellow-country- 
men, which added to their dignity and importance. 
At the present time, however, under the British 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


iM 

government, all public servants are strictly forbidden 
either to trade or take presents of any kind. They 
get a fixed salary, and they must obey the law like 
everyone else. They have no more power than private 
persons, except what the law gives them. 

Nevertheless, the service of government is honour- 
able, and it carries a pension with it, and although 
many able men prefer business or a profession to it, 
there is keen competition for every government 
appointment. When we see how eager young men 
are to enter the government service, we ought to bear 
in mind that the State, after all, can employ A very 
small part of the jKipulation of India. In the whole 
of India the total number of government civil 
appointments, with a monthly salary exceeding 75 
rupees, is 28,280, more than half of which are filled 
by Hindus, 42 per cent, by Europeans and Eurasians, 
and 7 per cent, by Muhammadans. Of Europeans alone 
ftlKHtt 0,500 are employed in the administration as 
against 21,800 of the inhabitants of India itself. 
Hut even if we take the full tmmlier of officials 
receiving the salary stated, we must at once feel 
how few they are, and how a single industry like 
cotton can do more to find work and profit for the 
}M)pulation of India than government can do with 
the whole of its public appointments. 

1 06, Emigration and factory laws. We have seen 
that if the industries of the country are to prosper 
people must Ik? left free to do whatever work they 
like to do, and that if j>eople are to l>e always profit- 
ably employed, they ought to be able to turn their 
hands to some new work if their old work ceases to 



TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS OP INDIA 1 51 

he profitable. The less the State interferes the tetter. 
Whatever one f class of workmen may lose by the 
decay of any trade will te made up to it by the open- 
ing of another and more profitable business. If things 
can be made by machinery in some new factory cheaper 
and better than they can be made by hand, it is a dear 
gain to the mass of the people who require b bu> 
those things, yh\\e the few workmen who formerly 
made them by hand can find some other way of earn- 
ing a living, often in the very factory where the 
manufacture has been taken up. So long as peace is 
maintained in India and capital is provided to pay 
for labour, whether it be sent from other countries, or 
provided by wealthy Indians willing to spend their 
own money on new industries, fresh occupations are 
constantly being created. 

Government must, for its part, attend only to the 
main objects of keeping the public pence, improving 
the means of communication and giving all the 
information required by capitalists who may wish to 
introduce any new trade or manufacture. But when 
government has done this it may wisely leave lateur 
to itself. To this general rule there is one excep- 
tion. When foreign conn tries wish to employ Indian 
labour, as in the case of Demarara, Trinidad, Jamaica, 
Mauritius, Natal, Fiji and Surinam, the British govern- 
ment takes care of emigrants and enforces rules for 
their comfort during the voyage and for their safe 
return with their earnings. In the same way it 
protects labourers who go to Assam or elsewhere if 
it te necessary. The only object of government is 
to prevent any ill-treatment of the labourers or any 



152 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


misunderstanding l>etween them and their employers 
as to the agreement they make. * Sometimes the 
government does a little more than this, as in the 
case of factory laws, so as to protect the weak and 
young from being given harder work than they can 
do, or to guard against accidents which might be 
caused by badly-made machines. 

107. The value of freedom. The chief reason 
’jvhy the British government lias been so successful 
in multiplying the occupations and industries of 
the empire is that it has givejn freedom to labour — 
freedom to labourers to do what they like, on 'what- 
ever pay they can succeed in getting, — and freedom 
to employers to employ whom they like, on whatever 
pay they think they can afford to give. No man can 
compel another to work for him and no man can 
compel anyone to employ him. A good and kind 
master will always find servants to work for him, and 
good, active, honest and skilful servants will always 
find masters very glad to take them. From the year 
18411, when slavery was abolished in India, government 
has never changed its rule of maintaining peace and 
the freedom of labour, and trying to attract British 
capital so as to give the population other means of 
livelihood besides those which the cultivation of the 
soil may afford. 



THE PUBLIC PEACE 


153 


CHAPTER XI. 

THE PUBLIC PEACE. 

1 08 . How the peace is kept at home and abroad. 

Th6 first duty of those who rule a country m to 
preserve peace and order within the country itself, and 
to guard its frontiers by land and sea so that no 
enemy from without him; be able to enter ami invade 
it. For the former purpose, governments employ a 
civil force, called the police, and for the latter they 
rely upon their army and navy. It is of the highest 
importance to the people that both these forces 
should be perfect in every way, so that they may he 
quite able to do the work for which they are in tended. 
The greatest blessing that a country can have is peace, 
and the greatest curse under which it can sutler is 
war. We, who have known only peace all our lives, 
can scarcely imagine how dreadful a thing war is. 

What would happen if there were to be civil war 
in our country, or if bands of robbers could roam over 
it at their will ' In the first place, the post, the 
telegraph and the railway would cease to work. We 
should not he able to write to one another or to our 
friends in distant places as we do now, nor should we }>e 
able to travel about from place to place. Almost every 
kind of business would come to a standstill. Goods 
could no longer be taken from town to town and from 
village to village, nor could supplies come in from 
other countries. Schools and hospitals would l>e 



154 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


closed. Rich men would hide their money and their 
jewels in holes in the ground, as they used to do in 
the old days, and banks would cease to work, for men 
would be afraid to put money into them, and there 
wpuld be no money to lend out. A great many 
labourers would be thrown out of work, for wealthy 
merchants and manufacturers in other countries would 
no longer send capital to pay for labour in a land tiffed 
with disorder. All large factories would be closed, 
and even the simplest occupations would be stopped. 
The villagers would no longer be able to cultivate 
their fields, crops would not grow, and famine and 
disease would rage unchecked everywhere. Any one 
who travels across the frontiers of India may even 
now see a sight which was common in the heart of 
India itself before British peace was established, 
namely, frontier tribes ploughing their fields with their 
anus by their sides, and their ponies ready saddled in 
order to provide for their masters a means of escape. 

Three of the forces which maintain peace and order 
in a country have already been mentioned. But 
besides the navy, the army, and the police, them is a 
fourth force which can preserve order in a country, 
and without which the best police in the world could 
not put down crime effectually, and that is the help of 
the people themselves, the loyalty of good citizens. 

109. Past and present. What the state of India 
was in the dim and distant past we can only gather from 
imperfect records, for of early Hindu times we have 
scarcely any history. The very Vedas themselves, 
however, tell us how the Aryan chiefs fought with 
one another, and with the inhabitants of the country. 



THE PUBLIC PEACE 165 

Those great epic poeim?, the Mahabharata and the 
Iiitmayana, are but histories of wars. They are filled 
with accounts of the slaughter of human beings in 
countless numlws. No doubt powerful kings may 
from time to time have maintained peace within 
their own kingdoms, but all the records we have, 
and the old tales of the country, show us that the 
continent of Irnlja has 
foi ages been inhabited 
by different nations, 
speaking different 
languages, who used to 
look upon one another 
as foes. Kingdoms 
rose and fell, and only 
for a short time main- 
tained their power by 
force of arms. They 
were constantly fight- 
ing with one another. 

They did not combine 
to help one another 
against a foreign foe. 

When the country was 
invaded by the Afghans and Moghuls, one nation after 
another was overcome, localise they were not united. 
It was, indeed, scarcely possible that they should In?, 
for immense distances separated the north of India 
from the south, and the etist from the west, bail roads 
and the telegraph did not exist in those days, and a 
country could l>e invaded and overcome long before 
another even heard of it. 



156 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


From the time of the Muhammadan invasion we 
have a good many trustworthy histories, and they 
are records mainly of wars between Muhammadan 
kings and Hindus, and among Muhammadan kings 
themselves. After the great Akbar had, partly by 
force and partly by kindness and good rule, established 
his mighty empire, there was a time when over 
Northern fndia there was peace, and the people lived 
in safety. But from the time of Aurangzeb, for 
the next hundred years, there were wars, bloodshed, 
disorder and distress in nearly every part of this 
great continent. 

All this is changed. And the whole of India is 
now under one strong government. The strongest 
races that inhabit it are united in one great army 
to defend the whole country. It has what it never 
bail before, a powerful navv. The strength of the 
soldiers of the nations of India is not now wasted 
in lighting against each other, but is reserved to 
repel foreign foes. If one were asked to name the 
chief difference between the India of to-day and 
the India of the past, one might say that in the past 
there was constant war, while now there is universal 
and, we all hope, lasting peace. 

1 10. Naval power. Look at a map of India and 
you will see how largo a part of it is washed by the 
s ea. Where are the capital cities of the empire, with the 
buildings and factories which till them, now situated ? 
They are built either by the sea or a river, down 
which ships may sail to the ocean. If you look again 
at the map, you will see that from the Indian Ocean 
you may sail into the Atlantic or through the lied 



THE PUBLIC PEACE 


157 


Sea into the Mediterranean. It was in the Medi- 
terranean Sea, in 1798, that one of the great battles 
was fought which decided the fate of India. It was 
won by Admiral Nelson, who defeated the French fleet 
completely, and is known as the battle of the Nile. 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


158 

foreign foe may try to invade India from the sea, 
as Napoleon wished to do ; so the coast must be 
carefully watched as well as the land frontier. The 
Muhammadan emperors had no navy of their own 
and tried to defend the coasts of India by engaging 
the Habshi or Abyssinian ships and sailors from the 
African coast. But these men l>eeame pirates and 
plundered the trading ships of the coasts instead of 
defending them. We have now an Indian marine 
which, with the aid of the British navy whose ships 
are stationed in many parts' of the ocean, is able to 
take some part in guarding the shores of India against 
any attacks of hostile fleets. This has never l)een 
the case before in the history of India. Besides 
the navy there are hundreds of vessels l>elonging 
to several large British merchant companies such 
as the great Peninsular and Oriental, the British 
India Navigation, and others, which have a large 
number of magnificent steam-ships, and employ a 
great many Indian sailors. These ships would he 
useful for conveying troops and stores to India, if 
they were wanted, and if the British naval forces 
were at hand to protect them while crossing the 
seas. Moreover, the sailors who work on merchant 
ships would l>e of service on board the ships of war, 
if the necessity should arise. * 

111. Naval defence of India. There are three 
divisions of the great British navy which defend India. 
The first of these is the most distant from India and 
yet also the most important. It consists of the ships 
or fleets which are employed in the seas through 
which any possible enemies might have to pass. 



THE PUBLIC PEACE 


159 


The navy of Gt;eafc Britain i* by far the largest 
and most powerful in the world, and as large as the 
navies of any two European powers put together. It 
guards every part of the British empire ail over the 
world, and its ships visit the most distant seas. Ships 
of the largest size, such as those which are employed 
in Europe, are never seen on the coasts of India . Put 
some idea of their size may bo gained from knowing 
that the largest are over 400 feet long, each of them 
carrying nearly 1000 officers and men and costing 
about one erore and a half of rupees to build. The 
second division of the navy includes the warships and 
gunboats employed by Great Britain on stations in the 
Hast Indies. Other nations — France, Italy, Turkey and 
Portugal — have their own ships in Eastern waters ; 
and in the Persian Gulf, where there is much trade 
and commerce from India, there are many petty chiefs 
who would rob and injure Indian subjects and trading 
ships if they were not protected by this British fleet. 
There were a good many pirates on this sea until they 
were suppressed by the British. Lastly, there is the 
Indian marine, under the orders of the government 
of India. Its ships watch the ports of India, go 
up and down the mouths of the tidal rivers, carry 
troops al>out and make surveys. They would also, 
in time of war, take part with the other divisions 
of the naval forces which have been described. 

Few people in India understand how the country is 
defended by these fleets, and how the large commerce 
which makes it so wealthy is protected hv them. In 
former times, l»efore the days of fleets and navies, when 
ships were small and did riot go far from land, the 



160 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


ocean which surrounds India on three sides was of 
itself a defence, like the moat or ditch round a fort. 
But at the present time, the easiest way for a foreign 
power to attack India would be by the sea, and one of 
the strongest defences which the country has is the 
British navy. 

112. The army. The Indian army consists of about 
225,000 men, without reckoning the ‘Imperial service 
troops and the forces of the native states. Of this 
Imperial army, about 75,000 are Europeans, who are 
not kept long in the court try. As fast as some 
regiments are sent away to other parts of the world, 
however, their places are taken by young soldiers 
fresh from England. If it should bo necessary, a 
much larger body of men could be sent over from 
England to India, but the expense of the army is 
so great that the government wisely employs no 
more men than are absolutely required at the time 
.to defend the empire 1 . In c;ise of need there are 
two other sources from which additional trained men 
could he obtained. They are the volunteers, who are 
of European extraction, and the reservists, officers 
and soldiers who have served in the native army. 
Together they numW some 00,000 men. It is not 
on mere numlxirs of men, however, that we depend for 
our defence. However powerful an army may lie, it is 
not of much use unless it can l>e rapidly moved about 
from place to place wherever it may l>e wanted. A 
small force that can l>e rapidly moved about is much 
more useful than a large army that cannot easily be 
moved. It is necessary, therefore, to have means of 
transporting troops with all that l>elongs to them, their 



THE PUBLIC PE^CE 


161 


tents and ammunition and stores and weapons, to any 
part of the country. 

All this we now have in India. There is a special 
body of officers and inen called the Supply and 
Transport department, whose particular care it is to 
keep everything ready for the movement of troops. 
We have learnt the lesson, too, that the bra est 
soldiers with old-fashioned guns are powerless against 
an enemy armed with the latest and best rifles and 
cannon. The Indian army is supplied with the best 
weapons that are made. * No doubt the forts by which 
India is now defended, the railways, the bridges, the 
factories for making guns and gunpowder, all cost a 
great deal, as much as it would cosi, to maintain a 
huge army. But their value as a means of defence is 
very great. The army which defends the whole of 
India, as far as mere numbers are concerned, is far 
smaller than the united force of sepoys which was in 
old times kept up by two of its chief states. But if 
we consider the training which our soldiers have had, 
the discipline which holds them together, the skill of 
their officers, the excellence of their weapons, and the 
ease and rapidity with which they can he moved, wc 
shall see that they are vastly stronger than any army 
that has ever had to defend the people of India Indore. 

113. Armies of Native states. From the time, 
over two thousand years ago, when Alexander the 
Great, with a small army of well-disciplined and hardy 
Greeks, overthrew the vast hordes of Persia and 
put to flight the hosts of Porus in the Punjab, it 
has been proved over and over again, on many a 
battlefield in India, that large armies without 



162 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


discipline and training cannot prevail against well- 
armed and well-trained troops much smaller in number. 
By the advice of their British Residents, therefore, the 
Native states have ceased to employ the hosts they once 
did. They still have troops, but they are small in 
number and well-disciplined. These states are bound 
to defend the empire both by their treaties and for 
their own good and that of their subjects. Accord- 
ingly some of the leading states keep up one or more 
regiments for the defence of India. A British officer 
is lent to each of them to help them to he ready to take 
the field whenever they may be wanted. They are 
called Imperial Service troops, and number about 
15,000 officers and men. They too, like the troops 
of the Imperial army, are supplied with modern 
weapons, means of transport and medical officers. 

114. Civil police. The army is intended to fight 
against foreign enemies. It would also put down civil 
war or rebellion if this should break out. But to 
prevent robbery and crime and make people obey the 
law's is the duty of the magistrates and the police. The 
government might, it is true, make use of soldiers for 
this purpose. But if troops were called out, there 
would be fighting, and blood would l>e shed. To avoid 
this, government very seldom employs armed soldiers. 
Sometimes, but very seldom, if different classes or 
creeds, for example, the Hindus and Muhammadans in 
some large city, should he on the point of fighting and 
the police should not las strong enough to control them, 
troops are called out for a few hours to assist them. 
But this is never done unless it is absolutely necessary. 

