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The Ramakrishna Mission 
Institute of Culture Library 

Presented by 

Dr. R, C. Majumdar 


10856 (» 



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With a Critical and IvxmiETicAL Commentary 

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L,tt* Proffs%or of S.tHiirif /// uty, A'ni^ fi/ . r'M/- Ptui^utn (hcift Pur U 

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PLATKS, one in each VOLL'MK ok iHIS WORK 

Portrait of Whitney, facing paijc . . 

Facsimile of Kaslimiiian text, hitch-bark leaf 1&7 a, just before page 

Prefatory and hhr.rakhical and km.aikd maiier 

ParAgraphs in lieu of a preface by Whitney 

Announcement 01 this work 

Statement of its plan and scope and desiijn ... 

Tlie purpose and limitations and method of the translation 

Editor’s preface 

Whitney’s laliors on the Alharv.i-\'cda .... 

The edition of the text or the First \olume‘’ .... .... 

Relation of this Mork to the “ First volume .... 

And to this Series . 

Kxternal form of this w oik 

Its general scope as determined by previous promise and fullilmcnt . . 

Of the critical notes in particular ... 

Scope of llie work as transcending previous promise . . 

Kvolution of the si\lc of the work .... . . . ... 

Partial icwriting and revision by Whitney 

Picking up the broken threads 

Relation of the idiUir’s work to that of the author 

Parts for which the autlior is not responsible . . 

The (fcneral Introduction, Part I b\ the editor 

The same, I’art II. elaborated in p.irt from the author's m.itenal . 

The editor’.s .special introductions to the eighteen books, ii -m\ 

The special introductions to the hvmns additions by the editoi 

His bibliography of picvious tianslations .iml discussions contained in 

The paragraph.^ beginning with ihc woid “Translated” 

Added .special introductions to the hvmns of l)ook xviii. etc ... 

Other editorial additions at the beginning and end of hvmns . . 

Other additions of consideiable extent . . ... 

The seven tab’^s appended to the latter volume of this woik 
Unmarked minor additions and other minor changes 
The marked minor additions and uthei minor changes 

The revision of the author's manusc ript. \*ciification . 

Accentuation of Sanskrit words ... 


Orthography of Anglic i/etl pi oper names . ., 

Editorial short-romings and the chances of crior ... 





XV ii 






XXV li 

x\v li 

XXV 11 

XXV iii 

XXV iii 
















X Co?i^ai/s of Prefatory aud Related Matter 


The biographical amt related matter xxxvi 

Geoeral signiiicance of Whitney s work xxxvii 

Need of a systematic commentary on the Rig- Veda xxxvii 

The Century Dictionary of the Knglish Language ... .... xxxviii 

Acknowledgments xxxviii personality and the progress of science xl 

'I'he same in Knglish verse and in Sanskrit verse xli-xiii 

Biographical and related matter xliii-lxi 

iSrief sketch of Whitney's life . by the editor xliii 

Kstimate of Whitnev’s chancier and services: by the editor .... xlvii 
.Select list of Whitnev's writings by Whitney ^ . . Ivi 

GtXLRVL I.\ I koDL’ciuiN, P.tki* 1 .* HV iiiH kiMioR IxUi-cvii 

General Premises Ixiii^lxiv 

Scope of this r.irt of the Introduction . . Ixili 

Scope of the reports of the variant leadings Ixiii 

The term *• manuscripts " often used loosely for “authorities” . . . l\iv 

Which autiioritics are both manuscripts and oial reciters . . . Kiv 

I )irfKulty of verifv mg Statements as to .luthonties Ixiv 

I Readings of European manuscripts of the Vulgate recension .... Ixiv -Ixv 
Reports include collated, some before, and .some after publication . Ixiv 

Interpretation of the lecords of llie ( ollatioii Honk .... Ixv 

a Readings of Indian manuscripts of the Vulgate . . . Iwi 

liy •• Indian nis.s " aic meant those useil In .s. r. Tandit . ... Ixvi 

III'. report> m't exhaustive . . . ... Iwi 

3 Readings of Indian oral reciters of the Vulgate . . . . ... Ixvi Ixvii 

iJv ••Indian oral rccilei-^” are meant tho.Sf einplovcd by S. P. Pandit . I.wi 

Kirors of the «ve clucked In oral reciters . |.\vi 

4. Readings of the Hindu commentator ... ... ... . Ixvii-Ixviii 

'rho cntual value and the range of his v.iriant readings .... . Ixvn 

Excursus he identu al with S.'ivana of the Rig Veda ? . Iwiii 

5 Readings of the Pada-patha . Ixix-Kx 

Reported in Ind« \ Vcibnriim, an«l sim e publisiied in full .... l\ix 

Illustrations of its deri« ncies . . . . . ’ . . . Ixix 

In vcrl>-com pounds ami various othf*r combinations Ixix-Ixx 

6 The Prati^akhya and its commentary Ixx-lwi 

Charai'ler of WhiinrvS editions of the Piath,akh\a.s . . .... Ixx 

'I heir bearing upon the ortho^raphv and < riti« ism of the text ... Ixx 

rtili/ation of the Atharv an Pratn; ikiiv a fur the present work . . Ixxi 

7. The Anukramanis: « Old” and Major" IxxMxxiv 

.More than one Anukramini extant Ixxi 

The PaAcapatalika or ‘-Old .Anukr” or ••<^)uoled Anukr.” Ixxi 

Manuscripts thcieof Ixxii 

The Hrhatsarvanukramani or *• Major Anukr.” Ixxii 

Manuscripts thereof . . . Ixxii 

Text-critical value of the Anukratnanis . Ixxiii 

The author of the Major Anukr as a < rilic of meters Ixxiii 

His stUf-ments as to tbe seers of the hymns (<|uasi-author.ship) . . . Ixxiv 

Contents of General Introduction^ Part L 



8. The Kiupika-SOtre and the Viit&iui-SutrA . . . . Ixxiv-lxxix 

The work of Garbe and Jiloomheld and Caland Ixxiv 

Ikaring of Sutras upon crili< ism of structure and text of Saridiita . . Ixxv 

(irouping of mantra-matcrial in Sutra and in Sariihita compared . Ixxv 

Many difTicultics of the K.iu<;ika yct'unsolved Ixxvi 

V'alue of the Sutras for the exegesis of the Samhita Ixxvii 

Kau<;ika no good warraru for dogmatism in the exegesis of Samhita . Ixxvii 

Integer vitae as a C hristian funeral-hymn .... Ixxviii 

Secondary adaptation of mantras to iruongruoiis ritual uses .... Ixxviii 

g. Seadinga of the Kashmirian or Paippalada recension ....... Ixxix-lxxxix 

Its general relaiiims to the Vulg.tte or (,aunakan recension .... Kxix 

The unique btn h-bark m.miisiript thereof (perhaps about A li 1519) . Ixxx 

Koth's Ka.shmirian n.igari tiansciipt (No\. i<S74) . Ixxxi 

Arrival ( I S76) of tin; bin h-bark tiriiiinal at 'I ubjngen Ixxxi 

Kotirs (‘ollatioii (June. of the 1 ‘aippalada text . . . Ixxxi 

Koth’s autograph n.'igari transi rij)t ( Det 1K.S4) Ixxxii 

The fai.simile of the ])ir< h-bark or’gm.d ) . Ixxxii 

Koth’s C.oll.Ttion not evli.iustive ...... Ixxxiii 

Faults of the bin it-b.iik manusi iipt . . . . Kxxiii 

Collation not rotitrolltd b\ ( onstanr n fereiirc to the lurch-bark ms. . Ixxmv 

Such refeieme would ha\c ruined the bii«h-b.'irk ms . lx\\j\ 

('arc taken in the use of Kotli's ( ollatton Wonl-du ision . . l\x\\ r( .idings not < <»ntrolied dirertl) foun lh» fat siinile Kxxv 

l*ro\ isional means lor sui h ( <intiol the ( oik ordain «■ (pagt s 101.S-1023 ) 1 \\\\ 

Excursus: 'Die ic»jMi»oments for an edition td the Pa.pj»al'ida . . l\\x\i 

1. A rigorousb pn use transhter ilion . . Ixxwii 

2, Marginal r* (tieiues to liie Viiig.ile jiarallels . Kvwii 

3 Imlex of \'ulg He \ vises thus luitcd on the inaigin IxxwM 

4 At cessory matt M.d . I tmieclure.s, notes, translations . l\x.\\)i) 

10. Readings of the parallel texts Iwxix-xti 

The it \ts wht)>e le.ulmgs arc icpoitt.«l Ixwix 

The mt ihod of leponiiig aims at the utimist ait maty . . . Ixxxix 

Comph tc'uess of the rejK Ills far from absolute .... xc 

Report.s presented in well-digested lorm .... .... xc 

11. Whitney’s Commentary : further discussion of Its critical elements . . \ci>x'cni 

Compichcnsivcness of its aiia\ of par.illels . ... xei 

(' of spccilie rcatlings ... xii 

lIhistration.s of ( lassc.s of text-errors . xcii 

Auditory errors. Surd amt sonant. I win conson.xnts xcii 

Visual errors. Ilaplographv .... .... xeiii 

Metrical faults. Hypcrmclrie glosses, ami so forth xeiii 

Hlend-readings .... 

19 . Whitney’s Translation and the interpretatiye elements of the Commentary xc iv -xeix 

The translation : general piinciples governing the mcthtxl theicof . . .xciv 

The translation not primarily an interpretation, but a lilcial version xciv 

A literal version as against a literary one .... xciv 

Interpretative elements : c.xptions of the hymns . xcv 

xii ContvHis of General Introduction^ Part /. , 


Interpretations by Whitney xcv 

Kxegetical notes eontribulod by Roth xevi 

'1 he translation has for its underlying text that of the Berlin edition . . xevi 

Tliis is the taet even in cases of corrigible corruptions xevi 

Cases of departure from the text of the Berlin edition . , xevil 

Whitnev's growing skepticism and curiespondingly rigid literalness xcvii 

Poetic elevation and humor xcviii 

13. Abbreviations and signs explained ... .... .... xeix-^evi 

(leneral scope of the b'^t . it iiu lude.s not only ... xeix 

The downnglil or most arbitrarv abbreviations, but also . . ... xeix 

The abl)reviateil designations of books and articles xeix 

Explanation of arbitrary signs: 

Parentliests. .s^^uare bi.ukets . C 

Lll-brackels ( [ J ) ; hand (J|l!e^) • • • ■ C 

Small circle: Italic colon; k larendon letters, a, b, c, etc. . . . c 

.Mphabetic list of abbreviations .... c 

14 Tabular view of translations and native comment evi-evii 

Previous translations. -- Native comment . . evi 

Ciironologic sequence of previous translations and discussions .... evii 

General Infrodic iion, Pari II. . tartly frovi Whiinkv^ .maikrial rix-cKi 

General Premises . . cix 

Contents of this P.irt . . . ... . tix 

Authorship of this Part ... ...... cix 

I. Description of the manuscripts used by Whitney rix-cxvi 

The brief designations of his rnanu.scripts (sigla codiium) . . cix 

Svnoptic table of the maniKscripts used by him . . tx 

Table of the Berlin manuscripts of the Aiharva-Veila cx 

Whitnev’s < ntieal description of his manuscripts. 

Manuscrijjis u.sed before publication of the text i B P .M. W. E. I II.; Bp. Bp *) i xi 
Manuscripts collated ifter piiblir.Uion of the text (O. R T. K ; Op. I). Kp.) ( \iv 

a. The stanza (am no devir abhistaye as opening stanza cxvi--cxv ii 

As stan/a of the text in the Kashmirian recension - cxvi 

.\s initial stan/a of the Vulg.itc text ... <\vi 

3. Whitney’s Collation-Book and his collations . . cxvii cxix 

Description of the two voluni'-s that form the Collation- Book . . . cxvii 

Whitncj’s irar.sdipi of the text cxvii 

Collations made before; pubhe..ition of the text . . cxviii 

The Berlin collalieens ... .... cxviii 

The Pans an^l Oxford anti E>)nilon (ullations cxviii 

Collations m.idc .after pubhe.atwin (made in i'<75 or later) cxvdii 

Haug, Rejlh, Tan;ore. Det* an, ami Bikaner mss cxviii 

Other content.s of the CoIia»ii)n Be>ok .... cxviii 

4. Repeated verses in the manuscripts cxix-cxx 

Ablireviated by pratika with adtlition o! ily rk.i etc. . ... cxix of repeated verses or vi rs'- gnnijis cxix 

Further detaiLs concerning the pratika and the addition cxix 

Contents of General Introduction^ Part IL xiii 


5. Befraiiu and the like in the manuscripts exx-exxi 

Written out in full only in first and last verse of a sequence .... exx 

Treated by the Anukramani as if unabbreviated exx 

Usage of the editions in respect of §uch abbreviated passages . . . exxi 

6. Marks of accentuation* in the manuscripts cxxi-cxxiii 

Berlin edition use.s the Kig-Veda metho<l of marking accents . . exxi 

Dots for lines as accent-mark 1 .... cxvi 

Marks for the indepcnde.'.t svaiM.i cxxii 

Horirontal stroke for svaiita ... ( xxii 

UdatU marked by vtilieal stroke above, as in M.iitr.t\.ini .... cxxii 

Accent-mark.<in the Bombay edition . . . c.xxii of a lircle .IS avagriha sign . ... ... cxxii 

7. Orthographic m^od pursued in the Berlin edition cxxiii-cxwi 

Founded on the u.sagc of the but contrciilcd by the I‘r."iti«;.ikhva . cxxiii 

That treatise an aiitliorit\ <Mily to .1 certain point ... ... cxxin 

Its failure to di.S(.rniiin.iti' betwein rules of wholly different v.ilue . . cxxiii 

Items of conformity to the Pr.itu^.ikhv.i and of departure therefrom . cx\iv : .xs in tan-i-sarv.ln . cxxiv 

Final -n lufore and j- : as in p.i<,'}ari j.'inm.'ini . . cx\i\ 

Final -n bcfoie c- as in \ .an<; ca . . . . cwiv 

Final -n befor<* t- • as in t.ins te . . ... . . cxxiv 

Final -t befoic as in asmae ih.irav.ih . exxv 

Abbreviation of consonant gioups . as in pahkti . .... cxw 

Final -in and -n before 1 - as in kan lokam ... cx.\\ 

\’isarga liefore si- and the lil^> as in npu sten.ih . c\x\i 

The kainp.i-tigurcs 1 ami 3 .... cxxvi 

The method of mai king ilie an ent .... cxxvi 

8. Metrical form of the Athsrysn Ssmhiti . c\.x\i-c\.\vii 

Predominance of anusUibh ... ... cxxvi 

F-xtreme inegulaiity of the metiical form . rxxvii 

Apparent vvantnnness in the alteration i»f l\ig-\‘ed.i material . . cxxvii 

I'o emend thi.s iiiegiilaritv into legulaniv is lu.t licit . . . . cxxvii 

g. Divisions of the text .* . . . cxxvii- cxI 

Summarv of the v. 11 ions divisions . . ... ... cxxvn 

The first and .second and llurd "graml divisions" .... cxxvii 

1. The (unimportant) <livision into prapalh.ikas or • lev lines ’ . . . oxvni 

Their number and distiibulinn and extent . . • cxxviii 

Their relation to the anuvak.i-div isions . . exxvin 

2. The (fundamental) divisum into k.indas or * books ’ . . cxxix 

3. The division into or • rei itations* cxxix 

Their number, and distiiiiution over books and grand tbvisions . cxxix 

Their relation to the h\ mn-div isions in liook.s xiii - XV lii . ... exxx 

4. The division into suktas or * hvmns * cx.xxi 

The hymn-divisions not everywhere of equal value . . .... cxxxi 

5. The division into icas or • verses' cxxxi 

6. Subdivisions of vcrsc.s • avas:iiia.s. padas, and so forth . . • cx.xxii 

xiv Contents of General Introduction, Part IL 


Numeration of successive verses in the mss cxxxii 

(iroupings of successive verses into units requiring special mention : . . cxxxii 

Decad-suktas or • decad-h) mns * cxxxii 

Artha-sukus or 'sense-hymns* cxxxiii 

Par) aya-suktas or 'period-hymns* cxxxiii 

Differences of the Berlin and Bombay numerations in books vii. and xix. . cxxxiv 

Differences of hymn-numeration in the paryaya-books cxxxiv 

Whitney's criticism of the numbering of the Bombay edition cxxxvi 

Suggestion of a preferable method of numbering and citing cxxxvi 

Differences of verse-numeration cxxxvii 

Summations of hymns and \erses at end of divisions cxxxviii 

The summations ([uoted from the PaAcapatalikA cxxxviii 

Indication of extent of dixisions by reference to an assumed norm* . . . cxxxviii 

Tables of % erse-norins assumed by the PafleapatalikS . . . . cxxxix 

The three '‘grand divisions '* are recognized by the PaAcapatalikil . . . cxxxix 

zo. Extent and structure of the Atharva-Veda Samhiti cxl-clxi 

Limits of the original collection cxl 

Books \i.x. and xx are later additions cxli 

The two broadest principles of .mangement of books i -xviii. : . . . . cxlii 

I Miscellaneity or unity of subject and 2. length of hvmn .... cxlii 

The three grand divisions (I , II., 111.) as based on those principles . . cxlii 

Tlie order of the three grand divisions cxlii 

Principles of arrangement of liooks within the grand division : cxlii 

1 Normal length of the hvmns for each of the several l>ooks cxliii 

2 Tli^ amount of text in each book. Table . ... . . cxliii 

ArrangetnciU of the hvmns within any given booE .... ... cxliii 

Distriimtion of h)mns according to length in divi.sions f. and II. and MI. cxivi 
Tables ( i and 2 and 3) for those divisions (see pages cxliv-cxlv) . . . txivi 

(bouping of hvmns of book xix. according to length . cxivi 

Table (numlier 4) for book xix .... cxivii 

Summ.iry of the tour tables. Table number 5 . . cxivii 

Lxtent of .W Saihhita about one half of of R\'. .... cxivii 

First grand division (liooks i. -vii ): short hymn.s of misccHaneou.s subjects cxivii 

i.vidcnce of fact .rs to the existence of the verse-norms cxiviii 

Lxpress testimony of lx>lh Anukramanis as to the verse-norms .... cxiviii 

One ver-jc is the norm (nr book vii cxiix 

Arrangement of books within the division : 

I. With reference to the length of the hymns Cxlix 

Excumui: on liymn xix. 23, Homage to parts of the Atharva-Veda . . cl 

Kxceptional character of l)ook VII cli 

Book vii. a book of after gleanings supplementing books i.-vi clii 

2 Arrangement of books wnh reference to amount of text clii 

Rtfsumd of conclusions a.s to the arrangement of books i.-vii clii 

Dep.irturcs from the norms b) exccs.s cliii 

Critical signifirance of those drpartun s cliii 

Illustrative examples of critical rcdiirtion to the norm cliii 

Arrangement of the h)mn.s within any given book of this division . . . cliv 


Contents of the Main Body of this Work 


Second grand dlTiiion (books viii.~xit.); long hymns of miscellaneous subjects civ 

Their hieratic character : mingled prose passages . . . . • civ 

Table of verse-totals for the hymns of division 11 clvi 

General make-up of the material of this division clvi 

Order of books within the division : negative or insignificant conclusions . . civil 

Order of hymns within any given book of this division civii 

Possible reference to this division ill hymn xix. 23 ...... civii 

Third grand division (books xiii.-xviii.): books showing unity of subject . . civiii 

Division III. represented in Pfiippalada by a single book, bo^jk xviii. . . . clix 

Names of the books of this division ns given by hymn xi\ 23 clix 

Order of Ixioks within the division . clix 

Table of verse-totals for the h)mns of division III ... clix 

Order of hymns within anv given luiok of this division . . < lx 

The hymn-divigions of books .xiii. .wiii and their value clx 

Cross-references to explanation of abbreviations and so forth clxii 

To explanation of abbieviations (pages .\rix -evi) . . ... ... civil 

To explanation of abbreviate«l titles fpage.s \ti\ <vi) cl.xii 

To cxpl.ination of arbitr.irv sign^ (p.ige t) clxii 

To key to the designations of the manusi lipts (p.iges cix-cx) . . . clxii 

To synoptic tables of the inaiULsi Mpts (pages c X- cxi) . . . . . cl-xii 

To des< rijilion.s of the m.inust lipt'i (p it'cs « xi txvi) . . clxu 

'I’o table of lilli s of liMuns ( volume VI 1 1 , p.iges 1024-1037) . . . . . clxii 

Tnr A I HAKv \-Vn»\ Svmhiiv 'Pk vn^i.mion- an'i> Xou'? . . . ^ 

1 First Grand Division. — Books I.-VIl. . . 1 - 47 ^ 

Seven books ol sliort In inns of inisccllant ous sublet ts 
[For table of the titles t>f the 433 livnins, see p lf>2|] 

[\*olunie \ II ends here with btK»k vii ] 

[Vtdumc VIII. begins htie with bo«»k viii ] 

a. Second Grand Division. — Books Vlll. XII .... 471 - 7^7 

J*'ive hooks of long Inmns tif miscellaneous subjects 
[For table of the titles of die 45 hvmns. .sec p. 1034] 

3. Third Grand Division. — Books XIII XVIII. rc ‘'^-^^94 

.Six books of long hymns, the books showing iinitv of .subject 
[Fot table of the titles tif the i 5 hvmn.s, see p 103;] 

Hook xiii. : hvmns to the Uutltly .Sun 01 Kohiia (seer, liiahman) . . 7 ’^'''-r 37 

Book xiv. : wedding veises (seer. Savitii .Suiva) . . . r3’''-7bS 

Book XV. : the Vr It).! (.seer : — ) . . 7 **'>- 7 '^* 

Book xvi. : rantta(sccr; Trajapati.') . ... 7o-:-v'^c*4 

Ikiok xvii. : prayer to the Sun as Iiidra and as \'ishnu (seer. Ilrahman) S05 S| z 
Book xviii. : funeral vciscs (.seir; Atharvaii) 

4 . Supplembnt — Book XIX Si?5-iooc> 

Aftcr-gleaning.s, chiefly from the traditional sources of tlivision I. 

[For tabic of the ♦itles of the 72 hymns, see p. 103O3 

PdfppalAda excerpts concerning book 1009 

xvi CoitUn/s oj Appemit'd Auxiliary Matter 



I. The noo>metriC4l passages of the Atharvan Samhiti loi i 

Tabular list 1011 

a Hymns ignored by the Kau^ika-^utra ... ioii--ioi2 

'Tabular list 1012 

3. The two methods of citing the Klufika-Sittra 1012 

Tabular cnucordanoe 1 01 2 

4. The discrepant hymn>numbera of the Berlin and Bombay editions ... 1013 

Tabular conconl.incc 10 13 

5 Paippalada passages corresponding to passages of the Vulgate .... 1013-1023 

I’liniary um.* <*t the table, its genesis and eb.ii.icter . 1013 

Ineidenl.d uses of the table I013 

Vulgate grand division I II. and book .will. .... I014 

C'onspcctu.s of the contents of Paippalada lM>ok .x\ id. . . ... 1015 

Kxjdanatiiui of the table 1 016 

.Manner of Using the table . . . . . . 1017 

Tabular concordance 1017-1023 

6. Whitney’s English captions to his hymn-translations 1024-1037 

The) form an impoitant element in his interpretation of this Veda 1024 

In tabular form, they give a useful conspectus of its subjci t-matter . 1024 

Table of h)mn*titles of [)i\ision I , Ixioks i.-Nii . 1024-1032 

[.Stop-g ip the ili\ ision of this work into two .separately bound volumes] 1033 

Table ot h)mn titles of Division 11 , books \id.-\li . 1034 

Table of h\ mil titles of Division I n , books xiii • x\ III. . ... 1035 

Tabic of hvmn-tilks of the .Supplement, bonk xi.x. . 1036-1037 

7. The ojiiies of the seers of the hymns 103S.1041 

W'hitnej’s exploitation of the .M.ijor iXnukramaiii ... 103S 

Doubtlul points . 103S 

Kntire books c f divusion III. .iscribeil e.ich to a single seer . . . 103S 

\'aluc of these .iscriptions of . . ... 103M 

Prnniincnre ot ,\\ an and Brahman as seers .... . . toy) 

Hymns of .\tliarv an and hvmns of Ai'igir.-is : possible contrast . . . 1030 

Consisie'ct ) in the ascriptions . . . . 

i’alpably fabru ated .ascriptions . ... 1040 

Alphabetical index of seer-names and of pass,iges ascribed to them 1040-1041 

8. Brief index of names and things and words and places 1042-1044 

An vlaborate index uncalled for here . 1042 

Alphabi ti< al li^t of n.imes and things 1042 

Alphal^etical list of Sanskrit words ... ... .... ' 1044 

List of AV. passagj^s . . . . 1044 

9. Additions and corrections 1044-1046 

Omissions .lud errors not easy to rectify in the electrotype plates . . 1 045 


(^Announcement of this work. — The foilowin" paraj^raphs from the pen of rrnfessnr 
Whitney, under the title, “ Announeemeiit as to a second \oluine of the Roth-Whitney 
edition of the Atharva-Veda,’* appeared about two \ears before Mr. \Vhitne>*.s death, m 
the Proceedings for April, 1K92, appended to the Joufttal of the Amencan Oncntal 
Society^ volume xv., papjes tKxi--cK\tii 1 hey show the \\.i\ in uhich the labor done 
by Koth and Whitney U|jon the Ath.ii\a-\ « da was <hvid<.d bctwien ihij*»e two scholars. 
Moreover, they state biiefly and tlearly the main purpose of WhitnL\'s commentary, 
which i.s, to >jivc for the text of this Veda th.* \aiious rt.idmus of bmli Hindu and 
Iluropeau aulluuities (livim; or manusinpt), and the \ariants of the Kashmirian or 
iViippal.'tda retensKjn aiul of the < oiu sjiondinti pa.ssac'ts of oilur Ve»hc U \ts. to.ncther 
with references to, or excerpts from, the amilliix works on meter, ntual, evepjesis. etc. 
They are si;}nili( ant as .showing that in .Mr W'hitne\*s mind tlie translation was entirely 
.subordinate to the ciilical notes. si.iiuraanl of all ih^ last .sentence makes a 
clear laimer of fin,.lity for this woik by speakini; of it as ‘Mnateiial that is to help 
toward the stuily and t ompiehcusion of tins Vcda.“-~ (. . K. I. J 

\\ hen, in 1855 -6, the text of the Atliarva-X’cda was published 
by Professor Roth and myself, it was styled a “first volume,” 
and a second volume, of notes, indexes, etc., was promised. The was made in good faith, and with c\ery intention of 
prompt fulfilment; but circumstances ha\e deferred the latter, 
even till now. I he bulk of the work was to have fallen to Pro- 
fe.s.sor Roth, not only because the bulk of the work on the first 
volume had fallen to me, but also because his superior learning 
and ability jRiinted him out as the one to undertake it. It was 
his absorption in the great lab«)r of the Petersburg Lexicon that 
for a long series of years kept his liancls from the Atharva-\’ocla — 
except so far .as his working up of its m.iterial, and definition of 
its vocabulary, v as a help of the first order toward the understand- 
ing of it, a kind of fragmentary translation. He has also made 
import.ant contributions of other kinds to its elucidation : most of 
all, by his incitement to inc|uiry .after an Atharv.a-\'eda in Cash- 
mere, and the resulting disaivcry of the so-called P.aippalada text, 
now well known to all Vedic scholars as one of the most important 
finds in Sanskrit literature of the last half-century, and of which 


xviii Paragraphs in lieu of a Preface by Whitney 

the credit belongs in a i)eculiar manner to him. I have also done 
something in the same direction, by publishing in the Society’s 
Journal in 1S62 (Journal, vol. vii.) the Atharva-Veda Prati9akhya. 
text, translation, notes, etc.; and in 1S81 Ljournal, vol. xii.J the 
Index Wrborum — which latter afforded me the opjxjrtiinity to 
give the /(7</<f-readings complete, and to report in a general way 
the correction.s made by us in the text at the time of its first issue, 
riiere may be mentioned also the index of pratikas, which was 
published by WelxT in his Indische .SV/Zf/Zew, vol. iv., in 1857, from 
the slip> written by me, although another (Professor Ludwig) had 
the tedious labor of prej>aring them for the press. 

I have never from \iew the completion of the pHtn of pub- 
lication as originally formed. In 1875 I spent the summer in 
(krmany, chiefly engaged in further collating, at xMunich and at 
riibingen, the additional manuscript material which had come to 
Lurope since our text was printed; and I should probably have 
soon taken u[) the work seriou'^ly save for having been engaged 
while in (lermany to prepare a Sanskrit grammar, which fully 
occupied the leisure of several following years. At last, in 1885-6, 

I had fairly started upon the execution of the |)lan, when failure 
of health reduced my w'orking capac ity to a minimum, and rendered 
ultimate success very cpiestionable. I'he task, however, has never 
been laid wholly aside, and it is now' so far advanced that, barring 
further los^ of power, I may hope to finish it in a couple of years 
or '^o; and it is therefore proper and desirable that a public 
announcement be made of my intention. 

[Statement of its plan and scope and design. J — My plan includes, in 
the fir'll |)la(e, (ritit'al notes upon the text, giving the various 
readings of the manuscripts, and not alone of those collated by 
myself in Luro|)e, but aUo of the apparatus used by Mr. Shankar 
Pandurang l\indit in the great edition with commentary (except 
certain parts, of which the cccinmentary has not been found) 
which he ha-> been for \ears engaged in |)rinting in India. Of 
this extremely well-edited and valuable work I have, by the kind- 
ness of the editor, long had in my hands the larger half; and doubt- 
less the whole will be issued in season for me to avail myself of 
it throughout. Not only his many manuscripts and (rotriyas 
• the living equivalents, and in some respects the superiors, of 


rian and Scope and Design of this Work 

manuscripts) give valuable aid, but the commentary (which, of 
course, claims to be “ Sayana’s **) also has very numerous various 
readings, all worthy to be reported, though seldom offering anything 
better than the text of the maiuiscri|3ts. Second, the readings of the 
Paippal^a version, in those parts of the Veda (much the larger 
half) for which there is a corresponding Paippalada text; these 
were furnished me, some years agr), by Professor Roth, in whcjse 
exclusive possession the Paippalada manuscript is held. Further, 
notice of the corresponding passages in all the other Vedic texts, 
whether Samhita, Hrlihmana, or Sutra, with report of their various 
readings. Further, the data of the AnukramanT resjx'cting author- 
ship, divinity, and meter of each verse. Also, references to the 
ancillary literature, especially to the Kau 9 ika and \'aitana Sutras 
(both of which have been competently edited, tlie latter with a 
translation added), with account of the use made in them of the 
hymns and parts f)f hymns, .so far as this appears to cast any light 
upon their meaning. ANo, extracts from the j)rinted commentary, 
wherever this seems worth while, as either really aiding the under- 
standing of the text, or show’ing the absence of any helpful tradi- 
tion. Finally, a simple literal translation; thi^ was not originally 
promised for the second volume, but is added especially in order 
to help “float” the rest of the material. An introduction and 
indexes W'ill give such further auxiliary matter as appears to be 
called for. 

The design of the volume will be to put together as much as 
possible of the material that is to help toward the study and final 
comprehension of this \'eda. 

I^The purpose and limitations and method of the translation. — In r critii|ue pub- 
lislicd bomr six cailifr, in iSS^, m tho Joutnal of \ii. i -4, 

\Vhitnc\ (lisciissrs scvoi:#tI \\a}is of ir.inslatnn^ iho I'panish.niN. His u’m.iiks on the 
second “ ” Ioa\c no doubt in in.ikin:; his Vril.i-ti.nisl.iiion .is lu* has ilonc, he 
fully recoj'ni/cd it.s provisional ihaiailer ami iVll that to attempt a dehniti\e one would 
be prcmnUire. His ii|>tion of the ••third \\a\.** inuiatls inutandK, is so good .a 
statement of the principles which have goxeriicd him in this woik., in delaull of 
a better one, it is here rcpiintod. — C. K. L.J 

One w'ay is, to put one’s self frankly and fully under the guid- 
ance of a native inteipreter. . . . Another way would be, to give 
a con.spectus, made as full as possible, of all acces-sible native inter- 
pretations— in connection w ith W’hich treatment, one could hardly 


Paratirapks in lieu of a Pnfai e by Whitney 

avoid taking a position of critical superiority, approving and con- 
demning, selecting and rejecting, and comparing all with what 
appeared to be the simple meaning of the text itself. This would 
be a very welcome labor, but also an extremely difficult one; and 
the preparations for it are not yet sufficiently made; it may be 
looked fi)r\\ard to as one of the results of future study. * 

A third way, leading in cpiite another direction, would be this: 
to approach the text only as a philologist, bent upon making a 
version of it exactly as it stands, representing just what the words 
and phrase^ appear to say, without intrusion of anything that is 
not there in recognizable fonn: thus reproducing tlie scripture 
itself in Western guise, as nearly as the nature of the case admits, 
as a basis whereon could afterward be built such fabric of philo- 
sophic interpretation as should be called for; and also as a touch- 
stone to which could be brought for due testing anything that 
claimed to be an interpretation. I he maker of such a version 
would not need to be \ersed in the subtleties o( the later Hindu 
philosophic al systems; he should ewen carefully avoid working in 
the spirit of any of them. Nor need he pretend to penetrate to 
the hidden sense of the daik sayings that |)ass under liis i)en, to 
comprehend it and set it fcjrth; for then there would inevitably 
mingle itself with his \ersion muc h that was subjective and doubt- 
ful, and that every successor would have to do over again. Work- 
ing conscientiously as Sanskrit scholar onl\, he might hope to 
bring out something of permanent and autlu^ritative character, 
which should ser\e both as help and as clu*ck to those^thal came 
after him. lie would carefully observe all identities and paral- 
lelisms of phra-'eology, since* in texts like these the w'ord is to no 
small extent more than the thing, the expression dominating the 
thought: the; more the cjuantitic*s are unknow lu the less will it 
answer to change their '-\mbols in working out an equation. Of 
all leading and miK'h-used terms, in case the rendering could not 
lx; made uniform, he wcmlcl maintain the identity by a liberal 
quotation of the word itself in parenthesis after its translation, .so 
that the sphere cjf use of each could be made out in the version 
somewhat as in the ciriginal, by the comparison of parallel pas- 
sages; and so that the stucU-nt should nc)t run the risk of having 
a difference of statement which might turn out important covered 
frum his eyes by an apparent identity of phrase — or the contrary. 

l^utpostf Ltmitalions, and Afctfiod oj^ the Translaiioii xxi 

Nothing, as a matter of course, would be omitted, save particles 
whose effect on the shading <jf a sentence is too faint to show in 
the coarseness of translation into a strange tongue; nor would 
anything be put in without exact indieaticjn of the intrusion. The 
notes would be prevailingly linguistic, references to parallel pas- 
sages, with exposition of corresiiondences and differences. Sen- 
tences grammatically difficult or apparently corrupt would be 
pointed out, and their knotty jxiints discussed, perhaps with 
suggestions of text-amendment. Hut it is needless to go into 
further detail ; everyone knows the methofls by which a careful 
scholar, liberal of his time and labor toward the due accomjjlish- 
ment of % task deemed by him important, will conduct such a 


Whitney's labors on the Atharva-Veda. — As early as March, 1851, at 
Berlin, during Whitney’s first semester as a student in Germany, his teacher 
Weber was so impressed by his scholarly ability as to suggest to him the 
plan of editing an important Vedic text.* The impression produced upon 
Roth in Tubingen by Whitney during the following summer semester 
was in no wise different, and resulted in the plan for a joint edition of 
the Atharva-Veda.* Whitney’s preliminary labors for the edition began 
accordingly upon his return to Berlin for his second winter semester. 
His fundamental autograph transcript of the Alharva-Veda Sariihita is 
contained in his Collation-Book, and appears from the dates of that book** 
to have been made in the short inteival between October, 1851, and 
March, 1852. The second summer in Tubingen (1852) was doubtless 
spent partly in studying the text thus copied, partly in planning with 
Roth the details of the method of editing, partly in helping to make the 
tool, so important for further progress, the index of Rig- Veda pratikas, 
and so on; the concordance of the four principal Samhitas, in which, to 
be sure, Whitney’s part was only “ a secondary one,” was issued under 
the date November, 1852 During the winter of 1852 3 he copied the 
Prati9ikhya and its commentary contained in the Berlin codex (Weber, 
No. 361), as is stated in his edition, p. 334. A^ noted below (pp xliv, 1 ), 
the collation of the Pans and Oxford and I.ondon manuscripts of the 
Atharvan Sariihita followed in the spring and eirly summer of 1853, just 
before his return (in August) to America The copy of the text for the 
printer, made with e.\c]ui^ite neatness in nagaii letters by M.. Whitney’s 
hand, is still preserved. 

The Edition of the text or “ First volume." — The first pait of the work, 
containing books i.-xix. of the text, appeared in Berlin with a provisional 
preface dated February, 1855. The provisional prelace announces that 
the text of book xx. will not be given in full, but only the Kuntapa-h\ mns, 
and, for the rest of it, merely references to the Rig-Veda ; and promises, 
as the principal contents of the second pait, seven of the eight items of 
accessory material enumerated below. — This plan, howe' er, was changed, 

* .See the extract from Weber's letter, below, p xliv. The t» xt wa^ the Taiuiri\a .Vraiuaka. 

® See th^ extract from Roth's luUcr, below, p. xliv. 

• See below, p. cxvii. 


xxiv Editors Preface 

and the second part appeared in fact as a thin Ileft of about 70 pages, 
giving book xx. in full, and that only. To it was prefixed a half-sheet 
containing the definitive preface and a new title-page. The definitive 
preface is dated October, 1856, and adds an eighth item, cxegetical notes, 
to the promises of the provisional preface. The new title-page has the 
words *• hlrster Hand. Text,” thus implicitly promising a second volume, 
in which, according to the definitive preface, the accessory material was 
to be published. 

Relation of this work to the First volume” and to this Series. — Of 

the implicit promise of that title-page, the present work is intended to 
complete the fulfilment. As most of the labor upon the first volume had 
fallen to Whitney, so most of the labor upon the projected “ second ” was 
to have been done by Roth. In fact, however, it turned out that Roth's 
very great services for the criticism and exegesis of this VT'da took a 
different form, and are embodied on the one hand in his contributions 
to the St Petersburg Lexicon, and consist on the other in his brilliant 
discovery of the Kashmirian rccensitui of this Veda and his collation of 
the text thereof with that of the Vulgate. Nevertheless, as is clearly 
apparent (page .xvii), Whitney thought and spoke of this work* as a 
“Second volume of the Roth-Whitney gdition of the Atharva-Veda.” and 
called it “our volume” in writing to Roth (cf. p Ixxxvi) ; and letters 
exch.rnged between the two friends in 1894 discuss the question w'hether 
the “second volume” ought not to be published by the same luuise 
(F. Dummlcr's) that issued the first in 185^;. It would from 
Whitney’s last letter to Roth (written April 10, 1S94, shortly before his 
death), that he had determined to have the work publishcfl in the 
Harvard Series, and Roth’s last letter to Whitney (tlaled Apil! 23) 
expresses his great satisfaction at this arrangement. This plan had the 
cordial approval of my friend Henry C’larke Wairen, and, while still In 
relatively fair health, he generously gave to the University the money to 
pay for the printing 

External form of this work. — It is on account of the relation just 
explained, and also in deference to Whitney’s express wishes, that the 
size of the printed page of this work and the size of the paper have been 
chosen to match those of the “ First volume.” The pages have been 
numbered continuously from i to 1009, as if this work were indeed one 
volume ; but, since it was ex[)cdient to separate the work into two halves 
in binding, I have done .so, and designated those halves as volumes seven 

* In a Icticr to the cdit*^r, ditcd Mir'h 28, 1881, speaking of RolhN preoccupation with 
A\estan studies, Whitney says • I fr ar 1 shall yet lie ohligcd to do AV ii ainne, and think 
ni setting quietly about ’I next )» ar.” Again, June 17, 1881, he writes: “I have t^gun work 
on vid 11 of the .W , and am resolveil to put it straight through.*' 


General Scope of this IVork 

and eight of the Harvard Oriental Series.^ The volumes arc substan- 
tially bound and properly lettered ; the leaves are open at the front ; and 
the top is cut without spoiling the margin. The purpose of the inexpen- 
sive gilt top is not for ornament, but rather to save the volumes from the 
injury by dirt and discoloration which is^ so common with ragged hand- 
cut tops. The work has been clectrotyped, and will thus, it is hoped, be 
quite free from the blemishes occasioned by the displacement of letters, 
the breaking off of accents, and the like. 

General scope of this work as determined by previous promise and fulfil' 
ment. — Its general scope was determined in large measure by the promise 
of the definitive preface of the “ First volume.” The specifications of 
that promise were given in eight items as follows : 

1. Kxcerpts from the Pr:ui<;akhy.i ; 5. Kxcerpts from the Anukramani , 

2. KxcL-rpts from the J\ula padia ; r> (lencral introduction : 

3. ('oncordance of the AV. with otlier SamhiUis ; 7 al note.s ; 

4. Kxcerpts from the ntu.d (K.ius'ika). S Ciitical notes. 

Of the above-mentioned promise, several items had meantime been 
more than abundantly fulfilled by Whitney. In 1862 he published the 
Prati<,\lkhya (item i ), text, translation, note.s, inde.xes, etc. Of this only excerpts had been promised. In 18S1 followed the (iinprom- 
ised) Index Verborum,^ in which was given a full report of the pada- 
readings (item 2). The Table of Concordances between the several Vcdic 
Samhitas (1852) and the Iiulex of pratikas of the Atharva-Wda (1857), — 
the first in large nieasun*, the second in largest measure, the work of 
Whitney, -- went far toward the accomplishment of the next item (item 3). 
Pupils of the two editors, moreover, had had a share in its fulfilment. 
In 1S78 Ciaibe gave us the Vailan.i-Sutra in text and tran.slation ; and 
that w,as followed in iSi>o hy l^loomfield’s text of the Kaiu^ika-Sutra. 
The inherent dilTiculties of the I.ilter text ami the excellence of Bloom 
field’s performance make us legiet the more keenly that he did not give 
us a tran.slation also. 'I'he material for ivpoit upon the ritual uses of the 
verses of this Veda (preparative for item 4) was thus at hand. 

' For conscience sake I register my prote*.! again .t the pr.utice of issuing \\oTks in gratui- 
touhly confusing suhdiMsions, as /♦’#/««/«* and and ./.'/V/.'wwccv ami J.ifU r — In 

llii.s connection, 1 add mat the p-ig*' iiuinhers of the ni.nn Inuiy of this woik, which .ire of use 
chiefly to the pressm.'in and the hiiultr an<l aic of minim.d 1 oust ipicix e purpi.'.t’s of cita- 
tion, have been relegated to the innei » jnner of the p.igo, "o ih it the hook .ind Innin. winch are 
of prime importance for purposes of finding and «.it.ition. may he ct>nxpH uou>ly and consen- 
icnily shown in the outer corners. I hope that such n gaid f'»r tlie lom nu noe < f the useis of 
technical books may become more and more common with the makus of such books. 

* The published Inc’ ;x give 5 t)nly the w’onls and references It is made from a mm h fuller 
manuscrijSt Index, written by Whitney on 1721 quaito pages, which qucie:> the context in nhich 
the words appear, and which for the present in my hand>. 

XX vi Editors Preface 

While making his London collations in 1853 (see below, p. Ixxii), Whit- 
ney made also a transcript of the Major Aniikramanl, and subsequently 
he added a collation of the Berlin ms. thereof (preparative for item 5). 
- - In the course of his long labors upon Atharvan texts, Whitney had 
naturally made many observatjons suitable for a general introduction 
(Item (>). Roth had sent him a considerable mass of exegetical notes 
(item 7) - - Fuithermore, during the decades in which Whitney had 

concerned himself with this and the related texts, he had noted in his 
Collation-Book, opposite each verse of the Atharvan Samhita, the places 
in the other texts whcie that verse recurs, in identical or in similar form, 
in whole or in part ; thus making a very extensive collection of concord- 
ances, with the Atharvan Saihhita as the point of dc|tarture, and providing 
himself with the means for reporting upon the variations of the parallel 
texts with tar greater completeness than was possible by means of the 
Table and Index mentioned above under item 3. 

The critical notes. — Of all the eight promised items, the one of most 
importance, and of most pressing importance, was doubtless the eighth, 
the critical notes, in which were to be given the vaiious readings of the 
manuscripts. In his Introductory Note to the Atharvan Piatii^rikhya 
(p, 338 : year i86j), Whitney says : 

'I he con<lition of the Atharvan as handed down by the tradition uas such as to 
impose upon the ethtors as a dul> what in the ease i>f an\ ot the otlier Vedas would 
ha\e been an alrn»>st inexi UNa}>l«* liberty — nanulv, the emendation of the text- 
re.ulirii^s in rnari> pla* es In so treating sm li \ text, it is m>t easy to hit the pre- 
cise mean between too much atu! too little ; and whili most id the alterations made 
were palpably and imperatively called for, and while many others would have to 
be made in translating, there are .il-o a few vases in whicli a closer adherence 
to the manust ript authorities might have been preb rable. 

The apparatus for ascertaining in any given passage just what the mss. 
read was not publishcii fur more than two decailes. Complaints on this 
score, however, were surely estopped by the diligence and effectiveness 
with which both editors ernidoyed that time for the advancement of the 
cause of Indie philology. In his Introduction to the Index Verborum 
(p. 2 : year 1.S8O), Whitney says: 

Thcp* will, of roursf, b.- diib rent t , of opinion as to whether this |_ course of pro- 
cedurej was wcll aihiscd - whether ihi-v [the ediiorsj should not h.avc contented 
themselves witii giving ju-t what the manusv ripts gave them, keeping suggested 
alterations for i‘«Mr no*- s, and, m i more, .is to the .ic i ept.iblcness of part of th« 
alterations m.idc, and the dcsirablLiu-ss of other^ whu h might with crpial reason 
have been made ... It is s»ni.:ht [in the IndexJ simply to call attention to all 
cases in w!ii< h a published reading diitcrs frcmi that of the manuscripts, as well 
as to those romp.iratively infreijiicnt one-* where the manuscripts arc at variance, 
anrl to fiiniish the means ... for determining in any particular case what the 
manuscripts actually read. 

Partial Rewriting and Revision by Whitney xxvii 


Thus the eighth item of the promise also (as well as the second) was ful- 
filled by the Index. — Desirable as such critical notes may be in con- 
nection with the Index, a report of the variants of the European mss. of 
the Vulgate recension in the sequence of the text was none the less 
called for. The report is accordingly given in this work, and includes 
not only the mss. of Herlin, Pari.s, Oxford, and London, collated before 
publishing, but also those of IVlunich and Tubingen, collated twenty years 
after (see below, p. xliv, note 5, p. Ixiv). 

Scope of this work as transcending previous promise. — The accessory 
material of this work, beyond what was piomised by the preface of the 
text-edition, is mentioned in the third paragraph of Whitney’s “Announce- 
ment,** p. xviii, and includes the reports of the readings of the Kashmirian 
recension and of S. P. Pandit’s authorities, extracts from the native com- 
mentary, and a translation. For the first, Koth had performed the long 
and laborious and diflicult task of making a careful collation of the 
Paippalada text, and had sent it to Whitney. In his edition published in 
Bombay, S. P. Pandit had given for the Vulgate recension the variants 
of the authorities (Indian : not also Finopean) accc.ssible to him, and 
including not only the variants of manuscripts, but also those of living 
reciters of the text. The advance sheets of his edition he had sent in 
instalments to Whitney, so that all those portions for which Pandit pub- 
lished the comment were in Whitney’s hands in time to be utilized by 
him, although the printed date of Pandit's publication (1895-5) is sub- 
sequent to Whitney’s death. 

Evolution of the style of the work.-— To elaborate all the varied material 
described in the foregoing paragraphs into a running commentary on 
the nineteen books was accordingly Whitney’s task, and he w’as “fairly 
started” upon it in 1885-6. As was natural, his method of treatment 
became somewhat fuller as he proceeded with his work. There is in my 
hands his prior draft of the fiist four or five b<M)ks, which is relatively 
meagre in sundry iletails. It was n<»t until he ha«l advanced well into the 
second grand division (books viii. xii.) that he settled down into the st\le 
of treatment to which he then adhered to the end. 

Partial rewriting and revision by Whitney. — Thereupon, in order to carrv 
out the early book" in the same st\le as the later ones, it became neces- 
sary to rewrite or to revise the early ones. He accordingly did rewrite 
the first four (cf. p. .xcviii below), and to the next three (v , vi , vii.) he 
gave a pretty thorough revision without rewriting; and at this point, 
apparently, he was interrupted by the illness which proved fatal. The 
discussion of the ’■itual uses in book viii. (supplied by me) wouUl doubt- 
less have been his next task Not counting a lot of mailer for his General 
Introduction, Whitney’s manuscript of his commentary and translation. 

x\ \’ i i i Editor s Pn'Jtue 


as ho left it at his death in 1894. consisted of about 2500 folios. Had 
Whitney lived to see it printed, the editor of this Series would probably 
have read one set of proofs, and made suj^gestions and criticisms freely 
on the niaii;ins, which the author would then have accepted or rejected 
without discussion ; and the whole matter, in that case a very simple one, 
would have been closed by a tew lines of kindly acknowledgment from 
the author in his preface. 

Picking up the broken threads. — It is, on the other hand, no simple 
matter, hut rather one of peculiar difficulty and delicacy, to edit such a 
technical work as this for an author who has passed away, especially if he 
has been the editor’s teacher and friend. The difficulty is increased by 
the fact that, in ^the great mass of technical details, there arc very many 
which have to be learned anew by the editor for himself, and others still, 
which, through long years of labor, have grown so familiar to the author 
that he lias hardly felt any need of making written memoranda of them, 
anil which the eilitor has to find out as best he can. 

Relation of the editor's work to that of the author. — Although Whil- 
ne\’s manuscript of the main body of the work was written out to the end, 
it was not systematically complete. Thus he had written for book i. (and 
for that only) a special introduction, show ing that he meant to do the like 
for the other eighteen Of the Tieneral Introduction as it stands, only a 
very few pirts were worked out; fnr some parts there were only rough 
sketclKs; and for very many not even that And in unnumbered details, 
major and minor, there wms opportunity for long and patient toil upon the 
task of syslomatically verifying all references ami statements, of revising 
where need was, and of bringing the w'hole nearer to an ideal and unat- 
tainable completeness. What these details were, the work itself may 
show'. Ilut besides all this, there was the task of carrying through the 
press a work the scientific imjx»rtance of which called for the best typo- 
graphical form ami for the utmost feasible accuracy in printing. 

Parts for which the author is not responsible. — No two men arc alike 
in the various endowments and attainments that make the scholar ; and, in 
particular, the mental attitude of any two towards any given problem is 
wont to differ. It is accordingly not possible that there should not be, 
among the editorial additions to Whitney’s manuscript or changes therein, 
many things which he would decidedly have disapproved. They ought 
certainly therefore to he marked in such a way that the reader may easily 
recognize them as additions for which the editor and not the author is 
responsible ; and for this purpose two signs have been chosen, I and J, 
which are like incomplete brackets or brackets without the upper hori- 
zontal strokes, and which may be called cll-brackcts ** and suggest the 

Parts for which the Author is not responsible xxix 

initial letter of the editor’s name (cf. p. c). Besides the marked additions, 
there arc others, like the paragraphs beginning with the word “ Trans- 
lated,” which arc not marked. It is therefore proper to give a general 
systematic account of the editorial additions and changes. 

The General Introduction. — This consists of two parts : the first, by the 
editor ; the second, elaborated in part from material left by the author. — 
Part I. — Besides the topics which unquestionably belong to the General 
Introduction and are treated in Part II., there arc a good many which, 
but for their voluminousness, might properly enough have been put into 
the editor’s preface. Such are, for example, the discussions of the vari- 
ous critical elements which form the bulk of Whitney’s Commentary. 
I have printed them as Part I. of the General Introduction. The form 
of presentation is, I trust, such that, with the help of the Table of Con- 
tents, the student will be able to find any desired topic very quickly. 

The General Introduction: Part II. — Certain general statements con- 
cerning the manuscripts and the method of editing, and concerning the 
text of the Atharva-Veda Samhita as a whole, must needs be made, and 
are most suitably presented in the form of a general introduction prefixed 
to the main body of the work. For this Introduction, Whitney left a 
considerable amount of material. Parts of that material w’cre so well 
worked out as to be nearly or quite usable for printing : namely, the brief 
chapter, 8, on the metiical form of the Samhita, and (most fortunately!) 
nearly all of the very important chapter, i, containing the description of 
his manuscripts. The like is true, as w’lll appear from the absence of ell- 
brackets, of considerable jiortions of chapter lo, on the extent and struc- 
ture of the Samhita. — Chapters 2 and 3 (concerning the stanza p?;)/ no 
fh'vtr^abhistoyc and the Collation-Book) might have been put in Part I., 
as being from the editor’s hand ; but, on the ground of intrinsic fitness, 
they have been put immediately after the dosciiption of the mss. 

For chapters 4 and 5 and 6 (on repeated verses, on refrains, and on 
accent-marks) and chapter g (on the divisions of the text), \\ hitney left 
sketchc.s, brief and rough, written with a lead-pencil and written (it would 
seem) in the days of his w’cakness as he lay on a couch or bed. I have 
made faithful use of these sketches, not only as indicating in detail the 
topics that Whitney most desired lo treat, but also as giving, or at least 
suggesting, the language to be used in their treatment. Nevertheless, 
they have been much rewritten in parts, and in such a way that it is hardly 
feasible or even worth while to separate the author’s part from the editor’s. 
The final result must pass for our joint work. The sketch for chapter 7 
(on the orthographic method of the Berlin text) was also a lead-pencil 
draft; but it was one that had evidently been made years before those 
last mentioned, and its substance was such as to need only recasting in 


liditors Preface 

form, and expansion, — a work which I have carried out with free use of 
the pertinent matter in Whitney’s Piatif^akhyas (cf. p. cxxiii, note). 

To re\ert to chapters 9 and 10 (on the divisions of the text, and on its 
extent and structure), they are the longest of all, and, next after chap- 
ter I (on the ), perha[>s the most important, and they contain the 
most of what is new. After putting them once into what I thought was 
a final form, I touml that, from the point of view thus gained, I could, by 
further study, discover a good many new facts and relations, and attain to 
greater certainty on matters already set forth, and, by rewriting freely, 
put very many of the results in a clearer light and state them more con- 
vincingly. I he ell-hrackets distinguish in general the editor’s part from 
the author's. If, in these two chapters, the latter seems relatively small, 
one must not forget its large importance and value as a basis for the 
editor's further studies. 

With the exceptions noted (chapters 2 and 3), it has seemed best, in 
elaborating this part of the General Introduction, to restrict it to the 
topics indicated by Whitney's material, and not (in an attempt at sys- 
tematic coinpletenevs) to duplicate the treatise which forms llloomfield’s 
part of the Cnindnss. Bloomfield’s plan is quite different ; but since a 
considerable number of the topics are indeed common to both, it seemed 
better that the treatment of them in this work should proceed as far as 
po>siblo independently of the treatment in the Crundriss 

The editor’s special introductions to the eighteen books, ii.-xijt. — Since 
Whitney's manuscript contained a brief special introduction to the first 
book, it was probably his intention to write one f«»r each of the remaining 
eighteen. At all events, certain general statements concerning each 
b(»ok as a whole are plainly called for, and should properly be c^sf into 
the form of a special introduction and be prefixed, one to cacji of the sev- 
eral boc)ks These eighteen special introduttions have accordingly been 
written by the e<litor, and are, with some trifling exceptions (cf. pages 
47^-2, 739, 792, 794, 814) entirely from his hand. The /r/mJ/ir-hymns 
(cf. p 471; and the divi.'»ions of the ///;Tdiv/-material (pages 628, 770, 793) 
called for con^klerable detail of treatment ; .similarly the discrepancies 
between the two editions as respects hymn-niimerati«)n (pages 389, 610) 
and the /^/m/nz-division^ ([nges 771, 793) ; likewise the subject-matter of 
book xviii. (p 813;; while the siq^plementary book xi.x., on account of its 
peculiar relation*, to the rest of the text an«l to the ancillary treatises, 
called for the most ehborate tre.itmcnt of all (|). S95). 

The special introductions to the hymns : editor’s bibliography of previous 
translations and discussions.— d in scare contained in the paragraphs begin- 
ning with the word “ 'rranslateci ’’ — In the introduction to each hymn, in 
a paragraph immediately following the Anukramani-cxcerpt.s, and usually 

Paris for which the Author is not responsible xxxi 

between a statement as to where the hymn is Found in Paipp.” or in 
other texts, and a statement as to how the hymn is ‘‘ Used in Kau^* 
Whitney had given in his manuscript a statement*as to where the hymn 
had been previously translated by Ludwig or Grill or some other scholar. 
Por Weber s and Henry s translations of whole books, he had apparently 
thought to content himself by referring once and for all at the beginning 
of each book to the volume of the Imiische Stndicn or of the Traduction. 
By a singular coincidence, a very laigc amount of translation and explana- 
tion o( this Veda (by Deussen, Henry, Griffith, Weber, liloomfield : sec 
the table, p. evii) appeared within three or four years after Whitney's 
^ death. The version of (iriffith, and that alone, is complete. As for the 
partial translations and discussions, apart from the fact that they are 
scattered through different periodicals and independent volumes, their 
multiplicity is so confusing that it would be very troul)le.some in the case 
of any given hymn to find for oneself how many of the translators 
had discussed it and where. I have therefore endeavored to give with 
all desirable complctene.s.s, for every single one of the 5S8 hymns of books 
i.-xix. (save ii. 20—23), bibliography of the translations anrl discussions 
of that hymn up to the 189S or thereabout, b'or some h\mns the 
amount of discussion is large: cf. the references for iv. 16; v. 22 ; ix. 9; 
X. 7; xviii. i; .\i\. 6. At fiist blush, some may think it “damnable iter- 
ation" that I should, for hymn-translations, make reference to Griffith 
some 588 times, to Hloomfield srmie 214, to Weber some 179, or to flenry 

nne 167 times; but I am sure that .serious students of the work will find 
the leferences exceedingly convenient. As noted above, they are given 
in the paragraphs beginning with the word “ Translate<l." Although these 
paragraphs are almost wholly edilonal additions, I have not marked them 
as such by enclo.sing them in ell-biackets. 

I have alw.'iys endeavored to give these references in the chronological 
sequence of the works concerned (see the tabic w'ith dates and explana- 
tions at p. evii). dates neeil to be taken into account in judging 
Whitney's ^statements, a.s when he sa\s ".ill the translators" understand 
a passage and so. Finally, it is sure to happen that a careful com- 
parison o' \jew.s of the other translators will often reveal a specific 
:tcm of\ which is to be preferred to Whitney’s. Here and 

there, I ha\ reference to such an item ; but to do so s\stematic- 

ally is a part of tnc great task which this woik leaves unfini.shed. 

Added special introductions to the hymns of book xviii. and to soihe others. 
— The relation of the constituent material of the four so-called “hymns** 
of book xviii. to the Rig-Ve«la etc. is such that a clear synoptic statement of 
the provenience of the different groups of verses or of single verses is in 
the highest degree desirable ; and I have therefore endeavored to give such 


Editor s Preface 

a statement for each of them, grouping the verses into “ Parts ’* according 
to their provenience or their ritual use or both. An analysis of the 
structure of the single hymn of book xvii. also seemed to me to be worth 
giving. Moreover, the peculiar contents of the hymn entitled Homage 
to p.irts of the Atharva-\ eda *’ (xix. 23) challenged me to try at least to 
identify its intended references; and although I have not succeeded 
entirely. I hope I have stated the questionable matters with clearness. 
I have \entiired to disagree with the author’s view of the general signifi- 
cance of hymn iii. 26 as expressed in the caption, and have given my 
reasons in a couple of paragraphs. The hymn for use with a pearl-shell 
amulet (iv. 10) anil the hymn to the lunar asterisms (xix. 7) also gave 
occasion for adilitions which I hope may prove not unaccejitablo. 

Other editorial additions at the beginning andkend of hymns. — Whitney’s 
last illness put an end to his revision of his woik before he reached the 
eighth book, and rep*)rts of the ritual uses of the hymns of that book 
from his hand arc insutficient or lacking 1 have accordingly supplied 
these reports for book viii., and further also for x. 5 and xi. 2 and 6, and 
in a f.)rm as nearly like that used by Whitney as I could; but for vih. 8 
(“aimy rite* ) and x. 5 (“ water-thiindei bolts the conditions warranted 
greater fulness ^ Whitney doubtless intended to give, throughout his 
entire work, at the end of anuvaktis arul books anti puipiitjuika^^ ciutain 
statements, in part summations of hymns and verses and in part quota- 
tion's from the Old Anukramaiii. In delault of his final revision, these 
stop at the end of book vii. 4cf. p. 470), arul from that |X)int on to the 
end I have supplied them (cf. pages 475, 4.S1, 737, and so on). 

Other additions of considerable extent.-~C)f the additions in cll brackels, 
the most numerous are the brief ones ; but the great difficulties of books 
xviii. and xix have tempted me to give, in the last two hundred pages, 
occasional e.xcursuscs, the considerable length of which will, I hope, prove 
• warranted by their interest or value. The notes on the following topics 
or wonls nr verses may serve as instances : twin con.sonant.s, p. 832 ; 
(ifijoydurtts, p. 844; sn ^dhsa, p. 853 ; ditnt, p. 860; dva ciksipfn, p. 875 ; 
the pitrnidliiina (“ eleven dishes ’ ), p. 1876 ; viinyd etc., p. 880 ; saw^ritya, 
p. 886; on xviii. 4. 86 87 ; xix. 7. 4 ; 8. 4 ; 26. 3 ; 44. 7 ; 45. 2 (stdtdr 
etc.); 47. 8; 55. i, 5 

The seven tables appended to the latter volume of this work. — The list of 
non-metrical pubsages is taken from the introduction to Whitney’s Index 
\erborum, p. 5. — I he list of hymns ignored by Kaui^ika, p. lOll, is 
taken Irom memoranda in W^hitney’s band-copy of Kau^ika. — The 

* It may here be noted that, for the vhort hymns (liooki i -vli.), the ritual usea are given in 
the prefixed introiiuctions . but that, for the .xiibscijucnt long hymns, they are usually and more 
c /nveiiM iitly given under the verses conctrned 

Parts for which the Author is not responsible Kxxiii 

concordance of the citations of Kiiui^ika by the two methods, I have 
made for those who wish to look up citations as made in the liombay 
edition of the commentary. The same purpose is better served by writ- 
ing the number of each adhyaya, and of each kaudikd as numbered 
from the beginning of its own adhyaya^ on the upper right-hand corner 
of each odd page of Bloomfield’s text. — The concordance of discrepant 
Berlin and Bombay hymn-numbers I have drawn up to meet a regret- 
table need. — The concordance between the Vulgate and Kashmirian 
recensions is made from notes in the Collation-Book, as is explained at 
p. Ixxxv, and will serve provision dly for finding a Vulgate verse in the fac- 
simile of the Kashmirian text. — The table of hymn-titles is of course 
a mere copy of Whitney’s captions, but gives an extremely useful con- 
spectus of the subjects in general. — The index of the names of the seers 
is a revised copy of a rough one found among Whitney’s papers. To 
It I have prefixed a few paragraphs which contain general or critical 

The unmarked minor additions and other ininor changes. — These are of 
two classes. The first includes the numerous isolateil minor changes 
about which there was ho (piestion. namely the correction of mere slips, 
the supplying of occasional omi.ssions, and the omission of an occasional 
phrase or sentence. Of the meie slips in Whitney’s admirable manu- 
script, .some (like “ thou has ” at ii. lo. 6, or the omission of “ be brought ” 
near the end of the note to ii. 13. 5) are such as the care of a good proof- 
reader would have set right ; but there were many which could be recog- 
nized as slips only by constant reference to the oiigmal or to the various 
books concerned. Such are “cold” in.stead of “heat” ghra'nsd at 
xiii. I. 52 and 53: “hundred” (life-times) for “thousand” at vi. 78 3; 
“Mercury” for “Mars” at xix. 9 7 ; “kine” for “bulls” at iii. 9 2 and 
“cow” for “bull” at i. 22. i; rvip/;/ for at .wiii. 2. 13. At vi. 

141. 3 his version read “so let the A^^vins make,” as if the text were^ 
krnutdm o^ tnd. At the end of the very hymn, Whitney’s statement 
was, “Thfe Anukr. ignores the metrical irregularity of the second pada”; 
here I changed “ignores” to “notes” — lie had omitted the words 
“the parts of” at iv. 12.7; “a brother” at xviii, i. 14; “which is very 
propitious” at xviii 2. 31 ; “the Kalhers ” at .wiii. 2 46. Such changes 
as those just instanced could well be left unmarked. 

The second class has to do with the paiagraphs, few in number, the 
recasting or rewriting of which involved so many minor changes that 
it was hardly feasible to indicate them by ell-brackets. The note to xviii. 
3- 60 is an example. Moreover, many notes in which the changes are 
duly marked contain other changes which seemed hardly worth marking, 
as at xix. 49. .2 or 55. i : cf. p, 806, % 5. 


Eli i tors Preface 

The marked minor iidditions and other minor changes. — In a work like 
this, involving so great a mass of multifarious details, it was inevitable that 
a ligorous revision, such as the author could not give to it, should detect 
many statements rc(|uiring more or less modiheation. Thus at xix. 40. 2» 
the author, in his copy for the printer, says: \V e have rectified the 
accent of sumnihas , the mss. and SPl*. have sinnidhd$y In fact, the 
edition also has sntPuMils, and I have changed the statement thus : 
“[in ;h^‘ editionj we |_should havcj rectified the accent [so as to rcadj 
sumcii*uis " The changes in the last two books are ^uch that it was 
often best to write out considerable parts of the printer’s copy afresh : . 
yet it was desirable, on the one hand, to avoid rewriting; and, on the 
other, to change and add in such a way that the result might not show 
the unclearness of a clumsily tinkered paragraph. To revise and edit 
between these two limitations is not easy ; and, as is shown by the 
example just given, there is no clear line to be drawn between what 
should and what should not be niarked. As noted above, it is evident 
that all these matters would have been very simple if the author could 
have seen the work through the press. 

The revision. of the author’s manuscript. Verification. — The modifica- 
tions of the author’s manuscript thus far discussed arc mostly of the 
nature of additions made to carry out the unfinished parts of the author’s 
design, and are the modifications referred to on the tille-p.ige by the 
words “brought nearer to completion” The work of revision proper 
has included a careful verification of every .statement of every kind in the 
commentary so far as this was possible, and a careful comparison of the 
translation with the original. This means that the citations of the parallel 
texts have been actually looked up and tliat the readings have been com- 
pared anew in order to make sure that the reports of their varuitions from 
^the Atharvan readings were correct. This task was most time-consuming 
and laborious ; as to some of its diiriculties and perplexities, see below, 
p. Ixiv. Verification means further that the notes of \Vhitney’,s*Collation- 
Book and of the Bombay edition and of Roth’s collation of the Kashmirian 
text were regularly (.onsulted to assure the correctness of the author'.s 
reports of variants within the Atharvan school ; further, that the text and 
the statements of the Major Anukramani were carefully studied, and, in 
connection therewith, the .scansion and pada-division of the verses of the 
Samhita ; and that the references to the Kaii^ika alid Vfiitana Sutras 
were regularly^ turned up fc^r comparison of the sutras with Whitney's 
statements. Many technical details concerning these matters are given on 
pages Ixiv ff. of the General Intro«luction. Since the actual appearance of 
Bloomfield and Garbe's magnificent facsimile of the birch-bark manuscript 

CLud bTotight hccltct to Completion ” -xxxv 

of the Kashmirian text antedates that of this work, the reasons why the 
facsimile was not i^sed by me should be consulted at p. Ixxxv. 

Accentuation of Sanskrit words. — In the reports of the readings of 
accented texts, the words are invariably accented. The Kashmirian text is 
reckoned as an unaccented one, although it has occasional accented pas- 
sages. The author frequently introduces Sanskrit words, in parentheses 
or otherwise, into the translation, and usually indicates their accent. 
The editor has gone somewhat farther : he has indicated in the transla- 
tion the accent of the stems of words which happen to occur in the voca- 
^ tive {so saddnvdSf ii. 14. 5), except in the cases of rare words whose proper 
stem-accent is not known (examples in ii. 24) ; and, in cases where only 
one member of a compound is given, he has indicated what the accent of 
that member would be if ysed independently (so -nithd at xviii. 2. 18, as 
part of sahdsranltha ; -kslira at iii. 3. 4, as part of anyaksetrd ; cf. ii. 8. 2). 

Cross-references. — Apart from the main purpose of this work, to serve 
as the foundation of more nearly definitive ones yet to come, it is likely 
to be used rather as one of consultation and reference than for consecu- 
tive reading. I hav'e therefore not infrequently added cross-references 
from one verse or note to another, doing this even in the case of verses 
which were not far apart: cf., for example, my reference. from vii. 80. 3 
to 79. 4 or from vi. 66. 2 to 65. i. 

Orthography of Anglicized proper names. — The translation is the princi- 
pal or only part of this work which may be supposed to interest readers 
who are without technical knowledge of Sanskrit. In order to make the 
proper names therein occurring more easily pronounceable, the author 
has disregarded somewhat the strict rules of transliteration which are fol- 
lowed in the printing of Sanskrit words as Sanskrit, and has written, for 
^ example, Pushan and Purandhi instead of Pusan and Purariidhi, sometimes 
retaining, however, the strange diacritical marks (as in Angiras or Varuna) 
where they do not embarrass the layman. To follow the rules strictly 
would have been much easier ; but perhaps it was better to do as has been 
done, even at the expense of some inconsistencies (cf. Vritra, Vritra, 
Vrtra; Savitar). 

Editorial short-comings and the chances of error. — Labor and pains have 
been ungrudgingly «pent upon Whitney's work, to ensure its appearance 
in a form worthy of its g|‘cat scientific importance ; but the work is exten- 
sive and is crowded with details of such a nature that unremitting care is 
needed to avoid error concerning them. Some striking illustrations of 
this statement may be found in the foot-note below. ^ Despite trifling 

' Thus in the first line of his note on xix. 50. 3, the author wrote taitx'-x in^^tead of 
taking iareyus from the word immediately below tarema in the text This .sense-disturbing 
error was overlooked by the author and by Dr, Kyder, and once by me also, although disLO\ercd 


Editor s Preface 

inconsistencies of orthography or abbreviation, I trust that a high degree 
of accuracy in the real essentials has been attained. I dare not hope that 
my colleagues will not discover blemishes and deficiencies in the work ; 
but 1 shall be glad if they do not cavd at them. India has much to teach 
the West : much that is of value not only for its scientific interest, but 
also for the conduct of our thought and life. It is far better to exploit 
the liches of Indian wisdom than to spend time or strength in belittling 
the achievements of one’s follow-workers or of those that are gone. 

The biographical and related matter. — The h irst American Congress of ^ 
Philologists devoted its session of Dec. 28. 1S94 to the memory of Whitney. 
The Repoit of that session, entitled “The Whitney Memorial Meeting,’' 
and edited by the editor of this work, was issued as the first half of vol- 
ume xix. of the Journal of the American Oriental Society. The edition 
was of fifteen hundred copies, and was distributed to the members of the Society and of the American Philological As.sociation and of the 
Modern Language Association of America, to the libraries enrolled on 
their lists, and to some other recipients. Resides the of the 
occasion, the Report contains bibliographical notes concerning Whitney’s 
life and family, and a bibliography of his writings: but since, strictly 
speaking, it contains no biography of W’hitney, I have thought it well to 
give in this volume (p. xliii) a brief sketch of his life ; and in preparing it, 

I have made use, not only of the substance, but also, with some freedom, 
of the form of statement of the autobiography which Whitney published 
in 1885 (see p. lx). Moreover, since the people into whose hands this 
work will come are for the most part not the same as those who received 
the Report, it has been thought advisable to reprint therefrom the editor'.s 
Memorial Address (p. xlvii) as a general estimate of W'hitney’s character 
and .services, and to give, for its intrinsic usefulness, a select list of his 
writings <p. Ivi), which is essentially the list prepared by Whitney for the 
“Yale Bibliographies” (List, 1893;. 

at 1.1st in for mrrcrt'on — At xix zi 7, I had addrd furr,/m an the reading 
for the Vul>jatc juryam, Mmply betauNC Koth'n ( oll.ition fja\e , but on looking il up in 
the last line of folio i^6a, I fouiul, .ift* r the phiten A»ere m.ide, the birch btirk 

hxf really h. us turyim and that the slip nan Kolh’s — In regard to xix. 24. 6 b, the hates 
Sfctncd to h.ive det reed that error .shouhl fireva 1 . Here the n|^nuscriptH read rifytnam. This 
It rep^irted in the foot-note < f the Ilerliri 1 dition an (int error) The editors intended 

to emend the ms v iding to rwj which, howcier, is misprinted in the text as 

(2d error) f I he ujiijecture even if rightly printed, is admitted to Ik: an un.succeMfiil 

one ] In the third line of hin comment, Whitney wrote, "The Vti^dndm of rjur text" etc. (3d 
error I 'I his I corrcfled to and .idded, in a note near the end of the paragraph, that 

the coiiject'.re was “ Misprinted " .My note about the misprint wax rightly printed in 

the second proof; but in the foundry pro »f, by some mishap, it stood '‘.Misprinted vafdnam.** 
(4th error). The fourth ciror I hope to amend successfully in the plate. 

General Significance of Whitney s Work xxxvii 

General significance of Whitney’s work Its design, says Whitney 

(above, p. xix, Annonncahenl), is to put together as much as possible of 
the material that is to help toward the study and final comprehension of 
this Veda.’* Thus expressly did the author disavow any claim to finality for 
his work. As for the translation, on the one hand, the Announcement 
shows that he regarded it as wholly subfinlinate to his commentary ; and 
I can give no better statcmtnl of the principles which have guiiled him in 
making it, than is found in the extracts from a critical essay by Whitney 
which I have reprinted (above, p. xix), and from which moreover we may 
infer that he fully recognized the purely provisional character of his trans- 
lation. I am sorry that infelicities of expression in the translation, which 
arc part and parcel of the author’s extreme literalness (see p. xciv) and do 
not really go below the surface of the work, are (as is said below', p. xcviii) 
the very things that are the most striking for the nun-tcchnical reader 
who examines the book casually. 

As for the commentary, on the other hand, it is plain that, taking the 
work as a whole, he has done just what he designefl to do Never 
before has the material for the ciilical study of .in extensive Vedic text 
been so com[)rehensively and systemati' ally gathered from so multifa- 
rious sources. The commentary will long maintain for itself a place of 
first-rate importance as an in<iisp<‘ns.ihle working-tool for the purposes 
which it is designeil to .serve. I have put together (below’, pages xcii- 
xciii) a few examples to illustrate the w.iys in which the commentary will 
prove useful. A \ariety of special investigations, moreover, will readily 
suggest themsehes to competent students of the commentary; and the 
subsidiary results that aie thus to be won (the “ by-p!i>ducts,” so to say), 
arc likeh, I am convinced, to be abundant and of large interest and value. 
Furthermore, w'e may confidently believe that Whitney’s labors will inci- 
dentally put the whole discijiline of Vedic criticism upon a broader and 
firmer basis. 

Need of a systematic commentary on the Rig-Veda. —, Whitney 
seems to me to have made it plain that a similar commentary is the indis- 
pensable preliminary for the final comprehension of the Rig-Veda. That 
commentary .should be as much better and as much wider in its scope as it 
can be made by the next generation of .schol.irs; for it will certainly not be 
the work of anyone man«alone. It is a multifarious work for which many 
elaborate preparations need yet to be made. Thus the paralK l passages 
from the Rig- Veda and the other text.s must be noted with completeness 
on the margin of the Rik Sanihita opposite the pfidas concerned ; for this Bloomfield’s Vedic Concordance is likely to be the most important 
single instrument. Thus, again, Birdimana, ^lauta. Grh}a, and other 
texts fippurtenant to the Rig-Veda, together w’ith K]>ic and later texts, 

xxxviii Edit<frs Preface 

should all be systematically read by scholars familiar with Vedic themes 
and d^rtion, and with an eye open to covert allusion |nd reference, and 
should be completely excerpted with the Rik Samhita in hand and with 
constant references made opposite the Rik verses to the ancillary or illus- 
trative passages which bear upon them. It is klle folly to pretend that 
this last work wt)uld not be immensely facilitated by a large mass of 
translations' of the more difficult texts, accurately made, and provided 
with all possible ingenious contrivances for finding out quickly the rela- 
tions between the ancillary texts and the fundamental ones. Thus to 
have demonstrated the necessity for so far-reaching an undertaking, may 
prove to be not the least of Whitney’s services to Vedic scholarship. 

The Century Dictionary. — Doubtless much of the best of Whitney's 
strength through nearly ten of his clo'^ing years was given to the work 
devolving on him as etlitor-in-chief of TIu' Century Dictionary, an Encyclo- 
pedic Lexicon of the English^uaye (see p. lx, below). Hut for that, 
he might perhaps hvWe brought out this commentary himself. Since I, 
more than any one else, have personal reasons to regret that he did not do 
so, there is perhaps a peculiar fitness in my saying that I am glad that he 
did not. Whoever has visited for example the printing-offices which make 
the metropolitan district of Boston one of the great centers of book- 
production for America, and has seen the position of authority which is 
by them accorded to that admirable work, and has reflected upon the 
powerful influence which, through the millions of volumes that are affected 
by its authority, it must thus exercise in the shaping of the growth of 
our English language, — such an one cannot fail to sec that Whitney was 
broad-minded and wise in accepting the opportunity of superintending the 
work of its production, even at the risk of not living to see the appear- 
ance of the already long-delayed Atharva-Veda. Perhaps his most potent 
influence upon his day and generation is through his labors upon the 
Century Dictionary. 

Acknowledgments.-— I desire in the first place to make public acknowl- 
edgment of my gratitude to the late Henry Clarke Warren of Cambridge. 
He had been my pupil at Baltimore; and, through almost twenty years 
of intimate acquaintance and friendship, we had been associated in our 
Indian studies. To his enlightened appreciation of their value and poten- 
tial usefulness is due the fact that these dignified volumes can now be 
issued ; for during his lifetime he gave to Harvard University in sundry 

* Roth writes to Whitney. July 2. 1.S93 Ich begreife nichl, wie ein junger Mann, »tatt nach 
wertlosen Dingen zu greifen, nicht liebcr sich an die L'ef)crsetznpg uiu! Krklarung eines StUcket 
aus Taitliriya Rrdhniana oder MaitrayanI Samhita wagl ; nichl um die minutiae des Rituals zo 
erforschen, sondern uiq den Sloff, dcr zwischen diesen Dingen steckt, augangUch zu machen 
und zu erlautem. Auch in den Medizinbui^hern gabe es vielo Abschnitte, die verstanden und 
bekannt zu werden verdienten. 

A cknowledgfnenis xxx ix 

instalments the funds with which to pay for the printing of Whitney’s 
commentary. V^itney was professor at Yale; the editor is an ajumnus 
of Yale and a teacher at Harvard; and Warren was an alumnus of 
Harvard. That the two Universities should thus join hands is a matter 
which the friends of both may look upon with pleasure, and it furnishes the 
motif for the dedication of this work. Hut I am glad to say that learning, 
as well as money, was at Mr. Warren’s command for the promotion of 
science. Before his death there was issued' his collection of translations 
from the Pali which forms the third volume of this Series and is entitled 
Buddhism in Translations," a useful and much-used book Moreover, 
he has left, in an advanced state of preparation for press, a carefully made 
edition and a partial translation of the Pali text of Buddhaghosa’s famous 
encyclopedic treatise of Buddhism entitled “The Way of Purity" or 
Visuddhi-Magga. It is with gladness and hope that I now address myself 
to the arduous and happy labor of carrying Mr. Warren’s edition through 
the press. 

Next I desire to express my hearty thanks to my former pupil, Dr. 
Arthur W. Ryder, now Instructor in Sanskrit at Harvard University, for 
his help in the task of verifying references and statements and of reading 
proofs. He came to assist me not long after the close of his studies 
with Professor Geldner, when I had got through with a little more than 
one third of the main body ot Whitney’s commentary and translation. 
For books i.~vii., I had revised the manuscript and sent it to press, leav- 
ing the verification to be done with the proof-reading and from the proof- 
sheets. Dr. Ryder’s help began with the verification and proof-reading 
of the latter half of book vi. ; but from the beginning of book viii., it 
seemed better that he should forge ahead and do the verification from 
the manuscript itself, and leave me to follow with the revision and the 
supplying of the missing portions and so on. His work proved to be so 
thoroughly conscientious and accurate that I was glad to trust him, except 
of course in cases where a suspicion of error was aroused in one or both 
of us. A few limes he has offerctl a suggestion of his own ; that given 
at p. 739 is so keen and convincing that greater boldness on his part 
would not have been unwelcome. To my thanks I join the hope that 
health and other opportunities may long be his for achieving the results 
of which his literary sense and scholarly ideals give promise. 

Mrs. Whitney, upon turning over to me her husband’s manuscript of 
this work, together with his other manuscript material therefor, was so 
kind as to lend me a considerable number of his printed books, some 
of which, in particular his copy of the Kau^ika Sutra, have been a great 
convenience by reason of their manuscript annotations. It is a pleasure 
to be able to make to Mrs. Whitney t&is public expression of my thanks. 


Editol^s Preface 

To my neighbor, Miss Maria Whitney, I am indebted for the loan of 
the medallion from which the noble portrait of her jDrothcr, opposite 
page xliii, has been made. The medallion is a rejilica of the one in the 
Library of Vale University, and is a truthful likeness. 

Of an occasional friendly turn from I’rofessors Theobald Smith, George 
F. Moore, and Hloomfield, and from Dr. (ieorge A. Grierson, I have already 
made note (see pages 242, 756. 983, 243). Professors Bloomfield and 
Garbe allowed me to reproduce here a specimen leaf from their beautiful 
facsimile of the Kashmirian text. Professors Cappcller and Hopkins and 
Jacobi were so good as to criticize my Sanskrit verses.* In particular, 
I thank my colleague. Professor Morris H. Morgan, for his kindness in 
putting the dedication into stately Latin phrase. 

It is with no small satisfaction that I make public mention of the 
admirable work of the AtheiKcum Press (situated in Cambridge) of Messrs. 
Ginn and Company of Boston. The Hindus sometimes liken human 
effort to one wheel of a cart. Fate, indectl, may be the other ; but our 
destiny, they say, is not accomplished without both elements, just as there 
is no progress without both wheels. It is so with a book : good copy is 
one wheel ; and a good printing otTice is the other. Whitney’s long e.xpe- 
rience whs guarantee for the prior rerpiisite ; and the other I have nut 
found lacking. The way been a long one, with plenty of places for 
rough jolting and friction ; but the uniform kinilness and the alert and 
intelligent hclpfulne.s.s of all with whom I have had to do at the Press 
have made our progress smooth, and I am sincerely grateful. 

Human personality and the progress of science. — Had Whitney lived to 
sec this work in print and to write the preface, his chief tribute of grateftjl 
acknowledgment would doubtless have been to his illustrious preceptor 
and colleague and friend whose toil had so largely increased its value, to 
Rudolph Roth of Tubingen. Whitney, who was my teacher, ami Roth, 
who was my teacher’s teacher and my own teacher, both are passed 
away, and Death has given the work to me to finish, or rather to bring 
nearer to an ideal and so unattainable completeness They arc beyond 
the reach of human thanks, of praise «)r blame : but I cannot help feeling 
that even in their life-time they understood that Science is concerned 
only with results, not with personalities, or (in Hindu phrase) that the 
Goddess of Learning, Saras vati oi Vac, cares not to ask even so much 
as the nam» s of her votaries ; and that the unending progress of Science 

is indeed like the endless flow of a. river. 


* These. 1 trust, will not be whrilly un|>1e.l'^lnK to my , pundit friends in India, who, an they 
will find thethoti{;ht in part un Indnn, will not, I hope.forgit that it was primarily and design- 
ed!) u>iuei\ed in idtnial form 1 heir ^riMi m.ister, Dandin, hast a kind word for men in my 
^asc at the « lose of the first ehaptt r of his {‘netn s. 

Human Personality and the Progress of Science 

Teacher and teacher's teacher long had wrought 
Upon these tomes of ancient Hindu lore, 

Till Death did give to one whom both had taught 
The task to finish, when they were no more. 

*Tis finished, — yet unfinished, like the How 

Of water-streams between their banks that glide ; 
For Learning’s streams, that down the ages go. 
Flow on for ever with a swelling tide. 

Here plodding hihor brings its affluent brook; 

There. genius, like a river, poui.s amain: 

While Learning — ageless, deathless - staree will look 
To note which ones have lolled her love to gain. 

Alike to her are river, bro<>k, and rill, 

'rhat in her stately wateis so combine, 

If only all who choose may drink llv ir fill. 

And slake the thirst to kn«>w, the thirst divine. 

The Ciita’s lesson had our Whitney learned — 

To do for duty, not for dul)\ meed. 

And. paid or unpaid be the thanks he earned. 

The thanks he recked not, reeked alone the deed. 

Here stands his book, a mighty instiument, 

Which those to come may use for large emprise. 
Use it, C) sVholar, eie thy day be spent. 

The learner dieth, Learning never dies. 


Editors Preface 

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Cranperry Isles, Maisve, 
Summer, i<y04. 

C. R. L. 



William Dwight Whitney was born at Northampton, Massachusetts, 
February 9, 1827, ami died at New Haven, Connecticut, on Thursduy, 
June 7, 1894. aged sixty-seven years and nearly four months. He 
was son of josiah Dwight and Sarah (Williston) Whitney. The father. 
Josiah Dwight Whitney (1786- 1869), was born in W’estfield, oldest son 
of Abel Whitney (Harvard, 17731 ****^1 Clarissa Dwight, daughter of 
Josiah Dwight. The mother daughter of the Rev. Vayson W’llliston 
(Yale, 17S3) of Kasthamplon, and sister of the Hon. Samuel Williston, 
the founder of Willi.ston Seminary. The father was a business man in 
Northampton, and later manager, first as cashier and then as president, 
of the Northampton Rink, and was widely and honorably known for his 
ability and integrity. Willuim was one of a goodly family of children, 
of whom may be named, as devote<l to seimtific and literary pursuits, the 
eldest, Josiah Dwight WMiitney (Vale, 1830), for a long time the head of 
the Geological Survey of Calitornii and fiom 18^,5 to 1896 Professor of 
(ieology in Haivard University; Maria W*hitncy, the first incumbent 
of the chair of Modern Linguages in Smith College; Jimes Lyman 
W'hitney (Yale, 1856), since 1869 a member of the Administrative Staff 
of the Boston Public Library and its head from iSQQto 1903; and Henry 
Mitchell W'hitney (Yale, 1864), from 1871 to 1899 Professor of Knglish 
in Beloit College 

Whitney made his preparation for college entirely in the free public 
schools of his native town, entered the Sophomore class of Williams Col- 
lege in 1842, and was graduated in 1845 He then spent ^hree full years 
in service in the bank, under his fathn Karly in 184S he took up the 
study of Sanskrit. In the spring of 1840 he left the bank; spent the 
summer as assistant in the Geological Survey of the Lake Superior 
region, and in the autumn went for a year to New Haven, to continue 
his Sanskrit studies under Professor Edward E. Salisbury and in com- 
pany with James Hadley, and to prepare for a visit to Germany, already 
planned. On May 22, 1850, he was elected a corporate member of the 
American Orienta} Society. He sailed (for Bremen) September 20, 1850. 
The next three winters were passed by him in Berlin and the summers 
of 1851 and 1852 in Tubingen, chiefly under the instruction of Professors 

, xlui 


Brief Sketch of Whitney* s Life 

Albrecht Weber ^ ami Rudolph Roth respectively, but also of Professor 
Lepbius and others. Already diirin.LC his first summer with Roth, the 
edition of the Atharva-Veda was planned.- In October, 1851, he began 
copying the Rerlin manusciipts of the te.\t, and finished that work in 
March, 1852. Leaving Reilin • in March, 1853, he stayed seven weeks in 
Paris, three in Oxford, and seven in laindon (collating Sanskrit manu- 
scriiits), and then returned to America, arriving in Roston August 5. ^ 

Refore quitting Germany, he received an invitation to return to Yale 
College as Prt)fessor of Sanskrit, but not until August, 1854, did he go 
there to remain. His election was dated May 10, 1854, so that his term 
of service exceeded forty years. The events of such a life as his are, so 
far as they concern the outside world, little else than the succession of 
classes instructed and of literary labors brought to a conclusion. It may 
be noted, however, that very soon after their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. 
Whitney went, partly bir health and partly for study,* to spend somewhat 
less than a year in France and Italy (Xovemher, 1856 to July, 1857), 
passing several months at Rome. In 187^ he took part in the summer 
campaign of the Hayden exploring expedition in Colorado, passing tw'O 
full months on horseback and under canvas, coursing over regions which 
in good part had been till then untrodden by the feet of w'hite men, and 
seeing Nature in her naked grandeur — mounting some nine times up to 
or beyond the altitude (»t 14.000 feet. In the summer of 1875 Mr. Whit- 
ney visited Kngland and Germany,^ mainly for the collection of further 

Mn a letter to .‘'ah''l>ury from \V»*l>or (—‘i* I.AnS ni 'i;!. clitod llcrlin, MArch 20, 1S51, 
Wtijcr writes “I hA\e alruadv hid the pira'.uru •»£ insinu two of )i>ijr cuuntr)men In 
Sanskrit, Mr Wales and Mr Whitncv Mr \\hnne\ u*rt,iinly f*niilli*s us to RtiMt hopes, as he 
C'Jtnlnncs earnc'.ln«*'«s and dtlii*t.nce with a soiiml aiuI » niK.d jiuUnv-nt I hope t«> induce him 
to und*!rtakf an edition i»f th»* Tauiiri^.v.Ganjaka, one of the m*ist mieie^tinj; Vcdic St ri|V 
iiirt'*" Whitney’s fellow student was I)r Ileiir) Ware Wales (IIar\ard. iSjS), who had 
alrt.idv, nearly two years liefon*. by a will*d Apiil 24, rSp), proMdiil for the mdowmenl of 
the Wale'i I'rofwtSor'.hip of Sanskrit in ilar\aril I'nit^Tsiij, whiih was t sl.dilishcd in due < oursc 
January 2'/, i0O3» to which the editor of these t'diinn s w.a.s clcttetl Mart h 23, i«)OJ 

^ This appears from th»* fullo^ing porti'»n (see J \t).*s. in 21O. if also p. 501) of an interest- 
ing letter from Koth, dat* tl Tubingen, August 2, “ I ha\e hatl for a siholar. through this 

summer, one td )o ir c-'untrjnicn, Mr. W hum y of N’tirthamptfin T hrough the winter, he will 
reside in IJcrlin, in order to lollect there whate\cT r.m be found for the Atharvaveda, and then 
return here with what is brought together We sh.dl then together sec what can be done for 
this Veda, hitherto wiilumt .1 rlaimsnt, whuh I consider as the most important next to the 
Rig\eda.” t'f Koih's Icto r td No\t mber |.S, 1S94, J NO.V xix loo. 

• The <lat* ^tv-m on p I is not quite correct ■ sec p < x\iii. 

• The AV. Piatika mdt'X lind ''ind , \ol i\. see p 62) is dated I’aris, May, 1S37. 

• In particular, Munich anti Tubingen (rf J.\(JS x,p cxvin, TAOS for Nov. 1S75). At 
that time, the editor of these volumes was residing at Tubingen as a pupil of Rtith and as one 
of the little group to which belonged (Jarbe, (leMner, Kacgi, and I.iiut^ier. W'hitncy’s arrival 
(July fi) was A great event ami was h.iiled with delight. It may be added that it was the privi- 
lege of W'hitncy and m)self to take part in the m»'mt»rable feast given at Jena by Rohtlinglc on 
his sixtieth birthday, June 1 1, 1875, in cclcbratnm of the completion of the great Sanskrit Lexicon. 


line/ Sketch of IVhitncy s Life 


material for the Atharva-Veda. In 1878 he went to Europe with his 
wife and daughtefrs, to write out his Sanskrit (Grammar and carry it 
thiDUgh the press, and spent there fifteen months, chiefly at IJerlin and 

Of Whitney’s scientific writings, the most important oncs^ (since they 
are scattered among many other bibliographical items: p.igcs Ivi to Ixi; 
^may here be briefly enuineratcd in several groups of related woiks. 
— X. The edition of the Atharva-Veda; the Alphabetisches Wrzeichniss 
der Versanfange der Alharva-Samhita ; the Atharva-Veda Tratii^akliya ; the 
Index Verborurn ; to which must now be added the two present volumes 
of critical commentary and translation. In the same gi neral category 
belongs his laittiriya l*r.iti(^akhya As a part of the fruit ni his Sanskrit 
studies must be menti«)ned also the Suiya-Siddhanta ; and, finally, his 
Sanskrit Grammar, with its Sii|)plcment, The Roots, Verb-forms, and 
Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language. — 2. His chief contribu- 
lion.s to general linguistics arc cornpiised in his Language and the Study 
of Language and in the two series ot Oriental and Linguistic Studies 
and in his Life and (irowth of Language Here may be mentioned his 
article on “ Language ” in Johnson’s (‘\cIopa rlia (vol. 11 , itSyf)) and that on 

Philology ” in the IviKVi ]opa*<lia J^ritannica (vol. .x\ iii., 1.SS5) — 3. His 

principal te.xt-bouks are his (jernian (iianiinars (a larger and a smaller) 
and Rea<ler and Dii.tionar\, his ICNsentials of ]*higlish (jrarnmar, and his 
French Grammar. Import. int .is an intluence uj»on the conservation and 
growth of the English language is his part in the miking of The Century 
Dictionary (see p. xwviii). 

Df Whitney’s minor writings, those whuh he included in the Vale 
Hibliographics (p. hi, below) extending ti) 1S92, with .1 few others, are 
enumerated in the List beh»w A mucii fuller list, comprising 360 
numbers, was publisheil in the Memoriil Volume, pages 1 21-150. One 
reason for putting some «>f the lesser papers into the last-mentnmed list 
was to show the versatility of Mr. Whitney’s mind and the witle range of 
his intere.sts. 

Mr. Whitney’s services to science weie recognizcil by scholars and 
learned corporations. rhus he received the honorary degn e of Doctor 
of Philo.sophy from the I’niversity of lireslau in 1S61 ; that of Doctor of 
Laws from Wi” College in iSbS, Irom the College of William and 
Mary (Virginia) in iSoi), fiom the I'nisersily of St. Andiews (Scotland) 
in 1874, from Harvanl in 1S76, and fiom the University of Ivdmburgh in 
1889. He was a member of the American PhiIost)phical Society (Phil.a- 
delphia) and of the Nation, il Academy of Sciences (Washington). Ho 
was an honorary member of the Oiiental or Asiatic .societies of Great 
* .^omc estimate of tlu-ir significance is gi\en below, pagts h to Iiii 

xlvi Brief Sketch of Whitney's Life 

Britain and Ireland, of Japan, of Germany, of Bengal, of Peking, and of 
Italy ; and of the Philological Society of London. He was a member 
or correspondent of the Royal Academy of Berlin, of the Royal Iwsh 
Academy, of the Imi>erial Academy of St. Petersburg, of the Institute of 
l'r.tnce, of the Royal Academy in Turin, of the Lincei in Rome, of the 
Royal Danish Academy, and so op. He was a Fellow of the Rop 
Society of Edinburgh. In i«8i he was made a Foreign Knight of tht 
1‘russian Order pour Ic mirite, being elected to fill the vacancy occasioned 

by the death of Thomas Carlyle. . u 

On the 2;th of August, 1856, Mr. Whitney married Miss Elizabeth 
•Wooster Baldwin, daughter of Roger Sherman and Emily (Perkins) 
Baldwin of New Haven. Mr. Baldwin, a lawyer of the highest rank, 
had been Governor of Connecticut and Senator in Congress, and inherited 
his name from his grandfather. Roger Sherman, a signer of the Declara- 
tion of IncJependeijcc, and one of the committee charged with drawing 
it up Miss Baldwin was a great-great-granddaughter of Thomas Clap, 
President of Vale from 1740 to 1766. Mr. and Mrs. Whitney had six 
children, three sons and three daughters. The daughters, Marian Parker 
and Emily Henrietta and Margaret Dwight, with their mother, surv'ivc 
their father; as does also one son, Edward Baldwin, a laNvycr of New 
York City, Assistant Attorney-General of the United States from 1893 
to 1897. He married Josepha, daughter of Simon Newcomb, the astron- 
omer, and one of their children, born August 26, 1899* bears the name 
of his grandfather, William Dwight Whitney. 


Delivered by the Editor at the First Ameruan Compress of FhtlologistSf IVhituey 
♦ • Mt' mortal Meetm^^ December^ 


Ladies and Gestepmes*, — There are some among us who can rememher the time 
when “ a certain condescension in foreigners *’ easiK ga\e us pain. 'I here was little 
achievement behind us as a people to awaken us to national self-conscuiusncss and to a 
realizing sense of our own great possibilities 'lime is changing all that The men 
have come, and some, alas! arc alrt.nly gone, of wliosc adiicwtmcnts we may well he 
proud wherever wc are Jn tin* hattks for the (oinpit-sts of truth tin re aic no distinc- 
tions of race. It needs no inteination il < ongress to tell us that we belong to one great 
armv.' Hut to-night — as the \eiy titles of thcNC gath*'red societies show -Science has 
marshalled us. her Fifties and her hundreds, as Americans. Wc look for the centurion, 
for the cajitain of the Fifties ; and he is no moie ’ And we call, as dul na\ui, lamenting 
for Abner, Know \e in»t that there is a prince and a great man fallen this da\ in 
Israel," >ca, and like Jun.ithaii, *• in the midst *>[ the battle^’* 

It is in the spiiit o! g*‘n< rnus laudation that we are assembled to do honor to our 
illustrious countryman. \nd it is v\ell We may piaise him now . for he is gone 
Hut 1 cannot ludp thinking of a t*»udiiiig h*gend of the Hinldha. Nigh fifty years he 
has wandered up and down in < '»angcsdan<l, teaching ami jireadiing Anti now he is 
about to die. Flowers tall fioin the sk> am! li«.a\enly tpiiics are heard to sing his 
ptaise. “Hut not by all this.'* lie anNwers. — -hut not h) all this, O Ananda, is the 
'Peachcr honoretl ; but the disciple who sh.ill fulfil .ill the greater ami lesser duties, — 
hy him is the Teacher Ininored.” It is fitting, then, that we pause, not merely to praise 
the departed, but also to consitKr the sigiiilicam c of a noble life, and the duties and 
responsibilities which so great an example urges upon us, in slioit. the lesson of a life 
of service. 

It would be vain to emlea\or, within the narrow limits^ which the present occasion 
imposes, to rehearse or to cliaiaeteiue with an> completeness the arhicnemeiits that 
make* up this remarkable life. Many accounts ‘ of it lia\e been given of late in the 
public prints. Hermit me lalher to lav Ik fore von, by way of seKction nurely. a few 
facts concerning Mr. Whitney wlmh ma\ verve to illustrate ceitain e.vscnlial Latuies of 
his character and fundamental inotive.s oi his life. 

And indubitably first in importance no less than m natuial order is the great fact of 
his heredity. William Dwight Whitney was born, in iSj;. at .Noiih.implon. Massachu- 
setts. and in his veins flowed the best blood of a typical .New Ihigland community, of 
the Dwights and the Il.vwlevs --hervies of the heroic age of Hampshire His stock 
was remarkable for sturdy vigor. IhhIi of body and of intellect, and was in fact that 
genuine aristocracy which, il it be true to its tr.idilions. will rema.n — av for generations 

» Most notable among them is ih'' one by Professor Thoimis Day M vmour of Vale, in the 

American 5oumal of Philology." vol. 15 . 

• xlvii 


Memorial Address by the liditor 

it has boon — ono of the prime guaiantecs of ilie permanence of democracy in America. 
Few place.s in this land have prinluccd a proportionately greater number of distinguished 
people than luis Northampton. Sot ial ad\antages weie thus added to those of birthi 
anti tt» all these in turn the advantage.s of ilwelhng in a region of great natural beauty. 

It was in \\ illiain Whitne\\ earU infant) that his father moved into a dwelling built 
on the prii i^e site of the Jonathan Kdwanls house. '1 h.s dwelling was the second in a 
row ot six neighboring houses, all ot which could bo.isl of more or les.s notable occu- 
p lilts In the tiist li\ed Dr. Seeger. whti was educated at the same school and time as 
Schiller, at •• l!:e .Solitude ” HeNtmcl the Whittle) s’ was the lionsc in which lived Lewis 
S Hcipkins, the lather of Kdward W. Hopkins, the Sanskrit scholar of Uryn Mawr. 
'1 he fouith was the original home.steatl ot the liniothy Dwights, in which the first Yale 
Tresident of that name, and 'I'lieodoie, the .Seciet.iry of the ILiitford Convention and 
founder ol the New York Dail) .\d\citisei.” weic born, both grand.sons of Jonathan 
Ldwaids 'I he adjoining place was the home of the elder S) Iv ester Judd, and of his .son 
Svbcster, the autlioi ot “.Margaret .’’anil the sixth house was occu]>ied by the Italian 
political exile, ('.lurardi. and Liter by Dr. William Alien, ex- I*resident of Ihiwdoin College. 

Whitnev was a mere bo) tif lillcen when he c*ntere<l Williams College .is a sopho- 
more Three xe.irs later (in 1S45) he eisil) outstripped all his iLissmates and 
graduated with the highest honors; and with all tliat, he found ample time to range the 
wooded hills ot Beikshire, lolLxting lards, whnh he himself set up for the Natural 
Hi.stor) Societ). The n«‘\t three or tour \cars were spent b) him as iLrk in the N«)rth- 
ampton Hank, with aciouiits for his wiuk. (iermati and Swedish fi»r his stuilies. orni- 
t'lologv and botan) for his icireations. and inusu tor his delight, — unless one should 
ratlicr say that all his delight 'I liese oft mcntiom*d studies in n.ituial history I 
slmuld not Imgi r ovi r, sa\e tint then deep sig'iiiicam e has har<il) been aiUcrted upon in 
public The) mean that, enn at this e.ul) age. Whittle) showeil the stult whuh cli.s- 
tinj^uishes the genuine man of si u nce from the jobbirs .and ped.dlersof learning. They 
mean that, with him, the gilt ot indi pendent and .u • urate obstrxation inborn, and 
that tlie habit of unprejudiced rericction upon wdiat he hims-df saw was easil) ac(|uired. 

This brings us to a i ritual period in the dnernim.itioii of his larier. In the eniy- 
c!ope<lias, Whitne-v is catalogued as a lamou.s Iiulianist. and so indeed he wa.s Hut it 
was not because he was :in Inilianist that he was famous H.ul he tie vote il his life to 
tlie p!i\sjeal nr natural sciences, he would tloulillcss have .itt.iined to eijual, if not greater 
crniiunre. I nil), it is not the what, but the fuKv ' That he did devote himself to 
Irid«'!<jgv appeals to be due l<» scv» fii ts which were in themselves .ind in ihcir con- 
Cfinutariee accidental First, his elder brother, Josiali. now the disiiiiguisiied profes.sor 
of geologv III Harv.ird CniviTsitv. on lies return from I uropr in had brought with 
him books in .iml on many languages, and among them a lojiy of the .secoiul cilition of 
Hopp's .Sanskrit (grammar S' l ond, it i ham cd that the Kev. (korge I.. D.iy, a collcge- 
rnatc at Yale of Hrofe^sor Salisbury, Wliitiie>’s pastor And third, he met with 
Kdiiard Desnr 

'I'here IS in possession of Hr«>fessnr Whitney of Ifarvatd a well worn volume of his 
father's c.illcd the Familv t book. It is, I am sure, no breach of lorifidencc if I say, 
in passing, that this bo»»k. witli its varied enine.s in all v.iricd moods .and by divers 
gifted hands, is the riilt-x of a most remarkable family life and feeling. In it, among 
man) other things, are briid autobiographii annals of the early life of William Whitney, 
and in its proper place the following simple entry ‘‘In the winter of 1S4H-49 com- 
menced the study of Sanskrit, em our.igcd to it b\ Kev (ieorge F.. Day. In June, 1849, 
went out with Josiah to Lake Superior as *a.ssi.stant sub-agent^ on the («cological 

An Estimate of Whitney's Character and Services xlix 

Survey.** To William Whitney were intrusted the botany, the barometrical observations, 
and the accounts. And althou^'h the 6rnitholot(y was not formaily intrusted to him, 
there is abundant evidence that he was habitually on the look-out for tlie birds, with 
keen eye and with attentive car. He must, already, in the sprin;r, have made substantial 
progress by himself in Sanskrit; for his artn k- (almost the first that he published) 
entitled “On ihh Sanskiit Language,” a translation and abridgment of von liohlen, 
appeared in the August number of the “ Ikbliothet .i Sacra” for 1S49, and must there- 
fore have been finished before he left home With him, actordinglj, he took his 
brothcr*s copy of Hopj) 

Ilesides the two brothers, there was a third man-of-power in the little company that 
spent the summer among the swarnp-i and nn»s<jniloes of the great copper n gion. 
That man wa-s I'.duard Utsor, already a \oung natuiahst of distinction, and afterwaid 
famous both in sciciue and in public Im* in Swit/nbind. He h ul 1 onn* onl\ a short time 
before, with Agassi/, and as his friend ancl intimate asso« i.itc in s« lentific undci takings, 
from Neufch.ilel to Cambridge. He was by nature full «>} ilie purest lo\e for si icnre ; 
and that love had ln'en ipiickencd to anient 1 nthusiasm b\ hi-, own work, and by his 
intercourse with other bright minds and e.igi r woiki rs w horn be had known in I'aris 
and NeufrliAtcd and in the Swiss glacier-camps of Agassi/ Sm.ill wond-.r if t!*e intimate 
relations of .summer's camp life in common gave opportanitv for potent influence of 
the brilliant young Huguenot upon the biilluint voting I'uiilan. It is to Dtsor. and to 
his woids and evample, that mv Cambridge colk ague attributes in l.iigi- nu .isuie his 
bnither's determination to devote himsdf to a life of s< n me rather than to bnsimss or 
to one of the le.iimd professions. 1 hat the cliOseh d«*partmenl was .Sanskrit mav be 
asi ril;ed in pail to tlie a» ( i<b nt of t!ie liooks thrown in ins wav . in jiart to the i.iteresl 
of the language and anti(]uities nf India. intrinsK ailv and as rdited to our own . and m 
part to t!ie umlenialile fuM inalion whnh the* <t:!tivation of the virgin st>il of an almost 
untrodden field has for a mini! of unasual emrgv. vig«>r, and miginalitv. 

William Whitney has left a full .ind inU n sting journal of this snmmi r Tuesday, 
Julv 24, while wailing for the uiuiiiain proj)« Ik r to rome and n si uc them from the 
huirible insect pesi.s, he writes fiotn Chopper Ilaibor •• 1 ^r mv part. 1 inimd .iiiacking 
Sanskrit tomorrow *’ And then, on Wcdnesiiiv . • 1 liave. after all. managed 
to get thro the day without liaving ncouise to the .Sau'-knl. but it has been a narrow 
escape.” And five weiks later, liom ( aij> River ‘♦.\nother day of almost inaction, 
mo.M intolerable .and dirfn iilt to be borne How often have I longed for that .San.skiii 
grammar which I so foolishly sent down bofi»re me to the Saull ' *’ 

The autumn of i''4‘;, accordingiv, found him at New Haven, and in companv with 
Professor H.adley, studving under I.dward IJbiidge Salisbuiv, the I'roUssor of the 
Arabic and Sanskrit Language.s and Literature Indologist of Ikilin. Pro- 
fessor Weber, said that he and ihofis>oi Roth account it as one of their fairest 
honors that they had Whitney as a pupil To have had both a Whilnev and Hadley 
at once is surely an honor tliat no American teacher in the departments lure itprcscntcd 
this evening mvtch. In a man wliose stml was beclouded with the slightest mist of 
false pretension or of, we may well imagine that the of such pupils 
might easily h.ave occasioned .1 pang of jealousy Put Mr Sahslmrv’s judgment upon 
them illuminates his own char.u'tei no less than that of his pupils when he savs, •* 'I heir 
quickness of }>erception and unerring of acquisition soon made it evident that 
the teacher and the taught must change places.” 

Wc have come to the tninsition period of Whitney's life. He is still a pupil, but 
already also an incipient master. •• 1S50, Sept. 20. Sailed for Ciermany in the sieimcr 

Memorial Address by the Editor 

Vashington. Spent three winters in lierlin, studying especially with Dr. Weber, and 
no summers in Tubingen. Wuitcmberg, with Professor Koth.” Thus runs the entry in 
he Kact-lxiok. A few lines latcr«»c read; •• Leaving Iterl'n in April, 1853, stayed si* 
leeks in Paiis, three in Oxford, and seven in London (collating Sanskrit manuscripts), 
ind then returned in the steamer .Ni.igar.i, arriving in lloston Aug. 5.” Such is the 
nodcst revoril that covers tlie three momentous ye.irs of the beginniiig of a splendid 
cientiiie lareer. For in this brief .spaic lie not only laid broad and deep founda- 
10I1.S, by studies in Peisian. Aral.ic, Kgyptisn, ami Coptic, but had also done a large 
i.irt of llie preliminary work for the edition of the Alharva-Veda, — as witneM the 
Illumes on the table before you. which contain his Berlin copy of that Veda and his 
Oxford, and London colLitions. 

Meantime, liowever. at Yale, his honored teacher and f.iithfiil friend. Professor Salis- 
)ury. “With tiue and self-forKcttin" /cal for the proi^ress of studies” (these are 
dr \Vhitne>*s oun words), had been dili.ijently preparinj; the way for him; negotiating 
\ith the corporation tor the of a chair of Sanskrit, surrendering /ro ianto 
lis own othce. and providing lor the eiulowment of the new cathedra ; leaving, in short, 
io stone unturned to insure the fruitful acliuty of his \oiing colleague. Nor did hope 
ivait long upon fulhlment : for in iSso, only a triric more than two years from his induc- 
:ion, Whitney h.i.l, as joint editor with Professor Roth, achieved a most distinguished 
icrvice for science by the issue of the editio ptimeps of the Atharva-Veda, and that 
before he was thirty. 

In September, — that is to say. in the very month in which began the first 
college >ear of President KboPs acfministration,— Whitney was called to Harvard. It 
rerlccts no less credit upon .Mr. Eliot’s discernment of character and attainments than 
jpon Mr. Whitney’s surpassing gifts that the >outhful president should turn to him, 
imong the very first, for aid in helping to begin the great work of transforming the 
provincial college into a national university. The prospect of Io.sing such a man was 
-natter of gravest concernment to all Yale College, and in p.articular to her faithful 
-)cnefactor. Professor Salisimry. Within a week the latter had provided for the endow- 
ment of Mr Whitnev’s chair upon the ampler scale m.ide necessary by the change of 
the times ; and the considerations which made against the transplanting of the deeply 
rooted tree had, unhappily for Harvard, their chance to prevail, and Whitney remained 

at .Mew Haven. . . i * 

It was during his studies under Mr. Salisbur)'. in May, 1850. that he was elected a 

meml-er of the American OrienUl Society. Mr. Salisbury was the life and soul of the 
Society, and. thanV.s to his learning, hi.s energy, and his munificence, the organization 
hail alrc.ady attained to -standing and credit in the world of scholars." Like him, 
.Mr. Whitney w.ns a steadfast lielicver in the obligation of which the very existence o 
these assembled siKieties is an acknowledgment. — the obligation of professional men 
to help lb -co.o[ier.vtivc action in behalf of literary and scientific progress and. more 

than th.vt, to do so at personal s.acrifice. 

The first meeting .at vvhi.h Mr. Whitney was present was held October *6, 1853. 
More than thirtv-three years passed, and he wrote from the sick-room : It is the first 
time in thirty-two years that I h.ive been absent from a meeting of the American Oriental 
Soriety, except when out of the country.” fiis first communication to the Society wai 
read bv Mr. Salisbury, October 13. 1852 ; and his last, in March, 1R94. *''« '“»• 

ing before his death. Of the seven volumes, vi.-xii., of the .Society’s Journal, more 
than half of the contents are from his pen, to say nothing of his numerous and important 
papers in the Proceedings. In 1857, the most onerous office of the Society, that of 

An Estimate of Whitney s Character and Services li 

Corresponding Secretary, which from the beginning carried with it the duty of editing 
the publications, was devolved upon him ; and he bore its burdens for twenty-seven 
years. Add to this eighteen years as Librarian and six as Presirient, anrl wc have an 
aggregate of fift)r*one years of olheial service. The American Philological Association, 
too, is under deep obligation to Whitiwy. He was one of its founders, and, very fit- 
tingly, its first president. For many year** he Wtis one of the most constant attendants 
at its meetings, a valued counsellor, and one of its most faithful helpers and ct.ntribiitors. 

Sonic might think it a matter of little importance, but it is certainly a signiheant one, 
that, after paying his Society assessments for about thiru-fivc > ears, at hist, 
and when facing mortal illness, he paid over the considerable sum required to make 
himself a life member. A little later,— . for the candle still burned, — and with strictest 
injunction of secrecy during his lifetime, he sent to the 'Irea'-urer his check for a 
thousand dollars of his modest savings, to help tow.crd defrajing the Societv’s expenses 
of publication, and in the hope that it might serve as a “ suggestion and encouragement 
to others to do likewise/* 

Added to all this was liis service in keeping up the very high scientific standard of 
the Society’s publications. The work of judging and selecting required wide knowledge, 
and the making of abstracts much labor:* while the revision or recasting of the papers 
of tyros unskilled in writing dem.indcd endless painst.iking, not alwavs met by gratitude 
and docility. All this cost him a l.ivish of time, of whicli hardly an\ one in 
the Society knew, and that for the reason that he took no steps to have tliem know. So 
exemplary was his freedom from self-seeking in all his relations with the Society. 

The rehearsal of the titles of Mr \Vhitne\*s books and treatises would give to this loo much the character of a biblmgrajjhical ess.ty ; and. besides, it would 
merely tend to impress liearcis who are arcustomed to count volumes rather than to 
weigh them, llis distinguishing qu.ditics, as icricvted in woik, .are everywhere so 
palpable that it is not hard to describe them. Perh.ips the most striking and pervading 
one is that which Professor Lounsbury calls his “ thorough intellectual sanitv ” In read- 
ing his arguments, whether constructive or critical, one can hardly help exclaiming, 
How near to first principle.s are the criteria of the most ailv.inceil theories and high- 
stepping deliverances ! With him, tlie impulse to prick the bubble of windy hypothesis 
upon the diamond-nccdle (as the Hindus call it) of hard common-sense was often irre- 
sistible, and sometimes irresistibly funny Witness this passage from his bovish journal' 
On entering the river [the bt. .M.irv’s], we found ourselves m an archipelago of sm.all 

islands, which stretches from the Saiilt down to the foot of the Georgian bay. savs 

[that] actually visited thirty-six thousand such islands. . . . which in my opinion 

is a whopper. To have done it, he must h.xvc stopped upon ten a d.iv. eveiy day for ten 
years.” This may seem trivial. In f.ict, it is tvpic.d. It is in essence the same kind 
of treatment that he gave in later life to any loose st.itemenl or e.\ti.a\ theory, 
although printed in the most dignified journal and propounded bv the most ledilubtable 

Breadth and thoroughness are ever at war with each other in men. for that men are 
finite. The gift of both in laigc measure and .\i once, — this m.irks the man of genius 
That the gift was Whitney’s is clear to any one who considers the versatility of his 
mind, the variousness of his w'oik, and the qii.xiitv of his roults As professor of 
Sanskrit, technical work in grammar, lexicography, text-criticism, and the like, lay 
nearest to him ; but with all this, he still found stiength to illuminate by his insight 
many questions of general linguistic theory, the oiigin of language, phonetics, the 
difficult subject of Hindu astronomy and the question of its denvation, the method and 

m Memorial Address by the Editor 

technique of translation, the science of reliji|;ion, mythology, linguistic ethnology, alpha- 
bctics, and paleography, and much else. Astonishing is the combination of technical 
knowledge in widely diverse tields which ap|)ears in his elaborately annotated translation 
of the famous San.sknt astronomical treatise called Suryasiddhanta, and which, again, 
he brought to bear upon his criticisms of earlier and later attempts to determine the age 
of tlie \’oda b\ its references to solar eclipses, and by its alleged implications respecting 
the place of the equinoctial colures. 

Hut not only in ie'*pe».t of contents were Whitney’s writings of con.spicuous merit ; he 
had also the sense of torm and piupoition. — that sense for huk of which the writings 
of many a scholar ot etiual le.irning are almost nugatory. At tweiitydwo, his Knglish 
sl\le had the ch.ums of simpliciiv. clearness, and \igor, and they held out to the last. 
And what could he more admir.dde than his beamitul essay, -a veritable classic, — 

The VediL Ooctrine of a Future Life”? Ilis subjects, indeed, if treated seriously, 
do not lend themselws to the graces of rhetorical or ornate writing , and his concise 
and pregnant periods sometimes mock the tlippant or listless reader, but hi.s ptes(‘nta> 
tion. whether ot argument or of .scientiiic generalization, is a nuxlel of lucidity, 
ot orderly exposittiin, .ind of dm* subonlinatutn of the parts. *lhis was a matter on 
which he felt deepU , for his patieiu e oiten sorely tried by papers for whose sloven- 
liness in diction, arrangement, and .all the externals of which he was a master, the 
auttiors fomlly thought that their erudition was forsotith an excuse. 

Indeed, for the matter of piintei’s maiuisiript, more than once ban Hoehtlingk, the 
Nestor of Indianusts, taxed him home with making it too gootl, declaring it a wicked sin 
to put time on such things, though pl.ixfull) admitting the while that he had killerl otf 
with his own desperate cop\ I cannot rememlier how many hu kless t\pc-sctters in the 
office of the Russian Academy 

Where there was so much of the best, it is not feasible to go into details about all. 
Yet I cannot omit mention of .some of his masier|»ieci*s \'i r) notable is his “ Language 
and the Study of I.anginge,” — a work of wide ciirrem y, and one wlin h has done more 
than an\ other m this country to promote sound .ind iiUelligent \iews upon the subiiuts 
concerned It deals with principU.s, with .spc(ulati\c (pusiions, and with gener- 
alizations, — the \cr\ things in which his mastery of material, self restraint, e\en balance 
of mind, and rigorous logic come admirable into play. 

Of a wholly ditferent t\pe, but not one wliit interior withal, arc his l*rati(.'akhyas. 
‘These are the phonetici>-grammaticaI treatises upon Inc text of the \'e(las. aiul are of 
prime import.ince for the establishment ot the text. Tlitir riistinguisliing bature is 
minuti.e, of marvelliius ex.'iclness, but pnsentid in sm h a form that no one with aught 
less than a tropical Oriental contempt for the wilue of time can make an\ thing out of 
them as the\ staml Whitney not only out llinrius the Hindu for minuti.e, but also — 
such is his command of form — actu.illy recasts the whole, so that it becomes a book of 
easy reference 

As for the joint edition of the Atharva-Veda, it is a most noteworthy fact that it has 
held its own now for thirty-eight years as an unsurpassed model of what a Veclic text- 
edition ought to be. Ills ••Index Verl>orum to tlic z\tharva-Vcda,” a work of wonderful 
completeness and accurac). is much more than its name implie.s, and may not p.iss with- 
out brief mention, inasmuch .xs its material formed the basis of his contributions to the 
Sanskrit-Cferman lexicon published by the Imperial Academy of Russia. This great 
seven-volumed cjuarto, whose steady progress tlirough the, press took some three and 
twenty years, is the Sanskrit Strphanus Americans m.iy well be prejud of the fact 
that to Whitney belongs the distinguished honor of being one of the four faithful 

An Estimate of Whitneys Character and Services liii 


collaborators” who, next to the auihors, lioelitlingk and Roth, contributed most to 
this monumental work. 

Of all his technical works, his “Sanskrit (irammar/* with its elaborate supplement, 
The Roots, Verb-forms, and l*> Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language,” forms 
the crow-ning achievement. Here he easts off the bonds of tradition wherever they 
might hamper his free sctentilic proLedure, and approaches the phenomena of language 
in essentially the same spiiit and attitude of mind as that in which Darwin oi Helmholtz 
grappled the problcuns of their stieiues I he language is treated hisMnrally, and as 
the product of life and growth; and the work is filkd with the results of scores of 
minute and far-reaching special in\estigations I he amount of material which is here 
subjected to rigorous an<l original methods of < l.issifK iiion and sf lentific induction is 
enormous ; and none but those who weie with his writing-table can well realize 
the self-restraint that he used in order to bring his results into moderate compass. 

In all these technical works there is hide appeals to the imagination, 
and absolutely nothing to cati h the .ippl.uis** of tin- groupflhngs ; but much, on the 
other hand, to win the confidem e of tin* j.idn imis It was therefore natural that 
Whitney should be sought as editoi-in-rhn*! tor what is in every sense by lar the 
greatest lexitogr.iphnMl atluevemcn: «»f Amern a, •• '1 he Leniiirv Dittionarv ’* And 
despite the ability ami si/e of the editorial siaii, we rn.ay well believe tlml ih s oftice w'as 
no sinecure; for the settlement of th*- juimipks of proceduic ikmandtd the full breadth 
of learning, the largeness of view, .md t^e niduial Umpir of a master mind. Among 
the great b<idy of his countrvmen. this will be Whitn. v’s best-known monument. 

Mr. Wldtncy was a genuim- lovi r of nature ind of t’u world out of door^ no less 
than of his bonks, and so, widi ius k« en sense ol liumor and love of fum he was a 
t harming comp.imon foi the won<K .uvl hills Llivsnal murage, too. a! ( often 
witli a danng impulse to uuct IhmIiIv risk and ilanger. as when ho climbed the so-called 
l.ook off Pine, about one h’-.nlud arul ihirtv fei*t Iwgh, a monarch overt»)pping the 
primeval forests of the Onton igon Kiver. and Inoki* on its loj> as a trnjdiv . or as when, 
with his brother. Iv iinlulgcMl in the unithtul es. aj»adc of passing the fui bidden point of 
the spire of '^ir.isburg < alhedtal bv «lambeiing out an«l loaind tl e point of obstruction 
on the outside, aiul <»f mounting th« nee toward t’n* summit as far as there v\.ts any 
opening witliin the spire laig** enough to contain a m.iirs bi>l\ He was intensely 
.American, in (he best sense of the word ; and his jcitriotism. asiile from its loftier mani- 
festations (of which ,1 moment I.iter). showed itself in some k'^er wavs not unpleasing # 
t*) recall Ii. deiscnhing his p.issage t'ii«uigh tiie wiMs of the rK’tioit Kiver, he savs in 
that youthful journal, “There was little d-uerener m the appearance of the two sides; 
Imt 1 endcMvored to persuade mvsch the American oilcrctl euden c uf more active 
an<l successful industry than the Pritish '* 

I venture to (juotc in p.irt the w»»n!s .m l in jiart the substance oT a recent ktter from 
one of his ohl pujril.s There is no one, slid this pupil, who^-i jirivilege it was ti> know 
him more intimately, who could n«it speak of the deep tenderness urvk riving his ordinary 
reserve, of his profound sympatliv with dimeullv and mi^foriui.c. and ol his ever-steadfast 
loyalties. Of the a touching illu^traium is found in his ri membrance of the 
family, in whose house aut' tit m he lodged during his 'I i.bingcn summeis of 

1S51 and 1S52. Nearh loitv liter he wrote to this pujnl, then in Tubingen, 
asking him to seek out the .Si haak, ami to be tin* luMrer of kindly messages to them. 
Fraulcin Schaal spoke of tlie delight her mother and herself had felt at the messages 
sent them by the profe-ssor who had become so celebr.vted, but who had not forgotten 
them, and showed the \iMtor I’lofessiU Whitney's loom, all unch.ingcd, a ijpical 


Memorial Aiiiircss by the Editor 

StHxUnUnzmmer : in the middle, a lont; plain table, and by it an uncushioned arm-chair. 
That, said slie. was Professor Whitney’s chair, and in it he used to sit for hours at that 
table, almost without mo\injj. When he moved the chair more than a little, 1 knew 
that it was time for me to take him his miij; of beer, and perchance a bit of bread. And, 
as a very small t;irl then. I wondered at the table, which was covered with little bits of 
paper, wl^ich he had arranged m a certain onlcr, and wat very particular that no one 
should distuib. The only adornment which he had in the room was an American flag 
draped tner the minor; and on the Kourth of July he said he would work an hour less 
than usual, as it was the anniveisary ot American independence. The dag was the 
symbol nt a tiue passion: and in his tods for truth he felt thit he was working, first for 
tile weliarc. and second for the gl'»rv of his country. And as for the latter, how many 
an Anu-tican student in Germ.iny has been proud of the generous recognition of 
\V!iitnt>’s Miucess' Years a;;o. continues the lein r, I was exchanging a few words with 
a iTmoiis I'irienialist. The Herr Proiessor kindly .iskcd me Irom what of America 
I lamo N»“w Jirsey. I told him. and his face grew very blank. I know Connecticut, 
said he. And he knew Connecticut, as dul his colleagues, largely because he knew 
Whitney. So nuuh for the letter of a luMiig and belovcil pupil. 

It suggests withal an inquiry : What was the secret of Whitney's great productivit) ? 
In the first instant »•, -it is almost neetllcss to say, — his n.itivc gifts. Hut it is far 
from true that natoe gifts .ue .ilwa\» fruitful. Ne\t to them came his power of dis- 
cerning what the really impoit int thing to d«». arnl his habit — self-imposed, and 
enft^rced with Spartan rigor — ot doing something eviry w'nrking-<lay upon that really 
important thing, ami, abo\c all, of doing that something tirsi, Suih his regularity 
that e\ennhe dire necessity — which .\rosc in 1SS2 — of moving fiom one dwelling- 
house into another did not break it - I. ten mo\ing,’* he writes, “ I expect to find con- 
sistent with regular rioses of Talaxak.ira, etc " The •• art of judicious slighting *’ was a 
household word m his family, a we.i]>on of might, its imjiortance to the really great is 
equalled only by its perilousncss in the hands of the unskilful. Mis plans were formed 
with circum.spection, with careful counting of the cost, and then adheied to w*ith the 
utmost persistence, so that he left behind him nothing fr.igmeniary. We may ch.ingc 
* ("loldsmith’s epitaph to suit the c.ise, and say Whitney put his hand to nothing that 
he did not c.arry out, — mhil tjuod in.ipit non pcf/ait. 

.•\nd what shall I say of the lesser virtUiS that graced him? As patient as the 
dearth, s.iy the Hindus. And patience was his where patience was in phicc. 
And how beautiful was his gentleness, his kimlncss to those from whom he looked for 
nothing ag.iin, his gratitude to those who did iiim a scrsice! Anti how especially well 
did the calm dignity which ever his wont become him when he presided at the 
meetings <»f le.irnetl societies’ How notable the brevity with which he presented his 
p.apers' No laborctf reading from a manuscript, but lather a simple .and facile account 
of results. .\n example, surely’ He who the most to say used in proportion the time in saiing it .\nd this was indeed of a piece with his most cxemphiry habit, 
.as editor of the publications of the () Society, of keeping his own name so far in 
the baikground. For how genuine was his modesty of bearing, of speech, and of 
soul ! 

And in harmony therewith was his reverence for things hallowed. 

He counted not himself to have attained, 

'I his dought) toiler on the paths of truth; 

And sctirned not them who lower heights had reached. 

Au Estnuatc of Whitneys Character and Services Iv 


As was his attitude toward things sacred, so also was it toward those who went before 
him in science. He did not speak snceringly of what they, with lesser light, had 
achieved. And to him Aristotle was none the less a giant because some dwarf on a 
giant's shoulders can see farther than the giant himself. 

