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1 ). 8 . MALtUOUOimi, M. A. 

iiAintuH i>iuii'i:a!>()U iii' Mtuim m tiid I'HivniMti'v or oxford, 
URUiiMi or ‘I'lir. iiov.M. asivtio HOrii.n, I'liK boritrii ADrATKiiJi'. , asi) 'tiio 



LUZAO & Oo.' 

40 (frciil Kussoll Blroet 


Oiiinmetittiry on Ik Qui’'&n Itiut koupriulod 
ftt LoipHiii, 1840 (odilicd by K. L. MHcher), al Boulak, 
ISOi) (on lilio margin oC Bltaykb /jadoK’i) gloHs), 
and 1})B0 (on llie margin of Ml-Klmllajt'fl gloss), and 
OunstiinUnoplo, 11)00 A.II. (witb tho oouimonl^iry of tk 
JaMain on ik margin); and Eibograpbed at Lucknow 
edition 138S A.E.), and Gonstontmople (1800 A.E.; on the 
margin of tk Qur'an) Of tliase editions tk most eaally 
ptoourable is tk small edition of 1803, at about £ 1, issued 
simultaneously in Cairo and OonstantinoplBi As kwever 
it teems with misprints, a collation of it with tk careful 
recension of H. L. Fleischer has been appended to this 
Ohrostomathy, from which the student will do well before 
he commences the study of Sura 111 to correot his copy. 
Fart of the commentary on Ska 11 has been translated 
into French and explained by 6. de Sacy in bis Mklogie 
OrmmHcak} the whole of the commentary on Sura X 
was edited, but without explanation, in Eenzius’ Fre^- 
nenk Ar(^oa (Dorpat, 1882). Fragments of it are rende> 
red into English in Hughes's DioUoiws of iate and other 
work by English scholars. 

1} Thla Uei is not inionded to be esbeiigtive. 

TI rafiPAOR. 

The imnslalion olTeved to uludeniK In tliiii Ohrontonmlhy 
is based on ihe following works; 

A. Snpercojnmentaries. Some glosses by Bl-tlabjient on hi<« 
comment-ary are occasionally quotBil: ami owing to it<* 
great popularity, it acquired a groat numlit'f of super* 
commentators, of whom lists are given by tlio luidio- 
grapber Hajji Khalfab and by Ablwardt in his Catalogue 
of the University Library at Berlin. The Library of the 
India OfSee and the Kbedivial Library at Cairo are aleo 
liob. in tins Bteratura. The following three published glownw 
have heon used for the pcoeont work; 

1. The gloss oi SMki eMtfi M'-Khufaji , who dtwl In 
Igypt in 1069 He held tho offlco of slaSlt 
and is known to scholars by bis cominontary on tho ii^ 
of Ilariii (published at Oonstontlnoplo) , and hia literary 
history called tLfWi lUL^ (printed repeatedly at Cairo), at 
the end of which he gives a ahotl autobiography. Hia 
gloss on Baidawj called Jt^Ue is a oompilalloii, em- 
bodying the contents of tho earlier glosses and enriched 
by learned grammatical and rbelorioal disquisitionB by the 
author. It occupies 8 volumes foL 

S. The gloss of ZM (Mohammed b, Mu^lil? 
el dm Mustafli 11-Kuljt) wBo died 951 A.II. This was 
published at Bonlak in 4 folio volumes in 1283 A.!. It 
is mainly theological and consists largely in quotations 
froip. Fakhr el-dm’s commentary. 

3. The gloss of the Luoknow edition, This edition is 
provided with marginal and inteflinear notes, as well as 
with figures to guide the reader in referring tho prono* 
miual affixes, the work of some very competent scholars. 
Most of the glosses occur word for word in the work ol 
El-Khafiji, but not all, Were the lithography of this odi- 


Won Bomawliat olearer, it would bo Iho most useful ibr 
the student. 

B. Other commentaries on the Qur’an. 

The *amearu 'l-ianzll is said to be a compilation of the 
commentaries of El-Eaghib (circ. 500), M-Zamakhshari 
(467 — 6S8; called oLftXll), and Fakhr el-din El-Eftzl (ob. 
606; colled gybu). Of these the commentary of 

El-Eaghib, ofton oited by Shih., has not boon accessible 
to the translator. The bulk of B.’s commentary is taken, 
with some alteration in the expression, from the famous 
of whicli it is somotimos callod an opitonio. The 
KiutMd/ , publiHlied by W. NuHsau fjoos , Calcutta 1857 , 
and mure recently at Cairo , is a work of groat goniuH 
and loarnlng, which liowovor suiferod from tho Mu^tasllito 
upinious of the writer. Those 11. sumotimes lefulos, somo- 
timos neglects, aud occasionally, by oversighl, copies*. 
Traditions, as woU as grammalioal and rhetorical obsorva- 
tiona, for tho latter of whioh ibo Kashsk^f is especially 
celebrated, are ordinarily repealed; while tho textual ori- 
tioism is summarised. Tho commentary of Eakhr el-dm 
has boon printed repeatedly; the copy used by the trans- 
lator is in six iblios aud bears tho dale 1286. Some 
account of it is given by I. Qoldziher in his treatise on 
the Zahirites. It is a vast thesaurus of Qur'anie learning, 
much of it being devoted to the refutation oi^&KashMjf 
and other Mu'tazilile works. The oulhor’s habit of dividing 
bis matter into heads renders it tedious reading. The uso 
made of it by B. would seem inconsiderable, at least in 

1) Tikoto 1 b In the Khedivial L!brai 7 a worlc dealing vitli tliie aulqeoti oallod 
vJlAiit SfKsJiiO (jijUn^t U The Butgoot 

is alluded lo by the biagrapbet at Ibu Atabi, in tbe intraduotion to the B. M. 



this sura. A more receul fommentary l»y El-Klmtilt El- 
Sharbinl (ob. 977) called ^**11 

printed and lilLograpliod , treat.H B.'b comuiButary miu*h ne 
B. treated tlie KasMtuf, 

It ia to be observed that the inlerpretationB given by 
B. are not ordinarily, if ever, original but are tranpablu 
to earlier commentators on the Qur’an, commencing with 
‘the Interpreter of the Qur’an’ Abdallah !J. 'Abbil*', A list 
of tbeao commentators is given by Fprmiger in hw Uft* of 
Mobammed (vol. HI, pp. oxiii — oxviii). Tn fmd out t!w 
names of the scholars suppoaad lo ho ro«iwjiii«ifih* liw par- 
tioular opinions it, is nocosHory lu rofor t» the 
of El-Farra El-Jlagliawt (oh. nilt, nallcid HUsiUtho 
graphod, but wilh oounllosH miawri tings, liauilmy lilUb, 
Sprenger’s data 1269 seeirw truer). H. must have bueit 
awaro of tho exislenco of this work, siuce he oummeikted 
on the of tho some author, but dues nut seem Ut 

have used it, * 

0. Mannals’ of the Mohammedoir soloneos, 

a. TraMtioth. The traditions ipnoted come for tite most 
part under the head called yL*,*! or yLy*t, 

‘ocoasions of the revelatlbn of certain texts', and so br as 
they belong to the commontariee have a bad reputation*; 
a certain, number are to be found in the lives of the Pro- 
phet, y.xs', of which the oldest is that by Ibn 

1) S. Z. points oni tlwt tho olBomtion whioh B. oUinu m hi* own on t 
p. 28 I 14 (Fleisohor) ie mlly F. D.’n. 

2) In tho nhridgment of the d.Sj*XJ) oalled yl^ by BI- 

Khaein, tho lAiibwi or Ueie of nathorities »r« omitted, 

3) Halabi 11. 223 of a tradition : fjA Lejt J 

lyXi", Many woihs heoriaij the name JifiJI ylyMt are rimmera- 
ted by H. Kb. 



called ptiMshed by Wiistenfeld (Qoltingon , 

1800), Thoi'0 are luauy oilier works on this subject of 
ancient and modem date; tlie Ufo called 8^ ^ 

^y«Ut by AH B. Bnrhan el-din Bl-IIalabiis a aseM 
compilation; while in EngHsh and German the works of 
Muir and Sprenger still hold the field; indeed no more 
instructive work than Sprenger’s {das Lehm md die Lehre 
dcs Muhammad, 1870) has ever been written on the origins 
of Mohammedanism. For notices of the Prophet’s foHowers 
roferenoe baa been made to tlio biographical iliotioxiai7 of 
Bin El-Athir (ob. 080) called SuUSPJt Sij*-* ,^^3 XiLxJt i\.«t 
(G Yolumiis, Bouhik, 1288). Another did ionary on a vast 
scale called by Ibn llajar century) has boon 

published in (ho Dibllothoca liullca. — Much oonneclod 
with tho Tradition properly so called has recently been 
ohioldalod by the publication of the of li-Suyuti 
(Oairo, i807)j and tho 2«^ part of I. Goldzihor’s Moham~ 
madamehe Sittdm. Scholaw have now the advantage of 
studying tho most important collections in type or litho- 
graph. Numerous editions have been published of the Salii(t 
of El-Bukliari (ob. 2BC) with the very valuable commentary 
of El-tjasl^alaai (ob. 923), known also as the author of a 
work on Mohammed called (published at 

Cairo 1278 with the commentary ofBl-ZuriianiinSvolumes 
fob). ^ The later editions of QastalBui’s commentary on 
Bukhlin have on their margin the ^ahth of Muslim with 
the conxmentary of Bl-NawSwi; there is also a beautifully 

1) B. does not always follow fiukliM’i traditions; e, g. the aooount givon 
of tho vorsos IjJbsi’ vyjLXJfit I,; iii, 67 in tho § on pjjidt 
(Qastalani rd. S, vli. p, 58) is not notiood hy hint. Had Krehl’s edition of 
tho SahTli boon Anished we might hare had an index, which would be of help 
in Iraolng tho passages of tho Qat’nn sluoidatcd. 



printed edition of Mnslim 'baariMg; tlie dale 11387. Of J31- 
Tiimidhi, AM Dawud, Hl-NaBR’i and Ihn Miljah there are 
Indian lithographs with judieionaly excerpted gloesea, ESI* 
Baidawi himself commented ontheitJuJ! ofEl'Baghawi, 
a oonrenient snnunary of anlheniio tradition, to which 
therefore reference has frequently been made. 

i. law' El-Bai(jiawi helonged to the school of El-Shafi% 
which, like that of Abu Hanifah, possesses a very co- 
pious literature, while the schools of Malik and Abimad 
B, Hanbal are less voluminoxm. Of those schools skotohes 
which, though somewhat fanciful, aro brilliant, are to be 
found in yon Kremer’s OidiurgenoMe/ite witer dm KAaU/m, 
El-Baidawi himself wrote a manual of Law called JtaliJ' 
ijyoiiJi. leference has been made in the notes to the 
yuilLJI g.LgA* of El-Nawawi (oh. G76), a code of greet 
authority, which has been published with a valuable 
French translation by van den Berg (Batavia, 1882) j the 
recent Oairene edition with the very copious aomzaentary 
of El-Khatih El-Bharbai called gL^jUl 
is also very useful, while the earUer edition conlaiuiug 
the gloss of Ma^baUt with supercommeiitarieB is of use 
only to experts. For the comparison of different sysleniB 
reference is sometimes made to the work called 
of El-Sha'rftni, puhhshed together with the somewhat sim- 
pler work called 

fl. of JiiHsprudenoe (hSrII JjaoI), Works on this 

subject deal with the sources of Law and the Logic to be 
eppHed to them. The main treatise was the Jyw;?? of 
Fakhr el-dm El-Razi, of which there are many epitomes, 
among them Bl-Baidawi’s own manual called JjlajJI gL^jU 
JU-JS.&. it, of which there are several MSS. with 
valuable commentaries in Oxford. As this treaUse is of 



great merit it has been frequently quoted in the notes 
(from the New OoUege MS.). Printed or lithographed hooks 
on the PrindpleB of Jurisprudence are the 

jL*aX».l (Malekite) by Shihah al-dinEl-Qfrafi(oh. 684; 
Cairo 1306, etc.), the 

(Hanefite, Lucknow 1876 A. D.), the with commen- 
tary called g**y by El-Taftazani (ob. 79S) publi^ed at 
Kazan; and with commentary (Lucknow 1878 

A. B.); to the last reference has occasionally been made. 

d. SoholasUc Theology , (jiiUfit), or the philosophical basis 

of religion. B, as an orthodox Muslim belonged to the 
school of Abu’l-Hagan El-*Aah‘arT. He himself wrote two 
treatises on this subject; one called of which 

there are several MS. copies in Oxford, in all of which 
however the text is imperfectly given; another called 
pLijalt which is rare. No manual ever acquired as great 
popularity as the vJiSlyp of *Adud el-dm M-’Iii (ob. 766) 
which with the commentary of Bl-Jurjam (ob. 816) has 
often been printed and lithographed; the last two 'stations’ 
treating of ‘divinity’ were published separately by Soerensen. 
The Indian lithograph to which < reference has ordinarily 
been made bears the date 1S84. 

e, MysUed Theology (or Sufim), To this El-Baidawl 
shows not a few leanings, a fact which agrees with what 
we know of his Ufe. The leading work on this subject is 

oL;>yail, of Ibn 'Arabi (ob. 638), described by von 
’Kr ffmfl r in his Jlerrse&ende Ideen des Islam, It has been 
published at Oairo in 8 imperial quartos, and is very te- 
dious reading, An abstract of it by El-Sha'ram called 
Uaf is less trying. 

Besides these disciplines three more require to be mentioned; 

zn raMAOB. 

/. TeehdeaMUei of iJie These are dealt 'with hy 

Bl-S'uyuti in Mb interesting work cfQleA ^ yUj'Jit 
published in the BibUothca Indica and also at Cairo. The 
text of the Qni^an was to a certain extent offloially fixed 
by the OaJiph Tlthman; but from the nature of the Arabic 
writing employed at the time this text admitted of consi- 
derable di-rersity of interpretation, and, as Sprenger says, 
every possible interpretation of it ■was advanced by some 
reader or other. Of TJthman’s text five copies (according 
to the authority cited by SuyuU p. 141) were sent totho 
chief Mohammedan cities, Mecca, Damascus, Bnijra, Oufa, 
Medina j and the pronunciation of sevon readers belonging 
to these capitals at some lime in the second century 
acquired general recognition for orthodoxy ; each of llioso 
readers is known by two mportors plural their 
names were: 

Naf of Medina (oh. 169) recorded by Qate and 
Idn, KatMr of Mecca (ob. 120) recorded by and 
J2m ^Jmr of Ba^ra (ob. 164) recorded by iBi-Darl and JSi-Sitel. 
En ^3am of Damascus (ob. 118) recorded by EUfm and 
Em EMkmSn. 

of Oufa (ob. 127 or 128) recorded by Abn Bakt 
B, and ^a/j. 

Eama of Oufa (ob. 156) recorded by Kkalaf and KMlUd. 
of Oufa (ob. 189) recorded by Bl-JMn and Ah^l- 

To these seven. Baidawi adds an eighth, Ffl^jtlJQfBa^ra, 
ob. 206, whose reporters were Rmtm and while 
others speak of im orthodox readers, adding Abu Mfa^ 
TiK?d of Medina, and Mdaf B. EisUm. of Oufii, ob. 229. 
The names of other readers of eminence are given by 
Suyutii p. 171; and to their readings reference is oocasi- 

jpuaifAOE. xni 

onaJly made by B., more frequently by Zam. Many books 
contoiuiug coUectious of reailings are to be found in the 
£hedmal Library and elsewhere; Suyutil p> meutions 
a few of them ; the most popular is the of El-DSiUi 
(oh. 444) redueed into verse by El-Shatibl. Punctuation 
or pause (_ii^t) ,iB the subject of special treatises, such 
as the jLu of El-Ishmuni (puhHshed at Cairo). 

The readings, which for the most part concern questions 
of grammar and dialect, depend partly on tradition, and 
partly on criticism; El-Dam in the treatise referred to 
gives the names of the readers through whom each of the 
seven obtained his information, while in F. D.’s commen- 
tary critical grounds are given that may be urged in fa- 
vour of or against different readings. 

g. Grammctr. El-BaidAwl wrote a treatise on this subject, 

viz. a commentary on the of Ibn El-Sajib. The gram- 
matical statements in the commentary come for the most 
part directly from Zam., whose grammar called is 

still one of the moat pojjular manuals of the subject, and 
has been edited several times with great care by J. P. Broch 
at Oh^stiania (ed. S. 1879). To this reference has regularly 
been made in the notes; and, where necessary, to the 
verbose commentary on it by Ibn Talsh published for the 
German Oriental Society by G. Jahn. The Mufa^^ai is an 
abridgment of the vLxi' ol Sibawaihi, published in Paris 
by H. Derenbourg and made by the learned Jesuit Vernier 
the basis of his excellent grammar ; a translation of the 
original by Dr. G. Jahn is in course of publication. 

h. Rhetone, The most popular work on this subject is 

the gloss called by Sa'^d el-dm El-Taftazant on the 
^Ualt of Jalal el-din MahunBd El-Qazwini (oh. 789), 

which has been lithographed at Lucknow. 



Tte region therefore which ia not indeed covered , but 
occasionally invaded by B.’s oommentary on the Qur’an is 
a very wide one; and the advantage of the study of it ia 
that it leads the student directly into all the best culti- 
vated fields of Mohammedan thought. This is why it has 
been set as a subject for the Oxford Oriental school, for 
the needs of which this Ohrestomathy is primarily intended. 


B. = El-Bai(Jawi 

F. = E1-Farra ELBaghawi, 

F. D. = Faklir el-din El-liazi. 

F. M. == The futuljM mMiimah ol' Ibn ‘Arabl. 

G-1. =3 G-loss of tbe Lucknow edition. 

Muf. = Tlia mufasnai of M-Zainakbskan. 

S. Z. = Sbaykli ZOideb’e gloss. 

Sliai'b. »=i El-Khat>ib El-Sliarbtni. 

Shill. = Shihab el-diu El-Khaftiji’s gloss. 

Zam. = The haMiof of ll-Zamakhshan. 

In the transliteration of Arabic words compound lettem 
hh, etc.) are underlined; in proper names the underline 
■and the signs of longtheiiiug oto. are frequently omitted. 
In the transliteration of the arliok it is dilEcult to de- 
cide whether to imitate the orthography or the pronun- 
ciation; the former has, with some reluctance, been followed. 

1) Ilia full name was iya»r di-thn Ala Sa'ld AlMkth B. Omar 
QSdi ’IQiidSi. His doath-dute is Tariooaly ^iven 682, 686 and 691. Bai^ is 
is a town in Persia eight parasangs from SbirBs, where B. was Qadl. He 
died at Tabriz. Besides the worhs mentiened in the Picfuce he also wrote a 
general history in Persian, of which the portion dealing with China has been 
published {Aldalku Btidavaei Akioria Brntuit perrici et htine edila al A»- 
drect MiMero Qreifenhagio printed at Berlin 1677 . and published at Jena 
1679). Considering his fame, it is remarkable that the biographers have next 
to nothing to toll us about him. 



EoTdaled at Medina. Its wses are Wo linndred in 

1, ^Mf Mm Mim God — tJ^ere is no god hut Ee; the 
final m of the word Mm was given the vowel failut in 
the vnlgate S although it would naturally have had no 
vowel *, owing to the vowel of the Itmm of ^IMm being 
transferred to it®; which was to show that the Aamza of 
HlsAu is virtually unelided^ being here elided for the 
sake of abbreviation®, and not because it occurs in the 
middle of a sentence®; for the m is virtually in pause. 
The abbreviation is similar to that in the enumeration 
where the vowel of the hmm at the be- 
ginning of HthnM is transferred to the final d of m^id. 
The fdlut is not due to the ‘concurrence of vowelless con- 
sonants’ ®, for to this there is no objection when the sec- 
ond of those consonants is in pause®! for which reason 
the m of lam (the second of the introductory letters) has 
no vowel ^®. — There was another reading ” Mm HWm, 
where the * is due to the supposed ‘concurrence of vowel- 



STJEA in. 

lees conaonauta'j and Abu Bakr read iMin, -wilhoul final 
vowel, and made what follows a fresli senlenoe, in which 
the Iimiga of ^IWm received its natural vowel. 

the Iwmg , the mstamirng-, it is recorded^* that the 
Prophet said : The Mightiest name of Q-od is to be found 
in three Suras; 11. 256; HI. 1; XX. 110. 

2. Se Im reoealed mto thee the Booh; the Qui'’an, text 
by teit“ 

with truth; with justice or, with truth in its narra- 
tives; or, with arguments that demonstrate that it is from 
God. The word is in place of a circumstantial phrase 
eonjk'ming what was before it; the Books that were before it, 
wad Re semi down, Hie Lww and the Gospel; in a body to 
Moses and Jesus respectively. The derivation of these 
words from waray 'to strike a light’ and nagala 'to draw 
water' giving them the measures iaf^ilabm and Hfikin 
respectively is forced, since they are both foreign, as is 
confirmed by the fact that some read ^wnfdma, which is 
not an Arabic formation. ’Abu 'Amr, Ibn Dhakwan, and 
El-Kisa’i read elrtwmStu with "‘irralo, throughout’the Quifan ‘®. 
iyiamza and Nafi' gave it the intermediate pronunciation ; 
except QalQn*®, who pronounced it with faiJyi like the 
rest of the readers. 

heforehcmd; before he revealed the Qmfan. 
a guidance to manUnd; mankind generally, if we suppose 
ourselves bound by the code of our predecessors®*; other- 
wise the Jews and Christians are meant. 

and He revealed the Oriierion; meaning the Divine Books 
generally **; since they distinguish between true and false ®®. 
He mentions this after mentioning the three books, in 
order to include others besides the three; ^e much as to 
say 'and He sent down all the means whereby the true is 


distinguished from the false.’ Or he may mean the Psalms ; 
or, the Qur’an; thus mentioning the Qur’an again, under 
an epithet, to exalt and magnify it, and to show its superi- 
ority over the others, in as much as it resembles thein 
in being a roTelation sent down, but is distinguished from 
them as being a miracle**, whereby the speaker of truth is 
distinguished from the speaker of falsehood. Or, he may 
mean the miracles *®. 

3. Verih/ tAose who ■dAsboUeoe the signs of Oodj such as 
the Books which He sends down, and others. 

for them is a i&rrMe ggmislmenti on account of their 

and God is mighty s -victorious; He cannot be prevented 
from punishing. 

lord of nengeanaes such as no avenger can, wrea k 
Nigmaim is the punishment of the sinner, from which 
comes the verb nagama or The passage is a menace 

introduced after the affirmation of the unity and the al- 
lusion to the basis of Mohammed’s prophetic claim, in 
order to magnify the matter and to warn mankind against 
.neglecting it. 

4. , f wily nothing is oonoealedfrom God in earth or in heaven^ 
i. e. Nothing which comes to pass in the world, be it 
universal or particular*®, faith or unbelief. He expresses 
this by the terms heaven and earth, becauses the senses 
cannot go beyond them; and he mentions the earth first, 
in order to ascend from lower to higher, and because what 
is intended to be mentioned is what is committed on earth. 
The verse is, as it were, a proof that He is ali-ve; 
•whereas the folio-wing 

JBe it is who form you in the worths as He will; — 
i. e. out of the different forms — is, as it were, a proof® 


SDiu. m. 

of His q^uality of sustainer, and is like an argument that 
He is wise, based upon Ibe perfection of His work in 
creating and forming the embryo Others read tasaio- 
warahm. ‘formed you for Hamself and for His worship.’ 

fhere is no God but He; since none except Him knows 
what He knows or can do what He does. 

the Mighty , the Wise; indication of the porfection of His 
power and the absoluteness of His wisdom ■ — It has been 
said that this passage is an argument against those who 
say Jesus is Lord; for when the envoys from Najran 
argued with the Prophet on this matter, the Sura was 
revealed as fer as past the 80*^ verse, to confirm the 
arguments which he used against them and his answers 
to their q^uibbles •*. 

5. He it is who sent down unto thee the Booh wherein are 
elahorate verses; elaborately expressed in that they are 
preserved from ambiguity and obscurity. 

they are the mother of the Book; its foundation, to which 
other texts are referred. Analogy would suggest ^ummahotm 
in the plural; the singular implies that hvma is to be in- 
terpreted ‘each one of them’, or that aH these verses count 
as one verse. 

md others equivocal; ambiguous, whose drift is not clear, 
owing to their generality**, or to their contradictmg 
some clear text, except by examination and study, in order 
that the excellence of the learned may be displayed over 
them, and that their zeal may be increased for their study 
and for the acq^uisition of the soienoes on which the evolu- 
tipn of their meaning is based, and that they may rise 
to the highest ranks by employing their talents in educing 
their meaning and harmonizing them with the elaborate 
texts. As for the expression (XL 1) ‘a book of which the 

SITEU. 01' TEE lAMILT 0]? ‘maAE. 


texts are elaborate’ tbe meaning is that they are preserved 
from false notions and improper phrases; while the expres- 
sion (XXXIX. 24) ‘an eq[uivooal hook’ means that it is 
uniform throughout in correctness of idea and beauty of 
language. is plural of and is diptote as 

being 1) an adjective, 2) altered from e?ukhray; and 
this latter fact does not render it necessarily definite; since 
the expression ‘altered’ means that whereas by analogy it 
diould have the astiole, it is without it; not, that it 
means the same as the form with the article. Or, it may 
be altered from ’'okha/ru mn 

cmA as for those in whose hearts is afoslasy ; rejection of. 
the truth, like the schismatics. 

they follow those that a/re equivocal; and adhere to their 
letter, or to a false interpretation of them. 

seehmg to a^ostatiee; seeking to draw men away from 
their religion by suggesting doubts and difficulties, and 
making the equivocal texts contradict the elaborate. 

and seehmg to exflam it; seeking to explain it to mean 
what they want. Now it is possible that the cause of their 
following the equivocal texts may be both these desires 
together, or each of them alternately; now the first coiv 
responds with the case of the hardened opponent, while 
the latter suits the fool. 

a/nd none knows its emjolanaUon ; the explanation according 
to which it is to be taken. 

eaoejpt God and those who are firm in knowledge; those 
who are steadfast in it and have possession of it. Those 
who stop at ^Hla, Hlaku explain the equivocal part as refer- 
ring to what Q-od has reserved for Hie own knowledge, 
e. g. the duration of the world, and the time of the arrival 
of the Hour , and the properties of the numbers , such as 


SURA. in. 

the mimher of the wardeia of Hell , or as refeMing lo 
those texts of which the letter is shown by decisive argu- 
ments not to be the meaning, while there is no other in- 
dication of what their meaning is **. 

theij say We heUeve therm,; a fresh sentence explaining 
the conduct of those who are firm; or else a liixl depending 
on the word rasikhum", or else predicate, if you make 
el-rasikhma subject. 

ail is from, om Lord; both the elaborate and the equi- 
vocal are from Him. 

yet there rejleot not save those that are possessed of i?i- 
tolleets; tribute of praise to the Jdne intellect and careful 
study of the firm, and indication of the apparatus with 
which they provide themselves in order to bo guided lo 
its interpretation; viz. the abstraction of the inlollcet fi.'om 
the douds of sense. The connexion of this verse with what 
precedes lies in the fact that it deals with the information 
of the spirit and its decoration while the former deals 
with the formation and decoration of the body — or else 
in ,the fact that it is an answer to the Ohristians, when 
they take hold of such phrases as ‘His word which he 
oast into Mary and a spirit from Him’ (IV. 169), just as 
the former passage is an answer to their assertion ‘he has 
no father hut God, consequently it is clear that God must 
be his father’, by showing that God can form the embryos 
as He will, and therefore can form them with or without 
the fether’s sded, and by showing that God formed bi-m 
in the womb, and the former is not father to the formed. 

6. Qwr Lord do vat dieert ow hearts; part of the speech 
of the ‘firm’; according to others a fresB sentence'®. The 
meaning is: Do not divert our hearts from the path of 
truth to follow the equivocal texts according to interpre- 



tations wMcli do not please lliee. The Prophet said: The 
heart of man is between two of the fingers of the Merciful ; 
if He will, He establishes him in the truth, and if He will, 
He diverts bi'm from it. Others*' make the meaning: Do 
not try ns with afflictions wherein our hearts will go astray. 

after that thou hast ^ided m; to the truth ; or, to belief 
in both portions, ha'^da is in the accusative of the vessel *’, 
and '‘idh virtually in the genitive after it*’; others say 
^idh stands for **. 

and gwB m kindness from with thee; which shall bring us 
near thee, and which we shall possess with thee*®; or else 
help towards abiding in the truth; or, forgiveness of sins. 

vetihj thou art the giver; of all req^uests *®. Here is evi- 
dence that guidance and misdirection oome from Qod, and 
that He does a favour when He does good to His servants 
and that nothing is obligatory upon Him*^. 

7. Our Lord, verity thou shalt gather mankind for a days 
for the reckoning of a day; or, for the recompense of a day. 

wherein is no douits no doubt of its occurrence, or of the 
gathering and the recompense taking place thereon. They 
call attention by their words to the fact that their chief 
aim In their two prayers is what concerns the future world, 
for that future world is- the aim and the result. 

vmdy God will not Ireah the apporntment; for Hus divinity 
contradicts such a notion *®. And in order to call attention 
to this, and to magnify that which is promised, there is 
a change of person *®. The Wa'idites used this verse as evi- 
dence of their doctrine the answer given them is that 
the menace to the evildoers is conditional, on their not 
being forgiven, as is shown by special proofe, just as it is 
conditional on non-repentance, as we are all agreed. 

8. Verily those that disdeUeve; this may refer to the un- 


sinsA m. 

■believeis generally; others say to the envoys from Najran, 
or the Jews, or the polytheist Arabs. 

there shall not avail them their goods nor their children 
instead of God at all; i.e. iostead of His mercy; or, instead 
of obedience to Him ; giving mn the sense of 'instead of 
Or, against His punishment 

and those are the food of the fire; i. e, what is to be burnt 
therein. Others read mgudu meaning ‘fit to be burned 
in if. 

9. Hhe the fashion of tJte people of Bharaxth; counootod 
with the previous -words, meanuig ‘it shall not avail them, 
just as it did not avail those’; or, 'it shall be kindled 
upon them, as it shall be kindled upon those’; or, a now 
clause, virtually in the nominative"®, of which the full 
force is ‘their fashion is like the fiiahlon of tho others in 
respect of unbelief and punishment’; ddhm is tho infinitive 
of ddaha^ meaning ‘to take trouble in work’, whence it 
was transferred to tho sense of ‘businoss’ ®*. 

aaid those that were before them; connected by the con- 
junction -with ‘people of Pharaoh’ ; or, some say, a fresh 

th^ belied owt signs, and God took them for their sins; 
either a ^l in which qad is suppressed"®; or, a fresh 
sentence, to explain their character; or, predicate, if you 
make ‘those that were before’ subject. 

and God is a severe punished' ; showing the terrible nature 
of the punishment, and oflieriag an additional menace to 
the unbehevers. 

10. Si^ to them that disbelieve Ye shall be overeome and 
gathered info Sell; i. e, tell the polytheists of Mecca ; Ye 
shall he conquered , on the day of Bade ®®. Others say ; 
Tell the Jews; for -the Prophet assembled them after Badr 



in the street of the Banu Qainuq^a®’, where he warned 
them that the same would befall them as had beMlen the 
Quraish; and they said: ‘Be not deceived hecanse thou hast 
overcome tiros, who have no knowledge of war; if thou 
fight with us, thou shalt know that we are men’. Then 
this text was revealed®*. And God ratified his promise 
hy the slaughter of the Banu Quraizah'*, and the exile 
of the Banu Nadir*®, and the taking of Khaihar®', 
and the imposition of the tribute on the rest. And 
this is one of the evidences of Mohammed’s mission®*. 
5amza and El-Kisa’i read ‘they shall be conq^uered and 
gathered’, making God command Mohammed to deliver 
to them the menace to them in the same words in which 
it was delivered to Mohammed. 

cmd a bad bed it is; the end of the menace to them; or 
else a fiiesh sentence. The complete expression wotdd be 
‘a bad bed is HeU’ or ‘is what they have made for them- 
selves’ *’. 

11. There has been a sign to im, two parties; addressed 
to the Quraish, or, the Jews, or, the Believers. 

that met together ; on the day of Badr. 

a partg that fought in God^s wag, and mother mbeUeving 
who thought them twiee tlmr size; the Unbelievers thought 
the Believers twice the number of the Unbelievers, the 
numbers of the latter being nearly 1000; or, twice the 
number of the Muslims, who were somewhat over 310; 
this was after God had made the latter look less in 
the eyas of the former®*, so that they were encouraged 
to attack them; but when they encountered them, the 
latter were multiplied in the eyes of the Unbelievere, so 
that they conquered, God thus reinforcing the Believers. 
— Or, the BeHevers thought the Unbelievers twice 


emu m. 

the number of the BelieTers , -when they were really three 
times their number, so that they faeed them, and felt 
confident of the sueijpur which God had promised them 
in the words ‘if a hundred of you be patient, they shall 
conquer two hundred’ (YIII. C7)j and this is supported 
by the reading of Nafl' and Ya'qub ‘whom ye thought’. 
There are also two other readings : ‘they or ye were made 
to see them’, meaning God made them (or you) see that 
by His power Some read (a party) in the geni- 
tiye as permulative of Jl'aiami (two parties), others J?atan> 
as specializing accusative®'^; or as a circumstantial t)hrnso 
referring to the subject of ‘met together’ ®®. 
mih Lhe si^ht of Ute eye i witli clear faco-to-faco vision. 
and Qocl supports with his suecour whom lie loishes; to aid, 
just as He supported the soldiers at Uadr. 

rerily Uerein; in the diminution and niultiplioation ol 
their numbers; or, in the fact that a small number without 
equipment overcame a large number of well-armed men. 
The designation of it as ‘sign’ as well ®® will allow either 
of those interpretations, as well as a third viz. the event 
^ailing out according to the Apostle’s prophecy. 

there is indeed a warniny to those that have eyesj an 
admonition to those who are possessed of inteUigencej others 
say, to those who saw them. 

18. There has been beamtijied for men the love of hisks 
i. e. of the objects of desire which ho calls hists for rheto- 
rical effect, and to indicate that they are so sunk in the 
love of them that they love the lust after them; as in 
XXXYin, 31 ‘I love the love of good’. The beautifier is 
God in as much as he creates the acts and the motives; 
and perhaps He beautifies them in order to try men, or 
that they may be a means of obtaining happiness in the 

SmiA Oir THB BAirtLY 03? 'DMHAN. 


next world, if carried out in a way which pleatses God, or 
because that love is one of the causes of the maintenance 
of life and of the species. Others say the beautifier is 
Satan, because the yerae implies disapproval. El-Jubba’i 
made a distinction between the licit and the illicit^'. 

mch as womn Bhil&ren talents of full weight of gold and 
silver Jme horses and cattle and land; illustrations of the 
'lusts’, qw^run means a large sum of money, some say 
100,000 dmars”; others an ox-hide-fuU. It is a question 
whether the form is filahm, from qaniara, or fn^rthm 
from qatara’’*. nmqmiaratun m derived from it and added 
for the sake of sti’eugthening like hadrabtm vmbaddamtm 
for 'a complete badratm’ mtisawwamatun means 'marked' 
from saumatwi ‘a mark’; or ‘well-fed’ from ^asama or sm- 
wama ‘to feed cattle' ; or ‘of strong build’. Cattle 
includes camels, oxen, and sheep. 

that is the girovision of the present existence ; ‘that’ the 
things mentioned. 

^ but with Ood is the best return; the words are an ex- 
^tation to commute empty and perishing lusts for the 
real and eternal pleasures that are with Him. 

13. Sag; Shall I tell you of something better than that? 
confirmation of the fact that God’s recompense is better 
than the pleasures of the world. 

for them, that fear there are with their Lord gardesis 
beneath which rivers fow, to abide for ever therein; a 
fresh sentence to illustrate the thing that is better, Or the 
‘for’ of ‘for them’ may depend on ‘better’, so that ‘gardens’ 
in the nominative will imply the omission of the nominal- 
Bubjeot ‘it itf’. This latter view is supported by the reading 
jamdim (gardens) in the genitive, as a permutative of 
‘something better’. 


eiriu. ni. 

maA wives that are cleansed i ftom female pollution. 

(md good mil from Qodi ‘Seim according to tlie record 
of Abu Bakr read mdioaeim for ridwannn (good will) 
throughout the Qur^an except the second time the word is 
used in Sura V (V. 18). These are optional forms. 

(md Qod Jms am eye io His senmts', over their deeds, to 
reward the well-doer, and punish the ill-doer. Or, over the 
character of those who fear , and for this reason has prepared 
'gardens’ for them. And he calls attention in this verse 
to Q-od’s favours, of which the lowest is the provision of 
this world, and the highest the good will of Q-odj as he 
says (IX. 73) 'and good will from God is greater’; and 
the Garden with its delights is iutermedlate. 

14. {Those) who sa^: ow Lord, verily we heU&ue, so forgive 
us our sins and hee^ from us the punishment of epithet 
of 'those that fear’, or of 'the servants’, or accusative of 
praise or nominative of praise. Their basing their 
req^uest on the mere fact of their faith shows that faith 
is sufficient to merit forgiveness, or to prepare oneself 
for it”®. 

16. Who are patient, and who speah tite truth md who 
obey and who spend thein goods , and who ash forgweness in 
the mornings', an inclusive account of the stages through 
which the religious man passes, excellently arranged. ”® 
His dealings with God are either acts of eoneUiaUon, or 
reguests : the former are either ’ in the soul , and consist 
in keeping it from vice, and attaching it to virtue — 
these are included in 'patience’ ; or in the body, being either 
verbal (speaking the truth), or practical (obedience), or 
having to do with wordly goods (spending money in right 
ways) ; their reguests are represented by the prayer for for- 
giveness; since forgiveness is the greatest of the things they 



ask, or ratker includes tkem all. — The insertion of and 
before each member is to show that each of these acts is 
independent, and that they are perfect in it®“; or else is due 
to the fkct that the persons described are not in all cases 
the samej and the mornwtgs are particularized because prayer 
then is more likely to be answered, worship being then 
more troublesome, and the soul purer and the mind 
more collected, especially in the case of the ‘vigilant’, 
who, it is said, used to pray until morning and then 
ask forgiveness and invoke blessings’®. 

16. Qod is witness that there is no Qod bwt He; He 
proves His unity by establishing the evidences which in- 
dicate it, and by revealing the texts that declare it. 

and the Angels; by confessing it. 

cmd those that asre possessed of knowledge ; by faith therein , 
and by arguing it out. Ha compares these acts to the evidence 
of a witness, because by them the feet is made clear and 

abiding hy jmtiee; causing justice to be established, in 
His distribution (of goods) and His judgments, q^iman 
(abiding) is in the accusative as being a circumstantial 
phrase of ‘God’ in the words ‘God is witness’; and it is 
permissible to give the word ‘God’ a circumstantial phrase 
which does not apply to the other words connected "with 
it, while you could not say ‘Zaid and 'Amr came to me 
riding’ (singular, applying to Zaid only), because in the 
present case there can be no confusion, just as there is 
none in Sura XXI. 72 — Or, q^man may be dependent 

upon ‘He’, governed either by a verb implied in the sen- 
tence, e. g. 'He stands alone, abiding’, or 'I know Him, 
abiding’, as being a confirmatory circumstantial phrase ®*. — 
Or, it may be the accusative of praise ; or an adjective 


BCEi m. 

agieeing witli (God) tlie aceusaliYe after tlie nega- 

tire*®; but this is improbable, owing to tbe intervention 
of words between them If regarded either as an epithet 
of or as a oireumstantial phrase depending upon 

lima (He), it becomes pari of the proposition to which 
witness is borne. — Others read Hq^m% (He who abides) 
either as permutative of Imiaa (He), or as the predicate of 
an understood subject. 

ikett is m God but Ee; repeated for the sake of em- 
phasis , and to make us more carefol to know ** tho 
proof of the unity and acknowledge it when the evidence 
thereof is established; and also in order to help the 
construction of the following words 

i/ie miffidy f the toisej so that we might know that it is 
God to whom they apply. ‘The mighty’ is put first, because 
the knowledge of His power is prior to the knowledge of His 
wisdom; and the words are in the nominative as permu- 
tative of huwa, or as epithet of the subject of shahida. 
In reference to the importance of this text it is recorded ®® 
that the Prophet said: He that knows this text shall be 
brought on tho day of tho Eesuirection and God shall say 
‘This servant of mine has a convenant with me , and none 
keeps a covenant more faithhilly than I: take my servant 
in to the Garden’. The verse shows the importance of the 
science of ‘the Articles of Religion’ and the excellence 
of its professors. 

,17. Verilj/ reUgion mth God is Islam; fresh sentence, 
confirmatory of the last; no reUgiou is acceptable with 
God save Islam, which consists in acknowledging the 
unity and embracing the code which Mohammed brought. 
El-Eastf^ read ’’aana (‘that’ for ‘venly*), making the sen- 
tence a permutative of ^amahu (that there is) above; if 


Islam be explained to mean 'faith’ or what is implied by 
faith, the pennutative will be coextensire ; but if it be 
explained ‘the Islamio code’, then it will be comprehensive 
— ■ Others read (verily there is) and ^cmna (that 

reUgion), making the latter sentence ‘that religion before 
God is Islam’ the object of the verb ‘witnesses’, all between 
being parenthetical; or else giving ^aldda (witness) the 
construction of gala (says) with the first ®“, that of '^aUma 
(knows) with the second sentence, smce shaMAa has both 
these meanings. 

mA those to whom the Booh was given did not differ; 
those, i. 6. Jews and Christians, or the possessors of the 
previous books , ‘did not differ’ i. e, concerning the Islamic 
religion, some saying it was the truth, others that it 
concerned the Arabs only, others absolutely rejecting it; 
or else concerning the doctrine of the unity, since the 
Christians believe in three Persons, and the Jews say 
Ezra is the son of God Others say the people who dif- 
fered were the followers of Moses, who disputed after his 
death®’; others make them the Ohristians, who differed 
concerning the nature of Jesus. 

save after that knowledge had come to them; after they 
had learnt the truth of the matter, or become possessed of 
the means of knowing it, by texts and arguments. 

ovi of jeaXonsy of eaeh other 's envy of each other and 
desire for the supremacy, not because of any doubt or 
obscurity in the thing itself. 

and for him ihat disleUeves the teats of Qod, verily Qod 
is ^oh at reckonmgs a warning to such of them as disbelieve. 

18. So if they wrangle with thee; on the subject of reli- 
gion , and contend with thee after thou hast established the 



my: I haoe resigned my face to Qod; I have given over 
my whole soul and all nly person to Him: I give none 
other a share therein. This is the right religion whereof 
the evidences were established and to which the texts 
and the apostles summoned. ‘Pace’ is used to express ‘self’, 
because the face is the most honourable of the external mem- 
bers of the body, and the theatre of the faculties and senses. 

and isUo so follows mes connected by the conjunction with 
‘F; an allowable construction owing to the intervention 
of the word wajhi] or else comitative accusative®^. 

19. And say to them to whom the Booh was gvsen and to 
the illiterate’, i. e. who have no book, such as the Arabian 

have ye resigned? as I did, when the evidence was made 
cleat to you. — Or, are ye still unbelievers? A similat 
passage is V. 93 ‘and will ye stop’ ? ®® The words contain 
a reproach to them for their folly or opposition. 

Then if they resign, they are guided; i, e. they have 
benefited their souls by withdrawing them fifom error, 

and if they twm look, then than hast only to preach; 
i. e. they mil do thee no harm, siaoe thou hast nought 
to do save to deliver thy message, and thou wilt have 
delivered it. 

and Ood is watchful over Sis servants; a promise and a 

20. 7er%^ those that disbelieve the tents of Qod and MU 
the prophets toithowt Jwstiee and slay those among men who 
er^ovn the right, announce' to them a terrible pzmishment; 
‘those’ are the people of the Book of his time; their 
ancestors had killed the Prophets and their followers, and 
they approved thereof and attempted to kill the Prophet 
and the Believers; only Q-od protected them. A similar 



passage occurs in the preceding sura. Hamza read wayttqaMMna 
(and fight with). Sibawaihi forbids the introduction oi fa 
before the predicate of as before that of laita and 

If alia; hence some make the predicate what follows 
31. They are those whose works asre lost in this world and in 
the next; making the sentence like 'Zaid — now mark — 
is a just man’. The difference however between ^wm and 
those other particles is that ^inm does not alter the inaport 
of the nominal sentence , whereas they do alter it 

aaid they have no heifers; to avert punishment from thena. 
33. Sast thou not looked al those to whom, a fortion of 
the Book has been brought? i. e. the Law, or the heavenly 
books generally. The min may be either partitive or speci- 
fying. The omission of the article with ‘a portion’ may 
bo either honorific or contemptuous 'oo, 

They are called to the Book of Ood to Judgd between tltem; 
the person who ‘caHs’ them is Mohammbd, and ‘the 
Book of God’ the Qur’an] or the Torah, according to the 
tradition that ho entered their Beth-hammid/rash, where 
Nu'aim B. 'Amr and El-Harith B. Zaid said to him: ‘Of 
what religion art thou?’ He answered: ‘Of the religion of 
Abraham’. They said to him: ‘But Abraham was a Jew’. 
He said: ‘Bring me the Torah, for it shall judge between 
us’. This they refused to do. Then this verse was revealed. 
Others say, it was revealed at the stoning — Others 
read: Uyujfcama (that judgment be made) with the pas- 
sive pointing, in which case the reference will be to their 
mutual disjpu'^s The verse gives proof that oral evidences 
may be 6^ed as arguments on the principles of religion 
Thef a section of them turn back', expression of sur- 
prise at their turning back, when they know that it is 
their duty to return i*- 


SUBiA j-ii* 

meh as swerve aside; persops whose habit is to 
tiim aside. The sentence is a circumstantial phrase depend- 
ing on 'a section’, which is only permitted because that 
word is speoiaUsed by the epithet 'of them’ 

S3. That’, their turning back, or their swerraig aside. 
is because Ihey said; The fire shall not touch us save for 
certain days; because of their making light of the nature 
of the punishment, in accordance with this delusive belief 
and vain desire. 

and they were deceived in their religion by that which they 
were fabrieating ; such as the fiction’ that the fire would 
not touch them save a few days; or that their fathers, the 
Prophets, would intercede for them; or that God promised 
Jocob that he would not punish his ohildran save so far 
as the folfilment of His oath required 

24. And how, w7ten we shall have assembled them for a 
day whermn is no dmM; figure expressing the greatness 
of the evil which shall encompass them and refuting their 
assertion 'the fire shall not touch us save a few days’. It is 
recorded that the first standard of the Infidels that shall 
be raised on the day of Judgment is the standard of the 
Jews ; then God shall upbraid them in the presence of 
the witnesses and then order them to Hell. 

a»d eoery soul shall be paid what it wrougU; the recom- 
pense of what it wrought. This verse shows that service 
done is not lost; and the Believer will not be kept for 
ever iu Hell, since the payment for his fiiith and his works 
cannot be given him in Hell nor before he enters it; con- 
sequently it must be given him after he is released from it '®®. 

they shall not be wronged; the pronoun refers to 
'every soul’, in accordance with the sense, since these words 
mean ‘every man’. 