In the times of the Muhammadan emperors the 



THE PUBLIC PEACE 163 

civil and military command rested in the same hands. 
The governors of provinces were also the commanders - 
in-chief, and soldiers did the work which is now done 
by police officers and constables. In the early days of 
British rule, the native system was not at once changed; 
and even now, when a new province or district is added 
to the empire, order is at first maintained by sold ers. 
After a time, the bands of dacoils and roblvrs, who 
usually take advantage of the disorder which follows' 
a war to roam over the country and plunder the 
people, arc dealt with* by a force which is half 
military and half civil. Such is the military police 
which is still employed in parts of Burma. Finally, 
a purely civil force, the police, takes their place. 
The civil police are usually armed only with a short 
thick stick called a truncheon. They are under 
the law like other citizens, and if they use unlawful 
violence, they are sen* to prison. They are chosen 
from the ranks of the people among whom they serve. 
They are only drilled occasionally, and they act singly 
or in small parties, not in large bodies like soldiers. 
At the same time, a few small bodies of civil police 
are kept available for more serious duties, being 
armed and drilled so that in the event of grave 
disorder they may act with the military forces, or 
else combine together and themselves supply the 
place of an organised military force. 

115. The policeman’s finger. In London, even at 
times when the streets are thronged by millions of foot- 
passengers and filled with hundreds of carriages moving 
in opposite directions ami all anxious to get on as fast 
as they can, one unarmed constable can in a moment 



164 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


stop a line of carriages or any number of people 
by merely raising his finger. He is able to do so 
because the people have a respect for law and know 

that the constable repre- 
sents the law. No doubt 
troublesome persons and 
those who wisli to break 
the law. may at times 
resist him or refuse to 
obey him. But there 
•are always many citizens 
ready to help him.* Sen- 
sible people know that 
it is for their own good 
to place themselves on 
the side of the police, 
whose duty it is to main- 
tain order. The man 
who refuses to obey the 
police, when they are 
doing their duty, refuses 
to obey the law, and, in 
civilised countries, most 
people place themselves 
on the side of order and 
help the police. 

116 . Additional police. One great difference be- 
tween the soldiers and the police is that the former 
are what is called an imperial force, as they defend the 
whole empire and are under the orders of the imperial 
or supreme government and are moved all over India 
from time to time. The latter are a provincial or 




THE PUBLIC PEACE 


165 


local force. They are employed by the provincial 
governments and, as a rule, they never leave the town 
or village or district in which they serve. There is no 
fixed proportion of police either to the population of 
a province or its size. The police force employed in the 
different provinces was in 1903 in round numbers: — 
in Bengal 28,500, in the United Provinces 28,000, 
in the Punjab 1*8,000, in the Central Provinces 9000, 
in Bombay 24,000, in Madras 24,000, ami in Burma 
14,000, besides the military police of 15,000. The 
cost of all the civil police in India, numbering with 
officers* 147,000, including the military and village 
police, exceeded 4 crores of rupees. 

Sometimes in a particular place some of the people 
who live there commit so many crimes that the 
ordinary police cannot keep them in order. Additional 
and special police are needed. But it is not fair that 
the inhabitants of other towns and places, which are 
(piiet and orderly, should be taxed to provide pay for 
these additional police. Accordingly those who live 
in the place, and have either caused the disturbances 
or done nothing to prevent them or put them down, 
are properly made to pay the additional cost. 

117, The people. There is, however, in every 
country one force which can keep the peace and put 
down all disorder better even than the army or the 
police. That force is the people of the country them- 
selves. If all the inhabitants of a country were quiet, 
orderly, and well-behaved, there would l>e no need of any 
police at all. In almost all countries, however, there is 
crime, hut in a civilised country, the numlicr of good and 
orderly citizens is far larger than the number of those 



186 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


who break the laws or live by crime. If good citizens 
would even help the police, as they usually do in 
England, when a crime has been committed and the 
police are trying to find out who the criminals are 
or to catch them when they are found, there would be 
less chance of the laws being broken. If they would 
go further and do their utmost by good advice and 
persuasion to prevent disorderly persons from breaking 
the laws of the land, they would be doing their duty 
as true patriots who deserve well of their country. 
Those who own or edit newspapers might assist in 
the maintenance of the public peace if they were 
not to allow anything to be printed in them which 
would he likely to stir up strife or to break the 
laws of the land. 


CHAPTER XII. 

THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 

118. Science. Every one knows that in the age in 
which wo live great discoveries and wonderful inven- 
tions have l>ecn made, and our knowledge of almost 
everything has very largely increased. Tilings are 
now in common and daily use such as railways, tele- 
graphs, ami steam boats which were not even heard of 
a hundred years ago. Nearly all of these inventions 
and discoveries were made in Europe and America, 
many of them in England. All the knowledge and 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH lfr 

power that have been obtained by them are at the 
command of our government, and good use is m#de of 
it in the defence of India. Science helps man to 
defend himself and to kill Iris foes. But, happily, 
science is not less powerful as a means of saving life 
and improving the health and happiness of mankind. 
It is the duty of a good government not only to 
maintain armies to destroy its enemies, but to do all 
that it can to save the lives and to preserve the health, 
of its subjects. 

119. Ignorance. Knowledge, however, spreads very 
slowly.* Persons often sutler and even die through 
ignorance. They do not know what remedies ought 
to he used or where to get them. It is the duty qf 
the government to educate the people, to spread know- 
ledge among them, to teach them how they may 
check disease, and how many kinds of illness may 
now he cured which used to he thought incurable. 
If anyone should walk carelessly into an open well 
and so break his leg or kill himself, we should be 
quite right in saying that lie alone was to blame 
for his misfortune. If a man who is very ill should 
refuse to take medicine which will cure him, and he 
dies, whose fault is it ? No doubt life and death are 
in the power of God, but God has given to men 
eyes and ears and limbs and the power of reason 
for the very purpose of enabling them to take care of 
their lives and bodies. 

We ought not to say that God has brought on 
us any misfortune if we could save ourselves from 
it by merely using the rae&us of escape which God 
Himself has given to us. It has been found out by 



168 


CITIZEN OF INDJA 


learned men that dirt is the cause of a great many 
diseases. The seeds of death lie hidden in dirty 
water, dirty clothes, dirty houses, and dirty streets. 
The Aryans of old made very strict rules as to wash- 
ing and bathing, and Muhammadans believe that 
“ cleanliness is the key of heaven.” But people 
often forget and overlook that which cannot be seen 
by the naked eye. If you look at a drop of dirty 
water through a microscope you will see in it tiny 
specks which are alive. They are called microbes, and 
microbes like these, as learned ipen have found out, cause 
fever and cholera and plague, and other deadly diseases. 
A man who does not know this, and has never seen a 
microscope, may deny that it is true, and think that, 
because he cannot see with his own unaided eye 
these microbes, they are not there, and that drinking 
dirty water or washing in it cannot hurt him. He 
may indeed not see the specks, just as a short-sighted 
man cannot see a tree in the far distance ; but they 
arc there, none the less, and whether we see them 
or not, they kill us mercilessly. We ought there- 
fore to be very careful not to use dirty water. The 
use of clean linen cloth in cleaning and binding 
up wounds is as important as clean water. Some 
few years ago certain hospitals in Europe were con- 
demned to l>e pulled down and rebuilt because many 
patients used to die in them, and it was l>elieved 
that their very walls were tilled with the germs of 
disease, and could not l>e cleansed. But a learned 
doctor, now Lord Lister, discovered that the cause 
of the deaths was not in the walls of the hos- 
pitals, but in the way in which the wounds of th£ 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH 


169 


patients were dressed. He found out that by using 
very clean instruments in operations, and very clean 
linen cloth in dressing wounds, and by using at the same 
time certain * antiseptic 9 or genu-killing drugs, such 
as carbolic acid and iodoform, the patients did not 
die as before but got well again, and the very hospitals 
which had been con- 
demned are now among 
the most healthy in 
the land. 

These and many # 
other* discoveries 
which have been made 
by learned medical 
men in Europe are of 
as much benefit to 
mankind as the inven- 
tion of steam-engines 
or the electric tele- 
graph. Another great 
discovery of the nine- 
teenth century is that of chloroform, a drug which for 
a time puts any animal into a sleep so sound that it 
has no sense of pain. Surgeons can now cut oil’ a 
diseased limb, or remove an abscess in a mans liver 
without causing pain. Not only does the patient feel 
no pain, but the surgeon knows that he is giving no 
pain, and can therefore do his work leisurely and 
carefully, without the danger of a mistake being made. 
These new ways of saving life are now in use in India, 
and in each province, particularly in large cities, 
government has introduced them into its hospitals 




CITIZEN OF INDIA 


170 

so as to bring them within easy reach of the people 
of India. We may have the benefit of them, if we 
want it. If those who are ill, or suffering from 
disease, or an accident, will not make use of the 
means which * are before them and within their 
reach, it is surely their own fault if they continue 
to suffer. 

120. Hospitals. When the British government 
began to rule in India, one of the first things it did for 
the good of the people was to build hospitals and dis- 
pensaries where the injured and the sick could lie 
treated ami medicines given out, to them. Many of 
the rulers of the native States have not been slow to 
follow their example. The people like these hospitals 
better and better, and every year they make more and 
more use of them. There are still, however, many 
ignorant persons in India who forget that none but 
the very sick go into hospital, and think that every 
death in a hospital is the fault of the medical officer, 
and is not due to the hopeless condition of the patients. 
Many persons go to a hospital when they are at the 
point of death, and when it is too late for any doctor 
to save them. Often they have been half-poisoned, 
before they go, by ignorant men who pretend to be 
doctors, but have no knowledge whatever of modern 
discoveries and methods of cure. When they find 
that they are getting worse they go to the hospital, 
but it is then too late to save their lives. If they 
had gone when they first fell ill, they* might haver 
been cured, like hundreds of others. 

The wild trills which live tayond the frontiers of 
India have great faith in European doctors. When- 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH 


171 


ever a mission is, sent to explore their country or 
to mark out boundaries outside British India, the 
medical officer attached to it is surrounded at all 
hours by numerous patients begging him to help them, 
either by performing some operation,- or by giving 
them medicine. In the same way dispensaries and 
hospitals on the borders of the British empire are 
largely attended by P&ihans, Baluchis, (’hirese and 
others, who know how good they are, and value them 
highly. In India itself it lias been found that, the 
more educated people* are, the more they trust hi 
hospitals. Thus hospitals are most largely used in 
those provinces where education has most spread. 
But as any one may visit a hospital, and the friends 
of patients can see for themselves how the sick arc 
treated, it is to he hoped that everywhere in India 
people will find out how valuable hospitals are. It 
is satisfactory to know that in 1902 there were over 
2460 institutions under official control in British 
India, which received in that year nearly 372,000 
indoor patients and gave relief to more than 22 
millions of outdoor patients. The attendances in 
Madras, where there were 485 institutions, far ex- 
ceeded that in Bengal, where there were 574 similar 
institutions. 

121. Lady Dufferin. No one, even in Kuroj>e, enters 
a hospital with feelings of pleasure. People only go 
because they are obliged to do so, that is, l because they 
know that if they do not they may die, and because 
they are sure that certain injuries and diseases can be 
treated there with greater skill and letter nursing 
than they could get in their own homes. And if 



in 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


men dislike entering hospitals, and only go because 
their reason tells them that it is for their own good to 
do so, much more will timid women and children be 
afraid of the very idea of going into them* In many 
Eastern countries, including India, it is the custom for 
women to keep indoors and never even to leave their 

own homes, so that it 
is difhcult for them, 
even if they can over- 
come their fears, to go 
to a public place like 
a hospital which is 
open to every one who 
is in need of treatment. 
This is chiefly true of 
the higher classes of 
native ladies, not the 
lower and poorer 
classes, who do not 
mind leaving their 

LADY DYFFEKIN. ° 

own homes so much. 
And it is very natural for little children to l>e in 
terror at the very thought of going to a hospital, for 
every one knows that it is hard to make a child 
take medicine, even in its own home, from its own 
mother. 


(-an, then, nothing be done for women and children 
when they are suffering pain which medical science 
Could remove or at least lessen ? This was what the 
wife of the Marquis of Dufterin asked herself when 
her huslwmd was Viceroy of India. * If,' thought 
Lady Dufterin, 1 women cannot or dare not go to the 


THE PUBLIC HEALTH 


hospitals to be nursed or given medicine, cannot 
nurses and lady doctors from hospitals go to them and 
nurse them and give them medicines in their own 
homes V So she devised a plan for founding in some 
places hospitals for women and children, where only 
women and children would lie admitted, and for 
supplying there and elsewhere trained native nurBes 
who might go to the houses where they were required 
Both parts of her scheme have already met with a 
good deal of success. Nurses are being trained in 
several parts of India,# and there is already a large 
demarfd for their services. 

% It is hoped that one day every large town or 
village in India will send to the hospitals a few 
native women to learn the ait of nursing, so that 
they may be able, on return to their homes, to give 
help to their neighbours in time of need. In order 
that the plan may be successful, endeavours are made 
to form committees in many places to collect money 
by subscriptions from rich people ami use it in 
this way. Several native chiefs and wealthy citizens 
are very pleased with Lady Jhifferin’s proposals, and 
have helped to carry them out in various places. 
There can be no doubt that when it is seer* what 
good is being done by this nursing sclieme, many 
others will give help too, and so place within reach 
of medical relief a number of sufferers whom all 
men ought to pity and to help. 

122. Prevention of disease. It is better, how- 
ever, fcd prevent diseases from beginning than to try to 
cure them after they have begun, and therefore the 
Indian governments do more than provide hospitals, 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


m 

dispensaries, and nurses. We now know how certain 
diseases which used to kill large numbers of people 
in India may )>e prevented, or at any rate cut short 
and stopped from spreading. 

123. Vaccination. Of those diseases which used to 
sweep aw&y hundreds of thousands every year, small- 
pox veas once the most dreaded. But smallpox, which 
formerly did as much harm in England as in India, is 
now seldom heard of in that country, since nearly 
every child is vaccinated. Just as vaccination has 
caused smallpox to disappear «in England, so it will 
expel smallpox from India if all children ih this 
country he vaccinated also. Already nearly 40 per 
cord of tllo children born in British India are pro- 
tected in this way from catching smallpox, and 
government is doing all that it can to put this 
simple remedy within the reach of every family in 
the land. In 1902 about seven million children 
under six years of age were successfully vaccinated, 
and the numlier of deaths from smallpox has very 
greatly decreased. Those who are good citizens will 
try to persuade everyone to be vaccinated who has 
not already Ikhui so. They may l>e the means of 
saving many a life if they will do this. 

124, W ater-snpply. Many crores of rupees have 
been spent in the cities and large towns of India on 
bringing plenty of good drinking water for the people 
through clean channels or pijies from a distance where it 
can be obtained clean and pure. At first some people 
did not like this, because it was something neW* some- 
thing to which they had not been accustomed, and they 
did not see the good of it But in every plaee, when 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH 


m 


people ceased to * drink the dirty water in the old 
wells and tanks into which drains often flowed, it was 
found that there were fewer deaths every year than 
before*' People in other places heard of this, and 
began to see how necessary it is to drink clean water 
only. Much hjis still to l>e done to bring good drink*' 
ing water into jthe smaller towns ami villages, and all 
good citizens, \^ho themselves know the advantages o! 
gcqd pure water, should do their l>est to persuade 
villagers to kee|> the wells from winch they draw their 
drinking water separate* from those used for bathing or 
washiifg purposes. 