If 1 may cite my own words use<l on a former occasion, \Vhitnc>’s life-work shows 
three imporUnt lines of activity, — the elaboration of strictly technical works, the 
preparation of educational treatises, and the popular exposition of Sfientilic que.stion.s. 
The last two methods of public service are direct and immediate, and to be gainsaid of 
none; yet even here the less immediate results arc doulitless the ones by which he 
would have set most store. As for the first, some may incline to think the value of an 
edition of the Veda or of a .Sanskrit grammar — to say nothing of a J"r.iti(^akh)a — 
extremely remote; they certainly won for him neither money nor popular applause ; and 
yet, again, such are the very works in which we cannot doubt he took the deepest satis- 
faction. He realized their « haracter, knew they were to play their 
part in unlocking the trea.surcs of Indian antiquity, and knew- that that antiquity has its 
great lessons for us moderns; further, that the history of the languages of India, as it 
has indeed already mo<litied, is also vet to modify, and that profoundly the whole 
teaching of classical and flermanic philology, both in method and in contents, and that 
the history of the evolution of religions in Indi.i is destined to exert a powerful induence 
for good upon the development of religious thought and life among us and our children, 
lie labored, and other men sh.!!! enter into his labors. Hut it is this “faith, the 
assurance of things hoped for,*’ — ir«ms ejrd»rrafris. — which is one of the 

most vital attributes of the true scholar 

In the autumn of |8S6 came the beginning of the end, an alarming disorder of 
the heart. Adhering closely to a stn» tlv prcs< ribctl phvsiral regimen, he labored on, 
according to his w.ivcnng strength, heaping, ,is it were, the .ilrcadv brimming mea.sure 
of his life-work, lli.s cour.age, his patient levrning of the .irt of suffering, his calm 
serenity in f.icing the ever-present possibility of sudden death. — this heroic. And 
through it all forsook him not the two grand informing mutivcs of his life, — the pure 
love of truth, and an all-absorbing pas.sion for faithful service 

With this love of truth, this consuming real for service, with this public spirit and 
broad humanity, this absolute truthfulness and genuineness of character, is not this life 
an inspiration and an < xample more potent by far than vears of exhortation? Is not • 
this truly one of the lives that make for righteousness^ 

An<l what then? On the tymp.anum »»f the theatre at H.irvard are inscribed in the 
Vulgate version those noble words from the book of Daniel . — 


Wc may say them of him: And they that be wise sh.ill shine as the brightness of the 
firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness, .is the stars for ever and ever. 


This list is reprinted with unimportant modifications from the one com- 
piled by Whitney and published at New Haven, 1S93, as his part of the 
lublio^ntphu's of the Pu'sent Ojfictrs of Volt I’m versify. It consists of 
about 150 numbers; a much fuller list (of about 360 numbers) is given 
in the Memorial Volume mentioned above, p. xxxvi. The articles (about 
a score) reprinted in his Onenta/ ami Lttti^ntstic Stutites (First series, 1873 : 
Second series, 1874) are marked by the note “Reprinted in Studies^ 
with an added i, or ii. 

The abbreviations are for the most part as explained below, pages ci- 
evi ; but for the non-technical reader, several of the most frequently 
cited serials may here be noted: Jouinal of the American Oriental 
Society (JAGS ); Tian>actions of the AnuTican Philological Association 
(A PA.) ; American Journal of Philology (AJP.) ; North American Review 
(N Amer, Rev) 

1849 On the* (;raninutt(.al ^lrln lar»i of tl'»- ‘-.inNknt ( rr.insl.ited attcl d fr^m \i*n 

Bohl* n ) \i 

1850 .\ comfuri'-on ot tiu <JrL»*k n»»l I .'Uin /'tJ, \i» OLS 

1852 Tal'cllaii^t h'* haisttlliru ‘I* r nMiiu* n \ i rh.iltnKM* fk*r ^anliila- «lcs Uik,>tn, 

wei'»'>»‘n un«l \thar\an luxi .\(u i , w 

1853 On iht‘ main r« '>.1''. •>( the latir Vf<lic rf**, an h* in (!(.‘rni.iin /AOS in 

R»|»rintei! in i 

1854 On ihi* hi-'lMr. <ff lue Vt^i tixt^ /'■//, iv '15 

1855 ll<)pp’s ( 'omj».iraii\e iCt »*ntu.ition of iLi* ( ;r» i k .iml '^jii'*knl lanKiMR»*s. jiS. 

I'm the or llv satreU svnpture', i f the /oroaitrian religion, '• 3 jr- 3 '' 5 * 

Kipnnteil in .V/wc/i,'., i 

1856 t i nlribuiion^ from the Athirv \ Veili 1 «» the ihemy nf '^.inskiit \erhal anrnt /.W, 

' 09 T^an^I.^tc<l into t in man in Kuhn and Si.hleithfr’s ? t !■»,/. 

,t hiifi', I I ^7 222 

1855-56 Athirv.vVef! I Nanhii. 1 , hcraiisgcgeljcn \on K Koth und W. 1) Whilncy l, 1 ^* 55 : 
2, I S3f>, ri»> S", 45 S pp 

1857 .Mph.dw-tihi Ivs V».r/eii hni-,s di r Versanfangc der Atharv.vSanihita /«•/ .S'/kn/, iv. f/-64. 

1858 The Hritiih in India. AW /■«;»' xwiiVr, xvi loC-i|i Repiintecl in li. 

1859 t hina aiul the ('hincse xmi ifl -143 Reprinted in Sfu/ttr, n 

On the Vedic dm trine of a future life. lUhliotheiA .Sji rn, xvi. . 104 - 420 . Reprinted in 
Studies, 1 

1860 Trunsl.ition rif the '^urya buldlianta, a text-Ix/ok of Hindu astronomy : with notes, and 

an appendix JAOS \i [Ruth trandation and notes are entirely by Pro* 

fessor Whitnev, though in the work itself this fait is acknriwlcdged only in the wordi 
“assi>ted by th»' Committee of Publication."] 

1861 China and the Weit XrM hn^l,indt-r,\\x 1 - 31 . Reprinted in ,V/»o///r, ii. 

Muller’s History of Vedic literature Chruitan Ejcaminer, Ixx. 251-281. Reprinted in 
StuJus, i. 



For the Years 1849-1871 

1801 On I^paius*8 Standard Alphalict JAOS vii 29*^332. 

Review of Soule and Wht-eler’s Manual of English pronunciation and spelling. Ne’vo 
Englander^ xix. 913- 929. 

1869 The Atharva-Veda-I*rali\akhya, or (.’aunaklya Caturadhyayika : text, translation, and 
notes. JAOS. vii. 333 O16. 

1868 On the views of Ihot and Weljtr re’ipecting the relations of the Hindu and Chineve 
systems of astensrns, uitli an addition, on .Muller's \iens respe( ting the same subject. 
Ibtd ^ vili. 1-94. 

1861'-1863 The following arlulcs in Af^Ut^ns Xew Amernan CytlvpitJui, 1st ed . IVr‘‘ia, 
language and J.iteraturc of. xiii '>2t-32S — Sanskrit, xiv Gtt-(nC. — Semitic Race 
and 1 2ingu age'll xiv — Syiiac Jjinguageand Literature, xv 547'5t9 — Tura- 

nian Race and Languages, x\i 42-n — Turkish Language and Literature, xm 63-66. 
— Veda, x\i. 2S0 /eiidace^ta, x\i Sio-Sii —Zoroaster, x\i •S34--S35 
1864 Brief abstract **f a scrips «if six lecturts i;n the Tiinciplrs of Linguistic Science, delivered 
at the Smithsonian Institution in Man h, 1S64 Smith sofuiut Reportiot 1S64, pp 95-1 16. 
1868 On the Jyotisha observation of the place of the lolurcs, and the date derivable from it 

On Mull* r's se*<'nd sines of !«•< tures on the Science of Language X Amer Rrv , c. 

565- 5H I Reprinted in .S/io/o . 1 
Is the study of hinguage a phssi* al si k*ii« e ^ //;•/, ci 4 vt-t 74 

1866 On larpsius’s St.\nc'.iid -Mpt-.ilu 1 .1 Utter of explinations fri*m Prof I epsius, with notes 

by \V I) Whit my. J.KIS viii 43;; 373 

Reply to th** stri» tui< " of rr*-f \\ « In r upon an essay p'specting the astcrismal s)stcm 
of tin* Hindus, At.ib'i. and < hsr.e**e /'// . viii 3S2-39'' 

1867 1 .anguag#* ami tin* Studv of I iMguag'** tvveh*- b-tuos on th'' pntu iples of linguistic 

scieiui*. Niw N.-rk, ij . \i • t'^'ipp 1 1 inslati d into ( .erman b\ Ptof Julius Jolly, 
iS; I, Mum !'i n (.\ck< rinanni S . x\i\ . 7 i 3 I*P» - m’o N\ thctlaiuli'-h by J Dcckcring 
\ im kf'fs, j v. U . I S-- .Si. Ila itU in (P< hiu. S xvi^tV pp and iv t 70 pp 
T he v.iliK' id' Irig.iistic '»• n nee to t!hm/lo.jv S *r / w./p...'// , xxvi 3C-52 
1 .angiiages and itiah ( ts A’ A'r ,viv 3' M 

<>n the tiNliim'iv, • f l»i’;iii4«‘ ii'pcit,; g th« of ih« human rate //>/./, cv 214-241. 
Kev ami t ‘pp* It on Iml I un>pi in philoh 2y /. //'.«v 521-;;} Reprinted in dT/'/o/r^j. 1 
The aim ati<i ol pvi ot it.c Sm'ntll '^cx: ti*:c Stht*. ! A"tiuii Statement for rS()7-ii, 
pp 021 

1868 The tianshiiitin of the Vet! i X Ame* /'rr- . t m 515 -512 Repunted in .S/zo/k-j, i. 

On .\. M lull's \ PiMe Spec t h, /'/./. ivii 34- 35 ‘'> Rt pnnti ti in .b.'w./o/, 11 

1869 On .Miilh r’s (’hips from a (tcMiiian \\ ••rkshop. I . II nx 54 t- 55 '» Reprinted in 

Stiidre*, 11. 

A (,'«nnjK*ndious (' < iramniai. w ith supplement of exercises Nevv York, 12-, xvi * 
25.’ 4 - 51 pp 

1870 A (U-rman Rc.idrr, in prose* ami virse, with i, tex and vt*cabalary Xew \ ork, 12-. 

X + 523 p|v. 

Muller on the .*si'ienrc of Religion Xo 271*. Oct r3 

On eompaiativc grammars A'./wf» AV.-.ixi t«ii)-2iS 

1871 On the nature and desigiution of the accent in Sanskrit Tran'. ATA for iS6‘)-70, 

pp. 20-45. 

On the present condition of the question ax to the* origin of language, /ltd , pp S4-114 
Reprinted in StuJte'^^ 1. 

On Cox's Mjlhology of the Arv.xn Xaiionx X Amer Ret' , c\\\ 21S-229. Reprinted 
in Studies^ ii. 

On Muller's translation of the l\ig-Vcd.i. Ibid , cxii: I7 4"I.S7. Reprinted in Stuares, i. 
Language and Education. //»/./, exni 34 3 - 374 * Re*prinlc*d in .^/w./irr, 1 
On Muller's lectures on the Science of l^anguage, Oth ed. /bid . cxiii 430-441. Reprinted 
in Studies^ i. 

Iviii Select List of JV/iitmys IWritinjrs 

1871 LCxamination of Dr Ilaug’s views respecting Sanskrit accentuation. /AOS. x., pp. ix-xi, 

= /Vtv. for May. 

The Taittirha-Prati^akhya. with its commentary, the Tribhashyaratna: text, translation, 
and notes. /AOS. ix. 1-469. 

1872 Steinthal on the Origin of language. X. Am ft A'fv , cxiv 272-30S. Reprinted in 

StuJtfi. 1 ' 

JacoUiot'» Ihble in India. IndependenU May 3. 

Strictures on the vteus of Augu'^t S(.hIeu'htM respecting the nature of language and kin^ 
dred subjects. Ttan<. A/\1 for 1S71, pp 35-6^. Reprinted in S/udtfj, i. 

1878 Oriental and Linguistic Studies* the Veda; the Axesta; the Science of l^inguage. 
Xen York, i3\ ix -f 417 pp. [hirst series ] 

On material and form in language J'tttns A PA for tS72, pp. 77-iK> 

Notes to ( ‘olebrooke’s Fssay on the Vedas I’p. 103-132 of vol. 1 of the second edition 
of Colel>iooke*s Kssays, 1 ondoii, S' 

Intercollegiate emulation Xatton, No. 3(}o, Feb 20. 

On the L’ S Geological Surxe) of the Territories Amtt /ournal if Sufncfiot Dec., 
vi. 463-466 

Hall’s Recent Kxemplificalions of False I'hiliilogy 'Hu Xtw Ttmes^ Feb. 36. 

Hall's Motlern Lnglish. Jotd , Dec 6 

The Ha>den Expedition (letters from Colorad*)) J'hf iVr-h 7 Vf^M«r, extra No. 14, 
Dec. 30. 

Text-books for the study of Sanskrit 7'hf (Vale) CoSf'^e Ccutant, Dec. 13 Reprinted, 
with corrections and additions, June 27, I^7 4 
La question de I'anu^xara Sanscrit SAmett,} df It de Ltni^nu/i^ttf de Pans, 

vol. 2 (1S75), pp i‘;4-i99. 

1874 On Darwinism and language X Amft A’#t . ixix 

Oriental and Linguistic Studies. Second series. '1 he hast .md West, Religion and 
M)thology; Orthography and I'honologs , Hindu Astronomy New York, 12*, 
xi + 412 pp. 

Who shall direct the national survejs ’ X.ttu'ti, No 464, Ma> 21. 

On Peile’s Greek and I.atin Et\molog\ 1'ram Phi,x\ .Sci cf Lcndcn for 1873-4, 
PP- 299-327* 

On the Chinese stfu as constellations. /AOS x , pp Ixxxii-Ixxxv, — Pt iU for May 
On recent discussions as to the phonetic character of the Sanskrit atiusttha. Ibid, 
pp Ixxxvi-lxxxviit. 

On the Sansknt accent and Dr. Hang. Jbtd , pp cni-c\ (for O. t ) 

1875 The Life and Growth of l..anguage' an outline of lingui-«tic science (International 

Scientific Series, \ol 16) New York. 12 , ix -f 326 pp Traii*ilated into by 
Prof A. Leskien, 1876, 12'. xv 450 pp . I.eip/ig (llrockhaus) , — into French, 1S76. 
8', vii -f 261 pp, I'arn (Haillicie), into Italian by Prof F d'0\idio, 1876, S’, xxi + 
389 pp, Milan (Dumolanl); — into Nctheilandish l>y (i Veiderman, 1879, 8’, \i 4 - 
274 pp , Arnhem ((,)uint) , — into Swedish by G. .Stjeinstrom, itkSo, I2\ \iii + 320 pp , 
Stockholm (Rjorck) 

ox — n.itiiral or con%cntionaP Trans A PA. fox 1.S74, pp 95-116. 

Are languages institutions > C\>nfrm*arary A'cz* (London), xxv. 713-732. 

Streitfragen der heutigen Sprachphilosuphie Deutsiht Rund^ihait (Kerim), iv. 259-279. 

1876 On the classification of the forms of the Sanskrit aorist /AOS. x, pp. cxxiv-cxxv, = 

Proc for May. 

Zev = dydiis, and other points r**lating to Sanskrit grammar, as presented in M. Mullcr’i 
recent volume of •*( hips " Ibtd , pp cxxvi-cxxix 
On De Rougi^'s derivation of the Phenician alphabet from the Egyptian characters. 
Ibtd , pp. cxxxi-cxxxii (f«ir .\o\ ) 

The study of English grammar. Xevt England /ournal p/ Educatten, Mar. 18, Apr. 15, 
May 13 


For the } ears 1871-1885 

lt 70 Muller's Rig* Veda and commeniary A'nu EuslanJer, xxxv. 772-791. 

Language. Article \n Johnson's Arw I’mversnl Cydopifdta^ li. 1633-1611. 

The system of the Sanskrit vtih /V.»/ A PA . pp. 6-S, in Tram for 1S76. 

1877 Essentials of English Clrainmar, for ihe us». ..f Schfjols. IJoston, 12^ xi -}- 260 pp. 

A botanico-philological problem. 'I tans APA for 1S76, pp. yj-HO. 

On Cockncyisms. Pror. APA , pp 26 2S. in Prant. for 1S77. 

On the current explanation of the muKlle endings in the liidO'Europcan verb. JAOS. 

X., pp. cxhii-cxh, Ptoc. for May. 

Douse on Orimm's l^iw. No 631. Aug 2. 

1878 On the relation of surd am! sonant /ta>/i APA for 1S77. pp 4i-;7. 

The principle of economy as a phoiu'ti. force* /'/d,pp 123 131. 

On the derivati\e c<»iijiigati..ns > f the Sanskrit \tib JAOS x , pp. clx\iii-clxx, = Prcc. 
for May 

1879 A Sanskrit (bainmar, itn lading l.i ih tin- » 1 .ish. M language an<l the older dialects 

Veda and r.t.lhnian.i.|)/ig ( 11 II.uIlI), b-. xxu -f pSb pp. Second cd , 
revised and extent!, d. iSb i, xx\i - 552 pp '1 hird ed . /^./. 1.S96 Translated 

iiitti (ierman by I'tof 11 /immer. ;//•/, isrot ^ , xwiu ^ 520 pj). 

1880 Ct)llati<)n of a second inanu-^injit of the .\\ i riiti^akh\a JAOS x. 156-171 
la’igit al consistent \ 111 MOWS <>f bitiguj 't AJP\ 

.Muller's Sacre«l Hooks .-f the Last /nJt n i, nf, N.iV ii 

Sayco on the .S. kikc of L.n gu ige r//. n, N • 77 t. Aj.r 29 

Cin the rules of external combination m >an'kiit JAO^ • PP xxxii-xxxiv, = />.?<■. 
f«*r .May 

Hn the transliteration of Sanskrit //;/, \i . pp li -li\. = /V^v for ‘ 'ct. 

1881 Index NVrliorum t«> the piiblislu.! t« \t < t the \:harva-Vtd.i /h t . xii. 1-383. 

On the so-calb d .Stierue of K.*li;ii n Pt/trtfon A*.?*, hit 129 152 

C.)n inconsistency in \iews ..f hngu.age 7 >.;w. APA for iSSo, pp. 92-II2, 

What is articulation ^ A//' u 3;^ 

< )n I efisius's Nubian <Ir iinm II /.-//, 11 3'»2-372 
1888 On mixture in language /> 0/ APA f.*r i>si. pp ;-2b 

(tencral ctinsideiatioiis on the Intlo-Kuiopean ra^es\src:n //•/./ for 1SS2, pp 8S-100. 
Kggeling's lian*-l.»tion <if the t^atap.uha lb ihmina A/P 111 391-410 
The cosiiiogonn. hjinn, Kig Vt«!a x 129 J iO.S xi , pp tix cxi, - Ptoc for May. 
Further wonU as to surds .ind sonaiit-., and the law of economy as a phonetic force. 
/*/.». AJ'A pp 12 is. in 7 *».ie< f«-i iNS2 

lorpretciidu lie iiothc isme du \ da h\x uc de I' .us Ptts^x'ns (Pans), vi. 129-143 

1888 On the Jaiiniinva* or Talavak it.i-I>t.ihmana JAOS xi , pp cxli\-cxl\iii. = T’/k for 

Isaac Taylor’s The .Mph ibct .S', /f«. , >cpi 2'' 

'I'he various readings of the S.i'iu-Vtda JAO^ xi . pp clxxxix clxxxv, = />iY.*for Oct 
1884 The varieties of prirbc.ition /'tan A/'A f.-r 1SS3. pp 36-41. 

The studs of lliiidu gi,unm.»r an<l the vtudy of Sanskrit AJP \ 279-21)7- 
On E Kuhn's Ongi’i .uni Language .-f tin- Tiansgangetic IVopU s /!'id , v SS-03 
On the classiiu ation I’f ceit-un .lori'-t-foims in Sanskrit JAOS.\\,pp ccxmii-ccxx, = 
Pt o(. for t)ct 

On the etymology of the Sanskiii noun rr.iA/ 7 .^/./. pp ccxxix-ccxxxi. 

1886 On combination and ad.iptation as illustrated by the exchanges of primary and secondary 
suffixes. Trans. A/'A. for iSSj. pp. ni 123. 

The roots, xerb-forins, and junn ir) deiivaines of the S.ansknt language. .V supplement 
to his Sanskrit (irainniar, by W 1 > W. L. ip/ig (Hreilkopf u ll.iitcl), xiv -f 250 pp. 
Translated into (ferinau by Piof 11 . /inimei, I^8 >v 4- 252 pp. 

The r/^ and jrii-aoiists (t'tli ami 7th aorist foini>) in Sanskiit A//\ \i. 275-2S4. 

, Numerical re.sults from indexes of Sanskrit teii^o- and conjugation stems. JAOS xni, 
pp. zxxii-xxxv, = /Vt\ for .May 


St'/iY/ List of M'hitui'ys If’n'/ifiys 

1885 On Trofossor Ludii^ig's views respecting total eclipses of the sun as noticed in the Rig* 

Veda. xui , pp Ixi- Ixvi (for Oct.) 

Thdolony. pt. I. — Scieme of Language in general. Article in the /•' Bni. x\i\i. 
705 780 

LKdited Fc'rty yearV record of the class of 1S45, Williams College. New Haven, 8®, 
x\ii r i<)<»pp. I'aues 175-iSj lontain an aiiloluogranhical sketch. Although brief, 
It i>of un|>ottaiue )>eLau2>e it is trustworthy J 

1886 HiikIu esihatology and the Katha I'paiiisliad. /.tiKW \m , pp. chi cviii, = /’rt'c. for 


A l'r.utical Fre«th Orimniar, with exeiLises and illii>traii\e sentences from French 
authors New \ oik. 12 , xm 4 - 142 pp 
The ro.>ts <'f the Sanskrit language .//*./ for 1885, pp 5-2'). 

‘I'lie I'panishads and their latest traii'-lation .///* \ii 1 2»' 

'1 he following artuhs in .//•/.V.Vw’a Atie JmtHnin (‘ii/./.,-.//.;, 2d ed : Alphabet, i. 348- 
451 — .Vtin X, I anguagcN 1 f, 1 171 Aivaii Kaie and Language, i 7119 802 

1887 The method of phoin tn. change in langu ige. yVc. .-//‘./.pp 35 >5.1*1 Th\ns for |SS6. 
'lhiiVe<!\ Ctntu*\ l/a; '.'/wc. xxxiii t)i2 nZ2 

Notts on part IV of Schp'der’s cditn n t.| t'ue M.\itr.iyani 8ariihit."i JJiKS' xiii , pp. 

ct xxci cc\x\ III, “ brtht 

1888 On the »nd \ol.imt of Lggcling’s ti iiiNiation of the t^'atapatha-Hi.ihmana /NJ xiv , 

pp w- XI (tor ( M ) 

1889 On the r and at forms of Sanskiit roots / / / xi\ . pp cxlvm il (for t)ct ) 

1890 Hohtlingk’s rp.ini-.hat!^ . 4 //* xi pv jjo 

1891 Transl.ition of the Kath i I'p inishad Al'A for pp ''S 02 

Open letter to the inenUfeis of the Ariuric in t h1eni.1l .Soi lety I’luali ly punt* d New 
Haven, 8 , S pp. 

(. 1889-91 The ( t nturv Hntionarv \n 1 n< vOop. di.* I . \n.on of the 1 nglish I .xngiiage 
I’repand umh r th« sup, rint» ndtn. t *>1 W hwighi \\hiin»\, I’h h, II l>, 
Fruft'isor t»f t oinparative I’hilologv and 's.insknt in ^ ah: 1 ni\ersilv Published by 
The ( enturv < o, New Vtirk In six voluiins. ,piaito Pages xviii 4 7040 

( ■* 21,1 columns) • T J 

|_ Mie p'’ef ice to the first volume is dite I M ly 1st, iS'-) The s.ipplement.xry note to 
prelaie is daletl Oit'.h, r Ist, iS,)i The .u l.ial work bt g.iii, of curse, long In-lore 
the piior date The “ supeiinltonlenv e * ,4 the levuon n.ituiallv involved v«ry far* 
rcKhing thought and plannr'g ([» lui. above), but, in adiliiion to this, the proofs (»f 
cver> one of the 21,1 p columns vv re r* .id by Mr \N Iwtney Inmstlf .*stC' 7 h< i'futufy 
.^/tfizsn^, xxxix >1 5 J 

1893 On 1 kibriick’s VediC 'svntax A//* xni 271 3**’* 

Mix Mailer and the s,.ie:ice id language a criii. ism N« w Voik, 12 m *- 7«> pp 

L.IA ll'httnt'.'s It t i!.y es her: The tit'm ire ii .//. 7 Ai (ht eUttv'r J 

.Xnn- ■■m> » mcnt as to a s»..ond v Inme of the Roth Wlnirv.v edition of the Atharvsi'Veda. 

/AOS X’. , pj> clxxi iixxMi, -- TrtH for .\pril 
f»n the nan.itiv** U'C of imperfect and pcrfe, t m the Hr.ilunanas 7'rans A /'A for 1892, 
PP S ' >4 

Ri vie-v of K Max M-iller’s Vedic lljnins, Tr,inslated (S.icr«‘d Hookx of the Fast, vol. 32 ) 
/'he iViio ffV.'yfor fum.pp 3 pi 351 

1893 Select list of Whitiiev’s writings ( I* ss. ntully the same .as that just given, sec above, 
p Ivi) 

The native commentary to the \th irs.i Ved.i iirt Koth (.Stuttgart, Kohlham* 

mer), pp S / '/». , 

The Veda in Panini. Oiorn.ile .AA'.j S^uieth A'hitiui /taliand^ vii. 243-254. 


For (Ac Years 1885-1894 

lUt SImpliliett ipclling. A symposium on llic question “ Is simplified spellmK feasible as 
proposed by (he Rnglish and Aiiieriean I'lidoloBical bocielies > " XT 7 At Amttuau 
AnthrofoUgist, April. 

On recent ntudies m Hindu grammar. A/P. xiv. 171- 197 

On recenl atudica in Hindu grammar JAOS. xvi . pp. xn-xix, -z p,oc. for April 

1894 Kxamplea of .sporadic and partial phonGiic change in Knghsh lirugmann und sStrcit- 
Indoi;ermaniscke /orsihuit 'en^w 36 

On a recent attempt, by Jacobi and 1 ilak, to ditermine on a'^tronomical evidence the 
date of the earliest Vc<bc period as |oOij 11 * _/A(KS x\i , pp lxxxii~x( iv, =. Prot fur 
aMarch. ^ 

On the third volume of Kggeliiig’s transl.ui.m of the <. .ilap.itha Hiahmana. with remarks 
on “soma - the moon " ///./. wi , pp xiv-ti 

• tf.Htnou '/i' /uihiht ./ J 

1906 Atharva*\ eda SaAihita translated, with a < ritual an«l f»>niineniai\’ Revised 
and brought nearer to « ompletuin ami edited b> < R I (\inil lulge. , ro) 

clxii -f- iv f pp (Vol's Ml .iMfl Mil of th** Hsirv ird flnental St in 's ) 


«V 71IK I DI'HjK 

General Premises 

Scope of this Part of the Introduction. — As stated above, p. xxix, this 
Part contains much that might, but for its voluminousness, have been put 
into a preface. I he main body of the present work consists of transla- 
tion and ci^mmcntaiy. (.)f the latter, the constituent elements are mainly 
tcxt-critical, and their sources may be put under ten headings, as follows 

1. Vuli;ato Luropean mss. C, Vul^rau*. Trati^aklua and it.s comm. 

2 . Vulgate. Indian mss 7. Vulgate The Anukramanis. 

3. Vulgate. Imliaii reciters S. Vulgate. Kai^ika and VAitana. 

4. Vulgate. Commentator's readings o K.ishminan reccn.sion. Paippaiada ms. 

5. Vulgate. Pada readings. 10. Parallel texts. 

Of these sources, nine concern the .Atharva-Veda, and the tenth concerns 
the parallel texts. Of the nine concerning .the Atharva-Vccla, eight con- 
cern the Vulgate or (^Munakan recension, and the ninth concerns the 
Kashmirian or Paippalada recension. ()1 the eight concerning the Vul- 
gate, the first four concern both the and the pada-pdthas} and 

the second four concern the ancillary texts. 

Partly by way of indicating what may fairly be c.xpcctcd in the case of 
each of these elements, and partly by way of forestalling adverse criti- 
cism, it will be well to make certain observations upon them seriatim, 
under the ten headings. Under an eleventh, I desire to add something 
to what was said in the pieface, p .x.xxvii, about the comn.entary as a 
whole; and, under a twelfth, to add a few necessary remarks concerning 
the translation. Under a thirteenth, the explanation of abbreviations etc. 
may be put ; and finally, under a fourteenth, a tabular view uf previous 
translations and commenls. 

Scope of the reports of variant readings. - By variant readings ” are here 
meant departures from the printed Berlin text.- Absence of report means 

' Doubtless the /././i/ / is an atuillaiy text, and the^- headings .ire therefi're not 
quite logical ; but they will serve 

* Here it is to be ni>tc«i b\ rc.ison nf break.igc of type, the la'^t p.irl of the •• run " (as 
the printers say) is not always like iht first , in other words, that not eveiy '-opy of the Herlin 
edition is like every other (cf. note ti> i iS 4). 


l\iv General Introdnetion^ Part /. ; by the Editor 

in general that the mss. present no true variants, albeit Whitney does 
not rehearse every stupid blunder of every ignorant scribe. There is of 
course no clear line to be drawn between such blunders and true variants ; 
and in thi^ matter wo must to a certain degiee trust the discrimination 
of the learned cilitors. 

The term ‘Mnanuscripts** often used loosely for ** authorities,” that is, 
manuscripts and oral reciters — S V. Tandit, in establishing his text, 
relied not onlv upon the testimony r)f written books, but also upon that 
of li\ing reciters of the Veda. Accordingly, it should pnee for all here 
be premised that Whitney in the sequel has often u.sed the word ** manu- 
sciipts” (or “mss ") when he meant to include both mss. and reciters and 
should ha\e use«l the less specific wonl “authorities.” I have often, but 
not always,* changed “mss.” to “authorities,” when precise conformity 
to the facts required it. 

The difficulty of verifying statements as to the weight of authority for a 
given reading may be illustrated by the following case. At iii. lo. I2C, 
Whitiu y’s ^lr^t draft says, “ The .v of ry outhiin/a is demanded by Prat, 
ii i)2, but Sl’P gives in his text :;r asit/utuftt, with the comm., but against 
the decidetl majority of his mss , ami the minority of ours (II () , and per- 
haps others : record incomplete).” The secon«l dratt reads, “ SPP. gives 
in his text :t </j-, against tlio decidcvl majoiity of all the mss.” Scruti- 
nizing the authorities, written and oral, foi lh«* samhitd (since for this vari- 
ant /iJt/iZ-mss. do not count), I find that Whitm y lecurds II ()., and that 
Srr. records Hh.K A.Sm V. as giving in all, seven authorities; and 
tint Whitney records P M W IC I K , ami that SPI\ records K D.R . as 
giving s, in all, nine authorities Whitney’s record is silent as to K F. ; 
and SPP’s report of K. is wrong eithei one way «>rclsc the other. The 
perplexities of the situation are palpable. I hedged by altering in the 
proof the words of the second draft so as to read “against a majority of 
the mss. reported by him.” 

1 . Readings of European Mss. of the Vulgate Recension 

The reports include mss. collated, some before publication of the text, and 
some thereafter. — To the |>rior group belong ; to 
the latter, culiited some twenty years after publication,* belong O.R.T.K. 
Op I) Kp. Whitney’s rlescription of the mss. is given in Part II. of the 
IntrodiKiion (p. c.xi;, and to it are prefi.xed (pp. c,\ cxi) convenient tabular 

‘ Til. I*, tn th«: note toui 7 2, •’ a couple of SIT’s rnss ” means Iwo men, not l^ioks Cf note* 

to xi\ S , I 

• In >U>* i.^sin,; ill 2 5 r., Whitm y s.iys m I lie l‘ral (p. 442). " Kvery cr>dex presents t/yduifi 
while 111 tins wi»rk p 12H) in* i* jjort.^ ( » as rt.uling i/vifus Since “every codex" meant 

evt'Ty (.odex (.oil ited hcfoie puhlioation, tliii is no coiitradiLliun. 

1. Headings of huropcan Alss, of the Vulgate Ixv 

views of the mss. The immediate source of these reports is his Collation- 
Book : see pages cxvii to cxix. In the Collation-Hook, the Berlin and 
Paris readings (H.P.) arc in black ink; the Bodleian readings (M.W ) arc 
in red; the London or “ IC.!.!!.** readings arc in blue; and, excepting the 
variants of IC.Lp. (which are also in blue), those of the mss. collated after 
publication (O.R.T.Op.D.) arc in violet. The writing is a clear but small 
hand. The indications of agreement with the fundamental transcript are 
either implicit (the absence of any recorded variant), or made explicit 
by the use of very small exclamation -points. The differences of method 
in recording are^uly explained at the beginning of the Collation liook, as 
are also the meanings of the various colored inks : and Whitney's procedure 
throughout the Book conforms rigorously to his prefatory cxplanation.s. 

The interpretation of a record so highly condensed and not always complete 
was sometimes an occasion of erroi, even for Whitney who made the 
record and knew the circumstances of its making; and, as may well be 
imagined, such interpretation was f)f)s!tively difficult and embarrassing for 
the editor (who had not this knowle<lge), especially in cases where, after 
the lapse of years, the colors of the inks were somewhat faded. — Thus 
Whitney misinterprets his notes of eoHation at vi 36 2, where it is P.I.K. 
(and not Bp.*f K , as he wrote it in his copy for the pimter) that read 
vti^vtih. — Again, at vi S3 it is W () I) (and not II O R., as he wrote 
it for the printei) that read ^^itlantds — Again, in writing out his com- 
mentary for the printer .so many years after miking his collation, he 
frequently forgot there no Op for books v.-.wii , and has 
acconlingly often reported a re.iding in violet ink as a re.ading of Op. 
when he should have reported it as a reading of D. This slip happened 
occasionally through ’several hundreil lypc-iuges and remained unnoticed 
even until the electroplates were ni.ide ; but I believe I have had all the 
instances of this ernir rectifi<.d in the plates. — Likewi.'^e, in writing 
out for the printer, the f.ict seems to have slipped fiaim his mind that 
he had m.ide his fundamental transcript of book v. fia>m cocl.'X Chambers 
109 ( ~ Bp.*) and not, like all tlie rest of the first nine books, from Cham- 
bers 8 (“Bp.). I have accordingly had to change “Bp.” into “Bp-,” 
or vice, some ten limes in book v (at 8 , 7. 3 , 8 3 ; 24. 3, 14; 
27* 10; 30. II). — I may add that in (the often critically desperate) 
book xix., Whitney seems to use such an expression as “half the mss.” 
loosely in the .sense of “a ctmsiderable part of the mss ” : so at .\i\'. 29. i, 
where the record is presumably not comjilete for Whitney’s authorities, 
and where “half” is not tine for STP’s. --For iny own part, in Con- 
sulting the Collation- Book lor manuscript readings, I h.ive exercised all 
reasonable care, using a magnifying glass regularly and referring fre- 
quently to the prefatory explanations. 


General Introductiony Part L : by the Editor 

2. Readings of Indian Manuscripts of the Vulgate 

By ** Indian mss.** are meant those used by S. P. Pandit. — No other ' 
Indian authorities arc intended, in this section and the next, than those 
given in S'. \\ Pandit’s edition ; they include, a.s is fully and most inter- 
estingly explained in his preface, not merely manuscripts, but also oral 
n'citers. Whitney had only the advance sheets of the parts with comment 
(books i-iv, vi.-viii. 6. \i,;ind xvii.-xx. 37); but, although the remain- 
ing parts were accessible to me, I did not attempt for those remaining 
parts to incorporate S. P. Pandit's apparatus criticus into Whitney's work. 

I refrained with good reason, for such an attempt would have involved far 
too much rewriting of Whitney’s copy for the j)rinter. 

S. P. Pandit’s reports not exhaustive. — It is far from being the case that 
S P. Pandit alwa\s icporls upon all his authorities. For books i.-xvii. 
he had I2 sjmlitta and 0 authorities, besides the incomplete comm.; 
but at ii. 36. 4, ^ote 2, for instance, ho reports only 6 out of 13 authori- 
tiesd In summarizing SPP’s reports, Whitney often says “all of SPP’s 
mss,” “all but one,” *‘the majority.” “half,” and so on ; «nd it must 
therefore here be noted that these expressions refer not to the totality of 
SPP’s authorities concerned, but rather to the totality of those concerned 
and reported upon by SPP. in any given instance. Compare Whitney's 
notes to iii.4. 5 (line 2 of the note) ; iv. 7. 3 (line 6) \ iv. 26 5 and iii. 30. 3; 
ii. 36 4 (hue 9). with SPP’s critical notes on the same verses. 

3. Readings of Indian Oral Reciters of the Vulgate 

By “ Indian oral reciters ** are meant those employed by S. P. Pandit. It 

was from the lips of three living authorities that the Bombay editor took 
much of the testimony which he used in the establishment of his text. 
His Vaidikas were Hripuji Jivanram (cited a.N Bp ), Kei^av.i lihat bin Uaji 
Bhat (K.). and Venkan Bhatji (V.), “the most celebrated Atharxa Vaidika 
in the Deccan.” The la,st two were authorities for the whole te.\l in 
both pathas, samhita and pada. The remarks made in the preface to 
the Bombay edition by S. P. Pandit concerning his reciters arc extremely 
interesting and suggestive. 

Errors of the eye checked by oral reciters. — The student should bear in 
mind the especial weight of the oral testimony in cases where errors of 
the eye, as distinguished from errors of the car, are probable. Thus the 
testimony of the reciters, at ix 8(13). 20. establishes the reading visalpa-^ 
as against visalya- of the Berlin text. Save in AV., the word is otherwise 

I At IV 36 5, SPP. reports 8 out of i ^ samhitd authorities, Sm. and V. being given on both 
sides, and of course wrongly on one or the other. 

3 * Readings of the Indian Oral Reciters Ixvii 

unknown, and, as the ms.-distinclioii between lya and Ipa in such a case 
is worthless, the instance is a typical one to show the value of the 
reciters* reading: see W's note to vi. 127. i. The case is somewhat 
similar at iii. 12. l. dsyand-, as against (sec the note and my addi- 

tion) ; so also at viii. 6. 17, spandami, as against syandami, wher?, although 
only V. is cited, his testimony is abundantly confirmed by the sense (see 
note). At xix. 66. i (see note), as between those mss. which give pdht 
and the Vaidikas K. and V., who recited jv7///, there can be no question 
that we ought to foIlr)w the latter, although SPP. strangely rejects their 
evidence. C£. the notes on ^dyuiya, at iv. 18. 4, and samuspald, at vi. 139. 3. 
One of the clearest errors of \isual or graphical origin is “ .S.iyana’s ” 
tdam^ at vi. 37. 2, for hradam (ir Iirdam of the authorities, including K. 
and V. (cf: VV s and SPPs note^/. If this comm was the real Sayaiya, 
the blunder does him no credit. At viii. 2. i, is established (as 

against fr//j/i) by the testimony of .all the reciters; although the case is 
loss clear at iii. ly. 2 and 30 7 ^''Ce the n<>tes). f^pon tln^r testimonv’, at 
X. 7 * (see notes), we ought t«) accept as the true Atharvan reading, 
prapyastlSf albeit aira^ X^yofi^vov and of quesliimable meaning. 

4. Readings of the Hindu Commentator 

The critical value and the range of his variant readings. — Whitney has 
given full ami well-ieasoiud expression to his low o]>inion of the e.xegeti- 
cal value of the comment. iry .ind of the lange and critical value of its 
variant readings, in an article in the J'Lsr.;ntss tui Rot/i, pages 80-96. 
To that article, with it.s abundant lists and detaiN, I call, as in duty bound, 
the especial attention of tin* reader. The commentator does indeed cor- 
rect a good many surface-blunders, part of which the Berlin editors had 
.also corrected ; aiul his reatlings are occa.sionally supported (as against 
the lw<> editions) by a par.dlel te.xt:* but his variants “consist almost 
exclusively of single words or forms,” and of real ciitica^ insight he 
exhibits almost none. 

Thus he fails to recognize the fact the ordinary usage of the mss. 
makes no distinction between double consonants in groups where the 
duplication is phonetic, and those'in groups where the duplication is ety- 
mological (cf. W'.s GraMfHtn\ § 232); and is accordingly so obtuse as to 
misunderstand and explain (iidydmiti, at iv. 19. 6, as Uid ydm «//. although 
the slightest heed for the rules of accent would h.avo shown him that it is 
impossible for the combination to mean anything but tad dj dm rti. Simi- 
larly at iv. 28. 3, again with utter disregard ot accent, he makes out of 

* Thus al xix. so. 4 b, v%frmhhttr xAtma the conun. reada for and is 

supported therein by At^'S. and .\p 

Ixviii General IntrodnciioHy Part I , ; by the liditor 

stuvdnnemi (that is stuvdn efni : cf. Festgrnss, p. 90-91) an untranslatable 
stuian nemi : here, it is true, one of the wildest blunders of the pada- 
keira was before him ; but even a modicum of insight should have kept 
him out of that pitfall. Again, he seems never to have observed that 
past passive participles with a pre{K)sition accent the preposition (cf. 
(napnmar, § 1085 a), and accordingly takes samvrtas at xviii. ^ 30 as if 
it were sdmi rtits. Despite accent anti pada-kara, he takes rajasd, p. •sdh, 
at \i. 2. J5, as instr. of rdjas ! And so on. 

The text useti by the commentator is nevertheless notably different 
from that given by the mss. used for the Herlin edition, and from that 
given by S. P. Pandit’s authorities. In books i.-iv. Whitney counts over 
three hundred peculiarities of the commentator's text, and in the Fest- 
grnss he gives several lists of them. He has intended in the present 
work to report all variants of the commentator’s text throughout, and I 
trust that those which may have escaped his notice (or his and mine) will 
prove to be fe\w indeed. 

Was the commentator of the Atharva-Veda identical with the Sflyana of 
the Rig-Veda? — I suggest that it might prove to be an interesting and by 
no means fruitless task to institute a systematic and critical comparison of 
the Madha\iya-vedartha-prak.^a (or \K\ rbJuisya) with the bhasya on the 
AV , with special reference to the treatment ot the accent m the two 
works, and to the bearings of these comparisons upon the cjuestion of 
the identity of the Sayana of the RV. with the “Sayana” of the AV. 
The latter* docs indeeil sometimes heed his accents; but the occasions 
on which he takes notice of them e.xpressly are of utmost rarity (see W’s 
note to xix. 13. 9 and mine to verse 4). 

If, by way of comparing the two comments, wc take the accusative plural 
yamdrajua^, wc find that at RV. x 16 0 Sayana explains it tpiite rightly 
as a posses.sive compound, yamo rajCi yisdm, tan / while at A\’. xviii. 2. 4(^1, 
on the other hand, in the half-ver^e addressed to the dead man, ‘by a 
safe ( road, go thou to the I'athers who have Varna as their king,’ 
apart pan na pat ltd yamanijitalj pit in y^acha, “.Sriyana" makes of the very 
same form a gen. sing, and renders ‘by a safe road belonging to king 
Varna svabhutena tnarirtna) go thou to the bathers’! Evidently, 

so siinide a m liter as the famous distinction between {ndra-^atm and the 
blas[)hemous indra-^atni (cf. Whitney on TPr. xxiv. 5 ; Weber, Inti. Stud. 
iv. 368) was quite beyond his ken. Such bungling can hardly be thc^l’Olk 
of a man who knew his Rig-Veda as the real Sayana did. 

> A remark in his comment on u i (Homtiay cd , i to the effert that the /ttiijipJjt t» 

a kind nf tree familurl) known in Ucnarcs, suggests the surmise that his hkAtya may have been 
written in that city. 

5- Readings of the Pada-pa(ha 


$. Readings of the Pada-patha 

These were reported in the Index, and have since been published in full 

As elsewhere noted, these have been reporte<l in the Imhx IWfwnnn in 
such wise (sec Indix, p. 4) as to enable us to determine the pada-ioxm of 
every it<^ of the Alhaivan voeabulary. An index, however, is an incon- 
venient vehicle for such inform. ttir)r), and the complete as 

published by S. R Ranrlit, is acLordin.i;ly most wedcome. Some’ of his 
occasional errors of jmlgment in the est.iblishment of th^it tevt aie pointed 
out by Whitney in the places concerned, but the pmiapatlui has deeper- 
seated faults, faults which are doubtless on-inal with its author and not 
simple errors of transmission.' Ilc-re a-ain I may make a su";;estion, 
namely, that a critic al an<l systematic study of the p.ilpable blunders of 
fada■pi^^^a would be: an intc restmi; and fiuitful t isk Mven the pada- 
text of b()oks i.' xviii. stamls on a vi ry dilferent plane fuAn that i)f the 
K\ . (c f . (uddivij ] itf .S ///</, III. 14.}! j\ ciitir.ll discussion of its char- 
acter is not called for here; but seveiai illustiativr (*\amples rnav be ;^iven. 

Illustrations of the defects of the Pada-patha. - Verb-compounds give 
occasion for .seve ral varieties of eirois 'I hns. Inst, as lespocts accentua- 
tion, we find, on the one hand, inc'omct .iltiihution of ac cent to the verbal 
element (cf. v. 22 1 1 ) ; and, on the f»ther, dcmials <4 .iccc nt \\hic.h arc quite 
intolerable*, as at xiv 2 73 iiistcMrl of d afntridJi) and \iv. 

I. 9 ( jv/V .* wrptfd diidtidi ' wlu'u* Takalva resolves aii^ht • adaddf)? 

Secondly, as respects details of division, we find gioss violation of the 
tulo. The rule (a verv natural oin‘i for ctimpounds with fimle veih-forms 
IS that the preposition, if accented, is treated as an independent word 
and ba.s the vertical maik of intm punction there repiescnted by a colon) 
after it ; but that, if tpi'i^litu'), it is treated, not as an inde- 
pendent woni, but as making a word-unit with the verb-form, and is 
accordingly sc[)aratecl tberefiom only In the minor mark of separation 
or (here represented by a cii\le). Thus in AW i i, we have * 

ni : ramaya and pdn\\dnti. Such a divi.suui as ni yawaya or i : yduti 

would be wholly erroneous; and yet we find enor.s t»f the first type at 
vi. 74. J {sdm jfiapdyami), 1 1 p J \up i ctkufM)^ xiii. 3. 17 {y i ldidti), wiii. 
-.38 (pdnoiHk/hiydhh)^ 4-53 ' dadhht) 

* The of ho<fk xix , wlutli s«.»rms vah Mamina p S»j 5. ent!, So6, top), is 
c.learly very difierent lM»lh in cli.u.ichr .in<i oi;i;m fioiu the 

* If Whitney is rijjhi in supposin)' \i 1 ? .1 Npoil* <1 ^ n .'o tin* iw^t j'.iil.i of which 

ends wrilh tavitS^ then I bclirvc that the .u . rnth '•sncs^ nl #•-./ i- t i !*i* as pointmi; 

to *i false rPHolution and that the /*!;«/»; text -honlcl be aiiK'niled Ut but if \n 73 7 C 

and ^'iikalya'a reM<ilution of its R\ p.irallel 

•In some of thoRc c.t$es the rjtii>nalc of the error ib discernible: «f the n«>tes, especially 
the note to xiii. j. 1 7. 

Ixx General Introduction^ Part /. ; by the Editor 

Various combinations. — The combination of r or (final or initial) with 
other vowels i;ivcs rise to errors. Thus at viii. 2.21 cd=si. 35. 4 cd, 
/c7/« ( - tc </////) is resolved by the pada-kara as U dnu^ and the comm, 
follows him in both instances. In matters concerning the combination 
of accents ho is especially weak, as when ho resolves saptiUyani into saftd 
nUydui at iv. 30 10 (see note). The errors in questiop arc of coi|f|iderab 1 e 
range, from the venial one of not recognizing, at xiv. 1. 56, that dnvar- 
ti^ye means anti : vartisyi } to the quite inexcusable ones of telling us that 
yd sttnds for m the verse x. lo. 32, tvdin vuime dadus, //etc., or 
that fKd\i\ stands for vidyOh as subject of jajne in viii. 9. 5. Perhaps his 
tdt : yarn : tti (iv. it). and stuidn : ncmi liv. 2S 3), already noticed (p. Ixvii) 
in another connection, may be deemed to bear the palm. Pesidc the 
former we may put his resolution- of sutndtvdtn ( = somat t'l'dm), at 
iv. 10.6, into semd : tvam. 

6. The Prdti(^akhya and its Commentary 

Character of Whitney’s editions of the Prati(;Akhyas. — In the preface 
to his etlition of the Taittiriya Samhita, Weber s[K‘'aks with .satisfaction 
of the service rcnderetl him in the task of editing that Samhita by 
Whitney’.s critical edition of the appurtenant Piatu^.ikhya. Whitney's 
edition of that treatise is indeed a model ; but even his eailier edition of 
the Atharvan Pratii^akhya was buttressed by siu h el.iborate studies i»f 
those actual facts which form the t«»pics of the Piatii^akhya, and by .such 
complete collections of the different classes of those tacts; that he could 
speak with the utmost authority in criticism of the way in which the 
maker of the I’r.ltu^akhya, t>r of the comment thereon, has done his work, 
and could pronounee w’eighty juilgment concerning the bearing ot the 
treatise in general upon the constitution i>f the Atharvan text. 

Bearing of the Atharvan Pratiqakhya upon the orthography and criticism 
• of the text. - First, as for the orthography, a discussion of the importance 
of the Prati\akhya for purpose is supeifluoiis for any student 
ac«iuainted with the nature of the treatise ; but the orthographi^ method 
pursued by the editors of the Berlin text and the relation of that method 
to the aetuil pres* riplion^ of the Piftlic^.lkhya are made the subject of a 
special chapter, below, p rvxiii. — Secondly, the treatise docs bear upon 
the generd criticism «)f the text. That it ignores the nineteenth book is 
a weighty fact among the items of cumulative evidence respecting the 
original make-up of tlu> text and the supplementary character of that 

• rf the coiifumon belwern ruiH.h and /J/m vrtiifiAas at six. 27. 1, Bombay cd. 

' f 'f. note t*j xtjc. 5c I, ^^herc nir/ 4 iAvtit/ftM hirii tCruf>,uif jaht, doubtless meaning nir Jahi 
and <1 U resohed as «/4 j xhytVi tena. 

6, 1 rati(dkhya and its Commentary Ixxi 

book : see p. 896, line 6. In matters of detail also, the treatise or its 
comment is sometimes of critical value : thus the non-inclusion of idas 
fade among the examples of the comment on APr. li. 72 (see note) 
arouses the suspicion that vi. 63. 4 (see note) was not contained in the 
commentator’s AV. text. 

UtUizgpon of the Atharvan Praticakhya for the present work. — Whit, 
ncy’s edition is provided with three easily unable indexes (not blind 
indexes) : one of Atharvan jiassa^t's, one of Sanskrit words, and a general 
^ index. The first gives in order some eight or nine hundred Atharvan 
passages, and gi\cs neaily twelve hundred leferenccs to places in the 
1 rati^akhjra or the comment ov Whiihcy s notes, in which those passages 
arc discussed. Whitney has tran^ferreil the refeiences of the first index 
w'ith very great fulness, if not witn iib<oliite complelLiiess, to the pages 
of his Collation<]lo(^k, entering iMch one opposite the te.\t of the verse 
concerned. Very many or most ul them, alter they have once been iitil- 
i/ed in the constitution of tlie l.'\t of the S.iinhita, are of so little further 
moment as hardly to be W(;ilb (pioting in the i);Lsent woik; the rest will 
be found duly cited in the course of Whitney’s commentary, and their 
value is obvious 

7. The Anukramanis : “ Old ** and “ Major ** 

More than one Anukramani extant. — \i the dite « i the preface to the 
lleilin edition, il was piMbahly r.ot deaily understexx! that there w*a.s 
more than one Micii trc.itist, I in. weli-kitown one was the Miior .\nu- 
kramani, the text ot which was c.-pie>i 1)\ Whitney from the ms. in the 
Pritish Museum in 1^33, as notKc«i bch*\v, j> Iwn In making his fun- 
damental transcript ot the Athai\aii text, ceiiam sciaps, lo«)king like 
extracts from a similar liealise, weie lound by Whitney in the colophons 
of the .scveial divisions <»f the mss which he was tianscribing, and wcie, 
copied by him in his Collation-Potik. piobably without rec.»>gnizing their 
source more precisely than is implied in speaking «if them as “bits of 
extract Ironi an Old Anukramani, as we may call it” isce p. cxxxviii). 

The Pa&capatalikA. - - The Critical N\>tice in the fiist \olumc of the 

Bombay edition *.iade it clear that tiie souice of those scraps is indeed 

an old Anukramani, and that it is still extant, not merely as .scattcied 

fragments, but as an independent ticatise, an«l that its name is Pafica- 

patalika. That name is use-l by “ Sa\.ina ” wlicn he refeis to the 

in his comm, to iii. 10. 7. In the main botly of this work the treatise is 

usually styled the “quote<l Anukr,” or the “old Anukr.” The word 

“old” means old with reference to the Major Anukramani ; and since 

Ixxii General Iniroduciion, Part /.; by the hditor 

the dependence of the latter upon the former is now evident (see p. TJO, 
^4, end, p. "95, I. end) it appears tha( the word ''old" was rightly 
used. The excerpts from the treatise, scattered through Whitn^’s 
Collation-Hook, have been gathered together on six sheets by him. • I was 
tempted to print them off together here for convenience; but several 
considerations dissuaded me: they are .after all only fragments; they are 
all given in their projier places in the main body of this work; and, finally, 
the^'llombay editor (sec his Critical Notice, pages 17-24) gives perhaps 
more copious e.xtr.rcts from the original treatise than do the colophons ^ 
of Whitney's For some of the excerpts in their proper sequence 
and connection, see below, pages 77°“ •• 79-~3> P^tgvs 632, 


Manuscripts of the PaScapatalika. — Doubtless S. 1*. Pandit had a com- 
plete ms. of the treatise in his hands ; and, if its critical value was not 
exh.rusted by his use of it, it may yet be worth while to make a criti- 
cal edition of this ancient tract. It is not unlikely the ms. which 
«; V Pin.lit used was one of those referred to bv Aufrccht, taUtlegns 

catali'gonnn, p. 315. namely, N'os 17.S <) (on p 61) of Kielhorn s Keporl 
OH the search for SansLnt >«.>f tn the Homb.iy I'nUileitey i/iiring the year 
iSSo-Sl. Hoth are now listed in the Catal'gue of the eolleetwns o) mss. 
defostteti tn the Deeean College (Poona), p. 179 According to ('..arbe's 
Versetehmss der Indtsehen UandiJirifUn (Tubingen, p. <JO. Roth 

m\de a copv of the trc.itise from a Hikaner ms, which copy is now in 

the Tubingen Library. 

The Brhatsarvinukramani. — This tieatisc is usiuilly styled in the 
sequel simply "the Aniikr ,” but sometimes “the Major Anukr.' The 
e.\cerpts from the treatise which are given at the beginning of the intr^ 
ductions to the sever.d hymns in this work are taken from Whitneys 
transcript which he maile in Lotulon in 1.S53 on the occasion of 
his visit there to make his London collations (p. xliv). The transcript 
is bound in a separate volume; and the edited excerpts are so nearly 
exhau-stive that reUatively little work remains for an editor of the treatise 

to do * 

Manuscripts of the Brhatsarvanukramanl- — Whitney made his tran- 
script from the Policr ms in the British Museum which is now numbered 
548 by Bendail in his Cataligiie of the Sanskrit mss. tn the British 
Must urn of 1902. The ms forms part of Polier’s second volume described 
below, p. cxiii, under Codex I ; and it is the one from which was made 
the ms. transcribed for Col .M.irtin anti numbered 235 by Kggcling (see 
again p. cxiii) Whitney aftenvards, presumably in 1875, collated his 
London tran>’rri[>t with the Berlin ms. described by Weber, P'erseiehniss, 
vol. ii., p 79, No. 1487, and added the Berlin readings in violet ink. »The 

7 - ' and Major'' Ixxiii 

Berlin ms. bears the copied date sainvai 1 767 (a.d. i 7 i 1 ) : it is characterized 
by Webei^ Ind, Stud. xvii. 178, as "pretty incorrect”; but my impres- 
sion is that it is better than the ms. of the British Museum. 

Text-critical value of the Anukramanis. —The most important ancillary 
treatise that an editor needs to use in establishing^ the text of the sauihita, 
is the Prati<,'akhya ; but the Anukramanis are also of some importance, 
especially for the settlement of questions concernin;^ the subdi\isions of 
the text (cf., for example, pa;;es 61 1, 628: or note to iv 11. 7), as has 
been practically shown by S. P. I’andit in his edition, and in his Critical 
Notice, pages 16 -24. — I pronouncements of the Anukramanis con- 

cerning the verse-norms of the earlier books (sec p exKiii) are also of value 
in discussing geneial questions as to the structure of the samhitit. In 
particular questions, also, the statements of the Major Anukr. are some- 
times of critical weight. 1 hus iii. 29, as it stands in our text, is a hymn 
of 8 verses; but our treatise expressly calls it a saJrcti, thus supporting 
most acceptably the critical lediKtion (already sufficiently certain : sec 
note to vs. 7) of the hymn to one «»f 6 verses, the norm of the book. 
— Here and there are indications that suggest the surmise that the order 
of verses (cf. p. 739) or the extent of a hymn (tf p 768), as contemplated 
by the Anukr , may be different from that ot our text. — Its statements 
as to the "deity” of a j;iv<*n hymn are sometimes worth considering in 
determining the geneial diift of that h\mn. and it< dicta regarding the 
"seers” of the hvmns are of interest in certain aspects which are briefly 
noticed below', pp. 1038 ff. Then too, the manuscripts of the Anukr. 
may sometimes be taken as testimony for the readings of the c\W([ pnitikas 
(cf. note to iv. 3 3). And it happens even that the authority of the 
Major Anukr. may be presse«l into service at x 5 .\i) (see the notes) to 
determine which pair of xerses (whether xiii 12-13 vii. 61. 1-2) is 
meant by the j it d iti r/. / of the mss (soe below, p exx : and cf the 

case at xix. 37. .p. 

The author of the Major Anukrainani as a critic of meters. - -The author 
shows no for rhvthm. lli.s cquipuu'iit as a critic of meters hardly 
goes be3iond the rudimentary capacity f«>r counting syllables. J hus he 
calls ii. 12. 2 although i».rda a has 12 s)llables, its cadence has 

no jagatl character whate\ er. I'o illustrate the woodenness of his methods, 
wc may' take ii. 13. i : this lie evidently scans as 1 1 ^ 1 1 • 10 -f 1 2 -- 44, 
and accordingly m.ike.s it a .simple tri^tubh^ as if the " extra syllable in 
d could offset the deficiency in c ! b'or the spoiled c of the Vulgate, the 
Ppp. reading pibann amrtam (whieli is supported by MS.) suggests the 
remedy, and if wo accept that as the true Alharvan form of the xerse, it 
is then an example of the mingling (common in one and the same verse) 
of acatalectic jagati padas writh calaleetic forms thereof. So far, indeed, 


General Introduction, Part L : by the Editor 

is he from discerning matters of this sort, that his terminology is quite 
lacking in words adequate for their expression.' 

If the author of the Major Anukr. showed some real insight into Vedic 
meters, his statements might, as can easily be seen, often be of value in 
affi'cting our critical judgment of a reading of the sainhitii or in deter- 
mining our choice as between alternative readings. The contrary, rather, 
is wont to be the case. Thus at iv. 15. 4, his definitum, viraifnrastad- 
brhatu implies the division (given also by the /^7^/<l-mss.) io + 8:8-h8, 
thus leaving the accentless parjatiya stranded at the beginning of a pada ! 
An excellent illustration of the way in which he might help us, if we 
could trust him, is offered by iv. 32 3 b, which reads tdpasa yujii vi jahi 
(iit/fiu. Here Ppp. makes an unexceptionable tt'istuHi by reailingyf7////frt, 
and the author of the Anukr. says the verse is trntubiL His silence 
respecting the metrical deficiency in the Vulgate text W(»uld be an addi- 
tional weighty argument fur jmlging the Tpp. reading to be the true 
Atharvan one, if only we could tiust him — as we cannot. Cf. end of 
W’s note to iv. 3f». 4. 

Such as it is, his treatment of the mctei^ is ncither even nor equably, 
careful. Thus he notes the irregularity of vii 112 i, while in treating 
the repetition of the very same \erso at \iv 2 45 i^ee note), he jxi.^ses 
over the bhnnktvam in silence. Througluuit most of the present work, 
Whitney has devoted considerable spice to ciitical c»>nunent upon the 
tre.atment of the meters by the Anuki. C*'nsiilering the fact, however, 
that the principles which undeilie the proceduie of the Hindu are so 
radically diffeient from tho-c of his OLcidental ciitic, no one will be 
likely to find fault if the ciiticisms of the latter piove to be not enliicly 

His statements as to the seers of the hymns. -- \ he a.scriptions of quasi- 
authorshq), lUvide by the author nf the .Mijor Anukr. ami given in the 
Kxcerpts, are set forth in tabular foirn at p 1040 and are critically dis- 
cussed at p. 1038, which see. 

8. The Kau^ika-Sutra and the Vaitana-Sutra 

The work of Garbe and Bloomfield and Caland. --As elsewhere mentioned 
(p. XXV), the Vaitana ha.^ been published in text and translation by Garbe, 
and the te.xt of the Kamjka (in 1890) by Bloomfield. Since 1890, a 
good deal of further critical w'ork upon the Kamjika has been done by 

* For the reader’s ronvcniencc it may be noted that verses deficient by one or two tyllables, 
re.sp»!cti^ely, arc c.ined by him and ziril/ , and that verses redundant by one or two are 
called bhurtj anci 


8. The Kdu^ikaSutra and ihc Vditd)ia-STitra 

Bloomfield^ and by Caland.* I he value of these Sutras is primarily as a 
help to the understanding^ of the ritual setting and general purpose of 
a given hymn, and so, mediately, to its exegesis. Prom that aspect they 
will be discussed below (p. Kxvii;. Meantime a few words may be said 
about their value for the criticism of the structure of the Samhita. 

Bearing of the ritual SQtras upon the criticism of the structure and text 
of the SaihhitA. — Bloomfield himself discusses this matter in the intro- 
duction to his edition of K/im^ika, p. xli. He there points out instances 
in which briefer independent h)inns have been fused into one longer 
composite hymn by the redactors of the Samhita, aiul shows that the 
Sutras recognize the composite character of the whole by prescribing 
the employment of the comp<jiient parts separately. Thus fas is pointed 
out also by Whitney), iv. 38 is made up of two independent parts, a 
gambling-charm (verses i-.^) and a cattle eharm (verses 5 7). The Sutra 
prescribes them sepnatcly for tluse wholly different uses, the former 
with other gambling-ch irms ; and to the latter it gives a special name. 
BloomficUrs next dhwtrations, which concern \ii. 74 and 76, have in the 
meantime given rise to the <ritkal question whether vii. 74.1-2 and 
7(1. I -2 did not form on«* h\mn for K.<.rriva. * 

The mss. of the Sutras may sometimes he taken as testimony for the 
readings of the cited pialika.s The like was sanl ip. Ixxni) of the mss. of 
the Aiuikramanis 'fhe m^s. <*f the Kaiitjka (of HkiomfieKl’s Introduction, 
p. x\\i\) are wont to agree with of the Vuigate, e\en in obvious 

Grouping of mantra-material in Sutra and in Samhita compared. — Many 
in.stance.s might he adiluced from the K.uKjka which may w’ell have a 
direct hearing upon our judgment coiKeinmg the uniiary character of 
hymns that ap|>eai as units in our text. To cite or discuss them here 
wouUl t.ike us too far afieUl, and I must content myself once more with a 
suggestion, namely, that a systematic stiuly of the grouping of the mantra- 
material in the ritual, as compaicil with its gumiung in the l^unhita, ought 
to he undertaken. At Kainj 2‘). 1-14 the veises of A\ . v. 13 are brought 
in for use, all of them and in their \’ulgate ortler. The like is true of 
AV. ix. 5. 1-6 at Kaiic; 64 6-1O. Whether it would lead to clear-cut 

' See his sevrn ( , fo the /•<' / . •• / d »‘ 1 »"» p- liis Hymns 

tAe Ay. (.SUE. xlii.), .inU hii rc\i< w .'1 C.iUiul ^ rfit.i.i/ Kckhric .Vnzi-igeii, 

1902, no. 7) 

* Sec hw Aliinditehes /.aubet ntn.xiy .invl his eight /.#» h xtn.i Kntik Jer n/ne.ii n 

SUfriU (ZDMG. li.-I\ii.). Of the p.ipcis, those nioM iinp.Mt.uit lor the K.iuvika are the ones 
contained in vol liii. SeeaUoW/KM \iii .^6; 

• See Uloomfield'** note, SHE. xlii 55S ; Whitneys introduction to mi 71, and the note added 
by me at p. 440, top ; and Caland’-t note 5 to paf;o los; of hi*. A:M..rntuji Hymn 76 of the 
Serlin ed. is in no wise a unity i'ce the intri»diKiiun thereto. 


Gau ral Introduction, Part L : by the Editor 

results is doubtful ; but the relation of the two groupings is a matter no 
loss important than it is obscure. The obscurity is especially striking in 
book xviii., where the natural order of the component rites of the long 
funeral ceioinony is wholly disregarded by the diaskeuasts in the actual 
arrangLMiieiU of the verses pi the Saiiihita. Thus .xviii. 4. 44, which acconi- 
panie!> the taking of the corpse on a cart to the pyre, ought of course to 
precede wiii. 2. 4, which accompanies the act ol setting fire to the pile. 
See my remark, below, page 870, lines 7 q, and my discussion, pages 
870 I, of •* Part III." and “Part V." ol wiii. 4. As is noted at xviii. 
I 40 and 1 i, the lituil group of verses that accompany the oblations to 
Varna m the cremation-ceremony wholly disregauls even .so important a 
division as that between two successive f?;///:wi{v/-hymns. It is pointed 
out on p S48 that verse bo xviii. 3 is wulely .separated from what 
appe.irs (most manifestly and from various iritena) to be its fellow, to wit, 
verse 0 

Many difficulties of the KAuqika yet unsolved. -- It will very likely 
appear that Whitney has misumlerstood the Kau«,ik.i here and there ; as 
also, on the other hand, he has in fact heie and theie corruted the text 
or the interpretation of (i.irbc or of lUoiunfKld. At the time of Whit* 
ney’s ileath, liloomtield's chief toiUi ibutions (SBIC. \Iii ) to the inter[)re- 
t.ition of K.uupka had not yet appeared, nor yet tliose of C'al.ind As I 
have more than once saul, no one ought to be so well able to give a tiiist- 
worthy translation of a diftisult te.\t as the who lus made a gotul 
edition of it ; and for this reason one must 1 egret that Hloomlield did not 
give us -in the natural .sequence of the as gfxnl a version as 
he was at the time able to make*, in.stead of the lietachi'd bits of inter- 
pretation which are scattered through thi* notes of SHI-!. \lii. C'aland 
obMrrves, in the introduction to his /iiubcrntiui!, p I\’, that in ii.sing the 
K."iiii;ika he soon found that, in order to comprehend e\en a single 
passage, it is necessary to work through the whole book. 'Ihe like is, 
of c<jurse, equally true of the Pratii^akhya. A commentator upon the 
Simhita who wishes (is <lid Whitney) to combine in his comment the 
best ot all that the subsi»liary treatises have to offer, cannot of course 
stop to settle, en passant, a multitude of questions any one of which may 
require the investigition of a spcci.ilist. Thus Whiyiey, in hi.s note to 
X 5.6, said in his ms. for the |)rinter, “The K.iui,'. quote.s the common 
prdtika of the six verses at 49 3, in 11 witchcraft-Ceremony, in connection 
with the releasing of a bull." If Calami i.s right {/auhemtnai, p. 171), 
the hocus-pocus with the “water-thunderbolts" does not begin until 
49 3, and the sviiViun is to be loincd to the preceding sutra (ZDMG. 
Ini 211), and the letting loose of the bull (40. 1 ) has nothing to do with 
the uses of x. 5. This is just the kind of error which we cannot fairly 

8 . fhc l^du^ikcL^Sutra ami the V'ditduarSulya Ixxvii 

blame Whitney for making. Special difficulties of this sort should have 
been settled for him by the siltra-specialists, just as he had settled the 
special difficulties of the l*ralK,akhya when he edited that text. 

Value of the ritual Sfltras for the exegesis of the Saihhita. — ICstimates 
of the value of these Sutras as casting light upon the original meaning 
of the mantras have dilfer* »l and wdl perhaps continue to dilfer. The 
opinion has even been held by a most eminent scholar that there is, on 
the whole, very little in the Kaii(,ika which really elucidates the Samhita, 
and that the Kauc^ika in the main a f.ibrication rather than a collection 
of genuine popular practices. '1 he principal question here is, not whether 
this opinion is right or wrong, but rather, tt) what extent is it right or 
wrong. It is, for example, hanl to suppi»se that, upon the occasion con- 
templated in kaiidik.i 79 of the Kaiujka, a young Hindu, still in the hey- 
day of the blood, would, at sulIi an appro.iLh o! a tbmax of feeling as is 
implied in the acts from the titlpuioLana to the actual nidlinvana f79* 9) 
inclusive, tolerate — whether patiently f*r irnpitiently — siu h an accom- 
paniment of a.s is prescribed in suiras 4 to 9 Whatever j)hilo- 
logical pertinence may be made out foi them of Wintney’s note to xiv. 
2. 64), their natural impertinence to the business in hand seems almost 

'fo this it may be arisweiad that the' Sutra often represents an ideal 
presciiption or f e; >t //;//>,* comj)ii.ince with whieh was not expected 

by any one, save on cert.un c« oc< isnms, the < xtremc f«>rmality 
of which was duly ensured in elabot itc pri paralmn and the presence of 

The data of the Kaueika no sufficient warrant for dogmatism in the 
exegesis of the SamhitA. - rin-ie is e\«i\ i^on to suppose that the 
actual text of the sarnbitris i^ uften a fragmentaiy and laulty rcct)rci of 
the antecedent (I will n«'t ''ay tu d trauilion ; .ind that the 

slari/as as w'c find them* <ttcn b* en d*‘-ioi iteo and natural 

sef|ucncc' faulted bv the .ivtmn *4 the <0 e'ki u ists. It ’s moreover 
palpable that questions of origin il seqiu kcc. so lar i.oni being cleared up, 
arc often complicated all the more by tin' compaii''on c't the ^cijucncL s •)! 
the texts (see j) 1 \\\ ; In lh«'''C iii\s of i quo li I'cl aiiil communi- 

cation, it is hal'd t<^ireali.<’ tin* isoi.ition of the 
and country districts ( ) in antiquity. 

Imban \iliagcs ( 
1 h it Isolation tended to 

* 1 ow« thin siujj^oMU’n rr«'f< *"■‘•1 K •'( \\h ’ *:.:i 

chapter ill hand and wa-. '•o kind i" 1 » t.-tm/i* e » • le j'Oi. « 
cited, he told me of the verses pii*"! r.l-td l.»i U'*- 1 » l.o.d« i.,i iiitiiu* k1 

Mr*n inj: '■*•> imlt xnli !»• n '* W«’S 
* \!l.t/l U st» s “ ‘ 

I inj'* in.; h.ith n nr n 
In < n’lios Narii n. Amen. 

*.1 whiV* I h.itl till'* 

*ii» t'lL* V. l''l* tll'i »\ o 

i.tMint /in/cJuK'if 

Ixxviii General IntroiUiction, Part /. ; by the Editor 

conserve the individuality of the several localities in respect of the details, 
for example, of their nuptial ami funeral customs; so that the local 
diversities are sometimes expressly mentioned \uccai'ac& janapadadharmd 
^rivnadhannac ca : A(iS. i. 7 ‘). Astonishin;;!)’ conservative as India is 
^sco my remaiks in Kaipuramaftjan, p. J06, 2, p. 231, note 2), it can 

nevertheless not he iloubtful that her customs have chan^jed in the time 
from the ilate tif the hymns to that of the ritual books. Kvidcntly, there 
are divers ‘;enoral consiilerations which militate stron^^dy against much 
dogmatism in the treatment of these matters.* 

Integer vitae as a Christian funeral-hymn. — During the last twenty-four 
years, I have often been called to the Univetsily Chapel to pay the last 
tribute of respect to one or another departeil colhMgue or friend. On 
such occasi«)ns, it fre(|uently happens that the chapel choir sings tlie first 
two stan/as of the Iloralian oile (i. 22), r/A/t* to 

the .solemn and stately music of Friediich I*\idinand b'lemming. Indeed, 
so frequent is the employment of these wools and this music, t^hat one 
might almost call it a part of the “ Funeral ( )ilice aftei the Harvard Use.” 
The original occasion of the t)de, ami the relation of Horace tti Ari.stius 
Fuscus to whom it is addressed, are tairly wrll known. The lofty rnoial 
sentiment of the two sian/is, Innvevrr seriously Ib*i ice may h.ive 
entertiined it, i'* doubtle^^ iittcrcil in thi‘» «*Mnmctinn in a t<>ne of niock- 
solernnity, Fven this fact need n<'i mar tor iis the tender associations 
made possible by the intrinsic appiopn itimes-^ of these two pred'hristian 
.star./!a-s for their employment in a t’hiistiin liturgy ot the twentieth cen- 
tury. Hut suppose for a moment tin. choir were to continue singing 
on to the cml, even to Lahi.^tn amiibo, •tube ' what p.aljviblc, 

whit monstnms ine|)titmle ! If iinly the first two stan/as were extant, 
and not the rem lining four also, we might never evam suspect Horace of 
any arricre-pens< e in writing them; and if we were to interpret them 
simply in the light of their rnoilern ritual use, h«)w far we should bo from 
ap[>rehending tluir original connection an«l motive! 

Secondary adaptation of mantras to incongruous ritual uses. — Let no 
one say that this ca'>e is no fair parallel to what may have happened in 
India. On the contrary : instances - -- in no clouhtfiil and not a whi^ 
less striking — of secondary adaptation of a mantra t# similarly incongru- 
ous iise.s in the ritual may there be founfl in plenty. This sccondtry 
association of a given mantra with a given practice has often been 

1 ( iLiml'n sketch of the f'lncril riten U .i mo^t pMincworthy .nnd interesting one, and hii 
d' '■f r.pi. tri of tl»*- practices w!»i. h in ihi.r*; sets fi^rth m orderly and huid ^teriucnce it well worth 
the while l^iit his dcv ripiu.iis .in- t.iken from m.iny tourcea differing widely in place and llmej 
and ir is on many ^paindt l^1pro^l!•lc that the ritual as he there depkta it waa ever carried out 
in .'iny given i>Lice at any given tiriv' 


hLUU^ika~ Sutra aud the V^di tana- Sutra 

determined by some most superficial semblance of verbal pertinence in the 
mantra, when in fact the mantra had no intrinsic and essential pertinence 
to the practice whatsoever. J-or examide. C(;s. prescribes the verse 
liksan for use when the bride -rcases the axle of the weddin^c-car ; here, 
I think, there can be no doubt * that the prescription has been surliestcd 
by thc.surfacc resemblance of akutn ‘they have eaten’ to ^axle.' 

Or, again, to ^akc an example whit h has been interestingly treated by 
Jdoomhcld, the verses xiv. 2 5<; O2 doubtless referred originally to the 
mourning women, who. with dishe\elled hair, w.uled and danced at a 
funeral l and they we*ie presuiiKibly used uri;;in:iljy as an expiation for 
such noisy proceedings. Secondatiiy. they have been adapted f(»r use in 
connection with the wedding ceremonies, “in case a wading arises" and 
doubtless for no better reason than that th.ev i.«mlamed the word for 
“wailing , anil they have atconlingly be«*n j^laccd bv the diaskeuasts 
among the wediling vers. s. wher.- we now find them. Sec Bloomfield, 
Ajr. xi. 341, 338: and if vii 46^,. 

9, Readings of the Kashmirian or Paippalada Recension of the 
Atharva-Veda Sarahita 

General relations of this recension to the Vulgate or Qaunakan recension.- 
Just as, on the <jne hand, liio minute flufercnces between two chisely 
related manuNcripts (»l tlu.* s.une iciensioii (loi example, between Whit- 
ney’s 1*. aiirl M 1 iejua>enl upon a \ei\ smali stale the results of human 
t.illibility, so, upon tlie other hand, (!•> the miiltiiudinous and pervading 
differences between llio reatlings of the manuscripts of the Vul- 
gate and those of the biich-baik mamisciipt oi the K.ishmirian recension 
truly represent in like manner the f.dlihility of human tradition, but on a 
very large seale. 'I lu’ r.iun ikan o* X’ulgate recensiun icpre.^ents one 
result of the selective pioi^ess, by whith the Indiin diaskeuasts took from 
the great mass of nnntia-matenal behm-mg to the oral t.adilion of 
their school a certain amount, anangmg it in a aider: the Kash- 
mirian recension lepresonls .mother .md very dilferont icsult of a similar 

Since the birch kyrk manuscript has thus far maintained its character 
as 4 unique, wc shall perhaps never know’ how lrui\ it leprescnts the best 
Kashmirian tradition of Hiis Veda; it is quite possddo tlial that tradition 
was vastly superior to the written rctlex tlicri.of wiiuh we possess in the 

* 1 had htsitatingly ad^aiKCil this 'vK-w. in in> n-ac to xvjm j m ; ami I am pleased 
to see now that Bloomfield had uiihesii.oinuly fjntn it .is hi-* . un t-pinum 1- hifore. at AJT. 
xi. 34». 

• Further reference is made to these general rel.iii<*ns below, at p loi 

Ixxx General Introduction^ Part L : by the Editor 

birch-bark manuscript, and which, although excellcilt in many places, is 
extremely incorrect in very many. Systematic search will doubtless 
reveal the fact that the Paippalada recension, even in the defective form 
in which it has come down to us, often presents as its variant a reading 
which is wholly different, but which, as a sense-equivalent, yields nothing 
to the Vulgate in its claim tor genuineness and originality : thus Tor the 
Vulgate readings tatas (x. 3. 8), iyaya (x. 7. 31), yd ca (x. 8. lO), ksif^dm 
(xii. I. 35). iipna i\i (\ii. 4 38), respectively, the Paipp. presents the sense- 
equivalents tasmdt^ yotOt osani, slikI y^r/ii\ui. 

The material selected by the makers of the two recensions is by no ' 
means coinciilent. The Kashmirian text is more rich in Hrahmana pas- 
sages and in charms and incantations than is the Vulgate.^ The coinci- 
dent material, moreover, is arranged in a very different order in the two 
recensions (cf. p 1015); and it will appear in the sequel that even th# 
coincident material, as between the Kashmirian and the Vulgate forms 
thereof, exhibits manifold differences of reading, and that the Kashmirian 
readings are much oftener pejoralions than survivals of a more intelligent • 

This, however, is not always the case : thus, of the two recensions, the 
Kashmirian has the preferable reading at xii. 2. 30 d. Or again, at v. 2. 8 
and XIV. i. 22. the Kashmirian recension agrees with the Rig*\'eda, as the Vulgate, and, at xi 2 7, with the Katha reading. In this 
connection it is interesting to note that the conjectures of Roth and 
Whitney for the desperate nineteenth book are often confirmed in fact 
by the Kashmirian readings : in.slances may be found at xi.x. 27. 8 ; 32.4, 

5, 8; 44 2; 3 (two); 53 5; 56.4. 

The unique birch-bark manuscript of the Pdippaldda text. ^ This is 
described by (iarbe in his as No. 14. It consisted of nearly 

three hunrlred leaves, of which two arc lost and eight or more are defec- 
tive They vary in height from i.|. to 21 centimeters; and in width, 
from n to 16; and contain from 13 to 23 lines on a page. The ms. is 
dated s vni'iit 95, without statement of the century. If the year 4595 of ' 
the K ishmirian loka kdla is meant, the dale woulil appear to be not far 
from .\.i) 1519. A description of the ms, with a brief characterization 
of some of it> fieciili iiitic'^, wis givi;n by Roth at Florence in Sep. 1878, 
and is jiublished in the Atti tit'i / V Con^risso inUrmzionale dcgli Orien- 
taUsti, ii Now that the facsimile is published, further details arc 

uncalled for, A specimen of the plates of the fac.simile is given in the 
latter volume of this work. The plate chosen is No. 341 and gives the 
obverse of folio 187, a page from which have been taken several of 
the illustrative cxamplr,s in the paragraphs which follow. 

* So Rolh in Ihc Attt (p 95), as cited on this page. 

9. Readings of the Kashmirian or Paippalada Recension Ixxxi 

Roth’i l^hmirian nAgari transcript (Nov. i874).-A nagari copy of 
the original birch-bark manuscript was made at ^rinagara in 1873 This 
copy is No. 16 of Garbe's Verzeu/nuss, and we may call it Roth’s Kash- 
mirian nagarf transcript. It came into Roth’s hands at the end of 
November, 1874. The year of its making appears from Roth’s essay 
Der Athanuiveda in Kaschmy, pages 13-14; and the date of its arrival 
in fubingen. from p. ii of the same essay. With great promptness 
Roth gave an account of it in his essay, just mentioned, which was pub* 
lished as an appen<lix to an invitation to the academic celebration of the 
birthday (March 6 , 1875) of the king' — It would appear that Roth’s 
Kashmirian transcript was not the only one made from the birch-bark 
original in India . S. I . I andit seems aN*) to have harl one ; for he cites 
the Paippalada in his edition, vol. iv., p 369 "I^ie copy used by him is 
■doubtless the nagaii copy procured b\ Ibihler. and listed as VlII. i of 
the collection of 1875 76. on p. of the Catalogue of the Deccan Col- 
lege manuscripts. See also (laibes I tyzctc/tmsSf under Xo. 17, for the 
description of another copy (imornplete) 

Arrival of the birch-bark original in 1876 at Tubingen. — The original 
seems to have come into Roth’s han<ls in the early summer of 187C. 
The approximate date of its arinal appears from Whitney’s note to 
p. xiii of the pamphlet containing the lYoceedings of the Am. Oriental 
Society at the meetings»)f May and Nov , 1875. and May, 1876 (= JAGS. 
X., p. cxix) : “ Pioceedmgs |tbat i*;. the pamphlet just mentioned] 
arc going through the press, it i.s learned from Profes<?nr Roth that the 
original of the Devanagari copy, an old ainl .somewhat damaged ms. in 
the Kashmir alphabet, on highly fragile leaves of birch-bark, has reached 
him, being loaned by the Cjo\ eminent of India, \\hich ha<l obtained 
possession of it. It coirects its copy m a host of places, but also has 
innumemblc errors of its own. It is accented only lure and there, in 

Roth’s Collation (ended, June, i884> of the Paippalada text — This is 
WfUten on four-page sheets of note-paper numbereil from i to 44 (but 
sheet 6 has only two pages) ; the pages measure about 5*.- x 8?. inches, 
and there are some 9 supplementary pages (^^ee p. l\\\ii. top), sent in 
answer to specifi*' inquiries of Whitney. As appears from the colo- 
phon added by Roth (see below, p. 1009), this Collation was finished 
June 25, 1884. Since Roth's autograph transcript descnbetl in the next 
paragraph was not made until some months later, I .see little chance of 
error in my assuming that Roth made his Collation for Whitney from his 
Kashmirian nagarT transcript, and that he used the birch-bark original to 

' My copy of Roth's esnay j;iven me by my tcacluT. the .'luihor. Keb 20 , 1S75 


General Introduciion^ Pari /. ; by the Editor 

some extent to control the errors of the copy.* Occasional suspicions 
of error in the Collation were not unnatural, and they led Whitney to 
ask Roth to reexamine the manuscript upon certain doubtful points. 
Whitney’s t|iicstions extend over books i. to v., and others were noted, 
but never sent. Roth’s answers form a valuable supplement to his • 
Collation, and end in April, 1S94. # 

Roth’s autograph nSgari transcript (Dec. 1884). — The end of the Colla- 
tion which Roth made for Whitney was reached, as just stated, June 25, 
1S84 After the following summer vacation, Roth made a new transcript 
from the birch-bark, as appears from his letter to Whitney, dated Jan. 1 1, 
iSi)^: “Von habe ich devMn.lg.iri Abschiift, aber nicht voll- 
standig. Die nut Vulgat.i gleichlautcnden Verse, die niir durch Fehicr 
I^ckol erregen, habe ich bios citiert, / H. die vielen aus RV., nehme mir 
aber doch vielleicht noch die Miihe, sic nachziitragen. Ich habe an dcr 
Abschrilt unenmidlich vom 19. Sept, bis 2S. l)e/. 18S4 gcschrieben und 
ilie>e Leistung als eine ungewohnliche botrachtet.” This transcript is 
doubtless far more accurate than the one used for the Collation. The 
badness of the latter and the fragility of the birch-bark original were 
doubtless the reasons that dctermineil Roth to nuke his autograph nagari 
transcript : .see p. Ixxw, top. 1^- *® 45 *j 

The facsimile of the Tubingen birch-bark manuscript (19011. — A mag- 
niheent facsimile of the birch-baik manuscript has now been publi.shed by 
the care and enterprise of Hloomtield and (r.irbe “ I he technical perfection 
of the work is such as to show with marvellous clearncs.s not only every 
stroke of the writing and every correction, but even the most delicate 
veinings of the bark itself, with its injuries and patches. Kven if other 
things were equal, the facsimile is much better than the original, inas- 
much as a cop\ of each one of 544 cx(|uisitely clear and beautiful chromo- 
photographic plates, all conveniently bound and easy to hanille and not 
easily injured ami accessible in many public and private libraries through- 
out the world, is much more serviceable than the unique original, 

* In soriR . I- ■», fn^rr.cnt*. r.f the hiuh bark seem to have Ixrome lost after Roth's 
Ka^finuri ill trnisifipt h niaU**, that the butor, ami tli*’ iw*) iilhcr Indian topics 

riif ‘1 'in p Ixxxi, thus I»c»''njc m'W i>ur only rt:Ii.ini,c Ihun for axiX'rdhat the Nul- 
.It L 2 ) 3 b, l\o»h rcj>'»rta as T iipp .variant .ind adds •* nur in dcr Almhiift 

iorh.inrif n ' I hi^ in.i^i h.ivf on the prior half of line 12 of folio jbof the blrch*bark 

tu' . bun p>b''.c of It th* p* br k-n out 

'■'I ho K.ishrni*«,in \’.a V. «!.i (Srhool <»f the f.iippal.ldaH) Reproduced by chromo- 
photography fr-'m ih»: rnanu-enpt in the I nivrrsiiy labrary at Tubingen Ldited under the 
au^piLO'. of the j-ibn** Ifopkins rnu^-puty in llaliimore and of the Royal Kberhard-Karlt^ 

\ niver'ity in Tuj»int;ni, Wurtttmbcri.*, by Maurice llloomficld, Professor In the Johns Uopkins 
University, .ind Kirhard G.»rl»c, Prof- w,r in the I'niversily of Tubingen. Haltimore. The 
f.-.hns Hopkins Pre^'« 1901 Ihe technical work by thi; firm of Martin Rommel & Co., 

9. Readings of tfte Kashmirian or Paippalada Recension Ixxxiii 

written on leaves of birch-bark. fragile with age. easily injured, requiring 
the utmost caufon m handHng, and accordingly practically inaccessible 
excep to a very few persons: but other things are not equal; for the 
transitory advantap of the brilliantly heightened contrast of color which 
.s gained by wetting the birch-bark original. an,l which passes away as 
soon as the leaf is dry, is convene,! into a permanent advantage by the 
chromophotograph, o process, in which the plates are made from the 
freshly wetted original. Moreover, the owner of a facsimile is at liberty 
to use ,t at home or wherever he pleases, and to mark it (with pen Jr 
pencil) as much as he please.s. The facsimile may therefore truly be said 
to be in many respects preferable to the oii;;inal. 

Roth's Illation not exhaustive. Now "h.a the superb facsimile is 
published, it is possible for a competent critic t.) test R.jth’s Collation in 
respect l. of its completeness, and 2 of its accuracy. As, first, for its 
completeness, it is sutficiently ap|)aient fnjrn several c.xpressions used by 
Roth,Mhat he saw plainly that it ^^ould be the heip^ht of unuisdom to 
give with completeness the Kashmirian variants as incidental to a work 
like this one of \\ hitney’s, whose main s( ope is very much broader. Roth 

was a man who had a clear sense of the relative value of thin^i;s a sense 

of intellectual persficctive , atul he was iifjht 

Faults of the birch-bark manuscript. - The hirch-hark manuscript is 
indeed what wo may call in Hindu phrase a v^Titab.c ‘ mine of the jewels 
of false readinj^s and blunders.* an a book in 

which the student may find rKhIy-a]>fiiindin" ami most instinctive illus- 
trations of perhaps every class of erior discussed by the formal treatises 
on text-criticism. I bu.s it fairly sw'arm.s with cases of haplof^raphy (the 
letters assumed, on the evidence ».f the Wil-ate, to be omitted, arc given 
in brackets) : Mm (lut jv/A- sttrittvhrU SNihit :nt\ abhi sau carema : 

i/uuva dhntVii prat i {ttUtJia p/o , folio 54 b < r- m. i c. d, 2 a , lasatkdn' 
yathd yai^ah : \yatha jwpM ] spmapuJu, lolio iV" \ 3. 22 t, 21 a; 
adi/jT i,t lnrca]XsaM\ folio iS;a‘ - \. 3 iSb; apa sttdtm- uisama- 
thain pfothtim uta [/a\<l'aiam^ fi,Iio i5Sb * \i\ 50 5 b Confusions as 
between surd and sonant (cf p 740. p. 57) and between aspiiate and non- 
aspirate and between long aiul short vowels are so common as hardly to 
be worth reporting : cf. //.vi/vr ;//<■ pan dkt'hi striart latn audkasah^ which 
IS found at folio 1 5S b’ -= xin. 50 7 a, b, ami e\emplI^ic^ all three cases 

* Such are : *• Vefie, die nur dun h IVhIcr I'vUcl frrfc»*n 7 ’ p Ixxxii •• On x trouxe. il e^t xrax, 
tr^rUmnes parties, mais d'autresi sont txlU'mcnt difi^juncs, qu'tMi a hes-nn do cunjeeturcs 

sani nombre pour arriver ^ 1111 textr Attt^ p 9<), “das Kai'doixxeKch." “j^anze Zeilen 

»o unsicher dast mart *»icht einma) die Wortrr trennen kann." p Ixxxxi 

* To Judge from Jfrdar^ lor sUH*im, \\v mipht suppove ihat the ni>« . ; ihis point xxas written 
down by a scribe at the dictation of a icxitrr xxith .1 bad cold in hi> head 

Ixxxiv General Introduction^ Pari L: by the Editor 


{dh for dy / for i, k for — Of variety in the character of the Kash- 
mirian variants there is no lack. Thus wc see the omission of a needed 
twin consonant (of. p. 832) in yad \it\andfnay folio 91 b 5 = v. 5.41; inter- 
esting phonetic spellings in mahiyam of folio 264 b for mahyam of 
iii. 15. I d, ami in e tc ratriy anadvahas of folio 158 a *7 for ye /4 rdtry 
anativdhas of xix. 50. 2 a ; inversion in the order of words in me k§atram 
ca rasthram ca of folio 187 a 4 = x. 3. 12 c. Not one of these examples was 
rcpoited, though probably all were noticed, by Roth. In his Collation 
for V. 6, he notes for verses 1 1-14 “ unwescntliche Differenzen/* without 
specifying them. We may regret his failure to re|>ort such an interesting 
reading as yathaham ^atnihdsan}\ folio 3 b *4, where ^tUndnl is a correct 
equivalent of the ^atruhas of the Vulgate, i. 29. 5 c ; but with such a blun- 
der as asihii in the very next word, and such grammar as ayam vacah in 
the preceding pada, we cannot blame him. In an incomplete collation, 
there is no hard and fast line to be drawn between what shall be reported 
and what shall not. 

Collation not controlled by constant reference to the birch-bark ms. — 

Secondly, as for the accuracy of Roth’s Collation in the valiants which 
he docs give, — I do not suppose that Roth attempted to control his 
Kashmirian na^ari transcript (No. 16, Gaibe) on which he based his 
Collation, by constant reference to the original. Thus far, I have hardly 
come upon inaccuracies myself ; but it is not improbable that occasional 
slips ' on his part may yet come to light. It is proper here, therefore, 
partly by way of antitipating ill-considered criticism, to explain the 

Such reference would have ruined the birch-bark ms. — .As any one can 
see from the table, pages 1018 to 1023, the Kashmiiian corre.spondcnts 
of the Vulgate verses are to be fouml in the birch-baik manuscript in an 
entirely different order. Thus, if we lake for e.xamplc the six Vulgate 
Verges iii 12 1,6, 8; 13. i ; 14. i ; 15. i, we shall find their Kashmirian 
correspondtuits at the fi»lIowing places (leaf, side, line) rcspettively : 
54 b 276 b 7 , 225 a ‘o, 50 a «, 32 b \ 264 b 5 . I'rom this it is evident that 
the mechanital process of referring, as one procectl.s verse by verse through 
the Vulgate, to the parallel verses of the birch -bark original, for the pur- of cliecking step by slc|) the transcript used fof the Collation, would 
have involved an amount of handling of the fragile birch-bark leaves 
(nearly V)0 in number) which would have ruined them. The leaves arc 
now about 400 years old, and some idea of their fragility may be gained 
from the remarks in the preface to the facsimile, page II. It was doubt- 
less this flifficulty that impressed upon Roth the necessity of making a 
copy which should be at once accurate, and also stropg enough to endure 

* .Sij« h an turyam at p xxjcvi, foot-note. 

9. Readings of the Kadiminan or Paippalada Recension Ixxxv 

handling without injury. To copy the birclvbark leaves in their proper 
order is a process by which they r,ee<l suffer no harm ; and this is pre- 
cisely what Roth did (see p L\xxii> as soon as possible after finishim^ the 
pressing task of making the Collation for Whitney. S.c ,, "04- I 

Car# taken in the use of Roth’s Collation. Word-division. - In carrying 
this work through the press. I have constantly and with the most .scrupu- 
lous pains utilized Roth’s original Collation and his .supplementary notes 
thereto, endeavoring thus to check any errors conec^rning the* Kashmirian 
readings that might have ciept into \\ hiineys copx for the printer Since 
Roth S system of transliteration diffi is consukiably frcjin Whitney’s, the 
chances for mistakes aiising thiongh confusion of the two systems were 
numerous ; and I have taken due c.ire axoul them It may here be 
noted that Whitney’.s SNSlem !iansl,tr,ates anu-^vaia before a labial by 
and not by />/,* but in printing the K.i'' leadings, I have 
followed the (kdlation in rc iuleiing final ami-\aia by (or ;/), save before 
vowels. Tuithermore. in making use of Roth’s Collation, Whitney has 
habitually atlemfiled to efte« t a satisfactory uord-duision In many 
cases this is hardly prac'tn .d)le ; <ind 111 sueh c ise*s it was probably a 
mistake to attem]jt it. hor c \amj"h*s. one may consult the leadings at 
V 2t). 2/sy(i/<itno , vi. .n J, , i(M) i, /irrn.tZi} jtt/i : \2i) 3, irJi'se 

stn/*ita/i intending <n-, mi. i. //;;/<; ;.//],». intending (ij-. 

The Kashmirian readings have not been verified diiectly from the fac- 
simile by the editor.- .\s the f.u simile ai>peaied m Kioi, it is proper for 
me to give a reason for my |uoce<lure in this mdtter In fact, both my 
editorial work and the printing were \eiy far advance<:- in tool, so that 
a change of method would m ilself have been cjucstionablo ; but an 
onlirc^^y sutricient and indecsl a compelling le.ison is to be found in the 
fact that it would have bc*en and sull is a t.isk rc*qiiiring very much labor 
and time to find the precise place of the paiallcl of any given 
verse of the \ uigalc*, a task \>hiih can no moie be done c// than 

can the task of editing a l’i.di«^akh) a, all this apait fiom the difhcultics 
of the CaracU alphabet. 

Provisional means for finding Vulgate verses in the facsimile. Whitney 
noted in pencil in his C'ollation-Hook. opposite c.ich \’ulgate [Mss.igc hav- 
ing a Kashmirian paiallel, the number of the led' of the Kashmirian text 
on which that parallel is buind, adtling o lu h to me.ieate the obverse or 
the reverse of the leaf. These mimbeis iindouhtedlv n fer to the leaves 
of Roth's Kashmirian ti.inscripl (No 16. (kubei liom which Roth 

* I am ftorry to ob«c^rvc that tlu- lhir<l <p'"'ihunioii’*l oiiitn n 'f < »i iinm ir 51'' -o) 

miMepreaentA him upra thin point 

• The main part f»f ihi* IxmiK \ m i\p»* an .is p.ipr '>1 \ {\i i 12) in l>cc 1901 1'he 
remainder (aa far at p. icxjy, the riul) was in i\pc Dec. 13. kjc'j. 


General Introductions Part /. .* by the Editor 

made his Collation ; but as there was no prospect of their being of any 
use, Whitney has not given them in this work. 

One ot Roth’s first tasks, after the arrival of the birch-bark original, 
was doubtless to find the place therein corresponding to the beginning of 
each leaf of his Kashmirian nagaii transcript. These places he hat indi- 
cated by writing over them on the side margin of the bark leaf 
the number of the leaf (with a or of that tran.sciipt. 

This was most fortunate ; for the added numbers, in Rolh*s familiar 
handwriting, although sometimes faint or coveretl up by a patch used in 
repairing the eilges of the hark leaf, are for the most part entirely legible 
in the taesimile : and it has given me much pleasure during the last few 
days I to-day is April 21, 19041 to assure myself of the fact which I had 
prevlou^I\ surmised, that these pencilled numbers aifoid us an exceed- 
ingly u>efiil, albeit roundabout, means t>f finding the |)lace of any Kash- 
mirian parallel in the facsimile, — usetul at least until they arc superseded 
by the hoped-for edition of an accurate tiansliteralion t»f tlie facsimile 
with marginal references to the Vulgate Whitmy’s pencilleil reference- 
numbers were arranged by Dr. Ryder in the torm of a table, which I 
ha\e recast and given below • see pag«‘s 1013 If 

What ought an “edition of the Kashmirian text to be?— This question 
was privately discussed by Whitney ami Roth in the letters^ e\changed 
between them in iS‘)3. W'hitney hoped that all was peculiar to the 
Kashmirian te\t might be printed in ti.insliteration in the Kashmirian 
order and interspersed \ith references to the Vulgate parallels of the 
remainder, also in the Kashmirian order, the whole In form an appendix 

I l’: acr' f ( I, Whiint*) "Why n* t a I’iipp text, as an 

appendix '■) otir v- lume • 'otir the woik;, noiinn m rlirir oictcr ihe 

paM’.l I pa^«a4*s hy luf'fcnre anU wniin,' .ml in t-rl, intcispfrMul uith !h»> furmcr, the 
r-i-inin*: r ' !<■ th makr-s r, M irvh M r.ur A..hs< hen, Ihrc ('irxiiiiU- 

h»..i -V > 1 i.’-'o '“I .'.a \ lit", ism a IS W • ik /•; l.mlf zu fuhr» n W < il i!.i^ .il.< r all ein ^lut kin. her 
hall / I ’'"'ra* ! i-t. "ii. hi iN » '.n" .-i. hcii* V’'»! iis'-^irlit, wuHs. hl»* u h a!ic Krs* hwerunj^en, 
alio am 'i* ’. -n irur ’ili.>n r.ii|' k.*c i,Mn/iiLh Iw^^citigt »u when** 

f , i». -xpr. the pe that K- ;h nu) rt- .r.-i.I* r the matter, I l>ecause "a 

t* \l of s .. h prinur , Siu; .ot.inv *4 .1 ir.'l muil f e p'il ii'-ht'!. in ''p:te "f t»'Xliial » ontlltion," 
and 3 h*. .1 thr-S" I.!;. ^o ,u I in --tc. no other .ippori .ni'> pi» ilsclf of producing 
It s j ni 'e-tl. an I .Tij.f.t :i*!in.;l' . r i.i a nitthod .itiap;»d l'> iis iinjieife' t st.ite theixcasion Is 
an id-- il or,. ” \l-.i \ a.., «. r>, I .I-, 2 ** Mem liel'or hr- und. d is isi k»’in i rfreiilicher ilcricht, 

welLlien I'.* . m !'• f »:ii r lire I ilchni-v: iist.iilct T nd uh .scho lumcntUch 

(!.irau^, da-.s "s!.: ii.m i ,, .’ijid vj, »i fr»' d .'ti h il>en, ilie dnri ii I'eliimg im !.• ideti kommt. . . . 
In I i"i.r A‘i .^i*^** >’ .' I i!p[> sr. 'is ('•dru'kt werdeii, \on A Ins /. . Wie wird 

s:Mi las K i nltru- : . h 4. kt » «innial 

< e \*fr ire-T.-n kai.n l»n in ein, w ih )a d.i^ cinrix# Verdien*.t w.trc. diirfle min 

11.' hi . I '.r Si', d'" I m/,ii{'. . 4 .ii;'.nH'*-imc S -rge in ilnsem Au/^enhikk lein, wicdir 
^'‘sund /It \i"rd> n, .d« ilie zu* re, d* n Athar\ati tins I.nht zu bringen.*' -- Whitney 
wra*s, Auj» ?5 “ I jpr.'* up with relm.i.»n»" the hofp of the further inclusion of Plipp. in out 
rditiuii; Lut 1 will not o'ithi.r yo.i further uith remonstrances or luggestioni." 

9. Readings of the Kashmirian or Paippaldda Recension Ixxxvii 

to the present work Roth’s hope was that Whitney’s stren^ah „,i„ht 
hold out long enough for him to finish this work without such^a burden- 
some addition. Ne. her ho,u- fulfills ; and at that time, doubtless, 
even the thought of a facsimile reproduction was not seriously enter- 
tamed. Bloomfield s difficult task of securing the needed funds once 
accomphshed, the next st.-p, un^pu stionaldy. was to issue the facsimile 
without any accessory matter That too is now an accomplished fact; 
bu the facsimile, apart its large ,.aleographic interest, is still, in 
default of certain accessories, a work of extremelv limited usefulness 
As to what should ne.\t be, f h,,ve no doubt 

I. A rigorously precise transliteration — First, the whole te.vt, from A 
to izzard (as Roth says), shouKI be printed m a rigoroudv precise trans- 
literation. Conventional marks (other than th-.s.; of the ongin.-.l;, to indi- 
c.ite divisions between verses and i>.i las and words, need not be excluded 
from the transliteration, if only the marks are easily recognizable as 
insertions of the editor. 

As to minor details I am in (lou!>t In the prose parts the translit- 
eration mi-ht correspond p,uo ft.r p^e .md line tor line with the birch- 
bark ori^rinal ; the nietricMl p.uts muht either lie made to correspond in 
like manner line for line with the on^^inal ; or 01*^0 they mi;;ht be broken 
up so a.s to show fully the structure rand at the same time, with 
a little ingenuity, the vowd-fusKins,, m which case the begin- 
ning; of every page and line <»f the baik leaves shoiiM bo duly indicated 
h) a bracketed number in its pn;pcr place In^c.isc the transliteration 
corresponds with the original line tnr line thr.Huhoi:\ then the obverse 
and reverse of <‘ich i'.uk leaf migni we,i be given together in pairs, the 
obverse above, and the reverse hJiiw it. »>n each page of the translitera- 
tion, since this would be especially convenient and would yield a page of 
good proportion for an ( ) iental bonk 

2. Marginal references to the Vulgate parallels. — Secondly, on the mar- 
gin throughout, and oppi^site every Kashinirnn verse that coiresponds to 
a verse of the \ ulgate, ahmiKl be givim the lefcrcnce to the place in the 
Vulgate whore the corrospnmling X’ulgUe \eise is founil 

3. Index of Vulgate verses thus noted on the margin. ~ Thirdly, in an 
appendix .should be given, in the onler of the Vulgate text, an index of 
all the Vulgate verses thus noted on the maigin, with a reference to the 
birch-bark leaf and side (obverse or reverse — a or / » .ind line where its 
Kashmirian correspondent may be found 

These I conceive to be the essential b atines of a isable edition of 
the Kashmirian text, I hold them to be absolutely indispensable. 
The text is often so coiriipt that one cannot enn ul it into intel- 
ligibility without sacrificing too greatly its distinctive character. All 

Ixxwiii General Introduction^ Part /.: by the Editor 

conjectures, accordingly, should be relegated to a second and separately 
bound volume. 

4. Accessory material: conjectures, notes, translations. — The accessory 
material of the second volume should be arranged in the form of a single 
series of notes and in the sei|uence of the Kashmirian original, and it 
should have such numbers and letlors at the outsiile upper corners in the 
heail-lines, that reference from the original to the notes and from the 
notes to the original may be made with the very utmost ease and celerity. 
This accessory material should comprehend all conjectures as to the more 
original Kashmirian form of manifestly corrupt woids or passages, in so 
far as they point to readings not identical (compare the next paragraph) 
with tlu)so of the Vulgate; indicati«»ns of word division, especially the 
word-division of corrupt phrases and the resolution of the very frequent 
double sandhi ; a running comment, proceeding verse by verse, giving 
any needed elucidatory m.itter, and explaining the rationale of the blun- 
ders of the Ka.shmirian version where feasible (as is often the case), point- 
ing out in particular its excellences, and the many items in which it 
serves as a useful corrective of the X'ulgate or conlirms the conjectural 
emendations of the latter made in the edition of Roth and Whitney; — 
and all this in the light of the <hgested report of the variants of the 
paralh'l texts given by Whitney in the present work and in the light of 
the other parallels soon to bo nude accessibh* by Hloointield’s Vcilic Con- 
cordauco. An occasion d bit of translation might be added in cases where 
the Kashmirian text contains something peculiar to itself ui not hitherto 
satHfa« tor ily tfi-ated 

For the ca-e-, « hinted at in the preceding paragraph) where corrupt 
Kishmirian reidiugs point simply to rcidings identical wdth those of the 
Vulgate, a sim[>!»* reference to the Iatt«-r will sometimes sutfice to show 
the true n’lding and si*n->e of what tlu‘ Kashmirian reciters or scribes 
have corrupted into gibberish 'I hus the Kashmirian form of xii. 3. 36b, 
found at tolio ya ant ih kdmdn samitdu pHro^that. Apart from 

the as[Mr itnm (overlooked by Roth; of the prior (kriil il t)f pnra^tdt, each of 
these lour words by itself is a good and intelligible Vedic word ; but taken 
together, they \itld far less meaning than do the famous Jabbcrwock 
verst s of Through the Lookiu^- d'jss} Their presence in the Kashmirian 
text is explained by liieir phonetic resemblance to the Vulgate 
p.ld i ydi’.intii/t Ldmah atitrpxis tdn, of which they are a palpable and 
wh«)lly uniiUeiligeiit coiruplion It is evident that, with the Vulgate 
before us, conjectural emendation of the Kashmirian text in such cases 

X I- jt tlic ^nkc of to ^^holn not, it may l)c added that this 

of hni'li'.h .«n<i Atncra in ntirHcrt*'<« is the work of r‘h.Lrlcs I.utwidge DiMlgson ('* Lewfi 
Carroll”) and h a pfMtdant lo Alut't Ad^entunx m WondtrlanJ 

9. Readings of tlu Kashmirian or Paippa/ida Recension Ixxxix 
is an entirely gratuitous procedure. And as fnr c.^k 


masculmc predicate participle: folio i«6a-'_ x -> ai-i tn n, iM ! 

““r » »Ti2 

*! V ; 'n "■« “'->«'•» •« ihe 

,otoll«, Me Let al! thi. be aad »c have the Vuleate text 

pure and simple. ^ 

10. Headings of the ParaUel Texts 

The texts whose readings are reported. _ The principal texts inclu.lcd in 
these reports are: of the S.uiih.t:,.. the R.^-Veda. Ta.ttiriva, Maitrajani. 
Vaj-asaneyi-, .S.i„,.vV, an.l . of ,he Urahmanas. the 
Aitareya, K.-.u.sitaki, Ta.ttinya. r .t..,.ath.,. ivuH.a. an.l Gopatha; of 
the .Araijy^ikas, the Aitareya an.l laiitujya; of the Upanishads,- the 
k.iusitaki. kath.i, Mrha.|.lr..nyak 1. ..n.l Chr.n.lo;;ya ; of the rrr.uta-.^^utras, 
the .X^valayana, (..ihkh.iyan .\|. istamha, K:it\avana, and I..1tyruana' 
of the Grhya Sut.a^. the .\.;va!.-.> ,n .. (V.ukh.uMna. Ap.istamha’ Iliran- 
yakc<;i-, I’ai.iskar.i. and Gohinl.i. aie occasionally cited: 

so the Katiuka ainl the K.ipiMhali .Snnhii.l, ami the Jaiminlya llr.ih- 
niana ; and the n.mies of M.m.- others may he seen fiom the List of 
.Abbreviations, pa..;es ci if I ha\e a.l.h.l nf. reiiccs to some recently 
edited parallel texts, ccithout .titeiiiptin.,' to im.orpor.ite their readings 
into the digeste.l leport of th<- c mants. mu h ate the .Maiitr.i -pfitha, von 
•Sthroedei s “ Kath ih.ind'.. hi ii*. ii, and Kii.iiiei’s AI.lnava-Gth\ a-Sutra. 
Von Schrociler's c.litioii ..t K.lh.kii c ime too late. The intormation 
•iccessible to Whitney concerning the then iinpublish. d Hlack Y.ijus te.xts vi'ry' fi.ignient,iry' an.l in i.l. .pi it.* , this la. t inii^t be borne in mind 
in connection with implied relerenc.-s to ihe K.itiiaka and Kapisthala (cf. 
his notes to lii. 17 ; i<>, j.i; j| ; v z- . \ih S.j. 

The method of reporting the readings aims at the utmost possible accu- 
racy, — Wiiitney const. mtlv stne. n thiee things ■ that his reports 
shoiiUr be chaiacteii/c.l, 1. and z . bv the utmost attain.ibl.' .icciir.icy and 
completeness ; and, that tlu'V should be presente.l in a thoioughly 
WelUdigestcd form. I-'nst, .is t.> tlu' a. curacy, little nee.i be said. It 
may be well to remind the km.Ic'i. however, tliit Whitnev has used the 
most methodical preeisinii in this mati.-i, an.l, .u couliiigly, if, under 
a given AV. verse, he cites a p.ii.illel text without mention of variant, his 
silence is to be rigorously coiistnu'd as meaning positively that the 
par.allel text reads as does the .A\’ x'erse in cjiuxstion. As a matter of 
fact, I believe that it will be f.uind (uissible in nearly every case to recem- 
struct the parallel texts with preci.sion from the data ol Whitney’s reports. 

xc Gaicral Introduction^ Part L : by the Editor 

* * * 

It needs here to be noted that Whitney, in reporting variants from the 
MaitrayanI, has disregarded what are (as explained by von Schrocder in* 
his introduction, pages xxviii-xxix) mere orthographical peculiarities of 
that text. Accordingly, at iii. 14. 3, ho treats the fia (ssWrtjr) d gata of 
MS. as if it were /j# d gata. Again, the MS. correspondent of iii. 19. 3 
has, in samhila, svan^ and in pada|,i»T <^/ ,* Whitney reports jtvf//, and quite 
propel ly, although it is neither the one thing nor the other. So at ii. 34. 3, 
he reports tdn, although MS. has, in s., /'«///, and in p., tdn. 

The completeness of the reports far from absolute. — Secondly, as for its 
completeness, it may be asked whether Hloomfield's great work, the Vcdic 
Concordance, will not show Whitney's parallels to be far from exhaustive. 

To this I reply that the primary purpose of Hloonineld's Concordance is 
to give the concordances, and to do so with as near an approach to com- 
pleteness as possdde, even for the less important texts, a task of which 
the preliminaries have required the assiduous labor of years. In Whit- 
ney's work, on the other hand, the giving of concordances is only one of 
many related tasks involved in his general plan, and is, moreover, only 
incidental to the discussion of the variants. 1 have tested the two works 
by comparison of<lom verses in the proof-sheets, and find (as I 
expected) that liloomtield djies indeed give veiy many references which 
are not given by Whitney; but that these references (apart from the 
Kathaka) arc concernctl prevailingly with the numerous .subsidiary or 
less important texts which fall wiihin the jiuiview of the Concordance. 
Whitney had excerpted all the texts, so far as publi.shed (see the list, 
above), which were of primary importance for his purpose. The parallels 
to which Bloomfield’s additional references guide us will have to be 
reckoned with in due course by Whitney’s successors ; but I surmise that 
they are not likely upon the whole greatly to affect the sum of our critical 
judgments respecting the Atharvan text.^ 

The reports are presented ia well-digested form. — Thirdly, as to the form 
of the reports. It is one thing to give numerical references to the places 
where the padas and their variants are to be fimnd.’- It is another to 
rehearse, in full for each text concerned, the readings containing variants ; 
and the result of this process is in a high degree space-consuming and 
repetitious for the author, aivl time-consuming and confusing for the user. 

It is yet another and a very different thing to compare these readings 
carefully, to note the points of agreement, anrl to state briefly and dearly 
the points on which they differ.^ The result of this last procedure is a 

^ In »pile of it^ intrinsic imporUknce, su> h i's the casr>, I 1 >(> 1 icve, with the QI)., to which 4 
Whitney make^, I think, rather meaKrc r> fer**no‘. 

^ And it is a larg»; arhievement to do it on suth a sc.ile m doea the roncord.ince. 

* Whoever doiihts it, let him take so very «iimplr* a ca^e as AV. ii. 29. j or iv. 14. 1, write 
ojt the AV text in full and then the three parallel Vajus-texts beneath it, compare them, 

, lO. Rcaeliugs of the Parallel Texts xci 

^ welWIgested report of the variants which is easily and quickly usable for 
he purpose of critical study. I call especial attention to this valuable 
feature of Whitney s work, partly because of its practical importance, and 

partly because it shows the author’s power of masterly condensation and 
of self-restraint. 

zi. Whitney’s Commentary: Further Discussion of its Critical 


Comprehensiveness of its array of parallels. -I have already called 
attention (p. xxxvi.) to the f.a that the Cfontnentary expressly disavows 
any claim to finality; an«l have spoken hiitJlv of its imjHO tance as a tool, 
and of its comprehensiveness In respet t of thr eompiehcnsivencss of 
Its array of jiarallels it answers v.ry p- rfecth one of the requirements 
set by 1 ischel and (irlflner in thr Intiodiiolion ip to the Vedische 
Studien : “ Das |;esaiiUe indi^che Alt. (turn kann und muss dcr vedischen 
I*.xe;;ese dienstbar i;envicht weriien In \.-»uKrsiLr Lmic wollen auch 
wir den Veda aus sicli ’‘clhst eiklaitn dundi umfassenderes Aufsuchen 
der 1 arallelstellc’ii iiiifl C oniltinieren /us,inimi‘n„t' h* »i i'^er aber in vetschic- 
denen Teilen des Wda z< istreut. * (ied inken.” I hat Whitney’s work will 
prove to be an instrument ot ^real effi ctiveneSN in the future criticism 
and exegesis of the \ < .i.i I think no one can doubt It will easily be seen 
that often, in the cases wheu* the ohiei «ittempts lKi\e failed, the fault is 
to be laid not so miKh to the leainim: and iiiijenuity of the scholars con- 
cerned, as to the l.ick oi powriiiil tools. Suvh a p'>\\erfiil tool is this; 
such is HIoomheKl s Conconiauf'e . an-l other such iRlptul tools are sure 
to be inwnlOfl and made in the next few decailt J he /‘/''///'Xvz-indexes of 
I crtsch, Whitney, Wi’bei, .XulroLiil, and von Schi.jeder arc admirable; 
and without them Whitnc\'s w.irk coulfl not ha\e been made. Their 
main use is to make feasible ilie •'\stcinatic compaiison of the texts one 
with another. This is what Whitney has done here, with ine Atharvan 
text as startin;;-point, an«I the lesuits ol his coinjeirison lie before us in 
the conveniently tlij^estefl lepori^ o! the vaiiants 

Criticism of specific readings. * r.xainples abound showini; how the 
reports may bo use<l ft>r this puipose They enable us to leco^nire the 
corruptness of a renilin..;, which, althou.;h coriupt, is neveithelcss to be 
deemed the {genuine readin.;, as in the case of j./V ciitafi at 

uitdericore In rod ink iho p- ini'* ot auftrfni i*. in I then >'» t’ - ni bn.\iU .i:ul Llc.irnes'* 
Thrn let him examine \Vhilne\\ ript.n>i. .^m! I think he w.Il n«ih .i*;nva ih.ii iIkv are indoid 
well'digesterj ami arc modcU of m^siiov . ■»niIenvation. •iiin v:It . .i^. s are ii i. i . 

hi. 10. 4 : 12. 7 ; 19 .S, vii. S , y; 1 , xo 2 . 71 The anioirit ami in*:u i».\ of po*.«ihle \ana- 
tion U well exemplified by 117. 1. I’erhaps Whitiuw has ericU in ihe direction of o\er- 
condensation in his note to vii. 29 2 

\cii General Introduction^ Part I.: by the hditor 

iv. 5. 5 over against the yaq la edrati of RV. vii. 55 - 
cover with certainty the true intention (cf. TB. ii. 4. 7“*) of a lot of waver- 
ing variants, as in the case ot those that ilisguise the svdravo fiHtdh of 
xi\ 42. I. They show us that the vastly superior tradition of the RV. 
corrects that of the A\\ in many places (cf. the accentless asahanta of 
xi. i J); but that the AV occasionally scores appoint even the 
RV, as in the case of at xiv. i. 13 (R\'. a^hdsu), or as in the 

case of nJit . . . tuiu at wui. i. 4 (RV. no . . . //<?//). What a puzzle is 
the jihiMsc (xiv. 2 J2) rmndutt nai* ‘ The unmarried [plural j,of 

us two [dual I serk a wife,* by itself, iiuolvtng, as it does, a breach of the 
mathematical aximn that the whole is greater than any of its parts! but 
the comparison of RV. vii. 4, with its ;/// im //<///, teache.s us that the 
eiror lies in the //.///, even if it tloes ni>t show us with certainty how that 
error is to bo enieiulecl. Kven with all the array of variants, we are (as 
Whitney notes at iv S. 1 ; vi. 22 3 ; u. 31 at times forced to the conclu- 
sion that certain verses were h«*p«‘lessly spoiled before ever any of the 
variou.s text-makers ttiok them in I 

Illustrations of classes of text errors. I have already hinted at the 
variety of sj>ccial investigations to which the mass of critical material here 
assembled invites. The various occasions ot probable terror in the trans- 
-mission of Indie texts have not \et been nuide the objei i r>f a systematic 
and tormal treatise. Here w'e have, loruenientU pr» sented, the very 
material needed for such an advance in the pmgress of Vidic 
By grouping suspected readings into clearly defined chs«;t‘s, it will become 
possible to recognize suspecte<l readings as n al eriois with a far gieater 
degree of certainty than ever bcloie Illll^t^ations of this matter .ire so 
abundant as easily to lead us far afield , but several may be given.* 

Auditory errors. — .\ most striking example ot a vari.ition otcasir>ned 
by the almost complete similarity of sound of two liitterent readings is 
presentcfl by the pnititya of A(iS iii. 10 1 1, as compared with the 
pratictdt nf AV vi 33 3. Compare djr/w of HOS. i. 15 3, with jjdw of 
AV’ vi 42 I — Confusion of surd and sonant i.s exemplified in thi variant 
version of part of the familnr RV. h\mn, \ 154, given at AV. xviii. 
2. 14, where we have ythhyo mdiiJiu ptAiUidv, ‘lor whom honey jis) 
on the felly’ This may or may not be the genuine Atharvan reading; 
hut it is certairly an uninti-lligcnt rorruption nf the pradhdiatt of the 
RV’ : and it is very likely that we have tin: same blunder at vi. 70 3, 
w'liere tlie occasion for the c»»rruption is palpable.” The simplification of 
twin consonants is exem[ilified at xviii ^ 3, where the editors of the Berlin 

• Oth» rs. taken from the t.-xt, ar*- Riven p. Ixxxiii. 

-r onfiis.fin^ of sut 4 ami son.tnt .nrr rliscussMl Ii\ Koth, /I>.M(r xlvilL 107: cf. nolo to 
11 13 Ihc Ka'.hmirian text •txx.iims \%itl) ihi m. 

1 1. I'P'/a/uty's Commentary xciii 

*'!?? the reading 

reciters (cf.p.l*vi); but. consi,lcri„.,X f ^ 

edge of Indie pak-ogtnpl,,, wh„ m ij-gn.-,, I'Sc'lT"”’ “'' 

(,1 error of thi. kind ? Of m». h, hnlJ. T '™''" 

(j«.r montionod, U a good l,|a.. : undo.ia'ir,' iC tZ7,0-!n 

reading, and it ,. undool.Kdl, |. mcor ‘„d^;" 

c<»npar»onof RV.,«hkl, ha.,, .„y, 


MMrkal fault, erporn.trlc glo.*, and » f„,h. .^oiir .u.picion. of 
h„«motric word. a. gl.,,..,. .„e „„™ ^ [ 

h.o„oc of hose wo,d, . . 

at AV. ,1 I 7, If Kk . ,,7 ^ 

2_k); iwnrdMr,™ at IM, „ f, 

AV. xit.a 40 Af K\ X. Xj 43, _ tj,,. hand, the damag, 

mclcT of our lc.\t often sim-rsts .i suspicion ihait .some ))ricf worJ h' 
Jallcn out or tint somo hnefer or lon^o r o, oihc Msc unsuitable fon 
has been substituted |.>r an ciuival. nt suitable one , ami the suspicion 
borne out by the readin- of the par.illel t< \ts Thus m </i:o l^ti] vun 
utd Vil f^rdnvyti, ittitho l.-r/j ijsnx u»rt ,jn'an(y}f, the brackctcrl tv^s. niiv 
in'? at AV VII jd S, .ne t.)un.l in tin n piopir pl.iccs m the T^S and Vi 
parallels. The/,//// ,uid mis ni AV win 2 55 ipnte spoil the cadence 
of a and c. which cadences are peifei t in their kV ori-inal .it x. 17. 4 
Blend-readings. -- Ih«- Memhie loin^s, .is I hi\e c.dlid them, stand in 
>et another ;;roup. A ^oo l i \ imj)ie in fninul, .it AX’. \iv. 2 18 (see 
uote), in //>//</.",/// t\ its i^em-si.s is clear, a.s is 

also the intru.sive dm. icier ot waui, wlikii we compaie the 
reading; VI// vtuKui </, : fkdmri with ih il of the k\’ . : mistiyiit iwkama 
syonii (II syllables). The like is tine uf as],i .n \’S \n 73, tr^tnif/yr 
tdmasas fiirdm ttsYd : ct the oI'i h i ui lin^ r/.'./;. w;/r/ //v/,/f,/v 
with the ayyttnma //iw,/jr,/x /.//./w of the K.'iihaka. .\' i ij. p 235*. — The 

above-given examples .sudice to show how ridi is the mateiid gathered 
in this work for an illuminating .stinly of the fallihilities of human tiadition 
in India. 

* Here BoUeneen 1 >ng ago-pioposca {Ot$.'nt unit *$t, n JS5) tv) .uht u/c i/Z-iw:-.)/. 


General Inlrtnlnellon, Part /. : 6 y tlu' h-ditor 

12. Whitney’s Translation and the Interpretative Elements the 


The Translation; general principles governing the method thereof. — The 

si.ilcmcnis conccrnini; the principles invDlvcd in the translating of the 
Upanishads, as piopounded by Whitney in his review of a translation of 
those texts, apply — mutatis mutandis — so well to the translation of this 
\'oiIa, that I have reprinted them (above, p .\i\ : cf. p. xxxvii) ; and 4 o 
them I refer the reader. 

The translation not primarily an interpretation , but a literal version. — 

Whitney expressly states (above, p. .\ix) that the desi;;n of this work is 
“ to put together as much as possible of the matt*rial that is to help 
toward the study and final comprehension of this \'eda”; accordingly, 
we can hardly deny the legitimacy of his procedure, on the onfj hand, in 
making his version a rigorously literal one, and, on the other, in restrict- 
ing the interpretative constituents of the work to narrow limits. He 
recognized how large a part the subjective clement plays in the business 
of interprctatifin ; and if, as he intimates, hi^ main purpose was to clear 
the ground for the interpreters yet to come, his restriction was well 
motived. It is, moreover, quite in accord with his scientific skepticism 
that he should prefer to err on the side of telling less than he knew, and 
not on the side of telling more than he knew : a tact which is well illus- 
trated by his remark at viii. 9 iS, where he sa\s, “The \ersion is as lit- 
eral as possible; to modify it would imply an uiulerstaiuling of it." 

A literal version as against a literary one. — Let no one think that 
Whitney was not well aware of the differences between such a version as 
he has given here, ami a version w’hirh (like that of (irifhth) makes con- 
cessions to the demands of literary style and pojnilar inteicst. Whitney’s 
version of xviii i 50, as given below, reads: ‘Varna first found for us a 
track; that is not a pasture to be borne away; where our former Fathers 
went forth, there [go] thuse born [of them], along their own roads.’ 
With this compare his veision of 1X59 (L). and L. S., i., p. 58): 

V.imi hath f’lund f-^r the fir^t a |>assagc, 
tliat no to he taken from u%; 

Whither wur fath••l^. of oM time, lieparteil, 
tliither th' ir <itf-«prmg. caeh his proper pathway. 

Kach version has its own quality ; each method has its justification : to 
make a complete translation after the second inct|^od, one must inevitably 
waive the consideration of philological difficulties, a thing by no means licit 
for Whitney in such a work as this. Thu admirable version of Griffith 


12. ir/ii/luys Translation 

“>1 i>.> inker™. 

Int^retative elements : captions of thp hTrm»., tu 

o, .He L«ed by mo a. lon„.h .„ ol,.,,„o,a , imroducon labovo, la.v i,.,; ,k,. i,„orpro.a.lvo olom™", 

ha. .Ho l-.n 8 l„h ...le, ... .ho Hy.„„ „|,o hoaLs, pri„,od 

.mCU,.^ qrpe . r.,„ 8 h.,,„, V.,.,ro ,h. ,\„.k,am.„„.o,c:rp,o, 

for 1,0 of ^ importa,,. |o,„ 

ho n.or,.,o..,.,vo olon,o,„ ... •, i,,... ,, 

lato.i b) \\h«,io>., .„o.,r..| .k.:il, or, „o ,nionJo,i by 

him o 8,00 hnolly l„> ..f , 1 .,. ,,, I„ \ 

ilw crises tiicsc tabiptioiis ! ickin • iM'i )> K i.. i it. 

^ jm\c Ikui Mipplicd bv mt,* 

from his hrst draft ,bO ..t . tj, .,r .,th.r«,s.- ,a,. at ii 12; t 6 , Mi.'ioy: 

cf. books .XV. .\vi., :u)«l wm , 

. « n* 

1 Ir-si* captirin.'t aic guen 

. ltd- . .dy..3v die ' 

in tabular furm th.,- cn.l .,1 tli.,- «.aK : mv ^o;umc vni . p .o-’a 
Interpretations by Whitney. U h. , . tin- f.-.xt ,s n.,t in th.^ordcr, a rigor- 
ously litcial vcisioii ih in mall) lit m.isti .mhos fairlv iiitolli-TbIc 

without aildol inu-ipraati..,, TIk- need „i such additions 'Wh.tncw Has 
occasionally, but pci hajis not often, r. . o^ni/cd. Thus after rendering the i. 2. tab by the w.u is •nheii the kine. embiaeing the tree, sing the 

<iuivcrini; dcxtcioijs 



‘that In, apparently, ‘when the gut- 

string on the wooden how makes the reed-arrow whistle.’ ” Similarly at 
vi. \ 2 $. I. The text Ni»eaks at wm i 5J df an offense done fnrusdfa : 
Whitney rendeis • thmugh hummitv/ md ndtii. “that is, through’-^ human 
frailty.*' Cl note to vii ; \ i 

It may be note<l in this j'laee dor kick •>! a better one) that Whitney, 
in reporting the eonje'ctuioN or inter pi el itimis iif his prenleccssors, passes 
over some in silence .^omelmies tin's appeaiN to h.i\e been done inten- 
tionally and because he disappioveti them Ihus at iv 37 3, he n(»te.s in 
his first draft the suggeslinuN (»f I’K ami C.)lk concerning livticidsdm : 

* wiuia l»f. i.iltf m i!'.. -o pr . . . f , ,>,1-. of i},e 

liliM.iture aiiJ ^u^toiiis .nul siMi.t -.f lr*iia i'. j .. iiipr'' ]\ no e i il <n : n own Imi I m.n\ 
l>e fo icpcMt tin- jml.:nuni » f in\ p • o -. •. 1 M o<*,! fi m ’ \| A. Uaith, 

lernmf^ IrntiUhU % c«’.i n.m-bl »?;o;is . I ’!< i'' K* \ o m*-! xt- |h,n rti .m.xj .lui un 
Mvani, CO rjnj. a.i h vi,. n».* \. '.I y\-, I :-i* , , ill' n.-t j .i*. Mb.,n;c 1 .It nr. ijui .i 
longtctnpN Ic ( *.. . 1 ,n, |.r .| nili> miv' .,xx ov <li'x di > ijx ^,L• 

I ®*pril dc rindo, t*t. po jr m.i.nt jm-*. in u.. rt '‘•ft d • i < p ix ti ■ ir 'ji.Tndimnu conipic 
fic cettc version en appari'iui* ".ms t r« ii’niiiinN iKivii'' \!i* I’hi-i ir- .!i .i h.tion'.. \L*.ir iNo. 
i8i). Kile fihe AV n’Ci:to Iln imnn - « g* *• (n idcm. mmt iS-to, 

*x*i*t. J5). 