35. Say; 0 God! The m iu Ulahunma (0 Gl-odl) is a 
substitute for the interjection yS,, and for this reason the 
two are neyer found together This is one of the pecu- 
liarities of the name of God, as is the employment of ya 
with it while it has the article with fixing of its hamia 
and the prefixing to it of the t of adjuration Others 
say, the original expression meant*. '0 God, bring us what 
is good’; then the ya, the affixes depending on the verb, 
and its hama ‘weie dropped. 

omter of the sovereignty i who controUest whatever can 
be controlled, lihe its owner. A second invocation accord- 
ing to Sibawaihi in whose opMon the m of ilMmmma 
prohibits its being regarded as an epithet. 

tiov. givest the sovereignty to whom thou wilt cmd with- 
drawest the sovereignty from whom thou wUt; thou givest 
thereof such portion as thou wilt to them, and likewise 
doest take it back. Sovereignty in the first case is universal, 
in the two last a portion of the first. Others say nmlk 
means ‘the prophetic office’ and the withdrawal of it 
its transference &om one nation to another “®. 

and thou magnifest whom thou wilt, cmd hwMest whom 
thou wilt} in this world, or in the next, or in both, by 
giving victory and defeat, assistanoe and desertion. 

i« thy hand is good, verUy iJtou hast $ower over everything } 
he mentions good only, sinoe that is decreed essentially, 
whereas evil is only decreed per acoidens , as there is 
no particular evil which does not contain some universal 
good. — Or in order to maintain due reverence in his 
address to the Deity”’'; or because the subject which gave 
rise to tiiiB discourse was good ; since it is recorded 
that, when the Prophet marked out the Ditch “®, assigning 
forty cubits to each party of ten, and they began to dig, 


SDBA m. 

and a tremendous rook was found tkere on whick the 
pickaxe had no effect , and they sent Salman to the Pro- 
phet to teE him about it, then the Prophet came and took 
the pickaxe from him, and struck the rock a blow that split 
it, and a flash came forth therefrom which lighted up the space 
between the two LaT)a’e of Medina, like a lamp in the 
Tniflflle of a dark room. The Prophet cried: Allah akbar, 
which the Muslims repeated after him; then he said: 'The 
palaces of Baa diine out before me by this light like 
dogs’ teeth’. Then he struck a second blow, and said : 'The 
red palaces of the land of Q-reece shine out before me’. 
Then he struck a third blow and said : 'The palaces of 
9an'B shine out before me ; and Gabriel haa told me 
that my people shall conquer them all; receiTe ye. the 
glad tidings.’ Then said the Hypocrites : ‘Are ye not amazed 
how he entices you and promises you felse, telling you 
that he sees from Yathrib the palaces of Btra , and 
that they are to bo taken by you, while you are digging 
a trench in fear V Then the Terse was revealed. — However 
,'he ' indioates that evil alsd is in Bis hand, by the addition ; 
'Thou hast power over everything’. 

36. Thou ^Vmgest night into day md day into night , and 
eadraetest living from dead and dead from living, and feedest 
whom thou wHt, without reckoning; he subjoins a demonstra- 
tion of Bis power to alternate night and day, death and 
life, and of the extent of Bis goodness, in order to show 
that one who is able to do this is also able to alternate 
humUity and greatness , and to give sovereignty and with- 
draw it. The verb walaga means ‘to enter a narrow place’ ; 
so that ‘plunging’ (squeezing) ‘night into day’ means intro- 
ducing one into the other alternately or gradually**®; 
while the extraction of living from dead and vice versa 



TTiAann the production of animals out of niatter, and their 
destruction; or else the production of the animal 'from the 
seed, and the seed from the animal. — Others make it 
the production of the BelieTer out of the Tlnhelierer and 
the UnbelieTer out of the BelieTer. — Ibn Eathlr, Ibn 
'Amir Abu 'Amr, and Abu Bakr read (dead) in the 

shortened form. 

27. Let not the Believer a tahe to themaelvea the VnbeUevera 
aa frienda; they are forbidden to befriend them in Tirtue 
of any relationship or friendship etc., dating from the 
days of Ignorance, in order that their loves and hates may 
be all in God; or to ask their aid in forays or other 
religious affairs ^*7. 

in, preference to the BeUevers; indicating that the latter 
have the better claim to alliance, and that alliance with 
them renders alliance with the Unbelievers unnecessary. 
and who ao doea thiaj i. e. takes them for friends. 
ia not in reaped of Qod m mything ; in respect ofallLance 
with Qod stands in no relation worthy to be called alliance. 
Uor alliance with two opponents canot have place in the 
same person. A poet says^’’: 

‘Thou lovest my enemy and pretendest that I am 
thy friend ; folly is -not far from thee’. 
wdeaa ye fear from, them a fear j unless ye fear from 
them what it is necessary to beware of; or tuqatan may 
be infinitive ; while min, is employed to help the 
goverament of the verb, which has here the sense of 
Ikudhira or khafa'^^'^, Ya'qub read tagiyyatm. He frrbids 
aUiancB -svith them, either ostensible, or real, ataUlimes, 
except time of danger, when ostensible aUiauce is permit- 
ted, just as Jesus said: ‘Be in the middle, but walk on 
one side’ 

oml Qoi bids you beware of Himelf, and to Bm, is the reuer- 
sioiij so do not expose yourselves to His wrath by breaking 
Hie commandments and allying yourselves with His enemies. 
A powerful menace, showing the extreme wickedness of 
the thing forbidden. And he mentions JTimself to let us 
know that the thing against which we are warned is a 
punishment to issue from Himself, in preference to which 
the danger threatened by the Unbelievere should not be 

Sayt If ye hide what is in your breasts , or r&oealit, Qod 
knows it ; i. e. He knows your innermost intentions such as 
alliaaoe with the Unbelievers and aU else, whether you 
hide them or reveal them. 

and He knows what is in the heavens and what is on the 
earth j so that He knows your secrets and what you manifest. 

and Qod is ymerful over everything s so that He is able 
to punish you if you do not refrain from what is forbidden 
you. The verse is an expansion of the words: ‘God bids 
you beware of Himself, as though he had said ‘He bids 
you beware of Himself, because that self has as one of 
its attributes essential knowledge, which comprehends all 
knowable things, and essential power, including all pos- 
sible things; venture not therefore to offend Him, since there 
is no offence which He does not know, and is not able to 

88. The day whereon, each soul shall find any good she 
dfld set before her, and any evU that she did, she shall wish 
there sgere between her and it a wide syaee j yawma (day) is in the 
accusative of time after tawaddu , i. e. 'each soul on the day 
whereon she finds the records (or the rewards) of her good 
and bad actions set before her, shall wish there were between 
her and that day with its terror a wide space’, or after a 



verb to be supplied like 'mention’ in which case 
tmaddit will be a Ml depending on the pronoun in the 
second ^amilcut, or else the predicate of ma '^cmUat, the 
force of 'shall find’ being restricted to ‘any good she did’; 
ma cannot be conditional, since tawcMa is in the indic- 
ative — * Others read waddat, in which case ma 

may be conditional; however the predicative construction 
gives a more forcible sense, as being the natation of an 
actual event '**, and corresponds better with the vulgate text. 

and God lido you beware of Kimelf ; repeated for emphasis 
and to impress it on the memory. 

md God is Undly to Bk servants; indication that God 
forbids them and warns them only out of mercy towards 
them and care for their welfare; or that He is capable 
both of forgiving and punishing, so that His mercy may 
be hoped for and His vengeance feared. 

29. Say: If ye love God, then follow me; ‘love’ means 
the inclination of the soul towards anything, owing to 
some perfection perceived in it, great enough to incite the 
soul to a course which will bring it near to that thing ”®. 
And when a man knows that true perfection is in God 
only, and that anything in his soul or elsewhere which he 
regards as perfection is from God, in God and returning to 
God'*®, this neoeseitates the desire to obey Him, and the 
desire to do what will bring him near. For this reason ‘love’ 
has been interpreted ‘desire to obey’ and has been 
made*** a ground for following the Prophet in worshipping 
God, and for eagerness to obey Him. 

God wUl love you and forgive you yowr sins; apodosis to 
the imperative ‘follow me’, i. e. God wUl be satisfied with 
you and lift the vaU from your hearts, by passing over 
your inadvertencies , and will bring you near to His glorious 


STOA in. 

might, and restore you to the neighhourhood of His holi- 
ness. This ho expresses by the -word ‘love’ by way of 
metaphor or analogy. 

md Ood is forgmng , merciful; to those who have 
endeared themselves to Him by obeying Him and following 
the Prophet. — It is recorded that this text was revealed 
when the Jews said : ‘We are the children of God and His 
beloved’; by others, that it was revealed in reference to 
the envoys of Najran, when they said: ‘We worship Christ 
only out of love to God’; others say, in reference to cer- 
tain contemporaries of the Prophet, who asserted that they 
loved God and were ordered to confirm their profession 
by their practice. 

Say: Obey God mid the Apostle and if ye [or they"] twrn 
aside, verily God does not love the Unbelievers; is not satis- 
fied with them and does not commend them. He does not 
say ‘does not love them’ for the sake of generalization 
and in order to show that ‘turning aside’ is unbeHef, and 
from this aspect forfeits God’s love; and that Has love is 
the peculiar possession of the Believers. 

30. Verily God chose Adam and Noah md the family of 
Airaham md the family of ’’Imran ovl of the vxyrlds; i, e. to he 
his Apostles and to possess certain spiritual and corporeal 
privileges. Hence they were able to do things which were 
impossible for all besides them. After enjoining obedience to 
the Apostles and showing that such obedience attracts the love 
of God, he proceeds to enumerate their exploits, in order 
to encourage the hearer to obey. Some have used this text 
to prove that the Prophets are superior to the Angels. 

By the family of Abraham are meant Ishmael, Isaac and 
their children, into the number of whom the Prophet 
Mohammed euters. The family of ‘^ImrSn are Moses and 

BTOA. OT THB -pAMltiT OB 'niTUN. 36 

Aaron, sons of Imran B. Tashur, B. B[.ahath, B. Lawl, 
B. Jacob or Jesus and his mother Maryam, daughter 
of 'Imran B. Matthan, B. El-tor, B. Abfhud, B. Zarbabel, 
B. Salyau, B. YQ^anna, B. TJshia, B. Amiin, B. Manashtan, 
B. Ijtazqa, B. Ahaz, B. Yuthim, B. 'Dziya, B. YOram, B. 
Safab, B, Isha, B. Eaj'lm, B. Sulaiman, B. Dawud, B. 
Ishai, B. 'CTbid, B. Salman, B. Ba'az, B. ITahshun, B. '^Amyad, 
B, Bam, B. 5a§rum, B. Eari?, B. Yabudha, B. Jacob 
Between the two 'Imran’s there were 1800 years. 

deacendanU one from amoih&r i JjM or permutative of the 
word 'family’, which occurs twice; or, of ‘the two famil- 
ies’ and Noah ; meaning that the two were one stock , the 
former branching out from the latter. Others make the 
words 'one from another’ refer to religion. — ^kiniyijor 
imn signiftes 'offspring’ and may be applied to one or 
many; it is either of the form from the root 
diawa, 'to scatter’, or from ^harc^a, 'to create’, 

with substitution of y for the Atmm, transformation of the 
w to y, and contraction of the two y’s. 

emd God is one who hears and knows; men’s words and 
deeds, so that He chooses those whose words and deeds are 
right. — Or, one who heard the words of 'Imran’s wife, 
and knew her intention 

31. When ^ImrSn’s wife said: Lord I vow io thee what is 
in wy womb; — in which case will be accusatiTe after 
‘heard and knew’. Others however make it accusative after 
a verb ‘mention’ to bo supplied ‘*®. The woman referred 
to is Hannah, daughter of Iftqudha, grandmother of Jesus. 
Now 'Imran B. Yashur had a daughter Maryam older than 
Aaron, so that some suppose him to be the person whose 
wife is meant. But this is refuted by the fret that the 
guardian of this Maryam was Zacharia, who was a con- 


BUilA in. 

temporary of 'Imran B, Matthan, and husband of his 
daughter ’Isha' Yahya and' Jesus being sons of sisters 
on the father’s side. — It is recorded that she was 
old and barren, and while she was under the shade of a 
tree she saw a bird feeding its young ; and then she longed 
and yearned for a ohUd, and said '0 Qod, 1 make this 
TOW to thee; if thou providast me with a child, I will 
bestow him on the Temple, and he shall be one of its 
servants’. Then she conceived Maryam, and 'Imran died. 
This form of vow was legal in their time in the case of 
boys; perhaps she made the vow on the assumption that 
it would be a male child, or asked for a male child 
set free; set at liberty for its service. I wiU not occupy 
him with ought else. — Or, given up to worship. The 
word is accusative as beiug a Ml. 
mi accept from, m,e; what I have vowed. 
verity tiou art Re thai hears and iruma; my speech 
and thought. 

mi when she lore her, she said: My Lord, verily I lume born 
her, a female; ‘her’ refers to 'what was in her womb’ above. 
The pronoun is feminine because the subject was female; 
and 'a female’ is allowed to be in the accusative of the 
lysl after it, since the subject of the pronoun is known 
from the word ‘female’ to be female ‘'’®; for the circum- 
stantial phrase and that to which the circumstantial phrase 
belongs are essentially one — Or because ‘her’ is to 
be interpreted as referring to some feminine word like 
‘soul’ or ‘embryo’. — This she says to express her grief 
and anguish to her Lord, for she had hoped that it would 
be male, and for this reason vowed to ftee it. 

<mA Qod ineto best what she bore; knew best about the 
thing which she had born’®*. Fresh proposition in the 


mouth of God, intended to glorify the child, and show 
that the mother knew nothing of its worth. — Ibn ‘Imir, 
Abu Bakr after 'l§im and Ta'^qub read 'what I have born’, 
TniiVing the sentence part of Hannah’s speech, consoling 
herself, meaning: ‘perhaps God has some mystery therein, 
or the female may be better’. — Others read ‘what 
thou hast bom’, making the words an address from God 
to her. 

and tie male is not as the female; interpretation of the 
words ‘and God knew best’, meaning that the male she 
desired was not as the female she got; the article being 
that of familiarity in both oases — Or the words may 
be Hannah’s, with the sense: ‘the male and the female are 
not indifferent*^’ in the matter of my vow’; in which 
case the articles will be generic. 

and I oaU Iter Ma/ryam; connected by the conjunction 
with Hannah’s foregoing words, aH between being parenthe- 
tical. She states this to her Lord only in order to intercede 
with Him and beg that He will protect and prosper the 
child, so that her acts may correspond with her name: 
for ‘Maryam' in their language means ‘the worshipper’**®*. 
The passage proves that the name, the person named and 
the naming are different things ***. 

and verily, £ yvt her and her seed mder thy protection 
from Satan the aeeitrsedj the rejected; rayama originally 
means ‘to pelt with stones’ ***’. It is recorded*®* that’ the 
Prophet said: ‘not a child is born, but Satan touches it, 
when it is bom, so that it bursts into a cry; except 
Maryam and her son', The meaning is that Satan desires 
to mislead every child that is bom in such a way that the 
child is affected thereby, except Maryam and her son, 
whom God protected by ■virtue of this invocation 


STJiu m. 

32. And her Lord accepted hers and was satisfied with 
her in place of the male for the folfilment of the vow. 

with a fair aeeepttmces meaning^”® a fair way of accepting 
ofierings , with reference to her being substituted for a male 
child , or her being received shortly after her birth , before she 
was big enough to be keeper of the Temple. — It is recorded 
that when Hannah bore her she wrapped her in swaddling 
clothes and carrying her to the place of worship, set her 
before the Doctors, saying; 'Tstke this offering’. The Doctors 
then strove with one another for her , because she was the 
daughter of their highpriest and sacrificer;, now the family 
of Matthau were the chiefs' and kings of the children of 
Israel. Then Zacharia said: 'Ihave the best rightto her, since 
her mother’s sister is my wife’. But they refused to listen 
to anything but the lot; now they were 27 in number. 
Then they went off to a river and threw in their pens, 
and the pen of Zacharia floated, whereas the others sank. 
So he became her guardian, — The word qahalcm may be 
infinitive if we supply something for it to depend on, 
e. g. 'with aomethinij which contamed a fair welcome’ ; and 
taqaibala may stand for iataqbada, like taqa^^a/ij zsoA.ta'^ajjala 
for the form of those verbs, meaning ‘He welcomed 
her as soon as she was born with a fair welcome’ 

md reared her wells metaphorical eipression, signifying 
that she was brought up in a way that would prosper 
her in all her concerns. 

and Zacharia waa her guardians Hamza, M-HisB>’l and 
‘Ssim read haffala and Zakariyg& (except 'Ssim according 
to Ibn ‘^Ayyash), making God agent, and Zacharia object, 
the whole meaning that God made him guardian to her, 
and manager of her affairs; the remaining readers read 
iafala and Zahariyy^u, 


wheneoer Zaoharia came unto her to theshrime; tli 0 cha/mbor 
wMoL. had been, built for her ; or, the place of worsbip ; 
or, the most holy and exalted place therein, called j»iAra3m, 
because it was the place where Satan was fought with 
We are to suppose that she was placed in the holiest part 
of the Temple. 

he fomd provision by her; apodosis of (wheneYer), 

which is put in the accusatiYe after it. — It is recorded 
that no one save hiTn went to see her, and that, when he 
went out, he would lock seven doors upon her; and he 
used to find by her the fruits of the winter in summer, 
and vice versa, 

he sand: Maryam, whence hc^t them this? this provision, 
which comes in the wrong season, while the doors are locked 
upon thee. — This is evidence of the possibility of spon- 
taneous miracles being wrought for the benefit of the saints. 
The theory that it was Zacharia’s miracle is refated by 
the fact that he was puzzled by it'«®. 

She said; This is from Qod; so be not surprised. It is 
said that she spoke, when small “®, like Jesus, and never 
sucked the breast; her nourishment being sent down from 

verily Qod provides for whom Re will without reekonmg; 
without fixing its amount; or, without its being earned, 
as a free gift. This may be part of Maryam’s speech, or of 
Q-od’s. — It is recorded that Patihua brought the Prophet 
two cakes and a piece of meat, which the Prophet gave 
back to her, saying; ‘Take them, my daughter’; then she 
uncovered the dish, and, lo, it was fuU of bread and meat. 
Hs stud to her; 'Whence hast thou this?’ She said: ‘It is 
from God; verily God provides for whom He will, without 
reckoning,’ He said: Pradse be to God, who has made thee 


stjiu. m. 

like the chief of the women of Israel. Then he gathered 
'Ali and El-Hasan and El-Hnsain and all his honsehold, and 
they ate their fill, and the food sloll remained iindicDiciished, 
BO that Fatima gave of it to her neighbours. 

33. TMre Zaoha/na invoiced 7m Lord; in that place , or 
time; since the words Imna. (here), tianum (there), 

(where), may all be metaphorically applied to time; signifying, 
when he saw the miracle performed for Maryam’s sake 
and her rank with God. 

sw^ing: My Lord give me from tJcee good offajormg; as 
thoa gayest the old and barren Hannah. It is said that, when 
he saw the fruits at the wrong (reason, he awoke to the 
possibility of children being bom to an old man and a 
barren woman; so he prayed, saying: ‘My Lord, give it 
me feom thee’, heoanse it would not be given in the or- 
dinary ways or by the accustomed means. 

veri^, ikon art the hearer of prayer; the answerer of it. 

then the mgeU called to him; i. e. some of the class of the 
angels; like the expression: ‘Zaid rides (the) horses’, i. e. 
eertaia of them. The one who called him was Gabriel 
only Hamza and El-Kisa’l read fandMahit with modificsr 
tion in the masculine. 

whUe he was standing praying in the shrine; standing in 
prayer. ‘Praying’ is either an epithet of ‘standing’, or a second 
predicate or circumstantial phrase, or a circumstantisl 
phrase depending on the pronoun in gc^imm (standing). 

84. That God annomces mio thee JaJyya; object of 
‘called’. — Nafi', IBlamza and Ibn ‘Amir read "^ima) ‘verity’, 
supplying in thought the word ‘saying’, or making ‘calling’ 
a spedes of utterance Hamza and El-Eish’x read 
y^shmcka. Tal^ys. is a foreign name ; if it be regarded as 
Arabic , then it is diptote as being 1) defined, 3) a verbal form. 



who sh(M confess to a word from. God; i. e. Jesus; called 
‘a word’, because he came into existence by God’s com- 
mand ■without a father, so that he resembled the new 
creations , who are the world of command — ■ ' Or ‘con- 

fess to God’s book’, which is called a word, just as a 
poem of Huwaidirah was called his ‘word’. 

and shall be a Lord; shall be chief of his people and 
surpass them. And indeed he was superior to all mankind 
in that he never had an evil thought. 

and continent; shall preserve his soul to the utmost &om 
lusts and enjoyments. It is recorded that in his youth he 
passed by some lads who asked him to play with them; 
but he said: ‘I was not created for play’. 

and a Lro^het of the pions; sprung i&rom them; or, one 
of those who oommit neither capital nor minor 0(£rences. 

35. Se said: My Lord^ whence shall there he to me ahoy? 
regarding it as improbable; or, marvelling and wondering ; 
or, asking how it should come about. 

when old age has reached me; overtaken me and left its 
mark on me. He was 99 years old, and his -wife 98. 

and my wife is barren; from ^aqara to cut off; such a 
woman being ‘out off* from child-bearing. 

he said: Like that God does what He will; He does mir- 
acles Hke that deed, viz. the production of children from a 
decayed old man and a barren old woman; or, ‘even so’, 
i. e. : whilst thou and thy vrife are old and childless as ye 
ace, God will do what He wifl in the way of creating dul- 
dren; or, ‘like that’ and ‘God’ are predicate and subject, 
meaning ‘God is of this sort’, of which ‘He does what He 
wUl’, is an explanation; or, ‘like that’ is predicate of an 
omitted subject, meaning ‘the matter is so’; of which 
the words: ‘God does what He wUl’ are an explanation. 


SUBA in. 

86. Ee said; My Lord, gwe me a signs wherety I shall 
know of the conception and may welconae it with cheerful- 
ness and gratitude, and which may allay the pain of 

7se said: Thy sign is that ikon shalt wot speak to mmUnd 
three days; that thou shalt not be able to speak to them 
for three days. He refrained from addressing mmkind during 
that time, in order to deyote it aU to making mention 
of and thanking God, in order to pay his obligation; in 
other words; 'thy sign is, that thou shalt refrain thy 
tongue from all but thanksgiving’. Now the best sort of 
answer is that which is derived from the q^uestion. 

saoe ly gestures; with the hand, for example, or the 
head; rammn means properly ‘motion’, whence rammm is 
applied to the sea. The exception is ‘heterogeneous’ 
some however say it is ‘homogeneous’, interpreting ‘speech’ 
as anything that indicates the thought; — others read: 
ramaean, ‘making signs’, plural of rsmiem, like ^adamm 
of hiadmun, or rumwsan, plural of raruoam, Hke rnsntm 
of rid^lm', making the word a ^ referring to both ‘him’ 
and ‘mankmd’, with the sense ‘making signs to each other’; 
the construction being like that of the verse; 

‘whensoever thou meetest me, both alone, the extrem- 
ities of thy buttocks shake and tremble’. '®'' 
and make much mention of tloj Lord; in the days when 
thy tongue is tied; confirming what preceded^ and explain- 
ing the object of the injunction. The qualification of the 
command by ‘much’ shows that the imperative by itself 
does not imply repetition. 

amd praise Eim in the evenings; from the afternoon 
until sunset; others say: from the time when the sun be- 
comes red, or sunset, until the first part of the night is past. 



and the mrnmg; from tlie rise of dawn nntil midday. 
Some read ^obMiri wMch would be plural of hakarm like 
^asluXmn &om m^rm. 

37. jLad when the <mjeU said: Moieyaxa, Qed has 
ehosen ihee and purified thee and chosen thee above t/ie women 
of the worlds; they addressed her face to face, tkereby per- 
forming a spontaneous miracle in lier honour ; tkosekowever 
who deny the dootrine of spontaneous miracles maiutain 
that this was Zacharia’s miracle or a sign foresho- 
wing the Prophetic office of Jesus, since it is agreed that 
God nerer gave the right of prophecy to a woman ***, 
owing to the words in zn. 109 *we have sent none before 
thee but men’. — Others say the angels put it into her 
thoughts. — The first 'ohosen' refers to God’s reodving 
her from her mother whereas no female had been accepted 
before her, and her being given up to the divine service 
and her being rendered independent of labour by sustenance 
foom paradise ; her foeing purified’ refers to purification from 
female pollution; the second choosing refers to her being 
guided, and the mission of the angels to her., and her 
being distinguished by certain privileges, such as parturi- 
tion without a father, and her being declared innocent of 
the accusations launched at her by the Jews through the 
oluld being made to speak and her and her son being 
made a sign to the worlds. 

88. 0 Maryam , ob^ thy lim'd and prostrate thyself and 
inclme with them that vnoUne; she is enjoined to pray in 
pubhc j|^d the canons of prayer are mentioned in 
order to ijiay stress on their acomate observance. — The 
‘prostration’ is put before the ‘inclination’ '** either because 
that was the rule in their law; or to call attention to the 
fact that the copulative conjunction does not necessarily 



BTIBA in. 

imply order '*9 ; or to couple tlie word ‘incline’ witli the 
words ‘with those that incline’ in order to show that those 
who do not ‘incline’ in their prayer do not really pray. ‘“9 — 
Some say that qmntufi signifies ‘constant service’ as in 
ixxix. 12 '9‘, ‘prayer’ as in L. 39, and mhufm. 

‘humility’ and resignation. 

39. This is one of the secret histories we reveal it imto 
thee; i. e. the histories we have recorded are mysteries 
which thou knowest only hy revelation. 

and thou most not with them when they cant their reeds j 
their ari*ows wherewith they drew lots. Some say they cast 
lots with the pens wherewith they wrote the Law, for 
luck. The purpose of the verse is to enforce the fact of 
its being revelation, by ridiculing those who deny this; 
for the only ways in which events can be known are 
witnessing them or hearing of them; now that Mohammed 
had not heard of them was well known, nor did the unbe- 
lievers question it; consequently they must have imagined 
it possible that he had witnessed them; which however no 
rational being could suppose. 

whieh of them should be Maryam’s guardian; depending 
on a verb omitted '9>, but suggested by the word ‘cast 
their reeds’, i. e. order to hnow which of them’ etc.; 
or, ‘saying *” which of them shall be Maryam’s guardian?’ 

nor wast thou with them when they wrangled; each desiring 
to be her guardian. 

40. When the angels said; permutative of the first ‘when 
the angels said’, the intervening words being a digression; 
or of Vhen they wrangled’, meaning that the occurrence 
of the wrangling and the annunciation took place over an 
extended period, as when you say ‘I met him in such- 
and-such a year' ‘9*. 


0 Maryam venhj God mnomoea mto thee a word from 
Rim whose mme is the Messiah ‘IsS, son of Maryam; ‘the 
Messiah’ is his surname, being a title of honour, like Ml- 
^dskd "’®. Its original form in Hebrew is masJtiha, 
meaning ‘the blessed’, and ‘Jsa is an arabized form of 
Jste' The derivations of the two words from masaJia 
‘to rub’ because he was anointed with a blessing ‘®®, or 
with something that cleansed him from sin, or because 
he traversed the earth, not remaining in one place, or 
because Q-abriel caressed him, and of ‘Isa from ‘ay asm 
which means white with a shade of red'®* are toms de 
force of no value ; and since ‘Son of Maryam’ is an epithet 
which distinguishes in the same way as a name distinguidies, 
it is treated as a name; nor is a multitude of predicates 
inconsistent with a subject in the singular; for that is a 
common noun annexed to a genitive — It is also pos- 
sible that the meaning may be that that whereby he is to 
be known and distinguished from others consists in these 
three; for the name is the badge of the thing named, 
and that which distinguishes it from all else. — It is also 
possible that ‘Isa is predicate of an omitted subject 
and that ‘son of Maryam’ is an epithet of it ‘Son of 
Maryam’ is said, although she is the person addressed, only 
to call attention to the feet that ho will be bom without 
a fether, since children are called after the father, and not 
the mother, except where the father is not known®'’®. 

e/ameid in Riis world and the next; potential hsl ““S depen- 
ding upon ‘a word', which has epithets attached, although 
it has not the article®'”’; in the masculine according to 
the sense. The ‘eminence’ in this world is the prophetLo 
office , in the next the right of intercession *•’*. 

and one of those who are IroiigM near; unto God. Ac- 


BTOA m. 

coiding to some wliat is intended is tbe high place he is 
to have in paradise; or his being raised to heaven, and 
the society of the angels 

umd /te sImU speak to mankind in ike cradle andgroimwp ; 
i. e. m the condition of an infant and in that of a grovra 
man he shoU speak to them the language of the prophets 
without variation *®*. makdun is properly an infinitive, 
turned into a noun, meaning the bed laid for an infant. 
It is said that he was taken into heaven, when a child, so 
that the words 'and whan he is grown up’ mean after his 
descent He specifies the different stages of his existence, 
in order to show that he is destitute of divinity. 

md one of the saints; third Ijal of 'a word’ ; or hal 
of the pronoun in 'he shall speak’ which refers to it. 

42. She said: my Lord, whence shall I ha/oe a ehUd, 
when no man has touched me; expression of natural surprise 
or of abhorrence , or inquiry whether it would bo by wedlock 
or how. 

Ee'said: Like that God creates what Me wiU; the speaker 
is Gabriel or God®“; in the latter case Gabriel wiU be 
narrating to her the words of God. 

when Me decides a matter Me merely says to it Be and it 
is; to show that just as God is able to create things in 
stages by causes and with matter, so He is able to create 
them directly without. 

43. And we shall teach him the writing and wisdom and 
the Law and the Gospel; a fresh topic , introduced to ease 
her mind and to banish fears of censure that may have 
troubled her when she knew that she should bear without 
a husband; — or, annexed by the conjunction to 'announce 
marriage; or to 'eminent’. — The 'writing’ means 
'the art of writing’, or the revealed books generally, of 



which, two owing to their preeminence are afterwards spe- 
cialised. Nafi' and ‘Isim read ‘and he shall teach him’ in 
the person. 

w»d m Apostle to the ChUthen of Israel: tJtai I have 
brought yoftt a sign from gour Lord,; rasudm is in the accu- 
sative after a suppressed verb, with the sense of the verb 
‘to say’ ; when the full eEpression wiE be ‘and ha shall 
say And 1 am sent as a messenger ?vith the news that 1 
have brought you’*^‘; or, as being connected by the 
conjunction with the preceding httls, itself containing the 
sense 'pronouncing ' ; in other words , ‘and pronouncing that 
I am come’. — The children of Israel are partieulaiized 
owing to his mission being peculiarly to them, or to rehite 
those who asserted that he was sent to others 

that I vMl create for you out of the clay like the form 
of a bird^^^i either accusative as permutative of the pre- 
ceding ‘that’, or genitive as permutative of ‘a tign’, or 
nominative if we make the construction ‘that sign is that 
I have brought’. ■ — The meaning is ‘I will form and 
fashion*** for you something like the form of a bird’, Nafi.‘ 
read ‘verily I’ for 'that I’. 

and I mil blow upon it; the pronoun refers to the thing 
‘like’ ; i. e. I wUl blow upon that counterfeit. 

anA it shall become a bird by the will of God; and it 
shall become alive and flying by God’s command. He 
indicates thereby that it is God, not he, who makes it Eve. 
Nafi* read here and in Sura T tc^min for tayrun. 

and I will heal the blind and the leprous; the bom blind, 
or one whose eye is afleeted *’®. It is recorded that thousands 
of the sick used to gather to him; those of them who were 
, able, came to him, while to those who were imable Jesus 
came; and he healed by prayer only. 


eifBA m. 

amH I will raise the dead to life hy the will of God ^ lie 
repeats ‘by tbe mil of God’ in order to refute the fancy 
of those who maintain his divinity. For raising to life does 
not belong to the class of human actions ’'®. 

md I will tell you of what ye eat, a/nd what ye store 
up in your houses; i. e. your most secret affairs concerning 
which you do not doubt. 

verily therein, is a sign for you, if ye he believers; if ye 
bo guided to faith. Others are not helped by the miracles. 
— Or, confessors of the truth, not opponents of it. 

44. And confessing to the Law that was before me; con- 
nected by the conjunction with ‘an Apostle’, however 
that be taken; or, accusative after a suppressed verb, in- 
dicated by 'I am come to you’, i. e. ‘and I am come to 
you GQnieaaiag’, 

and to make lawful for you; to be interpreted by the 
suppression of such a verb; or, to be referred back to the 
words ‘that I have brought you a sign’”’; or, connected 
by the conjunction with the sense of thb word ‘confessing’, 
as when you say ‘I have come to you excusing myselt 
and to satisfy you’ 

piart of that which was made wrdawful for you; in the 
Law of Moses; such as the suet, the fet about the entrails 
fish, camel’s flesh and work on the sabbath-day. This 
shows that his Code superseded that of , Moses, This does 
i^ot prevent its 'confirming the Law’, just as the fact that 
ppts of the Qur’an supersede each other does not make it 
stlf-contradicting, and self-destructive; for ‘superseding’ in 
reality means explanation, and specification of the time to 
which a command applies 

a/nA I have brought you a sign from yom Lord: so feoff' , 
God and obey me; verily God is my Lord a/nd yow Lord, 



so serve Simj this is a straAght paih; i. e. I haTe brought 
you another sign , which your Lord taught me ; and that 
is my saying ‘God is my Lord and yours’; for that is 
the true proclamation, whereon the apostles are agreed, 
and which distinguishes the Prophet from the sorcerer. — 
Or, I have brought you a sign to prove*®* that God is 
my Lord and yours, in which case the words ‘so fear God 
and obey me’ will be parenthetical. Most probably they are 
a repetition of the words above ‘I have brought you’, i. e. 
I have brought you sign after sign, such as I have men- 
tioned to you; the first being to prepare the way for the 
argument, and the second to bring it into proximity with 
the injunction; and for this reason he appends the latter to 
the former by the particle fa 'so’, saying ‘so fear God’, 
i. e. since I have brought you convincing miracles and 
evident signs, therefore fear God in case you disobey, and 
obey me in that to which I invite you. — Then he com- 
mences the invitation which is indicated by the concise 
expression ‘verily God is my Lord and your Lord’, implying 
that they should seek to perfect their intellectual power 
by the true belief, the sum of which is the doctrine of 
the Unity; adding ‘so serve him’, to indicate that they 
should endeavour to perfect their practical abilities, which 
is to bo done by assiduous piety, consisting in performance 
of the commands, and abstinence from things forbidden. 
Then he emphasizes this by explaining that the conjunction 
of these two thinge is the ‘path’ which he testifies to be 
‘straight’ — Similar to this is the saying of the Prophet 
‘Say I beHeva in God:. then keep straight’. 

45. And when Jesus f&reeived mbeUef on their paHs when 
he was convinced of their unbeHef with the conviction of 
a thing perceived by the senses. 


suEi. m. 

hi said; who are my helpers unto Godi i. e. ‘fleeing unto 
GocV, or ‘going nnto Him’, or ‘joining unto Him’ — ; 
or, the preposition may depend on ‘my helpers’, if that 
word contain the idea of attaching, i. e. who are those 
who attach themselres to God in giying me aid**'. — 
Others give ‘unto’ hare the meaning ‘with’ *** or ‘in’ or 
‘belonging to’. 

tie Apostles said; a man’s hawan**^ is his sincere Mend , 
taken from Jiawarm which means ‘jrare white’. Thence too 
come lumWnyyaimn applied _ to the women of the cities , 
owing to the clearness of ther complexions. The followers 
of Jesus were so named owing to the purity of their minds 
and the holiness of their thoughts. — Others say they 
were Jewish princes, clad in white, whose assistance Jesus 
invoked ; others say ‘fullers’, who cleansed garments , i. e. 
whitened them. **‘^ 

We are the helpers of God; i.e. helpers of His religion. 

we believe in God and hear thou witness thad we core Muslims; 
do thou bear witness for us on the day of the Resurrec- 
tion when the Apostles testify for or against their peoples. 

46. Our lord we believe in what thou hast revealed, and 
we follow the AposUe, so write us toith them that testify; 
with those that testify to thy unity. — Or with the Pro- 
phets who testify to their foUowers; or, with the people 
ot Mohammed; for they are witnesses against mankind. *** 

47. And they plotted; those of the Jews whose unbelief 
he had perceived; hy putting him in the charge of one 
who should kill him treacherously. 

and God plotted; in raising Jesus ”®, and throwing the 
semblance of him upon him who plotted his destruction, 
who was killed. Now ‘plotiang’ in so lar as it properly 
signifies forming a scheme whereby some one else is drawn 



into miaoMef cannot be aacribed to God except by "Way of 
correspondence and combination. 

md God is Me hesb of plotters; the most powerful of 
them in plotting, and the best able to produce the miaobief 
whence it is not expected. *** 

48. When God said; temporal clause depending on ‘plotted’, 
‘bast of plotters’, or a suppressed clause like ‘this hap- 
pened when’. 

tfesus verily I wUl aehieve thee; i. e. achieve the whole 
of thy term, and cause thee to tarry till thy appointed 
end, by protecting thee Irom their murderous onslaught. 

— Or, ‘take thee from the earth’, the verb in the text 
being used in the sense of calling in money. — Or, ‘take 
thee to myself, sleeping’, since it is recorded that he was 
taken up sleeping. *** — Or, destroy in thee the lusts 
which hinder ascent to the world of spirits. — Some 
say that God let him die for seven hours , and then raised 
him to heaven; and this is held by the Christians. 

and raise thee mio me; ia the place of my glory 
and the abode of my angels. 

and cleanse thee from those who dieheUeve ; from their 
unkindness, or their assaults. 

and set those who followed thee cdiove those who disieUeved 
uniU the Day of the Eeswrreetion; they shall prevail over 
them by argument or by the sword in the majority of cases. 
‘Those who followed him’ are the Muslims and Ohiistians 
who believed in his mission, and to this day we have 
never heard of the Jews prevailing over them, neither 
have they ever obtained sovereignty or empire. 

then your return shall be to me; ‘your’ means that of 
Jesus, his followers and those who disbelieved in Mm. The 
second person is given the preference over the third. ’’’ 


euaA m. 

and 1 mil judge hetmeen you of that wherem ye lo&re at 
va/rianee; in religious questions. 

49. And as for those that disbelieved I shall pmish Ihetti 
severely in this world and the next, cmd they shall have no 
helpers; 60 but as for them that heUeved and wrought riphtems- 
ncss, we shall pay them their rewards; interpretation and 
partition of tlie ‘judgment’. Haf? read ‘he shall pay them’. 

and Qod does not love the wrong-doers; confirmation of 
the preceding. 

51. That; referring to the stories of Jesus etc. which 
preceded. It is a subject of which what follows 
we read it to thee ; is predicate; and what follows 
of the dgns; is a ^al depending on the pronoun ‘it’. Or 
‘[is] of the signs’ may he predicate, and ‘we read it to 
thee’ [= being read unto thee] a hal, governed by the 
idea of 'we point to’ contained in the demonstrative ‘that’. 

— Or, both may be predicates. Or, ‘that’ may be 
virtually in the accusative after a suppressed verb, to be 
supplied from ‘we read it’. 

and the wise record; i. e. the record which embraces 
various forms of wisdom; or the ‘elaborate’, which is di- 
vinely guarded against the intrusion of flaws. — He 
means thereby the Qur’an or the Tablet. 

62. Terihg the likeness of Tesus with God is as the likeness 
of Adam; his wonderful nature is like that of Adam. 

Qod formed him from moulds sentence explaining the 
comparison and showing wherein the resemhlance lay ; and 
this is his being created without a father, just as Adam 
was created without flither or mother. Qod compares his 
nature to a thing yet stranger, in order to silence the 
opponent, and to destroy the ground for false conceptions. — 
The meaning is he created his firame from the mould 



then He smd to hm Be; he created him a man, as he 
says ‘then we produced him with a fresh creation’ (xxiii. 14). 
Or, he ordained his formation out of mould, then formed 
him ***. Possibly ‘then’ refers to the interval in the nar- 
ration rather than between the events narrated 

and he shall be ; the speaker pats himself into the past 

63. The truth from thy Lord; predicate of an omitted 
subject, viz ‘that’ is. Othei-s make ‘the truth’ subject, 
and ‘from thy Lord’ predicate, i. e. tlie truth that has been 
related is from Q-od. 

so he not one of those who doubt; address to the Prophet, 
urging Mm to still greater steadfastness ; or, to every 

64. And they that argue with thee; those Christians that do so. 
eoncenmg him; Jesus. 

after the hnmledge that has oome to thee; the clear evi- 
dences which necessitate knowledge. 

say to them Gome; bring hither your opinion and your 

let us call owr sons and your sons, our wives and your 
wives, ourselves and yourselves; let each of us summon him- 
self and the most precious of his household, and those of 
them that are nearest to his heart, to a mutual execration, 
and set about it*’®. And he mentions them before the 
man’s self, because a man will stake his life for their 
sake, and fight to defend them. 

then let us curse each other; let us make a mutual exe- 
cration by cursing the one of us that lies, bahlabm or 
hu&laimn means ‘a curse’, its original meaning being ‘to 
leave’ ***, as when one leaves a she-camel without an 


fitntA 111* 

and set the curse of God upon the liarsj explanatory ad- 
dition. It ia recorded®*® tliat when they were challenged 
to the mutual execration, they said ‘let ua consider’; and 
when they had conferred iliey said to their Tioe-roy ”®, 
who was their counaeUot, what thihkeat thou? He said 
‘By Allah ye know that he ia a Prophet and he has 
brought you the truth concerning the nature of your 
maater ; by Allah , no nation has ever execrated a Prophet 
but has perished. If therefore yon refuse to do aught but 
maintain your religion then make terms with the man’. 
Then they left him, and came to the Prophet, who had 
started out, with Husain in Ms arms, and holding Hasan 
by the hand, with Pa^ma walking behind, and Ali behind 
her. And he was saying ‘when I call, then say Amen’. 
Then their Bishop**® said: Ye company of Ohristians, I 
see persons, who, if they asked God to remove a moun- 
tain from its place, God would remove it. Do not there- 
fore execrate each other and perish. So when they humbled 
themselves before the Prophet of God, and gave him the 
tribute, two thousand red chemises and thirty breastplates 
of steel, the Prophet said: By Him in whose hand is 
my soul, if they had execrated, they would have been 
transformed into monkeys and swine; the valley would 
have been kindled into fire upon them, and God would 
have rooted out Najran and its people, to the trees. 
This is evidence of his prophetic power, and of the 
excellence of those members of his household whom he 
brought. *** 

56. Verily this; the account of Jesus and Maryam just given. 

it [is] tie true narrative; the words taken together may 
be the predicate of ***, or else huiaa maybe the separating 
pronoim, showing that his account of the nature of Jesus 



is th .0 truth, rather thau their aocouut, what follows hma 
being the predicate. The I is prefixed to the separating pronoun, 
because it is nearer to the inchoatiTe than the predicate 
is, and it naturally should be prefixed to the inchoative 

and there is no God but Godj the full form with the 
min which is added for universalization is here employed 
in order to emphasize the refiitation of the Christian doctrine 
of the Trinity. 

and verihi God is the migMy, the toise; there is none 
beside HiTn to equal Him in perfect power and consum- 
mate wisdom, so as to be His partner in the godhead. 