125. Consjervancy and drainage. In the same 
way, both in municipal towns and village's, government 

doing morje and more to wash away the dirt from, 
houses and ‘streets through large pipes into drains. 
The tilth in j the drains is then carried away to a 
distance; arid there burnt, or buried, or used as 
manure in (the fields. 

120, Sanitary boards. In order to advise public 
bodies or prjivate persons how to make and keep towns 
and houses (healthy and clean, government has in most 
provinces appointed a * sanitary board ’ or council of 
health, coyn posed of medical officers ami other men 
who "have/ studied the subject and know l>egt what is 
to be do ue. In all these ways government tries to 
make the people healthy, and the deaths every year 
from choflera, dysentery and fever are now less than 
they o«€4ft were, although they still number alwut six 
millions pa year. 

127. i How government fights famine. When the 
rains fair! and there is a famine the British government 



176 


CITIZEN OF I 


prepares to fight against it as ® would against a 
powerful and deadly enemy, for imere an invading 
army might kill thousands, famfle if unchecked 
would kill millions. So fearful m foe is famine 
that former governments thought 4hat it was of 
no use to try and overcome it. fa They did not 
know how to deal with a vast mnAer of starving 
persons, consequently they did nothing! and the people 
died. A great many of those who just managed to 
keep alive did so by selling them selves and their 
families as slaves to rich m eh, who jAve them food. 
But the British government undertakes to help 
those who are in want, to feed anil clothe the 
starving, and to send hack those who «re alive after 
the famine is over to do the same worn as free mep,* 
that they used to do before. In doing! this govern- 
ment tights famine as it tights disease. \ It first tries 
to prevent it, but if famine breaks outf in spite of 
all that can be done, it tries, to cure the pi] s which it 
causes. To prevent famine altogether ifl a t present 
beyond the power of man. I 

Men have not yet found out how to (kill all the 
locusts in the country, and thus prevents swarms of 
them from gathering like clouds in the aiv and con- 
suming the crops over vast tracts. Nor ’can 'they 
altogether restrain the floods of water which some- 
times come down the rivers, nor even prevent a 
plague of rats. Still less can they bid the| rains to 
fall, or prevent them from falling in such 1 quantity 
m to flood the country. Famine must ‘therefore 
come again and again in parts of India unless the 
climate lie altered. But a great deal can jbe done 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH 


177 


to prevent scarcity from becoming a famine, or real 
famines from becoming so severe and causing so many 
deaths as was the ease in the eighteenth and earlier 
centuries. 

128. Weather forecasts. How, them doe* govern- 
ment try to prevent famine ? In the first place, there 
are officers who form what is called the ‘ meteor- 
ological ’ or weather department. They carefully 
watch the weather all through the year; they 
find out how much snow falls, how storms go 
through the air, how currents move in the seas and 
how \tinds blow, both in what direction and with 
what force. This they do in India and in t fie seas 
and countries beyond India. It has been found out 
l^ r the learned that the weather lias something to do 
with the spots on the sun, and therefore the sun-spots 
are also carefully watched. By doing all this, it is 
possible to tell beforehand what sort of monsoon is 
likely to fall and whether the min will be light or 
heavy. If there is any danger of famine, the people 
are warned of it, and they save up as much grain 
as they can for future use. Government also gets 
ready to help the people. 

129. Irrigation canals. Another way in which 
famine may be prevented is by storing up the water 
which comes down in large rivers, by building dams 
which raise the level of the stream, and thus enable 
it to enter channels and canals, or to fill large reser- 
voirs and tanks from which the water is then led to 
distant fields as it is wanted. This process is known 
as irrigation. A great many canals have been made 
in recent years. The value of the crops grown on 

N.C.I. M 



178 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


irrigated lands may be judged from the fact th^t 
15 million acres receive a supply of water from 
canals and yield food supplies sufficient to feed 
more than 80 millions of people, while in addition 
to these there are numerous tanks and wells all 
over India which can supply water for about 18 



HIE TURK* CANALS, HK7.WADJL 


million acres in ordinary seasons. The Upper Ganges 
canal alone runs like a main river over 460 miles, 
and has 4480 miles of minor channels or branches. 
The Sirhind canal in the Punjab is 820 miles long, 
and has shorter channels al>out 2730 miles in length. 
The Chenab Canal, in the Punjab, has made a vast 
waste of sand, two million acres, into a fertile tract 
second to none in India. In Sindh, where the rainfall 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH 


179 


is very small, the area under cultivation has nearly 
doubled itself during the last 20 years. 

India has now, in short, the finest irrigation system 
in the world. It is true that the wells and tanks 
may run dry in very hot seasons ; but the canals may 
be relied upon, and they have turned deserts into 
gardens, adding some 13 million acres to tin land 
capable of bearjng crops which never Wore in Indian 
history were regarded as anything hut sandy wastes. 

130. Wells. Advances of money are ghen by 
government to raiyats ,to enable them to dig wells. 
In the two yeuis, 1901 and 1902, in the United 
Provinces alone, 33,000 masonry wells were dag, each 
of which watered on the average 9 acres. These* were 
# in addition to 284,000 wells already existing in 
these provinces. In Bombay, in the ten years 1891 
to i901, there were 70,000 wells dug in addition to 
170,000 which were t here before. 

131. Railways. A # third means of preventing 
famine is the opening of railways, which easily and 
Yapidly carry grain all over India. There are now 
more than 27,000 miles of railway open to traffic, 
and some of the lines were made with the sole object 
of enabling food to he carried into districts which 
are specially liable to famine. By this means the 
crops grown elsewhere by irrigation can he quickly 
carried to the parts of India affected by drought, 
at times when bullocks and other animals would 
not be able to work owing to want of grass and 
also of water. The railways also enable people to 
leave these places for a time and go elsewhere to 
find work where there is plenty of food to be had. 



J80 CITIZEN OF INDIA 

132. Forests. Still another way in which govern- 
ment tries to prevent famine is by taking care of the 
forests and by planting tracts of country in which trees 
will grow and formerly did grow, but were carelessly 
cut down by the people. Where hills are covered 
with trees, the air just above them is cool; and clouds 
which the winds carry through the cool air condense, 
and drop rain. The air above dry barren tracts is 
hot, and the clouds pass without letting any rain fall. 
Forests also keep the soil beneath them damp, and 
prevent the moisture from drying up. In 1902 there 
were about 217,000 square miles of state forests. 

133. Freedom of trade. In the early days of 
British government, when famine threatened a state 
or a province, it was thought that the export of grain, 
ought to he forbidden and that the government itself 
ought to buy and import grain and feed the people with 
it. This was done, and large quantities of grain were 
bought by government and poured into the province, 
and kind persons both in England and America also 
sent u great deal to be given to the people. Except' 
in places where the loads were bad or there were 
no railways, and where no grain would be taken if 
government did not send it there, it was found that 
this was not the best way of helping the people. 
Where scarcity is widespread, the help of hundreds 
and thousands of traders is needed. If government 
does not interfere, the Iwqie of profit will induce them 
to buy as much grain as they can collect from out- 
side and sell it to the people. At the same time, 
if all traders are left quite free they will soon com- 
pete with each other, each endeavouring to secure 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH 


181 


some profit for himself, and su preventing any single 
one from charging high rates. But if government 
sells grain cheaply or gives vast quantities of it away, 
private traders liecome alarmed and will do nothing. 
Their help is lost, and public officers, being few in 
number and having a great many other duties to 
perform, are sure to find that they are quite unable 
to get food and give it to everybody. 

No doubt government might bring a large supply 
of food into a particular city, hut when the starving 
people hear that it ha?# come they rush to it in large 
numbers, all order is lost, and, in their vain efforts 
to get what they want, numbers must be shut out 
and many may be trampled to death. "When there 
- ifj famine all over the country, relief can best l>e 
given by sending food to a great many [daces. This 
can only be done by a great many merchants, each 
working hard to mak< a profit by buying grain where 
he can get it cheap and selling it at a higher price, 
jfpee from any fear that government will step in and 
undersell him or prevent him from doing as he 
pleases. Government, however, can and should help 
private merchants by obtaining and publishing for 
general information accounts which will show them 
exactly how much grain is wanted in each place, 
how many people there are to he fed, what prices 
are being paid and where grain is plentiful. 

There are so many wealthy merchants in India, all 
trying to make a profit l>y buying and selling grain, 
and it is so easy to send grain everywhere by railways 
and good roads that there is now no need whatever for 
government to buy grain in order to give away large 



182 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


quantities of it. In fact, as we have seen, more harm 
than good would be done if government acted in 
this way. It has also been found that it is not 
necessary for even private merchants to import grain 
from other countries. India is such a large continent 
that more grain is always grown in it than the people 
eat. In ordinary years what is not wanted is ex- 
ported. In famine years it is sold hi the country, 
and there is enough to meet all demands. 

134. Work and charity. Hut, in a year of famine, 
the people who cultivate the lain! have no crops and no 
money with which to huy food. ‘ What is the use/ it 
may be asked, ‘of merchants bringing quantities of grain 
to people if they have no money, after they have spent 
their little savings from former years or sold their* 
jewels and there is nothing left ? 1 This is where 
government comes in to help them. It does not give 
the people food. Hut it gives them money with which 
to buy food, or if they can mirk it gives them work, 
such as they are aide to do, and pays them for it. I|| 
the famine year, 1 HOT, there were in the month of 
Juno about 4,200,000 persons in India * on relief/ 
Some of them wen* too old or too weak to do work 
of any kind. To them money was given without 
work. Hut a great many more could work. They 
were not able to do much, perhaps, but they could 
at any rate handle a spade or a pickaxe, or carry a 
basket full of earth. Some people may think that it, 
would have been lietler to give them money without 
work. Hut work is just as good for the bodies and 
minds of those who need relief, as for those who 
are well and strong. It is also for the good of 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH 


183 


government and for that of the rest of the people 
of India to got work done. The body, though weak, 
is kept in health by moderate exercise, and it is well 
even for famine-stricken people to feel that they are 
not beggars but that they are canting money to live 
on. There is also another reason for dividing these 
people into gangs of labourers. They fall ink the 
ranks of a well-drilled army of workmen, rrm their 
health and the payment of their wages can lte properly 
looked after. This is no small matter when many 
thousands of people arc collected together in one 
place. • 

Hut the arrangement is also good for the people 
of India. The cost of famine relief is ait enormous 
^ charge upon the taxpayers of India. When there is 
f&iuine in a district, the usual revenue is not collected 
in that district at all, or is only pu,id in part a long 
time afterwards. Money, therefore, must not he wasted. 
Accordingly, when famine logins, there are, first of 
all, ‘ test works,’ at which wages or relief are ottered 
^rily to men willing to work. They show how far 
there is need for relief. So long as the wages paid 
are just sufficient to keep the workmen in health, it 
will not he necessary to give work to those who can 
support themselves by their savings or in any other 
way. Those only who are in actual need and can do 
nothing else to keep themselves alive will go to the 
government works. Thus money is saved not only by 
giving very low wages, only just as much as will buy 
food to support life, and by making men work to 
earn these wages, hut money is also saved in the 
shape of the w r ork done. When the ‘ teat works * 



184 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


prove that relief on a large scale is really needed, 
then the workmen are sent to ‘ relief works/ Per- 
haps a railway embankment is built, a canal dug, or a 
reservoir made. The labourers are, it is true, weak, 
and their work is not worth the full amount of the 
wages which must be paid to them, but it is worth 
something, and this work is done for the good of the 
public. Relief in the shape of charity is always given 
to those who from age or weakness * cannot work ; 
but the rule that a few days’ labour should be given 
by those who need relief and can work is just to 
the rest of the people of India, for it is from the 
taxes paid by them that the cost of relief is met, 
and it is of benefit as well to those who are relieved. 

135. Plague. A sudden and terrible illness may 
now and then break out, which, like the 4 black deatl/’* 
or the ‘ plague,’ may, if it be not checked, destroy whole 
cities and bring ruin upon the survivors. At times 
like these it is the duty of government to help the 
people, to tell them what to Mo, and to place medical 
advice within their reach. In 1896 a few cases of 
plague appeared in the city of Bombay, and before 
many months had passed half the population had fled 
in terror, carrying with them to other parts of India 
the terrible disease which had attacked them. The 
plague, which had it broken out in Europe would 
have been confined to a single city, was in this way 
taken to a great many places, where it spread among 
the people. 

The effects of leaving a disease like the plague 
alone, to go its own way, ought to be carefully noted 
and remem I >e ml by everybody. In the first place, 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH 


1S5 


infection spreads and destroys human life, as a jungle 
fire -burns .down all that is before it, unless it be 
stopped. In the next place, the most distant nations, 
separated from Tndia by continents or seas, take 
alarm, and refuse to admit either persons or goods 
coming from the infected districts until they have 
undergone special treatment. It sometimes happens 
that trade once interfered with loses its position, 
and the industries of many people in the infected 
country may be destroyed. As such mischief can be 
done by plague, it is the duty of government, to do 
everything to stop it that can be done by man. It 
can open hospitals where those who are attacked may 
be taken in and nursed and treated bv skilled doctors 
^80 as to give them the best chance possible of recovery. 
Ir can collect and publish information as to the spread 
of the disease and the best remedies against it. It 
can carefully, examine people going by railway into a 
heal thy city from places where plague is raging so *is 
to prevent any of them who may Ik* ill from carrying 
the disease into it. Hut the task of saving a whole 
population from death is too heavy for government 
unless the people themselves will help. This is fully 
understood in all civilised countries. Good citizens 
in India will in every possible way aid government 
officers, for by doing this they will save the lives of 
many fellow-citizens. 

136 . Public markets. Public bodies, such as muni- 
cipal and local boards, can do a good deal to prevent 
or check disease. This is one of the chief reasons why 
self-government is given to a town or large village. 
Pure food is as necessary as pure water. Hut food is 



m 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


sometimes sold in small, dark, dirty shops and in 
markets which are never washed. And milk is often 
made impure by milk-sellers who mix dirty water with 
it. Cholera and other diseases are spread in this way. 
In order that food which is sold to people may be 
kept clean, most municipal towns build public market- 
places, where traders can sell their goods in shops 
which are kept clean and have plenty of fresh air. 
These markets are regularly swept out, washed, and 
cleaned by servants paid by the municipal board, and 
it is the special duty of one pf these officers to visit 
the market and see that this has been done? The 
local government of the town does not interfere with 
the traders in any way. They may sell what they 
please and charge whatever prices they choose. j 

In all these ways government tries to preserve tfie 
lives and health of the people, but government can 
never do us much for the people as they can for them- 
selves. It is, therefore, the duty of every citizen to 
learn the value of cleanliness, and to be cleanly hot 
only for his own sake but for the sake of his fellow- 
citizens. 


CHAPTER XIII. 

PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE. 

137. Taxes, and why we pay them. All of us, who 

live in India, pay taxes to government. Why do we 
pay taxes and what 1 becomes of all the money that is 



PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 187 

it i 

paid in the shape of taxes? How many different kinds 
of taxes are there, how are they collected, who collects 
them, how much money is paid to government in this 
way, and how does government let us know what it 
does with the money it takes from us? 