• lly a curious- coincidence, ••Ibionch fiaillv’* i.s pii.vj"i.l> ihe umienne civen IfV 



Gt'ncratjntroduction^ Part /.: by the Editor 

but ignores them in his second. Similarly, at ii. 14. 3, he omits mention 
of a translation of the verse given by Zimmer at p. 420. 

Exegetical notes contributed by Roth. — It appears from the letters 
between Koth anti Whitney that the former had written out a German 
version of this Veda, and that, although it was complete, its author did 
n«»t by an\ means consider it as ready for publication.' In order to give 
Whitney the benefit of his opinion on doubtful points, Roth made a brief 
commentary uptin such selected words or phrases (in their proper sequence) 
as seemed to him most likely to present dilliciiltics to Whitney. The 
result IS a parcel of notes, consisting of 250 pages in Roth’s handwriting, 
which IS now in my keeping From these notes Whitney has incorpo- 
rated a considerable amount of exegetical matter into his commentary. 
It is yet tt) be cotiMdered whether the notes contain enough material 
iinu>ed by Whitnrv to warrant their publication, if this should appear 
upon other grounds to be atlvisable. 

The translation has for its underlying text that of the Berlin edition. — 
With certain exceptions, to be noted later, the tianslation is a literal ver- 
sion of the \ ulgate Atharvan text as given in the Berlin edition. For 
the grcvtt mass of the text, this is, to be sure, a matter of course. It is 
also a matter of course in cases where, in detault of helpful variants to 
suggest an emendwition of a despt-iate line, wi‘ are forceil to a pniely 
mechanical version, as at xii i 37 a, • she who, cleansing one, trembling 
away the serpent,’ or at vi 70 1 ab. ICvcn in the not infrequent cases 
whore (in spite of the l ick of parallel texts) an emendation is most obvious, 
Whitney sticks to the corrupted text in hia translation, and reserves the 
emendation for the notes Thus, at iv 12 4, dsrk u dsthi fokatu mdmdm 
mdnsihia rohatn^ he renders ‘let thy blood, hi>nc grow,’ although the 
change of dstk to asthnd would make all in orrliT. 

The translation follows the Berlin text even in cases of corrigible corrup* 
tions. — On tiu- other hand, it may seem to some to he not a matter of 
course th it Whitney should give a bald and nuihanically literal version 
of ihe true Ath irvan*te\t as presented in the Berlin edition in those very 
numerous e ISC'! where the par.dlel texts offer the wholly intelligible reatl- 
ing-i of which the Atharvan ones are palpable distortions, (iranting, 
h >w« ver, tint they are, although coiriipt, to he accoptcrl as the AtlKirvan 
readings, and omsidering that this work is primarily a technical one, his 
pro'edure in faithtiilly icprodiicing the rorruption in Knglish Ls entirely 

A few examples may he given Whitney renders tdin tvA bhaga sdna 
i: (lii. 16. 51 by *on thee here, Bhaga, do I call entire,* although 

RVVS. have jchaviti, ‘on thee does every one call.* At v. 2. 8, tura^ 
cut vievtUH animat td/^afvan is rernlcied ‘may he, quick, rich in fervor^ 

, 12. Whitucy s Translaiion \ xcvii 

sen(l(?) all/ although it is a corruption (and a most interesting one) of 
the very clear line ilum^ ca t avrmnl dpa svdh. So pjmtddmaso 
(vii. 73. 0 # ‘of many houses/ although the grauta-Sutras offer puruta- 
mdso. At RV. vi. 28. 7 the cows are spoken of as ‘drinking clear water 
and cropping good pasture,' sfiydvasam n^dntth: the AV. text-makers, at 
iv. 21. 7, corrupt the phrase to -w ru^antili, hut only in half-way fashion, 
for they leave the KV’. accent to h* tray the character of their work. 
Even here Whitney renders by ‘ shining {rucantlh) in good pasture.' The 
AV., at xviii. 4 40, describes the i'alheis as d^tnam urjam ttpa ye sdeante ; 
Whitney is right in rendering the line by * they who attach themselves unto 
a sitting refreshment,' although its original intent is amusingly revealed 
by HGS., which has { fuuitttdm) wd\t urjam uta yt bhajantt, ‘and 

they who partake of this nourishment every month ' J'or other instances, 
sec the notes to iv. 21 2a, iii 3 1 ; iv (ru^antas for rusdntas), 8 

{t'druna) ; 27. 7 (vidttdm) ; \i. 92 3 \tUh\ atn) ; n 35 4 , iii. iS 3 ; iv. 2.6; 

1 5. 5 ; vii. 21.1; and so on. 

Cases of departure from the text of the Berlin edition. — 'I'hese are always 
expressly slated by Whitney The\ uKlieie, fii"!, cases in which the 
Berlin edition does n*»t pres» nt the true Alh irvan text. An example 
may be found at xix.f'ij i, where tin* editoi> emended wrongly to 
r/^rcand the version implies a [Hx At \i\ i the eilitnrs, following the 
suggestion of the paiallel texts, ha«i emended to CKiHadini the ungram- 
n1atic.1l corruption of the A\’ ihaudx^ /./ {ja'Jurt tasmdt)\ but since 
Whitney held that the lattei ica ling “haN the best right to figure as 
Atharvan |ext," his intentionaliv iiiuiaminatual lli.gbsh ‘meter were 
born fioni that’ is meuil to imply la it uading 

Here aio included, .secondly, cases in which llic Beihn reading, although 
it has to be recogni/e<l as the tiue Atiiar\an reading, is so unmanageable 
that \Vhilney has in despair translatid the reading of .‘;omc parallel text 
or an cmendctl re.ubiig Thus .it vii 57. 2 c it is assumeil that ubht id 
tuyo tisya rdfaftib i'', although cvuiupl, the true .\tharvan reading. 
The corruption is iihlced phonetically an exliemcly slight distoition, for 
the RV. has ub/h^ id asyo Ididui^ui lu trab. an.l lr<.m this the tiaiisbition 
is made. — Other categories might be .set ni> to suit the slightly varung 
relutioQS of mss. and eiiition and version, if xix- 3 ^^* * » -I 
so on. 

Whltney^s growing skepticism and correspondingly rigid literalness. — 
At xiii. 4. 54. Whitnev saxs: ••()ur leiuleimg has at least concinnily 
unless, indeed, in a text of this ihar.icter, that be an argument against 
its acceptance.'* The rcniaik is; but one does not wonder its 
author has been ddlcd d< r i:nK^sr Slrpnh r d< r Sp^.n b :c/ . 0 u.w/u/r I hat 
» P«rha|M Ch€ cornipllon il yec d epor 5ic.Ucd. o>%cis an o.;pn..l 

'xcViil' j* ^ G^teral Iniroduction^ Part /. : by the Editor 

V *■ 

his skepticism grew with the progress of his work is clear from a com- 
parison of. the unrevlscd with the revised forms (cf. p. xxvii) of the early 
hooks. Thus at vi. 57. 2, as a rendering of jalasd^ his manuscript at first 
read ‘healer*; but t)n the revision he has crossed this out and put the 
Vedic word untranslated in its stead. With his skepticism, his desire for 
rigid literalness seems to have increased. At ii. 33. 5, the first draft trans- 
lates pnipada very suitably by ‘fore parts of the feet’; but the second 
renders it by ‘ front feet.* Similarly, at vi. 42. 3, there is no reasonable 
doubt that pdtsnyii prapiuhna m means [I trample] ‘with heel and with 
toe * (cf. viii. 6 1 5 ; vi- 24. 2) ; but again he renders by ‘ front foot.* At 
iii. 15 7, his prior draft reads ‘watch over our life*: ‘lift* is an unim- 
peachable equivalent of ‘vital spirits* or puinAs : but the author has 
changed it to ‘breaths* in the second draft. 

His presumable motive, a wish to leave all in the least degree doubtful 
interpretation to his successors, we can understand ; but we cannot deny 
that he sometimes goes out of his way to make his version wooden. Thus 
he renders bhr, when used of skins or amulets (viii. 6. 1 1 ; 5. 13) by ‘ bear ’ 
instead of ‘wear.’ At iv. 21. i, he speaks of tows as ‘milking for Indra 
many dawns,* although ‘full many a morning yielding milk for Indra* 
can hardly be called too tree. Cf. his apt version of uttiiuim-uttamm 
SiUtuhn at xii. i. 33, * from one year to another,' with that given at iii 10. l ; 
17.4, ‘each further summer.* In a charm to rid the grain of danger, 
vi. 50. i d. ‘ make fearlessness for the grain ’ is needlessly inept. It is 
easy for Sanskritists, but not for others, to see that ‘heroism ' as 

used of an herb at xix 34 8, means its ‘virtue* (and so he rj:nders it at 
xii. 1,2); that ‘bodies’ of Agni at xix 3 2 are his ‘forms' {\tvds or 
p;hotds)\ and so on; but to others, such versiDiis will hardly convey the 
intended meaning. The fact that \:\istibhis, in the f.uniliar refrain of the 
Vvisi^thas, is a plural, hardly justifies the infelicity of using such a plural 
as ‘well-beings’ to render it at iii iG 7; and some will say the like of 
‘ wcalfulnesses ’ (iv. 13. 5), ‘wealths,* and ‘marrows.* 

It lies entirely beyond the province of the e<litor to make alterations 
in matters of this kind. It is perhaps to be regretted that these infelici- 
ties, which do not really go below the surface of the work, arc the very 
things that are the most striking for persons who examine the book casu- 
ally and withoXit technical knowledge ; but the book is after all primarily 
for technical study. 

Poetic elevation and humor. -The places in which the AV. rises to any 
elevation of poetic thought or diction are few indeed. Some of the 
funeral verses come as near it as any (among them, notably, xviii. 2. 50) ; 
and some of the philosophic verses (especially of x. 8 under Deussen's 
sympathetic treatment; have an interest which is not mean. The motive 

12. IV/ii/Hcys Translation * * I jicix' 

of xix. 47 is an exceptionally coherent and pleasing one. I presume 
that the idea of sending the fever as a choice present to one's neighbor's 
(v. 22 . 14) is intended to be jocose. Witchcraft and healing are serious 
businesses. If there is anything else of jocular tone in this extensive 
i>text, 1 do not remember that any one has recognized and noted it. The 
gravity of VVhitney's long labor is hardly relieved h> a gleam of humor 
save in his introduction tt> ii. 30 and his notes to vi 16. 4 and 67. 2 and 
X. 8. 27# and the two cited at p. ycvii, line 4 from end, and p. xciv, 1 . 23. 

13. Abbreviations and Signs explained 

General scope of the list. — The following list is intended not only to 
explain all the dowiiiight or inti''t .iibitrary abbreviations used in this 
work, but also to explain in the slu)rte-t leasible way all such abbreviated 
designations of books and articK-N as aie moic or less arbitrarv. The 
former generally consist of a single initial letter 01 gn)ui> of such letters; 
the latter, <»f an author’s name or ot the al>bie\iatcd title of a work. 

The downright abbreviations. Ihe-e are tni the most j)irt klentical 
with those used by WhitiU'y in liis ( / and gi\en and explained by 
him on p. xxvi of that woik : thus A \ Aitarc\a-Aran)aka. — W’hit- 
ney’s omission ot the macron pmper to tiie A in AA, Aik, ATS, AGS., 
liAU., and 'I'A. was douhtii ss moii\ed by a puicA' neihanical considera- 
tion, the e.xtrerm* fragility of the mauon over a cajiital A ; that he has not 
omitted it in Apast. or Ap is a panlonable inconsistency — I he sigla eodi- 
cuni are explaineil at p. ci\, ami only vnrb of them are included here as have 
more than one meaning: ihi.^, W* \\ lisnn codex and aNo — W’hitnev. 

Abbreviated designations of books and articles. - I'or iIksc the list is 
intended to give amply MiHi» iuU and clear e\pl inatiuns, without follow- 
ing strictly any set <jf rules bibliographers In the choice of the des- 
ignations, brevity and unamluguou'':KNS have been had chielly in mind. — 
An author's name, witlmiil luiilur indicition of title, is often used arbi- 
trarily to mean his most fre«{uently cited woik. Thus “Weber" means 
\Vebcr*s hiiHschr StUtiitH W'llh like .irbilraiitu-SN .no used the names 
of Hloomheld, Calami, Floieiu, (JnlVilh, Gull, Henry, I.udwig, Muir, 
Winternitz, and Zrnmer : cf. the list. — Where two coonlinate reference- 
numbers, separated by a comma, are given ms in the case of l^loomfield. 
Grill, and Henry), the first refers to the pagt' of the tianslation, and the 
second to the page of the commentary. Of similai nuinbcis, separated 
by “or" (as on p, 286). the fust refers to the original pagination, and 
the second to the ;xigination of the reprint.' 

* Here I^t me protect af;a>n«t lh«» nuuh worse cii'-fom i>f pi'infi a new pngina- 

lion or a double pagination 10 ncparalo ripiini'* If an auih*'i >ii • iijiig .1 n.pnnicT .1 aiiicle ilae5 

c Gehcrai Introductions Part /. : by ttu Editor * 

* ^ 

Explanation of arbitrary signs. — The following signs (and letters) are 
used in the body of* this work more or less arbitrarily. 

Parentheses are used in the translation to enclose the Sanskrit original 
of any given English word (see above, p. xx), such indications being 
often most acceptable to the professional student. For numerous# 
instances, see xii. i, where the ailded bhtimi or prthivl (both are added in 
vs. 7) shows which of these words is meant by the English earth. They 
are also used to enclose an indication of the gender (m. f. n.) or number 
(du. pi.) of a Vedic word whose gender or number cannot otherwise be 
shown by the version. 

Square brackets are employeil to enclose some of the words inserted 
in the translation for which there is no e.xpress equivalent in the 

Ell-brackets, or square brackets minus the upper horizontal stroke 
(thus : L J )» devised by the editor to mark as portions of this work 
for which Whitney is not responsible such ailditions or changes as were 
made by the editor (cf. p. x.xviii, end). 'I hese types were devi.scd paitly 
because the usual parent and brackets were already employed for 
other purposes, and partly because they readily suggest the letter ell, the 
initial of the editor’s name. 

Hand. — In order to avoid the e.xpcnse (d alterations in lire electro- 
plates, all considerable additions and corrections have been put together » 
on pages 1045 -46, and reference is made to them in the proper places by 
•means of a haivl pointing to the page concerned (thus, at p. 327, line 1 1 : 
IW’^Sec p. 10451. 

The small circle (thus : • ) represents the ava;c;fiiJia or division-mark 
of the /</</f/-te.xts. This use of the circle is common in the mss. (as 
e.\[)lained at p. c.x.xii) and has been followed in the Index Wrborum 
(see p. 41 

The Italic colon ( .• ) is employed as cr[uivalent of the vertical stroke 
used in nii'an to separate individual words or fadas. Hoth circle and 
colon are used in the note to vi. 131. 3 1 regard both the circle and the 

colon as e.xtremely ill adapted for the uses here explained. 

The letters a, b,c,d,e, f, etc., when set, as here, in Clarendon type, arc 
intended to designate the successive p.idas of a Vedic stanza or verse. 

Alphabetic list of abbreviations. — The downright abbreviations and the 
abbreviated de.^ignations of books and articles follow here, all in a single 
alphabetically arranged list. 

Kivu c.irh ruferen<'e thereto in duphrate, or if Iwh reader doc^ not ha\'c at hand bulh the '' 
original ar.d the reprint (and either of these casts is exieplional), the seeker of a citation it 
aure to tie haftied in a large proportion of the inst.inrcs loncerncd. It ia amazing that tny 
author or editor can lx: so heedless a.s to tolerate this evil practice. 

13 . Abbreviations and Signs explained 

A A. = Aiurcya-Aranyaka. Ed Iid>l. Ind. 

AU, = Aitarcya-lirAhman.1. Ed. Th Auf- 
recht. Bonn. 1879. 

Abh. js- Abhandlungcn. 

■AC’S. = Aqvalayana- Cr.luta-. Sutra. I.d. 

Bibl. Inrl. 1874 

In the ed , the 12 of the uork 

are divided into Imu llexa^ls {xaikat)^ \ 
Prior and a I.atter, .ind the nuiiiht mi;; of 
thu»e of the I-iil» r anew with 1 

In Whtincy'n tii.ilion«», th* numhcit ran 
fromi toxii. • thu-^fin l i*. not.; t.. i\ ].) 

AC?' n. II 14 1 !•» ‘.itcil as M.i H4 

AtiS A^val.'iyan.t-<Iih;,.i Sutra I.»l. A. 
K. .Slcii/ler in .Saiisknt .I'ld 
Eciji/ig 1864 5 1 d also 111 

Ind. lS6t). 

AJI^ '• American Journal of l”nIo!o;;\, 
Ed II. E. (illdi Thlecvc. IkiiHiiuii.- 


Ak * Ak.ulvmie. 

Aincr - Amciican 

.\'u»kr = Anukrainani » i’m* 

author of it. 

.\jjCs <o' .\|). .Xpaslamba t, laut i-Swtr i 
Ed. K (iarbo in liiM. Iiwl i'*";- 
i»>D2. 3 vol*<t 

.\p(iS. ‘ .\p.rstand«!ya t'.ilu \ sutta 1.1 
M Wintt-rnit/ X ienna r" 

APr. - .\thar\a - Vcd.i I’latn^.ikli) i Id 
\V. I). Wlistnry in J.VOS (vn 
O15). |S<»2. TcaI. translatioM. .u.d 

elaliorat'* n<itos 

.\ufrocht Das XV Hmh dcs .W Ext. 
translation, and notes. Ind stud 1 
IJI 140. 1.849. .See In low, p 

AV ~ Ath.irva-Ved.i. AV. - Athar- 
va V’ed.i-Sanihita Ed by K Kotli and 
\V. D. Whitney. Ibrlin o lal. 

^ aliio by Shankar Pandmang Pai-lit. 
Bombay. 1S95 .S. 4 sol's 

•av. — -jvasAna : ace explanation following 

In the rxeerpts from the .Airakr. the 
Sanskrit rAj-, lA/-, frt', etc. toi’st,intb 
recurring in composition with .rr f .md 
arc abbreviated by the .\i.»bic nu 
morals i, *, 3, etc. Thus, at p 7J*, the 
%xrerpt jav may be as 

tr/^avattitid in/ /•!*/<# yrnf//A 

15 - Ilrahm.ina. 

BAE. = lirliad-Aranyaka-Upanisad. Ed. 
Otto Bohtlini^k EcMpzig. 1889. Other 
cd's : Lah.., Bn., Poon.!. 

B<iudha)an.i - B.iudh.i) ana- I)harma-(,‘as- 
lia. Efl E llulUsch. Leipzig. 1884. 

Btrgaigno sec Kd. Ved 

Btr;;aiv;n< -Ikiiry. .Mania 1-. Manuel pour 
«*tuilicr le Sansciit \edique Jiy z\ 

Bi rgaigiic am! \\. I'.uis 1890. 

Bill) Ind BiiiimtlKia Indua, as di sig- 
ol i!a roiiittmn ol texts and 
li.i;jsl.itio-is publish, d b\ the Asiatic 
.S«K a t\ 4.f B« iigal in Calcutta 

111 Blootn'a 111 

Bloic. ti. Id ( furtlicr di-sii;nation of 

i.tlr) U\ a\s ot the AX', together 
wil l ixtia- Is liiiju tin* ntual l.ooksand 
tl'.r » n*n.m T luK s. tt.uisl.itid 1>\ M au- 
ra c I'doo! .,1 !•! Osioid 'I his 

Imm.K is \.-l sir ol .SBE 

In t.‘ .s V k 111 VI, ms uj) a \ei\ large 
par*, if I’.il all. i‘f h:s foiniLr “( onlnhu- 
I: r.s ” t-. * le t xtee^is *4 this X cda. whu.h 
1 ' 'id p.i'.'i Ijtd 1 » A.) r (Ml , XI , XU , 
x\.. I. I \( 'S (Xi.l, X\ . XM — - J’.XO.s. 
i;i<Ij(iti!| /|)\lt» ixhri I I he “ Cr.ntn- 
h'.ti us*'.,r. i.O'l h\ t‘i» abbreviated dcs- 
Kuati ‘US i?us» gives.) of the perioiluals^ 
. >.m . r.ietl 

Bhu rnib Id, .\thar\a\Mla - his part, .so en- 
titl. <1. of tin tiiiir.iliiss. iSe/j. 

r... Bi.nib.u 

BK l.iihdii ;;k and Koth's .Sanskrit- 
X\ Lite il.uels Published b} the Impe- 
ls il A* .idi in\ of .Scienees. St. 
Petersburg 1^52 I^r5. .Seven \ol*s. 
often c.iIKtl the (Major) (St ) PeUrs- 
bui g I o\u i»n 1 1 t M> 

C'aEnd (witl.out fui ib< r indieation of title) 
:;..\ltindist bes /aut'eirilual Piobe 
tssKi Eebtiset/ung I’ur wichligsten 
'1 hide des K.iut^jka-'suii a ( 7 ■ 
;.M. Bv X\’. t'alanjl. .XniMcnl im 
ii#so I mm the X i‘jliamlehngen de*r 
Komnkliike Ak. van XVetonse happen 
te .Xmsti nlani. Peil III -No 2. 

Calami, rodtengel laiu b.e Die Altin' 
schen 'loilten- uiul IW st.ittung.sgcbi.. 
ehe. zXinsleidam iSots Seep. So 

cii Genera/ Introduction^ 

Calaiidy Totonvorchruni' - I’cIht 'Fotcn- 
vcichniMi; boi tier liulo-(U*r- 

inanisclu’n Volkcr i8SS. 
C.iLiiuI, ritimedha Sutias - The IMtrnu*- 
ilhaSulra^of briudhay.ii\.\| llii.iiuake- 
»;in, t i.iul una. Loip/it;. 

(\dc C.ikiitla ot edition. 

1, l» t,\ilap.ith.i - ni.llim.ina. I‘t! A. 
WVber. Jieilin 1S5;. 

- t. Kil. 
A llilli'btaruit. Hifil. Itid. iSSS. 
k'tlS. - t, auk’Mvana-liilua-.Sutia. Kd H. 
C^ldcnlurij in Ind. .Mud. (w. 

187S. Skt. and (ieiman. 

ChT. CliandQgv.i I pansN ul. Kil (). 
Hohtlirigk. Lcip/ii^. i.''S4} skt. ami 
t'icrman. I'd. also in llil^l. Ind, Ho. 
ami I’oona. 

Collation- Ho«ik ~ manusmpt \olumcs con- 
t.uiiinij Whitney's fundameiit.d tian- 
.V iipt Ilf the \\ te\l and his eullations, 
etc. Tor detaiU. see p r\\ii 
comm - the nimnientarv on AV. ( is- 
cnheil to s-i%ani aral piibhsheil in ilie 
Iiombay td ) . ot , t!u* auih«»r theienf 
Da<,'. Kar. .. Dai^a Karm ini. a jmiM! all to 
< eitain pirt.s of the Kane Ste Hi's 
* introduction, p. \i\ 

DLlhriuk. Altindisi he .Syntax. Halle. 

Denksdir -■ Denksrhritten. 

Hc'issi n, Citsi inhte - .\ll'. 4 eTneinc (le- 
se'.i lile «h r l’liilosMj)hic‘ nut besonden r 
Htr’ii k^u !iti'.;un4 di r Rr lii;ionc n Hy 
Haul lK*u>s» n L» i]vii; I !'e tiist \ol. 
(pirt I, p.irl j, treats id 

the philosophy ot tiic \’tda and of the 
I’pani^ ids. 

Dcussen, rp inish ids — Sei h/::; T'p.ini-’s d« s Veili aus dun Sanskrit 
uljfrsct/t und nut I.'nleiiuii”' n und 
Animrkungen verst-hen. Lup/i,;. 

Dhanvantan • Dh.inv.intariy .a - Ni;;hantii 
Some refep-ni 1 s are lo the I’oona cd ; 
Roth's referenu-s arc, I prtsunv, to 
!)is Iransrript thsiribed by (»arbe, 
Verzeii hniss der ( I iibingcr) indisrhen 
Handschnftcn, N«>. 230. 

J\irt /.: dj* t/ie Editor 


du. dual. 

i'll, edition (of) or editor or edited by 
or in. 

ct al. =- ct alibi, 
f. or fem. = feminine. 

' Festi;iuss an lloUllingk ~ Festgruss an 
i)tto von Ilohihngk rum Doktor-Juhi* 
laum, 3. Febiuar iS.SS, von seinen 
Freundt-n. Stuttgart iSSH. 

Festiirusn an Roth =: Fcstgriiiis an Rudolf 
von Roth zum DoktorJulMlaum, 24. 
August iSijj, von seinen Freuiidcn und 
Sihuh-rn. Stuttg.irt. 18(^3. 

Floren/ - his (b-rman translation of AV. 

\i I -50, with comment, in'vol. xii. of 
He/zenberger’s Heitr.ige. (lOttingen. 
lSS7. Sec below, j). 2S1. 

(ilk (iopatha-Hrahmana. Kd. llibl. Iiul. 

(leldner : see Subenzt,^ Lteiicr and iV</. 

ties (iCselNi haft. 

l lottingKschc fielclirtc .Anzeigen. 
(iCrS (,oMu 1 a-( iihy a Sutra l.d. Fried* 
ri* h Kiiaucr. Leipzig. l^S5 Text, 
ti iMsI , and 1 ommi nt * in 2 parts. ^ f>z (Skt) ( or (.1. - Whit- 
ney's Sanskrit tJraminar, J <1 ed Leip- 
zig and boston. 'Iheie i.i a 3d 

id (iS'iri), which is essentially a re- 
pnnt ot the 2il 

( iiassniann Rig Veda. I'ebersctzt etc. 

I • ip/ig i'<7r> 7. 2 vol's 

(Irithth Thi' hymns of the A\’, trans- 
lated, with a pi>piil,ir ioniment.iry. liy 
K.dplrr H.firittilh. Jlenares and Lon- 
don. 1805 2 vol’s. ( f. p. xcv, .iIku’C. 

tinll : I lutulLft I.ieder des AV. lly Julius 
tirill 2d ed Stuttgart. IMS.S. Trans* 
lation and comment. 

t»rohmann -= Medn inisi hes ans dem AV., ^ 
mit besondcrem Heziig auf denTakman. 

In Ind. Stud. (ix. 381-423). 1H65. 
(•rundriss “ (irnndris* der Inrlo-zXrischen 
I’hilologie und Altertumskunde. He- 
grundet von (tcorg Uuhlcr. Fortgesetzt 
von F Kiclhorn. Strnssburg. 1896-. 
(furuprij.ikaumudi Fc.stgabc zum funf- 
zigjahrigen Doctorjubilaurn, Albrecht 

13* ttiid Si ^rns explained ciii 

Weber dargcbrachl von scinen Kreiin- 
den und Schulcni. I.eip/i;;. i«r/>. 

h. = liymn or hymns. 

Saptagataka : reference is made to 
A. Webcr’.s treatise thereim (^ 

I R70) and to his editton tiu n of ( I < ijv 
zig. 1881). 

Hardy = Hie Vediseh - hr.dimanisj he l"e 
riode der Religion des alten Intl'i-n-. 
Hy Edmund Hardy. .Munsti r in \V» st 
phalia. 1.S03. 

Henry (without further induaimn of i tl. ) 
-Victor Hcnrj’H Freru h ti.ii slafon 
of l>ook.s vii. t!»<* A \'. with 
mentary It .ippeart-d in ; ^ol's ( P.ims. 
Maisonneuve) as follows h«iok x .i. 
|S«>I ; Iwxik vii , lSri2. hooks \JM i\ . 
l.Si)4; luKiks X. XII, r“i pie 

cisi* titles, .sec hclow. pai^es jss, |-i. 
562. 70H. 

H<‘iS. nir.invake<,t ‘ irh\.i-SutT i. Id 1 
Kirste. V’lenna. tS^o 

Hillelir.incU, Veda ( hnstoinu I*, ik-’ 

Hillehr.intlt, Ved Myth h ' \ e.^ s !«.• 
M\lhologi«*, Ihesla I i'' .1 -i«r2 

II llehrandt. Ritual liM- lalei l.,s i.ul •»! 
the iirnniifiss iS^;. 

IF. Inchig* rmaniM I e Fots* i o n 1 d 
hy ftiuum.inn and Mrm' ii: "^tr-ihs 
hurg I So 2-. 

IF'\. “ Aiueiger fill Indo^'. rni.rus. • ' 
Spr.K h und Alltrluinsk iniie 
hlatt ” to 1 F. 

Index VeiNmum - Whitnev's Index \ti- 
lK>rum to the puhlished I ext of the 
AV. I.ssucd as J AO'* . \ol XU Nmv 
Haven, I’onn. 

Ind. Slreifen -- A. Welm's Ind.s, ‘ c 
Slrcifen. Herlin and 1 eip/n;. 
iSfio. 1870. 3 vol’a. 

Ind. Stud. Indischc Studien. Fd .\ 1 - 
brecht Weber. \'olumci (Heilm 
50) to volume xxiii. (Leip*'ic. t 

J A. = Journal Asiatupic. 1‘uhhd pai H 
SoeWtd Asialiquc. P.iris, t'^22 
Cited by series, vol . anil pvg *. 

JAOS. = Journal of the Amenean Oiienl tl 
Society. New Haven. Conn, • 

JR. J.iirniniy.i-IJrahmana, Cited ftuni 
Whitney's tr.inscnpt, des( rihcd hv him 
at JAO.S XI, p. < xliv, -- ]*A(JS. for 
May, i.S«3. 

JI\\S Jonrn.d of tin* Koxal .\siatic 
SixKtyof < liiilain ami Irel.ind. 
Loudon. 1831 

Jl'li |.ii*:.i!ii;a - Cpaiii^ad- Ih.ilirn.ina. 

Ld 11 Dertel in J.\0*S. (\\i. 79 zfn). 
(pn sented, iS'yy) 'I'e-xt, iransl., 


K K.ith.ika : lo, \omi times tin* codex 
K X’on .SrliiiKilt I's cd. of hook 1. of 
t’ e K' ilh ik i apj»i in d in Lclp/ig. I'po. 

K 'p K d I S imliiCt 

Kat'iili K itli.i-lha.mi.ina • .sie below. 

I V •’i i 'i‘'S In'* ruhmgi r KailM-Iland- 
•“i ) *.fl«n und I'lre IJe/nhung /irn TA. 
lJ\ 1 \ o'* S( litoe'h r bh (!crk.>\k der 
\\ i‘s in \\ )' *1 \ ol 137 \ lenna 
K i’.' r.' K I .ipka-Sutra of the AV. 

\\ .th I .iruts ftom tiic • ommi< s 
oj H”:Ii .f'll K'.t ua rd .M.air.i'c 
I’. ..""jl’i ! ’ N-u l.’i^xol \i, rifJ.'Vt)^ 

I • , I'l.i I ' : i OKI .n. e of two method's 
Ml . * 1 . s ti ' t 'll p 1:12 
KI‘.'-'i ki i;r'..’.o'i ,!i i !.<’ 15. Lind- • 

If j I . I I ‘ ^ " 

Kl’.r K u.'-iiiki- hia’ m.-*!. i ' Cpar.’^ul. 
1/1 1 h Cowell hill Lid i^ht 
1 1 \t ti v^'•\ ition 

Ki, '' K it> n i*' I c 1 int I Suii.i. Ld A. 

Wi^'T Ikilin I'';*) 

Kim. K'i, I'.i .V h'.N s. hoha on K iiK 
St - r.i\ intTod p XM 
K halmri’w - /m I'.ih- 

i;; luvnatik son Iin^t W. Kuhn, 

luil.n I''"; 

K/ /iMts, hull lur \eieleiLhcmle Spr.ich* 
foisrhiuv.: . . . Inuii’ \on Th. 

\ufiiihim.d \ Kuhn, herlin (Now 
Clnti iMhdi ) 1 > ; I - 

I inm in, Noin'i- In'lci turn Noun - Intlcc- 
ton in ihe\iMh lU' C. R I anm.m 
In J 3’- 

I 1 Readu .sanskiit Re.tdci. 
with Voi alvalarx ml Notes. Uy C K 
Lanm.ui liosion. t'^hS 


General Introduction, Part /, ; by the Editor 

L(,\S. -->rt>ana< i,'rauta - Sutra. Kd. 
Hihl. Inil 1S72. 

Luilw it; itiioijt further indication of title) 
= \ol iii of his Der Rigvcda inf) vol'ii. 
l>ra^ir. |S7(> SS 

Vol's I -u cciitJin the translation of the 
RV, ami IV contain the coinnimt. 
Vol III. tiS7S) c«M)t.uns manv transiationi 
from AV. and cntitKcl !>it‘ Mantra lit- 
tiratur uiut das ahe iiuiion .lU I'lnlcitun^ 
/nr I’ch des RV — Whiii* itrfereiu e ti> 
the lian^l iif the RV. ((^loalent (in so|. i. 
or 11 ) t>l an \\ . passa*;^ is intend* d, that 
fait IS made clear (as at p it.S top, 1 1 
2 jS. etc ) 

Ludwii:. Ktitik dcs R\’ -tc*\tc‘S. sec p Sfo. 

in =: masi uhiio, 

.Macdoncll. \'i d. M\thol - his Vodic .M)- 
tholo;;\ I'l the t irindriss iS.17 

Ml) -- Mantra- ru.ihinaiia (ot t!ie .S\’ ). 
C'lteil Iroin ed m ptiiudical called 
L’shd Call utlA. iS«it 

MlJh. - Maha niurata C itations refer to 
Ho ed (or td's), nr to both Ho. and 
Call ed\s. 

Mem .'^or I.uil; Mc'moircsdc la Socjcte 
<li‘ l;n;;uist!ijue d«* Hans 

.MCf^ - Man i\a t»rh\a- 'suira. 1 tl. H 
Knaner .St. IV it 1 shun; 

MH - .M.intra-H itha . or, the I’r.uer Honk 
of iho .\f)astamhind. I.d M VVinter- 
nil/. f)\ford. iSor. Hart of the ma- 
tend o| MH had alriMdv been i;ivcn 
in l!ie work I'lletl below ufitler /fV/zAv- 
////j, //('< //-•’f //>/.'///<'//, as expl.iincd 
aUobiluw.p 7V'> 

MS ' M.ulr.iv.ini-Sanihila. I. %on 
.Sthmedir. I.eip/i;;. l.’^.St /*. 

Muir (without further indication of title) 
O's'r , whif h S' c\ 

Muir, Mi'lrii .il 1 ransl.iinms from S.inskrit 
Writers Lomlon. 

N. - North 

n no»f : "/*. \ometimes neuter. 

N.u.;* \a k.inda of sV. , s» e below, under 

Naks /'r N.iks. K \aks.itra Kalp.i. .See 
Hi’s iMlrfMl. to K.iue . j) XIV. 

Noun intier tion : hcc above, under Lan- 

O. and L. S. = Oriental and Linguistic 
Studies. Hy W. 1 ). Whitney. New 
York. i.'<73. 1S74. 2 vol’s. 

OH. = Otto Hohtlingk’s Sanskrit- Wdrter 
buch in kur/erer Hassung. St. Peters- 
burg. Seven vol’s. Often 

called the Minor (St.) Hetersburg 
Lexicon Cf. HR. 

Oldenberg, Die Ilvmnen^es RV'. Hand L 
.Metrische und textgeschichtliche Pro- 
legomena. Herlin. 1SS8. 

Oldenbeig, Die Religion des Veda. Her- 
lin. |S()4. 

Dinma und Hortenta : see under Weber. 

O.ST. ” Original Sansktil Texts. Tr.ins- 
lati'd by John Muir. London. 1868- 

:i 5 '“I's- 

p. | 

-p (as in 3-p . 4 p ) “ p.Mla (in the sense 
of subdivision of .1 see expla- 
nation .ibovt, under -av. 

Haipp Haippal.ula or Kashmirian AV. 
hor di l Ills (onrerning the lollalmn 
and Its sources and the bin li batk 
orjginal .lud the facsimile, see above, 
pagi s Ixxx If. -* I'.uiiiii s t ir.imtnar. 

H.imbt, ^h.inkar H.uuluiang: .see below, 
under SHH 

HAOS Hionc'ibngs of the /Xiiierican 
Oriental souetv. 

'Ilu\ well l.irmerlv (with (lagina- 

tiuii :n R' 111 III liiinu r.iU to distinguish 
thi m from the lounud pro|H*r) as appen- 
dixes li* l*e b-iimd (ip with the xtduiiies of 
the but iluv wen* als«i issued in 
S' p.iiaie p.impliiei« .is Hroi eediiigs for 
Sill h and si < h a month and \ ihe 
nl.ilions below are ho gixcn that they xan 
r< .idil) U* ffiind in either issue. 

H.irii; .\V. Haru.isb'i: cf. Hi's introd. to 
K.'iiir , p xix. 

HH. H.iiV avtix,'.! Hrahmana or Tiindya- 
Mah.i br.'ihmana. I.d. Hibl. Ind. 1870- 
74. 2 vor.s. 

Peterson, llvmns from the RV. Kd. with 
S.ivan.i's ( omm., notes, and a 
Peter PelerMin. Hombay. 1888, 

Pet. I.ex. ■ the Major St. Petersburg Lexi- 
con. See HR. 



13. AbbrciuatioHs and Si (rns explained 

Pet Lexx. = the two St. Petersburi;; 

coiw, Major and Minor. Sev IIK. .md 

PCS, - Paraskara-tirhya-Sulra. Kd A. 
K. Stenzier. Lcipd^. 

Skt. and (jerman. 

Piscbel, Gram, der PrAkrit-sp:.ulu-n int 
part, so entitled, of t)>e (irundnss. 

Pischcl, Ved. Stud : sec below, undir Wd. 

p. m. - prima manu. 

Poona ed = ed. of tlie Aii.ind.i A(^ram.i 

Ppp. '= Pjipp.ilad.i A\* * s. c ibo\f, u!id« r 

I'rAt. o» Pr. ■<;.»kli\a of the W se»: 

above, under .\l*r. 

Proi . Proree<lini;s 
K. Kolh . t»/, io/ut’fimt s ll-<‘ <<»dtx K 
Kajan. Kaj.inii;hait(u C ite 1 in «h .'•t 
from Knili's own ms , m»\\ 1 . « ^ 

1 7^’. 1 In re is a Pona.i 

Kei .\bel li» ri;.is:;m 's I \ 

\tJdl<|U«’ h s li\ milts dll I\\ . 

Pans iS;^ SJ. t l»]<*nj|jf‘,. !■! 

ni.ide an Indi\ of K\‘ ]'ass.t»;«s ih n- 
in treateii P.ins. 1 ''vT 
Kev. ■: Review 

Roth. /ur I.itteratnr ami (nsilmhte d< s 
Wtd.i. stijtt^'.ii i^P‘ 

Roth. I'ebcr dfii .\liiar\a \’eda. i'l.’* n- 

j»eii. I.S;0 

Roth, Ucr Atlnivavcdia in i\as< hn. i 
'ru!nnt;en. 1 S 75 . 

Roth. Tebcr i;ivvissi» Kin/injin d. s 
Woitindes im W’da Wi .i.ii.tlhp iii n 
des VII. Intel n.ilfon.ilen Oi leni.ilisi^ ». 
i*onj;resscs. \'ienna 
Koxburi;li. Flora Indiea: tin* 1 ii.iin*rs bv 
vol. and paj;c refer to t'.inv's ed .>1 
1S32 ; liut these ran easdv be ;:i 
the limr^in of the C.ih . rt jn .nt nt 1 | 

RPr. 0r RV. Pr.\t. = RV. I’l iii^akhv-i 
I'ld. .Max Muller. Leip/iv;. Ab** 

by A. KcKnier in J A. 

RV. - Rig-Veda i*r Rijij-Veda Samhit.i 
l%d. Th. Aufreeht. Also bv Max 

K\\'. - Roth and Whitney, 
s s.iiidni.i j>.itha. 

.S.uhsistiie Jier. - iJerifhte dcr koni^l. 

S.ii lisisthen (,es di r Wiss 
•Sit -- .Sadvin^a- lirahm.m.1 Cited pre- 
Miiiiabh from ed. of Jib.'inanda \ 

ira. ( ali . i.SXi. Ld. of |..irt b> 
K Kleinm. (.utcrsloh. 

Ml .‘sit/uiii4sliein hie 'I'liose of the Per- 
Iiii .\k ate usu.tlly mtant. 

•Slil S.u n d linnks of the Mast Trar's). 
li\ \. moils OiKHtal .Scholars and td. 

b\ I Max Muller. Oxford. 

lo t 40 vol’s 

Sclnirnri. Pliilosophist.hc II\ muen = Pliil. 

Hvmntn .uis dir K\‘-iinfl .V\'.-.Sam- 
hit.i vcr”liihtn rnit den Philosophemen .illertMi I p.inishad's. Strassliurg. 
I.*" s- 

sthol s« li'.lia ol D.'inl.l or of Ke(;a\a or 
o| , lit . Oil K.'iui^ see IJl’s introd . p. 
\i Old p \' i 

vo'i Si’ d. r SIM* .diove, K.ttha-hs« , 
.<1 d l'« 1* w. /'.v« I Hss 

'siebiii/.^ 1 It ’« r des KV. L'ebcisttzt 
\i‘M k.irl ‘ .1 hliitr und Adolf Kae^i. 
Mi! l’>t iM.ii^en von R. Kolli. Tubingen. 


sm sn I ii,.i ,u 

SjH \ ( 1. \ I d>st ’u S\nta\ * Ills p.wt of tlie 
i iiuudiiss, entilKii \ idisthe umi .San- 
skrit 'sv U.u 

spj*'r I’.imluran:; I’andil as 
».ht*»i ol d'o Doinbav tiblion of the A\'. 
It is e it'tleil Alh.irv av erhusamhila 
with the t ••mmeniarv of Sav anac.irv a. 

I s .)5 .s. ; \ < Vs 

.sui . I • Siddli.iii* i ' '1 r.uisl.iiion of the 
sir\ i Mildh.iiita. 1 IiM-bookol Hindu 
.\siMiuer.v . with Notes, it-. InJ.VOs. 
(M 1 }l 40'^) 

sV Die IP.M 'en d- s Sain.i-Veda Ld. 
Ih 1 h’^liv I cip.'’:;. 184.'^ Text, 

ti ansi . ^h^ss.u \ 

I ht' w T'.i s I'f tb • Viu r Jf. i are v ittd. 
h\ the n.iiiiiv'i'' in n iliiral s, ,jmnce. as 1 
I I I '•niiil.iib. these of the I .ittcr 
.?*.;C;.".is u r to 11 i :.'5 -- I he verses of 
the Nhiigcva '•iipplchicnt to ihi Piior xlt,.tka 

Generd/ luirodnctiou^ Pari /. ; by the Editor 


are riteil as SV. i. 5^6 ti> i. (141, and as 
edited hy (ioldschtnidt 111 the Monat.s- 
heru'hl der k Ak dfi \Viss. /u Kerlin, 
se^^l^n nf \pi iSckN I f. note to AV. 
IV I and to xni 2 2 j 

TA. T.iiltnh.i - Araiuak Ktl. Hihl. 

Ind iH-’j I hfie i'* also a Toona etl. 
Tl) -- raittitn a - l>iali:naiia Id. |ld>l. 

Ind iS;t) t 'I here is also a Poona cil. 
TPr. - 1 aitliii\a-rfati»;akhya. l.d \V 1) 
Whitney. In J.VOS (i\. 1 - 4 /)!)) 

Tranx - Transac tii>ns. 

'I > '1 aittin') a-.Samhit i IM .V Wt!»cr 

In I’ld .Miid.^iiTsM and \ti. I.eifj/i^. 
i ''7> - rheie is also a I’oona til. 

\'ait ' \ .I'.taMa-Sutra- I.d. K (larlie. 

I ondo’i i'»7S. (himan liansl by 
him hlrassliui;;. 1S7S. 

\’ed Stud - \ cdisi he Studien \ on R 
Pisihel uiul K I . (ieldner Stiitt’^arl. 
3 sol*** 

Vl'r r \ afas i:ie> i-I’r iin, ikh\ i. Id. .\ 
Waller In Ind Stud (u ). i'<57 < 
Ski and (forrnan 

\'S ■ \ iusa'ie\ i-S.iin!i:t i I'.d A Wibei 


\s (.o'Nft V . \shn !i •> use-I as nuMnini^ ;) 

- w rs . . \ •'s ■ \ei M .s . 1 1 , lor \ \ irn- 

p!r.‘. line 2 oi T'.t • to IV. IJ. I. 

W ' Wl.ilni), or, Sv^nutim f t’le todex 

W' J » r (wilh.out furtiter indiration of title) 
Welnr’s In lisi. he Slltheri. sc*' 
.il>o\e, Ind St'id 

Wi.i-er, Oinini a:.d I'orif nta in Ai-h dir 
k .\k (hr \\ iss for Heibn 

_ 1S5.; 

Wi.ber, Kajisiha Veber die Koni^s- 
weihe, den l 4 .n\-vs\ i m .\bh d'-r k 
.\k dcr Wiss f<jr lleilin 

Weber, Sb for the niean’.,i; in 1 
see bel*j\%. •) Si j 

Weber, \’aj:i|)cya ~ Ucbcr tlcn V&japeya : 
in Sl>. der k. Ak. der Wibs. for 18921 
pa);:e.s 76 ^-.Si 3. Heilin. 1892. 

Weber, Vcdische lleitra^e. 

Under this title was issued a series of 9 
aitules in Sb. der k. Ak. dcr Wws. su 
lieilin. from iS()4 to They aro 

usiiali\ ( ited by .Sl> and the date. For the 
.V\ , the most important is no. 4 (1895, 
coniliidt-d 189(1), treating book xviii., as 
ctplaiiu'd below, p 81 j. 4 

Weber’s Translations of books i -v. and 
xb and x\iii . lor these, see p. evil. 

Wh. rr Whitney, (ir.imniar: .see above, 
undi r ( 

Wiulnex, Irvlex Wiborum: see aliove, 
iindei Index 

Whiim\, «) .ind I.. .S. • .sie above, under 
i) ind 1 s 

W! .U’lt'. , Knots - 'I he Roots, \*erl>-fornis, 
and primal y l)cri\ali\es of the San* 
skill I am^iMm* I.eip/ii;. 18.H5 

other I rnitiibuliiins nlatini; to 
i’ll' \\ l"t • ome ol till se, see I’lelace, 

I s will, w\, w\i 

\\ inti I !t!{ <■ I # (in bin'k M\ * t f. bi low, p, 
70) \\ inr hit Ilofli/eits* 

I t’.' II in t !)•* iks hulien der k Ak. 

• iirWis>,\oI vi. V ienn.i. 1.S92. 

WiSs. WiNseiisi li.iiieii. 

W /KM. - Wiener /eitsil.ilfi fur die 
Kunde di * \'ienna. 
i8 S7 

/DMti, / lirilt der Peutsclien Mor- 
i;e:il.indisi lien ( /i si INi haft. Leip/t);;. 

/■mnu r ( withiiiit fuitiier indn ation of title) 
!.is .Vliitidisi lie.s laben. Hrrlin. 1S79. 

/aei llss - /i\ei Ilandsc hrilten der k k. 

I fotbTuliothek in Wien init FraKnien- 
ten lb .s K.ithaka. My von Srhroeder. 
In Sb. der k. Ak. der Wiss. for 1895 
(3Spai;es). \'ol. t xxxiii. Vienna. 1896. 

14. Tabular View of Translations and Native Comment 

Previous translations. — Native commentary. — It may prove ihscful to 
have, in convenient tabular form, a list of the most important or conipre* 
hensive proviou.s translations, with dates ; and also a list of those parts of 

14> Tegular [^iaa of Tran\lali(>ns and Native Cooimcnt evii 

the text upon which the native commentary has been published in the Bom- 
bay edition. The .iates are taken from the title-p.iges of the volumes con- 
cerned ; the dates of the preface s, or of the p.irts of the volumes concerned, 
are sometimes considerably eirlier 1-or biblio-raphit.d iletails, see the 
List, pages ci-evi. The br.iL. s ..t the li-ht show which of SIT’s four 
volumes contains the text, or tne text with comment, of any given book. 
I. TniisUtloii of the whole text. 

Gntfitil. |S»>5, iKy> s-ir p i n. 

TnniUitlona of « mxss of aelected hymoa. 
ItloonifieUI, *>• t p 

ni. « 


TransUtiona of sini^le books. 

1 iS7< M'cpciv 

III b Books with 


WcIht, liidihche Sifudien, 

l‘»>' 'k 1 . 1 



" ** '* *U1 


P“<'ik ii , 

' ilMic 


• • M .1 


I....k ,1. 

♦ lUlIt: 


“ “ “ XMll 


Pii'rk 1. 



•' “ •• •• 



1 50 Morcn/i-«'*p 


pMi /k M 

( ntiK 


Ilcnr). I c iikrt* n.i 

1 ';: 

l‘> '/k Ml 

' util. 


lx •* liv n s MU 1 1 IX 


P(J' k V ..1 

, I (• 





•• I « nIiMI-UX, XI < t Ml 




JJ.- 4 /k \1 . 

, t r.tuc 




“ .K •kiM'i 



\Y< licr, IfidiKchc si' fi.< h, \ 



.\ufr' (.hi, Intiis h* M.iMcn.i 




P. '/k X» 

; . 1 : lir 


Wt'lxrr, sji/ icicOii r.i ’ '<r 1 


P.i . k 




•k M\ , 

k W 

(irill, itSSS ‘•ei; p cii 

VM'P’snoI i. 

'^rr’s \oi. li. 

> p’s \ol in. 

P's \ul IV. 

Chronologic sequence of previous translations and discussions. — In jiidg- 
inj; belwpcn tlio (»r fpinmns (»f diiKicnt excretes, it is 

do.sirablc \o know thoir i hmimlo-KMl Mijiimco In -iMn- the ticlailcd 
bibliographical niinnti.i* iK'h'W, at the loginning of h\inn, I have 
always cmloavorcd to an, in^<* ihoin cpiontdt»i;ica:Iy ; but the tollowing 
brii'f table in a«Idition will not bp supcrtlu«>us The diifcrcncc in time 
of the printing of the li anslaiioiis i>! tinlTuh and llloMnticUl anil Henry 
(x.-xii.) was so small they mu''f have been each independent of the 
others. Kor tlu places of [uibluMtinn clc , see the List, pages ci-evi. 

1H50. Ajufrechl, liook x\ 
1K58. Writer, l»tiok I 

iJWfs. WelK*!, N«ik xiv 

1872. Muir, , OST v. 

*873. WeljcT, jd rd .Ixuik 11. 

187$. Ludwig, aelpitU nx. 
1870. /Immeri aeleciimix. 
1885. Wel>cri book iu. 

iSs-. s,l«, sokxti'Mis 
I.SS 7 III iir., J<n»k M I 5 ‘^ 
iSsS (iiiil. 'll' a , ii sltMiins 

iS*)! llini), l'i* 'k \m 

iS.).' Ill nry, 1‘iv.k Ml 
|S>)| •».'* b'l Iulm I 

III pr\. N-’ks \ui i\ 

iS</S M’l”' U'*- * ‘‘ 

iVj; (iiiM ;h. I)«^«'k^ 1 -ix. 

\V, Pi 1. I'ook \\ :ii J~~ 
i.s )'i W r. l o-'k xMii ^-4 
( 5 **»iih, hoiik« X - \x 
I |i jin. Iwwks \ XU 
iSii* I’.l. ‘’M Id, M.lei.'liiin^ 
iSi»S \Y< lu I, Iu>ok> i\ 

Sri’*> it \l. 111 -IV 



. ^tAIJ.klAL 

uenerai Premises 

for ,0 riK- ",,•'7 "7. "J '> ’'’'’T'"'''' 

p. I«iii; aikI Ihc ciinlcnfi of l»„h | .,„j I'l „ ’ PWarsd at 

dotai, a„„ i„ a TL:; L””;: 

wt h tho too .„,tical ,1. „t tl.t- ary fa , ,,7 

.ob,oce.„..,„c, of f..„t II. .,1.0 ,„,,y , „„ ,, aa ioLa 

I. Dc-scripiion nf lUr ininiN< i .-.ts 

2 Thoir (ipt'siini; st iM/.t 

3 \V hitnc\ s C oll.ttiMi. |'«<mk 
4< K<*fuMlcvI \irsrs in i)'t* rn'ss 

5. K«frain.s an.I (lie 1)^0 i:i t :t! nivs 

.\« 1 * -itfi ui.).i mirks in tlu; mss. 

: m, i!;(hl of Berlin text. 

.il im n thr .Xiliaivan samhita. 

•» .s nl ti . 

> Itsixte ; .IM >:riKU:fcJ 

' ■' "''"il' flto taod of 

itilitor. Ian II. IS lira,. , 

Uhitncy. Clni.turs j .,n.| 3 . h,.w.xut.^h iMitten hv the editor 
arc .nc«,,v.,..te,l into this |„..c.u,s.. .he most fit'for them is 

here, just after ihapt.-r i. In the lewiitten poitions ol the other chap- 
ters. It has not hcen attemptetl tiiorou,th!y t„ separate the aiithor-s part 
from the editor’s; Imt pin-raphs whi.h aie entiielv Ifv the e.iitor are 
enclosed in ell-braekets. L J 1 he wiio’e matte, has heA.,' caiTfi.llv Mated 

hy me in the jireface. at pa,-es sm.x asx. an.l these the reaeier is requested 
to consult. J 

X. Description of the Manuscripts used by Whitney 

[The brief designations of his manuscripts (sigla codicum'. — The sii;!a 
O. and L. seem to be Il is to not** that W'iiitnoy apjur- 

cntly intended that all tin* icst shouM In* sui^L^ -'-tixo I .nis H . r , R , T . 
3nd O. are the initials rospoctiwlv of lU'ilm, l*.nis, Rcili, I'.inioro, .intl 
I^eccan; smAiU p. of course means /./ //.text ; and sm.ill .v nu-ans s.uft/m.t- 
text; and K. was the first letter of Hikaner not pIeviou^ly em|)K>\eiI as 

1 1 \ 

• % 

cx General Inlroductioit^ Part //. ; in part by Whitney 

si^luni. M. and \V., which desip^nate the mss. of the Mill collection and 
Wilson collection of the Itodloian, were chosen as being initials of Mill 
aiul Wilson. The letters K. I. H., as designating the |pss. of the Library 
of the India OtVice in London, were plainly meant to suggest the name 
Hast India House, the designation of the London establishment of the 
Hon. Last India Company previous to 1S5S. Observe that Whitney's 
“I." was first used by him to designate L I 1 1 , ms. No. 2142 (ICggcling's 
No. -34), but only until he discovered that that ms. was a mere copy of 
the Tidier ms, in the Museum ; after that time Whitney collated 
the Toiler original, retaining for it, however, the designation “I." The 
sigla of the mss. useil by Whitney bebjre publicatiun are esscmtially the 
same as tliose given by him at the end of his Introductory Note to the 
AV.Tr , p. 33S. which see J 

[Synoptic table of the manuscripts used by Whitney. - It will be conven- 
ient to have, in adiiition to Whitney's description of his mss., a .synoptic 
table of them, cast in such a form that the reader may easily see just 
what ones were available for any given bonk 'The following table is 
essentially the same as one which Whitney made foi his ow-n use.J 

sw.nii \ mxm m Riri> pKhv m\m si RiKrs 

•Is- i»M I . Is. # 

if 5fl 

I’l' 1 

< >»i If'! 

I 1 

1 H 

III < 



4 .er 



141. ' 












I ) 




15;.. . 


1 } 









I ) 




I5l» . 











1 ) 















( ) 




H|> > 











I ) 















< > 




15,. . 

15,. ^ 



\ :• 

M •• 








15, >. 





M ” 




( » 








M ” 








15,, . 





‘M ” 




( 1 



























( 1 




















1 ; 






( 1 













( ) 





















X. >1 










15, j ' 









( ) 



















I> 1« Kp. 














[Berlin manuscripts of the Atharva-Veda. — A tabular view of \hc vari- 
ous numberings and desigiiatinns of the nine Berlin mss., Wcbei*, Nos. 
331-339, will be found useful and is given here. The left-hand column 

I. DcscripUoit of the Mauuscyipts used by Whitney cxi 

gives the sigla used by Whitiu-y, but with some marks (a, b, c, added 
for convenience of reference to or from the luccedin^^ table. The second 
column shows which books any j;iven ms. contains. The third ^;ivLS the 
numbers of the msS. as they Weber’s Cataloj^ue; and the fourth 
gives th^ old numbers assi;^ned to those mss. when they formed a j)ait of 
the collection of Sir Robe-l Chamb. rs. I'he ri^dit-hand cf>lumn shows what 
bootc or group of books was transcribed by Whitney from the original ms. 
named in the same line. 


Wtlicf No 

( ’un.b'r -N'fi 

< opit a W h tnty 

Bp 4 

i ix 



i IV arid vi.-ix. 

Bp A 

X x\ni 



Hooks X - xviu. 




1 1 \ 

Hook XX • 



3 '•* 

H 7 




Hook V. 


1 \ i IX. 



Bp A 



1 10 


M - XX. 

lify>k xix. 


XI -XX. 

33 a 


^Manuscripts used by Whitney before publication of the text. — The fol- 
lowing descriptions were written out by Whitney in such form as to 
require almost no changes J 

^Bp. Under this designation are, for con\enicm e’s sake, grouped two 
Herlin /<i///Mnanusei ipts, making togeth«'r a compl- te /»fo/(?-te\t to books 
i.-\vlii. The first manuscript, Bp,® (Chambers, No S, Weber, No. 33 -b ** 
described on p[) SJ of Weber's C it.dogue ot the Reilin Siinskrit mss. 
It contains books i.-i\ , written in a tleir hut latner rude hand, (juite 
fairly correctly, an<l accented tbituigbout in a uniform manner. At the 
enil of book ii is a (‘olopbon (gi\en in lull b\ Weber), .stating the date as 
AD. 1593-4; but ibis IS probai)!) (.opied trom the scribe’s 01 iginal. At 
the end «»f the fourth book wis perhaps another colophon ; but, if so, it 
is lost, with the last word of the list verse in the book, by the omission 
of a loaf (leaf IJ5). The second manuscript, BpA (Cbamber.s. No 108; 
Weber, N.). 335: see Webu's Cat.ilogue. pp. 83 84), containing books 
N. -xviii., is defcLlivc at tlw* end, l.uking the two veises of .wiii. 

(except the first word of 4 SS), and of course also the colophon. It is 
written in three different hands, with fair coneclness (Webers note. 
*M)y the same hand as- 334,” is a mislake) It is accented in the same 
manner as Xo. 332. 

Bp«* I'his <lesignation aNo applies to mine than one manuscript, the 
first ounuaciipt, Bp.**, contains only book i. (CbambeiN, No 117, Weber, 
Xo, 331 : Cat., p 82). is b indsomely and very accuiatel> written, and is 
quite independent of Hp. It is dated a p. 103-’. accentiia- 

lion changes soon after the beginning (see below, p. cxxi). The second 

cxil Gtueral Iniroductiotu Part //. : in part by Whitney ^ 

manuscript, contains books v.-ix. This manuscript, though one in 
paper, si/o, and hand, has by some means become separated into two 
parts, the one (Chambers, loq; Weber, 33^) containing only book v., and 
the other (Chambers, 107 ; Weber, 334 : both p. 83 of Cat.) containing 
books vi.-ix. They are less independent than Hp/', representing the 
same proximate original as Hp. (though they are not copied from Bp., nor 
are they its oiiginal) ; but they are decidedly more accurate than Bp., and 
also more carefully corrected since copying. There is no colophon to 
either part, l)ut they are as old, apparently, as Hp.^', or as Bp. ; their 
muile of accentuation agrees througluuit with that of the latter. 

B. or Ba. This is the Berlin manuscript (Chambers, 115; Weber, 338 : 
pp. S4 S5 of Cat ) of books xi. -\x. in It is rather incorrect 

and somewhat woim eaten. It beats the date A.n. Kmi. In the Berlin 
Tahrary is ^Chambers, 120; Weber, 339: p S5 of Cat.) a modern copy 
[B.' J of it, ha\ing value only as having been made before its original was 
so much worm-eaten as at present 

P. and M. These are virtually one manuscript, being two copies of the 
same, by the same hand, and agreeing precisely in form and 
.style 1 * is in tlu' Paris Library, and is in two volumes, marked 1 ) 204 
ami 1 ) 205 M , .dso in two \olumes, behmgs to the .Mill collection in 
the Bodleian Library at Oxfordd By some curious and uriexplaincd blun- 
der, the cop\ of bo«*ks vir. \ that behmgeil to M was sent by mistake to 
Paris with P, so that P’s first volunv* lonliius books i.-x., and its 
seci>nd vii , while of M the fust \olume cont.iins i -vi., and the 
second \r \\ In the reterenccs m.ule in the nt)tes below-, the copy of 
vii \ incimled in the first - \olume ««l P. is aceount<'d as M. I ho differ- 
ences of tin- two are not altogether siu h as .ire due only to the last copy- 
ist , sinec P his been eollateil and ci*riccted (winning thereby some 
reaUingM. P, is also more carr fully c«>pied than M , but bt)lh arc rather 
inaeeurate reproductions of a faulty original. A colophon copied in both 
at the end r)f b«)ok xi. gives j./w;*// i8i 2 (.\.i). a.s the date, 

of the original , the copies arc recent, probably since the beginning of the 
nineteenth ventury. Tin ir mode .icv cntualion is by strokes, not dots ; 
that of P is <lef»s live from xiii. i tf» m\. 10. 

W This .ilsf), like M., In longs to the Bodleian Library at Oxford,® and 
is a man list ript of the whole Atliarvar>, excepting only book 

IS the m'^ h, Auf.Mht, m h.s t'^talo^ue r>f the Itorlleun Sanaktit Manuscripts, 

p o .Xu s.^ ,,f i!.,. < im!k* ' i \filli,int.j 

juintf r's «' jiy «if iIiin in Whitney’s haiirlwriting nays cicariy "necond vol- 

ume'”. l)ut tli»* o'lL’inal 'Ie^^ Option nf the in**-*. (in.Kl>.' hy him probably in I K5 3) says clearly 
‘•lir-it volnmi-". I b-d ih.U th*' on,'in.iI i-, .tml have altered ihft pr»H»f lo (orrespond 
lh'T««ith J 

^4' A’lfre* hi, p, 3x5 b, us Nos and yjo of the Cotlues Wdsonlani.J 

^ I. Descripiioti of the hlanuscripts used by Whitney cxiii 

xviii. It has no colophon at the end, but is a modern copy, on European 
papen*, and in part made from the same ori^^inal as J*. and M., as is shown 
both by accordances in minute* peculiarities and errors of reading, and 
by containing at the end of book xi. the same colophon as they. In 
certain bf the books, namely i., ii., vi. x., xvi., x\ii, it showr signs of 
greater independence. It is by the most faulty and least valuable of 
all the manuscripts collated. Only the fust book is accentuated, nearly 
in the familiar RV. method. 

E. This is a j/m/z/Vd-manuscript of all the twenty books (except the 
latter half of xviii., from 3. 6 on), belonging to the India Oftice Library in 
London. It is described in l-Lggeling’s Catalogue on p. 37 (now numbered 
229 and 230; formerly 682 an«l 760 or 113;. It has no date; Kggeling 
reckons it as of the 17th century. It is written on coarse rough paper, 
in a large and irregular hand, appaiently by a scholar for his own use, 
and is fairly correct. The text is hero and there a little mutilated at the 
edges by the reprehensible carelessness of the bind«T ; otherwise it is in 
good preservation. Its metln^d of accentuation is very various : see 
below,* p. exxii. 

1. This i.s a complete copy of the j/zw////d-tc\t, in large form (14’^ 

X in ), being one of the set of Vedic manuscripts brought to Europe 
by Col. Polier, and now belonging to the British Museum in London. 
The Atharvan material is contained in two volumes : vol. i. gives first 
Iwok xix., then x.x.. then i. .x. ; vol. ii -ives the Anukramani, then the 
Gopatha Brahmana, thc-n books .\i -wii . then xviii — each division, in 
both volumes, boini; separately paj'cl. There i.s n.> colophon ; but the 
whole is evidently a modern copy, made for Col I’olier himself. It is on 
smooth paper, tvell writt.m, and not especially inaccurate. It contains 
the verse «.» Jevtr etc. prefixed at the beginning, like some of the 
manuscripts compaiod later (see p. cwi). 

Of all this Atharvan material of Tolier’s, a copy was made for Col. 
Martin while it remained in the latters keepin.:; (as I’rof. il. II. Wilson 
informed me that he personallS' knew it to have been for a tiniel; and this 
copy now constitutes Xos. .’5? "f 

credited as presented by K Johnson (No. -\S4. cont.immi; Hooks .xi -- 
xviii., has W. I). W.'s note to this effect reiwitcd in the C .ataloj;ue ; hut 
Prof. EEKelinB fails to notice that the other volume. s are of the same 
character). The collation of No. ::34 "as hi-Eun. hut abandoned on the 
discovery of its origin. Doubtless No. ’V (old lumilnr ooi) is an t 
copy of the Polier first volume, ma.le at the same time tor 
or tdse Lmadc for Martin aiidj later .i-iveii Lto t olebrookej In Maitm as 
it is stamped » Claud Martin " ; [.‘t all events, the one who gaxc 
Library was ColcbrookcJ. 

cxiv General Iniroductwn, Part JI . : in part by Whitney ^ 


* H. This manuscript, again, belongs to the India Office Library (No. 231 : .. 

old No. 1137: Citalogue, p. 37 )- It contains only the firs^six books, 
and is h.indsoim-lv but r.ither incorrectly written. It has no date, but its 
accentiMtion'added in a.k. 1708. Its mode of marking the accent 
varies : sec bcNuv. 

LManuscripts collated after publication of the text. — The following 
des. riptions .dv> were written out by Whitney, e\cei)t those of mss. R. 

and T , which luive been sui)phed by the editor. J 

The above are all the manuscripts known ti> have been in Ivurope in 
; and upon them .done, accordingly, the printed text was founded. 
Tito'C that tollow been since collated, anil their re.idings are rejwrted 
in the notes to the transl.ition. 

0. In the possession at present of the Munich Library, but formerly of 
Prof M. Haug .to whom they belonged at the time of their collation), arc 
a p.-rccl of Atharvm manuscripts cont.iining .a complete saw/nfii-tcxt, 
with a /ir</<; tcvt of six books, vaiiously dunled .mil bound together, 
and in part inr.ed with other texts. The ..ow/r/Ar-text is desig'nate.l as 
above. It is in tive parts : i. books 1 v.. on European piper. <3 i"-. 
e.ach book separ.itely p.tged. The date at the end, (wL i 757 ( \ i> i 8 i 5 ) 

m.ty be that of the origrnal from which this copy is made. It is written 
in .t small but an.l dear haml. 2. Hooks vi xvii x 5 >4 m.. writ- 
ten in a good sizeable band, by a Mamn.ijj ; d.itcd sawvif I v i>. t(. 34 > i 
the I'aper is in [laits badly damaged, so as hardly to bold together, and 
of two Icives in book xii. only fragments remain. It in.ikcs use of * 
the r//,/w.r. and ..f o .is rt««r;-.m/-sign. It numbers the verses only in 
nuking no account of the hxmns (snkfitt ) ; nor does it notice the 
division. 3. Hook xviii , .)'4 S 1 » ’•‘''K'-' 

date 1 1 ru 1735 ' ' " “ "‘‘s ''‘’'"I"''* 

with /‘-/./.r nis ot I. iii betore it, and sainUtUi of xx. after it. 4. Hoiik xix., 
bound up with I iuuhhitu 1 v ). and in all respects agreeing with it, save the (eope-d ’) dite is two yc.irs l.iter T both arc works of the same 
copjist 5. Hoi.k XX, bound in <.is aboie noted) after 3. The sice is 
8% < 4,'j in , and it is dited 1735 i>. t 8 l 3 )- 

Op. 'Ihisdesigiuites the (■■uUi\k:\X of the Hang or Munich manijscripts, 
as al)o\i; .lesciibed "I in v mdude l)o.iks i.-iv., xviii., and xx., in three 
divisions: I. boi.ks i 111 .’bound up (as imte.l above) with the samhiiA- 
text of xviii. aivl xx. l lie books an- p.iged separately, but all written by 
one haml ; the date .at the end is 1733 (A t>. >8* •) ’> 9 ^ 4 H 'f- • 

The haml is laige .and dear, and lli<; text (corrected by-the accentuator) 
very correct. 2. Hook iv. : sue S < .j in.; date f./fv I 73 <> 

3. Hooks xviii. and xx , bound with the preceding, ami of same size; 

^ I. Descrip(io7i of Hu Mamiscripts used by IVkihicy cxv 

then, was alLcd only for the limlll’Ttaf T k 

xv.-xix., and the peculiar juris of xv’ .,t.„ th.> ^ i " ** ^''^* 


Munchen, T. Ackermann. |S;6. JU* the n i ' 

mss. there numbered ,3. a„d by 0„ . thov numbered ,5 and ,7 
IJje dtmensions there ,dve„ <hffcr in a httle those .Mven by 

cil^rrZrk * rih ■'^ • !>• \V’.S criti- 

cal remark about this m..terul : -all in j;o.,d an.l correct manuscrijns. 

ntadc by and for sdiolars (not cojues by j.rofessional scribes for 
the use of;/'J 

R. LThis IS a complete uwtlntihut ^ . bclon-m?: at the time of its collation 
(l< 75 ) to Roth, and now m the ruhm^an University Library It is 
.lescribcd by Roth, Ihr tn Kaschmu. p. 6, and by Garbe in 

his X^rzachmss, as No. i p , i. h „ b.,uiul in two volumes, the one 
containinj; !>ooks i.-x., and the other, hooks xi.-.w. In the colophons to 
a number of the books (sf) viii , ix., x. mv.. m\ » is the elate (^akc 1746 
(A.i). i8j 4) , but at the end of xx. is the date 19^6 (a i>. iSyo). 

It was bought for Roth lioin a Rrahman in IJeiiares by Lr. Iloernle, and 
Roth judged from the name of the scribe, rapivardhana Vithala, that it 
originated in the Deccan, Whitney sa\s ^JAOS x. p. c.wiii, = PAOS 
Nov. 1875) that it has special kindred with the Hang ms< Roth adds 
that it is written an<l cinreclcd thioughout with the most extreme care- 
fulness and is far moie correct than the A\ ins'*, are wont to be.J 

T. LIhis also is a coni|)lete Stimhit^hxw^ ^ "x transciipt made from the 
Tanjore-mss. descri!)eil on p \2 of .\ C'. Hurncirs Classtjini iwhw to the 
Sii 9 isknt 99 tss, tn the pahiee itt Iiinjote and numbered and 2527. 

The transcript was sent to Rotli by Dr. Hurncll aiul is dcscribeil by Roth 
and by Garbe in the places just cilckl unkler codex R. Hooks i.— iv. of the 
transcript are unaccented ; the rest are accented. Acconling to Hurnoll, 
No. 2526 contains books i. xx, is unaccenleil, and was written about 
A.n. 1800; and No. 2527 cont.iins I)ooks v. w., is accented, and was writ- 
ten A.L). 1827 at Henares. I find no note stating the relation of Roth's 
transcript to its Tanjorc originals : prcMim.ibly the transcript of the unac- 
cented books, i.~iv., was taken fioin the unaccented Xo. 2526; and that 
of the accented books, v. -xx., from Xo. 2527. J 

c.wi Genera/ Introduction^ Pc^rt //.; in part by W/titney 

^D. This is a /<f</<i-manuscTipt belonging to the Deccan College at 
Poona« collateil while in Roth’s possession at Tubingen. |||^ is unac- 
cented in book xvtii. It is very incorrectly written, and its obvious 
errors were left unnoted. It gives a /^r/ii-text even for book xix., but 
not for the peculiar parts of xx. L The Index to the Catalogue of 1888 
of the Deccan College mss. gives only two complete /<i< 4 f-mss. of the AV., 
to wit, the mv listed as III. 5 on p. 13, and the one listed as XII. 82 on 
p. 174 The Catalogue gives as date of the latter samvat 1720; and as 
ilate of the former, samvat 1741. In the Collation-Hook, Whitney gives 
at the end of bot)k xx. the colophon of his D. with the dates sainvat 1741, 
p/.fv i<>o6. This agreement in date seems to identify his U. with the 
ms III 5 That ms. is a part of the collection of 1870-71, made by 
Huhler; it is booked as consisting of 435 pages and as coming from 
Broach or Hharuch.J 

L. .X /</i/(i-manu>cript of xix. in the Berlin Library was apparently 
copied from 1 ) whde it was still m India (this copy is denoted by L.). 
Lit is described by Weber, Verzt icltnts\\ vol ii., p. 79, umler No. i486, 
with details confirmatory of the above J 

K. By this sign is meint a manuscript fr«»m Bikaner containing the 
complete j/rw////J te\t ; it vsas for some time in the hands of Roth at 
Tubingen, and wis consulted by me, ms ot a list of some ij(H) doubtfiA 
readings sent to Tubingen an»l reportckl upon: These concerned books 
i.-xviii. alone ; xix. and the pe culiar p.iits w., not admitting of treatment 
in that vv.iy, did not get the hen»*fu of the coll.ition. The manusciipt 
cKiim^ to be written in samvat 17^5, 1678-9), by t.mmvth 

under king Anupasifiha, at I’ 

Accompanying this i^ a manuscript written by the same scribe, 
but without accents Where there is occasion for it, this is distinguished 
by the designation Kp. 

2. The€tanza no devir abhistaye as Opening Stanza 

Lit was doubtless the initial stanza of the text in the Kashmirian recen- 
sion. — This stan/a, whuh appears as i. 6. I of the X'ulgale, doubtless 
stood at the beginning of the iMippaldda text. In 1875, R<»lh, in his 
AV. in p 16, reinaiks upon the general agieemenl in the tra- 

dition according to whu h piw no etc. was the initial stanza of Pmpp., 
and not 9* tn^optoh as in the Vulgate ; and regrets all the more on that 
account tint the first leaf of the IViipp. ms. is lost J 

LCam no as initial stanza of the Vulgate text. — Whitney notes that this 
stan/a is also found prefixed to the text of the Vulgate in four of the mss. 
u.sed by him, to wit, I. and K an<l O and Op. Thus at the beginning of L 
wc have the stanza piw no tievir abhistaye entire, and y/ trisaptdh.\ 


2 . The Stanza fam no deinr as Opening Stanza 

Lin 1 871# Haug had noted, p. 45 of his Brahma und die Brahmamn^ 
that the Mah&bhasya, in rehearsing the beginnings of the four V'eclas, 
gives ^am etc. as the beginning of the AV.,» and that both of his mss. 
(our O. and Op., as just stated; prefi.x the stanza. In 1873, Ind. St. xiii. 
43 *- 3 . VVeber again called attention to the fact concerning^ the Maha- 
bba.sya, and to a similar ore cunceniing the ('lopatha Ikahmana. In 1874, 
Indian Anti^Natyt iii. i3-» Hhanrl.irkar speaks of our ‘stanza as representa- 
tive pratika of the AV. in the Hrahmayajfta or daily devotional recitation 
of the Hindus, bor further disc.iissif)n of the matter, see Bloomfield, 
ICSu^ika, Introduction, pages xwvii and wwiii, and the references there 
given, and his note to 9. 7. and his 13 -14 m the Gn/ndnss, p. 14. 
We may add that in 1S79 Burnell observed, on p 37 b ofjiis Taujore 
Catahgtte, that the real Sriiith Indian mss of the .Mahabhasya ignore the 
AV. and omit the pi/w no dr; ir J 

3. Whitney's Collation-Book and his Collations 

LDescription of the two volumes that form the Collation-Book. — The 

Collation-Book is the immediate source of the statements of this work 
concerning the v.iiiants of the lairopean mss of the Alharva-Veda. It 
Contains, in Whitney's handwriting, the fundamental transcript (in Roman 
transliteration; of the tt xt, and the memoraiula of the subsequent colla- 
tions. It is bound in l\\<» volumes: of these, the setond, comprehending 
b«K*ks .X.-.X.X., appears to have been written first, .since it is dated “Berlin. 
Oct 1851 Jan 1S5J”; wliile the first, compiehending books i.-i.x., is 
dated “Berlin. Jan^March and thus appears to have been written 

last. The volumes are of goud wiiling-paper ilca\eN ai^out S by 10 inches 
in size), the first containing 3^4 leaves, and the Si v*iui. 372 J 

[Whitney’s fundamental transcript of the text. - In copying book x. 
(the first book copied;, Whitiie) has written the text on both side.s of the 
le,if ; but for the books su!>sequenl]y lopied, bonks m -\\ and i -i\ , he 
has written the text on the verso only ami used the recto ol the ne.xt leaf 
for various memoranda. I'oi all the fiist eighteen I'Mu^ks cxcej^l book v , 
thi.s fundamental copy is a transcript of the /in/r/ ti. \t contained in the 
two Berlin /«»«/</-mss. ^see the table on page c\u, called Cliambcis, 8 
and 108, and designaleii above a.s Bp. For book v , In* copied from one 
of the four ms.s. to which the dcsign.ition Bp.* is applied, to wit from 
Chambers, 109 J 

ifWhUereading proof. I v-.- ihii \\iS.r h.»il maile the s.niv m iS6:./«./. .Stud 

V. 78, Moreover, the fad flul ♦ .*« tuuies as opening .«( W »n vlie (.». at i ' i is 
now uied (1904) by Calami, WZKM asm 10 v n> support his xuu me (.IC aitaihiMtM- f 

to the Pftipp. rcccnaion.J 

cxviii General Introdnction^ Part IL : in partfiy Whitney 

l_Thc fundamental copy of book xix. was made by Whitney from the 
Chambers, 1 1 5 = B. lie appears to have copied the text first 
on the recto, without word-division, and using Roman letters, although 
applying to them the vertical and horizontal accent strokes as if to 
; ami atlerwanls to have written out the text on the opposite page, 
the veiso of the preceding leaf, with word-division, and with accents 
marked in the usual Kuropean way. At mx. 27. (x Whitney makes the 
note, “ acc. from Paris ms. to the end of the hook." — For book xx., the 
transcript was made from Chaniher.^, 1 14 Bp.®.J 

[Collations made before publication of the text. The Berlin collations 
^hrst coHatinn.s; - In this paragiaph, only hooks i. -xix. are had in view, 
and codex y.", a-, being a meie ci^py t>t R', is disregarded. From the 
table on p cx, it at^peiis that for honks ii.-iv , x, and xix. there was 
only one m^ at 15 <‘i!in, .ind so none a\ail.d)le for collation. The first col- 
lation ot book V. (Since this \%as copied from Bp.* --- Chambers, 109) was 
maiL* of course (see the table) from Bp. Ch. S. The first collation of 
the hooks copicil titun Bp. was made lalso of course) from Bp.*: that 
is, the first ct>llativ>n of book i. was made with Ch. 1 17, ami that of hooks 
vi.-ix. with Ch 107 For bo<»ks xi.-wiii. the collation was made of 
course with B. Ch. ns.J 

[The Paris and Oxford and London collations. — These, matlc in thU 
months of March to July, I*S33, were the last collations before the printing 
of the text. They were made in the order as name«l, and their sequence 
appears from the biographical sketch* above, p xliv.J 

[Collations made after publication (that is, made in 1875 or later.) — 
Twenty years or more after the issue, in Feb. 1X55,- of the printed text 
of books i -xix , were made the collations of the niss. enumerated below. 
See above, pige xliv, and j.\( )S x , p. cxviii J 

[Collation of the Haug, Roth, Tanjore, and Deccan mss. — The collation 
with the Ilaug ms^ , O. aii'l Op, wms ma«le at Munich, in June and July, 
1875. Ihen followed, at Tubingen, the collations with the mss. D. and 
T. and R j 

[The collation with the Bikaner ms., K. —This, as stated above, p. cxvi, 
was made by means of a list (it diiubtful readings .sent by Whitney to Roth 
and repiuted upon.J 

[Other contents of the Collation-Book. — I hc various memoranda (men- 
tioned above, p. c.wii, 3; are usually written on the blank page op[K>sitc 
the hymn or verse (.(Hk cim d. 'I'hey include the excerpts from the 
Major Anukramani, the citatuuis of con( passages gathered from • 
an e\ce(?ilingly comprehen'.i\c stud) of the other Vedic texts, very full 

*[Thf; d.U'* quoie<! jt top of I ih nut (urrct t. Whilnry i(pt>nt from March 19 to 

May 10 iiSjj) at Paru, May 12 to /ijm« 1 at arul June I lo July 23 at l/)ndon.J 

3* IV/iiifuy s (Sollaiion- Hook aud his Collations cxix 

references to the AV. IVali^jfikhya and to the Kaucjka and Vfutana 
Sutras, references to the writin-s of (Accidental Verlic scholars in which 
a given verse or hymn has been treated by way of translation or comment, 
schemes of the meters and criticism thereof, and finally miscellaneous 
notes. — I may add here that Whitney left a Supplement to his Collation- 
Dook. It consists of Jtj loose? leaves containin;^ statements of the v.iriants 
of B.P.M.WM*- l.II. iji tabular form W’lth it arc about a dozen more 
leaves of variants and doubtful ieadinp;s elc.J 

4. Repeated Verses in the Manuscripts^ 

Abbreviated by pratika with addition of ity eka etc There are 41 

cases of a repeated verse or a n pealed ;;roupof verses occurring a second 
lime in the text and agreeing thioughout without \ariant with the text 
of the former occurrence. Th. se in the in'«s. generally, both samlnta and 
paddy arc given the sec<m<l time hs pidtiha only, willi ity cka ^sc. rk) or 
iti dvt* or iti tisrah added and ahva)s aicented like the quoted text-words 
themselves. Thus ix. 10.4 vii 7^ 71 appears in the mss. as upa hvaya 
ity Ikil. On the olher han<l, the very next vc-ise, although it differs from 
vii. 73. S only by ha\ing *k/iy<i^dt for is written out in full. So 

aiii. 2 . 38 ( - X. 8. iS) appt ars as s.t/,d\fdifndm ity iLl ; w'hde xiii. 3. 14, 
which is a .second repetition of x. S. iS but cont.uns further the added 
refrain tdsyd etc , is written out in full as far as tdsyd. The like holds 
goo<l of xiii 3. 18. See note to xiii 314 

List of repeated verses or verse-groups. -The 41 cases of repetition 
involve 52 verses. The list of tin m is ^iven on p 3 of the Indtx W rbo- 
rum (where xiv. 23. 2n is a misjirinl; and is guen with the places of first 
occurrence. The li'^t is lepeated litre, but withnui the places of fiist 
occurrence, wdiich in ly alwais be asceitained fi«>m the commentary 
below. It is; iv. 17* 3 ; v 6 i and 2:25 10 12 ; vi 3S ; ; S4 4 ; 94. 1-2; 
95. 1-2; loi. 3 ; vii. 23. i ; 75 1 . 1 ’* 9 * ’ * ix. i. 1 5 ; 
3. 23 ; 10. 4, io, 22 ; \ 1.4; 3 5 ; 5 4 '’- 47 « 4 ‘^ • *7 *• ^ - 4 * I 

2. 38 ; xiv. I. 23 24 ; 2. 45 ; xvm. i 27-jS ; 3 57 , 4 25. 43, 45- 47 » ^9 J 

xix. 13. 6 ; 23. 30; 24 4 ; 27 14 i ? , 37 1 ^ 5 '' 5 

Further details concerning the pratika and the addition. Fhe pratika 
embraces the f^l^t word. oi tlu- Inst two. L"r ovoii tl.c fn-t three, when 

one or two of them are enclitii s • so \ i. 1)4 i; i<’i .t.'ni ,) , i-\ I.I 5 J> 

but at xlx. 58. S the whole first is .^ivcn with /V) -uKled. Occa- 

sionally, in one or another ins , the repcateil vciso or -roup is Riven in 
full: thus by O.R. in the cases of repvtiimn.s in book win. Both edi- 
tions give all the repeated vci.scs in full. 

• LOn tbU topic, Whilney left onl) rouRh iioics. a Joren lines or so if p. *ai».J 


General IntrtHiuction^ Part II.: in part by Whitney 


The addition is lacking at v. 6. i and V. 6. 2 ; although these arc consecu- 
tive versos, it is clear from the separate giving of two pratikas that here 
repot it ions of non-consecutivo verses arc intended, and that the a<}dition 
in each case would be ity eka. The adilition is also lacking at xiv. i . 23-24 ; 
where, however, the repetition of consecutive verses, vii.8i. 1-2, is intended. 
Here again the mss. give two pratikas separately, purvdpardnt (= vii. 8 1. I 
and xiit. 2. 1 1) and ndvotuivah (= vii. 8t. 2) ; and tl\py do this instead of 
giving pftndparam iti dvt\ because the latter procedure would have been* 
ambiguous as meaning perhaps also xiii. 2. 1 1 - 12. 

The addition iti phnd is m.ide where the pratika alone might have 
indicated two vorse.s with the same beginning. This happens at xiii. 1.41 
(whore avdh pdntu might mean either ix.9. 17 or 18; sec note, p. 716) 
and at xviii. 4. 43 (but as to this there is disagreement : see note). — By 
lack of further addition, the intended repetition is doubtful at x. 5.48-49, 
where ydd tv^na iti di\^ might mean either viii. 3. 12-13 or vii. 61. 1-2 
(see note. p. 585); there is doubt also at xix 37 4 (the case is discussed 
fully at p. 957). 

5. Refrains and the like in the Manuscripts 

Written out in full only in first and last verse of a sequence. — For thS 
relief of the copyists, there is practised on a large scale in both the sam- 
hitii- aiul the padii \x\si<. tlie omisMon of words and pailas repeated in suc- 
tessive verse'*. In general, if ainvvh«‘re a few wonls or a pada or a line 
or moK* are bnind in more than two siKcessive verses, they are written 
out in full onlv in the first and last verses and :iie understood in the 
others Let {) 7<)5, end). For example, in vi 17, a h)mn of four verses, 
the refrain, being c, d of ea».h of the four, is written out only in 1 and 4. 
'rh'Mi, for vvT>e 2 IS written only Mttkl dtidhate 'mdn idniispdfin, because 
ytt/u' 'yarn prthni at the beginning is repealed. L ^ the scribe 

begins with the last one of the words which the verse hqs in common 
with Its prede cessor J Then, because dadhdra also is re|>eated in 2-4, in 
verse 3 maJA also is left out anrl the verse reads in the mss. simply 
ddikdra pdnatdn ^nin -and this without any intimation of omission by 
the ordinary sign of «»mission ■ — .Sometimes the case is a little more 
intricate. Thus, in viii. 10, the initial wonis so 'd akrdmat arc written 
only in vers«*s 2 and 29, although they are really wanting in verses 9-17, 
parydya II (v« rses 8 17) being in this respect treated as jf all one verse 
with subdivisions L^f p 512 topj. 

Such aibbreviated passages treated by the Anukramanl as if unabbreviated. 

-The AnukramanI generally treats the omitted matter as if present, 
that is, it recognizes the true full form of any verse so abbreviated. In 


5. Refrains and Ihe like in the Manuscripts 

a lew instances, however, it does not do so ; such instances may be found 
at XV. 2, where the Anukr. counts 28 instead of 32 or 4 x 8 ; at xv. 5 (i6 
instead of 7 X 3) I 5 instead of 6 x 3; ; at xvi. 8 (33 instead of 

108 or 27 X 4) : cf. the discussions at p. 774, % 2. p. 772, 3, p. 793 end, 

p. 794 top. Such treatment shows that the text has (as we may express 
it) become mutilated in consecpicnce of the abbreviations, and it shows 
how old and how f^eneral they have been. — One aivl another ms., how- 
ever, occasionally fills out some of the omissions — especially R., which, 
for example, in viii. 10 writes je a krdmat every time when it is a real 
part of the verse. 

Usage of the editions in respect of such abbreviated passage's. — Very 
often SIM*, prints in full the abbreviated passages in both samhtta and 
patia form, thus predentin;; a ^reat quantity of useless and burdensome 
repetitions. Our editinn take-> advanta:;e of the usaj^e of the mss. to 
abbreviate cxten.sively ; but it departs from their usaj^e in so far as always 
to give full intimation of the omittid portions by initinl words and by 
signs of omission. In all cases uheie the ms'^ show anything peculiar, 
it is specially pointed out in the notes on the verses. 

6. Marks of Accentuation in the Manuscripts 

Berlin edition uses the Rig-Veda method of marking accents. —The 
modes of marking llie cuil in the dilfcient mss and parts of 
mss. of the AV’. are diverse, that wc were luil\ justified in adopting 
for our edition the familial aiul sutVKient nuthofl <»f tlie R\ That 
mechml is followed stiictly throughout in l)t)oks 1 -v. and xix of the Hang 
ms, material described abo\c at p <.\iv umler C) i and 4, hut only there, 
an<l there p«)ssihly only. by the last and modern cop\ist. L^Vhitney notes 
in the margin that it is followed aKo in book win. of O , and in books 
i.-iii. and iv. <.f Op. and in pait ot Hp ' In this last ms, which is 
Chambers, 1 17, of bo<)k i , IheJ methiul ot .leientuation is at tue beginning 
that of the Rik, but soon passes over to aimther l.islnon, precisely like 
that of Hp. Lsoc next^'J saving that hori/onial linc^ arc made use of 
instead of dots. The metluKl continues so to the end. 

Dote for lines as accent-marks. 1 he use ot lound dots instead of lines 
as accent-marks is a method that lus eonsideiabio wguo It is applied 
uniformly in the at Hcrlm (except in Hp. ■ as just “ 

dot below the line is the 

sign of the enclitic svanta is a «lot. usually n"t abo\.-. but wU im t ic 
akiara; and the imlejKMulent sv.mta is 

method or else by a line drawn ttaiisversely upward to t n. ng i f 
the syllable, the dots, however, arc unknown elsewhere, save in 

cxxii General Introduction, Part //,; /;/ part by Whitmy 

large part of K. (from near the end of vL 27 to the end of xix.) and also 
in largo parts of II. 

Marks for the independent svarita. — It was perhaps in connection with 
the use of the dots that the peculiar ways of marking the independent 
svarita arose. The simplest way, used only in j»arts of the mss., is by a 
line below, somewhat corTV'cxed downwards. Oi, again, we find just such 
a line, but run up into and moie or less thiough the aksara, either below 
or thrdiigh the middle. LFnnn this method was probably developed the 
methoil of J starting with a horizontal liit below and carrying it completely 
through the ak^ara upwards and with some slant to the right and ending 
with a bit' horizontal abow. [Cl. SFr'.s Critical Notice, p. 9.J This 
fully elaborated form is very unusual, and found only in three or four 
mss. (in part of Up.-** -* Ch. 117, in I), and I.., and occasionally in Kp.); 
Lits shape is approximately that of the “ long J " : cf. Sl*l*’s text of ii. 14 
and my note to in 11.2] 

Horizontal stroke for svarita. -A freipiont method is the use of the 
aniidattatara lino below, just as in the RV , but coupled with the denota- 
tion of the enclitic svarita by a honz'UUal stroke across the IxKly of the 
syllable, and of the independent svanta by one of the signs just noted. 
Hut even the independent svarita is sometimes denoted by the same sign 
as the encliiic svanta, to wit, by a dot or a horizontal line in the syllable 
itself The last method (iiulepeiulent sxanta by horizontal) is .seen in 
the old ms. of book xx , Bp.*, dated \ d 1477, aivl In B'. 

The udiitta marked by vertical stroke above, as in the Maitrflyapl. — 
It IS a feature peculiar to K. among our A\'. mss that, from the begin- 
ning of book vi. on, it marks the iidatta syllable by a peipemlicular stroke 
above,* while the enclitic svanta, as in other mss., his the horizontal 
stroke in the akutta, l)Ut just before the end of vi. 27, both strokes 
are ^ hanged to dots, as is also the </;///i 4 i/ZiiZ«;;</-slroke ; while in xx. the 
accentuator goe^j back to strokes again for all three. *LNote that in 
SBP’s mss. A^. and IC. the udatta is marked by a red ink dot over the 
proper syllable J 

Accent-marks in the Bombay edition. - SIM*, in his edition, adopts the 
R\' methofi, with the .sole cxcqdion thA lie uses the fully elaborated 
peculiar f sign, given by the small miinnity of the mss.,* for the inde- 
pendent svanta No ms , I believe, of those u.s<*d by us, makes this 
combination of methods ; .uuI it may safely be claimed that our procedure 
is truer to the mss , and on th it is wvW as on other accoiint.s^thc preferable 
one *L.Soc, for example, his Crithal Notice, p. 14, description of Cp.J 

Use of a circle as avagraha-sign. * As a matter of kindred character, 
wc may mention that for the sign of avat^raha or division of a vocable 
into its component parts, a small circle useil in all our /<id^i*tcxts, even 

6. Marks of Atccutualiou hi the Manuscripts txxiii 

of-book XX. excepting in the Munich text of xviii. und xx., as stated on 
p. 4 of the Index lerborum. Lit is used also in .Sl'I>’s pada-ms^., sec his 
Critical Notice, pages , i- u.J This special A\^ sign has been imitate, 1 
in our transliteration in the an-l in the main body of this work 

Lcf. page cj: but It may be noted th.a Sl'l*. emplojs in his /m.Vr-text the 
sign usual in the KV. 

7. Orthographic Method pursued in the Berlin Edition** 

Founded on the manuscripts and the Praticakhya. - (Jur mahod is of 
course founded ptiiniidy upon th<- u^.ige .,t the manuscripts , but that 
usage we have, within ceilam limit., , ..iiti..;i,.d and correcte.l by the 
teaching's uf the :\\ i’l.ilir aivli\ a 

That treatise an authority only to a certain point. - 1 ho rules of that 
treatise wo h.i\o' ro;^irsKtl .iuil.i'nt\ u|» ti, ^ ; but onlv up 

to a certain point, aivl for liio i. th tt in the AN hr, as in the other 
corrcspontlin;^ lrcati'>is, no pinpi i oi'nIhu n i> mt»!e between those 
orthoi;iaphic rules on the on-- h.ii. ! whi. h .nc .-ni\c:silly accepted and 
obscrveil, and those on the otii- \ I e.,! v*.hith m- m to be wholly the out- 
come of arbitiaiy and .ntirKKil th^. in paiti ul ir, the rules f;f the 

r<i;Y/4/-A/v?;////* or [( t Wlntn.-N i, n.itcs to AyPr. lii. 26 

an<l 32 and TTr. xiv 1 J 

Its failure to discriminate between rules of wholly different value, 

Thus, on the one hand, we hi\e the luh [.WT’r in 2;* ‘see W’s notej 

that after a shftrt \ow».l a tinal // •»! y <>; /; is diuihh--! lufnre anv initial 

vowel, a rule familiai and ub!i^at‘«i\ ’ n«-t on!\ m tiie lan^;ua.;e of the 
Vedas but in the kla^'«i^.al omIoI as we!;. %\hi!e, nii the other hand, we 
have, put quite U|»on the ^aine j>’ me ’ in i.i* w ly inaikLU bein,ic of a 
wholly different chaia<.ti r and N.din . "Ui h a iu:e as the followiiiL;: 

The lule Liii. 31 J liiat .ittv i r 01 /. m nniradnlely l<*'lowinL; Ci*nsonant 
is doubled ; La** to these »luplu ati'Uis. the l‘iatu^akii\ as are .lot in cr.tiie 
accord, Panini is pciinissue, n,.! inan-Iatie). andi usa^c diiteis ^leatly. and 
the 4 ^ stands by no means on tlic sune t.M.tiiiLC a*' the ; : ct \\ s 

§ 228; his note to Pr, in . :ifid ranim’s ici-’id. at \ni 4. 50 51, ol the 

difference of opinion between (.'ak (ta\an.i ar i (. 'ikt'\a J 

Another such rule rs the pr4^v.nption tin «• n-'iuiant at tlie end of 
a word is doubled, as in /'v;/';///. ; /./i ibis is direct!) con- 

travened by KPr., VI V., III. Vet .motile I Is liic pic'-i I iption that the 

*kl**or this chapter. ». xna t«» 1 \\M. !?•«• ‘1: a: I« n 'n « '» t'-aim -1:10 .ii. a :in> 

Uhed to Ims printed. 1 h^vc o i\r-Ui-n i -d cii's i.ttfd i'. i -ii'.;; ’ut i - ino' "“i aiini srl" .i:.d 
langaage aa given in hi» noii > !.• i'.k' 1 1 J 

® t'f p. Sjj, ^ 4, hdow. 

• Nearly all the mia. and SPl’ imUi*- a .«t m 1 

cxxiv General Introduciiopi, Pari //.; in pari by Whitney 

first consonant of a group is doubled, as in vrlhsah, etc. [See 

W’s notes to these rules, at iii. 26 and 2S.J [** ^ *^^* manuscripts of the 
AV., so far as known to me, do not, save in veiy infrequent and entirely 
sporatlic cases, follow any of the rules of the vantaknipna proper, except- 
ing the one which directs duplication after a /*; and even in this case, 
their practice is as irregular as that of the manuscripts of the later htera- 
ture." So Whitney, note to iii. 32. J 

Iten& of conformity to the PrAti^&khya, and of departure therefrom. — 
Without including those general euphonic rules the observance of which 
was a matter of course, we may here state some of the particulars in 
which the authority of the Prali^akhya has servcil as our norm. 

Transition-sounds : as in tiin-t-saniuL — Pr. ii. t) ordains that between 

w, n ami j-, s, s respectively, k\ /, t be in all cases introduced : the first 
two thirds of the rule never have an opportunity to make themselves 
good, as the text offers no instance of a conjunction of n with f or of « 
with that of final n with initial jr, however, is very frequent, and the / always been introduced by us (save [by inadvertencej in viii. 5. 16 
and XI. 2 25) —The usage of the mss is slightly varying [“exceedingly 
irregular, ” says W. in his note to ii. 9, p. 406, which seej : there is not a 
case perhaps where some one of them does not make the insertion, and 
j)erh:ips haniily one in which they all do so witliout variation. 

Final -n before c- and j-: as in japtmtim - Pr. ii. 10 and 1 1 pre- 

scribe the assimilation of •;/ before a following palatal (ie. its conversion- 
into -/ 7 t, niinely, before f- (which is then converted by ii. 17 into < 7 /-), and 
before a sonant, i.c. before y- 1 since y//- does not occur). In such cases 
we have written tor the converted -« an anusvara ; there can hardly arise 
an ambiguity t in any of the instances [A few instances may be given : 
tijr -« y’-, I 33 2 '* ; ii 25. 4, 5 ; iv. 9 9* , 36 9* ; v S 7 ; 22. 14* ; vi. 50. 3 , 
viii, 29*; .Ml- 5 44 , for -u i 194*; m. 11.5; iv. S. 3 ; 22. 6, 7 ; xviii. 
4 59. Tlie reader may consult the notes to those marked with a star. 
— SPIV seems to allow himself to be governed by his mss.; this is a 
wr»)ng jirrn eiiure : see notes to \iii. 2 9, i. 19 4; iv. 9. 9.J tLlhlt SCC 
xiii. 1 22 J 

Final -n before c-: as in ythc at. — Rule ii. 26 virtually ordains the 
insertion «jf ()N\ing to the frequency of the particle c/i, the cases are 
numerous, and the rule is strictly followed in all the Atharvan mss. and 
so of course in our edition. This is not, however, the universal usage of 
the Rik: rf. fur example 11 i 16, asppidft at ftiit^ at, and see RPr. iv. 32. 

Final -n before t-: a*, in faux tr - I he same rule, ii. 26, ordains .the 
insertion of s As in the other VmIis, so in the AV., a ^ is sometimes 
inserted and .sometimes not , its Pr. (rf. ii. 30) allows and the mss. show, 
a variety of usage. Of com sc, then, each case has been determined on 

7* Orihogi^phic Method pursued in the Berlin lidition exxv 

the authority of the mss., nor do there occur any instances in which this 
is wavering and uncertain. LThe matter is fully discussed in W’s note 
to li. 26, and the 67 eases of inserthm and the 28 cases of non-insertion 
arc given on p. 417. Cf. also n«>te to AV. i. 1 1. 2.J 

Final -t before ^ : as in asmac chamras — liy the strict letter of rules 
ii. l3eind 17, the f- is con\erte<I into r//- and the preceding final is then 
assimilated, making -rr//-. In such cases, however, we have always fol- 
lowed rather the correct theory of the change, since the -t and f- by their 
union form the compound -c//-, and have written simply -< 4 -, as being a 
truef^representation of the actual phonetic result 'I'he mss., with hardly 
an exception, do the same. LThe proce<liire of the edition and of the mss. 
IS, I believe, uniformly similar also in cases like nhat, yacha^ etc J 

Abbreviation of consonant-groups : as in pankti and the like. — By ii. 20 
a non-nasal mute coming in tin* c«>urse of wf>rd'foim:ition between a 
nasal and a non-nasal is dropped : so fantt : chintam anti rumiJn instead 
of chinttam and runddht : • ti'. The mss ol>scive this rule (]uiie consist- 
ently, although not withtuit e.xcepliMns , and it has been uniformly fol- 
lowed in the edition. At \ii 1.40, juupunuukrim is an accidental 
exception ; and heie, for once, the mss happen to agree in retaining 
the k* [Cf. the Hibc'rnicisms oOr;/V//, hn'tku eti. J 

Final -m and -n before 1 -: as lu kitn !ck\tm an«l s,jn\h'i lokfin — Rule 
ii_ prescribes the c<»nveision of -w and c»l -// alike into nasalizc*d -/. In 
either case, the resultant combination is ihere!»>ie, according to the pre- 
scription of ihe I’r., ium1i/c<I -/ - A. or two l\ ot uliiJi tlic is n^isal- 
ized. Thus kam M.»» b< com. s Lt • n.i-.ih/od / - /• Atw, a combinatiou 
which wc lujy write .ts /.'Aiw oi .is krtnl lolwft t>r .is At// A'A//// 

[It is merely the lick of .suml);.- Kom.m t>pe tli it mikes the discussion 
of this m.itter trouhlesomo. In the n isib/cd / should properly 

be written by a /.with a n.isil mj;u ov<.r it. In Romm, it mi"ht well be 
rendered by an / with a dot .i> luatly over it .is m.iv be (thus 7 ) ; m pr.ic- 
ticc. a /» is made to take the of the .lot .done or eUe ol the dot + /, 
so that for the soumi of “ nivibned /" wc tiiul cither h! or simply « J 
Tor the combination resultant from •/« A. the mss are almost iinani 
mous in wrilin;; "''•** ruhcij.i suij;!e / with 

nasal sign over the preceding vowel, .is in A/« A'Ai/// .at xi ^. it , t us 

usage is followed by ihc IWilin tcxl. 

For the resultant from -« A. the mss. follow the I'l . not without excep- 
tions. and write tlouhled / with M..;n over the pieeedmK vowe . as in 

sarvdk lokan, x. 6 . i6, etc., tumih /-A-. i\ 5 - 7 - 
been followed in the llerlin te.xt (but not with abso utc umformi > 
would probably have been better to observe stiictly tl e rule ot c 
and to write both results with double / and piccedinj; M..n. 

cxxvi General Inlroduction^ Part I I, : in part by^Whitney 

Visarga before st- and the like : as in ripu stena stcyakrt^ viii. 4. 10 » 
RV. vii. 104. 10. Our Pr. Lsce note to ii. 40 J contains no rule prescribing 
the rejection of a final vtsar::a before an initial sibilant that is follov^ed 
by a surd mute. The mss. in *;eneral, altht)u;;h with very numerous and 
irroijularly occurring; exceptions, piactice the rejection of the and so 
does the Rik [cf RPr. iv. 12; TPr. ix. i ; VPr. iii. 12J; and the ganctal 
usa^e of the mss. ha:* been followed by us. Ll'or exainplc.s, see x. 5. I-14 : 
cf. also notes to iv. 16. i ( ni staviti* : SPP. fiijttf), t. 8. 3, etc.J 

The kampa-hgures i and 3. — Res))ectin;4 the introduction of these 
figures between an independent eiieuinllex^^and an immediately foildiving 
acute accent in the sttin/ii/ii, our Pr. is likewise silent. The usage of the 
mss. is exceedin';!)^ unccitain and confiicting: tlu re is hardly an instance 
in which there is not disagreement between them in re.spect to the use of 
the one or of the other ; nor can any .signs of a temlency towards a rule 
respecting the matter be discoveretl. There are a few instances, pointed 
out each at its proper place in the notes, in which a short vowel occurring 
in the circumHexe<l syllable is protracted bt fore the figure by all the 
Such cases seemed mere casual irregulaiities, however, 
and we could not hesitate to adopt the usage of the Rik, setting 1 after 
the vowel if it were short in quantity, an*! 3 if it were long. L I matter 
is diacussed with much detail by \V. in his notes to APr. iii. 65, pages 
494 ’O, and TPr. xix. 3, p. 302. J •(.See APr , p. 499, near end, and notes 
to A\’. VI 10;. i and x. 1 9.J 

The method of marking the accent. — With respect to this important 
matter, ha\e ad.ipted the form of our text to the rules of the Rik 
rather than to the authority of the mss. As to the ways of marking the 
accent, a wide <liversity of usage prevaiU among the Alharvan mss., nor 
IS there perhaps a single one of them whieh remains cpiite true to the 
same method throughout. Their methods are, luiwever, all of them in 
the main identical with that of ihq Rik, var)ing f)nly in unim{)Ortant 
particulars [The details have been •liscusseil above (sec p. exxi), and 
with as much lulne^s .us seemed worth while J 

8 . Metrical Form of the Atharvan Saihhita 

Predominance of anustubh. — The two .striking features of the Atharva- 
Wla :is rcgirl-* its metrical form are the extreme irregularity and the 
predomin ihte of anustubh slan7as. The stanzas in i^ayatri and trisfubh 
arc corr< spondingly rirc, the AV. in this point presenting a sharp con- 
trast with the RigA'eda. The hri<-f bits of prose interspersed among . 
metrical passages an* given b'*hiw, at p. loi i, as arc also the longer pas- 
sages in Hrrihmma-like proM-. ^In the Kashmirian recension, the latter ♦ 
are even more extensive than iix the Vulgate : see p. Ixxx.J 

8. XTctrical Form of thr Alhart-an Samhita cx.x vii 

Extreme metrical Irregularity. — i his mnr« i 

a Ihc n,«rlcal pm, ot ,h„ v.-,lfc omsHc J( “hVRr.vSTM 
SSma-Vcda). In the j, »«/////,« „£ the- v . i • .1 '^na 

?' ’“r 

that one can only say that meter si L*mt*rl i f * vauin^ 

.y» or ..o L.U.,. r . :: rvirrs,;-. 

the irregular verses outnumber U.c m - sanihita 

Apparent wantonness in the alteration of RV. material. - The corrup- 
tions and alterations ... Ki.-V.-.l., v.-s recurnn. m the .AV. are often 
such as to seem downri^du vv^n!.,n m ,h,-.r ukur,.) irr.-^ulanty ] he 

.smallest infusion of . are as the murual „,.se vers, s would 

hate suffice.1 to prevvnt .l,sto,t,o„ to so .nor.lm..te a .i. ;;r.v 

To emend this irregularity into regularity is not licit. In very manv 
c.-ises, one can hardly ,ef, fro,,, s„ 4 .e>tm- tint tins sli dtt and 
olivious emendation, esp... iallv tl.e omission of an mtrmled Ror.l or the 
insertion of some brief jurti. h- or [.lononn, w-mM rectift the met.-r It 
woul.l be a great niisiak,-. however, to lairy this priKes,' too far. an.l by 
changes of onicr. inseitmns. and v other to m.-n.l irregn- 
arity into regularity. Tl.e t. st. as Atharvan. ncNer w,.s nxttie..llv regu- 
lar, nor did Its eonstin. t.ns . are f. have it sueh . and to make it so’ would 
be to distort it. 

9. The Divisions of the Text 

ISummary of the various divisions. 1 lu sc, in the order of tlu ir extent, 
arc: /ru/*a///4UAs or • \'o: -ksun-en * or •!. cturcs’ to which there is no 
corresponding; division in the K\* ; nr ‘honks/ answerinj; to the 

mamiaiai of the KV ; .iml tin n, as in the kV, auu vaKas or%c-rita- 
tions/ and nr ‘liMniis/ an<l kas nr ‘\riscs/ I he verses of the 

lon^ hymns are al^o j;r»niped intt> ' \ ei '.c tletads/ corresj^mdinj; to the 
va})^AS of the KV. Ik-^ities tlu-'-t* di\isii,n»s, there aie rct.o.;ni/cd also 
the divisions called ArthA-^ukiA^ ni ' scnse-li\ mns ' anvl ; i/ji/j.v-; Am- nr 
* pciiihl-hymiis ; and the snhdix ismns (»! tin* latter are calleil /•tfryA]As 
In the /«/;jdiv/diymns, the t!iM^it»n into <or sometimes ,/Af/,/,ikAs : 

p. 62 H) is recr>«;ni/cd. and the veises aie disiin:;inshed as az A^uif/.ifi as and 
(sec p A L;teii deal of detail coneerninL; tlu* divi- 

sions of the IxKiks (the later l»onks especially) may he in the sj'ieeial 
introductions to the several i^nnks J 

tThe first and second and third grand divisions of books i.-zviii. — A 
critical study of the text reveals the fact that tlu* tiist e.-Iilcen honks aie 
divided (sec p. xv) into Ihiee ^laiul <livisinn< • the (hooks i -vii i 
contains the short hymns of miscellaneous siio.eiis; the second ^hooks 
viii.-xii.) contains the long hymns ot miscellaneous suhiects ; and the 

cxxviii General Introduction, Part IL: in part by Whitney * 

thinl consists of the books (xiiL-xviii.) characterized each by unity of 
subject. Those divisions, although not clearly recognized in name (but 
cf. page civil, below) by the text-makers, are nevertheless clearly recog* 
nized ill fact, as is shown by the general arrangement of the* text as a 
whole aiul as is set forth in detail in the next chapter, pages cxI-clxL 
Concerning their recognition by the Old Anukr., see the paragraphs 
below, pages cxwix f. In this chapter w'ill be treated the divisions 
commonly recognized by the native tradition. J 

The division into prapithakas. - The literal meaning of fra-fafttaka is 
‘ Vor-lesiing ' or ‘lesion* or ‘lecture.* This division, though noticed in 
all the mss , is probably a recent, and certainly a very secondary and 
unimp<^rtant one. It is not recognized by the commentary, and it docs 
not appear in the Honihay edition. No ms. gives more than the simple 
statenunt, "such and siith a fini^hed”; no enumeration of 

hymns or verses is anywhere added. There arc 34 prapt}(/uikas, and they 
are niimbeied consecutively for the w'hole te.xt so far as they go, that is, 
trom book 1 to book xviii. inclusive. The /rrf/d^ 4 <i/*<i-division is not 
e.vtended into books \ix. and xx. 

Prapdthakas : their number and distribution and extent. — First grand 

division (books i -\ii ) : in each of the books i. iii. there arc 2 prof*ii(tiakas ; 
in each of the books iv-vi there are 3, ami in book vii. there are 2 : in 
all, (6 9 f 2 -") 17. — Second graml division (books viii.-xii.) ; in each 
of the five books viii xii. there are 2 in all, 10. — Third 

grantl division (l>o<jks xiii. -xviii ): each of the first five books, xiii.-xvii., 
forms I pritfdtjtako, while the .sixth and last, book xviii., forms 2 : in all, 7. 
— Sum for the three divisions, (17 1- 10 4 7 ) 3.^. — In book iv. the 
di\i>ion IS very uneven, the first of the 3 prnf*dthakas containing 169 
verses or over half the book , while in xii , on the other hand, in order to 

* make an ev« n division of the 304 veisos as between the 2 fraf^df/takas, 

the cml of ilv first is allowed to fill m the middle of a hymn (just after 
3. 30), thus giving 14.S verses to the first and 156 to the second. ^On 
comparing the \ei>c-tota!s <»f the books of the fust granrl division with 
the nurnlvT n[ in e.ich book, an attempt towards a rough 

approxim ilit)ii to cspi ilit y of length among them will appear. The like 
IS true in the on«l graml division; anti also in the Ihiril (notwespe- 
ciilly book XVIII .. so fir ,is is feasible without making a propd{haka run 
over more th.iii tim* bt>ok J 

Their relation to the anuvftka-divisions. — The prafii(haka- 6 W\%\ 0 Ti% 
nifistiv 1 tiint ide with tlv »o///:«////.<livisii)ns. ICxceptions areas follows: 
prapnthaka 1 1 begins with v «, in the middle of the second anntfdka of 
book V.; 19 begins with viii. 6 , in the middle of the third attin*dka of 

• bt) )k xiii ; 21 begins with ix, 6, in the middle of the third anui*Aka 


9. Tile Divisions of the Text 

of book ix.; 23 begins with x. 6. in the third annvdka of book x. ; 25 
begins with xi. 6, in the third auHvaka of book xi. ; and 27, as already 
noted} begins in the middle of the third hymn (and conterminous anwi’ukd) 

of book xii. 

The division IntokAnjUis or ‘ books/ — [The word krimla means literally 
-division* or - piece,’ especially the -division of a plant-stalk from one 
joint to the next,* and is applied to the main divisions of other Vcdic 
texts (TS., MS., riV, etc.), ihc best and prevailin'; rendering of the 
word is - book.* As to the length of the kritjt/iis and their arrangement 
within their respective grand divisums, see p cxliii, below. J The division 
into kdmias is of course universal, and evidently fundamental. 

The division into nnuvAkas. — The literally * re-citations,’ are 

subdivisions of the individual bonk, and are numbered continuously 
through the book concerned. They are aeknowledged by the mss. in 
very different manner and degree There is usually added to the anti- 
vdka a statement of the number of hymns and vcr>es contained in it, 
Land those statements are reproduced in this woik in connection with 
the comment. J L^*'iom these it appears that the r?;///: ^/Xfi-divisions arc 
sometimes very unequal: thus liie last tmuiida cf book vi , where the 
average is 35 verses, has ^>4 J [In the couise (/f the special introductions 
to the books, there is given tor c.ich ol the books \ 11 . -m.x. (e.xcept .xiv. 
and xvii.) a table .showing the number of h\nms and the number of 
verses in each ; see p.»g< s .ind on. Kor xiv. and .xvii. 

also the facts are duly stated, but not in tabular foim, which was need- 
less. J The enumeration <»f vcises is uflen made continuously through 
the antivdka (cf. p 3SS, end) 

LTheir number, and distribution over books and grand divisions. — The 
pertinent facts may be shown by a l.ible with adiled 'statements In the 
table, the first couple of lines rctcis to the fust grand division ; the second, 
to the second ; and the last, to the thud 

HooIia t >1 

rcspccliwly 0 0 

H inks > 111 ix 

respectively 5 5 

B<^k< XiU • »iv • 

respectively 4 ^ 


0 S 

\ M Ml coni.iin 

0 13 10 anu\.ikas 





XI \ll • 

5 5 

XM XMI* XMll* 

2 I \ 





Thus the first graml division has 55 aiuiva’ivas ; tho sccoml has 25: and 
the third has 15 : sum, 95. MmcoviT. xi.\. contains and xx. con- 
tains 9. In the colophon to book xvii.. ncith. r piintcd edition has the 
note/rA/^lmo •uuvifta/i; but it is found (cf. p .’'12I in the mss. Kach 
of the books viii.-xi. has ten hyntns (p, 47 ^). ‘here 

consists of just two hymns. In book xii.. of five hymns, the is 

cxxx (ieueral Introdnciion^ Part //.; in part by Whitney 

coincident with the hymn. The like is true in books xiii., xiv., xvii., and 
xviii (|>. 814). In the tablCp these five books are marked with a star. 
lUit 111! ihei more : if» as seems likely (see p. exxv, below), books xv. and 
xvi. are to be [cckoned each as a book of two hymns (and not as of 1 8 
and 9 respectively), then all the hooks from xii. on, to xviii., arc to be 
starred, and ie‘4arded as ha\ini; their and hymns conterminous. J 

[It IS mUed at p. 89S. j. that in book xix. there appears an attempt 
to make the visions coincide with the sense-divisions or divi- 

sions between the subject-j;roups. I do ni^t know whether the same is 
true in books i.-\viii, not ha\ini; examined them with regard to this 
point ; It IS true in the case of the last auHvakii of book ix. RV. i. 164 

AV i\. i) and lo), where, as the KV. sh«>ws, the line unit is the 
anuiaka anil not the AV hymn. On the other hand, Whitney observes 
(at p. 194) that an «///;^:’c//v/ (luision falls in the middle of the Mrgara- 
group, and (at p 247) that another falls between v. 15 and 16 with entire 
di.^regard of the close connection of the two hymns J 

[Their relation to the hymn-divisions in books xiii. xviii.- In these books 
aiul in XII., the aunvaka is, as inited above, admitteilly conterminous wit^ 
the hymn everywhere except in the I wo /*</;;r./ri/ bpoks, xv and xvi. In 
the colophon to xiv i, a ms. xA Whitney’s sj/caks of the hymn as an 
: and it is possible that, for book xiv., at least, the author 
<it the Anukr clid not recognize the hwnn-<livisions (see p. 739). That 
they signify very much less in books \ni xvin. tlian they do in the earlier 
books is very clear (see the third paragraph ol p. cxxxi, and the third of 
p. cix) ; so clear, that it is not unlikely that they are of entirely second- 
ary origin J 

[It IS at the beginning of book xii that the ci///<rw/\/-divisi»)ns begin to 
coincale with the hymn »livisions ; ami it is precisely at the corres|H)nding 
point in the Anukr. (the beginning of patala viii ) that the author of that 
treatise ap[)ar(.ntly intends to viy atha 'nuviiku ucydntc. From book xii. 
on, theretoie, it would seem that the saiiihita was thought of by him as a 
collection of aHHitikdSy or that the subordinate <livisioii below the kthuia 
winch wa> alone worth) of practical rcc<\gnition, was in his opinion the 
aniivoK i and not the 

[If this be right, then it would seem as if, in the series of books 
xii will, the bo.>ks w. and \\i ought not to be exceptions. In them, 
also, the gioups of individu d or /;;'<! ivr-groiips should be con- 

terminous with the dfinuikiis Hook xv. will fall, accordingly, into two 
groups of 7 and n respectively; and book xvi. into two groups 

of 4 and 5. I’his method of grouping the paryayas receives some 
support from the faet that hymn xix. 23 refer#to book xv. as "two 
(tnnidkas *' (see note to .xix. 23. 25), and from the fact that the PaAcapa{alik& 

9 . The Divisions of the Text 


makes similar reference to book xvi. (see p. 792,^1 4, to p. 793), and 
speaks of our xvi. 5 as that is, * the first ' of the second ^roup 

(P* 793 )* Moreover, the Ire.atnieiit of liooks xv. and xvi. by the makers 
of the Paipp. text (sec p. I(ii6. lim: 12) would indicate that the aunriika 
is here the practically rero;;ni.:cd unit subordinate to the kaniUi. As for 
the bearing of this grouping upon the citation of the text concerned and 
upon the summations, cf. j). c.x\\vii, toj>. and p cxlv, table 3, brjth forms J 
|_The division into sOktas or • hymns.* 1 he h\mn may uell be called 
the first considerable natural unit in tlie rising scale of divisions. (Jf the 
hymn, then, verses and padas aie the subdivisions, although single 
versos or even may also be P.gaidefl as natJiral unit'». lk)ok 
and hymn ' and are all di\isuins of so ob\ioiisly .ind equally funda- 
mental character, that it is cpnti- iiglit th it (.italions should be made by 
them and not otherwise Hc*\\» ver divcist* in subject -matter two siicces- 
sive sftkUis may be, we rightly exjiect unil\ of sub]c-it within the limits 
of what is truly one *iiid the .same suti>i it !•' lh‘s inherent unity of 
subject which JUsti!ic^ the n'‘e of the tenii iv fnii-^ukht chelow, p. cxx.xiii) 
with refcteiue to any tiu<- m» tinal hymn ; and n ir critic d suspicions aie 
naturally aroused agaiii'^t .1 h\inn that (liVe \n 35* tails in meet this 
expectation. The h\inn, inorc*o\er, is the lukleiis fcjr the second- 
ary ate. lotions whic h are dis( .iss.-d bea^w, .it p « Ini J 

LThe hymn-divisions not everywhere of equal value. — It is matter of 
considoiablc critical interest that the iiMnn-di\ isi.uis of diffeient paits of 
our text aio by n«' me.ins o! etjn.d \aluc* of p clx. Ihus it is far from 
certain whether iheic is any gon.l gnmnd at all 1cm the dixision of the 
matcfial (»f book xiv into lumps cth.e cjnest!..ii i'; c.aretull\ examined at 
pages 73S if). Aivl again, the- of book win is of such .sort as 
lo'^make it clear that thr h> mn duisioiis in that book aie decidedly 
mechanical and that they have .dm-st no inininm significance (see p. S14, 
^6 p 8^7, 2, p 84S, ^ S> i he familiar 1 )irghatamas-hymn of the 

Rig-Veda has been duided bv the Athaiwn text-makers into two (ix. 9 
and lOb and doubtless f«»r no other than to bring it into an 
approximate uniform.ty .n rcspo.t ..f len;;th with the hv.nns of books 
v»ii.--xi. (p. clvi) As Whitney notes, h>nins xix. 53 and 54 aie onK two 
divided parts of one hymn : so 10 and 1 1 ; 2S and 20 J 

LXhe division into rcas or ‘verses.* - This division is. cM course, h e le 
division into botiks and hymns, ol tund.tinenlal signifKaiK*. t is * 
tained even in the noimietrical passages, but the nanu is t ku ) 

modified by the prefixion of the dcteiminativo so that the i>iosc 

verses in the /i«i^divi-hymni» called orfrMfOii/frs (p. 4 / -m 

* l,Thi« part of the »iai 
the preceding paragraph J 

MlhjnC, f'T lnM>ks Xlll -X\W 

to il'c moanuaiion implied in 

cxxxii General Introduction^ Part II: in part by IVAitney 

I^SuMivisions of verses : avasAnas, p&das, etc. — Concerning these a few 
words may be said. Arasana means * stop/ and so *the verse-division 
marked by a stop.* The verse usually has an azuisdna or * stop * in the 
middle and of course one at the end. Occasionally^ howevcr» there arc, 
besides the stop at the end, two others : and the verse is then called //y- 
azaniMtt. Moreover, we have verses with more than three stops, and 
sometimes a verse with only one — The next subordinate 

division is the or * quarter.’ As the name implies, this is commonly 
the quarter of a four-lined verse or with two avasdnas; but some- 
times, as in a verse with an odd number of (like the ^dyatn)t a 

pad.1 may be identical with an nzuiSiUM. The division into piidas is recog- 
nized by the ritual, which sometimes prescribes the doing of a sequence 
of ceremonial acts to the accompaniment of a verse recited pfida by pada 
in a corresponding sequence. — Kven the pada is not the final 
possible subdivision, as appears from KH. .\xvi. 5, nnth vdriiftarcam 
fdtiap'n vd faJiim vd Viiniam zd, where the verse and all its subdivisions 
receive mention J 

Numeration of successive verses in the mss. — In this matter, the mss. 
differ very much among themselves, and the same ms. differs in different 
books, and even in different parts of the same book ; so that to give all 
details would be a long, tedious, and useless operation. A few may be 
given by \Nay of s|)ecimen. In books iti and v. the enumeration in our 
mss is by hymns only. LS‘)metimes it runs conlinuou.sly through the 
(iJ/fii'dAi: above, p. cx.xix J In vi. it i^ \ery various: in great part, 2 
hymns are counted together; sometimes 4 ; also 10 verses together, or 9, 
or 8 In book vii , some mss. (so V. and I.) number by decads within 
the <1////: with total neglect of real suktiis; and thoi numbering is in 

all so confused and obscure that our editirin was misled in several cases 
so as to count 5 hymns less in the book than does the Anukr., or than 
SrP’^ edition The discordance is described at p. 3S9 and the two num- 
berings arc given side by side in the translation. 

[Groupings of successive verses into units requiring special mention. — 
The grouping of verses into units of a higher ilegree is by no mCans so 
simple and uniform in the mss. as we might e.x|K*ct. It is desirable, 
accordingly, to discriminate between decad-j/ 7 /’Aj.r and artha-snktas and 
parydya-snkuis The differences of grouping arc chargeable partly to the 
differences of form in the text (now verse, now prose) and partly to the 
difference^ in length in the metrical hymns.J 

Decad'SQktas or ^decad-bymns.’ — With the second grand division 
begins (at book viii.) a new element in the subdividing of the text: the 
metrical hymns, being much longer than most of thAe in the first division, 
arc themselves divided into vcrsc-rlecads or groups of ten verscS| five or 


9. The Diviuoin of the Text ** 

more odd verses at the end of a hymn counting as an added decad. The 
numbers in the final group thus run from five to fourteen : cf. pages 388, 
end, and 472, 5. Hook xvii. divides precisely intf) 3 decatls : jj. 805. 

The average length of the decad-A//XA/j is exactly ten verses in hook x. 
(35 dccads and 350 verses: p 5^'ij), ami almost exactly ten in hof)k xviii. 
(28 dccads and 2S3 verses, p. 8141 In the summations, these decads 
arc usually called suktas .iml ne\i*r hy any other name (as da^atayas)^ 
while the true hymns are called aytha-sukta^ 

1_ Although known to the comm ami to some ni'sS in hook vii. (p. 388), 
the dccad-division really begins wiili hook \iii , an»l it runs on through 
book xviii. (not into xix : p 8<|S, !jn<* and continunu‘.]\ eVLei)t for the 
breaks occasioned hy the h\mi:s /[j 471, ciuh ami /^znr/jv^-hooks 

(XV. anti xvi. : pages 77a 7 **;/ In l)M'»k vii., this gioupmg is carried out 
so mechanically as to t ul in two some nim- of the sliort sense-hymns of 
the Berlin etlition. The nine an: enumcialefl at p 389, line S ; hut in 
the case of five <if them 145, Sp <>8, 7^, 76., tin* fault In s with the lierlin 
edition, which has wrongly (.oinhined th«* pails thus ^eparaled J 

Lin the summations, a> jU'^t noi<‘d, th; (hv ids aie usually called suktas; 
and they and \\\^* ireailde l i«'^etlu r, like .ipjdes and pears, 

to form totals ot " hvnins of hotii Kinds »p 5^*^’ line I he summa- 
tions of the i\c^M\-yul-tas and to: hooks \iii-\\iii aic duly 

given below in the special introdm tinn to e.i^h bool concernerl, and these 
.should 1)0 consulted, but h*r nununieiise tiny mn heie be .summan/ed. 