56. And if they decline, well, God is cognizant of the 
corrupters-, menace to them. The substantive ('the corrupters’) 
isj substituted for the pronoun ('them’) in order to show 
that to reject the evidences and to repudiate the doctrine 
OB the Unity constitute corruption®’® of religion and faith, 
wiioh leads to corruption of the soul, and, indeed, to the 
dt struction of the world. 

57. Says ye people of the Booh; including the people of 
bo Ih Books. Some say he means the envoys from Najran, 

r the Jews of Medina. 

come to a word that is equal between us and you; wherein 
there is no variance between the AposUes and the Books; 
explained by what follows. 

that we shaZl worship none but God; that we shall proclaim 
His unity in our worship and worship sincerely. 

and that we shall associate nothing with Ilim; we shall 
make none other His fellow in deserviig worship, nor 
regard any other as fit to be worshipped. 

and that we shall not adopt each other as lords besides 
God; and not say that Ezra is the son of God, nor that 
Christ is the son of God nor obey the Jewish doctors in 


siniA m. 

their inveiitione concerning things lawful and nnlawful; 
for each one of them is only one of us , and human like 
us. It is recorded that when the Terse (ix. 31) ‘They 
have adopted their doctors and their monks as lords beside 
God' was revealed, ‘Adi B. Hatim*®® said "We are not 
wont to worship them, 0 Apostle of God. Mohammed 
answered Used they not to declare some things lawM and 
others unlawful for you, and did you not hold to their 
word? He said Yes; Mohammed said That is it. 

and if they reject; the doctrine of the Unity. 

Him say Bear witnets that loe are MiisUm; the argument 
holds you , so confess that we rather than you are Muslims. 
Or, Oonfess that you disbaliave what the Books declare, 
and that on which the Apostles are agreed. Note, Observe 
in this story the catechetical skill employed and the beau- 
tiful stages in the polemizing process. First he explai|iB 
the circumstances of Jesus, and the events passing over 
him which contradict his godhead. Then he states whlat 
will solve their difficulties and clear away their faljse 
notions. Then , when he sees their opposition and litigiousne^s, 
he invites them to the mutual execration , with a rhetorical! 
figure*®*. Then, when they declined that, and partly 
yielded, he once more endeavoured to instruct them, going 
an easier and more convincing way, by summoning them 
to accept the doctrine whereon he, Jesus, the Gospel and all 
the Books and Apostles were agreed; but when this too 
did not help them, and he knew that signs and preaching 
would not avail them, he reling;uished the task, saying 
merely, Bear witness that w are Mudims. 

68. Te people of the Booh, wherefore wcmgle ye concermnp 
ABrahm, when the Lm and the Gospel were not revealed 
save after hm? The Jews and Christians quarreled 



over Abiaham, eacli seot maintaining; that he belonged to 
them; so they referred the matter to the Prophet, when 
the text was revealed. The meaning is that Judaism and 
Christianity were instituted by the revelation of the Law 
and the Gtospel to Moses and Jesus respectively; now 
Abraham lived 1000 years before Moses and 2000 before 
Jesus®*®. How then can he have belonged to either sect? 

mil ye not vMerstcmA? but proclaim an absurdity. 

59. See, ye are these, who have argued coneemmg that 
whereof ye have hnowledge so why should ye argue coneemmg 
that whereof ye 7iave no knowledge? ho. is a particle ot 
caUing attention. Their attention is called by it to their 
condition, of which they were careless. 'Ye’ is subject, 
'these’ predicate, and 'ye have argued’ another sentence 
explaining the first , i. e. 'ye are such fools’ ***. And the 
explanation of their folly is ‘Ye have contended concerning 
that whereof ye have knowledge’, viz. what ye have found 
in the Law and the Gospel, in order to oppose, or, what 
you profess to be recorded therein; why then should you 
argue concerning that whereof you have no knowledge, 
and which is not recorded in your book, such as the 
religion of Abraham? Others®** say has here the 

sense of ella^/jina, and that Tjajagtum is its relative 
clause. — Others®*® say Mmimn is for ^c^anlmi, being 
a question of surprise at their folly, the hama being turned 
into h **’. hfafi' and Abu ‘Amr read hanbum wherever it 
occurs , with moMa and without hanma ; Warsh *** with a 
less protracted raadda, Qunbul**® with hwm»a without elif 
after the ^ (Jid^amtsm), the rest with madda and hamm 
(hitantml), El-Bazzi with the ordinary pronunciation of the 

and Qod knows f that concerning which ye dispute. 


suEi. m. 

(Mtd ye know not; aud ye are ignorant about it. 

60. Mra/iam was not a Jew, nor yet a CAristum; clear 
statement of the result of the arguments estabHshed. 

kut he was a one who rejected false doctrines. 

a MnsUm; one who obeyed 0od. The meaning is not 
that he belonged to the Islanaitic sect; otherwise he would 
he liable to the same refutation”*. 

and he was not one of those that assodatei insinuation 
that they do ‘associate’ with God Ezra, or Christ. An 
answer to the pretension of the Polytheists that they follow 
the sect of Abraham. 

61. Verily the nearest 'of mankind to Abraham; the men 
to whom he most belongs, and who are nearest of kin 
to him from walay which means ‘to be near’. ”* 

are those that followed him; of his people. *’^* 

and this Prophet, and they that believe; since they agree 
with him in most of what was commanded them afresh. *’'* — 
Others read ‘Prophet’ in the accusative making it coupled 
by the conjunction with ‘him’; others read the genitive, 
coupling it with ‘Abraham’. 

and God 'is the ally of the Believers; helps them and 
gives them good recompense for their faith. 

83. Fain would a party of the people of the Booh mslead 
yon; revealed concerning the Jews when they invited 
Uudhaifa *”, ‘AmmJlr and Mu'adh to Judaism, has here 
the sense of ’aa *’7. 

bat they shall mislead none save tltemsehes ; their misleading 
shall not go beyond them, and the evil thereof shall not 
redound upon others, since their punishment shall be doubled 
thereby. — Or, they shall mislead none but those like them. 

hut they do not feel; the sin thereof, and how the mischief 
falls peculiarly on them. 

SURA, or THE rAMlLT OB' ^MRAN. 49 

63. Ye people of the Boole, why do ye dmbeUeoe the signs 
of God? what the Law and the Q-ospel utter, proraig the 
mission of Mohammed. 

wAile ye testify; that they are the signs of God. — Or, 
the Qur^an, when ye have before you the description 
thereof*’® in the two hooks. — Or, when ye know by 
miracles that it is true. 

64. Ye people of the Booik, why aonfitse ye the tme wUA 
the false? by mutilating it, and publishing the false in 
its form. Or, by insufficiently distinguishing between the 
two. — Others read the conjugation , or the intransitiye 
of the I»‘, with the meaning ‘why put ye on the true 
with the fidse', like the words of the Prophet ‘like him 
that putteth on two garments of falsehood’ 

and Aide the truth; the mission of Mohammed and the 
description of him **®. 

when ye know; are cognizant of what ye hide. 

66. And a party of the people of the Book said Believe 
ye m that which was revealed to the Believers at the hegimmg 
of the day ; display your belief in the Qur’an at the be- 
ginning of the day. 

and disbelieve at the end of it. Berhaps they toill retwn; 
and disbelieve it at the end thereof. Perhaps they will feel 
doubts concerning their religion, thinking that ye have 
come back owing to some flaw which ye have perceived 
therein. The party referred-to are Ka‘b ®®' B, El-Ashraf, 
and MaHk B. II§-?aif, who said to their fellows whan the 
Qiblah was changed*®* Believe what has been revealed to 
them concerning prayer towards the Ka'bah and pray feeing 
it at the beginning of the day , then at the end of the 
day pray facing the Book*®®; perhaps they may say ‘They 
know better than we, and have gone back’, and so will 


StTflA in. 

go 'bac'k too. — OlliBrs say that twelve of the doctors of 
Khaihar took counsel to join Islam, at the haginning of 
the day, and to say at the end of it ‘We have looked in 
our Book, and have consulted our scholars, but have not 
found Mohammed to correspond to the description which 
is recorded in the Law’, hoping that his followers might 
begin to doubt about him. 

60. Ani heUeve not save to those that follow your religion; 
Confess not with conviction, save to the people of your 
religion***. Or, Display not your faith at the beginning 
of the day save to your former co-rehgioniste , for there 
is more hope that they will return, and more consequence 
in their doing so. 

Say Verily the guidmee is God's guidance; He wUl guide 
whom He will to the Faith and establish him therein. 

' that one should have irought Iwm emything Kke what has 
heen irought to you; depending on a verb omitted: i. e. 
*F<s have flamed this and said it, because of one having 
brought him’, meaning that envy has urged them to do 
this. — Or, ‘dependent on ‘Believe not’: i. e. Display not 
your belief that one can have brought him’ etc. except 
to your co-religionists; do not reveal it to the Muslinos 
lest it should increase their steadfastness, nor to the Poly- 
thaats lest it should encourage them to become Muslims. 
The words ‘Say — guidance’ are then a parenthesis^ 
implying that their craft will produce no profit. — Or, 
‘that one should have brought him’ may be the predicate 
of we make ‘God’s guidance’ permutative of ‘the 

guidance’ *•*. — The reading of Ibn Kathir dcm yv^tay 
with a reproachful interrogation is in favour of the first 
view ‘Is it because one has brought him that ye have 
planned’? — Others read, in ‘not’, in which case the words 



•will be part of the speech of the ‘party’, i. e. do not con- 
fess saye to those •who follow your religion; and say to 
them ‘None shall have brought him’. \ 

or that they should, contend mth yon before'fw Lord; 
oonneot6d by the conjunction with ‘that one sh^d have 
brought him’ according to the first t-wo interpretbtmns ; 
but according to the third we should render ‘until they 
Contend -with you and invalidate yoim argument’. , 

The pronoun ‘‘they’ refers to ‘one*, which in the pre’vious 
text has a plural sense, as it means ‘those who are not 
their followers’. 

8a/y-. Bomty is in the hand of God, Ee gives it to whom 
Ee will, and God is Iraad^ hnomng, 67, Ee bestows Eis 
mercy on whom Ee willy And God is the anther of the greed 
hwmtej ! a clear argument whereby their pretension is answered 
and confuted. 

68. And a/tneng the peojale of the Booh are those who , if 
you trust them with a tedent, mil pay it bach to you; like 
Abdallah B. Salam®*'‘, ■with whom a Qurashite deposited 
1300 ounces**® of gold, and who returned them to him. 

and among them are those who, if you trust Ikem with a 
dinar, wUl not return it to you; like Finha? B. ‘Szura’, 
•with whom another Qurashite deposited a dinar, which he 
disclaimed. Others say that those who may he trusted 
•with a great deal are the Ohristiaus, since they are for 
the most part honest; while those who deceive in a little 
are the Jews, who are for the most part dishonest. Hamza, 
Ahu Bakr, and Abu ‘Amr read yudih, dropping the vowel 
of the /*; QalSn shortened »*» the vowel of the h, which 
according to the tradition was the pronunciation of Hisham **»; 
the rest lengthened the Eesra, 
except so long as thou standest firm upon him; except 

snui. m. 


during the period of thy remaining at his head, -vigorouBly 
demanding it ^ him hy litigation, appeals and production 
of evidence. / 

69. referring to the refasal to pay indicated by 

the wopah ‘shall not return it’. 

is 'hecmse they say There is ito was/ against m <mmy the 
^eai'ned; there is no reproach or blame attaching to ns 
/in the matter of those who are not people of the Book, 
/ and are not of our religion. 

hit they s$eak a lie ayamst Qod; in this pretension. 
anM they hum; that they are liars. Because they regard 
it as lawful to oppress those who differ ftom them, and 
say this is not forbidden in the Law. — It is said that the 
Jews had dealings with certain Qurashites, and when they 
became Muslims the latter demanded their money of the 
former, then the Jews said ‘Tour right is invalidated hy 
your abandoning your religion’; and they asserted that it 
was so in their Book. And it is recorded that the Pro- 
phet said on the occasion of the revelatiou of this text 
‘The enemies of God he; there is nothing that was done 
in the days of Ignorance but is under my feet*®*, except 
deposits; for they are to be paid to good and had’. 

70. Aye} confirmation of what they deny; ‘on the oon- 
, rary, there is a path against them in their dealings with 
y \ .he others’, 

whoso keeps his covenant and fears — well God loves 
ihm that fears fresh sentence confirming the sentence of 
which the place is supplied by ‘Aye’. ‘Bfis’ covenant is 
either that of the subject of the sentence, or God’s; and 
the coHeotive ‘them that fear’ serves instead of the pronoun 
which in the apodosis should refer to the subject of the 
protasis, and suggests that ‘fear’ is the main thing, which 



includes ‘keeping’ and otter duties suck as paying one’s 
detts, and atstaining fi^om things forbidden. 

71 . Yml^ they that pmehase; take in exchange. 
ioith the covenant of God; for that which they hare 
promised Grod in the way of believing the Apostle and 
returning deposits. 

omd their oath} that to which they swore when they 
said By Allah, we will believe in him and help him. 
a mall jorke ; the goods of this world. 
they have no fortion m the neat world and God shall not 
address them} with anything that will comfort them®"®; 
or, with any words at all, for the angels will ask them 
the questions on the day of the Eesurrection. — Or, 
they shall derive no profit from the words of God and 
from his signs. — Most probably it is an indirect phrase 
to express His wrath against them, since there follows 
and Me shall not look upon them on the day of the Jte- 
snrrectioni for whoever is wroth with any one else and 
despises him, turns away from him and from speaking 
with him and looking in his direction; just os he who 
makes much of any one talks with him and looks fre- 
quently at him. 

md mil not justify them, ; eulogize them. 
and for them is terrible punishment} for what they have 
done. — Said to have been revealed in reference to certain 
Jewish doctors”^ who mutilated the law, and altered the 
account of Mohammed*®*, and the law of deposits and 
certain other things, for which they received a bribe. — 
According to others *®® , in reference to a man who exposed 
some goods in the market and swore that he had bought 
them for a sum for which he had not bought them ®®". — 
Others*®* say in reference to a question between Ash'ath*®* 


STJiu m. 

B, Qajfi and a Jew about a well or a field , when the Jew 
had to swear. 

73. Jnd verily of tkm^ i. e. those that mutilate, like 
Ka'b, Malik and Huyyai. 

is a part]/ who imist their tongues m the Booh} turn*®* 
them in reading it, and divert them from the revealed 
words to the fahricaLed. — Or, involve them in the 
counterfeit of the Book. — Others read galuna with a 
change of waw with (}a7nma to hama^’^^, which is then 
thrown out, and its vowel transferred to the preceding 
vowellesB consonant. 

that ijou may thiiih it of th>e Booh wJten it is not of the 
Boohs the pronoun ‘it’ refers to the fabricated part, indicated 
by the words 'who twist’. Others read 'that they may think 
it’, in which case ‘they’ will still refer to the Muslims. 

and they say it is from Goi, when it is not from God; 
a confirmation of the statement ‘it is not of the Book’, 
and a reproach to them; and also a deolaration that they 
assert this openly and not by insinuation. — The meaning 
is, it is not revealed by Q-od; but this does not evince 
that the work of man is not the work of Q-od 

and they tell a lie against God when they hnow it; 
corroboration and confirmation of the fact that they lie 
against God, and do so purposely. 

73. It was not for a man to he given hy God the Booh and 
the Judgment and the mission and then to say tomanhind 
Be servants to me instead of God; contradiction and refiitation 
of the worshippers of Jesus. And it is said that Abu Eafi‘ 
El-Qurazi and El-Sayyid M-Najram said ‘0 Mohammed 
dost thou -wish that we should serve thee and take thee 
for our Lord’? Then he said ‘God forbid that we should 
serve any but God, or enjoin the service of any but God. 



God did not send me ■with such a message or give me 
such a command’. Then the text wBaj revealed, — Others 
say that a man said to Mohamme^^'O Prophet of God, 
we greet each other ; o'ught we noy lo how down to thee’ ? 
He said : ‘It is not meet to how down to any besides God ; 
nevertheless honour your Prophet, and acknowledge each 
person’s right'. 

but ratier be divines; hut rather to say®"® ‘he divines’. 
rMuni is a relative adjective of vahhm ‘Lord’ -with the 
augment like and mqnbanl It means one 
who is perfect in theory and practice 

seeing that ye teach the Book and seeing that ye read it; 
for the advantage of teaching and study is knowledge of 
the truth and of what is best to believe and do. IhnKathir, 
NaflS Abu ‘Amr and Ya'qub read Mlarmm meaning ‘ye 
kno'w’; other readings were tudarrisana und tudrisUna ‘ye 
teach’ (for the lYtti form ■with the sense of the II“4 compare 
karrarm and ^aderama (‘he honoured’); and this may be the 
meaning of the ordinary reading, if we give it the force 
‘ye read it to mankind’. . 

74, And he shall not bid you take the Angels and the 
Brojshets for Lords; Ibn ‘irndr, Hamza, 'Sgim and Ya'qub 
pointed yimura ‘to order’, connecting it by the conjunction 
with ‘to say’ above; in that case la (not) ■will be otiose, 
inserted in order to confirm the negative idea in the words 
‘it was not for a man’, the sense being ‘It was not for a 
man to be made a Prophet by God, and then to bid 
mankind serve him, and bid them take the angels and the 
Prophets for Lords’®”. Or, not otiose, ■with the meaning 
‘It was not for him to order himself to be worshipped, 
while he did not ordain that his peers be adopted as 
Lords, but on the contrary forbad it’, which were a minor 


BTTEi. m. 

offeaca than commanding them to worship himself®’®. — 
The remaining readers pointed y£nmru 'he shall command’, 
m alr in g it a fresh sentence, or possibly a ^igl®’*, — Ahu 
'Amr according to the tradition of El-Duri ®'® followed his 
principle in shortening the ^^■mma of yc^mmuham. 

will he cnyoin on you imhelAef? Question expecting the 
answer 'no’, 'He’ refers to 'a man’ above; others say to Q-od. 

after that ye are Muslim; evidence that the persons 
addressed are the M uslima , and that they are those who 
ask leave to bow down to him. 

75. And when, God took ih,e Covenant of the Frophets — 
verily whenever I give you any hook or wisdom, then there 
comes to you a Prophet confessing to what is with you, ye 
shall believe him and help him; some say 'the Prophets’ 
is to be taken literally; [and if this was the law for the 
Prophets, still more was it binding on their peoples. — 
Others say it means that Gbd took the covenant from the 
Prophets and their peoples; and then made the mention 
of the Prophets serve for the mention of the peoples as 
weU. — Others say the genitive ‘of the Prophets’ after 
'the covenant’ is a subjective genitive, meaning the covenant 
which the Prophets laid upon their peoples. — Others say 
the meaning is ‘the children of the Prophets’, with omission 
of the word ‘children’, ‘the children of the Prophets’ being 
the children of Israel. — Or, that he calls them Prophets 
ironically, because they used to say We have a better 
claim to be Prophets than Mohammed, since we are the 
people of the Book, and the Prophets were from among 
us. — The la in lama prepares the way for the oath®’®, 
since ‘taking the covenant’ has the sense of ‘making to 
swear’. — md, may be conditional; in which case ‘ye shall 
believe’ serves as apodosis to both the oath and the 



condition Or, it may be predicative (i. e. ‘tbatwbicb 
I have given you’). — Hamza read liw^ with kesra, 
making ma infinitival, i. e. 'because of my giving you 
certain books and then of the coming of an apostle , 
confir min g) God took the covenant that you should believe 
him and assist him’. — Or, making it relative ‘God took 
the covenant for that which I have brought you , and there 
has come an apostle corroborating it’. Others read lemma 
‘when I gave you’, or 'verily because I have given you’, 
deriving it from la min mu making the n coalesce 
with the m , and then dropping one of the three mlim for 
abbreviation. Nafl' read ^siaijnshm ‘we have given you’. 

He said; Have ye eonsented , and taken my bond liter mnto? 
i, e. my covenant; called ‘bond’ because it is ‘bound’ i. e. 
made secTire. Others read which is either another form 
(op. for ‘iirMw *■“’) or the plural of ’isarm , meaning 
'a band’. 

TAey said: We consent. He said: Then testify ; let some 
of you testify against the others that they have consented. 
— Others say the words are addressed to the angels. 

md I am with you of them that testify, and I too am 
witness to your consenting and testifying of each other. 
Confirmation and severe warning. 

76. And whosoeuer turns aside Ihereafter; after the covenant 
and the confirmation by their consent and testifying. 

those are the emldoers; the contumacious unbelievers. 

77. And do they seek another religion than Go^s? Oon- 
nected by the conjunction with the previous sentence, the 
interrogative particle being inserted between the two to 
express disapproval®*'. — Or, with an omitted member of 
the force ^WHl they lum aside and seek’. The accusative is 
put first because that is the object of the disapproval ®®®. — 


STOA in. 

The verb is in the third person according to Abu ‘^Amr 
and ‘S?iia as recorded by Ha:% and Ta'(iQb, in the second 
according to the rest, •with "whioh reading ‘and say unto 
them’ must be supplied. 

mA to Him have avhmitted whosoever is in the heavens 
and the ewrtht of obedience or against their will; obeying, 
through study and foUo'wing the evidence; or against their 
will, by reason of the sword and being brought face to 
face -with what forced them to take refuge in resignation, 
such as the uplifting of the moxmtain and being over- 
taken by drowning and being at the gate of death; — 
or32»j of their free will, like the angels and the believers, 
and forced, like the unbelievers; for the latter are unable 
to keep themselves from what is decreed for them. 

and to Sim ye shall be brought baek; another reading 
is ‘they shall be brought back’, the pronoun referring to 

78. Say: We believe in God and what has been revealed 
to us, and what was revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and 
Isaac and Jacob and the Tribes, and what was given to 
Moses and Jesus and the Frophets from their lords injunction 
to the Prophet to declare the faith of himself and his 
followers; since the Qur’an is revealed to them by the 
medium of his communication as much as it is revealed 
to him; and further that which is ascribed to one of a 
number is ascribed to the whole — Or, an injunction 
to speak of himself after the fashion of kings , to do him 
honour. — The verb nazala is construed 'with Hay since 
the revelation reaches to the Apostles, but also ■with'a% 
since it comes from above — He mentions that which 
has been revealed to him before that whioh was revealed 
to the rest of the Apostles, because the former is what 



gives the latter its title and is the standard hy which the 
latter is tested. 

tee distingmsh not hetween my of ihm; hy believing one 
and disbelieving another 

but we svAmit to Him,; we obey; or, serve Him purely 

79. And whoso seeks a reUgion other than Islam; other 
than the confession of the unity, and obedience to the 
Law of Q-od. 

it shall in no wise he reeewed of him, md he m the next 
world is of the losers; of those that fall into ruin. The 
meaning is that whoso abandons ‘Eesignation’ and seeks 
another religion loses the profit and falls into misfortune, 
by defacing the perfect nature wherein man was created. — 
The passage was used as evidence to show that ‘faith’ 
meant ‘resignation’®*', ednee, if it were anything else, it 
would not bo received. The answer is that the text denies 
the acceptability of any religion which differs therefrom ^ 
not of everything that differs therefrom. And perhaps ‘reli- 
gion’ also refers to works ***. • 

80. Eow shall God gmde people who have disheUeved after 
their helievmg , and they have testified that the Apostle is 
true , and the evidences have come to them ? Assertion of the 
improbability of God’s leading them; for he who turns 
aside from4he trath after it has been made dear to him 
is sunk in error and far from guidance. — Others say, 
a denial and rejection of that notion; but this would 
make it certain that the repentance of the apostate will 
not be accepted®*®. — ‘Have testified’ is connected by 
the conjunction with the finite verbal idea contained in 
‘their believing’; a similar construction is to be found in 
iixm 10 ®®*. — Or else it is a lial with suppression of 
yad dependent on ‘have disbelieved’ ®®®. In either case the 



passage tlaows that consent with the tongue differs from 
genuine belief*’®. 

And God does not guide the people that wrong ; that wrong 
themselves by neglecting to meditate and by substituting 
unbelief for faith. How much less then those to whom 
the truth has come, who have known it, and who then 
discard it. 

81. The reeompenae of these is that upon them is the curse 
of God and of the Angels and of all menj the passage 
indicates, by what it states, that to curse them is lawful ; 
and, by what it implies®”, forbids the cursing of any one 
else. And perhaps the difference is that they ®®® are formed 
for unbehef, precluded from guidance, beyond hope of 
mercy from the first, unlike others. By 'men’ he means 
the Behevers or the generality of men. For the TTnbeliover 
also curses him that denies the truth, and apostatises from 
it, only he does not .know the truth specificaEy ®*®. 

abiding therein; in the curse; or, the punishment; or, 
Hell-fire , since , although they ha^ not been mentioned , they 
are indicated by the context. 

the punishment shall not be lightened for them, nor shcdl thmj 
be deluged, 83. But those that repent after that; after apostasy. 

and make good; the harm they have done. Or, possibly, 
no object need be supplied, the meaning being 'and enter 
into a right state’. 

then verilg God is forgiving; will accept their repentance. 
merciful; wiE be gracious to them. It is said that the 
text was revealed concerning El-Haritb B. Suwaid ®^, when 
he repented of his apostasy , and sent to his people , saying 
Ask whether there is any repentance for me? Then his 
brother El-Jallas sent this .text to him ; so he relumed 
to Medina and repented. 



84. Feril^ lime that MsheUeve after they ham leUeoed 
cmd then mar ease in unieUef ; like tb.e Jews who disbelieTed 
in Jesus and the Gospel after believing in Moses and the 
Law, then disbehevod yet more in Mohammed and the 
Qur’an; or, who disbeHevod Mohammed after believing in 
him prior to his mission, and then increased in unbelief 
by obstinacy, opposition, and accusing the Prophet, diver- 
ting others Itom the faith, and breaking their covenant; 
or like certain who apostatized, and went to Mecca, and 
then increased in unbelief inasmuch as they said: ‘Let us 
watch for what time may bring forth”® against Moham- 
med’; or, ‘Let us go hack to him and deceive him by 
a display of faith’. 

their vejyeaiame shall not be received ) because they 
will not repeat or, will only repent when they are face 
to face with destruction. Ho expresses their non-repentance 
by the phrase ‘their repentance shall not be accepted' in 
order to aggravate their case , and to represent their condition 
as the condition of those who despair of mercy, — Or, 
because their repentance is only hypocrisy, and not owing 
to their apostasy and increased unbelief ; and for this reason 
the fa of the apodosis is not employed 

cmd these are they that go astray; that persist in error ”®. 

85. Verily those that disbelieve and die while wtibeUeving, 
m earthfvl of gold shall not be taken from, one of them; 
since their death in unbelief is the reason why the acceptance 
of the ransom is precluded, the fa of the apodosis is here 
employed to indicate it. The ‘follness’ of anything is ‘enough 
to fill it’, dhahahan is an accusative of limitation Others 
read dhahabm in the nominative as permutative atmilc^m 
(Mlness), or as predicate of an omitted subject. 

althongh he offered it as a ransom; construed according 


STJJftA in. 

to the Bense®'*^ as though he had said: 'And a ransom 
shall not he received from any one of them, even though 
an earthful of gold ■were hk ransom’; or, connected hy 
the conjunction a suppressed verb, to he supplied as 
follows : ‘There shall not be received from any of them an 
earthful of gold, though he were to give it in alms in 
this -world, and though he -were to ransom himself thore- 
■with from punishment in the next’. — Or, the meaning 
may he ‘even though he redeemed himself with as much 
again’ like (v. 40) ‘and although the evil-doers had all that 
is upon the earth and as much again -with it’. The words 
‘the like of it’ are freiiuently omitted and inserted redun- 
dantly beoauaa the two similar things are virtually one 

those — fw Urn is ternhle pmishmewi; a violent menace; 
and destruction of all hope; for those from whom no ransom 
is taken might sometimeB he forgiven gratis. 

md they have no helpers; to avert the punishment, itm 
is added to make the negation universal 

86. Ye shall not acquire ohcmby; ye shall not attain to 
the reality of charity, which is the perfection of good. — 
Or, ye shall not gain the charity of God , i. e. mercy and 
good will and Paradise ***. 

miil ye syend of what ye love; i. e. wealth and all that 
term includes, and other things, such as saorificmg one’s 
dignity in adding people, and one’s body in the service of 
God, and one’s blood in His path. — It is recorded that 
when the text was revealed Ahu Talha®®® came and said: 
‘0 Apostle of God, lo, the dearest to me of my possessions 
is Badraha*®*; do thou deposit it where God wiH’. Then 
he said : ‘Bravo that is profitable wealth ; and I would 
Lave thee deposit it among thy neit of kin’. — Then 



ng-mA Zaid BOE of Hari|ba -with a mare of which he 
was fond, saying: ‘This is for the path of God’; then 
Mohammed set upon it *TJsama son of Zaid. Then said 
Zaid: ‘I wanted to give it in alms’; the Prophet answered 
‘God has accepted it of thee’. This shows that spending 
the dearest of one’s possessions on one’s nearest kin is most 
acceptable j and that the verse regards both necessary and 
commendable eipenditnre. — Some read ‘part of what ye 
love’, which indicates that min (of) in the ordinary reading 
is partitive; but it may be explanatory ('such things as 
ye love’) 

and whaieoer ye spend of myihing ; whether what ye spend 
be a thing beloved or anything else, miif (of) is here ex- 

verily Qod is cognizant thereof; and will reward you 

87. Ml the food; i. e. all the foods **' ; the meaning is 
the eating of them. 

v>(ts lazof'd to the ohUdren of Israel; is an infinitive 
employed as an adjective, and for this reason singular 
and plural, masculine and feminine are the same ***. So 
in Sura nx. 10 it is construed with the feminine plural. 

same what Israel; Jacob. 

made wtlawfnl for himself, S 

V' sneh as the flesh and milk of the camel; it is said that 
he suffered in the sciatic nerve, and made a vow, that, if 
he were cured , he would never eat the food he liked best , 
aud that was what he liked most. — Others say he did 
so to cure h ims elf by the advice of the physicians. The 
passage has been used as an argument by those who give 
the Prophet the right of initiation®®’; whereas those that 
deny this right can say this act of Jacob was done with 


smiA III. 

tlie diviiie consent, so that it was as though it had from 
the heginning been declared unlawful. 

lefore the Torah was revealed; before it was sent down, 
embracing the laws by which certain things were declared 
unlawful for them, by way of punishment and ssTerity, 
owing to their wrong-doing and oppressing. — The verse 
is an answer to the Jewish pretension of innocence of the 
crimes imputed to them in the words ‘by reason of the 
injustice of those who became Jews we made good things 
unlawM for them’ (it. 158), and the words ‘and for those 
who became Jews we made unlawful every animal with 
claws’ (vi. 147), to the end of the two texts, when they said 
‘"We are not the first to whom they were made unlawful ; on 
the contrary they were made unlawful for Noah and Abraham 
and his followers until it came to us, and they were made 
unlawM for us as they had been for those who were before 
us’. — And also an answer to their rejection of the theory 
of Bupersession ***, and to their objection to the Prophet’s 
declaration that he agreed with Abraham in regarding the 
flesh and milk of the camel as lawM. 

Sat/: Then bring the Torah md read it, if ye ie veraoious', 
He commands him to refute them out of their Book, and 
reduce them to silence with the statement contained therein 
that on account of their evil doings thingB which had not 
been declared unlawful were declared so. It is recorded 
that when the Prophet recited it to them, they were put 
to silence and did not venture to produce the Law. And 
herein was a proof of his mission. 

88. And whoso invents a lie against God; has fahricated one , 
in aasertiug that it was declared unlawfiil, before the revelation 
of the Torah , for the children of Israel and their piedecessors. 

after that; after the evidence has held them. 



those a/re they thai do wrong; ■who will not do jnstiee of 
themaelvoB , and resist the truth after it has been made clear, 

89. Sag God speah true; insinuation that they lie. In 
other words, it stands firm that Q-od speaks true in what 
He has revealed, and you are the liars. 

so foUmo the sect of Mraham, he hdng a fLanlf; i. e. 
the sect of *lslam which is essentially the sect of Abraham 
or like his sect; that ye may keep clear of Judaism which 
has forced you to fabrication and obstinacy in order to com- 
pass your worldly ends, and has compelled you to declare 
unla’wful good things which God made la'wful for Abraham 
and his followers. 

aatd was not one of the Polytheists; indication of the fact 
that it is necessary to follow him in holding the pure 
doctrine of the unity, and in keeping steadihst in religion, 
and in avoiding doing too much or too little and ia_ 
sinuation that the Jews are polytheists. 

90. Verily the first house set wp for men; set up for 
worship and made a conventicle for them. The ‘setter up’ 
is God as is shown by the other reading wa4£a (he set up). 

M thail whieh is in Bakka; another form for Mahha, like 
NaPih and Nan^ •®'‘, rutib and raUm ®®®, l&sih and laem ®®®. — 
Some say ‘Bakka’ is the place of the mosque, and ‘Makka’ 
the town from lahk ‘to jostle’ or ‘to knock’; for Bakka 
‘strikes’ the necks of tyrants — It is recorded that 
the Apostle was asked concerning the first house set up 
for men, and ho answered ‘The Most Holy Mosque, then 
the Temple’. When asked how long had been the interval 
between them, he said ‘40 years’. — It is said that the 
first builder was Abraham; that it was afterwards destroyed 
and rebuilt by certain Jurhumites then by the Amale- 
kites, then by the Quiadsh; others say it was the first 

8UEA ni. 

house built by Adam, wMcb perished ia the Deluge, and 
that then Abraham built it; others, that on its site before 
Adam was a house called Ml-4'urah^’’^, round which the 
angels made their drcuit; and when Adam was ejected, 
he was commanded to go on a pilgrimage thither, and 
make a circuit round it. At the time of the flood it was 
lifted to the fourth Heaven, and the angels of the heavens 
make circuit round it. This however does not suit the 
letter of the verse — Others say the meaning is, the 
first house in dignity, not in time. 

a blessed one; rich in blessings and advantages to those 
who go on the greater or the lesser pilgrimage thither, 
and . linger near it, and go round it. — The word 
wuharakan (‘being blessed’) is a circumstantial phrase at- 
tached to the subject concealed in the adverbial clause (‘in 

and guidance to the worlds; as being their Qibla and 
their place of worship, and because there are wonderful 
signs there, as follows. 

91. Ther^ are jier^ieiions signs; such as the birds 
declining to come directly over it during all these years, 
and the fact that within the sacred confines the wild beasts 
mix with their prey and do not seek to hurt them, and 
that every tyrant who has attempted to do it any harm 
has been overpowered, like the people of the elephant®^®. 
The sentence is explanatory of the ‘guidance’ or else is a 
second circumstantial phrase (wherein are etc,). 

the station of Abraham; subject of which the predicate 
is omitted, i. e. *among them is the station of Abraham’; 
or, permutative for 'signs’, permutative of part for whole. 
Others make it an ‘explanatory appendage’ supposing 
the thing meant by the 'signs’ to be the print of the foot 



in tlie hard rock, and its sinking therein as far as the 
hall, and the fact of the rook having been softened unUke 
other rooks , and the footprint having been preserved unlike 
all the footprints of the Prophets, and its having been 
preserved in spile of the number of Abraham’s enemies 
some thousands of years. This view is supported by the 
reading ^ayabm hayi/imtun in the singular. The occasion 
of this footprint was that when the building of the Ku'ba 
rose, he stood upon this stone in order to be able to lift 
the stones, and his feet sank therein. 

and he that enters it is secure ; either a nominal sentence 
or a conditional sentence, annexed by the conjunction, ac- 
cording to the sense , to 'the station of Abraham’, meaning 
'and the security of him that entered it’, i. e. 'and of 
those signs was the security of him that entered it’; or, 
'therein are clear signs, the station of Abraham and the 
security of him that entered it’. — He mentions these 
two only out of the many signs, and omits the rest, as 
in the saying of the Prophet: 'Three things out of this 
world of yours have been endeared to me; scent, women, 
and my comfort is in prayer’ *** — because these two 
make the mention of the rest of the signs in the two 
worlds , e. g. the persistence of the footprint through all 
time , and security from punishment on the Day of Judgment, 
unnecessary. — The Prophet said : 'Whoso dies within 
the boundary of the two sanctuaries shall be raised on 
the Day of Judgment secure’. According to Abu Hanifah 
whoever has incurred the penalty of death by apostasy or 
having committed murder or any other crime is not as- 
sailed therein but is forced to come out 
And to God is omny from mm the Pilgrimage to the 
Mouse i visiting it according to the prescribed manner. 


emiA in. 

Hamza, El-Kisa’i, and 'i?im according to the record of 
Ilaf? read IdjJtt (for Jayw) which, is the peculiar form of 
the people of Najd. 

wlwioeoer hath m his power a path theremto ; permutative 
of 'men’, which it specializes. ‘Hath in his power’ was 
interpreted by the Prophet to mean food and a beast 
to ride. This supports the opinion of Shafi'r that it refers 
to money; and for this reason he commands the infir m 
to send substitutes when they can find the hire of a sub- 
stitute. — MaUt referred it to the person; in which case 
any one able to walk and to earn his living on the way 
will he forced to make the pilgrimage. Ahu Hanifah said 
it referred to ability in both these matters ‘There’ in 
‘thereunto’ refers to the House ; or else to ‘the pilgrimage ; 
for every means of coming to a thing may be described 
as its path. 

92. And whose disbelieves — well, Ood is independent of 
the worlds', he makes ‘disbelieves’ synonymous with ‘does 
not go on pilgrimage’ in order to enforce its necessity, 
and to express displeasure at those who neglect it. For 
this reason the Prophet said : ‘Whoso dies without 
having made the Pilgrimage, let him die, if he will, a 
Jew or a Christian’. And in this text he emphasizes the 
importance of the Pilgrimage in several ways ; by asserting 
its necessity in the form of a statement®**; by expressing 
the proposition in the form of a nominal sentence ; by 
introducing it in such a manner as conveys the idea that 
it is a right of God binding on the necks of men **® ; by 
making it universal first, and afterwards specializing *®^, 
which is like elucidating after expressing a thing vaguely, 
and hke doubling and iterating the idea; by calling neglect 
of the Pilgrimage Unbelief, as being the act of unbelievers; 

BUBA OB TIIB MniY 0? 'iMBAN. 69 

and by mentioning' God’a independence whicli in this place 
STzggeala disapproval and aMndonment by God of the 
offenders; and by the use of the words ‘of the worlds’ 
(instead of ‘of him’), since those words convey an emphatic 
generalization, and prove by a syllogism that God is in- 
dependent of him ’®®, and point to the violence of God’s 
wrath; all because the pilgrimage is a difficult duty, 
combining contrition of soul and affliction of body, ex- 
penditure of money, abandonment of pleasures and turning 
to God — It is said that when the first half of the 
text was revealed, the Prophet collected the heads of the 
sects’®’, and addressed them, saying ‘God has prescribed 
the Pilgrimage for you, so observe it’. Than one sect 
believed therein and five disbelieved. Thereupon ‘and 
whoso disbelieves’ etc. was revealed. 

93. Says Ye people of the Booh, wherefore do yedieheUeve 
the signs of God; signs traditional and intellectual ’®® which 
point to the veracity of Mohammed in his assertions of 
the duty of pilgrimage etc. The fact that the people of 
the Book in particular are addressed is evidence that their 
unbelief was more heinous, and that , although they asserted 
that they believed the Law and the Gospel , they nevertheless 
disbelieved in both. 

mhUe God is witness of what ge do; the condition being 
that He is witness , i. e. cognizant of their works , and will 
recompense them therefor, so that perversion and concealment 
will not avail them. 

94. Sag: Ye people of the Book, wherefore do ge dmert 
from the path of God him that leUeves? He repeats the 
vocative and the q^uestion, in order the more emphatically 
to upbraid them, and deny them aU excuse, and to 
make it felt lhat each of these two things is disgraceful 


stmA ra. 

in itself and sufficient to bring on punisliment. The ‘path 
of Q-od’ is Bas true religion, which we are ordered to 
follow, i. e. ’Islam. It is said’®“ that they used to create 
schisms among the BelieTers and sow dissensions among 
them, and indeed, came to the tribes of El-Ans and El- 
Khazraj, and reminded them of their mutual enmity and 
warfare during the time of the Ignorance, in order that 
they might return to that condition; and that they used 
to plot to turn them from the way. 

seeUng for it crooJkedneos circumstantial phrase depen- 
ding upon ‘ye’; i. e., by confusing it before mankind, and 
making them think that it contains apostasy from the 
truth, by rejecting the doctrine of supersession and altering 
the description of the Prophet, etc. — Or, by stirring up 
dissensions between the BeheTers in order to -malrg their 
language discordant and to produce flaws in their belief. 

jo/ten ye are witnesses: that it is the Path of God, and 
that to turn people from it is to err and to cause to 
err. — Or, when you are men of hoggur in the eyes of 
your eo-reUgionists, so that they trust your words and em- 
ploy your witness in trials. 

and God is not negligent of what ye do; a menace to 
them. The crime complained of in the former verse being 
their unbelief, which they proclaimed openly, he ended 
that verse with the words ‘God is witness’; the crime 
complained of in this verse being their seducing the Believers 
from Islam, which they did secretly and by guile, he 
says ‘and God is not negligent of what ye do*. 

96. 0 ye that have heUeved, if ye obey a portion of those 
to wJtom the Booh was given , they will render you ved)elievers 
after that ye have believed; revealed concerning a party of 
Bl-Aua and El-Khazraj who ware sitting talking, when 



SMsB. Qais®' tte Jew passed by them, who, being Texed 
by their unity and concord, commanded a Jewish boy to 
sit with them, and remind them of the day of Bn'^tb 
and recite to them some of the poems composed about it 
— now El-Aus were the victors on that day. So be did 
it ; and the people began to wrangle and boast and to grow 
angry with one another and to call 'to arms , to arms' ; tiQ a 
largo number of both tribesmen gathered together. Then 
the Prophet with his followers came up to them, and said 
‘Do ye cry the cry of the time of Ignorance while I 

am among you, after that God has honoured yon with 
Islam’? Then they knew that this was a suggestion of 
Satan and a plot of their enemy, and throwing down their 
arms, they asked forgiveness, embraced each other, and 
went off with the Prophet. — God here addresses them in 
person, after bidding the Prophet address the People of 
the Book, in ortfer to show the superiority of the former, 
and to point out that they are the persons who deserve 
best that God should address them and hold converse 
with them. 

96. And /urn can ye diadeHeve, after tJte teats of Qod 
are read to you md among you is Wis Apostle? Expression 
of disapproval and 8\upri8e at their unbelief when they 
had united every motive which should prompt belief andll ^ 
prevent unbelief. 

now he tluU takes hold of God; takes hold of His religion 
and resorts to Him in all his affairs. 

has been guided into a straight path; has received guidance 
without a doubt. 

97. 0 ye that believe, fear God as He ought to be feared; 
to the full extent His fear involves i. e. exhausting 
your power in abiding by His mandates and abstaining 


SUEA. lU. 

fpom what He has forbidden; compare ‘and fear Q-od as 
far you can' (Ixiv. 16) — According to Ibn Mas'Qd 

the meaning is that He should be obeyed and not dis- 
obeyed; thanked and not treated with ingratitude; remem- 
bered and not forgotten. — Others say it means abstracting 
the act of piety from attention and expectation of 
recompense on its account. And in this command the veto 
on obeying the People of the Book is confirmed. The origi- 
nal form of iftqaiun is •mqaj/aim in which the w was changed 
to t as in idaAalm, and ImKhamaim, and the y into 

mid ye must not die mless when ye are Muslms; ye 
must not be in any other condition than that of ‘resignation’ 
when death overtakes you. For the veto against that which 
is limited by a circumstantial phrase or anything else is 
sometimes directed against the act, sometimes against the 
limitation, sometimes against the two together, and neither 
separately. The same is the case with negations 

98. And take hold of the rope of Qod; His religion of 
Islam; or, God’s book, since the Prophet said: ‘the Qu/an 
is God’s firm rope’. — He employs for this the image 
of ‘the rope’, inasmuch as taking hold of it is a 
means of safety from evil, just as takiag hold of a rope 
is a means of saving one self &om falling ; and he employs 
to express ‘confidence in it’ and ‘reliance upon it’ the 
words ‘take hold of’, in order to carry out the metaphor 
dl of yon; with one consent. 

and do not sepm'ote ; yourselves ftom the truth by allowmg 
differences to come between you, like the People of the 
Book. Or, Do not separate from each other as you did in 
the days of Ignorance, when you were each warring with 
the other. Or, Do not mention what will bring about 
discord and spoil the unity. 



and f member the mercy of Qod tmoards yo%; in wMoli is 
included the guidance and the divine aid towards ‘resignation’ 
which has led to unity and the cessation of ill-feeling. 

einoe ye were enmiee; in the days of the Ignorance, 
fighting with one another. 
md Tie united your hearts ; by Islam. 
and ye found yourselves hy Mis grace Irethren; loving 
one another^'®, united in brotherhood in Q-od. — Others 
say that El-*Aas and El-Khazraj were brothers by both 
parents; then there came discord between their children, 
and the ware between them lasted 120 years, until God 
extinguished them by IslSm and united them by His 

99, Jnd ye were on the edge of a gulf of fire; ready 
to fall into the Eire of He'll owing to your Unbelief: since, 
had death overtaken you whilst you were in that state, 
you would have fallen into Hell. 

and Me. saved you therefrom; by Islam; the feminine 
lUonoTxn refers to the ‘gulf’, or the ‘fire’, or to the ‘edge’ 
which may be attracted to the gender of the word to which 
it is annexed*”; or, the femiidne pronoun may be employed 
because sfafn. means ‘the Hp’, shafa and shafaUm as applied 
to a weU both meaning its edge , like jmibun wAjanihatm,, 
The original form was shafatonn, but the third radipal 
was changed to eUf in the masculine, and elided in the 

lake that; with demonstration like that 
does God show you Mis signs; His evidences 
jaerhajps ye may be guided; desiring*’® you to be atead- 
fhat in the guidance and to increase therein. 