We saw that in the oldest times in Indio each 
village governed itself. Every farmer or raival, at the 
time of harvest* set aside so many shares of las grain, 
so much for the headman, so much for the village 
watchman, so much *or the priest, so much for the 
village servants, the barber, the weaver, the blacksmith, 
and so on. In later times, when there were chiefs and 
kings, a share was set aside for the chief or king of the 
country. Each of these shares was a tax, paid by each 
Vajyat for some service done for him. The headman, 
in return for the grain given to him, was expected 
to see that all the old customs of the country which 
had come down from the forefathers of the village 
— the laws — were observed, and he settled all dis- 
putes. He did to some extent the work which is 
now done by courts of law and judges. The village 
watchman, in return for his share, took messages to 
other villages, watched the crops, kept off robbers, 
caught thieves and did what is now done by the politic 
and the post-office. The chief or king in later times, 
in return for his share, kept up an army to protect the 
country from invasion. 

The raiyat now pays taxes in money instead of in 
grain, the only difference l>eing that a great deal more 
is done for him, and it is done much letter than it 
could possibly have t>een done in former times, while 
the tax he pays is less than he ever had to pay before. 



188 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


Every citizen of India pays taxes in return for services 
done for him. When you pay a tax, you are really 
paying certain men wages for serving you in some way. 
Out of every rupee winch you pay, at the present 
day, you are paying the soldiers, sailors, and the 
police who protect the lives of yourself and your family 
from enemies, and enable you to do your work in 
peace by day and sleep in safety at «ight. You are 
paying for the roads and railways which make it so 
easy for you to travel alwmt to any part of India ami 
for goods from every part of the world to be brought 
up to your door; for the post and telegraph* office, 
which take your letters everywhere; for the courts of 
law, the hospitals and the schools, all open to you^and 
for almost every comfort and convenience of life. For. 
every pie you pay you get something in exchange. 
Some of the beneiits or services rendered to us by 
Government are for our own special advantage, and 
others we share with other puople. The water which a 
cultivator draws on payment from a canal, and the 
ticket which a traveller buys to carry him on a state 
railway benefit the payer of the charge imposed, 
while the public road is constructed and kept in order 
for the benefit of all of us. l>ut one way or another 
it is true that without taxes we could not live, or 
at any rate our lives would not be worth living. 

You and I and all the people of India are the 
public. The soldiers and sailors, the police, the post- 
men, the doctors, the engineers, the school-masters, and 
all the other men in government employ are public 
servants, that is, they are our servants whom we pay 
to do work for m — the pay we give them in the shape 



PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 189 

of taxes* It would be (juite impossible for us to do 
for ourselves all the work they do for us. We should 
not know how to do it. And if we did, we should not 
have the time, for each one of us has to earn his own 
living, in the field, or in the shop, or at the office, or in 
some other way. Therefore all this work is done for 



us by others whom we call the government, or the 
servants of the public. Without the people there 
could be no government. # Government exists for the 
good of the [>eople. In helping government, therefore, 
we really help ourselves. Bad citizens who break the 
laws and the rules, which government has made for 
the good of all, injure not only themselves, but the 
whole body of good citizens. 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


m 

A & we saw before, It was not the custom in former 
times for the rulers of the country to give accounts to 
the people of what they did with the money they paid 
them in the shape of taxes. And no subject of a king 
would ever dare to ask him why he spent his money 
on this or that object. A great deal of the money was 
not spent for the good of the people at all, but kept 
hoarded up in the treasury. Some of it was laid out in 
buying jewels for the ruler and his family, or in build- 
ing great palaces or tombs in large towns, usually the 
capital cities. No building wag erected in small towns 
or villagos far from the capital. A part, often* a very 
small part only, was spent on the protection of the 
people and on public works such as roads and canals. 

Our present rulers, however, give us full accounts of 
the different ways in which our taxes are spent. The 
money we give, we may call the public money, as we 
are the public. Those who represent the public on 
the legislative councils of the different provinces, or the 
local hoards, or the Viceroy’s council, and even the 
public newspaj>ers, may freely give their opinions on 
the way in which government servants do their work 
and the ways in which the taxes are spent. 

138. Public Income. The money which we, the 
people, pay — that is to say the taxes paid by the public 
— are the income or what * conies in ’ to the government 
treasuries. On the other hand, the same money, which 
is spent for the public good by government, is called 
the public expenditure. Let us now see in what 
different ways government gets money to spend upon 
us and to supply our numerous wants. 

In the first place government, acting for the people 



PUBLIC INCOME ANI) EXPENDITURE 191 

of India*, is the great landlord of the country. It 
owns* the land except where it has given it to 
Zamindars, and those who cultivate it pay rent for it 
to government, as they formerly gave a share of their 
grain to the king. This rent is called the land revenue, 
and as by far the greater number of the people of 
India are cultivators of the soil, the largest part oi the 
public income laud revenue. It is dear tiuit. those 
who pay this tax receive much in return for it, since 
they not only get the lnmefit of the services done for 
them by government, hut also the use of the fields 
which give them work and a living. Government also 
makes and sells salt and opium, it carries letters by post, 
it makes and works railways and canals, and the profits 
^hat are made out of all these things are a part of the 
public income. Those who do not cultivate the soil, 
but buy and sell goods or make a living in other ways, 
also contribute a share of their profits to the public 
income in the shape of $ tax. If money be wanted 
any year for public works, or to meet the cost of a 
famine, or for any public purpose for which there is not 
enough in the treasury, government borrows money from 
rich men who are willing to lend it, and pays them 
interest on it. Even if money lie not wanted for any 
special purpose, government is always ready to take 
charge of the savings of poor men arid pay them interest 
on them. In this way government does the work of a 
great bank for the whole country. 

1 3 9. Budget Estimates and Accounts. The govern- 
ment of India begins its year on the 1st of April and 
ends it on the 3 1st of March following. This is known as 
the government or official year, to distinguish it from 



192 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


the calendar year, which begins on the 1st of 'January. 
Thus the government year, 1903-1904, means the 
year from the 1st of April, 1903, to the 31st of 
March, 1904. It is sometimes written 1903-4. 
Before the year begins, government calculates what it 
expects it will get as income and what it expects to 
spend, during the year. This calculation is shown in 
a paper of accounts called the Budget, estimate. After 
the year has begun, and as the months roll by, it is 
found that the receipts will be more than the estimate 
or that they will be less. ♦Perhaps a famine occurs 
and the raiyats cannot pay their rents, or the profits 
from railways are less than it was thought they would 
be. Or if the receipts are more than the estimate, or 
even if they come up to it, it may happen that tin/ 
expenditure is larger. A war may break out, or 
money must be spent on famine-relief. Government 
has in this case to decide that it will spend less on 
some object than it at first intended to do, or to borrow 
money to make up the loss. 

If the receipts are more than were expected, 
government is able to spend more on something than 
it at first thought that it could, or it is able to pay 
off some of the money that it borrowed in former 
years. Those officers of the government who have 
charge of the public accounts and receive reports 
from all the treasuries in the empire, make fresh 
budget estimates accordingly, and l»efore the year 
is closed, Revised estimates , in which all necessary 
changes are entered, are published. Finally, after 
the close of the year, and after complete accounts 
from the various provinces and districts have been 



PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 


m 


received* and the accounts of the year have been 
made up, government publishes a third set of 
papers called the Accounts, which show how much 
money has actually been received during the year, 
and how much has actually been spent. In this way 
the public are informed what has been done with 
their money. For instance, a certain raiyat has to 
pay five rupees rent h>r the laud he bolds. This 
he has to pay not all at once, but in l\ or 4 
parts or instalments, at different times in the yecr, 
as ho gets money bv selling his crops. Tina esti- 
mate is seut from the village to the taluk, from the 
taluk to the district thence to the government of 
the province, and lastly to the Supreme government. 
^Five rupees is accordingly entered under the head of 
‘land revenue ’ in the budget. Iiut the early monsoon 
fails, and the raiyat, having no crop, cannot pay his 
first instalment of, say, 2 rupees. Accordingly, in 
the revised estimate, only M rupees are entered, llut 
perhaps the later harvest is very good, and the raiyat 
gets a very large crop and is able to pay his full rent 
for the year, ami so, in the accounts made up after the 
year has closed, 5 rupees are entered as actually paid. 
The accounts of India were formerly stated in rupees. 
Then they were shown in tens of rupees. But since 
1900 they have been stated in pounds (£) at the 
rate of Ks. 15 to £1. A million pounds = one and 
a half crores of rupees. 

140. Taxes and rates. — Taxes are direct and in- 
direct. Direct taxes are taken directly from the persons 
intended to pay them. The man who gives a share 
of his private income or of the profits he earns by 



194 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


his work to government, eallfid an Income tax, pays 
a direct tax. So does he who pays a fee for register- 
ing a deed. Indirect taxes are paid to government by 
persons who after a time get back what they have 
paid from other persons. Persons often pay indirect 
taxes without seeing that they do so. Instances of 
indirect taxes are excise, customs, and tolls. The 
Excise is an indirect tax paid on articles which are 
made or produced in India, Customs are a tax 
levied on goods which are imported into India or 
exported, and Tolls are a t^x for the use of a 
road, and are levied on articles carried along the 
road. If a petty shopkeeper sells European cloth 
in a village in the interior of the country, he must 
charge the buyer a price which will include the, 
price of the cloth at the factory in Europe, and th*e 
charges for its conveyance from Europe to his shop, 
together with the customs duty paid in Bombay, and 
any tolls which have been paid on the road. To all 
this he must add his own profit, and the buyer pays 
the total, as the price. If it had not been for the 
customs and the tolls, the article would have been 
cheaper. Thus the tolls and customs make up the 
indirect tax, first of all paid to government by the 
merchant and then repaid to him by the buyer. The 
tax thus falls on the buyer, but because he does not 
pay it himself directly to government, it is called an 
indirect tax. Mates are taxes which local bodies such 
as municipal councils are allowed by government to 
levy for local purj>osc8. Sometimes to save a local 
board trouble and expense, government collects for it 
a local cess or tax, for local purposes, which is a certain 



PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 


195 


part, say, a sixteenth part., of the land-rent, but paid 
in addition to it. It 13 paid over to the local board, 
which spends it on its own district or taluk, 

141. Rules by which taxes are fixed In fixing 
the taxes which people have to pay, our government 
follows certain rujes. In the first place these taxes are 
fixed by law. They do not keep changing from ^ear 
to year. They #are published, so that everyone knows 
exactly what they are. Every raivat knows just what 
he has to pay to the tax -collector, and no more than 
this can be taken from him. A second rule is that the 
taxes 'shall be as few as possible, and that the 
money directly paid by the people shall, as a general 
practice, go into the public treasury and none of it 
U>£ token by those whose duty it is to collect it. 

In former days the collectors of rents were allowed 

to pay themselves out of the land-revenue, a part of 
which, sometimes a large part, they kept back for them- 
selves. A ruler would often 4 farm out * a number of 
villages to an officer, that is to say the officer had 
to pay a certain sum, say a thousand rupees, to the 
ruler, and might take as much more from the people 
as he could force them to pay. Ho might take one 
thousand, two thousand, or three thousand rupees as 
his share, if he could make, the people pay. Sometimes 
the right to collect all taxes in a district, or part of 

a district was sold by auction to the highest bidder, 

and the more the successful biddpr paid government, 
the more he com {jelled the jieople to pay. Nothing 
of this kind can he done now. The collector* of direct 
taxes are paid fixed salaries nud must pay into the 
government- treasuries every rupee that they collect 



196 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


It is only in the case of a few indirect taxes 'that the 
system of contract is adopted, and then care is taken 
to fix by law the toll or the tax which the contractor 
may charge. Formerly, too, there used to be a great 
many trifling taxes or cesses in addition to the land- 
rent, which gave people a great deal pf annoyance and 
often did not reach the government treasury at all. 
There were taxes on feasts, on marriages, on different 
kinds of food, on journeys and changes of residence, and 
many other things which have all been swept away. 
When the British government took the district of 
Coimbatore in South India, in 1799, after the fall of 
Tippu Sultan, they found that, in addition to the land- 
revenue and transit duties, there were no fewer than 
61 different taxes. A third rule is that ail classes, righ> 
and poor, shall he taxed in the same way and by 
the same rules. There is not one law for the noble 
or great man and another for the poor raiyat. Each 
pays in proportion to the \u>rk that is done for him 
by government. A fourth rub* is that as much as 
possible of the money taken from the people should 
be given hack to them, that is to say, spent for their 
benefit on public works, such as railways and canals 
and roads, and schools and hospitals. 

142. Total Public Income. Taking the year 1903- 
1904, of which t)u accounts have been published, the 
total public income was about 125‘6 crores of rupees. 
But of this 1*2 erorp was received in England partly 
for the services of troops lent by the government of 
India, partly from contributions paid towards pension 
by officers on leave, and from other sources. It is 
unnecessary to deal here with the sums received at 



PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 


107 


* • 

home, find we may proceed to examino the income 
of 124*4 crores which was collected in India as 
follows . 


32*3 crores from railway receipts. 


28*8 

from laj id -lent. 

8'6 

opium sales. 

70 

from salt-tax. 

7*8 

• post, telegraph, and mint. 

7*h 

„ excise. 

5*9 

customs. 

5*4 

stamps. 

4*3 

irrigation under canals, wells, and 

4*2 

provincial rates. [tanks. 

2-4 

receipts from civil departments. 

2*2 

forest produce. 

1*8 

assessed taxes. 

11 

interest on loans. 

10 

ce. tain army receipts. 

*9 

contributions from native states. 

0 

miscellaneous on account of pensions, 

*9 

sale of stores for roads. [etc. 

*5 

Total 1 24*4 

registration. 


Iiailvnj/ receipts . The Government has built many 
railways which are called state-railways, and the 
income from selling tickets to passengers or charges 
for carrying goods brought in nearly 31 crores of 
gross receipts. In addition to this the Government 
has guaranteed to certain lines built by companies 
a rate of interest even if their lines do not earn it, 
and in return it receives part of the profits if the 



198 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


lines earn more than the guaranteed rate. ’Besides 
this it makes advances to help other companies which 
are constructing lines, and it receives from time to 
time repayment of these advances. From these 
various sources it received more than 32 crores, of 
which, however, much was spent m the cost of 
working the lines. 

The Land Rent . This is the rent# which i^ paid, 
by those who cultivate land, to government which is 
the public landlord. In many countries, e.g. England, 
the land does not belong to government but to land- 
lords who charge their tenants whatever rent they 
can get from them. Jit India the government has 
always been looked upon as the owner of the land. 
The present rent is far less than would be charged, 
by a private owner. This is clear from what we 
see for ourselves in India, for in some parts, e.g. 
Bengal, there are vast estates owned by zamindars. 
They have to pay a rent to government, but the rent 
they make their own raivats pay, to wdiom they sublet 
the land, is much higher than what government would 
charge. The raivats in South India and elsewhere who 
are the direct, tenants of government pay much less rent 
for their fields than the raivats under zamindars do, or 
the raiyats in native states. So long as a government 
raiyat pays his rent, he keeps his land. When he dies 
his sons keep it, and so do their sons if they continue 
to pay government the rent fixed on the land. Other 
people may lie willing to pay a higher rent than 
the raiyat dews for his land, but they are not 
allowed to disturb the raiyat so long as the latter 
regularly pays the rent at which Government gave 



PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 


m 


him fchfc land or agreed that he should continue to 
hold it 

It is impossible for a rich man to take a.vay 
from a poor man his land, by oilering to pay to 
government a higher rent. So long as a raiyat pays 
the fair and moderate rent fixed by government, the 
land is his. to cultivate. In some cases, indeed the 
ratya^ himself sublets his land at a profit. He pays 
to government the rent fixed and lets out the land to 
other tenants from whom he takes a higher rent. It 
is a good thing for the* people of India that govern- 
ment owns the greater part of the land. The rent 
which government receives is a part of the public 
revenue and this enables Government to provide what 
'.the people require without raising taxes to meet 
the whole cod of it. All of us, who live in India, 
get some benefit from the land in this way, even 
though we may not cultivate it, for if it were not 
for the land-rent, wo should all have to pay much 
higher taxes. 