Hook Mil IX 
?! 21 

]’ 4 n 3 yji.s 0 7 

1 1 


ttl WIl XVIII 


O J 

Artha-sfiktas or • sense-hymns.' — his technicil term might he ren- 
dered, more awkwanllv, hut pcihajis m--ie suitahl\. by ‘subject-matter 
hymns ’ It is these that are usii illy meant wlun we sj>cak of “h\mns 
without any determinative. The comm \eiy j-iopcriy notes that hymns 
xix. 47 and 48 form a single and that the next Uo form 

andlhft*. The determinative aftkia i- pietix-d m pirlicular to ihstinguish 
the sense-hymns from the /f/n«)*M/*h\ mns ip 61 1, • si, ai d llitie is itt e 
occasion for u.sing it of the -h-ut hvmn^.d the fii>t giami diMsion.J I he 
verses of the arfha-sukta aio s.nm times numheicd. through t*ach separate 
component or sukta, ami sometime’^ ihiough the whole affua j / Ai, 
the two mctluxls being vatmush mingled In hooks mi -mv and xvn and 
xviii., as already not^'d, the an'ka ^ukfas ami aii. coiiku tn , 

mss. specifying their identity. ,.11 i 

LP.W.-*lk.» •* ■ 1» "K- ..nJ S' 

divisions arc certain extended prose-compositionb ca cv J j arjaja 

cxxxiv Gcncrf^l Introdnciion, Part II. : in part by Whitney 

They are tlivuletl into what are called parytlyas, or also parytiya-siiktas, 
but never into decads. Llh^^ piiryaya-sukta is thus somewhat 

ainbii;uous, and has a wider and a narrower meaning as designating, for 
e\am[de, on the one hand, the whole group of six paryayas that compose 
our ix i\ or, on the other, a single one of tlnxse six (e.g. our ix. 6 . i-j;). 
I'o avoid this ambiguity, it is well to use parydya only for the narrower 
meaning and piitydYd^sukUi only for the wiilcr. Ihe hymn ix. 7 ^ 

pandwi siiKtii ctmsisting of only one patydya. For the word pary-dya 
^root t: literally ^ circuit. rrfpioBo^) it is indeeil hard to find an 

iMiglish equivalent : it might, with mental reservations, be rendered by 
‘xtropiie’; perhaps 'period' is better; anil to leave it (as usual) untrans- 
lated may be best J 

[The /.7Mdm-hvmns number eight in all. five in the second' grand 
division {v\ith ptjrytiy{i\}, and thieo in the third grand division (with 

Pifndytii). They are. in the second di\ision, viii. lO (with 6 pufydyns); 
i\ 6 (With and 7 (with n . xi. 3 (with ^), and xii. 5 (with 7); and, in 
the thipl di\ision, xiii 4 (with 6); book \v (iS purjdyus); and book xvi. 
(C) p^jfydiiis). Ihe pitf iditi'Sdkfas are maiked with a e in tables 2 and 3- 
For turther details, Si*e p 47- J 

Lit will be noticed that two books of the third division', xv. and xvi., 
consist wholly of puryduii. and, lurther, that each book of the second 
division has at least one ol these h\mns (ix has tw'o such, and contigu* 
oils), except book x ICven book x has a long hymn, hymn 5. consisting 
nu'stly of prose, but with nimgltd metrual poilions; but despite the fact 
that the Anukr* divides the h>mn into four parts, whuh parts are even 
ascribed to diitcrent authors (p. 570). it is yi.t true that those parts are 
not iKknowledged as pcindyaf. Moreover, the hymn is^ expressly called 
an (jrf/iii su{!ti by at leist one ol Whilnev s mss J 

LDifferences of the Berlin and Bombay numerations in books vli. and xix. 

-As agimst the Berlin e«liiion. the Bombiy edition exhibits certain 
difb-iemes in respei t of the numeration of h\mns and vcrse.s These 
aie rehearsed by Sl*F. in his Oitical \olne, vol. i., pages iTi 24. Iducse 
which atfect book vn. are describ. d by me at p 3S9. and the floifhlc 
numberings for hook \ii ate given by Whitney from vii. 6 3 I*' *'*^**^ 

of Ml 1 Iv Bornbiy numbi'tings are the eorrect ones (ef. p. 392, liric 4 
from end; Other disi.repaneies, which affect hook xix., are referred to 
at p S(,S J 

LDifferences of hymn-numeration in the paryftya-booka. — These arc the 
mo:»t important ditferi'mcs that concern hymns. They affect all parts of 
a given book alter the first panaytt of that book. 1 hey have been carefully 
(‘xplaincd by me at pages 610 ii, but the differences will be more easily 
appiehcndcd and discu.ssed if put in tabular form. The table harmonizes 


9. Tlu Divisions of the Text 

the hymn*nunibcrs, without into the detail of the difference of versc- 

numberin^Si which latter, however, are not seriously confusinj(. 

t IlyntM uf iIm 

The unrliTAntipn Iimihis • r j ,iis 

*1 *1 • 1 ' t i.f till r,« r'lii 

Li.i'i '1 riiii) .jKind 

Hx mils 'if the 

Uuniltay cd. 

to the hviiiii% ( t ihi r.'.ii.' ... 

I ' ii i . I iii.h. II <1 III 

1 ’CliLi 111 ir*' ii 

J''ifnhA/ lJ 

r-Mok 1*.,. i 

I.'*. I. r... ^ 

I'', k 

xin. It 


X • 


2 2 

1 1 




3 3 

V ■ 1' 3 




4 4 

3 - t 

1 ■ 0 


5 5 

3-3 5 « • 

*1 n 21 



0 C . 17 

' 5 • 

« 1 •; 2*1 



7 , 

C .7 

1 - 



.S <* M . 

It 5 ,. 

A V '« 



•) <• 4 ' M 

7 5 

1 4 '2 t' 



K 1 7 It ,, 0 

■* 5 * 


• < < 

10*17 #1 4 . ' J 

' J 5 ' a 


1 1 


iL 0 ;i 7 I • 


1 2 

.in S 

I » 


10;' ) 

1 1 


I Iv 1 * 0 M 

[Since the two x dition> ihib r, tf 

,e ipu <11011 ari^C', W’liich is ri 

ght? The 

fourth piia 

grapli ot p. MI oAhit h 

SI 1 » h .ive> It 

undecided, but 

states the 

real point at issue pi iini\ 1 now l»(*In'\e that the iiiLthojls of both 
editions are at fault and would a h-tt^r method 'l‘o niLikc the 

nutter clear. I take as an exainj'le the /a/},/: x-suK\i \\ whith consists 
of a ^roup of three 

Sus:j 5 « M»- ! fn/- ’ ' 5 I 4 * I i'*', >ri 

XI ]1 I • O M ' I t -O ; I -o 

XI ^ ^ I j I Ml i-iS 

XI ; * X’ ' ; 5 '- M 5 1-7 

1‘hc f»)ur sets <»f ninnhers in tl.e tnsl column relate to the four text- 
divisions: the first set <\i ) to the book; llie sectunl [}) to the /(/nwjvr- 
sfikta or J^roup of /c/ri Jjax . the thii-l 1 1, J, 31 to the indi\ itlual f'or uhiis of 
that p^roup; and the fouitli { ‘ ’» to the vei'»e'> ot the /*f7; J 

Lin the Heilin text, vm liu* one Iiind, we inu-'l admit that each of the 
thr»;c'componont /l7; J^/I<7y of xi x i'' d.uly indi Mted. as such In typograph- 
ical separation aiul that tlie /oM</;a numl)eis <1 am! 2 and 3) are duly 
given in parenthesis. 'I hal text, howevei, piaetie.illv ignores the /.;/ j Jjv/y, 
at least for the purposes of cit.iiion, hv nunibenn.; the sei'^es of ail three 
continuously (as versos 1-510 tiom the be>jinnin., of/'oncJr*/ i to the end 
of 3. Thus only the group ot /'onoioi is reeo:;ni/eii ; ami it is numbeied 
us if coordinate with the atf/ut i>f the book J 

Lin the Bombay text, on the other hand, each O x is numbered as 
if coordinate with an arth.x-suLfa. and the versts .ire numbered (of course, 
in this case) beginning anew with i for each pxx jixvix. I his method 

cxxxvi Cent ral Introduction, Part II: in part by Whitney 

ignores the unity of the group of individtial parydyas and throws previous 
citations into confusion. J 

[Hooks xv. anil \vi. consist wholly of paryayas. Here, therefore, the 
case is not complicated by the mingling of paryayas and artha-sUktas, 
and the lieilin text ignores the grouping ^ of the paryayas, and treats and 
number s each paryaya as if coordinate with artha-sUktas, and numbers 
the verses beginning anew with i for each paryaya (cf. p. 770, line 30).J 
Whitney’s criticism of the numbering of the Bombay edition. — 
condemned, at p 0^5. the procedure of the Hornbay edition. In his 
material for this Introduction, I now find a few additional words on the 
matter, which in.iy well be given J 

ICach par\a\a is reck<»ncd, in the summations, as on the same plane as 
a real hMun or attiui sitkta. Hence SI’l*. is e.\ternally justified in count- 
ing, for example, the nine artha^suktas and three patyaya^ of book xi. a® 
twelve hymns, numbering the verses of each separately ; at the same 
time, such a dcviition trom the method pursued in c)ur edition, throwing 
into contusion all oltlcr references to book \i after 3- 3** much to 

be deprecated, and has no real and internal jU'^tifu atitm, since each body 
or group of paryay.ii^ is i»bMously and undeniably a unitary one (see, for 
example, our viii 10, and note the relatii>n especially of its third and buirth 
and fifth subdi’w isions or pary r/jwn In such matters we are not to allow the 
mss to guide us in a manner clearly op{M>sed to the rightN of the case. 

[Suggestion of a preferable method of numbering and citing. — It is 
plain, I think, that both editiunN aic at fault : the Herlin edition, in ignor- 
ing the individual paryd\a$ in btM.k^* viii \iii and in ignoring the/jnwivi- 
gToiip> in \v -\vi. , and the Honibav edition, in igiuuing the^u; M/ru*groups 
cvcrvwhere Moreover, the [uoceduie the Heilin text is inconsistent 
'P 770, line 271 a>. between b^*•.k^ viii \iii. and books .w xvi., the unity 
of the g!ou[i'. in \v xvi being no less “obvious and undeniable'’ than in 
tile exampli: just cited by Whitney J 

[ I he purpose underlying the proceilurc of the Herlin edition was that 
all references should be homogeneous for all parts of the Atharvan text, 
not only for the metrical parts but also for the prose pandyas, and con- 
sist of three numbot^ onl\ Hut, as between the parrayaf and the rest, 
it IS pr«;ci^«’l\ this homogeneity *^hat we do not want ; for the lack of it 
scrv»*s the useful [impose* ol showing at a glance whether any given cita- 
tion ret»'rs to a pas^ag** in prose or in verse. J 

[[•'or a futuie edition, I Tec(»mmen<l that all /^^inv/^'^r-pn-ssagcs be so 
numbered as to make it to cite th<*ni by book, pandya-group 
par\dya, and verse Th»‘ vers<- number would then be written as an 
exponent or su[>enor , and, f'»r example, instead of the now usual ix. 6. 31, 
' .\i. U) whal ih;H ^roupin^; shouM N*, •.oc thr diHcussinn at p. cx**, near end. 

The Divisions of the Text 


45 ; 7, 26 ; xi. 3. 50, we should have ix. 6. 3*, 5* ; 7. xi. 3. 3*. In books 
XV. and xvi. I should reckon the minvaka as determining^ the limits of each 
group of parydyas (n. exxx) ; and thus, for example, instead of the now 
usual XV. 7. I ; 8. I ; 17.1 ; xvi. 5 1 , we should have xv. 1.7*; 2.1*; 2. lo^ ; 
xvi. 2.1*. The tables on pa;4es 771 and 793 may serve for conversion- 
tables as between the proposed method and the Heilin-lioinbay methofl.J 
LThe merits of this method are clear iiom what has been said : it avoids 
ignoring the parydyas of viii. xiii. and the -roups of xv -xvi , and avoids 
the inconsistency of the IWilin method, it maintains the recognition of 
the uniformity of books \iii xi. as hooks of ten h>mns each (p. 61 1, 
line 25) ; and it assimilates all refereiiLes tfj /,/>p/jv/-te\t in a manner 
accordant with the facts, and shoW'> at a glance that they refer parydya- 
passages.* Moreover, it a\oi(U the necessity of recognizing h>mns of 
less than 20 verses for division III. ip i \i\ » , ami by it one is not incon- 
venienced in finding i)a‘^sag.-s as cite<l by the ohler meth<Mi J 

LDlfferenccs of verse-numeration. 1 he diilen nc< s of hymn-numeration, 
as is clear fr(»m the foregoing, invidve tertain dilfeicnces td verse-numer- 
ation also; but besides these lattei, lhcr«* aie i ert.mi other differencLs of 
'vcrscMUimeialion oi.cMsinned by the .alhoM m e of the llombay editor to 
the prescriptions of the .\ 'I iiey lia\e been fully treated in the 
introductions to the Imm/ks .oncetiud . 1 ut rMpiire mention heie because 
thcN atfect the veise-totals of the o-iiMd. red. in the d.scussion 
(nages rlvii. ^iiM of the striKture et t>K t. xt d lu tne /./n.w-hxmns 
alfeclcd are given in the fust line of the >uh;oined table, ami in the sec- 

..,1 ..-t rk., t.. tW ... "...I "k. tou - 

clitli.n, aiul the fuuith ih-o t..i tlu' H.’.'.in ni.ti.'n. ..n.l the fifth tliL dif- 
ferences It nuy he ..11 t.. umin,; th. u.ehi. tint, in its i-l- ^ 
in the text, the second r<'> i’n-tte.l. h.. th b 

SIT. ,at xol. lii.. p...;es St'. '■' . but that 

the Ik.mbav editor i-iints it ..... on . ,u..t ..If r .t.t" .'1 t k s.imc ' 

time a, 7= u-.pou.l 'n the Anuk. Ihc matte . fu b 

e.xplained by me p..};es (.’js ^ ^ ^ .,„f,,ence of 54- 

31 -i 18 -I- 7 -- >(». and in the .'the. - / 

The sum of the nlus items is i.^ts 



Ilomluy it'UW 
Herlin lolaln 

riut items 

; |!» 

1 1 ^ 

1 U 

x» c XX t 




U 11 

L rn th,- M. th si of t it, '.on ;n thf f the 

» LI beg Ihc re».ler t« cr.m,.4T.- ...) ^ the opo- 

KarparamaA)arl, |>»gc* *'•*'*• t ’ t * 
nent \h a Idler; for tj‘3kur,»wni t’r it o » 

c\l GAit'ral Introdui'iioHy Part IL : in part by Whitney 

them here (with addition of the “obscure’* clause of p. 141, If 8) into 
what appears to be their proper metrical form, with attempted emendation 
at the points ' in which the verse was obscure to Whitney : 

trihcannimittah sadrcepi karyas 

ttsro itii^a /•tiiica ca rctih: 

’///I'ji. t‘a 

: uLuthyad adhikam nimittat. 

•Amoncj the si\-versed [hymns] (i.e. in book iii.), the verses are to be 
(niad.e : i e ) accounted [icspeclivel) j as three, ten, ei^ht, ten, and five, 
with thirty a!» their tuiuLitncnial determinant ; and the last as fourteen: 
and one is to treat the number {auuiaka by anui aka : i.e.) for each 
aHuiCika as an overplus over the norm.‘J 

[In the section headed “Table's of verse-norms" etc., it was shown 
that, while the Tar^capatalik.i’s norms for books i. vii. c<mccrn the anu- 
: its norms for books \iri -\ii. concern the hymns. This distinclirm is 

obser 'eil also by the tornm. m making his dtrad-divisions (see p. 472 : 1 . 2S). 
rheso facts are in entire acconl w'ilh the e\|)liLit statements of the Tai^ca- 
patalika : to wit, on the one hand, with that of the verse just translated; 
and, on the other, with the rern irk tited at the t‘nd of vrii. i (p. 475, end), 
r I t ‘ami ihe niimbiTin^ proceeds hymn by 

h\mn’ Here is in ilear contrast with the iiunrak i\iis of our 

\crse, and the rcnnrk evidently applies to the remaining books of the 
text that come within the purvr<‘w of the rai’tcapat.ilika, that is (since it 
Ignores i)ooks xix - \\ ), to books Mii \viii. or to the second and third 
;.;rand i!ivi'jion'» J 

[Thus, between the first ^rand dni'.iim on the one hand and the second 
.in i third on the other, our tn alise makes a clear distinction, not only by 
actual proce<lure but aKo by express statement. Hut this is not all. 
As between the second arnl the third, also, it makes a distinction in fact : 
for, w'hile a norm that concerns the vcise-tot.als of artha-suktas (and not 
«if anuiaktu) is a'>'»umed for the .sccoml, no norm is assumed for the ihinl 
/i f p 708, line 12; and the verse-totals tor each arthu'Sukta or paryaya^ 
j are stated sirnpl) hymn by hyrnn.J 

10. Extent and Structure of the Atharva-Veda Samhita 

Limits of the original collection. -- It is in the first pi. ice clearly appar- 
ent that of the twenty books cfunposin^ the present te.xt of the Atharva- 
\'eda, the first ei^^hteen, or not more than that, were originally combined 

> 'Ihe msn read ’nfiJnu, with I’osiMt* --intilu, o/, f )r with confuiion of sihilantt; 

(K'lt otu' hi* ir/v/t .t: d 'Jni:,ninn , «»ith oniiHst'in of 4 needed twin Culiso* 

nant f p X’j). As t* th*: i.f ^ r. « f ht! i\%, p 5: vnd, and p. 180, ^ 3. 

lO. Extent and Structure of the Atharva-Veda Sa^tiia exH 

together to form a collection. There annenr* tr. j c 

*u.. » .. • . 'appears to be no definite reason to 

8upp<»e that the text ever contained less than the books i.-xviii It is 

easy to conjecture a collection including books i.- xiv. and book xviii 

leaving out the two prose p,„yay.,.h.mVs xv. and xvi. and the odd little 

b^k XV.. with the queer ref.ain running nearly through it; but there is 

no sound reason for suspecting the genuineness of these prose books 

more than of the prose hjums scattered (see belo«. p. ,o,.j through 

net^ly all the preceding books; and in the lVu,,, recension it is 

Vulgate book xviii. th..t is wanting altogether, books .xv-xvii. lor rather 

books xv.-xviii.: cf. p. .01 3 J Ining not unre,. resented 

Books xix. and xx. arc later additions. these are later additions 

IS in the first place strongly sugg. sted by their character and composi- 

excerpts from 

the KigA ccl.i; it stands in nf» coiKcivahlc n lalion to the itst of the 
AtharvaA eda ; and wlu-n and \\h\ n added thereto is a matter for 
conjecture. As lor hf.ik \i\ , tint has distinotly the a-]>ect of being an 
afler-glcaning , if its li\mns had het n an a- repted part nf the main^ol- 
lection when that was f.amed, we shonM have cxpi.ted them to be dis- 
trihuted among the* other liooks ; and the u\t is i»ie\ai]ingly of a degree 
of l)adncss that sets it (piiic apart from the re^^t , while its /Ar/A-text must 
he a most modem pinduitum [For the eumulaMvo evidence in detail 
lespecting hook .\i\ , sie iny inlmduetion. pag« s Sfi 5 N J 

Other evidences of the former <\istenee of an Athar\aA'cda which 
was limited to books i wm. are not lare That the //.0/^/./>(i/-di vision 
is not extt*nded he\<*nd honk ,\\ni m.iy be of some eonscijuence, but 
probably not niueli. The (>I<1 Anukramani stops at the same point, 
^lorc .sigmnrant is it llial the Kan* iiva-sutia [_d*.»es not, bv its citations,^ 
imply recognition of the text of book \i\ as an integral jMit of the jr/w- 
/iiftlt anil tiiat itj ignoies bm.k .\x. completely. It is \et more impor- 
tant that the Pi.ltit^akiu a and its comnientai\ limit lliem.seKes to books 

In the IMippalada te.xt. the mateiial *'1 b*'»«>k xix appeals in great part, 
as wc are bounil l*^ note, an*i ijuite on an equality with the rest. Of 
book XX., nothing Lor practically nothing : see p. kxmiJ so appeals. It is 
also noteworthy thal I’aipp. (as mentioned abovei omits book wiii. ; but 
from this need be diawn n*i suspicion as to the ajq'urienanrc of xviii. to 
the original AV. - - The question nt the possible extension of individual 
hymns anywhere does not concern us heie, Lbut is di>cu>>ed on page cliii.J 

* LThrre are five vcrv«i ivhiih. aliho .iih iHV.niini; m out xi\ . .no \i! ulcil by Kaui; m full, 
M if they iliil not l>ct -nj* to thi> .\lhaT\ait : ’\! icv. b\ M ii"\cr. lh*ie an* 

by Klu^. lilt fra 0 ktts whuh, a!lh(iiif*h aiiMicrinv; t«> '•ix hyne h ilatwi'i 1^51 .mil l»S) nf our \i\ , 
may yet for the most part Iw r* *’ar*!cil .i*. - Vor a *Iciaik**i liiMusMon of ihc 

msttw, we peges 89(^7. J 

‘ cxlii Ge^ieral lutroduciiofi^J^art II. : in part by Whitney 

[,The two broadest principles of Arrangement of books i.-zvili. — Leaving 

book XX. out of account, and disrogardin^ also ff»r the present book xix. 
as being a palpable supplement (see pages S95 iS), it is not difficult to 
trace the two principles that underlie the general arrangement of the 
m.Uerial of books i. xviii. These principles are J 

li. Miscellaneity or unity of subject and 2. length of hymn. — The books 
i wiii. Lill accorilingly into two general classes; i books of which* the 
hymns are ch.iracterized by miscellaneity of subject and in which the 
length nf the hymns is regarded ; and 2. books of which the distinguish- 
ing characteii'^tic is a general unity of subject and in which the precise 
length of the hymns is not prirnardy regarded, although they are prevail- 
inglv long.* The first class again falls into two divisions: i. the short 
hymns; and 2. the long hymns J 

[The three grand divisions d. and II. and III.) as based on those princi- 
ples. — We thus have, for book^ i. wiii , three grand divisions, as follows : 
I. the first grand tli\ision, consisting of the seven bonks, i.-vii , and com- 
prehending the shoit h\mns of miscellaneous subjects, more specifically, 
all the hymns mot p cxwiv) of a less number cd verses than 

twenty*. II. the second grand division, consisting of the next five books, 
viu - xii , and comprehending the long h\mns ol miscellaneims subjects, 
more specifically, all the h\mns (sive thoM- bidonging to the third divi.sion) 
of more than twenty veiscs; and III. tlie thud gi.ind duision, lonsisting, 
as aforesaid, ot those books of whuh the distinguishing characteiislic is 
a general unity of subject, to wit, the six books, xiii. wiii. rheie are 
oth. r fc itures, not a f<.w, which dntferentiate these ilivisitms one from 
another, they will be mentioned below, under the seveial divisions J 

[The order of the three grand divisions. It is clear that the text ought 
t'} b* gin with division I, since that is the most rhaiacteristic part of it 
all, an<l sinc^* books i \\. are very likely the original nucleus of the whole 
collection. Since division I is marie up of hvmns of rniscellaneou.s sub- 
jects I the .short ones), it is natnial that the other hymns of miscellaneous 
subjects fthe long one.s) should bdlow next. Thus the last place is natu- 
rally left for the br>oks characteri/.«*d by unity of subject. This order 
agrees with that of the hymn-tt>tals of the divisions, which form (cf. tables 
I, 2, 3) a dcscr nrling scale of 433 and 45 and 15 J 

I, Principles of arrangement of books within the grand division. — If we 

have nglitly (leterminerl the first rough grouping of tjjc material of l>ook8 
i -will into three granrl divisions, the cpicstion next in logical order is, 

> I liu it tn** without moiliti* .iii m. if we treat l><>oki xv xml xvi. each aa two 

h-.rrtn r>r i!ps irt the in.inn' r and reaHonnl at p. exxx, and implied in the 

&e4.'inii form of uMe p (xU cf p cxxx\ii. line 13 J 

lo. ^truclun- of the ^iharva-l\cia Samh^^^ cxliii 

What governs the arrangement of the fK,oks within each division ? This 
question W.l be discussed in .leta.l un.ler each of the three divisions 
(Cf. pages cxlix ff., clvii, dix) ; l.ere, accot<lingiy, only more general state- 
ments are calle.l for. st.itenients concern the versc-norms of the 
hymns for each hook, and the aniniint of tcxl.J 

LThe normal len^h of the Hymns for each of the several books. - IV.r 
the first grand division these nouns play an iiapoilant p.irt in determin- 
ing the arrangement of the hooks w.tbm that .1, vis, on, as appears later, 
p. cxlix. Tortile second graml dicisioii u is tine that the I'aileapatahka 
assumes a norm.,] hynin-h-ngth f<,r each hook ,p cvcsi.s;; but that seems 
to have no traceable connection with the :irran.;i mein >>f the bo.iks within 
that division (p. civ;. For the third, m, such norm ,s even assumed (p., 

[The amount of text in each book. Table. I mattu . in its relation 
lo the order <if the honks, I must t..ns{,n.T hiitil\ lure lor the thne f^rand 
divisions to;;ether, althon.;h it uj!] 1 t- necessajx to re\Lrt to it later ^paj;es 
ilti, (Ivii, cli\) .Sun e oui »«/#//////(/ i>» nf niin.;!**! \cise an«I pios^, it is 
not easy (except with a Hni.iu rns . win. h I Ium- not at hand/ to esti- 
niate the precise fimount ol t< \t t‘» he appo[tiiint.'(l to eich s(,*p'ij,itL* book 
If we lake as a hiM>, Imwevei, the j.iiiit*d j.a”.* ol the Merlin text, and 
count fractnins ut pant*', tin* '5- appoitn^nc'i .inion^ tlie 

1 8 hcKjks as follows 

iWirk i li.i*> I ^ J .Ik;' H 
II 10 

ill. .'T 


>. :s 

M \i. 

\ II r” 

l>lM'l<<it I 1*1 1 i|v t')<*’i 1 1 11* 1 M\i'. 'll 1 1 1 (4 

From this it .ippeais ih.ii, tor iIimmou I , tiie anmnnt nf ti‘\t i.s a contiiui- 
oiLsIy ascending one for eai. h ot the honkN cxv^i jn the la>t (hook \ii ;; and 
that, for division III , it is .1 continii«»ii'«.\ ire'^cxiidsn^ i'Mc Ioi eacli of the 
l)ooks except (in like inannei) the la>l (hook \\nn, .ml that, althoiii;h 
the versc-totals id the Monihiy edition l«»r tne hotiks ol mviMon II fonn 
a series (sec p. clvii, line i i) wIikIi a^veiuls cont .nuon.''i\ dike of I ) 
for all l)ooks except (once a;;ain) the I.i''t. the hook's di\ision Il.aie, on 
the whole, most reinarkahK* for their .ippitixini ite etpaahtv ot leiis^lh.J 
Arrangement of tbt hymns within any given book. While tlie Lreneral 
guiding principles of airan^enient i>l the' I'^oks within the di\ision are 
thus in large mesistire and e\idenllv the v-xleinal one'? of, \ei‘'e-noims and 
attiount of text, it fe not to see w'hat has directed the ordeiini; of the 

I kill 

1" \ ' V I.:, s 

cxliv General Introductioi^Part //.; in part i>y Whitney 

Table x. First sra&d dlTision, boobs seven books 















Sum of 

Sum of 

e s 










of 1 it 





Ilf 2 \ai 






of a iii 







of 4 iii. 








of & Via. 








Ilf 4 nns 









Iff 7 \>t 









of *i n*ia 









I'l 4 i Vi 






of 10 Iii 







of II iii. 






of 12 nii 





of 13 n<i 





of II iii 





of lit n in 





it 14 \nn 





of 17 nnt 





. 1 |H n i 




1 *2 












324 . 


rs» >» 


Table 3. Second grand division, books vili.> 

xiii, five books 


} . k 

1* . k 

V . 

'• 11,1 . » 

'I W'l of 






, - 

ti ) rii’ii 




• 21 

1 i' 






.( 22 





f 2a 

• in 





of 21 

i n 







( 2.*i 

v i 


1 o 


I V 




of 2A 

’ n 






of 27 






of 2H 







..f SI 






o‘ 32 

» nn 






•>( 33 

• n 






of 31 

' in 





■ if 3>> 


■ >■1 



nf 37 






.1 3H 






of II 





. f .;o 






. f :>3 





Cif »Vl 




1 V 







« 1 


.f 40 




1 I* 


of 42 





..r 43 



1 1 

V h 

of 73 


















iO» Extent And ^tytictuvi^ nf fita a » 

irjicnirc oj f/ie^t/ian^a-Vcda Samhiia 




Table 3. Third grand division, books xiii. 

W«clclin« Viai>a 








ruii»t I 

1 i' M ik 


•xviii., six books 

I* ..k 


I ‘ n* r il 

‘ oiiiiirj? 

»f 3 .sn 
-f I .. 

'<* .» \<ii 


{ : ... 

'• *' ss 

f i» 

• • 10 . 
f 11 . s 

• I-.* V 

' 1 1:1 ^ 

2« * 

• 3(1 « 

• ii 

• .'»« . ^ 
M» ,s 

t tn 

: (H . ^ 

li) i-.r.i 



^•11 II ' t 
\Lr ts 







0- j 

1 - J 






LSuch is Whitney s table ; an 1 it in well to let it «itan'!, as it furnishes the 
best arj;umeiit a-ainst tnatin; the/./;J./^/^ ut books w and xvi caeb as 
a sinf;lc hymn (cf p i wwi, top, 'I rcatin;; them .is exjilaincd at p dx, it 
will appear as follows 

K'lliiU Wc,!<lini; \'i I 
!!'• k y ».k I . K 

Xltl Xlr XT 





4 2 

188 !Sn 

1 V 

•J r 

Table 3, second form 

I All t4 


\ u 


I * 1 . 

X'ls X\ia 

• •• 1 \ ' . 

• ' \ 1 > 

h . -efl.x. 



h :i(i I , 


1 r 

f .V’ .s. 

■ L* 

f. . ' Itl 1 


h .150.V- 


1. - .»« ^ s. 



J ^ 60 » 


1 p 


' > . f 61 


li 61 


’ 1 

» . } ; i V % 

i 'J 

’ t « >• \ V<| 

7 "i 


II <1 •'O \ S-. 

,s * 



2 P 

1 1 

h)inn« li 


;’.i» ‘jH ; 

\ I'l ^ 



cxlvi Getural ifitroduction^ Part I/.: in part hy Whiimy 

several hymns within any given book. It is clear that the subject has 
not been at all consklered ; nor is it at all probable that any regard has 
been hail to the authoiship. real or claimed (we have no tradition of any 
value whatever respecting the “tishis”). Probably only chance or arbi- 
trary choice of the arranger dictated the internal ordering of each book. 
LOii tills i»ubject there is indeed little that is positive to be said; but (in 
onier to avoid repetition) I think it best to say that little for each grand 
division in its proper place under that division : see pages cliv, clvii, 
and i.i\ J 

[Distribution of hymns according to length in the three grand divisions. 
Tables i and 2 and 3. — I he diitiibutitui i>f the hymns according to their 
length throughout the bo»>ks 4»f the three grand divisions is shown by 
\\ hitne) ’.s tables I. 2, and 3. preceding. The numbers rest on the numera- 
tions of the Heilin Cilition, and due lefercncc to the differences of numera- 
tion of the liomhay edition is made below at p. cxlvii. A vertical column 
is ilevoted to each book and in that column is shown how many hymns of 
1 verse, of 2 or 3 «)r 4 and so on up to Si) verses, there are in that hook, 
bv the number hori/ontally oppoNite the number of verses indicateil in 
the cidunin heailed by the word “contains ” To facilitate the summation 
of the number of hymns and verses in the Athar\a-Veda, the column 
but one on the right gives the number of hymns of i \s , of 2 \ss and so 
on, in the division concerned, and the last column on the right gives the 
total number of verses contained in the hvmns of i \s , of 2 vss. and so 
on (the total in each line being, of course, an exa^t multiple of the num- 
ber preceding m the same line! Accordingly we may read, for example, 
the sixth line of table i as follows* “Hook vii contains 10 hymns of 3 
verses and book vi contains 122. The sum of hymns of 3 verses in the 
dIy|^lon is 132, and the sum of verses in those hymns is 39^) *’J 

[Tables 1 and 2 and 3 for divisions I. and II. and III. '1 hese ought 
properly to come in at this jioint ; l»ut as their form and contents arc 
such that It is desirable to have them starvl on two pages that face 
eaih other, they haye been put (out of their piopcr place) on pages cxliv 
and cxlv.J 

(Grouping of the hymns of book xix. according to length. Table 4. — 

Ap.irt from the twD hymn"., 22 ('d 21 verses) and 23 (of 30), yvhich arc in 
divei'» ways of vmy <*xi.eptional character, it appears that every hymn of 
this book. It Midgi tl simply by its verse-total length, yvould fall into the 
first grand division, as hi ing of less than 20 verses.* This fact is of crit- 
ical interest, and is in keeping yvith the eharacter of book xix. as an after- 
gleaning, and in partii ular an after-gleaning of such m.aterial as would 
properly fall into the first grand division (if. p. 895, ^( 2). The table: 

I [.\itd so Mould h)rniis 2.: aiwI 2\, if judged by tlieir actual length. J 

lO. Extent and Structure of the A thahni-Veda Samhitd cxlvii 
Table 4. The supplement, book aix., one book 

In book xix. th^re are 15 4 2 ^ S ^ 3 1 12 2 hymns, 

Containing respe* ti VI ly i 1 3 \ ^ •, 7 S 'j ij ii versts. 

In book xix. there arc 2 1 1 i 1 li\iMn>. 72 h\mns. 

Containing respcciivtly 13 »S ; vi.r-.> I '> 1.41 \«rse-J 

[^Summary of the four tables. Table 5. Extent of AV. Saihhita about 

one half of that of RV. - -- T Ik- l<itals of hymns and Verses of tables 1-4 
are summetl up in table 5 I-'roin this n apjjcars that the number of 
hymns of the three ^rand di\isions <>1 the- Athaiva-Veda Snmhita is 516 
or about one half of that of the Ki-A'eda, and that the number of verses 
is 4.432 or consideraldy less th m one half, ll the summation be made to 
include also the supplement and tin* paits f»f book xx which are peculiar 
to the AV'., the number of h\mn‘N amounts to 5<»S or about tluee fifths of 
that of the RV , and the number of versi x amounts to about one 

half of that of the RV. T.tble 5 follows : 

Table 5. Summary of Atharvan hymns and verses 

< t rand <b vision 1 , !«>< 1 <<r*nn'i r l.Mpns and 2030 ver^c^ 

(;caml <loaMon II . Iv.i x.. . ....u.ns h.mnsai.d i;:S m rxes 

C.ramidwisi. n in. I x. .. .or«t.4.:.s ^ S; j \trse‘.. 

'lotaU fia n.f lijri-o .Tiriil eu ’..• 1 .'. . 11 .. n>’ xt'r‘sfs 

ThPHup|.l<rncnt. I^i 'kx.x h-.m-. .ivi ip. xer^ts 

•lotah for liookHi x.x 5^* 

The Kiinlipa kl.da Ilf I"«‘k XX •.« : i.*- lo h\in'.>.r. I is 

TviuSHfort-.V, 1 ... .nak!..-. 5 5,'. .^r-esj 

[The numl)crs of t-iMiN 1 5 i<-t '-if ‘’<l'tion llie tlilfer- 

ciu.-s hctwi-i'll .itul the uiition .to not atfci't tin- .imnunt of 

text, but onlv tin- \oi-.e tot.i)-. h'.ii the \.i-.i-totak are not affeetcil, 

but only tlte'bMnn tot.iK tp v<-t. ! • -■ >» 

For the- /.rit-itii-hvn.ns, the x. -to, .!- ot the hontlux anmnU 
to Ift8 more (see p .xxxvnt t!.o.e of the e.hfon or the 
Homhay,;lv. the t..t..l .»tt>t he tats..! (by ibh) 
fiom 5.0>S lo c J 

LFirst grand division .books i.- vii..: short hymns of miscellaneous suh- 
Jecta. — Whtlc the genet al .-..ttsnleiatton- "t U-tigth an.l -uhie. t ate in. ee. 
sufficient for the sepai.Ui.m of h..oU> i wu' intothr-e gtaml i txiMon.s 
as defined above, the Ctrst .hvisn.n sh-m-s vet ..tnet s.,n. o. hem, a mmo 
collection apart from the olli.-r two In the last p ee. t n txmn 
compose it arc mostly genuine char.ns an.l imp.ccat.ons, an.l wear on the 

cxlviii GfHvni/ huirodnction^ Pari II. : in pari by Whihuy 

whole a j;oiK*ral aspect decidedly different from that of books viii.-xviii., aft 
is indeed apparent enough from the table of hymn-titles, pages 1024-37; 
they are, in fact, by all oilds the most characteristic part of the Atharva- 
Voila. and this is tacitly admitted by the translators of selected hymns 
(see [\ evii), their selections being taken in largest measure (cf. p. 281) 
from this ilivision In the secoiul jdace, the books of this division are 
sharplv distinguishetl from tlu»se of the others by the basis of their inter- 
nal anangeinent. which basis is in part that of a clearly demonstrable 
verse-noim, a norm, that is to say, which, for each separate book, governs 
the number ul veises in the hymns of that bookdj 

[Evidence of fact as to the existence of the verse-norms. — A most per- 
vading impli<.it diNtinction is made by the Major Anukramani between 
this di\i>ion and the ne\t in its actual metho«l of giving or intimating 
the length ot the InmiiN In division II , on the ()ne hand, the number 
ut \err>es is stated expressly and sepaialel) lor every hymn In division 
I . on tlie other hand, the treatise merely intimates by its silence that the 
number tor any given hymn conforms to the norm assumed bir that book, 
anil tile number i> expressly stated only when it constitutes a departure 
from that norm. I Iuin tor the 14’ hvinn^ of book vi , an express state- 
ment as to the length is made only tor the hymns f given at p 2S1, 
lines 17 iS) which exceed the norm id three • -For convenience of 
reterence, the norms m ly here be tabulated: 

V V.l I U M O \ 

\' r'n- I ; 1 5 

[Express testimony of both Anukramanis as to the verse-norms. — The 
M I’.or Anukr. (at the beginning oi its treatment of book 11. : see p. 142) 
e\jire»!y states that the normal number of verses for a hymn of book i 
u tour, an 1 that the norm increases by one for e.ach successive book of 
the tir-.t hve books: /.vk iiU:in\api\ikttir i/y tram uttarottara- 

kthoLyt s yaiiiii tktUkthiaila i:U\ I ban this, nothing could be 

more tleir -r ' xpln it Again, at the l)eginning of its treatment of book 
Ml., It >a\ s that in this b«»ok it In to he understood that six verses arc 
the norm, md that any other number is a departure therefrom: n/w 

1 ['IK it liok. i .u .ir»- 'l.stirrf! r* • as a vpar.ity uiuty Ny the Xlajoi Anukr appean 

aNn fr -in Cu- t j- t f-n r.*:»it v\ri>n.» hIuiIj its first fisc /<iAr/.rr On sshu h IhioUh i -sn- 
are tr*' lOil;, -p I il M* s'l’i.:’ vr * osi s .ir*- proniHcl m » pa'.'.aK'’ al the lifj;iniiinK of the *ixth. 
The fii t was iv-t'il h'j \\C* r, l'rfz,i vol ii , p 79; ami the pasianc piiiUrtl by him 

on p Sr J 

■‘‘ [ \t i I, ami .It \ ) iml 10 (fhrsc two arc promc pn*tcH|, the treatise the ntiinber 

whi-n it IS normal I hi-. i> m t unnatural at 1. I, the In-Winning; and i'on»id« ring the prevailing 
departure from the norm in !<•»., k v . it i» not surprising there. On the other hand, the onila* 
bi«jna at i« 3O and vi 121 arc probably by inadvertence. J 

la Extent and Struct,, re of i/,e Athar-oa-Vfda SaM,ila cxiiv 

fadreaprakrtir anyii vikrtir it, viitiuiv.u Af tu u 

it has a remark of like purport • ialL , i - of book iv. 

prakrtir (so Ix,ndon ms. ' cf f ' 

Moreover, it defines book vi. as the tnasfdllkT^i' ' ‘!T’ 
and adds to the definition the w.,i,ls A//;-,/' "I!'!/. 1 '’ 

Lin the 79 J 

Lr MaT; 

citation at p.45). and boojufm 

Cf also the statements of the next paia^iaph as to book vii 1 

LOne verse is the norm for book vii. _ i he abs. n. e of anv book in xxhich 
two.versed hymns are the norm, and the fre,„en,y of tu;.versed hym"s 
in book vii., mi-ht us to think th.l both one-veised and txvo-vtrsed 
hymns are to be regarded as normal for book xn o-f n ,.S8 Ime , 1 1 
but this is not the .ct hue e, „f the same pi.-e, The Major Anukr’ 
speaks of book vn. as • the bo..k o, one.v..r.ed hx nm.; Aon.nnk,ak,„.i.,„. • 
and Its testimony is lonlmn, d bx the t »!d .\niiki , as cite.i bv .si*l*. on 
p. 18 of Im Ciiti.-.d .Vet,.,, xxln.h S.ys, -amone the one-verJed hxmns 
,1 e in book VII ; the .ox,/, ..le or omsist ; .,f bxmns m.eie 01 one verse,’ 
rk sukf,, yi I- UI ther . ..nliim ilion o| tlie x icw th it onemot one or txvo) 

IS the true norm for liook xii is found in the f ict that the Anukr is silent 
as to the length of tin hy.nns of „ne vcise (ef j. cxlxni.. but makes the 
e.xpres.s statement ,/;.i for . >. h of th.e tlmtx > hxmns of txvo verses J 

[Arrangement of books i. vii. xvith reference to verse-norms If we 

examirto table i (|i, cxlivi, in xvbieh these books ate set m the ascending 
numerical iudet of their veise norms, several f.uts become clear. It is 
apparent, in the fust ]il.ux-, timt this dixisii.n is maile u|) of those sex'en 
books in which the numlier nomi.i! or pievalent — of verses to a hymn 
runs from one to eight . secondlx. that the itself begins xxith the 

norm of four, and, thirdly, tne nucibei txvi> .is ,a norm is missing 
from the seiics. Fourthly, it is index. 1 .ippareiit that every book slioxvs 
xicparturcs from its norm ; but .ilsii — is m.ue in this con- 
nection — that these xlep.iituix-s ,iie all on one .sixie, that of e.xcess, and 
never on that of deticienx y J 

' L*ri»w i« the Irue iium'ipr T!i.’ n'lm! fr j.*. eixx*n .it p . xltv is t li !.' i. ir-ts on the ax 
hymnslivtcioni of the Berlin l.’xi • 'n a. . .»ini .•( th- or.' ui. i. ih. i max here be 
nameil: i, 6.1-2, 6. j-4. 15. iS. 4- | | j.-, 5, _• Muh 55 i. x'-xS. t.i, 04, 

-5S. (ii, 1.4, 

1-2, 72. 1-2, 75, 76.5 (<, 7,S, lo.s, 112 II I. III. I Ih.-J .11.. xeiv x-.'i.x. till mix shown 111 the 
IsMe, p. 1021 ) Note on llie oihx‘i h ir. ! i!j.» sil. r,. of the .Xntj'st .is i.x I'lir |;, 54 i, (.S 4, 
•nxl 72.3. Ill aitenre means llui om 1; 1 isen. I'riskanial .in.l 1: 2 (\ihaix.iii| ami 54 1 
(Brahman) form Ihrce one-vxTse.l hxmns, ,i f i*t win. h is !„.ine mil by ih.' asxnpti.nis of .juasi- 
authonhlp ; and that 6S. 3 ami ; 2 ; fxtiin {Ht> 11101c J 

cl General Introduction^ Part II: iu part by Whitney 

|_We may here digress to add that, if wc compare table i with those 
following, it appears, fifthly, that in book vii. arc put all the hymns of 
the three grand divisions that contain only l or 2 verses ; sixthly, that 
neither in this division, nor yet in the other two, nor even in book xix., 
is there a hymn of 19 verses, nor yet one of 20.‘ From table i, again, it^ 
appears, seventhly, that this division contains a hymn or hymns of every 
number of verses from 4 verses to iS verses (mostly in books i.-v.) and 
from I verse to 3 verses (exclusively in books vi. and vii.).J 

[Excursus on hymn xix. 23, Homage to parts of the Atharva-Veda. — 
It is worth whde at this point to recall to the reader’s mind this remark- 
able hymn in its bearing upon some of the questions as to the structure 
of our text : see pages 931 4, and especially of p. 931. As our sain- 
hitd begins with four-versed hymns, so does xix. 23 begin with homage 
“to them of four verses " (p. 931, line 29), and not with homage •' to them 
of one verse.” Again, grouping all hymns of four verses or more in this 
division according to length, there are 15 groups, (not in the least con- 
terminous with books) each containing a hymn or hymns of every num- 
ber of verses from 4 to itS, ami to these 15 groups the first 15 verses of 
xix. 23 correspond (p *>31, line 27^ Again, of the fact that books i -xviii. 
contain not one hymn of 19 verses ni>r yet one of 20, account seems to 
be taken in that the form of verses 16 and 17 differs from that of the 
15 preceding (p 931, line 37). Again, as in our series the norm two is 
lacking, so also is lacking in xix. 23 a dw hthhyan sid/ui (but cf. p. 931, 
line 28, with p. 933. line 2). Finally the verses of homage “to them of 
three verses” and “to them of one verse” (xix 23 19 20) stand in the 
same order relative to each other and to the verses of homage to the 15 
groups as do books vi. and vii. to each other and to the books containing 
the hvrnns of more than three verses, namely books i v. — Cf. further 
pages clvii and clix.J 

[We now return to the arrangement of the b&>k8 within the diviaioo by 
norms. — Ihe norms of books i.-vii. respectively, as the books stand in 
our text, are 4. 5, 6, 7, S, 3. i From this point of view, the books fall 
into two groups : group X contains books i, v , and its norms make a sim- 
ple continuous ascmding numerical sc.ale beginning with four (4, 5, 7, 8); 

group V contains books vi ami vii , and its norms make a broken descend- 
ing m .ile beginiiing with three (j, 1). Here several questions 
arise as to .;roup V: fii^t, why i.s its scale inverted, that is, why docs not 
book vii. precefie book \i ^ second, why does not giouj) \ (and in the 
rev'er ed order, vii , vi ) precede gioiif) X, so as to m.ike the whole seridb 
begin, as is natural, with one inste.ul of four, .ind run on in the text as 
it docs in the labh; at p. cxiiv ^ aiifl, third, why is the scale broken, that 
* [In tl.*-- Kuni.ij..4kliil I lliiac ar** iwo h>mni <4 :o J 

lO. Extent and Structure of the Atharva-Veda Samhita cli 

is, why have not the diaskeuasts made ei;^ht hooks of the first division, 
including not only one for the one-versed hymns, but also another for 
the two-versed ?J 

LWith reference to the last qin stion, it is clear that the amount of 
jnatcrial composing the two-versed h\mns (30 hymns with only 60 verses : 
seep, cxlix.nole) is much loo small to make a book re.ison.ihly commensurate 
with the hooks «)f the fiisl division; it is therefore natuial that the 
original groupings of the text-makers should inclu<le no book with the 
norm of two.J 

LExc^tional character of book vii. -The first two questions, concern- 
ing group V or hooks \i and \ii , are closely 1 elated, inasmuch as they ^ 
both ask or involve the <jiiesti«>n why hor)k \n does not precede book vi. 

Hy way of partial and |)r<j\ i'^innal aiiswtr to the second, il is natural to 
suggest that perhaps the s» 1 tpji\ tha!a<'ter of tlie one-versed and two- 
versed hymns inilitale<l against beginning the Ve<lic text with book vii. 
And indeed this \iewib not without imiiioet suppoit fiom Hindu tradition : 
for according to the \ni tin* Iltuall^t.s hohl that a hymn, 

in order to be ralcfl as a g<‘nuinc h\mn, nui'^t hive at least three verses, 
treadhamam yanliktiJi suKtam iilrilf It m ly wc II be, therefore, that the 
diiiskeiiiists did in)t u gai<i the^e ])its of one or two verses as real hymns, 
as in fact they have excludeil th<-m rigorously from all the books i.~vi. 
From this point of \itw our groups X and \ ha\ • no significance except 
for the inomenlaiy convenience of tin* tiistusvion, an*! the true grouping 
of books i vii should be into the lw<i gnriip*'. A, eontiUning books i.— \ i , 
and H. containing book \ n J 

exceptional chata< tei <»i book vii is home out by sev'eral other 
consi'lcralions to which rcfeieiue is meie below. Its j.lace in the sam- 
hita is not that which we s},ould expert, wlielhcr wc ludge by the fact 
that its norm is one vcise or iw the .imounl of its text (j) txliii). If 
we consider the nuinher of ils hvmns that are ignored by Kainjika 
(sec pp. loil -’)• again vve fimi it holds a vi-ry cxieptional place in 
division I. Many of its hvmns have a put-i.>gcthcr h»ok, as is slated at 
p. cliv ; and this slalcmenl is cimtirmcd by then tiealment in the Paip- 
palada recension (p. 1014. I 'S»- 

its grand div'isi<>n in the Vulij.Uo, ‘•■1 they .ippcar loi the mo!.t part in t le 
very last book of the raippal.iJa lef p loi.t. en.’.i A'! compared with the 
great mass of liooks i. -m . some of its lumns ivu ‘"t tnstanee) arc 
(|uitc out of place antoitj; their fellows J 

« I Fo, Ihe prnduclions .4 . 1 . lomn..! om- h.».;iv .... ... ..• a, 

fo,,.m,mb«rin*. A .-..vcrv.l f... a -..Ur.on 

aidenuian* m«y have had ».il. il..- a... ..nt ivM makvr. J 

clii General Iniroduction^ Part IL: in part by Whitney 

[Book vii. a book of after-gleanings supplementing books i.-vi. — It is 

very easy to imagine group A, or books i.-vi., as constituting the original 
nucleus ^ of the samhita (p. cxlviii, top), anil group H, or book vii., as being 
an ancient supplement to that nucleus, just as book xix. is uiujuestionably 
a later supplement to the larger collection of the three grand divisions 
(ct. p. Si)y). This view does not imply the verses of book vii. arc 
one whit less ancient or less genuinely popular than those of books i.-vi., 
but merely that, as they appear in their collected form, they have the 
aspect of being after-gleanings, relatively to books i.-vi. This view 
accords well with the e.xceptional character of book vii. as otherwise 
established and as just set forth (p cli).J 

[Arrangement of books with reference to amount of text. — If these con- 
sideratiyns may be deemed a sudicienl answer to the first two ({uestions 
so far as they relate to book vu., there remains only that part of the 
second question whith relates to book vi. One does not reailily see why 
the SiimhUit might not ha\e opened with book \i , the book of the varied 
and interesting three-versed hymns, so that the* norms woultl have run in 
the order 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, S (i); and, since thi'* is not the case, it may be 
that some other principle is to be sought as a co-determinant of the 
order of arrangement J 

Llf we consult the table on p. cxliii, we .sec that, in divisum I , the 
scale of numbers of printed pages of text in each book (13, 16, 20, 27, 2S, 
40, 27) IS a continuously a.scendmg one for each book except the last 
(book VII ) The like is true if we bise our cornpari.son on the more pre- 
cise scale \erse-tot.ds for each book > 15 207, 230, 324, 376, 454, 280;, 

as giv\n at the foot of table l, p. cxliv.J 

L riiese f lets, in the first pi ice, strongly corroborate our view .is to the 
e\c« ptionil character of book vii Hy the principle of norms, it should 
stan<l at the beginning of the division ; by the principle of amount (judged 
by ve^se•totaIs^ it should starul between books iii. and iv. That it does 
neither is hard to e\j)lain save on the assumption of its posteriority as a 
collection In the .secon<l place, these fai ts suggest at the same time the 
reason for the po-iition of book vi. in the division, namely, that it is placed 
after book^ 1 -v because it is longer than any of those books.] 

[R^um£ of conclusions as to the arrangement of books i.- vii. — Hook vii., 
as a supplement r)f after-gleanings, is placed at the end of the grand 
division, without regird to amount of text or to verse-norm. Books i.-vi. 
arc arranged primarily according to the amount of text,* in an ascending 
scale For them the element of verse-n(*rms, also in an ascending scale, 

* [If aNkr^rl to (IiM nininate the of that nucleus, [ nhntihJ put liooks vi. and 1. 

anti li first (cf p lini, **0. at all event-, tKxik v mands in marked coniraaC with thoie tliree.J 
[Whether this amount is judged by verse totals or by pages, the order ia the same.J 

la Extent and Structure of the Atharva-Veda SaMnta cliii 

appear, a, a secondary determinant. It conflicts with the primary deter- 
tnin&nt in only one cqsc ^ th'it #if k# i ^ 

n;7 ^ 

*T ““ are most 

On th*- other hand the cases of conformity to the norm arc most numer- 

For hoo^°"* '■ i of the hymns in each book. 

b ok.s II.. i\ ., VII., and in. respectively, the aiii.roximate viil-ar fraction 
of ca.scs o conformity is i., i. 

order of closeness of conformity to the verse-norm. tlie more precise frac- 
tion IS as MIows ■ tor book M . it IS .^5 . , for 1 . it is kjr ; for ,1 , ,t is Xn ■ 

-tr r " ■' •" . 's 4:;. and for v. it, i.s 06 ] 

LCntical significance of those departures.-- From the fore-oin- 

graph It appears the or.ler of books arian^ed by them dej^rec of 
conformity (vi , 1. n k a-iecs uith tiieir oi.ier as arran-cd hv their 
versc-norms (,. 5,. for the book, of shoit.r hvmns. This i's as it 

should be; for if the di-tinctioii of popul.r and hieratic hymns is to be 
made for this division, the bin test uouh: doubtless fall into the prior 
clas.s, the class less liable to evpai'sion b\ sccondaiy addition. J 

We are not without iinpoitant iiidic.itions - the h)mns may h.ive 
been more or less t.iinpcrcd with smee tlu-ir colic tion and arrangement, 
so as now to .show .1 gi,..itc'i mimbei of seises originally belonged to 
them. Hills some huuns hue bc<-n e.vjunded by tormuli/cd varl.itions 
of some of their seises, and others by the separ’.aion of a single verse 
into moic thin one, with the .iddition of a leirain [Vet others have 
suffered exp.inston by dow*nii..,*it interpol.itions or by additions at the 
end; while some of abiiorm.d length ni.iy upiesent the juxtaposition of 
two unrelated jiieces j 

Illustrative examples of critical reduction to the norm. — [The instances 
that follow shoiilcl be t.akcii meiclv as illiisti.itioiis I'o cliscaiss the* cases 
systematically and thoroughly would iec|uiie a careful study of every 
C>tsu of excess with lefeiencc* to the stiucture c.| the hymn concerned 
and to its form and e.Meiit in the p.ii.dlel te.xts, - - in .short, a special 
invest igation.*J 

* [Thai the two orrlc-i<, tsiscc! on l!ic c‘nc .mil cl.c cli tc rmin.cnt. sl.oulil .sijrvr ihmughout 
liooka i.-v. U nc» doubt |Mrtly (oitmtous. b,:t it is nol \try sti.cncc tbs cari.aion in lice num- 
^r of hymns for each tiook (yc, jO, ;i. co. |i) is lonlcncst 10 nciion limits, .ind if, as is prob- 
able, the depart u tee* from the norm cci-ie otit;in.clty fewer .end smaUi.i chan now, the \erse totals 
ivr each book would come nearer lo lieing piccise multiples of those ending nuims. J 

* [Cf. p. 281, 5 a.J 

* LA very greaa part of the dala neiess.iiv the conduct of sikH an inijuiry may be 
found already conveniently aucmbled in this woik in W liiinvy’s critical notes, for, although 

cliv General Introdudion^ Pari II: in pari by IV/iilney 

Thus in i. 3 (sec p. 4), verses 2-5 are merely repetitions of verse 1 (and 
seOvseless repetitions, because only Farjanya, of the deities 'named, could 
with any propriety be called the father of the reed: cf. i. 2. I); while 
verses 7 & 8 have notliini; to do with the refrain and are to be combined 
into one verse : we have then four verses, the norm of the book. 

Once more, in ii. 10 (see p 51), no less evidently, the verse-couples 
2 & 3, 4 & 5, and o iS: 7 are to be severally combined into three single 
versos, with omission the refrain, which belongs only t<) verses l and 8 : 
so that here we have five verses, again the noimal number. 

So, further, in iri. u (see p 141), as it seems clear, 2 & 3, without the 
refrain, make verse 2 ; 4 with the refrain is veise 3 ; and 5 is a senseless 
intrusion ; then, omitting all further repetitions of the refrain, 6 & 7 make 
verse 4; 8 8: o nuike verse 5 ; aiul 10 & 1 1 make verse f>, six being here 
the verse-rmrm. 

In biink vi , a number of hymns which exceed the regular norm are 
tormular and would bear reduction to hymns of three verses’: instances 
are hymns 17, 34, 38, 107, 132. The ca^es are quite numerous in which 
the addetl verse is lacking in one of the parallel texts. Thus in book vi , 
hymns 16, 17. 34, (>3, 83, loS, 121, and 128 (see the critical notes on 
those hymns and cf. p 1014, 1 . apjiear m the IVuppalada text as hymns 
of three verses Ovich.J 

Hesides these, there are not a few others where we may with 
much plausibility assume that the verses in e.xcess are later appendixes 
or interpolations: such are i. 2<). 4 3 , ii 3.6; 32 ; 33. 3ab4cd, 6; iii. 

i ; 7- 8; 21 6, 8 10 (see note under vs. 7) ; 29 7 8; iv 2.8; 16 
*7 3 ; 39 9 *0; vi 16 4; 63 4; 83.4; 122 3. 5; 123 3 4 In book 
\ii , moreover, the put-together chancier of many of the longer hymns i.s 
rea<lily apparent (cf. hymn> 17, 3*8, 30, 3^, 76, 79, and 82 as they appear 
in the table on p. 10211. 

Hut such analyses, even if pushed to an extreme, will not of all 
the cases of an e.xcess in the number of verses of a hymn above the norm 
of the book : thu^ in ifi correspomls to a Rig-Veila hymn of seven verses ; 
iv 30 and 33 »ach to one of eight; anil v. 3 to one of nine. It will be 
neccssaiy to allow that the general principle of airangement Lby verse- 
norms J was not adhered to absolutely without exception. 

[Arrangement of the hymns within any given book of this division. - - In 
continuation of what was slid in general on thi.s topic at p. cxliii, we may 
add the bdlowing The “first” hymn {fun’iim)^ “ i9>r the retention of 
sacred learning,” is of so distinctly prefatory character as to stand of 

scattered through those note-*, th* y may >ct he said to lie ** assemhlcd *' in one work, and 
more “ronvcniently " .han ever before The investigation U likely to yield retultt of interaaC 
and \a!ue J 

right at the very beginning of the text or r/^tr./^,. i r 
prefixion of the auspicious ^a,h no ,*-’-//• ib'ti ®"‘y by the 

worthy that books ii . iv . v and vii h ^P' "otc- 

that the five kindred hymns’ - Against cncinics - Z "" ' ’ 

ii. .9-.3. as are the seven Mrgarlhyl^nr^ 

,n^ TU u ^ *’.., ‘y. and the rw/jrwMrO'tf couple, vi te 

and 36. The hymns - To fury” make a group in the AV. fiv xZZ'M 
they do in the RV , from which they arc taken. J ~ 

LWd grand division (books viii. xii., : long hymns of miscellaneous sub- 

£des lln 7 r *7 1 'P ‘'‘her things 

besides leng h and .sul.ject uh.J, m.irk this .hv.s.on as a minor collection 

. / r h"l"' 7 ‘T" ■ "ot ''crve here, as in division 

* ? ‘ ••rrangenient, the norms assumed by the Paflea- 

nr h! ^P- -'“‘"'be, pu.pose an.l of small .significance; 
and the reader m.ay be rcm.nded of the f.Kt ,,, c.x.xxu, that the grouping 
of xerses into <Iec.i.Is runs through this division. It is a note 
worthy fact, moreover, that the of .l.v.sion II appears distinctlv 
to form a collection hy itself n, the IV.i,,paI.-.da recension, being massed 
m books .XVI and xv li 1 he \-u!gate h.M.ks viii -xi are mostly in Paipp. 
XVI. and the \ ulg.ite hook .xii is mostly in P.'npp xvii This is readily 
seen from the table on ji i(')22 J 

LTheir hieratic character: mingled prose passages. — More important 
differential features are tlie folltnvin- In the first place, if it be admitted 
that the first divishm is in very large measuie of popular origin (p. 6xlvii). 
the scomd. as contrast.-d therewith, is palpably of hieratic origin ; witness 
the hymns that acomi|Mny, with tedious j)iolixity, the offering of a goat 
and five rjce*<lishes (ix ;» oi ot a low and a hundred rice-dishes (x. 9) ; 
the exlollation of the ://.;/ (\m o*, ..f the cow (\ lo). of the ricc-dish and 
the /»rth/<i and the \'o<lic stu-leiU (\i ; 5) and the licc/irsfa (xi p) , the 
hymn about the cow as Indonging exclusively to the I^rahrnans (xii. 4) ; 
the prevalence of •• mystic ’’ in mns fcf vm o ; ix. 10 . \ 7- S ; \i. S) ; the 
prie.stly riddles or btahmoj) ja (»,l \ j, especially \ciscs ?o- J5), and the 
taking over of long iontininuis passages from the Rig-X'ciia, as at ix. 9 -10 
In no less striking contiasi di\ision I.. in the second place, is the 

presence, in every book of ilivisnm II, of an e\t»‘nsivo passage of prose 
(viii. 10, i.\*. fj, 7 ; \ ^ , \j ^ ; \ji 5> I Ills pio^o is in stjle ami content 
much like that of tlu*, and is m.idi up id what are called (.Svive 
in the case of x. 5) ‘periods' 01 /‘//» • s.-c p.igcs c\\\iii and 472. It is 
evident that we arc here in a sphere ot thought dccit'edly dilTcrcnt from 
that of division I.J 

clvi General In I ratine lion. Pari //.; in part by Whitney ' 

[^Table oi verse-totals for the hymns of division II. — The following 
tabic may be worth the space it takes» as giving perhaps a better idea of 
the make-up of the division than does tl)e table on p. cxliv. Opposite 
each of the five prose /#/nifjvf-hymns is put a r, and opposite the hymn 
x. 5 (partly prose) is put a p Disregarding the hymns thus marked, the 
verse-numbers are confined, for books viii.-xi., within the range of varia- 
tion from 21 to 44, and from 53 to 63 for book xii. 


m ti!i 


in 1 

in !■ 

III «ii 

I has 








.* > 







56 p 







S 3 



3 '^ 

50 I» 


73 ** 



02 P 

3 ' 

‘ 5 



20 P 










2 2 




33 »■ 

2 S 


' -7 

General make>up of the material of this division. — Whereas division I. 
contains a hymn or hymns of every number of verses from one to eighteen 
and none of more, division 11. consists wholly of hymns of more than" 
twenty verses, and contains all the hymns of that length occurring in 
btioks i xviii. except .such as belong of right (that is, by virtue of their 
subject) to the third division.* The forty-five hvmns of this division have 
been grouped into books with very evident reference to length and num- 
ber, as shown by the table just given : the five longest have been put 
together to form the last or twelfth book, while each of the four preced- 
ing books contains an even tjuarler of the preceding forty or ten 
hymns. Disrcgirding ix 6 ami vi. 3 hymns), books viii. xi con- 

tain all the h\mns of from 21 -50 verses to !)«• found in the first two grand 
tlivisions, and book xii. contains all of more than 50 in the .same divisions. 
Anything more definite than this can hanlly be saiil respecting the arrange- 
ment of the several books within the socj)nd division. From the tables 
it appears that n«i such reference to the length of the hymns has been 
had in division II as wis h ui in divi«>ion I None of the books viii.-xii. 
i.s without one of the longer, formiilar, and mainly non-metrical pieces 
(markc<l with v or [i in the t djle above) ; and this fact may point to an 
inclination on the part <>f the text-makers to scatter those prose portions 
as much as possibb* among the poetical ones 

^ Ls*.*e ihf r.iMrs. (xli-. < tU - Uook cont4in<f two hymn*, montly pro»c. of which 

tho siil>(Jni«>ion$ niimbf^r 21 aivl 30 p cxhii), and among the KuntSpa-hymn> are three of 
20 mi;re \erHci J • 

lO. Extent and Struct urc of the Athan^a-Veda Samhitd clvii 

(.Order of books within the division : negative or insignificant conclusions. 
— If we consider, first, thr am.iunt of tcKt in pages i for each book, 
namely 22, 21, 271 25, 22, the senes appears to li.ive n<j connection with 
the order of the books; on the conti iry, the Ixioks are. on the whole, 
remarkable for their apptoxiniai.* . cpi dny of length 'I he case is similar^ 
secondly, with the hymn toial^ of the JiMinbay edition, 15, 15, 10, 12, an<! 

1 1. Ihirdly, the verse-totals lot * a( ii ot ihe five bo jks, aecorrling to the 
numeration of the. Heilin edition, are 25^. 302, 350, 313, and 304 (^ee 
above, p. c\li\), a secpiein e in whu n wi laii trvice* no orderly jirogression. 
On the other«l, fomthly. il wi* t dv.- the v. rse-totals of the liombay 
edition, to wit, 293* 3 ^ '• ^ 5 ''* ‘^ud that the first four 

books, viii --xi , are irnhed an. in^ed, like b'lnk*, 1 \i /p. fhi), «in a con- 
tinuously asceinling aiithinetn tl ale Fni t herniore an/l fillhl), if, for 
the verse-totals of e.uh of the ti\e ImiuK'*, we make tlie ^ver\ easy; substi- 
tution of the aver.ige V( ise i(j; ds, di h\mns <'t ea* h ho()k, we obtain 
again a series, to wit, 20 .35 • , ami '*'> . wlnc’n ]irf;:;rcsses con- 

st.mllv in one diie^tinn, n im. lx upw *:.i, .iii-i tleou^h all tlie fne books J 
Arrangement of the hymns within any given book of this division. — 
LTrom the table on p civi it w .old aj.;oeii that tm indiM baal h)mnsare 
not dispose<l within the book with an\ i» ft r« ja <* to iLii^th It inav, how- 
ever, be by <lesi ;n lathei than i* ^ i‘li nt that tin* Judy liyrnn with the small- 
est number o( \ms> s m this t!r. isimi m put at tin n L^inmn^. ami that the 
longest IS put last ] The ai'iiutimi.t in this dni'^ion. liki* that in the 
fust, shows no si^ns o! a s\stiriata' uleience to the '•ub’ects treated of, 
although (as in •livisinn I * p v\. loji., m moH- t’ m one instaiKe, two 
hymns of kindred ^ h iia< ter are pi u( d togi tini thus \in i 2 ; 361:4; 
9 65 : 10 ; i\ 4 5 , o 65 : in . \ 7 S , o le* , m o c 5 : io . mi 4 65 : 5 

(.Possible reference to this division in hymn xix. 23. - Such leference, 
I suspect, must h<* sought in veisi- iS. it an\ where, im! in the two worils 
mahatki\Hiiti\a ‘to the dnision cd gieat [hxmus]. haii ! ’ See 

P- 03 *» ?. 7 » diid the mdx to \s iS ] 

(.Postscript. - Such w is mv vii*w wiien writing the introduction to 
xix 23. ICven then, however. I st.iled <p 032. hue i ?• that verses 21 and 
22 were not .iccounlcd for. Meantime, a new ohserx.i’^ion boars upon 
vs. 2I.J 

(.Immediately after the passage refeire«l to at p cxlMii, foot-note, the 
Major Anukr., at the beginning of its treatment <»t book vni , proceeds : 
•Now arc set forth the seers and divinities ami meters of the mantras of 

> |.A» printrd in tlir Hcilin dniun (m‘c al»oxo. p t xlni) Fr- m .i ms wrillcn m a hand 

of uniform aiie. I might olitain ililYeicni ami nirrrprt^uMi' il.ita J 

« (.Thta series differs frxim ihc norlin se,p,en. c l>v a plu^ vi 34 aiul 1 1 ami 5 » m the tirst ami 
second and fourth members respe-t tucly p » \xx\ii. ami »f 5 *^’- 5 »''- J 

clviii General Introduction^ Part //. ; in part by Whitney 

the sense-hymns of the ksudra kiutdas (? or ’ktinda ?). To the end of the 
eleventh kattda^ the sense-hymn is the norm.’ etc. atha ksndra-kandd* 
' rdtiisn kill-man tranant rsi-diUvata-chanddnsY ncYante. into yiivad ekilda^a- 
kiinda- fiiam ari/ia^nkiii/*faktits iavad i ikaya fanaviin virad 7 ui (viii. lo) 
puiilDtin til etc. What pertinence the wonl ky'tiini may have as applied 
lo hooks Mii \i I cannot divine; but it can haidly be an accident that 
the vt'r\ same word is used in tlie phrase (d* homage to parts of the AV. 
at \i\ 2 2 h and 21. kA/tt/fcr/iVaa sraka, anil that this»|>hrasc is followed 
in h. 22 and in the comm’s le\t of li 2^ by the wimh parjuiyikeb/tjah 
s:aaii, that is, hv an alluMon to the just .is in the tc.Kt of the 

Aniiki. .\patt fu>m \ss K'l-iS of \i\‘ 2> vss i 20 refer most clearly to 
the hist j^rand division ; and vss. 23 2S reter iiist as clearly to the third. 
The allusum in the sccmul ouL;ht therefoic ciitainly to come in between 
\s 20 and vs. 23, tint is it ou.;ht to be fniind in vss 21 and 22. We have 
just •;i\on reason for suppo^in*; that Vi, 21 ».ontains the expected allusion. 
The meaning of t kanntT/tyak of vs 22 is as obscure as is the pertinence 
of ksudfMwi/t ; probably ekann'tk'tiit/i is a corrupt re.ulin^ If I am 
ri^.;ht as to v.s. 21, the mystery of \s iS becomes only dee[)er.J 

Third grand division (books xiii. xviii.) : books characterized by unity of 
subject. — The remainiiv.; six books constitute e.ith a whole by itsell and 
appear to hive been on that actount kept undivided by the arrangers 
and placed in a body t«»,:;ether at the end of the collection. The books 
in which the unity of subjei t i> most clearly apparent are xiv (the wed- 
ding versosh xnii (the funeral verses), and \v. (extollation of the V'ratya). 
LThe unity rjf books \iii. and x\ii . although less .striking, is yet sufHcienlly 
cviiient, the one cniisisUng of h\mns to tiie .Sun as The Ruddy One or 
Rohita, and the other bt mg a pia)er to the Sun as nlcnliheil with Indra 
and witii \'i-.hiui In book .\\i,thc unity of subject is not apparent,* 
althoug'n it s<rms to consist in large* me.isure (see p 7*12) of “l*rayers^ 
ag. mist the t rior by night ”J Hook \vi is in>t so long that wx* might 
not h ive th<ui'gnt it pt»s-,ii»Ie tint it sh'»uld be in* hide*! as a /^tnyaya-sukfa 
in o4e of the jionks of the s»** oiid liiMsion , ami b*)«)k xvii , too, is so 
brief tl) it It mi^iit wi!'. eimiigh hive been .1 hymn in a book. 

Lllindu tra iition .»s-,igps .it !« .'-t foui of the books of this division each 
to a single* s,-4-r ; the wimie nutter is more fully set forth at p. 1038. 
II*)wever rn i‘di or little v.i’ue we nriy attach to llu\se ascriptions of 

* Lin 'f ’h- 1 - f I [.ui *f ho inry m.itlrr, Whiincy <4\!i ; t*ntil WO 

UikI* isf i..'l rio* . i: i. f' r . f U •• i.rMti'-n.'-s m i -inrws Ui»n with whnh t»oc»k xvi. iiHfcl. it 
Fiia) ii'C • i,. Ill i!- i«i\.r a jmu. i! ir ••irmnnili in it \\ ilh ii-fcrcno! to that remark, 1 
I .iv at j. 7 I h»' nt> ly « I il » r;» ..ii .ippiw Ation^ of tin* Ixiok distinctly fails, in mjr 
<»j mi'in, t . r» m*iI .inv jn-rx.i'Inj.; 1 iri. iittuo nf puifi'xc tir cif u.hc J 

• Ll''-r^iAI*s U'iiiig a Pan if on, w»* luaj df lj<iok xvi. an .i Paritta J 

lO. Extent and Structure of the A tharva^Veda Sainhild clix 

quasi-authorship, they .ire c<*itaiiily of srjnie significance as a clear mark 
of differentiation l)ct\vcen this tiivision and the other two.J 

[^Division III. represented in PSippal^da by a single book, book xviii. — 
An item of evidence inip«> in its relation to the Vulgate division HI. 
as a separate unity is .ilfoided l>y the treatment of that division in the 
Kashmirian recension : tin- X'ulgate hool s \iii.- win .namely, are all grouped 
by the makers of the Paij.p ilida t. \t into a single book, book xviii, and 
appear there cither in ixitnso or ( Nc Ijy representative citations. The 
relations of thq^Vulgite division the lVnj»p book are set forth in detail 
at p. 1014, which .se e | 

|_Names of these books as given by hymn xix. 23. — It is a most signifi- 
cant fact, and one entmly in baimon) with tlie classification of books 
xiii.-xviii. on the basis of unit; or Mib:Lv.t, that tin y should l>e mentioned 
in hymn xix. hv .ippi'n 1,, in- rcLogm/ed names. It is 

therefore heie piopi i to it bees/ tiios** nimcs as gi\t.n in verses 23-28 
of the hymn (see p.ig’ s 5 , .uni 0^31. Thc\ are: for book xiii , 

* the rndtly tuu*s,’ plural; toi xiv , 'the two .Siiryas,’ sf/ntU 

bh}t}fn, or tlie two juw.vruw' ot the b-*.,k beginning with tin* hymn of 
Siiryfi's wedding, foi x\ , • the two nn: /C'/s .ibout the ifti/Viii 
bhydm (accent';; foi x\i. ‘tlie two </;/;/:•</(./ s ] of IVaiapali,‘/;v//d/<//r(/‘ 
bhYxim : for XMi , ‘the \'’ singuiir, ami for win, 'the auspicious 
ones,* < u] hemi-m f .? ti.e in.iuspieious funeral \LTses J 

(.Order of books within the division. Tue wr^c-iotals for the books 
are, by the Ilcilin numeration, iSS. i i4i.i>3. 50, aiul 2S3, and, by the 
Homhay numeration. iSS, 130, 22'a, 103, >0, and 2.'53 ,abt)ve. p. cxxwii). 
But for the <listurbiiig in(luenet‘ of the numer«)us brief /* ?/ luju-verses of 
bt»ok XV, upon the thud number of these seiies, they woiiM both coincide 
in their general iispe^t with the ‘series b.ised on the arnount of text in 
pages of the Berlin edition, nameU", i t. 12, 10, 5, 3* 21 (as given 

alxivc, p. cxliii). l*'rom the last series, it appeals that these books, except 
the last, arc arranged in a »leseending s.mjc of length, therein dilfering 
from divisions I aiui II in which the s(\ue was an ascending one In 
all three divisions, the (in il b<*i»k is .ui exv-eptional one in the fiist,-it is 
a scanty lot of alter gleanings ; m the secoiul, il cniuams the hve hmgest 
hymns, each about twice as \nn^ as the aveiage of the tnur books preced- 
ing; and in the thiid. again, it c«mtains \eiv hmg b\mns. which arc, 
moreover, an extensive and ivciiiiar collection of \erse>.. unitied indeed 
(like those of honk xiv 1 in l.u^e measuie by the ritual imes to which they 
arc put, but on the whole iinUi‘ dideienl in otigin and characK'r fiom 
most of the rest 'seo the mtioductions t«> the h\mn> 'd bi^^k xviii ) J 

LTable of vcrsc-totals for the hymns of division III. — 1 he following 
table is made like, that mi p c]\i. and may gno a better idea of the 

clx Cii Hcrai IntrotUntion. Part II.: in part by Whitney 

make-up of the division than does the one on p. cxlv. That seems to me 
wronj;, because it follows the Heilin edition in treitinj; the i8 individual 
par\a\n< of book xv. and the o ^‘f book \vi. each as one hymn (see 
p cwwi). and in haMni; to reco^^ni/e accordin;^!)' hymns 3 verses, of 
4 aiu! 5 and m» on. in this division. We certainly must reco‘;ni2e some 
laiu;er unity than the in books xv and \vi. ; and, whether that 
iinit\ be the book or the in either case we avoid the necessity 

of rcci'-;ni/in-; any h\mns with a verse-tot d ol less than 20 in this division 
(see table 3, secoml foirn, p cxlv). A>.Mimin^ xv^ and xvi. make 

each two 

hv mns, 

the table 

IS as 

fidlows • 

m r.u 

.11 \ • 



i 1 \\ .1 

ill will 



f '4 






7 5 

1)1 1* 

(ii r 


7 J 



5r» r 

i i 


The ‘icale of lumn-totals for oath book is thus 4, 2, 2 » 2 , 1, and 4 ; and it 
then appears that all the books ot th«‘ diviMon except the last are arran;;ed 
a descending" s«.ale. thi‘th!ce book'* i>f two hymns each bein,; arianj;ed 
amon^ themselves on .1 d<.stentlin4 sc de of amount of text J 

[Order of hymns within any given book of this division. As to this, 
que^tlo^s can hanily be raised. . ui, it laj^d, they le'^olve themselves into 
cpiestions in Ljeneial coiuetnin^ the hymn-<liv isions of books xiii -xviiL 
and their value. J 

[The hymn-divisions of books xiii. xviii. and their value. - - In these 
bonks the whole mittor «»f hymn division s« ems to be secorvLuy and of 
little critical value or si^nilicance (cf p txxxi) bhrst, as to lire metri- 
cal bMsiks ixiv . XVIII , Mil , XVII . th It Is, all but the two /»,/;!// ;,?-books xv. 
and \\i > In them, liie hymn'<}iv isiou i>, as in book xii ol divisitm II., 
coiiici-lniu with the divi.^ion. Book xiv is dividfd into two hymns 

by both editions, not without the suppoit of the mss ; but lh»r Major 
Anukr Seems rather to indn ate that the book should not be divd<led (for 
(let Ills, s(*e pi'^es 7>S «)» ■ the hymn-iliv ision is here at .iny r.ilc (picstion- 
able Book xviii, pr«/peily spoaknv^, is not a book of hymns at all, but 
rather .1 bouk *’f vcr-ics [he I’ai'lc.ipabilik.'i savs that these verses are 
‘di-^nnse l’ (.////i"/*. in four anui iktts (see p Si 4, s. and note the word 
ptUtt/i, ma>('ulm‘*; from whu h vve may infer that the ^f/iz/rv/^w-ilivision is 
ot mnsiderable anti.iuily, but the significance ot the coincident hymn- 
(livision is minimi/ed by the fails that a ritual sequence runs over the 
div ision-lme between hymns I and 2 (see p. S14, f), and ji. Sjy, ^ 2) 

and that the division between hymns 3 and 4 ou^ht to come just before 
3 (anri n*;t iust after: see p .S48, 8; Mven with book xill. the 

case is essentially not very dilferent : see the discu.ssionS‘ in l)cusscn*S^ 

ttitti ^iyuciftyc nf fli> ti/ i*- , 

cur. oj (he Atharva-Vcda SamhUa clxi 
Geschichte, i. i. 215-330. Book >vi! , 
the only book of which this is imr - t,' So-,' '■ ? 
phons the mss. apply hoth (l.■si■.n.,tlo„s J, ' | ^olo- 

30 verses (which the mss. TsTu 

LThe /«rjvijvr-bo..ks. books xv «„d xvi r. mam I 
the tables on p:i;res 771 and rtij ,,,1, > t i c ‘ippears from 

.„dwi.h 4 ™, 5 A.., .d.;/ 

tions to those books, I had not vcnonviv ' 1 , ' introflnc- 

of the A„,i™ 7,-0 1, 

above, aeems now to make it,- il,,, .1,, 1 ' P- ‘■wax. 

assumed, as everywhere f,..,,, I..,„k si, -xfnr'io’ be 7 ' t’’’’""-'' 
with the uuuiM. The lifuin- ..f ,h. ct.nterminoiis 

citation is trenr I , " ‘ ^ on the method of 

Citation IS treated at p. c.wwi ihctvt* r iw. fr * r i 

.U ' aitjoxt j Ik- cffcLt of this assumntion 

Cross-references to Explanation of Abbreviations and so forth 

[As such explanations arc often soui^ht at the end of the matter pa^cd 
with Roman numerals (or just before pai^e i of the |)af(es numbered with 
Arabic), it will be well to ,i;ive here cross-references to certain matters 

most frequently sou^^ht for, as follows : 

For cxpUnation <if s<*e xtix t\i 

For t‘\planati<>n •>( aM/r^vuttU ttiltx, -nie . xlix-cxi 

For explanation of arl'itrarv M^nn. see . . . c 

For k»‘j to the ilc'.ij'nations . f I’le iiunux* ripl», xci* « ix iX 

F'or svnopti*. ot the rninusi ript-*, sf** ix cxl 

F'or ilfst riplion of the rnan'is* npt<*, t \l < xvi 

For laMe of tiilo of hymns, »«c Volume VIII , . .io-’4-io37j 


TKANSl.AI iJ> 1 \|<) 1 .\(.LISH 

Ho(>k I. 


Thk first book inadr iij> <»f hymns of 4 verses each, 

and no other j^round of it'' exisit.iue a" a hook needs to be 
souj'ht. It rtintains h li\innv. hut aKo one <3|W>f 5 xer^es, 

two (i I and 29) of h \er‘'i.''. one ‘ 7 i of 7. and one 131 of 9. There 
are conjectural reason" to ])r L;i\en in more tlian one of these 
cases for the exceptional lein^th. llMnns of 4 verses are also 
found in hooks vi. and vii. < 12 in \i.. and i i in \ii.i. aUo 9 in \ix. 
'The whole hook has h( i n tianslalul h\ Weber, liidiH'hc Stmiicn, 
vol. iv. ( 1.S5S), i)ai;es 303 -^31.) 

I. For the retention of sacred learning. 

...• •• * •*- < o ^ .0 '..C.'] 

Tl^c h\mn is touiut tl»< n* ii'-,. • ; i’eji* \ Ms on i’ i er.d ) las the 

lVMtwoX«Ts.s Iiiscall.dr) Kui. s iw i imm ils 'tcoiM nnohI : 

l,utiti> tis,nv.n!.d e*. - M i oc ^ si * as.! ne.Mh quoUd 

li\ Ibal naino. It is um.! in th< i. uinon. loi • i-i . Vou of (/.•, .A-.//./ •.'.///./ ■ 

I). .in(!:n those lor lli- .‘t i \ i*.:* stn.’.iMiii M luitlui. \Mlh N.inous 

either iiassA^vs, in of « on \ 'indx (13*' l-l* •' ‘d 11 is .il 5 .o icftrrcd 
to, ill ;iii oLsiuri- m.iv ('K s n j n 'oa . t..v wlion- \ » *la «*l .1 it is tic 

lH*Kini.iMU), in .1 nuiidu I ol oi!ui nt. s \Mlh i u h,is no .1, paienl t onn».i tion ■ i - 

14 I ; l«. iq. 25. 4: 3 -’ Ti> o iokom -,1 .is WUwj^uvj, to 

And the .omm. [ {• ; o.-! j »,-:o;. s il is used I-n .1 (5 3 ^ 

the pus/iMt^yk^t of .1 kinu I lie \ nt t.ikt s i.o notice ot it 
Translated: Wcher, i\. 3*13: t»iMijth. 1 i 

I. The thrice seven that -o about, heaiiui: all forms kt the lord of 
speech assign to mo today tlieii I'owcis, llheirj "elves yUinu), 

Ppp. read.H Pitryanti in a. .md wa/o.;,M..*/.w/ / //.. tor d MS tomliius 

tfisapt^s in a, and Aiii: d in d I he « oi oui is i>.es. nbed m . 

vilcas p- is quoted under I’l.u ii. 7 t- ^ nr 

i. plainly us«.l ... .h.- .IcKnatum of .an .mlcmto ....... 'C. ■ ^ 

‘tcores.' Suppoilngc/'K/.f •« '“itt»'^> '"'"'•‘■•‘■•I’*”'' ' 



it perhaps refers to the sounds or syllables of which this is made up. If, on Ihc other 
h.-\iul. (as in \i. 41. 1) means ‘sense of heaiinj:,’ the trnapMs may he the healthy 
liearers, old ami \oun^ (so R.). K. prefers to re^jard as gen. sing. : /atiiid 

— 'to me': the comm, does the same; Webei imderstands aecus. pi. Read in ciur 
edition (an accent-sign diopped out under -/<?). 

As an evample of the wisdom of the comm, it may be mentioned that he s|H‘nda 

a full ipiarto page ami more on the explanation of tnsaptils. First, he conjectures 

that It ma\ mean 'three or seven , as the tliree worlds, the three the three 

highest gods . or. the seven seers, the seven planets, the seven troops of Maruts, the 
seven worlds, the stveu meters, or the like. Secomllv. it may mean ‘three sevens,’ as 
seven suns (tor which is cpioted 1 A. i. 7. i ) and seven priests and seven Adityaa 
(lA. i 13.3; K\.i\. 114 3), or seven livers and seven worlds and .seven r|uarters 
(TR. 11 S.3'), or Seven planets and seven seeis and seven Marut-tioo|)s. Thirdly, *it 
may signity sirnplv thrice seven or twentv -one, .is twelve months 4 five seasons + tliiee 
worlds ^ one sun (T.S vii 3 lO'), nr five wir/V./MwA/k t five breaths f five jfltlnm- 
iinvits five kiitmendnyai r one At an\ rate, tluy arc gods, who arc 

to render aul. [_I)ist. us>t<l bv Wliiiiiev, i'titytusK an A‘t7/r, p. J 

2 Come a^ain, lord of speech, together with divine mind; lord of 
good make [it] stay {nt-nwt} \ in mc\ in myself he what i.s heanl. 

Two (»f our mss (H () ) have Ptiniaya in c I’pp lugins with up.i neka^ and has 
a^o^pate m c. which K. prefeis. Itiil Ms i.ither lavors onr text, reailmg, for c. d, 
I'isnpate :/ pamuiA ntiyv tzA /./«:<!«/ m i , and it lugiiiN a with upaphht 'Ihc 
comm, explains ,^tutAtn as up,i iftviiMhi , td/itr* \f/u/APn . and adds 

••bciause. thougli well learncil, it i.s often forgotten " 

3 Just hero stretch thon on, as it were the two tips of the how with 

the bow-string ; let the lord of speech make fast in me, in my- 

self, be what is heard. 

I’pp re.uls, in a. b. fanu ubhey apa/hi With tlio verse is to lie umip.ued KV. x. 

3 I’ i. S2 [>res( ri!v(}» tlic />«/iZ/-reading of APtn: i.a, ami iv. 3 ijiioles abhi 7'/ 
/a//.’/ I IS, apparemtly (a), • Do [for ni»*] some sintchmg [or f.istrning],’ namely, 
of my sacred learning, as als») in c. J 

4 Called on is the lord of speech ; on us let the lord of speech call ; 

may we be united with what is heard , let me not he parted 

with what is heard. 

I’pp, fi.r b ff , upAhu(n*Juim ruA^pAtyu piU/iAit sdwrirna vi 

tthVhui - Indlv dbrrupt For aiititlKsvs with M/r/Z///, see All. ii. 27 ; VS. ii 10 b, 

* * In \ \ (11 7 ! ) IS ,1 .inalognns formul.i for the retention of what is 
hcar<i or slud.rd {adhttA^ \ mf w.i ptA antHti 'd/tlfrn,! 'hunUtAnt sam 

dadhAtnt 1 l.c \riijkr m»li s the metriial irn gularity of the seioml |»ail.i. 

2. Against injury and disease: with a reed. 

lu — ,<in.//Am,i>nn, /.Jr/ iJniiAidhtttn y, jf p. x tuinttAma f;*lyAtfi.'] 

I I’L* h)mn is rot found m the I’.npp, rnx , Init may have been among the contents o( 
the missing first In the f|uotations of the Kaur;. it is not distinguishable from the 
following livmn: but the romrn. is doidiiluss right in regarding it a.s intended at 14. 7, 



- 1 . 3 

where Itf with I 9 ~ 2 l and sundry hjmns, is t allc<l amika or 0 >att]c-h\mn/ 

used in riles for putting' an <*ni-iny lo and u (or \.s. i) is apparently designated 

by ptAihantasyti (as first u£ the MUit^r-umka ii\nins) m 14 12 . where the avoitlanf e 'of 
wounds i)y arrows is aimed at. it is .ilsi> reiko'ied (14 7 , not**) as Helon; 4 in '4 to the 
aparUJita yana ; further, it is usmI, with n. 3 . m .1 litalin*^ ceremfiny (25 ()) for .assua;;- 
ing wounds, etc.; and, after hjnin i has Ik in tinploM'd 1:1 the uprikarman^ it and the 
Other reniainin^j hymns of ihe tinin dha are to ]n: multend (139 ii). 'J he roinm. 
|_p. 16 , topj, once more, <juoles it fi<*iii N.ik^atia [^eiror. foi t^.nili, sa\s TlloomticldJ 
Kalpa 17 , iH, as applied in a mahtt^Anti «,alletl apiirCi)itd 

Translated : Weber, iv. 3^^ * Oninth, i 3 , Jllooinfield, iS. 233 - - Discussed . Hloom- 
field, AJ1\ vii. 467 ff. or J AOS. Aiii. p t xni . 1 loieii/. lUzzenbcryer \ Jitiha^e^ xiv. 1 78 ff. 

. I. VVe know the reed’.s father, I*.irjany.i the much-nourishing; and 
wc know well its mother, the earth (if many aspects. 

lUtimtl is quoted in I’r.'it. iii ifi as the cv.ample lust occunin'^ in the text of a 
lengthened final a. 

2. O bow-string, bend about us , make thyself a stone ; being hard, 
put very far away niggards [and] haters 

A how-string is, hy Kau<; 14 13. one of tin* aiticles used in the ntc With b com- 
pare ii. 13.4 b. Hada d is KV in 5 d • Nig^sard* is t.ikcn as coiuenliunal render- 
ing of The ('«»mm. read^ r ;/;/«, K V -wise 

3 . When the kine, embracing the tree, smg the quivering dexterous 
rbhu) reed, keep away from us, O Indra, the shaft, the missile. 

'lhat IS, apparentl) (a b). * whm the g-ii string on the v.oorlcn l»n\ makes the reed- 

arrow whistle ’ t f I<\‘ M <>:• M C d Tlie i mnm expl as ;//./ bkasitMil/uw ( *), 

and ditivufM as whnh is probably Us sense. ^ Discussed, 

Hcrgaigne, AV/ :#'«/. 1. 27'' n., u. J 

4. As between both heaven and earth stands the bamboo (.> ti^ana), so 
let the reed-stalk (mutlfa) .stand between both the disease and the flux 

The vcTKC seems un.oniuittd >Mlh the rest of the hymn, but to belon- r.ithcr with 
hvmn 3. The lomm glo.ssis hunuj witix -I'tu Ii.r ao.J; u. «f n. 3 ; m. 4-4- - : the 
comm, explains it here b> Mo./.d/.-uia •diimulu (') of urinating* o. • p.imful urina- 
lum’ I ‘diabcle.H,’ rather *' J Hl.>.^mfK*!d undi isi.mds it to me.m ‘MlnirrlKia. and bases 
upon this questionable int. nrret itmn h»s Me« m the meaning of the ivhole hymn, uhich 
he entitles “formula against diairha*.i • 

3. Against obstruction of urine: with a reed. 

Of this hvmn. only vs,. 7 S found m I'.u,.,. (-n x.x >. -.hont ,he .ofr.,,.,. 1 1 « 

doubUe« iniended a. Knoc .0. ns..l .« .. nu- (». n, .u- .io« of o me 
vss. a-9 arc spcciliwl in Jt. « :• 1 1><- " '‘X'' ' '"'I’ln- fmMt.xe orn. «1 .x yi /« . 

MrinJia, tone of tin- of ,he l.oer phjs.c.n. -xxho. 

however, do not rppear to m.>.le (ie<iueiu use ol n H,.r.rii.rne- 

Ciiftih. i 1 : Hioomlield. i ^ t-l. Htrsaigne 

Translated : W eber. 

- Cf. Heriraigne- 

Htnry, Pfanu€t% p. 1 30 . 



i. 3- 

I. We know the reeirs father, Parjanya of hundredfold virility; with 
that will I make weal for thy body ; on the earth [be] thine out- 
pouring, out of thee, with a splash ! 

The Kiiit ptiila is found aliio at TS. iii.3. lo^ ; fill/ ///, attain at xviii. 2. 22. 

j. We know the reed*s father, Mitra of hundredfold virility ; with that 
will etc. etc. 

3. We know the reed’s father, Vanina (»f etc. etc. 

4. We know the reed’s father, the moon of etc. etc. 

5. We know the reed’s father, the sun of etc. etc. 

6. What in thine entrail.s, thy (two) groins (.^^w///J), what in thy 
bladder has llowed together — so be thy urine released, out of thee, with 
a splash ! all of it. 

The comm. m b (wiih two or three of SIMM's ms> , which follow him) satk^ri- 
/itfft. Me cxpl.iins the as "twovessrls (/.'<;•//) hKated in the two sides, 

atYording access to the receptacles of uiine. * 

7. I split up thy urinator, like the weir of a tank — so be thy etc. etc. 

Tlie comm (with the same ms-* as ah«4\e) has in b vartam. Ppp. read.s vrtnitn 
ve^antyA ' yanty ah. L* I pier»c or open up th\ uiethr.i’ — with a metallie catheter, 
sa)s the comm J 

8. Unfastened [be] thy bladder-orifice, like [that] of a water-holding 
sea — so be thy etc etc. 

ppp gives, for b, \amudra\yo'taJhir €' a 

9. As the arnnv dew forth, let loose from the bow -- so be thy etc. etc. 

InsUMd of /ard in a, we should expect p>irA pMat, the equivalent of a 


It is cM-sv to reduce this hvmn to the suhst im r of four vcisi s, the norm of the book, 
bv striking out vsn 2 -5, as pl.iinly sci ond.iry variations oi vs 1, and combining vss. 7~S 
(as in Ppp.) into one verse, with omission of the .sense-disturbing refrain. 

4. To the waters: for blessings. 

— a/ciu/friyJMt, jom itrJm 4 

The hvmn is not found in P.iipp It and the two tiiat next hdlow arc reckoned by 
Kaui;. (0 I, 4j to l>oth m.i]or (brhiit) and minor ; also (7. 14) to 

the apam suJL/itnt or w vter-hvmns, .xpplu-d in v.inous t eremonies ; and by some ( 18. 25, 
notc^ to lh»* sa/i/tt wlm h K.lm;. licgios with hvmn.s 5 and 0. ThcH.imc three afe 

jtjined with others ( i>j i) in a he.iling rite for .si«‘k kine, and (41. 14) in a ceremony for 
good fortune. Again (.’5 2'j), this h)mn is used (with vi. 51) in a remedial rite, and 
(37. 1) in the interpretation oi signs. Hvmns 4 0 further appear in Vait. (16. lo) as 
used in the aponapiny.i lite fit tiic s.icriiicr, and 4. 2 alone with the setting 

down of the "‘tiuith'itt i water in the same sac rifirc. The four verses are RV. i.23, 16-19 ; 
for other correspondi n» es, see under the verses. 

Translated , Wtber, iv. ypi ; Grithth, i. 6. » 

5 m translation and notks. hook I. -i. 5 

1. The mothers jjo on their ways, sisters of them that make sacrifice, 
mixing milk with honey. 

2. They who arc yomlcr al the sun, or together with whom is the sun 
— let them further our sacrifice 

The veruc is found further, wiiliout in Vs (vi 2;e) 

3. The heavenly waters I call fin, where our kinc drink ; to the rivers 
(s/nMn) is to be made oliLition 

LCf. note to X. <) 27, helnw J 

4. Within the waters is ainhro'sia in the waters is remedy; 

and by the praises (/'/(irtn/z , dl the waters ye become vigorous (ut/ui) 
horses, ye become vigorous kine 

1 he scrond h.ilf-\crso is l.tit* oMtitii.i vin, tl\ .iriori’i'm to the nt, whuh for- 
bids t.ikin;: the nouns .is \<Kati\t- >11’ r. kN 1:1 c wii'i all n ss .ind the fireat 
in.ijorily of nuis A/f./r M//h/ (tiui iw.» iJj. -ix >. f t* ao'eni js to he ri'.,^arfl(.d as 

antitliotn a] K\ ;;i\ts/^f \ t / f / .a i ;a! *)i b. aiid imi-N i!,i \ir>e with c. ic^fling //« r-d 
Ma.-viAj :'.}/*ndh, (UJni ttMs !,a'.< tiir \l!^. \s (5\ f,a) is. (i 7 7 ). and MS 

(1. il.i): all I.u k .1 fiiinth j. id • o.dhi;. at ttwl .a b /-/ ./»//»./, l</r c. \’S liasajrJ 

dfiti: titd t'itj/nd/i. Is 1 '*\,t itffd .u.d Ms ,/ * ,/ h:d~dtti djindh 

5. To the waters: for blessings. 

Nd. : , (« ti . ’ 

The fust thrto mis'S w ilunt v iM.eUv. rj m\ TIk whole hymn, with 

tho fust thri c \ ( rst s 111 tl • axil- .i:c. \s jtl'Ovit \ iriaiils, K\ . x. i^. 1-7 

(\s. 5 itt hire pul Irion j o - iir U\ s 2^ - a b c. 21 . tht\ likewise 
OM iir in nilur ttxts ; 1 ; i ■ \ (i 1 ' 11 ''o). \ ^ ^ \i 5 , 52 lI ah). 'IS. 

(iv. I 5‘ <*l aM. Ms (n * .. 1 1 T. ». .t .*! 1 \ (i\ 12 ,ci .d i. wheie with the same 
ti'M Lf*»r otlit r n li n m I s *•- » M'.''.)* i I'J l** ? 4 a »d t''c \ 1 1 scs of o. see under 

the Vtrsi's lI\MiMs ; e ! o t- «i aii 1 I’.led , .•«.»••/. / .. K.idt; u 1 . for their 

use.s in mnm I turn with t 1 ] rn e<!ii'4 ’*\'r. *. see u’'.«Ur that h\mn. Tnali ajjpear also in 
the house-huilding ruem"n\ (j^ i ■• >. ainl this o’u .done in the a/.// or 

'.///-s.u nfn rs ( o 17). while th» sihul add it ( }2. 13 note) to t!i' tiiemoii} on the 
honic-coniini' ol tlic W tin stiid« :.t Ft>i the n'*i m \ au wiui Inmns 4 and (». ste under 4 , 
with fi (.list! under the n.ime ^ ,j > r u o. /; / v ) it a« compinus in the dfjd*:d (10 ii>) 

thf* w. ashing of .irtules tuiphwid . and wuli 11 .ilone. in the d^f . d\.if:d (2S. 1 1). i.s the 
lump of c.irth spiinkletl I he comm, nnallx. ijuotcs th.e liMiin liom Naks. Kalpa 17, 
iS, as u,sfd in a i ailed o’.?//i y 

TranshiU'd : \\cliei. iv 3«/7 , uiumh. 1 : 

1. Since yc arc kiiully watei>, tio \e set us unto lelicshnient (////), 
unto sight of gtc.ii joy. 

2. What is your most jiropitious .savor that make us share 

here, like zealous mothers. 

3. We would satisfy you in onKr to that to the iiossosion of which 
ye Quicken, O waters, and jjcnciato us. 




LM..: y not jttMiivfiM, like Knglish f^roduce^ here mean M)ring,' and so signify about 
the same thin 54 .us juivatha *\ 

4. (H the waters, having mastery of desirable things, ruling over 
human beings {carsani)^ I ask a remedy. 

The \eise follow^ in KV'. our o. 1. It i-* tounii, without variants, in TH. (ii. 5.8’) 
.ind I'A (IV 42 4) : hut .MS. (n. •>. 27) has a coirupt third pada, with much discordance 
among the iuns . .mil add^ a fourth. 

6. To the waters: for blessings. 

ik./: f ‘r/i). — (fl» , .i-* ji. y /*// '. I'li/ii/J-t//.] 

The lutnn is not found in 1 ‘aipp . hut perhaps sttxul .it the lieginning of its text, on 
the first leaf see LnKH>miiel<l\ intu»d to the K.iin;.. p wwii and rel's, e!i|). Weher, 
V. 7.S and \ni. 431 J. \ iino i 4 oiiur in K\‘ . as noted undir the preceding h\mn. and 
1-2 in other texts, as ptmiti'd out under the virsis. Kt)r the use of the hviun. witli its 
preileeesMT or its two prulei essors. m K im; and \ ait , si-c al)o\e. under those hymns. 
\'eri»e i is also (K.i.!»c •} 7) ilimtid to*he upe.itfd (witli the or ii/;7/r/-vtrsc) 

at tile heginrimg and end ut ,•///// nte«*. am! to he rented p.irt h) part six limes, with 
rinsing ol the mouth, in the /«</» •/»./: .1 1 nimoiu ( 1 p>. c) 

Translated Weher. u v>7 . 1 S 

1. Jlo the* divine w.iters wo.d for us in order to assistance, to drink ; 
weal [and] health !l«»w they unto us. 

't he \< rse On urs luilher, wiilioul \ m oit>%. in \'s {\\x\i. I2>, I Ih (i. 2 i ' ei al ). T.\. 
(IV, 12.4). and .\p (V 4. I ) , in SV (1 33) is i-pfitid «./i (mslcidol tf/io ) at 

beginning of b Iheiornm e\[»l.itMs »/'»^/*// h\ ' 

.\s to tile pretixioti of this \«.rse to tl.'* whole test in .1 |i.irt of our mss , see p. cxvi, 

2 . Within the waters. Soma told me, are all remedies, and Agni (fire) 
wealfiil for all. 

Found also in III (11.5 iS ), without x.inants, an.l in .MS. (iv.10.4). with, for c, 

3. C) waters, bestow a rcinc<Iy, protection (rdfNf/ftt) for my body, and 
long to .see the sun. 

<Mil\ K\' has tins mtm* 

4. Weal for us the waters of the plains, and weal be those of the 
marshes, weal lor us the wMler.i won by digging, and weal what are 
brought in a ve.ssel ; propitif)Us to us he those of the rain. a d .»r»: to-arlv n-pcatnl m xix. 2. 2 

'I he ins', '.urn up tins [^l.J or chapter as of ft hymns, 29 veracs ; and ihclr 

quoted .\niikr adyaprathama ho nava \ynr ^ id\uU : i.e» the verse.s exceed by 9 
the assumed lunm of the cliapUrs, wliich is 20. |_ Regarding vtdytify see end of notes 

to i. ir.J 

translation ano noiks. hook I. 


7. ToAgni: for the discovery of sorcerers. 


This hymn and the fullown.;^ ( nr m P.m,. ,,1 11 

more in place tli.«n Ihtl- .hikmik lli.- !,• i,,', s . f i ’ " ^ ‘ '* 

(mostly attributci l.y ^ I": -«'>t other h>„.„s 

.ataMam < cxpellcrs.' .ind ar- us. .1 (, „ f ' "" ^ 5 ) 

Transl.iu..l : Weher, U v>S , I „ H. ' 'r' .-.rposes. 

Cf. UergaigncIIcnrt, .l/./«„r/ i., >■ lil"<>mtiel.l. ^,4. 237. __ 

1. Hring hitluT, ( ) A-ni, il„- v„ecr. r the hmi./in, speak- 

b'larian ‘ ’ 

^iu is shown 1»\ i;s ust- .lisu .r, | -> liit, k, r tJ. * i 

I • • * < ii r« tih \ ii tUiil niCgiriin*^ • CfjnfpQk * 

L- nammc. ..e. cn,. ss..,^ h.u.s. • 

I le .loos s... „ 

f“';; «;> "• .s, r^el. " 

2. 0 most rxalti-.I |, s, If., .,„trolkT, A"ni, 

p.irtakf oi the s„ l.itt.T, ot i,.,.- .esainc oil (>.; make the 

sorccn-rs «. i y «»ut 

•liu.,..n • s, ,„c,- of all i!,.- 

ms,.. sn- ,s /„,.•■ . . ^ 

the «..r.l .,s ,m..u,u.4 - s.,., s..r..„,.| I ..|i. ' „.,m •’ *c<l for 
•siXHiii. I.v ,1. 1„- ,1.1, Is. It si-amiie. 

Simply r; :■«/•/,* I • . m ttiu* ( .n f • t< » 

[_‘nu*lt out'] I'pp fur ill. I rtUtU , c 
tomm tir,si t.ik. ?, /,///»./ ir.iui i M.t . 

further .i <l<‘M\.ition frtnn . / ///• u, 
ihi* iiis> , ,is us’i il. .i!i* tiiN j ’ 1* 

former [^it. ii»i i J jy.. i , , 

3. Lot the MnvcnTs Li\ out <:/ .’rr/--. let the iKvoiirin-r Kimhiins, then 
do you, () A^ni to^etiut with Indr.t, welcome this our oblation 

Tpp lombiius. .IS oiti'i, Jif.rni lu a b, .ind it uai’s ..r//:./ fni iii c. and 

at the end haty^ititm M'P n id*, L\ir\AlKic the •hcois;lK.ill\ loiicit loon, 

but never found in the mss 

• Us ’.^1 \. SI.., V iJk loot /.v/ jiUMUS unnitlnc 
d j. /////,/;;.? / : '1 )^e 

.'1 rnilvts ;i ciphd ' but he adds 

.1 s,,u. il. .»s \v» should N.i\ J At end of a. 
t«iiu 'V.v; .1:1,1 , .’sPI’ chooses the 

5 » b 

4> I-i't Aj^ni take hoi«i ; let Iiulra, havini; arms, push lort4i ; let 
everyone that has a demon, cenniit;, say "heic am 1 ” 

ytUufnttfi/ * haviiii; ,\ t.imili.ii demon ( \ 5> the eijuiv.ileni of i ‘sor- 
cerer/ lit'ly * holding; .1 liemon.' I’pp has hu a b />!4Ki>f.hf u \ j. 

tutfro HMtfadas : and foi d, an/w ti^tnCu //.rr.r 

S. Wc would fain sec thy hetoism cv^ rt/), () Jat.ivedas ; jiroclaim to 

HOOK I. THK atuarva-vkda-samhita. 


i- 7 - 

US the sorcerers, O men-watcher ; let them all, burnt about ^by thee in 
front, come to this place, proclaiming themselves. 

Ppp. roAtls in a z irvJ : in c, -taptas ; in d, The change of meter makes 

the \tTs>e suspicious as ctrii^inal part of the hymn ; hut the presence of all the verses in 
Tpp . in the same onler, puts the intrusion, if it he one, far hack. 

6. Take hoKl, ( ) Jataveilas ; thou born for our purpose ; becoming 
our messenger, O Agni, make the sorcerers cry out. 

rhe cotnm. this time, uttcrh roi'ariiless of the ohvioiis connection with vf hpaniu 
in id, aiul ol the gciKial sense of the h\mii. glosM-s :•/ lApavii only with Z'tnil^tiya. 
I’pp. has a totally ilittcrent text a ht^'htisva btahmtiHii jMaveiio hrdi ktkmAya 
tanJltKiya : duto ha <//«// nt yAtudiiAHAn thCi "nava. 

7. Do thou, O Agni, bring hither the sorcerers hound ; then let Indra 

with his tluinderhok crush in their heads. 

Apt (used almost alwaxs ot the head) is peihaps more riearlx 'cut open’; 

I’pp re.iils apA p/ w? Atu. In b. upa Kidd/iA*; would he a mme at 1 eptahle reading. 
The I'rai (w i;) t[Uotes upA\tddJ: ift a# the tirsl iiistame in the text tif sm h treatment 
of final lift Oiir Uxl. h\ an erroi of the printer. ic.itU f'AjhnA ft>i rd/- in c 

8. To Agni and other gods: for the discovery of sorcerers. 

[CiUifti Jns4.tu^'t:m 4 ' i*\'tx tn \ \ 

'Die liunn, extcpl \s 4. is loun<l m I’lipp iv alst) nt xl after our h\mn 7, hut in the 
verse-order 1. 3, 1 hor its U'jo h\ K n:*; with 7 . m e under ilie littei. 

1 ran^Ialed Wxher, u pi. I udwj^. p pp tiriffith, 1 11, Idnomlieltl, ^>5, 23«;. — 
Cf, ncigaii(tic-!Uiirv. MahUiL p 132, Whitiu), ah p f 

1 'Fh's ohlatKin shall bring the sorcerers, as a sit earn ilots the loam ; 
whoever, woman [t>rj man, hath done this, heie Ic^t that person spcak*out. 

I’pp lor c. d stu pumAH ktr \ A.^Am hhu' AtAm }AHAh [^1 t»r j/«, sec 

i ■' I . i.i'te J 

2 This man hath come, speaking out , this man do ^e welcome ; () 
Jkihaspati, taking jhimi into ihy control — ( ) Agni and Soma, do yc (two) 
pierce [himj through 

Tpp. hxs in a. b aha ^’A/tfA /'Am \mo */a ptA/t ; in c. d, ^unr kf/A *j^nhAmHv 
id dhit/Am 'I hi- I um-n. maki s nunsenie every time liV insisting on rendering ifi/ by 
••praise ’ , lure it is »«•/«./« \tir'AH 

3 Of the .sorcerer', O sorna-di inker, slay the progeny and conduct 
[him hither] ; of him, speaking out, make fall out {ms-pat) the upper eye 
and the lower. 

The romm. fills out the ellipsis in b hy making it mean “conduct our progeny 
to obtain desired result”! and i/u-ulfiAtya is d/ii/\a /ladT'tuty/im stutim kurvaiak* 
Ppp reafls nyai/AVAnasya, 'sl’l’ s t' xt as well a.s ours give.s ni st- (p. ath: st-)\ the 
siimki/il-mss , as evcr\ where, are divided between and nth st- ; the latter is author* 
ized by the sdonce of the lT.iti<;akhj.i Lscc p. 426 J concerning the combination. 


-i. 9 

4. Whe/evcr, O A;;ni, thou knowcst tht; births of them, of the 
devourers that are in secret, (J Jatavedas, them do thou, increasing 
through worship {Jtrdhman) — slay of them, O Agni, with hundredfohl 

The Irregular meter .ind l>r<>kt.*u lion of the sec«>nfl li.ilf-vcrse sujigest ]>ossil)lc 

corruption of the li*xl : tf. ./»//> awii/// <^atiitarhan,'\^. \ 5.7''. 'I he meti.*r ( 1 1 t 11 : 
9 -♦* 9 ■- 40) is well enouj'h tlivrihcil |j\ the .\nukr if wti ri.»\ take biithtitii'^arbha as 
meaning ‘tonlaiiiing two of nine bjlhiUes.’ [For cf. 

J 99 S j 

9. For some one's advancement and success. 

~ ? 1/’: /tr.'/ii/M //«// tuihiim J 

Found .ilso in P.iipp i UMkonid to the t-i//. </».// (K.uic 13 1. note), and 

further used in x.'iritms « en nmnn *> it"* If, ;n of tuc restoration of a king ( lO. 27) ; 
with i. 35 and v. 2S, in two i » jemoi.its foi f>itiu!;t and for power (i i 10 1 5-' 
sc\en «jliiers, enijilti) e<l l/\ a ti hi r at tlu* r* t cpl'oii of a Vifln stiuient (55 17) In 
Vait. (3 I), vs. 3 .iiioinpimis an oJilation to X^ni 1.1 t'n /•/# 7'ij;/-sai nri« es. And the 
comm, quoits its USV* in the \aks Kal|»a 17-10 in two //;,//;./. i/w// terernonics tailed 
Aimiuiti and btUha\pati . and in l'ani,'sta 5 3. ni y^wi riu*. 

Tr.tnsl.ilt tl . Weld. i\ pi; laei.-ig, p 4^0 /innicr. \) 1O3 ; OrUlith, i 12; 
BltHmifu’ld. 1 1^*. 230 

I. In this man h t the Vasus maintain puid things Cuisf/) — Indra, 
IVishan. Vanina, .Mitia, Agni ; him let the .\»lit> is and also the All-gods 
maintain in .superior light 

l*pp. suhslitiiti s /'*./'// lor p /• ; in b. .ml •/« : a for .v/A7o;*w/;/ in d. I he 

Anukr. to sirKlioi t k* menu al eoinhniaiion ./././i'> /.? m c 

2 . At hi** tlirettitui •, O god'', be lluTc light, sun, fire, or also 

gold ; be his ri\ aN inferior to him , to the highest firmament 

{tmka) make this man a'-eeixi 

'I he iransl.itioo implus in c the rail- d I'a tnund ilum of lUMiU to asmut ; 

theromm. first txpl,..n. ,t ..s an.', then. ..Uc.n.-.t xol>, ax usc-.I fur 

asmJt bv Vclic .xlu.ilrni-.i; ..I the x.m. I I . >• l-f.:" ' "'l'' /'■'■'•I". 

it»!sccoml lialf.%cr.xc .. .,uii. .tilur.nt :< M-t;., lr,n.V.o am.m 

adAurthi sapatHtin (d n 20 t di 

3. With lii};hf<it wotxhip yhahmiin't, O J.'it.tveilts. thou 

bring together «lr.iu};hts (^ri.r.) Un, therewith. O A};ni, do thou 
increase this man here ; set him m over his fellows 


Ppp. reads in b. an.l iix d is 

^ ,1 dhehy astnai. 

The veifse is found ako in T.S (>i: ; 4’>. •'I?' t> 4 .»)• an« h 1' "1 *"‘1 

MS. read havUa for iah„,.,u,y ... b. an.l r. y, uu (to, 
and MS. haa -tkaran in a. ^.u.ih.n,i ... c. a..d ma lor u,<im at i..e end , and 

inserts mJdAyg before »» d. 



i. 9 

4 I take to myself their sacrifice and splendor (I'dmts), their abun- 
dance of wealth and their intents () A^^ni ; be his rivals inferior to 

him , to the highest firmament make this man asceml. 

Tho Mvoiid haIt-\etso is the s.iine with J c. d .tlu>\e, and the translation makes the 
same emendation as there. Doubtless 7tHiini * at qiiisitions ’ .should be read ioT cittini 
in b ; the comm >;lossfs with butUhnn The t»‘\t is defat eil in Ppp : but in d can be 
read uttAtne dtiCi dhaintattia {/) |_ meaning, ptesumablv, dAtihi}taHa\. 

10. For some one's release from Varuna’s wrath. 

[AthAf-i in — Asuf i»t. zthuf\:m h.iiAid'iAni j. ^ tinuAu^i {j JtAJtummdei).] 

Kound in IMipp. i. I sed in Kaut^ 37) to attompan\ lavation of the head in a 
he.iling tetemonv (ft>r tlrops\, eointn. anti .sthol ) 

Translated. Weber. U.4J3; I inlwig, p 44; ; (iritTith, i. 13; Hloomticld, 11,241 ; 
Weber. .Sb. 1897. p. tf. 5t;4 tt. — t. f. Hergaigne-Henry, dA/w//*'/, p. 133. 

1. This Asiira bears rule over the g<xls ; for the wills (ftifri) of king 

\'ariina [come] true ; from him, prevailing by my worship (Imi/iMaPt), 
from the fury of the formidable one do I lead up this man. 

‘Come true,’ i e. .arc rcali/tMl or c.iineil t>ut the more cl\mologital sense of saiyA. 
Ppp. read.s for hi. The eomm. explains ^A^AtiAna as “exceedingly sharp ; 

ha\ing attained .strength be fa\or of Varuna, gratitied b\ prose etr.” /bAij f>ari in c. 
as the tirst example t>f its kind of combin.itiun, is «|uoted in Prat ii.6t». 'I he Anukr. 
ignore.s the nrst pada as a jAi^Ati. 

2. Homage be to thy tur), () king Varuna ; for, () formidable one, 

thou dost note iuiit) cveiy malice \ thousand others I impel 

{fnj-sii) together; a hundred autumns of thee shall this man live. 

1 he obsrure tiurd p.tda is underst<3od be the comm . perhajvs lorrc' ilv, to mean “ I 
buv otf this man b) furnishing \‘aruna a thousand others as .subsiiiute.s.” Two of our 
mss (I) Op ) read u^rAm (nr in b, I’pp delated in a. b ; as second half- 

verse It rca«!s . i^AtAm iiihAsiAw pta Mi'Amv An\An avaw ha ft: Am ^yapAye. 

Here, tnn. pida a is an un.u knowh dggd ;Ai;Ati [( cJinin c lies, for c, AH. \ii 1 5.J 

3. In thou hast spoken with the tongue untruth, much wrong — 
from the king ol true c>rdin.inces { tl/ainfutu), from \'aruna, I thee. 

LR yAt /r hn u: ilffiA iinr/,im ^ j I he comm lias in a the ab.sun! reading 
u:'ijhtA, treating i*. as inr uiakthA, win. li ail the mss give. 

4. I release thee out of tho universal, the great flood {tjntttvti)\ speak, 
O formitl.ible one, unto [thyj fel!o%vs here, and reverence our incantation 

‘1 mvtrsar {' At'^iAnAtA), ic, perh.ips. dangerous to all men; and the dropsy, 
\’aruna's spec ml influ linn, is prnbat»lv spoken of as ‘ iIockI' ^cf. KV. vii. 89. 4J. The 
(doubtful) rxiiclenng of the serond takes it as addre.s.sed. like the first, to the 
patient ; the comm reg.iids it as sai»l to Varuna, which is not iin|Mnisiblc. ^Scc Oeld- 
ner, /D.Mr i. In. 733 J Ppp- '‘ds ammuam at the beginning, and has a lacuna In place 
of t. d. L Render apa'^.i by ‘ rcg.ircl ’ 



-I. II 

11. For successful childbirth. 

[/ttAarvan. /ilnif.tnt j anu\tuhh , j uinti^x^'itbhd I aknmmaty 
m ann tuhh , 4 A /.itkiiii/'.iukti J 

Verses 2-4 occur to^tlhc-r in i. ; .md o in xv, )nii at (hffcienl points. In 

(33* I ) it is ({uuted -it llir iMi'innin'/ of .1 luni; aiwl intriCi»t<* ceremony (lillinj; the 
whole section) f<ir safe <lth\«'r), tin* lust nf the \tt iliinmitit or ‘wotnen's nt«*s’ ; its 
details have nolhinj; to do with t‘u li \t of ihr In inn, and 1 ast no h;;ht up«m the latter s 
difficulties, 'I he Anukr. a<id to the author s n.iiii«* ntutht nuintt oktdn iityanitiditUvan 
M{lrfSuJtka^rsSil 7 ‘tlyt 1 nf^nitthnviit 

Translated. Wcln-r, 1^.404 : 1 iidwi-,;. p 47^ . (.iitrnh. 1 14 and 473 ; liloomfield, 
99,242. Di.scu.ssi d : Koth. I tit* dtn ' tii.i ji 15 

I. At this birth. O 1‘ let jas] cfficii'nt (vedhas) invoker 
utter for thee : h I tlie woman, lightly cM^^endered. be rela.\ed ; let 

her joints j(o .'ipail in <*i«lcr to birth 

The translation ol c mipln s « im in’ itnm of i]»e l. \t to :/ Koth formerly 

preferred r/»;Alw ndfx #/.//;. )• i a tun. 1> . hile. < ome foith. l) woman*. Wehcr 
Icnes as 1*1 vMth ind. mS e. t. and ui.detsl.imN the two f<»llowinic words 

.isaparenthiMs: •• h- the wo;n .r, pioj.ilv M,...tMn ud I.udwi*^ renders as if u.j/dw ; 
Roth rmw (as ... I'.K ) would o-n nd om!^ ..nd understand it ol the ‘How of 

w.>..r p.c.*i..< . ' '.t t:,.. . .f... -- •••>■■> .< ,> » 

ynsi- s.ims .r.lik.h f ' >' '‘/J 

miul.t .•!>.. t'«- IK-'."'- -I. 1'.. •••.»>■’ f'*”" 

.cm. n.r '• n'l'T V a-.l n„ ,.m.v, .lu .a.-mony 

al ImtU. ■" Ml.. ... .t.i . ' I ..' ,•<: .7./-..A/0 •> . »>«1 

(w tu pi... .1 f...... .■< !-• •“ ’7 '''7 

40) IS ‘•ohU in I'Hu of fu- j_ mirft »t J mun •«.! o itN s% ,a * es 

.. iM.ur !.uci Ih.- .l.r.MU.'ns ..I th-- .U. aI'O ..1 tlu- o.irth: the 
CO.U S.C.U r tlu- I.. -.11' . Kt th.-m umi-e her in .micr to birth. 

(»r line lost n .,v .»f !.i> , but n-ainvl .ill ol tiurs ; 

«or.l nvll .n til. p... .p .. ■ ' ■ ■ ^ in tlu- I'.at. 

WclHT .,.,.1 Uoll. pr. f. r ... . . ^ ^ . 

b„, .ho form ..t 0.0 ........... (..N,- f.,rm 

from our readinu 

3. ]xt Pasl.a..(> Uu-. -l Ol . "C .n..ko llu-...:-/;'.«t I ‘o 

thou, sfistt9td, loosen ; do ihou, i'}}ktu,i, Kl 

the M..nsl..tion ...iphos .. 'V"r'iM,nr.'l "'.'7. p*.". .)'-'' '''''‘y. 

authorities have the latter) . 1 n'lan. . p.^^i-cd to do in vs. z 

might well Ik: calle<l on u,, I'"-'"'" " ’;.'7‘„,7V.V. tlu.o .httorct ol. 

c. d. I Hut sec li’o<iinlifld S lomnunt j ^ And 

^ s;/».r/.v ami bf^ka/i^ 

for root su ^ »ul«x •«» i-’t '« • ’ ' . , ^ pioKibb ..n .ilt.ration 

arc ,K«»iWy» of orsans . (... H.c l-.n.r. I PI’ 1’..' /•' • I 

I. 1 1 - 



to more familiar word : the comm, understands stistifti and biskali (of couraCi equally 
possible) : the former, from root.s i/i and sun, is name of an accouchini;^ goddess ; the 
latter (for which are ^»i\en three diverse but equally absuul etvmoloj'ies) is another 
deity. 'I'ho Aiiukr. apparent!) intends the verse to be read .as -f «S : 7 4- 8 = #9, 
inste.ul ot .idmittin;; the olnious lesoliition /M-ifw in c. The supplying oi f^drbhaM as 
v'milted at the be4;innin*^ wouhl make a ;;ooil tiHuUnI'h. 

q Xt>t as it wcic stuck (dfiiita) in the flesh, not in the fat, not as it 
were in the mat rows, let the spotted slimy ( ^) aflerbiilh come down, for 
the do;^ to cat ; let the aftei birth descend 

>1’!* re.uls in a //.m*/. with the comm and .1 small minoiltv of his ms,s. ; three of 
oin.s(lI i). Op) hue /."■*/♦/ Ppp has a vei\ <lilferent ti vt (preserwd in the 
{ t)p\. t!imi‘^li lost in the oruinal ti \t) /.'.)/ *: ./ itutr jiU //./ /,// r ,;j// /tit kftht tw 

t\: I . tlien tn:t c. d. wiil.nut variant . then //.// *:.i /.///»*• ■') ;/i/ fnvasi 

HU *: ./ \ ti!\ la/i/ft, then i»i.i e. and with this ends the lumn as ^iven in 

li<Mik 1 ho iMjnm ti nls m a Hut/n t\t lt»j w. ///*,' /. /. anil i« suits to \ ai ions de\ iccs 
to :.Lt I’d of the diah nil) l!ius lauMtl. l.vo •>! onr mss (i» Up ). and one or two of 
.;i\t“ th.e '•inu .Snn e «*l tear tns«, ar*- vuv awkward about i ombinin;; 
and ti// i t\ m pail o'nitt’M^ the : or ( I ) leulin.^ I’l.S. {\ 10. j) lias the verse, 

b.jt in ibneienl nr«l. r fast our c. d. without van int . Im> n our a. h. in the torni /tiit *;'j 
>'it /* HI I "nUtff, thi n oui e I'.nt for it*, snpp' irt t»f j/r iiAiw, 

we rni^ht be timptnl to ei'U ml to -i. the « onor his t!i.> worlhh ss ^planation 

/a/rn * ’/.;/.'•/////.: i:- i/.f Jt tint it r .n./- i t ^ i ntt I uilh» r may be rompared 

llirs V ] I. [^Mr.alii It iM. J-.hislhi \ isi Willi van Ills. ] 

5 I split aji'iit thy ininator, apart the* u’t/:, apart the [two] ojejns, 
ap.irt ’noth tin rnutln r and ta*’ v hild, .ipail the Imy lioin the alterbirth ; 
let the att« r’oirth rlesiend 

rpp < P’ Is for a. b r / A I r’l n , lord 't^irbhiim 

id ; It i\ :i‘dd , ind 'fs (in 3 \ ) piesej.ts a vtis.nn lu ulv .n » urdant with this, but 
w’th fdidtfo:. ^ I ami (at tin* « i.di • /^./ j .7 ; luit'nr has <iur retrain 

h As thv w ind, as the mind, as fl) thi’ birds, so do thou, () ton months’ 
(child , tly .liun^ w:tl>tht .itlerbirth . b t the afl» rl)irth cb^scend 

I'pp ha-, tl • V « rs:o ”, >',///>. I -,///> }df/ i i \f\,uit \djtiitd tiH tf^a/bna 

e\itd nit ji .',4 i/d h.ifki/ j i> iMtttd \diit. for 'do il.on rl\ ' mi,^hi be ;;ivcn ‘ilo 

thou tail ' ihi vtrfi I’uirs,; both nn anini,s. [^'1 1 n ( iiionll.s if Wi’ber's second 
/idK'>dtrdi^^\^ p 313. lUt JUt'iititr AkiUi , I.sM J [( f. 1 <\ V.7S.8 J 

'I Ills dnu 7 Hd I 2 J ha-. 5 livrnns. 25 v« rscs , and tin* t>hl .Vniikraniani. .ia (juoted, 
s.'ivs f f^itc tii (apparmtl) the \uiy~it quoti d at the end of an. I belongs rather 
lure tiiaii there) 

12. Against various ailments (as results of lightning?). 

\ li> t’tras -- i>:l .rtunJ^./n tJr: .ifJkdtPt 4 anuitnbh^ 

Found alv) in I'.iipp i It is reckoned ( K.iin;. 26 i, note) as belonging, with many 
other hvmris. to a tdkmanti and or A/Xv/i /;/ destroving and is used (26.1) to 

aia ompanv the drinking of various things in a healing ceremony (comm, says, against 


Translation ano notks. 


— — -i. 12 

disease arising from hurtful (.han«,.. of „„„| , 

against bad wcatlier {durdina), or ( K, r i f. r ,i ’ O'*- >) in one 

further U ad, led ,o the Mr«..r!; hun^.s*',!/ 

rite (27.34). ’ >»*nLctioii with Lu.umn m aiiothi-r healin;; 

1 raiMlsitcd : Wchor, iv. 405; r.mmi, , i.i , ,, 

(= I'Aos. May ,««.) ; Aj,..;.i s;;,’ ?■■■• p- 

as addressed lo “ <oni.u..l is i}„. V ' Idoomficid r.^Mrds it 

See hi. elalK^rate oo.n.neo, \V.I„r ,,'.0"'^^ f ‘''“’“‘i"' ' 

account of jarSyHj.f. 1 a ) t.. f. ^ , r. puerperal or infantile (on 

and cloud I, -lino ,euh ram; may he be nurcifi.I to our 

M) going -straight on. hre-ahmg . h.- ttlm. one force, hath .str.,I,ic-n out 

The translation irnjjl.t-s i rn* 
it is propost-d liy Wrl.ti..ini! .u!,. t, 
KctlinK out of a clct uIl.1 ditiM ulf. 
breath ; K , wii!i s« nft | Hi^ v\.’ 
vAtavfiijas (a luupl.- «,f s,l*i 's :,,v 
cxplairi't it as s\MftI\ iiki t’ 

uinds." riu* • bull ‘ is t.» tb. 

whole hy^ll. .\uil.u ,..,i K tu. 
!u*n of lii^htmuL; . ut this is p. riii-.^ 
<»f the e^prcssiMii (so K ,ds..) i ]«,♦ 
CM api tl frfjiu ifs (o t il < M\ . 'i t' 
hali'Vcrse, in tin. r.isi n fit is i.,. v u, 
inj; -.-''///,//./ (/ in b 1 ni. \ d-ii ..n .t. d 
MMise. //litA.i n d i.i ft nad ..s 
full /t/f.'/!// \i 

» .n b t I . .//,///// sn'r^i sted by 3 c : 
•’ ’ v bliM.Mihcld. I tin- .1 fanh jdausible u..y of 
^VcImi rtnd.^rs. lii.-Acvt.r. - with ^;lo\Mnir x^ral. 