100. A^d let there be of you a nation summoning to good, 
and enjoining right, and forbidding wrong ; min (of) is par- 



litive, meaning ‘out of you’; since enjoining right and 
forbidding wrong are duties obligatory on the community 
as a whole and heeause not every one is fit for this 
task, since the undertaking of it requires certain conditions 
in which the whole nation does not share, such as know- 
ledge of the laws, and of the gradations in the process of 
enjoining and forbidding**®, and of the way to enforce 
them, and power to maintain them. He addresses the 
whole community, but demands the action of part of it 
only; in order to show that this requirement is so fiir 
binding on the community that were they entirely to 
neglect it, they would all be guilty, but that it is satisfied 
by the action of some. The same is the case with all 
duties that are binding on the community as a whole. — 
Or milt (of) may be explanatory with the meaning 'and 
be ye a nation’, agTeeing with the words of the Qur’an: 
‘Ye were the best nation produced for mankind, enjoining 
right’ (iii. 106). ‘Summoning to good’ includes invitation 
to conduct leading to prosperity both worldly and spiri- 
tual. The appending of 'enjoining right’ etc. to ‘summo- 
ning to good’ is a case of appending the special to the 
general in order to call attention to the importance of the 

and those are the prosprons; those whose privilege is 
perfect prosperity**®. — It is recorded that the Prophet 
was asked Who is the best of men? He answered: He who 
most enjoins right, most forbids wrong, fears God most, 
and is most observant of the ties of kindred. ‘Enjoining 
right’ is necessary or commendable according to the thing 
prescribed**’; ‘forbidding wrong’ is on the other hand 
edways necessary, since everything which the Code forbids 
is prohibited**®. It is most probable that the transgressor 



is touad to forUd what he is himself ta the habit of 
committing, since he is bound both to abandon those 
practices and to discourage them; and his neglect of one 
of these duties does not render the other less binding. 

101. And he not Uke those that sjpUt into sects and were 
at variame] Hke the Jews and the Christians who ai’e 
divided concerning the Unity, the Abstraction^’® and the 
Future Life, as you*know. 

after that the evidences came to them; the signs and proofs 
which evince the truth and necessitate agreement concerning 
it. — It is moat probable that the prohibition only 
applies to division concerning the Principles of Eeligion, 
as opposed to the branches (i. e. the legal codes) ; according 
to the words of the Prophet 'the Variance of my people 
is mercy’; and ‘whoso inquires for himself and succeeds 
has a double reward and he that fails has a single 

and they have a terriile pmishmeni; a threat to those 
that are divided and a warning against imitating them. 

102. On a day whereon faces shall tnm white a/nd faces 
shall turn Hack; yauma (a day) is in the accusative either 
after the verbal idea contained in lahmi (to them = they 
have), or after a suppressed ‘make mention of. — The 
whiteness and blackness of the face are symbolical expressions 
for the appearance therein of the brightness of joy and the 
gloom of fear. Others say, tiie followers of the truth shall 
be distinguished by whiteness of face and complexion*®* 
and brightness of skin, and the waving of light in front 
of them, whereas the foUowers of falsehood shall be dis- 
tinguished by the contrary, 

and as for those whose faces are hlaeiened — *Bid ye 
dishelieve after believing’ ? i. e. ‘Did ye disbelieve’ ? etc. 


STiaA m. 

shall he said to them The sign of interrogation here 
expresses reproach and surprise at their conduct. They are 
the apostates, or 'the people of the Book’ who dishelieved 
the Prophet after believing in him previous to his mission 
— or, all the unhelievers , who had acknowledged him when 
he made them testify concerning themselves***; or, after 
they had it in their power i. oelieve hy studying the 
evidences and the signs. 

30 taste the punishment} contemptuous command. 

for your dhshelieving } on account of your unhelief, or 
as the recompense for it**®. 

103. And as for those whose faces are whitened, they are 
in the mercy of &od; he means in Paradise and the eternal 
recompense. He expresses this hy the word 'mercy’, to 
show that although the Believer he devoted throughout his 
life to the service of God, yet he cannot enter Paradise 
save by His mercy and beneficence**®. According to the 
natural order**” he should have mentioned them first; 
however he desired to make the beginning and end of the 
discourse the character and the reward of the Bebevers. 

they abide the/rem} introduced as a fresh clause**® for 
emphasis. It is as though he had been asked How shall 
they be therein? To which he answers 'abiding therein 
for ever’. 

104. Those signs of Qod; which are revealed concerning 
the promises of reward and punishment. 

we read them mto thee with truth] clothed with truth, 
with no doubt therein. 

amd God would not injure the worlds; since such injury 
on His part is an absm-dity, since He has no duties ***, in 
which it would be unjuet in Him to fall short , nor is He 
precluded from anything, so that it would bo unjust in 


Him to commit it; inasmuoli as He is absolute master, as 

105. Atii God's is all that is in the heavens md Ihe 
earth, and to God shall the things he brought bach; so that 
Ha will raeompense every one according to His promises 
and threats. 

106. Ye mere the best nation; the words imply that they 
were the best in past lime, but do not imply that they 
have since ceased to bo so ; as in iv. 21 'and God was for- 
giving, merciful’. — Others say: ‘Te were’ means ‘in the 
knowledge of God’, or ‘on the Table’, or, ‘among past nations’. 

jgroduced to men; shown to them. 

ye enjoined right md forbackimong ; fresh clause explaining 
how they were the best nation; or, second predicate to 
hmtum, (ye were). 

md believed im. God; comprising belief in everything in 
which belief is necessary; since belief in God is a duty 
and of consec[uenoe only when it implies belief in every- 
thing wherein belief is enjoined '***. This is put at the end 
when it would have naturally been placed at the begin- 
ning*’*, because he means, by mentioning it, to show that 
they enjoined right and forbadt wrong because they had 
faith in God, and believed in Him, and in order to assist 
His religion. — The verse has been used to prove that the 
agreement of the Behevers is a source of Law*”; for the 
verse makes it certain that they enjoined everything right 
and forbadi everything wrong, the article being here uni- 
versalizing. Now were they to agree to what is false, their 
conduct worild be the reverse *’*. 

md if the jgeojgle of the Booh believed; as they should *®®. 

it woM be heMer for them; that belief would he better 
tor them than thdf present state. 

BUfiA m. 


78 / 

/ of them are the Betieoers; suoli as AbdaUah B. 

/and Mb feUoTre. 

md the mat of them are the evilrdoera; who are pertMacious 
in unbelief. TMs sentenoe and the following are digressive 
107. Th^ shall not ham yon save a hart; a Blight harm , 
such as an acousation or a menace. 

and if they fight mih you , they will turn you their hooks / 
they wiU flee and not harm you by slaying or taking 

then, they shall mt he helped; there shall not be one to 
help them against you, or to avort your violence from 
them. He denies that they can do any harm- except by 
speech; and he confirms this by stating that if they have 
courage to fight, the rout shall be theirs. — Then he 
states that their end shall be infirmity and isolation. — 
Others read Za ywnsarn (they shall not be helped) in the 
jussive, connected by the conjunction with yvnooHa (they 
shall turn), supposing the word thwmrn (then) to imply 
an interval in the importance of the events; and with this 
reading their not being helped wQl be conditional upon 
their %hting'‘'^®. — This is one of the Prophetic texts 
wMch were corroborated by the event; smce such was the 
case with the tribes Quraiza and Nadir, the Banu QainuqS 
and the Jews of Kh aibar. 

108. There has been jaZ**® upon them afiietion; waste of 
life and goods and ruin of family, or, the affliction which 
consists in adhering to falsehood and paying tribute. 

wheresoever they are found; ecccept by a cord from God 
and a cord from men; exception from the more cqpiprehensive 
of comprehensive conditions***; i. e. affliction is set upon 
them in all their oonditionB except when they take refuge 
in or put upon themselves the protection of God, or of 



Hie Book -wMoh has come to them, and the protection of 
the Muslims ; or His religion Islam and following the path 
of the BelieTors. 

anti they have brought back wrath from Ood; earning it. 
and poverty has been set upon them; so that it surrounds 
them as a tent that has been pitched surrounds the 
owners. The Jews are for the most part poor and destitute. 

that; referring to the setting of baseness and poverty, 
and the bringing back of wrath. 

is heccme they used to disbelieve the signs of Qod md 
slay the Prophets withmt justice ; .... The limitation ‘without 
justice’ is added, although the murder of the Prophets is 
without justice from the nature of the case, in order to 
show that it was so even according to their belief. 
that; the unbelief and the slaughter. 
was because they rebelled and transgressed; because of their 
rebelling and transgressing the ordinances of God; for 
pertinacity in small offences leads to great offences and 
continuance in great offences to unbelief. — Others say the 
meaning is that the setting of affliction upon them in this 
world and thefr earning wrath in the next world, as. they 
have for one cause theirunbelief and murder of the Prophets, 
so they have for another cause their rebellion and trans- 
gression, inasmuch as the secondary precepts are Hudiug 
on them also**®. 

109. They are not equal; in their evil conduct***; 'they’ 
are the people of the Book. 

of the people of the Booh there is a party that stands ; 
i^yndeton, to explain why ‘equality’ is denied them. ‘That 
stands’ means that is straight and just; from qoma used 
in the phrase ‘I set the stick up and it stood (yama)’. 
They are those who became Muslims. 


SURA m. 

who read, the texk of God in the hows of night, mid they 
prostrate ihemselm; they read the Qur’an -while they 
keep watch*'*'’; which he expresses by the phrase ‘reading 
ia the hours of night together with prostration’, in order 
to make the matter clearer and to bestow on them the 
greater praise*'®. — Others say, tho night-prayer**’ is meant 
since the people of the Book do not pray at that time, 
since there is a tradition that the Prophet postponed it 
and then went out, and found the people were expecting 
the prayer; then he said Is it not true that none of the 
followers of the rsHgiona make mention of Q-od at this 
hour except you? 

110. Who believe in. God and the last lay, who enjoin 
right and forbid wrong, and are eager for those things which 
are right-, further descriptire clauses of ‘a party*. He attri- 
butes to them characteristics not to be found among the 
Jews, who decliue from the right, who do not worship in 
the night, who associate others with Qod, give him im- 
proper epithets, describe the last day falsely, are too soft 
in their censure of othe<r men’s acts*’*, and slow to do 
what is good. 

and they are of the pro^erous; those to whom these 
epithets belong are of those whose affairs have prospered 
with Q-od, and who have earned His favom’ and His praise. 

111. Whatever good ye do it shall not he disclamed far 
you; i. e, it shall not be lost, nor the reward of it he 
lessened at all. This is called ‘disdaiming’ just as the 
payment of the reward is elsewhere called ‘thanks’. It is 
made to govern two objects owing to its containing the 
sense of the verb ‘deprive’. — • jffamza, El-Kls^ and Hafe 
read the verbs in the third person, the rest in the 



awl God is eognismi of them that fear ; anoouragemeat 
to them and admonition that fear is the commencement 
of good and of right dealing, and that they are 'those 
that fear’ who prosper with God. 

112. Y&rUy those that MsheUeve, tltek goods and thdr 
children sludl not avail them against God a hit; i. e. of 
punishment, or of availing; in the latter case it wiU he 
a cognate accusative 

amd they are the peojile of the Fire; belonging to it. 
they shall abide therein. 

113. The Uheness of what they spend; of what the Un- 
believers spend to gain God’s &voar, or out of pride or 
for &me, or, the Hypocrites, for appearance’ sake or from fear. 

in this present life is as the likeness of a wind wherein 
is hitter cold; the word $mm is commonly applied to a 
cold wiTid, like sarsarun; originally it was a ma^dar, 
turned into an epithet; or, an epithet combined by a 
rhetorical figure with the word 'cold’, like the phrase 
hardm haridun (severe, lit. cold, cold)“’. 

which strikes the ploughed land of people that have vrronged 
themselves; by unbelief and transgression. 

and destroys it; as a punishment to them. For destruction 
when occasioned by the Divine wrath is severer than any 
other He means to compare what they spend in respect 
of its faiahty with the agriculture of Unbelievers which a 
cold wind strikes and annihilates, so that no use remains 
to them therein in this world or the next. It is a com- 
pound simile and hence he does not mind letting the 
partide of comparison be followed by 'wind’ rather than 
by 'agriculture’. Or perhaps we may supply 'as the likeness 
of that which is destroyed by a wind’, ‘that’ being the 


simA m. 

And God does not vsrong them, rather they wrong ihem- 
selves; He did not -wrong those -who spent by the -waste 
of what they spent, rather they wronged themselves by 
not spending it in a way which would be reckoned; or, 
God did not wrong the people of the ploughed land by 
ruining it, rather they wronged themselves by committing 
offences whereby they merited punishment. — Others read 
laMnna (but) in which case the accusative after IsMnm 
is permissible in poetry only, as in the verse 'but whoso- 
ever beholds thy eyelids , loves’ 

114. 0 ye that beUeve, take not a lining; i. e. an intimate 
friend; one to whom a man tells his secrets in conffdence: 
— compared to the lining of a garment, as such were 
compared to the inner garment in the words of the Prophet 
'The An^ar are the inner garment and mankind the outer’. 

from ontside yourselves; to the exclusion of the Muslims. 
The words depend either on 'take not’, or on an omitted 
word e. g. 'a lining coming from’. 

Uey shall not fail you in haim; the verb Wa (to come 
short) ought properly to take prepositions*®® after it; 
however it is also construed -with two Bceusatives as in 
the phrase lu ‘‘^^ha na^lyan (I shall not fail thee in advioe) 
owing to its containing the ideas of ‘preventing’ or ‘dim- 

tl^ would Hie that you should come to harm; ^anatm 
means excessive harm and misery *®®. ma has the infinitival 
sense **’. 

their haired has shown itself from their mouths; from 
their words; since they cannot control tiiemselveB owing 
to thdr extreme hatred. 

and whai their breasts eonaeal is yet greater ; than what 
is revealed. For the display of it is not deliberate and of choice. 



we have made clea^ to you the signs; wMclx point out 
the duty of sincere attachmeut to the BeUepers and of 
opposition to the UnheHevers. 

if ye have mdersiood; what has been made clear to you. 
The four sentences are independent and conTey the reason 
for the prepious proposition. Possibly the three first are 
descriptive clausas of bitoMoian, (a lining)^®*. 

115 . Behold ye are these, ye love them and th&j love you 
not; ye are these who offend in being attached to the 
TJnbelievere. 'Te love them’ eto. is an explanation of their 
sin in being attached to them, or a second predicate of 
'ye’; or predicate of ‘these’, the whole sentence being 
predicate of 'ye’, like ‘thou art Zaid who lovest him’; or 
the sentence may be a relative clause attached to ‘ye’; or, 
a circumstantial phrase (‘loving them’), governed by the 
idea of pointing out in ‘behold’; and (these) may 
be in the accusative after a verb explained by what fol- 
lows*"* in which case the sentence will be predicate 
(of ‘ye’). 

while ye helieve the Book, the whole of it; the article 
is hare generic *•*. The sentence is a circumstantial phrase 
depending on 'they love you not’. The meaning is that 
they love you not, while you believe in their Book as 
well; why then do you love them, when they do not 
believe in your Book? The words contain a taunt, that 
they are more obstinate in their falsehood than you are 
in your truth. 

and when they meet you, they say: We beUeoe; out of 
hypocrisy and deceit. 

hut when they are hy themselves they hits thm finger-tips 
<nd of ^ite against you; out of vexation and annoyance 
that they cannot find any way of gratifying themselves. 


smiA m. 

sag: Die i% ymr anger; an imprecation that Ikeir wrath 
may continue and increase as the power of Islam and its 
foUorwers doubles itself, until they perish thereby 
verily God is cognisant of that which « im the Ireasts] 
so that he knows the anger and spite that is in their 
breasts. Possibly the words may be part of the message; 
‘Say, God knows what is yet more hidden than your secret 
biting of your finger-tips out of spite’ ; or they may be 
not part of the message, meaning ‘teU them this, and be 
not amazed that I tell thee their secrets, for I know the 
most hidden thing, their thoughts’. 

116. If a good thing touch yon, it hurts ih&ne; and if 
evil lefall you , they rejoice thereat; explanation of the fact 
that their hatred teaches such a pitch that they envy any 
good and any profit which befaUs the Believers, and rejoice 
at any harm or mischief that befalls them. ‘To touch’ is 
used metaphorically for ‘to befall’. 

hd if ye persist; in enmity to them, or, in llie painful 
duties imposed upon you. 

cmd fear; association with them; or, those acts which 
God has forbidden you. 

ihw guile shM not hurt you at all; by the mercy of 
God, and His performance of His promise to those who 
persist and fear; and because whoever is zealous in the 
matter and accustoms himself to caution and persistance 
will Buffer little and be bold against the enemy. The second 
» in yadurruhm (shall hurt you) is due to the attraction 
of the previous u like that in muddu (stretch out). Ibn 
Khthir, Nafi*, Abu 'Amr and Ya'q^ub read yo4irhfm from 
dsra with the same meaning. 

Verily God comprehends what ye do; what ye do in the 
way of patience, fear, etc. Literally, 'causes His knowledge 

BtraA or the 3?amilt or ®iMiujsr. 


to Burroiind’, so that He mil reoompenBe you according to 
what you deserve. — Others read 'what they do’, i. e. in 
the ir emnity against you; so that He will punish them 

117. And w/ien iJiou didst go forth, mrly ; mention the 
time when *®®. 

frm thy famlyf liom the chamber of 'i’isha. 
bringing the Believers; bringing them down to , or arranging 
and preparing for them; which latter explanation is supported 
by the reading Ulmd'misrina seats for the places where 
they should stand and stations for it ; the words mafadm 
and rnaqmm are used loosely for 'places’ as in the words 
of the Qui^an 'in the place of truth’ (lav. 56), and 'before 
thou risest from thy place’ (xxvn. 39). 
and God had heading; for their words. 
and hutmledge; of their intent. — It is recorded*®’ that 
the Idolaters encamped at Uliud on Wednesday the IS^l^ of 
Shawwiii in the 3rd year of the Hijra; and that the Prophet 
called a council of his Gompanious among whom he sum- 
moned Abdallah B. Ubayy ***, whom he had not summoned 
before. Then he, and most of the Helpers said Abide, 
0 Prophet of God, in Medina, and go not out imto them; 
for, by Allah, we have never gone out from Medina 
against an enemy but he has defeated us; and no enemy 
has ever entered Medina to attack us, but we have defeated 
him. How much more then when thou art amongst us? 
So let them alone; for if they abide, they shall abide in 
the worst of prisons and if they enter Medina, the 
men will fight with them, while the women and children 
pelt them with stones; and if they go back, they will go 
back disappointed. — Others advised a sally — Then 
the Prophet saidi I saw in mv dream nxen slann-htered 

r 'I \ 


SUBA m. 

aroBod which I interpret good; and I saw a dint 

in the edge of my eword, which I interpret defeat and 
I saw myself, as it were, putting my hand into a coatoi 
mail, which I interpret Medina, And if ye see fit to abide 
in Medina and to let them alone, well. — Then said 
certain men who had missed Badr, but whom God honoured 
with martyrdom on the day of ’TJhud Take us out to our 
enemies’ ; and they urged him until he went in and put 
on his coat of mail And when they saw that, they repented 
that they had urged him and said '0 Prophet of God do 
what thou seeat fit’. Tllen he said Tt is not meet for a 
Prophet to put on a coat of mail and then put it off, 
until he have fought’. Then he started out after the prayer 
of the Friday and was in the pass of Tlhnd on the Saturday 
morning. Then he stationed his force in the side of the 
Talley and placed his rear and his camp towards Ukud, 
and straightened the line, giving AhdaUah B. Juhair*^® 
command of the archers, saying Tlefend us with your 
arrows, let them not attack us from hehind’. 

118. Whm there dependent on the words ‘had 

hearing’ and ‘had knowledge’; or, permutative of ‘When 
thou didst go forth’. 

too partiee of you ; the Banu Salima of ll-K^zraj , and 
the Banu Hsritilia of Bl-Aus. These occupied the two fianks, 

that thetf iBould flag; that they would be cowardly and 
weak. — It is recorded that the Apostle started out with 
about 1000 men, and promised them victory if they 
persevered, but when they reached El-Shaut Ibn Ubayy 
with 300 deserted, saying ‘Why should we slay ourselves 
and our children’? Then they were followed hy ‘Amt B. 
Hosm the Angau*”, who said ‘I adjure you hy God and 
Ishto to think ofyour Prophet and yourselves’. Then said Ibn 



TJbayy ‘If we knew how to fight we shoxild follow you’. Then 
the two tribes thought of following him, but God restrained 
them, and they went on with the Apostle. Itis clear however 
that it was not an mtenUm as is shown by what follows. 

cmd God was their friend ; restrained them from following 
that suggestion. Or the meaning may be ‘but God was 
their helper, so why should they flag’? 

and upon God let the BeUevera rely; let them rely on 
no other to help them as He did at Badr. 

119. And God did hely you at Badr; calling to their 
memory an occasion on which reliance on God had been 
of use to them. — Badr is a spring between Mecca and 
Medina which belonged to a man named Badr and was 
called after him. 

when, ye were hwMe; circumstantial phrase depending on 
‘you’ in ‘did help you’. Ha says ^adhillaUin rather than 
dhalaUu^*^ to point to the paucity of their numbers together 
with their humility, by which is meant their feeble condition 
and the poverty of their mounts and armour. 
ao fear God; in keeping your station. 
perhapa ye may le gratefid; for the help conferred upon 
you, by showing fear — or, perhaps God may be merciful 
to you, so that you will be thankful; and he substitutes 
the gratitude for the benefit , because the latter is the cause ^ 
of the former. 

ISO. When thou, aaidat to the BeUeoera; temporal clause 
after ‘did help you’; others say, a second permutative of 
‘when thou wentest forth’ above; supposing that he said 
it to them on the day of XJ^ud, but on the conditions of 
persistence and abstinence from disobedience; so that when 
they did not restrain themsatves from plundering and 
disobeyed the Prophet, the angels were not sent down." 


stibjl m. 

mil it not mffioe yon that yonr LorU rmforce you mth 
3000 of the Awjels eent dom? rejection of the idea that 
that nnmher wonld not suffice them. is employed 

to point out that they were like people 'vrho despaired of 
help owing to their weakness and paucity, and the strength 
and number of the enemy. — It is said that on the day 
of Badr God helped them first with 1000 angels, who 
then became 3000, and afterwards 5000. — Ibn '5mir 
read mmatzaUm, meaning either ‘sent down in numbers’, 
or, 'sent down gradually’ 

121. Ay el conflnnation of the sentence following (not), 
i. e, 'Aye truly it will suffice you’. Then he promises them 
increase of help on condition of perseverance and obedience, 
in order to encourage them to these courses, and to 
strengthen their hearts, saying: 

if ye persevere and fear and they come to you : the Polytheists. 
at this moment of theifsf the word fmrm (moment) is 
originally infinitive of the verb fdra (to boil) applied to a 
pot, and metaphorically used of ‘^speed’, then applied to 
an occasion about which there is no delay nor lingering. 
The meaning is If they come to you at once. 

your Lord mil amai you mth 6000 Angela; at the moment 
of their coming, without lingering or procrastination. 

marked; from aamoama which signifies to ei^diibit the 
badge of anything; this interpretation corresponds wiih the 
saying of the Prophet to his foEowers ‘Put on your 
badges , for the Angels have put on thehs’ — Or , 
despatched, from conjugation II in the sense of conjuga* 
tion IV. — Ibn Kathir, Abu 'Amr, 'A?im and Ya'qub 
read muaemmmm^*^. 

122. And God lias not decreed this; that you should be 
reinforced by Angels. 


but to encourage you; mtli tidings of help. 
amd tliai yowr hearts 'might thereby be ^ieted; might 
acq[xii 0 sce therein from fear. 

and the help eomes not except from God; not from ar- 
maments and mimhers; signifying that there was no need 
of reinforcements in order to help them,’ and that God 
reinforced them and promised them reinforcement only in 
order to encourage them and strengthen their hearts , inas- 
much as the Tulgar look more to the immediate causes; 
and exhorting them not to care who left them in the lurch. 
the •mighty; who cannot be thwarted in His decisions. 
the toise; who helps and abandons with or without means; 
according to the dictates of wisdom and utility. 

that He may out off some of them that disbelieve; depen- 
dent on 'He helped you’*»* abore; or, upon 'the help 
comes not’ if the article in 'the help’ be that of famili- 
arity; the meaning is to lessen their numbers by kil- 
ling some and taking others captive; and this was what 
took place on the day of Badr, when of their leaders 
70 were killed and 70 taken captive. 

or may abase them; i. e, 'make them ashamed : means 

'violent anger’ or Mnt^ness falling on the heart. ‘Or’ is 
here rather speeifioative than alternative. 

amd that they may be turned bach disappointed; and that 
they way be routed in despair. 

133. Thou hast nought of the matter ; parenthesis. 
or He may turn again to them or He may pmish them; 
connected by the conjunction with ‘may abase them'; 
the meaning being that God is controller of their fate, 
and will either destroy them or abase them, or turn again 
to them, if they become Muslims, or punish them, if 
they are obstinate. Thou hast nought of their concern and 


suBi in. 

art merely a servant ordered to warn them and to oontead 
•with them. — Or possibly it way be connected vrith ‘of 
the matter’, or 'with ‘nonght’, supposing the conjunction 
‘that’ to be omitted, so that the sense •will be ‘or -with 
His turning agaia towards them or with His punishing 
them’; or, nothing of their concern is thine, neither Hie 
turning again to them nor His punishing them. — Or 
again, 'aw (or) may have the meaning ‘except that’, so 
that the sense will he ‘thou hast nought to do with them, 
unless God turn again to them, so that thou wUt rejoice, 
or punish them, in which case thou wilt be avenged’ ***. — 
It is recorded that on the day of Hhud TJthah B. Ahi 
Waqqas wounded the Prophet in the head and hroke his 
side-tooth , so that he began to wipe the hlood off his face , 
saying ‘How can people prosper who have dyed their Pro- 
phet’s face with hlood’? — Then the text was revealed. 
And it Is said *** that he thought of cureing them, only 
God restrained him, knowing that there were future he- 
lievers among them.' 

for they are toroag-doera ; who have merited punishment 
by the 'wrong which they have done. 

124. Jnd Qod’a ia wAaiaoever U in the hewom and on He 
earth ; as His creation and possession ; and His is the whole 

He forgivea whom He vnU and pmishea whom He will} 
a plain declaration that tiie punishment is not obliga- 
tory ; and to make repentancs or non-repentance a condition 
is to contradict this text. 

at)A God ia readg to forgive, merciful} to His servants. 
Do not therefore curse them hastily. 

125. C ge tiai ieUeve, eat not the intereai tmea redouiled } 
i. e, do not morease it over and over again. Possibly the 



specialization is in reference to what actually occurred ; 
inasmuch as a man would lend on Interest for a giyen term , 
and then increase it, until by a small debt he swallowed 
up aU the property of the debtor. Ibn Eathir, Ibn 'Imir 
and ya’q^ub read the participle in the II«^ conjugation. 
md fear God; in what He has forbidden you. 
p«rha]^ may jyrosper; in hope that ye may. 

186. And take heed of the fire wUeh has been jprepared 
for ihe unbelievers j by guarding yourselrea against imitating 
them or practising their actions. The verse indicates that 
the fire has been prepared essentially for the unbelievers, 
and j>er aeeidens for the transgressors.*®^ 
and obey God and the Apostle, perhaps ye may fad merey ; 
he appends to the warning a promise, in order to deter 
them &om disobedience and encourage them to obedience. The 
words '‘asay (perchance) and kfaUa (perhaps) show that the cases 
are rare in which the predicate of these words is realised. 
137. And hasten; hurry and go forward 
towards forgiveness from your Lord; to those courses 
whereby forgiveness is earned, such as resignation, repen- 
tance and sincerity. — Nafi' and Ibn 'Amir read ‘hasten’ 
without the conjunction. 

and towards a Garden whose width is the heavens and the 
earth; i. e. as wide as they. Its width is mentioned in 
order to give by way of comparison a powerful conception 
of its vastness, for the width of a thing is usually less 
than its length. A tradition after Ibn 'Abb&s makes its 
width like the seven heavens and the seven earths connected 

which is prepared for them that fear; made ready for 
them, Herein is evidence that the (harden is created **• and 
is outside this world. 

128. Timj wAo spend; laudatory epithet of ‘them that 
fear’; or, expression of praise either in the nominative or 

in wed md woe; in times of comfort and of distress; 
or, under all circumstances, since man is always either in 
joy or in distress. The sense is that in no state do they 
fail to expend vrhat they can, whether much os little, 

and who suppress their wrath; who keep it hack; who 
refrain from giving it vent while they have the power to 
do so; from Teazama applied to the act of filling a milkskin 
and tying up the mouth. — It is recorded that the Prophet 
said: 'If any man repress hie wrath when able to give it 
vent, God will fill his heart with comfort and feith*. 

and who forgive people; who omit to punish those whom 
they have a right to punish. It is recorded that the Pro' 
phot said : ‘These last among my people are few, save those 
whom God assists; hut in the nations that are past there 
wore many’. 

and Ood loves the welldoers; the article ffay he generic, 
in which case the classes above mentioned will he included 
in the term; or that of femUiarity, in which case the 
reference will be to them. 

129. And those who, when they commit a crime; an action 
of extreme foulness, such as fornication. 

or wrong themselves; by committing a sin, of whatever 
sort it be. Some say the ‘crime’ is a capital offence, and 
the ‘self-wronging’ a minor offence. Possibly the ‘crime’ is 
an act which affects others, and ‘self-wronging’ an act which 
does not. 

remember Ood; recollect Has warning or His mighty right. 

tmd ash forgiveness for thdr sins; hy remorse and re- 

smu. OP TUB Pi&imT oi ‘imiian. 93 

md wJto shall forgive sins 6ui Ood? inteiTogation expeo- 
ting a negative answer, interposed parenthetically between 
the two sentenoes that are connected by the conjunctions. 
He means to predicate of God width of mercy and com- 
prehensive forgiveness, and to encourage people to ask 
His pardon and to promise that their repentance will be 

and me not oiaiinaie in wAat they do; i. e. do not per- 
sist in sins without asking forgiveness ; compare the saying 
of the Prophet 'He is not hardened wo asks forgiveness 
though he repeat the sin seventy times in the day. 

ioMle they hnoio; i. e. do not adhere knowingly to a foul 
course of conduct. 

130. Those thm reeoniyense is forgiveness from tieir Lord, 
and gardens heneaiA whieh rivers fow, toherei/n they abide; 
predicate of ‘those -who’ in verse 139 , if that be regarded 
as subject; or fresh sentence explanatory of the preceding 
if ‘those who’ etc. be connected by the conjunction with 
‘those that fear’ of verse 137 , or ‘those who spend’ of verse 
128. It does not follow ftom the fact that the Garden 
has been prepared as a recompense for the pious and the 
repentant that the obstinate will not enter it, just as it 
does not follow from the fact that the fire has been pre- 
pared as a recompense for the unbelievers that no others 
will enter it. If we make the words predicate of 'those 
who’ (v. 139) , the omission of the article before ‘Gardens’ 
shows that what is prepared for these is less than that 
what has been prepared for ‘those that fear’, who are 
described by the epithets mentioned in the preceding 
verse ®®^. And it is a sufficient distinelion between the two 
parties that he supplements the text dealing with them 
by stating that they; 'do good* and earn the love of Glod 


suai ni. 

by observing the ordinances of the Law, and endeavour 
to possess themselves of Hia favours; while he supplements 
the text dealing with the latter class by the words 
md limed are the wages of them that toil; since he who 
endeavours to make up for Ms short-comings is like one 
who labours to regain something wMch he has allowed to 
escape him; and how great is the difference between him 
that does good and him that makes reparation, and between 
the beloved and the hireling! It may be that the substi- 
tution of the word 'wages’ for ‘recompense’ is for this 
point; the object of praise®®* is here omitted, the full 
force being are those i. e, forgiveness and the Garden. 

131. There hme jpassed before gm deaUnga ®®®; events 
decreed by God against the peoples that disbelieved; com- 
pare xxxiii , 61 ‘and they ware utterly slain , the dealing 
of God with them that paeaed before’; — others say ‘na- 
tions’ as in the verse ‘mankind have seen no excellence 
auch as yours, nor did thdy find the like thereof in bygone 

so march in the earth md see hm was the end of the 
mbeUevers; that ye may take warning by the vestiges ot 
their destruction which ye shall see. 

Ids. This a demonstration to mmlmnd wad gnidmoe wad 
warning to them that fear; ‘this’ refers to the words ‘there 
have passed’ or to the sense of the words ‘and see’; not 
only is it a demonstration to the unbelievers, but conveys 
additional instruction and is a warning to them that fear; 
or, it refers to the above summary of the state of them 
that fear and them that repent, the words ‘Thetre have 
passed’ etc. being a parentbesiB exhorting to faith and 
repentance. — Others say ‘this’ refers to the Qrufan. 

133. faiai not neither grieve; consolation to them 

SiraA os THE SAJULY OS 'fflnAE. 


for "what had befallen them on the day of TJ^ud; the 
TO ftaning being 'Be not discouraged by what has befallen 
you and mourn not over your slain’. 

when ye are the uppermost; the drcumstanoes being such 
that you are more exalted than they in dignity, since 
you are on the side of truth, and fight for God, and your 
slain are in Paradise, whereas they are on the side of 
falsehood, their fighting is for Satan, and their dead are 
in' Hell. — Or, since you took more of them on the day or 
Badr than they took of you this day®”®. — Or, when you 
are superior to them in the long run; in which case the' 
words will be a promise of help and ■rictory to them. 

if ye helieoe: depending *** on the prohibition: i.e. faint 
not, if your faith be firm’; since faith necessitates stout- 
ness of heart, through reliance on God, — Or, dependent 
on 'ye are the uppermost’. 

184. If a sore tmek you, a sore Uke it has akreaSy towr 
ched the pet^les !^amza, Bl-Eisa^ and Ibn "Ayyash after 
'5§un reaAqmTym (sore), the rest0wj«{»/ they are opti- 
onal forms like dufm and ^afm (weakness); others make 
the form with a mean wounds, the form with u the pain 
they cause. — The meaning is ‘if they have oTercome 
you on the day of Uhud, you orercame them on the day 
of Badr; yet they did not become discouraged or faint- 
hearted, and you are still more bound not to flag; for 
you hope to receive ftom God what they hope not’. — 
Others make both ‘touchings’ refer to the day of Dltjud, 
sinoe the Muslims were victorious until they disobeyed 
the Prophet’s command, 

now those days we altemate amouy manMndj we change 
them about between them; 'we pve the ■victory one time 
to these, another to those; as in the verse ‘One day 


S0EA. m. 

against ns to and one day for ns; so one day we are 
grieved and one day are made merry’, — Dasoala is in 
sense like 'awara ®®» , yon say, using the III”^ and Via 
forms ‘I alternated a thing between them and each got 
his share’. — ‘Days’ {el^ayymd) may he either an epi- 
thet or predicate (rendering ‘those are the days’) and 
‘we alternate them’ may be either predicate or oircnm- 
stantial phrase. The meaning is ‘limes of help and victory’. 

md that God may hum those who beUeoe; connected by 
the conjunction with an ondtted cause ; ‘we alternate them 
in order that such-and-such may take place, and in order 
that Q-od may know’, suggesting that the cause thereof is 
not one only, and that the advantages which accrue there- 
from to the Believers are unknowable. Or, the verb on 
which this &al sentence depends may be omitted, to be 
supplied thus; ‘and in order that those who are firm in 
their faith might be distinguished ficom those who are on 
the margin we have done this’. The import of such phrases 
and their contrary is not God’s knowing or not 
knowing, but the establishment or the contrary of the 
thing already know by God by a demonstrative process, — 
Others say the meaning is, that He might know them 
with a knowledge whereon recompense would depend; and 
that is knowledge of a thing when already come to pass. 

and tJust He mighi tahe to himself of ym martyrs; and 
might honour some of you with martyrdom. He means 
the martyrs of Dhud. Or, might take from among you 
‘witnesses’ proved true by the steadfastness and endu- 
rance of tribulation which they then displayed. 

and God loves not them that do wgtiry: who keep in 
their bosoms the contrary of what they display ®“. — Or, 
the Dnbelievers. — The verse notifies that God does not 



really help the Unbelievers, but gives them the victory 
someiames merely to tempt them and to try the BeHevers. 

135. And tlioA Qod may prove them that believe; may 
cleanse and purify them from their sins if the event go 
against them. 

and may maate the UideUevera away ; may destroy them, 
if the event go agomst them, rmlyaqa means to diminish 
a thing Httle by little. 

136. Or think ye that ye ahall enter Faradiae? nay, 
think ye? — The meaning is think not. 

When Qod Isnoweth not thoae of yon who have fought ; i. e. 
when some of you have not yet fought This shows that 
the oommand to fight is addressed to the community as a 
whole The difference between the negatives lamma and lam 
is that the former imphes that the action which it denies 
is expected in the future Some read yc^lama supposing 
that the original form was ydlamm with n elided. 

rm doea Ee know the paMent; yaHama is in the subjime- 
tive after a suppressed ^an (that), the waw (and) according 
to this reading having comitative force •— Others read 
ya^lamu (indicative), making the waw oircumstantial the 
sense being ‘Ye have not yet fought being patient’. 

137. And formerly ye deaired death; i. e. war, which is 
one of the causes of death. Or, the death of martydom. 
The persons addressed are those who were not present at 
Badr, but desired to be present with the Apostle at a 
sacred battle, in order to gain the distinction which the 
heroes of Badr obtaiaed; and so urged him to go out on 
the day of Uhud, 

before ye met it; before ye faced it and learned its terror. 

and now ye have seen it, looking thereon; ye have sben 
it fece to fece when such of your brethren as were slain 


simA m. 

•were slain wlule yon escaped. The verse upbraids them 
■with having desired war and brought it on, and then 
having faiinted and fled &om the field; or, •with desiring 
martyrdom; a desire •which by implication is a desire for 
the victory of the UnbeHevers 

138. And Mn^ammad is only m ajooatle before to/iom tie 
apostles have passed may ; and he •will pass away as they 
have passed by death or murder. 

and if he die or be slain, mil ye retrace yow steps? 
Disapproval of any apostasy or abandonment of religion 
on their part owing to his passing away by death or 
murder, when they knew how the Apostles had passed 
away before him, but their religion remained an object ot 
adherence. Others make the conjunction causative, and 
the interrogation express disapproval of their making the 
fact that the Apostles before him had passed away a rear 
son for backslidiag after Ms death. It is recorded that 
when Abdallah B. Qamfah the H&rithite®®* threw the 
stone at the Prophet, breaking his side- tooth and wounding 
hia face, his standard-bearer Mus'ab B. TJmair®®* protected 
the Prophet until slain by Ibu Qami’ah; who ikinking that 
he had slain the Prophet, said '1 have killed Mohammed’; 
^ome one then shouted aloud ‘Mohammed is slain’, and his 
followers took to flight. The Prophet then began to cry 
out 'servants of God, to me’, when thirty of his followers 
gathered to him and protected him, until they had rid 
him of the Polytheists ; the rest were dispersed, some 
saying ‘would that Ibn Ubayy®** might get an amnesty 
for US from Aha Sufyan’ Some of the Hypocrites said 
‘Had he been a Prophet, he had not been Mllad; return 
therefore to your brethren and your religion*. Anas B. Hl- 
Ifadr however the uncle of Anas B. Malik said 'Good 



people, if Mohammed he killed, Mohammed’s Lord is 
alive and immortal j and what will ye do with life after 
ho is gone? So fight for the cause for which he fought’. 
Then he said ‘0 God, I ask thy pardon for what they 
say, and am innocent thereof’. So he set to work with 
his sword and fought M he was killed. Then the text 
was revealed. 

mi whoso turns upon his heels shall not hwt Goi at 
alls hy his apostasy, but rather hurts himself. 

and God will reward them that are gratefuls for the be- 
nefit of Mam by adhering to it, like Anas and those 
like him. 

139. No soul has power to die but hy the permission of 
Gods save by Has will“®; or by Bjs permitting the 
Angel of Death to seize the spirit. The meaning is that 
each soul has a term named in the knowledge and ordi- 
nance of God; they cannot delay it nor anticipate it by 
one hour by keeping away from battle or plunging into 
it'*®. The words are meant to encourage and embolden 
them to fight, and promise the Apostle that he shall be 
protected, and his end postponed. 

vu writings confirmatory infinitive the meaning being 
death is written in writing. 

dated s epithet of hOdbrn (writing); meaning ‘fixed for 
a time’; death shall not come before nor after that time. 

and whoso desires the recompense of this world, we shall 
give him thereof s side glance at those who were occupied 
with the plunder on the day of Uhud; for the Muslims 
on that day attacked the Polytheists and put them to 
flight and commenced plundering; then when the archers 
saw this, they made for the plunder, leaving their 
places; thereupon the Polytheists, taking advantage of the 


STOA m. 

opportunity, attacked them in ike rear and routed tkem. 

and whoso desires the recompense of tite next) we shall gvoe 
him thereof; of its recompeMe. 

tmd we shall reward them that wre grateful; those who 
were thankful for God’s mercy and were not diverted hy 
anything from fighting. 

140. And how mmy ; kiagym,) originally ^ayym with 
ha prefixed, ‘like what’ coming to have the meaning of 
ham (how many); the in beiug the tarmm, maintained in 
writing contrary to analogy. Ibn Kathir read the 

account of this form being that the word has undergone 
the permutations to which a single word is liable as when 
you say rtfamli for la%m,n, whence it became hay fin; 
then the second y was thrown out for abbreviation, and 
the other y changed into ffi as in 
a prophet; explanation of ha'ayym 
have many rihhiyyan fought with; rihbiyyuna for rabbis; 
learned and pious men; or, worshippers of their Lord; 
others say 'companies’, making ribbU/yma r^tive adjective 
of ribbatm ‘a company’, used as an emphatic form of that 
word:®” Ibn Kathir, Nafi', Abu 'Amr and Ya'qub read 
gutila 'was slain’ which may be referred either to ribbiy- 
yuna or to the pronoun referring to ‘the Prophet’, in which 
case ‘while ribbiyyuna were with him’ will be a circum- 
stantiar phrase belonging to that pronoun. The former view 
is supported by the reading qwttila ‘were massacred’. 
rabbiyynna is also read, which would be the original form; 
also n^b^yuna with « , which would be a change not im- 
common in a relative adjective, as would also be the 
case with the form with i. 

and they fainted not for what befell them in the path of 
God; they flagged not, nor was their zeal diminished by 



the death of their prophet and of some of themselves, or 
any such disaster. 

nor dii they fail; to meet the enemy; or, in their fiiith. 
nor Mi they yield; humble themselves before the enemy; 
iilahamo., originally istahmu from mkana (to be q[uiet); for 
he that bows down is silent before his master, to let him 
do with him what ho will; according to this account the 
a has received an irrational lengthening; or, &om ham 
(to be), originally istahoem,, because he that humbles him- 
self desires that his sotQ shall belong to him to whom be 
bows down. The verse alludes to what befell them at the 
time of the false rumour of Mohammed’s death. 

mi Qoi loves those that endure; and accordingly helps 
them and ezalts their station. 

141. Jnd no words Mi they niter save that th^ said: 
Ovr Lorit forgive us our sins and our eacess in our conduct 
and estdbUsh om feet and hely us against the evil-doing folk; 
in spite of their steadfastness and their strength in their 
faith and their being worshippers, their language was 
nothing but this, viz. the ascription of sins and excess to 
themselves by way of self-abasement, and of wbat befeU 
them to the wickedness of their actions; a prayer for for- 
giveness thereof; then a request that they might he estar 
blished in their battle-stations, and aided against the foe; 
and that request is put last in order that it may appear 
to proceed from humility and purity and he most likely 
to he answered. — He makes the words ‘their speech’ 
predicate of kana (was) instead of subject, because ‘that 
they said' is more definite, since it points out the nature 
of the relation and the time of the occurrence. 

so God gave them the rewa/rd of this world, cmd the fair 
reward of the neat world, and God loves them that do well; 



so God gave them, by reason of their imploring forgive- 
ness and taking refuge with Him, victory and spoil and 
honour and good name in this world, and Paradise and 
delights in the .next world. And the recompense of the 
next world is partioularised as ‘fair’ in order to point to 
its exceUence and to the fact that it only is of conseq[uence 


with God. 

148. 0 ye that ieUeoe, if ye obey them mmeh dkheUeoe, 
they will send yon hack upon, yonr heels, ami ye shall he 
hrnei away losers s revealed with reference to the words 
of the Hypocrites to the Believers during the rout Return 
to your religion and your brethren, and Had Mohammed 
been a Prophet, he had not been slain, Others make the 
meaning ‘K ye humble yonraelves before Abu Sufyan and 
his followers and capitulate to them, they will bring you 
back to their religion’. Others refer it generally to obeying 
the tmbelievers and accepting their dedsions; ^hioh leads 
to agreement with them. 