Opium , which grows well in India, is bought chiefly 
hv the Chinese, and the large profits which are made 
out of this trade by government save us from the 
taxes which we should have to pay if government did 
not 'get this money from the Chinese. It must W) 
remem) Kjred that we are dealing now with total, or 
gross? income, and from these receipts must U) 
deducted the advances and other payments made to 
the grower of opium, chiefly in Bengal. 

The mil tax. The suit used in India is either 
manufactured in the country or imported from other 
countries. The charge made by Government for every 



200 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


maund,82^ lbs., was reduced in 1905 to Rs. 18 through- 
out India except in Burma, where it is R.l. *Fhis 
rate is 25 per cent, lower than any rate charged at 
any date since the salt duties were made uniform 
throughout India in 1878. In addition to this 
reduction the salt manufactured by # Government is 
made at so cheap a rate and so easily transported 
by railways that the cost of the article with the 
tax is far less than it ever was in old times without 
taking into account the duty at all. 

Customs are the taxes paid on certain goods 
imported into the country or exported from * it by 
traders. They are really paid, though indirectly, by 
those who buy these goods afterwards. Import duties 
were abolished in 1882, but reimposed in 1894 on < 
the value of most articles imported into India except 
railway material, food grains, coal and some other raw 
materials. They are fixed at 5 per cent, on the Value 
of the goods imported, except* iron and steel, on which 
the duty is 1 per cent., and woven cotton goods, on which 
it is «‘H per cent. The chief export duty is on rice, 
and ricc-Hour, most of which comes from Burma, 
and is levied at the rate of 8 as. per maund of un- 
husked rice. 

Ejccm is the tax put by government upon certain 
articles made in the country, e.g. liquor, toddy, opium 
consumed in India, and drugs. This, like the customs, 
is an indirect tax on those who use these goods. 

Provincial rate s on cesses. These are taxes raised 
by government for the most part on the land (in 
addition to the ordinary taxes) in some parts of the 
country for the benefit only of the people who live 



PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 201 

there. ’They arc paid over io some board or council 
to he spent in the tract which they govern. They 
are also called local rates or cesses. They are entered 
in the accounts as provincial rates, because they are 
levied in some one province alone, and net over the 
whole empire. 

Commercial services. The receipt r from *whvays, 
forests, post-ojfipcs. telegraphs, and irrigatioii, which 
are given aliove, are riot all profit, for from them 
must be deducted the cost of working these depart- 
ments, which will he •shown below. They are pay- 
ments* by those persons who use the railways and 
canals, or send letters by the post or messages by the 
telegraph, or buy timber from the forests. If govern - 
. merit did not do all this work private companies 
would, and the people would still have to pay for 
the services rendered to them, but the profits would 
enrich the eonimerci.il companies, and not be spent 
as they now are for the; public lienefit. In all these 
ways the people of India lienefit by the profits which 
government makes, l realise all these profits are spent 
for the good of the country, and the taxes are kept 
lower than they otherwise would lie. How great is 
the advantage which the people of India derive from 
the railways and other public property which they 
possess may be seen from the fact that, although 
the gross revenue of 190^-04 was 124 crores, not 
one-half of this was raised by taxation. 

Assessed taxes. These are the taxes levied on the 
income of the richer classes, there being no tax of this 
sort to be paid by those whose income is Ks.1000 a 
year or less. They are so called because the incomes 



202 CITIZEN OF INDIA 

liable to the tax are ‘assessed’ or valued fti order 
that the amount of the tax may be fixed. ’The 
income tax is not levied on profits derived from 
agriculture. 

The civil departments collect fines, receive fees paid 
by parents whose children attend state schools, and 
by the richer classes who attend hospitals or buy 
medicines ; and sell stores of which toQ large a supply 
may have been received. 

Stamps. Stamps on receipts, as well as stamped 
paper used for deeds and in courts and offices, give a 
large profit to government. These stamps are rbally a 
tax paid by the people who use the courts of law. 

Registration . The fee which anyone pays for having 
a paper of any kind registered is really a tax paid to, 
government. All the fees paid in this wuy are called 
4 receipts from registration.* 

Interest on loans. This is the interest received by 
the government, of India foj* loans made to certain 
native states, to municipalities and to landholders and 
cultivators. 

If the total amount paid in the shape of taxes be 
divided by the total population of British India, it 
will he found that on the average each person pays a 
tax uf Is. 10|d., or Eh. I as. (i p. 3 per anhum, 
without including land revenue. If this be included 
the average taxation per head will be 3s. f>|d., or 
I’s.2 as. 9 p. 3. This is much less than is paid 
in European countries. 

143. Public expenditure. So far we have seen how 
the government of India gets money to spend on the 
country. We may now see how this money is spent 



PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 203 

There aVe two ways of looking at both expenditure and 
income. We may either look at the whole amount 
that is spent, which is called the grim expenditure 
under any head, or we may consider only the net 
expenditure, that is to say the amount which* is left 
after taking from the total expenditure the income 
which government may get under that head. For 
example, in ope pro\ince the gro ws expenditure on 
education may lx* 20 lakhs, but perhaps government 
gets hack 2 lakhs in the shape of fees. The nut 
expenditure under this# head would in this case he 1.8 
lakhs/ lx?t us hike another example. The gross income 
of government under post-ofliee and telegraphs may he 
two and three- fifths evores of rupees, hut, it spent two 
, and two-fifths crores on these departments, so its net 
income was one-fifth of a cm re. It is clear that net 
income is the same thing as profit. We may either 
say that the net income of government from the post 
and telegraphs was 20 lakhs, or that government 
made a profit of 20 lakhs in working the postal 
and telegraph departments. Again, take the land 
revenue. The total receipts under this head may he 
25*4 crores; but to collect this amount government 
may have to spend 6*3 crores; the net income of 
government from the land revenue would therefore 
be 19*1 crores. 

144. Gross expenditure. Taking the same year, 
1903-1904, for which the gross income was given 
above, the gross expenditure * amounted to about 
121*1 crores, of which 27*1 crores were paid in 
England. But since the revenues of India paid all 
the charges, we must consider the details of the 



204 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


whole expenditure, which were 

as follows in round 

numbers : 

• 

Railways - - cost crores 31*0 

Army services 

268 

Civil departments - 

18-0 

Demands on and collec- 


tion of revenue 

" 12-9 

Public works - 

» , 8-5 

Post, telegraph and mint 

7-7 

Miscellaneous 

» 6-5 

Irrigation - - , 

4 1 

Interest on debt 

2-4 • 

Net provincial adjustment 

„ 1-8 

Famine relief 

„ ■ 3'4 

Total 121*1 crores. • 


Aft the gross revenue received both in India and in 
England amounted to 125 6 crores, there was a 
surplus of about 4 h crores, pr nearly three millions 
of English pounds sterling, in 1903-04. 

Railways. It will be seen that more money was 
spent on railways than on anything else. But 
although the large sum of 31 crores was spent in 
working expenses, interest on capital, etc., more than 
32 crores were earned by these railways, and there 
was actually a profit of 129 lakhs of rupees. 

Army services. Under this head is included the 
cost of tho British troops and the Indian army which 
defend India, of the* military roads and works, and 
the upkeep of the forts. This amount is therefore 
spent on the protection or defence of the people. It 
is, of all the items of expenditure, by far the most 



PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 205 

necessary, and as the empire grows richer and more 
envied by other countries it is like)y to increase. 

Civil departments. The most expensive of these 
departments is the police, but it is, next to the army, 
the most important It costs ub &i>ouL 3 J crores 
at present, and very large additions are Ixnng made 
to it. The money, however, i h well scent, for without 
a good police .force there would !>e neither safety 
nor coinfort for the citizens of India. The other 
departments under this head are law and justice 
ere res), the jails and the various civil services, 
Imjierlal and Provincial, also education, the medical 
department, the ecclesiastical, the political ami the 
scientific and marine. More than 2 crores of rupees 
f were received back from these departments in the 
shape of fee? and other receipts. 

Miscellaneous. These charges included the cost of 
stationery and printii g and of leave and pension allow- 
ances to government oiiicers and political pensions. 
About thirty -eight lakhs of this exj>eiuliture was 
received back hv government from officers wlto con- 
tribute a part of their pay towards their pensions. 

Net provincial adjustment . — This is a sum given 
by the Ini|>erial government to Provincial governments 
out of its funds when the share of revenue given 
to them is altered by a change of law, as in the 
case of the income tax, or when owing to famine, 
plague or other causes their revenues fall short of 
that which it was intended that they should have 
to meet their expenditure. 

Famine relief. Government cannot altogether pre- 
vent famine, and famine costs a great deal both in 



206 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


C' 

actual relief, and because no revenue or vefy little 
is paid in those districts where there is famine. 
Government, therefore, now makes arrangements 
beforehand to meet the cost of famines which may 
occur. So a prudent father puts aside a portion 
of his income every year to me^t the cost of 
medicines and doctor’s bills in case any of his 
family should be ill. In its budget estimates every 
year government provides or ‘ appropriates ’ a sum 
for this purpose. If famine does come, the whole 
sum and as much more as is wanted is spent on 
the actual relief of famine. If there be no famine, 
the sum provided is prudently used either to pay 
off some of the debts caused by former famines, 
or to make a railway or canal which will protect 4 
from famine the country through which it runs. 
When a famine actually occurs, government, instead 
of raising the taxes in oilier parts of the country, 
again borrows money and pays off the debt from 
the famine relief fund of future years, in which 
there is no famine. If the money were put <*n one 
side and not spent, the interest on it would be lost 
and government would have to go on paying interest 
ou its general debt. By paying off a part of this 
debt every year, government has to pay less and less 
interest to those from whom it has borrowed money. 

Howu’-eharfjai. The gross income as given above 
includes certain receipts iu England, and the expendi- 
ture includes certain* stuns paid in England. The 
latter are called home-charges in the accounts. In 
this expression the word Home means England, and 
the home-charges are the money that the government 



PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 


207 


of India sends to England to pay for various things 
which it has bought in Europe, or eke to discharge 
its debts to its own officers on leave or pension, and 
to those other persons who have lent it money m 
time past. Thus the largest payment made in Eng- 
land, more than a third of the whole, is on account 
of the railways which, as we have give 4 profit 
to India. The next is a heavy e.trvige foi Urn army, 
and after that the interest due on loans, and the 
payment oj officers for work which they have done 
in the past or are stilj doing for India account for 
almost* the whole of these three charges. 

The public or national debt. Alxmt one-sixth of 
the homo-charges in 1903-1904 was interest on the 
jpuhlic debt. It is easier for the government of India 
t<5 borrow money in England than in India, and a 
lower rate of interest is paid. When government has 
to borrow money, advertisements are put in the public 
papers, and anyone may other to lend the money either 
in India or England. The interest which govern- 
ment gives is too low to induce natives of India to 
lend even one-third of the amount required, for 
they can get higher interest for their money hy 
leuding to private pennons. 

The government is constantly raising money for 
productive works, such as canals and railways, but it 
also owes money both in England and in India for loans 
raised to meet the cost of wars or famines from which 
no future profit can Ire exjrected. * Part of its debt is 
tempomry, and is paid off as funds are available ; but 
another part is called permanent, lieoause it is not 
considered fair that the present generation should bear 



f08 CITIZEN OF INDIA 

the burden of paying it off aftd leave its successors no 
share of it. Every year large debts are discharged in 
payment of money deposited in savings banks or in 
courts of law, but a loan which was borrowed to enable 
India to gain a new province, such as Burma, is jsl 
permanent national debt of which future generations 
will reap the advantage, arid it is enough for us to pay 
the interest on it. 

The productive debt, or money borrowed to be spent 
on railways and irrigation works, is so called because 



RAILWAY tmiLKiR ACKOH8 TUtC JUMNA. 


government makes a large protit out of these works 
every year. They add a good deal to the comfort of the 
public, they help the raiyat to cultivate and sell his 
crops, and they keep off famine. If it were not for them, 
government would have to borrow largely every year, 
and thus add to the unproductive debt. The actual 
profits made by them not only pay all the cost of 
working, but leave a surplus, out of which government 
is able to make new productive works instead of 
borrowing more money for this purpose. 

At the present time the total national debt of 



PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 200 


India amounts to 214 nfillioas of pounds; but govern- 
ment possesses a property worth 250 millions. It 
has spent 88 millions on railways and 26 on irrigation 
works, beside buying railways at a cost of 85 millions 
«-on all this expenditure it makes a Urge profit, Be- 
sides this, it has 20 millions in its treasuries, and 
8 millions as a gold reserve, and lias lent native slates 
and companies 23 miliums. 

145. Net expenditure. We have now seen the 
whole of income and of the outgoings of the goveai- 
ment <4 British Indqp Bui it sometimes happms 
that a department of the administration earns more 
than it spends. Thus railways brought in more than 
32 crores of rupees and cyst the state 81 mores in 
the year which we have examined. The public 
gained a profit of one and a quarter crores, or, as 
it is expressed, the net revenue was the amount just 
stated. When we deduct, all that the government 
received in its spending departments, such as post- 
office and railways, from the expenditure of these 
departments, and also deduct from the revenue of 
the earning departments the charges incurred on 
them, the net income of 1008-04 was 70 crores, 
and the net expenditure was 65 h, showing the same 
surplus of 41 crores which was the result of our 
examination of the gross revenues and expenses of 
that year. 

14G. Credit of India. The low rate at which 
the government of India is able to borrow money 
is a sure and certain proof of the prosperity of 
the country. To a bankrupt, no one in his senses 
would lend money at any rate of interest, whether 



210 


CIUZEN OF INDIA 


o 

he was an individual, or a company, or a govern- 
ment. To any one who was in difficulties, if it 
were at all doubtful whether he could repay the 
debt, no one would lend money except at a high 
rate of interest. But to the government of Indiar 
the rich men of the world are ready to lend crores of 
rupees, whenever it needs money, at a rate of interest 
at which most of the nations of Europe would be 
unable to borrow. They know well what difficulties 
the government has in a country where famine often 
prevails, and where wars must often be fought with 
the savage tribes on the frontier. But they also 1 know 
that the accounts of the country are kept very care- 
fully and may be trusted* And they see that year 
after year more money is spent on productive public 
works, which cannot fail to make the country richer. 
They feed quite sure that the interest on their money 
will be paid regularly. Every rupee which is Iftnt to 
India at <‘U or 3 per cent, is a proof that the country 
is considered, by those best able to judge — to be rich, 
well-governed and prosperous. 