( t n.t. ijt’i* ;r /.v,7/,/i). ] In- (.omm reads 

, whiih Lsc d]\ I'niJo.^ ),,tn, do the saint), .and 
" I si.iii » • 1\ , ••i.iivin:; .1 (i>JIc<tinn of 

i.». and 111- fun IS i’< s iiitt iprf'tition llimiji^rii |p,. 
i.'T t'lc laiti I s si’>iilii s e aiTiwliirt* an\ intima- 
..•»st I'll 'si!;-, t.i 1.,. s'lsp, ( t.f! iM the obst unlit s 
Msi txords n a ire \-(.XMd as si^Miihin- just 
' 'I^'i-di Tj'p. is •a:. .11;, d. latid 11) ih.- sreond 
‘•'Is. • 1. i. h , ..inlan- u .,,c lu a and n ad- 

l'» Kilns At •.!•! 'injumc* l»oih mctir and 

sxll.d Ics (.ts I'l k\' ) to make the xerse a 
./i 's su^iitstfd - i\ K 'J 

2 . Ihc'o, linking ,j//i in <;u h limh with huinmg wc, paying 

honwgo, would woiship (:/,//-i with ol.lation, wc would worship with 
oblation the hooks, th>- giapiili-s. ihiin, who. .i sci/c-r, hath sc-ixed this 
man’s jtiinls. • 

Or lift, at !ir;;innin- ,,i d. f ..l-bn Matum i. r --a’-uji lu t,r -unli ^ hieh lu ' Lkcn- 
der, rither, ‘hath sn/id bis ^amMl.ssj i ),.• j>.i:n:i is in jilain M-^ht of the 

exoiciM. l-.nipliaiii- is i'ii.-,.tt lu.dkss. m, ^ s 3 J .Some of our 

by a fnipient blmi.b i, n-.ul lu a I h- j n Ii.u^humi of thr of ./o./ m 

d is noted by the cojnniint t<» I'l.u ,\ pj.p l;.is .1 \civ ditlerent (ami coirupi) 

text: . . . 1,; ^thstj /(/.-/w? iiZ/./w/ /;.// 

wanan} Vfl I ho di nmiion ot, tins \eise and the m \t as/^.t/.v'/r sei ms 

to have been lost from the .\nukr . x\huh ie..ds s|mJ.I^ btioie */i. /..'/////, 

3. KcIc; thou him liom iu-.idaclu* ami fiom cou^;!! — whoever hath 
entered each joint nf him ; the bla>l (’ that is vlnml-horn and that 

IS wind-born, let it attach itNvll to forcst trccs {i ) .iiul mountains. 

Ppp. has irja/tlw for in d. I he roinm. takes X'.;*.r in a as nomin . explain- 
ing it aa AriJ^aH/AaMthf/mt liitti ptanJiihiih p'V 1/; /ji «./// . to him is 

I. 12 - 



kausthwhi T'Ji'e*/ utpannah. ^For ^Irsakii, see Knauer, /miot^ttmamschi Forschun^ 

.*/ «,v/^ <v . \ li. 2 25 ; lUuomncIil, A J 1 *. xvii. 4 1 0 ; Uolitlin);k, Jitru hU der saihsischen 
Ges.y |S()7, \lix. 50, who takes it as *a stiff neck with hcail awiy.’J 

4 WVal [bo] to my upper member (^dtra)^ weal be to my lower, weal 
to my four limbs ; weal be to my body. 

I'pji has a <|uite ditterent text : in a, b, te botii times for tne, and paritya for irm- 

. t»ir c, te p*\tibh\o mAjfabhyah t</ / in d, tiiva lor mama: the address to a 
secoiul ptisoii is decidedlv to l»c* prelerretl Ihis is found also in the correspondinf; 
verse m \ S. (vxiii. 44) and TS. (v. 2. t ’ 0 . readiin*s in part a^rcein^ further with 
those of rpp. (-.iw te panhhy-* j^atubhyah ^lim astr ifrarebbya/i : ^dm asthdbhyo 
fnajjdbhyah ^dm v aitu tauiat tdva but 'I S has for d \dm u te tanuve bhuvat, 

13. Deterrent homage to lightning. 

\Hkr^a*i^iras — dnuaubhitm j ^ xttdd ht^ati , y tnyuf'fahj brhatigarbhd 

fauit$ ] 

The h\mn occurs in iViipp. xix . and \s. 1 also in xv. It is used by Kau^. (3S.8. 9) 
in a rharni against h;;htnini'. with \ii. 11 ; and it also appeals (139.8), with i. 26 and 
vii. 1 1 and several other hvmns. in the ceremony of introduction to \*cdic study. 

Translatetl : Weber, iv. 40b . (irithth, i. 10. 

1 . Homage be to thy lightning, homage to thy thunder; iS^magc be 
to thy bolt with which thou hurlcst at the impious one (dudd0. 

'I he version of this verM‘ in Ppp \i\ is like ouis . m xv . d reads/e/;? d»rd/ ptadi- 
jassan {^ptatytuyan The first half-verse is fouml also in \’.S, (xxxvi. 21 a, b). 
The irresjular combination di/da^e {p. du/t da^e) is noted b\ Prat, ii.^o. rhe comm, 
regards l\irjanva as addressed, but then proceeils l«) i;ive another interpretation of the 
verse, based on the absurd .assumption that nama* aaftaw, which appears in 
numerous other places. To him. also, is a mi ^d:aHdma» In our edition, an 

accent-m.irk u omitted over the of d^mafte. 

2 Homage to thee, chdrl of the height {pravdt), whence thou gather- 
cst {sam-iVi) heat {(dptu ) ; be merciful to ourselves ; do kindness {^tuiyas) 
to our offspring {iokd). 

I'pp. has p/w fias for mdya\ in d. 'I he first half-verse forms in \'.S. (xxxvi. 21 r, d) 
one virse with i-ur 1 a, b ; but \ .S. ^for a namax te b/hti^avann axtn ; andj for b 
ydtah \:dn • from when* e thou slrivest after tlie skv.'whuh indicates that 

our reads!'.:; i-i 1 t^irupt. |_rischel dss* usses pravdt ( - ‘.stream ') at length, Ved, Stud. 
ii. 63 -70. see o-, J 

3 . Child of the height, be homage to lhee;«homage we pay to thy 
mi.ssilc t/iet. ) and In at ittipm) , we knr/w thy highest alnxle idhdman) 
that is in secret, thou art .set as navel within the [cloud-jocean. 

|_The te in b i*. snperfl;.i*'is J Ppp. res titles the meter r>f a hy omitting rr/f/ its 
other pad.i.s are more or h ss 1 orrupt : namas te hete ttpuwdi in b (which ends there) ; 
gandhatvo tuima par- in c , nihitdui uafduh at the end. 'Phe comm, takes tdpus aa 
arijective. Ihe verhe is st armed by the Anukr. as 12 f 12 : 1 1 + Ii 46 syllablcfi. 

15 trJR^slation and notes, hook I. -i. 14 

^ 4. Thou whom all Ihc gods did create, the bold one, l[ihc go«ls]J 
making an arrow for hurling do thou, bcsiing in the council {I'idtitha)^ 
be merciful to us ; to thee as such be homage, ( ) goddess. 

Dhrsnum in b might (lu.ihfy t\um flm 1 il\. 1 he ccunm. supplies he a^ane ‘ i ) tlmn- 
derlM>lt' as addn-ssctl. He reads ;////./ m c l’j>p nruls for a, b jv/w /-v i/eT’u njaua- 
7 d( 7 >efdM I'fntulna and lor d />////</»/// vatuna\ya pytt\r^/tiu. 

The Anukr. seems t«) as io . ii i-j . 40 s\llahlis LKead in c mrtiaya 

and in d utA tA\ytU ^ I' or ^'niuha, m •• disi ussions of Hloornlldd. J.XOS. \i\' 17, and 

Geldner, ZDMCh lii. 757 ; and tin* huraiure nkd li\ 1 o\, K/. x\vi\. 22<'> J 

14. Imprecation of spinsterhood on a woman. 

: >'ti t //»/•, •»// . / tin.t fu* t kakmnmati , j // Z'tnij] 

Kound in I*aipp. i. I smI 1i\ 13/* 15 1 * ) in .in im antation against .1 woman ; 

tiic detads of il < asi no light on tin<s« oi tin hunn . ami the comm, flefines its purpose 
simply a.H strtyAh /mru ,t ' </ ! /ut^-uikiihuian: 

Transhitcd . Wei « r. k p S . I udwi.:. p. ;5</. /immer. p 314 (ilicse misapprehend 
its rharacter) ; Diinilh. i. 17 l'.l<»4Jtni’. hi. J Vns. \ni p c w - P.\(.).S. Max I.S.SO: or 
AJI*. \ii. 473 if. : 01 Sill- \lii 1.“. j;: 

1. Her iit)fti<»n sph ndor have I taken to myself, as from off 

a tree a |^r].ind ; like a mountain with gieat base, let her sit long with 
the Fathers 

I’pj). has h'r a ./"o/w ft a «.<?./<- . it" b is jKi t d . in c it guts )n,ihannllAi 

*va, '1 he (ornm lemlus im ».•. h» re and 1 1 the <'thcr xeiM*. icDignizmg 

no hcxual meaning I'tt* -v In i^m’tis in tin latir ' 2 c. to )>e ^])».*'in«'d housts of 
father, in«uh< r. tt* .** all the tr,i.isl itojs UMkTMird it in ih ' same wax : hut it is 
ipiestionaldr wlullu-r the pl^-ral «.l pJn would «v.r ht 11 m d in this s« nse ; and the 
rcpeatul mention of \ .ima 1 it* r indu it. s tl« it iheie .a K ist a double meaning in 
the exprissum. I'Mha|»s a gwl umaining nmn.uiud was < alh d • bnde td \ ama. 
i c. as g4>od as dt.ul. .ml In r st i\ at 1 oim unr.paud to ih.U in the other world. [Lf. 
Amigonc. «!<», “I shall be t’n i-tide of X. 'u 1011.“ ‘ Xxoo*-* The .Xnukr. 

apiioars to i the abbuM.a.d rc.ulmg ' uUm ’ ./ m c . it counts s,x .yllaldcs in d. 

2. Let this gill, t) king, b» shaken down to thee [as] biule. O ^ ama, 
}jc she bounti in her mothci s house, also in lu i brother's, also in her 


I'pn. ha, I.// for r..I .u tho l..;;inor .: Ih-‘ lonim inteii>r>-t> as 

*» ■ . , , f - 1 -.....♦..w k'\' V Sr Ii-J . 

indicMting Soma, liec.iuse Soma is tii 

s; husbaul of a bnde (he ouotes K\'. \ S5 40 

Cf. AV. xiv.2 3lfb and lakes , . 1 ^ his epithet, .is N mg he. conMramer (///n/- 

maJtit). For nt-.t'hu xompaie m 1 1 7 -n I \ - >’ ///|*./. L 

not ni-Ma covrrtl) sui;:;o!.l "I' kIi. in its oi 'ccnc -senve. maj in- .n. ohi a, 

the Veda ?J 

3. She is thy housekoeiK-r. t» kins; wc commit her to thcc ; she 
shall sit Umg with the F.ithcis. until the io\crms "> m '’‘‘f 

The translation of d imp'ic. «li<- olnuni'. cnuml.uion to c.i/' "huh SI • 
admiU into his text, on the authontj -f ihe tom... . but ..gainst kno»n ms. . pp.. 

1 . 14 - 



howexer, ijives The comm, explains it l>y sawrapaHilt bkiimHu satnpa/attif, 

and as equivalent to wiintHitpafyim/ttm * till death ’ ; that this last is the virtual sense 
is exlrnnely probable. That zutp not the sense ‘shav- ’ in the compound (cf. At;S. 
\i. lo 2) \s shown by the inappiopri.iteness of the pretixes sttw -f /I to that sense, and 
the freqiieiuy ot the combination in the other stnse. [Sec llloomfield, 255, ti ^trsndh 
1//.//, * till she shid the hair fiom lur head.’J 1 pp. has further iMilm u pt^ri 
in b. I he tomm. ••ives KuUpil (tor -/J* ; out /./</.i-ti xt kuia^^p^h) in a. The 
resolution m d would make the \erse a lull iinu\tubh ; the Anukr. counts only 

14 hxllables in tlie second half. 

4. With the incantation \btahmitti) of Asita, of Ka<,'yapa, and of Gaya, 
I shut u[i uipi-nah) thy portion {vulva '), as sisters do what is within a 

LFv»r the names, see lUnomHeld, 255, ami .\J 1 ' wii. 4o^J lUux^a perhaps has 
here a dMiihle nuanin:; I hrc< nf our mss (I .l If ) with one or two of STI*^ read 
in c ./wA.’ia ,iO", a»^ainsi I’l it. 11 (»2, winch e\press|\ j)ri‘senlies //. I he comm, treats 
iintih apil as two imUpendciU words, antAh kt>\r would be a not unacceptable 

emendation I he Anukr. appears to sanction the abbievialion 'va. 

15. With an oblation: for confluence of wealth. 

[.tt'.uxtK - Jr;, r../ *,„•« j r/'h ) 

Found in I'aipp. i. (in the \ersc-order 1.4,3, :) i’***'* by Kiu*,. onl\ in a i;cneral 

rite tor pruspentx (iq 4). to aciornpaiu a dmn he lor j)ersoiis bnn;;ini; water from two 

naviual'lc streams an*l partaking of a dish of mucil iiiain, it is rec koned ( 1 9. i, 
note) to the///'//^j mantras, or hxipns brin^^in^ prosperitx. 

'Iranslated . WcUr, 1V.4J0 , Ludwi'4, p. 371 . (.riMith, 1 19. 

1. Ti»j;cthcr. tncjethcr let the rivers tlnvv, to;4ether the winds, together 
the birds ^ patahiu ) : thi.s niy sacrifice let them enjoy of olil ; I offer with 
a conHuent {samsuiiya) oblation. 

I lie Verse ru arlv identu al with xix 1. t, and in h-ss decree with ii. 26. 3. From 
MX. I 3 c It max be tonjevtured that we sliould read pftidi^tis in c. [If we do read 
pradr why not reinler it by * 1 ontinually ' 'J rp|). has not the .s»‘f‘onil half-verse, 
but insti .vl of It vs. 3 c. d. For b Tpp r J/J di' ya uta. 1 In* 1 omm. act eats 

iifw/ utm in a I hi re is perhaps some tMhnic.vl meafii*»j.j in t.//// i/J; v*l ‘ i onllftent ' or 

• tor « imrli,' m r ' \vl.i« h we do not appreciati*. but it is also unknown lo ibe tomm., who 

cxplai:.'. tilt wi.rd onlx c tv mo|f>L;i( allv. 'I he xerso is an AhtAtapankti (strictly I'trtlJ : 

‘ n - II jS), and its d»iinition ,is such is perhaps drofiped out of the Anukr. 
text rwh’.i h n .oU hhunk etc ). 

2 . r«;in<* strriight hither to my call, hither ye tonfUients also ; increase 

this man, ye songs ; let every beast there is come hither^ let what 

wealth {niyi) iherc^ is stay {sthd) with him. 

'I he piida mss all give i-i/t in e. I’pp has in a, b idaw /ii;;'>'i2 upetane 'dafk^ and, 
for c. tJivu vardhaynt‘i ravim 1 he last p.nla is nearly RV. x. I9. 3 d. ^i^cndcr 
‘with this man let’ etL.J 'I he oinissiori of rr/l in a would make the verse regular. 



-i. l6 

3. What fountains of the streams flow topjether, ever unexhausted, 
with all those confluences we in.iki* inhes (dhdna) flow together for me. 

Ppp. has in a, yf Hiidihhyas. uuh'h avantv uit/tft»ut\ saram aKsikti 'I be comm, 
gives the verse twi< e, e.\< li tune \mi1 » .1 si i-.n.m* < lUon. 

, 4. What [fountains] of biitti i \\afpis] flow together, and of milk, and 
of water, with all those lonthu iui s wi* m.ike riches flow toi;ether for me. 

ppp. reads jfi///j///r .}» fnr in a 'I lir loinni s'ljjjjln s first n'>iiya ' as 

omitted subject in the \irse, hut .i^lcr\^al^ls from \s 3. wlm h is of louisl riji^ht. 

16. Against demons : with an amulet of lead. 

[{'iiA/Md >- <7^^ wi«i// ‘w, ; ..o/o:./*//, /•/ ttn t'fm tu' tm / hilumni 

Koun<l in I’liipj). i* fims not .ni tl*« liMiin .enonjj flu* k/A/WiO// f>s 25)1 

hut iifrariq. (il). imte) ri'( koj.s it to l’ « 'n cn .u 1 oid.ui* 1* wstli tin* Anubr ) Kauq. 
(47.23) UM'S il oiii 0 in .1 lU' "f s..rii*r\ iii 4 tin d« .iili of ones enemies . comm ). and 
its comment.itor (47. 13. i.olei m .inot u i 

Translated . Welur. iv t -o • Oril!, 1.7; . (,rriifli, 1 2^. Hlooiniichl. f>5, 25^ 

1. What devourefs, on the nip;hl of new moon, ha\e arisen troop- 
wise {}) the loutth A'^iii is the »!cmon-sla\ei , he shall hless us. • 

in b is ohsc.n . • tr<M j«’M-e .s t'u* (••iiuiture o! HK . llu* comm reads 
instead M/d/uw. and .il sniOh Jt .‘s //•;./ or -/;.rw • shinin-.* and 

quahhing mher the ui;;bt ..r tfu * !a ut. ’ • 1 i-i w .or. I’r k uo'.s h.i\e riM*n to injure’ 
i»pp h*« /.v/tm/i 1”. C. IS nr ant h> it is not . 1 . u • tV* comm goes 

tl„«c .l,tl.u-nt lomt'. ...tu th. .!. H, M i s l.r-lUrs and pP.-rteccs- 

for t-..s- IS 

or .« t'lc .»«,</./<.. or.-. .>s .1!,. .1 t'u s „ n;,. . .1 t' . ou.d. and that of 

battle - lhu> 1. a. lun.; ux 4 > ' 'x .ox,, .• an.l (-idl follo'xs 

WetK-r in und.-rxt..n.l.n« th- xx-.i.l f n,. a . • ' 1 o. d. I'pp has /.»/» 

/i-Mi ii/r 

2 , Til.- Ica.l Varuni Mfsxx s . thx load A-ni faxwx. Indra bestowed 
on mo the lead ; it. sm, ly. is a .lis|.x,;Kr id tanulur demonx 

. . ... . 1 • . -..r d 7»«* * /.r ./'-o/; ( hm i.;/.rw<7w/). 

rpp. comhiius w *>7 /oi/.j M C. .1 “I - . . 

'* .1- ♦ , x.. 1,. t i’ll! Is o.u* ot Inc 

The comm asui’-rs the m-nti-m. l \ .im i t - i- ‘ ‘ 
inc comm . s ,si ^ m 1 .uh a ul Inc i-.umkd \.v that name. 

.ulirIcR liotUrcd (K-i u. ^ •iixo'Os ., 

[Cf. niiKimfichl, J.VD^. w 15'' J 

1 This ow-i>owers tlf : Alat/./ w. this .Irives off (/■,?,//.) the tlevour- 

ers': with this 1 overpi.t^r all the . .tees , /.i.'.n that ate the//, a./ a-. 

The first hilf vrixe ix ncaiiv i.-piat-d tsh'". as , | b sa. it .i in t i. 

Uie nrsl nan \pim is i i .^^.unst v.s.i-c. is ic.ul 

reduplication of m c. th-ueb ’c >• • '• ^ ^ .i.„, O.ut 

by all the mss., and in th- ...nim.-l 

I oinp.ire ii. 4 . j: ‘ ,„a o'sHuxtinn motion t^afr- 

disorder as a disliitham e laasoi In - .•x‘..r 01 A.... • amt 

pniliiamtfMita) -. cf. I'el»» " 1 .'''‘I '»• 

L i6- 



4. If our cow thou slayest, if [our] horse, if [our] man (///w/m), we 
pierce thee there with lead, that thou be no slayer of our heroes. 

I'pp. for c ifit'na l ui/tMtMiii ti tJ. 

The 5 li\mns of this anttr^lka L3.J. as of the next, li.uc just the norm, 20 verses, 
and the (luotation from tlie ohl Anukr. at the end of h\nin 21) is ai^ 

*nn}u. At the end of the piesent h\inn is read lunt, whiih is perhaps the 

statement as t«i the assumption of a norm. 

The hist ppiipiithdka ends here. 

17. To stop the vessels of the body. 

[A'j'iw;*; - - /c:./rt iw liuu^tuhhtm t hhitm , 4 Ji J/ •/ ea|vi/r/,] 

Kound m I'lipp \i\ (m the verse order t,4. 1,2) I’seil oiue hy Kaut;. (2f». 10 : 
the (|uot.itinn aoptars to tudoiii' to what follows it, not to what precedes), in a 
rite, apparcnil) fi»r stoppin:; the tlow i»t (the toinm sa\s. as rtsult ol t^nife 

wound and tlie like, ami also of dtsoniered m> nses) 

I'lanslatcd • Weher, iv 41 1 . I.mlwji;, p jrS ; ( ,rill, i^, 7<» : (iritiith, i. 21 ; Rloom* 
held. 22. 257 -t f. I lillehrandt. /V*/.; < Zr/r'j/ j>. 4<>. 

1 \'on women (ji's//) that wins with rcil ;;armcnts, like brother- 

Itss Miitors { /ihfin — h‘t them stop with thrir splendor smitten. 

rpp makes yoMUs and < han-^e plans, and h is i/ir ,h (hilttr) l«>r kinlf 

m b '1 h»- lomm takes » as mn sim ; , and In nri* natiir.illi iindirstands rj/nva- 

kttfUiMil /i.ii to he meant in the \»rse , he ^^‘Iul*l^ ///./» l'\ j/o/f, and he evpi.ims that 
hroiherle^s M^t'TS pttfkuU fn ifu • / tt^fhanti ’I he .\nukr. 

refuse > to saiKl'on the eonti letion ///*• ’rj in c 

2 Stop, lower one’ stop, upper oru* ’ do thoii too stop, midmost one! 
if the sm stops, shall stop forsooth the j^reat lube {tihiimam). 

'I Iv \n nt Ml Mtms to show « / to h* tiu. • il* nt •»! ft heii‘ 

^ < )t the hundred tubes, of the ihmisand vi ins, have stopjied forsooth 

these nu»lmo-,t ones; the en«ls ha\o rested iutm) to^ethi-r. 

In d (Miu-ndation Uitint}fi> ' th.e 1 nd om s ’ wouM !>.• an improvement, hut Tpp. 
als<» h i'* 1 \,ik tw .tnfJ ’/.//// o//i/ . its c is < i»rrupl nthatitiht\m%i\ <}) ; and it 

insi rts it' Ut r o.'Aro*/ m a. 

4 About )ou h.uh .t;onc a K^ gravelly suntlbank {dhanft)\ 

stop [and! be ijuiel. I pray (wi kam). 

'I he ( omrp SI i ^ in (//i./v'i Old) the me inim; •• how,*’ .ind interprets it “l)cnt like a 
how " n.invl'.. a \(Ss>d fontonmi; the urine: in sikiittls he seen an allusirm tn the 
menses, 01 i<i ^'ravel m t'l*- hlaihh r. K.'im, ( 2h. to) .speaks of Aprinklin}; on and 
^ravd as a im ans of si.ini hjn;^ the How’ ol hlood ; more proli.ihly, a» Welrcr first »ug- 
jested, a h.i^ idh d with sand used in neither ( ase ( an the menses he had in view. 
Tpp rc.'uls \iktama\'l hunu sthn.i^ ^ara\thiiLiw 'I’hc third p.1da is identic.!! with 
KV. I. 191 hd : the romm (.is S.r.ana to the latter) faiks to recognize the root il\ and 
he rcndt.r.s it pterayata^ as if rriot ir were in (|uestion. 



. -i. I8 

i8. Against unlucky marks. 

anu^tuhlunn , upart^t.Uvn .U, rh.Ui : 2 uur,j.i^atl , 

J ^ f,thh j 

Verse.^ l -3 art* found in xv (hul \s 1 not wiiii tlk: f)lhers) I, std by Kriu<; 

(42. 19) in a iharm :i;;ainst unlu* k> m^hs m .1 

TraiLsIalcd : Wt-U-r. Jv..o 1 , p . (^dilmi. /V./ .s/W 1311. (,ri.^fith, 

i. 2J ; Hloomficld. lo.j, 2^.0. It nKi> l,e inmiioiic.l th it M,Kr takes the %%hoIe h>mri 
as relating to a doiiKhik t .it 

I, Out wc (liivc (///r-s/i) the pillifl out tlic ; then, what- 
ever things arc excellent those w«* lead tfigether {^ ) for our 


1 he tr.insl.ition iniplns in d thi \if. vi iitincsdint* i 'n< iiri.itinn f)i tirCittm to ui/n , 

the foimcr appe.irs imj>T.ic n. .i‘ 1. .e,.! I .is stun. Med into d from b: 

Oldiftr tonjeMun-s in'^ t.,t is litUci. .iml ^'u.s no htdj* The comm 

reails lak^mam^ and evjil.ut.s as a* < tis siij^r i,,. s. /,u\unt hhavam tila- 

to !«/«/ me In s'.j^plns r '/;/.*/>;.• | tti.iKis*/ c a s*p.ii.iie .seiittMice and 
.suiiplymg bhAvantu\ It wo'ild als.i lx- |.onh 1 h- mak. tne nv-u.! aftt r /ifitjitvai. and 
read (so K ) In o jr dM« the ,u < « nt mark under /.? of A/;/r in c. 

2 has ilrivcn nut the tieiililc <//*/;//( in her feet; nut hava 

Varuna, Mitia, Aryaiuan ;iliat. in hei hinds, out hath Anumati, 

bestowing (ftt) upon ns, tjje gods h.ave dn\in this woman forward unto 
good fortune 

All the’ inss gi\<* Ml a s-r t al, M'»»»h sl'T \it'. propirl. n tains, tliough the tomm 
and rpp. h.i\e uit (si« jnv skt i .1 ^ 151 .n ’>>:/n/s t]» <r* ) \voul«l In* an irnproxc* 

mcnl. «md m.o he iii’nii rsto^x! 1 nt c d. I’j'l* h i a ./ tatCinCi 
o/r/AI stluhhdiiiisa I he lomni ^iMst^No 1 1 \ moli»u.n .d mussjs at a>.i>nnt (uhuh is 
Ills reading, oi w/w). '"'th'i’iss, .nd disin'ss t .0,//,? .is ai • onted on the 
( 'Ill'* s«paiali»not th’s \'rM t'le oi.iis in Ppp nuii' ati s that it J)ToIi.iM\ 

has nothiin* to do with ••maiks " it is * u’m i iir ’t"’! T lor t < \nuki to l.ike notice of 
tlic ticturiein «• of a tfi'tuhr pi*!i m .1 \»isi |_d. ii'> kss ih.iii c is tnstu^Ks J^ro- 

nounic i/Iredidr /tw/i J 

3 . Whatever in ihy self, in thy bodv. is fnghtfnl, or what in hair or 
in mien -all that do wc smite awa\ with Joiuj wmds; let god Savitar 
advance (.f/ 7 #/) thee 

•<;od Savitar’ 01 • thi* lioa\inl\ imj»uloi * exm w’ni oouixahra Tpp. hei^ins v«7/ 
/il "tmtin ttinvA ^hofatu, am! li>i c. d .*'// ft zr/.r.?.//.*./! »•».//'. /r./ ».vr.? 

,r//;v/J jJubkiiji^th The niiliual ilt j ,j.t.i»:i ol I'u* x'*!'-/ ^ii - 11 10 • 10 - 42) 

by the Aniikr. i.s unusual .and nuesti«>naM« 

4. The sintelo|H'-fiHiti-.l. the hull tnothe.l. the kine-iepelliiiK'. the out- 
blowing, the liciced-out, the p.illul these we make d -.appear fium us 

Ueslgnaiiom cilluT oi llu- <inlu.k> ".ian- <>I ••f «''>• ri.iU-a «ith th.m — 
liTObablv the forroei. The ..'inm. ptetris ilu- l.itui. vrpi i.. ilu- t«o l.rst, \»hu-!i he 
blunderingly Ukc» from the .>tcms-.Mi.» an.l mt.t. .ovl m.ik.s tluni .iiiilil. 

i. iS- . 




unilt*rstiK)d. He explains ^o\eMu} (p. as •‘j;oinjj like a c6w,’* and vilttiha 

as a loi'k on the eilije of the forehead. Hiked as it were the wrong way ” — or what ift 
calleil a "cow lit k“ ^skt. Iloth editions give at the beginning 
instead of the tine leading whiih the comm, (with three of Sl*l*’s mss.) has; 

the mss. bungle all the occurrences of this woid. In part of our edition the m is broken 
ott from : / 

IQ. Against enemies. 

[ ,t»ti4 ^iul h.ttn .* *i4»r.j/ Kth {.tft , j ] 

The h\mn found also in I’aipp. i With tlie two that follow it (and others), it is 
reckoned In K.ui^; (14 7) among the or )MttIe-i)\ mns, or likewise (ib., 

note) to tlie df'.itj'tti (• un« ontjuen d *) . witliout them, but with vi. 13, it is used 

in se\( ral ot the I harms to ward oit the ilte< ts ot portuits ( 104 3; loq. I ; 113.3). In 
\ aJt. {<) i\), 3 appears ihnie in the <»//«» or seastmal s.u ntii e, :ui ornpanying 

the release ol tlie two baskets 

I ran.slaicd We^i r, i\ 413: (.iniiith, bh^iunheld, 120. zt*2 • - l/f. Ilcrgaigne- 

Henrx, p. 15; 

I Let not the piercor'i fiiul us. nor let the er.s timl [ns]; tar 
from u.s make the volleys i.*/! Ily, dispersing, O Imlia. 

l*pp comlunes w» *'•///• in b 'I lie rt ndering ol follows tlie comm., here 

anil to Vs 3 

2, Dispersing from us let the ts tly, those that are hurleil and 
that are to be hurled, ye diMiio anow.s i>t men ), pierce my 


'the comm inserts an •• and ” in C "diMnc and hurniti arrows”, tins is possible, 
but opposed by the an ent. l*pp. has for c. d i/r : «•> w 
vuWuitu , the comm, also reads indhyatu 

3 Whether one of our own or whetln r a slianger, fellow or outsider, 
whoso assails {abhi~tlds\ us - let Kudra with a volley pierce those my 

rp;i\ %r rsjori is somewhat fliUVreni i./« \atnan\^ \ami\no* mitto no itt^hAnsatt ' 

Ai« itwt/fJn :i 1 idt/oj/ti \\ illi a, b compare KV vi. 73. K^a, b. id 
no/’i >' ot.nht jyj iit n!ifio iny't/t { SX' 11 I 222 a. b, which < omInneH j: <> */ii/r/') ; 

the latter ii.ilt of tins verse is our 4 c. d. I wo or three of our mss (!'. .M.O. p.m.) fob 
low K\ in omitting »'<^ after i:v^ .\p. iv \f> I has w,//> yo mat to 

'hhuioioti <4 oh, witli a wliollv ditti r* iii strrnvl half '1 he comm, absurdly explaimi 
ni\t\o\ .IS nit y^oUr. u )•* niK» 'taholoh \itruh 

4 Whatover rival {safattia) whatever non-rival, and whatever hater 
.shall curse us, him let all the go<ls ilamage fr/////;*? ; ; incantation (^/?f//;//r 7 ii) 
i.s my iiim-: defense. 

I'pp .Is hr-.t hallvfrsf r./'i/.-f///;/' 1./ ' uihindhu^ at yo na tni/nl *hhidiisa/t» 
The •‘cnoi.d li.ilf vtise is |i»iind, without v.iriant, in l<\’. (and SV. : sec Unrler vs. 3). 
'I he r on.m. exphuns loftatnn will as puMifupah \atfith .Sl’P. fullnw.s the very bad 
examph* of .a pait of his m^.s, l,y rr.iding dvison c//- (in.stcMd of -oti or -an) in b ^cf. i.33*2» 
ii ; 4, and sec I’r.U. 11. lo, 17, and cspeci-illy 1 1. — I'hc pada-inxi reads ififtfif/t]. 



-i. 20 

20. Against enemies and their weapons. 

[.4f^arv>tn. iiz/wj.iw timi tu> f.-itni ' i tn^tuhh^ 

The first three verses .in- im I'.upii xj\ .mil \s 4 m it stt- hclmv. For tlie 

use of the hymn hy K.iui,* with ny .mri ,*i, sir n:n!i t iiy Aii<i vs. i is ust il .ilone (so 
the comm.) in the/ii/rw/f s.iiniins (K luv, 3-,) on viewing lln- foolvLil oljblion. 
Translated: Wehcr, i\ 413 . t'.iPMl, 1 

I. Let there he the < ) -.>*1 Soni.i , .it this sacrifice, () Manits, 

be j^racious to us ; let not .i portent tind us, nor .in irnprexation ; let not 
the wrong that is hateful find us 

The first |ud.i is ninU-nd mi ihi* .isMinijitnm t'- it tht* of tins n:imc, as 

descrilx’d in I'll w 1.7, is iiil»-ndt il . it msjht l»c usril ot th'* jicrson inlt-ndcd t<» he 
benefited ; ‘let htm b<* «ni«- not j;cU«n4 1. tn a sjilit (i i Inile. nr diii'n nlu ) ’ this is the 
sense distiiutlv l.nijliit in I'll ; tl.eummi sws $:,t k.tdtt-ui af-t (idUHiniipam pul- 

pnotu {^$niuh\Ah ^itti uh^' I!m*\iisi it-. Ill (lu 7 5 • and rcin.:iUd without 

chani’e in Ap. 11. 20 ' ), with Iha> ,iii -ti a. //// M/a (wii’nmit ihv anoin.ilous attLnl)inb, 
and rr/Jnii in d. rpp i'* 4»'<s with /-/i . .nhls ,i\,iw afn r jiWii in a. and has 

in d the e.isier n-.i<lini; pfii "pad .-///a l-ir r'*7/»;.7 The se'.«'nd half-\erse 

m-iurs .ijj.iin .IS V 3 U C. d 'Il-M-.i^h (.m.'u*il<d wah \ss 1 3 in Ihiipp also, this wrse 
docs not .ip|)i‘.»r t<» hi\»- ai.sthin^ to d.. witli t n tr 

2. Wh.'il missile (i/ws./) we.tpon •>! iho inalijiiiant in^hdyu) ''hall go up 
today, do ye, Mitra and-V.iVuna, keij) ••♦( fmm us 

The tirst li.ill vi rs,- in is.j- > ' • ’</• ‘ • • ' ' • '' ’ /-s 'di r m n vn upayatt, whn h is 

ne.ifl> our m v; ^ a. b I In- hih\«r-.< oii.n" .d'-o in I'll (1 3 3 a. b) and Ai.S. 
(V 3. A. b), lioth of whiih h.i\ • 'a.vwi /* l‘i‘» ihdis V. /. At, s mves at the 
end dtatt uff.lw wm.ld I-.- the } !.•;•«! tins the vomm. unUss 

the w'oril were uiul<rsi<>od is n m.n r.« 

3. Uoth what [is* Irom lu:e and what fiom >onder — keep olf, O 
Wiiuna, the deadh wt .tjvui . e\len'! groat pioicction i./r/7;/f7;/i , keep\er) 
far off tlie deadly wea]>on 

The pada IrM in.uU the jm 1 1 d.i m. , . th,- n...t h ilM.ise lu t\ r. w^umI ni after 
the second i.f/. I’lT .eadsi.b i.f:.;..;'. I'o hiiisnse .< tmind .i«>ain .it 
the end 01 the next himn wh . h is ,b u-s .i.i indn.ita.n t u-s liMiin 
iroperlycnds here I he \nnkt unm, s t' e -.vtiu il nP -4 d i: .ti oi theiusc^w 
7 * H 32). I in a ./ ' -i'.*! . i c.w ' -’a . ] 

4. Verily great lulei i.a 
(iued, whose companion 

x,n ail i hi lit. o\ t rpDweiei of enemies, unsuh- 
// 1 is nol slain, is m^l sc Uhed ( /la) at any 

This verse U the litM in KV x i;Mn wn.h thi u ..1-11-4 vns,. 
next hymn here ; in I’pp ii mi in'* •'-h th* m • i > • f-n 
in our text prci-des u. UV. an*! »h 1‘ ! ' h 

RV. accents tn d A"'' ‘ ''Vi 

Ukes jfyJ/if .is frAm rooty/, whuh is .*l i‘nuse upMHi ^ 

ninslitute the 
maili 1 whuh 
.'.:t fat's . .ind 
*:t\at'tiy he 

i. 21 - 



21. Against enemies. 

As just pointed out (under 20.4). this hymn .ind the last verse of the preceding 
malvo one h\mn in KV. (\. i;2) and in l*aij>|). (ii ); the latter has a different verse- 
order (3. 2. i. 4), liiit no various rea«lini;s. For other correspondences, see under the 
sexeral \erses. for the ritual use of the hymn with the two preceding, see under 19; 
it IS lurtlier reckoned (Kau^ 10 S, note) to the iiMtiyu (‘free from fear or danger*) 
It is the fiist h\mn applied (with \ii. 55) in the MuiffruytiHii or ‘for well-being * 
cereinoniiA ( 50 1 ), and is, according to the comm , referred to as suih in 25. y*. Verse 2 
is also Used, witli luhers, by Wiit. (20. 5), in the it^nttityaHa or building of the Are-altar. 

Translate<l , Weber, iv. 414 , (iiitAtii, i. 25. 

1. Giver of well-being, lord of the people (:7V)» Vrlra-shiycr, remover 
of scoriKTs, controlling, let the bull Indra go before us, soma-drinker, 
producing fearlos'^ness 

1 he Comm rent!* rs ;/wr.//hif b) utitniftayHi} although he 

explains utidhtii m x-*'. 2. 3 l'\ SAfHi'htpptiln , tlie wt>rd is pl.imh a possessixe com- 
pourd ' no gtiiitixej, x'vpressiiig in form of epitlut ill** ax turn of 2 a and 3 a. 

R\* reads in a : 1 he xi rse ot v urs lurlht r in 11 ! (in 7. 1 1 <) and TA. (x. 1 .9) ; 
both haxf */,</*. and, in d. |i»r j 

2 Smite away, () Imlra, our scorners \m>dh) \ put {yarn) tlovvn them 
that tight {prtanw us] ; make go to lowest darkness whoso vexes us 

K\' rexifst's tl'.e t>rd' r <»l c an«! d a:nl leatls .ind with it aijiee preiiselv 

(II 121M iPil \ S (XI'I 14 a rial), while Is (if»i.’MarM Ms. (iv t 23 )ha\e 
fore ;.///-/ ttfn /«/ If.iht [( t \l(rS 11 i 5 o h aii.l p 15; J 

3 Smite aw.iy the ib:nion, away the scorners, break apart Vrtra’s 
(twoi jaws ; away, () Indra, X'ltra-slayer, the lury of the* vexing enemy. 

li\’ ind (II I 21 7 ) h ivi* l!ie same It \t . 1 S. ( 1 /* 1 2 ’ ) ri ads foi r.f/ t./j, 

nuda lor /<//b. uni for ‘ Hf^than 

4 ! )tf, 0 Indra, the min»! of tht* h iter, off the deadly weapon of him that 
woiiit! scathe, exterul great pniteclion, keep very far off the de. idly weapon. 

KV reads lor in c, ainl l«>r i./r-- m d 'I S. (iii ^.S.onlx a, b) 

siippl'- s:i ihe first hall-xtrs- the missing x*il*, /d//*, putting it in plain* ot vtidhAm, 

I ril-N^ x%i- nsdixe \ Ann i iiii«i three syllables, \\\\i atiustuhh is dcfcttivc hy a sx liable. 
L \'ld ti'ih attt r w.// r ' J 

I !e- ; Itv'im^ of this ,tfru- itl’it [4 J again haxe 20 xi rses, ihc norm : see at the con- 
tlusin'i of !li« jtr* * eding ./////? (alter luinn ib). 

22. Against yellowness ( jaundice). 

f,iur\itm u/.t nt/tnfroi/iiAttnf».tJn\i/yum. JnusfuMam] 

Foutul in I’.iipp I I'sed bx K.iiii; (26. 14) in a remedial rite (against heart disease 
and jaundn c [^dw/i/t/, Kcq , zCvlw/A/, the cornm.]). 

y translation and No„,s. bocjk 1. _i.23 

Translated: Wel>cr, iv.415; a. Kul.n kv- 
7 ,a 63 . — Cf. al«)Zimmpi,i).3SH; |!|,M,in|„ 1,1 111'"' ‘'f'ffitli, i. 26 ; Uloomfield, 
p. 134. Kulm adduces ..naloK-ms .,1,1 <, e. ' “‘^^■{“ignc-Hcnry. 

yellowness; wUh^hca.L*^ onh^rcil 

thee. ’ ^ ‘ < fun-d/ia ) 

l*pp. reads in a «,*/,!«, . c is , , 

with d. The abhreciat...! Ardy..,- (..y ,,rSty..> / »1.k h constru. s l,.„er 

Roth.ZI)M(;.xlM.,.,o2j,l..„ar, ,v' .Jn.f, 1, , <;r.§=32a [and 

iv. 19.6; SII even til.- KV m 1 , ,^ ■•■'u.'ii.U' i> ,/|sV.//; (cf 

r., :::: 

AV. Index V.-rl,.„..m is .,11 cii it,,,., ,.,r „ / . , , ' d ,tyai„m m the 

the liealiiiK rite re'l ca. I, .„r ami skin etc . in 

2. With red c.l.irs we the.-. ... order to lcn:;lh of life ; that this 

man may be free frotn eoiniilauits ,,k„ 

IV,.. has .t. Inf. r. lit 1, ,, ’ 

I lie third Ilia i> t\ i 5 : d i <*r k \ \ i i ^ a , 1. 

I ) 4 U , r X , L'kjiiai'ix as --papa, 

3. I hey that h.i\o tli,. rc.l on.- to, .iicmit}. aii.l the kine .ire red 

- foiin alter form, \1401 .,11, ,• ^0,,-, ,,,,1, them w..- thee. asiuisin, 3.,, ^ ^ 

Ufa . in d It li IS /r-v / / ,; 

4. In the |-.iir<,ts, in th, ,.ut tliy \Mlowness ; likewise 

111 the lidniiiiii ,ii tie deposit th\ t.l.owness 

\..lo,v ..l.-m-nss „ , 1 ,. ; , -I,- ^ ,t„ ,n. , „i.-e.,,W,w .,s fouml in KV. 

I sO I, .1.1.1 1 |.j, j ^ .ml 1 I. ,j - , I. *. t It Is ;.iis.t,|. .1 1 ,\ t'm . aiul !,, tlnee 
iif M’l"s.,.,lh..,.i,. s K\ .,,.1111 ho. 1. 1 Ii-n.s, ml .,.,e-.! /I-,?, 

w-w. -Ilie n.,i,us .,,1 I , , 1 . .,s ,’.,.sc ! ,„-s i 3 dl<,i- 

\uk.t. apiiarimb a kiii-1 j..,ii..i .1 .1 , .ippauntl, a \ell.i\, 

.i^t.iii. Ll'ki' iM b /'.//•/' i/s /, ./ j 

23, Against leprosy : with a healing herb. 

[Athar^'an : /«?..*»/ -i / . 'A..-. ;• 2». 'fr'i - 

1*01111(1 ill P.iipp i. !ujt ilfiaiiil sn iha; im tju* immsI j>ait i ii isoii nnpossiMo 
Also, irilli vs. 3 of tiu* iu-\t li\mn. ni I !’» (ii j. 4- i I stti l'\ Kai.v^ (.’^i 24). in 

company with ihc iu*\t |uilii\\in>; In run. m .1 iitr Mhiti- le]'ros\. 

\Vftakuxtha^ srhol. and loinin.) 

Iranslatcd . Wclicr. iv. |i(i . I uiIvm^. p ; (.nil. n; 77 . c.inhili. 1 27 . Hloom- 
ficldt 16, 266 ; furthiTiiioro. vns. i, 2 In r»liH»inlicl<l. AjP \:. 32 > < t. r»cri;ainnc-Hcnrv, 

Manuei, p. 135, 




1. Night-born art thou, () herb, O dark, black, L^ind J dusky one; 

• O colorcr {hijatti), do thou color this leprous spot and what is pale (paiitd), 

Acionlini; 10 ilu* Lomin., the ht*i!> .uldievsol is the htttuh^ {Curmwa hnga). 
R. writes . •• 1 lie rauini is know'n to the lexu oj^i.iphers, aiul later as principal name 
pat ^viti [an Oldenlaiulia il\einvj red, OH.J, NLulana 4f). 47, 1 )hanvaiitari (ms.) i. 27. In 
liha\apr. 1 |i)| (wlure, atiordiii!' to my idd and j;ood ms., hifijAni is to he read instead 
ol k It Is noted that tins remetl\ is, and u>mes out i*f the north. It has a 
ilaik .iNp»'«.t. 'I he species not t»» he detiTinined. l>eLMiise the later identitications are 
entirel\ iiPtrustwoiihx ’* [See Dhanvantari. Anaiul.i-a»;iama ed , p. 17 J The causative 
st-*m fsi/iivA (tile mettr calU tor /d/*) is found i>nl\ here. 

2 . 'I ho leprous spot, what is pale, do thou cause to disappear from 

hence, the speckled; let thine own color enter thee; make white things 

rty away 

Tli. has nd {ndh ") for /:</ and lor m c. and in d fur 

^ 'I he romm ,;u<.s p>thak lf»r pt \at in b. and ha'* the usual .support ot a small 

minority of SI’ P’s insx 

3 Dusky is thy hiding-place, dusky thy station (iisthiUa) \ dusky art 
thou, D herb; make the speckled[)ear from hence. 

Til the easier re.idni;; ntu\\dtutm in a 1 he i •»rnrn a:;ain );ixcs p»thak in d; 
he liohU that t'le plant lure addiessed is the indigo (»/'// ). 

4 Of the hone-horn leprous spot, and of the bodv-born that is in the 
skin, of that made by the spoder ) -by incantation have I made 
the while (prcA/) mark disappear 

Ppp ha.s in c Til. le.nls inste id kftydyd, l!:e i omrn explains i{u\t an 

ifhtl Ppp. has at the ernl dnt'Kd^am 

24. Against leprosy. 

Jhihmiu ^ 7 »; . 1 *: t.p juu j n:i f fyj'-nJ/jnk/i ] 

roiinil ir. Popp i , Put i.nt in «f»nn«i lion with tin preicdiui; Iwmn. For t!ie of 
2 } arei j; to,;* tin f ’ V K me . si e uiidir li\mri 2} 

Tr.irislat* d \Vei>tt, r. 117 , I.mIw;,;, p 50, ♦»rill. i*;. 77 , ( >rittith, i. 2.S . Piloom- 
r.eld, I'' J^'‘. 

I The eagle {^uparwi) was horn first ; of it thou wast the gall ; then 
the Asiira-wojnan, ti^mjuered by fight { yiidh), took shape as forest-tree!. 

Pj p r. kU Jt i’’i* i r, ! : ,iua\pdtj/i. wlinh h iii'«r>‘ in .n n)rrl.ini e witli the ti.sual ron- 
s*i.j. t.fifwjl f up, iff. kr (nod ) .ind th. like Pj*p. 1 m^ i//J (•djUtM*! jUil in C. 

K 1 I* < M« rnl.liMiri Z././i/v//// (ir.slr ) dtdtn tu , • .ittcmptcd to he 

• iten in, till t* o’n on m L:«*tal»le fonn ’ i r Pm .inn- .1 In almif plant. The comm, 

still rf:'ar'U tin i!.<li,4o as .ul-lr^ hs» d IP- 1 oollv » xpl.iins jiM P\ its ojiposite, fUaviUt. 
All oi:r :ti>s h.iv* in d tin .iluijrd .im • nt i^kri feiniinlfd in t!ic nlition to iakrt')\ 
SPI’ n ports ill' s.inn o: lx of two /i././«/-ms«. 

2 . 1 he Asura-wnmaii lirst rn.uh; this icmedy for leprous spot, this 


I KAN.SI.A'I I<»N AN'lJ NOTKS. liOOK I. -'-25 

cfifaccr of leprous spot ; it made llic leprous spot disappear, has ma<le 
the skin uniform (uinl/'n). 

Ppp. has .-iKain (.is in 23 () ,n c m d ,i n a.K j, 

3. Uniform by name is thy motliir , uniform ])y name is thy father; 
uniform-making ait thou, ( > holi . [ so J do tlmu make this uniform. 

Found aUn, as nouM .... I li c | j 1 ms Uu c uin^/.a osa.ihe. 

I*pp. reads ihinuKlioui .u,uf. h in.. tu. C-I tin. wMe and llic iwAt ^ yat tanu- 
jamyadaj;»a Ulaui /,/,/ tun.,. yuLis ha 'pinaxamast. 

4. The .swarthy, unilorm-m ikn.^ om- fjs! brou-ht up off the earth; 
do thou accomplish tins, wi* pi i\ ^ m tke ilie fcjinis ri^ht aj^ain. 

^ All our mss ha\o ai tn.* h. 4 rn^i uA n. arly .ill SJM's. but the 

vcr\ po>p<il\ ai'rnit'i . , i* *1. .s.'. t jt ’ • 1. i>.'il )>•. tin* f '>111111 with .i couple 
of inss that follow lioii. .ind Ot in:,' in I') ,1 .d." I'j P o;kc* rnoic sn? rip- 

It « iirrupts b into ////;. i./'/.i, 2////./' ,///.. .imI o,..,s k./ /./ va .it end of c The phr.isc 
tdiiM :i iti is t|Uoiiii in I'l it ni \ .m.! ./•, p,. i|,. j.iotraclinn and liniiuali- 

/atiun, and weirds of the \cis.. ao c.t'd 1 i*.* <« *, n.cnt.iiv to other rules. 

25 - .Against fever Ktahnan.. 

\/hit ti.^n It - <: •, t, i .'#'/,»// ; • n : , 

$ ' i. ' '» . , 

hound in I'lipp. 1. I Mil 1 \ K lu-, ;i. i n tm ih il iii.* (20 25) against fever, in con- 
nection with 111 ,inn.i .Hi ,i\ i.i'l .1 in Imt w iiti to ni.ike a ioiiun ; and reckoned 

( 20. I . note) to il l* tal .>• r>r » tf /.,.*• t 

'J'ransl.itMl WMni.u jig < ij"h’ii inn />: / ^t t : \ 3S4 o. 4^, 3, .pf*' : I.iidwi;;, 

p. ^11 ; /irninif ;> 5'*'4 .rid 1 zt r.h">’ijlii Id. 3 2". . Htiir) ./<-//; //i/Z 

A iiitti</ut\ X. ;i2 t I I’k 14 i. 4 '.« -111 .ii\. J/r/ovc/. ]• 13 <> 

1. As -\;;ni, enteiiiu, burned the waters, where the maintainors of 

duty ) paid asls ol homai^e, iheie they declare to be thy highest 

birth-place; then do thou, t> fc\er (Arw;/./;/i,, avoid us. 

The comm, explar •» | *1.1 a in . < i m -’ im e with the .u I fou.ndi.(l on its 
nic^chanii al iiitiTpielatiJm , c l l'*\ » O’? |dJ'‘h'>\\N that it is piitol the heavenly 
waters that is inti'nii'sl. .'s.iat .*./ / O" i mi 4 w!.' i«* lI.i ) he rciuh is *• full) know- 

ing; th\ I ausr. the lire (or .\4 .M tie I; .ulI iti'»M t.ike- n is ciiunalent to the not 
uiuoTiimon Mirnrtif.ina A :r^:rf In '|”*i il\ ii.ins mt.i a fut ii •• sh.ill bum thee. t> 
fti'er*’! I’pp. reads a./u/.at 1 .u id, asni i.i c embuus to t.i ".'.iff':. [^' 1 - tirohinann s 

interpretation, I.c., 4^3. 40 j J 

2. If thou ait tl.ime (.//./-ii or it heat ((.s/y,, or it thy Idrth-placc seeks 
the shavings htuJu by name art thou, t) god of the yelhuv one; then 
do thou, O fever, com|)l.nsant. ,i\oiil u. 

The /2i//.i-readin- in b in .is.uo-l b> Pi it i.i ;2. but the meaning is 

iXtremcly obMore. i'pp- o-'di.'i; ^/-i.r.w'.v •.unong the Nh.\\ini;.s , 

janitram rather requites a loiaiixc Ih'* ioniin ;iu..Nts .• is b*r. ol •. from 

^akatya explained as a “ luap id .sha\ mgs.* .u.d. looi . ' ‘si lIv. ai.d so an epithet oi lae ; 

* -’ 5 - 

m>i>K 1. Tin: atharva-vkda-saSihita. 


IU\. conjcLturo - follow ing the shavini^. i e. Klimmerii^.” Tpp. reads in a tihiimas for 
\i\ts, ’I he name at the beuinnin;; of c i;* of <|uiie niuertain lorm ; llic ms. reading's are 
hnixiti, fittitim, htut/u, hudu^ fudu, hmdhhul htudu, tudhu \^ftriidhu\ \ SPP. adopts 
in his text the same loim as we, and, it is to be hoped, on llie authority of his oral 
reeiters, which in such a rase must l»e better than inss. ; l*pp. has (in both verses) 
hudtt^ whkli is a word oicuiiin«4 also elsewheie, ami me.inlni; "ram '* ; the roinm. reads 
put^tu, explatnini* it as poraltt or ^up is^it^.tp ipf vZ/i/i/iffir ‘producing; in the human 

Lllenr\. fourpta! . / •> \ 5 1 3, Mi^nests that the problematic word may l)e 

i.onnei.ted wnii the .\ss\iiin hupti^u and the Hebrew* and so ;;•» back to a proto- 

Scinitk *'t.ip:id:/, * tjold ’ J. llalcw, howe\er, I c xi. 32U ft , sns^^esls that it may be 
rathei a Saf'skriii/ation of \\uf.'Cn, *;jreenish-\ellow.' and 1 ompares the relations of 
i.ndutyd. I’rakiii ( r **/ v.'.'i.i) C t finlher, liarlli, AV. de I'hti/otre 

ihs p ‘ft \\\i\ 'O.J ^ 

3. If hcatini; m if scorchiii;^ or if thou art .son of 

km.; Wiriirij, htudu by n.imo etc. etc 

I'pp h Is ini b the iM«'ic sensible \ersion PUt/ , ./ /^Pilti » \ ,idt * ( • t) '///«/» ) b/, 

4 IlomaL;c to the c*»»M fovt r, homage* I pay to tin* Iktcc (//?;</) beat 
hvt is) ; to the iffu* that befalls on every «dlK*r ilay, i»n both clays, to the 
third-day fever he homa-e 

I’pp reads in hdthHit (>“'<1 A. am! i 1 c .v ’’//•! vr''/h 1/, /•-//.;* 'I he com- 

pnij'id i\,id\ u\ is n«)t)«id in I'l it n Ji \s t»>r ilr.tnmi'al te\crs — tutian, 
Haari.iri. it , svc ( .mhma ir, 1 1 . t^7. J 

26. For protection from the wrath of the gods. 

'/»>?'»/» iM — ini’ t nf^ihu L': :f\ /»»' ^ i\ •/» '»i j ^ .ihiui {ft *tt'\ , ^ r/ 

C-*. / ii s » fftt) 

Kcu’id \.\ r'iii.*( XIX. bnt vss 3 4 «Isev\h»re thin 1 I h-* l»\mn .ippearn to he 
cillii! (SO M 1 I, I a:id the lon.rn ) »./,//; 1/// • thnist« rs a*ia\ ' in K.ic, ii 4 14). and 
• riot''! ir.'l i.sid Is SI., h iM 2; 22 ind (Mith i% H) *'» t’ 2,’ , :l is tuitlnr applied 
(wifh j; .1 id V5 3. -fi) at the Iie^mnin^j nf the 1 /».;/.•/ nles. i-n unin-.' to bed and 

ijetiiM.; up a«4 ua ( ; .■ 4). (wall 1 13 ami utacr hunas) in llie rile ot entrance on 

\ cdiL stud.-, (Ip; ' J 

Irinslat'i! \V» bn, i\ 42J Cri/J;t!» j 

I h\ir be th.ct from us may [yoini missile be, t) gods; fj^ 

the bolt which \e hull 

I 1 h* last p ola IS id iitn .d w ih K\ 1 172 2C . the tahe r lwf» (for which I’pp. 
has F.ii v.iri ml > ) sf .i.d in [.'it I.k.* .1 r-.istmdt rsioix! 1 , ho of tlieK\’ lc*xt : ilp/sdvttA 
^ud-'iHii - //'»//.//./ prftif! t tt.’i,': I ni c rpp has iip^ tntiPtfjppi (or pphipfiiw . for mdPU- 
/h/{ *} it >iit ft I In iiiniiTi tool-shl, snppli-s an “•) oiir enemies” iti c; rf(Wil he 
c xplauis x-f tiiHtPftdr. /•,/, ///,/,>. f he .\nuki Ignores the defectivenesa of b. 

2 . lie yon Kati (‘ lihi rality ') ;i c*ompanion isdl’/ti) for us; .1 companion 
[he] Indr.i, jihaga, of wondious favors. 


translation ANT> no I KS. I50OK I. 

i. 27 

Kati ieem* to I* ma<Ic a p..r.soiiific.ilirm, as in iii. S > ..nrl vii 174 l.tic.w ■ the 
comm, makes it equal to Miini <»r 5 ur\.i l*„,) k.. , ^ ^ } ft ' ^ 

better " regards l*..h .sense an,l ,n. ter ‘l ..( the Anukr. ,s prohahlv a mis- 
read HK for .■ the mss .-.«.ee «„h ,t ... ,.s..., no „..„.„e„.si«n in the seise, and 

SIM*, very sroperly follows them . the .nss .n..rk .. cesur., after The 

comm, makes f 1 biihu^ iiihatu tihiinant vasya 

3. May yc, issue {miput) of the hi i; 

breadthful protection. 

;hti sun-skinnecl Maruts, yield us 

The mas. .,11 ,e..d at the end I M-,- r. t.nns ,t .n h.s text . th, romm has 

tat>ratkas, in .u. ordan. e o..r . ....,„.„ f i,-. ;r.o | 

The cumin further y.nJi.t/.i me ’ 

4^ Do )t* stdv.incc [US'. l)c ^^kkious, he thou j;iacious to our selves 
(A///// h i»how kindness (Wf/jt/j) to oui olf'»[irin^ i/oiti) 

l*pp. fills up tho iltlitsiiu ) t‘l a ririf'i-i» t/z ut.'uiata no iii^/nlf^/tyah 

stotiivd /ijMZi- r/.i (j.i‘rh.q.^ <1. i, » u\r .,t xhv , 1 Im mss . Mj) fl In the Anukr , 

make noduisioiM.I [hv mis, h. it.o nJyn. iml SI'l' l.tllfms th. ni . tlit’ mrter. ho\v’ 
f\er. IH plainl) 11*' n en. eu.n In ihr Ai' .ki is i.ot asi.i| In it elsruheit* . 

it ilouhtlfss siijnifi. s. .ts m t’l. \s Ai.ukf r - - ji s>llaoks.‘ tlm resolution 

hem;; nfustil in b .itul c 

27. Against various evils. 

t.j n » •• : o,,r‘> > . ::ro i>.uluf\jm 

Kouful in 1 ej.p \*\ I -n t' « ust .| t t h\i:v: its j.rc.l* t. t.ssi.1 ],\ K.iiK . sec 

unfler j<i . 1! is aUA o . k..:.c<! tti t* » » •/./ v..rtt:t) .irfi\s j .ij>j)c.irs 

In itsi It near the 1*1 ;;.n iin.: •>? t i« % 1 1. it ei » ..t s m I’.v la. .islnmns 

aiiit 27 

'I tanslatcd . Wtli.r, 1. i:i i sj.lai^ ;i-. tiietli. 1 32 — (ii.iiith st\s the 
slnu>;hs are to make t!.e ti ntll. it» - ^ iw.n i..,. .tis m-i i .us an tiKl I ni;lish 


1. Yonder on the fuitlu-i shtue .ne .she*xiddcis. ihiite seven, out of 
their sloughs { jart)yu \ , with the shuuiis ot iheni il** we wiaj) up {.r// rya) 
the (two) e)es of the in.di,.;n.inl w.i\’i\er 

» J.tfiyH in the sense • « .ist .ni skin » I i s'l ikt ’ appeus to Iv* quotal le only here : 
the comm, icf^anl.s the wool as so 'n a ./r j.o .Vf/i j 

tvacah, Ppp. rcacU /w/t 7 . :*i a. an.l •./», in b. iUl loinni insU.ul 

nirjanJ tra^ explaining; as ./r / . 1 

2, Let the cutting;; one il'pt) i;o .isunder, she who be.irs .is it were a 
club {pifuikti ) ; asunder |k;'>l the mind oi her thxil letuins to lite (pituar- 

unsucce.ssful [are] the m.ilii; ones. 
l*pp. haa no v.irianta to lasl h:;ht »>n this mm nhsMiie .erse • it at the end 
o/r VrtJ paripanthtno 'po '^Jutvut I In M>miii leads puntjfbKiiva in c. he 



supplies ••the army of our enemiej*'* as the missing noun in the verse, and 

explains the epitliet as “ reassenihlin>' alter dispersal/’ Me paraphrases krnUUi with 
xhindiiti. |_^ I’r s /ii^/iZ-readiiit; is f^unah bhuvAh^ a*^aii>st Index p. 184 

(eorrotted j» 5‘''3)* ‘‘nt! ay:ainsl Skt. (//. ^ }$* a. which should be corrected by p. 41 1 
ol Lanman’N 

3. Vho many have not been able to^^ether ; the few have not ventured 

on [itj ; like the ^prouts of a bamboo (lumi) round about, unsuc- 

cessful [are] the malignant ones. 

Ihc nr>i hali-\eise in I’pp is defaceil, but apparetul\ its text agreed with ours, 
e\c».|U that at the eiul st.ind.s aV// <//// 1// a ;*•////. As the seioiul half is wanting, these 
two p.'ulas prnlMblv bum one \el^e with the two n polled above, under vs. 2 . The 
loinm reads dadp at eml ot b, and ud^n iia in c. evplaininv: ely- 

inolo-ically as ^nk/ui 'I he comment to l*r.ii in 13 ijiiotes i/<h//// >//>. and that to 
11 3S i;i\es a./^^'./i its ex.imples : neither ai/^a nor appears to Ik* quotable 

from elsewhere 

4. (lo forward, ye (two) feet; kick (sf*/tt/i) forward; carry to the 

houses of the bestower (/m , let indrani ^o first, unscathed, unrobbed, 

in fnnit. 

I'PP and :,i/utntu (\et/aaav) in b. and. lor d. uAi/:,} Pnnkf:A ptithA. 

The comm n.uls a///a m d. he in‘2inmu**l\ quoti^s lr«un IS (n 2 .S‘) ** liulr.ini is 

deit\ of the arm) ’* in explanatiiMi of her inlrodin tion here |_t I Ibr;'ai;'nc, 

W'dtque, .11 1 55 n J 

28. Against sorcerers and witches. 

[ I - j 7 ii/wi :n i»t, ./«.'/ lu ‘ ,* - .f ,t' \ i t /' !fi ^ ^t’,\ ] 

I he t’.vma is not found in I* npp '1 hou^h not rm nii»»m d as one ol {\n* til/nnAni 
b) tl.c I xt nl K lu*; . It IS adthd to them b\ the sel»»l (^ j;. It ts oiue used 
i.) itselt in a wii. h. ralt « ert mony lor ihe rilni of .me fiiKhleiied. atcom- 

pm):r.'2 t’le t\i» c on of an amul. t (2^> 20 ) 

1 <i Wtiu-r, :v 423 ; (iiitMh. 1 33 


1 Hitlier h I'h come forth ;;od tlomon sla) cr, iliseaso-expeller, 

biirmri:; away dixoivers, sorcerers, kimtdin^. 

In o':r !< \f, .if'x •. a misj}H'jt for ;//./ tan a. 1 enl si-n sbjip. d out of pla.c lo the 
I* tt I 1 lie I .m.iU' ni I n I'lat 1 -. 3 qu.itt s the fust ihne as ♦ \«-mplif\ iiii; the dis- 
I orin r ti'in oi Of iises inuis a %• rb 

2 I’uin against th«‘ son. on r;, ai^ainst lhi‘ kimidins, O god; burn up 
the sorci-n -s. , that mot t thi e. black-tracked one. 

In c till- « leiiin . wall twi» t»r ihn*- .>f srp's authoriti. s that follow him, reads 

kr^nd" a< It \v\,' (trt it as i \ixali\e) 

3. Shi‘ that hath cursetl with eiirsin;^, that hath taken malignity as 
her rout 0 munt), that hath sei/o.l on four] young to take its sap — let 
her eat [hor own) olfspring. 

*9 translation and NoTJ-.S. hook I. -i. 29 

The verse is related b.-Iow as h i; an,l lus a pa.allel in I'pp. Tl.e 

comm, first takes f..r „nU.,„. aU.vr), l,..t .ui.l, an allemalne 

ex|>lanation as mu,Ji,U:„.uu. .i.Ijmiku i.. i„. i.^s aJa./f in pl,uc »f -,///,•. 

Jattiiu is nu‘lric»tlly .in inliu-i.m, but i, ^ il,e sei.s.*. 

4. Let the soicrress imI [hi r own] son, sister, .'ind daii;^htjr tiapti)\ 
then let the hnrriiMi.urtd sorM^resst s nuiln.dly destroy {vi-Jitni) one 
another; let the ha;;s {m ni) hr sh.itiLreil .launder. 

The comm. expLiins «,.•/// ..s /,.//./,/ /.iutntsx., ^ puh.t^y<i ') .iptiiyun,pu sam- 
fit/i. lit*}* yti/uJ/i.if 1 (lor nti > m a r <1 /M./ mi c 

I ho 7 i'Noms oi ilus tinu ttl i [5 J *«iv' " .is ilt iLmmiecl b\ the quoted 

aVnukr. : pafintm*- * shtu 

29. For a chief’s success: with an amulet. 

•• ft' . ' ; ,* »/, ifiu fu/'iiiffi ] 

Found (i-xrtpt \S 1 ) in » :• t simm t v ej.iuiu. m i 74 

L namtly, AV \<fsrsi..’ b ^ < orn s; . nd rt s;m . t:\( I, with K\ \c) 3 5 See 
< )l<!vn1u itj, /h^ H\*nKt’tt • J\ ! > '♦> J 1. 1 .« ’j*** s t’o* Ininii 111 tlie certmon) of 
restoi.ttion ol .1 k’n-. wjih j>it piti .r.d \ «»;i .in .in.i It t in.iiU* of tlv nm of A 

i)i.iriot will ( I (lO. 2*1 t''c I n j,:n s.u-s. \vs 1 j, 1',, J.^si i,\o misls .ire spiLilu .illy 
piesriihi’il for the hiitilift; m 1 hr ^ i).e h\nin as cniplojcd hj the 

Naks.ur.i K ilp.i (iwi .m i w./ v» 7 / • tih 1 

Tr.insl.iled \\\l»ir. r. « o n:tl . 1 ^3 

1. With .in o\ir-i<»; .imiilei (Wf/y/i, whcrcuilh Imira incre.'ised — 
therewith, O isp tti, make us incrcMsc unto ro\aIty {rtts/ni). 

Af^ht, htcr.dl> ‘hn to,' so as to o\irAh'l»n. < lui \ sjmhK the lonsistcncj of 
the verse 1') ftMilinj; .1 ri-! * ro//..». ; in b u.d d for K\’ (s 1 7.J 1) 

and whiih I'j j' .dso ui\ts ( I'j-,* : .0/;,.///) I’pp luttlur has tnnint lor 

ii(///f)M in C. KV. ri ails K,r loi .p a 1 '.e ‘u ; ol ./'/ot (j) a'ht.v-) 

is rioted t»y J' in i- 


2. Rolling; over mir t‘\ei tin in that aie ni^y^ards to ns, do thou 

trample on him who tights on \\hoev«r abuses xiiufasy-) iw. 

RV. (X, 171 2 ) has in d . l',*p .1 ivt inliLiineni Mundcr. reads ,f:n.ts- 

y,Uu. Tada a l.nks a s>lla! h. unUss we pi//..i>: ihiec s^llahK-i. 

3 . Thee hsith i;oil Saxitar, hath Si>ma ma<le to increase, thee have .all 
existences (M'A/) [m.ule to i;icii’i>eh ihit thou niaye'^l he oser-iollin^. 

The connection is a-am .n i..n l. xt ^ \ the s..h'.tii.;iion oi ;r m b for 

rtt-fT-r/ir/fwlmh us to KV x 174 "‘di Vu loiiiur u , nip, .ssille to lender 
the prefix rfM/. This time iVp i m>tcad. douiaUss a nuie eoiruplion. 

4 . The ovcr-rollin.::, overconiiim, ii\a! ileNtiuun- amulet be bound 

upon me unto royally, unto the peiishm.; ot lii.ils. 

The verse Is wanting in l.olh KW ami Tpp. Its cxsi.ion. with the following xerse 

1. 29- 

lU)OK 1. THE atharva-vkda-samhitA. 


(which, however. I*pp. has). wouKl leave the h\mn of normal length, and composed of 
four out ot tlic five verses of K\'. x. 1 74 |^. of the fourth of whicli the excision i.s called 

5. Up hath g;onc yon sun. up this spell mine, that I maybe 

sla\er ot foes, without rivals, rival-slayer. 

' 9 

K\'. \ I ;«) I a, b w to he itunpared (b reailing uj inJw mth/ui/rii Epp. 

appe.its li> ini\ the versions of b. giving. iingt.inim.itK .illv, ayjw with tmii/j. |_L'f. also 
Ml*. 1 i(» I J 

0 A lival-tlcstroyin*; bull, con(|uerin;; royalty, overpowerinj; — that I 
may bear rule over these heroes aiul the people ( 

K\’ (I 174 has nisti.iil ot a mir ; d (louiid aUo .is \ o V'^ C. and xix. 46. 7 b) ; 
iii C It le-ida [i I. Ml*. 1. i<» 5 | 

30. For protection: to all the gods. 

Uhl*- !M ( /i;< ..</«/; {> - ' nn /* 1/ ./;« » U: jr if t ] 

Kou'id in r.npp 1. hut <l.iin.igMl .irul <»nl\ in p.irt l^•;;lhl•^ 1 he hvnin ht-longs, 

Ai co ding t(» the ioinin . to the lor ]• nglli «»! lile ’) .dthougii not found 

.I'liiMig tiiose m» iili«*n«.d (K.iuc. ;4 11. note) toinpoMiig th.ii ^-,///,/ , it in umiI in 

tertuuiMv'* Ii>r l«»ng liie hv ^2 |S .uul i , .i!m). with 1 <1 and otiur hvtniiH, in the 

ie*epl'on oi a \ e»ln stut!< iit i"). .imI in dismiss. d irtun Wdn suidv i;). 

Andvss 4 .ippe ir in \ iit (| f. 1 ; ) ' i < «• ou 1 i;on w ith iliiterc nt p irt> ot t)ii /i;/ ; ii//- 

s.u riti. tN I he i oirm fuithei .|uot» s it li.un \ K.ilpi 17 .111 I i.S in two «)//// 

rite>. st\I».d .ind i//, •.//» *•. .ind lioni I’.ir > f in th- 

ct rttnotr. 

1 r.i'isl.itcd \Veh< r, i\ . 4 j 1 . l.'.dwig, p 43^ < iriffitli, 1 n 

1 (1 all ye go<|s, ye Wisus, proici t this min. likewise ye A<lilyas, 

vvMt* h \e over him; him let not one rel.rteil nor one unrel.rtetl 

him let not .iny deadly vviMpon of men { uu uf) reach 

1'; p '.i.i'* I'l b th'* i.iUr ^.ltn // I In unnm's Hxibhi in c hv 

/ /;,/ [ior lh»‘ NViitix, if 1 .il ii.d, K/ \\\iv 4P* J * 

2 Wliosf) of yon. 0 gods, art* fathers and who sons, do yo, aceordant 

luar this utteranee of mim* , to you all I commit this man ; 
hapjjily unto old .igc shdl ye c.iiry him 

I'; p h i> .It ti'.i irn! na\ ttiut 'I h# lonini. re.nJs m b u’/haw 

> \’t , o gofls, thit are in the luaven, that .ue on earth, that are in 

the itmo'.plu r<*, m the herbs, ni the rattle, within the vvater.s -do yc 
in. ike o'd .ige the length of life for this man; let him avoid the hundred 
othor deaths 

I '!•• i.iiruMori of .ind/7/.;/ in b spoils the mrl(r [^or we mav rvad^jV 

ef./'////.- //ov ituft/i J , I’j.p. omitting .mil tin/, if, in.ikis it good. 'I he Anukr. 

rc(|i'Mi ^ IS to M III till pifl.i .IS of 14 svii.ihhs Pr.'it li 101 notes the linguali^alion in 
form*, I I .lit' I //;. / .ind tin 1 omnn i»t < itis this p.iss.igf (a) as example. The COmm. 
A .Is in d . "hiA/ii. .irul rirmli rs it .is laus.itive. LA. to 101 death.s, see Xijiimcr, p. 400. J 



-»• 31 

4. Whose are the forc-()fft'rin;;s arnl whose the after-offeriiv^s ; the 
gods that share the oblation and that eat what is not marie oblation of ; 
you among whom the five direr t ions are shared out -you do I make 
sitters at the session {sattui ) of this man 

I’pp. reads in d tJn no 'sohit A 'llu. comm t\|>!a'ns ohuto^ias as 

MiharanAiiitit'VtU : in In* nmliu ^ nmic siinjili Muiana Iwali editions 

read in ai Lordaiu c with m n.usi njjt 

31. To the divine guardians of the quarters. 

f/,. //<»//! ///i. : 


I f it', .IK lit ‘I f i’ K.tih 7 *u! h 

I'.n i.i'/ti t ,'t. 

Found in paipp i. 1 he h\rnii is n K.m*, n » and is also 

reckoned by the st lu»l ('■* n» thi or .</./// It is used 

with xii. I in the tciuiuni) ( p |Oi l'»r • st.d 1 i and .i^aiii. i scipl \s. 3. as 

dfhhanAni ‘ esl.dihslu-rs ‘ in .1 hk^ iil* ( ^ i 1 1 it ai m «<ni nl the »r/7 </-saf riln cs 

(OJ. 1) with .III nlf« nnji 'jI fov.i d»xia > K.ot ir it >4 </) iial in th« putlint ttomony 
^12^.6) .i^ainst <d»M HI .itn »!i • '1 till* ‘ ’ s.t^> ( l >»• I iij " t , f <i r liarles ^ \\ am ) h\ 

a comet. Verse 2 ( >2 27. not** !'ut tin «» m.i nst* nl \s 1. (pjotm;; its j>ratika) 

is re« koned amonj; tin <////?•*///.. a*, a .•*. .ipp'-d in ftt •. t<*r In' sm urit\. lonij life, 
cu . , and \s 4 (>'' !•) in ‘i'.** t^r i<»ttn’'a in th« nula iii \ .ut (3^ 20) the 

liNinn (4s a ) a< « omp w.n s m i.j* 1;, /»»././/../ • ti.rnriL 01 the sai nliiial 

hofito. And the i<«iiiin <4nMi< s jt is ,x, yj Nak^ K ii:*i 1 ; 1 i the ai/^/svA; mahii\AntJ. 

Translated Wehir o 4:; I u.lwu* 3“: <.r* th • 3; 

I. To the four imnioital rc-mn au«n.iians ot ilie re^ious (j^h. to the 
overscets of e\isten«'e (/w.v/tn, w«nii'i we now j»i\ woiship i'uth) with 

I he scrseo,< ms IL ... ; 1 a. d V. S m the latti r. without 

v.»runls, Ilkins.ius/ a dm \ /rn/- m a Iie...r;r ,.a. qmias. s a<.o h> /om- 
Aduh\ii\. wl'.uh is plamh its la- Iko 

«. Yi-. O who .uo lh<- tom i. Liion of tho repons- lio^ 

ye roliMse iis hom the t.tteis ;■ ol .//•■/'///. from e\eiy tlis- 

tress {dn/iiis) 

Tin-, re...l» mr ... •- _b i '» .\n.;U .!.ss ..... ..etc b -.s 

dthi lent, ilouhlless making tite h u^h o s, !vU .w . ; /u ./-o> 

3 Unl..nie.l 1 s.ientue !•. tl... ".'.1' . 1 make ohh- 

tion to thee with shee. th.' p.a .s r.p..n-pur.iun of the 

renions. he shall hr...^' h.ihe, t.. us 

At the l'. I.'' ...'b >" >'«'■ 

and b) the comm.. Si’P m'*'**'’' '* ‘ • 

edition U an err.itum h-r />«./'. I'pp h »■' t’*i * h .. » * 

«.» UgHrl ; tbe co.«m ..Is,, r< .uN ,hc ..solu- 
means simply •[.!•.>] one of th.- 1..... 1 » ,„..a the .l.x.s.on hUnten 

tions to /w-d which would id! out a and b /• • • 

C and d after as the scum*, but rot the mi ti i. » cman 

‘i:,j .mb m our 
uis/;//i.;> iM C the wmd pel haps 

1. 3 1 - 

noOK I. THK atharva-vkua-samuitA. 


4. Well being {sras/i ) bo to our mother ami father, wclj-bcing to kinc, 
to creatures to men all welfare [andj beneficence 

(? siii itidthi) be ours ; long may we see the sun. 

Fi'i b Ppp- bas vAi. with inanilcst*’ to l)oth meter and sense ; 

am! It leads />;</. 7 (with tuir II s in ). am! in d Many of the stt/ii/nM- 

insN (UHlmlim: our II. K ) iii\e //o aliet ////.’ in a. 1 he mmm. ^ives three diltcrenl 
inieij relalions (lakin:; it alwa\N. liowe\er. tioiii :■/</ am! not iroin •/./) for the ambij'U- 
ous iu: the Anukr appi.irs to Htt'stu in c, am! in d 

[ratlier, am! irfM.i/e. >0 a.s to make M - 1 1 1 1 a- s >J |^.\.s to sec Zimmer, 

p. IJO.J 

32. Cosmogonic. * 

K :\.:m Jnufu ‘ism 2 L:lt 4 mm 2 ti^ 

Found in I’npp i. next alter our lumn 31. I'sed by Kam;. in a women's rite 
(34. I), .Ui.iinst !»arrenmss. and aijain ( ;•> 3) in a lerunonv for piospcrily, to heaven 
am! earlli . and the r.r^t \trse (so the nenni \ luri’.ui (i» 17), as .dternate to x. 5 23, 
with lond.mtinj' water into the joimil har.tis oi tlie !>aiiinnr*s wife, in the 


'I ran,slatul Welier. i\ 421*. Linlaiu. p ;35 . ( •nriilh. 1. 3 f» 

I Now, \e people, take knowled^^e, he will speak a great mystery 
huihindu) that is not on eaith noi in the sky whereby the plants 

Witli a. b IS t«» be eomparid the \er\ hm* \\ 127 i a. b iJim u/itr 

\rut't »/,;• /*!,//<' , wh.u h n* ik« s il piwb iM» th« un.»r irnrnatu al : 

means * /a’/Ar or :r.A/A'./ (an fit is unm.aui •! >. aivl i!si» ,i.//*w//e, pa.sM\e ; 

the lurrniT seems 1 (>nloiindr d with the no'*Ji , "I wir.ih or. .us Ppp. 

re id«». ; would make laiilv ^oi.d m ns< 'will now be spoken at (or to) the 
tounfl I’pp re u!s_^.;A/r Inr vr*«<i 1:1 d I or /•/(>/'!«// sfc I’ i\ >7‘J 

j In the atmosphere is iho sialton of the in, as of those silling 
wearied, the station of this that exists (M/rAn : that the pious know — 
or they do not * 

• I >f them ’ (iJi'/w, fern,) in a tfie • ornm « xpl.nn.s l«) me in • of the plants,” and then, 
alternali\el\. •• *it t'le walirs”. doubiK ss the bitter is mrreit, the waters lieing that 
”whireb\ the plants live”(i d) I'pp reads m a a»iAo;^ o/w, whii h means virtually 
the same as our t» xl the reservoir td the waters is the atmosphere or is in it (not in 
heavm nor t irth, 1 Cr I l<e analo^v of vn.*/^ a .su,^eests as wantinft at the 

!)e^inr im; of b tiie w.iters are ordinarilv as <111101 as lows lie restini; a compari- 
son Irom the \*idu. souice Welier su^i;este<l that tf/niwa !»<• read twin* ; and 
this R I Ivors 'I he Anukr. snores tiie di fu lem v in tb.e pada. For d, I'pp. has 
krt/ bhfsat’ danah 

3. What the (two) rpiaking firmaments {rodasi) — and the earth — 
fashioned out, that at present is always wet, like the streams of the 

In b the transbition implies emend.Mion to Maksatiim, as favored l»y the Ppp. read- 
ing nara-takuitilm , there remains the anomaly of letting the verb ag|ce with rddast 



->■ 33 

(l*pp. has rotihas!) ; perhaps we i.ui/lji to r. M hhumc, ‘ 6 ut nf ili^ earth.’ The romm., 
with adisrcKard of the artent which is hil.iioil with take s and its epithet 

as vocatives, and thui Mip|>li. s 7 ir/.vi. \... .n:.. [J xos \i //,J, in b to help make a 
dual subject for the verb ' lot <1 l*pp li.i^ .n [lorc^cf-hb w b 3«.J 

4. The one hath ctivi-rcd all , this n sis uimn llu* fitiier ; both to the 
heaven ami to the all-|ioss» ssjiIlc ‘' ‘DIi Im\i: I paid homage. 

The first pad.i is'-liUM ..1 1 t.i !l«* ppi. Mi^dn - u~ tjw 'hht 

/ which is cpjlte S iti t ntor\ \\ I 1 r ’ ||* ,/■'/// *; ; ’*/,/ '1 hr pitda- 

readiii^ is ahhi^Ttifii, a»;d thi ■.•>,1, j- pi ,« ,,, 12 .is .m ev.iiiiple oi a 

compountl showing |»r< III. ii iM»n ol t’ • i •.tin: t‘j. iitsi on lu'i' r ill (in 7 10 ) 

and Ap.||ix. M ha\c lli** \«isi. .1 .I inf, , % . .it.-i t i- rJht 1 In Miinin i;i\cs 

ithhh'tlftli. and expl.iins it in f t«< . .n ; * 7 ./;.//.* to, ^tiii t.’ii ut: s ,tUu-. rtain, 

and as <i/ 7 //A/// .v . '-/•% I < 1 h 1' iJm itn.ii ihi/i. ;yr//i/w 

Ft»r :'/{ Tv/r-f./zo' in C(l'|i' i t •• .t . II’ .. :• .'i( ./^c ) tiM. lonim also 

^i\c 8 two inlerput.»ln>n^ ii-- «. ./ s . ■ ii"- 

33. To the waters: for blessings. 

round ro'*;' • «'• ’ 'A 

p . ^ ;J(\c n N Tint ' I . / ' A’ 

I Hip 10 J K. . k. Ki 

" I 4, iii'(e), als'* to 1 t ' 
h'.nnis 1.1 a in. P.r i-w 
!• iihint; aiti 1 t. 7 .0 1 i U 
t!.i‘ I'.'Mi nt •'! tlu 4 , pc •! «i.» ' • 

th*M axiselc ss bn .iki'14 »•! % *.< : 
i x I’aM\i’'!a V : ni t'.c / * * » 

1 1 ansl.iti d U k 1 1 1. 'N ; . ' 
t .nMjth, I, 37 

, ,i 1 J I 

' fk 

W ' 

\. •’ ! 

I . ; I !.d 1 ' I M .. tr.iii'it’ni 

J , » J ‘lb' ' M • » '*' I - 1 1 

• ■ s dl i , ( „ 1 1 .Mid 

' . t ..i'h 1 wi*'' M \ otlier 
» » .1.11 •'<.!. to .i< I o'jij' v\\ 
^ i>[ , •‘.’ir'-l (■ ■>). .ii; 

t ( I 21 It !.i’. a^.*.i:.-«l ih «t of 

, .1.:*,’ ?> «* i iseniploxcd 

\1 44 . 

I. ( )f ^nldon X «‘)n!. k '.c in 

iij:i:\in . in wlnnn w.i" lioin S.ivilar, 

I, \ f% st'w ... . • • { Xiiti • 

iiiSvhi'in A^ni . who. ' t :■> mt. .".oi, ..s-iiiiK-l A^iii .i' ..nihi>o Icl 
thoso w.ilcis ho w. al. i'n ml t” <•■- 

lln e.f..r l.m. • ....oi J I . . Ms u,..! b 

ami I J.;. -^o.. i.-.-m-. Ml '■>. r.M. ..1 ... In c 

IS MS e.v.- d, lo. .. .. I- >'■ 

....-.•.UMl) ; MS. l.m^ . /. -.1. r •••• ''!• - .-u, -..i L '' -= 

cf. lllcKiintiil'l. All’ SMI. ; '3 1 

2 In the ini.lsl ..I whom i;.'.- kiiv V.iimii. lo,.kin4 >h"vu .it the 
truth-nnil-faNehooil oi nun. wh... ..t lK■.mteou^ etc 

J . , I' \ , . 1 ii 1 ' a b ^ w I'M^n d'.Mk 1 k nt c ot I k It.- 

The l.r,l h.Mf-vc..>e ..m M M 1 -> « » ^ ^ ^ 

ins: Ml*.aK.c..s »l......|;h ib. 

wholly different C. '1 he comment t ‘ I i e * , , i . i 

uf the grnrral ti-'HiIirnifiil ib-U .'"-.I « '••• •' ' 

half more of oor ms> m. r.,..! . bu. sl'l'..» cUwluu .u.s .••. p. ..... 



33 ' 

3. They nf whom the {joils in heaven make [their] drauj^ht (d/tahtl); 
they that come to be abundantly in the atmosphere ; who, of beauteous 
color, ete etc. 

\n.iiii I .S Ms h.i\e .1 ililfl'trnt c (vtf/t ppthi:‘itti Our O, .11 end oi c itmpah (.l^ T.s. Ms. in 1 c). .Ml* mvn/tU tor fiAiii-tin/i 

ill b iljetornm niult is t>v )'«/w 

4 With propitious eye behoM me, () waters; with propitious b«Kly 
touch my skin . they that are ‘;hee-dri|>pin;;, ilean, purifyinj; - let those 
waters be weal. [Peasant to 11 s 

1 hr f‘'r^l h lit mtm* apju.irs .i:; un lulnw .us \\i. i. ij. It .iIdiu* ii foumi i^T S. .iiid 
Ms , iiiit I'a) c K\ lit ; c. .uxi till tuo ittlur ti Ms li.iic it alti'f tuir 2 s, b 
[.ill ri.iiiin^ n'.i.inu ti'f ;./•//<;- J. Mj*. i».u!s j.' . /. ./ . and 

ri b i.’v/.v .ui-l tt‘ \ 1 » (iiti. ^ t ) ^pl••{l•^ lilt iifiolc itrsi* iii its TS. .uul M.S. vrr- 
si»)ii i Mir r»,» K 101*1 , iv' I‘;*p his I iio Aiuikr. i;;noros tlto miun- 

il uu \ lU •uio 1 01 ;nt>i. ) 111 b 

34. A love-spell : with a sweet herb. 

.r ,» 'n - * »• • .w f'’ • '»# ' ,t*t >t.t H im : tr 1 < :w ^ im j 

\ir>rs 1 ; no lou'ul ii\ r.npp .* S' '>i.i\», itnl vs j 1:1 pul in \iii It is 

U'.O'i K i'..i n .1 1 * r nv.ii tnr '•upt rii»(:l\ n t’is;i'»n ( is r ** 1 tho .unhitnins ills.' 
pill lilt Is t*> «•*;..< I .tr* tho .i**-* niMi imm I'.i ritiitlii isi. iliniiti.; t^io mimI pl.iiit , 
till* c in l!.« < or* rno-i’i m.t . wills l\ ”.^ i >: t,/ 1 /.,/ itn slot on tin* tmip r 

s I. vii'i! OK o ( "'i I ) III! 1 rushing th uniil* l it l n iMn» i*l thi* MMmat.o 

‘I fit M»' nil Inrt’n r rlulurs it iis*<I it tht th’.p'.l ifioi n tin* ; ./ 'r, ,///,; s »• nu* o . luil 

Ik. ij iiO-ts ii*> .oithoft) i«‘r It \!! th- ip» 1.- iti » s n- «\siifif!. impnNOil upon ih# 
n<it < nivUiii* >l in it 

rrvU,**! it.rl . Wrj.r.ii j , mil. rs . tiir'i.i.i lili> J7| 

(r Hill. IrMPilt, i tJ,: /><*•/ 'w,/Mv. p p* 

I 'I’his Is hnney-iw/'A//'.*/ tbi-in , with honey we di^^ thee ; forth 
from honey art thou en:;endered , [soj do thoii inaki* us possessed of 

I !i' i*rmm t Ills tho pl.uil /v.i.Z/'./O. .ind um s I’rul !'»im nt tho n.iino .ilsu in ilio 
fi'.sol.iiKrj.s Irtiiii K i!jt^ (iii'.t* id »*t w. /•///../'./ fr,i f . th' rosN\ i;ro.itIy in 

llu \r r* villi'.;'*) 

J At the tip ot my ton;;ui* honey, at the loot of my inn;;iie honeyed- 
ni ss , m iy« v,t thou be alto^^cther in my pow'er {Itiifit), thou come 
unt'» my intent o//An. 

1 ' »• s. liili'.iTM* s no uh with nl iii 2 ; ; .irid \i o* in IhjiIi of 

whwh ihr tf* if lit r* 'inoxpii sti «1, lioipH tho i on.striii tinn (thrni^h tho .viontof ifuts 
i!oi '* i'»t .il<N<i’.st» 1% ii* t d jt. Iioirii; « .»p d)!» of boini; \iowod .is antitholii al). I'pp. has 
fr»r a v/r; >i\rf ’./o wo nut.Hiu^ and lor C, d yathii wJw kitmiftv Wh* (our ; C) yafh vth'A 
Mtim lilt { ho < oinin 1 xpl.iins mttfihulakam by nhuIhuftirxiKahaAulAm jalatnA 

dhulttkti, t k^ApH^ftam \AthA , i.o iinrk'r»tands tho to Im ailrlrossod in C, d — which 
is plaiidv wpiiii; 



-«• 35 

3. Honeyed (rnddhumaut ) [is] my in-steppin;;, honeyed my forth-;^oing ; 
with my voice I speak what is hoin \ed , may I be of honey-:isj)ect. 

VadAni mip;ht Ik? a hrtU-r it .Kims' mi C 'I he nrst half V1 ise n mUi s K\' \ 24 ^a.b 
(w. m. parAyttnam mAdhunutt puv-tt Av^nitint) I'pj) Isas it,r half \ use 7 at <7 

madhumad ubhyAtna aku> ntc madhuuiM<ii’ i 1 ht: t on. in. takes nuuUm anti muidK^tn 
in d as two iiidcpt-ndcnt words 

4. Than honey am I swtoU'r nmid/iu), lliai* tlie honoy-phint more 
honeyed ; of me verily sh.ilt ihou bo lond 0 : #///;, as of a honeyed branch 

The majority of our inss (i.oi r.p 11 !> ) k id hm. h.iidhu.^hat m b. as do also 

the Prd^pn.HS* it) both pl.K »*s < s» ;t w lo 1 ) wli- n. the \» rs« is quol«.«l lmlal\i 102 3 
4II read -dU’\ SPI*. ri‘ads -////■ (as <lias *>11 ii \i). ai.i! in.ikt s i.t> rijj(»rl ol <issj oniance 
amoilft hii» autlioliltis ; li»c <''iian lias //;/-. .md tlitiMs the wacl fnun tiitidhuiiui^ha. 
All the mss., and iioth texts ;:sv« ih- UMn'/tutd a« « t • t - fv7i in C ll»e i timin. explains 
the word bv utudhaj*^. He t^: i»*» re^inls llit- j lani as atitiiessefl in the seLond 
half-xcrse. I'pp. (»« viii ) has a aiel b \\ :!• L //'.///; l"r a.w/ amlj ifuidhumtjn for 

5 About thee with an rm omp issiiv.; ipantatuu) su;,Mr-tanc have I 
fronc, in order to abseiue •>( hatr.-.l , that thou m.iNest be one lov- 
ing me, that tboii nia\est he .me not going awaj from me 

The seroiwl t. al. ■!:> i.iin .s .1 3 : I d. e amt m i 1-3 <t. e. 

The /<«•/.» rc.i.ling m d f. s-'- '"'I 

ihec.ivHot hiitus to «: 1 . h tiu i-.l. i.nrs I iim, Sl'l’ alt.rsthe 

tfxi w .1/.1 •'« **' ’ "• ''’r’'’ 

than that the uiinm. s.ems to rci.l v, ( .i.r llj. ,'.o-t, .o.,i. s) .u. cuts lure aa 

alsoat xi s. 1 . 3 . hut not at 3 I n.e.omm ..llottMlos tnm the a.Mre-vx is to 
awoinat) l.l’pi’ h.i.> lor b d t.a.), .it./w ;■ ,.i. t; ■. Uh «,• t o/: .J: r./r / //./:•</ Mf.J 

kitdd i.tNJ. 

As fur tlu rile. tl Ttraskaiis < a .i '•atra. in 7 

[ sit nzlcr’s note. I 

35. For long life etc. : with a gold amulet. 

f/fMafi .m 


.i.rt :• " 

/ ' fn . 

\ jflfH 4 

Not found in I'.u,.,. ’ 

xananu. /r.Mrrevr AW,.,-/,. . 3 .. J > tnxo.xeut 


f,I<rri ill NaVv Kalpa to . aNo (tom l'H 4 ' 'a ' 

Traixalatcd Weber, ix 13 ' : 1 mi-xu; p 4 ;' • '-'iimb. 1 o. 

What goltl the .lescon.i..nts of '""f 

gatanlka, that 1 himl for thee, in ot.-.t to hte o.t.r.'. srU-n.lo., -tun. . 

to length of life for a hundie<l aiiiumns 

' 1.x,. thr sense (. .msidt nni: ih.U ./.v</rf7w//:'d 

It would rrrlih ihe ineUr .»nd imp * ‘ ‘ , of the (U s>ll‘ddes). 

follows) to omit dyu^e i» C : the Aniiki notes tun ‘ 
vs. (xixiv. sa) htu. the lirxt hall xetse. a .btterent scxxmd h.xlt • 




i. 35 

khila to K\'. X. 128 (g, Aufrecht, p. 685). The KAiii;. speaks oi yugmakrsnala as the 
ainiiUt • pioluiblv a pair of beads of ‘{old *like kr^naht l)errics. The comm, quotes 
AH. \Mi. 21 5 loi l,'atanika. 

2 Not lUniiMts. not ovorconu* him, for this is the first-born 

force ot the j;«h 1 s ; whos*) hears the j;olil td tl*e deseenilants of, 
he makes tor himself lon^ life amon^; the liMii^. 

\ S. ;i ) h.i.s the verse, ri-aiiin^ /a./ tor ituim .iml taninti for sahanti in a, 

a».eentirij{ ; 'h.utt in c, anil .//;•*■»« lor t\u in d ; and it re^Mrats d M^ith wan^^ 

ir.siiad . and llie RV. khila (S. .1% abo\e) lollous it very nearly (hut iitntMti in a, 
and //',.♦ /iir- in c) The Anukr. iv;noies llie inetiical irregularities of a and b. 


3 The waters' hrilhancv, h^ht, force, and stri'ii^th, also the heroic 
powers <; of the forest trees, ilo we maintain in him, as in Indra 
Indra's powers {nii/rthi) . this i^old shall hi‘, bein^ capable, hear. 

Ihoiotntn explains in d b\ : ()rniv»ionol the superHiious 

tH./pnam in c vvould rettilx the n.ittr . the text maiks the duision uron^ly before 
niNlead of after it , |_lhe Anukr hkcui^e leiknns itittiin tod and describes tlie 
pad.^ as one of 14 sv liable \'J 

4 With seasoHs of summers wj;;/,/). i<i montiis, we [till] thee, with 
the milk of the ye\i I fill [thee] . let Imlia-and-A.^ni, let all the ^oils. 
appnne thee, not bcanrvj; enmity 

I nundation to t' i 'hafu at tiie end ol a in bi>t'i m, ter and lonstrin turn. 

Hetsvt t n C and d the xt \\ron';I% resolxts /• br// into i inu (as attain at xui. 2 2M. 

an I the /i/./ims'* put thi* M^n of p.ida iii\ isinri bcttire nt .Ul»rri*, apparentlv 
tile .\nukr inakts the iru«' div.Mun [^after tf, .1* t enih 1 lie lomrn , ti»o. undirstands 

/*' coml/ination s quoted .is an i x.unph: uinh r I’r it n S4. 

I he c(»n< tniu' /v / [^6 jh,^ a^nin 7 lunvk^. with 31 xiises ; .and the quotcii 

.Xnukr ol thi' niss mvs f f f/Zr,./ « <» u //i 

.sotjii i,i the ni'^s M'ni the whoh- book up iorrv«tI\ is 35 li\nu'.H, 153 \crses. 

Mere end-* aNo the setord ptapathiika 

liook II. 

LTiik second book- is mad,, up mostly of hymns of 5 \erses each 

I, con a, ns » mkI, i,„. ^ 

. s. and jal of 6 vorso- c.,, 1,. In 1,> „„„ , „.„„dv, and 

33) of 7 versos each, and ,„„r Iv . I 
ofSvCTses oach. C.mi|..m Th. |,„sih,li,ics „f critha 

reduction lo Iho n..rn, ..r, adl ill,w,,,„ ,| |„ ,, 

a;; see. for example, the . riti,.,! ,,01, s ... li. i.',. , ' ■ - f 

The whole book h..s b,. n transl,m,,| \Veb 7 r i„ ih,- 
W///e f/cv- A.o,. a-/W y. 

462 524. I his transl.uion ivpiiiu, d. uith onlv sli^dit 
thanges, ,n /W/o/J, .SAv, x,,!. xi,i. ;.q_r,6 

I he following t.. W.-ii. r !,.eee t,. d„ unh'die r.-printj' 


I. Mystic. 

round in I'.upp n . ! , .»f's ,• , . 

NtTSf** L\ on Siliro. !, r ^ .is ... • r. ’ > \ 

in hi.<» > , j» j i 

artu ics out <tf win so * ’.iwi* .ii!* » a a., s.^ 
ot.ii uKir rosponst s, i.t ) • ii* 

Anti \ .lit (j*) I I) .ipj !*, v \ , 3 . . ' , 

ri.inHl.i(cd . WMui.x-i i:.,. 
p Sj ; nriisson, lit , 2>s 

• : I' \ts j,. 1 ,,,j. ji^j, r p.,^ so\Lr.\l 

• ’ : ' i. itl'.lli c’.st..'! nl ;'t Ij]\ .i!) uf It 

J. Ki ( ^ ^ a’l .Ktiiuss’ \.ir’iius 

s. ussnr uditrin, .ukI ilir lileo 
\ ' s t’ ..T. •: .1 i.\pin ied dot til) 

' '• • 1 .' « • t' < «/, » ; .;i i/A’if 

''to.j-’n ir '.t. //i. /c If\'h>u/t, 

I. \ cna (the lon^m^ uiu- *• ‘..iw tnii which is hi-hcst m ‘^ccrct, where 
cNcrythiii;^ hecon)i*s of one l-’ini . t;os tio spotted one {f'iini) niilkotl 
[when] born; the he.ixenf^: /'»w in^ tio^ps have shouted at it 

•\ hit of l.ilmriMl <d's< uiilv, Iik* i ^ • j it'jpi.t 1.** ks i\ .ir.d \ l>kein simi- 
larly • no aitrnipt will l>o in.idr ti» si,',\i <• i,i:»’Ks 'I lu* «. mm L\pI.U'is .n 

length (nine* 410 paces), hut «*\:d»"',th wit'll'.; I .\ 1. tii'*’on.ii ur otluu imdcist.indiiic . 
he gufftscs and fiymologi/os this u u ,i*,d ilmt. ii piji elisv onl int .ilii i- 

iiative interpre(.itionH. In this Mrsi' lu* risi i ki s . . ^ j is \,h?\ i. md thin, .liter .1 
complete ex|>osition on tins 1 .isis. In* si\s y : ”,..•//«.? //. .r./AK/z/.r- 
i/AtJuo iievah^ and give^ .'inollui . /». to h- r. s •• I’l. 1 •• ".mon n.i r.o of sky and sun ' 
Ihe tranxlation giMui implus mu-nd.iiion in c oi ;/!./•». zz*.;. . hut the tpiihct 

n'ighl belong to T'/.fx (.so I.ikIwic and tic comir 1 , or I v tko s.i.ini oburi of 
(sM) Weber). The vari.ints of t)u* paiall-l \^isji»ris .if otlin i \ts make l!ie impussion 
(a» often in other casra^ of rallu*: aimless .stumhhnc o\ci maitus not understood. 

i 7 


VS. S) .in<l TA. (x. 1.3) have the first half-verse : \'S. reads in a pa^yan nikifatk 
mU, .uul I'A. ri^vil dAuTtirntfi^tifi tin ; Iwith have at end of b. 

riie pr.itik.i Ls quoted in 1.1,’ S. \v 3. S, with the addition <// /<//><</, apparently referring 
to tl»i^ h\mn. I*pp. ha^ ptuLim u^x t^u A A in a, ekatuiifitm in b, dAtnur for pf^ni^ in c 
^with -//.)» at the end), and. ford, niit vtdo^bAvanuktir itnlf. The phrase aAAy 
.uttii : occurs in RV. iv. i. irid; Pisclu .1 (/V./ .s/ud. ii. iji [and 321 J) takes 

?■/./> to mean ••women”; the lunini. et) moloiji/e.s it as a: t tAtmilnaA ptajAft, |_Cf. 
R\'. X. 1 1 \ ’.J 

2 May the Ciandharva, knowinj; t»f the immortal, proclaim that high- 
est ahiule that is in seiret : three ijuarters (piuftt) of it [are] deposited in 
secret ; whoso knoweth them, he shall be the fathei’b father. 

Tpp I with (fi>r //iX /././). .im! for •;//.•/ Ax »i ./ Axw xx/i, probably 

intendin:; the <x/v/Ax'/*' /x < nt \s (\\\ii •>) ami V \ (\ i 34 T .A. reads also T'Cti*). 

In b. I .\. .;i\es «x^y'.x (l**r .11. d bu /'.x^.x/e.b'x V\ lias ntAilaWy and \'.S. 

r x^’/x/Axw. while \ ^ emU with / ‘.x • x/ md 1 .\ with In c, I'pp. and TA. 

.iml I'pp /'.'/x.xA? . ami I' \ . thin tune witli llie i om lureiue «>1 TpP • vnds the 
p.ida .i,;ain with /•/x*.v In d. TA his fJd lor /.nti. ami ui:tfui tor sA /x/xm, while 
I’pr* skives r'.xj bu %x* at t’;e I>< :iinnin5^. I’ 11 74 jiriviibes the i tinibination 
pUii^ p- (la d), ami botii »diti*.n> u id it, lliouijh m uls ill o-u •iX«.'/xxAx m'.s , and p.irt 
of .sl'p's, reail 't'lh luslcid lo nuke i i^onil tn^t t 'n p ida, we miunI ri solve pt-A 
Aljhe beiiinnini;. [llilhbramlt /V / i 4 ; ^ disi tl'.e vei-»e J 

3 He, ni US thf‘ father, the ;;cneralor, and he the vonnedion \battiiliu), 
knoweth tin* abodes, the bein:;s all . who of the ;;ods is the sole nomen- 
clitor, ot him all beings come to iniiinre 

III r .is i.Mi il t ls« win r« l HR iv i 'Ss, , ii.u.i* inen 115 . I ^ , .Mi J, -/^x.x^xxa/xx 

ot mtiniiival v ilue I’pp I e^uis clMlr>o mi1\ . / /' » f'andhtt* /.x/xx/x » ; . idAu^tA 
dhAtuiiHt it'iit ett . Its C. d are our ; c. d. wiih vanants l«>r wlm h see under vs % 

\ s (xwii I i and I .\ (\ I 4) h.i’.e a Mrse in.i'le uj» hk*- tl-al ot Tpp • ditfiniij; 

tr*»pi ihc latttr 1*1 th: first halt nrilv hv hivn.,' id' at\ .ind A’/./x^x.////. ,\ < on « .s ponding 

VI r^* in K\ (X sj tl n .ids in a id» tor > i^'d iLiiin lor w u/.f, .uirnts ot course 
: Ax n b. Old /.'.////.x //'.xr ri c .uid .xm/x tor r x/ : >x nid. ar.d with it .lexers in all 

poi-.ts V ’s \M« 2" w’,.ili‘ 1 "s tiv o 2 ) ai.d M's (o i ' 3) .ilso f'lllii.v it closely in i, 

C, d{Ms * XfA.' XX /X 1 1 alb'it hive I dull r* lit b i.'X',x'' ^ t/,> .d'/ty ,i it//a/dn,i i >ur 
(1 h.ix f'-'e I\\' ri.ii'inixs. 7»</cX i.i b .i..d /;./xxx.x //x.x 1 in C. .ind ll e latt< i is by the 

tonmi ami bv r.i arlv I’all of Si’l’’s .luthontus. the I ilt-T s I -vl. how* ver. agrees with 
iMir-' 11*' vif'i Ml I x^ xA* .it all. Imt, it wc make th** treqU' nt (K\' ) lombinalion 
K' ’/ / 1 I c. a pi I ft I d, n ...'ll ir iridid'h 

4 About hi-avi n-.ind-earlh it once I went; I ajiproached (upa-s(hti) 
the first-liorn of righteousness {rtd), abiding in beings as speech in the 
speaker . < ager t ^ ; is he ; is he not Agni (fire) ^ 

()l th,'. M.rsi. niilv the tsrsi p.ixla is found in VS (xxvii 12 a) and TA. (x. I. 4), VS. 
reading x/* x for /Xiixx/x. and I .\, liaving .at the end nxxx/x \itdYAA Ppp. has for first 
half pitn rx^rix hh'nat}‘iny ttytitn upiUaMtf ptatAamajA xAroai. and for d dhAsrani 
/x«’i'X//ii /xr>.» .xg/xx/x 'Ihe ,if (US. -idatffi in c suggests emendation lo -t/A< 1 wt in apposi- 
tion with pm/Aitwiijtiw ; but Oimi the comm agrees with Ppp. in reading instead ^/dx* 



-II. 2 

and emendation without any tra((*ali)i* s'*nsc tf> uuifir us is of ik) a^ail, Tl\e comhina- 
tion bkuvanesthA (|j. nr s/ha) js not< i n <>4 In lliu ftada UW of b i« 

noted from our mss. no oila-r th m u/t.i ati^tlu , hut Sl'l' «ivcs upa: a tt\the, 

and reports no various n ailin^s ; .is u ti.thi- .wi\ ar c.nt) is an iini>ossihl.‘ ff>rm 

0>. § 10S3 aj this IS piih.ips siinph .1 hlundtr in Ins li\l. llic Loiiim , with a 
minority of SIMM's mss, has 

5. Around all bciii^^s I went, tin* w< h i/thi/u) of ri;;htcousncss stretched 
out for behol<Iini4, where the h.ivm^ attained immortality lamr/ti) 

bcstirretl thcinselvi’S (.^ //wjf/-) upon the same plaec of union (yoni). 

The proper rendmii;; »l d is « ^j .^1 < il h>.t i»7/n. ]»\ it. inch jjrnrlcnt ac(.(.nt 

(which is estahlishm! 1 j\ I'i.i* i\ ;) • h »il\ nj.h. i strcsj^iiu-m r nf thi- lor ati\e st-nse 
of ybnhu. In b. Ji* rh.ips * t*> h* ho'.! t’ • i,* i ii (th«. ni'nin .ihsiinih explains 

the partiilo kaat as \uK'hiitnt il.nn 7.// >,• / » 'I in vi , as ^otid aljove, 

finind in \ S , I'A . and I'l-p t..j. 1 .< ■! • \*is. \.u'' o .r 3 a. b . l*i*p has in it 

tl/ta^tiftii stiMitar t/ham ina •/.//■< ”/ t».ra/t . \ 's n .t«S iitifiman {or our Mimani^ 

ytifiilu . 'I .\ , /f/f\t‘ // . itr t I'j.ji ’ IS IS \s 5 soiiii lissn'4 (piite 

didi-rent . for a, patt ./j.r if > • .r o 7 ”» u\ • .inun..; j a .\ml ; a sn' under 4) ; 

fi»i b. our own b, lor c. d ' </• a/, m /.i/ i'>> ih i\ > nt Cinan: taiu/hufa - ipa- 

tttuhiid ekah. Ihc lus*. ; i !a r«i,.-3iis l' x ii.-. , : j 7 . lo iii.ike it lull j_T7f* 

7'd«/ wouhl l>c cai>iirj 

2 . To Gandharvas and Apsarases. 

Kouml in I’ii.'i* I I t' I /. ’ ' 

and Mil t* (and ilu* s. ■ < 1 , e v j -« > . 1 "t- • 

haps fioni the alU d oil. ot t •. ao « ••..i-V't:’ 
sM/uie I*v tl.indhaix e^. .Vj^ira-is ii'mus » t* » 

0;. 4 . «/> 4 . * I 5 . M 1 t T e oil • ’ o-.s u 

And \crsi* 1 is .lilowed 1 \ \ et i p "it ■ - ’ ""i 
native lor one • n I'l 1' ' i' \t • 1 '* i *»!••'' 

from l!ie (, .mti K.dpa m*’'! a' «• i . •»* « ' 

( i:rah.tya;fttl) : and l?*>!n I'w \ »’» s K I’./i i ."% » 1 • t 
'I r insIaU'd . Wrl-ii, \ n 'm 

/ttttr .‘tkiitf p 35 -^1 < ’n;./;./ v». : /' '/ • i 

, \ K illK ( 2 p. with M III 

; /,'/ .ii'i,. i. ‘'’'iiihLi nanus* (per- 
i a r* me**! «I ntc jo •• .iLjainst 
M> ) . n.i siMi il times (i;4. 15 : 

il isl \ U’o s pi’Mtlllls ( 7f/^Vi' VA?/// ). 

;i tiu jp .'//./,///. 7 '‘.uiif.rv as alur- 
• ’•!! « ’.«*tcs O'l. h\mns 

■’114 ’*) I'lL susihic l«> tlu‘ pl.incts 
• 7 /. ‘f.i -t:aha,an(i 

s. ^ ; Isii 1 \ Wvlui. /o/'- 

r: M '.h’MaMit. 7 . . 1 /) //.*<’/ I 433 - 

1. The l)c.i\vnly Ci.uulh wh'> i' '■"'■1 "f ®"’y 

<ino to ri'Ci'ivo hoiii.iK^-. i" 1 h- u's) ■ tluL 

»>cinK such I ban i.i;/) with imaiuatuai. o hia\cnly ; lixmaf^o .'c to 
thcc ; in tho lu*a\en is thv st,ri«>n 

P,,p. read* in c a a'. , a > -.I. ■ ■ " •' ^ •>; 

) LItk. M ns. •It-'ihdun’ J K\ i n •"* ' ‘ 

geiits cmend.itii>n. 3*’*^ roiiil 'in u»on j »» a ' 

2 . TouchiiiK the skv. woishipfiil, sun skinncl. ikpiccator ot the scuuro 
(Mnu) of the K‘»ls 

being, the only one to icceivc hom.isAO. 'ery piopitums 

11 . 2 - 



Ppp with and inverts the order of c and d. The comm, explains 

sufyj/Z iU l)\ tutyasamilntivania, and hatas by kpodfui. The Anukr. docs not heed 
tiiat € is a pada 

3. He hath united himself with those irreproachable 

ones (f ) ; in anion*; the Apsarases was the (iandharva ; in the ocean 
i.s, they tell me, their seat, whence at once they both come and f;o. 

I’pp combines "‘'hih iii a. and h.\s i*i b lor nliU ; its second h.ilf- 

\iTso re .Ills thu.s ij.Ltnim Weber 

takes in a .Is isi Mn*;. I he comm i;!\cs two diMrsc explanations of the 

\crsc. tlie iirst takiiiv; the («andhar\a a> t!ic sun and the .Vps.u.iscs as his ra\.s. 

4 C) cloudy one, .;leamei (dtt/ydr), stany one -\e that accompany 
(Sth ) the Gandharva Vii^vatasu, to you there. O divine ones, homage do 
I pay 

.Ml iho'.e aildri-Nsed ar* in the tctmrnne .\psaiasi'*. l’j>p niitftiiifu 
for ftiMsi :t in c I he .Vnukr [^11 we ih it it-, nunc tor the nulir (as at 1 . 2 . 3 ; 

iv If*, o) moans 11 - 1 1 » iij pa»ts without noino ih* ilctnuni) of tv\o svU.iblcs m a 

$ They that arc noisy, <lusky. dice-lovm^. mind i imfiLsing to those. 
Apsarases, that have the (jandharvas lor s[>oiises, have I paid homage. 

Ppn reads ina/d/v/., an*I two ot «*’:r ew-. jp %| | the sam * I’[H) has .lUo 

in b < 'in \V I lombine-^/. /% /o/'v in d I lie v^rs* '■> not ^>/fun; <as 

tiv .\miKr calls It) ’ it i re^'iI ir .// 'c I'j it.tee’itni i'’, 1 piihei *• d>« e lo\ in:r *• 

m b, Wi.!*cr o.dU the wliole h;. m.i •• W urUlsi^i n “ r a !'*• ss n.; I'*r iln » ') 

3. For relief from flux : with a certain remedy. 

. — 'O.iw :w .»///’»/.';* ;»:v# ./»;;< .'.*4 ; /«. S / **’ >** /*• 

r ,0,», I r ^ 

I h ^ li\mn in P.'iipp also follnws the om: pre« t dcs it !•• le . but m P.iipp. \ss. 3 
.irel ft .ir».* w.intinu. ami 4 and 5 an* m i<i” to 1^c pl.i« « s . .mil \ s 1 is tlrfa* eil;. 
i:nip'i.\s It onl;. on- c (2; *•), i 1 .1 !’.«• ilsn*; r.te l«>r >.iii'ms fli^ordcrs ami wounds ( 

/.//,*. i it if irftu, • nni n ). wiiii i 1 

'I ran;||al' d \Vci»tr, \ni 13'*, L'idw.4, p 5.7, trnll. I7,7>>. (irifnth, i 43; lilooin- 
lic!'!. 9 277 

I What runs down yonder, ai'ling off the mountain, that tio I 
make for thee a remedy, that thou bt* a good rcmctly. 

At the 'luUt would l>e a \cr\ .mept.aM»? emendation - ‘ there may l)e.’ 
./j'.r/Xff (p a-’at Urn' ii';i>l»d m the cnmiTn-nl to I' 1 103; li 3.S ; iv. 25) is 
obs< urc, but Is h»-r.- tr.insUtMi as irom the pr* s«-nl partn iplc of foot riT' (like 
V 23 7 l^rf afthtfnJt/yatl.i, <, I) , \’"> J); this the comm. hivora {vyUdAi^ 

ptinfnirfud . Ppp has in .imaher p.iss.i^e tw 11. e (/z-tfAijf-fr/w (but evidently 

ni'-ant tor avatkdm ai atakam mama ^hctajam a\atakam pat iVtUanam), In A, our 
]'..\f rtail -dhAi ''lit. 



Hook ii. 


2. Now then, forsooth! how thm > , 

In b, * are mintf ’ is an almovt t,. . 

^afaw yati bhtui/am u sah<ist,tm : .i , ,i , /nu a rt ' S titinnurKi 

The obscure first pa(i.i IS lur.-tr.u.^l it. .1 is ! ni*. r. <1 1 v, I", m. 4 » 2. 

.ome ,c, .,r manipul.u,..,.. ^ 7 • ■'c. on,panu„.. 

meaning I.-inK '7 “-n Us sp..fic 

it an amarUt, mutt, ouUr .,,!, | , , ^ ^ ^ ' ‘'’= ‘■""'in explains, 

3. The Asuias .lU l.,w this sjnat vvoun.l-healer ; that is the 

remedy of flux; that has hipI.- il,.. ,!,.,...s,, „.v.„ .hsappear. 

The //!</</ text in b IS /// .V/; i > . 

... , a.itx I -'..r I is uiitlur 1 J .40 as .Til 

ex.Tm|i!e of the ..i i * /; •.» .• . i 

. ; . . • ' ‘ ’'HTc ran be no nutstion. 

therefore tliat .ho p,..pc, .....hi., . i , ..,,,,7, 

«,.nvalent (see ,n> .s,f/ .. 

both here an«i in \h. :. sj p * i . '. s t. vt t , 

, . ' I i ^ t* \t J M.‘ < tirnm '^ivcs two dis( oni- 

ant explanations of tho ,s„.,l u-.t t I • pla. e nhore 

It Kfts ripe ,<r so..,, s a . 1 ■ J ... .1 „ , ,,, , 

end. the coiiini f is ,...j * 4 di 

4 1 ho ants t briiiL; up the rcin(.'i\ fmin out the ocean; that 

is the remedy of thi\ . th it h is (juu tt'<i / the (lisi-ase 

Ihe ctnnm « xpl.oi.s .v; ..7 . . ./wm.;// }'pj» inste.ul 

//Aif/Z-.D. ihsewheif .s ! . .. \ } i>. ^ .1 4s: II , where the 

Word IS .d>l\ flisi, t! i . 1 .. i , j.,., j, //*f 7 ' /liv?. indicaus 

IHlssdde » . s.xs ...kx h'nt^Kul u/>jcikrt 

(ms D't 7.'/‘Vv;.; .. , T / . , /v uJHuire 

J he e.frt!! whi, )» .inis mike r i r '*’.^’1 • t sts i,* ,i; ,1 , ]j itini.iiMs t’.eir moisture, has 

.\\w.i\H Imco iistti as ha\!ii4 1 , • ,.i, .n ‘hLreiff Wt7>(-./ in \i 

100.2), if not Mier' 1\ a I'.ij m im« l«*i i"** lesrixMii i»i w iicr I'ciieath l!ie surf, ice, is a or |jiHd I'j'i' I •''* «in in'iejH ..dt, ut 'ttfi.'l\irst a^v t 

f sth ti * j' iUha • : ,/ v; 

5. This is a ^ wound healer, brought up from out the earth; that 
is the remedy of the llu\ ; that has m.ide the disease disappear. 

l‘pp. ti9 (nr ;i a n b /►»/>.,: *../ * /b 

6. Weal be to us the wateis, pn»piti(>us the herbs; let Indra’s thun- 
derbolt smite away the demoniacs u./Tf.rvi, far aw.iy let the discharged 
arrows of the demoniacs Hy. 

In • all the whuh SI’I* u^lnix n his text: otlier ex.implcs 

of the use of this aicu.s.ttivc foim .is nommaiu** of mi m llic u*\t (see llie Jfuiex l\tbo- 
rutn)\ die comm, has .is our islition In uri-nd.iiifin Wc may s.ifelx icyard this 

unmetrical “vt.-sc*’ ,ts .1 l.iicr .itidiiion {•» the hMnn . sn i.ii i** leijards the number of 
syllables (12 : 12 -f 14 - 3S), it is itunstlx dt>» liinil b\ the \mikr , as the n.\me niaha- 
elsewhere used in the hitter, but .ipji.iu-ntlv bv no inlur similar treatise. 

II. 4 - 



4. Against various evils: with a jangidA amulet. 

u/it itfiUtim. JmtifufiAtim ’ / tvVJ/ 

Kouriil alsu (exiept (> ami p.iitn 1 ami 2) ni 1 \‘ii|>p li. At'i ompanics in Kftuf. 
tlu* lumlintj on oi an amulet •• as iltMrihed in the text '* (/// MtanhoktatH)^ 
against xarioiis evils (the eomm sa\s. ••lor thwartim; wittiuratt. lor protecting onc’i 
sell, tor pulling tlown hiniliam t s ") 

rran>Iited Weher, \iii 140. i«rittith, 1 45; llloomtit Id, 47, ’So; in pait also by 
(frohmann, htJ. .stuJ i\ 417 41S ---As to the see /i miner, p Oy ; Weber 

and (•lolunann. II ct 

1. In order to leni;th of life, to great joy, we, taking no haim, all the 

time capable ( 7 t/^a), bear the the :7ai{'<///////i/-s|)oiIing amulet. 

Ppp has I A. b with 2 C d as its Inst vt-rse . very pussiltl\ the two half-verses 
between have fallen tuit in the ms , it has in b r^\jinl>ho r/ »i/wi///.l (lor r-. The 

comm has also, it is the lntter fi-adiii'.; The loinm gives no further 

identiheation ot than that it i> - a kind ot tree “ (adding I’a/il/Miiilw prasui- 

iihdh • farniliarlv known .it iJenarts”), he deriius T'/k/-.r//i/7M in the same manner as 
above, to i m 3 

2. From jambha, from horn viUtntt/bti, from siorthing Utb/th 

let the the amulet of thoiisand-told valtancc 

protect us about on every side 

Is pt rhapH • i onv uLsnm ’ «»r !«>ik'iA . at Ppp x’ 2 i ) it is pw-rnumcil with 
hanit^tiih i : bcl«>.v. at vn i i'<. it is < ailed t,jfn/:tnu ’ law • losing * , the tomm. gives 
two dis<'onlant and worthIes-,lv* indetinit<* » \pl inatim.s // rr.t s' lvuM signify some- 
thing < rusliing or tearing to pieces, !*pp xi. ; 4 nanus it with :/*/ ///.Via , theiomm. 
savs j a/ ^ A I’pp. has of this vtfs< (sm* undtr \s i > mil;, the seioiut half, 
and eombirus wtsnt* s in>t* pm »j,t* p 

4 This one overpowers the : /vx<i/;<///f/ , this drives otf the devourers ; 
let this possessing ail remedies, protect us Imm distress. 

The first hall verse wc hid above as 1 |o 4a. b, with ;./.;/// lor iHttff/ Tpp begins 
this time also witli n/nw/, has filA* (w<//e ') for iAhat- . and t<*r b nails mksv^pa 

bildiuite , It gives - t\lanJham with our text 

4. With the amulet given by the goils, the kindly w'e over- 
power in the .struggle wytUihutt) the [andj all demons. 

Ppp rcMds for d s.tmtihr I he 1 omm explains first- by iiiAvrif- 

rafie, and then b;, %,itn, atiin.jptsiii^^e 

5, Let both the hemp and the jahi^tda defend me from the viskandJta: 
the one brought from the, the other from the juices {nisa) of 

'I hat is. from rultivated ground 'I he •* hemp "is douhtlcss, an the comm, definei 
it, that of the string by vvhn h the amulet is hound on I'pp at the beginning kkih 
na^ tvi /7'/j j,i . and its sei ond half wise is (.orru|>tod into afanyihi abky dbkrlas kr^yd 
*nyo rasebhyah. 


IKANSI.A 1 ION A\n NOTI.S. Hook ii. 

II. 5 

6 . Witchcraft-spoilinK Hiis nmul. t, likewise m - 
wise shall the powerful pM.lon- „ur life-tinieC 



The absence tif this vi rse m Ppp m.i.r.ttis 
five verses, in ao niil.iiK t t' *- ij. i. i t:.. 

34.4. Kmendaiion to . f .,, 

Anukr. takes no not»<»* ni urtu lii-*. 
three of hi*r*s rt-aii A//.,// [ I ..r i» ^ 

t’ tin liunii oijoinall) ( onsisttd 
J-'ok I Iji- in :irlv m\ 

) I'i b wo.jM n i’,.. 1,11 t-r. ilie 

l< ‘- • !»<1 t.'.rj 1,1 oiir iiiss (LI.) ;infl 
M't. tM ] u, ; J 

//■ / 


5. Praise and prayer to Indra. 

‘ft I . 

/ u; ,11 • ui (/ tn.rt , 


\'crscs I. j. .ind \ iir i.oj- •, j-,., , , 
\’rr.s«*s I 3 •Miur ,iLi, j.| sv <-1 * : ; 1 .. •! < • 
iorm p.irl ol .1 l"n^* r 1 . n m \i > / . ^ i , 

\s I a. b ( )M tin M s\ .1’ <! </ ‘^ *'.1 . 

\* rsr>. a*» i<»nij »»><<! «»i . u \ 

l!;v ei\<l of I nil of l’,** ‘ rv* t »• i..t s’,*’ j 

j) 1 I }l . .ii.'l \V< 1 " i. 1 < I* ' , s! • . 

I tiiMlrd M i s« : < ! ‘ r . . ' • . .r ; 

tlu first {j\» \tiM> t.i ]:\ \ ;s. !: •• , 

1 4 (I ;) I. 2 \ o t a c 1 . • •• (I N 

\ 21. J 4 . ; J !_! S' s, I f t t • 

1 be h\ 11.11 js ..-s* 'i . - . . I • . I , , c » . , 

to St « vir«* tbf itt I ' II ‘ * I i . * . s V t . s : ' 

slrtM^th 1. \ !• I 10 III 

M « oir|».i'sn s 01 ( >1 i iti< ' !i • ' I . t 

Atld t'l-* •••.■'. 1. .. t, s t \ IS' 

Ill'll.l^ «»J ’'mss' • . ^ 

1 iAnsi.(ti*<I W I i * r \i.' i ; ; « ,• •• t 

AV././ / , ;» jfii. 1 

; : • LlwIm I- Mi li 't ( MM ) 

, 1 ; 2 , .M.d tlo. t ,sl Ir.Ml r-'tS 

K 1. ( \\ 1' I M.' oti s 1,\ r. 1)1 iiialik.i 

• J.s « I tk. jit • «{',ai sti iji iM- .,1 the 

• S',*: i'.'. N j',‘, I <: (ti rii* .it 

I • * 'I lo**,’ / , ' </.//',! S^fi, 

I * ’-4 3 *> hi* li.'JMil }<\ \ 

• I ' 1 f- » .K ’j /,/ ffi-] ’01. i) , 

* L 1 . 1 olluTs ,11 < W \ 1 
'*"'** ^ '' M ^ I , ( 1 I’.ii i! t r K\' 

'* ‘ .:s I'.l } 1 It ,, J 

' ' * ’ rs* s. cl t’ii»st.- MiUitltil 

? • I ' 'o (J, sJiM’iJ 

. s I 1. : , *.<..• Dlp'l, ) 

' i' f.: ‘ ' I *i I i 2; 1 ;) .1 
K ‘ 11 ’ 1 ' ; > i /;;, 7 r t'> 

wi'^is ; " (’,s uss I\s 

I <) Ituh.t. onioy tin*;: '’iim' mi *<'irif. () Iv. :«* — \Mih ihy two 

luys ; <iiink ot the juss..! s,ipj> iiu«'\k .tcJ here Iomiil; the 
sweet Iilr.iiii^ht !.nr one. unt*' uib'W iti'-n 

I’pp. oMiiis the tioi •' 1. u ’,*c*: s . s ' 1 1 ii , ..’:s I c i! I '1 s ill 1 wimks to .is'seit 

oj the\>in ti \!s ;n ^* r.- i d 1 1 n .ds .» »» ; .’i ^ 1/ ^ t,\: ./'t; •.. 7 /,'/' r I't sii-.’.j . i, • j . .1 n* "i ^ \( s j,, 

app.iicntly to \ • Ir.i'l .is # ;i, *.•: '\ ' 1 li t'..i !» a,. 1 1 ^ ...O' tlu* .si nsi less 

^thi/ht. The thud, in ill t-r ihoi • i I« Ms is/*.*' •( 1 kt .» \ms^ one ’ M . tlu* 

tran.«>]a(ion abtut* iinplus i' v« <«*i * -s.^i lU 1 cnuMi’O'o” ' • > to * 

///.f (to l>r i(‘.ul //orr/r ‘/..h. Wtlti t "’i.s r. . ..7 \i.s .folij.s h.OL'tlio 

older WcoAr.j, fm w. 7. ///.*» I In . - . '' i*- 10 -m li.t I'cciili.u siiiuliio^of 

these verses; as. indinl. !u* li ‘s n.i j** i *s, .i!. I s m*, to s-nt such .1 c.asi*; 

he explains Wt. Vr tiist as //;.7 v .•^ •*. .7*1 7. the -i is /• .*/. . ;* r-l . ’ ^ 7 . .m .is iiilni 

tarpayan or j/ffntwJMtn I he \i’i:kr s t: .11 tin. * o:..i liali \use m.’hs .i*, 

d 1 1 syllables, in.stead of •/ * 10 

ii. 5 - book II. Tin: ATn.\RVA-Vftl)A-SAMHITA. • 44 

2. O Imlra, [thy] belly — like Dne to be praised — fill thou with the 
sweet [ilr.iii.;ht] — like the heavens — with this soma- -like the sky 
; unto thee have ^one the well-v»)iced intoxications. 