143. Nay raiher, Qod is your ally; your helper. Others 
read the accusative with the force ‘Nay rather obey God, 
your ally’. 

and Me is the lest of helpers; so through Him dispense 
with the alliance of others and their assistance. 

144. We shall east ivlo the hearts of those that ^believe 
terror; referring to the terror cast into their hearts on the 
day of Hhud, so that they left off fighting and retreated 
without cause;'® then Abu Sufyan cried out 'Our rendez- 
vous is the fair of Badr for next year, if thou wilt, 0 
Mohammed’ and the Prophet answered 'If God will*. — • 
Others say that when they had retreated, and were half 
way, they repented and bethought them of returning to 
fight the Believers in order to annihilate then, hut God 


threw fear into their hearts. Ibn 'Amir, El-Kisa’i and 
Ya'qub read m^wban (with two w’s), the original form®^ 
throughout the Qur’an. 

becmtse they moeicUed ioUh God bmys for whom God had 
not revealed emthoritys Gods for whose association with God 
there was no eTidence, not had God revealed any authority. 
The phrase resembles the verse 'and thou seest not the 
lizard retreat therein’ — The root saltmah means ‘power’ ; 
hence is derived sofef ‘olive-oil’ owing to the force with 
which it bums, and salW,ah ‘sharpness of tongue’. 

md their horn is the fire , md a lad home is that of the 
mong-doers; i. e. their home. ‘The wrong-doers’ is substituted 
for ‘their’ to add harshness to the expression, and to sug- 
gest the ground of the proposition. 

145. And God has raUfied His pretiim to them; ffis 
promise of assistance to them on condition of obedience and 
endurance. Now this was so until the archers disobeyed, 
for, when the Polytheists advanced, the archers began to 
shoot them, and the rest to strike them with the sword, 
till they were routed with the MuslimB behind them. 

when ye were slaying them by Bm leave; from l}assa, 
meaning to stun the senses. 

wM, whm ye flagged; when ye became cowardly and 
your counsel failed j or 'turned to the spoil’, for covetousness 
comes from weakness of intellect. 

cmd ye strove with one anotlter m the matter; referring 
to the dispute of the archers, when the Polytheists fled, 
and some said ‘Why stop we here’? but others said 'Let 
US not disobey the command of the Apostle’; so their 
commahder refriained in Ms place with a number under 
ten, the rest^^ade for the booty, wMch is the meaning 
of 'what ftrOp^rs. ‘ 



md ye fuelled after Ee had shown yon lohcd ye inthe 
■way of victory and booty and rout of the enemy. The apodosis 
^^i4ha (when) is omitted, it should be 'ye were tried’. 

146. Among you were those that desked this jiresent world; 
these were they who left their station for the plunder. 

and among you toere those that domed the nenii world; 
those that kept their places, obser'ving the command of 
the Prophet. 

thm he diverted you from them; restrained you from them 
until the tables were turned and they defeated you. 

that Ee might try you; by misfortune and test the 
endurance of your faith therein. 

and Ee has forgiven you; out of generosity, and because 
He knew how you repented of your disobedience. 

and God is full of mer^ for them that ielieve; He freely 
bestows His forglTeness upon them. — Or, at all times, 
whether the issue be for or against them; since ‘trial’ is 
mercy also. 

147. When ye departed; depending on ‘He diverted you’, 
or, ‘that He might try you’; or, on a verb to be supplied 
like ‘Eemember’. ^afada means ‘to depart’ or ‘go far into 
the land’; it is used of going from Mecca to Medina. 

arid ye turned not to any; no one stood still for any 
other, nor waited for him. 

while the Apostle was ealUng you; was saying ‘Hither, 
hither, ye servants of God. I am the Apostle of God; he 
that turns against them shall have Paradise’. 

*» your rear; the hinder portion and the other eompai^ 
of you. 

and Ee recompensed you with troiMe for trovhle thai ye 
ndgU not grieve over what had escaped you neUher over whai 
had ooertahen you; connected by the conjunction with ‘He 


diverted you’, meaning ‘and Qod rewarded your flagging 
and your disobedience with trouble following upon trouble’, 
referring to their vexation at the carnage and the wounds 
they received, the victory of the Idolaters and the rumour 
of the death of the Prophet. Or, and God rewarded you 
with sorrow, owing to the sorrow which you had made the 
Prophet endure by your disobedience to him, that you 
might accustom yourselves to endurance in tribtilations, 
and not grieve thereafter over advantages which escaped 
you, nor . to harm which befell you. — Others say to (not) is 
otiose and that thci sense is ‘that ye migU gjfleve over the 
victory and spoil which ye had lost, and over the wounds 
and defeat which had befallen you as a punishment to 
you’ — Others say the pronoun in ‘and he recompensed 
you’ refers to the Apostle, meaning ‘and he imitated you 
in your grief and was vexed at what had befallen you, 
just as you were grieved at what had befallen him, and 
did not reproach you for your disobedience, in order to 
comfort you , and that you might not mourn over the succour 
which you had lost, and the rout that had befallen you’. 

omi God is aware of wicd ye do; is cognizant of your 
acts and what ye intended thereby. 

148. Thea He sent down upon, you after your grief seomiby^ 
slumber; God sent down upon you such security that slumber 
seized you. It is recorded®^® that Abu Talhah said : ‘Slumber 
overcame us in our stations, so that the sword would Ml 
out of a man’s hand, and he would pick it up again’ 
’amamim means security’ and is in the accusative of the 
direct object®^, and ‘slumber’ its permutative, or, perhaps, 
the latter is the direct object, and ‘amanatanf in security’ 
is a circumstantial phrase referring to it, and placed before 
it®‘‘’';'or, an accusatiTe of the cause, ‘out of securily.’ ■— 


smt m.. 

Or, a oircumstantial phrase referring to the persons ad- 
dressed, and meaning 'while yon were seonre’j which will 
also he the Tneaning if 'ammaimn he regarded as plural of 
'dminm like ismtii, plnral bararaim. — Others read '««*- 
as nmnm vieia of *vmmn. 

overoming a poriion of you ^ i. e. alnmher oTercame. 
llamza and M-Kisa’i read the feminine form of the Terh 
which they refer to ’wmnahcm (security). The portion are 
the true holievers. 
md a portion; the Hypocrites. 

tohoae soah had thrown them into armetif ; or who had no 
concern save for their lives and the desire to preserve them 
thinlting concerning God other than the truth, thoughts of 
the Ignorant; second descripiive clause of 'the portion’; or 
oircumatantial phrase (while thinking) referring to them; 
or fresh sentence (they thought) explaining what pre- 
ceded; 'other than the truth’ is an indnitiral accusative; 
i. e. they thought concerning God other thoughts than the 
true thoughts which it is proper to think concerning BHm. 
'Thoughts of the I^orant’, permutative of 'other than the 
truth’, mean such thoughls as belong peculiarly to the 
Ignorant school and its foUowers. 

saying; i. e. to the Apostle. The word is permutativo 
of ‘thinking’. 

Have we anything td all of the matter? Have we any 
portion at aU in the succour and the victory which God 
ordained and promised? — It is said that Ibn Ubayy being 
’ told of the slaughter of the Banu Khazraj said this , meaning 
'we are not ^owed to look after oursdves or to dispose 
of our lives according to our discretion; so that nothing 
of the matter remams to us’ or else 'will this violence 
cease, so that we shall have something of the matter’? 



say: The whole maiter is God’s; the real victory is to 
God and His allies; for the party of God are the victors. — 
Or^ the decision is Bis; Ha does what He will and decides 
as He pleases, and decrees what He chooses. The words 
are parenthetical. — Ahu 'Amr and fa'qub read 
rendering 'the matter — the whole of it is God’s’. 

isAg in their souls what tltey divulge not to thee; oir- 
onmstantial phrase, referring to the prononn in 'Baying’ 
above; i. e. they say, while ostensibly asking for direction 
and praying for help, bnt inwardly harbonring disapproval 
and nnbelief. 

thy say; to themselves; or, when they are alone with 
one another; permntative of ‘hiding’, or fresh danse ex- 
plaining it. 

Ead we had any of th matter ; as Mohammed promised , 
declaring that the whole matter was God’s and His friends’; 
or, Had we had any disoreldon and disposition and had 
not moved, as was the counsel of Ibn Ubayy and others. 

we had not been slain here; we had not been overcome 
and some of ns killed on this battlefield 
Say Had ye been in your houses, those for whom slaughter 
was written, would have come forth to their beds; those for 
whom God had ordained slanghter and written it on the 
‘Preserved Table’ wonld have come forth to the places 
where they were slain, nor would it have availed them 
to stay in Medina nor would one of them have escaped. 
For He ordained the events and disposed them in His original 
plan, and none can reverse His judgment. 

tmd that God might try what was in yowr breasts; that 
He might examine what was in your breasts and reveal 
their secrets, i. e. their sincerity or hypocrisy; it is a 
final clause attached to an omitted verb i. e. ‘and He 


stm ni. 

wrmgM fhaf, — Or, it may be conneoted by tbe conjunc- 
tion mth an omitted olanae ‘they would have come forth 
m, order that fate might be aocom^Ushed, and that God 
might try’. — Or, it may be conneoted by the conjunc- 
tion with ‘that ye might not grieve’. 

and that He might purify •what is in yow reveal it, 

and distinguish it, or purify it from Satan’s suggestions. 

and God is cognizant of that which is in the breasts ; of 
their hidden things before they axe disclosed. The words 
contain a promise and a warning; and a notification that 
God can dispense with experiment, and did this merely 
to practise the Behevers and to disclose the character of 
the Hypocrites. 

149. VerUy those of yon who i/umed hack on the day 
whereon the two companies met, it was orH/y Satan that 
caused them, to sUp with some of iohat they had committed! 
he means that in the case of those who fied on the day 
ojp, TIhud, the cause of their fleeing was only that Satan 
desired that they should stumble, so they obeyed him 
and committed sins, in that they disobeyed the Apostle 
in leaving their posts and hasting after booty or life; and 
they forfeited the divine aid and strength of heart. — 
Others say Satan’s causing them to stumble refers to their 
turning aside which was because of sins they had pre- 
viously committed, since each transgression induces ano- 
ther. Others say he caused them to slip by reminding 
them of sins they had committed, so that they wished 
not to he slain before they had sincerely repented and 
abandoned evil-doing. 

and God has forgiven them; owing to their repenting 
and asking pardon. 

verily God is full of forgiveness; of sins. 



gentle; He does not hasten the punishment of the sinner, 
in order that he may repent. 

150. 0 ye that believe be not like mto them, thect believed, 
not; meaning the Hypocrites. 

and eM of their brethren; on account of them and con- 
cerning them The meaning of their brotherhood is their 
union in descent or in religion. 

when tJtey wander about the earth; travel there and go 
fiiv a-way for merchandise or some other purpose. The na- 
tural particle would have been’ idh (when); since ‘they 
said’ is in the perfect; however’ is used to throw the 
hearer hack into the paflt®'^ 
or go on forage; ghizzan ‘foraying’, plural of ghMin like 
%ffm plural of ’’ofvn 

Bad they beeu with u& they were not dead ndtker had 
they been elcm; object of g'ato ‘they said’. This shows that 
their brethren were not the persons addressed. 

that God may make that a eorrow in tJtdr heasrts; depen- 
ding upon they ‘said’, if the U (that) be that of conse- 
quence”®, as it is ib XXYIII. 7 ‘that it®®’' might be an 
enemy and a grief to them’. Or, 'Be not like them in 
uttering these words and in believing t^s, in order that 
God may make it a eorrow in their hearts only’. ‘That’ 
refers to the belief indicated by their words; or, accor- 
ding to others, to the result indicated by the prohibition; 
i. e. 'Be not like them, so that God may make your 
fbiliDg to be like them a pang in their hearts’. For their 
being opposed and thwarted is a thing that would grieve 

and God givee life and •*%#-; reftitation of their words. 
It is He who is the operator in the matter of Hfe and 
death, not staying at home, or going out. For at times 


stTfiA m. 

He keeps alive one that travels and goes on eipeditions 
Ss^some that remain sitting at home. 

mil Gm is loale^fui over wliat ys do; a •warning to the 
Believers not to imitate the others. Ibn Kathir, Hamza 
and El-Kisa’i read 'what they do’, making it a menace to 
‘them that disbelieved’. 

151. And wrily if ye he slam m the path of God or 
cUe; die in His path. Hamza and El-Eis^l read milhm 
from mcita, yamaiu^'‘^. 

there is forgweness from God md mercy , better than what 
ye amass; apodosis of the oath, which serves as apodosis 
to the conditional sentence The meaning is that mar- 
ching and oampaigning is not a thing that induces death 
or hastens the end; but if that ^onld ooonr in the path 
of God, then the forgiveness and mercy which ye -will 
obtain by death are better than what ye would amass of 
this world and its comforts were ye not to die. Haf? read 
‘they amass’. 

103, Amd verily if ye die or are slcm'^^', howsoever your 
destruotion come about. 

ifjite God shall ye he gathered; unto the object of your 
worship unto whom ye aspire and for whose fece ye have 
given your lives, not xmto any other shall ye be gathered, 
without doubt; and He will pay you your recompense and 
increase your reward. — NfifiS Hamza and El-Kisa’i read 
wUtim with Eesia. 

103. And through mercy from God thou hast been gentle 
with them; mS is added for omphasiB and to show that his 
leniency with them was only due to mercy from God. — 
The ‘mercy’ consisted in Bus oahniog the Prophet’s emotion, 
and aiding the Prophet to be gentle with them so that 
he was even sorry for them after they had disobeyed him. 

SDBA OT ams lAMaT OP 'mBAir. 


mi hadst tlion iem rough; of a cruel dispositioa and Yioleat. 

hard liewrted, theg worM hme disjmeed ftma aromdthee; 
and would not hare taken refuge with thee. 
so forgive Urn; so far as concerns thee. 
md ask pwrdon for them; for that which concerns God. 
and consult them in the matter; in the matter of war, 
since that is the subject of discussion; or, in matters in 
which it is proper that they should be consulted, in order 
to gain the adtantage of their advice, and gratify them, 
and establish the practice of deliberation in the nation 
emd when thou determinest; ssttest thy heart on any course 
after consultation 

then rely ujgon God; to bring thy business about as 
is best for thee; for none but He knows that. Another 
xeading'®* is in the drat person; i. e. when I have 

detemoined upon any course for thee and marked it out 
for thee, then rely upon Me and consult no other about it, 
verilnf Qod loves them that reh/; and helps them and 
guides them to prosperity. 

184. If God help you; as he did on the day of Badr. 
then there is no conqueror of you; no one can conquer you. 
and if Be abmdon you; os he did on the day of Bhud. 
ttseu who is there that wiU help you thereafter? after His 
desertion; or after God; meaning ‘if ye go beyond Him, 
ye have no helper.’ — The passage is to notify the reason 
which makes reliance necessary, and to encourage to that 
course which will earn God’s help, and to deter from that 
course which will bring about His withdrawal of it. 

and upon God let the lelieoers retry; let them rely upon 
Bim alone. Knowing that they have no helper but Him, 
and believing on Him, 

158, Md it was not for a Prophet to cheat; it was not 

proper for a Prophet’s office is incompatible with chea- 
ting'®'. You say glKMa in the I»t or the lY**- conjugation 
of any one who takes booty secretly. The intention is 
either to declare the Prophet innocent of that of which he 
was auspeoted — since it is recorded that a red nightgown 
was missed on. the day of Badr '®® , and some of the Hy- 
pocrites said ‘Perhaps the Prophet of Hod has taken it’, 
or of what the archers thought about him on the day of 
■OljiTid when they left their stations for the sake of plunder 
saying 'we fear that the Prophet will say whoso has taken 
anything, it is his, and will not divide the plnnder’. — 
Or else it is an express prohibition to the Prophet, ac- 
cording to a story that he sent out exploring parties, 
and after sending them took some plunder which he dis- 
tributed to those that remained with him, end not to 
the exploring parties, when the text was revealed. — The 
designation of the act of depriving of thdi share some 
of those who had merited one as 'cheating’ will in 
that ease he an intentionally harsh phrase, and a second 
mode of strengthening the yeto'®’’. — Ibn 'jSmir, 
Efaunza, El-Kiaa*l and Ya'qub read W yvghalla in the 
passive, with the meaning It is not proper for a Prophet 
to he formd stealing'*®, ot to be described by tbe epithet 

ani he ihini eteale ahall Bring v>hai he has stolen on the 
Dag of Jtfdgmntj' he shall come with what he has stolen, 
carrying it upon his neck, as is stated in the tradition 
or, with the curse and the sin thereof wherewith he shall 
he loaded. 

then every soul shall he yaii mhait ii has mmiMeA} shall 
be given the recompense of what it has committed com- 
plete. It would have corresponded exactly with the pre- 



ceding if He Had said ‘THen He sHaB He paid®’’^ wHat He 
has committed’; However He makes the proposition general 
so that it Hecomes as it were a demonstration of the pro- 
position intended; for, if every one who commits is to 
He rewarded according to his work, He that steals, con- 
sidering the enormity of his crime, is most likely to be so. 

tmi aiaU not he wronged; the reward of such of 
them as are pious shall not He diminished, nor the pu- 
nishment of the evildoers among 

156. And shall he that follows tJte fwomvr of God; by 

he as he that returns with cmger front God? On account 
of Ms transgressions. 

and whose house is Gehema md cm ml issue is his; the 
difference between the 'is^e’ and the ^r etur n* is that the 
issue must necessarily He different from the original state, 
whereas the returning is not so®^*. 

ewe stages wiiht God; they are compared to stages, 
owing to the diversity Hetween them in reward and pu- 
nishment. — Or, ‘they are possessed of stages’. 

and God is vigilant over what th^ do; is cognizant of 
their works and the degrees thereof proceeding from them, 
and will recompense them on account of them. 

158, VerUg God has been graciotts to the Believers; has 
conferred benefits on those of the Prophet’s people who 
have believed with him; and they are specialized, not- 
withstanding that the benefit of the mission is universal, 
because they more than any others profit thereby. — Others 
read hmm manni ^Uaii (verily of the favour of God) as 
predicate of an omitted subject such as ‘is His favour’ or 
‘is Has sending’. 

since He has sent among them an Apostle of themselves; 



BDHA rn. 

of the same family, or race with them, an Arab, so 
that they might nnderstand his language easily, and might 
be cognizant of his character for truth and trustworthi- 
ness, and boast of him. — Borne®'*'® read <of 

the most noble of them’, and indeed the Prophet was of 
the noblest tribe and family of Arabia. 

to read to them, Ms sifftts; the Qur’an, after they had 
been ignorant and had neyer heard revelation. 

and pnrify fiemj and cleanse them &om the corruption 
of their nature and from their evil beliefs aid works. 

and teach them the Booh md the Wisdom; the Qur’an 
and the Sunna. 

and verily they were beforehand in clewr error} (verily) 
is here the abbreviated form of **»»»«, and the dis- 
tinguishing particle; the meaning being 'and the fact is, ®'*'® 
they wore before the sending of the Apostle in obvious error’. 

159. And when there befell yon a loss dovile whereof ye 
had inflicted i did ye say Whmce is this? The interrogation 
is affirmative and reproachM. The ‘and’ connects the sen- 
tence with the story of TJ^ud which preceded; or with an 
omitted verb like 'did ye do so and so and say’? And of 
this®''® lamma ‘when’ which is annexed to 'there bafeU you’ 
is the temporal clause; i. e. Did ye say, when an affiie- 
tion, viz. the loss of 70 men on the day of TJhud, bef^ 
you, the case being that you had gained twice as much 
on the day of Badr, when you slew 70 and took 70 pri- 
soners ‘Whence has this befiiJlen us, when Q-od promised 
us the victory’? 

Say: This is from themselves} owing to what they them- 
selves committed in disobeying the command, and leaving 
their station: for the promise was conditioned by their 
remaining stead&st and obeying; or, in choosing to go forth 



from Medina; or, according to Ali (•whose face God ennoble) 
by yonr choosing to take ransoms on the day of Badr. 

Ferih/ God has power over everything; so that He is 
able to give s'ucconr and withdraw it, to make yo'n ■victors 
and to defeat you. 

160. And that which lefell you on the day when the two 
oompmies met; the company of Muslims and the company 
of Polytheists; he means the day of Hljud. 

hy the permieeion of God; took place hy His ordi- 
nance , or hy His leaving the Unbelievers free. This he caUs 
'permission' because the former followed on the latter.®*^ 
en^ that Ee might hum the Selievers md him them 
which mvaliAed; and that the Believers and the Hypocrites 
might be discriminated, and idie Mth of the one party and 
the unbelief of the other made clear. 

md U was said to them; i. e. 'and to whom it was said’, 
connected by the conjunction with 'which simulated', and 
so part of the relative clause; or else a fresh sentence. 

Com, fight in the path of God or defend; option given 
to them and choice between fighting for the next world 
or in defence of their lives and possessions. — Others make 
the meaning 'Fight with the Unbelievera, or else repel 
them by increasing the mass of the fighters'; for multi- 
tude is a thing which frightens the enemy and causes him 
to retreat. 

they said: If we htew of a tattle, we slmddfoUm yon; 
if we knew of anything worthy to be called a battle we 
should have followed you thither; but what you are en- 
gaged in is not a battle, but casting your fives to destruc- 
tion. Or, if we were good at fighting we should follow 
you. — This they said out of unwillingnese to fight, and 
in mockery. 


SUBA m. 

they were nearer that day to mbeUef thm to belief; 
as sliowu loy their desertion and this speech; for these 
were the signs displayed hy them which gave evidence of 
their unhelief. Others say they were nearer (kinder) in 
giving aid to the TJnhelievers than to the BeHevers; siaoe 
their desertion and their speech strengthened the Idolaters 
and betrayed the BeHevers. 

161. Th^ speak with their mouth what ia not in their 
harts; they display the opposite of what they think. 
Their hearts do not correspond with their tongues in faith. 
'Speech’ is attributed to the mouth for emphasis and to 
give a graphic description. 

(mi Qod knows better what ihey hide; their hypocrisy 
and what they say in secret to one another. For He knows 
it disianotly by necessary knowledge; whereas you know 
it snmmaiily by outward signs. 

162. Who say; either nominative as permutative of ‘they’ 
(in ‘they Wde ’), or accusative of reproach, or accusative 
in apposition with ‘them which simulated’ of verse 160; 
or genitive as permutative of the pronoun in ‘their hearts’ 
as in the verse ‘In a condition in which had H&tim been 
with the people, he would have stinted the water in spite 
of his goodness, Hatim’s’. 

to their brethren; i. e. on account of their brethren, 
meaning those of their relations or of their race who were 
killed o)!^the day of IJhud. 

when they had sat doxon^ circumstantial phrase with the 
pattide qai to he supplied. They said tHs when they 
had kept aloof &om the battie. 
had ihey oh^ei us; in sitting down in Medina 
they had not been UUed; even as we have not been 
kiilfid. Bisham read gvMiUl (had not been massacred). 



Thm avert death from yoursehea, if ye speah true; 
i, e. if ye say truly that ye can avert slaughter from those 
for whom it is decreed, then avert death and the causes 
of it from yourselves ; for that is filtei; for you. ,The mea- 
ning is that 'sitting down’ is not sufficient; for the causes 
of death we many; just as fighting may he a cause of 
ruin and sitting still a cause of safety, so the matter may 
he reversed. 

168. Aftid eomt not time who were akin ia the path of 
God, dead; revealed eoneeming the martyrs of TJhud; 
according to others concerning those of Badr. The per- 
son addressed is either the Apostle or each individual. — 
Others read 'and let him not count’ referring it to the 
Prophet, or to 'him that thinketh’, or to 'those who were 
slain’ in which case the first object, originally the 
subject of a nominal sentence, wiU hare been omitted, as 
it may be, when the context suggests it.“® — Ibn “imir 
read giMla (were massacred) owing to the nrunber of those 
that were MUed. 

nay alive; they are ahve. Others read the word in the 
accusative after 'count them’. 

with their Lord; near Him. 

th^ are provided; out of Paradise; confirmation of the 
statement that they are alive. 

164. S^'oioinff in what Me haa gi/oen thm of Mis mmijicenee; 
the glory of martyrdom, the possession of eternal hfe, 
nearness to Glod, and the enjoyment of the pleasures of 

and they eongratnlate themselves comeming those that have 
not followed them; concerning their believing brethren who 
have not been slain nor joined them. 

behind thm; i. s. that ore behind them in time or in rank. 


STOA. m. 

thA there is no fear for them, ndther do they mourn; 
pemutative of 'concerning those that have not followed 
them’. The meaning is that they are gladdened by the 
knowledge that has come to them of the condition of the 
next world and the state of the beHeTers whom, they have 
left behind j that knowledge being that when they die, 
or are slain, they are alive with a life which is not clouded 
by the fear of the occurrence of anything which they dislike 
or grief at the loss of what they like. The verse proves 
that man is not the sensible frame but a substance 
essentially capable of perception, which does not perish 
with the destruction of the body, and whose powers of 
perception and of feeling pain and pleasure are not dep^- 
dent on the body.'®® This is supported by the words of 
God concerning the people of Pharaoh (n. 49) ‘the fire — 
they shall be exposed to it’, and the words of the Prophet '®i 
recorded by Ibn 'Abbas ‘The spirits of the martyrs are 
in the bodies of green birds'®*, which go down to the 
rivers of Paradise and eat of its fruits and nestle under 
lamps suspended under the shadow of the throne’. — Those 
however who deny this and regard the spirit as a breath 
and an accident say they are alive on theDay of Judgment, 
and are only said to he alive now because of the oartaiaty 
and the vidnity of that day^ or, alive in remembrance; 
or, in faith. — The wor& are an exhortation to struggle 
and an encouragement to martyrdom, and an admonition 
to increase in piety, and an encomium'®* on those who 
desire for their hrathien benefits similar to those conferred 
upon themselves and a promise to the Betierers of success. 

165. eonyratmlate ihmsekee; repeated for emphasis, 
and in order to append to it what will illustrate the words 
fthere is no fear for them'. '®* It is possible that the first 



congratulation (v. 164) refers to the condition of their 
brethren, the latter to their otm condition. 

upon munifiecnce from Gods being the recompense of 
their •works. 

md bounty s fl'Ud an increment thereto; like the words 
(z. S'?) To them that hare done good shall there be good 
and an increment’. The omission of the article gives the 
sense of magnitude. 

and that God wastes not the reward of the Believers ; 
part of that whereon they eongratnlate themselves ; joined by 
the conjunction to ‘bounty’. — El-Kis5’i read w(^mna (and 
verily; for 'and that’), making this a new sentence, paren- 
thetical showing that this is a reward to them owing to 
their Mth, and indicating that the works of him who has 
no faith are lost and his reward wasted. 

166. Who answered God and the Apostde ofter that the 
womds had befallen them^ description of the Believers; or, 
Boousative of praise; or subject (they who answered) of 
which the whole of what foUows is predicate. 

to those of them that do good and fear there is a mighty 
reward; ‘of’ in ‘of them’ is explanatory*®". The p'orpose 
of mentioning these two qualifeLes is to praise them and 
to give the ground of their being rewarded, not to limit; 
for all those ‘who answered’ were also persons who did 
good and feared. — It is recorded that when Abu 
Sufyan and hie followers retreated and reached Rau^*®, 
they repented and thought of returning; this reached the 
Apostle and he called his followers to go out in search 
of Abu Sui^^an; and he said ‘None shall go out •with us 
unless he was with us in our battle yesterday’ ®*. Then 
the Apostle went out with a company until they reached 
Ramrarel-asad, eight miles from Medina; now his followers 


STOA m. 

were smarting from their wounds; nevertheless they hore 
up, in order that they might not lose their reward; and 
God cast terror into the heart of the Polytheists, who 
fled. Then the verse was revealed. 

167. To wltm tJie said; he means the riders who 
met them from 'Abd Qaie; or, Nu'aim B. Mas'ud El- 
’Aahja'i®®', of whom ‘people' is used loosely, because ha 
is one of the class; as you say ‘So-and-so rides horses', 
though ha may have only one horse; or because certain 
of the people of Medina joined themselves to him and dr- 
oulated his words. 

Verily they have gathered a comyany for you, so beware 
of them; referring to Abu SufySn and his friends. — It 
is recorded that when he went away from Uhud*®®, he 
cried out 'Mohammed, our rendez-vous is the frdr of Bade 
next year, if thou wilt'; the Apostle answered ‘If God wUl’. 
And when the next year came, he went out with the 
people of Mecca, till ha alighted at Marra l^ahrUa, where 
God cast terror into his heart and he bethought him of 
going back. And some riders from 'Abd Qais passed by 
him, making for Medina to get provisions; Snd Abu Sufyan 
promised them a camel's burden of raisins if they discou- 
raged the Muslims. — Others say he met Nu'aimB. Mas'ud 
who had come to Mecca for the lesser Pilgrimage, and 
asked him to do this; and undertook to give him ten 
camris. Then Bu‘aim went out of Mecca and found the 
Muriims making preparations. He said to them 'When 
they came against you in your houses not one of you 
escaped except some solitary ones; do you intend then to 
go out to them when they have gathered an army against 
you'? Then the people were discouraged; hut the Apostle 
said ‘By Him in whose hand is my life I will go out, 


althoiigh no-one go with me’. Then he went out with 70 
riders, saying ‘God suffices us’. 

ami it htereased thek faith; the pronoun Tirtually con- 
tained iu sMa (it increased)®’’ refers to what they said or 
to the infinitive of ‘said’ (in ‘to whom the people said’), or to 
the subject of 'people said’ if 'by ‘people’ be meant Nu'aim 
B. Mas'ud only; while ‘they’ in ‘their faith’ refers to those 
to whom it was said. The meaning is that they did not 
attend to it, nor were discouraged thereby, but on the 
contrary their confidence in God was confirmed, and their 
Mth increased; and they displayed the zeal of Islam, > and 
remained sincere inapite thereof. This is evidence that faith 
increases and diminishes®®, which is supported by the 
saying of Ibn Omar, We said ‘0 Apostle of God, 
does faith increase and diminish* ? He said ‘Yes, it in- 
creases till it brings its possessor into Paradise and de- 
creases till it brings him into HeU’. And this is clear, ii 
pious acts be reckoned part of the thing called faith, and 
no less so, if they be not so reckoned; for certainty is 
increased by familiarity and frequent reflection and the 
mutual assistance of the evidences. 

and th(^ said Qod is sra^m&xt for us; God suffices us 
and protects us; from "’afisada in the sense of ‘to suffice’ 
with accusative of the person. That ^sbun has in this 
phrase the meaning is shown by the fact that it 

does not become defined by being annexed in the phrase 
h^hs, ra^ulm ^bvia ‘this is a man sufficient for thee’. 
mi a good trustee is Se; a good object of confidence is He. 
168. So theg returned; from Badr. 
with a Messing from God; safety and stability and increase 
in faith. 

and an vmmsmt; and gain in merchandise; for when 


SURA m. 

they came to Badr they fotmd a fair there and they did 
hufiiness and gained money. 

no evil hamiff tone/ied thm; in the way of woimds; or 
of treachery on the enemy’s part. 

mi they followed the favowr of Ood; whereon depends 
the acquisition of the best of both worlds, in. their daring 
and readiness to go forth. 

and Ood ie of mighty mmifeewee; God was munificent 
to them in confirming and increasing their faith and aiding 
them, towards hastening to the firay, and remaining firm in 
their religion and displaying courage against the enemy, 
and preserving them &om anything that might hurt them, 
and causing them to acquire worldly gain together with 
asBucance of their reward; so that they returned with a 
blessing firom God and an increment. T^e words contain 
a reproach®^® to those that remained behind and show 
the folly of their counsel in forfeiting what the others 

169. Veriiy that was the- Devil} ‘that’ means the person 
who discouraged them — Nu'aim or Abu Sufyon. ‘The 
Devil’ is predicate to 'thaf , what follows being an explar 
nation of his diabolic nature ; or, 'the Devil’ is on epithet 
what foHows being predicate. Or it is possible that the 
word ‘that’ refers to what he said, if we supply a word 
before 'the DevU’ i. e. 'that was the hmgmge of the Devil’, 
meaning Satan. 

he ftigMened his friends; who kept aloof from going 
out with the Apostle of God; or, ‘making you fear his 
Mends’ vis. Abu SufySn and his foBowers 

and feat ye them not} 'them' refers to the second ‘people’ 
in V. 168®^®, according to the fonner interpretation; to 
this friends’ acoordlng to the latter. 



M feat me} fear to disobey my command and fight 
with my Apostle. 

if ye are SeUevers; for faith requires that the fear of 
God he preferred to the fear of men. 

170. And let not them grim thee that are gmoh to die- 
believe} who fall quickly thereinto,®^* being eager for 
unbelief; these are the Hypocrites who stayed behind, or 
else certain persons who apostatised &om Islam: and the 
meaning is ‘be not grieved by the fear that they will harm 
thee and give help against thee’;®” as is shown by what, 

Verily they ehalt not harm God aaythir^} they shall not 
harm the Mends of God by their hastening into unbe- 
lief; they shall only harm themselves thereby, ehafan 
(anything) may be either object®” or cognate aocusative. 
Nafi” read for ycJjssm wherever it occurs except in 

Sura xxi. 108 ‘the great terror shall not grieve them’ 
where he read yahmmhmi which in the pointing of the 
other readers everywhere. 

God would fain \no{\ give them a portion in the next 
world; a share of the reward in the next world. This points 
to the long continuance of their disobedience and to their 
dying in unbelief. And the mention of God’s will points 
to the fact that their xmbelief has reached an extreme 
limit,®” seeing that the most merciful of the meroiM 
desires that they should have no share m His mercy; 
and that their hastening to disbelieve is because God does 
not wish that they should have any share in the next world. 

and for them ie terrible puniehment} besides their for- 
feiting the reward. 

171, Verily they that have pwohmed v/iAelief for faith 
ehall not harm God at all, and for them is pahful pmish- 


suiu. m. 

menti repelitioa for the sake of emphasis or in order to 
include all the Unbelievers after specializing the hypocrites 
■who stayed behind and those of the Arabs who apostatized. 

173. AaH reckon not those that Mshelh&oe that m/r mded- 
gence to them, is good for their souls; the person addressed 
is the Apostle or any one who thinks; 'those that’ is the 
object of which ‘that our indulgence’ is permutative. The 
second object of ‘reckon’ is omitted, because the attention 
is concentrated on the permutative, which serves instead 
of both objects,®®^ as in the words of Sura xzv. 46 ‘or 
thinkest thou that moat of them hear’? — Or, ‘that our 
indulgence’ may be second object, if we supply a word 
before the second object e. g. ‘such that our indulgence 
to them is good for them', or before the first object e. g. 
think not that the condition of them that disbelieve to be 
that our indulgence is good for them’. m& (that) is here 
a substitute for the infinitive and should properly be sepa- 
rated from (that) in writing; however it happened 
to be connected in TJtbn^’s copy which was followed. 
— Ibn Kathir, Abu Amr, 'A?im, Bl-Kisa’l and Ya'qub 
read (let there not reckon) making ‘those that 

disbelieve’ its subject and 'mna (that) ■with its dause (our 
Indulgence to them is good for them) the object. Ibn'imir, 
^fomza and 'Ajim read ya^ahu (with a for i) throughout 
the Qur^an. '‘imls'm (indulgence) means ‘to give time’ dr 
‘to lengthen life', Others say it means leaving them to 
their aflfaits®®*, from the use of this verb in the sense ot 
loosening the foot-bands of a horse to let him feed as he wUl. 

venly we indulge them that they may increase in guilt; 
fresh sentence gi’ving the reason for the preceding proposi- 
tion; ma (after ‘verily’) is restrictiTe ; ‘that’ in ‘that 
they may increase’ is the ‘that’ of volition but aocor- 



iliTig to the MuHazils the 'that’ of oonsequeiice, Some 
read ^anmma (that) for 'verily' here, and ’imams, (‘verily’) 
for ‘that’ above, and 'let there not reckon’ with the sense 
‘let not those who disbelieve think that our indulgence to 
them is in order that they may increase in guilt; on the 
contrary it is in order that they may repent and enter 
into faith’; the words ‘Verily our indulgence to them is 
good for their souls’ being a parenthesis with the mean- 
ing ‘Our indulgence to them is good if they cease unbe- 
lieving or make up therein for their sins’. 

and for ihm is sJumeful ^mishment; according to the 
last reading recorded it is possible that these words are a 
circumstantial phrase connected with ‘they’ in ‘that they 
may increase’, i. e. ‘that they may increase in guilt having 
in preparation for them shameM punishment’, 

173. God was not one to leave the BeUevers in the eon- 

diiion wherein i/e mre that Me might distmguiah the hose 
from the good; the persons addressed are the whole number 
of the sincere and the hypocrites in the Prophet’s time. 
The meaning is He will not leave you mixed up so that 
the sinoere cannot be known from the hypocritical; rather 
Ho will distinguish the hypocrites from the sincere by 
revelation to His Prophet concerning your characters; or 
by hard ordinances which none save the most sincere and 
pious among you can endure or obey, such as the sacri- 
ficing of property and life in the cause of God, that your 
inner feelings may be tried thereby and your convictions 
revealed. El-Eisafi read yumayyiza (distinguish) 

in the HnA conjugation here and in Sura vii; the rest read 
yanSM in the I>t. 

174. God was not one to reveal mto yon the m/gstety; 
nay rather God ohooses of Bis Apostles whom Me wUl; God 


BUBi. m. 

was not one to give one of yon knowledge of mysteries , 
BO tkat he should, understand what was in their hearts in 
the way of belief and unbelief; on the contrary He chooses 
to be His envoy whom He wiU, and reveala to him and 
instructs him concerning certain mysteries, or gives him 
signs whence he can infer. 

so believe in God and Sis Ajoostlesj with the quality of 
sincerity. *** — Or, by knowing that He alone rmderstands 
mysteries, and that they are His chosen servants who 
know only what God teaches them, and speak only what 
He reveals to them. It is recorded that the Unbelievers 
said 'If Mohammed be veracious let him tell us which of 
us believes and which beheves not’. There is a tradition 
on the authority of Suddi®®“ that the Prophet said ‘My 
people have been paraded before me and I have been shown 
which believes in me and which believes not’. — Then 
said the Hypocrites ‘He declares that he knows which of 
us believes in him and which beHeves not. How we are 
with him and he knows us not’. 

cmd if ye beUeoe^ duly; 

and lake heed; of hypocrisy; 

then ihere is a mighty reward for you; whose amount 
cannot be equalled*”. 

175. Arid tJmh not those who stint what God has given 
them of Sis mvnifioenee that id is better for them; the va- 
riety of reading is the same as above. Those who read 
‘think not’ in the second person supply a word before 
‘those’ in order that the two objects of the verb ‘think’ 
may correspond, e. g. ‘think not the avarice of those who 
BiinV; so too do those who read ‘think not’ in the third 
person make the subject ‘the Apostle’ or ‘Whoever thinks’. 
Those who make the relative phrase (those who stint) the 



subject of ‘think not’ suppose the first object omitted owing 
to its being indicated by the word ‘stint’ i. e. ‘let not 
them that stint think their stinting good for them’. 

my it; their avarice] 

is bad for tim; inasmuch as it brings punishment upon 

176. They shall hme hung round their necks that which 
they stinted on the day of EesurreeUon; explanation of the 
preceding proposition. The meaning is 'they shall have 
adhering to them the evil result of their avarice as a 
collar adheres to the neck’. The Prophet is recorded to 
have said®®®: ‘Never a m^ fails to pay alma out of his 
possessions but God puts a serpent round his neck on the 
day of Easuirection’. 

and QocPs is the inheritanoe of the heavens and the earth; 
to God belongs everything in either that can be bequeathed 
from one to another; why then need these stint Him His 
own goods instead of spending them in BBs way? — Or, 
God will inherit from them whatever they retain instead 
of spending it in Hia path, by their destruction; when 
nothing will remain for them but lamentation and punish- 

and Ood is well acgvamted with what they do; in the 
way of retaining and giving. Nafi’, Ibn 'imir, 'i^im, 
l^amza and El-Eisa’i read 'with what ye do’, apostrophi- 
zing them: and this is more emphatic as a threat. 

177. Verily Qod has heard the language of those ihaJt say 
Verily God is jgoor and we are rich; this was said by the 
Jews when they heard the words (ii.246) '"Who then will 
lend to God a good loan’? It is recorded that the Prophet 
sent a letter by Abu Bakr to the Jewish tribe Sanu 
Qainuq9i° inviting them to Islam and to maintam prayer 


STJBA. m. 

and to give ahns and to lend to Glod a good loan, when 
Finl^as B. 'Azutb. said ‘Then God must he poor if he asks 
UB for a loanl’*®*. Then Ahu Bakr huffeted him saying 
‘Were it not for the covenant that is between ns^ I had 
cut off thy head*. Then Pinzas complained thereof to 
the Prophet, denying that he had said this, when the 
text was revealed, The meaning is that it is not hidden 
from Him®^, and that He has prepared punishment for 
them on account of it, 

we shall write down, what then mid, and how they slew the 
Troyhets without jttsUce; i. e. We shall write it down in 
the rolls of the recording Angels; or, we shall preserve 
it in our knowledge"®®; we shall not pass it oyer; for it 
was a grave saying, since it involved denial of God, and 
mockery of the Qur’an and the Apostles, and for this rea- 
son he couples it with slaughter of the Prophets. The 
verso points out that this was not the first crime they 
had committed and that those who ventured to slay the 
Prophets were not unlikely persons to utter words like 
these. Hamza read sayuktcdm (there shfdl he written), wa- 
qathhstm ('and how they slew’, in the nominative) and 
wayag^ (and he shtdl say) in what foUows. — 

and we shall say; Taste the pmUhment of burning; i. e, and 
we shall he avenged upon them hy saying 'Taste the huxning 
punishment* . The expression contains many of the fiigures 
whetehy a menace is made emphatic “®®, — The word 
is properly applied to the perception of tastes, and 
loosely to the perception of other sensihle things and 
states. It is employed here because their punishment is oc- 
casioned by what they said, and that saying sprang from 
avarice and intense love of money, which man chiefly 
needs in order to aoq,uire his food, his avarice being or- 



dinarily due to the fear of irautiug food. For this reason 
‘eating’ is so often mentioned in connection with wealth 
178. Tiat; referring to the Punishment, 
is for what their Jianda wrought hcforehanil; in the way 
of killing the Prophets and saying this, and the rest of 
their iniquities. 'Hands’ is used for ‘souls’ heoause most 
of the actions are done with the hands. 

and Ood does not wrong to His servants; connected hy 
the conjunction witli ‘what their hands wrought’ It 
contains a motive for the punishment, because the priva- 
tion of injustice involves justice, which necesitates the 
rewarding of the doer of good and the punishment of the 
^er of evil“®. 

J'J'')who sag; these were Ka'b B. El-’Ashraf, Malik, Huyayy, 
Pinhas and Wabh B. YehBda. 

Ferity God has commanded ns; bidden us in the |aw and 
charged us. 

to believe no Apostle tiU he bring an offering which the 
fre eats; to believe no Apostle until he work this parti- 
cular miracle which the Prophets of the children of Israel 
used to perform. It consisted in an animal being slaugh- 
tered, when the Prophet stood and prayed, and the hea- 
venly fire came down and ate it up, i, e. reduced it by 
burning to its own nature. This was one of their fabrica- 
tions and fictions; for the fact that the fire ate up the 
offering would not necessitate belief except on the ground 
of its being a miracle “■‘®; and this and all the other mi- 
racles are equal in this respect 

Apostles have come to yon before me with evidences, 
and with what ye say; why then did ye hll them, if ye 
speah true? Eefutation by an argvmentmi ad hominm, 
showing that the Apostles had come to them before Mo- 


suiii. in. 

hammed such as Zacharia and latiya with other miracles 
which claimed belief, and with the particular miracle which 
they demanded, and they killed these Apostles; so that 
if it was the working of this particular miracle which 
caused belief, and their hesitating and refusing to believe 
was on account of it, why had they not believed on those 
who had wrought it among other miracles, but had made 
bold to slay them? 

181. And if they disbelieve thee^ well, Apostles have been 
disbelieved before thee who came with evidences and the Psahns 
and the luminons booh} consolation to the Prophet for the 
unbelief of his people and of the Jews, gtdinr (Psalms) is 
the plural of eabnr, meaning a book which is confined to 
wise maxims from edbam ‘to confine’.®'*® ‘The Book’ in 
the language of the Qur’an means anything that contains 
laws and ordinances, for which reason ‘the Book’ and ‘the 
Wisdom’ are mentioned in connexion with one another 
throughout the Qur’an. — Others say zvAnrun means 
‘counsels and reproofs’ from gabara in the sense of ‘to 
reprove’. — Ibn ‘Amir read ‘and with the Psalms’ and 
Hisham read 'and mth the Book’, “** the preposition being 
repeated to show that the Psalms and the Book were 
essentially different from the evidences. 