147. Exchange. Most of the* expenditure of 
government is made in rupees, /'.//. all the soldiers 
and civil servants are paid in rupees. But govern- 
ment has also to spend a good deal of money in 
England, for Insides the interest on the public 
debt which has l>een mentioned, all the guns and 
other things wanted for the army are made in 
England and must bought and paid for there. 
In the same way, all the engines and material used on 
state-railways is made in England. The money used 
in England is gold, Tim money which has to be 



PUBLIC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 211 

sent to England to pay the various home charge® 
mutffc i>e in gold money. But all the revenue or 
income of the Indian government paid to it 
in silver rupees, so that the treasuries contain 
only rupees. Thus the government of India has 
silver money, and must pay in gold money. It has to 
buy golden sovereigns with its silver rupees. The 
value of gold # and silver is not. always *he same. 
Many years ago an English sovereign might be Itought 
for 10 rupees, Then the value kept changing; it was 
sometimes more and siynetimos less. It. cost govern- 
ment a good deal to buy sovereigns with its rupees. 
At last the value of an English sovereign was fixed at 
15 rupees, so that the value of a rupee was one 
shilling and 1‘ourpenee, and this is still about its 
value. 

Perhaps you will like to know how this was done. 
There are a great ma;>y more silver mines in the world 
than gold mines, and i$ is much mote easy to get 
silver than gold. Any one who had silver might in 
former days take it to the government mints and get 
it made into rupees at the mere cost of the work done 
in coining the silver. As plenty of silver could l»e 
had, rupees were plentiful. But when those who 
held rupees wanted to get their rupees changed into 
gold sovereigns they bid against each other, and 
whenever the amount of gold for sale in the market 
was small they had to pay more and more rujiees 
for it. In this way government was year by year 
obliged to pay a great many more rupees than 
it formerly did, to buy sovereigns with which to 
pay for the goods it liought in England. At the 



212 


Citizen of india 


same time its revenue from rupees remained the 
same, and it could not increase the revenue without 
raising fresh taxes. This loss of government was 
called the loss from exchange , and it kept getting 
larger and larger, as more and more silver mines wese 
opened, and more and more silver was taken to the 
mints and rupees poured into the market. Govern- 
ment could not lessen the supply of jsilver. But as 
no one except government may coin rupees, it could 
lessen the number of rupees. So it closed, the mints 
to the public, that is to say, it refused to make into 
rupees all the silver that was brought to the* mints. 
Only so much silver was coined as was considered to 
be enough for the wants of the country. This was 
such as to make 15 rupees equal to one sovereign of 
gold, or one rupee equal to one shilling and fourpence. 
This value is known as the rate of exchange. The 
number of rupees in circulation is now limited, and 
government no longer suffers the loss it once did. 
At the same time the value of the Indian rupee in 
relation to gold may be affected by causes, such as the 
course of trade, which government cannot control, 
and therefore a gold reserve fund is maintained in 
case of necessity. This fund amounted, on the 31st 
of March, 1904, to more than six millions of pounds 
invested in gold securities, so that, if at any time 
15 rupees could not buy one sovereign, debts due in 
England might, for a time, be paid by the sale of these 
investments for gold^eoins. 



EDUCATION, JUSTICE AND PUBLIC WORKS 213 


CHAPTER XFY. 

.EDUCATION, JUSTICE AND PUBLIC WORKS. 

148. A choice of benefits. A few years three 
gentlemen were travelling with the writer -.f this onok 
from Poona t<f Bombay at a time when a breach had 
been made in the Great Indian Peninsula Railway hy 
floods near Thaun. One »»f the travellers was a 
Brahman official, the Second was a Parsi lawyer, and 
the third a well-known Muhammadan merchant of 
Pomhay. As tho\ went along they talked about the 
different departments of tfu British government in 
• India, and then went on to discuss the question as to 
which of these departments was the Ix'st. The 
Hrahnmn gentleman thought that the system of public 
instruction, and paiticularlv higher education, had 
been of more benefit to India than anything else that 
government had done for the people. The lawyer said 
that British justice was a more valuable gift than the 
university, colleges and schools. The former pointed 
out that it was in 1 857, the very year in which 
the British government was engaged in suppressing the 
Mutiny, that it found time and money to establish the 
first university in India. The latter drew attention 
to the respect shown by the highest British officials to 
the law of the land, “ What/' said he, " could prove 
this better than the fact that not even the governor of 
a province, nor the Viceroy himself, will disregard a 
decree of the High Court, although the Court itself 
has to rely upon him to carry out its orders, even 



2l4 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


when those orders are against his own wishes and 
prevent him from carrying out his own plans. Any- 
thing like this was never heard of before, nor would it 
have been thought proper or possible under any former 
government in India.” Just as the Parsi had saf3 
this the train was moved on to another line of rails, 
and an engine passed by drawing a number of trucks 
full of workmen, tools and railway material, in charge 
of a British engineer. The Muhammadan, who had 
been silent up to this time, jumped up and, pointing 
to the train, said, “ There, look at that ; the best 
lesson which the British teach to us natives of India 
is that they show us how to do everything according 
to a regular plan, and thus they are able to act 
at once when anything goes wrong. In times qI# 
ditliculty or danger they never seem to be at a loss. 
They see at once what is to be done, and they do 
it quickly, carefully and skilfully. The break on 
the line occurred this morning, and now, within a few 
hours, an army of native workmen is on the way to 
mend it under an officer who knows what has to be 
done, and will teach the coolies how to do it. The 
public works of India are the best school in it.” 

149. Educational agencies. Many people think 
that education can only be given in schools, and that 
it ends when they leave school. , This is not the case, 
for if government does its duty its citizens are always 
learning by experience. The total number of boys 
and girls at school* in British India is about 4f 
millions, and out of every hundred children who ought 
to attend school 73 do not. In school children are 
taught not only to read and write, but something 



EDUCATION, JUSTICE AND PUBLIC WORKS 215 


about the history of fftcir country and what they 
owfc to their neighbours and to the Government. 
But we must not think that school is the only place 
where lessons like these may be learnt There are 
**nany lessons which grown-up men may learn by 
looking at the different ways in winch a good 
government does its work. When we grow up we 
find out by experience, and not merely by reading 
lessons in books, what the officers of government 
are realty doing for us. We pay the taxes, aud 
we sec on all sides pf us courts of justice, schools, 
police, hospitals, and public works. Then we can ask 
ourselves questions, and answer them by our own 
experience. For instance,, os we learnt in the first 
chapter of this book, every man has his lights. He 

has a right to expect that government will protect 

his life and property, and enable him to live in 

freedom, comfort ar.d safety. This is the duty of 
government. Does it do it? 

Does the British government keep us safe from the 
attacks of foreign enemies by land and sea, and pro- 
tect us from thieves and robbers in our native 

country ? 

We have seen what government spends upon armies 
of soldiers and the fleet and the police, which defend 
India from foes without and foes within the country. 
If it would not make this book too large, an account 
might be given of the different ways in which arrange- 
ments are made in large fcojyns for putting out 
fires by machines which lift up water to a great 
height and dash it on the flames, and of the rules 
for preventing- fires in crowded streets. It might be 



216 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


shown how, when a great river gets very filll, and 
looks as if it would burst its banks, every care’ is 
taken to prevent mischief, and how messages are sent 
with lightning speed over the telegraph wires to 
summon engines and workmen to the spot, and iff 
warn people who may be in danger to escape, if 
after all a Hood should come. In all these ways 
government saves life and protects property. 

Does the government try to keep the people in 
health ; to prevent disease ; and if it should break 
out, to stop it from spreading from one place to 
another ; to employ doctors to cure such as may be 
ill, and to provide medicines for the sick ? 

The hospitals and dispensaries all over the country, 
the ‘ sanitary ’ or health departments, the arrange- 
ments for vaccination, the money that is spent to 
prevent the spread of plague, and the Dufferin fund — 
are the best answer to these questions. 

In times of famine, does government let the people 
starve, or does it give food to the poor cultivators 
whose crops have failed and who cannot get work to 
earn money to buy food ? And in parts of the 
country which are overcrowded and where, even 
though then* be no famine from want of rain, there 
are so many people that some cannot get work even 
in good seasons, does government find work for 
them '( 

Ask the millions who have found work and food on 
the famine relief works. Ask the men and women 
who work in tea and coffee gardens, for whose pro- 
tection and comfort government has made special 
rules ; and the emigrants to distant colonies who find 



EDUCATION, JUSTICE AND PUBLIC WORKS 217 


the work there which they cannot get at home ; ask 
them whether they do not owe their lives, the food 
they eat, and the clothes they wear, to the government 
of their country, 

^ Does government help the poorer classes of people 
to save money, and lend them money to buy seed and 
cattle for their lands ? 

Yes, government does tins. In post-nfhee and other 
savings-banks about 025,000 depositors have put in 
about seventeen crores of rupees. In no other country 
in Asia does the government help the poor to save 
in thift way, and nowhere else in this part of the 
world do the people trust, their rulers to repay 
what is entrusted to thein keeping, as they do in 
^ India. The people of India had no chance of 
doing it under former governments. It is only lately 
that they have taken to the custom of putting their 
money into banks and drawing interest on it. In the 
old days men used to hide their money in the ground 
to keep it safe, or buy jewels for their women. As 
time goes on there can he no doubt that a great deal 
more money will be put into banks and the people get 
richer by the interest they will draw on their savings. 
Government makes tahAvi or ‘helping’ advances of 
money to raiyats, to assist them in cultivation, and 
it lends them money to sink wells or in other ways 
improve their lands under a law called the I^and 
Improvements Act. It has also given help to agri- 
cultural banks which lend money at a low rate of 
interest. After very bad seasons, when the poorer 
raiyats have had no crops at all or very small crops, 
government remits or wipes out altogether the rent 



m 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


which is due. In the budget for 1902-1903 no less 
than 200 lakhs of rupees were remitted in this way. 

There are a good many rules in the code of laws 
known as the Procedure Code or in the Dekkhan 
raiyats relief ?ict for the protection of debtors wbe 
owe more money than they can ever possibly pay, 
and who would, in former times, have become the 
slaves of their creditors. , 

In these and a great many other ways, which can- 
not for want of space be fully described im this book, 
the government of the country treats the people 
kindly ami helps them as a father helps his children. 
By studying them, the citizens of India can learn 
by experience their riglifcs and duties. But there 
are five very important subjects about which some- # 
thing may be said. They are public justice, public 
works, the post office and telegraph, the press and 
schools. * 

150. Public justice. Before India came under 
British rule there were no laws which applied to all 
raws alike, whether Hindu, Muhammadan, Parsi, Euro- 
pean, or others. The Indian penal code applies to all 
alike. It teaches us that government treats all its sub- 
jects in the same way. There is not one law for one race 
or class and another for other races or classes. Who- 
ever breaks the law is tried and punished under this 
code whether he Ik? Hindu, Muhammadan or Christian. 
Every one who lives in the country knows that there 
is a court to which iW is easy to go, where he will get 
justice if anyoue should injure him in any way. And 
if he thinks that he has not been tried fairly, or that 
the judge has made a mistake, he knows that there 



EDUCATION, JUSTICE AND PUBLIC WORKS 219 

are^ higher courts to which he may appeal, when hift 
case will be tried over again. lie need be in no tear 
that the judge will take the part of his opponent, if 
he should be rich or powerful, for the law is no 
^specter of persons. The people of India know this, 
and they trust tjie courts of law. This is show* to he 
true by the large number of persons who go to court. 
Over "two million suits were Wore the courts of civil 
justice in 1902, of which more than one-third were in 
Bengal, and about 1 J million", of eases were l*efore the 
criminal courts. The courts in which these suits were 
tried were open to any one who chose to go in. The 
plaintiffs were there, and the defendants and the 
witnesses and their friends and any visitors who 
wished to see and hear what was lieing done. All 
these persons were able to observe for themselves how 
carefully and w r ith what fairness the judges and magis- 
trates tried the cases iiefore them. 

151. Public works. • These works, constructed for 
the good of the publv\ that is, the ]>eople of India, are 
a good example of the wav in which India is governed. 
The money which government takes from the people 
is s}>eiit upon the people. Great sums of money 
were spent by former rulers upon magnificent build- 
ings' which are the wonders of the world. Visitors 
come from Europe and America to look at the 
Kutab Minar at Delhi and the Taj Mahal at Agra. 
But our government spends the revenues of India 
on far more useful structures % than these. No one 
can have any doubt as 4 o whether the railways, 
bridges, canals and dockyards on which millions of 
rupees have been spent by the present rulers of 



220 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 

♦ 

the country, arc not far more useful to the people 
of India than the palaces of Agra and Delhi or 
the tombs of the kings at Bijapur. They are what 
are termed reproductive works. They cheapen the 
cost of taking goods from one place to another ancf 
in this way enable people to buy their salt, cloth 
goods and other things at a lower rate than in 



1. AW GOU RIM. 


former times when all goods had to be conveyed 
over the country in carts over had roads, or on the 
backs of bullocks or camels where there were no roads 
at all. It has l>eon calculated that the saving to 
the people of India, in carriage of goods by railways 
alone, amounts to 75 crores of rupees every year, 
while an immense trade has l>een created which could 
not exist if there were no railways. They thus make 
the people richer. 




EDUCATION, JUSTICE AND PUBLIC WORKS 221 


Cultivators nmy now* send their grain or cotton 
or ‘sugar to markets where they can get the best 
prices for the produce of their fields. Travellers can 
go for much less money, in a much shorter time, 
•and in far greater comfort and safety, a thousand 
miles than they formerly could go a hundred miles. 
And when, at Che present, day. money is spent on 
splendid buildings, these buildings no not for kings, 
or governors, or rulers, but for the use of the people 
theniRclvqp. Both in Bombay and in Madras the 
most beautiful and ^costly buildings, erected by 
government, are the High Courts: and in both places 
the most splendid halls are those of the Universities, 
which are temples of justjpe and Knowledge not for 
the use of any one particular race*, or sect, or religion, 
but for the use of the public. And there is another 
reason why the public works of India are valuable 
to the people. The', are themselves vast workshops 
in which thousands of skilled artizans and engineers 
are trained and taught how to construct and adorn 
buildings These same workmen apply the lessons 
they learn in them to the building and improvement 
of the private dwellings of the people of the country. 

152. Railways are perhaps the most important 
of all public works. They do what the strongest 
kings cannot do. A king who rules over subjects 
of different races and religions and castes cannot 
alter their customs and ways of thinking, but this 
is done, very quietly and % gradually but very 
thoroughly, by railways. The various classes and 
peoples of India now mix more together and 
see more of one another in railway carriages than 



222 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


they ever did before. At tfie end of March; 1903, 
there were 27,138 miles of railway open, and 3140 
more were being made. The total amount that 
has been spent on the lines that are open is about 
350 crores, and as these lines earn a good deaf 
of money that is paid into the public treasuries, 
our taxes are considerably lightened by them ; that 
is to say, we pay lower taxes than w,e should have 
to pay if there were no railways. Some of the 
railways belong to the government of India or to 
natiVe states ; and others have been built by com- 
panies under agreement with government — called a 
‘ guarantee ’ — that if they should not pay a certain 
rate of interest — formerly ,5 per cent, but now mostly 
3 per cent. --government will pay the difference to ^ 
them ; or else they are built with the help of an 
advance of capital, or subsidy, lent to them by 
government on the security of the line. 

Any one who has travel led # by these railways must 
have been struck with the skill of the engineers 
and artizans who made the lines and built the 
engines, and must have noticed what clever and 
careful arrangements are made to work the lines so 
that the trains may run exactly at the time fixed 
and so that there may be no accidents. The whole 
of the line, particularly the bridges, must be carefully 
watched and kept in good repair. One of thp lessons 
taught by the railways is the use and necessity of 
punctuality. Unless you are at the station in time 
to take your ticket and take your seat, you will 
miss your train. The train waits for nobody. 