I iic umissjiMi ol' tl»iN in is jnnh.ips only .in .ii t iiit’iilal one, due to the 
M r;oo. 1 he I i'*! uu« ipol.Kion in the »‘thei lixts is //.»: \ am ha . to |;el a sense, Weber 
!'« ! !I\ I nu MiU to Hi'lixAt'i //./‘like [ine hoi 1 ] i»t .i the ( oinm. eKplains by 

/.''‘..’j ( IK ft.i ./ii/ ‘ ), takin*; no lueil i»t tin* a< ii nt • which, however, 

riiiU'.u^ to he ».h.iiv^t*l to i,/*, \shiihi\it mmim he ^i\en it, piihaps nAt(\o f/if “like 
> 1 !. ini'*,* woukl he mo^l .u 1 1 pt.iblc In the thiiil iiiti tool ition, S\'. i ombines »g*»i/ nti 
ati‘! .\i, ^ h h i.iit f. t . and the iuns \ai\ bttweiii the two, mir edition reads the 
lorn:< r, with t' c n»a‘or:i\ i*i otn ihns . spp !i i el liter, wiih the riKijonty of his . one 
(ii ».\i) oi oi:is mrri.M't to » i/ /. ‘/'.i I he tlin « i*lh« r l« \ts h.i\e at llie md 
1 • t->nu!i tiki» t.*'. »i as n . Si»4 <!••'» t. n t ti» l:o\i r'l it . iiiti he takes j:.i/ as 

oi lutatot' V ihe I hv \r.akt s. iji> I'li vitm as *' ■ '* s I,.* «*\ila!*!es 

1 Indi.i, .1 swiltl) owrmmin.; fnen*!, who slew X'liti.i like movinj; 

, who] vpht Wila like , wb.i> ovn [lowered his Iocs 

in the inloMcatioii “t st»ma 

1 he triPsl.r*on i* 


i h isf 

, o‘ir t' \t. 

t' O'l^’l t’lls 

IS t’ '• ol'’.i I \ ( rs'nus 

show, Is 


'In 1 luri; f. d ii. a. 

b c,, 

n to t 


A M ’ll. M .. 

I t* ' 5 r ^t ’.III 1 pol ition 1 hi- 


rs read “i !a it 

At : t 


it 1 : ‘r- : 

•i r i ' rh 

• : ' .0 ” , 1 I/i t /; t , , 

>iir I <t/!t 

M l\ I\ !•/ ;..i i, 

. 1 !.•! 

> ‘ ' 

is ’• \I. ' : 

I . \ 1.. 

1 III* u’u . \j ! I'tjs j 

.///. I’ISt 



as / ' 

• l A V ' 

!• u. 

1 s t' • ot! 1 r !•• 

Ats. Old) 


ifit ^ tl . ’.•■'t, 1 ( 

,l'*0 s 

, f, . , 

.t l’’. .. P Is 

the t'-Utl 


! i, aiu! ^0, ^ ,'ii t' 

•Is - 

1 * . ’/ 1 

t:t .* 

/ . 

' t ' V a 

All the 

\\ r- ; * i 

.. le; 

, li 1 f '1 

.» a*. 1 -1 

*1' .1.1 V’! , t 

h IS »r \* our ed.tloi; 

1.. iki s t'o ! ♦ ‘ • s>ar’. 

1 Ml, 1 

I'lt.. n 

to \ : if 

j f M'l:.. 1 0 

! s ( .r,.l so t //;,/ 

/;/•/,) in » ’t ’i; uk 1 as “Jipjx •! ti» fl » .i’ t , I'a • • r \ts r • Of. tin tiu t T 


, 1 . a i.;.4 :• n .r < » 

i^rei s witli t 

« rn as 1 e^' 

inis t . 

.? I \S .«r 's i.i Ni*ist,H 2 ar.d 


arc i|Uot( li 1:1 Ik Ti i; 

i 1 o-irm It. ' 

‘ .it I.ot ’ 

, ,N.e. 

to . 1st i 1 . ! .^ht ‘ijM)!! l!ie 


i'! [‘si 1 ’ , weh o- 

>t ' -t ' i itl.i 

*1 'll* s aiid 1 

.ur 1 h» 

n ids ' / to ] 1 hr nil till al 


h ..tior, 1 ' t*-,. Xt 

,S 0 ! 1 Mill-,. 

St :.M h S.S 

It a; 1 

• :i 'III . iii’piu s till- diN ision 

o • ' ' * s ; s , . .1 s 

I Let *!.» [I'l s^.M' s.iFti is ent» r thi i*. f ) India , Ml! thy ilwoj |>aiiiuhes ; 

help, (f TMi.^h*y oin* ' t'»r niir pr.i\er tt/V/// enme *•) iis ; heat |my| call, 

en;ny nr, song's, hithei, <) Indi i, with sell-harm ssed |stceds], revel 
hi II* uritn _:ri it '/>y 

I his is A«, 's pi unU s’.ii.\s. in nie up of t lo like th-* pre» edinij three, 

of f»,»: ! .1 -I'.ilifhi' [» id l^ I u h. Ii'it witl.iajl oitt rpnl.itions I hi* liisi halt-verse IH 

%s ; ri \», " whiT*- It rea«K thus ,t t t K i' it tui \ tthita /rs/rAl nil: 

////</.: / ' tk\t fr>t n,i ’t7 //: tin , v/,/ t )t tl.e tvio \eisions of the last 

pAm, »’ at of IS ihml thss the n.Mi;i:i.ii. thoii];jh ours (the /</./•! has Mtvil il iht i 

u,th ) is in.;i mows < ;.ou;i^h to mve a fair s* om: , thi* rr.idini; is authenticated by the 

Prat comuii nt. wl»u!i ipioti s it more ih m om e (loin 3S , iv. 113 113). The trans- 
lation impli-s th»' restoration of //:•////■/, as liie onl\ true readinij [^namely, an aorist 
imperative from - see M/ (it,i/n ' -j o .S J . the ins,s all read vhihtihi, which SPP’s 


TRANSLA'I I()\ and notks. dook 


-ii. 6 

I'r It 

JS fllthlc 1 J 1 j ID 

A* < flit nf 7y/i//\rv7. ijram. 


edition as well as ours j>roperlN .mtnrl-, to tv,/,//;/ i m. 
viiihihi; hut \Vhitnc)*s huh \ , ,, } ■ 

under vh . J ’I he ».om!n. rt.uU i t.hf/u i x.,i ,,,^ i , ' " £ti haxc vuUhi^ 

verse is rather more alt. n-d i.i i: \\ \ 1 he s«.( ond half. 

I.itions, it runs thu^ . ,ii.: ,:,i i, i.i,. 1). vmUi ili. irjt-.Tj;o- 

bftir tUtiyun na ttuuit^ t w , . i., ' ' / ' wnv/c- 

thc interpolations). r.-a.!:n, f.,.. .i ,,, 

MtufilYti ftut/te »antl\,i I I,.- \.. ihr 'm- i\ • ' ■ ni'\u i'uf^hir nuit^a 

-- 40 syllahle.s. [A-^ t*. , iMuiA: ,,a. . 

§ h2«.J 

We may ouijim lurr lii it th. 1*, t*. 
appended three rcis. s t)\at i- o. ..j 

mote \i‘rsc. whuh is 1<\' i - 11 ^ 

five sv 11. d fled 

5 . Now wi!! I |.r...Ia,.n th.- hci.,,,..,. of In-ir.., whuh first he of the 
thiin.lcrholt ii;i/n>n ilt.i . h. sh w tii. .Irt-on 1 h- i.eiK-tratc.l to 

the waters; In- .split lto.;hj ;h- h. „1 tlu mountains 

‘ ^ ^ ; ’ ) • N 5 and 6 

t » Nt t- ‘Ailhijui aii) \aruint 

\ ' ** • M .// / » I Inn jt I’jip. also 

' ’ ''-t 'I: th* MISS [^1 \t.i.pi out <> I, 

• • n IS f >n c tudanafi^ 


IS Hill* ,,f tive \ijrs«s. the 
•y’e*ii> ..t-.r ' A(, S adfls one 
' 5 if I’.t. r; ol.ii...:,s aft< t }i ol its four 

\ i rses ; 7 ,it< K \ 1^21 

fuith* r in .Ms i\ 1 j 1 ^ ,,,..l •, h 
fnun th«* K\ tt a<i.:i2 th* % » 1 
ntl. ts rjii \an.iols » .1 tt 
and -nu test shoul-l h t% . t 

and /./A// /,; 


I'l 1 . 

t'» t;ic mountain, 7 'vash- 
U’lili r*' »It . like lowini; kiiu% 

f> 1 f o sli w t In* (ij i;j t n it it I'l 1 «, s itt 
\ir f.ishutiu-il for Ijm liu* 

liowiii:; {s)<ntii t, .it on< i- tin. \\.it« js nt 'iown to the ocean. 

I he text IS ]■! > ( is II ; !• s .’r.. is • 1 t 'c •.!:.« r p iss.i^. s. j i omtn t xpli'tis. .r; ,7; ) ,i 

ns »/#♦//.’;# ,7 (:T..iii (...•* > . tn-i '7/74...’ ts //< . . 7^.7 ' 

7 Aclinj; like .1 hull, in* ihi. som i , he drank of the pressed 

[drau;;ln] in the fnLhitul rv. liu- hounteous one >ui) took his 

niiNsiIo t hiinder holt , he sl« %\ ni'-t-i'oin oi (lia^ons 

K\ (aiul 1 P ) ri.niiinus .0 a ' ’ * »• ./. i . '•o 1,1 ni ilio :n'-‘ ( uu iu-lirv^ our () ) 
<l«Mhe same. 'I he ««>;n’n ue.d- rsi » '.’s t’-* ;»;s 7 :»*«-; /» as t'n I' tte 7 (hi\s. 

L f or d. r.ithrr. ‘smote hiin, t'le tust •• :.i ni dr.i^oi.s ’ 1 lu* iI.jitrent.L is to he sure, 

only a rhclitrii al «Mie J 

In the filil ,/////' ,;4a. < riding her. ire .mli-iel > le.inps. of 20 \irses. the old 
Amikr sa\s : J./it- «■ e • in 1! e rv-st thusion ot the > .erse hook ') : /f.ji;/,// jw/r 

Max o 'VfMtviw. 

6. Praise and prayer to Agni. 

[^VfMiraif.r {jtjm/.i/ittm i-i) »./wi f' i. f 4 ^ «' *• . 

^ : If .f'/o; .'#f ‘ 

found in PAipp. iti., also in Vs (xwii 1.2. Is lo i 7). and MS (ii 12.5). 

Used by Kftu^., with vii. .S2, in a jf.Jwwj nte loi sucicss (»./«///./. 51; 15) : and also, in 

ii. 6- 



the ch.ipter of ()ortonts. alone, in one ai*.iinst bail \ears (j</wJjr). VAit. has it in the 
ceremony (jS. 4 ). at the bej^inninj;;, anil a little Liter ( to) vs. 3 .alone, on 
ilepoMtini; the lump of earth on a lotus leaf. 'I'he comm, quotes it from the Naks. K. 
(17 ami l.^). m a lalleil . and, Irom I'ari^ist.i 7. j, vs. ;(with vii. 35), 

in a nii'htl) nte. [^Observe (note to \s. 3) that I’pp. .ij^recs ^\^th the Yajus-texts and 
Kaui; Ml associatini; our vii. 82 with this hsmn.J 

Iran^latcd. Weber. \iii. 140, ('.ritfith, i. 4.'^. 

I. Let the summers (SttWi/), (> Aj;ni, the .se.'isuns, thee, the 
yeais, the seers, things are true; shine thou with the heavenly 
bright (/lUi/f/a): illuminate {J-Mii) all the tour directions. 

IS nad-i at the eml /»■////:• i #jr ( tor idAro./.) I’pp has for h ri/Mrtt/n/r,/ rtuy/» 
lii MU and tn c i;i%es tr\u Mint 01,1 lor 1 he < omrn j^lovsen stiMt^s by 

ui*0i: l^lf the translation implies that /<>../;/, r/,/ is ai^instr ot .i« compariiinent. 

It is It ss app<isite than M." Whilno\’s earlier vi rsion. ‘ .shine tt>i;ether with heavenly 
brii^htm .ss ’ — whuh 1 take to be .\i;ni’s own (»i. K\’ \ 4 2). His brii;htness is nil 
b\ da\ -time. I he •• tt>.;i ihcr ** wtre better lelt out J 

2 Hoth do thou become ktndleil, A;;m, and do thou increase this 

man, and arise unto [;reat ;;()od fortune , let not ihine attendants 
Mi/fttr) be harrncii, () A^^ni , be th) worshipers glorious, not 


'1 he other texts are in aifordatur in reailmi; ' i (lor : ./f in a. and I’pp 
n^ arlN ai^rees with them. ha\ in.; //.r/z >•.//; zvc l<»r c tin ot’i« is 400 w*/ .a 

te ,^}i 0 U 

3 Thee, () Agni, do these Brahmins choose; b«’ propitious to us, () 
Agni, in the [saerifictalj i-nc!usiire ( ^ ajw. ./z.///.r ) , ri\al*sltt)er, Agni. 
conqueror of hostile plotters, be thou , watch unremitting o\er ihme own 


MS In^ the Mint* ifxt . the two talirr-. ee.c i sii;htl\ diili r» rit C hz/.z/m r^./ 

(/b', /«.</// ' < / rpp lor b p'.*'' \ •vr' //.."'/» 7.> //# aitd f‘)r d » ; »’ kui tiittihv 
tip* 1 4 u, ft 10: It l'u“. t' '.j rt'.. !M*t«*rv \n our \ii S2 3, in! it is cif\ noti'Wurlhc that 
t’n t'ir» f \ li IN t \ti (1 » lii« s in. I hi inmm, orl-r. f /w/ «////• //n/ b) I'lttvttmA 

Mill', i \'t f'ti0t!,iii .1 \at0i h,i 4 Ui 0 i^ ’Ii:-!'’ ai.'. -»\iisi;;hl of oura.' ’Ihe 

.\iiukr p I'.M >. .'..I' ii'.tn t I'.i two p.**! i> m tl.e viisr. 

4 Take hold id tbine own ibzininion .Agni , with [thy] friend, 

Agni, strivi* ( jiz/; in fru ndly wisr . [as om ] ot midmost .station among 
[Ills I fellows (iiijatiiu 1 Is one] to he .severally invoked of kings, Agni, 
shine thou here 

\ S. I s rr‘.id iizz. for »t/'/z,z in a. ami all l!u* tlur»’ paKiib l texls h.ivc witratihiye 
(fi)T -’//ill ) in b. whih* J’[«p glv^^ 0011 f 0 it, //u III Ml. ami the c oriim. In c. VS. T.S. 
till ‘’Ut ll.i* in* I' r )», .iddi'i^ i-.//r/ alti r -iMiJ , Ms has instc-aii iM/rdrif, Vpp, -sfA/Aa 
miisyit. rpp .ilso has .z ./i* ./ at < nd ol b The three other texts ai i ent viAavyAs in d. 
'the z.oiiini. jiuns f,ijfuti0i to what pi« cedes, and .h.iki ly |H)inls out that BrAb mans arc 



-ii. 7 

Agni’s * fellows ' because, like him, bom fiom the rnoutli of Hraliman, and hence that 
sajAid here means Hrahmans. IIjc untfnal detinition of the verse (ii + ii .S + ii 
=; 41) is wholly artificial and bad. 

5 . Over enviers, over delinquents, over tlie thou;;, over haters, — 
verily all difTicuh things. 0 A<;ni, <!o ihou cross , then mayest thou ^ivq 
us wealth accnmpani<d with heroes 

The translation imitlirs nm ihI.iHom »if the iinjjo-sil.jt. n/Zt/n to , the comm 

shows his usual pi-rwis** b\ two diiureril cUmolo^u s of ;///v7y, fiom 

ni han and from /// • hi\ , n» itlo r <if i!'. ji. js w/.rst. iha.n the other '1 he three 
parallel texts all h.i\e I'jiji w//-/! lloiii (<litu!is nnd but it is onl\ a 

common error of tin* mss. putf t t*ir n . iji.nls li.ilf of Sl’b s ions (t!iou;,di none of 
ours) have the tiu«* leading it: iZ, t\ h is ih it .iI-mi «>f \ s .mfl TS (.\IS iZ'tZZius). 
In C, all llic /.//// rnss ^;f«s. nt th< .I'iSM-i lu.iyiitij :< 7 . and iie.irl;* all tiie mss 

\tA\C Zttfd unai I ••iiti d. in sjiiii* <«i ZJ. .md ' mI'i jaint'd t* 'I"* I*a\e it so. althou'^li three 
of .sl*r's mss. have «ori‘«tU .i> .ib** \s .omI T" ;iuc* for Ztir/j 

/t'itfft, and rpp* ^ ^ I S‘ h I'l l' ft:tti» 'ti ninrtir atv atatir 

4I/1 for b, \ ‘^ I S Vi a .ttirn <;/. ./» Uitn ti^n a*. 1 MS. a.ittnu lUt nittZim 

rf./i.f 'Die comm r\pl iins */;<// .o •/, /../ • ,iZ:,tr t. >,nt l:i lh« nictiieal dehnition 

of the verse. must bi .1 bid. le.idin^ lor .oA/;a 

7. Against curses and cursers: with a plant. 

A • 1 ;.W.: :v 'f" • :ni i f' 

u' :r • * \ s' 

Not fount! in I'.iiop I sitl wit'* ''d'li luiirts 4,1 v* S;, t*t<' ) ’n a lualin.j^ rite 
(Kaui; t 3 3O l*’*’ (i)' 351 tlie lumlintj 

.mof .iiiaimtl.l AivU!.. . ■ <o lu-m .iMin; '•■■.cl N.ik> 

in a 1 .di« d //'..o.' : 

T,.ii,sl.ilc.l \\ MM ns. 5 '■nmtl., . 4 > ■ lil'"'™- 

held. 01 * 

1. Hatctl by niischu-f. ^‘"I boiii. the cursc-cifaciiv' l'b‘nt bath washal 
aw.iv from mo all cuiso**, .i"! watorv ili> 

An (\i. i'"* 4) h'" ■* '•r'" Mx" !'■ ' ’’ ’ 

• .1/,. /. .r /■’■> •■■■ ” ’< •• • '• ’ ' ' 

i-.'/'./wi ill c L<1'*< I'l. A.ll' V.! pi J " •" ' '■•■'"■'••r >■ 

SU..S, ./r..'.- ' ' 

.s«. -/«! c .l« ..</.»«/ In our ,.l n d • -A*- ,.,a .u. . nt M,.! -ut o 

l.Ucf>. IlK- . nuKr. r. fuvs I'ns t m.- I- th.- ...-t mlu.i'unl ...nli.i, lum 

*7>a ill C- 

2. Kijth the curse that is a s an.l tho cut sc that is a sister s. what 

a priest (? W;»/.r«l fiom tuiy may ou.-e all that iW^ umlornca 

our feet. 

.sa/rt/wd pnhaps here -of a fell.n* «.le.- an.l i^i '’''‘’'V''"'''* -b* 

live-; the comm, explains ,.>m, as - MM-r. i.ul . omio.ny one > Mlows 

II. 7 - 



3. From the sky [is] the root stretched down, from off the earth 

stretchoil up ; with this, thousand-jointed ( /-rf/z/Ai), do thou protect us 
about on all sides. * 

Cumparc xix. 32 3. when* Jdtbha p;r.iss is the pKiti! .similarly clcstrihctl and used. 

4. Tmt^'ct me about, my proj;^!!)'. [and] what riches are ours; let not 
the nigj;ard ^et the better (//) of us; let not hostile plotters gel the better 
of Un. 

Our text read.s .U the hej;innini; /in» witli ilu* niajoiit) i>f our ms.s. (only P.p.m. 

W.K Kp .ire noted as ru)t doin^ s»») . hut /.i// w/w/, wIiaIi .Sl’T. >:»\cs, and which all 
hi.s aiitiioiiites, a.s reporttil hy )um, Mippoit, is douhtless heller, and ihe translation 
h>ll4i\\s :t d'wo of «>«r iiiNs (II K ), wilh one t>f Sl’T's. ]i;i\e tihifit //#» ///• in C. Ihe 
irre^u’ir meter of li-e \irse » s • ** • i 33I is \cr\ ill desinlictl 1 »\ the Anukr 
[ I ht* ot c is pul alter tint, hut t!ie .uient ot t.ut^u^ marks iliat as the 

d 1 \\’ i\ II I 1 su^.;f^l^ th it our c Is in disordir.J the curse :;o to the curser , our (part) is along with him is 
trieii'lly (sti/iJtJt , of the e\ e-conjurer i the uiifi ierully, we crush 

in the ribs i •. 

Neil!;, al! our ms^ I* \I K ^ ind pul <‘1 Sl*r’s. re id in b tv/’f/,\ 

also hue in d ) 'it I e ihsl '» l.i*'*. ol / .in»l is u**! t I< .ul\ made in any of 

the ins'. 1 he (•>nun tikts l .\e.d n C as tao ludt pendent words. 

['>. c I irr*.i .*> t ..t. , .1 . i l<» \»\ 2J 

8. Against the disease ksetriyd: with a plant. 

t m »r • .»» . //• f r** :< u !u t»i j fiiti, 

4 : i* /• . < ui » * ’ i ♦" ./• ] 

[ oi . ,rs m Tuip 1. It is rc«konfd iKiae 20.1, tn*ii ) m the t ilm 
^ n r.'l is us. d m i hi .ilin^ i eri mot.\ ( i^.unsl /{•#/;., •iAia .7*/,/./^ >(t\ ,i 

I i‘ « «»!n;> in\ i:.4 \ ir*' isprniu.s np«'M i *<• <’.s» utd p'ls'ii. wli'i h are iv nlenil) 
rithir d t*! t'* e w*'rds n( t’ e lext l'. n ri pfi si ?.l. 1! ! ■. I'.i m | 2'* 41 27.4), ami. 

Av. iTi'. .4 !<» I'.e I i-n'*:! . .ir»* r it'.er ill. ri ilU' l‘...ia to '.e 1 • rlDrim d sui » 1 ss.\il\ 

Iri silt I U ».!>• r. xi.i 14^. I ud'Ai^. p 51*^. « .1 .intI . 1. ; • . MoomiIi' I d. 1 4, 

I .\nsrn are the ftwi»; blessed stais calleil tin* I'nl istcners u/r//) ; b*t 
thi m unl is^cn t. / wui) of the i‘\'tfrn,i the lowest, th<* highest fetter, 

r >' s *>• -‘ftn.i (lal.. * of t‘i.* Jhld’) ;s l.'i.iled i Is* i sp- 1 i.ill) in in 7 

n". • . d a!^-. IS I. I IJ ;• r. l* 7 ). I lie 1 oinm -li !im s it l.rie as k\ttrt' 
i th /'Ut' :/',i tt^ : t: i/ tr ’l.twth (ipiotr.^ lor ih.s i.'.ti 1 prrt.ilion Ihiii. \.2.V-1 
K /k ./4 / '''’////> // ^:t jf'itr PH It* t ,int i ./j .r- . 7 . ; (/ //.;/r Kuiytikihthtipasmp^riV 

' i' ipir*!.?!;. ui ml d.snrih r. of •. ui- ns hTnis, appearing in a whole 

l.rn»I . or p. rM; s tnei. nm . 1 Ii- r..-imij t ;. r/./.v • ihi l.\o nnl.istf m rs ' is given l.ller to 

tiie t ' o St o-^ 1.4 ihr >trg of t!,* ’storpioniX ami 1 ‘smipioniH’ Si v Survii'SttiiiitAttta^ 

not- :■» -.n; *;), and ilur** s‘-ii.s po gnod reison to rloiil»l they are the ones here 
ir.f .111* <1 the s* 1* I t'l.-i of iwf) -ko ill! r)n’s[iir mms is ni*t .m\ moir str.ingf* than the appeal 
li> st.iis .It ill fio 1 1) ;en I'hntifhs tin m with Mida, whuli is the a.stcrism composed 
of th*- Smrp.oii s t.u! 'liic t.» rsi- is m .irb i<!. niii ,d with iti 7. 4. and its first half i» vi. 



-ii. 8 

Ppp* ^ iuki^trt\a,yit muiiciitam sam^ranthya /jri/ji'diya ca. 

rhdr fthc two stiirs j hciiliit}' vsrtui* uouM (l'ju1itl<ss l/c toiiiitf.tcd with tli'j inetiioro- 
lojfical condilionn ihe tim..- .11 \s!,>. li iluir luliacal ming takes place.’' 

suManta, l.c.. p. 337.J 

2. Let this nij;ht fade away let the bewitcher^ (f , abhikk- 

van) fade away ; let the /7<//0'</'Llfaein^ ( ud^aufi) j>lant fade Itie ksvtriyd 

The night at lime of «la\M» is mi*aia. s.i)s tin loinni fdouhth'^s torreeth) He 
gives two renderings of //.<// 1 * nn, iKan nmt X*/ abhitu kurranah^ 

the other from ktt •< ul,’ idfM/t.i ././/. .\i («jrfli'ag Ui Kaji; the h\mn arrom- 

panics a dousing with picpaml water «!» tin: house ( 'b.t/in ) . with this verse it is 
to !x‘ done at the end of the mght 

3. With the stiaw «)1 the brown, whitish-jointed barley for thee, with 
the scsaine-htalk -////// 1 <jf sesame, let the (/-effacing etc. etc. 

The comm, undcistaiuls iii a ..s i tn-e si> named “with a splinter of it ' ; 

(tlaptiijixs to him ti. n W H‘i th.s \crso •• is mtiitioned in the text’’ 

is directed by Kain,. (JO t‘» 1** I** ' '.d « t. ej«l d.v) (so the comm, ur.d-astands the 
connection) a < lod of eallli .lod sl-’l li'^n. a j .I’a i I « t- 

4, Homage to ihv plnughs homage to thy poles-and-yokes : 

let the /•.f< //7j</ effai ing etc cU 

Comm, makes /dw,.;/./ » /'or. } .-mag- to the .specified parts of the 

plough <*r to the (liMi.ims of t'‘<»:‘ W i‘. t'.'sMJs. .U I'.c «... k person is pul 
underneath an o\ h.iir.< '.««« d pio igii tor ’ iKiiu; "wah 'ns head under a 

plough-soke"), .''ome .ihu-.t'! n t' < i. e: e i-f I’.i .isc as (oming from “held" is 
perhaps intended. Ihe Ai.uki s.r.t..^.lv tor’- .d.s f‘. ic-.aa'on ’/.• in a and b. 

5. Homage t<) them <»f const intis lalimg c\c^, homage to them of the 
same legion ( jff/wt/i c j</>, h<»m.igc tn the h-id (>t the held let the kutnyiu 

effacing etc etc 

With this setM*, .u t or<lmg to K‘vi„ i J 
((Mffi'i/td/il). and liiiihiT m an ol \ !.• !< i 
It. and is liiere dtni-'* d aiul t '.s. ii 

SiiniAntulkyit to sigmls “ < m; t\ ho ^ 
:»nd other oprnings in a st.ite of iiii.ip’il 1 
mean “oM lioles " ( /./'.r./i i' •“ 

- sshich is hardls inlidliu,iMi ami lot ’, 
against all sorts of luiiUul being'*. I’; p 
srf>am Mni//,. '-r.//*/ w v/. ’V. a. 
rusvittk tUtii. In this sei^c again. *' . 
LSI*lh divides the verse alter 
make ctjMJiImi after /ifAii A I'omin ani 
compound (jrf/i/i/vud r trktJv) anint 

I- 2 ; » e ]Mti« ’It Is put M an envois house 
;* l’’ »l '•a" housegi.iss in 

1 .noi.luHe with this, the tomm decl.nes 
,s j.iMi.., then round. wind.o,Ns (i^ii:Jki\i) 
it-oT He it'.ids ri b making it 

/. "1.”.% ; 

w,*id.s .^le ot imaniMg In a charm 

iM > II ua«ts ts i<t'lows i7 /.'.A.; 'Ar//. w/rr- 
;/ ‘ '** •’ * ' • ’* 

; in b is nad. .is i«ne s\dilde l\\ I'c .\nuki. 
1 wah ir.'.st ol his mss . hut thiee ol them 
: dl I.\c t! inshitois take as a pos.sesMve 

i, -» 55 h. ‘ ed. J 




9. Against possession by demons: with an amulet 

— vSnasfatyam ; yaksmanafanaddivatam, dnustu^am : /. virdtpra- * 
stdrapanktt.l • 

Found in Paipp. ii. (in the verse-order i, 5, 4, 2, 3). Reckoned, like the next pre- 
ceding and the next following hymn, to the takmanil^ana gana (Kaug. 26.1, note), 
and made (^. 5, 6) to accompany the binding on of an amulet composed of splinters- 
(from ten different trees : the comm.), being muttered by ten friends who lay hands bn 
the patient. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 1 53 ; Ludwig, p. 506 ; Grill, 8, 82 ; (Griffith, i. 51 ; Bloom- 
field, 34, 290. — Cf. Bergaigne- Henry, Manutl^ p. 137. 

1. O thou of ten trees, release this man from the demon, from the 
seizure (grdlti) that hath seized him in the joints ; then, O forest tree, con- 
duct him up to the world of the living. 

The first is quite different in Ppp. : tia^avrkso sam ce 'mam ahihsro grd- 
hyd{ id. The comm, takes pat van in b as either the joints of the body or those of 
the month, new and full moon. The Aniikr scans the verse as 10 + 12:8 + 8 = 38, 
making the first p.\da-division after rak^asa^ (and the //i/Z/i-mss. so mark it) ; but It is 
rather a regular pankti, with the resolution mufica imam in a 

2. This man hath come, hath arisen, hath gone unto the troop (vnita) 
of the living ; he hath become of sons the father and of men (;//*) the 
most fortunate. 

Ppp. has in c abhuta (for abhftd «), and in d nrndm. LPronounce a agdif . J 

3. He hath attained (adht-gd) attainments; he hath attained (ad/ti- 
gam) the strongholds (-//mi) of the living; fo^ a hundred healers are his, 
also a thousand plants. 

The ‘attainments* {aiihtii)^ according to the comm, arc the \'cdas and objects 
formerly learned {adhtta), and now, by restored health, recovered to memory. Ppp. 
reads instead adhitam in a, and purd 'gat in b ; and its c, d are {utam te 'i^ya vfrudha 
sahasram uta bhesajah. Emendation to bhe^aja in our c would improve l>oth and 
meter. The comm here, as in sundry other places, derives vtrudh from 77 + rudhy on 
the ground that they virundhanti vina^ayanti rogdn. 

4. The gods have found thy gathering (.^r/ 7 /), the priests {hrahmdn) 
and the plants ; all the gods have found thy gathering upon the earth. 

In a, our Bp. has c/V/w, and Op, citdm (both at(m in c) ; Ppp. reads cdtam in both 
aandc; either word is elsewhere unknown. The comm, derives c/ 7 / either from the 
false root ctv ‘ take, cover,’ or from at ‘ observe,* and fabricates his alternative explana- 
tions accordingly. If it comes from c/, there is hardly another example of a like forma- 
tion. Ppp. has for a cdtam te devd 'vidath; and, in c, d, cdtaiii tehhyo tu mdm avidam 
bhfi-. # 

5. Whoso made, he shall unmake; he verily is best of healers; he 
himself, clean, shall make for thee remedies, with the healer. 

The application of the pronouns here is more or less questionable. Ppp. reads su 



-II. lO 

for jtfin a, and has a more intelligible second h alf- verse : sa eva tubhyam bhesajam 
cakdra bhisajdtica; our bkisdjd in d is probably to be emended to -jdm L‘ the clean one 
of the healers ^he comm, understands sa at the beginning either as “ the great 
sage Atharvan ” or as the creator of the universe ; and niskarat as grahavtkdrasya 
^amanam or niskrttm karotu. Weber renders the latter shall pul it to rights.” 

10. For release from evils^ and for welfare. 

\^Bhrgvanf;iras. astarcam ' mrrtidyihdprthivvddtmhtad(vatya^^^ i. tn^tubh ; 2 7 / ,/>//; 

7^ 7'P‘ dbrtt ; 6. 7 -/. atyash {tTd ' tti dz dv du nihau pddau).\ 

Found in Paipp. ii. (with v.s. S preceding 6 and 7, and the refrain added onl\ to \s. S). 
The hymn occurs further in TlJ. (11.5.6' 0 - and parts of it in H(;s (ii.s.'io: 4. i). 
LAnd its original structure is doulitless clearly reflet ted by the MP. at li 12.6,7,8,9, 
10. Cf. note to our verse 2.J It i.s. like the two nevt preceding, reckoned (Kaug. 26 i, 
note) to the takmaiidi,una iiana, and it is emplo\ed (27 7) in a healing ceremony, per- 
formed at a cross-roads, while chips of kampila are bound on the jtiints of the patient, 
and they or he are wetted with bunches of gras.s. According to the comm., the rite is 
intended against ksetriya simplv. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 1 56 ; Ludwig, p 513; (Irilfith, i 52: Bloomfield, 14,292. 

1. PVom ksetnyd, from perdition, from imprecation of sisters {jihnt-), 
from hatred {dm/i) do I release thee, from Varuna’s fetter; free from 
guilt {’tii'ds) I make thee by [my] incantation ; be heaven-and-earth both 
propitious to thee. 

1 B. HfiS. have for a onl\ k^ctttyHi tvCi nfp'fiydi t 7 d, in c brdJundne and kiwomi^ 
and in d iwJ instead of j/dw. J‘pp. has at the eml •////: / '/ta bhutdm 

2. Weal to thee be Agni, together with the waters ; weal [be] 
Soma, together with the herbs : so from ku'triyd^ from perdition, 
etc. etc. 

The repetition (with evA 'ham prefixed) of the whole firsjt as refrain for the 
following veises is not made b\ TB. ami I It IS. except after our \s. S, and there only to 
/c/fd/ ,* and in Ppp. it forms (complete) a pait only of the same verse 8 (though this 
stands before our vs. 6). Its omission fnmi \ss 2-7. and their combination into three 
whole 4'Pada verses |_and the omission of p.idas e and f from SJ, would reduce the 
hymn to the norm of the second book, and is recommended not only by that circum- 
stance, but by the |_wordiiig in vss 2-3. the construction in vss 4-5, the concurrent 
testimon} of TB. and MP., and also of HtlS. so far as it goes, and by thej plain 
requirements of the sense akso [_Cf. the analogous state of things in in. 31 and the 
note to iii.31. I i.J For a, b TB. HGS .substitute ^dw ie aynlft saha 'dbhfr astu fd/// 
iiyAvdprtfih ; sahAu \,td/ifb/it/t ; and Ppp. ditfors fiom them by having dfubhi^ instead 
of adbhis^ and ^Avas for dy . . . vf (also The comm, leads tvA for tvAm 

in V.SS. 2-7 at the beginning of the refrain. This icfiain is scanned by the Anukr. as 
*7 + 7 + *l:li-i'ii=47: and the .addition in \s 2 of 9 + S makes 64 syllables, a true 
asti : but the other verses it is not possible to make agree precisely, in any natural way, 
with the metrical definitions gi\ cn ; 3-7 are of 69 s> llables. S of 7 1 |_ By beginning p.idas 

a and b with fd/// tub/iyam, and pronouncing both safuVs with hiatus, and combining 
2 ab with 5 ab, we get a perfectly legular tfntubfi,\ 


3. Weal to thee may the wind in the atmosphere bestow {dhdt) vigor ; 
weal to thee bo the four directions : so from ksetriyd, etc. etc. 

TB. nos. have for a {Am aniAnksam sahA vdtena ie; Ppp. differs by reading 
sahaviitam astu U ; the two former, in b, put bhavantu List. The comm, has in a ^for 
7 fAyi} i/kil/j the better reaiiing z>avotf/ttls^ but he makes it mean “ sustainer of birds ” I 
L‘\\’ to thee [be] the wind in the atmosphere, the vij;or-be.stower.’J 

4. These four heavenly {th'Vii) directions, having the wind as lord, 
upon which the sun looks out — so from kscinyti, etc. etc. 

TB H(’iS. (4 I) h.ive for a yd tirihf{ lAtasnih pnidi^ah , Ppl>* also omits imds^ 
and combines tkvi^ pra-s combinintj the pad.i immedi.itely with our 3 b. lUiS. makes 
one \erse ot our 4 a, b and 5 a, b, and puts it in 4, after all the rest. 

5. Within them I set thee in old age; let thcjv? 7 \rw^, let perdition 
go fortli far away : so from ksi (rtVif, etc. etc. 

Ppp. at the beginnini^ A/ft- «• V«/w jiintsa il ; TB. IKj.S. give tduini tvA jatAsa 
d , both the latter read in b nitritm. 

6 . Thou hast been released ydkpnciy from difficulty {durita), from 
reproach (itvadvd), from the fetter of hatred ami from seizure hast thou 
been released : so from ksetnya, etc. etc. 

Ppp. has both times amoii for arnttk/bAs. TB likewise, and also, in a, b Aiutr/yAi 
driMh pd^tlm nltrtyAi cA *d aw-. IKbS. ha.s neither this nor the next; that 
Ppp. puts our IS. S before it noticed above. 'Ihc comm evplains avadyAt by 
jAwyadyabhi^ansanarupan nindanAt. |_TB , in comm, to C ak. ed , and in Poona ed., 
has avartyat J 

7. Thou hast left niggardy, hast found what is pleasant ; thou hast 
come to be in the excellent world of what is well done : so from ksi triyd^ 
etc. etc. 

Nearly all the w/V/r/Ai-mss. omit the final \isarga of Avidah before jris>//«f///. The 
comm re.ids abhut in b' TB. does the s.ime, and, correspondingly, Avidat in a. with 
AvaHim (better |_cf. iv. 34. 3 ; x. 2 loj) for Atatim. The comment to I’ ii. 46 quotes 
ahas in tliis verse as not ahar., i.e. as from ha. not hr. 

8. The gods, releasing from the seizure of darkness the sun whom it 
had befallen, let him loose from sin (cnas) : so from ksctriyd^ etc. etc. 


It noticed above that the other texts add the refrain ('I’B. IKIS. L-MP.J only to 
pd{at) only to this verse, where alone it is in place. Ppp. \\.\syatha for adhi .it end 
of a, and the other texts yd/; b in I’pp. is deva muficantu awjan paretasah; in the 
other texts dt’va Awuficann Asp ; an ^y^na^ah 

LI-f)r rfaw. cf. rh'd. iv. 40. i. of .sPP's mss. and our M.I.II.O.K. read 
uir i’nauih Y ox Anas. W’s first draft has ‘evil,’ which is better. .Sec Lannian, /-Vj/- 
gpuss an Rnth. pp. 187-190. — If, with the other te.xts, we drop e, f and omit nirrtyUSd 
from c. we get a perfect meter, 12+12: 11 + ii. The other texts spoil the refrain by^ 
beginning cram ahAui tfnAfn.j 

The anuraka L2 J has .again 5 hymns, with 28 verses; the quotation is asta kuryAd 
drittye. * 



-ii. 12 

XX. To counteract witchcraft: with an amulet. 

[^u^ra. — krtydpraUharanasuktam t krtydduyunidevatyam. i. 4-p. virddf^dyatri ; 

^-5' 3 P‘ Pitroifith {4 pipihkamadhyd mcrt) ] 

LThe hymn is not metrical. J Not found m I*Ai]jj)., nor elsewhere. Reckoned as 
first of the krtyapratiharana (‘counteraction of \\itchcraft ’) gana (Kauq. 39.7 and 
note); used in a charm for protection a;,Minst witchcr.ift (39 i), ^Mth hindini;-on of a 
sraktya amulet;^ and again later (39. 13 . the comm. sa\s, only vs i), in a similar rite. 
The comm, quotes it further from Nakv K. (17, 19). in a mahai^anti called brir/iaspa/i. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 163; (irilhth. 1 54 Discusseil by Bloomfield, AJB. vii. 
477 ff., or JAOS. xiii., p. cxxxii ( 7 I'AOS Oct 1S.S6). 

1. Spoiler .s spoiler itin.u) art thou; missile's mis.sile {heti) art thou; 
weapon's weapon (tneni) art thou : attain iap) the better one, step beyond 
the equal (sama). 

The hody of the verse is addressed to the amulet , the refrain more proljably to its 
wearer (so, too, Weber) ; Init the comm assigns the l.itter also to the amulet, and 
quotes to show it T.S. li 4. \^hIch r.ither sujiports the contrary opinion. He calls 
////•/// a dcri\ing it fiom root w/ ‘damage * |_Sc*e Cicldncr’s discussion of 

w«*///(‘ hurt done to anotlier in vcngclul anger*), J'cstgfusi aft BohtUngk, j). 31, 32. J 

2. art thou ; re-entrant { pratisani) art thou; counter-conjur- 
ing art thou : attain the etc. etc. 

riie comm, .says that sraktt is the ///l//•^ 7 -lret^ and sfaktya means made from it; 
Prattsam is something b\ which son erics aie tuined back (upon their performer): it 
seems to mean Mrtualh a circular amulet -Lsucli as a br.icelet ' For 7 Whit- 
ney has interlined rci'Cttcut (rrt ), better. per!i.ips, t cvet irans or intrans J 

3. Conjure {abhi'car) against him who hates us, whom we hate: attain 
the etc. etc. 

4. Patron i^suri) art thou; splendor-bestowing art thou; body-protect- 
ing art thou : attain the etc. etc. 

The comm., without explaining win. glosses sftri with abhijfui • knowing.' 

$. Bright (^iikrd) art thou; shining (M/vT/cf) art thou; heaven {svdr) 
art thou ; light art thou : attain the etc. etc. 

The comm, thinks svar to he jvat dJit ogotpadanena /dpuka/i, or else “the common 
name of sky and sun.” 

The Anukr. scans vs. i as f» + b + 0 . 1 2 = 30, and the other verses as S + S : 1 2 = 28, 
excepting vs. 4. which is 9 -I- 6 ; 12 — 27 (restoring the a of ust in b). 

X2. [Against such as would thwart my incantations. J 

[BharadvtTja. — aditnam. MJttJdn\ity\im ffJtdubkum S. auuditl'k.'\ 

Found in PAipp. ii., but in the i, 3, 2, 4-('>. 8, 7. The h\mn is called by 
Kftuq. (47. 12) bharadvdjapravtaskam * Bh.\radv.ija's hcwci-olf * [ *clea\er’J (from 
expressions in the verses), and is to accompany the cutting of a staff for use in rites of 

ii. 13 - 



witchcraft (as at 47. 14, 16, 18 ; 48. 22) ; and its several verses are applied through an 
extended incantation (47*25-57) against an enemy; the details of it thr#w no light 
upon their interpretation. 

Translated: E. Schlagintweit, die GoUesurthetU der /tidier (Munchen, i 866 , Abh, 
der bayer. Akad. der /f'm.), p. 13 If.; Weber, xiii. 164 ; Ludwig, p. 445; Zimmer, 
p. 1S3; t'.rill, 47. S5; Oridith, i. 55 ; Bloomtield, JAOS. xiii., p. ccxxi f. (= PAOS. 
Oct 1SS7) or AJP. xi 334-5: SHE. xlii 89, 294. — The fiist four interpreted it as 
accompan\ing a Ii re-ordeal ; but Orill and Bloomtield have, with good reason, taken a 
different view. The native interpreters know nothing of any connection with an ordeal, 
nor is this to be read into the text without considerable violence. 

1. llcavcn-and-earth, the wide atmo.sphcrc, the mistress of the field, 
the wonderful wide-going one, and the wide wind-guarded atmosphere — 
let bo inflamed {tapya-) here while I am inflamed. 

All the read at the end iapyiittiiltte ///, as if the word were a dual fern, or 
neut. . a most gratuitous blunder; SPP's paditXcxi emends to -ne. Ppp. reads in d 
tesu for tii iiui (which is, as in not infrequent other cases, to be contracted to // 7/if ; 
the Anukr. at least takes no notice of the irregularity here ; but it also ignores the 
value of b). The comm, naturally explains the *• wide-goer” as Vishnu ; he docs not 
attempt m account for the mention of »‘the wide atmosphere” twice in the verse, though 
sometimes giving himself much trouble to excuse such a repetition. The last pada he by “just as I am endeavoring to destroy the hateful one, so may they also 
be mjurers of [m)] enemy, by not giving him place and the like which is doubtless 
the general meaning. 

2. Hear this, O ye gods that are worshipful (pi/flntt) ; llharadvaja 
sings (Ciiiis) hymns (ttMui) for me ; let him, bound in a fetter, be plunged 
(m-yuj) in difficulty who injures this our mind. is,, our design or intent : tlie comm, s.ijs (in,-ippro|>ii,uct> ) idam ptir- 
vam ^anmaryapravrttam tniinauim: i.c. seducfs us to evil couises. .Ml the mss. 
change to agree this lime in omitting the \isarga of iv/// 7 A'/?// licfore j//m in a. Hut 
Ppp reads tu instead of s/fia^ and in b nktyiiui (•</;/ »r7///. as it oltcn changes -U to -//// 
but here tlie imperative (or Weber's suggested i^avuU) would imj>ro\o the sense. |_Pro- 
nounce devadh and reject sthA, the meter is tlien in order -124-12: 12 1- i c.J 

3. Hear this, O Indra, soma-drinker, as I call loudly to thee with a 
burning (f//r) heart ; I hew {vra^c) him [down], as a tree with an ax, who 
injures this our mind. 

Or (in b) ‘call repeatedly’ ; the comm, says punah punah. Ppp. has in c vr^rHsi, 
The comm paraphrases kuli^ena with vtijrasadr^ctta para^und. LAn orderly tristubh 
is got by adding tv Am after somapa.\ 

4. With thrice eighty Jtfwr7;/-singers, with the Adityas, the Vasus, the 
Angirases — let what is sacrificcd-and-bcstowcd of the Fathers aid us — 

I take yon man with seizure (Jidras) of the gods. 

Istdpurtam in c has probably already the later meaning of merit obtained by such 
sacred acts ; the comm, says tadubhayajanitam sukrtam. Haras he calls a krodha^ 
ndman. He understands the * three eighties ’ of a to be the triplets (Jrca) in gdyatrly 


-ii. 12 


and brhait, eighty of each, sicken of in AA. i. 4. 3 — simply because they are 
the only a||ch groups that he finds menliuned elsewhere ; the number is probably taken 
indefinitely, as an imposing one. 

5. O heaven-and-carth, attend ((htiid/ii) ye after me ; O all yc gods, take 
yc hold (d-rabh) after me ; O Angirases, Fathers, soma-feasting {somyd)^ 
let the doer of abhorrence (apakdtnd) meet with {d-r) evil. 

Ppp. reads in a dldhyatam f. Blcomfield, AJP. xvii.4i7j, and in d pspauiriaheiv 
ap-. The comm, does not recogni/c didht as different from didf, rendering adtpte 
bhavatam. (^In a, the accent-inaiK under missing. J 

6. Whoso, O Maruts, think.s himself above us, or whoso shall revile 
our incantation (brdhman) that is being performed— for him let his wrong- 
doings be burnings {ldpns)\ the sky shall concentrate its heat {sautdap) 
upon the //;;/« ;/-hater. 

The verse is RV. \i. 52.2. with sundry variants. At the beginning, RV. has the 
better rc.tding dtt in: in b. k* ndm,lu,im nhutuii : for d, hahmadvisam abhl tdni 
^octitu dyAiih. Rjjp. follows R \ . in d (but with ^oni for ; in c it reacls Vf ujandni. 

The comm, renders vrjituim falselv by vatjakant bddhakant 

75 Seven breaths, eight marrows : them I hew [off] for thee with [my] 
incantation ; thou shalt go to Varna’s seat, messengered by Agni, made 

The last pa<la is wiii 2 i (RV x 14 13) d .Ml our mss. ami .about£ of SPP's 
have in a majnd^ (for finifpuU)\ jcl Sl’P. adopts in his text the rc.iding wrfwnfj, 
because given by the comm , wlinli expl.iins it aititn lally .is for dluitnattyas,, and signi- 
fyiiig “ .t sort of vessels situated in the throat”, no such word appe.irs to be known 
elsewheie in the l.inguage, and some of the mss ha\e in other passages of the text 
manyas for mtijfith Oui lip gives d\it at beginning of c: the woid is translated 
above as subjum ti\e <4 / with doubled subjuncli\e-sign (see my Skf. Gram, 

§560 e), or oi its seeondarv loot-fnrm ay . the (omm. tak(‘s it fiom w/. which makes 
him^no difficult), since in his view imperfect and impor.iti\e are ecpiivMlent, and he 
declares it used for I'l/Z// Ppp. reads fore vamana i^aiku ^adauam. [_In manv parts 
of India lod.iy jit and ny are phoiietie.illy eijuiv.ilent. Ct. SPP*s mss. for ix. 5. 23. J 

8. I set thy track in kindled ; let Agni dispose of z’ls) the 
body ; let speech go unto breath {? dsu). 

The verso is in part obscure ; the comm, sets it in connection with one of the det.ails 
of the Kduq. ceremony : “ I set or throw in the fire the dust from thy track combined 
with chopped icaves : i.e. I it in the roa.stcr ; let Agni, thiough this dust entering 
thy foot, pervade or burn thy whole body ” ; he takes dsu as simply equivalent to pnlaa, 
and explains: sarrendnyaiyavaiidfa^ttnyo bhavatUy become incapable of acting for 
the senses: i.e. become mere undiiferentiated breath — which is perhaps the true mean- 
ing. |_Qiiitc otherwise A. Kacgi — citation in Hloomfiekl, p 294 J The Anukr. appar- 
ently expects us to resolve a at the beginning into a-a. I’pp. has in a a daddMt\ and 
for d imatn gachaiu U vasu. 

The last two verses are so discordant in st)le and content, as well as in meter, with 


the rest of the h)mn that we can hardly consider them as properly belonging to It 
Their omission, with that of the borrowed RV. verse (our 0), would reduce t||| hymn to 
the norm of this boiik. 

13. For welfare and long life of an infant. 

[//Mil/-. I// —kiJiuit-zutwim util '[i'Miyam. trat\tubham 4 atiu)tubh : y. 

\'erses i, 4, 5 are tound in IViipp. xv. Thou^Mi (as Weber points out) plainly having 
nothin" to do with the or tonsure ceremony, its verses are applied by Kau^. to 

p.arts of that rite. Thus, it accompanies the preparations for it (53. i) and the wetting 
of the \outh‘s head (53. 13); \ss. 2 and 3, the putting of a newg.irmcnt on him (54. 7); 
vs. 4, making him stand on a stone (54. -S); \s. 5. taking aw.ay Ins old garment (54.9). 
And the comm quotes \ss 2 and 3 from l*arii;ista 4 1 as uttered b\ a purohita on handing 
to a king in the morning the garment he is to put on, and vs. 4 from ibid. 4, as the same 
throws four pebbles toward the four directions, and makes the king step upon a fifth. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 171 ; Zimmer, p. 322 : ('irilTith, i. 57. 

1. Giving life-time, O Agni, choosing old age; ghee-fronted, ghcc- ' 
backed, O Agni — having drunk the sweet pleasant (aim) ghee of the 
cow, do thou afterward defend (mX\c) this [boy] as a father his sons. 

The verse occurs akso in various Yajur-Veda text.s, as VS. (wxv. 17). TS. (i. 3. 144 
et al.), TH. (1. 2. 1“), TA. (li. 5. 1), MS. (iv. 124) [MP-n. 2. i J, and in several 
as At, S. (ii 10 4), t,'(fS. (1.25). and HtiS. (1.3 5), with considerable variations. T.S, 
(with which the te.\ts of TB . TA , and .\(,S. agree throughout) has in a /ntT’fw jumI- 
//df, which is decidcdlv preferable to jataMim vrmlnAiy, widch is apparently a inks- 
placed reminiscence of RV. x. iS 6 or AV. xii. 2 24J. at eml of h, fthonir tuiht; 
and, in d, for putran. VS lor a oyu\mtiH a^fu /uivful vrdhamis, and 
agrees with TS. etc. in b, and also in d. s.ave that it further substitutes tman tor itmUn. 
MS. reads deva for in a, and ptkinn ami tarn for pitra tmUihu of c Lthus making 
a good tristubh padaj, and ends d with puiaim jat a\i' ma <* 'mam. I*pp. agrees through- 
out with Ms., except .is it emends the latter’s corrupt reading at the end to yantse nave 
*mam; and HGS. corresponds with Ppp. save bv h.u mg m a. L.MI*. follows 

lUiS.J CGS. gives in a iiav/Mi r rd/idnas, \n b agrees with TS. vtc , and in d 
ptU *va putfam iha r-. The List p.'ida is ja’^ati. , 

|_The Anukr. counts 1 1 H : 10 -r 1 2 = 44 . as if 10-V12 were metrically the same 
as 1 1 -f 1 1 ’ or as if the “extra” sylhible in d could otfset the deficiency in c! The 
impossible cadence of c is cur.iblc by no less radical means than the adoption of the 
Ppp. reading. All this illustrates so well the woodenness of the methods of the Anukr. 
and its utter lack of .sense of rhythm, that attention m.iv well be t.illed to it.J 

2. Envelop, put yc him for us with splendor ; make ye him one to die 
of old age ; [make] longlife; Brihaspati furnished (pra-yam) this garment 
unto king Soma for enveloping [himself J. 

The verse is repeated below, as xix 24 4. It is found .also in IKkS. (i.4. 2) LMP. 
ii. 2. 6J, an<l a, b in MB. (i. 1 6). JKrS. in a omits nas^ and reads vAsasiti^nam for 
varcase 'mam, and in b it has ^atdymam for jaulmrtyum ; MB. agrees with this, only 
making the verse apply to a girl by giving cmlm and {atayusfm. There appears to be 
a mixture of constructions in a : pAri dhatta vtlrcasA is right, but dhattd requires rather 
vdrease. Emending to intu/d would enable jarimrtyum to be construed with imam 


in a |_; but cf. il. 28. 2J. Verses 2 and 3 are apparently lost out of Ppp., not originally 
wanting. # 

3. Thou hast put about thee this garment in order to well-being ; 
thou hast become protector of the people (?) against imprecation; both 
do thou live a hundred numerous autumns, and do thou gather about 
thee abundance of wealth. 

The translation implies emendation of .^rUtnam in b to kn^iinam, as given !)>■ 
Ppp. and by Pti.S. (i. 4 - 12) and H(iS. (1 4.2) in a ( orresponding expression to xix. 
24.5 below. |_MP., ii. 2. S, re.ids .S ikIi blundering exchanges of '«urd and 
sonant are found here and there : amiiln i is f.nind below, in 14. 6 b [so our ii. 5 4, Ppp.J. 
All the mss., and both erlitions. r. ad heie and the comm cxjdains it by.c^rTv///, and, 
with absurd ingenuity, in. ikes it appK t»> tlie .isMitetl fear of kine, on seting a naked 
man, that he is going to take fi<jin them tlie skin whieli formeiK Ijtlonged to him, but ^^as 
given to them instead li\ tin* gods, tlie h gend is hist guen m the words of the comm, 
himself, .an<! then (|ii<itcd liom 1 » in i 2 13-17 !■***■ enmj>anson of the .Sfitra-texts 

in detail, see umh r \i\ In c. om o t ip ^Cf. M(,.S. i ‘>27 a 

and p. 1^2, s.w With c. def P(f.S 11. 0 20 J The first pada is properly 

(su-tTsfiht'). P- * 045 - J 

4. Come, stand on the* stone*; let thy body become a stone; let all 
the f^ods make thy lifc-timc a hundred «iutunins. 

The sei <»iid p.'nla is mail) with K\’ \i 7; 12b. with a. b compare* also 
i. 7. 7 and .MU 1. 2 i. Ifin s usvd m the nuptial leremorms |_Wilh a. C, d 
compare Mtbs. 1 22 12 an<l ]• 140 J I’pP nw a, b tmam it<intanam <7 (ntha \yKe 
tvam \thtro pta nn nirt dut j. ///«/»-./ p* ttiuHvatah : whieh dilfers 

but little from the .\ti.S \ci’'e 'I lie Anukr api>arent!\ espeets us to resolve viyti-e in c. 

5. Thee here, of wlium we take the garment to be first worn, let all 
the god.s favor; thee lu're, growing with good growth, let many brothers 
be born after, [[after thee, )J as one wvll born. 

This \erse makes it j^rettx rMilent that in \s 3 also the garment is the first that is 
put o;i the elnld afti r biitli. But the i ornm . ignonng die* gerundive -7 dn a///, thinks 
it <1 “formerly worn ’ garnunt that is -‘takt n awa\ ” . and Kam; misuses it correspond- 
ingly. IKiS (1.7.17) has a i nirespnuding Mise, omilling va:>as in a, eombimng 
vi^ve av~ in b, and reading for ji./r/i/V/d m c [Nearl) s.^. Ml' 11 15.J In 

Ppp. the text is detective ; but j ./: //.7 is le.ul uisle.ul ot ^’nriiha. Some of oui 
/i//J-mss. (P.M.W I.H.) leiigtlun to before //ih.lw.n 111 a. The verse is veiy 

irre*gular in the first three* padas, though n tan 1)\ \iolince be brought into /; / jV///;// 
dimensions; it h.a.s no /.rg.;// nualitN whatever. 

14. Against sadinv&s. 

— Mt/rcam. p7/ac///./« rw/i ./w //A/ ./Af/i./w ' 3 . hhunj : 

^ upaf / yfadvit uitfi ] 

* All the verses arc found in P.'iipp., vs. 4 in \ . the rest (in the vcrsc-order i, 5. 6. 2. 3) 
in ii. It is retkoned b\ K.iui;. to the latafutni (8 2s), and also among the h\mns of 
the brhachUnti gana (9. 1); it is use'el in the women's lites (j/; ////(?/// ) to pic\ent 

ii. 14- 



abortion (34. 3) ; also in the rite for expiation of barrenness in cattle { 7 >afS^atffanas 
44.11): and in the establishment of the house-fire (72.4), with sprinkling of the 
entrance, and finally in the funeral ceremonies (S2. 14), with the same action. The 
comm, further refers to the use of the ultana and nnVrmlman hymns in Naks. K. 23 
and (,'anti K. 1 5. All these uses imply simply the value of the hymn as exorcising evil 
intiucnces or the beinj^s that represent them, and do not help us to see against what it 
was originally directed Weber suggests rats and woims and such like pests; perhaps, 
rather, troublesome insects: as usual, the indications are so indefinite that wide room 
for conjectuie is left open. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 175 ; Ludwig, p. 523 ; C'lrill, i,So; OrifTith, i. 58; Bloom- 
field, 66, 29S. P* 

1. The cxpellcr, the bold, the container, the one-toned, the voracious 
— all the daughters {tmpti) of the wrathful one, the siuhinvds, we make 
to disappear. 

By the connection, the obscure words in tlie first half-verse should be names of indi- 
vidual sadanvas^ but dhtsAuam (the translation implies emendation to -//d;//) is mascu- 
line (or neuter), and dhr^num (for which Ppp. reads dht^nyum) not distinctively 
feminine. Atssaid (SBl*‘s text reads, with the Jffw////J-mss generallj, ////rjd-: p. ttth- 
osit/ifw) is taken by the letter of the text, as if from nth-sd/ay — Mi/i-stl/uy; the comm, 
gives first this derisation, but spoils it by adding as altei native ‘•oiigin.iting from the 
stl/ii, a kind of tree.” K. suggests ttihutlam “out of tlie house,” adverb. 'I he efimm. 
shamele.ssly derives dhisatuim from dhr\s and explains it as “a sei/er with evil, so 
named”; he also takes -viidya as = 7'rft/7//ri All our padaxw^^ commit the gross 
blunder of dividing as if the word were a compound; SPl*. lets the 

division stand in his /rf<///-text. Ppp. reads in c 

2. Out of the cow-stall wc drive you, out of the axle, out of the 
wagon-body (.^); out of the houses wc expel you, ye daughters (liuhitr) of 

The comm, understands upiinasat (for which two of our mss., P M,, upamtlna- 

) to mean "a granarj*” — or else “a wagon full of grain ” ; and ** a gambling 
house.” He does not venture to clymologi/e muyundi, but calls it simply tlie name of 
a certain pK^iiri. The /rtr/rt-mss. f/tagundytl, vvhicli SPP. properly emends to 'dyilh. 
Ppp has for b the corrupt ntr yofunnrpdntua, Lin c mayundya, ^ and at end of d alia- 
ydfftast The Anukr takes notice of the metrical irregulaiity of c. 

3. Von house that is below — there let the hags be ; there let debility 

(sedi) make its home and all the sorceresses. 

Ppp has a different version of the first three padas * aniusmtnn adhare grke sarvii 
svanta tayah : tat fa papma m yaichatu. The comm, renders sedi by nirrti. 

L<)iir accent-notation does not here distinguish a kultpra QXTZMvnWtx (ny-iicyantu) 
from an enclitic circumflex {%edlr nyuiyantu — as if it wefe the impo.ssiblc ni'Ucyantu^ 
accentless) ; nor do the of S 1 *P. : but in his text, he hero employs the stroke, like 
“ long y” or the sign of integration*, which docs distinguish them. J 

4. Let the lord of beings drive out, also Indra, from here the sadd/h 
vds, sitting on the bottom of the house ; let Indra subdue them with the 



-ii. 15 

The omiseion of this verse, as being not found with the rest in Ppp. itt would reduce 
the hymn to the norm of the second book. Ppp. (in v.) rectifies the meter of d by 
omitting indras. The metrical definition of the Anukr. is mechanically correct. The 
comm, understands bhftiapati to designate Kudra. 

5. If ye are of the endemic {} Icictnyd) ones, or if sent by men; if ye 
are born from the barbarians (tidyu) — disappear from here, O saddtivCis. 

All the mss., both here and in the ncKt \crse, accent at the end sadatwa^, though the 
word is plainly a vocative, and is so understood by the comm, (who says nothing of the 
accent, and indeed in general pass no heed to it); SPP. retains the manuscript reading. 
Ppp. has for h.yA devd yha ksttrtytid^ and for t,yad a^tii dat^vibho jdtCi. 

6. I have gone around the abodes (dJuiman) of them as a swift [steed 
about] a race-course ; I have won {ji) all your races {ilji ) ; disappear from 
here, O saddni'ds. 

The translation implies the exulently ne< essar) emendation asaram at end of b; Ppp. 
has it, and also the comm., both editions give auiran, with all tlie mss. But Ppp. agrees 
with the mss. in giving just before it the false re.iding for ka- (our test emends, 

but, by an oversight, gives -f///* of -{uh before it); and SPP retains The 
comm, has and CAjilains it as •• the further goal, where one stops {vtha) 



15. Against fear. 

— U 7 t/n<iw ygd Hit f' Jud\ ut till 

Found also in Paipp vi, but in a murli fulKr form with thirteen verses, of which 
our .six are, in their older. \ss i. 3. 7, 12, 13 , the oiheis deal with wind and atmos- 
phere, cow and o\, .Mura .ind Wiruna. India and Indr.i*s might (/;/<// m?), hero and 
heroism, breath and cxpiralion, and diath and immoitalitv (////// A/w). aftei bibhcr \s. 
added in vs. 1 gvCt //;<• md / /'./id. and. at the end of tlic Inmn, the same, but 

with nut for //j./i. 7 In ( 54* h )• the hymn is used, with \i. 41, at the end of the 
^oddna ceremony, on giv mg food to the bo> It is also counted b\ the .sc hoi. (ib., note) 
to the dyttsya yitftit. 'I lie comm, makes no refeience to the declare^' 

the use to Ijc simply by one desiring long life {dyufkdwd). 

Translated: Weber, siii. 1 7u » tiiifrilh, i 59. 

1. As both the heaven ami the earth do not fear, are not harmed, so, 
my breath, fear not. 

at i. 2. 13, has ct'.//// ///c //<///./ ///*/ btbha £X'am me pf ana ma /'/jc/Z/.J 

2. As both the day and the night do not fear etc. etc. 

The comm, here applies for the fiist tune the term to these sentences, corre- 
spondent but with elements in part different. 

3. As both the sun and the moon do not fear etc. etc. 

4. As both sacrament {brdhntau) and dominion {ksatrd) do not fear 

etc. etc. 

That is, the Brahman and Ksatriya castes {brdhmanajdti and ksatriyajdti^ comm.), 
u the words might properly enough be translated. 



5. As both truth and untruth do not fear etc. etc. 

6. As both what is {bhtltd) and what is to be {b/idvya) do not fear 
etc. etc. 

The comm, paraphrases bhiihim h\ pniptam vastuiittam ; the past would 

seem to be a better example of fixity than the future ; but luither is ** untruth” (vs. 5) 
to be commended as .in example. [_ Weber would read la rUim.\ 

16. For protection. 

{/ipahfHdtt ^-/'nlnd/'ilndyurdrvatyitm. ‘ / /‘/> dMtn friifuM ; 2. tp.isury 

: j. i-p.Jsuri tn^tubh : j 2/' iftf ] 

[Not Found (except is. 5) in IWipp. ii. (in the verse-order 2, 1,3,4). 
The h\mn. with the one next follow in>r, is used by Kau»; (54.12) immediately after 
lumn 1 5 , and the comm, adds, quoting for it the authority of l’<iithTn.isi, to accompany 
the ottering of thirteen different substances, which he details. lioth appear also in 
Vait. (4. 20), in the pat van sacrifices, on appro.ichini( the ahavaniya fire; and \ss. 2 
and 4 further (8. 7,9) in the fti^rayana .and nl/unnCtsya sacrifices. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 179 ; ijiitfith, i. 60. 

1. O broath-and-expiration, protect me from death: hail (svd/id)\ 

The first extension of the notion of prana ‘breath,’ lit. ‘ foith-breathin",* is by addi- 
tion of apdna, which also is lit. ‘ breathinj; awM\,’ and so. when distin;{uished from the 
generalized seems to mean ‘expinitioii ’ The comm here defines the two thus: 
pr(\^ ftrdhvamukho *tnti ctstata tti pnlnah , apCi *nt(y avdnmukha\ it\/ata tty apunah^ 
For svdhd he gives alternative explaihition.s, following Y.'iska. The verse (without 
svdhd) is found also in .\p. xiv. 19.3. “ Tnstubh " in the Anulr. is a mis- 

reading for panktt^ as the v’erse ii .sjllables, and i and 3 would have been 
defined together if viewed as of the same meter 

2. O heaven-and-earth, protect me by listening {upa^ruti ) : hail ! 

The /<7// read upa\rutya (not -yak), and, in the r)l)SLurity of the prayer, it is 
^^rhap.'* best to follow them |_* by overhe.aring ' the plans ot my enemies .^J; otherwise, 

' from being overheard ’ Lby my enemies would seem as suitable ; and this is rather 
suggested by the Ppp. reading, upat^ruU (for -tch ''). 

Ppp. has after this another verse: dhanaya ''yu\e ptajaydt mil pdtam svilkd. 

3. O sun, protect me by sight : hail ! 

Fpp has ‘ (protect m\)two eves' Our O.Op., with some of SPP’s mss., 

read suryas for -ya. 

4. (3 Agni Vaiqvanara, protect me with all the gods : hail ! 

Ppp. makes, ns it were, one verse out ot our 4 and 5, by re.iding ay^ne vi^vambhara, 
vi^vato mCi pdhi wakd. The comm, gives several different explanations of 7fdt\7>t!nara 
* belonging to all men,’ one of them as vit^van-ara — jantftn pravistah f 

5. O all-bearing one, protect me with all bearing (b/tdras): hail I 

The sense is obscure ; at xii. 1.6 the epithet ‘all-bearing’ is, very properly, applied 
to the earth ; but here the word is masculine. The comm, understands Agni to be 
meant (and this the Ppp. reading favors); but he relics for this solely on BAU. 1.4. 7< 



-ii. 1 8 

(which he quotes); and that is certainly not its meaning there. Weber conjectures 
Prajftpati. |_The BAU. passage is i. 4. 16 in Bohtlingk’s ed. See Whitney’s criticism 
upon it at AJl . xi. 43^* i think nevertheless that fire may be meant — sec Dcussen’s 
Sechzig Upantshad r, p. 3 ^^ 4 -J it does not aj^pear why the last two verses should be 
called of two p.ldas. 

17* For various gifts. 

[Brahman. — saptariam. frilitH/tn: lYunitva/viiPtt t-6 i-p dsutt trt^ftdh , 

7 1/ •>//// ] 

|_Not metrical. J I’.aipp. luis a similar set of jihrascs in ii. Tor the use of the hvmn 
by Kauq. and Vait., see under hymn 16. It is also, wuh 15 and others, reckoned by the 
SChol. to Kauq. (54. If, note) to the dyu^ya gttna. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. iSo, Griitith, i.(n 

1. Force art thou ; force mnyest thou give me : hail ! 

The Ppp. has no phrase corr<,.sj)f)iuling to this .Some of our mss . .as of SPB’s. read 
dd instead of dd/t belore svii/id. in this h\mn ami the next, where tliey do not abl)ic\iatc 
the repetition by omitting both words, I In* eomm regards them both as addres.scd to 
Agni, or else to the article olfered { /iftyafjidnadf |^Cf. -Mti.S. i. 2. 3, and p. 149 

and citations, J 

2. Power art thou , power mayest thou give me : hail ! 

Ppp. has sahodd ayiu v me dhCi j :«///./ 

3. Strength ait ihnu ; strength mayest thou give me: hail! 

Ppp. gives haUida haUim me \ 7 'dlu~i. 

4. Life-time ait thou ; lifo-tiine mayest thou give me : hail ! 

The corresponding jihrase in I'pp is </; v/ «;vi4/av.v/ me dhit svalid. 

5. Hearing art thnii ; hearing mayest thou give me : hail ! 

There are no phiasts m Ppi> answtiing to this and the two following verses ; but 
others with vanus ami ///*/* .is the gifts .souglit 

6. Sight art thou ; sight mayest thou gi\e me: hail I 

7. Protection {panpdthx) art thou; protection mayest thou give me: 
hail I 

The anu^Aka L3.J 7 liMiins, with 42 \crscs; the Anukr. a^touam tarmac 
i katilniham trftye. 

Here ends also the thud ptapCithaka 

18. For relief from demons and foes. 

[ Cdfiwa {sapiUnakt n , r<-.r w.; •: ) — .im ,:z J .-/.r*/..’ w ; ».? w nV\li Z/./A/ w ] 

LNot metrical. J Ppp. has some phi.tscs in ii The liMim belongs to the 
eManani (Kaui;. 8. 25 : the Lomm. rcgaids omI\ the last three \crs(.s as nlftnia. because 
vs. 3 is the one whose praiik.i is cited in the KTiiic text; but ’t is perhaps more likely 
that ardviik^avanetm is .in ovei sight for bhrairvyak^-^ \ it is used bv itself also in one 
of the witchcraft rites {abhkdnkCvn \ while adding fuel of leeds to the lire (48. i). 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 180: tlnitith, i 61. 

ii. 18- 



1. Adversary-destroying art thou; adversary-expulsion mayest thou 

give me : hail ! ' 

‘ Adversary ’ is lit. * nephew * or * brother’s son ’ (MrtJ/n'j'ii). The Ppp. phrases are 
after this model : bhnUrvyaksfnam asi bhrUtrvyajambhanafn asi and concern 

successivtdv the sat/anvUs, and bhnUnyas. The Anukr. supports the comm, 

in re^j.irdin^j the h\mn as addressed to A^*ni» and agrees with Kauq. in regard to the 
accompan}ing .iction, saying: Sii/^a/Miikfayiiftf/t samiiifui ^lihUyA *^nitn prSrthanfyam 
aprUrihayat. |_ Instead of “destro\ing” W. interlined “ destruction.” J 

2. Rival-destroying art thou ; rival-expulsion mayest thou give me : 

hail ! f 

3. Wizard- (} urdya-) destroying art thou ; wizard-expulsion mayest thou 
give me : hail ! 

4. /'‘/(V/ivf-destroying art thou; //p 7 tvf-expulsion mayest thou give me: 
hail ! 

5. .SV7</4ywrv/-destroying art thou; .r/n/<f;/r77-expulsion mayest thou give 
" me : hail ! in our edition siu/Jfnuhii/- 

19. Against enemies: to Agni (fire). 

[^4/Aanvn . — , j. b/iMPtt,^'iujmtJ] 

LNot metrical. J This hymn (hut not its lour successors .ind counterparts) is found 
in P.aipp. ii ; also in MS. (1.5 2. in verso-order 1,4, 3.2, 5) and Ap. (\i. 21.1 : in 
verse-order 3, 4, i, 2, 5) ; further, in K. Its first pr.^tilc.i (hut regarded hy the schol. and 
by the comm, as including all the five lumns) is used hy Kfim;. (47. S) to accompany 
the purastiVi Momtis in the witchcraft rites. 'I’hc Anukr. a common de.scription of 
the five hvmns, 19-23, as parica sftkfafii pukuinilMi pakniptt/yiifii (?or H'ataputy-) 
tripAdyayatrany tkavasanant, L'l'he mss blunder ; but paiicapatyani is probably 
•right ; see note to Kauq. 47. 8. J 

Translated: Weber, xiii. iSi ; Oritfith, i. h2. 

1. O Agni ! with the heat that is thine, be hot against him who hates 
us, whom we hate. 

MS. le.ives (in all the verses) the a of asman unelideil, and both M.S. and Ap. insert 
ca before vaydm. 

2 . O Agni ! with the rage {/uiras) that is thine, rage against him who 
hates us, whom wc hate. 

Pniti hara has to he strained in rendering, to preserve the parallelism of the expres- 
sion. |_()r, ‘ with the seizing-force that is thine, force h.ack him ’ etc. 

3. O Agni ! with the gleam (arcis) that is thine, gleam against him 
who hates us, whom we hate. 

4. O Agni ! with the burning {^ocis) that is thine, burn against him 
who hates us, whom wc hate. 



-II. 24 

$. O Agni! with the brilliancy (t^jas) that is thine, make him unbril- 
liant who hates u.s, whom we hate. 

Ppp. has jyotts for tcjas^ and ptali daha fi>r ati^ja^am krnuj f(ir the latter, MS. and 
Ap. read prati tittj;d/ti ( K., tityai^dhi ). 

The meter is alike in the four h\inn 4 19 22 ; the Anukr. reMores the ii of asnulu, and 
in vss. 1-4 scans 6 + 7 ^ 10 = 23, and, in vs. 5, ^ 9 -f 10-25 

20. The same: to Vayu fwind). 

This and the three followintj hjrnns are mcrhanical vaiiationsof the one next preced- 
ing, differing from it^only l>y tlie name ofttihc deity addressed, and in Inmn 23 hy the 
pronouns and verbs being ad.ipted to the plur.d deity They are wanting in the other 
texts. The comm, does not deii;n to explain them in detail, but prefixes a few intro- 
ductory words to the text of this one. Tor the Anukr. descriptions of the meter, and for 
the use by Kau^., sec under lumn 19 It would be sjjaee wasted to write out the trans- 
lation in full. LThcy should all be rtgardtd as non-mctiii al.J They are briefiy treated 
j[not tran.slatcd) by Weber, xiii. 1S2. and (JriiVith. 1 62. 

I. O Vayu ! with the heat that is thine etc etc. 

2-5. O Vayu! with etc. etc. 

21. The same: to Surya (sun). 

I. O Surya! with the heat that is thine etc. etc. 

2-5. O Surya! with etc. etc. 

22. The same: to the moon. 

I. O moon ! with the heat that is thine etc. etc. 

2-5. 0 moon ! with etc. etc. 

23. The same: to water. 

I. O waters! with the heat that is yours etc. etc. 

2-5. (^waters! with etc etc 

Here the meter, owing to the plur.d wibs, is diifcrcnt ; the ^.nukr. calls that of 
vss. 1-4 (6 + 8 + 10-24) SiimjTiuJwa. .1 ‘of uneven members,’ and vs. 5 

(6 + 10 + 10 = 26) the s.ime, w’itli two syllables in excess \_s7’it/tld-vi}aMtl 

24. Against kimldins, male and female. 

#/I7/tr.rW. /'JhAtJfN ] 

LNol metrical. J I’ait of the hymn is lound in IMipj). ii . but in a very corrupt con- 
dition: see under the verses below. K.iutj. makes no use of it that is char.atteristic, or 
that casts any light upon its difiicullies, but pi escribes it simply as to be employed in 
acerUin ceremony (19.9-13) for prosperity (according to liie comm., for of 
a bad sign), called “of the sea” (rJwW/w the comm, says, offering in a ^,ipftast/ta 
'fire, in the midst of the sea) ; it is also reckoned (19. 1, note) to the M.tntms called 
puffika ‘ for prosperity.’ Tlie words that precede the refrain in each verse are appareaUy 

11. 24- 




the names of ktMUins. The Anukr. says that Brahman in each verse praised with 
verses the deity mentioned in it ; and gives a long description of the meters that ia 
too confused aiul corrupt to be worth quoting in full. 

Tr.inslated : Weber, xiii. 182 ; («ritlith, i. 62. 

1. O ciuibhnkd, ^erabha! back again let your familiar demons go; 
back again your missile, ye kimhUns ! whose ye are, him cat yc; who 
hath sent you forth, him cat yc ; cat your own fiesh. 

Tpp reads . ^itrabhaka sera^abha punar bho yilnti yildavas puttar katis kimfdinah 
sffta dtim atta yo 7 ti prii/tf Uim uttam MtHstiytsil ffianyiitd. The comm, in the 
last phrase t^ives sd instead of svd, and ha# much trouble to fabricate an explanation 
foi It (as = tJA Vd. or else for sd hetih). (^erabhaka he takes .is either sukhasya prdpaka 
or (iittib/iii: it/ Aiir7‘t‘}dw htMsaka^ but is confident that it designates a “chief of ydtu- 
dtidHiii *' Of the refrain, the first part seems nfetrical, and the second prose, in three 
phrases : and it ni.iy be counted .is 8 + 8 : 6 + 7 -f 5 (or 7) = 34 (or 36) : the prefixed 
names add 7 sxll.ibles (vss. 1. 2), or 5 (vss. 3,4), or 3 (vss 6-8), or 2 (vs. 5). |_Bloom> 
field comments on dhdtt and the like, ZO.MG. xlviii. 577.J • ^ 

2 . O ^t'vni/uika, ^/vrii/ia! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

3. O mrokd, anumroka ! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

4. O sarpd, ixnnsarpa ! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

5. O jt’tnji ! back again let your familiar demons go; back again your 
missile, yc s\\c-kimidins ; whose ye are etc. etc. 

6 O upabdi! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

7. O arjiini ! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

S. O bharuji ! b.ack again let your familiar etc. etc. 

To repre'*ent .ill these \erses, we find in Ppp. ka \cvtdhii uiipdn sappa mrflkdn 
mro }\iit nyat» o tarjunvapapmd*> punar vo van ft yddavah • punar jutts kimfdtnah 
vawa )>ffia dam atta yo na ptahl tarn utvas >a manu'tnv atta. It not seemed 
\NOrth winie to try to tr.msl.ile the n.imes, though most of them cont.iin intelligible ele- 
m«*nts [see Weber, p 1S4, 1S6J, .ind the comm torees tlirough worthless 
for them all. In \s 8 he bkarmt, .ind m.ikes an alisuid derivation fioni roots bkr 
and atu (“going to take aw.iy the body”). Lin the first draft, W. notes that the four 
feminine names of \ss 5-8 might be combined to one tn^fubh p.ida, which with the 
common refrain would give us the noimal five “ \ersts.”J 

25. Against kdnvas: with a plant. 

yOlttina. — 7’flnas/‘at}am anuMdham. 4 b/iunj.'] 

round in I’aipj) iv. Both Weber and (irill regard the hvmn .is directed against 
abortion, but no sufficient indications of such value aie found in its langiuigc, though 
some of the n.ilive authorities intimate their discovery of sue h. Kain;. (8. 25) reckons it 
to the idtana Inmns ; and it is employed, with ii. 7 and other h)mns, in a remedial cere- 
mon) (26. 33-30) ag.iinst \arious evils, specially accompanying the smearing of the 
designated jdant with sacrificial dregs {sampdta) upon the p.itient. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 187; Grill, 20,92; Griffith, i. 64; Bloomfield, 36,302. * 

I. Weal for us, woe {d^am) for Nirrti (‘perdition*) hath the divine 


spotted-leaf made; since it is a formidable grinder up {-jdmhhana) of 
kdnvds, it, the powerful, have I used {bhaj) 

The comm, makes no attempt to identify i\\<^ pr^mpaffit as any particular phant, but 
simply paraphrases it with citraparny ouidhth. K. discusses the word as follows ■ “ the 
pr^niparnl \\ 1. accordin" to the coinmenury to K(,S. xvv.y. 17, the same with nnua- 
parnU i.e. Glyiinf tiebilis ; 2. accordin;^ to other .schol., the same with Ink sniana, a plant 
having upon its leaves red spots, in whi< h tlie form of a dnlrl is claimed to be seen. 
Bhdvapr., i. 20S, calls it also /////-r//,////, and Kfijani^h., \ii. 1 14, putrakuHtia, or putnidn, 
or pMMkandd, indicating a bulbous plant; it is credited with the power to cure barren- 
ness of women, 3* according to Am. Ko(^ and the* other Nigliantus, it is a leguminous 
plant, idcntilicd by Chund Dutt with Utathi layttpudimdis Iht , having 

hairy leaves without cohired sjiots I he set oml of these identificiitions wouhl suit the 
hymn.” Ahkakd might mean ‘I have j»ait.iken of or drunk ’ : but neither K.liu; nor 
the cotnm. know of such use of tlie The stiange appearance in this hvmn (onlv ) 
of kthira as name of evil beings is jjasseil bv the comm, vvitlnmi a vvorrl of notiie; he 
simply paraphrases the* word with pr/pn [Hut see Ih rg.iigne. AV/ Wd 11. 4b;. and IIillc- 
brandt, / Myihol i. 2v57 J I'l^p. reads in b nitrtayc karat, and in d ivtl '/utf \a/n 
for ab/taksi. 

2. This spottcd-lcaf was first born overpowering; with it do I hew 
[off] the head nf the ill-named ones, as of a binl {enktua). 

\_(^'aku- is ini.sprinted j '1 he reading T/fM/;///. without accent (which is given 

in both editions, on the autht.rity nf all the mss ) i:nj>lie‘s th it the fouith j^rula begins 
with (■//t/.f, the jirei V (hug three wuids being (as is tasv) u solved into eight svllables: 
and the pada-mss also the p.'ida-<bv imoii belore The* .\nuki . however, 

regard.s the veisc as a sunple ?/;//*/’. vvhi( h it plainly is. (-//./r belonging toe: the 
aci'cnt should llurefore be emended to 7’r^,d//:i rj)p. leads sadafi‘’dit^/inF for a, 
and, in c. d. fitya kaffi'ayafti ihtnadwt ^ak- The comm, explains lire ** ill-named ” 
as dadruvtuirpaki\vt(t adiku^th.i* K\a-, i.t w 7 ». or vaiielics ol Icprosv 

3. The* blood-drinking wizard, and whoso wants to take away fatness, 
the embryo-eating kduva do thou make disappear, O spotted-leaf, and 

One or two of our inss (\V I ). and seveial of .SIM”s, read in b jihffi\aii [ 1 . has 
-/r/lr-J. 1 *PI). has at the end ^iaha^'^ati 

4. Make them enter the mountain, the life-obstructing {-yopana) kdn- 
vas; do thou, O divine spotted-leaf, go burning after them like fire. 

LAs to kanvdHy cf. i. ig. 411. .\s to -^opaua. sec Illoomtield, AJF. xii 423. J This 

verse and the next are too much defaced in l*pp. to admit comparison in detail ; but its 
text differs sor-ewhat from ours. The Anukr. refuses to sanction the common abbre- 
viation to agnir *va in d. 

5. Thrust them forth to a distance, the life-obstructing where 
the darknesses go, there have I made the flesh-eaters go. 


26. For safety and increase of klne. 

[Sart/ar. — pai,avyam, tnhy/uhham. updrtstSdvtrtldbrhatl; j. anus/ubA {4. AAurtj').] 

Found in Paipp. ii. Tsed by Kauq. (19. 14), with iii. 14, iv. 21, and ix. 7 Lnot vi. 1 1. 
3 — see comm, to ix. 7 = 1 2 J, in a ceremony for the prosperity of cattle. 

Translated: \Veber« xiii. 1S8; Ludwig, p. 371 ; Ciridith, i.65; Bloomfield, 142,303; 
vss. I and 2, also by Orill, 64,92. — Cf. Bergaigne* Henry, Manuel^ p. 138. 

1. Hither let the cattle come that went away, whose companionship 
(sahacard) Vayu (the wind) enjoyed, whose form-givings Tvashtar knows ; 
in this cow-stall let Savitar make them fast {tii-yam). 

Or, * whose forim,* riipadkeya being virtually equivalent to simple rupa. Ppp. reads 
in b sahtitdraM. The ** cow-stall ** does not probably imply anything more than an 
enclosure. The Anukr. passes without notice the jagatt pada d. 

2. To this cow-stall let cattle flow-together [stream together J {sam- 
sni)\ let Brihaspati, foreknowing, lead them hither; let Sinivall lead 
hither the van (dgra) of them; make them fast when they have come, 
O Aniimati. 

[In the prior draft of 3, Mr. Whitney has * stream. ’J Ppp. at the end yairAd// 
one of SPP’s mss., ymcAat. The comm, gives anugate ( he anugawamikdrini ) in d. 
The value of pra in the common epithet prajdniint (rendered ‘ foreknowing *) is obscure 
and probably minimal. to the deities here named, see Zimmer, p. 352, and Hille- 
brandt, led. Mythol. i. 422.J 

3. Together, together let cattle flow [stream J, together horses, and 
together men, together the fatness that is of grain ; I offer with an obla- 
tion of confluence. 

For the oblation called *of confluence,’ to effect the streaming together of good 
things, compare i. 15 and xix. i. The change of meter in this hymn need not dan^age 
its unity, in view of its occurrence as one hymn in Ppp. Ppp. roads in b /dwrwrJj, and 
in c sphCitibhis {lor yd sph-). The metrical dcfinjtion of the Anukr. seems to reject the 
ob\ious resolution -vi e-na in d. 

4. I pour together the milk (ksird) of kinc, together strength, sap, 
with .sacrificial butter ; poured together arc our heroes ; fixed are the 
kine in me {rather, with me J [as] kine-lord. 

Ppp. reads valam in b, combines -ktd ^smdkam in c, and has for d mayi g!iva{ ca 
gopatdu. The redundant syllable in d (noticed by the Anukr.) would be got rid of 
by changing mdyi to the old locative wZ[; but with better metrical result, by adopting 
the I’pp. rcadingj. With the .second half-verse is to be compared AC^’.S. iii. 1 1.6: arisfd 
asmdkam vird mayi gdvah santu gopatdu. The comm, says that gavdm in A means 
grstindm ‘f»f heifers (h.iving their first calf).’ 

5. I bring (ddir) the milk of kinc; I have brought the sap of grain; 
brought arc our heroes, our wives, to this home (dstaka). 

^7 , . TRANSLATION AND NOTES. HOOK 11. -ii. 27 

Ppp. has aharsam in b, in c aharUam (for ahrm) and vlrdn, and in d a ialnlm 
t Jam. Our Bp. gives aharham (and H. aharSmam) in b, and AhaUis in c. 

The auuvnka L4.J has this time 9 hymns, with 48 verses ; the old Anukr. says dvy- 
Huafk [fatdrdhafh'] turfy ah. 

27. For victory in disputation: with a plant. 

[A'a/>tftjala. — suptar, ant 7 ilnas/'afyam anu ^tttbham ] 

Found in Paipp. ii. Kauq. uses the h\mii m the rite or chaim for overcoming an 
adversary in public dispute : one K to come to the assembly from the north-eastern 
direction (because of its name apanl^ta ‘ uncoiKiutred ’). chexsim^r the loot of the plant, 
and to have it in his mouth while speaking ; also to bind on an amulet of it, and to wear 
a wreath of seven of its leaves (3.S. 18-21). Verse 6. again, is reckoned (50 13, note) 
to the rikudra ^atia. I he comm further (juotes from the Xaks. |_crror for (,'antij K. 
(I 7 i *0) a 'prescription of the use of the h\mn in a mahtl^dutt called apardjita. 

Translated: Weber, xiii 190, Ludwig, p 461 , (irill, ist edition, 18,51 ; Hloomficld, 
JAOS. xiii., p. xlii (PAf).S May, 1885), or AJP. vii 479 ; (iiill, 2d edition, 23,93 5 Ciriflfith, 
i. 66 ; nioomheld, SliL. xiii 137*304 — Illoomlicld was the first to point out (on the 
authority of Kauq.) the connection of ptd(^ with root prach, and to give the true inter- 
pretation of the h}mn. (irill follows him in the second edition. 

1. May [my] foe by no means win (y/)fbe dispute; overpowering, 
overcoming art thou ; smite the dispute of [my] counter-disputant ; make 
them sapless, O herb. 

“Dispute” (pr<i() is literallv • (juestioning ’ The comm, renders the word in a by 
praftar * quc.stioner,' but in c gives us our choice l)etwc*^n that and pra(;ua ‘question,’ 
and in 7a acknowledges only the latter meaning. Pnffipnl^as is translated here as 
genitive ; the comm, takes it .secondly as such, but first as .iccus pi. ; the Ppp. reading 
favors the latter . s<l 'mun ptaftprd^o /aya rasil hr- With either understanding, the 
accent is anomalous ; we ought to haxe prattpta^ax. A rasa n also is in favor of the 
plural. If we could emend p/ti^aw in c to /riq/‘in the disputation,’ it would make 
things much easier. For a Ppp. h,\.s jvi caifftn sanijaydt. AVd in a is simply the 
emphasized negative. 

2 . The Cagle discovered (antt-viti) thee; the swine dug thee with his 
snout : smite the dispute etc. etc. 

Pada b shows that the rot^t is the part of the plant emploxed. If we struck off the 
, impertinent refrain from \ss 2-5, and combined the lines into two verses, the Inmn 
would conform to the noim of the second book (as in more than one case above 

Lp- 37J). 

3. Indra put (kr) thee on his arm, in order to lay low {str) the Asuras : 
smite the dispute etc. etc. 

The comm., both here and in the next verse, iindcistands sttirffax'e as -bhyas 

tdrt-^ though he then explains taffttn’i' by star Hum. Pad.i a is rendered in accordance 
with the comm, and with Weber : Grill, ‘took thee into his a.*in ’ 

4. Indra consumed (T7-r?f) the patdy in order to lay low the Asuras : 
smite the dispute etc. etc. 

11. 27- 



The comm* re.icls in a ptithum^ and uses that form in* all his explanations ; pdfUm 
seems to be given in all the mss., and in Ppp., and both editions adopt it ; but the mas. 
are very little to be trusted (or the distinction of / and ///. The plant is the Cfypea 
/lernantii/olia, whose bitter root is much used. It grows all over India, and is said to 
be applied to ulcers in the Penj.ab and in Sindh (\V. Dymock, Vegetable maL med,) 
(R.) |_ln his note, Roth gives piitilpn as Ppp. form; but in his collation, he gives ^s 
Ppp. reading in a, b pavam J vydsnau hantave as-. The Anukr. apparently expects 
us to resoK e ^ n-dt in a. 

5. With it will I overpower the foes, as Intlra did the sdldvrkds: smite 
the dispute etc. etc. 

The tr.inslation implies emendation of the inadmissible sdkse to sdksye^ than which 
nothing is e.asicr (considering the frequent loss of v after a lingual or palatal sibilant) or 
more satisfactory, for both sense and meter ; it is favored, too, by the Ppp. reading, 
sdkstye. No other example of long d in a future form of this verb appears to be quot- 
able ; but the exchange of a and d in its intlection and del ivation is .so common that this 
makes no appreci.'ible difficulty. The comm, accepts Mlkse, rendering it by ab/ti bkavdmi. 
The Anukr. notes no irregularity in the verse. In our text, accent sdldvrkAn 
(an accent-mark out of place). L'Pe Weber's note on sdldvrkti, add Oertel, JAOS. 
xix.- 123 f, This allusion .idds to the plausibility of W*s suggestion about the Yatis, 
note to li 5. 3.J 

6 . O Rudra, thou of healing (^) remedies, of dark (nila) crests, deed- 
doer ! smite the dispute etc. etc. 

Ppp. has for c, d prstam dtmuyato jaht yo sfftda abhuiduUt, which is plainly much 
better than the repetition of the refrain, .and for which the latter has perh.ips been sub- 
stituted in our text. The comm, draws out to great length a senes of derivations for 
rudra, and gives two for jaldMi, and three dilferent explanations of karmakrt. LBloom- 
tield discusses jal- etc. at length, AJP xii.425 tf.J 

7. Do thou smite the dispute of him, O Irulra, who vc.xcs us; bless us 
with abilities {i^dkti ) ; make me superior in the dispute. 

Ppp. prstam for pnlt^am tram in a, and ends b with -ddsate. The comm, has 
prdi^am of prd^t in d and is supported in it b} two of SPP's authorities. The 
prdi^am in a he explains by rdkyam, an<l that in his d h\ prastdram. 

28. For long life for a certain person (child?). 

— jaumdymddnatam trdiduhham t ja};ati ; y. bhitrtj.^ 

Found in P.'iipp. (\ss. 1-4 in i.; \s. 5 in xv ). I slcI by Kau^. in the cere- 
mony (54. 13), as the parents pass the boy three times b.ick and forth between them and 
make him eat balls of ghee ; and the sam»* is done in the 1 udd idula (hair-cutting) cere- 
mony (54. lb, note); the .schol also reckon it to the dyusya ga/ja ( 54 . 1 1 , note). 

Translated. Weber, xiii. 192; Citill, 4S, 94 , (Griffith, i. 67 ; Bloomfield, 50, 306. 

I. For just thee, O old age, let this one grow; let not the other 
deaths, that arc a hundred, harm him ; as a forethoughtful mother in her 
lap a son, let Mitra protect him from distress that comes from a friend 



-ii. 28 

Ppp. has in b tvat for qatam ye, and combines in d mitre *nam. The omission of cither 
imdni or anyJ \\o\x\ 6 . rectify the meter of b. *lhc comm, most foolishly Ulu;s jariman 
first ixQitti jr ‘ sin^, and explains it as he stuyamana a^^ne/ then addinj;^ the true et)- 
mology and The ^^jttj^atF'' is cjuite irrej^ular: 12 + 13 . 11 + 12 = 48. LBh>om- 
field cites an admirable parallel from R\ . iv 55 * 5 » hut in his version he has quite 
overlooked the verl>accent.J 

2. Let Mitra or hcipful (.^ n^iiiids) Vanina in concord make him one 
that dies of old age ; so Agni the offerer {hotar), knowing the wavs 
(vayihta), bespeaks all the births of the gods. 

All our /^rt//rt-mss. read in a n^adii instead of -ddh . SI*I*. pro])erly emends to -diih. 
Thi.s wholly obscure word is found independent!) onl\ here 111 W : its rendering a])o\e 
is intended only to avoid lea\ing a blank; the comm, gives the ordinarv cl\molog), as 
hiHsiikilHilm at/il ; (jiiH, emending to brings out an ingenious but uncon- 

vincing parallelism with C if. ipikvSi^i; and. as ii(>ti(.cd b\ him, .Xufiecht also would under- 
.stand tirniidax ‘\eiN prominent.' P'pjj. leads for a mrtnt^ ai /rw zuinf//ii( tu n\riddu, 
and has at the end of d •mfutt vaktt 

3. Thou art master (/V) of earthly cattle, that are born, or also that 
are to be born ; let not breath leave this one, nor e.xpiration : let not 
friends slay {vadh) this one, nor enemies. 

All the mss., and the < timm , read at end of b ;</////; />». which SPI* accordmgl) letains, 
while our text makes tlie neeessars emendation to j,utiii'ils, which Bpj). also has. Tpp. 
I^omits vtl in b ;J elides the initial a of iipdrio ami anutrdh allei mo , and it puts the veise 
afti r our vs. 4 I’ada b lacks a sellable, unnoticed b\ tliL Anukr ^lead jatasas ^J. 

4. Let father heaven, let mother earth, in concord, make thee one that 
dies of old age ; that thou mayest live in the lap of Aditi, guarded by 
breath and e.xpiration, a huiulred winters 

I'pp. reads te for fra in a. and dn ^^haa: dyuh for ^ im rtddne in b : also rtyd for adites 
in c. The Anukr. lakes no nolRe of the irregnlariu of tlu* meter (o 1 1 . 10-^ 12 
= 42: a poor tftstuhh ’), the ins».rtu>n ot i.a aflci prthivi in a. and emendation to 
jh’tfsi in c, would he easy rcetiticalums [^In oidei to bring the cesura of a in the right 
pla«'e, read dyilus ami /: d each as tme sellable and insert a ta akso after pita. Thus all 
is oidcrly, 11 f 11 ; 1 1 - 12. The .u eent-mark o\ei //- is gone.J 

5. This one, O Agni, do thou lead for life-time, foi splendor, to dear 
seed, O Vanina, Mitra, king! like a mother, O Aditi, yield iyinn) him 
refuge ; O all yc gods, that he be one reaching old age. 

All the pada-mss. re'a<l at end of b rntfra nljan, as a compound : and SPP. so gives 
it; the comm, understands tdjan correctly as an independent word, but perhaps onl\ as 
he in general is superior to the restraints of the /^r^/l/-^eadlngs I’pp* -xv. ) has//viv 
for -yam in b. The \crse is found also in T.S. (d. 3. loD* Tl> (11 7. 7'!'). T.\. (ii. 5 i), 
and MS. (ii. 3.4). All these gi\c krdhi for naya at end of a ; T.V. MS. have tiy^mdm 
djas instead of priyAm r//as in b ; T.S. TB. MS. ^oma nijan at end of b. w hile T.\. 
offers instead sAm i^t\adhi : all accent jarada^fi^ in d. and MS. leaves au\t at the end 
unaccented. In (.'GS. (i. 27), again, is a version of the verse, omitting naya in a. read- 
ing (with MS.) ti^mam ofas and soma in b, .and h.uing adth/t ^atma yamsat in c. 
LVon Schroeder gives the Kaiha vcision. Tubtngcr Katita-hss., p. 72-3. J 

II. 29 - 



29. For some one’s long life and other blessings. 

[Athjn\in . — ut^/arum. hiihutinhUyam. trdistubham : i. anustubh ; 4. pardbrkait 
nu rtyrxu tdrapaukU^ 

Found in I’aipp., but in two widely scp.irated parts: vss. 1-3 in xix., and vss.4-7 
in i. (next folIowin>' our hjmn 28). Used in Kau^. (27. off.) in a curious healing rite 
for one afflicted with thirst : the patient and a well person are set back to back, wrapped 
in one garment together, and the latter is made to drink a certain potion apparently 
prepared for the other ; thus the disease will be transferred to the well person : a total 
perversion of the proper meaning of the hymn. Again, it is used (54. 18) in the goddna 
and Ludd ceremonies, and, according to the schol. (58. 17, note), in that of name>giving ; 
and the schol. (42. 15) further .idd it in the rite on the return home of a Vedic studept. 
And vs. 3 accomp.'inies in Vait. (22. 16) the pouring of the milk into the clarified 
soma in the putabhrt at the agnistoma sacriticc [cf. comm, and Hillebrandt, Ritttal- 
htteratur^ p. 129J. 

Translated ; Weber, xiii. 194; Ludwig, p. 493 ; Griffith, i. 68; Bloomfield, 47, 30S. 

1. In the sap of what is earthly, O gods, in the strength of Bhaga's 
self (taufi) — length of life to this man may Agni, Surya — splendor may 
Brihaspati impart. 

Or it might be ‘in the .s.ip of earthly portion, in strength of body’ (a. b); ‘ what is 
earthly’ would refer to some characteristic pro<luct of earth applied in tlie rite; the 
comm, understands the god Bhaga, but his opinion is of no authority. As \Veber sug- 
gests, the exchange of dyu^yilfn here in c and dyus in 2 a would rectify the meter of 
both verses : in neither c.ise does the Anukr. note an irrcgiil.inty. Ppp. ha.s here tlyur 
asmdt, but follows it with somo varca dhaia brh-. Some of our mss , with two or three 
of SFP's, accent ilyiisyaw. The comm, takes de^uls in a for a nominative. 

2. Length of life to him assign thou, O jatavedas ; progeny, O Tvashtar, 
do thou bestow on him; abundance of wealth, O Savitar (‘impeller'), do 
thou impel to him ; may he live a hundred autumns of thee. 

The construction of a dative with adhi-ni-dha in b seems hardly admissible ; BK. 
[_iii.9i7j, in quoting the passage, reads asmi, apparently by an intended emendation, 
which, how'ever, docs not suit the connection: inffifn is the only real help. 

3. Our blessing [assign him] refreshment, possession of excellent 
progeny; do ye (two), accordant, assign [him] dexterity, property (r//w- 
vififi ) ; [let] this man [be] conquering fields with power, O Indra, putting 
(/r) other rivals beneath him. 

The verse is difficult, and, as the parallel texts show, badly corrupted. A^lr nas 
(for which Weber ingeniously suggested d^irne) is suppoited by <If/r nas in MS. 
(iv. 12.3) and d^ir me in TS. (iii. 2. S') and K(,’.S. (x. 5.3) ; and all these versions jive 
it a vcrii in b, dadhatu^ instead of the impracticable dual dhattam^ with which our sdee- 
tasdit is in the same combination. The alteration of this to the sAvarcasam of TS. 
M.S , or the sm'arcasam of KC,\S. and I'pp., would indicate that of dhattam to ddm (as 
middle), and allow sense to be made of the pada. All the other texts, including Fpp., 
give in a suprajdstvAm instead of the anomalous and bad sAttpr-. T.S. MS. KQS. 
have ham for ddksam in b. The translation implies emendation of jdyam in c to jdyan 


in accordance with the samjAyan of the other texts ; but Ppp. has sam jayat^ which 
would be even more acceptable — only not with ahAm, as all the four read for ay dm. 
TS. MS., finally, combine anyfin Adh^ in d ; Kgs. elides *nyan. In KgS, as in Vait , 
the first word is to be understood as A(ir; the comm, interprets both ways | from a^is 
* blessing or from A^ir * milk ’J. He reg.irds the an of sAupra- in a as simply “ V'cdic,” 
and heaven and earth as addressed in b. 

4> Given by Indra, instructed by Varuna, sent forth by the Maruts, 
hath the formidable one come to us ; let this man, in your lap, O heaven- 
and-earth, not hunger, not thirst. 

The “thirst of the patient in Kauq. has no more substantial foundation than the 
last two words of this verse. The text in Ppp. is defaced, but sliows srstas for qidas in 
a, and in c, d, after -thivl^ pan dadami sa ma. The Anukr. would have us scan 
1 1 -f 1 1 : 8 + 9 30, dividing before upAuhe , but the pada-iu^'&. mark the division 

correctly, after that word. 

5. Assign refreshment to him, ye (two) that are rich in refreshment ; 
assign milk to him, ye rich in milk ; refreshment have heaven-and-earth 
assigned to him, [havcj all the gods, the Maruts, refreshment [have] the 

* Refreshment ' is the conventional remlering selected for the ambiguous word ftrj and 
its varietie.s. Nearlv all our mss (all s.ivc P. .M ), and all of SPP's, ha\e the false 
accentuation devAs in d. both editions emend to deva%. which the comm, also under- 
stands. So also with dyai apt //nvi in c. for w hic h the mss have either dyavaprthnd (so 
nearly all of ouis and one of .SPI*\) or dyaraprthtxu (so. according to .SPP., all his save 
one, with our ().!).): onU our H. has the true nading, which is given by emendation in 
both editions. 'Ihe verse (10 - to 12 1 1 " 43) is far from being a good tndubh. 

6. With propitious things (f.) I gratify thy heart; mayest thou enjoy 
thyself {mud) free from disease, very splendid; let the two that dwell 
together Q savdsiu) drink this stir-about {mauthd)^ putting on [as] magic 
the form of the (two) Ai^vins. 

The second half-verse is said apparently of a married pair, who arc by supernatural 
mean.s to become as beautiful as the .\t;Mns. Of i nurse, the comm, follows K.iuq in 
understanding it of the sick and well man, ami taking savasiti as dressed in one gar- 
ment.” The comm, supplies adbhi^ in a, which is plausible (so Weber) Ppp reads in 
a tarpayantu^ in b modamanat^ latc 'ha. and in d a^vinatt. .Several of SPP’s mss. 
give math Am in c. 

7. Indra in the beginning, being pierced, created this refreshment, 
[this] unaging svadJui : it is thine here; by it live thou for autumn.s very 
splendid ; be there no flu.x of thee ; the healers have made [it] for thee. 

In d, susrot is here rendered as if it iinolvcd the idea of Airara ‘flux’; the A 
seems to forbid its being taken to mean “let it not be spil'cd ; the comm., however, 
80 understands it: praivuto mA bhut. Some of our mss. (.M.P.W.) read tvAyA at 
beginning of C. The comm, has ilrjam in b. Ppp. gives, in a, b, vidyo ashram urjath 
svadhAm ajatAtn etam tsa. 

n. 30- 



30. To secure a woman’s love. * 

{Itlniuttmano bhtmukhikafanjktJmah). — Jf vina.n. tlnusfubkam : 
t pathviipankti ; j. bhunj.\ 

Found in Paipp. ii. (in the verse-order i, 5, 2, 4, 3). I’sed l)y K.liiq. (35. 21 If.), with 
vi.S and other h>mns, in a rite concernin;j women, to ^ain control over a certain person : 
a mess of various substances is prepared, and her bod\ smeared w ith it — which is 
much like the proverbial catching of a bird In puttinu salt on its tail. 

Tr.mslateil • Weber, v. 21S and xiii. 197 : Ludwig, p. 517; (trill, 52, 97 ; (^rilfith, 

1 70: Ploomheld. too, 31 1. 

1. As the wind here shakes the grass off the earth, so do I shake thy 
mind, that thou mayest be one loving me, that thou mayest be one not 
going away from me. 

The last half-verse is the same with the concluding padas of i. 34. S and vi. 8. 1-3; 
SPP again alters the piuia-XstW. to (see under 1.3}. 5); Ppp. here for e 

t'.-.i matpta tvayasi Ppp. reads in a. b bhumya 'dhi vatdA ( ' ) ir-. We should expect 
in a rather b/iiunytlppt, and this the comm, reads, both in his exposition and in his quota* 
tion of the pratika from K.iu^. ; but lUoomtield gi\es no sulIi vaiiant in his edition.. 

2. May yo, O Ai^vins, both lead together and bring [ber] together 
with him who loves her. The fortunes {b/iay;a) of you (two) have come 
together, together [your] intents, together [your] courses (vmfti). 

Notwithstanding the accent of 'i it does not seem jiossible to understand 
cev/ina as - if’ (thill, however, so t.ikcs it. Webei as a 1 »o\c). sime the second half- 
verse has no application to the A^\lns (we should like to altti i ./w in c to puIh). LlJut 
See Hloomhcld J The translators lake kaminri in a as for kantniAu ’the (two) losers,’ 
which it might also w'ell be ; the comm. sa\s kAfnnul mayA He also talks rtata sinqdy 
a karmandPHiuu which is very near the truth, .as the word ceitainl) tomes fiom root 
vtt (see J.\OS. xi., p. ccx.xix « PAO.S. Ott. 1.S.S4). ppp. re.uks ueutas in b for 7 uikui' 
Z/itis, and, in C, d, satva 'rn^anasy ayfftata stn*i mkyunsi sa//i etc iJoth here and in 
vs. 5 bhdya might possibly have its other sense of yt'nitalia, or imply that by double 
meaning; Imt the comm., who would be likel\ to spy out any such hidden, s.ays 
simply d/ulj^yani. Lina, is mispiinted. — W’s implications are that if vakyithas 

were toneless it might be taken as a case of antithetical construction and that there 
w’ould be no need to join it with 

3. What the eagles [arc] wanting to say, the free from disease [arc] 
wanting to say — there let her come to my call, as the tip to the neck of 
the arrow {kuhnala). 

Tlie first half-verse is very obscure, and very differently understood by the transla- 
tors ; the rendering above is strictly literal, avoiding the violences which they allow 
themselves ; the comm, gives no aid : he supplies strlvisayap'n vAkyatn to/(</, and explains 
anamlvAs by aroguio *drptah (? SPP. understands drptCih) kAtnijanAh, Ppp. has an 
independent text : yas suparnA raksAtia vA tia vaksatia vA trAtAnpitath ntanah : fa/ye 
'va guhnalftth yatka — too corrupt to make much of. Thu Anukr. declines to sanction ^ 
the contraction ^alyi 'va in d. 



-ii. 31 

What [was] within, [be] that without; what [was] without, [be] 
that within ; of the maidens of many forms seize, thou the mind, O herb. 

In the obscure formalism of a, b tin* comm, thinks mind and speech to be intended. 
[Why not n^tas and 'J ‘Of all forms/ i.c , as often else\\hcre, ‘of every sort 

and kind/ |_I *pp. reads iibiihyam lor biihyaui yad bti/iyaw.^ 

5. Hither hath this woman come, desirin;^ a husband ; desirinf^ a wife 
have I come ; like a loud-ncif^hin^ ikrand ) horse, together with fortune 
have I come. 

That is, perhaps, ‘ I ha\c enj<)\ed her fa\ors.’ None of the mss. fail to accent ydt/ia 

in c. 

, 31. Against worms. 

[AV«7v/. — mahiiU'ViUVitm Util itnu^tuf^luim 2 uyiinyruh iradbrhati ; y iifsi 
hutubfi , 4. flit 'tut, 1 hhiit!, y ful^ult.i ht\titbh'\ 

♦ ^ 

Found also in I’aiiip. 11 Used b> K.lmj 127. iftf ) in nn extended healin^f rite 
against worms : the detail of tlie ceremonial has notliing to do with that of the hjmn, 
and does not illustrate the latter. 

Translated : Kuhn, KZ. xiii. 1 15 if. . \V<ber, xiii. , Lud\Mg, p. 323 ; Grill, 6 , y8 ; 
Gri?fith, i. 71 ; Itloomliehl. 22, 31s — Lf. /iniiner. pi).<>S, 3<^3 . .Mannhaidl. Dti liaum- 
kultus der CeuftiUtt n, \i 12 M K 'SXx.iWKiwhoii, Denkwahr dcutst her Poestc aus dem 
S. bis tj. /(thr/iitifdi'r/ '. 1 17. i Si . .'nd csjjccialh the old (icrmanic analogues addured 
by Kuhn, I.c. GiiiVitli cites llaipc} Mayazint\ June. i8f>3. p. 106. for modern usciges 
in vogue near tjuebei 

1. The great mill-stone that is India’s, bruisci* itailiana) of every worm 

— with that I m.ish ( // O together the worms, as /’//<r/z'<r-grains with a 

Our mss. and those of .sl*J* . as will as I’pp, \ar\. in this Inmn and elsewhere, quite 
indisc riminatily between knun ami kinn. so that it is not at all worth while to report 
the details; .Sl’l' agrees with ns in juinling e\enwhcic kiti/it. Iwo of our mss. 
(O. Op.), with one ot sri’'.s, icail .///»».?/ in a IVP g’"-" ‘it the end khalvdu iva 
The comm, explains kn/mu b\ ^,/i :i 4i///,iiytit,iii uiiitiii k^udi ajtintun 

2. The seen, the unseen on»: have I bruised, also the kuntni have I 
bruised ; all the ak^dn ius, the lalthtas. the worms we grind up with our 
spell {vticiis). 

The distinction of dya- ami -ht- in the manusciipts is \ii> imperfect; I had noted 
only one of cmr mss. as appan ntl\ lia\ ing al'^iUtd //;. hiic and ra the lu xt verse . but STI*. 
gives this as found in all his aulhonlies, including oral ones, and tlie comm, presents 
it, and even Ppj) : so it is lie^ond all ijiiestion the tiue reading I he comm, 
explains it here as cttinudutiuib ki iun:’i\i urir. but in \s. 3 ^(tnittii/iiin^iidiiMtkiiFi jaiitiin 

— which la>t is plainly nothing inoie than i giies-s. Instead of kuiurum in b. he reads 
kurlram, with three of .Sl’I’*s mss. and I’pi'.; other mss. differ as to their distiibution 
of u !(hd il in the s^lIablt•^ of tlie word, and two «'.f ours (Dp Kp ) give kururant. Two 
of SPP’s authorities gi\e l iUntut in d. Tpp. further has adraham for atrhnm both 
times, and ^aliilUn in c. 'J’hc omission of kfimfn in d would ease both sense and meter. 

iA-, cf. lii. II. S, iv.S.3, and ii. 17, nolc.J 

11. SI- 



3. I smite the al^dftdns with a great deadly weapon ; burnt (jpr] 
unburnt, they have become sapless ; those left [or] not left I draw down 
by my spell (rvfr), that no one of the worms be left. 

It seems hardly possible to avoid amending at the end to uchi%yatCii^ pa.ssive. Ppp. 
reads in b dunCidduna, and its last half-verse is defaced. 

4. The one along the entrails, the one in the head, likewise the worm 
in the ribs, the avaskai'dt the vyadhvani — the worms we grind up with 
our spell i^cdcas). 

The comm , and two of STP's mss., re.-id in b patsHe\am ‘in the heel’; and SPP. 
admits into his text after it krOftin, ai^ainst the great majoiity of his mss. and against 
the tomm.: none of ours have it, but three (O. Up. Kp.) gi\e krhnlm^ which looks like 
an abortive attempt at it. For vyadhviitam in c, Ppp. has yataVn ; all the mss. have 
vyadhviiram ; unless it is to be emended to vyadvatAm (cf. \i. 50. 3, note), it must prob- 
ably be derived from vyadh ‘pierce’; but the /<r</<Mea^g rHiidhrarAm points rather 
to vi-adhvan : the comm, takes it from the latter, and 3so, alternatively, from vi and 
a-dhvara ; uva^kavd is, according to him, aviiyyamana^vabhava : it seems rather to 
come from -yjsku ‘tear.* The expre.ssion ptayukta ‘as heretofore defined* is not used 
eLsewhere in the Anukr. ; it is used by abbreMation for upiinstUdvinld (\.s. 2); but why 
the two \erses were not defined together, to make repetition needless, does not appear. 
[In d, again, krimtn is a palpable intru.sion.J 

5. The worms that are in the mountains, in the woods, in the herbs, 
in the cattle, within the waters, that have entered our selves {tann) — that 
whole generation {jdniman) of worms I smite. 

Two of .SPP’s mss. agree with the comm, in reading //for 1/ at beginning of c; and 
the comm, has further tanvas for tanvam, Ppp. in.serts^vc lieforc vaneut^ and// (with 
an avasdna before it) also before osadhh'u ; for second half-veise it gives ye'stmlkafh 
tan no (i.c. tanvo) sthdtna cakrir (i.c. cakntr or utkn re) tndrar tdn hantu tnahutA vadh- 
ena. Pra^ukta in the Anukr. apparentl) repeats this time the supertiuous d/ */ of vs. 3. 

The anuvdka L5.J has 5 hymns and 29 verses, and the extract from the old Anukr. 
says tato 'pardtdi or *parAnte, 

32. Against worms. 

[A'anva — jodriam adityadevotyam. dnuitublunn / d. y/. /i/rn/w/wi/J.] 

This h)mn o<(urs in Paipp. ii. (with vs 3 put last), next before the one that here 
precedes it. Kau<;. applies it (27. 21 If.) in a healing ceremony against worms in cattle. 

LThe material appears in Ppp in the order i, 2 ab, 4 edab, 5 ab, 6, 3 abc 5 d. The 
expression of Kam^. 27. 22, “ with the words te hatdh (vs. 5 d) at the end of the hymn,” 
suggests the reduction of the hymn to the norm of the book, 5 vss. (sec p. 37). This 
is borne out by Ppp., where the material amounts to 5 \ss and ends with our 5 d. 
Hut what the intruded portions arc it is not to say. '1 he parts missing in Ppp. 
are our 2 cd, 3 d, 5 C,J 

Translated: Kuhn, KZ. xiii. 138: Weber, xiii. 201 : Ludwig, p. 500; Grill, 7, 100; 
Griffith, i. 72 ; Bloomfield, 23,317. — Cf. Ilillcbrandt, Veda-chrestotnathie^^.^T. 

I. Let the sun {adityd), rising, smite the worms; setting, let him 
smite [them] with his rays — the worms that arc within the cow. 



-11. 32 

TJie change o£ MUyis to s&ryas in a would rectify the meter. Hut Ppp. has adityas; 
its b reads saryo niutrocan rafmiihir hantu; and for e it has ye ‘ntai krimayo 
gavt naft, 

2. The worm of all forms, the four-eyed, the variegated, the whitish 
— I crush (fr) the ribs of it ; I hew at (api-vraqc) what is its head. 

The mss., as usual, vary between pr^tis and prsthis in c. Fpp. has a different ver- 
sion of the first h alf- verse : tivt{trul Laturak\as krtmtq arjunah^ with our 

4 Cyd as second half. The Anukr. expects us to make the unusual resolution a-si-a in c. 

3. Like Atri I slay you, O worms, like Kanva, like Jamadagni ; with 
the incantation of Agastya I mash together the worms. 

Ppp. rectifies the meter of a by re.'idin*^ /tvI krtne ; it has agastyam in c, and. for d, 
our 5d. The Anukr. i^jnores the redundant sellable in our a. Compare TA. i\.36 
(which the comm, (juotes. though tlie editor does not tell from whence); Atrina iva 
krime hanmi kAnvena jiimAd^^iutna 7 ‘i<ivava^or btAhmana : also MB. ii. 7. 1 a, b : 
katas U a/rintl krtmtr hatas te )amada}^ntna. SI* I*, writes in di attrivAd. Vss. 3-5 
are repeated below as v. 23. 10-12. 

4. Slain is the king of the worms, also the chief {sthapdti) of them is 
slain ; slain is the worm, having its mother slain, its brother slain, its 
sister slain. 

Ppp. has in b ^thapaits^ and in c. d (its 2 c, d) -ttata for -uuita^ and -mahaia for 
bhrAtA. T.A. (iv. 36) lias again .a parallel \erse hat Ah krimJnaih ni/a Apy esdm stha- 
pAtir hat Ah • At ho wAta *tho pita : cf also MB 11 7 3 a. b hatah knmfnam ksudrako 
hattl niil/A hatah pita. The comm, explains ithapati b\ %.niva. 

5. Slain arc its neighbors vn^ds), slam its futther neighbors pdri~ 

also those that are petty (X-v/z/A/Xvi), as it were — all those worms 
arc slain. 

The translation of d implies the emendation of te to ti . all the mss. have the former, 
but SPP. receives the latter into his text on the authoiily ot the comm., who so under- 
stands the word. I’pp. ic.uls in a. b "\va 'iu'uifo hatasay p- , our c is wanting in its 
text; our d it puts in pl.u e ot our 3 d Our k\it//aka is .1 kind of Pi.lknti/ation of 
ksudraka^ quoted fiom MB undei \s. | , T.\. (ib ) also has Atho sthTna Atho kutdrah. 
The comm, expbiins i'e{A\as -xs ••pnmipal houses.” and pAnve^asas as “neighboring 
lioiftes.'' We might suspect from lOot ‘7*. and so ‘attendants, servants.’ 

6. I crush up (//vr-c/) thy (two) horns, wdth w’hich thou thriistcst ; I 
split thy receptacle (.’), which i^ thy poison-holder. 

The decided m.ijority, IkuIi of our in.vs. and of SI’ P's, give in c kuMhnbhaw, which 
is accordingly accepted in both e<iilions : other sporadic readings xi^ kiii/t\iinibham^ 
kusAbkant^ ka^Abham^ kusitbham. kii\An:bhain : and two of Sl’Ps mss. give sukum- 
bkani^ nearly agreeing with tin* \itkarnbham of the comm. Our 1 * M.h. have vtnud- 
in b. Ppp’s version is as follows; pa te luifiii yabhyayattam vitadayasr. atho 
bkinadmi tam kumbham yasmm te mhatam I'lyam. which n c is better than our text, 
and is supported by the MB. (li. 7. O hum of c, d . athCu 'ulm bhiitiiakah kiimbho ya 
tfdfh visadkilnakah. The metiic.d definition of the veise (7 + 7:7+0=27) given 
by the Anukr. is only mechanic.illy coricet. 

ii. 33- 



33 . For expulsion of yiksma from all parts of the body. 

— saf'taintm. yiik\matti»xtr/ttinatn : ulnJhinustim ' dnustubkam, 

j kalummjtt , ^ 4-f*. bkun' U'^nth ; y. uKtt istaJ-. tt aM>rhati ; 6. 

nupJaHU\tithk ; j. J 

Foumi ill Taipp. iv. Corresponds, with important variations, to most of RV. x. 163 
(found also in MI’., the Mantni-ii^xi to Apt IS.: see Winternit/, l.c., p. LNamely, 
oiir \ ss. 1 , 2. 4 ab w ith 3 cd, and 5 correspond to M I', i. 1 7. i , 2. 3. ami 4 : tlie Mi’, version 
follows most neail) of RV.J I he hymn is called hv Kam;. (27.27) vlbarha 
(from \s 7 d). ami is prescribed in a healintj reremon\ : it is also reckoned (54. 1 1, note) 
to the ifi : but the comm, makes up an anhohn^^a of it and iii. 1 1 ; iv. 13 ; 

V. 3:) ; i\ which is quite different from the one repotted liy lUoomfield from the 
w. 7/<7 in note to K.iu^. 32. 27 |_on pai;e St), but agrees with the one reported in H's su|> 
plenunt, paj^e 334. except that tor i 10. 4 should be put iii. 1 1. 1 J. It (or vs. i) is also 
emplo\ed by Vait (3S i) in the pum^anuiiha. 

Translated. b\ the KV tianslatois: and Kuhn, KZ. xiii. if.; Weber, xiii. 205 ; 
('intrtth, i 74, Illoomlield. 44. 321 Oldenburg compares ciitKally the R\'. and AV. 
cersions. die li\ tuned dt • KV. i p. 243. 

I Forth from thy (two) eyes, (two) nostrils, (two) cars, chin, brain, 
tongue, I eject (i i rrh) for thee the uf the head. 

The \crse is KV. \. ib3. i, without '1 wo or tlirci of .sl’T’s mss, with the 
comm , in b lubukCit , Ml’, iibukCU Lin the WIiinIi ms J . I’pp substitutes for it 
e. (Itydf), lias nka for ifd/tt. and h,is fi»i d hiiatiid :/ 

2 . From thy neck (.g;vTdi), nape {nuiUuis), vertel)ia {kikasiX), back- 
bone, (two) shoulders, (two) fore-arms, I eject for thee the yakpna of 
the arms. 

This, again, is precisely RV. x. 163. 2 I’pp re ids in b anuKyn^. and in d utastas 
( for and vrhatna'^i. 'I’lie j>l. ^e^/r't/3 lor ‘neik* design.ites, accoiding to 

the comm , tlie 14 small bones found there; and he quotes (,‘I» \n 2 i 10 for authority. 
The u^niiias he declares to be ceitam vessels (//a.//), the kUastls, to be jatrnvakso- 
i^atadhini, which is quite indelinile. 

3. Forth from thy heart, lung (klomdn), k(ilik.piii, (two) sides, (two) 
mtitasnas, .spleen, liver, we eject for thee \\\ti ydkpntx. 

Weber conjectures *• gall ” for haliksna ( Ppp. /iiilik'>ttia), and “ kidney ” for matayta. 
Tlic comm, defines klomtin as •* a kind of mass in the neighborliood of the heart,” 
hiilikuia etatsamjnakdt tat samba ndhtin mdinapindavti^esat. and matavniibhySm as 
uhhayapanrasambandhahhyam vrkyabhyam tatsamipasthapittadhUrapatnlbhyAm vtf. 
For a, I’pp. has klomnas tc hrdayahhyo. Of tins verse, only the latter half has #para]- 
hi in RV., namely x. 163. 3c, d, wrlicrc d is varied to yaknAh plAi^lbhyo vl vrhAmi U. 
The Anukr. foolishly rejects all resolution in b. 

4. Forth from thine entrails, guts, rectum, belly, (two) paunches, 
navel, 1 eject for thee ydkptta. 

The comm, explains yud&bhyas by Antrasamtpasthebhyo matamtitrapravahana^ 
ntari^ebhyah. and p/il^/s hy bahucchidran malapAtrAt; and he quotes (,T 1 . xii. 9. 1.3, 
where many of the names in the verse occur. RV. (also MP.) has the first half-verse, 


as 163. 3 a, b, reading lifdayat foi uddrat. For b, c, Ld, J Fpp. substitutes our 6 b, c Id. 
but with panyor in C and vt/idmau at the endj. The Anukr. again rejects all resolu- 
tlonSf which would ni 3 kc the verse ti fair tinustubh ^ nnd counts 74*8 : 74" 7 — 2^, 

S* thy (two) thij^hs, knees, heels, front feet, hips, fundament 

(? bl^dhsas), I eject for thee tlu; of the rump. 

^ In the translation here is omittcrl hhasadam^ the pure equivalent of bhasadyanty 
and herfee as superHuous in sense as redundant in meter. (^Is not puipada ‘toe'rj 
The verse is nearly K\ . x. 1O3.4, which, however, oiitits hhasadyam^ and reads, after 
^vdiiibhydiHy bhdstidtl/, indictitint^ the whole region of anus and pudenda . l^pp. ends 
the verse (like 2 and 4) wiili \'rhaiHim .Several of our mss, with two or three of 
Slip’s, carelessly begin with «/;/-. MI*, has m b jan^^habliyam for par^nikhyant, and 
in ^ dhvatisasas* I he verse seems t<» be st aiineil b\ tlie Anukr. as 8 4- 7 : S -f- 1 1 “ 34. 

6. F*rom thy bones, marrows, sinews, vessels, (two) hands, fingers, 
nails, I eject for thee the ydk\m(i 

Ptlni is distinctively ' ‘“id might ])ropL?J\ be so icndered here. Nearly all our 

♦ j’A//V///A 7 -inas., vvitli most of SPPs, omit the I'tMifi^a brfore ^navahhvo. I*pp. has a 

different a, C, d : /lasfeb/tyas /<• ntan^eb/ivas . : yak\mant pt \fildno majjabhyo nadyam 

xnrvahilmasi. '1 he Anukr scans as 7 -7 31 

7. What {ydkpuii i.s] in thine every limb, every hair, every joint — 
the ytiksma of thy skin do we, with Kacyapa’s ejector (x'ibaihd) eject* 
away (viszuifu ). 

The first lialf-versr coircspoiuls to K\' x 163 o a b. which (as also Ml\) leads 
thus: tidji^iid ani^a/ lonnh*-lount< /atam pari’ani-pat -\:ni , and Ppp agiees with it, 
except in having baddbam for jxitam , I’pj» also omits d In d oui P. M. witli .stmie 
of Sl'P*s mss., read , is docs .ils(» the comm n at /tani \ In our edition, an 

accent-mark has iallm out under -n.aut in e 

34. Accompanying the sacrifice of an animal. 

Found in J’aipp. iii , and .dso 111 the black ^a)us tests, 'J’s. (in 1.4* ^), and K. 
(xxv. 8, in pait). I'scd liv K.liu;. (4; 7) in the vayi^aniana i eiemonv , aci ompanv ing 
the anointing of the 7v/p/ , in the same, vs 5 accompanies (44 lO the stoppage e^f the 
victim'.s breath; and the same \ei>e appe.iis in the iuneial iiles (81.33), \cises 
from xviii. 2 and 3, in connection with the lighting of the pile. This h\mn and the one 
next following are fuitlur emjdoved among the kannani, with invocation of India and 
Agni, by one wiio ••desiies the woild*' (50 21 : -desires over-lordship of all the 
worlej®’ comm.). In \ ait (lo ifi), the lumn (so the comm.) is said on the iclease of 
the victim froi.. the .saeinicial jmst m tlie pat^ubandha 

Tran.slated : Weber, \iii. 207 . Ludwig, p 433 : (iiihitli. i. 7^ — ^oe also Koth. L\'Ur 

den A K p. 1 4. 

I. The lord of cattle, who rules over (/f) the cattle, the four-footed, 
and who also over the two-footed — let him, bought off, go to [his] sacri- 
ficial portion; let abundances of wealth attach themselves to {sac) the 


• »• 34 - 



In the TS. version, this verse comes second (the verse-order being 5, 1, 3, 4, 2). Both 
TS. and K. have at the beginning whicli Ppp. supports by reading esilfn, and 

. which lectides the meter of a: this gives (luitc a different application to c, and a differ- 
ent cast to tile meaning of the verse. T.S. has also m (orjuls in b, aytfw for sd 

in c, and it ends (better) with ytijawHmtim suntu. K. (Weber) has for b catnspdda 
Uhl ye dvipadiih^ and for c niskntAs U yajAty am bhAyam yantit ; aiui l*pp. differt from 
it only slightl), adding 7 uJ after u/a in b, and ending c with yajiiiyd yAnti lokam. 
Apparently it is the lord of c.ittlc who is to be bribed to content himself with ‘his sacri- 
ficial share, in lieu of t.iking the whole. 1 he Anukr. does not heecl the irregularities of 
niLter m a. b. [The Ppp. form of b seems to be latuipadam uta vA ye dvipadah .'J 

j. Do ye, releasing {pra-muc) the seed of being, assign progress 
{gdtH)\Ci the .sacrificer, O gods; what hath stood brought hither (///rf- 
krtii)^ strenuous {^a^amand), let it go upon the dear path of the gods. 