18i2. Every soul shall taste of death; a promise and a 
warning to the Believer and the Unbeliever. Other readings 
are d^a’iqaiuni-lmauta with accusative and tanwin, or with- 
out tanwin as in the verse ‘and not mentioning God save 
a little’. ®‘* 

and verily ye shall be paid in full your wages; ye shall 
be given the recompense of your works be it good or 
bad, complete and full. 

on the Day of Resurrection; on the Day when ye shall 


* rise from your gruTes. The expressioa 'paid in full’ sug- 
gests that some part of the wages may be paid before 
that day;®'*' and this is supported by the words of the 
Prophet 'The grave is one of the gardens of Paradise or 
one of the trenches of Hell’. ®*® 
and whose is rescued front the fire; gaTjzaha is originally 
a reduplication of ealiha which means 'to pull out quickly’. 

and is made to enter the garden, has won; salvation and 
the attainment of his desire. The Prophet is recorded to 
have said 'Whose desires to be rescued from the Fire, let 
death find him believing in God and in the last day and 
doing unto men what he would they should do unto him’, ®*^ 
and the ^present life; its pleasures and its delusions. 
is hut a deceptive ware; he compares it to a ware of 
which the seller conceals the defects from the buyer,®** 
to induce him to buy it. This is addressed to those who 
prefer it to the future life; for to those who seek with 
it the future life it is a profitable ware. ®“ ghururin is 
either infinitive (ware of deceiving) or plural of the parti- 
ciple active 'of the deceivers’. ®®® 

183. Verily ye shall he tried; i, e. by Allah ye shall 
be tested. 

in your goods; by being commanded to spend and by 
the disasters which may overtake them. 

and your souls; by the sacred war, slaughter, impri- 
sonment, and wounds; and by the dangers, diseases, and 
fatigues to which they are exposed. 

and ye shall hear from them that have heen given the 
Book before yon and from them that assoeiate, mneh mischief; 
in the way of ridicule of the Apostle and religious objec- 
tions and provocation of the Unbelievers against the' Mus- 
lims. — He prophesies this to them before the event that 


SUSA. in. 

they may aceuatom themselves to patience and endurance 
and be prepared to meet these things so that their arrival 
will not surprise them. 

and if ye hold out; agiiinst that. 
and feat I to disobey God. 
vetily thaii that endurance and fear. 

M of the things that are determined; those things which 
require determination; ^re things which God has 

determined on, i. a. has commanded and insisted upon. — 
*asm means originally fixing one’s mind upon anything in 
the direction of bringing it to pass. 

184. Jbid when God tooik; i. e. mention the time when 
God took. 

the covenant of them to whom the Booh was given; mean- 
ing those that were learned therein. 

Verily ye shall explain it to mankind, not' concealing it; 
reproduction of the address made to them. — Ibn Kalhir, 
Abu ‘Amr, and ‘A§im according to Ibn 'Ayyash read the 
Terbs in the third person, because the persons to whom 
this was said were absent. The la (verily) is that of the apo- 
dosis of the oath for which are substituted the words ‘God 
took the covenant’. The pronoun ‘it’ refers to the Book. 
then they cast it; the covenant. 

lehind their hacks; and did not* observe it, nor attend 
to it. Throwing behind the back is a proverbial expression 
for leaving out of consideration and refusing to attend to. 
The opposite is 'to make a thing the object of one's eyes’. 
and bought therewith; and took instead thereof. 
a UtUe price; of the refuse and the goods of this world. 
and a lad thing they bought; they chose for themselves. 
— It is recorded that the Prophet said : ‘Whose hides 
knowledge from his people shall ho bridled with a bridle 



of fire’; and that Ali said ‘God did not command the 
ignorant to learn until ho had commanded the learned to 

185, Thinh not Ihose who rejoice in lohat they home done 
Old love to be praised for what they have not done — think 
them not in safety from punishment; The .person addressed 
is the Apostle. Those who read ia\isihmna 'think ye not’ 
make the Apostle together with the Believers the persons 
addressed. The first object of ‘think not’ is ‘those that 
rejoice’, the second 'in safety’;®®® the second ‘think them 
not’ is for strengthening. The meaning is think not 
them which rejoice in what they have done in the way 
of concealing defects®®® and hiding the truth, and who 
love to he praised for what they have not done in the 
way of keeping the covenant and proolaiming the right, 
and narrating the truth, to he in safety from punishment, 
i. e. enjoying immunity from it. — Ibn Kathir and Abu 
‘Amr read yahsahanna in the first case and yahsabiima in 
the second, making the relutire danse®®® the subject and 
the two objects of the first omitted, as sufficiently indi- 
cated by the confirming verb yahsrdannahnm. ®®® It is as 
thongh he had said ‘Let not those think who rejoice in 
what they have done ■ — let them not think themselves 
in safety’. — Or, the first object may be omitted, and 
the words ‘let them not think them’ serve to strengthen 
the ver^its subject and its first object. *®® 

And for them is yiainfwl punishment; owing to their un- 
belief and unfair dealing. It is recorded that the Apostle ®®® 
asked the Jews concerning something in the Law and they 
told him the contrary of what was there; then they as- 
sured him that they had told him the truth and rejoiced 
at what they had done. Then the verse was I’evealed. 


BITRA ni. 

OlharB®® Bay it -was revealed concerning certain who stayed 
behind from an expedition, and then excused themselves 
hy saying that they saw certain advantages in staying 
behind, and demanded praise on that account. Others say 
it was revealed concerning the Hypocrites who rejoiced in 
their hypocrisy and demanded praise of the Muslims for 
that faith which they did not practise in reality. 

186. And God’s is the sov^eignty of the heaven and the 
earth; so that he governs their affairs. 

and God is powerful over everything ; so that He is able 
to punish them. Some say this is a refutation of their 
statement 'verily God is poor.’ ®®* 

187. Terily in the creation of the heavens and the earth, 
and in the alternation of the night and the day there are 
signs to them that have hearts; there are dear evidences of 
the existence of their Maker and of His Unity and of the 
perfectness of His knowledge and His power, for those that 
are possessed of intellects cleansed and purified from the 
taints of sense and fancy, as was said in the iin^ Sura. 
And possibly in this verse he limits himself to these three, 
because the ground of ratiocination is change, and these 
three things are exposed to all the forms of change. For 
change may be in the essence of a thing, as is the change 
of night and day; or in a portion of it, like the change 
of the elements by the variation of their forms; or in 
something outside it, like the change of the spheres by 
the variation of their positions. — The Prophet is recorded 
to have said 'woe to him that reads this text and does 
not ponder thereon.’ 

188. Those who make mention of God standing and sUting 
and on their sides; i. e. make mention of Him constantly 
in all postures, standing, sitting and lying. The Prophet 



is recorded to have said 'whoso desires to pasture in the 
gardens of Paradise let him mention often the name of 
God.’ — Some say the meaning is 'who pray in these 
three postures according to their power’ as the Apostle said 
to ‘Imran B. el-Husain ‘Pray standing; and, if thou 
caust not, then sitting; and if thou canst not, then on 
one side, making signs.’ — The verso is used hy El-Shafi'i 
to show that a sick man must pray lying on his right 
side, turning the upper part of his body to the Qiblah. 

and, who ponder over the ereation of the heaven and of 
the earth; to gain guidance and admonition, And this is 
the most excellent form of devotion, as the Prophet said, 
'there is no form of devotion like meditation’, since it 
belongs entirely to the heart and is what was intended 
by the creation. — It is recorded that the Prophet said: 
Whiie a man was prostrate on his bed, he raised his head 
and looked towards heaven and the stars and said I bear 
witness that thou hast a lord and a creator; 0 God for- 
give me! Then God looked unto him and forgave him. 
And this is clear evidence of the importance of the science 
oi the Articles and of the excellence of its professors. 

0 oiir Lord, thou hast not created thie in vain; meaning 
that they say this; i. e. ‘who ponder, sapng so*. ‘This’ 
refers to what they ponder on i. e., to 'the Creation’, 
supposing that to mean the things created, i, e. the hea- 
vens and the earth; or to the heavens and the earth’ 
the two having the sense of ‘that which is created’ — 
The meaning is 'Thou hast not created it as a useless 
sport, without a wise purpose, but on the contrary for 
wise and important purposes, among them that it might 
be a commencement of the existence of mankind, and a 
means of sustaiidng them, and an evidence that might 


BTRA. m. 

gtiide them towards knowledge of thee and exhort them 
to obey thee, so that they might gain eternal life and 
everlasting happiness near thee’. 

praise he io thee; far from thee he sport and the crea- 
tion of vanity I The words are an apostrophe. 

so save vs from, the punishment of heU; for failing to 
ponder thereon, and by practising what brings it on. The 
purpose of the fa ‘so’ is to show that their knowledge of 
the purpose of the creation of the heavens and the earth 
is what urged them to apply for succour. 

189. Our Lori, verily whomsoever thou ioest cause to enter 
the fre thou hast made him ashamed; thou hast made him 
utterly ashamed. A similar phrase is ‘Whoever has reached 
the pasture of Daman has reached it* The intention 
is to exhibit the horror of the thing against which they 
implore aid by calling attention to the magnitude of their 
fear, and the earnestness with which they ask for protec- 
tion from it. The verse indicates that the spiritual punish- 
ment is more disgraceful than the bodily®^®. 

and the wrong-doers have no helpers; he means by them 
those who are caused to enter the fire. The substantive is 
used instead of the pronoun to show that their wrong-doing 
was the cause of their being made to enter the fire and 
of their being cut off from all deliverance therefrom. From 
the fact that there is no help, it does not follow that 
there is no intercession:®^^ for ‘help’ means ‘forcible aid’. 

190. Our Lord, verihj we have heard a herald summoning 
to belief; he makes the direct object of the verb ‘we have 
heard’ the author of the sound, ®^® Emitting the object of 
the thing heard, as being sufficiently indicated by the des- 
criptive clause; producing a rhetorical effect which would 
nut have been produced by making the thing heard the 



object of the verb. — By leaving 'a herald’ indefinite and 
objectless, and then limiting it, he enhances his dignity 
The person meant is the Apostle. Others say the Qur’an 
Words like 'to call’ and 'to invite'®’’** take for their go- 
vernment either 'Hay or I, because they contain the ideas 
of ‘direction’ and ‘propriety’. 

; Believe in yonr Lord, And toe have leUeved; ’an is 
either eq^uivalent to 'that is’, or is the ’an of the masdar 

And we obeyed. 

191. Our Lord, so forgive ns our sms; out capital of- 
fences : for they have consequences ®®. 

and cover our ill-deeds; our light offences: which are to 
be disapproved of but are covered in him who avoids 
capital offences, 

and taJce us to thyself with the innocent; privileged with 
their fellowship and numbered in their company. The words 
call attention to the fact that they love to meet God: and 
•if a man loves to meet God, God loves to meet him.’ 
'ahramn is the plural of larrun or larrun like ’aflfilm 
and 'arbubun. 

192. 0 our Lord, and give ns what thou hast promised 
upon thy Apostles; i. e. the reward thou hast promised 
us upon believing thy Apostles. Having expressed his obe- 
dience to what he is ordered, he asks for that which has 
been promised him on condition thereof, not out of any 
fear that the promise will bd broken, but out of appre- 
hension lest he may uot he one of those to whom the 
promise is made, owing to some evil consequence or to 
his coming short in his obedience: — or else the request 
is made out of devotion and humility. — Possibly ‘alay 
depends on a word omitted like ‘what thou hast promised 
us by a revelatkn sent down upon thy Apostles’ or ‘set 


BUM in. 

upon them’. Others say the meaning is 'hy the tongues 
of thy Apostles.’ 

and make us not asltamei on ike day of HemrreoUon} 
hy protecting us from what will bring that shame about. 

verily thou ^eiU not break the appointment, to reward the 
believer and answer him that prays. — According to Ibn 
'Abbas the ‘appointment’ is to raise them after death. 
'0 our Lord’ is repeated in order to emphasize the sup- 
plication and to point out how each request stands by it- 
self, and how important, each is. In the ‘Sayings of the 
Prophet’s Companions’ we read: ‘if a man be troubled 

by anything, if be say five times EabbanR, (our Lord I) 
God will save him from what he fears’. 

193. And tkeir Lord mswered t/iems granting their re- 
quest, The conjugation is more appropriate than the 
jytliosa^ It can take either a direct accusative, or lam. 

that I shill not waste ike work of any worker of you i 
by saying that 'I shall not’ etc. Others read (verily I) 
supposing istaj&ha to imply ‘saying.’ 
male of females explanation of ‘worker’; 
one of you from the others since the male comes fijom 
the female and the female from the male. Or, because both 
are of one stock. Or, because they are so closely connected 
and united®*®. Or, because they are conjoined and agreed 
in religion. It is a parenthetical sentence, showing the 
association of the men with the W'omen in what has been 
promised to the workers. It is recorded *** that ITmm Salama 
said : 0 Apostle of God I hear bow God mentions the men 
in connection with the hjrah, but not the women, Then 
the text was revealed. 

194. And those that have abandoneds this and what fol- 
lows is a specification of the works of the workers and of 



the reward prepared for them by way of praise and exal- 
tation. The meaning is, now those that have abandoned 
their polytheism or their homes and thoir associations for 
the sake of religion, 

(mi Jiave lem brought out of tkdr Jiouses and have mfcred 
vnjurm in mg wagj for the sake of their belief in God, 
and on Ills account. 
and have /oughts with the Unbelievers, 
and been slain j in the Holy war. Hamza and El-Kis'a°i 
read vice-versa (have been slain ami have fought), because 
'and’ does not imply any order in time and the second 
is better®®®. Or, because the meaning is, that when some 
had been killed, the rest fought, and fainted not. Ibn 
Kathir and Ibn 'Amir read gntdln in the IW conjugation 
of multitude. 

venly I will cover their evil-doings s I will wipe them out. 
and I will cause them to enter gardens, beneath which 
rivers flow, (195) a recompense from Gods i. e, I will re- 
compense them therewith as a recompense from God, by 
His munificence. ‘Hecompense’ is a confirmatory ma§dar. 

and God — %oith Him, is fair reoomjyenses for acts of 
piety; He is able to give it. 

Let there not deceive thee the ease of them that disbelieve 
in the countries; the person addressed is the Prophet, and 
the meaning is, his people; or else the command is in- 
tended to maintain the Prophet in the state of mind wherein 
he is, as in the words of God (Ixviii. 8) ‘Do not obey 
them that disbelieve.’ — Or the parson addressed is 
each one. — The veto according to the sense is directed 
to the person addressed (i. a. ‘thou’ not 'the ease’ art for- 
bidden to do something); and it is according to the 
language directed to ‘the ease’, in such a way that the 


SUSA rn. 

cause®®® is put in tlie place of the effect, for the sake of 
forcible expression. — The meaning is ‘look not at the 
ease and good fortune which the Unbelievers enjoy; nei- 
ther be deceived by their prosperity in their traffic and 
merchandise and agriculture’. It is recorded that certain 
of the Believers used to see the Polytheists in ease and 
comfort, and said ‘Truly the enemies of God are in the 
good fortune which we see, whereas we have perished of 
hunger and fatigue’; then the verse was revealed. 

a mdl provision; predicate of an omitted subject: i. e. 
that ease is a small provision, owing to the shortness of 
its duration in comparison with what God has prepared 
for the Believers. — The Prophet is recorded to have said : ®®® 
‘The present world in comparison with the next is like one 
of you putting his finger in the sea, and let him see how 
much he brings out’. 

iAea Um abode is Sell and a bad bed; is that which 
they have made for themselves. 

But for those who have feared their Lord are gardens be- 
neath which rivers flow, abiding therdn, a guesirigM front God; 
nuzlmt or nuzulun means the food drink and present prepared 
for a guest. Abu ’1-Sha‘r el-Pabbi says ; ®®^ ‘and whensoever the 
champion came to see us with his host, we made the spears 
and the sharp swords his guestright.’ It is in the accusa- 
tive as ^al after ‘gardens’; and the prepositional phrase serves 
as regent.®®^ ■ — Others make nuzlan confirmatory magdar 
supplying ‘into which they are brought a bringing’.®*® 
and what is from God; owing to its amount and its 

is better for the innocent; than that in which the guilty 
luxuriate, owing to its small amount, and the quickness 
with which it disappears. 



f mA verily of the people of the Booh there are those that 
believe m God; reyealed in reference to Aljdallah B. Salam 
and his fellows; others say in reference to forty from Naj ran, 
and thirty-two of the Ahysainians, and eight of the Greeks 
who had been Christians and became Muslims. — Others 
say in reference to ’A§hama“®^ el-NajashI when Gabriel 
informed the Prophet of his death, and the Prophet went 
out and prayed over him. Then the Hypocrites said ‘Hark 
at this man praying over a Christian barbarian whom ha 
never saw,' ““ — The I is introduced before the subject of 
’ima (verily) only because of its separation from ’inna 
by the adverbial phrase (of the People of the Book). 
and in what has been revealed to you; the Qur’Sa. 
and what has beesi revealed to them; the two Books. 
submitting to God; hal of the subject of ‘believe’; in 
the plural according to the sense. 

who do not bruy with the signs of God a small prices as 
those of their Doctors, who alter the text, do. 

199. Those have their reward with Gods their peculiar 
reward®"® which has been promised them in the verse 
(xxTiii, 54). ‘Those shall be given tbeir reward twice over.’ 

verily God is qwich at reckonings owing to His know- 
ledge of their deeds, and the recompense which each 
worker deserves; and owing to the fact that He does not 
need to ponder and be cautious. — The meaning is that 
the reward promised will quickly reach them, for quickness 
in reckoning induces quickness in recompensing. 

200. 0 ye that believe, endures the trouble attending 
on acts of piety, and the afflictions which may overtake you. 

and rival in endurances and outdo the enemies of God 
in endurance of the trials of war; and outdo your worst 
enemy*"" in constancy in disobeying your lusts. Tliis is 


STIRA in. 

specially mentioned after the general command to endure, 
owing to its difficulty. 

and equip ; your bodies and your horses at the frontiers, 
watching for attacks; and equip your souls for devotion, 
as the Prophet said: ‘Part of equipment is waiting for 
prayer after prayer’. — Another saying of the Prophet 
is : ‘Whoso is equipped night and day in the Path of God, 
it is as though ha had fasted the month of Bamadian and 
said the nightly prayers without breaking his fast, and 
without retiring from prayer except for the needs of nature, 

mid fear God; pei'c/iance ye may prosper; fear ITim by 
freeing yourselves of aU besides Him, in order that ye 
may attain the final prosperity. — Or, take heed of evil- 
doing; perhaps ye may succeed in obtaining the three 
graduated stages, viz. endurance of the toils necessitated 
by devotion ; contention with your inclinations by throwing 
off old habits; and having your hearts equipped on the 
side of right, in order to await those divine messages that 
are spoken of as ‘the Law’, ‘the Path’ or ‘the Truth’. 

The Prophet is recorded to have said™; Whoso reads 
the Sura of the family of Tmran shall be given for each 
verse a safe-conduct over the bridge of Gehenna. Also: 
Whoso reads the Sura in which the family of 'Imran is 
mentioned on Friday, God and His angels shall be gracious 
unto him until the Sun goes down. ' 

K 0 T E S. 

1) 7ho (viilgaie’ means the reading of all or some of the 

eight canonical readers, whose names are given in the pre* 
face. B. on 11. 91 states that the word is read in 

eight ways, foar of them occnrring in the which he 
then proceeds to explain; the rest being or cexceptio- 
nal’. The commentator on Mimlhm EUThuhm p, 313 dis- 
approves of the use of the term for which he says 

should be employed. Suyn^ {Itqm p. 151} quotes an 
opinion according to which a is a reading handed 

down by a chain of trnstwort^ persons, but not so well 
attested as a 

2) The fact that the nunnation is dropped implies that 
these letters are in some sort of pause. B. in his commentary 
on Sura 11. 1 (translated in do Sacy’s Anthologk Grmma~ 
ticale) discusses the views of tho early oritios on the nature 
and meaning of those letters. Tho Mohammedans seem una- 
nimous in making them part of the original Qur’an as de- 
livered by Mohammed, a fact which is against tho theory 
(mow ordinarily accepted', according to Dieteriei WMeriueh 
sum Koran) that they are really abbreviations of the names 
of the owners of MSS. 

3) A parallel case to this would be tho reading in XT. 

45, 46 ^ug’Uninu-d^iluhu for 'uyUnin ^udWluhn ^U-iL 
8^1 JsUw!} 8^i (S. Z. II. p. 154. 



4) ^ is often used in tHe sense of equivalent to, e. g. 

6. I. p. 506 ii^yw ^ U^ls jUi^t L^ajuLw ifor the 

two count as ono Sura’. 

5) is tho technical name for the change of a hamza 
into an elif elwasl etc.; Muf. § 658, °Itqan p. 231 sqq. 

6) is opposed by tho grammarians to fltXXj’ii) ‘the 

beginning’ and ‘the end’ of a sentence. See e. g. 

Muf. § 183. 

7) The numerals in lists lose their final vowels like the 
letter-names of the alphabet, Muf. § 321; but in a hasty 
enumeration tho hamza of ^i^nUni may bo ‘lightened’. 

O O 

8) The two vowelless consonants meant are i; so in 
Sura XLI. 1 which commences ^ we are told that the read- 
ing Mncitna was due to (jOLAamII fUijJ!. The grammarians 

attribute tbe final fai^ of q-j) desire to 

avoid this ooncunence (Mnf. § 159). IS. D. on Bura II. 1 
discusses the question why tho fatlj^a is employed in such 
oases, whereas it is not employed (ordinarily) between two 
separate words. 

9) Ibn Ya'isb p. 1317, 1. 14 ‘where there is a pause two 
vowellesB consonants may oome together; for tho pause 
supplies the place of a vowel’. 

10) Ibn Ta^sh (p. 1320, 1. 6) makes the two vowelless 
consonants m, Z (the first Z of jUi), and this may have been 
tho intention of Sibawaihi, who gave this explanation, where- 
in he was followed by Zam, in tho Muf. (§ 623). The 
arguments however of Zam. and B. evidently assume that 
tho explanation given above is correct. 

11) The readings given by B, without the names of thoir 

authorities are usually unoanonioal (Shih. ; oalled ot^); the 
person referred to hero was 'Amr B.. 'IJbaid. 

12) Yarions traditions to this effect are quoted in the 
collection of prayers called ^isn Sa^n p. 35. 



13) 'Th^ name whereby if Sod bo asked, He bestows, 
and if He bo invoked, He answers’ MagCiUh EUSumah I. 
109. S'. D- I. 63 discusses it at length. 

14) This is obtained from the uso of the IP* conjugation 
here and tlio IV“' below. Of. B, on XVI. 101, 102; XVII. 
lie. Ibn Hisham Muj/hni II. p. 117 (od. Muhammad Bl- 
Amlr) observes that XXY. 34 is against this distinction. Tho 
variations of the readers in the punctuation of the word are 
recorded by P. p. 39 1. 6. 

16) ‘Meaning for the sake of justice’ S. Z. 

16) Equivalent to a participle in the accusative, o. g. 

The remark should have been restricted to the two 
last explanations, 

17) The derivation from would give the sense ‘en- 
lightenment’. The Cnfans regarded as of the form 

the Ba^rans as of the form with change of ^ into o. 

Tho derivation of from would refer to the pro- 

dnetion of the Ciospel from the Eternal Table. The sugges- 
tion that they must be Arabic words is due to the article 
being prefixed to them, which in the case of foreign words 
is irregular. 

18) ^Imalah means the pronunciation of a like the English 
ai or ei. According to Mnf. § 634 r before d prevents 
Hmalah. The ‘readers’ followed different theories with regard 
to this process, which are recorded in the^Ms^' ofEl-Bani. 
As in other oases their pronunciation was based on otymo- 
logioal grounds, op. B, on XVII. 72. 

19) That is, a slighter form of ^imitlah; other names for 

it are .-saIsICs, (Itqun, p. 216). 

20) QSlun’s reading counts as Nftfi'’B, he and Wargh being 
the two recorders of 

21) I. e. our predecessors in God's favour ; op. B. on V. 
48, 52; this question — which in any case refers only to 
enactments not definitely abrogated — is disoassed in tho 




‘Frinciplos of Jurispradenoe'; in Tanqlh p. 130 it is stated 
that the Shafiltes, Malekites, and Hanofitos all hold that 
‘we’ are so bound; B. in his MinhOj discusses the question 
with regard to the Prophet himself, and supposes that the 
Frophot before his mission was commanded to obey former 
revelations in generalities, not in pariuculors. The ordinary 
reason assigned for tho neglect of Fre-Muhammadan revela- 
tion is that tho tradition cannot bo trusted {Mmalhm M- 
Thubut), Homiletic writers, e. g. Hhazzali in his 
’^ulum, quote tho sacred books frequently enough, but the 
quotations when not apocryphal are inaccurate. — The passive 

>• w 9 9 

verb iX«ju is regularly used in this sense; the active 

may be used of G-od, e, g. F. M. I. 194, 5. 

22) The number of these is given by Ibn Qutaibah at 
104; other writers are less modest; aooording to B. on XXII. 
61 it would he 313. The word being regarded as infinitive 
of takes no plural (Sharh.). 

23) The word is the Syriac purqclnB, ‘redemption’ as was 
truly seen by Abu’l-QQisim (I#gS» p. 311) and others; and 
this must have been understood in early idmes since 

as applied to the greater Badr must mean 'Badr of 
Deliverance’ (not ‘Badr of discrimination’ as Halabi, II. 189 
interprets it). Mohammed seems here to have regarded it 
as the name of a sacred book, probably misunderstanding 
some Biblical quotation. 

24) Suggested by the enumeration in IT. 161. Moham- 
medan writers sometimes speak of ‘the four Books’, making 
the Psalms count as the fourth %lam id-^n I. 54 etc.). 

26) This is stated forcibly by B. on XX. 133, who holds 
that the former Books require the Qui'^kn to confirm them. 

26) F. D. seems to claim this suggestion as his own. 
Shih. states that in some copies the following was added; 
d law Jls jAijJt ^ ^ 

, iijt^ cr* ^ UtlX:>t U 



27) Tbe omission of tho arMolo is supposed to imply f,Aiuu 
or 'grandeur’. 

28} is the moro correct (S. Z.). 

29) Tho ‘philosophers’, L e. tho school of Avicenna, doniod 
that God hnovr particulars, i. e. things which chango; for 
with tho ohango in the fact there must como a change in 
God’s knowledge. This argument is doalt with in Mawuqif 
p. 593 (47—51 Sorensen) ; see also B. on XXL 51. 

30) ‘like a proor (cf. on XI. 100 : I. p. 446 1. 12). 
It is nsnal to insert the article in this case; so 

jt, — With compare the note on II. 116. 

The v).^ comes after the statement, the before. 

31) The argument by which God’s wisdom is proved in 
the Ealam is drawn from the fact that the creation is 
1 ^^, MawUgif T. 3. 3. The verse is not a proof of it, but 
suggests the argument by which it can be proved. 

32) Giving the article the universalizing sense (, 3 tyUM)!l). 

33) See Sprenger IIL 488. ‘The Najranites were converted 
to Arian Christianity in tbe century’. EajrSn is said to 
be 7 days’ journey from Mecca, in the direction of Yemen, 
containing 37 villages. The embassy consisted of 14 depu- 
ties sent to answer tho Prophet in reply to an epistle sent 
by him. 

34) The different sects interpreted tho words and 
ojUju differently. With tbe ShRffHtes a verse is mulikcm 
when its sense is clear, i. e. when iho reader is convinced 
that a certain sense and no other is intended; nmtasMtHh 
when it is obscure. Tho Hanedtes hold that muitkam is a 
text which has not been superseded, mutasMbih one of 
which God reservos the meaning to Himself. The two terms 
with them are the extremes of a system, not a dichotomy. 
B. however in his Commentary freqnently uses tmlikam in 
tho sense of ‘not abrogated’; see VI. 140, YII (heading), 
Yin. 15; and this sense would seem to be supported by 



XXU. 51 sJV tJlil Ji, referring to abrogated texts. 

36) The two causes (Muf. § 18) for j-!>\ being diptote 
are 1) its being an ac^eotire, 2) is being altered from one 
form to another; the form from which it is altered however 

is variously given as i. e. that plural of the super, 
lative which according to Muf. § 366 cannot be used without 

tl } 

the article, and as the fact that the elative 


is regularly followed by ^ makes the omission of after 

(§ 358) a case of alteration. The objection urged by the 
grammarian Abu Ali El-Farisi that if is altered &om 
it should have the same meaning as the latter is 
answered in the text. 

36) The Day of judgment. The commentator on Majani 

'IrAdal I. 87 would seem to make 2 C.cLm in this phrase 
plural of meaning %ose that shall perish’. Moham< 

medan writers interpret ^ as 

37) They were 19; see Sura LXXIV. 30. 

38) This text with the pause at sJJI was quoted by the 

sect called who maintained that the Qur’Sn oontuned 

meaningless matter. 

39) A prayer to be said whenever the reader comes across 
an equivocal text. 

40) A frequently cited tradition; quoted often in the 

and the F. M, 

41) Viz. the Mu'tazils, such as Zam. B. is following 
Zam. unthinkingly. Another way of avoiding the doctrine 

ft ^9 

hero implied was to read (Zam.). 

42) Name given to tho adverbial accusative of place and 

43) So Ibn Hi|ham, MuffMl I. 74. ol is said to be a 

noun of time employed as a in this case put into 

the genitive after another 



44) The difference of meaning will be that in this case 
wo shonld render ‘after thy guiding ns’, in the former 
'after the time of thy guiding us’. S, Z. says 31 loses its 
moaning of ‘Tossel’ by having Oou annexed to it. 

46) This suggestion aeoms not to bo found in the other 

46) Qot from tho omission of the objoot. 

47) Polomio against tho MuHasils. 

48) Suggested by the change from the 2®’* to the 
person and the substitution of alii for i^. 

49) The phrase more ordinarily used for this is unUxSt, 

discussed by TaftazEni pp. 199 sqq. According to Qastalani 
on Bukhari I, 142 (first ed.) some objected to the employ- 
ment of the phrase oUxit with reference to God, as sug- 
gesting that God was in space; doubtless this is why B. 
as a rule avoids it, substituting >^Uai^ simply 

(XIT. 19), Ocoasionally, however, he 

uses the ordinary term (UL 176). 

60) The Wa'Idites were a Mu'tazilite sect, headed by 
Sl-dubblii’i (on whom see Bugat, Histoire dea pMlosophes 
Arabea p. 141, Steiner, die Mu^tazilen p. 81). They hold 
that God could not pardon evil-doers, and that the punish- 
ment with which they ore threatened in the Qui^an is 
irrevocable. 1 X ^3 ‘menace’ was, they said, included in the 
word (Acj and its derivatives. — They are referred to by 
B. on II. 6 (p. 20 1. 11); and in ’Iliyti-ul-'ulum IV. 120 we 
read of Abu Sahl El-Zajjhj who was of the 

61) As in X. 37 Oik U ,^1 (Zam). 

62) Giving tho sense ‘to avert’, Tho whole will 
then be oonstruod ‘shall not avert from them any part of 
God’s vongoonce’. 

53) It is rather tho which in that ease is virtually 
in tho nominative, as predioate of a suppressed nominal subject. 

64) ‘Since what a person takes trouble over becomes his 
habit’. Gl. 


55) Tile rale being tbat 'vfben the circnmatantial phrase 

is in the perfect, oJi must be either expressed or under* 
stood. Muf. § 80. 

56) But since the next verse, apparently connected by 
the sense with this, speaks of Badr as past, this is nnlikely. 

57) Ibn Ishilq p. 383, Muir p. 328. 

58) Zam. has another tradition according to which the 
Jews, who had waited for a second battle to consider the 
Prophet’s claims, found them annulled by the battle of U^ud. 

59) Uuir p. 328. A. H. 5. The horrible story is told by 
all the authorities, e. g. Bukhari VI® p. 327. 

60) Muir p. 290. A. H, 3. 

61) Muir p, 392, A. H. 7. 

62) I. 0 . the fulfilment of the prophecy uttered here. 

63) See Muf. §§ 469 and 473. Verbs of praise and blame 

take os their agent a definite noon, followed by the name 
of the person or thing praised or blamed. The latter is 
called jiOJI (jdycusUi, and, when there is no doubt 

how it should be supplied, may be omitted. 

64) See Sura X. 46. 

65) Those who read thus referred ‘ye’ to the Jews, 

rendering the whole ‘Ye saw the unbelievers twice the number 
of the Believers’. ^ 

66) Bather ‘they thought them’; being oommonly 
used in this sense. 

67) But the specializing accusative — an accusative before 
which ,^1 <I moan’ is to be supplied — should be definite, 
Muf. § 57. Here the epithets which follow might be regarded 
as a sort of definition. 

68) The sense will then bo <two parties which met together, 
the one believing, the other unbelieving’. 

80) As well as ‘a warning’. 

70) SibHasau Bl'Bii^ (ob. A. H. 110} held this view, in 
which he was followed by the Mu'tazils, 



71) Ascribing the beautifying of licit pleasures to dod, 
that of illicit pleasncea to Satan. El-JubbS.’t, one of tho most 
eminent of MuHazilite writers, fiourishod 225—303 A. H. JubbSi 
is a village near Ba.srali. His firil name was Abu Ali Muham- 
mad B, Abdil-Wahhab. 

72) A theory ascribed to tho Prophet. 

73) Of gold. 

74) Of coprse it is derived through the Aramaic from 

75) A thousand dlnEts (or, dirhems). — This figure is 

specially noticed in the books on rhetoric ; 'a thick 

shade’ being the most familiar example. 

76) is HijSzl, Tamiml; or, the first is the 

noun, the second the infinitive (Navilihidu ’UaihSr). 

77) Synonymous vnth the expression ‘specializing aoousative’. 

78) To merit forgiveness, if an offence has been com- 
mitted; to be ready for it otherwise. The MnHazilites held 
that works (laUJa) formed an integral part of faith, a doctrine 
against which this passage is directed. 

79) B. on Sura Y. 115 uses the phrase ijULwJl oUUU 
more correctly, making the i.Iaa a stage of perfection, not 
as here a religious exercise. So B. Z. 1. 682 calls worship 
for duty’s sake uUUlt ^.e!. 

80) Abu HayySn denied that the copula could have 
this force. 

81) A doctrine probably derived firom the (Ireek medicine. 

82) According to P. M. 1. 218 the is (one who 

rises and sleeps, and rises and sleeps, and risos and sleeps’. 

83) 'We gave him Isaac and Jacob as a grandson’. — 

Abn Hayyan allowed even taking 

Uf'tj with tho latter. 

84) The confirmatory consists of an adjective signi- 
fying a permanent quality of the subject of a nominal 



Bontonco, confirming the predicate of that sentence; since 
every liM must have as regent (Muf. § 75) a verb expressed 
or understood, the grammarians (Mnf. § 79) supply in this 

case something like DJjfi or or (so in John’s 

)« s 

ed. of the Huf. ; the Luoknow ed. has here aii»-t). 


85) Bat in that case it ^onld not be indefinite , Muf, § 57. 

86) Which admits of this construction as well as of 
another, Muf. § 102. 

87) The adjective ought to accompany the substantive, 
Muf. § 149. 

88) S. Z, takes it which can scarcely 

bo right. 

89) Quoted by BbBaihaqi in (Nav)3Jiidu 'l- 


90) 1. e. the haUm. Baidiwi wrote more than one treatise 
on this Bubjeot. 

91) If ‘faith’ mean belief in the Unity, then the two 
propositions will be identical. This was the opinion of the 

<Marjites’, who held that ‘faith’ consisted in the asBer< 
tion of this proposition, unaccompanied by works. The chapter 
in BukhBjA's §a^ is directed against them. 

92) A hadal of comprehension is one in which the first 
phrase in some way includes the second, e. g. 'they ask 
thee conocming tho sacred month, fighting in it'. — I*. D. 
explains this opinion here as signifying that Belief in the 
Unity is one of the propositions included in the code called 
Isl&m; but it would seem that the second teiun is in that 
ease more inolusivo than the first. 

9S) Jfe should bo followed by (yt (Muf, § 618). It is a 


common error to write after it. 

94) Gleiger in his treatiso ‘Was hat Muhammad aus dem 
Judenthum genommen’ endeavours, but without success, to 



account for this myth, which is repeated by Mohammedan 
writers to this day. B. on IX. 30 acioiowlodges that the 
Jews repudiate this assertion. 

95) (The descendants of the 70 Elders to whom Moses 
at his death committed the Law’. S. Z. 

96) would not be allowable for ut , 

Muf. § 168; the exceptional case in which a word inter’ 
vones is not noticed by Zam., but by his commentator Ibn 
Ya’Ish p. 397, 1. 20. Some objected that with either of the 
explanations given the object 'm;/ face’ is improper. 

Compare the notes on YI. 23 and XIII. 25. 

97) I. e. ^ is accusative after 

98) Similar in respect of the employment of the inter- 
rogative for imperative. 

99) According however to Ibn Ta'Ish (p. 124) Sibawaihi 

did allow o after when the Mubtada’ contained the ides 

of a condition, because the introduction of makes no 


difference in the nature of the proposition, whereas EI-Akh- 
fash disallowed it altogether. Perhaps B. was misled by the 
words of the Mufa^^al. 

100) Tafthzhni p. 130. (Implying that the object has reached 
a pitch of exaltation or dogradalion which does not admit 
of being defined’. Other uses of indefinitoness are jj^ and 

101) Ibn Is^aq p. 383 gives for F. has 

102) See Ibn Isljiaq p. 393— 395. The Prophet, being called 
upon to decide the punishment of a Jewish adulterer and 
adulteress in accordance with the law of Moses, said they 
should be stoned. The Jews denied that any such enactment 
existed in the Law of Moses. 

103) S. Z. observes that the pointing of cannot 

affect this question. Zanu’s words are to the effect that 



shows that the dispute is betweeu mal parties among the 
Jews, not between the Jews and Mohammed. B.’s words are 
stated by (Jl. to be a refutation of this , on the ground that 
the cause of the right party among the Jews was identical 
with that of the Prophet ; it is more probable that they are 
a careless copying of the passage of Zam. Cf. P. D. p. 133. 

104) Shih. observes that it is difficult to see how any 
of the questions raised here were connected with the arti- 
cles. Apparently B. has a somewhat confused reminiscenoo 
of a passage in his own MinhBj Bk II, o. 1, qu. 5. ‘Was 
Mohammed bound by the codes of his predecessors or not, 
after he had been called to the Prophetic office P Most say 
Mo. Some say he was commanded to draw &om them. This 
is shown to be false by the facts that he waited for a re- 
velation before deciding, that he did not consult the older 
books, and that we do not consult them. It is answered 
that he did consult them in the case of the stoning. We 
reply, as an argumentum ad hominem. And our opponents 
also quote tents in which the Prophet is commanded to 
follow the steps of older prophets. We reply, in reference 
to the articles and general principles of religion’. 

105) Explanation of J which here implies distance not 

in time but in thought; since their ‘turning back’ would 
not naturally be expected. See TaftEzani pp. 424, 6 , where 
several examples of this supposed use are given. Taft.’B words 
are ^ 

li OXuuiLxA. 

106) The rulo is that a Ml must belong to a definite 
word, unless it precede its subject. There is however a 
difficulty in making the words a fiul, since a should not 
bo a permanent quality but a transiont state. S. Z. would 
make it a of ^ in 

107) The oath according to 61. L. is that in MIX. 72 
‘each one of them shall descend thereunto’. The interlinear 
gloss inte prets it KiUlt ^ ‘proverbial expression for a 



little’. More probably the oath in that montioned in a tradi- 
tion quoted by F. on Sura IL 74 after El-Hasan and Abu 
’l-'Aliyah: ‘The Jews said God swore he would punish us 
40 days; God therefore will punish us 40 days only in 
order to fulfil His oath’. 

108) This tradition is not given in the ordinary works 
on theology. 

109) See MawSqtf (Ind.) p. 711 where the doctrine that 
one capital sin annuls all previous good works is ascribed 
to the bulk of the Mu'tazils and Ehaw9.rij. The author of 
the MawSiqif however does not adopt B.’s solution , but thinks 
the punishment and reward may be mixed. 

110) A verse however is quoted in which occurs. 

111) Mnf. § 506 quotes 

112) The Cnfans (El-FarrS); see Ibn Ya^Ish p. 181 who 
rightly ridicules this view. A form ^ ==* s'Sil is read by 
some in a verse of Bl-A'shS. (Shih. I. 57). 

113) The argument being that by being compounded with 
an interjection it has become an interjection and so could 
not be qualified. 

114) F. D. shows that the Prophoiic office is tho highest 
degree of soveroignty. 

115) Because the samo person cannot cease to be a Prophet, 
if he once become one (F. I).). 

116) Cf. B. on X. 4. 

117) yol is often used in tho sense of ‘reverence’. Bhih. 
I. p. 49 says that to use aJII; for aJJI jihwJ involves ScLwt 

or ‘irreverence’. Compare for tho present context F. M. 
I. 266. 

118) So Gl. 

119) Hot in the autheuiao works. The books called 
of El'Baihaqi ahd Abu Hu'^aim are quoted for this. 

120) The Battle «|^e Bitoj||^ called also was 

fought A. H. 4. 



121) Salman El-Parisi, the (Christian who had suggested 
the outrenohmont of Medina; a semi-mythical personage whose 
doath is placed variously A. H. 30, 34, and 36, at the age 
of 260 or 350 years. Both the Muhajirs and the An§ar claimed 
him. Halabi II. 407. 

122) Bocky mountains enclosing Medina. 

123) Hear Cufa. Tho resemblance is to be found in their 
whiteness smallness and compactness. 

124) Capital of Yemen. 

125) Medina. 

126) Before (according to B.) to lengthening the nights etc. 

127) Yet according to El-Shafi'i and ‘the majority’ this 
is allowed. See Mawerdi’s GonsUtuUonea. 

128) Said to be Bashshar by Sharlshi in his commen- 
tary on Hariri I. p. 428, where this verse is quoted. 

129) Infinitive of conjugation 1, used with a finite verb of 
Till; alldwable according to Muf. § 40. 

ISO) And therefore takes this oonstruotion. 

131) See Preface, 

132) From Zam, Tho meaning is said to be either ‘let 
thy body be among them, but thy heart in Paradise’; or 
‘keep a mean between befriending them and opposing them, 
but walk on one side in the matter of assenting to what 
they do’. A third suggestion, given by S. Z., is <do not 
avoid their society, but avoid engrossing thyself (u^^) in 
their business’. — E. D. here enumerates various limitations 
to the licenoe given in the text. 

133) There is a difficulty in the syntax in this interpre- 

tation. Some doubted whether the subject of a verbal sen- 
tonoe could be a pronoun referring to something annexed 
to a noun governed by the verb; here the whole sentence 
equals i.^' U Jf ™ agent 

of is a pronoun referring to umaI which is annexed to 
1 ^, which is governed by <iy. El-Bisa^ and most of the 



Ba>^ranB allofred this ooaBtniction, and a verso is quoted 
resembling tbe present text 
jiU^I jil 

However El-Farra with El-Akhfaah and other Ba, 9 ranB dis- 
approved of the construction where the virtual regent was 
annexed to an accusative (Shlh). 

134) Compare its supposed omission before ol ; Itqan p. 344. 

135) 'With the sense 'the day on which each soul shall 
find whatever good it did, and whatever evil it did, wishing 
there were’, etc. 

136) A careless observation of Zam, after El-Whl^idi; 
where the protasis has the perfect, the apodosis may be 
either indicative or jussive (Mnf. § 586). Some endeavoured 
to defend Zorn, on the ground that the indicative is rare. 

137) 1. e. the constmction in which U is Muhtada, and 
or oOj Khobar. 

138) Whereas a condition may be fulfilled or not. 

130) On the love of God in Islam see von Kremer’s ‘Herr- 

Bohende Ideen’ p. 63. B. takes his definition from F. D. ; Zam. 
gives others, called by F. D. those of the viz. the 

love of God by His servants is an improper expression for 
their desire to serve Him only, and their liking for that ser- 
vice*, whereas God’s love of His servants signifies His being 
satisfied with them and commending their actions. 

140) ^ufic conceptions. Its coming fbom God represents 

the stage of jcAcUJI whereas the last, in which 

the object wherein the perfection was supposed to exist has 
perished, while the perfection remains, represents the stago 
of cyolt or (complete union’. 

141) As by Zam. 

142) In the text. 

143) 1. e. to include others besides 'those who turn back’. 

144) See F. D. p, 145. Such a privilege was the extended 
vision whereby Abraham and Mohammed could seo all tho 
Mngdoms of tho world; Jacob’s power of smell, etc. 

158 NOTES. 

145) The ans-wer ie that means the persons eon> 
temporary with each particular prophet. On this q^uestion 
see MawHqif (SSrensen) pp. 238, 9: (There is no question 
that the Prophets are superior to the Lower Angels; the 
only question is about the Upper. Most of our Oolleagues 
(the Ash'^arites) and the Shi^ites make the Prophets superior; 
only the Mu^tazils and among our Oolleagues Abu Abd- 
allah £1-Eulaimi and the Qh4i Abu Bakr make the Angels 

146) Tradition of Muqatil ap. F. Cf. 1 Ohron. Y. 25. 

147) The genealogy is taken from Matthew with the 
omission of aereral members and the ingenious inser,tion of 
^^Imrha after Matthau. The Uospel makes Matthau father of 
Jaoob, and Jacob father of Joseph. The names are grossly 
corrupted in all the copies. In the Calcutta edition of Zam. 
the editor has left space for all but the most familiar names. 

148) I. e. all of one sect. 

149) See on this question Ifqan p. 841. This view is 
asoribed by P- D. to El-AkMash and El-Mnbarrad. Abu 
’’Ubaldah held that in snoh oases was otiose. 