153. Irrigation works deserve separate mention 



EDUCATION, JUSTICE AND PUBLIC WORKS 223 

whether * they l>e canals tanks. Long before the 
arrival of the British, the people of India had found 
out the value of tanks ami wells, and one or two 
canals had been made by former rulers of the country. 
Rut it was not in their power to construct canals 
as large and as long us those that have been 



AVjVRDtl’T, IJANOKS CAN A I*. 


made within the last fifty years. In those days 
engineers were not so skilful its they are now. The 
great discoveries of modern times had not then 
been made. And the constant wars which raged 
all over India left neither time nor money for great 
public works like these. Some* of the canals made 
by British engineers run like long rivers through 
wide countries. For instance, the Up}>er (»anges 
canal, which cost i\ erores of rupees, is like a main 



224 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


river 460 miles long, and has branches or channels, 
for distributing the water, 44-80 miles in length, 
over 900,000 acres. The Lower Ganges canal is 100 
miles longer. It cost nearly 4 crores and consists 
of 560 miles of main canal and about 2500 mil#e 
of distributing channels. In Madras the irrigational 
systems of the three rivers — GodaVeri, Kistna, and 
Cauvery — have main channels, which altogether extend 
for 1720 miles and irrigate 24 million acres. Other 
provinces make similar use of their rivers, and a large 
income is derived from canals. Like the earnings of 
the railways, the money paid by these canals lessens 
the general taxation of the country. The value, 
however, of irrigation wojks does not lie so much in 
the money they earn for the public as it does in 
the benefits they confer upon the raiyats, especially 
ill seasons when the monsoon fails. 

154. Post office and telegraph. India is *uch a 
vast country that it will take many years before 
every improvement that is possible is made in the 
arrangements for sending letters all over the country. 
Hut enough lias l men accomplished to make aged 
men, who remember how things were done in former 
days, wonder at this one of the many benefits that 
have resulted from uniting all the countries of this 
vast continent under one government, and of the 
jmaee that now reigns everywhere. The rate .of 
postage for Indian post-cards is one of the cheapest 
in the world and confers enormous Imnefits on the 
people. In one year alone, in 1902-3, as many as 
254 millions of post-cards were sent. 

The government of India now sends mail-bags 



EDUCATION, JUSTICE AND PUBLIC WORKS 225 


with letters over 140,00^3 miles and keeps up 45,000 
post offices and letter 'boxes. It carries safely 23 
crores of rupees a year for the public in the shape 



226 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


fcfye extent of a crore and a half by Telephonic 
Money Orders. The Postal department performs other 
duties besides that of carrying letters, for it sells 
quinine to the poorer classes and pays pensions to 
the pensioners of the native army. Besides the* 
post office there is the telegraph, by ^ which messages 
may be sent from one part of India to another, 
however distant, in a few minutes. There are now 
about 57,000 miles of telegraph lines open, with 
about 2100 offices sending about 7 million® messages 
a year. 

Who can estimate too highly the value of the 
post office and telegraph to the people of India ? 
.fust think how we should miss them! How 
much information, on every kind of subject, is^ 
taken by the millions of letters and messages thal 
are carried over the country ! A great deal of this 
information is no doubt true, but some of iff may 
be false. One lesson that everyone must learn for 
himself is, not to believe everything that is told 
him, nor all that he reads in a newspaper. We must 
think, we must judge for ourselves, we must inquire 
into the truth of a story before we accept it as 
true. This thinking, this inquiry, this finding out 
of the truth is now easy because there are so 
many ways of asking others who know the facts of 
a case. In former days idle tales and false rumcprs 
spread over the country. People believed them 
and a great deal of ^mischief was done. But now, 
a careful man, when he hears a story of this kind 
can easily find out by a letter or telegram whether 
it is true or false. 



EDUCATION, JUSTICE AND PUBLIC WORKS *227 


165/ The Press and literature. What effect books 
andf jaewBpajwrs will have on the people of India 
when they are able to read more widely than they 
now are, we can only guess. There are very few 
'hooks and newspapers printed in India compared 
with England. In 1902 there were 7*0 vernacular 
newspapers — in 21 different languages- of which 
208 wine in* the Bombay Presidency ah no. The 
largest circulation of any daily newspaper was 4000 
and of u* weekly paper 17,009. There were 575 
magazines or periodicals, and 8392 books published, 
of which 7081 were in Indian languages. Nearly 
all of them were read in the large towns only, 
and not in the villages stuttered over the country 
in which nine-tenths of the population live. In 
England newspapers are read in every village, and 
books are to be found in the cottages of all hut 
the very poorest classes. When the people of a 
country are aide to road and to understand what 
they read, they will insist on having good news- 

papers. They soon find out when a newspaper gives 
false news or uses foolish arguments and will not 
buy it. 

In England the editors of good newspapers are often 
paid • very large salaries, such as few even of the 

high officials of government get. This is not yet 

the ease in India: so few people read newspapers 
that those who own them cannot afford to pay 

literally for news or for articles written for them. 
The consequence is that the most highly educated 
men of the country, the ablest scholars from the 
colleges do not, as in England, teeome editors or 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


authors. One reason why books and newspapers are 
so little read in India is, no doubt, because so lew 
people are able to read. As education advances, when 
every village in the country has its school, and if the 
country continues to prosper as it is now doing, we* 
may hope that there will l>e an enormous increase in 
Indian literature, English and vernacular. 

156. Education. We may be sure that the ‘govern- 
ment of our country, who do their best with the money 
which we give them to encourage trade and •commerce 
and industry of every kind, set a very high value 
upon schools and colleges. If they could they ‘would 
gladly provide for the people twenty times as many 
village schools as they *are now able to do, out 
of the funds in their hands. But as there is not 
enough money at present to give every village a school, 
government is obliged to attend to three objects. It 
maintains a few large colleges and good schools to 
educate men for the various public services and the 
leading professions, and to serve as models of what 
good schools and colleges should be. In the next 
place, it gives money in the shape of grants-in-aid to 
all persons or societies who are willing to help in the 
great work of education by opening and maintaining 
good schools and colleges managed by themselves. 
Thirdly, government directs local and municipal boards 
to keep up schools of their own, and to aid private 
persons who maintain schools, just as government 
itself does. The Imperial government and local boards 
employ a large liumlier of inspecting officers, whose 
duty it is to visit the schools, examine the pupils, and 
see that the teachers are properly qualified to do their 



• EDUCATION, JUSTICE AND PUBLIC WORKS ^29 


work, and that the school-houses and the various 
articles and books used in the schools are suitable. 

157. Government colleges and schools. In India 
there are, as everyone knows, three grades of educational 
institutions — the primary school, in which instruction 
is given in the vernacular ; the secondary school, in 
which English is taught; and the college, in which the 
students read* for some university degree, and where 
their education is completed. The education given in 



SKNATB MOI’HK, MA1U1AH. 


secondary schools and colleges is either ‘ general ’ or 
4 technical.* It is necessary to leach a gieat many 
subjects in them, for some men like one thing and 
some another. One man is by nature able to do what 
another can never do well, however hard he may try. 
The wants of society, too, differ. The classes of people 
who live in India are many and varied, and education 
ought to fit pupils to take part* in all the services and 
employments which the country requires. For these 
reasons government provides what are called technical, 
science, and art schools, of which there are about 


230 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


11 hundred. They maintain medical and engineering 
colleges and schools ; veterinary schools, in which boys 
are taught all about horses and cattle ; agricultural 
schools, in which they are taught the methods of 
farming ; and schools of art and industry. Whenever 
a new experiment has to be made, gpvernment leads 
the way, and especially in female education and the 
teaching of science it is necessary for this to be done, 
because otherwise no attempt would be made. 

158. Private enterprise. But the maiif object of 
government in education is the same as we have seen 
to be the case in trade and famine relief, namely, to 
get as many persons and bodies as possible to take 
part in it. Education is a*work which concerns every- 
body, It is a task so vast and so important that it ift* 
impossible for government to do it alone. To educate 
the 232 millions of people in British India, govern- 
ment needs the help of a host of fellow-workers who 
will give themselves wholly to the noble undertaking 
and devote to it their time, their money and their 
energy. Upon local hoards the duty is laid of provid- 
ing for the primary instruction of the children of 
ratepayers, either by opening schools themselves, or 
by aiding private persons to do so. Societies which 
wish to do good to the people, and men who wish to 
earn a living by teaching are welcomed and helped by 
grants-in-aid. By such means many agents ai*e in- 
duced to assist, and they are as a rule men who give 
to their work their tfdiole heart and time. Many of 
them work not for pay, but for the good of their 
fellows, and thus a great work is done which govern- 
ment by itself could never do. 



EDUCATION, JUSTICE AN6 PUBLIC WOBKS 231 

• 

At first, when government began to attend to 
the education *of the people, it was necessary for it 
to show the way to others by opening schools and 
colleges of its own ; but as time goes on it has 
been found that the money which government can 
afford to spend produces larger and tetter results 
when carefully applied to the aid of private enter- 
prise. * It is # a great benefit to the people to give 
them schools, but it is a still greater advantage to 
them if J:hey can be led themselves to spread schools 
and colleges through J,he land. 

159. Primary education. To those who wish to 
earn a living by teaching, there is not the same induce- 
ment to open primary schools as to take up work in 
secondary schools and colleges. Men will readily pay 
’ well for education in institutions which prepare them 
for a university degree, for a degree is a valuable 
certificate which en titles the man who has it to earn 
a living easily. Now that this is well known, men 
are ready enough to open and maintain secondary 
schools and colleges, where high fees are paid. But 
the parents of children who attend village primary 
schools are poor, and as a rule do not value instruction. 
The fees they are willing and able to pay are very 
small, and not enough to support a man and the family 
that depends ujxm him. If the children of villagers 
are to learn to read and write, the State must make 
it easy for them. For many years to come, the public 
funds must pay largely for •primary education. Iri 
the countries of Europe, it is felt that education is so 
important that the Suite must provide primary schools 
for the children of all citizens either free of all cost 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


m 

or at as low a cost as possible* India is of such great 
extent that if this were to be done the taxes wohld 
have to be increased, and our government has not 
therefore attempted to do it. It is quite certain, 
however, that no citizen can fully and properly do 
his duty to his fellow-citizens and to the government 
unless he can read, write, and count properly. 

160. Numbers being educated. About 26 pdr cent., 
or say, a quarter of those who are of an age to be at 
school, now attend school. There are a little over 4 
million hoys, and about half a inillion girls at school. 
Of the whole number about 2,300,000 are in public 
primary schools, and about 560,000 in public secondary 
schools, the remainder beipg in private institutions. 
This result is hardly satisfactory, and yet the gross 
expenditure on education, including taxes, rates, fees” 
and other sources, is about 4 erores of rupees, and in 
the present year large additional funds have flfeen 
provided for its extension. 


CHAPTER XV. 

THE TRADE OF INDIA. 

161. Trade a proof of prosperity. As we are 

citizens of India we ought to know something of the 
trade which the merchants of our country carry on 
with other countries. jOne of the best tests of the 
government of any country is the state of its trade. 
In the first place no country can do a good trade 
which is at war. Merchants will not send goods 



THE TRADE OF INDIA 


233 


to a port if there be afiy danger that they will be 
, seiied by the* ships of an enemy. Neither do 
they care to trade with an ill -governed country, 
where their goods may l>e seized by the government, 
or taxed so heavily that there is no chance of 
selling them at a protit. And unless goods am 
brought into a country very few can bo taken nit 
of it, for it (Joes not pay ships to carry goods one 
way and return empty. Also, unless merchants can 
sell goo<lp in a country they cannot got money to 
buy goods in it to tyke hack to their own country. 
Trade* with another country is called commerce, 
and it includes exports, or goods sent out to pay 
for imports or goods brought in. When the imports 
and exports of a country are very large that country 
?s prosperous, and the merchants who buy and sell 
get their protit. Great mini Iters of workmen also 
obtain employment ii making the goods or growing 
the grain or other vegetable productions which are 
exported, and in carrying exported and imported 
goods to and fro and in shipping them, 

162. Total trade of India. The trade of India 
with other countries is very great, and it lms increased 
enormously under the British government, so that it* 
nearly exceeds that of Canada and Australia combined. 
A crore, as we all know, is 100 lakhs. In 1840 the 
total seaborne trade of India was worth 30 crores ; in 
1867 it was 82 crores; in 1877 it was 171 crores; 
in 1900-01 it was 207 crores ;• and in 1903-1904 it 
had reached the enormous sum of 278 crores, being an 
increase of 15 per cent, over the previous year. Its 
trade by land with other countries hardly amounts to 



CITIZEN OF INDIA 


m 

14 crores. India’s trade \fy sea and land *is now 
larger than the whole trade of “Great Britain 
was 50 years ago, and that was then larger than 
the trade of any other country in the world. The 
figures given above for 1903-1904 represent the* 
private trade of the country, and do not include 
the imports or exports of government for public 
purposes. This private seaborne trade consisted of 
merchandise, and gold and silver, as follows : 

Imports — Merchandise, worth 84 £ crores. 

Gold and silver,,, , 32 „ 

Exports — Merchandise, „ 153 „ 

Gold and silver, „ 8| „ 

Merchandise. Taking «the merchandise, it will 
t>e seen that the exports were in round numbers 
worth 153 crores and the imports 85 crores. Thef 
exports consisted of various things grown or made 
in India and sold to other countries, being $ilued 
at 153 crores of rupees. The imports were various 
articles produced or made in other countries and 
bought by India, being valued at 85 crores. In other 
words, India paid for foreign articles which were 
valued at 85 crores by the importers, and received 
153 crores for her own goods exported, assuming that 
they were correctly valued. The difference of 68 
crores was partly spent in paying debts owed by 
India in Europe, and partly received in imports of 
gold and silver. 

Gold and miner, * The treasure imported by 
private j^reons was worth 3 2 crofes, and that exported 
was worth 8J crores. The difference or net value 
was therefore an import of about 23 1 crores. This 



THE TRADE OF INDIA 


236 


means that India received in gold and silver part of the 
price of the goods which she exported, receiving most 
of the rest in goods imported by private traders or 
by government on the public account. For we must 
remember that the exports of any country, taing 
what it sells, must pay for the imports, *>r the things 
which it buys, and for which it must make payrent 
to the "foreigner who produces them. 

163. Bills of exchange. A part of the payment 
•was made in treasure which foreign merchants sent 
to India, but the greater part is not sent over the 
sea ifi gold and silver. The Indian merchants have 
to be paid in coin in India. At the same time the 
Secretary of State for India has to pay, in Britain, 
large sums of money for the hone-charges, which 
have already been described in chapter xni. This 
money has to l>e paid out of Indian revenues, and 
one way of paying it would no doubt be to send the 
money from India to Britain. But there is a letter 
way than this. As the Indian merchants have to he 
paid in India, those who have to pay them clo so as 
far as possible through the Secretary of State. A 
British merchant has, say, to pay 1 A lakhs of rupees 
to an Indian merchant. The Secretary of State has 
to pay some capitalist in England £10,000. As 
we know, £1 = Ks.15, so the English merchant 
pays the Secretary of State £10,000, and he gives 
the merchant in exchange a bill or order on the 
Indian government to pay Mm Rs. In 0,0 00. This 
order he sends to the Indian merchant to whom he 
owes this money, and the Indian merchant cashes 
it at a government treasury in India. In this way 



236 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


all parties are paid, and tlfe cost and the ‘risk of 
sending money all the way from India to Britain 
and from Britain to India are saved. In the year 
1903-04 the Secretary of State in Council paid no 
less than 36 crores of silver rupees in India, and 
recoived in London nearly 24 million, pounds of .gold 
for his hills. 