T.S. (and K. ?) rectifies the meter of a (whose irregularity the Anukr. ignorc.s) by read- 
ing pramufii AwAftas ; it also jtvAm for // iydm in d. Ppp. gives }^opA for retas in a, 
and in b makes dhatta and devAs change places; in d it reads <7;. PrtyAm may qualify 
the subject in d : *let it, dear [to the gods], go ’ etc. Ipakrta and i^a^amAnA have their 
usual technical .senses, ‘brought to the sacrifice’ and ‘efficient in the performance of 
religious duty’; the latter is e.xplained by the comm, alternatively, as “being put to 
death *’ or •• leaping up ” (root ^iff ) ! Dex'As is. according to him, “ the hreatlus, sight 
etc., then “ the gods, Agm etc.” [K. Sieg discus.scs pat/uts, Ountpujakaumudiy p. 98. J 

3. They who, giving attention to {anu-d/ii) the one being bound, 
looked after [him] with mind and with eye — let the divine Agni at first 
(liy^pr) release them, he the all-working, in uni.son with (sum^ni) progehy. 

TS. and MS. (i 2.15) have bad/tyAmAnAf (or didkyA/i As, and T.S. follows it with 
ab/tvA/kv- ; and in c combines ai^n/f ttin , .MS aUo has fa ft. both read in d ptajApafis 
for 7n(yvAkatmA , and IS. ends with saniradanA^. I*pp in c mumukta der^Asy and, 
(ox d, prajApatix prajabkis samvtdanAm ; it then adds another sux^n . ye\Am 'prAno 
na badhnanti badd/iarh j^avAm pa^unAm uta pAurusAnAm • indtas tAm (i.e. fAn ti^^re 
pta etc.) The comm, reads in a 7'adhyamAnam^ which is better; he explains satitra- 
ra/uis hy sa/ta (abdAyawAftaSy .is if from the root ra ‘bark’’ Comparison with the 
next verse seems to show the other animals, comr.ades of the victim, to be aimed at in 
the verse. ^Cf. Weber’s notes, p. 209, and csp. his reference to (,Tt. iii. 7. 45. — MS. 
has /An, p. /an: see aliove, page xc J 

4. The cattle that arc of the village, all-formed, being of varioirs 
form.s, manifoldly of one form — let the divine Vayu at first release 
them, Prajapati, in uni.son with progeny. 

T.S. and K. have Aranyas ‘of the forest’ in a. for jrfAwyds, and TS. combincs^rvl^^jjj 
/an in c. and ends again wdth -vidAnah. T.\ (iii. ii) has two version^ (vss. 29, 32), 
of whitli the seiond precisely agrees with T.S . while the first has ^rApnyds, like our 
text (and ai^nfr /an in c). I’pp. is <|uite different: ya AranyAs pa^avo vi^varnpd u/a 
ye kuriipAh. . . . mumuk/a devah prajApa/ts prajAbhh samvidAnAm. 

5. Foreknowing, let them first (pfin^a) receive the breath {pr&nd) 

coming to [them] forth from the limbs. Go to heaven; stand firm with 
thy bodies ; go to paradise (sx^argd) by god-traveled roads. ^ 



Ppp. has Avas iotpSr7>e in a, tmya„, for in c, and it the end -i/S/f (h’Mih. 

TS. rt^^knanu m a ; and T.S. K. MS (H. j. ,o c. d) invert the order of c and d, and 
give the better reading dsaJhisu for lUvam yac/m [if. KV.x. 16.3J; MS also has 
kHids tor svargam. The comm. m.ilces fiurvr mean - the gods p.eviously stationed in 
the atmosphere ; perhaps it is ‘ before the demons get hold of it.’ 

35- To expiate errors in the sacrifice : to Vievakarman. 

[Angtras. VtU^Vtikarnunuim trutttubham i hrhath^.irbhn , 4, b/iurtj] 

Found (except v.s. 5, and in the versc-ordcr 2, 3. 1 , 4) m Taipp. i. The same four verses 
arc found in TS. (iii. 2. : in tlu* nrdrr 2. 4. 3. i ), .md the fiist three in .MS. (ii. 3. 8 : 

in the order 1,3, 2). The h>mn is used by K.iik; (38 22) in a rite intended, according 
to the comm., to prevent f.iults of vision {t/f stiffmaturaranaya j Keqava s.i\s ‘‘to pre- 
\ent rain, 7 *r\tinti*iitaniiya ^ perh.ips his test is corrujit). .u f omjjanj ing the eating of 
something in an assemblv. Its emploMiicnt (5*;. 21) with the Inmn next preceding was 
noticed under the latter. I lu* t oinm (ditlering in his re.iding and division of the rules 
from the edited text of K.Iik, ) dec I.iies it to W used in all the sttr'a sacrifircs, to accom- 
pany \\mi pura^tad homa^ (5<;. 23 4. uttarena ui^uipurastaddhotnCin)'^ and vs 5 is used 
<3. lb) with a pumstad homa in the pa} van saenhees. In V.iit the hymn appears 
(9.7) in the ititurwakva sacrifice, with two oblations to Mahcndra and \'iqvakarman 
respectively; and again (29.22) in the a^^nttcayapta In all these applications there is 
nothing that suits the real cliaracter of the livinn 

Translated: Weber, \m. 21 1 ; Ludwig, p. 302 (vss 1-4); (iriffith, 1. 76. 

They who, partaking [of soma) {b/inks^, did not prosper (n///) in 
good things, whom the fires of the sacrificial hearth were distressed about 
{antt-tapya-) — what was the expiation (tivavd) ot their ill-sacrificc, may 
Vievakarman (‘the all-worker') make that for us a good .sacrifice. 

The tran.slation implies emendation of dihatis in c to dts, and of fan in d to /•///// 
/ffw is read hy the comm , as well a.s by T^. and .M.S , and .Sl’l’. even admits it into 
hia text, though nearlv all his mss, as well as ours, read tan. Our I*, and M. read 
Avf'tihus at end of a: 'I'.S, anrhus, .M.S. iina^us TS. elides the a of apiu in b: it 
begins C with mf;// for i'<f. and ciuls it with dupttfyai^ thus supporting our emendation. 
Holh T.S. and MS. give krnotu in d, and MS, jiuts it after vt\vdkarnta. The pada- read in c riTv/cvi/, but .Sl’l*. .dieis liis /{7</f/-te\t to a^'a-vak, o*' the authority of the 
comm. ; it is a matter of indilfcrcnce. as the concluding element, in .spite of the native 
grammarians, is doubtless the loot yd. Tpp. gives dunsta sviktam in c, d. The various 
readings, here and in the following verses, are in good ])ait of the kind which show; 
that the text-makers weic fumlding over matter which they did not understand. The 
comm, is no belter off. Here, in a. he is uncertain whether to take nd as ‘as if’ or 
^not,’ and to^make vdsuni object of bhak^dyanta^ ox oi dnrdhiU {- luird/itfaranfas^ 
which is not LThc fires, pfida b, aic personified in like fashion at AGS. iv i . 2, 3.J 
The verse (I2-1-I2 :9-l"i i -44) is much more iriegular than the definition of the 
Anukr. admits. 

2. The seers declare the master (-pdfi) of the sacrifice by reason of 
sin disportioned, distressed about [his] offspring. What honeyed drops 
he offended in {} apa-mdh), with them let Vievakarman unite {sam-srj) us. 

»• 35 - 


8 o 

MS. has in a the equivalent ydjamlnum; its b reads vih^ya prajlim anutdpya- 
wUftJ/t ; uhile IS. has praja{A) fi{rd/taA/t}{/t) anutapydnttlndhj and l*pp. tUrbkdgaM 
bhili^rui anntapyamdnil, TS. and MS. make the lost d»-ops only two; tnadkavydh 
stokdu . . . tabhviwt, with tan instead of y^n, and hence rarddha. The translation 
implies correction to tnadhavy^, as read by both the parallel texts and the comm. ; 
Sl*P s te\t .agrees with ours in reading the mathavy- of .ill the m.s.s. (except three of 
Sri‘s, which follow the comm.). All the samhitd-\\\^^. make the absurd combination 
nai tt'biuh in d, seeming to h.ive in mind the paitiiiple nastd; SP1\ retains nastibhis 
in his text, while ours emends to nas tt^bhis, as given in the comment to Prat. ii. 31. 
Ppp. has our second h.ilf- verse as its 3 C. d : it reads niadhavydfi stokdu upa yd rarddha 
sam md tardis srjad vt\vakarmd. Tlie comm, takes anu and tapy- in b as two inde- 
pendcMit words; he exphiiius ratddha in c \^s antafitdn krtmuln, which is doubtless 

its viilual meaning. [W's prior draft re .ids . - what hone)ed drops he failed of” 

that IS, • iiiisscd.’J 

3. Ihinking the soma-drinkers to he unworthy of gifts Q addNyd)^ 
[though] knowing of the sacrifice, [he is] not wise {d/iira) in the conjunc- 
ture (sttwiiyii)\ in that this man is bound having committed a sin, do 
thou, O Vi^'vakarman, release him for his well-being. 

The ottense here had in view is far from clear. Instead of addnyd (whiili occurs 
onl\ here), T.->. has the apparently uninlcllii^cnt ananyan , MS. reads ayajSiiyan yajftf- 
ydn mdny- ‘thinking the unfit ft)r otftiing to be lit for otftiing’ (or vtiO :r;w/); both 
ha\e in hptdndsya Un yajiidsy a. ami for yt\ I’j)p. gives the seiond half-verse 

as 2 c. d. .ind ends it with/^/*./ ntumngdhy onant, T.S, MS h.ive m) vat at beginning of 
C • Is gives iiik^T'an wd/tt^ and MS. duo nta/ith cakyvan />-, iiiid TS t^ant for ^d. 
The comm explains addnydn as ajTtatrdPopena ddndnarhdu. takes na in b as particle of 
comparison, and makes satnaya equal saphx^tdnta ' “.is if one by confidence in the 
strength of his own arm .should think the opposing soldiers despic.ible ” ! 'fhe 
{u 10-^ I2~44) has marked irregularities whieli the Anukr. ignores. 

4. Terrible [are] the seers ; homage be to them ! what sight [is] theirs, 
and the actuality' (satyd) of their mind. For i^rihaspati, () bull {ma/tisd)^ 
[be] bright {dyumtint) homage; C) \'i(;vakarman, homage to thee! protect 
thnii us. 

The translation follows our text, though this is plainly corrupted. T.S. makes b less 
unmle!hgil)le by reading idk\nias for idkxnr ydt, and fawd/nt/i for Ppp. has 

in the half-verse only minor \ariantS 2 b/iinia (nr y/io/ dr, \/n for a^tn^ sawdrk for 
sa/yani. Inc, 1 S. niahf rdt for the senseless wa/i/ra, and the comm, presents the 
same . Ppp reads hrharpate ma/u\dya droo : namo 77fr'-. T.S. gives fiir d ndmo vi^vd- 
kannanc sd n pdtv as/nan. In d all the have the strange blunder pd/ii^ for 

/.?/// as required In the sense and by the jr/w///A 7 -text ; and .SP 1 \ adoptj the blunder, 
thus giving a /^/rAi-re.uling that is inconvertible into his own ramhitd. The comm, 
takes rraya\ in a as “the breath.s, sight etc.,” and satyam in b Tiri yathdrthada»\i ; and 
he founds on this interpretation the use in Kauq. 38. 22, “ .against faults of vksion.” 

5. The sacrifice’s eye, commencement, and face: with voice, hearing, 
mind I make oblation. To this sacrifice, extended by Vii^vakarman, let 
the gods come, well-willing. 


The verse is found in no other text, and is perhaps not a proper part of the hymn ; it 
is repeated below as xix. 58. 5. A few of the J«w////<j-mss. (including our O.) ignore 
the i at beginning of d. 1 he comm, is not certain whether the three nominatives in a 
designate Agni or sacrificial butter ; but he has no scruple about making them objects 
to juhomi. 

• 36. To get a husband for a woman. 

\PaUvedana, — a^tartam. ttat^tubham t b/tunj ; 2, j-y. anuifudA ; 

8 nurtputausmh J 

Found (except vss. 6,8) in Paipp. ii. (in the verse-order i, 3, 2, 4, 5, 7). Used by 
Kduq. (34. 13ff.) among the women's rites, in a ceremony for obtaining a husband; 
vss. 5 and 7 arc specially referred to or quoted, with litcs adapted to the text. It is 
further regarded by the schol. and the comm as signified by pativedana (75. 7), at the 
beginning of the chapters on nuptial rites, accompanying the sending out of a wooer 
or paranymph. 

Translated: Weber, v. 2 1 9 ; xiii 214: Ludwig, p. 476 ; Grill, 55, 102; (iriffith, i. 78 ; 
Bloomfield, 94, 322. — Cf. Zimmer, p. 306. 

1. Unto our favor, O Agni, may a wooer come, to this girl, along with 
our fortune (Jfhdga), Knjoyable {jnsta) [is shej to suitors { 7 'ani), agree- 
able at festivals (sdfnand ) ; be there quickly good-fortune for her with a 

The text is not improbably coriupt. Ppp. reads in a. b skandaioke tdam 

d$h kuMiiryilmano : but it combines c and d much better into one sentence by 

reading for d osam patya bluivatt (-/// ') ^ubha^e 'yam, Tlie comm, explains sambha- 
las AH samb/tilsakali uuutldtlftl va , or else, he it means httnakah purvam abhild- 
savtjfAd/t kanytlM antLihapt puntsah. He quotes Apt^S. 1 4 to show that vat A also 
means paranymph. Justd he quoUs Panini to prove accented jihtd In d he reads 
iisam^ and declares it to signify sukhakaram, |_15ergaigne, AV/. tv'i/. 1. 1 59, takes 
sAmana as - ‘ marriage. 'J 

2. Fortune enjoyed by Soma, enjoyed by Brahman, brought together 
by Aryaman; with the truth of divine Dhatar, the husband-finder I 
perform (X\r). 

Ppp. has a mutilated first half-vcrsc ^owajusto ap yaftnia sapubhp'to bba^i^a i and at 
the end patirvedapuipn. The c<imm. underst.mds m a bpaJuPia- to mean the I'.andharva, 
who and Soma are the husb.inds of a biide (xiv. 2. 3.4). He docs not see in bhay^a 
anything but kanydp Pipappt bbayaii/ti'vapn , but the meaning “favors is not impossible. 

[Both bkagpppt (“fortune" or “") and patividapiapn (the ceremony called 
“husband-finder") are objects of kpptopnt , which, accoidingly, needs to be rendered 
by ‘make’ o- ‘procure’ for the one combination and by ‘ perform * for the other. It 
is hardly a case of zeugma. — Bloomfield notes that sappibhpta contains a conscious 
allusion to sapnbhala^ vs. i.J 

3. May this woman, O Agni, find a husband ; for king Soma maketh 
her of good-fortune; giving birth to sons, she shall become chief consort 
(mdhifi ) ; having gone to a husband, let her, having good-fortune, bear 
rule (vi-rdj). 

ii. 36- 


Three mss. (including our P.O.) read u^ri in a. [For vMs/a in a (Grammar* 
§ 850 a). J I’pp. has vtdettu; at end of b it reads -{^am kraotu; and it changes the 
second half-vorse into .in address by reading bhav&si^ and sufihaj^e vi rAja, The 
conim. expl.iins maht^l ^ mahamyA i^resthA bhAryA. The fourth pada is best scanned 
as with resolution [^or insert sA before subhA^a\. 

4. As. O bounteous one {magluivau), this pleasant covert hath been 
dear to the well-settled (sustui) wild beasts, so let this woman be enjoyed 
of Bhsiga, mutually dear, not disagreeing with her husband. 

The translation here involves emendation of the unman.igeable suuUA in b to susd- 
liAm, as suggested by iii. 22.6. Sl’P. has in his pada-\&\\. \u-\uUiAh (as if nom. of 
and makes no note upon the word — probaI>ly by an oversight, .is of our pada- 
mss. only Op. has such a re.iding; the comrn. understands sMsAdAs^ and explains it by 
sukhena sthAtum yoiiyah ‘comfortable to dwell in’; which is not unacceptable. The 
comm, also has in a ma*'havApu and in d abhirAdhayantl (-- abhtvnt dhayantt, or 
pmriipai-rAdtb/iih samrddhA bhavanii), I*pp. has at the beginning yathA khamram 
ma^havtin cArut esu, and, inc, d,,ivr/// vayam ju^iA bha^asyA *s/ii sathpr-. All our 
jrt///////d-mss. s.ive one (H.), and half of SPP’s, give e%Ah pr- in a b; but the comment 
to Prat. ii. 57 quotes this p.issage as illusiration of the loss of its final viuirt^a by euis, 
(34. 14) evidently intends an allusion to this verse in one of its direitions : ntrj^A- 
kharAd vedyAm maniroktAni ‘the artiiles mentioned in the text on the sacrificial 
hearth from a wild beast’s covert,’ but the comm. does not e\i)lain the meaning. The 
Aniikr, ignores the redundancy of a syllable in c. [ Pronounce justA lyam and reject 
uAri^ — The use of sAmpnyxi in dual and plural is natural: its extension to the 
singular is rather illogical (cf TS iv. 2. 4), unless vve assign intcn.sive value to sam 
(• verv' ’).J 

5. Ascend thou the boat of Bhaga, full, unfailing ; with that cause to 
cross over hither a suitor who is according to thy wish. 

Or pratikAmyA may perh.ips mean ‘responsive to thy love.’ Ppp. has in a A ruha^ 
in b anuparas-, and fur c, d trayo pu\A httap'n yas p(t/i\ pattkAmyah. 'I'lie comm, 
understands upa- m c as .in independent woid. With this verse, .iccording to the 
comm., the giil is made to .ascend a properly prepared boat. 

6. Shout to [him], O lord of riches ; make a suitor hither-minded ; 
turn the right side to every one who is a suitor accordjng to thy wish. 

Circumambulation with the right .side tow aril one is a sign of reverence, -f krandaya 
in a is perhaps a real cau.sative, * make him call out to us ' ; the comm, takes it so. His 
explanation Lpage 332 J of the accompanving rite is. “offering rice in the night, one 
should make tlie girl step forward to the tight.” 

7. Here [is] gold, bdellium; here [is] auksd, likewise fortune; these 
have given thee unto husbands, in order to find one according to thy 

Auks A (cf. Auksagandhiy iv. 37.3) seems to be some fragrant product of the ox ; or 
it may perhaps come from 1/X7 * sprinkle,’ but not through uksan. The mss. vary here, 
as everywhere, in an indiscriminate manner between and ^tUgulu ; here 

the majority of ours have and the great majority of SPP’s have ‘gg‘\ but -gg- is. 



accepted (as elsewhere) in our edition, and in the other ; l>pp. reads -4- the comm. 

I’PP- further vayam ukso atho , and. in c -d, ari/iuh pattk-. The comm, 

defines as “ a well-known kind of .11 tide for incense,” and for ankui he imotes 
from Keqava {kHuqtkasftirahhayakaras) the couplet given in IMoomfickrs Kauqika on 
P* 335 (l>ut reading snrahhtn k\triittt). 'I he comm., p. 332, explains that with 

this verse is to be performed a i)inding on and fumigation and anointing of the girl with 
ornaments, bdellium, and riuk\ii respe* ti\el\. |_IU<., i\.<j47, suggest 

8. Hither let Siivilar conduct for thcc, conduct a husband that is 
according to thy wish ; do thou assign [him] to her, O herb. 

The second ttayaiu is a detriment euuallv to s..nsc and to meter ; tlie Anukr. counts 
it to a, and the />#/<'///- mss. maik the division •!( « onlingl) . Lmendalion of ti'dm in c to 
iAtn is strongly sugg< sted. 1 he \irse hardlv belongs to the Inmn .as original!}’ made 
up j there has been no reference elsewhere* tci an “herb”; nor does Kaii^. introduce 
such an element. 

In the concluding n ft u'-dLi 16 j atv 5 hvinns, 31 voises: tlie .Vnukr. says accord- 
ingly trift^iiift'kitif/nkii 'tttyah 

This is the end also of the Itjurth pt apathukti 

|_(Jne or two mss. sum up the book as 36 hvinns ami 207 verses J 

Book III. 

LThc third book is made up largely of hymns of 6 verses each. 
It contains 13 such hymns, but also six hymns (namely 4, 7, 
13. 16, 24. 30) of 7 verses each, six hymns (namely 5, 6, ii, 15, 
19, 29) of 8 verses each, two hymns (namely 12, 17) of 9 verses 
each, two hymns (namely 20. 21) of 10 verses each, one hymn 
(namely 31) of i r verses, and one hymn (namely 10) of 13 verses. 
See Webers introduction to his translation, p. 178. The possi- 
bility of critical reduction to the norm is well illustrated by hymn 
31 — compare pages i and 37. The whole book has been trans- 
lated by Weber. Indischc Shuiicn. vol. xvii. ( 1S85), pages 177-314.J 

1. Against enemies. 

\AthAtViin. — senJmehanam. liifiudtZiitviim tnlt^tubham s. vttii bhun/ ; 

j, 6, (iHU^tubh . j ztrdttur.iu^mh J 

Found in Paipp. iii , next after the one which here follows it. In Kaiu;. (14. 17), 
tliis h}mn and the next are called mohani\ni ‘conloundeis,’ and are ii^cd in a rite 
(14. 1 7-21 ) for confounding an enemj's arm\ ; its details have nothini,^ to do with those 
of the hymns. 

Translated. Ludw ig, p. 5 1 S ; Weber, .xvii. iRo ; (iriflith, i. Si ; Illoomfield, 121,325. 

1. Lot Agni, knowing, go against our foes, burning against the impre- 
cator, the niggartl ; let him confound {mohaya-) the army of our adver- 
saries ( piira ) ; and may Jatavedas make them handless. 

Pj)p makes {atfun and vuh’dn in a cham^e places. SPP. reports that the text used 
by the tomm. reads uah after aj^uir both here and in 2. l a. The comm, signalizes 
the b».ginning of the book by giving absurd etvinologies of a^^ni at the length of nearly 
a page I’ada c lack-s a syllable, we allow ourselves U) re.solve 

2. Vc, O Maruts, are formidable for such a plight ; go forward upon 
[them], kdl, overcome! The Vasus have killed [them]; suppliant [are] 
these , for let Agni, their messenger, go against [their foes], knowing. 

The .-.econd half-verse is rendered literally as It stands, but is certainly badly corrupt. 
f*pp. has amimriiam vauivo ndthitihhyn aynir hy I'sam vidi'Hn pratyetu ^atritn^ which 
is much more accept.iblc : nath- vvouhl be ‘for [us] who su|)plicatc.’ Dutas seems to 
have blundered in here out of 2. i a. budwig emends nAthitis to -Af/r, which would 
improve c, but leave it unconnected with d. In our edition pnity etu is an erratum for 
pratyetu^ which all the mss. read. The comm., with his customary neglect of accent, 



-iii. I 


^ < - oPrndhrsye samgrama- 

lakfan, against the tcstim..n> of the other passages where the wor.l occurs, 

and supplie. In b, he reads («„h a . o«,de of SI-I'S mss. that follow him) 

mrnAtas, and takes it (again against the accent) .is ac. us. pi. Amlmrnau in c he renders 
as an impyative. The meter of the vuse (i . a- • .2 a- ,3 = ^7, ^ capable of being 
fitted to the description of the Anukr. L- ■ + .0 : 12 + 12-4JJ b, duly m.tnaging the 
resolutions. LAufrecht, K/. xsci. 21., (is-s,-). r.^onsiru. ts the cs.. putting ,Wd,sr/<, 
for mrndta in b and nading c. d thus, .h.nmr.lan ,;Ua,:. a^„lr /,} catnU 
pratym vMhyan. U. Itloomheld. 320 - Koth g.v.s (m Ins notJs) for 

Mrua/a and (in his collation) jvw/w for Ay as Ppp. rc.idin-s.J 

3. The army of enemies, O bounteous one, playing the foe against 
y® (two), O \ rtia-slaying Intlra, Agni also, burn against them. 

The verse Js found also as S\ . ii 1215, tthich reads iivatiw in b, and liegins c 
with uMaa /,im (/„,» is rea.l by the comm , ami is called for as an emendation in our 
verse); it also has the correct aicent whid, is found in only t«o of our (O.Op.) and three of .Sl'fs; both editions read -a, In our test, ag,,/( in d 
IS A misprint for comlnncs ch-^ lja(ll\ , cf. i. ly. 4, note.J 

4. Impcllccl, O Inilra, forwards 0 pravdta) by thy (two; bays — let thy 
thunderbolt forth, slaiif^htcrin*^ ( piw-vir) the foes ; smite the on-coming, 
the following, the fleeing {pdrdrtc ) ; scatter their actual intent. * 

The verse is K\ iii 30 U , wliif h, Imwexer. rc.uls at the bf;;;mnin" ptd su tc (as docs 
also the comm.), a« cents in zpfitiis.o anunih (and the comm ( laims the same for our 
text), and has ford *'/(:. /w S(t/\ii/// kfnuAt t istAm wliicli is even more unintclli* 
gible than our tc\t. Weber ]iiopt)ses r /»;’<// w//r</w is a compound, “turning itself in 
every direction , tins, however, m.ikes nothing out of -jTi/Av/w! Ludwig translates 
“ fulfil their de.sign in all [liotli] diret lions.** w liich is not very dear Ppp. reads vuvnm 
7’if/am kfHuht ^aiyaut e\tim ; aNo (jujto obscure. The comm, takes satvam as 
“ established, .settled,** and : ty'iuik kmuht as -siatter, unsettle, make uncertain.*’ One 
would like to take as something like ‘ i ontianwise,* with the general sense “turn 

their plans against tliemsf Ives I'pp. has tuitlier nuiik for m c. 

5. O Indra, confound the army of our enemies ; with the blast of fire, 
of wind, make them disappear, scattering. 

The defective first half-veise is computed b\ I’pp. in this <’orm : manomohanam 
kruva (i.e. krnavas -') uuUa 'miift'hhya\ ivam. 1 he second half-verse is also 2. 3 c, d. 
The comm, explains dhtiliyH In «/.r/>a//arv»,n<» rJ gatis tathavidhaya 7’egagatvd 

iayor €7'a zul gatyd. 

6 . Let Indra confound the army; let the IMaruts slay with force; let 
Agni take away its eyes ; let it go back conquered. 

All the mss. rca<l ZW/v/, vocative, at the beginning of the verse : but SPP’s text, as 
well as ours, emends to htdtah s-, and this the comm also has. The comm further in 
C dhattdm instead of datidm. 

111 . 2 - 



2. Against enemies. 

[,4tAan‘d». — sfuJmohantim. bakuJn\ttytim, trJtstaMam : anustuM*] 

Found in Paipp. iii., next before the h\mn here preceding;. Used in Kaiiq. only with 
the latter, as there explained. 

Transl.ited ; Weber, xvii. 183 ; GrifTith, i. 82 ; Bloomfield, 121, 327. — Cf. Bergaigne- 
Heniy. Manuel, p. 139. 

1. Let Agni our messenger, knowing, go against [them], burning 
against the imprecator, the niggard ; let him confound the intents of our 
adversaries ; and may Jatavedas make them handless. 

All the mss. h.ave in a the false accent praty etu (seemingly imitated from 1.2 d, 
where ///requires it), and S 1 *P. retains it : our edition makes the necessary emendation 
to praty etu. Ppp. appears to ha\c {atrun instead of vtdvAn at end of a. 

2. Agni here hath confounded the intents that are in your heart ; let 
him blow {liham) you away from [our] home ; let him blow you forth in 
every direction. 

Ppp. has dhamAtu for -matu both times. The comm, renders amftmuhat by tnoha^ 
yatu, in accordance with his doctrine that one \crbal form is equivalent to another. 


3 . O Indra ! confounding [their] intents, move hitherward with [their] 
design (dkfitt)\ with the blast of fire, of wind, make them disappear, 

The .second half-\erse is identical with 1.5 b, c. P.ida b apparentl) means * take 
aw.iy their de.sign, make them purposeless’; the comm., disioiiiiig the of an an, 
makes it signify “go against [their arm)], with the design [of o\eru helming iij.” 
]*pp reads akut\a *,lht (i.e. dyas adhi *). In our edition, restore llie lost aecent mark 
over the -dra of tndra in a. 

4. Go asunder, ye designs of them ; also, ye intents, be confounded ; 
also what is today in their heart, that smite thou out from them. 

All the mss have in hiittani, a^ if not \orali\e. and SPP. retains the a«ient, while 
our text emends to uttani, the comm understands a \ocalive. The lomm. further 
takes ';yakutaya\ as one word, explaining it as either 77/ //f/(///f 7 // samkaipAli or else 
(qualif\ing dtiuls understood) as {attunam vividhakutyutpAdakah. [For d, rather, 
‘ that of them smite thou out from [them j.’J 

5 . Confounding the intents of those yonder, seizing their limbs, O 
Apva, go away; go forth against [them] ; consume [them] in their hearts 
with pangs (^6ka)\ pierce the enemies with seizure {grdhi\ the foes 
with darkness. 

The verse is RV. x. 103. 12, which reads in a attAm pratilobhAyantl, and, for d, 
andhAnd 'mitrds tAmasd sacantdm; and SV. (ii. 121 1) and VS. (xvii. 44) agree with 
RV\ Both pada-Uix\s give in h gr/tdnd^ as impv. ; but the word is translated above (in 
accordance with Grassmann's suggestion) as aor. pple. fern. ffrhdnA, because this com* 
bines so much bettet with the following pdre 'hi, A number of the samhitd-VMA* 



-HI. 3 

(including our P.8tin.E..s.m.I.H.p.m.) make the curious bliindcr of accenting apv} in b: 
the comm, explains it as a pApndcvaiA^ adding the precious etymology apavayayati 
apagamayati sukhani prUmlu^ ta. LWebtr. 1X.4S2, thinks apva has reference to 
impurity (root pit) and to diarrhea as caused by fear. To Weber’s citation (xvii 184) 
from the Purana, add the line near the beginning of the Bhisma book, .MBh. vi. i. iS, 
^ruivA tu ninadam yodhah (lakrn infttram pntsusruvtdi.} The Anukr. ignores the 
redundancy in a; emendation to it/td would remove it. 

6. Yonder army of our adversaries, O Maruts, that comes contending 
against us with force — pierce ye it with baffling darkness, that one of 
them may not know another. 

The verse is an addition (as\s. 14) to KV x. 103 LAufrerht, 2d cd'n. \ol ii p. 6S2 J, 
but forms .1 proper part of SV (11 1210) and V.S. (xvii.47). KV.VS. nad in habhyaiti 
nas (for asmdn fifty ubhi) , SV. h.\s abhyi'ti, all ha\e in c yuhata for iidhyata; 
and with the latter Ppp intends to agree, but has yuhata. I- or esdtn in d, RV. gives 
amisAm^ SV'. etfsdm, and V’.S ami and accordingly at the end jandn. It takes violence 
to compress our b into a tn^/ubh pa«la. 

3. For the restoration of a king. 

[Atharfan.- - ndnddinatVijm utd” tf.udht'hafn j bhitrtk pufikU ; cinu^tulh ] 

Found in Paipp. 11. (our \ s 5 coming last). Vsed In Kau<; ( 16. 30), \\ith the h\mn 
next following, in a ceremony b»r the icstnration of a king to his former kingdom. In 
Vclit. (<}. 2 ), \s. I aciompanu s .1 morning oblation to \^^\\\ anikai'iiHt in the sakamedha 
rite of the td/armawa sainlKc . a’nl again (30 27) vs 2 is used at the end of the 
idufrdwanf ceremon\ 

Translated : I udwig, j) 44! . Wiber, x\ii 1S5 , (intfith, 1 S3 . Bloomfield. 112, 327. 
— Cf. Bergaigne-Ib lUN , Mattar/, j> 14.' 

I. lie hath shouted ktitnd)\ may he be j>rolect(.)r of his own here; 
O Agni, bend apart the two widened firmaments {rdiiasi ) ; let the all- 
l>osscssing Maruts harness ( jv//) thee, lead thou hither with homage yon 
man of bestowed oblation. 

This is a \cr> literal tianslalion of the obst lire \crsc. ixhich is j)lainly an adaptation 
or corruption, or lioth, of a KV. \erse in a Inmn to \gni (m. 11.4 it is repeated, iiith- 
out variant, in .M.^. i\ 14. 15) : ddidvif/at u dpdka rib/idra ydjasiui fddasi urfut: 
dytiiit nd ydm admad tdtdhavyd ad/dati ftfpniyd^am pdfua jdndh ; and, what is very 
noteworthy, the latter halt-\erse of K\ . is decidedly more closely reliected in the Ppp. 
version: amum nava ftamani tatahavyo ynjanti mpraja^am pafica jaridh ; Ppp. has 
also at end of a. It could not be expected to find concinnity and sense in a 

verse so originated , the address .seems to he changed from .Agni to Indra, and some 
sort of comparison aimed at between the latter and the reinstated king. 1 he />frr/(f7-lext 
divides In a svaopdk^ and, as the word may be a part of the adaptation Lof the original 
to the purpose of this hymiij, the tiamslalion .so treats it, instead of substituting, as 
Weber and Ludwig do, sinapdh : the comm, explains it both ways : si’akiydndm pra- 
j&HAm pAtakah sukarmd rd. The comm makes the king .subject oidukradtU in a, 
apparently. takes xyAcasva in b as one word (= vydpnuhi^y tvA in c as designating 
Agni (^yuAJaniu = prdpnuviintu^ tvatsahdyd bhaviintu and atnittn in d as the king. 

iii. 3 - 



The Anukr. ignores the pSda (c) Lor lets it offset a counted as lolj. L^^he 

usual compound is sv-dpiU: but sv-npis, though not r|UOtable, is quite possible. J 

2. Iiulra, the inspired one, however far away, let the ruddy ones set 
in motion hither (ihcvarnya-) in order to friendship, when the gods ven- 
ture (?) for him :x vat a brhati, a song (arkd), with the sdutrdmani 

This vor-sc is nearly as obscure as the preceding, and probably as hopelessly corrupt. 
The "ruddy ones*' in a are, according to the comm., piicsts {ttvij)\ Weber under- 
stands ‘‘hoises." Ludwig ‘•*’ The comm, takes tiiUhruintii in d first fi;om root 
tihr (I = iitiJulrtivan^^ then apparently from ilhfi {pitrvam astiivayavam indram 
punah sdt vavaynvopetapn akut van^ citing Th. v. b. 3 1) ; Ppp. has dadt^anta; perhaps 
diidpkiintii might be made to \icld the best sense ; lestoration of the augment would fill 
out the deficient meter, which the Anukr. fails to remark. K. conjectures made firm 
for him the mighty ^'d/i7//7 .as bolt.” About half the mss. (including our Bp.E.I.H.K.) 
accent in b sakhyhya , the same uncertainty as to this woid appears elsewhere. 

3. For tho waters lot king Varuna call thee; lot Soma call thee for 
the mountains ; let Indra call thee for .subjects (t /f) ; becoming a 
falcon, fly unto these subjects. 

“ For” may of course be “from” in a and b. as preferred by Lthc fourj tran.slators 
and comm. l*pp, reads, in a. b varuno juhdra somas /tv7 \vitph hvayati ; and again in 
C, indras tvd 'yam hvayati With the proper resolutions, this \ erse is a decent tn^tubh; 
the .Anukr. scans it as 1 1 + 10 : 10 + 10 = 41 The \erses in our text aie wrongly 
numbered from this one on. 

4. Let the falcon lead hither from far (pdm) the one to be called, 
living e.xiled in others* territory {Jc$iUra)\ let the (two) Ai^vins make the 
road for thee easy to go; settle together about this man, ye his fellows. 

The translation follows both previous translators, and the comm. (- hviltavyam^^ in 
implying hdiyam in a instead of havydm 'oblation* : vet Ppp reads //ciT'ir, which sup- 
ports //<7TT<fw. The comm., with several of SPP’s mss., has avaruddham in b; for 
Lthe technicalJtf/rf/'Wi/Z/rff caran (und ava j^^am, ft d) compare especi.dly P13, xii. 12.6. 

5. Let thine opponents call thee ; thy friends have chosen [thee] against 
[th*cm] (? prdti)\ Indra-and-Agni, all the gods, have maintained for thee 
security {ks^^ma) in the people (r’/f). 

The comm , and a few of .SI’P's mss. that follow it, have at the beginning vdyantu 
- sdmtatyena sevantdm). Several jrtw///7J-mss. (including our P.M.(),pp,) read 
pratijdnah : Ppp. has the easier re.ading pahea jand/i, with hvayanti for -;////, and, in 
b, 7 \irjata for avrsata ; also it ends with adidharas. As in more than one other case, 
all the mss. accent // in the second half-verse, and the /rt^/<f-text puts its double stroke 
of pada-di vision before the word ; and Ixith cflitions read //, but it should plainly be //, 
as our translation renders, and as the comm, also explains it. The comm, combines in 
h pratimitrds^ making it mean opposing friends”; the combination of vr * choose* 
with prati is strange and obscure. 

6. Whatever fellow disputes thy call, and whatever outsider — making 



- 111 . 4 

him go away {dpdfic)^ O Indra, then do thou reinstate (ava-gamaya) this 
man here. 

The comm, explains Jz/yJAi and nistya as ^atnahala and Htkrstabala (! ) Las at i. ig. 3 J, 
and ava gamaya as bodhaya. The Aimkr takes no notice of the metrical deficiency 
in aj emendation to ‘vAdtiti would fairly rectify it. L^'or ava~gam^ see note to vs. 4 J 

4. To establish a king. 

\Atharvan. — saptakam ty,u<,tHbham i /mrati : bburtj^ 

Found in l*aipp. iii. I sed 111 K.iur. only with the next preceding h\mn (as there 
explained), although the two are of essintially different application, this one referring 
to a king who has been called or chosen, and has to be inaugurated as such. In 
Vait. (IS- 2), in the sacrihee. \s 7 .iccompanics, with \ii. 28, oblations to 

Pathytl s7'tisti and otliei duinitics 

Translated . Ludwig, p 2^2 . Zimmer, p. K.4 ; Weber, .wii. 190 ; Griffith, i. S4 ; Bloom- 
field, 113, 330. — Cf. Bcrgaigne-l Ieni\, .lA/z/zoV, p 141 

1. Unto thev h.ith coinc the kingdom ; with sidendor rise forward ; [as] 

lord of the people soK- king, bear thou rule {vi-rdj)] let all the direc- 

tions call thee, O king ; become ihijii here one for waiting on, for homage. 

The Iran.slation implies in a iigtut. winch is \eiy proliably the true reading, though 
the /i/z/a-m-'S. divide htl'ytut. 1 he inctinal udumlanry in a. b is best removed hv 
omitting /ra /7 (forwliuh I'pp and the lomm nad /;/?/(). which seems (as meaning 
also ‘in the east’) to have be<-n .uM- <l in order to make vet more distinct the compari- 
son with the sun implud in ud ////. tin ///«/«r-te\t ie»knns the word wrongly to b. and 
the comm, rcinUrs it * loimeilv *, lie t.ikes /*<?/<? as “be resplendent," whicli 

is of course possible '1 he \ei st h is but oin- real \ui(Ia (a) d ( *“ vi. 98. i d), 

cf. used twite in J 

2 . Thoc let the pe<ipIo c/pM) choose unto kingship (/vf/m), thee 
these five divine directions, rest (^n) at the summit of royalty, at the 
pinnacle (/vz/vrt/) ; from thence, formidable, share out good things to us. 

The verse is found also in 'f's (in. 3 .«> ) and .M.S (11 5 10). with nearly accoid.ant 
differences of leading fifniiu in a. /r-./w Z/./r’e/z/Ar (MS vatdhatifi') 

mtirutah s^arkah for b ; Z mi ./ (MS kakuMdiih^ (.li^riyands me. T B , 

moreover, has the seeoml hali-veise (in n 4 7': the first hah is our iv. 22. 2 a. b), 
agreeing with AV, except liv giving I’pp. fiirllier vanes the 

word by reading /rnkud/i/. it aNo has in a i r nu/Jm. and for d T'.mv//// t; //i.r/ily 
Ui^Ktih, number ol the niN> (im lading i>ur O.Op ) rcail in a yijjviivii. as. inde*cd. they 
generally disagree L'li tlireetohl wisej as to ac'cent of this woid. Ib.M.W . have m a 
7^rsa/ilM. ’ comm, undvis by by 

3. Unto thee let thy fellows come, calling [theej ; Agni shall go along 
as speedy mcssengei ; let the wives, the sons, be well-willing ; thou, for- 
midable, shalt SCO arrive (pftUi-pt^) much tribute 

Ppp. has in a, hyttufn b/tuiuinitwii ditto *i a dad/ulti^ anti combines 

itiCjdydsp-, The comm, find.s m b an incomplete simile. •• thy mes.senger, unassail- 
able like fire, shall " etc. 

111 . 4 - 



4. Let the (two) Alvins thee first, — let Mitra-and-Varuna both, let all 
the gods, the Mciruts, call thee ; then put (X7) thy mind unto the giving 
of good things ; from thence, formidable, share out good things to us. 

With c compare RV. i. 54. 9 d, which rectities the meter by reading J^rsiui. The 
second halt-verse is quite different in Ppp. : sajataniim niiuihyamesthe V/<r ntasyH (cf. 
ii. 0. 4 c . iii. S. 2 d) sve k\etfe sai’ite ri nlja. TIic third pada is made bhurij by the 
change of krsva to kfnttsva. 

5. Run forth hither from the furthest distance ; propitious to thee be 
heaven-and-earth both ; king Varuna here saith this thus ; he here hath 
called thee; |_therefore (sii)j do thou come to this place. 

l*pp. has babhuiatn for ubhe s/iim at end of b, and tt/tzui/ szYMaw e/it at end of d. 
SPl*. reports all his /hii/a-mhs. as reading a/iti inste.ul of tl/iti in c; no such blunder has 
been noted in ours. His ms. of the comm, appears to h.i\e ahz'at in d, but doubt- 
less only by an oversight of the copyist (under the next verse it gives nhzutt in an iden- 
tical phrase of exposition). MS. (ii. 2. ii . p. 24 3) gi\es a pratika reading A prihi 
paramdsyah punli'tf/aJt, while no corresponding verse is found m its text — or else- 
where, so far as is known, unless here 

6. Like a human Indra, go thou away ; for thou ha-jl concurred (sam- 
Jiiii) in concord with the castes {}) ; he here hath called thee in his own 
station ; he shall sacrifice to the gods, and he shall arrange the people 

The translation of this obscure and dirticult \ersc implies much aiul venturesome 
emend.ition in the first half* n.imely. in a. trd and in b 7uinhlts, 

Weber also takes fHtinutyas meant tor a nom. sing, and lenders it “ mcn.schenge- 
staltet’'; the other translators understand as does the l*et. Lex. The 

Fpp. version, tpuiro uiant >nanu\ya pre'ht, suggests -\yah^ ;fnd i.s detidcdly better in 
prehi (to be resolved into pr-e-Iu^ whence perhajis the corruption to parehiy^ the 
repeated vocative Uidra^indra (so the /rf//.j-texl) is not to be tolerated. For b, Fpp. 
has SiVii hi yajfiiyds tvA variinena sainz^tiianah^ which is too (orruj)fto give us aid; 
the emendation to vdrndis is a desperate and purely tentative one, as there is no evi- 
dence that vdfna had .assumed so early the sense of ‘caste.’ Weber .suggests that 
varioia here is ecjual to varana * elector ’ : Zimmer t.akes it as virtually for thvAis : lx)th 
entirely unsatisfactory. Fpp. ends the verse with so kafpavAd di^ah. 'I’o the comm, 
there is no difficulty; the repeated vocative i.s out of reverent e {^AdarArtham) ; nianu- 
syai i.s a \’cdic irregularity for or c]ualifies prajAs understood; the plural 

varunAn is plur. majestaticus for varunt'na ; ka/payAt, finally, i.s svasvazyApArtsu 
piiyuiiktam, 'I’he Anukr. p.i.sses without notice the jayiiti p.ida d, it being easy to read 
the verse into 44 syllable.s. 

7. The wealthy roads, of manifoldly various form, all, assembling, 
have made wide room for thee ; let them all in concord call thee ; to the 
tenth [decade of life] abide here formidable, well-willing. 

Pathya revaifs, divinities of good roads and welfare, arc explained by the comm, as 
patho 'napftA fnArf^ahitakArtnya etatsamjM devatAh ; or else pathyAs is pathi sAdh- 
avah, and re vat is is Apas. Both editions read in d va^e WiA, but the comm., with 
SFF’s ^rotriyas V. and K., read vase 'hA, and the tran.slation implies this. Ppp. offers 

9 * 


HOOK in. 

-lii. S 

™.h . IV. ^ K. “• " “* 

■ ' J" '’<•»'> havtui J.tiva gamayAmast : atrd fa 

tndras kevaltr vifo balthrtas karat (c f. K V. x. 1 73. 6 c, d). 

S. For prosperity: with a parnd-amulet. 

lAtkarvam—astakam. , tar.! ,.ua„p ir.aM. ; S ^..ri,durairhaa.■\ 

Found (except vs 8) in IM,,,,. i „a ,,y ^ 

to accompany the brnd.i.K on of .,„ amnic, for Kc„er..I prospenty (tejobalayurdhaLu- 
puf(aye, comrn.). An,l the coram. .piolcs it from Naks. K. Lcomni. should say (.anti K. 

IlloomficldJ as employed in .1 maA.l^an/t nameil an^iruil. I In the prior draft W 
wntes “lor success of a kin-: with ’ etc as tide of this hymn Its place in the 
collection, next after iii, 3 and 4, and its second vs , seem to justify that title J 

Transhited: Weber, xvii. 1.^4 ; Griffith, i .Sf>. liloomficld, 1 14. 331 . - Vss. 6 .and 7 
Zimmer, p. 184, with comment. 

1. Hither hath come this/(?r;/rt.anuilct, strong, by strength slaughter- 
ing our rivals; force of the geds, milk of the herbs, let it quicken me 
with splendor unremittingly 

Ppp. has for d w/ir; jttn atv apnivunhan Aprayavan in d, which is read 

by all the (heiu e 1)> Imth edition^) .md the < omm , is unquestionaldy to he emended 
(as sugge.sted by HK., \ . loi 5) to yavam [.S^V (iram ^ § ^95 I), root^'w , ci.yuJi J; the 
word is quoted in the I’ tt \t (i\ 50), hut not in a way to determine its form {apfa- 
ytlviliih). As the later versus show, is to he und. rstood here as the tiee of that 
name ft omiosj : comm p^i/tl^^,1z f ksu) The ci.nim. raises no olijection to dpm- 

YtlzutHy ai^d expl.iiiis it as citlier wi?w •zw/itiitl ^napayanta san (with irregular exchange 
of case-forms), or else itpruy.i/tjr, 1 e. r.r/TWf/,/ dhapyamana. 

2. In me [maintain] dominion, O /<7;7/<7-amulct, in me maintain \vealth; 
may I in the sphere ot nnalty be familiar C tiijd), supreme. 

Compare the nearly corresponding \i 54 2, which suggests emendation of nijds to 
yujiif L* may I he supreme above [an\ ] ally op fellow-king* {yr/jih as abl.)J. Ppp, has 
rilstrapn for kuptpatn m a. and its d leaiK »w/i 7 bhuyasappt utiara^ supjiorting the emen- 
dation. Our Up. roads in c as some of the mss tlo in the other occurrences of 

this obscure word: the comm, explains it In avarjaptc az ild/itPit-kaniPte ‘appropriation/ 
and nijii by appaptytisiifiilytt. LUK. give • besiaiulig ' for ntja.\ 

3. The dear amulet which the gods deposited hidden in the forest-tree 
— that let the gods give to us to wear, together with length of life {iiyns). 

Ppp. has jr b nljifit dt'Ziih ppiyatn pudfupn., and its second half-verse is tappi ma 
tndras sahd "yusH manippt dadatu bha^tave. 

4. The panidy Soma’s formidable power, hath come, given by Indra, 
governed {^ds) by Vanina ; may I, shining greatly, wear it in order to 
length of life for a hundred autumns. 

Th» translation implies emendation in c of the unmanageable priydsam to bhriyasapn^ 
an obvious improvement, adopted also by Weber, and supported by the reading of Ppp., 


tarn aham bibharmi; the comm., too, though reading /;*//-, glosses it with bhriyUsatk 
dharayeyam. In b, Ppp. has sakhyas for {istas. The comm, finds in sdmasya par- 
mis in a allusion to the origin of the pania-trct from a leaf {parna) of soma, and 
quotes for it TS. iii. 5. 7*. /iontmtinas in c he uses .is •;/<;///. qualifying tdm. The 
metrical definition of the verse is wanting in the Anukr. mss. ; we may call it a nicrt 
/fis/ub/t. [_.Scc Weber’s note on parmi.j 

5. The /r?/7/f/-amulet hath ascended me, in order to groat unharmed- 
ness, so that I may be superior to patron (tifyamdn) and to ally (sainvid), 

Siimvtd taken as corresponding noun to the common adjective 

(the I’ct. Le\., “possession”; Weber, “favor”); the comm, makes it samattajHiinllt 
or Siimabaldt: and aryaman, according to him, comes from arln yamayati^ and means 
adhiktibahih put upraddta ca. Ppp. combines mahyd 'n^f- in b, and has for d MaMusyiJ 
adht (or sam/natah). All the mss., and SPP's text, uttanis in c; 

our uttaras is a necessary emendation. |_As to aryamdn^ cf. Weber's notc.J 

6. They that are clever chariot-makers, that arc skilful smiths — sub- 
jects to me do thou, O fanid, make all people (jdmi) round about. 

Ppp. begins^i'/i/ taksitno rath-^ and its second half-verse is sa* zulns tz d 'nrna randhayo 
*pastim krnii medinam. The comm, renders dldzAntu by dhlvatA mdtsikdh ‘fisher- 
men,’ and gives the technical definition of the caste of mthakaras. Weber ( p. 196 ff.) 
treats with much fulness of these and other caste matteis. i'pastin the comm, explains, 
nearly enough correctl), by sevdrtham samipe I'tdyafndndn itptlsindn z'il. 

7. They that arc kings, king-makers, that are charioteers and troop- 
leaders — subjects to me do thou, O parndy make all people round about. 

Our Bp. reads in grdma^ny ah y cmemled to ^nyah ; Kj). has ynlntanyah ; Op. and 
D. (and, so far as .ippe.ars, all SPP'.s/</<//Mnss ) yfilf/ianuih ; the word is divided by 
the RV. /</</*i-text {yrdma^nlh^y as in all reason it should be: and its division .seems 
favored, it not required, by our Prat. iii. 76. Ppp. a quite diiterent text: upadir 
astu vdi^ya uta ^udra uU\ *'fyah for a. b, with c, d as in its v vision of \s. 6 (but with 
tan rna Lintending tdn pania •’J insteail of tvd 'nrtui). Welicr, on authority of 
(^’ 13 . lii 4 1.7, proposes to emend a Xo yi^ 'nljdno; the comm, explains the rdjilftas 
by anyade<^!ldhipah ; and rdjakrtas by rCijyc'bhisiTuantl V/ uitivdh. Ll“ SPP’s Cor- 
rections (to p. 364), his J.P. are reported as dividing ./mi//. J 

8. Parnd art thou, body-protecting; a hero, from the same womb 
(yoni) with me a hero; with the year’s brilliancy — therewith I bind 
thee on, O amulet. 

Wanting in Ppp. The second pada is damaged, in meter and in sense, by the 
apparentl) intruded vfrds 

The auHVilka Li J ends here, having 5 h\mns and 33 verses; the old Anukr. says: 
irin^annimittah \adrcc%u (mss. -dare-') kdryilt ttsrah. ^ 

6. Against enemies: with a^vatthd. 

\^Jaf;adbJjampurusa. — astariam. I'Anaspatyd^^atthadrvatyam. dnustubkam.] 

Pound (except vs. 6) in Piiipp. iii. Used by K.Au^. (48. 3 ff.) in a rite of ibreery 
against enemies; vss. 7,8 are specially quoted (48.6,5), with actions adapted to the 


-iii. 6 


Lcomm. again errs; 

should be ganti — Bloomfield J K. ( 1 7. k^) ,n a mahai^anti c.illcd Cul^ira^t. 

Translated: A. Kuhn, Ifcrabkmtft ties Fetters etc., 1859, j). 224, or 2d ed p igS- 
Weber, xvii. 204 ; Orill, 21, 104; (.nlllth, i. 87 , Bloomfield, 91, 334. - • ^ » 

I. The male {ptimans) [i.s] born out of the male — the aqvatihd forth 
from the klutdtid ; let it smite my foes, whom I hate and who [hate] me. 

A very acceptable emendatioM v^c.uM l.c pAti jatAs, since pAn is plainly accessory 
to the ablative pumuU, as AMn to khadirfit in b (cf. Asata^ pAri jajtmA, x.7.25). 
Ppp. retains the initial a of tii^vaithas^ and bei^ins d uith v/ivf tCi 'ham. The a^vatt/ia 
begins as a parasite, usuallv on the (tern ), this ume fioln the hard khadtra (masc ). 

2 . them out, O a^vattJid^ our violent foes, O expelling one, allied 
with Vrtra-slayin;; Indra, with .Mitra, and with Vanina. 

rhe translation implies ilu* readmit of '‘.‘fiithltllia in b as an indepcndLiit word; it is 
so regarded by BR., WTlicr. the later translators, and tin* toinm , all the pada-m^s. 
make it into a compound with dtdha/as, ami both editions so write it. Ppp. reads 
instead, for b, (a/tittt mayt hadha tidhafa Some of our mss (P-.M.W P:.) read in a 
fti f/'- ^ one of SPP s \rntht. 1 he comm e\[)lains dudhatas as bhrt^am kampayitTuj 
|_but see Vi'd. .Sittd ii loj 

Ppp. adds a \crse of its own ya/ha '^za/fha nizftnmi purvan jatan uta 'paran 
(cf. X. 3. 1 3-1 5 ) . ez A pt d,ttiya/u\ /. am abht tidha saha^vata. 

3. As thou, O //j didst break out [the khadtni\ within the great 

sea, so do thou bieak out all those, whom I hate and who [hate] me. 

“ The sea,” doubtlos the itinf)*>phi re. as explaim d ’ \ the comm, (and Weber). The 
comm, reads Afdmia^ in a. and two or thicc of .SPP\ m^s .so ai^tec with him as to 
give the (blumkriiv^) nit a‘>a,ttna\ , this reading e\hil)its a miu h less startling and 
anom.iloii.s cr()w<ling-oul ol the iomI im.d b\ the peisonal ending than docs (see 
mv Ski. Ur. <1555), and so is iiMie .uieptablo. Some of SPP’s mss. similarly mix up 
bhindht and hhandht in c; the ctunm , of course, the former. A part of the mss. 
(including our lip.P Nl E.ll ) lea\e mahati in b unaccented (as again at xi. 8. 2,6). 
Ppp. I'll///#? 'i^vattha : tb/'ina,J’am tahaty at nave: ez a me ^afto iit/ani T/tTs/g 
sahaszatA (cf. oiir \s <• c. d). 

4. Thou that gnest alnnit ovcr[)owcring, like a bull that has over- 
pow'crcd — witli thee here, C) tn/vtiftkii^ may we overpow'cr our rivals. 

Ppp. reads in a tatati, as tloi.s .iNo the comm , follow etl b\ two or three of SPP s 
mss. Ppp< fuither ctnnlmiL** in b » •*» inanai *: a t .ind ends d with iiimi'titz'aht. kThe 
santhifthmBS. all combine tz a t »- m b; s^e note to ui 40 J 

5. Let perdition biinl them, with unrelea<:ablc fetters of death my 
foes, O a^vaithii^ whom 1 hate and who [hate] me. 

Ppp. has avimokvAt^ in b, and ( is in vs i ) begiiis d with yAn<^ ea ham. of 
our mss. (P.M.W.K.) ha\c at the beginning the senseless re.ading umatu. 

6. As, O a^vatthd, ascending them of the forcst-trocs, thou dost put 
them* beneath thee {ddluira)^ so the head of my toe do thou split apart 

and overcome. 

iii. 6- 



Ppp. (as we saw abo^) has the second half of this verse, with variants, as its 3 c, d. 
What the vHnasputyd is, ns distinguished from vdnaspiiti, is as obscure as the similar 
relation of rtu and tlriavd |_iii. 10.9 notej; possibly • they of that sort, they and their 
kind'; our translation marks, rather mechanically, the distinction. The comm, says 
that here vtvuspati means “ the place where trees grow," and vtlnaspatya the trees 
themselves — which is an explanation quite after his kind. 

7. Lot them float forth downward, like a boat severed from its moor- 

ing {lytimi/iiuia ) ; of them, thrust forth by the expelling one, there is no 
returning again. ^ 

I'pp. re.ids in c nutbihi/ta ; our Op. has vittbiui/iii • pra-^HutUlnilm. Asiu in d, for 
rti//, would be an improvement. The comm, gives a double explanation of bamihana^ as 
fiitiier place or instrument of fastening. [The \s. lecurs at ix. 2. 12, with stiyaka- for 
I'titbiiJhii-. — W's collation of Op- Ki"-*** //if IJ 

8. I thrust them forth with mind, forth with intent and incantation ; 

forth with branch of tree, of we thrust them. 

Ppp. has in a ptCii'ndn ////i/J//// (which makes the meter easier), and at the end cor- 
respondingly the active nuddmasi ; foi b it gives pta fiftyena brahmatul. The linguali- 
zalion of the first n of enUn is noted in Prat. iii. 80. and the comment on that mle ciuotes 
the instance in c. but not that in a. According to Kam;. the thing mentiom d in the text ’* 
(perhaps an etfigy of the person aimed at, in the “vitals" of which something has been 
buried l/y the preceding rule) Lhaving been put upon a boatj is with this verse and 
ix. 2.4 pushed forth with a branch, and with vs. 7 made to lloai awav. 

7. Against the disease k^etriyd. 

aVti'trai, — saptarcam. yaksmafid^iinthiiUititam uta I'ahuiiiXiitwim. tUiUifubham : 

6 bhun/ J 

Found in Paipp. iii., with few variants, but with vs 5 at the end. I'sed by Kauc;. 
(27. 29) in a healing ceremony (its text does not specify the ; and reckoned 
(26. i, note) to the takmand^ana And the comm, (piotes it as emplo)ed by the 

Naks. L(,anti.’J K. (17, 19) in the called kCmman. 

Translated: Welnr, xvii 20.S ;. (Jrill, 8, 105 , (iriftith, 1 89; Bloomfield, 15, 33b 

1. On the head of the swift-running gazelle (harimi) is a remedy; he 
by his horn hath made the ksttriyd disappear, dispersing. 

ristlful IS divided {v^sdna) in the /i/i/rf-text, as if from 77 f ‘ unfasten* — which 
is, indeed, in all probability its true deiivation, as designating primarily a deciduous 
horn, one that is dropped off or shed ; and in lliis peculiarity, as distinguished from the 
permanent horns of the domestic anim.als, perhaps lies the reason of its application to 
magical remedial uses. The verse ociurs also in Ap(,'.S. xiii. 7. 16 Lw here most ms.s. 
have ra^ku^yato^. For the ksetriya^ sec above, ii 8, LJW®** •‘'CC p. 1045.J 

2 . After thee hath the bull-gazcllc stridden with his four feet ; O horn, 
do thou unfasten (visa) the ksetriyd that is compacted (.^) in his heart. 

Ppp. has a different d : yadi kimeit ksetriyam hrdi. The word-play in C, between 
vndnd and 77- w7, is obvious; that any was intended with visuilna in i d is very ques- 
tionable. This verse, again, is found in Ap(;S. ib., but with considerable variants : anu 

9 S 


-lii. 7 

tva harim mrgah padbhif caturbhir airamU ■ , , -t, • 

gulphitan, hrdi,- here it is a knot " t , ut to 1 /Ir 

ol our mss. (O.) has in c /«,/M/rhke A , s " "IT 

SPP's n,ss.. furrtu-r agrces ^vith A s ' V «hni r’” ' °f 

/xA y „ ^ ^ ^ in C, and explains it as 

g«l/^arad gr. b,,a^ The occurrence of the r.,re an.l obscure ,n,sp„. I misprinted 
m <,U. >,.. 2. 2. 20 .s also u. connect, on „,th the use of a doer's horn. ' 

3. What shines down yonder, like .a four-sided roof (chadis), therewith 
we make all the ksetnyd disappear from thy limbs. 

In our edUion U„a in c .should he AW. as red hy nearly all the r„«/„/«.mss. 
all s.ave our I ..M.). anjl hj Sl-P. The .sense oP., b is ohs, ure to the comm., as to us ; 
he first that it is the .leer-shapcd thing estemled ,n the moon’s .lisk,” or else 

“a ‘>'r * i- ‘•‘'•e mat of grass with which a 

house ts covered. t e her t.tkes it as a constellation ; Criil (mistranslating paksa by 
post ), as the garell.- himself s<t u|. on his four legs, with his horns for roof ' If a 
constellation, it might he the .\rah manr,l ’• f. ,, , A,|uar.i, which its shape and name 
connect with .*1 tent: .see Stnya SuWulnta, note to vin 9 (under 25th asterism); this is 
not very far from the stars mcniioncfl in the next verse [_X and 1/ ScorpionisJ. 

4. The two blessed .stars named Unfasteners {viert)^ that arc yonder 
ia. the sky let them unfasten of the ksetnyd the lowest, the highest 

The verse is ncsirly identif .il with n S i above, which see [^b recurs at vi. 121. 3 b; 
V. Schroeder givts the Katha \eision of a. b. y'T.r/ Jns , p. 1 5 , and Tubm^^cr Kathadissl 
P* 75j- 1*PP' makes it in part \el more nearl\ so, b\ beijinnin^ with uti ayatam b/taga- 

vatf, but roads in c 77 kst'tnvaffi tvii 'hhy ana^t ^cf. our 6 b J ; and its end and part of 
VS. 6 (which next follows) aie delated 

5. The waters verily [are] remedial, the waters disease-cxpelling, the 
waters remedial of everything ; let them release thee from ksetnyd. 

The throe aie RV. v. 13; (. a. b.c, save KV has sdrvasya in c; but 
vi. 91.3 lielow rejircsiiits the s.ime \eise \ct more closeh 

6. If from the drink C dsuti ) that being made the ksetnyd hath 
come upon (T7*r7() thee, I know the remedy of it; I make the k.setnyd 
disappear from thee. 

The word dj///; is t>i doulitful ami dl^puted sense; Weber sa\s “infusio sominis” 
Las immediate tause of the “ Tr!) nl>el.*’ wIirIi is Weber's version of ksetnyd J. Grill, 
“gekochtcr /aubertrank " ; the mnini , lim-. ibhutan: amuim ‘ liquidi/ed food.’ 

7 * In the f.uling-out of the asteiisms, in the fading-out of the dawns 
also, from us [faiiej out all that is of evil nature, fade out (apa-vas) the 

Ppp. has tato 'sasam at cml of b, and in c dmayat for diubhutam. Emendation of 
asfndtXn c to astnat (as sugiiested In Wcbei) wouUl notably improve the sense. The 
second p&da has a s} liable too many, unless we make the double combination vasd 


iii. 8- 



8. For authority. 

[A/Aarz'an. — mJttpam utu tnhstuhMitm ‘ 2t6.jaciitl; 4. 4'P. virddbrkat^^arbkd ! 

j. anu\tiihh.^ 

Verses 1-4 foiiml in Paipp i., hut defaced. The hymn is used by K«iU9. (55. 17-18; 
also 55. I, note), with i. g, 30. etc., in the ceremony of reception of a Vcdic student, and, 
according to tlie schol. (10 19. note), in that for the generation of wisdom (the comm. 
sa\s, as belonging to the dyusva k^ana). X'erses 5 .ind 6 are the same with vi.94. 1,2, 
and it is \i «i4, rather than these verses here, that is used in Kaiu;. r2. 5 (the comm, 
blunderingly prescribes the use under both pass.iges). \'erse 4 has the same pratlka 
.\s MV. I. 32 and one or the other oi^the two verses is taught in V.iit. (22. i) as used 
“In K.iu(;ika" in the at;nt\towa, but^ur K.iuq. has no such use, and it is doubtless 
xi\. 1.32,33 that he prescribes (79. 17 ft.) in the nuptial ceremonies; but the comm, 
reports the use here, as if it referred to vss. 4 and 5. The comm, further regards the 
h\mn .as employed In the Naks. K. (iS), in the iittiirati rite, and by Pnriqista 5.3;. 
in both cases as an tlvuwti h\mn. 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 21 2 : (irirfith, i. 90. 

1. Let Mitra come, arranging with the seasons, uniting {} sam-ve^aya-) 

the earth with the ruddy ones iusnyd ) ; then to us let Wiriina, Vayu, 
Agni, assign great royalty of union sainvn;yd). • 

The \crse is vers obscure, and probably lorrupt, though found .almost without vari- 
ant (only tat for at/ia in c)^in I’pi> .also I he epithet sam:r^ya (found only here) 
seems hisluoned to correspond to the paiticiple «<////: in b: but VV’eber renders 

t^l ppl. by “ umlagernd ” and the epithet In “ruhsim’*, the comm, bs “perv.uling” 
{rydpnuvan) and - suitable fi>r abiding in” ham a7>a\thanttyOi^yam). The 

comm, takes lisptya^ as ytiras^ i.e kirafuls -i.iss’ l< senturis heioic emendations: 
“Let Mitr.i come alter ordering of the time, enlivening {\(tmhapa\an or something 
e<|uivalent, since ‘putting to rest’ is no result of l»'e .n tmn ot Mili.i’s r.ivs) the earth 
with his; but let Wiruna make wimi and fire {‘.ay urn aynfpn), m.ike our great 
realm go to rest ” 'I he first p.lda is rctlundant. unless we make the double combination 
mttrA rtubhih. [HR. take kalp- as 'siih richtend nai li J 

2. Let Dhatar, Rati, Savitar enjoy hero {ulam ) ; let Indr.i, Tvashtar, 
welcome my words {Viicas)\ I call the divine Aditi, mother of heroes 
(f/7m-), that I may be midmost man of my fellows. 

The first p,i<la is also vii 174 a. and V.S. mii, 17 a. The plural verb in b seems to 
imply that all the tlLitii.s mentioned in the line are to be regardeil as its subjects. 
Madhyame^tha (like wadhiama^i, iv. 9 4), probaldy the one whom the others gather 
about as clnef: the comm, has nottnng \alual)le {uimrddhakamah unt svasamdndih 
sevyah). 'Ihe comm l.akes rati in a as Ar\.iman. Ppp. \\as ^rhnantu for haryantu 
in b. 'I'he meter of d would be rectified by reading \yam (or fhaw, as is perhaps 
assurnalilc in this st;igc of the iangu.age) for iftiiMi. The verse as it stands (11 -t- 12: 

1 1 -i- 1 2 = 46) IS ill des« ribed as a jaj^atf. 


3. I call, with acts of homage, Soma, Savitar, all the Aclityas, in the 
contest lor preeminence *, may this hre shine lor very long, kindled hy 
\yciy\ lellows whe gainsay not. 



-iii. 8 

The translation implies in b cmcnd.'ition |_cf. iii. i8. 4J to akf/^muttarat’i'e ("ag-iinst ail 
the mss. and both editions), as proposed by BR., i. .Syi ; the comm, also takes it .is 
two words, and renders utitinitiu^ ijy yajamana^yii \rtusthye. Ppp. reads devdti for 
AdityAn in b. The comm didayat in samhtta , our y>^///</-te\t has it, and Prat. iii. 22 
and iv. 89 deal with its conversion to didayat in samJuta 

4. May yc be just here ; may ye not away { pards ) ; may an active 
herdsman (gopA), lord ai prosperity, drive you hither; do ye, with [your] 
desires, [attend] upon (?) his desire ; let all the gods conduct you together 

The translation implies emendition in d of yantu to -navantu. as called fc^r by both 
meter and sense, .uni the .idditioii of .1 \erM|.r/</ or /A/, at end of c. f«ir a like reason. 
If, as seems very prolulde. the veise is onuin.dh .iddrcssed to kine, katnints in c is quite 
natural; if not. we in.iy n;,Mnl rq./t as undnstond- the se-nse is ‘be \ijur desires sub- 
ject to his,’ Pjip. .1 diiuient re-idin,: asmCu rw» kama upa kaminit 77# rr deva 
upttwityAnt liut . I lie < <>inin rti^.irils Aitwnin .is .vdilrissefl thiou^hout .ind expl.iins 
it lin.illy .ns nie.inin»4 \tft\iilt (puh.ips the U \t is defeitue or incornit: the 

general e\ of the \ else iMij.lies ^tn\ak). The lomm le.uls/v/tM U^t p,niis 
in a, and in b disides tfy,i\. diiiMiig it lotin root //. and lendenn:; it //,,!» i^ap rent kas /MWfJ. 'Ihe .\niikr t.dls for 11 n 0-11-42 sNllabks, and strictly 
requires at tin end -i-antu , but no infituni as to a difference of le.idintj is to be 
drawn from this [I'pp < ombiin s in b ‘da: * Weber sa\s ^'ii^mCii die.scm, dem 
llau.sherrn, kdmdya /u Ln f»e . oder gehoit aimdi /u kAgtaya vi Ibsi? *’J 

5. Wo bond together your imivls, together your courses (rvw^), 
together your designs; ye yonder who arc of di.scordant courses, we 
make you bend [them] together here 

This .\n<l tlje fnllnwin^ Miseii not bnind with the othtis in Ppp. nicur .tgain below' 
.as \i, 94. I, 1 Lcf. .ilso 11 30 2J, and \s 1 occurs in I pp \i\ . with the other material of 
our sixth book ; lhe\ .iie ’'O far chsioidant in sul>uvt with the preceding \eiscs we 
m,iy fairly call them out ot j laie here 1 his one exists in Ms (11 2 6), with atiamsata 
for namdmasu and sthd f»ir \thdna A l\\* ko/.'^r to \ loi h.\^ /a /:a /dm in a for sam 
dku/ti in b, anil, fore, d. a\tiu \ » : .maad janas tarn Mirpcd: af‘/a\ ama^i 'Ihe 
first half-\, furiln-r, ne.irh .icioids with \’S. xii. 5S a. b. Ts i\ 2 5' a, b, MS 11.7. 
1 1 a, b fthey haxe vam lor Ti/n .xud. for b, u citlary a 'karam) Ne.uly all our 
j/iw////d-mss. ddJi belore y/kdna. n^r is there anuhing in the to presnibe 
the omission of ihe iisatt^a in sut h a situation, while the commeiU to 11. 40 expressly 
quotes the pass.igc as an ex.uiijilc of the .issimilalion of it to a follow initial sibilant. 
The comm, reads ^tana instead of simma, Thiec of our (P .M E.) read at the 
end -nayAmasi. 

6. I seize [your] minds with [my] mind ; come ye after my intent 
with [your] intents ; I put your hearts in my control ; come with [your] 
tracks following my motion (jd/d). 

The comm, reads in a, and three or four of oPP’s mss. follow' liim ; he also 
makes in b a comiX)und of anutt/tt'Hus. (^uilc a number of rnsj* (including our 
P.M.W.H.S.m.l ) x-cry blram;el\ combine al the end -mJaart/a Afll .a somewhat 
similar verse at i. 2.21. Mow hccdkss the .\nukr. is of metrical ii rcgiil.arity is well 

iii. 8- 



iUustrated by c, where the desirable alteration of vd^esu to and the abbreviation 
of hfdayani to the equivalent -nl (IxJth sujrgestcd by Weber) would leave a good 
trhtubh p.ada ; there is chanacter to any p.irt of the ^•erse. L ^he combination 

-mAnaretii looks as if it had blundere<l in from the end of b.J 

9. Against viskandha and other evils. 

[ J ’iinuiJn. li. — dvavilyrthn iwim uti vAifihitinhtm. itHustuhham • 4. nierd brhati ; 

6. bhunj ] 

F ounil in I'aipp. iii. (» ith vs. 6 at tlic beginning). Used by (43. i ) in a charm 
agaln^l demons and the hindr.anccs caused by them. 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 215 ; (.iri^^ i.yi ; Bloomfield, 67. 339. 

I. Of the kar(^iipha, of the vi^ap/ui, heaven [is] father, earth mother: 
as, O gods, ye have indicted (ad/u-kr), so do yc remove (npa-kr) again. 

The whole h>mn contains much that is obscure and ditfuiilt, and the comm, gives 
no real help anywhere, being as much reduced to guessing .is we arc. Ppp. begins 
witli kitriitb/utAva viMibhvasya, whicli rather favors Wcl)er'.s opinion, that the apba of 
the two names is .1 sutfix, related with abbii! prol^.ibly two \.\iietie.s of vi^kandhii arc 
intended, though none such are mentioned in tlic Liter medicine. The comm, finds 
ildphii -hoof’ in both: ona ^ kri^ai^apha^yti {vyAf^hrCtdch), the other either 
i^iiphiiyya t)r vi^pastd^^apha^ya SPl*. reads in b dyduh which is doubtless prefer- 
able to our dyau^ /- ; it is read by the m.ijority of his mss. .ind by part of ours (ll.I.K.) ; 
I’pp. also has it. I’pp, furthcrt>mits abhi in c, and re.ids apt for apa in d 

f . Without cla.spcrs they held fast {dharaya) ; that was so done ])y 
Manu ; I make the viskandha impotent, like a cast rater of bulls. 

Ppp. begins with a{/t\utwAno \ih‘ \ some of the mss. (including our ().) aLso give 
a{le)manai, and it is the reading of the comm.; he give* two different and eiphilly arti- 
ficial expUnations ; and, what is surprising even in him, three diverse one.s of vddArt\ 
without the least regard to the connection ; one of the three is the right one. Ppp. adds 
ca after Tw^Z/ir/ in c. Weber plausibly conjectures a method of tight t>ing to be the 
subject of the verse ; Ctistratiun is sometimes effected in that way 

3. On a reddish string a — that the pious {vfdhds) bind on; 
let the binders (}) make impotent the flowing (.^), puffing (?) kabavd. 

All obscure and questionable Ppp’s version is : for a, tiitre pi^unkhe khuyilam : in 
h,yad for /adj fore, ^ravasyam kAbabam (the nagari writes kAvardham). 

The comm, also has in c ^ravasyam^ and three or four of .SI* P’s mssi. follow him; the 
translation assumes it to be for sra^t-. The comm, explains khri^alam by tanutrdnam 
‘armor,’ quoting RV. ii 39.4 as authority; (^ravasyam hs bAlarUpam annam arhati 
(since i^rava^ is an annatiAman '); ^tismam by ^o\akam L.scc Bloomfield, ZDMG. 
xlviii. 574J; kahava as a hindrance related with a kabu, which is a speckled {karbura- 
7>(irtia) cruel animal; .and bandhtiras is cither the amulet bound upon us, or it is for 
-/'dj, “ the amulet, staff, etc., held by us.” ^ 

4. Wherewith, O flowing ones, yc go about (car), like gods with^ 
Asura-magic (-ntayd), like the ape, spoiler of dogs, and with the binder (?> 
of the kabavd. 



-lii. lO 

Or fravasyH is * quick, lively* (Pet. Lexx.) ; the comm, “seeking cither food or 
glory.** Ppp- reads in c, d dusanam vandharCi kUb/taimsyam ca. The comm, explains 
bandhurd by sambaddha dhrtA khad^^adtrupA hetth The verse is .scanned by the 
Anukr. a^ 94 - 9*9 + ^~ 35 « usual abbreviation of tva to *va would make b and c 
good anustubh padas. LKead ^ravtfsya^^, voc., in a?J 

5. Since I shall bind thee [on] for spoiling, I shall spoil the kdbavd ; 
yc shall go up with curses, like swift chariots. 

The translation implies emendation of hhart^yami (mir edition) ox bJiatsyami (SPP's 
and the comm.) to bhiutiiyamt, from root bamih^ which seems plainly indicated as 
called for ; the comm, cxpl.iins bhats- finst as badhnamt^ and tlien as dipayami ; the 
great majority of mss. gi\e bharts-. J*pp. is q^le coirupt litre : ju\tt tva kamccha *bht 
josayiivA bhavath. '1 he comm, has .it the end cattsyatha (two or three of .SPP s mss. 
agreeing with him), and he combim^s in c uda^axuis into one word, “liarnessed with 
speedy horses that have tlieir mouths raised for going " 

6. A hundred and one vixkandhas [are] distributed over the earth ; 
thee have they first taken up, of them the 7*//Xf7;/f///tf-spoiling amulet. 

That is, ‘an amulet that sjioils those vi^kandhas' (Weber otherwise). In c, for the 
jaharus of all the and of both edition^, we ought of course to have jahrits; this 
thf comm, reads: such expansions <if r with preieding or following consonant to a 
syllabic are not rare in the m.inustri[)ts Ppp* a different .second h.ilf-vcrse : tesam 
ca satx*esAm idam in/t vt'^kandhadu\antim, '1 he second pada is found, in a different 
connection, .is Mli. n S 4 b. 'I'he comment on Prat. "ii. 104, in (]uuting this verse, 
appears to derive vtskatidha from root \kand '1 he verse is made bhuttj only by |he 
false form jakants. [^I ui •• loi.” sec note to in 11 5 J 

10. To the ekastaki (day of moon’s last quarter). 

\Atharx’an -- dft.tkvttm. ilnuytubham y, j-, 6, , 7 J-itv 6 -p. 
r ir j 

Found, except \ss. i) and 13, in P.iipp. i.. but with a very different order of verses 
(1-4,6, II, 10, .S, 5, 12. 7) I'sed by K.'uk,*. in connection wilh the astaka ceremony, or 
celebration of the festival of the moon's last quaiter (i<i. zS. and again, with more ful- 
ness, 138.1-16), or of a pat titular (piattcr. regarded as of spcci.1l importance. 
The details of the K.iuq arc expanded and explained by the comm ; they are not of a 
nature to cast light upon the inteipretatitm t^f the verses. \\ eber (pp 2i<> if ) discusses 
at consUlcr.'ible length the questions connected with the festival. \ ait , which lioes not 
concern itself wilh the axtakAs yet emplovs \s. 6 (13*^0 ay^nntotha sacrifice, in 

connection with the somak* ayafif ct»w'; and also \s. yc-f (9 4 ) sAkamtdha rite of 

the cAiurmAsya s.icrilV.c* 'riie comm, quotes xss. 2, 3, 7 as employed by I*.iri^isi.i 6. l. 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 189 J Weber, xvii 21S ; ciniTilh, i. 03. 

I. She first shone out; she became a milch-cow at Varna’s; let her, 
rich^n milk, yield {liuh) to us each further summer (? sdnid). 

The verse occurs also in other te,\ts: in TS. (iv.3.115), MS. (ii. 13. 10), 
y. (xxxix. 10), PGS. (iii.3. 5), and MH. (ii 2. i ; 8. 1); and its second half is RV. iv. 
57 . 7 C, d. and MB. i. 8. 8 c, d ; ii. 2. 1 7 C, d, and .also foimd below' as 1 7. 4 c, d The 
version of K. agrees (Weber) throughout wilh ours ; TS. has, for a. yd prathamd 

111. lO- 



vyHuihai^ with tlhuksva at end of c, and PGS. aj^prees with it; MS. has duhe at end of 
C: Mil. (in all four occurrences) has tinhit nit-, and in 8. i also arhanii putra vdsa for 
a. The comm, takes stfmtlw in d as an adverbial accus. {^sariiesu vatsartsu)^ as 
does Weber. LCf. ilillebrandt, Ved. MythoL i. 500.J ^ 

2. The ni^ht which the gods rejoice to meet, [as] a milch-cow coming 
unto [them], which is the spouse (fdtm) of the year — let her be very 
auspicious to us. 

The verse is found also in PGS. (iii. 2. 2). HGS. (li. 17. 2) LMP. (ii. 20. 27) and 
MCiS (n 8 4c)J, and its second half in MH. (li. 2. lO c, d) : the first four have the 
better readings janas in a and tra "yatfm in b |_and M(jS. Ppp. has in 

b line nit tiiinm up-, and at the end For sitwi'iitsithisya pAtnl (cf. vs. 8 a, b) 

the comrn. quotes TS. \ii. 4. 8*. 

3. Thou, O night, whom we worship i^upa-ds) as model (pra(imti) of 
the year — do thou unite our long-li\ed progeny with abundance of 

Or, perhaps better (.so the comm, and Wel>er). ‘do thou fijive] us long-lived 
progenj ; unite [us] with abund.ancc of wealth.’ Ppp has for hye trii rdtrim uptlsa/f^ 
and in c iesiltn for stl nns ^MCrS has the \s at ii. 8.4'* (ef p. 15b). .agreeing nearly 
with Ppp.J The first is .ilso in T.S (v 7 2'), K (vl. 2). PGS. (lii. 2. 2), 
and .MU. (li 2. 18) • TS gives at end of b upiluiii. .Mil yafilniaite, PtIS. has piatimit 
yiJ tiifh rdfriw updsMaite. In our edition, restore a lost at tent-mark over the sr of 
^rjii in d. 

4. This same is she that first shone out ; among these other ones (f.) 
she goes about (<*<?;*), having entered; great greatnesses [are] within her; 
the bride {uhi/nl), the new-going generatrix, hath coiKjuered. 

'fins verse i'* repeated below as \ni. 0. li. It intuis with ( on'»iilerable variants, 
in a whole senes of other texts: TS (iv. 3. ii'). M.S. (li 13 10), K (\xxi.x. 10), 
(,’GS. (ill 12. 3 )« Mil. (11.2 15). For ,i\v Utirnm, TS ami q’ti.S have nntdr 
aynm; MS , also Ppp. yd */* 7 ' dntiU; Mil., j:* \\atn npty nnf,t\ .Ml of them, with 
Ppp. invert the »ir<!r*r of candd, and they h.ivi' .1 ditten nt viision of ourc: fidyii 
(but I^pp. // /A/ ) <’//#//// wtj/uwitniin \,itiifi/e ((,’GS. -;/A/w), but .Mil. T'/jiv Ay asyilm 
mahtmann nntih, whil»*. for in d, I S and t^.^. give /ii/ilnii, and MS. and 

Ppp. Mtwihii. I. US. following It with naiakr/ . and MB. re. ids ptatAitmtl for our 
naviit^Jt . mortover. has in a TTW. //f/Z. I hrse variants spe.ik ill for the tradi- 
tion. 1 he « oinin gives four diverse explan.Uions of going in company with 

each new' gr cl.ulv riv.ngsun, pervading the new originating kind of living (reaturcs; 
going to a fl iilv originating new form , or, finally, g«>ing to the nine-fold divisions of 
t!ie d.iv , and the comment to TS. |_ reported by WeberJ adds a fifth, “newly married”; 
if the is llse meaning, jafiina is better with it than //^liya: “ .i.s soon .is wedded to 
1. e ne'.v vear. she l^ars the davs that follow.” 'I he meter is really redundant by a 
sv liable ill a [^iMiini ' [Further, .Mil. has in a sti yd pfnvd vy-; and Ppp. 

ends d with janibim.^- HR , v. 1538, give * erst-gebarend ’ for nava^At.\ 

5. The forcst-trec pressing-stones have made their sound, making 
oblation of the complete year { parivatsarina) \ O sole ds(akd, may we, 
having good progeny and good heroes, be lords of wealths. 


“Stones”: i.e. probably, blocks of wood used instead of stones Lsce Hillebrandt, 
Ved, MythoL i. 162, 161 J ; or the woo<len mortar and pestle (so the comm ). Bpp. reads 
for C ekdstakayt (= -kiiytU) hni’isft vuihema. Some of the mss. combine havih kr- in 

b; the C9mmcnt to Prat. ii. 63 re((uires havi\ /•-, which both editions accept. Some of 

our (P.M.W.Op ) j^ive in c suprajaun. H(j.S. (ii. 14.4) and .MU (ii. 2. 13) ha\e 
a corresponding verse: HCbS. be;(ins with ulttk/ta/tls, comliine.s ka^i't/t k- and reads 
•rfnitm fn b, and has suprajil vfravanttis in c; MB. t'ives for a aulukhalah sampra- 
vadanti jj;rtl 7 u 1 fnis^ ends b with -nnatn, and has for d jyo^ jivema halthrto vayam te. 
Lit recurs also at MP ii. 20 34 and M<iS. ii .S 4icJ The first pada is unnoted 

in the Anukr. ditaktj, c f Zimmer, j> 365. J 

6. The track (ptn/a) of Id.l [is] full of f;hcc. ;;reatly tricklin^^; O Jata- 
vedas, accept thou the oblations. The cattle of the village that arc of all 
forms — of those seven let the willing stay {rdmit) be with me. 

Versions are found in A(/S. (11 2 17). Aprs (vi. 5 7). H(bS. (li. 17. 2). and MB. 
(ii. 2. 14), and of the bitter h.ill in TA. (iii ii.i2,\s 31 a. C) MB. a*4rees with our 
text throughout ; the ihiee <'tht is h.ue unti.iHam at end of a. and all three havir idam 
juuiwa (for prati etc ) in b; IBiS. Ix^ms with uitiyai stptam^ and Ap(,'S. cfunbincs 
ttlAvCth p-\ then, in d, Ap<, s . lliiS, and '1 A. read ihd instcarl of niayi ; and Af^S. 
pus/is for ftiM/iS, Hrs. ends with ttimiir adn pu^tth '1 he comm reads ihlya% in 
a; he renders siin\rp,irn b\ (itsintlaim sat pat. ftrw//s by /r/V/i, and specifies the 
seven vilbii'c (le ihniustic) aiamals as cow. horse, j^oat. sheep. m.\n, ass, camel: but 
the number se\en is doubtlc''S used onl\ as an indefinite .sai red one. Pada a is again 
5 ^ “• -i Aptls anti Aw?/;/ .\p(, S. 

imseits i trupJi (a fiagimnt of oui 11 34 4h’ j — Pi.u. 11 72 rcijuircs idthd^ p- ] 

7. [Set] thou me in btiih prosperity and abundance; O ni^cht, may we 
be in the favor of the go<ls 

O spoon, fly away full , fl> back hither wdl-fillcd ; jointly enjoying all 
sacrifices, bring to us fi)o(l (/y), lefreshment [thy). 

Till* first two p.idas, which .seem m have nothing to do with the rest of the verse, are 
w.inting in Ppp What follows them is a complete auustubh, and quoted by its pratika 
in Vail, (see above); it.s fust half is found in scxer.d other texts. VS. (lii. 49), ' 1 S. 
(i S.4'), MS. (i 10. 2). K (IX, 5). At,S (ii iS 13) , of these. VS. T.S. AC,'S read .Zrrr'/ 
Um darvCy as does aKo llie ctniim . with a few t^f .SI* P’s Ppp- has sampfTicatl 
i^am in the la,st half-xerse. The ct»mm. ni.derslancK a sthapaya in a. as in the transla- 
tion ; bhiijii would answer an cqualh gootl purjiosc-. He explains th.\t the .spoon is to 
go forth with oblation and to return with the answering blessings Siimbhufij(tn\^t. 
renders by haviul saMVitk pAlityantl pnuayaml Finally, he points out that, as c is 
quoted as a pratika. a and b lia\c a right to the character of a sep.arale verse; but that 
in the pakdiputaUkA the whole is made a, with three arasCinas : the statement, 
but not the title, .ippears to lit our Anukr.; this scans as 8 +10 8 + 8:8 + 8 = 50, 
needlessly counting only i o s> llables in b 1 n our cd., read ///.; for //.v. • i v. 1 5- 1 2 n. J 

8. -Hither hath conic the year, thy spouse, O sole dstakd ; do thou 
unite our long-lived progeny with abundance of wealth. 

• Instead of repeating the second half-verse of vs. 3. for c, d fuswAt 

jukomi: kavi^k ghrtena (Att //rff (itrwa Viifika/fi. Against his usual habit, the comm, 
explains Ci d anew, but ipiile in accordance with his former explanation. 

III. lO- 



9. I sacrifice to the seasons, the lords of the seasons, them of the 
seasons (artavd), and the winters {/idyaNd)^ to the summers (sdmd)^ the 
years, the months ; for the lord of existence I sacrifice. 

The change of case, from .accusative to dative, in d, doubtless intends no change of 
construction. The verse, as noted above, is wanting in I’pp. ; it is in part repeated 
below, as xi 6. 17. According to the comm., the "lords of the seasons’* are the gods, 
Agni etc. ; the atitizuis Lcf. iii.6. 6 notej are "parts of se.isons', other unspecified divi- 
sions of time, sixteenths, ktUtluls^ etc.'* ; and although r/jwJ, samvatsata^ and Mdyana 
are synon\mous, )et htlvana here signifies "d.ays and nights,’* and samd "half-months.** 

10. To thee for the seasons, them of the seasons, the months, the 
years, the Creator (d/id/dr), the Disposer {vtd/td/dr), the Prospercr 
(? siiMf'd/i), the lord of existence, do I sacrifice. 

All the siiw/f//t 1 ~mss. combine in a -dAj at /j*j, and .SPP. accepts the reading in his 
text : ours emends to ~bh\as tnl ; such treatment of final as is common in Ppp., and 
sporailic examples of it .arc foun<i among the AV., but it is hardly to be tolerated 
ill a text like ours; and the comment to Prat. iv. 107 quotes the p.'issage as Myas tvd. 
The comm. |_at xix. 37. 4J deems this verse Land not \ 2S. 13 J to be the one repeated as 
xix. 37. 4 ; see under that verse. Ppp. has, for a. b. yajur rtvii^fdtyd thtavMyo mtUhyas 
samviitsardya ca, which at any rate rids tht tc.\t ot the embarr.issing ivd. Here the 
comm, declares the tlrtazuis to be *• days ami nights, etc.” ; samfdh he explains as 
samasdhayitu etanndpnne devaya. 

11. \Vc, making oblation with ida — I .sacrifice to the gods with what 
is rich in ghee; unto houses not disorderly (^/ 7 //M/l/;//;, rich in kinc, 
may we enter together. 

Or, it might be, ‘may we lie down, go to r^st’; the transl.ition would imply more 
naturally upa vi^epna\Xh^ IntL'x lerdoruf/t takes iipa as an independent " 
governing’* preposition J ; the comm, says r/pc *(ya satn vi^t'Pfia sukhnta m vasetna; he 
comfortably removes the anacoluthon in a. b by declaring yaje - ya/ilfptahf^ and takes 
aluhhyatas as either nom. {j^drdhyam akufvdtiils) or accus. {y^dpdhyarahttdn), Ppp. 
roads for d drsadesvpa^omata. 

12. The sole dstal'd, paining herself (tapyd-) with penance, generated 
an embryo, a greatness, Indra; by him the gods overcame their foes; 
slayer of the barbarians became the lord of might (p/c/-). 

The versf is found also in T.S. (iv. 3. in), K. (xxxix. 10), P(].S. (iii.3. 5), and 
.MB. (li. 3«2i); and a is identical with HCiS. ii. 15.9a L^nd MP. ii. 20. 35 aj : TS. 
accents tdpya- in a (the comm, doc.s the same), and its c, d read : tthia ddsyupt 7y 
d^ahanta d€vA hanta 'surdndtn abhavai chdtlbhihy and K. PGS. have the same ver- 
sion ; Ppp. agrees with them in reading asurdnilm for ddiyundm^ and MB. has their d, 
hut our c, except asahanta for vy auih-, The s of vy dy is distinctly required by 
Prat. li. 92 ; but SPP. gives in his text vy dr-, against a m.ijority of the mss. reported by 
him. Our P.M.W. are corrupt at the end, but P.M. show distinctly indicating 
the reading of TS. etc. The comm, gives three different explanations of j^drbham in b, 
adding ///>/«/ or dutya/n (from ‘sing’), and X\\^n ^arbfiasthavad adr^am 
(from^r ‘.swallow ’), to the true meaning. The fkdsfakd he defines to be " eighth day 
of the dark half of Magha.’* The concluding pada is jap^atL 



-iii. II 

*3* Thou whose son is Indra, whose son is Soma, daughter art thou 
of Prajapati i fulfil thou our desires ; accept our oblation. 

Wanting in Ppp , as above noted. 

The second anuvtlka contain.s 5 li\rnns, 40 \erscs; and the quotation from the old 
Anakr. is simply 

XI. For relief from disease, and for long life. 

ttnJ lihrtix - aititpoim dnttirii ypl'fmijfhl^-jftaf/efatyani. 

irdtsfubhiitu ^ \<ik:‘urii^ttrdkd 6 nnustubh : 7 ttnn [f>rfiatij{arb/id 

Piithydf>,inLti , S j i/t 6 / h ja^ati'\ 

The first four verses are found in IMijip i . with the !mlk of the 4-versc hymns: they 
arc also KV. x. ifii i -4 (R\. aflds a fiith \eise, which occurs below as viii. 1.20). 
The hymn is used by Kau«;. (27.32. 33) in .1 general liealing ceremony (without specifi- 
cation of person or oc» .ision , the sclud and c«»mm. assume to add such), and, in com- 
pany with many olheis (i\ 13 i i tc cl< ). in a rite for length of hie (5S. 1 1) : and it is 
reckoned to the takntiini^,tna yatta (jr i. note) .ind to the ayu\ya yana (54. ii, note: 
but the comm, igpoiing tlnsi. counts it as one of the anholinya yana). In Vait. 
(36- 19)1 '***• a( comji.inies the si lling fice of the horse at the tti^vatnedha sacrifice , and 
the hymn (the edition s.i\s. 1 in j . the pratikas are the same) is cmplo}ed. uitli ii 33 
etc., in the puru\ainedhit (3s 1 ) |_Sre jfts*3 \V s introduction to ii. 33. J 

Translated Welier. wii 231 . (iriinth. i <>5 . bloomrield, 4q, 341. — In part also by 
Koth, Aur Ltiictatup' und iic\Lituht€ des ll't.ia, p 42. 

1. I release thee by oblation, in order to living, from unknown jvt/’jwcr 

and from royal , if now seizure iyrd/n^ hath seized him, from it, 

O Indra-and-Agni, do ye release him. 

RV. iiKsert.s :■«* after in c Ppp. has. in the second half-verse, /^/vr/rrd 
yady fui yafa\ tata tftd-, I he comm cvplains pdfiiyaksmti as either “ king of ’ 

or “the r. that seized king Soma first. * quoting for il c latter T^. 11.5 C'^ Lsee ref- 
erences ill Bloomfield's comnicnlj. 'fhe first pada is jttyafi. 

2. If of c.xhaiistod life-time, or if deceased, if gone down even to the 
pro.scncc {anttld) of death, him I take from the lap of perdition; I have 
won (J/r) him for [life] of a hundred autumns. 

The translation implies in dab/^dz w/w. which is the rc.iding o'" our edition, supported 
by RV., and also by the comm. ( ■ yi/iz^<z/i/w kitrifmt '), and two of SPP’s mss. that 
follow the latter : the .L/.?zp/w of neaily all the mss. (hence icad by SPP.), and of Ppp , 
can be nothing but a long-establislud blunder Ppp has at the beginning^// ukhtirtU 
yury-, \^.\t li. i 4. 3 .SPP. used the •• l»»ng /"*' to denote the kultpttt circumflex : with 
equal reason he might use it here lor the //'Az of w/Az -ni-ita J 

3 . With an oblation having a thousand eyes, a hundred heroisms, a 
hundred life-times, have I taken him, in order that India may lead him 
unto autumns, across to the further shore of all difticulty {liuritd^, 

RV. has in a ^atd^driuUna for ^.xUdvirvttuu ami makes much better sense of C, d by 
reading ^atdm for fndras^ and Oidras for *i/z (it also h.u» ifftdfn for enatn). 

4 . Live thou increasing a hundred autumn^?, a hundred winters, and a 

111 . 11 - 



hundred springs ; a hundred to thee [may] Indra, Agni, Savitar, Brihas- 
pati [give] ; with an oblation of a hundred life-times have 1 taken him. 

Our text, in the second half-vcrs»e, ingeniously (lcf.ices the better meter and sense 
given by RV., winch re.i<ls indrd^ni for ta a^nUi in c. and ends with havist 

'niiim pitnar tilth. The verse is lairly correctly defined b\ the Anukr., its c having 14 
s\llabl<.s {itihviirf), and m.aking the whole number 47 svllahles less i). 

5. Kilter in, O breath-and-cxpiration, as two draft-oxen a pen {vrajd); 
let the other deaths go away (:•/), which they call the remaining hundred. 

In this verse, as in the preceding and in \s. 7 and eNewherc. .Sl‘l*. makes the inde- 
{enable combination ;/ < 7 /, instead of il i//, as the result ot mutual .issimilation of n and f 
Lcf. note to i. 19. 4 J. 

LAs to the ‘‘one hundred and one deaths.” cf. viii 1 27; xi. 6. if>; i. 30. 3 ; 
i'kiiiidtd in Index; .ind the numbers in the noi.ible pass.ige, \i\. .17. 3 If. : Kuhn's most 
interesting (Germanic par.illel.s. KL xiii. 12811 ; Wuttke, I’oikMihtr^/aube^y 
3''i.335 ; Hopkins. OtuHtdi Studu's . . . p.ipeis read betoic the Oiiental Club of 
Philadelphia, iSS.8-i.Si;4, p, 152: /immer, p. 400. Ll. alsj> the words of the statute, 
iSKdward I . ^ 54 , concerning the ••Fine uf LaiuU,” unks*> the\ put in their claim 
w ithin a and a da\ ” J 

6. Be ye just here, O brcath-and-c\piration , go yc not away from 
here ; carry his body, his limbs, unto old age again. 

At the end of b, the comm, re.ids jiirdin ( - (/;^ 7 //./w/. akdU') instead of yurdm, and 
two or three of SPP’s ms,s . as often, follow him. 

7. Unto old age do I commit thee; unto oKl age do I shake thee down 
{ni-tihft ) ; may old age, e.xcellent, conduct thee ; let the other deaths go 
away, which they call the remaining hundred. 

The Anuki .scans the \trse .is g -r 8 7 a. s -1- 8 - jo not admiltin;: an\ losolulion in c. 

8. Old age hath curbed {abhi’dhd) thee, a.s it were a cow, an ox, with 
a rope; the death that curbed thee, when born, with easy fetter — that 
Brihaspati released for thee, with the (two) hands of truth. 

The vcrlvforms represent the noun abhidhani • halter, or bridh*. or nipc for confining 
and jjmding.' [A case of “rcriecleil meaning” discu.ssed,, I'm n sac t ions 0/ 
the Ant. Phtlol. . Issnaation, vol. xxvi, p. xiii { i S94) C f. note to iv. 1 S. i . J As in many 
otlier cases, the comm, renders the aorist rt/z/Ar (lor adhita) as an imperative, baddham 
karotu. iJn account of jtiyamdnam in d (virtually • at thy birth ’) Weber entitles the 
h\mn “on occasion of dirficult parturition,” which is plainly wronij. Perhaps it is for 
the -same reason that the comm, regards it as relating to a i hild. or to a person diseased 
from improper copulation. In our text, at the beginning, read abhi (an accent-sign 
lost under rf ). There is no brhatl clement in the verse. • 

12. Accompanying the building of a house. 

[firahman — uavarcom, ^dlihuktam idstospati^illtWdiVtUam it dtstuhham : a. X'iridjagati ; 

J ^irhati, 6 yikvan^arbhd ; 7. driv anH%tithh ; S. bhiinj ; t). anuaubh.] 

The first eight verses are found in P.aipp , but only 1-5. 7 together, in iii., vs. 6 being 
in XX., and vs. 8 in xvii. L-^l^rc or less correspondent vss. recur at MP. ii. 15.3 ff. and 



-lii. 12 

at MGS. ii. ii. 12 ff. (cf. p. 148 t/itlnui).^ The hymn is reckoned by K.iuq. (8.23) to 
the vdstospatly^ hymns, and is used with them in .1 house-building ceremony (43. 4 ff. ; 
the “ two dhruvas^ mcMitiuned in 43. 1 1 |_are doubtless the same as the “ two dhruvas ” 
mei^tioned inj 136. 7 : Land the latter J are, acconling to tlie comm, to vi. 87, not vss. 
I and 2, but hymns vi. .S7 and SS) ; >ss 6 ami 8 are specially quoted (43.9, 10). Vait. 
( 1 (^. 1 , in the tn;nn/oma sa<ritke) ;ii\e>* a pralika which is nearly that of vs 8, but 
with ttdhviityo (or ftii/t. L^ *)• v . occurs in l*|>p. with others of our ix. 3 J 

Translated: Ludwig, ji 463. Ziinincr, p. 150; Weber, xvii 234: finll, 5q, 108; 
Csrifiith, i. 97 ; Bloomfield, 140,343. -Cl. Hillcbrandt, l'€da<hrt'stomathie^ P- 4 J-J ^^I'd 
Bloomhcdd s references: aUri M. Wintirnitz, Afiit/u’t/uni^en der Anthropoloifisthen 
Gesellschaft tn ll'it'u, \<i\ x\ii, p [3.81 

1. Just here I fix {ni-mi) [my] dwelling (fd/r/) firm; may it stand in 
security, sprinkling ghee, unto thee here, C) dwelling, may wc resort 
(sam-car) with all our heroes, with good heroes, with unharmed heroes. 

I*pp. reads <//'/// (if m d iMdas a. b are found in PtiS. iii. 4. 4, with 
tisthatu for -J// ; and b in b(iS. m 3, with f(ir the same ; H(i.S. (i. 27. 2) has the 

whole \erse, with in a, iintt (foi upa) in d. and suvlpas before sarvav- in c. 

2. Just here st.tnd thou firm, U dwelling, rich in horses, in kinc, in 
pleasantness, in refreshment, in ghee, in milk; erect thyself {nt-^n) in 
order to great good-f(utuno. 

l*pp. leaws the a oi ./ : avati in b umlidfd Pi '.s (ibid ) p.idas b and d, mak- 
ing one verse of ih**tn with 3 C. d , p a. b arc .ilsu found in QG.S (ibid.), with con- 
^derabli* \ .iiMiU'. foi i/V// //.,/.<////;/-'»? im (,'A, 'ind ior siipir- , and 

H(’fS. (ilnd ) lu nil tic wholi vtis* with t si ati pipy^i'ni pniiamana for c 
The comm , with tl t usual quetr pc!\cisin»i of the- sense of iunrta, renders sunrtavatl 
hy bahid'itih pt :\ ./).//: : ,////^/!// 1 ukta. Padas b and c are 

3. A garner \ ^ ait thou, O ihvelling, id great roof, of cleansed 

grain; to thee may the call come, may the bo), may the kme, streaming 
in at evening. 

This tr.insl.ition «»t the difficult and doubtless t ornipt first h.ilf-verse implies emenda- 
tion of -» Z/ci/ f to /'././/i. and ol p.i/t- to /v/ t- -- whu h latter is, in f.icl, the Ppp read- 
ing In d. .SPP .uloj.ts file bad icadin;; t laiming to tind it in the 

m.ijoiitv of bis mss . l>ut the s^rilns aie so wholly unliustwoithy in their distinction of 
i v and tile lequireincnl ol the sense is sulfu ient to siiow that they intend jr 
lieie ; the eomin. le.vls o./as/, and so do. s bt.S (iii 2)111 the p.-iiallel jiass.ige : 
i/fit/i kttjfidii/y ./ it sv,tr,hpit,i)/: d/un.ti'o ftthav^tfulfi : PGS (ibid) il 

tl'il {i{ur I? ktaudat,' a yitvi* iZ/ir vH^yatiuinah L-^l''*^ " rerieets our 

vs. 7.J Tin comm lets us understan.l bv iHitimu: * ithi r bnot^tt'rttitw’it dhitt iiyitrf or 
pta\a<iiit siatubhatr upt/tr ; and b\ J f ’tit^ euher pfiibr itihlCuiantt or pnahadbhti^ 

thandohhir ri'd.}/r up* til, /v/.s/v.mi./ is -hivuig corn inalodou^us from atic *’ — a 
sign of scores iinexh.tusted The Anukr appaieiitlv scins as 7 : S . 10+ ii =36: a 
very poor sort of brhatf. L^'o*^ that of SPP’s authoniies tor i/.i'i/;/./-. K and \ were 
men, not mss.; none of his living authoiiiics gave <;»/.///(/-. 1 lie blunder is casv for 

the eye, not for the ear.J 

4. This dwelling lot Savitar, Va}n. Iiulra, llrihasixiti fix, foreknowing; 


let the Maruts sprinkle it with water, with ghee ; let king Bhaga deepen 
(ni-tan) our ploughing. 

Ppp. reads in a. b viiyur aunt's /vas/tl hota ni\ and has somas (which suits rSjA 
better) for dha^as in d. In c it bci^ins with the true re.idinji; uksantu; this is so natu- 
rally suggested as emendation of the uchAntu of the mss. that ill the translators assume 
it (Weber, strangely mistaking the plain statement of the Index Vetbotum^ accuses us 
of having wrongly .iltered uksAntu in our edition to //rZ/if «////) ; uk\i\ntu is also read 
by the comm, and by two or three of SI* P’s mss. that follow him; and SI*P. very 
properly admits it into his text. SPP. also reads after it udn^, with the comm., but 
against all his mss |_e\cept the ^rotriya KJ ; there is no instance where udnA and udnAs 
are correitly re.'id in any of them (here, our Hp.O.Op. have u/nil, I* .M. the 

rest • unni: our edition gives unna^ and Weber failed to see that it was corrected 
in the Index Verborum |_under udAnj). The comm, makes d refer to the ploughing 
of the site of the house : (A/iibhiiweA kttfutniifn m/a f Aw kandu. L* E.H.D.K.Kp. and 
Ppp. have unna; I. has ut/a ; W. has dn tva J LKor ut/ian/u, sec x. 9. 23 n.J 

5. O mistress of the building mdnn), as sheltering, pleasant, hast 
thou, a goddess, been fixed by the gods in the beginning ; clothing thy- 
self in grass, mayest thou be well-willing; then mayest thou give us 
wealth together with heroes. 

Ppp. has, for c. d, ftnnant :'asana sumana va^as tvam rayitn no dhi suhhaye %uvham, 
Cirass” in c refers probably to a thatched roof. Mana lije comm, gives two explana- 
tions for: cither “of the reverend {nitinamva) lord of the site ),” or 

‘•of the spoiling {} pn iy ant ana) grain etc *’ {pa/nt in this signifjing paiayt/rt) In 
b the comm, re.'ids mrmtta. IftiS. (1.27 8) has a, b, C (witli a whollv different d) in 
a corrupt form • mA nah sapatnah \aranah ivonA dei’o devtbhtt vimt/A 'rr ayte: trnath 
vasAnAh suntanA a^t /‘rant ; but our d (with -rtrAm r ) occurred just before (i. 27. 7) 

6. With due order, O beam (?w//frt), ascend the post ; formidable, 
bearing rule, force away (apa-vrj) the foes ; let not the attendants (///>«- 
sattdr) of thy houses be harmed, O dwelling ; may we live a hundred 
.autumns with all our heroes 

ppp reads sthunA 'dhi in a, and in c, d -taro ' tra vnajAm jtvAtn \arada^ 
^atam fJoth meter and indicate yrhanam is an intrusion in c; and suvirAs 
at the end would rectify the meter of d 'I'he first pada i.s the bt ginning of a verse in 
Afi.S ii 9. and H(iS. (1.27 7) the first half-ver.M*. wlili ithunAu in a, and urdhvas 
and I///Z sedha in b [_rf MP. ii 15 6; MtiS ii 1 1 1 ) is roiriiptj. The comm, reads 
arsan for rtian me; he explains rtena hy ahAdhyena tftpena ui/ia, and upamt/Aras by 
ttpasadanakar/aras. The verse (ll -r 1 1 . 14 -f 12 48) i.s ilefmed by the Anukr. with 

mechanical correctness. 

7. To it the tender boy, to it the calf, with moving creatures {^jdgat)^ 
to it the jar of parisrnt, with mugs of curd, have come. 

l*pp has trd {or iniAnt in a and c, and in c patter ta% ; ami it ends d with kala^a^ ca 
ya. r he vary between parirrittar and -fn//- (our Bp H.O.Op.Kp. have f) ; the 
comm has r, and renders the word by patt\ravana{flarya madhunah ‘foaming over 
sweet.' The word is quoted in the comment to Pi at. ii. lof) as an example of s after 1 
protected from lingualization by a following r. The comm, reads in c kumbAAs, and 



-111. 13 

in d kala^ts; half the mss. (including our Bp.E.I.H.K.) accent kala^is. The comm, 
explains jdgatd gatttana^ilena gavdiitnii^ which is doubtless its true sense. '1 he verse 
is found also in AOS. (ii.8. i6j, P(js. (iii.4.4), (,*OS. (in. 2. 9), and 11 G.S. (i. 27. 4;. 
the first two and the last have (like l*p|> ) /r-J, .ind (^(iS. reads efiat/t (for / V/w ///);* for 
jdgatd^ PCS. has jagatidts and AOI>. jayatamt gives bhu 7 >anas^ with part for 

sakdj all dififer again as to the last worrl, presenting upa (P(i.S.), ayav (AGS.), ayann 
iva (HGS.) or gaman ((*'(*S ); .ind has further kumbhyds in c, while for pan- 

srAtas A(iS. has part\rttas and IKjS htranmayai Lsee also MP. ii. 15.4 and MCjS. 
ii. Il.i2i*j. The epithet added b) the Anukr. to the metrical definition of the 
verse, is without meaning as oisti.ignishing it fiom 9 l_tf. iii., notej. 

8. Briiiff forward, O woman, this full jar, a stream of ghee combined 
(sam-bhf) with ambrosia {am Hit) \ anoint these drinkers (.^) with ambro- 
sia; let what is offerod-and-be.stoweil defend it (f. : the dwelling.^). 

The well-nigh unui-isal rcarling of the mss in c is imant pCitrUy which SPI*. accord- 
ingly presents in his test, in spite of its i^iammatical impossiliiliU (of our mss . E. gi\es 
pAtnht^ -tren licing .1 misrLM(lin4 of -//// ItiUiid .also more once elsewhere; P. has 
pddAn^ and W. pdtran), we eincnd< d tinam to mian , but perhaps trndffi pdtrim ‘this 
drinking-vessel,’ which the romm has. would be preferable, as better suited to sAm 
andhi ; and ntam at the en<l wouhi th* n ii fer to it. Tin* comm, sam tttdht instead 
of sAtn aftdhi , he makes r //#//;/ impK The c«»rrcsponding \erse in Ppp. (xvii ) 

i.s <jiiite different, and miiMpt patnAta nCOhnt pta kata ''bht kumhham apam ramani 
cuidhfnAn ghrtasya iman: pattn aunt Air a \am aydhi sthira 7'irAs sNu/a/tasa 
bhai'anta: this simnests tntdin pati Air amt ta\ya in c ‘anoint this [dwelling] with ves- 
sels of ambrosia but aNo its separation from the p*’ci,cfbng verses makes uncertain its 
belonging to the same m remon\ with tlnmi In the ceicmonial use, it accompanies the 
entrance into the new dwcllinu, the wife first, <3ri\ing a watci-jar 

9. Theso waters I bring forward, free from ydkpnay 9v?/’.f;;/c7-effacing ; I 
set forth (.^ pra-Sini) unto {upa) the houses, along with immortal {amrta) fire. 

The verse, as already noted, is wanting [m this connectionj in Ppp. and neither 
Kau<;. nor the comm specif) an) thing .is to its use. It appears .again below as ix. 3. 23 ^ 
[_with Ppp. version J. 1 he comm, gives no explanation nor par.iphrase of ptA sida/t/i. 

L'* Prepositions” discu.ssed. Prat iv. 3, nute.J 

13. To the waters. 

rap/jrtiim rij»«w»iw .v/.i rtai/AuJJ>' AnnaubhiXtn /. fihrf : 

y X tf . tt. nutt ttiAuf'h \ 

The first six verses occur m Paipp. in., and .also in TS. (v 6 . i ), MS. (li. 13- O. and 
K. (xxxix. 2). The h)mn is used b\ K.uis' m a ceremony for directing water into a 
certain course (40. l iT.); the of vs 7 are severally emplovc'd in it (see under that 
verse); it also appears, with other hvmns (i 4-0,33. etc. etc ), m a rite u^r good-fortune 
(41. 14). Ariel the comm desciibes it .is used In one vvhc> desires rain. \ erse 7 
further employed, with a number of othei verse.s, by V.iit. (29 13). in the agriicayatuu 
accompanying the conducting of water, reeds, and a frog over the altar-site. [_ Berlin 
ms. of Anukr reads siHdhvabdAraatam J 

Translated: Wcdicr, xvii 240; ('.rifrilh, i.90; Bloomfield, 146. 31^ — Cf. Bcrgaigne- 
Henry, Manuel^ p. 143* 

iii. 13- 



1. Since formerly {} adtis)^ going forth together, ye resounded {nad) 
when the dragon was slain, thenceforth ye are streams (nadi) by name : 
these are your names, O rivers. 

The /i7//<Mnss all commit the very p^r.-ituitoiis blunder of writini; t^h instead of ti at 
the bo>;mnini; of d. .is> if it l>elon*:ed sttui/uiViis of t ) fiiiwtlnt; SPP. emends 
to /.f, arul the comm, so understands the word The comm, takes dt/tis as V'edic substi- 
tute for ainu\mtn^ (|ualif\injr ahiiu None of the other te\ts ^i\es any various reading 
for this \crse P.ida d sets forth, as it were, the office of the fust four verses, in finding 
puniiin;^ cl) molo^ies for sundry of \Jie names of water. 

2 . When, sent forth by Varuna, ye thereupon (ri/) quickly skipped 
together, then Indra obtaineil (1//) you as ye went ; therefore are 

ye wateis (i?/) afterward. 

r.S and MS h.ive in d apas (nomin.). and this is obviousi) the true reading;, and 
assumed in the translation; both editions t««llo\v llie mss (t..V(.ci>t our (fp ) in giving 
J//f. MS. begins the verse with <ampnl<.y:ttti\ . ft)r at in b .MS ha> vAt ami T.S. iAs, 
In d, I'lJp. elules the a 01 anu , TS lea\e.s ^ihana imhnguali/ed. Tlie eomm reads 
inste.ul itana. 

3. As ye were flowing perversely {apakmnam)^ since Indra verily hin- 
dered (rar) you by his powers, you, ye divine ones, iheicfure the name 
water (:ufr) is a.ssigncd you. 

Ppp has for c saUa^hn' titiai\ TS combmism d larnaffui. The 

comm apparently takes htkam as a single wool (the I’S /fn/.Me\t so ie.;ar.U it). (]uot- 
ing as his authorit) Xaiyhantuka 111 12 . and again in d. it the manuscript does not do 
him injustice, he re.ids ktkaw for hitat . 

4. The one god stood up to you, flowing at [your] will; “the great 
ones have breathed up (W-^i//),” said he; therefore water {ndttkd) is [so] 

'I'he rMrne here lealU had in mind must he, it would seem, tttfafi, hut tidakAm ha.s to 
he >ubsiiuilcd for it in the nominative . none of the other texts olfer a diiterent form. 
T.S. improM'* the nuter of a by omiVling :v7j, and TS and M.S lea\e the a of i»/# 
uneli'lcd Ppp- differs more serioiisl) fko na th‘a upCitKthat ^yautiamAnA upttyah. 
Yathaili’am in b might he *at hi.s will,’ opposed l'» apakamAm in \s 3 The sense of 
C 15 ratlur obsi uro ; the tomm understand-*: ••saving ‘by this respect on tlie part of 
Indra we have become,’ they breathed freely (or heaved a sigh of relief : uccftva- 
sitaratya^) ” — which is senseless K suggests •• Indra put himself in iheir way with 
the polite adflres.s and in(|uir) • 'their worships have given themselves an airing'; and 
coruluctefl them on their way again”; W’eher understands them lo sigh unclef the 
Imrdcn of the god standing - upon ” (d//) them. The comm, declares apt to have the 
Sense of ad/ii 

5. The waters [arc] excellent; the waters verily were ghee; these 
waters verily bear Agni-and-Soma ; may the strong (tivrd) satisfying 
savor {rdui) of the honey-mixed {-pre) come to me along with breath, 
with splendor. 



TS. reads asus for asan at end of a. and both TS. and MS., as also the comm., have 
jraH at the end {MS.p. MS. combines differently the material of our sss. 5 

Md 6 ; first our 6 a, b with 5 c, d, then our 5 a, b with 6 c, d ; and for our 5 a it reads 
tievlr jrhrtaminv,i « apas. This last seems also to be intenrled by P,),,.. with its 
dpo devlr ghrtam mpAhus ; and it has Uyii instead of tt /as at enrl of b, and combines 
•gamii ma in c-d. The comm, renders mad/inprcam by madhuna rasena samprkia- 
nUm; the description in p.ida c almost makes us fancy some kind of mineral water to 
be had in view. 

6. Then indeed I see, or also hear ; unto me comes the noise, to me 
the voice of them ; I think myself then to have partaken ambrosia 
{amfia) when, ye gold-colored ones, I have enjoyed {/rp) you. 

TS. has the inferior readinj^s nas for tna .it end of b and ydd for yadi in d MS. is 
corrupt in^b; its y^////</-te\t reads vak' n:t ii^am. but the editor ^ivcs in saw/iifa-Xcixi 
7>drnvtlsam. The comm < ombines l>j,p has at the bc-mning jdr/ for a./. 

The comm, take.s the opportunity of the o. 1 urrciice of hiranva- in d to bring forward an 
etymology of it which he here and tlure rcjicats ; it is hila-ramantya ! The verse is 
improperly reckoned as nurt |^[n ilic edition atm ta^tha is a mispn:it for -jva J 

7 . This, (3 waters, [is] your heart, this your young {yatsd)^ ye righteous 
ones ; come thus hither, ye mighty ones, where I now make you enter. 

The preceding \erses have been simjile laudation of the w.aters : this appended one 
(which is found neitlui in Ppp nor iii the other ttxts) .adds a practical application, and 
is the .sole found.Uion of the t mplovmciii ot the Inmn b\ Kain; With the first p.ida a 
piece of goM is buried 111 the ‘Mire- 1 * hanuel ; with b a prepared fiog \i> f.istcncd there ; 
with c the frog is covered with a water -j) , with d w iter is conilucted in. 

14. A blessing on the kine. 

[/'ta/imatt -- *t>hi t :r: ,ifv ifu u / 1 tuidt: iw an'tau^ ftam 0 <!t u tn tul'/i ] 

The lumn (exieju \s ; ) is iomid m 1* iipp 11 (m tiie verse-onler 2. 4. (\ 1.3) It 
i.s used by K.iu«, , witii other hsmns (ii 2 (t vu ), in a ceremony for ilie prosperity of 
cattle (l«;. 1 t) In N’ait (2i 20), \^ 2 .uiompanus the fhuing of kme in the agtii- 
stoma 1 lie \’iit iisi <lt»es not .ippeai li» nvnlMined !»\ the comm , and his report of 
the K.iik; Use is mustle lust Horn tli-* man.isc not ^biil liHetl in by the cditoi) 

Tr.u19l.lted. Ludwig. .p*j.\\\ber. \Mi 2n. i»rill. 04. 112; < »niiit!u i ir>i , Bioom- 
field, I 4 J, 35*- 

1. With a comfort. iblc st.ill, with wealth, with well-being, with 

that which is the name of the ilay-born one, do we unite you. 

Ppp. read.s in b \api 4 ^f\a lor rwV/.v/r./ The obscure llnnl pada is found .igain below 
as V 28.12 c; it IS .dtoge tiler diveiseh remdered (conjee tur.dh ) by the translators 
(Weber, “with the blessing of favorable birth”; Ludwig, “wilh [all] that which erne 
calls day-borii’*; (a ill, “ willi w hates er a d.iy of luck brings loilh R. suggests ** with 
all (of good tilings) the d.iy brings, or that is under the heaven": none of these 
suits the other occurrence. 

2. Let Aryamaii unite you, let Pushan, let Rrihaspati, let Indra, who 
is conqueror of riches ; in my possession gain ye what is good. 

iii. 14- 



lio ^ 

*In my possession/ lit. * with me* (bei mir, chez moi). The comm, takes pnsyata 
as = posayata ; and so do the translators, unnecessarily and therefore inadmissibly ; 
or, we may emend to pu.\yaitt^ with vtisu as subject. Unite** calls for the expression 
of with what ; this is not given, but the verse may be regarded as (except d) a continua* 
tion of vs. I. The three p.idas a-c are found as a ;^'/Jr<i/''/‘verse in MS. (iv. 2. lo: vHkh 
posa for pfiiii in b>. I*pp. has tha pusytiii at beginning of d. 

3. Having come together, unaffrighted, rich in. manure, in this stall, 
bearing the sweet of soma, come ye hither, free from disease. 

Three of the p.idas (a. b, d) again form, with considerable variants, a . f^ityatrl \Ti MS. 
(ibid ) immediately following the one noted above : .M.S. has for Mbhyusls^ 

pun\itns for and, in place of our d, //</ a Ppp gives, as not sel- 
dom, in part the MS. readings, corrupted, it begins uimjananilm has ^<177 j 

for miidhu in c, and, for d. svave^Hui etiina The combination of p. upa dtana into s. 
upttana is one of those aimed at by Trat. iii. 52. according to the comment on that rule ; 
but it would equ.aliy well fall under the rule (jii. 3.S) as to the order of combina- 
tion when «/ comes betw'cen two vowels {itpa a-ttana like tnitm-il thi etc.) LCf. also 
Lanman, j.\OS. x. 425.J 

4. Come ye just here, O kinc, and flourish here like ^dkd ; also mul- 
tiply ipra-jd) just here; let your complaisance be towaril me. 

Qiki ''ill (p iiU’J irti) in b is very obscure. Weber renders •• like dung” (as if 
(iUr/); Ludwig, “with the dung” (as if (ifktJ iii4/tif); (iiill, “like plants'* 
(implying {akani I'ui or (^akd /r'.i); the comm. .s.i\s •• multiply innumerably, like Hies** 
{{ilka -- makukd). this last is, .so far .as can be seen, the purest guesswork, nftr is any- 
thing brought up in its support : and the “dung " compariNons arc as unsuitable a.s they 
are un.savory. The expIan.ition of the comm accords with one among those offered by 
tlie commentators on VS. xxiv 32 ( -- MS. iii 14 13) and TS v. 5 iS‘, where pf/tiJ also 
occurs. Ppp. reads sakd iva. SPI*. reports his paJd mss .us ai Lenting.i,'<f ;'<//# in a, but 
emends m his /(rr/i/*text Xo y^ara/i . the latter is read by all ours, so far as noted. 

5 Let your stall be propitioiKS ; flourish yo like <;dn^dkd, also mul- 
tiply just here ; with me we unite you. 

'I I'.ere is no I’pp text of this verse lo help cast light on the obscure and difficult 
fj/ /(•</<>/ (p {ilruilka /I'll). 'I he comm (impljing -kth) explains the w<ird .as meaning 
•• kind.s of creatures increase by Ihous.inds 111 a moment." but otfers no etymblogy or , 
other supp<irt ; the translators supply a \ariety of ingenious and unsatisLiclory conjec- 
tures ( Welur, “like f»?A/ -dung." ^#i// perhaps a kind of binl ; (irill “[fatten yourselves] 
like the (Ufika" *ir hixided crow; I.udwig simplv puts a question-mark in place of a 
translation). K. offers the ionje«ture {dn/i (- r,}/ih) ^tika tvii ‘like rice in manure.* 
Our P .M K I. accent {'ifri\<tke *rvi. 

LPiloomheld emends to ftlri-^ukt'^ui ( ktU ird), * thrive ye like starlings and 
nus.' Tiue. birds are habitual companions in literature as in life (see my trans- 
lation of Karpurainaiijari^ p. 22';, note), loqiuu ity being their salient characteristic; 
but what is the tcrlinm uomparationi\ between the thriving of cows and'of starlings? J 

6. Attach yourselves, () kine, lo me as lord of kinc ; this your stall 
here [be] flourishing; to you, becoming numerous with abundance of 
wealth, to you living, may wc living be near (npa-sad). 


Bhdvantas in c would be a desirable emendation. Upa-sad may be rather ‘wait 
upon * (so Grill), only then we should expect rather sadiima (comm., upagacchema), 
I^W’s implied difference between sadema and sadiima is not clear to me.J Bpp. reads 
in ^ gopatyd, and its b is mayi vo jrosf ha iha posayilti |_The epithet arsi seems to be 
ib meaningless here as at iii 1 2. 7 — ^ee note, end. J 

15. For success in trade. 

\Atharvan (fanyakdmah) — nxtarciim Vili^-r>aJe^’ttm utdt '^ndrdgnam. trdtaubham ‘ 
i. bhurtj , 4 jtiv. 6-p brhatii^itrhhd r>tfddatyattt; j. xtrddjagati ; 

7. anuitubh , 8 . nurt ] 

Four of the verses are found in l*aipp xix. (i, 4, 6, 2, in this order). The hymn is 
used by K^uq. in a rite for good-fortune in trading (50. 12), and again ‘(5(^ fi) for a simi- 
lar purpose ; also (or vs i ) in the indramahot^ax'a ceremony (140. 16); also vss. 7 and 
a in the appeasing of the flesh-eating fire (70 13, 14) In Vait (6.9), vs 7 is employed 
in the ceremony of establishing the samflcial fire. The usual statement of these various 
uses appears to be lai king in the*manus(.ript of the comm., and is supplied, only in part, 
by its editor. 

Translated. Ludwig, p 215. Zimmer, p. 258 (except \s.s. 7, 8); Weber, xvii. 247 ; 
Grill (vss. i-(»), 69, 113; (iriltitl), i 102; Bloomfield, 14S. 352. — Cf. Hillebrandt, 
Vtda-chrestomathiey p 3.S 

1. I Stir up (cud) the trader Indra; let him come to us, be our fore- 
runner; thriLsting [away] the niggard, the waylaying wild animal, let 
him, having the power (/]), be giver of riches to me. 

Or panpant hinam and mtgdm in c m.iy be indepenflent of one another (so comm , 
and translators except Weber and /ininur) Ppp. has, for a, b, tndmm vayam vantjam 
Mavdmahe sa nas triitd pum eta ptajanan The Anukr. notices c as jagati pada. 

Indra, the tr.uler” i.f. Beigaigne, AV/. ?'<</. ii 4-^0. — .Many Jataka talcs (e.g. no’s 
1, 2) give \ivid pii tuus of the life of the trading caravans J 

2. The many roads, travelled by the gods, that go about (sam-car) 
between heaven-aiid-earth — let them enjoy me with milk, with ghee, 
that dealing (kri) I may get {d-hr) riches. 

Ppp’s version is \ery dilferenl that *Ta< pantha bahavo devayandm anu i(vd 7 d- 
prfhivi supranftth : tesdin ahnam vanay a dadhatm yathd klitvCt dhanam dvahdni. 
The comm allows us altern.itivel\ to underst.tnd de~'a- in a as •* by tr.adeis ; he renders 
jusantdm in c by ^evantam. .is if it were causati\c Ilis text has at the beginning ye 
te panth: The emcnd.iUon, suggested by Weber, of md in c to me would help the 
sense. The first half-ierse is fount! .igain below .is \i. 55. i a. b. To make a regular 
tristubhy we contract to -prthx’l in b, and expand to kri-tu-a in d; the Anukr. per- 
haps regards the two irregularities as balancing one another. 

3. With fuel, O Agni, with ghee, I, desiring, offer the oblation, in 
order to energy (tdras), to strength ; — revering with worship (brd/imatt)^ 
so far as I am able — this divine prayer (<////), in order to hundred-fold 

The verse is RV. iii 18. 3. without variant — save that RV. accents of course y////d////, 
as does our edition by necc.ssary emendation, while SPP. follows all the mss. in giving 

111. 15- 



juhomi (the /<i</i>*text puts a sign of paila-di vision after the word, but also before it). 
The verse is not at all likely to have been an oiiginal part of our hymn; the word 
f/i/djc in d has caused its addition. The comm, rendeis tdrase by ve^Aya ^fghrtu 
giiwiutftvit, and applies j'd in two ways, to the winning or to the worshipping. ‘ 

4. This Offense {} (urtwi) of ours mayest thou, O Agni, bear with 
(w/jV), what distant road we have gone. Successful {(/imi) for us be bar- 
gain and sale; let return-dealing make me fruitful ; do ye two enjoy this 
oblation in concord ; successful for us be our going about and rising. 