150) The genealogy then according to the Muslims is 








= 'Imran 




Tisha == Zacharia 




According to this (as Cd. observes) Maryam and ’IshA (Eli- 
zaboth) will be sisters; howover as ’’Isha was married to 
Zacharia at the time of the birth of Maryam, she cannot 
have been the daughter of Hanna, whose long barrenness 
is mentioned here. This then would suggest that ’IshA was 
'Imran’s daughter by a former wife, which B. signifies by 
but- tiiis is contradioted by the assertion that she 



was Maryam’s aunt and Hannah’s sister. Another suggestion 
therefore is that Hannah and ^IshU were both daughters of 
Fdqudha; so that, since the daughter of a sistor can losoly 
bo celled sister, Yaliyh and ‘fsh may still be called iilLs* UjI. 

151) This story is told in the Frolmangdium Jacobi Mi~ 
noris, od. Thilo p. 180. Jb'. quotes for it £1-Ealbi and Ibn 

152) F.D. more clearly ^6 <.fiSh tjJiS 

153) This statement seems confused. The reasons given 

are reasons for saying instead of aXibCOj, as will be 

seen by comparing Zam. The phrase aJU |Jlc seems to have 
been suggested by F. D.’s explanation that God knew the 
sex of the child. 

154) This is often asserted by the grammarians of sub- 
stantive and adjective ; see e. g, Ibn Ya'ish p. 376. 

155) About its character and fortunes. 

156) Ibn ‘Abbas. 

157) of most MSS. (CB. L.) is surely an error for 
The commentators make g***! mean ‘it is not the 

fact that' very unnaturally. 

158) Shih. offers another suggestion ‘a maid-servant’. 
B. on II. 81 says mean ‘a servant’ in Hebrew, but 
that in Arabic applied to women corresponds to 

as applied to men. — Mohammedan writers are apt to gness 
in this way at the meaning of foreign names ; so Halabi II. 
p. 12. says (the old name for Friday) meant imoroy’; 
and Qastalani says moans ^handsome’; vory omde 

observations are made by Shih. (at the commencement of 
vol. 1 ) about the Syrlao language. 

159) From F. D. See on this question B. Sura L I 5 
and F. D. I. p. 60. The Hashwiyyah, KarrRmiyyah, and 
Ash%rites say the name is the same as the named, but 
different from the naming; the Mu'tazils say that it is lh()t 
same as the naming, but different from the named. The 
true view according to ‘us’ is that it differs from both. 



B. 0. 0 .) Bays Abu ’l-]Iaaan El-Asb'ari regarded tbe name 
as a jCsM) or epithet of the named. F. D. in his treatise ton 
the Names of Gtod’ (Bodleian MS.) discusses this matter 
very fully. 

leO) The word is Aethiopic ‘accursed’. — J. vdn 

Vlooten in F«athundel am Prof, M, J. de Go<^e pp, 36--4S 
endeavours to show that is a Pre-lslamio 

phrase, referring to the stones thrown at a snake, 

161) The tradition is given by both Bukhari (VII. 52, 
ed. 6) and Muslim (II. 224). B. therefore rejects the doubt 
which Zam. oasts on its authenticity, though he accepts the 
following allegorization of it. A work oalled quoted 
by Cil, observes that since the child’s crying is real, the 
touoh must be real too. 

162) The words ‘by virtue of this invocation’ are an un- 
authorised addition by B. 

163) Examples of meaning the instrument are tjytw 
and , names of drugs injected into the nostrils and mouth 

164) See Protevangelium p. 206. 

166) The conjugation of means ‘to go to meet’. 

166) applies properly to plants. 

167) The word is Aethiopic mehtorab used in the K. T. 
for the Temple. Etankel, die aramaisohen WSrter im Ara- 
bisohen p. 274. 

168) The Mu'tazils denied the possibility of KarOm&t, 

sec Mawhlpf (Soronsen) p. 243. The 8^:^ is distinguished 
from the by 1) ‘profession of the Prophetic 

office’; 2) ‘intention’. The suggestion that this was 

Zacharia’s miracle was El-JubbtlVs, see E. D. p. 161. Zam. 
avoids the snbjeot, 

169) Shih. quotes verses of Buyuti enumerating 11 persons 
•who did this, 

170) So Ihu Mas'ud read here. 

171) Mnf, § 31, 



172) Yiews of the Basraus and Cufana respectively. 

173) By the word ^ <be’. 

174) I. e. who are created by a mere word without matter. 

The name yi'bil JHe comas from tho answer in tho Qur^iln ’ 
XVn. 85 JJ>. This is tho explanation of 

tho phrase given by Ibn Arab! in his quoted 

in M-yonoUgii taaUjawiihir IL 140 'evorything that God created 
without intermediaries belongs to the world of command, 
sinoe God sold to it Be and it was’. El-Ghazz3li interpreted 
the phrase 

175) Surname of a pre-Muhammedan poet Quibah B. 
Mu^sin B. Khgrwah. This Kalimah is a poem rhyming in 

iCji is frequently used in this sense by El-Mubarrad in 
his K&mil. 

176) Fart of a long tradition given by £l-Ghazzali aftor 

Ibn «Umar in ’JJya IV. 143. 

177) The phrase oU implies that is a case of 

used in the sense of Bo EbEbalil interpreted 

as olA Muf. § 312. 

178) That is, corresponds with it in words and meaning. 
The oorrespondenoe here, says S. Z., lies in this: the sign 
was only asked for in order that Z. might express his 
gratitude; ha is told nn answer that his tongue shall be 
tied from expressing anything else. 

179) I. e. of a different class from the sJU or 

thing excepted from, which here would be 'address’, 

180) Verse of ^Antarah quoted Muf. § 74, and explained 

on Margin of KhizSnatu ’l>Adab U. 174. Tho person ad' 
dressed is stands for ftdvot fiUm. The 

syntax of is diffionit; see Ibn Ya^sh p. 233. 

181} Question of the Principles of Juiisprudenoe. B.’s 
Minh9,j I. 1. c. 2 § 4: <A mere command neither implies nor 
excludes repetition of the action’. Abu Is^hq EMsfarSini 




Md tliat it did imply repetition; otbers held that 

it. necessarily implied that the action should be done once 
only. Musallam M-ThuiUt p. 259 states that this last \ras 
the view of the Hanefites, and also of a majority of the 

182) So Zam, after the Mn^azils. 

183) The (from [jaffj the lowest row of stones 

in a wall) is said to be ‘that which, resembling a miracle, 
precedes the profession of the prophetic office’. — This is 
given as the opinion of El-Ea^i among the Mu^tazils. 

184) Shih, denies that this is agreed, since many of the 
ancients as well as El-Subhi and Ibn El-Sayyid thought 
otherwise; he rejeots the argument from XII. 109 on the 
ground that 'prophesy’ is not the same as Apostleship. — 
The power of seeing and hearing the angels is given in 
Maw&Vif (Ind.) p. 664 as one of the three marks of the 
prophetic gift postulated by the philosophers. The author 
of tho MawBi^f makes no allusion to the opinion that a 
woman cannot be a prophet, 

185} See Sura XIX. E. D. endeavours to account for 
this miracle being unknown to the Christians. 

186) Cot from 

187} See Minhaj el-^alibln Bk II. c. 4. The arkan or 
constituent parts of prayer are variously enumerated at 13, 
14, and 17, Tho first is the enumeration of the MinhSj 
viz. 1) ‘intention’; 2) words sUi 

whereby the worshipper renders unlawful for the time being 
what was lawful for him before; 3) ‘the upright 

posture’; 4) .‘recitation’ of tho kslli; 6) ‘an 

inclination’, of which tho smaHest amount is that in which 
the palms are on a level with the knees, the most perfect, 
one in which the back and neck are horizontal, the legs 
being erect; 6) ‘standing at ease’; 7) 

‘prostration’ of which the smallest amount is that in which 



the forehead tonchee the praying place, whereas neither 
hands nor kneos nor soles should do so; 8 ) (sitting 

down’; 9, 10 , 11 ) the first 

being tho name of a prayer which bogins sUt oLjSXil; vOyiH 
moaning tho squatting posture adopted when saying it; 12 } 
a prayer of which tho shortest form is 
13) correct sequence of the different acts. 

188) Against the Mohammedan usage. So the Minhaj 
states that a prayer is invalidated by prostration before 
inolinatioa ^Sharb. 1. 180). 

189} Question discussed in the Principles of jurisprudence; 
in B,’s MinhSij I. c. 11. qu. 1. Musallam El-Thubut p. 125 
states that the view that ^ implied order was held by El- 
Shhfi^I himself; it is ascribed by others to Abu Hanifah. 

190} The argument seems to be that if the word 
means (those that pray’ it implies that is the most 

important port of prayer; the statement however is, as S. Z. 
sees, eonfuBod. — The Imams differed about the relative 
importance of the arkan. El'Shafi*! held that the jtLS was 
more important than the and the than tho 


191) oyjJi in law is the technical name of a prayer 

that runs os follows; visutAS’ liOk®! (*.116 

O'* (3*.^, ^ ail iui r 
gy.*JlKjg Luj (Sharb. I. 168). 

192) Only the JUit can take after them a dopen> 
dent sentence, which may be preceded by J, an intorroga" 
tive or a negative (Muf. § 445). 

193) B. should hare written or j;;]f;i 4 L 9 (S. Z.). 

Perhaps the fiirst should be restored. 

194) Otherwise the second could not be permutative of 
the first. 

195) Surname of Abu Bakr, tho first Caliph. 

196) He shonld have said Syriac. 



197) Bather of Esau, it would seem. 

198) S'. D. says ‘with pure and blessed oil (of. Sura XXIV. 
35) wterewith the prophets and they only are anointed’. — 

It is curious that Lagarde in his Vehersicht would seem to 
attach some importance to thoso suggestions. 

199) "Whenoe (jwuuJt is usej^poetry for camels. 

200) The article can bo used for L e. ‘Exhaus- 

tion’; and in that case the singular to which it is prefixed 
no longer implies unity. See TaftSizSnl p. 127, whose words 
are yS? ^ 

^^jla Jjs xJXxJf ^ xaI* 

But this rule only applies to a noun in annexion 
when it is annexed in a way that preserves its genuine 
nature (Taft. p. 129 Uo|y> o* St-sL*! lit 

OjUt Qjj); B.’s explanation is not therefore quite satisfactory. 

201) That is y>. 

202) is correct here. Muf. § 147. 

203) 0£ El-Fakhri (ed. Ahlwardt) pp, 133—185. Examples 
are the poets Ibn '^iishah and Ibn MayyEdah. 

204) I. e. M2 relating to a condition in the future. See 

Mughni n. p. 91 where the divisions of the ^al according 
to time are stated, viz. relating to the present, 

to the future, to the past. 

206) V. Supra. 

206) There were various degrees of XcLfta or power of 
intercession, some of which were supposed to belong to 
Mohammed only. They arc enumerated by Mawawi comm, 
on Muslim in the introduction to the section on this subject. 

207) See B. on IV. 166. 

, 208) Suggestion of Abu Muslim El-E&risi; otherwise there 
would be no purpose in mentioning ‘when he is grown up’. 

209) El-Hnsain B. EI-Ea41 according to E. said that ' 
meant ‘after his descent’. B. would seem to represent this 



210) Zam. calls the refeionoe of the exclamation ‘my Lord’ 

to Gabriel an extraordinary interpretation ^Xi O^). 

211) There are two diiRcnlties which B. does not very 

clearly distingnish. 1) The construction of 2) that of 

The first is explained as a after a suppressed 
or as connected with the preceding ^sls by the conjunction; 
the second is explained in the first case as governed by 
the verb meaning <I am sent with the message that’ ; 

in the second as governed by that word being sup- 
posed to mean ‘announcing’. — One would fancy that the 

phrase should only be employed whoro 


212) It is one of the supposed privileges of Mohammed 
that he was sent to all mankind, whereas the other pro- 
phots wore sent only to particular peoples. El-yawhqil wal- 
jawahir II. p. 23. 

213) Sec the Apocryphal Gospels , Thilo p, 279. 

214) ‘Create’ must not bo used of any but God; hence it 
is explained away. 

216) Shih. interprets as >one whose oyes 

are not opened, or who has no pupil in them’. 

216) And might therefore suggest it. 

217) So that the sense will be *I have come to you to 

show you a sign and to make lawful for you’. The v^oJoe 
of the ai to the m is improper. 

218) Where the first is a aJ in meaning, though 

it be a Ml in expression. Gl. 

219) {jnJS^ (Shih,). See 

Lev. III. 17. 

220) See B.’s Minhaj Bk 11. oo. ni, rv. ^JaJJa^ is a 
technical term of Law, defined as xJ^Uaj Lo ijniu 

a-As Jhafit; whereas is the farther explanation of a 

or obscure passage. In c. iv the first discussion is 
with the Jews who rejected the idea of if God’s 



laws pursue men’s ^dfare, tihey must vary as men’s con- 
cerns vary, if they do not, vre may not ast why they 
change; fhither Adam married his daughters to his sons, 
and that has since been forbidden. — In Musallam M-Thubut 
p. it is show that between this theory of — i, e. 
that it is an explanation (qI^) of the limit of time for 
which a particular command was to be valid — and the theory 
according to which it is a revocation of a previous law, 
there is the same difference as that between the main tenets 
of the Ash^arites and the Mu'^tazils. 

221) This would rather require a reading mentioned 
fay Zam. 

222) Ma^ablh M-Sunnah I. 4. Answer given to a man 
who ashed for a maxim which would render farther ques- 
tions afaont Islam unnooessary. 

223) The word jLait is doubles intended as the etymon 

of the word ijiJm ‘Ohristians’, B. on Sura V. 17. — ‘Joi- 
ning his help of me to Clod’s help’ S. Z. Yet QL seems 
right in saying that B must have intended these words to 
be ^EIs of the suffix of the 1^ person in and in 

that case he has made a slip in giving UU» as an alter- 
native supplement; for that supplement is only possible if 
the word to be supplied be a l^al of Zam. rightly 

distinguishes the two explanations. 

224) This again reproduces inexactly Zam.’s paraphrase. 

iVa*!* U5' il O*' 

225) Another passage in which this usage is supposed 

to occur is IV. 2 At Cf. Ibn Ta'lsh 

p. 1079, 

226) The word is Aethiopio and means ‘messenger’. 

227) Shih. states that this in Nabataean was The 

authorities for the various suggestions are given by S’. 

228) Qur^an H. 143. 

229) Ibid. 



230) IV. 106. 

231) A figure by wMoh the same word is employed 
twice, though it is appropriate only in one sense. Qastalani 
ou BukhSiri I. 151 (ed. 1) 

a's The tradition on 

which he makes this obrersation is ‘God will not he weary 
till you are weary’. 

282) Gl. renders wwmX^. by ^ 

233) The Mu‘tazlls believed that a murdered man did 

not aooomplish Ms full term. B. in taking this explanafion 
from Zam. has not observed that this heresy underlies it. 
F. D. for gives 

234) After Qur. VI. 60 which 

is said to mean ‘causes ye to sleep’ (El'Sir&j). 

236) View of Abu Bakr Bl-Wasiti (oh. 320; see Sha'rawi’s 
gJiy I. p. 132). It is a Sufic comment; Shih. I. p. 11 
quotes from the ^Ut of Ghazzali a saying that the world 
of laLUl is what appears to the senses, whereas the world 
of is what God created by His otemal word. 

236) THs verse was quoted’ by who held that 

God had a human form. The paraphrase is meant to avoid 

237) Where the pronoun refers to the person addressed 
and to others. 

238) See Muf. § 75; the regent of a ItSl may be a verb 

or a verbal notion ™ Buoh a phrase as 

LSJLiiJwg the verbal notion may be supposed to be 

«JI (Ibn Ta'ish p. 266). 

289) The construction being similar to that in aXjyo liA^; 
such a case is called in Arabic xJjta iLt 

(Muf. § 62). 

240) But for is rare; of. ‘tMokened’ 

of honey, for ikiiM. 

241) By the mere bodily frame is meant , otherwise 



laws pursue jneu's welfare, they must vary as men’s con- 
cerns vary; if they do not, wo may not ask why they 
change; farther Adam married his daughters to his sons, 
and that has since been forbidden. — In Musdlam M-Thubut 
p, 34ft it is shown that between this theory of g-nwj — i. e. 
that it is an explanation (qL^) of the limit of time for 
which a particular command was to be valid — and the theory 
according to which it is a revocation of a previous law, 
there is the same difference as that between the main tenets 
of the Ash'arites and the Mu^tazils. 

221) This would rather require a reading mentioned 
by Zam. 

222) Ma^ablh El-Snnnah I. 4. Answer given to a man 
who asked for a maxim which would render further ques- 
tions about Islam unnecessary. 

223) The word is doubles intended as the etymon 

of the word ‘Ohristians’, B. on Sura V. 17. — ‘Joi- 

ning his help of me to Ood’s help’ S. Z. Yet Gl. seems 
right in saying that B must have intended these words to 
be hft'ls of the suffix of the 1>^ person in and in 

that case he has made a slip in giving UUs as an alter- 
native supplement; for that supplement is only possible if 
the word to be supplied be a of Zam, rightly 

distinguishes the two explanations. 

224) This again reproduoes inexactly Zam.’s paraphrase, 

jyiaij US' hJJI j,l i*.^**^' Cr* 

225) Another passage in which this usage is supposed 

to occur is rV. 2 it Of. Ibn Ta'ish 

p, ia79. 

226) The word is Aothiopic and means tmessenger’, 

227) Shih. states that this in Habataean was ^he 

authorities for the various suggestions are given by F. 

228) Qur’an II. 143. 

229) Ibid. 



230) IV. 106. 

231) A figure by which the same word is employed 

twice, though it is appropriate only in one sense. Qasj;alani 
on BukhS<ri 1. 151 (ed. 1) idlfUAiLt 

L^Um . The tradition on 

which be mabes this obrersation is ‘Ctpd will not be weary 
till you are weary’. 

232) dl. renders by w jxikj 

233) The Mu^tazils believed that a murdered man did 

not aooomplish his full term. B. in taking this explanation 
from Zam. has not observed that this heresy underlies it. 
F. D. for gives 

234) After Qur. VI. 60 (^jJS which 

is said to mean ‘oansos ye to sleep’ (Bl-SirSj). 

236) View of Abu Bakr El-Wasiti (ob. 320; see Sha'rSwi’s 
I, p. 132). It is a Sufio comment; Shih, I. p. 11 
quotes from the ^Lst of Qhazzali a saying that the world 
of is what appears to the senses, whereas the world 
of is what 0od created by His eternal word. 

236) This verse was quoted by who held that 

Clod had a human form. The paraphrase is meant to avoid 

237) Where the pronoun refers to the person addressed 
and to others. 

238) See Muf. § 76; the regent of a Ml may be a verb 
or a verbal notion (()je9 ,/jw); in snob a phrase as 
L1LILL.JL^ jjfi, the verbal notion may be supposed to be 
aJI (Ibn Ta'lsh p. 255). 

239) The construction being similar to that in sXjyio 
such a ease is called in Arabic xJuj^i «U» jtjioi 

(Muf. § 62). 

240) But for is rare; of. ‘thickened’ 

of honey, for iXlbw. 

241) By s.^lS the mere bodQy frame is meant, otherwise 



242) Com]^aTe the ezplanatioB giTen in Mnf. § 641 of 
Qur. "VII. 3. 

248) The Arabic gratnmarians say neoeasarily implies 
an inierrd (5CjLf+U) between the two acts it combines, as 
well as sequence between them (o*,yydI). The example given 
of interval in the narration is U vuocaas U 

where after (*5 we should supply 'Sps>\ 
‘then I would inform you’ (Mughni L 107). 

244) Tho Prophet being unlikely to doubt. 

246) As their persons were already present. 

246) Gl. seems to take these words so. 

247) The word is perhaps used here in the Aethiopio 
sense of ‘to dispute’ or ‘discourse’. 

248) Ibn Ishaq p. 401. 

249) Aethiopio ^aqOM used for a minister, praefeot, or 
bishop. His name is given as Abdul-Masll^i. 

260) Christ, 

261) Fleischer’s reading \j3i seems wrong for Njiit (Zam.). 


252) F. D. interprets the words <persisting in*. 

253) Bis name is given as Abu B[Srithah. 

264) The Shi*^ite argument lies in the identification of 
UUmsJI with Ali, since Fatima, Al-!0!aBan and El-Husain 
correspond with the others. — The qnestion who was the 
best of mankind after the Prophet is disouBsed in the Ealom; 
see Mawaqif (Ind.) p. 741, where it is asserted that in the 
opinion of the Ash'^arites and the older Mu'tazils it was 
Abu Bakr; but in that of the Shi'^ites and the later Mu’^ta- 
sils it was Ali; and this text is quoted. 

265) See Muf. § 166. In such a sentence as 

the pronoun ^ can only be regarded as 
ATuhtoda’*; but in one like ^ it is impossible 

to say whether the whole proposition ^ is the Khobar, 
or whether JAbit only is Khobar, being the separating 

pronoun which is inserted optionally whm the predioate is definite. 



256) This la,m is called ^ and liherefore should 

go Tfith the Mubtad^ as it . does sometimes when the 
Mubtadcp is a proper name or indefinite (Muf. § 604). When 

is also prefixed to the MuhtaAa, in order to aToid the 


aoervation of particles, J is transferred to the Khabar, 
according to the grammarians (e. g. Ibn Ya'lsh pp. 1227, 8) ; 
the pronoun of separation being nearer the Mubtada^ than 
the Khabar is, tho J is naturally transferred to that when 
it is employed. 


257) is the opposite of — In the ordinary 

idiom ‘there is no O-od’ would be the (indeoli- 


nability) of is here accounted for on the ground that 


this accusative implies the sense of the particle (Ibn 

Ya%h p. 287, 15). That particle in such a sentence as U 
v)— O'" shows that by is meant the whole 

class of men, not e. g. one man as opposed to a number. 
It is regarded as a form of emphasis to employ the full 
expression fqr which the ordinary idiom is sappdsed to bo 
a substitute. So too Ishmuni (II. 2) says the sense of nni> 
versality requires the employment of ij.. ’ expressed or under- 

268) The reading oLmoI appears in all the editions 

(including Sharb.), except FI.; who, however, is clearly wrong 

in reading oUXelit for the genitive. 

259) Tirmidhi. 

260} Son of the famous HStim El-!j?ifl, whose name is 
proverbial for liberality; a Christian (more accurately, Ba- 
qusian) who afterwards became a Muslim, remained faithful 
during the general apostasy on the death of Mohammed, 
and witnessed most of the famous battles which took place 
daring the early conquests of Islam. He is said to have 



died in the yeat 68 A. H. or thereabouts , agod 120 years (I). 
An interesting account of Mm is given in Usdu ’1-ghlbab 
IIL 392-3. 

261) The "words ^ are not clear. S. Z. says 

jbLA?. Jp, 

making the inversion tour oMldren and ourselves’ consti^te 
the which according to the work oLsjjJu means to 

express a thing in the most forcible manner possible. Perhaps 
we may say that the elaborate enumeration in the verse 
referred to is what constitutes it. Gl. L. seems wrong in 
interpreting it ^ 1 ^ 3 ^^ Cr* 


262) Ibn Is!^aq p. 38i. 

263) These numerals are not intended to be precise. 

264) Compare which exactly corresponds. 

266) The Oufans, who held that every demonstrative 
oould be employed as a relative. 

266) See Muf. § 661, where Zam. quotesf romDhu ’l>Bnmmah 

267) As in wMoh the grammarians quote for 

268) *UthmSn B. Sa*ld. 

269) Muhammad B. Abdallah. 

270) Madi in the literature of the Qur’3n is a technical 
term for <the prolongation of a letter of prolongation beyond 
its natural length' (Itq2>n § 32 p. 226). The natural length 
means tho produotion implied by the presence of a letter 
of prolongation. yaS in tho some language means leaving 
the letter of prolongation its natural length. The case of 

Ip would ho called the elif and the hamza before 

which it takes madd being in separate words. Six olifs 
is the highest number at which this madd is computed. 

271) On tMs word see Sprenger I. 67 sqq. According to 
him the word which in Syriac means 'heathen’ was origi- 



sally a term of opprol)rium applied to a sect wMoh pro> 
fesBod to follow Abraham, afterwards adopted by that sect 
and explained in some such way as it is explained here. 
Some snoh account may be correct; it did not satisfy A. 
G-eiger, but seems to have satisfied Dozy. The word 
seems to have been used as a proper name in pre-Moham- 
medan times. It might seem that the final I of the 

form in which it appears thronghout the Qai’B>n, is the 
Aramaic ‘emphatic state’. 

272) To call him a Muslim would involve the same ana- 
chronism as calling him a Christian. 

273) Yemier mahes a comparative without a oorros- 
ponding positive. 

274) I. e. ‘in his own time’ to distinguish ‘those that 
followed’ from ‘those that believe’. Sprenger argues that this 
must mean the Hanofites mentionod above. 

275) H Gl. The oonsensus of the two 
codes does not mako one a copy of the other. Shih. For 
Jdj«! ‘originality’ omitted by Freytag, see B. on Sura V. 60; 
Yll. 31. It is regularly used in antithesis to 

276) Hudhaifah B. El-Yaman, afterwards governor of El- 
MadS’in ob., 36 A. H. 

277) Muf. § 692. 

278) oam is referred by GL to the Qur’Sn; it is more 
natural to refer it to the Prophet. 

279) The Prophet’s words were Ja*i J U 

‘A woman said to the Prophet: my husband says 
he has given me what he has not given me. The Prophet 
answered : He who boasts of what he has not given is like 
one who puts on two garments of falsehood’. Two garments 
are supposed to be the minimum of clothing. Farazdaq said 
^ lijt. Of. Tirmidhi p. 338. 

280) Contained in the sacred books. El-JEalabi II. p. 173 

quotes from the ‘Taurat’ in the description of the Prophet 
the phrase ^<3 ‘the man that sh^l turn to two Qiblahs’. 



281) After the battle of Badr this man said ‘It were 
better for ns to be under the earth’ (Halabi II. 240). BiikhSri 
(ed. 6 YI. 283) relates how he was assaBsinatod (by Moham- 
med’s orders) by Muhammad B. Maslamah. 

282) Changed in the second year A. H., though autho- 
rities differ as to the month. The traditions are collected 
by Halabi II. 170. 

283) 1. e. derusalem. 

284) Q*t is interpreted in Ihis way in order to account 
for the construction rrith Others maintained that the verb 
means (to believe’ as usual, and that the construction with 
i3 was possible. 

285) In which ease we should oonstrue ‘the guidance ^ 
Ood’s guidance is that one should hare given him’. 

<286) This interpretation of also applies to ihe fourth 
suggestion (Ol. after Zam.). ‘To contend with yon before 
your Lord' is supposed to mean in any case <to get the 
better of yen’. The sentence is harsh and difficult. 

287) Ms original name was El-Ha§in, but on his con- 
version to Islam he was called Abdallah by the Brophot. 
He took some part in defending the Caliph Utbman against 
his assassins, and died in the year 43. (Usdw ’l-ghaiah), 

288) Different values assigned to the tlqiyah sue 7 mithqal, 
40 dirhems, lOf dirhems. 

289) means Ut SjmMj AsCt^\ employing the 
kesra without the y. — The ground for dropping the vowel 
was that the h being in the place of the third radical, 
is treated as if it were the third radical. 

290) See Froface. 

291) After Sa'ld B. Jubair; but on a weak samd. 

202) L e. superseded. 

293) ,1^1 is said to bo HgazI, Najdl. 

294) iJlt is therefore objective genitive. 

295} These explanations are required because it is stated 
elsewhere that God will question them on the Day of Judgment. 



296) An account of tlie SUjLa.S' is given by Taftazani 
p, 661 sqq. It is defined as ‘employment of an expression 
vrbicb is to signify sometbing necessarily connected witb 
the moaning of that expression, without excluding Us actual 
meaning'. It is in this latter point that it differs &om the 

or metaphor. 

297) Their names are given as Abu Bafi‘, Lnbabah B. 
Abi ’1-Huqaiq, and Huyyayy B. Akhtab. 

298) Halabi II. 157 give the alteration as follows: the 
description of the prophet in the Torah was 

Joi:> substituted 

jxAit . 

299) Bukhari ed. 6. VII. 64, 

300) The tradition has and Ja*,), which most road 
in the passive, meaning ‘he had been offered for them’. 
The varieties are quoted by Qastalani 1. 1. 

301) BnkhBri 1. 1. 

302) A Kandito who visited the Prophet in the year 10 
with other Eandites who became Muslims , and married Abu 
Bakr’s sister, but apostatiBed after the Prophet's death; lost 
an eye at the battle of Yarmuk; was made prefect of 
Adherbgan by ‘TJthman; died A. H. 42. (ITsdw 'hghaiah). 

303) You can say ^ sixi ‘he diverted it 

from the right sense, i. e. distorted the meaning’ with Vll*^ 
for passive. According to this stand for ‘in 

reading the Book’ GiL Shih. suggests after Bl-QafTBi that 
in reading they gave the consonants wrong points so os to 
alter the meaning. 

304) According to this the word omitted will be s-aA 
‘the like’ rather than You can say a.iLwJ 

‘he involved his tongue in a poem’ of a man who reads it 
carefully. The explanation of Ibn ‘Abbas ap. Zam. was that 
they inserted their own language^ i. e. some composition 
of their own. 

306) The most familiar example of this is ^1 for 



306) As the Mu'tazils (El-Jubba’i and El-Ka'bi) argued 
from this passage, maintaining that the worts of men were 
their own and not the worts of God. The answer given 
here is that iXac ^ means revelation, and that what is 
denied is the particular mode of origination, not origination 

807) According to Zam. <the snnna’. According to S. Z. 
power to understand the scriptures. 

308) Point ofter above. 

309) Prom and meaning ‘having a long beard’ 

and ‘having a long neot’. Por similar formations see Ver- 
nier’s grammar. 

310) 8o Sa'id B. Jubair. P. quotes a tradition in which 
the fact that this word must stand for the Hebrew rahhOn 
is indicated. — What the Prophet meant by it here is not 
clear; the Arabs supposed it to mean something like Theo- 
logian , and hence Muhammad B. Xl-Hanafiyya on the death 
of Ibn Abbas said the Babbani of this people is gone. Cf. 
Bukhari 1. p. 192 (ed. 1). 

311) Zam. invents a aontence to illustrato this oonstruotion 


812) So that 3 may be taken as or the ‘and’ 

after which the subjunctive is required, 

313) So Gl. Simau . If this be really the 

meaning, it is expressed ratter awkwardly. More naturally 
we should understand that ‘taking for lords’ was milder 
than worshipping; but the two seem identical. Perhaps we 
should read 

314) When the imperfect is negatived and employed as 
a the wilw may be optionally prefixed to it (Tafta- 
zOnl p. 467). 

315) Hot in Zam., P. D., or P, The Lucknow ed. has 

another reading sLol. The principle 

in question is stated by El-Dam in his note on II. 



51, In the case of this word, and 

some others, Abu °Amr read yt^murU-kum etc. aooording 
to one tradition, aooording to the other yamurhum etc. 
The of the Luoknow ed. refers to this other tradition. 

316) See Mnf. § 601. 

317) ITot quite aoourate; the rule being that where an 
oath precedes the condition, the apodosis of the conditional 
sentence is omitted, the apodosis of the oath standing in- 
stead. See Ibn Ya'Ish p. 1224. The effect appears in the 


mood which the apodosis takes e. g. 

oii o> 

as opposed to y»i mIIj 

318) The more accurate phrase would hare been irelatiTe’. 
The passage is discussed at great length by F. D. pp. 199, 
200. The question whether it conld be relative was decided 
in the affirmative by El-Akhfash, who thought the (here 

0 > 

|D_Xjm Lwt) could be substitated for the (which here 

would be «J) in the (sentence beginning l*.^); 

in the negative by Sibawaihi, who denied this, 

319) Beading of Sa'ld B. Jubair. This reading will in the 
end make UL causative, as in the former case. 

320) jijS. means a powerful camel. 

321) Yiew of the nature of the case generally taken by 
Sibawaihi and adopted by Zam. (Mughni I. 14). 

322) Its rhetorical purpose is ‘special 

mention’. See the use of jtXJLS analysed by TaftazSni 
pp. 154, 5. 

323) Over the Israelites at the giving of the Law. Qur’in 
YII. 170. 

324) The case of Pharaoh, Qur^ II. 47. 

325) Yiew of £l-Hasan. This interpretation differs from 

the last in giving the sense of or (yielding’, 

whereas the former gives it the sense of ‘believing’. 



326) The other editions have Qa&»- tyS) . 

3^) To aooount for the disorepanoy in number between 

and tut , 

328) Some supposed that was the proper preposition 
when the revelation was made to the Prophet, when 
oommunicatod by him to others. Zam. shows that the usage 
of the Qnr^n is against amy such distinction. 

329) Distinctions of rank are admitted. 

330) Deriving from (perfection’. 

331) See snpra n. 91. This particnlar passage is disonssed in 
relation to this problem in Maw3>l;if (Ind.) p. 720. 

332) "Whereas (faith’ cannot properly have any such re- 
ference. Mawaqif 1. o. , (Also’ means as well as (JslSm’. Unless 
(faith’ be treated as ‘a religion’ this passage proves nothing ; 
but to mahe it a religion is to beg the question. The words 
of the ICawOqif are: 

ijvB wy' sy ^ lyk'^l 

05 ^ cjUSlJ « 

333) "Whereas all are agreed that it can be accepted. 

334) The parallel is not a close one. In that passage 

o > 

I is supposed to be in the jussive 
because had vJ been omitted , 3 X ^1 would have been in 
that mood (Mhf. § 426). 

336) Muf, § 80. The employment of y in this oase is 
optional, Ibn Ta'ish p. 247, 19, Taftozani p. 468. 

336) In tho first oase beoause IjiX^ will bo attached by 
the conjunction to and the things coupled by the 

oonjunotion must necessarily be different; in the second be- 
cause if it be equivalent to its addition as' a /ml will 
be useless (Dl.). — The KarrSmites identified the two; see 
B. I. p, 15 ad fin, Maw3.qif nt supra. 



337) This is got from the position of ^aILc which implies 
(restriction’, ToftazSni pp. 154, 5. 

338) The Apostates. 

339) 1. e. he curses the UnbelieTers generally not indi- 

340) Nothing is told of this person in TJsSm H-ghahah 
besides this story. 

341) Also a doubtful follower who is said to have dis- 
couraged the Muslims at Tabhuk, but was afterwards for- 
given by the Prophet (Ibid.). 

342) Qur’an LII. 30. 

343) This is apparently in contradiction of the words ‘save 
those that repent’ immediately preceding. 

344) Making the phrase a jLiUf' or oblique expression, 

345) The .J would oonnect the protasis with the apodosis 

oausatively. The case is that described in the Mughni 1. 
141 in which <3 connects ^ quasi-apodosis 

with or a quasi-protasis. The Mughni proceeds: 

By the introduction of this we learn that the speaker 
intends to make the second sentence dependent on the first, 
whereas, were it omitted, this would not be evident. 

346) Since all Unbelievers are in error. 

347) Muf. § 84. 

348) In this case the badal should have an adjective. S. Z. 

349) The difficulty here lies in the ‘Even though’ 
implies some easier condition preceding; e. g. (a ransom 
shall not be received, even idiough it were the whole earth’. 
In the first of the following explanations tho words: an 
earthfiil of gold’ are taken to metaphorically represent my 
sum in the apodosis, and literally in the protasis. 

350) The locus classicus for this supposed usage is (jm.J 
slUU^', discussed by Tafiaz9>ni p, 649 sqq, 

351) Both the singular and the plural are allowed in 
this case. 



852) The article in the former case is gnJL^, in the 

353) His name was Zayd B. Sahl £l-in@ari; he saved 
the Prophet on the day of B^nd. The date of his death is 
uncertain. — The folloTmig story is told by Bukhari TIL 59, 
od. 6; also III. 50. 

36it) Name of a garden or park in Medina. The word 
was pronounood according to Qastal3>ni on the latter passage 
in eight different ways. One of the Yemen Sheykhs wrote 
a speoial dissertation on this word which he considered to 
a ootaponnd of which the first element is ^ <a well’. Halabi 
n. 395 accopts this, saying that the second element 
is the exclamation used in making camels drink, According 
to Bukhari it was given by Ibn Talfciah to Hassfln B. Thftbit. 
Hasshn afterwards sold it to Mn'Awiyah for a large sum. 

356) Expression of admiration. 


356) and were different traditions of the Prophet’s 
words. The latter which is a common expression in the 

Qur^hn and elsewhere must surely be right. occurs in 


a proverb gjijj oU JU! *money has wings*. 

357) The famous freedman of the Prophet. 

368) A favourite of the Prophet, whose death-year is 
variously given at 64, 67 and 68 A. H. 

859) I. e. the legal amount exacted in alms. 

360) The explanatory however stands either as the 
epithet of an indefinite or the liSi of a definite word — 
and there is no such word here. 

361) Gtiving the article the sense of jstjiXw) or (univer- 
salizing’, Taftazani p, 122. Taft, maintaine that the univer- 
sality BO obtained when the article is prefixed to the 
singular is greater than that obtained when it is prefixed 
to the dual or plural, because in these oases the singular 
is excluded. 



362) Muf. § 143. 

363) Qaestion disouBaed in the Principles of Jurisprudenoe. 

and Abu Yusuf gave Mohammed this right, where- 
as the Mu'^tazils denied him it altogether; some others gave 
him the right in practical questions, but not in legal 
matters, B’s MinMj Bk YII, pt, I. § 1 where oL^:>t is 
defined as ^ ■ ~ 

nary usage it means finding out a thing for oneself, and 
is opposed to <following some one else’s initiative’. 

364) Discussed in the Principles of Jurisprudence under 

the title ^he Jews denied that one revealed code 

could be superseded by another. 

36B) Bukhari VM. 60, ed. 6. 

866) Allusion to V. 81 tybu "i. 

367) Name of a tribe in Dl-Bat&’i^. 

868) Used in the phrase ‘a continuous or con- 

stant thing’. 

369) is used rather of physical, of moral adhe- 

rence. — In Sharishi’s Commentary on ]^aiiri 11. 20 (ed. 1) 
we are told that the change of w and ^ at the be- 
ginning of a word is a peculiarity of the foibe of 

— A place of the name XXj is mentioned in EUFvfQMt 
M-Mahhiyyah 1. 242. 

370) Tyrants who would invado it. 

871) Muslim I. 146. 

372) A tribe of Yaman: the Arabic historians speak of 
a first and second Jurhum, but Oaussin de Perceval (His- 
toire des Arahes avmt VMamisme I. 33, 195 — 206 etc.) 
regards the first as mythical. He dates their expulsion 
from Mecca 206 A. D. Their restoration of the Ea°ba is men- 
tioned in the Mv!^allaqa of Zuhair. 

373) Aethiop. Swrelj. chamber’ or <temple’. 

374) Because this would make it built for the angels 
(HI.), or, because the context shows that the glorification of 
the Ko^la and no other house is intended (S. Z,). 



875) The greater and lesser Pilgrimage are described 
at length by Nawavri {MinMj el-Talibin I. p. 495 , Sharbini) : 
the act of Pilgrimage consists of five canons (en- 
tering the Pilgrim’s state) (standing on Mt. 'Arafa) 

vjil^yi (making the circuit round the Ka'ba) (running 

between §afa and El-Marwa) (shaving tho hair 

etc<). See Burton’s &mous work. 

376) in the technical language means 

^ (Hahalli on the MinMj). The proper time 
for this is the last decade of Bamaijan. The best jptoce for 
it is tho , i. e. the territory within which the 

may take place, as well as the inside of the Ela°ba. 
The shortest tim according to some is an hour, according 
to others a day. 

377) According to the theory of Arabic grammarians the 

contains by implication the word which also 

contains the pronoun y>. 

376) See Sura OV with commentary, — As a matter of 
fact the Ea^ba often suffered violence at the hands of invaders. 
B. on XXTI. 29 endeavours to explain away these cases. 

379) Yet according to both schools the iaym or appo- 
sition must not be definite when that to which it is attached 
is indefinite; Ibn Ya^Ish p. 394, 5. MughnI U. 86: 

as^jju ^ where the explanation given 

here is described as a ^ or slip of Zam. In Mughni II. 
p. 139 the question is again discussed. 

880) Of Ibn Abbas, Mqjahid and Abu JaTar. 

381) See Snouck Hurgroqje «5£ekka’ I. p. 11 (Hague, 1887). 
<Tho stone which bears this name is kept under a cupola, 
half tho space under which is surrounded by four walls of 
iron grating, witMn which the box containing the MaqSm- 
stone stands. The open space serves as the praying place 
of the Imam of tho Shafeites’. Snouck Hurgronje supposes 
that the connection of the place with Abraham was Moham- 
med’s invention. 



382) Because the subject comes before the rerb. 

383) The tradition as quoted by all the authoidties has 

‘and I have set my comfort in prayer’; but in 
any case prayer cannot be regarded as a wordly thing; 
according to many authorities love of women is not so either. 

384) Said to be given by Baihaqi and ^Pabar^ni. 

385) Mecca and Medina. 

386) By being refhsed meat and drink. El-Shafi*^! however 
allowed such persons to be killed within the sanctuary, 
El-Miz&n II. p. 139; but according to Sharbini IV. 39 it is 
better to drag them out and kill them afterwards. 

387) Tirmidhi p. 141. 

888) The meaning of aciyuMl is disoossed at length in 
tho ShSifi'ite code. In the MinhEj it is explained as ability 
to undertake it, consisting in a) possession of a viaticum; 
b) possession of a mount if the pilgrim live two days’ journey 
or more away; c) safe roads; d) ability to ride; or, the 
possession of sufficient money to pay a substitute. 

389) Physical ability and money. 

390) Tirmidhi p. 141; whore it is regarded as 
of secondary authenticity. 

391) Instead of on imperative. 

392) Similarly B. on Sura XEIII. 2 says it is a form of 
JLxJLm to make the sentence nominal. The reason is that 
the nominal sentence implies jSj***»t or ‘perpetuity’. Taftaz5ni 
p. 444. 

393) By the use of the prepositions iS and 

394) The words ^ following (jaUJI. 

895) If Giod is independent of the worlds, a fortiori of him. 

396) See this brought out at length in Cihazzllli’s 

397) The sects mentioned in the Qui^Sn (Jews , Christians, 
Magi, Sabaeans, Idolaters). 

398) means ‘communicated by ord or other tradi 
tion’; ‘to be discovered by the aid of the intellect’ 



The distiaction is a commonplaoe of the KalSim-literatare. 

399) Ibn Ishaq p. 385. 

400) Aocording to B’s oonstruotion the object of 

is and stand for I 4 ]. E. D. cites as a parallel 

to this U^t ‘shall I hunt you an ostrich or 

a wild ass’ f Others mahe a J0 depending on the subject. 

401) A Jewish doctor < Ibn Ishaq p. 396. Bukhari connects 
this verso with the story of the Jewish adulterers (ed. 6 . 
YIl. p.60)’. 

402) See Ibn El-Athir ed. Tornberg L 610; Bl-Halabill. 
8 . The battle was fought five years before the Hprah, at 
Bu'^ath, a place two 'days journey from Medina in the land 
inhabited by the Jewish tribe Quraizah. The Ehazraj were 
at first victorious, but finally the Aus. 

403) The true reading is the cry of the Days 

of Ignorance being Ij, especially with the name of a 
tribe, Halabi H. 374. 01. states that of the copies 

of B. is a miswriting taken from Earn. E. has the phrase right. 

404) Bl-Zajjaj maintainad that the present text was ab- 
rogated by LXIV. 16 and II. 233. 

406) Celebrated theologian; oh, 32 A. H. 

406) I. e. being unconsciously pious. 

407) Muf. § 689. 

408) As opposed to proMbitionB. 

409) is a teohniod term of rhetoric, defined as 
1 * 3 ^. U ji'j i. e. carrying out a metaphor. 

410) This is the correct sense of the form 

411) A rare idiom for which the laeus classicus is a verse 

of El-A'sha sUiiSl jiXm tuil. However the 

author of the InUaaf replies that it was ‘the ‘pit’, not ‘the 
edge’ from which they were saved. 

412) ‘Perhaps’ according to the Ash'arites can only be 
used metaphorically of God. 

413) The Muslims, who are addressed, have in a way 
been guided already. 



414) The tjof is a duty binding on the commu- 

nity as a whole, but to be discharged only by certain 
persons, such e. g. as the sacred war. 

415) is a technical term meaning 
<to enjoin right and forbid wrong'. The <BtageB’ or tdegrocB' 
of doing BO is a phrase taken &om El-Gthazzali’s 

II. 236. He makes them fire in number: 1) calling 
the attention of the offender; 2) gently chiding him; 3) 
^busing him; 4) forcible prevention; 5) indicting blows. 
Only in the case of the last, according to this author, is 
the leave of the ImUm (or sovereign) necessary. Ohazzali 
polemizes for some pages against those who suppose that 
in ordinary oases or (authorization’ is necessary. On 

p. 231 we learn that different ‘degrees’ should be employed 
on different oooasions. 

416) Allusion to the limitative use of the separating proboun. 

417) Bight being (with the ShA&‘ites) of two kinds, ne- 
oessary and commendable. 