164. Imports. These included articles of food and 
drink, metals and metal goods, chemical drugs and 
medicines, mineral oils, raw materials and manu-* 
factored articles. » 

Artie! rs of food and drink. These were 'sugar, 
provisions, liquors, spices, salt, tea and a little grain. 
Of these sugar (alnmt 6 crores) was worth more than 
all the rest put together. It is the third in value^ 
of all the imports, being exceeded only by cotton 
goods and iron and steel. The fact that all this 
sugar was consumed in India Insides the large 
quantities grown in the country itself, is a proof that 
the country is prosperous enough to satisfy its 
wants in this respect. 

Metal and metal goods. These were chiefly copper, 
iron and steel, to the value of over 9 crores. 
Machinery to the value of 3J crores was imported 
for use in Indian mills, of which there are now 203 
cotton mills, containing 47,300 looms and 5,200,000 
spindles, and giving work to 197,000 persons every 
day, seventy i>er cent, of them being in the Bombay 
Presidency. 

Chemicals , drugs and medicines. Chemicals were 
worth 59 lakhs, ami drugs 68 lakhs. Under this 
head comes tobacco, worth 50 lakhs. This was largely 



THK TRADE OP INDIA 


237 


in cigarettes, the imporf of which has increased 90 
per cent, in the last 4 years, although a great deal of 
tobacco is grown in India. Some proof of the 
prosperity of the country is afforded by this item of 
its expenditure. 

Mineral oils ^ Kerosene oil worth 3$ crores was 
imported. This is less than it used to I** owing to 
the increasing, production of oil in Assam ai d Buryia. 
The finer kinds s^ll come from America, but there 
•can lie l&tl$ doubt that in time India will produce all 
the oil wanted in the country, 

Thtw materials. These were, lies ides the metals 
already mentioned, chiefly coal and cotton. The coal 
worth about 38 lakhs, was#less than a fourth of what 
was imported nine years ago. This is l>ecause of the 
""large quantity of coal obtained from the mines in 
India. The import of cotton was small, being worth 
about 5 lakhs, and consisted of the liner kinds grown 
only in America. , 

Manufactured articles. By far the most important 
of these were cotton goods, usually called piece 
goods. India produces 3J million bales of cotton 
fibre, each hale weighing 400 lbs. It exports 4 0 
per cent, of it, chiefly to dajwin, and uses 48 jhm* 
cent, in its own mills, while 1 2 }>er cent, is consumed 
locally. If the village hand-weavers would improve 
their hand looms, and if more enterprise were shown 
in the working of factories by steam power on the 
European system, the country might make up the 
whole of the cotton goods r^juiml by its own people. 
At present cotton g<wMls are iui|w>rted to the value 
of about 29 crores, being a little over one-tbird of 



288 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


the value of all imported merchandise. The same may 
be said of silk goods, worth 1 crore 8*0 lakhs, which 
can*e from Japan and China, and of woollen goods 
worth 2 crores and 10 lakhs. Other manufactured 
articles were wearing apparel (21 lakhs), boots and 
shoes (28 lakhs), glassware, matches, jewellery, watches, 
hooks, and many other things. 

1G5. Exports. These consisted nearly entirely 'of raw 
produce grown in India and sent ^to other countries, 
some of it, such as rice, spices, tea and coffee, to be* 
eaten and drunk, and some to he manufactured into 
various kinds of goods, such as cotton and wool. 
These things were exported to countries all over the 
world, 27 per cent, to Omit Britain, about 12 per 
cent, to China, 10 pm* cent, to Germany, and the rest 
to Trance, America, Japan, and other countries. 

The most important articles exported were raw 
cotton (24 A crores), jute, raw and manufactured 
(20A crores), rice (19 crores), seeds (14£ crores), 
wheat (1U crores), cotton yarn and cloth (10A 
crores), opium ( 1 0 J crores), hides and skins (9 
crores), tea (8 A crores); and, of less value, lac, 
millets and grain, raw wool, coffee, timber, indigo, 
oils, spices, raw silk, and other things. Owing to 
the great increase of canals which have turned the 
deserts of Sindh and the Punjab into cornfields, India 
is able to supply Britain with nearly twice as much 
wheat as that received from Canada, and since the 
population of India rs almost entirely rural and 
engaged in agriculture, the British market is of 
the utmost importance to the raiyats. 

16 G. Manufactures make a country rich. A 



THE TRADE OF # INDIA 


239 


great deal of the raw produce in the list of exports 
need never havd left India if the people of the country 
could have made it up into articles for use. The 
country would have been much richer if this had been 
' tbe case. As manufactures increase, employment is 
given to more and more people in town 3 where there 
are Urge factories and workshops, in which articles 
of merchandise are made np. At the pref-en* day the 
lichest countries in the world are those in which there 
«ire the greatest trade and the largest manufactures. 
India grows all the foyd that is wanted for its inhabi- 
tants.* The first necessaries of life — what every man 
wants and must have — are, food to eat, water to drink, 
clothes to wear, fire to cyok food and to keep one 
warm, and a house to live in. There are, no doubt, 
"other wants which arise in civilised countries. With- 
out food, clothing, houses and fuel, however, men could 
not live at all. But men who live in cold countries 
want more clothes to # keep them warm than those 
who live in hot countries; they also need bolter 
houses and more fuel. It costs very much more to 
live in comfort in a cold country than in a hot 
country. As the greater part of India is hot, men 
can live on much less than in the cold countries 
of Europe, In winter, in Britain, fires lmve to lie 
kept up in every house, not only to cook food, but 
to keep men warm while they are at work. For the 
same reason, thick woollen clothes must be worn, and 
thick socks and good leather boots or shoes. 

In most parts of India it is so hot that, except for 
cooking, fires are not wanted, and thin cotton clothes, 
which are very cheap, are worn by everybody, while 



340 


CITfZEN OF INDIA 


the greater number of the inhabitants who live in the 
country wear scarcely any clothes at ‘all, particularly 
when they are at work in the fields or elsewhere. 
They go bare foot as a rule. For these and other 
reasons labour is very cheap in India. As it costs 
much less to live in India than in Britain, workmen 
are paid much less. As a consequence, if the Indian 
workman were as active and intelligent as the British 
factory hand, it ought to cost much less to manu- 
facture goods in India than in any European, country 
At present cotton is taken all the way to Britain, 
manufactured at a much higher cost there than it 
might be in India, and then brought all the way 
back. If all the cotton ,grown in India could be 
made up in the country, all the cost of carriage both 
w£ys would be saved, cotton clothing would be made 
at a much lower rate, a great number of Indian work- 
men would earn their living by the manufacture, all 
the people of India, who wear cotton clothing, would 
he able to buy it cheaper, and would he so much the 
richer by the saving they would make. All the profits 
of the manufacture would also go into the pockets 
of the Indian capitalists, provided they had the 
courage to put their money into it, and the skill to 
manage and work the mills. At present most of the 
large industries of India are worked with capital 
supplied from Europe. Indian workmen no doubt get 
the wages wherever the capital comes from, and Indian 
purchasers get cheaj>er goods. And there is no reason 
why the profits of the manufactures should not l»e 
made by the wealthy merchants of India if they would 
take the risk. 



THfe TRADE OP INDIA 


241 


The circumstances wh^ch have hitherto prevented 
the, citizens of. India from reaping the full benefits 
of their rich country, their large population, and the 
peace which they enjoy under the British rule have 
beeii the following. Only 1 0 per cent, of the 
population live in towns, requiring little and un- 
willing to combine for large industries. In the 
next place, the people cling to primitive methods 
and customs, "having no desire to Jive belter than 
or differently from their forefathers. And lastly, a. 
li.H. tint Maharaja Gaekwar of Bavoda lately re 
marked, * they do not* trust each other/ Education 
will do much to improve the position, and although 
at present only one million out of nearly 300 million 
people are engaged in modern manufactures, and the 
ldgher classes lack the enterprise, scientific know- 
ledge and taste needed for industrial pursuits, yet 
the citizens of India may look foiward to the time 
when their noble country will take its proper posi- 
tion in the world, and turn its splendid resources 
to the fullest and best account. It has been the 

steady aim of the British Government to promote this 
result duiing the past fifty years. 



242 


CITIZEN OF INDl'A 


CHAPTER XVI. 

THE QUEEN’S PROCLAMATION. 

PROCLAMATION, by the Queen in Council, to 
the Princes, Chiefs, and People of Lidia 
(published by the Governor-General at 
Allahabad, November 1st, 1858). 

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by ffommandr 
of Her Majesty, 

VICTORIA, by the Grace of God, of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of 
the Colonies and Dependencies thereof in Europe, 
Asia, Africa, America, and Australasia, Queen, 
Defender of the Faith. 

Whereas, for divers weighty reasons, We hare re- 
solved, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in Par- 
liament assembled, to take upon Ourselves the 
Government of the Territories in India, heretofore 
administered in trust for Us by the Honourable East 
Jndia Company : 

Now, therefore, We do by these Presents notify 
and declare that, by the advice and consent aforesaid, 
We have taken upon Ourselves the said Government ; 
ami We hereby call upon all Our Subjects within the 
said Territories to l>e faithful, and to l>ear true Allegi- 
ance to us, Our Heirs, and Successors, and to submit 
themselves to the authority of those whom We may 
hereafter, from time to time, see lit to appoint to 



THE QUEEN’S PROCLAMATION 


243 


administer the ^Government of Our said Territories, in 
Our name and on Our l>ehaif : 

And We, re]X)siim especial trust and confidence in 
the* loyalty, ability, amd judgment of Our right trusty 
sfnd well beloved •Cousin and Councillor, Charles John 
Viscount ('arming, do hereby constitute and appoint 
him, tlje said Viscount Ginning, to be Our first Viceroy 
and Governor^ leneral in and over Our said Territories, 
and to administer the Government thereof in Our 
name, aiftl generally to act m Our name and on Our 
behalf, subject t > surf] Orders and Regulations as lie 
shall, from time to time, receive from Us thiough one 
of Our Principal Secretaries of StaL : 

And We do hereby conffrm in their several Offices, 
J'iOl and Military, all Persons now employed in 
Service of the Honourable East India Company, sub- 
ject to Our future pleasure, and to such Laws and 
Regulations as may hereafter bo enacted. 

We hereby announce to the Native Princes of 
India that all Treaties and Engagements made with 
them by or under the authority of the Honourable 
East India Company are by Us accepted, and will l>e 
scrupulously maintained ; and We look for the lik& 
observance on their part. 

We desire no extension of Our present territorial 
Possessions ; and while We will permit no aggression 
upon Our Dominions or Our Rights, to he attempted 
with impunity. We shall sanction im encroachment on 
those of others. We shall respect the Rights, Dignity, 
and Honour of Native Princes as Our own ; and We 
desire that they, as well as Our own subjects, should 
enjoy that Prosperity and that social Advancement 



244 


CITIZEN OF INDIA 


m 

which can only be secured by internal Peace and 
good Government. 

We hold Ourselves bound to f the Natives of our 
Indian Territories by the same obligations of Duty 
which bind Us to all Our other Subjects ; and those 
Obligations, by the Blessing of Almighty God* We 
shall faithfully and conscientiously fulfil. * 

Firmly relying Ourselves on the triith of Christi- 
anity, and acknowledging with gratitude the solace of 
Religion, We disclaim alike the Right and the Desire 
to impose Our Convictions on c any of Our Subjects. 
We declare it to be Our Royal Will and Pleasure 
that none be in any wise favoured, none molested or 
disquieted by reason of their Religious Faith or Obser- 
• -‘VMces ; but that all shall alike enjoy the equal and 
impartial protection of the Law : and We do strictly 
charge and enjoin all those who may be in ai$hority 
under Us, that they abstain from all interference with 
the Religious Belief or Worship of any of Our Sub- 
jects, on pain of Our highest Displeasure. 

And it is Our further Will that, so far as may 
be, Our Subjects, of whatever Race or Creed, be 
•freely ami impartially admitted to Offices in our 
Service, the Duties of which they may be qualified, 
by their education, ability, and integrity, duly to 
•discharge. 

We know, and respect, the feelings of attachment 
with which the Natives of India regard the Lands 
inherited by them from their Ancestor's; and We 
desire to protect them in all Rights connected there- 
with, subject to the equitable demands of the State ; 
and We will that generally, in framing and adminis- 



THE QUEEN’S PROCLAMATION 245 

terjng the La^, due regard 1)6 paid to the ancient 
Rights, Usages, and Customs of India, 

We deeply lament the evils and/ misery which have 
been brought upoir India by the acts of ambitious 
Men, who have Received their Countrymen, by false 
reports, and leathern into open Rebellion. Our Power 
has Itegn shewn by fin* Suppression of that Rebellion 
in the Held: We desire to shew Our Mei v y, by par- 
doning the Offences of those who have been thus 
Quisled, hut who desire to return to the path of Duty. 

Already in one Province, with a view to stop the 
further effusion of blood, ami to hasten the Pacification 
of Our Indian Dominions Our Viceroy and Governor- 
General lias held out tin/ expectation of Pardon, on 
.pertain terms, to the groat majority of those wh o, in 
the late unhappy disturbances, have lx;en guilty" of^ 
Offences against our Government, and has declared 
the Punishment wh’ch will lie inflicted on those whose 
Crimes place them beyond the reach of forgiveness. 
We approve and confirm the said Act, of Our Viceroy 
and Governor-General, and do further announce and 
proclaim as follows : — 

Our Clemency will he extended to all Offenders, 
save and except those who have l>een, or shall l»e, 
convicted of having directly taken part in the Murder 
of British .Subjects. With regard to such, the De- 
mands of Justice forbid the exercise of mercy. 

To those who have willingly given asylum to 
Murderers, knowing them b* l>e such, or who may 
have acted as leaders or instigators in Revolt, their 
lives alone can be guaranteed ; but in apportioning 
the Penalty due to such Persons, full consideration 



$46 CITIZEN OF INDIA 

will be given to the circunfstances under whict) they 
have been induced to throw off their allegiance ; and 
large indulgence wi{l be shown to those whose Crimes 
may appear to have originated in Wo credulous accept- 
ance of the false reports circulated by designing Mem 
To all others in Arms against the (government; We 
hereby promise unconditional Pardon, Amnesty, and 
Oblivion of all Offence against Ourselves, Our Crown 
and Dignity, on their return to their homes and peace- 
ful pursuits. * 

ft is Our Royal Pleasure that* these Terms of Grace 
and Amnesty should be extended to all those who 
comply with their Conditions before the First Day of 
January next. % 

When, by the Blessing of Providence, internal Tran- 
quillity shall he restored, it is Our earnest Desire to 
stimulate the peaceful Industry of India, to promote 
Works of Public Utility and Improvement, and to 
administer its Government fot the benefit of all Our 
Subjects resident therein. In their Prosperity will be 
Our Strength ; in tfteir Contentment Our Security ; 
and in their Gratitude Our best reward. And may 
the God of all Power grant to Us, and to those in 
authority under us, Strength to carry out these Our 
Wishes for the good of Our people. 


OLABOOW : mifTM* AT Trrs LNIVK1W1TY PIUMW BY KOBKRT MACLBHOSt AND CO. LTD.