The l^r^t two p.idas .arc w.inting in the Taipp. version of the hvinn (though they 
occur, in another connection, in Ppp. i.). and they are pl.iinly an intiusion here, due to 
the mention of distant travel in b, they form the first h.dl of IvV. i. 31. 16 (but KV\ 
reads tor b i./iJf/t AMirCtfiatu yJw ifgrtwti tfurat : l.t.'.s , in its repetition of the K\'. 
verse at ni. 2 7. aglets witli AX’ in preferring tiumm) 'fhe in.sertion dislocates the 
comm's division of the hvmn, he reckons tinly the first 4 padas as vs. 4, then tlic last 
two with the tiist two of our 5 as \.s. anti the lalter>h.ilf of «)iii 5 witli the former half 
of our (j as vs <1. making a v.s. 7 of only the two com Iiuling of our f), and number- 
ing the two remaining verses as S and •). Some of our iiiss (!' M W.F. 1 .) divitle and 
number in the same w.u to the middle of our \s (\ tlien making \s. 7 lonsist of 0 pada.s 
and end where our vs. 7 ends. l‘pp. has lor its verse a ililterent vi rsion of our c f; 

lor .It the beginning (with \tit after *:,*), for phahtutm w./. 

and, for our e, uimrarana lut: ir uUvn rtMintCiui \ he .\ruiki. siems to si an the 
.as n -r . 1 2 1 1 1 1 I2 = f*0, thougir c ami f are pn>perly to be m.nie regularlv 

tn\tubh !)V elision toS/.v 'Fhe comm. iemKr> in a liy -injui v ” (/////w/), and 

explain.^ it as eitlier that .arising (to Agni) fiom the iiiteiinission ol saircil lius in von- 
sequence of llie householder's ahsenr»‘ irom home, or vise tliat to tlic absentee from his 
long journev as expressed in h- — nitntt \as Itemg in tiie lil^l vase /•wiWf/jr;*,/, and in 
the second = j or ///;/* • < au^•.• us to endure ’ . pei hap^ tin* .second is, after all, 

the better. ^Ford, rather, ‘may barter make me abounding in fruit, le ‘may barter 
bring me its reward 'J 

5. With what riches I practise {car) bargaining, seeking riches with 
riches, ye gods -let that become more for me, not ; U Agni, put 
down (uhstd/i) with the oblation the gain-slaying god.s. 

Or, jKissildv, ■ the gods of the g.ain-slav er ’ as gen sing , the comm, takes 

it as accus pi , and /iminer and Ludwig .so ti.insl.uc) 'Hie oniis.Mon of tfcvAH would 
rectify the meter and better the sense, .uul Webri and (iidl |^and Hillebr.indtJ leave 
It out The Anukr. gives a correct definition of the verse as it stands. 

Ck With what riches I practise bargaining, seteking riches with riches, 
ye gods— therein let Indra assign me pleasure (.^ /v/V/), let Prajapati, 
Savitar, .^oma, Agni. 

P;)p has a b* tier version of a. yttt panetui prtUipanum carAmi ,• and it arranges C 
dilf^renilv : indto me in tmm <7 .* and reads hrkaspatts for ptiijAp- in d. HGS. 
(1. 15. I) a kindrcfl ver^e, with second p.ida nearly identical with ours, and rucam 
ia C. bj lit. ‘ briglitness,’ is variou.sly understood by the 

tran.slaturs : Zimmer, ** attractive power”; Ludwig, plca.surc Weber, “understand- 
ing , Grill, “consideration”; the comm. expLiins it hy sanfajanaprUim dhanapradi^ 
nend '\idnecchCim. Li'pp- J»eems to omit dhauena in b.J 


-iii. 1 6 


7. Unto thee with homage do wc, O priest Vai^vanara (‘ for all men '), 
give praise ; do thou watch over our progeny, our selves, our kine, our 

Two of our mss. (Bp.Kp. ; also ?) divide viiiqvanarah : tumah in b; 
P.M.W. give sdm for sd .at beginnin;; of c. This verse and the next seem to he addi- 
tions to the original h^mn. LLnder BR and Index I'erboritm join iipa with stu; 
correct Index under upa according:!). J 

8. livcry day may wc bring constantly for thee as for a standing 
horse, O Jatavedas ; rejoicing together with abundance of wealth, with 
food, may wc thy neighbors, O Agni, take no harm. 

The verse nearly accords with xix 55 1. below'; the second half is the same as 
there; the first half here is more unlike the parallel verse in other texts (VS. xi. 75 ; 
^13. vi. 6. 4'ii *1 b. iv.'; K. x\i 7; Ms. 11 7.7) than is xix 55 i ab — see under 
xix. 55* * » I*' tbc second half they var\ onb by putting d^ttc at the beginning of d; 
they make a more man.tgc.ible sentence In furnishing an object, ‘fodder,’ for 
bharentn. The comm renders ti^thate b\ ^vji^rhe vat tamanaya. 

Here, at the end of the thinl attuvaka, of 5 luinns and 38 verses, the old Anukr. 
says simply asttXu (but (3 K gi\e a\tatnn^at) 

. The fifth prapathaka .ilso cinls with tins hymn 

16. Morning invocation to various gods, especially Bhaga. 

[dfiatran — b f> /j.ts/ uf t ^•x/iudnafyam tratauHiam : 

/ if' w , 4 I f.nnA.J'txulti 

Found in IViipp. iv . with \cr\ few \aniints. It is a RV. hymn (\ii. 41), repeated 
also in VS. (xxxiv 3;'4o) .ind TU. (li S. lyrv) j^and Ml*, i 14. 1-7, in the same order 
as herej. It is used In K.iut; |_wiih h\mns and i\ i J, in the rite for generation 
of wisilom ( 10. 24). to .u t <\ w.ishing the on arising from sleep : also in certain 
ceremonies for “splemlor” (rir/n/f 12 1 5 . 136). wiin liMnns m. 69 and i\ i : and it 
is reckoned to the ‘:utt.asva t:aKas {12 10. note. 13 i.noie). In Vait (5. 17), \s. 6 
accompanies, in the a^nyad/teya. the hoist’s st.tting his foot on the boundary, and its 
latter h.ilf, an oblation in the tii/wf v/Jn 1/ s.icMhcc L\'.iit. S. 14 J. 

Translated- as R\' h)mn. In iiiassinann, 1 33(». and by Lutlwig, no 92; as AV. 
hymn, by.W'-'ber, x\m 251 , (iiiitith, 1 104 — Cl Wmtermtz, /hh/uettst ttxu'//, p 97, 
and notes. 

1. Early (ptit/dr) do we e.ill Agni, early Indra, early Mitra-and-Varuna, 
early the (two) Alvins, early lihaga, ITi.shan, Brahmanaspati, early Soma 
and Kudra do wc call. 

The other lexis, ami I’pp. with them, le-ad .\t the emi of d knvenia. 

2. The early-conciuering formidable Bhaga do wc call, the son of Aditi 
who is dis]ooscr {vtdfiafldr), to whom every one that thinks himself weak 
[or] strong, [to whom even the king J says : “ apportion [me] a portion.” 

Bhaksi'xn d might also be ist sing, mid of the jr-.iorisi, • m.iv I obtain’ (so Weber, 
etc.); the comm, expl.iins it both w.ns Ag.dn .dl the other texts including Ppp., 
have huvtma for havdtnahe in a ; the Anukr. ignores tht* metrical irregularity caused 
by our reading. |_Note the pl.iy on the god’s n.ime : ‘portion ’ is Mifgii.J 

iii. 16- 



3. O Bhaga, conductor, Bhaga, thou of true bestowal, Bhaga, help 
upward this prayer (tihi), giving to us ; O Bhaga, cause us to multiply 
with kinc, with horses, O Bhaga, with men, — rich in men may we be. 

In this* \ AV. and RV'. ajjree throughout; TB. reads ava with unlengthened 
hnal in b, and \’S tio with unlingualized nasal in c. 

4. Both now may we be fortunate (b/uii^iirant), and in the advance 
(? frafitvti) and in the middle of the days; and, O bounteous one, at the 
up-going of the sun, may we be in the favor of the gods. 

Aa to the (iitlicult word prapiti\\y see Bloomfield, J AOS. xvi. 24 ff. ; ‘‘up-going” is 
prohahly here ‘ out-going, di.sappearance ’ ; the comm, renders prapitv^ by silvtlbne/ 
his understanding ot titlitilu is lost out of the manuscript. ‘I'he other texts read tiJUd. 
Lf'or this \s., see especially p. 35 end, 36 top, of Bl's p.aper.J 

5. Let the god Bhaga himself be fortunate; through him may we be 
fortunate ; on thee here, Bhaga, do I call entire ; do thou, () Bhaga, be 
our forerunner here. 

RV. (with vs. and TB.) le.ives the final of temi unlcngthcned at beginning of b; 
and R\ . and VS. make the sense of c better by reading johavUt; .ill the three have 
at the end of a the voc. |_('omm to TB m.ikes johavtmt -ahvayati ! \ 

6. The dawns submit themselves ( ^ sam-nam) to the sacrifice {iidhvard)^ 
as Dadhikravan to the bright place ; hitherward lt‘t them convey for me 
Bhaga, acquirer of good things, as vigoroirs (idji/i) horses a chariot. 

All the other texts, including Ppp , read ntit instead of wi' at end of c. The comm, 
renders saw nawanta b\ sath j^an/iatttatfi, talN daii/nkfaraft .1 horse’s name, and • 
explains the action of the obscure p.ida b by sa yat/h} {UtUhtUa i;amanaya sawnaddha 
bhavatt. The Anukr. appears to sanction the ablircvialioii tathatn in d. 

7. Let excellent dawns, rich in horses, rich in kino, rich in heroes, 
always shine for us, yielding (dith) ghee, on all sides drunk of : do yc 
protect us ever with well-beings. 

TB read prApfnds at end of c; l*pp. has praTftul^ , the comm, explafhs by 
dpyayitas Milled up, made teeming.’ v>hich i.*» vi r\ pus.sibi\ to be prefcrretl. [^Delete 
the atcent-mark xivaXur go wait f J 

17. For successful agriculture. 

[ J'/jT Jw///,/ — nuvariiim. ;t/,h/fZ’j/y-ttfi ihim/ub/ifim t dru i^dyntri ; a, tnstuiA ; 

J f'athydponku ; 7. xnrdtputau^mh , S nurt ] 

Four \erses of this hymn are found together in P.iipp ii , in the onlcr 2, i, 5, 4 ; vs. 3 
ccurs in Paipp, xix , and there arc verses in Paipp. xii. and xix. resembling our vs. 6. 
>Iuch of it'i material appears in RV'. x. 101, iv. 57, and parts in \'S.,T.S.,TA., and 
iI.S.: see under the several vcrsc.s. 'I he hymn is used by Kau<;. (20. 1 ff.) in an extended 
cremony for success in plowing, the details of which, however, do not help the Inlcr- 
iretation of the verses; vs. 8 (ib 10) is specially quoted as accompanying an oblation 
0 Indra at the further end of a furrow, or of each one of three furrows ; the comm, also 
egards it as intended by ^undsfrdni at 106. 8, in the book of portents, in a chann against. 



--iii. 17 

the portent of mixed-up plows (whatever that may be*) ; vs. aj^ain, accompanies the 
marking out of the sacrificial hearth at 137. 19. In Vait. (28. 30-32). i, 3, and 2 b 
appeair in the agnuayana^ in the ceremony of plowing the saLrificial hearth, and \s. 7 
(9*27) I*'® cUturmAsya sacrifice, with an oblation to the ^Hnasfnl. 

'•^ii^Yenn awei Pfluge sich verstricken beiin Ackern,” sa\s Weber, Otnina^ p. 368. J 
Translated: Weber, xvii. 255, firiffith, i. 106. — Vs. 3 is elaborately rli.scussed by 
Roth, J^^stgruss an Bohthngk^ p. 95 If .See also Weber, Omina und Portenta, p. 37 *- 

I, The poets {kavi) harness the plows (sini), they extend severally 
the yokes — they the wise ones (t/kini), with desire of favor (?) toward 
the gods. 

The verse seems to imply a hidden comparison of the poct’.s work with the plow- 
man's. The other texts (KV x 101.4. VS. xii 67 ; TS. iv. 2. 55 ; MS. ii 7.12; 
K. xvi. II ; Kap. xxv. 3) re.i<l \umnaya (liHt K has -yuh . Kap. not noted), which the 
translation adopts, yau seeming .111 uninlelligmt coiruption of it; but the comm, gives 
a double expl.ination of yau, one as “di siring a hapin -making sacrifice*’ and qualifj- 
yajantHne understood, the other as from sufunaya (ya for rootya) and c[ualif\ing 
ballvardAu understood! He m ikcs %ua equivalent with laugala, and takes vt tanvate 
as -“put on the ovens .sliouhUrs ** , vt tan as heic applied seems imitated from its 
use of stringing a bow . in TH. 11. 5.8* ^ we h.avc even vi ianoti uram 

2. Harness yo the ph»\vs, extend the yokes; .scatter (raf) the seed 
here in the preparetl womb; may the bunch (?) of be burdened for 
us ; may the sickles draw in (d-r;/) the ripe [-rain] yet closer. 

In the first half-verse. KV. (il* 3) and VS (ib. OS) have tanudhvam for the 

rest (ibid ) agreeing wilii out Uvt (but K htoyont,) \ I‘pp. read.s instead of 
yonAu; ydnAn, of curse, involves a hnhlen of sowing with impregnation. 
In lhe'dilfi( uli and obsiuie sound h.ilf. the otlu r texts (not I‘pp ) give.c/ni ca for the 
unintelligible vu^}as. and Asat (with ae. ent app.iicntly nicint as .antithetic) for asaf. 
which is^'read in all the mss , but in our edition (iu>t in .'••-PP’s) emended to AuU; the 
ji,une tcvLs aivcnl (and our edition was emended to agice with them; SPP. 

accents the first .sviial.le, with all the mss ). SPP. re uls f/i//.//., with the m.ijority o 
his authorilivs ( oral re* itcis), .and w.tli the comm . among his mss. are found 
also and 1 ‘ait ol our ms.s also (K I ll.Op.) are noted 

as seeming to intend (.1;/-, and, .is Ppp supi,ort.s it by reading .umstis uibh-. the read- 
ing is .adopted in the tr.inslanon L^s also at viii 2. ij. The m.|.iuscnpts are 

not at all to be nlie<l on for distinguishing tw.v and [cf. m 30. 7 and notoj. le 
comm. cxpUins it hy A, np,Apakah .tamran. M^Asa^banis pbaiabha, asahiias ‘ heavy 
with fruit’ ; of vmlj he makes easv w.>rk by id.-nlilvmg it with on the authority 

of TB. iii. 8 . 104 : Annant vai ' In d, final!), the chut discordance o the ver.ions 
is at the end, where, for ,i varan (Ppp. ayuran:). R\ .\ .S.Kap. le.ul * ^ 

TS.M.S.K. A Put TS. h.\s .cr//r'/ (imstoad ot -loO- and some of our ms^. (1 .. I. .). 

with the majority of .SPP’s, combine u/,rnv.h or uJunyas. implving i/vna.r Ihe 
Anukr doc.s not heed that p..da d is, as it stand, .rga/. - ni his copy and 

in Index, seems to approve the .iccentlcss - Comm, has d .r.rr .rv, in d. J 

X Let the plow (IdngAla). bnce-poinlod. well-lying, with well- 
smoothed handle, turn up cow, sheep, an on-going chariot- 

frame, and a plump wench. 

111. 17- 



That is, apparently, let all these p^ood thinj;s come as the reward of successful agri- 
culture. The verse, not found in RV'., but occurring in V'S. (ib. 71 ; and thence quoted 
in the>tha Dh.irmasutra ii. 34 and explained in ii. 35), as well as in TS.MS.K. (as 
above), has many dithcult and questionable points. For />avfriUujt (Ppp. puts it before 
\’S. .accents pAvfravat^ and TS.MS.K. substitute pditfraimm; for suffmam' 
all have ‘very propitious’; the Pet. Lex. suggests sasimam ‘having a good 

parting’ i.e. of furrows, or ‘even-furrowed’; and R. refers to MB. i. 5. 2, sUndnam 
naydmi, Ppp. rc.ids sttvet^am^ which probably means su^evam. The impracticable 
somauit-sam (so in /tj</t/-te\t) is somapit-saru in V'S., MS , K., and Vasi.stha, and soma- 
pitsalam in Ppp. ; \'as. renders it *• provided with a handle for the drinker of soma,” 
impljin*; the division somapi-tsam ; Weber conjectures a noun uman ‘strap,* and 
emends to soma ( = sa-utna) saham^ *• with strap and handle.” But TS. reads sumatt- 
ctsatu, and this is adopted in the translation, mati bein^ t.iken not as from man but 
as the word found in matikr and its derivatives, and related with matya etc. (Weber 
also refers to this moaning and connection ) The comm, expl.iins su^lmam !)y karsa- 
kttsya stikhakaram^ without telling how he arrives at mm h a sense ; and somasatsaru 
(disreganling the /<ri/.i-division) as from tsaru^ cither “ a concealed going in the ground” 
(root tsat\ explained by chadma^atau')^ or else “ a kind of part to be held by the plow- 
man's hand’’; in cither c.ise “a producer of the soma-sacritice ” (i.e. soma-sa). For 
raiha-vihana ‘the frame that carries a chariot when not in use,* and prasthdva/j 
here virtually ‘with the chariot on it,’ see K in the an Hohtlim^k^ p. 95 It.; 

the comm, interprets as rathaidhanasamaf tham. V.S. reads at 

the beginning of c tad tid vapati^ ami TS. ud It kt uiti : Ppp. has dadata kr\ata ; 
VS.TS.,MS Ppp. give fore prapharvydm (Ppp. -ydm) m pivat hn V’.S IS. invut 

the order of d and ej ; the comm, h.vs ptraf fn: ( -• tt/nddm ) ; praphat 7 'f he explains 
as prathamavaydh kanyd. The first p.ida is defcitivc iinles.s wc resolve ia dtl-. 
|_Zimmcr, p. 236, refers to Sir H. M. Llliot's Mtmoui. ii. 341, tor a description of the 
I’cnjab plow.j 

4. Let Indra hold down the furrow ; let iTtshan defend it ; let it, rich 
in milk, yield to us each further summer. 

This verse is found only in RV. (iv. 57. 7), which reads dnu yai hatu for abkt raksatu ; 
Ppp. has mahyam of abhi. We the second half-verse above, as iii. 10. i c, d. 

5, Successfully (qundm) let the good plowshares apart the 
earth ; successfully let the plowmen follow the beasts of draft ; O (^una- 
sira, do ye (two), dripping (.’) with oblation, make the herbs rich in 
berries for this man. 

VS. (xii Cjt)) ami MS. (11.7. 12) h.avc the whole of thi.H verse; RV. (iv. 57. 8) and 
TS. (iv. 2. 5'), only the first two p.idas. For suphdlds in a, \'.S. (also our I.) has su 
p/iabts, and KV.TS. na/i p/ia/ils, both preferable readings; RV'.VS. have krsantu for 
tndantu. In b, TS. gives abhi for dnu (our P .M. have dbhfnu)’^ MS. has klndfo 
abhy t/u vdhdih ; RV VS., -fJ abhi yantu vdiuWi. In c, the comm, gives tosamdnd^ 
explaining it by insyantSu. In d, the mss. vary (as everywhere where the word occurs) 
between -pippalds and -pispalas ; alKiut half are for each ; VS. MS. end the ptida with 
kartand 'rw/. Ppp. has a version ; {unam kend^o anv etu vdhath funam 
phdlo vinadann ayatu bhtlmim : ^undslrd havisd yo yajdtrdi supippald osadhayas 
santu tasmdt. The comm, [^quoting YA.skaJ declares (,’uHdsfrdu to be V'dyu and ’Aditya 
(wind and sun); or else, he says, Qtna is god of happiness and Sfra of the plow* 


-iii. 1 8 


6 , * Successfully let the draft-animals, successfully the men, success- 
fully let the plow (Idiigala) plow; .successfully let the straps be bound; 
successfully do thou brandish the goad. 

This is RV. iv. 57.4, without variation; it is also found, with the two following 
verses, in TA. (vi. 6. 2, vss. 6-8), whieh re.ids nataK instead of ndras at end of a. Part 
of our mss. (P.M.W.K.) have ustratn in d. The comm, declares (,'una to he addressed 
in the last pada. Ppp. has in xii. vrtram ayaccha (^unam astrdm uJ nli^ay ah 

qunam tu tapyatilm phil/a^ ^nna»t vahatu larn^alam , and in xix. the same a. b [end- 
ing but, for c, d, ^unam luiha^ya \ uAlatyd '\traya jaht daksinam. 

7. O ^unasira, do ye (two) enjoy me here; what milk ye have made 
in heaven, therewith pour ye upon this [furrow]. 

‘Milk,’i.c. nourishing fluid. Weber implus at the end “earth" (instead of “fur- 
row”), which is perhaps to be preferred. KV. (i\ 57. 5) reads for a fth/dsirav tmatn 
vicaM ju~\ TA. (as above) the s.une, eveejit that it strange!) omits the verb, and thus 
reduces xXit trafubh p.ida to a both texts mark the principal p.lda-(li\ ision 

after b. The comm, t hanges all the three \eibs to 3d dual. The Anukr. forbids in a 
the resolution -sird thd. In oui edition the verse is numbered 6. instead of 7. 

S. O furrow, we reverence thee; be [turned] hitherward, O fortunate 
one, that thou mayest be well-willing to us, that thou mayest become of 
good fruit for us. 

RV. (iv. 57.6) inwrls the oidcr of a ami b. and both it and TA (as above) end 
C and d respective!)’ with and suphMa All the pad.vmss. have the 

blundering reading jw /Z/f//.;// in d '1 he Anukr peivcrsely refuses to make the reso- 
lution tu-d in a. 

9. With ghee, with honey {miidhu) [is] the furrow all anointed, 
approved {auu-man) by all the gods, by the Maruts ; do thou, O furrow, 
turn hither unto us with milk, rich in refreshment, swelling with fulness 
of ghee. 

The verse is found also in \’S. (\n 70). TS (iv. 2 5' ). and MS (ii 7. 12). V.S.MS. 
read uijya/dw for -ak/d in a , .ill make c .uid d exchange places, and at the beginning 
of C read for s,i nai , am! \'.S Ts put paxa^d in pl.icc of ji^krtarat in d, while 

MS. gives urjd bhdjt^iim mdJhumat pi»: - 

18. Against a rival wife : with a plant. 

— zJtj n/'j/yifu ^ 

This peculiarly Ath.iivan hvmn has found its w.iy also into the tenth book of the 
Rig-Veda (as x. 145, with exihange oi plaec between vss 3 and 4 . it is repeated in R,V. 
order at MP. i. i 5. i-b). (bilv three vcinos (oui 4. 2, 1, in this urderv are found in 
Pdipp. (vii.). K3u<;. uses it. among the wt mien's ntes, in a charm (30. 19-21 ) for getting 

the batter of a rival; vs. 6 a .md b .lecoinp.inv the puiti.ig of leaves under and upon 
the (rival's) bed. And the lomm (doubtless wionglv^ leg.uds v^s 5 and 6 to be 
intended by the pratika cjuoted in 3S 30, instead of xii 1.54, which has the 8.11116 

iil 18- 



Translated: as RV. hyfnn, Ludwig, ii. 554, no. 932; Grassmann, ii.415; at AV. 
hymn, Weber, v. 222 ; Zimmer, p. 307 ; Weber, xvii. 264 ; Griffith, i. 108; Bloomdeld, 
I 07 » 354 ; further, by Winternitz, Hockseitsrituell^ p. 98. 

1. I dig this herb, of plants the strongest, with which one drives off 
ipiidh) her rival ; with which one wins completely (sam-vid) her husband. 

R\’. reads in b the arcus, vlrudhant. For d, I’pp. gives krnute kei*alam patim. 
The comm, (with our Op.) osadhlm in a; he understands throughout the herb in 
question to be the (cf ii. 27.4), though Kaug. and the Anukr. speak only of bUnik^ 

parnt ‘ arrow leat * (not identified). 

2 . O thou of outstretched leaves, fortunate, god-quickened, powerful, 
do thou thrust away my rival, make my husband wholly mine. 

‘ Outs’tretLhcd,’ lit. .supine ; horizontal, with the face of the leaf upward. RV''. has 
dhatna for nuda in c. and the modern kum for krdht at the end Ppp. offers only the 
first half- verse, in this form • uttanapti^Milm sit/iiiMilMilM sahasvatfm ; MI*, 

also has sahamCiPu instead of devajuU. 

3. Since he has not named {grab) thy name, thou also stayest (ram) 
not with him as husband ; unto distant distance make we my rival go. 

This translation of the first lualf-versc follows closcK our text. RV. has a \ery ilif- 
ferent \crsion : nahy dvrJ nanut yrbbnhni tuS asmin famate jihie ‘.sime I n.ime not 
her (its.^) name, she also docs not sta) with (find j)le.isurt* in) tins person (people.').* 
Winternitz applauds and accepts his commcntatoi’s explan.ition of b* “nor finds she 
pleasure in me” (taking ayaw jittun in tin* muih liter .sense ol •• I ”). but it stems 
wholly unsatiNf.U'torv. The meter c.ills lor emendatii)n in a to /iiynUhi * 1 hace named,’ 
equivalent to the k\’. reading; and K m.ikes the ementlation. .iml n t iins the yif/Zr* of 
KV , rendering (as aiUlnsseil b\ the wnman using llie (.harm to the plant) “ I have not 
named [to hir] thy name ; and thou st.ivest (sia\edst) not with the person (bci dcr 
Person) ” The comm legaids the rival as .iddrtssed, anti (onvenientl) makes ramase 
— famasva “stay thou not with this my husband.” Weber lenders fantiue by 
•‘kosesl,’* tliou dallicst not. No satislactory solution of the dilficulty is vet found. 

4. Superior [am] I, O superior one ; superior, indeed, to them (f.) that 
are superior, below [is] she that is my rival ; lower [is] she than they (f.) 
that are lower. 

K\' has the better reading dtha for adhils in c, allowing c and d to be combined into 
one sentence, and the comm, gives correspondingly adka, l*pp. is more urdant 
and corrupt . uttara 'ham uttarafdiyo uttaro ed tldhambhyah: adhah mpaini ulmarthy 
adhartd adharabhyah R. conjectures in a utiar ahtlhamutttin\ for uttarA 'hAm aham- 
uttari Lr f. iii. 8. 3 J. The verse, even if st anned as 7 + 7 : 8 f 7 - 29, ought to be Called 

5. I am overpowering; art thou very powerful; we both, 
becoming full of power, will overpower my rival. 

The verse xix. 32. 5 is a variation on this. RV. reads Atka for Atho in b, and the 
older bhAtv] for bhiUvA in c. 

6. 1 have put on (abhi) for thee the overpowering one (f.) ; I have put 


to It&pa) for thee the very powerful one ; after me let thy mind run forth 
as a cow after her calf, run as water on its track. 

RV. reads upa for abhf in a, and has for b abhl tva 'dhAm sd/ifyasd. The applica- 
tion of a and b as made by K.iuq. (see above) would suit the prc]x>sitions as found in 
RV. decidedly better than as in our text, but much more appropriate is the use made 
by MP., elements of the root being sLerc-tly bound on the arms of the wife, with which 
she embraces the husb.ind below .md .ibov«* |_so that one arm is under him and the 
other over himj; then in ahhy adham is further implied (as elsewhere |_e g iii. 1 1.8J) 
the value of abhidhAnf^ the haltei or bridle with which a horse is controlled. The 
Anukr. docs nut sanction the resolution tna-am lu c. 

19. To help friends against enemies. 

[l^itsistba. ittfAtniim uta nintit,imasAini uhii "ndram. dnudubham' 

t, fathydhr halt : ji bhut Katt . 6 j tiv 6 -/' trtdupkakummati^arbhd 
, y ■: thidddiit ti , H ] 

The verses arc found in IMipp 111. (in the verse-order i, 2, 4, 3, 5, 7, 6. 8). The 
hymn is applied by Kfun;. (i t 22 -2 1) in a nt^ for gaining victory over a hostile army, 
and reckoned (14- note) to the apara/t/j j-atiii. Tin- V.'iil uses vs i in the 
cayatta (2S. 15) in connection with lifting the ukhya lire, and vss. b-S in a sattra 
sacrifice (34. 16, 17), with mounting a chniiot an«l discharging an airow 

Translated: John Muir Ou^^inal .Satiskut 2.S3 , Ludwig, p 234; Weber, 

xvii. 2fH^ ; (irittith. i 100 

1. Sharpcnctl uji is this incantation C brii/imajt) of mine ; sharpened up 
[my] heroism, strength; shaipc-ned up, Mctonoiis, be the unwasting 
authority {kuitm) [of them] of \Nhom I am the household priest (pttro/nta). 

Or brd/tman and X-w///.//// mav signitv ivspcctiwK tlu .\iid K^atriya quality 
or dignity of tlie and liis <. onsiiiuem \ 1 lie verse is found aNo in VS. (xi. Si ), 

TS. (iv. I. lo’ ), 1 (II 5 2. vs r ; ). .MS (11 7 7). ami K (wi. 7 * M'cbcr). The first 
two cif tlicsc agieo in all tin n le.ulinjs, tniiuiing tdjm in a and iijJram asiit in c, and 
reading in c. d //o/»/ , .ind 1 \ M'^. dilfor fr»>m them only by adding 

me before jtynu , Tpp iias me //w/v. but agrees with our te.\t in d The 

comm, moreover has jt\uu, and tlie ti.insl.iliini implic.s it , jiynuy c.ui only be regarded 
as .1 blunder. Inrther givcN 'Viri/ 'dim loi in i idnni in a. and iiuintd for biilnni 

in b. Our original c lia^ appaieiitlv gi)t itseh mixed up with vs ^ c. 

2. Up I sharpen the royalty of them, up their force, heroism, strength ; 
I hew [off] the arms of the foes with this oblation 

The transLition imjdies ememlalion »>f the 11 •///// i)f .ill the mss. .inci of both editions 
to fyJ///// it is obviouslv vailed for (siiggi steel tiist by tin* Pet. Lex), and the comm, 
reads ^ydmt; Ppp. pnibably intends it by I he latlei half-vcisc is toimd 

again below as \i. O5 2 c. d: its text is cvinfuse I heio in Ppp («?//// (ti/nintlih bJ/iii 
sam a^vAm a\vAn a/tam). The .\nuki ignores the revlundant s\ liable in a. 

3. Downward let them fall, let thorn becc'inic inferior, who shall fight 
against (prfatty-) our bounteous pation ysftn) \ 1 destroy the enemies by 
iny incantation ; I lead up our own men. 

Ppp. reads adhas pad- at the beginning, and indram for surim in b. The second 



iii. 19- 

half vcrse is found in VS. (xi.82C,d), TS. (iv. 1. 101). .and MS. (ii. 7.7), with the 
various readinj;s ksindmi and svdn; the comm, also gives kuHOMt, The comm, renders 
by kilryaktuvavtbhiJi^ajnam. The Anukr. should call tlie verse xnrilt prasMra- 
Piinktt, .since it properly scans as 1 1 + 1 1 :S-|-S = 38. 

4. Sharper than an a.x, also sharper than fire, sharper than Indra's 
thunderbolt — [they] of whom I am the household priest. 

Emendation to tmint 7 \ijrat would rectify the meter of c ; but the Anukr. apparently 
accepts the ledundancy there as bahincing the deficiency in a. 

5. 'Ihc weapons of them I sharpen up; their royalty having good 
heroes, I increase; be their authority unwasting, victorious; their intent 
let all the gods aid. 

The translation again (as in v.s. 2) implies emendation of o'J//// in a to which 

is read by Ppp. and by the cornm. Most of our mss. (all save t).Op.), .is of 
accent in b sitvtram^ and both editions have adopted the reading; but it ought, of 
course, to be suvtttiw, as .ilw.\ys elsewhere (and as the comm, here de.scribes the 
word). l*pp. has varMuiyaszui at end of b. anti its d is uj^ram tstlm itttam bahudhH 
vi\i’afut>A, The definition of the verse 2is tn<tubh is wanting in the Anukr. Lon- 
don ms J, doubtless by an error of the manuscripts, which arc confused at this point. 
LThe Berlin ms. does give it J 

6. Let their energies (vdjtna) be excitetl, O bounteous one ; 

let the noise of the conquering heroes ari.'sc ; let the noises, the clear 
(ketumant) halloos, go up severally ; let the divine Mariits, with Indra as 
their chief, go with the army. 

With the first two padas compare R\\ .x 103 foa. d ud dhtu say a wa^/itnuinn 
dyudhUni . . . tuiriUhanAm jdyatAm yantu ^i^houlh . .Someot our ms».( 1* M.W.O.Op.Kp. ), 
as of SPP’s, read in c u/ii/Ayas, but both e»liiions give •/«/• , the comm, has ii/bulaya\y 
and declares it an imitative word The omissum cither of ululayaK or of kctiuftAniat 
would make a pada of c, and that of dt' would ilo the s.ime for d ; as the 

verse stamis, the Anukr. scans it 1 1 1 1 rS ^ 8 :f> t-S - 52. Part of our ms.s. (I.O.Op.) 

agree with the comm, in ending this verse with ud iratdm, and throwing tiic two 
remaining p.idas into vs. 7. tt) the detriment of t!ie sense, as vv dl .as .ig.iinst the 
probable earlier form of the verse. P|>p. re.ids uddhtv Mintam ra/i/iant viljttiAbhv ad 
Z'CiiranAm jayatam eta i^houVi: prtha,; ^houl ulalaMi\ kitupnantu udftatAm; with 
e and f as in our text. 

7. Go forth, conquer, O men ; formidable be your arms {bd/ttt ) ; having 
sharp arrows, slay them of weak bows; having formidable weapons, hav- 
ing formidable arms {bdhH)^ [‘^lay] the weak ones. 

The first half- verse is RV. x. 103. 13 a, C (found in SV. ii. 1212; V.S. xvii.46), 
without variation; TS. (iv. 6 . 44) has the sam: two togelluT, but rcad.s ttpa pri 
'ia jAyatA nara sthird vah etc. Ppp. has the first h.ilf- verso (with prayatA and 7w), 
adding as .second half tndro 77/f ^arma yanhaty atiAdhryA yathA 'satA. 'Fhe verse 
is not viraj L7d-S : 11 + 12J, if the obviously proper re.solution.s are made. 

8 Iking let loose, fly thou away, O volley, thou that art sharpened up 


-iii. 20 


by incantation ; conquer the enemies; go forth; sir y of them each best 
one ; let no one soever of them yonder be released. 

PSdas a-C and e arc K\ . vi. 75. 16, ;i \ersc founrl also in a number of other texts : 
SV. ii. 1213 ; VS. xvii.4s ; TS. iv. 6 , Tli. in. 7 6m ; Ap(;s. iii. 14.3. RV.SV.VS. 

agree throughout, h.aving fur at beginning of c, and, for d, via 'irusam ktitii 

cand c chisah ; t!ic others h.i\e tins d, cpl the\ put euim in place of ainisam j 
they also give for piuiya\iui at end of c, and TS. has the nom. winch is 

better, at end of b, while 1 B .ind Ap<^, S .dter ti> dvasr^tak ptira pata i^ard (for 
bTdhMtiSiiM^iitih. Ourd i-k fuunfl again as xi 10 21 b; our e, as viii. 8. 19 d; xi. 9 20 d; 
10. IQd. 1 he presence of m this \eise gives it a kind of right to stand as 

part of the hjnin. of which jnw-p/ is the unii\ing word: vss. 6 .and 7 arc prob.ably 
later additions. In Bpp , \ss. s, wuli K\* \ 103 lo. form a piece b\ themseKes; 
vs. 8 ends with ptii piitiytiwtt niiii\.im kaoi laiut *i (nc.ail\ a's K\^.y Correct 

the accent-mark in d so .is lu n ad id/,iw \iram 

20. To Agni and other gods: for various blessings. 

[ I liji ;///.!. — f/.| uti m tut* U\Am iinu'^tuHuitn . 6 pathytlpiinUi ; 

Excepting the last mi*.', inc hvjnn is founil in iTiipj). iii. (in the verse-order 

l-3« 7» 4* 5* ‘D It nicl :d« > (\s> 2-7) a whole R\'. h\ inn (x. 141 ), with a single 

RV. \«.ise (in 29 10) piei‘.\e-l ind unU tiie hist two \ersLS occur nowhere else. It 
is usci! in K.un;. (is mi in the tun tikaf man, with an offering of lice mixed with 
pebbles; .\ (4;' 1 1 ), in ti’c rite «>i i’m reinu\.il ol t’ne* s.icnheial lire, with transfer of 
it to the lire-sin ks >it !•» om \ n If ag iin ( |i .S). with v. 7 .ind \n. i, in a rite for sul- 
(ess in winning w«.iltli. and llie iMinin <lnecis \s 4 to ue used in the sava sacrifices 
{liy anavd hnt >>: ta'a .atuta dtM\,ltt dh:a\ct) In \ ait . \s. i appears in the 

ai;tit\/ot/:ii sa< niiee 14), ami agiin in the yat: awt'tf/ia (38 14) with the same use 
as in K.iui;. 40 11, and iKo 1 1 the a^nti f>uina (28.25), with the Iwing of the 
pti/ya brUks ; furthii, \t.ises 2 4 and 7 and S in the ai^ntcayana (29.19): \s. 4 a. b 

in the ttyttt\ft>ma ^13 Ho. .is tin »;<//. r ./r, ;/ tolluws the lire and soma: \s. 5 in the 

s.ime (23.20), with i eit.i n e>IUiiw2s, a. id \s oil the same (19 2), with ^ y^raha to 
Indra and \ a>u 

TMiislated . Webei. w n 272, Ciiiiiiih. i 111 — See Weber. Bu liner Sfi„ 1892, 
P- 707. 

I. This is thy scason.iblc womb ( j’fb//). whence born thou didst shine ; 
knowing it, O Ai;ni, ihou . then increase our wealth. 

The is found in lupiunn.s oiltei test-* l esnks l\\ . (iii. 29 10), in \ S. 
(iii.14 ct al.), 'I’S. (I. ; 5-eial ). IB (12 r it al ), (i 5 i ctah), K. (vi.Qelal.), 
Kap. (i. 16 et al ). .1 B (i. oi ) m neailv .dl ntcumng lepe.itedli. \'S TS.TB JB. differ 
from our version onI\ bv le.iding «r/'/ i It>r diif'a .it beginning of d . l*pp- and the comm, 
have atha; MS.K. substitute but KV g;\c*» fuithe: si.fa for rona in c, and 

for rayfm in d. 1 he comm, in .iMOid.ince with the ritual uses of the verse, 
declares eiydin at the beginning to Mgnif\ either the liie-slick or the sacriliccr himself. 

^ 2. O Agni, speak unto us here ; be turned toward us with good-will ; 
bestow upon us, O lonl of the people (t’*/t) ; giver of riches art thou to us. 

RV. X. 141 begins with this verse, and it is found also in \’S. (ix. 28), T.S. (i. 7 - lo^, 

ii'l. 20- 


122 . 

MS. (i. if. 4 ), and K. (xiv. 2 ). RV.V'S.MS.K. have prd no y- in €« and, for vi^dm 
pate, RV.MS.K* read vi^as pate^ TS. bhuvas and VS. saAasrajH; VS. goes on 
with iVifm hi tihanadd dsi for d; VS.TS. further have pnUi for praiydh in b. Ppp. 
combines in d dhanadd V/. 

3. Let Aryaman bestow upon us, let Bhaga, let Brihaspati, let the god- 
desses ; let the divine Sunrta also assign wealth to me. 

Found also in the other texts (RV. x. 141.2; VS. ix. 29; the rest as above; and 
Kap. 29. 2). All of these, excepting TS., le.we no in a .again unlingualized ; VS.K. sub- 
stitute pusd for hhd^as in b, and omit c ; the others have devds instead of devis; for d, 
K\'. gives rdvd dtvi daddiu nah^ while the others v.iry from this only by prd vdk for 
rdyAs. By Sunrta (lit. * pleasantness, jollity ') the comm, understands Sarasvati to be 

4. King Soma [and] Agni we call to aid with [our] songs ; [also] 
Aditya, Vishnu, Surya, and the priest {brahman) Brihaspati. 

Found in KV. (x 141. 3), SV. (, VS. (ix 26). and TS.MS.K. (.as .iIjovc). The 
only van.\nt in K\'. is the preferable ddttydn in c : it is read also by the other texts 
except .SV K. ; but SWT.S.MS.K. give rJru/mm ft>r in a, and they and V.S. 

have itnv d rabhdntahe for yifbhlr haiCimahc in b. The comm, takes bhihmdnani in 
d as *• rrajapaii, creator of the go<ls.’* 

5. Do thou, O Agni, with the fires {a^^ni), increase our worship {bnih- 
man) and sacrifice ; do thou, O god. stir us up to give, unto giving wealth. 

The second half-veisc of doubtful mcanini; — piTh.ips ‘ im})i 1 to us wealth for giv- 
ing ’etc. — being evidently corrupted from the belter ti \l (»f I<\' (x 141 0; .SV. 
n S55), which rcatls in c devAtataye for drva ddtave^ and in d rAyAt fur rayint ; c\en 
Ppp. has divatdtayi. The comm. I1.1.S danave (rendering it •• to the saciilh er who luis 
given oblations ”) for ddtavc^ also nodaya fur *.odaya. 

6. Indra-and-Vayu, both of them here, we call here with good call, that 
to us even every man may be well-willing in intercourse, and may become 
desirous of giving to us. 

Found also (except the hist pada, which e\en Ppp. repudiates) in KV. (x. 141. 4), 
VS. (xxxiih S6), and MS K (.is above). For nbhdv ihA m a, K\'. reads brhaspAttm^ 
and the other texts susamdri^A, For d, \'S. has atuimivAh uim^Ame for sAm^atydm^ 
and MS. the sam.: without anamlvA\ : TS. (in iv. 5 M) .a nearly corresponding 
h.df-\erso: I'dM/? nah sArvam fj jAyad ayak^mAm sunt And Auit. Ppp. omits a. per- 
hap-* by an oversight. The comm, t.ikes snhAi A in b as for sn/tAvdit^ which is perhaps 
better In our edition, the word is misprinted snsAr-. 

7. Do thou stir up Aryaman, Brihaspati, Indra, unto giving; [also] 
Vata (wind), Vishnu, Sarasvati, and the vigorous (rajin) Savitar. 

Found aKo in KV. (x. 141.5), V.S. (ix. 27), and TS..MS.K. (.is above). All save 
R\' read vdiam instead of rdtnni in c, and so docs the comm. ; K. puts vdeam after 
Z'ifnunt |_and for a it has our vs. 4 aj. 


8. In the (prasavd) of vigor now have we come into 

being, and all these beings within. Both let him, foreknowing, cause him 

*^3 'I RANSLATION and notes, book hi. -iii. 21 

to give who is unwilling to give, and do thou confirm to us wealth having 
all heroes. 

The verse seems to Iiave no real connection \uth what precedes and follows, nor do 
its two halves belon^r tOKether. ' 11 , e> .,re ,n other texts, VS. (ix. 25 and 24) and TS. 
(ini. 7. 10'), parts of two different vuses, in a group of three, all beginning with 
vJljasj^a followed hy and all alike ol obs. ure and questionable interpretation, 
and belonging to the so (.dled 'i^iijapuMuimydnt^ which foim a principal ilement in the 
Vitjapeya sacrifice (see Welier's note on this veise [also his essay Ueber den Vajapeya, 
Berliner Sb., 1892, p. 797 J). Instead of ;/// in a, I S and MS K (as above), as also 
Ppp., have the nearly eciuivalent . and all (save I*p], ) rearl a babhuvn instead of 
sAtk bdbhavuna at end of a. and sariuifas instead of an/,fr at end of b, omitting the 
meter-disturbing //Af at biginning of c: \ S.K. read in c dtipayatt for -/// ; and all save 
K. give the preferable yai/tuiu at the cml (the comm has_v//<i //^//) ; then \’.S. gives sd no 
myint in d, an<I K. has .1 peculiar d somo ruyim ^iihiivtrmn ni yittn\at. Epp is defec- 
tive in parts of this and the next; it leads at tin* end of c pt ajCindm. Pada a is 
the only one that has a character. L'f.S. has uirvnvirdm J 

9. Let the five directions yield (duh) to me, let the wide ones yield 
according to their strength ; may I obtain all my designs, with mind and 

All the /a</4j-mss. duide and accent ptd dptyam, but SPP emends to prd dpeyatn 
[_see Sa$tsk, itratn j}85oJ, the comm rL.ids dptyam 'Fhe comm, declares ufvis to (N 
designate heaven and earth, d.i\ and niijht, and waters and herl)s. 

10. A kinc-winmng voice may I .speak ; with splendor do thou arise 
upon me ; let Vayu (wind) enclose {d^rudh) on all sides ; let Tvashtar assign 
to me abundance. 

Several of our mss (1* M W 0 Kp ) lead tudham in c. The comm, explains a 
rundhdm by pmniiftn,nid **: / notu 

'rhis fourtli mntains 5 Inmns. with 40 xcises, and the quotation from the 

old Anukr. is simpl\ c/a,./. 

21. With oblation to the various forms of fire or Agni. 

[^l\isidha — 1/'/, //!/.«.'«/•/»«.' r j 

0 J •: If f ud , «y. /t» tjuudubh (o ] 

The whole of the h\nin i". lound in P.iipp , \s.«> i-t) in ni , \s. 10 in xii. 'fhe material is 
used by Kant;, in a numb«.r of rites, it is leLkoned (o i . the comm, sajs, only \s.s. 

1-7) to the brhaihdnti yana . U appeals 111 the charm .igainst the lmI ir.riucnce of the 
fiesh-e.iting fire (43 i<> 21 ; ai cording to the comm , \ss 1-7 are (pioted in 16, and the 
whole hymn in 20); again, in the i.stablishment of the house-fire (72.13; vss. 1-7, 
comm.); again, in the funeral iiles (.'<2 25). o’a the third da\ aftei cremation, with obla- 
tion to the relics; once more, in tlu* e\piator\ ceremony (123 i). when birds or other 
creature.*! h.ave meddled with s.i»rifitial obie^ts. Moieoxer, \s. S» (the comm, saxs, 
vss. 8-10). with other pas.sagcs from \ii 2. in a rite of appc.isement in the house-fire 
ceremony (71. 8). In Vait , vss. 1-7 are used in the iit^ntAhwia (16.16) on occasion 
of the soma becoming spilt; and \s. 7 in the sakamcd/ia part of the alturmiksya 
lacrifice ^9. 1 7 J. 

Translated : Weber, xvii. 277 ; Griffith, i. 1 13 : vss. i -7 also by Ludwig, p. 325. 

111 . 21 - 



1. The fires that are within the waters, that are in Vr^ra, that arc in 
man, that arc in stones, the one that hath entered the herbs, the forest- 
trees — to those fires be this oblation made. 

\’crscs 1-4 are found also in MS. (ii. 13. 13) and in K. (xl. 3) ; both texts read j/rfx 
for IV thioii:,di the first h.df-veisc, and for MS. begins apsv ^nttir 

and K. n> itiinfr antdr; K. further has T7f:’J for dsadhtr yd 

I'pp. re.uU r<» ap^v aniar yo rrtte antit*' yah pumse yo *{mani: yo 
vii’t^a tua-, and combines in d Ubhya I'ait ol the mss. (including our r..M.W.I.) 

comliiiKJ T /:v{ * tUadh’ in c, and both editions have adopted that reading — doubtless 
rough . .since the Prat, prescribes no such iiregulaiity, nor i.s it elsewhere found to 
occur with o^aJhi. The comm, expl.iins what ditfeient ■•files" are intended: the 
vHdazui etc. in the waters: in the cloinl (by Nir. ii. U>) or else in the body of the 
Asura X'jtra: in man, those of digestion; in stones, those in the suryakdnta etc. 
(sparkling jewels) ; those that make herbs etc. ripen theii fruits. Weber regards the 
Stones that strike fire as intended, which seems more probable. The division of the* 
\erse by the Anukr., 8 r 1 1 *fi -r 1 1, is not to be approved. |_l*.'idas a anti b rather as 
padas c andd are in order. 12- ii. — In c, correct to ili'ii't^aiiuidhlr, as .MS. 


2. [The fire] that is within soma, that i.s within the kine, that is 

cnteretl into the birds, into the wild beasts that entered into 

bipeds, into quadrupeds — to those fires be this oblation made. 

M.S. and K. begin b with vAvAmt yA Ppp with znfo rayasi. The 

comm, takes the kine in a as representing the domestic animals in general, the fire 
being that which makes their milk cookul instead of raw. as often alludeil to. .SPP. 
follows the mss in reading in b vAyahsu, our alteration to the equivalent vAya^su 
was needless The verse (lo-^-ii i3-rii-4^) is bhunj, but also irregular enough. b and d are in order. c«ich a tmtubh , and c, if we throw out the second yAs^ 
is a good jaya/f, a is 

3 He who, a god. ^ocs in the same chariot with Indra, he that 
belongs to all men {vdi^vtiPiard) and to all gods (.^), whom, very powerful 
in fights, I call loudly on — to those fires be this oblation made. 

MS an<^ K ln\c fora ivW ’Wn/fo; tAlham ^amfuihhuz'ur, and I'pp. p.irlly agrees 
with them, reading _iv 'ndnna \ar,itham uimhabhuz\i. In b. the translation ventures 
to follow J’pp’s reading vi\vadi’zyas inst'Md of because of its so obvious 

preferabilil) in the connection; -daryas is fjuite in place in \s. 9, an»l may perhaps 
h.ive blunrlLTed from thirc into thi> \crse; but .MS and K. have -darvAi: they further 
exchange the pl.ices of our 3 c and 4 C. IMda b is a very poor tnsfubh, though capable 
of being read into 1 1 svllables |_read utA va ^J. 

4. He who is the all-eating goil, and whom they call Desire {kdtua), 
whom they call giver, receiving one, who is wise, mighty, encompassing, 
unharmable — to fires be this oblation made. 

.M.S. begins the verse with vi^vadam a\iHim ; K., with hutadam a^^nim ; of b, both 
spoil the mettr by reading praltj'rahfttiram ; M.S. begins c with d/ilro yAh ; K’s C Is 
corrupt. I’pp. rcarls Aha for Ahu^ in a (not in b also). The comm, simply 
pratigrhnAntani by ptatigrahUaram ; the reference is probably to the offerings which 



-iii. 21 

Agni receives in eirdcr to give them to the various gods. In our edition, an accent- 
mark belonging under J of fl/i/is in a has slipped aside to the left. 

5. Thou on whom as priest ihotar) agreed with their mind the thirteen 
kinds of beings the five races of men (mdnava ) : to the splen- 

dor-bestowingi glorious one, rich in pleasantness — to those fires be this 
oblation made. 

The unusual and ohbcurc nunihei “thirteen** here sedures the comm, into declaring 
first that signifits iniuith, * coming bhuvana and then the 

f$tiinavAs are the seasons ' lint he further m.iki's the laltci to lie the four castes, \Mth 
the ntstldiis as fifth. ;iik1 tiie fornur th«* tliiric< n sons, \*i(j'\ etc , of a great sage 
named bhitvanA ( 1 »*« .luse of i‘ti man nuiui'ana in Aik \iii 21 S i i ). I'pp- 
reads bhitvand for bhiUi-.anU I li.* Anukr does not Ived that the last j.ada is tndubh. 

• 6. To him whose food is o\cn, whose food is cow's, to the soma-backed, 

the pious: to those ol whom the one for all men ivdic id fic7ni-) is chief — 
to those fires he this ohkttion made 

The first half-\» rse is K\ \i,i ;3 1 1 a b (aNo found, witiiout \anant. in TS 1 3. 14^). 
MS. (ii. 13. n) i‘ e \\lin!c as p'ldas a. b. d. e, inteijjosing as c the jiafla 

vidhtnia \nii\( ) \di" \ * -nK thi • ani/n in KV TS. The meter (S — S b-- 1 1) 
is, as brhiitt. rathe 1 ;//. * t ih n ,i i 

7. They who rnoMj on al«»ng the- .sky, the earth, the atmosphere, along 
the lightning; who are within liie (|uaiters, who within the wind — to 
those fires be this ohl ition mad.e. 

Our l‘ M W ii id 1 . b ■ i.M /A/'/., a’ld r M \V I • ii I the‘ with -ct/r.;//. SPP. 

reg.iril.H tiu' rxpoMiinM ..1 i r unnm .is imjtlMng fiat ihv latfi takes anu in b as an 
indi'pcndcnt w«’id ana In I’n* ih linition of the* .\Muki . ://(?/ .ipi>cars to be 

u.sfd a.s inc.inn 4 • a p itl.i lU 1 s\lia'tles ‘ ( 1 1 - 10 io-;i-42). |_Ke‘ id it < 7 .//<• 'J 

The* three iiinaini!V4 \.isi>.il ilie h\mn an* plainh ineici>eniU*iit of what precedes, 
com I ruing ilii niches lisu- ii\ with the a]>peasenmt of an ill-omened fire: hut the 
comhinaiion ol the two jiaii-H .1:1 old one, lui'ig loiind .ilso in I’pp. Ihc eKCtion cif 
the e\idenll\ p.tti hed-fvel'u 1 ns <• inouKI ie«!uee the fiisi pail |_\ss 1-7J to tlie norm 
of tlii.s hook. 

8. Gold-handed Savitai, Indra, l^rihaspati, Vanina, Mitra, Agni, all the 
gods, the Angirases, do we e'all , let them appease {^tun) this flesh-eating 

Ppp. inverts tlie ordir oi a and b [^MU'n h is the \s. .it n. 1 o J I he comm, gives 
a double evplan.ition ol •• gold-h.ind.isl *' eithei "having gold m iii.s hand to give to his 
praisers," or * having .1 h.ind ot goh’ he aNo .lilow'* us to t.iKe* ii'^a^ either as 
accusative or a.s nominative, • wi- tlu \ngiiases 1 h.e Anukr. notes that c '^>^Ja^at\ 

9. Appeased is the, appo.ised the mcn-injuring lii e , so aNo 
the one that is of all condagrations. him. the flesh-eating, h.ive I appeased. 

Ppp. has athfl /mru^anMnan loi b. and. this time : m c. 1 he anu^fidh 

is rather vifdj than uupt. 

10. The mountains that arc soma-backed, the waters that lie supine, 

iii. 21 - BOOK in. THE ATHARVA-VEDA-SAWHITA. i'26 

^thewind, Parjanya, then also Agni — these have appeased the flesh-eating 

All our mss s:ivc one (O.), and all SPP's save two or three that follow the comm., 
read (.ipparently by infection from the end of vs. 9) at the end ; both editions 

emend to -wtiu, which is the reading of the comm. |_Ppp. has the vs. in vii. (as noted 
above), and combines -prsthik "pa in a-b and patjanya "d in c. — For soma-backed,'* 
see llillebrandt, /V</. MythoL i.Cof.J 

22. To the gods: for splendor (vdreas). 

[/'xj/jMj . — vattasyam hlrkaspiitYtim uta ilnuitubham /. vtrJf trisiukk ; 

J S J'- yardnuytub : 4 J d‘ 6-/ 

Found also (except \s. 6) in Paipp. iii. Is leckoncd to the varcasya gana 
(Kaui;. 12.10, note), and used in a charm for splendor (13. i). with binding on an 
amulet ot ivory. The comm, quotes the hymn aUo as employed by the Nak.s. K. in ^ 
inakd^dntt called brdhmt\ for attainment of ^/ (;////;</ // splendor ; and by Pari^. iv. 1, in 
the daily morntiu; consecration of an elephant for a king. 

Translated. Ludwig, p. 461 : Weber, wii. 2tS2 . (initith, i 115. 

1. Let elephant-splendor, great glory, spread itself, which came into 

being from Aditi‘s body; that same have all together given to me — all 
the gods, Aditi, in unison. 17. 3 n J 

.\ number of the mss (including our HpOp) read adttyds Lac»inl'J in b, and 
several of ours follow it with r.f/// instead of ydt, Ppp rectilies the meter ot d by 
ing J Fniendation in a h hadyiH^as woulil be acceptable. (,'ll. (iii. 1.3.4; 

perhaps on the baNts of b^) has a legend ot tlie prt)duLtion of the elephant from some- 
tiling born of .Xditi (see K in ///./ Siud \n 30- ) 1 lie comm, explains //',/Mi//,;/;/ in 

a b\ i/i/z/dj// prathitam priikhydtam bhavatu * be proclaimed as belonging to us,’ In 
our edition, an actent-m.irk has dropjied out from under the la of biVdiuva .An irregubir 
verse, scanned by the Anukr. as 12-^10.10 r 10-42. but convertible into 45 svllables 
b\ resolving tanu-asy sdru-e^ {Mi which onlv the tlist is unobjet tion.ible). Llf we in d, the vs is in order ( 1 2 - 1 1 . ? I 1 1 ), exi ept in c {tdd ft sd^vc *).\ 

2 . Let both Mitra and Vanina, Indra and Riidra, [each] take notice ; 
the all-nourishing gods — let them anoint me with splendor. 

All the mss.» read cetatut at end of b, and so docs Ppp . and our edition has it ; but 
bPP. follows the comm, ami substitutes letatu : .SV’. 1 154 has wmah pu^fi la cetatuh; 
the translation implies cetatu, the other being probably a false form, generated under 
sties-, of the ditfii ult construction of a singular verb with the. preceding subjects. 
Weber takes it as ciVu/z/r. 3d peif of root <<//“ frighten into submission” The 
Anukr lakes no notice of the defieiencv of a sv liable in a. * LSo W’s two drafts ; but his 
collations note P.M.W. as re.iding (etutak (’) and Op. a.s re.iding fetatu J 

3 With what splendor the elephant came into being, with what the 
king among men (mafutjya)^ among waters, with what the gods in the 
beginning went to godhood — with that splendor do thou, O Agni, now 
make me splendid. 

Apsii, in b, is an impertinent intrusion .as regards both sense and meter; it is wanting 
in Ppp. In c all the mss. give tlyam {samh.^ dyam)\ our edition makes the necessary 



emendation to iyan, and ao docs SI«P. in liis /^rfa-text ; but in samhita (perhaps by an * 
oversight) he reads ayan^ unacccnte<l ; the comm, has llyan (.accent doubtful) : cf. ^ 
iv. 14 . 1 C, where the mss. af^ain read tlyam for ay an in the same plirasc. I'pp. has a 
very different second lialf-verse : ,le,-a jyoU^a Jyam udayan Una md -gne varcasd 
saik srje 'ha. 1 he comm, makes afitu in b mean eitlier •• [creatures] in tlie waters,” or 
else •‘[Vakshas, (:andh.arva.s, etc.] in the aimosiihere.” The metrical definition of the 
Anukr. is mechanically correct L 3 J- = -5oJ if we count 13 syllables in b land combine 
varcasHfiPie \ ! 

4. What great splendor becomes thine, O jatavedas, from the offering ; 
how great splendor there is of the sun, and of the dsura-\\V.ii, elephant — 
so great splendor let the (two) At^vins, lotus-wreathed, assign unto me. 

All the mss. read in b hhiii'att.^ and .SPP. accordingly adopts it in his edition ; ours 
makes the necessary correction to hhAvati. The comm reads ahutey vocative, at end 
of b; I’pp. has instead ahutam , and then .adds to it, as second half-verse, our 3 d, e 
(with abhya for adyAy and krdht for kr>tu)y putting also the whole Li.e. our 4 a, b + 3 d, 
ej before our vs. 3 ; and ihcMi it gives the remainder (c-f ) of our vs. 4 here, with krnutam 
for i dhattAnty and in c yavad luirni/t f//r- 

5. As far as the four directions, as far as the eye reaches {sam-a^)^ let 
so great force (iudnyd) come together, that elephant-splendor, ih me. 

The comm, reads sam etu in c 

6. Since the elephant has become the superior (aiist/uivant) of the com- 
fortable (^sNsdt/) wild beasts, with his fortune [andj splendor do I pour 
(su) upon myself. 

That is, • 1 shed it ujMin me. cover myself with it.’ The comm, understands the 
somewhat c|uesti«mal»le u/wf/Z ne.\rl\ .is lure tiansLited, “living .it their pleasure in the’’; .ind att^ as ptissessing .superiority either of .strength or of position. 

Wchcr entitles the Inmti, without good reason, “taming of a wild elephant.” 

23. For fecundity. 

\lirahman. — ^AnAfiifniisam uta \ontticxatyam Anu'^tubham y $staJbhun^brhJtt : 

6 ii ibt h^zti ] 

Found in IMipp. in. I'sed In Kam; in the chajiters of w'OP'en’s rites, in a charm 
(35*3) to proeiiic the coiueption of male olfspimg, with breaking an .arrow over the 
mother's licad etc. 

. Transhited: Weber, v 223; Ludwig, p 477; Zimmer, p. 319; Weber, xvii. 2S5 ; 
Griffith, i. iiO; Bloomiield, 350. 

1. By wiiat thou hast become barren (xv/mV), that wc make disappear 
from thee ; that now we set down elsewhere, far away from (cr/c/) thee. 

VehAt is perhaps more Mrii th •h.ihle to .ibort’. the comm, gives the word here 
either sense. Ppp. is defective, giving only the initi.1l words of \ss. i and 2. 

2. Unto thy womb let a fcrlus come, a male one, a.s an arrow to a 
quiver ; let a hero be born unto thee here, a ten-months’ son. 

This verse and the two following wcur in (i. ic^. 6), and this one without 

iii. 23- 



variant. Also this one in MT. |^i. 12. 9J (Winternitz, p. 94), and in an appendix to AGS. 
i. 13.6 (Sten/ler. p. 48), with yonim garbkas in a (and AGS. reads J/Vm), and 
omitting atra in c ; and further in HGS. (i. 25. i), like MB. in a, but retaining atra. ‘ 

3. Give birth to a male, a son ; after him let a mitlc be born ; mayest 
thou be mother of sons, of those born and whom thou shalt bear. 

All the mss. save one or two (including our E.) read at the end^rf/z/y both editions 
m.ake the necesa.irY emendation to which the comm, also gives. At beginning of 
b, Bpp. reads tvam^ as do also the comm, and a couple of .SBB’s mss.; and Bpp. ends 
withydZ/M:.#//// ca. MB. (i. 4. oc, d) has the first half-verse, reading vinda^va for 
jiinavd : and MP. (as above) |_i. 13. 2 J also, with pumAns U putrd rnlri for a. And 
(,'C‘iS. (as above) has our a, b, with, for c, d, f/stlw tniita bhavtivast jatiinthh janaydnsi 
m |_the end corrupt, as in Ppp-J. 

4. And what excellent seeds the bulls generate, with them do thou 
acquire (vid) a son ; become thou a productive milch-cow. 

(.vs .above) has for b purusil jdnnyanti nah : it rectifies the meter of c by read- 
ing /Mis t- for Ai/j /- (and it h.'is janaya for vinddM\i)\ in d, it gives suprasASs which 
is better than our sd pr-, MP. (as above) [_i. 13. 3 J repeats our verse very closely, only 
with dds for cd in b, and putrAn in C; and it h.i.s, just btfote, the line tAni bhddnhit 
bfjAny ruibhil jdnayantn mAu. A verse in llti.S. (.vs above) is quite similar : yAnt pra- 
bhuni viryAny r^dbhA jdndvdntu ndh : (An tx'am ydfbhinl bhdvd j>d /AydtAm vltdtdmab 
svAnAm ; and it otters a little later sA prdsAr dbenityA bhd7‘d Our reading tAii f:\fw 
in c is assured by Pr.vt. ii. 84; the resolution Zw-tf/// makes the meter correct. 

5. I perform for thee the [ceremony] of Piajapati ; let a fa-tus come to 
thy womb ; acquire thou a .son, O woman, who shall be weal for thee ; 
weal also for him do thou become. 

The accent of b/iAvd at the end is anomalous. HG.S. (as above) h.vs the first h.ilf- 
verse Land MP., .it i 13. i, concordanlly J ; it reads Jtdrowt at the beginning, and in b 
pulit yddi/fi after this latter Ppp. does The comm, understand.'! prAjA- 
pdtyam as alx)ve translated; other renderings arc po.ssible ( /eugungswerk,” 
Weber ; “ /eugungsf.ihigkcit,*' Zimmer). 'I'lie mctric.d definition of the verse 

(8 + 8:8 + 5 + 8 = 37) is not good save mechanically. 

6. The plants of which heaven has been the father, earth the mother, 
ocean the root — let those herbs of the gods {daiva) favor thee, in order 
to acquisition of a son. 

The first half-verse is found again later, as viii. 7. 2 c, d ; in both places, part of the 
mss. read dyAus p- (here only our O., with half of SPP’s) ; and that appears to be 
required by Prat. ii. 74, although the looser relation of the two words favors in a case 
like this tlie reading dyAuh, which both editions present. Ppp. has an independent 
version : yAsAtit ptlA parjanyo bhumir mAtd babhAva: with d€Vls in c (this the comm, 
also reads) and otadhfs in d. The verse is irregular, and capable of being variously 
read; and what the Anukr. means by its definition is obscure. 



-111. 24 

24. For abundance of grain. 

[Bhrgu. — saptariam. v&naspatyam uta pttljdpatyam. dnustub/iam 2. nicrtpathySpanktt^ 

tound (except vs. 7^ in f'.npp. v. I sed by KAui; (21. 1 ff ) in rites for the pros- 
perity of grain-crops, and reckoned i. note) ic» the pu^tika viantras. The comm, 
((/sclares it employed also in the pitrnudha ceremony (.S2.9), but doubtless by an error, 
the verse there tpiotcd bi'inj( xvni. 3 50 (ulm h has the same pratika). 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 26K ; Weber. \\i\ 2«6; (inflith, in;. 

1. Rich in milk [arc) the herbs, rich in milk my utterance (i^^as) ; 
accordingly, of them that are rich in milk I bring by thousands. 

The first half-verse occurs a^.iiti. a little^^ed, as x\iii 3 56 a, b; it is also 
RV'. X. 1 7. 14 a, b, etc. : see under win. 3 56. The comm, reads in d hhareyam for 
hhtirt 'ham, he understands •• lu insti ,id <jf “are” in a, b For second half-\er$e 
Ppp. has atho paya^vatCuH pit\a a ha) ami sahasf\^ah. 

2 . I know him that is rich m milk ; he hath made the grain much ; the 
god that is “collector” by name, him do we call, w'hichever is in the 
house of one who .sacrifices not 

That is, away fioni tlic scixnc of the* impious to that of us. the j»ious. A god ** col- 
lector'’ {uimkhf t-ian) is not knoun elsewhere Pp]» re.ids for a a/uim veda yathd 
paya^, aiul, m c e.yo ^rrdat ta: am \ a fa make -sr ij J v/7f m no he In our edition, 
an shpjxd from und« r da to und« 1 ve- at the beginning. It is the 
fourth pada llial is ;//*v 7 Lie id tarn /am J 

3. These five directions that there are, the five races (hrs(/) descended 

from Mann -may they bring fatness (sp/ni/i ) together here, as 

streams [bring) tlrift when it has rained. 

Or uadis might bt* nom sing; the comm of couise* t.ike*s it as pluial. <;iipam he 
underst.inds as •• a kiml ol ammils** ( pi auijd/an:) dur O t)p. h.i\c at the end 
-7‘#i/o7///. rpp. roads lot b mana:dih paiua yr \/avah (ef yrsti for kr^ti in ii. 13.3); 
and, for C, d. sa/i a^ t^amUiur mayobiiii: a w* i^apam natilt iva 

4. As a fountain of a hundred .streams, of a thousand streams, unex- 
hausted, so this grain of ours, in a thousand streams, unexhausted. 

The mctriral dvliru nes in a calks for a ch.ingc of re*.iding. and the usual correlation 
of evd in c Minge.sls_><////47 . and, as I’pp. reads ivi///a. the toinslation ventures to adopt 
It, as ut instead is hardl) belter than unmanageable Wt*bcr supplies aca , Ludwig, 
“ I open, as it were": the i omm sajs that ut means udbhavatiy and does not trouble 
himself about its construe lion with an aceus.iti\c : we ma> lake the verse as a virtual 
continuatior. of vs. 3, and the nouns as go\erned by samdvahdn. I’pp. makes the verse 
easy by reading rupa\ t^a/adkat as sahasradKaro aksatah : t'va me a^tu dhanyam 

sahasradhdram aksa/am. 

5. 0 hundred-handed one. bring together ; O thousand-handed one, pile 
together; of what is made and of what is to be made do thou convey 
together tne fatness here. 

Ppp. has for hsahasnli 'lut sam;:iia/i, (orcya/Ae ya sp/id/ir dyasi\ and for d our c. 

iii. 24- 



The comm, reads samtlvaham at the end, rendering it samprapto 'smi; to the adjec- 
tives in c he supplies lihaniuihAnyAdih, • overwhelm,* i.e. * bestow abun- 


6. Three measures of the Gandharvas, four of tho house-mistress ; of 
them whichever is richest in fatness, with that one we touch thee. 

I’pp. reads at the end mars^tnasi ; the comm, regards the grain as the object of 
address in d, and the intent to be “ increase thou by the act of toiu liing Weber under- 
stands r.uher the master of the house, or perhaps the hai vest- wagon. The “ measures ** 
are doubtless those of grain set apart; the comm, calls them uituriWiihitavah kaMy 
and he gives as alternati\c explanation of “ house-mi.strcss ” the A psarases, spouses of 
the (jandhar\as ! 

7. Bringer (ttpo/ni) and gatherer {samn/ni) [are] thy (two) distributors, 
O Trajapati ; let them convey hither fatness, much unexhausted plenty. 

Two or three of our mss. (P.s.m..M.W.) read in c vahatam, .is docs the comm., with 
one of SPP*s mss. The comm, explains ksattarHu by saniihl abhtmatakiUytiuimpa- 

25. To command a woman’s love. 

[/fArtru —mtlt/r,harufnm .hm.ftdAum J 

Not found in F.iipp. Lsed by Kau<^. (35.22) in the thapiers of women's rites, in 
a charm for bringing a woman under one's contiol, by pushing her with a finger, 
piercing the heart of an image of her, etc. 

Translated: Weber, v. 224; Muir, OST. v. 407; I udwig, p. 516; /immer, p. 307; 
Weber, xvii. 290 ; ('.011,53,115; (iiittith, i. 1 n; ; Bloomfield, 102, 35S— Cf. /immer, 
p. 300; Bergaigne-Henry, Manuel, p 144. .Miiir gives onl\ a pait. 

1. Lot the up-thrustcr thrust (W) thoc up; do not abide (dhr) in 
thine own lair; the arrow of love {kdma) that is terrible, therewith I 
pierce thee in the heart. 

F.ida a evidently suggests the finger-thrust of KAin;. ; what uttudA really designates 
is matter for guessing, and the translators guess differently; the comm. sa}s “a god 
so named.” The comm, has the bad reading drthAs in b. 

2. The arrow feathered with longing {.adhi), tipped with love, necked 
with resolve samkalpd-) — having made that well-straightened, let love 
pierce thee in the heart. 

According to the comm., adht means mAna\f pldA; ^alyam is hAnAyre protam dya- 
sam , kitlmalam is dant^alYayoh saw^leuidtavyam Lthing (like .i ferrule .^) to fasten 
the tip to the shaftj Our F..M.W. rcail ta for tarn at beginning of c. F4da c requires 
the harsh resolution ta~am. 

3. The well-straightened arrow of love which dries the spleen, forward- 

winged. consuming therewith I pierce thee in the heart. 

The accent of 'ybsa is anomalous ISk/. Grant. § 1 148 nj, being rather that of a pos- 
.se^ive compound [§ 1305 aj; ^rf. vs. 4J. The comm, appears to take pilhan as signi- 
fying ‘lung’; the ohviwrii praefnapaksa he makes equivalent to rjavah pakstl yasyUh. 


-iii. 26 


4* Pierced with cun.suming pain (^nc), dry-monthed, do thou come 
creeping to me, gentle, with fury allayed, entirely [mine], pleasant-spoken, 

The great majority of mss. (including our Bp.P.M.W.E.I.) accent in tliis verse, 

which is preferable ; but liolli editions give* because the nis.s. are unanimously for 

it in vs. 3 c. 1 he comm, renders it In "•tdahayukta. 1 _I cannot make out from W’s 
collation-s that M.W. read vyoui J 

S* ^ goad thee hither with a goad (lijani), away from mother, likewise 
from father, that thou mayest be in my power {kriitu)^ mayest come^unto 
my intent. 

The second halfneisc is identical with vi.9. > c. d. and ncarU so with i 34. 2 c, d. 

6. Do ye, O Mitra-and-\ arunn, cast out the intents from her heart; 
then, making her powerless, make her [to be] in my own control. 

P.M.W. begin c with .-/»»•«// in a is dou 1 > he understood as a genitive 

(cf. iv. 5.6), though the comm sa\s “a dative in genitne sense” |_t. f. Lanman, 
JAO.S. X. 359. end J 

I he fifth itnu:\ika lias 5 hvmn^ and 35 verses. Tlie quoted .\nukr sa\s patica ca 

26. Homage to the gods of the quarters etc. |_ snake charms ?J. 

\AtharX'an — nJudtAm , a^nvadtkthtuh": atyam \jniiduhhctm ' \ j -6 Jp Z'f 

I'J i hhuttj \ 

A prose hymn, found also in J\iipp in (except v- 2. perhaps acndentally omitted, 
and vs. U). A similai invoi alion occurs furtlier in I'.S v 5 io'‘-«, not so closely related 
that the readings neeil in b * (ompared in detail, llvinns 26 and 27 arc called in Kau^. 
dijiyukte ‘Ctinnec led with tlie (|uailei>,' and aie used ( 14 25). with \i. 13. in a battle-rite, 
for victory over a hostile aimv . and al>n (50 13). with vi i etc . in a ceremony for 
good-fortune (aiul the comm regards tlicm as signincii \>\’ yuktayos in 50. 17, in a charm 
against serpents, scorpions, etc , but this is piobablv .1 mistake L?J); vet again, the 
comm, adds them in a ceiemonv (51 3-5) of tiilnite to the quarters 

L“ Serpenl-incanlation " ( .'SI hl.ingen/aulu r) is ilie title given to this hymn and the 
next by Weber. Roth (in his noiis) iei»*ils Welwr's view: hut I'.iitilth accepts it. I 
think ihe two hvmns are sn.ikc charms for the' following len-or-.. They aic employed 
by ( qo 1 7) in connei lion wiih vi 5(1 .in»l \n i 4h, whudi latter are clearlv directed 

against snakes etc. .See also Ke(,ava on K.iut; >o 17 iS, lo, lilnomficlcl. p. 3^4 f. 
Ke^ava shows. I think, that the eomm is not mistaken al out Weber, in his 

valuable notes, observes, p 2«;j, the schol. to 'I .s. v 5. 10 reckons that pass.igc as 
belonging to .1 II is likelv that the hali-hiit tir.a (of Kaiu^ 51.3. 4), with 

which this hvmn is cmjdoved (see Ki\.vva), is a satpabah — This hvinn and the next 
«re reckoned to the /Jz/i// •/;;<///.; (note to K.ul^' 50.13), cl. Anukr. Weber's note, 
p. 297, that these hvmns aie not used bv,., sliould be deleted. Whitiuy in his 
note to vi. 56 duly lejjoils the connci tion lii. 2() and 27 with snake charm. That 
he does not do so here and at .xii i.4(» is, 1 think, an ovei.sight.^ 

(_ With 'all this ,acc ords Bpp's < olophon. sdniantfaw 1 he hymn is \ irtually a pat if/a 
— cf. jAtaka, ii.p. 34''’. What .seems to be .1 verv old sn.ike pat if fa is found in tTiIla- 
vagga, V.6, and Jittaka. li. p. 145, no. 203. and in the Bovver Manuscript, ed. Iloernlc, 


part vi, p. 234. — Note that the sequence of the quarters in this hymn and the next, as 
also in the parallels thereto cited from .AV.TS.TB.MS., is in /r<i^4j/6j//in-order. J • 

Translated: VV’eber, x\ii. 2»)i ; (irithth, i. 1 20. 

1. Ye that are in this eastern quarter, missiles by name — of you 
there the arrows are fire : do ye be jiracious to us, do ye bless {adhi-brfi) 
us ; to you there bo homage, to you there hail ! 

'I'he corresponding utterance in TS. reads : *• missiles hy name arc ye ; your houses 
there are in front (in the east): tire is \our arrows, ocean (W/Zd ) ” — and similarly in 
\>liat tollows. Ppp. prefixes tak^a (once hikuth) at the hegiiininj; of each verse. The 
comm, appears to take t/nuit throii;;hoiit as a votative (//< he defines it as 

meanini; “ (landharvas ** ; the arfows are either tire or else Aj;ni. The Anukr. appar- 
ently restores a^yatn, and also makes the reft am to he of 1 1 f- 10 - 21 syllables ; then 
the initial “ p.idas” of i. of 3 and 4. of 5. of 2, arul ot (> count lespeitively .as 23, 24, 25, 
2 t\ and 27 syllables, and the complete numbers \ai\ from 44 to 4S syllables. [^The 
Anukr. ouijht to tall \s. 2 ///*/-/ and \s. 5 l-or “noils'* as an .iddrcss to the 

serpents, cf \i- 56 1, where they are calleil *• nod-people." J 

2. Ve gods that arc in this southern quarter, impetuf)us nrisyti) by 
name — of you there the arrows are love (luiffiti) : do ye be etc. etc. 

'I he comm le.ids of In T.S . the n.ime in this (piattcr 

is “smearers " (///Z/w/t/), and the arrows are •• the fathers, sea ” 

3 . Ve gods that are in this western (|uarter, vthnljtis by name - of )oii 
there the arrows arc the waters : do ye be etc etc. 

The name in I’pp is I'tm/.is. In 'I ^ . the n.inK is •• thuntlerboli-wuhkrs " (I'tijtin), 
and the arrows are “sleep, thicket ( 

4. Ve gods that arc in thi.s northern quarter, piercing hy name — of 
you there the arrows are wind : do ye be etc. etc. 

In the noith, according to TS., the name is “ ilown-standeis ////),*’ and the 

.irrows *• the w. iters, ocean (uttfimitii ) " 

5 Ve gods that are in thi.s fixed quarter, smearers {nilimf>d) hy name 
— of you there the arrows are the herbs : do ye be etc etc 

I’pp reads for ///A, and ni.ikes llif .irrows to be fofid {ttftfitt). TS. calls 

the (juart'-r “here {t/id)," ami puts it aft« r th** one “abroe " (our vs <i). the name i.s 
“ lleshly, earthlv." and the arrows (as in Ppp ) “foot!." I'lu lomm. explains mhmpAs 
as nitardm hptdh 

6. Ye gods that are in this upward quarter, helpful {dvasvant) by name 
- -of you there the arrows arc Hrihaspatl : ilo ye be etc. etc. 

In this quarter {updn ) acrording to TS., th«* n.ime is “overlords/’ and the arrows 
“ rain, the helpful one.” I’pp. .adds at the end iti raku^mafttriim^ and our verse viii. 3. 1 
follows. T.S. adfls an imprei ation, nearly like that in our hymn 27 : t^bhyo vo ndmas 
t£ no mrdayata U y Am dvi\mA yi<i ca no dvhti tdm znf jdmbhc dadhdmi. 


-111. 27 


^7 • The same : with imprecation on enemies. 

[Atkarvan. rJudram ; af^nydJthahudtvuiv.nn ii<ttkam t ~6 sP kakummati^iubhn' dt : 

^ ttlyaytt , j b/iutdj \ 

LA prose i'ounrl (except \s 3, .ippan ntly omitted Lj .'iccidcnl) in Paipp. iii , 

After h. 26, but At some dist.ince from it r»>inj).ire xii. 3 55~^®' w’len* the cjuartirs 
Are rehcAiscd witli tlie Sii*iu* adjiim ts Li>mparc fuitlier ’I S. \. 5. lo'*^ (:i pass.i^e imme- 
diately preceding that'dlel with our h 2(t; a bit f»f l>t iihmaua between llie tw(i 
explains that these di\initiis are to protect tlie lire -altar when constructed); and 
MS. ii. 13* 21 : both these omit all im ntion of .mows A \et i.iinter parallelism is to 
be noted with I lb iii, 11.^ hor the i fun ludiii;^ imprcc.ition, comp. ire also \^S. xv. i 5. 
For the use in Kaui;. with h 20, s» e undir that h\inn j_I‘oi the j:;eneral significance 
of the hymn, sec m\ .idditn.ii to the intiodin tion to h. 26 J 

Translated. Weber, wii 205. (*Mtiiili. 1 iji. 

1. Kastern (juartcr ; A;4ni dvcrlord ; black serpent defender; the 
Adityas arrows : hornaj^e to those overlords; homa;;e to the defenders; 
homage to the arrows ; homa;;e be to them ; who h.ates us, whom we 
hate, him we jmt in your |aws {jambha). 

Ppp has rsik/i\,t\ instt .id of and t^/» iiisUad of t’hhyns , and it adds 

further to the iinj)ie« at’ori A//// u ptitno /,;/'«////. whii h uur text lias in a similar connei- 
tioii at \ii. 31. I . X 5 25 35 \\i - 13 '1 he •• th b ndi r ” is in each case a kind of sti- 

jient ; and this, wlin li i> but an iiisi^niiu ant item in our two lumns. 1ms a more im|jortant 
be inni; on tin apjdw alion nt tin. < oii«.sp»Mnline I ‘ind .MS passai^cs. '1 he TS 
passai;e runs thus "thou ail the <Mstiin <|uaH< i. t •<ii\ei^ent b) name, of thee ihcie 
Aj»ni isoNtiloid, tin l»hnk st rju nt dilt-mUr, lM>ih b • who is oxerloid and lie who is 
guardian, to them (Iao) be horn i^e , Ki them bt uraiious to us , whom we hate and 
who hates us. him I put in the jaws of \ou (two) , .iml tin* MS xersion dilfcis only in 
one or two sli,^hl j)i»ints 'I he («»mm .sujiphcs each tunc to the name of the qu.xrtcr 
asmadauui^tijhartham : aftatan: 01 somethinij cqui\ aknt d lieie seems to be no natural 
way of dixidini; tin si xersis into > . the is prohabl\ counted by the Anukr. 
as 42 stll.ihles. and the addition ol the otliei pait biin;4s the number in each verse up 
to from (»2 to 6fi sxllaliles (ir*/; is ]>ioperl\ ^*4 ) 

2. Southern ipi-irtcr ; Indni ovcrloid , cross-lined [serpent] defender; 
the F,ithers ariows : homaije to those etc. etc 

I‘pp. m.ikcs the \’asus armws Mb. calls the serpent tna^iiuithlji IS makes the 
adder (/tnfJkru) defender here 

3. Western quarter; Vanina overlord; the adder (f^hbU'N) defender; 
food the arrows : homaj;e to those etc etc 

The comm, cxphiins prddlu\ as kuf\t/t7{iifui*ikijn an ahsuid fancx IS. and MS. 
give here Soma as ovcrioid, and the constiiotor as defeiulei. 

4. Northern quarter ; Soma overloitl ; the constric^r defender ; 

the thunderbolt ) arrows : homai;c to those etc. etc. 

The comm, gives for a double explanation, citln-r " self-born" (j7W./.i) or else 

*Mnclined to embrace” (root sntj). Both the other texts assign \*aruna as overlord; 

111. 27- 



for defender, TS. dest^n«ites the cross-lined serpent, MS. the prdAku (in the corrupt 
form srdtiku or * the editor .idopts the latter). Ppp. makes wind {vAtd) the 

5. Fi.xoil quarter; Vishnu overlord; the serpent with black-spotted 
{kalmdsii’) neck defender; the plants arrows : homage to those etc. etc. 

Ppp. ri.ids kulnutui- : the comm expl.iins the word by krpjavarna. TS. calls the 
(puirter t\ih/t •thus’; in MS. it is tfr'iJt/ ‘ downw.ird ’ ; TS. tre.its of it after the upward 
one, and makes Yam.! the overlord. In our edition, an accent-mark under the -ksi- of 
rak^itd lui.s slipped to the ri^ht, under -A?. 

6 Upward quarter; Brihaspati overlord ; the white [serpent] 

defender ; rain the arrows : homage to those etc. etc. 

Ppp. has here the thunderbolt lor arrows. Part of the ms.s. (imluding our 

E.O.K.Kp.') i;i\c itthi of as name of the serpent; TS. reads {rt/rd, but 

MS. (probabU liy a misreading) 4///./ TS. calls the quarter ‘great.’ T.S. (after 
the manner of the AV. mss.) leaves out tlic repeated part of the imprecation in the 
intermediate versus (2-5): M.S. gives it in full everv time. LReference to this vs. as 
made by Uergaignc. A\/. vt\f. iii. 12 (et., K/ wvv. 527), is hardly apt J 

28. To avert the ill omen of a twinning animal. 

[iffra/iw — vaw/»iiaw ilnu'tu^ httm t iitnakt ytn^iirhhtl 4 p l 

4 y\iZiimadhjfd ’ittiUkAku! h , fnduhh . A : ] 

Not found in P.iipp. I'sed bv K.iuc m tlie th.ipttr of poi tents, in th»‘ ceiemonies of 
expiation for the birth of twins from kine, m.ires or assts, and human bungs (loq. 5 ; 
lie 4 . Ill 5 ) 

Translated Weber, x\ ii. 297 . (irifVith, 1 122 ; BloomheKl, i tv 35q. 

1. She herself came into being by a one-by-one creation, where the 
being-makers created the kjne of all forms ; where the twinning [cow] 
gives birth, out of season, she destroys the cattle, snarling, angry. , 

'I he translation implies emendation of at the end to ^.Biw/Zor [^rather 

rinvii/t, so .IS to give a t.identej — which, con.sidtrmg the not infrequent confu- 

sion of the .sil)ilants, espcuallv the palatal and lingual, m our text and its mss, and the 
loss oiy after a sibilant, is naturallv suggested [tf. iv. lA 0^* J. The lonim. makes a vet 
easier tiung of taking ni^ati from a root /;/( * injure,’ but we have no such ro<it. Some 
of our mss. (p M.W I. ) esam in a, am! two (P O ) have rrj/iv? • The comm, 

umlerst.inds sr^tts with eut in a. and < xplains bv ekatkxivyaktvd. Perhaps we 

should erm ml to ekal'kaya • one [crc.ilure] bv one [.u t of] creation ’ ^a^'d reject <’nf 
as the rnt-ter demands J See Weber’s notes for the compari.son of popular views as to 
the birth of twins, more generally regarded as of good omen. 'I he Anukr. apparently 
counts 1 1 L 1 3 ''' J I 5 12^12= 50 L52 'J s) llnbles ; either bhutakitas c»r vi^vdrdpHs could 
well enough be spared out of b Uu-*'**-*'' the former; but it i.s bad meter at l)estj. 
•[^Sliown b\ accent to be a blunder for rrr/v<I, not srt/7ui.j 

2, .She quite destroys the cattle, becoming a flesh-eater, devoiirer 

( ? ry ddvan ) ; also one .should give her to a priest {brahmdn ) ; so would 

she be pleasant, propitious. 



-iii. 29 

The patia-i^xX. divides vt’^ddiuirf^ evidently taking the word from root <7</*eat’; the 
Pet. Lex. suggests emendation to vyddhvari^ from lyad/t * pierce.* The comm, reads 
vyadhvarl^ but he defines it first .is (oniing from adhium^ and meaning “ possessed of 
bad roads, that cause unh.'ippiness, * or, second, as from adhvara^ and signifying “ hav- 
ing magical sacrifices, that give ob,structcd fimt“' LSee note to vi. 50. 3, where W. 
corrects the text to vyadvani : accent of masc and fern , Gram. §1171 a, b.J 

3. Ho thou propitious to men ( ptiruxa)^ propitious to kine, to horses, 
propitious to all this field {kstUni ) , be propitious to us here. 

* i* ield seems taken here in .1 sense, and might be rendered ‘farm.’ The 
Anukr. takes no notice of the irregularilics m c and d, probably because they balance 
each other. 

4. Here prosperity, here sap — here be thou best winner of a thou- 
sand ; make the cattle jirosjier, O twinning one 

The comm, supplies Idtai atu to the first p.ld.i All tlie mss .agree in gi\ing the false 
accent sahdsta\titama in b. it sluitild be ^aha\i a\dtiitnri — or, to rectifv the meter, 
simply -r<i. Its /./i/a-di\ isi«)n. \aht\\ui ultama is jin. scribed b\ the text of Prat. iv. 45. 
Kakiibh properly has no n^ d oi tin adiunct yavamadhyd , it is \cry seldom used by 
our Anukr .is name of a whole \cise L'' • 12 SJ 

5. Where* the gooil-hearted [andj well-doing revel, quitting disease of 
their own body — into that woild hath the twinning one come into 
being; let her imt injuie our men and cattle. * 

'riic first h.ilt-\e!se is .ilsn that oi w 120 3 (whuh occurs further in T.\ ). Some of 
SPP’s mss. wiile in b pmti.nting tin. Xs/w/^i/ SMlable 

6. Where is the world of the good-hearted, of the w'cll-doing, where 
of them that offer the fire-olfering {iiirfu/tofni’) — into that world hath 
the twinning one come into being ; let hei not injure our men and 

The omission of the supeitiuoiis i.#//a in b would rectif\ the meter. The Anukr. 
should say dsidtapaitktt instead <il , its t//.// means here a p.ida of 10 


29. With the offering of a white-footed sheep. 

{CddiUakAi. — f ////./.// ’r ;/i iw 7 . S bhdumi. dnudithham: 

i% 3 ' <//'./«<// . 7 j -K t> p I't ja i.iiirr hati k.ikumfnjti^^.irbfu'i : 

S. upAf 

Like the preceding h\mn, not found in P.iipj>. I’sed (according to the comm., 
vss. 1-5) bv Kam; (04 2) in the sarrifn eN, in the lour-plate (« j.itsi, 
with setting a cake on e.ich cpiartei of the .iiiimal oiieud. and one on its na\el ; and vs S 
in the va^tl sava [on. 21 J. on arceptame of the cow. Further, vs. 7 (according to 
achol. and comm , vss. 7 .md S) appeals 111 a rite (45. i 7) at the end of the Vl^^^^i1^amana^ 
for expiating any error in .acceptance of gifts. In \ ail. (3.21). \s. 7 is also used to 
accompany the acccpl.tnce of a saciilinal gift in the saci dices. 

LThc Anukr. says CddAllako* a tna i^ifipildam ar/m i/vA 7 «/, thus suppoiting 

the reduction of the h\mn to the noim of six \ss. , sec note to \s. 7. hrom that phr.ise, 
perhaps, comes tlie blundering reading of the I ondon ms. {ttipadam avidevatyam : 


emend to {itipaJ-avt-Jevaiyafn or else as above ? — Weber entitles the hymn “ Abfindung 
mit dem Xoll im Jenseits."J 

Translated : Ludwij;, p. 375 ; Weber, xvii. 302 ; Oriftith, i. 124. 

1. What the kinp;s share amon^ themselves — -the sixteenth of what 
is otforod-and-bestowed- - yon assessorN (sabhastU) of Yama : from that 
the white-footed sheep, j;iven [as] ancestral olferin^ (svaii/tti)^ releases. 

Ii\ tins offorinj;, one is rcle.t:»cd 1‘iom the payment othrrwiso due to’8 councilors 
on .idniLssion into the other world* the ideas are not from other p.irts of the 
m\tholo::y and ritual. LHut cf Hillebrandt, /></. Mythot. i. 511 ; Weber, Bvrltno' Sh.^ 
1S95. p N45 J The comm explains tlui** * ubhayavuihasya kin**iitntih uuiai^asamkhyA^ 
pftrakatn yat pupam puHvant^et riMtiiktitni kun jHti, as if the sixteenth were the 
share ot tlement to be subtracted from the nieiit, and i leansed away { pari-^oJhay-) by 
Yania’s assistants, etc. In c he re.ids tnuk^xitu tor -// , ^tftpi}i/ in d he renders \ vytapiid, 
'I he last pfida lack.s a s\ liable, unless we make a harsh re.sulution. Our te.xt reads in b 
-//// //if j I a ; Ltor consisienc), delete ime / J 

2. All desires {kdma) it fulfils, arising; {ti-bhu), coining; forth 
becoming (M//) ; [as] fiilfiller of designs, the white-footed sheep, being 
given, is not exhausted {npa-das). 

1 he precise sense of the three related parluipl^s in b is \ei\ (\\\ber 
renders “da si lend, tiuhti*^, und kr.illin”. Ludwi;;. •* koininend. eiitslehend, lebend”); 
the comm saj.s •• j»eimiwunv'. ( apable [^of lewaidtnicj. uureasin“ ” 

3 Ho who gives a white-footed sheep eonimensuiate (.ivf A/) with 
[his I world, he ascends unto the tirmament, where a tax is not paid {kr) 
by a weak man for a stronger. 

‘•Commensurate* 1 c., apparent!), “proportioned in \aliu‘ !•> the pl.uc in the 
heavenly world sought by the jjiver” (so Weber also), R siii'e«‘sls •• an.ilo^ous (.us 
rei;ard.s the white feet) with the world of liyht that is .ispiretl to ' . the \ omm , on his part, 
i;i\es two other and disconlant explanation> tirsi, lokyttrttiint'Ha phalena samyak- 
piiHK^hiHHam, amo^fiaphii/am , second, afit’na hhulokena Mtdf bhulokarat sarva- 
phalapt adiim * both \»Ty Tor nak-i he j;ives the derivation n,t-a-kam ‘ non un-hap- 
pmess, which he reptats here and there in his expositions 'I he tr.insl.ition implies in c 
the readiin' \uIkA^^ which ( loiv^ ai^o tonjci tuieil b\ .Muir, OsT v. 310) is ji^iven by 
hPP on the authorit) of all his mss, ami aKo bv the » omm , and is undoubtedly the 
true text. fJnl) one of our mss. (Kp.) been notul as plainly rea(iin>( it; but the 
ms.s are so careless as to the distinction of Ik and kl that it m.iy well be the intent of 
them ,dl The comm, paraphnises it as “a kind of tax (ki/ri/-) that must be given to «l 
king ol superior power by another king of cletii icnl power situated on his frontier.” As 
pointed out by Weljcr, the item ot ilcs* ription is very little in plat e here, where the sac- 
ritice is ma<le precisely in satisfaction of such a tax. [^W's prior draft reads “ to a 
stronger ’* — Note that SlM*’s oral reciters gave ^u/k’^fs.J 

4. The white-footed sheep, accompanied with five cakes, commensurate 
with [his] world, the giver lives upon, [as] unexhausted in the world of 
the Fathers. 

That is [_the giver lives upon the sheep J, as an incxlTauslible supply for his needs. 
The comm, explains d by vasvUdirftpam pnlptilndm somahklkkhye sthline. 



5. The white-footed sheep, accompanied with five cakes, commensurate 
with [his] world, the j'iver lives upon, [as] unexhausted in the sun and moon. 

The five cakes are those l.iul on tlie vidim as prescnbccl in Kaiic;. (see above). In 
our edition, suryatna^Ayor is a misprint for \ii»yam-. 

6. Like refreshing; drink f/m), it is not exhausted ; like the ocean, a 
great draught (pay is)-, like the two jointly-dwelling gods, the white- 
footed one is not exhausted. 

The comparison in c is so little .rpt what it refers to is hard to sec: the comm, 
regards the A(;\in.s as inteiuh*<l, and Welui do« s the same, understanding sava^fn as 
“<l alike (the lomm savs ^samanatn mi’innintau) ^ Ludwig; thinks of “heaven 
and earth , one mi“ht fdso gut ss sun and nu>on R suggests the sense to be “ he has 
gods for neighliors, light ami left 1 he Anukr apjreais to sanction the contraction 
samutinl *?'</ in b. 

7. Who hath given this to whom ^ Love hath given unto love; love 
[is] giver, love acet jitor ; lo\e entered into the ocean; with love I accept 
thee ; love, that for thee ' 

[Not metiu al J 1 Ins •* \< iso ’* aiul the following appear to have nothing to do with the 
preieding pan of the livinii, whnli Ins o \ss* (.molding tf> the norm of this book). 
I his “vctnc* is found in a whoh s» ru s ot \ts a formula foi cvpiaiing or avoiding 
what may be impn-p. i m « oimn lum with the a« < « ])tam e of sac1Hic1.1I gifts. The ver- 
sion of lA. (in.iu I j, 4 .dst> found, w iih ml« 1 sjrci M'd explanation, m 1 I ). 11. 2. 55. and 
repeated in Apt, xiv 11 : i is neiilv like ouis. Init omits the second utility and reads 
A'iwtiM sitmUih.Ur ,i : .\a t)ml oi s (\ 13. i;, lias the latter reailmg but retains 
the i/i/il/. Ih It ol I’l’i (I 17) and K. (i\ <;) ditins fiom ours onlv by having tl 
instead of </ :77‘r^./ .M^ < i o j ) omits tin jihr.ise /.//; tt/i ^atnuiit i\nt a i^nd reads 

A'tiwJyd for the lollowing .Xnd (vii. 4S with it agree (, !• iv. 3 412 and 

k't.'S. iv 7 10 h.ts .IS follows ko \/,tt k.ho/ii ,i.rr/ \/tlt kiimiiyrt \ittt ‘ katno 

tfAti kdm.i/t ppitfiyp V.i'/ f*. [Sie .dso Mil.S i. S. r;. and p. I4‘;.J Of 
course, the comm i armol uliam lr«»m tlie sillim ss ol taking kth and kiis/fitu as signify- 
ing “ rraj.ijMli, ' and lie is .ible to Putify limisell bv (|Uoimg 'l l} 11 2.5'. as he also 
ijiiotos 5* foi the gem value of the fiuiivili. .mneven Inr the i«!enlitv of katna 
with the ocean, allhougli our text, ditteient Horn that of 1 1> , docs not imply any such 
relation between them. 1 he .\'iuki .sr .ms thus 7 + Ci 11 »o ‘>^4 — 4^'. * [Cl. intro- 
duction to this liMim.J 

8. Let earth accept thee, thi.s grcMt atmosphere, let me mit, h.uing 
acc^cd, be parted with breath, nor with sell, nor with progeny. 

Addresscvl to the thing accept* d (/b- «/*;i.r tirarya. coir.m )• I'he .\nukr. regards 
pdda c a.s c ding with and the /r/./,/-texi dixides at tlie .same jilace. 

30. For concord. 

[A/AarZ'aM. — Sityfarntm, r./ww,i«a» v.iw». liuuduf'kiim j 7 ; 

6 . 7 . tftstuhh 1 

Found in I’aipp. v. Kcekoned in Kau<;. (12. 5), with various other passages, to the 
sAmmanasydni^ and used in a rite for concord . and tlie comm, regards it as included 
under the designation in the upHkannan (139. ?). 


Translated: Muir, OST. v. 439 (vss. 1-4); Ludwij^, p. 256, and afi^ain p. 516; 
Zimmer, p. 316 (vss. 1-4); Weber, .xvii. 306; (jrill, 30, 116; (iriffith, i. 125 ; Bloom- 
Held, 134,361. — Cf. Ilillebrandt, Vt'diVihrestomathte^ P‘ 45 ; Muir, Metrhal Trans- 
lations front Son si' fit ll'tiUts, p. 139. 

1. Likc-hoartedncss, likcMiiindedncss, non-hostility do I make for you; 
do yc .show afToction (haty) the one toward the other, as the inviolable 
[cowj toward her calf when born. 

Ppp. santnasyam in a, .\nd in c anvo *nya»i, as demanded by the meter. The 
comm, .dso re .ids the hitter, and loi tlie former sJtnntanttsviint , and he ends the verse 
with Oi^nni as. 

2. He the son submissive to the father, like-minded with the mother; 
let the wife to the husband speak words { 7 uU) full of honey, wcalful. 

The transl.ition implies at the end \amtivam LllK. \ii. 60J, which .SPP. admits 
.IS emendation into his text, it beint; phainU tailed for b\ the sense, and read by the 
comm, (and !)y SPP’s oral reciter K, who follows the comm ); this [not fJ////TvIwJ is 
Ijiven also by l*pp (cf. .\ii. 1.59, where the word oci urs a^^ain). 'I'he comm, further 
has in b mClt^ (two of SPP’s reciters aiireeim; with him). 

3. Let not brother hate brother, nor sister sister , becoming; accor- 
dant {samydtic), of like courses, speak ye words auspiciously {bhadniyd). 

The comm, reads dvtsyAt in a The majorih of SPP'.s /j/t/t/ mss. jjive sA vratA 
(instead of dAh) in c. '1 he comm, fuither re.uU radatu in d, explaining it to mean 

4. That incantation in virtue of which the {;ods do not j;o apart, nor 
hate one another mutually, wc perform in your house, concord for fyour] 
men ( pumui). 

Weber sui»j;e5t.s ’‘gods” here perhaps means “Brahmans.” but there is no 
authorit) nor ociasion for such an understanding; . the comm also sa\s Indra etc.” 

5. Having; superiors (jydyasvant), intentful, be ye not divided, accom- 
plishing; together, moving on with joint labor {sddhura) ; come hither 
speaking what is agreeable one to another ; I make you united {sadhrU 
ciua), like-minded. 

Ppp. reads tudhttat in b, tombines amo' nya\mAi (as does the criinm., and as the 
meter recjuires) in c, and inserts \ama\^nistha betore sadhtUlnan in d; the ftmm. 
further has aila for tta in c (as have our P K ) JyAyasvanf acutely conjectured 
by the Pet. Li'S, tu signify \irtuall) “dulv subordinate,” and this is supported by the 
<omm : jyt'\thakani\thtihhavtna para\parant anusarantah ; I.iulwig renders “uber- 
h*gen.” .SAdhnra. lit. ‘ h.xving the same wagon -ptde,' would be well repre.sentcd by our 
collorjuial “pulling together.’* Littinas in a is perhaps rather an .adjunct of vlyAusfa 
— 'With, i e in >our intents or plans ' 'I he veise (1 1 -1 1 1 : 1 2 f 12=46) is ill defined 
by the Anukr., .is even the redundant .sellable in d gives no pioper jaj^aff character to 
the pada. [K eject 7vi// or else read \adhttiof thus wc get an orderly tri}(ubh.\ 

C. Your drinking {prapii) [be] the same, in common your share of 



food; in the same harness (ySktra) do I join \_y„j\ you together; wor- 
ship yc Agni united, like spokes about a nave. 

The comm, explains prapa .is “flrinkin;^ saloon •’ ( pdfiFj^a^a/a). Two o£ our mss. 
(P.M.) read at the bcKinnin- utwruiim. LTo reprodute (as W. usually docs) the 
radical connection (here between ydX‘ita and yuj), we may render ‘do I harness )ou.* 
The Anukr. seems to scan 1 2 1 1 . i S . 40 ; the vs. is of course 1 1 M i : S + S. J 

7. United, like-minded I make you, of one bunch, all of you, by [my] 
conciliation ; [be] like the gods defending immortality (amrta ) ; late and 
early be well-willing yours. 

Wc had the first p.ida above as vs 5 d, cnicnd.ition to sadhtims would rectify the 
meter; the Anukr. takes no note of the irre;;ul.'irily ; it is onlvbv bad scanning 
that he makes out any diin mu c between vss 5 and 7* The translation implies in b 
which is re. id by Sl'l* , wiih liie in.ijnntv of his mss, and sujipoited bv the 
Comm*.s (explained b\ him t Ltn-tdham -.yapatunn ekavidhasyn ' niiasya 

bhuktim t-J) ; part of our mss ilso (lip I. II Op ) lead cle.irb -f;/-. wliile othcis are 
corrupt, and some h.ue plamlv -j/- . cf the note to 17. 2 aljove. J*pp. has at the end 
susamttir vo 'stu 

31. For welfare and long life. 

^i^rahman am / diadt: ’t, im iinu\tuf>’,ant / l<huiij ^ 

% /-/.//./*;;/•!'/ ] 

.Not found in r.iipp. Kn koned. with iv 3^ and vi Hk to the ptipf/ta {piipmahd *) 
(K.iiu; 30 17. ante), .iml us» »1 1)\ Kaiu; ( 3). wnh several others, in a cere- 
mony for long life lollnwmg mil, alum as a \ edu sc) o!ai . and vs ‘10 (\ss 10 and ir, 
comm) also in t!ie s.urilue (24 31) In \ ail (13. 10). vs. 10 is uttered 

in the saLiilicc 1*\ the saciituei (the lomm sa\s, b\ llie Zof/Z/wr; //-priest) 

as he rises to imittt r the *///;</ hvmn .\nd the comm (without (juoting any 

authoritv ) deilaies ihe‘ hvmn to be ujuated bv llie /'/f/Z/yVi/w-priest near water in the 
Pttrtnt'dh.i rile, alter the 1 rendition 

Translated \N\bcr, wii 310. (iiitfith. 1.127, Bloomfield, 51, 304. 

1. The god.s have turned .ivv.iy from old age, thou, O Agni, away 
from the niggard ; 1 away from all evil [have turned], away from j'cf/ywcr, 
to union (stim) with life-time. 

The iurtau of our text is an ermr for ./r »/.///, which .all the mss. (and, of course. SPP.) 
read; is c ommnn in the sense - pail fioni.* 'khe comm. ”ives instead airtam^ 

whicli^ic takes as 2d dual, rendeiing it bv 7 /i<v</i//A/w, and understanding d^vA 
{p, Jd'tlA) .\s c/«T'i/.v, vocative, nanulv the two Alvins' and he supplies a ivyi/r./wZ 
also in the s*'cond half-verse, with .m /wi//// Lrcfeinng to the \’edic scholar J for it to 

2. The cleansing one (has turned] away from mishap (drZ/), the 

mighty one away from evil doing; I a\\\\y from etc. etc. 

PdvamAna in a might .signify eithei soma 01 the wind; the comm, understands here 

the latter. 

3. The animals (// 7 f//) of the village [have turned] away from those 

iii. 3*- 



of the forest ; the waters have gone (jrr) away from ‘thirst ; I away from 
etc. etc. 

.All the nis.s. leave apas in b unaccented, asi if vocative ; our text makes the wes- 
s.iiy correction to and so does SIM*, in his /(;i/</*le\t, while in samhitik he 

siranj;ely (perh.ips by an oversight.^) retains i\piu, Tlie comm, paraphrases 
tuatan with bhavanti^ not venturiiu; to turn it into a causative as he did %y 

avftiin The Anuki takes no notice of the redundant syllable in s. 

4. Apart [from one another] go heaven-and-earth here (/W), away the 
roads, to one and another quarter ; I away from etc. etc. 

//.If in a IS here understood as 3d dual of /, with Weber and with the comm. (= 
chati.n)» since tlie meaning; is tlius decidedly more acceptaldo ; its accent is easily enough 
explained as tliat ot the \«.rb in the former of two successive clauses involving it 
(though avrtiin not accented in \s 1 a). The redund.iiu) in a is e.isily corrected 
b\ contracting to -prthvt , the .\nukr., however, does nut sanction this. 

5. Tvashtar harnesses ( r///) for his daughter a wedding-car (:vi///7///) ; * 
at the news, all this creation {bhuvana) goes away; I away from 
etc. etc. 

LDisciisNcd at length by Bloomtield, JAOS vv. iSi ff J An odd alteration of R\’. 

X. 17. I a, b (our xvm. i. 53, which see), whiih reads krnoti \UH\tktt, and ii/w <// lor 
r( yiiti , and it is^verv oddly thrust in here, where it se»>ins whollv t)ui oi plate; -it yAti 
must be rendered as above (diifeientlv from its K\’. value), to make anv ( minev tio^Mith 
the refrain ami with the preceding verst s Weber’s suggestion that i» is T\ ashlar's Went 
to marry his own daughter makes such a stir is rt futetl b\ the t in iimstame that the 
verb used is active. According to the vomm . : is the vvctltlmg initlit {duhttnX 

Siiha pntyA prasthapantyam vastrahimkAfAti dnivyafu), ■\x\Ci yunaktt is simply /ra- 
sthtlpayaii. The /«/</<Mnss , in .ucordance with the later use of ///, nckon it heie to 
pada a 

6. Agni puts together the breaths ; the moon is put together with 
breath : I away from etc. etc. 

In this verse and those that follow, the refrain Ikus hardlv an im.iginable relation with 
what precedes it ; though here one m.iy conjecture that analogies are .sought for its 
it.m, jdw ilytuA. According to tlie comm., Agni in a is the lire of digestion, and the 
breaths are the .semses, which he tits for their work by supplying them nourishment; and 
tlie moon is soma Lconsidered .is food ; for which he quotes .1 p.issage quite like to 

(;i{. XI. I 6' »J 

7. Hy breath did the gods set in motion {suffidray) the sun, of uni- 
versal heroism : I away from etc. etc. 

The c»)nim. treats T'qrv/A/r and vlryaw in a as independent words, and renders 
siihiairayan in b by satvatra prAvariayan. 

8. Hy the breath of the long-lived, of the life-makers (dyuskrt\ do 
thou live; do not die: I away from etc. etc. 

In this ami the following verse, the comm, regards the young Vcdic scholar 
vaka ) as addressed. 


9. With the breath of the breathing do thou breathe ; be just here ; 
do not die : I away from etc. etc. 

Our Bp., with two of Slip's /W^-mss Ls.m. !J, accents .h,a at end of a. The comm, 
allowa the first part of b to he ad<lr< sscd alurnativdy to breath. 

10. Up with life-time; together with life-time; up with the sap of the 
herbs : I away from etc. etc. 

The first half-vcrsc, willi the fust lialf of mir vs. 1 1, makes a verse occurrini^ in sev- 
eral texts: T.S. (i. 2.8*), TA. (iv 42.\s. 31 a;;rees precisely with T.S.), VS. (Kanv. 
ii. VII.5), AC^'.S. (i. 3. 23). I*(iS. (111.2 14). All these instead of sdm 

dytts^ in a; and \ S. and P(..S. lack the second pada. The comm, points out that 
asthama is to be umlcrstoofl fiom vs 11 

11. Hither with l*arjan)iis lain have we stood up immortal: I away 
from etc. etc. 

^ The other texts (see under the jireccdiriij versr ) all begin with /// instead of a ; for 
vrsfy<iy TS. r.A. h.ive {thmena, V.S..\r.S dhamabltn^ P(;s tirstya, for b, PCS. gives 
prihivydh uiptadhdntabhth, .ill the olhets ud astliatu amrtan dim |_Here the comm., 
in citing the refrain, redds vxilJttim, which, as impiving TT-d-r /V, is etjualh good.J 

As in < .ises .ibovi*, it is obvKuis this hvnin has been expanded to .1 length 
considerably greater than propeily belongs to it b\ bre.iking up its verses into two each, 
piecetl out with a rcfr.iin It would be c.isv to re«hu e the whole material to six verses, 
the Mrni of this book, by .idding the refrain in v** i only (or pos.sibly .ilso in \s. 4, with 
cjediPh of llie senseless ami app.irently inlrudid vs 5). and then combining the lines 
by pairs — ,is the jiar-dhl texts prove that vss 1 ii are nghtl) to be combined. 
L'l’he critical st.itus of n 10 is an.ilogous . .see the note to 11 10. 2. J 
^ The sixth .iml last <///// h is ci hvmns, with 44 versis . and tin* old .Anukr. reads: 
la/urdd^il (but iuither ‘ft/Vilfirt- |_-p7f ?J vtdadhydd adhikSni- 

wliiih is obsi ure). P ^op.J 

Here ends also the sixth ptapathaka 

Not one of our mss. adds a summary of hvmns and verses for the whole book. 

Book IV. 

L I'he fourth book is made up of forty hymns, divided into 
cii;ht rf««c-v?-fvr-groups of five liymns each. The normal length 
of each hymn, as assumed by th* Anukramanl, is 7 verses; but 
this is in only partial accord with the actual facts. There are 
twenty-one hymns of 7 verses each, as against nineteen of more 
than 7 verses each. Of these nineteen, ten are of 8 verses each ; 
three are of 9 and three are of 10 ; two are of 12 ; and one is of 
16 venscs. The seven hymns which make the Mrgara group 
(hymns 23-29) have 7 verses each. .\nd they are followed by a* 
group of four Rigveda hymns (30-33). The last two hymns of 
the book (39-40) have a decided Brfihmana-tinge. The entire 
book has been translated by Weber, Indischc Sludiett, vol. xviii. 
(1898), pages 1-153.J 

LWeber's statement, that there are twenty-two h\ mns of 7 verses each arul two^ 9, 
rests on the misprinted number (7, for 9) at the end of h\mn 20. J 

[The Anukr. states (at the be^^inniiiij of its treatment of book li ) that the normal 
number of verses is 4 for a hymn of book i.. and increases by one for each successive 
book of the first five books. That fjives us, for 

®‘^ok i. II. iii. IV V , as normal numl>er of 

\ erscs : 4 5 678, respectively. 

In accord therewith is the statement of the .\nukr. (pretixed to its treatment of lK)ok iv.) 
that the sevcn-\crsed hymn is the norm fur this l)ook hahtna jajMnam iti kantiam^ 
saptarcam siiktam prakrtir^ anyA vtkrtir tty arai^aJu't J 

1. Mystic. 

[f-Vwa — hdrhaspatyam utd ** dityaddivatam tfdtitubkam: f bbutyj,^ 

Found in Paipp v. (m the verse-order 2, 1, 3, 4 cd 5 ab. b. 4 ab 5 cd. 7). Reckoned by 
Kau(;. (9- ‘ts one of the hymns of the hrhtuhAntt and used in various cere- 

monies : with i, 4-6 and other hymns, fur the health and welfare of kmc (19. i); for 
sucf es.s in study and victory over opponents in disputation (3S. 23 f ) ; at the consum- 
mation of marriage (70- it ; the c«>mm. says, only vs. i); and vs. i on entering upon 
\ edic study « F 39. to). These arc all the applications in Kau:;. that our comm, recog- 
nizes; in otlier cases where the pratika of vs. i is quoted, the vs. v.6. 1, which is a 
repetition of it, is apparently intended : see under hymn v. 6. 1 he editor of K&uf . 

regards the rest of the anuvaka^ from vs. 2 to the end of h. 5, to lie prescribed for 
recitation in 139. ii ; but this seems in itself highly improbable, and the. comm, docs 
not sanction it. In V.iit. (14. i), vss. i and 2 are added to \\\t ji^harma-hymn given for 




-IV. I 

rite of the a^ntstoma : anrl vs. i appears again *n the agnicayana (28. 33) 
accompanying the deixisilion of a plate of gold. And the comm, further quotes 
the hymn as employed hy the .\aks K. (iS) in the brahmf maha^dn/t, and by 
PariQ. 11.1 in the tuldpuruui ceremoii) 1 here is nothing at all characteristic or g 
explanatory in any of these uses. The hymn is <|uite out of tlic usual Atharvan style, 
and is, as it was doubtless intended to be, very enigmatical : tlie comm, does not really 
understand it or illuminate its obscurities, but is obliged at numerous points to give 
alternative guesses at its meaning , and the translation offered makes no pretense of 
putting sense and connection into its tlaik sa)iiigs. 

Transbitcd : Ludwig, p 3*^3; Deussen, Gi'sJtu/tU, i. 1.255, (iriffith, i. 129; 
Weber, xviii. 2. 

1. The brahman that was born of old {pitrdstat , in the east.’) 
Vena hath unclosed from the well-shining edge {simatds ; horizon.’); he 
unclosed the fundamental nearest shapes {visthd) of it, the womb iyoni) 
of the o.xistent and ol the non-existent 


The \ om urs 111 a laige iiumix r of otliei texts S\' (1 321), V.S. (\ui 3), TS. 
(iv. 2.8^), TB. (II 8 8'). I \ (\ I. \s }2), Ms (11 7. li). I5etal), Kap. 

(25. 5 i‘t al ). (V 0 5). A(,S. (i\ (i 3): and its piatika in All (1 10). f-»B- 

2.0)— ami. what is\ti\ n exen where without axanant; it is also repeated 
below as v (». l. \ cna is, l\cu m the t xpositmu of the \trse gi\ i n 1)\ I» (\ 11 4. i 14), 
cxplainul as tin: sun. and so the c«imm ogaids it. but xerx implausibly; the moon 
would brltei si;it the im urrem < s of the woid. I he comm gi\es both renderings to 
pumktdt in a, and time di’n rent expl uiatnms of the jiada In b. llie translation takes 
sitniois as qualiUing the \ittuil .iblatixe |_\\ht« h W'ebir lakes as sn/i d/iH ' see 

also Wliitne\‘s not** t*i I'lat 111 13 J. the i omm \ u as .ncus. pi . and so does (, 15 ; 
the latter makts it mean -tluse worMs." the birmei cillur mat or “ its own shining 
l)rightne.s.scs.’* I’ada c is the most obstuieol .ill; (, 15 . .sunplx declares it to designate 
the fjuailers (<//^</») , ihr t omm gixes .ilteiii.itive intcr’'retaiions, ol 110 value ; uptitutis 
(p up,rfftiih, as if Horn loot /a./ with upa) he paiaphiascs with upiinnyamdHdh pan- 

2. Let this <im-cn of the F.ithcrs t '/>i.'n;t) ;;o in the beginning (rt>;r) 
fcir the first birth ( /,////<> . i.iee stan.hng in the creation ; (or it (him ?) 
have I sent {/ii) this well-shining sinuous one (’//rvntr); let them mix 
((ri; boil?) th<- liot drink for the first thirsty one (?M,isvu). 

The connection of tin* pad is is here \ct more obscure than tluir separate interprcia- 
tipn; the thir<l pada mat perhaps siui.ilt the hehtmne Ihc with valiants, is. 
found in (.t.'S. (v.o.b) -I'ld .\t.b pr.atika in AH. (1.19) and GB. 

(ii. 2.<.) : th- lirst tliree lead m a /»//«• lor />tOy.l .and y/i for ffu. and AB. inseits r,U 
after /></«/ ami Ppp. also lias />,/»■. In b tlio l«o Sutra-tevts give tlwmancsthsh, 
which is perhaps intended to the i-liumtnj^lau of l>pp : in d. die same two have 
ertnanti i>palh„»,.uv,t .mA fpp mu Uhama. ^r.u/h.l^yu/,. The comm, 

takes pitn-a to mean come fiom I'lai.ipati ", -Mlie .pieen ’ is the do inity of speech — 
or else “this cartlt.” fiitivJ rtlatins: to ils lalhei K.u;>apa . J/ijyyu is the god desiring 
food in the form of oldation. and is r«.M« ro.a«,ana,h kuhlam 
vartamanam, qu.alifting a’/"" «■"" • ""■<"« '* •>'’ -‘dicetn e. cither yantavyam. from the 
root ah • go,’ or •• daily." Irom ah.tu • dat ’ 1 .uid (/ 1 is either •• mi.s or •• boil. 

IV. I- 



3 . He who was born forth the knowing relative of it speak^all th^ 
births ( jdfiitHan) of the gods ; he bore up the brahmiin from the midst 
of the briihman; downwaril, upward, he set forth unto the svadhds. 

This is found elsewhere only in TS. (ii. 3. 14''), which, in a, b, has the less unman- 
ageable as\d bdndhunt rfi^vant ;iht- ; and, in d, nictui tutd svtMtM *bh(. Ppp. 
seems to aim at nearly the same readings with its bttndhuw vi\vtlm dtvA jan-^ and 
fthiU Uic.l sr./e/AiiyJ *//. Most of the mss. (iiuluding our P.M.W.E.I.K.Kp.) read 
ytiy/Zi' for y^ryA/ in a; our O. omits the /# of umJ/V/, and Op. omits that of S7>ad/idb» 
The comm, gives .ilternatixe e\pl.inations o^variinis of the parts of the verse, trying 
//if /ii/iit- both from yitn and from yfid (the translation takes it from y<r//, as no middle 
form from pta-yAa occurs elscwheie in the text) ; and snuilids as either object or subject 
of ptii (in the latter case taUhdu being for ta\thiie by the equivalence of 

all \eibal forms), and at any r.ite signif\ing some kind of saciifnial foo<l. 

4. For he of the heaven, he of the earth the right-staiuler, fixed 
{sktibh) [a.s his] abode {ksnuii) the (two) great firmaments (r 6 iiasi)\ the 
great one, when born, fixed apart the (two) great ones, the heaven [as] 
seat {sddman) and the earthly space {rajas). 

l’p[) , after our \> 3. makes a verse out of our 4 c. d and 5 n. b: and tlu n, after our 
vs. (), another verse out of our 4 a. b and > c. d , anil I S. (11. 3. 14' ) and (ly. f». 3) 

combine our 4 c, d and 5 a, b m tlic same way (omitting the rest), while Aik (i lo-3) 
virtually supports them, by giving our c as a luatika. .Ml the three read in c astabhayat 
(TS. without accent), and At.'S. intrudes pttd after dydm in d. In inii.ievl we ought 
to have not onlv (with IS ) ii\kabhCtyat in c. but also dsk- m b. the aumts seem to 
have been e.xchangcd by a blunder The comm makes tlie sun tlie “he” of a: he 
renders ku'mam in b bv avtna^o yathd bliavatt , and ,•/ in c a|>p.irently by 
vartamdnah. The .\nuki. passes unnoticed the deticieni v of a svilabh* (unless we 
resolve pa dr/h ) in d [^In a supplementary note, K. reports Tpp as reailing in a, b sa 
hi vrthd’ {}) rn'Kthd tnayi ksdmam bhajtiM vi'^kabhayati. and as giving y/Ai// for 
\diima in d.J 

5. ilc from the fundamental birth ijamis) h.ilh attained (a() unto 
(abki) the summit; Hrihaspati, the universal ruler, [is] the divinity of 
him ; since the bright (^ukra) day was born of light, then let the shining 
{(iyumdnt) seers {vipra) fade out (.^ vi-vas) [shine out 

[\Vhitnc-\’.s prior draft reads “dwell apart” This he has ch.ingerl (by a slip? if. 
ii «S. 2) to “fade out,” from tv/* •shim*.’ In tins t.isi* 7 'itsan/u would be iiiegular, 
for t/ uchantu : see Weber's note, p. 7.J Tlie i>ther two texts (see j)reccding note) 
reifl our a thus r.f bitdhnad d\ta ytinusd 'bhv iiyram. ,\\\A 'I S. has in.stead of 

tdiya in the next p.Vl.i: no variants .ire reported from I'pp. Some of tlie A\'. mss. also 
(including our Ik.M.W.I.K.Kp ) give bttdluuid , but all have after it the impo.s.sible form 
Ct\tra. whiih Si’P. ai cordingly retains in his text, though the comm, too gives dita ; 
this IS read by emendation in our text. Vauifitn, of course, might come from vas 
•dwell' or 7 'ni ‘clothe’ [for vas-atiVn N \\ the romm. app.arcntly Ukes it from the 
former, paraphrasing the p.'ul.i by dlptimanta rt-riyah \ 7 >a\ 7 Hi 7 'yilpdrcpi vividham 
vaitanidm. or, alternatively, ha^drbhir dt’ 7 *dn pamarantu. There is no reason for 
calling the verse bhuriy, [Af^’.S. reads H\rniim (mi.sprint ?) for afrrdut.^ 



-IV. 2 

. 6. Verily doth the further (///) that of him — the abode (> d/id- 

mafi) the great god of old (pnrvyd ) ; he was born together with many 
thus, sleeping now in the loosened eastern half. 

No other text this verse save which has for d puyvddarUd avttiuraii ca 

sahruk. I he comm. re.i(ls in \i pYtt:ut \y a ^ and two or three mss. (including our P.) 
agree with him. .Some mss. (including out (J Op ) have at the end sasdm mi; and the 
comm, also so reads, explaining s<isa .is .in iinttanafnan , the true reading is possibly 
sasdnn u (but the text divides stniin mi). The comm, explains kavya Sis yajfiu 
(from ka^d ^ r/ 7 'ij d/ttiMan as ifforup^un mandaldimakadt ^thanam^ esa in c as the 
sun, and the “many’’ his thousand r.a>.s, .ind vt\iia as vn^eu'iia sambaddha. The last 
pada lacks a syllable, unless we re.solve pu t u-e. 

7. Whoso shall approach (.^ ava-gam) with homage father Atharvan, 
relative of the gods, Brihas])ati --- in order that thou mayest be generator 
of all, poet, god, not to be harmed, self-ruling {} svadJuiiumt). 

The translation implies in d emendation of ddbhayat to ddbhdya; both editions have 
the former, with all the mss ami the comm, (who tomfortalily expl.iins it hy dabhuoit or 
kintis/t). The comm, also reads in b bt haspatt\ , and this is sujiported by the Ppp. 
version : t'J pitaram ‘:’i\-,'itde 7 'am bt /laspaitr uuina^d I'o da/sva : and 

so on (c, d debited) 'I he comm tikes a:>a yiitkdt as janlyaty and svadfulv&n as 
* joined with food in the foiin of oblation ” 

2. To the unknown god. 

[ IV/M. — iltmadii!' itam ttih^tidham 6 furo' nuyubh ; S u/>ijnrttf/fVotts.] 

Found in Paipp i\. (m the \erse order i . 2. 4, 3. 5. 6. .S, 7). Tlic h)mn is mostly a 
version, with con.suler,ible \ .\riants. of the noted K\'. x 121, found also in other texts, as 
TS. (iv. 1.8). .M.S. (M n 23). and Vs (in sundr\ places), and K. \1. 1. It is used by 
KAu^. ill the cerctinni) {\\ i It ). at the begmning, with the preparation 

of consecrated w.iter foi it. and (45 1 ) with the s.icnhce ot the feetus of the T’rtrfd-cow’, 
if she be found to be pugnant In \ .nt. (8 22), \s 1 (or the h\mn.=‘) accompanies an 
offering to i*r.ij.~ipatt in tlie n't/ur satiilicc. 7 (2S. 34), the .setting of a gold 
man on the pl.ite of gnld deposiieil with an ompanimenl of \s. i of the preceding hymn 
(in the at^uinivuua) . and the wJude hxmii goes with the tnuiddua olferings in the same 
ceremony (28. 5). 

Tran.slated : as a I\\’. In inn. bv .Max Muller, .htiitut Stim>knf Literature (1850), 
p. 569 (cf. p. 43 n. .Muir, DSr. n - K* , Ludwig, no 94-^ • Cir.issmann. ii. 308 ; .Max 
Muller, Hibheri Leitme\ (18S2). p 301 . Henr) \\ Wallis. Losui{ 7 u}yy oj the A*f ., 
p. 50 ; Peter Peterson, Ifymus the /iV no 32, p 291, notes, p 244 ; Max Muller, 

I'edte I!ymn\, SlU; \\\ii i, with elaboi.ite notes; Deiissen. Gewhuhte, i 1.132: as 
an AV. hym. , by (iritrith, i. 131 , WVber, xviii.S.— Sec Dcussen’s el.iborate discussion, 
I.C., p. 1 28 tf . ; von Schroeiler. /Vr A'/gr’eda bei den Kathas, W ZKM. xii. 2.S5 ; Oldcnberg, 
Die Hymnen des A’/'., i. 314!. . Laninan, Sanskrit AVadei. p. 3‘)*-3 = Bloomfield. 
JAO.S. XV. 184. 

I. He who is soul-giving, strength-giving ; of whom all, of whom [even] 
the gods, wait upon the instruction; who is lord (if) of these bipeds, who 
of quadrupeds — to what god may w'e pay worship (: 7 c///) with oblation.^ 

iv. 2- 



In the parallel texts, our vs. 7 stands at the hcj^innin;; of the hymn. They alid com- 
bine ditfercntly tlie material of our vss. i and 2, making one verse of our 1 a, b and 
2 c. d, and another of our 2 a, b and 1 c, d; and in this Ppp. agrees with them. RV. 
and VS. (win. 3) read in c /(V asyif. The comm, renders iltMin/tlt ‘‘who gives their 
soul (or .sell) to .ill animals": of course, with the native authohties everywhere, he 
expl.iins kdsMiii in d as “to Pr.ij.ip.iti.” The Anukr. igm^re.s the y^/i/fX/y-character of c. 
[_RV.TS.MS.\'S. omit the second vi/jr of our c. M.S. has yd iisyif; TS. has yd /f/ 
itfitt at iv. i.S, hut tt\yd at vii. 5. 16. l\ida.s a-c recur at xiii. 3. 24. — In view of the 
history ol this hiinn in Hindu iitual and speculation (cf. SHE. xxxii. 12; AU. iii. 21), 
it might be better to phrase the refrain thus: * Who is the goil that mc are to worship 
with oblation.^ 'J 

2 . He who by his greatness became sole king of the breathing, wink- 
ing animal creation of whom immortality of whom 

death [is] the shadow — to what god may we pay worship with oblation.^ 

R\'.VS. (wiii 3) TS. rectil) the meter of b by .adding U alter \'S. has the 

had reading //////vw/Aijr. MS gives a ditferent ver.sion . /////;/ iir/d^ cti ftljd pdtir 7»/f- 
7'ttsyit /»- . and Ppp. .igrces with it. eviept as substituting vidhartil for <*</ tdjd. 

“His shadow" (in c). the comm., as being depende