418) Yet jXu assuredly includes the which cor- 
responds to the and B. in his MinhSj expressly 

states that the is not This statement therefore 

is copied carelessly &om Zam., who follows Mn'^tazilite defi- 
nitions of right and wrong. 

419) I, e. of Ood from attributes. 

420) This probability is according to Shih. suggested by 
the word ‘like’ in ‘be not like those’. Of course the four 
schools of Law are all equally orthodox. 

421) On the import of this tradition see Ooldziher’s 

ZOfhiriten, It is not to be found in tho good oolleotions of 
traditions. The tradition gives its name to the synopsis of the 
views of the schools called SUTlIt ^ iulit 

422) Bor ‘complexion’ see a line quoted in 

yUJl of El-Jazari p. 375 ^ ooi^. 

423) ui which should regularly come after U may, it is 
thought, be omitted when the verb to which it should be 



prefixed is ojnitted} Mughni I. 53, where it is stated that 
the later oommentators make the o before the apodosis. 

424) According e.g. to Sura VII. 171, where to the question 
ufrsAvJI they answered 

425) According as v given the sense of (cau- 

sation’, or KijUU (correspondence’. 

426) Polemic against tho Mu'^tazils who hold that it was 
obligatory on 0od to reward the well-doer. 

427) I. e. the order of the last verse. 

428) The is the form of asyndeton in which the 

second sentence contains an answer to a question implied in 
the first. TaftazHni p. 439, 899. 

429) Polemic against the MuHazils continued. 

480) Who denied that oould be dissociated from the 
idea of past time. 

431) See the above quotations for the question whether 
implies the performance of duties. 

432) Owing to its importance. 

433) Question discussed in the Principles of Jurisprudence. 
See B,’s Minhaj Bk HI. c. 1, § 2, proof that the gU:>t or 
consensus of authorities (not, as v. Bammer in his Ottoman 
history says, of the four Imams) is a source of Law. The 
Muctazil Bl-Hazzam, the Shiites and the EhawSrip denied 
this. Neither by B, there nor in Musallam JSl-ThubUt is the pre- 
sent test, which indeed is very feeble evidence, quoted. 

434) I. e., they would be commanding wrong and forbidding 

435) 1. e. oomplelety. 

436) See supra u. 287. 

437) The is defined as mentioning in the middle 

of a discourse a matter connected with it, but not of its 
direct drift. See Olosses on XL 185. 

438) ^ thon refers, as above, to the snocession of state- 
ments (Arab. ,y>ljSiJ). 



439) Wliereas according to' the present reading, it is not 
BO conditioned, should then be rendered (nay more’; for, 
as Zorn, says, their not being helped is of more consequence 
than their being defeated in a particular battle. 

440) Literally (pitched’ like a tent. 

441) The phrase ^ is disoussed at length by 

Shih. and S. Z. ycL means (the more universal’ or 

(comprehensive’; and the u^holo phrase stands for JLS- 
^ ^ The exception, as S. Z. says, may be from 

the most comprehensive of subjects, e. g. (no'one struck but 
Zaid’, or of objects, or of states, as here. The aJU 
or (thing excepted from’ is here then some phrase like 
(UIb (the \rhole number of conditions’; and the whole 
sentence might be paraphrased ^ ^ 

Sometimes (e. g. YI. Ill) the 
phrase y* is employed. Of. also xn. 66 cUiXwt 

jt . 

442) Making ijU3 in both oases refer to the setting of 

affliction on them to which then two different canses will 
bo assigned. The variation between and (CJLc is pro- 

bably only to avoid tautology. Zam., whose opinion is here 
quoted, uses in both oases, and S. Z. follows him. 

443) Question discussed in the Principles of Jurisprudence. 
The force of the word wJsLs? is (adressed by Glod’, since 
the yit or command is defined as an address by 0od. See 
B.’s Minh^ Introd. o. II. § 3 qu. s. <The unbeliever is bound 
by the secondary precepts, though this is denied by the 
Mu'^tazils [and, adds the Commentator, by the bulk of the 
Hanefitos] whereas some distinguish between posiiivo and 
negative precepts’. (The Hanefites [adds the Commentator] 
held that the aequisition of belief was the condition of a 
person’s being bound by the secondary precepts; and when 
they say ((the unboliever is bound by the secondary precepts” 



they mean that if he die in Unbelief he is punished for 
neglecting them besides being punished for neglecting the 
primary precepts’. 

444) Irregular plural of yv. 

446) See sups. 

446) IThis according to quoted by Gil. and S. Z. 

refers to the detailed description, which is more strib'ng 
than the word would have been, 

447) The same as lUXgdt 8^ (Ibn Has'^ud) of which the 
prescribed time is from sunset till dawn. The practice of 
calling it '^tXc is condemned in MinhE/ el-TsMbtn 1. 127 

446) On see supra n. 415. 

449) To be found in the substitution of (those that fear’ 
for (them’. 

460) Perhaps hyaU (in the aoonsatiTe of the 

masdar’ would he more aconrste. 

451) The difSenlty lies in the fact that yo means properly 
(a cold wind’. In the first of the explanations g^ven B. 
supposes the original sense of the word to have been (cold’ 
(subst.), and that the author of the text reverts to the 
original sense*, in the second that it is properly an adjec- 
tive signifying (chilly’, used as an epithet of the substantive 
(cold’, which is here omitted. Examples of the ontission of 
the substantive after a perpetual epithet are given in Muf. 
§ 149*, and examples of the poetical combination i^, 
i).^ ^ arc given by TaflazSni. 

462) The point of the words (of a people that have 
wronged themselves’ lies in the vehemence of the destruction. 

469) 1. a one in which two things are compared to two 

454) See El-Mutanabbi ed. Bieterioi p. 498. The poem 
begins with the words Lo The 

argument to be drawn &om it depends on the nde that 



when fy, is eonditional the particles which govern the ac- 
ousative cannot precede, because it must necessarily come 
at the beginning of the sentence, and has no Khclbar. — 
Here therefore is supposed to be the aocusative after 

and to be used for 

455) The preposition 

456) Said to mean a state in which a person is on the 
brink of destruction. 

457) L e. U = 

458) Which would then be given the oonstruotion of dJjt 
for which it stands, 

459) See supra. 

460) The whole will then be ‘ye love those who lovo 

you not’. The expression ^=^^1 will resemble such 

} > 0 ^. 0 «< 

phrases as which the grammarians say stands 

for liXiyio 

461) «The whole of it’ is then a strengthening of the 
class, not of the book. Shih. 

462) Bo that this is a oase of or doubly 

indirect expression; ‘dying’ being a oonsequence of anger, 
and anger a consequence of the prosperity of Islam; and 
it is the last, not the first or second which should be prayed 
for. Shih. and S. Z. 

468) The jussiTo is required, this being the apodosis. 

464) Imperative of JL«. 

465) Supra. — For these verses see Bukhari ed. 6. YI. 
p. 289 sqq. in 

466) Such as the light, centre, fiank and rear. 

467) Ibn Isit^aq p, bh5. See also Halabi II. 287, 

468) A Ehazrtyite, {[vnd chief of the Hypocrites: accord- 
ing to Halabi before ttj^Ud it was his custom to act as the 
Prophet’s patron in the ]U!osque; but after Ul;iud this was 
no longer allowed. Hq is, said to have betrayed the Banu 



Qainuqfi. and Banu ITa^Ir. He was the first who spread the 
slander against ‘‘£’ishah (Halahi II. 381). The Snra called 
is lerelled against him. 

469) I. e. without food or water. The word howeTor seems 
corrupt for (Halabi 1. c.); Ibn Ishaq has (•Liw. 

470) The oonstrnciion with is more usual. 

471) The words 'slaughtered around me’ are omitted in 

the first Tersion of the legend given by Ibn IahS<q. The 
reference is to the martyrdom of his followers. 

472) Ibn Ishaq adds that he interpreted it as the death 
of a member of his own family, Hamza B. '^Abd il-Mnttalib. 

473) The public service in the Mosque. 

474) Of. Snra Yin. 43 B. 

475) He had previously been present at the ‘Aqala and 

476) A garden near Mt. Uhud. 

477) Ob. in Medina circ. A. H. 60 (Usdu 'l-ghabah). 

478) The Banu Haritha and Banu Salimah. 

479) 1. e. it was an idea that occurred, not a definite 

480) Plural of paucity. 

481) would be plural of like 

would be the more natural form. Some of the copies omit 
the words ^5^, 

482) Being an emphatic negative. 

483) See supra. 

484) They had on yellow turbans; or, were on piebald 
horsos. Halabi has an unprofitable diaenssion on the colour 
of the angels’ turbans on this occasion. 

485) Yfhich will ho reflexive; or equivalent to detting 
thbir horses go free’. 

486) But in that case i}^' ol must be a temporal clause, 
not permuiative; i. e. it must refer to Badr, and not to 



TJhnd; since otherwise the regent will bo separated from its 
government by foreign matter. 

487) Beferring to the help given at Badr. 

488) Shih. finds an allusion to the sense of some- 
times attached to Zam. in his jiLc^i is said 

to give a saying u* y meaning 'he is ono of 

the chief of the .Arabs’. 

489) Meaning that He will weaken them in one of those ways. 

490) Supposing the J to depend on the words ‘and the 
help is not save from Hod’, the way in which the latter 
is the cause of the presont clause is plain; for help from 
Gfod in relation to the sinner means assisting him to repent; 
but if the i5 depend on ‘God has helped you at Bndr’ 
then the causation consists in the fact that the latter was 
one of the clearest miracles, and sufficient to provide a 
ground for God’s turning to them, if they wore converted, 
or punishing them if they remained disobedient. But if 
punishment in this world be meant, the meaning is clear (Gl.). 

491) Mughni I. p. 64. 

492) is used of the satisfaction of vengeance. 

493) The date of his death is uncertain; also whether 
he died a Muslim or not. 

494) So Bukhari ed. 6, YII, p. 63. 

496) Polemic against Zam., who holds that God does not 
wish to forgive any but those that repent, nor wish to 
punish any but those who deserve punishment. 

496) Contained in the words ‘times redoubled’ ; we are not 
to infer that a moderate amount of interest might be taken. 

497) The Believing sinner therefore is not to remain in 
it for ever, as the MuHazils thought he might (Mawaqif 
p. 709). 

498) The q^uestion whether Paradise and Hell are already 
created or not, is discussed in the Kalam. See MawSqif 
p. 708 , where we are told that the Mu‘tazils for the most 
part denied this, while the Ash^arites as well as M-Jubba^, 



Bishr B. El-Mu'tamir, and Abu ’l-Husain El-Bifil mamtained 
that they are already created. According to F. M. I. 387 
the ^nfl’s J.^1) thought they were partly, 

not wholly prepared, 

499) For there would bo no room for it inside the world, 
its dimensions being what have been described. They must 
be then in a ^ Ja the possibility of which some denied. 
See Mawhqif 1. c. 

500) As Zam. thought with the HuHazils. 

601) The indefinitenesB implies (contempt’. 

602) Technical term for the first subject of the verbs |«jei 
and , The correct way to construe will then be ‘blessed 
wages of toilers are those’ 1 See Muf. § 473. 

603) qam properly means (customs’. 

604) This verse need not prove the author’s point, since 
can be rendered ‘customs’. 

506) The slain of the Musluus on the day of Uj^nd 
consisted of 70 Helpers and 5 Beftigees; whereas on the 
day of Badr 70 Meccans were killed and 70 taken captive. 

506) He shonld have said quasi-dependent; for the con- 
dition cannot be put after the apodosis in the opinion of 
the Ba^rans. S. Z. ' 

607) Terse of Hamir B. Taolab. 

608) Said to mean in TT, <to help to heat’ ^ ^jlaXSt. 

609) In such a combination as or 

the Arabic grammar makes the substantive an epithet (Uto) 
of the demonstrative pronoun (Muf. § 147). 

510) Such as God’s not knowing; e. g. (below) 


B. Hisham argned from this place that God did not know 
events before they happened. 

611) According to the first explanation is plural 

of 0(^; according to the second, of iA0>Ui. 

612) ’Witnesses against the nations on the Bay of 



513) This seems to imply a connexion of with kJlL 
‘darkness’. lUeitlier Zam. nor F. D. gives this explanation. 

614) The Arabs distinguish between the which is con> 
nected with (iiJljuJL^) and the which is separated from 
(JULALa) the preceding. This latter invariably contains an 
adversative sense (i^ty:o‘i!l) and sometimes a rhetorical question 
(Mughni 1. 43). By the resolution of into t ^ this latter 
use is indicated. 

516) Q-ot from the particle 

516) See above. 

517) Muf. § 548. 

618) Muf. § 411. 

519) However the ^ ought not to be prefixed to the im- 
perfect when used as a lial. TaftazSiui p. 468. 

520) Which desire according to Zam. is excusable on the 
ground that he who desires a thing need not desire all 
that it implies; gust as he who drinks a potion given him 
by a Christian physician only desires recovery, not the ad- 
vantage of the enemy of God'. 

521) So Zam. 

522) The name is given above as <Utbah B. Abl WaqqSg; 
According to Ibn Isl^aq p. 571 Ibn Qaml'ah wounded the 
Prophet in the cheek. 

523) His life is given with some detail in Usdul-gh&hah, 
He is said to have been the first (refugee’. Bukhari Y1 p. 295 
(ed. 6) notices his poverty. 

524) Ibn tibayy having, as stated above, withdrawn from 
the conflict. 

525) The Frophot’s cousin and leader of the Quraish at 
TJ^ud. Converted at the taking of Mecca; ob. A. H. 20. 

526) In Usdu-lghabah little more is told of him than is 
told here; there is one anecdote illustrating his clemency. 

527) The servant (^Is*) of the Prophet, and the source 
of a great number - of traditions. The date of his death was 



rationsly given; according to most authorities 98 A, H,, 
when he would have been 103 years of age. 

528) There being no pestion of asking and obtaining 
permission (the literal sense). 

629) Against the Mn<tazils who supposed that the term 
was not accomplished in the case of a murdered man, 

580) Muf. § 226. 

531) Since alif and hamsa are not distinguished, when 
a writer wishes to explain tho paradigm of a word contain- 
ing a luima, he substitutes £ for it. 

632) For Shih, quotes other irregular forms. 

533) S. Z. states that the form of (relative elec- 
tive) is sometimes used (for emphasis) without other 

change of meaning; but he gives no examples. 

634) For this verb could only have a plural subject, 
since means ‘to slay in numbers’. 

535) For irregular forms of relative adjective see Muf. 
§ 311. 

636) Not in Zorn, or F. D. — Shih. adds a suggestion 
that (he who humiliates himself is like the non-existent 
who demands of his soul that it should exist’. 

687) So Zam. 

538) Where both subject and predicate ore definite , the 
more definite should be the grammatical subject. The nature 
of the relation refers to the fact that the ma§dar may be 
in annexion to either its subject or its object; whereas in 

there is no doubt that the pronoun is subject. 
Here there could be no doubt that in ^ would be 
subject (S. Z.), 

539) Sprenger rightly observes that the party of Abu 
Sul^SiU were naively satisfied with avenging the defeat of 
Badr, and did not care to do more. 

540) Whence is said to come bj 

541) Verse of El-Aus B. Hegr Bl-Tamiml, The fiirst half 



was It means that there are no lizards 


642) Abdallah B. Jubair. 

543) The apodosis of t jl means the verb that should fol- 


low Shih. offers a number of suggestions for filling it 

in, Tho Oufans held that it-Xuac was the apodosis, ^ being 
otiose. A third suggestion makes what follows the apodosis. 

544) B. apparently interprets in the sense of <to render- 

proof against’. His interpretation will then give two 

different senses at onoe; but this, as S. Z. remarks, the 
Shafi^te jurisprudence allows. 

646) Bukhari VII p. 65 (ed. 6), 

546) is here for u 

547) If the be put before its subject, that subject 

may be indefinite , Muf. § 78. Ibn Ya'Ish i. p. 243 calls this 
ccnstruction (the better of two bad construc- 


648) This would not be a proper use of the nomen vieis, 
but would be defensible on the ground of the short duration 
of the ^tmnm. 

649) The verb may mean either (to trouble’ or (to 

conoorn'. — Tho source of the (i. o. the word (only' 

which B. interpolates) is given differently by Shih, and B. Z. 

650) Instead of the construction. The sentence 

will then resemble such a case as 


561) Since the slain could not use the words in the text. 

552) As the hypocrites are addressed, this is superfluous 

663) This use of J is not in&equent in the Qox^an. 

554) To this Taftazhnl objected that i) the graphic con- 
struction is possible only when the present is introduced, not 
when the future is introduced; ii) that ‘had they been with 
us’ implies that the saying is after their death. Doubtless the 




true explanation is that quoted by S. Z. viz. that the prota< 
sU and apodoais are inverted, the true couatruotion being 
^ Ul. 

556) oLs means (obliterated’. The form oconrs in a verse 
of Imru’ul Qaia. 

u*i3 lusLis* 8j*^S 

-where means (wells’. 

556) The translation should therefore be (whence Qod 
mokes it’, or <so that God makes it’. The existence of 
KaJsLkJI was denied by the Ba^rans followed by Zam., who 
rightly held that it was a metaphorical use of the final «)• 
This is certainly the case in such vorses as 


(unto death does the mother foster her young as unto deso- 
lation are the dwelling-places built’. 

657) The child Moses. 

658) So Lil^, (3!):!. 

559) More technically the apodosis of the conditional sen- 
tence is omitted, being sufficiently indicated by the apodosis 
of the oath. The apodosis of the conditional sentence would 
have commenced with vj. 

560) Shih. endeavours to account for the transposition 
which is apparently intentional. 

561) The restriction is sufficiently suggested by the order 
of the words; and U could not have this sense (Shih.). 

662) It is a question discussed in the Principles of Juris- 
prudence whether the Prophet was advised to consult others 
in matters of religion as well as in matters of this world, 
or in the latter only. Those who denied the Prophet the 
right of (initiation’ took the second view , those who allowed 
it, the first. Of course the (initiation’ (jL|A;>t) only referred 
to matters for which there was no revelation. 

563) This is got ffiom the ui. 



564) TMb reading is shown by F. D. on oritioal grounds 
to be wrong, 

566) Since from what follows it appears that the cheater 
will be disgraced on the day of Judgment, whereas we know 
that the Prophet will be honoured on that day. 

666) Tirmidhi p. 490. 

667) The first mode is by employing the indieatiTO in- 
stead of the imperative. 

668) Compare phrases like ‘he found him avarioi- 

ons’, ‘he found him cowardly’. 

669) Arab. JjJt slcl. Compai'e a-JiXi't ‘he cal- 

led him liar’. 

570) The words of the tradition are LtA ^ 

hSXb ^ lu £i.:> 

571) With the pronoun referring to i)JLjb. 

672) Since Juo necessarily implies change. 

573) Supra. 

674) In which case the verse will concern the Quraish 

675) Called the reading of Mohammed and Fatima. 

576) Another suggestion recorded by Zam. is ‘and take 
alms of them’. 

0 w 0 

577) I. e. which distinguishes = qI from ‘not’. 


Muf. § 605. 


578) The theory here maintained is that is short for 


qI , and that after it the pronoun of the fact 

has been omitted; op. Muf. § 525. S. Z. maintains that this 
is contrary to the theory of the grammarians, who do not 

allow that this ^1 can govern. 


579) This would seem to mean the omitted verb; the U 
clause however clearly belongs to 



580) Os iihe day of Badr fhe MuBlims are aaid to have 
been given their ohoioff by the Prophet between taking ran- 
soms for and killing the prisoners, and to have chosen the 
former. Halabi ii, 251. 

581) A Mu*=tazilite opinion, copied inadvertently &?om, Zam. 
according to the Mu'^tazila Ood cannot will the victory of 
the nnbelievers. 

582) vjS should properly be construed with 

583) S. Z. compares ^ % (VI. 88). 

584) Verse of Farazdaq^, not it would seem, in Bucher’s 
edition. Hence the author of ShawDihid El-Eashshhf gives 
it as Farazdaq’s on the authority of El-Mubarrad in the 
Kamil. Hhtim El-^a’l was celebrated for his liberality. It is 
not probable that the account given of this verse in the 
text is correet. Farazdaq is known to be careless about the 
final vowels in his rhymes. 

585) dike phrase is equivalent to 

in the grammarians’ language is ordinarily feminine, whence 
Bharb. writes 

586) A mistake according to Gil. for the verse in Bura 
n deals with them. 

587) Oonstroing det not those that were slain count them- 
selves dead’. 

588) The first object would be ^ in the sentence 

It may be omitted according to Shih. for^UaX;^t not for 
The first is defined by Hex. Techn. p. 414 as the 
omission of a word where there is a or something 

in the context showing what it was •, the latter, as its 
omission where there is no such — A further diffi- 

culty lies in the question how these persons could , if alive, 
think they were dead; on which see Shih. p. 80 last lines. 

589) is often used in the sense of comjpages corpo- 
ris. The meaning is given by Do^y. 

590) TMs is further worked out by B. in his 



691) Yet these words rather Imply that the spirit is paired 
with another body. See TirmidM p. 490. 

692) Interpreted by some to mean that they are attached 
to the crystal spheres and the stars; or, that they acquire 
&esh perfections. ‘Those who allegorize this tradition desire 
to shut the door against the doctrine of transmigration’ 

693) Faith on the part of the surviTing Muslims. 

694) From kXT't in the sense tijysi’ 

595) This is to bo fonnd in the juizii etc. men* 
tionod below. 

696) Tafiazani p. 132. ^ 

607) c'We learn hence that the parenthesis (ijZ)ty:Bl) need 
not necessarily come between two conseoutive sentences' Gl. 
S. Z. adds that this view is maintained by Zam., not by 
most writers on rhetoric. 

698) Fal3m question. 

699) To be construed «as for those who answered God’ etc. 

600) This is eridently a forced interpretation. 

601) Sc. doing good and fearing. 

602) Halabi 11. 386. Ibn Ishaq p. 690. 

603) A place between Mecca and Medina. 

604) I. e. at TJ^ud. 

606) Became a Muslim at the Battle of the Ditch ; created 
the dissension between Quraizah, Ghatafan and Qnraish which 
led to the destruction of the first-named tribe; died in the 
Caliphate of TJthman, or at the battle of the camel (Usdu- 

606) Ibn Is^aq p. 583. 

607) A or pronoun is said to be when it 

is not represented by any part of the word; when it 
is BO represented. 

608) Kalam question. See MmUqif, p. 721, the author of 
which holds against Fakhr el-din El-Bazi that faith can 
increase both in force and quantity; since ‘faith’ is a col- 



leotive name for a number of separate beliefs. The matter 
is treated at great length by Biikhari; see Tol. I. (ed. 6) 

p. 180. 

609) His son Abdallah, authority for many traditions. 

610) Muf. § 116, where however is rookoued with 

words like etc. is said to mean to (satisfy’. 

The annexion of the participle to its object does not always 
make the former definite. 

611) Badi the less, the year after TJhud. 

612) Rendered by ShiL ^ There is another 


618) So that we should render ‘that Satan’. 

614) would naturally take two objects; the inter- 

pretations given imply the omission of the first and the 
second objects respectively. 

616) In (XS (jmUJ!. 

616) The verb is naturally construed with 

As it is here oonstmed with ^ it is supposed to imply 
the sense <to fall’. 

617) It is the duty of the Believer to grieve over the 
unbelief of the S. Z. 

618) Hot in Zam. or R. D.; and it could only be inter- 
preted as a JyiM (i. e, a_i Jy(A«) if ^ took two aoousa- 
fives, which does not appear. S. Z. says it stands fors^y^; 
but probably the observation is erroneous and should be 
omitted, with Sharb. 

619) Again careless copying of the unorthodox opinionss 

of Zam. For this implies the Mu’tazilite doctrine that 
jAHj iJiJU*!' H aUt ‘God cannot will evil’. The true infe- 
rence, says Shih., is rather that all things, good and bad, 
depend on His will- — Another Mu’tazilite doctrine refuted 
from this verse was i allt 

620) Mnf. § 151 iXiaii,) ^ <it is the hadal 

which the speaker intends’. 



621) As it consists of a Multada' and a Khobar, 

522) Befeired to by B. on gum I. 5 ; by Zam. p. 1123 
for the spelling , and also p. 1224; pp. 1009 and 1089 
it is referred to with the name 

623) The MuHazils who deny that G-od .wills any evil. 

624) is a case of the <oomitative accusative’ Muf. 
§ 28. 

625) 1. e. the U which restricts the governing power of (*}t. 

626) ITot the same as oscytit ^ or <the Icm of the object’; 
for God’s actions can have no or object. S. Z. 

627) The Ma'tazils (e. g. Zem. here) construe (owing to 

their increasing in guilt’, comparing OLX.Jtia 

<I stayed at home &om the war owing to inability’; God’s 
foreknowledge of it being equivalent to its priority in time. 
B.’s statement that they made it the lam of oonsoquence 
(snpT. n. 556) is therefore inaccurate ; the Mn’tazils avoid that 
interpretation because this sentence gives the reason for the 
preceding one; and if the indulgence were for a good ob- 
ject, of which this matter were the consequence merely, 
the sentence would not serve as a reason for their being 
forbidden to think the indulgence good for them. Shih. 

628) I^ot in Zam. or S'. 

629) This is not intended to prejudice the right of 

630) Snddi Isma’il B. Abd El-Bahman, an early inter- 
preter of the Qur’an. 

631) Got from the indefiniteness. 

632) Bukh9.ri (ed. 6) YII. P’ 27; Masablh El-Sunnah 1. 

p. 86. In the tradition the words ^ are added. 

The tradition would seem to be appealed to by those who 
adhere to the literal interpretation of the threat, A fine 
verse of Mutanabbi is quoted by Shih. to illustrate the 
employment of (jyb of good as well as of evil 

. 633) Ibn Isl^g^q p. 388. 



634) This tonchea a diffioult qneaiiion oonneoted with the 
C)Um 9 or attributes of Qod, on which aee Mawaqif p. 600. 
<The philoBophera , !B1-Ea‘bi and Abu *1-Hnsain El-Bi§iri said 
that G-od’s hearing and seeing mean his being cognizant of 
what can be heard and seen [the riew taken here by B. 
after Zam.] ; whereas most of Idle Ash tarites and the Mu'tazils 
hold that they are attributes oyer and above Imowledge’. 

636) Either then the attribution of the art of writing to 
God is metaphorical , or the word <write’ is metaphorical. S. Z. 

636) Enumerated in 01. and S. Z. ^ ^ 

KAR-Aid ^ 

637) As in Sura IV passim. 

638) In order to construe according to this we must supply 
<and because Ood does not wrong’, 

639} This is surely a MuHazilite opinion. 

640) A ‘miracle’ in the technical language of the Ealam 
(Mawaqif p. 666) signifies aUl iyMj ail tfxil ^ 

‘the proof of the yeraoity of any one who professes himself 
a messenger of Ood’. However the varions conditions there 
enumerated as going to make a miracle prevent this passage 
being tautologous. 

641) Some authorities regarded it as the 

plural of some allowed the pointing others 


642) in FI. and L. is a miswriting for 

B.’s suggestion is that means ^ Book 

that is (confined’ to a particular class of utterances. 

643) This is omitted in the text of S. Z. as well as 
by Zam. 

644) Terse of Abu ’l-Aswad El.I)a'’alI (the founder of 
Arabic grammar; Ibn Ehill. ed. de Slane I. 663). The rest 
of the passage is 

^.aJLJS lit a-itl j£atti 



There is nothing in the metre to show that &JJt rather 
than iJLit should be read. 

645} So Zam. against the opinion of the rest of the 

646) Given by TabarSni according to Gl. ; by Tirmidhi 
according to Shih. Ifot, it would seem, in the Ma^Ebl]^. 

647) Of. Muslim. I. 28 "i 

648) Literally, the bidder. 

649) S. Z. interprets as like ^ for 

The sentence is a quotation from Sa‘ld B. dubair (qpud Zam.) ; 
F. D. has for the words glXt the words ^Ixlt |«ju Lfils . 

650) A rare form; compare however lJjSj etc. 

651) The ordinary interpretation of f,'i. 

652) S, Z. interprets Uis^ by . 

663) Some thought the Arabic for this would be 

664) Yet it is not certain that can be applied to God. 
Sharb. after F. D. interprets (belongs to that right ordering 
and good guidance at which every reasoning being should aim’. 

666) Tirmidhi p. 436: in a slightly different form. 

666) Which then is equivalent to 

667) The term may be applied to the simple repe- 
tition of a word 

668) See v. 182. 

669) ‘Those who rejoice’, etc. 

660) The ijLxit may take a suffix of this sort. 

Muf. § 446. 

661) The words ore omitted in S. Z.'s para- 

phrase, it would seem, with justice. 

662) Bukhilri (ed. 6) YII. p. 70. 

663) Bukhari (ed, 6) TIL p. 69. 

664) Which, however, is improbable, owing to the length 
of the interval by which that passage is separated from this. 

665) Oonverted in the year of the taking of Khaybar; 



Beni by the Oalipli Omai to Ba$ia as Qa<^i, an office that 
he held a short time. He died at Ba;|ra in 52 A. H. Several 
traditions are traced to him (Uadn-lgjMaJi,). 

666) The most excellent organ of the body. 

667) I. e. the Kalam, the purpose of which is to some 
extent proving theological dogmas by physical and meta- 
physical speculation. Ibn Arabi in his o°yi>i finds fault 
with El'Hhazzali for asserting that the contemplation of nature 
would in itself suffice to prove the existenoe of Hod, 

668) This is meant to account for the masculine 
since the number of objects alluded-to would hare made 

more natural. 

669) Making the annexion in vjtl^ explanatory. 

670) So that the verse above might be paraphrased 

671) A mountain famous for its pasture. Oonjeotures con- 
oeming its locality are given by Taqut. 

672) Meaning has reached (something like’ pasture. This 
explanation is necessary, because the fact that a person 
cast into Hell-fire is disgraced goes without saying. S. Z. 

673) The process by which this is deduced is as follows; 
Hell implies both bodily paiu and disgrace (mental punish- 
ment); now in this sentence in which the tortures of Hell 
are described the latter and not the former is alluded-to. 

674) Mu'tazilite doctrine, taught by Zam. on this plaeo. 

675) The grammarians hold that after ^ the accusative 

of the author of the sound can only be used when a 
descriptive clause follows; there is however a question 
whether that clause is to be regarded as a or as a 

second accusative. 

676) This is from Zam., but it is not clear what they 

mean. The followed by jMtJCi (enhances the dignity’ 
not of the herald, but of the thing to which he summons 
(S. Z.). The parallel of Zam. ^ 

liable to the same objection, ' 



677) Because the passage deals with Believers generally, 
not only oontemporaries of Mohammed. 

676) Including and (S. Z.). 

679) The words jt are omitted (wrongly) in the text 
of Shih. and S, Z. 

680) Allusion to the supposed o6nnexion of uajJ with 

680a) Tirmidhi p. 189. 

681) The usually mean the sayings of the Prophet’s 

companions or other famous men of Islam. The are 

the sayings of the Prophet Mohammed, as well as earlier 
Prophets. These terms are very frequently employed in 
Gbazzali’a f^Ls ^1^1. 

682) According to S. Z. heoanse v^L.:$\Xwt means neoes- 
sarily to grant a request, whereas means only to answer. 

683) diving ^ the sense of which it is said to 

have sometimes. P. B. took the peculiar view that ^ had 
here the sense of til. 

684) Tirmidhi. (?) 

685) See supra n. 189. 

686) To slay an unbeliever is better — more meritorious — - 
than to be slain; thus the Prophet slew an Unbeliever ’ 
on the day of Uhud, but did not suffer martyrdom him-*^ 
self. S. Z. 

687) vV given the sense of 

688J See supra. 

689) The cause is tyJJXlt, the effect . The phrase 

in the text does not seem quite accurate; the putting of 
the cause in place of the effect consists in saying ‘let not 
there deceive thee’ instead of <be not deceived by it’. 

690) Tirmidhi p. 385. 

691) Abu Sa‘d (Const, eio.) El-Babbi; an obscure poet. 

692) Muf. § 76. 


693) Making mas^ar of Jji. 

694) According to Shih, this name in Abyssinian means 



(Theodore’, a name familiar to us in this context. 

696) Compare the Aethiopie negOsh «a King’. — See Tir- 
midhi p. 184. 

696) Ham. records an additional fact, invented, it vonld 
seem by ^anefites to resist the oonclnsion drarm from this 
legend by El-Shafi‘I ndth reference to prayers for the dead. 

697) 'Whioh is forbidden by Muf. § 621 in all other oases. 

698) Cot from the annexion, 

699) Viz. the sonl; S^Ulil gJUJt. 

700) is the technical name for the prayers 

oalled said during the nights of RamadB>n. (Kavr9>wl, 

Comm, on Huslim II. p. 29). 

701) On those traditions, quoted by B. and Zam. at the 

end of every Sura see Coldziher, Muhsmmedanisohe Studien 
n. p. 165 sqq. The inventor is supposed to have been an Abu 
'l^ms El-Jami‘. See also the Snyuti p. 104. 



18) On ’ImEla see the yaluahle work of Gtilnert tdio ImSla; 
der Umlaut im Arabischen’ (Wien 1876). 

22) On the number of the saored books the following 
passage is of interest MS. Uri lU f. 28 a: 

J-c ^ jlUl (^1 ^^1 yUXSI 

iLsu^ }iA 

l^t qjI (jifc *1JI Jjil 


^ xiwJI aljjXJI Jjjjj 

Jjjl Jju aljjXlt sUi 1*5 sUi 



The hrackets ( ) mean that the reading of the Const, ed. 
is to he preferred; the sign •= that the readings are 
equally good. 

P, 192 1. 9 Uj:sr'- 

£ > 

1, 18 

i. 17 (g/Jj). 

1. 22 jt. 

P. 193 1. 3 W] 0*^ jt. 

1.11 t^/.l 

1, 13 Oj3] cy, 

P. 194 1. 9 

1. 21 Uj] L4j. 

P. 196 1. 28 jl] jASjCxil,. 

P. 196 1. 17 w^j] ,1. 

1. 20 |*rfLc] ^tjJt ^ yfydl iS i5 

^Uj ikXjUl ^ ^Uti! 1.^ U 

qLxaJ Ifj bIjJ! 

P. 199 1. 8 L^ls] add. from the Luoknov ed. 

1. 4 ^^1] 

1. 7 = om. 



P. 199 1. li objtXM] (om.) 

1. 18 Ijli] 

1 . 20 Ij (Ij q,) Irf 

1. 21 -vrould bo better, since \\i'hat is al- 

>I s 

laded'to is the form aJJI 
1 . 22 uiyaXj] 

1. 23 Uas] = om. 

1, 2i LfJUj aJU. 

1. 27 yOAJL] j«ajdL. 

P, 200 1. 4 

1. 6 jS] Jlsj. The Const, reading gives a better 

1. 17 J-JI] ^aUI. 

1. 24 

1. 26 ^ ^1. 

1. 27 8'Sy*] 

1. 29 ^). 

P. 201 1. 3 read with Lucknow ed. aic 

1. 9 

1. 10 siLua g] aiLyias. 

. 13 

1. 18 yi =»^/. 

1. 21 i^ol] iOJ^vXf 

1. 24 JUJ^] -f *Jf. 

1. 29 

P. 202 1. 14 8(iq. The names are not worth correcting. 

1, 18 om. 

1. 23 £ J>eJ om. The words would mean, 
and 1 *.,^ in that case disputing the government of 
between them’. 

1. 24 (lijjiia). 

L 26 °^7’ 

ibid, isljll »jl] = ^1. 



P. 202 1. 28 UJuus] =r LUo. 

P. 203 1. 1 AS/iOj*] 

1. 2 jt. 

1. 11 yLT] IDOLS'. 

1. 15 see note 157. 

1. 16 L^] iJuS. 

P. 204 1, 2 = om. 

1. 7 L^Lmm] l^Loi. 

1. 8 vafc**j] 

1, 15 iAaxmmS] (fcX;.jr‘«'iw‘i. 

1, 28 iO:^] -)- 

P. 205 (\7T0iigly paged 105) 1. 2 bUi] (iibUi) read 
1. 3 ^ JLs>] i3Ls-i. 

I. 13 jt] 

1. 20 ^yLu] -|- «]. 

1. 23 (joL^^,. 

1. 24 

1. 25 JIjmJI (^<*1 JJjmmJI 
1. 17 tj^] -|- 
P, 206 1. 3 yaxJlj] j*a*3t 

1. 6 liUi yl (^15] liUii qI 1*45; read qK. 

1. 7 {i/j] i// 

' 1. 9 oJaSj] raad 

1. 10 iPjA^iuj] 

1. 12 aXsiXS] «j 

1. 23 gUwJi jt] 

1. 26 (y^). 

1. 29 ^ US'] = 

J P. 207 1. 6 ys] 

1. 8 aI XiAo] &Xiu>. 

1. 13 J0£^] =: M?. 

L 26 ,JCC£:>] 

P. 208 1. 3 (om.) 

' 1 7 ^-Lb) jjLb). UibLj] (jflau J, 

1. 9 XAsy^t ^ 




P. 208 1. 12 Qj,v\iUA 

1. 27 8,ky!] = !iy>U!Jt. 

P. 209 1. 2 ikJUaJi. 

1. 6 jkJI LS>U] (LJ>1J). 

1. 9 

1. 12 

1. 13 j]i!t a1j,iJ. 

li 14 kX^MjJ 

!• 16 iul] r= 1^. 

1, 18 ik^] point x^jM. 

1. 26 ok*S\J] = 

1. 28 KitU^t] X^LilSt, 

P. 210 1. 1 

1, a 

1. 4 Continue tbe oyerlining. 

1. 6 xJ] -|- 

1, 9 MtoMj] add ijU>l from the Luoknovr od 

1. 16 jkXS,] jJkS ^1. 

1. 16 jysujl jj:SV.S' 

1. 18 IkXJkM] = kjjlXsSi'. 

1. 25 u-i*]!] g».ii^l. 

P. 211 1. 10 jS>^] j3> y. 

1. 12 ^ J.60U] 

1. 17 see note 258. 

1.21 =yt.' 

1. 24 •ii] il/. 

1. 25 1^1] all. 

P. 212 1. 28 iUK] slftJli 

P. 213 1. 11 ^1. 

1. 16 UJ Ui. 

1. 19 VaaSLuSaii] VaaA^UaJi. 

1. 22 jl^t] ^Lo-t. 

P. 214 1. 4 J] Jl 

1. 8 iXijt (the aooond)] omitted. 



1. 9 ^Lsll ^Lu! 

P. 214 1. 13 ^ (joL^Xaf] ^I^Le ualiSUiS'. 

1. 17 ijoto- ^^] fU*S> fjb. 

1. 29 v^l = 

P. 216 1. 2 sjiAfliU] idil IjlXPU. 

1. 4 lUjtaUl^] xyaAijj 
1. 6 ^*3] ljUl 
1. 7 ^^cl ^ijc. 

L. 10 (omitted). 

1. 16 uAb:>l omitted. 

1. 16 05^4* 

P. 216 1. 4 iUSjil] j,L*s/. 

1 . 11 

1. 13 

1. 17 I jl] jt. 

1, 28 = s.^, 

P. 217 1. 2 

p. 218 1. 18 yui] y«. 

P. 219 1. 7 otj^.. ■ 

1, 11 ^J\} *UjP$, 


1. 15 l^iiK^'. 

1-27 jl^] 

P. 220 1. 7 jiU:>Lsv<;] <JUa. Usv.. 

1. 22 

P. 221 1. 4 kij 

1 . 20 1^1 "Ji. 

1. 26 (wh^VAt). 

P. 222 1. 3 ^yail] '^y^* 

I. 4 ^ 

1. 17 

P. 228 1. 2 ^y^JLxiaJJ] qjJUjsu^. 

1. 6 JnaS] 

1. 7 £^UXi] £^UX9. 



1, 14 ^ ^|j] (omite 

1, 21 sjij! qI] 0* 

1. 28 iU^4.riall] -{- 

1. 29 bLsuSI and bL^uJI and 

1. 3 X*i9>L|. ^j] 

1 , 11 

1. 14 -I- llJL 

1. 16 

P. 224 1. 17 ijiy] (om.). 

1. 27 f^Ji] (^/ ^1). 

1. 29 (om. a^c). 

P. 225 1. 10 (juL^. 

!■ 11 '‘***43 '‘****45* 

1. 12 

1. 13 

1. 23 ^ Bo^yi] S 
1. 24 

1. 29 = om. 

P. 226 1. 1 = om. 

1. 3 VN^] v*^- * 

1. 7 jx.] JX. 

1. 18 oLd^tJ olw^l. (ijUil). adaJjS] 

1. 23 aj | 3 x:>j] (om. u). 

P. 227 1. 20 ^yU] ijli. 

1.24 lip-J i3js> jl. 

P. 228 1. 5 the second] ’ 

1. 6 PI. inserts the j\\to of the verse: b:;AJk5' Uj 
2ulS vjtmxil ^^.sOkj 1^^. 

1. 12 qA] CKr*^' UBiid 

ibid. u^asUJt] ijaiUJ!. 

1. 16 jJUuul] omits. 

1, 16 aJ^iXji] sJtOJt. 



1. 17 ‘dbU^j. 

1. 18 J^jl 

P. 228 1. 29 Sy] 8^, 

P, 229 1. 6 jjqsliXc] ^s>Jus. 

1, 7 (Jo: the second] omitted. 

1. 13 jJUsl*A«] 

1. 19 (om.) ^J,AS Q,] = om. y,. 

P. 230 1. 16 JJti] -j- is hotter. 

1. 18 8^^] Byai. 

P. 231 1. 12 j*c] - B^. 

1. 27 Jui*Jl y mLJ). 

1. 28 i.j>o,LXjodi] 

P. 232 1. 7 jUil] pi\ ^1. 

P. 234 (wrongly numbered 224) 1. 21 n.^'] 

P. 236 1. 7 BJl^AJi] «0l4.cSJt ^ read 

P. 236 1. 2 

1. 4 j^ls] 

1. 7 

1 . 8 

1. 10 v^jua^Vjdi] 

1. 12 ioyi. 

1. 16 (^iX>). 

1. 25 L|1L/»I] 

p. 237 1. 6 j?y-<lAwj-] (^yuL**y). 

1. 8 t^AiUCwli] 

1. 11 i^gOUj] 

1. 19 j fAJnl'] ~ 

1. 22 \_aAAwJL] (v_^jlmJL). 

1. 25 JJUJ!] (.^t). 

1, 27 ^jy,\ wX.] = wlX« 

P. 238 1. 3 ^UjLi] 

I 6 /jl^] 



1. .7 (UJy % 

1. 8 iiJJt jLe bis] =:: semol. 

1. 28 =; 
p. m 1. 3 #)iiL] xuii. 

1 . 6 
1. 8 

1. 9 Jt] jl. 

1. 18 Lm JjS q,] Jj3 U/«. 

1. 18 ^Uoib.] = 

1, 22 jtJ stsLxjblJ J. «Jy>] =5 om. 

*• 26 jA*4jJ] (^ywJ). 

P. 240 1. 8 (iJUa]l). 

1 . 8 

1- 8 15J6. 

1. 17 qjUju] U. 

1.21 ^\yd\] jjAJi. 

P. 241 1. 16 $• 

1. 26 = om. 

1. 26 ICAAMKr U k^Mh^ L) 

1. 27 )X*jci 

1. 29 tij ; Insert brackets and oyerline. 

P. 242 1. 6 ,.»] + ^c, 

1. 8 Omit OTeriine from — ^UiU. ^^] 


1. 9 

1, 11 yjjjl] uJj*JI. 

1. 12 olSXs^il] = J<^t. 

1. 13 ^IJ om. 

1. 14 SUifc^il] 

I. 22 (_^_s] 

Ff 243 1. 1 = jaaXa). 

1. 9 jiyaJ. 

1. 13 First half of the Terse j*5Jl n* y 




P. 244 

P. 245 

P. 246 

P. 247 

P. 248 





, ‘ 



OyeiCt] KJbiXLIj ^41 

iJ«XSi X 





Lyi/M ~ 






















4 ‘ 



iCsua] sXsiM. 


















U#] (om.) 






yU^I] (^lyalsfUl 





«Jdt = llJ^y 



axILwjJ] ju^Lu^* 



ftHi lylul Kylxj. 





vJi^MW U] Ic • 







IXAi] sbC^. 



i£5>l>] =al?4j»- 


P. 249 1. -5 ;^^i] uU j ijjq + iXi. 

1. 13 see note. 

.1. 26 ijfl] = om. 

P. 260 1. 4 ^.*45] 

1 . 5.,^y] 

1. 18 

1. 29 vXs] JJs. 

P. 261 1. 6 i. 

1. 9 SdbUit 

1. 10 'iJoytXji\ (iUojM). 

1. 12 om. 

1 . 15 ojI’WM' 

1. 25 (iiUi i:sJJS. 

P. 262 1. 5 iyU&>l*. 

1 , 22 OUju.. 

1 . 28 

P. 263 1. 8 4^1] om. 

1. 12 ^1). tiUJu] liUJu. 

!• 20 4_^J 

1. 27 iXiuwJI] y tA J I. 

P. 264 1. 8 ifcUJ sX+e] (^^0• 

1 , 10 Ix^] 

1, 13 'iA:>)XMq] add ^ from the Luoknow ed. 
1. 17 j^AoJIj] jMoJt 
1. 22 qUmj] om. 

1. 23 1^8] sjSiii.